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Map reading : the object is to form a true mental picture of the ground Smith, Gordon E. 1982

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MAP READING: THE OBJECT IS TO FORM A TRUE MENTAL PICTURE OF THE GROUND by GORDON E. SMITH B.Ed., The Un iver s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Social and Educational Studies) We accept th i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1982 © Gordon E. Smith, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Social Studies  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The purpose of th i s study was to determine i f student map users create a :three-dimensional mental image of the landscape depicted by a topographic map. A review of previous research c l e a r l y indicates that human beings can and do form three-dimensional mental images. Since a topographic map is a form of cartographic communication in which the cartographer using an appropriate symbol system attempts to represent a real landscape, i t fol lows that a map user who shares the same symbol system should be able to transform the symbols into a three-dimensional mental image of the o r i g i na l landscape. To be successful th i s cartographic communication requires that both cartographer and map-user share a common symbol system and, further, that the map-user is able to make the transformation from map to three-dimens:iona.l mental image. It is hypothesized that both of these requirements can be met. To test these hypotheses a quasi-experimenta1 research design using anexperimental and a control group and a pretes t -pos t tes t format was chosen. Two groups of Grade 10 and two: groups of Grade 12 students pa r t i c ipa ted in the study with one group from each grade in the experimental group and the other act ing as a control group. To i i i evaluate the mental image formed students were asked to draw a representat ion of a mental image and a l so to wr i te a desc r ip t i on of one. The resu l t s of the research c l e a r l y support the hypothesis that cartographer and map user can share a common symbol system. While the attempt to draw a representat ion of a mental image was large ly unsuccessfu l , the wr i t ten descr ip t ions c l e a r l y support the hypothesis that map users can and do form three-dimensional mental images of landscapes depicted by topographic maps. The resu l t s a l so suggest a p o s s i b i l i t y that the a b i l i t y to form complex three-dimensional, mental images may in part be a funct ion of maturation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page # ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 Part 1: The Map as a Communication System . . . . 9 Part 2: Map S k i l l s Research 13 CHAPTER THREE: THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN . . . 18 Part 1: The Research Design 19 Part 2: The Sample . 20 Part 3: The Instruments 21 Part k: Scoring 25 Part 5: The Intervention 27 CHAPTER FOUR: THE RESULTS 29 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 36 Part 1: 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C v i LIST OF TABLES Page # TABLE 1(a): MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5 30 TABLE 1(b): MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5 30 TABLE 2(a): ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5 31 TABLE ,2(b): ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5 31 TABLE 3(a): MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10 33 TABLE 3(b): MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10 33 TABLE M a ) : ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10 3k TABLE 4(b): ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10 3^ TABLE 5: GROUP MEANS AS A % OF TOTAL POSSIBLE SCORE kk TABLE 6: RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 10 CONTROL GROUP . . 7k vi i Page # TABLE 7: RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 75 TABLE 8: RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 12 CONTROL GROUP . . . 76 TABLE 9: RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 77 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The wr i ter is great ly indebted to his adv isor , Dr. Ian Wright, for his encouragement, help and guidance; to his committee members, Dr. Dennis Milburn and Dr. Nei l Sutherland, for t h e i r a s s i s tance; to Dr. Nev i l l e V. Scarfe for his ass i s tance in the design and develop-ment of the project and to the students and teachers of Alpha Secondary School whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n made th i s study poss ib le . Appreciation is a l so expressed to the teachers who as s i s ted in the devel opment,, eva 1 uat i on and grading of the test instruments, and to my t yp i s t Mrs. Lynda M i l l e r . Last, but not leas t , the wr i ter is indebted to his w i fe , Helen, and his sons for their encouragement and pat ience. CHAPTER ONE I ntroduct ion The January, 1981 B r i t i s h Columbia Geography 12 Scholarship Examination included a ser ies of ten mul t ip le choice questions on map s k i l l s . Students were presented with a map and were required to answer such questions as: 17. The e levat ion of Adams H i l l in the northeast quadrant of the map is I 1. more than 950 metres, less than 1000 metres. 2. more than 1000 metres, less than 1050 metres. 3. more than 1100 metres, less than 1150 metres. k. more than 1150 metres, less than 1200 metres. 5. more than 1250 metres, less than 1300 metres. 18. The approximate distance along the creek which drains Skmana Lake to i t s confluence with the Adams River is 1. 3.3 k i lometres. 2. 6.2 k i lometres. 3. 8.5 k i lometres. h. 12.0 k i lometres. 5- 15.9 k i lometres. 19. According to the data shown on the map, Chase has K a school , a r a i l road s ta t ion and park. 2. a sawmill and marina. 3. a survey contro l point and benchmark. k. a h o s p i t a l , p o s t - o f f i c e and customs o f f i c e . 5. a p o s t - o f f i c e and a school . 2 21. The physical feature located at co-ord inate point 023044 may be best described as 1. a c i rque- l ake or tarn. 2. a permanent lake with marsh. 3. an oxbow lake resu l t ing from recent stream channel adjustment. k. a lake created by seasonal f l ood ing . 5. a small intermittent lake with an e a r t h - f i l l dam. 22. Identify the cor rect statement below. 1. Agnes Creek (southwest quadrant) drains a lake located at a lower e levat ion than the lake which is drained by nearby Chee Creek. 2. Both lakes on the two creeks are at the same e leva t i on . 3. Both creeks drain into N i skon l i th Lake. k. Both creeks are in termi t tent . 5. Both lakes are i n d e f i n i t e . 23. The l inear nature of the settlement at the north end of L i t t l e Shuswap Lake suggests a human response to the fact that 1. the area is only access ib le by water. 2. the housing is water recreat ion o r iented . 3. the area is impossible for road bu i l d ing . 4. the h i l l s i d e s are extremely unstable and subject to si ides. 5. the housing is located on an elevated te r race , well above the lake l e v e l . Following immediately a f te r these was th i s quest ion: Va 1 ue 5 A. The paragraph below descr ibes an imaginary locat ion which could occur in B r i t i s h Columbia. Use the information given to draw a topographic map showing the fo l lowing: (a) contour l ines appropr ia te ly l abe l l ed . (b) physical and cu l tu ra l features described and/ or implied in the de sc r i p t i on . The small town of Fisherbrooke is located at the confluence of two r i v e r s . The larger of the two drains a large area to the north, while the smaller r i ve r flows from the east cut t ing i t s way through the stepped terrace which f lanks the large r i ver on both s ides. The lower terrace elevated about eighty metres above the r i v e r , c a r r i e s the railway which passes below 3 Fisherbrooke. The upper te r race , located twenty metres higher, accommodates the town and the main highway which turns east at th i s point a f t e r fo l lowing the main r i ve r for some d i s tance. The highway is hard against the steep h i l l s which r i se behind the town and form i t s eastern boundary. Fisherbrooke is a small saw-mil l ing centre served by the ra i l road and i t s s id ing . Employment in the sawmill and in se rv i ce -or iented highway f a c i l i t i e s , provides jobs for i t s population of about one hundred and f i f t y people. The town and i t s houses huddle around the p o s t - o f f i c e , church and general s tore . Fisherbrooke is hot and dry with the only green v i s i b l e being in the lawns of the wel l -kept cemetery and the small park beside the church. Not much happens in Fisherbrooke, e spec i a l l y on a hot day. Draw your map in the space below. An ana lys i s d i sc loses -that".the f i r s t questions require from the respondents a knowledge of (l) the conventional topographic map symbol system, ( i . e . that £ represents a school , a blue l i ne represents a r i v e r , and p a r t i c u l a r conf igurat ions of contour l ines represent h i l l s , va l l eys and so on), (2) how to use map sca le to t rans la te map distances into actual distances and (3) compass d i r e c t i o n . These exerc ises are e s s e n t i a l l y recal1 or mechanical s k i l l s . The map construct ion quest ion, however, requires that, in add i t ion to the knowledge of bas ic map symbols, sca le and d i r e c t i o n , students must possess some rather soph i s t i ca ted i n te rp re ta t i ve and cartographic s k i l l s which w i l l enable them to t rans la te the verbal desc r ip t i on into a three dimensional mental image of a landscape and then t rans la te that mental image into a topographic map. The author of the question has presumably assumed that a l l of the required knowledge and s k i l l s have been taught or are possessed by the students who wrote the examination. When I presented th i s last question to my Geography 12 c l a s s , I too assumed they would have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y with i t . Although we had not spent much time on drawing topgraphic maps, the students had done extensive work with topographic map i n te rp re ta t i on . I was surpr ised by the fact that over ha l f the c lass of '.twenty-f i ve students could not progress beyond drawing a r i v e r , a road and a rai lway. Eight of the students gave up a f te r two or three f r u i t l e s s attempts. A l l of the students spent more than the f i v e or s ix minutes the question should have required and none produced a "good" map. This phenomenon occurred despite the emphasis in Social Studies c u r r i c u l a on the study of geography, maps and map s k i l l s . As McLendon (I960, p. 145) points out: Maps serve as basic tools of geographers and are i n -dispensable a l so in learning geography. They provide the most f ea s i b l e means