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The politics of freedom : the Montreal avant-garde in 1948 Ince, Judith Louise 1982

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THE POLITICS OF FREEDOM: THE MONTREAL AVANT-GARDE IN 1948 by JUDITH LOUISE INCE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine A r t s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1982 © J u d i t h L o u i s e Ince, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of 3lSUL (Xrto  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date /QOt&hU IB , i i ABSTRACT At the 1948 meeting of the Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y , the Montreal avant-garde p o l a r i z e d i n t o two h o s t i l e s e c t o r s : the Prisme d'Yeux, l e d by A l f r e d P e l l a n , and the Automatistes l e d by Paul-Emile Borduas. The i s s u e at the heart of the c o n f r o n t a t o n was c e n t r a l to the manifestoes i s s u e d by both groups that year, as w e l l as to the d i s c o u r s e s of Canadian i n t e l l e c t u a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s : freedom and i t s p l a c e i n the Cold War world. T h i s t h e s i s examines the p o s i t i o n s adopted by the Montreal vanguard on the issue of freedom; i t e x p l o r e s the i d e o l o g i e s of both groups through a c l o s e reading of t h e i r t e x t s , the c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n accorded to them, and the h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of 1948. L i k e w i s e , the a e s t h e t i c i d e o l o g i e s of the l e a d e r s of the contending avant-gardes are l o c a t e d through an examination of the s t y l e and content of two works produced by them in 1948, L'homme A grave by P e l l a n , and Objet Totemique by Borduas. The v e r b a l and v i s u a l i d e o l o g i e s of the-Montreal avant-garde were informed by a schism w i t h i n t h e i r p u b l i c , French and E n g l i s h Canadian l i b e r a l s , a schism which was c a t a l y z e d by Cold War p o l i t i c s . The Prisme d'Yeux a s s i m i l a t e d and r e f r a c t e d the major tenets of francophone l i b e r a l i s m ; i n c o n t r a s t , in t h e i r ' r efus g l o b a l , ' the Automatistes r e j e c t e d e v e r y t h i n g connected with the l i b e r a l i s m of' Quebec's i n t e l l e c t u a l s , but i n so doing, became a l i g n e d with anglophone l i b e r a l i s m . By a c c e p t i n g e v e r y t h i n g and r e j e c t i n g e v e r y t h i n g the Prisme d'Yeux and Automatistes not only came to blows with i i i one another, but a l s o , d e s p i t e t h e i r avant-garde facades, became a l l i e d with the s t a t u s quo, a l b e i t d i f f e r e n t and contending ones. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF PLATES v ACKNOWLEDGMENT v i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE The Avant-Garde i n C o n f l i c t 20 CHAPTER TWO The L i b e r a l i s m of P e l l a n and Borduas 78 CHAPTER THREE The V i s u a l I d e o l o g i e s of P e l l a n and Borduas 149 CONCLUSION The Aftermath of the C o n f l i c t 186 BIBLIOGRAPHY 197 LIST OF PLATES PLATE 1 A l f r e d P e l l a n , L'homme A grave . . FIGURE 2 Paul-Emile Borduas, Objet Totlmique v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am g r a t e f u l to both of my a d v i s o r s f o r many reasons. Doreen Walker's graduate seminar l a r g e l y i n s p i r e d t h i s t h e s i s , while her encouragement, p a t i e n t r e r e a d i n g of i t s many d r a f t s , and e n c y c l o p a e d i c knowledge of Canadian a r t helped me to complete i t . Dr. Serge G u i l b a u t provided me with i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e on many aspects of the a r t and p o l i t i c s of the Cold War, both i n c o n v e r s a t i o n and through h i s numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s on the s u b j e c t ; through h i s knowledge, enthusiasm, and c r i t i c i s m , I have l e a r n e d much. T h i s t h e s i s c o u l d not have been w r i t t e n without the a s s i s t a n c e of I n t e r - L i b r a r y Loans, U.B.C. L i b r a r y . Many thanks are due Margaret F r i e s e n (Head), who approved scores of loan requests, and A l i c e McNair, who always obtained obscure p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r me with great speed and good humour. I should e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to thank R i c h a r d McMahon, f o r h i s support at every stage of t h i s t h e s i s , e s p e c i a l l y the l a s t , when he and 'textform' p r i n t e d i t . 1 INTRODUCTION In 1948, the Montreal avant-garde 1 became p o l a r i z e d i n t o two h o s t i l e f a c t i o n s : the Prisme d'Yeux 2 l e d by A l f r e d 1 The term, 'avant-garde' i s u s u a l l y used to conjure up an image of a group of a r t i s t s who: "[break] through a l l the c o n f i n e s , f l y on ahead of the mass of t h e i r contemporaries to r e c o n n o i t r e and conquer new t e r r a i n from which i n due course advances can be made. These adventurous s p i r i t s c o n s t i t u t e what we c a l l the c r e a t i v e avant-garde. They are su b j e c t to no laws, cannot be d i r e c t e d where s o c i e t y wishes them to go, and so long as they remain t r u l y c r e a t i v e can never be turned i n t o establishment f i g u r e s . . . . T h e f u n c t i o n of t h i s avant-garde i s to s t r e t c h the human mind and s p i r i t , to p u l l man i n new and unsuspected d i r e c t i o n s , thereby o b l i g i n g him to overcome an innate tendency to l e t h a r g y and s t a g n a t i o n and to make himself f r e e to r i s e to the supreme achievements of which he i s capable" (Douglas Cooper, "Establishment and Avant-Garde," Times L i t e r a r y  Supplement (London), 3 September 1964, p. 823). U n l i k e Cooper, and most other c h r o n i c l e r s of modern a r t , I do not use the term 'avant-garde' i n a q u a l i t a t i v e sense; i n s t e a d I use i t to denote two groups of a r t i s t s working i n Montreal i n 1948, which d e f i n e d themselves as groups by adopting p a r t i c u l a r names ( v i z . , 'Prisme d'Yeux,' 'Automatistes'), i s s u i n g manifestoes, and e x h i b i t i n g together under the group's banner; which a l i g n e d themselves with modernity; and which c o a l e s c e d out of t h e i r members' s i m i l a r a e s t h e t i c and p o l i t i c a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s ; and which saw themselves as vanguards i n p a r t because of t h e i r a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another. The seminal work on the i n t e r n a l dynamics and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n of an avant-garde i s Renato P o g g i o l i ' s The Theory of  the Avant-Garde, t r a n s . G e r a l d F i t z g e r a l d (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968). For a more c r i t i c a l approach to the s o c i a l r o l e of an avant-garde, see Nicos H a d j i n i c o l a o u , "Sur 1 ' i d e o l o g i c de 1'avant-gardisme," L ' H i s t o i r e et C r i t i q u e des A r t s , J u l y 1978, pp. 49-79. 2 The founding members of the Prisme d'Yeux and the s i g n a t o r i e s to i t s f i r s t manifesto were: L o u i s Archambault, Paul B e a u l i e u , Leon B e l l e f l e u r , Jean Benoit, A l b e r t Dumouchel, G a b r i e l F i l i o n , P i e r r e Garneau, Arthur Gladu, Lucien Morin, Mimi Parent, A l f r e d P e l l a n , Jeanne Rh^aume, Goodridge Roberts, Jacques de Tonnancour, Rolland'Truchon and Gordon Webber. Jean Benoit signed the manifesto as 'Je Anonyme,' an anagram of h i s C h r i s t i a n name, a c c o r d i n g to Andre-G. Bourassa, i n S u r r e a l i s m e  et l i t t e r a t u r e quebecoise (Quebec: E d i t i o n s l ' E t i n c e l l e , 1977, p~. 226) . The group gained a 17th member in May, 1948, when 2 P e l l a n , and the A u t o m a t i s t e s 3 l e d by Paul-Emile Borduas. The two groups f i r s t c l a s h e d p u b l i c l y at the 9th Annual meeting of the Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y (CAS)" i n Andr§ P o u l i o t e x h i b i t e d at i t s second e x h i b i t i o n . Although the manifesto of the group p o i n t e d l y p r o f e s s e s a d e s i r e to remain l e a d e r l e s s , P e l l a n was regarded as i t s i n f o r m a l leader by the p r e s s , l a r g e l y because of h i s s t a t u s as an e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t , and because many members of the group had been or were h i s students at the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts where he taught from 1943 to 1952. For example, see: May E b i t t , "Mimi Parent, A r t i s t , " Fashion (Montreal), October 1948, p. 64; Louise Daudelin, " G a b r i e l F i l i o n , " Notre Temps, 23 October 1948, p. 4; Marcel Gagnon, "La femme p e i n t r e Agnes L e f o r t est bien l o i n de c r o i r e a 1'automatisme," Le Canada, 28 October 1948, p. 3. 3 Members of the Automatistes i n 1948 who were s i g n a t o r i e s to i t s manifesto, the.Refus G l o b a l were: Magdeleine Arbour, Marcel Barbeau, Paul-Emile Borduas, Bruno Cormier, M a r c e l l e Ferron, Claude Gauvreau, P i e r r e Gauvreau, M u r i e l G u i l b a u l t , Fernand Leduc, Th§rese Leduc, Jean-Paul Mousseau, Maurice Perron, L o u i s e Renaud, F r a n c o i s e R i o p e l l e , Jean-Paul R i o p e l l e , and F r a n c o i s e S u l l i v a n . Although Borduas was never d e c l a r e d the o f f i c i a l l e a d e r of the group, he f u n c t i o n e d as i t s de f a c t o head, because of h i s s e n i o r age and p r e s t i g e , and because he had taught many of the Automatistes at the Ecole du Meuble, where he worked from 1937 to September 4, 1948. On t h i s p o i n t see: "L'Automatiste," Time (Canadian E d i t i o n ) , 18 October 1948, p. 22; R o l l a n d Boulanger, "Dynamitage automatiste a l a L i b r a i r i e T r a n q u i l l e , " Montrgal-Matin, 9 August 1948, p. 5; G§rard P e l l e t i e r , "Deux ages, deux manieres," Le Devoir, 25 September 1948, p. 8. " The CAS was formed i n 1939 by John Lyman, Paul-Emile Borduas, and 24 other a r t i s t s , i n order to "give support to contemporary trends i n a r t " (CAS c o n s t i t u t i o n , quoted i n C h r i s t o p h e r V a r l e y , The Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y : Montreal,  1939-1948 [Edmonton: Edmonton Art G a l l e r y , 1980], p. 39). For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the formation of the CAS, see pages 20-21 of t h i s t h e s i s , as w e l l as L i s e P e r r e a u l t , "La Societe" d'Art Contemporain" (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t e de Montreal, 1975). U n t i l the l a t e 1940s, the Montreal avant-garde had presented a r e l a t i v e l y u n i f i e d p u b l i c f r o n t ; see, f o r example, a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Borduas, P e l l a n , Muhlstock, Smith, Goldberg, Roberts, and Surrey to C h a r l e s Doyon, quoted i n h i s column "Academisme et l ' a r t v i v a n t , " Le Jour, 30 June 1945, p. 4. Within the CAS, however, there had been p r e v i o u s i n t e r n a l disagreements, but these were m i l d compared to the degree of h o s t i l i t y which erupted w i t h i n i t i n 1948, nor d i d they d i v i d e 3 February 1948: when Borduas was e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t , P e l l a n ' s group withdrew from the S o c i e t y , a move which i n t u r n provoked the r e s i g n a t i o n of Borduas and s e v e r a l other A u t o m a t i s t e s . 5 The i s s u e at the heart of the d i s p u t e was a f a m i l i a r one, f o r i t was not only a dominant motif of both vanguards' manifestoes, but was a l s o the focus of the d i s c o u r s e s of Canadian i n t e l l e c t u a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s i n 1948: freedom and i t s meaning in the Cold War world. T h i s t h e s i s w i l l address the reasons why a schism o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the Montreal avant-garde at the moment i n h i s t o r y that i t d i d , and why the i s s u e of freedom aroused such antagonism between v a r i o u s groups of people who a l l claimed a l l e g i a n c e to i t . A c l o s e reading of the t e x t s produced by the Automatistes and Prisme d'Yeux w i l l i l l u m i n a t e why and how the Montreal vanguard became so i r r e c o n c i l a b l y d i v i d e d ; l i k e w i s e , an a n a l y s i s of contemporary h i s t o r i c a l events impinging on these t e x t s , and an examination of the c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n accorded to them, w i l l c l a r i f y t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and i t s the S o c i e t y along "party" l i n e s . See: Claude Gauvreau, "Revolution a l a S o c i e t e d'Art Contemporain," Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 3 December 1948, pp. 4-5; Claude Gauvreau, "L'Epopee automatiste vue par un c y c l o p e , " La Barre du Jour No. 17 (January-August 1969): 48-96; Bernard Teyssedre, "Fernand Leduc, P e i n t r e et t h e o r i c i e n du Surr6alisme a Montreal," La Barre du Jour No. 17 (January-August 1969): 224-270. 5 C h a r l e s Doyon d e s c r i b e d i t as f o l l o w s : "Le lendemain de son e l e c t i o n , i l [Borduas] demissiona. Deux au t r e s du c o n s e i l l e s u i v i r e n t : Gauvreau et R i o p e l l e . I l e t a i t c l a i r que s i l e s cadres presents e t a i e n t maintenus d'autres d e f e c t i o n s s u i v r a i e n t i n f a i l l i b l e m e n t " ("Le C.A.S. n'est p l u s , " Le C l a i r o n ( S a i n t - H y a c i n t h e ) , 24 December 1948, p. 4). 4 concomitant i d e o l o g i e s . A f t e r e x p l o r i n g the v e r b a l i d e o l o g i e s of the two groups, the v i s u a l i d e o l o g i e s 6 of the l e a d e r s 6 The term 'ideology' r a i s e s c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s given the c u r r e n t debate on i t s meaning and a p p l i c a t i o n to l i t e r a r y and a r t h i s t o r y . T h i s t h e s i s uses ideology i n a sense dependent upon the d e f i n i t i o n of i t p r o v i d e d by T e r r y Eagleton i n Marxism  and L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m (London: Methuen, 1976): "From [the] economic base, in every p e r i o d , emerges a ' s u p e r s t r u c t u r e ' - - c e r t a i n forms of law and p o l i t i c s , a c e r t a i n kind of s t a t e , whose e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i s to l e g i t i m a t e the power of the s o c i a l c l a s s which owns the economic means of p r o d u c t i o n . But the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e c o n t a i n s more than t h i s : i t a l s o c o n s i s t s of c e r t a i n ' d e f i n i t e forms of s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' ( p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , e t h i c a l , a e s t h e t i c and so on), which i s what Marxism d e s i g n a t e s as i d e o l o g y . The f u n c t i o n of i d e o l o g y , a l s o , i s to l e g i t i m a t e the power of the r u l i n g c l a s s i n s o c i e t y ; i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , the dominant ideas of a s o c i e t y are the ideas of the r u l i n g c l a s s . " A r t , then, i s f o r Marxism p a r t of the ' s u p e r s t r u c t u r e ' of s o c i e t y . I t i s . . . p a r t of a s o c i e t y ' s i d e o l o g y — a n element i n that complex s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n which ensures that the s i t u a t i o n in which one c l a s s has power over the others i s e i t h e r seen by most members of the s o c i e t y as ' n a t u r a l , ' or not seen at a l l . To understand l i t e r a t u r e , then, means understanding the t o t a l s o c i a l process of which i t i s . a p a r t . . . . I t i s f i r s t of a l l to understand the complex, i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s between those works and the i d e o l o g i c a l worlds they i n h a b i t - - r e l a t i o n s which emerge not j u s t i n 'themes' and 'preoccupations,' but i n s t y l e , rhythm, image, q u a l i t y and...form....This i s not an easy task, s i n c e ideology i s never a simple r e f l e c t i o n of the r u l i n g c l a s s ' s ideas; on the -c o n t r a r y , i t i s always a complex phenomenon, which may i n c o r p o r a t e c o n f l i c t i n g , even c o n t r a d i c t o r y , views of the world" (p. 5-7). c f . Nicos H a d j i n i c o l a o u ' s assessment of v i s u a l ideology, in A r t H i s t o r y and C l a s s S t r u g g l e , t r a n s . Louise Asmal (London: P l u t o Press, 1968): "Every p i c t u r e i s an i d e o l o g i c a l work independent of i t s q u a l i t y . In t h i s sense, the world that i t r e v e a l s i s the world of i d e o l o g y . . . . The ideology of a p i c t u r e i s l i t e r a l l y a v i s u a l i d e o l o g y , and not a p o l i t i c a l or l i t e r a r y i deology; i t can be found only w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a p i c t u r e ' s two dimensions, even though at the same time i t has s p e c i f i c l i n k s with other kinds of i d e o l o g y which may be l i t e r a r y , p o l i t i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and so on" (p. 16). See a l s o : T.J. C l a r k , " P r e l i m i n a r y Arguments: Work of Art . and Ideology," Proceedings of the Caucus f o r M a r x i s t A r t H i s t o r y ( C o l l e g e Art A s s o c i a t i o n , Chicago, 1977); O.K. Werckmeister, "Marx on Ideology and A r t , " New L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y 7 (1972-73): 501-519; O.K. Werckmeister, "From M a r x i s t to C r i t i c a l Art 5 of the c l a s h i n g vanguards w i l l be d i s c u s s e d through an examination of two of the works produced by them i n 1948. F i n a l l y , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l e s t a b l i s h the c o n n e c t i o n s between the v i s u a l and v e r b a l i d e o l o g i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to l a r g e r , dominant i d e o l o g i e s a c t i v e i n , and e x e r t i n g pressure on many s o c i a l l e v e l s . The 1948 c o n f r o n t a t i o n between Borduas and P e l l a n s i g n a l s a major t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the h i s t o r y of Canadian a r t , yet i t has not yet been adequately s t u d i e d , even though v a r i o u s authors have advanced a v a r i e t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the events of that year. U n t i l the l a t e 1960s, the acccepted v e r s i o n of the 1948 c o n f l i c t was that presented by John Lyman i n an e x h i b i t i o n catalogue accompanying the f i r s t (and posthumous) Canadian r e t r o s p e c t i v e of Borduas' work. 7 In h i s short essay, "Borduas and the Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y , " Lyman contends that the CAS d i s p u t e was i n e v i t a b l e , given the d i s c o r d a n t and e g o - c e n t r i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s of P e l l a n and Borduas: ...as Paul developed, he began to expect of h i s companions the a t t i t u d e of d i s c i p l e . . . . P e l l a n returned to Montreal, and he, too, with h i s f o l l o w e r s j o i n e d the S o c i e t y . Thus i t became d i v i d e d i n t o two f a c t i o n s , each of which sought to p r e v a i l . 8 H i s t o r y , " Proceedings of the Caucus for M a r x i s t Art H i s t o r y ( C o l l e g e Art A s s o c i a t i o n , Chicago, 1977): 29-30. 7 Evan H. Turner, Paul-Emile Borduas 1905-1960 (Montreal: Musee des Beaux-Arts, 1962) . 8 John Lyman, "Borduas and the Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y , " in Turner, Paul-Emile Borduas 1905-1960, pp. 40-41. 6 D e s p i t e the p o p u l a r i t y 9 of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s e r i o u s problems e x i s t with Lyman's assumptions and c o n c l u s i o n s about the events of 1948. F i r s t , Lyman r e f u s e s to acknowledge that the c o n f l i c t i n v o l v e d two e n t i r e s e c t o r s of the Montreal avant-garde, and not these two men alone; while the concerns of the Prisme d'Yeux and Automatistes found e x p r e s s i o n through t h e i r l e a d e r s , the members themselves a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c o n f l i c t through a t t a c k s on one another i n t h e i r manifestoes and i n the p r e s s . 1 0 Lyman's suggestion that i n e l u c t a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l determinism was 9 Authors who have adopted Lyman's theory that a personal c l a s h e x p l a i n s the d i f f e r e n c e s between Borduas and P e l l a n i n c l u d e Barry Lord, P a i n t i n g i n Canada (Montreal: Canadian Government P a v i l l i o n " Expo 67, 1967) ; C o l i n S. Macdonald, A D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian A r t i s t s , 4 v o l s . (Ottawa: Canadian Paperbacks, 197 7); W i l l i a m Withrow, Contemporary Canadian  P a i n t i n g (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1972); Paul Duval, Four Decades: The Canadian Group of P a i n t e r s and T h e i r  Contemporaries, 1930-1970 (Toronto: C l a r k e , Irwin & Co. L t d . , 1972); Guy Viau, La P e i n t u r e moderne au Canada f r a n c a i s (Quebec: M i n i s t e r e des a f f a i r e s c u l t u r e l l e s , 1964); Guy Robert, P e l l a n ,  His L i f e and His Art (Montreal: E d i t i o n s du c e n t r e de P s y c h o l o g i e et Pedagogie, 1963); and Germain Le f e b v r e , P e l l a n (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1973). 1 0 See f o r example, Marcel Gagnon, "La femme p e i n t r e Agnes L e f o r t est bien l o i n de c r o i r e a 1'automatisme," p. 3; Claude Gauvreau, "De Mme Agnes L e f o r t et d'Andre Lhote," Le Canada, 8 November 1948, p. 4; Jean-Paul R i o p e l l e , "En marge des propos d'Agnes L e f o r t , " Le Canada, 5 November 1948, p. 4; Jean-Paul R i o p e l l e , Marcel Perron, Magdeleine Arbour, P i e r r e Gauvreau, F r a n c o i s e R i o p e l l e , "Les surr£alistes nous 6 c r i v e n t , " Le Devoir, 13 November 1948, p. 9; "Ces temps modernes. Les automatistes cedent Gauvreau aux Prisme d'Yeux pour $3.25" ( c a r t o o n ) , Le  Canada, 21 December 1948; Robert C l i c h e , "Ceux qui c a d e n a s s e r a i e n t v o l o n t i e r s l ' a t e l i e r de P e l l a n , " Le Canada, 14 February 1949, p. 4; Robert C l i c h e , "M. C l i c h e repond a MM. Ferron et Gauvreau," Le Canada, 28 February 1949, p. 4; Jacques F e r r o n , "Re"ponse a M. C l i c h e , " Le Canada, 16 February 1949, p. 4; Jacques Ferron, "Peur du surre"alisme et l a v e r i t e , " Le  Canada, 3 March 1949, p. 4; Claude Gauvreau, " L e t t r e ouverture a M. Robert C l i c h e , " Le Canada, 22 February 1949, p. 4. 7 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n f l i c t between Borduas and P e l l a n , i s t h e r e f o r e so narrowly focused that i t d i s t o r t s the complex network of b e l i e f s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and h i s t o r i c a l events which together produced the enormous f r i c t i o n between two s e c t o r s of the Montreal avant-garde i n 1948. Lyman's recourse t o f a c t o r s of p e r s o n a l i t y as the key to the c o n f l i c t i s so r e f l e x i v e , however, because i t i s dependent on an assumption c e n t r a l to orthodox a r t h i s t o r y : namely, that the a r t i s t i s u l t i m a t e l y a pu r e l y emotional being, whose a c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and a r t are e x p l i c a b l e through r e f e r e n c e to h i s experience of the world at an emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l alone. T h i s accent on the primacy of the a r t i s t ' s psyche tends to i m p l i c i t l y d i s c o unt the p o s s i b i l i t y that the a r t i s t i s a l s o a s o c i a l being whose l i f e and work are informed by s o c i a l experience, which i s a l s o an h i s t o r i c a l e x perience. Committed to a p o s i t i o n which r e f u s e s to co n s i d e r the i n e v i t a b l e i n t r u s i o n s of h i s t o r y i n t o the a r t i s t ' s a t e l i e r , Lyman cannot e x p l a i n , nor does he broach the q u e s t i o n of how the f o l l o w e r s of P e l l a n and Borduas became subsumed by an o s t e n s i b l y i n t r a - p e r s o n a l d i s p u t e . Likewise, although Lyman p e r c e p t i v e l y comments that " a e s t h e t i c 1 i b e r t y . . . became the instrument of s e c t a r i a n c o n t e n t i o n , " 1 1 he cannot e x p l a i n the very r e a l a e s t h e t i c , p o l i t i c a l , and moral d i f f e r e n c e s which emerged between P e l l a n and Borduas over the is s u e of l i b e r t y , an issue which i s grounded in the matrix of the h i s t o r y of 1948, and t h e r e f o r e cannot be e x p l a i n e d without r e f e r e n c e to i t . 1 1 Lyman, "The Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y , " p. 42. 8 Most w r i t e r s i n the 1960s s u b s c r i b e d to Lyman's account of the circumstances and causes of the 1948 c o n f l i c t ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , u n l i k e Lyman, most of these a u t h o r s 1 2 strove to minimize i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e by d i s m i s s i n g the h o s t i l i t y between P e l l a n and Borduas as a lamentable f a i l u r e of a r t i s t i c g o o d w i l l , something to r e g r e t and to censure, but not to i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r . W r i t i n g i n 1967, f o r example, Barry Lord q u i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y mentions the * e x i s t e n c e of t e n s i o n between P e l l a n and Borduas, but f a i l s to provide an even c u r s o r y o u t l i n e of the i s s u e s of d i s p u t e : P e l l a n ' s r o l e as a teacher and h i s formation of the Prisme d'Yeux group of a r t i s t s i n 1948 was u n f o r t u n a t e l y , due to p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i n c o n f l i c t with another great l i b e r a t i n g f o r c e i n Montreal at that time, Paul-Emile B o r d u a s . 1 3 The p r o p e n s i t y of w r i t e r s l i k e Lord to underestimate (or ignore) the importance of the CAS s t r u g g l e , has been noted p r e v i o u s l y by Francois-Marc Gagnon, in h i s 1973 a r t i c l e , " P e l l a n , Borduas, and the Automatistes: Men and Ideas i n Quebec": the authors f e l t that i n the p e r s p e c t i v e of the 1 2 See note 9 above. As Francois-Marc Gagnon has noted i n " P e l l a n , Borduas and the Automatistes: Men and Ideas i n Quebec," Artscanada 29 (December 1972/January 1973), some authors "tend to d e l e t e the very memory of any c o n f l i c t between' them" (p. 48). Most prominent in t h i s category are J . R u s s e l l Harper, P a i n t i n g i n Canada: A H i s t o r y , 2d. ed. (Toronto and B u f f a l o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1977); Jean Rene Ostiguy, Un s i e c l e de p e i n t u r e canadienne, 1870-1970 (Quebec: Les Presses de l'Universit£ L a v a l , 1971); and Evan H. Turner, F i f t e e n Canadian A r t i s t s (New York: M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of Modern A r t , 1975). , 1 3 Barry Lord, P a i n t i n g i n Canada, n.p. 9 present o l d q u a r r e l s may be f o r g o t t e n and the two f o r e f a t h e r s of modern a r t i n Quebec t r e a t e d per unnum.1 * The key words of Gagnon's a n a l y s i s are, of course, "the p e r s p e c t i v e of the pr e s e n t , " f o r they suggest t h a t a r t h i s t o r y i s as f l u i d as h i s t o r y i t s e l f , and that as h i s t o r i c a l c ircumstances change, the p e r c e p t i o n of the past i s a l s o a l t e r e d . Even a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the h i s t o r y of the l a t e 1960s, the p e r i o d i n which so many a r t h i s t o r i a n s f e l l s i l e n t about the events of 1948, i n d i c a t e s some of the f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r s i l e n c e . At that time, both P e l l a n and Borduas were widely regarded as the ' f o r e f a t h e r s of modern a r t ' in Quebec and Canada, 1 5 who simultaneously f o s t e r e d the growth of a modern c u l t u r e i n t h e i r p r o v i n c e and country. That p e r i o d , however, was a l s o one of extreme t e n s i o n between Canadian f e d e r a l i s t s and Quebec s e p a r a t i s t s , and analyses of the a r t and 1" Gagnon, " P e l l a n , Borduas and the Automatistes," p. 48. 1 5 For example, in Un S i e c l e de l a p e i n t u r e canadienne, Jean Rene Ostiguy s t a t e s " " A l f r e d P e l l a n et Paul-Emile Borduas demeurent l e s deux p r i n c i p a u x i n s t i g a t e u r s d'un renouveau des a r t s p l a s t i q u e s au Quebec" (p. 55). Guy Robert's comments are s i m i l a r : " P e l l a n et Borduas, l e s deux p i l i e r s du pont qui permet a f r a n c h i r au Quebec l e fosse" qui l a t e n a i t r e t a r d a t a i r e et p r o v i n c i a l e , on parcouru tous deux l e long chemin des Ecol e s des beaux-arts et du perfectionnement e u r o p 6 e n " (La p e i n t u r e au  Quebec depuis ses o r i g i n e s , p. 94). J . R u s s e l l Harper s t a t e s , "attempts to l i b e r a l i z e a r t i s t i c thought had been d e s t i n e d to f a i l u r e from the outset f o r many years, but a l l shackles now were thrown o f f by P e l l a n , Borduas and R i o p e l l e , and a whole new r a d i c a l group" ( P a i n t i n g in Canada, p. 330). T h i s trend has continued i n p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l t r a c t s as w e l l : "Quebec l e d in other ways as w e l l . The p a i n t e r s - A l f r e d P e l l a n and Paul Emile Borduas had brought to Canada from P a r i s a p o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s t experimental mood which r e j e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t " (Robert Bothwell, Ian Drummond and John E n g l i s h , Canada Since 1945: Power, P o l i t i c s and P r o v i n c i a l i s m [Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1981], p. 173). 10 c u l t u r e of Quebec became i n f l e c t e d with these t e n s i o n s . The names of Borduas and P e l l a n were summoned by such w r i t e r s as Barry Lord i n order to demonstrate, on the c e n t e n n i a l of Canadian c o n f e d e r a t i o n , that under the f e d e r a l i s t system, an arguably 'Canadian' form of c u l t u r e emerged; 1 6 i n Quebec, however, these a r t i s t s , and e s p e c i a l l y Borduas, were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s p e c i f i c a l l y Quebecois heroes, who had c r e a t e d a c u l t u r e and an a e s t h e t i c i n o p p o s i t i o n to anglophone norms. 1 7 Because duri n g the 1960s P e l l a n and Borduas were transformed i n t o symbols of the greatness of both Canadian and Quebec c u l t u r e , Canadian f e d e r a l i s m and Quebec n a t i o n a l i s m , i t became i d e o l o g i c a l l y t r i c k y f o r most a r t h i s t o r i a n s to i n q u i r e too deeply i n t o the d i s p u t e of a g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e : to have focused on the f r a c t i o u s n e s s of 1948 would have d i m i n i s h e d the sense of c u l t u r a l s o l i d a r i t y that both Canadian f e d e r a l i s t s and 1 6 For example, in P a i n t i n g i n Canada, Barry Lord w r i t e s , "But the a r t i s t s whom we are about to d i s c u s s have a l l p a i n t e d works which have helped to c h a r a c t e r i z e the mainstream of development in Canadian p a i n t i n g from 1945 to the present day" (n.p.). 1 7 T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the treatment of Borduas; see, f o r example, P i e r r e Vadeboncoeur, "La l i g n e du r i s q u e , " S i t u a t i o n s ( S p e c i a l issue) 1962, esp. pp. 23-29. A c r i t i q u e of t h i s a d u l a t o r y rather than a n a l y t i c a l approach has been advanced by Marcel F o u r n i e r and Robert L a p l a n t e , "Borduas et 1'automatisme," in Paul-Emile Borduas, Refus G l o b a l et  P r o j e c t i o n s L i b e r a n t e s (Montreal: E d i t i o n s du P a r t i P r i s , 1977), pp. 103-105. N e v e r t h e l e s s , these authors adopt the same a t t i t u d e which they deplore i n the f i r s t sentence of t h e i r a r t i c l e : " P e i n t r e i n t e r n a t i o n e l l e m e n t connu et dont l e nom nous renvoie spontanement a l ' 4 v£nement l e p l u s marquant de l a v i e c u l t u r e l l e et i n t e l l e c t u e l des annles quarante, Paul-Emile Borduas" (p. 103). 11 Quebec n a t i o n a l i s t s were s t r i v i n g to achieve through t h e i r c e l e b r a t i o n of Borduas and P e l l a n . Moreover, as t h i s t h e s i s w i l l argue, the d i s p u t e between P e l l a n and Borduas i n 1948 was, in p a r t , r e l a t e d to the same set of i s s u e s that dominated Canadian p o l i t i c s two decades l a t e r : c o n f l i c t between predominantly francophone p r o v i n c i a l n a t i o n a l i s t s and anglophone f e d e r a l i s t s . Thus by d e l v i n g i n t o the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the c o n f l i c t between P e l l a n and Borduas, a r t h i s t o r i a n s w r i t i n g i n the l a t e s i x t i e s would have been c o n f r o n t e d with a c o n j u n c t i o n of p o l i t i c s , past and present; what began as an adventure in a r t h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h would have ended at the door of contemporary p o l i t i c s . 1 8 In order to a v o i d a r r i v i n g at t h i s uncomfortable p r o x i m i t y of a r t and p o l i t i c s , Canadian a r t h i s t o r i a n s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c a r e e r s of P e l l a n and Borduas have simply avoided or t r i v i a l i z e d the CAS c o n f r o n t a t i o n . In the l a t e 1960s, the only w r i t e r to i n s i s t on the divergences between P e l l a n and Borduas was Claude Gauvreau, a member of the Automatistes who witnessed and p a r t i c i p a t e d in the 1948 d i s p u t e . In h i s a r t i c l e , "L'epopee automatiste vue par un c y c l o p e , " 1 9 Gauvreau r e j e c t s the hypothesis that p e r s o n a l 1 8 O.K. Werkmeister has commented on t h i s s i t u a t i o n : " C r i t i c a l a r t h i s t o r y , by i t s own dynamic as a s o c i a l s c i e n c e , i s bound to turn a g a i n s t the i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s which a r t h i s t o r y i s assigned in c a p i t a l i s t i n s t i t u t i o n s . .It becomes one of the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s w i t h i n t h i s s o c i e t y " ("From Marx i s t to C r i t i c a l A r t H i s t o r y , " p. 30). 1 9 Claude Gauvreau, "L'lpopee automatiste vue par un c y c l o p e , " La Barre du Jour, No. 17 (January-August 1 9 6 9 ) : 48-96. 12 j e a l o u s y provoked the s p l i t between Borduas and P e l l a n , and a t t a c k s t h i s view as "mesquine et c o n t r a i r e a l a v e r i t e . " 2 0 Gauvreau contends that the rupture between Borduas and P e l l a n was " p r o v o q u 6 e par B o r d u a s " 2 1 f o r both p o l i t i c a l and t a c t i c a l reasons. According to Gauvreau, Borduas wanted to e l i m i n a t e P e l l a n from "des f o r c e s p r o g r e s s i v e s " 2 2 in Montreal, b e l i e v i n g that P e l l a n ' s presence w i t h i n the modernist camp d i l u t e d i t s unanimity and hence i t s c o l l e c t i v e s t r e n g t h , a major p r i o r i t y i n 1948: " i l e t a i t n e c e s s a i r e de c e n t u p l e r l ' e f f i c a c i t e d ' i m p o s i t i o n de l a tendance moderne l a pl u s p r o g r e s s i v e en l a rendant autonome et homogene . " 2 3 Gauvreau contends that Borduas manipulated t e n s i o n s e x i s t i n g between himself and P e l l a n in order to f o r c e a c o n f r o n t a t i o n and to oust P e l l a n from the 2 0 I b i d . , p. 52. Gauvreau i s r e f e r r i n g p r i m a r i l y to Guy Robert, who, as Gagnon has p o i n t e d out i n " P e l l a n , Borduas, and the Automatistes," has poured " o i l on the f i r e " (p. 48) of the s u b j e c t by emphasizing P e l l a n ' s d i s l i k e f o r Borduas by i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g comments in P e l l a n , His L i f e and His Work: "Borduas was a bad f r i e n d , ' because he had no time for anyone unl e s s they worshipped him. Borduas was a bad p a i n t e r , because he was a weak ' f i g u r a t i v e , ' and not q u i t e a c o n v i n c i n g modern, who s e r i o u s l y impoverished the Automatiste approach. P e r s o n a l l y , I r e g r e t not having been able to work with Borduas in the e v o l u t i o n of contemporary a r t here in Canada. We have worked each on our own, but i t would have been more i n t e r e s t i n g to have combined f o r c e s i n s t e a d of opposing them. Borduas behaved l i k e a p e t u l a n t and moody a d o l e s c e n t . I w e l l understand h i s problems and I know h i s h e a l t h was bad, but I do not understand h i s d e s i r e to regiment our p a i n t e r s under h i s banner, and I r e g r e t the myth that has been made of him, which can only introduce new c o n f u s i o n s and new d i v i s i o n s " (p. 54). 2 1 I b i d . , p. 52. 2 2 I b i d . 2 3 I b i d . , p. 53. 13 ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' s e c t o r of the Montreal avant-garde; i n the s t r u g g l e to e s t a b l i s h h i s own v e r s i o n of modernism, Borduas regarded P e l l a n as an expendable o b s t a c l e . Almost as soon as Gauvreau a r t i c u l a t e s t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, he r e v e r s e s h i s p o s i t i o n , and d e c l a r e s that Borduas a t o u j o u r s souverainement m^prise tout t a c t i q u e ; i l n'a su toute sa v i e que d i r e sa pensee de l a facon l a plus d i r e c t e . Cette f r a n c h i s e et ce courage e x p l i q u e n t l e nombre c o n s i d e r a b l e de r u p t u r e s qu' i l t r a v e r s a . 2 * On the one hand, Gauvreau admires Borduas' t a c t i c a l acumen in s t r e n g t h e n i n g the Montreal avant-garde by p u r i f y i n g i t s p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s through the e l i m i n a t i o n of r e c a l c i t r a n t modernists l i k e P e l l a n ; on the other hand, t h i s a c o l y t e of Borduas i s aghast at the n o t i o n of such manipulations, and wishes to preserve the n o t i o n of the a r t i s t as prophet, whose successes flow from a reserve of genius and moral p u r i t y . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of Gauvreau's p o s i t i o n a r i s e from the c o n f l i c t between h i s b e l i e f in the i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y of a r t i s t i c genius, whose successes depend on the power of that genius i t s e l f , and the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n i n Montreal i n 1948, where Borduas a d r o i t l y manipulated events in h i s favour. Despite the obvious problems with h i s work as a r t h i s t o r y , Gauvreau's connection of Borduas' animosity f o r P e l l a n with the t a c t i c s of an avant-garde a s p i r i n g f o r a e s t h e t i c hegemony, i s an o r g i n a l and v a l u a b l e one; while an a n a l y s i s of avant-garde t a c t i c s would have i l l u m i n a t e d a v a r i e t y of i s s u e s u n d e r l y i n g 2« I b i d . 1 4 the e x p l o s i o n w i t h i n the CAS i n 1948, Gauvreau n e i t h e r develops t h i s idea, nor s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions the CAS c o n f l i c t . Gauvreau's s i l e n c e on t h i s most intense of avant-garde s t r u g g l e s i s s t a r t l i n g , given h i s s e n s i t i v i t y to and understanding of avant-garde t a c t i c s . Gauvreau's v a c i l l a t i o n between s i l e n c e and a r t i c u l a t i o n — b e t w e e n o m i t t i n g the 1948 debate and f o c u s i n g on the c o n t e n t i o u s n e s s between Borduas and P e l l a n - - r e v e a l s the c r u c i a l importance of the very i s s u e on which he remains s i l e n t : too important to ignore or to c o n f r o n t d i r e c t l y , the d i s p u t e of 1948 can only be approached as a c o n f l i c t which took plac e at a hazy poin t in h i s t o r y , at a time so remote that the sharpest edges of d i s s e n t are smoothed over, but without q u i t e o b s c u r i n g the i s s u e s at the c e n t r e of the c o n f l i c t . The importance of such i n s t e r s t i c e s i n the w r i t i n g s of a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s have been a p t l y d e s c r i b e d by T . J . C l a r k as a kind of l i n g u i s t i c mimesis of the shadow boxing which occurs between the conscious and the unconscious: L i k e the a n a l y s t l i s t e n i n g to h i s p a t i e n t , what i n t e r e s t s us, i f we want to d i s c o v e r the meaning o f . . . c r i t i c i s m , are the p o i n t s at which the r a t i o n a l monotone of the c r i t i c breaks, f a i l s , f a l t e r s ; we are i n t e r e s t e d in the phenomena of ob s e s s i v e r e p e t i t i o n , repeated i r r e l e v a n c e , anger suddenly discharged--the p o i n t s where the c r i t i c i s m i s incomprehensible are the keys to i t s comprehension. The p u b l i c , l i k e the unconscious, i s present only where i t ceases; yet i t determines the s t r u c t u r e of the p r i v a t e d i s c o u r s e ; i t i s the key to what cannot be s a i d , and no s u b j e c t i s more i m p o r t a n t . 2 5 In the case of Gauvreau, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the strategems 2 5 T.J. C l a r k , Image of the People (Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y " 1973), p. 12. 1 5 of an avant-garde and the most c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s of 1948 are so interwoven, and so c r i t i c a l , that even 20 years l a t e r , they were l i t e r a l l y unspeakable. While r e t i c e n t . a b o u t c e r t a i n aspects of the h o s t i l i t y between P e l l a n and Borduas, Gauvreau i s l o q u a c i o u s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . He quotes Borduas' autobiography, P r o j e c t i o n s L i b e r a n t e s 2 6 to o u t l i n e the major d i f f e r e n c e s between the b e l i e f s of the two l e a d e r s of the r i v a l avant-gardes : A C Q U S R I R PASSIONNEMENT de NOUVELLES C E R T I T U D E S en ENCOURANT tous l e s RISQUES ou CONSERVER a tout PRIX l e s CERTITUDES d'un PASSE RECENT et GLORIEUX. 2 7 Although Gauvreau i n t r o d u c e s p o l i t i c a l l y charged language and concepts i n t o h i s a n a l y s i s of the antagonism between P e l l a n and Borduas, h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s i s as s u b j e c t i v e and s entimental as i t i s s i m p l i s t i c . Gauvreau contends that commitment to the i d e a l of r e v o l u t i o n brought Borduas i n t o c o n f l i c t with P e l l a n ; s i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, Gauvreau suggests that Borduas' a l l e g i a n c e to r e v o l u t i o n was p r i m a r i l y spawned by c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s of s p i r i t , emotion, i n t e l l e c t , and m o r a l i t y that were absent in and in f a c t a n t a g o n i s t i c to P e l l a n . For Gauvreau, f a c t o r s connected with p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n determined Borduas' p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , and 2 6 P u b l i s h e d by Mithra-Mythe, S a i n t - H i l a i r e , i n 1949. The e d i t i o n used throughout t h i s t h e s i s i s the one c o n t a i n e d in Paul-Emile Borduas, E c r i t s / W r i t i n g s 1942-1958, i n t r o . and ed. Francois-Marc Gagnon and t r a n s . Dennis Young ( H a l i f a x : Nova S c o t i a C o l l e g e of Art and Design, 1978). 2 7 Gauvreau, "L'epopee a u t o m a t i s t e , " p. 52. 16 made c o n f l i c t with P e l l a n i n e v i t a b l e : l e p e i n t r e r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e de S a i n t - H i l a i r e d e v a i t b i e n t o t l'emporter haut-la-main car son courant de pensee et sa p e i n t u r e a p p a r t e n a i e n t , dans l a l o g i q u e r i g o r e u s e de I n v o l u t i o n , a une 6tape u l t ^ r i u e r e a ceux de P e l l a n . 2 8 P a r a d o x i c a l l y , although Gauvreau sees h i s a r t i c l e as a counter to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s p r o f e r r e d by other w r i t e r s , at the k e r n e l of h i s own a n a l y s i s i s a dependence on the kind of reasoning he d e p l o r e s . While Gauvreau uses a p o l i t i c a l vocabulary to c h a r a c t e r i z e the d i f f e r e n c e s between Borduas and P e l l a n , he does not use any m a t e r i a l h i s t o r i c a l evidence to c o r r o b o r a t e h i s c o n c l u s i o n s ; on the c o n t r a r y , f o r Gauvreau, p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s appear to be a f u n c t i o n of the a r t i s t ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n , with "good" men l i k e Borduas on the s i d e of r e v o l u t i o n , and not so good men, such as P e l l a n , a l i g n i n g themselves with the s t a t u s quo. The most cogent a n a l y s i s of the c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h i n the CAS in 1948 i s that advanced by Francois-Marc Gagnon in h i s a r t i c l e , " P e l l a n , Borduas, and the Automatistes: Men and Ideas in Quebec," and again, i n somewhat more d e t a i l , i n h i s biography of Borduas, Paul-Emile Borduas: Bio g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e et analyse de 1'oeuvre. 2 9 Gagnon contends that the animosity between P e l l a n and Borduas should r e a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d as a f u n c t i o n of a much l a r g e r set of antagonisms then c u r r e n t i n Quebec, s p e c i f i c a l l y , the c o l l i s i o n of two a n t i t h e t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s , 2 8 I b i d . 2 9 Francois-Marc Gagnon, Paul-jSmile Borduas: Bio g r a p h i e  c r i t i q u e et analyse de l'oeuvre (Montreal: F i d e s , 1978). 1 7 those of " r a t t r a p a g e " and " c o n t e s t a t i o n . " Gagnon a s s o c i a t e s P e l l a n with "the ideology of r a t t r a p a g e . . . the d e s t r u c t i o n of academism and the d e n u n c i a t i o n of the o l d ideology of co n s e r v a t i o n on the one hand, and the p u r s u i t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m on the o t h e r . " 3 0 In c o n t r a s t , Gagnon b e l i e v e s that Borduas " f e l t the n e c e s s i t y to co n t e s t the ideology of c a t c h i n g up and was o b l i g e d to oppose P e l l a n i n s o f a r as he remained f a i t h f u l to oppose t h i s i d e o l o g y . " 3 1 Gagnon's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the events of 1948 remains p r o b l e m a t i c , however, f o r he overlooks the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s of the h i s t o r y of the l a t e f o r t i e s , and s u b s t i t u t e s nebulous g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n the p l a c e of h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s . He f a i l s , f o r example, to pr o v i d e any d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n . o f the two ' i d e o l o g i e s ' on which h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s based, nor how they r e l a t e , i n s p e c i f i c terms, to the a r t i s t s who o s t e n s i b l y partook i n them, nor to the h i s t o r i c a l circumstances of 1948 and the a r t produced w i t h i n t h e i r parameters. By f a i l i n g to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these v a r i o u s f a c t o r s , Gagnon c r e a t e s a d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e of both the a r t i s t i c and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of the l a t e 1940s. What emerges i s a l i n e a r conception of h i s t o r y i n which events occur as a part of an e v o l u t i o n a r y process moving towards some u b i q u i t o u s but 3 0 Gagnon, " P e l l a n , Borduas and the Automatistes," p. 40. Gagnon's a n a l y s i s and terminology are drawn p r i m a r i l y from Marcel Rioux's book, La Question du Quebec ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s Seghers, 1969). 3 1 Gagnon, " P e l l a n , Borduas and the Automatistes," p. 51. 18 unforseen g o a l ; 3 2 thus, P e l l a n ' s d e s t r u c t i o n of 'academicism' and h i s entrenchment of ' r a t t r a p a g e ' which i s i n turn demolished by Borduas' ' c o n t e s t a t i o n , ' which then becomes entrenched, are simply the r e s u l t of an immanent h i s t o r i c a l process, with events and h i s t o r i c a l epochs succeeding one another a f t e r a p e r i o d of f r i c t i o n , but without apparent m a t e r i a l causes. Gagnon's r e l i a n c e on the concept of i d e o l o g y f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e s h i s assessment of the 1948 debate: while 'ideology' i s used c o l l o q u i a l l y to s i g n i f y a ' p o l i t i c a l d o c t r i n e , ' 3 3 i n recent years i t has been used more f r e q u e n t l y i n a r t h i s t o r i c a l a nalyses i n a M a r x i s t sense. The c o n f u s i o n which a r i s e s i n Gagnon's work i s that he uses 'ideology' as i f he accepted the c o l l o q u i a l d e f i n i t i o n of the word in order to perform an ambiguous, and d i s t i n c t l y non-Marxist s o c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a r t i n which a r t and h i s t o r y run on p a r a l l e l , unconnected cou r s e s . His v a c i l l a t i o n between the two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t meanings of 'ideology' prevents him from performing that v a r i e t y of a r t h i s t o r y which e x p l a i n s the concrete r e l a t i o n s between a r t and h i s t o r y , namely c r i t i c a l a r t h i s t o r y . 3 " 3 2 On t h i s p o i n t see H a d j i n i c o l a o u , " L ' i d e o l o g i e de 1'avant-gardisme," p. 60. 3 3 Current, standard d i c t i o n a r i e s emphasize t h i s element: the-Doubleday D i c t i o n a r y (1975) d e f i n e s ideology as "The ideas, d o c t r i n e s , or way of t h i n k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p o l i t i c a l or economic theory or system." Webster's New World D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s i t as "the d o c t r i n e s , o p i n i o n s , e t c . of an i n d i v i d u a l , c l a s s , e t c . " 3 " See above, note 6. 19 L i k e the m a j o r i t y of a r t h i s t o r i a n s w r i t i n g on the s u b j e c t , Gagnon does not analyze the ways i n which the c o n f l i c t between P e l l a n and Borduas i s i l l u m i n a t e d by and c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the p a i n t i n g s these a r t i s t s produced i n 1948; l i k e most of h i s c o l l e a g u e s , Gagnon sees the s t r u g g l e as a p r i m a r i l y v e r b a l one whose sk i r m i s h e s took p l a c e around, but never w i t h i n the borders of a p a i n t i n g . T h i s t h e s i s , however, w i l l e x p l o r e the v i s u a l i d e o l o g i e s of these two a r t i s t s , demonstrating the ways in which the s t y l e and s u b j e c t s of t h e i r work extend and develop t h e i r v e r b a l i d e o l o g i e s . The c o n f l i c t between P e l l a n and Borduas in 1948 i s legendary i n Canadian a r t h i s t o r y , but l i k e most legends, h a l f - t r u t h s and imprecise h i s t o r y have congealed around i t . The pages which f o l l o w attempt to penetrate through these sedimentary l a y e r s , in order to r e v e a l the v e r b a l and v i s u a l i d e o l o g i e s which came i n t o c o n f l i c t i n 1948, t a k i n g as t h e i r guide the c o n t e n t i o n that f a c t s are never i s o l a t e d appearances, that i f they come i n t o being together, i t i s always w i t h i n the higher u n i t y of a whole, that they are bound to each other by i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s and that the presence of one profoundly m o d i f i e s the nature of the o t h e r . 3 5 3 5 Jean-Paul S a r t r e , Search f o r a Method, t r a n s , and i n t r o . Hazel E. Barnes (New York: Vintage Books, 1968), p. 25. 20 CHAPTER ONE The Avant-Garde i n C o n f l i c t — t h e Fragmentation of the Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y and i t s P u b l i c A e s t h e t i c liberty...became the instrument of s e c t a r i a n c o n t e n t i o n . -John Lyman 1 The Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y served as the c e n t r e of avant-garde a c t i v i t y i n Montreal s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1939. U n t i l i t s demise i n 1948, the CAS remained f a i t h f u l to i t s o r i g i n a l g o a l s , the d e s t r u c t i o n of academicism and the concomitant development of a modern movement d e d i c a t e d to a multitude of a e s t h e t i c s . The S o c i e t y ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n makes c l e a r these p r e o c c u p a t i o n s : [The CAS has as i t s o b j e c t ] to give support to contemporary trends in a r t . . . . A l l p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s , born or r e s i d e n t i n Canada, p r a c t i c i n g p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e or any graphic medium, who are n e i t h e r a s s o c i a t e d with, nor p a r t i a l t o , any Academy, are e l i g i b l e as a r t i s t members. 2 The Montreal p u b l i c responded fa v o u r a b l y to the advent of the CAS, 3 and by the mid 1940s, the S o c i e t y was widely regarded 1 John Lyman, "Borduas and the Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y , " p. 42. 2 CAS c o n s t i t u t i o n , quoted in V a r l e y , The Contemporary A r t s  Soc i e t y , p. 39. 