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Concealment and revelation in the two worlds of Genji monogatari : an analysis and translation of the… Leduc, Jeannette Marie 1981

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CONCEALMENT AND REVELATION IN THE TWO WORLDS OP GENJI MONOGATARI AN ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION OP THE "HANACHIRUSATO" CHAP-TER AND THE INTRODUCTORY PORTION OP THE "SUMA" CHAPTER by JEANNETTE MARIE LEDUC M.A., The University of Brit i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OP GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Asian Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1981 (c) Jeannette Marie Leduc, 1981 In presenting th is thesis in par t ia l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library sha l l make i t f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or publ icat ion of th is thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of /%<3f^<^ JZ&tl^/t^ The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT Genji monogatari (The Tale of Genji)is a romance consisting of fifty-four chapters. It was written during the golden age of the Heian period, around, or shortly after, 1000 A.D. by Murasaki Shikibu, a lady-in-waiting serving at the imperial court. The tale depicts the l i f e of a hero, Prince Genji, from boyhood to manhood and old age. Following his death the story relates the rivalry between Genji's grandson, Prince Niou, and his friend, Kaoru, believed by the world to be Genji's son. The long, episodic nature of Genji, along with certain structural aspects, have led some scholars to c a l l the tale a romance. A further justification for this assertion is that the action of Genji revolves a-round two worlds. One is the i d y l l i c , social world in which a l l the characters participate. The events which occur i n this world—festivals, religious r i t u a l s , games, contests, music, and poetry—comprise the external world. Underlying the external action is another world—one of inner conflict, mental suffering, and uncertainty. This hidden, subjective world forms the internal world of Genji. The action of the tale progresses when the con-cealed emotions, identities, and behaviour of individual i i i characters are revealed and thus transposed into the external world. In Genji t i t can be shown that the internal world is externalized through the use of conventions that may-be related to a universal concept of romance. These conventions include the use of the archetypal hero and other character types, natural symbolism and c y c l i c a l time, social r i t u a l s , and the romantic quest. In Genji the means through which the characters express their inner feelings are the waka verses interspersed throughout the text. Finally, irony, fear, and pathos in the theme of tragic descent and the absurd in the theme of comic ascent are elements of romance which per-form a v i t a l role in revealing the internal world of Genji. Chapter One of this thesis is intended to show, within the framework of romance, that the real and con-t r o l l i n g action of Genji belongs to the internal world of the story, and that the force which impels the story from the beginning to the end is the concealment and revelation of the internal world i n relation to what happens extraneously. How the inner structure of Genji is organized to ensure the progress of the story, by revealing what is iv concealed at crucial moments in the narrative, can be illustrated by analysing a small portion of the Genji text. Chapter Eleven, "Hanachirusato" ("The Orange Blossoms"), has been described by one scholar as "point-less". On the contrary, a careful analysis of the text indicates that the concealed action of this deceptively simple chapter is v i t a l to the progress of the tale. As a translation and interpretation of the text w i l l demonstrate in Chapter Two of this thesis, "Hanachirusato" performs three important functions in Genji. F i r s t , i t reveals the identity of Reikeiden as a major character type. Secondly, the inner action makes "Hanachirusato" a transitional chapter, in which the hero, Genji, emerges from boyhood to manhood. Thirdly, in this short chapter may be seen an extension of the recognition theme in Chapter Ten, "Sakaki", where Genji more clearly "sees" the consequences of his actions, and realizes his own identity mirrored in the image of Reikeiden. Although Chapter Twelve, "Suma", is a popular sec-tion in Genji, most attention has been paid to the climactic middle and ending, and l i t t l e scholarship has been devoted to the less dramatic introductory portion. An exegesis and translation of this small section in Chap-ter Three of this thesis aims to show how the revelation V of things concealed works to create a sense of anticipa-tion and foreboding leading to the real and emotional storm at the end of "Suma". By explicating the function of concealment and revelation in "Hanachirusato" and in the introductory portion of "Suma", in terms of conventions derived from romance, i t can be seen that these two segments are important in unifying the general romantic structure of Genji monogatari. VI CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i Chapter One Concealment and Revelation in the Two Worlds of Genji monogatari I Introduction 1 II Some Universal Concepts of Romance According to Northrop Prye 7 III The External World in Genji monogatari . 13 IV The Internal World in Genji monogatari . 22 V The Duality of Character Types in Genji monogatari 31 VI The Dual Quest in Genji monogatari . . . 42 VII Natural Imagery and Cyclical Time in Genji monogatari 51 VIII Social Rituals and the V i s i t in Genji monogatari 60 IX Poetry as an Affective Element in Genji monogatari 67 X Irony, Absurdity, Fear, Pathos (Aware) in Genji monogatari 69 Notes 79 VII Chapter Two Concealment and Revelation in the "Hanachirusato" Chapter 100 Notes 147 Chapter Three Concealment and Revelation in the Introductory Portion of the "Suma" Chapter 156 Notes 211 Bibliography 215 VIII ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks are due to my supervisor, Professor Leon Zolbrod, for his patience, guidance and many hours of stimulating conversation. I am grateful for the assistance given "by Professor Leon Hurvitz in trans-lating parts of the Genji text. Appreciation is also extended to Mrs. Hisako Kurotaki Tiburcio for checking the transliterations of the Genji text included in this thesis. 1 CHAPTER ONE CONCEALMENT AND REVELATION IN THE TWO WORLDS OP GENJI MONOGATARI I. Introduction 1 At the end of the tenth and the beginning of the eleventh century a b r i l l i a n t culture flourished at the court of Heian Japan. With the decline of the T'ang dynasty (618-907) cultural, p o l i t i c a l , and religious i n -fluence from China waned, allowing Japanese art and literature to evolve independently. Court poetry, writ-ten in Chinese and in particular the waka ^ Q J?/^7 verse form of thirty-one syllables had dominated Japanese l i t -erature for several centuries. More recent classics, upon which the aspiring poet relied for thematic inspir-ation and guidance in learning the rules and techniques of composition, were the Kokinshu ^ (Collec-tion of Ancient and Modern Times), an imperial poetic anthology compiled around A.D.905 and Ise monogatari 1/" ^ W W (The Tales of Ise), commissioned some-time in the tenth century. 2 T h e former contains over one thousand waka poems c l a s s i f i e d under headings such as spring, autumn, t r a v e l , and love. Many of the verses are accompanied by a b r i e f comment about the o r i g i n , the author or the topic of the verse. The l a t t e r , Ise  monogatari, has been c a l l e d an uta-monogatari 5o" meaning "poetic-tales". It includes over one hundred waka verses of which many are attributed to the poet Ariwara N a r i h i r a ^ *) ~(> 5 (82 5 - 8 8 0 ) , and are also found i n the Kokinshtr. To each uta or "poem" is attached a monogatari , a term which i n thi s context can best be described as a short "story" or "narrative" usually written i n prose. The prose, however, i s more often than not subordinate to the poetry. Toward the l a t t e r part of the Heian period ( 794 -1185) a phenomenal change began to take place i n the develop-ment of Japanese l i t e r a t u r e . While noblemen were conduct-ing the a f f a i r s of state i n Chinese and painstakingly composing poetry i n the Chinese manner, t h e i r female counterparts, writing spontaneously i n the vernacular, were creating a new type of l i t e r a t u r e d i s t i n c t l y t h e i r own/ Although poetry had l o s t none of i t s impetus, prose written i n Japanese gradually became a s i g n i f i c a n t means of l i t e r a r y expression, and the emergence of two new l i t e r a r y genres took place. One was the n i k k i fl "^cL (poetic diary) and i t s close cousin the z u i h i t s u -JjT (miscellaneous essay). The nikki could be partly f i c -tional or largely true and is predominantly prose inter-spersed with poetry. The most notable of these diaries include: Izumi shikibu nikki n< ^ c?P '-3 (The Diary of Izumi Shikibu) and Eager? nikki !£p| & Icl/ (The Gossamer Years).^ The most outstanding and widely read zuihitsu today is Makura no soshi (The Pillow Book), written by Sei Shonagon ^ Jfa^ 5 , 6 It contains her random impressions written in a witty and often biting prose about the people, customs, behav-iour, and rituals that comprised her daily l i f e at the imperial court. Another type of literary writing, the one which is the subject of the remainder of this essay, was the monogatari which is thought to have been inspired, at least in part, by Ise monogatari. These monogatari were often long popular romances, in which the poetry was secondary to the prose. The greatest surviving example of this type of literature is the Genji monogatari ilh fa IS (The Tale of Genji), 7 thought to have been written by Murasaki Shikibu Q (c.978-1016), a lady-in-waiting serving at the court of Emperor Ichijo.^ Essentially a romance, this monogatari is comprised of fifty-four extant chapters, the f i r s t forty-one of 4 which are c h i e f l y concerned w i t h the l i f e o f a romantic 10 h e r o , Prxnce G e n j i . The s t o r y r e l a t e s G e n j i ' s progress from youth to m a t u r i t y , h i s l o v e a f f a i r s , h i s p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l achievements , and the sadness tha t darkens h i s p r i v a t e l i f e . The n a r r a t i v e i s en l ivened by the charm and grace o f s o c i a l and domestic l i f e at c o u r t , i n what may be taken as an i d y l l i c r e n d i t i o n o f what was f a m i l i a r t o Murasak i S h i k i b u when she r e s i d e d at the i m p e r i a l p a l a c e . In terms of i t s i n f l u e n c e on the w r i t i n g s of Mura-s a k i S h i k i b u ' s contemporaries and on a l l l a t e r genera-t i o n s of Japanese a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s , G e n j i monogatari i s t o Japanese l i t e r a t u r e what the B i b l e or the I l i a d 11 are to Western l i t e r a t u r e . I t deserves t h i s p o s i t i o n i n Japanese l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y because, as S e i d e n s t i c k e r p o i n t s out i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s new E n g l i s h t r a n s -l a t i o n of the t a l e , i t i s a "romance which i s more than a romance, i n tha t i t shows b e l i e v a b l e people i n r e a l 1 ? s i t u a t i o n s . " So f a r as s c h o l a r s are aware few p reced-ents may be found f o r Murasak i S h i k i b u ' s c r e a t i v e ingenu-i t y , and the c r e d i t seems to be l a r g e l y hers f o r showing such amazing p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t and f o r a c h i e v i n g a degree of r e a l i s m that makes her charac te r s and her s t o r y come a l i v e . 5 Genji monogatari may q u a l i f y as a romance, consid-ering that i t i s set i n a time and place remote from the present, ordinary world where an i d e a l i z e d character, the hero, pursues a "romantic quest", i n t h i s case, love. The hero, Genji*s, search for love requires him to under-take an actual and metaphorical journey where he must su f f e r hardship and pain before he may happily f u l f i l l h is quest. But the appeal of t h i s t a l e transcends that of just any romance or story about love when the author's power of imagination becomes apparent. The "aliveness" that the reader may sense i n the action of Genji derives from the romantic framework of her story. This framework i s remarkably akin to universal concepts of romance which, by means of the author's s k i l f u l technique, make her f i c t i o n seem l i k e truth. A p r i n c i p a l element of romantic structure that runs consistently throughout Genji i s that the action of the story revolves around two worlds. One i s the i d y l l i c , s o c i a l world i n which a l l the characters p a r t i c i p a t e and are i d e n t i f i e d i n the eyes of society. The making of s o c i a l relationships and the formal events such as f e s t i -v a l s , r e l i g i o u s ceremonies, funerals, contests, games, and concerts, where meetings occur, comprise the external action of the story. 6 The second world l i e s beneath that of the external action. It is a world of inner c o n f l i c t , mental s u f f e r -ing, and uncertainty. In t h i s hidden, subjective world the r e a l i d e n t i t y of the protagonists, one which society does not see, may be found. This second world i s also one of secret relationships and i l l i c i t deeds that r e s u l t i n inner feelings of g u i l t , regret, fear, and anxiety. The action of the story may be thought to progress when concealed i d e n t i t i e s , behaviour, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and f e e l -ings of i n d i v i d u a l characters are revealed and thus trans-posed into the external world. When the i n t e r n a l world is externalized, t h i s i n turn may t r i g g e r a chain of emotional reactions which sems to a f f e c t other characters and, consequently, make external events and relationships happen. Concealment and r e v e l a t i o n of the two worlds con-tained i n a romance create the force which impels the story from the beginning to the end. How Murasaki Shikibu manages to reveal the i n t e r n a l world of the t a l e can be understood by, f i r s t , considering the universal structure of romance and, then, how Genji f i t s into that scheme. It w i l l also be useful to examine a portion of the Japan-ese text i n order to discover how the general concepts of romance are employed to reveal what i s concealed, thus making Murasaki Shikibu's imaginary world seem r e a l . 7 II. Some Universal Concepts of Romance According to  NorthrQp Frye In the Secular Scripture and the Anatomy of C r i t - icism, Northrop Frye explained what he thinks to be the 1 ^  common attributes of romantic f i c t i o n . Using the Bible as a primary source and example, he structures his arguments on what he believes to be the c y c l i c a l nature of romance, that being the universal cycle of b i r t h , 14-growth, death, and r e b i r t h . According to his theory, a romance contains an i d e a l world or society. An arche-typal hero i s born into t h i s world. The hero i s superior to the normal human being i n appearance, personality, and a b i l i t i e s . His l i f e can usually be seen i n terms of 15 a cycle which has several stages. J The f i r s t stage i s one of youth and innocence. To i l l u s t r a t e , Frye c i t e s Adam's l i f e with Eve i n the Garden of Eden where they l i v e i n harmony with nature and have no knowledge of pain or e v i l . In Greek mythology or i n romances, such a s Daphnis and Chloe, the garden i s replaced by a pastoral s e t t i n g and a gentle occupation, such as tend-ing goats or sheep. In the f a i r y tales we are f a m i l i a r with as children, l i k e Sleeping Beauty, the princess r e -mains ignorant of the curse placed upon her at b i r t h , and spends her childhood i n a world where a l l sharp 8 instruments have been eliminated. The second stage i n the cycle i s prompted by the hero or heroine's contacting an e v i l force, which causes him or her wi t t i n g l y or unwittingly to disobey a law of nature or society. Whether the hero has committed the crime of his own free w i l l or not, i s of no consequence. He must accept the burden of g u i l t , and his punishment, whether just or unjust, i s to lose the status that ident-i f i e d him i n his society. The hero's loss of i d e n t i t y usually means his loss of childhood and exile from his innocent, happy world to one that i s less than i d e a l . Frye c a l l s the hero's f a l l to a lower world, his "descent". As he explains i t descent may mean both a physical and metaphorical death for the hero. Adam and Eve, having eaten the forbidden f r u i t , are banished from t h e i r i d y l l i c surroundings i n the garden, and enter a world of pain, hardship, and discovery of the unknown. Often, i n a Greek romance, the hero's peaceful existence i s broken by an invasion of pirates who abduct the heroine and force the hero to go i n search of her. In a t a l e l i k e Sleeping Beauty, the innocent princess, intrigued with the poisoned needle the e v i l witch gives to her, pricks her finger and f a l l s into the darkness of sleep. 9 A romance centred on the hero's descent i s c a l l e d a t r a g i c romance. In tragedy, as Frye goes on to ex-p l a i n , the hero's descent takes him on a journey to a r e a l or f i g u r a t i v e underworld i n pursuit of a "romantic quest". His f a l l may be an external one, where he act u a l l y v i s i t s h e l l or Hades, the giant's dark cave, or Poseidon's realm beneath the sea. It may also be an i n t e r n a l , mental descent which leads him to despair and to a metaphorical death. The quest, too, may be external or i n t e r n a l . In simple romances or f a i r y t a l e s , the hero's external quest i s to search f o r missing treasure or rescue a kidnapped princess. The hero who has an i n t e r n a l quest goes i n search of wisdom i n order to reach manhood. In the Bible, Adam and Eve experience both an external and an in t e r n a l descent, as well as an external and i n t e r n a l quest. They are cast bodily out of the garden into the ordinary world where t h e i r quest i s to make i t as c i v i l -ized as the garden they had enjoyed. Internally, t h e i r quest i s the general quest inherent i n C h r i s t i a n i t y , the search for salvation and l i f e a f t e r death. Tragic descent i s usually accompanied by violence and, i n some myths and f a i r y tales which usually contain elements of romance, the hero undergoes a series of danger-ous adventures before he attains the object of his quest. 10 Under these circumstances, the quest i s normally f u l -f i l l e d with the aid of a good f a i r y type character i n f a i r y t a l e s , a god or goddess i n Greek mythology, or God the Father i n the New Testament. The good f a i r y or f a i r y godmother, who represents "goodness" as opposed to the " e v i l " of the witch, ensures that the hero w i l l carry through his adventures i n safety by providing him with the necessary magical equipment. She i s a s t a b i l i z i n g element i n the story, remaining constant and predictable when the world surrounding the hero seems to be f a l l i n g to pieces. She does not have the power, however, to prevent the p e r i l which the hero w i l l confront, from happening. In the Twelve  Dancing Princesses, for instance, an old woman t e l l s a s o l d i e r that the task of finding out how the twelve princes-ses wear out the soles of t h e i r shoes every night i s easy, as long as he remembers not to drink the wine that w i l l be given to him. She supplies him with a cloak that w i l l make him i n v i s i b l e , and he succeeds i n passing, unobserved, into the magic kingdom along with the princesses, thus discover-16 ing t h e i r secret. In the Odyssey, Ulysses i s guided on his long journ-ey home by his patron goddess, Athena, but he cannot reach h i s homeward quest u n t i l he has gone through a l l the p e r i l s preordained for him. In the New Testament 11 C h r i s t , a f t e r he has descended to the ordinary world, prays i n the garden of Gethsemane: "My father, i f i t be possible, l e t t h i s cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I w i l l , but as thou w i l t " (Mathew 2 6 : 3 6 - 3 9 ) . In order to atone f o r the o r i g i n a l s i n of Adam and Eve, i t has been pre-determined that he w i l l s u f f e r c r u c i f i x i o n , death, and descent into h e l l . The resurrection of the hero into a world higher than the one he has descended to i s the f i n a l stage of 17 the cycle. Frye c a l l s t h i s stage the hero's "ascent". In the myth of Ch r i s t , the hero as saviour ascends to heaven and opens i t s gates, securing a place there for the rest of mankind when his journey on earth i s complete. Christ has then earned the right to his new i d e n t i t y , to s i t at the right hand of God his father. Ascent, as opposed to tragedy, is •:. joyous, • often frought with cunning and comedy. Ulysses, on his long, homeward journey, t r i c k s his adversaries and, i n the end, wins back his kingdom and his wife. In the Twelve Danc- ing Princesses, the s o l d i e r deceives the princesses by pretending to drink the wine they give him and to'.'fall asleep. Then, wearing his i n v i s i b l e cloak, he steals i n behind the princesses as they enter the secret kingdom. The discovery of thi s nether world releases the p r i n -cesses from the s p e l l that compelled them to enter i t . 12 Harmony i n the ordinary world i s restored, and the so l d i e r ' s marriage to one of the princesses means that the supremacy of good over e v i l has been restored. According to Frye's theory, tr a g i c descent and comic ascent bring about revelation of things concealed. The hero's i n t e r n a l f a l l forces him to discover the difference between good and e v i l , and the violence of his r e a l or mental p e r i l s becomes a means of waking him up and revealing the t r u t h which, i n turn, gains him wisdom and maturity. In ascent, the t r u t h , e s p e c i a l l y the t r u t h about a hero's i d e n t i t y , i s usually concealed u n t i l the end of the story. Consequently, i t can be seen that the hero has a dual i d e n t i t y , one which i d e n t i f i e s him as an ordinary human being, before his ascent, and one that i d e n t i f i e s him as a hero, a f t e r his ascent. In order to be recognized as a hero he must prove himself to be hero-i c , and he does t h i s by r e s t o r i n g order into his society. Before the s o l d i e r discovers the secret of the twelve dancing princesses, he is just a s o l d i e r and nothing more. The same can be said f o r Ulysses when he arrives i n Ithaca and i s not recognized by his people as t h e i r long absent king. A f t e r the s o l d i e r , i n the Twelve Dancing Princesses, has broken the s p e l l and his superior q u a l i t i e s have been 13 recognized, he i s allowed to marry a princess and eventu-a l l y rule over his society. The other candidates who preceded the s o l d i e r , and who were unsuccessful i n per-forming the task put before them, were seen to be i n -f e r i o r , and they l o s t t h e i r l i v e s . Ulysses i s only recognized as the r i g h t f u l king of his country when i t i s discovered that only he has the super-human strength to bend his own bow. The enemies who coveted his king-dom and his wife are eliminated and peace i s restored. Thus, i n romance, i t i s against the standards a society establishes to test a hero's s p e c i a l strength, that the truth about a character's heroic i d e n t i t y can be established. I I I . The External World i n Gen^i monogatari In view of what Prye has described as the universal structure of romance—the cycle of b i r t h , growth, death, and r e b i r t h — i t may be argued that the external and i n -t e r n a l action of Genji monogatari may be s i m i l a r l y i n t e r -preted. As the story of each of the p r i n c i p a l characters unfolds, the theme of descent and ascent seems to be repeated sequentially throughout the Genji text. One of these sequences which culminates i n Chapters Ten through Thirteen and serves a major function i n the t a l e , 14 I have termed the "Suma sequence". In t h i s sequence, the hero's loss of childhood, his f a l l from s o c i a l grace, his e x i l e , and r i s e again to s o c i a l prominence i s sim-i l a r to the common romantic pattern outlined above, l e t us see, then, how the external and i n t e r n a l worlds of th i s sequence function i n terms of the universal charac-t e r i s t i c s that constitute a romance. The external action described i n the Suma sequence has i t s remote cause i n Chapter One, "Kiritsubo" jffil l2g[ ("The Paulownia Court"), where the emperor's 18 favourite concubine gives b i r t h to a son. The mother of the c h i l d dies, a vic t i m of spite and jealousy i n -stigated by higher ranking ladies at court. Her c h i l d i s no ordinary human being. He i s uncommonly b e a u t i f u l , charming, and talented, earning him the name of Hikaru # 19 ' Genji, the "Shining Genji". Throughout his c h i l d -hood he i s spoiled by his father and his father's p o l i t -i c a l a l l i e s . During his adolescence he indulges i n a number of reckless love a f f a i r s , earning him the reputa-20 t i o n of a rake. He forms a l i a s on with his stepmother, the Empress Pujitsubo, a lady whose beau-ty c l o s e l y resembles that of his mother. She gives b i r t h to Genji's son, and the c h i l d eventually becomes he i r to the throne. The g u i l t Genji feels for cuckolding 15 his father, and for committing what i n his society verges on incest, remains with him for his entire l i f e . This becomes an important catalyst i n the progress of the story. In Chapter Two, "Hahakigi" ^ ^ ("The Broom Tree"), Genji and his male friends gather together on a rainy night. They amuse themselves by discussing the ± types of women they think would contribute to an id e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The external quest that seems to p r e v a i l throughout the novel i s the search for the perfect woman. For some of Genji's friends, the perfect woman must have the q u a l i t i e s that make her superior from an external point of view. She must be s o c i a l l y acceptable i n terms of wealth, status, and upbringing. According to the wishes of his father, Genji r e l u c t a n t l y marries A such a lady, Aoi ^  , the daughter of the minister of the l e f t . The marriage i s never happy. Genji's seemingly endless pursuit of women goes beyond the simple reasons i n f e r r e d i n the external action of the story, and w i l l be dealt with i n a discussion of the in t e r n a l action, The Japanese characters f o r Chapter Ten may be read as either Sakagi p=? ("Wisdom Tree") or Sakaki T^t* ("The Sacred Tree"). As the f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n suggests, t h i s i s the chapter where Genji begins to 16 leave his youth behind, and where his personal d i f f i c u l -t i e s and declining popularity st a r t to make him a wiser person. After his father's death, Genji's stepmother She hates him and sees his popularity as a threat to her own son, the new emperor. Knowing Genji almost better than he knows himself, she waits for him to do some-thing f o o l i s h . For some time Genji has had an a f f a i r At the end of Chapter Ten, Genji i s trapped i n the lady's bed during a violent storm. Seidensticker's t r a n s l a t i o n of the scene where Genji i s caught by the lady's father, the minister of the r i g h t , captures the shock, surprise, and amazement of the characters so amusingly that i t bears repeating here: The thunder stopped, the r a i n quieted to showers. The minister went f i r s t to Kokiden's wing and then, his approach undetected because of the r a i n on the roof, to Oborozukiyo's. He marched j a u n t i l y up the g a l l e r y and l i f t e d a b l i n d . "How did you come through i t a l l ? I was wor-r i e d about you and meant to look i n on you...." A cascade of words poured f o r t h . Despite the precariousness of his s i t u a t i o n , Genji could not help smiling at the difference be-tween the two ministers [the other i s his father-in-law, the minister of the l e f t ] . The man could at least have come inside before he commenced his speech. Flushed and trembling, Oborozukiyo slipped through the bed curtains. The minister feared she had had a relapse. Kokiden 22 plots to get r i d of Genji. with Oborozukiyo the s i s t e r of Kokiden. 17 "My but you do look strange. It's not just malaria, i t ' s some sort.of e v i l s p i r i t , I'm sure of i t , a very stubborn one. We should have kept those priests at i t . " He caught sight of a pale magenta sash en-twined i n her s k i r t s . And something beside the curtain too, a wadded b i t of paper on which he could see traces of writing. "What might t h i s be?" he asked i n very great surprise. "Not at a l l something that I would have expected to f i n d here. Let me have i t . Give i t to me, now. Let me see what i t i s . " The lady glanced over her shoulder and saw the incriminating objects. And now what was she to do? One might have expected a l i t t l e more tact and forbearance from a man of parts. It was an exceedingly d i f f i c u l t moment, even i f she was his own daughter. But he was a headstrong and not very thoughtful man, and a l l sense of proportion deserted him. Snatch-ing at the paper, he l i f t e d the bed curtains. A gentleman was l y i n g there i n d i s h a b i l l e . He hi d his face and sought to p u l l his clothes together. Though dizzy with anger, the min-i s t e r pulled back from a direct confrontation. He took the b i t of paper o f f to the main h a l l (pp.211-13 ; Yamagishi, I, pp.4 0 9 - 1 1 ) . 2 3 The r e v e l a t i o n of Genji's a f f a i r with Oborozukiyo, as described here, and his consequent disgrace can be viewed as an external f a l l as seen i n the eyes of society. Since his father i s no longer a l i v e to protect him, Genji's career at court i s apparently ruined, and he loses the respectable status which i d e n t i f i e d him i n his society. To avoid further repercussions should more of his past be revealed, especially his relations with Fujitsubo, 18 Genji goes v o l u n t a r i l y into e x i l e . In Chapter Twelve, "Suma" ^ , af t e r much procrastination and f o l -lowing a series of long farewells to close friends and r e l a t i o n s , he goes to Suma, • r an i s o l a t e d but 24 scenic place located by the sea. The idea of leaving the luxury and refinement of c i v i l i z e d l i f e i n the cap-i t a l , i n exchange for the loneliness and unknown dangers which might b e f a l l him at Suma, i s l i k e a journey t o -ward death. At least that i s what a nobleman such as Genji imagined any l i f e away from the c a p i t a l to be l i k e . Genji, however, spends nearly two years at Suma much as one would spend time at a seaside resort. He takes on the attributes of a Chinese scholar by writing poetry, painting landscapes, and meditating, while at the same time yearning for l i f e i n the c a p i t a l . It i s during his f a l l and exile from the world of his childhood, that Genji grows up inwardly and recog-nizes his new i d e n t i t y as an adult. When Genji leaves the c a p i t a l , the energy that gave i t i t s v i t a l i t y goes away too. Society eventually r e a l i z e s i t cannot do without Genji as much as he cannot do without i t . Kokiden becomes i l l , and the emperor contacts an eye disease. His blindness may symbolize his f a i l u r e to 19 recognize openly the i n j u s t i c e of Genji's punishment. "Suma" ends with a violent storm which i s seen as an expression of the gods' anger for society's unjust "treat-ment of Genji. In the opening section of Chapter T h i r -teen, "Akashi" 9^ ^ f25 r j e n - j i dreams of his f a t h e r i ~ t e l l i n g him to return to the c a p i t a l , qinde s o c i -ety, presumably washed by the storm of a l l i t s p o l i t i c a l s t r i f e , waits i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of his return. "Akashi" is about Genji's ascent, his re-instatement into the society he belongs to. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , however, he delays his return to the c a p i t a l and detours i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n , accepting an i n v i t a t i o n , a f t e r the event of the storm, to stay at the home of an old monk, the former governor of the province where Akashi is situated. "Akashi" i s a comical chapter which r e -lie v e s the tr a g i c mood imposed by Genji's descent i n "Suma", and i t begins again on a l i g h t e r note. The monk, l i k e Circe, detains Genji and entertains him i n a grand and ostentatious manner. His motive f o r doing so i s to draw Genji's attention toward his unmarried daughter i n the deluded hope that Genji would make her his o f f i c i a l wife, notwithstanding the fact that Genji already had one, Murasaki % , at home. As much as "Suma" i s distinguished by the imminent violence to be faced i n 2 0 tragedy, "Akashi" i s characterized by the cunning and t r i c k e r y found i n comedy. Genji's secret reason for turning his back on the c a p i t a l and going to- Akashi has to do with his c u r i o s i t y about the young lady he has 27 heard i s hidden away there, He happily allows the monk.. to lead him to his daughter, and forgetting a l l his f i n e resolutions made to Murasaki and at Suma, aband-ons himself to another love a f f a i r . When he f i n a l l y leaves Akashi, the poor lady i s pregnant and the monk is l e f t to lament his own foolishness. Genji returns to the c a p i t a l a f t e r the emperor has summoned him twice. He i s wealthier and more honoured than ever before and from outward appearances i s the happiest of men. It i s clear from the external action that Genji  monogatari i s dif f e r e n t from romances f a m i l i a r i n the West, such as the Arabian Nights, the Three Musketeers, or cowboy stories of early America. It moves slowly and q u i e t l y , without the swashbuckling adventures i n -volving sword f i g h t s , dramatic chases through rugged t e r r a i n , or magic equipment to aid the hero i n pursuing his quest. The t a l e does not resort to any of the forms of physical violence one would expect to f i n d i n the f a i r y t a l e romances of our childhood such as mutilations, beheadings, torture, or cannibalism. Instead the ex-te r n a l world i n Genji i s coloured by the formal and 21 domestic l i f e at court. The text i s enlivened by de-scr i p t i o n s of court functions and r e l i g i o u s ceremonies performed i n harmony with the order of l i f e and nature. Every aspect of a nobleman's l i f e , from b i r t h u n t i l death, involves elaborate r i t u a l s : the coming of age ceremony, marriage, and funerals. The passing of the seasons is celebrated with f e s t i v a l s , the wearing of appropriate clo t h i n g and colours, poetry, music, and dancing. The ceremonial aspects of l i f e , i n which a l l the characters p a r t i c i p a t e , are a unifying element of t h e i r society and become the occasions at which these people meet and make s o c i a l connections. On further reading and r e f l e c t i o n , however, i t be-comes apparent that the exc i t i n g action of many Western romances i s replaced by another kind of action a r i s i n g from beneath the external world of Genji. Prom the Buddhist point of view, which dominates the entire nar-r a t i v e , the i d e a l or external world i s i l l u s o r y . It i s l i k e a dream, for anything that happens i n t h i s world, the passing of the seasons, b i r t h , l i f e , and death, meetings, and separations, reveal the impermanence of l i f e . The external world cannot be r e a l because i t i s forever changing and transforming l i f e into the present. The r e a l world i n Genji becomes the concealed i n t e r n a l 22 world of personal pain and mental s u f f e r i n g f o r the char-acters. This i s where the main action l i e s , and where Genji becomes "more than a romance" i n that i t portrays r e a l i t y i n a t r u l y subjective sense. IV. The Internal World of Genji monogatari The Suma sequence of Genji's journey from boyhood to manhood has been outlined from an external point of view—how Genji's society might have seen his s i t u a t i o n , and how a reader who has only read the t a l e s u p e r f i c i a l l y might have understood the story. For the sake of con-t r a s t i n g these two worlds, l e t us look at the Suma sequence from an in t e r n a l perspective and f i n d what i t conceals. The opening chapter of Genji begins l i k e a t y p i c a l romance, with a once-upon-a-time introduction, followed 28 by a description of Genji's happy childhood. In his youth he meets c e r t a i n ladies at court functions and forms s o c i a l relationships with them. Some of these relationships gradually become intimate and are concealed from the c r i t i c a l eyes of society. One of these r e l a -tionships i n ..particular, his secret a f f a i r with F u j i t s u --bo, a f f l i c t s him for the rest of his l i f e . The g u i l t he feels toward his father and his fear that the world 23 w i l l come to know that the c h i l d born to Fujitsubo i s not the emperor's son, cause:, him great mental anxiety. Then, at the end of Chapter Ten, when his a f f a i r with Oborozukiyo i s discovered, Genji's p o l i t i c a l future i s apparently ruined, and he i s , i n e f f e c t , ostracized from society. To escape t h i s unbearable s i t u a t i o n he chooses self-imposed exile to the coast of Suma. Those who sym-pathize with him blame his troubles on fate and the lack of p o l i t i c a l support. From the i n t e r n a l point of view, however, those are not the r e a l reasons f o r his s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l downfall. The society of the c a p i t a l has become h o s t i l e toward Genji, and he c e r t a i n l y wishes to escape the noise caused by the scandal. But inwardly he fears that his i l l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p with Fujitsubo w i l l be discovered. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n his private l i f e have become heavy, and he has ambivalent feelings about running away from a l l his problems or waiting them out i n the h o s t i l e atmosphere of the c a p i t a l . His de-c i s i o n to go v o l u n t a r i l y into e x i l e , before he. i s a r r e s t -ed and given a much harsher sentence, may seem l i k e an act of courage from an external point of view, but from an i n t e r n a l viewpoint, i t may also be seen as a cowardly act, i n that he abandons his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at home i n order to punish himself for a crime that no one knows he is g u i l t y of. 24 Chapter Eleven, "Hanachirusato" ("The Orange Blossoms"), acts as an interlude between the humorous but dramatic ending of "Sakaki" and the building up of emotion i n "Suma". In t h i s chapter he v i s i t s Reikeiden ^ ' Tv^ » a former concubine of his father. Through the hidden q u a l i t i e s revealed i n the character of Reikeiden, Genji recognizes his true i d e n t i t y and r e a l i z e s that he must pay the price f o r his actions. As w i l l be discussed i n Chapter Two iof t h i s essay, "Hanachirusato" i s a chapter of r e v e l a t i o n bridg-ing Genji's loss of childhood i n "Sakaki" with his gain-ing of manhood i n "Suma". Chapter Twelve, "Suma" i s a t r a g i c chapter about r e t r i b u t i o n and revelation. Genji's external journey to Suma i s also an i n t e r n a l one. His s o c i a l descent becomes metaphorical, one of self-discovery. He goes to Suma i n order to expiate the s i n against his father. It i s there that he sinks into despair only to reach enlightenment at the very end of the chapter. The storm which forms the dramatic climax of "Suma" r e f l e c t s the violent storm of c o n f l i c t s i n Genji's mind. As the storm subsides, so Genji's problems are resolved when he dreams of his father t e l l i n g him to go back to the c a p i t a l . 