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Transitivity in (Nicola Lake) Okanagan Hébert, Yvonne M. 1982

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TRANSITIVITY IN (NICOLA LAKE) OKANAGAN  by  YVONNE MARIE HEBERT B.A. magna cum laude, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Utah., 197^  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES .Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH: COLUMBIA J u l y 19.82 ©  Yvonne Marie Hebert, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  irfw,  lO  J3Z-  ii ABSTRACT  This' d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a srtudy o f c e r t a i n c l a u s e - l e v e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s : i n the Okanagan language and. an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the Grammar f o r d e s c r i b i n g these, c o n s t r u c t i o n s . addressed:  (1.1  adequacy o f R e l a t i o n a l  Four major issues- are  t h e nature: o f t r a n s i t i v i t y i n Okanagan;  o f the grammatical r e l a t i o n s which, are. n e c e s s a r y t o the o f Okanagan; ( . i i i )  the o c c u r r e n c e o f r e - e v a l u a t i o n s  r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s language; and  (iv)  ( i i ) the i d e n t i t y syntactic analysis  of these  grammatical  the n a t u r e o f the M i d d l e  voice  i n this- language. Arguments- and  language, d a t a are. brought t o b e a r on these. Issues;,  p r o v i d i n g evidence, t o support as a p r o p e r t y  the. c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o o f  R e l a t i o n a l Grammar o f the  grammatical r e l a t i o n s :  Direct Object, Indirect Object, Dative,  T o p i c , and  transitivity  o f s t r a t a o r l e v e l r a t h e r t h a n o f c l a u s e or o f v e r b ;  ( i i ) . the. n e c e s s i t y M Subject,  (1)  Chomeur f o r the  .(.I'ii). the o c c u r r e n c e o f the  Instrumental,  Locative,  s y n t a c t i c a n a l y s i s : o f the language.; following re-evaluations:  2-^1  and  Advancement  A and  1-^1  Demotion i n P a s s i v e  c o n s t r u c t i o n s ; Phantom Advancement o f a  n o n - n u c l e a r o b j e c t , n o n - d i s t i n c t with. the. i n i t i a l Advancement; D a t i v e ,  L o c a t i v e , R e l a t i o n a l and  subject;  Unaccusative  I n s t r u m e n t a l Advancements,  with, concomitant Demotions o f the nominal p r e v i o u s l y b e a r i n g r e l a t i o n ; and the  Possessor Ascension;  and  (iv)  a Phantom Arc  the. t a r g e t solution for  s y n t a c t i c a n a l y s i s o f the Middle, voice, c o n s t r u c t i o n i n this, language. I t is- c o n c l u d e d  an e x p l a n a t o r y  way  (a) that, the  analyses- p r e s e n t e d c o n t r i b u t e  t o the. study o f S a l i s h a n l i n g u i s t i c s ;  (h)  that  in  these  analyses- a t t e s t t o t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the t h e o r e t i c a l model, R e l a t i o n a l  iii  Grammar, with, r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n c l a u s e - l e v e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f Okanagan; ( c ) t h a t some rules' r e f e r r i n g t o t r a n s i t i v i t y r e q u i r e r e f e r e n c e t o nond i s t i n c t ivenes'S- as- w e l l as- t o 1 and t o 2; (d) t h a t one o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f R e l a t i o n a l -Grammar, t h e 1-Advancement E x c l u s i v e n e s s  Law, must he  m o d i f i e d t o a l l o w l a n g u a g e - p a r t i c u l a r c o n d t i i o n s : on i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y ; and  (e) t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f R e l a t i o n a l Grammar needs f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n  t o d e a l w i t h _ t h e mapping o f t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s onto grammatical  relations.  iv  TABLE. OF CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  Acknowledgements  ^  x  Dedication  ^  x  I  INTRODUCTION  1  0  I d e n t i f y i n g t h e Language:  1  1  Orthography  3  2  P o s i n g t h e Problem  5  3  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f this- Study  8  k  T h e o r e t i c a l Framework.  8  Footnotes  15  II  BASIC FACTS ABOUT OKANAGAN  l6  0  Introduction  l6  1  B a s i c Data  l6  1.1  Word Order  l6  1.2  Form o f Nominals:  IT  1.3  Form o f P r e d i c a t e  18  1.3.1  S u b j e c t and Object Markers  i8  1.3.2  V e r b a l Paradigms:  20  l.h  Complementizers- and Determiners  26  1.5  Animacy H i e r a r c h y  29  1.6  Case Marking  32  1.7  Aspect and T r a n s i t i v i t y Marking  32  1..T.1  A Rule f o r P e r f e c t i v e and I m p e r f e c t i v e Aspect  32  1.7.2  Rule f o r  39  -t  Marking  V  2  Tests: f o r Grammatical R e l a t i o n s  k3  2.1  Tests-: f o r F i n a l Grammatical R e l a t i o n s :  k3  2..1.1  S u b j e c t and Object Marking  1+3  2.1.2  Question Formation  hk  2.1.3  R e l a t i v i z a t i o n and C l e f t  2.1.4  Topicalization  hf  2.1.5  Quantifier Float  hQ  2.2  T e s t s f o r N o n - f i n a l Grammatical R e l a t i o n s :  50  2.2.1  Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i o n  50  2.2.2  C l e f t s - with.  Constructions  ?incaV?inca kn  45  52  ?  Footnotes-  5h  III:  INTRANSITIVE CLAUSE IN OKANAGAN  57  0  Introduction  57  1  P a s s i v e Clauses-  60  1.1  Person  6l  1.2  l o r d Order  62.  1.3  R e l a t i v e Clause Formation  62  l.h  Instrumental  1.5  Aspect  1.6  Thematic R e l a t i o n s :  66  1.7  P o s t i n g t h e Bans  67  1.8  Question Formation  70  2  Unaccusative  and Number Marking  Case Marking:  A Job is- Lost  and T r a n s i t i v i t y Marking  Clauses  2.1  The B a s i c C l a i m  2.2  The. P r o p o s a l f o r Okanagan  2.3  S u p p o r t i n g Evidence  . 63 Sh  72 72  Ih 80  wi  3  ?inca / ?inca' kn  2.3.1  Choice o f  2.3.2  Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i o n  2.4  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f U n a c c u s a t l v e Clauses:  ?  <  ?  QJ_  gii  87  M i d d l e Clauses3.1  Four Possible: Analyses:  3.2  Selection of  3.3  Q u a n t i f i e r ' Ban  3.4  Lexical Incorporation  3.5  A Phantom t o t h e Rescue.  3.6  Consequences- f o r the. —UJ  Q  ?inca /?Inca kn ?  Q  90  ?  P2.  JQQ ]_05  Morphology-  2.(56  Foot not esr  IV  TRANSITIVE CLAUSES IN OKANAGAN  10'9  0  Introduction  109  1  D a t i v e Advancement: B e n e f a c t i v e and I n d i r e c t i v e  2  Constructions-112 2.1H  1.1  Case Marking  1.2  Q u e s t i o n Formation  ll6  1.3  Quantifier Float  118  I.U  Relative  122  1.5  Passivization  .  Clause Formation  124  R e l a t i o n a l Clauses:  128  2.1  Three C l a s s e s  128  2.2  Evidence f o r I n i t i a l  2.3  Evidence f o r F i n a l T r a n s i t i v i t y  2.3.1  Passivizat ion  2.3.2  Quantifier Float  Intrans.itivity  ±k2 IU5 I 4 5 ik6  v%i  3  4  2.3.3  Relativlzation  2.4  Evidence  2.5  The C l a s s C Verbs-  2.5.1  Three Proposals-  2.5.2  Choosing Between These Proposals:  152  2.6  I n s t r u m e n t a l Advancement  156  l 4 ?  f o r O b l i g a t o r y Advancement  148 149 •  149  L o c a t i v e Clauses:  l60  3.1  The B a s i c P a t t e r n  160  3.2  Consequences o f R e l a t i o n a l and L o c a t i v e Advancement  n  :  for Limited Control  165  .3.3 '  Locative. Advancement with. Body P a r t s  171  3.4  D a t i v e Advancement with, Pronominals:  174 178-  Possessor Ascension 4.1 4.2  .  Ascension  i n I n t r a n s i t i v e Clauses:  180  Ascension  i n T r a n s i t i v e . Clauses:  183  4.3  A Statement o f L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n  187  4.4  Ascension  188  i n Middle  Clauses  Footnotes:  191  V  RELEVANCE. OF ANALYSES'  200  1  Relevance t o S a l i s h a n L i n g u i s t i c s  200  1.1  B e n e f a c t i v e and I n d i r e c t i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n s  200  1.2  R e l a t i o n a l Constructions  203  1.3  Locative Constructions  1.4  The E x i s t e n c e o f I n d i r e c t O b j e c t s  204  1.5  Transitive - t  205  1.6'  The K i d d l e V o i c e  207  '  204  viii  2  Relevance t o R e l a t i o n a l Grammar  207  2.1  The D e f i n i t i o n o f T r a n s i t i v i t y  207  2.2  The. R e l a t i o n a l Class* B verbs: and t h e 1AEX  208  2.3  The. Mapping o f Thematic and Grammatical R e l a t i o n s '  211  Appendix I : : Consioltants:  214  Appendix I T : A b b r e v i a t i o n s  219  Appendix I I I : The M i d d l e and R e l a t i o n a l C o n s t r u c t i o n s References  Revisited  221 228  ix  Acknowledgements My  study o f t h e Okanagan language has been funded  generally  by I. W. K i l l am P r e - d o c t o r a l F e l l o w s h i p s (.1977-1980) and a T i n a and M o r r i s Wagner Foundation F e l l o w s h i p (198O-81), a l l h e l d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  F i e l d work has been funded by the Canadian  S e r v i c e , N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man,  Ethnology  under i t s Urgent E t h n o l o g y Programme  (198O-I982), t h e L i n g u i s t i c s D i v i s i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia  Provincial  Museum (.1978, 1979), and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h , Columbia under i t s Summer F e l l o w s h i p Programme (.1977)-  F i e l d notes and tapes: o f the  language  have been d e p o s i t e d i n the a r c h i v e s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l museums i n correspondence w i t h the time span c o v e r e d by the f u n d i n g agency. For t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g h o s p i t a l i t y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and companionship, I thank, t h e people o f N i c o l a V a l l e y , f o r t h e y added the dimension o f human e x p e r i e n c e and compassion  t o my work.  F o r t h e i r p r i d e and keen i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r n a t i v e language, and f o r i t h e i r f a i t h , i n me, I thank, the native, speakers o f Okanagan, e s p e c i a l l y those who s e r v e d as language, c o n s u l t a n t s : Joseph. Albert.'.Michel, Joe Pete Saddleman, Sharon L i n d l e y , Johnny Archachan, N e l l i e Q u i t e r r e z , L o u i s a Roper, Rosie Tom, a l l o f Q u i l c h e n a ( N i c o l a V a l l e y d i a l e c t ) ; C l a r a Jack, and Adam Eneas, both, o f the P e n t i c t o n d i a l e c t and a r e a ; T e r e s a Terbasket o f Keremeos; and T i l l i e George o f C o l v i l l e ,  Washington.  F o r h i s i n s i g h t f u l comments and f o r h e l p i n g me t o t h i n k , talk, and w r i t e aoout Okanagan, I thank, Tom Hukari who s e r v e d as- major member o f my  s u p e r v i s o r y committee.  Sarah. J . B e l l , a n d Guy Carden a l s o s e r v e d as  members o f my s u p e r v i s o r y committee. my  F o r his: guidance, and his: s u p p o r t ,  s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n goes t o D a v i d L I . Williams- - without him, i t i s  u n l i k e l y t h a t the p r o c e s s o f graduate work, here c o u l d have been  completed.  X  Thanks a s w e l l t o t h e many f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s and teachers, who encouraged and a i d e d me a l o n g t h e way. F o r t h e i r generous u n d e r s t a n d i n g , I thank my c h i l d r e n L i s a and M a r t i n . is  encouragement and l o v e ,  The s k e t c h o f Joseph. A l b e r t M i c h e l  Lisa's. For h i s g e n t l e p a t i e n c e and h i s v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o his;  language, f o r t h e many l o n g hours o f t e d i o u s work., f o r t h e warmth, o f h i s a f f e c t i o n , f o r t h e shared excitement progressed,  and s a t i s f a c t i o n s as; t h e work,  I thank. Joseph. A l b e r t M i c h e l , t h e main language, c o n s u l t a n t ,  a f f e c t i o n a t e l y known as U n c l e .  T h i s work Is. i n many ways h i s and forms-  part o f h i s legacy t o h i s people.  In dedication  Q aymalst, w  Joseph A l b e r t M i c h e l , November 1978.  1  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  0  I d e n t i f y i n g t h e Language Okanagan i s an I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n language spoken i n I n t e r i o r  B r i t i s h . Columbia and Washington the proposed g e n e t i c the S a l i s h a n language  State.  The f o l l o w i n g t r e e s t r u c t u r e shows  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Okanagan t o t h e o t h e r languages i n family:  1  t  2  Okanagan I s spoken i n N i c o l a V a l l e y a t t h e end o f Lake N i c o l a , i n Okanagan V a l l e y In an a r e a e x t e n d i n g south, o f Kamloops, a l l i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  and i n Washington S t a t e on t h e C o l v i l l e R e s e r v a t i o n as f a r south  as Incheleum.  Two d i a l e c t s may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d :  Colvllle-Okanagan  N o r t h e r n and Southern.  ( M a t t i n a 1 9 7 3 ) f a l l s w i t h i n t h e s o u t h e r n d i a l e c t and  ( N i c o l a Lake) Okanagan f a l l s w i t h i n the. n o r t h e r n d i a l e c t . The",l,bulk. o f t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n i s from Joseph. A l b e r t M i c h e l o f Q u i l c h e n a , i n N i c o l a V a l l e y , B r i t i s h . Columbia.  Some s y n t a c t i c  phenomena have been c o n t r i b u t e d by o t h e r speakers; these a r e noted i n footnotes.  (See a l s o Appendix I : C o n s u l t a n t s . )  V a r i a t i o n s i n languages,  i n c l u d i n g Okanagan, due t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s - such, as age, sex o r s c h o o l i n g , due t o g e o g r a p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , o r due t o language may l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t d a t a  and d i f f e r e n t  interpretations.  Other major works on t h i s language by M a t t i n a ( 1 9 . 7 3 ) and Watkins ( 1 9 7 0 ) ,  a masters  are d o c t o r a l  dissertations  t h e s i s by PatfaSson  as w e l l as p a p e r s b y Thompson (.19.79.1, M a t t i n a ( . 1 9 8 2 ) ,  and Hehert  Okanagan i s an o h s o l e s c l n g language. ( M i l l e r 1 9 . 7 2 ) . fluent  speakers a r e e l d e r s In t h e i r  (1982a,b).  I t s most  Very few c h i l d r e n are.  a t home I n i t s n a t u r a l c o n t e x t .  d a t a compiled b y L e v i n e ( 1 9 8 1 ) ,  (.1978),  s e v e n t i e s and e i g h t i e s , and most o f  these a r e f l u e n t l y b i l i n g u a l Engli.sh-Okanagan. l e a r n i n g t h e language  obsolescence,  According to  Okanagan h a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 0 speakers,  with., a minimum age. o f 1+0-50 years."'"  Language r e t e n t i o n programs a r e  p r e s e n t l y b e i n g i n i t i a t e d by speakers- i n t h e i r t w e n t i e s t h r u e a r l y i n an. e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n t h e language, i n i t s p r e s e n t - d a y  form.  sixties  3  1  Orthography Some o f t h e major c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g a":.student o f S a l i s h a n  languages are p h o n o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e , such as s t r e s s placement,  schwa  -  e p e h t h e s i s , s y l l a b i c i t y , and f o r t h e I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages, p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n and r e t r a c t i o n .  The orthography d e s c r i b e d below i s  used as a p r a c t i c a l measure and s h o u l d n o t be t a k e n as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t for  phonological analysis. In  means o f  t h e orthography used h e r e , word s t r e s s i s i n d i c a t e d by  as p r i m a r y s t r e s s marker and  v  as secondary s t r e s s marker.  E p e n t h e t i c schwas a r e g e n e r a l l y e x c l u d e d from t h e orthography. to  Exceptions  t h i s p r a c t i c e a r e few, but when t h e y o c c u r , forms w i t h and without an  e p e n t h e t i c schwa are g i v e n . S9x -/sx w  w  .  F o r example, t h e agentive. p r e f i x i s  The former Is used when t h e p r e c e e d i n g a r t i c l e i s  i.e.,  i s v o w e l - f i n a l ; t h e l a t t e r is- used when t h e p r e c e e d i n g a r t i c l e i s i.e., the  t,  i s c o n s o n a n t - f i n a l , i n which, case an e p e n t h e t i c schwa o c c u r s between  a r t i c l e and t h e f i r s t  d i f f e r e n t assignment  consonant o f t h e p r e f i x .  o f s y l l a b l e ity..  The net r e s u l t i s a  E p e n t h e t i c vowels do not take  stress: and are. g e n e r a l l y a u d i b l e as:- l i g h t , p a s s i n g vowels.. of  1  F o r a statement  t h e c o n d i t i o n e d schwa v a r i a t i o n , see M a t t l n a (.1973)..  2 To account f o r t h e p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n and r e t r a c t i o n , a b s t r a c t segments a r e used I n t h i s orthography:  ?  and  .  two  Both, o f these,  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g segment i s r e t r a c t e d and i s t h e locus- o f t h e p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n which, a l s o g e n e r a l l y spreads t o t h e Immediately n e i g h b o u r i n g segments.' from, t h e l o c i : o f t h e r e t r a c t i o n .  The  ? symb.ol  a l s o Indicates, t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g segment, always a vowel, I s g l o t t a l i . z e d . T h i s accounts: f o r t h e twelve p h o n e t i c vowels- with, p r i m a r y s t r e s s c h a r t e d  below, where  i n d i c a t e s tongue r o o t r e t r a c t i o n .  r e p r e s e n t s a g l o t t a l i z e d vowel,. ( i ) as r e c e i v i n g one ( i i ) as: h a v i n g two  The  V notation  These are c h a r a c t e r i z a b l e f o r Okanagan:  stress;  energy peaks, c l e a r l y I n t e r r u p t e d by a g l o t t a l  ( I i i ) as. f u n c t i o n i n g as one  u n i t with, r e s p e c t t o vowel r e d u c t i o n t o schwa;  ( i v ) as: o c c u r r i n g o n l y as r e t r a c t e d , p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowels; (v) as h a v i n g low, 2a  b  orthographic  i  i  I  as  a  &,  u  0  a  „  9  Si ?a  ' % a  and  f a l l i n g pitch..  phonetic  i  stop;  ?  <?a  a  u 9 ?  ?  In terms o f graphemes, the d u a l symbols o f t h e two 2b may  be termed digraphs,  orthography.  phonetic  sequences o f ?and V are. found.  gammas o f ( N i c o l a Bake) Okanagan are c o n s i d r e d here t o be  s i n c e t h e y are the o n l y v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e s : In the system, s i n c e  t h e y f u n c t i o n as r e s o n a n t s , f o r example, with, r e s p e c t t o G l o t t a l i . z a t i . o n , and  [y]  a  nd  Dimlnuative  s i n c e t h e y always occur p h a r y n g e a l i z e d , with. some, o f  them r e t r a c t e d as w e l l . for  columns o f  as are t h e .th, sh symbols: o f the E n g l i s h ,  F o r t h i s d i a l e c t , no p h o n e t i c The  right-most  The  orthography  [y] respectively.  a single, r o c c u r r i n g r e t r a c t e d or  makes, use o f the digraph.  There i s no o t h e r known i n s t a n c e o f pharyngealized.  Although, l i m i t e d i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , the h's  o f Okanagan are  'heavy' and have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on the. f o l l o w i n g segments as do a b s t r a c t segments. - h  precedes  r e t r a c t e d g l o t t a l i z e d vowels-.  9r. and  the  o n l y r e t r a c t e d vowels and h' precedes  only  5  The i n v e n t o r y o f o r t h o g r a p h i c symbols for  ( N i c o l a Lake) Okanagan i s . g i v e n i n 3 below.  affricate,  ' Vindicates a glottalized  l a t e r a l a f f r i c a t e . , and  3  Consonant  X  is. a u v u l a r  o r graphemes  used here  The C i s an a l v e o p a l a t a l  segment,  $  is a  glottalized  fricative.  graphemes:  p  t  c  p*  i  t  k  k  q  tf?  <  X  x  X  •A?  s  w  w  qw  ?  m  n  y  1  r  w  h  rf  rf  i  1'  -i  vf  rf  7oweZ  graphemes:  i  u  a  a  ?  ( M i c h e l and Hehert 1979:1).  2  P o s i n g t h e Problem T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a study o f c e r t a i n c l a u s e - l e v e l  i n Okanagan. the  I t attempts t o determine t h e s y n t a c t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n which  v e r b a l a f f i x e s l i s t e d i n k below o c c u r .  traditional  In the l i s t i n g below, the  terms used i n S a l i s h a n l i n g u i s t i c s  are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h o s e  used h e r e i n : ^ ,  k  constructions  AFFIX.  TRADITIONAL TEEM  TERM USED HEREIN  -t  1.  -t  Transitive  2. S t a t i v e  -tim/-tem  -t  marking  -t  Passive ending  P a s s i v e ending  6.  U n a c c u s a t i v e ending, f o r n a t u r a l l y  Non-control  -p  occurring  states  -cut  Reflexive  Agentive R e f l e x i v e  -myst  Reflexive  Unaccusative R e f l e x i v e  -am/-m  Middle  Middle  -x  Benefactive  Benefactive  -i  Indirective  Indirective  -mi  Relational  Relational  -(i)na  • (Unidentified )  Locative  -nu  Limited Control  Limited Control  :  ^ %  Dative  J  Success  In language,  (1}  o r d e r t o focus t h i s study o f the syntax o f the Okanagan  f o u r major q u e s t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d :  What is the nature of transitivity  in Okanagan?  This: q u e s t i o n s subsumes more thahr.one. p o i n t : (i) or  the d e f i n i t i o n o f t r a n s i t i v i t y as: a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f v e r b s , c l a u s e s , o f something  else;  ( l i ) the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t r a n s i t i v i t y t o d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , o f s u b j e c t and d i r e c t o b j e c t nominals,  as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s t r a n s i t i v e  reflexive,  with, ' i n t r a n s i t i v e ' morphology: (See Chapter 2 , s e c t i o n 1.1, 5  Si the  ttivftt boy  trq - n - cut  - 0  on word o r d e r . )  .  kick—PFTV—REFL—S3 , T  TrTTD  The boy k i c k e d h i m s e l f . C i l t ) : the. a c c u r a t e statement for  o f a rgener.ali.zati.oni'for m o r p h o l o g i c a l markers-,  example, o f the. ' t r a n s i t i v e '  - t , p r e s e n t i n 6 Ca), b e l o w but ab.sent' In  7  6b 'below; and (iv)  t y p e s o'f i n t r a n s i t i v e c l a u s e s s-uch. as- M i d d l e v o i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n s - as  w e l l as s t a t i v e and n o n - s t a t i v e (.2) of  What grammatical  relations  intransltives. are necessary  to the syntactic  analysis  Okanagan?  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e S a l i s h a n languages: have been a n a l y z e d as h a v i n g  subjects,  d i r e c t o b j e c t s , and o b l i q u e o b j e c t s b u t n o t i n d i r e c t o b j e c t s . ( 3 )  What re-evaluations  of these grammatical  relations  may occur  in  this  language? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , what advancements, demotions and ascensions, may o c c u r at t h e c l a u s e l e v e l o f t h i s language? 00.  What is the nature  of the Middle  voice  of Okanagan?  A l s o , what i s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, t o i t s c o u n t e r p a r t a c t i v e voice.? The  sentences i n b i l l u s t r a t e counterpart c o n s t r u c t i o n s :  ACTIVE  6a  Si xix tm  ikinf ( - n• - t ) - s  Ti cf?axnutiya?.  the  sew-PFTV-t-S3  t h e mocassin  w  The  girl  T R A N S  g i r l sewed t h e m o c a s s i n s .  MIDDLE  b  Si xixrtnf ikinf - m - 0 the g i r l The  t  sew-MIDDLE-S3^^  g i r l sews m o c a s s i n s .  q^axrfutiya?. some mocassin  8  3  The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s  study  The d i f f i c u l t y i n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t h a t t h e y are not independent dimensional.  o f one another.  One  Okanagan syntax i s complex and  multi-  t h r e a d cannot "be u n r a v e l e d without b e i n g aware o f the  weave o f t h e e n t i r e f a b r i c .  C r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g i s the d e v i c e used most  f r e q u e n t l y t o f a c i l i t a t e the t a s k . T h i s study i s o r g a n i z e d around the major q u e s t i o n o f t r a n s i t i v i t y . Chapter Two  p r o v i d e s b a s i c f a c t s about  i n f o r m a t i o n on the language.  Okanagan as n e c e s s a r y  Chapter Three examines c l a u s e - l e v e l c o n s t r u c -  t i o n s which, are f i n a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e : t h e constructions.  background  P a s s i v e , U n a c c u s a t i v e and M i d d l e  Chapter Four examines: c l a u s e - l e v e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s which, are  finally transitive:  t h e D a t i v e , R e l a t i o n a l , L o c a t i v e , and P o s s e s s o r  A s c e n s i o n constructions..  Chapter F i v e d i s c u s s e s the r e l e v a n c e o f the  a n a l y s i s f o r S a l i s h a n l i n g u i s t i c s and f o r R e l a t i o n a l Grammar, the. t h e o r e t i c a l framework i n which, t h e a n a l y s e s are c a s t .  k  T h e o r e t i c a l Framework. T h i s study i s an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the adequacy o f R e l a t i o n a l  Grammar f o r d e s c r i b i n g the c l a u s e - l e v e l s y n t a x o f Okanagan. p a r t s o f R e l a t i o n a l Grammar o f g e n e r a l importance s e c t i o n ; o t h e r concepts are i n t r o d u c e d throughout  Only those,  are d i s c u s s e d In t h i s as: t h e y are needed.  The. t h e o r y o f R e l a t i o n a l Grammar i s d i s c u s s e d i n P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l  (19.74, 19.7841,  Johnson  (19.741  and i n o t h e r works c i t e d .  '9  h.l  Some P r i n c i p l e s o f R e l a t i o n a l Grammar The  r  c e n t r a l c l a i m o f R e l a t i o n a l Grammar i s t h a t the s y n t a c t i c  p r o c e s s e s o f human languages are "best e x p r e s s e d hy r u l e s r e f e r r i n g t o g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n hy r u l e s r e f e r r i n g t o s t r i n g s o f o r d e r e d e l e m e n t s , t o c a s e s , or t o c o n s t i t u e n t - s t r u c t u r e t r e e s . r e l a t i o n s : are c o n s i d e r e d  t o he the most a p p r o p r i a t e  Grammatical  basis for s t a t i n g  s y n t a c t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , both, f o r u n i v e r s a l r u l e - t y p e s and p r i n c i p l e s , and  for language-particular  may  be  Ta b The  data.  To e x e m p l i f y , t h e f o l l o w i n g sentences  considered:  Grannie gave a basket to the g i r l , Grannie gave the g i r l a basket. u n d e r l i n e d nominal i n the  i n English., and may  a_ sentence, i s c o n s i d e r e d  an i n d i r e c t o b j e c t  a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o as a D a t i v e o b j e c t , o r i n  R e l a t i o n a l Grammar, a s a 3-  I n t h e approach, t a k e n h e r e , t h e  difference  between a and b i n 7 above i s b e s t e x p r e s s e d u n i v e r s a l l y as a r u l e t h a t promotes an i n d i r e c t o b j e c t t o d i r e c t o b j e c t h o o d , termed 3 - ^ 2  Advancement,  r a t h e r t h a n a s r a l r u l e . o f D a t i v e Movement p e r m u t i n g t h e second NP a f t e r t h e v e r b t o immediate p o s t - v e r b a l p o s i t i o n .  See P e r l m u t t e r  and P o s t a l (.19.77)-  f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s c e n t r a l c l a i m v i s - a. v i s P a s s l v i z a t i . o n . A n o t h e r fundamental p r i n c i p l e o f t h i s t h e o r y i s t h a t the. s t r u c t u r e o f a c l a u s e i s t h e set o f grammatical relations elements: o f a c l a u s e . clause.  The  relations.  The  o b t a i n i n g between the.  p r e d i c a t e , b e a r s the. Predicate  chart below i l l u s t r a t e s - the types of  r e l a t i o n to i t s  nominal-to-clause  Of t h e s e , t h e ones t h a t f i g u r e t h e most i n t h i s work, are.:  1).  the term  -non-term r e l a t i o n s ,  ii)  the oblique r e l a t i o n s ,  iii)  the retirement  r e l a t i o n o f chometir  3  and  10  iv)  the nuclear  relations.  8  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f nominal-to-claus:e  relations:  (adapted from P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l 1278):  Grammatical r e l a t i o n s Nominal r e l a t i o n s  11 Predicates- and nominals; a r e s a i d t o be dependents: o f t h e c l a u s e t o which, they b e a r grammatical r e l a t i o n s : . r e l a t i o n s and Oblique thettheory;  primitives of  r e l a t i o n s - are. d e f i n e d by t h e t h e o r y .  grammatical r e l a t i o n s which, elements bear t o t h e c l a u s e  are i l l u s t r a t e d here,  9  r e l a t i o n s a r e h e l d t o be u n d e f i n e d  retirement The  The P r e d i c a t e r e l a t i o n . Term  i n f o r m a l l y , f o r English.:  The g i r l tanned the hide for her grandmother.  The g i r l bears t h e Subject r e l a t i o n t o t h e c l a u s e and". Is l a b e l l e d 1; ;  tanned bears t h e P r e d i c a t e r e l a t i o n t o t h e c l a u s e and i s l a b e l l e d P; the hidel)bears t h e D i r e c t Object  r e l a t i o n t o t h e clause, and i s labelled-.2  for her grandmother b e a r s one o f t h e Oblique r e l a t i o n s , t h e B e n e f a c t i v e one, to  t h e c l a u s e and i s l a b e l l e d BENE.  More f o r m a l l y , t h e grammatical  r e l a t i o n s which, elements b e a r t o t h e clause, a r e r e p r e s e n t e d n o t a t i o n a l l y i n relational  networks.  I n t h e diagram 10 below, t h e p r i m i t i v e  l i n g u i s t i c element b bears t h e r e l a t i o n whose name i s GR^. t o t h e p r i m i t i v e linguistic  element a:  10 a  If,  f o r example, GR  i s : l a b e l l e d 1, t h e name o f t h e Subject  t h e n b_ b e a r s t h e S u b j e c t  r e l a t i o n t o a_, t h e c l a u s e node,:-.  GR^. is: l a b e l l e d 2, the. name o f t h e D i r e c t Object t h e D i r e c t Object  r e l a t i o n t o a, the. c l a u s e node,  t h e E n g l i s h , example i n 9- a r e :  relation,  I f , f o r example.,  r e l a t i o n , t h e n b_ b e a r s The formal a r c s f o r  12  11  tanned  The notion"of  coordinates  the g i r l  ^  h i d e  for her grandmother  diagram i n 10 i s however incomplete.  linguistic  levels  To r e p r e s e n t the  n o t a t i o n a l l y , sequences o f numbersr.called  are a s s o c i a t e d with, the incomplete  a r c i n 10 t o y i e l d  arcs,  as diagrammed i n 12: 12  c. , c. , l  i i  In 12 above, t h e element b bears, the S u b j e c t r e l a t i o n t o the c l a u s a l node a at both, t h e f i r s t  and second l e v e l s o f a.  t o bear t h e S u b j e c t r e l a t i o n a t one  Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r b  l e v e l , c^, w h i l e a d i s t i n c t  c_ might be the S u b j e c t o f a_ at the c ^  element  level:  13  i i  :.. b  c  T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d f o r E n g l i s h , with, a P a s s i v e which, may c o n s i s t i n g o f two  l e v e l s of clausal  structure:  be a n a l y z e d  as  13  lha.  The boy was k i s s e d by the grandmother.  b  was k i s s e d  by the grandmother  One f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n may be. made about how t h e c o o r d i n a t e s on arcs, permit  a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f l e v e l f o r a f i x e d node.  by d e f i n i n g t h e n o t i o n stratum. The. c t£u.stratum o f a node b  k. of  a l l arcs. with, t a i l  a which, have, t h e c o o r d i n a t e c, . — k.  a l l o f t h e arcs, a r e i n a s i n g l e stratum. t h a n one stratum.  .-.This: may  T h i s i s done i s the set  In 1 0 and 1 1 above,  In o t h e r c a s e s , t h e r e i s more  be r e p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e E n g l i s h , example l 4 a  i n r e l a t i o n a l network, as. i n lUb o r i n t t e r m s o f a s t r a t a l diagram as: i n l U c : Ike  a  was k i s s e d  by the grandmother  T h i s may be. r e p r e s e n t e d f o r an Okanagan example  i n a r e l a t i o n a l network,  as: i n 1 5 b below o r i n terms o f a s t r a t a l diagram as i n 1 5 c below:  15a  ? i ttvfrt the  boy  c^fimqs - n - tarn kiss-PFTV-PASS  ?i t  stamtima .  INSTR  The boy was k i s s e d by t h e grandmother.  7  grandmother  lit  1  stsmtima?  c  P a i r s l i k e Ikh and lhc, 15b. and 1 5 c , a r e e n t i r e l y e q u i v a l e n t n o t a t i o n s f o r t h e same l i n g u i s t i c o b j e c t , i . e . , a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f lha and 1 5 a r e s p e c t i v e l y . Transitivity  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n R e l a t i o n a l Grammar as a  p r o p e r t y , not o f c l a u s e s o r o f v e r b s , but o f s t r a t a : l6  Transitivity  in Relational Grammar  A stratum is- considered otherwise  it is  intransitive.  transitive  if it has a 1 and a 2;  15  FOOTNOTES 1  CHAPTER  ONE  Sharon L i n d l e y , nee M i c h e l , o f the Upper N i c o l a Band, e s t i m a t e s  the number o f f l u e n t speakers o f Okanagan Is more than 200 an examination o f the band l i s t s number o f remaining 2  The  feels that  t o a c c u r a t e l y e s t a b l i s h , the  f l u e n t speakers and t h e i r ages.  orthographic  phonological  i s necessary  and  that  conventions  used throughout t h i s work, r e f l e c t  speech, system o f the p r i m a r y language c o n s u l t a n t .  the  The r e t r a c t e d  segments, are a l l c l e a r l y a u d i b l e ln';theospeech. o f the main language c o n s u l t a n t and have been v e r i f i e d by him.  He  i s r e s p e c t e d i n h i s community  as a p a r t i c u l a r l y knowledgeable speaker with, v e r y c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n with, an a b i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e t o o t h e r s how  t o a r t i c u l a t e the  sounds.  R e t r a c t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n i s a l s o c l e a r l y a u d i b l e i n the o f the o l d e s t members o f the. community.  frequency  3  The t r a d i t i o n a l terms a r e g e n e r a l l y from M a t t i n a  k  T h i s may x  speech.  Some o f the. o t h e r e l d e r s have,  a l s o been able, t o c o n f i r m the e x i s t e n c e and  CGR (b.,a)c.j.l  and  o f these  sounds.  (19.731-  a l s o be w r i t t e n i n another type, o f n o t a t i o n : which, is. r e a d as: the. p r i m i t i v e l i n g u i s t i c element b. bears:  the r e l a t i o n GR  t o t h e p r i m i t i v e , l i n g u i s t i c ' element a i n coordinate, c..  16  CHAPTER  TWO  BASIC FACTS ABOUT OKANAGAN  0  Introduction T h i s chapter, i n which, n e c e s s a r y  Okanagan language a r e p r e s e n t e d ,  p r e l i m i n a r i e s about t h e  i s organized  as: f o l l o w s .  Section 1  g i v e s b a s i c d a t a , s e c t i o n 2 g i v e s t e s t s f o r grammatical r e l a t i o n s : , with, t e s t s f o r f i n a l grammatical r e l a t i o n s i n 2.1 and t e s t s f o r n o n - f i n a l grammatical r e l a t i o n s i n 2.2.  1  B a s i c Data Data on word o r d e r  form o f p r e d i c a t e s animacy h i e r a r c h y transitivity  (.1.11, the. form o f nominals (1.2), the  (1.3), complementizers and determiners:  (l.U)_, an  (1-5)_, case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n s : (1.6)., aspect  marking (.1.7) are p r e s e n t e d  and  i n this: s e c t i o n , i n the order  indicated.  1.1  Word Order The b a s i c word o r d e r o f Okanagan is: VSO, i . e . , the. language, i s  verb-initial.  In t h e b a s i c o r d e r , t h e verb. is. f o l l o w e d by the. s u b j e c t : ( l l  and i n t u r n by 2s: and o b l i q u e objects..  However, s u b j e c t and o b j e c t markers,  whether c l i t i c s : o r a f f i x e s , are not u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n statements- o f b a s i c word o r d e r since, i t is: w e l l known t h a t c l i t i c s , and a f f i x e s : have, d i f f e r e n t l i n e a r o r d e r than o t h e r elements.  Sentences l a - e i l l u s t r a t e , t h e  b a s i c word o r d e r . la  qk^o-  s - t - is  chew-IMPF-t-S.3  TRANS  ? i ttv/it the  boy  The boy i s : chewing t h e fish..  ?i  qqwalx.  the fish.  17  b  ks - S  - Ax - aPx  n  Si S i ( ) - stamtima? n  UNR-CONT- fry-INCEP  the  my-grandmother  t  lkalat  a  galette  k l cniic. to  S3  My grandmother i s going t o s t a r t t o f r y some b r e a d f o r h e r s e l f .  c  kn S1  dx - am  IkSapi  1  lplpSut.  I N T R pour-MIDDLE some c o f f e e LOC cups  I poured  c  t  w  ks  some c o f f e e i n t h e cups.  - k^ul' - m - s  Si  UNR-work-MIDDLE-S3 - , xl  1T  skmxlst  Si slwps - c  the blackbear the  tail-his  t klq'aqljdnn - s. a  hook. - h i s  The b l a c k b e a r was g o i n g t o use h i s t a i l a s his: hook..  e  k iafcSus  -x  w  boil-S2 . T 1  T m r  ,  t siwik some  t  w  water  k i - lt?i  some  - tat.  own-tea-our  IMP B o i l some water f o r our tea.' In accounted  R e l a t i o n a l Grammar, word o r d e r o f i n d i v i d u a l languages i s  f o r by means o f t h e Linear  Precedence r e l a t i o n s .  p a r t i c u l a r LP r u l e s , f o r m u l a t e d i n terms o f grammatical  Language-  r e l a t i o n s , state,  which, elements: bear t h i s r e l a t i o n with, r e s p e c t t o which, o t h e r and a t which, l e v e l .  elements,  F o r Okanagan, the. b a s i c unmarked word o r d e r would  be expressed as  2  BASIC WORD ORDER: P  1.2  Form o f Nominals  1  2  3  Obi,  at the surface  stratum.  Nominals i n Okanagan may be c h a r t e d i n t h e i r f u l l e s t  expansion  as::  3  directional.Preposition 1  cqs-e-marking.Preposition 4  Demonstrative  Determiner  2  Adjective 5  3  Determiner 6  Head. Noun. 7  18  T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d below:  k  Si  wik C - n - t ) - n see-PFTV-t-Sl,  TRANS  the  Si  1 s i c Si c i t x .  the  LOC  kkw"?ap dog  kl ix tms  S la?  underneath.  this  ?  w  3  i n v i s i b l e , proximate  w  new t h e house..  I saw t h e dog underneath, t h e new house. Nominals a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r a b i l i t y t o occur as. l o g i c a l  arguments  and by t h e i r a b i l i t y t o bear grammatical r e l a t i o n s : S u b j e c t , D i r e c t I n d i r e c t Object,  Oblique,  Chomeur, and T o p i c .  Object,  The head o f a nominal  argument i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by i t s l i n e a r p o s i t i o n , by i t s a b i l i t y t o take possessive  a f f i x e s , t o t r i g g e r p l u r a l agreement o f t h e m o d i f i e r and o f  c e r t a i n classes- o f v e r b s .  1.3  Form:-of. P r e d i c a t e s Members o f d i v e r s e l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , such, as A d j e c t i v e , Verb,  Adverb, D e m o n s t r a t i v e , Noun, may bear t h e P r e d i c a t e r e l a t i o n .  The d i s c u s s i o n  here i s : l i m i t e d t o c l a u s e s with. P r e d i c a t e s t h a t take t h e a f f i x e s  under  study.  1.3.1 S u b j e c t  and Object  The of thessubject  Markers  v e r b a l paradigms v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r s o n and number and d i r e c t o b j e c t .  There a r e t h r e e sets: o f s u b j e c t markers.  These, a r e c h a r t e d and l a b e l l e d below. refer to f i r s t , first,  :,cThe'abbreyiatidnsrSl.; 'S2, and S 3  second and t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r , and P l , P2 and P3 t o  second and t h i r d p e r s o n p l u r a l .  19  S u b j e c t Markers  REALIS MOOD .  IRREALIS MOOD Intransitive/Transitive  Intransitive  . . . Transitive  SI  Tin-...  kn  -CDn  S2  ~an-...  k  -(i)x  S3  .. .-s  PI  ... .-tat/-t  P2  ...-mp/-p  P3  ...-s lx  w  w  -CDs k u ...  -Ci)t  w  ... p  -CDP -s(i)lx  The d i r e c t o b j e c t markers may be e i t h e r a f f i x e s o r c l i t i c s : 6  Direct  Object Markers  as  as s u f f i x e s ;  Clitics  i n t h e -n paradigm  SI  ku  S2  k  i n t h e -s paradigm  w  w  -s-  -m-  -i(ul)m-  -4C.ul)m-  S3 PI  ku  P2  P  w  .. lx  P3  In t h e two c h a r t s above, t h e lack, o f an e n t r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t markers- f o r t h a t for  p e r s o n , number and mood.  there. I s no o v e r t  F o r example, t h e r e i s no -marker  t h i r d person i n t r a n s i t i v e r e a l i s subject.  20  The  i r r e a l l s s u b j e c t markers; are  similar  to. the possess;i.ye  markers: 7  .Possessive .Markers  si  Tin-.  S2  Tan-.  S3  1.3.2  Pi  ...-tat  •  P2  ...-mp  .-s  P3  ...-salx  V e r b a l Paradigms F u l l c o n j u g a t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d o f two v e r b a l r o o t s :  txt'-  'look, a f t e r '  and  sTiw-  'ask', t h e former b e i n g a v e r b a l r o o t  with, which, t h e s u f f i x e s a r e s t r e s s e d and t h e l a t t e r b e i n g a v e r b a l r o o t which, i s s t r e s s e d i t s e l f . These a r e c o n j u g a t e d ks-  Three paradigms a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r each. v e r b .  i n t h e -n  t r a n s i t i v e r e a l i s paradigm, i n t h e  ' U n r e a l i z e d A c t i o n ' paradigm and i n t h e sacThe parentheses-  absent  (. ) e n c l o s e p a r a d i g m a t i c  'Past P e r f e c t ' paradigm. i n f o r m a t i o n which, i s  i n t h e s u r f a c e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r example.  brackets  C .1  morphology;  The .  e n c l o s e combinations: which, show P a s s i v e  a d i s c u s s i o n o f these f o l l o w t h e charts.. The  c h a r t s a r e t o be r e a d as f o l l o w s .  F o r example, t h e e n t r y  'Subject SI and Object S 3 ' i s r e a d a s  txt* - n - t - In  " I look, a f t e r him." i n t h e  -n ' P e r f e c t i v e ' paradigm, as  Ti(n) -ks-txt'-am  "I'm g o i n g t o l o o k a f t e r him." i n t h e ks- ' U n r e a l i z e d  A c t i o n ' paradigm, and as i ifn)-sac-txt'-ani  <  ,  paradigm. It  The verb  "I've been l o o k i n g a f t e r him."  i n t h e "'Past P e r f e c t '  s^iw- 'ask' f o l l o w s t h e c h a r t s o f t h e verb tXtV 'look a f t e r ' .  s h o u l d be noted t h a t when t h e s u b j e c t and o b j e c t markers a r e both, s u f f i x e s ,  t h e o b j e c t marker comes f i r s t .  21  VERB  txtf-  'look after'  6ubj ect Singular  Subject  and Singular  Object  Si  S2  S3  S 3  txlf-n-t-in  txt'-n-t-ix"  txtf-n-t-is  S2  txt?-n-t-s-£n  txt?-n-t-s-is  s SI  ks-  S3  fiCnJ-ks-tx^-am  S2  k" ?i(n)-ks-txt?-am  k"u txt'-n-t-ix"  km  S2  S 3 (n)-ks - txtf-lm  txt--n-t-£s  ks-txtf-n'-t-£s ks-txt?-n-t-s-is  SI  k (u) ?a(n)-ks-txt?-am  k m ks-txt?-n'-t-is  Si  S2  S3  S3  ?iCn]-sac-txt?-am  ^aCnl-sac-txt^-ani  sac-txtf-am-s  S2  k  sac-  w  w  k" sac-txt?-am-s  Si(n)-sac-txt?-am  SI  k Cu) ?a(n)-sac-txtf-am w  Plural  Subject  and  S2  Object  P2  Pl S3  Singular  [ txt'-n-t-im] txt--n-t-s-lt  k m sac-txt'-am-s  P3 txtf-n-t-is  txtf-n-t-lp  lx  txt?-n-t-s-is  lx  k m txlf-n-t-is lx  SI k m txt?-n-t-ip ks- |  Pl S3 S2  P2  [ ks-txtf-rf-t-inf ] ks-txf-  n-t-s-£t  P3 ks-txtf-n'-t-is  ks-txf-rf-t-Ip  ks-txt^-n'-t-s-is km  si  ix. Ik  ks-txtf-n'-t-is  k"u ks-txt?-rf-t-ip sac-1  Pl S3 S2  P2  sac-txlf-ani-s lx  sac-txt?-am-tat k" sac-txtf-am-tat  P3  sac-txtMm-p  k  w  sac-txtf-am-s lx  k m sac-txt^-am-s lx  SI k m sac-txtf-aro-p  ix  22  Singular Subject and Plural Object SI  -n  S2  P3  txt?-n-t-in  lx  P2  txt?C-n-t)-i?ulm-n  txtf-n-t-lx  S3 lx  w  txt?-n-t-im  txt (-n-t)-iTulm-s ,  PI  ks-  lx  k"u  txt'-n-t-Im  si  S2  S3  P3  ?iCn)-ks-txlMm l x  "^(rO-ks-txt'-am  k s - t x t ? - n ' - t - i n f l'x  P2  p  ?i(n)-ks-txf-am  k s - t x t f - n - t ) -i?ulirf-s  PI  k"u  si  S2  P3  7iCn)-sac-tx^-am  ^(iO-sac-txtf-am  P2  p  sac-  ks-txt'-rf-t-inf  S3  ?iCn)-s8c-txt?-am  lx  sac-txtf-am  lx  sac-txt?(-n-t) -i^ulm-s  PI  km  sac-txtMm  Plural Subject and Plural Object PI P3 P2  [txf-n-t-im  P2 lx]  Pi P3 P2  lx  [txtf-n-t-im  txt?C-n-t) -i?ulm-t  PI  ks-  txt?-n-t-£p  P3  [ ks'-txt'-n'-t-inf I k ]  txt?(-n-t)-imlm-s *  [km  P2  P3  ks-txt'-n'-t-ip  ix  ks-txt?C-n-t)-i?ulm-t  PI  P2  P3  ssc-txtf-am  sac-txt?-am-p  P2  sac-txt^-imlm-t  PI  txt?-n-t-Im]  [ks-txt'-n-a-inf  l'x]  tk"u ks-txt?-n-t-infl  lx  lx  ks-txtfC-n-t)-i7dlrf-s  PI  ssc-  lx]  P3 lx  S9c-txtf-am  lx  sac-txt?-i?ulm-s l x k m sac-txt?-am  lie  23  VERB  S?£w-  'ask'  -BubjectSingular  Subject and Singular  SI S3 S2  Object  S2  S3  s?£w(-n-t) -n sTiw-n-t-s-n  s?£wC-n-t)-s s^iw-n-t-x"  s^iw-n-t-s-s  SI  k"u sfiwC-n-tJ-s k"u s^iw-n-t-x"  ks-  si  S2  S3  '""iCiO-ks-s'Tiw-in  S2  k" ?i(n)-ks-s?iw-m  S3 ks-s?rw-/(-t)-s  ?a(n)-ks-s^iw-m  ks-s?iw-n'-t-s-s  SI  km k (u) u  SI  S9C-  ?i(n)-sac-s?