yet developed for dep ict ing in l imi ted space great amounts of information about the physical environment. In Social Studies, many kinds of maps are used, from simple out l ines to more or less complex thematic and topographic maps, in order to transmit knowledge about geography and geographical re l a t i onsh ip s . It is not surpr i s ing then, that the teaching of map s k i l l s occupies a prominent place in Social Studies c u r r i c u l a . However, being able to in terpret topgraphic map symbols does not mean that a student can v i s u a l i z e ( i . e . form a three dimensional mental image of) the landscape depicted on a map. As E l i o t (1970, p. 286) points out: A c r i t i c a l weakness of most map s k i l l s programs is the presupposit ion that knowlege of symbolic conventions 5 necessar i l y e n t a i l s the a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e the spat ia l arrangement of the objects represented. Addressing the same problem from the point of view of map construct ion B lueste in and Acredolo (1977) assert that: A l l too often . . . the a b i l i t y to map is assumed and any f a i l u r e s in the re su l t ing map are a t t r ibu ted to inadequacies in the underlying representat ion, when in r e a l i t y the problem may be in the t rans l a t i on of that representat ion. . . . Once the students have drawn the requ i s i t e s imp l i f i ed maps of desk top, classroom, school and schoolyard in the ear ly elementary grades and have used appropriate scales and symbols, i t is then assumed that they can v i s u a l i z e an actual spat ia l arrangement. It is th i s v i s u a l i z a t i o n process which is at the heart of map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . However, most of the a l l o t t e d "map s k i l l s " time is spent on i n t e r -pretat ion exerc ises which are usua11y nothing more than symbol recogni t ion exerc i ses s im i l a r to the examples from the scholarsh ip examination on page one. These exerc ises provide neither p rac t i ce i n , nor eva luat ion of the students ' a b i l i t y to re-create a three dimensional r e a l i t y from a map. The assumption that re -c rea t ion is poss ib le is borne out by a pamphlet from the Surveys and Mapping Branch of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Canada (1975) e n t i t l e d : everyone should be able to use a map THE OBJECT IS TO FORM A TRUE MENTAL PICTURE OF THE GROUND Yet, i f everyone should be able to form a true mental p ic ture of the ground, why did a Geography 12 c lass have so much d i f f i c u l t y ? This 6 question was phrased somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y by Jenks (1970, p. 180) when he asked: Does he [the average map reader] mentally transform i t [a map] into a 3-D shape or does he jus t see a lot of wiggly 1ines? In answering his quest ion, Jenks goes on to say: Experience with many untrained map users indicates the l a t t e r and, as a r e s u l t , I suggest that 3-D representat ions be included with many types of maps. . . . Jenks 1 a s ser t ion that repeated exposure to three dimensional r representat ions w i l l a id in the mental image formation essent ia l to topographic map in terpreta t ion is borne out in part by the work of Gould and White (1974), Hannay (1971), Horowitz (1970) and Segal (1971). A l l of these researchers conclude that most human beings form three dimensional mental images and that these images are dependent upon pr io r sensory information. Much of the current research in both psychology and cartography has studied map use and map construct ion as an aspect of communication theory. Of pa r t i cu l a r concern has been the map user ' s mental processes in his perception of the cartographic communication. B r i e f l y , the communication theor i s t s suggest that the map maker converts his view of a three.dimensional landscape into a two dimensional map by the use of a conventional symbol system. The map user, possessed of the same symbol system, then t rans la tes the two dimensional map information into a three dimensional mental image which is s im i l a r to the map maker's landscape. If the communication has been success-f u l , the map user ' s mental image w i l l conform very c l o se l y to the 7 o r i g i n a l landscape. As B lueste in and Acredolo (1977) (p. 5) point out there are three key places where th i s communication system can malfunct ion. F i r s t , both map maker and map user must share a common symbol system. Second, the map user must be able to perceive that the symbols represent three dimensional objects which he recognizes. T h i r d , and perhaps most c r i t i c a l l y , the map user must be able to transform the two dimensional topographic map into a three dimensional mental image. These three factors generated the hypotheses which were tested by th i s study. Hypothesis #1 Mean post - tes t scores of students in the experimental groups w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p = .05) than mean post - tes t scores of the control groups on tests of map symbol recogn i t ion. Hypothesis #2 Mean post - tes t scores of students in the experimental groups w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p = .05) than mean pos t - tes t scores of the control groups on tests measuring a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e three-dimensional landscapes from topographic maps. To test these hypotheses, a quasi-experimenta1 research design using a control group and a pre tes t -pos t tes t format was chosen. Two groups of Grade 10 students and two groups of Grade 12 students were given the pretest which was composed of ten separate map s k i l l s ' t e s t s . One group of Grade 10 and one group of Grade 12 students were then given s ix weeks of da i l y in s t ruc t ion in a va r ie ty of map s k i l l s re lated to the in terpreta t ion of topographic maps and the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of topographic space. During th i s time the other two groups received no map s k i l l s i n s t ruc t i on . At the end of the teaching-1 earning period a l l four groups wrote a posttest which comprised the same items as the pretes t . 9 CHAPTER TWO Review of the L i t e ra tu re Part I: The Map as a Communication System The process of topographic map construct ion and in terpreta t ion is one form of cartographic communication. Cartographic communication has been both a subject of, and a model for, communicat ion research and a review of the research l i t e r a t u r e w i l l provide some ins ights into the s p e c i f i c problems raised in Chapter One. Human communication involves the intent iona l act of a human being as i t re lates to the sending or rece iv ing of a stimulus intended to produce understanding, s o c i a l i z a t i o n or ac t i on . Cartographic communication is then a spec i a l i zed form of human communication wherein the map maker, drawing information from the " r e a l world" and using a c l e a r l y defined symbol system, produces a graphic communication or representat ion of the r e a l i t y he perceives. The map user then decodes th i s graphic communication (a map) thereby recreat ing the o r i g i n a l r e a l i t y . Figure 1 is a model of th i s cartographic communication. Before embarking on a de ta i l ed explanation of the model, there are several general comments which should be made. F i r s t , s p e c i f i c FIGURE I THE MAPf'AKER "REALITY" "R" Noise -THE SENSES-"N" Noise PERCEIVED REALITY p S Y C H 0 L 0 G I C A L 'N" Noise "ITUDES BELIEFS-"P" Noise BRAIN -- rre-ex\ s ting Mental Maps - Symbols and Re f e rant s i ENCODER {Editing and Selection _ Process) URPOSE-"N" Noise PERCEIVED REALITY Noise A CARTOGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION MODEL THE "REAL" ENVIRONMENT •7< V The •-Car tographi c Cosnmun i ca t i on A Topographic *Hap — The Topog raph i c Map as Perce t ved —THE SENGES-"R" Noise 'REAL I TY" THE "REAL" ENVIRONMENT THE MAP-USER "REAL ITY" "R" Noise THE SENSES "N" Noise PERCEIVED REALITY 'N" Not se IT ITUDES BELIEF S— "P" Noise -BRA I N-Oecoder Delai I seicct i Symbo1s and Referonts Pre-ext st i ng Men taI Maps p re-ex i st i ng Mental Images 11 Three D i nensiona1 Mental Image of Landscape "P" Noise -PURPOSE "N" Noi se PERCEIVED REAL m "N" Noise •THE SENSES "R" Noi 5 0 11 reference to the problems involved in ac tua l l y p r in t ing a map is omitted. The technology of p r i n t i n g , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of various papers and inks, together with the technica l problems inherent in the p r in t ing process by which the various colour separations are added to the map w i l l obviously be a source of inter ference in the communication process. The nature and extent of th i s inter ference has been amply demonstrated by the research of Bartholomew and Kinniburgh (1973), Carmichael (1969), Gertsen (1970), Hodgkiss (1981), Merriam (1970), Muehrcke (1970), Petchenik (1974) and Sorrel 1 (1974). Second, although the various boundaries in the model are presented as rectang les, i t would be more accurate to v i s u a l i z e them as s im i l a r to the membrane which surrounds and gives d e f i n i t i o n to an amoeba. These boundaries w i l l be constant ly changing shape as various s t imul i are perceived. F i n a l l y i t should be remembered that map maker and map user w i l l not necessar i l y share the same "Real Environment" e i ther in space o r i n t i me. Although the model is s im i l a r in many respects to those of Kolacny (1969) and Robi nson and Petchenik (1976) i t is the author ' s conceptua l i za t ion . As a s t a r t i ng point i t is useful to think in terms of some absolute " r ea l environment" which is the same for a l l i nd i v idua l s . From th i s environment come a wide var ie ty of impulses and st imul i from which, by means of the senses, each ind iv idua l perceives " r e a l i t y . " These impulses and s t imul i both augment and i n te r fe re with each other and th i s in terac t ion produces what is c a l l ed in the model "R" noise. The map maker's senses (perceptual f i l t e r s ) se lect from th i s background 12 ce r t a in s t imul i which are passed along to create his "perceived environment." For the map maker th i s perceived environment represents " r e a l i t y . " The se lec t i on process resu l t s in part from the fact that only ce r t a in wave lengths ac t i va te the eye and cer ta in sound frequencies ac t i va te the ear. The elements which make up the perceived environment impinge on the sense organs to provide a var ie ty of in teract ions ("N" noise) which in turn provides inter ference as the map maker se lect s from these elements. This time, however, the f i l t e r is psychological rather than phys io log ica l and is g reat ly inf luenced by the map maker's purpose in construct ing the map. Be l i e f s