25 In contrast to "Suma", Chapter Thirteen, "Akashi" i s l i g h t and humorous, hut again the i n t e r n a l action i s the motivating force of the t a l e . Comic rather than t r a g i c events and cunning rather than passionate f e e l -ings reveal the int e r n a l action of the story. In the aftermath of the storm Genji's r u s t i c cottage by the sea is badly damaged, and he accepts the h o s p i t a l i t y of the Akashi monk. The monk blatantly gives away his reason for i n v i t i n g Genji to his home, but Genji never divulges his own reason f o r accepting the i n v i t a t i o n . Having heard ( i n Chapter Five) about the lady of exceptional character hidden away there, Genji plays along with the monk i n getting his way with the daughter. Against the objections of the lady's mother, both Genji and the monk plot to make the Akashi Lady accept Genji as a lover. The lady h e r s e l f i s reluctant to take Genji. One night with the blessing of the monk, Genji v i s i t s her, using the excuse that he wants to l i s t e n to her play the koto, anc a b i l i t y for which she i s noted. As i t turns out Genji never does hear her play except for a few b r i e f notes on t h e i r l a s t night together before he returns to the c a p i t a l . The lady i s the victim of both her father's foolishness and Genji's t r i c k e r y . 26 It i s appropriate, i n view of her ro l e i n a chapter about concealment, that the character of the Akashi Lady-should i t s e l f represent concealment. Because of her low s o c i a l status and the fact that she grew up i n the country i t i s many years before Genji allows his association with her to be generally known. It also seems apt that since t h i s chapter is about ascent, Genji's r i s e to man-hood and his f i g u r a t i v e r e b i r t h back into society should be celebrated by the conception of a c h i l d , yet unborn and unknown to the world, but destined to become an empress. The action i n Genji progresses when things concealed are revealed. Revelation as the a c t i v a t i n g force of the story occurs when the in t e r n a l action i s projected onto the external world. This happens when hidden f e e l i n g s , for example, become so intense that they are manifested through the external action. This may induce a contagious response wherein the i n t e r n a l action causes an external reaction, which i n turn may reveal something concealed and p r e c i p i t a t e another chain of action and reaction to happen i n the external world. An important i l l u s t r a t i o n of concealed emotions transposed onto the external world and a f f e c t i n g the movement of the Suma sequence occurs i n Chapter Nine, J*<C-"Aoi" ^ ("Heartvine"). Lady Aoi, the daughter 27 of the minister of the l e f t and Genji's wife, is seething with injured pride and resentment because Genji neglects her and is consistently unfaithful, lady Rokujo a woman with an implacable and possessive nature, is indignant because Genji has tired of their a f f a i r and has directed his amorous interests elsewhere. Both ladies attend the Kamo festival where the large crowd is more intent on waiting for Genji to ride by in the parade than in the activities of the festival proper. Upon Genji's a r r i v a l , there is a great crush of people and carriages. The carriages in which the two ladies are concealed collide, and lady Aoi a l -lows her retainers to push lady Rokujo's carriage aside blocking her view of Genji. lady Aoi is triumphant and lady Rokujo is humiliated (pp.160-61; Yamagishi,I, pp.320-22). The inner feelings of pride, jealousy, and anger which led to this action cause a succession of reactions which result in tragedy. Lady Aoi, weak after giving birth to Genji's son Yugiri ' , is possess-ed by an evil s p i r i t and dies (pp.168-70; Yamagishi, I, pp.334-39). The s p i r i t , that of Lady Rokujo, may be seen as an objectification of her tormented hatred and je a l -ousy. Lady Rokujo is not, for a long time, consciously aware of what she has done. Genji's later attempts to 28 appease her anger come to nothing. After her death he makes her daughter, Akikonomu, empress and consort to his son by Fujitsubo. But toward the end of his l i f e Genji says some unkind words about Lady Rokujo i n the presence of Murasaki, and Lady Rokujo's s p i r i t haunts him again by possessing Murasaki. In some instances, i t may appear that external events create the in t e r n a l action. In the case of Lady Aoi and Lady Rokujo, however, one must consider the factors that led up to the event. The in t e r n a l feelings within these two ladies became so intense that they exploded on the surface, thus creating an external s i t u a t i o n . It i s not the external event of the carriages c o l l i d i n g that makes Lady Rokujo seek revenge on Lady Aoi, but her severe mental depression, c e r t a i n l y f u e l l e d by t h e i r unfortunate meeting, but building up so much pressure within that i t erupts again. Another example i n the Suma sequence, the event of the storm at the end of "Sakaki", would seem to be the cause of Genji's a f f a i r with Oborozukiyo being discover-ed. But, although the characters i n the story frequent-l y blame t h e i r troubles on fate, they are free to choose the course of t h e i r actions. The discovery of Genji's a f f a i r has everything to do with his i n d i s c r e t i o n and lack of s e l f - c o n t r o l and nothing to do with a f a t e f u l storm. Considering what has already been discussed about Genji i n terms of romance, i t would be useful to see how Murasaki Shikibu interpreted the subject of romance. Her view can be found i n a famous passage i n Chapter Twenty-five, "Hotaru" v £ ("The F i r e f l i e s " ) . Genji has gone to v i s i t Tamakazura, a young lady to whom he pretends to be her long l o s t father and whom he has taken under his protection. He finds her absorbed i n copying a romance, and teases her by saying that women are f o o l i s h to spend so much time reading things which are not true: He smiled. "What would we do i f there were not these old romances to r e l i e v e our boredom? But amid a l l the f a b r i c a t i o n I must admit that I do f i n d r e a l emotions and plausible chains of events. We can be quite aware of the f r i v -o l i t y and the idleness and s t i l l be moved. We have to f e e l a l i t t l e sorry for a charming princess i n the depths of gloom. Sometimes a series of absurd and grotesque incidents which we know to be quite improbable holds our i n -t e r e s t , and afterwards we must blush that i t was so. Yet even then we can see what i t was that held us. I think that these yarns must come from people much practiced i n l y i n g . But perhaps that i s not the whole of the story?" (p.437; Yamagishi, II, pp.431-32) Tamakazura, sensing the r e a l motive of Genji's v i s i t , refuses to be trapped by his argument: 30 She pushed away her i n k s t o n e . " I can see tha t tha t would be the view of someone much g i v e n to l y i n g h i m s e l f . Por my p a r t , I am c o n -v i n c e d of t h e i r t r u t h f u l n e s s . " He laughed. " I have been rude and u n f a i r t o your romances, haven ' t I . They have set down and preserved happenings from the age of the gods to our own. The C h r o n i c l e s of Japan and the r e s t are a mere fragment o f tn~e whole t r u t h . I t i s your romances tha t f i l l i n the d e t a i l s . We are not t o l d of t h ings tha t happened to s p e c i f i c people e x a c t l y as they happened; but the beg inn ing i s when there are good t h ings and bad t h i n g s , t h ings tha t happen i n t h i s l i f e which one never t i r e s of s ee ing and hea r -i n g about , t h ings which one cannot bear not to t e l l of and must pass on f o r a l l gene ra t i ons . I f the s t o r y t e l l e r wishes t o speak w e l l , then he chooses the good t h i n g s ; and i f he wishes to h o l d the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n he chooses bad t h i n g s , e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y bad t h i n g s . Good :-;.things and bad th ings a l i k e , they are t h ings of t h i s wor ld and no other (p.437; Yamag i sh i , I I , pp.432-3). One may surmise from G e n j i ' s statement tha t the s t o r y t e l l e r draws from o r d i n a r y l i f e , and of ten from h i s own s u b j e c t i v e experience those "good" and "bad" th ings which he cannot keep h idden . In Murasaki S h i k i b u ' s own t a l e , i t can be shown that the "good" or p o s i t i v e th ings and the "bad" or nega t ive t h i n g s , which imply d u a l i t y , are p r o j e c t e d onto a background of romantic convent ions such as cha rac t e r t y p e s , the romantic ques t , n a t u r a l sym-b o l i s m , and c y c l i c a l t ime i n order to r e v e a l the t r u t h . G e n j i takes h i s argument a s tep f u r t h e r : 31 But to dismiss them [stories] as l i e s i s i t s e l f to depart from the truth. Even i n the writ which the Buddha drew from his noble heart ,are parables, devices for pointing obliquely at the truth. To the ignorant they may seem to oper-ate at cross purposes. The Greater Vehicle i s f u l l of them, but the general burden i s always the same. The difference between enlighten-ment and confusion i s of about the same order as the difference between the good and the bad i n a romance. If one takes the generous view, then nothing is empty and useless." (p.438; Yamagishi, I I , p . 4 3 3 ) . : What may be concealed i n a l i e i s the t r u t h , and a good romance uses the external and i n t e r n a l action as a device to point to the concealed truth. Like a Buddhist parable an i n t e r n a l truth can be revealed by making i t external.- This i s what Murasaki has accomplished i n her two worlds of Genji. She has transcended the l i e s of f i c t i o n i n her t a l e by revealing both the p o s i t i v e and negative things of l i f e , and she has achieved t h i s through the use of conventions found i n the universal concept: of romance. V. The Duality^of Character Types i n Genji monogatari In the i d e a l i z e d world represented i n romance, one would expect to f i n d c e r t a i n character types such as courageous heroes, beautiful heroines, e v i l enemies, and a number of l e s s e r c h a r a c t e r s — k i n g s , queens, f a i r y god-mothers, magicians, maids, messengers, and c h i l d r e n — 32 which form the society surrounding the main protagonists. In Genji, too, the characters may be seen from the ex-te r n a l point of view to represent c e r t a i n types. For i n -stance, Genji is the hero and Murasaki i s the p r i n c i p a l heroine. Kokiden and Lady Rokujo may be regarded as v i l l a i n s . Murasaki would appear to t y p i f y the good step-mother, while Kokiden seems to represent the wicked stepmother type. Reikeiden, as w i l l be discussed i n Chapter Two of t h i s essay, may be seen as a f a i r y god-mother type figure. The place of the magician i s taken by the priests who perform exorcisms, r e c i t e innumerable sutras and incantations, and perform various other r e -l i g i o u s services. Most of the characters i n the t a l e seem to have q u a l i t i e s which may be seen i n contrast to those of other characters. Murasaki, for example, i s the image of per-fect inner and physical beauty. Reikeiden, who is jv . -L:; •.:.:"../ p l a i n but characterized by inner beauty, may be seen as Murasaki's counterpart with regard to physical features. Reikeiden»s f l e x i b i l i t y to changing circum-stances i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to Suetsumuhana ^ ^ i * - * (The Safflower Princess) who r i g i d l y r e s i s t s change. Lady Rokujo»s overbearing possessiveness i s the opposite of Reikeiden's inner compliancy and constancy. 33 The minister of the right i s fatuous and t a c t l e s s while the minister of the l e f t i s wisdom and d i s c r e t i o n personified. Y u g i r i i s cautious and prudent while his f r i e n d , Kashiwagi ^ ^ , i s impulsive and e r r a t i c by nature. Niou ^ , Genii's grandson, and Kaoru J E , believed by the world to be Genji's son, are the two main protagonists a f t e r Genji's death. Each seems to imbibe the two c o n f l i c t i n g sides of Genji's nature. Genji's p r o c l i v i t y toward the external, sensual pleasures of l i f e i s embodied by Niou, and the s p i r i t u a l side of his nature can be found i n Kaoru, an i n t e l l e c t -ual aesthete. The Buddhist clergy i s well represented. The Akashi monk, i n many ways seems a f o o l , even a buffoon at times, while the Prince of H i t a c h i , Genji's half-brother, who never a c t u a l l y takes monastic orders, may represent the erudite Buddhist scholar. The Akashi monk may be s i l l y , but unlike the Prince of H i t a c h i , he is not such a f o o l as to forget about his daughter's future welfare. The Prince of Hitachi remains b l i n d to the r e a l i t y of l i f e outside of his domain at U j i . Afte r his death his two daughters are l e f t with p r a c t i c a l l y no means of material support and l i t t l e a b i l i t y to cope with the outside world. The Akashi monk t r i e s to coax his daughter out 34 of a l i f e of seclusion into the world of the court, while the Prince of Hitachi i n s i s t s that his daughters, even a f t e r his death, should remain recluses. After the Prince of Hitachi's death, the Abbot at U j i worries too loudly about no longer receiving g i f t s from his benefactor. The daughters, although they can i l l a f f o r d i t , continue to make offerings to the abbot's temple. This abbot may be seen to represent the greed of the clergy (p.814; Yamagishi, IV, pp.366 -7 ) . On the other hand, the bishop of Yokawa and his s i s t e r , a nun, who take care of Ukifune a f t e r she has attempted su i c i d e , may be seen to represent the generosity of the clergy (Chapter F i f t y - t h r e e , "Tenarai" "* ^ ). By looking at the contrastive q u a l i t i e s of the characters i n r e l a t i o n to each other, one may deduce that each character i n the t a l e has a dual nature, one that i s external and one that i s i n t e r n a l . The external and i n -ter n a l aspects of t h e i r personalities may have po s i t i v e or negative elements that d i s t i n g u i s h them as in d i v i d u a l s , e n t i t i e s that are more complicated and r e a l than just the simple types they may seem to represent. It i s the con-cealed p o s i t i v e or negative side of a character's i d e n t i t y , when revealed, that causes the story to move forward and make the.character's behaviour seem r e a l . 3 5 For example, Genji i s seen by his society as happy, successful, and respectable. But i n the passage from the "Hotaru" chapter quoted above, Genji's hidden i n -tentions toward Tamakazura and the unseemly side of his character are revealed to the lady i n a subtle and l u r i d fashion. Genji has t o l d the world and Tamakazura that he is her father. Tamakazura, however, guesses his de-ce i t by his unfatherly behaviour. When the conversation they have about f i c t i o n i s read i n context, the r e a l t r u t h divulged i n this passage i s not about f i c t i o n , but about Genji's true s e l f . The external discussion about f i c t i o n as tr u t h or l i e s has revealed the concealed "negative" side of Genji's nature, the fact that our hero i s a l i a r and a lecher. In simple romances the po s i t i v e and negative aspects that i d e n t i f y the characters may be divided among charact-ers who ac t u a l l y represent the "good" or "bad". The wicked witch i n a f a i r y t a l e i s never regarded as good, and a heroine l i k e Sleeping Beautyccould never be imagined as "bad". The good or bad i d e n t i t i e s of recurring character types i n f a i r y tales or myths leave a fix e d image i n the mind of the reader and prevent one from seeing that character as human, as having an i d e n t i t y that includes both the good and the bad. 36 In Genji monogatari i t is easy to see from the ex-ter n a l action that Kokiden i s a character who t y p i f i e s wickedness. Can one see any good i n her? After Genji's return from Suma she i s defeated, and she fades into the background more an object of p i t y than of anger. What about Lady Rokujo's malevolent s p i r i t which i s blamed for k i l l i n g possibly three of the ladies i n Genji's l i f e ? Can she help what she i s doing? Can Murasaki be thought of as anything other than good? Was she j u s t i -f i e d i n l e t t i n g Genji take his infanct-., daughter, the Akashi Princess, away from her mother i n order to bring her up herself? And what about Genji? The hero is supposed to be good, but Genji i s constantly u n f a i t h f u l , giving much pain, especially to those he loves the most. In Western mythology, for example, The Odyssey, Ulysses is permitted to be u n f a i t h f u l to his wife. Afte r a l l , he was many years away from home and he proved his love for Penelope by working so hard to win her back. In that respect Genji is no d i f f e r e n t . He i s the hero, so of course he cannot help i t i f women are attracted to him and he to them. But Genji is not such a simple char-acter as that. The characters i n the t a l e are more r e a l and human because they manifest both good and bad things which, through t h e i r actions, affect the l i v e s of other 37 characters and, i n turn, af f e c t the movement of the story. In any romance, i f there is a hero or heroine who i s 'good", then there must be an anti-hero, an enemy who i s "bad" and t r i e s to prevent the hero from f u l f i l l i n g his quest. The o r i g i n a l i t y of Genji l i e s i n the fact that the r e a l v i l l a i n s i n the story are not at a l l the character types a reader expects to f i n d i n a romance. In terms of the external action, i t i s easy to c l a s s i f y such characters as Kokiden and lady Rokujo as enemies and leave i t at that. But the author dealt much more deeply with her characters. Since every character i n Genji has a dual i d e n t i t y , one p o s i t i v e and one negat-ive, one face he shows to the external world and one he keeps hidden, then i t also follows that each character is his own worst enemy. For example, Lady Rokujo, from the external, s o c i a l point of view, i s the most accomplished and refined lady of her day, but she is the v i c t i m of her own intense jealousy. That jealousy i s o b j e c t i f i e d as an e v i l s p i r i t which reveals i t s e l f to the external world by committing murder. Her i n t e r n a l emotions turn her into a monster, the same kind of monster one finds i n a f a i r y t a l e ex-cept t h i s one i s mental rather than r e a l . 38 Lady Aoi, a lady of high b i r t h and beauty, is just as much a victim of her own pride and resentment as she is of Lady Rokujo's e v i l s p i r i t . By projecting her f e e l -ings against Lady Rokujo, i n a manner which deeply offended the lady, Aoi had no one to blame but h e r s e l f for the reaction she received. A further paradox, here, i s that each character may be the victim of his or her superior q u a l i t i e s as well as his f o i b l e s . Murasaki, the lady Genji comes to love the most, i s the victim of her greatest v i r t u e , her un-earthly beauty. Murasaki i s never very warm toward Akikonomu, Lady Rokujo's daughter, whom Genji has made an empress. Long a f t e r Lady Rokujo i s dead Genji says a few unkind words about the lady to Murasaki, and the s p i r i t that has haunted Genji's l i f e for many long years r i s e s again and takes possession of Murasaki. Such un-r i v a l e d beauty as Murasaki's does not survive a world of su f f e r i n g and impermanence, and she dies while s t i l l i n her prime. If the negative side of each character makes him his own worst enemy, then i t follows that Genji as hero i s also the anti-hero. In as much as the external, pos-i t i v e elements of his i d e n t i t y — h i s charm, poetic sensir-b i l i t y , and affection—make him the main protagonist of 39 the story, his negative q u a l i t i e s make him the p r i n c i p a l v i l l a i n of the t a l e . This remarkable innovation on the part of the author has two effects on the action of the story. F i r s t , when Genji shows the concealed side of his character, his "negative" side, through his external behaviour, he gives pain not only to himself but to those he cares for the most. For instance, Lady Aoi's feelings of injured pride and resentment were caused by Genji's t o t a l neglect and lack of consideration f o r h6r. Lady Rokujo's severe depression, too, i s caused by Genji's lack of constancy. The actions of these two ladies at the Kamo f e s t i v a l may be interpreted as a reaction to Genji's actions, or i n t h i s case, non-action. The s p i r i t of Lady Rokujo, i n e f f e c t , may be seen as an o b j e c t i f i c a -t i o n of Genji's thoughtlessness. I f he had been more attentive to the feelings of both these l a d i e s , he would not have had to pay the t e r r i b l e price of seeing them suf f e r because of his neglect. The second effect that Genji's hidden nature has on the inner l i v e s of the other characters i s that his ac-tions bring out the worst i n them. When th i s happens, the characters reacting to Genji's "negative" side, man-i f e s t t h e i r emotions externally, impelling the story to move i n a tr a g i c d i r e c t i o n . For example, i f Genji had 40 been more considerate toward lady Aoi, she would never have behaved so badly toward Lady Rokujo, and i f he had been more sensi t i v e toward Lady Rokujo's fe e l i n g s , her latent p o t e n t i a l for hatred, a f e e l i n g she was not aware of, might never have arisen. It can be sai d that the characters choose t h e i r own fate when they have t h e i r emotions under control, but when they lose that control and react impulsively to t h e i r own and each other's f e e l i n g s , then they l e t fate choose them. By revealing the virtues and f o i b l e s of the charact-ers, not only tr a g i c events but also comic events are made to happen. In Chapter Ten, Genji's want of prudence is the reason he i s discovered having a love a f f a i r with Oborozukiyo. In "Akashi" the monk and Genji t r y to t r i c k each other. The monk, i n his enthusiasm, reveals his motive for i n v i t i n g Genji to his home, but Genji does not reveal his motive for accepting the i n v i t a t i o n . In comedy there must be a victim. In t h i s case i t i s not only the Akashi Lady who is a victim. The old monk t r i e s to manipulate circumstances so that they w i l l lead to his daughter's b r i l l i a n t marriage to Genji. His plans back-f i r e , and he too becomes a vi c t i m of Genji's g u i l e . He r e a l i z e s t h i s too l a t e when he t r i p s over a garden stone while his acolytes laugh at him. The stone represents 41 enlightenment. It may also be seen as an o b j e c t i f i c a -t i o n of his own foolishness and, i n c i d e n t a l l y , bfu:G'en j.i •. too t Old age suddenly advanced and subdued him, and he [the monk] spent his days i n bed. But when night came he was up and a l e r t . "What can have happened to my beads?" Unable to f i n d them, he brought empty hands together i n supplication. His d i s c i p l e s g i g -gled again when he set f o r t h on a moonlight peregrination and managed to f a l l into the brook and bruise his hip on one of the garden stones he had chosen so c a r e f u l l y . For a time pain drove away, or at least obscured, his worries (p.269; Yamagishi, I I , p.9 3 ) . For Genji, however, his superior q u a l i t i e s as well as his flaws cause him much mental d i s t r e s s . There i s a price to be paid for beauty. His beauty and charm often work against him, i n that i f he had not been so a t t r a c t i v e to women, he might not have had such a d i f -f i c u l t inner l i f e . In his paradoxical nature there i s also a constancy that surpasses that of other men. He may neglect his ladies but he never forgets them. He takes them under his protection and t r i e s to o f f e r them material security. But his inconstancy cancels out the good every time he does something that causes pain to someone else. His irresponsible actions '.bind him i n e x t r i c a b l y to others and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y he faces is r e t r i b u t i o n for those 42 actions. Retribution i s what the "Suma" chapter i s a l l about. It i s what a l l the characters face once they have l o s t control of t h e i r inner subjective selves. Just as each character i n Genji seems to have a double i d e n t i t y , so each one has a dual quest, one ex-t e r n a l and one i n t e r n a l . Since the external action of the story i s mainly concerned with the pursuit of love, i t seems reasonable that the external quest of Genji and the characters which people his world involves searching for the perfect partner who w i l l contribute to an i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Consequently, the objective.search f o r a happy and harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p is also the subjective search for peace of mind. Unlike his friends i n Chapter Two, who are attracted to ladies of wealth and high s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , Genji's interests are usually directed toward ladies of r e l a t i v e -l y humble b i r t h who possess exceptional beauty or t a l e n t , but lack the affected and sophisticated mannerisms of t h e i r counterparts born and raised under the best circum-stances. Despite two unhappy marriages with ladies of the aristocracy, lady Aoi and the Third Princess VI. The Dual Quest i n £ g j u i monogatari , both of whom Genji unwillingly weds, 43 he of a l l the characters i n the story comes as close as possible to f u l f i l l i n g his external quest for the id e a l woman. Of course a l l the q u a l i t i e s that f i t Genji's standard of perfection could not possibly exist i n one woman. The lady who comes nearest to his standard i s Murasaki, whom he educates and raises himself as a c h i l d , and who as a woman holds the highest place i n his affections.. Genji i s one who arranges his l i f e so that he can have the best of whatever i t has to offer. At his new mansion at Rokujo, he provides a home for several ladies each of whom possesses a rare g i f t or beauty he admires. Thus, a l l the outstanding q u a l i t i e s Genji would l i k e to have embodied i n one woman are represented i n several ladies gathered under one roof. The major drawback i n surrounding himself with women of superior character i s that he must accept t h e i r flaws as well as t h e i r merits. The Rokujo mansion and the group of ladies who pre-side over i t may be regarded i n two ways. F i r s t , the author i s representing an id e a l s i t u a t i o n that could not have existed i n her own r e a l world. In Heian Japan the terms that constituted l e g a l marriage and divorce were vague and often l e f t the woman i n a tenuous p o s i t i o n . In Genji monogatari two types of marriage i n s t i t u t i o n s 44 X? dominate. One i s where the wife continues to reside at the house of her parents, r e t a i n i n g her family name, while her husband i s expected to v i s i t his wife f r e -quently and be treated as an honoured guest. This was the kind of marriage that existed between Lady Aoi and Genji. Within t h i s kind of arrangement, the husband often maintained his separate residence, and what he did between v i s i t s to his o f f i c i a l wife r a r e l y l e f t the wife very sure of her husband's affections toward her. The second type of marriage that predominates i n Genji i s where the husband takes his wife to l i v e with him i n a separate residence. During the Heian period, i f a man divorced his wife or died and i f she was l e f t with no family or independent source of income, she often became destitute. It i s unusual that Genji should r i s k the harmony of his domestic l i f e by putting so many ladies together i n one house a l l vying f o r the attention of one man. The fact that Genji does so, perhaps r e f l e c t s an awareness on the author's part, h e r s e l f a widow, of the unstable p o s i t i o n the Heian woman held i f she had no private means of security. In r e l a t i o n to the t a l e , the arrangement that Genji maintains at his Rokujo mansion may be interpreted as an externalization of how Genji would l i k e his world i d e a l l y 45 to "be. The Rokujo mansion may represent a microcosm, the small private world of the home. The four p r i n c i p a l ladies i n Genji's l i f e , Murasaki, Akikonomu, Reikeiden, and the Akashi Lady each occupy a quarter of the mansion. Each one i s alotted a garden; Murasaki the spring garden, Reikeiden the summer garden, Akikonomu the autumn garden, and the Akashi Lady the winter garden. Ideally, the ladies represent the harmony of nature transposed onto Genji's domestic l i f e . Nevertheless, despite the fact that Genji i n his middle years i s able successfully to maintain a peaceful and stable domestic existence, i n t e r n a l l y he i s never able to f u l f i l l his quest for peace of mind. Vie_wed-within the context of Buddhist thought, most of the characters i n the romance including Genji himself, are torn between the external world of i l l u s i o n and the world of t h e i r inner consciousness. They c l i n g to elusive things such as love, beauty, s o c i a l status, and wealth. They forget that a l l these things come to pass, that they exist only for the present moment. It i s only through the shock of death or intense personal s u f f e r i n g that the characters are awakened to the knowledge that they are gripping nothing at a l l . Many seek salv a t i o n and peace of mind by turning to t h e i r inner 46 l i v e s and taking r e l i g i o u s vows. With few exceptions they f a i l i n att a i n i n g t h e i r quest. The reason why so many are t r a g i c a l l y i n e f f e c t u a l i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r i n t e r n a l quest is that they cannot control the negative aspects of t h e i r i d e n t i t y , t h e i r i n t e r n a l weaknesses. Genji i s the prime example of t h i s . His f o i b l e s of deceit, inconstancy, and cowardice cause so many others to su f f e r . His past actions always come back to haunt him and the g u i l t of these actions r e s t i n g on his conscience torment him a l l his l i f e . He f r e -quently promises himself that he w i l l cease pursuing wom-en, give up the pleasures of the world, and take monastic orders. But he goes on forming new and more complicated relationships with women, which bind him i n e x t r i c a b l y to them, because they depend on him not only f o r material, but also for emotional support. Even a f t e r the death of Murasaki, when he i s freed of his strongest emotional t i e , he cannot summon the courage to break his t i e s with the external world. The irony of Genji's character is that he prevents not only himself but others from any hope of gaining salvation. He nonchalantly allows the bitterness i n Lady Rokujo's mind to grow to such proportions that her roving s p i r i t , even a f t e r death, can never know peace. He 47 c r u e l l y refuses Murasaki's l a s t wish to take her vows because he cannot bear to part from her body or soul. When she dies shortly afterward, he r e a l i z e s too l a t e that although he nurtured, raised, and loved her f o r most of her l i f e he never possessed her. She i s gone, body and s p i r i t , and he i s l e f t f e e l i n g broken and empty. While the negative elements i n Genji's character, deter people from r e l i n q u i s h i n g the world of pleasure i t forces others to do exactly that. Some ladies f i n d Genji's attentions so objectionable that they choose the ultimate and safest escape. Fujitsubo does not become a nun i n Chapter Ten (pp.204-06 ; Yamagishi, I, pp.399-401) so much to repent her sins as to protect h e r s e l f against Genji's persistent and unwanted a t t e n t i o n s . ^ The r e l i - . gious taboo against d e f i l i n g a nun i s so strong that even Genji i s dissuaded. The Third Princess takes r e l i g i o u s orders out of sheer f r i g h t . Genji, i n his l a t e r years, consents to the ex-emperor's wish and marries his favour-i t e daughter, a g i r l who i s s t i l l a c h i l d and has l i t t l e to recommend her except imperial blood. Kashiwagi—a f r i e n d of Genji's son Y u g i r i , the son of Genji's best f r i e n d To no Chujo,and lady Aoi's nephew—falls i n love with the princess. The actions which c a r r i e d great weight i n the i n t e r n a l action of the Suma sequence so many years > 48 before, are repeated once again. Genji, who knows he has been cuckolded, remains s i l e n t and accepts the c h i l d the princess bears, as his own. Kashiwagi dies of g u i l t f o r transgressing against a man he greatly respected, and the princess, frightened by Genji's i n s i d i o u s l y mute acceptance of the s i t u a t i o n , panics and becomes a nun (pp.641-4; Yamagishi, IV, pp.2 0 - 8 ) . A f t e r Genji's death the external and i n t e r n a l quests i n the t a l e are maintained by two new heroes, Niou and Kaoru, who seem to represent the two c o n f l i c t i n g sides of Genji's nature. These two become the catalysts i n the story each seeking two d i f f e r e n t kinds of perfection. Niou, Genji's grandson, i s charming, a f f a b l e , and super-f i c i a l . He i s a sensualist and seeks the sort of r e l a -tionships that occupied Genji's external quest. His f r i e n d Kaoru, the son of Kashiwagi and the Third Princess, and believed by the world to be Genji's son, i s an aesth-ete, an i n t e l l e c t u a l , and of unsociable temperament. His quest resembles Genji's i n t e r n a l search for a s p i r i t u a l kind of love and f u l f i l l m e n t . Intriguingly enough, both seek these di f f e r e n t kinds of perfection i n the same women, the three daughters of Genji's half-brother, the Prince of H i t a c h i , who l i v e s the l i f e of a recluse at U j i . Like Genji, neither i s successful i n a t t a i n i n g his quest. Once Niou has had his way with a lady he finds that he i s d i s s a t i s f i e d and 49 bored. The r e a l l y happy moments of the r e l a t i o n s h i p are too f l e e t i n g , and he goes i n s e a r c h of a more i n a c c e s s i b l e l a d y . He l a c k s the depth t o see th a t h i s e x t e r n a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p s amount t o so l i t t l e because he cannot make them i n t o i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Kaoru i s the opposite extreme. For him the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l worlds come i n t o i r r e s o l v a b l e c o n f l i c t and he cannot express h i s l o v e e x t e r n a l l y . L i k e most of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the romance, G e n j i never r e s o l v e s h i s c o n f l i c t s . The reader i s not t o l d whether or not he a t t a i n e d h i s quest, but knowing h i s c h a r a c t e r , one would guess t h a t he never d i d . Of the important c h a r a c t e r s who came c l o s e t o f i n d i n g some de-gree of i n n e r contentment, the ones who stand out the most are Y u g i r i , the Akashi P r i n c e s s , R e i k e i d e n , and Tamakazura. Y u g i r i ' s s t e a d f a s t n e s s , c a u t i o n , and p a t i e n c e i n the end win him p r e s t i g e , power, and the two most important l a d i e s i n h i s l i f e . While one may measure Y u g i r i ' s p o s i t i v e p o i n t s and f i n d t h a t f a t h e r and son are opposite i n char-a c t e r , Y u g i r i ' s v i r t u e s make him pompous and s e l f - r i g h t e o u s . He t h e r e f o r e l a c k s the endearing q u a l i t i e s t h a t make G e n j i so easy t o l i k e . The Akashi P r i n c e s s grows up under the wing of Murasaki, has a happy c h i l d h o o d , an e q u a l l y happy marriage t o the emperor, an innumerable progeny, and s e t t l e s 50 complacently into the role of a matron. By the end of the t a l e , secure i n her position as empress dowager, her e a r l i e r charm has turned into a humourlessness reminiscent of Queen V i c t o r i a i n her l a t e r years. Only Reikeiden and Tamakazura do not allow them-selves to degenerate into something less than what they have always been. Reikeiden, as w i l l be discussed i n the following chapter, i s by nature composed and con-stant. She remains dependable and steady throughout the story. As Yugiri's foster-mother and the guardian of Tamakazura, i t would seem that she i n s t i l l e d some of her magic into them. Tamakazura i s the winner i n t h i s romance. She i s one of the few characters i n the t a l e who can look at her d i f f i c u l t i e s from a r e a l i s t i c point of view and judge them accordingly. She cl e v e r l y evades Genji's amorous attentions and outmanoeuvres his marriage plans for her by marrying a divorced man, not for love, but out of expediency. Hers i s one of the few happy marri-ages i n the story, and through her common sense she man-ages to r e t a i n her beauty and the admiration of other men, while keeping her distance. She and Reikeiden, as far as one can t e l l from the story, never resort to tak-ing r e l i g i o u s vows. They have enough control of the 51 p o s i t i v e and negative aspects within themselves to f i n d at least an i n t e r n a l contentment. But for most of the characters t h i s does not happen. By the end of the romance, where Kaoru is desperately t r y i n g to persuade an elusive Ukifune to go away with h i m , ^ his quest, l i k e t h a t - of the other characters, is l e f t i n the f i n a l chapter, on the " f l o a t i n g bridge of dreams" (yume-no uki-hashi ^ 7 /ife> )> the bridge that spans the external and i n t e r n a l worlds of Genji. VII. Natural Imagery and C y c l i c a l Time i n ^en.ii monogatari Nature as a source for symbolic imagery may be i n t e r -preted as a major feature i n Genji, revealing the i n t e r n a l action of the story i n e s s e n t i a l l y two aspects. F i r s t , as a phenomenon belonging to the external world, natural imagery may act as a conventional background against which the characters' concealed i d e n t i t i e s and emotions are pro-jected. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y exemplified by the many gardens i n Genji and the natural objects such as cherry trees, mist, r a i n , or snow contained i n them. Gardens i n romance usually symbolize the microcosm of an i d e a l world as do the gardens at Genji's Rokujo mansion. But i n Genji, they also may r e f l e c t the character types of the 52 people who preside over them. For instance, Murasaki's spring garden mirrors her f r a g i l e beauty and youth that never seems to age. Reikeiden's garden comes into i t s own during the summer, the season that represents her maturity and inner contentment. Akikonomu i s given the autumn garden, the season related to death. As Lady Rokujo's daughter, the s p i r i t of death seems to l i n g e r i n her presence. The Akashi Lady is associated with concealment and with the winter garden which l i e s dormant, hidden under the snow. Winter, preceding the spring, i s rel a t e d to conception and the time just p r i o r to b i r t h or r e b i r t h . Murasaki, who has the spring garden but r e -mains c h i l d l e s s , i s responsible for r a i s i n g the Akashi Princess. The gardens thus make up a f u l l cycle. Secondly, natural symbols—for example; birds, anim-a l s , flowers, wind, snow, or the moon, a l l of which are conventional images i n Japanese l i t e r a t u r e — m a y be i n t e r -preted as the external manifestation of a hidden t r u t h , a character's inner state of mind, or his i d e n t i t y . While the f a l l i n g cherry blossoms are an o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of Murasaki's perfect physical beauty, they also evoke the sense that, l i k e her beauty, a l l things i n l i f e are perishable. When her garden i s devastated by the storm i n Chapter Twenty-eight (pp.457-466; Yamagishi, I I I , pp.43-64) the message i s clear and suggests a portent of 53 her death, which takes place shortly a f t e r . Reikeiden is personified i n the tachibana /i»3> , the "orange blossoms", which grow i n her summer garden. The blos-soms, which t r a d i t i o n a l l y represent constancy and stab-le: i l i t y , are an external evocation of her personality. Akikonomu i s associated with the momi i i ^ X % 1 or "maple leaves", and the fading away of l i f e and colours i n her autumn garden. The Akashi lady i s symbolized by the pine tree, matsu , which also means, appropriately for t h i s lady, "to wait". The lady i s also aptly personified i n the characters of the epithet, Akashi . The f i r s t character means "the dawn" or "enlightenment". "Dawn" may s i g n i f y b i r t h and the renewal of l i f e as de-monstrated by the Akashi Lady bearing Genji a daughter. In i t s connotation of "enlightenment", Akashi may also mean the place where Genji gained r e v e l a t i o n and began his ascent to a higher s o c i a l order. The second charact-er means "rock" and could indicate both the lady's firm-ness of character with regard to Genji's treatment toward her and the idea that she may also be seen as a rock weighing on Genji's g u i l t y conscience. At f i r s t i t may seem that the garden reveals the i d e n t i t y of each lady. Observed conversely, i t i s the 54 lady who reveals the garden. For example, the f a l l i n g of the cherry blossoms i s a conventional symbol i n Japan-ese l i t e r a t u r e for evoking a mood of sadness caused by an awareness of the mutability of l i f e . In Genji, i t may also be perceived that the in t e r n a l emotions of the char-acters juxtaposed onto the scene of f a l l i n g blossoms cause the mood of sadness, not the f a l l i n g of the blossoms. The blossoms used as a..backdrop i n t e n s i f y the emotional impact of the scene while revealing the character's hidden feeli n g s . In contrast to the garden scenes which are urban and domestic, the seaside i n Chapter Twelve, "Suma*1, provides a d i f f e r e n t kind of backdrop for the in t e r n a l action. In romance, the sea l i k e the wilderness i s often associated ~\fi with the hero's death or "descent". In Genji, as i n most romances, the sea also comes to have the universal symbolic value of "the lonely sea", kokoro-bosokaran- umi-zura ("the seaside would be l o n e l y " ) , (Yamagishi, I I , p.12, 1.4) and an " a l i e n sea" or unknown sea, • s h i r a - zarishi-oumi (Yamagishi, I I , p.52, 1.8), r e f l e c t i n g Genji's yearning for the s o c i a l l i f e of the c a p i t a l . It may also be a f r i e n d l y sea that carries Genji to Akashi, an intermediate place between Suma and the c a p i t a l where an old monk, aping the luxury of the court, entertains 55 Genji lavishly. Other natural phenomena which act as "both a back-drop and the objectification of things concealed are the storms that take place at crucial moments throughout the story. The storm at the end of Chapter Ten may be i n -terpreted as the external cause and background of Genji's social downfall (pp.211-13; Yamagishi, I, 409-10). Prom another point of view, i t may also be seen as an object-i f i c a t i o n of the social disorder that suddenly follows after Genji's misdemeanor has been discovered. A l l the cats have been let out of the bag. The storm in Chapter Ten foreshadows that in Chapter Twelve (p.246; Yamagishi, II, pp.52-54). The great storm at Suma serves to reflect the social storm taking place in the capital. Externally, society sees the storm as an objectification of the god's anger for unjustly punishing Genji. Internally, the storm may be taken as a manifest-ation of the storm in Genji's mind. The order of nature as i t evolves in the external world may be seen in terms of cyclical time. In a romance the c y c l i c a l aspect of nature is a unifying element around which the external and internal action revolves. On the surface i t may appear that the episodic nature of Genji and the conflicts that disturb the lives of the characters 56 cause the story to lack unity. But i n view of the above analysis, the basic structure of Genji as a romance would seem to be c y c l i c a l , with not just one cycle but many re -peated several times throughout the story. The cycle of b i r t h , descent (death), and ascent ( r e b i r t h ) , outlined here i n the Suma sequence, i s re-enacted i n the "Tamaka-zura sequence" (Chapters Twenty-two to T h i r t y - f i v e ) , the "Kashiwagi sequence" (Chapters Thirty-four to T h i r t y -s i x ) , and the " U j i sequence" (Chapters Porty-five to F i f t y - f o u r ) . The notion of cycles as evinced i n Genji d i f f e r s , however, from that which we are f a m i l i a r with i n the West. According to C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f , i f one has l e d a good l i f e , physical death i s followed by a s p i r i t u a l r e -b i r t h into a world higher than the one experienced before. Mahayana Buddhism comes close to the C h r i s t i a n idea of salva t i o n by means of r e b i r t h i n a heaven. But Hinayana precepts of Buddhism, which predominate i n Genji, teach that one who dies i s reborn into the world from whence he came. How good or bad one's l i f e was i n his previous existence determines whether he w i l l be reborn a Bodhi:— sattva, a human being, or a lower creature such as an animal or insect. The only escape from t h i s never ceas-ing cycle of b i r t h , death, and r e b i r t h i s to abandon the 57 i l l u s o r y pleasures and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of this world, and through meditation enter the world of Nirvana, a suspended state where the soul may rest i n perpetual 37 peace. The c y c l i c a l themes i n Genji, as i n any romance, move i n unison with the motion of time and nature. The cycle of the seasons, of day and night, and of. the.-lunar and solar calendar play a v i t a l r o l e i n revealing the ex-te r n a l and i n t e r n a l worlds contained i n the cycle of descent and ascent. Some of the most intense moments, actual and mental, of Genji's waking nightmare at Suma occur during the autumn and often at night when he i s alone with himself. The l i g h t e s t moments happen when Genji r i s e s above his s i t u a t i o n at Suma and goes to Akashi. There the season turns into spring, the time of r e b i r t h , renewed hope, the coming together of people, and the forming of new relati o n s h i p s . Then the story pro-gresses when the characters' i d e n t i t i e s and feelings are projected onto the external world i n harmony with the natural order of l i f e , which gives r i s e to the idea of a cycle. A romance such as Genji, based on the themes of c y c l i c a l time and nature, has continuity precisely be-cause a cycle, although constantly changing, i s within i t s e l f constantly predictable. Like the Buddhist wheel 5 8 of fortune, the outer c i r c l e i s i n perpetual motion while the central axis i s perpetually s t i l l . Time as evinced by the transformation of l i f e and nature i s that outer c i r c l e df ceaseless movement, while time r e f l e c t i n g the order and s t a b i l i t y of l i f e i s the immovable axis around which a l l things move. A c y c l i c a l structure i n romance may be seen as an external framework against which the in t e r n a l actions of the story may be transposed and r e -vealed. It offers a f a m i l i a r and s o l i d point of r e f e r -ence around which the changing episodes of the story revolve. L i f e revolving i n cycles, where there i s no begin-ning and no end, creates a timeless q u a l i t y i n Genji. This has much to do with the concept of past, present, and future i n the t a l e . A nostalgic f e e l i n g for the past.pervades the story from the very beginning. In romance r e a l chronological time i s unimportant, and Chapter One, "Kiritsubo", begins l i k e a t y p i c a l f a i r y t a l e : "In a ce r t a i n reign there was a lady...." (p.3; Yamagishi, I, p.27). The r e p e t i t i o n of the past i n the present i s what makes the present u n i v e r s a l l y f e l t i n Genji. The con-sequences of past actions are brought to bear upon the present l i v e s of the characters and they constantly go 59 back to the hidden past to f i n d the reasons for t h e i r present predicament. Genji does t h i s , for example, i n Chapter Eleven, when he v i s i t s Reikeiden, a former con-cubine of his father. What i s hidden i n the past i s r e -vealed i n the present and affects the future development of the story as well as the l i v e s of the characters. The future i n Genji i s the element of hope that the characters c l i n g to. The future has yet to be revealed. While the cycle of l i f e i t s e l f is predictable i n that the future holds death, namely, that a l l things perish and are integrated back into the universe, the future also offers an element of expectation, i n that what i s unknown may turn out to be good. In Genji monogatari, c y c l i c a l time keeps revolving back around i t s e l f . In as much as Genji has no beginning, i t has no end either. The Western conception of romance usually prescribes that the hero and heroine must l i v e happily ever a f t e r . In Genji, the continuity of the story i s conceived d i f f e r e n t l y . The l a s t chapter of the t a l e ends rather abruptly, without any sense of a denoue-ment. It does not matter whether the author fin i s h e d her story or whether she alone or someone else t r i e d to f i n i s h i t . Prom the Buddhist point of view, l i f e renews i t s e l f through nature regardless of human subjective 6 0 f e e l i n g s . Thus, the reader i s l e f t to bring the past, present, and future together and either continue or r e -solve the story for himself. VIII. S o c i a l Rituals and the V i s i t i n Genji monogatari In Genji monogatari, the natural rhythm of l i f e i s also evinced by the r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l r i t u a l s perform-ed i n harmony with the seasons and the cycle of human l i f e . lengthy descriptions of r e l i g i o u s ceremonies—thos following the b i r t h of a c h i l d and his coming of age, marriages, funerals, sutra readings, l u s t r a t i o n s , f e s t i v -als marking di f f e r e n t days of the calendar, exorcisms, and the taking of r e l i g i o u s vows—form much of the extern a l action. S o c i a l r i t u a l s performed i n accordance with the proper time and season include banquets, games, sports, contests, dancing, poetry, and music. These r i t u a l observances, i n which a l l the characters p a r t i c i p -ate, are what unite them as a society and despite the discord i n t h e i r personal l i v e s keep them i n tune with l i f e . In Genji, as i n the author's own society, those attending these public occasions were expected to adhere to s t r i c t rules regarding taste and colour i n clothing, 6 1 decorative motifs suitable to the event, and the ex-pression of appropriate sentiments through s t y l i z e d poet-ry. In short, such events required a highly controlled type of behaviour, one that was furnished by external elegance and decorum and never disturbed by a rude d i s -play of in t e r n a l f e e l i n g s . The daring and bravuro that i s meant to s t a r t l e and excite the reader of Western romances i s replaced i n Genji by a. di f f e r e n t kind of daring that occurs when the characters break the formal rules of propriety and expose t h e i r true selves, t h e i r hidden f e e l i n g s , and t h e i r secret deeds. This happens t r a g i c a l l y i n the incident where Lady Aoi and Lady Rokujo meet at the Kamo f e s t i v a l . Lady Aoi, by ignoring the rules of common politeness, exposed her hidden feelings and thrust them onto the external action of a public f e s t i v a l . Another example occurs i n the Kashiwagi sequence, i n Chapter Thirty-four. Kashiwagi i s at Genji's Rokujo man-sion and has joined i n a game of kemar i l l near the quart-ers of the Third Princess, Genji's wife. He does not r e a l l y lhave his mind on the game and i s hoping to catch a glimpse of the lady he i s infatuated with. He gets his wish, but his obsession for the princess leads to tragedy. The princess gives b i r t h to Kashiwagi's son, Kaoru, whom 62 Genji acknowledges as his own, and Kashiwagi dies of g u i l t for cuckolding a man he admired greatly. Religious and s o c i a l r i t u a l s also provide a back-ground for comical events to occur. In Chapter. Twenty-one, the author pokes fun at "good" behaviour during Yugiri's matriculation ceremony, when he i s solemnly i n -troduced to some dried up, old-fashioned, and s o c i a l l y inept Confucian scholars: The matriculation ceremonies were held i n the east lodge at N i j o , the east wing of which was f i t t e d out for the occasion. It was a rare event. Courtiers crowded round to see what a matriculation might be l i k e . The professors must have been somewhat astonished. "You are to treat him [Yugiri] exactly as the rules demand," said Genji. "Make no ex-ceptions ." The academic assembly was a strange one, s o l -emn of countenance, badly f i t t e d i n borrowed clothes, u t t e r l y humorless of word and manner, yet given to j o s t l i n g for place. Some of the younger courtiers were laughing. Fearing that that would be the case, Genji had i n s i s t e d that the p r o f e s s o r i a l cups be kept f u l l _ b y older_and better controlled men. Even so, To no Chujo and Prince Mimbu were reprimanded by the learned gentlemen. "Most inadequate, these l i b a t i o n pourers. Do they propose to conduct the a f f a i r s of the land without the advice of the sages? Most i n -adequate indeed." There came gusts of laughter. "Silence, i f you please. Silence i s c a l l e d f o r . Such improprieties are unheard of. We must ask your withdrawal." 63 Everyone thought the professors rather fun. For courtiers who had themselves been to the uni v e r s i t y the a f f a i r was most s a t i s f y i n g . It was very fine indeed that Genji should see f i t to give his son a univer s i t y education. The professors put down merriment with a heavy hand and made unfavorable note of other de-partures from s t r i c t decorum. Yet as the night wore on, the lamps revealed something a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t , a l i t t l e clownish, perhaps, or f o r l o r n , under the austere p r o f e s s o r i a l masks. It was indeed an unusual assembly (pp.362-63; Yamagishi, I I , pp.278-80). The point here i s that neither the professors nor the courtiers behave "properly". The younger courtiers are d i s r e s p e c t f u l , exposing t h e i r ignorance of the past, and the scholars who revere the past expose t h e i r ignor-ance of the present. Y u g i r i ends up the winner i n a back-handed way. His learning earns him much success i n l a t e r years, but his character always bears a ce r t a i n pomposity and self-righteousness that could only have been c u l t i v -ated by the method i n which he gained his education. Un-l i k e his father, who suffered his descent and r i s e to greater wisdom through philandering and other forms of direct experience, Y u g i r i gains his knowledge v i a the tortuous path of higher learning, much l i k e earning a degree at today's u n i v e r s i t i e s . Of a l l the r i t u a l s which in t e r l a c e the external action of Genji, the one having a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of concealing and revealing the int e r n a l 64 action, i s the v i s i t . V i s i t s to shrines and b u r i a l places, ordinary s o c i a l v i s i t s to friends and r e l a t i o n s , v i s i t s to the emperor's court, the New Year's v i s i t , v i s i t s to one's lover, and v i s i t a t i o n s from dead s p i r i t s a l l play a c r u c i a l r ole i n maintaining s o c i a l and per-sonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The basis of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the characters' hidden feelings toward each other, are revealed when they meet and when they part. The rules of propriety which governed s o c i a l be-haviour for public occasions wag no less relaxed i n private l i f e . In conducting a love a f f a i r , the rules of d i s c r e t i o n regarding the v i s i t s a man paid to a lady •5 o were s t r i c t l y l a i d down. He would arrive at night when he would be least l i k e l y to attract attention and leave before dawn the next morning. Theor e t i c a l l y , i t was also l e f t to the lady to decide the degree of i n -timacy she wanted to r e l a t e to a male v i s i t o r . This would be indicated by how many curtains and screens were placed between h e r s e l f and the v i s i t o r when he ca l l e d . The closer a v i s i t o r could s i t to the lady the more he knew he was i n her confidence. What comprises the adventures i n Genji, as opposed to the type of hero-i c escapades of Western romances, are the amorous excur-sions. The concept of romance i n the West i s f u l l of 65 d a r e d e v i l a c t i o n where the hero's super-human s t r e n g t h i s t e s t e d a g a i n s t the v i o l e n c e of an a r c h - v i l l a i n . The excitement or, b e t t e r s t i l l , the r a c i n e s s i n G e n j i i s engendered much c l o s e r to home, where the hero only gets as f a r as a lady's r e s i d e n c e . There h i s a u d a c i t y i s o f t e n proven when he ignores a l l the r u l e s of o r d i n a r y p o l i t e n e s s and f o r c e s h i s way i n t o her bed-chamber. Since G e n j i i s the super champion of t h i s type of advent-ure , he ends up w i t h the c h o i c e p r i z e s a l l under one r o o f . His h e r o i c s t r e n g t h , i f one can c a l l i t t h a t , does not rest, i n p h y s i c a l prowess but i n h i s s u p e r - s e n s i t i v i t y as a l o v e r and poet, a q u a l i t y so i r r e s i s t i b l e t o the l a d i e s i n h i s world. The p e r i l s the hero i s l i k e l y t o encounter i n t h i s type of romance are caused by l a c k of d i s c r e t i o n and im-prudence r a t h e r than p h y s i c a l t h r e a t . As G e n j i q u i c k l y found out i n Chapter Ten, h i s c a r e l e s s n e s s and i r r e s o l u -t i o n prevented him from making good h i s escape be f o r e d a y l i g h t . This was p o i n t e d out t o him much e a r l i e r , i n Chapter Pour, "Yugao" , where he abducts a young g i r l , takes her t o an abandoned house to spend the n i g h t and, l a t e r , wakes up t o f i n d her on the verge of death (pp.5 7 - 8 3 ; Yamagishi, I, pp.1 2 1 - 1 7 4 ) . She i s con-s i d e r e d to be the f i r s t v i c t i m of Lady Rokujo's wander-i n g s p i r i t . 66 The most embarrassing " p e r i l " that Genji encounters occasionally during his peregrinations to the homes of various l a d i e s , i s the ro l e of an unwelcome guest. Some-times he i s successful i n convincing the lady that his intentions toward her are sincere, but often, as w i l l be seen i n the next chapter of t h i s essay, r e j e c t i o n can be pretty hard on a hero's ego. A l l of Genji monogatari can be seen i n terms of a series of v i s i t s , meetings and separations i n l i f e and i n death. V i s i t s also have a function i n revealing the character's external and in t e r n a l quest. In the Suma sequence, for example, i t w i l l be shown i n the following two chapters of t h i s essay how Genji's v i s i t to Reikeiden and his farewell v i s i t to Sanjo are related to his greater i n t e r n a l quest for self-knowledge. The external action of Chapter Eleven i s about two v i s i t s , one where he i s an unwelcome c a l l e r and one where he i s a welcome guest. The idea of a b r i e f v i s i t for the main theme of a chapter at f i r s t may seem s u p e r f i c i a l , but when looked at more cl o s e l y , Genji leaves Reikeiden's presence having received an unexpected revelation about his i d e n t i t y and the trans-gression he is being punished f o r . The whole introductory portion of "Suma" i s a long series of farewell v i s i t s and farewell l e t t e r s that cover 6 7 a l l the v i s i t s Genji could not make before his departure into e x i l e . The theme of separation i n t e n s i f i e s the sense of foreboding and anticipates the fear and, f i n a l -l y , panic that culminates i n the climatic storm at the end of the chapter. On the l i g h t e r side, "Akashi" i s an over—extended v i s i t i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n of home. The monk i s the "good" host", and Genji plays the part of the "good guest". The misguided host offers everything he has to his guest, including his daughter. The delighted guest p o l i t e l y accepts everything, including the daughter. In t h i s chapter we are back to Genji's quest for the perfect r e l a t i o n s h i p . The relat i o n s h i p he seeks with Reikeiden i s platonic, and that he shares with the Lady of Akashi i s related to redemption and renewal of l i f e as suggested by the c h i l d she conceives. IX. Poetry as an Af f e c t i v e Element i n Genji monogatari In romance, there i s usually an a f f e c t i v e means through which the characters express t h e i r inner fee l i n g s . In Genji t h i s element i s conveyed i n the waka verses i n -terspersing the text. A waka verse usually consists of clusters of f i v e , seven, f i v e , seven, seven s y l l a b l e s 6 8 and i s subject to rigorous rules and conventions, o r i g i n -a l l y drawn from the Chinese poetic t r a d i t i o n and from early Japanese anthologies such as the Manyoshu and v i s i t s , poetry became a highly s t y l i z e d means of com-munication often judged for elegance and taste rather such as Murasaki Shikibu, however, the waka verse form could be a powerful means of revealing, i n concentrated form, the character's inner fee l i n g s . Besides composing verses for public occasions, com-munication through poetry was an important part of any kind of v i s i t and, here, the rules r e s t r i c t i n g the tech-nique and s t y l e of the verse were harder to ignore. What makes Genji heroic is his g i f t for composing poetry. Some of his methods i n winning a lady may lapse into banality and i n s e n s i t i v i t y , but Genji's poetic imagination never l e t s him down. Poetry evokes a response from the addressee who i n turn shows his or her reaction i n an answering verse. For example, Genji and Murasaki exchange verses p r i o r to his departure to Suma: As he combed his hair he could not help n o t i c -ing that loss of weight had made him even handsomer. "I am skin and bones," he sai d to Murasaki, who sat gazing at him, tears i n her eyes. "Can I r e a l l y be as emaciated as t h i s mirror makes and the Kokinshu. Like s o c i a l r i t u a l s than for i t s spontaneity. 39 In the hands of an able poet 6 9 me? I am a l i t t l e sorry for myself. "I now must go into e x i l e . In t h i s mirror An image of me w i l l yet remain beside you." Huddling against a p i l l a r to hide her tears, she r e p l i e d as i f to h e r s e l f : " I f when we part an image yet remains, Then w i l l I f i n d some comfort i n my sorrow." (p.224; Yamagishi, I I , p.20) Of course, Genji, while he i s away, breaks his promise to remain f a i t h f u l to Murasaki. The poem reveals also that the Genji who leaves for Suma w i l l not be the same one who comes back. His i d e n t i t y w i l l change. The image i n the mirror i s only an i l l u s i o n , l i k e a dream. Murasaki knows Genji w i l l not remain constant. His image, as seen through her eyes, has faded away even before he i s gone. X. Irony, Absurdity, Fear, Pathos (Aware) i n Genji monogatari In romance, irony, absurdity, fear, and pathos are common elements that create for the reader a mounting sense of a n t i c i p a t i o n , the f e e l i n g "of "what w i l l happen next?" These e f f e c t s , which are used pervasively through-out the Genjitfcext, become a means of revealing to the 70 reader and c h a r a c t e r s a l i k e , a sense of the i n t e r n a l a c -t i o n and thereby i n d u c i n g an emotive response of_suspense and f o r e b o d i n g . Since G e n j i c o n t a i n s few d a r e - d e v i l or f a s t paced endeavours to s u s t a i n the reader's i n t e r e s t , suspense a r i s e s i n d i r e c t l y i n a manner f r e q u e n t l y found i n Japanese l i t e r a t u r e . Instead of employing these con-v e n t i o n a l devices to expand and engender excitement f o r the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n , the author, i t would seem, uses them to p o i n t the r eader toward the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n , which p r o -v i d e s the r e a l m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n the s t o r y . Normally, what i s i r o n i c e l i c i t s a sense of i n c o n g r u -i t y . Something that i s or c o u l d have been, i s not. Often t h a t "something" i s what the reader knows but the main c h a r a c t e r s do not know, although they may be s t a r i n g r i g h t at i t . For i n s t a n c e , whenever G e n j i and h i s son by F u j i t s u b o are seen t o g e t h e r i n p u b l i c people marvel and comment at how much they resemble each other i n appear-ance. But u n l i k e the l i t t l e boy i n the Emperor's New  C l o t h e s , t h e r e i s no one who dares suggest or even guess the t r u t h . T h i s k i n d of i n c i d e n t , which c o n t r a d i c t s l o g -i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n , coaxes the reader on because i t evokes the s u s t a i n i n g q u e s t i o n , "When w i l l the s e c r e t be r e v e a l -ed?" Irony o f t e n contains paradox, and i n G e n j i what i s p a r a d o x i c a l a l s o i n v o l v e s d u a l i t y — d u a l i d e n t i t i e s , dual 7 1 quests, dual cycles, and dual imagery. The double i d -entity, the "good" and the "bad" of each character, make him or her a self-contained paradox. As already d i s -cussed , the character who stands out as the most para-doxical i n the t a l e , i s the hero, Genji. I r o n i c a l l y , he is both saint and reprobate. His actions, good or bad, are therefore what make him the p r i n c i p a l catalyst i n the romance, and one kind of irony arises when he con-t r a d i c t s the expectations of his positive or negative side, thus revealing a concealed aspect of the int e r n a l action. The best instance of thi s occurs i n the Suma sequence. Often i n romantic tragedy the hero i s unjustly punished for one crime when he should r e a l l y have been j u s t l y pun-ished for another crime that no one knows about.^ The irony of the s i t u a t i o n i s evident i n the Suma sequence when Genji pretends he i s going to Suma because his a f -f a i r with Oborozukiyo has been revealed, while at the same time his g u i l t y conscience i s forcing him to go because of a different a f f a i r that happened i n the past. Irony here reveals Genji's deception, both externally to the public and i n t e r n a l l y to himself. What i s more i r o n i c a l as the story progresses i s that the characters never seem to learn. They repeat 72 constantly the same mistakes. The Kashiwagi sequence i s a tr a g i c r e p e t i t i o n of that of Suma. Kaoru i s obviously not Genji's son, but the world b l i n d l y accepts him as such. Kashiwagi does not die from what the world believes him to have died of. He dies of g u i l t for having cuckold-ed Genji. Genji accepts t h i s with b i t t e r irony, knowing that his s i n has been t r u l y expiated only then and not at Suma. Genji's path i n l i f e i s never s t r a i g h t . His quest for happiness, both externally and i n t e r n a l l y , causes him to digress i n many dir e c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y toward new r e -lati o n s h i p s . I r o n i c a l l y , more often than not, his d i r e c -t i o n proceeds one step forward and two steps backward. In the case of the Akashi chapter, for instance, he goes i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n from the c a p i t a l , forgetting a-bout Murasaki, with whom he most wanted to be reunited, and pursuing a new re l a t i o n s h i p . His quest i t s e l f i s i r o n i c a l i n that his dual s e l f w i l l never allow him to achieve both his external and i n t e r n a l quests at once. He must choose, but he always t r i e s to have i t both ways, thus bringing trouble on himself and others. I r o n i c a l l y , too, i f Genji had not repeated his mistakes and had gone the straight and narrow path, he would not have gained the wisdom of experience. Nor would he have been so 73 endearing to the reader, who can see the human q u a l i t i e s i n him which are l a c k i n g i n a c h a r a c t e r such as the pomp-ous and s e l f - r i g h t e o u s Y u g i r i . Even Y u g i r i needed some d i v e r s i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s , however, as when he i s o c c a s i o n -a l l y i n a sneaky way l e s s v i r t u o u s than one might expect, r e v e a l i n g that a f t e r a l l he was h i s f a t h e r ' s son. What i s i r o n i c a l i n G e n j i can a l s o be seen as absurd. What i s looked upon as r i d i c u l o u s i s u s u a l l y an a c t i o n or event which c o n t r a d i c t s our sense of c r e d u l i t y . For the c h a r a c t e r s i n G e n j i t r u t h i s r e a l l y s t r a n g e r than f i c t i o n , and when i t i s r e v e a l e d t o them unexpectedly they accept i t u s u a l l y w i t h a sense of e i t h e r i r o n y or humour. What allows them to r e a c t e i t h e r way i s the author's apparent-l y remarkable a b i l i t y t o make the c h a r a c t e r s speak i n t h e i r own v o i c e s and at the same time stand o u t s i d e of themselves almost e x i s t e n t i a l l y . For i n s t a n c e , the con-fus e d reasons t h a t l i e behind G e n j i ' s s e l f - i m p o s e d e x i l e t o Suma can be seen i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways depending upon each c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . I t may seem absurd t o the reader t h a t no one can see the reason when they see G e n j i w i t h h i s son, but then s o c i e t y i s b l i n d toward the hero's "bad"side. When he i s d i s c o v e r e d w i t h Oboro-zukiy o s o c i e t y becomes b l i n d t o h i s "good" s i d e , making i t unsafe f o r him t o remain. To a s o c i e t y t h a t cannot see h i s r e a l crime, however, i t seems absurd to them t h a t 74 he i s going away i n the f i r s t place. By doing so he seems to be t e l l i n g the world that he i s g u i l t y of some-thing. Another example can be seen i n the passage quoted e a r l i e r from "Sakaki", where Genji i s discovered with Oborozukiyo. Genji, although aware of the trouble he i s i n , i s also aware of how ludicrous the s i t u a t i o n i s . He forgets his own precarious p o s i t i o n for a minute and com-pares Oborozukiyo*s father with his father-in-law. The characters* a b i l i t y to a l l e v i a t e the tension caused by t h e i r inner c o n f l i c t s i s revealed by v i r t u e of his or her being able to see the l i g h t e r side of the s i t u a t i o n . In the t r a g i c romances f a m i l i a r i n the West, the f e e l i n g of fear is awakened by a n t i c i p a t i n g the p e r i l s the hero w i l l confront on his journey into the darkness of unknown lands. Often a good f a i r y w i l l inform the hero of the hazards to be met, such as giants, m u l t i -headed serpents, and tangled fore s t s . She w i l l give him protective devices such as a magic sword, an i n v i s i b l e cloak, or a f l y i n g horse. In Genji, the monsters and impending violence are mental. They are externalized when the character's fear of the unknown and his uncertainty of what "might" happen cause him to panic and, thereby, expose his true fee l i n g s . 75 The concept of f e a r i n G e n j i i s best expressed i n the word i m i - j i , ^ v (~ f " f e a r " , "sadness", or " a n x i -41 ety". In the be g i n n i n g of Chapter Twelve, G e n j i de-l a y s h i s departure t o Suma and takes a l o n g time s a y i n g f a r e w e l l t o h i s f r i e n d s . The worst h o r r o r about t r a v e l i n a n c i e n t Japan was the s e p a r a t i o n , not from s o c i e t y but from the people w i t h whom one had c l o s e p e r s o n a l t i e s . The author has avoided l i s t i n g the p o s s i b l e p e r -i l s of the journey and a l l the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o h i s e x i l e . Instead, one f i n d s employed the theme of s e p a r a t i o n , the b r e a k i n g up of c l o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , and the u n c e r t a i n t y of when, i f ever, these people w i l l r e u n i t e , as a means of c r e a t i n g an atmosphere of unease and f o r e b o d i n g . As w e l l as i m i - j i t h e r e i s another ." ... term i n G e n j i and i n n e a r l y a l l the noted l i t e r a r y works of t h i s p e r i o d t h a t s c h o l a r s never t i r e of mentioning as being u n i q u e l y Japanese and i n s t i l l i n g Japanese w r i t i n g w i t h i t s p e r v a s i v e sense of d e s o l a t i o n . The word aware ~%~) ^  conveys a d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e emotion which may have a combined i m p l i c a t i o n of "sadness", " p i t y " , and "poignancy". I p r e f e r t o see t h i s word as be i n g r e l a t e d to the f e e l i n g of "pathos", a concept t h a t i s u n i v e r s a l t o t r a g i c romance. 76 In G e n j i , aware can be found i n two d i f f e r e n t con-t e x t s . The f i r s t i n v o l v e s r e v e l a t i o n caused by obs e r v i n g the t r a n s i e n c e s of l i f e , whether i t i s the f a l l i n g of the ch e r r y blossoms, the death of a c l o s e f r i e n d , or one's s o c i a l f a l l from grace, a l l of which evoke a sense of "pathos" or aware, the sad r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a l l t h i n g s are p e r i s h a b l e . In the Suma sequence, G e n j i ' s impending e x i l e i s r e v e l a t i o n t o others of the f r a g i l i t y of l i f e t h a t e x i s t s i n the e x t e r n a l world. Nothing stays the same and a l l the c h a r a c t e r s , i n the end, through G e n j i ' s f a l l r e a l i z e t h e i r own tenuous h o l d on l i f e . S i nce e v e r y t h i n g from nature t o a man's accomplishments and h i s very l i f e i t s e l f are seen as impermanent, the mood of aware i s a l l -encompassing i n the s t o r y , except when i t i s broken by humour or a sense of the absurd. Aware i n G e n j i ' s case, however, a l s o has a second c o n n o t a t i o n , that of s e l f - p i t y . In the exchange of poems quoted e a r l i e r between G e n j i and Murasaki, G e n j i i s not j u s t p h i l i s o p h i z i n g on the m u t a b i l i t y of l i f e , i n c l u d i n g h i s own f a l l from p o p u l a r i t y and l o s s of weight. G e n j i , throughout the s t o r y i s h i s own best champion f o r s e l f -p i t y , and he enjoys i t immensely when others second-best him i n f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r him. By i n d i c a t i n g h i s change of i d e n t i t y i n the m i r r o r , the young and s u s c e p t i b l e Murasaki f a l l s f o r h i s p l o y and does f e e l a genuine sorrow 77 at l o s i n g him. The reader though i s a b l e t o see t h a t G e n j i i s v e r y aware of h i s beauty and i s a b l e t o l o o k , one might say, n a r c i s s i s t i c a l l y o u t s i d e of h i m s e l f and see how he i s m i r r o r e d i n o t h e r s ' eyes, i n t h i s case Murasaki's. The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s i n Chapters Two and Three of t h i s essay and excerpts of t r a n s l a t i o n s from the "Hana-c h i r u s a t o " chapter and the i n t r o d u c t o r y p o r t i o n of "Suma" have been chosen to show how concealment and r e v e l a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n i n G e n j i are a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e throughout the t a l e . Because the romance comprises a s e r i e s of sequences w i t h a sense of a c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to take any part of G e n j i as a sample f o r t r a n s l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The p a r t i c u l a r chapters of G e n j i chosen here are a n a l y s e d because, i n s p i t e of the voluminous c r i t i c i s m on G e n j i i n Japanese, Chapters E l e v e n and the f i r s t p a r t of Chapter Twelve have been wid e l y n e g l e c t e d . What i s more u n f o r t u n a t e i s t h a t neg-a t i v e remarks made by s c h o l a r s such as P r o f e s s o r Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r . a b o u t the "Hanachirusato" chapter's being " p o i n t l e s s " do not c o n t r i b u t e t o c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m about a book which has had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n the West. Chapter Eleven i s an e s s e n t i a l part of t h i s romance, b e i n g a t r a n s i t i o n a l chapter which on c a r e f u l 78 examination would appear t o have a f u n c t i o n a l p l a c e i n the o v e r a l l d e s i g n of the romance. The b e g i n n i n g of "Suma", which i s o f t e n i g n o r e d f o r the f a s t e r paced, more s p e c t a c u l a r middle and f i n a l p o r -t i o n s , i s a l s o important i n p r e p a r i n g the reader f o r the drama which l i e s ahead. I t s main theme, G e n j i ' s s e p a r a -t i o n from h i s c l o s e f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , and h i s i n n e r mon-ologue which r e v e a l s h i s t r u e c h a r a c t e r are c r u c i a l t o the b u i l d i n g up of f o r e b o d i n g , f e a r , and f i n a l panic at the end of the chapter. The t r a n s l a t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g exegesis of "Hana-c h i r u s a t o " and the f i r s t p art of "Suma" are not intended to be read as p o l i s h e d t r a n s l a t i o n s f o r r e l a x e d r e a d i n g . A r t h u r Waley, i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of G e n j i , s u c c e s s f u l l y a c h ieved t h i s e n ( i by c a p t u r i n g the f l u i d i t y , g raciousness , and f l o w e r y phraseology of Murasaki Sh i k i b u ' s s t y l e . T h i s was owing much t o the V i c t o r i a n w r i t i n g s t y l e of Waley's g e n e r a t i o n as w e l l as t o h i s unique t a l e n t f o r p u t t i n g h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t o the t e x t . S e i d e n s t i c k e r ' s t r a n s -l a t i o n , i n comparison, draws out the i r o n y and humour i n a t e r s e manner which a l s o does j u s t i c e t o Murasaki S h i k i b u * s romance. The t r a n s l a t i o n s that f o l l o w i n the next two chapters are c h i e f l y intended to i l l u s t r a t e how the t e x t may a l s o be found s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o con c e a l and t o r e v e a l the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n of the s t o r y w i t h i n the u n i v e r s a l framework of romance. 