3 See, f o r example, reviews of i t s f i r s t two e x h i b i t o n s held 13-18 May 1939 ("Art of Our Day") and December 1939 ("Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y : E x h i b i t i o n of P a i n t i n g s by New Members"): Maurice Gagnon, "Peinture contemporain," Le Devoir, 21 as the c e n t r e of a e s t h e t i c a u d a c i t y , but s c a r c e l y of dangerous r a d i c a l i s m . * At the same time that i t assumed a dominant r o l e i n the d i r e c t i o n of the Montreal a r t scene, the S o c i e t y s u c c e s s f u l l y concluded the b a t t l e a g a i n s t academicism, thus a t t a i n i n g one of i t s p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s . The defeat of academicism, however, u l t i m a t e l y had d i s a s t r o u s consequences f o r the CAS. Academicism's demise undermined the CAS's avant-garde posture, f o r i t d e p r i v e d the S o c i e t y of an o b j e c t f o r e x p r e s s i n g animosity towards the s t a t u s quo, and as Harold Rosenberg has noted, " o p p o s i t i o n to the e x i s t i n g order i s always i m p l i c i t " i n avant-garde a c t i v i t y ; 5 a f t e r the conquest of academicism, however, t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n no longer a p p l i e d to.the CAS, f o r i t became the e x i s t i n g order, and by v i r t u e of that f a c t , ceased to e x i s t as a vanguard, or, indeed, be p e r c e i v e d as a vanguard. While the v i c t o r y over academicism momentarily j e t t i s o n e d the CAS to a more e s t a b l i s h e d p o s i t i o n i n the Montreal a r t i s t i c h i e r a r c h y , i t a l s o d e p r i v e d the group of the only i s s u e on which 10 May 1939, p. 9; Robert Ayre, "'Art of our Day' A t t r a c t i n g A t t e n t i o n by i t s Vigour i n Design," The Standard, 20 May 1939; Graham Mclnnes, " G e t t i n g Together," Saturday Night, 25 February 1939. " Paul Duval, "Montreal A r t i s t s E s t a b l i s h i n g New Landmarks in Canadian A r t , " Saturday Night 10 November 1945; P e a r l McCarthy, "Montreal Group Worth Seeing," Globe and M a i l , October 1945; E l o i de Grandmont, "La Soci£t£ d ' a r t contemporain," Le  Canada, 13 February 1945, p. 5; Charles Doyon, "Acad6misme vs. Art V i v a n t , " Le Jour, 30 June 1945, p. 4. ' c Q 5 Harold Rosenberg, " C o l l e c t i v e , I d e o l o g i c a l , Combattive," A r t News Annual 34 (1968), ed. Thomas B. Hess and John Ashbery, p. 78. 22 i t s members agreed, and over which the group was able to e s t a b l i s h a modicum of cohe s i v e n e s s . Without the d e s t r u c t i o n of academicism as an o b j e c t i v e , the CAS floundered; the l a s t two years of the S o c i e t y ' s b r i e f e x i s t e n c e were marked by numerous i n t e r n a l disagreements which i n t e n s i f i e d with the passage of t i m e . 6 The frequency and f e r o c i t y of the disagreements s i g n i f i e d that the CAS had s h i f t e d i t s a n t a g o n i s t i c s t a n c e 7 away from the enemy without, and onto the enemy w i t h i n . The d i s p u t e was p a r t l y c a t a l y z e d by a t a c i t r e a l i z a t i o n that the CAS had o u t l i v e d i t s u t i l i t y as an avant-garde, and became simply a v e h i c l e of jockeying f o r the p o s i t i o n i t once h e l d i n Montreal, namely, that of the penultimate avant-garde. The two major contenders in t h i s s t r u g g l e were, of course, the Prisme d'Yeux and the Automatistes. The pressures and c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n the S o c i e t y became apparent when i t s 9th annual e x h i b i t i o n opened at the Art A s s o c i a t i o n of M o n t r e a l 8 on February 2, 1948. 9 As in the 6 The most severe disagreements occurred i n 1946 when younger members of the CAS demanded that the S o c i e t y grant i t s members automatic entry i n t o i t s e x h i b i t i o n s and abandon i t s ju r y system; they a l s o c a l l e d f o r a b o l i t i o n of " j u n i o r " and " s e n i o r " d e s i g n a t i o n s . While the l a t t e r c o n c e s s i o n was granted, the former was not, and i t remained a poin t of c o n t e n t i o n w i t h i n the S o c i e t y to i t s end. 7 P o g g i o l i has commented that "antagonism [ i s ] c e r t a i n l y the most n o t i c e a b l e and showy avant-garde posture" (The Theory  of the Avant-Garde, p. 30; f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the concept of antagonism, see pp. 30-40.) 8 Known as the Montreal Museum of Fine A r t s a f t e r 1948. 9 The e x h i b i t i o n continued to February 29, 1948. No e x h i b i t i o n catalogue or l i s t was p u b l i s h e d , although the f o l l o w i n g a r t i s t s were mentioned i n press r e p o r t s : 23 past, many s t y l e s were i n evidence, but i n c o n t r a s t to p r e v i o u s e x h i b i t i o n s , the a r t i s t s i n the 1948 show c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three very d i s t i n c t groups: seven Automatistes, s i x members of the Prisme d'Yeux, and twenty-one non-aligned a r t i s t s . I t was the hardening of 'party' l i n e s , through the emergence of d i s t i n c t f a c t i o n s based on s t y l i s t i c and i d e o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n s , which preoccupied and dismayed the p r e s s . The only c r i t i c who gave the e x h i b i t i o n a moderately sympathetic review, Madeleine Gariepy, continued to p e r c e i v e the CAS as a vanguard which t r u l y c h a l l e n g e d " l e s conventions t r o p r i g i d e s d'un a r t tig6 dans une forme ou a u t r e d'un acade"misme"; 1 0 at the same time, however, she r e c o g n i z e s that t h i s common goal does not m i t i g a t e the s t y l i s t i c incoherence i n evidence at the e x h i b i t i o n : C e c i ne manque pas de c o n s t i t u e r un melange t r e s h^terogdne. On y v o i t c 6 t e a c 6 t e un Borduas et un Muhlstock, un de Tonnancourt [ s i c ] et un de Magdeleine Desroches....Cette e x p o s i t i o n e t a i t done i n t e r e s s a n t e a bien des p o i n t s de vue, l o r s meme q u ' e l l e manquait d ' u n i t e . 1 1 Automat i s t e s : Marcel Barbeau, Paul-Emile Borduas, P i e r r e Gauvreau, M a r c e l l e Ferron-Hamelin, Fernand Leduc, Jean-Paul Mousseau, Jean-Paul R i o p e l l e ; Prisme d'Yeux: L o u i s Archambault, Leon B e l l e f l e u r , Lucien Mor i n , Jeanne Rhe"aume, Goodridge Roberts, Jacques de Tonnancour; Non-Aligned: Jack Beder, M i l l e r B r i t t a i n , Magdeleine Desroches-Noiseux, F l e u r e n t Emery, Marguerite Fainmel, Mary F i l e r , L o u i s Gadbois, E r i c Goldberg, Andre Jasmin, Mabel Lockerby, John Lyman, L o u i s Muhlstock, Serge Phenix, Jan P i e r , Marion S c o t t , P h i l i p Surrey, Betty Sutherland, Claude Vermette, Paul Wilson, Fanny Wiselberg, P i e r c y Younger. 1 0 Madeleine Gariepy, "A l a S o c i e t e d'Art Contemporain," Notre Temps, 21 February 1948, p. 6. I b i d . 24 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that of the 34 a r t i s t s i n the e x h i b i t i o n , Gariepy i s o l a t e s and c o n t r a s t s Borduas and de Tonnancour, f o r these two men not o n l y c r e a t e d works that were d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c a l l y , but were a l s o the authors of the manifestoes of the two groups p o i s e d f o r , but not yet locked i n c o n f r o n t a t i o n , the Automatistes, and the Prisme d'Yeux. Because she s e l e c t s Borduas and de Tonnancour to i l l u s t r a t e the s t y l i s t i c d i s a r r a y of the CAS, Gariepy r e v e a l s that i t was not simply the S o c i e t y ' s support f o r v a r i o u s s t y l e s which caused her a g i t a t i o n , but rather that the lack of a e s t h e t i c cohesion was t r a c e a b l e to the s t y l e s a s s o c i a t e d with the two groups attempting to p r e v a i l w i t h i n i t . Other c r i t i c s a l s o regarded the absence of a s i n g l e d i r e c t i o n i n the S o c i e t y as a negative f a c t o r . The reviewer fo r the Gazette (Montreal), f o r example, couples an adverse r e a c t i o n to the show with comments concerning the s t y l i s t i c p o l a r i z a t i o n apparent in the works: the o f f e r i n g s , i n the main, do not seem to a t t a i n the usual l e v e l . There are items which w i l l appeal, s t r o n g l y to the devotee of the extreme in p a i n t i n g and in the c o l l e c t i o n , too, there are examples which w i l l a t t r a c t the c a s u a l s p e c t a t o r who p r e f e r s a dash of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l in h i s a r t . 1 2 The most h i g h l y negative reviews, those by J u l i e n Labedan in Le Canada, and Ren£e Normand in Le Devoir, c l a r i f i e d the nature of the antagonism between the two p o l e s of p a i n t i n g d e s c r i b e d by the Gazette's anonymous c r i t i c . Labedan s p l i t s the CAS i n t o two 1 2 " V a r i e t y i n O f f e r i n g s Mark CAS E x h i b i t i o n , " The Gazette, 7 February 1948, p. 22. 25 groups: the Automatistes, e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and grouped as the most i n t e r e s t i n g s e c t o r of the S o c i e t y , and a l l the other a r t i s t s , which he d i s m i s s e s as a whole, homogenized by t h e i r m e d i o c r i t y : Aucun enthousiasme ne nous anime pour p a r l e r de l a terne e x h i b i t i o n de l a C.A.S La p l u p a r t des e x c e l l e n t s a r t i s t e s qui f i g u r e n t dans c e t t e s o c i e t e n'exposaient l a que des ouevres de q u a l i t y moyenne et nombre de p e i n t u r e s m£diocres ou n u l l e s ach&vaient de f a i r e de c e t t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n une t r i s t e g r i s a i l l e . Le s e u l int£ret de c e t t e e x p o s i t i o n r l s i d e dans l a matiere a c o n v e r s a t i o n que nous o f f re 1'automatisme. 1 3 Labedan says d i r e c t l y what Gari6py and The Gazette reviewer only a l l u d e d to o b l i q u e l y , namely that the schism w i t h i n the S o c i e t y e x i s t e d p r i m a r i l y between the Automatistes and the r e s t of the group; by e x t e n s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , Labedan a l i g n s the Prisme d'Yeux with the r e s t of the CAS. Labedan's a n t i p a t h y towards the e x h i b i t i o n was echoed by Renee Normand who saw the S o c i e t y ' s d i v e r s i t y as a p r i n c i p a l source of weakness. W r i t i n g i n Le Devoir, she commented, Le credo a r t i s t i q u e de c e t t e s o c i ^ t e ' — s i tant est q u ' e l l e en p r o f e s s e un--semble e x c l u r e a p r i o r i toute unit£ de p r e s e n t a t i o n . P a r e i l systeme p o u r r a i t i p r e m i l r e vue passer pour 1'Selectisme, mais i l est a c r a i n d r e que ce ne s o i t qu'une c o n f u s i o n o r g a n i s 6 e . 1 * The reviews c i t e d above were w r i t t e n by c r i t i c s with very d i f f e r e n t a e s t h e t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s , and who wrote for papers r e p r e s e n t i n g d i v e r g e n t p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s , but s i g n i f i c a n t l y , 1 3 J u l i e n Labedan, "La 'Contemporary A r t s S o c i e t y , ' " Le Canada, 13 A p r i l 1948, p. 3, 2. 1" Ren6e Normand, "La S o c i e t e d'Art Contemporain," Le Devoir, 14 February 1948, p. 5. 26 they a l l concurred on the i n a b i l i t y of the CAS to act as any kind of a r t i c u l a t e spokesman f o r contemporary a r t i n Montreal. T h e i r unanimous d i s d a i n f o r the degree of fragmentation of the S o c i e t y was prompted by a common d e s i r e f o r g r e a t e r s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n among the v a r i o u s s e c t o r s subsumed beneath the r u b r i c of the group; t h e i r c a l l f o r l e s s 'confusion organisee' was at i t s core, a l s o a demand that the d i f f e r e n t components of the S o c i e t y choose c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p o s i t i o n s and separate out onto d i s c r e t e t e r r i t o r i e s . The i n s i s t e n c e on choosing s i d e s , and d e f i n i n g one's p o s i t i o n a l s o dominated the p o l i t i c s of Quebec and Canada in 1948, and at both the domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l , major p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s cornered v o t e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s a l i k e . A p i v o t a l year i n the h i s t o r y of the post-war p e r i o d , 1948 stands as the f i r s t year in a new war, the Cold War, which gave b i r t h to such i n s t i t u t i o n s as NATO; in 1948, e l e c t i o n s occurred i n Quebec, the three f e d e r a l p a r t i e s h e l d n a t i o n a l conventions, and the country gained a new prime m i n i s t e r as the r e s u l t of a change in the l e a d e r s h i p of the governing L i b e r a l p a r t y . In the atmosphere of p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s and t e n s i o n which engulfed the country that year, every i s s u e , whether t r i v i a l or s i g n i f i c a n t , became transformed i n t o a c o n t e s t between good and e v i l , democracy and communism, freedom and tyranny. Enveloped by the p o l i t i c s of c h o i c e , the Montreal avant-garde, no l e s s than i t s c r i t i c s , u r g e n t l y f e l t the need to r e d e f i n e i t s e l f and regroup. The s t y l i s t i c schism so apparent to c r i t i c s at the CAS e x h i b i t i o n emerged as p o l i t i c a l ones at the S o c i e t y ' s annual meeting on February 9, only days a f t e r the m a j o r i t y of the 27 reviews of the show had been p u b l i s h e d ; given the c r i t i c a l response to the e x h i b i t i o n , the S o c i e t y was under a great deal of pressure to c l a r i f y i t s goals and a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n s . At the meeting, Borduas was e l e c t e d as P r e s i d e n t , d e s p i t e oppostion from the Prisme d'Yeux; he l a t e r wrote to Luc Choquette, however, that h i s v i c t o r y was assured from the outset of the meeting because, " I l y a t r o i s ans que je contr6le l a m a j o r i t e des voix a l a CAS." 1 5 A l l e g i n g that Borduas' a c c e s s i o n to power threatened the p l u r a l i s t c h a r a c t e r of the S o c i e t y 1 6 - - a n d along with i t , freedom--several Prisme d'Yeux members withdrew. 1 7 Meanwhile, Borduas' f e l l o w e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s f a i l e d to give him the support he f e l t was incumbent upon them to give h i m . 1 8 1 5 Borduas to Luc Choquette, c i t e d in P e r r e a u l t , "La Societe" d'Art Contemporain," p. 88. P e r r e a u l t says the l e t t e r was w r i t t e n on 3 February, 1948, but i t appears more l i k e l y that i t was w r i t t e n on 13 February, four days a f t e r the meeting was h e l d . 1 6 Gagnon contends that the numerical dominance of the Automatistes w i t h i n the S o c i e t y provoked such a r e a c t i o n : "Cette p e r s p e c t i v e ne d e v a i t pas e t r e envisageeavec beaucoup d'enthousiasme par l e s a u t r e s p e i n t r e s qui r e s s e n t a i e n t , comme de l a p r e t e n t i o n i n t o l e r a b l e , l ' a t t i t u d e de pl u s en pl u s e x c l u s i v e et i n t r a n s i g e a n t e des aut o m a t i s t e s " (Borduas:  Biog r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , p. 234). 1 7 P e l l a n and de Tonnancour r e s i g n e d , but which other members of the group withdrew i s un c l e a r ; Guy Robert, f o r example, comments "En f e v r i e r 1948, l o r s des Elections a l a C.A.S., Borduas est e l u p r e s i d e n t de j u s t e s s e , ce qui amene l e groupe oppose, c e l u i de P e l l a n , de Tonnancour et l e u r s adeptes, a se r e t i r e r a 1 ' a s s o c i a t i o n " (Borduas [Quebec: l e s Presses de l ' U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec, 1972], p. 99). 1 8 Borduas wrote q u i t e b i t t e r l e t t e r s to those members of the C o u n c i l who he f e l t had l e t him down: Marion S c o t t , Maurice Gagnon, Luc Choquette, and John Lyman. The l e t t e r to Lyman i s one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g ones, f o r i n i t Borduas makes c l e a r h i s sense of b e t r a y a l , as w e l l as suggests that i t came about due to Lyman's f a i l u r e to approve of a text Borduas had w r i t t e n , 28 Faced with a c o u n c i l which w a f f l e d i n i t s support f o r him, and a membership d i v i d e d by both h i s e l e c t i o n and the withdrawal of the Prisme d'Yeux, Borduas r e s i g n e d on February 1 3 , 1 9 c h a r g i n g that the S o c i e t y ' s f a i l u r e to support him exposed not only i t s a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c t e n d e n c i e s , but a l s o i t s e s s e n t i a l l y moribund s t a t e : I l n'y a done pour moi aucun p l a i s i r , aucun i n t e r e t a demeurer dans c e t t e s o c i 6 t 6 ou tout en c o n t r S l a n t l a ma j o r i t e des voix a c t i v e s i l y a un poids mort co n t r e l e q u e l je ne sens aucun d e s i r d'entrer en l i k e l y a d r a f t of the Refus G l o b a l : "Devant v o t r e manque d'enthousiasme non a permettre, mais a r e a l i s e r l e s r£sultats des E l e c t i o n s de l u n d i d e r n i e r , devant l ' i n s u l t e i n v o l o n t a i r e mais r e e l e , de v o t r e a p p r e c i a t i o n l i t t e r a i r e du texte passe par amiti£ (texte en.gageant ma v i e e n t i e r e sans echappatoire p o s s i b l e ) , je s u i s dans l a p e n i b l e o b l i g a t i o n , pour sauvegarder mon besoin d ' e s p o i r et d'enthousiasme, a c l o r e -mes r e l a t i o n s longues de b i e n t o t d ix ans avec vous" (quoted by Gagnon in Borduas: B i o g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , p. 235). He wrote s i m i l a r l e t t e r s to the other members of the C o u n c i l ; compare the above, f o r example, with the l e t t e r w r i t t e n to Marion S c o t t : "Pour mener a bien l a tache r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e qui s'impose a l a C.A.S. i l a u r a i t f a l l u a u - c o n s e i l une v i t a l i t e p l u s e v i d e n t e . Devant son sentiment de peur, mon impuissance a l u i communiquer mon enthousiasme, je s u i s dans l ' o b l i g a t i o n de l u i o f f r i r ma demission comme p r e s i d e n t et comme membre de c e t t e societe". Un autre m i l i e u x p l u s vigoreux me reclame ou une a c t i o n non equivoque sera e n t r e p r i s e " (quoted i n P e r r e a u l t , "La S o c i e t e d'Art Contemporain," p. 87). 1 9 A chronology of events i s d i f f i c u l t to r e c o n s t r u c t as va r i o u s dates f o r the r e s i g n a t i o n s have been pr o v i d e d by d i f f e r e n t sources. P e r r e a u l t g i v e s the date of Borduas' r e s i g n a t i o n as February 3 i n "La S o c i l t 6 d'Art Contemporain," p. 88. In " P e l l a n , Borduas and the A u t o m a t i s t e s r " p. 54, Gagnon maintains that i t occurred on February 7; however, i n Borduas:  Biographie c r i t i q u e , p. 235, he notes that i t occur r e d on February 13, a date which seems to be the most p l a u s i b l e one, as i t was probably on t h i s date that Borduas wrote the l e t t e r s to Lyman S c o t t , Gagnon and Choquette, informing them of h i s wi thdrawal. 2 9 d e c o m p o s i t i o n . 2 0 Offended p r i d e may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n why Borduas suddenly regarded the CAS as a dead i n s t i t u t i o n , but the t a c t i c s of the avant-garde a l s o c l a r i f y the reasons why he r e p u d i a t e d the S o c i e t y whose pres i d e n c y he had only r e c e n t l y sought and secured. Borduas 1 a t t i t u d e of d e f i a n c e towards the CAS i s p a r t l y a r e a c t i o n to the Prisme d'Yeux's l a r g e l y s u c c e s s f u l campaign to be the new avant-garde. In any s t r u g g l e f o r ascendancy, a n - a s p i r i n g avant-garde must appear to be committed to the l o n e l y p u r s u i t of modernity, a p r i o r i 'ahead of i t s time,' and t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r i l y at odds with the s t a t u s quo; as Renato P o g g i o l i has noted, " h o s t i l i t y i s o l a t e s , on the one hand, but on the other i t u n i t e s . T h i s p r i n c i p l e f a c i l i t a t e s the appearance of the s e c t a r i a n s p i r i t which a f f l i c t s a v a n t - g a r d i s m . " 2 1 A f t e r the February 9 meeting of the CAS, the Prisme d'Yeux had approximated these b a s i c p r e c o n d i t i o n s of avant-gardism more s u c c e s s f u l l y than the Automatistes: through i t s dramatic e x i t from the CAS only f i v e days a f t e r i t s i n a u g u r a l e x h i b i t i o n , 2 2 the "Prisme d'Yeux d e c l a r e d i t s antagonism towards the e s t a b l i s h e d a e s t h e t i c order, the CAS, as w e l l as towards i t s nearest r i v a l , the Automatistes. Moreover, because i t had h e l d i t s i n a u g u r a l e x h i b i t i o n only a week before 2 0 Borduas to Luc Choquette, quoted in P e r r e a u l t , La  S o c i e t e d'Art Contemporain, p. 88-89. 2 1 P o g g i o l i , The Theory of the Avant-Garde, p. 30. 2 2 Held February 4 at the Art Annex of the Art A s s o c i a t i o n of Montreal; see below, p. 8. 30 abandonning the CAS, the Prisme d'Yeux was a l s o i n a strong p o s i t i o n to be p e r c e i v e d as Montreal's most novel and autonomous a r t i s t i c avant-garde. Borduas, as the leader of an ambitious vanguard o u t d i s t a n c e d by another, had few o p t i o n s remaining to him. I f the Automatistes were to d i s p l a c e the Prisme d'Yeux from i t s newly found p o s i t i o n , and become e s t a b l i s h e d as the the penultimate avant-garde, i t was imperative that Borduas and h i s group become d i s e n t a n g l e d from the S o c i e t y which had been l a b e l l e d as anathema to freedom by the Prisme d'Yeux. A f f i l i a t e d with the S o c i e t y , Borduas would have had d i f f i c u l t y i n a r guing the case f o r the Automatistes' commitment to a e s t h e t i c n o v e l t y or to prove t h e i r d i s t a n c e from the a e s t h e t i c and p o l i t i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . I t was only a year l a t e r that Borduas f a i r l y c a n d i d l y admitted that i t was the n e c e s s i t y of c r e a t i n g sharp d i s t i n c t i o n s between the Automatistes and the r e s t of the Montreal a r t world which c a t a l y z e d the s p l i t w i t h i n the CAS: In s h o r t , the l e f t and the r i g h t of the contemporary movement—positions which the p u b l i c does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e - - h a d to separate o u t . 2 3 The f l u r r y of f u l m i n a t i n g d e n u n c i a t i o n s of and r e s i g n a t i o n s from the CAS, however, remained at a c e r t a i n l e v e l simply empty p o s t u r i n g , f o r n e i t h e r the Prisme d'Yeux nor the Automatistes withdrew t h e i r works from the CAS e x h i b i t i o n . Such i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s e x p l a i n e d by both groups' a t t i t u d e towards the work of a r t i t s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to any t h e o r e t i c a l or v e r b a l 2 3 Borduas, P r o j e c t i o n s L i b e r a n t e s , p. 94. 31 j u s t i f i c a t i o n of i t . Despite t h e i r o f t e n s e l f - r i g h t e o u s declamations about a e s t h e t i c p u r i t y and a r t i s t i c freedom, both groups c l e a v e d a r t from i t s t h e o r e t i c a l bases, and t h e r e f o r e a l s o from t h e i r own r h e t o r i c c o n cerning i t . For example, an a r t i c l e i n La Presse on a l e c t u r e Borduas gave to psychology students r e p o r t e d : Que d e f i n i t i o n s et a b s t r a c t i o n s ne s i g n i f i e n t r i e n pour l u i , q u ' i l ne s£pare pas l e s ide'es des o b j e c t s . . . . A quelqu'un qui a demand^ a M. Borduas s ' i l a v a i t deja songe a e c r i r e ses t h e o r i e s sur l a p e i n t u r e , l ' o r a t e u r a repondu en r6pe"tant sa repugnance pour toute t h e o r i e , et en r e f e r e n t l ' a u d i t e u r a ses t a b l e a u x . 2 * S i m i l a r l y , P e l l a n separated h i s p a i n t i n g from the concepts underpinning i t ; i n response to an i n t e r v i e w e r ' s q u e s t i o n re g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s v e r b a l t h e o r i e s and t h e i r v i s u a l i n c a r n a t i o n , P e l l a n responded, "do not t a l k of t h e o r i e s . I have none. I f e e l , I l i k e , I d i s i i k e - - t h a t ' s a l l ! " 2 5 By a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e i r a r t , but a l s o r e p u d i a t i n g theory, Borduas, P e l l a n and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s were able to use r h e t o r i c to c r e a t e c e r t a i n images of themselves, while remaining f r e e to d i s c a r d i t once i t became an impediment to them. In the case of the CAS e x h i b i t i o n , the groups' v e r b a l p a r r i e s enhanced t h e i r avant-garde images, but to have c a r r i e d t h e i r words to the p o i n t of withdrawing works from the show would have d e p r i v e d them of one of the few o p p o r t u n i t i e s to do 2 " "Inconscient et P e i n t u r e , " La Presse, 2 February 1948, p. 11. 2 5 Paul Duval quoting A l f r e d P e l l a n in "The Work of A l f r e d P e l l a n , " Here and Now 1 (January 1949), p. 54. 32 what a l l a r t i s t s must do, e x h i b i t t h e i r works. In 1948, v i r t u a l l y no p r i v a t e g a l l e r y e x i s t e d which was r e c e p t i v e to avant-garde a r t i n Montreal, and many a r t i s t s were f o r c e d to e x h i b i t t h e i r work i n p r i v a t e homes, i n Montreal's ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' bookstore, the L i b r a i r i e T r a n q u i l l e , or i n rented space at the Art A s s o c i a t i o n of M o n t r e a l . 2 6 Because of the p a u c i t y of e x h i b i t i o n space and the f i n a n c i a l imperative to d i s p l a y and to s e l l t h e i r work, both the Automatistes and the Prisme d'Yeux were f o r c e d to c o n t r a d i c t the f o r c e f u l p o s i t i o n s which they had adopted with respect to the CAS, and e x h i b i t with the S o c i e t y f o r which they claimed to f e e l so much contempt. Freedom and a e s t h e t i c p u r i t y were c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s f o r the Montreal avant-garde, but reaching t h e i r v a r i o u s p u b l i c s was an even more p r e s s i n g one. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Prisme d'Yeux and the Automatistes to t h e i r p u b l i c s i s one of the i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s connected to t h e i r c a r e e r s and t h e i r q u a r r e l s of 1948. Both the Prisme d'Yeux and the Automatistes a l i g n e d themselves with ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' c u l t u r e , and with that s e c t o r of the p u b l i c which 2 6 The Automatistes, f o r example, had been f o r c e d to hold s e v e r a l e x h i b i t i o n s i n the apartments of f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s , n otably the Gauvreaus' apartment at 1257 Amherst (20-29 A p r i l 1946); at 75 West Sherbrooke (15 February-1 March 1947); and at the V i a u b r o t h e r s ' s t u d i o , 425, oeust, b o u l . Saint-Joseph, 17 A p r i l - 1 May 1948). L i b r a i r e T r a n q u i l l e housed the second e x h i b i t i o n of the Prisme d'Yeux in May 1948, and s o l d c o p i e s of the Automatiste's manifesto Refus G l o b a l l a t e r that year. The only p r i v a t e g a l l e r y sympathetic to modernism was the Dominion G a l l e r y , at that time operated by Max Stern; even so, the G a l l e r y was r e l u c t a n t to e x h i b i t any members of the Montreal avant-garde in 1948. 33 was sympathetic to such c u l t u r e ; i n Canada i n 1948, t h i s p u b l i c c o n s i s t e d of the p a r t i s a n s of l i b e r a l i s m . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , l i b e r a l i s m at mid-century was undergoing a major metamorphosis, and, l i k e the Montreal avant-garde, was p o l a r i z e d over the issue of freedom, both a e s t h e t i c and p o l i t i c a l . L i b e r a l i s m i n Canada f r a c t u r e d along l i n g u i s t i c l i n e s f o l l o w i n g the war; anglophone and francophone l i b e r a l s were at odds over a v a r i e t y of i s s u e s which were a l l r e l a t e d , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to the q u e s t i o n of freedom, and t h e r e f o r e i n the context of that year, to the campaign a g a i n s t communism. A lengthy a n a l y s i s of the components of francophone and anglophone l i b e r a l i s m i s c r u c i a l , f o r the causes and nature of the i s s u e s of d i s p u t e not only i l l u m i n a t e the d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the Montreal avant-garde, but a l s o r e v e a l why each branch of Canadian l i b e r a l i s m supported the s e c t o r of the Montreal avant-garde that i t d i d . The nature of post-war•francophone l i b e r a l i s m was determined by those i n t e l l e c t u a l s who wrote f o r and read such p e r i o d i c a l s and newspapers as Le Devoir, Notre Temps, and Le  Quart i e r L a t i n . 2 7 Because the u n i v e r s i t i e s were the locus of 2 7 For an a n a l y s i s of Quebec p e r i o d i c a l s ' p o l i t i c s , see Andri B e a u l i e u and Jean Hamelin, Les Journaux du Quebec de 1794  a 1964 (Quebec: Les Presses de 1' Un i ver s i te" L a v a l , and P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 1965), and Georges V i n c e n t h i e r , Une  I d e o l o q i e Quebecoise: de Louis-Joseph Papineau a P i e r r e  V a l l i e r e s (Montreal: Hurtubise HMH, 1979). Le Devoir was a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l j o u r n a l because i t was the only newspaper which c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d the debates in the p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, an important s e r v i c e as there was no Hansard in Quebec at that time. 34 i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y , but were l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the Roman C a t h o l i c church, l i b e r a l o p i n i o n s p e r i o d i c a l l y apeared i n unexpected p l a c e s , such as e c c l e s i a s t i c a l magazines l i k e R e l a t i o n s , A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , and Revue Dominicaine, as w e l l as in the q u a r t e r l i e s i s s u e d by the u n i v e r s i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . 2 8 The products of u n i v e r s i t i e s , francophone l i b e r a l s l a r g e l y belonged to that s e c t o r of s o c i e t y f o r which t h e i r education had prepared them, namely, the p r o f e s s i o n s : l i b e r a l s wrote f o r newspapers and j o u r n a l s ; they argued in the law c o u r t s ; p r a c t i c e d medicine in the h o s p i t a l s ; and formed the bulk of the p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l s e r v i c e . 2 9 L i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s saw themselves as p o l i t i c a l mavericks committed only to j u s t i c e , t r u t h , and above a l l , freedom; Gerard F i l i o n ' s a n a l y s i s of the newspaper which he e d i t e d , Le Devoir, the major v e h i c l e f o r the ex p r e s s i o n of l i b e r a l francophone o p i n i o n i n 1948, i n d i c a t e s the q u a l i t i e s 2 8 In part because l i b e r a l thought o f t e n appeared in eminently i l l i b e r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e o f t e n spoke in* a seemingly f a l t e r i n g v o i c e , the importance of l i b e r a l i s m p r i o r to 1950 has been s e r i o u s l y overlooked by Canadian h i s t o r i a n s . In books and a r t i c l e s on Quebec, l i b e r a l i s m i s d i s c u s s e d as a phenomenon emerging with the appearance of C i t e L i b r e i n 1950. Why h i s t o r i a n s have remained u n i n t e r e s t e d in l i b e r a l s and t h e i r p o l i t i c s p r i o r to that time may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t that u n t i l 1949, l i b e r a l i s m i n Quebec found i t s e l f adopting f a i r l y r e a c t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n s - - a n embarassing d i s c o v e r y f o r many h i s t o r i a n s , i t seems. 2 9 Francophones seldom worked f o r the f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v i c e : "There were few French Canadians [ i n the f e d e r a l government]. Of the 201 f o r e i g n s e r v i c e o f f i c e r s employed i n the Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s in 1949, only 43 were of French o r i g i n . And E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s f a r e d b e t t e r than most Ottawa departments i n i t s French-Canadian r e c r u i t i n g " (Bothwell, Drummond and E n g l i s h , Canada Since 1945, p. 135. 35 l i b e r a l s admired and which they saw as t h e i r own r e f l e c t i o n : Le Devoir, j o u r n a l independent, n a t i o n a l i s t e , et c a t h o l i q u e , fonde et maintenu a coups de s a c r i f i c e s , ne tombat entre l e s mains d'un p a r t i p o l i t i q u e . . . . L e Devoir est un j o u r n a l independant qui d i s c u t e l e s ide'es, l e s a c t i o n s et Les omissions des hommes des p a r t i s p o l i t i q u e s . . . . L e Devoir, c ' e s t l a conscience du peuple canadien-f r a n c a i s . 3 0 A c l o s e examination of F i l i o n ' s comments i n d i c a t e s some of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s inherent i n francophone l i b e r a l i s m , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which w i l l h e l p e x p l a i n the l i b e r a l support f o r one s e c t o r of the Montreal avant-garde over another. L i b e r a l i s m i n s i s t e d that i t was p o l i t i c a l l y independent, and t h e r e f o r e should be the n a t u r a l guardian and a r b i t e r of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of Quebec. Quite apart from the c o l o s s a l arrogance of such a view, l i b e r a l s c o u l d s c a r c e l y be regarded as having cornered the market on p o l i t i c a l independence in 1948; F i l i o n ' s own comments e x p l a i n why. Although Le Devoir, l i k e the l i b e r a l p u b l i c i t served, was t h e o r e t i c a l l y independent, i t a l s o endorsed n a t i o n a l i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m , both of which were h i g h l y charged p o l i t i c a l concepts; by e s t a b l i s h i n g an amalgam of p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e / n a t i o n a l i s m / C a t h o l i c i s m , both n a t i o n a l i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m tend to be emptied of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e due to t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to the f i r s t element, p o l i t i c a l independence. Furthermore, as n a t i o n a l i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m are not e x c l u s i v e of p o l i t i c a l independence, by e x t e n s i o n , they must enjoy the s t a t u s of immutable, e t e r n a l 3 0 Gerard F i l i o n , "M. D u p l e s s i s vide son coeur," Le Devoir, 28 February 1948, p. 2. 36 t r u t h s which cannot be questioned or c h a l l e n g e d . In r e a l i t y , of course, p r o v i n c i a l p a t r i o t i s m and f e a l t y to the Roman C a t h o l i c church were f a r from such an e x a l t e d p o s i t i o n , and were i n s t e a d a l i g n e d to a s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , the Union N a t i o n a l e . The Church and the Union N a t i o n a l e enjoyed a mutually s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , remarkable f o r the baldness of the symbiosis. During e l e c t i o n campaigns, such church p u b l i c a t i o n s as R e l a t i o n s and Renaissance supported the Union N a t i o n a l e ' s c h a r i s m a t i c candidate f o r the premier's o f f i c e , Maurice D u p l e s s i s ; 3 1 p r i e s t s p o i n t e d out the b e n e f i t s which accrued to p a r i s h e s f a i t h f u l to the Union N a t i o n a l e , which a r r i v e d i n the form of b e t t e r schools, i n c r e a s e d funding f o r p a r i s h a c t i v i t i e s , and c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s . 3 2 C a t h o l i c i s m c o n s t i t u t e d one of the dominant themes i n D u p l e s s i s ' e l e c t i o n e e r i n g , j u s t as the Church formed h i s staunchest a l l y ; under the Union N a t i o n a l e , the Church, and the f a i t h , would always be p r o t e c t e d : La l e g i s l a t u r e de Quebec, c ' e s t une f o r t e r e s s e que nous devons defendre sans d e f a i l l a n c e . C'est e l l e qui nous permet de nous c o n s t r u i r e des E c o l e s qui nous conviennent, de p a r l e r notre langue, de p r a t i q u e r 3 1 See, f o r example, P i e r r e Vignon, "Qui nous protegera du communisme?" Renaissance, J u l y 1948, pp. 38-52; "Un mandat e x p l i c i t e , " R e l a t i o n s 8 (September 1948): 249. 3 2 On t h i s matter see: Gerard Dion and L o u i s O ' N e i l l , Two  P r i s e s Censure P o l i t i c a l Immorality in the Province of Quebec (Montreal: The P u b l i c M o r a l i t y Committee, 1956); Jean Hamelin and Marcel Hamelin, Les moeurs l l e c t o r a l e s dans l e Quebec de  1791 a nos j o u r s (Montreal: E d i t i o n s du Jour, 1 962 ); P i e r r.e Laporte, Le v r a i visage de D u p l e s s i s (Montreal: E d i t i o n s de 1'Homme, 1960); P i e r r e Laporte, "La machine 6le c t o r a l e , " C i t e  L i b r e , 2 (December 1952): 42-46. 37 notre r e l i g i o n . 3 3 While C a t h o l i c i s m was c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with the Union N a t i o n a l e , h o s t i l i t y towards the Church was connected with the L i b e r a l p a r t y , which formed the o p p o s i t i o n i n Quebec, and the government i n Ottawa. The Union N a t i o n a l e , the Church, and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , the pres s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d the L i b e r a l Party as having dangerously l e f t - w i n g , and hence, by d e f i n i t i o n , a t h e i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s . The w r i t e r s of Union N a t i o n a l e campaign l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t e d , with almost g l e e f u l i n d i g a n t i o n , to the f e d e r a l government's r e c a l c i t r a n t p o s i t i o n on many i s s u e s deemed to be of v i t a l importance to the Church, such as the r e f u s a l to e s t a b l i s h d i p l o m a t i c l i n k s with the V a t i c a n , 3 " or to support the Church and p r o v i n c i a l government i n i t s d i s p u t e with Poland over e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r t .treasures 'safeguarded' by Quebec duri n g the war, and which the prov i n c e now re f u s e d to r e t u r n to the new 3 3 Le Temps (Quebec), 16 J u l y 1948 , quoted by Herbert F. Quinn, The Union N a t i o n a l e : Quebec N a t i o n a l i s m from D u p l e s s i s  to Levesque, 2d~. ed. (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1977), p. 118. 3" The c a l l f o r a Canadian r e p r e s e n t a t i v e at the V a t i c a n was heard f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g the post-war years. The f o l l o w i n g comments by Paul S a u r i o l i n "Aurons nous b i e n t o t une ambassade canadienne au V a t i c a n ? " are i n d i c a t i v e of the p o s i t i o n adopted by most i n t e l l e c t u a l s : " L ' e g l i s e e st l a d e p o s i t a i r e par e x c e l l e n c e des p r i n c i p e s de d r o i t , de j u s t i c e et de c h a r i t e q ui se u l s peuvent apporter l a paix entre l e s peuples comme a l ' i n t e " r i e u r de chaque pays....Malgre l e s p e r s e c u t i o n s et l e s calomnies, sous l e s assauts de communisme comme ceux du nazisme, l ' E g l i s e r e s t e i n e b r a n l a b l e et i n a t t a q u a b l e . C'est c e t t e s t a b i l i t e dont l e monde a tant besoin q u i f a i t aujourd'hui l e p r e s t i g e du V a t i c a n " (Le Devoir, 28 November 1947, p. 1). 38 Communist regime in P o l a n d . 3 5 In a d d i t i o n , the Union N a t i o n a l e press o f t e n p u b l i s h e d speeches of L i b e r a l Members of Parliament which c o n t a i n e d u n f l a t t e r i n g r e f e r e n c e s to the p o l i c i e s and p o l i t i c s of the Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . 3 6 Thus, f a r from being a n o n - p o l i t i c a l i s s u e , as l i b e r a l s i n Quebec suggested, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c s and C a t h o l i c i s m was c e n t r a l to Quebec p o l i t i c s , and was used, o v e r t l y and o b l i q u e l y as an e l e c t i o n t o o l of the Union N a t i o n a l e i n p o l i t i c a l campaigns, i n c l u d i n g that of 1948. S i m i l a r l y , n a t i o n a l i s m , or, to use i t s synonym in the p o l i -t i c a l jargon of the l a t e f o r t i e s , ' p r o v i n c i a l autonomy,' was the focus of enormous c o n t r o v e r s y and d i s c o r d between the Union N a t i o n a l e and the L i b e r a l s i n the 1948 campaign. In h i s book on the p a r t y , Herbert Quinn p o i n t s out that the Union N a t i o n a l e was the manipulator par e x c e l l e n c e of the n a t i o n a l i s t i s s u e : the Union N a t i o n a l e was s u c c e s s f u l i n making i t [ p r o v i n c i a l autonomy] the dominant issue i n every e l e c t i o n u n t i l that of 1960....The main argument of D u p l e s s i s f o r the r e t u r n of h i s p a r t y to power was that i t c o n s t i t u t e d the s o l e bulwark a g a i n s t complete domination by the f e d e r a l government and l o s s of 3 5 See, f o r example, Am£d£e Gaudreault, "Les t r e s o r s p o l o n a i s , " Le C l a i r o n ( S a i n t - H y a c i n t h e ) , 12 March 1948, p. 1; Andre Bowman, "Quelques propos sur 1 ' a c t u a l i t e . . . . l a rocambolesque h i s t o i r e des t r e s o r s p o l o n a i s , " Le C l a r i o n . ( S a i n t - H y a c i n t h e ) , 12 March 1948, p. 3; "Les t r e s o r s p o l o n a i s , " R e l a t i o n s 8 ( A p r i l 1948): 121: "La d i v i s i o n entre l e s deux p a r t i s , l i b e r a l et Union N a t i o n a l e , a acuqis une v i o l e n c e incomprehensible....Ces d i v i s i o n s ne peuvent f a i r e l e jeu que du communisme i n t e r n a t i o n a l . " For the impact of the d i s p u t e on Ottawa, see the House of Commons Debates II (1948): Thursday 4 March 1948, pp. 1859-1863. 3 6 See Vignon, "Qui nous prote g e r a du communisme?" 39 p r o v i n c i a l autonomy. 3 7 In i t s campaign l i t e r a t u r e , the Union N a t i o n a l e contended that the L i b e r a l party ( g e n e r a l l y equated with the f e d e r a l government) had charted a d i s a s t r o u s course f o r French Canadians, attempting to d e s t r o y them as a d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l group by i n f r i n g i n g on p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s i n education and s o c i a l w e l f a r e , and by encouraging the immigration of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c i t i z e n s to Quebec. 3 8 Moreover, by c o n t r i b u t i n g to a European r e c o n s t r u c t i o n programme when Quebec was i n need of f e d e r a l subventions, the f e d e r a l government showed i t s lack of concern f o r French Canadians. The Union N a t i o n a l e ' s campaign slogan i n the e l e c t i o n r e v e a l s how i t combined j i n g o i s t i c n a t i o n a l i s m and o p p o s i t i o n to the L i b e r a l P a r t y : "Les l i b e r a u x donnent aux e t r a n g e r s ; D u p l e s s i s donne a 3 7 Quinn, The Union N a t i o n a l e , p. 117. In a d d i t i o n to communism, the n a t i o n a l i s t i s s u e was the major issue of the 1948 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n ; commented Guy .Lemay in "La campagne 6 1 e c t o r a l e est termin£e: l a p a r o l e est a l a p o p u l a t i o n , " (Le Devoir, 27 J u l y 1948, p. 3): " P l u s i e u r s q u e s t i o n s importantes^ e t a i e n t en jeu....Mais l e s q u e s t i o n s l e s p l u s d i s c u t e e s ont ete 1'autonomie-provinciale et 1'anticommunisme." D u p l e s s i s o f t e n l i n k e d the two i s s u e s i n h i s campaign speeches, arguing that only a province with a high degree of automony from the f e d e r a l government c o u l d keep communism at bay. On 11 February 1948, for example, he was quoted in Le Devoir as s a y i n g , "Le respect de l a c o n s t i t i t i o n , c ' e s t l a m e i l l e u r e assurance de l a democratic. Le Canada e s t t r o p immense, un s e u l gouvernement amene l a b u r e a u c r a t i e ; c ' e s t ce que veulent l e s communistes." Again, two weeks before the e l e c t i o n , he d e c l a r e d , " [ l a c e n t r a l i s a t i o n e s t ] l a mere du communisme, ce qui nous montre l a n e c e s s i t e de l'autonomie de l a p r o v i n c e " (Le Devoir, 9 J u l y 1948). For an a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i s s u e s of anti-communism and p r o v i n c i a l autonomy in the speeches of D u p l e s s i s , see Chapter I of R i c h a r d D e s r o s i e r s , "L'Ide"ologie de Maurice D u p l e s s i s " (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t e de Montreal, 1971). 3 8 See P i e r r e Morin, "Causons d'autonomie," Renaissance, J u l y 1948, p. 23. 40 sa p r o v i n c e . " 3 9 The campaign brochure, " D u p l e s s i s donne a sa p r o v i n c e " f u r t h e r s t a t e d , Un vote pour DUPLESSIS, c ' e s t un vote pour v o t r e p r o v i n c e , pour v o t r e compte, pour v o t r e l o c a l i t y , pour v o t r e f a m i l l e ; c ' e s t un vote pour VOUS! car DUPLESSIS n'a pas donn6 aux e t r a n g e r s . * 0 In the context of the 1948 e l e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , endorsement of p r o v i n c i a l n a t i o n a l i s m s i g n i f i e d support f o r the p o l i c i e s of the Union N a t i o n a l e and i t s leader more than i t connoted adherence to p o l i t i c a l l y uninvolved, u n i v e r s a l t r u t h , as francophone 3 9 The slogan r e f e r r e d to Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the M a r s h a l l Plan as w e l l as i t s loans to B r i t a i n f o l l o w i n g the War; because sentiments a g a i n s t the War had been strong in Quebec throughout i t s d u r a t i o n , i t was easy f o r D u p l e s s i s to r e k i n d l e these concerns when post-war recovery programmes for Europe were being d i s c u s s e d i n Ottawa. The Union N a t i o n a l e ran newspaper advertisements s t r e s s i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between i t s a t t i t u d e towards the c i t i z e n s of Quebec and that of Ottawa: "Les l i b e r a u x donne aux e t r a n g e r s ; DUPLESSIS donne un drapeau a sa p r o v i n c e ; Les l i b e r a u x ayant a p l u s i e u r s r e p r i s e s r e f u s e ce drapeau, ont p r e f e r e donner des cadeaux de m i l l a r d s aux e t r a n g e r s " (La Presse, 14 February 1948, p. 49). Jack P i c k e r s g i l l comments on the e f f e c t D u p l e s s i s ' t a c t i c s had on Ottawa, and e s p e c i a l l y on L o u i s S t . Laurent, who would s h o r t l y succeed Mackenzie King as the leader of the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p a r t y and the Prime M i n i s t e r of Canada: "That e l e c t i o n [of 1948] posed a r e a l problem fo r S t . Laurent. He d i d not want to become i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s p a r t i c u l a r l y as D u p l e s s i s was expected to win. If S t . Laurent took part in the e l e c t i o n campaign, the r e s u l t might appear to be a p e r s o n a l defeat f o r him; on the other hand, i f , as an avowed candidate f o r the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r s h i p , he remained a l o o f , the L i b e r a l organizamion in Quebec might be a l i e n a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y as D u p l e s s i s was d i r e c t i n g most of h i s f i r e at the f e d e r a l government with the slogan, "Ottawa g i v e s to f o r e i g n e r s , D u p l e s s i s g i v e s to h i s p r o v i n c e ! " T h i s was an a l l u s i o n to the loans of war-torn B r i t a i n and other c o u n t r i e s . He a l s o accused the f e d e r a l government of being s o f t on communism and encroaching on p r o v i n c i a l autonomy" (My Years with  L o u i s St. Laurent [Toronto and B u f f a l o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1975], p. 47). "° " D u p l e s s i s donne a sa p r o v i n c e , " Quebec, 1948, p. 32. 41 l i b e r a l s suggested i t d i d . While such papers as Le Devoir r e p e a t e d l y expressed the d e s i r e t o remain independent of any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , i t s e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s r e v e a l s t r o n g p a r t i s a n b i a s e s , expressed with almost embarassing candour. In e d i t o r i a l a f t e r e d i t o r i a l , Le  Devoir upheld the p o l i c i e s of the Union N a t i o n a l e , while g i v i n g D u p l e s s i s prominent and very f a v o u r a b l e coverage; i n the case of the 1948 e l e c t i o n , Le Devoir went so f a r as to o f f e r e l e c t o r a l a d v i c e to the v o t e r , c o u n s e l l i n g support f o r the Union N a t i o n a l e . * 1 For francophone l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the d o c t r i n e of a p o l i t i c i s m h e l d obvious appeal because i t enabled them to comment on and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the province while r e t a i n i n g t h e i r c r e d e n t i a l s as detached observers of i t . A p o l i t i c i s m was a l s o , however, c e n t r a l to the debate on freedom which was waged at every l e v e l of s o c i e t y from the meeting room of the CAS to the e d i t o r i a l pages of Le Devoir; a p o l i t i c i s m in 1948 was connected to the s i n g l e most important i s s u e of the decade f o l l o w i n g the war: communism. L i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s viewed communism as the t o t a l p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of both the * 1 In "Les c e n t r a l i s a t e u r s sont e c r a s e s , " Gerard F i l i o n e x p l a i n e d why, while a l s o i n s i s t i n g ( s t i l l ) on h i s paper's o b j e c t i v i t y : "Le Devoir s'est prononce pour M. D u p l e s s i s durant l a campagne e l e c t o r a l e , a cause de l a q u e s t i o n p r i m o r d i a l e de 1'autonomie....L'absence presque complete d ' o p p o s i t i o n o f f i c i e l l e rend p l u s important l e r o l e de l a presse l i b r e et p a r t i c u l i e r e m e n t c e l u i d'un j o u r n a l comme l e D e v o i r " (Le Devoir, 29 J u l y 1948, p. 1. 42 i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y 4 2 as i t fomented c l a s s warfare through the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of f o r m e r l y contented, a p o l i t i c a l w o r k e r s , 4 3 f o r c e d p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s i n t o the l i v e s of the average c i t i z e n , and u l t i m a t e l y made a l l d e c i s i o n s on the b a s i s of p a r t y 4 2 C a m i l l e L a u r i n , f o r example, d e f i n e d communism as " n a t i o n a l i s a t i o n ou s o c i a l i s a t i o n de toutes l e s branches de l ' a c t i v i t e humaine," in "Les E t u d i a n t s hindous et l e communisme," Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 27 January 1948, p. 3. 4 3 Even the trade unions shared t h i s view, e s p e c i a l l y those a f f i l i a t e d with the Trades and Labour Congress, which by 1949 had e x p e l l e d a l l a f f i l i a t e s with l e f t i s t l e a d e r s h i p . Much of the a n a l y s i s of the impact of communism on the working c l a s s a l s o focused on the a c t i v i t i e s of unions, both C a t h o l i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l . C a m i l l e L a u r i n and P i e r r e T r o t t i e r commented, "Syndicats et locaux communistes...peuvent pr£coniser l e s memes mesures, mais pour l e s uns, i l s ' a g i r a de paix s o c i a l e a i n s t a u r e r , pour l e s a u t r e s l e s l u t t e s des c l a s s e s a a i g u i s e r " ("L'entente e s t - e l l e p o s s i b l e ? " Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 11 November 1947, p. 1). C a t h o l i c unions were a c c e p t a b l e because they preserved both economic peace and the t r a d i t i o n a l elements of French Canadian soc i e t y : "Ceux-ci s e n t a i e n t l a n e c e s s i t e de s ' u n i r dans un organisme qui t i n t compte de l e u r s a s p i r a t i o n s n a t i o n a l e s et r e l i g i e u s e s . Ces a s p i r a t i o n s se sont exprim6es dans l a p r a t i q u e par un d e s i r v e r i t a b l e de c o l l a b o r a t i o n entre l a patron et l e s o u v r i e r s et se sont t r a d u i t e s sur l e plan de l a r e v e n d i c a t i o n par une a t t i t u d e p l u s modere'e" ( M i c h e l i n e C h e v r i e r and Ivan L e g a u l t , "Union i n t e r n a t i o n a l e ou s y n d i c a t n a t i o n a l ? " Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 16 March 1948, p. 7). Non-Catholic unions, however, were regarded as p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e , seeking to d i s r u p t s o c i e t y , p r i m a r i l y through s t r i k e s , "Les o u v r i e r s deviennent a l o r s de simples instruments manies par d ' h a b i l e s t e c h n i c i e n s ' qui t a b l e n t sur l e ressentiment des masses pour renverser l ' o r d r e e t a b l i . A i n s i menee l a greve c o n s t i t u e un v e r i t a b l e mal s o c i a l e . E l l e alimente l a l u t t e des c l a s s e s , d i s l o q u e toute o r g a n i s a t i o n , seme l e chaos" (Paul-Emile B l a i n , "La greve dans l a s o c i e t e , " Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 21 October 1947, p. 4). For more i n f o r m a t i o n on the union movement i n Quebec, see Louis-Marie Tremblay, Le Syndicalisme Q'uebecois.  I d e o l o g i e s de l a C.S.N, et de l a F.T.Q., 1940-1970 (Montreal: l e s Presses de l ' U n i v e r s i t e de Montreal, 1972); Jean Real C a r d i n , "Syndicalisme C h r e t i e n et D r o i t quebecois du t r a v a i l 1947-1957," R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s 13 (January 1958): 28-40; and Fernand Harvey, Aspects H i s t o r i q u e s du mouvement o u v r i e r au  Quebec (Montreal: l e s E d i t i o n s du Boreal Express, 1973). 