about the world, a t t i tudes toward map making and map users provide some add i t iona l in ter ference ("P" noise) to the transmission of perceptions from the sense organs, along the nerves, which a l so contr ibute i n t e r -ference, to the bra in . At th i s point the map maker's perceptions are added to and inf luenced by any p re -ex i s t i ng mental maps he may have and transmitted to the encoder sect ions of the bra in . The map maker se lect s from his store of map symbols and cartographic techniques the "bes t " way of representing his percept ions. These se lect ions are then transmitted from the brain back to the sense organs where they are incorporated into the map. This process w i l l be repeated several times as the map maker ed i t s his communication into i t s f i n a l form. Assuming the p r in t ing process produces a true copy, the map communication is now ready for the map user. The map is perceived by the map user as part of his " r e a l " environment. It is processed through his perceptual and psychological 13 f i l t e r s to his b ra in . Assuming that map maker and map user ascr ibe the same meanings to the symbols and cartographic techniques used by the map maker, the map user ' s decoding apparatus w i l l t rans la te the symbols into a mental image. If the communication is succes s fu l , it w i l l produce, in the map user ' s b ra in , a three dimensional mental image of a landscape. If the process works w e l l , the map user ' s three dimensional mental image w i l l be a reasonable f ac s im i l e of the o r i g i n a l landscape. In order to create th i s mental image, however, the map user must understand the cartographic conventions of symbol, sca le and d i r e c t i o n . Part II: Map S k i l l s Research Most of the research which has been done on map symbols has dealt with ways of improving the qua l i t y or v i s i b i l i t y of map symbols. Researchers such as Olson (1975), Gertsen (1970), Robinson (1970), Crawford (1973), Flannery (1971), Merriam (1970), Monmonier (1977), Petchenik (197*0, Arnheim (1976), Wood (1968), McCleary (1970), DeLuccia (1972), P h i l l i p s , DeLuccia and Skelton (1975), S t r inger (.1973) and Bartholomew and Kinniburgh (1973) have studied such topics as the optimum s i ze and d i s t r i b u t i o n of dot, c i r c l e and square symbols on d i s t r i b u t i o n maps; the optimum width of l ines for ease of v i s i b i l i t y ; problems with f igure-ground re la t ionsh ips and percept ions; improvement and s tandard izat ion of symbol design; the best method of portraying r e l i e f ; the s i z e , s t y l e and qua l i t y of type and the best colours to use on maps. While th i s research has great potent ia l for improving 14 the cartographic qua l i t y of maps, many of these researchers point out that much depends on the map user ' s a b i l i t i e s and knowledge and more research heeds to be done in th i s area. Sorrel 1 (1974, p. 84) out l ines an essent ia l problem in map s k i l l s development for the map user when he s tates : The ro le of the map as a communication medium is fur ther complicated by the transformation of the representat ional output by genera l i za t ion into the form of symbols. No matter how pe r fec t l y designed the symbol system is i t s t i l l causes great d i f f i c u l t y for the map reader because the symbols are not representat ions of the things symbolized. The problem of symbolization was addressed by Gardner, Howard and Perkins (1974, p. 29) who make a d i s t i n c t i o n between icons which resemble the things they represent (e.g. p i c tu re s , statues) and symbols which are conventional representations (e.g. words, numerals). They a l so agree that the symbol system creates i t s own set of problems. For the map user attempting to interpret map symbols Sorrel 1 (p. 84) suggests that: Even a f te r the necessary ins t ruct ions in decoding, the reader is l e f t with the bare bones of the message, which then requires the in terpo la t ion of de ta i l derived from the reader 's own f i e l d of knowledge to reconstruct the o r i g i na l perceptual stimulus which the map maker is t ry ing to communicate. The great d i f f i c u l t y involved in learning these symbol codes was further demonstrated by the research of Pearson, Wiedel and Castner (1974). They ca r r i ed out a maze experiment using s ixty-one subjects of whom th i r teen were cartographers, th i r ty - seven geographers and eleven non-geographers. Subjects were b l indfo lded a f te r having an opportunity 15 to learn the symbols used on maps for the b l ind and asked to use a map to work t h e i r way through a maze. Only t h i r t y - e i g h t per cent of the group success fu l l y completed the maze. Common problems involved forget t ing or mi s in terpret ing map symbols, confusion where two symbols were s im i l a r and misjudgement of sca le and actual d i s tances . As the authors of the study point out: These problems were unexpected, s ince a l l of the symbols employed had been easy for b l ind subjects to i den t i f y . . . . The process of learning the symbolic code and acquir ing competence in i t has been the subject of some study. In d iscuss ing the acqu i s i t i on of symbolc competence Gross (197^, p. 57) states that Thinking is an act i v i ty embracing the perception and ;; the cogn i t i ve process ing, storage, and re t r i eva l of s t ructured information. Structured and meaningful information can be received, s tored, transformed and communicated through a va r ie ty of symbolic modes. . . . These modes . . . are b a s i c a l l y learned only through act ions appropriate to the p a r t i c u l a r mode. According to Balchin (1976, pp. 33 f f ) these symbolic modes are re lated to what he c a l l s the four bas ic types of a b i l i t y which a l l human beings have. These are: 1. 1 i te racy - - the a b i l i t y to use wr i t ten communication 2. a r t i c u l a c y — V e r b a l s k i l l s , the a b i l i t y to make " s o c i a l noi ses . " 3. numeracy—the f acu l t y for deal ing with numerical symbolism and *4 . graph i cacy--spat ia l a b i l i t y — t h e educated counterpart of the v i s u a l - s p a t i a l aspect of human i n te l l i g ence and communication. He goes on to assert that: In a brain as highly evolved as that of a human being the potent ia l for a l l four types of a b i l i t y is inborn, but none of them can come to f u l l f r u i t i o n without educat ion. Drawing on the work of Piaget, a number of researchers including Myer (1973), Downs and Stea (1977), Rushdoony (1969), Sorrel 1 (197*0. Blueste in and Acredolo (1977) and Muehrcke (1978) argue that the spat ia l a b i l i t y develops gradual ly through a number of stages as ch i ld ren grow o lder . B lueste in and Acredolo (1977) studied map reading s k i l l s of th ree - , f ou r - , and f i v e - y e a r - o l d ch i ld ren in an attempt to f i nd out at what age ch i ld ren develop what are ca l l ed the " three d i s t i n c t cogn i t i ve processes" which enable them to in fer information about the i r environment from a map. The three processes are (p. 5 ) : . . . the in terpreta t ion of two dimensional ca r to -graphic or p ictographic symbols and the understanding they they refer to real three dimensional counterparts. The second . . . involves the formation of a mental representat ion of the map . . . to serve as the a s soc ia t i ve l ink between map and space, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the map and the space are not viewed together. The th i rd process . . . is the pro ject ion or super-imposition of the mental representation of the map on the environment i t s e l f . . . . The study demonstrated that th ree - , f our - and f i v e - y e a r - o l d ch i ld ren were capable of learning and in terpret ing cartographic symbols. It a l so showed that nearly ha l f the three-year -o lds and most of the four - and f i ve - yea r -o l d s could form a mental image of the map and, provided the map was c o r r e c t l y or iented with the space, superimpose the map on the environment. Only the f i ve - yea r -o ld s however, could mentally re -o r ient or rotate the map to f i t the environment i f i t was not c o r r e c t l y l ined up to s t a r t . Milburn (1980) in a study of elementary school mapping concludes 17 that elementary school c h i l d r e n , provided they are given t ra in ing apppropriate to t h e i r l e v e l , can learn a va r ie ty of map s k i l l s . Beginning in the primary grades ch i ld ren can succes s fu l l y complete a va r ie ty of mapping tasks although the resu l t s must be assessed in l i ght of the c h i l d r e n ' s developmental stage. By age eleven Milburn f inds that most ch i ld ren have developed concepts of sca le , d i r e c t i o n , and symbol izat ion, can project a " p i l o t ' s eye" view of a space and are ready to begin working with topographic maps. As a much e a r l i e r experiment described in the Tra in ing Col lege Group Committee Report (1941) shows, many ch i ld ren are capable of recognizing contour patterns. Some 40,000 B r i t i s h school ch i ld ren were asked to match a p ic ture ( a l i ne drawing of a landscape) with an appropriate map and a l so to match a map with a p i c tu re . By age twelve f i f t y percent of the students could do both exerc ises and by age f i f t e e n and a ha l f eighty percent of the students could success fu l l y complete the exerc i ses. A summary of the research studies suggests that students can learn symbol systems, that students can recognize contour patterns and match them to i so lated physical features,and that they can form mental images of simple maps and re la te them to an environment. The research does not ind icate however whether or not a student can look at a topographic map and form a three dimensional mental image of a land-scape. It is th i s question which led to the research questions and hypotheses. 18 CHAPTER THREE The Experimental Design The centra l purpose of the present study was to f ind out i f student map users can and do "form a true mental p ic ture of the ground." Since information about the ground is portrayed on maps by the use of a va r ie ty of symbol systems, i t is obvious that map users must possess a knowledge of those symbol systems. Once the map user is possessed of th i s knowledge however, another problem a r i s e s . Map users, given enough time, can " read " a map by verba l l y in terpret ing each symbol and thereby bu i ld up an in terpreta t ion of the map. The l i t e r a t u r e is f u l l of references to th i s aspect of map perception which is analogous to the process by which the learning of vocabulary takes p lace. Only a f te r students have learned to read the l i t e r a l meaning of words can they begin to appreciate the richness of l i t e r a r y symbolism. As the work of Petchenik (197*0 and Robinson and Petchenik (1976) demonstrates, however, e f f e c t i v e map in terpreta t ion involves a d i r ec t connection between the tota l v i sual d i sp lay of the map and a corresponding mental image of the ground. The problem is to evaluate th i s mental image. There appear to be only two methods for evaluat ing 19 the mental image. One is to ask the image possessor to draw the image. This involves transformation of the image into a d i f f e r e n t ( i . e . graphic) symbol system. The other is to have the image possessor verba l l y descr ibe the image. This s i m i l a r l y involves transformation into a d i f f e r e n t symbol system. 