79 Notes Chapter One . Since the f i r s t chapter of th i s essay is based on an o v e r a l l reading and in t e r p r e t a t i o n of Genji monoga- t a r i , i t has been divided into subheadings. Chapters Two and Three are devoted to s p e c i f i c sections of the text and have not been so divided. 2 Modern compilations i n Japanese of these two works w i l l be occasionally referred to i n th i s essay. They are Saeki Umetomo ^ ^ ^ , ed. , Kokin wakashu, "Nihon Koten Bungaku T a i k e i " G & S / A * \ (hereafter NKBT) 8 (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1 9 5 8 ; rpt. 1 9 5 9 ) and Sakakura Atsuyoshi | 3 X M „f§ et a l . , eds., Ise monogatari, NKBT, 9 (1957; rpt. 1 9 5 9 ) . ^ Uta-monogatari, as a genre, i s a combination of prose and verse, which seems to have evolved from the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n of l y r i c a l poetry and developed into narrative prose form. This i n turn culminated with the creation of Genji monogatari i n the early eleventh century. ^ As opposed to the male courtier who was educated l a r g e l y i n Chinese and taught to write with Chinese char-acters, the well-bred lady was normally educated i n her 80 native Japanese language and learned to write in kana, a simplified form of notation derived from the Chinese characters and corresponding to the f i f t y syllables of the Japanese language. Although some women, such as Murasaki Shikibu, did do the unladylike thing of study-ing Chinese, i t would seem that one of the reasons why the literary efforts of women at this time l e f t such a profound effect on future Japanese literature was their a b i l i t y to absorb the indigenous elements of their l i t -erary heritage, without the encumbrance of a foreign language which precluded spontaneity. 5 There are excellent translations of these diaries in English: Izumi Shikibu Diary, trans. Edwin A. Cranston (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1969) and the' Gossamer Years: A Diary by a Noblewoman of Heian Japan, trans. Edward Seidensticker (Tokyo and Rutland: Charles E. Tuttle, 1975). The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon, trans, and ed. Ivan Morris, 2 vols. (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1967; abridged rpt. 1970). 7 Throughout the remainder of this essay, for reas-ons based on euphonies, I w i l l alternately use Genji  monogatari or the abbreviated form, Genji to refer to this text. 81 Q L i t t l e i s known about the author's r e a l name ex-cept t h a t she belonged to a l e s s e r branch of the powerful Fujiwara f a m i l y . S h i k i b u probably r e f e r s to an honoured p o s i t i o n her f a t h e r h e l d at the r o y a l c o u r t , while Murasaki may a l l u d e to her p r i n c i p a l h e r o ine, Murasaki. Murasaki means l i t e r a l l y " p u r p l e " or " v i o l e t , " and t h i s , i n t u r n , c o u l d be a r e f e r e n c e to the f i r s t p a r t of her f a m i l y name, f u j i — , meaning " w i s t a r i a " and having a purple c o l o u r . Since the name of the author may be confused with the Murasaki i n the G e n j i t e x t , h e n c e f o r t h i n t h i s essay the author w i l l be c a l l e d Murasaki S h i k i b u and the heroine of our t a l e , simply, Murasaki. The dates o f Murasaki S h i k i b u ' s . b i r t h and death are j u s t as e l u s i v e as her name. Sources vary c o n s i d e r a b l y . Vol. 28 -(Tokyoi Heibonsha, 1958; r p t . 1959), p. 65 p l a c e s her dates a t approximately 9?8?-10l4?. In Edward Putzar, of A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 59, Murasaki S h i k i b u ' s l i f e i s dated from 978-ca. 1016. Ivan M o r r i s , i n The World of the  S h i n i n g P r i n c e : Court L i f e i n A n c i e n t Japan (1964-; r p t . Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1979), p. 266, t h i n k s i t Japanese L i t e r a t u r e : A H i s t o r i c a l O u t l i n e (Tucson: Univ. 82 l i k e l y that Murasaki Shikibu either died or retired into a convent between 1025 and 1031, since her name disappears from entries regarding the empress whom she served. Ed-ward G. Seidensticker, trans. The Tale of Genji, 2 vols., by Murasaki Shikibu (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977), pp. v i i i - i x , mentions that Murasaki Shikibu was married in 998 or 999. An only daughter was born in 999 and her husband died in 1001. Seidensticker guesses that she might have died around 1015 in her early forties, q After the early death of the Empress Sadako /3L (,her reign name was Teishi), Akiko jjl^ -J~ (reign name.-Shoshi) became the consort of the Emperor Ichijo ~7~ ^  who reigned from c .986 u n t i l his death in 1011. Both imperial ladies represented two r i v a l branches of the Pujiwara family and, consequently, while — -4-> t 3 - 7 Sadako was empress and Akiko was the chugu ° p ^ (sec-ond imperial consort), two competing female courts were actively trying to win favour from the emperor. The re-sult was'that some of the most gifted ladies were asked to wait upon the two empresses. Sei Shonagon, the auth-or of Makura no sPshi, greatly enlivened the court l i f e surrounding Empress Sadako, whereas i t appears that Mura-saki Shikibu may have been expressly asked to join Akiko's court by virtue of the romance she was writing and for her knowledge of Chinese. It seems she probably 83 began her service after her husband's death, sometime in 1005 or 1006, and that she continued in Akiko's service perhaps a year or two after the death of the emperor. Akiko superseded her rivals in the affections of the emperor after the death of Sadako, and became the mother of two emperors. 10 In this essay I refer to the "romantic hero" in relation to Northrop Frye's definition in Anatomy of C r i t -icism: Four Essays (Princeton Univ. Press, 1957;rpt.1973)» pp.186-206. Frye distinguishes the hero of myth as div-ine and the hero of romance as human. A romantic hero usually possesses certain qualities such as extraordin-ary courage, strength, leadership, intelligence, or guile which make him superior to the ordinary human being. The qualities which make a hero "heroic" usually allow him to undertake a series of adventures which ultimately lead to his f u l f i l l i n g a "romantic quest". Genji, who is neither a king, a military or religious leader, is a hero by rights of his personal charm and attractions which aid him to manipulate people, especially women. In.the con-text of the tale, Genji's adventures are comprised of a series of love relationships, which help him ultimately to consolidate his p o l i t i c a l power when his son and his daughter become an emperor and empress respectively. 84 11 Adverse c r i t i c i s m about Genj 1 on the p a r t o f Western commentators, i n the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s century, d i d not h e l p to p o p u l a r i z e the t a l e o u t s i d e o f Japan. B a s i l H a l l Chamberlain, Japanese Things, Being Notes on  Various Subjects Connected with Japan (5th r e v . ed.;, 1905; r p t . , Rutland and Tokyo: C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e , 1975), p. 29^-, disparages Japanese l i t e r a t u r e and Japanese roman-ces when he says: ....much o f t h a t which the Japanese themselves p r i z e most h i g h l y i n t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e seems i n -t o l e r a b l y f l a t and i n s i p i d to the European t a s t e . The romances—most o f them--are every b i t as d u l l as the h i s t o r i e s , though i n an-other way:--the h i s t o r i e s are too c u r t , the romances too long-winded. I f the authoress o f the G e n j i Mono-gatari, though lauded to the s k i e s by her compatriots, has been branded by Georges Bousquet as c e t t e ennuyeuse Scudery  ja p o n a i s e , she s u r e l y r i c h l y deserves i t . Chamberlain has added, i n a fo o t n o t e , a q u o t a t i o n from an essay by W. G. Aston ("The C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e of Japan," read before the Japan S o c i e t y , London, June, I898), on pp. 29^-95, which c o n t r a d i c t s h i s own statement and adds a more i n s i g h t f u l view about the s u b j e c t o f G e n j i monogatari. Aston a l s o wrote a f a i r l y e n l i g h t e n e d c hapter about G e n j i i n , W. G. Aston, A H i s t o r y of Japan- ese L i t e r a t u r e (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1899), pp. 92-103. As Aston r i g h t l y says on page 96: "The enormous bulk o f the G e n j i w i l l always remain another o b s t a c l e to 8 5 i t s j u s t a p p r e c i a t i o n by European r e a d e r s . " I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t u n t i l the f i r s t p art of A r t h u r Waley's e x c e l l e n t t r a n s l a t i o n of the t a l e was pub-l i s h e d i n 1 9 2 5 (see note below), t h a t G e n j i had been sub-j e c t e d t o some r a t h e r narrow-minded p o i n t s of view. 1 2 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , t r a n s . , G e n j i , p.x. While S e i d e n s t i c k e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of G e n j i monogatari i s the most r e c e n t , t h e r e have been s e v e r a l other complete and p a r t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Japanese t e x t i n t o Western languages. The f i r s t complete t r a n s l a t i o n i s , A r t h u r Waley, t r a n s . , The T a l e of G e n j i , A Novel i n S i x P a r t s , by Lady Murasaki (London: G. A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 2 5 - 3 3 ; r p t . 1 9 7 3 ) . There i s a complete German t r a n s l a t i o n , Oscar B e n l , t r a n s . , G e n j i Monogatari, Die Geschichte vom P r i n z e n  G e n j i , 2 v o l s . , von der Hofdame Murasaki ( Z u r i c h : Maresse V e r l a g , 1 9 6 6 ) . A n e a r l y complete t r a n s l a t i o n i n French was done by Rene S i e f f e r t , Le P i t du G e n j i , 2 v o l s . , par Murasaki S h i k i b u (Contes et d i t s du moyen age) Les oeuvres c a p i t a l e s de l a l i t t e r a t u r e j aponaise ( P a r i s : P u b l i c a t i o n s O r i e n t a l i s t e s de France, 1 9 5 1 ; r p t . , 1 9 7 8 ) . P a r t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n s of the t a l e , i n E n g l i s h , i n c l u d e Kenchio Suyematz, t r a n s . , G e n j i monogatari, the most c e l - e brated of the c l a s s i c a l Japanese romances, by Murasaki S h i k i b u (London: Trubner, 1 8 8 2 ; p a r t i a l r p t . , Tokyo: 86 Sankakusha, 1 9 3 4 ) ; Oswald White, "Parting—A Passage from the Genji Monogatari", trans, of "Sakaki" with an intro., Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan (henceforth TASJ), 1st. Ser., 50 (1922); 7 9 - 9 5 ; and William Ritchie Wilson, "The 'Bell-Crickets' Chapter of The Tale of Genji," Literature East and West, 16, 4 ("Apr. 1975 for Dec. 1972"); 1196-1216. Another partial translation in French exists by Ch. Haguenauer, Le Genji  Monogatari, introduction et traduction du l i v r e I, par Murasaki Shikibu (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1959 ) . 1 3 Northrop Frye, The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance'' (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard Univ. Press, 4976;,rpt. 1978). 14 See Frye, Secular Scripture, p.15 and Anatomy, pp.141-6 for references to the Bible as a source of arch-etypal imagery and metaphor. 15 Frye, Secular Scripture, pp.97-126. In this chapter, Frye describes the cyclical movement of the hero's l i f e and his theory of "descent". From Iona and Peter Opie, The Classic Fairy Tales (London, New York, and Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press, 1974); 191-4. 1 7 Frye, S e c - u l a r Scripture, pp. 127-57. 87 18 A l l chapter t i t l e s from the G e n j i t e x t w i l l be g i v e n as they are c o n v e n t i o n a l l y known i n Japanese. They w i l l be p l a c e d i n q u o t a t i o n marks and not i t a l i c i z -ed. A l l the t i t l e s i n E n g l i s h , which w i l l f o l l o w the chapter t i t l e i n Japanese upon f i r s t occurrence, w i l l be taken from S e i d e n s t i c k e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of the t a l e . Throughout t h i s essay, a l l r e f e r e n c e s and q u o t a t i o n s i n E n g l i s h from the G e n j i t e x t are from the S e i d e n s t i c k e r t r a n s l a t i o n . The page r e f e r e n c e w i l l appear i n the t e x t f o l l o w e d by a corre s p o n d i n g r e f e r e n c e from the Japanese t e x t by Yamagishi Tokuhei J-\ 4% ^ , ed., G e n j i monogatari, 5 v o l s . , NKBT, Nos. 14-18 ( 1 9 5 8 ) . A l l romanized q u o t a t i o n s are adapted from the Yamagishi t e x t . The word, G e n j i , i s another name f o r what was o r i g i n a l l y a branch of the i m p e r i a l c l a n known as the Minamoto w-jv . The Minamoto were a l l descended from an emperor. In Chapter One of the t a l e , the emper-or (see S e i d e n s t i c k e r , t r a n s . , G e n j i , p.1 5 ) , f e e l i n g t h a t a r o y a l t i t l e bestowed upon h i s son might i n c u r the h o s t i l i t y of those who f e a r e d he would make h i m s e l f emperor, c o n f e r s him w i t h the rank of a commoner and the name of Minamoto or G e n j i . As a commoner, G e n j i cannot p o s s i b l y have any c l a i m to the throne. However, as can be seen l a t e r i n the s t o r y , G e n j i , as the head of h i s 88 f a m i l y , e v e n t u a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e s h i s power and v i r t u a l l y r u l e s the country. In the t e x t , though, when he i s being d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d t o , G e n j i i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d T a i s ho ( l e a d e r , g e n e r a l ) . 20 G e n j i ' s r e p u t a t i o n has a l s o enhanced the r e p u t a -t i o n of the t a l e . E a r l y Japanese and Western commentat-ors a l i k e have de p l o r e d what they c a l l a l a c k of morals i n G e n j i . For example, Oswald White, " P a r t i n g " , TASJ, 5 0 , p.8 3 , w r i t e s : What i s the s u b j e c t of the G e n j i Monogatari? It purports t o r e l a t e the l i f e h i s t o r y of one whom nowadays I am a f r a i d we sho u l d w r i t e down, b r i e f l y and p l a i n l y , a l i b e r t i n e . H i k a r u G e n j i , the hero, i s not a person we should care t o i n -tro d u c e i n t o our drawing-rooms. But times have changed s i n c e the book was w r i t t e n . Remember that i t was composed n i n e hundred odd years ago. Nor i s G e n j i h e l d up t o us as a model of p r o p r i -ety. The treatment i s p e r f e c t l y c l e a n and f r e e from coarseness. There i s no d w e l l i n g upon r i s k y i n c i d e n t s , no t r e a d i n g on t h i n i c e , and, i f she c o u l d read i t , the book might be p l a c e d i n t he hands of your youngest daughter who, by the way, would f i n d i t supremely d u l l and would c l o s e the book as wise as when she opened i t . Aston expresses a s i m i l a r view i n , H i s t o r y of Japanese  L i t e r a t u r e , pp.9 7 - 8 . Legend has i t i n Japan t h a t Murasaki S h i k i b u wrote the n o v e l i n order t o i n c u l c a t e Buddhist d o c t r i n e , but t o do so, she had to w r i t e about the immorality of the c o u r t , and t h e r e f o r e , was condemned t o h e l l . 89 2 1 Except for characters of f a i r l y low status,- few personal names or pronouns are mentioned i n the text of Genji monogatari. Who i s speaking and who i s being spok-en about must be inferred from the grammar and the context of the story. Over the centuries the names of the p r i n c i -pal characters have become conventionalized. Most of the names have derived, i n most part, from the l o c a t i o n of a character's residence or from something that has come to symbolize that p a r t i c u l a r character. For instance, Genji's mother i s often referred to as Kiritsubo (Paul-ownia Court) since she inhabited the Kiritsubo wing of the imperial palace, while Fujitsubo (Wistaria Court) occupied the Fujitsubo wing of the palace. Aoi, Genji's f i r s t wife, i s associated with the Kamo f e s t i v a l and the aoi vine which symbolizes the f e s t i v a l . Murasaki, the lady who holds the greatest a f f e c t i o n i n Genji's heart, is so named by virtu e of a poem i n Chapter Five (Seiden-s t i c k e r , trans., G en j i , p.102; Yamagishi, I, p.212, l i n e 16) which mentions murasaki, a variety of plant of the boraginaceous genus, Lithospermum, from which a purple dye can be extracted. For further comments about the d i f f i c u l t y of nomenclature i n Genji see Edward G. Seidensticker, "Chiefly on Translating the Genji," the Journal of Japanese Studies (henceforth JJS), 6 (Winter 1980), 34. In t h i s essay, the names of the characters 90 w i l l accord with those found i n Seidensticker's t r a n s l a -t i o n of the t a l e . 22 Genji has two stepmothers. One i s Kokiden (so ca l l e d because she l i v e s i n the Kokiden wing of the palace), the daughter of the minister of the r i g h t , who loses the emperor's affections i n favour of Genji's mother, Kiritsubo. Kokiden's hatred of Kiritsubo i s passed on to Genji a f t e r his mother's death and i s ag-gravated by the fact that the emperor lavishes most of his a f f e c t i o n on Genji rather than upon Kokiden's son, the crown prince. Fujitsubo i s a lady who so much reminds the, aging emperor of Kiritsubo that he f a l l s i n love with her. She i s a much higher ranking lady than Kiritsubo was and, consequently, becomes the emperor's o f f i c i a l consort. Aft e r the death of the emperor, Kokiden's son becomes the new emperor. It i s only a f t e r Genji's return from exile at Suma, when his power and popularity are at t h e i r height, that the new emperor r e t i r e s and Genji's son by Fujitsubo, the c h i l d believed to be Genji's half-brother, becomes the emperor. See also Waley, trans., Genji, pp.222-3, and for a modern Japanese version, Enchi Fumiko P~J trans., Genji monogatari, 10 vols. (Tokyo: Shinchosha, 1972), I I , pp.262-5. It would be impossible to include 91 a l l the elements of Murasaki S h i k i b u ' s s t y l e — p a c e , syn-t a x , humour, i r o n y , and a vocabulary r i c h i n nuances and double m e a n i n g s — i n a s i n g l e t r a n s l a t i o n . To cover every f a c e t of the o r i g i n a l , one would have to w r i t e a separate t r a n s l a t i o n f o r each. As i t stands, both Waley and S e i d -e n s t i c k e r have conveyed s e l e c t e d aspects of the n a r r a t i v e extremely w e l l . Although Waley captures the warm, ex-pansive flow of Murasaki S h i k i b u ' s t a l e , he g l o s s e d over and expurgated c e r t a i n p a r t s of the t e x t . He tends a l s o t o be somewhat verbose and i s not above i n s e r t i n g h i s own e l a b o r a t i o n s i n t o an a l r e a d y ornate t e x t . S e i d e n s t i c k -er's approach belongs t o the s u c c i n c t and concrete s t y l e of w r i t i n g most a p p r e c i a t e d i n the E n g l i s h speaking West today.. U n l i k e Waley's t r a n s l a t i o n and Murasaki S h i k i b u ' s t e x t , S e i d e n s t i c k e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n i s c o n c i s e , making i t at times too dry and l a c k i n g i n emotion. Conciseness, however, has g i v e n him the advantage, as seen i n the passage j u s t quoted, of drawing out the i r o n y and humour i m p l i c i t i n the Japanese v e r s i o n . For an i n s i g h t f u l comparison of v a r i o u s G e n j i t r a n s l a t i o n s , see Marion Ury, "The Imaginary Kingdom and the T r a n s l a t o r ' s A r t : Notes on Re-reading Waley's G e n j i , " JJS, 2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 2 6 7 - 9 4 . OA The Suma seacoast i s l o c a t e d a l o n g the Inland Sea i n what used t o be the an c i e n t p r o v i n c e of S e t t s u • ^ 92 Today, i t l i e s w i t h i n the modern c i t y of Kobe. Suma was o r i g i n a l l y c e l e b r a t e d as a p l a c e of e x i l e sometime i n the n i n t h century when one famous c o u r t i e r , A r i w a r a no Y u k i h i -r a (818-893), was t e m p o r a r i l y banished t h e r e . S i n c e G e n j i monogatari, i t has a l s o i n s p i r e d other l i t e r a r y works of note such as the No p l a y , Matsukaze (The Wind i n the P i n e s ) , by Kan'ami (1333-1384). Suma, the p l a c e and the chapter, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n Chapter Three of t h i s essay, p R The Akashi s e a c o a s t , m c e n t r a l Japan, was l o c a t e d j u s t west of Suma i n the a n c i e n t p r o v i n c e of Harima :fy§ . Both Suma and Akashi are now part of Hyogo P r e f e c t u r e . By d i v e r t i n g h i s d i r e c t i o n toward Akashi G e n j i moves f u r t h e r away from the c a p i t a l , i n the east. The p l a c e name, Ak a s h i , appears i n t r a v e l poems found i n the o l d e s t of the i m p e r i a l p o e t i c a n t h o l o g i e s , The Manyoshu vfn ^ ( C o l l e c t i o n of Ten Thous-and Leaves) compiled i n the l a t e Nara p e r i o d , around A.D.760. The poems (See Takagi Ichinosuke nf} <t> X. & , et a l . , eds., Manyoshu, V o l s . 4-7, NKBT,'[1957; r p t . 1960], 4, pp.148-51, Nos.250-6; f o r a t r a n s l a t i o n see The Many0shu, The Nippon Gakujutsu  S h i n k o k a i T r a n s l a t i o n of One Thousand Poems, Foreword by Donald Keene [New York and London: Columbia Univ. P r e s s , 1969], pp. 48-9, 93 Nos. 121-27) evoke the poet's f e e l i n g of sorrow as he passes through the S t r a i t s of Akashi and leaves his homeland. A famous and anonymous poem from the Kokinshu, NKBT, 9 , p. 185, No. ^09, captures more re a d i l y what Akashi came to mean by the time Genji monogatari was written« Hono-bono-to / Akashi-no ura-no / A s a - g i r i - n i  Shima-gakure yuku / fune-o shi-zo omo-Dimly, dimly In the morning mist that l i e s Over Akashi Bay, My longings follow with the ship That vanishes behind the distant i s l e . . (Translation from Robert H. Brower and E a r l Miner, Japanese Court Poetry Stanford» Stanford Univ. Press, 1961 , p. 202.) Akashi can also mean the "dawn." The poet evokes the sense of longing someone feels as he or she watches a ship which i s carrying a loved one, disappear into the early morning mist beyond Akashi. Akashi, with i t s con-notations of distance, separation, and concealment (behind the islands and mist) f i t s i n well with Genji's own si t u a t i o n . 94 of, Lady Aoi, Genji's f i r s t wife, is already dead when he goes to Suma. Genji leaves the young Murasaki behind when he goes into exile. In Chapter Five, "Waka it iteu Murasaki" jj\ (Lavender), Genji discovers the child, Murasaki, who is a nie.c:e. of Fujitsubo, in a mountain retreat, taken care of by her grandmother, a nun. Genji is so taken by her charm and likeness to Fujitsubo that he practically abducts her from the old nun. Murasaki's presence in Genji's mansion at Nijo re-mains a secret for somettime and Genji educates her into the kind of woman he cherishes the most. Although her social status does not allow her to be anything more than a high ranking concubine, Murasaki is indisputably, throughout the story, the main wife in Genji's household, in every way except a narrowly legal sense. As i t turns out, the monk at Akashi underestimates Genji's affection for Murasaki, and his efforts to make Genji take his own daughter as his main wife, are useless. 27 Genji f i r s t learns about the Akashi Lady in Chapt-er Five, when one of Genji's men tries to divert him by t e l l i n g him about the eccentric monk at Akashi and his ambitious plans for his daughter's future (pp.86-7; Yama-gashi, I, pp.180-82). ?8 Although, as an infant, Genji lost his mother and lived with his grandmother for some time away from the 95 c o u r t , h i s ch i l dhood was happy i n the sense tha t he was l o v e d by those c l o s e s t t o h im. His every whim was g ran ted , and he seemed o b l i v i o u s to p a i n and s u f f e r i n g , e s p e c i a l l y s u f f e r i n g caused to other people by h i s thought less a c t i o n s . 2 9 -Rokujo i s used i n two contexts i n G e n j i . The Lady Rokujo who becomes G e n j i ' s m i s t r e s s was the widow of a crown p r i n c e , the b ro the r of G e n j i ' s f a t h e r . When the crown p r i n c e d i e d , Lady Rokujo ' s prospects fo r becoming an empress d i ed w i t h h im. Her husband's death a l s o l e f t her i n the unenviable p o s i t i o n of be ing unable to r e -marry , except someone of her own rank. Candidates were i n shor t supp ly . G e n j i , r e c o g n i z i n g her to be one of the most r e f i n e d women of her day and t a k i n g p i t y on her. ' s i t u a t i o n , gets more i n v o l v e d w i t h her than prudence would a l l o w . Rokujo a l s o means the " S i x t h Ward" of Heian- V . (ancient K y o t o ) , where the l ady r e s i d e d . When Lady Rokujo d ies and Gen j i becomes the guard ian of her daught-er Akikonomu, he acqui res her mother 's es ta te and b u i l d s h i s great Rokujo mansion on i t . -^Umehara T a k e s h i , "The Geneology of the Avenging S p i r i t s , " Diogenes , 8 6 (Summer, 1 9 7 4 ) , 1 7 - 3 0 . Umehara suggests tha t the aim of Japanese a r t and l i t e r a t u r e , 96 since ancient times, has been to appease the "avenging s p i r i t " , the s p i r i t of a person who has been wronged or has died t r a g i c a l l y . Also, he suggests that Genji's aim i n looking a f t e r ladies such as Tamakazura *fe (See Chapter Twenty-two) and Akikonomu, was for t h i s very purpose, to appease the s p i r i t s of t h e i r respective dead mothers. While his theory i s correct i n r e l a t i o n to Genji, l a y i n g i t onto the whole of Japanese art and culture i s stretching i t rather f a r . 31 Genji takes his infant daughter, the Akashi P r i n -cess, away from her mother, the Lady of Akashi, and gives her to Murasaki who has no children of her own to ra i s e . She brings up the princess very successfully. See William H. McCullough, "Japanese Marriage Institutions i n the Heian Period", Harvard Journal of A s i a -t i c ' v. Studies, 27 (1967), 103-67. In his essay, McCul-lough describes three types of marriage i n s t i t u t i o n s which prevailed during the Heian Period: " . . . u x o r i c a l , i n which they [the man and wife] reside at the house of the woman's parents; and...neolocal, i n which they occupy an independent house of t h e i r own. A...less common type ^ s duolocal residence, i n which spouses l i v e separately with the husband v i s i t i n g his wife but not l i v i n g with her." McCullough also points out that marriages at thi s time were never of the v i r i l o c a l v a r i e t y , " . . . i n which 97 the man and w i f e take up r e s i d e n c e near or at the house of the man's parents'* (p. 105 ) . I t may a l s o be p o i n t e d out here, t h a t w h i l e G e n j i seeks and f i n d s what he c o n s i d e r s to be women, p e r f e c t w i t h i n t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s , t h a t the opposite may a l s o be t r u e , namely, t h a t G e n j i r e p r e s e n t s the i d e a l man f o r any woman. Th i s can be seen not only i n terms of h i s person-a l beauty and charm but w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s c a p a c i t y f o r a f f e c t i o n and munificence. The i n c i d e n t that f i n a l l y makes F u j i t s u b o r e -s o l v e to become a nun occurs on pp.195-8 of S e i d e n s t i c k -er's t r a n s l a t i o n and i n Yamagishi, I, pp. 3 8 3 - 8 8 . F u j i - - -tsubo i s overcome w i t h h o r r o r when G e n j i , too c o n s p i c u -o u s l y , f o r c e s h i s way i n t o her p r i v a t e apartments. When he f o r g e t s t o l e a v e before daybreak, F u j i t s u b o ' s l a d i e s -i n - w a i t i n g , i n a p a n i c , push him i n t o a c l o s e t where he i s compelled to spend the r e s t of the day, unbeknown t o F u j i t s u b o . Toward n i g h t f a l l , i n s t e a d of making good h i s escape, G e n j i emerges from the c l o s e t and the shock of s e e i n g him l e a v e s F u j i t s u b o p r o s t r a t e . The Ukifune sequence, i n G e n j i , may be found i n Chapters F o r t y - n i n e through •'. . \ • F i f t y - f o u r . Ukifune i s the n a t u r a l daughter of the P r i n c e of H i t a c h i and the h a l f - s i s t e r of the p r i n c e ' s other two daughters, 98 Oigimi and Naka no Kimi <^ "^T . Niou and Kaoru are r i v a l s i n g a i n i n g the a f f e c t i o n s of Ukifune. Ukifune, who cannot decide between them, attempts s u i c i d e and, f i n a l l y , t o escape her own c o n f l i c t i n g f e e l i n g s r e -g a r d i n g the two f r i e n d s , r e j e c t s the world completely and enters a convent. See a l s o Amanda Mayer Stinchecum, "Who T e l l s the Tale? 'Ukifune': A Study i n N a r r a t i v e V o i c e , " Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , 3 5 , 4 (Winter, 1 9 8 0 ) , 3 7 5 - 4 0 3 . D The t a c h i b a n a ( c i t r u s t a c h i b a n a ) , i s a l s o a t r a d i t i o n a l symbol f o r evoking the past. An example may be found i n an anonymous poem i n the Kokinshu, NKBT, 9 , p.1 3 0 , No. 139: S a - t s u k i matsu / Hana tachibana-no / ka-o kage-ba  Mukashi-no h i t o - n o / sode-no ka-zo suru At the scent of orange blossoms, a w a i t i n g the F i f t h Month, One t h i n k s of a scented s l e e v e of l o n g ago. ( T r a n s l a t i o n by S e i d e n s t i c k e r , t r a n s . , G e n j i , p.2 1 7 . ) Examples, i n Western l i t e r a t u r e , where the sea p r o v i d e s a background f o r the hero's f a l l , are many: 99 The Odyssey, Melville's Moby Dick, a good part of Con-rad's works, in particular, Lord Jim, and in poetry, Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner". 37 To read what constitutes the difference between Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism, see Theodore de Bary, ed., Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol. I (New York and London: Columbia Univ. Press, 1958; rpt. 1964), pp.109-32. J For a description of relations between men and women in Heian Japan read Morris, World of the Shining Prince, pp.211-61. 39 For a discussion of court poetry in the Heian Period, refer to Brower and Miner, Japanese Court Poetry, and to Earl Miner, "Japanese and Western Images of Courtly Love," Yearbook of Comparative and General L i t - erature, 15 (1966), 174-79. ^ For example, Victor Hugo's Les Miserables. ^ The root word of i m i - j i , imi ^ "taboo" or "avoiding something defiled". 100 CHAPTER TWO -CONCEALMENT AND REVELATION IN THE "HANACHIRUSATO" CHAPTER Hanachirusato i s a strange l i t t l e c h apter, the s h o r t e s t of the f i f t y - f o u r , and of s c a r c e l y any s i g n i f i c a n c e except that i t i n t r o d u c e s the l a d y who i s p r e s e n t l y t o occupy the no r t h e a s t quarter..at Rokujo" and become Y u g i r i ' s f o s t e r -mother. W r i t t e n by the s c h o l a r who spent n e a r l y a decade c r e a t i n g a new, and superb t r a n s l a t i o n of G e n j i monoga-- • t a r i , t h i s comment i s remarkable f o r i t s l a c k of i n s i g h t . P r o f e s s o r S e i d e n s t i c k e r , i n the same essay, i s even more emphatic when he says that " P o i n t l e s s n e s s i s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of the chapter, save f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the 2 l a d y . " Without s u b s t a n t i a t i n g h i s o p i n i o n , he d e c l a r e s t h a t "Hanachirusato" i s "...a chapter that would s c a r c e l y have been missed i f i t had disappeared...."^ It i s a s t o n i s h i n g , i n view of h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the t a l e and Murasaki S h i k i b u ' s language, t h a t he d i d not see t h i s seemingly i n s i g n i f i c a n t chapter as c r u c i a l t o the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of G e n j i . C o n s i d e r i n g the Japanese view of a e s t h e t i c s i n a r t and l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s 101 the o l d e s t and s m a l l e s t t h i n g s which, from an e x t e r n a l p o i n t of view, appear worthless and i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l , but have, f o r those a b l e t o d i s c e r n t h e i r i n t e r n a l v a l u e s , a hidden beauty and merit t h a t f a r exceeds the s u p e r f i c i a l b r i l l i a n c e of new, l a r g e , and f l a s h y t h i n g s / Upon f i r s t r e a d i n g G e n j i monogatari, o n e ' s \ a t t e n t i o n i s n a t u r a l l y f o c u s s e d on the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n which v i v i d -l y d e s c r i b e s the d a z z l i n g and decadent l i f e at c o u r t ; the c o l o u r f u l costumes, the l u x u r y , the pageantry, and the g a i e t y . But g r a d u a l l y , as the reader proceeds deeper i n -t o the t e x t , t h i s world begins t o d i s s o l v e and an under-cu r r e n t of sadness, p a i n , and death takes i t s p l a c e . The e x t e r n a l , o b j e c t i v e world of pomp and s p e c t a c l e becomes e l u s i v e , l i k e a dream, while r e a l i t y i s p o r t r a y e d as the i n t e r n a l , s u b j e c t i v e world of p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s , hidden i d e n t i t i e s , and i l l i c i t deeds. As the s t o r y progresses and t h i n g s concealed are r e v e a l e d , i t becomes c l e a r that i t i s the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n t h a t i s g e n e r a t i n g the main ac-t i o n of the s t o r y . L i k e Japanese a r t and l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l , G e n j i does not speak t o the reader d i r e c t l y . In order t o see the t r u t h s i n f e r r e d by the i n t e r n a l a c -t i o n , a knowledge of p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a r y conventions and a c e r t a i n amount of p e r c e p t i o n i s necessary. "Hanachirusato", i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s a chapter which does not shout f o r the reader's a t t e n t i o n . I t i s 102 d e c e p t i v e l y simple and u n o b t r u s i v e , l i k e an uncut gem r e s t i n g between two p o l i s h e d ones, Chapter Ten, "Sakaki", and Chapter Twelve, "Suma". In c o n t r a s t t o the dramatic events of "Sakaki" and the emotional i n t e n s i t y of "Suma", "Hanachirusato" i s h i g h l y r e s t r a i n e d . Prom the p o i n t of view of the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n , n o t h i n g seems t o happen. One might even have expected t h i s chapter to be the l o g i c -a l p l a c e f o r the author t o e x p l a i n the p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e s l e a d i n g up t o G e n j i ' s d i s g r a c e , s i n c e she never e l a b o r a t e s on them i n Chapters Ten or Twelve. Instead, we are drawn immediately i n t o the p r i v a t e world of G e n j i ' s emotions. "Hanachirusato" opens with G e n j i f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r h i m s e l f . I t i s the r a i n y season, and i n need of c o n s o l a -t i o n , he takes advantage of a r a r e break i n the clouds t o v i s i t R e i k e i d e n / H L jffy Av^ , a former concubine of 5 ..his f a t h e r . She l i v e s away from court i n r e t i r e m e n t w i t h her s i s t e r , and G e n j i has l o n g been t h e i r b e n e f a c t o r . On h i s way to her home he c r o s s e s the Naka-gawa cf7 " j (Inner R i v e r ) , and passes a house where the sound of a koto arouses h i s c u r i o s i t y . Remembering he once knew the l a d y i n s i d e , he sends her a poem comparing h i m s e l f t o the cuckoo nearby who has come back to serenade h i s l a d y . T h i s l a d y , r e s e n t f u l of G e n j i ' s l o n g n e g l e c t , r e b u f f s hinr i n an answering v e r s e , p r e t e n d i n g she does not r e c o g n i z e 1 0 3 the cuckoo hidden "by the mist y r a i n s . His f e a t h e r s r u f -f l e d , G e n j i proceeds t o the home of R e i k e i d e n . G e n j i has n e g l e c t e d t h i s l a d y t o o , hut i n s t e a d of complaining, she t a l k s w i t h him about o l d times. The episode con-cludes with G e n j i ' s b r i e f v i s i t t o her s i s t e r ' s q u a r t e r s . It has been argued that "Hanachirusato" may have been i n s e r t e d l a t e r than the "Suma" chapter, s i n c e the c h a r a c t e r of R e i k e i d e n was conceived a f t e r the Lady of Ak a s h i . The l a t t e r i s a l l u d e d to i n Chapter F i v e , l o n g b e f o r e she j o i n s the a c t i o n of the s t o r y i n Chapter T h i r -7 t e e n , w h i l e R e i k e i d e n appears f o r the f i r s t time i n the chapter t h a t i n t r o d u c e s her, "Hanachirusato". R e i k e i d e n does not p l a y the major r o l e i n G e n j i a l l o t t e d t o Mura-s a k i , Akikonomu, and the Lady of Aka s h i , but her q u i e t presence i s never f a r from the main a c t i o n of the s t o r y . For t h i s reason, the s i m p l i c i t y of Chapter E l e v e n should not d e t e r the reader from examining i t more c l o s e l y and d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t , i n terms of the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n , "Hana-c h i r u s a t o " i s a c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d " a f t e r t h o u g h t " t h a t should not be underrated. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of Chapter E l e v e n i s based on the i n t e r n a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t form the c h a r a c t e r of R e i k e i d e n and the major r o l e they p l a y i n the Suma sequence. In "Hanachirusato" she i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : 104 ••'Nyogo-no on-kewai, n e b i - n i - t a r e - d o t aku- made y o - i a r i , a t e - n i , r o t a - g e - n a r i . Psugure- te hanayaka-naru on-oboe-koso n a - k a r i - s h i k a - d o , mutsuma-shu n a t s u k a s h i k i k a t a - n i , o b o s h i - t a r i - s h i mono-ol -nado....(p.217; Yamagishi, I, 3x419, l i n e s 6 -8). 