43 p o l i t i c s . " 1 In c o n t r a s t , i n Western s o c i e t i e s , c o n t a c t between the s t a t e and the i n d i v i d u a l was minimal, and every c i t i z e n c o u l d enjoy an a p o l i t i c a l e x i s t e n c e . A p o l i t i c i s m as an a n t i d o t e to communism and as a v i r t u e of Western c o u n t r i e s a l s o appeared as a frequent theme i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1948, e s p e c i a l l y i n the speeches of D u p l e s s i s . Again and again D u p l e s s i s presented the Union N a t i o n a l e as " l e rempart contre l e communisme...ses l o i s nous protegent du s o c i a l i s m e . * 5 At the same time, however, he presented the party as an a p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y , demonstrating that a p o l i t i c i s m had become a p o l i t i c a l l y u s e f u l concept i n both the campaign a g a i n s t communism and D u p l e s s i s ' own campaign f o r r e - e l e c t i o n : l'Union N a t i o n a l e n'est n i un groupement de c l a s s e s n i un p a r t i qui gouverne pour un c l a n , mais un mouvement qui represente toutes l e s c l a s s e s et tous l e s h o r i z o n s p o l i t i q u e s , q ui a mis l ' e s p r i t de p a r t i a l ' 6 c a r t pour l u i s u b s t i t u e r l ' e s p r i t p a t r i o t i q u e , un mouvement e n f i n q ui f a i t passer l ' i n t e r e t de l a pr o v i n c e avant l ' i n t e r e t mesquin du p a r t i . " 6 *" Jacques Parent, f o r example, commented that " l e communisme a p p a r a i t done comme un jeu f o r t complique (soumis a d'innombrables f l u c t u a t i o n s de r e g i e s ) dans l e q u e l l'engage d o i t rechercher avant tout a devenir h a b i l e joueur" ("Mains Sales et communisme," Le Quart i e r L a t i n , 16 November 1948, p. 3T~. Parent's sentiments were echoed by Adele Lauzon and Raymond-Marc Leger i n "Le Zero et l ' I n f i n i , " "Les animateurs de ce mouvement [communisme] formidable,...en donnant comme but ultime a l a r e v o l u t i o n l e regne p r o l e t a r i e n et l a f a t a l i t e 6conomique, ont froidement et volontairement ignore l a part de l ' i n d i v i d u . L'unique guide de ces hommes dans l e u r e n t r e p r i s e gigantesque f u t l e machiavelique p r i n c i p e qui d i t que ' l a f i n j u s t i f i e l e s moyens'....Une seule chose importe: l e P a r t i et son regne" (Le Quart i e r Latin,' 29 October 1948, p. 5). " 5 Le Devoir, 8 August 1949. " 6 Le Devoir, 24 June 1948. 44 While anti-communism and a p o l i t i c i s m were i s s u e s c e n t r a l to Dupessis' e l e c t i o n s t r a t e g y , h i s a b i l i t y to connect them with other popular concerns, namely the Church and n a t i o n a l i s m allowed him to g a l v a n i z e Cold War t e n s i o n s 0 7 i n t o support f o r the Union N a t i o n a l e , and h o s t i l i t y towards the f e d e r a l government and p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y , which he d e p i c t e d as sympathetic to communism. D u p l e s s i s argued that the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y had re p e a t e d l y demonstrated i t s communist a l l e g i a n c e s when i t formed the p r o v i n c i a l government from 1939-44," 8 and f a i l e d to adequately c o n t r o l communist groups through us,e of such t o o l s as the 'Padlock Law,' passed by the Union N a t i o n a l e in 1937 as "An Act Respecting Communism or Bolchevism";" 9 as the L i b e r a l s had o r i g i n a l l y voted i n 4 7 On August 20, 1947, the Montreal Star found that 79% of the c i t i z e n s of Quebec viewed communism as "a very s e r i o u s t h r e a t , " or a " f a i r l y s e r i o u s t h r e a t " to the Canadian form of government; these s t a t i s t i c s are c i t e d by Quinn, The Union  N a t i o n a l e , p. 125. " 8 The premier d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was Ad e l a r d Godbout. A f t e r i t s defeat in 1944, the L i b e r a l Party s e v e r e l y d e c l i n e d i n s t r e n g t h , u n t i l i t s r e t u r n to power in 1960. For an a n a l y s i s of the weakness of the L i b e r a l s i n Quebec during the f o r t i e s and f i f t i e s , see Rene Durocher, "Le long regne de D u p l e s s i s : un e s s a i d ' e x p l i c a t i o n , " Revue d ' h i s t o i r e de l'Amerique f r a n c a i s e 15 (December 1972): 392-96. 4 9 Quinn p o i n t s out that: "Under t h i s act D u p l e s s i s , as Attorney General, was given e x t e n s i v e powers to c l o s e , or padlock, any premises used for the purpose of 'propagating Communism or Bolshevism.' The law made no attempt to d e f i n e the terms 'Communism' or 'Bolshevism,' such a d e f i n i t i o n being l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the Attorney G e n e r a l . Although the Padlock Law met with a storm of p r o t e s t from the E n g l i s h speaking m i n o r i t y i n Quebec, who looked upon i t s loose terminology and the sweeping powers i t gave to the Attorney General as a t h r e a t to c i v i l l i b e r t i e s , i t r e c e i v e d the overwhelming support of the French Canadians. The act passed both houses of the l e g i s l a t u r e by a unanimous vote as i t was 45 favour of the Padlock Laws in the t h i r t i e s , they had l i t t l e room in which to manoeuvre or defend themselves a g a i n s t D u p l e s s i s ' charges a decade l a t e r . D u p l e s s i s was e q u a l l y a s t u t e i n i s o l a t i n g the v u l n e r a b l e and u n e a s i l y p r o t e c t e d chinks i n the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l government's p r o f e s s e d anti-communist stance; he d i d not h e s i t a t e to use the s e v e r a l scandals i n v o l v i n g communists in the government i n order to c l a i m that the L i b e r a l s f i l l e d t h e ' c i v i l s e r v i c e with communist a g i t a t o r s , s p i e s , and f e l l o w - t r a v e l l e r s . 5 0 F i n a l l y , D u p l e s s i s p o i n t e d to the support which the Labour P r o g r e s s i v e (Communist) Party gave the L i b e r a l s i n r i d i n g s where no LPP candidates were f i e l d e d , i n order to s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s c l a i m s of a symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p between Communists and the L i b e r a l supported by o p p o s i t i o n as w e l l as government members. I t d i d not, of course, by any means e l i m i n a t e communist a c t i v i t i e s i n Quebec, but i t d i d c o n s i d e r a b l y hamper the f u n c t i o n i n g of the p a r t y in that p r o v i n c e . Even more important, i t enabled the Union N a t i o n a l e to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f f i r m l y i n the eyes of the Quebec voter as a strong opponent of Communism" (The Union  N a t i o n a l e , p. 126). A decade' a f t e r the law was passed, D u p l e s s i s commented, "l'Union N a t i o n a l e a vue l e danger communiste des 1937 et a vote l a l o i du cadenas" (Le Devoir, 24 February 1947). 5 0 The main t e x t o u t l i n i n g the Union N a t i o n a l e ' s arguments regarding the connections between the Communist Party and the L i b e r a l s i s Le communisme et l e p a r t i l i b e r a l by Noel Dorion (Quebec: Union N a t i o n a l e , 1948). One of the main i n c i d e n t s D u p l e s s i s used a g a i n s t the f e d e r a l government was the r e v e l a t i o n of a spy r i n g e x i s t i n g in the c i v i l s e r v i c e which came to be known as the 'Gouzenko A f f a i r . ' For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s s c a n d a l , see the Report of the Royal Commission, appointed under  Order in C o u n c i l P.C. 411,. to I n v e s t i g a t e the F a c t s R e l a t i n g to  and the Circumstances Surrounding the Communication by P u b l i c  O f f i c i a l s and other Persons in P o s i t i o n s of T r u s t of Secret and  C o n f i d e n t i a l Information to the Agents of a F o r e i g n Power (Ottawa: The Kings P r i n t e r , 1946); and Igor Gouzenko, T h i s  Was My Choice, 2d. ed. (Montreal: Palm, 1968). 46 p a r t y . 5 1 Francophone l i b e r a l s were responsive to D u p l e s s i s ' approach to anti-communism, f o r l i k e the premier, these i n t e l l e c t u a l s maintained that only i f s t r i c t c o n t r o l s were pl a c e d on communism, c o u l d the democratic freedom they p e r c e i v e d e x i s t i n g i n Quebec be preserved. For example, when, in February 1948, D u p l e s s i s invoked the Padlock Law to c l o s e the communist newspaper Combat, l i b e r a l s r a l l i e d to defend h i s a c t i o n s . Le Devoir o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g a p o l o g i a f o r h i s a c t i o n s : Une l e g i s l a t i o n pour emp£cher l a d i f f u s i o n du communisme est done chose l e g i t i m e . Ceux qui revendique l a l i b e r t e de l a presse a ce s u j e t p o u r r a i e n t a u s s i bien invoquer l a l i b e r t e du commerce en faveur des t r a f i q u a n t s de n a r c o t i q u e s . 5 2 The support of the l i b e r a l press f o r the p a d l o c k i n g of Combat r e v e a l s that they saw communism as an i n t e r n a l , domestic t h r e a t which c o u l d be countered only by t a k i n g the s t r o n g e s t measures to p r o t e c t the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e in Quebec, and t h e i r p l a c e w i t h i n i t . 5 3 5 1 In 1944, the Labour P r o g r e s s i v e Party proposed an a l l i a n c e with the L i b e r a l Party; see Tim Buck What Kind of  Government? L i b e r a l - L a b o u r C o a l i t i o n vs. Tory Reaction (Toronto: 1944). The LPP pledged support f o r the L i b e r a l s again i n 1948; see the House of Commons Debates, 2 June 1948, p. 4656. 5 2 Paul S a u r i o l , "La L o i du Cadenas," Le Devoir, 1 March 1948, p. 1. 5 3 The ideas of immutable s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l order were a l s o i n t e r t w i n e d i n D u p l e s s i s ' anti-communism, as D e s r o s i e r s has p o i n t e d out i n " L ' I d e o l o g i c de Maurice D u p l e s s i s " : "L'anticommunisme de D u p l e s s i s d6coule de ses conceptions de l ' o r d r e et de l ' a u t o r i t e . Dans un monde s t a t i q u e , l e s s t r u c t u r e s s o c i a l e s demeurent immuables. Chacun d o i t r e s p e c t e r l a p l a c e que l a Providence l u i a donne. Le bonheur v i e n t du respect de l ' o r d r e , et l a prospe"rite, de l ' i m m o b i l i t e s o c i a l e . L ' e v o c a t i o n de l a menace communiste s e r t a combattre toute idee 47 L i b e r a l i s m ' s support f o r both the a b s t r a c t concepts and s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s of the Union N a t i o n a l e , marks them as p o l i t i c a l c o n s e r v a t i v e s , yet at the c u l t u r a l l e v e l they g e n e r a l l y a l l i e d themselves with ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' c u l t u r e ; i t was l a r g e l y the d i s p a r i t y between francophone l i b e r a l s ' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e i r c u l t u r a l p r e j u d i c e s which d i s t a n c e d them from the p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo and which gave a c e r t a i n amount of credence to t h e i r a s s e r t i o n s of i n t e l l e c t u a l independence. In l i b e r a l analyses of a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , and music, such words as 'dynamism,' 'progress,' and 'modernity' appear with i n s i s t e n t frequency, although t h e i r antonyms punctuate p o l i t i c a l commentaries. If i n p o l i t i c s l i b e r a l s committed themselves to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s t a t u s quo, i n c u l t u r e they swore themselves to f o s t e r i n g a r a d i c a l l y new one: i l est p o s s i b l e de nous re p r 6 s e n t e r l a c u l t u r e comme l a p r o g r e s s i o n v i v a n t e de l a v i e de l ' e s p r i t dans notre m i l i e u c a n a d i e n - f r a n c a i s . I l y a dans l a v i e i n t e l l e c t u e l l e d'un peuple, de toute s o c i 6 t e donnee, et i l d o i t y a v o i r un dynamisme qui o b l i g e chacun a refl£chir sur ce que 1'on a appele i r r ^ v e r s i b i l i t e de l ' h i s t o i r e et a trouver l e s v o i e s n o u v e l l e s qui permettent a un peuple de p r o g r e s s e r et de s'adapter sans cesse, de se renouveler c o n t i n u e l l e m e n t , tout en demeurant f i d e l e a son genie et a son h i s t o i r e . 5 " de changement et a tuer dans l'oeuf toute r e v e n d i c a t i o n . Les c l a s s e s ne s'opposent pas dans l a s o c i e t e et l a t h e o r i e de l a l u t t e des c l a s s e s s'avere a i n s i c o n t r e nature. L ' E t a t ne se v o i t c o n f i e r qu'un r o l e t r e s l i m i t e et sans importance: i l est a t r o p h i e dans sa nature meme" (p. 53). 5 " Jacques P e r r e a u l t , " R e f l e x i o n s sur l e s o u v r i e r s c a n a d i e n s - f r a n c a i s et l a c u l t u r e , " , Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 16 March 1948, p. 5. 48 Despite t h i s f e r v e n t d e c l a r a t i o n of support f o r ' l a p r o g r e s s i o n v i v a n t e 1 i n c u l t u r e , progress n e v e r t h e l e s s was not c o n s t i t u t e d as a r e p u d i a t i o n of the past, nor of t r a d i t i o n , but r a t h e r was seen as a renewal of i t ; l u r k i n g behind the c a l l f o r modernity was a demand that modern c u l t u r e r e f l e c t immanent, u n a l t e r a b l e q u a l i t i e s of the French-Canadian s p i r i t : notre d e s t i n e d d ' e t r e s s p i r i t u e l s et r a i s o n n a b l e s , conditionn§e par notre c i v i l i s a t i o n c a t h o l i q u e et f r a n c a i s e , notre m i l i e u h i s t o r i q u e , s o c i a l et iconomique. 5 5 While modern c u l t u r e remained f i r m l y anchored in the 'g§nie e t . . . h i s t o i r e ' of Quebec, l i b e r a l s saw c o n t a c t with ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l ' c u l t u r e as a means of c a t a p u l t i n g the p r o v i n c e towards modernity. In an i n t e r v i e w i n Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , f o r example, Guy S y l v e s t r e commented: I l y eut chez nous une s o r t e d ' i n f l a t i o n de l a conscience c u l t u r e l l e . Par a i l l e u r s , l e s 'retour d'Europe' e n r i c h i s de connaissances et d'experiences l e s p l u s d i v e r s e s c o n t r i b u a i e n t largement a ce r e v e i l . 5 6 I t was on the issue of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Quebec and f o r -eign c u l t u r e - - a n i s s u e a l s o c r u c i a l to the Montreal avant-garde - - t h a t l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s and the p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo d i f -f e r e d most. In h i s i n s i s t e n c e on being "maitre chez n o u s , " 5 7 5 5 I b i d . 5 6 Jean-Marc L l g e r , "Guy S y l v e s t r e : l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e , " Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 19 December 1947, p. 2. 5 7 T h i s phrase has been used by s u c c e s s i v e n a t i o n a l i s t movements; D u p l e s s i s g e n e r a l l y t i e d i t to the s u r v i v a l of C a t h o l i c i s m and of the French language, as i n the f o l l o w i n g D u p l e s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l , modern c u l t u r e as a t h r e a t to the n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y of Quebec and suggested that adoption of the c u l t u r a l norms of Europe or the U n i t e d S t a t e s i m p e r i l l e d the s u r v i v a l of Quebec's c u l t u r a l . i d e n t i t y . 5 8 However, while condemning the i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t s between Quebec and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and d e c r y i n g the degree of p o l i t i c a l and economic rapprochement between Canada and other western n a t i o n s , D u p l e s s i s a l s o encouraged enormous f o r e i g n investment in Quebec; i t was, in f a c t , d u r i n g D u p l e s s i s ' tenure that the g r e a t e s t i n f l u x of f o r e i g n investment i n t o Quebec o c c u r r e d . 5 9 comment, "Pour que nos enfants p a r l e n t f r a n c a i s et s o i e n t c a t h o l i q u e s , i l faut e t r e maitre chez nous" (quoted in Le  Devoir, 19 August 1946). On the h i s t o r y of Quebec n a t i o n a l i s m see V i n c e n t h i e r , Une  i d e o l o g i e quebecoise; Michael K. O l i v e r , "The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Ideas of French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t s , 1920-1945," (Ph.D. d i s s . , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1956); Robert R u m i l l y , H i s t o i r e  de l a Province de Quebec, 33 v o l s . (Montreal: F i d e s , 1940-62); Ge r a l d F o r t i n , "An A n a l y s i s of the Ideology of a French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t Magazine: 1917-1954," (Ph.D. d i s s . , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1956); Jacques Grand'maison, Nationalisme et  r e l i g i o n , N ationalisme et r e v o l u t i o n c u l t u r e l l e , R e l i g i o n et  i d e o l o g i e s p o l i t i q u e s , 3 v o l s . (Montreal: Beauchemin, 1970); Jean-Charles Falardeau, "Les Canadiens f r a n c a i s et l e u r i d e o l o g i e , " i n La d u a l i t y canadienne (Quebec: l e s Presses de l ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1960) . 5 8 As Gagnon has p o i n t e d out in t h e . I n t r o d u c t i o n to Borduas: Refus G l o b a l et P r o j e c t i o n s L i b e r a n t e s , D u p l e s s i s c e l e b r a t e d the country as a p l a c e of c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s p u r i t y , uncontaminated by the modernism and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m which had made the c i t y a p l a c e of " p e r d i t i o n morale, mais su r t o u t un l i e u de p e r d i t i o n c u l t u r e l l e " (p. 15). A good example of the r e c e p t i o n modern and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e were given in Quebec by c o n s e r v a t i v e s i s Clarence Gagnon, "L'Immense blague d'art moderniste," L'Amerique F r a n c h i s e , Part I, No. 1 (1948): 60-65; Part I I , No. 2 (1948): 44-48; Part I I I , No. 4 (1948-49): 67-71; C o n c l u s i o n , No. 7 (1949): 34-37. 5 9 While pursuing a p o l i c y of encouraging f o r e i g n investment, D u p l e s s i s c a r e f u l l y p o i n t e d out that economic development occurred p r i m a r i l y through the workings of f r e e 50 Moreover, those s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y which b e n e f i t e d from the presence of f o r e i g n c a p i t a l w i t h i n Q u e b e c — p r i m a r i l y the upper middle c l a s s which s u p p l i e d the p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r f o r e i g n businesses i n Q u e b e c — c o n s t i t u t e d the c l a s s to which l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s belonged and addressed t h e i r views. On the i s s u e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e r e f o r e , a f a i r l y complex s i t u a t i o n emerges: D u p l e s s i s p u b l i c l y deprecated f o r e i g n involvement i n Quebec, while a c t u a l l y s u p p o r t i n g i t ; l i b e r a l s d i f f e r e d p u b l i c l y with him on t h i s matter, yet i n r e a l i t y were the b e n e f i c i a r i e s of i t ; the is s u e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m was at once a source of f r i c t i o n and a p o i n t of convergence f o r l i b e r a l s and D u p l e s s i s , a l l o w i n g them to simultaneously d i s a g r e e with and to support him. L i b e r a l support of both 'modern' c u l t u r e and c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r attempt to ' n a t u r a l i s e ' 6 0 t h e i r p o s i t i o n in Quebec s o c i e t y . Francophones e n t e r p r i s e and not through the machinations of the s t a t e ; in h i s 1948 Throne Speech, f o r example, D u p l e s s i s d e c l a r e d , "Nous sommes d'opinion que l e paternalisme d'Etat est l'ennemi v e r i t a b l e du progres. Nous croyons que l a Province de Quebec sera developpee p l u s r a t i o n e l l e m e n t et plus rapidement par 1 ' i n i t i a t i v e p r i v e e bien compromise c ' e s t - a - d i r e saine et j u s t e " (quoted by Marcel F o u r n i e r in "Borduas et sa s o c i e t e , " La Barre  du Jour, No. 17 [January-August 1969]: 118). On the economic development of Quebec and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the U.S.A., see: A l b e r t Faucher and Maurice Lamontagne, "The H i s t o r y of I n d u s t r i a l Development," in Jean-Charles Falardeau, ed. Essays on Contemporary Quebec (Quebec: l e s Presses de l ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1953). 6 0 N a t u r a l i s a t i o n r e f e r s to the concept of ideo l o g y : " I d e o l o g i e s are those systems of b e l i e f s , images, values and techniques of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by which p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s e s , in c o n f l i c t with each other, attempt to ' n a t u r a l i s e ' t h e i r own s p e c i a l p l a c e i n h i s t o r y . Every ideology t r i e s to give a q u a l i t y of i n e v i t a b i l i t y to what i s i n f a c t a q u i t e s p e c i f i c and 51 were i n c r e a s i n g l y preponderant i n the p r o f e s s i o n s , formerly the preserve of anglophones, while i n e d u c a t i o n , they a l s o began to assume a dominant r o l e , and one which in the past had belonged to p r i e s t s a l o n e . 6 1 As members of a s o c i a l l y ascending group, they needed to demonstrate that t h e i r new p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l scheme was an eminently n a t u r a l one, the f u l f i l l m e n t of some p r e - e x i s t i n g plan only now coming to f r u i t i o n . By i n s i s t i n g on the n e c e s s i t y of new d i r e c t i o n s i n c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s - - t h e domain almost e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e i r sway in the l a t e f o r t i e s — t h e y succeeded in r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e i r s o c i a l r o l e . Moreover, by p r e s e n t i n g themselves as committed to a c u l t u r e which was dynamic, p r o g r e s s i v e , and e v o l v i n g a c c o r d i n g to an immutable but i n v i s i b l e p a t t e r n , l i b e r a l s s o l i d i f i e d t h e i r c l a i m s not j u s t to the present, but to the f u t u r e as w e l l ; through t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e to the p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo, however, l i b e r a l s demonstrated t h e i r dependence on i t f o r t h e i r economic and p o l i t i c a l s u r v i v a l . While francophone l i b e r a l s enjoyed hegemony in i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s and harmonized t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s with those of d i s p u t a b l e r e l a t i o n to the means of product i o n - - i t p i c t u r e s the present as ' n a t u r a l , ' 'coherent,' ' e t e r n a l ' " ( T . J . C l a r k , " P r e l i m i n a r y Arguments," p. 3). 6 1 On education i n Quebec, see Charles Billodeau, "Education in Quebec," U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y 27 ( A p r i l 1958): 398-412; L o u i s - P h i l i p p e Audet, H i s t o i r e de 1'enseignement au  Quebec, 1840-1971, 2 v o l s . (Montreal and Toronto^ Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1971); Marcel Rioux, ed., L ' E q l i s e et l e  Quebec (Montreal: Les E d i t i o n s du Jour, 1961). 52 the Union N a t i o n a l e , t h e i r c l a i m s were being c o n t e s t e d by a small group of 'new l i b e r a l s ' 6 2 who were a n t i - c l e r i c a l , a n t i - n a t i o n a l i s t , and p a r t i s a n to the p o l i c i e s of the L i b e r a l P a r t y . 6 3 The o p i n i o n s of t h i s small group were p r i m a r i l y expressed i n two newspapers, Le Canada and Le C l a i r o n ( S a i n t e - H y a c i n t h e ) , papers which c o n s i s t e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d the Union N a t i o n a l e , while supporting the L i b e r a l p a r t y both p r o v i n c i a l l y and f e d e r a l l y . 6 " F e d e r a l i s m , and the c r e a t i o n of a f u l l y b i c u l t u r a l and b i l i n g u a l s t a t e , formed a c r u c i a l aspect of t h e i r b e l i e f s : l a r g e l y because of t h e i r s u b s c r i p t i o n to b i c u l t u r a l i s m , f e d e r a l i s m , and the L i b e r a l P a r t y , these l i b e r a l s were s t r o n g l y informed by the l i b e r a l i s m of E n g l i s h Canada in 6 2 The term 'new l i b e r a l s ' has been adopted to d i s t i n g u i s h a group of i n t e l l e c t u a l s which was c r i t i c a l of the c o n s e r v a t i v e l i b e r a l s who dominated Quebec's i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s and which was s l i g h t l y more l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l l y than the bulwarks of the L i b e r a l p a r t y amongst whom the 'new l i b e r a l s ' found themselves: "But though many of the young L i b e r a l s were i n c l i n e d to be sympathetic to the CCF, the m a j o r i t y were as c o n s e r v a t i v e as the C o n s e r v a t i v e s themselves, and as f u l l y committed to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y " (Mason Wade, The French  Canadians, 1760-1916 rev. ed. [Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, 1968], p. 1014) . 6 3 In Quebec in the D u p l e s s i s Era, 1935-1959; D i c t a t o r s h i p  or Democracy?" (Toronto: Copp C l a r k , 1970 ), Cameron Nish comments: "The use and/or abuse of Quebec s o c i e t y and i t s ideology, and of power, g e n e r a l l y speaking, by D u p l e s s i s , h i s p a r t y , and i t s governments l e d to what has been c a l l e d 'a r e v o l t of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' in the e a r l y 1950s. O p p o s i t i o n to the Union N a t i o n a l e was, of course, part and p a r c e l of the L i b e r a l P arty's p o l i c y " (p. 125). 6 " The e d i t o r of Le C l a i r o n (Saint-Hyacinthe) was T.D. Bouchard, a L i b e r a l Senator; see T.D. Bouchard, M6moires, 3 v o l s . (Montreal: Beauchemin, 1960). For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the p o l i t i c s of Le Canada, see Wade, The French Canadians, p. 1 006. 5 3 the post-war p e r i o d ; through them, the ideology of anglophone l i b e r a l i s m f i l t e r e d through to the non-English speaking c i t i z e n s of Quebec. 6 5 C e r t a i n p o i n t s of congruence e x i s t between mainstream francophone l i b e r a l i s m and i t s E n g l i s h Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t i n 1948: both were h o s t i l e to communism, both presented themselves as a p o l i t i c a l , and both regarded freedom as the c h i e f i s s u e f a c i n g Canadians. N e v e r t h e l e s s , francophone and anglophone l i b e r a l s d i v e r g e d g r e a t l y i n t h e i r approach to these i s s u e s , i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n Canadian s o c i e t y , and i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a l l e g i a n c e s : i t was these f a c t o r s which e f f e c t e d a schism w i t h i n l i b e r a l i s m , and which a l s o preoccupied and d i v i d e d the Montreal avant-garde. L i b e r a l o p i n i o n i n E n g l i s h Canada was v o i c e d in such l i t e r a r y - p o l i t i c o magazines as the Canadian Forum, 6 6 as w e l l as in s c h o l a r l y p e r i o d i c a l s l i k e P u b l i c A f f a i r s , The Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , and 6 5 In the case of Le C l a i r o n ( S a i n t - H y a c i n t h e ) , the exchange occu r r e d both ways, as i t s e d i t o r i a l content was always p r i n t e d i n both E n g l i s h and French, whereas the bulk of i t s news was p r i n t e d in French alone. 6 6 In the 1930s, the Canadian Forum was s u p p o r t i v e of the C.C.F., and tended to adopt l e f t i s t p o s i t i o n s on most i s s u e s , but d u r i n g the l a t e t h i r t i e s i t began to express much more c o n s e r v a t i v e o p i n i o n s . A s i m i l a r s h i f t o ccurred i n the Canadian  Forum's American c o u n t e r p a r t , P a r t i s a n Review. While no thorough a n a l y s i s of Canadian p e r i o d i c a l s and t h e i r p o l i t i c s has been conducted to date, a work d e a l i n g with American p u b l i c a t i o n s a f f o r d s many p a r a l l e l s with the p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y of t h i s country; see James Burkhart G i l b e r t , W r i t e r s and P a r t i s a n s : A H i s t o r y of L i t e r a r y R a d i c a l i s m i n  America (New York, London, and Sydney: John Wiley, 1968). 54 v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t y reviews; as i n Quebec, i t was the authors of the a r t i c l e s i n , as w e l l as the s u b s c r i b e r s to these m a g a z i n e s — p r i m a r i l y academics, c i v i l s e r v a n t s , and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s — w h o c o n s t i t u t e d the main core of anglophone l i b e r a l i s m , and who formed the p u b l i c of contemporary a r t i s t s . An enormous number of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s who shaped l i b e r a l ideology worked in the c i v i l s e r v i c e , a f a c t which a f f e c t e d the nature of that i d e o l o g y . During and immediately f o l l o w i n g the War, the f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v i c e underwent i t s most r a p i d expansion; as i t i n c r e a s e d , the l e v e l of i t s employees education rose as w e l l : the most obvious common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the higher c i v i l s e r v a n t s . [ f o l l o w i n g the war] was that they were educated f a r above the average. At a minimum, the s e n i o r p u b l i c servants had earned an undergraduate degree, most f r e q u e n t l y at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, or, l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , one of- the western p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s . . . . T h e y [ f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r i a l departments and crown c o r p o r a t i o n s ] were o f f i c e r e d by men (very few women reached s e n i o r l e v e l s ) u s u a l l y r e c r u i t e d d i r e c t from the u n i v e r s i t y i n t o the c i v i l s e r v i c e . 6 7 6 7 Bothwell, Drummond and E n g l i s h , Canada Since 1945, pp. 134-35. In the decade between 1937 and 1947, the t o t a l number of employees of the f e d e r a l bureaucracy rose from 42,836 to 125,337, an i n c r e a s e of almost 300%, a c c o r d i n g to s t a t i s t i c s c o n t a i n e d i n the Canadian Yearbook, 1948-49 (Ottawa: The King's P r i n t e r , 1949), p. 1187. The enormous expansion in both the s i z e of the c i v i l s e r v i c e and the number of u n i v e r s i t y graduates s t a f f i n g i t r e f l e c t s the n a t i o n a l education boom which i n 1948 saw the peak u n i v e r s i t y enrollment in the h i s t o r y of the country in 1948: "In the academic year 1945-6, Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s had e n r o l l e d 38,776 f u l l - t i m e undergraduates. In 1946-7 the f i g u r e was 61,861, and at the peak in 1948, there were 79,346 f u l l time undergraduates. In three years, enrolments had almost doubled (Bothwell et a l . , p. 126). Thus, on the eve of the Cold War, u n i v e r s i t y graduates became the fodder f o r the c i v i l s e r v i c e m i l l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s became a n a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y . 6 8 Once i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e , u n i v e r s i t y graduates r e t a i n e d t h e i r l i n k s to academe, p u b l i s h i n g a r t i c l e s on g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l , economic, and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s , r a t h e r than on matters p e r t a i n i n g d i r e c t l y to t h e i r j o b s . 6 9 Thus, in 1948, i n t e l l e c t u a l s wrote a r t i c l e s f o r the p e i o d i c a l s which v o i c e d and shaped anglophone l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l o p i n i o n , but at the same time in t h e i r c a p a c i t y as c i v i l s e rvants, they were r e s p o n s i b l e fo r the f o r m u l a t i o n and implementation of the p o l i c i e s of the 6 8 The comments of C h r i s t o p h e r Lasch r e g a r d i n g American i n t e l l e c t u a l s a l s o apply to t h e i r Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s : "The h i s t o r y of the f i f t i e s had a l r e a d y shown that i n t e l l e c t u a l s were u n u s u a l l y s e n s i t i v e to t h e i r i n t e r e s t s as a group and that they d e f i n e d those i n t e r e s t s i n such a way as to make them f u l l y compatible with the i n t e r e s t s of the s t a t e . As a group, i n t e l l e c t u a l s had achieved a s e m i - o f f i c i a l s t a t u s which assig n e d them p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the machinery of e ducation and f o r c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s i n g e n e r a l . W ithin t h i s sphere--within the s c h o o l s , the u n i v e r s i t i e s , the t h e a t r e , the concert h a l l , and the p o l i t i c o - l i t e r a r y magazines--they had achieved both autonomy and a f f l u e n c e , as the s o c i a l value of t h e i r s e r v i c e s became apparent to the government, to c o r p o r a t i o n s , and to the f o u n d a t i o n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s had become i n d i s p e n s i b l e to s o c i e t y and to the s t a t e " ("The C u l t u r a l Cold War," r e p r i n t e d i n The Agony of the  American L e f t [New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1969], p. 94). 6 9 G. de T. Glazebrook, for example, was a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r to the Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l  Sc ience, while working as I n t e l l i g e n c e C h i e f , J o i n t I n t e l l i g e n c e Bureau, Department of N a t i o n a l Defence; George S. P a t t e r s o n , a w r i t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , worked as the Canadian Consul General i n Shanghai, and served on the U n i t e d Nations Commission in Korea in 1948; H.L. Keenleyside and John P. Humphrey, a l s o c o n t r i b u t o r s to I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , worked as Deputy M i n i s t e r of the Department of Mines and Resources and D i r e c t o r , Human Rights D i v i s i o n of the U n i t e d Nations, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 56 L i b e r a l government; not s u r p r i s i n g l y , l i b e r a l o p i n i o n was o f t e n a mimesis of L i b e r a l p o l i c i e s . 7 0 The p r o p i n q u i t y of l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the c i v i l s e r v i c e and the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l government c r e a t e d a s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between 'non-partisan' l i b e r a l i s m and the L i b e r a l p a r t y , while prompting l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s to d e f i n e t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , those of the government and those of the country i n compatible terms; t h i s group of p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s which "conceived of themselves to be part of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l governing c l a s s , " 7 1 was not without i t s n a t i o n a l dominion as w e l l . D e s p i t e t h e i r rapprochement with the L i b e r a l p a r t y , anglophone l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s t h e o r e t i c a l l y remained committed to a p o s i t i o n of p o l i t i c a l independence; l i k e t h e i r 7 0 Bothwell, Drummond, and E n g l i s h note in Canada Since 1 945; "The l i n k s between the c a b i n e t and the c i v i l s e r v i c e were strong and becoming s t r o n g e r . The L i b e r a l s had grown grey i n o f f i c e d u r i n g t h e i r t h i r t e e n years i n the East Block. Hcwe and Gardiner had been around longer than the 'permanent' heads of t h e i r departments. It was a small wonder that the c i v i l s e r v ants r e l i e d on t h e i r m i n i s t e r s f o r t r a d i t i o n and guidance, or, where they d i d not, f r e e l y exchanged advice on p o l i c y f o r advice on p o l i t i c a l impact. St. Laurent's m i n i s t e r s had t h e i r p o l i t i c s — a n d t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - - w e l l under c o n t r o l " (p. 1 32) . Many c i v i l s ervants e v e n t u a l l y became L i b e r a l Members of Parliament, and some became c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s and prime m i n i s t e r s ; the most notable examples are L o u i s St. Laurent, L e s t e r Pearson, Marcel Cadieux, M i t c h e l l Sharp, Jack P i c k e r s g i l l . For more in f o r m a t i o n on c i v i l service-government l i n k s , see A u s t i n F. Cross, " O l i g a r c h s at Ottawa," P u b l i c  A f f a i r s , Part I, 14 (Autumn 1951): 16-24; Part I I , 14 (Winter 1951): 21-29. 7 1 Jack G r a n a t s t e i n and Robert C u f f , T i e s that Bind.  Canadian-American R e l a t i o n s in War Time: From the Great War to  the Cold War (Toronto: Hakkert, 1975), p. 117. 57 peers i n Quebec, they regarded themselves as o b j e c t i v e , c r i t i c a l o bservers of the c a p r i c e s of p o l i t i c s . The e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y of the Canadian Forum, one of the main v o i c e s of l i b e r a l i s m , i s r e v e a l i n g on t h i s p o i n t : "The Canadian Forum i s an independent j o u r n a l of p r o g r e s s i v e democratic o p i n i o n . " 7 2 At the same time, however, i t p r i n t e d a r t i c l e s by L i b e r a l p a r t y members and was su p p o r t i v e of L i b e r a l party p r a c t i c e s , while c r i t i c i s m and ' o b j e c t i v i t y ' were reserved f o r the p o l i t i c a l opponents of the L i b e r a l p a r t y . 7 3 N e v e r t h e l e s s , l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e r s i s t e d in regarding themselves as a l i a b i l i t y to a p o l i t i c a l party....The i d e a l p a r t y member i s one who accepts the part y p l a t f o r m as without q u e s t i o n the f i n a l s o l u t i o n f o r a l l our i l l s . T h i s of course the l i b e r a l cannot do....He regards the party p l a t f o r m only as p r o v i s i o n a l . . . . H e i s apt to be rat h e r a nuisance i n the p a r t y caucuses, f o r h i s i n s i s t e n c e upon balanced statement w i l l i n e v i t a b l y c o l l i d e with the d e s i r e to c o i n e l e c t i o n - w i n n i n g slogans promising p i e i n the s k y . 7 " When con s i d e r e d a g a i n s t t h e i r very r e a l p o l i t i c a l p r e j u d i c e s , p r o t e s t a t i o n s of a p o l i t i c i s m f u n c t i o n e d as a means fo r 7 2 Canadian Forum 27 (January 1948): 221. 7 3 See, f o r example, Louis St. Laurent, "Canada and the U.N.," Canadian Forum 28 (June 1948): 49-50; Frank H. U n d e r h i l l , "The End of an E r a , " (2 P a r t s ) , Canadian Forum 28 (August 1948): 97-98 and 28 (September 194871 121-122, 126-127; H.S. Ferns, "Mackenzie King of Canada, (3 P a r t s ) Canadian Forum 28 (November 1948): 174-177; 28 (December 1948): 201; 28 (January 1949): 226-228; "Saddle Your Horses," Canadian  Forum 28 (May 1948): 27-28; L e s l i e Thompson, "The C.C.F. and Communism," Canadian Forum 28 (September 1948): 128-129; Andrew Hebb, "Storms Brewing," Canadian Forum 28 (November 1948): 169-170, 173-174. 7 " Desmond Pacey, "In Defence of L i b e r a l i s m , " Canadian  Forum 25 (January 1946): 239. 58 anglophone l i b e r a l s to present themselves as d i s i n t e r e s t e d a n a l y s t s of the p o l i t i c a l scene, whose very d i s i n t e r e s t c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom and o b j e c t i v i t y . The c o n j u n c t i o n of the a n t i t h e s e s of p a r t i s a n b i a s and non-partisan c l a i m s , however, a l s o suggests that i t came about through l i b e r a l s ' attempts to n a t u r a l i s e the precepts of both the p a r t y and the ideology supporting i t : by p r e s e n t i n g p a r t i s a n o p i n i o n as the c o n c l u s i o n s of n o n - p a r t i s a n a n a l y s i s , the d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two are b l u r r e d , and both are represented as o b j e c t i v e t r u t h . A p o l i t i c i s r n i n E n g l i s h Canada came to s i g n i f y l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' repugnance towards the extremes of p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s , namely, the r e a c t i o n a r y r i g h t and the communist l e f t . In the t h i r t i e s , anglophone l i b e r a l s had v i g o r o u s l y denounced the p o l i t i c a l r i g h t , lumping the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s together as r e a c t i o n a r y , and supporting the nascent Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n . 7 5 A f t e r the 7 5 The Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n was formed in Calgary i n 1932 to " [ e s t a b l i s h ] i n Canada...a Co-op e r a t i v e Commonwealth in which the p r i n c i p l e r e g u l a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and exchange w i l l be the s u p p l y i n g ofhuman needs and not the making of p r o f i t s . We aim to r e p l a c e the c a p i t a l i s t system" (The Regina M a n i f e s t o , adopted at the f i r s t N a t i o n a l Convention i n J u l y 1933; quoted by Leo Zakuta, A P r o t e s t  Movement Becalmed: A Study of Change in the CCF [Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1964 ], p. 160). The Canadian Forum welcomed the party and supported i t in numerous a r t i c l e s ; see, for example, F.H. U n d e r h i l l , "The Co-operative Commonwealth C o n f e d e r a t i o n , " Canadian Forum, 12 (September 1932): 445-446: " A l l Canadian c i t i z e n s who want a government that w i l l s e r i o u s l y face the momentous s o c i a l c r i s i s i n the midst of which we l i v e should use t h e i r e n e r g i e s on behalf of the Co-operative Commonwealth C o n f e d e r a t i o n " (p. 446). See a l s o : A r c h i b a l d Key, " C r e a t i n g a N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n , " Canadian Forum 12 (September 1932): 451-453; F.H. U n d e r h i l l , "The C.C.F. Takes Stock," 59 S t a l i n T r i a l s , the i n t r a n s i g e n c e of S o v i e t f o r e i g n p o l i c y towards i t s a l l i e s a f t e r 1944, and the r e v e l a t i o n of a S o v i e t spy r i n g w i t h i n the government in 1945, 7 6 l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s , a r t i s t s , and w r i t e r s repudiated t h e i r former a l l e g i a n c e to the l e f t . In a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the S o v i e t Union, Ross W. C o l l i n s a r t i c u l a t e s the sense of b e t r a y a l l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s f e l t towards communism: The c o s t l i e s t fraud of t h i s century i s the i l l u s i o n about t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m f o s t e r e d i n the western democracies by t o t a l i t a r i a n propaganda. I t i s the b a s i c t h e s i s of t h i s fraud that there i s some e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n kind between the t o t a l i t a r i a n regimes of the Soviet Union (communism) and that of the l a t e regimes in Germany (Nazism) or I t a l y ( F a s c i s m ) . . . . S u f f i c e i t to say that i n the o p i n i o n of t h i s reviewer—who spent the past few years in the S o v i e t Union and went there with a l l the good w i l l and most of the i l l u s i o n s t y p i c a l of l i b e r a l s who were students during the d e p r e s s i o n years h e r e — t h e u l t i m a t e l y i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t between t o t a l i t a r i a n techniques and ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' i d e a l s has by now spread i n t o every aspect and f i e l d of S o v i e t l i f e with the a p p r o p r i a t e r e s u l t s . 7 7 C o l l i n s ' remarks a l s o r e v e a l how former communists came to regard communism as fascism's twin: b l u r r i n g any d i s t i n c t i o n s between the nature of Nazism and Communism, l i b e r a l s regarded both as e q u a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e , e q u a l l y t o t a l i t a r i a n . The f u s i o n of the l e f t and r i g h t p e r s i s t e d in l i b e r a l polemics throughout Canadian Forum 16 (August 1936): 9; David Lewis, "The C.C.F. in Convention," Canadian Forum 16 (September 1936): 6; King Gordon, "The C.C.F. Convention," Canadian Forum 17 (September 1937): 187-188. 7 6 See above, note 50. 7 7 Ross W. C o l l i n s , " Soviet R u s s i a : A Review," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 2 (Winter 1946-47): 72-9. 60 the next decade, and suggests the p o s i t i o n on the p o l i t i c a l spectrum which l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y adopted: the ' v i t a l c e n t r e , ' 7 8 which they viewed as the panacea to the g l o b a l malaise engendered by the p a r a l l e l p e r i l s of communism and f a s c i s m : To approach the f u t u r e with c l o s e d minds, whether the contents of the minds be o l d - l i n e Toryism, orthodox s o c i a l i s m , or the Communist Mani f e s t o , i s the one t h i n g above a l l others which we must shun. C e r t a i n f i x e d p r i n c i p l e s we must h a v e — a respect f o r the human p e r s o n a l i t y , f o r example, and a f a i t h i n man's c a p a c i t y to s u r v i v e and develop by h i s own e f f o r t s and the grace of God—but apart from these no dogma can h e l p but only hinder u s . . . . L i b e r a l i s m i s the s o l e hope of the f u t u r e . 7 9 For anglophone l i b e r a l s , only Western ' d e m o c r a c i e s ' 8 0 p r o v i d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the e x i s t e n c e of r e a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l freedom, because u n l i k e the S o v i e t Union, they d i d not i n s i s t on single-minded commitment to a s p e c i f i c set of p o l i t i c a l dogmas. P o l i t i c a l p l u r a l i s m was revered as the great s a v i o u r of freedom in the West: Only the naive can b e l i e v e that the acceptance of a p a r t i c u l a r ideology or that the attainment of power by 7 8 The term comes from the t i t l e of a book which was enormously popular with l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n both Canada and the United- S t a t e , The V i t a l Centre by Arthur M. S c h l e s i n g e r (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1949). The review of the book which appeared in the Canadian Forum was extremely f a v o u r a b l e : "everyone should read P r o f e s s o r S c h l e s i n g e r ' s a t t a c k upon the t o r y i s m of the r i g h t and the f e l l o w - t r a v e l l e r ism of the l e f t . And h i s a n a l y s i s of the mind of a good communist i s incomparably b r i l l i a n t " (Frank H. U n d e r h i l l , "The P o l i t i c s of Freedom," Canadian Forum 29 (December 1949): 197-99). 7 9 Pacey, "In Defence of L i b e r a l i s m , " p. 239. 8 0 In the 1940s, ' c a p i t a l i s m ' and 'democracy' were used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 61 a s p e c i f i c group of p a r t i s a n s s o l v e s the great human problems of p o l i t i c s . . . . I n the one-party s t a t e , r e c e n t l y demonstrated on a s i g n i f i c a n t s c a l e by B o l s h e v i k Russia, F a s c i s t I t a l y , and Nazi Germany, permanence in power by the one p a r t y p e r m i t t e d i s set as the g o a l . . . . T o l e r a n c e i s o f t e n s a i d to c h a r a c t e r i z e the [ l i b e r a l democratic] system, for d i v i s i o n of o p i n i o n i s not only t o l e r a t e d but i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . 8 1 Just as l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s saw the one p a r t y , s i n g l e 'ideology' system as the great i n i q u i t y of communist regimes, so they b e l i e v e d that a campaign a g a i n s t communism c o u l d only be s u c c e s s f u l l y waged i f i t were fought on a ' s u p r a - i d e o l o g i c a l ' l e v e l , i n which Western natio n s put an 'end to i d e o l o g y ' ; 8 2 Using 'ideology' to s i g n i f y p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s , they b e l i e v e d that a l l western n a t i o n s and a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s should draw together and c l o s e ranks in t h e i r anti-communist ' c r u s a d e . ' 8 3 Although such a crusade was e s s e n t i a l l y a s t r u g g l e between two competing p o l i t i c a l systems, i t was presented as a moral s t r u g g l e ; the language of r e l i g i o n r e p l a c e d that of p o l i t i c s i n 8 1 H. McD. C l o k i e , "The Modern Party S t a t e , " Canadian  J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science 14 (May 1949): 142, 145. 8 2 T h i s phrase was c u r r e n t i n North American l i b e r a l c i r c l e s ; see D a n i e l B e l l , The End of Ideology; On the  Exhaustion of P o l i t i c a l Ideas in the F i f t i e s (New York: The Free Press, 1961); Chaim Waxman, ed., The End of Ideology Debate (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1968). 8 3 L o u i s St. Laurent f i r s t used the word crusade to d e s c r i b e the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t communism as w e l l as the L i b e r a l s ' c h i e f weapon in that s t r u g g l e , the North A t l a n t i c A l l i a n c e . A f t e r three months.of campaigning f o r acceptance of an a l l i a n c e system, St. Laurent made a speech in the House of Commons d e s c r i b i n g h i s work as "a crusade by Canada for the c o m p l e t i o n of a Western Union or North A t l a n t i c r e g i o n a l pact" (quoted i n E s c o t t Reid, Time of Fear and Hope: The Making of the North  A t l a n t i c T r e aty 1947-1949 [Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1977J , p. 77). 62 l i b e r a l polemics. M o r r i s Ginsberg, f o r example, presented the Cold War as a m o r a l i t y p l a y , with the West p l a y i n g the r o l e of V i r t u e and Communism that of V i c e : Democracy cannot be based on moral i n d i f f e r e n c e or moral s k e p t i c i s m . The ideas which gave i t impetus are, f i r s t , the idea of freedom with i t s c o r r e l a t i v e n o t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and, secondly, the idea of e q u a l i t y which i s the core of • j u s t i c e . . . . L i b e r a l thought has, I t h i n k , e n r i c h e d the content of the idea of freedom by showing i t s r e l a t i o n to the i n t r i n s i c v alues of i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y and by a deepened a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . . . . [ I n communist c o u n t r i e s ] the u l t i m a t e moral standard has no a p p l i c a t i o n . The o p e r a t i v e moral code i s that of war. Does t h i s i n v o l v e a c o n f l i c t of i d e o l o g i e s between the Communists and t h e i r opponents? C l e a r l y the answer i s 'yes'. Does the c o n f l i c t i n v o l v e a d i f f e r e n c e of moral outlook? The answer again must be 'ye s . ' 8 " For anglophone l i b e r a l s , i t was a given that communism v i o l a t e d t h e i r most b a s i c moral and e t h i c a l assumptions, and i t was on these grounds rather than more narrowly focused p o l i t i c a l ones that they a t t a c k e d i t . L i k e w i s e , p o l i t i c i a n s l e a d the o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t communism by c o n s i s t e n t l y c o n f l a t i n g p o l i t i c a l and moral language; St. Laurent, then M i n i s t e r f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , f o r example, d e c l a r e d , We are agreed, to begin with, that t o t a l i t a r i a n communist aggression c o n s t i t u t e s a d i r e c t and immediate t h r e a t to every democratic country, i n c l u d i n g Canada. I t endangers our freedom and our peace. I t puts i n jeopardy the values and v i r t u e s of the c i v i l i z a t i o n of western Christendom of which we are h e i r s and defenders....We are a l l r e s o l v e d to maintain and to strengthen i n Canada the values and v i r t u e s of our c i v i l i z a t i o n ; values and v i r t u e s which the t o t a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t i e s r e pudiate with contempt and 8 " M o r r i s Ginsberg, "The Moral B a s i s of Present-Day P o l i t i c a l C o n f l i c t s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 4 (Autumn 1949: 323, 321). 63 d e r i s i o n : respect f o r the worth, the d i g n i t y , the i n v i o l a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l man, woman, and c h i l d , the b e l i e f that the s t a t e e x i s t s f o r man and not man f o r the s t a t e ; the b e l i e f that a l l men are b r o t h e r s ; the b e l i e f i n p i t y and compassion....This f o r c e [ a g a i n s t communism] must not be only m i l i t a r y ; i t must be economic; i t must be moral. J u s t as i n the l a s t war, so a l s o today, we are engaged i n a ' s t r u g g l e f o r the c o n t r o l of men's minds and men's s o u l s . ' 8 5 The vocabulary of m o r a l i t y , however, was used by such p o l i t i c i a n s as St. Laurent to s e l l a s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l programme. In the speech quoted above, St . Laurent f i r s t a t t a c k e d communism on a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , yet a d r o i t l y went on to o u t l i n e what would become the West's main l i n e of defense a g a i n s t i t : the formation of a North A t l a n t i c a l l i a n c e a g a i n s t the USSR which subsequently came i n t o being as the North A t l a n t i c Treaty O r g a n i z a t i o n (NATO). 8 6 Despite the m o r a l i z i n g timbre of St. Laurent's speech, the formation of a North A t l a n t i c a l l i a n c e , l i k e Canadian support f o r the American M a r s h a l l P l a n , 8 7 was e s s e n t i a l l y a 8 5 Louis St. Laurent, address to I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e - F a i r , Toronto, 11 June 1948, quoted i n Robert Alexander Mackay, ed., Canadian Foreign P o l i c y 1945-1954; S e l e c t e d Speeches and  Documents (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1971), p. f84. 8 6 On the formation of NATO, see E s c o t t Reid, Time of Fear  and Hope: the Making of the North A t l a n t i c A l l i a n c e (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1977). 