1. The Research Pesign With the foregoing cons iderat ions in mind, i t was decided to use a control group - experimental group, pretest -postest experimental design for th i s study. The design was based on the Nonequiva1ent Control Group Design described by Campbell and Stanley (1970, p. hi). This design provides the most e f f e c t i v e research design involv ing intact school c l a s ses . As Campbell and Stanley (pp. ^7-8) point out: The more s im i l a r the experimental and the control groups are in t h e i r recruitment, and the more th i s s i m i l a r i t y is confirmed by the scores on the pretes t , the more e f f e c t i v e th i s control becomes. Assuming that these des iderata are approximated for purposes of internal v a l i d i t y , we can regard the design as c o n t r o l l i n g the main e f f ec t s of h i s to ry , maturation, tes t ing and instrumentation, in that the d i f f e rence for the experimental group between pretest and posttest ( i f greater .than that for the control group) cannot be explained by main e f f ec t s of these var iab les such as would be found a f f ec t i n g both the experimental and the control group. A l l students were given the same pretest at the same time. The control groups received no fur ther in s t ruc t iona l contact with maps. The experimental group on the other hand,. received in s t ruc t ion and prac t i ce in the var ie ty of map s k i l l s deemed by the research 20 to be necessary for map users to be e f f e c t i v e par t i c ipant s in the cartographic communication process. At the conclus ion of the treatment period a l l students rewrote the pretest as a post test . Scores for a l l pa r t i c ipant s were recorded and are included in Appendix C. 2. The Sample Alpha Secondary School is located in the north western part of Burnaby, a suburb of Vancouver. It enrols students in grades eight to twelve. The school population is drawn from the surrounding area which contains a va r ie ty of socio-economic leve l s ranging from working c lass to upper middle c l a s s . Approximately ten percent of the students were born outs ide Canada, mainly in. I ta ly, India, Hong Kong or Korea. Approximately twenty percent of the students speak: a language other than Engl ish at home. The students d i sp lay a normal range of reading and composition s k i l l s . The students who par t i c ipa ted in th i s study were drawn from two grades with in the school . The largest group was from Grade 10 Social Studies c lasses (ages 1 5 _ l 6 ) . At the Grade 10 level in B r i t i s h Columbia, Social Studies is compulsory and Alpha Secondary School enrols f i v e Socia l Studies 10 c l a s ses . Assignment of students to pa r t i cu l a r c lasses is done by a computerwhich is programmed to d i s t r i b u t e the students equitably according to the number of c lasses ava i l ab l e . The computer program is designed to produce a reasonable balance of sexes with in c lasses as well as a balance of to ta l numbers between c la s ses . Because of the large number of compulsory subjects and 21 l imi ted number of options at the Grade 10 l e v e l , the c lass d i s t r i b u t i o n s in Socia l Studies are as c lose to a random se lec t ion as poss ib le in an es tab l i shed school . Classes are assigned to teachers in an equal ly random fash ion. The two c lasses pa r t i c i pa t i n g as the experimental group (n = 4l) were taught by the researcher. The two c lasses (n = 37) chosen as the control were both assigned to a cooperat ive co l league. The second and smaller group consisted of students from Grade 12 (ages 17—18). The experimental group (n = 26) cons isted of the students in the author ' s Geography 12 c l a s s while an Engl i sh 12 c lass (n = 28) which met at the same time served as a c o n t r o l . Because Engl ish 12 is compulsory, the contro l group was reasonably representat ive of the Grade 12 populat ion. However, Geography 12 is an option which students choose for a va r ie ty of reasons. An informal survey taken at the beginning of the course indicated that some s ix ty percent of the students took the course because they were: interested in the subject matter, twenty percent because of the f i e l d t r i p s , while the remainder wanted a scholarsh ip examinable course, or needed a Grade 12 level c red i t course, or cou ldn ' t f i t anything e l se into the i r t imetable. As the two samples d i f f e r e d , resu l t s are analyzed separate ly. 3. The Instruments Working from the author ' s ana lys i s of the topographic map questions on the January 1981, Geography 12 Scholarship Examination and the research of Myer (1973) and Monk and Alexander (1973), a l i s t of topographic map s k i l l s was drawn up which would be p rerequ i s i te to 22 the development of the a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e a landscape from a topgraphic map. The map s k i l l s are: 1. a b i l i t y to use d i rec t i on - -bo th on the map and on the ground, and the a b i l i t y to co r rec t l y o r ient a map. 2. an understanding of map sca le and an a b i l i t y to re la te map distance to actual d i s tance. 3. an understanding of map symbols and an a b i l i t y to recognize common symbols from memory. k. an understanding of contour l ines and an a b i l i t y to recognize contour l i ne patterns. 5. an a b i l i t y to in terpret contour l i ne patterns in order to develop a general ized image of a landscape. 6. an a b i l i t y to form a three dimensional mental image of a landscape symbolized on a topographic map. The test instrument consisted of ten sub-tests (one of which was d iv ided into three parts) with each test desgined to measure a s p e c i f i c s k i l l or combination of s k i l l s . A b i l i t y to use d i r e c t i o n and to convert from map distance to actual d istance were not tested s p e c i f i c a l l y . Rather, ins t ruct ions and test questions were formed using d i r e c t i o n and sca le factors wherever appropr iate. The test sequence was as fo l lows. Test 1: Students were asked to locate ten common symbols on a r e l a t i v e l y uncomplicated topographic map. ( i . e . no vegetation and few contours) Test 2: Students were asked to locate ten d i f f e r e n t but common symbols on a more complex topographic map. Test 3: Students were asked to locate, on a map, contour l i ne patterns which indicated three h i l l s ( 3 a ) , two va l leys 23 (3b) and the steepest slope in the landscape (3c). Test k: Students were asked to determine r e l a t i v e heights of a number of points marked on a topographic map. Test 5- Students were asked to match a sample topographic map to one of four poss ib le landscape sketches and to match a landscape sketch to one of four topographic maps. Test 6: Students were asked to imagine themselves in the landscape and to draw v e r t i c a l e levat ions of three bui ld ings symbolized on a topographic map. Test 7- Students were asked to imagine themselves in the landscape at a s p e c i f i c point on a s imp l i f i ed topographic map and determine whether they would be able to see various points marked on the map. Test 8: The same as test 6 except that a normal topographic map was used. Test 9: Students were asked to locate themselves at a s p e c i f i c spot on a topographic map and draw what they would see i f they were in the landscape. Test 10: Students were asked to imagine themselves walking along a road shown on a map and to descr ibe what they would see. Copies of the test instruments are attached as Appendix A. The • s imp l i f i ed topographic map used in Test 3c and Test 7 was taken from a topographic map in terpreta t ion k i t produced by Hubbard S c i e n t i f i c Co. (1964). The map used in Test 8 and Test 9 was taken from Gunn (1968, p. 6). A l l other maps were from Chevrier and Aitkens (1970, 2k p. 132, p. 116, p. 92). The ten sub-tests break into two groups. The f i r s t group, tests 1 to 5 were designed to assess the students ' knowledge of the map symbol system used on topographic maps produced by the Canadian Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Surveys and Mapping Branch. The second group, tests 6 to 10, were designed to assess the students ' a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e three-dimensional landscapes from topographic maps. A l l of the tests with the exception of Test 5 and Test 6 were adaptations of tests or map in terpreta t ion exercises from cartographic researchers [e.g. P h i l l i p s , DeLucia and Skelton (1975) Tests 1, 2, 3, A, 7 and 8; DeLucia (1972) Tests 1 and 2] or from books used in topographic map s k i l l s development [e.g. Kemball (1981), Graham (1968) Tests 3, 7, 8, 9 and 10]. Test 6 was based on the assumption that students might be able to "name" a symbol without producing a mental image of i t . Students were instructed to draw representations of the referents of s p e c i f i c symbols without being to ld what the symbols represented. Test 5 was used by Scarfe who administered the test in B r i t a i n in 1938/39 [Report by the Tra in ing Col lege Group Committee (19**l)]- It is therefore assumed that the tests were v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . As an add i t iona l check the tests were submitted to a group of three experienced high school geography teachers who found them to be va l i d for the purposes intended. The maps used in Tests 1, 2 and 3 were laminated in p l a s t i c so that students could record the i r responses d i r e c t l y on the maps using overhead projector pens. A time l im i t was used for each exerc i se 25 in an attempt to control for sources of var iance, to standardize test administrat ion and to try to force the students to re ly on v isual rather than verbal ana lys i s of the maps. In Tests 1, 2, k, 6, 7» 8, 9 and 10 the time allowed was the time i t took for f i f t y percent of the Grade 12 students to complete the exerc i ses . Test 3(a), 3(b) and each part of Test 5 were a l l o t t e d one and one-hal f minutes and Test 3(c) was a l l o t t e d one minute. k. Scor i ng Tests 1 - 5 were e s s e n t i a l l y ob jec t i ve tests where answers were e i the r r ight or wrong. One mark was awarded for each