9 ...Although she was no l o n g e r young, R e i k e i d e n was s e n s i t i v e and r e f i n e d . Indeed, she had not counted among the f a s h i o n a b l e beauties favoured by h i s f a t h e r , but she was a l a d y whom he r e s p e c t e d f o r h e r warmth and understanding. Throughput the s t o r y , R e i k e i d e n i s mentioned i n s i m i l a r terms: k'okoro-base-bito, "a person w i t h a g e n t l e d i s p o s i -t i o n " 7 ; tsutsumashi-ge, "modest"; yawara-ka-na-ran-hito, 'one who i s compliant" or " f l e x i b l e " ; o i r a - k a , "calm"; and 10 ke-shiki-bama-nu, "composed" or "even tempered". While these i n t e r n a l m e r i ts are o f t e n s t r e s s e d , r e f e r e n c e s t o her g r e a t e s t d e f e c t , p h y s i c a l p l a i n n e s s , are a l s o s c a t t e r -ed throughout the t a l e . For example, i n Chapter Twenty-one, "Otome" ("The Maiden"), we see her through Y u g i r i ' s eyes i n t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n by S e i d e n s t i c k e r : 105 Ha would sometimes c a t c h a glimpse of her. She was not at a l l b e a u t i f u l , and y e t h i s f a t h e r had been f a i t h f u l to her. Was i t merely s i l l y , h i s own i n a b i l i t y t o f o r g e t the beauty of a g i r l who was b e i n g unkind to him? He s h o u l d l o o k f o r someone of a s i m i l a r l y compliant n a t -ure. Not, however, someone who was p o s i t i v e l y r e p u l s i v e . Though G e n j i had kept the l a d y of the orange blossoms with him a l l these y e a r s , he seemed q u i t e aware of her d e f e c t s . When he v i s i t e d her he was always c a r e f u l to see that she was as f u l l y ensheathed as an a m a r y l l i s bud, and t h a t he was spared the need to l o o k upon her. Y u g i r i understood. He had an eye f o r these t h i n g s t h a t would have put the a d u l t eye t o shame. His grandmother was s t i l l v e ry b e a u t i f u l even now that she had become a nun. Surrounded from i n f a n c y by b e a u t i f u l women, he n a t u r a l l y took adverse n o t i c e of a l a d y who, not remarkably w e l l f a v o r e d from the s t a r t , was past her prime, a b i t peaked and t h i n of h a i r (p.379 ; Y a m i g i s h i , I I , p.314 , l i n e s 1 -12 ) . Given these q u a l i t i e s both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , good and bad, R e i k e i d e n comes t o represent what i s here meant by i n t e r n a l beauty. G e n j i , who i s e a s i l y c a p t i v a t e d by what f i r s t meets h i s eye, shows remarkable p e r c e p t i o n when he overlooks her e x t e r n a l flaws and f i n d s h i m s e l f a t t r a c t e d to her y o - i nj , " s e n s i t i v i t y " and her ate & ," r e -finement". Now, i n Chapter Eleven, when he i s m e n t a l l y depressed, she i s j u s t the s o r t of person he i s n a t u r a l l y drawn toward as a source of c o n s o l a t i o n . Although G e n j i ' s v i s i t t o R e i k e i d e n has a l o t to do w i t h h i s immediate problems, i t i s the l o n g term e f f e c t s of t h i s v i s i t and t h i s l a d y ' s p e r s o n a l i t y on G e n j i t h a t cause him to seek 106 her out and l o o k a f t e r her i n t e r e s t s throughout the course of h i s l i f e . In h i s quest f o r peace of mind, G e n j i sees i n her what he cannot a t t a i n f o r h i m s e l f , i n -ward calm and s t a b i l i t y . Her aura of t r a n q u i l i t y may be compared t o the aura surrounding a f a i r y godmother type f i g u r e i n a f a i r y t a l e . The hero goes t o her w i t h h i s problems, and, although she cannot prevent the hero from encountering the dangers t h a t l i e ahead of him on h i s journey t o the underworld, she can advise him of them and use some of her magic to h e l p him get past the p e r -i l s i n t o s a f e t y . Her f u n c t i o n , then, i n the s t o r y i s a l s o i n t e r n a l . She stands a s i d e while the hero f i g h t s the p e r i l f o r h i m s e l f . By a t t a c h i n g a warning t o the magical equipment she giv e s t o him f o r h i s p r o t e c t i o n , the hero i s f o r c e d t o g a i n enlightenment through h i s own mistakes. When he l e a r n s t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those mistakes, he becomes a man. G e n j i ' s v i s i t t o R e i k e i d e n can be viewed i n much the same way from an i n t e r n a l p o i n t of view. By v i s i t -i n g R e i k e i d e n and hoping somehow t o be soothed by the magic of her s e r e n i t y , he i s i n s t e a d j o l t e d by some un-expected r e v e l a t i o n s t h a t have c r u c i a l consequences r e -g a r d i n g the progress of the Suma sequence and G e n j i as a whole. 107 F i r s t , g i v e n the i n t e r n a l q u a l i t i e s . .that R e i k e i d e n comes t o r e p r e s e n t , the q u a l i t i e s of other c h a r a c t e r s who come i n contact w i t h her are r e f l e c t e d i n her image. In Chapter Ten, the d r a s t i c a l l y changing circumstances of G e n j i ' s l i f e , c u l m i n a t i n g i n a s o c i a l l y d e v a s t a t i n g s c a n d a l , g r a d u a l l y awaken him to c e r t a i n unpleasant t r u t h s about h i m s e l f and h i s a c t i o n s . But i t i s ' i n Chapter E l e v e n , where he sees h i s inconstancy m i r r o r e d a g a i n s t the constancy of R e i k e i d e n , t h a t he gains a c l e a r -er i n s i g h t i n t o h i s changing and maturing i d e n t i t y . Secondly, i n s t e a d of f i n d i n g a d i r e c t route t o i n -ward contentment, by v i s i t i n g R e i k e i d e n he i s i n d i r e c t l y made aware of the r e a l reason f o r h i s punishment. In t h i s context R e i k e i d e n , who i s a part of G e n j i ' s p a s t , a l s o comes to represent the pas t . In her presence G e n j i i s reminded of h i s former a c t i o n s and that he must pay the p r i c e f o r those a c t i o n s . Here R e i k e i d e n , who h e r s e l f does not know the t r u t h about G e n j i ' s p a s t , s i t s back l i k e a f a i r y godmother, w h i l e the hero d i s c o v e r s the con-sequences of h i s mistakes f o r h i m s e l f . I f Chapter Eleven can be seen as one where the hero r e c o g n i z e s h i s t r u e i d e n t i t y and the reason f o r h i s des-cent , then i t can be c a l l e d a " r e c o g n i t i o n " chapter. The " p o i n t of r e c o g n i t i o n " contained i n tragedy, when the 108 hero r e a l i z e s the f u l l extent of h i s crime and the pun-ishment he must r e c e i v e f o r i t , i n the Suma sequence, appears t o occur i n t h i s chapter. T h i r d l y , i f "Hanachirusato" w i t h the c h a r a c t e r of Re i k e i d e n as a c a t a l y s t may be seen as the c l i m a t i c p o i n t of G e n j i ' s c r i s i s b efore he surrenders t o h i s chosen f a t e , then i t can a l s o be seen as a t r a n s i t i o n a l c hapter. T h i s t r a n s i t i o n can be viewed as both e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l . The t r a n s i t i o n i s e x t e r n a l , i n that i t s p o s i t i o n between two d r a m a t i c a l l y a c t i v e chapters makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the hero t o r e f l e c t upon a past t h a t has caught up w i t h him, a present s t a t e of a f f a i r s t h a t looks bleak, and a f u t u r e prospect that seems even worse. Here the r e a d e r , t o o, i s allowed t o pause and c o n s i d e r G e n j i ' s i n t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n , w h ile p r e p a r i n g him f o r the emotional i n t e n s i t y of "Suma". I n t e r n a l l y , G e n j i ' s v i s i t t o R e i k e i d e n marks a t r a n s -i t i o n t o the Suma sequence i t s e l f ; t h a t i s , G e n j i ' s gradu-a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from youth t o m a t u r i t y . R e i k e i d e n , as one who r e p r e s e n t s the p a s t , i s c r u c i a l t o G e n j i ' s e f f o r t s t o b r i d g e the th i n g s of the past w i t h h i s present s t a t e of a f f a i r s . By t a l k i n g t o t h i s l a d y , who knew him as a boy, he i s reminded of past events t h a t a l l o w him to come to terms w i t h present events. In t u r n , G e n j i r e c e i v e s r e v e l a t i o n which transforms him from an adolescent t o an 109 a d u l t who must take a c t i o n and make some important d e c i -s i o n s r e g a r d i n g h i s present and, now, unpromising f u t u r e . In order t o see beyond the outer appearance of t h i s c hapter, one must cut past the e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e i n order to f i n d what i s concealed w i t h i n . What r e v e a l s the v a l u e of t h i s chapter i s the i m a g i n a t i v e way i n which Murasaki S h i k i b u has a p p a r e n t l y employed the u n i v e r s a l concept of romance, al o n g w i t h conventions found i n t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese l i t e r a t u r e . These i n c l u d e the use of c h a r a c t e r t y p e s , the romantic quest, n a t u r e , c y c l i c a l time, i r o n y , pathos, and a b s u r d i t y . Let us s t a r t w i t h the use of c h a r a c t e r types and, s i n c e t h i s chapter i s c e n t r e d on R e i k e i d e n , i t i s f i t t i n g t o begin w i t h her. The d e f e r e n t i a l treatment t h a t R e i k e i d e n r e c e i v e s c o n s i s t e n t l y from G e n j i throughout h i s l i f e i n d i c a t e s t h at her r o l e i n the s t o r y i s f a r from p a s s i v e . Viewed i n terms of the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n , she i s f i r s t made con-spicuous when the author devotes a whole chapter, "Hana-c h i r u s a t o " , t o her. L a t e r , G e n j i chooses her as one of the f o u r l a d i e s who w i l l each occupy a,quarter of h i s newly completed mansion at Rokujo. In Chapter Twenty-one "Otome", she moves i n t o the Northeast s e c t i o n of the house, c o n t a i n i n g the summer garden, on the same n i g h t t h a t Murasaki moves i n t o the Southeast s e c t i o n of the 1 1 0 r e s i d e n c e (p.3 8 5 ; Yamagishi, I I , p . 3 2 2 ) . A l s o i n t h i s chapter, G e n j i appoints the l a d y to be Y u g i r i ' s f o s t e r -mother (p.3 7 9 ; Yamagishi, I I , pp.3 1 3 - 1 4 ) . In Chapter Twenty-two, she accepts G e n j i ' s request t o be the guard-i a n of Tamakazura, and the young woman r e s i d e s i n her wing (pp.4 0 3 - 4 ; Yamagishi, I I , pp.3 6 4 - 5 ) . • In Chapter T h i r t y - f o u r , "Wakana" "Jf£ ("New Herbs,Part I ) , the banquet c e l e b r a t i n g Y u g i r i ' s new appointment at court i s h e l d i n her q u a r t e r s (p.5 6 8 ; Yamagishi, I I I , p.2 7 5 ) . In other p a r t s of the s t o r y R e i k e i d e n performs v a r i -ous p r a c t i c a l and domestic d u t i e s . For example, i n Chapter Twenty-eight, "Nowaki" i£j / J ("The Typhoon' 1) R e i k e i d e n i s shown to be accomplished i n the dyeiing, sew-i n g , and a r r a n g i n g of c l o t h e s (pp.4 6 4 - 5 ; Yamagishi, I I I , pp.5 9 - 6 0 ) . She i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r choosing and l a y i n g out Y u g i r i ' s c l o t h i n g as shown i n Chapter T h i r t y -n i n e , " Y u g i r i " / j$!jf ("Evening M i s t " ) (p.6 8 3 ; Yama-g i s h i , IV, p.1 0 9 ) . R e i k e i d e n would appear to be somewhat o l d e r than G e n j i , s i n c e she was a member of h i s f a t h e r ' s court and i s a b l e to t a l k to him about the time when he was a happy c h i l d . The l a d y l i v e s w i t h her s i s t e r i n r e t i r e -ment, and G e n j i has eased t h e i r impoverishment by s e c r e t -l y p r o v i d i n g them w i t h m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e . That the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t h i n g more than a meaningful f r i e n d s h i p 1 1 1 i s emphasized, perhaps most d i r e c t l y , i n Chapter Twenty-f i v e , "Hotaru", when G e n j i , spending the n i g h t w i t h R e i k e i d e n , s l e e p s w i t h i n her c u r t a i n s w h i l e the l a d y s l e e p s o u t s i d e o f them (p.436 ; Yamagishi, I I , pp.4 2 9 - 3 0 ) . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may seem unusual f o r a c h a r a c t e r l i k e G e n j i , but the reason f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e can be seen i n the importance of R e i k e i d e n as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r type and the r o l e she performs i n the s t o r y . In G e n j i ' s l i f e t h e r e are women of s u p e r i o r c h a r a c t -er who f i g u r e prominently i n the romance, and t h e r e are those of i n f e r i o r c h a r a c t e r who enter the s t o r y and then fade q u i e t l y i n t o the background. Pujimura K i y o s h i , i n a chapter of h i s book, G e n j i monogatari no kozo, f o r ex-ample, c l a s s i f i e s R e i k e i d e n as a s u p e r i o r type. He com-pares her t o an a n t i t h e t i c a l c h a r a c t e r , P r i n c e s s whom he puts i n the category of i n f e r i o r t y p e s . i < L G e n j i p r o t e c t s both these l a d i e s , and Fujimura b e l i e v e s they probably t y p i f y a l a r g e number of l a d i e s whom G e n j i supported, but too many of them would crowd the s t o r y . E x t e r n a l l y , the i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n Suetsumuhana i s g i v e n compared t o R e i k e i d e n , can be understood by the treatment each r e c e i v e s from G e n j i . He shuts the p r i n -cess away i n a corner of h i s N i j o mansion, and gi v e s R e i k e i d e n a q u a r t e r of h i s mansion at Rokujo. He (the S a f f l o w e r P r i n c e s s ) , •p -; ^  -P^^A , -™ 1 2 112 admires the one and r i d i c u l e s the other. G e n j i ' s c r i t e r -i a f o r judging the worthiness of these l a d i e s seems to have l i t t l e t o do with t h e i r only common a t t r i b u t e — p h y s -i c a l u n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . Nor does i t have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e i r p edigree. G e n j i shuns the p r i n c e s s who i s a member of the r o y a l f a m i l y , and honours R e i k e i d e n who i s lower born. The s u p e r i o r i t y of one c h a r a c t e r over the other can be seen i n what each r e p r e s e n t s from an i n t e r n -a l p o i n t of view. Each c h a r a c t e r has a dual nature. R e i k e i d e n ' s p l a i n n e s s b e l i e s her i n n e r beauty, the f a c t t h a t she i s a composed, r e f i n e d l a d y who adapts h e r s e l f t o the changing circumstances of l i f e . On the other hand, Suetsumuhana proves t h a t b r e e d i n g does not always t e l l . Not only i s she u n s i g h t l y , e x c e s s i v e l y shy, and i n f l e x i b l e t o change, but she i s a source of embarassment to those, l i k e G e n j i , who t r y t o h e l p her. In Chapter Twenty-nine, i n sending G e n j i an o u t l a n d i s h g i f t of robes that are faded and out of f a s h i o n are good, but her act give s i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n s on the p r i n c e s s i n the f i r s t place", G e n j i m i s t a k e n l y d i s c o v e r e d someone l e s s than the t r e a s -u r e of hidde n p e r f e c t i o n he had hoped t o f i n d . Her con-t i n u e d presence i n the s t o r y r e i n f o r c e s the k i n d of p e r f e c t i o n t hat G e n j i esteems i n Re i k e i d e n . ("The Royal O u t i n g " ) , her i n t e n t i o n s cause f o r d e r i s i o n r a t h e r than a p p r e c i a t i o n . 13 In f o r e -113 R e i k e i d e n , as a type, a l s o complements the c h a r a c t -er of Murasaki who epitomizes i d e a l p h y s i c a l beauty. With r e g a r d t o the t r u s t and conf i d e n c e G e n j i shows t o -ward R e i k e i d e n , she t y p i f i e s h i s image of p e r f e c t i n n e r beauty. As a r e s u l t , she poses no t h r e a t t o Murasaki's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h G e n j i . Both l a d i e s move i n t o Rokujo on the same n i g h t and l i v e i n harmony next to each other, e n s u r i n g the balance of p e r s o n a l i t y so e s s e n t i a l t o a s t a b l e and p e a c e f u l domestic l i f e . R e i k e i d e n i s a l s o no cause f o r worry on G e n j i ' s p a r t . S i n c e her appearance i s u n l i k e l y t o a t t r a c t other men, G e n j i i s not a f r a i d , as he i s w i t h h i s other l a d i e s , t o a s s i g n her d u t i e s t h a t may expose her p h y s i c a l l y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e when he asks R e i k e i d e n t o be Y u g i r i ' s foster-mother. He i s being c a u t i o u s , hoping t o prevent a s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t to that which occurred between h i m s e l f and h i s "Stepmother, F u j i t s u b o . D e s p i t e a l l h i s p r e -c a u t i o n s , however, h i s apprehensions are confirmed when Y u g i r i , as a young man, catches h i s f i r s t glimpse of 14 Murasaki and f a l l s h o p e l e s s l y i n l o v e w i t h her. The rea d e r i s allowed on s e v e r a l occasions t o see R e i k e i d e n through Y u g i r i ' s eyes, and t o compare her w i t h the image he has of h i s b e a u t i f u l stepmother. R e i k e i d e n i s d e f -i n i t e l y Murasaki's i n f e r i o r r e g a r d i n g e x t e r n a l appearance, 114 but beginning with Chapter Eleven, Genji, overlooking th i s lady's external defects, i s s u f f i c i e n t l y impressed by her concealed, r e a l beauty as a person to keep her as a true and steady fr i e n d . In "Hanachirusato", the hidden q u a l i t i e s Reikeiden represents are revealed when they are measured against the i n f e r i o r type of character exemplified by the lady 15 of the Inner River. The episode where t h i s l e s s e r character b r i e f l y appears finds Genji going incognito on his way to v i s i t Reikeiden. He passes a f a m i l i a r place by the Inner River and, hearing the sound of the koto emanating from a house nearby, he stops to l i s t e n : ...Naka-gawa-no hodo owashi suguru-ni, sasa- yaka-naru ie-no, ko-dachWiado yoshi-bameru-ni, yoku naru koto-o, Azuma-ni shirabe-te kaki- awas e, nigiwawashiku hiki-nasu-nari. On-mimi  tomari-te, kado-j ika-naru-t okoro-nare-ba, sukoshi sashi-ide-te mi-ire-tamae-re-ba, o k i - naru katsura-no ki-no oi-kaze-ni, matsuri-no  koro oboshi-ide-rare-te, soko-haka-to-naku, kewai okashi-ki-o, ftada hito-me mi-tamai-shi  yadori-narij -to mi-tamo (pp.215-16; Yamagishi, I, p.417, l i n e s 15-16 and p.418, li n e s 1-4). 115 While crossing the Inner River, they could hear the pleasant strains of a koto accompanied by an Az.uma koto, issuing vigorously for t h from a small house hidden behind a clus t e r of trees. When they stopped the carriage near the gate to l i s t e n , Genji leaned out a l i t t l e , and the fragrance of a large katsura tree fanned by the breeze reminded him of the Kamo f e s t i v a l of long ago. Observing the captivating charm of this scene, he remembered having seen i t once before. The music from the koto evokes the past, and Genji remembers that he was once acquainted with the lady who resides i n the house. He wonders at the propriety of renewing a rel a t i o n s h i p he has neglected f o r so long and, perhaps, how his overtures might be received. He makes up his mind quickly, however, when he cannot r e s i s t the urging of a cuckoo's song nearby: Tada-nara-zu. f~Hodo he-ni-keru, obo-mekashiku-yaj-to, tsutsumashi-kere-do, sugi-gate-ni  yasurai-tamo. Ori-shimo, hototogisu naki-te  wataru-mo, moyoshi-kikoe-gao-nare-ba, mi-kuruma  oshi-kaesase-te, rei-no, Koremitsu ire-tamo (p.216; Yamagishi, I, p.4.18, l i n e s 4-6). 116 A l o n g time had passed, and he h e s i t a t e d about c a l l i n g on t h e . l a d y , wondering i f he would be remembered. Suddenly, h e a r i n g the song of a cuckoo gave him f r e s h c o n f i d e n c e , and he had the c a r r i a g e t u r n e d around. As u s u a l he sent 17 Koremitsu m w i t h a message. 18 T r a d i t i o n a l l y the h o t o t o g i s u (cuckoo) has the con-n o t a t i o n of a l o v e r , and s e e i n g t h i s as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a t t r a c t her a t t e n t i o n , G e n j i sends the l a d y t h i s v e r s e : O c h i - k a e r i / -e-zo shinobare-nu / h o t o t o g i s u / hono k a t a r a i - s h i / yado-no k a k i n e - n i (p.216; Yamagishi, I, p.418, l i n e 7 ) . W e l l , here i t i s a g a i n ! That ardent cuckoo S i n g i n g at the hedge Where once we met so b r i e f l y . G e n j i compares h i m s e l f t o the cuckoo, who has r e t u r n -ed a f t e r a l o n g absence t o serenade h i s l o v e . He c a l l s out t o the l a d y , hoping t h a t she w i l l i n v i t e him i n : 117 Shin-den-to oboshi-ki-ya-no, nishi-no tsuma-ni  h i t o - b i t o i - t a r i . Saki-zaki-mo, k i k i - s h i koe- nare-ba, kowa-zukuri k e - s h i k i - t o r i - t e t on-sho- soko kiko-yu. Waka-yaka-naru ke-shiki-domo- s h i - t e , obomeku-naru-beshi (p.216; Yamagishi I , p.418, l i n e s 8-10). The ladies appeared to be i n the Western wing of the main house. Since the voices were ones he recognized from the time before, Koremitsu cleared his throat to l e t them know he was there, and gave them his message. There seemed to be a bevy of young ladies inside, and they appeared to be i n a quandary about who the message came from. The reaction to his unexpected v i s i t i s not as en-th u s i a s t i c as Genji had anticipated. The lady i s annoyed that he should reappear a f t e r having forgotten her for so long, and she rejects his proposal by sending him t h i s poem: Hototogisu / kataro koe-wa / sore-nagara / ana obotsuka-na / samidare-no sora (p.216; Yamagishi, I , p.418, l i n e 11). 118 I t may be t h a t cuckoo Which sang once be f o r e But a l a s , how can one be sure Under a r a i n y sky? There i s a pun i m p l i e d i n the word samidare. I t may mean samidare •£« ^ ^ , "the r a i n s t h a t f a l l at the be g i n n i n g of summer," or sa-midare , " d i s o r d e r " or " c o n f u s i o n " . The l a d y t e l l s G e n j i t h a t she i s not sure he i s the same cuckoo she once knew, be-cause i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see him through the r a i n . S ince samidare, i n i t s second meaning, c o u l d r e f l e c t the p o l i t -i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e p r e v a i l i n g i n the c a p i t a l , t n i s v e r s e may a l s o imply t h a t G e n j i ' s s c a n d a l and h i s subsequent d i s g r a c e prevent the l a d y from wanting t o have a n y t h i n g to do w i t h him, s o c i a l l y or otherwise. The t e x t c o n t i n -ues : K o t o - s a r a - n i , tadoru-to-mire-ba, P y o s h i - y o s h i . P u e - s h i - k a k i - n e - m o j j - t o - t e - i z u r u - o , h i t o - s h i r e - nu-kokoro-ni-wa, neto-mo, aware-ni-mo omoi- k e r i . Sa-mo, tsutsumu-beki-koto-zo-kashi. Koto-wari-ni-mo-are-ba, s a s u g a - n a r i (pp.216-17; Yamagishi, I, p.418, l i n e s 12-15). 119 Koreraitsu, seeing that their perplexity was de-liberately contrived, shrugged i t off with: "Too bad. Wrong address!" and l e f t . A l -though the lady chose to show her resentment by refusing to acknowledge Genji's v i s i t , a tinge of her former affection s t i l l remained. Yet, i t was natural for her to react the way 19 she did. Genji ignored his better judgement and the rules of decorous behaviour in this instance. Perhaps i t served him right for acting on impulse and diverging from his intended path. Genji's v i s i t to Reikeiden offers a sharp contrast to the one by the Inner River, discussed above. The scene i t s e l f , of Reikeiden's home and the atmosphere sur-rounding i t , is darker compared to the youth, vivacity, and gaiety that seemed to encompass the previous one: Ka-no ho-i-no tokoro-wa, oboshi-yari-tsuru-mo shiru-ku, hito-me-naku shizuka-ni-te- , owasu-ru ari-sama-o mi-tamo-ni-mo, ito aware-nari. Mazu, nyogo-no on-kata-ni-te, mukashi-no mono-gatari-nado kikoe-tamo-ni, yo-fuke-ni-keri (p.217; Yamagishi, I, p.419, lines 3-5). 120 A r r i v i n g at the p l a c e he had o r i g i n a l l y planned t o v i s i t , G e n j i was s o r r y t o f i n d i t j u s t as he had imagined, q u i e t and d e s o l a t e . He c a l l e d on R e i k e i d e n , and they t a l k e d f a r i n t o the n i g h t 20 about the days gone by. G e n j i r e c e i v e s a c o r d i a l welcome here, and n e i t h e r of the s i s t e r s reproaches him f o r h i s l o n g absence. As G e n j i and R e i k e i d e n t a l k q u i e t l y about the p a s t , G e n j i i s s u r p r i s e d t o see t h a t the cuckoo has f o l l o w e d him to t h i s house. He composes :a ve r s e comparing R e i k e i d e n t o ^ e "tachibana, the "orange blossoms" blooming i n her garden: Tachibana-no / ka-o natsuka-shi-mi / h o t o t o g i s u / hana-chiru-sato-o / tazune-te-zo t o (p.217; Yamagishi, I , p.419, l i n e 1 4 ) . Drawn by the scent of orange blossoms - Prom l o n g ago, The cuckoo v i s i t s The v i l l a g e of f a l l i n g f l o w e r s . G e n j i has p a i d her a compliment. More cau t i o u s t h i s time i n what context he compares h i m s e l f t o a cuckoo, he says 121 t h a t she embodies the past l i k e the f r a g r a n c e of the orange t r e e s t h a t have a t t r a c t e d him, the cuckoo, to her hous e. In her responding v e r s e , R e i k e i d e n i s more s u b t l e than the other l a d y i n e x p r e s s i n g her d i s p l e a s u r e at G e n j i ' s n e g l e c t : Hito-me naku / a r e - t a r u yado-wa / tachibana-no  hana-koso noki-no / tsuma-to n a r i - k e r e (p.217; Yamagishi, I, p.420, l i n e 5). The orange blossoms Have c l u n g t o the eaves Of a house Quite f o r g o t t e n by the world. R e i k e i d e n compares h e r s e l f t o the d w e l l i n g f o r g o t t e n by the past and a l s o , i n c i d e n t a l l y , by G e n j i . L i k e the orange blosssoms hanging on the eaves, she has f a i t h f u l l y awaited h i s r e t u r n . The imagery i n t h i s exchange of poetry r e v e a l s the t r u e nature of Reikeiden's p e r s o n a l i t y and what she r e -presents t o both G e n j i and the t a l e as a whole. Her i n -ner constancy, symbolized by the orange blossoms, can be juxtaposed a g a i n s t t h a t of the l a d y by the Inner R i v e r . U n l i k e the other l a d y , Reikeiden's f e e l i n g s toward G e n j i 122 are genuine, and she does not t r e a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p l i g h t l y . For G e n j i , R e i k e i d e n a l s o r e p r e s e n t s the past. G e n j i ' s present s i t u a t i o n i s u n s t a b l e , and h i s f u t u r e i s u n c e r t a i n . He turns t o someone a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the past and h i s f a t h e r ' s c o u r t , because the t h i n g s of the past are f i n i s h e d and, t h e r e f o r e , remain c o n s t a n t : I n i s h i - e , wasure-gata-ki nagusame-ni-wa, mazu, m a i r i - h a b e r i - n u - b e k a r i - k e r i . Koyono-koso, magiru-ru-koto-mo, kazu-so-koto-mo h a b e r i - k e r e . O-kata-no y o - n i s h i t a g o mono-nare-ba, mukashi-gatari-mo, kaki-kuzusu-beki h i t o , suku-rio-nari yuku-o, mashi-te, t s u r e - z u r e - t o  magire-naku obosaru-ranj-to kikoe-tamo (p.217; Yamagishi, I, p.419, l i n e s 15-16 and p.420, l i n e s 1-3). I should have come to you sooner, s i n c e your sympathy i s a c o n s o l a t i o n t o me when i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f o r g e t the o l d days. Coming here though, br i n g s back the problems from the past which only add t o the problems of the present. S i n c e people i n g e n e r a l tend to change as time goes by, t h e r e are few w i t h whom I can remin-i s c e . I imagine, s i n c e one cannot d i v e r t h i s 123 mind from his memories, that i t must be that 21 way for you, even more so than i t i s for me. It i s the certainty of Reikeiden's constancy and the past which she represents that Genji comes to depend upon when 'there i s so much uncertainty i n his l i f e . The author reaffirms Genji's conviction about Reik-eiden's character when she comments that "...hito-ni-wa, i t o koto-nari k e r i j - t o , oboshi-kurabe-ra-ru" (p.217; yamagishi, I, p.420, l i n e s 6-7) [Compared to other women, Genji found her to be very d i f f e r e n t ] . The end of the chapter points out c l e a r l y that i t i s women l i k e R e i k e i -den and her s i s t e r , who come from an ordinary background, but whose q u a l i t i e s are above the ordinary, that Genji most admires: Kari-ni-mo, mi-tamo kagiri-wa, oshinabe-t e-no kiwa-ni-wa ara-nu, sama-zama-ni-tsukete , f i u -kai-nashi]-to obosaru-ru-wa, nakere-ba-ni-ya, niku-ge-naku, ware-mo hito-mo, nasake-o kawashi-tsutsu sugushi-tamo n a r i - k e r i . Sore-o, f a i - n a s h i j - t o omo hito-wa, to-kaku-ni kawaru-mo, ["koto-wari-naru, yo-no-sagaj -to omoi-nashi-tamo. A r i - t s u r u kaki-ne-mo, sa-yo-ni-te, a r i -sarna kawari-ni-taru a t a r i - n a r i - k e r i (p.218; Yamagishi, I, p.420, li n e s 11-15). 124 Of the l a d i e s w i t h whom G e n j i had had even the b r i e f e s t a f f a i r s , t h e r e were none whose m e r i t s were of the o r d i n a r y ; and t h e r e were none who d i d not have some q u a l i t y worthy of h i s a t t e n -t i o n . Consequently, h i s a f f e c t i o n f o r them was l o n g - l a s t i n g . But i f a l a d y changed her mind about him, G e n j i , at any r a t e , saw t h i s as the n a t u r a l c o u r s e , o f events, and d i d not a l l o w h i m s e l f t o f e e l offended. And so i t was, even wi t h the l a d y behind the hedge, she too 22 would appear t o be one who l a c k e d constancy. The constancy that R e i k e i d e n e x h i b i t s , as opposed t o the i n c o n s t a n c y shown by the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r , r e v e a l s the d u a l nature of G e n j i ' s own i d e n t i t y . The "good" and "bad" s i d e s of G e n j i ' s c h a r a c t e r , when m i r r o r -ed a g a i n s t the "good" and "bad" elements manifested by these l a d i e s , show him to be p a r a d o x i c a l . On the one hand, no matter how u n f a i t h f u l he may be to each l a d y he has an a f f a i r w i t h , he never r e a l l y f o r g e t s her. In t h i s r e g a r d , G e n j i , compared t o the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r , i s c o n s t a n t . He does not c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s u p e r f i c i a l , even i f he does f a i l t o pay a t t e n t i o n out-wardly to her. The t r u e v a l u e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p r e l i e s 125 on inner f a i t h and not on an outer show of devotion. Afte r the lady of the Inner River has turned him away from her door, Genji goes on his way contemplating the s i n c e r i t y of his own feelings regarding relationships with women: fKa-yo-no kiwa-ni, Tsukushi-no Go-sechi-ga, rota-ge-nari-shi-wa-yaj-to, mazu oboshi-izu. Ika-naru-ni-tsukete-mo, on-kokoro-no itoma- naku, kurushi-ge-nari. Toshi-tsuki-o hete-mo, nao ka-yo-ni m i s h i - a t a r i , nasake sugushi- tamawa-nu-ni shimo, naka-naka, amata-no h i t o - no, mono-omoi-gusa-nari (p.217; Yamagishi, I, p.418, li n e s 15-16 and p.419, l i n e s 1-2). Of the ladies with a s i m i l a r s o c i a l status, he began by r e c a l l i n g the Gosechi dancer of Tsuku-shi who had indeed been charming. Whoever the ladies he came i n contact with were, he could not rest for thinking anxiously about them. In spite of the years and months that passed by, his. feelings remained the same toward them, and the ladies themselves could by no means forget him. 126 While the "behaviour e x h i b i t e d "by the l a d y o f the Inner R i v e r b r i n g s t o l i g h t the constant s i d e of G e n j i ' s c h a r a c t e r , h i s inconstancy i s exposed when measured a g a i n s t t h a t t y p i f i e d by R e i k e i d e n . Prom an e x t e r n a l p o i n t of view, he n e g l e c t s the d u t i e s that one i s bound by i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s meaningful. Although h i s i n -i t i a l d e v o t i o n may make some l a d i e s happy i n the short term, h i s i n a b i l i t y t o remain f a i t h f u l causes them much p a i n i n the l o n g run. However, the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r , R e i k e i d e n , and her s i s t e r d i s p l a y s i m i l a r a t t i t -udes, i n t h a t they t r y not to al l o w t h i s s i d e of G e n j i ' s nature t o a f f e c t them a d v e r s e l y . T h e i r a t t i t u d e s d i f f e r n o n e t h e l e s s , i n t h a t the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r w i l l not accept G e n j i u n l e s s i t i s on h e r terms, which means an outward d i s p l a y o f f a i t h f u l n e s s . R e i k e i d e n and her s i s t e r , on the other hand, accept G e n j i on h i s terms. They v a l u e the i n n e r t r u s t and s i n c e r i t y t h a t has grown out of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , and do not r e a c t by becoming v i c t i m s of s e l f - i n f l i c t e d j e a l o u s y or resentment. What the c h a r a c t e r of R e i k e i d e n r e p r e s e n t s i s c l o s e -l y connected t o Ge n j i ' s quest. In paying h i s v i s i t t o her he has an e x t e r n a l quest, which i s to seek c o n s o l a t i o n . At p r e s e n t , s i n c e the world has t u r n e d a g a i n s t him, G e n j i 1 2 7 r e a l i z e s t h a t the k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p he needs t o f o s t e r i s not one t h a t leaves him u n c e r t a i n of the l a d y ' s f e e l -ings toward him. Thus he d i s t i n g u i s h e s between ones l i k e the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r who f e l l s hort of h i s s t a n d -a r d of p e r f e c t i o n and R e i k e i d e n whose a b i l i t y t o g i v e what he needs—comfort and d e p e n d a b i l i t y - c a u s e s him i n l a t e r years to reward her so l a v i s h l y . G e n j i ' s v i s i t to R e i k e i d e n i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o an i n t e r n a l o^uest which y i e l d s an unexpected r e v e l a t i o n . While he i s t a l k i n g t o R e i k e i d e n about o l d times and the heyday of h i s f a t h e r ' s c o u r t , G e n j i i s s t a r t l e d t o hear the cuckoo, and wonders i f i t c o u l d be the same one that he heard b e f o r e : Mukashi-no koto, k a k i - t s u r a n e obosare-te, u c h i - naki-tamo. H o t o t o g i s u , a r i - t s u r u kaki-ne-no uchi-zushi-tamo ( p . 2 1 7 ; Yamagishi, I, p . 4 1 9 , l i n e s 9 - 1 3 ) . G e n j i wept as memories arose one a f t e r the o t h -er. He heard the f a m i l i a r song of a cuckoo. Could i t be the same as the one behind t h a t p r e v i o u s hedge? He was e n t h r a l l e d by the n i - y a , o n a j i koe-ni uchi-naku. \ s h i t a i - k i - n i - k e r u - y o j - t o obosaru-ru-hodo-mo, e n - n a r i - k a s h i . f~Ika-ni s h i r i - t e - k a j -nado, s h i n o b i - y a k a - n i , 128 thought t h a t i t might have f o l l o w e d him t h e r e . "How d i d i t know?" he s a i d i n a u d i b l y t o h i m s e l f . I k a - n i s h i r e - t e - k a . ["How d i d i t know?"] a l l u d e s t o a ve r s e found i n the Kokin Rokujo ° 7 / s 1 a p o e t i c anthology of the l a t e t e n t h century. Here i s S e i d e n s t i c k e r * s t r a n s l a t i o n : I n i s h i - e - n o / koto katare-ba / h o t o t o g i s u / i k a - n i s h i r i - t e - k a / furu-goe-no suru We t a l k of t h i n g s of o l d and-how d i d i t know?-The cuckoo c a l l s i n a v o i c e known l o n g ago. The cuckoo, i n t h i s c o n t e x t , may be i n d i c a t i v e of Ge n j i ' s g u i l t y conscience. T a l k i n g about the past r e -minds him of h i s s e c r e t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F u j i t s u b o and of the o f f e n c e he committed a g a i n s t h i s f a t h e r . In Japanese l i t e r a t u r e , the cuckoo i s not only symbolic of a l o v e r , but i t may a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a messenger 2 4 from the underworld. Here i t seems to suggest the s p i r i t of G e n j i ' s f a t h e r who has r e t u r n e d from the l a n d of the dead, i n order t o inform h i s son t h a t he knows h i s s e c r e t . T h i s s h o r t phrase, I k a - n i s h i r e - t e - k a , may be seen as the t u r n i n g p o i n t , the "point of r e c o g n i t i o n " i n the 129 Suma '-sequence; £.nd t h i s alone would j u s t i f y the i n c l u s i o n of Chapter Eleven i n G e n j i monogatari. In the presence of a la d y who re p r e s e n t s s t a b i l i t y and a k i n d of p e r f e c -t i o n he cannot f i n d i n h i m s e l f , G e n j i g r a d u a l l y comes t o re c o g n i z e the r e a l reason f o r h i s d o w n f a l l , and t h a t he must accept the consequences of a c t i o n s committed i n the past . Reikeiden's involvement i n G e n j i ' s quest i s i n d i r -ect but f o r c e f u l , both e x t e r n a l l y and i n t e r n a l l y . L i k e the good f a i r y type f i g u r e she may be seen t o r e p r e s e n t , she l i s t e n s t o a l l of G e n j i ' s t r o u b l e s , and s i n c e she i s dependent on G e n j i f o r m a t e r i a l support r a t h e r than emo-t i o n a l support, she can console him without becoming p e r s o n a l l y or d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n h i s quest. I n t e r n a l -l y , however, G e n j i ' s quest i s f u l f i l l e d unexpectedly wh.enl.he sees her as h e r s e l f . A f t e r making h i s remark about the cuckoo that has f o l l o w e d him to her home, he does not r e v e a l t o her h i s s e c r e t g u i l t , but r e c i t e s , i n -s t e a d , a ver s e which uses the cuckoo i n a d i f f e r e n t con-t e x t . The p o i n t i s not l o s t , however. By e x t e r n a l i z i n g her own f e e l i n g s and e x p r e s s i n g her constancy i n a r e -sponding v e r s e , symbolized by the image of orange b l o s -soms, she p r o j e c t s G e n j i ' s d e f e c t s , h i s inc o n s t a n c y which, i n t u r n , f u r t h e r emphasizes the t r u t h about h i s g u i l t . 