£w-m  S2  k  w  (  •S2  S3  "i(n)-sac-s?iw-m  S3 sac-s?iw-m-s  ?a (n)-sac-s'i'iw-m  k  SI  Plural Subject and Singular  Pl  52  Object  P2  P3  [s?£w-n-t-am ] s?lw-n-t-s-t  s^lw-n-t-p  lx  s?£w-n-t-s-s  lx  s^iw-n-t-p  Pl  P3  53  [ks-sfiw-rf-t-arf ]  52  ks-s?£w-rf-t-s-t  P2  k m ks-s^iw-n'-t-p  Pl 53  sac-s^iw-m-tat  S2  k"  ks-s'i'£w-y (-t)-s  ix  ks-sTIw-n'-t-s-s  la  ,  ks-s^w-rf-t-p  SI  SI  s^wf-n-tO-s  k m s^lwC-n-^-s lx km  S3C-  sac-s^iw-m-s  ^3Cn)-S8C-s?£w-  SI  ks-  u  k"u sac-s^iw-m-s k"(u)  S3  ks-s?£w-y*(-t)-s  >'a(n)-ks-s i'£w-r,  <  P2  sac-s?iw-m-p  sac-s^iw-m-tat  km  P3 sac-s?£w-m-s k  km  sac-sTiw-m-p  ks-s^iw-yC-tD-s  lx  sac-s^iw-m-s  lx  k m sac-sTiw-m-s  lx  w  ix  2k  Singular Subject and Plural Object SI  S2  P3  s?iwC-ri-t)-n  P2  s?iw(-n-t) - i n - n  lx  S3  lx  sTiw-n-t-x"  's'i'iw-n-t-ain  lx  s^iwOn-t) -im-s  PI  k u s'i'iw-n-t-am w  ks-  SI  S2  P3  ?i(n)-ks-s?iw-m  P2  p  ?  lx  S3  'iaCrO-ks-s^iw-m  ks-s^iw-n'-t-anf  i(n)-ks-s?iw-m  ks-s^iwC-n-t) -4trf-s  PI  k"u ks-sfiw-rf-t-arf  SI  S8C  &  S2  P3  ^iCiO-ssc-s^iw-m  P2  p  lx  S3  ^(rO-sac-sTiw-m  ""lCnJ-sac-sfiw-m  lx  sac-s?iw-m sac-s'i'iw-lm-s  PI  k"u sac-s^iw-m  Plural Subject and Plural Object PI  P2  P3  [ s?iw-n-t-am l x ]  P2  s^iwC-n-1) - i n - 1  s?lw-n-t-p  P3  lx  [ s?iw-n-t-am  s?iwC-n-t)-3m-s  PI  ks-  P2  P2  [ ks-sSiw-rf-t-anf  lie ]  ks-s?iw-n'-t-p  l5c  ks-s?iwC-n-t)-4nf-t  [ ks-s?xw-n'-t>anf  lx ]  ks-s?lwC-n-t)-iif-s [ k"u ks-s'i'lw-n'-t-anf ]  PI  P2  P3  sac-s?iw-m  P2  sac-s^Iw-m-tat  PI  ]  P3  PI  S3C-  lx  [ k"u s^iw-n-t-am  Pi  P3  lx ]  lx  sac-s?im-m-p  P3  lx  sac-s^lw-m  lx  sac-s?iw-3m-s k"u  sac-s^lw-m  lx  lx  25  In the p r e c e d i n g c h a r t s , there, are c e r t a i n gaps-, i . e . , c e r t a i n combinations 10  o f a f f i x e s : do not o c c u r .  These are summarized below:  S2 S u b j e c t and PI O b j e c t :  You  V  P2 S u b j e c t and PI O b j e c t :  You-guys  These were i n d i c a t e d i n t h e charts- with, an In  us:. V  asterisk.  a d d i t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t a f f i x e s are. not mentioned i n c e r t a i n  other combinations  and,  -im/-am  These are summarized below:  11  us.  I s used.  i n t h e -n and ks--  paradigms:, P a s s i v e morphology  S 3 S u b j e c t and P 3 O b j e c t :  He/She  V  S3  S u b j e c t and PI O b j e c t :  He/She W  P3  Subject and P 3 O b j e c t :  They  V  P3  S u b j e c t and P i O b j e c t :  They  V  them. rus , them..  uus.  PI S u b j e c t and P 3 O b j e c t :  le  V  them,  PI S u b j e c t arid S 3 O b j e c t :  We  V  him/her.  These were i n d i c a t e d on the charts: w i t l i square, brackets:. F o r Okanagan, two for (1)  statements: need t o be f o r m u l a t e d t o  account  the gaps i n t h e v e r b a l paradigms:: a statement  a b s o l u t e l y may  o f which, combinations  not o c c u r ;  ( l i ) . a statement  o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t markings  and  o f which, combinations; o f  subject and o b j e c t markings-  p r o h i b i t mention o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n and number. These statements  12  Absolute PI  follow.  Prohibition  outranks- 2,  T h i s rule, states- t h a t f i r s t or  of Combination  person p l u r a l outranks  p l u r a l , i . e . , t h a t the. combination  second p e r s o n  o f second person  person p l u r a l o b j e c t i s : a b s o l u t e l y p r o h i b i t e d .  The.  singular  s u b j e c t and  combination  first  26  you a  • -  sg, pl  V  us  i s outlawed and hence n o n - e x i s t e n t ,  Partial Prohibition of Mention of Subject Marker  1-3  Pl,  PS outrank 3 which outranks Pl.  This r u l e states that f i r s t  and t h i r d person p l u r a l outrank, t h i r d  e i t h e r s i n g u l a r o r p l u r a l , which, o u t r a n k s f i r s t combinations,  we V him/them  i s prohibited.  circumvented  and.  person p l u r a l .  he/they V us/them, the  person,  In t h e s e s u b j e c t marker  T h i s p a r t i a l p r o h i b i t i o n on c e r t a i n combinations i s by the use o f ' i n t r a n s i t i v e ' morphology with, an o b j e c t c l i t i c ,  as follows:"'" (i) . or  In t h e r e a l i s t r a n s i t i v e paradigm,  ' I m p e r f e c t i v e ' paradigms,  ks(ii)  -im/-am  s a c - 'Past P e r f e c t ' paradigm,  the i n t r a n s i t i v e  -m  -n  o r -s  i s : used..  the s u b j e c t i s o m i t t e d and  marker i s used.  The P a r t i a l P r o h i b i t i o n does not outlaw mention  o f the d i r e c t o b j e c t ' s  person and number, and i n each o f t h e s e c a s e s , an o b j e c t c l i t i c  l.h  Complementizers  and  and Determiner.  t h e complementizers  i s used.  Determiners  The words S i and t Complementizer  'Perfective'  and i n the. r e a l i s paradigm with, p r e f i x  ' U n r e a l i z e d A c t i o n ' , a Passive, with. In the  e i t h e r the  o c c u r as members, o f both, l e x i c a l ; c a t e g o r i e s : However t h e s e are. d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  c a r r y tense whereas the Determiners  since  do n o t , a s  d e t a i l l e d below:  Complementizers Okanagan has e i g h t l e x i c a l items: which, i n t r o d u c e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s and which, c a r r y i t s temporal r e f e r e n c e with, r e s p e c t t o t h e m a t r i x c l a u s e o r t o the. speech, event:  27  ika  m?i  future;  b  k?i  non—future,  c  k?a  non-future., p a s t ;  d  ?a  past;  e  ?!  non-past,  f  t  non-past, n o n - s p e c i f i c ;  g  4^9  simultaneous:;  h.  S-  untensed.  present;  specific;  These e i g h t l e x i c a l items can be c a t e g o r i z e d t o g e t h e r as i n t r o d u c e r s * o f s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s and t h e l e x i c a l  c a t e g o r y i s termed  •Complementizer , 1  a b b r e v i a t e d as COMP.  DeterminersTwo o f t h e s e complementizers  a r e a l s o members o f t h e c a t e g o r y  'Determiner': 15a  ?i  and i t s p r e d i c t a b l e , allomorph.  b . t  ?9  f o r 'Specific';  'Non-specific'. • Sentences l 6 a - i e x e m p l i f y some o f t h e l e x i c a l items which, occur  as  Complementizers:  16a  kn  ks - nSacus - a x  SI  UNR-trap-INCEP  ?  Hun  I'm g o i n g t o s t a r t  .b  suddenly  slide/slip  w<  A l l o f a sudden, t h e y  c  catch.-PFTV-t-Sl , _ IKANb mT  P3  7  t h e mouse  I N T R  slide./slip,  ?  -  A1VT  ?i k^ikScna .  lx.  c - k%s?uswa t - s - t - m - n PF-wish.  W  t o s e t a t r a p t o catch, a mouse,  q >%p  COMP  k 8?nu - n ( - t) - n  COMP  t?ik nfii k£i w  m?i  IMPF-t-you-Sl  T R A N S  Sala? here  4  ?3  (n] - ks - cxaluwis •  COND S 2  IRR  -UNR-present  28  4Sa  cVatf* - m  Si  COMP  bloom-MIDDLE the. f l o w e r  I wish, you were h e r e when t h e l i l a c was i n f u l l bloom. .  Sixi?  9a  ? a - kwSap  that  the  n  your-horse  Sa  kSfjm - 4 - t  lx  store-INDIR-t-S2  t  ?lstkrf..  steal  -UNACCUS-LTDC-INDIR-t-you-Sl  TRMS  accidentally.  scVSin  Si. ks - c - i 4 n ( - n - t ) - s ?  lx  them some salmon COMP UNR-PF-eat-PFTV-t-P3-™  TTl/m  IKK  lJYLr  4  v  .'COMP  That's y o u r h o r s e t h a t I s t o l e .  nacf" -•q - nu - 4 - t - s - i n .  TRANS  COND w i n t e r Put away some, salmon f o r them t o e a t t h i s w i n t e r ( i . e . , j u s t f o r them t o eat.)_) .  kSfjm - 4 - t  lx  store-INDIR-t-S2 „ T  t  scw'Sin  t  ks - c - l 4 n C - n - t) - s lx ?  them some salmon COMP U N R - P F - e a t - P F T V - t - P 3 T T I R >  m  lJYLr  4  ?lstkrf..  COND  IKK  TRANS  winter  Put away some salmon f o r them t o e a t t h i s : w i n t e r ( i . e . , them and anybody who's, around t o e a t - t h e c u l t u r a l norm). g. sdkli&  kSa  why  COMP  4  x u/ w  COND go  Si  ttwit  k*l  tawn ?.  the. boy  to  town  Why has. t h e b o y gone t o town?, h, sdkinx why  kSi COMP  4  x u/  COND  w  go  Si  (.could be awhile, ago) ttwit  t h e boy  k*l to  tawn 1 town  Why i s the. boy g o i n g t o town?./Why d i d the. b o y go t o town?., (.just r e c e n t l y I  29 -  i.  l u t ?i(h) - s - mil - am NEG  S1  t sdvTin.  - COMP-dipnet-MIDDLE .some; salmon  I R R  T'm not d i p n e t t i n g s-ome salmon. Sentences 1 7 a - c e x e m p l i f y t h e l e x i c a l items which, occur as Determiners:  17a  titait-  Tunix"  very  true  The  h  smTimay*. the  story  s t o r y i s very true,  titait  ?unix  very  true  t sm?im%y\  w  some/a  story  Some s t o r i e s a r e v e r y true../A s t o r y i s v e r y t r u e ,  c  Ti. stamtima  7  cut  Ti cf<^cWiya? w  the. grandmother t e l l - S 3 The  grandmother s a i d  As members: o f t h e c a t e g o r y  ^  nacf"  t  siya . ?  the. chipmunk. s : t e . a l - S 3 j  (.that 1 t h e chipmunks: s t o l e some 'Determiner',  NTR  some  saskatoon.berry  saskatoons.  these, l e x i c a l i t e m s do not  c a r r y tense.  The allomorph. Ta .occurs; p r e d i c t a b l y b e f o r e t h e p o s s e s s i v e  prefix  'your'  Tan-  ;  and b e f o r e nouns o r a d j e c t i v e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e sequence:  Resonant-Pharyngeal-Stressed ( c f . M i c h e l and Hebert, category  'Determiner'  Vowel, i n t h a t o r d e r o r i n t h e reverse,  19.78,  f o r examples;.).  A member o f the. l e x i c a l  marks a nominal argument, p r e c e d i n g and marking  both, m o d i f i e r and head, with, the e x c e p t i o n o f a p e r s o n a l name, o r a f u l l independent  '1.5  pronominal.  Animacy H i e r a r c h y Languages f r e q u e n t l y recognize, a h i e r a r c h y o f animacy;  18  Animacy Hierarchy  for Common Nominals  Animate, Human ^  Animate, Non-human ^  Inanimate.  On such, a h i e r a r c h y , t h o s e nominals- which, are c l o s e r t o t h e t o p are. most  30  l i k e l y t o s e r v e as s u b j e c t , whereas t h o s e nominals which, are f u r t h e s t the t o p a r e l e a s t  from  likely.  Okanagan p e r m i t s animate b e i n g s , b u t not i n a n i m a t e b e i n g s , as s u b j e c t i n clauses- with, t r a n s i t i v e  strata.  The c l a s s o f animate  beings  includes- humans and a n i m a l s , as i n 1 9 , a c t s o f n a t u r e as i n 2 0 , and c u l t u r a l items t h a t are marked as- p o s s e s s e d by an animate b e i n g , as- i n 21-22.  19a  Si tklfflilx"  ccfa- n - t - i s  the  hit-PFTV-t-S 3 _..  woman  Si sqal tmlx ?  m  T C J  w  Si t xAfot.  the. man.  ..  INSTR  The woman h i t the. man with, a rock..  Si sq9l tmix  13  ,  the  man  cq'acf - 0  w  Si t  hit-UNACCUS-S3  x^ut. INSTR rock.  I N T R  The man was h i t with, t h e rock.,  c  * Si ^xMat cofa - n - t - i s t h e rock. h i t - P F T V - t - S 3  d  ?  i snina? the The  ^  T R A N S  cf^Ss - n - t - is bite.-PFTV-t-S3  t h e man.  Si sk'^imalt. T R A W  g  t h e baby  owl b i t t h e baby.  Sj scfit  k u  the  me  The  21a  owl  Si sqaftmixV.  rain  w  diw - 4 - t - s wash-INDIR-t-S3  Si  T R A K  S i - - kar. n  g t h e my-car  r a i n washed me my c a r .  ccf - mi ( - n - t ) - n throw-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl  Si pTukMa? the b a l l  T R A N S  ccf - cf - nu ( - n - t ) - n hit-UNACCUS-LTDC-PFTV-t-Sl I threw t h e b a l l  mTD  ?S 4 U  and  Si ttw*it.  . „ w  the  boy  and I u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y h i t t h e boy.  rock  31 -  b  dfcf - ml C - n - t ) - n  *  Ti p^ukMa?  U  ccf - cf - nu C - n - t ) - s  Ti ttWtt.  bit-UNACCUS-LTDC-PFTV-t-S3  *  ?T 4  the. boy  TRAWS  ccfa - n - t - i s •..hlt-PFTV-t-S3  Ti ttw^t. the  TRANS  I t h r e w t h e b a l l and  boy  I t a c c i d e n t a l l y h i t t h e boy. i t h i t t h e boy.  22a  ? i Tin - pTuk la?  cq'a - n - t - i s  w  the  my-hall  hit-PFTV-t-S3  Ti *frt x  /  t h e rock. /  T R A W S  Ti kkw^ap. t h e dog..  My b a l l h i t t h e rock. J the. dog.,  b  *  Ti p*uik la?  cq'antis  w  Ti x&ut.  The "hall h i t t h e rock...  c  Ts. Tan - cfTaxn'utiya?  ccfa - n - t - i s  the  hit-PFTV-t-S3  your-mocas:sln  T R A W  Ti x&Tit.  g.  the. rock.  Your mocassin h i t t h e rock., d  *  e  iaq - 4 - tarn  r  Ti cfTaxnutiya?  cq'antis  Ti x^ut. The mocassin h i t t h e rock,  Ti skl\f - lea? - s  stretch-INDIR-PASS  u  t sqal'tmix . w  t h e h e a v e r - s k i n - h i s : INSTR  H i s beaver p e l t was s t r e t c h e d by t h e man.  f  * iaqitam  Ti sklwica?  Ti..' t sqal'tmix . w  The beaver p e l t was: s t r e t c h e d by t h e man.  g  *  Ti xAfrt - s cefntis  Ti kkw^ap.  His. r o c k h i t the. dog.  h.  *  Ti x*ut  cefntis  The rock h i t t h e dog.  Ti kWTap.  man  32  1.6  Prepos i t i o n a l  Case-Marking  Non-term objects-, i . e . , o b l i q u e o b j e c t s , a r e marked by one o f t h e s e t o f case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n s : 23a  tl*  from,  b  k*L  t o , a t , goal, r e c i p i e n t , dative;  c  Ic"  for, benefactive;  d  1  on, l o c a t i v e ;  e  nSai  with.,  f  Si  The  comitative;  w i t h , by, i n s t r u m e n t a l .  p r e p o s i t i o n s . l i s t e d i n a-e may o p t i o n a l l y be preceeded-by a'determiner,  usually \ listed, 1.7  t  source;  -  ? i . , whereas-^t he.-preposition given.- i h - f_ must occur w i t h no a d d i t i o n a l determiner. '  Aspect and T r a n s i t i v i t y M a r k i n g Rules are given  -n  'Perfective',  -s  'Imperfective',  -t  'Transitive'.  The The 3^b,  -n/-s  and  f o r t h e occurrence, o f the. markers:  and  are e x e m p l i f i e d  - t i s exemplified  2  i n sentences 2 5 c , e, 2 6 b - c , 2 8 b - c , and 22'a-b.  i n t h e s e examples as w e l l as i n 2 5 b - e ,  32b-c, 3 3 b ,  36-39.  1 . 7 . 1 A Rule f o r P e r f e c t i v e and I m p e r f e c t i v e P e r f e c t i v e or Imperfective p r e d i c a t e phrase o f a c l a u s e , where 24  i n t h e form  optionally  (1)  Aspect  aspect  'head' i s t a k e n t o be t h e v e r b a l  if there is an initial  the final stratum with no other nuclear otherwise, obligatorily a nuclear  (21  if there is. an initial  term arc in the final  i s marked on t h e head o f a  stratum;  root:  2-arc which is a 1-arc in term arc 'in • tfie"-final  stratum  or advancee 2-arc which is  33  (13} if there there  is- no register  is no Dative  of an i n i t i a l oblique  clause  (the Indirective  clause  is a Middle  and Benefactive  construction  constructions}  or if the  analysis.  i n Chapters- Three  and Four.  (.!)_ o f t h e rule, r e f e r s : t o the: c l a s s o f Unaccusative. where an a s p e c t u a l marking i s p o s s i b l e .  ' I m p e r f e c t i v e ' -marker i s a t t e s t e d i n t h e s e c l a u s e s .  Unaccusative. p r e d i c a t e s : end i n -p r e d u p l i c a t e d consonant ending.  Dative  However, t h e d i s c u s s i o n and m o t i v a t i o n o f these  clauses ending i n - t -s  as- in a  encapsioles- a r e i l l u s t r a t e d and  p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n a l networks: i s undertaken Part  object  under a Phantom  The c l a u s e s which, t h i s r u l e statement e x e m p l i f i e d "below.  or Phantom arc, i.e., if  Only the  Other c l a s s e s o f  f o r naturally occurring action, i n a  ("the f i n a l one. o f the. r o o t 1, o r show-no  distinctive  I n c h o a t i v e clauses- a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d Unaccusative.; t h e s e are.  marked e i t h e r by g l o t t a l i z a t i o n o f a resonant i n second p o s i t i o n o r b y the ending  -wiix. None o f these o t h e r c l a s s e s o f U n a c c u s a t i v e s a r e  a t t e s t e d with, an a s p e c t u a l marker o f P e r f e c t i v e o r I m p e r f e c t i v e aspect.. U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three, s e c t i o n 2 , P a r t (JLL of the rule 25  covers t h e f o l l o w i n g case:,-  i n an U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e , o f t h e - t  a  C-s)-t "°  kn S 1  INTR  q ol' - t . w  w  a  I'm warm.  r  m  -  t  clas;s;  3k  kn  c  S1  q^al' - s - t. I  N  T  warm-IMPF-t  R  I'm warming (.myself I./I'm k e e p i n g warm,  a  crcar - t - 0 . stretch-t-S3 It  e  i s stretched  k"u  ( l i k e a heaver  pelt)1  crcar - s - t.  w  P 1  I N T R  INTR  s  t  r  e  t  c  h  --  M  P  F  -  t  We a r e s t r e t c h i n g . Part is 26  an i n i t i a l  (.21 o f t h e r u l e c o v e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e s ,  2-arc and a f i n a l n u c l e a r a r c :  i n an a c t i v e c l a u s e with, a t r a n s i t i v e  stratum;  -n or -s Si the The  sk'Su?* l?r - n - t - i s bee  rigid-PFTV-t-S3  5  T R A W S  t h e my-male's.mom  bee stung my mother.  •imSam - s_ - t - x yell.at You  Si Si(n) - sk^uy .  -  Si sqal'tmix".  w  IMPF-t-S2  T  R  M  S  t h e man  a r e y e l l i n g a t t h e man.  where there,  35-  i n a p a s s i v e c l a u s e with, f i n a l l y  i n t r a n s i t i v e stratum:  -n or -s Ti the  TiCn) -  slMV  my-male's.mom  l?r - n - tim  Ti t stfTu?i.  rigid-PFTV-PASS  INSTR  bee  My mother was stung by a bee.  Ti the  sqal'tmlx™  imTam - s_ - tarn  man  Ti t stamtima - s. 7  yell.at-IMPF-PASS  INSTR  grandmother-his:  The man was: y e l l e d a t by h i s grandmother, in a reflexive  clause:  -n or -s -cut Ti the.  ttWit  q T w  a  - n - cut 4 T  boy slide-PFTV-REFL  a  c  - pfTukH - am.  COMP PF-b.all-MIDDLE  The boy s l i d h i m s e l f while, p l a y i n g b a l l .  Ti the  ttwit boy  xribm - £ - cut. hurt-IMPF-REFL  The boy i s h u r t i n g h i m s e l f .  36,  29.  a  3  m  a r e c i p r o c a l clause:-^  k u k an - n [ - t ] - w£x . w  w  w  PI,,,™ catch.-PFTV-t-RECIP 11\ In We caught each, o t h e r ,  b  Ti scfcmala?  xnum - s_ - t - wlx » lx.  the c h i l d r e n  hurt-IMPF-t-RECIP  The The 30  w  P3-, INTR  c h i l d r e n are h u r t i n g each, o t h e r .  f o l l o w i n g are. c o r r e c t l y excluded I n a MIDDLE v o i c e c l a u s e : f o r an analysis:.  b y part  (2.1 o f the. r u l e f o r m u l a t i o n :  (The r u l e s a t i s f i e s : the "-fiyst t h r e e . p o s s i b i l i t i e s  Chapters: Three and Four p r o v i d e  o f the. f o u r t h , ( i v ) , t h e Phantom Arc  -am/-m  am/-m  -am/-m ( i i ) Spontaneous  ( i i i ) 2 -* 3 R e t r e a t  ( i v ) Phantom A r c  Demotion  Ti Ti(n) - kikHra? the My  c  my-grandfather grandfather  My  Solution  c - manx - m w  t qvalTs - 4 - malx  ago.  mTa/-- am cfsapi?.  my-grandfather t e l l . s t o r i e s - M I D D L E long.ago grandfather  tell  q'sapi?.  PF-smoke-MIDDLE some k i n n i c k - l i n k - p l a n t  smokes k i n n i c k k i n n i c k . l o n g  Ti Ti(n) - l&kHra? the  support  or  (i ) Antipasslve  b  in  solution.).  or  -m  evidence  s t o r i e s long  ago.  long.ago  3 7  31  i n an U n e r g a t i v e with, an i n i t i a l  c l a u s e , i . e . , a c l a u s e with, an i n t r a n s i t i v e  stratum  1-arc:  a  b  Ti  ttwit  the  boy  The  boy  qicslx. run  runs.  Part  (.3) o f t h e r u l e f o r m u l a t i o n e x c l u d e s  Middle clauses  under a Phantom Arc- .solution, i l l u s t r a t e d " above i n 30a, is  i n which, t h e r e  an advancee 2-arc n o n - d i s t i n c t from t h e i n i t i a l 1 - a r c .  excludes. D a t i v e 'Benefactive  1  or  It also  c l a u s e s i n which, t h e r e i s a morpheme r e g i s t e r i n g • ' I n d i r e c t i v e ' o b j e c t , r e g a r d l e s s o f any p o s s i b l e  advancements: t o 3, 2, or 1 ( c f . , Chapter F o u r , s e c t i o n 1 f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f these 32  clauses):  i n a: .Dative 1 c l a u s e : a  -x  or  -4  b  Ti the  Tin -  ftiif  my-father  Myjfather  x ic - x - t - s  Ti  w  give-BENE-t-S3  gave t h e horse t o the  T R A K S  boy.  sTnl&cTasqaxa? the  horse  k*L to  ttwit. boy  3 8 ;  c  Ti  ttwat  the. The  b.oy hoy  - i - t - is put . o u t - I N D l R - t - S 3  put.out the l i g h t  Ti T R  on the  ci(f*sxrf the. l i g h t  kl to  sqol*tmix . w  man  man.  However, an advancee 2 i n a' ' R e l a t i o n a l ' o r L o c a t i v e t r i g g e r s - the a s p e c t u a l marking, as- s t a t e d i n p a r t  clause  ( . 2 ) o f the r u l e  formulation:  (.cf. , Chapter Four, s e c t i o n 2 , 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f these, c l a u s e s ) : 33  i n a R e l a t i o n a l c l a u s e with, o b l i g a t o r y advancement, where NN to  refers:  a Non-nuclear term:  a  -mi/-m -n or -s b  Ti sqal'tmix  k l - cinmTals - m-  the  DIR-tighten-. cih:ch'-REL/2-IMPF-t-S.3 M T 3 In  w  The  man  man  t i g h t e n the  cinch, o f  s- t - s  Ti kwTgp - s. the  -,his h o r s e .  i n a L o c a t i v e c l a u s e with, advancee t o 2 i n a_, b_," but not  3h  advancee LOC a  -n or -s  to 1  In c_,d_:  horse-his  with,  39,  b  k - dx - ina? - n - t - x w  Dist-pour-L0C/2-PFTV-t-S2 You s p i l l t  t Talti?  w  T R M  g.  some  S?upi?.  t e a Sophie  some t e a on Sophie,  -ina?/-na'  ?  d  kn  k - nfcf^cf^ - l n a .  S1  Dist-snow-LOC/l  It  ?  I N T R  snowed on me./ I was snowed on.  1.7.2  Rule f o r - t  Marking  The f o l l o w i n g r u l e i s proposed t o account  f o r t h e - t marking  on predicates:: 35  -t marking: The morpheme - t marks the presence of an initial 2 in some stratum Swhich same and in successive  final  remains a distinct strata,  Where S^ i s i n t r a n s i t i v e , t h e marking predicates.  including  nuclear the final  or advancee term in the stratum, S^^.  is: l i m i t e d t o U n a c c u s a t i v e C l a s s B  Moreover, i n t h e subclass, o f U n a c c u s a t i v e C l a s s B p r e d i c a t e s ,  when two nominals meet t h e c o n d i t i o n s above, two - t s a r e p o s s i b l e (.see s e c t i o n 2 . 1 , Chapter Four, C l a s s B vs: C l a s s A3 R e l a t i o n a l v e r b s 1. T h i s r u l e covers t h e f o l l o w i n g cases:: 36  a f i n a l l y t r a n s i t i v e , a c t i v e clause., with, o r without an I n i t i a l o b l i q u e o b j e c t , with, f i n a l 1 and 2:  ho.  a  a R e g u l a r T r a n s i t i v e clause.:  ii wik - n - t - x s'ee-PFTV-t-S2  w  T R M S  Ti xix tm\ w  the g i r l  You see t h e g i r l , b  a D a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( c f . Chapter F o u r , s e c t i o n l ) :  the  man  give-BENE-t-S3„  R  fllNTq  some salmon  t h e woman  The man g i v e some salmon t o t h e woman,  i i i Ti ttwit the  boy  *Tvf - i - t - i s put.out-INDIR-t-S3  Ti cfiq^sxn' T R  the l i g h t  Ti xix tm\ w  the g i r l '  The boy p u t out t h e l i g h t on t h e g i r l , c  a R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ( c f . Chapter F o u r , s e c t i o n 2):  hi  .ii  Sasi?  c - k - papasilx - m - s - t - s  Uncle P F - D I s t - t h i n k - R E L / 2 - I M P F - t - S 3  Ta Tnq aTlq iTitn. w  the  T R M S  w  language  Uncle i s t h i n k i n g / p o n d e r i n g about t h e language. iii  iv  xas - t - mi - n - t - x like/good-t-REL/2-t-S2 You l i k e your  37.1.  b  Ta Ta(n) - c - i i n .  w  ?  the  T R A w S  your-PF-eat  food.  a f i n a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e , passive clause:  T i ttwit the  sTiw - n - t - am  boy  u  ask-PFTV-t-PASS  t  t&milx . w  INSTR  woman  The. boy was asked by the. woman. 38  I n one s u b - c l a s s o f Unaccusative Intransitive  (see Chapter  finally  Class' B, s e c t i o n 3 . 2 ) :  Three, U n a c c u s a t i v e  b  a-  clauses, i n i t i a l l y r a n d  Ti sqal'tmix  t a i - t.  the  straight-t  w  man  The man i s s t r a i g h t , t r u s t a b l e , t r u e . 39  i n a r e c i p r o c a l c l a u s e (see f o o t n o t e 3 ) :  Ti  xxix x tnf  the  PL-girl  w  w  cu(t) - n - t - wix tell-PFTV-t-RECIP  lx  w  P3  The g i r l s t o l d each, o t h e r t o h u r r y up.  T n m n D  ks - x ust - s l x . w  UNR-hurry .up-P3  T1313  1+2  T h i s rule, f o r m u l a t i o n c o r r e c t l y excludes: t h e f o l l o w i n g cases:; l+0  a finally  a  i n t r a n s i t i v e M i d d l e c l a u s e ( c f . Chapter Three, s e c t i o n 3 ''and  Chapter Four, s e c t i o n 1+.1+)'.:  Ms  * ii  -t  T i pptw^na x ?  the  kMU' - m  w  old.woman  work-MIDDLE  t  ymyamx a' . w  some  ?  PL-basket  The. o l d woman makes baskets:, b  an U n e r g a t i v e c l a u s e , i n i t i a l l y  and f i n a l l y  intransitive:  * -t ii  T i sppl'lna?  qlcalx.  the  run  rabbit  The r a b b i t r u n s . c  a R e f l e x i v e c l a u s e , t r a n s i t i v e b,ut with, non-di.sti.nct f i n a l 1 and f i n a l 2:  );  '  5  1+3-  ii  Ti xxix x tirf w  the  w  PL-girl  wik - n - c u t see-PFTV-REFL  lx. P3  I W T R  The g i r l s - see themselves:. The d i s c u s s i o n and m o t i v a t i o n o f these, p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n a l  networks  f o l l o w i n sections- 2-1+ o f Chapter Three and i n s e c t i o n s 1-3 o f Chapter Four.  2  T e s t s f o r Grammatical  Relations  These are p r e s e n t e d here, i n two  sub-sections:  first,  the  t e s t s : f o r f i n a l grammatical r e l a t i o n s and s e c o n d l y , the tests, f o r n o n - f i n a l grammatical r e l a t i o n s .  These t e s t s are i n c l u d e d here f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  convenience and are u t i l i z e d i n the a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapters Three and Four.  2.1  T e s t s f o r F i n a l Grammatical  2.1.1  Relations  S u b j e c t Marking The r e a l i s s u b j e c t person and number markers are d i s t i n g u i s h e d  a c c o r d i n g t o f i n a l t r a n s i t i v i t y and d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s : .  The  'Transitive' set,  as t r a d i t i o n a l l y termed i n S a l i s h a n l i n g u i s t i c s , are used i n r e a l i s where the f i n a l l.rand 2 are d i s t i n c t  from one another.  The  set i s used elsewhere. 1+1  INTRANSITIVE  TRANSITIVE  51  kn  -(i)n  52  k  -(.i)x.  53  0  Pi  k u  -(i)t  P2  p  -Ci)p  P3  w  w  -(i)s w  lx  -Ci)s  lx  clauses,  'Intransitive'  44  These a r e e x e m p l i f i e d helow, f o r the. f i r s t 42a  kn SI I  h  p e r s o n s i n g u l a r (SlJ_:  qicalx.  INTR  run  run.  tk^a - n - t - In put  ? i sp'ic*n  the - PFTV-t-Sl, TRANS  rope  I p u t t h e rope r i g h t b e h i n d  klips  Si  r i g h t '."Behind  citx . w  t h e house  the. house..  Combinations o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t m a r k e r s i n s u r f a c e  transitiye  c l a u s e s are s u b j e c t t o t h e A b s o l u t e  and P a r t i a l P r o h i b i t i o n s , a l r e a d y  discus.sed i n s e c t i o n 1.3.2., o f t h i s  Chapter.  2.1.2  Question  Formation  Question  Formation w i t h  o b l i q u e and n u c l e a r terms. i s being questioned,  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between  t h i s i n t e r r o g a t i v e i s preceded by a case-marking I f a n u c l e a r term i s b e i n g  case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n appears, as i n a_, b_ below.  being questioned  final  When an i n i t i a l o b l i q u e , non-chomeur o b j e c t  p r e p o s i t i o n as i n c_, e_ below. no  swit  i s not t h e s u b j e c t i n the  questioned, I f the  f i n a l stratum,  nominal  t h e nominal  s u b j e c t o f the lower c l a u s e i s r a i s e d i n t o t h e upper c l a u s e , a s i n b, c_, e_ below. 43a  swit who  Si COMP  k s - ?S q^«  - s - a x  nix ?  UNR-s.crape-face-T.NCEP  again  ?  a  w  Who ' s gonna shave next ?. b  swit who  S i stamtima?  S i sSiw ( - n - t ) - s i  t h e ^grandmother COMP  Who d i d the grandmother ask.?.  ask.-PFTV-t-S3  TRANg  .  45  c  k*L  swit  to  who  T i ttwit  T i qlcalx?  the' hoy  COMP r u n  To who d i d the hoy run?, d  *  * e  ti  T i ttWSt  swit  T i qicalx  (!&)?-  swit  T i ttvfit  kTi yaltl  who  t h e hoy  COMP  from  r u n , away  From who d i d the. hoy r u n away?.. . f  * swit  2.1.3  T i ttwit  kTi yalt  R e l a t i v l z a t i o n and C l e f t  (til?  Constructions  R e l a t i v e clauses: i n Okanagan may he c h a r a c t e r i z e d at l e a s t s u p e r f i c i a l l y as follows-: (1)_  the. complementizer T i i s u s u a l l y used, although, the: otherocomplementizers  Ta, t , k T i , k.Ta, mTi, (111  hut not iTg., a r e a t t e s t e d ;  t h e complementizer Ti, may he o p t i o n a l l y d e l e t e d ;  (.iii). a head nominal is: p r e s e n t  and p r e c e d e s t h e r e l a t i v e  ( i v ) . r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s may he d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r  clause;  clauses: by t h e  presence, o f a head nominal; (v)_  a s u b j e c t marker is- o b l i g a t o r i l y p r e s e n t  on t h e p r e d i c a t e o f the.  d o w n s t a i r s c l a u s e and, i f t r a n s i t i v e , a d i r e c t o b j e c t marker as: w e l l , i.e., , no d e l e t i o n o f s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t marking o c c u r s ; (vi)  a nonpronominal NP r e f e r r i n g t o t h e head i s absent w i t h i n t h e c l a u s e . Okanagan permits  downstairs: f i n a l  On a downstairs. 44  c - mTy'  1 o r 2 , b u t not on an o b l i q u e  3  all  3  object:  1: r  s - t -  in  PF-know-IMPF-t-Sl yT yT ?t  r e l a t i v e , c l a u s e s t o be c o n s t r u c t e d on a  Ti the  T i ttwit  ( T i ) iiCn)  the. b o y  T R M S  Ta?T sa . ?  u  egg  I know t h e boy who a t e a l l t h e eggs.  ?  COMP  (> n - t ) - s  eat-PFTV-t-S3TRMS  he  2:  On a downstairs1+5  c - mTy - s - t - In PF-know-IMPF-t-Sl  T R M S  T i sqal'tmix* .  the.  (Til  man  Ti Tilmix m w  COMP  the chief  wik ( - n - t ) - s. s e e  -PF-rv-t-S3  T R M S  .  I know t h e man t h a t t h e c h i e f saw.  Not on a downstairs  oblique  h6  Ti ttwit  wik ( - n - t ) - s  Ti  the  see -PFTV-t-S3,  the k n i f e  *  "boy  object:  TRANS  pTul's C " 1 " t - S:  Ti  s  kill-  IMPF-t-SS, TRANS  nikmn  XTaXTa?  the  (Ti)  ?  COMP  i  sqal'tmix™  t h e man  (Ti t )  crow  INSTR  The hoy saw t h e k n i f e t h a t the. man k i l l e d the. crow with..  1+7  * Tixi? that  Ti ktk TiWs [ - n - t ] - n  Ti latap  w  ? i puk . w  COMP p u t / p l a c e - P F T V - t - S l ^ t h e . TRANS That's: t h e t a b l e t h a t I p u t t h e book. on. 1+8  *  the table  c - mTy - s - t - i n PF-know-IMPF-t-Sl  T R A N S  t sqal'tmix  w  t h e man  T i Ti ttwit COMP  book.  qicalx.  the. boy  run  .,1 know t h e man t h a t t h e boy r u n to/towards:/from. Cleft  c o n s t r u c t i o n s ' on a downstairs: nominal/pronominal  r e s t r i c t e d t o f i n a l I s and 2s  l+2a  Tixi?  Tanwi?  that  you  (see s e c t i o n 2.3, Chapter  Ti Tn - sax mTa - n - t - x w  COMP  are s i m i l a r l y  Cont-weigh.-PFTV-t-S2  w  T R M S  Three 1:  Ti patak. t h e potatoes.  That's, y o u who weighed t h e p o t a t o e s ,  b  Tixi? Tinea?kn Ti k u  c - tr^q - s - t - i s  that  PF-kick.-IMPF-t-S3  w  I,-me  •  COMP  me  That's- me t h a t t h e policeman  is- k i c k i n g .  T R M S  Ti sax^fTic/am. t h e policeman  47  c  *  Tixl  7  that  cniic  ? t • ;-..?i;^t^:'.4?P?'^V- • ' • ' »  he/she  COMP  That's him t h a t d  *  ?ixi  t h e hoy  t h e hoy r u n to/towards-/from,  t ::''.sqal tmix  ?  ,  that  a  run  T i T i ttwat  w  man  COMP  t h e hoy  qlcalx. run  That's- t h e man t h a t t h e h o y r u n to/towards:/from.  2 . 1 . 4 T o p l c a l i z a t i o n O n l y a f i n a l 1 may he t o p i c a l i z e d i n Okanagan: below, t h e f i n a l 1 i s u n d e r l i n e d . 50a  tmTus:  - m  Tj s q i l x  trap-MIDDLE  t  w  t h e people  kkrft . 7  some, kokanee  The p e o p l e t r a p some, kokanee. b.  Ti sqilx  tmTusm  w  t  Weal?.  The p e o p l e t r a p some kokanee.. c  -  t  RKni  tmTusm  ?  some kokanee 51a  T  n  Tj sqilx".  trap  t h e people  - pTfts ( - n - t ) - s  Cont-hoil-PFTV-t-S3  T R A  ^  ? i tklmilx t h e woman  s  w  Ti  s4iq . w  t h e meat  The woman b o i l e d t h e meat. h  Tj  tklmilx"  TnpTuss- T i  siiq . w  The woman h o i l e d the. meat, c  *  Ti sliq the  52a  w  meat  tk4milx . w  TnpTuss  Tj,  hoiled  t h e woman  Tn - pTus - n - tarn Cont-hoil-PFTV-PASS-  Tj  s4iq  w  the. meat  The meat was: h o i l e d h y the. woman.  Ti t INSTR  tk4milx . w  woman  I h t h e examples  48  b  Si s i i q The  c  w  SnpSusntam  Si t  ttSmilx . w  meat was- b o i l e d b y tne woman,  * Si t  tk4milx  SnpSusntam  w  Sj s i i q " .  a  INSTR  53a  yalt  woman  ? i ttv/it  rum.away The  b  t l ' sqal'tmix".  the boy  Si ttwit  from  man  yalt  t l ' sqal'tmix . w  boy r a n away from the. man.  * t l ' sqal'tmix  yalt  w  from  54a  t n e meat  boy r a n away from t h e man.  The  c  * waaohbiled  man  Si ttwit.  run.away  t h e boy  wik C - n - t) - n Si p'Sukna?. w  hi.de-PFTY-t-Sl  T R A N S  .  the. b a l l  X h i d the. b a l l ,  b  * Si p Suk la 5  the  w  ?  ball  wik C - n - t ) - n. w  hide-PFTV-t-Sl  2 . 1 . 5 Q u a n t i f i e r The  m o A l x T Q  .  Float  quantifier  ySaySg?t  ' a l l ' is: permitted t o f l o a t t o  p r e - p r e d l c a t e p o s i t i o n from a f i n a l 1 o r a 2 and not from an o b l i q u e This  fact i s exemplified  below:  From a final 1: 55a  ySaySg?t all  Sj s c f d n a l a 7 the children  ?  S3txilx. asleepp^  . A l l t h e c h i l d r e n are. a s l e e p , b  Si s d j i i a l a ?  ySaySg?t  ?Satxi,lx.  The. c h i l d r e n a l l a r e asleep..  object.  49  From a final 56a  wik  2: y?9y?g?t  - n - t - 0  w  hi.de-PFTV-t-S2  ?i  all  T R M S  ?d ?usa?. ?  t n e egg  IMP Hide a l l t h e eggs! b  yTay^g^t  wik nt  ?j  w  ?a ?usa . ?  ?  Hide a l l the. eggs I Not"fsomoaniqB> 57a  Ti  liquet --odjeot:  ttwit  the  qicalx  hoy  yTayTg?t  run  *  Ti  ttwit  the 58a  kn S 1  cx  INTR  I  T  E  I pour c o f f e e b  *  y? y?g?t S1  It  o u r  -  t  M I I ) r ) L E  s  INTR  c'x  - cx  w  I  a  ?  E  R  -P°  is preferentially interpreted  sccmala? the  xxix^tnf.  run  to  lkTapi  yTayTg?t  o  m  Pl-girl  coffee  e  - am  w  u  r  -  M  I  D  t D  L  1  lplpTut.  a l l LOC  E  lkTapi  PL-cup  s  o  m  children  yTayT ?t 9  all  1  lplpTut.  coffee  e  LOC  PL-cup  to Quantifier Float  and a p l u r a l o b j e c t ,  that,  a floated quantifier  as h a v i n g come o f f t h e s u b j e c t .  by t h e R e l a t i o n a l H i e r a r c h y  ranks S u b j e c t as t h e h i g h e s t 59a  k*L  s h o u l d he n o t e d with, r e s p e c t  i n the case o f a p l u r a l s u b j e c t  predicted  Pl-girl  i n a l l t h e cups, kn  9  all  - am  w  -P  R  qicalx  a l l !  - cx  w  to  w  girls.  yTayTg?t  hoy  w  all  The hoy runs t o '.all t h e h  xxix x tnf.  This i s  ( P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l 1 9 7 8 a )  which,  position. wik  w  ( - n - t ) - s  hide-PFTV-t-P3  mT3A1  , ,. TC  lx  Ti  T^Tusa?.  t h e egg.  .The c h i l d r e n a l l h i d t h e eggs. i.e.,  A l l the, c h i l d r e n h i d t h e eggs../  *  The c h i l d r e n h i d a l l t h e eg  50  2.2  Tests' f o r N o n - f i n a l  2 . 2 . 1 M o v i n g  Grammatical  Glottalization  Relations-  0  Okanagan shows- a g l o t t a l i z a t i o n  pattern  on. t h e predicate, phrase,  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e o b j e c t moves o r v a r i e s * as a r e s u l t an a c t i o n .  F o r example,  then the g l o t t a l i z a t i o n stays: p u t , t h e r e  i f a h a l l is* k i c k e d pattern  appears*.  i s * no g l o t t a l i z a t i o n ,  o f h a v i n g undergone,  and i t goes- b o u n c i n g o r f l y i n g ,  I f a person hides* h i m s e l f and  but i f t h e p e r s o n goes- from  h i d i n g p l a c e t o h i d i n g p l a c e , then t h e r e i s * g l o t t a l i z a t i o n . . .  60  MOVING GLOTTALIZATION: If the initial to the action a.  or event, the resonants are glpttalicized  in the 1st or 2nd person subject,  predicative b.  2 of a clause mopes or varies  the final  in response  as  follows:  resonant of the  phrase;  in the Zrd person subject,  all the resonants of the verbal  root and suffixes- of the predicative  phrase. ft  This, i s : i l l u s t r a t e d below, with, words: t h a t 61 a  t h a t moves., t h e n  vary:  tr*qntin trqntix  f i r s t with, a p h y s i c a l o b j e c t  I kick, something w  You  solid.  kick, something  solid.  sg  b  trqntis:  He k i c k s something  solid.  trqntim  le. kick, something  trqntip  You , kick, something pl  trqntis. lx  They kick, something  trqntlrf  I k i c k something t h a t moves.  trqntjx"  You  trqntis.  He k i c k s something t h a t moves.  solid. solid.  solid,  kick, something t h a t moves,  "51  trqntinf.  We kick, something t h a t moves:.  tr'qn'tip  You ., k i c k . something t h a t -moves-, pl  trqn'tis; rx ?Wtipn  They' kick, something t h a t -moves-.  Si ttw'it.  ?Saw'tipntix  /  Si ttw'it.  w  ?Sawtipy's:  Si ttwit.  ,  ^Saw'tipntim'  Si ttw'it.  ?S ^tipn'tp  Si ttwit.  a  ? Wtipys c  rx  Si. ttw'it.  Sn - cawcin'  X follow- the. hoy. You follow- t h e hoy. He follows- the. hoy, Ce. f o l l o w the hoy. You f o l l o w - the. boy. They- f o l l o w t h e boy. I r e p e a t a T t e r him.  Sn - C9wcin'tx  You r e p e a t a f t e r him.  Sn - cavfcy's:  He r e p e a t s a f t e r him.  Sn - cawcintanf,  We r e p e a t a f t e r him.  Sn - eawcintp  You _, repeat a f t e r him, Pl  Sn - cawcy's rx  They repeat a f t e r him.  Sn - cawcin lx  I r e p e a t a f t e r them.  Sn - cawcintx"  You r e p e a t a f t e r them.  Sn - cawcy's l'x  He r e p e a t s a f t e r them.  w  Sn - cawcintam  l'x  We r e p e a t a f t e r them.  Sn - eawcintp l'x  You _ r e p e a t a f t e r them Pl  Sn - cawcy's rx  They r e p e a t a f t e r them.  That Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o the. i n i t i a l o r n o n - f i n a l 2 o f a c l a u s e , not n e c e s s a r i l y \ a f i n a l 2 , i s ; shown i n the P a s s i v e and Cleft  c o n s t r u c t i o n s - below:  62a  Si klo/Sap the The  dog  tr* - tax* - q - n - tim\ ITER-back&forth.-kick-PFTY-PASS  dog was k i c k e d r e p e a t e d l y back, and forth..  52  b  T i kkw^ap  Ti  tr* - tar* - q - rfc- t - : i s l'x.  COMP  ITER-back&forth-kicfc-PFTV-.-t  the  dog  S' P 3  , ,. TRAMS  It's  t h e dog t h a t t h e y k i c k e d r e p e a t e d l y b a c k and forth..  mt3fll  TC  I n i t i a l Is- do not t r i g g e r t h i s - g l o t t a l i z a t i . o n p a t t e r n , as: e x e m p l i f i e d below i n an U n e r g a t i v e c l a u s e : 63a  qicalx  lx.  run  P3 INTR  They r u n . b  *  qicaljc  They  l'x.  r u n here and there...  (See Chapter Three  s e c t i o n 2 f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f U n e r g a t i v e clauses.),.  T h i s phenomenon o f Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i . o n was- d i s c o v e r e d v e r y l a t e i n t h e process; o f fieldwork, and i s u t i l i z e d i n o n l y one a n a l y s i s , t o show t h a t t h e f i n a l 1 o f c e r t a i n classes- o f Una c c us at i v e s: i s : a 2 i n a n o n - f i n a l stratum, i . e . , In t h e i n i t i a l posited  (of. , Chapter Three, s e c t i o n 2.2.1).. ^'  2.2.2  C l e f t s with In  of  stratum s i n c e o n l y two s t r a t a a r e  cleft  Tinea /Tinea kn 7  c o n s t r u c t i o n s with, f i r s t  t h e form, e i t h e r T i n e a  by this; pronominal  7  7  person p r o n o m i n a l s , t h e c h o i c e  o r ? i n c a k n , is. s e n s i t i v e t o t h e r e l a t i o n borne 7  i n t h e downstairs c l a u s e .  (See s e c t i o n 2.1.3, t h i s  c h a p t e r , f o r a more g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f c l e f t s and r e l a t i v e , c l a u s e s . ) The  form  Tinea  7  i s s e l e c t e d i f t h e pronominal bears t h e 1 - r e l a t i o n  downstairs: 6k,  Tixl that  7  { * TT i n e c a k n 1j . 77  me, I  T i kn  qicalx  COMP S i  That's me who runs t o t h e s t o r e .  run  k l sTntTurnystn. to  store.  53  The form Sinca^kn i s s e l e c t e d i f the. f i r s t person pronominal hears* t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n downstairs: 65  Sixl? (  Sinca?kn1  V" Sinca'-' that  ?  i km  c - t r q - s- - t - i s  Si  sgxnvSicfam.  3  me,I  COMP  me  PF-kick-IMPF-t-S3  T R A N S  the. policeman  T h a t ' s me that,.the".policeman isr k i c k i n g . In  a P a s s i v e where t h e pronominal hears t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n i n i t i a l l y  and t h e  1 - r e l a t i o n f i n a l l y , e i t h e r form may he s e l e c t e d : 66  Sixi?  ^ Sinca^knl  LSinca? that  me,I  S i trq - n - tim  Si t  COMP kick-PFTV-PASS  INSTR  sSnklcSasqaxa . ?  > horse  That's me who was k i c k e d by t h e h o r s e . Thus, S i n c a / S i n c a k n i s a t e s t f o r 2-hood a t some stratum ?  ?  n e c e s s a r i l y the i n i t i a l or f i n a l  stratum.  S^, not  5^  FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER TWO 1  I t s h o u l d he n o t e d t h a t no c l a i m is: b e i n g made here t h a t  clausal structure i t s e l f i s i n t r a n s i t i v e , only that c e r t a i n  the  morphological  markers are used under c e r t a i n w e l l - d e f i n e d c o n d i t i o n s on a c l a u s e t r a n s i t i v e f i n a l stratum. represented  (I)  F o r example, 'we l o o k a f t e r them' as I n (.1.).,  ./^""^X.  g r a p h i c a l l y as: i n ( H i ,  txt* - n - tim  lx  (Hi /  look.after-PFTV-PASS Weo  look  2  \  /  a f t e r them.  \  p-^  P3  l x and with, the v e r b a l morphology  without n e c e s s a r i l y c l a i m i n g t h a t t h i s i s i n d e e d Other a n a l y s e s  2X  I  \  w i l l be r e a l i z e d w i t h the o b j e c t c l i t i c -tim  with,  a true  Passive.  f o r -n/-s are proposed b y L. C. Thompson (.19.72.1 f o r  t h e Thompson language' and b y A. M a t t i n a  (19.73, 19.78). f o r  Colville-Okanagan.  Thompson suggests t h a t -n-t marks a c o n t r o l t r a n s i t i v e , I m p l y i n g c o n t r o l by the s u b j e c t , agent o r I m p l i e d causative. purposeful -nt  Mattina  suggests t h a t  agent, whereas- the.  -s-t .marks: a  -st p r e d i c a t e s ; always: imply  o r customary Involvement on t h e p a r t o f the a c t o r wh.ereas-  lacks; t h i s I m p l i c a t i o n .  Hehert  (19.82). d i s c u s s e s the. a p p l i c a b i l i t y  o f these, hypotheses t o (_NL 1 Okanagan, and proposes- and hypothesis 3 and  either  defends the. aspect  g i v e n i n the t e x t .  R e c i p r o c a l s are l i k e r e f l e x i v e s . I n t h a t the. s e t s c o n t a i n i n g o b j e c t are. n o n - d i s t i n c t .  R e c i p r o c a l s are. unlike, r e f l e x i v e s w i t h  r e s p e c t t o the d i r e c t i o n o f the a c t i o n , o f members: o f the  subject  -members o f t h e s e t .  In r e f l e x i v e s ,  set a c t upon themselves whereas i n r e c i p r o c a l s the. a c t i o n  takes: p l a c e between members, o f the set.. R e l a t i o n a l networks such, as: these, two c o u l d be. suggested f o r r e c i p r o c a l s : on. semantic grounds;  55  The r e l a t i o n a l network, i n a. v i o l a t e s t h e Chomeur C o n d i t i o n as o r i g i n a l l y proposed, hut s a t i s f i e s t h e weakened Chomeur C o n d i t i o n Postal, 1978a,  ( P e r l m u t t e r and  s e c t i o n 8 ) which, a l l o w s a chomeur o n l y under  certain  c o n d i t i o n s hut does not r e q u i r e t h a t t h e nominal i n q u e s t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y hear t h e Chomeur r e l a t i o n .  The antecedent conditions; under which, a  chomeur.may arise, a r e s a t i s f t a b l e i n t h r e e known ways;:  when terms  arise. I n s t r a t a v i a (.1.1 r e - e v a l u a t l o n a (advancement and demotions;)., ( i l l a s c e n s i o n s , and ( i l l 1 t h e existence.-of dummy nominals. The r e l a t i o n a l network. I n h v i o l a t e s , t h e S t r a t a l Uniqueness Law which, c l a i m s t h a t no s t r a t u m o r one. 3 - a r c  can c o n t a i n more t h a n one 1 - a r c , one 2 - a r c ,  ( P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l 1 9 . 7 8 a L  To f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h a  r e l a t i o n a l network, f o r r e c i p r o c a l s ; would r e q u i r e s y n t a c t i c evidence, which. Is; p r e s e n t l y unavailable..  k  The s u f f i x  -cut  i s not b e i n g a n a l y z e d as  s i n c e t h e r e I s no independent such a segmentation.  -t-sut or  -t-cut  s y n c h r o n i c evidence o r known t e s t t o support  Hale ( e x t e r n a l examiner's  t h a t making t h i s segmentation would r e s u l t  r e p o r t , August  1 9 8 2 ) notes  i n the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f the  r u l e statements f o r aspect and f o r - t marking, thus, r e d u c i n g t h e r o l e o f  56  argumental d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i n the consider  r u l e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n t o he  segmentation without o t h e r not  t o segment  -cut  F o r t h e R e f l e x i v e and  -cut  and  -wix  w  corroborating  independent e v i d e n c e , so I choose  Reciprocal  c o n s t r u c t i o n s , the. morphemes  appropriate  t r e a t e d a s " v e r b a l morphology t h a t  conditions  r a t h e r than as dependents o f  clause.  6  This; phenomenon, o f Moving G l o t t a l i z a t l o n was  first  notes as an unexpected g l o t t a l stop  in [-miSt/-nii st].  n o t i c e d t h i s i n his. n o t e s ( p e r s o n a l  conversation,  t h a t t h i s might be more, e x t e n s i v e  Kelowna,  I t was  July 1 1 , 1 9 8 1 .  