8 7 The economic and p o l i t i c a l reasons f o r Canadian support of the M a r s h a l l Plan are best d e s c r i b e d i n R.D. Cuff and J.L. G r a n a t s t e i n , American D o l l a r s — C a n a d i a n P r o s p e r i t y ;  Canadian-American Economic R e l a t i o n s 1945-1950 (Toronto and S a r a s o t a : Samuel-Stevens, 1978);-in summary, these authors contend that " l i k e the European n a t i o n s , Canada nervously eyed i t s fundamental d o l l a r dependency on the United S t a t e s , and by 1947 Canada, in company with other Western n a t i o n s , f e l t the b a l e f u l e f f e c t s of the d o l l a r shortage. Much of Canadian economic p o l i c y came to be dominated by t h i s c e n t r a l f a c t , and we have seen how o f f - s h o r e purchases under the M a r s h a l l Plan, raw 64 p o l i t i c a l i s s u e , and was, moreover, a response to a s e r i e s of p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s which beset the government i n the l a t e f o r t i e s . As has a l r e a d y been noted, s i n c e the r e v e l a t i o n of the presence of S o v i e t s p i e s w i t h i n the f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v i c e , the L i b e r a l government had been accused of being ' s o f t ' on communism by both the f e d e r a l o p p o s i t i o n and, of course, by the p r o v i n c i a l government in Quebec. 8 8 As Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have r e c e n t l y noted, as l a t e as 1947, when the government f i r s t began to c o n s i d e r the c r e a t i o n of a North A t l a n t i c a l l i a n c e , f o r e i g n a f f a i r s s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h i n the government regarded the t h r e a t of S o v i e t a g g r e s s i o n as v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . 8 9 An a l l i a n c e a g a i n s t an u n l i k e l y S o v i e t t h r e a t i s only comprehensible as an attempt by the government disprove the charges of ' f e l l o w - t r a v e l l e r ism' which were l e v e l l e d at i t by the f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s and D u p l e s s i s ; 9 0 by promoting m a t e r i a l s a l e s , U.S. m i l i t a r y procurement in Canada and even a p o s s i b l e c o n t i n e n t a l f r e e trade arrangement, found appeal in Ottawa in 1947 and a f t e r " (p. 179). 8 8 See above, pp. 44-45. 8 9 In 1947 St. Laurent b e l i e v e d that the U.S.S.R. c o u l d not p o s s i b l y a f f o r d another war, and s t a t e d in February of that year that h i s study of the s i t u a t i o n l e d him to "the d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n that Russia not only w i l l not r i s k war, but cannot (and knows she cannot) continue to support her present armed s e r v i c e s " (quoted by Cuff and G r a n a t s t e i n , American  D o l l a r s — C a n a d i a n P r o s p e r i t y , p. 195). Likewise, the Canadian r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to the U.S.S.R. from 1942 to 1946, Dana Wil g r e s s , a l s o contended that "Russia would a v o i d war at a l l c o s t s " (quoted in I b i d . , p. 195). 9 0 The C o n s e r v a t i v e s r e g u l a r l y i m p l i e d that communists were present i n the government; on 19 June 1948, f o r example, John Diefenbaker asked J.L. I l s l e y , M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , "I should l i k e to ask a q u e s t i o n . . . w i t h r e s p e c t to a press d i s p a t c h appearing yesterday to the e f f e c t that some i n v e s t i g a t i o n was 65 an a g g r e s s i v e f o r e i g n p o l i c y a g a i n s t the S o v i e t Union, the f e d e r a l government undermined the a c c u s a t i o n s of i t s pro-communist s y m p a t h i e s . 9 1 At the same time, the government was able to minimize the impact of negative c r i t i c i s m of the nascent a l l i a n c e by p r e s e n t i n g i t as a moral o b l i g a t i o n of a l l those who embraced "the values and v i r t u e s of the c i v i l i z a t i o n of western C h r i s t e n d o m " ; 9 2 c a s t i n these terms, f a i l u r e to support NATO c o u l d only be construed as a lack of commitment to 'western Christendom' and an a t t i t u d e of t o l e r a n c e towards ' t o t a l i t a r i a n communism.' Packaged i n these terms, NATO became being made in the c i v i l s e r v i c e with respect to communist propaganda" (House of Commons Debates, p. 5488). The Leader of the O p p o s i t i o n , John Bracken, was much more d i r e c t than Diefenbaker: "Communist agents, some of them under d i p l o m a t i c immunity, some of them Canadian c i t i z e n s , have succeeded i n c o r r u p t i n g o f f i c i a l s of the p u b l i c s e r v i c e of t h i s c ountry. We a l l know the s o r d i d t a l e of what took p l a c e i n t h i s country w i t h i n the l a s t two or three years, and I do not need to repeat i t here. But have we any reason to b e l i e v e that these e f f o r t s have been d i s c o n t i n u e d ? The answer i s that we o b v i o u s l y have not. The evidence of i n f i l t r a t i o n i s c l e a r e r today that [ s i c ] i t has.ever been before" (House of Commons Debates, 17 March 1948, p. 2305). 9 1 The Truman government adopted a s i m i l a r s t r a t e g y i n the United S t a t e s i n order to r e s o l v e i t s domestic p o l i t i c a l problems and to gain an advantageous p o s i t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and economic a f f a i r s . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see Richard M. F r e e l a n d , The Truman D o c t r i n e and the O r i g i n s of  McCarthyism (New York! A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1971); G a b r i e l and Joyce Kolko, The L i m i t s of Power (New York: Harper and Row, 1972); Athan Theoharis, The Seeds of Repression: Harry S.  Truman and the O r i g i n s of McCarthyism (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1971 ) . 9 2 St. Laurent, 11 June 1948 quoted by Mackay, Canadian  F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 1945-1955, p. 184. 66 an endeavour a t t r a c t i v e to a l l . 9 3 I t s a c t i v e promotion of NATO b o l s t e r e d the f e d e r a l government's anti-communist image, and m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t D u p l e s s i s ' a l l e g a t i o n s of communist a l l e g i a n c e s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l involvements had always been a troublesome i s s u e f o r the f e d e r a l government i n s o f a r as Quebec was concerned, f o r h i s t o r i c a l l y Quebec was an i s o l a t i o n i s t p r o v i n c e which had c o n s i s t e n t l y denounced Canadian m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n f o r e i g n wars; 9" NATO was t h e r e f o r e both a s o l u t i o n t o , and a f u r t h e r i r r i t a t i o n of the f e d e r a l government's acrimonious r e l a t i o n s h i p with Quebec. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , by e m p h a t i c a l l y i n s i s t i n g that only an o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e NATO c o u l d adequately p r o t e c t a s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y a g a i n s t the encroachments of a t h e i s t i c communism, and because the p r i n c i p a l a r c h i t e c t of NATO was St. Laurent, a French-Canadian, the f e d e r a l government escaped any s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c i s m of the plan w i t h i n Quebec. 9 5 9 3 The Canadian I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c Opinion reported i n i t s p o l l of November 24, 1948, that 73% of Canadians b e l i e v e d NATO would make war l e s s l i k e l y ; 14% thought i t would make war more l i k e l y , and 13% had no o p i n i o n ( r e p o r t e d by A l b e r t John Ossman in "The Development of Canadian F o r e i g n P o l i c y " [Ph.D. d i s s . , Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y , 1963], p. 189). 9 U On t h i s matter see: J.L. G r a n a t s t e i n , C o n s c r i p t i o n i n  the Second World War 1939-1945; A Study i n P o l i t i c a l Management (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1969); J.L. G r a n a t s t e i n and J.M. Hitsman, Broken Promises: A H i s t o r y of C o n s c r i p t i o n in Canada (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977); R. MacGregor Dawson, The C o n s c r i p t i o n C r i s i s of 1944 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1961). 9 5 D.C. Thomson and R.F. Swanson noted i n Canadian Foreign  P o l i c y : Options and P e r s p e c t i v e s (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1971): "Two a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s e x p l a i n Canada's subsequent strong stand a g a i n s t the t h r e a t — s u p p o s e d or r e a l - - o f S o v i e t expansion. 67 Press r e a c t i o n w i t h i n Quebec towards the planned a l l i a n c e was g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e : of 13 newspapers which expressed an op i n -ion on the s u b j e c t , only one, Le Devoir, was h o s t i l e to i t . 9 6 Le Devoir p o r t r a y e d NATO as yet another example of the f e d e r a l government's p r o p e n s i t y towards b e l l i c o s i t y and i m p e r i a l i s m abroad, and p r o t e s t e d that the a l l i a n c e would s i g n i f y a l o s s of Canadian n e u t r a l i t y in i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , a b e l i e f based on the o l d i s o l a t i o n i s t premise that any f o r e i g n involvements were in everybody's i n t e r e s t except Quebec's; i t commented La n e u t r a l i t e n'est pas un id£al i r r e a l i s a b l e s i toute notre p o l i t i q u e est d i r i g e e vers cet o b j e c t i f . Mais - e l l e l ' e s t a coup sur, s i nous continuons a p r e c o n i s e r F i r s t , a new generation of p o l i c y makers, l e d by St. Laurent and Pearson, were assuming power in Ottawa and they r e j e c t e d the p o l i c y of non-involvement....And second, the f a c t that the new danger to world peace came from 'Godless Communism' made i t e a s i e r to r a l l y support from the most n e u t r a l i s t element i n Canada, the predominantly C a t h o l i c French Canadians" (p. 62). 9 6 In "The Development of Canadian Fo r e i g n P o l i c y , " Ossman comments, "The r e a c t i o n of the French Canadian press to the idea of Canada's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s e c u r i t y pact ranged from whole-hearted endorsement to st r o n g d i s a p p r o v a l , a r e f l e c t i o n of the dilemma of a t r a d i t i o n a l l y i s o l a t i o n i s t , but s t r o n g l y C a t h o l i c - - a n d hence anti-communist people" (pp. 183-84). In a survey of French-Canadian newspapers, J . I . Gow found that the language of the Cold War f u l l y permeated the newspapers of Quebec: "Nous avons trouve qu'apres 1948 l e d6bat sur l a p o l i t i q u e etrang&re qui a eu l i e u au Qu4bec s'est f a i t en termes de l a guerre f r o i d e et avec des arguments qui se r e t r o u v a i e n t dans tous l e s pays de l ' o e u s t " ("Les Quebecois, l a guerre et l a paix, 1945-60," Canadian J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c a l Science 3 [March 1970]: 98). For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e a c t i o n of the Quebec press to NATO, see James Eayrs, In Defence of Canada, v o l . 4, Growing  Up A l l i e d (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1980). 68 meme en temps de paix une p o l i t i q u e d ' a g g r e s s i o n . 9 7 Although Le Devoir v i l i f i e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l involvement at the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l while c u l t i v a t i n g i t at a c u l t u r a l one, l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n E n g l i s h Canada were l a r g e l y s u p p o r t i v e of the a l l i a n c e , because they saw i t as a r e l a t i v e l y p a c i f i c way of c o n t a i n i n g communism, while simultaneously a f f o r d i n g Canada the o p p o r t u n i t y to assume a more a c t i v e r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , a move which they saw as l a u d a b l e . 9 8 Anglophone l i b e r a l s a l s o endorsed NATO, because l i k e - f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s , they saw i t as a t o o l f o r a c h i e v i n g c e r t a i n domestic, as w e l l as as i n t e r n a t i o n a l g o a l s ; ' n a t i o n a l u n i t y , ' which s i g n i f i e d a p a c i f i e d Quebec no longer bent on ' p r o v i n c i a l autonomy,' was paramount among the f e d e r a l government's domestic o b j e c t i v e s , and NATO had secured such support with the r e l i g i o u s press i n Quebec, i t s anti-communist a l l u r e overcoming most i s o l a t i o n i s t o b j e c t i o n s . As Ossman has noted: The emphasis on the t r e a t y as an instrument of C h r i s t i a n s t a t e s i n v o l v e d i n a s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t 9 7 Le Devoir, 6 November 1948, quoted by Ossman in "The Development of Canadian F o r e i g n P o l i c y , " p. 188. 9 8 D.C. Thomson and R.F. Swanson note i n Canadian F o r e i g n  Pol i c y , p. 27: "While the p a t e r n i t y of NATO must be a t t r i b u t e d to s e v e r a l s t a t e s , Canada's share i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged as s i g n i f i c a n t . Canadian statesmen were the f i r s t to r e f e r to i t p u b l i c l y , i n the autumn of 1947, as a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y , and they took part i n every stage of i t s development. L e s t e r Pearson was twice o f f e r e d the post of Secretary-General....The prospect of a North A t l a n t i c a l l i a n c e was of more i n t e r e s t to Canada than merely to stem communist expansion; i t h e l d the hope of forming an A t l a n t i c community....During the n e g o t i a t i o n s that l e d to the c r e a t i o n of NATO, Canada sought to enlarge the o b j e c t i v e s of the proposed a l l i a n c e so that i t would, in f a c t , become the foundation of a t r a n s - A t l a n t i c community." 69 communism was designed to appeal to Quebec....Most French-Canadians r e l u c t a n t l y accepted the need f o r Canada's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e g i o n a l s e c u r i t y a l l i a n c e as p a r t of the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t communism." Throughout t h e i r speeches on NATO, St. Laurent and Pearson s t r e s s e d the n e c e s s i t y of n a t i o n a l u n i t y i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t communism, of which NATO was but a p a r t . In h i s Remembrance Day address of 1948, f o r example, the new Prime M i n i s t e r , St. L a u r e n t , 1 0 0 s t a t e d : How can we add to the moral s t r e n g t h on our side? We can do i t , I suggest, i f the North A t l a n t i c A l l i a n c e i s the outward and v i s i b l e s i g n of a new inward and s p i r i t u a l u n i t y of purpose in the f r e e world. The a l l i a n c e must be a s i g n that the North A t l a n t i c n a t i o n s are bound together not merely by t h e i r common o p p o s i t i o n to t o t a l i t a r i a n Communism but a l s o by a common b e l i e f in the values and v i r t u e s of our Western c i v i l i z a t i o n , and by a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to work f o r the promotion of mutual welfa r e and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of p e a c e . 1 0 1 S t . Laurent's message struck a responsive chord among anglophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s , for they returned time and again to t h i s theme of u n i t y in t h e i r analyses of the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , and saw S t . Laurent's f o r e i g n a f f a i r s p r o p o sals as a means of f u s i n g the f r a c t i o u s country. The h i s t o r i a n , A.R.M. Lower, for i n s t a n c e , b e l i e v e d that n a t i o n a l u n i t y c o u l d only be achieved with St. Laurent at the helm to navigate the country through the 9 9 Ossman, "The Development of Canadian Fo r e i g n P o l i c y , " p. 195, 196. 1 0 0 Mackenzie King announced h i s r e s i g n a t i o n as leader of the L i b e r a l party on 20 January 1948, and asked for a l e a d e r s h i p convention to be convened that August; on 7 August St. Laurent became the new leader of the p a r t y . 1 0 1 L o u i s St. Laurent, 11 November 1948, quoted in Mackay,. Canadian Fo r e i g n P o l i c y , 1945-1954, p. 188. 70 Cold War: Today....[a] French-speaking m i n i s t e r p o i n t s out to us our p l a i n duty: he names the p o t e n t i a l enemy, Communist R u s s i a . His people never spare t h e i r condemnation of that country, they l o a t h e i t s atheism and i t s propaganda. May i t , then, be assumed that the gap between the French and E n g l i s h i s c l o s i n g , and that i f the worst came to the worst, we would f i n d o u r s e l v e s f i g h t i n g shoulder to shoulder, with no d i f f e r e n c e of w i l l ? . . . . C a n freedom be saved by war?....As Mr. St. Laurent s a i d , 'the f r e e governments are themselves at f a u l t i f they are h e s i t a n t to take the necessary s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l measures, or to show the energy, determination and s o l i d a r i t y r e q u i r e d to make democracy i n t o an e f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l g o s p e l S u p e r f i c i a l l y the country's i n t e r n a l harmony seems gre a t e r than at p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s of s t r e s s . 1 0 2 Although Lower regarded NATO as an issue over which Canada might become u n i t e d , he was not, at that p o i n t convinced that i t had completely e r a d i c a t e d a l l the p o i n t s of f r i c t i o n between French and E n g l i s h Canada. J . B a r t l e t Brebner, however, was convinced of the a l l i a n c e ' s a b i l i t y to bind the two together: To the student of Canadian h i s t o r y not the l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of t h i s new development [the North A t l a n t i c a l l i a n c e ] i s i t s a s s o c i a t i o n with Mr. St. Laurent. During the past three years t h i s leader from s o - c a l l e d ' i s o l a t i o n i s t ' French Canada has moved s t e a d i l y ahead to become the accepted formulator of a f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r a l l of Canada. Even when every p e r m i s s i b l e concession has been made to French Canada's s p e c i a l h o s t i l i t y to Russian communism, and when a l l due weight has been given to the d i f f e r e n c e s between French-Canadian o p i n i o n as expressed at Ottawa and as expressed i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e , i t i s impossible to escape the impression that Canada i s emerging from the War of 1939, not as e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d , mere n a t i o n - s t a t e of 1919, but q u i t e p o s s i b l y as a u n i f i e d n a t i o n . 1 0 3 1 0 2 A.R.M. Lower, "Canada in the New, N o n - B r i t i s h World," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 3 (Summer 1948): 213, 220, 221. 1 0 3 J . B a r t l e t Brebner, "A Changing'North A t l a n t i c T r i a n g l e , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 3 (Autumn 1948): 319. 71 Brebner's a n a l y s i s of the impact of the NATO n e g o t i a t i o n s on F r e n c h - E n g l i s h r e l a t i o n s were a l s o those of the f e d e r a l government, which was g r a t i f i e d by the support given the a l l i a n c e w i t h i n Q u e b e c . 1 0 0 Although NATO, l i k e the anti-communist crusade which motivated i t , i n c r e a s e d the schism between francophone and anglophone l i b e r a l i s m , i t succeeded i n m o b i l i z i n g support f o r the f e d e r a l government among other s e c t o r s of the Quebec p u b l i c , thus i n c r e a s i n g the s t a t u s of the f e d e r a l government w i t h i n Quebec, and momentarily subduing the n a t i o n a l i s t s ' i s o l a t i o n i s m ; these were both p o l i t i c a l gains f o r the r u l i n g p a r t y in Ottawa. Because the p o l i t i c a l gains f o r the L i b e r a l s from NATO were so s u b s t a n t i a l , the a p o l i t i c a l , m o r a l i s t i c tenor of the p r o p o s a l s f o r the a l l i a n c e cloaked, but d i d not e n t i r e l y conceal the p a r t i s a n nature of E n g l i s h Canada's prop o s a l f o r ' c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y ' a g a i n s t communism. While communism remained the prime t a r g e t of anglophone l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s and L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s i n 1948, 1 0 0 In h i s memoirs, L e s t e r Pearson commented: " A f t e r 1945 t h i s [Canadian] u n i t y was not threatened but strengthened by our e x t e r n a l a c t i v i t y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l commitments were a l s o made e a s i e r to accept because there was a very general and v a l i d fear of an a g g r e s s i v e S o v i e t Community i m p e r i a l i s m which threatened our b a s i c values and which, i t was thought, c o u l d be best countered and combatted by c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n . We were now prepared to play our part i n t h i s a c t i o n and were supported by p u b l i c o p i n i o n to do so" ( L e s t e r B. Pearson, Mike: The Memoirs of the Right Honnourable  L e s t e r B. Pearson, v o l . 2 1948-1957 ed. John A. Munro and Alex T~. I n g l i s [Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1973], p. 29). Pearson became S e c r e t a r y of State f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s on 10 September, 1948, succeeding St. Laurent, who was made Prime M i n i s t e r designate pending Mackenzie King's r e s i g n a t i o n . 72 conservatism was c h a l l e n g e d as w e l l : i n p o l i t i c s , as i n c u l t u r e , i t was seen as the great scourge of freedom. In t h e i r attempt to occupy the ' v i t a l c e n t r e ' l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s a t t a c k e d "the t o r y i s m of the r i g h t and the f e l l o w - t r a v e l l e r ism of the l e f t ; " 1 0 5 l i k e w i s e , L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s saw the b a t t l e f o r freedom as o c c u r r i n g at both ends of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum. L e s t e r Pearson, for i n s t a n c e , commented that the campaign f o r f reedom i s wherever f r e e men are s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t t o t a l i t a r i a n tyranny of r i g h t or l e f t . I t may run through the middle of our own c i t i e s , or i t may be on the c r e s t of the remotest m o u n t a i n . 1 0 6 Within Canada, the war on the r i g h t was to be waged a g a i n s t D u p l e s s i s , regarded by anglophone l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s as the i n c a r n a t i o n of c o r r u p t conservatism as w e l l as the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e behind the d i v i s i v e extremism which f o s t e r e d rather than put an 'end to i d e o l o g y . ' Moreover, l i b e r a l s e x c o r i a t e d D u p l e s s i s because h i s corrupt--and i n d i s c r e t e - - e l e c t o r a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s 1 0 7 offended the p r i n c i p l e s 1 0 5 F.H. U n d e r h i l l , "The P o l i t i c s of Freedom," p. 199. 1 0 6 L e s t e r B. Pearson, Words and Occasions (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970), p. TT. 1 0 7 E n g l i s h Canadian l i b e r a l s were d i s g u s t e d with D u p l e s s i s ' c o r r u p t i o n and yet at the same time remained f a s c i n a t e d with h i s p o l i t i c a l t e n a c i t y ; the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c example of t h i s kind of t h i n k i n g i s S t u a r t Keate's "Maurice the M a g n i f i c e n t , " Maclean's Magazine, 1 September 1948, pp. 71-5. See a l s o H a r o l d H. M a r t i n , "Quebec's L i t t l e Strong Man," Saturday Evening Post, 15 January 1949, pp. 17-19, 102-104; L . J . Rogers, " D u p l e s s i s and Labour," Canadian Forum 27 (October 1947): 151-52; B l a i r F r a s e r , "Shakedown," Maclean's Magazine, 15 November 1945, pp. 5-6, 59-61; and Herbert F. Quinn, "The Role of the Union N a t i o n a l e Party i n Quebec P o l i t i c s , 1935-48," Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science 15 (November 73 of j u s t i c e and f a i r p l ay they equated with c a p i t a l i s m in t h e i r anti-communist arguments. C r i t i s c of D u p l e s s i s claimed h i s government was a parody of democracy because he won e l e c t i o n s on the b a s i s of patronage and c o e r c i o n ; i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the 1948 e l e c t i o n , f o r example, Herbert Quinn emphasizes the unscrupulous means D u p l e s s i s used to secure v i c t o r y : The way i n which t h i s [ p o l i t i c a l ] machine f u n c t i o n e d may be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . F i r s t of a l l , the p a r t y sent w e l l - e x p e r i e n c e d o r g a n i z e r s i n t o every c o n s t i t u e n c y i n the pr o v i n c e f o r the purpose of e n l i s t i n g the support of key i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community such as j o u r n a l i s t s , lawyers, d o c t o r s , d e n t i s t s , merchants, trade union l e a d e r s , mayors, and c o u n c i l l o r s . . . . A l t h o u g h the methods used to induce these key i n d i v i d u a l s to back the Union N a t i o n a l e might vary, the most important f a c t o r was the t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s that a part y i n power has to o f f e r , that i s s p o i l s and patronage.... In some cases the part y l e a d e r s i n a d o u b t f u l r i d i n g informed the v o t e r s q u i t e b l u n t l y that i f they wanted a new road, p u b l i c b u i l d i n g , or other work-making p r o j e c t they would be wel l advised to vote the r i g h t way. 1 0 8 In h i s examination of the Union N a t i o n a l e ' s patronage system, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Quinn l a y s the blame f o r the success of that system on those who b e n e f i t e d most from the Union N a t i o n a l e , namely, ' j o u r n a l i s t s , lawyers, d o c t o r s , ' e t c . - - t h e backbone of francophone l i b e r a l i s m . While anglophone l i b e r a l s p e r c e i v e d themselves as the s a v i o u r s of democracy, they regarded francophone l i b e r a l s as a l l i e s of those f o r c e s a g a i n s t i t in Canada. 1949): 523-32. 1 0 8 Quinn, "The Role of the Union N a t i o n a l e Party i n Quebec P o l i t i c s , 1935-48," p. 528-29. 74 L i b e r a l s i n E n g l i s h Canada calumnied the n a t i o n a l i s t c r e e d of the Union N a t i o n a l e . They argued that only a strong c e n t r a l government, unencumbered with the i r r i t a t i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l autonomy and a l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i v i d e d country, c o u l d deal with the problems of Canada i n the Cold War world. For example, F.R. Sc o t t , a poet and p r o f e s s o r of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law at M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y contended, No matter what t h e o r i e s about the Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n are propounded, no matter how much p o l i t i c i a n s may c r y f o r ' p r o v i n c i a l autonomy' or the sacred r i g h t s of the p r o v i n c e s , no matter how much ' c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ' may be h e l d up as an unmitigated e v i l , the f a c t remains that the peace-time d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e powers to which we are r e t u r n i n g has a l r e a d y proved incapable of producing that ' e f f i c i e n c y and harmony' aimed at i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n of 1867 , because the magnitude of many s o c i a l problems exceeds the boundaries of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n which they l e g a l l y l i e . 1 0 9 While l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s such as Scott argued i n favour of an in c r e a s e i n " f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l " 1 1 0 because they b e l i e v e d i t would h e l p r e s o l v e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s , an a l t r u i s t i c devotion to Canada was not the only component of t h e i r d e s i r e f o r a s t r o n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d country. It was l a r g e l y due to the increased c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the f e d e r a l government durin g the Second World War that the c i v i l s e r v i c e grew at such an enormous r a t e ; because i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o n s t i t u t e d a major p a r t of the c i v i l s e r v i c e , and because only a c o n t i n u a t i o n of 1 0 9 F.R. S c o t t , "The S p e c i a l Nature of Canadian F e d e r a l i s m , " Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science 13 (February 1947): 13-14. 1 1 0 I b i d . , p. 13. 75 c e n t r a l i z a t i o n would guarantee them continued employment—and more im p o r t a n t l y , c o n t i n u e d p o w e r — t h e i r c a l l f o r even g r e a t e r c e n t r a l i z a t i o n (and a m i n i m i z a t i o n of the power of the p r o v i n c i a l governments) was a l s o motivated by t h e i r own p o s i t i o n of importance w i t h i n the s o c i a l s t r a t a . During the e l e c t i o n campaign of 1948, D u p l e s s i s commented, "nous sommes a l a c r o i s e e des c h e m i n s . " 1 1 1 Although h i s comments p r e f a c e d an e x h o r t a t i o n to vote f o r the Union N a t i o n a l e , they a p t l y summarize the sentiments of l i b e r a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s throughout Canada on the p o l a r i z a t i o n s o c c u r i n g at home and abroad, and on the n e c e s s i t y to become a l i g n e d with one si d e or another. For l i b e r a l s , the fundamental c h o i c e was between communism and c a p i t a l i s m , tyranny and democracy, e v i l and good. The consequences and i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r unanimous ch o i c e of c a p i t a l i s m , democracy, and good, however, f o r c e d l i b e r a l s to make another s e r i e s of c h o i c e s and alignments, between the Union N a t i o n a l e and the L i b e r a l Party, p r o v i n c i a l autonomy and f e d e r a l i s m , i s o l a t i o n i s m and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , non-alignment and NATO, a domestic campaign a g a i n s t communism and an i n t e r n a t i o n a l one; i t was on these i s s u e s that the cleavage between francophone and anglophone l i b e r a l i s m occurred, and which shaped t h e i r response to the c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n i n Quebec. A r t i s t s , as producers of c u l t u r e , and as p a r t i c i p a n t s in the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of the country, were no l e s s exempt from 1 1 1 Le Devoir, 24 J u l y 1948. 7 6 the p o l i t i c a l p e r i l s of contemporary s o c i e t y than were l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s ; they, too, faced the ' c r o i s e e des chemins' i n matters both a r t i s t i c and p o l i t i c a l , and were a f f e c t e d by the i d e o l o g i c a l schism which had d i v i d e d l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s . In Montreal i n 1948, the outcome of t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n — w h i c h was at once a e s t h e t i c and p o l i t i c a l — w a s the c o n f r o n t a t i o n between the Prisme d'Yeux and the Automatistes, and the fragmentation of the avant-garde i n t o two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t and extremely h o s t i l e camps. The i s s u e s which p o l a r i z e d the Montreal avant-garde were a l s o those s p l i t t i n g l i b e r a l i s m — i t was freedom, i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to p o l i t i c s , to the l e f t and the r i g h t , and to the i n d i v i d u a l which so obsessed and d i v i d e d them. Likew i s e , i n the e x c l u s i v e l y p o l i t i c a l realm, ' l i b e r t e ' and 'freedom' peppered the r h e t o r i c of p o l i t i c i a n s and was the fulcrum of the most v i t u p e r a t i v e disagreements p r o v i n c i a l l y , f e d e r a l l y , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . The congruence of the concerns of p o l i t i c i a n s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s with those of a r t i s t s suggests that a r t i s t s are not e x c l u s i v e l y a t t a c h e d to the a r t i s t i c m i l i e u and i t s q u a r r e l s , but ra t h e r are a f f e c t e d , both c o n s c i o u s l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y by s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which encapsulate t h e i r l i v e s . Moreover, because i d e o l o g i e s of two opposing strands of l i b e r a l i s m became imprinted on the i d e o l o g i e s of competing branches of the Montreal avant-garde, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r t i s t s to t h e i r p u b l i c s appears to be a symbiotic one, the medium through which a r t i s t s r e c e i v e an understanding of the world beyond the s t u d i o : •the a r t i s t addresses a p u b l i c with analogous p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , a p u b l i c which i n turn a f f e c t s the a r t i s t ' s 77 v e r b a l and v i s u a l i d e o l o g i e s , a p u b l i c which appears i n these i d e o l o g i e s as f o r the most part...an i m p l i e d presence, a shadow, an o c c l u s i o n ; i t i s what c r i t i c and a r t i s t i n t h e i r c i v i l i z e d and h y p o c r i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e , agree to leave o u t — b u t without s u c c e s s 1 1 2 The a r t i s t and p u b l i c , then, are bound to one another by a dynamic s i m i l a r to that connecting both to t h e i r i d e o l o g i e s , a dynamic i n which p e r c e i v e d r e l a t i o n s to the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e are u n c o n s c i o u s l y d i s t o r t e d and manipulated. Thus, in the l a t e f o r t i e s , l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n both French and E n g l i s h Canada processed t h e i r understanding of the world through the f a l s i f y i n g lens of t h e i r i d e o l o g i e s ; s i m i l a r l y , the Montreal avant-garde proclaimed i t s independence from i t s p u b l i c , the Canadian i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , while i n r e a l i t y i t was profoundly a f f e c t e d by i t s i d e o l o g i e s . How these t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o c c u r r e d becomes apparent through an examination of avant-garde polemics and the l i b e r a l response to them, thus c l a r i f y i n g the p o i n t s in which l i b e r a l i d e o logy i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the a e s t h e t i c d i s c o u r s e . 1 1 2 T . J . C l a r k , Image of the People (Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y , 1973), p. ]~T. 78 CHAPTER TWO The L i b e r a l i s m of P e l l a n and Borduas: the Prisme d'Yeux Ma n i f e s t o and the Refus G l o b a l M e d i a t i o n s . . . . a l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l c o n c r e t e — t h e p a r t i c u l a r l i f e , the r e a l and dated c o n f l i c t , the p e r s o n — t o emerge from the background of the general c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s and r e l a t i o n s of product i o n . 1 By opportunism I do not mean to imply a s a c r i f i c e of p r i n c i p l e f o r the sake of expedience, but I use i t i n i t s o r i g i n a l sense having to do with a wind blowing towards a p o r t , i . e . , f a v o u r a b l e at a given moment.2 The mediations a r b i t r a t i n g the l i v e s of the l e a d e r s of the f a c t i o n s of the Montreal avant-garde, A l f r e d P e l l a n and Paul-Emile Borduas, and which determined t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the push and p u l l of h i s t o r i c a l events, were v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . The e f f e c t of the mediations of c l a s s , education, and experience e x p l a i n s why they were sub j e c t to d i f f e r e n t forms of 'opportunism,' and why t h e i r i d e o l o g i e s were at odds with one another. The presence of both the mediations and the i d e o l o g i e s t r a n s m i t t e d through them i n e l u c t a b l y appear i n both the w r i t t e n and p a i n t e d works by these two a r t i s t s ; t h i s chapter w i l l d e a l s o l e l y with t h e i r v e r b a l i d e o l o g i e s as t h e y e x i s t e d i n 1948. 1 S a r t r e , Search f o r a Method, p. 57. 2 A l b e r t Boime, "Marmontel's B e l i s a r e and the Pre- R e v o l u t i o n a r y P r o g r e s s i v i s m of David," A r t H i s t o r y 1 (March 1980): 81. 79 Both l e a d e r s of the Montreal avant-garde were born to lower middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s ; P e l l a n i n t o the urban working poor, Borduas i n t o the r u r a l p o o r . 3 From the beginning, P e l l a n ' s c a r e e r was a s p e c t a c u l a r one. Supported by h i s f a m i l y , he attended the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts i n Quebec C i t y , where he won an a s t o n i s h i n g number of p r i z e s f o r a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e . " The Quebec government, which s u b s i d i z e d the Ec o l e des Beaux-Arts took e a r l y heed of the school's most pr e c o c i o u s student, and in 1926, awarded him the f i r s t P rovince of Quebec bursary to study a r t i n France f o r four y e a r s . P e l l a n ' s c a r e e r abroad garnered him e x h i b i t i o n s , c o n t a c t with major European a r t i s t s , s a l e s , 5 3 P e l l a n was born in Quebec c i t y i n 1906; h i s f a t h e r was a locomotive engineer on the Quebec-Montreal run. Borduas was born i n 1905 i n the v i l l a g e of S a i n t - H i l a i r e ; h i s f a t h e r was a carpente r and metal worker. " P e l l a n entered the Ec o l e des Beaux-Arts i n 1920. C o l i n S. Macdonald comments, "He enjoyed the understanding of the school d i r e c t o r , Jean B a i l l e u l and was abl e to choose h i s teachers and plan h i s own schedules.... The f a c u l t y was so impressed with h i s hard work that they allowed him po s s e s s i o n of a key to the school s t u d i o s to pursue h i s s t u d i e s , beyond the hours of r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . . . . P e l l a n d i d w e l l i n h i s s t u d i e s winning p r i z e s every year and i n h i s f i n a l year he won a l l the p r i z e s given f o r drawing, p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , pen drawing, anatomy and s k e t c h i n g " ( D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian A r t i s t s , v o l . 5 (Ottawa: Canadian Paperbacks, 1977), p. 1567). 5 P e l l a n s t u d i e d at the Ec o l e Superieure N a t i o n a l e des Beaux-Arts de P a r i s , as we l l as at the s t u d i o of Lucien Simon, where he won f i r s t p r i z e in p a i n t i n g i n 1928. In 1935 he held an e x h i b i t i o n at the Academie Ranson which r e c e i v e d very favourable reviews from the French p r e s s . In the 1935 Salon de l ' a r t mural, P e l l a n won f i r s t p r i z e f o r Instruments de musique (formerly t i t l e d Composition a b s t r a i t e en rouge et n o i r ) ; t h i s e x h i b i t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e d work by P i c a s s o , who P e l l a n v i s i t e d on two o c c a s i o n s . In 1937, two of h i s works were purchased by the French M i n i s t e r of Fine A r t s f o r the Jeu de Paume and the Musee de Grenoble. In 1939, h i s work was i n c l u d e d i n an e x h i b i t i o n e n t i t l e d " P a r i s P a i n t e r s of Today," at the Museum of Modern A r t , 80 and, at home, the r e p u t a t i o n cof being a s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a l i b r e . 6 When World War II broke out i n 1940, P e l l a n returned to Quebec, where he was f§ted by the press and government a l i k e ; most i m p o r t a n t l y , he became the f i r s t l i v i n g a r t i s t ever to be given a r e t r o s p e c t i v e at the Musee de l a Province de Quebec, an e x h i b i t i o n which secured h i s r e p u t a t i o n as the most important modern a r t i s t working i n Quebec. 7 Washington. 6 In h i s 1943 book on P e l l a n , Maurice Gagnon wrote, " E s t - i l a u t r e p e i n t r e canadien qui p u i s s e se f l a t t e r d ' a v o i r ete reconnu des G a l 6 r i e s d ' a r t , des Salons, des Musses? E s t - i l autre a r t i s t e canadien...dont l e s oeuvres a i e n t e"te ac q u i s e s , a cause de l e u r v a l e u r meme, par des musses a u s s i importants que l e Mus6e du Jeu de Paume a P a r i s , que c e l u i de Grenoble; par des c o l l e c t i o n n e u r s a v e r t i s : Mcllhenny en I r l a n d e , l a p r i n c e s s e Bassiano a Rome, Miherten en Allemagne, Georges Cordonnier en Cochinchine, Barnwell a New York, e t c . , etc . " E s t - i l beaucoup d ' a r t i s t e s chez nous q u i savent l e u r s oeuvres en France, en A n g l e t e r r e , en I r l a n d e , en Belgique, en Allemagne, en Grdce, en I t a l i e , au B r e s i l , aux £tats-Unis, aux Canada? Ceux qui estiment que l e consensus u n i v e r s e l est une c o n s e c r a t i o n v e r r o n t dans l a d i f f u s i o n m§me des oeuvres de P e l l a n une a u t o r i t e qui est c e l l e d'un grand p e i n t r e " ( P e l l a n [Montreal.: l ' A r b r e , 1943], p. 11). 7 The speed with which the e x h i b i t i o n was organized i s i n d i c a t i v e of P e l l a n ' s s t a t u s : w i t h i n days of h i s a r r i v a l home, 161 of the 400 works he brought back from P a r i s had been s e l e c t e d f o r the e x h i b i t i o n at the Musee de l a Province de Quebec i n June 1940, which in October t r a v e l l e d to the A r t A s s o c i a t i o n of Montreal. The e x h i b i t i o n r e c e i v e d very p o s i t i v e reviews; Robert Ayre's i s t y p i c a l : " I f A l f r e d P e l l a n stays at home, he ought to be a v i t a l i n f l u e n c e in Canadian p a i n t i n g . He might have an e f f e c t on p u b l i c t a s t e , but i f that i s slow in de v e l o p i n g , h i s example and the f a c t that the P r o v i n c i a l Museum has a c q u i r e d some of h i s works may give courage to p a i n t e r s who have been t r y i n g to break away from the o l d e s t a b l i s h e d h a b i t s " ("Pellan's E x h i b i t i o n 'A P a i n t e r ' s World of Shapes, Rhythms,'" The Montreal Standard, 12 October 1940). 81 By 1943, P e l l a n had secured a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n at the p r e s t i g i o u s E c o l e des Beaux-Arts de Montreal, where he came i n t o c o n t a c t with the l i b e r a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l upper middle c l a s s of francophone Quebec. 8 Together with other members of the E c o l e , P e l l a n succeeded i n d i s p l a c i n g the c o n s e r v a t i v e d i r e c t o r of the s c h o o l , C h a r l e s M a i l l a r d , and along with him, the academicism p r e v i o u s l y so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s c h o o l ; 9 i t was h i s r o l e i n o u s t i n g M a i l l a r d which earned him the kudos of the Montreal i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , and which r e i n f o r c e d h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a 8 Among these were Maurice Gagnon, who i n 1943 p u b l i s h e d a book on P e l l a n ; Jean-Charles Harvey, a newspaper e d i t o r ; Marcel P a r i z e a u , an a r c h i t e c t and p r o f e s s o r of a r c h i t e c t u r e ; and Dr. Paul Dumas, a prominent p h y s i c i a n and a r t c o l l e c t o r . 9 In 1943, P e l l a n became an i n s t r u c t o r a t the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts in Montreal, headed by the c o n s e r v a t i v e a r t i s t and a d m i n i s t r a t o r , C h a r l e s M a i l l a r d . In May 1945, Fernand Leger v i s i t e d Montreal and d e l i v e r e d a l e c t u r e attended by many of the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts students, encouraging them to "oppose a c t i v e l y the r e s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e of every c o n s e r v a t i v e element in the a r t world" (Dennis Reid, A Concise H i s t o r y of Canadian  P a i n t i n g , pp. 219-220); a f t e r the l e c t u r e , students returned to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts shouting "A bas M a i l l a r d ! " As Leger was s t a y i n g with P e l l a n d u r i n g h i s v i s i t , P e l l a n became connected with the students who had attended Leger's l e c t u r e and who c h a l l e n g e d the a u t h o r i t y of M a i l l a r d . The f i n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n o c c u r r e d s h o r t l y a f t e r Leger's v i s i t , and focused on the graduating e x h i b i t i o n of the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts. The student works P e l l a n chose as the most important ones completed that year i n c l u d e d a nude and a Last Supper, both of which the d i r e c t o r deemed to be unacceptable and o f f e n s i v e to good t a s t e ; P e l l a n countered by s u b m i t t i n g the nude covered with drapery and the Last Supper transformed i n t o a "bacchanalian f e a s t " (Harper, P a i n t i n g in Canada, p. 333). On. the opening n i g h t , students blocked the e x i t s of the b u i l d i n g , r e f u s i n g to l e t M a i l l a r d l e a v e, and shouting, "A bas M a i l l a r d ! Vive P e l l a n ! " A f t e r t h i s vote of non-confidence by h i s students, M a i l l a r d r e s i g n e d , and was r e p l a c e d by Marcel P a r i z e a u , a much more l i b e r a l educator. 82 ' p r o g r e s s i v e . ' 1 0 By 1948, P e l l a n occupied a secure niche w i t h i n the group which had supported him i n h i s 1945 power s t r u g g l e with M a i l l a r d , namely, l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s of M o ntreal. Given P e l l a n ' s meteoric r i s e from an obscure f a m i l y at the lower end of the s o c i a l spectrum i n t o a c l a s s which formed the i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e of the p r o v i n c e , i t i s understandable that P e l l a n ' s i d e o l o g i c a l a l l e g i a n c e s were p r i m a r i l y to the c l a s s towards which he had been s t r i v i n g a l l h i s l i f e , f o r which h i s education had prepared him, and, even more imp o r t a n t l y , which was now s u p p o r t i v e of him. The p a t t e r n of Borduas' c a r e e r bears l i t t l e resemblance to that of P e l l a n ' s . His e a r l y a r t i s t i c education was geared towards a c a r e e r without promise of i n t e r n a t i o n a l success, as he a p p r e n t i c e d with a r e l i g i o u s p a i n t e r , Ozias Leduc, in h i s home town of S a i n t - H i l a i r e , t r a i n i n g f o r a c a r e e r d e c o r a t i n g small 1 0 See, f o r example, the cartoon in Le Canada, reproduced in Robert, P e l l a n , His L i f e and His Work, p. 51, which d e p i c t s P e l l a n as a d a u n t l e s s modernist who triumphs over the f o r c e s of academicism. See a l s o Maurice Gagnon Sur un e t a t a c t u e l de l a  p e i n t u r e canadienne (Montreal: S o c i S t e des E d i t i o n s P a s c a l , 194 5), pp. 91-92; Gagnon's t h e s i s i s that academicism i s f a l l i n g at the hands of the p r a c t i o n e r s of ' l ' a r t v i v a n t , ' a p r o p o s i t i o n which he attempts to prove through the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n P e l l a n ' s work: " E n f i n , P e l l a n , avec une envergure propre a l u i s e u l , nous apporte l a j o i e c r e a t r i c e . . . . L a c r e a t i o n de P e l l a n est dynamique. E l l e i r r a d i e d'un foyer p u i s s a n t et se communique en e n t h o u s i a s t e s p r o d u c t i o n s . Sa v i e est r a d i o — a c t i v i t y i n s u r p a s s a b l e et qui l e sera, chez nous, p e u t - e t r e pour t o u j o u r s . De son oeuvre et de sa personne emane une f o r c e v i t a l e 6minemment p r o d u c t r i c e : n e c e s s i t e de l a p e i n t u r e . P e l l a n nous apporte l a j o i e , dans ce q u ' e l l e a de p l u s £leve: sa f i n c r e a t r i c e " ( I b i d . , pp. 91-92). 83 p a r i s h c h u r c h e s . 1 1 A f t e r completing h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p with Leduc, Borduas attended the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts i n Montreal, but achieved l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n t h e r e . 1 2 A f t e r s e v e r a l s t i n t s as a p a r t time teacher i n elementary schools i n the Montreal 1 1 A f t e r a very rudimentary formal education i n S a i n t - H i l a i r e , Borduas began to study with Ozias Leduc, the town's major p a i n t e r , around 1921; i n 1953, Borduas d e s c r i b e d h i s t r a i n i n g with Leduc: "At the time of my f i r s t encounter with him he was a l r e a d y the f u l l master of h i s a r t , and, by v i r t u e of h i s commissions, busy at work on iconography, l i t u r g y and C h r i s t i a n symbolism.... I a l r e a d y knew about h i s p a i n t i n g through the t i n y church of S a i n t - H i l a i r e which he had p r o f u s e l y decorated.... From my b i r t h u n t i l I was f i f t e e n these were the only p i c t u r e s that I saw. You cannot imagine my p r i d e i n having experienced t h i s unique source of p i c t o r i a l poetry at a time when the s m a l l e s t impressions leave t h e i r mark and decide the d i r e c t i o n our c r i t i c a l sense w i l l take without my knowing i t . . . . F r o m my f i r s t c o n t a c t s with Leduc, l i k e many ot h e r s , I was seduced by h i s s i m p l i c i t y , by h i s extreme modesty, and maybe even more by the l i g h t n i n g q u a l i t y of h i s mind. F o o l i s h l y , f o r many years...I t r i e d to emulate him i n h i s too b e a u t i f u l p a i n t i n g " (Borduas, E c r i t s / W r i t i n g s , pp. 131-132; o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n French as "Quelques pens£es sur l'oeuvre d'amour et de r£ve de M. Ozias Leduc," Canadian Art 10 [September 1953]: 158-161, 168). A f t e r a year of study with Leduc, d u r i n g which time he mainly c o p i e d r e p r o d u c t i o n s of r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g s d a t i n g from the Renaissance to the 20th century, Borduas began to work on h i s f i r s t p r o j e c t with Leduc: from June 1922 to March 1923, the two worked on the d e c o r a t i o n s of the C h a p e l l e de 1'Eveche in Sherbrooke. During h i s stay in Sherbrooke, Borduas attended night c l a s s e s at the E c o l e des A r t s et M e t i e r s in Sherbrooke, on the advice of Leduc. 1 2 Borduas e n r o l l e d i n the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Montreal in September 1923, again a c t i n g on the advice of Leduc; i t was, in f a c t , through Leduc's connections with the Montreal a r t world that Borduas was accepted by the s c h o o l . With the exception of the summer of 1925, Borduas continued to a s s i s t Leduc on church d e c o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s d u r i n g the school h o l i d a y s . He graduated from the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts i n 1927. In the e x h i b i t i o n of work at the end of the academic year, Borduas presented a d e c o r a t i v e scheme for an imaginary c h a p e l , an e f f o r t which earned him second p r i z e in the ' d e c o r a t i v e ' s e c t i o n ; t h i s was the only p r i z e he won while at the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts. 84 a r e a , 1 3 Borduas went to France to study under Maurice Denis, s t a y i n g there almost two y e a r s ; h i s a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t s l e d him to study contemporary French r e l i g i o u s p a i n t e r s and s e c u l a r p a i n t e r s of the 19th century, but u n l i k e P e l l a n , he f a i l e d to connect with members of the modernist movement i n P a r i s . 1 " A f t e r r e t u r n i n g to Quebec, Borduas was unable to secure any e c c l e s i a s t i c a l commissions, and taught, again on a part-time b a s i s , f o r the C a t h o l i c School Commission of M o n t r e a l . 1 5 1 3 Borduas worked f o r the C a t h o l i c School Commission of Montreal, t e a c h i n g part-time at the Champlain and Montcalm elementary schools d u r i n g the 1927-28 academic year. In September 1928 he was t r a n s f e r r e d b r i e f l y to the P l a t e a u School, a much more favourable post i n h i s o p i n i o n , but a f t e r only two days on the job he was t r a n s f e r r e d back to h i s o l d s c h o o l s ; f e e l i n g that he has been u n j u s t l y t r e a t e d by the School Commission, Borduas r e s i g n e d i n p r o t e s t . 1 4 In November 1928, Borduas went to P a r i s to study at the E c o l e des A r t s Sacre under Maurice Denis and Georges D e s v a l l i e r e s . He l e f t the school i n A p r i l 1929, and a f t e r a b r i e f h o l i d a y i n B r i t t a n y , worked on d e c o r a t i o n s f o r the church in the v i l l a g e of Rambucourt u n t i l September, when he went to another job in Xivray-Marmoisan, where he worked u n t i l the end of the year. Upon h i s r e t u r n to P a r i s in January 1930, Borduas v i s i t e d s e v e r a l g a l l e r i e s , making b r i e f notes of these v i s i t s ; although he v i s i t e d e x h i b i t i o n s of work by M a t i s s e , Manet, P i c a s s o and Puvis de Chavannes, the a r t i s t most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned in h i s notes i s Renoir. I t was in Borduas' autobiography, as w e l l , that Renoir i s c i t e d as the a r t i s t who made the g r e a t e s t impact on him while he was in P a r i s : "What a marvel and what a l e s s o n ! " ( P r o j e c t i o n s L i b e r a n t e s , p. 87). 