130 I f the a c t i o n of "Hanachirusato" seems to l a c k im-petus, i t i s because t h e . r e a l a c t i o n of the s t o r y belongs to the i n t e r n a l world. Instead of a f a s t - p a c e d adventure the episode of "Hanachirusato" i s about n o t h i n g more than t h r e e o r d i n a r y s o c i a l v i s i t s . The f i r s t v i s i t by the I n -ner R i v e r was imprudent on G e n j i ' s p a r t , and he found h i m s e l f unwelcome. The r e v e l a t i o n brought about by t h a t v i s i t , however, only demonstrated more c l e a r l y Reikeiden's v i r t u e s , as opposed to those of other l a d i e s of the type r e p r e s e n t e d by the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r . In h i s v i s i t t o R e i k e i d e n and her s i s t e r G e n j i observes the r u l e s of proper conduct, and the reader sees h i s "good" s i d e : Nishi-omot e-ni-wa, waza-to-naku, s h i n o b i - y a k a - n i , u c h i - f u r u - m a i - t a m a i - t e , nozoki-tamaeru-mo, m e z u r a s h i k i - n i soe-rte, yo-ni-me-nare-nu on- sama-nare-ba, tsurasa-mo wasure-nu-beshi. Nani-ya-ka-ya-t o, r e i - n o , natsukashu, k a t a r a i - tamo-mo, obosa-nu-koto-ni-wa, a r a - z a r u - b e s h i (pp.217-18; Yamagishi, I, p.420, l i n e s 8-11). He went q u i e t l y and u n o b t r u s i v e l y t o the West-ern f r o n t of the house, and c a l l e d on R e i k e i -den's s i s t e r . His v i s i t s were few, but s i n c e h i s demeanor was beyond reproach, any b i t t e r -ness she might have f e l t was no doubt 131 completely f o r g o t t e n . As u s u a l , G e n j i spoke about one t h i n g or another from the p a s t , but i t would seem l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g he s a i d which d i d not come from the h e a r t . In order t o see the r e a l import of t h i s chapter and the excitement i t s u b t l y engenders, one has t o l o o k c l o s e l y at the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n , and suddenly the v i s i t becomes a c r u c i a l part of the s t o r y , b u i l d i n g up a n t i c i p -a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g a l i n k between two c h a p t e r s . As one may have surmised from the passages and poet-r y a l r e a d y quoted, nature and n a t u r a l symbolism are c r u c i a l i n e x t e r n a l i z i n g the concealed a c t i o n of "Hana-c h i r u s a t o " . F i r s t , n a t u r a l scenes and phenomena p r o v i d e an e x t e r n a l background a g a i n s t which the i n t e r n a l moods, a c t i o n s , and i d e n t i t i e s of the c h a r a c t e r s are transposed. At the be g i n n i n g of the chapter, f o r example, G e n j i i s depressed and decides t o v i s i t R e i k e i d e n . I t i s l a t e s p r i n g and i t has been r a i n i n g : . . . s h i n o b i - g a t a k u - t e, samidare-no s o r a , mezurashTX h a r e - t a r u kumo-ma-ni, w at a r i - t a m o . Nani-bakari-no on-yosoi-naku, u c h i - y a t s u s h i - t e, go-zen-nado-mo naku, s h i n o b i - t e,..,. (p. 215; yamagishi, I, p.417, l i n e s 13-15). 132 It was d i f f i c u l t to endure, and on an unusual-l y clear day when there was a break i n the clouds, he went to v i s i t them. He l e f t d i s -c r e e t l y , without an ostentatious display of a t t i r e or a forward retinue of followers. The expression, samidare, has been discussed e a r l i e r as a pun, i n r e l a t i o n to the poem Genji receives from the lady by the Inner.River. By denoting the overcast weather, samidare also r e f l e c t s Genji's gloomy feel i n g s . In the verse composed by the lady of the Inner River, cloudy skies and a v e i l of r a i n suggested concealment. Here, a r i f t i n the clouds and a burst of sunshine may i n f e r r e l i e f from depression and revelation. Later, at the home of Reikeiden, the t r u t h about Genji's i d e n t i t y and also the truth regarding his punish-ment are revealed as Genji and the lady t a l k amid a garden s e t t i n g : Hatsu-ka-no t s u k i , sashi-izu-ru hodo-ni, ito-do  ko-dakaki kage-domo, ko-guro mie-watari-te, chikaki tachibana-no kaori, natsukashu n i o i - t e , ...(p.217; Yamagishi, I, p.419, l i n e s 5-6). It was the twentieth day of the f i f t h month, and the trees loomed t a l l and dark under the 1 3 3 l i g h t of the r i s e n moon. The f r a g r a n c e o f the orange "blossoms nearby reminded G e n j i of by-. ' gone days. G e n j i and R e i k e i d e n are d i s c u s s i n g the pa s t , the hap p i e r days of h i s f a t h e r ' s r e i g n . The dark t r e e s , l i k e shadows, p a r t i a l l y r e v e a l e d i n the moonlight, may suggest the unknown wil d e r n e s s t h a t G e n j i cannot see i n -t o . The moon, a d i s t a n t and f a i n t source of l i g h t , evokes an u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e G e n j i cannot reach. The scent of the orange blossoms, a c o n v e n t i o n a l symbol f o r the past i n Japanese l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e n s i f i e s the f e e l i n g of n o s t a l g i a and the evanescent moment of G e n j i ' s v i s i t t h e r e i n the present. The garden landscape, however, i s more than j u s t a background f o r the c h a r a c t e r s ' emotions. When f e e l i n g s are juxtaposed onto e x t e r n a l scenery, then the n a t u r a l t h i n g s observed i n the scene may be regarded as the ob-j e c t i f i c a t i o n of hidden concerns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d i v -i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r l i v e s . In the poem G e n j i sends i n t o the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r , he i m p l i e s t h a t he i s the cuckoo s i n g i n g by her hedge. In Reikeiden's garden, the cuckoo takes on a d i f f e r e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e . Hearing the same b i r d a g a i n , G e n j i i s shocked i n t o r e a l -i z i n g t h a t i t may be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of h i s dead f a t h e r . 134 His r e a c t i o n does not d i v u l g e h i s s e c r e t t o R e i k e i d e n . In the v e r s e he r e c i t e s t o her, he continues t o pretend t h a t he h i m s e l f r e p r e s e n t s the cuckoo. The scent of the orange blossoms not only symbolizes the p a s t , but a l s o o b j e c t i f i e s what Reikeiden's c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s — c o n s t a n c y and s t a b i l i t y . The f a c t t h a t the orange blossoms bloom i n the summer a l s o r e f l e c t s her m a t u r i t y , the wisdom and experience she has gained from the p ast. The theme of constancy symbolized by the c h a r a c t e r of R e i k e i d e n , and e x t e r n a l i z e d through the image of the orange blossoms, i s c r u c i a l when seen i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the changing c y c l e of l i f e and nature around which the Suma chapters are s t r u c t u r e d . In t h i s c hapter, Reikei^---den's constancy br i n g s t o mind the unmoving a x i s around which l i f e i s i n e t e r n a l f l u x . She i s r e s i l i e n t enough t o change, as the f r a g r a n c e of the orange blossoms comes and goes w i t h the seasons; but s t e a d f a s t l y l o y a l , l i k e the orange blossoms whose r o o t s and branches remain f i r m -l y i n the same p l a c e , always knowing t h a t the flowers and f r a g r a n c e — l i k e G e n j i — w i l l r e t u r n , although not so r e g u l a r l y . I f the c h a r a c t e r of R e i k e i d e n can be seen as r e -p r e s e n t i n g a c e n t r a l , unchanging a x i s around which the c y c l e r e v o l v e s , then the "Hanachirusato" chapter can be 135 regarded as a t r a n s i t i o n a l p o i n t i n the Suma sequence where G e n j i sees the world i n g r e a t e r p e r s p e c t i v e , and re c o g n i z e s h i s own i d e n t i t y i n t h a t world. The f u n c t i o n of t h i s s h o r t chapter i s simple but c r u c i a l , i n t h a t i t o f f e r s a r e s p i t e f o r G e n j i and the reader. For G e n j i i t i s l i k e a b r i d g e between h i s world as a youth, i n Chapter Ten, and the world he must f a c e i n "Suma" as an a d u l t . For the rea d e r , without "Hanachirusato", the sequence may have seemed incomplete. D e s p i t e the c o n f l i c t s and a n x i e t i e s i n G e n j i ' s l i f e , the n a t u r a l c y c l e of time around which the Suma sequence r e v o l v e s g i v e s u n i t y and c o n t i n u i t y t o the s t o r y . While mention of the season and the time of day put the e x t e r n -a l and i n t e r n a l events i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e , the major time c y c l e t h a t "Hanachirusato" i s preoccupied w i t h i s the past and how i t r e l a t e s t o the present and f u t u r e . Since G e n j i ' s present circumstances are i n a p r e c a r i o u s s t a t e , h i s mind keeps r e t u r n i n g t o the past, l i f e always seemed h a p p i e r i n the p a s t . In t h i s chapter G e n j i goes i n s e a r c h of the past by v i s i t i n g R e i k e i d e n . In review-i n g the happy events of the pa s t , the unhappy events are a l s o , s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , r e s u r r e c t e d . The n o s t a l g i a f o r the past as r e p r e s e n t e d by R e i -k e i d e n i n "Hanachirusato", i s important t o the c o n t i n u -i t y of the s t o r y because, without i t , t h e r e would be no 1 3 6 s t o r y . I t i s the e v e n t s — g o o d or b a d — o f the changeless pas t , when remembered, which cause the t r a n s i t i o n a l a c-t i o n t o happen and the s t o r y t o move forward. G e n j i seeks h i s answers i n the p a s t , and f i n d s t h a t he cannot undo the a c t i o n s he now r e g r e t s . The i n e v i t a b l e conse-quence of h i s a c t i o n s i s t h a t he must pay the p r i c e f o r them, and thus the reason f o r the s t o r y to c o n t i n u e . In "Hanachirusato", the f e e l i n g of suspense and f o r e -boding imbued i n tragedy i s i n t e n s i f i e d when t h i n g s con-c e a l e d are r e v e a l e d through the use of i r o n y , a b s u r d i t y , f e a r , and pathos. A g e n e r a l sense of i r o n y can be ob-served through a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g of the t e x t and some previous knowledge of who and what the c h a r a c t e r s r e -presen t . In order t o delve deeper, however, a l i t t l e more knowledge of the language i n the t e x t and some of the conventions the author borrowed from t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese l i t e r a t u r e can r e v e a l unexpected forms of i r o n y , a b s u r d i t y , f e a r , and pathos that are not immedi-a t e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . For example, the f i r s t l i n e s i n t h i s chapter b r i e f l y summarize G e n j i ' s ambiguous s i t u a -t i o n : 1 3 7 H i t o - s hire-nu , on-kokoro-zu-kara-no mono-omowashji  -sa-wa, i t s u - t o n a k i koto-na-mere-do, kaku, o- kata-no y o - n i - t s u k e t e - s a e , wazurawashu, o b o s h i - midaru-ru koto-nomi masare-ba, mono-kokoro- bosoku, yo-no-naka, nabe-te itowashu, o b o s h i - n a r a r u - r u - n i , sasuga-naru-koto, o k a r i ( p . 2 1 5 ; Yamagishi, I , p . 4 1 7 , l i n e s 5 - 7 ) . Although G e n j i ' s p e r s o n a l problems, which were of h i s own making, p e r s i s t e d , they were f u r t h e r augmented by the t r o u b l e s brought about i n h i s p u b l i c l i f e . T h i n k i n g a world t h a t only gave him reason t o f e e l depressed, as d i s a g r e e a b l e to l i v e i n , he thought of g e t t i n g away from i t , but he found he c o u l d not abandon h i s many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The opening word, h i t o - s h i r e - n u , "no one knows" or "a s e c r e t " i s i r o n i c a l when seen i n i t s deeper context. By drawing from Japanese c l a s s i c a l a n t h o l o g i e s , such as the Manyoshu and the Kokinshu, the author s k i l f u l l y used the e s t a b l i s h e d meaning of t h i s word t o e x t e r n a l i z e the i n t e r n a l meaning of t h i s chapter. H i t o - s h i r e - n u appears twice i n the chapter, and i t s i r o n i c sense i s i m p l i c i t throughout the t e x t . 1 3 8 F i r s t , h i t o - s h i r e - n u , i n p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than neg-a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , b r i n g s t o mind the events that l e d up t o Ge n j i ' s d i s g r a c e , through t h i s verse found in'.the Manyoshu: Haru-no no-ni / asa r u k i g i s h i - n o / tsuma-goi-ni  ono-ga a t a r i - o / h i t o - n i s h i r e - t s u t s u The pheasant s e e k i n g i t s mate In the s p r i n g f i e l d s , Makes i t s h i d i n g p l a c e 25 Known to a l l . The i r o n y l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t l i k e the pheasant, G e n j i r e v e a l e d f o o l i s h l y and w i t h a great l a c k of s e n s i t i v i t y what he most wanted t o keep hidden. H i t o - s h i r e - n u i s i r o n i c a l i n another sense when seen i n l i g h t of a v e r s e taken from the Kokinshu; H i t o-shire-nu / wa-ga k a y o i - j i - n o / s e k i -mori-wa / y o i - y o i - g o t o - n i / uchi-rao ne-na-nan The same ver s e found i n the Ise monogatari i s t r a n s l a t e d by McCullough as f o l l o w s : 139 Would t h a t he might f a l l a s l e e p Every n i g h t -T h i s guard At the s e c r e t p l a c e Where I come and go., In the t a l e t h a t accompanies the poem, a man v i s i t s a l a d y s e c r e t l y , e n t e r i n g and l e a v i n g her house through a "broken p l a c e i n the w a l l . He i s d i s c o v e r e d , perhaps by her f a t h e r , and a guard i s posted t o keep him away. L i k e -wise, G e n j i i s prevented from s e e i n g Oborozukiyo. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n i n the s t o r y t h a t a guard i s a c t u a l l y s t a n d i n g by her door. But, s i n c e i t would be imprudent of G e n j i t o t r y and v i s i t her agai n , she i s hidden from him by Kokiden, the guard s t a t i o n e d i n h i s mind. Going a s t e p f u r t h e r , h i s i n d i s c r e t i o n has not only c u r t a i l e d h i s v i s i t s t o Oborozukiyo, but a l s o t o other l a d i e s who, perhaps, no l o n g e r wish t o a s s o c i a t e them-s e l v e s w i t h someone who has become so unpopular. The i r o n y i n the s i t u a t i o n can be seen i n the double s t a n d -a r d perpetuated by s o c i e t y . Before G e n j i ' s s c a n d a l got abroad, people chose t o see G e n j i as j u s t a naughty boy. Now, popular o p i n i o n has moved i n the other d i r e c t i o n . His behaviour i s seen as i n t o l e r a b l e , and i t seems as i f every f a t h e r i n the c a p i t a l has l o c k e d up h i s daughter. 140 Irony can be seen i n the v a r i o u s connotations brought t o bear on the word h o t o t o g i s u , "cuckoo". When G e n j i compares h i m s e l f t o a cuckoo i n the ver s e he sends i n t o the l a d y by the Inner R i v e r , he r e v e a l s unconscious-l y the paradox of h i s c h a r a c t e r . He f o r g e t s t h a t i n n a t -ure a cuckoo i s constant. It may go away, but i t w i l l r e t u r n t o s i n g a g a i n at the proper time and season. When and i f G e n j i w i l l c a l l a g a i n on a l a d y must be l e f t t o the i m a g i n a t i o n . H o t o t o g i s u r e v e a l s the i r o n y f u r t h e r r e g a r d i n g G e n j i ' s r e a l crime, i f one sees the b i r d as a symbol of h i s f a t h e r ' s s p i r i t . G e n j i deceives R e i k e i d e n i n a t e a s -i n g manner, and t e l l s her th a t the cuckoo r e p r e s e n t s him-s e l f drawn by the n o s t a l g i c scent of her orange blossoms. The i r o n y i s f u r t h e r enhanced by the use of G e n j i ' s i n n e r v o i c e , which r e v e a l s the t r u t h t o the reader but not to Re i k e i d e n . T h i s i s understood by d e c i p h e r i n g the i m p l i c -a t i o n behind the words I k a - n i s h i r i - t e - k a and the waka v e r s e i t i s o r i g i n a l l y d e r i v e d from. Once deciphered, the hidden meaning becomes c l e a r , and the r e a l t r u t h i s r e v e a l e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the e x t e r n a l l i e . I f what i s i r o n i c a l can provoke a s m i l e i t may a l s o be absurd. That G e n j i never seems t o l e a r n from h i s mis-takes and f o r g e t s t o e x e r c i s e h i s b e t t e r judgement i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by h i s v i s i t t o the l a d y of the Inner 141 R i v e r . She r e j e c t s G e n j i and leaves him i n the embar-r a s s i n g and absurd p o s i t i o n of s t a n d i n g o u t s i d e c o o l i n g h i s h e e l s . In h i s enthusiasm he put the c a r t before the horse, f u l l y e x p e c t i n g her t o l i k e h i s analogy t o a cuckoo and t o f e e l no resentment at h i s l o n g n e g l e c t . She spends him away, i n s t e a d , w i t h h i s t a i l between h i s l e g s , a l b e i t much e n l i g h t e n e d . G e n j i a l s o makes h i m s e l f l o o k r i d i c u l o u s when, i n l e a v i n g t o v i s i t R e i k e i d e n , he t r i e s t o c o n c e a l h i s i d -e n t i t y . A person of h i s n o t o r i e t y i s as conspicuous as a f i l m a c t o r wearing dark sun-glasses and t r y i n g t o sneak out the back door. Going out without h i s u s u a l d i s p l a y of f i n e r y only makes him l o o k more g u i l t y and con-spic u o u s . Moreover, i f the sun i s s h i n i n g , which suggests r e v e l a t i o n , then he i s bound t o be n o t i c e d by people who are a l s o t a k i n g advantage of the u n u s u a l l y good weather. Tb.ereturn t o the cuckoo agai n , G e n j i t r i e s t o con-c e a l h i s i d e n t i t y by r e f e r r i n g t o h i m s e l f as the b i r d , but that, i s e a s i l y seen through. The la d y i s c l e v e r enough t o pretend t h a t she does not know who he i s , while at the same time exposing the s i d e of h i s nature t h a t i s d i s a g r e e a b l e t o her. G e n j i has exposed h i m s e l f unwit-t i n g l y e x t e r n a l l y , and she has exposed him i n t e r n a l l y . The mounting sense .of f o r e b o d i n g i n the Suma s e -quence begins i n "Hanachirusato" and reaches i t s climax 142 at the end of the "Suma" chapter. The a c t i o n of Chapter E l e v e n i s f a r from v i o l e n t i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l sense of the word, and one would h a r d l y expect to f i n d the e l e -ment of f e a r i n the n a r r a t i v e . But from the moment t h a t G e n j i i s r e j e c t e d by the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r , one i s aware t h a t t h i n g s are not l i k e l y t o go so smoothly f o r him. By the time G e n j i has reached the.;.home of R e i k e i -den, one begins t o a n t i c i p a t e t h a t something e l s e i s going t o happen and, i n the t r a n q u i l presence of R e i k e i -den, i t does happen, with a g e n t l e j o l t . When G e n j i i s suddenly made m e n t a l l y aware of h i s t r u e crime the r e a d -er knows t h a t , from then on, the t a l e w i l l progress w i t h t h a t r e v e l a t i o n d i r e c t i n g the i n t e r n a l progress of the s t ory. The element of f e a r i n t h i s chapter and i n the f o l -l o w ing one, "Suma", creeps up i n s i d i o u s l y . I t i s b u i l t on G e n j i ' s f e e l i n g of u n c e r t a i n t y about the f u t u r e and the impoverished circumstances of Reikeiden's l i f e . Be-yond the q u i e t unprepossessing e x t e r i o r o f the s t o r y , a new r e v e l a t i o n sparks new suspense and the s t o r y r i d e s on t h a t suspense u n t i l i t generates more. At the Inner R i v e r G e n j i r i s k s the p e r i l of b r e a k i n g the r u l e s of p o l i t e behaviour and, w i t h R e i k e i d e n , he r e a l i z e s t h a t the r e a l p e r i l of b r e a k i n g r u l e s i s the p e n a l t y he must i n e v i t a b l y pay f o r i t . 143 G e n j i ' s ambivalent f e e l i n g s and h i s sense of i n -s e c u r i t y are f u r t h e r dramatized'by the sense of pathos, or aware, i n the s t o r y . Others f e e l s o r r y f o r him, but no one f e e l s more s o r r y f o r G e n j i than G e n j i h i m s e l f . He demonstrates t h i s by at l o n g l a s t t h i n k i n g of h i s n e g l e c t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward R e i k e i d e n , and d e c i d i n g t o pay her a v i s i t : R e i k e i d e n - t o kikoeshi-wa, miya-tachi-mo owase  -zu, In kakure-sase-tame-te n o c h i , i y o - i y o , aware-naru on-ari-sama-o, tada, kono Taisho -dono-no on-kokoro-ni, mote-kakusare-te, sugushi-tamo-naru-beshi. On-ototo-no San-no - k i m i , u c h i w a t a r i - n i - t e , haka-no, hono-meki - t a m a i s h i n a g o r i , r e i - n o on-kokoro-nare-ba, sas u g a - n i , wasure-mo-hate tamawa-zu, waza-to -mo, mote-nashi-tamawa-nu-ni, h i t o - n o , on -kokoro-o-nomi t s u k u s h i hate tamo-beka-meru -o-mo, kono-goro, nokoru koto-naku oboshi -midaru-ru, yo-no aware-no. kusawai-ni-wa, omoi-ide-tamo-ni,...(p.215; Yamagishi, I, p.417, l i n e s 8-13). G e n j i ' s t r o u b l e s brought t o mind R e i k e i d e n , a l a d y who had r e s i d e d at h i s f a t h e r ' s c o u r t . She was c h i l d l e s s and, a f t e r the emperor's 144 death, she was s a d l y l e f t w i t h no means of support. I t seems t h a t only G e n j i , thanks to the a f f e c t i o n f o r her concealed i n h i s h e a r t , o f f e r e d h i s p r o t e c t i o n . He had once caught a f l e e t i n g glimpse of her younger s i s -t e r at court, and as u s u a l her image l i n g e r e d i n h i s mind. However, he d i d not pay much a t t e n t i o n t o her. Now the l i v e s of R e i k e i d e n and her s i s t e r seemed s e v e r e l y s t r a i g h t e n e d . G e n j i , f e e l i n g despondent over h i s own s t a t e of a f f a i r s , and having l i t t l e e l s e t o do, was reminded of these l a d i e s s u f f e r i n g the s o r t of sadness that comes w i t h l i v i n g i n an unpred-27 i c t a b l e world. Who b e t t e r to seek as a soul-mate, than one who i s s u f f e r i n g h e r s e l f from what might seem l i k e the i n j u s t -i c e s of the world: ••»mina, i t o , koto-sara-naru yo-nare-ba, mono  -o, i t o aware-ni , o b o s h i - t s u z u k e - t a r u on-"': k e s h i k i - n o asa-kara-nu-mo, h i t o - n o on-sama  - k a r a - n i - y a , oku aware-zo s o i - k e r u . (p.217; Yamagishi, I, p.420, l i n e s 3-4) 145 Notwithstanding the f a c t t h at t h i n g s had changed d r a s t i c a l l y i n the world he had been accustomed t o , G e n j i p e r s i s t e d i n f e e l i n g deep-l y about the e f f e c t s i t had on him. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s no wonder t h a t Reikeiden's d i s p o s i t i o n s a t i s f i e d h i s need f o r a l o t of sympathy. R e i k e i d e n , however, i s not deceived. She i s i n f a c t one of the few s e n s i b l e l a d i e s who does not weep c o p i o u s l y over G e n j i ' s m i s f o r t u n e s . She o f f e r s G e n j i sympathy, not p i t y . His quest was f u l f i l l e d , though not i n the way he expected. He goes away a l l the w i s e r f o r having v i s i t e d h e r, and w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t he must face h i s i n e v i t a b l e descent. I f the "Hanachirusato" chapter had never been con-c e i v e d , as S e i d e n s t i c k e r would seemingly have p r e f e r r e d , then the t r a n s i t i o n from Chapters Ten to Twelve would have been incomplete. As w i l l be seen i n the a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t p art of "Suma" i n Chapter Three of t h i s essay, the author's c o n t r o l of the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n i n her romance i s dependent on the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a c h a r -a c t e r , l i k e R e i k e i d e n , who e s t a b l i s h e s a p o i n t of s t a b -i l i t y i n a world t h a t , f o r G e n j i , has changed and t u r n e d against-him. Her presence i s important f o r h i s g r a d u a l progress toward manhood, i n t h a t he r e a l i z e s the t r u e 146 n a t u r e o f h i s crime, and r e c o g n i z e s h i s own i d e n t i t y i n the g r e a t e r scheme of t h i n g s . "Hanachirusato", i n a n t i -c i p a t i n g the mental p e r i l s and i n t e r n a l a c t i o n to come, serves as a t r a n s i t i o n a l c hapter, g u i d i n g the d i r e c t i o n the r e s t of the Suma sequence w i l l move i n . I t i s i n t h i s context t h a t the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s w i l l examine the importance of the i n t r o d u c t o r y p o r t i o n o f "Suma". 147 Notes Chapter Two S e i d e n s t i c k e r , " C h i e f l y on T r a n s l a t i n g the G e n j i t " JJS, 6,(1980), p. 38. Waley t r a n s l a t e s the t i t l e of a l l y as "The V i l l a g e of P a l l i n g Flowers". S e i d e n s t i c k e r , i n h i s G e n j i t r a n s l a t i o n , c a l l s Chapter E l e v e n , "The Or-ange Blossoms" a f t e r the t a c h i b a n a , a type of c i t r u s t r e e mentioned i n two waka poems i n t h i s chapter and symbol-i z i n g the l a d y of whom the chapter i s about. For S e i d -e n s t i c k e r 's arguments j u s t i f y i n g h i s use of "The Orange Blossoms" as a t i t l e , see the above mentioned essay, pp. 38-9. In t h i s essay, I w i l l c a l l Chapter E l -even by i t s t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese t i t l e , "Hanachirusato". S e i d e n s t i c k e r , " C h i e f l y on T r a n s l a t i n g the G e n j i " (1980), p.39. 3 I b i d . , p.39. ^ For a d i s c u s s i o n on the meaning and vocabulary of e a r l y Japanese a e s t h e t i c s see, de Bary, ed., Sources of  Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I, pp. 172-6. J R e i k e i d e n r e f e r s t o the b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n the grounds of the i m p e r i a l p a l a c e , where the emperor's con-cubines r e s i d e d . The l a d y who occupies the main part of Chapter Eleven, "Hanachirusato 11 l i t e r -148 the action i n Chapter Eleven i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y known i n Japanese texts as "Hanachirusato", a name derived prob-ably from a poem related to her i n Chapter Eleven, and not to the place where she l i v e s . In his t r a n s l a t i o n of Genji, Seidensticker c a l l s her the lady of the orange blossoms. Arthur Waley, i n his t r a n s l a t i o n of the tale , c a l l s her Lady Reikeiden. Reikeiden i s also the f i r s t reference to her used i n the o r i g i n a l text of "Hanachiru-sato". In the interest of c l a r i t y , I w i l l r e f e r to her as Reikeiden throughout t h i s essay. Naka-gawa (The Inner River), i s a small r i v e r within the c i t y l i m i t s of Kyoto. Today i t i s a culvert running approximately Northwest of the Kamo River, s l i g h t -l y North of the imperial palace (Gosho f\ ), and underneath Imadegawa Road. 7 See Chapter One of t h i s essay, note No. 27. Q For a reference to the point of view that R e i k e i -den was inserted i n the t a l e l a t e r than the Akashi Lady, see Fujimura Kiyoshi , Genji monogatari no kozo ifa k W I f <n (Tokyo: Ofusha, 1971), pp.384-7. Reikeiden and her younger s i s t e r , San no Kimi , may be seen as a composite character. Fujimura believes that the author, when she added Chapter Eleven, may have been unsure about :.how she wanted to 149 form her c h a r a c t e r . Fujimura contends that Hanachirusato r e f e r s t o R e i k e i d e n , s i n c e i t i s she who responds t o G e n j i ' s poem about Hanachirusato (the v i l l a g e of f a l l i n g f l o w e r s ) i n the t e x t of Chapter Eleven, and not her s i s -t e r who appears at the end of the chapter. He mentions a l s o t h a t the l i n e s i n "Suma"'(p.220; Yamagishi, I I , p.12, l i n e s 8-10) r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o R e i k e i d e n andr.not her s i s t e r . Again, i n the same l i n e s i n Abe Akio fa c?P pp.154, l i n e s 13-15 and p.155, l i n e s 1-2, the e d i t o r , i n h i s note No.12, i s mistaken when he says t h a t Hanachiru-sato r e f e r s t o San no K i m i . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s i n "Suma" t o Hanachirusato r e f e r to both s i s t e r s , f o r example, on pp.224-5; Yamagishi, I I , p.21, l i n e s 4-10. But, the l a d y whom G e n j i glimpses at cou r t i s of course Reikeiden's s i s t e r (see p.144 of t h i s essay; and a l s o S e i d e n s t i c k e r , t r a n s . , G e n j i , p.215; Yamagishi, I, p.417, l i n e s 8-13). However, as Fujimura sees i t , the two s i s t e r s change p l a c e s f u r t h e r on i n the t a l e , i n "Akashi" and i n Chapter E i g h t e e n , "Matsukaze" ("The Wind i n the P i n e s " ) . I t i s reasonable t o see, i n r e l a t i o n t o the arguments about the c h a r a c t e r of - R e i k e i d e n , i n t h i s essay, t h a t both l a d i e s serve.'.the same f u n c t i o n i n G e n j i . t r 1 5 0 L i k e w i s e , i t f o l l o w s that the two s i s t e r s should eventu-a l l y merge i n t o one c h a r a c t e r . S e i d e n s t i c k e r gets around the problem of the s i s t e r s by c a l l i n g R e i k e i d e n , the l a d y of the orange blossoms when she i s f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d and by c o n t i n u i n g to c a l l h er t h a t l o n g a f t e r she has merged i n t o the c h a r a c t e r of her s i s t e r . Q H e n c e f o r t h , i n Chapters Two and Three of t h i s t h e s i s , a l l romanized q u o t a t i o n s , u n l e s s otherwise s t a t -ed, w i l l be c i t e d from the Yamagishi, NKBT, e d i t i o n o f G e n j i monogatari. Volume I of Yamagishi's t e x t c o n t a i n s Chapter E l e v e n , "Hanachirusato" (pp.4 1 5 - 2 0 ) ; and Volume I I con t a i n s Chapter Twelve, "Suma" (pp.9 - 5 4 ) . References from these c h a p t e r s , f i r s t from S e i d e n s t i c k e r ' s then from Yamagishi's v e r s i o n , w i l l be i n d i c a t e d i n the body of t h i s essay. A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the romanized quota-t i o n s are my own unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d . My t r a n s l a t i o n s , which f o l l o w the t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l G e n j i t e x t , have been done f o r the purpose of p r e s e n t i n g c e r t a i n p o i n t s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n I t h i n k are i m p l i c i t i n the t e x t . S i n c e i t may be argued t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be as many t r a n s l a t i o n s f o r as many p o i n t s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t and o f t e n ambiguous t e x t , I have, i n order t o support my a n a l y s i s , t r i e d t o convey the.meaning i n E n g l i s h , making i t i m p o s s i b l e at times t o match c l o s e l y the E n g l i s h grammar w i t h the Japanese grammar. 151 The system of hyphens used i n the romanized quota-t i o n s adapted from the G e n j i t e x t f o l l o w s t h a t of Shinmeikai Kogo J i t e n Br] ffiZf £ %% ^ $\ ed., K i n d a i c h i Haruhiko (Tokyo: Sanseido Henshujo, 1972). The hyphens denote noun phras-es, compound words ( d e s c r i b e d w i t h Chinese c h a r a c t e r s ) , and d e r i v a t i o n s (the o r i g i n a l form plus the d e r i v e d form). They are a l s o used between k a n j i and h i r a g a n a , between a word stem and i t s ending, between a word and a p a r t i c l e , between a verb and the p o l i t e p a r t i c l e , between connect-i n g words (verbs i n c o n t i n u a t i v e form), and i n the con-j u g a t i o n of h o n o r i f i c v e r b s . 10 References t o these words may be found i n Yama-g i s h i , ed., G e n j i , I I , kokoro-base-bito, p . 2 6 9 , l i n e 1; tsutsumashi-ge, p.269, l i n e 2; yawara-ka-na-ran-hito, p.314, l i n e 4; o i r a - k a , p.323, l i n e 10; and ke-shiki-bama-nu, p.323, l i n e s 10-11. Reikeiden's f i n e r q u a l i t i e s are f u r t h e r manifested i n G e n j i ' s own words, when he t a l k s t o Murasaki about h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h v a r i o u s l a d i e s i n Chapter Twenty, "Asagao" ^ ("The Morning G l o r y " ) : "I have never taken charge of a la d y who has had n o t h i n g at a l l t o recommend her. Yet the r e a l l y o u t s t a n d i n g ones are r a r e indeed. The l a d y i n the east lodge [ R e i k e i d e n ] here i s an example of complete d e v o t i o n and d e p e n d a b i l i t y . 152 I undertook t o l o o k a f t e r her when I saw her f i n e r q u a l i t i e s , and I have found a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g i n her b e h a v i o r which I might c a l l f o r -ward or demanding. We have become ve r y fond of each other, and would both, I t h i n k , be sad at the thought of p a r t i n g " (p.358; Yamagishi, I I , p.268, l i n e s 15-16 and p.269, l i n e s 1-4). 11 A s i m i l a r passage about R e i k e i d e n , seen from G e n j i ' s p o i n t of view, i s i n S e i d e n s t i c k e r , t r a n s . , G e n j i , p.411; and i n Yamagishi, I I , p.380, l i n e s 3-9. 12 — — Fujimura, G e n j i monogatari no kozo, pp.387-92. To l e a r n how G e n j i comes t o meet Suetsumuhana, read Chap-t e r S i x , "Suetsumuhana" (The Safflower'Q. The Suetsumuhana sequence i s completed i n Chapter F i f t e e n , "Yomogifu" £^f^ ("The Wormwood P a t c h " ) , when G e n j i , having r e t u r n -ed from e x i l e at Suma, rescues the p r i n c e s s from d e s t i t u -t i o n and i n s t a l l s her i n h i s N i j o mansion. 1 ~\ See S e i d e n s t i c k e r , t r a n s . , G e n j i , pp.477-78. For a s i m i l a r episode see a l s o , pp.407-8. 14 T h i s i n c i d e n t occurs i n Chapter Twenty-eight, "Nowaki" (The Typhoon), pp.458-59. In the same chapter on p.460, Y u g i r i compares Murasaki wi t h R e i k e i d e n . 15 ' For the sake of c l a r i t y and euphony, I w i l l h e n c e f o r t h c a l l Naka-gawa, the Inner R i v e r , and the l a d y whom G e n j i wishes t o c a l l on, t h e r e , the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r . 153 16 - £ The koto ^ , i s a h o r i z o n t a l Japanese harp, and the. Azuma-goto or wagon ^ , i s an a n c i e n t v a r i e t y of t h i s instrument. The k a t s u r a t r e e , i n E n g l i s h i s known as a Judas Tree. The flowers bloom be f o r e the l e a v e s appear. The Japanese v a r i e t y i s Cercidiphyllum_japonicum. 17 The meaning of tada-nara-zu would seem t o i n d i c -ate here t h a t G e n j i ' s emotional r e a c t i o n t o the scene was no o r d i n a r y one. Throughout the t a l e , Koremitsu i s G e n j i ' s f a i t h f u l s ervant and messenger. 1 8 H o t o t o g i s u (cuckoo) 9\F M ' ^ ffi % Cuculus p o l i o c e p h a l u s . 19 J The t e x t here i s somewhat ambiguous. . Sa-mo, tsutsumu-beki kot o-zo-kashi. Koto-wari-ni-mo-are-ba t  s a s u g a - n a r i , c o u l d be e i t h e r Koremitsu's or the author's s u b j e c t i v e c o n c l u s i o n . I t may be b a s i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as: "Since t h i s was a reasonable a t t i t u d e f o r her (the l a d y of the Inner R i v e r ) t o take, l i k e i t or not, G e n j i would have t o take i t t h a t way, and t h a t ' s t h a t . " Ac-c o r d i n g t o Yamagishi's a n n o t a t i o n , p.419, note No.13, the lady's r e a c t i o n was understandable i n t h a t she c o u l d p o s s i b l y have had another l o v e r , on Nyogo, i n t h i s context,- r e f e r s t o R e i k e i d e n and not her s i s t e r . The word means l i t e r a l l y "a court l a d y . " 154 Koyono-koso, magiru-ru-kot o-mo, kazu-s o-kot o-mo  h a b e r i - k e r e . A c c o r d i n g t o Yamagishi's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on p.4 1 9 , note No. 21 f o r G e n j i , t a l k i n g about the past w i t h R e i k e i d e n , i n s t e a d of o b s c u r i n g or making him f o r g e t o l d w o r r i e s , those a n x i e t i e s are added onto the problems he a l r e a d y has. The passage the above sentence i s con-t a i n e d i n comes j u s t a f t e r G e n j i d i s c o v e r s the cuckoo has f o l l o w e d him t o Reikeiden's home and a f t e r the poem he r e c i t e s t o the l a d y . Reikeiden's presence, then, i n s t e a d of a l l o w i n g G e n j i t o f o r g e t h i s t r o u b l e s causes him t o remember h i s former a c t i o n s , and r e a l i z e he must take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them, pp Meaning t h a t G e n j i ' s f e e l i n g s f o r a l a d y , once he got t o know her, were d u r a b l e , but s i n c e he knew so many l a d i e s , i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o meet a l l of them f r e q u e n t l y . T h e r e f o r e , he d i d not take o f f e n c e i f l a d i e s , such as the one by the hedge (by the Inner R i v e r ) , d i d not remain constant i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s toward him. p-j _ _ J Prom the Kokin Rokujo, i n M a t s u s h i t a Daisaburo ^ T 7\ 3 - |fp , ed., Zoku Kokka Ta i k a n Tfc^j fB-\ ^ ifi^  , Suppl., V o l . I (Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 1931; r p t . 1 9 5 8 ) , p.538 , No.33650. T r a n s l a t i o n by S e i d e n s t i c k e r , trans:.., G e n j i , p.217 . 155 2 4 Ikeda Kikan © ^ ed., Genji • i j i t e n ^ ^ ^ i l i ^ monogatari  -A j . t v f / ' 3c? -sp- / \ , 2 vols. (Tokyo: Tokyodo, 1963), p.458. Ikeda states that the idea of the cuckoo as a b i r d from the underworld i s a popular interpretation. 2 5 Manyoshu, NKBT, Vo l . I I , pp.288 -89 , No.1446. Translation my own. 2 6 Kokinshu, NKBT, p.227, No.632. Poem by Ariwara 7. no N a r i h i r a ^ ^ ^ ' J 1 ^ . Translation by Helen Craig McCullough, Tales of Ise: L y r i c a l Episodes from Tenth- Century Japan (Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1968), p.72. 27 According to Yamagishi's annotation, p.417, Note No.7), yo-no aware-no kusawai-ni-wa, means the equivalent i n English to "one kind of sadness," kusawai meaning "sort" or "kind." 156 Chapter Three CONCEALMENT AND REVELATION i n the INTRODUCTORY PORTION OF THE "SUMA" CHAPTER Nami koko moto-ya / Suma-no u r a / t s u k i - s a e nurasu / tamoto—ka-na Here at Suma Bay The waves s h a t t e r at our f e e t , And even the moonlight wets our sl e e v e s With i t s t e a r s of l o n e l i n e s s . l i t e r a t u r e u s u a l l y g i v e s r i s e t o f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h romance. Located i n what i s now the c i t y of Kobe some s i x t y k i l o m e t r e s away from Kyoto, i t s rough s c e n i c beauty was f r e q u e n t l y p r a i s e d by the Heian noble and t r a v e l l e r . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t should have a p l a c e i n the g r e a t e s t l i t e r a r y work of t h a t p e r i o d , G e n j i  monogatari. The i n s p i r a t i o n f o r G e n j i ' s e x i l e t o Suma, which appears i n Chapter Twelve o f t h i s romance (pp.2 1 9 - 4 6 ; Yamagishi, I I , pp. 9 - 5 4 ) , probably had i t s o r i g i n i n the h i s t o r i c a l banishment of Ariwara no Y u k i h i r a fe- fffs ^1 ^ ( 8 1 8 - 8 9 3 ) , the b r o t h e r of N a r i h i r a , a The mention of Suma i n e a r l y Japanese 157 poet who f i g u r e s prominently i n the Kokinshu and -the Ise  monogatari. In the passage quoted above from the famous No p l a y , Matsukaze /&L-> (The Wind i n the P i n e s ) , by Kan'ami (1-333-1384), Suma evokes a sense of f o r l o r n melancholy. In romance, the sea i s o f t e n symbolic of the underworld, and i n G e n j i the w i l d and un-tamed beauty of the Suma coast e l i c i t s the l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n G e n j i f e e l s when he i s a l i e n a t e d from s o c i e t y , and f o r c e d t o journey both l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y t o a world t h a t i s the exact a n t i t h e s i s of what l i f e i n the c a p i t a l r e p r e s e n t s . The Suma episode i n Chapter Twelve can be counted among the most popular and wid e l y read p o r t i o n s i n the romance. A f t e r the hero, G e n j i , i s d i s c o v e r e d h a v i n g an a f f a i r w i t h Oborozukiyo, the s i s t e r of h i s stepmother Kokiden, he i s s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y o s t r a c i z e d . Rather than face f u r t h e r t r o u b l e , should more of h i s past be r e v e a l e d , he goes v o l u n t a r i l y i n t o e x i l e t o Suma. He i s r e l u c t a n t though t o l e a v e the comfort and l u x u r y of the c a p i t a l , and h e s i t a n t about b r e a k i n g the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s he has wit h the numerous l a d i e s i n h i s l i f e . He delays h i s departure, and almost h a l f of the Suma chapter c o n s i s t s o f G e n j i ' s paying f a r e w e l l v i s i t s , f i r s t t o v a r i o u s f r i e n d s and r e l a t i o n s and then t o h i s f a t h e r ' s grave. G e n j i f i n a l l y departs f o r Suma, 158 and a r r i v i n g t h e r e f i n d s t h a t the n a t u r a l beauty of the p l a c e compensates much f o r h i s p e r s o n a l sorrows. Toward the end of "Suma", a great storm a r i s e s from the sea and continues i n t o the f o l l o w i n g chapter, "Akashi". When the g a l l e r y of h i s r e s i d e n c e i s s t r u c k by l i g h t n i n g and burns down, G e n j i b a r e l y escapes t o a u t i l i t y a r e a of the house where he i s c o m i c a l l y f o r c e d t o spend the n i g h t i n the company of some l o c a l r u s t i c s . He dreams of h i s f a t h e r t e l l i n g him t o r e t u r n t o the c a p i t a l , but he h e s i t a t e s . S e v e r a l days l a t e r a boat, m i r a c u l o u s l y i t seems, comes t o rescue him, and he i s conveyed t o the nei g h b o u r i n g coast of A k a s h i , i n Harima p r o v i n c e where he i s welcomed, lodged, and r o y a l l y hosted by an o l d monk, a former governor of the p r o v i n c e . 