One  i n subsequent fine, and  consultant,  ?  8 and  August 1979.1.  o f h i s examples: Is: p r e s e n t e d as  field  also  The  hint provided  interview 5 7 b , p.  Qk.  d e t a i l e d , work. with. the. main language  or o f o t h e r  I t would  d i a l e c t s ; d i d not  same phenomenon.  Data are u n a v a i l a b l e , at t h e time, o f w r i t i n g t o show whether advaneee. 2-chSmeurs, o b l i q u e s  pattern. may  had  Joseph. A. M i c h e l , thatv-thls phenomlnon was; e l u c i d a t e d .  have, e x a c t l y the  2s,  Mattina  language I n s t r u c t o r , d u r i n g an  not.be s u r p r i s i n g i f speakers o f l e s s e r age  7  n o t i c e d In my  and m e a n i n g f u l came from examples  by Dave P a r k e r , native, speaker and in  not  s u f f i c i e n t basis: f o r morphological  r e s p e c t i v e l y are. b e i n g  shows, up under the  However, I do  f u r t h e r at t h i s . t i m e .  5  the  grammar o f Okanagan.  and  putative  3s; c o u l d a l s o t r i g g e r t h i s  glottalizatlon  I t Is; c l e a r however that, a nominal t h a t Is; a 2 at some l e v e l  t r i g g e r Moving G l o t t a l i z a t l o n where f e l i c i t o u s .• This d i f f i c u l t c o n f i r m e d by  patterns;.  p a t t e r n was  obtained  from the. main language  s l i p p i n g examples f o r judgment i n t o o t h e r  See. a l s o p.  82.  As  consultant  elicitation  In English., c l e f t s b e g i n n i n g with. "It's; me.  who/that..." are. used i n f r e q u e n t l y .  57  CHAPTER THREE  INTRANSITIVE CLAUSES IN (NL)1 OKANAGAN  0  Introduction This: chapter  s i t i v e , i n (NL)_ Okanagan.  d i s c u s s e s b a s i c clauses: which, are. f i n a l l y i n t r a n Chapter Four- discusses: b a s i c clauses: which, are.  f i n a l l y t r a n s i t i v e , i n t h i s language.  Both, c h a p t e r s address: three,  q u e s t i o n s with, r e s p e c t t o p o s s i b l e r e - e v a l u a t i o n s o f grammatical r e l a t i o n s o f nominals:: i)_  What advancements, i f any, a r e p o s s i b l e i n Okanagan 1 .  ii).  What demotions, i f any, are p o s s i b l e , i n Okanagan?.  ill)_  What a s c e n s i o n s ,  i f any, are p o s s i b l e i n Okanagan?. .  These, q u e s t i o n s presume t h e existence, o f a R e l a t i o n a l H i e r a r c h y , some grammatical r e l a t i o n s ranked h i g h e r t h a n others-. Postal  Perlmutter  with, and  (1978a J. have proposed such, a hierarchy-, which., ranks t h e grammatical  r e l a t i o n s : borne by nominal s-; 1  Subject  G Q J>  D i r e c t Object  T h i s h i e r a r c h y ranks, t h e Subject c e r t a i n s y n t a c t i c phenomena, h i e r a r c h y , p e r m i t t i n g these  (.2)1 >  I n d i r e c t Object  r e l a t i o n as the. h i g h e s t .  (.3) >  Non-terms,  "In t h e case o f  languages draw a l i n e at some p o i n t a l o n g the. s y n t a c t i c phenomena,  such, as R e l a t l v l z a t i o n ,  t o i n t e r a c t with. the. grammatical r e l a t i o n s above t h a t l i n e and not those below i t . I t l a proposed t h a t Okanagan. permits- a number o f advancements-, demotions.- and a s c e n s i o n s  along t h i s h i e r a r c h y .  T h i s chapter  discusses  58  advancements: and intransitive. result  demotions, which, r e s u l t  Chapter Four discusses: advancements: and  i n c l a u s e s t h a t are f i n a l l y T h i s chapter  2a  Passive with.  and  In clauses- t h a t are  -(Xjin  a s c e n s i o n s which,  transitive.  proposes and  c l a u s e s , with. 2 - ^ 1  finally-  argues- f o r the. f o l l o w i n g r e - e v a l u a t i o n s :  Advancement and 1 -> 1 Demotion  and  a s a marker o f f i n a l i n t r a n s i t i v i t y - :  a sub-class  of Reflexive Unaccusatives,  marked by  -myst  -myst c  M i d d l e v o i c e c l a u s e s , with. Phantom Advancement t o 2 t o 1, and Demotion, where NN  abbreviates  Non-Nuclear term, and with. -(.a)m  2-^2  59  as a marker o f f i n a l  intrans.itivity:  The. e v i d e n c e  f o r these, r e - e v a l u a t i o n s Is: taken  from  M o r p h o l o g i c a l Markings:, Word Order, R e l a t i v e Clause. Formation, S t r u c t u r e , Animacy and R e l a t i o n a l H i e r a r c h i e s , Question Choice o f form  S i n c a ? / ? i n c a ? k n , Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i o n ,  Logical  Formation, Lexical  I n c o r p o r a t i o n and Q u a n t i f i e r Ban. T h i s chapter i s organized as f o l l o w s . Passive  Section 1  d e a l s with.  c l a u s e s , a r g u i n g f o r a b i - s t r a t a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e Okanagan p a s s i v e .  In s e c t i o n 2 , s i x s u b - c l a s s e s o f U n a c c u s a t i v e and some s u p p o r t i n g evidence  clauses are d i s t i n g u i s h e d  f o r these i s presented.  In s e c t i o n 3 , four;:  a n a l y s e s f o r Middle v o i c e c l a u s e s are examined, a r g u i n g f o r ar-Phantoma r c t o d e a l with, a s e r i o u s problem.  60  Passive  Clauses  Two  universals- of p a s s i v i z a t l o n  characteristic of passivizatlon  A direct object of an active of the 'corresponding'  ii)  The subject  12771..''* These, are  clause is- the (superficial)  of an active  clause is- neither  direct^  the (superficial),  subject  object of the 'corresponding'  passive.  Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e have the f o l l o w i n g  consequence:  In the absence of another rule permitting  some further  be direct object of the clause,  clause is a  intransitive  subject  passive.  nor the (.superficial)  iii)  to.be  i n every language m a n i f e s t i n g tfits-  phenomenon ( P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l  i)  have "Been' c l a i m e d  a passive  nominal to (..superficially)  clause.  Examples o f a p a s s i v e and t h e  'corresponding' a c t i v e  Okanagan a r e : 3a  Si the  sSrtf&cSasqaxa?  trq - n - t - is kick-PFTV-t-S3  horse  The horse k i c k e d t h e b  Si the  sq9l'tmix man  The man 4ac  ' Si  was  the  k i c k e d by the  im  baby  kissthe  P F T  V-t-S3  cSumqs - n - t - am  the  girl  kiss-PFTV-t-PASS  g i r l was  kissed  man-  t  sSnl&cSasqaxa . 7  INSTR  horse  T R M S  .  Si the  xix tm\ w  girl  girl,  xix trrf  The  the  w  horse.  Si  w  Si  cSumqs (' - n -. t ) - s  The baby k i s s e d b  t -  kick-PFTV-t-PASS  sk^q^imalt  sqal'tmlx .  man.  trq - n -  w  T R A N S  Si  by t h e baby.  Si  t  INSTR  sk" q^imalt. w  baby  in  61  The c l a i m made by the u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f pas:s;lyi.zati,on i s that a passive of a passive  construction is: f i n a l l y  intransitive.  Two  analyses  a -monostratal  c o n s t r u c t i o n are. c o n s i s t e n t with, t h i s c l a i m :  a n a l y s i s ; and a h i s t r a t a l analysis-, as- diagrammed below: 5  a  MONOSTRATAL ANALYSIS  h  Evidence i s : given  f i r s t to the e f f e c t that a  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Okanagan i s f i n a l l y is: b i s t r a t a l and i n i t i a l l y  1.1  BISTRATAL ANALYSIS  passive  i n t r a n s i t i v e and s e c o n d l y t h a t i t  transitive,  Person and Number Marking Person and number marking  Passive set  o f s u b j e c t markers, would be used t o mark, person and number o f the The t h i r d person s i n g u l a r marker i s  person p l u r a l i s lx. p r e d i c t i o n i s borne  Ti twtwit the  h  I f the Okanagan  i s f i n a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e , t h e n t h i s p r e d i c t s t h a t the I n t r a n s i t i v e  f i n a l subject.  6a  show f i n a l 1-hood.  PL-boy  The sentences below demonstrate  but the t h i r d that  out:  cf-'To - n - t - im bite-PFTV-t-PASS  lx P3  I W T R  T i t kWTap. INSTR  The hoys were b i t t e n by t h e  dog.  Ti sox  trq - n - t - im  w  0  - wTl - wTlq^m  the. a g e n t i v e - P F p o l i c e m a n T  kick-PFTV-t-PASS  dog  be. P 3  T I M T T O  IN  The policeman were  kicked.  in  this  62  1.2  Word Order Only the. f i n a l  shown i n s e c t i o n 2 . I . U ,  au.15je.ct can be. topi.cali.zed i n Okanagan, as-  Chapter  Two.  This- f a c t p r o v i d e s an  means: o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the f i n a l Ta  k Tnun.tam The  "°  Tj  w  salmon was  i scVTin  ?  scVTjn  k Tnuntam  Ti  w  additional  subject i n a Passive construction:  Ti  t  caught b y the:  was-  sqal tmix . ,  w  man, t  sqal tmlx . ,  w  The. salmon was- caught by the. man. c  *  Ti  t  sqal'tm£x  w  k Tnuntam w  Tj  scVTln.  These f a c t s o f word o r d e r provide, evidence t h a t t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t o f the. 'corresponding' a c t i v e is- the. f i n a l 1 i n the Okanagan P a s s i v e and the. s u b j e c t o f the. ' c o r r e s p o n d i n g ' a c t i v e is: not t h e f i n a l  s u b j e c t i n the  Passive.  1.3  R e l a t i v e Clause  Formation  In Okanagan, r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s -may Is: and 2s, as was  o n l y be. formed on  shown i n section.'.211.3, Chapter  Two,  downstairs;  This fact  provides  evidence, t h a t a P a s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s s u p e r f i c i a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e , with, t h e a g e n t i v e nominal b e a r i n g n e i t h e r a 1 - r e l a t i o n nor a 2 - r e l a t i o n i n the final 8a  stratum: wik. C  _  n - t } - n  see-PFTV-t-Sl Ti  t  INSTR  _ TRANS  Ti  scwTln  the. salmon  k T n u - n - t - sm w  COMPo catch.-PFTV-t-PASS  sqal'tmlx™. man  :  1 saw t h e salmon t h a t was h  Ti  •*.".. \gXkni I saw the man  Ti  sqal'tmix  caught by the w  Ti  man.  k Tnuntam w  t h a t t h e salmon was.- caught  by.  Ti  scwTin.  63  9a  Sixi?  t  kkv^ap  that  a dog  ?t COMP  ti^q - n - t - .tm  t  krck-PF'LV-t.-PASS  ttwit.  INSTR  boy  That's- a dog t h a t was- k i c k e d b y the. hoy. b  *  Six.1?  t  ttw'it  ?i-ktfSp  S i trqntim  p i t } .  That' s the boy t h a t the. dog was k i c k e d by, c  *  Sixi  7  Si t  ttwit  S i , tr'qntim  Si  kkvfSap.  T h a t ' s b y t h e boy t h a t t h e dog was- k i c k e d by-.  1.4 '  I n s t r u m e n t a l Case. Marking: ' A Job i s L o s t The a g e n t i v e nominal  i n a Passive, i n Okanagan is: -marked with.,  t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l case, p r e p o s i t i o n :  Si t.  I t i s not unusual  language, t o s e l e c t t h i s : case, t o mark. the. a g e n t i v e nominal  Russian, 10  for a  i n a Passive,  f o r example., does so:  Etot  zavod  b y l postroen  this  f a c t o r y was  inostrannymi  PFTV-bulld  foreigh.  rabocimi. "  w  o  r  k  e  r  a I  W  S  T  R  U  M  E  W  T  AL  T h i s f a c t o r y was. b u i l t by f o r e i g h workers.  Okanagan: n a  Si the  tl&ntbr woman  sSiw  C  - n - t ) - s  as&VP.FTV-t»S3TRANG  Si T H E  ttw'it.  -  The woman asked the boy. b  S i ttwit  sSiw - n - t - am  S i t _ tklmilx".  the  ask-PFTV-t-PASS  INSTR  boy  woman  The boy was asked by the woman. That t h e a g e n t i v e nominal  i s marked with, one  6f> t h e o b l i q u e cases i s  c o n s i s t e n t with, the u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e P a s s i v e , i n which, the. i n i t i a l 1 i s demoted t o non-term and is; n e i t h e r a 1 n o r a 2 i n t h e  6h  final  stratum.  T h i s nominal i s termed a chomeur.  12  The.Chomeur Condition:  Stated formally, .2  ( P e r l m u t t e r and ' p o s t a l  If some nominal stratum S'.. i  and  some other nominal il/ b  in the following i n S  U  r  Bears a given term relation  stratum S\  r  same term  bears- the  Chomeur  then  relation relation  .  as a term i n any  Aspect  in a given  bears- the  S t a t e d i n f o r m a l l y , t h e chomeur has l o s t h i s job. and may  1.5  12.771  successive  not h o l d a p o s i t i o n  stratum.  and T r a n s i t i v i t y Marking The  head o f t h e p r e d i c a t e phrase  marked by a - t ,  preceded  by e i t h e r an -n  i n an Okanagan P a s s i v e i s  f o r P e r f e c t i v e aspect  l e s s f r e q u e n t l y an - S f o r I m p e r f e c t i v e a s p e c t .  or  These markings p r o v i d e  ah a d d i t i o n a l argument based on s i m p l i c i t y f o r a "••M.stratal s t r u c t u r e for  13a  the Passive c o n s t r u c t i o n .  k ? i - n - t - 3m  Ti  w  take-PFTV-t-PASS The b  These markings; are e x e m p l i f i e d below:  the  p l a y - IMPF-t-PASS The baby was  Ti  salmon  salmon was. taken by my  ?Tick(n) - s - t - am  scwTln  Ti the  t  Tin - l^iw.  INSTR  my-male' s;. dad  father, sk^qMmalt  Ti  : baby  t  xix tm\  INSTR  w  girl  b e i n g p l a y e d w i t h by the: g i r l .  I f t h e P a s s i v e i s t a k e n t o be. m o n o s t r a t a l , t h e r e is; no p r e s e n t i n the r e l a t i o n a l network and the r u l e statements marking and  -n/  -S  Two,  f o r both- '.-t  a s p e c t u a l marking are c o m p l i c a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y .  Under a b i s t r a t a l a n a l y s i s , t h e r u l e o f l'.'7.2, Chapter  2-arc  p.  -t  i s as f o l l o w s . ( s e e s e c t i o n  38 f o r c o n d i t i o n s on t h i s  rule):  ih  -t marking: The morpheme - t  marks the presence  of an initial  2 in some stratum S.. which remains- a distinct same and in successive  final  stratum  nuclear  or advancee term in the  .  Under a m o n o s t r a t a l analysis--, .:>.a statement srucnr-,as: *astthec"following must be  ihr.  added t o the  above r u l e :  The morpheme - t  is also present  However, i f the. P a s s i v e is- t a k e n t o be needs t o be  added t o ther> r u l e  in a passive  construction.  b i s t r a t a l , no  additional  f o r the  Under a b i s t r a t a l analysis-, m a r k i n g <5<f  15  -n/-S  Perfective  or Imperfective  to de the verbal XU  Perfective  However, i f the  page. 31).'•  or  -s  'Imperfective '• is marked  phrase of a clause, where 'head'" 'isrtaken  2-arc which- is. a 1-arc term arc;  term arc in the final  stratum;  or  in  otherwise  or advancee 2-arc which and  if there is no Dative or Phantom arc. i.-.c,_ a statement such, as the  following  one  must  above r u l e :  or Imperfective  of a predicate register  obligatory-  1.7.1, Chapter Two,  if there is an initial  Under a / m o n o s t r a t a l a n a l y s i s ,  15'  f o r the.  marking:  if there is an initial  (iii)  added t o the  rule  root:  Cii)  is a nuclear  be  the  stratum with no other nuclear  obligatorily  statement  marking.  'Perfective'  on the head of a predicate  the final  -t  Is- as- follows:: (from s e c t i o n  The morpheme -n  optionally  "one.  aspect is obligatorily  phrase in a Passive  of an initial  Dative  construction,  marked on the head if there is no  object.  P a s s i v e i s : t a k e n t o be b i s t r a t a l , no  additional  statement  66;  needs t o be added t o t h i s ^ r u l e l s t a t e m e n t r i e i t h e r .  Thus:, t h e s e markings-  and  t h e i r r u l e statements: p r o v i d e support f o r a b i s t r a t a l a n a l y s i s : f o r the P a s s i v e i n Okanagan.  1.6  ' Thematic R e l a t i o n s : Both, b i s t r a t a l and m o n o s t r a t a l analyses: r e q u i r e a rule.  t h e assignment  o f thematic r o l e s .  Consider ahoactiye t r a n s i t i v e  for  sentence  below:  16  qS^Ta - n - t - is  Ti  chew--PFTV-t-S'3  the:  The boy  TRANS  .  ttwit boy  Ti, qqwalx. k  the  fish.  chewed t h e fish..  In the. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 16,  the. boy must be i n t e r p r e t e d as the. chewer  and the. f i s h , as the. chewed.  Ih the c o r r e s p o n d i n g P a s s i v e below, t h e  r o l e s : o f t h e boy and the. f i s h , remain the- s:ame.  In g e n e r a l , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t  r o l e s : (.thematic relations-), o f t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e A c t i v e and the o b l i q u e i n t h e P a s s i v e are.  t h e same, and so are. the. p a r t i c i p a n t r r o l e s  (thematic  r e l a t i o n s ) , o f the. d i r e c t o b j e c t o f t h e A c t i v e and t h e s u b j e c t o f the P a s s i v e .  17  q^cf'Tb - n - t - im chew-PFTV-t—PASS  Ti qqwalx the  The f i s h , was: chewed by t h e  fish.  Ti  t  ttwit.  INSTR  boy  boy.  I f thematic r o l e s are a s s i g n e d with, t h e i n i t i a l  stratum, t h e n a b i s t r a t a l  a n a l y s i s f o r t h e P a s s i v e , with, an i n i t i a l t r a n s i t i v e stratum,  identical  t o the. i n i t i a l  stratum,  stratum o f the corresponding a c t i v e t r a n s i t i v e  adequately captures the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f a c t s ,  with, o n l y one; assignment  thematic r e l a t i o n s In t h e I n i t i a l stratum..-  T h i s a v o i d s a s s i g n i n g the  ' p a t i e n t ' r o l e t o the' s u b j e c t and t h e 'agent' r o l e t o t h e OBL Pass ive:: which, would be n e c e s s a r y under a m o n o s t r a t a l  analysis.  o f the-  of  •67  18  a  ACTIVE TRANSITIVE CLAUSE C =  b. PASSIVE CLAUSE C - 1 7 1  161  ttwit  1.7  i  q c  *  w o l x  P o s t i n g t h e BansThe Animacy H i e r a r c h y  (see s e c t i o n 1,5,  .-|  The Animacy H i e r a r c h y  Animate  >  t h a t t h e Passive,  transitive.  ranks: common nouns:, p l a c i n g a l i m i t a t i o n  on what can hear t h e s u b j e c t r e l a t i o n  Human >  Chapter Two! .  provides- evidence  o f Okanagan i s a b i s t r a t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n i t i a l l y  19_  ?  i n a a c l a u s e with, a t r a n s i t i v e  stratum:  Inanimate,  Okanagan draws a l i n e between Animate and Inanimate, p r o h i b i t i n g inanimate s u b j e c t s and p e r m i t t i n g o n l y animate, ones- i n c l a u s e s with, a t r a n s i t i v e stratum.  However, inanimate s u b j e c t s a r e p e r m i t t e d  intransitive  20a  i n c l a u s e s with, o n l y  strata:  Vi p^uk^la? sal't. The h a l l  Is/was- l o s t .  saft  ?i  p"Suk la?. w  68  21a  Ti xafot cq'aq'. The  rock/is/was h i t .  cq'aq'  The  Animacy H i e r a r c h y  preferring a Vhistratal  be  i s permissible  x&ut  provides: an a d d i t i o n a l argument f o r  a n a l y s i s over a m o n o s t r a t a l a n a l y s i s .  a n a l y s i s : with, o n l y an i n t r a n s i t i v e subject  Ti  s t r a t u m p r e d i c t s , t h a t an  i n a Passive  inanimate  c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n c e a P a s s i v e would "  i n t r a n s i t i v e t h r o u g h o u t , whereas a b i s t r a t a l a n a l y s i s w i t h  transitive  s t r a t u m p r e d i c t s t h a t an inanimate f i n a l  permissible out,  i n a Passive  Ti the The  b  23a  h  2ka  construction.  an  initial  s u b j e c t i s not  T h i s l a t t e r p r e d i c t i o n i s borne  as i l l u s t r a t e d below where a P a s s i v e with, inanimate f i n a l s u b j e c t  an i n t r a n s i t i v e  22a  A monostratal  final  ttwit  s t r a t u m i s ungrammatical.  trq - n - t - is  boy  Ti  kick-PFTV-t-S3, TRANS  boy k i c k e d the  x£x tm\ w  the  girl  girl,  Ti xix tnf  trq - n - t - im  Ti  the  girl  kick-PFTV-t-PASS  INSTR  The  g i r l was  Ti  ttwit  The  boy  w  k i c k e d by the  trqntis  k i c k e d the  Ti kkWTap trqntim The  dog was  Ti  ttwit  The  boy  Ti kkvAap. dog.  Ti  t  k i c k e d by the  trqntis  k i c k e d the  boy.  Ti ball.  ttwit. boy.  pTuk^a?.  t  ttwit. boy  in  69"'  b  25a.  *Si pSuk la?  tr'qntim Si  The b a l l was  k i c k e d by t h e  w  t hoy.  cq" - n - t - i n  Si x&*ut.  hit-PFTV-t-Sl  the  T R M g  ttwit.  rock  I h i t t h e rock,  b  *Si x*ut the  ccf - n - t - im.  rock  hit-PFTV-t-PASS  The r o c k was.ihit. T h i s p r o v i d e s evidence t h a t the P a s s i v e i s b i s t r a t a l , with, an i n i t i a l transitive  stratum, as r e p r e s e n t e d below i n t h e r e l a t i o n a l  network  of:.24b: 26  P  Si  t  ttw'it  can be p o i n t e d out t h a t 1 9 b (of Chapter motivates  It  with. 2 5 a - b above differently  ? i  p. 2 9 ) when c o n t r a s t e d  Two,  ' t r e a t i n g t h e Chpmeur and an  Instrumental  even though t h e case marking i s t h e same. Although, not a p p a r e n t l y germane t o t h e argument, Passives: i n  Okanagan cannot  27a  occur with a f i r s t  ?Sick(n) - s - t - am  Si sk^q^imalt  p l a y - IMPF - t - PASS The baby was  b  or second p e r s o n  the  baby  p l a y e d with, by t h e  * ?Sick(n)stam The baby was  Si sk cf im9lt v  w  p l a y e d with, by  Si  chomeur.  t  INSTR  girl,  Sj you.  t  S nwi?. a  xlx tm\ w  girl  TO  c  * ??ick(n)stam  Ti skS^lmglt  Tj t Tinea?.  The baby was p l a y e d w i t h by me.  d  ?  Tick(n)st9m  Ti sk' q im9lt w  Tj t cniic.  v  The baby was p l a y e d w i t h by him/her.  e  * ?T-ick(n)st9m  Tinea?  Tj t Tgnwi?.  I was p l a y e d w i t h by you.  f  * ?TickCn)st9m  ffsnwi?  Tj t Tj ca?. n  You were p l a y e d w i t h by me. This a d d i t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n  does not seem t o have c. b e a r i n g  on t h e  argument t h a t t h e P a s s i v e i s b i s t r a t a l .  1.8  Question  Formation  Question Formation o b l i q u e and n u c l e a r terms. questioned, t h i s  with,  swit d i s t i n g u i s h e s between f i n a l  When an o b l i q u e , non-chomeur o b j e c t i s b e i n g  i n t e r r o g a t i v e i s preceded  as i n c_, e_ below.  by a case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n  I f a n u c l e a r t e r m i s b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d , no case-marking  p r e p o s i t i o n appears,  as i n a_,b_ below.  I f t h e nominal b e i n g  questioned  i s not t h e s u b j e c t i n t h e f i n a l stratum, t h e nominal s u b j e c t o f t h e ' 3  lower  c l a u s e i s r a i s e d i n t o t h e upper c l a u s e , as I n b_, c_, e_ below.  28a  swit who  T i ks - ?T q^ - - a?x 9  COMP  UNR-scrape-face-INCEP  Who's- g o i n g t o shave  b  swit who  s  Ti stgmtima?  w  ?  again  next?  Ti sTiw ( - n - t ) - s ?.  t h e grandmother COMP  Who d i d the. granmother ask? c  nix  ask-PFTV-t-S3MT3A11T0.  71  c  k"l swit to  S i ttw'it  who  S i qicalx  t h e hoy  COMP r u n  To whom d i d the hoy run?  d  * swit  S i ttwit  e  t l ' swit  S i ttwit  from  t h e hoy  who  S i qicalx  (k*l) ?.  kSi yalt ? COMP  run. away  From whom d i d the hoy r u n away?,  f  * swit  S i ttwit  kSi yalt  (tr*) ? swit. provides: evidence  In a P a s s i v e , an i n t e r r o g a t i v e with.  t h a t t h e p a s s i v e agent i s n o t an o b l i q u e o b j e c t s i n c e i t i s not q u e s t i o n e d w i t h a case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n : l i k e an I n s t r u m e n t a l ,  T h i s shows t h a t a Chomeur i s not t r e a t e d  a f a c t e x p l a i n e d by the b i s t r a t a l a n a l y s i s , b u t  r e q u i r i n g an a r b i t r a r y statement i n t h e m o n o s t r a t a l  29_a  analysis.  swit  S i x a l i t - n - t - am  Sj t Sj( ) - stamtima? ?  who  COMP  INSTR  n  call-PFTV-t-PASS  my-grandmother  Who was i n v i t e d by my grandmother?  b  swit who  S i cSumqs - n - t - am COMP  kiss-PFTV-t-PASS  Sj t sk^cf'-'imalt ? INSTR  baby  Who was: k i s s e d by the baby?  c  swit  S i sk^q^imalt  who  t h e baby  kSi cSunfqs - n - t - am ? COMP  kiss-PFTV-t-PASS  Who was t h e baby k i s s e d b y ?  d  * S i t swit  S i sk^q^imalt  k.?i, cSunfqsntam ?  e  swit  S i Sj(n) - stomtima kSi  who  t h e my-grandmother  ?  Xalit - n - t - am ?.  COMP  call-PFTV-t-PASS  Who was my grandmother i n v i t e d b y ?  f  * S i t swit  S i Si(n) - stamtima'? kSi Xalitntam ?  72  I t may  "be c o n c l u d e d from t h e evidence based on Person  and  Number Marking, Word Order, R e l a t i v e Clause Formation, I n s t r u m e n t a l Case Marking, Aspect and T r a n s i t i v i t y Marking, Thematic H i e r a r c h y , and Question Formation w i t h is bistratal, i n i t i a l l y  transitive  2  Unae c usat i ve C l aus e s  2.1  The B a s i c C l a i m  R e l a t i o n s , Animacy  swit t h a t the P a s s i v e i n Okanagan  and f i n a l l y  intransitive.  The b a s i c c l a i m o f t h e U n a c c u s a t i v e H y p o t h e s i s ( P e r l m u t t e r 1978)  i s that:  30  Certain  -intransitive  clauses  have an initial  2 but no initial  1.  T h i s can be e x e m p l i f i e d f o r English.:  31a  Sasquatch exists.  b  pS^  2  exists The F i n a l 1 Law  Sasquatch  ( P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l 1 9 7 8 a ) p r e d i c t s t h a t :  c l a u s e s with, f i n a l U n a c c u s a t i v e s t r a t a and r e q u i r e s advancement t o 1.  are not w e l l - f o r m e d i n any  The r e l a t i o n a l network 31b above, is-  diagrammed i n accordance with, the F i n a l 1  Law.  U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e s d i f f e r from  Passive clauses i n that  stratum c o n t a i n i n g the 2-arc i n the P a s s i v e a l s o c o n t a i n s a 1-arc, although, advancement-to-1 o c c u r s i n b o t h t y p e s o f c l a u s e s .  32a  language  The berries were eaten by Sasquatch.  were eaten  by Sasquatch  the  73  I n i t i a l l y U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e s c o n t r a s t with, i n i t i a l l y c l a u s e s , which have an i n i t i a l  33a  1 h u t no i n i t i a l 2:  Sasquatch plays at night.  b  \1" Sasquatch  plays  At  h  that  -initial  from  language  that  there  vs  c  to  exist  clauses  in all  of  clauses  that  there  (Perimutter  Unaccusativity  Unergativity  such  at night  l e a s t t h r e e degrees o f s t r e n g t h o f t h e U n a c c u s a t i v e  Hypothesis: can he d i s t i n g u i s h e d 3^a  Unergative  exist  vs  Unergativity  varies  unpredictably  language; principles for  which  certain  languages which  predict  classes and that  vary  initial  of  Unaccusativity  initially  there  exist  intransitive another  class  unpredictably;  universal  principles  Unaccusativity  vs Unergativity  clauses  languages;  in all  1978):  for  without  which all  predict  initially  initial intransitive  variation.  The b a s i c i d e a i s t h a t p r e d i c a t e s w i t h e q u i v a l e n t meaning t o those c i t e d i n E n g l i s h , below w i l l behave t h e same way with, r e s p e c t t o i n i t i a l U n a c c u s a t i v i t y vs U n e r g a t i v i t y . of  i n t r a n s i t i v e predicates with respect t o i n i t i a l  Unaccusativity i n English 35  The f o l l o w i n g i s a tentative  (Perimutter  classification  U n e r g a t i v i t y vs  1978):^  I n i t i a l Unergatives: a. w i l l e d o r v o l i t i o n a l a c t s , ex., work., p l a y , s m i l e , frown, think., m e d i t a t e , walk, s k i p , r u n , hammer, p r a y ; manner-of-speaking  v e r b s , i . e . , w h i s p e r , shout, grumble,  sounds made b y animals:, i . e . , r o a r , bark., neigh.;  blurt out,  b. i n v o l u n t a r y b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s : 36  Initial  cough., sneeze, burp, vomit, c r y , s l e e p .  Unaccusatives:  a. P r e d i c a t e a d j e c t i v e s ; b. P r e d i c a t e s whose i n i t i a l ex., burn, f a l l ,  n u c l e a r term i s s e m a n t i c a l l y a P a t i e n t :  f l o a t , s l i d e , t r i p , hang, dangle, shake, e t c . ;  i n c h o a t i v e s : m e l t , f r e e z e , r o t , germinate, dry  up, vanish., e t c . ;  c.  P r e d i c a t e s o f e x i s t i n g and happening:  choke, b l u s h , b u r s t ,  e x i s t , happen, t r a n s p i r e ,  o c c u r , take p l a c e , a r i s e , show up, d i s a p p e a r , end up, e t c . ; d.  Non-voluntary  s t i m u l i on t h e senses:  s h i n e , glow, snap, c r a c k l e ,  smell, stink, etc.;  2.2  e.  Aspectual predicates:  b e g i n , s t a r t , s t o p , cease, c o n t i n u e , e t c . ;  f.  D u r a t i v e s : l a s t , remain,  stay, survive, etc.  The P r o p o s a l f o r Okanagan The purpose  o f the d i s c u s s i o n here, isr t o e s t a b l i s h , a c l a s s o f  p r e d i c a t e s d e t e r m i n i n g i n i t i a l U n a c c u s a t i v e s t r a t a i n Okanagan.  Although,  not at i s s u e h e r e , i t can be noted from the many examples o f Okanagan throughout  t h i s work., t h a t membership i n the two b r o a d classes: o f  initial  U n a c c u s a t i v e s vs Unergatives- i s not i d e n t i c a l i n E n g l i s h , and Okanagan and thus t h e s t r o n g e s t form o f the U n a c c u s a t i v e H y p o t h e s i s cannot  be.  supported. At l e a s t at  least  tentatively  s i x s u b - c l a s s e s o f Unaccusatives: may  i n Okanagan» • These .,clas.ses--with; r e s p e c t <to • i n i t i a l  U n a c c u s a t i v i t y are based m o s t l y on m o r p h o l o g i c a l grounds, semantic  be. d i s t i n g u i s h e d  with  additional  d i v i s i o n s and, where known, s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o  the R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ; o t h e r w i s e , t h e s e c l a s s e s are on semantic  grounds.  distinguished  75'-  37  I n i t i a l l y U n a c c u s a t i v e P r e d i c a t e s i n Okanagan A:  the Final  Consonant Reduplication  whose initial  nuclear  Tncfixx  fried,  naq^cf"  class, which includes  term is semantically  frying  a Patient:  xalitt  called, invited  stolen  cx ax  he  klpp  pinched  pTlaTl  cq^acf"  C r y  d/aw*  pour/gush o u t  Tnskpip  c r a c k e d (eggs)  Tnxwaw'  go d r y , d r y up  ml'al'  bleed, bleeding  TnswaW*  evaporate  ccfacf  he h i t  q^aypp  p a n t s s l i p p i n g down x ^ l a ^ l  B: the - t  w  w  spilt  grow  (plants)  dead  SG  class,  predicates  • dm ckak  burnt,  fire  count,  counted  come t o l i f e , b o r n , r e c o v e r  which includes- predicates  having stative meaning,  including j incrementals: BI xast V  v **  good .  xxasat  heautiful  cfast  had  cfcjasat  ugly  pypayt  happy,  lively  get b e t t e r  cfstwil'x  get w o r s e , more s p o i l t  pypytwilx get  k caMact  j-w ^wV tw£]5c  xadt  xacftwil'x  w  strong, hard (animate) s t r o n s t r o n g (inanim)  xastwilx  *'axt  paxpaxt  cc  3c  livelier get s t r o n g e r , h a r d e r (anim)  get s t r o n g e r , h a r d e r  fast  ft'axtwil'x get  full  cfTc'twiTjc get f u l l e r  smart  pxpxtwil'x get smarter  (inanim)  faster  w  sysytwil'x get b e t t e r ( a t s p o r t o r game)  76  B2:  those  sal't  lost  y?ax t w  which  occur  as Relational  (around where the geography  fall in  tait  trustable, straight,  tfiSl't  ripped  >  <  >  BS:  AS;  see  Chapter  Four.  is. known)  fall off  i ny i ax t  l  Class  w  those  which occur  true  as Relational  Class  B; see  Chapter  Four._  lSimt  glad  yalt  mil't  visit  lAk^isst  he  Saymt  he mad  qw Vlqw£?it  talkative  iipt  forget  a  B4:  those  for which occurrence  Relational  ^cxapt  construction  in a transitive  run away jealous  construction  is unknown.  iaqit  stretched  C^fex ^"ax t p a r a l y z e d (human)  tntant  taut, tight  ntfa^t  broken  crcert  stretched  Sayt  q^ilt  back-packed  su?lt  t i r e d (from inactivity) t i r e d (from activity) f r o z e n (anim)  "uxt  f r o z e n (inanim).  cfilt  sick  k"int  a f r a i d , worried  cfrlcjfelt  aching  kinkant  dangerous  xSsrxSrt  w a s t i n g time  qSj/q^iy't calm, no wind  i^aq't  wide  qalt  green, f r e s h , u n r i p e  nix t  deep  plait  thick  nwlst  high.  ?nlMt"?apt  xar"xar*t  steep  x q* x ~*8q* t tidy:; i n o r d e r  x 5*i.t.  l o t s , many  tfaxt  w  Sayx'-'t  w  w<  grow (human), PL w  (pelt)  (human)  x alx alt alive w  w  w  w  w<  shallow  w  sweet  or a  77  BS:  those which include predicates of involuntary process.  xn'umt  hurt  Akyinit  ?niamt  coughed  t?it?i?ak t  q q ?Imt  burped  x  4?act  b r u i s e d up  k^nk^anfat  pitiful  hungry  <$x c(sQC't  show o f f  w  w  ??ilx t w  B'6  cry w  w w9 x  9 t t  w  p L  fight awful  Predicates which permit semantic extension , to notions 'to begin to ' and 'around/back & forth'. ;  x ?ist w  x  amble, walk,  w9 w<rj ax  C:  st  stroll  amble around, back & f o r t h .  x Tix ?ast  b e g i n t o walk  <u?ak t  begin t o crawl  TamTut  begin t o s i t  q^a^lq^Tlat  b e g i n t o be t a l k a t i v e  w  w  w  Predicate adjectives, including inchoatives and colours, with someoverlap with the - t class.  Cl  kiyt qw9 qw9 U  9c  cold  (weather)  TncVai  getting cold  (weather)  cold  (human)  kVt  getting cold  (human)  warm  (weather)  q ?bc  g e t t i n g warm (weather)  q ?acwiix  get  q^^uc  getting f a t  cf^acwlTjc  get  w  w  q^uct  fat  warmer  fatter  cTwcTaw't  clean  c'SW  turning  clean  nTacf  rotten  n^acf  getting  rotten  wTik'  shiny -  w^ik  turning  shiny  q^il'  wilt  q^ii'  wilting •  Waft  warm (house, human)  k^al'  g e t t i n g warm (house, hum  k^al'st  be warming  y?at  falling  5  apart  78  p"?ix  bright  pYax  C*?aqt  sour  cVaq  turning  X?al  c l e a r (weather, glass)  x^al  c l e a r i n g up  piq  white  p^q  p^a  grey  p?a  t u r n white from t h e sun, sun-bleached faded  q*w?ay  blue  q ?a.y  turning  c^ax  red  c?aX  turning red  di/  dark  x ?*al  be i n a h u r r y  k ri?  yellow-  kVa?  get  p*?um  brown  klkVo?  get crowded out  qcf ay*  multi-coloured  Wil  orange  q ?in  green  w  w  w  C2; w  w  dawning, g e t t i n g l i g h t  w  w  Predicates  t"iq* lq  w  without known inchoative  sour  blue  stuck  form.  tall  pfyaq*  ripe  nXil  scared  til  straight  tf?ik  young  wisxn  long  tfitfimu*  lazy  xaxi?  mixed up  (linear)  k"ik*l?ak"l?a m?ul (always) j.ealous (over w i f e ) ?  Ipiptul  forgetful  k ?a k ?a?mui  easy t o get used t o  w  ?  ciax  w  w  holey  clx liX ' w  S G  v  holey  p L  yaya^k^a? stin'gy  p^wpSwalx drummingI, b a n g i n g  qiwlx  old  s^ysSy^alx  noisy  nir  smooth, ( s u r f a c e )  nirnart  compact  pil  flat  milk*"  round, s p h e r i c a l  yir  ring,  round  79:-  D: the vp class, whieh -includes predicates of naturally occurring states; tfs'ap  harden  t^rrap  &*xap  grown up (human)  untangled  Tacap  caught  h'rap  soaked  c - t?rap  running  (water)  k^nap  grabbed  tt^rap  trickle  (water)  k ?alp  l o s e a game  tc^ap  shake, j a r  q ?alap  moldy  q i avp  p a n t s way down  c??nap  get  lf?l'ip  ripped  x cap  broken  sal'p  twisted  w  w  w  (by i t s e l f )  w<  tight (arrow)  >  XnmSap  broken (eggs: & othert??ap d e l i c a t e things:) Snsl'ipiost. l o s t (where geogra-^ t V s p phy i s unknown). ?amap melt qwSap  dirty getting  dirty  slip  itfap  bounce up ,  q ?ap  iifpt  bounce, up  it^ap  s l i p p i n g , sliding (involuntary) bounce o f f  **Slap  stop.  •bounce u p ^ ^  iaiitfpt  E:  bounce u p  I T E R j  g ( }  p  L  Aspectual and durative predicates.  tial  F:  w  or  i^uwin  start  Reflexive Unaccusatives, a class- with Reflexive meaning, ending in  /-myst/ [ m i s t ] ,  listed with English and French translations.  ifamyst  hire f o r oneself;  kamysst  be h i r e d ;  t^umyst  buy f o r o n e s e l f ;  X uymyst/ x a y m i s t w  l e f t behind  w  take oneself;  s'engager q.qn. s ' e t r e engager s'acheter s-temener  80  hawKawrif/st  l o o s e n o n e s e l f up;  se  degager,  wTiknnyst  hide oneself;  se  cacher  se  cacher i c i et la,  se  raider  hide oneself  lTrmist  -. -, faint'.; r i g i d  oneself;  ak myst  t a k e , check, o n e s e l f i n ;  s:'e n t r e r ,  timist  straighten oneself;  se  s?aymyst  noisy  ?  2.3  around;  w  (  s'etirer  s'enregistrer  redresssr  (anim., l i k e c o y o t e s , kids, y a p p i n g )  S u p p o r t i n g Evidence Evidence f o r f i n a l s u b j e c t h b o d i s a v a i l a b l e from Person/Number  Marking and from T o p i c a l i z a t i o n .  The: c o r r e c t person/number m a r k i n g  c o n s i s t s o f the set o f i n t r a n s i t i v e subject  markers.:  38  kn  xalitt.  I was  39  k  pypayt.  You're happy.  1+0  0  ?uxt.  It's  1+1  ku  1+2  ^y&ap  1+3  wTik^myst lx.  w  l&ykiy t.  w  b  45a b  45a b  4?a b  sTaymyst  ?!  ?i  Tj  ?i  be t o p i c a l i z e d  snk*Lip.  p*njk la? w  2 . 1 . 4 , Chapter Two),  The coyote i s n o i s y .  The b a l l bounces  up and down.  it&atap.  ?i xix tnf.  xix trrf w  (cf. section  s^aymyst. w  q^Tucwil'x ?i  They h i d t h e m s e l v e s . '  ? i p*?uk la?.  tfiq^lq"  frozen.  You-guys are grown up.  snklip  itftatap  invited.  We're c o l d .  p.  Only a f i n a l s u b j e c t may  44a  c a l l e d . / I was  w  The g i r l i s t a l l .  t5q lq . v  w  ? i ttwit.  ttwqt q^ucwil'x.  The. boy got  fatter.  81  48a  ?Tilx t  b 49a  Ti  w  Tj  Tj  Tj  H i s buddy i s hungry.  Wilx*t.  sl'axt - s  paxpaxt  b  sl'axt - s.  sqilx .  The  w  Indian/person/man i s smart.  s q i l x _ - paxpaxt. w  L i m i t e d evidence f o r i n i t i a l 2-hood f o r a t h e l n a m i n a l i n the B, D, and F su.b-classes phenomena: in a cleft  tentatively  the c h o i c e o f f i r s t  proposed above i s a v a i l a b l e from  person s i n g u l a r pronoun as- head  nominal  c o n s t r u c t i o n and Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i o n .  2.3.1  Choice o f T i n e a ? / T j n c a ? k n C l e f t c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n Okanagan may  s u p e r f i c i a l l y as I)  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d at l e a s t  follows:  a c l e f t b e g i n s w i t h a member o f the s e t o f d e m o n s t r a t i v e s , f r e q u e n t l y  Tixl?  ' t h a t ' C v i s i b l e , non-proximate1,  by t h e complementizer i i ).  two  f o l l o w e d by t h e focus f o l l o w e d  and downstairs c l a u s e ;  the complementizer  Ti ±  s  used and may  o p t i o n a l l y be d e l e t e d ; Ta-  occurs  i n sentence 5 6 ; t h e o t h e r •complementizers- are u n a t t e s t e d ; -  iii)  l i k e the. r e l a t i v e clauses;, Okanagan permits; c l e f t  c o n s t r u c t i o n s on  a downstairs; f i n a l 1 o r 2, but not on a downstairs o b l i q u e o b j e c t ; iv) .  i n a c l e f t , the u p s t a i r s nominal b e a r i n g t h e p r e d i c a t e r e l a t i o n  i s r e s t r i c t e d to the  t  ' n o n - s p e c i f i c ' d e t e r m i n e r , except f o r pronominals-  and properrnames which, do not take, a determiner and f o r a p o s s e s s e d nominal which, requires: the s p e c i f i c  determiner.  (See a l s o s e c t i o n 2.1.3, Chapter Two.?;)) In  a cleft  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v o l v i n g the. f i r s t  person  singular  as head nominal, with, c e r t a i n p r e d i c a t e s d o w n s t a i r s , e i t h e r form o f Tinea?  o r ? i n c a ? k n may  be chosen.  However, i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s : with, c e r t a i n  82  other predicates: downstairs:, only one. o f these may he chosen. I t should he noted that n a t i v e speaker judgments' involved i n t h i s phenomenon are d i f f i c u l t t o make and e a s i l y confusing and that data are s u f f i c i e n t hut sparse. F i r s t o f a l l , the choice is- r e s t r i c t e d t o  Sinca  i n regular  7  t r a n s i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , with, an agentive nominal hearing the f i n a l 1 - r e l a t i o n i n the. downstairs- clause: 50a  Sixi  ?  f  Sinca  | Si  7  Sn - sax^Sa ( - n - t) - n  Si patak.  \* Sinca knJ 7  that  me  COMP  Cont-weigh#PFTV-t-Sl  TRMS  .  the potato  That's me who weighs: the potatoes. h  Tixi? f  Sinca  7  "}Si trq - n - t - i n  Si p*?uk la . w  7  \ * Sinca knJ ?  COMP kick-PFTV-t-Sl  M  the h a l l  g  That's; me who k i c k e d the h a l l , c  Sixi? (( \f  Sinca Sinca  7  7  ""J)l Si cq* - n - t - i n  Si x^ut Si t 'xflfrt.  Sinca^knJ  COMP h i t - P F T y - t - S l  T R A N S  the.  rock. INSTR rock.  That' s me who h i t the rock. with, a rock., d  Sixi? ( Y  Sinca Sinca  77  7  ? i  ?  n  " c*ix ( - n - t ) - n  Si S ?Susa . 7  9  Sinca knJ 7  COMP  C6ht-fry-PFTV-t-Sl  T R M S  the egg  That's: me who f r i e d the eggs. The choice i s a l s o r e s t r i c t e d to Sinca  7  i n a putative  Unergative clause, which, has: an i n i t i a l 1 hut no 2:  '.intransitive  83-.  51a  Tixi?(  Sinca? i*  ]  Si  kn  qicalx  kl  sSntSumystn.  Sinca kn ?  COMP  l j  s  r N  T  u  n  store  t o  R  That's-me who runs- t o the store. The choice i s r e s t r i c t e d t o S i n c a k n  i f the c l e f t  7  r e l a t i v i z e s upon a f i r s t person nominal  construction  hearing the. 2 - r e l a t i o n i n the.  downstairs clause: 52  Sixi  (  7  j*  Sinca?kn") Sinca  Si  k u  s - c - trq- s - t - i s  w  Si  sax^Siqam.  J  7  COMP -me  s-PF-kick-IMPF-t-S3  TRANS  .  t h e policeman  That's- me that the policeman i s k i c k i n g me. A choice o f e i t h e r S i n c a  7  or Sinca kn  can he -made i f the c l e f t  7  construction r e l a t i v i z e s upon a f i r s t person nominal hearing an i n i t i a l  J  2 - r e l a t i o n and a f i n a l 1 - r e l a t i o n i n the downstairs Passive clause; 53  Sixi?  (  S i n c a k n ~)  /  Sinca  7  7  Si  t r q - t - im  Si  t  COMP ki.ck-PFTV-t-PASS  sax^wSicfam.  INSTR  policeman  That's, me. that was. kicked b y the policeman. . Given t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n , i t i s predicted that i n the p u t a t l y e Unaccusatives, a choice of e i t h e r S i n c a  7  or S i n c a k n could be made, 7  r e f l e c t i n g both, grammatical r e l a t i o n s borne b y the r e l a t i v i z e d nominal, a 2 i n the i n i t i a l stratum and a 1 i n the. f i n a l stratum: CLASS B 54a  Sixi Sixi  7  7  f Sinca 1 Si j Sinca kn j 7  kn  sal"t.  7  That's me. who's, l o s t (around here.).. S i xdi  77  ( f Sinca  7  " * * |)i S i k n <  ) Sinca kn V 7  That's me who's mad.  Saymt.  8U-  c  Tixl? ( Tinea?  1 Ti kn qMcft  t qqwoix.:  I Tinca?kh J That's me who's f u l l o f fish..  CLASS* D 55  Tixi?  C Tinea?  1  Ti kn  slip.  C Tinea?kn ^ That's-me who's l o s t  (up high, i n t h e t i m b e r ) .  CLASS F  56  Tixl?  (Tinea?  1  Ta  kn  c - wTlk myst. w  I Tinca?kn 5 That's me who h i d e m y s e l f . This- p r e d i c t i o n i s borne  o u t , p r o v i d i n g support f o r both. the. 2-hood and  t h e 1-hood o f t h e r e l a t i v i z e d nominal o f t h e downstairs: clauses- i n t h e putative Unaccusatlves. '' T h a t of  t h e nominal is: a f i n a l 1 i s : s u p p o r t e d by t h e presence  a s u b j e c t marker (kn,  first  person s i n g u l a r , i n t r a n s i t i v e ) and not  an o b j e c t marker; hence t h e nominal i s a 2 i n t h e p r e v i o u s and i n i t i a l stratum.  2.3.2  Moving In  Glottalizatlon  Chapter Two, s e c t i o n 2.2.1, a rule, o f Moving G l o t t a l l z a t i o n  was s t a t e d and f u l l y e x e m p l i f i e d , as g l o t t a l i z i n g t h e v e r b a l r o o t and suffixes- i f the i n i t i a l  2 o f t h e c l a u s e moved o r v a r i e d .  In the t h i r d  p e r s o n , a l l t h e r e s o n a n t s o f t h e v e r b a l r o o t and s u f f i x e s a r e g l o t t a l t . z e d . In t h e f i r s t  and second p e r s o n , o n l y t h e f i n a l resonant i s g l o t t a l i . z e d . Data a r e a v a i l a b l e from o n l y two classes: o f p u t a t i v e  U n a c c u s a t i y e s , with, r e s p e c t t o Moving G l o t t a l i z a t l o n :  85  CLASS D 57a  kn SI  b.  I bounce. INTR  4t*Jap - irf - n - cut.  kn SI  bounce  INTR  I bounce myself up and down.  7  bounce-REL/2-PFTV-REFL  CLASS F 58a  k u w  P 1  howfcaw' -  INTR  rd/st.  loosen.up-UNACCUS  haWfiaw* - mVst  kn S 1  b  REFL  Ix.  loosen.up-UNACCUS  59a  We l o o s e n ourselves, up.  REFL  They l o o s e n themselves up. P3  J N T R  w?ik - myst.  I h i d e myself  w  INTR  (and s t a y p u t ) ,  hide-UNACCUS^^  l'x.  W*iW?ik - nfyst w  REDUP-hide-UNACCUS  REFL  P3  They h i d e themselves,  around  here • and" t h e r e .  I N T R  Thus, Moving G l o t t a l i z a t l o n  a l s o p r o v i d e s evidence  for initial  2-hood and f i n a l 1-hood i n t h e i n t r a n s i t i v e p u t a t i v e U n a c c u s a t i v e  2.4  Representation The  o f Unaccusative  clauses.  Clauses:  structure o f the P l a i n Unaccusatlves  ( C l a s s e s A t h r u E).  i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s t r a t a l diagram a_ below and i n t h e e q u i v a l e n t r e l a t i o n a l network. aj_.  The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e R e f l e x i v e U n a c c u s a t i v e  ( C l a s s F l i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n b , with, t h e e q u i v a l e n t r e l a t i o n a l network, b'. F o r eas.e o f comparison, t h e a g e n t i v e R e f l e x i v e network diagram i s r e p e a t e d below as c_ and c'.  81  3  Middle Clauses: In  in  Okanagan, t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n , known a s t h e 'Middle v o i c e '  Salishan l i n g u i s t i c s ,  i s l o g i c a l l y and i n i t i a l l y  t r a n s i t i v e J hut f i n a l l y  i n t r a n s i t i v e , m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y and s y n t a c t i c a l l y , as e x e m p l i f i e d helow:  6la  kn k^ul" - m Sl , IN i n T  t  yamx a' . w  work-MIDDLE  T m T 3  ?  a basket  I f i x , make a b a s k e t ,  b  kn S1  I  c  Sn - cix - m  INTR  C  o  n  t  -  f  r  y-  M  I  t D  D  L  Sa??usa . ?  