1 5 Upon h i s r e t u r n from France in June 1930, Borduas a s s i s t e d Leduc at the church of S t . Agnes in Lachine from September to January 19'31 . In 1931, i t appears that Borduas may have worked on renovations at Notre Dame, Montreal, although i t cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d with c e r t a i n t y that t h i s was the case (see Gagnon, Borduas: Biographie c r i t i q u e , p. 47). In August and September he completed s i x d e c o r a t i v e panels on h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t s f o r a s k i c a b i n on Mount Royal. From October 1931 to June 1932, Borduas worked on d e c o r a t i o n s for the church at Rougemont, a commission he obtained through the graces of Leduc. In the s p r i n g he planned to open a d e c o r a t i v e a r t s s t u d i o , but t h i s p r o j e c t f a i l e d , as d i d h i s attempt to secure commissions 85 Borduas regarded t h i s p e r i o d of h i s l i f e with great b i t t e r n e s s , and wrote of i t i n h i s autobiography: The drawings by my p u p i l s from the E x t e r n a t C l a s s i q u e . . . a r e my only c o n f i r m a t i o n that the road I f o l l o w must l e a d one day to v i c t o r y — b e i t a hundred years away. E v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s a chimera, an i l l u s i o n , a f o o l i s h u n r e a l i z a b l e hope. Work at the s t u d i o i s back-breaking. A f t e r ten years of o b s t i n a t e labour, h a r d l y ten canvases worth s a v i n g . 1 6 Borduas' a n a l y s i s of h i s c a r e e r d u r i n g the 1930s s p r i n g s from a sense of b e t r a y a l by the Church, which f a i l e d to provide him a means to put i n t o p r a c t i c e the f r u i t of the years of t r a i n i n g as an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p a i n t e r and which p a i d him meagre wages as a school teacher. In 1937, Borduas' p r o f e s s i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n m a r g i n a l l y improved, as he secured a post at the E c o l e du Meuble; in terms of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , however, the E c o l e du Meuble remained a poor second to the E c o l e des Beaux-Arts, for i t was devoted to the i n s t r u c t ion of commercial, r a t h e r than ' f i n e ' a r t . 1 7 D e s p i t e the f r i e n d s h i p s which he made at the Ecole du Meuble with the l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s who gave him " c o n f i d e n t throughout the r e s t of the year. In the f a l l of 1932, he obtained a part-time job at the Externat C l a s s i q u e S a i n t - S u l p i c e (known as the C o l l e g e Andr£ Grasset s i n c e 1941), a p o s i t i o n which he kept u n t i l 1937, when he got a job at the Ecole du Meuble. 1 6 Borduas, P r o j e c t i o n s L i b e r a n t e s , p. 88. 1 7 On the s t a t u s of the ficole du Meuble, see F o u r n i e r and L a p l a n t e , "Borduas et 1'automatisme," pp. 109-125; see a l s o Jean-Marie Gauvreau, "L'Ecole du Meuble, son e s p r i t - - s o n but," Royal S o c i e t y of Canada: Proceedings and T r a n s a c t i o n s , 3d. s e r . 44 (June 1950) : 19-31. 86 sympathy and i n d i s p e n s a b l e warmth," 1 8 an undercurrent of rancour runs through h i s account of h i s years at the school i n P r o j e c t i o n s L i b i r a n t e s ; I , a l s o knew very w e l l that i t was only through lack of enough imagination to invent a sound p r e t e x t f o r my d i s m i s s a l that you [Jean-Marie Gauvreau, the school's d i r e c t o r ] kept me a g a i n s t your w i l l — y o u would have l i k e d to e l i m i n a t e me as e a r l y as the Dominion G a l l e r y e x h i b i t i o n i n 1943. A f t e r t h a t , behind my back you never stopped h o l d i n g inquest a f t e r inquest to t h i s end....In September of 1946, the d i r e c t o r , Gauvreau-the-scoundrel ...without c o n s u l t i n g the Pedagogical C o u n c i l , without even warning me, cut out my r o l e i n the d e c o r a t i o n and documentation cou r s e s . . . . The s i t u a t i o n at the s c h o o l , which had not been easy, now became d i f f i c u l t . 1 9 Throughout Borduas' lament about the mistreatment he r e c e i v e d at the E c o l e du Meuble l u r k s the a n x i e t y that he was not f u l l y accepted at that i n s t i t u t i o n ; he f e l t a l i e n a t e d from and persecuted by those c o n t r o l l i n g i t . By 1948 Borduas had penetrated only the p e r i p h e r y of the l i b e r a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s , but h i s lack of formal, s e c u l a r a r t i s t i c education prevented him from advancing beyond being a part-time i n s t r u c t o r at a s e c o n d - s t r i n g s c h o o l . Trapped w i t h i n a system he f e l t m i s t r e a t e d by, unable to r e c e i v e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l commissions, and without hope of s i g n i f i c a n t l y a m e l i o r a t i n g h i s p o s i t i o n , i n the l a t e t h i r t i e s Borduas became i n c r e a s i n g l y c r i t i c a l of the i n s t i t u t i o n s which he regarded as having betrayed and thwarted him: the Church and the Ecole du Meuble. Although during the e a r l y and mid-l940s, Borduas enjoyed a c e r t a i n degree of 1 8 Borduas, P r o j e c t i o n s L i b e r a n t e s , p. 108. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 105, 107. 87 s o l i d a r i t y with the l i b e r a l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n h i s c r i t i q u e of the c o n s e r v a t i v e s t a t u s quo, by the l a t e f o r t i e s h i s views began to c o n f l i c t with r a t h e r than conform to t h e i r s ; through h i s growing understanding of s u r r e a l i s m and h i s c u l t of the R e v o l u t i o n , a s p l i t with them appeared i n v e v i t a b l e . 2 0 For an a r t i s t enamoured with the R e v o l u t i o n and c r i t i c a l of the c u r r e n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , involvement with the Communist Party was an obvious a l t e r n a t i v e . Despite numerous c o n t a c t s 2 0 The loc u s of the t e n s i o n was p r i m a r i l y the CAS. C o n f l i c t s between the younger members of the S o c i e t y and the ex e c u t i v e over admission requirements of the S o c i e t y and the j u r y i n g of e x h i b i t i o n s tended to i n v o l v e Borduas, as most of the young members were h i s students and were p e r c e i v e d as h i s a l l i e s ; as Borduas himsel f noted, "De 1943 a 48, sur 20 nouveaux membres de l a C.A.S., 16 sont mes anciens e l e v e s . Onze des 16 n'ont jamais eu d'autre enseignement que c e l u i de l ' E c o l e du meuble" ( c i t e d i n P e r r e a u l t , "La S o c i e t e d'Art Contemporain," p. 85) . Problems between Borduas and the r e s t of the S o c i e t y e x i s t e d as e a r l y as 1944, as i s r e v e a l e d by correspondence between Fernand Leduc, Guy V i a u , and Borduas. On November 3, .1944, Leduc wrote to Vi a u that "Borduas devra t r e s probablement q u i t t e r l a C.A.S. II ne peut vraiment c o n t i n u e r l a l u t t e , mais c e t t e f o i s c o ntre l e s jeunes. II y a eu un j u r y pour admission de nouveau membres. M o r r i s s e t a e"t§ accepte par ' c h a r i t e ' a l o r s que des croutes....Borduas a du s'engueuler avec Jacques de Tonnancour, qui est devenu un c r e t i n p a r f a i t et d'une assurance!" (quoted in Bernard Teyssedre, "Fernand Leduc, p e i n t r e et t h e o r i c i e n du s u r r ^ a l i s m e a Montreal," La Barre du Jour, No. 17 [January-August 1969]: 246T! Three days l a t e r , V i a u wrote to Borduas, saying, "Fernand me d i t des d i f f i c u l t e s que vous avez rencontre a l a C.A.S Nous dev r i o n s q u i t t e r c e t t e s o c i e t e sans attendre aucun p r e t e x t e , et pour l a r a i s o n que c ' e s t pas i n t e r e s s a n t " (quoted i n P e r r e a u l t , "La S o c i e t e d'Art Contemporain," p. 80). Two weeks l a t e r , Leduc again wrote to Vi a u about the c o n t i n u i n g problems between Borduas and the S o c i e t y ' s o l d e r members: "Borduas a eu une engueulade avec Lyman a mon s u j e t ; i l l u i a s i g n i f i e que sa s o c i e t e n ' a p p o r t a i t r i e n aux jeunes et que probablement ces d e r n i e r s s'en s e p a r e r a i e n t " (22 November 1944, quoted i n Teyssedre, "Fernand Leduc," p. 246). 88 with the-Communists i n Montreal ( l a r g e l y through other A u t o m a t i s t e s ) , Borduas u l t i m a t e l y r e j e c t e d Communism. 2 1 B e r e f t of a s p e c i f i c group with which he c o u l d j o i n f o r c e s , Borduas nonetheless moved c l o s e r at the i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l to the c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n of the Quebec L i b e r a l P arty, i t s e l f indebted to the ideology of the new l i b e r a l i s m i n E n g l i s h Canada, and disseminated i n Quebec through such newspapers as Le Canada and Le C l a i r o n ( S a i n t - H y a c i n t h e ) . Concepts a s s o c i a t e d with francophone and anglophone l i b e r a l i s m form the major tene t s of the manifestoes i s s u e d by the groups l e d by P e l l a n and Borduas i n 1948; l i k e the i d e o l o g i e s on which they are dependent, the dominant preoccupation of both manifestoes i s freedom, the is s u e which d i v i d e d both the Montreal avant-garde and i t s p u b l i c i n 1948. The Prisme d'Yeux r e l e a s e d i t s manifesto at i t s i n a u g u r a l e x h i b i t i o n on February 4, and again at i t s second e x h i b i t i o n in May. 2 2 T h i s b r i e f document, which was only d i s t r i b u t e d to the i n v i t e d guests at the group's openings, a s s o c i a t e s a p o l i t i c i s m with freedom: We seek a p a i n t i n g freed.from a l l a c c i d e n t of time and pl a c e , and of r e s t r i c t i v e i d eology; and conceived 2 1 See pp. 132-135 below. 2 2 The f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n , h e l d i n the Art Centre (the annex of the Art A s s o c i a t i o n of Mo n t r e a l ) , was f o r one night only, 4 February 1948. The e x h i b i t i o n a t t r a c t e d many l u m i n a r i e s in the Montreal a r t world, i n c l u d i n g Maurice Gagnon, Jean Simard, Mme. Hector P e r r i e r , Henri G i r a r d , Jean LeMoyne, Robert £lie, Roger Grigon, J u d i t h Jasmin, P h i l l i p Surrey, and P i e r r e - C a r l Dubuc. The second e x h i b i t i o n was hel d 15-29 May 1948 at the L i b r a i r i e T r a n q u i l l e i n Montreal. 89 without the i n t e r f e r e n c e of l i t e r a r y , p o l i t i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , or other i n f l u e n c e s which can a d u l t e r a t e i t s e x p r e s s i o n and s u l l y i t s p u r i t y . 2 3 T h i s passage of the manifesto i s a c r u c i a l one, f o r i t not only r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t p o s i t i v e a t t e n t i o n from the l i b e r a l francophone p r e s s , 2 " but a l s o c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y of d i s t i n c t , but i n t e r c o n n e c t e d i d e a s . To a l i b e r a l reader of the manifesto i n 1948, the group's v i l i f i c a t i o n of a r t entangled with ' r e s t r i c t i v e ideology' s i g n i f i e d a r e j e c t i o n of p o l i t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d a r t ; i n that year, l i b e r a l francophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h a r a c t e r i z e d n o n - i d e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e as a p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , the c r e a t i o n of which they regarded as the u l t i m a t e goal of the c i v i l i z a t i o n . Maurice B l a i n , f o r example, c a s t s freedom as the o b j e c t and most laudable product of l i t e r a t u r e , while i n s i s t i n g 2 3 Prisme d'Yeux manifesto, quoted i n Robert, P e l l a n , His  L i f e and His Work, p. 49, 51. A l l c i t a t i o n s of the manifesto are drawn from Robert. 2 0 See, f o r example, Guy Gagnon, " P e l l a n et Parent re"velent h i e r s o i r 'Prisme d'Yeux,'" Le D r o i t , 6 February 1948, p. 4; "La jeune p e i n t u r e e l l e forme un nouveau groupe qui se d i t ouvert a t o u t e s l e s tendances," La Presse, 6 February 1948, p. 4; Jean Simard, "Autour du Prisme d'Yeux," Notre Temps, 14 February 1948; "Le monde Strange," La Presse, May 1948; Madeleine Gariepy, " E x p o s i t i o n Prisme d'Yeux," Notre Temps, 22 May 1948, p. 5; M. T r o u i - l l a r d , "Prisme d'Yeux," La Revue Moderne, May 1948, pp. 25-26. See a l s o : "La p e i n t u r e 'Prisme d'Yeux' ou l a p e i n t u r e pure," La Presse, 5 February 1948; "Prisme d'Yeux est consacre," Le Canada, 5 February 1948; "Nouveau mouvement de p e i n t u r e , " La  P a t r i e , 5 February 1948; "Pour nous en f a i r e v o i r de toutes l e c o u l e u r s , " Le Canada, 6 February 1948; "Prisme d'Yeux name of New Art Movement," The Gazette (Montreal), 7 February 1948, p. 22; Jacques D e l i s l e , "Un nouveau groupe de p e i n t r e s modernes: l e s Prismes [ s i c ] d'Yeux," Montreal-Matin, 7 February 1948; "Le Prisme d'Yeux," La Presse, 15 May 1948; "Prisme d'Yeux ouvre l ' o e i l , " Le Canada, 15 May 1948; B e r t h e l o t Brunet, "Notre p e i n t u r e v r a i et l e s vieux modernes," La P a t r i e , 22 May 1948; " E x p o s i t i o n s , " Le C l a i r o n , 28 May 1948. 90 that c u l t u r a l freedom remain immune from the s o l i c i t a t i o n s of p o l i t i c s : I I ne s'agit plus...d'une acceptation de consigne, ou du service d'une formation politique....La vocation r 6 e l l e de l ' e c r i v a i n nous apparait comme un e f f o r t de depassement et de l i b e r a t i o n . 2 5 As Blain's words suggest, a p o l i t i c a l culture was seen as the an t i t h e s i s of the culture of 'engagement,'26 which was perceived as a l l i e d with communism, and was therefore suspect. Communism was construed as h o s t i l e to c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , and personal freedom; writing in Le Quartier Latin, the student newspaper of the Universite de Montreal, Guy Cormier summarized the position of francophone l i b e r a l s when he declared, "Nous ne pouvons suivre Marx. Notre conscience y repugne et qui plus est notre i n t e l l i g e n c e y repugne....L'International russe [a un] caractere f a s c i s t e . " 2 7 Despite the expressly p o l i t i c a l complexion of the anti-communist debate, i n t e l l e c t u a l s who advocated a s t r i c t separation of art and p o l i t i c s frequently infused c u l t u r a l 2 5 Maurice Blain, "Engagement de la l i t e r a t u r e , " (Part II) Le Quartier Latin, 26 October 1948, p. 4. 2 6 'Engaged' a r t i s t s were seen as those who used their work as a vehicle for p o l i t i c a l change, generally towards the l e f t . The v a l i d i t y of engagement in the realm of culture was debated on both the l e f t and the right in Quebec in the late f o r t i e s ; see, for example, the Gelinas-Henault debate mentioned in note 115. See also: Addle Lauzon and Raymond-Marie Leger, "Le z6ro et l ' i n f i n i , " Le Quartier Latin, 29 October 1948, p. 5; Maurice Blain, "Engagement de l a l i t e r a t u r e , " (Part I ) , Le Quartier  Latin, 22 October 1948, p. 4; Adele Lauzon, review of Le Confort  I n t e l l e c t u e l by Marcel Aym6, Le Quartier Latin, 6 November 1949, p. 4-5. 2 7 Guy Cormier, "Propriete privee et proprigte commune," Le Quartier Latin, 16 March 1948, p. 3. 91 commentaries with anti-communist sentiments, as i s r e v e a l e d i n a review of S a r t r e ' s Mains S a l e s : Le P a r t i immuable...avance, r e c u l e ; commande, d^commande; recompense, tue; tue, recompense....Le P a r t i e st a l o r s apparu sous son v r a i j o u r , c ' e s t - ^ - d i r e une i n d i v i d u a t i o n despotique et o r g u e i l l e u s e . 2 8 While a r t and l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t i v e of communism were denounced as p o l i t i c i z e d , and t h e r e f o r e c o r r u p t e d c u l t u r e , books which c a s t i g a t e d communism were h a i l e d as epoch-making statements i n defence of freedom; 2 9 while the f u s i o n of p o l i t i c s and a r t s i g n i f i e d the s a c r i f i c e of a e s t h e t i c freedom, the c o n f l a t i o n of anti-communism and c u l t u r e d i d not. The Prisme d'Yeux's condemnation of ' i d e o l o g i c a l l y ' narrow a e s t h e t i c s , however, a l s o r e l a t e s to t h e i r d i s p u t e with the Automatistes. P e l l a n and h i s f o l l o w e r s denounced Borduas' l e a d e r s h i p of the CAS because they regarded i t as the s i g n a l l i n g of the end of the S o c i e t y ' s p l u r a l i s t c h a r a c t e r ; they feared that the CAS would be purged of a l l those who ref u s e d to countenance Automatism, because they b e l i e v e d Borduas and h i s group would remain committed to a f i x e d t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n without c o n s i d e r i n g other i s s u e s , among them, a e s t h e t i c p l u r a l i s m , or even a e s t h e t i c s per se. T h i s charge had been l e v e l l e d at the Automatistes before; Maurice Gauthier, f o r 2 8 Jacques Parent, "Mains Sales et communisme," Le Q u a r t i e r  L a t i n , 16 November 1948, p. 3. 2 9 Books by Malraux and K o e s t l e r were p a r t i c u l a r f a v o u r i t e s ; see, f o r example, Lauzon and Leger, "Le Zero et 1 ' I n f i n i . " 92 i n s t a n c e wrote in December 1947, " I l s ne de'passent jamais l a theorie, l a technique, l e s u r r e a l i s m e graphique pour a t t e i n d r e a l ' a r t . " 3 0 The Automatistes' a t t i t u d e towards the non-Automatiste members of the CAS only exacerbated t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n f o r being impatient with a r t or a e s t h e t i c s other than t h e i r own; as F.-M. Gagnon has observed: Cett e p e r s p e c t i v e ne d e v a i t pas £tre envisagee avec beaucoup d'enthousiasme par l e s a u t r e s p e i n t r e s q u i r e s s e n t a i e n t comme de l a p r e t e n s i o n i n t o l e r a b l e , l ' a t t i t u d e de p l u s en p l u s e x c l u s i v e et i n t r a n s i g e a n t e des A u t o m a t i s t e s . 3 1 The Prisme d'Yeux's d e s i r e to c r e a t e an a r t unmarked by temporal or s p a t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s was a l s o a r e j e c t i o n of the s p e c i f i c form of a r t which most o b v i o u s l y bore the t r a c e s of time and p l a c e : r e g i o n a l i s m . 3 2 R e g i o n a l i s t a r t , so popular in Quebec i n the 30s and d u r i n g the war, was not only c o n s e r v a t i v e s t y l i s t i c a l l y , but a l s o p o l i t i c a l l y ; 3 3 as i t made a c u l t of the land and of r u r a l l i f e , r e g i o n a l i s m i n t e r s e c t e d with the Union N a t i o n a l e ' s c o n t e n t i o n that the land provided Quebeckers with 3 0 Maurice Gauthier, " R i o p e l l e , Mousseau, des R e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s , " Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n ; 16 December 1947, p. 3. 3 1 Gagnon, Borduas, Bio g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , p. 232. 3 2 c f . comments of Guy Gagnon in " P e l l a n et Parent r e v e l e n t h i e r s o i r , " : " I l [Prisme d'Yeux] n'a pas du tout 1 ' i n t e n t i o n de s t i m u l e r un regionalisme i n t e l l e c t u e l l e " (p. 4). 3 3 Popular r e g i o n a l i s t a r t i s t s i n c l u d e d Clarence Gagnon, Adrien Hebert, Andre B i e l e r . For a l i s t of a r t i s t s esteemed by c o n s e r v a t i v e s , see Bergeron, Art et Bolchevisme, pp. 88-134. For an a n a l y s i s of the components of r e g i o n a l i s t a r t , see Francois-Marc Gagnon, " P a i n t i n g i n Quebec i n the T h i r t i e s , " J o u r n a l of Canadian Art H i s t o r y 3 ( F a l l 1976), e s p e c i a l l y pp. 5-12. 93 t h e i r primary sense of i d e n t i t y , with t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s , and with t h e i r community. 3" While the group d e c l a r e d i t s e l f to be i n o p p o s i t i o n to any kind of r e g i o n a l i s m and i n favour of a t o t a l l y - . l i b e r a t e d form of a r t , as meaningful to "the cave man as to the most contemporary of 20th century man," 3 5 i n r e a l i t y the Prisme d'Yeux a r t i s t s were almost e x c l u s i v e l y dependent on a d a t a b l e and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s p e c i f i c s t y l e , the School of P a r i s ; 3 6 as Francois-Marc Gagnon has j u s t l y observed, Jacques de Tonnancour [author of the Prisme d'Yeux manifesto] claimed the r i g h t of f r e e e x p r e s s i o n f o r many i n d i v i d u a l s having i n common a d e s i r e f o r independence; but at the same time t h i s d e s i r e was to be expressed through the vocabulary of the Ecole de P a r i s . 3 7 The Prisme d'Yeux's c e l e b r a t i o n of French c u l t u r e was a l s o shared by l i b e r a l francophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s who b e l i e v e d that through the i n f u s i o n of contemporary French c u l t u r e , Quebec's c u l t u r e c o u l d be ' u n i v e r s a l i z e d . ' L i b e r a l s ' respect f o r the c u l t u r e of modern France i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r although they 3" D u p l e s s i s o f t e n connected these concepts as f o l l o w s : " s i nous vivons aujourd'hui pour p o u r s u i v r e une mission b e l l e et noble ( d i f f u s e r l a langue francaise et l a r e l i g i o n c a t h o l i q u e en Amerique), c'est grace a 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e , " (Le Devoir, 7 September 1949). For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s p o i n t , see Ri c h a r d D e s r o s i e r s , " D u p l e s s i s et 1 ' i d e o l o g i c dominante," Revue d ' H i s t o i r e de 1'Amerique F r a n c a i s e 25 (December 1941): 385-388. 3 5 Prisme d'Yeux Man i f e s t o , p. 40. 3 6 L u c i e n Morin acknowledged t h i s debt: "Je s u i v i s l e mouvement de l ' E c o l e de P a r i s et me r e n s e i g n a i l e plus p o s s i b l e , par l e s revues et l e s p u b l i c a t i o n s a r t i s t i q u e s , sur l e s repr e s e n t a n t s de l a tendance n o u v e l l e " (quoted by G i l l e s Marchand, "Lucien Morin," Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 17 October 1948, p. 3 7 Gagnon, " P e l l a n , Borduas and the Automatistes," p. 54. 94 i d e n t i f i e d with the c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo, they d i s t i n g u i s h e d themselves from both i t and c o n s e r v a t i v e c u l t u r e through t h e i r p o s i t i o n on modernity, Quebec's r e l a t i o n s with France, and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . L i b e r a l s c o n s i d e r e d themselves to be n a t i o n a l i s t s , but b e l i e v e d that t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m accommodated, and even welcomed, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of elements of modern French c u l t u r e , u n l i k e c u l t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i v e s whose n a t i o n a l i s m was c o l o u r e d by a measure of x e n o p h o b i a . 3 8 P i e r r e Lefebvre's comments i l l u s t r a t e how francophone l i b e r a l s p e r c e i v e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to c u l t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i v e s , as w e l l as to i n t e r n a t i o n a l — t h a t i s , F r e n c h - - c u l t u r e : I l est i n d 6 n i a b l e que c e r t a i n s m i l i e u x c a n a d i e n s - f r a n c a i s e n t r e t i e n n e n t a l ' 6 g a r d de l a France contemporaine une h o s t i l i t e qui peut s ' e l e v e r jusqu'd l a fureur pour peu q u ' e l l e trouve de quoi s'alimenter....Pour ces i n q u i s i t e u r s benevoles, l a France est en e t a t de peche mortel depuis 1789 Aux yeux de nos Savonarole, l a v i e en France n'est qu'une immense partouse q u ' i l s gvoquent longuement avec des 3 8 See, f o r example, Rene Bergeron, Art et Bolchevisme (Montreal: F i d e s , 1946), p. 8: "Les m£thodes des f l i b u s t i e r s de ' l ' a r t nouveau' ressemblent en tout a c e l l e s des m a r x i s t e s . Par exemple, c ' e s t au nom de l a s c i e n c e et de l a l i b e r t y q u ' i l s assomment ceux qui c r o i e n t a ces dogmes, S une morale et a une d i s c i p l i n e . C'est au nom de 1 ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m e q u ' i l s font l a guerre au 'r£gionalisme' ou a l ' a r t p a t r i o t i q u e . " P i e r r e Blondin commented on the reasons f o r such h o s t i l i t y towards i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e in "A propos d'Aragon et d''un M. Duhamel.'" "Notre e l i t e i n t e l l e c t u e l l e n'a jamais beaucoup aim£ l a France l i b ^ r a l e et r£publicaine. Nos f r a n c o p h i l e s en sont encore a L o u i s XIV et au Grand S i e c l e . Au pays de Quebec, on n'a pas encore avale" l a r e v o l u t i o n de 89. A l o r s , r i e n de surprenant dans l e f a i t que nos i n t e l l e c t u e l s se detournent davantage de l a France maintenant que ses tendances a gauche s'accentuent" (Combat, 15 February 1947, p. 2). 95 bouffees d ' i n d i g n a t i o n d e l e c t a b l e q u i l e s soulage de tous l e u r s refoulements....Ces acces de xlnophobie n'auraient aucun c a r a c t e r e de g r a v i t e s ' i l s v i s a i e n t tout a u t r e pays que l a France. Mais no t r e s i t u a t i o n presente exige que r i e n ne vienne e n t r a v e r l e s ^changes c u l t u r e l s que nous entretenons presentement avec l a mdre p a t r i e . 3 9 In the minds of Quebec's l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s , modernity was to be achieved only through a c o n t i n u a t i o n of Quebec's h i s t o r i c dependence on ' l a mere p a t r i e ' f o r i t s norms of 'high c u l t u r e . ' While the Prisme d'Yeux's r e p u d i a t i o n of a r t marked by 'time and p l a c e ' d i s t a n c e d them from the consumers of c o n s e r v a t i v e c u l t u r e , i t e q u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d them from the proponents of the c u l t u r e of engagement, which, as has a l r e a d y been note d , " 0 was imbued with d i s t i n c t l y M a r x i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s in 1948; moreover, because engagement impl i e d c o n t a c t with a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l moment, a e s t h e t i c p u r i t y became s u l l i e d , a e s t h e t i c e x c e l l e n c e an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . In an a r t i c l e condemning engagement, for example, Maurice B l a i n comments that t r u l y l i b e r a t e d a r t v i t i a t e s the ascendancy of h i s t o r y , and enters the realm of the e t e r n a l and u n i v e r s a l : La v i e int£rieure de l a litt£rature t r a h i t pr£cisement c e t t e r e s i s t a n c e au mouvement de l ' h i s t o i r e . E l l e tend tout e n t i e r e a transcender l a s i t u a t i o n qui l ' a f a i t n a i t r e et l e s d e t e r m i n a t i o n s s o c i a l e s qui ont confere son c a r a c t e r e propre pour se f i x e r dans une autre dimension de l'espace humain. Son signe d e f i n i t i f est c e l u i de l a duree, de l ' u n i v e r s e l : de l a c o n d i t i o n humaine." 1 3 9 P i e r r e Lefebvre, "Le Complexe Francophobien," Le  Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 26 October 1948, p. 1. "° See above, p.90. "' B l a i n , "Engagement de l a l i t e r a t u r e , " (Part I I ) , p. 3. 96 Although B l a i n ' s r e p u d i a t i o n of engagement stems from anti-communist a n x i e t i e s , h i s defense of c u l t u r e which i s t i m e l e s s , u n i v e r s a l , and emblematic of the human c o n d i t i o n i s due to another set of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l t o g e t h e r . Francophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s l i k e B l a i n were i n the anomalous p o s i t i o n of defending both French and u n i v e r s a l c u l t u r e ; c u l t u r e which was p a l p a b l y modern, yet undatable; c u l t u r e produced by a few men but which i n c a r n a t e d the concerns of a l l mankind. T h i s s e r i e s of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a r i s e s out of the attempt on the part of c r i t i c s to n a t u r a l i s e t h e i r ideology and t h e i r c u l t u r a l p r e d i l e c t i o n s a r i s i n g out of i t . By d e s c r i b i n g c u l t u r e which i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y 'disengaged,' which i s modern, and which i s French in terms of ' u n i v e r s a l i t y , ' c r i t i c s not only subverted the r e a l a t t r i b u t e s of that c u l t u r e , but a l s o rendered t h e i r debatable c o n c l u s i o n s l e s s v u l n e r a b l e to c h a l l e n g e . Burdened with the task of c r e a t i n g a r t capable of r e s o l v i n g the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between the u n i v e r s a l and the g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s p e c i f i c , the e t e r n a l and the temporally p r e c i s e , the Prisme d'Yeux imposed another c o n s t r a i n t on t h e i r a r t , that i t be "conceived without l i t e r a r y , p o l i t i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l or other i n f l u e n c e s which can a d u l t e r a t e i t s p u r i t y and s u l l y i t s e x p r e s s i o n " ; " 2 i t was a r i s k y p r o p o s i t i o n to i n c l u d e i d e n t i f i a b l e content in a r t , with connections beyond the frame of the p i c t u r e . Why was the group so contemptuous--and a f r a i d - - o f content in t h e i r p a i n t i n g s ? Why d i d ' p u r i t y ' in 4 2 Prisme d'Yeux Mani f e s t o , p. 49, 51. 97 p a i n t i n g a c q u i r e such currency with the group? The answers l i e , i n p a r t , with the meanings atta c h e d to the verbs used by the Prisme d'Yeux, 'to s u l l y ' and 'to a d u l t e r a t e , ' and t h e i r meaning i n 1948. A d u l t e r a t i o n , i m p u r i t y , and tyranny were interchangeable with communism i n the p o l i t i c a l vocabulary of Quebec i n 1948, as communism and i t s m u l t i p l e means of propagandizing i t s e l f were viewed as c o r r u p t i n g , d i r t y , and d i s e a s e d : I l semble bien que c e r t a i n s m i l i e u x . . . s o n t i n f e c t e s [de communisme]....Trop de gens, n a i f s ou aveugles, voudraient t r a i t e r l e communisme comme une autre maladie s o c i a l e . Pourtant des c e n t a i n e s d'exemples d e v r a i e n t l e u r o u v r i r l e s yeux sur l e s e f f e t s desastreux d'une propagande communiste.* 3 C o n t e n t l e s s , u n a d u l t e r a t e d , pure a r t c o u l d f l o u r i s h , t h e r e f o r e , only under s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which were h o s t i l e to communism; f u r t h e r , i t c o u l d be c r e a t e d only by an a r t i s t who remained committed to the halcyon era of ' a r t f o r a r t ' s sake': Le s e u l engagement de l ' a r t i s t e est c e l u i de son oeuvre, poetique ou metaphysique...Si e n f i n , l a l i b e r t e de l ' e c r i v a i n d o i t t e n i r compte d'autres parametres--et c ' e s t bien l a t e n t a t i o n de l ' e c o l e engagee--....la chance du chef d'oeuvre est presque perdue." u The p r e s e r v a t i o n of l i b e r t y through e l i m i n a t i o n of content, which the Prisme d'Yeux and l i b e r a l c r i t i c s such as B l a i n advocated, may appear at f i r s t to be a r e l a t i v e l y 4 3 " C o m p l i c i t e , " R e l a t i o n s 8 (August 1948): 221-22. See a l s o Andre Laurendeau, "Campagne ne g a t i v e , " Le Devoir, 10 February 1948, p. 1. " Maurice B l a i n , "Physiognomie de l ' a r t . Approximations," Notre Temps, 17 A p r i l 1948, p. 4. 98 s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d problem, but i n r e a l i t y , i t i s u n r e s o l v a b l e . Even i f an a r t i s t were to somehow d i s e n t a n g l e a l l s u b j e c t matter, a l l s t y l e , a l l r e f e r e n c e s to any s u b j e c t other than a narrowly d e f i n e d , p u r e l y formal a e s t h e t i c , a statement about a r t and i t s r e l a t i o n to and f u n c t i o n i n s o c i e t y ( e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l i t i c a l statement) would remain. The naive hope of the Prisme d'Yeux and t h e i r p u b l i c that a r t c o u l d escape c o n t a c t with realms beyond pure v i s u a l s e n s a t i o n i n d i c a t e s how t r u l y desperate they f e l t the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n to be; when any mark on the canvas became fodder f o r p o l i t i c i z e d c u l t u r e , escapism i n t o the past, i n t o the happier days of the E c o l e de P a r i s , seemed to be the most p r o p i t i o u s r o u t e . The Prisme d'Yeux's d i s d a i n f o r p o l i t i c i z e d a r t gained prominence i n the pre s s , but so too d i d the s e c t i o n of the manifesto which i n s i s t s that the t o l e r a t i o n of d i v e r s i t y secures l i b e r a t i o n . L i k e the CAS, the Prisme d'Yeux pledged i t s e l f to e c l e c t i c i s m , and to that [ a r t ] which sees a l l paths as open, i n c l u d i n g paths which take opposite d i r e c t i o n s but which, l i k e n i g ht and day, f i r e and water, are a l l e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e and t r u e . " 5 The manifesto suggests that acceptance of c o n t r a d i c t o r y a e s t h e t i c p r e c e p t s guaranteed freedom, while commitment to a s i n g l e set of a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t i t . Fol l o w e r s of a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s u n r e c e p t i v e to p l u r a l i s m were summarily d i s m i s s e d by the Prisme d'Yeux as " g a l l e y s l a v e s , t i e d * 5 Prisme .d'Yeux Mani f e s t o , p. 49. to a theory they f e e l compelled to prove, rowing b l i n d l y without hope of each knowing where they a r e . " * 6 In l i g h t of the Prisme d'Yeux's a t t a c k on the Automatistes' 'narrow dogmatism' at the CAS meeting, t h e i r commitment to d i v e r s i t y was a f o r t u i t o u s means of d e f i n i n g themselves i n o p p o s i t i o n to Borduas' group. The Prisme d'Yeux's equation of e c l e c t i c i s m and freedom, however, was not e n t i r e l y a strategem of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . The antonym of e c l e c t i c i s m i n 1948 was 'dogmatism,' an a t t r i b u t e equated with communism; to francophone l i b e r a l s , communism's dogmatism l a y i n i t s i n t o l e r a n c e of ideas at odds with i t s own p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s . In c o n t r a s t , i n democracies, e c l e c t i c i s m , which f o s t e r e d t o l e r a n c e f o r a v a r i e t y of views, was the norm, and Quebec at mid-century was p e r c e i v e d as a testament to t h i s axiom; for example, the e d i t o r s of Le Devoir noted that the c u l t u r e of Quebec c o u l d t o l e r a t e a m u l t i p l i c i t y of viewpoints because "nous ne vivons pas en d i c t a t u r e . " * 7 While the Prisme d'Yeux's defence of e c l e c t i c i s m i n i t i a l l y appears to be motivated by a d e s i r e to remain unimpeded by the c l a i m s of a s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l or a r t i s t i c group, and d e s p i t e the f a c t that i t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l u c t a n c e to adopt a s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n on v a r i o u s i s s u e s , e c l e c t i c i s m in 1948 d i d , i n * 6 I b i d . * 7 " L e t t r e s au D e v o i r . NDLR," Le Devoir, 23 September 1948, p. 5. "~ 100 f a c t , denote a p o s i t i o n taken: through t h e i r eloquent s i l -e n c e s , 4 8 the Prisme d'Yeux became a l i g n e d with a group having i d e n t i f i a b l e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l b i a s e s , and which defended d i v e r s i t y no l e s s a r d e n t l y than P e l l a n and h i s f o l l o w e r s , namely, francophone l i b e r a l i s m . The name of the group, 'Prisme d'Yeux' e s p e c i a l l y found favour among l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s , f o r i t suggests not merely t o l e r a t i o n of, but a l s o r e f r a c t i o n of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of a e s t h e t i c v i s i o n s . Madeleine Gariepy p r a i s e d the group's c h o i c e of name: Prisme d'Yeux, c ' e s t - a - d i r e des regards d i f f e r e n t s jet£s sur des r e a l i t e s d i v e r s e s dans une lumiere qui est a u t r e . Prisme d'Yeux, symbole p l a s t i q u e de l a d i v e r s i t e des experiences humaines et des t r a n s p o s i t i o n s m u l t i p l e s q u ' e l l e s donnent dans l e domainede l ' a r t . * 9 Guy Gagnon, w r i t i n g in Le D r o i t , expressed s i m i l a r approval of the new vanguard's name and ethos, n o t i n g that "'Prismes [ s i c ] d'Yeux' r£unit d i v e r s elements, a u s s i d i f f e r e n t s que l a v i e l e s f a i t . " 5 0 The d i v e r s i t y of the group was thus connected to such semantic c o n s t r u c t s as ' l i f e , ' 'human experience,' and 'the i n d i v i d u a l , ' a l l of which were c e n t r a l to francophone * 8 The Prisme d'Yeux seem to have (somewhat n a i v e l y ) hoped that by remaining s i l e n t on most i s s u e s , they would be p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t p o l i t i c i z a t i o n . T h e i r muteness extended to matters r e l a t i n g to p o l i t i c s and a r t ; i n c o n t r a s t to the Automatistes, Prisme d'Yeux members seldom submitted a r t i c l e s to newspapers and magazines f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , nor d i d they w r i t e l e t t e r s to the e d i t o r . * 9 Gariepy, " E x p o s i t i o n Prisme d'Yeux," p. 5. 5 0 Guy Gagnon, " P e l l a n et Parent r e v e l e n t h i e r s o i r , " p. 4. 101 l i b e r a l i s m ' s anti-communist arguments. To these i n t e l l e c t u a l s , communism stood as a d e n i a l of the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s unique experience of l i f e , because i t c r e a t e d a t a b u l a rasa of i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n i t s quest f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the ' d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t ' ; furthermore, i n the shadow of party machinery, the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y counted f o r l i t t l e , as "une seule chose importe: l e P a r t i et son r e g n e . " 5 1 Moreover, the e x i s t e n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l l i v i n g under communist r u l e was c o n s t a n t l y mediated by the i n v a s i o n s of the Party i n t o h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , and l i f e became a simple matter of s u r v i v a l i n a Kafkaesque world: Le communisme a p p a r a i t done comme un jeu f o r t complique, (soumis a d'innombrables f l u c t u a t i o n s de r e g i e s ) dans l e q u e l l'engage d o i t rechercher avant tout a devenir h a b i l e joueur....1'homme' communiste nous a p p a r a i t reelement comme un homme t r a q u e . 5 2 Communism's commitment to a c o l l e c t i v i s t , s i n g l e c l a s s s o c i e t y not only destroyed the p o s s i b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l developing in a unique way, but a l s o e r a d i c a t e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n at the c l a s s l e v e l : En donnant comme but ul t i m e a l a r e v o l u t i o n , l e regne p r o l e t a r i e n et l a f a t a l i t e economique, [ l e s communistes] ont froidement et volontairement ignore l a p a r t de l ' i n d i v i d u . L'unique guide de ces hommes dans l e u r e n t r e p r i s e gigantesque fut l e machiav^lique p r i n c i p e que d i t que ' l a f i n j u s t i f i e l e s moyens.' 5 3 In 1948, t h e r e f o r e , the no t i o n of d i v e r s i t y became p o l i t i c i z e d , 5 1 Lauzon and Leger, "Le zero a l ' i n f i n i , " p. 5. 5 2 Parent, "Mains Sales et Communisme," p. 3. 5 3 Lauzon and Leger, "Le ze"ro a l ' i n f i n i , " p. 5. 102 d e s p i t e the f a c t that i t o r i g i n a l l y s u r f a c e d as a pa r t o f a quest f o r a d e p o l i t i c i z e d c u l t u r e . E c l e c t i c i s m became the standard l i b e r a l s o l u t i o n to a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l problems, and stood as the means by which the emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d be p r o t e c t e d ; i t stood as an i d e a l a g a i n s t which the p o l i t i c a l i n i q u i t i e s of communism c o u l d be measured: Pour nous, nous croyons encore a l a democratie, a l a pensee l i b r e , multiforme, t S t o n n a n t e , p r o g r e s s i v e . Nous pr£f6rons une recherche, s i p e n i b l e q u ' e l l e s o i t , au s i l e n c e mortel des pays e t o u f f e s . . . . L ' a n t i -communisme, nous en sommes encore, s i 1'on entend par l a o p p o s i t i o n a une conception exclusivement m a t e r i a l i s t e de l a v i e , m u t i l a n t 1'homme dans son d e s t i n s p i r i t u e l . 5 " The arguments in favour of the s u p e r i o r i t y of the d i v e r s i t y of the p o l i t i c a l system of contemporary Quebec, however i d e a l i s t i c and a l t r u i s t i c they s u p e r f i c i a l l y appear, are e s s e n t i a l l y a defense of the c u r r e n t mode of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which was based on c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; that t h i s defense was c a r r i e d out by the b e n e f i c i a r i e s of the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e — t h e educated upper middle c l a s s — d i m i n i s h e s the p o s s i b i l i t y that d i v e r s i t y was c e l e b r a t e d f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c m e r i t s a l o n e . 5 5 In matters of c u l t u r e l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s a l s o supported d i v e r s i t y , a concept they equated with modernity and p r o g r e s s : D i f f e r e n t e s tendances de l ' a r t moderne y etant r e p r e s e n t e e s . . . . La d i v e r s i t e , c ' e s t bien une 5" C a m i l l e L a u r i n , "Greves, greves, greves," Le Q u a r t i e r  L a t i n , 10 October 1947, p. 1. 5 5 On p l u r a l i s m as a concept b e n e f i c i a l to a dominant c l a s s , see S a r t r e , Search f o r a Method, p. 19. 103 c a r a c t i r i s t i q u e de l ' a r t moderne, chaque a r t i s t e trouvant beaucoup de ses ressources de l a v i e i n t e r i e u r e , c o n s c i e n t e ou s u b c o n s c i e n t e . 5 6 E c l e c t i c i s m was v a l u a b l e because i t rendered a form of a r t — m o d e r n i t y — m o r e p a l a t a b l e to a p u b l i c which was otherwise h o s t i l e to i t : I l [Prisme d'Yeux] es t a i n s i prouv£ a un p u b l i c t r o p souvent mefiant q u e . l ' a r t moderne n'est pas une r e a l i t e i n d i v i s i b l e q u ' i l d o i t a ccepter ou r e j e t e r en b l o c , mais au c o n t r a i r e q u ' i l y e x i s t e p l u s i e u r s tendances et s u r t o u t des a r t i s t e s t r d s d i f f e r e n t s l e s uns des a u t r e s . 5 7 Why were l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s so anxious to have modern a r t supported by the general p u b l i c ? The answer hinges on t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l scheme. As a r b i t e r s of high c u l t u r e , l i b e r a l s s a n c tioned a form of a r t a l i e n to those s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y whose p o l i t i c a l and a e s t h e t i c i d e o l o g i e s were d i f f e r e n t to t h e i r own; at the same time, however, they n a i v e l y b e l i e v e d that given s u f f i c i e n t l y broad c h o i c e s , the p u b l i c c o u l d l e a r n to understand and support a r t which d i d not r e f l e c t t h e i r own v a l u e s . T h i s form of populism, however, c a r r i e s with i t some unsavoury i m p l i c a t i o n s . By arguing in favour of the widespread a s s i m i l a t i o n of an a e s t h e t i c conveying v a l u e s p e c u l i a r to l i b e r a l s and s u p p o r t i v e of t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y , l i b e r a l s were simply c o n s o l i d a t i n g that e l e v a t e d p'osition. The p o s i t i v e l i b e r a l r e a c t i o n to the Prisme d'Yeux's d i v e r s i t y reverses the p o s i t i o n which they took on t h i s issue with respect to the CAS; while the Prisme d'Yeux's e c l e c t i c i s m 5 6 Gariepy, "Exposition" Prisme d'Yeux," p. 5 . 5 7 I b i d . 1 04 s i g n i f i e d a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the group's commitment to freedom, the a e s t h e t i c melange which c o n s t i t u t e d the CAS denoted tenebrous a r t i s t i c g o a ls and a e s t h e t i c a i m l e s s n e s s . The q u e s t i o n of modernity and l i b e r a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t , c l a r i f i e s t h e i r a p p a r e n t l y e r r a t i c assessment of the issue of a e s t h e t i c d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . L i b e r a l c r i t i c s regarded themselves as ardent supporters of p r o g r e s s i v e c u l t u r e , and consequently, found i t d i f f i c u l t to countenance those forms of t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n which stood as a v i s u a l reproach to modernism; because the CAS c o n t a i n e d c o n s e r v a t i v e e l e m e n t s , 5 8 l i b e r a l c r i t i c s regarded t h e i r presence as an o b s t a c l e to the entrenchment of ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' forms of a r t , and t h e r e f o r e i n d i r e c t l y c r i t i c i z e d the S o c i e t y f o r t o l e r a t i n g these members by q u e s t i o n i n g i t s a e s t h e t i c coherence. It was, however, a l s o the presence of unconscionably r a d i c a l elements,--that i s , the Automatistes--which a l s o caused these i n t e l l e c t u a l s to regard the CAS as a l a r m i n g l y fragmented; i f d i v e r s i t y provoked such a p o l a r i z a t i o n , or i f i t favoured i n c l u s i o n of a r t i s t s anathema to t h e i r outlook, l i b e r a l s abandoned t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e to i t . On the c o n t r a r y , l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s saw the s t y l i s t i c d i v e r s i t y of the Prisme d'Yeux as e x i s t i n g e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the genus of one major a e s t h e t i c category, modernity, one which was a c c e p t a b l e to them: 5 8 These a r t i s t s p a i n t e d c o n v e n t i o n a l s u b j e c t s such as landscape, s t i l l l i f e , and p o r t r a i t u r e with a high degree of n a t u r a l i s m , and i n c l u d e d such a r t i s t s as P h i l i p Surrey, E r i c Goldberg, J o r i Smith, A l l a n H a r r i s o n , M i l l e r B r i t t a i n , P i e r c y Younger, and Fanny Wiselberg. 105 La premiere e x p o s i t i o n temoignait d'une grande d i v e r s i t e . . . a u c u n des a r t i s t e s r e p r e s e n t e s , sans doute, ne s'en t i e n t a l a d e s c r i p t i o n p u r e . 5 9 Thus, fo r l i b e r a l c r i t i c s d i v e r s i t y was only a c c e p t a b l e i f i t o c c u r r e d w i t h i n one spectrum of a v a i l a b l e modes of a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , namely, modernity as i t had been d e f i n e d i n P a r i s d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the c e n t u r y . The l i b e r a l a l l i a n c e with the f o r c e s of 'advanced' a r t and i t s impatience with n o t i c e a b l y t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e s can be viewed as a f u n c t i o n of the i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s of francophone l i b e r a l i s m : p a r t i s a n s of c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c s at the conceptual and pragmatic l e v e l , but preoccupied with an image of themselves as p r o g r e s s i v e s , l i b e r a l s papered over t h e i r i l l i b e r a l p o l i t i c s by r e d o u b l i n g t h e i r defense of such o s t e n s i b l e c u l t u r a l modernists as the Prisme d'Yeux. Despite h i s censure of p o l i t i c i z e d a r t , P e l l a n b e l i e v e d that a r t should have some kind of connection with s o c i e t y : Art should be a healthy by-product of s o c i e t y . . . . T h e great a r t i s t echoes the dominating s o c i a l accents of h i s age....I myself want to p a i n t f o r p e o p l e . 6 0 P e l l e n ' s conception of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r t to s o c i e t y i s rather more p o l i t i c a l than would be a n t i c i p a t e d coming from such a s t r i d e n t l y a p o l i t i c a l a r t i s t : 'dominating s o c i a l accents' i s an innocuous synonym for 'dominant i d e o l o g y , ' which does not become dominant through any i n t r i n s i c v i r t u e or merit, but 5 9 "La Jeune P e i n t u r e : E l l e forme un nouveau groupe," p. 4 . 6 0 P e l l a n quoted by Paul Duval, "The Work of A l f r e d P e l l a n , " Here and Now 1 (January 1949): 53, 54. 106 r a t h e r as a r e s u l t of h i s t o r i c a l and economic f a c t o r s which are u n i n f l u e n c e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of inherent worth. Because i d e o l o g i e s are p o l i t i c a l i n both p a r t i s a n and n o n - p a r t i s a n senses, P e l l a n i s r e a l l y a d v o c a ting an a r t which i s i m p l i c i t l y p o l i t i c a l , i m p l i c i t l y s u p p o r t i v e of the s t a t u s quo. L i k e P e l l a n , l i b e r a l c r i t i c s i n Quebec p e r c e i v e d a r t as m o d i f i e d by the s o c i e t y surrounding i t , although they continued to advocate a p o l i t i c i s m i n a r t . Gariepy, f o r i n s t a n c e , s t a t e d that La p e i n t u r e est 1'expression p l a s t i q u e d'une Epoque troubl§e et i n q u i e t e ou 1'homme se trouve aux p r i s e s avec des problemes nouveaux et d i f f i c i l e s . 6 1 L i k e most l i b e r a l c r i t i c s , and l i k e P e l l a n h i m s e l f , Gariepy expected a r t to remain a p o l i t i c a l while responding to the a n x i e t i e s of the contemporary world. What both P e l l a n and francophone l i b e r a l s overlooked, however, was that an a r t i s t ' s response to h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s was a f f e c t e d by s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , and as a consequence, s p e c i f i c i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , both of which had p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s . Thus, although l i b e r a l c r i t i c s and P e l l a n c a t e g o r i c a l l y r e j e c t e d a r t which was o v e r t l y p o l i t i c a l , they approved of a r t which was p o l i t i c i z e d i n s o f a r as i t c a r r i e d i d e o l o g i c a l messages compatible with t h e i r own; as long as such a r t c a r r i e d messages mimetic of t h e i r own ideology, however, l i b e r a l s c o u l d not recognize e i t h e r the i d e o l o g i c a l or p o l i t i c a l content of such 6 1 Gariepy, "A l a S o c i e t e d'Art Contemporain," p. 6. 1 07 works. 6 2 When such c r i t i c s as Simard wrote fa v o u r a b l y of the Prisme d'Yeux, and accorded to i t the r o l e of expanding " l a connaissance de l ' a r t , d'en f a v o r i s e r 1' appre"c i a t i o n et de c o l l a b o r e r a l a c r e a t i o n d'un commun langage de v i s i o n " 6 3 they f a c i l i t a t e d the entrenchment of the l i b e r a l i d e ology v i a the Prisme d'Yeux, thereby ' n a t u r a l i s i n g ' t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s at the c u l t u r a l l e v e l : by arguing i n favour of a r t which spoke f o r and to francophone l i b e r a l i s m , but by p r e s e n t i n g i t as c o n t a i n i n g u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d messages, l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s both r a t i o n a l i z e d and c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n in the s o c i a l scheme, masking the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between the image of permanence and i n e v i t a b i l i t y t h e i r ideology c r e a t e d and 6 2 Or they d i d not want to recognize the dependence of a r t on ideology; c f . Werekmeister, "Marx on Ideology and A r t , " "Looking back on the a r t that d i d and does e x i s t , the ph i l o s o p h e r ' s task, a c c o r d i n g to Marx, w i l l be to point out i t s c o n s t a n t estrangement f r o m i t s i d e a l o r U t o p i a n p e r f e c t i o n . He w i l l demonstrate that the 'semblance of autonomy' p r o j e c t e d i n t o i d e o l o g i c a l products i s by d e f i n i t i o n a f i c t i t i o u s one. As an exc e p t i o n , the notion of an autonomy of a r t i s not f i c t i t i o u s ; on the c o n t r a r y , i t i s fundamental f o r both the a r t of the Greeks and the a r t spontaneously c r e a t e d by emancipated i n d i v i d u a l s of the f u t u r e . But h i s t o r y shows a r t ta n g l e d i n i d e o l o g i c a l concerns. Time and again, i t can be shown how the semblance of i t s autonomy under these c o n d i t i o n s was i n f a c t c o n t r i v e d to serve p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s of s o c i a l l y organized m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n " (p. 508). While ideology i n f i l t r a t e s a r t and de s t r o y s i t s autonomy, i t i s a l s o , i n a sense, ' i n v i s i b l e ' : "the essence of ideology i s to be un s t a b l e , protean, omnipresent but nowhere, using e v e r y t h i n g but a l t e r i n g nothing, a l t e r n a t e l y a content and a form" ( T . J . C l a r k , "The C o n d i t i o n s of A r t i s t i c C r e a t i o n , " Times  L i t e r a r y Supplement (London), 24 May 1974, p. 562). 6 3 Simard, "Autour du Prisme d'Yeux." 108 h i s t o r i c a l evidence to the c o n t r a r y . 6 " The c l a i m s of l i b e r a l francophone i d e o l o g y and those of the Prisme d'Yeux were, of course, c h a l l e n g e d by anglophone l i b e r a l s , new francophone l i b e r a l s , and the Automatistes. The Automatistes most v i g o r o u s l y c o n t e s t e d the dominant ideology of Quebec in t h e i r manifesto, the Refus G l o b a l , which a l s o stands as a r e b u t t a l to the Prisme d'Yeux m a n i f e s t o . 