correct response. For Test 6 students were awarded one mark i f they drew a v e r t i c a l e levat ion of the bu i l d ing , one mark i f the e levat ion was of the correct s ide and one mark i f they added d i s t ingu i sh ing de t a i l s ind icat ing c l e a r l y that the f i r s t bu i ld ing was a house, the second a barn and the th i rd a school . Tests 7 and 8 were s im i l a r to Tests 1 - 5 in that answers were e i the r r ight or wrong and again one mark was awarded for each correct response. Because Tests 7 and 8 required the students to in terpret the maps and draw conclusions about the mapped landscape ( i . e . " I f you were standing at point x could you see . . . ?), the answers to both tests were checked and v e r i f i e d by three high school geography teachers. The scor ing for Test 9 presented some d i f f i c u l t i e s in that i t was assumed that there would be some d i f ferences in the drawings which would be the resu l t of a r t i s t i c ta lent rather than map v i s u a l i z a t i o n 26 a b i l i t i e s . In order to make the scor ing as ob jec t i ve and cons is tent as poss ib le the fo l lowing procedure was used. The landscape to be interpreted was analyzed and was found to cons i s t of the fo l lowing. The centra l feature is a typ ica l U-shaped g l a c i a l va l l ey with a stream flowing down the centre. A road runs beside the stream and crosses i t shor t ly a f te r the stream leaves a swampy area near the foreground. There is a high mountain peak on the east at the entrance to the va l ley with two g l a c i e r s separated by an arete immediately to the south of i t . The western s ide of the va l l ey is not as steep and has two separate peaks which would have been v i s i b l e . Forest cover grows part way up both sides of the v a l l e y . The contour:pattern indicates a va l l ey with steeply s loping sides which become less steep as the r e l a t i v e l y wide, f l a t va l l ey f l o o r is reached. It was decided to award two marks i f peaks were indicated on the east s ide, two marks for peaks on the west, one mark i f the west s ide of the va l l ey indicated a more gradual slope than the east, three marks i f the general shape of the va l l ey was co r rec t , one mark each i f the road and the r i ve r were shown, one mark i f vegetation was indicated and one add i t iona l mark i f the vegetation did not go more than halfway up the va l l ey s ides. The tota l poss ib le score was therefore twelve. Test 10 c a l l e d for a wr i t ten descr ip t ion of the landscape the student would pass through while t r a v e l l i n g along the road. Marks were given for ind icat ions of changes in slope and d i r e c t i o n , l oca t ion , type and number of bu i ld ings , road surface, descr ip t ions of the stream beside the road ( ind icat ions of d i r ec t i on of f low, v e l o c i t y , 27 e t c . ) , vegetat ion, ind icat ions of the comparative width of the va l l ey along the route and ind icat ions of the extent of the area which would be in view at any one time. The test was submitted to four co-operat ive col leagues who wrote i t . Comparison and ana lys i s of the i r answers indicated that while the test was somewhat "open-ended" twenty-f ive marks would be a reasonable poss ib le maximum score. In add i t ion copies were made of a random sample of student responses to both Tests 9 and 10 and these same col leagues, working independently, marked them. When the resu l t s were compared there were no substant ia l d i f fe rences between the i r scoring and that of the author. In an attempt to ensure consistency in scor ing , a l l pre- and post - tes t responses for Test 10 were marked at the same time. . The test answers were then reviewed one week l a ter and no incons i s tenc ies were found. 5. The Intervent ion The pretests were followed by s ix weeks of intens ive work with topographic map s k i l l s for the experimental groups. Samples of lessons taught and exerc ises used are included in Appendix B. Students worked through a ser ies of exercises which were designed to f a m i l i a r i z e them with common topographic map symbols as well as gain an under-standing of the funct ions and use of contour l i n e s . There were many opportun i t ies to both construct and interpret contour maps. Students a l so worked with sca le , d i r e c t i o n and e levat ion excerc ises including the drawing of p r o f i l e s and the ca l cu l a t i on of gradients . Where poss ib le , students were given the opportunity to compare photographs 28 of an area with maps of the same area. Following a suggestion made by DeLeeuw and Carswell (1981, p. 8) considerable time was spent by the students comparing ae r i a l s tereo photographs with topographic maps. F i n a l l y students were taken on two f i e l d t r i p s in which topographic maps were used. During these t r i p s pa r t i cu l a r a t tent ion was paid to matching contour patterns to the ex i s t i ng landscape and, when c l imbing , to determining when various contours were crossed. The overa l l design of the in s t ruc t iona l program was based on the assumption that students knew v i r t u a l l y nothing about topographic maps. Instruct ion and p rac t i ce exerc ises were designed to bring a l l the students to the level of competence expected of Geography 12 students. 29 CHAPTER FOUR Results The overa l l resu l t s (raw scores) are presented in Appendix C. Table 1(a) l i s t s the means and standard dev iat ions for the Grade 10 experimental and control groups for the tests of map symbol recognit ion (Tests 1 - 5 ) . Table 1(b) l i s t s the data for the same tests for the Grade 12 groups. Tables 2(a) and 2(b) are ana lys i s of var iance summary tables for Tests 1 - 5 for the Grade 10 and Grade 12 groups re spec t i ve l y . In Table 2(a) and 2(b) Source A compares the overa l l test mean of the control group with that of the experimental group for each grade and determines the s t a t i s t i c a l s i gn i f i c ance of any d i f f e rences . Source AC is a covar iate ana lys i s which compares the d i f fe rence between the contro l group pre- and posttest means with the d i f fe rences between the experimental group pre- and posttest means Source AC therefore measures the e f f e c t , i f any, of the in tervent ion. In several instances e.g. Grade 10 Test 2, 3 and 5 the ana lys i s of variance resu l t s show an apparent lack of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gn i f i c ance for Source A re su l t s . The cause of th i s anomaly is discussed in the appropriate sect ion of Chapter 5 in reference to each test for which i t occurs. 30 TABLE 1(a) MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5 Test # Max Group Pretest Standard Posttest Standard N Score Deviation Deviat ion ' 1 10 Exp. 4.805 1.631 8.732 1 .597 41 Cont. 5.189 2.158 5.757 2.204 37 2 10 Exp. 4.829 2.519 7.341 1.755 41 Cont. 6.081 1.991 6.027 1.979 37 3 6 Exp. 2.976 2.139 4.610 1.745 41 Cont. 3.243 2.408 3.243 2.350 37 4 7 Exp. 3.488 1.645 5.317 1.474 41 Corit. 3.514 1.456 3.568 1.591 37 5 2 Exp. 0.805 0.782 1.195 0.601 41 Cont. 0.973 0.763 0.973 0.763 37 TABLE K b ) MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE"12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5 "• 1 • ! 10 Exp. 6.654 1.875 9.346 0.745 26 Cont. 6.250 2.137 7.071 2.054 28 2 10 Exp. 7.269 1.951 8.308 1.087 26 Cont. 5-750 2.030 5.857 2.475 28 3 6 Exp. 3.923 2.513 5.308 1.289 26 Cont. 3.357 2.345 3-357 2.329 28 7 Exp. 3.731 2.342 5.692 1.517 26 Cont. 3.036 2.063 3.000 1.981 28 5 2 Exp. 1.308 0.679 1 .500 0.648 26 Cont. 0.893 0.737 0.821 0.723 28 31 TABLE 2(a) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5 Test # Source Sum of Degrees of Mean F P robab i l i t y Squares Freedom Squares Ratio 1 A 65.264 1 65.264 10.354 .0.002 AC 109.736 1 109.736 115.945 0.001 2 A 0.038 1 0.038 0.005 0.944 AC 64.041 1 64.041 63.152 0.001 3 A 11.743 1 11.743 1 .351 0.249 AC 25.968 1 25.968 38.132 0.001 4 A 28.896 1 28.896 6.467 0.013 AC 30.645 1 30.645 97.660 0.001 5 A 0.028 1 0.028 0.029 0.866 AC 1.481 1 1.481 19-148 0.001 TABLE 2(b) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5 1 A 48.363 1 48.363 8.980 0.004 AC 23.594 1 23.594 20.857 0.001 2 A 106.228 1 106.228 14.710 0.001 AC 5.847 1 5.847 11.775 0.001 3 A 42.687 1 42.687 5.009 0.030 AC 12.923 1 12.923 13.156 0.001 4 A 77.345 1 77.345 10.511 0.002 AC 26.889 1 26.889 42.418 0.001 5 A 8.059 1 8.059 9.135 0.004 AC 0.469 1 0.469 4.928 0.031 32 Hypothesis 1 stated that Mean post - tes t scores for students in the experimental groups w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p - .05) than mean post - tes t scores of the control groups on the tests of map symbols recogn i t ion. It can be seen from the data in Table 2(a) and 2(b) that a l l pre-to post - tes t d i f fe rences (Source AC) on a l l f i v e tests are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = .001 on a l l except Grade 12 Test 5 where p = .031) Hypothesis 1 is therefore supported. Table 3(a) l i s t s the means and standard deviat ions for the Grade 10 experimental and control groups for the v i s u a l i z a t i o n tests (Tests 6 - 10). Table 3(b) l i s t s the data from the same tests for the Grade 12 groups. Tables 4(a) and 4(b) are ana lys i s of var iance summary tables for Tests 6 - 1 0 for the Grade 10 and Grade 12 groups re spec t i ve ly . The s t a t i s t i c s for these tables are derived in the same way as those for Table 2(a) and (b). Hypothesis 2 stated that Mean.-post-test scores of s tudents. in the experimental groups w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p = .05) than mean post - tes t scores of the control groups on tests measuring a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e three-dimensional land-scapes from topographic maps. It can be seen from the data in Table 4(a) that a l l the pre-test to post - tes t d i f ferences (Source AC) on a l l f i v e tests for Grade 10 are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .024). S imi lar resu l t s are found for Table 4(b) with the exception of Test 9 where although the pre - tes t to post - tes t d i f f e rence is c lose to s t a t i s t i c a l s i gn i f i c ance (p = .090) i t f a l l s outs ide the o r i g i n a l l y set s i gn i f i c ance test 33 TABLE 3(a) MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE. 