E  s  o  m  e  se  e  f r y some eggs,  kn Sl , T 1  txtf - am  look.after-MIDDLE  T r T m  XJM  t ^cx^cap. some P L - e l d e r  i n  I look, a f t e r  elders.  M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y , these are i n t r a n s i t i v e s u b j e c t marker.  i n the choice o f  S y n t a c t i c a l l y , these are a n a l y z e d here a s i n i t i a l l y  t r a n s i t i v e , s i n c e t h e nominals  o f t h e M i d d l e v o i c e bear t h e same  initial  t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s as do t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t c o u n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e a c t i v e  8 v o i c e , t h e i n i t i a l 1 and i n i t i a l 2 :  62a  k^ul' C - n - t ) - n  Si yamx a?. w  make-PFTV-t-Sl^.^  t h e basket  I made t h e b a s k e t .  b  Sn - cix £ - n - t ) - n C V-t-Sl I o fnrti-efdr yt-hPeF Teggs.  txtf - n - t - i n  T R M S  .  Si Sa?Susa?. t h e egg  Si ^oc^xap.  look:. a f t e r - P F T V - t - S l  T R A | J S  I looked a f t e r the elders.  fche  PL-elder  88  However, u n l i k e t h e i r a c t i v e counterparts-, t h e i n i t i a l  2 o f the Middle voice  c o n s t r u c t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r P a s s i v i z a t i o n which promotes a 2 t o a 1, f o r R e l a t i v l z a t i o n which, permits- a r e l a t i v e c l a u s e o n l y upon a downstairs 1 o r 2, o r f o r Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t which, p e r m i t s t h e q u a n t i f i e r •all  1  ySaySa?t  t o f l o a t o f f o f a 1 o r a 2.  PASSIVIZATION  63a  * . Si kwSap  k^ui* - m  the horse  Si t sqsl'tmlx".  work-MIDDLE  INSTR  man  • '"The horse was worked by t h e man.  b  Si kwSap the  k^ul' - n - t - am  horse  Si t sqal'tmix . w  work-PFTV-t-PASS  INSTR  man  The horse was worked b y t h e man.  c  * Si kwSap the.  d  k'Kii" - m - n - t - am ...  horse  work-MIDDLE-PFTV-t-PASS  Si sqal'tmix  w  the  man  k^ul" - n ( - t ) • s  work.-PFTV-t-S3 pjy^g T  Si kwSap. the  horse  The man worked t h e h o r s e . RELATIVIZATION  6k-  * Si ttwit the '.  nitn} C -  boy  eat -  P F T  n - t ) - s  V-t-S3  T R A N S  Si S ?Susa'  ?  3  t h e egg  Si kn COMP S l  The b o y a t e t h e eggs t h a t I f r i e d .  QUANTIFIER FLOAT  65  * Si tk^milx" the. woman  ySaySg?t a l l  tx¥-- am  t *&x*xap.  look.after-MIDDLE  -The woman l o o k s a f t e r a l l t h e e l d e r s .  some P L - e l d e r  I  Sncix - m. N  T  R  fry-MIDDLE  89.  3.1  Four P o s s i b l e AnalysesFour analyses  a) the A n t i p a s s i v e ,  first  are p o s s i b l e f o r the proposed by P o s t a l  s t r u c t u r e o f these  clauses:  (.1976) as a c l a u s a l s t r u c t u r e  e x i s t i n g i n many languages; b) 2 -j. "3  Retreat;  c) Spontaneous Chomage; or d) a.jPhantom Arc  solution.  These are diagrammed below: 66  All  a  ANTIPASSIVE  b  f o u r p o s s i b l e s t r u c t u r e s are i n i t i a l l y  Intransitive. object  The  2-^3  Retreat  Arc  RETREAT  t r a n s i t i v e and  and  solution  The  finally  c l a i m s t h a t the  is: f i n a l l y an i n d i r e c t o b j e c t whereas: the o t h e r two  t h i s nominal i s a 2-chomeur. initial  proposal  2-^3  Antipassive proposal  initial  claim that  claims that  f i n a l 1 i s a l s o a 2 i n an i n t e r v e n i n g stratum.  The  c l a i m s t h a t a non-nuclear term advances t o 2 and  t o 1 w i t h which i t i s n o n - d i s t i n c t .  direct  the  Phantom finally  90  Three arguments- are. p r e s e n t e d i n support o f t h e A n t i p a s s i v e proposal:  S e l e c t i o n o f T i n e a ? / T i n c a ? k n i n s e c t i o n 3.2, L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n  i n s e c t i o n 3.3, Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t i n s e c t i o n 3.4. a s e r i o u s problem  3.2  and proposes- a Phantom Arc  S e c t i o n 3.5 p o i n t s out  solution.  S e l e c t i o n o f Tjnca?/Tinca?kn T h i s t e s t p r o v i d e s evidence t h a t t h e f i n a l 1 i s a 2 i n some,  stratum.  I n s e c t i o n 2.2.2, Chapter Two and s e c t i o n 2.3*1, Chapter  i t was: shown t h a t i n a c l e f t Tinea? (a)  or  Tinca?kn  t o Tinea?  Three,  construction, the selection o f either  a s head nominal was: r e s t r i c t e d a s f o l l o w s :  i n t h e case o f a r e l a t i v i z e d d o w n s t a i r s nominal which,  i s a 1 i n a l l strata; (bi  t o Tinca?fcn  i n t h e case, o f a r e l a t i v i z e d d o w n s t a i r s nominal which,  i s a 2 but i s never a 1; and (c).  t o e i t h e r Tinea?  or  Tinca?kn  i n the. case o f a r e l a t i v i z e d  downstairs-  nominal which, i s both, a 1 and a 2. T h i s p r e d i c t s that i f the f i n a l  s u b j e c t I n a Middle, v o i c e  clause, i s b.oth. a 2 and a 1, as c l a i m e d by t h e A n t i p a s s i v e proposal*- • ;'  e i t h e r Tinea? o r Tinca?kn  would he  s u i t a b l e i n a c l e f t with, a downstairs; M i d d l e v o i c e c l a u s e . 67a  Tixi?  that  f Tinea? ") .. T i 1 Tinca?kn? me  COMP  s  kn  l j  N  T  cTacTayp - m.  R  scream-MIDDLE  T h a t ' s me who screamed. b  Tixi?  [Tinea? 7 ) Tinca?kn I  Ti  COMP  kn  Sl  I B r T R  T;n - s s x ^ T a  - m  Cont-welgh-rMIDDLE  That's: me who weighed some p o t a t o e s .  t  patak.  some p o t a t o  91  c  Tixi?  { Tinea? } Ti ) Tinca?kn3  kn  COMP S l  T  i  m  T  S  1  I  xtf&t.  INSTR rock.  a rock.  Tixi? ^ Tinea? 1 Ti kn Y Tinca?knj COMP  hit-MIDDLE  m  IN IK  That !s me who was h i t w i t h  d  Ti. t  ccf - am  W  T - c x - am w  n  T  t lkTapi.  Cont-pour-MIDDLE some c o f f e e  R  T h a t s me who poured some c o f f e e . 1  Tixi? C Tinea?  e  1  Ti kn  T - cix - m  t  n  T ??usa?. a  Tinca?kn j COMP  S1  Cont-fry-MIDDLE  I N T R  some egg  T h a t ' s me who f r i e d some eggs. T h i s supports; the A n t i p a s s i v e p r o p o s a l a 2 a t an intermediate,  being  The 54}.  no  level.  Chomeur C o n d i t i o n ,  p r e d i c t s t h a t the  with, r e s p e c t t o t h e f i n a l * s u b j e c t  cited  i n foothote.22:, Chapter Two, page  o b j e c t nominal i s f i n a l l y a 2 - c h 3 m e u r ;  however,  s y n t a c t i c e v i d e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e t o support t h i s p r e d i c t i o n .  3.3  Q u a n t i f i e r Ban The  intial  q u a n t i f i e r ban proposed below shows t h a t t h e p u t a t i v e  2 i s not a f i n a l 2 o r a f i n a l 3 .  b y the. q u a n t i f i e r yToyTg?t  'all'.  Both 2 s and 3 s may he m o d i f i e d  The a,c  sentence") e x e m p l i f y  2 - nominal, t h e b sentence a q u a n t i f i e d 3-nominal.  al . q u a n t i f i e d  (.See Chapter F o u r ,  s e c t i o n 1 . 3 f o r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e q u a n t i f i e d nominal i n b bears: t h e 3 - r e l a t i o n . ).  68a  x ic-i -t -s w  give-INDIR-t-SS^ He  y?ay? ?t 9  a l l  Tj sklaw  1  t h e beaver  g i v e a l l t h e money ( t o ) t h e woman.  Ti tkimilx". t h e woman  92  b  kMU' - x - t - n work-BENE-t-Sl  Si s t x l t q  T R A N S  .  ySaySg?t  w  t h e broth.  a l l  sd&iala?.  Si  the c h i l d r e n  I f i x t h e broth, ( f o r ) a l l t h e c h i l d r e n ,  c  #*uf - x - t - n  Sj s d M l a ?  ySaySg?t  Si s t x i t q . w  I f i x a l l t h e c h i l d r e n t h e broth.. However, i n t h e M i d d l e v o i c e c l a u s e , t h e o b j e c t nominal may not be q u a n t i f i e d at a l l . a  2  69a  n o r is: i t a  *  INTR  t h a t t h i s : nominal i s : no l o n g e r  3:  kn  S 1  T h i s provides- evidence  C  S  n  o  n  - cix - m  t  -  f  r  y-  M  I  D  yS Sa?t ^ S i ^ S ?Susa . ?  3y  D  L  E  a  1  3  1  the/some,  egg  I f r y a l l t h e eggs,  b  kn  t  Sncixm  Sq?Susa?.  I f r y some eggs.  70a  *  kn  txt* - am  ySaySg?t ) / *"xx*"xap  I looknafter a l l the elders,  b  kn I  txtam  t  ^xx^cap  .  look, a f t e r some e l d e r s . / I look, a f t e r e l d e r s . The. f a c t s with, r e s p e c t t o Q u a n t i f i e r s show t h a t t h i s i s not  a case o f 2 - ) 3  Retreat.  The facts: with, r e s p e c t t o C l e f t  with., c h o i c e o f Sinca /Sinca kn 7  ?  Construction  show t h a t t h e M i d d l e v o i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n  i n v o l v e s a 1 which, i s a 2 a t some p o i n t , thus, a r g u i n g a g a i n s t Chomage and 2  3  Retreat.  Spontaneous  93  71  ANTIPASSIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE. MIDDLE VOICE CLAUSES OF OKANAGAN  kMilm.  Si  ?i(n)-  stsmtima"  b.'  '  J  Si-,.-, Si(n) - stamtima?  k^ul' - m  the  work-MIDDLE aome PL—basket  my-grandmother  t ym - yamx a . w  ?  My grandmother worked some, basketsr/makes b a s k e t s _ / f i x e s b a s k e t s . The phenomenon o f Q u a n t i f i e r Ban on 2-chomeurs- i s i n f a c t broader.  Data from P a s s i v e s  q u a n t i f i e r ySaySg?t  72a  ?Sick(ji)stam  shows t h a t 1-chomeurs may  not take t h e  'all':  Si sk^q^imalt  Sj  t xxix x tm*. ' w  w  The baby was p l a y e d with>by the. girls:;.,  b  *  ?Sick(n)st9m  I  Si sk^q^imalt f** ySaySg?t ySaySa?t Si Si tt xxix xx] x tm\ w  *  w  Si, , t <'yS yS3?t Si xxix x tm. w  w  3  The baby was p l a y e d with, by a l l the. g i r l s .  73a  ?Sick(n)st3m  Si sk^q^imalt  Sj  t  sdcmala?  The baby was p l a y e d with, by t h e c h i l d r e n ,  b  *  ?Sick(n)stam  Si  s^q^imalt f* / *  ySaySg?t  Si t  sctmala . 7  Si-'t >ySaySa?t Si sc'cmala . ?  The baby was p l a y e d with, by a l l t h e c h i l d r e n . However 2-chomeurs i n a D a t i v e c l a u s e may  take t h e q u a n t i f i e r ySsySg?t  ' a l l ' which p o i n t s t o a d i s t i n c t i o n between the D a t i v e and Middle  c l a u s e types:  94  74  T  n  - dix - x - t - n  Cont-fry-BENE-t-Sl  T R M S  Ti .  %s&ma?.  sdcrnala?  yT yTg?t 9  Tj  the children  a l l  t h e egg.  I f r y the. c h i l d r e n a l l t h e eggs. This- d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l he u s e f u l l a t e r i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e proposed Phantom A r c s o l u t i o n . The in  r e l e v a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n with, r e s p e c t t o Q u a n t i f i e r Ban  Okanagan i s :  75  Quantifier  Ban  The quantifier  yTayTa?t  'all'  is- not -permitted with a  2  2-chdmeur nominal in the Middle voice or a 1—chdmeur. 2.  3.4  L e x i c a l Incorporation L e x i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s evidence t h a t the. p u t a t i v e  i n i t i a l 2 i s n e i t h e r a f i n a l 2 nor a f i n a l a nominal h e a r i n g  3.  In a L o c a t i v e  a Locative r e l a t i o n i n the i n i t i a l  t o 3 ( c f . Chapter 4 , s e c t i o n 3 . 3 f o r e v i d e n c e ) .  construction,  stratum may advance  The b a s i c p a t t e r n i s  e x e m p l i f i e d below: 76a  Ti  ttwit  the  boy  trq- n - t - is  T i xix tnf w  kick PFTV-t-S3„ .„„ T  R  the g i r l  Tj  1  sq^Tgxt.  t h e LOC f o o t  The boy k i c k e d t h e g i r l on t h e f o o t , b  Ti  ttwit  trq- 4 - t - is  the  boy  kick.-INDIR-t-S3  T i xlx tnf w  T R A K S  the g i r l  Tj the  The boy k i c k e d t h e j g i r l on h e r f o o t / t h e g i r l ' s A s m a l l s e t o f nouns .may i n c o r p o r a t e  sq^Taxt - s. f o o t - h i s /her  foot.  i n t o the verb,  although,  t h e l e x i c a l s u f f i x t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s need not have t h e same form as the independent word.  In Chapter Three, s e c t i o n 3 . 3 , i t i s shown t h a t a  nominal b e a r i n g t h e L o c a t i v e r e l a t i o n i n t h e i n i t i a l incorporate  stratum may  optionally  i n t o t h e verb w h i l e b e a r i n g a 3 r e l a t i o n , and moreover may not  95  advance, t o 2 .  This optional incorporation i s exemplified i n the Passives  below which, guarantee t h a t t h e i n i t i a l L o c a t i v e h a s not gone, on t o advance t o 2 s i n c e a P a s s i v e i s : f i n a l l y 77a  T i xix tnf  t r q - 4 - t - im  the  kick-INDIR-t-PASS  w  girl  The b  Tj sqVaxt  - s  Ti t  the foot-his/her  ttwit.  INSTR  boy  g i r l was k i c k e d on h e r f o o t by t h e boy.  T i xix tnf  trq - x n ( - n ) - t - i m  w  the  girl  The 78a  intransitive:  Ti t  kick-foot-PFTV-t-PASS  ttwit.  INSTR boy  g i r l was k i c k e d i n t h e f o o t by t h e boy. - 4 - t - im  T i ttwit  tfq  the  slap-INDIR-t-PASS  boy  w  T j c/Tgsiyaqn  - s  t h e head-hls  Ti t  sqal'tmix"  INSTR man  The boy was s l a p p e d on h i s head by t h e man. b  T i ttwit  tfq  the  slap-head-PFTV-t-PASS  boy  The  w  - i y a q n ( - n ) - t - 9m  Ti t INSTR  sq9l'tmix . w  man  boy was s l a p p e d on t h e head by t h e man.  T h i s o p t i o n a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a nominal b e a r i n g a/.3 r e l a t i o n  contrasts  with, t h e f a c t s f o r a M i d d l e v o i c e c l a u s e , where t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s  obligatory 79a  i f a lexical suffix i s available:  T i ttwit the The  b  *  boy  - sqaxa? - m  k - txilx  w  always:  a l l t h e time, w  -m  boy Dist-curry-MIDDLE  woman  na?ip.  Dist-curry-horse-MIDDLE  T i ttwit  T i tk4milx the  w  boy c u r r i e s horses  the 80a  k - txilx  t  some, h o r s e  k - t x - q i n - m. Dist-comb-hair-MIDDLE  The woman combs h e r h a i r .  sTriAcTgsqaxa?.  9.6  b  *  8la  S i . tklmilx™  k - t x - am  the  Dist-comb-MIDDLE  woman  Si  xix tm"  the  girl  The g i r l b  82a  *  It  - s.  some h a i r - h e r  - m.  c u r l e d h e r own  xix tnf  the  girl  hair.  t - k"Sus - m  w  t  qpqint  - s / t  c"Sos i y a q n  - s.  Dist-curl-MIDDLE some h a i r - h e r / some head-her  i S a q - c a - m. stretch-skin-MIDDLE  UN In T l u r m 3  I'm b  - iyaqn  qpqiiitn  Dist-curl-top.of.head-MIDDLE  Si  kn Sl  t - k^us  w  t  *  s t r e t c h i n g out my kn  iSgq -  SI  ^  t  m  (beaver) p e l t , S j ( n ) - sklw" - i c a ? .  stretch-MIDDLE  some- my-beaver-skin  s h o u l d be noted t h a t i n the examples above, t h a t the o b j e c t nominals are.  not m o d i f i e d  by an a d j e c t i v e .  I f t h e o b j e c t nominal i s m o d i f i e d  a d j e c t i v e , t h e l e x i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n must s t i l l v a l e n t independent words are a l s o 83a  Si the  b  sqal'tmix" man  k^ul" - 4 x  built  *  sqal'tmix"  the  man  o c c u r ; however, t h e  - m  t  silx aS t  a  big  citx  w  a  kl  w  house  Siimlx^.  for  chief  a b i g house f o r the c h i e f ,  iHtf - m  t  silx aS w  t  citx  work-MIDDLE a b i g a house  kl  w  for  Sentence 8 3 a above a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f a c t t h a t l e x i c a l i s not l e x i c a l l y determined s o l e l y by t h e p r e d i c a t e below:  equi-  retained.  work-house-MIDDLE  The man Si  w  by an  Silmix^. chief  incorporation  a s do t h e s e n t e n c e s  9 7  84a  T i tklmilx the  k - tx - 4 - t - i s  w  woman  Dist-comh-ITOIR-t-S3rp  T i qpqintn - s. R  the  hair-her  The -woman comhs- h e r h a i r , b  T i cfTasiyaqn - s the  head her T  t - k*Tus- - 4 - t - am  Ti t  Dist-curl-IEDIR-t-PASF  Her head was- c u r l e d by- t h e  xix tm\ w  INSTR  girl  girl.  The. evidence from l e x i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n , o p t i o n a l w i t h . a nominal h e a r i n g a 3 r e l a t i o n , demonstrates; t h a t the. o b j e c t nominal i n a Middle: v o i c e c l a u s e does n o t bear t h i s r e l a t i o n s i n c e i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s obligatory."^ of  T h i s p r o v i d e s an a d d i t i o n a l argument a g a i n s t an a n a l y s i s -  these, c l a u s e s as- 2 -) 3  I f Middles i n v o l v e 2 - ^ 3 act  Retreat.  T h i s : argument i s b.ase.d on s i m p l i c i t y .  R e t r e a t , 3s; r e s u l t i n g from t h i s : r u l e would  d i f f e r e n t l y from advancee. 3s with., r e s p e c t t o i n c o r p o r a t i o n ,  an e x t r a  requiring  statement. Aithough.not  germane t o the. argument, this; d i s t i n c t i o n between  o b l i g a t o r y and o p t i o n a l l e x i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n may c a s t some, l i g h t on the r o l e o f putative  3s;. C e r t a i n verbs; which, determine  initial  U n a c c u s a t i v e s t r a t a t a k e an o b j e c t nominal which, i s c l e a r l y and p r o b a b l y n o t an o b l i q u e e i t h e r . by such, a nominal tTumyst  r e l a t i o n i s borne  These v e r b s a r e e x e m p l i f i e d below with.  'buy' , a member o f U n a c c u s a t i v e C l a s s F (Reflexive. Unaccusatlves).,  and ^JC-.up 85a  i s unclear.  Which, grammatical  non-nuclear  'win, beat o u t ' , a member o f U n a c c u s a t i v e C l a s s D ( t h e -p class).:  kn  Sl  tTw - t T u - myst  „  T7iTm  t  ITER-buy-UlACCUS^^  I bought s e v e r a l h o r s e s .  sTnklcTasqaxa?. some, h o r s e  kn tSwtSumyst 86a  kn - ^"up S 1  INTR  W  ±  SI  t  sSnklcSasqaxa?  t s Snl&cSgsqaxa . ?  '  n  a  n  o  r  s  e  I won/beat out a horse  (as. i n a h o r s e r a c e a g a i n s t another h o r s e )  b  s  P  kn  AMp  SI  sSnklcSasqaxa?  t  F i r s t , t h e o b j e c t nominal i n q u e s t i o n does not take, a case-marking hence i t does not b e a r an Oblique r e l a t i o n i n t h e f i n a l  preposition,  stratum.  Second, no P a s s i v e c l a u s e and no R e l a t i v e c l a u s e may be formed with, t h e o b j e c t nominal i n q u e s t i o n , so i t i s n o t a 2:  87a  * Si sSnklcSasqaxa  7  tSwtSumystntgm  The h o r s e s were bought  b  * Si sSnklcSasqaxa?  Si t SiMix™!]!.  by t h e c h i e f .  ^"x upnt9ni w  Si t Silni£x m. w  The h o r s e was won/beat out by t h e c h i e f .  88a  * Si sq9l'tmlx the  w  wik (• n - t ) - s  man  u  see-PFTV-t-S3 ., . mtJ  T0  IKAJSIp  kn S1  tSwtSumyst.  INTR  ITER-W-UNACCUS  REFL  The man saw t h e horses t h a t I bought.  sSnklcSgsqaxa the  horse  7  Si COMP  99  b  *  Ti  sqol'tmlx"  The man  wiks  Ti  sTnklcTosqaxa  7  Ti  kn  ^c up. w  saw the h o r s e t h a t I won/beat o u t .  T h i r d , t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l -markings- p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t h a t this.- is- not a 2, The p e r s o n and number m a r k i n g s i n 85 intransitive  and 86 are. those, f o r s u b j e c t o f  c l a u s e s and t h e r e is- no p l u r a l - m a r k e r f o r d i r e c t o b j e c t  in a t r a n s i t i v e clause.  (See charts- o f v e r b a l conjugations? with,  t r a n s i t i v e person m a r k i n g  i n Chapter Two,  pp. 21^24..)  F o u r t h , t h e o b j e c t nominal i n q u e s t i o n a c c e p t s a q u a n t i f i e r , as i s p e r m i s s i b l e f o r a 3 , v a r i a b l y f o r a 2-chomeur (see s e c t i o n 3 . 3 on Quant i f i e r  Ban):  89a  tTwtTumyst  kn  yTayTg?t  Tj  sTnJ&cTasqaxa?.  I bought a l l the h o r s e s , b  kn  &x up w  yTayTg?t  Tj  sTnklcTasqaxa .  I won/beat out a l l the horses  7  (as i n a r a c e a g a i n s t more t h a n  one  horse with, t h e speaker b e a t i n g them a l l ) . F i f t h . , l e x i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s optional,  as i t is: f o r the 3 nominal i n  t h e L o c a t i v e clauses: (see above and Chapter Four, s e c t i o n 90a  kn  ttTwtTurnyst  t  3.3):  s Tnl&cTa sqaxa?.  I bought s e v e r a l horses:, b  kn  tTwtTw - sqaxa?.  I bought s e v e r a l horses-. 21a  kn  ^K up w  t  s TnlAcTasqaxa? .  I won/beat out a h o r s e ,  b  kn  ^tx ap - sqaxa?. w  I won/beat out a h o r s e . Thus, the. u n d e r l i n e d nominals i n t h e a_ sentences above may i n the i n i t i a l  stratum.  bear a 3 r e l a t i o n  100  3.5  A Phantom t o the. Rescue There I s a serious- problem -with, t h e A n t i p a s s i y e a n a l y s i s - f o r  t h e Middle, v o i c e c l a u s e s o f Okanagan. have an i n i t i a l  9.2a  kn S1  direct  Many M i d d l e v o i c e c l a u s e s  do not  object:  cSscSgyp - m. scream-MIDDLE  I K T R  I soream.  kn  b  S 1  k^ul" - m.  INTR  -  TOrk  lyiir)DLE  I work..  kn  c  S 1  x ^S w  INTR  - am.  whittle-MIDDLE  I whittle.  kn  d  dc  Sl . IJMIK T  - am.  count-MIDDLE  T m T 3  I count. According the. i n i t i a l  t o P o s t a l ' s o r i g i n a l proposal  Cl°_T7l f o r an A n t i p a s s i y e ,  1 demotes t o 2 i n o r d e r t o place, the. i n i t i a l  t h u s p r o v i d i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n  f o r the. f i n a l  Consequently, i n t h e Okanagan c l a u s e s a—d  2 en chomage,  I n t r . a n s i t i v i t y o f such, c l a u s e s . above, t h e i n i t i a l  1 would  demote f o r no good r e a s o n . One obvious s o l u t i o n i s simply t o l i s t fact o f Middle voice clauses  i n Okanagan.  t h i s as an i r r e g u l a r  However, another p o s s i b l e ,  s o l u t i o n i s t o p o s i t a c o v e r t nominal, n o n - d i s t i n c t from t h e s u b j e c t final and  i n the  stratum, t o account f o r t h e M i d d l e voice, c l a u s e s . A l l e n , F r a n t z  Gardiner  (.19.81).  propose such, a s o l u t i o n , p o s i t i n g a c o v e r t  nominal,  r e f e r r e d t o as t h e 'phantom a r c a n a l y s i s - ' t o account f o r c e r t a i n  101  a p p a r e n t l y i r r e g u l a r verbs- o f Southern Tiwa.  Their p r o p o s a l i s supported  with, evidence from advancements, p r o n o m i n a l agreement, posses-sor a s c e n s i o n and . i m p e r s o n a l p a s s i v e s . E v i d e n c e f o r a Phantom a r c i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o v e r j however, t h r e e arguments-may be advanced the  i n support o f a 'phantom a r c s o l u t i o n ' f o r  Middle, voice: clauses- o f Okanagan, one from t h e semantic  of  interpretation  t h e s e clauses-, the: o t h e r from advancement, and a t h i r d from P o s s e s s o r  Ascension. (l)  In t h e M i d d l e v o i c e , i n Okanagan, the. s u b j e c t is; i n t e r p r e t e d  a s a c t i n g upon i t s e l f , skill  at t h e a c t .  f o r i t s own b e n e f i t , o r a s h a v i n g some p a r t i c u l a r  F o r example, i h a below, I have. the. p a r t i c u l a r  of  whittling well.  Ih  c_, i t is-my job, t o look, a f t e r t h e elders;.  his  skill  In b below, I am a b l e t o count, i . e . , t o c a l c u l a t e . . In d_, t h e b o y enjoys;  work, and does i t w e l l .  23a  Kn  x ^am.  I whittle,  b  kn  dcam.  I count,  c  kn  txtarri  d  T i ttwit  w  t ?Scx&xap.  I look, a f t e r  k - txilx™ - sqaxa - m ?  elders,  na?ip.  The boy h o r s e - c u r r i e s a l l t h e t i m e . By comparison, t h e c o u n t e r p a r t a c t i v e v o i c e c l a u s e s do not c a r r y a d d i t i o n a l semantic (,2a).  The  this  interpretation.  semantics o f t h e M i d d l e v o i c e c l a u s e s o f Okanagan are  s i m i l a r t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e Middle, v o i c e i n Homeric  Greek:  Homeric Greek: 9h  1067.  The middle voice denotes the subject as acting  11 upon itself,  21 for itself,  reflexively  3} upon something belonging to  102  •itself, 1068.  or in which it has: a special It is often difficult  the active  to distinguish  and the middle, but the action  some reference, the subject  interest. .  either  direct  has an interest  or indirect,  in translation  of the middle always hasto the subject, and  in, or is affected CPharr  To p o s i t a phantom nominal, i n i t i a l l y  between  1939::  by the  action.  3281  a non-nuclear  term, advancing t o  2 then t o 1, w i t h which i t i s n o n - d i s t i n c t , would he t o p r o v i d e t h e semantics: o f t h e M i d d l e (2b)  v o i c e w i t h a s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e and m o t i v a t i o n .  T h i s p r o p o s a l o f a Phantom a r c i s a l s o supported  by a  d i f f e r e n c e , i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n between M i d d l e s and A c t i v e s i n a B e n e f a c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . (se'e.ethe treatment  o f B e n e f a c t i v e s i n t h i s work, under the.  cover term Datives: i n Chapter Three s e c t i o n 1 . )  In a B e n e f a c t i v e  c o n s t r u c t i o n with, a t h i r d person pronominal o b l i q u e , t h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e readings  f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e o f t h e pronominal.  In a M i d d l e  v o i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e f e r e n c e o f t h e pronominal i s r e s t r i c t e d t o o n l y one r e a d i n g , i . e . , as h a v i n g t h e same r e f e r e n t as t h e s u b j e c t . The  examples: below show t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n may not be accounted f o r  by some c o n d i t i o n r e q u i r i n g c o - r e f e r e n c e , s t a t e d on t h e i n i t i a l grammatical  95  relations.  Si xix tnf  ikiirf - x - t - s  w  the i)  girl  sew-BENE-t-S3  The g i r l . J  i i ) The g i r l ,  TRAJ  t q'SaxnUtiya? k"l cniic. ^g  some mocassin  sew some mocassins f o r him/her .  k  sew some mocassins f o r h e r s e l f . .  f o r S3  103  96.'  S i xix tnf  ikinf  the  sew-MIDDLE  w  ij  girl  * The g i r l ,  -  m  t  cfSoxnutiya?  k"l  :  f o r S3  some, m o c a s s i n  sew some-mocassins- f o r him/her .  J  ill  The g i r l ,  J  criilc.  K.  sew some -mocassins f o r h e r s e l f , . J  A statement i s n e c e s s a r y t o account f o r the. r e s t r i c t e d r e f e r e n c e i n 96, with, an a n a p h o r i c l i n k , between the. f i n a l 1 and  k*L  cnlic.  Such., a l i n k ,  can be guaranteed b y an?.analysis- i n which, t h e Dative. Is: a copy o f the. Phantom a r c .  The f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n a l network might be suggested f o r  9.6, with, an anaphoric l i n k , between t h e 1 and t h e f i n a l DAT, where. Dative, c o u l d serve as~ a cover term f o r o t h e r o b l i q u e r e l a t i o n s : i n c l u d i n g a 'phantom' nominal o f t h e M i d d l e :  27  ._  However, t h e r e a r e f o u r problems with, t h i s suggested network.: (i)  I t appears t o be a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e Oblique Law, not i n i t s  i n t e n t , b u t i n i t s wording: 98  Oblique  Law  (Perlmutter  A nominal or may not bear A nominal  that bears that  that bears  hand, bears  and Postal  a term relation  relation  int'the  an oblique  that relation  1978)  i n i t i a l stratum  relation  in the i n i t i a l  This: suggested network (.97 above)  in a given  in a clause,  clause in that on the  may clause. other  stratum.  i s not i n t r o d u c i n g a new o b l i q u e but  10U.  one. with, an anaphoric l i n k , c o n n e c t i n g i t with. the. i n i t i a l .oblique a r c , (ill  The semantics- o f the M i d d l e v o i c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are. l e f t  unaccounted f o r .  There i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n -meaning between t h e r e s t r i c t e d  readings- o f 2 5 and 2 6 . of  M i d d l e i n 9J$ where t h e g i r l  the  skill  The- Benefactiye. i n 2 5 lacks- t h e i i h t e r p r e t a t i o n i s : c o n s i d e r e d as: h a v i n g some, s p e c i a l  i n sewing, (iii).  In M i d d l e voice, clauses: o f Okanagan, no advancements: t o 2,  where; 2 i s d i s t i n c t  from t h e 1, a r e p e r m i t t e d .  T h i s i s quite, unlike, t h e  c o u n t e r p a r t t r a n s i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s : i n t h e a a c t i y e voice., which, s e v e r a l advancements-to 2:  permit  D a t i v e ( B e n e i f a c t i y e / I n d i r e c t i v e . 1 Advancement,  R e l a t i o n a l Advancement, L o c a t i v e Advancement, I n s t r u m e n t a l Advancement and L i m i t e d C o n t r o l Advancement (ivl  (.'see Chapter Four f o r d e t a i l s ) . .  The. d i s t i n c t i o n between D a t i v e and M i d d l e  c l a u s e s with,  r e s p e c t t o Q u a n t i f i e r Ban ( s e c t i o n 3.3). a l s o argues, a g a i n s t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y - o f DAT as; a cover term. Thus, an a n a l y s i s with. D a t i v e as, cover term f o r Phantom cannot maintained  be  f o r a l l c a s e s , hence the cover term NN f o r Non-Nuclear  is, used: 2.2a  INITIALLY INTRANSITIVE  b  INITIALLY  MIDDLE CLAUSES  -(a)m  TRANSITIVE  MIDDLE CLAUSES  -(a)m  105  C3).  'A t h i r d argument i s : a v a i l a b l e from P o s s e s s o r Asoenslon. i n  support o f t h e Phantom a r c s o l u t i o n o v e r t t h e A n t i p a s s i v e .  T h i s follows-  from t h e a n a l y s i s : o f P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n i n Chapter Four.  The t h i r d  argument i s g i v e n i n s e c t i o n k..h o f Chapter F o u r . The Phantom A r c s o l u t i o n accounts- f o r a l l t h e known f a c t s o f the M i d d l e -voice clauses- o f Okanagan: t r a n s i t i v e , as- e x e m p l i f i e d i n 6la-c;  i;l  initially  i l l  i n i t i a l l y - i n t r a n s i t i v e , as- e x e m p l i f i e d i n  iill  no P a s s i v i z a t i o n , R e l a t i v i z a t i o n o r Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t from t h e i n i t i a l  iv)  92a£d; permitted  2, which, is- t h e r e f o r e , not a f i n a l 2\  o b l i g a t o r y l e x i c a l incorporation o f the i n i t i a l  2 nominal, i f  t h e r e exists- a l e x i c a l s u f f i x a l form, showing t h a t t h e i n i t i a l  2  i s not a . f i n a l 3; v ).  Q u a n t i f i e r banned from the. i n i t i a l  2 nominal which, i s t h e r e f o r e  n e i t h e r a f i n a l 2 nor a f i n a l 3, b u t a chomeur; vi)  a d d i t i o n a l semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u b j e c t as a f f e c t e d by t h e act i o n .  3.6  Consequences The  f o r t h e -m  Morphology  -m o c c u r s on two types.- o f clauses: d i s c u s s e d i n this- work.:  1)_  The -(a)m  o f t h e M i d d l e v o i c e marks: a f i n a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e  2)1  A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e v e r b a l morphology i n t h e same consonant:  The -m  o f the Passive  clause..  c o n s t r u c t i o n ends  -torn/-tim, but not i n t h e same s t r e s s e d vowel.  consonant may now be i s o l a t e d a s a marker o f i n t r a n s i t i v l t y i n  11 t h e f i n a l stratum.  io6 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER THREE 1  The i s s u e o f how  discussed  the p a s s i v e  i n l i n g u i s t i c theories  1978, F r e i d i n 1275). discussion  i s r e l a t e d t o the a c t i v e has heen w i d e l y  (see f o r example, Chomsky 1957}  In R e l a t i o n a l Grammar, t h i s Issue i s c a s t as a  of a monostratal vs a h i s t r a t a l analysis  2  See Footnote  3  See s e c t i o n  Bresnan  3, Chapter Two,  page  f o r the  Passive.  54.  2.6, Chapter U, on swit with, animate and  Inanimate  instrumentals. h  I f one assumes t h a t there, i s a c o n s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between thematic  and grammatical the i n i t i a l  r e l a t i o n s and t h a t t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s are determined with,  assignment  o f grammatical  r e l a t i o n s , then t h e  Hypothesis r a i s e s an i n t e r e s t i n g issue.:  whether a p a r t i c u l a r verb o r  c l a s s o f verbs, c o u l d r e c e i v e more than one. assignment and t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s . verbs may  take, e i t h e r  In Canadian-French.,  avoir o r  Unaccusative  of  grammatical  a number o f i n t r a n s i t i v e ,  etre as. a u x i l i a r y verb (.Canale, Mougeon,  1978).:  Belanger a.  Je suis tombe.  I fell  b.  J'ai tombe.  I f e l l on  This, v e r b  accidentally. purpose.  tomber i s a c a n d i d a t e f o r r e c e i v i n g two assignments o f t h e m a t i c /  grammatical  r e l a t i o n s , one  as d e t e r m i n i n g U n a c c u s a t i v e stratum, a s i n a_  above, and t h e o t h e r as d e t e r m i n i n g U n e r g a t l v e stratum, as In b above. The  d i f f e r e n t assignments  c o r r e l a t e with., t h e semantic  differences, i n  purposiveness., agency o r c o n t r o l or whatever else, t h i s s h o u l d be termed. The. advantage, o f t h i s assignment statement  f o r the presence o f  etre:  and i n U n a c c u s a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , initial may  2-nominal advancing t o 1.  determine  l i e s , i n the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f r u l e i n a b i s t r a t a l Passive,  construction  both, o f which, are c h a r a c t e r i z e d In Okanagan, i t appears t h a t  by  an  a verb  both. Unaccusative. s t r a t u m and an a c t i v e t r a n s i t i v e .  107  stratum.  See  examples o f t h i s , i n s e c t i o n 3 . 2 , Chapter  s e c t i o n 2 . 3 , Chapter  Five.  I t s h o u l d he noted t h a t the  5  have o n l y one  thematic  theme.  with  the. s e l f which, has has. performed these  which, c l e a r l y have two:  Compare 'I s l a p m y s e l f '  'I h i d e m y s e l f  -myst c l a s s o f r e f l e x i v e verbs appears t o  r e l a t i o n , t h a t o f p a t i e n t o r theme, u n l i k e the  a g e n t i v e r e f l e x i v e s with, -cut or  Four, and i n  agent  and p a t i e n t  (an a g e n t i v e r e f l e x i v e In Okanagan)  (an U n a c c u s a t i v e  r e f l e x i v e In Okanagan)..  In the. former,  undergone the a c t i o n i s separable, from the s e l f which,  the a c t i o n .  In the l a t t e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to  separate  out. I f : t h e r u l e o f Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i o n p r o v e s with, f u r t h e r fieldwork.  to  r e f e r t o advancee. 2 s as- w e l l a s i n i t i a l  suffice to establish. I n i t i a l  2s~, example. 5 7 b would no  longer  2-hood o f the U n a c c u s a t i v e s In question..  The  s t r a t a l diagram f o r 5 7 b i s  SI  6.  The morpheme /-myst/ [-mist] may appear s i m i l a r t o the. -ml  R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n (.cf. s e c t i o n 2 , Chapter  o f the  T h r e e ) , however i t i s  Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i o n t h a t p r o v i d e s the. evidence t h a t these, are. d i s s i m i l a r . .  The. v o c a l i z e d y i n  /-myst/ [-mist]  undergoes; g l o t t a l i z a t i o n l i k e , a  r e s o n a n t , so I t ' s a consonant not a vowel.  Moreover, t h i s morpheme/patterns  d i f f e r e n t l y s y n t a c t i c a l l y t h a n does the. R e l a t i o n a l morpheme.  108  7  The  r e f l e x i v e , morphemes:  -cut  a l t e r n a t i v e forms. Because - c u t whereas 8  -myst  does  and  and  -n/-S  may  PerfeetIve/Imperfective  t o constant  i n c o n s i s t e n t with/the U n a c c u s a t i v e a n a l y s i s  marking  agency are. I n v o l v e d .  9  follows  u n g r a m m a t i c a l i t y o f 65  thematicorelationships,  (.cf. f o o t n o t e  where d i f f e r e n c e s In c o n t r o l and The  not he t a k e n as-  not.  Note t h a t t h i s argument, a p p e a l i n g  i s not  -myst  from Q u a n t i f i e r Ban,  k above),  independently  from Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t . 10  An  a d d i t i o n a l argument, t h a t the nominal i n q u e s t i o n  may  als'Of.be..based  not  permissible  on  on l e x i c a l a f i n a l 2.  statement o f L e x i c a l 11  The  k s - and  a final  since l e x i c a l Incorporation  See. Chapter Three, s e c t i o n 4.3,  f o r the  2,  is rule  Incorporation.  soc- prefixes, for  r e s p e c t i v e l y , a l s o t a k e the paradigms i n Chapter Two, t h e s e two  incorporation  i s not  -m  'Unrealized  a c t i o n ' and  'Past  morphology, as I l l u s t r a t e d In the  s e c t i o n 1.3.  p r e f i x e s : as. upper p r e d i c a t e s ,  marks i n t r a n s i t l v i t y i s r e t a i n e d .  I f one  considers- and  Perfect' verbal  argues f o r  then.the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t  -m  109 CHAPTER FOUR  TRANSITIVE CLAUSES IN OKANAGAN  0  Introduction This chapter  d i s c u s s e s "basic c l a u s e s which, are f i n a l l y  t r a n s i t i v e i n Okanagan.,  As i n Chapter Three, t h r e e q u e s t i o n s  are addressed  w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o s s i b l e r e - e v a l u a t i o n s o f grammatical r e l a t i o n s o f nominals: 1)  what advancements, i f any, a r e p o s s i b l e i n Okanagan?.  2)  what demotions, i f any, a r e p o s s i b l e i n Okanagan?  3) .  what a s c e n s i o n s , It  and i)  i f any, a r e p o s s i b l e i n Okanagan?  i s proposed t h a t Okanagan p e r m i t s the. f o l l o w i n g advancements  ascensions: DATIVE  3 -> 2  Advancement, where t h e - X and - 4 morphemes,  r e g i s t e r t h e presence o f an i n i t i a l D a t i v e o b j e c t , with. B e n e f a c t i v e or I n d i r e c t i v e meaning r e s p e c t i v e l y :  ii)  LOCATIVE  3 -> 2  Advancement, where. - ( l } n a ?  advancement from an i n i t i a l  Locative object:  marks: an  iid  iii)  RELATIONAL  -> 22  o f a non-nuclear  Advancement, where  -m(i). marks an advancement  o b j e c t CNN), i . e . , 3s o r c e r t a i n o b l i q u e s ,  e x c l u d i n g D a t i v e s and L o c a t i v e s , d i r e c t l y t o 2, with, t h r e e classes, o f v e r b s d e t e r m i n i n g c l a u s a l type A, B, o r C: A  Ill  iv)  POSSESSOR ASCENSION,  The  where N i s a r e l a t i o n borne by a nominal:  evidence f o r t h e s e proposed advancements and  comes from M o r p h o l o g i c a l  ascensions,  Markings, Q u e s t i o n Formation, Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t ,  R e l a t i v e Clause F o r m a t i o n , P a s s i v i z a t i o n , R e l a t i v i z a t i o n , and L e x i c a l Incorporation. This; chapter Dative  i s organized  as f o l l o w s .  c l a u s e s , a r g u i n g t h a t the B e n e f a c t i v e  and  Section 1 deals  with.  Indirective constructions  are s y n t a c t i c a l l y t h e same with, r e s p e c t t o grammatical r e l a t i o n s and p o s s i b l e r e - e v a l u a t i o n s , but Section 2 deals with three  different morphologically  classes of R e l a t i o n a l clauses.  t h i r d c l a s s , C, t h r e e a n a l y s e s c a u s a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s and  and  are proposed:  one  two  o f the l a t t e r :  S e c t i o n 3 examines L o c a t i v e c l a u s e s , a r g u i n g  For  the  involving bistratal  i n v o l v i n g Instrumental  Arguments are advanced i n support  semantically.  Advancement.  Instrumental  f o r advancement.  Advancement. The  consequences o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s o f R e l a t i o n a l and L o c a t i v e c l a u s e s with, r e s p e c t t o L i m i t e d C o n t r o l are examined. Control clauses  Limited  i n v o l v e o b l i g a t o r y r e - e v a l u a t i o n from a n o n - n u c l e a r term  to d i r e c t object. a P o s s e s s o r may  I t i s argued t h a t  S e c t i o n h examines P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n ,  arguing  that  ascend t o b e a r the grammatical r e l a t i o n o f i t s nominal,  from a 2 o n l y i f t h e Poss may  advance t o a 1 and  from ^< non-nuclear terms.  112  o n l y i f t h e P o s s e s s o r advances t o  1  2.  D a t i v e Advancement: B e n e f a c t i v e Two  and  I n d i r e c t i v e Constructions  c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f Okanagan are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  These are known as the  ' B e n e f a c t i v e ' and the  'Indirective'.  In the  Benefactive  c o n s t r u c t i o n , the v e r b a l r o o t o f the p r e d i c a t e i s marked  w i t h -x(l)  whereas i n t h e I n d i r e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , the v e r h a l r o o t i s  marked by  -4  .  They occur w i t h o b l i g a t o r y T o p i c a l i z a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s  o f whether or not Advancement t a k e s place.^" These c o n s t r u c t i o n s  are  e x e m p l i f i e d below:  la  Ti  fc%*xap  the e l d e r The  bv;  Ti ?&a&ap The  c  o l d man  o l d man  x lc - x - t - s  t  give-BENE-t-S3,j,  some  w  give a present  x icxc w  t  w  kl  w  pptv^na x . ?  present  w  t o old.woman  f o r / t o the o l d lady,  s ic'cx  give a present  Ti *x?&ap x lcxc  R  sx iccx  Ti pptwina^x".  w  ( t o ) the o l d l a d y ,  Ti pptwina?x  t  w  sx iccs w  (t ks-r;-c r. .k'Tum - s ). :  COMP UlIR-PF-store-SS-r^^ The  2a  b.  o l d man  g i v e the o l d l a d y a p r e s e n t  Ti $&*xap x i c - 4 - t - s w  the  elder  The  o l d man  Ti *x*xap  Ti  give-INDIR-t-S3 ,,„„ mr  (to put  away).  skl&v! kl the money  to  ppt^ina?x . w  old.woman  g i v e the money t o the o l d l a d y ,  x ic4c w  Ti s k W  Ti  pp  twina?x  w  (ks - txt :-~n'- t - i s ). ,  UNR-look. a f t e r - P F T V - t - S 3 The  c  o l d man  Ti *x?&a.p The. o l d man  g i v e the money ( t o ) the o l d l a d y ( t o l o o k  x ic4c w  Ti pptwina x ?  w  Ti sklaw\  g i v e the o l d l a d y the. money.  after),  TR  113  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two c o n s t r u c t i o n s ; i s ; t w o - f o l d ; m o r p h o l o g i c a l with, t h e - x ( l ) f o r t h e ' B e n e f a c t i v e '  and t h e -4 f o r t h e  ' I n d i r e c t i v e ' , and semantic as the. p a r e n t h e t i c a l p u r p o s i v e demonstrate.  The -x(i) c o n s t r u c t i o n s  clauses  g e n e r a l l y mean t h a t t h e a c t i o n i s  performed ' f o r t h e B e n e f i t o f someone' and t h e -4 ' c o n s t r u c t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y mean t h a t t h e a c t i o n i s labelled  performed  the benefactive  malefactive,  'to/on someone'.  case and t h e l a t t e r t h e unmarked c a s e , i n c l u d i n g  recipient, etc.  and t h e y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  S y n t a c t i c a l l y , they manifest s i m i l a r structure  together  here.  S i m i l a r phenomena i n o t h e r  n o n - S a l i s h a n languages are commonly known as D a t i v e Dative  The former i s  s  constructions.  i s used here as a c o v e r term f o r both, t h e Bene f a c t i v e and I n d i r e c t i v e  constructions. Two proposals: a r e b e i n g made with, r e s p e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n s , i n Okanagan.  l]  I t is. proposed t h a t  r e g i s t e r t h e presence o f t h e r e l e v a n t o b l i q u e  object  t o t h e s e two  -x(i) and' - 4 " i n the i n i t i a l  strata.  2\ I t Is. proposed t h a t t h e s e two c o n s t r u c t i o n s have t h e f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r e , with, p o s s i b l e , advancements t o 3 and t o 2; 3 c.... .C 1.11.  -xCi)  or  -4 More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s proposed t h a t t h e a_ s e n t e n c e s o f examples 1 and 2 have the. s t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t e d structure of c  p l u s c..., and t h e c_ sentences t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c.., c...., 1.  and  by t h e c . stratum., the.' b sentences- t h e  c..... stratum.  IX  X.  x_x.  llh  E v i d e n c e t o support t h i s a n a l y s i s comes from  Case-Marking,  Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t , R e l a t i v e Clause F o r m a t i o n , P a s s i v e F o r m a t i o n , and Question Formation. first; to  E v i d e n c e t o support t h e i n i t i a l  stratum i s given  n e x t , e v i d e n c e t o support advancement t o 2, and t h e n e v i d e n c e  support advancement t o 3.  1.1  Case-Marking The  e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s e two c o n s t r u c t i o n s have an i n i t i a l  s t r a t u m with, an o b l i q u e o b j e c t comes from t h e presence o f a preposition:  kl  ha  n  'to, goal, r e c i p i e n t ' .  Si S i ( ) - sk^uy* k u  These a r e e x e m p l i f i e d below:  ikinf - x - t - s  w  case-marking  t cfSaxriutiya?  0 the  my-male's.mom  k l Sinca?. k l swit.  me  sew-BENE-t-SS^j^^g. some mocassins  t o me to  My mother sew some m o c a s s i n s  b  S -cix - x - t - n Cont-fry-BME-t-Sl I  c  3  Si S ?S sa? 3  k l sc'cmala?.  U  t h e egg  to children  f r y a l l t h e eggs f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ,  t  straight-REL72-BEWE-t-Sl  d  a l l  T R A M S  t i - m - x - t - in  I  f o r me/for somebody,  yS ySg?t  n  somebody  pitk ^ T R  straightened several nails  Si tklmilx the  woman  w  k l ttw'it.  1  some, n a i l  to boy  f o r the. boy.  ks - k" ul' - x - t - s w  UNR^work-BENE-t-SSm^.^p,  t yamx a? w  some b a s k e t  Sj k l xix tnf. w  the to g i r l  The woman i s g o i n g t o make, a b a s k e t f o r t h e g i r l .  e  Si sqai'tmix" x i c - x - t - s w  the  man  give-BENE-t-S3  mr)  t scwSln some, salmon  Tn  The. man g i v e some salmon t o h i s : g r a n d f a t h e r .  Sj k l kikHfa? - s. the t o grandfather-his:  115.  