6 5 U n l i k e the Prisme d'Yeux, the : Automatistes r e l e a s e d the Refus G l o b a l 6* Cf. note 60, Chapter I. As H a d j i n i c o l a o u has p o i n t e d out i n Art H i s t o r y and C l a s s S t r u g g l e , c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s , f o r the most p a r t , a s i l e n t a f f a i r , one that i s simultaneously ignored and present i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a s o c i a l c l a s s , and e s p e c i a l l y in a r t : "Speaking of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n p a i n t i n g does not imply that one i s adhering to a s i m p l i s t i c view which holds that because a p a i n t i n g i s supposed to represent something and because one sees t h i s something jjn i t , one must expect to see e i t h e r s o c i a l c l a s s e s s i l e n t l y conducting t h e i r b a t t l e s over the whole area of p a i n t i n g , or t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s appearing and denouncing t h e i r c l a s s enemies with o u t s t r e t c h e d f i n g e r s , as i f they were on the stage. "Nothing c o u l d be f u r t h e r from the t r u t h . . . . T o wish to see them presupposes a very crude idea of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , ideology, and p i c t u r e p r o d u c t i o n . In f a c t , n e i t h e r s o c i a l c l a s s e s nor the s t r u g g l e between them appears as such in p a i n t i n g . . . . t h i s  c o n f l i c t i s nowhere openly v i s i b l e . What i s v i s i b l e i s , on the one hand, i t s e f f e c t s , and on the other the 'self-awareness' or perhaps lack of self-awareness of s o c i a l c l a s s e s , that i s to say t h e i r i d eology" (p. 14-15). 6 5 D r a f t s of the manifesto were c i r c u l a t i n g l a t e i n 1947; Gagnon suggests that a nine page document, "La t r a n s f o r m a t i o n c o n t i n u e l l e , " w r i t t e n i n 1947, may have been a f i r s t d r a f t of the Refus G l o b a l (Borduas: Bi o g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , p. 233). In a 1971 i n t e r v i e w Maurice Perron a f f i r m e d that the manifesto had been d r a f t e d long before i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n August 1948: "Durant 1'hiver de 1947-1948, j ' h a b i t a i s S a i n t - H i l a i r e e t, a c e t t e Ipoque, un premier j e t du Refus G l o b a l a v a i t c i r c u l e parmi l e groupe. P u i s , Borduas a v a i t r e t i r 6 ce t e x t e - l a qui a ete r e p r i s en e n t i e r et c ' e s t ce deuxieme t e x t e qui f u t p u b l i e " (Henri Barras, "Quand l e s automatistes p a r l e n t des a u t o m a t i s t e s , " C u l t u r e V i v a n t e 3 [September 1971]: 29). 109 independent of an e x h i b i t i o n , and s t a r t i n g on August 4, 1948, s o l d i t to the p u b l i c at the L i b r a i r i e T r a n q u i l l e . 6 6 One of the dominant themes of the Refus G l o b a l i s one which a l s o r e c e i v e d prominence i n the Prisme d'Yeux manifesto, the r e p u d i a t i o n of p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s i n a r t . The Automatistes i n s i s t e d t h a t a l l a r t remain autonomous from the v i c i s s i t u d e s of p o l i t i c s and s o c i e t y , but at the same time they i n s i s t e d that the value of a r t was p r e d i c a t e d on i t s o p p o s i t i o n to e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l norms: , • Magic booty, m a g i c a l l y wrested from the unknown, l i e s at our f e e t . I t has been gathered by the t r u e poets. I t s power to transform i s measured by the v i o l e n c e shown a g a i n s t i t and by i t s r e s i s t a n c e i n the end to e x p l o i t a t ion....The items of t h i s t r e a s u r e r e v e a l themselves, i n v i o l a b l e , to our s o c i e t y . They remain • the i n c o r r u p t i b l e , s e n s i t i v e legacy f o r tomorrow. They were ordained spontaneously o u t s i d e of and i n o p p o s i t i o n to c i v i l i z a t i o n and await freedom from i t s r e s t r a i n t s to become a c t i v e i n the s o c i a l scheme. 6 7 While the Automatistes c h a r a c t e r i z e d great a r t as anathema to 6 6 The Automatistes p r i n t e d 400 c o p i e s of of the manifesto themselves, as Maurice Perron notes in "Quand l e s automatistes p a r l e n t " : "Tout l e monde s ' e t a i t c o t i s e , on a v a i t loue un Gestetner, on a v a i t achete une q u a n t i t e de papier et en groupe on l ' a v a i t imprime dans 1'appartement des Gauvreau....Henri T r a n q u i l l e a v a i t accepte d'en f a i r e l a d i s t r i b u t i o n mais nous avons decide d'en donner a p l u s i e u r s l i b r a i r i e s tout s'est ecoule t r e s rapidement, l'espace d'un mois je pense" (p. 29-30). According to S t u a r t Keate, in Time (Canadian E d i t i o n ) , the manifesto c o s t $1.00 ("L'Automatiste," 18 October 1948, p. 22); i n the same a r t i c l e , he notes that "the Mani f e s t e s o l d only 250 c o p i e s , " but by December, Borduas' correspondence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the manifesto had been s o l d out f o r at l e a s t a month (see l e t t e r to Henri Masson, 28 December 1948, Borduas A r c h i v e s ) . I t appears reasonable, then to conclude that the Refus G l o b a l was s o l d out sometime in November. 6 7 Refus G l o b a l , p. 50. 110 s o c i a l norms, they do not see such o p p o s i t i o n to the s t a t u s quo as a p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . Thus because the Automatistes adopted a p o s i t i o n a n t a g o n i s t i c to francophone l i b e r a l i s m , but c l u n g to a p o l i t i c i s m , they needed to r a t i o n a l i z e t h i s o p p o s i t i o n as a d i f f e r e n c e i n the a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h between ' i n v i o l a b l e t r e a s u r e s ' and c o r r u p t e d a r t , r a t h e r than as a d i f f e r e n c e of p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . Moreover, opposed to the Quebec s t a t u s quo, but i n need of i t s patronage, the A u t o m a t i s t e s 6 8 had to p o r t r a y antagonism to the s t a t u s quo as an i n e l u c t a b l e c o n d i t i o n of a e s t h e t i c genius. According to the Refus G l o b a l , genius was by d e f i n i t i o n beyond the grasp of the s t a t u s quo, while the products of a e s t h e t i c greatness became p u t r e f i e d through co n t a c t with the s t a t u s quo: For c e n t u r i e s , the b o u n t i f u l products of p o e t i c a c t i v i t y have been doomed on the s o c i a l l e v e l : v i o l e n t l y r e j e c t e d by the upper s t r a t a of s o c i e t y , or warped i r r e v o c a b l y by them and f a l s e l y a s s i m i l a t e d . 6 9 In the Refus G l o b a l , the Automatistes do not denounce the s t a t u s quo i n p u r e l y a b s t r a c t terms, but add q u a l i f i e r s to t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of i t , v o i c i n g o p p o s i t i o n to i t s values in s p e c i f i c terms. The f i r s t paragraph of the Refus G l o b a l v i l i f i e s n a t i o n a l i s m , conservatism, and C a t h o l i c i s m , the foundations of the dominant p o l i t i c a l ideology of Quebec: Descendents of modest French-Canadian f a m i l i e s , 6 8 The Automatistes were not the only ones in t h i s p o s i t i o n ; t h e i r dilemma was shared by such w r i t e r s as Remi-Paul Forgues, Paul-Marie Lap o i n t e , J e a n - J u l e s Richard, G i l l e s Henault, Jacques Fe r r o n , Gerard B e s s e t t e . 6 9 Refus G l o b a l , p. 47. 111 l a b o u r e r s or p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s , from our a r r i v a l on t h i s s o i l up to the present day kept French and C a t h o l i c by r e s i s t a n c e to the conqueror, by an i r r a t i o n a l attachment to the past, by s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e and se n t i m e n t a l p r i d e and other c o m p u l s i o n s . 7 0 Thus, the Automatistes p l a c e d themselves on the s i d e of those who refused to p a r t i c i p a t e i n n a t i o n a l i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m , who vaunted 'progress,' and who f e l t l i t t l e p r i d e f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l achievements of Quebec. At that time, the p r i n c i p a l advocates of such a p o s i t i o n were anglophone l i b e r a l s and the new l i b e r a l s of Quebec, who s u b s c r i b e d to a s i m i l a r view of the past and present p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , but who d i d not denounce i t i n such s t r i d e n t terms. The response of d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s of the Quebec s t a t u s quo to the Refus G l o b a l was immediate and u n i f o r m l y h o s t i l e , although t h i s h o s t i l i t y took many forms. Montreal-Mat i n , the Montreal d a i l y , g e n e r a l l y f a i t h f u l to the Union N a t i o n a l e , 7 1 c r i t i c i z e d the Automatistes f o r mounting an a t t a c k on " l a c i v i l i s a t i o n o c c i d e n t a l e bourgeois'e, de l ' o r d r e e t a b l i t e l que nous l e connaissons en Europe et. dans l a p r o v i n c e de Quebec." 7 2 Because the Refus G l o b a l advocated immorality, the very values of western c i v i l i z a t i o n appeared to be at stake, j e o p a r d i z e d by an e n t i r e catalogue of v i c e s : M a t e r i a l i s m e , amoralisme systematique, i r r a t i o n a l i s m e , i n s t i n c t i v i s m e q u i , revendiquant l e d r o i t l e p l u s 7 0 I b i d . , p. 45. 7 1 B e a u l i e u and Hamelin, Les journaux du Quebec, p. 122-123. 7 2 R o l l a n d Boulanger, "Dynamitage automatiste a l a L i b r a i r i e T r a n q u i l l e , " Montreal-Matin, 9 August 1948, p. 5. 1 12 a b s o l u a l a l i c e n c e bien p l u s qu'a l a l i b e r t e , r e f u s e n t , l i e s ensemble dans une commune c o n j u r a t i o n , de se l a i s s e r f r e i n e r par aucune norme mais qui t e n t e n t par contre d ' e t a b l i r l a n o r m a l i s a t i o n de 1'anormal. 7 3 From the p o i n t of view of Montreal-Mat i n , t h e r e f o r e , the Automatiste's d o c t r i n e s posed a t h r e a t to s o c i e t y at the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , r a t h e r than at the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , by n o t i n g that the Automatistes c h a l l e n g e d both ' l a c i v i l i s a t i o n o c c i d e n t a l e ' and the moral precepts of every i n d i v i d u a l i n Quebec, Montreal-Matin emphasized the Automatiste t h r e a t to i t s readers' v a l u e s . The v o c a b u l a r l y of the paper's a t t a c k on the Automatistes i s a l s o r e v e a l i n g about the reasons f o r i t s response: the d e s t r u c t i o n of the e s t a b l i s h e d order, m a t e r i a l i s m and immorality were a l l c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with another s o c i a l menace, communism, and the party a s s o c i a t e d with i t i n the p o l i t i c a l matrix of Montrgal-Matin, the L i b e r a l P a r t y . T h e r e f o r e , while Montreal-Matin does not a l l e g e that the Automatistes are communists (or L i b e r a l s ) , the paper does p l a y on i t s audience's Cold War a n x i e t i e s in order to demolish the arguments contained w i t h i n the Refus G l o b a l , and i n order to forge connections between the Automatistes and the two 7 3 I b i d . , p. 7. Boulanger's r e f e r e n c e to l i c e n c e i s an a l l u s i o n to a concept a l l i e d with one of the heroes of the European S u r r e a l i s t s , de Sade. While Borduas was not as i n t e r e s t e d i n de Sade as h i s European c o u n t e r p a r t s , he n e v e r t h e l e s s regarded him as a symbol of l i b e r a t i o n . In the f i r s t d r a f t of the Refus G l o b a l , Borduas comments, " A f t e r two c e n t u r i e s one s t i l l cannot f i n d the works of de Sade in a l i b r a r y . But i t i s not r e a l l y de Sade who i s a l i e n to human s o c i e t y , i t i s the r u l i n g c l a s s who are c e n s o r i n g h i s work" ("La t r a n s f o r m a t i o n c o n t i n u e l l e , " in M e r i t s / W r i t i n g s , p. 42). T h i s r e f e r e n c e to de Sade, however, was e l i m i n a t e d from the f i n a l v e r s i o n of the Refus G l o b a l . 1 13 p o l i t i c a l menaces, communism and the L i b e r a l p a r t y . Montreal-Mat in c a t e r e d to a p o l i t i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l audience and took s e r i o u s l y the c h a l l e n g e presented to the i n t e l l e c t u a l e stablishment, but the other Union N a t i o n a l e paper in Montreal, Le P e t i t J o u r n a l , was d i r e c t e d to a mass, 'low-brow' audience; i t s d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c a l t e r e d the focus and manner of i t s a t t a c k on the Refus G l o b a l . U n l i k e Montreal-Mat i n , Le P e t i t J o u r n a l simply summarized the contents of the Refus G l o b a l without e d i t o r i a l i z i n g on i t to a s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e . 7 " The paper's only i n t e r p r e t i v e comments on the Refus G l o b a l , were humorous ones, with the a r t i c l e on the manifesto e n t i t l e d "Ecartelement et jus de tomate," a h e a d l i n e whose ir o n y suggests that the manifesto i s more l u d i c r o u s than t h r e a t e n i n g in the eyes of the paper's e d i t o r s . The l a s t l i n e in i t s a r t i c l e i n d i c a t e s why the paper d i d not p e r c e i v e the manifesto as a s e r i o u s c h a l l e n g e to i t s v a l u e s : "Et c'est l a , dans notre monde r a t i o n n e l et non i n i t i e , ce qui est l e p l u s pres de quelques mets au...tomate!" 7 5 Le P e t i t J o u r n a l ' s j o c u l a r approach to the contents of the manifesto, as w e l l as i t s d e f i n i t i o n of i t s e l f and i t s readers as the 'non i n i t i e , ' 7 " See a l s o : " T r a n q u i l l e r e c o i t l e s a u t o m a t i s t e s , " Le  P e t i t J o u r n a l , 8 August 1948; Andre Lecompte, " L ' o e i l en c o u l i s s e , " Le P e t i t J o u r n a l , 15 August 1948, p. 51; Y.G., "Amour, D e s i r , V e r t i g e , " Le P e t i t J o u r n a l , 5 September 1948, p. 2; "Les automatistes s'elevent c o n t r e l ' a f f a i r e Borduas," Le  P e t i t J o u r n a l , 19 September 1948, p. 26; " E q u i l i b r e s u r r ^ a l i s t e " (Photograph), Le P e t i t J o u r n a l , 19 September 1948, p. 26. 7 5 "Ecartelement et jus de tomate. Nos Automatistes annoncent l a decadence chre"tienne et p r o p h e t i s e n t l'avenement du regne de 1 ' i n s t i n c t , " Le P e t i t J o u r n a l , 15 August 1948, p. 28. 1 1 4 i n d i c a t e s t hat i t r e a l i z e d that the Automatistes were not d i r e c t l y a t t a c k i n g the v a l u e s of i t s readers, but r a t h e r those of another realm in Quebec s o c i e t y , the ' i n i t i e , ' the i n t e l l e c t u a l s Of Quebec, the consumers and producers of the high-brow c u l t u r e of the p r o v i n c e . The response of the r e l i g i o u s p r e s s , however, resembles that of Montr6al-Matin i n s o f a r as i t was both c r i t i c a l of the Refus G l o b a l and took i t s contents s e r i o u s l y . Ernest Gagnon, w r i t i n g i n R e l a t i o n s condemns the Automatistes f o r denouncing the church, western c i v i l i z a t i o n and the government: " [ i l s s o n t ] . . . c o n t r e l a c i v i l i s a t i o n . . . c o n t r e l'£glise u n i v e r s e l l e , c o n t r e tous l e s gouvernements....Tout c e l a condamne 1'automatisme." 7 6 Because the church so c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of the p r o v i n c e , the negative response of such e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s as Ernest Gagnon to the manifesto i s a defence of t h e i r advantageous p o s i t i o n i n the c u l t u r a l l i f e of Quebec. The most s t r i n g e n t and prolonged a t t a c k on the Refus  G l o b a l by a c l e r i c came from the p r i e s t Hyacinthe-Marie R o b i l -l a r d , who p u b l i s h e d numerous a r t i c l e s i n the r e l i g i o u s and sec u l a r press, and who gave l e c t u r e s on the s u b j e c t of "Le surre"al-isme et l a r e v o l u t i o n des i n t e l l e c t u e l s " , d u r i n g the f a l l of 1948. 7 7 R o b i l l a r d not only c a s t i g a t e d the Automatistes on the 7 6 Ernest Gagnon, "Refus G l o b a l , " R e l a t i o n s (October 1948), p. 293. 7 7 Hyacinthe-Marie R o b i l l a r d , "Le manifeste de nos surr£alistes," Notre Temps, 4 September 1948, p. 4;"Refus G l o b a l , " A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , 22 September 1948, p. 40; "Le S u r r g a l i s m e . La r e v o l u t i o n des i n t e l l e c t u e l s . " Revue  Dominicaine 54 (December 1948): p. 276; "Le s u r r e a l i s m e et l a 1 15 f a m i l i a r grounds that they opposed both the church and the government, and a l s o because he saw d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n s between Automatism and communism. Accor d i n g to R o b i l l a r d , s u r r e a l i s m (a movement which he does not r e a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h from automatism) was "une t e n t a t i v e de R e v o l u t i o n i n t e l l e c t u e l l e , p a r a l l e l e a son genre, a l a r e v o l u t i o n marxiste, et d e s t i n e e a l a c o m p l e t e r . " 7 8 Automatism was dangerous because i t c a r r i e d out the M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n at the l e v e l of the s p i r i t , and was t h e r e f o r e an agent of c l a s s warfare: Or, quel sera 1'instrument de c e t t e R e v o l u t i o n ? Ce sera 1' automat i sme sur r a t i o n n e l : formule d.'art technique de l a pensee s u r t o u t , guerre de c l a s s e s engagees dans l e domain de l ' e s p r i t e ntre l e bourgeoisisme de l a l o g i q u e t r a d i t i o n n e l l e et l e p r o l e t a r i a t de »1' i n c o n s c i e n t opprime"e. 7 9 R o b i l l a r d ' s connections between s u r r e a l i s m and communism, automatism and Marxism were p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t , as both a r t i s t i c movements had been a f f i l i a t e d with the l e f t at d i f f e r e n t stages in t h e i r development. 8 0 By 1948, however, both the European r e v o l u t i o n , " Le Canada,18 December 1948, p. 14; "Le s u r r e a l i s m e est mort, d i t , l e R.P. R o b i l l a r d , " Le Canada, 20 December 1948, p. 16; "Le s u r r e a l i s m e et l a r e v o l u t i o n des i n t e l l e c t u e l s , " Le Devoir, 20 December 1948, p. 10. 7 8 R o b i l l a r d , "Le S u r r e a l i s m e . La r e v o l u t i o n des i n t e l l e c t u e l s , " p. 276. 7 9 I b i d . , p. 278-279. 8 0 See below, pp. 132-135, on the a f f i l i a t i o n of the Automatistes with the l e f t . On the p o l i t i c s of the European s u r r e a l i s t s , see N i c o l e Racine, " L ' A s s o c i a t i o n des E c r i v a i n s et A r t i s t e s R e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s (A.E.A.R.): La revue Commune et l a l u t t e i d e o l o g i q u e contre l e fascisme (1932-1936)," Le Mouvement  S o c i a l e No. 54 (January-March 1966): 29-47; N i c o l e Racine, "Une revue d ' i n t e l l e c t u e l s communistes dans l e s annees v i n g t : C l a r t e 116 S u r r e a l i s t s and the Quebec Automatistes had severed t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s with the l e f t , and t h e r e f o r e R o b i l l a r d ' s p a r a l l e l s are made e i t h e r out of ignorance or the d e s i r e to d i s c r e d i t the the Automatistes on the grounds of p o l i t i c s ; communist sympathizers or ' f e l l o w - t r a v e l l e r s ' became suspect, and were feared because they were i d e o l o g i c a l l y , i f not a c t u a l l y a f f i l i a t e d with the new enemy, the Soviet Union, i n the new war. Charges of communism became an e f f e c t i v e weapon with which to attack any group c h a l l e n g i n g the values and p o l i t i c a l power of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the c l e r g y , and the government. The response of the l i b e r a l , s e c u l a r press was no l e s s c r i t i c a l than that of the Union N a t i o n a l e p a r t y organs and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r e s s . The most b i t t e r and s u s t a i n e d a t t a c k s on the Refus G l o b a l appeared i n Le Devoir, p r i m a r i l y i n columns w r i t t e n by Gerard P e l l e t ' i e r . P e l l e t i e r ' s main o b j e c t i o n to the Refus G l o b a l — a p a r t from i t s c r i t i c i s m of the church and C h r i s t i a n i t y , which he rebuts i n terms analogous to R o b i l l a r d ' s - - w a s the manifesto's r e f u s a l to countenance d i s p a r a t e i d e o l o g i e s , one of francophone l i b e r a l i s m ' s main a c r i t e r i o n of freedom: (1921-1928)," Revue f r a n c a i s e de sc i e n c e p o l i t i q u e 1 8 (June 1967): 484-519; Robert S. Short, "The P o l i t i c s of S u r r e a l i s m 1920-1936," J o u r n a l of Contemporary H i s t o r y 1 (1966): 3-25; Jean Touchard, "Le P a r t i Communiste F r a n c a i s et l e s i n t e l l e c t u e l s (1920-1939): avant-propos," -Revue f r a n c a i s e de  s c i e n c e p o l i t i q u e 17 (June 1967): 468-83; David Caute, Communism and the French I n t e l l e c t u a l s 1914-1960 (London: Andr£ Deutsch, 1964); Andr§ T h i r i o n , R g v o l u t i o n n a i r e s sans r e v o l u t i o n ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s Robert Laffont -) 1972). 1 1 7 Car M. Borduas v a t i c a n e comme un prophete avec un mepris t o t a l e pour toute demonstration ou preuve r a t i o n e l l e . . . . V o i l a q u i tend a nous f i x e r dans un c l i m a t s e c t a i r e . . . c e dogmatisme n o u v e l l e maniere ressemble t r o p a c e l u i que l ' a u t e u r condamne. V o i l a l e comble de l a l o u f o u q u e r i e d angereuse. 8 1 The Refus G l o b a l was so t h r e a t e n i n g , t h e r e f o r e , because i t c h a l l e n g e d the s t a t u s quo on both s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , such as the Church and i t s d o c t r i n e s , as w e l l as on that fundamental a t t r i b u t e of l i b e r a l i d e o l o gy, e c l e c t i c i s m . Of a l l the c r i t i c s of the Refus G l o b a l , P e l l e t i e r was the only one who attempted to transform the manifesto's a t t a c k s i n t o an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the v a l u e s of a l i b e r a l s o c i e t y ; he maintained that although the Automatistes d e c l a r e d that Quebec s o c i e t y was o p p r e s s i v e and r e s t r i c t i v e , the f a c t that such a defamatory document c o u l d be s o l d and d i s c u s s e d r e v e a l e d how s t r o n g l y freedom was entrenched i n Quebec. By September 1948, such l i b e r a l s as P e l l e t i e r , of course, had f o r g o t t e n that only seven months before, the Communist Party newspaper, Combat, had been padlocked by the government, an a c t i o n they had s t r o n g l y supported, demonstrating that d i s s e n t a r t i c u l a t e d by a r t i s t s c o u l d be accommodated by l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s , whereas those a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s c o u l d not. In response to a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by s e v e r a l Automatistes defending Borduas and the Refus G l o b a l , P e l l e t i e r wrote, II est done normal que l e s amis de cet a r t i s t e v e u i l l e l e d6fendre publiquement, normal a u s s i , puisque nous ne vivons pas en d i c t a t u r e , q u ' i l s ne trouvent pas 8 1 Gerard P e l l e t i e r , "Deux ages, deux manieres," Le Devoir, 25 September 1948, p. 8. 118 toutes l e . p o r t e s f e r m e e s . 8 2 In the eyes of Quebec l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s , 'dogmatisme exageree' and 'sectarisme e t r o i t ' made the Automatistes the opponents of freedom; only l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o u l d act as defenders of the f a i t h , because only they were t o l e r a n t of m u l t i p l e p o i n t s of view. While francophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s denounced the Refus G l o b a l as d o g m a t i c a l l y p o l e m i c a l , an a f f r o n t to u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s , and t h e i r concept of freedom, anglophone l i b e r a l s l i o n i z e d i t . Canadian a r t h i s t o r i a n s of the post-war p e r i o d have g e n e r a l l y minimized the anglophone response to the Refus G l o b a l ; Francois-Marc Gagnon's comments are t y p i c a l : " l a presse angl-a i s e . . . n ' a t t a c h e r a pas beaucoup d'importance au m a n i f e s t e . " 8 3 The. reasons f o r such an assessment of the E n g l i s h response to the Refus G l o b a l i s found w i t h i n most analyses of Borduas' c a r e e r ; f o r the past three decades, the m a j o r i t y of Canadian a r t and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i a n s have upheld Borduas as a symbol of the n e o - n a t i o n a l i s t , and r a d i c a l 'new' Quebec which emerged in the l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s. P i e r r e Vadeboncoeur's assessment of the p o s i t i o n of Borduas i n Quebec's c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y — w h i c h Gagnon quotes immediately a f t e r h i s a n a l y s i s of the E n g l i s h response to the m a n i f e s t o — i s i n d i c a t i v e of the r o l e which most l i b e r a l h i s t o r i a n s have accorded to Borduas: Entendez l i b e r t y , entendez d e s i r , s o i f , f i d e l i t e . Entendez amour, reponse a l ' a p p e l , d r o i t u r e , 2 Gerard P e l l e t i e r , Le Devoir, 28 September 1948, p. 5. 3 Gagnon, Borduas, Biographie c r i t i q u e , p. 263. 119 i n t r a n s i g e a n c e , v o c a t i o n , flamme. I l [Borduas] s'est mis sur l a route. Dans notre c u l t u r e c o n t r a i n t e , ou domine 1'empdchement, dans notre p e t i t e c i v i l i s a t i o n apeuree et p r i s e de toutes p a r t s , i l a, rompant l e s amarres, i n t r o d u i t l e p r i n c i p e d'une s i n g u l i e r e animation. I l a pos6 l'exemple d'un a c t e . I I s'est avance jusqu'au bout de sa pensee. II a f a i t l ' e x p e r i e n c e complete de sa part de v e r i t e . II nous a totalement legue ce q u ' i l s a v a i t . E n f i n quelqu'un a v a i t tout l i v r e . 8 * Because l i b e r a l a r t h i s t o r i a n s regard Borduas as a hero of Quebec's c u l t u r a l 'awakening,' i t has been d i f f i c u l t f o r them to account f o r the p o s i t i v e E n g l i s h response—measurable i n reviews i n the p r e s s , as w e l l as i n s a l e s and e x h i b i t i o n s of h i s work—because to do so would be to minimize h i s s t a t u r e as a t r u l y Quebecois a r t i s t who spoke f o r and to those ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' s e c t i o n s of Quebec that p e r c e i v e d E n g l i s h Canada as the great enemy. Unable to e x p l a i n the E n g l i s h response to the Automatistes, a r t h i s t o r i a n s have tended to ignore i t 8 5 Borduas gained the high esteem of anglophone l i b e r a l s p a r t l y through h i s d e n u n c i a t i o n of D u p l e s s i s t v a l u e s . L i b e r a l s ' h o s t i l i t y towards D u p l e s s i s , as w e l l as t h e i r r e p u d i a t i o n of the Union N a t i o n a l e ' s c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , p r e d i s p o s e d them towards Borduas and the Automatistes. Only e i g h t months before the 8 " Quoted by Gagnon in Borduas: Bio g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , p. 2 6 3 . T h i s r e v e r e n t i a l a t t i t u d e has been c r i t i c i z e d " by F o u r n i e r and Laplante in"Borduas et 1'automatisme," p. 107: " l e s s p e c i a l i s t e s de l ' a r t transforment l'oeuvre admire en objet sacre et c o n t r i b u e n t a a c c r o i t r e et p r o d u i r e l e 'mystere,': Borduas et son oeuvre a p p a r a i s s e n t a l o r s , en e f f e c t , non seulement i n d e c h i f f r a b i e s mais a u s s i historiquement i m p o s s i b l e s . " 8 5 Gagnon i s the only a r t h i s t o r i a n who even b r i e f l y mentions the E n g l i s h response. 1 20 p u b l i c a t i o n of the Refus G l o b a l , the f e d e r a l l y funded p e r i o d i c a l , Canadian A r t , the only n a t i o n a l a r t magazine at the t i m e , 8 6 p r i n t e d an a r t i c l e by L o u i s Muhlstock d e c r y i n g the s t u l t e f y i n g a r t i s t i c and p o l i t i c a l atmosphere of Quebec. W r i t i n g of the c e n s o r s h i p of a French a r t magazine, C a r r e f o u r , the movie, Les enfants du p a r a d i s , and the removal of s e v e r a l p a i n t i n g s from v a r i o u s e x h i b i t i o n s in Montreal, Muhlstock wrote: These are only s l i g h t examples of the backwardness and narrow-mindedness of the pr o v i n c e I l i v e in....As a r t i s t s we must be f r e e to p a i n t and e x h i b i t what we f e e l . Here we are not f r e e . . . . I f we are s i l e n t about i t , we have no one but o u r s e l v e s to blame. 8 7 In Borduas and the Automatistes, anglophone l i b e r a l s found a r t i s t s who not only r e f u s e d to censor t h e i r animosity towards the D u p l e s s i s regime, but who a l s o v o i c e d t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s i n such a g g r e s s i v e terms t h a t they c o u l d not be overlooked e i t h e r w i t h i n or o u t s i d e of Quebec. 8 8 Consequently, when anglophone l i b e r a l s r e p o r t e d on the Refus G l o b a l , they saw the Automatistes as a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e i r own concerns about the s t a t e of the a r t s in Quebec, and t h e r e f o r e responded favourably to the group's 8 6 Canadian Art was funded by the f e d e r a l government through the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada; see "Canadian A r t , " Food  f o r Thought 10 (May 1950), p. 58. 8 7 L o u i s Muhlstock, "An Excess of Prudery," Canadian A r t 5 (Christmas 1947), p. 76, 78. 8 8 See, f o r example, S t u a r t Keate, "L'Automatiste,"; Guy Jasmin, "Quebec a r t i s t s causes f u r o r , " Windsor D a i l y S t a r , 26 November 1948, e d i t o r i a l page. Borduas r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s r e g arding h i s works from o u t s i d e the pro v i n c e and country; see f o r example, the l e t t e r s from Jack O'Mally (15 October 1948, Hamilton); Gladys Arnold (30 October 1948, French Embassy, Ottawa); S h u i j i Koike (29 March 1949, Kogei News, Tokoyo)(Borduas A r c h i v e s , D. 156). 121 "attempt... to throw o f f the r e s t r i c t i o n s i n education and c u l t u r e . " 8 9 The Automatistes' c r i t i q u e of Quebec's p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s establishment a l s o secured them the support of the pr o v i n c e ' s small c o t e r i e of French speaking 'new' l i b e r a l s . 9 0 Such c r i t i c s as C h a r l e s Doyon, w r i t i n g i n Le C l a i r o n ( S a i n t e - H y a c i n t h e ) , v i g o r o u s l y defended the Refus G l o b a l , championing what he b e l i e v e d was i t s l e g i t i m a t e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the c u r r e n t regime: Ce que p l u s i e u r s d'entre vous eprouvent s i l e n c i e u s e m e n t , ce que de r a r e s prgcurseurs ont reve, ce que ceux de ma gen e r a t i o n ont prevu e s t i c i d£voi16....C'est un c r i de d e t r e s s e s u s c i t e par l'ecoeurment des jeunes avant une generat i o n d ' a s s i s et d ' e n c e n s e u r s . 9 y 8 9 D.W. Buchanan, Review of Refus G l o b a l , Canadian A r t 6 (Christmas 1948): 86. Buchanan and Borduas corresponded with one another p e r i o d i c a l l y ; see, f o r example, Buchanan's l e t t e r s of 14 January 1948, 5 November 1948, 9 November 1948, and 30 November 1948; i t was a l s o Buchanan, along with Robert H. Hubbard, who Borduas used as h i s second and t h i r d r e f e r e n c e s ( a f t e r Ozias Leduc) i n h i s 1948 Guggenheim F e l l o w s h i p a p p l i c a t i o n (Borduas A r c h i v e s , D. 102). 9 0 see above, -pp. 52-53. 9 1 C h a r l e s Doyon, "Refus G l o b a l , " Le C l a i r o n ( S a i n t e - H y a c i n t h e ) , p. 5; Doyon and Borduas corresponded f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Refus G l o b a l . The other L i b e r a l d a i l y , Le Canada, responded in s i m i l a r terms; see L a f c a d i o , "L'underground de 1'esthetique," Le Canada, 23 August 1948: "Les m i l i e u x ou se r e c r u t e aujourd'hui ce que Montreal possede d ' i n t e l l e c t u e l s s e r i e u x se r e j o u i r o n t du c r i s i n c e r e que lance Borduas....On e t a b l i t des c h a p e l l e s l i t t e r a i r e s et des c l a n s a r t i s t i q u e s dans l a v i l l e meme ou i l y a quinze ou vi n g t ans, on p e n s a i t a v o i r epuise l e summum de 1 ' i n t e l l i g e n c e en fondant 1 ' i n v r a i s e m b l a b l e s mouvements comme l ' o r d r e p a t r i o t i q u e des Goglus. Nous gagnons au change avec des annees" (p. 4). 1 22 Doyon's sense of s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n , expressed through e m o t i o n a l l y i n t e n s e language, a r i s e s out of the congruence e x i s t i n g between h i s own ideology and that of the Automatistes. While anglophone l i b e r a l s , i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y anaemic prose accommodated the Refus G l o b a l ' s i d e o l o g y , such French speaking i n t e l l e c t u a l s as Doyon p e r c e i v e d the manifesto as an e q u i v a l e n t of t h e i r own ideology; i t i s t h i s which accounts f o r the degree of emotional punch c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i r analyses of the manifesto. The f e r v e n t defenses penned by such c r i t i c s as Doyon, however, pr o v i d e d l i b e r a l anglophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s with an avant-garde c r i t i c i s m to complement the vanguard i t s e l f , thus p r o v i d i n g them with "the s c h o o l s , the r e b e l s , the t h e o r i e s " 9 2 for which they had been l o n g i n g . It was anglophone l i b e r a l s ' s t r u g g l e over the d e f i n i t i o n of a Canadian i d e n t i t y 9 3 which made them so anxious to f i n d and support a group e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r v i s i o n of the new Canada, modern and f i n a l l y independent of the mother c o u n t r i e s , France and England. The Automatistes were i d e a l f o r t h i s r o l e because they c o u l d not be e a s i l y c a t e g o r i z e d as f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r ' E n g l i s h ' or 'French' c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s , while t h e i r c r i t i q u e of the t r a d i t i o n a l norms of Quebec s o c i e t y made them appear v i t a l , modern, and dynamic: During the l a s t ten years, Montreal has come a l i v e i n 9 2 John K.B. Robertson, "Art i n Canada," Here and Now 1 (December 1947): 77. 9 3 See, f o r example, Hugh Kenner, "The Case of the M i s s i n g Face," Here and Now 1 (May 1948): -74-78. 123 the a r t s . To the French-Canadian, go the honours f o r developing t h i s new l i f e , with a r t as a common denominator, speaking a common language between the r a c e s 9 ft J u s t as the centr e of a r t and the source of Canadian ' i d e n t i t y ' seemed to be s h i f t i n g East from Toronto, so too, i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , the c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l was moving from P a r i s to New Y o r k , 9 5 a c i t y with which Borduas and the Automatistes had had a long s e r i e s of a r t i s t i c c o n t a c t s and i n which he was eager to e x h i b i t . 9 6 Borduas' i n t e r e s t s i n s u r r e a l i s m , and the 9 < t Arthur Lismer, "Toronto and M o n t r e a l — F o c a l P o i n t s of Growth," Canadian Art 5 (Spring-Summer 1948): 181. Cf. Guy Glover i n a l e t t e r to Canadian A r t responding to a p r e v i o u s l e t t e r by Paraskeva Clark which a t t a c k e d the Automatistes: "Art needs to be d i s c u s s e d , the more e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y the b e t t e r ; and i f the enthusiasm warms to i n s u l t and f u r y - - w e l l l e t i t ! " ("Art Forum," Canadian Art 6 [Autumn 1948]: 45). C l a r k ' s l e t t e r , motivated i n part by awareness that the Automatistes had usurped the dominant p o s i t i o n the Toronto avant-garde had formerly h e l d in Canada, was p u b l i s h e d i n the "Art Forum," Canadian Art 5 (Spring-Summer 1948): 21. 9 5 T h i s s h i f t can be f o l l o w e d i n the w r i t i n g s of Clement Greenberg, who, as l a t e as 1946 wrote, " P a r i s remains the fountainhead of modern a r t , and every move there i s d e c i s i v e f o r advanced a r t elsewhere" ("The School of P a r i s : 1946," r e p r i n t e d in Clement Greenberg, Art and C u l t u r e : C r i t i c a l Essays [Boston: Beacon, 1961], p. 120). By 1948, however, Greenberg was i n s i s t i n g that New York, not P a r i s , was the c e n t r e of meaningful a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n : "the immediate fu t u r e of Western a r t , i f i t i s to have any immediate f u t u r e , depends on what i s done in t h i s country" (Art C h r o n i c l e : The S i t u a t i o n at the Moment," P a r t i s a n Review 15 [January 1948]: 82); c f . h i s comments three months l a t e r , which e x p l a i n why New York had usurped P a r i s , "the main premises of Western a r t have migrated to the United S t a t e s , along with the c e n t r e of g r a v i t y of i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n and p o l i t i c a l power" ("Art C h r o n i c l e : The D e c l i n e of Cubism," P a r t i s a n Review 15 [March 1948]: 369). 9 6 Borduas f i r s t v i s i t e d New York i n 1928 and again i n May 1943; as F.-M. Gagnon notes in the e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e , Borduas  and America/et 1'Amerique (Vancouver: Vancouver Art G a l l e r y , 1978, p~! TT~, " i t i s obvious from the catalogues and the p u b l i c a t i o n s which he brought back that he was i n t e r e s t e d mainly in the S u r r e a l i s t s . " The c o n t a c t s between the Automatistes and New York were strengthened when i n 1946 L o u i s e Renaud became the 124 d e s i r e to c r e a t e from i t an a e s t h e t i c dependent on s p o n t a n e i t y , a c c i d e n t , and chance was, of course, s i m i l a r to that of the emerging New York avant-garde, the A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , 9 7 governess to the c h i l d r e n of P i e r r e M a t i s s e , the New York a r t d e a l e r ; a c c o r d i n g to Teyssedre, she r e g u l a r l y sent i n v i t a t i o n s to S u r r e a l i s t e x h i b i t i o n s to Leduc, who " e t a i t de tous l e s mieux informe sur l e s u r r e a l i s m e de New York" ("Fernand Leduc," p. 258, note 21). In 1948, Borduas began to a c t i v e l y pursue these t e n t a t i v e l i n k s with the New York a r t world. On 10 October 1948, he wrote to James Johnson Sweeney at the Museum of Modern A r t about the p o s s i b i l i t y of a New York show. The opening l i n e s of Borduas' l e t t e r r e v e a l that he was conversant with the dominant f i g u r e s of a r t i n New York: "Vous connaissant depuis p l u s e i u r s anne"es comme un defenseur de l ' a r t , je prends l a l i b e r t y de s o l l i c i t e r v o t r e a t t e n t i o n " (Borduas A r c h i v e s , D. 164). The request f o r a New York e x h i b i t i o n was motivated by the d e s i r e " d ' e t a b l i r de. nouveau c o n t a c t s . . . . a m a n i f e s t e r en dehors du pays et a declencher de n o u v e l l e s sympathies" ( I b i d . ) . Sweeney r e f e r r e d Borduas to the American F e d e r a t i o n of A r t i s t s , the W i l l a r d G a l l e r y and the Sidney J a n i s G a l l e r y , but d e c l i n e d to give him a show at MOMA; n e v e r t h e l e s s , he c l o s e d with the f o l l o w i n g words of encouragement, "While these suggestions are only 'shots i n the dark' I o f f e r them with the hope you may be able to make a beginning i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n through one of them and I hope you w i l l continue to keep i n touch with me. ;I ' 11 be g l a d to do anything I can to help" ( l e t t e r dated 16 December 1948; Borduas a r c h i v e s ) . Sweeney ap p a r e n t l y d i d mean what he s a i d , as on 29 December 1948, Rose F r i e d of the Pinacotheca wrote Borduas e n q u i r i n g about h i s work, "At the suggestion of Mr. J . J . Sweeney" (Borduas A r c h i v e s , D. 211). At about t h i s time, Borduas made an undated l i s t of v a r i o u s g a l l e r i e s i n New York (Borduas A r c h i v e s , D. 211); the f i r s t two on the l i s t were those which were c r u c i a l to the development of the New York avant-garde, Betty Parsons G a l l e r y and the Sidney J a n i s G a l l e r y . In a d d i t i o n to h i s c o n t a c t s with New York g a l l e r i e s , Borduas a p p l i e d f o r funding from the Guggenheim Foundation on 12 October 1948 (Borduas A r c h i v e s , D. 211); t h i s request f o r money, however, was u n s u c c e s s f u l . 9 7 When Borduas went to New York i n 1953, he became f r i e n d l y with the group, meeting them through the P a s s e d o i t G a l l e r y where he had an e x h i b i t i o n 5-23 January 1953. By 1954, he had become an ardent admirer of the A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s ; in a l e t t e r to Claude Gauvreau, f o r example, he wrote, "These p a i n t e r s l i v e f u l l y and t r a g i c a l l y the d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n of a r t i n the world. They labour hard to pay f o r t h e i r p i c t o r i a l 125 a group which became the standard bearers of 'American type p a i n t i n g , ' 9 8 i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the School of P a r i s . The congruence of c e r t a i n c o n s t a n t s i n the t h e o r e t i c a l and p i c t o r i a l work of the New York vanguard and.the Automatistes, as w e l l as the f a c t that Borduas, l i k e h i s anglophone su p p o r t e r s looked to New York f o r new sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n , suggests that E n g l i s h Canada was seeking a North American image as much as a Canadian one. A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n emerges i n Canadian p o l i t i c s . L i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s saw p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a North A t l a n t i c a l l i a n c e as a way f o r Canada to adopt a more dominant p o s i t i o n i n world a f f a i r s . A.R.M. Lower, f o r example., commented that S t . Laurent's announcement of the formation of the a l l i a n c e "may probably be taken as marking a stage in t h i s c ountry's evolution....we must be prepared to accept our r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " 9 9 Canadian i n t e l l e c t u a l s b e l i e v e d that t h e i r involvement with NATO s i g n i f i e d t h e i r newly found p o l i t i c a l autonomy from B r i t a i n , yet recent r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s that NATO was the cause and the instrument of Canada's new dependency r e l a t i o n s h i p , that with the United S t a t e s . As G r a n a t s t e i n and Cuff have demonstrated, American post-war economic maneouvring ex p e r i e n c e s . They have to be c o n s i d e r e d as exemplaries" (15 May 1954; quoted by Gagnon in Borduas and America, p. 13). 9 8 See Clement Greenberg, "American Type P a i n t i n g , " (1955) in A r t and C u l t u r e , pp. 208-229. 9 9 A.R.M. Lower, "Canada i n the New, N o n - B r i t i s h World," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 3 (Summer 1948): 209, 210. 126 made Canada dependent on U.S. d o l l a r r e s e r v e s , on i t s c a p i t a l , and u l t i m a t e l y , on i t s p o l i t i c s . 1 0 0 By d e v e l o p i n g NATO and s h a r i n g the American p e r c e p t i o n of the S o v i e t t h r e a t , the Canadian government somewhat n a i v e l y hoped that i t would be a b l e to e x e r c i s e a c e r t a i n amount of i n f l u e n c e over American f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a r e l a t i o n s h i p which in 1948 appeared to be the most independent one: Acceptance of a broad view of the Russian t h r e a t gave Pearson and to others entry to the highest c i r c l e s i n Washington. That was u s e f u l f o r a wide v a r i e t y of purposes, from i n f l u e n c i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the M a r s h a l l Plan to Canadian needs, to lobbying f o r j o i n t i n d u s t r i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n p l a n n i n g , m i l i t a r y procurement, and t a r i f f r e d u c t i o n s . . . . Pearson and Reid decided to s e i z e t h e i r advantage at the i m p e r i a l c e n t e r , c a p i t a l i z e on an inflamed p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and n e g o t i a t e an a l l i a n c e that would best serve Canada's long-term i n t e r e s t s as they d e f i n e d t h e m . 1 0 1 At the very moment when Canadian i n t e l l e c t u a l s l i k e d to c o n s i d e r themselves as on the t h r e s h o l d of p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l m a t u r i t y , and when the country appeared to have abandoned i t s dependence on B r i t a i n , i t a c t u a l l y only t r a n s f e r r e d i t s dependence from one s i d e of the A t l a n t i c to the other. Given that the i n t e l l e c t u a l s who c h a r t e d these new post-war p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s which were dependent on the U.S.A. a l s o belonged to the same i d e o l o g i c a l group making important c u l t u r a l d e c i s i o n s , i t 1 0 0 R.D. Cuff and J.L. G r a n a t s t e i n , American  D o l l a r s — C a n a d i a n P r o s p e r i t y . Canadian-American Economic  R e l a t i o n s 1945-1950 (Toronto and S a r a s o t a : Samuel-Stevens, 1978) . 1 0 1 I b i d . , p. 216. T h i s view has been c o n t e s t e d by John E n g l i s h , " R evisionism R e v i s i t e d , A Response," Canadian Forum 52 (December 1972): 16-19. 127 i s c l e a r that the Automatistes were a t t r a c t i v e to them not because t h e i r a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t s were s i m i l a r to those of the new vanguard i n New York, but because d e s p i t e t h i s f a c t , they seemed to convey the new image of Canada. Anglophone l i b e r a l s ' h o s t i l i t y towards D u p l e s s i s ' r e a c t i o n a r y n a t i o n a l i s m , and t h e i r concomitant support f o r a b i c u l t u r a l Canada, a l s o i n c l i n e d them to sympathize with the Automatistes' condemnation of that n a t i o n a l i s t c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g which kept them "French and C a t h o l i c , " subordinate to the " i n t e r m i n a b l e l i t a n i e s chanted in the land of Quebec," and imprisoned by the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s symbolized by the " g o u p i l i o n and the t u q u e . " 1 0 2 The b i c u l t u r a l concerns of anglophone l i b e r a l s are apparent i n the January-February 1948 issue of Canadian A r t , a s p e c i a l i s s u e devoted to the a r t of Quebec. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , l i t t l e mention i s made of P e l l a n and other Prisme d'Yeux a r t i s t s , whereas i t s only a r t i c l e on an i n d i v i d u a l group of a r t i s t s - - a n d the only one in French i n an otherwise u n i f o r m l y E n g l i s h p e r i o d i c a l - - d e a l s with the Automatistes. In t h i s a r t i c l e , the Automatistes are upheld as one of the few groups of a r t i s t s capable of c r e a t i n g a t r u l y n a t i o n a l , Canadian c u l t u r e ; through the a c t i v i t y of the Automatistes, Montreal had become " l e ce n t r e de l a p e i n t u r e canadienne....un m i l i e u fecond qui a t t i r e a l u i toutes l e s 1 0 2 Refus G l o b a l , p. 45, 47, 46. 128 f o r c e s v i v e s du p a y s . " 1 0 3 S i m i l a r l y , i n Here and Now, John K.B. Robertson commented, Where—except perhaps in M o n t r e a l — a r e the 's c h o o l s , ' the r e b e l s , the t h e o r i e s , which mark a dynamic c u l -t u r a l s i t u a t i o n and which would, perhaps, i n t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n , b r i n g a t r u l y n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e ? 1 0 4 The c a l l f o r the c r e a t i o n of a 'dynamic c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n ' and of a ' t r u l y n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e ' arose out of the p o l i t i c a l concerns of l i b e r a l s on the q u e s t i o n of f e d e r a l i s m . By d e c l a r i n g themselves to be b i c u l t u r a l i s t s and f e d e r a l i s t s , l i b e r a l s c r e a t e d an i d e o l o g i c a l imperative to give shape to t h e i r r h e t o r i c by s u p p o r t i n g the c u l t u r e of Quebec as f u l l y as that of E n g l i s h Canada: they needed to prove that f e d e r a l i s m was f a v o u r a b l e to the c u l t u r e of Quebec, and to d i s p r o v e D u p l e s s i s ' a l l e g a t i o n s to the c o n t r a r y . 1 0 5 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, l i b e r a l s c o n f e r r e d t h e i r approbation on a group without popular support in Quebec: on the one hand, they f o s t e r e d the i l l u s i o n of s u r r e n d e r i n g to Quebec a p o r t i o n of the c u l t u r a l t e r r i t o r y that had p r e v i o u s l y belonged to anglophones alone, while at the same time they r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l over who would occupy t h i s t u r f . Furthermore, although anglophone l i b e r a l s supported an avant-garde h o s t i l e to the p r o v i n c i a l government in 1 0 3 Maurice Gagnon, "D'une c e r t a i n e p e i n t u r e canadienne jeune...ou de 1'automatisme," Canadian Art V (Winter 1948): 1 36. 1 0 4 "Art i n Canada," Here and Now 1 (December 1947): 77. 1 0 5 See D e s r o s i e r s , " L ' i d e o l o g i e de Maurice D u p l e s s i s , " pp. 167-188. 129 Quebec, they remained hopeful that the c u l t u r e of Canada would become r e f l e c t i v e of some kind of u n i t e d c o l l e c t i v e n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The impetus f o r f a b r i c a t i n g the semblance of c u l t u r a l s o l i d a r i t y came from l i b e r a l s ' t e n a c i o u s b e l i e f i n the r e s t o r a t i v e power of the 'end to ideology,' and of n a t i o n a l uni t y : We are a l l Canadians... b e f o r e we are L i b e r a l s , C o n s e r v a t i v e s , or CCFers, and before we are Quebeckers or Manitobans. So we should face the o u t s i d e world with a u n i t e d f r o n t . P o l i t i c s , i t has been s a i d by an American l e a d e r , should end at the water's e d g e . 1 0 6 The d e f i n i t i o n of n a t i o n a l u n i t y was l a r g e l y determined by both the L i b e r a l government and the i n t e l l e c t u a l s which supported i t , and b i c u l t u r a l i s m was simply one aspect of t h i s p o l i t i c a l programme, designed i n part to coun t e r a c t communism; i f , however the defense of n a t i o n a l u n i t y became disadvantageous to them, i t disappeared from the d i s c o u r s e of l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s and the government a l i k e . In the anti-communist crusade, censure of the s t a t u s quo became l i n k e d with the West, which anglophone l i b e r a l s p e r c e i v e d as capable of w i t h s t a n d i n g i n t e r n a l d i s s e n t , i n c o n t r a s t to communist regimes where d i s s e n t — a n d e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c i s m of the r u l i n g party--was not t o l e r a t e d . Frank U n d e r h i l l commented in the Canadian Forum, that i n communist c o u n t r i e s , "the p r e s s , the cinema, and the j u d i c i a r y have been muzzled," whereas d i s s e n t 1 0 6 L e s t e r B. Pearson, 1948, quoted i n Words and Occasions (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970), p. 81. 130 was i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n l i b e r a l d e m o c r a c i e s . 1 0 7 The L i b e r a l p a r t y a l s o argued that governments and i n t e l l e c t u a l s were o b l i g e d to p r o t e c t d i s s e n t e r s , i f western democracy was to prove i t s e l f more a t t r a c t i v e than communism. In an a r t i c l e i n Maclean's magazine, f o r i n s t a n c e , S t . Laurent d e c l a r e d , Democracy does not mean p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s t a t u s quo....We must demonstrate by deeds and not merely by words that democracy i s a more humanitarian creed than communism. 1 0 8 I t should be noted, however, that both l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s and L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s defended the a n t a g o n i s t s of the s t a t u s quo only i f these d i s s e n t e r s p i l l o r i e d a s t a t u s quo other than the one to which they belonged. L i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h a r a c t e r i z e d the act of r e p u d i a t i n g the s t a t u s quo as both an emblem of freedom and a p r e c o n d i t i o n of a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e . The great a r t i s t was by d e f i n i t i o n a r e b e l , who "has achieved r a d i c a l freedom from s o c i a l r e s t r a i n t and c o n v e n t i o n a l order, who has penetrated the w a l l s p r o t e c t i n g our world of r e a l i t y . " 1 0 9 The Automatistes p o r t r a y e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to s o c i e t y i n s i m i l a r terms, d e s c r i b i n g themselves as simultaneously a l i e n a t e d from and s c o r n f u l of a c c e p t a b l e s o c i e t y and a l l that i t e n t a i l e d : If we continue to hold shows, however, i t i s not the 1 0 7 Frank H. U n d e r h i l l , "Hammer and S i c k l e Democracy," Canadian Forum 28 ( J u l y 48): 75. 1 0 8 B l a i r F r a s e r , "Where does St . Laurent Stand?" Maclean's, 15 September, p. 7. 1 0 9 Dr. H. Lehmann, "Art and Psychology," Canadian Art 6 (Autumn 1948): 17. 