3 The dramatic t e n s i o n t h a t g r a d u a l l y b u i l d s up t o a crescendo i n the storm at t h e end o f "Suma" has i t s source and m o t i v a t i n g power i n the f i r s t p o r t i o n of the chapter. Much s c h o l a r s h i p has been devoted t o the l a t t e r p a r t of "Suma" because of the excitement generated by i t s c l i m a c -t i c ending. R e g r e t t a b l y , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the i n t r o d u c t o r y p o r t i o n of the chapter. I t s e x t e r n -a l , u n o b t r u s i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e l i e the i n t e r n a l elements, which are c r u c i a l i n c r e a t i n g the . a n t i c i p a t i o n and emotional t e n s i o n necessary t o make the c o n c l u s i o n succeed d r a m a t i c a l l y . 159 The external action of_the f i r s t part of "Suma" is similar to that b-f "Hanachirusato", quiet and unassuming. In the opening passage the reader becomes acquainted with Genji's private thoughts concerning his situation through a Hamlet-like soliloquy, Genji's inward debate with him-self. In this internal monologue Genji tries to come to terms with the reality of his predicament, and realizes the necessity of having to make important decisions which he has l e f t unresolved for much too long. He sees that whatever he decides w i l l affect those he is responsible for, in particular the women whom he supports. At the same time, he tries to deceive himself into believing that his problems are not as serious as they seem. Know-ing that he cannot ignore his state of af f a i r s , he con-templates voluntary exile in order to escape a society that no longer accepts him. His feelings on the matter are ambivalent. Although he regrets making those closest to him unhappy by his departure, his only wish now is to escape a society that has become abhorrent and to be l e f t alone. In the second half of the section analysed here, Genji, having decided to go to Suma, pays a farewell v i s i t to the home of his parents-in-law and his infant son Yugiri. His wife, Aoi, has recently died, and the house-hold is s t i l l in mourning. The career of Genji's father-160 in-law has a l s o been r u i n e d because of G e n j i ' s d i s g r a c e . G e n j i converses with the m i n i s t e r , exchanges v e r s e s with h i s mother-in-law, P r i n c e s s Omiya, sees h i s son, and says f a r e w e l l to h i s wife' s former l a d i e s - i n - w a i t i n g , p a r t i -c u l a r l y one c a l l e d Chunagon. The theme o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h a t o f s e p a r a t i o n and the u n c e r t a i n t y o f whether or not these people w i l l ever meet a g a i n i n a l i f e t h a t i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e . "Suma" o f f e r s some o f the most moving passages i n G e n j i . T h i s i s owing not so much to the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n , which some read e r s may re g a r d as f a s t e r and more e x c i t i n g than other p a r t s o f Genj i , but to the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n which i s r e v e a l e d by what happens ex t r a n e o u s l y . In t h i s c o n t e x t , the i n t r o d u c t o r y p o r t i o n o f "Suma" i s v i t a l , s i n c e the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n may be seen as an ex t e n s i o n o f "Hanachirusato" which flows q u i e t l y i n t o the "Suma" chapter, and impels the a c t i o n to move forward l i k e an e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t toward i t s e m o t i o n a l l y charged con-c l u s i o n . Much o f the suspense f e l t toward the middle and end o f "Suma" would be l o s t without Chapter Eleven and the f i r s t p a r t o f "Suma" s i n c e , concealed w i t h i n the i n t e r n a l world o f the t e x t , are the seeds which r i s e up i n s i d i o u s l y , p e n e t r a t i n g the e x t e r n a l world and c a u s i n g the unexpected to occur. 1 6 1 There are s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t ways i n which Chapter Eleven and the f i r s t p art of Chapter Twelve i n t e r a c t i n order t o p r o j e c t the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n onto the e x t e r n a l world. F i r s t , G e n j i ' s dual i d e n t i t y , the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e aspects of h i s n a t u r e , which have a l r e a d y been r e v e a l e d i n Chapter E l e v e n , are f u r t h e r emphasized i n G e n j i ' s s o l i l o q u y . This i s achieved by the use of an outer v o i c e b e l o n g i n g t o the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n and an i n n e r v o i c e b e l o n g i n g to the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n . As one r e a d s , one can d e t e c t t h a t whenever G e n j i i s alone w i t h h i m s e l f the n a r r a t o r ' s v o i c e becomes the hero's i n n e r v o i c e r i s i n g from h i s subconscious.^ For example, the outer v o i c e of the s o l i l o q u y , which i s the n a r r a t o r t e l l i n g what G e n j i i s t h i n k i n g , reviews the most important o b l i g a t i o n s i n G e n j i ' s l i f e , those b e i n g the l a d i e s who depend on him m a t e r i a l l y and emo-t i o n a l l y . But when G e n j i i s seen to be weighing the advantages and disadvantages of going i n t o e x i l e , he r e v e a l s the. ambivalence of h i s t r u e f e e l i n g s . T h i s , i n t u r n , r e v e a l s the p a r a d o x i c a l nature of h i s c h a r a c t e r ; on the one hand h i s cowardliness and i r r e s o l u t i o n , and on the other hand h i s genuine d e s i r e t o want not t o hurt anyone. Secondly, t h i s ambivalence seen i n the i n n e r and outer v o i c e of G e n j i ' s s o l i l o q u y , and i n the d i a l o g u e 162 l a t e r on between h i m s e l f and h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , i s another aspect which e x t e r n a l i z e s G e n j i ' s i n n e r s t a t e o f mind. In "Hanachirusato" G e n j i was made aware of h i s r e a l - crime. Here, i n h i s monologue, he comes t o see r e l u c t a n t l y t h a t h i s path of descent i s a l r e a d y decided and t h a t he must accept r e t r i b u t i o n f o r h i s past a c t i o n s . Throughout the c o n v e r s a t i o n G e n j i has w i t h h i m s e l f , he never s t a t e s d i r e c t l y h i s concealed g u i l t and the r e a l reason f o r h i s v o l u n t a r y e x i l e . His going t o Suma has l i t t l e t o do w i t h p o l i t i c s or s o c i a l s c a n d a l . That i s the excuse encouraged by G e n j i i n order t o j u s t i f y h i s departure t o o t h e r s . He a l s o i s not going i n t o e x i l e s i m ply because he f e a r s t h a t the r e p e r c u s s i o n s w i l l be f a t a l f o r h i m s e l f , F u j i t s u b o , and the crown p r i n c e , i f the t r u t h became known about t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . In the s o l i l o q u y and i n the d i s c u s s i o n w i t h h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , can be d e t e c t e d the v o i c e of G e n j i condemning h i m s e l f . D e s p i t e the e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l upheaval, i t i s Ge n j i ' s i n n e r c o n f l i c t t h a t i s c a u s i n g him t o move i n a d i r e c t i o n t h a t others i n t e r p r e t s u p e r f i c i a l l y and th a t the reader i s a b l e to d i s c e r n more deeply. The s e r i e s of v i s i t s G e n j i makes,, be g i n n i n g w i t h R e i k e i d e n i n Chapter E l e v e n , then t o Sanjo, t o Murasaki (pp.223-4; Yamagishi, I I , pp.18-21), agai n t o R e i k e i d e n (pp.224-5; Yamagishi, I I , pp.21-22), to. F u j i t s u b o 163 (p.226-7; Yamagishi, I I , pp.24-25), and to his father's grave, where he actually feels the old man's presence (pp.227-8; Yamagishi, I I , pp.25-26), are not just a means of procrastination. Each v i s i t , through the emo-t i o n a l reactions observed by the characters most affected by Genji's imminent departure, externalizes the hero's concealed g u i l t . With each v i s i t the theme of separa-t i o n , of relationships breaking up, and the uncertainty that they w i l l ever be reunited, becomes a form of reve l a t i o n for Genji and the other characters present. The other characters are made aware of the impermanence of l i f e r e f l e c t e d i n what they "see" of Genji's i d e n t i t y and t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n , and they react through an out-pouring of emotions often expressed i n poetry. Genji, observing these reactions, r e a l i z e s the serious nature of his concealed g u i l t and the fact that he has hurt the ones he cares for most. Thirdl y , the quest and journey i n t h i s chapter have r e a l l y nothing to do with a place c a l l e d Suma. Genji's tormented g u i l t and his t r a g i c descent happen i n his mind. Furthermore, the int e r n a l action i n t h i s introductory portion of Chapter Twelve, reveals that Genji's mental journey i n the Suma sequence begins long before he act u a l l y sets out for Suma. Each farewell v i s i t Genji makes, the severance of close personal t i e s and the 164 r e v e l a t i o n of how his past actions have affected others, cause him to see the gravity of his own f a i l i n g s i n l i f e . By the time he reaches Suma, where there are no d i s t r a c -t i o n s , he i s alone with himself and i s forced to l i v e with his s e l f - i n f l i c t e d shame. F i n a l l y , the violence that is inherent i n tragedy, i n "Suma", i s i n t e r n a l and can be seen here in'.two forms. F i r s t , separation from society and friends becomes a form of emotional violence, i n that i t i s inhuman to separate a man from his community. Secondly, the p e r i l s attendant on Genji at Suma are mental rather than physical. No one has t o l d him to go into e x i l e i n the f i r s t place, and no assassination attempts are made on his l i f e . The only physical threat i s the storm at the end of the chapter, and i n that case, the violence i s natural rather than human. The r e a l danger Genji contacts i s depression and near nervous collapse, while externally the world of nature i s calm and b e a u t i f u l . Genji has to learn to l i v e with himself. The climactic storm seen by the world as a manifes-t a t i o n of the god's anger against society for unjustly punishing Genji, from the i n t e r n a l point of view, i s r e a l l y an external o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of the storm i n Genji's mind. Genji's dream of his father i n "Akashi" (p.250; yamagishi, II, pp.61-63), can be seen as a 165 projection of the knowledge, not so much that his father has forgiven him, but that Genji has forgiven himself. There i s no better evidence of t h i s than when Genji goes to Akashi and pursues another lady. Genji's sojourn at Suma eventually brings him enlightenment and marks his t r a n s i t i o n from youth to maturity. He learns that.he cannot escape the past by running away to an is o l a t e d place l i k e Suma. As i t turns out Genji's past follows him for the rest of his l i f e . The sense of unease and suspense that builds up from the beginning of "Suma" makes the sudden storm at the end of the chapter seem almost a n t i - c l i m a c t i c . The r e a l climax happens during the l u s t r a t i o n ceremony performed by the f o r t u n e - t e l l e r on the shores of Suma. Genji sees a l l his g u i l t and sins f l o a t i n g away with the d o l l cast into the sea. He prays for help from the gods and before the service i s ended the storm has arisen (pp.245-6; Yamagishi, I I , pp.52-54). The inner storm which began i n "Hanachirusato" has subsided with the calm before the outer storm begins. The external storm may be seen as an after-shock, the f i n a l reaction of the external world against the imbalance of ju s t i c e i n Genji's society. In "Suma", Genji's progress to mental maturity, the actions which cause reactions which i n turn cause 166 r e v e l a t i o n of things concealed, and the ensuing a n t i -c i p a t i o n of "what w i l l happen next," have t h e i r source at the beginning of the chapter with Genji's i n t e r n a l soliloquy. This scheme, with the sequence of events which follows, culminating with an external storm, comes a l i v e because the main characters themselves seem human. This i s achieved b r i l l i a n t l y i n the opening passage of "Suma", where Genji's inner voice seems to be transposed onto the outer voice used by the narrator, thus exter-n a l i z i n g his ambivalent feelings and dual personality. "Suma" opens with: Yo-no-naka, i t o wazurawashiku. hashita-naki  koto-nomi masare-ba, |~seme-te, shira-zu-gao-ni, ari-hete-mo t kore-yori- masaru koto-mo-yaj-to, oboshi-nari-nu (p.219: Yamagashi, II, p.11, l i n e s 5-6). The s i t u a t i o n i n Genji's public l i f e became progressively worse, and outstripped a l l other problems. He came to the conclusion that even i f he were to remain i n the c a p i t a l , and pretend to ignore his problems, s t i l l , matters would only deteriorate. 167 In Chapter Eleven, G e n j i r e c o g n i z e d the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the off e n c e he p e r p e t r a t e d a g a i n s t h i s f a t h e r . T h i s , c o m p l icated "by e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l events, has made l i f e d i f f i c u l t f o r him i n the c a p i t a l . T y p i c a l l y , he t r i e s t o i g nore h i s problems, but the r e a l i t y of h i s s i t u a t i o n becomes unbearable and he i s s l o w l y f o r c e d i n t o r e a l i z i n g t h a t he must make some a d u l t d e c i s i o n s . The passage c o n t i n u e s : Ka-no Suma-wa. rMukashi-kos o. h i t o - n o sumi-ka  -nado-mo a r i - k e r e . ima-wa, i t o , sato-banare, kokoro-sugoku-te, ama-no i e - d a n i mare-ni-nanj  - t o kiki-tamae-do, [ h i t o - s h i g e k u , h i t a - t a k e  - t a r a n surnai-wa, i t o , h o - i - n a k a r u - b e s h i . S a r i - t o t e , mlya-ko-o, t ozaka-ran-mo, f u r u - s a t o  obotsuka-nakaru-bekij -o, hito-waroku-zo, oboshi-midaru-ru (p.219; Yamagishi, I I , p.11, l i n e s 7-10). He c o u l d go to Suma. He had heard (on the one hand) that then, i n the p a s t , people had r e s i d e d t h e r e . Now (on the other hand) i t was f a r away from the c a p i t a l , and i t was a l o n e l y p l a c e where even fishermen's huts were few. Although (on the one hand) the p l a c e was d e s e r t e d , i f i t 168 were (on the other hand) crowded as i t once was, t h i s j u s t would not have been what he had i n mind. He w o r r i e d (on the one hand) t h a t , i f he were t o do as he wished and d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f from h i s t r o u b l e s i n the c a p i t a l (on the other hand) he would f e e l anxious about the o b l i g a -t i o n s at home, which h i s people would t h i n k unbecoming of him t o abandon. G e n j i ' s ambivalent f e e l i n g s are s t r e s s e d by a con-tinuous "on the one hand...but then on the other hand" p a t t e r n , which i s i m p l i c i t throughout the passage above. V a c i l l a t i n g between wanting t o escape a world t h a t has excluded him and h e s i t a t i n g t o le a v e because of h i s many o b l i g a t i o n s at home, he seems t o be going round i n a v i c i o u s c i r c l e . G e n j i ' s i n a b i l i t y t o make a d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n , and h i s s p e c u l a t i o n s about how a d e c i s i o n e i t h e r way w i l l a f f e c t h i m s e l f and others i n the f u t u r e , h e i g h t e n the sense of f o r e b o d i n g and a n t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s sense of f o r e b o d i n g and a n t i c i p a t i o n i s a l s o s t r e s s e d by G e n j i ' s f e e l i n g of apprehension toward those women who w i l l s u f f e r the e f f e c t s of h i s departure. The v i c t i m s of tragedy are u s u a l l y women. In the case of Murasaki S h i k i b u ' s romance, G e n j i ' s flaws cause not only h i s own d o w n f a l l , but a l s o cause others t o s u f f e r w i t h 169 him. T h i s i s where he may be p e r c e i v e d as the a r c h -v i l l a i n of the t a l e . For example, G e n j i ' s d e c i s i o n t o go i n t o e x i l e must be taken at the expense of Murasaki, who w i l l be l e f t alone and u n p r o t e c t e d : Yorozu-no koto, k i s h i - k a t a yuku-sue, omoi- tsuzuke-tamo-ni, k a n a s h i k i - k o t o, i t o , sama- zama-nari. /"uki-mono] - t o, omoi-sut e t s u r u yo-mo, f"ima-waj - t o sumi-hanare-nan koto-o (obosu-ni- wa), s a s u g a - n i , i t o s u t e - g a t a k i - k o t o okaru naka  -ni-mo , Hime-gimi-no, ake-kure-ni soe-te-wa, omoi-nageki-tamaeru-sama-no kokoro-gurushisa-wa,... (p.219; Yamagishi, I I , p..11, l i n e s 10-14). As matters d i d not stand w e l l w i t h G e n j i at p r e s e n t , he c o n t i n u a l l y thought about t h i n g s from the past and of t h i n g s yet t o come. A l -though he c o n s i d e r e d (on the one hand) abandon-i n g the c a p i t a l , which had become d i s a g r e e a b l e t o him, he thought (on the other hand) t h a t i f he went t o l i v e f a r away now, the i m p l i c a t i o n s of doing so would be great indeed. Among "these i m p l i c a t i o n s was the thought of Murasaki, day and n i g h t , f e e l i n g pained by h i s departure. In romance p a r t of a hero's descent u s u a l l y e n t a i l s s e p a r a t i o n from the h e r o i n e . In G e n j i the main h e r o i n e 170 i s Murasaki, and i n t h i s case the p a i n t h a t G e n j i would s u f f e r not having her w i t h him, and Murasaki's equally-anxious f e e l i n g s on the matter of G e n j i ' s departure, are v o i c e d i n G e n j i ' s p r i v a t e thoughts: , ...nani-goto-ni-mo sugure-te, aware-ni, i m i j i k i - o , ["yuki-meguri-te-mo, mata min koto-o, kan a r a z u j - t o, o b o s a n - n i - t e - d a n i , nao h i t o - h i  f u t s u - k a onozu-kara hedatsuru o r i - o r i - d a n i [~ikagaj-to, obotsuka-no oboe, Hime-gimi-mo, kokoro-boso nomi omoi-tamaeru-o,...(p.219; Yamagishi, I I , p.11, l i n e s . 14-16 and p.12, l i n e 1). More than a n y t h i n g e l s e was h i s f e e l i n g of dread, t h a t even a f t e r he were t o go o f f wan-d e r i n g and she were t o t h i n k a meeting t o be c e r t a i n , he would f e e l uneasy; f o r even on occasions when the normal course of events se p a r a t e d them f o r a day or two he would worry about her, and Murasaki would f e e l l o n e l y and uneasy without him. I n t e r n a l suspense caused by u n c e r t a i n t y and im-minent s e p a r a t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the f u t u r e : 171 ...iku-tose. sono hodo-to. kagiri-aru michi-ni  -mo ara-zu t au-o kagiri-ni hedatari-yukan-mot  sadame-naki yo-ni ,f~y agate t wakaru-beki kado- de-ni-mo-ya|-to imiju oboe-tamae-ba,...(p.219; Yamagishi, II, p.12, lines 1-3). It could be many years, arid i t wasn't as i f i t were a road without an end. Even i f they should happen to meet sometime in the distant future, in an uncertain world, he knew that soon they would have to separate. Kagiri-aru michi-ni-mo-ara-zu, a "road without an end," is the future Genji cannot foresee, Separation from Murasaki would be his real punishment, and he tries to evade this by wondering i f he can take her with him: "...fmorotomo-ni-mo-va. shinobi-tej-to oboshi-yoru ori-mo  are-do...."(p.219; Yamagishi, II, p.12, line 3). [He considered smuggling her out with him...] But Murasaki, who w i l l suffer i f she stays home, w i l l suffer even more i f she accompanies Genji on his journey: ...saru kokoro-bosokaran umi-zura-no, nami-kaze-yori hoka-ni t tachi-majiru-hito-mo nakaran - n i , ko, ro-taki on-sama-ni-tet hiki-gu^"sh-ir,ta.j;e -matsuran-mo, i t o , tsuki-naku, wa-ga kokoro  -ni-mo,fnaka-naka t mono-omoi-no tsuma-naru-172 beki-oj -nado oboshi-kaesu-o, Hime-gimi-wa [ i m i - j i-karan-michi-ni-mo, okure-kikoe-zu-dani a r a -baj - t o, omo-muke-t e, urame-shi-ge-ni, o b o i - t a r i (pp.219-20; Yamagishi, I I , p.12, l i n e s 3 - 8 ) . a The s e a s i d e would b e / l o n e l y p l a c e and, a s i d e from the wind and the waves, t h e r e would not even be people w i t h whom t o s o c i a l i z e . He knew i n h i s own heart t h a t i t would be unsafe t o take along such a f r a g i l e l a d y . While he tur n e d a l l these t h i n g s over i n - h i s mind, he r e a l i z e d t h a t i f she went w i t h him she would be a cause f o r worry. But I (the n a r r a t o r ) b e l i e v e d Murasaki c o u l d not bear t o face the prospect of G e n j i l e a v i n g without her. She thought t h a t even i f the road was d i f f i c u l t she c o u l d endure any h a r d s h i p , i f only she might not be l e f t behind. Not only would i t be unsafe t o expose such a d e l i c a t e l a d y t o the unknown dangers t h a t might await him on the journey t o Suma, but i t would be unj u s t t o expect her t o share h i s punishment. Moreover, i f her presence at Suma became common knowledge, i n the k i n d of s o c i e t y G e n j i moved i n , her r e p u t a t i o n would be destroyed. Murasaki would not only be exposed t o the wind and the waves at Suma but, worse s t i l l , t o people's m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p . 173 G e n j i has t o f a c e h i s t r o u b l e s a l o n e . Of the other l a d i e s i n G e n j i ' s l i f e who w i l l s u f f e r the consequences of h i s e x i l e , t h e r e i s R e i k e i d e n : Ka-no Hana-chiru-sat o-ni-mo, owashi-kayo k o t o - kos o mare-nare, kokoro-bosoku, aware-ge-naru  on-ari-sama-o, kono on-kage-ni kakure-te mono- shi-tamae-ba, i m i - j u , nageki-oboshl-taru-sama, i t o , k o t o - w a r i - n a r i (p.220; Yamagishi, I I , p.12, l i n e s 8-10). There was a l s o Hanachirusato (Reikeiden) t o c o n s i d e r . His v i s i t s t o her were few under o r d i n a r y circumstances. Her c o n d i t i o n was p i t i a b l e , and s i n c e she depended on G e n j i ' s hidden a t t e n t i o n s , she would s u f f e r g r e a t l y and have very good reason t o c o n s i d e r the im-p l i c a t i o n s of h i s departure. G e n j i , as a person, i s p e r c e i v e d by the other c h a r a c t e r s i n the t a l e , a c c o r d i n g t o the k i n d of r e l a -t i o n s h i p he has w i t h each one. A s o c i e t y t h a t f o r m e r l y was w i l l i n g t o excuse h i s misdemeanours and l o o k only at h i s good s i d e , now, only sees h i s bad s i d e . But t o the l a d i e s whom he p r o t e c t s , he i s s t i l l a k i n d b e n e f a c t o r , whose hidden a t t e n t i o n s , although i r r e g u l a r , are not known t o those who wish him i l l . 174 Other women, too, t h i n k they see more i n G e n j i than i s r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e , and the author g e n e r a l i z e s about the many who w i l l be deeply a f f e c t e d by h i s departure: "Nao-zari-ni-te-mo, hono-mi-tatematsuri. k a y o i - t a m a i - s h i  - t okoro-dokoro, h i t o - s h i r e - n u - k o k o r o - o kudaki-tamo h i t o - zo o k a r i - k e r u " (p.220; Yamagishi, I I , p.12, l i n e s 10-11). [There were many l a d i e s who s e e i n g G e n j i c a s u a l l y pass by, without h i s paying too much a t t e n t i o n t o them, were s e c r e t l y d i s a p p o i n t e d . ] Foreboding i n t e n s i f i e s w i t h the awareness t h a t ex-cept f o r h i s enemies, the whole c a p i t a l w i l l be l o s t without G e n j i . Despite h i s n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the i n n e r l i v e s o f those he i s i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h , G e n j i as the hero, a l s o has a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on h i s s o c i e t y . His u n h e r o i c , human flaws cause harm t o o t h e r s , but h i s h e r o i c merit as a charming i n d i v i d u a l w i t h an a r t i s t i c f l a i r and an e x c e p t i o n a l p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y , c o n t r i b u t e a v i t a l energy t o h i s community. Another l a d y whom G e n j i i s i r o n i c a l l y o b l i g e d t o a s s i s t and advise by request of h i s deceased f a t h e r , i s F u j i t s u b o . Having become a nun, she has maintained a c o o l d i s t a n c e toward G e n j i . Under G e n j i ' s present circumstances her r e s e r v e breaks down somewhat: "Nyudo- no miya-yori-mo ,^~mono-no k i k o e - y a , mata, i k a g a t o r i - n a saren|-to, wa-ga on-tame, tsutsumashi-kere-do, 175 s h i n o b i - t s u t s u . on-toburai t s u n e - n i - a r e " (p.220; Yama-g i s h i , I I , p.12, l i n e s 11-13). [She was c a r e f u l about how rumours might get spread about, but she wrote f r e -q u e n t l y and s e c r e t l y t o G e n j i w h i l e remaining i n s e c l u -s i o n . ] F u j i t s u b o ' s d i s p l a y of warmth toward G e n j i i n the face of h i s a d v e r s i t y p o i n t s t o two t h i n g s , one belong-i n g t o the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n and the other t o the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n . F i r s t , e x t e r n a l l y , G e n j i i s F u j i t s u b o ' s s t r o n g e s t p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t e r , and f o r him t o l e a v e the c a p i t a l weakens her p o s i t i o n as the o f f i c i a l empress and a l s o t h a t of t h e i r son, the crown p r i n c e . From the p o i n t of view of the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n , the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s of the crown p r i n c e t i e both G e n j i and F u j i t s u b o t o g e t h e r . Secondly, from an i n t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , G e n j i and F u j i t s u b o cannot, d e s p i t e t h e i r e f f o r t s , f o r g e t each other: |~Mukashi, k a - y o - n i , a i - o b o s h i , aware-o-mo mise-tamawa-mashika-baj - t o, uchi-omoi-ide-tamo-ni, j~sa-mo, sama-zama-ni kokoro-o nomi tsukusu-be-k a r i - k e r u , h i t o - n o o n - c h i g i r i - k a - n a j - t o , t s u r o -omoi-kikoe-tamo (p.220; Yamagishi, I I , p.12, l i n e s 13-15). He r e f l e c t e d , i f only l o n g ago, as now, she had r e c i p r o c a t e d h i s l o v e , and thought w i t h some 176 b i t t e r n e s s how i n t e n s e t h e i r bond from a previous l i f e must have been. F u j i t s u b o has t r i e d t o put G e n j i out of her emotional l i f e by i g n o r i n g h i s amorous advances, w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g him as an a d v i s o r . She has sought repentance and s a l v a -t i o n by t a k i n g r e l i g i o u s vows, but two t h i n g s stand i n her way toward a t t a i n i n g t h a t quest. F i r s t , the two s i d e s of her c o n f l i c t i n g nature prevent her from f o r g e t t i n g about G e n j i . Secondly, the crown p r i n c e i s a l s o the bond t h a t t i e s the two of them e m o t i o n a l l y t o g e t h e r . He i s a con-s t a n t reminder t h a t they both share the same g u i l t . The way t o Buddhist enlightenment and peace of mind r e q u i r e s p u t t i n g a l l w o r l d l y attachments a s i d e , but F u j i t s u b o , a l -though she has r e l i n q u i s h e d many of the e x t e r n a l p l e a s u r e s of l i f e w i l l , l i k e G e n j i , never a t t a i n her quest, s i n c e she cannot abandon her emotional attachment t o him. G e n j i ' s s o l i l o q u y , h i s s o u l - s e a r c h i n g , belongs t o h i s i n t e r n a l quest, h i s s e a r c h f o r an answer out of a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . E x t e r n a l l y , the n a r r a t o r t e l l s us what G e n j i i s contemplating, the pros and cons concerning h i s t r o u b l e , w h i l e i n t e r n a l l y he a l r e a d y knows the answer. His s e l f - d e c e p t i o n i s a p t l y s t a t e d by Cranston: "Murasaki [ S h i k i b u ] b r i n g s out w i t h i n c i s i v e i n s i g h t how he [ G e n j i ] can l i e to h i m s e l f , know he i s l y i n g t o h i m s e l f and yet at 7 the same time convince h i m s e l f t h a t he i s not l y i n g . " 177 G e n j i ' s i n t e r n a l descent t o the depths of d e s p a i r i s a g r a d u a l and i n s i d i o u s one. While he t r i e s t o make excuses e i t h e r t o remain at home or to go away, he knows without t h i n k i n g about i t , t h a t by h i s a c t i o n s he has a l r e a d y chosen the only r e c o u r s e he can t a k e — t h a t i s t o go away and seek r e t r i b u t i o n f o r the crime a g a i n s t h i s f a t h e r . G e n j i t r i e s t o deceive h i m s e l f i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t the s t r a i n e d s i t u a t i o n i n the c a p i t a l w i l l c o o l down, and e v e r y t h i n g w i l l become normal ag a i n . But he knows s u b c o n s c i o u s l y t h a t t h i s w i l l not happen. What the reader knows of G e n j i from Chapter Eleven extends t o h i s s o l i l o q u y . The r e a d e r "knows" the t r u t h and so does G e n j i , but by a l l o w i n g G e n j i t o hang onto t h a t one l a s t t h r e a d of hope, the author provides suspense and a f e e l i n g of unease t h a t g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e s , as G e n j i now makes h i s f a r e w e l l v i s i t s t o c l o s e f r i e n d s and r e l a t i o n s . Each v i s i t , the f i r s t one only of which w i l l be d e a l t w i t h here, can be seen as an e x t e n s i o n o f the v i s i t t o R e i k e i d e n i n the previous chapter. The v i s i t becomes part of G e n j i ' s e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l quest. E x t e r n a l l y , G e n j i ' s purpose i n c a l l i n g on h i s nearest f r i e n d s and r e -l a t i o n s i s j u s t t o say f a r e w e l l . I n t e r n a l l y , having l o o k e d f o r answers i n h i s own c o n s c i e n c e , G e n j i goes i n s e a r c h f o r a f f i r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the d e c i s i o n s which w i l l 178 a f f e c t the people he i s v i s i t i n g . The end of each v i s i t b r i n g s about s e p a r a t i o n , and the emotions of the c h a r -a c t e r s i n v o l v e d cause them t o r e a c t e x t e r n a l l y , when they r e a l i z e the t r a n s i e n t nature of a l l l i f e and human a f f a i r s . G e n j i ' s v i s i t s t o h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , Murasaki, R e i k e i d e n , F u j i t s u b o and then t o h i s f a t h e r ' s grave, cause the suspense t o grow, t o expand, and f i n a l l y s w e l l i n t o the great storm at the end, when G e n j i v i s i t s the f o r t u n e - t e l l e r on the beach at Suma. When G e n j i goes t o v i s i t h i s p a r e n t s - i n - l a w and h i s son, Y u g i r i , he enters a house darkened by the recent death of h i s w i f e , A o i . The f e e l i n g o f death i n t e n s i f i e s the mood of sadness c r e a t e d by G e n j i ' s imminent e x i l e : Qn-kata-wa, i t o s a b i s h i - g e - n i are - r.taru koko- c h i - s h i - t e , waka-gimi-no on-me-no-to- ko-domo,  mukashi s a b u r a i - s h i h i t o - n o n a k a - n i , makade-c h i r a - n u k a g i r i kaku watari-tamaeru-o, m e z u r a s h i - g a r i k i k o e - t e , mo-nobori-tsudoi-te, mi-'. tatematsuru-n'i-tsukete-mo, k o t o - n i mono-fuka-kara-nu, w a k a k i - h i t o - b i t o - s a e , yo-no tsune -na-sa o m o i - s h i - r a r e - t e , namida-ni k u r e - t a r i (p.2 2 0 ; Yamagishi, I I , p.1 3 , l i n e s 7 - 1 0 ) . The atmosphere f e l t f o r l o r n and d e s o l a t e i n the qu a r t e r s where h i s wife had once r e s i d e d . Y u g i r i ' s nurse, and those l a d i e s who had been 179 "in Aoi's service and not gone elsewhere, a l l camecout to greet Genji upon hearing that he was paying them a rare v i s i t . Those women, i n p a r t i c u l a r those who had no close t i e s , and even the younger less mature l a d i e s , were moved to tears when upon seeing Genji, they f e l t an awareness of the world's mutability. Genji's v i s i t s are rare hut appreciated. These ladies see only his good side, and now that t h e i r mistress is dead his impending departure w i l l make t h e i r l i v e s seem even gloomier. The scene is made more poignant when Genji puts Y u g i r i on his lap: Waka-gimi-wa, i t o utsukushu-te. zare, h a s h i r i - owashi-tari. f~Hisashiki hodo-ni, wasure-nu- koso aware-narej-t o-te, on-hiza-ni sue tamaeru  on-ke-shiki, s h i n ob i -gata-ge-nari (p.220; Yamagishi, I I , p.13, l i n e s 10-13). Y u g i r i , looking very charming, was happily crawling about. Genji said: " I t has been a long time and I f e e l moved that Y u g i r i s t i l l remembers me." Everyone was touched to see him with the c h i l d on his knee. 180 C h i l d r e n always r e i n f o r c e the t r a g i c element i n Q romance. They most o f t e n s u f f e r f o r the s i n s of the f a t h e r , but i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , Y u g i r i ' s innocent p l a y f u l -ness c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the gloomy f e e l i n g s expressed by the a d u l t s . G e n j i ' s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , the m i n i s t e r of the l e f t e n t e r s , and the two b e g i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n , which r e v e a l s more by what remains u n s a i d than by what i s a c t u -a l l y s a i d : Otodo, konata-ni w a t a r i - t a m a i - t e , tai-men s h i - tamaeri.. [~tsure-zure-ni komorase-tamaeran-hodo, n a n i - t o habera-nu mukashi mono-gatari-mo, m a i r i - k i t e - k i k o e - s a s e n j - t o omoi-tamore-do, mi- no yamai o m o k i - n i - y o r i , o-yake-ni-mo t s u k o - matsura-zu, kurai-o-mo k a e s h i - . -tat gnat sur i - t e - h a b e r u - n i , pwatakushi-zama-ni-wa k o s h i  nobe-te[-nado mono-no k i k o e , h i g a h i g a - s h i - karu-beki-o. Ima-wa, yo-no naka haba-karu- beki-mi-ni-mo habara-ne-do, i c h i - h a y a k i - y o - n o , i t o osoroshu h a b e r u - n a r i (p.220; Yamagishi, I I , p.13, l i n e s 13-16 and p.14, l i n e s 1-3). G e n j i ' s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , the m i n i s t e r of the l e f t , came i n t o meet him. "Although I was t h i n k i n g you must be bored being c o n f i n e d i n -doors, I d e c i d e d t h a t t o c a l l on you and t a l k 181 about o l d times might cause rumours t o spread. S i n c e I've been i n poor h e a l t h I have not been a t t e n d i n g the court and I've r e t u r n e d by emblems of o f f i c e . I f I so much as s t r e t c h a l e g i t becomes a rumour which i s apt t o be d i s t o r t e d . Now s i n c e I no lo n g e r command a u t h o r i t y , I am d i s t u r b e d by a world t h a t i s q u i c k t o c r i t i c i z e . " As a c h a r a c t e r type, the m i n i s t e r of the l e f t i s the d i r e c t opposite of the m i n i s t e r of the r i g h t . He r e -presents d i s c r e t i o n and wisdom d e r i v e d from experience. In the Suma sequence, the d i g n i f i e d o l d age of t h i s g e n t l e -gman i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o the f o o l i s h o l d monk of A k a s h i , who provid e s a c o m i c a l element t o the s t o r y . The m i n i s t e r never reproaches G e n j i f o r being the cause of h i s own p o l i t i c a l r u i n . He conceals what he may r e a l l y be f e e l i n g i n l i g h t c o n v e r s a t i o n and blames i l l n e s s and o l d age f o r h i s l o s s of rank and o f f i c e . By a l l u d i n g t o how h i s own a c t i o n s are always under o b s e r v a t i o n , he i s g e n t l y reminding G e n j i t h a t those who h o l d p o s i t i o n s of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must l e a d exemplary l i v e s . He con-t i n u e s by o f f e r i n g G e n j i some c o n s o l a t i o n : Kakaru on-koto-o mi-tamo-ru-ni-tsukete-mo, i n o c h i nagaki-wa, kokoro-uku omoi-tamae-raru-r u , yo-no sue-ni-mo-haberu-ka-na. Ame-no- s h i t a - o , sakasama-ni-nashi-te-mo t omoi-tamae-182 y o r a z a r i - s h i on-ari-sama-o mi-tamo-reba, yorozu, i t o a.Tiki naku-nanj-to k i k o e - t a m a i - t e , i t o , shiore-tamo (p.220; Yamagishi, I I , p.14, l i n e s 3 - 7 ) . He was deeply d i s t r e s s e d and s a i d : "At the end of a l o n g l i f e , s e e i n g what you are f a c i n g makes me wonder i f the l o n g e r one l i v e s the worse t h i n g s g et. I c o u l d never have f o r e s e e n t h i s unexpected t u r n of events t o happen i n my l i f e t i m e . Seeing your present predicament i s c o n t r a r y t o a l l manner of e x p e c t a t i o n . " The man i s being very generous. His sympathy f o r G e n j i i s genuine, and he puts G e n j i ' s t r o u b l e s b e f o r e h i s own. The o l d man's r e a l courage i n face of the f a c t t h a t G e n j i has not t r e a t e d h i s p a r e n t s - i n - l a w w e l l , r e v e a l s the n e g a t i v e s i d e of G e n j i ' s r e a l c h a r a c t e r . G e n j i m a r r i e d t h e i r daughter, A o i , and showed h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n by b e i n g u n f a i t h f u l t o her. She d i e d f o r him, the v i c t i m of h i s m i s t r e s s ' s revenge. A f t e r her death he r a r e l y v i s i t e d the o l d people and h i s young son. Now the o l d man's p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r has been r u i n e d t o g e t h e r w i t h G e n j i ' s . There i s no other response that G e n j i can g i v e except t o f e e b l y p l a c e the blame on h i m s e l f : "Hro a r u  koto-mo, kakaru koto-mo, sa k i - n o yo-no mukui-ni-kos-p 183 haberu nare-ba, i i - m o t