5a  Si xix tm* tfak™ - 4 - t - i s  Si q'Saxn'utiya? - s  w  the  girl  patch-INDIR-t-S3 -, „ ml  A  The g i r l p a t c h e d up h i s mocassins  b  Si ttwit the  - 4 - t - is  boy  Si cicf sxn w  put.out-INDIR-t-S3  t4 - m - 4 - t - i n  kl  1  the n a i l  T R  I s t r a i g h t e n t h e n a i l f o r the  to  man  man.  Si p l t k ^  straight-REL/2-INDIR-t-Sl  k l sqal'tmix".  the l i g h t  TR  t o o l d e r .hrother-her  f o r her o l d e r b r o t h e r ,  The boy put out the l i g h t on t h e  c  t h e mocassin-his-  a  k l 4qaqca? - s.  to  ttwit. boy  boy.  The presence o f a ease-marking  p r e p o s i t i o n is. t a k e n as. evidence  2  of  an i n i t i a l o b l i q u e o b j e c t .  Given the. c l o s e paraphrase r e l a t i o n between  sentences: with, and w i t h o u t a v i s i b l e case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n , such, as la,  2 a and l b ^ c , 2 b , c r e s p e c t i v e l y , i t is: assumed t h a t t h e b,c__ sentences  a l s o have t h e same i n i t i a l the statement  stratum.  T h i s assumption  f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f -x(i) and  also  -;4  simplifies  which, may  be t a k e n  as o b l i g a t o r y r e g i s t e r s o f t h i s i n i t i a l o b l i q u e o b j e c t s i n c e one or the 3 o t h e r , and never both., appear with, t h i s i n i t i a l D a t i v e o b j e c t . The I n d i r e c t i v e i s a l s o used w i t h / t h e Locative, case-marking preposition:  6a  1:  Si sk^q^imalt the  baby  t - kip - 4 - t - s Dist-pinchr-INDIR-t-S3  The c h i l d p i n c h e d the c a t on t h e  b  Si  ttwit  the.  boy  tr*q - 4 - t - i s kick.-INDIR-t-S3  Si pSus the  TR  cat  siwps.  t h e LOC  tail  tail,  Si xix tnf w  T R M S  (Sj) 1  the g i r l  Si  l  the LOC  sq^Sgxt. leg';  The boy k i c k e d the g i r l on t h e l e g . T h i s use o f t h e I n d i r e c t i v e i n p o s s e s s o r a s c e n s i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n s and i n  116  l o c a t i v e body p a r t c o n s t r u c t i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n s 3.3 ' L o c a t i v e Advancement -with Body P a r t s ' ; k.k 'A Statement and k.6  1.2  Incorporation';  'A Statement o f P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n . '  Q u e s t i o n Formation In  the  of Lexical  q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n with. S W l t  'who', t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e t a k e s  case-marking o f t h e grammatical r e l a t i o n b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d , as  i l l u s t r a t e d below with, the Sourcevc case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n : Ta  T i ttwit the  qicalx  boy  run  C i) ?  tl*  sqal'tmix".  t h e nfr.oma  man  The boy r a n from the man. b  t l * swit from who  T i ttwit t h e boy  k T i qicalx. COMP r u n  From whom d i d t h e boy run? I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i n q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n with, i n t e r r o g a t i v e s , i f t h e s u b j e c t i s not q u e s t i o n e d , t h e s u b j e c t nominal i s r a i s e d t o t h e upper c l a u s e and may be t o p i c a l i z e d as e x e m p l i f i e d i n Tb above. As. shown p r e v i o u s l y i n Chapter Two, s e c t i o n 2 . 1 . 2 , below, t h e presence o f a case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n i n a s v s w i t  and e x e m p l i f e d construction  marks: t h e f i n a l grammatical r e l a t i o n borne by t h e nominal i n q u e s t i o n . P a s s i v e below shows  The  t h a t a l p u t a t i v e D a t i v e nominal, advanced t o s u b j e c t ,  does: not r e c e i v e t h e case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l  oblique  r e l a t i o n borne: 8  * k*L to  swit who  kTi x ic w  COMP  - x - t - am  give-BENE-t-PASS  t  scwTin  some salmon  T i t sqal'tmlx . w  INSTR  man  To whom was g i v e n some salmon by the man? T h i s example shows t h a t i n t e r r o g a t i v e s  witluSWlt  are not s e n s i t i v e t o t h e  HY  n o n - f i n a l grammatical With, t h e  relations. I n d i r e c t i v e / B e n e f a c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , the. case-,  marking of. t h e nominal h e i n g  k*L swit  9 a  * -0  questioned  Si ttw'it the  kl  15  swit  * 0  Si  - 4 - t - is  hoy  To who d i d the. hoy put  shows- up on t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e :  Si clq^sxn - salx ?  put.out-INDIR-t-S3 out t h e i r  Si( ) - sk^uy" n  t h e my-male's.mom  TR  the  light-their  light?.  4k*5jrf - x - t - s  t cfSaxnutiya? ?  sew-BENE-t-S3 T5  some mocassin  m  in F o r whom d i d my mother sew some mocassins?  c  kl  swit  * 0  Si sqal'tmlx  w  the  man  kSi x i c - x - t - s  t  w  COMP  give-BENE-t-S3  T R A N g  scwSin. ? some, salmon  To whom d i d the man g i v e some, salmon?  k l swit  d  *, 0  Si tklrailx the  woman  w  ks - k" ul" - x - t - s w  UWR-work.-BENE-t-S3  TRANS  t yanix a' ? w  ?  a basket  Fbfowhom i s t h e woman going t o make a basket? Moreover, a s shown above, t h e case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n must be p r e s e n t . Under the proposed a n a l y s i s , t h i s can be d e a l t with, by a r e s t r i c t i o n b a r r i n g D a t i v e Advancement o f i n t e r r o g a t i v e swit.*  1  of the c o n s t r u c t i o n exemplified  i n l h , c 2b,c d i d not  I f the  initial  stratum  involve, an i n i t i a l  obli'que, t h e n a more complex r u l e would he needed t o b l o c k t h e ungrammatical s e n t e n c e s . occur and  I f t h i s were assumed,  swit s h o u l d be a b l e t o  i n t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t p o s i t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s p a r a l l e l t o l c , 2c  some s p e c i a l r u l e would t h e n be r e q u i r e d . t o block, q u e s t i o n  with,  -x(i)  swit, when or  -4.  swit  formation  is, r e g i s t e r e d on the v e r b with, e i t h e r  118  1.3  Quantifier Float In t h e s e two constructions:, t h e case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n  preceding  t h e nominal h e a r i n g t h e o b l i q u e  relation i n the i n i t i a l  stratum  may be d e l e t e d , i n which, case t h e nominal may be p o s i t i o n e d a f t e r t h e d i r e c t object  ( . 2 ) , a s i n a below o r immediately a f t e r t h e p r e d i c a t e ,  as i n b below: 10a  T  n  - dix - x - t - n  yT yT ?t 9  Cont-fry-BENE-t-Sl™™  T i T ?Tusa  a  a l l  Tj  ?  9  t h e egg  sdMla?.  the children  irlA!\lb  I f r y a l l t h e eggs: ( f o r ) t h e c h i l d r e n , b  Tncixxtn  T j sccmala?  yToyTg?t T i  Ta^usa?.  I f r y t h e c h i l d r e n a l l the. eggs. 11a  x ic - 4 - t - S  yTayT5?t  T i skW  give-INDIR-t-S3  a l l  the: money  w  T R  Tj  tl&iiilx".  the. woman  He gives; a l l t h e money ( t o ) t h e woman, b  x lc4c w  Tj  tk4milx  w  yTayTa?t  Ti  sklaw\  He gives: t h e woman a l l t h e money. I t i s proposed here t h a t i n t h e b sentences, t h e nominal i n q u e s t i o n b e a r s t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n and t h a t i n t h e a_ s e n t e n c e s t h e nominal i n q u e s t i o n  bears t h e i n d i r e c t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n .  Quantifier Float,  Passive  F o r m a t i o n , R e l a t i v e Clause F o r m a t i o n and : • Q u e s t i o n Formation  provide  e v i d e n c e t o support t h i s a n a l y s i s .  These a r e d i s c u s s e d i n  s e c t i o n s : 1 . 3 and 1 . 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A q u a n t i f i e r yTayTg?t  'all'  may f l o a t t o p r e - p r e d i c a t e  p o s i t i o n from a f i n a l 1 o r 2 , i . e . , from a f i n a l s u b j e c t d i r e c t o b j e c t , and may not f l o a t Benefactive/Indirective  from an o b l i q u e  or a f i n a l  object.^  With, t h e  constructions;, t h e q u a n t i f i e r y T a y T a ? t ' a l l '  119  may- f l o a t from tne. nominal i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e d i c a t e , i . e . , from t h e i n i t i a l 12a  direct  object:  Sn - c i x - x - t - n  ySaySg?t  Cont-fry-BENE-t-Sl _  a l l  m  S i ?a?Susa the  ?  egg  S i sc'cmala?. the children  in I f r y a l l t h e eggs (.for} t h e c h i l d r e n . ySoySg?t  Sncfixxtn  S j ?o?Susa  S i sc&mala?.  ?  I f r y a l l t h e eggs f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . ( A l l I f r y theoeggs. .-. ). 13a  x ic w  - i - t - s  ySay?a?t  giye-IlTDIR-t-S3rn-DAT\Ta  a  1  S j sklaw*  S i  t h e money  1  tklmilx . w  t h e woman  He g i v e a l l t h e money ( t o l t h e woman, h  ySaySa?t  x lcic  S j sklaw*  w  S i tk"imilx . w  He give, a l l t h e money t o t h e woman .(.All he g i v e t h e money.. . ) I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the. u n d e r l i n e d nominal above., i n immediate predicate p o s i t i o n , i . e . , the i n i t i a l  post-  direct object, i s s t i l l the direct  o b j e c t and t h a t t h e i n i t i a l o b l i q u e o b j e c t no l o n g e r b e a r s the. o b l i q u e r e l a t i o n s i n c e i t i s l a c k i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n . I t i s assumed a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h i s second o b j e c t nominal is: a 3 s i n c e i t is- n e i t h e r a 2 n o r an o b l i q u e .  A q u a n t i f i e r may not f l o a t  from t h i s  putative. 3 nominal; Ika  k' ul" - x - t - n  S i stxitq  w  work-BENE-t-Sl  T R A N S  .  w  ySaySg?t  t h e broth.  S j sdcmala?.  a l l  the children  I f i x the. broth, ( f o r i a l l t h e c h i l d r e n , b 15a  *  ySaySa?t  S i sqal'tmix" the  man  kHilxtn x ic w  S i stxitq  - i - t - s  give-INDIR-t-S3 .„„  The man g i v e some salmon  mT3  Sj  w  t  scfdnala?.  scwSin  ySaySg?t  S j ptptw"ina x .  some salmon  a l l  t h e PL-old.woman  (to)", a l l t h e o l d ladies:.  ?  w  120  b  *1 T i sqsl'tmlx"  yTayTa?t  to quantifier  l6a  t sew?in  w  Tj ptptwina x . ?  w  o b l i q u e n o m i n a l , advanced t o a 3 , is- permuted  If the i n i t i a l t o t h e immediate  x ic4c  p o s t - p r e d i c a t e p o s i t i o n , i t f u n c t i o n s l i k e a 2 with, r e s p e c t  float:  kMl.'- x - t - n  yTayTg?t  work-BENE-t-Sl^  a l l  Ti scfcfnala?  Ti stxitq".  the. c h i l d r e n  t h e broth.  I f i x e d a l l t h e c h i l d r e n the. broth.,  b  yTay?g?t  kMiixtn  Ti sdcinala?  Ti s t x i t q . w  I f i x e d a l l t h e c h i l d r e n the: broth..  17a  x ic-- 4 - t - s  yTayTg?t  give-TNDIR-t-S3M„  a l l  w  ( A l l I f i x e d the children ; • : : ; . >\  Tj ptptwina x ?  t  w  t h e PL-old.woman  scwT£n.  some  salmon  He g i v e s a l l t h e o l d l a d i e s some: salmon,  b  yTayTg?t  x ic4c  Tj ptptwina x  w  ?  t scwTin.  w  He g i v e s a l l t h e o l d l a d i e s some salmon.  3 has advanced t o bear t h e 2 r e l a t i o n .  I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e advancee The  ( A l l he g i v e s t h e o l d l a d i e s . . . ) . .  former 2 no l o n g e r f u n c t i o n s l i k e a 2 w i t h r e s p e c t t o Q u a n t i f i e r  and i s ,  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Chomeur C o n d i t i o n  (see Chapter T h r e e ,  section  f o r a statement o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n ) , a 2-chomeur:  l.h  18a  Tnclx - x - t - n fry-BENE-t-Sl  Ti sc'cmala? T R M g  yTayT ?t 9  the children  all .  Tj T ?Tusa' . ?  9  t h e egg  I f r y t h e c h i l d r e n a l l t h e eggs,  b  yTay?a"?t *  Tncfixxtn  Ti sddn&la*  Ti Ta??Hsa . ?  I f r y t h e c h i l d r e n a l l t h e eggs:,  ok. 1 f r y a l l t h e c h i l d r e n t h e eggs.  12a  x lc - 4 - t - s w  give-IWDIR-t-S'3urpjyjjg  Ti tklmilx  w  t h e woman  He gave, t h e woman a l l t h e money.  yTayTg?t a l l  Tj skW. t h e money  Float  121  b  * y? y?9?t a  x ic4c w  ? i tklml:lx  w  ? i sklaw".  He gave t h e woman a l l t h e money. (.All he gave t h e woman t h e money. I In c o n c l u s i o n , i t h a s been seen 1) t h a t t h e r e i s an i n i t i a l  o b l i q u e o b j e c t , termed D a t i v e , case-marked  w i t h a p r e p o s i t i o n and r e g i s t e r e d on t h e verb with.  -x(l)  or  -4  for ^ B e n e f a c t i v e ' or - I n d i r e c t i v e ' respectively;'' 2 ) t h a t t h i s i n i t i a l D a t i v e o b j e c t may advance t o 3, l o s i n g i t s : c a s e marking p r e p o s i t i o n ; and 3) t h a t t h i s advancee 3 may advance t o 2, p l a c i n g the. i n i t i a l L ' 2 en chomage, as was shown by Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t . T h i s i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n a l network, below; 20a  h  DATIVE  ADVANCEMENT:  The o l d man g i v e a l l the o l d l a d i e s , t h e money.  122  1.h  R e l a t i v e Clause  Formation  A d d i t i o n a l evidence  t h a t a D a t i v e o b j e c t , in.va B e n e f a c t i v e /  I n d i r e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , may advance t o 3 and t o 2 i s p r o v i d e d by Relativization.  In Okanagan, a r e l a t i v e c l a u s e o r a c l e f t  may be formed o n l y on a d o w n s t a i r s  construction  1 o r 2 and not on a d o w n s t a i r s  o b j e c t , a s was shown i n Chapter Two*,. -  section  oblique  2.1.3.  When s e n t e n c e s c o n t a i n i n g r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s formed on a downstairs  oblique are presented  t o speakers,  d i f f e r c d e p e n d i n g on t h e s u r r o u n d i n g allows us t o e x p l a i n these  context.  patterns o f grammaticality The a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d  different patterns.  When sentences with.  B e n e f a c t i v e and I n d i r e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s - a r e p r e s e n t e d speakers,  21a  here  f i r s t to  o n l y t h e 1 and t h e 2 may be r e l a t i v i z e d , a s expected:  Sixi? that  Si x i c - x - t - s t s k W  t ttw'it a  w  boy  COMP  give-BENE-t-S3.jp  Si sl'axt - s.  some, money  the. b r o t h e r - h i s  T h a t ' s t h e hoy who g i v e s some money (to), h i s b r o t h e r .  b  Sixi?  t sklaw" Si Si ttwit  x icxc w  Si sl'axc.  That's t h e money t h a t t h e boy g i v e s i t o ) . h i s b r o t h e r .  c  * Sixi? *  22a  t slaxt C-s)  Si Si ttw'it  x icxc w  Si skla.w\  That's t h e / h i s b r o t h e r t h a t t h e boy g i v e s h i s money (.to).  ?S c U  v. c - mSy - s - t - i x  QU , yes/no  Si  PF-know-IMPF-t-S2 .^ , TRANS  ciq^sxn'  the  w  light  mTD  TC  Sj ttw'it  Si  the  COMP  boy  - i '- t - i s . put.out-INDIR-t-S3 T. m  k"l sqal'tmix". to  man  Do y o u know t h e boy who put out t h e l i g h t on t h e man?,  b  ?S c U  cwikstx"  Sj cic^sxn  Si Si ttw'it  *'Swltis  D i d you see t h e l i g h t t h a t the. boy put out on t h e man?  k*L sqal'tmix ? w  123  c,  *  ?<  Ti *  mc  mTystix"  Tj ;sqsl'l3iiix Ti w  ? i ttwit  ^.Wltis  ciq^sxn' (Kl) ? Do y o u know t h e man t h a t t h e hoy p u t out t h e l i g h t  on?. .  T h i s provides: e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e i n i t i a l D a t i v e n o m i n a l , w i t h o u t i t s p r e p o s i t i o n , i s n o t a 2 and i s thus an advancee 3 ,  case-marking  I f t h e two o b j e c t nominals- are. permuted and p r e s e n t e d t o speakers- p r i o r t o sentences o f the. form o f 2 1 c and 2 2 c ,  the. i n i t i a l  Dative  and advancee 3 i s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , as. i n ' 2 3 b and 2 4 b , and thus b e a r s t h e 2 r e l a t i o n , with, t h e i^itial221plac^dnenV chomage,:;and :  u n a v a i l a b l e f o r r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , asr i n 2 3 c and 2 4 c .  23a  qt' - xi - t - s  T i stamtima?  Tj xix tnf w  t h e grandmother weave-BENE-t-S3,p The grandmother weaves: t h e g i r l  b  Tixi?  t xix tnf  R  the g i r l  w  a basket  a basket.  Ti Ti stomtima?  w  t ya~ix a?.  q'cxic  t yatnx^a?.  T h a t ' s t h e g i r l t h a t the. grandmother weaves: a basket  c... * Tixi? *  24a  t yamx a w  ?  Ti <Ti stomtima?  q'cxic  (fori,  Ti xlx tm\ w  That's t h e basket t h a t t h e grandmother weaves t h e g i r l .  Ti ttwit the  boy  * V - i - t - is put.out-INDIR-t-S3  Tj sqol'tmix  w  T R  the  man  Ti cXq^sxn'. the l i g h t  Thetboy p u t out (on) the. man t h e l i g h t ,  b  ?Tuc  cTystix  w  Tj sqal'tmix^ T i Ti ttwit  *Tw4tis  Do y o u know- t h e man t h a t t h e b o y p u t out the. l i g h t  c  It  *  ?T c  *  D i d y o u see the. l i g h t  U  cwlkstx"  Ti cicfexn  T i Ti ttwit  Ti clq^sxn'?  (on).?,  *Twltis  Ti sqol'tmix ?  t h a t t h e boy p u t out (on) t h e man?  I s concluded t h a t , i n a B e n e f a c t i v e / I n d i r e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , the  advancee 3 , an i n i t i a l  D a t i v e , may advance t o 2 a t which, p o i n t i t i s :  available for Relativization.  w  12V  1.5  Passivizatlon In s e c t i o n 1 , Chapter Three, i t was: argued and supported  the Passive  c o n s t r u c t i o n advances- a 2 i n the-' S.  that  stratum t o a 1 i n t h e  l  S. , . stratum.  This- i n t e r a c t s with, t h e B e n e . f a c t i v e / T n d i r e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n  1+1  to  provide  f o r advancement t o 2 .  evidence The  i n i t i a l D a t i v e nominal may he p a s s i v i z e d from an immediate,  post-predicate p o s i t i o n .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h , t h i s from patterns:  o f judgments o f g r a m m a t i e a l i t y . form  are presented  25b-29h.  When sentences c o n t a i n i n g p a s s i v e s o f the.  t o speakers:,  depending on t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  context.  patterns: o f g r a m m a t i e a l i t y  differ  I f these, b passives- f o l l o w t h e a  sentences: with. the. i n i t i a l D a t i v e nominal an advancee t o 2 i n immediate p o s t - p r e d i c a t e p o s i t i o n , t h e n t h e b. sentences: a r e judged grammatical. If the b passives  f o l l o w s e n t e n c e s i n which, t h e D a t i v e nominal h a s not  advanced t o 2 , then t h e b p a s s i v e s are. judged a s ungrammatical.  2-5a  Si ttw'it The  13  boy  x icxc w  give  Si sl'axc  t sklaw\  h i s brother  some money.  Sj sl'axt - s x i c - x - t - am  t sklaw" Si t ttw'it.  the brother-his  some money  w  give-BENE-t-PASS  INSTR  boy  H i s b r o t h e r was g i v e n some money by t h e boy.  26a  Si stamtima'  ?  The  b  grandmother  weaves  Sj xix tnf w  the g i r l  Sj xix tnf qfc' - x i - t - am w  the The  27a  qtxic  girl  t yamx a' . w  a basket.  t yamx a w  weave-BENE-t-PASS a basket  g i r l was woven a basket  Si sqal'tmix  w  k Snunxc w  ?  /?  Si t stamtima? - s. INSTR  grandmother-her  by h e r grandmother.  Sj pptvfina^x"  The man caught t h e o l d l a d y some salmon.  t scwSln.  125  b  Ti pptwina x ?  the  t scwTln  catch-BENE-t-PASS  some salmon  Tj ttwit  Ti t sqal'tmix". INSTR  man  was caught a salmon by t h e man.  Ti xix"tni **n&tls The g i r l  b  k Tnun - x - to- am w  old.woman  The o l d l a d y  28a  w  Tj ttw*it  Ti Aq^sxris.  put out the boy's l i g h t / t h e  ^T^ - 1 - t - am  Iboyi. h i s l i g h t .  Ti ciq^sxris  Ti t  xix tnf. w  The hoy was put out h i s l i g h t by the. g i r l .  29a  Ti ttwit  la?itis  Tj sl'axc  Ti lkTapu?s.  The boy wears h i s b r o t h e r ' s c o a t / h i s b r o t h e r his. c o a t .  b  Tj sl'axt - s  la? - i - t - im  t h e brother.-his. wear-INDIR-t-PASS J i His. i  brother, J  Ti lkTapu? - s the  coat-his. J  Ti t INSTR  a D a t i v e b e a r i n g an Oblique r e l a t i o n , h a s advancedtto  a sentences where i t i s a c c e s s i b l e t o p a s s i v i z a t i o n as i n t h e b The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e b sentences network, below: 30  boy. i  was worn h i s . coat by t h e boy... J i  These examples p r o v i d e evidence t h a t t h e u n d e r l i n e d initially  ttwit.  nominal, 2 i n the. sentences-.  i s represented i n l . the r e l a t i o n a l  126  An argument showing t h a t t h e i n i t i a l 2 is- not a f i n a l 2 may he based on Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t . as shown i n s e c t i o n 1 . 3 .  A q u a n t i f i e r may f l o a t  However, i n a p a s s i v i z e d D a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  whereothe i n i t i a l o b l i q u e nominal has- advanced t o 1 , float  from t h e i n i t i a l 2:  31  * Si xix tnf ySaySg?t  q'cf - x l - t - am  w  the  Si  girl  a l l  t stamtlma  INSTR  ?  from a 1 o r a 2 ,  we ave-BENE-t-PASS  a q u a n t i f i e r may not  ? i ym - yamx"a  ?  t h e PL-basket  - s.  grandmother-her  *.ie The g i r l was woven a l l the. b a s k e t s by h e r grandmother. T h i s shows t h a t t h e i n i t i a l o b l i q u e nominal had advanced t o 2 , p l a c i n g t h e i n i t i a l 2 en chomage. Given t h e a n a l y s i s proposed, t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n i t i a l 2 of a Benefactive/Indirective  construction i s accessible t o passivlzation  i f t h e i n i t i a l o b l i q u e nominal n a s not advanced t o b e a r t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n does not d e t r a c t from t h i s argument:  32  Sj scwSjn the  k Snunxtam w  Si pptWina x ?  w  Si t sqal'tmlx™.  salmon catch^-BENE-PASS t h e old.woman  INSTR  man  The salmon was caught f o r t h e o l d l a d y by t h e man.  33  Sj s&acinm the  deer  tSap - x i - t - am shoot-BENE-t-PASS  Si tklmllx the. woman  w  Si t sqal tmix . ,  INSTR  w  man  The deer was shot f o r the. woman by the man. The s t r u c t u r e o f sentences_"32 and 33 above i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n a l network, below:  127  Thus, P a s s i v i z a t l o n h a s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t h a t an oblique  nominal i n a B e n e f a c t i v e / I n d i r e c t i v e  initially  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Okanagan may  advance t o b e a r t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n , at -which, p o i n t i t i s : a c c e s s i b l e f o r promotion t o 1 by means o f • P a s s i v i z a t l o n . I t may be c o n c l u d e d l ) t h a t t h e B e n e f a c t i v e / I n d i r e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n h a s a nominal b e a r i n g an o b l i q u e stratum; -x(i)  2]  or  - 4  r e l a t i o n i n the i n i t i a l  t h a t t h i s f a c t i s r e g i s t e r e d b y one. o f the. morphemes, r e s p e c t i v e l y , on t h e v e r b a l r o o t o'f t h e p r e d i c a t e ;  3} t h a t t h i s nominal may advance t o hear t h e 3-relation,.?.r.and a g a i n t o bear the 2 - r e l a t i o n . Formation initial  E v i d e n c e from Cas:e-Marking and Q u e s t i o n  was brought t o bear t o support t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  o b l i q u e , e v i d e n c e from Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t , R e l a t i v i z a t i o n and  P a s s i v i z a t i o n was used f o r support o f t h i s nominal as. an advancee 3 and f i n a l 2.  128  2  Relational  Clauses  C e r t a i n c l a u s e s i n Okanagan occur w i t h f o l l o w i n g the verhal root o f the p r e d i c a t e . transitive. 1 ).  a -m(l) morpheme  These a r e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y  I t i s proposed:  •' t h a t t h e s e clauses: involve, an o b l i g a t o r y advancement o f a n o n - n u c l e a r  (WN) o b j e c t , I . e . , 3 s and o b l i q u e s , t o 2 , without I n t e r v e n i n g  status; a s  a 3 I n the. case: o f the. o b l i q u e s ; and 2) The  that the  -m(i) morpheme. I s a marker o f t h i s advancement..  a b b r e v i a t i o n OT I s used a s a c o v e r term f o r n o n - n u c l e a r terms, I . e . ,  3s. and obliques., where o b l i q u e s may be. Goal,  Source,  Instrumental,  Ben e f a c t i v e , et c.  2.1  Three Classes: Three, c l a s s e s o f verbs: can. be. i d e n t i f i e d a s o c c u r r i n g i n a  R e l a t i o n a l type, clause..  Verbs; I n two classes;, A and B, may not o c c u r I n  regular t r a n s i t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i o n s or In Middle v o i c e  CLASS A:  Verbs whose initial  stratum £s- intransitive,  agentive 1 .and no 2. 35  'Class A R e l a t i o n a l  This: c l a s s s u b - d i v i d e s  Clause:  into three  groups:  clauses,  consisting., of an  129  Class  Al:  Verbs  word  status,  that  for  are  members  of  this  sub-class  have  instance:  knSiya?  l i s t e n (.to)_  b  naq  s t e a l (of)  c  qays  dream (.of)  a  nlxal'  hear ( o f )  e.  nSunx ina  f  Sayncut  laugh.  g  qicalx  run (to).  h.  cfiwlx  climb, (.on).  1  papasilx  ponder/think, (on).  j  susuwilx  whisper  36a  Pairs  v  w  believe  ?  clauses i h b  kn  kn^iya?.  si  listen  "INTR  w  me  PF-listen-REL./2-IMPF-t-S3  nag*"  kn SI  I  c - kn^iya - m - s; - t - s.  k u  38a  (in 1  o f sentences- b e l o w e x e m p l i f y these, a s u n e r g a t i v e  and a s R e l a t i o n a l  3Ta  independent  INTR  t  naqs  t  steal a  one  a  listen.  He. i s l i s t e n i n g t o me.  T R M S  sSnklcSasqafxa'?. horse  I s t e a l one horse.  nacf - m ( - n - t ) - n w  steal-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl I s t o l e t h e horse,  T R M S  ?i the  sSri&cSasqaxa?, horse  130  39a  kn gays Sl^^  t skmxist  ckklaw\  dream a b l a c k b e a r  R  last'..night'  I dreamed ab.out a b l a c k b e a r l a s t  b  c-ays - m- n - t - s - n  night,  Tanwi" . 7  dre.am-REL/2-PFTV-t-you-Sl  _ TR  you.  I dreamed about you.  hOa, kn S 1  nixal' .  INTR  ftear  I hear.  b.  nixal' - mi ( - n - t)  -n  hear-REL72-PFTV-t-Sl  T R M S  swit  .  To c - susuwllx  someone COMP PL-whisper  to  k l naqs- l"ix , w  one-house  1 hear somebody w h i s p e r i n g i n t h e next house.  Ila  Ti Ti(n) - stamtima? the  my-grandmother  nTunx ina w  believe  Ti ks - xast - wilx - rrfp.  ?  COMP  UlIR-good-Developmental^P2_ , 13T  inn  My grandmother b e l i e v e s t h a t you-guys are. g e t t i n g  b  nTunx ina w  ?  better,  - m- n - t - s — n.  believe-RELy2-PFTV-t-you-Sl  TRAN  g,.  I believe, i n y o u .  4 2a  Ti sc'dnala? the  children  na lp ?  Tay - Tayncut.  always  ITER-laugh.  The c h i l d r e n always; laugh...  b  Ti sccfnala? the  k. - Tayncut - m ( > n - t 1 - s l x  c h i l d r e n Di.st-laugh-REL/2-PFTy-t-P3  mD)  The c h i l d r e n laugh, at t h e boy,  43a  kn  qicalx  Sl  run rv^.  _, INTR  TlvrnT  yTayTa?t a l l  I run t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n .  kl  sdcmala .  to  children  7  ,, 1  TO  Ti ttwit. the boy  131  M'b  t - qicalx - m ( - n - t ) - n Dist-run-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl  T R M S  ySaySa?t  .  a l l  Si  sdckala?.  the children  I run t o a l l the c h i l d r e n . hha  Si  sklaw'  the  t - cfiwlx  heaver D i s t - c l i m b  1  Sac - r S i p .  LOD  PF-upright  The heaver c l i m b s on t h e t r e e . ".. b  Si  sk^q^imalt  the  baby  t - cfiwlx • ra ( - n - t ) - s Dist-climb-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3  T R M g  "fW. S m i l e (Joe P a t e I  .  The baby climbed up on Joe P e t e .  45a  S i *&?&ap the  c - papasilx  elder  na?ip.  PF-ponder/think.  always  The o l d man i s t h i n k i n g / p o n d e r i n g a l l the. time.,  b  Sasi? uncle  c - k - papasilx - m - s - t - s PF-Dist-ponder-REL/2  - IMPF-t-S3  T R A N S  Sa .  the  Saq^aSlqwlSitn. language  Uncle, i s t h i n k i n g / p o n d e r i n g about t h e language.  46a  S i pptWina x ?  the  w  old.woman  susuwilx whisper  na ip. ?  always  The. o l d l a d y i s w h i s p e r i n g a l l t h e time.,  b  S i pptwina?x the  w  old.woman  c - k - susuwilx - m - s - t - s PF-Dist-whisper-REL72-IMPF-t-S3  S i ^fxap. T R M S  the elder  The o l d l a d y i s w h i s p e r i n g about t h e o l d man. The case marking p r e p o s i t i o n s on t h e i n i t i a l  o b l i q u e nominal  in  s e n t e n c e s 43a and 44a p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t o support t h e i n i t i a l  of  the A verb c l a s s .  stratum  132  Class A2:  Verbs that are members: of this- sub-class- do not have independent  word status.  They obligatorily  the Relational 47a  occur in a Relational  construction  morpheme. Members-, o f this- .class i n c l u d e : spill  b  Tayp-  scold  c  k Ta?-  get used t o  d  TniTukM^-  think, o f  w  6  ( s c m e l of/from/out o f  dx w  •  with  The sentences- 4 8 - 5 1 i l l u s t r a t e these, members;:  dxr - mi C. - n - t ) - n  48  spill-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl l  49a  T R A B f S  T i sq'Tuct  t h e grease/fat  T i tk%mllx  Tayp - mi ( - n - t ) - s  w  fm  mTa ( - n - t ) - s l x ?  break-PFTV-t-P3 The woman s c o l d e d  Ti tklmilx the.  woman  w  the children f o r breaking the chair,  sac - Tayp - mi - n - m.  always  PPF-scold-REL/2-PFTV-IETR-  scolds.  w  I'm g e t t i n g used t o y o u .  TniTuk^k^ - mi - n - t - s - n. think-REL/2-PFTV-t-you-Sl about y o u .  T R M S  T R A N S  7  the children  the. c h a i r  T R A N g  k Ta? - m i - n - t - s - n .  I think  j  Ti sTnkiijTutn.  get.used.to-REL/2-PFTV-t-you-Sl  51  1VTC  Ti sdcmala  na^ip  The woman always  50-  t h e LOC t a b l e  s p i l l e d t h e grease on t h e t a b l e .  tM:'-; .woman.'--•' •• \"fcold-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3 ,.  b  Ti i latap.  .'  tTl reason  133  Class A3:  Verbs that are members of this class also do not have  word-status.  However, they differ  from members of the A2 sub-class, -p suffix  they may also occur with a - t or an initially  intransitive  independent  as Unaccusatives,  stratum with a 2 and no 1, having  in that  i.e., in  stative  T  meaning. Members o f t h i s s u b - c l a s s , h a v i n g a g e n t i v e meaning i n a R e l a t i o n a l construction,  include:  sal'-,  lost  b  tii-  s t r a i g ght  c  tai-  s t r a i n ?ht, t r u e ,  d  y?ax -  drop  e  k ?an-  pity  52a  w  w  These are 53a  e x e m p l i f i e d below: sal' - t  kn S 1  (linear)  INTR  l  0  s  t  t -  Sala?. [ i n v i s i b l e , proximateD  h e r e  I'was l o s t around h e r e .  kn S1  sli I N T R  - p  lost-p  kl  wist.  to  high.  I was l o s t up i n t h e mountains,  kn Sl  sjfr T w n T 5  - p  lost-p  ?i  1  the  ?i(.n) - s q a y s .  LOC  my-dream  I was l o s t i n my dreams.  - mi C - n - t ) - n lost-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl I l o s t the b a l l .  T R A N S  S i p*aik la?. w  the  ball  trustable  13h  o e  f  Si scfcfmala?  s a j - mi ( - n - t ) - s  the  children  The  children lost  S  -  n  lost-REL/2-PFTV-t-P3 the  lx  Si the  r T O A W C  kkwVap. dog  dog.  sal* - p - n - cut - m - n - t - x . w  Cont-lost-p-PFTVEnglish.:  REFL -REL/2-PFTV-t-S2  You l o s t  mT3  something and can't rememher where you put i t .  i . e . , You l o s t y o u r s e l f o f something. French:  5^a  Tu t ' e s p e r d u de q u o i .  tai - t - x  t  straight-t-IMP  sqal'tmix . w  a  man  qp  INTR  h  Be a s t r a i g h t and t r u e  man!  t i - tai - t - x  t  ITER-straight-t-IMP  sqal'tmix . w  a  man  qp  INTR Be a v e r y s t r a i g h t and true, man.' c  kn Sl  k{i) - s - t i - t a i - t  T 1 V T r r r o  IN i n  own-NOM-ITER-straight-t  I got r i g h t s t o go  d ;  sqal'tmix  t i - t a i - t.  the  man  ITER-straight-t  The man  e  xast good  COND  Si(n) - ks - qws - plx - m. S1  T T 5  Inn  -UNR-go - hunt - INTR  hunting,  Si  w  i  i s straight, true, trustahle. ?  ac - n - t - 0  ;  watch^PFTV-t-IMP S2  t i - m - s - t - Sum - n .' straight-REL/2-IMPF-t-you-Sl^^g.  TRANS  B e t t e r watch o u t ; I ' l l s t r a i g h t e n you  out!  135  55a  S i pitk mn  tTitii / t i -tii.  the  EMPH s t r a i g h t /  w  nail  PL-straight  The n a i l i s s t r a i g h t . / / The n a i l s a r e s t r a i g h t ,  b  t i - m - 4 - t - in  T i pitk^'mn  straight-REL/2-IIiroiR-t-Sl  T i ttwit.  the n a i l  t h e hoy  I s t r a i g h t e n t h e n a i l f o r t h e hoy.  c  t i - m - x - t - i n  t pitk mn  straight-RELy2-BENE-t-Sl I straighten  56a  kn Slj  t*L  w  T  fall-t  R  some n a i l  TR  t h e hoy  s e v e r a l n a i l s f o r t h e hoy.  yTax - t N  T i ttWrt.  w  Tin - kwTap.  from  my-saddle.horse  I f a l l o f f from my h o r s e ,  h  kn S 1  Tn - yTax  INTR  - t  w  Cont-fall-t  I fall in.  c  Ti tklmllx" the.  y_Tx - mi C - n - t ). - s  Ta Tlput  w  woman  fall-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3  mr>A1  , ,.  the. cup  TC  Ti l  the. LOC f l o o r  The woman dropped, the cup on the. f l o o r , d  Teresa T  yTx w  m - n - cut  fall-REL/2-PFTV-REFL  k*L sTnkimTutn. to  chair  T e r e s a got h e r s e l f up o f f o f t h e c h a i r ,  e  Ti skVq^imalt the  oahy  t - yTx  w  - m - n - cut  Dist-fall-REL/2-PFTV-REFL  k l sk^u/ - s. t o male's.mom-his  The baby got h i m s e l f up o f f o f h i s mother.  sxlilp.  136  57a  ?i  Afe&ap  the  elder  ?n - k ?n  w  w  pitiful  The o l d man h  k ?ifo ?anat.  is pitiful, - m i - n - t - s - n .  w  Cont-pity-REL/2 PFTV-t-you-Sl T  T R A W S  I p i t y you. CLASS B:  Verbs whose i n i t i a l stratum  and no 1.  is intransitive,  consisting  of a 2  I t i s proposed t h a t verbs o f t h i s c l a s s have t h e f o l l o w i n g g  structure i n a Relational  construction:  58  Verbs o f t h i s c l a s s have independent word s t a t u s and a r e members o f t h e  -t  c l a s s o f U n a c c u s a t i v e s , i . e . , i n t r a n s i t i v e with, a 2  and no 1, h a v i n g s t a t i v e meaning.  They r e t a i n t h e - t  i n a Relational  c l a u s e , p r o v i d i n g evidence f o r t h e i n i t i a l stratum proposed above. Members o f t h i s c l a s s i n c l u d e : 59a  xast  good, l i k e  b  yalt  r u n away from  c  mil't  visit  d  iipt  forget  e  klk i isst  jealous  f  'i'aymt  mad  g  q a^lq i!ilt  talkative  h.  l^imt  glad  w<  >  w  w  137  L i k e C l a s s A, members o f C l a s s B do n o t occur voice clauses or i n regular t r a n s i t i v e clauses.  i n the Middle  Members o f C l a s s B  l i s t e d above a r e e x e m p l i f i e d below, showing t h e r o o t s i n U n a c c u s a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s and i n R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s :  60a  xast  Ti ttwit.  good  t h e boy  The boy i s good,  b  xast - mi - n - t - x like-REL/2-PFTV-t-S2 You  c  l i k e your  Ta  w  monivTC  ,  Ts(n) - c - i i n ?  the  your-PF-eat  food,  xast - mi - n - t - s - n. like-REL/2-PFTV-t-you-Sl  T R M S  I s o r t a l i k e y o u . / I'm b e g i n n i n g  6ia  ?  Tuc QU  k u w  , yes/no  t o l i k e you.  ks - y l - y l t - mix - a?x ? Pl-r^rm INTR  UNR-PL-run. away-PROG—INCEP  S h a l l we f u n away?,  b  T i ttwit the The  c  boy  yalt r u n . away  t l ^&*&ap. from  elder  boy r u n s away from t h e o l d man.  Ti ttwit  y l t - mi ( - n - t ) - s  Ti $x$&ap.  the.  run.away-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3 ,  the elder  boy  rnl  IK  The. boy r a n away from t h e o l d man.  62a  Ti Ti(n) - stamtima? the  my-grandmother  milt, visit  My grandmother v i s i t s .  138  b  xast - Ti ? i ( ) - sp"us  t?l  n  good  the  my-heart  kn I  N  I'm  T  you.  glad.  lTim - l?mt ,  k S 2  G r e e t i n g s , my  lTjmt  Tifn) - sl'axt  w  IOTR  friend  d  »•  9  my-friend .'  i . e . , G r e e t i n g s ( t o ) y o u (who) are my  -m-n-t-s-n.  glad-REL/2-PFTV-t-you-Sl I  T R M S  f e e l happy f o r you.  tait  kTi  very  lTjmt  -m-n-t-s-n.  glad-REL/2-PFTV-t-you-Sl  COMP  T R M S  I'm v e r y proud o f you.  e  lTjmt - m - n - t - x  T  w  glad-REL/2-PFTV-t-S2  T R M S  ?  a  the  You're proud o f your a n c e s t o r s .  64a  kn S1  Tn - i i p t .  IWTR  I b  C  o  n  t  -  f  o  r  g  e  t  forget.  kn  ip - ipt - u i .  S 1  I  I'm  c  N  T  R  ITER-forget-?  forgetful,  Tn - i i p t - m ( - n - t ) - n . Cont-forget-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl I  s  glad  R  ITER-glad,  c  T R  lTjmt.  S 1  b  Dist-visit-REL/2-PFIV-t-you-Sl ^  reason  My h e a r t i s g l a d t o v i s i t  63a  k - milt - m- n - t - s - n .  forgot i t .  T R M S  a n  - xax?itt.  your-ancestors  friend!  139'  65a  Vi  sqal'tmix  the  Vi  sqal'tmix  the  man  kn S1  j e a l o u s - REL/2-PFTV-t-S3  T  R  A  N  Vi  sl'axt -  the  S  mad.  Susap  Vaymt - m - n -  cut.  mad-REL/2-PFTV-REFL  Joseph, i s mad  at h i m s e l f ,  Vi  Vaymt - m ( -  twtWit PL-boy  the  - s  mad-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3  The. boys a r e mad Vi  n - t)  ttwit  the  TRMS  xxix x tm\ w  w  PL-girl  at t h e g i r l s : .  q aVlq iVlt w  boy  Vi  myai.  w  talkative  much.  the h o y t a l k s t o o much., b  Vi the.  sk q imalt ? w  q aVlq aVlat.  v  w  baby  w  1 Q  begin, to.be. t a l k a t i v e  The baby i s b e g i n n i n g t o talk.. c  q aVlq w  w  JVlt  - x  talkative-IMP  t  Vn - s i l x - -  a  cn.  Cont-nation-mouth.  qp  IRTR Speak. Okanagan! /. d  Speak, o f the language o f the n a t i o n !  nixal' - m ( - n - t ) - n hear-REL72-PFTV-t-Sl I hear t h e man  TR  talk..  Vi the  sqal'tmix man  w  c - q aVlq iV.lt. w  s.  brother-his  mad  I N T R  the  67a  - m ( - n - t ) - s  w  i s jealous- over h i s b r o t h e r .  Joseph.  c  l&k Visst  w  Vaymt.  I'm b  jealous  i s jealous,  The man 66a  w  man  The man h  l£k Visst.  w  w  PF-talkative  140  e  q a?lq i?l w  -s-t-m-n.  w  speak/talk - I M P F - t - y o u - S l  T R M S  I'm t a l k i n g t o you.  f  t - q a?lq iglt w  -m-n-t-s-n.  w  D i s t - t a l k a t i ve-REL/2-PFTV-t-you-Sl ,. _ mr  I talked  g  about you.  T i Tiimix"]!! the  w  chief  t - q aTlqwj?lt - m ( - n - t ) - s w  Dist-talkative-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3  moA1  ,  Ti scTnqTay'st - s  TO  the husiness-his  na ip. ?  always The  chief talked  swit  h  Ti  who Who  CLASS C:  the  Tiimix  Ti t - q y a T l q j T l t - j i ( - n - t ) - s ?. w  w  COMP D i s t - t a l k a t i v e - R E L / 2 - P F T V - t - S 3 T R M S  chief  d i d t h e c h i e f t a l k about?  Verbs- which occur in regular  may receive  a weak causative  Constructions  with this  Members o f t h i s c l a s s  68a  about h i s b u s i n e s s a l l t h e time,  transitive  interpretation  class are restricted  in a Relational to Imperfective  sweep  b  'Tiin-  eat  c  k^ul-  w  aspect.  work, f i x  These verbs -may o c c u r i n a M i d d l e v o i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r n o t :  6g  kn Sl  T 1 V T m T  kMtf - m ,  T i ?  work-MIDDLE  I work here a l o t . /  9  a  here  t x"Tlt / x Ta? - spln'tk. . w  a  lot /  many years:.  many - y e a r  but which  construction.  include:  ax -  ?  constructions,  ihi  TO  kn S1  ?Vito.  IWTR  S  a  t  I eat. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t  is: t h a t t h e s e v e r b s o c c u r i n both, a r e g u l a r  transitive  c o n s t r u c t i o n and a R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n :  71a  Vi sqsl'tmix™  kSil' ( - n - t ) - s  the  work-PFTV-t-S3  The  b  man  Vi tmx ula?x . w  w  the land  T R M S  man worked t h e l a n d ,  Vi sq9l'tmix  k^ul' - m- s - t - s  the  man  work-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3  (Vi)  1 . trnx^ula?^-'- . Ir sklr/Su^n.: -  the  LOC  w  land  LOC  Vi twtwit. TR  t h e PL-boy  Monday  The man had t h e h i r e d hands working on t h e l a n d on Monday.  7 2 a Vi xix tm  ?Vii(n) ( - n - t ) - s  w  the The  b  girl girl  e a t - PFTV-t-S3 j ^jyg l  w  The  ?  girl girl  i.e.,  kn SI J J J T J I ^  Viin - m - s - t - s  Vi pptWina x ?  eat J 3 E L / 2 - I M P F - t - S 3 ^ g T R  w  Vi patak V u i  t h e old.woman  N  ?  t h e g i r l had t h e o l d l a d y  k i - ax ?  w  eat... f e d her)_  - lp - m.  at op - s we ep- s l a t s-MIDDLE  k l - ?ax ( - n - t ) - n w  under-sweep-PFTV-t-Sl I swept under my bed.  I N T R  Vi ? i ( ) - sVncjutn. n  the. my-bed  scw?in.  t h e p o t a t o and salmon  i s f e e d i n g t h e o l d l a d y t h e p o t a t o e s and salmon.  I'm sweeping t h e f l o o r ,  b  scwVin.  u  t h e p o t a t o and salmon  R  (.context: t h e o l d woman i s c r i p p e d and t h e g i r l  73a  ?V i  a t e t h e p o t a t o e s and salmon,  Vi xlx tnf the  Vi patak  l42  c  T i Ti(n) - stsmtima? the  my-grandmother  (Ti  sxlilp.)  the  floor  k u  k i - ax  w  me  ?  w  - l p - m i - s - t - s  atop-sweep-slat-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3  TRANS  My grandmother had me sweeping -(thef floor')) The  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c l a u s a l s t r u c t u r e o f verbs- o f C l a s s C is. d e l a y e d  until  a f t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f C l a s s e s A and B, i . e . , t o s e c t i o n 2 . 6 .  2.2  Evidence f o r I n i t i a l  Intransitivity  Evidence f o r t h e i n i t i a l  stratum  o f Class: A l and A 3 , and  C l a s s B v e r b s as i n t r a n s i t i v e comes: from a)  t h e case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n s ; m a r k i h g f i n t t i a l n o b l i q u e o b j e c t s ,  as e x e m p l i f i e d i n sentences such as 4 3 a , 4 4 a , 5 3 b , 5 3 c , 5 6 a , 5 6 d and 6 l b ; b)  t h e absence o f o b j e c t i n 3 7 a , 40a, 4 l a , 42a, 4 5 a , 4 6 a , and 5 3 a ; and  c)  the. n o n - s p e c i f i c a r t i c l e , o b l i g a t o r y on non-case-marked o b j e c t s i n  examples: suchaas 3 7 a , 3 9 a and 5 4 a , b .  These o b j e c t s may be i n i t i a l 3 s  since, t h e y do not appear t o be e i t h e r 2s o r . o b l i q u e s . d)  Moreover, f o r C l a s s B v e r b s ,  a d d i t i o n a l evidence comes; from t h e  r e t e n t i o n o f t h e U n a c c u s a t i v e - t / -p stratum  o c c u r r i n g a s a n u c l e a r term i n the.  (see s e c t i o n 2, Chapter T h r e e ) . 6lc,  morphemes, m a r k i n g a 2 i n the. S^. ^  or f i n a l  stratum  These morphemes a r e e x e m p l i f i e d i n 6 0 b , c ,  62b,c, 6 3 c - e , 6 4 c - d , 6 5 a , 6 6 b - c , and 67£-h.. S y n t a c t i c evidence f o r i n t r a n s i t i v i t y is a v a i l a b l e , from t e s t s  with. P a s s ! v i z a t i o n , Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t , and R e l a t i v i z a t i o n . are p o s s i b l e from 2s. occur without -m(i)  A l l o f these  However, when verbs: o f R e l a t i o n a l C l a s s A and B i n paraphrase constructions:, as i n t h e a_ sentence.s  helow, these, t e s t s r e s u l t i n u n g r a m m a t i c a l i t y , a s shown i n t h e b s e n t e n c e s :  ih3  PASSIVIZATION Class A 71+a  Vi  *%?&ap  naq*"  the e l d e r The h  steal  *  Vi / t  Vi  ttw'it  the.  a  horse  sVnklcV§sqaxa  *  naq^  ?  horse qa/s  hoy  The hoy b  sVnl&cVasqaxa?.  e l d e r s t o l e a horse  the/ta.: 75a  t  - n - t - am  u  steal-PFTV-t-PASS t  t INSTR  $&&xap. elder  sknkist.  dream  a hlackhear  dreamed about a b l a c k b e a r .  Vi / t the/  a  skmxist  qays - n - t - am  blackbear  Vi  dream-PFTV-t-PASS  t  ttw'it.  INSTR  boy  Class B 76a  xix tm  Vi the  tl'  yalt  w  girl  run.away  pptwina?x . w  from  old.woman  The g i r l r a n away from the o l d l a d y , b  *  Vi  pptWi.na x ?  the  old.woman  QUANTIFIER FLOAT  77a  Vi  *  Vi  78a  Vi the The  w  girl  yVayVa t  steal  t  xix tm\ w  INSTR  girl  Vi  sViil&cVosqaxa?.  the  horse  ?  all  s t o l e a l l the hors-es.  elder  xix tnf  run.away-PFTV-t-PASS  naq^  Mcap  the  u  1  elder  The o l d man b  1  &%2&ap  the  y a l t - n - t - am  w  yVayVa?t  naq'  all  steal  qicalx run  g i r l ran to a l l the  Vj ft  w  yVayVa?t all children.  the/a lc*I to  sVnl&c asqaxa?. c  horse  sc'dnala?. children  Ihh  b * Vi xix tnf  yVayVa?t  w  the  girl  a l l  7 9 a Vi pptWana x ?  the  qicalx  nixal'  w  old.woman  run  the  Vi sccmala?.  a l l  The o l d l a d y hear a l l t h e  old.woman  the children  children,  yVayVa?t  w  t o children  yVayVa^t  hear  h * Vi pptWina?x  k*L sc'cmala?.  a l l  nixal'  Vi scfcmala?.  hear  the children  RELATIVIZATIQN  8.0a kn  naq^ t sVnklcVasqaxa?.  Sl^^^cl'.stgal I stole  a  horse  a horse.  wik C - n - t ) - s Vi sVrik-icVasqaxa?. Vi kn nacf".  h * Vi V i M i x ^ the  8 l a kn qays ^INTR  see-PFTV-t-S3  chief  d  r  t h e horse  T R M S  . COMP S 1  I N T R  t skntxist. e  a  m  a  "blackhear  I dream about a b l a c k b e a r .  b * wik ( -' n - t ) - n see - P F T V - t - S l  8 2 a Vi xix tnf yalt w  the  .girl  The g i r l  COMP  S  l  ^  w  from old.woman  r a n away from t h e o l d l a d y ,  8 3 a Vi xix tnf w  The g i r l  kn qays.  t l ' pptwina?x .  run.away  see-PFTV-t-Sl  girl  Vi  the blackbear  T R M S  b * wik ( - n - t ) - n  the  Vi sknkist  :  T R A W g  Vi pptwina?x  .  w  Vi  t h e old.woman COMP  "qicalx  k l •ttw'it-.  - .run  to  r u n t o t h e boy.  boy  Vi xix tm' yalt. w  the g i r l  run.away  steal  Ih5  b  * wlk ( - n - t ) - n see-PFTV-t-Sl  ? i /.ttwit the  T R A N S  boy  Ti ? i xix tm w  COMP  the g i r l  qicalx. run  Evidence from t h e s e t e s t s shows: t h a t the nominals i n q u e s t i o n are not initial  2s, and hence bear a non-nuclear  2.3 Evidence f o r F i n a l  relation.  Transitivity  M o r p h o l o g i c a l evidence t h a t R e l a t i o n a l c l a u s e s are  finally  t r a n s i t i v e comes from a)  the  -t  t r a n s i t i v e marker, o f an i n i t i a l o r advancee 2 o c c u r r i n g  as a n u c l e a r term i n the f i n a l b)  stratum;  the c h o i c e o f t h e t r a n s i t i v e s e t o f r e a l i s  s u b j e c t markers,  s u r f a c e t r a n s i t i v i t y , i . e . , a 1 and a 2 i n the f i n a l c).  