131 naive hope of making f o r t u n e s . We know the wealthy stay away from us. They c o u l d not with impunity make cont a c t with i n c e n d i a r i e s 1 1 0 The sentiments expressed above, however, are r a t h e r disingenuous, f o r l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e r c e i v e d genius only i n those a r t i s t s who v o i c e d concerns analogous to t h e i r s , while the Automatistes reserved t h e i r t r u c u l e n c e f o r a very c i r c u m s c r i b e d segment of s o c i e t y which formed t h e i r most immediate p u b l i c but not t h e i r only one; as Barthes has p o i n t e d out, such r e v o l t s "are what one g e n e r a l l y c a l l s the avant-garde. But these r e v o l t s are s o c i a l l y l i m i t e d , they remain open to s a l v a g e . " 1 1 1 The Automatistes were e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e to such salvage by the anglophone l i b e r a l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , due to t h e i r r e v o l t a g a i n s t the Quebec s t a t u s quo and subsequent r e j e c t i o n by i t : by p r e s e n t i n g themselves as a r t i s t s pledged to c r e a t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom at the expense of pe r s o n a l f i n a n c i a l gain or p o l i t i c a l favour., and because of t h e i r o s t r a c i s m by the Quebec s t a t u s quo, the Automatistes f i t i n with the l i b e r a l c o n ception of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the great a r t i s t and s o c i e t y , a r e l a t i o n s h i - p p o s s i b l e only i n Western c o u n t r i e s . Although the Automatistes p r i m a r i l y a t t a c k e d the values a s s o c i a t e d with the dominant ideology of Quebec, they a l s o denounced the l e f t and the r i g h t as f o r c e s a g a i n s t freedom: F r i e n d s of the present regime suspect we support the R e v o l u t i o n . F r i e n d s of the R e v o l u t i o n say we p r o t e s t what now e x i s t s but only to transform and not to 1 1 0 Refus G l o b a l , p. 53. 1 1 1 Roland Barthes, "Myth Today," i n Mythologies, ed. and t r a n s . Annette Lavers (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1972), p. 139. 1 32 d i s p l a c e i t . . . . B u t the only d i s t i n c t i o n between these ' f r i e n d s ' and those p r e s e n t l y i n power i s that they belong to d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s — a s i f a change of c l a s s i m p l i e d a change of c i v i l i z a t i o n , a change of d e s i r e s , a change of h o p e ! 1 1 2 The Automatistes' f o r m u l a t i o n of freedom as the f r u i t of the e r a d i c a t i o n of communism and conservatism c l o s e l y corresponds to the l i b e r a l concept of 'the end of i d e o l o g y ' 1 1 3 i n t h e i r anti-communist campaign. L i k e anglophone l i b e r a l s , the Automatistes r e p u d i a t e d both ends of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum, but t h e i r r e f u s a l of p o l i t i c a l extremes was not a g l o b a l one, f o r they d i d not condemn, or even comment on another s e c t o r of that spectrum: the c e n t e r , the locus of t h e i r support, and the dominion of anglophone l i b e r a l i s m . The Automatistes' r e j e c t i o n of communism was p a r t l y based on i t s d i s e n c h a n t i n g experiences with the Communist P a r t y : a f t e r a b r i e f f l i r t a t i o n with communist p o l i t i c s , 1 1 " the 1 1 2 Refus G l o b a l , p. 52. 1 1 3 Although he does not make the connection between l i b e r a l s ' c a l l f o r an 'end of i d e o l o g y , ' and the Refus G l o b a l , Gagnon comments that " l e manifeste souhaite l a f i n de l'&re des i d e o l o g i e s " (Borduas, Biographie c r i t i q u e , p. 241). 1 1 " Bernard Teyssedre d e s c r i b e s " l a f r a c t i o n l a p l u s p r o g r e s s i v e " - - t h e one most i n t e r e s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g some kind of l i n k s with Montreal communists--as Jean-Paul Mousseau, Bruno Cormier, R^mi-Paul Forgues, Fernand Leduc, and P i e r r e Gauvreau ("Fernand Leduc," p. 247). Teyssedre comments on the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y of t h i s group dur i n g 1943 and 1944: "Par l e u r engagement aux c6tes des communistes (a l e u r s c o t e s , non parmi eux), ces c o n t e s t a i r e s qui e t u d i e n t Hegel, Marx et Lenine, qui d i s t r i b u e n t des t r a c t s denon^ant l ' o p p r e s s i o n c a p i t a l i s t e et c l e r i c a l e , qui o r g a n i s e n t des reunions avec l e s c e l l u l e s se p o r t e n t p l u s l o i n que Borduas ne peut l e s s u i v r e ; mais par l e u r v o l o n t e de rompre avec toute une c i v i l i s a t i o n , par l e u r s tumultueux debats sur Freud, Breton, M a b i l l e , sur Matta, Lam, Tanguy, E r n s t , i l s i n c a r n e n t , au s e i n du 'groupe' composite, l a f r a c t i o n l a p l u s p r o g r e s s i v e - - e t l a p l u s proche, au fond, de Borduas" ( I b i d . , p. 249-250). 133 group became the focus of a s e r i e s of a t t a c k s by P i e r r e G e l i n a s , D e s p i t e the group's d e s i r e to remain separate from the Communist Pa r t y , i n 1946, an a r t i c l e by Claude Gauvreau appeared in Combat., the P a r t y ' s newspaper; see "La p e i n t u r e n'est pas un hochet de d i l e t t a n t e , " 21 December 1946, p. 2. T h i s a r t i c l e was the f i r s t of many w r i t t e n by and about the Automatistes dur i n g the next year. In January 1947, G i l l e s Henault, a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r to Combat, wrote to Borduas with a l i s t of q u e s t i o n s on which he wished to i n t e r v i e w Borduas f o r a f u t u r e a r t i c l e i n Combat; the a r t i c l e , "Un Canadien f r a n c a i s — u n grand p e i n t r e : Paul-Emile Borduas," appeared 1 February 1947, on p. 1. Almost immediately f o l l o w i n g p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s i n t e r v i e w , however, Borduas was e x p r e s s i n g h o s t i l i t y towards communists i n h i s p r i v a t e correspondence; i n a l e t t e r to R i o p e l l e , f o r example, he wrote, "Les communistes sont d'un egoisme immediat degoutant. I l s sont a ce s u j e t [ i . e . , r e v o l u t i o n ] i n u t i l e s . I l s font p l u t o t f i g u r e d'oppresseurs que de l i b e r a t e u r s " (quoted by Gagnon in Borduas: B i o g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , p. 207). In June 1947, R i o p e l l e signed the European S u r r e a l i s t s ' manifesto, Rupture  Inauqurale, which not only s o l i d i f i e d i t s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g break with the Communist Pa r t y , but a l s o announced that " s u r r e a l i s m e . . . r e f u s e r a sa p a r t i c i p a t i o n a toute a c t i o n p o l i t i q u e q u i d e v a i t e t r e immorale pour a v o i r l ' a i r d ' e t r e e f f i c a c e " (quoted in Jean-Louis Bedouin, Vingt ans de  s u r r e a l i s m e 1939-1959 [ P a r i s : Denoel, 1961], p. 100). Leduc, however, refused to s i g n the manifesto f o r reasons he o u t l i n e d in a l e t t e r to Borduas on 4 J u l y , 1947: "Ce manifeste semble en e f f e t assez b i e n . En p l u s de r e n f o r c e r l e s p o s i t i o n s deja connues, i l p r e c i s e l a p o s i t i o n du s u r r e a l i s m e devant l a p o l i t i q u e a c t u e l l e et accuse l e ' p a r t i communiste,' entre a u t r e s , d'user des moyens q u ' i l s reprochent aux c a p i t a l i s t e s et de t a b l e r uniquement sur l'avenement du p r o l e t a r i a t sans se s o u c i e r d'une morale r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e , et t i e n t pour responsable Marx lui-meme de cet et a t de choses: l e manifeste se termine sur l ' e s p o i r en un myth c o l l e c t i f . Rien pour qui regarde l e s oeuvres, en somme une p o s i t i o n p o l i t i q u e t e i n t e e de sentimentalisme. L ' o b j e c t i v i t e emotive se transforme peu a peu, i l me semble, en slogans sentimentaux.... Pour ce qui est des r e l a t i o n s que j ' a i eues avec un group de communistes s o i - d i s a n t s u r r e a l i s t e s , c 'est l ' e x a c t e p o s i t i o n c o n t r a i r e , je veux l ' a c c e n t sur l ' a c t i o n p o l i t i q u e et l a meme tout l e devenir du genre humain. J ' a i du prendre p o s i t i o n par £crit pour e v i t e r tout equivoque de ma presence parmi eux. Pour eux i l semblait p o s s i b l e d ' i n s e r e r dans un p r o j e t de manifeste 1) aide i n c o n d i t i o n n e l l e au P a r t i , reconnaissance de ses r e p r e s e n t a n t s , . . . e t 2) l i b e r t e t o t a l e d'experimentation" (quoted, in Gagnon, Borduas: Bi o g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , pp. 221-222). Mousseau a l s o r e t a i n e d c o n t a c t s with the Party u n t i l the end of 1947; see f o r example, "J.-P. Mousseau nous p a r l e de son voyage a Prague," Combat, 1 November 1947, p. 1. The paper continued to be i n t e r e s t e d in the Automatistes' work and. 134 G e l i n a s , the e d i t o r of Combat, who d e s c r i b e d t h e i r a r t as c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t ionary: • L ' i d e o l o g i e i n d i v i d u a l i s t e p e t i t e - b o u r g e o i s e l e [an Automatiste] poussera a se renfermer sur lui-m&me, a p r a t i q u e r un a r t ferine"....Un i n d i v i d u a l i s t e p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s peut se r e v o l t e r . Mais q u e l l e est l e sens de l a r e v o l t e ? E l l e est limit£e a son e g o — a u m e i l l e u r , e l l e v i s e a f a i r e accepter une formule n o u v e l l e par l a s o c i e t e e x i s t a n t e . . . . E n c o r e une f o i s , ce n'est pas par hasard qu'un grand ' r e v o l t e ' comme M. R i o p e l l e p a r l e de l a 'degenerescence' du communisme. C'est l ' a t t i t u d e de 1 ' i n d i v i d u a l i s t e p e t i t e -bourgeoise. C'est l ' a t t i t u d e c o n t r e - r e v o l u t i o n -naire....normale chez eux q u i neveulent pas un changement fondamentale de l a s o c i £ t e \ 1 1 5 Combat's c r i t i c i s m of the Automatistes s o l i d i f i e d t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s about the l e f t , and p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s i n g e n e r a l . Moreover, the e s c a l a t i o n of anti-communist sentiment in Quebec made a f f i l i a t i o n with the l e f t more dangerous than before; Bor-duas remarked that i f the group were thought to have l i n k s with the communists, "nous a l l o n s e t r e o b l i g e de nous e x i l e r ! " 1 1 6 p u b l i s h e d a p o s i t i v e review of a s o l o e x h i b i t i o n by Gavreau w r i t t e n by G i l l e s Henault, "Au s u j e t d'une e x p o s i t i o n de P. Gauvreau," 22 November 1947, p. 2. 1 1 5 T h i s a t t a c k was occasioned by Henault's p o s i t i v e assessment of Gauvreau's work i n "Au s u j e t d'une e x p o s i t i o n de P. Gauvreau," p. 2. The debate between Henault and G i l i n a s which ensued continued i n t o 1948; see P i e r r e G61inas, " C o n t r i b u t i o n a une d i s c u s s i o n sur l ' a r t , " Combat, 29 November 1947, p. 2; G i l l e s Henault, " D i s c u s s i o n sur l ' a r t , " Combat, 13 December 1947, p. 2; P i e r r e G e l i n a s , "Poursuivant l a d i s c u s s i o n sur l ' a r t , " Combat, 3 January 1948, p. 2; "Le r o l e de l ' a r t i s t e dans l a soci£t§," Combat, 17 January 1948, p. 2. 1 1 6 Quoted by Gauvreau in "L'epopee automatiste," p. 70; although Gauvreau i s somewhat vague as to the context of t h i s remark, he seems to have made i t some time in 1948 d u r i n g 1 35 Because they were recent converts a g a i n s t communism, and because t h e i r d i s a f f e c t i o n with the l e f t had caused them to become c y n i c a l about a l l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , the Automatistes' p o s i t i o n i n 1948 was analogous to that of l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s in E n g l i s h Canada whose a s s o c i a t i o n with the Communist Party i n the 1930s became transformed i n t o i n t e n s e hatred of i t d u r i n g the 1 9 4 0 s . 1 1 7 L i k e anglophone l i b e r a l s , the Automatiste's d e p r e c a t i o n of communism was thus based on both p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i o n s and p e r s o n a l experience, and both p e r c e i v e d communism's r e l a t i o n s h i p to c u l t u r e i n the same way: d i s c u s s i o n s about the p r o j e c t e d manifesto, and i n r e a c t i o n to Borduas ideas about h i s own c o n t r i b u t i o n to i t ; Gauvreau notes, ."Par a i l l e u r s , a 1 ' i n t e n t i o n d'une revue s o c i a l i s t e qui ne parut jamais, j ' a v a i s e c r i t un a r t i c l e d ' i n s p i r a t ion t r o t y z k y s t e " ( I b i d . , p. 70). D e s p i t e a l l h i s o b j e c t i o n s to the l e f t , and d e s p i t e h i s f e a r s of being seen as i t s a l l y , e a r l y i n 1948, Borduas gave a p u b l i c l e c t u r e i n which i t was r e p o r t e d that he s a i d , " l e s u r r e a l i s m e a des rapports avec l a psychanalyse freudienne et l e marxisme, mais sans pr£ciser l e s q u e l s " ("Inconscient et peinture--Echange de vues entre des e t u d i a n t s en p s y c h o l o g i e et M. Borduas," La Presse, 2 February 1948, p. 11). While Borduas' comments are o b v i o u s l y t r u e , i t i s p u z z l i n g that he would leave the impression that he was a l i g n e d with a movement connected to the l e f t , when he otherwise sought to suppress such an i d e a . 1 1 7 L i t t l e has been w r i t t e n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e f t and i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n the t h i r t i e s and f o r t i e s . See, however, Norman Penner, The Canadian L e f t : A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s (Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada, 1977); and Ivan Avakumovic, The Communist Party of Canada: A H i s t o r y (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1975); Tim Buck, T h i r t y Years: The  Story of the Communist Movement in Canada, 1922-1952 (Toronto: Progress Books, 1952); Leo Zakuta, A P r o t e s t Movement Becalmed (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1964); Dean S. McHenry, The T h i r d Force in Canada: The Co-operative Commonwealth  Co n f e d e r a t i o n 1932-1948 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1950); G e r a l d Caplan, The Dilemma of  Canadian S o c i a l i s m : the C.C.F. in O n t a r i o (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1973) . 136 The age of r a d i c a l i s m i s h a p p i l y e n d e d . . . . L i b e r a l s no longer measure l i t e r a r y v a l u e s by the y a r d s t i c k of p o l i t i c a l orthodoxy....They are disenchanted but f r e e . . . . M a r x i s t c a t e g o r i e s are not a p p l i c a b l e i n the realm of l i t e r a r y v a l u e s . 1 1 8 Although the Automatistes' scorn f o r p o l i t i c i z e d , e s p e c i a l l y l e f t i s t c u l t u r e p a r a l l e l s the l i b e r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r a e s t h e t i c freedom, the group's contempt f o r the s t a t u s quo exempted them from being regarded as simply pawns in new l i b e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i t i c s which were based on a r e j e c t i o n of both communism and conservatism a l i k e . While the Automatistes denounced p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s as u l t i m a t e l y o p p r e s s i v e , they d i d not r e l i n q u i s h the idea of a p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y , however nebulous. I n s o f a r as i t was d e f i n e d , p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y s i g n i f i e d commitment to the o v e r t u r n i n g of "the i n e x o r a b l e r e g r e s s i o n of c o l l e c t i v e moral power," achieved by breaking with " a l l convent ions -of s o c i e t y , " and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e f u s a l to "remain s i l e n t . " 1 1 9 The d e c i s i v e act of rupt.ure was the f i r s t step i n a r t i s t i c emancipation, as Leduc noted i n a l e t t e r to Borduas regarding h i s break with the CAS: L ' a t t i t u d e d e c i s i v e que vous avez p r i s e v i s - i - v i s de l a S o c i e t e d ' a r t contemporain et l e s dechirements 1 1 8 Charles G l i c k s b e r g , " L i t e r a t u r e and the Marxist A e s t h e t i c , " U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y 18 (October 1948): 84. The presence of Marxism in any form became grounds f o r d i s m i s s i n g any number of ideas? i n a book review, f o r example, F.H. U n d e r h i l l r e j e c t s the v a l i d i t y of the work in q u e s t i o n p r e c i s e l y because the author's " t h e s i s i s presented almost e n t i r e l y i n Marxian terms" ("Turning New Leaves," review of The  American Democracy by Harold J . L a s k i , Canadian Forum 28 LOctober 1948]: 164) . 1 1 9 Refus G l o b a l , p. 50, 51. 1 37 q u ' e l l e a pu e n t r a i n e r a p p a r a i s s e n t comme l e prelude a une s e r i e de ruptures l i b e r a t r i c e s dont nous nous r e j o u i s s o n s et qui s'annoncent dans un a v e n i r r a p p r o c h e . 1 2 0 S i m i l a r l y , i n h i s l e t t e r of r e s i g n a t i o n from the CAS, Borduas i n d i c t s Maurice Gagnon f o r h i s "complete n u l l i t e dans l a l u t t e e n g a g e e . " 1 2 1 Couched i n the language of e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , the Automatistes l i n k e d themselves to commitment, the d e c i s i v e a c t , and freedom i t s e l f , and saw t h i s t r i a d of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as those which f a c i l i t a t e d the e x i s t e n c e and p r a c t i c e of ' p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y . ' The Automatistes' i n s i s t e n c e on freedom as a c h a l l e n g i n g moral problem, and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y of c l i n g i n g to a p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y , p a r a l l e l s the tone of anglophone l i b e r a l anti-communist r h e t o r i c . The e x h o r t a t i o n s of l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s and L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s i n defence of the moral v i r t u e s of l i b e r a l , democratic c i v i l i z a t i o n a g a i n s t the inroads of communism, conforms very c l o s e l y to the Automatistes' concept of ' p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y . ' The p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y of L i b e r a l s and anglophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s , however, had much more concre t e and immediate p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n than i t d i d f o r the Automatistes, namely, anti-communism, support f o r a North A t l a n t i c a l l i a n c e , a l l those v i r t u e s and a c t i o n s necessary f o r a moral and m i l i t a r y defence a g a i n s t the Soviet Union: to c o n t a i n or r e s t r a i n S o v i e t expansion...[we must b u i l d ] up i n these l i b e r a l , democratic and C h r i s t i a n 1 2 0 Leduc to Borduas, 8 March 1948, quoted by Gagnon in Borduas: B i o g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , p. 236. 1 2 1 I b i d . , p. 235. 138 s t a t e s a dynamic c o u n t e r - a t t r a c t i o n to the degrading ten e t s of t o t a l i t a r i a n and m a t e r i a l i s t i c communism. 1 2 2 Thus, although p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y was used by both the Automatistes and l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s to s i g n i f y simply a commitment to a p o l i t i c a l freedom, i n the context of the Cold War i t came to denote a brand of freedom which c o u l d be p r o t e c t e d by the L i b e r a l p a r t y and i t s p o l i c i e s alone. The Automatistes f r e q u e n t l y made r e f e r e n c e to the atomic bomb i n the Refus G l o b a l and other w r i t i n g s . For example, Fernand Leduc proclaimed h i m s e l f to be on the s i d e of works which were "soeurs de l a bombe-atomique," 1 2 3 while the Refus G l o b a l s t a t e s , The H-hour of t o t a l s a c r i f i c e i s upon us. Two world wars have been necessary to b r i n g us to t h i s absurd s t a t e . The t e r r o r of the t h i r d w i l l be c o n c l u s i v e . 1 2 " U n l i k e the Roman C a t h o l i c Church and Quebec's l i b e r a l s , the Automatistes do not present the image of the atomic bomb i n e n t i r e l y negative terms, or as a b a l e f u l reminder of mankind's s i n f u l n e s s ; 1 2 5 i n s t e a d , they r e f e r to the bomb as evidence of the i n e l u c t a b l e imperative to e s t a b l i s h r e a l freedom i n the face of nuclear a n n i h i l a t i o n . Anglophone l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e r c e i v e d the atomic bomb i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , and were by 1 2 2 L o u i s S t . Laurent, 24 March 1948, K i t c h e n e r , O n t a r i o ; quoted i n Reid, Time of Fear and Hope, p. 137. • 123 Fernand Leduc, "Qu'on l e v e u i l l e ou non," i n d i v i d u a l t e x t i n c l u d e d i n the Refus G l o b a l . 1 2 " Refus G l o b a l , p. 50. 1 2 5 "'La bombe atomique: l'arme l a p l u s t e r r i b l e jamais inventee par 1'homme' (Pie X I I ) , " Le Devoir, 9 February 1948, p. 1 . 139 t u r n s , f e a r f u l of i t , h o p e f u l about i t s use f o r p e a c e f u l purposes, and convinced that Western s u p e r i o r i t y i n the q u a l i t y and number of n u c l e a r armaments guaranteed v i c t o r y over communism. In the enormous number of a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n i n newspapers, academic j o u r n a l s and popular magazines on atomic warfare, F.A. Rudd's comments on t h i s s u b j e c t most s u c c i n c t l y summarize the l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e towards i t : No subject of such moment to humanity as that of atomic energy has ever i n the world's h i s t o r y been d i s c u s s e d i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r i b u n a l [ i . e . , the United N a t i o n s ] . No s u b j e c t has ever been so urgent.... The i s s u e i s c l e a r : can warfare, now i n c l u d i n g wholly d e s t r u c t i v e atomic warfare, be completely e l i m i n a t e d f o r a l l time from our e a r t h , or must mankind continue to e x i s t under the gnawing fear of t o t a l atomic d e s t r u c t i o n i n an unknown and unguarded f u t u r e ? 1 2 6 Of a l l the commentaries on the Refus G l o b a l , only the E n g l i s h Canadian c r i t i c s and one L i b e r a l Party francophone newspaper, La Presse, mentioned the Automatistes' comments about the atomic bomb. 1 2 7 W r i t i n g i n Time magazine, S t u a r t Keate commented that the Automatistes advocated "a new c i v i l i z a t i o n and an atomic age a r t . " 1 2 8 The manner in which Keate presents the nuclear connections of the group i s s i g n i f i c a n t : words with fa v o u r a b l e c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r l i b e r a l s , 'a new c i v i l i z a t i o n , ' j o s t l e beside the 'atomic age,' which simultaneously s i g n i f i e d 1 2 6 F.A. Rudd, "Atomic Energy and World Government," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 2 (Summer 1947): 240. 1 2 7 "Les t h e o r i e s de M. Borduas," La Presse, 10 August 1948, p. 4. 1 2 8 S t u a r t Keate, "L'Automatiste," p. 22. 140 both t e r r o r and the demise of the world, and the s a l v a t i o n of western c i v i l i z a t i o n through m i l i t a r y s u p e r i o r i t y to the USSR. The e f f e c t of Keate's combination of words i s to g i v e 'atomic, age' a p o s i t i v e charge: the s a l u t a r y meaning of 'a new c i v i l i z a t i o n ' b l o t out the p e s s i m i s t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s of 'atomic age.' The advent of a group which recognized the t e r r o r s inherent i n atomic.warfare, but which c a t a l y z e d t h i s t e r r o r i n t o the p u r s u i t of a new, more r a d i c a l form of freedom than had ever e x i s t e d , came at a moment i n the h i s t o r y of Canadian a r t when a anglophone c r i t i c s appeared to be l o o k i n g f o r a such a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i s t s . C r i t i c s w r i t i n g on the a r t s i n Canada throughout the l a t t e r p a r t of 1947 and 1948 c o n s i s t e n t l y r eturned to the need f o r a r t which c o u l d face, and adequately respond to the c u r r e n t p e r i l s of fas c i s m and communism, as w e l l as to the s p e c t r e of g l o b a l d e s t r u c t i o n . C h a r l e s Comfort o u t l i n e d the ways in which a r t i s t s weire a f f e c t e d by the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n : Much of the c u r r e n t a n x i e t y . . . i s no doubt caused by the world's i n c r e a s i n g d e s t r u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l . . . the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the d e s t r u c t i v e deployment of the U235 [Uranium 235, the a c t i v e agent of atomic weapons] and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the w i l l f u l c r e a t i o n of l e t h a l plague c o n d i t i o n s do not c o n t r i b u t e to our sense of s e c u r i t y i n a world where a c t u a l warfare may only be he l d in abeyance.... These f a c t o r s . . . form the background, conscious and unconscious f o r p a i n t e r s of t o d a y . 1 2 9 The problem f a c i n g the a r t i s t in 1948, of course, was the 1 2 9 C h a r l e s Comfort, "Observations on a Decade. Canadian P a i n t i n g , S c u l p t u r e , and Printmaking: T r a n s i t i o n , " J o u r n a l of  the Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada 25 (January 1948): 141 a p p r o p r i a t e manner to respond to the s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l problems of the world without l a p s i n g i n t o p o l i t i c a l l y c o r r u p t e d , o v e r t l y p r o p a g a n d i s t i c a r t . L i b e r a l c r i t i c s b e l i e v e d that a l a c k of o b j e c t i v e content immunized a r t a g a i n s t the i n c u r s i o n s of p o l i t i c s , and that n o n - o b j e c t i v e and s u r r e a l i s t a r t would be stamped with the a r t i s t ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l response to the world without bearing the s e a l of p a r t i s a n s h i p : But they [atomic weapons] do i n f l u e n c e t h i s expression....There i s an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n n o n - o b j e c t i v e and s u r r e a l i s t a b s t r a c t i o n . . . . [ T h e a r t i s t ] i s concerned with e x p l o r i n g the concepts of a r t forms and s t a t i n g them in the audacious terms of t o d a y . 1 3 0 The problem with both the l i b e r a l c o n ception of 'atomic age,' n o n - p o l i t i c a l a r t , as w e l l as with the Automatiste's b e l i e f that such a r t c o u l d be c r e a t e d through the use of the technique of automatism, i s that the concepts u n d e r l y i n g the r o l e of atomic weapons in the contemporary world, and the kind of response which was seen as a p p r o p r i a t e to the nuclear age were c o l o u r e d with p o l i t i c a l overtones: the p e r c e p t i o n of nuclear weapons as a spur f o r the West to trounce communism was one which belonged to l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s and the L i b e r a l p a r t y . Thus, whatever the a r t i s t ' s response to t h i s p e r c e p t i o n was, i t was bound to be t i e d to the p o l i t i c s submerged beneath i t . Moreover, because i t shared the p o l i t i c s of a s p e c i f i c s t r a t a of s o c i e t y , but r e l e n t l e s s l y p r o f e s s e d a p o l i t i c i s m , 'atomic age a r t ' became p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e to p o l i t i c a l 1 3 0 I b i d . , p. 8. 142 e x p l o i t a t i o n ; the uses to which such a r t c o u l d be put was c a n d i d l y remarked on by a w r i t e r f o r Canadian Business: S o c i a l i s m i s c o n s t a n t l y on the o f f e n s i v e . T h i s a t t a c k can be met only b y . . . t e l l i n g something of what f r e e e n t e r p r i s e has done f o r t h i s c o u n t r y . . . u s i n g c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . 1 3 1 Surrounded by a s o c i e t y so w i l l i n g to r e c r u i t c u l t u r e i n the campaign a g a i n s t communism, and armed with an ideology a l l i e d with anglophone l i b e r a l i s m , the p o s s i b i l i t y that the Automatistes c o u l d produce a p o l i t i c a l a r t and keep i t that way was minimal. While the Refus G l o b a l a b j u r e s p o l i t i c a l entanglements, i t does d e c l a r e i t s e l f to be on the s i d e of "resplendent a n a r c h y , " 1 3 2 a d e c l a r a t i o n which has l e d a r t h i s t o r i a n s to p e r c e i v e the group as p o l i t i c a l l y pure, uncorrupted by the p o l i t i c a l machinations of p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s . 1 3 3 While 1 3 1 Murray T e v l i n , "Business and C u l t u r e , " Canadian  Business, August 1948, p. 45. 1 3 2 Refus G l o b a l , p. 54. Andr6-G. Bourassa argues that the anarchism of the group was dependent on Breton's ideas: "Furthermore, the a n a r c h i s t i c r e v e r i e s of Arcane-17 surround the f i n a l words of Borduas' t e x t " ("Refus G l o b a l : a c u r r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " Canadian Art 35 [December 1978/January 1979]: 27). Although i t i s c l e a r that Breton's t h i n k i n g i n f l u e n c e d Borduas' to a degree, by viewing Borduas' p o l i t i c s as almost wholly subordinate to those of Breton, Bourassa overlooks the e f f e c t s the contemporary world had on Borduas. 1 3 3 Art h i s t o r i a n s today are the h e i r s of the kind of l i b e r a l t h i n k i n g which was c e n t r a l to that of t h e i r predecessors three decades ago: the end to ideology and contempt (at the r h e t o r i c a l l e v e l , at any rate) f o r p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s . Thus,-Borduas i s upheld as having r e t a i n e d h i s p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r i t y because h i s d i s c u s s i o n of freedom was couched in n o n - p o l i t i c a l terms; he i s esteemed because he defended "freedom i n the face of a l l those systems that attempt to crush i t " (Francois-Marc Gagnon, "Foreward" [to a s p e c i a l i s s u e on Borduas] Artscanada 35 [December 1978/January 1979]: 1). Why a defense of 143 the A u t o m a t i s t e s 1 apparent support of anarchism garnered them the h o s t i l i t y of the francophone press which regarded anarchy as the p o l i t i c a l e q u i v a l e n t of immorality and l i c e n c e , the response of anglophone c r i t i c s was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Donald Buchanan, f o r example, c a s t s anarchy, and the Automatistes' r e l a t i o n to i t , i n an i d e a l i z i n g l i g h t : a long c r i t i c a l essay by Borduas h i m s e l f . . . tends to be an e x p r e s s i o n , i n terms of both a r t and s o c i e t y , of the d o c t r i n e of p h i l o s o p h i c a l anarchism. H i s assumption, l i k e that of the a n a r c h i s t s , i s that the human p e r s o n a l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y good and i s only c o r r u p t e d by the deforming power of i n s t i t u t i o n s and a u t h o r i t y . 1 3 8 Buchanan's understanding of anarchism as a phi l o s o p h y r a t h e r than a p o l i t i c a l d o c t r i n e allows him to preserve h i s assumption that the Automatistes were e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - p o l i t i c a l , even a n t i - p o l i t i c a l . Moreover, h i s equation of anarchy with the l i b e r t a r i a n b e l i e f i n the innate goodness of man and the d e s t r u c t i o n of man's r e c t i t u d e by both p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l power, e f f e c t s a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of anarchism and l i b e r a l i s m , which a s s e r t e d that man's p r o b i t y c o u l d p r e v a i l i f con t a c t with a u t h o r i t y and the s t a t e were minimized. Desmond Pacey's d e f i n i t i o n of l i b e r a l i s m , f o r in s t a n c e , s t r e s s e s both f a i t h i n the supremacy of the i n d i v i d u a l and a m i s t r u s t of power: The end f o r the l i b e r a l . . . i s the maximum development of a l l the good p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the human non- p a r t i s a n freedom guarantees p o l i t i c a l i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y i s not addressed. 1 3 t t Buchanan, Review of Refus G l o b a l , p. 8 6 . 144 r a c e . . . . [ t h e ] b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b l e p r o g r e s s i v e development of the human race....In t h i s context i s the l i b e r a l ' s d i s t r u s t of power to be understood. He f e a r s power not out of cowardice or t i m i d i t y , but because power which i s allowed to get s u f f i c i e n t l y entrenched p r o v i d e s an almost immovable o b s t a c l e to change. Hence i t i s a l s o that he defends m i n o r i t i e s ; f o r from them alone can come the new i n s i g h t s which w i l l make c l e a r the need of m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the s t a t u s quo. C i v i l l i b e r t i e s , of course, must be defended f o r the same reason: the r i g h t to c r i t i c i z e the e x i s t i n g order i s an obvious c o r o l l a r y of the b e l i e f t h a t no order i s p e r f e c t and f i n a l . 1 3 5 In the context of the Cold War, the defense of the i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t the encroachments of the s t a t e and of powerful i n s t i t u t i o n s became i d e n t i f i e d not j u s t with p h i l o s o p h i c a l anarchism and n e o - l i b e r a l i s m , but a l s o anti-communism. L i b e r a l s c a s t i g a t e d communism because of i t s a n t i - i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , m o n o l i t h i c c h a r a c t e r , i n .which the p a r t y mediated a l l aspects of the c i t i z e n ' s l i f e , m inimizing the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n . P h i l i p Mosely, commented, f o r example, the S o v i e t l e a d e r s h i p f e e l s that i t s moral r i g h t to r u l e r e s t s on the ' c o r r e c t n e s s ' of i t s analyses and the ' m o n o l i t h i c ' u n i t y of i t s a c t i o n . Western democracy i s f l e x i b l e i n i t s aims and r i g i d in i t s procedures; the S o v i e t power i s r i g i d i n i t s aims and f l e x i b l e i n i t s procedures [ i . e . , i t u n i l a t e r a l l y makes or breaks laws in order to c a r r y out i t s p o l i c i e s most e x p e d i t i o u s l y ] . 1 3 6 Thus, when Buchanan d e s c r i b e s the Automatistes as a n a r c h i s t s because of t h e i r abhorrence of power and t h e i r commitment to i n d i v i d u a l i s m , he makes t h e i r anarchism compatible with the l i b e r a l world view, one which before a l l e l s e was h o s t i l e to 135 P a c e y f » I n Defence of L i b e r a l i s m , " p. 238. 1 3 6 P h i l i p E. Mosely, "S o v i e t P o l i c y i n a Two-World System," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 3 (Summer 1948): 194-5. 145 communism. In 1948 t h e r e f o r e , the Automatistes' avowal of anarchism d i d not guarantee them p o l i t i c a l immunity, but only made them more a p p e a l i n g to a group with d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l b i a s e s , namely, anglophone l i b e r a l s . In the Refus G l o b a l , the Automatistes express a d e s i r e to achieve an a r t which i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n import and i n f l u e n c e : "Yesterday, we were alone and i n d e c i s v e . Today, a group e x i s t s with wide, courageous branches that extend beyond the f r o n t i e r s . " 1 3 7 Buchanan's review of the Refus G l o b a l a l s o focuses on the u n i v e r s a l a s p i r a t i o n s of the group: Given t h i s freedom of e x p r e s s i o n , Borduas claims that the i n d i v i d u a l p a i n t e r , no matter how c h a o t i c h i s f i r s t attempts at i n s t i n c t i v e composition may be, w i l l yet have taken the f i r s t steps on the road to a more honest and more e s s e n t i a l l y human and u n i v e r s a l a r t . 1 3 8 To c u l t i v a t e u n i v e r s a l i t y was to r e j e c t i s o l a t i o n i s m , an issue which Borduas addressed e a r l i e r i n the manifesto when he a t t a c k e d the g h e t t o i z a t i o n of Quebec which had endured from the conquest to the p r e s e n t : A colony trapped and abandoned as long ago as 1760 beneath u n s c a l a b l e w a l l s of fear....A l i t t l e p e o p l e s h i e l d e d from the broader e v o l u t i o n of thought as too r i s k y and dangerous....A l i t t l e people... spellbound by the a n n i h i l a t i n g p r e s t i g e of remembered European masterpieces, and d i s d a i n f u l of the a u t h e n t i c c r e a t i o n s of i t s own o p p r e s s e d . 1 3 9 1 3 7 Refus G l o b a l , p. 53. 1 3 8 Buchanan, Review of Refus G l o b a l , p. 86. 1 3 9 Refus G l o b a l , p. 45. 1 46 On one l e v e l , the r e j e c t i o n of i s o l a t i o n i s m was a d e n i a l of one of the fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Quebec s t a t u s quo. At another l e v e l , however, i t s c o r o l l a r y , ' u n i v e r s a l i t y , ' a l s o responded to the d e s i r e of E n g l i s h Canadian l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s and L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s f o r Canada to adopt a f u l l and committed r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s : Our n a t i o n a l i s m i s growing r a t h e r l e s s p r o v i n c i a l and more Canadian, our i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m l e s s pious and more p r a c t i c a l , though sub j e c t to the l i m i t a t i o n s of our resources and our sympathies. The impulses of our people are generous and humane, though we s u f f e r the s p i r i t u a l obtuseness which i n h i b i t s n a t i o n a l i s t man from comprehending a l l that i s human. We peer a c r o s s the region of the North A t l a n t i c cohesion and welfare s t i l l seems a long way o f f , hypotheses r e s t i n g p r e c a r i o u s l y on avoidance of war and of r e g r e s s i v e n a t i o n a l i s m . 'The world of today,' Mr Pearson warns, ' i s too s m a l l , too interdependent, f o r even r e g i o n a l i s o l a t i o n . ' 1 4 0 The defence of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and the d e s i r e f o r i n c r e a s i n g "Canada's new i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u s as a middle power," 1" 1 however, was i n t e r t w i n e d with a p o l i t i c a l p r oposal of the L i b e r a l government: Canada's entry i n t o NATO. When, t h e r e f o r e , l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s defended the Automatistes f o r having p l a c e d Canada " f o r the f i r s t time in i t s h i story,...no longer in the wake of European achievement, b u t . . . i n c o m p e t i t i o n with 1"° E r i c H a r r i s o n , "Strategy and P o l i c y in the Defence of Canada," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 4 (Summer 1949): 243. 1 4 1 D.C. Masters, Review of The E n g l i s h - S p e a k i n g Peoples:  A Modern H i s t o r y by Edgar Mc l n n i s and J.H.S. Reid and Contemporary Canada: A Mid-Twentieth Century O r i e n t a t i o n by Robert England, I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 4 (Summer 1948): 275. 147 h e r , " 1 " 2 t h e i r a p p r a i s a l of the group was c o n d i t i o n e d by, and i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l concerns re g a r d i n g Canada and i t s newly a c q u i r e d r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . At every t u r n , the Automatistes became enmeshed i n the maze .of l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y . The p o s i t i v e r e c e p t i o n of the Refus G l o b a l w i t h i n anglophone l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s was not a f u n c t i o n of l i b e r a l s ' i n t u i t i v e response to the presence of ' a r t i s t i c genius' i n t h e i r midst, but was r a t h e r p r e d i c a t e d on t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l p r e o c c u p t i o n s i n 1948. Deeply immersed i n the campaign f o r freedom and the crusade a g a i n s t communism, which c o l o u r e d t h e i r assumptions about a r t and c u l t u r e , anglophone l i b e r a l s saw the Refus G l o b a l as an a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h e i r own concerns about the p o s i t i o n of freedom i n the Cold War world. When these i n t e l l e c t u a l s upheld the Refus G l o b a l as a " c h a l l e n g i n g s t a t e m e n t " 1 " 3 about the nature of freedom i n contemporary s o c i e t y , and when they agreed with Borduas' f o r m u l a t i o n of i t , they were a c t u a l l y only c e l e b r a t i n g t h e i r own d e f i n i t i o n of freedom, the l i b e r a l / L i b e r a l one. In the Refus  G l o b a l , l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n E n g l i s h Canada p e r c e i v e d a r e f l e c t i o n of themselves, h o s t i l e to the l e f t and the r i g h t , 1 " 2 "Automatism," Canadian Art 5 (Winter 1948): 134. A l s o u n d e r l y i n g these comments i s the r e c o g n i t i o n that P a r i s had ceased to h o l d the p o s i t i o n as the a r t c a p i t a l of the Western world; i n 1948, who would move i n t o the p o s i t i o n had not been d e f i n i t i v e l y decided, but Montreal, i n a d d i t i o n to New York, was vyi n g with P a r i s f o r t h i s honour. 1 " 3 Buchanan, Review of Refus G l o b a l , p. 86. 148 f a i t h f u l only to freedom i t s e l f : t h a t such thoughts should have been put thus d i r e c t l y on paper by a group of a r t i s t s does prove what d i v e r s e s t i r r i n g s , sometimes d i r e c t and c l e a r , sometimes confused and incohate, do e x i s t i n French Canada today. Let us hope that such freedom of thought w i l l not be crushed out too a r b i t r a r i l y . 1 4 0 The v e r b a l i d e o l o g i e s of the f r a c t i o u s Montreal avant-garde, as expressed in the manifestoes i s s u e d by the Prisme d'Yeux and the Automatistes, corresponded c l o s e l y to the i d e o l o g i e s that e f f e c t e d a schism between francophone and anglophone l i b e r a l i s m . The Prisme d'Yeux, i n attempting to a s s i m i l a t e e v e r y t h i n g e c l e c t i c a l l y , and, as i t s name i m p l i e s , to r e f r a c t e v e r y t h i n g , a r t i c u l a t e d the major ten e t s of l i b e r a l i s m i n Quebec. In c o n t r a s t , the Automatistes, i n t h e i r ' r e f u s ' g l o b a l ' r e j e c t e d e v e r y t h i n g connected with the l i b e r a l i s m of Quebec's i n t e l l e c t u a l s , but i n doing so became unexpectedly a l i g n e d wih the p o s i t i o n of anglophone l i b e r a l s . By a c c e p t i n g e v e r y t h i n g and r e j e c t i n g e v e r y t h i n g the Prisme d'Yeux and the Automatistes not only came to blows with one another, but a l s o , d e s p i t e t h e i r avant-garde facades, a l i g n e d themselves with the s t a t u s quo, a l b e i t d i f f e r e n t and contending ones. 1 0 4 I b i d . 149 CHAPTER THREE The V i s u a l I d e o l o g i e s of P e l l a n and Borduas: L'homme A grave and Objet Totemique The p i c t o r i a l experience of each of u s — a n d t h i s i s our deepest desire--must be a part of our essence, and in consequence, should inhere i n a l l e s s e n t i a l experience, of which i t i s the p r o j e c t i o n . 1 T r u l y these p a i n t e r s are f o r c h i l d r e n and the simple-minded, and f o r the 'grown ups' of tomorrow--when a l l w i l l be able to see beneath the s u r f a c e and i d e n t i f y the t r u t h s that i t c o n c e a l s . 2 While P e l l a n and Borduas were engaged i n the polemics of avant-gardism, they a l s o c ontinued to produce a r t . 3 The problem which i s posed by t h e i r a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n of 1948 i s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the manifestoes which both signed, the meaning of i t s imagery, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r c h o i c e of s t y l e s . Through an examination of these i s s u e s the a e s t h e t i c i d e o l o g i e s 1 Prisme d'Yeux Mani f e s t o , p. 51. 2 Borduas, "Commentaires sur des mots courants," In Borduas, E c r i t s / W r i t i n g s , p. 79. 3 In terms of h i s a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n , 1948 was a very s u c c e s s f u l year f o r Borduas; by A p r i l 1948, he had probably completed at l e a s t 11 new p a i n t i n g s which were e x h i b i t e d i n h i s one man show at the V i a u b r o t h e r s ' a t e l i e r . As one of these works, C i m i t i e r e g l o r i e u x bears the secondary t i t l e , 14'. 48, one may i n f e r that he had completed 14 works d u r i n g the f i r s t four months of 1948. P e l l a n ' s a r t i s t i c output i n 1948 was l i m i t e d to small s c a l e drawings due to h e a l t h problems, as Reesa Greenberg has noted i n the e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l ogue The Drawings of A l f r e d P e l l a n (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada^ 1980), p. 65. 150 of two works produced by the l e a d e r s of the Montreal avant-garde, L'homme A grave ( p l a t e 1) by P e l l a n , and Objet  Totemique" ( p l a t e 2) by Borduas w i l l become apparent. L'homme A grave i s one of a s e r i e s of 44 pen and ink drawings which P e l l a n executed i n 1948, i n s p i r e d by a reading of Paul E l u a r d ' s C a p i t a l e de l a Douleur (1926); L'homme A grave owes i t s source to "Volontairement," one of the s h o r t e r poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n . 5 The punning t i t l e of the drawing i s t y p i c a l l y s u r r e a l i s t , although i t bears l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to e i t h e r the t i t l e or content of E l u a r d ' s poem. P e l l a n ' s c h o i c e of a t i t l e with m u l t i p l e meanings, however, i s t y p i c a l of h i s a n t i p a t h y towards commitment to a s i n g l e p o s i t i o n ; i t may a l t e r n a t e l y mean the f i r s t r a t e man engraves, the man engraves, the s e r i o u s man, the heavy man, the man i s a g g r a v a t e d . 6 When c o n s i d e r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , these e p i t h e t s evoke the p o s i t i o n of the a r t i s t in 1948, s u b j e c t to a s e r i e s of p r e s s u r e s , both a r t i s t i c and s o c i a l , which P e l l a n f e l t a c u t e l y . According to Reesa u In Borduas; B i o g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , Gagnon r e f e r s to t h i s work as Objets Totemiques (pp"! 228-229, 266); however, a l i s t of works shown at the V i a u b r o t h e r s ' apartment i n 1948 which i s made in Borduas' own hand r e f e r s to the p a i n t i n g as Objet  Totemique. Despite my many r e s e r v a t i o n s about h i s i n t e r p -r e t a t i o n of the 1948 c o n f l i c t , Gagnon's work remains the most v a l u a b l e on the p e r i o d . 5 Greenberg, The Drawings of A l f r e d P e l l a n , p. 145. Although I d i s a g r e e with her on many p o i n t s , I am indebted to Greenberg's r e s e a r c h on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between P e l l a n ' s 1948 drawings and E l u a r d's poetry. 6 Francois-Marc Gagnon has a l s o suggested that the t i t l e r e f e r s to A l b e r t Dumouchel, a printmaker and member of the Prisme d'Yeux: "'A' f o r Durer. A l b r e c h t . 'A' f o r A l b e r t , A l b e r t Dumouchel, Father of Graphic Art in Quebec" ( c o r r e s p . , 1 October 1981). 151 Plate 1. A l f r e d Pellan, L'homme A grave, 1948. Ink on paper, 29.8 x 22.8 cm. C o l l : Musee du Quebec. (Photo: Musee du Quebec) 152 P l a t e 2. Paul-Emile Borduas, Objet Tot§mique, 1948. O i l on canvas, 55.8 x 46.9 cm. C o l l : Mme. Vianney D e c a r i e . (Photo: Yvan B o u l e r i c e ) 153 Greenberg, Pellan d e liberately changed the t i t l e s [of the drawings inspired by Capitale de l a Douleur] in an attempt t o obscure their source, in response to the current anti-communist climate in Quebec...A non-communist, Pellan preferred not to have his a r t interpreted on the basis of a p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n with the most vocal European communist S u r r e a l i s t , E l u a r d , nor for that matter with the Montreal Automatistes. 7 Considering the tension existing between Pellan and Borduas in 1948, Pellan's self-censorship of the s u r r e a l i s t source of the series of drawings to which L'homme A grave belongs, i s comprehensible as an avant-garde strategy of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n ; i f he had acknowledged that he, l i k e the Automatistes, owed a debt to surrealism, he would have minimized the differences between himself and the Automatistes, differences which both groups in s i s t e d were sharp edged ones. Pellan's fear of being regarded as a communist through a f f i l i a t i o n with Eluard, however, i s more problematic than he and Greenberg suggest. Whatever Eluard's subsequent p o l i t i c a l c o nvictions, 8 and their influence on his poetry, Capitale de 7 Greenberg, The Drawings of A l f r e d Pellan, p. 66. 8 E l u a r d joined the Parti Communiste Francais (PCF) in 1927, along with four other S u r r e a l i s t s , Breton, Aragon, Unik, and Peret. The Surrealist-PCF a l l i a n c e was an uneasy one, as the PCF doubted the S u r r e a l i s t s ' r e l i a b i l i t y and commitment to the Party, while Eluard and Breton were "put off by the oppressive atmosphere in the Party under the narrow, sectarian and fundamentally a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l leadership of Barbe and Celor" (David Caute, Communism and the French I n t e l l e c t u a l s , 1914-1960 [London: ^Andr§ Deutsch, 1964], p. 97). Together with Breton and Crevel, Eluard was expelled from the PCF in 1933; the other S u r r e a l i s t s were expelled for having attacked, among other things, "the wind of c r e t i n i z a t i o n blowing from the U.S.S.R." (Maurice Nadeau, The History of Surrealism, trans. Richard Howard [Middlesex! Penguin, 1973], p. 208). E l u a r d rejoined 1 54 l a Douleur's a l l e g i a n c e s are to s u r r e a l i s m , not communism. The poems' i n t r o s p e c t i v e , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and o f t e n hermetic q u a l i t i e s were, i n f a c t , p r e c i s e l y those which caused the P a r t i Communiste F r a n c a i s to regard poets l i k e E l u a r d with a l a r g e measure of s u s p i c i o n : the PCF regarded h i s poetry as speaking to and f o r the a l i e n a t e d , but p o l i t i c a l l y naive and s e l f - i n d u l -gent bourgeois i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , and c o n s i d e r e d h i s commitment to the r e v o l u t i o n to be a romantic, r a t h e r than hard-headed and s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l one. 9 Moreover, the lack of p o l i t i c a l c o nsciousness and the absence of m a n i f e s t l y M a r x i s t ideas i n C a p i t a l e de l a Douleur r e f l e c t s E l u a r d ' s a t t i t u d e towards the PCF at the time these poems were w r i t t e n : i n 1926, E l u a r d , l i k e s e v e r a l other P a r i s i a n S u r r e a l i s t s , was f l i c t i n g with the notion of c o l l a b o r a t i n g with the PCF i n fomenting r e v o l u t i o n , but the f l i r t a t i o n remained an i d e a l i s t i c one, and d i d not s o l i d i f y i n t o a whole-hearted acceptance of e i t h e r the c u l t u r a l or p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s of the P C F . 1 0 the PCF i n 1942, and remained a member u n t i l h i s death in 1952. On the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the French S u r r e a l i s t s and the PCF, see note 81, Chapter 2. 9 See, f o r example, P i e r r e N a v i l l e , La R e v o l u t i o n et l e s I n t e l l e c t u e l s . Que Peuvent f a i r e l e s S u r r e a l i s t e s ? (Par i s, 1 926) . 1 0 I n d i c a t i v e of the S u r r e a l i s t s ' ambivalence towards the PCF was t h e i r r e f u s a l to abandon p u b l i s h i n g t h e i r j o u r n a l , La  Re v o l u t i o n S u r r e a l i s t e , and to devote t h e i r energy e x c l u s i v e l y to the Pa r t y ' s paper, L'Humanite. As Short has noted i n "The P o l i t i c s of S u r r e a l i s m , " the contents and t i t l e of La Re v o l u t i o n  S u r r e a l i s t e "caused c o n s t e r n a t i o n and moral outrage" among the le a d e r s of the PCF (p. 10). 155 While the non-communist tenor of C a p i t a l e de l a Douleur and the f a c t that i t was w r i t t e n p r i o r to E l u a r d ' s a c t i v e involvement with the PCF make i t d i f f i c u l t to understand P e l l a n ' s a n x i e t y about being regarded as a communist through a f f i l i a t i o n with i t , the s t a t u s of E l u a r d among Quebec's c r i t i c s i n 1948 adds f u r t h e r dimensions to t h i s problem. Only the most c o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t i c s judged E l u a r d as a s p e c i f i c a l l y communist w r i t e r . In " B i l a n du S u r r e a l i s m e , " f o r example, Auguste V i a t t e wrote: l e s u r r e a l i s m e . . . p o u v a i t sembler une e n t r e p r i s e de d e m o r a l i s a t i o n au s e r v i c e du communisme....Eluard, Breton, Aragon, n ' a d h e r a i e n t - i l s pas au p a r t i communi s t e ? 1 1 The c r i t i c s who censured E l u a r d as a communist, however, were a l s o those who c o n s i d e r e d the m a j o r i t y of 20th century a r t as i n h e r e n t l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y and t h e r e f o r e imbued with communist con n e c t i o n s , and who had p r e v i o u s l y c a s t i g a t e d P e l l a n ' s a r t as ' b o l c h e v i s t i c ' because of i t s s i m i l a r i t y to the modern a r t of France. Since these c r i t i c s 1 2 were a l r e a d y h o s t i l e to P e l l a n ' s work without knowing of i t s connections with E l u a r d , i t i s u n l i k e l y that i n 1948 P e l l a n regarded them as an important part of h i s audience, u n l i k e l i e r s t i l l that he would a v o i d mentioning the i n f l u e n c e of E l u a r d on h i s a r t f o r fear of a n t a g o n i z i n g these h y s t e r i c a l a n t i - m o d e r n i s t s . 