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10 Test # Max Group Pretest Standard Posttest Standard N Score P,eviat ion Deviation 6 9 Exp. 2.659 2.698 4.780 3.094 41 Cont. 1.595 1.518 1.757 1 .690 37 7 10 Exp. 6.561 2.248 7.171 1.716 41 Cont. 6.189 1 .912 6.162 1.893 37 8 6 Exp. 4.024 1 .405 4.463 1.185 41 Cont. 4.595 1 .166 4.541 1.192 37 9 12 Exp. 1 .024 1.151 1.268 1.323 41 Cont. 1.162 1 .302 1.135 1.134 37 10 25 Exp. 5.634 4.128 10.902 5.580 41 Cont. 6.243 3.467 6.054 3.472 37 TABLE 3(b) MEAN SCORES AND. STANDARD DEVJAT0NS FOR GRADE ]2 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10 6 9 Exp. 4.846 2.949 7.000 2.366 26 Cont. 3.536 2.472 3.429 2.332 28 7 10 Exp. 7.077 1.547 7.500 1.556 26 Cont. 6.357 2.297 6.321 2.480 28 8 6 Exp. 4.346 1 .294 4.808 0.749 26 Cont. 3.786 1 .371 3.750 1 .430 28 9 12 Exp. 1.654 1 .231 2.000 1.265 26 Cont. 1.286 1.213 1.357 1.283 28 10 25 Exp. 7.731 4.618 14.731 3.573 26 Cont.. 5.036 3.646 5.214 3.843 28 34 TABLE 4(a) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10 3 S t # Source Sum of Degrees of Mean F Probabi1 Squares Freedom Squares Ratio 6 A 162.485 1 162.485 15.626 0.001 AC 37.350 1 37-350 40.720 0.001 7 A 18.529 1 18.529 2.555 0.114 AC 3.943 1 3.943 10.207 0.002 8 A 4.075 1 4.075 1 .452 0.232 AC 2.365 1 2.365 8.171 0.005 9 A 0.000 1 0.000 0.000 0.994 AC 0.714 1 0.714 5.284 0.024 10 A 1 74.7.62 1 174.762 5.609 0.020 AC 289.631 1 289.631 51.688 0.001 TABLE 4(b) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6- 10 6 A 160.650 1 160.650 13.152 0.001 AC 34.459 1 34.459 52.653 0.001 7 A 24.292 1 24.292 3.013 0.089 AC 1 .419 1 1.419 7.642 0.008 8 A 17.650 1 17.650 6.071 0.017 AC 1.667 1 1.667 8.090 0.006 9 A 6.890 1 6.890 2.339 0.132 AC 6.509 1 0.509 2.982 0.090 .10 A 1005.193 1 1005.193 38.551 0.001 AC 313.655 1 313.655 64.199 0.001 35 (p = .05). The factors which combined to produce th i s resu l t are discussed in Chapter 5- Examination of Table 4(a) and 4(b) however provides overwhelming support for the conclusion that, with the exception noted above, Hypothesis 2 is supported. 36 CHAPTER FIVE Discussion and Conclusions The purpose of th i s study was to determine i f student map users create a three-dimensional mental image of the landscape depicted by a topographic map. The research of Hannay (1971) and others referred to in Chapter 1 indicates c l e a r l y that most human beings can and do form three-dimensional mental images. Further, B lueste in and Acredolo (1977) descr ibe two pr ior e s sent ia l s for the landscape v i s u a l i z a t i o n process. These are: 1. that both map maker and map user share a common symbol system. 2. that the map user understands that the symbols represent recognizable three-dimensional ob ject s . If both these e s sent i a l s are met i t should be poss ib le for the map user to transform the two dimensional topographic map into a three-dimensional mental image. Both the test instruments and the intervent ion were designed to ensure that these e s sent i a l s were met. As a resu l t the d i scuss ion of the f indings d iv ides l o g i c a l l y into three parts . 37 Part 1 The f i r s t ser ies of tests (1 - 5) were designed to evaluate students ' knowledge of the common map symbols. As Table I i nd ica tes , there is a marked increase in the post - tes t means for both experimental groups as well as a reduction in the standard dev iat ion for each of the post - tes t means as compared with those of the pretes t . This reduction indicates an overa l l improvement in the performance of the experimental group. It should a l so be noted that only ha l f of the students completed the pretests within a l l o t t e d time l im i t s while a l l the experimental group students completed the post - tes t s well with in the time s p e c i f i e d . Students in the treatment groups were not only more knowledgeable but a lso f a s te r . The resu l t s of Tests 1 and 2 ind icate that students in both experimental and control groups already possessed some knowledge of the conventional l i ne ( r i ve r s , roads) and point (schools, churches) symbols. Indeed i t is the comparatively good performance of the Grade 10 control group on Test 2 (mean = 6.081) which produces the lack of s i gn i f i c ance (p = 0.944) when group means are compared. However the ana lys i s of variance s t a t i s t i c s comparing changes in pre-t e s t - po s t - t e s t means c l e a r l y ind icate a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gain (p = 0.001) for the experimental group in Grade 10. Although Tests 1 and 2 deal p r imar i l y with map symbol recognit ion the maps used were somewhat d i f f e r e n t . The map used for Test 1 was a map of an area in the Canadian p r a i r i e s which contained only three contour l ines and v i r t u a l l y no vegetation co lour . The map used for Test 2 38 on the other hand contained numerous contour l ines and was extens ive ly coloured with the green vegetation symbol. The d i f f e rence between the mean scores for the two tests for both groups would seem to support the conclusions reached by Merriam (1970), DeLucia (1972) and Wood (1972) that ease and accuracy of non - re l i e f symbol recognit ion are enhanced when vegetation shading and contour l i ne dens i t ie s are reduced. Tests 3, 4 and 5 were designed to evaluate students ' knowledge of the contour l i ne symbol system. Test 3 evaluated students ' perceptions of patterns of contour l ines ind icat ing s p e c i f i c r e l i e f features , Test k evaluated perception of d i r e c t i o n of slope and Test 5 assessed students ' a b i l i t y to match contour patterns with three-dimensional i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Both Test 3 and Test 5 ana lys i s of variance resu l t s for the Grade 10 groups fol low the pattern of Test 2 for the same reasons. In a l l three te s t s , however,.experimental group gains were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p = 0.001 for a l l but Grade 12 Test 5 where p = 0.031). Although the resu l t s for Test 3 show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gain for the experimental groups, a source of d i f f i c u l t y in th i s type of exerc i se and a weakness in most topographic map in terpreta t ion in s t ruc t ion became apparent during the in tervent ion. Following the normal procedure in the introductory lessons on contour symbols, students were given an opportunity to draw contour diagrams from spot heights, .contour diagrams of various geometric f igures and simple contour maps of "one h i l l " i s lands. On a subsequent quiz a l l students 39 in the experimental groups were able to ident i fy f i v e separate contour diagrams representing common r e l i e f features (a h i l l , v a l l e y , c l i f f , e t c . ) . However, when these same students were asked to f ind contour patterns representing the same f i v e r e l i e f features on a topographic map, they had considerable d i f f i c u l t y . When these contour l i ne patterns became part of a more complex contour system there appeared to be a tendency for the students to see what Jenks (197P) c a l l s "a lot of wiggly l i n e s . " As in the research of Pearson, Wiedel and Castner (1974) working with b l indfo lded subjects using symbols designed for use on maps for the b l i n d , knowledge of the separate symbols does not necessar i l y mean that map users w i l l be able to c o r r e c t l y in terpret those symbols when they are combined together on a map. In the present study a l so , map users experienced confusion where two symbols were s im i l a r e.g. the contour patterns for a ridge and a v a l l e y . C lea r l y Pawling's (1973) assumption that a f te r "only a few basic map-reading s k i l l s " are taught subjects w i l l be able to in terpret maps is not supported e i ther by the present study or by that of Pearson, Wiedel and Castner. The resu l t s of Test k support the suggestion of P h i l l i p s , DeLucia and Skelton (1975) that where there were enough contour l ines to make the determination of the d i r e c t i o n of slope r e l a t i v e l y easy, est imation of the r e l a t i v e heights of various points was not a serious problem. The map used for Test k had f i v e contour l ines and a small stream in the area where the points were marked which provided easy ko clues to the d i r e c t i o n of s lope. As a resu l t i t would have been poss ib le for students to determine the d i r e c t i o n of slope r e l a t i v e l y ea s i l y without attempting to v i s u a l i z e the landscape, provided that they understood the nature and funct ion of contour l i ne symbols. The resu l t s for both experimental groups showed a substant ia l gain in mean scores between pre- and post - tes t s demonstrating that students were able to extract the required information from the map. The resu l t s of Test 5 are somewhat at odds with the resu l t s obtained on the same test by the Tra in ing Col lege Group Committee (1941). The Committee found that more than f i f t y per cent of the twelve-year -o ld students tested could do both exercises c o r r e c t l y . In the present study only twenty-one per cent of the Grade 10 (age 15) experimental group and the Grade 12 (age 17) control group, twenty-seven per cent of the Grade 10 control group and forty-two per cent of the Grade 12 experimental group could succes s fu l l y complete both exerc ises on the pretes t . While i t is true that nearly s ix ty per cent of the twelve-year-olds had had some ins t ruct ion on contour symbols, the Grade 10 and 12 experimental groups post - tes t percentages were only twenty-nine and f i f t y - e i g h t per cent re spec t i ve ly . It is i n teres t ing to note however that at least s ix ty per cent of a l l students in the present study could c o r r e c t l y complete at least one of the exercises on the pretest and at least ninety per cent of the experimental groups achieved the same standard on the pos t - te s t . In the i r conc lus ion, the authors of the o r i g i na l study suggest (p. ]k0) that students 41 . . . can interpret shape c o r r e c t l y from contour l ines and further that th i s capacity may ex i s t without any s p e c i f i c teaching. This suggestion was based on the fact that in the i r study more than t h i r t y per cent of ch i ld ren as young as eight and a ha l f , with no in s t ruc t ion in contours, could c o r r e c t l y complete both exerc i ses . In add i t ion the percentage of correct responses rose to over eighty per cent for s i x teen-year -o ld s . The present study however, does not support th i s suggestion in as much as random guessing could be expected to produce resu l t s on the order of twenty-f ive per cent correct responses. On that basis the present resu l t s are not impressive. The second conclus ion that in s t ruc t ion in contour pattern recognit ion increases the a b i l i t y to recognize shape from contours was supported by the present study. One further comment on th i s map in terpreta t ion s k i l l should be made. During the course of the in s t ruc t ion on contour patterns i t became apparent that both experimental groups had e i ther had very l i t t l e in s t ruc t ion in topographic map s k i l l s or had not retained much of what they had been taught. As part of the intervent ion students were given an opportunity to p rac t i ce matching a wide var ie ty of contour diagrams with r e l