the o b l i g a t o r y aspect marking,  indicating  stratum;  Imperfective or P e r f e c t i v e ,  required  i f t h e r e i s an i n i t i a l o r advancee 2-arc which i s a n u c l e a r term a r c i n t h e f i n a l stratum,  (see s e c t i o n 1.7,  Chapter Two  f o r the relevant  rules  12 statement  and  diagrams.)  S y n t a c t i c evidence i s a v a i l a b l e from P a s s i v i z a t i o n ,  Relativization,  ?, .".and Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t t o show t h a t t h e s e R e l a t i o n a l c l a u s e s are t r a n s i t i v e . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , a l l the phenomena a f f e c t 2s. a 2 t o a 1; are  P a s s i v i z a t i o n promotes  R e l a t i v i z a t i o n on a downstairs c l a u s e and Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t  b o t h l i m i t e d t o I s and 2s.  Should the p o s t - p r e d i c a t e nominal  in a  R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n f u n c t i o n as a 2 w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e phenomena, t h i s w i l l e s t a b l i s h t h e 2-hood o f t h e nominal i n q u e s t i o n . 2.3.1  •  Passivization The sentences below, formed with, v e r b s o f class: A and B, show-  t h a t a R e l a t i o n a l c l a u s e may  passivize:  CLASS A:  8 4 a Ti sqal'tmix" t - qicalx - m - n - t - am the The b  man  Ti t  Dist-run-REL/2-PFTV-t-PASS  ttwit.  INSTR  hoy  man "was, r u n t o hy t h e boy.  Tj sqal'tmix" k h T i y a - m - n - t - am the  man  The man  Ti  llsten-REL/2-PFTV-t-PASS  t  ttwit.  INSTR  boy  i s l i s t e n e d t o by t h e boy.  CLASS B:  8 5 a Tj xxix x tnf w  the  w  PL-girl  The g i r l s  Ti t twtwit. m l 3  INSTR PL-boy  a t by t h e boys,  y l t - mi - n - t - am  elder  lx  mad'.at-REL/2-PFTV-t-PASS P 3 ™ IN IK  a r e mad  b Tj 3&j&ap the  Taymt - m - n - t - am  T i t ttwxt.  run.away-REL/2-PFTV-t-PASS  INSTR  boy  The e l d e r i s run away from by t h e boy. From t h e s e examples, final  i t may be. c o n c l u d e d t h a t the.mominal s e r v i n g as  s u b j e c t b e a r s t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n i n the. p r e v i o u s stratum.  2.3.2  Quantifier  Float  The d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r Class- A and B v e r b s with, r e s p e c t t o Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t a l s o provides, support f o r t h e 2-hood o f t h e p o s t predicate, nominal: CLASS A: 86  yT yTg?t 9  all  t - qicalx - m ( - n - t ) - n Dist-run-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl  T R M S  Tj sccfrtala?. the c h i l d r e n  I r u n t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n . /(..All I r u n t o t h e c h i l d r e n . )  87  yTayTg?t k - susuwilx - m - s - t - x all  Dist-whisper-RELy2-IMPF-t-S2  w  ]IIRMS  Tj aSo&xap. the PL-elder  You whisper about a l l t h e o l d men, / . ( A l l y o u whisper about the old'man. I.  IkJ  88 V y?ay?a?t  cx - mi ( - n - t ) - n w  all  spill-RELy2-PFTV-t-Sl  T R M S  ?i lk?api  1 sxlilp.  the coffee  LOC  I s p i l l e d a l l t h e c o f f e e on t h e f l o o r . /  floor  ( A l l I s p i l l e d the c o f f e e on . . . ).  CLASS B:  89  y^ay^t all  y l t - mi ( - n - t ) - n  run.away-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl  the children  TRAWS  I r u n away from a l l t h e c h i l d r e n . /  90  ^ i sc&nala?.  (.All I r u n away from t h e c h i l d r e n . ) .  y T a y ^ t k - mift - m - n - t - x w all  w  DIst-visit-REL/2-PFTy-t-S2  You v i s i t  2.3.3  ^ i ptptwina?x . T R A N S  t h e PL-old.woman  a l l the o l d l a d i e s . / ( A l l you v i s i t the o l d ladies.1  Relativization S i m i l a r l y , e v i d e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e from R e l a t i v i z a t i o n which  demonstrates  t h a t t h e nominal r e l a t i v i z e d upon i s e i t h e r a 1 o r a 2  downstairs.  S i n c e t h e downstairs c l a u s e s e x e m p l i f i e d below have a nominal  b e a r i n g t h e 1 - r e l a t i o n i n t h e f i n a l s t r a t u m , i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e nominal r e l a t i v i z e d upon i s a downstairs 2. CLASS A:  91  ^ixi? that  ?inca kn ?  me  ^ i ?i ttw'it k u c - kV^iya - m - s - t - s . w  COMP  t h e boy  me P F - l i s t e n - R E L / 2 - J J f f ' F - t - S 3  T R A N S  That's me t h a t t h e boy i s l i s t e n i n g t o .  92  ku w  me  cu(t) - 4 - t - 0  ^ i s?rikic^qaxa? ^ i nacf" - m ( - n - t )  tell-INDIRrt-IMP ao  t h e horse  COMP  steal-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl  TRANS  Show me. t h e horse t h a t I s t o l e .  93  c - nf5y - s - t - in  ? i x i t 3m*?infra/ ?a c - nixal' - m - s - t - n. ?  PF-remember-IMPF-t-Sl t h a t a s t o r y IK I remember t h e s t o r y t h a t I heard. mD  COMP  PF-hear-REL/2-IMPF-t-Sl _ IK m  148  CLASS B:  94  Tj flfo&gp To c - y l t - mi - s - t - sm  95  COMP  Ti t ttwit.  the  elder  PF-run.away-REL/2-IMPF-t-PASS  It's  t h e o l d man who has: been r u n away from by t h e boy.  c - mTy - s - t - i n PF-know-IMPF-t-Sl  Ti sqsl'tmix  w  the  T R M S  man  t - q sTlqwi?lt - m - s - t - s  INSTR  hoy  T i Ti xxix x tnf w  COMP  w  the PL-girl  lx.  w  Dist-talkative-REL/2-IMPF-t-P3  T R A N S  I know t h e man t h a t t h e g i r l s a r e t a l k i n g  about.  I t may be. concluded t h a t t h e p o s t - p r e d i c a t e nominal i n a R e l a t i o n a l  clause  bears: t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n i n the. second s t r a t u m , i . e . , t h e i n i t i a l p l u s one stratum, based on evidence from P a s s i v i z a t i o n , Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t , and Relativization.  2.4  Evidence, f o r O b l i g a t o r y Advancement S y n t a c t i c evidence, i s : a v a i l a b l e from Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n t o  show t h a t , i n a -m(l) c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e advancement o f the i n i t i a l l y o b j e c t is: o b l i g a t o r y .  oblique  A s shown i n s e c t i o n 1.2, Chapter Three and s e c t i o n 1.8,  Chapter Two, the. i n t e r r o g a t i v e  swit  'who'  takes: case-marking when  q u e s t i o n i n g a nominal which, b e a r s a r . f i n a l o b l i q u e r e l a t i o n i n t h e downstairs clause.  With, a R e l a t i o n a l c l a u s e with. the. R e l a t i o n a l morpheme on t h e v e r b ,  no case-marking appears:  96a  swit who  Ti T i M i x ^ thechief  Ti t - q sTlq«lTlt - m ( - n - t ) - s Z w  COMP D i s t - t a l k a t i v e - R E L / 2 - P F T V - t - S 3  Who d i d the. c h i e f t a l k , about?  b  swit who  Ti ttwat the  boy  Ti COMP  Who d i d t h e boy run t o ?  t - qicslx - m (. - n - t ) - s ?. Dist-run-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3  T R M S  T R M S  .  11*9'  c  kl:., swit to  d  ttwit  who  the  hoy  To who  d i d t h e hoy  *  swit  kl  Ti qicalx ?:  Ti  COMP  run  run?  ttw'it  Ti  t - qicalx - m ( - n - t ) - s ?  T h i s f a c t t h a t the o b l i q u e nominal may nominal as i n a_, h, and  d_. above, l e a d s one  advancement i s o b l i g a t o r y . o b l i q u e o b j e c t has -X  and  2.5  -4  The  That i s , -m(l)  advanced t o 2.  may  s e n t e n c e s 71-73.  Three  t o conclude t h a t t h e R e l a t i o n a l o c c u r s o n l y when the  This: s e c t i o n w i l l examine t h r e e p r o p o s a l s  illustrated  f o r the  Proposals  ( A i s s e n and P e r l m u t t e r  proposal,  1976).  structure of these  c l a i m i n g t h a t these are t r u e  ^Tlin - m-  w  girl  patak  u p s t a i r s 2 and the downstairs 1  the potato  s- t - s  eat-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3 ?  Tu4 and  causative  s u b j e c t t o o b l i g a t o r y Clause. Union  u p s t a i r s : 3, as diagrammed.'! below:  xlx tirf  clauses:  Under Clause Union, i n v o l v i n g a downstairs  t r a n s i t i v e clause., t h e d o w n s t a i r s 2 ->  Ti  at issxie..  choose between them.  c o n s t r u c t i o n s with, a b i c l a u s a l source,  the  of  oblique.  r e c e i v e a weak, c a u s a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as  True Causative  97;  initially  This: c o n t r a s t s : with, the occurrence,  Three proposals-may be. made f o r the a  oblique  s t r u c t u r e o f the Class: C R e l a t i o n a l v e r b s i s s t i l l  s t r u c t u r e , o f these, c l a u s e s and  (ll  as- an  C l a s s C Verbs  SucK'.constructions  2.5.1  questioned  which, r e g i s t e r the presence o f the r e l e v a n t  The  in  not be  mxD  Ti pptWina?x . w  the  o l d . woman  scwTin. salmon  The  g i r l had t h e o l d l a d y eat t h e p o t a t o e s and  The  girl  f e e d the o l d l a d y the p o t a t o e s and  salmon. /  salmon.  150  S i n c e t h e unmarked s u r f a c e word o r d e r o f Okanagan i s P i t would appear t h a t i n 9 7  1  2  3  OBL,  the p u t a t i v e u n i o n 3 has: advanced t o 2 i n the  next stratum, demoting the p u t a t i v e u n i o n 2 t o 2 . (.2)  an  Inheritance  Causative  p r o p o s a l , c l a i m i n g that these  Relational  clauses:, C l a s s C, are b l c l a u s a l c a u s a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , s u h j e c t t t o a d i f f e r e n t type o f Clause Union, as proposed by Gibson Chamorro, whereby t h e downstairs 1 t h e u p s t a i r s 2 , and the downstairs 3  (.1980)  for  the u p s t a i r s 2 , the downstairs: 2 ->  the u p s t a i r s  3:  151  or (3)  an Advancement p r o p o s a l , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e s e c l a u s e s a r e l i k e t h e  o t h e r two c l a s s e s o f R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , i n v o l v i n g an o b l i g a t o r y advancement o f an i n i t i a l  o b l i q u e o b j e c t t o d i r e c t o b j e c t i n t h e next  stratum: 100  All  o f t h e s e p r o p o s a l s a r e compatible  with, t h e f a c t s with,  respect to P a s s i v i z a t i o n : 101a  Si pptwina x ?  the  Si  old.woman  t  INSTR The b  w  ?  Siin - m - n - t - a m eat-REL/2-PFTV-t-PASS  t  patak S u 4 ?  some p o t a t o and salmon  xix tm\ w  girl  o l d l a d y was had t o eat some p o t a t o e s  and salmon by t h e g i r l .  Si twtwit - s  k^ul' - m - n. - t - am  1  t h e PL-boy-his  work-REL/2-PFTV-t-PASS  LOC  Si  t  INSTR  scwSin  tmx ula'?x w  w  land  Sin - kikH-a?. my-grandfather  H i s h i r e d hands were had t o work on the. l a n d by my  grandfather.  152  2.5.2  • Choosing Between These. Proposals: These are two  proposals: and  major d i f f e r e n c e s - between the two  t h e Advancement p r o p o s a l .  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n s - are b i c l a u s a l i n s t r u c t u r e . constructions nor  are monoclausal and  former c l a i m t h a t  The  these  l a t t e r claims that  these  non-causative, i . e . , neither b i c l a u s a l  causative. According  causative  102  situation.  Condition  to Shibatani  (.1976),  1: the speaker believes  time of the causing Condition  two  conditions: c h a r a c t e r i z e  that the occurrence  that all else remained s i t u a t i o n may  o r a one-event c a u s a t i v e .  t^  the  3  event.  2: the speaker believes  A causative  of the  at t^ , which is after  that the occurrence  event is wholly dependent in the occurrence provided  a  T h e i r statement is; r e d u c e d t o t h e e s s e n t i a l s below:  caused event has been realized  First,  of the caused  of the causing event,  constant. be  r e a l i z e d e i t h e r as a two-event  i t i s argued t h a t t h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s  nottwo-event c a u s a t i v e s , based on e v i d e n c e from t e m p o r a l  are  adverbials,  are not b i c l a u s a l , based on lack, o f e v i d e n c e f o r 3-hood f o r a d o w n s t a i r s  and 1.  Causative  - S e c o n d l y , f o u r arguments: are p r e s e n t e d showing t h a t t h e s e  are not  one-event c a u s a t i v e s Whether or not  either. t h e s e Class: C R e l a t i o n a l s i n v o l v e two  can be. t e s t e d w i t h the p r e s e n c e o f temporal a d v e r b i a l s . c o n s i s t s o f two  constructions  If a  events  construction : 1  e v e n t s , i t i s ; ; p o s s i b l e t o q u a l i f y the time o f each, event  with, an a d v e r b i a l , as argued i n Fodor  (.1970)  and  Shibatani  (.1976),  and  as i l l u s t r a t e d below:  103  a  pisciit yesterday  cu(.t) - n (. - t ) - n tell-PFTV-t-Sl  Yesterday I t o l d Vincent  T R A N S  Vincent V  ks - k^ayilsxn UNR-haircut-IWCEP  t o cut h i s h a i r t o d a y .  - a?x  fapna . ?  today  153  b  cninwys  S i n - kik^wa?  Si  k^amist  t  sqsl'tmix",  a . l i t t l e . w h i l e . a g o the my-grandfather .hire ks  - k^ul' - i  ( - t ) - s  UNR-work-PFTV-t-S3  IRR  Si t  A l i t t l e w h i l e ago my  h  a  tmx ula?x w  g  l  grandfather  a  n  w  man xlap. tomorrow  d  h i r e d a man  Both, o f t h e v e r b s i n the lower c l a u s e s i n the two  t o work, the l a n d tomorrow.  examples above are members  o f t h e Class: C R e l a t i o n a l v e r b s : I04a  k'Sayilsxn - m - s - t - n\ haircut-REL/2-IMPF-t-S1 TRANS, movable I had him  b  Si the My  cut h i s h a i r ,  Sin - kikHra?  k^ul' - m - s - t - s  my-grandfather grandfather  work-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3  had t h e man  I f these  Si  work, on t h e  TR  sqal'tmix" the  1  man  trnx ula?x . w  LOC  w  land  land.  C l a s s C R e l a t i o n a l s i n v o l v e two  events,  p o s s i b l e t o q u a l i f y each event w i t h a temporal a d v e r b i a l .  i t should  be  However t h i s i s  not p o s s i b l e and the r e s u l t i s ungrammatlcal: 105a  *  plscrlt  k'Sayilsxn - m-  yesterday b  *  s-  t - n  haircut-REL/2-IMPF-t-Sl  Sapna7.  ^ today TR, movable cninwys S i S i n - k i k H r a ? k^uT - m - s - t - s a . l i t t l e . w h i l e . a g o the my-grandpa" work-REL'/2iIMPF-t-S3 .„„ TRANS mn  mT3  Sithe  sqol'tmix man  1  w  LOC  This: p r o v i d e s evidence and do not  tmx ula'?x w  land t h a t these  w  xlap. tomorrow  c o n s t r u c t i o n s are not two^event c o n s t r u c t i o n s  s a t i s f y Shibatani's characterization of causative s i t u a t i o n s . A f u r t h e r argument, s p e c i f i c a l l y r u l i n g out the. True  p r o p o s a l ^ , with. 3-to-2 Advancement i s the lack, o f evidence  Causative  from l i n e a r p o s i t i o n  15U  to  support 3-hood, f o r t h e downstairs: 1 , as: t h e r e was  Dative to  i n t h e case o f t h e  ( I n d i r e c t i v e / B e n e f a c t i v e ). c o n s t r u c t i o n , which p e r m i t t e d  Advancement  3:  *  106  Ti xix tnf  ?Tim.  w  the  girl  eat-REL/2-lWF-t-S3  Tj  pptwana x .  the  old.woman  ?  *  - m - s - t - s  ?T 4  Ti patak  rrro  .,  U  scVTin  t h e p o t a t o and salmon  TO  w  The. g i r l had eat t h e potatoes, and salmon (.to) t h e o l d l a d y .  Thus, t h e True:.. C a u s a t i v e o b l i g a t o r y , thus c a u s i n g  proposal,*'would r e q u i r e making 3-to-2  Advancement  complications.  There remains t h e weak c a u s a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t o be accounted f o r and with, i t , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t may he one-event causatives. n e v e r t h e l e s s .  these  Three arguments a r e p r e s e n t e d  below t o argue a g a i n s t t h e p u t a t i v e c a u s a t i v i t y o f t h e s e C l a s s C R e l a t i o n a l constructions. i)  •  First  o f a l l , t h e s e sentences do not always r e c e i v e a (''causative'  interpretation:  107a  Tlqmtinak  ^Tacf" - s - m - s - t - s  T.  Ti sxalwi  scrape-face-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3  Tiqm asked her husband t o shave o f f hisTiqm had  b  the husband  Ti sTupcin - s. t h e mustache-his  mustache.  her husband shave o f f h i s mustache,  Ti Ti(n) - stamtima? the  TR  7  my-grandmother  Ti  sxlilp.  the  floor.  My grandmother asked  km me  k i - ax ?  w  - lp - m-  s- t - s  atop-sweep-slats-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3 ^g  me t o sweep t h e f l o o r . /  My grandmother had me sweep t h e f l o o r .  TR  155  ii.)  Secondly, such, a c o n s t r u c t i o n , when s u b o r d i n a t e d  loses the force o f the 'causative'  108  104a):  cu(t) - n ( - t ) - n  Vincent  T i k^ayilsxn - m - s - t - n .  tell-PFTV-t-Sl  V  COMP h a i r c u t - R E L / 2 - I M P F - t - S l  I t o l d Vincent * iii)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (.cf.  to a directive,  T R A N S  t o c u t h i s own h a i r .  I t o l d V. t h a t I make, him c u t . . .  T h i r d l y , t h e 'caused event'  need not have o c c u r r e d ,  i . e . , have been  caused, thus, i n v o l v i n g a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n v i o l a t i o n o f t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t the  caused event i s b e l i e v e d t o be w h o l l y dependent upon t h e c a u s i n g  event  109  (Shibatani  1976):  Ti stamtima? the  k i - ?ax - l p - m - s - t - s w  Ti ttwit  grandmother atop-s.weep-slats-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3,j  Ti  sxlilp  the  floor  ?  Tui  '.and  t h e boy  R  lut s - x?ina? - s. NEG  s-ob.ey-S3 „ TT3  IKK Grannie, had t h e boy sweep t h e f l o o r but he d i d n ' t  obey.  Three arguments: have been advanced t h a t t h e C l a s s C R e l a t i o n a l s are.-.not 'causative': i)  that the constructions  i i ) that there  do not i n v o l v e two-events;  is. no evidence f o r a downstairs 1 advancing t o be an u p s t a i r s :  and i i i ) . that there  i s no c o n s i s t e n t c a u s a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e C l a s s  C Relational  constructions 13'";  are n o t c a u s a t i v e , o f e i t h e r t h e two-event o r one-event t y p e .  Therefore,  t h e t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e Instrumental: Advancement p r o p o s a l ,  i s selected  as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  structure f o r the Class C R e l a t i o n a l  constructions.  156  2.6  I n s t r u m e n t a l Advancement Evidence t o support t h i s s e l e c t i o n as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e one comes  from I n s t r u m e n t a l  110a  constructions:  Si sqol'tmix" k^ul' ( - n - t ) - s the  ?i  man  t  work-PFTV-t-S3  mDA1  ,  Si tmx ula?x w  the  TQ  w  land  t ^ l - ula?x - tn. w  INSTR  rip-land-Instr  The man worked t h e l a n d with, a plough.,  h  Si xlx tnf  ?Srl(n) ( - n - t ) - s  w  the  'Si.  girl  t  eat-PFTV-t-S3  T R A N  Si patak  g  the  ?  Su4 scwSin  potato  and salmon  iumh.  INSTR spoon The g i r l a t e t h e p o t a t o e s and salmon with, a spoon. In  such. I n s t r u m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e i n i t i a l  I n s t r u m e n t a l nominal may  advance t o d i r e c t o h j e c t , t r i g g e r i n g t h e R e l a t i o n a l morpheme on the v e r h : Ilia  kSal' - m ( - n - t ) - s  Si sqol'tmix  w  the  man  tmx ula x .  the  land  The man  w  work-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3„„.„  Si  w  ? i t^lula?x tn  ?  a  t h e plough.  w  worked the'^plough. (on) the l a n d . /  The man worked-with. the. plough, t h e l a n d . / The man  used the plough, on the. l a n d ,  b Si xix trrf w  the  girl  ?  Siin - m ( - n - t ) - s eat-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3 ^g TR  Sj jumn  Si patak Su4 scwSin.  t h e spoon  ?  t h e p o t a t o and salmon  The g i r l used t h e spoon t o eat t h e p o t a t o e s and salmon./ The g i r l  eat-with. t h e spoon the p o t a t o e s and salmon.  157  For  such. I n s t r u m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , both, t h e  initial  I n s t r u m e n t a l nominal and t h e a d v a n c e e - t o - d i r e c t o b j e c t nominal may the' •• questioned.  With, the R e l a t i o n a l morpheme p r e s e n t on the. -verb, o n l y t h e  advancee nominal may be q u e s t i o n e d , w i t h o u t t h e case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n , as: was seen i n s e c t i o n 2.k o f t h i s c h a p t e r :  112a Tj t stinf INSTR  Ti sqai'tmix" kTi kMil' ( - n - t ) - s  what  the  man  COMP  work-PFTV-t-S3  TRAN  Ti tmx ula'?x ?. w  g.  the  w  land  ¥ith. what t h e man worked t h e land?,  b * stinf c stinf  , Ti sqal'tmix  T i sqal'tmix the.  man  Ti tmx ula?x w  Ti k^ul' - m ( - n - t ) - s  w  what  kTi k^ul's  w  work-REL72-PFTV-t-S3  COMP  TRA:N  ?  w  Ti l tinx ula?x ?. w  g.  t h e LOC  w  land  What t h e man worked-with. on t h e l a n d ?  d * Tj t stinf 113a Tj t stinf INSTR  T i sqal'tmix  w  T i xix tnf w  kTi  the g i r l  Ti  patak  the  p o t a t o and salmon  ?  Tu4  Ti 1 tmx ula?x w  w  ?. ,  ?Tii(n) C - n - t ) - s  COMP  eat-PFTV-t-S3  T R M S  scwTin?.  With, what d i d t h e g i r l  b  * stinf  c  stinf  Ti xix tnf  what  the g i r l  e a t the. p o t a t o e s and salmon?  Ti xlx tnf kTi w  w  Ti krulms  ?Tiis  Ti patak  ?T 4  Ti '?Tiin - m ( - n - t ) - s COMP  eat-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3  T R M  scwTin ?  U  g  Ti patak ?T 4 U  scwTin ?  t h e p o t a t o and salmon  What d i d t h e g i r l use t o e a t t h e p o t a t o e s and salmon? d  *  ?  i t stinf  Ti xix tnf w  Ti ?Ti4nms  Ti tSk pa  ?  T i u  scwTin?.  With, an animate I n s t r u m e n t a l n o m i n a l , the. nominal must and t h e nominal may be q u e s t i o n e d o n l y when advanced:  advance  158  114a  * Si sqal'tmix™ *  k^ul' ( - n - t ) - s Si tmx (ila?x w  Si t  w  ttwit.  The man worked t h e l a n d with, t h e h i r e d hand.  h Si sqal'tmix™ the  man;--.  k^ul' - m- s - t - s  Sj ttwit  work-REL/2-B"PF-t-S3 ,  t h e hoy  mr  Si tmx ula?x . w  w  the land  In  The. man has t h e h i r e d hand working t h e l a n d . / The man use t h e h i r e d hand t o work t h e l a n d ,  c swit  Si sqal'tmlx"  who  the  mam:  Sa c - k^ul' - m- s - t - s COMP PF-work.-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3  t k^q^Sact  ?  a strong  TR  Who does t h e man have working hard?  d * Sj t swit 115a  * Si xix tnf w  the  Sj  Ta  w  ckMiifinsc  ?Sii( ) ( - n - t ) - s n  girl  eat - P F T V - t - S 3  T R  t ^cq^Tact ?  Si patak  ?S 4 U  sdvTin  t h e p o t a t o and salmon  t stamtima? - s ?  INSTR *  ? i sqal'tmix  grandmother-her  The g i r l  ate t h e potatoes; and salmon w i t h / b y means: o f h e r grandmother.  b Si xlx tnf S i i n - m- s - t - s Sj stamtima? - s Si patak S u i w  the  girl  ?  ?  eat-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3  scVTin.  t h e grandmother-her t h e p o t a t o & salmon  TR  The g i r l h a s h e r grandmother e a t i n g t h e p o t a t o e s and salmon. c swit who  Ti xix tnf w  the g i r l  Ta c - T i i n - m- s - t - s Si patak S u 4 ?  COMP  ?  PF-eat-REL/2-IMPF-t-S3 , mT  scwSin.  the. p o t a t o and salmon  In  Who t h e g i r l has e a t i n g t h e p o t a t o e s and salmon?  d * Sj t swit  Si xix tnf Sa c Siinmsc w  ?  Si patak  ?  Tui  scVSln?  Moreover, i t may be noted t h a t o n l y one I n s t r u m e n t a l nominal i s p e r m i t t e d i n t h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . - The Okanagan e q u i v a l e n t f o r 'The g i r l fed  h e r grandmother t h e p o t a t o e s and salmon with, a spoon' i s not p e r m i t t e d .  15.9-  The inanimate  d i s t i n c t i o n between an I n s t r u m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n with, an  I n s t r u m e n t a l nominal  i s t h a t with, t h e  and one with, an animate I n s t r u m e n t a l  nominal  latter,  I)  Advancement-to-2 i s o b l i g a t o r y , and  ii)  I m p e r f e c t i v e aspect i s r e q u i r e d . I t may be concluded t h a t t h e Class: C R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s :  a l s o i n v o l v e an advancement t o 2, o b l i g a t o r y f o r animate nominals:,  as: r e p r e s e n t e d  Instrumental  i n t h e r e l a t i o n a l network below:  116  -m(i) This a n a l y s i s permits t h e f o l l o w i n g three Ci)  I t allows: f o r the. statement  of a linguistic  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n with, r e s p e c t  t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a l l t h r e e classes: o f R e l a t i o n a l 117  that all three classes of an initial the  -m(l)  of Relational  statements:  verbs:  verbs involve advancement  non-nuclear nominal to direct  object,  triggering  morpheme on the verb as a marker of the advancement.  ( i i ) I t accounts  f o r t h e v a g a r i e s o f t h e "weak, c a u s a t i v e " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  which, does, not w i t h s t a n d c l o s e ( i i i ) I t accounts  examination.  f o r t h e p a r a l l e l i s m between t h e inanimate, and animate  Instrumental c o n s t r u c t i o n s .  160  3  Locative  Clauses  Two types: o f l o c a t i v e c l a u s e s a r e d i s c u s s e d :  14  1) L o c a t i v e Advancement: t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n ; and 2) L o c a t i v e Advancement with. L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n It  o f body p a r t s .  i s proposed  (i) that i n i t i a l  L o c a t i v e nominals: may, l i k e , o t h e r  advance up t h e R e l a t i o n a l H i e r a r c h y Subj (I), >  D i r . Obj. (.2)  :(i.il t h a t t h e v e r b a l morpheme  >  (Perlmutter  oblique, objects:,  and P o s t a l  I n d i r . Obj. '(-35 >  -(i)na?  19.781:  Oblique O b j . ( O B L l  marks t h i s - advancement; and  ( i i i . ) t h a t , when t h e Locative, nominal i s a body p a r t , t h e v e r b a l morpheme. -4  ' I n d i r e c t i v e ' r e g i s t e r s t h e presence, o f an i n i t i a l o b l i q u e  3.1  The B a s i c  object.  Pattern  Locative, clauses-, with, t h e -(T)na?-  v e r b a l morpheme, are.  e x e m p l i f i e d below:  118a  km P 1  t - eft - ina?.  INTR  D  i  s  t  -  r  a  i  n  -  L  0  C  We were r a i n e d on, i . e . , I t r a i n e d on us-,  b:  Ti. ttwit  XI*' - m  the.  climb-MIDDLE t o mountain and  boy  k*L sq^slq^alt  ?T 4  t - q't - ina?  U  Dist-rain-LOC  t kslcla^x". a  day  The b o y climb t o t h e mountain and he. was r a i n e d on a l l day.  c  Ti sqal'tmlx™ the.  man  s - c - pix - x  t kskla?x  s- PP - hunt-PROG a  day  w  ?T 4 U  and  The man was h u n t i n g a l l day and he. was snowed on.  k - mq^q^ - ina?. Dist-snowing-LOC  161  d  kn Sl  Tn - mTy - p - i n a . ?  Cont-know-UNACCUS-LOC -find.out  T n w m n  I understand,  e  kn S1  Tn - s5x  w  - na . ?  Cont-recognize-LOC  I N T R  I understand,  f  kn Sl  k - cx - na - n - cut  t  w  T 1 1 T m T 3  Dlst-spill-LOC-PFTV-REFL  falti?. a  tea  INTK I s p i l l e d t e a on m y s e l f . In the. i n t r a n s i t i v e , examples above, t h e p u t a t i v e . Advancement i s o b l i g a t o r y and t h e i n i t i a l l o c a t i v e he r e c o v e r e d .  with, case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n cannot  However, t h a t i s not the. case. with, t r a n s i t i v e l o c a t i v e  constructions:  112  k i - cx - ml C. - n - t ) - n  Ti lkTapi  w  atop-spill-RELy2-PFTV-t-Sl  Tj l  the: c o f f e e  T R M S  sxlllp.  t h e LOC f l o o r  I s p i l l e d t h e c o f f e e on t h e f l o o r .  120a  k - cx - ml ( - n - t ) - n  t slwik  w  Dlst-spill-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl  w  Tj 1 statakm.  a 11quia  t h e LOC  puppies  I s p i l l e d some water on t h e p u p p i e s .  b  k - c x - na ( - n - t ) - n  t siw4k  w  Dlst-spill-LOC-PFTV-t-Sl  m l 3  a  w  liquid  Tj slat&km. t h e puppies  in I s p i l l e d some water  c  (on). t h e puppies:.  k - dx - na ( - n - t ) - n w  Dist-spill-LOC-PFTV-t-Sl I spilled  Tj stfatakm  t h e puppies IK Con), t h e puppies some water. m T D  t slwik . w  a liquid  162  The proposed  structure for 120c  can he r e p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y  i n t h e s t r a t a l diagram below: 121  LOC;  2  LOC  1  XV  1  2  1  statakm  Si  kdx 'nan . with, the i n i t i a l w i t h NN -h  2  t  SI  v  assignment  o f grammatical  advancement i n the c..  r e p l a c e d by t h e  -na  siwik  marking  LOC  w  r e l a t i o n s i n the c^  stratum, marked by - m f i ) 3  stratum, which, i s  advancement i n t h e e^-^  and with, o p t i o n a l 3 - ^ 2 advancement i n t h e c.  stratum,  stratum.  M o r p h o l o g i c a l evidence i s a v a i l a b l e t o support L o c a t i v e Advancement. i n the i n i t i a l  That the u n d e r l i n e d nominals  s t r a t u m as i n 1 1 9 and 1 2 0 a i s shown by t h e L o c a t i v e c a s e -  marking p r e p o s i t i o n .  That i t does not bear the L o c a t i v e r e l a t i o n i n t h e  next stratum, as i n 1 2 0 b , preposition.  above bear t h e L o c a t i v e r e l a t i o n  i s shown by the absence  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t 1 2 0 b  morpheme on the v e r b .  o f the  demonstrates  T h i s morpheme r e p l a c e s t h e - m ( i )  marker o f Advancement-to-2, a l s o marks an Advancement  thus p r o v i d i n g evidence t h a t (.see a l s o s e c t i o n  case-marking the\,-C£)na  ?  Relational -(l)na?  3 . 2 , page l 6 3 ) .  S y n t a c t i c evidence f o r L o c a t i v e Advancement-to-2 i s a v a i l a b l e from Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t , P a s s i v i z a t i o n and R e l a t i v i z a t i o n . i n t e r v e n i n g s t a t u s a s a 3 , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n 1 2 0 b ,  Evidence f o r  i s g i v e n f u r t h e r below.  163  QUANTIFIER FLOAT: 122  yT9y?g?t  kdx nan  Tj  w  I spilled  statakm  t  siwik . w  (on) a l l t h e puppies some water./.(All I s p i l l e d  (on), the. puppies...).  PASSIVIZATION: 123  Tj  statakm  k - cx  the puppies-  w  - na - n - t - am  Di.st-spill-LOC-PFTV-t-PASS  t  slwik  w  some l i q u i d  Ti  t  INSTR  ttwit. hoy  The puppies were s p i l l e d water on hy t h e hoy. RELATIVIZATION: 121+  Tixl?  t  stfatfakm  Ti k - cx  that  a  puppies  That's  t h e puppies t h a t I s p i l l e d water t o n ) .  w  - na ( - n - t ) - n  COMP D i s t - s p i l l - L O C - P F T V - t - S l  IK  t  siwik . w  a liquid  An a d d i t i o n a l argument r e s t s on U n a c c u s a t i v e s , which, involve, an i n t r a n s i t i v e i n i t i a l  s t r a t u m with, a 2 and no 1, and a f i n a l s t r a t u m  i n which, t h e 2 advances- t o 1, t o s e r v e as- f i n a l s u b j e c t .  One c l a s s (A),  o f U n a c c u s a t i v e s i s r e c o g n i z a b l e from the. Second Consonant R e d u p l i c a t i o n (see  Chapter T h r e e ) .  T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d below with, a ' t o p i c a l ! z e d  subject: 125a  Tj the  b  stfalakm  k - cx  puppies:  w  - x  w  - ina  Dist-spill-UNACCUS-LOC  The puppies: were s p i l l e d  water.on.  T i siw4k  - ina?  the.  w  t  ?  k - dx  w  - x  w  l i q u i d Dist-spill-UNACCUS-LOC  siwik . w  a liquid  T j stfatfakm. the. puppies-  The. water s p i l l on t h e p u p p i e s , c  Ti the The  lkTapi  k - Cx  vV  - x  w  - ina?  c o f f e e Dist-spill-UNACCUS-LOC c o f f e e s p i l l e d on Tiqmtinak..  Tiqmtinak. female.name  final  164  Sentences 1 2 2 - 1 2 l + , 1 2 5 a show t h a t t h e i n i t i a l L o c a t i v e nominal advanced t o 2 , with, f u r t h e r advancement t o 1 i n 1 2 5 a , the  i n i t i a l L o c a t i v e has  a s w i l l be  3 in a finally intransitive  advanced t o  125b,c,  whereas i n sentences  clause,  shown below. S y n t a c t i c e v i d e n c e i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o show t h a t the  initially  L o c a t i v e nominal advances: t o 3 i n an i n t e r v e n i n g s t r a t u m , from Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t and the  from R e l a t i v i z a t i o n (but not  from P a s s i v i z a t i o n because o f  e f f e c t s : o f t h e Animacy Hierarchy)".  QUANTIFIER FLOAT:  126a  y?9yT9?t  kcx nan  I s p i l l e d a l l the b  *  ?i  w  y?9y?9?t  lk?api  c o f f e e (on)  kdx nan w  t  Tiqm.  Tiqm./ ( A l l I s p i l l e d the  siwik  ?i  w  coffee.  stfalakm..  I s p i l l e d .--the water i(pn) a l l the p u p p i e s . / ( A l l I s p i l l e d The  examples above with. Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t show t h a t the  nominal cannot be  initial  a f i n a l 2 , s i n c e i t cannot be. m o d i f i e d  by  a  q u a n t i f i e r , as. i n the b examples, whereas, a f i n a l 2 , as i n the can  float  ...)  ...the p u p p i e s . )  Locative, floating a example,  a quantifier.  RELATIVIZATION:  127a  y?aySg?t It's  b  Si. IkSapi  a l l the  k6c nan  Si  Tiqm.  w  c o f f e e t h a t I s p i l l e d on  qgyx - nu ( - n - t ) - n  Si  IkSapi  Si  smell-LTDC-PFTV-t-Sl—,..^.  the  coffee  COMP  w  I smell the coffee that I s p i l l e d The  Tiqm.  examples above show t h a t the  2 s i n c e o n l y downstairs I s and sentences above., the Locative  i s a 3 by  initial  2 s can be  (on) the  kcx nan w  ?i  stfatakm.  puppies.  L o c a t i v e nominal cannot be r e l a t i v i z e d upon.  In  a  final  the  c o f f e e i s : r e l a t i v i z e d upon, as a f i n a l 2 , t h u s the  default.  16-5  3.2  Consequences o f R e l a t i o n a l arid L o c a t i v e Advancement f o r Limited; .Control The  morpheme -nu marks- L i m i t e d C o n t r o l .  the agent is: not f u l l y i n c o n t r o l o f the: a c t i o n . occurred  In s-uch. a c o n s t r u c t i o n , The, a c t i o n may have  a c c i d e n t a l l y o r u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , as i n 131d, o r t h e a c t i o n  may have o c c u r r e d w i t h complete v o l i t i o n hut w i t h o u t f u l l 131e.  I t i s proposed here t h a t  -nu  c o n t r o l , as. i n  has: a grammatical f u n c t i o n as w e l l  as a semantic one, and marks a d v a n c e m e n t - t o - 2 . ^ Sentences a-c helow exemplify  qayx  w  i n t r a n s i t i v e constructions  ' s m e l l , have an odour', an U n a c c u s a t i v e v e r h ,  C l a s s C.  with.  ( T h i s verb  c o n s t r a s t s with, t h e v e r h sum*- 'to s m e l l something d e l i b e r a t e l y , t o pick, up something and s m e l l i t ! . )  128a  Ti st^atfakm  Ti s - qayx - s  the  COMP s-smell-S3- -  w  puppies  ri  ^cxii  t lkTapi.  like  >0  some c o f f e e  IRK  h  It's  the puppies that smell l i k e  k  qayx .  S2  w  c  w  INTR  You  coffee,  S 1  ^ll/stin:,  smell/stink,  Ti s - qayx - tat w  the NOM-smell-our  xast. good  We s m e l l good./ Our s m e l l i s good. By comparison, t h e s e n t e n c e s below e x e m p l i f y v e r b , with, o b l i g a t o r y -nu  marking.  t h e t r a n s i t i v e use o f t h i s  I t has a l r e a d y been shown t h a t  U n a c c u s a t i v e v e r b s i n v o l v e advancement to' 2 o f an i n i t i a l l y  non-nuclear  nominal i n a t r a n s i t i v e clause, (see s e c t i o n 2 on R e l a t i o n a l v e r b s Class: B and  Chapter T h r e e ^ o s e c t i o n  2 on U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e s ) .  166  129a  qyx - nu C - n - t ) - n  Si stim\  smell-LTDC-PFTV-t-Sl^^g.  t h e something  w  I smell  h  something.  qyx - nu ( - n - t ) - n  Si sSnwSal?Sula' x ^ l a p .  smell-LTDC-PFTV-t-Sl  the  w  ?  T R A N S  w  toast  burn  I smell the toast burning. The L i m i t e d C o n t r o l morpheme: r e p l a c e s : t h e -m(i) Relational i n '(.NL) Okanagan, morpheme as: does: t h e L o c a t i v e morpheme, thus: p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l evidence  A  that  -nu  marks:  an Advancement o f a non-nuclear term t o 2:  130a  naq^ - m - i - t - s - n steal-REL/2-INDIR-t-you-Sl I s t o l e your  b  Sa  7  San - kwSap. the  TR  saddlehorse.  nacf" - cf* - nu - 4 - t - s - n  Sa  s.teal-UNACCUS-LTDC-IWDIR-t-you-Sl I a c c i d e n t a l l y s t o l e your  c  Si Sin - lkapo? the  your-horse  my-coat  San - kwSap. t h e your-horse.  TR  saddlehorse.  nacf* - cf*. steal-UNACCUS  My coat was. s t o l e n ,  d  kn  nacf*  ^INTR  s  t  t e  a  l  sSnk4c^asqaxa . ?  a  horse  I s t e a l a horse.  131a  Si(n) - ks - t i 4 - m - s -' t - m S1 inn  T T 3 D  Si S i ( ) - snkmiqn. n  - UNR-straight-REL/2-IMPF-t-INTR  t h e my-back.  I'm g o i n g t o s t r a i g h t e n -my back., b  cnf will I'll  t i i -ra- s - t - Sum - n. straight-REL/2-B5PF-t-you-Sl s t r a i g h t e n you o u t .  T R M g  .  167  c  Ti p!tk mn.  titii.  w  the  nail  s t r a i g h t ^ ^  The n a i l i s s t r a i g h t .  d  tii-4  - nu ( - n - t ) - n  straight-UWACCUS-LTDC-PFTVit-Sl  Ti pitk mn. w  the. n a i l  I straightened the n a i l , a c c i d e n t a l l y ./unintentionally,  e  tii-  nu  ( -n - t ) -n  straight-LTDC-PFTV-t-Sl  Ti pltk^mn. the. n a i l  mT3  I f i n a l l y managed t o s t r a i g h t e n t h e n a i l . The d i s t i n c t i o n between sentences. d_ and e above, are  represented  i n t h e r e l a t i o n a l networks below, which, diagram t h e two types: o f L i m i t e d C o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t i o n s - possible.: 132a  TYPE A ( = d.1  A c c i d e n t a l Reading, which, r e q u i r e s i n i t i a l U n a c c u s a t i v e stratum:  .P  t i i - 4 - nu  Ti  pltk mn w  TYPE B .( = e.1. F i n a l l y Managed To Reading;  p'itk mn w  168  P r e d i c a t e s which., occur i n t r a n s i t i v e , constructions;, wi.th:,an a g e n t i v e smhject,  a s i n 133a below, r e q u i r e , f o r an a c c i d e n t a l / u n i n t e n t i o n a l  r e a d i n g , t h a t an U n a c c u s a t i v e  form o f t h e r o o t , u s u a l l y o f Class- A with.  Second Consosnant R e d u p l i c a t i o n , be used, a s i n 133b below: 133a  -dq - n - t - s - In. w  slap-PFTV-t-you-Sl^  iR I s l a p p e d you. b.  tq - q w  w  - nu ( - n - t ) - n.  slap-UWACCUS-LTDC-PFTy-t-Sl  TRAE  g.  I slapped you a c c i d e n t a l l y ,  c  * *  d  tfq - nu C - n - t } - n. w  I slapped you a c c i d e n t a l l y ,  Ti ttwit  tq aq .  the.  s l a p  boy  w  w  U  M  C  C  U  S  The hoy was s l a p p e d . Some, v e r b s r e q u i r e t h e Unaccusative. form o f another example, t h e verb.  c l a s s , as- does- f o r  mTy-'know', r e q u i r i n g t h e C l a s s D form with, the -p  morpheme:  I3ka  c - mty - s - t - i n PF-know-IMPF-t-Sl .- . mT3  TC1  Ti sqal'tmix". the. man  I know t h e man.  b  mTy - p - nu [. - n - t ] - n  Ti cTaptiq"!.  know-UNACCUS-LTDC-PFTV-t-Sl .. . mn  T0  the. myth.  I found out about t h e o l d myths. Sentences 129_a,h, with, t h e v e r b qaySc verb o f C l a s s C U n a c c u s a t i v e s .  w  ' s m e l l , have an odour', u t i l i z e a  169  S y n t a c t i c evidence, t h a t -nu  constructions- I n v o l v e 2-hood i s  a v a i l a b l e from R e l a t i v i z a t i o n and P a s s i v i z a t i o n . PASSIVIZATION:  135a  Tj sk^c^Imolt  nacf* - m - n - t - am  the baby  steal-REL72-PFTy-t-PASS  Ti t sqal tmix . ?  INSTR  w  man  The hahy was- s t o l e n by t h e man.  b  Tj kwTap nacf' - cf  - nu - n - t - am  w  the  horse  T i , t sqal'tm£x . w  steal-UNACC-LTDC-PFTV-t-PASS  INSTR  man  The horse was a c c i d e n t a l l y s t o l e n b y t h e man. c  Tj statakm the.  qyx  puppies  w  - nu - n - t - am  Ti  smell-LTDC-PFTV-t-PASS  t  INSTR  ttwxt. boy.  The p u p p i e s were s m e l l e d by t h e boy. RELATIVIZATION:  136a  Tixi? that  To the  T  9 n  - kw?ap  your-horse  naq^ - q  v  - nfi - i - t - s - n.  s.teal-UNACCUS-LTDC-INDIR-t-you-Sl  TRAKS  .  That's: your saddlehorse. (that). I stole, a c c i d e n t a l l y ,  b  sal' - mi ( - n - t ) - s lose-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3 He. l o s t  T R A N S  Tj pltk mn' w  the nail  the n a i l that I f i n a l l y  Ti t i i - nu C  -  n  - t ) - n.  COMP s : t r a l g h t - L T D C - P F T y - t - S l  straightened.'  As with, t h e R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , no evidence, i s  -  available,  f o r advancement t o an i n t e r v e n i n g s t a t u s as: a 3 . Both, t h e L o c a t i v e Advancement marker -(i^na? and the. L i m i t e d C o n t r o l marker  -nu  r e p l a c e t h e R e l a t i o n a l advancement marker  In t h e case o f a L o c a t i v e Advancement  -m(l).I  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v o l v i n g an u n i n t e n t i o n a l  a c t i o n , both. the. L i m i t e d C o n t r o l and L o c a t i v e Advancement m a r k e r s appear:  TR  137a  k l - cx  - mi C - n - t ) - n  w  Ti  atop-spill-REL/2-PFTV-t-Sl .. ,. mn  I s p i l l e d the c o f f e e on t h e h  k - cx  - x  w  w  lkTapi  Ti  tne coffee  TC  l  sxlilp.  t h e LOC  floor  floor,  - na - nu - n - t - s - n.  Dist-splll-UMCC-LOC-LTDC-PFTV-t-you-Sl  g  I s p i l l e d on you a c c i d e n t a l l y . On the basis- o f the p r e c e d i n g t h e -na that  i n 137b  -nu  marks; you,  as- h a v i n g  d i s c u s s i o n , i t can be. n o t e d t h a t  advanced from L o c a t l v e - t o - 3 ,  s p e c i f i e s - the advancement t o 2.  The  l a t e r advancement marker  does not r e p l a c e t h e e a r l i e r i m a r k e r , as- i t d i d -with. -m(i) e a s i l y be  explained:  -mi  .  This  can  i s ; s o l e l y a grammatical marker o f advancement-  t o - 2 , without  semantic c o n t e n t , however -nu  would be. l o s t  I f this-marker  represented  and  were d e l e t e d .  has- semantic content The  which,  structure of b i s  g r a p h i c a l l y i n the. r e l a t i o n a l network, below:  138  cx w  with. t h e Second Consonant R e d u p l i c a t i o n marking t h e c~ stratum, marking t h e advancement i n t h e c . . stratum,  i n advancement i n t h e c._  stratum.  and  -nu  the  marking the  -na  171  3.3  L o c a t i v e Advancement w i t a Body P a r t s L o c a t i v e clauses- i n v o l v i n g Body parts- r e q u i r e t h e -4  ' I n d i r e c t i v e ' morpheme which, r e g i s t e r s the presence o f an o c l i q u e o h j e c t , a s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n s 1 and 3 o f t h i s c h a p t e r .  Sentences  a_ - d. below i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s - with, body p a r t s :  139a  Ti sqol'tmix  tfq - 4 - t - is  w  the  Ti  w  man  slap-INDIR-t-S3  mT3A1  ,  ttwit  the  TC  Tj 1  boy  cfTasiyaqn.  t h e LOC  head  The man s l a p p e d the boy on the: head,  b  Ti ttrwat  trq - 4 - t - is  the  ki.ck.-Iin)IR-t-S3 ,., ,.  boy  mT  The boy k i c k e d the  Ti skH^imolt  c  the  baby  Ti tklmlx the  Ti  woman  TC  v  the g i r l  t h e LOC  Ti pTus the cat  t h e LOC t a i l  the. cat on t h e t a i l ,  kp - p - nu - 4 - t - s pinch-UNACCUS-INDIR-t-S3  Ti pTus TR  Tj 1 siwps  the cat  t h e LOC t a i l  door  The woman a c c i d e n t a l l y p i n c h e d It  the c a t on t h e t a i l i n t h e door.  i s proposed t h a t nominals r e f e r r i n g t o body p a r t s o f t h e  2-nominal, b e a r i n g t h e L o c a t i v e r e l a t i o n i n t h e i n i t i a l (l)  may advance, t o 3,  (.2)  may o p t i o n a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e  •  Tj 1 siwps.  1 k4Tnkmip.  the LOC  and  foot  g i r l on t h e f o o t .  Dist-pinch^INDIR-t-SS^  w  Tj 1 sq Toxt.  w  t - kip - 4 - t - s  The. c h i l d p i n c h e d  d  Ti xix tri  stratum:  into the verb while bearing a 3 r e l a t i o n ;  (.3) may not advance t o 2. '. '  Evidence t h a t a l o c a t i v e body p a r t may advance t o 3 i s a v a i l a b l  from the i n t e r a c t i o n o f case-marking and P a s s i v i z a t i o n :  17.2  ll+Oa  trq - 4 - t - i s  Ti ttw'it the  boy  kick-INDIR-t-S3™  ?! xix tm'  Tj sq^Taxt - s.  w  the g i r l  the foot-her  i n  The boy k i c k e d t h e g i r l  b  trq - 4 - t - Im  Ti xix tnf w  the  girl  Ti sqol tmix ,  the  Tj scf^Tgxt - s  kick-INDIR-t-PASS t h e f o o t - h e r  The g i r l was: k i c k e d  lkla  (on)" h e r f o o t ,  INSTR hoy  Ti ttw'it, Tj c'Tasiyaqn - s.  w  man  ttWat.  (on) h e r f o o t by t h e boy.  t q - 4 - t - is  w  Ti t  slap-INDIR-t-S3  TR  t h e boy  t h e head-his  The. man s l a p p e d t h e boy (on) his: head,  h  t q - 4 - t - im  Ti ttwit the  boy  w  slap-INDIR-t-PASS  The boy was s l a p p e d  Tj <5a iyaqn ~ s: s  Ti t  the. head-his  sqal'tmix"  INSTR  man  (on), his: head by the. man.  Advancement o f the. u n d e r l i n e d nominal from I n i t i a l  Locative  i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e absence o f t h e case-marking p r e p o s i t i o n 1. c o n s t r u c t i o n s : demonstrate t h a t t h i s i s : not advancement t o 2.  The. P a s s i v e  The proposed  a n a l y s i s allows: an account o f the. d i s t i n c t i o n ; so by d e f a u l t , i t i s : advancement o f t h e u n d e r l i n e d nominals; t o a 3.  I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d  t h a t when t h e u n d e r l i n e d nominals bear t h e f i n a l L o c a t i v e these, may not take a p o s s e s s i v e  relation,  a f f i x , as i n 1139a-d above.  