1 1 Auguste V i a t t e , " B i l a n du S u r r e a l i s m e , " Revue de  l ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l 3 (November 1948), p. 234. 1 2 See, f o r example, Bergeron, Art et Bolchevisme and Clarence Gagnon, "L'immense blague de l ' a r t moderniste." 156 Among Quebec's l i b e r a l l i t e r a t i , P e l l a n ' s sympathetic p u b l i c , however, filuard was extremely popular, and h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with the PCF was overlooked or e x c i s e d from t h e i r a nalyses of h i s poetry. L i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s p l a c e d E l u a r d in the pantheon of 20th century French c u l t u r e ; f o r example, an a r t i c l e on s u r r e a l i s m by Jean-Marc Leger presents a t y p i c a l l y f a v o u r a b l e image of E l u a r d : [Le s u r r e a l i s m e ] . . . r e n f e r m a i t des elements v e r i t a b l e m e n t c o n s t r u c t i f s e t . . . i l repondait a un bes o i n . Comment e x p l i q u e r , autrement, l'etendue et l a profondeur de son succes et q u ' i l a i pu r a l l i e r des a r t i s t e s a u s s i authentiques qu'un E l u a r d , un Aragon, un Ivan G o l l (chez l e s p o e t e s ) , qu'un Miro, un Masson et , pour un temps, un Fernand Leger (chez l e s p e i n t r e s ) . 1 3 Leger's omission of El u a r d ' s p o l i t i c a l connections and h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of E l u a r d with such School of P a r i s a r t i s t s as Miro and Masson, a l s o c r e a t e s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s o f a r as P e l l a n ' s suppression of E l u a r d as the source of h i s i n s p i r a t i o n f o r L'homme A grave i s concerned. The a r t i s t s which Leger regards as analogous to E l u a r d had not only been connected with the PCF, but were a l s o those who P e l l a n q u i t e o v e r t l y i m i t a t e d and f o r whom he had o f t e n expressed a d m i r a t i o n . In an i n t e r v i e w with Paul Duval i n January 1949, f o r example, P e l l a n s a i d , "For me, G i o t t o , Poussin, Leger, Klee and Miro are great p a i n t e r s . . . I embrace the s u r r e a l i s m of Andre Masson, Klee and M i r o . " 1 " That P e l l a n was w i l l i n g to a f f i l i a t e h i m s e l f with p a i n t e r s i n v o l v e d 1 3 Jean-Marc Leger, "Porter l ' o b s c u r a l a lumiere; S i t u a t i o n du s u r r e a l i s m e , " Notre Temps, 1 May 1948, p. 5. 1 4 Duval,."The A r t of A l f r e d P e l l a n , " p. 55. 157 even t e m p o r a r i l y w i t h communism, but not w i t h a poet a s s o c i a t e d with the PCF, makes P e l l a n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r h i s suppression of the s o u r c e of h i s 1948 drawings r a t h e r u n b e l i e v a b l e . Moreover, the f a c t that Quebec l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s were e i t h e r unaware or unmindful of E l u a r d ' s p o l i t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s , and t h a t they accorded him accolades of p r a i s e , a l s o e n f e e b l e s P e l l a n ' s account of h i s c e n s o r s h i p of E l u a r d ' s connections to h i s e n t i r e a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n of 1948. P e l l a n ' s attempt to conceal the connections between h i s a r t and C a p i t a l e de l a Douleur only becomes comprehensible when one r e c a l l s the Prisme d'Yeux manifesto's e d i c t a g a i n s t "the i n t e r f e r e n c e of l i t e r a r y . . . i n f l u e n c e s . . . w h i c h can a d u l t e r a t e i t s [ a r t ' s ] e x p r e s s i o n and s u l l y i t s p u r i t y . " ' 5 P e l l a n ' s a r t i s t i c output of 1948 was e n t i r e l y i n s p i r e d by l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e v i o l a t e d the a e s t h e t i c code a r t i c u l a t e d i n the Prisme d'Yeux's manifesto; p u b l i c admission of t h i s f a c t would have s e v e r e l y compromised h i s own c r e d i b i l i t y as w e l l as that of the Prisme d'Yeux. The Prisme d'Yeux's v i l i f i c a t i o n of a r t with l i t e r a r y connections, however, was a l s o a t h r u s t a g a i n s t the Automatistes, who had p r e v i o u s l y been accused of producing o v e r l y ' l i t e r a r y ' a r t , a charge motivated by the f a n c i f u l t i t l e s which many of them gave t h e i r p a i n t i n g s (and regarded by i t s c r i t i c s as i n a p p r o p r i a t e to the v i s u a l a r t s , however a p p r o p r i a t e they may have been to l i t e r a t u r e ) , and by the f a c t that automatism was.a technique f i r s t used.by s u r r e a l i s t w r i t e r s ; as 1 5 Prisme d'Yeux Ma n i f e s t o , p. 49, 51. 158 Bourbeau commented, "1'automatisme ( e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t langue e c r i t e ) ne peut apporter...absolument r i e n en p e i n t u r e . " 1 6 By u s i n g poetry as a source of a r t i s t i c i n s p i r a t i o n , P e l l a n t r a n s g r e s s e d a major a r t i c l e of f a i t h of the group which he l e d , but by o b s c u r i n g t h i s f a c t , he c o u l d n e v e r t h e l e s s apppear to uphold the group's p r i n c i p l e s , and yet s t i l l measure h i s d i s t a n c e from the ' l i t e r a r y ' Automatistes. That P e l l a n ' s c a r e e r in 1948 was so fraught with c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y an i n d i c a t i o n of h y p o c r i s y on h i s p a r t ; i n s t e a d , these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s were an outcome of the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n manoeuvring for the p o s i t i o n of the dominant avant-garde, which f o r c e d such a r t i s t s as P e l l a n i n t o ambiguous p o s i t i o n s . Moreover, the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the use of E l u a r d ' s poetry i n h i s a r t are yet another example of P e l l a n ' s p r o p e n s i t y to regard dichotomies as n a t u r a l , and the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of them as a b i d f o r an a e s t h e t i c freedom, unbound by the e d i c t s of r i g i d , c l o s e l y adhered to a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s . Both the t i t l e and f i g u r a t i v e content of L'homme A grave r e f e r to graphic a r t . The c e n t r a l image of the work may be read as an emblem of the graphic a r t i s t , f o r a hand g r i p s an e t c h e r ' s s t y l u s and e n s c r i b e s an encoded message on a p l a t e . In 1948, g r a p h i c s occupied a prominent p o s i t i o n in the l i v e s of the Prisme d'Yeux a r t i s t s , as they were working on Les A t e l i e r s des  A r t s Graphiques, a magazine j o i n t l y sponsored by the E c o l e des 1 6 G e r a l d i n e Bourbeau, "M. Borduas et 1'automatisme," L i a i s o n 2 (March 1948): 175. 159 A r t s Graphiques de Montreal, and the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l Welfare and Youth. Regarded as avant-garde w i t h i n Quebec, 1 7 but by the E n g l i s h press and the Automatistes as p a s s e , 1 8 Les A t e l i e r s repeats the main tene t s of francophone l i b e r a l i s m and the preoccupations of the Prisme d'Yeux. In an a r t i c l e i n Les A t e l i e r s , Jacques de Tonnancour, the p r i n c i p a l author of the Prisme d'Yeux manifesto, advances g r a p h i c s as the bridge between the ' o l d ' and the 'new,' a s s o c i a t i n g g r a p h i c s with t r a d i t i o n and any l i n e a r s t y l e • 1 7 The r e p r o d u c t i o n of a nude by Mimi Parent i n i t s f i r s t e d i t i o n (1947) had caused c o n s t e r n a t i o n w i t h i n the government, thereby adding to the magazine's avant-garde image. In the C a t h o l i c j o u r n a l R e l a t i o n s , the anonymous reviewer d e s c r i b e d Les  A t e l i e r s as "Albums d ' e s s a i s typographiques d'un a r t avance"e, t r o p avance"e pour e t r e formateur, p e u t - e t r e " (8 [ A p r i l 1948]: 1-26). See a l s o Bourassa, Surrealisme et l i t t e r a t u r e quebecoise, pp. 186-187 and Gagnon, Borduas: Biographie c r i t i q u e , pp. 213-214. 1 8 See, f o r example, Guy S y l v e s t r e ' s lukewarm review in Canadian A r t 5 (Winter 1948): 152: "Ge n e r a l l y speaking, the a r t i c l e s are i n f e r i o r to the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . . . . a l m o s t a l l the works of a r t reproduced here are of an a s t o n i s h i n g a u d a c i t y ; the a r t i c l e s , which lack o r i g i n a l i t y , do not always keep pace with them." The Automatistes had c o n t r i b u t e d to the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Les A t e l i e r s , a move over which there was d i s s e n t w i t h i n the group. In a l e t t e r to Borduas, f o r example, Leduc wrote, " j e vous avouerai q u ' i l m'a ete t r e s p e n i b l e de c o n s t a t e r v o t r e (je pense au groupe) presence a l a Revue des A r t s Graphiques tout ce q u ' i l y a de plus bourgeois et de plus conformiste par l a p r e s e n t a t i o n de plus r e a c t i o n n a i r e par l e s t e x t e s " (quoted by Gagnon in Borduas: Biographie c r i t i q u e , p. 214). The second issue of Les A t e l i e r s was to be p u b l i s h e d i n 1948, and Leduc's r e s e r v a t i o n s n o t w ithstanding, the r e s t of the Automatistes c o n s i d e r e d c o l l a b o r a t i n g on i t aga i n . When an Automatiste a r t i c l e was censored, and when the group l e a r n e d that i t s works would not be presented 'en b l o c ' i n the magazine, i t withdrew from the p r o j e c t ; i n Borduas' words, "a p a r t i r de ce moment, l e s ruptures se p r e c i p i t e r o n t " ( P r o j e c t i o n s L i b g r a n t e s , p. 109). 160 p o s t - d a t i n g Cezanne with modernity; the reappearance of g r a p h i c s as a major form of modern a r t appeared to de Tonnancour as the i d e a l l i n k between the past, the present, and the f u t u r e : avec une pur§te et une g l o i r e n o u v e l l e , l a Renaissance moderne a f a i t l e l i e n avec l a t r a d i t i o n dans tous l e s a r t s , et c e l a au p r i x d ' e f f o r t s p a t i e n t s et e n t i e r s , aux p r i x d'une i n t r a n s i g e a n c e et d'un proc£de de p u r i f i c a t i o n qui rapproche notre epoque des p l u s g r a n d e s . 1 9 In L'homme A grave, the r e f e r e n c e s to g r a p h i c s and t h e i r v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n through modernist s t y l e s , f u n c t i o n as a v i s u a l analogue of de Tonnancour's p e r c e p t i o n of the r o l e of g r a p h i c s in the v i s u a l a r t s . P e l l a n ' s s y n t h e s i s of two main branches of the School of P a r i s - - c u b i s m and s u r r e a l i s m — a l s o r e l a t e s to the old/new d i a l e c t i c , a f e a t u r e which contemporary c r i t i c s remarked upon. B e r t h e l o t Brunet, f o r example, p e r c e i v e d the Prisme d'Yeux as " l e s vieux modernes," and commented that "ces p e i n t u r e s . . . n e semblent r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s que pour ceux qui ont n e g l i g e de soumettre a l'heure d i t e avancee, une heure que l e s p l u s r e a l i s t e s ont a d o p t e e . " 2 0 S i m i l a r l y , Paul Duval commented, A l f r e d P e l l a n i s the enfant t e r r i b l e of Canadian a r t . He i s the acknowledged leader of the Montreal School--that s i n g u l a r c u l t u r a l bridge betwen the Old and the New W o r l d s . 2 1 The p e r c e p t i o n of P e l l a n as an " o l d modernist" was dependent on h i s amalgamation of cubism and s u r r e a l i s m , which were regarded 1 9 Jacques de Tonnancour, " C o n s i d e r a t i o n s sur l e graphisme," Les A t e l i e r s des A r t s Graphiques, No. 3 (1949), n.p. 2 0 B e r t h e l o t Brunet, "Notre p e i n t u r e v r a i e et l e s vieux modernes," La P a t r i e , 22 May 1948. 2 1 Paul Duval, "The Work of A l f r e d P e l l a n , " p. 53. 161 as tokens of the o l d and the new, r e s p e c t i v e l y . By 1948, cubism occcupied a p o s i t i o n of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y w i t h i n the a e s t h e t i c cosmos of Quebec; as e a r l y as 1942, the c o n s e r v a t i v e Amerique  F r a n c a i s e had p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e c h a r a c t e r i z i n g cubism as an example of the v i t a l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l f e c u n d i t y of western c i v i l i z a t i o n . 2 2 However, by v i r t u e of i t s r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , cubism had l o s t i t s a g g r e s s i v e l y modern, and hence, avant-garde a l l u r e w i t h i n Quebec. In c o n t r a s t , s u r r e a l i s m c o n t i n u e d to be viewed as a d i s t i n c t i v e l y ' modern adjunct of contemporary a r t , and i t s e x e c r a t i o n by c o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t i c s only enhanced i t s veneer of n o v e l t y . 2 3 Through a l l u s i o n s to the o l d and the new, the f i g u r a t i v e and s t y l i s t i c components of L'homme A grave appear as a f u l f i l l m e n t of the c r i t e r i o n of a e s t h e t i c f r e e d o m - - d u a l i t y - - c e l e b r a t e d i n the Prisme d'Yeux manifesto: "Prisme d'Yeux r a l l i e s to the o l d e s t theory of a r t . . . t o that of the cave man [and] to the most contemporary of 20th century 2 2 E l i a n e Houghton Brunn, "La volont§ du cubisme," Amer ique  F r a n c a i s e 1 (August 1942): 23-28. 2 3 S u r r e a l i s m ' s most b i t t e r c r i t i c p r i o r to 1948 was Rene Bergeron, who wrote i n Art et Bolchevisme: "Le Pere Raymond K e l l e y , j e s u i t e americain, e c r i v a i t dans ' C a t h o l i c Digest'...que ' l e s u r r e a l i s m e prend sa source dans l e s o c i a l i s m e de Marx et dans l a p s y c h o l o g i e de Freud,' et que ses tenants sont m a t e r i a l s t e s , athees, amoraux, immoraux, antimoraux, a n t i r a t i o n n e l s , a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u e l s , e t , a p l u s f o r t e r a i s o n , violemment a n t i - c a t h o l i q u e s . . . . L e surrealisme...comme tout ce qui est communiste, est d e s t r u c t e u r " (p. 14). For the r e a c t i o n of c o n s e r v a t i v e s to s u r r e a l i s m i n 1948, see Auguste V i a t t e , " B i l a n du s u r r e a l i s m e , " pp. 233-239, as w e l l as the a r t i c l e s by and about Hyacinthe-Marie R o b i l l a r d mentioned in Chapter 2, note 77. 162 man." 2 4 As has been demonstrated i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of both the d i s t a n t and recent past with the onrushing present a l s o formed a dominant motif of l i b e r a l i d e o logy on many p o i n t s , e s p e c i a l l y on the matter of communism. L i n k i n g the r u r a l , pre-war economy of the p r o v i n c e with t r a d i t i o n , and the urban, i n d u s t r i a l i z e d post-war economy (and i t s concomitatnt p r o b l e m s ) 2 5 with the present, l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s contended that communism would swallow up the urban and working poor, unless the government r e c t i f i e d some of the new problems faced by them. M i l d s o c i a l reforms would accomplish t h i s g o a l , p r e v e n t i n g the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of workers and l e a v i n g the e s s e n t i a l s of the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n t a c t . 2 6 In L'homme A grave, the combination of r e f e r e n c e s to g r a p h i c s , 2 4 Prisme d'Yeux Mani f e s t o , p. 49. 2 5 World War II prompted an i n c r e a s e i n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n in Quebec; on the e f f e c t s of these changes see Kenneth McRoberts and Dale Posgate, Quebec; S o c i a l Change and  P o l i t i c a l C r i s i s , rev. ed. (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1980); and Roland Parenteau, ' ^ ' i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n du Quebec et ses consequences," in Le Quebec en Textes, 1940-1980, ed. Gerard Boismenu, Laurent Mailhot and Jacques R o u i l l a r d (Montreal: Boreal Express, 1980): 45-59. 2 6 On t h i s p o i n t , the t h i n k i n g of l i b e r a l s c o i n c i d e d with that of the Church. In "Le manifeste communiste de 1848. I n f l u e n c e et Rayonnement," G i r a r d Hebert counsels C a t h o l i c s to thwart communism by a m e l i o r a t i n g the c o n d i t i o n s of workers: La deuxieme c o n c l u s i o n , c ' e s t l a n e c e s s i t e de t r a v a i l l e r a 1 ' a m e l i o r a t i o n des c o n d i t i o n s de v i e des masses o u v r i e r e s , puisque l e communisme, d o c t r i n e de r e v o l t e , ne peut se developper que dans une s o c i e t e qui c o n n a i t l e s mecontentements et l a misere" ( R e l a t i o n s 7 [June 1948]: 173). S i m i l a r ideas had p r e v i o u s l y been expressed by Pope Pius XI i n Quadragesimo anno. r 163 as w e l l as to both t r a d i t i o n a l and avant-garde modernist s t y l e s — e l e m e n t s which betokened the o l d and the n e w — t i e s i n with the ideology of francophone l i b e r a l i s m , which sim u l t a n e o u s l y i n s i s t e d on i t s c l a i m s to the present and f u t u r e by p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f as modern, but which e s t a b l i s h e d the v a l i d i t y of those c l a i m s by remaining f i r m l y t i e d to the values of the p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo. While the f i g u r e of the graphic a r t i s t dominates L'homme A grave, another, s m a l l e r , i n v e r t e d man appears on the r i g h t hand s i d e of the work, beyond the r e c t i l i n e a r forms e v o c a t i v e of a w a l l . Reference to the poem which i n s p i r e d the drawing and to the t i t l e of the work i t s e l f suggests that t h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s the p u b l i c persona of the a r t i s t . E l u a r d ' s poem, "Volontairement," d e a l s with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i v a t e , c r e a t i v e e x i s t e n c e of an a r t i s t and h i s l i f e i n the 'ou.tside' world: Aveugle m a l a d r o i t , ignorant et leg e r Aujourd'hui pour o u b l i e r , Le mois prochain pour d e s s i n e r Les c o i n s de l a rue, l e s a l l e e s a perte de vue Je l e s imite pour m'etendre Dans une n u i t profonde et l a r g e de mon a g e . 2 7 S i m i l a r l y , L'homme A grave r e f e r s to '1'homme,' not ' l e s hommes,' suggesting that the drawing, l i k e the poem, deals with two d i f f e r e n t i n c a r n a t i o n s of a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l , the a r t i s t . The business s u i t , hat, and t i e of the i n v e r t e d man intimate that he represents the p u b l i c persona of the a r t i s t . The w a l l 2 7 Paul E l u a r d , "Volontairement," C a p i t a l e de l a Douleur ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1926), p. 41. 164 s e p a r a t i n g the a r t i s t at work i n the s t u d i o from h i s e x i s t e n c e in the o u t s i d e world reproduces the l i b e r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r a e s t h e t i c freedom: l i b e r a l s contended f o r the autonomy of c u l t u r e , and a l l e g e d that i f i t were j e o p a r d i z e d , i t would be pressed i n t o the s e r v i c e of p o l i t i c a l propaganda, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , communist propaganda. S i m i l a r l y , t h i s compartmentalization of e x i s t e n c e a l l u d e s to the Prisme d'Yeux manifesto's d e c l a r a t i o n that a r t must deal with a e s t h e t i c s alone, and must remain untouched by n o n - a r t i s t i c realms of l i f e - - l i t e r a t u r e , p h ilosophy, p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n . The treatment of the two f i g u r e s ' eyes r e i n f o r c e s the dichotomy between the p u b l i c and the p r i v a t e , the s o c i a l and the a r t i s t i c : those of the i n v e r t e d man are h y p n o t i c a l l y wide, while those of the a r t i s t are s t i t c h e d shut. However, the schematic d i l a t e d eyes of the p u b l i c s e l f a l s o appear i n the g r i d s t r u c t u r e emerging from the i n t e r i o r of the a r t i s t ' s head, implying that while he must l i t e r a l l y shut h i s eyes to the ou t s i d e world, the imprint of what i s seen beyond the s t u d i o can never be e n t i r e l y e f f a c e d . In a d d i t i o n to the eyes which are sewn together, other images of c o n t r o l and s i l e n c e appear in L'homme A grave: the l i p s of the a r t i s t are f i r m l y pressed together, the encoded message on the p l a t e remains incomplete, the sheaf of papers (or are they p o s t e r s , a l r e a d y tacked up, but devoid of any message?) remain blank, w a l l s p r o l i f e r a t e around the hand and the p l a t e , c o n s t r a i n i n g them, and the i n v e r t e d man's limbs are c o n t o r t e d , as i f p u l l e d by the i n v i s i b l e s t r i n g s of a m a r i o n e t t e e r . In 1948, themes of order and c o n t r o l were a l s o found in l i b e r a l 165 anti-communist r h e t o r i c ; P e l l a n , s e n s i t i v e to the 'dominating s o c i a l a c c e n t s ' l o c a t e d and p i c t u r e d these t e n s i o n s i n L'homme A  grave. P e l l a n ' s dependence on s u r r e a l i s t imagery and c u b i s t techniques a l s o r e l a t e s to the c o r r e l a t e d concepts of freedom and c o n t r o l , both P e l l a n and h i s c r i t i c s p e r c e i v e d s u r r e a l i s m as evidence of s p o n t a n e i t y , while cubism i n f e r r e d c o n t r o l . P e l l a n b e l i e v e d that " s u r r e a l i s m has added to the r i c h n e s s of the a r t i s t ' s raw m a t e r i a l . That m a t e r i a l should s t i l l be f i l t e r e d through the conscious m i n d . " 2 8 He f u r t h e r s u b s c r i b e d to the "use of the new m a t e r i a l of d e l i b e r a t e f r e e - a s s o c i a t i o n and the spontaneous sub-conscious w i t h i n a c l a s s i c a l framework," 2 9 a framework i d e n t i f i e d with cubism. C r i t i c s p r a i s e d t h i s c o n j u n c t i o n of opposing tendencies, viewing i t as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the harmonious i n t e g r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s of human e x i s t e n c e . Madeleine Gariepy, f o r example, commented, Prisme d'Yeux, c ' e s t - a - d i r e des regards d i f f e r e n t s j e t e s sur des r£alites d i v e r s e s dans une lumiere qui est a u t r e . Prisme d'Yeux, symbole p l a s t i q u e de l a d i v e r s i t e des experiences humaines et des t r a n s p o s i t i o n s m u l t i p l e s q u ' e l l e s donnent dans l e domain de l ' a r t . 3 0 In c o n t r a s t , a r t l a c k i n g the s u c c e s s f u l amalgamation of the l i b e r a t e d and the ordered engendered c u l t u r a l chaos and tyranny, 2 8 P e l l a n quoted by Duval, "The Art of A l f r e d P e l l a n , " p. 55. 2 9 I b i d . 3 0 Gariepy, " E x p o s i t i o n Prisme d'Yeux," p. 5. 166 e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d with communism i n l i b e r a l p o l e m i c s . 3 1 Art which appeared to combat these e f f e c t s through a c e l e b r a t i o n of the harmonious, c o n t r o l l e d and f r e e , concepts a s s o c i a t e d with l i b e r a l democracy in the minds of francophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s , should be supported. As one c r i t i c noted i n a la u d a t o r y review of Mimi Parent, a member of the Prisme d'Yeux whose work c l o s e l y i m i t a t e s that of P e l l a n , A ujourd'hui, comme a u t r e f o i s , l ' A r t c ' e s t l ' o r d r e , l ' e q u i l i b r e , l'harmonie. I l faudra t o u j o u r s l u t t e r c o n t r e l ' o b s c u r i t e , l e desordre, 1'incoherence ... q u i sement l a co n f u s i o n dans l e s e s p r i t s . 3 2 For l i b e r a l francophone i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the works of P e l l a n and the formation of the Prisme d'Yeux symbolized the v i t a l i t y of Quebec's c u l t u r e . While modern i n a l i m i t e d and general sense, works l i k e L'homme A grave d i d not c h a l l e n g e any of the a e s t h e t i c norms p r e v i o u s l y made ac c e p t a b l e by the CAS; commented one anonymous c r i t i c i n Le Canada, "un mouvement est ne....Rien de nouveau." 3 3 S i m i l a r l y , the defenders of the Prisme d'Yeux d i d not s e r i o u s l y oppose any of the p o l i t i c a l or c u l t u r a l 3 1 Cf. Maurice Fraigneux, who in "Communisme et e s p r i t moderne," a s s o c i a t e s communists with " l e chaos et l e d e s e s p o i r " (Notre Temps, 20 March 1948, p. 1). 3 2 Maurice Huot, "Mimi Parent," La P a t r i e , 4 June 1948. 3 3 "Prisme d'Yeux est consacre," Le Canada, 5 February 1948. Le Canada, a L i b e r a l newspaper, was one of the few papers to regard the advent of the Prisme d'Yeux with l e s s than t o t a l enthusiasm; see, f o r example, the e d i t o r i a l , "Pour nous en f a i r e v o i r de toutes l e s c o u l e u r s ! " (6 February 1948). 167 p o s i t i o n s of the s t a t u s quo, but i n s t e a d , by v i r t u e of t h e i r prominence and dominance i n the c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the p r o v i n c e , d e f i n e d and c o d i f i e d them. Consequently, the work of P e l l a n was p e r c e i v e d by the s t a t u s quo as a testament to the supremacy of the c u l t u r e a r b i t r a t e d by them, and to the v a l i d i t y of the v a r i a n t of freedom on which i t was t h e o r e t i c a l l y based. With the advent of the Prisme d'Yeux, Quebec's i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o u l d p roudly d e c l a r e : Ces s o c i e t e s , i l en faut a p p l a u d i r l ' e c l o s i o n . E l l e s sont l e signe de notre sante" i n t e l l e c t u e l l e et e l l e s ont, dans notre c u l t u r e , un r 6 l e de premier plan a jo u e r : c e l u i de rgpandre l a connaissance de l ' a r t , d'en f a v o r i s e r 1 ' a p p r e c i a t i o n et de c o l l a b o r e r a l a c r e a t i o n d'un commun langage de v i s i o n . . . . N o s yeux sont f i x e s sur eux, amicaux et e x p e c t a t i f s . 3 4 The Automatistes a l s o wanted to c r e a t e a 'commun langage de v i s i o n , ' but the components of t h i s language and the ideas i t was to express were r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t than those of the Prisme d'Yeux. To Borduas and the Automatistes, p a i n t i n g c o n s t i t u t e d an o u t l e t f o r e v e r y t h i n g which Quebec s o c i e t y muzzled, an a t t i t u d e which i s i m p l i c i t l y c r i t i c a l of the s t a t u s quo pr o v i n c e , and which was best expressed by P i e r r e Gauvreau: II e st evident que ces formes p e i n t e s correspondent a des d e s i r s qui ne peuvent s'exprimer dans l e s cadres de l a s o c i e t e a c t u e l l e . 3 5 A d e t a i l e d examination of one of the works c r e a t e d by Borduas in 1948, Objet Totemique, w i l l r e v e a l what c o u l d and c o u l d not be 3 4 Jean Simard, "Autour du Prisme d'Yeux," Notre Temps, 14 February 1948. 3 5 P i e r r e Gauvreau quoted by Tancrede M a r s i l in "Gauvreau, Automatiste," Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 28 November 1947, p. 5. 168 s a i d i n Quebec i n 1948. Most analyses of Automatiste p a i n t i n g s are informed by the kind of sentiments u n d e r l y i n g Gauvreau's comments: a c c o r d i n g to most Canadian a r t h i s t o r i a n s , the works of Borduas and h i s compatriots r e v e r b e r a t e with the very n o t i o n and essence of freedom. What t h i s freedom i s , and how i t f u n c t i o n s i n the works of Borduas i s seldom c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d , but i s approached from v a r i o u s a n g l e s . Guy Robert, f o r example, paraphrases the t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s of the group, borrowing from them a l l the f a m i l i a r a d j e c t i v e s appended to 'freedom' i n the vocabulary of the l a t e 1940s: On y e x p l o r e un champ de p e i n t u r e n o n - f i g u r a t i v e et spontane"e, 'automatiste,' l i b e r e e de tout c o n t r o l e r a t i o n n e l et de tout t r a d i t i o n . 3 6 Robert f a i l s ' t o d e s c r i b e how lack of f i g u r a t i o n , s p o ntaneity, freedom from r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l , and the l i b e r a t i o n from t r a d i t i o n are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p i c t o r i a l terms; nor does he e l a b o r a t e on what any of these q u a l i t i e s s i g n i f i e d to the a r t i s t or the observer i n the l a t e 1940s. Without such an a n a l y s i s , the works that Robert d e s c r i b e s seem to be emptied of t h e i r c o n t e n t — p a r a d o x i c a l l y , because they are d e s c r i b e d in a b s t r a c t terms as the hallmark of a b s o l u t e freedom, which s t i f l e s nothing and says e v e r y t h i n g , the works seem devoid of content, communicating nothing. S i m i l a r lacunae e x i s t i n the w r i t i n g of other authors who simultaneously d e p i c t Borduas as an a r t i s t 3 6 Guy Robert, La p e i n t u r e du Quebec depuis ses o r i g i n e s , p. 93. 169 committed to " l i b e r a t f i n g ] h i s c r e a t i v e e n e r g i e s " and " e x p l o r [ i n g ] new avenues of e x p r e s s i o n , " 3 7 yet without examining how these p u r s u i t s are present i n these p a i n t i n g s . Those w r i t e r s who expand on the ways i n which Borduas' a r t may be seen as the epitome of l i b e r a t i o n , do so through a d i s c u s s i o n of the sources of h i s a r t — a u t o m a t i s m and s u r r e a l i s m — a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other 20th century movements. Ann Davis, f o r i n s t a n c e , c h a r a c t e r i z e s Borduas' work as a s t r u g g l e between cubism and s u r r e a l i s m , a c o n t e s t between r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l and subconscious domination: Now [ e a r l y 1948] Borduas seems to be much more w i l l i n g to g ive completely f r e e r e i n to the spontaneous, to fr e e a s s o c i a t i o n , and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , to the a b s t r a c t . Yet, d e s p i t e h i s v e r b a l support, Borduas r e t a i n e d some s t y l i s t i c determinants, p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u b i s t concept of space which he used i n h i s own work and encouraged i n that of other Automatistes. The f i n a l l i b e r a t i o n came a f t e r the Refus Global....The momentous s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of Refus G l o b a l were r e f l e c t e d in e q u a l l y momentous p l a s t i c t e r m s . 3 8 France Gascon analyses the r e l a t i o n s h i p between cubism and automatism i n gr e a t e r depth, although she conti n u e s to regard cubism as an impediment to a e s t h e t i c l i b e r a t i o n : L'Automatisme partage a u s s i avec l e Cubisme l e c a r a c t e r e organique de ses compositions: un magma de forme organise autour du ce n t r e ou autour d'un axe h o r i z o n t a l . Les formes evoluent dans un espace t r i d i m e n s i o n n e l . I c i comme l a , l a l i b e r t e d ' a c t i o n du p e i n t r e e st c o n t r S l e e , d'abord par l'espace n a t u r e l qui p e r s i s t e et e n s u i t e a cause d'une v o l o n t e de 3 7 N a t a l i e L uckyj, Other R e a l i t i e s : The Legacy of  S u r r e a l i s m in Canadian Art (Kingston: Agnes E t h e r i n g t o n Art Centre, 1978), p. 15. 3 8 Ann Davis, F r o n t i e r s of Our Dreams (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art G a l l e r y , 1979), pp. 24, 30. 170 t r a i t e r l e s formes et l e s c o u l e u r s . 3 9 The content of the works c r e a t e d by Borduas appears to be the image of a b a t t l e f i e l d on which the c o n f l i c t between two major 20th century movements i s p layed, with a r t i s t i c emancipation as the o b j e c t of the s t r u g g l e . Why t h i s b a t t l e was enacted w i t h i n the parameters of the canvas, what i t means, and how i t was r e s o l v e d remains unanswered. Other c r i t i c s , such as J . R u s s e l l Harper, have adopted a kind of f o r m a l i s t methodology in approaching the works of Borduas. Harper s e t s the stage f o r h i s f o r m a l i s t exegesis by e s t a b l i s h i n g Borduas as an a b s t r a c t a r t i s t : A f t e r c o n v i n c i n g h i m s e l f that the f i g u r a t i v e element had no e s s e n t i a l meaning i n a p a i n t i n g , Borduas r e j e c t e d not only a l l s u b j e c t matter (although he s t i l l r e t a i n e d a c e r t a i n a f f i n i t y with landscape) but a l s o h i s i n t e r e s t s i n P i c a s s o , the C u b i s t s and the S u r r e a l i s t s . 4 0 The a e s t h e t i c which stood i n o p p o s i t i o n to these movements, and which Borduas adopted was 'automatic w r i t i n g ' and l a t e r Automatism and Tachism....Its a e s t h e t i c i s found i n the s i g n i f i c a n t meaning of the medium i t s e l f : the i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of s u r f a c e s , the l i g h t or heavy a p p l i c a t i o n of p a i n t , the s w i r l s of the brush or p a l e t t e k n i f e , and the a c c i d e n t a l s of c o l o u r . " 1 Although Harper c o n f i n e s the meaning of the p a i n t i n g to the medium i t s e l f , he n e v e r t h e l e s s sees a kind of content s h i n i n g 3 9 France Gascon, La R e v o l u t i o n Automatiste (Montreal: Muse"e d'Art Contemporain -^ 1980) , p. i~6~! 4 0 J . R u s s e l l Harper, P a i n t i n g i n Canada: A H i s t o r y , 2d. ed. (Toronto and B u f f a l o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1977), p. 338. 4 1 I b i d . 171 through the s w i r l s of p a i n t , a content e q u i v a l e n t to the s p i r i t of the a r t i s t which i s m y s t i c a l i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and import: I t was Borduas's c o n v i c t i o n that the a r t i s t ' s inner s p i r i t w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e v e a l i t s e l f by means of an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f o r c e which ignores the human world; the p a i n t e r ' s unconscious mind w i l l accept and set down or r e j e c t and r e f u s e to r e c o r d a r t i s t i c f e e l i n g s as the brush wanders f r e e l y over the canvas. Borduas went beyond automatic w r i t i n g to a union with a kind of cosmic f o r c e - o f l i f e and t r u t h i n space, i n which no conscious a r t i s t i c mind i s r e c o g n i z e d . 4 2 The two authors who have w r i t t e n most on Borduas, Francois-Marc Gagnon, and Fernande S a i n t - M a r t i n , continue to focus on the predominantly formal elements of the works, c a t a l o g u i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of forms to one another, of f i g u r e to group, image to frame, and so on. While S a i n t - M a r t i n , a s e m i o l o g i s t , remains r e l a t i v e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n messages beyond the formal in Borduas' works, Gagnon, a s t r u c t u r a l i s t , s e t s h i m s e l f the task of d i s c e r n i n g thematic p a t t e r n s i n h i s a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n of a given year. Although the approaches to Borduas' work adopted by the above-mentioned authors v a r i e s g r e a t l y , s e v e r a l c o n s t a n t s emerge in t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and c o n c l u s i o n s . None of the authors acknowledge the presence of a r e a l , 'knowable' content, beyond the formal elements, or beyond the p e r s o n a l i t y of the a r t i s t : any d i s c u s s i o n of Borduas' work i s s e l f - l i m i t e d . Why has the content of Borduas' works been so c i r c u m s c r i b e d ? The answer, i n p a r t , l i e s in Borduas' own assessment of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s works: "Tous mes tableaux ne sont f a i t s que pour ma propre 4 2 I b i d . 1 72 c o n n a i s s a n c e . " 4 3 A r t h i s t o r i a n s have t a c i t l y accepted such a judgment as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e i r analyses of h i s work, without stopping to c o n s i d e r why an a r t i s t would say such a t h i n g about h i s work: mi s t a k i n g h i s comment f o r an argument f o r a kind of hermetic formalism, a r t h i s t o r i a n s have f a i l e d to see that i n the context of the l a t e f o r t i e s , when anything connected to the world o u t s i d e the a t e l i e r had a p o t e n t i a l l y l e t h a l p o l i t i c a l message, the a r t i s t c o u l d only c o n s c i o u s l y address h i m s e l f to those realms which seemed l e a s t v u l n e r a b l e to p o l i t i c i z a t i o n : h i s psyche and formal, p a i n t e r l y concerns. But c o u l d the a r t i s t r e a l l y remain untouched by the concerns of the world beyond the s t u d i o ? And c o u l d h i s a r t remain devoid of images a r i s i n g from that world, images connected to the p o l i t i c a l p r essures which worked so f o r c e f u l l y on h i s t h e o r e t i c a l work? An a n a l y s i s of the content, formal and f i g u r a t i v e , of one of h i s works from 1948, Objet Totemique, demonstrates that i t i s not. Objet Totemique ab j u r e s many t r a d i t i o n s which are prominent in L'homme A grave, i n c l u d i n g f i g u r a t i o n and cubism. For the Automatistes, f i g u r a t i v e and a n e c d o t a l a r t , whether fused with modernist s t y l e s or not, had been c o r r u p t e d by the l e f t as w e l l as the r i g h t . Commenting on one of the main forms of f i g u r a t i v e a r t dominant in the 1930s, s o c i a l r e a l i s m , P i e r r e Gauvreau s t a t e d : I l s'accommode fa c i l e m e n t de toutes l e s e x p l o i t a t i o n s 4 3 quoted by Gagnon, Borduas: Biographie c r i t i q u e , p. 229. 173 techniques s e l o n l e stage d'Evolution du pays ou i l est pratique": en URSS, i l se resume au p l u s g r o s s i e r trompe-1 1oeil porteur d'anecdotes 6 d i f i a n t e s ; en France, i l adopte v o l o n t i e r s un aspect p l u s evolue" q u ' i l e x p l o i t e a des f i n s p o l i t i q u e s en r e s t a u r a n t l'anecdote e d i f i a n t e dans l e cubisme, l e fauvisme, e t c . 4 " I t was, i n p a r t , the g l i b a e s t h e t i c s of s o c i a l r e a l i s m which so antagonized the Automatistes. Above a l l , the Automatistes valued a e s t h e t i c a bstruseness, b e l i e v i n g t h a t a work's i m p e n e t r a b i l i t y was the key to i t s q u a l i t y , while a c t i n g as p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t v u l g a r i s a t i o n by the u n t h i n k i n g masses, and as a c h a l l e n g e to the few who c o u l d unlock i t s enigmas: "Few people know how to decipher them....to see beneath the s u r f a c e and i d e n t i f y the t r u t h s that i t c o n c e a l s . " 4 5 Against an a r t intended to communicate with a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y , the Automatistes opposed an a e s t h e t i c with a f r a n k l y e l i t i s t or i e n t a t i o n . 4 6 Cubism, a l s o a p p a r e n t l y r e j e c t e d i n Objet Totemique, was c r i t i c i z e d with equal f u r y . As e a r l y as 1943, Borduas had 4 4 P i e r r e Gauvreau, "Arbre genealogique de 1'automatisme contemporaine," Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 17 February 1948, p. 3. 4 5 Borduas, "Commentaires Sur des Mots Courants," p. 78, 79. 4 6 I t was a l s o the banal which so offended American l i b e r a l s about a r t produced i n communist c o u n t r i e s : i t was too easy, too v u l g a r , too obvious. S c h l e s i n g e r commented i n The  V i t a l Centre: "The c o n c l u s i o n i s c l e a r . . . . L e t them [ S o v i e t a r t i s t s ] c r e a t e only compositions which o f f i c i a l s can hum, p a i n t i n g s which t h e i r wives can decip h e r , poems which the Party l e a d e r s can understand. T h i s i s the D i k t a t of the s t a t e . And the consequent a t t a c k s on 'formalism' and 'decadence' are f u l l y as vulg a r as those which used so to amuse the Doughface p r o g r e s s i v e s when they were conducted by the Na z i s " (p. 79). 174 d e c l a r e d that the door to cubism had been i r r e v o c a b l y shut f o r contemporary a r t i s t s , * 7 but by 1948 he r e v i l e d i t as a modern v e r s i o n of academicism; the o l d enemy had r e s u r f a c e d i n a new g u i s e . In "Commentaires Sur des Mots Courants," Borduas' i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the Refus G l o b a l , cubism i s d e f i n e d as a "school which became r a p i d l y c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d . I t s numerous ' m i s s i o n a r i e s ' s a t i s f y t h e i r meagre c u r i o s i t y by continuous r e p e t i t i o n . " * 8 The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the new academicism were addressed by R i o p e l l e in a l e t t e r to Le Canada in November 1948: Ne v o i t - o n pas l e s p e i n t r e s des a t e l i e r s d ' a r t sacre* a u s s i bien que l e s p e i n t r e s r a l l i e s aux p a r t i s p o l i t i q u e s de gauche, u t i l i s e r chacun de l e u r cdte l e s decouvertes c u b i s t e s a des f i n s de propagande?* 9 Emptied of any kind of c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n i t once occupied as an avant-garde movement, and p r a c t i c e d without being f u l l y understood, cubism was amenable to a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o the a e s t h e t i c v o c a b u l a r i e s of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m at e i t h e r end of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum. By d e f i n i t i o n , cubism c o u l d no longer communicate the concept of freedom, and t h e r e f o r e , f o r the Automatistes, i t became untouchable. * 7 "Manieres de gouter une oeuvre d ' a r t , " Am6rique  F r a n c a i s e 2 (January 1943): 31-44. Rep r i n t e d and t r a n s , i n Borduas, E c r i t s / W r i t i n q s , pp. 23-43; on cubism, see p. 35 i n E c r i t s / W r i t i n g s . * 8 "Commentaires sur des mots co u r a n t s , " i n Borduas, Ecr i t s / W r i t i n g s , p. 74.. * 9 R i o p e l l e , "En marge des propos de l ' a r t i s t e Agnes L e f o r t , " p. 4. 175 Although P e l l a n and the Prisme d'Yeux are seldom mentioned in the Automatiste o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t cubism, given the context of 1948, i t i s f a i r l y c l e a r that they are the r e a l o b j e c t of a t t a c k , because of a l l the a r t being produced i n Quebec in 1948, P e l l a n ' s was the one most c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with c u b i s m . 5 0 The i n t e n s i t y with which Borduas and h i s f o l l o w e r s denounced cubism was f u e l l e d by the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the Prisme d'Yeux a r t i s t s i n 1948, and the s t r u g g l e f o r the avant-garde pre-eminence which c a t a l y z e d i t ; t h a t Borduas attempted to o b l i t e r a t e r e f e r e n c e s to cubism i n h i s works produced in that year i s t h e r e f o r e i n s e p a r a b l e from the s t r a t e g i e s of the avant-garde. The l i n k s between the t a c t i c s of the avant-garde and the Automatistes' condemnation of cubism are s o l i d i f i e d i f other w r i t i n g s are taken i n t o account. In numerous a r t i c l e s throughout 1948, as w e l l as i n the Refus G l o b a l i t s e l f , the Automatistes e s t a b l i s h e d an a e s t h e t i c h i e r a r c h y , with cubism c o n s i s t e n t l y ranked below automatism, h i s t o r i c a l l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y . P i e r r e Gauvreau, f o r i n s t a n c e , c a t a l o g u e d a v a r i e t y of contemporary movements i n a r t , p l a c i n g automatism at the p i n n a c l e of a r t i s t i c e v o l u t i o n , f a r i n advance of cubism: " I l a p p a r t i e n t aux Automatistes canadiens d'apporter l e u r e f f o r t a l a l i b e r a t i o n de l ' o b j e t p e i n t . . . . I l s l e f e r o n t 5 0 Cf. Borduas, P r o j e c t i o n s L i b e r a n t e s , " P e l l a n b e l i e v e d only i n cubism, which, p a r t l y because of him had a l r e a d y l o s t i t s mystery f o r us" (p. 94). 176 prochainement." 5 1 L i k e w i s e , i n the Refus G l o b a l major movements from "the beginning of C h r i s t i a n i t y " to the 20th century are c i t e d as a s e r i e s of small advances l e a d i n g up to the c l i m a c t i c appearance of the Automatistes i n Quebec in the l a t e f o r t i e s , a group which would l e a d mankind i n t o new f r o n t i e r s , " u n t i l now taboo and u n e x p l o r e d . " 5 2 Through t h e i r a r t h i s t o r i c a l framework, the Automatistes accomplished two t h i n g s : by l i n k i n g Automatism with major a r t i s t i c movements of the past, the group v a l i d a t e d i t s own a r t i s t i c c r e d e n t i a l s , but by d e s c r i b i n g i t s e l f as the most recent stage i n the e v o l u t i o n of a r t , the group c o u l d l a y c l a i m to the present and f u t u r e , c o n f i d e n t l y d e c l a r i n g , "dans notre decade...les recherches s u r r e a l i s t e s et automatistes c o n s t i t u e n t 1'avant-garde." 5 3 The Automatistes d e f i n i t i o n of themselves as a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n , yet bound up with i t , and on the b r i n k of e s t a b l i s h i n g a new one responded to the anglophone l i b e r a l s ' a t t i t u d e towards the q u e s t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a d i t i o n and freedom. According to these i n t e l l e c t u a l s , a u t h e n t i c c r e a t i v e freedom e x i s t e d once a l l e g i a n c e s to t r a d i t i o n 5 1 P i e r r e Gauvreau, "Arbre genealogique de 1'automatisme contemporain," Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 17 February 1948, p. 3; c f . Claude Gauvreau, "La g e n e r o s i t e en f u i t e , " Le Q u a r t i e r L a t i n , 30 January 1948, p. 3. 5 2 Borduas, "Commentaires Sur des Mots Courants," p. 77. 5 3 Claude Gauvreau, "La g e n e r o s i t e en f u i t e , " p. 3; c f . P o g g i o l i , The Theory of the Avant-Garde, p. 220: " I t i s obvious that the very d i a l e c t i c of movements and the e f f e c t of f a s h i o n cause every avant-garde to be able (or to pretend to be able) to transcend not only the academy and t r a d i t i o n , but a l s o the avant-garde prec-eding i t . " 177 had been severed: T h e . . . p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r true s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s freedom from t r a d i t i o n . . . [ a n d ] the o b l i g a t i o n s imposed by s o c i a l conventions and s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 5 * The d e s i r e f o r n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , or even a n t i - t r a d i t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a r t i s t i c freedom hinged, of course, on t h e i r b e l i e f that the post-war world was r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from any other, and that only through new s o l u t i o n s c o u l d freedom s u r v i v e ; p o l i t i c a l l y , t h i s meant s u b s c r i p t i o n to NATO, and v o c i f e r o u s anti-communism, while a e s t h e t i c a l l y i t meant support f o r a beleaguered avant-garde whose commitment to freedom was beyond reproach and shone through every canvas. For Borduas, freedom c o u l d only be expressed through the p r a c t i c e of superrational'automatism. Among modern a e s t h e t i c s , automatism alone was able to a v o i d compromise with p o l i t i c s , f o r i t was dependent on the emotional and unconscious realms of man which he regarded as q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l i t i c a l . Borduas' d e s c r i p t i o n of s u p e r r a t i o n a l automatism r e v e a l s h i s f a i t h in i t s i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y : S u p e r r a t i o n a l Automatism. Unpremeditated p l a s t i c w r i t i n g . . . . D u r i n g the process, no a t t e n t i o n i s given to content....Complete moral independence with regard to the ob j e c t produced.... 11 hopes: an acute knowledge of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l content of any form, of the human u n i v e r s e - - i n s h o r t , the human u n i v e r s e i t s e l f . 5 5 The o r i g i n a l t i t l e which Borduas gave to Objet Totemique, 7.48, 5 4 Dr. H. Lehmann, "Art and Psychology," Canadian Art 6 (Autumn 1948): 17. 5 5 Borduas, "Commentaires Sur des Mots Courants," p. 74. 178 r e f l e c t s t h i s d i s i n t e r e s t i n c o n s c i o u s l y m a n i p u l a t i n g the work's o b j e c t i v e content; the second number, 4 8 , r e f e r s simply to the year in which i t was p a i n t e d , while the f i r s t number r e f e r s to i t s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e to other works completed i n that y e a r . 5 6 Through t h i s i n i t i a l d e s i g n a t i o n , Borduas focuses a t t e n t i o n on the work's temporal q u a l i t y , s t r e s s i n g the notion that i t i s the product of a t r a n s i t o r y s t a t e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l awareness. The numerical t i t l e a l s o o f f e r e d a s o l u t i o n to an a r t i s t who at l e a s t p a r t of the time wanted h i s works to be seen as a b s t r a c t in terms of both concept and e x e c u t i o n ; numbers c o u l d not conjure r e f e r e n c e s to o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , whereas words d i d . Borduas' u l t i m a t e l y f u t i l e attempt to o b l i t e r a t e content from h i s works through dredging the unconscious and through such t i t l e s as 7.48, was, of course, c a t a l y z e d by a quest f o r freedom: i n a desperate attempt to hang on to a r t i s t i c l i b e r t y , -Borduas attempted to c r e a t e a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d hermetic a r t , i n a c c e s s i b l e to most, and devoid of any r e f e r e n c e s to the ' r e a l ' world where every thought, ide a , and o b j e c t were at r i s k of beoming p o l i t i c i z e d . T e r r i f i e d of c r e a t i n g p o l i t i c i z e d a r t , a r t i s t s ' censored themselves; t h e i r s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p was a burlesque of the very freedom they sought, while at the same time i t mimicked, a l b e i t u n c o n s c i o u s l y , the overt c e n s o r s h i p being p r a c t i c e d around them. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p was no guarantor of p o l i t i c a l freedom and p u r i t y . 5 6 Gagnon, Borduas: B i o g r a p h i e c r i t i q u e , p. 184-5. 179 Loosening the t i e s that bound h i s works to the e x t e r n a l world, however, proved impossible f o r Borduas, who read f i g u r a t i v e content i n t o h i s works and t i t l e d them a c c o r d i n g l y ; when Borduas s t a t e d that the " s e c r e t s of these p i c t u r e s are encoded i n t h e i r f o r m s , " 5 7 he was e v i d e n t l y prepared to regard these s e c r e t s as o b j e c t i v e , communicable ones. The compulsion to d i r e c t the viewers' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s works, by g i v i n g the s p e c t a t o r e a s i l y understood c l u e s about the meaning of the nebulous forms r e f l e c t s two f e a r s : f i r s t , that t o t a l a b s t r a c t i o n , without suggestive t i t l e s would a l i e n a t e a p u b l i c schooled on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t , and second, that without i n t e r p r e t i v e t i t l e s h i s works might be misread, understood as something other than what he intended. The dual t i t l e s of h i s works p o i g n a n t l y r e f l e c t the dilemma of the a r t i s t in Quebec i n 1948 i n the same way that P e l l a n ' s i n v e r t e d man does: he was caught between the d e s i r e to speak and be si l e n t " , and to do e i t h e r s i g n i f i e d , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , a v i o l a t i o n of freedom. 'Objet totemique' c o n j u r e s up connections with p r i m i t i v e , r i t u a l i s t i c a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y with the totem poles of the Northwest Coast Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. The v e r t i c a l elements of t h i s p i c t u r e , with t h e i r m u l t i - f a c e t e d planes of c o l o u r may indeed be read as a carved p o l e , while the h o r i z o n t a l bands at the l e f t and r i g h t suggest the r i p p l e d sand of a beach in the d i s t a n c e . F.-M. Gagnon has a l r e a d y noted these connect i o n s : 5 7 Borduas, "Commentaires Sur des Mots Courants," p. 78. 180 C e t t e c o n j o n c t i o n des totems et d'un r i v a g e marin r e f e r e a un e n d r o i t geographique p r e c i s : 1'extr£me-ouest canadien, l a Colombie b r i t a n n i q u e et peut-£tre meme ses t i e s c 6 t i e r e s (Vancouver et l e s l i e s de l a R e i n e - C h a r l o t t e ) ou se sont developpees l e s grandes c u l t u r e s amerindiennes qui aimaient e r i g e r de totems dans l e u r s v i l l a g e s de p e c h e u r s . 5 8 The European S u r r e a l i s t s had been i n t e r e s t e d i n p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s f o r some time, f i n d i n g i n t h e i r a r t a d i r e c t n e s s and s p o n t a n e i t y they wanted to emulate; a f t e r l i v i n g i n the United S t a t e s d u r i n g the war, Andre Breton, Borduas' i d o l , 5 9 became e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the myth and c u l t u r e of North American I n d i a n s , 6 0 an i n t e r e s t of which Borduas was aware. 6 1 T h i s p r eoccupation with n a t i v e c u l t u r e was a l s o shared by anglophone l i b e r a l s who b e l i e v e d that c o n t a c t with p r i m i t i v e