a t i v e l y simple block diagrams of r e l i e f features . On a subsequent quiz (see Appendix B) students were asked to compare th i r teen contour patterns with th i r teen block diagrams. Two of the contour patterns were f a i r l y s im i l a r and a number of students confused the two. The scores on the quiz however were e i ther eleven or t h i r t e e n . The only errors on the quiz involved confusion between two s im i l a r patterns. The d i f fe rence between these resu l t s and the r e l a t i v e l y poor resu l t s for Test 5 appears to be analagous to the problems found in Test 3. The more, complex the landscape represented (the test diagrams contain a combination of simple r e l i e f fea tures ) , the greater the d i f f i c u l t y students experienced. Obviously i t cannot be assumed that knowledge of and prac t i ce with s i m p l i f i e d , d i s c re te patterns w i l l necessar i l y produce f a c i l i t y in recognizing and i n te r -pret ing more complex patterns. The overa l l conclus ion which can be drawn from the resu l t s of Tests 1 - 5 is that i t is poss ib le to ensure that both map maker and map user share a common symbol system. Bluestein and Acredo lo ' s (1977) f i r s t es sent ia l can be achieved. Part 2 Test 6, 7 and 8 were designed to evaluate students ' understanding that the map symbols represent recognizable, three dimensional objects . Test 6 evaluated students perception of non - re l i e f symbols and Tests 7 and 8 evaluated students ' perception of the three d imensional i ty of contour symbols. Test 6 asked students to imagine themselves at a pa r t i cu l a r spot in the landscape and, looking north, draw what they would see. The symbols they were asked to draw represented a house, a barn and a school . On the pretest s i x t y - s i x per cent of the Grade 10 and t h i r t y -three per cent of the Grade 12 students simply reproduced the map symbols. As Sorrel 1 (197*0 points out, in terpreta t ion of map symbols 43 is a complex process which is made more d i f f i c u l t by the fact that most map symbols are not representations of the objects symbolized but conventional devices which must be trans lated into other forms. As the resu l t s of Test 1 and 2 i nd ica te , students had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y t r ans l a t i ng the square, rectangle and square with a f l a g map symbols into the verbal symbols, house, barn and school . As Test 6 resu l t s c l e a r l y ind icate however, a s i g n i f i c a n t number of the students did not or could not make the transformation from map or verbal symbol to an image of a house, barn or school . Even a f te r working with exerc i ses where the fact that conventional symbols represent r e a l , recognizable and f am i l i a r three-dimensional ob jec t s , th i r ty -one per cent of the Grade 10 and eleven per cent of the Grade 12 experimental groups were s t i l l unable to demonstrate th i s understanding on the pos t - te s t s . Obviously i f students are unable to recognize that common map symbols represent real objects rather than verbal symbols for those ob jec t s , the attempt to create a three-dimensional image of a mapped landscape is a formidable task. Tests 7 and 8 were e s s e n t i a l l y the same except :that Test 7 used a s i m p l i f i e d topographic map with r e l a t i v e l y simple and l imi ted non - re l i e f symbols, fewer contour l ines and no vegetation colour symbol. The intervent ion ins t ruct ion for the experimental groups for th is type of symbolization emphasized the drawing of c ros s - sec t iona l diagrams and encouraged students to attempt to produce a rough, mental c ros s - sec t iona l diagram by examining the contours. A great deal of emphasis was placed on t rans l a t ing the contour pattern symbols d i r e c t l y to v i sua l images without attempting to label them as h i l l s , p l a i n s , v a l l e y s , e t c . If the group means are ca lcu la ted as a percentage of the tota l poss ib le scores for each of the three te s t s , some in teres t ing patterns occur. TABLE 5 GROUP MEANS AS A % OF TOTAL POSSIBLE SCORE Test # Grade 10 Pretest Grade 10 Post - test Grade 12 Pretest Grade 12 Post - test 6 29.5% 53.1% 53.8% 77.7% 7 65.6% 71 .1% 70.7% 75.0% 8 51M 74.0% 72.0% 80.0% F i r s t , i t is obvious that students ' performance on Test 6 is considerably poorer than on Tests 7 or 8. This may be a product of the map symbol-to verbal symbol-to v i s u a l i z a t i o n problem raised e a r l i e r in connection with Test 6. The absence of any need to convert contour symbols to verbal symbols inherent in Tests 7 and 8 could be a s i g n i f i c a n t f ac to r . Second, the s i m i l a r i t y of the percentages for Tests 7 and 8 appear to suggest that in th is type of map in terpreta t ion exerc i se the r e l a t i v e complexity of the topographic map has l i t t l e e f f e c t . In fact i t would appear that the more complex map is marginal ly eas ier to i n te rp re t . T h i r d , the increase in percentages across the table appears to suggest that there is a developmental progression in h5 students' a b i l i t y to perform this type of exercise. In each case the increase in percentage between pre- and post-test scores for the Grade 10 and Grade 12 groups is so close that one is tempted to conclude that the pretest-post-test gain can be attributed to the effect of the intervention while the differences between Grade 10 and Grade 12 pretest scores is a product of maturation. However, tempting as such speculation may be, the fact that the two experimental groups were not equivalent in a l l aspects except age makes such a conclusion tenuous at best. The pattern il lustrated by Table V does, however, suggest a direction for further research. Part .3 . Tests 9 and 10 were designed to evaluate the students' a b i l i t y to form three-dimensional mental images of a landscape represented by a topographic map. As mentioned ear l ier , there are only two ways to evaluate a mental image. One way is to ask subjects to draw their mental image (Test 9) and the other is to ask for a verbal description (Test 10). In Test 9 students were asked to imagine themselves at a particular point in a landscape facing south and draw what they would see. If aligned correctly the students would be facing towards a mountain valley. The orientation of map and student presented no d i f f i c u l t y but as the results show this exercise was extremely poorly done. The dramatic lack of success for Test 9 is attributable to two factors which are not normally considered to be a part of a map s k i l l s program. 46 F i r s t , the drawing of even r e l a t i v e l y simple landscapes requires a degree of a r t i s t i c ta lent which is not possessed by many people. Second, the a b i l i t y to draw the kind of landscape depicted by the map for Test 9 requires the s k i l l of drawing perspect ives. Very few of the students possessed th i s s k i l l . This lack of a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y was a l so apparent. in Test 6 where many of the students who did draw the requi red bui1dings drew a view showing front and s ide rather than the front o_r s ide views which the exerc i se c a l l ed f o r . As in Test 6, the qua l i t y of the drawings in Test 9 was very poor. Although no attempt was made to keep records, i t was noted by the author that Test 9 was the most f r u s t r a t i n g exerc i se for the greatest number of students. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the Grade 12 students who seemed unwi l l ing to make a sustained attempt at the drawing with many of them simply s c r i b b l i n g a few quick l ines on the paper and then g iv ing up, usual ly with the comment "I can ' t draw anyway!". A number of students, a f t e r making an attempt at the exerc i se , scr ibb led over top of the i r drawings apparently in an attempt to block them out. Several others of the Grade 12 students were, at f i r s t , unwi l l ing to hand in the i r drawings at the conclus ion of the te s t . They expressed an unwil l ingness to have anyone e l se look at the i r drawings. Because of the i r poor a r t i s t i c performance the raw scores of a l l the groups show considerable s i m i l a r i t y both in the numerical value and the frequency of both pre- and post - tes t scores. In the Grade 12 experimental group for example there are very few scores which show any change from pre- to pos t - te s t . Only s ix of the twenty s ix hi scores show any change--four scores change by only one mark, one changes by two and one changes by three marks.from pretest to post-tes t . Given the very minor var ia t ions of very low scores for th i s test i t is not surpr i s ing that the s t a t i s t i c a l ana lys i s indicated l i t t l e or no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gn i f i c ance for the re su l t s . The net e f f e c t of the problems with Test 9 was that Test 10 became the only device for evaluat ing the students ' a b i l i t y to form three dimensional mental images. Test 10 asked the students to imagine themselves in a landscape depicted by a topographic map. They were asked to imagine themselves walking along a road from one place to another and to descr ibe what they would see. Throughout the ser ies of tests emphasis was placed on the time factor in completing the tes t s . Students were encouraged to work as qu ick ly as poss ib le . The purpose of th is emphasis on time was to try to prevent the students from t rans l a t ing map symbols to verbal symbols to v i s u a l i z a t i o n s and to try to force the students to move d i r e c t l y from map symbols to v i s u a l i z a t i o n . The success of th i s attempt is demonstrated by the wealth of de sc r i p t i ve de ta i l which the successful students included in the i r descr ip t ions while s t i l l f i n i s h i n g the exerc i se with in the a l l o t t e d time. (See Appendix C Part 2.) The resu l t s of Test 10 demonstrate that many students are capable of forming three-dimensional mental images of mapped landscapes. It should be noted however, that f o r t y - f ou r per cent of the Grade 10 experimental group achieved a score of ten or less out of a poss ib le twenty- f ive. The resu l t s for the Grade 12 experimental group were 48 c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r , the mean p r e t e s t and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s b e i n g some t h i r t y - f i v e per c e n t h i g h e r f o r the Grade 12 group. D u r i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n two f i e l d t r i p s were a r r a n g e d t o p e r m i t s t u d e n t s t o c a r r y out v a r i o u s e x e r c i s e s comparing t o p o g r a p h i c maps d i r e c t l y w i t h the mapped a r e a . In most c a s e s , s t u d e n t s who d i d w e l l on t h e s e e x