e-yuke-ba, t a d a , mizukara-no  o k o t a r i - n i - n a n haberu" (p.220; Yamagishi, I I , p.14, l i n e s 8-9). ["The way t h i n g s t u r n out i n l i f e i s r e a l l y recompense from a previous l i f e . T h e r e f o r e , i t comes down t o the f a c t t h a t my problems are due t o my own neg-l e c t . " ] 9 G e n j i ' s d u a l nature i n the presence of the honest o l d man continues t o shine f o r t h . He i s not above l y i n g t o the m i n i s t e r , and t h i s he does by not r e v e a l i n g the t r u t h behind h i s s e l f - i m p o s e d e x i l e : S a - s h i t e , kaku kan-shaku-o t o r a r e - z u , a s a - haka-naru k o t o - n i k a k a z u r a i - t e - d a n i , o-yake-ni  kashikomari-naru h i t o - n o , utsu-shi-zama-ni-te  yo (-no) -naka-ni a r i - f u r u - w a toga omoki-waza-n i , h i t o - n o kuni-ni-mo, shi-haberu-naru-o (pp.220-21; Yamagishi, I I , p.14, l i n e s 9-11). "A person i s o b l i g e d t o a p o l o g i z e t o the im-p e r i a l court even f o r a t r i f l i n g matter, so as not t o l o s e h i s rank as I have done. And y e t , i f a person has r e c e i v e d a pardon and he goes about h i s business as u s u a l , even i n China, 10 t h i s would be regarded as a grave o f f e n c e . " 184 G e n j i ' s statement r e v e a l s two f a c t o r s . F i r s t , the a b s u r d i t y of a s o c i e t y t h a t punishes the innocent and allows the g u i l t y t o go f r e e . S o c i e t y i t s e l f i s g u i l t y f o r i n c u r r i n g i n j u s t i c e s on c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s while f o r g e t t i n g t h a t no one i s blameless of ever b r e a k i n g a law. In The S c a r l e t L e t t e r , f o r example, Hester Prynne, by remaining i n s o c i e t y and wearing her l e t t e r as the e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of her g u i l t , f l a u n t s the t r u t h t h a t a l l have t h e i r s e c r e t g u i l t s . Secondly, G e n j i hides the r e a l reason f o r h i s v o l u n -t a r y departure w i t h an argument t h a t i s not v e r y c o n v i n -c i n g t o those who know him w e l l : Toku-hanachi-tsukawasu-beki sadame-nado-mo  haberu-naru-wa. sama koto-naru t s u m i - n i a t a r u  - b e k i - n i koso, haberu-nare. N i g o r i - n a k i - kokoro-ni makase-te, tsure-naku s u g u s h i - haberan-mo, i t o , h a b a k a r i oku, f~~kore-yori o k i -naru h a j i - n i nozoma-nu s a k i - n i , kono yo-o  nogare-nanj-to, omoi-tamae-tachi-nuruj-nado  koma-yaka-ni, kikoe-tamo (p.221; Yamagishi, I I , p.14, l i n e s 11-16). "Such a d e c i s i o n t o send someone i n t o e x i l e i s u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r more s e r i o u s crimes than my own, but I have decided, though I am i n -nocent, t o go v o l u n t a r i l y i n t o e x i l e . Even i f 185 I were t o keep going on as i f n o t h i n g had happened, the i n s u l t s here might be many. So be f o r e I am c o n f r o n t e d by a shame worse than t h i s , I t h i n k I s h a l l l e a v e the c a p i t a l . " And he e x p l a i n e d t o h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w the p a r t i c u l a r s , o f h i s journey. The o l d man h i m s e l f i s at a l o s s t o understand what s o r t of crime G e n j i has committed, t h a t would account f o r such a severe punishment: I n i s h i - e - n o hito-mo, makoto-ni o k a s h i - a r u - n i - te-shimo, kakaru k o t o - n i a t a r a - z a r i - k e r i . Nao, s a r u - b e k i - n i - t e , h i t o - n o mi-kado-ni-mo, kakaru  t a g u i oku h a b e r i - k e r i . Sare-do, i i - i z u r u  f u s h i a r i - t e - k o s o , s a r u koto-mo h a b e r i - k e r e . Tozama-kozama-ni, omoi-tamae-yoran kata-nakuj  -nado, oku-no on-mono-gatari kikoe-tamo (p.221; Yamagishi, I I , p.15, l i n e s 9-13). "In the o l d days, i f a crime was committed i t was not handled l i k e t h i s . I t must be f a t e , f o r even among the emperor's own people, t h i s s o r t of t h i n g o c c u r r i n g — o f people b e i n g charged f o r no r e a s o n — h a s happened o f t e n . Nonetheless, t h e r e had t o be a p r e t e x t of some 186 s o r t i n order f o r one t o be charged i n the f i r s t p l a c e . A l l i n a l l , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine i n your case what the a c c u s a t i o n s are founded upon." The m i n i s t e r i s l i k e l y aware t h a t t h e r e i s something more behind G e n j i ' s d e s i r e t o l e a v e than he has d i v u l g e d , but he does not press him. In the wisdom of h i s o l d age he probably deems i t more prudent t o l e t matters be. By v o l u n t a r i l y going i n t o e x i l e G e n j i exposes an u l t e r i o r motive. For those l e s s sagacious than h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w h i s arguments f o r going away may seem j u s t i f i e d , but t o those c l o s e r t o him h i s departure i s l i k e an admission of g u i l t . U n l i k e Hester Prynne however, what h i s crime i s remains a s e c r e t . The d i a l o g u e between G e n j i and h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w i s r e v e a l i n g i n what i t does not openly r e v e a l . While G e n j i ' s monologue exposed h i s s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , h i s d i a l o g u e shows how he was a b l e t o deceive everyone e l s e r e g a r d i n g the t r u t h of h i s s i t u a t i o n . The reader sees the t r u t h behind G e n j i ' s statements, because of what the n a r r a t o r has t o l d him, but the m i n i s t e r r e l i e s p u r e l y on what he knows of G e n j i ' s c h a r a c t e r i n making h i s judgements. The m i n i s t e r ' s son, To no Chujo, who i s a l s o G e n j i ' s best f r i e n d , enters and G e n j i i s e n t e r t a i n e d : 187 San-mi-no Chujo-mo m a i r i - a i - t a m a i - t e t o-miki- nado m a i r i - t a m o - n i , yo-fuke-nure-ba, t o m a r i - t a m a i - t e , h i t o - b i t o on-mae-ni saburawa-se-te, on-mono-gatari-nado se-sase-tamo (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p . 1 5 , l i n e s 1 3 - 1 5 ) . To no Chujo came i n . They were served wine and because i t had grown l a t e G e n j i s t a y e d the n i g h t . He c a l l e d on the women who had served h i s w i f e and they t a l k e d of bygone days. The r e a c t i o n s of two other l a d i e s i n t h i s s t o r y , toward G e n j i ' s t r o u b l e d s i t u a t i o n , show the extent t o which he i s a b l e t o manipulate some people, but not a l l : H i t o - v o r i - w a . koyo-no s h i n o b i - o b o s u Chunagon-no k i m i , i e - b a - e - n i kanashu omoeru sama-o, h i t o - s h i r e - z u , aware-to obosu. H i t o mina s h i z u m a r i - n u r u - n i , t o r i - w a k i - t e , katarai-tamo. K o r e - n i  y o r i , tomari-tamaeru-naru-beshi (p.222; Yamagishi, I I , p.15, l i n e s 1 5 - 1 6 and p.16, l i n e 1). Among h i s w i f e ' s former l a d i e s - i n - w a i t i n g , t h e r e was one i n p a r t i c u l a r , Chunagon, whom he had s e c r e t l y admired. He n o t i c e d her sad -dened e x p r e s s i o n and unobserved by anyone e l s e 188 he f e l t drawn toward her. When everyone had gone t o s l e e p , they s a t apart and t a l k e d t o -gether. I t must have been on her account t h a t G e n j i stayed the n i g h t . Chunagon has a r o l e s i m i l a r t o t h a t of R e i k e i d e n i n th a t she l i s t e n s t o G e n j i and o f f e r s sympathy without be-coming e m o t i o n a l l y overwhelmed. While the two of them watch the morning moon s i n k over the garden, G e n j i v o i c e s h i s r e g r e t s : j"~Mata, tai-men aran koto-koso, omoe-ba. i t o . kata-kere. k a k a r i - k e r u yo-o s h i r a - d e , kokoro- yasuku-mo a r i - n u - b e - k a r i - s h i - t s u k i - g o r o - o , s a - shimo isoga-de, hedate-shi-yo j -nado, no-tame- ba, mono-mo k i k o e - z u naku (p.222; Yamagishi, I I , p.16, l i n e s 7-9). "The p o s s i b i l i t y of our meeting a g a i n seems s l i g h t . L i f e i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e . We c o u l d have become b e t t e r acquainted these past few months, but not having f o r e s e e n t h a t t h i n g s would have tu r n e d out the way they have, I wasted the time when we c o u l d have met, and now i t i s a l l over. " He was choked w i t h t e a r s . 9*-189 G e n j i i s s o r r y t h a t he wasted so much of h i s youth on t r i v i a l d i v e r g e n c e s , when he c o u l d have c u l t i v a t e d more rewarding r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h w o r t h i e r l a d i e s such as Chunagon. Chunagon's r e a c t i o n t o G e n j i ' s sorrows can be seen i n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t of Y u g i r i ' s n u r s e , S a i s h o , who hasn't as much s e l f - c o n t r o l . She i s sent t o G e n j i ' w i t h a message from P r i n c e s s Omiya, G e n j i ' s mother-in-law: Waka-gimi-no on-me-no-to-no Saisho-no k i m i s h i - t e , Miya-no on-mae-yori, on-sho-soko k i k o e - tamaeri (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.16, l i n e s 9-10). ... |~Itsu-to-naku fwakarej-to i u - m o j i - k o s o . u t a t e-haberu-naru naka-ni-mo, kesa-wa nao, t a g u i - a r u majiku, omoi-tameraru-ru h o d o - n i j  -nado hana-goe-ni-te, g e - n i asakara-zu-omoeri (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.17, l i n e s 4-6). Y u g i r i ' s nurse, S a i s h o , came i n and gave G e n j i a message from P r i n c e s s Omiya, h i s mother-in-law...Her f e e l i n g s seemed t r u l y profound as she s a i d i n a tear-choked v o i c e : "One never knows when he w i l l have t o say the u g l i e s t of words, ' f a r e w e l l ' . Today I f e e l i t w i l l be even more d e t e s t a b l e . " 190 Saisho, like many of the other ladies in the tale, is more vulnerable to the abject appearance Genji is able to show when he wants others to pity him. Chunagon, li k e Reikeiden, is one of the few ladies who is not so sus-ceptible. She is sympathetic without being noisy about it,, and therefore shows more depth of feeling than Saisho. Princess Omiya, as a character type, is the counter-part of her husband, While he is the soul of discretion, his wife is not so adept at hiding her true feelings. Later on in the story her interference causes her son, To no Chujo, to act disrespectfully toward her, and in the end her favourite grandchildren, Yugiri and Kumoinokari' mother. " Mizukara-mo kikoe-mahoshi-ki-o, kaki-kurasu -sase-tamo-naru-mo, sama kawari-taru koko-chi nomi, s h i -haberu-ka-na" (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.16, lines 11-12) ["I would have liked to have spoken to you personally, but while I have tried to restrain myself, I am too distraught. That you have to leave so unusually early reminds.me of the fact that things have changed so much"]. Genji responds with a poem« neglect her for being a meddling grand-midari-goko-chi, tamerai-haberu-hodo-ni, i t o , yp^fuko ide Toribeyama / moeshi.. keburi-mo / mago-ya-to / ama-no shio-yaku / ura-mi-ni-zo yuku (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.16, line 15). 19<1 I am going to the shore Where the fishermen burn their salt; Will I confuse the smoke with That which rose over Toribe Mountain? Toribeyama is the ancient burial ground where Genji's wife was cremated. There is a pun on the word ura-mi. It can mean ura-mi , the "seashore" or urami 4 R ?f , "regret". Genji is saying that when he goes down to the shore at Suma, he w i l l look regretfully at the smoke of the salt burners and remember his wife, Aoi. Toward the end of this section, Princess Dmiya sends an answering verse: Naki-hito-no / wakare-ya ito-do / hedataran / keburi-to nari-shi / kumo-i-nara-de-wa (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.17, line 16). Unless you are under the sky Where the smoke rose up, Will not the parting from she who is no more Become more and more distant? Princess Omiya is more direct than her husband. She sees Genji's faults clearly and points them out to him. One, is that once he escapes the vi c i n i t y of the capital (kumoi has a double meaning, "cloud-dwelling" or "the 192 imperial palace"), he w i l l certainly forget about his dead wife as he did when she was s t i l l alive. Secondly, she is also hinting to Genji that under the clouds of the capital he has responsibilities, i n particular toward his son Yugiri. She is not as concerned about Genji*s forgetting her daughter as she is about his neglecting her daughter's son, who is s t i l l among the l i v i n g and i n need of a father. In her message to Genji she begs him to stay a while longer and see his son once more: "IKokoro  -gurushiki-hito-no i-gitanaki-hodo-wa, shiba-shi ^yasurawa -se-tamawa-dej-to kikoe-tamae-ba, uchi-naki-te,...(p.222; Yamagishi, II, p. 16, lines 13-14) (fWhile your poor l i t t l e boy is fast asleep, can you not stay a l i t t l e longer u n t i l he is awakened?'' As she (Saisho) gave this message, Genji wept], Genji responds with his poem and with an absent-minded message: ... [~Aka-tsuki-no wakare-wa, ko nomi-ya, kokoro-zukushi-naru. Omoi-shiri-tamaeru-hito-mo aran  -kashij-to no-tamae-ba,...(p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.17, lines 1-3). "Are dawn partings this painful? But there are those such as yourself who understand sadness such as this." 193 [~Kikoe-sase--mahoshiki-koto-mo t kaesu-gaesu  om6i-tamae-nagara. Tada-ni , musubor e-haberu-hodo, oshi-hakarase-tamae. I-gitanaki-hito-wa, mi-tama-en-ni-tsukete-mo, naka-naka uki-yo  nogare-gataku, omoi-tamae-rare-nu-be-kere-ba, kokoro-zuyoku omoi-tamae-nashi-te, isogi makade  -haberij-to, kikoe-tamao (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.17, lines 7-11). "Although I have turned over and over in my mind the things I would like to say, please realize to what extent I am feeling distraught. If I were to see my son I'd probably feel the world to be an inescapable place. I must therefore forbear to make a decision and leave quickly." The character of Yugiri performs an important function i n this portion of Genji. Upon entering Sanjo, Genji, who rarely sees his son, is pleased to see that the child has not forgotten him. While Genji and the minister talk the child is present, playing happily, oblivious to the sad-ness that surrounds him: Mukashi-no on-mono-gatari, in-no on-koto, oboshi-no-tamawa-se-shi on-kokoro-bae-nado, kikoe-ide-tamai-te, on-naoshi-no sode-mo, e- h i k i hanachi-tamawa-nu-ni, kimi-mo, e-kokoro- zuyoku mote-nashi tamawa-zu. Waka-gimi-no nani-194 kokoro naku magire-are-ki-te. kore-kare-ni. nare-kikoe-tamo-o, r i m i - j i j - t o oboi-tari (p.221; Yamagishi, II, p.14, line 16 and p.15 lines 1-3). He (the minister) reminisced about the reign of Genji's father, and expressed the sentiments that the old emperor had had toward Genji. Talking about a l l this, he was unable to remove his sleeve from his eyes, and Genji too was un-able to maintain his composure. Yugiri, ^oblivious to the sadness around him, crawled happily about claiming attention from his father and then from his grandfather. Yugiri's character, typifying youth and innocence, in a sense supplies a contrastive element and lends a feeling of light-heartedness to the atmosphere of despair and tragedy that surrounds him. He also represents the past. Genji remembers his childhood as being happier than the present. Yugiri serves as a reminder of that past, which the two older men are talking about. Prom the moment that Genji enters Sanjo and throughout his discourse with his father-in-law one is aware of the s p i r i t u a l presence of Aoi, vicariously, through her infant son Yugiri: 195 I Sugi-haberi-ni-shi-h.it o-o, yo-i omoi-tamae-wasuru-ru-yo-naku- nomi, ima-ni kanashibi- haberu-o, kono on-koto-ni-nan, j^moshi-haberu- yo nara-mashika-ba, ika-yo-ni omoi-nageki- habera-mashi. Yoku-zo, mijikaku-te, kakaru yume-o mizu-nari-ni-keruj-to omoi-tamae- nagusame-haberu-o,...p.221; Yamagishi, II, p.15, lines 4-7) "There is no occasion in which I forget my de-ceased daughter. With respect to the present sad situation, i f she were s t i l l alive, how she would l i k e l y have grieved. I take comfort in the fact that fortunately her l i f e was short, and she had no sight of this nightmarish s i t u -ation." Aoi represents the dead past, while Yugiri, in this context, represents the l i v i n g present. This is made clear when the minister alludes to what his wife suggests, more directly later on—Genji's obligations as a father: .. .j osanaku mono-shl-tamo-ga. kaku yowai-sugi- nuru naka-ni, tomari-tamai-te. nazusai-kikoe-tamawa-nu tsuki-hi-ya t hedatari-1amawanj-to  omo-tama-uru-o-nan, yorozu-no koto-yori-mo. kanashu-haberu (p.221; Yamagishi, II, p.15, lines 7-9). 196 What saddens me more than anything else is that our l i t t l e one (Yugiri), staying with us old people, w i l l be separated from you for days and months without being able to soak up the knowledge of his father. Yugiri's identity, that of youth and innocence, is juxtaposed onto that of wisdom and old age. Naturally in the end, he benefits more from the wisdom of his grandfather than he ever would have from Genji. In the poems exchanged with Princess Gmiya and i n the above excerpt, the character of Yugiri representing the present, serves as a hint to Genji that i t is the present which must be taken care of, and not the past which is finished. Throughout Genji, Yugiri is the "eyes" through which hidden things are revealed. In this portion of the tale his innocence, i n contrast to the enlightenment the adults receive, and his liveliness, as opposed to the sad-ness caused by death and separation, enhance the emo-tional impact and serve to reveal the internal aspects of the story. While the most significant part that nature plays in this chapter is during the climactic storm, natural imagery is also important both as an archetypal background and as a means of externalizing the internal action. In 197 the f i r s t part of "Suma" the conventional image of the garden, for example, is used as a backdrop reflecting the emotions Genji is feeling during a time of despair and misfortune: Ake-nure-ba, yo-fukaku ide-tamo-ni, ari-ake- no tsuki ito okashi. Hana-no ki-domo. yo-yo  sakari-sugi-te, wazuka-naru ko-kage-no it o  shiroki-niwa-ni, usuku k i r i watari-taru. sokohaka-to-naku kasumi ai-te, aki-no aware-n i , oku tachi-masareri. Sumi-no ko-ran-ni oshi-kakari-te. to-bakari nagame-tamo. Chunagon-no-kimi, mi-tatematsuri-te t fokuranj  -to-ni-ya, tsuma-do, oshi-ake-te-itari (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.16, lines 1-6). As the night wore on and dawn approached, the remaining light of the moon was exquisite. The cherry blossoms had flourished and gone, and the movement of the mist covered the garden in white, making the shadows of the trees barely v i s i b l e . The mist spreading everywhere evoked the sad feeling of autumn. Genji leant against the r a i l i n g of the veranda and for a while stared into the mist. Chunagon stood watching him by the door. Could she possibly be think-of seeing him off? 198 The season is the end of spring, when the cherry-blossoms are past their prime. The scattered petals sug-gest too that Genji, who once rose to enormous popularity, has plummeted to earth. A l l that remains are the fallen blossoms of his youth and dreams drif t i n g away with the passing of time. The cherry blossoms evoking the brevity of l i f e also intensify the theme of separation which is about to unfold. The moments just prior to an event are sometimes more moving than the event i t s e l f . While Chunagon stands watching Genji view the garden, time seems almost sus-pended. The knowledge that they are about to part makes this quiet scene more intense, as their feelings seem to impose themselves on the landscape and cause the mood of melancholy and death. As in Reikeiden*s garden in the previous chapter, the shadows of the trees seem to represent a wilderness Genji is descending into. They may also suggest the things that were in the past and the things yet to be. The moving mist that Genji tries to peer through evokes his ambivalent state of mind; he makes a decision and then he changes i t . It may also be seen as the future he cannot see into. The feeling of autumn and i t s association with death reflects Genji's mental depression and the tragedy behind his situation. 199 It also heightens the feeling that comes with separating from those one is close to. For Genji, parting from his intimate friends and relations and leaving them to go into exile, is. l i k e a l i v i n g death. The early morning moon slowly disappearing on the brightening horizon may be symbolic of the point of light at the end of the tunnel, the wisdom that Genji has not yet reached. It may also be seen as an o b j e c t i f i -cation of Genji's father, or Genji's guilty conscience, or the "eyes" from above that keep their distance but are always watching him. Its light could represent the remote vision of a higher and better world that Genji cannot immediately attain. As Genji makes his f i n a l farewell,others, seeing him under the moonlight, are affected and react externally: "Ide-tamg-hodo-o, hito-bito nozoki-te mi-tatematsuru. Iri-gata-no-tsuki ito akaki-ni, ito-do, nama-mekashu, kiyora-ni-te, mono-o oboi-taru-samat tora » o-kami-dani naki-nu-beshi" (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.17, lines 11-13) [As he was leaving everyone came out to see him off. Under the light of the descending moon Genji appeared more youthful and handsome than ever. Observing his noble aspect under his present state of dejection would have caused even tigers and wolves to weep]. Imagining how tigers and wolves, which symbolize the demonic world, would react to Genji's loss of identity as a member of his society, intensifies the emotional impact 200 of this sequence and makes the separation more dramatic. The unity of time and nature in this portion of Genji is evinced in the movement of the seasons and the daily cycle. The image of the cherry blossoms past their peak, indicates that spring is over. The process of rebirth—rejuvenation—has ended and the summer of growth has begun. Thus i t is for Genji, his childhood has ended and his internal journey toward maturity has commenced. The feeling of autumn and a pervasive sense of death, evoked when summer has hardly begun, is caused by the characters* emotions being projected onto the garden landscape. Tragedy has lurked in the Sanjo residence for a long time. Aoi is dead, the family faces social ruin, and they are saying farewell to the son-in-law who despite his faults, brought light into their l i v e s . Autumn as an image of death therefore, reflects the death of Genji's lost youth and the road of descent he must journey on. The theme of separation is stressed by the parting at early dawn. In Japanese li t e r a r y tradition, dawn is the time of parting, whether from a lover, friends, or a person who is dying. According to the Japanese theories of aesthetics, the cherry blossoms just past 201 their prime, or the time just before night becomes- day, represent the ideal image of beauty. Beauty must die, but the eternal flux of nature ensures that i t w i l l re-new i t s e l f . Thus, as Genji departs, the new light at dawn shining over him, offers a light of hope in a world that has turned oppressively gloomy. The continuity of l i f e i n the introductory portion of "Suma" is closely related to the cycle of birth, growth, death, and rebirth. During Genji's v i s i t to Sanjo one is aware of the l i f e and death cycle in two ways. First there is the element of the past, present, and future; and secondly, there is the image of youth in contrast to old age. The past, which is dead and yet alive i n the minds of the characters, is often referred to between Genji and his father-in-law, Genji and Chunagon, at the banquet with To no Chujo, and between Genji and his mother-in-law. An event i n the recent past, where they a l l shared a common sorrow, was the death of a relatively young Aoi. The present, the time that really matters,,is per-sonified by the child Yugiri. He is also the hope for the future. Yugiri's elderly grandfather represents old age. He tries to pass on the wisdom and experience he has gained from the past, which he also represents, on to 202 Genji, about to enter his middle years. Old age also represents his closeness to death. He therefore, thinks he has no place in the future of his grandson and worries that Genji w i l l not be there to provide that knowledge. By juxtaposing Yugiri's youth and innocence against the wise old age of his grandfather, the text has reveal-ed Genji's immaturity. Genji has yet to reach the stage of his father-in-law, but his external and internal descent becomes one of the means by which he w i l l attain i t i n due course. The sense of continuity created by time past, time present, and time future i n the tale is linked to the textual narrator's own time perspective, which she uses to give c r e d i b i l i t y to the past events she is relating. The author^s presence as narrator i s f e l t , but she makes i t seem as i f she is not manipulating the plot. She be-gins her tale i n Chapter One, long in the past, but intervenes periodically to let the reader know that she is writing in her present about events which she direct-l y or indirectly observed long ago. For example, her interruption of the narrative during Genji's soliloquy to let us know how she, l i k e others, f e l t about Genji's situation makes her story seem more believable: 203 Saru-beki-tokoro-dokoro-ni. on-fumi bakari. waza-to nara-zu t uchi-shinobi-tamai-shi-ni- mo, fawar ej-to, shinobaru bakari kaki- tsukushi-tamaeru-wat midokoro-mo ari-nu-be- kari-shika-do, sono ori-no koko-chi-no magire  - n i , haka-bakashu-mo. kiki-oka-zu-nari-ni-keri (p.220; Yamagishi, II, p.13, lines 1-4). To places of consequence he only wrote letters without going to too much trouble. Within this correspondence Genji l e f t out nothing that would not evoke feelings of pity in those who read them. Although they were letters in which one would find points worthy of atten-tion, at that time, when I (the narrator) heard them read to me, I was so distressed that I didn't l i s t e n to them properly, and didn't pursue them further. The narrator is like a photographer who is unob-trusively present when the action takes place. She is intimate with the details of character and scene through observation, but she only frames her picture with those "good" and "bad" things which she wishes to divulge to the reader. By indirectly revealing Genji's true emo-tions in his monologue and juxtaposing these onto how 204 outside people like herself reacted toward his situation, she increases the emotional impact of the story and makes i t more believable. The element of continuity is further emphasized when the tale of Genji can be observed in the perspective of the reader's own time, our present. The reader, looks into the past through the "eyes" of the narrator. The world she has created is one of the imagination, but she communicates the reality of that world when the reader sees and reacts to the revelation of concealed action in Genji. The combined sense of irony, absurdity, pathos, and fear in this f i r s t portion of the "Suma" chapter serves to create the feeling of suspense that draws the tale to its climactic denouement. Perhaps the most ironic ele-ment in this romance is the paradox of Genji's situation. Genji's real crime is never directly stated, and every-one is mystified as to exactly why he is going away. In Genji's soliloquy and i n the dialogue with his father-in-law, i t can be seen that society condemns him for a seemingly minor offence, while Genji condemns himself for a graver crime that no one knows about. Instead of waiting to let someone "cast the f i r s t stone',' Genji leaves surreptitiously while i t is s t i l l safe to do so: 205 Yayoi hatsu-ka amari-no hodo-ni-nan. miyako  hanare-tamai-keru. Hito-ni, rimaj-to shimo, shirase-tamawa-zu, tada, ito chiko-tsuko-matsuri-nare-taru kagiri, nanatari-yatari  bakari on-tomo-ni-te, i t o , kasuka-ni, ide- tachi-tamo (p.220; Yamagishi, II, p.12, lines 15-16 and p.13, line 1). Genji l e f t the capital not long after the twentieth of the third month. Without letting anyone know when he was going, he l e f t quietly with only seven or eight of his closest retainers. Few people seem to notice that by leaving in this manner Genji has revealed the fact that he must be guilty of something. The duality of Genji's nature and his ambivalence, also draw out the irony in the story. Genji wants one thing, and he wants another too. He cannot have both, but the irony, as seen in his soliloquy, l i e s in the fact that whichever way he chooses he w i l l not be wholly satisfied, and neither w i l l the characters who are af-fected by his decisions. Genji's good and bad sides are also seen when he is talking with Chunagon. He regrets 206 not having spent more time with her when i t was possible. Now i t is too late. Ironically though, the reader knows and Chunagon knows that i f he had i t to do a l l over again he would repeat the same mistakes and remain predictably inconstant. Absurdity is closely connected to irony in Genji. The manner i n which the characters react to a situation often points to the ridiculous. For instance, the fact that no one is clever enough to open his eyes and sus-pect what Genji•s real crime might be, taxes the reader's credulity. But since this is a story, anything is possible. Genji, speaking for himself, is able to see how his decisions w i l l affect others, and this too, brings out both that which is ironical and absurd. Genji cannot endure to be separated from Murasaki, but she would be a cause for trouble i f he did anything as rash as to take her with him to Suma. It strikes him as ironical that Fujitsubo should bother being friendly toward him now when i t is too late. Their situation is absurd i n that the harder they try to avoid each other by taking religious vows or going into exile, their emotions t i e them inextricably together. 207 Genji's surreptitious departure to Sanjo is rather ludicrous for a man of his stature: Futsu-ka mi-ka kane-te, o-tono-ni. yo-ni kakure  -te, watari-tamaeri. An-.jiro-guruma-no yatsure-taru-ni onna-no yo-nite, kakuroe-iri- tamo-mo, i t o , aware-ni t yume-to nomi oboyu (p.220; Yamagishi, II, p.13, lines 5-6). Two or three days before leaving, Genji went, under cover of darkness, to v i s i t his father-in-law. To see him hidden i n a beat-up, old, wicker carriage that looked like a woman's, was so pathetic that i t made one feel i t must a l l be a dream. Putting himself in an old carriage makes him look more conspicuous. A man who formerly possessed as much power and popularity as Genji cannot easily escape the scrutiny of others. By such an action as deliberately trying to hide himself, he is exposing his shame. In the context of the carriage can also be seen the element of pathos. Superficially, others are affected by seeing such a noble, handsome man exposed to the vicissitudes of time and l i f e . This is also the case in the f i n a l lines of this introductory section, where not 208 only tigers and wolves could be affected by Genji's tragedy, but everyone else around him as well: Mashite, iwakeno owaseshi hodo-yori, mi- . . tatematsuri somete-shi-hito-bito nare-bat  tatoshie-naki on-ari-sama-o [imi-jij-to omo (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.17, lines 13-14). Some of the serving women who came to see him off had known Genji since childhood. They thought there was no comparison to the wonder of his beauty as he now looked under these tragic circumstances. ...tori-soe-te, aware nomi tsuki-se-au, ide- tamai-nuru nagori, yuyushiki-made naki-aeri (p.222; Yamagishi, II, p.18, lines 1-2). The feeling of sorrow was inexhaustible, and the unresolved feelings after parting only served to intensify the grief as they a l l wept together. People pity Genji, but he is not above enjoying the attention. Genji's choice of an old carriage as a con-veyance to Sanjo is perhaps deliberate, but i t reveals his a b i l i t y to look outside of himself and predict the 209 r e a c t i o n o f others who w i l l see him. He i s not wrong i n t h a t assessment. He i s not wrong e i t h e r when he w r i t e s l e t t e r s to v a r i o u s people and w r i t e s them i n such a way t h a t the readers cannot h e l p but r e a c t by f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r him. The n a r r a t o r h e r s e l f i s d i s t r e s s e d enough by what they say to r e v e a l her own emotions. In h i s s o l i l o q u y G e n j i imagines how others w i l l be upset by h i s departure, e s p e c i a l l y Murasaki who adores him. He i s s o r r y they w i l l be l e f t unprotected, but one cannot h e l p d e t e c t i n g a b i t o f an i n n e r smile o f s a t i s -f a c t i o n on h i s p a r t i n the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t he w i l l not be f o r g o t t e n i f he goes away. The purpose of h i s v i s i t s has the same e f f e c t . Seeing everyone's r e a c t i o n s to h i s impending departure makes him aware t h a t he w i l l be missed and t h a t he, G e n j i , i s not alone i n f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r G e n j i . F i n a l l y , the element o f f e a r t h a t emanates from G e n j i ' s i n n e r psyche i n h i s monologue and i n c r e a s e s as other c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l t h e i r a n x i e t y by r e a c t i n g to G e n j i ' s t r o u b l e s , adds an element of d i s q u i e t to the s t o r y t h a t c a r r i e s i t to i t s e v e n t u a l c o n c l u s i o n . The sense o f unease i s c r e a t e d by the i n c o n g r u i t y and r i d i c u l o u s n e s s o f h i s s i t u a t i o n , and a l s o from the 210 f e e l i n g o f pathos c r e a t e d by the i n t e r n a l means o f v i o l e n c e , t h a t o f s e p a r a t i o n and the u n c e r t a i n t y o f a reun i o n . T h i s u n c e r t a i n t y as to what the f u t u r e may b r i n g , the i n t e r n a l p e r i l o f the s t o r y , p r o v i d e s the suspense i n the t a l e and c o n t r i b u t e s i n p r o j e c t i n g the r e a c t i o n s t h a t i n t u r n r e v e a l the c h a i n o f concealed emotions, i d e n t i t i e s and a c t i o n s o f the c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s s m a l l p o r t i o n o f "Suma" i s v i t a l to the course which the r e s t o f the Suma sequence w i l l f o l l o w , and to subsequent p o r t i o n s o f the t a l e as w e l l . I t r e -v e a l s o n l y a p a r t o f th a t c h a i n o f r e a c t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w one upon the other, b u i l d i n g up to the f i n a l e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l storm at the end o f the Suma sequence. The f e e l i n g o f e x p e c t a t i o n , t h a t something i s going to happen which i s s k i l f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d by the author through the theme of e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l sepa-r a t i o n , causes the c h a r a c t e r s to r e a c t and expose t h e i r f e e l i n g s onto the e x t e r n a l world, thus c a u s i n g reve-l a t i o n to occur. 211 Notes Chapter Three 1 Yokomichi Mario T p l & W) ^ ~ r^- - — rtib ^ , eds., Yokyoku-shu 5 ^ and Omote Akira , Vol. I, NKBT, 40 (1960; rpt. 1964), Matsukaze, pp.57-65; 4, pp.58-9. Translation by Royall Tyler, in Twenty Plays of  the No Theatre, ed. Donald Keene (New York and London: Columbia Univ. Press, 1970), p.22. The famous poem expressing Yukihira's feeling of loneliness at Suma is found in the Kokinshu, NKBT, p.296, No.962. It is also quoted in Matsukaze. Here is Royall Tyler's translation from Twenty Plays of the No Theatre, p.27: Wakura-ba-ni / to-hito ara-ba / Suma-no ura-ni  mo-shio: tare-tsutsu / wabu-to kotae-yo "If ever anyone Chances to ask for me, Say I li v e alone, Soaked by the dripping seaweed On the shore of Suma Bay." 212 This poem is also alluded to in the "Suma" chapter on p.231 of Seidensticker's translation. ^ These events at Akashi are partly foreshadowed in Chapter Five. See note No.27 i n Chapter One of this essay. ^ In the original Genji texts there are no punctu-ation marks or divisions i n the narrative to indicate direct speech. In his edition of Genji, Yamagishi has divided those parts of Genji's soliloquy where he appears to be thinking or speaking to himself, with square brac-kets. Another editor might have divided these sentences differently. In my own translation and interpretation of the "Suma" text, I have copied Yamagishi's punctuation and divisions in the transliteration of the text, and have generally tried to follow them in conveying Genji's inner thoughts, or what I refer to in the essay as his inner voice. ^ Since i t is impossible to convey the overlapping layers of the narrator's voice and Genji's voice, in English, I have translated the following passages in the third person, leaving the narrator to describe what Genji was thinking. ^ Genji's monologue is almost circular i n syn-ta c t i c a l and semantic structure. This pattern is conveyed through contrasting elements in the text such 213 as, mukashi, "then" and ima, "now". In the passage just quoted, "...tamae-do...ran-mo..." indicates the ambiguity of Genji*s feelings regarding his situation. Although my own additions of "on the one hand...but then on the other hand" may make the translation seem awkward, they have been inserted i n order to convey some of the am-biguous meaning implied in the original text. ' Edwin Cranston, "Murasaki's 'Art of Fiction'," Japan Quarterly, 18 (1971), p.212. o In tragedy, innocent children are often made to pay for their father's crimes. For example, in Medea, by Euripides, Jason casts aside his wife Medea in order to marry another, and Medea takes her revenge by murdering her children. In Sophocles* Oedipus the King, Oedipus blinds himself, and his wife and mother, Jocasta, hangs herself. This leaves their children practically orphans wearing the stigma of their parents' crimes. q According to Yamagishi's interpretation of this passage, a person, Genji included, is responsible for a l l things, consciously or subconsciously, done i n a pre-vious l i f e . He carries the responsibility of his former actions into his present l i f e . 10 Hito-no kuni-ni-mo, l i t e r a l l y means "people's country". It was taken, however, by early commentators to mean "China". 214 The implication in the latter part of this passage is that even though one is not deprived of his status, i t does riot mean he is not guilty. In other words, he should not go about as i f nothing had happened. 215 Bibliography Primary Sources i n Japanese Genji monogatari 5 vols. Ed. Yamagishi Tokuhei J-\ /T T . Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei fl ^  J 7^ A^ fc. Vols. 14-18. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1958. Genji monogatari. 6 vols. Eds. Abe Akio 1*5 £ Akiyama Ken . Imai Gene ^ Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshu 0 ^ £ ^ ^£ j£ i ^ . . Vols. 12-17. Tokyo: Shogakkan, 1972; rpt. 1974. Ise monogatari ir w 1*J « Q . Eds. Otsu Yuichi A =^f • and Tsukishima Hiroshi Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei. Vol. 9. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1957. Ise monogatari. Ed. Pukui Teisuke A | ? ^ ^ Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshu. 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