n o m i n a l s i n q u e s t i o n bear t h e p u t a t i v e 3 - r e l a t i o n , t h e s e may a possessive, a f f i x a s i n l'+O-l'L above. evidence  When the. take  This fact provides a d d i t i o n a l  o f a d i s t i n c t i o n and hence i n d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t s  an a n a l y s i s '  with, advancement. Evidence t h a t a L o c a t i v e body p a r t may i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o t h e v e r b while, a p u t a t i v e 3 i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e from P a s s ! v i z a t i o n .  I t should  be n o t e d t h a t t h e l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s which, i n c o r p o r a t e are. not n e c e s s a r i l y  17-3  identical  Ik2a  t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g independent word.  Ti  ttwit  the  hoy  t r q - xn ( - n ) - t - i s kaick-foot-PFTV-t-S3  The hoy k i c k e d t h e g i r l h  Ti  xix tnf  the  girl  trq - m  w  g i r l was  lU3a  Ti  sqol'tmix  :'  the  b  Ti the  g.  (on) t h e  tq  man  w  ( - n ) - t - im  girl  Ti  TRAN  g.  Ti  ttwat.  the  boy  (on) the. head.  s l a p - h e a d - PFTV-t-PASS slapped  hoy  boy.  •tq" - i y a q n ( - n ) - t - om  The b.oy was  ttwit.  - i y a q ( n ) ( - n - t ) - s.  s l a p p e d t h e boy  hoy  t  INSTR  slap-head-PFTV-t-S3  ttwit  w  foot.  k i c k e d (onI the- f o o t by t h e w  xix tnf.  the  kick-foot-PFTV-t-PASS  The  The man  TRAN  Ti  Ti INSTR  (on) t h e head by t h e  sqol'tmix". man  man.  The. nominal b e a r i n g a 3 - r e l a t i o n may with, t h e l o s s o f the. I n d i r e c t i v e morpheme.  t  I n c o r p o r a t e i n t o the  verb,  See the sentences- above as-  17 w e l l as: t h o s e b.elow:  ihka. kwTap - x  ;  shut. up-IMP  -  sus  - n - t - s - n.  s l a p - f orehead-PFTV-t-you-Sl  mT3  .  IKAlMb  op  INTR Shut up I b  ki - tq  w  I s l a p you on the -ilsxiL  forehead!  (' - n ) - t - s - n.  at op - s i ap-fo r ehe ad-PFTV-t-y O U T S l I s l a p you on the c  Tn - t?q  w  T  R  ^g  forehead,  - awsqn ( - n ) - t - s - n.  Cont-slap-top. of .head-PFTV-t-you-Sl^^g. I s l a p you on t o p o f the. head.  (  <  kikmilsxrf  'forehead')  That a L o c a t i v e body p a r t may not advance: t o 2 i s : shown by t h e ungrammat l e a l i t y o f a P a s s i v e , and t h e lack, o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g  active.;  These examples: show; t h a t i t i s - t h e i n i t i a l p o s s e s s o r ,:mot t h e L o c a t i v e , t h a t i s a 2 as- f a r a s P a s s i v e l45a  b  *  Ti s q ? 9 X t - s  trq - 4 - t - im  Ti xix tnf  Ti t  ttwit.  the  kiek.-INDIR-t-PASS  the. g i r l  INSTR  boy  w  b  Her f o o t was: k i c k e d on the. g i r l by t h e boy.  *  Ti, ttwat  kick-INDIR-t-S3^  boy  R  the foot-her  *  Tj cTasiyaqn - s  t q - 4 - t - Im  Ti ttwit  the  slap-INDIR-t-PASS  t h e boy  head-  Ti xix 'tnf. w  the g i r l  The boy k i c k e d  (on) h e r f o o t t h e g i r l . w  his  *  H i s head was s l a p p e d on t h e boy by t h e man.  *  Ti sq9l'tmlx  *  w  man  t q - 4 - t - is slap-INDIR-t-S3  Ti t INSTR  Tj cftosiyaqn - s  w  The man s l a p p e d  the  TR  head-his  man  Ti ttwit. the  boy  (on) h i s head t h e boy.  -xi  c l a u s e s i n v o l v i n g p r o n o m i n a l s r e q u i r e t h e -4  'Benefactive'  'Indirective'  morpheme which r e g i s t e r s t h e presence o f an  o b l i q u e nominal, as d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n I • o f t h i s c h a p t e r .  The 18  sentences below i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h  147  sqal'tmlx".  D a t i v e Advancement with. Pronominals Dative  or  trq - 4 - t - i s Tj sq^Taxt - s  *  the  3.4  foot-her  w  *  the  146a  i s - concerned.  wik - 4 - t - s - n see-INDIR-t-you-Sl  Ta TR  T  the  9 n  i cltx  w  your-house  pronominals:  k l Tanwi?. to  you  I see y o u y o u r house t o you. / I see your house.  175  ikQ  T i tklmilx™ the  woman  kl  Tinea?.  to  me  k u  4klnf - x - .t -: s  me  sew-BENE-t-S3  w  t  T i ( n ) - k4 - q'Taxnutiya?  some my-own- m o c a s s i n  The woman sewed me my mocassins f o r me., lk9  4aq - 4 - t - n  T i sklWica  stretch-INDIR-t-Sl  ?  - s  the heaver.pelt  k l cni4c. t o him  IK  I s t r e t c h e d h i s heaver p e l t The  t h i r d person  (See  the i n i t i a l  (i) .  and does- not  appear i n example l<+9.  i s proposed t h a t a p r o n o m i n a l b e a r i n g t h e Dative, r e l a t i o n stratum:  o b l i g a t o r i l y advances t o 2, i n a c l a u s e with, a t r a n s i t i v e , f i n a l  stratum, (ii)  o b j e c t marker i s 0  Chapter Two, s e c t i o n 1 . 3 f o r a c h a r t o f t h e o b j e c t m a r k e r s . ! It  in  f o r him.  p l a c i n g the i n i t i a l  2-nominal en chomage,  o p t i o n a l l y l e a v e s a copy o f i t s e l f i n t h e sentence:, and  (.iii). requires, agreement o f a p o s s e s s i v e marker on t h e 2- n o m i n a l , a possessor  which may be d e l e t e d i f t h e D a t i v e  copy i s p r e s e n t .  r e l a t i o n a l network, below i l l u s t r a t e s t h e proposed a n a l y s i s :  The  176  M o r p h o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c e v i d e n c e support an a n a l y s i s o f a D a t i v e pronominal o b l i g a t o r i l y advancing t o 2 i n a clause, with: t r a n s i t i v e f i n a l stratum. 151a  First,  an o b j e c t -marker 'Is- o b l i g a t o r i l y p r e s e n t :  wik - 4 - t - s _ - n see-INDIR-t-you-Sl  I b 152a  Ta TR  ?an - c l t x  w  ( k l Tanwl?).  t h e your-houseo  t o you  see y o u your house t o you. / I see your house,  *  wlkitn  Ta  T i tklmilx  w  the  woman  (kl  Tinea?).  Tancitx  km  w  ( k l Tanwl?).  ikiirf - x - t - s  me  sew-BENE-t-S3  t T R A N S  T i ( n ) - k i - cf?axnutiya?  some my-own^mocassin  to me. The woman sewed me my m o c a s s i n s b  *  Ti tklmllx  i]<?imxc..  w  t  Second, a P a s s i v e i s ungrammatical  f o r me.,  TikicfTaxrfatiya?  ( k l Tinea?).  with, t h e i n i t i a l  2-nominal a s f i n a l 1 ,  a f a c t which, i s e x p l a i n e d under t h i s a n a l y s i s s i n c e t h e i n i t i a l now 153  a 2-chomeur due t o D a t i v e *  Ta  Tancitx"  the 154  *  Tj  your-house. see-INDIR-t-you-PASS  the Ti  t  INSTR  Advancement-to-2:  w i k - 4 - t - s_ - m  Ti(n)k^axnfttiya? my-own-mocassin  2 is:  ( k l T wl?) 9 n  to  you  km  i k i n f - x - t - am  me.  sew-BENE-t-PASS  Ti t  tklmilx . w  INSTR woman ( k l Tinea?) t o me  tklmilx . w  woman The  f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s , t o g e t h e r with. 1 5 2 a ,  t h e p o s s e s s i v e ' m a r k e r o f agreement on t h e i n i t i a l d e l e t e d i f t h e D a t i v e copy i s p r e s e n t :  demonstrate  that  2-nominal may be o p t i o n a l l y  177  15Ha  Ti tklmilx the.  k u  w  ik'imxc  w  woman  me. sew-BENE  t  I c l Tinea?.  Tj(n) - k j ^ a x n t i t i y a ?  some my-own-mocas-sin  t o me.  The woman sewed me. some, o f my-mocassins- f o r me, h  T i tklmilx" the  woman  k u  iklnf - x - t - s  w  me.  t  sew-BENE-t-S'Sijip  q^axnutiya?  some  kl  mocassin  Tj ca?. n  t o me  The woman sewed me some mocassins- f o r me. c  *  T i tklmllx™ the  It not  k u  ikinf - x - t - s  t  me  sew - BENE-t-S3rp  some mocassin  w  woman  R  q'Taxn'utiya?.  s h o u l d he r e c a l l e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e D a t i v e pronominal i t s e l f appear on' the s u r f a c e , -x/ -4  as r e g i s t e r s o f an i n i t i a l  need  oblique,  show t h a t i t must be p r e s e n t . R e s t r i c t i n g the. o b l i g a t o r y Advancement-of-Dative-pronominals-to2 t o clauses, with, t r a n s i t i v e the  f o l l o w i n g P a s s i v e s , which, show o n l y t h e agreement p o s s e s s i v e marker  on t h e i n i t i a l 155  f i n a l s t r a t u m is. n e c e s s a r y t o account f o r  Tj  T j f n ) - k i - q^axntitiya?  the Ti  2-nominal:  my-own-mocassin t  INSTR  i k l n f - x - t - am  ( k l Tinea?)  sew-BENE-t-PASS  to  me  tklmilx . w  woman  My own mocassins were sewn ( f o r me) by t h e woman. 156  i a q - i - t - am  T j sklwlda? - s  stretch-INDIR-t-PASS  157  beaver p e l t was s t r e t c h e d  T  Tan - c i t x  the  w  your-house.  T i t sqal'tmix".  t h e b e a v e r . s k i n - h i s t o him  His 9  ( k l enlic)  INSTR  man  ( f o r him) by t h e man.  wik - 4 - t - am  ( k l Tanwl?)  Ti t  tklmilx™.  see-INDIR-t-PASS  t o you  INSTR  woman  Your house was seen ( t o you) b y the woman.  .178  The s i m i l a r i t y between' t h i s : a n a l y s i s - f o r o b l i g a t o r y advancement o f Dative  pronominals t o 2 and t h e a n a l y s i s - f o r advancement o f L o c a t i v e  body parts- t o 3 s h o u l d b e noted. body p a r t s , sentences  139.-1V7  I n a l l t h e examples- o f L o c a t i v e  o f the. previous- s e c t i o n , t h e body p a r t  i s p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n r e f e r r e d t o by t h e i n i t i a l  direct object.  To  permit a l o c a t i v e body p a r t t o advance beyond 3 would be t o permit a p o r t i o n o f a human b e i n g t o outrank, an e n t i r e human b e i n g .  Hence i t  is: p r o h i b i t e d and t h e grammar p e r m i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e verb., and  e f f e c t i v e l y p l a c e s t h e body p a r t o u t o f p l a y .  f o r the Dative  Somewhat s i m i l a r l y ,  p r o n o m i n a l s , t o p e r m i t a pronominal t o remain as an  o b l i q u e would be t o p e r m i t an inanimate. 2:'.wi.thout human reference, (whether contextual; or r  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y m a r k e d ! t o outrank, a human  Hence, advancement is: o b l i g a t o r y i n a c l a u s e with, t r a n s i t i v e  being.  final  s t r a t u m , a s s u r i n g t h a t t h e p r o n o m i n a l i s a f i n a l 2 , and i n a P a s s i v e , the copy p o s s e s s i v e reference  k  marker on t h e i n i t i a l  2 assures- t h a t t h e human  i s part o f the f i n a l 1 .  Possessor Ascension A r u l e o f P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n i s needed i n t h e grammar o f  Okanagan.  Such, a rule, a l l o w s  a P o s s e s s o r o f a nominal t o ascend and  b e a r t h e grammatical r e l a t i o n o f t h a t nominal, p l a c i n g t h a t en c h S m a g e .  158  Such, a r u l e  nominal  ( g e n e r a l i z e d from B e l l , 1 9 7 6 1 can be s t a t e d a s :  POSSESSOR ASCENSION If a is a Possessor in nominal b_ and b_ bears the grammatical relation  N_ to clause c_, then a may bear the grammatical  N_ to c_ and b_ bears the chomeur il  Under certain  conditions,  relation  relation. the chomeur nominal may;  incorporate,  179  if there exists iii  a lexical  suffixal  If. it does not incorporate,  Possessor  relation  form. ' a pronominal copy bearing the  to nominal b_ remains behind.  This: i s diagrammed i n t h e r e l a t i o n a l network, below: 159.  It  i s proposed  f o r Okanagan t h a t P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n i s p e r m i t t e d from  a 2 o n l y i f t h e P o s s e s s o r -may  advance t o a 1 .  A case where P o s s e s s o r  A s c e n s i o n i s p o s s i b l e i s an U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e .  Two  s t r u c t u r e s : are  possible: l60a  A s c e n s i o n from a  2  i n an U n a c c u s a t i v e clause.  b  A s c e n s i o n from a f i n a l  i n an U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e  There i s some evidence, s u p p o r t i n g (a).  1  l60a_  as the c o r r e c t  struct  a d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning with, u n e r g a t i v e c l a u s e s suggests: t h a t  180-  P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n from f i n a l I s i s b a r r e d , and (b.1  data from t r a n s i t i v e s c o n f i r m s this:.  k.l  Ascension i n I n t r a n s i t i v e  Clauses  A P o s s e s s o r may ascend in  from a nominal b e a r i n g t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n  an U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e , p l a c i n g t h a t 2-nominal en chomage, with;  obligatory l6la  incorporation:  Xast  ? i '?i(,n) - sp*?us.  good  the  my-heart  My h e a r t i s -glad,  b  kn S1  Xasp^us.  INTR  good.heart  I'm g l a d a t h e a r t . l62a  Xast  Sj  good  the  Tin - kw?ap. my-saddle .horse.  My horse i s good,  b. kn S 1  Xasqaxa . 7  INTR  I --got  163a  • So  -  n o r s e  a good h o r s e .  ?i $i(nl the.  o d  my-  - sq^asiya? offspring  si' - salt. ITER-lost  My kids- a r e l o s t . b.  kn S l  -si' - si' - l i t . T  w  m  D  ITER-lost-child  I got l o s t  c  children,  ? i sqal'tmix  w  the'  man  ?i sqVosiya? - s  si' - sal't.  the. o f f s p r i n g - h i s I T E R - l o s t  The. man's c h i l d r e n are. l o s t .  18-1-  d  Ti  sqal'tonlx™  the  man  si' - si' - l i t . ITER-lost-child  The man got l o s t - c h i l d r e n . l6h&  ?i  ?i(n) - scf"?asiya?  the  xast.  my - o f f s p r i n g  good  My kids, a r e good, h  kn S 1  Xs - l i t .  INTR  goo^-child  I got good kids:.  165a  Tj T j ( ) - sq^asiya? n  the.  my - o f f s p r i n g  X"?-. l i t . many - c h i l d  My k i d s a r e many, h  kn  t -x  Si  -x  w  w  - lit.  D i s t -ITER-many- c h i l d J.JLM IK  I got l o t s o f k i d s . l6fia  Tj ?i(n) - scfrq^asi the.  7  my-hahy  cq aq . w  w  ^UNACCUS -  My hahy i s c r y i n g ,  b. kn S1  Cq q w  INTR  C r y  - lit.  w  OTACCUS~  c h l I d  I got a c r y i n g baby.  167a  Ti  k ?lk ?l'ola?x  the.  small, c a l f  w  w  kHfill.  w  born  The s m a l l c a l f i s born,  b  kn S1  k Tn w  I N T R  - k ?n - l i t . w  ITER-born-child  I have borne c h i l d r e n (twins:)..  182  c  kn S1  k Tn - lit. w  INTR  "  -  b o r n  I am borne a  c n i l d  child.  That t h e P o s s e s s o r has- ascended i n examples  and hears- the . f i n a l 1 - r e l a t l o n  h and c_ i n l 6 l - 1 6 7 above is- shown by t h e use o f the.  appropriate. s u b j e c t marker: Evidence  kn  ' f i r s t person, s i n g u l a r , i n t r a n s i t i v e ,  realis:,'  from Unergatives- s u g g e s t s t h a t P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n  from f i n a l I s as: diagrammed i n  is- b a r r e d .  l60b_  involve. U n e r g a t i v e s p a i r e d with. U n a c c u s a t i v e s .  The' examples- below With: U n e r g a t i v e -.verbs:  i n t h e a s e n t e n c e s , the f i n a l s u b j e c t i s agent l y e , whereasr i n the h. s e n t e n c e s , the. f i n a l s u b j e c t is: a s t a t i v e l68a  Ti  qqical5c.  Ti(n) - kwTap  the  Possessor;  my-saddle.horse  trot  (Diminuative. form o f run I  My horse i s t r o t t i n g . h  kn S1  qqcl'  INTR  t  r  o  t  - sqaxa . ?  -  h  o  r  s  :  1 got a t r o t t i n g l69a  Ti  ?i( j n  -  e  horse.  st5nkTllt  the. my-daughter My b.  daughter  kn S1  runs  qcalx -  IWTR  run ( l i k e out i n a f i e l d 1, ilt.  run-child  I got a c h i l d who 170a  qicalx.  Ti  Ti(n)  the  my  runs around  - sq^Tasiya? - offspring  My k i d s are. p l a y i n g  ?Ti  (.like. with, her b o y f r i e n d s o r h i s girlfriends:)., c  - T  c  - kn'.  p l a y - PL.REDUP (not me  though..)..  183  b  kn S1  ?T ckrf  - lit.  9  INTR  P  l a  y-  c h : i : l d  I got t o p l a y i n g with, tHe: l i d s - (me included)!. The f a c t t h a t t h e b sentences: cannot r e c e i v e an U n e r g a t i v e , a g e n t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n supports- not h a v i n g P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n from a 1. T h i s evidence supports: t h e s t r u c t u r e , diagrammed i n l 6 0 a as- c o r r e c t .  k.2  A s c e n s i o n i n T r a n s i t i v e Clauses: A d d i t i o n a l evidence, from  shows: t h a t  a Regular T r a n s i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n  P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n i s : not p e r m i t t e d from a nominal b e a r i n g  the 1 - r e l a t i o n : 171a  Tj.  T j ( n ) - stfokT" I t  the.  my-daughter  dk - n - t - I s  Ti  countsPFTV-t-SSrn^.nTo  sTnklcTosqaxa?. the.  horses  inANo  My daughter counted t h e h o r s e s . b  *  Tj  Tj(n) - stmkTilt  the. c  *  dk - n - t - i n  my-daughter  count-PFTV-t-Sl^  dt - l i t- n - t - i n  Ti  count-child-PFTV-t-Sl  Ti  sTnk" cTosqaxa?.  the  horses-  sTnklcTasqaxa' . 7  the horses iR  d  *  kn  dk - l i t  Sl . T 1  T m r  T i /t  sTnklcTasqaxa?.  . c o u n t - c h i l d the/some  J LM I n  horses  T  e  *  kn Sl . T 1  -de- am T m T  ,  t  count-MIDDLE  Tj(n) - stmTilt  Ti / t  :a -.i.- my-daughter  sTnklcTasqaxa . 7  the/some  horses  O L  Sentences h - e_  i l l u s t r a t e a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  f o r ascending a  P o s s e s s o r from a 1 i n a R e g u l a r T r a n s i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  In sentence b,  t h e verb has: f i r s t p e r s o n , t r a n s i t i v e m a r k i n g with, t h e i n i t i a l 1 nominal with. P o s s e s s o r Copy r e t a i n i n g independent  word s t a t u s .  In sentence c_,  184  the 1  verb, a l s o shows f i r s t ' p e r s o n , t r a n s i t i v e , m a r k i n g with. the. i n i t i a l i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e v e r b , with, i t s lenxical s u f f i x a l  'child'.  In s e n t e n c e s d_ and e_, t h e v e r b shows- f i r s t  form-i.lt  person  intransitive  marking, with, l e x i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n i h d_ and w i t h o u t ih'e_. A l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s : a r e ungrammatical. in is  T h i s supports: t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d  s e c t i o n l+.l t h a t P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n from an U n e r g a t i v e c l a u s e ungrammatical. Moreover,  i t may be. shown t h a t a P o s s e s s o r may not ascend  from a 2 t o b e a r t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n i n a Regular T r a n s i t i v e  172a  wik C - n - t ) - n aee.-PFTy—t-Sl ,  So Ton - c i t x . w  the.  mT  construction:  your-house  IK  I saw your house.  b. * wik - n - t -_s - n see-PFTV-t-you-Sl c  S  wik- i 4 x  w  IK  Sa Son - c l t x , w  the: your-house  - n - t - £ - n.  s:ee-house-PFTV-t-you-Sl  TRAKS  However, a P o s s e s s o r may ascend from a nominal b e a r i n g t h e 2 - r e l a t i . o n i n a t r a n s i t i v e clause., p l a c i n g t h a t  2-nominal en chSmage,  with, o b l i g a t o r y i n c o r p o r a t i o n , o n l y i f t h e P o s s e s s o r may advance t o 1 . A case where t h i s i s p o s s i b l e is: i n a P a s s i v e c l a u s e , a s i l l u s t r a t e d below:  173a  2 0  Si tklmllx the  woman  w  wik (; - n - t ) - s see-PFTV-t-S3 ^g T R  So Son - c i t x . w  the. your-house.  The woman saw your house.  b  Sonwi?"  wik .- i t o  you  see-house-PFTV-t-PASS  w  You were house-seen  - n - t - om  b y the. woman.  Si t tklmilx . w  INSTR  woman  185  c  * "onwi?  wik - n - t - am  you  d  see-PFTV-t-PASS  * Tanwi you  the  Ti t tkimilx  see-PFTV-t-PASS'  To Ta(n) - stmkTilt your-daughter  Ti t tklmilx .  w  w  the. your-house  wik - n - t - am  ?  17W  Tg. ["on) - c i t x  INSTR  INSTR  Ta pari}- c i t x .  w  w  woman  dk - n - t - i s count - P F T V - t - S ' 3  TRAI  woman  t h e your-house  Tj Tin - kwTwTap. j .  t  n  my-PL-saddlehorse  e  S  Your daughter counted my hors:e.s.  ^  ?  inca?kn c3c - sqaxa? - n - t - am I  I  ? i t Ta( ) - stmkfilt. n  count-horse-PFTV-t-PASS  INSTR  your-daughter  I was hors:e-counted by your daughter,  c  * Tinca kn I  d  count-PFTV-t-PASS  * Tinca?kn I  175a  Ti ( S i n ) - kwTwTap  dk - n - t - im  ?  dkntim  the  the. my-PL-saddlehorse  Ti t Ta(n) - stmkTilt  man  The man.  '• h cniic  dk - n - t - i s count-PFTV-t-S3  INSTR daughter  Ti (Tin) - kwTwTap.  count-PASS INSTR your-daughter  Ti sqal'tmix™  Ti t stmkTilt.  t h e my-PE-saddlehorse  Tj stmkTilt - s.  T R M S  the. daughter - S 3  p o s s  counted h i s . . / h e r daughters.  dk - i l t - n - t>i am  Ti t sqal'tmlx . w  S3./V ecount-child-PFTV-t-PASS  INSTR  man  He./She was c h i l d - c o u n t e d by t h e man.  c  * cniic S3  d  * cniic S3  dk - n - t - im  T i stmkTilt ( -s) t h e daughter -^3^00  count-PFTV-t-PASS  dk-n-t-im count-PFTV-t-PASS  Ti t sqal'tmix  w  INSTR  man  Ti t sqal'tmix". INSTR  man  Ti stmkTilt ( r s ) . the daughter-SS^^ JrUbb  This: supports: a n J i a n a l y s i s p e r m i t t i n g  P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n from a 2 - n o m i n a l ,  with, o b l i g a t o r y i n c o r p o r a t i o n , o n l y i f t h e P o s s e s s o r advances t o a 1 .  186  Four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  may  now  he noted'with, r e s p e c t to.  P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n i n Okanagan: il  P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n is- p e r m i t t e d from a 2 o n l y i f t h e P o s s e s s o r  may  advance t o a 1;  il)  These are f i n a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e clauses;;  iii)  Possessor Ascension occurs o n l y i f there exists: a ' l e x i c a l  s.uffixal  form o f t h e head nominal, ' w h i c h o b l i g a t o r i l y incorporates-:  176a  Ti  ? i ( n ) - stSn?slt  the My  h  iv)  my-—  cows  x Sllt. w<  many  cows are many.  *  kn  t -x x  *  I got many cows.  w  w  -  The p a i r s o f sentences 1 6 I - I 6 7 and 173a,h - 175a,h  i n meaning:  show- noir change  t h e f i n a l suh.je.ct i s s t a t i v e ' i n the a_ sentences and a s t a t l v e  P o s s e s s o r i n the h and c_ examples-. A g e n e r a l i z a t i o n with, r e s p e c t t o P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n i n Okanagan may  now  he f o r m u l a t e d .  Based on the d a t a and c o n s t r u c t i o n s :  examined h e r e i n , t h e r e l e v a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s : 177  Possessor Ascension is permissible  in Okanagan  only from a 2 in some stratum 5 " . , only  the Possessor may  advance to 1  2-chomeur obligatorily  in stratum S\ ^  incorporating.  3  with  if the  187  '" .3 ' ' 'A Statement  o f L e x i c a l ''Incorporation  E v i d e n c e t h a t a 2-chomeur-may not i n c o r p o r a t e in  a f i n a l l y t r a n s i t i v e clause  178a  cfk - 1 - t - s -' n  is- a v a i l a b l e :  ?a ' ?s> Cn)  count-INDIR-t-you-Sl , mT  i n t o tne verb  - sq ?o siya?. ,w  tne' y o u r - o f f s p r i n g  I count you your kids:, b  *  ck - i l t - t - s - In c o u n t - c h l l d - t - y o u — 51,-pp A l i s t ing'. o f .cases: \ ,w±th\ 'respect ;  now  179.  to:.:Lexlca-l< I n c o r p o r a t i o n i s  possible:  LEXICAL  INCORPORATION IS PERMISSIBLE:  i l . obligatorily finally HI  intransitive  obligatorily  finally iii)  from a 2-c%amew> in an "Unaccusative (iMe case in section  Cihe case in sectionZI,  Cthe case in section  iv).. optionally  3,4, Chapter  from an advancee transitive  clause,  Chapter  Three I;  Unaccusative  Three I;  3 in a Locative  Advancement  Cthe case in section  3.3, Chapter  clause,  finally  LEXICAL  INCORPORATION IS NOT PERMISSIBLE:  from a 2 or a 1  Fours);  voice  o p t i o n a l l y from an i n i t i a l 3 in a Reflexive  clause  il  4, Chapter  from a 2-chomeur in a Middle  intransitive  clause,  Cthe case in sections-  Three).  4.1 and 4.2, Chapter  The. r e l e v a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n with, r e s p e c t t o L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n i n 21  Okanagan f o r nominals h a v i n g a l e x i c a l  180  s u f f i x a l form is::  LEXICAL INCORPORATION IN PRINSCAN is r e s t r i c t e d to non-nuclear terms and chomeurs as i ) optionally i i ) obligatorily intransitive  follows:  from a 3; from a 2-chomeur in a monocldusal, construction.  finally  Four).  188  k.k  Ascension i h Middle Clauses A M i d d l e -voice c l a u s e does: not permit a P o s s e s s o r a s - p a r t o f  the  initial  l8ia  *  d i r e c t o h j e c t nominal phrase:  kn  Sl h.  *  clc - am  ?a(n) -  scj^aslya?.  , co.unt-MIDDLE some y o u r - o f f s p r i n g  INTR co-,r?.v,  T l l T m T  k u  m^a  w  Pl . _ T 1  Moreover,  t  - m  t  break. - MIDDLE  T m  ?ari -  lplp?ut.  some,  your-PL-cup  i n a c o n s t r u c t i o n with. L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n ,  obligatory  with, a 2-chomeur i n a M i d d l e c l a u s e , t h e 2-chomeur i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g p o s s e s s e d b y the; s u b j e c t , i . e . , p o s s e s s i v e reference i s unspecified. l82a  kn  dk  Sl „ IN i n T  m T 3  -  l i t -  m.  c o u n t - c h l l d-MIDDLE.  I count anybody's- kids./my b  kn  dc - sqaxa  Sl . T  IN  ?  kids:.  - m.  count-horse-MIDDLE  T m T 3  in  I count anybody' s horse.s;/my horses-, c  ? i  the  ttwit  boy  k  - txilx  w  - sqaxa?  -  m.  Dist-curry-horse-MIDDLE  The h o y c u r r i e s : anybody's; h o r s e s / h i s h o r s e s . These two facts: o f 2-chomeurs i n M i d d l e clauses: serve, t o d i s t i n g u i s h , them from 2s183  r e s u l t i n g from P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n :  DEMOTION 2 s (Middle v o i c e c l a u s e s }  ASCENDEE 2 s (.From P o s s e s s o r Ascension)  1.  Pronominal marking o f initial  2 i s ungrammatical;  1 . Pronominal marking o f initial  2 i s obligatory.";  189  2. Reference, o f t h e p o s s e s s o r  2. Reference, o f the. p o s s e s s o r  I s - u n s p e c i f i e d and  o f the 2 is: s p e c i f i e d ,  unrestricted. As: a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , l e x i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f 2 s  may o n l y o c c u r  i n f i n a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e clauses-. These f a c t s have, a h e a r i n g on the. c o r r e c t a n a l y s i s : o f t h e Middle v o i c e clauses:.  In Chapter Three, s e c t i o n 3, two analyses-  o f M i d d l e c l a u s e s were d i s c u s s e d :  l8ka  ANTIPASSIVE  The Phantom A r c S o l u t i o n accounted  h  The. PHANTOM ARC  Solution  f o r a l l t h e f a c t s p r e s e n t e d as-  w e l l as r e s o l v i n g a serious: problem with, t h e A n t i p a s s i v e analysis-. The  f a c t s from P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n p r o v i d e a t h i r d  argument f o r the Phantom A r c S o l u t i o n .  In an U n a c c u s a t i v e c l a u s e ,  P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n may o c c u r from thermominal b e a r i n g t h e 2 - r e l a t i o n i n the. i n i t i a l  stratum:  190  Both, t h e A n t i p a s s i v e a n a l y s i s : and the. "Unaccusative. involve. U n a c c u s a t i v e 2 - t o - l Advancement, from t h e penultimate, i n t r a n s i t i v e s t r a t u m 'with, a 2 hut no 1 , t o 1 i n t h e u l t i m a t e : stratum. 1 -> 2  A s c e n s i o n from t h e yo-yo-ed clause, cum  1  T h i s predicts- that nominal  Anti-passive s h o u l d he p o s s i b l e .  Possessor  i n the Middle v o i c e  However t h i s p r e d i c t i o n i s  not borne out:  186a  T i ?i(n) - soMssiya? the My  h  my  k^ul' - m".  - offspring  work-MIDDLE  E l d s work.,  *  kMll' - i l t - ni.  kn S1  I N T R  work-child-MIDDLE  This: provides- an a d d i t i o n a l argument i n support o f t h e Phantom A r c S o l u t i o n which, does not involve. U n a c c u s a t i v e o f the i n i t i a l  1 nominal.  >-  -  advancement -  I t -may- be-.noted t h a t ^Possessor Ascension...does 3  -  not o c c u r from  a  2 i n * a t r a n s i t i v e stratum-where- t h e 2 - a r e and the 1 - a r c m u l t i - a t t a c h , where t h e 2 and t h e 1 are n o n - d i s t i n c t , I.e., i n R e f l e x i v e and  andin  t h e • M i d d l e v o i c e under a Phantom A r c . ^ s o l u t i o n .  this;  F u r t h e r work, on  language, and on others: i s d e s i r a b l e t o determine  attachment-  whether m u l t i -  o r n o n - d i s t i n c t l v e n e s s ; i s i n c o m p a t i b l e with. P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n ,  191  FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER FOUR 1  I t appears t h a t Okanagan p e r m i t s o n l y two NPs o r PPs f o l l o w i n g t h e  verb. 2  When a t h i r d i s p r e s e n t , T o p i c a l i z a t i o n i s o b l i g a t o r y . By -virtue', o f t h e O b l i q u e Law, a nominal t h a t b e a r s an o b l i q u e r e l a t i o n  f i n a l l y bears that r e l a t i o n i n i t i a l l y :  The Oblique Law (Perlmutter  and Postal  1978}  A nominal that hears a term relation or may not bear that relation  in the initial  A nominal that bears an oblique relation hand, bears that relation Thus, t h e nominals i n q u e s t i o n initial 3  in a given clause may stratum in that  clause.  inaa clause, on the other  in the initial  stratum.  rhere^ bear t h e o b l i q u e  r e l a t i o n i n the  stratum.  I t does; not appear t o be p o s s i b l e t o say 'The. p r i e s t wrote, a l e t t e r  for  me t o t h e agent', w i t h double D a t i v e nominals.  one  or the other.  k  Interrogativesswit  I t is; p o s s i b l e t o say  can advance i n o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n s ,  such, as  a R e l a t i o n a l ; see s e c t i o n 2.h t h i s c h a p t e r . 5  A competing h y p o t h e s i s f o r Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t i s ; p o s s i b l e :  f l o a t i n g q u a n t i f i e r must modify t h e NP c l o s e s t t o the. V. NP  V  NP  However, i n a  c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e NPs a r e e q u a l l y c l o s e t o the. V.  below i s such, a c o n s t r u c t i o n  that a  Thev.example  and shows t h a t a f l o a t e d q u a n t i f i e r is:  p r e f e r e n t i a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as h a v i n g come o f f t h e s u b j e c t :  a.  S i sc'dnala? the The i.e.,  children  ySay?9?t a l l  wik  w  ( - n - t ) - s  hide-PFTV-t-P3  TRAJf  c h i l d r e n a l l h i d t h e eggs. A l l t h e c h i l d r e n h i d t h e eggs. *  The c h i l d r e n h i d a l l t h e eggs.  g.  lx  ?i So^usa . 7  t h e eggs  192  When the nominal s u b j e c t  i s s i n g u l a r and  t h e nominal o b j e c t  a sentence with, a f l o a t e d q u a n t i f i e r i s awkward hut  the q u a n t i f i e r is:  unambiguously i n t e r p r e t e d as h a v i n g f l o a t e d o f f t h e d i r e c t b.  Ti  sqal'tmix  the  man  The  man  y?ay?g?t  w  x icic  all  give a l l t h e  ? j scwTin  w  precedes: T o p i . c a l i z a t i o n . by t h e c  -  following  His  ?  all  eat  The. man  •  Ti  TRANS'  ate a l l t h e  Quantifier Float.  t  sqal'tmix  h  e  m  a  Ti  w  the Ti  ^  n  initial  xtx tnf w  girl  word o r d e r a s the b a s i s f o r q u a n t i f i e r  3 is final  all-.  INSTR  grandmother -  e.  (=  77a)..  2  Advancement  £  s  initial 2 in  - am  Ti the  ym  - yamx a'  the The  w  ?  PL-basket  her the. h y p o t h e s i s t h a t word o r d e r r e s t r i c t s : f o l l o w i n g examples Cfrom p.. Ih3\  a v a i l a b l e ' The v  show  s a i d t h a t a q u a n t i f i e r f l o a t s from a nominal d i r e c t l y  verb: Ti  and  1:  weave-BENE-t-PASS  A d d i t i o n a l evidence a g a i n s t  - t h a t i t cannot he  3  cfc? - x i - . t  yTgyTg?t  stamtima? - s.  Quantifier Float  salmon  &  salmon.  t  a f t e r the  this,  sdtfTJn.  A f l o a t e d q u a n t i f i e r cannot m o d i f y the  a P a s s i v e where the Ti  a floating  However t h i s cannot be m a i n t a i n e d as; shown  f l o a t r e s t s : on the. i n t e r a c t i o n o f P a s s i v e ,  *  that  immediately f o l l o w i n g t h e V and t h a t  A f u r t h e r argument a g a i n s t  d.  t h e old.woman  example:  y ayTa t ?  w  lady.  A r e v i s e d a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis: i s ; possible.: q u a n t i f i e r must modify the NP  object:  ppWina?x .  Ti  give-INDIR "the . salmon  salmon t o t h e o l d  is plural,  * *xap x  elder o l d man  naq" steal  yT  a y  T ?t a  all  s t o l e a l l the  Tj the  horses.  sTn&cTasqaxa?. horse  1 9 3  f.  (=77*0  *  i *%&ap  ?  the.,  '/?ayf-a?t  nacf*  all  steal  elder  ? i 's?nklc?asqaxa . ?  the.  horse  Thus an account o f Q u a n t i f i e r F l o a t i n terms- o f l i n e a r o r d e r cannot he s u p p o r t e d and r e f e r e n c e must he made t o grammatical relations.:. 6  I t s h o u l d he n o t e d t h a t t h e v e r b  verb" 'pour' which, may  kn  cx  Sl „ T  t  pour-MIDDLE  m o  Us  - am  w  a  1  coffee  ? i n - ?lput. LOC  my-cup  i n  - c'x - dx  ?n  suffix:  lk?apl  I pour some c o f f e e I n my b.  ' s p i l l ' d i f f e r s from t h e  w  o c c u r i n the M i d d l e v o i c e and i n a r e g u l a r t r a n s i t i v e  c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h o u t the. R e l a t i o n a l a.  cx -  w  w  cup..  - n - t - i n  Cont-ITER-pour-PFTV-t-Sl  y?oy?o?t  Si  all  T R M S  lk?apl  the  coffee.  I poured a l l t h e coffee.. It the  s h o u l d a l s o he. n o t e d t h a t k ? o ? -  I r r e a l i s mood, with. the. upper p r e d i c a t e  requires  Subject. R a i s i n g ,  exemplified  exemplified  t^it'Sim  It's d.  k  w  you I'm 7  'Unrealized  occur i n a c t i o n ' which,  However, In t h e R e a l i s mood, t h e R e l a t i o n a l  - m - s  t  UNR-get.used.to-IWTR-S3  TT5T  sqilx . w  ,  Inn  a  people  easy t o get used t o the p e o p l e . S i ( ) - ks - k ?o? w  n  - m l - n - m.  SI _,,_-UNR-ge.t. used. t o-REL/2-PFTV-LNTR InK  g o i n g t o get used t o y o u l  See f o o t n o t e 4, Chapter Three, p. 1 0 6 , and f o o t n o t e 1 2 f o l l o w i n g ,  d i s c u s s i n g t h e assignment 8  may  above In 4 8 , i s o b l i g a t o r y .  k s - k"?o?  easy  ks-  1  as. e i t h e r a t r a n s i t i v e or i n t r a n s i t i v e c l a u s e ,  i h o and d below.  construction, c.  'get used t o  w  of thematic r e l a t i o n s .  I t I s not c l e a r whether t h e s t r a t a l diagram f o r Class; B R e l a t i o n a l  verbs i s a o f b:  19k  The q u e s t i o n o f whether'two advancements may o c c u r i n t h e same s t r a t u m as i n a above has not been d i s c u s s e d  i n R e l a t i o n a l Grammar nor i s any evidence  a v a i l a b l e t o choose'between a_ and b_ h e r e . 9  T h i s i s an i d i o m a t i c use o f the r o o t lTimt  10  This predicate  'glad'.  i s a member o f U n a c c u s a t i v e C l a s s B 6 , p. 7 5 .  See a l s o  ' t a l k a t i v e ' i n C l a s s B3, p. lk. 11  '-In examples 7 7 a and 7 9 a , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e q u a n t i f i e r  vTayTa?t  ' a l l ' r e q u i r e s t h e presence o f t h e s p e c i f i c a r t i c l e  than t h e n o n - s p e c i f i c , 12 1 2  li  rather  t.  I t s h o u l d be noted here t h a t t h e argument t h a t R e l a t i o n a l c l a u s e s a r e  i n i t i a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e and f i n a l l y t r a n s i t i v e u t i l i z e s Non-Nuclear Object and need not c l a i m f o r example t h a t i n 5 6 c bears t h e scone  initial  grammatical  t h e cover term Ts  r e l a t i o n as  ?lput  'cup.'  itl Tinkw^clp  'from my h o r s e ' i n 5 6 a , a l t h o u g h i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t i n examples 6lh,c,  t h e word  ^c^cap  'elder'  bears t h e same i n i t i a l  grammatical  relation. Moreover, f o r p r e d i c a t e s statum, t a k i n g - t  marking,  o f C l a s s A3 which a l s o determine  Unaccusative  i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t as R e l a t i o n a l C l a s s A3  p r e d i c a t e s , t h e s e t a k e a d i f f e r e n t assignment  of i n i t i a l  grammatical  r e l a t i o n s C l , Non-nuclear!] than as U n a c c u s a t i v e C l a s s B2 L~2, Non-nuclear'  195  13  Readers, familiar with. Thompson (19J2-1 may wish, to consider the  -s  morpheme i n the. Class C Relatlonals as Instances of a "causative  In^addition-vto the reasons given In Hebert (19.821..against.-the  -s  analyzed  as 'Imperfective! herein, the arguments presented In section 2.5.2 chapter argue, against taking causative markers  the  -S  -s".  of t h i s  i n the Class C Relatlonals as a  These arguments show that:  a) the constructions do not involve two-events; b) there i s no evidence for a downstairs 1 advancing to he an upstairs 3; and c)_ there Is: no consistent causative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 14  It i s not possible, at the time of w r i t i n g , to indicate whether almost  a l l stems- or some, or just a few permit 15  LOC ^  3.  It Is not know, at the time; of w r i t i n g , whether - n u  occurs on few  or many roots. 16  The. data, would also be compatible, with, an analysis of incorporation  d i r e c t l y from Locative. rule, statement 17  However as well be seen In section 4.3, the.  for Lexical Incorporation Is simpler' i f 3s are incorporated.  In some, languages, an Incorporated nominal i s a chomeur.  It would  be Interesting to investigate, i f t h i s nominal Is a 3-chomeur i n Okanagan. 18  This should not be confused with. Dative constructions involving  nominals: as i n examples: 4b. and 5a, t h i s chapter. 19.  Three other analyses: may be considered for these Dative  pronominals:  il  Possessor Ascension t c Dative.;  ill  Possessor Ascension to 2, obligatory In a clause with, f i n a l  transitive, stratum, or i l i l Ascension from Copied Dative.. The. f i r s t of these, Possessor Ascension to Dative, proposes that the Possessive marker on the i n i t i a l 2-nominal, ascends- to bear the Dative  196  relation.  This, a n a l y s i s ; has f o u r problems;: ' one, .the I h d i r e c t i y e  Benefactive. morphemes r e g i s t e r the: presence, o f an i n i t i a l Oblique  or nominal,  as argued i n s e c t i o n I o f t h i s : c h a p t e r ; ' two, t h i s - i s p r o h i b i t e d by t h e Oblique Law  ( P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l 1 9 J 8 1 which, r e q u i r e s t h a t  OBLIQUE LAW: clause may  A:r nominal that Bears- a term relation  or may; not Bear that relation  in that clause. clause,  in a given  in the initial  stratum  A nominal that Bears an oBlique relation  on the other hand, Bears that relation  in the  in a initial  stratum. t h r e e , the a n a l y s i s i s more complex, s i n c e a r u l e o f P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n to  Dative-, i s added t o the grammar, w h i l e r e t a i n i n g a l l the o t h e r r u l e s  needed under t h e proposed four,  analysis;  and  .  i t makes t h e r u l e o f P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n  ( s e c t i o n h)  subject to  di fferent condit ions. The  second o f t h e s e p o s s i b l e analyses., P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n t o  o b l i g a t o r y i n a c l a u s e with, f i n a l t r a n s i t i v e s t r a t u m ,  proposes:  i)  t h a t an o p t i o n a l copy Is. l e f t  il)  t h a t a D a t i v e i s o b l i g a t o r i l y p r e s e n t , as shown by t h e  presence o f - 4 ,  on t h e  2,  2,  - x ( l ) , r e g i s t e r s o f an i n i t i a l D a t i v e on t h e v e r b ;  and  i i i ) t h a t t h e r e i s an agreement rule, between t h i s D a t i v e and t h e Possessor.  A p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n a l network, i s g i v e n as:  197  This, a n a l y s i s - a l s o has  problems:  f i n a l t r a n s i t i v e , stratum, and These two  two,  the  r e s t r i c t i o n to a clause  the ' a r b i t r a r i n e s s - o f the  with  agreement r u l e .  problems are a l s o s h a r e d with, the a n a l y s i s - o f Obligatory-Advancement  -of-Dati.ve-to-2 with, the  one,  adopted above, however without a l l o w i n g  advancement o f the  of this, s e c t i o n , The  for•the  Locative: body p a r t s , as- d i s c u s s e d  similarity  at the  end  3.h.  t h i r d o f t h e s e i s the. most e l e g a n t  o f the  four analyses  considered:  A s c e n s i o n from Copied D a t i v e , which, p r o p o s e s t h a t the. i n i t i a l D a t i v e i s c o p i e d  ill  e i t h e r the  111)  the P o s s e s s o r Copy ascends t o 2 , p l a c i n g the  en chomage. is  2  1  i n a Passive  or 2-nominal  initial  f i n a l l y t r a n s i t i v e case  given:  i t proposes a new  allowing  problems:  t y p e o f r u l e f o r R e l a t i o n a l Grammar, t h a t  an Oblique t o be  c l a i m f o r the. t h e o r y and two,  construction,  A p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n a l network, f o r the  However, this: a n a l y s i s r a i s e s t h r e e one,  onto the. 2 - n o m i n a l , from which,  il  copied  onto a Term nominal, making a  body parts; phenomenon;  i t makes the. r u l e o f P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , k,  strong  f o r o t h e r languages;  i t loses: a s i m i l a r i t y with. t h e - L o c a t i v e  three,  of  of t h i s chapter! subject  (discussed  in  and  the  to d i f f e r e n t conditions.  198  B a s i c a l l y , t h a t rule, s t a t e t h a t P o s s e s s o r  Ascension  i s possible from a 2  o n l y i f i t can advance t o a 1 whereas- t h i s D a t i v e r u l e o f P o s s e s s o r Ascension 20  would he p o s s i b l e , t o a 2, without  This pattern o f Possessor  obtained  advancing t o  1.  Asrcensi.on i n P a s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s  from Sharon L i n d l e y o f Q u i l c h e n a .  See  Copy  was  a l s o Appendix I :  Consultants. 21  That L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d t o n o n - n u c l e a r terms;  (.i.e., 3s and o b l i q u e s ) and  chomeurs: may  a n a l y s i s of the p r e f i x  'Unrealized Action'  ks-  r e q u i r i n g Subject R a i s i n g .  In a ks-  be. supported  from a p o s s i b l e  a s an upper p r e d i c a t e ,  c o n s t r u c t i o n , I n v o l v i n g Pronominal  Dative. Advancement t o 2, and a downstairs- c l a u s e t h a t I s t r a n s i t i v e , and for  a.  f i n a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e , L e x i c a l Incorporation i s permissible  a 2-chomeur:  k™  ?i(n) - ks - dk - 4 - t - i m  you  Sl _ ---UNR-count-INDIR-t-PASS IKK  I'm  b.  Initially  k™_ you I'm  T  T3  ?s the  ?an - kwTwTap. your-EL-horse  going t o count your saddle, h o r s e s .  ~i(n) - ks - dk - sqaxa - m. ?  S1  TT3TD  IKK  - UWR  - count - h o r s e - INTR  going t o count your  horses.  The. r e l a t i o n a l network, r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e i h a,h diagrammed below:  above, i s  199  Ti  kwTwTap  The grammatical r e l a t i o n borne by t h e downstairs c l a u s e t o t h e u p s t a i r s , c l a u s e , whether i t i s a l o r a 2, has been l e f t , u n s p e c i f i e d , it  I s i i m m a t e r i a l t o t h e a n a l y s i s here —  a s W,  since,  the. head o f the i n i t i a l 2 nominal  i s a 2 I n e i t h e r case. The two sentences a_,h  a l s o show t h a t L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n i s  sensitive, t o monostratal vs p u t a t i v e . - b i s t r a t a l s t r u c t u r e , since the L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n i s o p t i o n a l from a 2-chomeur In a b i s t r a t a l s t r u c t u r e but o b l i g a t o r y from a m o n o s t r a t a l structure..  200  CHAPTER FIVE  RELEVANCE OF ANALYSES  T h i s chapter  discusses the relevance  o f the preceding  f o r S a l i s h a n l i n g u i s t i c s i n s e c t i o n 1 , and f o r t h e t h e o r y  analyses  of Relational  Grammar i n s e c t i o n 2 . 1  Relevance t o S a l i s h a n L i n g u i s t i c s The  analyses  presented  i n Chapters Three and Four  t o t h e study o f S a l i s h a n l i n g u i s t i c s . be reviewed i n t u r n :  the Benefactive  the R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n existence  (.1.2),  of indirect objects  1.1  'Benefactive'  will  and I n d i r e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s -  (l.k 1, t h e ' T r a n s i t i v e  B e n e f a c t i v e and I n d i r e c t i v e The  Each, o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s  the Locative construction  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e Middle, v o i c e  contribute  (.1.3).,  (.1.1).  the  - t ' ( . 1 . 5 ) . and t h e  (.1.6)..  Constructions  -x(i) , -4 -morphemes- o f the. Dative, clauses:, termed and ' I n d i r e c t i v e ' r e s p e c t i v e l y , are. t h e Okanagan tokens- o f  a class- of-morphemes which. Kinkade  (.19.80)  terms- ' R e d i r e c t i v e ' f o r  " s u f f i x e s - i n I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages which, are used when two goalsare i m p l i e d f o r t r a n s i t i v e stems."  Three important papers discuss:  t h e s e morphemes,-.;,*. Thei»^irtherii^]^te^^ri§|dlah.aa languages.ihaye m u l t i p l e , -members i n t h i s c l a s s whereas t h e N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages- • have reduced t h e s e t o f members t o one.  F o r Columbian, Kinkade  reports,- t h r e e o r more members, - x i , -4,  -tu4 with, p o s s i b l y -ca4,  -S  and  1  (.1980)  -c,  X 1 X , -xax. The phenomena appear t o be s i m i l a r s y n t a c t i c a l l y  t o t h e Okanagan d a t a , with, advancements: from Oblique t o 3 t o 2 , as  201  e x e m p l i f i e d below, as s'hown by case-marking and l i n e a r p o s i t i o n : COLUMBIAN: la  (.= MDK  13)  a c - yay4n  ?  sttanftanf  k l  Mary.  I'm weaving a bag f o r Mary, b  (.= MDK  ik)  qiylta?  ql?mins  Mary.  W r i t e a l e t t e r f o r Mary! '7c  (- MDK  11)  ?ac - k a i x t n  sttanftanf  Mary.  I gave Mary a bag. d  (.= MDK  10)  ?ac - yayxtn  Mary  sttanftanf.  I made a bag f o r Mary. The case-marking d i s t i n c t i o n s , between t h e m u l t i p l e members: o f t h e Columbian r e d i r e c t i v e s - i s not r e p o r t e d ,  and the semantic  need f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  distinctions  Columbian is: r e p o r t e d  p e r m i t t i n g r e d i r e c t i v e s i n i n t r a n s i t i v e clauses:, with, e i t h e r - X I X -xax,  as i n a_,b  below.  as or  These i n t r a n s i t i v e c l a u s e s are r e p o r t e d as-  o c c u r r i n g t r a n s i t i v e l y i n R e l a t i o n a l c l a u s e s , as i n c_ below: 2a  (=  MDK  h3)  xasmxix. he l o s t  b  (.=  MDK  hk).  (.=  MDK  ks.)  something b e l o n g i n g  i t f o r them (not d e l i b e r a t e l y ) . .  For Spokane.( a d i a l e c t :  and  t o someone e l s e ,  xosxixmon. I lost  reports -si  someone,  xasmxax. he l o s t  c  something f d r / o f  -4,  o f t h e K a l i s p e l language),, C a r l s o n  (.19.80}  which., he terms: ' b e n e f a c t i v e . / s u b s t i t u t i v e ' and  ' r e l a t i v e ' , r e s p e c t i v e l y , with. -4 ' a l s o o c c u r r i n g i n p o s s e s s i v e  constructions,  The case-markings i n d i c a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n t o b l i q u e grammatical r e l a t i o n s may  be i n v o l v e d i n i t i a l l y :  202  SPOKANE-KALISPEL:  3a  b  (.= BFC 3 9 )  (.= BFC kl)  k^ulltan iu?  yamx e?  I made a "basket  f o r Agnes,  x ldtton  yamx e?  w  4u?  I gave a basket  4u  w  ?  Agnes.  w  in?  w  C  Agnes.  t o Agnes.  Moreover, a f t e r p u t a t i v e advancement o f t h e i n i t i a l the i n i t i a l  x ol  o b l i q u e nominal t o 2,  2, now a 2-chomeur a c c o r d i n g t o R e l a t i o n a l Grammar, takes  obliqueccase-marking:  ka  (=vBFe)38)  k^ul^tsn  4u?  Agnes  in? t yamx e?. w  I made Agnes a b a s k e t .  b  (= BFC kOI  x icstan w  4u?  Agnes  OBL  in? t yamx e?. w  I gave Agnes a b a s k e t .  OBL  F o r Thompson, a N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n language, Thompson and Thompson (.1980) r e p o r t one morpheme, i n d i r e c t i v e o r p o s s e s s i v e meaning. initial  5a  -xi  with, b e n e f a c t i v e , m a l e f a c t i v e ,  A g a i n , these  seem t o i n v o l v e an  oblique object:  (= T&T kl)  ma?xtx  w  e  smuiec  break.-BEN-t-S2  ta  dish. OBL  szelts. woman  You smashed t h e woman's dish.. F o r Shuswap, K u i p c r s -xl,  (.12741 a l s o reports: o n l y one. morpheme,  u s u a l l y 'benefactive'. Based on the. f a c t s as- r e p o r t e d i n the sources: reviewed and the  a n a l y s i s of the  (LNL)_  Okanagan, a h y p o t h e s i s  can be made with, r e s p e c t t o  language, change i n t h e I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages:  203  6  that originally, oblique  these "redirective"  grammatical  relations,  and  that this  different  which merged, with a subsequent  loss of membership in the class presence of that initial  clauses involved  of morphemes which register  oblique  the  nominal;  language change occurred first  and is incomplete in the Southern  in the Northern  branch  branch.  An a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s i s  7  that originally, oblique  these !'redirective"  grammatical  relation  clauses involved a general  which split  with a subsequent  of membership in the class of morphemes which register presence of an initial and  oblique  increase  the  nominal  that this: language change occurred first and is: incomplete in the Northern  in the Southern  branch  branch.  To v e r i f y e i t h e r h y p o t h e s i s , f u r t h e r work, i s needed, i n hoth. Coast and I n t e r i o r languages, s y n c h r o n i c a l l y with, r e s p e c t putative  t o case-marking and  advancements from Oblique, t o 3 t o 2, s u p p o r t e d b y s y n t a c t i c  evidence.  1.2  Relational  Constructions  Relational clauses Interior Salishan Colyille-Okanaganl, function.  are. a l s o r e p o r t e d  as- o c c u r r i n g  i n other  languages (Shuswap, Thompson, Columbian, and with, t h e  -mi-morpheme, h a v i n g a t r a n s i t i . v l z i n g  The. ( N i c o l a Lake) Okanagan a n a l y s i s c o n t r i b u t e s  l i n g u i s t i c s by i d e n t i f y i n g t h r e e c l a s s e s  to Salishan  o f R e l a t i o n a l clauses-, by  examining t h e c l a u s a l s t r u c t u r e o f each, o f t h e s e c l a s s e s , b y the. 'weak, c a u s a t i v e ' -meaning o f one. o f t h e s e c l a s s e s  deciphering  and b y s p e c i f y i n g  201+  t h e -mi  morpheme, i n R e l a t i o n a l Grammar t e r m i n o l o g y ,  advancement o f a non-nuclear nominal t o 2 .  as a marker o f  S i m i l a r constructions to  the  Okanagan R e l a t i o n a l . G l a s s C, w i t h weak c a u s a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , have been r e p o r t e d f o r t h e Thompson language:  8  (=  LCT  16) a  A c c o r d i n g t o L.C.  sex - m - s - C. w  bathe'  b  $acf - m - s - t - x .  'you make him  c  k 3n - m - s - t - e s .  'she made him take  v  w  w  Thompson's (1979) a n a l y s i s , these  c a u s a t i v i z e d middle forms. may  'she makes him  r e v e a l whether these  do t h e  nailing'  hold'  are assumed.to be  F u r t h e r work on the s y n t a x o f t h i s language  are t r u e c a u s a t i v e s i n v o l v i n g b i c l a u s a l s t r u c t u r e  with M i d d l e v o i c e c l a u s e s o r I n s t r u m e n t a l Advancement l i k e t h e  (,NL)  Okanagan c o n s t r u c t i o n s .  1.3  Locative The  -ina?  Constructions i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e L o c a t i v e c l a u s e s with, a morpheme  marking advancement i s new,  Possessor  Ascension.  Possessive  as. is. the a n a l y s i s with, r e s p e c t  c o n s t r u c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g with, a R e d i r e c t i v e  morpheme, have been e x e m p l i f i e d and/or n o t e d i n o t h e r I n t e r i o r languages-,  with, r i  i n Columbian and  i n Thompson, although  to  Spokane-Kalispel,  and  Salishan  wi.th.--xl  t h e a n a l y s i s here f o r Okanagan as o b l i g a t o r y  Pronominal D a t i v e Advancement t o 2 with, o p t i o n a l copy and  agreement i s  new.  1.1+  ' The  Existence of Indirect  Objects  A n o t h e r ^ p r o b l e m l i n . i S a l l s h a n i l l h g u i s t i c s .cisrthe.^exi.s.te'nc.e.eofaihdirect o b j e c t s , i . e . , 3s.  The  t r a d i t i o n a l view i s t h a t S a l i s h a n languages have  o n l y subjects., d i r e c t o b j e c t s and o b l i q u e o b j e c t s , but no As a consequence o f the a n a l y s e s  presented  i n d i r e c t objects:.  i n Chapter Three, an i n i t i a l  3  205  has been proposed by d e f a u l t . two  T h i s f a l l s out o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  c l a s s e s o f U n a c c u s a t i v e s , t h e R e f l e x i v e U n a c c u s a t i v e s and the. -p  class.  L e x i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n and Q u a n t i f i e r Ban serve  between t h i s p u t a t i v e initial  3 and t h e grammatical r e l a t i o n borne, by t h e  2 / f i n a l 2 o f the Middle voice clauses.  more instancesr.of 3s a r e d i s c u s s e d : c l a u s e s , an i n i t i a l  an advancee 3 i n D a t i v e  i). (cf. ii )  iv)  three  an advancee 3 i n I n d i r e c t i v e / B e n e f a c t i y e .  clauses.  Relational  clauses;  The:; c l e a r e s t cases o f 3 s a r e : -  (Benefactive/Indirective).. clauses  s e c t i o n 1 , Chapter 3 ) ; an advancee 3 i n L o c a t i v e  clauses  i i i ) . a 3 with. L e x i c a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n The  I n Chapter F o u r ,  3 w i t h some members o f C l a s s A, B  an advancee 3 i n L o c a t i v e  and  to distinguish.  ( c f . s e c t i o n 3, Chapter 3)..; and  (cf. sections  3 . 3 , 4 . 3 , Chapter 3 L  f o l l o w i n g c a s e s o f 3s' a r e not a s c l e a r , but a r e possible.: an i n i t i a l  3 i n R e f l e x i v e U n a c c u s a t i v e clauses: ( c f , s e c t i o n 4 . 4 ,  Chapter 3)_; 3 with. some. Class; A, B R e l a t i o n a l v e r b s ( c f . , sections-  v)  an i n i t i a l  2,  2 . 2 , Chapter 4 ) .  F u r t h e r work, w i l l be. r e q u i r e d t o demonstrate, c l e a r l y t h a t a nominal may b e a r a 3 - r e l a t i , o n i n an i n i t i a l 1.5  Transitive The.  and  stratum.  -t - t m a r k i n g is: a morpheme, a p p e a r i n g i i i : i a l l S a l i s h a n  i s commonly known as- Transitive  t.  I n Okanagan, a s i n t h e o t h e r  S a l i s h a n languages, t h i s : morpheme, appears- i n r e g u l a r t r a n s i t i v e  9_  ? i srfina?  cf'Sa -  the  bite-PFTV-t-S3  The  owl  n  - t - is  owl b i t t h e baby.  T R A N S  ?i .  languages.-  slcS^imalt.  t h e baby  clauses-:  206  However, t h i s morpheme i s not a p p e a r i n g i n the  10  Si  finally intransitive  sk' q^im9lt  q ?  w  the  hahy  The  baby was  That the  -t  r e s t r i c t e d to  - n-  v  3  b i t t e n by  the  morpheme i s not  t - im  Si  initial  t h i s b e n e f a c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , which, i s initial  both.sides  o f an  owl  owl.  stratum:  DIM-smil e -REDUP-fac e-BENE-t-IMP  Details  sn'ina?.  INSTR  - t'Snf - s - x - t - 0  Smile f o r .the  t  a marker o f t r a n s i t i v i t y i n the  l o g i c a l l y i n t r a n s i t i v e i n the  £ - &xd  clauses,  passive:  b i t e - PFTV-t-PASS  stratum i s demonstrated by  11  finally transitive  S2  Si  ^cx^xap.  the  PL-elder  TRANS  elders.'  analysis,  positing  o b j e c t , p e r m i t t i n g advancement t o  -x  as  3 and  a marker o f an t o 2,  are  initially  oblique 1  given i n section  of  Chapter Four. The  problem i s t h e n t h a t the  i n i t i a l t r a n s i t i v i t y hor section -t  1.7  final transitivity.  o f Chapter Two  as ..marking the  Transitive t~ marks  f o r -t  presence o f an  The  rule  neither  given i n  marking i n Okanagan i d e n t i f i e s initial  or advancee 2,  i n stratum  which, remains a d i s t i n c t n u c l e a r term i n a s u c c e s s i v e , f i n a l ^i + 1 the  (-^  ee  the  c o n d i t i o n s on t h i s r u l e , p.  facts- e x e m p l i f i e d above, the  (1) . o f r u l i n g out (2) the  of including  the the  -t  rule  38)).  statement has  -t'  same, statement, thus s i m p l i f y i n g  o f the the  stratum  two  advantages: and  U n a c c u s a t i v e Class.- B,  grammar.  S^,  Besides capturing  marker from M i d d l e v o i c e c l a u s e s ;  'stative  the.  within  207  1.6  Trie The  thorn.  Middle V o i c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Middle clauses  (198O) has c h a r a c t e r i z e d  Salishan the  Salishan  More h r o a d l y , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between a c t i v e and middle v o i c e has  remained a problem h i s t o r i c a l l y , Gerdts  I s another  from Homeric Greek t o modern-day Okanagan. the Middle voice  i n Halkomelem, a.",Coast  language, as i n v o l v i n g Spontaneous Chomage, i . e . , demotion o f  initial  2 t o 2, l a c k i n g evidence f o r t h e yo-yo a c t i o n o f t h e A n t i p a s s i v e  with, r e s p e c t  t o the i n i t i a l  1 demoting t o 2 then advancing t o 1.  Okanagan, t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a p r o v i d e d support f o r an A n t i p a s s i v e s u b s e q u e n t l y m o d i f i e d w i t h a Phantom a r c .  analysis,  The. Phantom A r c solution.,  provides a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e o f Middle c l a u s e s , which does not countermand t h e t r a d i t i o n a l semantic  2.  For  voice  characterization.  Relevance t o R e l a t i o n a l Grammar The  a n a l y s e s o f Okanagan c l a u s e - l e v e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s  presented  i n t h i s study a t t e s t t o t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model R e l a t i o n a l Grammar w i t h r e s p e c t  to clausal structure.  analyses: a l s o address two p r i n c i p l e s o f R e l a t i o n a l  However t h e s e  Grammar and p o i n t t o  an a r e a o f t h e grammatical t h e o r y i n need o f e l a b o r a t i o n . of t r a n s i t i v i t y  (2.1),  The d e f i n i t i o n  t h e 1-Advancement E x c l u s i v e n e s s Law  t h e mapping o f t h e m a t i c and grammatical r e l a t i o n s (.2.3) are. in  2.1  (2.2),  and  discussed  turn.  The D e f i n i t i o n o f T r a n s i t i v i t y T r a n s i t i v i t y is; d e f i n e d  o f s t r a t u m , not o f c l a u s e s  i n Relational  Grammar a s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  o r o f v e r b s , as; f o l l o w s :  208  12  Transitivity  in Relational Grammar  A stratum is considered otherwise it is  transitive  if it has a 1 and a 2;  intransitive.  However, Okanagan may p r o v i d e evidence t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n and o f i t s e l f , hecause o f the n e c e s s i t y o f r e f e r r i n g t o d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f 1 and o f 2 w i t h r e s p e c t t o A g e n t i v e R e f l e x i v e s and t o M i d d l e s .  The  Agentive R e f l e x i v e s are t r a n s i t i v e a c c o r d i n g t o d e f i n i t i o n hut u n l i k e o t h e r t r a n s i t i v e s , as f a r as m o r p h o l o g i c a l marking i s concerned, i n Okanagan are t r e a t e d as i n t r a n s i t i v e , i . e . , do not take, do t a k e I I n t r a n s i t i v e S u b j e c t Marking.  The Middles  -t  reflexives and  contain at least  one: t r a n s i t i v e stratum, a g a i n with, t h e 1 and the 2 r e s u l t i n g from advancement o f the Phantom nominal, as i n t r a n s i t i v e v i s ; a v i s  being n o n - d i s t i n c t .  - t marking,  -n/-s P e r f e c t ! v e / I m p e r f e c t i v e  aspect marking, and Person/Number s u b j e c t marking. some languages,  These are t r e a t e d  Thus, f o r a t l e a s t  r u l e s r e f e r r i n g t o t r a n s i t i v i t y r e q u i r e reference, t o  d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s - as w e l l as- t o 1 and 2.  2.2  The R e l a t i o n a l C l a s s B v e r b s and t h e 1AEX The C l a s s B R e l a t i o n a l clauses: may be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e  r e l e v a n c e t o t h e 1-Advancement E x c l u s i v e n e s s Law ( P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l 1978).. 13  T h i s Law can be s t a t e d f o r m a l l y : The 1- Advancement Exclusiveness Let  A  and  B  A is: an advancee arc,  be distinct B is not  Law neighboring  1-arcs.  an advancee arc,  Then, if  where two  arcs A, B. are neighbors if andcohiy if they have the same tail node; and where an arc is an advancee arc if the of the arc has re-evaluated  up the Relational  Relational-sign  hierarchy.  209  The Ik  c l a i m made b y t h e 1AEX can be s t a t e d i n f o r m a l l y : C l a i m o f 1AEX The  s e t o f advancements t o 1 i n a s i n g l e c l a u s e  contains  at most one member. The  proponents o f t h i s c l a i m i d e n t i f y two d f t h e p o s s i b l e  relational  networks r u l e d out by t h e 1AEX:  f The  1AEX p r e d i c t s t h a t a P a s s i v i z e d R e l a t i o n a l c l a u s e with.  an U n a c c u s a t i v e C l a s s B p r e d i c a t e would be ungrammatical s i n c e would i n v o l v e two advancements t o 1 i n t h e same c l a u s e :  16  a  this  210  However, this- p r e d i c t i o n i s not borne out s i n c e P a s s i v e s  occur with  C l a s s B R e l a t i o n a l verbs f o r which i t was shown t h a t t h e f i n a l 1 i s an i n i t i a l 2 ( s e c t i o n 2 . 3 , Chapter 17a  2 ->  Si  GR  1  twtwit  the  Four):  Saymt - m ( • n - t ) - s  PL-boy  mad-REL/2-PFTV-t-P3  lx  ^  2  Si xxix x tm'. w  w  the P L - g i r l s  TRMS  The boys are made at t h e g i r l s . b  GR  2  1  2 ^ 1  ->  1  x  Sj  xxix x tnf w  w  the P L - g i r l  Saymt - m - n - t - a m mad-REL/2-PFTV-t-PASS  The g i r l s are mad 18a  2 •>  '  lx P3  Sj t  T n v m r o  twtwit.  INSTR PL-boy  at by t h e boys. GR  1  Sj  ttwit  y l t - mi ( - n - t ) - s  the  boy  run.away-REL/2-PFTV-t-S3  x  ->_2  Sj a%j&ap. the elder  TRANS  The boy r u n away from t h e o l d man. b  GR  x  2  -}  1  2 - ^ 1 ^ 1  Sj  fl&j&ap  y l t - mi - n - t - am  Sj t  the  elder  run.away-REL/2-PFTV-t-PASS  ttwit.  INSTR boy  The e l d e r I s r u n away from by t h e boy. The Okanagan d a t a ,  from t h e C l a s s B R e l a t i o n a l  verbs,  c o n s t i t u t e s a counter-example t o t h e 1-Advancement E x c l u s i v e n e s s a law proposed as a p o s s i b l e u n i v e r s a l . reported  l)_ can  Halkomelem has a l s o been  a s c o n s t i t u t i n g a counter-example t o t h e 1AEX.  discusses the  me?  c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f Halkomelem,  that the approximately 3 0 verbs,  Law,  Gerdts  (.1980)  arguing  p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e d i c a t e s , which,  o c c u r with, t h i s s u f f i x , determine i n i t i a l U n a c c u s a t i v e s t r a t a ;  211.  2)  t h a t t h e me  Unaccusative  ?  c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e h e s t a n a l y z e d as i n v o l v i n g  Advancement t o 1 and ' c a u s a l * (her term f o r t h e i n i t i a l  o b l i q u e nominal o f t h e s e 3)  that p a s s i v i z e d  to  c o n s t r u c t i o n s ) , t o 2 Advancement; and  me  ?  c o n s t r u c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e a counter-example  t h e 1AEX. Hence S a l i s h a n languages p r o v i d e two counter-examples t o  t h e 1AEX: a Coast  Okanagan, an I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n language, and Halkomelem,  S a l i s h a n language, both, i n v o l v i n g i d e n t i c a l s t r u c t u r e (see  t h e R e l a t i o n a l network g i v e n i n l 6  above).  I t may he concluded t h a t  t h e 1AEX s h o u l d be m o d i f i e d so t h a t language p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s must be. a l l o w e d on i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y .  2.3  The Mapping o f Thematic and Grammatical R e l a t i o n s These analyses: o f Okanagan clauses: p o i n t t o a p o t e n t i a l problem  for  R e l a t i o n a l Grammar:  relations.  the mapping o f thematic  I f i t i s assumed t h a t t h i s mapping o c c u r s i n t h e i n i t i a l  stratum, then t h e f a c t t h a t some Okanagan verbs: of  different i n i t i a l  of  interest.  Unaccusative 19_a  b  r e l a t i o n s : onto grammatical  may have an assignment  grammatical r e l a t i o n s : i n d i f f e r e n t  c l a u s e - t y p e s is-  F o r example, some v e r b a l r o o t s can determine both. s t r a t u m and a c t i v e o r m i d d l e  TaSaPt, TnmTap 'broken';  voice  Unaccusatives  stratum:  with, an i n i t i a l  2 but no 1;  m?am  'break.'; M i d d l e , with, an i n i t i a l 1 and a Phantom NN term;  mSyp  'know'; U n a c c u s a t i v e , with, an i n i t i a l  2 but no 1,  a l s o i n L i m i t e d C o n t r o l , with, i n i t i a l  m?y-c  tfq w  'know'; i n i t i a l l y  2 and a NN term;  t r a n s i t i v e , with, an i n i t i a l 1 and 2;  s l a p ' ; with, an i n i t i a l lviand 2; o r with, i n i t i a l 1 and a NN t e r m i n a L i m i t e d C o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t i o n , with. Managed-To r e a d i n g ;  212  tq^" - q  w  -  ' s l a p ' ; as: U n a c c u s a t i v e i n a L i m i t e d C o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t i o n , with. A c c i d e n t a l / U n i n t e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g ;  d  tii-  ' s t r a i g h t ' , with, an i n i t i a l  1 and a M  term i n a  Relational construction; tii  - i -  ' s t r a i g h t ' ; as an U n a c c u s a t i v e with, i n i t i a l in  2 h u t no 1  a Limited Control construction, with  Accidental/Unintentional reading. S i m i l a r l y , some verbs can determine both. U n a c c u s a t i v e and U n e r g a t i v e stratum:  20i  qicalx  'run'; U n e r g a t i v e , with, an i n i t i a l  qcalx-  'run'; Unaccus-ative, with, an i n i t i a l in  1 b u t no 2;  a Possessor Ascension clause.  One p a i r o f t h e s e verbs- i s e x e m p l i f i e d below, with, s t r a t a l  21a  mSy - ,p - nu ( - n - t ) - n know-UNACCUS-LTDC-PFTV-t-Sl  T]RA1JS  S i c?aptiq i. w  the. myth.  I found out t h e o l d s t o r y . b  SI 22a  Si S 3 p t l q i w  c  c - mSy - s - t - i n  Si  Silmix^.  PF-know-IMPF.-t-Sl  the  chief  I know t h e ' c h i e f .  TRMS  2 but no 1,  diagrams:  213  These Okanagan f a c t s demonstrate t h a t the t h e o r y o f R e l a t i o n a l Grammar r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n t o d e a l with, m u l t i p l e assignment o f grammatical and t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s i n c e r t a i n t y p e s o f  clauses.  initial  2lh  APPENDIX I:  CONSULTANTS  This; i s a l i s t of native speakers consxilted during the f i e l d work, period, spanning from Summer 1277  thru Spring 1982.  The hulk of the  data presented herein I s from Joseph. Albert Michel, the primary language consultant.  Some, syntactic phenomena reported on here have been contributed  by other speakers;  these are.moted i n the footnotes.  Other native speakers  l i s t e d below have been h e l p f u l In many ways, although, t h e i r words and stories may  not have been included.  The data presented  only a portion of the material c o l l e c t e d .  on the preceeding pages  is  Joseph. Albert Michel i s respected  In his community as a p a r t i c u l a r l y knowledgeable speaker and patient teacher of h i s mother tongue.  He excels and delights i n f i g u r i n g out his  own  language.  1.  Uncle, i . e . , Joseph. Albert Michel, was born on June 30, 1208  was raised on Qullchena Reserve, Nicola V a l l e y , B.C. resident of Nicola Valley. he learned from his mother.  and  He remained a constant  His: native and f i r s t language, i s Okanagan which Later, he learned some Shuswap and some  Chinook. Jargon from h i s father, as well as some Thompson (the. other Salishan language spoken i n the v a l l e y ) .  He learned English, from his father  who  taught him to read and to write, and spoke English, to his boss on the ranch., e s p e c i a l l y the. Abbott ranch, where he cowb.oyed f o r over t h i r t e e n years. His parents, Fred MicheieoT Kamloops and Josephine C h i l l i h i t z a Michel of Quilchena, had f i f t e e n children. i n r e s i d e n t i a l school. back, from school.  Three of the older children a l l died  This formed part of the reason for keeping Uncle  A bout with, rheumatic fever also played a r o l e here.  Although, he considers h i s lack of formal schooling as a sorrow of l i f e ,  215  this; time, a t home p r o v i d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r close, and i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g i n t h e language and c u l t u r e , , e n a b l i n g him t o be a v e r y valuable, b e a r e r and t r a n s m i t t e r o f t h e traditions:.. • Throughout t h e work, he has b.een c o n s c i o u s o f r e c o r d i n g h i s : language., and  so c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e knowledge, and memory about h i s people..  T h i s work,  forms: p a r t o f h i s l e g a c y t o his- people..  Sharon L i n d l e y  2.  (.1953  -  ), nee M i c h e l , i s a l s o o f t h e Q u i l c h e n a  Reserve, a daughter o f F r a n c i s and Amelia M i c h e l .  Her g r a n n i e ,  Josephine  Chilllhitza  M i c h e l , and h e r u n c l e , Joseph. A l b e r t M i c h e l , were i n s t r u m e n t a l  In h e r l i f e  and a r e h e r main t e a c h e r s o f t h e language.  to  Okanagan, t o h e r U n c l e , and t o N i c o l a V a l l e y .  she i s completing h e r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g a t UBC.  She i n t r o d u c e d me  At t h e time o f w r i t i n g ,  I am f o r t u n a t e t o c o n s i d e r  her as: my f r i e n d .  3.  N e l l i e Quiterrez  (.1892-1980  V was a r e s p e c t e d and admired e l d e r .  Born  i n Hedley, between P r i n c e t o n and Keremeos, o f Eddie John F a l l A l l i s o n and Emily  (nee Tom), she spent h e r young y e a r s i n Shulus  i n Nicola Valley.  r e c e i v e d h e r s c h o o l i n g i n M i s s i o n and has l i v e d a t Douglas Lake s i n c e the home area o f h e r m a t e r n a l  Thompson, Okanagan, Chinook., and English..  N e l l i e had t h r e e c h i l d r e n with, (.1909),  Lily  (I91l)_,  A f t e r h i s death., she worked a s a cook, f o r t h e Douglas-  Lake ranch, f o r many y e a r s . t h e war.  N e l l i e , grew up speaking  husband, B a p t i s t e . Tom; t h e s e a r e M i c h e l  and Charlie. (1913).  19.08,  g r a n d f a t h e r , N a r c l s s i s Tom, known as.  'Chinook. Tom' because he knew Chinook Jargon.  her f i r s t  She  Her second husband, A l f r e d Q u i t e r r e z , d i e d i n  A grand o l d l a d y , she c o u l d s t a r t t h e p r o c e e d i n g s  a t E l d e r s Day  with, a solemn p r a y e r i n Okanagan, then c o n t r i b u t e a t r a d i t i o n a l song,- and end wi.th_ an e n t h u s i a s t i c 'yahoo!'  2l6  k.  L o u i s a Roper,  (1896-19811» the, l a s t n e a r - m o n o l i n g u a l speaker o f  Okanagan I n N i c o l a V a l l e y , was: horn Christmas: Eve, Williams- Jack..  I896, o f Mr, and Mrs.  Her o n l y s u r v i v i n g o f f s p r i n g a r e Louis- and Isaac L i n d l e y .  Although, b e d - r i d d e n , she g e n e r o u s l y p e r m i t t e d an I n t e r v i e w i n August  5.  R o s i e Tom (.1912-  ) o f Douglas Lake Reserve  1279.  a s s i s t e d i n the  language work, with, h e r neighbour L o u i s a Roper.  6.  Johnny Archachan  (.1913-  1, e l d e r l y s t o r y - t e l l e r , o f Q u i l c h e n a ,  w i l l i n g l y r e c o r d e d h i s s t o r i e s t o be put i n t h e museum so h i s c h i l d r e n ' s c h i l d r e n c o u l d hear them.  7.  Joe. Pete Saddleman (l9_2k-  as a language  )., a l s o o f Q u i l c h e n a Reserve,  i n s t r u c t o r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a .  years: a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l I n Kamloops.  trained  He spent  eight  He i s well-known f o r h i s  p r a c t i c a l j o k e s and h i s ever-eready s m i l e .  8.  C l a r a Jack.  (.19.28-  ). o f P e n t l c t o n a l s o graduated from U n i v e r s i t y o f  V i c t o r i a ' s native, language program a s I n s t r u c t o r . teach: her language, and produced  She r e t u r n e d home t o  some l e s s o n s on Okanagan.  Although, her  a c t i v i t i e s a r e now s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d by t h e c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t s o f rheumatoid  arthritis.,,  she r i s e s t o the, c h a l l e n g e and c o n t i n u e s t o work,  on a d i c t i o n a r y o f h e r language.  She. i s a l s o a s s i s t i n g A. M a t t i n a with,  work, on a r e f e r e n c e grammar and t e x t s o f h e r d i a l e c t .  9..  Adam Eneas (.19.'2-  1  o f both. P e n t l c t o n and Vancouver,  o f t h e P e n t l c t o n band u n t i l 1 2 7 5 . a c t i v e l y used the. language  T h i s was: t h e l a s t y e a r t h a t he  i n p u b l i c and f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s  roadblocks:, -meetings, e t c . ) .  was c h i e f  (sit-ins,  He l e a r n e d his: language, a t home from h i s  217  p a r e n t s , Angellne. (nee: " F r a n c o i s ) u n t i l he. went t o s c h o o l .  and Gideon Eneas..  He completed grade 1 2 and one. y e a r o f u n i v e r s i t y .  He has: l i v e d i n Vancouver f o r f o u r  10.  T e r e s a Terbasket  He spoke no E n g l i s h  (.19.33-  •  1  years-.  o f Keremeos- a t t e n d e d U n i v e r s i t y o f  V i c t o r i a f o r t r a i n i n g both, as: a language. I n s t r u c t o r and a s a t e a c h e r . While i n V i c t o r i a , she. a s s i s t e d i n some fine, d e t a i l e d language, work..  11.  Tillie  George o f C o l v i l l e , Washington S t a t e , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 5  y e a r s o f age. and  She spoke two languages a t home:  Columbian t o h e r f a t h e r .  years o f p u b l i c school  Okanagan t o h e r mother  She r e c e i v e d e i g h t y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g ,  and t h r e e y e a r s o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l .  five  She a l s o  graduated a s a language i n s t r u c t o r from U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a ' s NILDP. She  h a s taught h e r language t o t h e young p e o p l e and c h i l d r e n on t h e  Colville  12.  "reservation.  Robert W. S t e r l i n g  N i c o l a V a l l e y Indian  (.1937-  Administration  ). i s d i r e c t o r o f I n d i a n  and chairman o f t h e A d v i s o r y  f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h . Columbia's N a t i v e I n d i a n Program.  He i s a n a t i v e  N i c o l a Indian  Band.  Education f o r Council  Teacher E d u c a t i o n  speaker o f Thompson and a member o f t h e Lower  He h o l d s a BA I n S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y from UBC.  We  c o l l a b o r a t e d on a j o i n t paper which, attempted t o l i n k , t h e language, t h e culture, o f N i c o l a V a l l e y and Indian p e o p l e and h i s view o f I n d i a n and  13.  Education.  H i s Insights: i n t o h i s  E d u c a t i o n have, b e n e f i t t e d me as a l i n g u i s t  as; a p e r s o n .  Mary C o u t l e e  (1915-  1.of M e r r l t t , a l s o a graduate o f U n i v e r i s t y  o f V i c t o r i a ' s NILDP, speaks:, r e a d s , and w r i t e s Thompson f l u e n t l y . h o s p i t a l i t y and our many d i s c u s s i o n s o f both, her  Her  language and o f Okanagan  218  have Been v e r y encouraging  and h e l p f u l t o ne.  She. c h e e r f u l l y  continues  h e r work, on h e r language and Has r e c e n t l y taught h e r language t o a d u l t s in  N i c o l a V a l l e y t h r u Cariboo C o l l e g e /(Winter  Ik.  J i m T o o d l i c a n (1949.-  1  19.81-82).  o f Shackan Reserve, i s a l s o a  of  U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a ' s : NILDP.  of  Nicola Valley.  He h a s taught. Thompson t o t h e c h i l d r e n  My meager e f f o r t s ; t o a s s i s t him t o t r a n s c r i b e a s m a l l  c o l l e c t i o n o f Thompson s t o r i e s one summer h e l p e d me h e l p e d him.  graduate  He i s t h e youngest -  f a r more, than  they  o f the. c o n s u l t a n t s and language I n s t r u c t o r s -  may h i s l i f e be p r o d u c t i v e .  15.  Dave P a r k e r , an e l d e r from Westhank, now l i v e s i n Kelowna.  d e v i s e d h i s own orthography  He has  f o r Okanagan; i t i s an E n g l i s h - b a s e d system.  He taught h i s language and h i s system a t Mt..Bushery Secondary S c h o o l , i n Kelowna, d u r i n g t h e  1980-91  school year.  and r e a d onto tape, c a s s e t t e s . first,  Each, o f h i s l e s s o n s was  typed  The same format was used f o r each, l e s s o n :  sentences: were p r e s e n t e d , then a breakdown of-words f o l l o w e d ,  and a s conclusion,, a t e x t o f a l l t h e sentences: In t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n . Dave works Independently  and i s proud o f his. work..  219  APPENDIX I I :  The  ABBREVIATIONS  f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s a r e used i n t h e s u b - l i n e a r  f o r v e r b a l markers: o f time: PF  Perfect  C-  PPF  Past P e r f e c t  sac-  PFTVV  Perfective  -n  IMPF  Imperfective  -S  PROG  Progressive  -x/-nux  INCEP  Inceptive  -aTx  UNR  Unrealized action  ks-  f o r markers; o f number: S  S i n g u l a r , as: i n SI: f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r  P  P l u r a l , as- i n P3: t h i r d person  PL  P l u r a l Reduplication •  f o r v e r b a l prefixes:, i . e . , l e x i c a l  plural  formatives:  Cont  Contained  Tn-  Dist  Distributed  k-/ t -  Dir  D i r e c t i o n a l : atop  ki-  Dir  D i r e c t i o n a l : under  kl-'  f o r v e r b a l morphology: MIDDLE  Middle v o i c e  -(a)m  LOC/2, / l  Locative-to-2  REL/2  R e l a t i o n a l - t o - 2 Advancement  UNACCUS'  Unaccusative  LTDC  Limited Control  o r t o - 1 Advancement  -(l)na? -mCi)  -nu  glosses  220  BENE  Benefactive  -xC.1)  INDIR  Indirective  -4  PASS  Passive  -im/-am  ITER  Iterative  REFL  Agentive R e f l e x i v e  -cut  Unaccusative R e f l e x i v e  -myst  Reciprocal  -wix  R E F L  U N .ACCUS  RECIP for assorted  Reduplication  w  particles::  NEG  Negative  lut  LOC  Locative preposition  1  INSTR  Instrumental  n  EMPH  Emphatic  COMP  Complementizer-  COND  Conditional  QU confirm  Yes/ho,:'q_uestion marker f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n  ha  QU. 'infor  Yes/no q u e s t i o n marker f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  ?T c  preposition  tl  t t T i / tfa  T i / Ta / t / mTi / k T i / kTa / 4Ta / s4  U  f o r s u b j e c t markers: IRR  I r r e a l i s Mood  the  Tin-  TRANS, TR  Transitive  the  - ( i ) n set  INTR  Intransitive  the  kn  for dialect  areas:  PEN  Pentict6n;:dialect  NL  N i c o l a Lake d i a l e c t  set  set  -221 APPENDIX III.  THE MIDDLE. AND RELATIONAL CONSTRUCTIONS' REVISITED  Hale  ( e x t e r n a l examiner' s r e p o r t , August 1  1281} suggested  a l t e r n a t i v e analyses- f o r t h e M i d d l e and R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , i n t e r m s o f t h e i n i t i a l assignment relations:.  THE MIDDLE  o f thematic r e l a t i o n s - t o grammatical  Each, o f t h e s e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t u r n .  CONSTRUCTION Under t h e suggested a l t e r n a t i v e , I t i s proposed t h a t t h e s e  v e r b s a s s i g n t h e thematic r e l a t i o n s -  evgativeZy  ( c f . , Marantz 1 9 8 l ) , so  t h a t t h e p a t i e n t is: a s s i g n e d the:;subject r e l a t i o n i s a s s i g n e d the o b j e c t r e l a t i o n  ( l ) _ , w h i l e t h e agent  (.2). The middle c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e n ,  Is  s i m p l y a v e r s i o n o f t h e P a s s i v e , - promoting t h e I n i t i a l 2 (agent),  to  1, t h e r e b y f o r c i n g t h e i n i t i a l 1 ( p a t i e n t ) t o go en chomage.  Hale s u g g e s t s t h a t such, an a n a l y s i s : i s e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t with, a maximally  c o n s t r a i n e d t h e o r y o f r e l a t i o n a l grammar and moreover f i t s i n  with, a h i g h l y p r o m i s i n g t h e o r y o f t h e e r g a t l v i t y parameter,  I.e., that  developed by Marantz. Under t h i s p r o p o s a l , -:m;: i s s i m p l y t h e mark, o f t h e p a s s i v e (2 •> l ) , - t  ( o f t h e p a s s i v e s and t r a n s i t i v e . I n g e n e r a l ) can be seen  as; a mark o f I n i t i a l accusative, l i n k i n g -a  (agent = 1, p a t i e n t = 2 ) , w h i l e t h e  o f t h e M i d d l e can be seen a s a mark, o f I n i t i a l  ( p a t i e n t = 1, agent = 2 ) .  ergative  T h i s p r o p o s a l I s r e p r e s e n t e d below I n s t r a t a l  diagram l a , u s i n g a s u p e r s c r i p t f o r t h e I n i t i a l assignment relations.  linking  o f thematic  I t I s p l a c e d next t o t h e s t r a t a l diagram o f t h e P a s s i v e  222  ( c f . , Chapter I I I , section.'!')., and o f the. Phantom a n a l y s i s o f t h e M i d d l e s ( c f . , Chapter I I I , s e c t i o n 3; Chapter V, s e c t i o n la  A l t e r n a t i v e Analysis- f o r  k.kh  h. P a s s i v e  Analysis  Middles  c  Phantom A n a l y s i s f o r Middles:  -Ca)m  These proposals: f o r t h e M i d d l e v o i c e  c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f e r on  t h r e e 'points- d i s c u s s e d "below: (l)  According  t o the A l t e r n a t i v e A n a l y s i s  (AAl, the object  nominal  In t h e f i n a l stratum I s a 1-chomeur, however I t does: not t a k e the.. 1-chSmeur marking o f the. P a s s i v e : 2a  Si  stamtima  the.  grandmother  The  ?  Si  t.  cSumqs - n - t - am kiss-PFTV-t-PASS  grandmother was- k i s s e d b y the. boy..  Sj  t  INSTR  ttwat. boy  .223.  Ti. stamtlma'"  k^ul'- m  the. grandmother  ( t  work-MIDDLE.  J  ym--  yamx a' . w  ?  a/some PL-basket  * Ti t INSTR  ym - yamx a . w  ?  PL-basket  This: f a c t i s : not p r o b l e m a t i c f o r t h e Phantom a n a l y s i s d f Middles- because under t h i s : a n a l y s i s , t h e p a t i e n t nominal to  is- an i n i t i a l  2 which, demotes  a 2-chomeur and hence does- not take. 1-chomeur marking. (Ii).  The. second and most p e r s u a s i v e argument a g a i n s t AA l i e s with.  i t s - p r e d i c t i o n f o r the phenomenonoo'fr P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n .  This i s  p e r m i t t e d o n l y from a 2 In some s t r a t u m S„, o n l y i f the. P o s s e s s o r advance, t o 1 i n t h e S..,_  may  stratum, with. the. 2-chomeur o b l i g a t o r i l y  i.+l i n c o r p o r a t i n g , i . e . , In P a s s i v e and U n a c c u s a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s (see  Chapter  IV, s e c t i o n h)_. The  s t r u c t u r e proposed  f o r M i d d l e s under AA p r e d i c t s t h a t  P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e f o r t h e i n i t i a l P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n is: not p e r m i t t e d from the. agent  3a  Ti  Ti(n) - sq^Tasiya?  the  my-offsprlng  2 (agent)., however  i n Middle c l a u s e s :  k ^ u l ' - m. work-MIDDLE  My k i d s work.  b  *  kn Sl  k M i l ' - i l t - m. T 1 V T r T O  IN In  .work-child-MIDDLE  T h i s f a c t I s c o r r e c t l y accounted f o r under a Phantom Arc a n a l y s i s : whereby t h e agent  nominal bears- t h e 1 r e l a t i o n i n the I n i t i a l and subsequent  Thus t h e facts: from P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n argue a g a i n s t Hale's Analysis  strata.  Alternative  (AA).  (iii)  A f u r t h e r argument a g a i n s t  the AA  f o r Middles i s presented  22k  below, i n l i g h t  f o r Middles:, the. - a  proposal linking  o f Hale's: a n a l y s i s f o r R e l a t l o n a l s . .  ( p a t i e n t = 1,  o f the K i d d l e  agent = 2 \ and  Kale's,  i s a mark, o f i n i t i a l  the. - t  (agent = 1, p a t i e n t  Under  i s - a mark, o f  accusative  linking  - 2)_.  of linkage  cannot be m a i n t a i n e d f o r Hale's p r o p o s a l  er gat i v e  Initial  However these, assignments for Relatlonals,  as  a l t e r n a t i v e proposals- c o u l d  be.  shown i n (.1 ) below. A f u r t h e r t e s t o f t h e s e two  based on the. phenomenon o f Moving G l o t t a l i z a t l o n however such, d a t a i s not available  (see  6,  footnote  Thus, the A l t e r n a t i v e A n a l y s i s i s r e j e c t e d and t h e Phantom Arc  THE  solution  construction  RELATIONAL CONSTRUCTION element s i g n a l s , not  ment as proposed In t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , but an " o b l i q u e "  instrumentals  r a t h e r an I n i t i a l  an  advance-  assignment  t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n (say " i n s t r u m e n t " o r "means") t o the  grammatical r e l a t i o n .  The  paraphrase r e l a t i o n between o r d i n a r y  would l i e / i n the. s h a r i n g  s t r u c t u r e and not  o f the  same I n i t i a l  o f the  of  2  inanimate  same t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n a l  grammatical r e l a t i o n a l . s t r u c t u r e .  advantage, t o t h i s analysis, i s ' t h a t R e l a t l o n a l s o f C l a s s B would not  v i o l a t e t h e 1AEX it  f o r the M i d d l e v o i c e  retained.  Hale, suggests: t h a t the' -m(x)  The  56)_.  Chapter I I , page.  and  when p a s s i v i z e d .  a proposed law The  Okanagan would not  counter-exemplify  o f the t h e o r y o f R e l a t i o n a l Grammar would be  one-stratal analysis  (OA)  proposed by Hale Is: diagrammed  b e l o w as- i s the. b i s t r a t a l a n a l y s i s : (.BA)  proposed h e r e i n  for  oblique..  a non-nuclear term, I.e.,  a 3 or an  saved.  where NN  stands  225  These p r o p o s a l s  for.the. R e l a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f e r on t h r e e  points-  d i s c u s s e d below: (1.) and  Hale's proposal,  grammatical r e l a t i o n s  that  -t 'marks; t h e l i n k a g e between t h e m a t i c  (agent =• 1, p a t i e n t = 2)., I s p r o b l e m a t i c  for  226  f o r the.' o n e - s t r a t a l analysts- o f R e l a t l o n a l s (OA)., c l a s s e s - , • a 2 i s assigned a thematic  In each.of the. t h r e e  r e l a t i o n , o t h e r .than, p a t i e n t , . l,e.,,  2 o b l i q u e In C l a s s e s - A and B, and 2 Instrument In Class- C, i s : doubled  This^ problem  f o r the. C l a s s B R e l a t l o n a l s - which, r e t a i n Unaccus-atlve.-morphology-,  I n c l u d i n g the. - t .  Here t h e 1 would be l i n k e d t o a thematic  as p a t i e n t or e x p e r l e n c e r .  Hale's: two p r o p o s a l s f o r M i d d l e s  are i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o -t •(ii)  Under t h e OA,  t h e oblique, thematic  relation  t h e I n i t i a l 2 grammatical r e l a t i o n I s a s s i g n e d t o .  r e l a t i o n , egg.,  instrumental.  i n Class C Relatlonals, i . e . , a 2  and e m p i r i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s : . Uniqueness: Law';  and R e l a t i o n a l s  marking.  T h i s raises'the question  o f the i n i t i a l grammatical r e l a t i o n a s s i g n e d t o t h e p a t i e n t . 2's  such  and a 2^  Assigning  , f a c e s both, t h e o r e t i c a l  At t h e l e v e l o f t h e o r y , t h i s : v i o l a t e s the  ( P e r l m u t t e r and P o s t a l 1978a) which, c l a i m s t h a t no  can contain, more than one. 1-arc, one 2-arc, or one  two  3-arc.  Stratal  stratum  Furthermore, t h e instr  a n a l y s i s I s d l s c o n f i r m e d at t h e e m p i r i c a l l e v e l , s i n c e o n l y t h e 2  acts  l i k e a 2 with, r e s p e c t t o P a s s i v i z a t i o n . (see. examples 101a,b, s e c t i o n 2.5.1) Chapter  IV).  E f f o r t s ; c o u l d be made t o r e s o l v e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , by a s s i g n i n g  3-hood t o the p a t i e n t nominal:  3  ; however, teaming t h e s e two  I.e., 3-hood with, p a t l e n t h o o d , appears t o be unmotivated.  together,  An assignment o f  DcVb  3  i s e s p e c i a l l y problematic  ( c f . , Chapter V,  s e c t i o n 1.3),  t h a t a nominal may (ill).  f o r Okanagan s i n c e , a s has a l r e a d y been n o t e d f u r t h e r work. I s needed t o demonstrate c l e a r l y  bear a 3 - r e l a t I o n In an I n i t i a l  stratum.  A b i c l a u s a l a n a l y s i s o f C l a s s C R e l a t l o n a l s - would e l i m i n a t e the  problems n o t e d In  (II.) above, however, a b i c l a u s a l a n a l y s i s r u n s i n t o the  problems: d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r under the: C a u s a t i v e proposals., ( c f . , s e c t i o n s 2.5.1  - 2.5.2, Chapter  IV)_.  Moreover, two  a d d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , present  themselves; f o r a b i c l a u s a l a n a l y s i s , diagrammed below:  227  potatoes and salmon  (a).  f u n c t i o n t o the. downstairs; 2  The assignment o f an o b l i q u e t h e m a t i c  i s an ad'ihoc assignment, s i m p l y t o p r e s e r v e the. g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f o r -m(i) (h).  proposed  under the. OA.  The. pre-dlctiori f o r which, nominal would f u n c t i o n l i k e  to Passivization i s s t i l l  incorrect.  The  a 2 with, r e s p e c t  analysis; diagrammed above p r e d i c t s  i n c o r r e c t l y t h a t the d o w n s t a i r s / u p s t a i r s : 2 would a c t l i k e a .2 i n a P a s s i v e , however the downstairs l / u p s t a i r s examples I01a,b, s e c t i o n 2 . 5 . 1  9  3  a c t s l i k e a 2 i n a P a s s i v e , (see.  Chapter  IV).  A d d i t i o n a l t e s t s t o choose between these, two be based on Moving G l o t t a l i z a t i o n , however such, d a t a I s not  proposals could  Tinca^/Tinca^kn, and P o s s e s s o r A s c e n s i o n ,  available.  Thus, i n s p i t e o f the. i n i t i a l  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f Hale's  a l t e r n a t i v e , a n a l y s e s f o r the Middles; and R e l a t i o n a l s - , t h e s e are. s e t aside, and the. a n a l y s e s proposed  i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are r e t a i n e d .  228  REFERENCES  A l s s e n , J u d i t h , and'D.'M. Perlmutter., 1976. 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