e r c i s e s ( m o s t l y Grade 12) a l s o d i d w e l l on T e s t 10. T h i s c o r r e l a t e s w i t h the r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d by the T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e Group Committee ( 1 9 4 1 ) , Muehrcke ( 1 9 7 8 ) , P h i l l i p s , D e L u c i a and S k e l t o n (1975) and S o r r e l 1 (1974) who found t h a t map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s k i l l s were c o n s i d e r a b l y improved when map u s e r s had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n f i e l d work u s i n g t o p o g r a p h i c maps. I f , as communication t h e o r i s t s such as Goodman (1968) and Gross (1974) a r g u e , competence i n i n t e r p r e t i n g symbols i s a c h i e v e d by p r a c t i c e i n w o r k i n g w i t h symbols and t h e i r r e f e r r e n t s , then i t f o l l o w s t h a t map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s k i l l s , i n c l u d i n g the a b i l i t y t o form t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l mental images o f mapped l a n d -s c a p e s , w i l l be enhanced by f i e l d work w i t h maps. In a d d i t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the Grade 10 and 12 groups adds t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e may be a m a t u r a t i o n e f f e c t i n the development o f symbol i n t e r p r e t a t i o n competency e x t e n d i n g beyond t h e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d y e a r s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T e a c h i n g F i r s t and fo r e m o s t E l i o t ' s (1970, p. 286) a s s e r t i o n t h a t knowledge o f s y m b o l i c convent i o n s , [does n o t ] n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l t he a b i l i t y t o v i s u a l i z e t he s p a t i a l arrangement o f the o b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d . 49 is c l e a r l y supported by .the present study. Most map s k i l l s programs equate knowledge of conventional symbols with a b i l i t y to interpret maps and th i s is c l e a r l y a mistake. If the Surveys and Mapping Branch (1975,P- l ) a s ser t ion that "everyone should be able to use a map11 is to become a r e a l i t y then obvious ly more at tent ion must be pa id "to': the development of i n te rp re t i ve s k i l l s . In order for the map user to "form a true mental p ic ture of the ground" in s t ruc t ion w i l l have to ensure that map symbols are seen to represent real ob ject s . It. w i l l a l so be necessary to provide for more opportun i t ies for map users to learn these s k i l l s by comparing maps d i r e c t l y with the mapped area as well as increasing the amount of time for comparing stereo photographs, models and other three dimensional i l l u s t r a t i o n s with maps. Assumptions that the learning of map s k i l l s and map in terpreta t ion techniques are simple and uncomplicated processes w i l l have to be replaced by an acceptance of the very real problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent :.i.n the process. Learning to read and interpret map symbols is e a s i l y as complex a process as learning to read and interpret verbal symbols. Successful achievement of map reading competence may very well require as much time and e f f o r t as learning to read books. Implications for Further Research There are two major areas for fur ther research which are suggested by th i s study. One area involves invest igat ion into the e f f e c t that extensive f i e l d work with topographic maps of f a m i l i a r areas would have on.the a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e unfami l iar landscapes from topographic 50 maps. Several studies a l luded to the apparent connection between f i e l d experience and map in terpreta t ion a b i l i t y but none were found which s p e c i f i c a l l y studied th i s connection. The second area involves invest igat ion into the p o s s i b i l i t y that the stages of development of mapping s k i l l s described by Piaget and others for ear ly childhood may in fact continue to develop through the l a te r years. The research of the Tra in ing Col lege Group Committee and the present study suggest that there may be a maturation fac tor involved" in the development of symbol in terpreta t ion competencies. Research s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to test th i s p o s s i b i l i t y needs to be done. 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY Arnheim, Rudolph, "The Perception of Maps" The American Cartographer, V o l . 3, Apr i1, 1976, pp. 5-10. Ba lch in , W.G., "Graphicacy, " The American Cartographer, Vo l . 3, A p r i l , 1976 , ; P P . 33-38. Bartholomew, John C. and Kinniburgh, Ian A .G. , "The Factor of Awareness," The Cartographic Journa l , Vo l . 10, No. 1, June, 1973, PP-59-62. B lues te in , Neil and Acredolo, L inda, "Developmental Changes in Map Reading S k i l l s , " Paper pr inted by H.E.W., 1977, E.R.I.C. [ED 154 902] Campbell, Donald T. and Stanley, Ju l i an C , Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs fo r Research, Rand McNally and Company, Chicago, 1970. Carmichael, L.D., "The Re l ie f of Map Making," Cartographic Journa l , Vo l . 6, No . l , June, 1969, pp. 18-20. Carswel l , Ronald J . B . , DeLeeuw, Gary, J .A. and Ear ly , John F., Chi 1dren's Recogn i t ion of Rural Features From Anag1yphi c  Representations of Ve r t i c a l Aer ia l Photographs, Paper presented at the Western Meetings of the Canadian Assoc iat ion of Geographers, Kelowna, March, 1981. Chevr ier , Emile D., and A i tkens, D.F.W., Topographic Map and A i r Photo In terpretat ion, Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, 1970. Crawford, Paul V., "The Perception of Graduated Squares as Cartographic Symbols," The Cartographic Journa l , Vo l . 10, No. 2, December, 1973,PP. 85-88. DeLucia, A lan, "The E f fec t of Shaded Re l i e f on Map Information A c c e s s i b i l i t y , " The Cartographic Journa l , Vo l . 9, No. 1, June, 1972, pp. 14-18. 52 Downs, Roger M. and Stea, David, Maps in Minds, Harper and Row, New York, 1977. E l i o t , John, " C h i l d r e n ' s Spat ia l V i s u a l i z a t i o n , " Focus on Geography, N.C.S.S. 40th Yearbook, National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, D.C., 1970, pp. 263-290. Flannery, James John, "The Relat ive E f fect iveness of Some Common Graduated Point Symbols in the Presentation of Quant i tat ive Data," The Canadian Geographer, Vo l . 8, 1971, pp. 96-109. Gardner, Howard, Howard, Vernon and Perkins, David, "Symbol Systems: A Ph i l o soph i ca l , Psychological and Educational Inves t i ga t ion, " Media and Symbols: The Forms of Express ion, Communication and  Education, David R. Olson, e d . , 73rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Un ivers i ty of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1974, pp. 27~55. Gertsen, W.M., "Danish Topographic Mapping," Cartographic Journa l , Vo l . 7, June,1970. Goodman, Nelson, Languages of A r t , The Bobbs-Merri11 Company, Inc. Indianapolis and New York, 1968. Gould, Peter and White, Rodney, Mental Maps, Penguin Books, Harmonds-worth, U.K., 1974. Graham, Harry, Reading Topographic Maps, Ho l t , Rinehart and Winston of Canada, L imited, Toronto, 1968. Gross, Larry, !"Modes of Communication and the Acqu i s i t i on of Symbolic Competene," Media and Symbols: The Forms of Expression, Cbmrnuh i cat ion  and Education, David R. Olson, e d . , 73rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Un ivers i ty of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1974, pp. 56-80. Gunn, Angus M., B r i t i s h Columbia Landforms and Settlement, Second E d i t i o n , Smi:th Lithograph Company L imited, Richmond, B.C., 1968. Hannay,. A l a s t a i r , Mental I mages, A Defence, George A l l an and Unwin L t d . , London, 1971." Hodgkiss, A.G. , Understanding Maps, Wm. Dawson and Son L t d . , Folkestone, Kent, 1981. Horowitz, Mardi Jon, M.D., Image Formation and Cogni t ion, Appleton-Century-Crof t s , New York, 1981. 53 J e n k s , Dr. George F., " C o n c e p t u a l and P e r c e p t u a l E r r o r i n Thematic Mapping," P r o c e e d i n g s o f the American Congress on S u r v e y i n g  and Mapping, 30th Annual M e e t i n g , Washington, D.C., March, 1970, pp. 174-188. K e m b a l l , W a l t e r G., Canada and t h e World Book 2, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1981. K o l a c n y , A., " C a r t o g r a p h i c Information--A Fundamental Term i n Modern C a r t o g r a p h y , " The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , V o l . 6, No. 1, June, 1969, PP. 47-49. M c C l e a r y , George F., J r . , "Beyond S i m p l e P s y c h o p h y s i c s : Approaches t o t he U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Map P e r c e p t i o n , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f the American Congress on S u r v e y i n g and Mapping, 30th Annual M e e t i n g , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., March, 1970, pp. 189-209. McLendon, J o n a t h a n C , S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n Secondary E d u c a t i o n , M a c m i l l a n Company, New Y o r k , 1965. Meriam, Mylon, "Eye N o i s e and Map D e s i g n , " A paper produced f o r the U.S. Army T o p o g r a p h i c Command, r e p r i n t e d by H.E.W, 1970, E.R.I.C. [ED 045 470] M i l b u r n , Dr. D e n n i s , "Mapping i n the E a r l y Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g , " Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f Geographers, 1980, pp. 71-87. Monks, J a n i c e J . and A l e x a n d e r , C.S., " D e v e l o p i n g S k i l l s i n a P h y s i c a l Geography L a b o r a t o r y , " J o u r n a l o f Geography, Vol. 72, O c t o b e r , 1973, PP. 18-24. Monmonier, Mark S., Maps, D i s t o r t i o n and Meaning, A s s o c i a t i o n o f American G e o g r a p h e r s , Resource Paper No. 75*4, Washington, D.C., 1977. Muehrcke, P h i l l i p C , Map U s e — R e a d i ng, A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , J.P. P u b l i c a t i o n s , M a d i s o n , W i s e , 1978. Myer, J u d i t h M.W., "Map S k i l l s I n s t r u c t i o n and t h e C h i l d ' s D e v e l o p i n g C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s , " J o u r n a l o f Geography, V o l . 72, September, 1973, PP. 27-35. 01 son, Judy A., " E x p e r i e n c e and the Improvement o f C a r t o g r a p h i c Communication," The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , V o l . 12, No. 2, December, 1975, pp. 94-108. P a w l i n g , John W., " D e s i g n f o r the T e a c h i n g o f Landform Geography," J o u r n a l o f Geography, V o l . 72, J a n u a r y , 1973, pp.22-30. 54 Pearson, Karen.L., Wiedel, Joseph W. and Castner, Henry W., " I n t ro -ducing the Sighted to Maps for the B l ind: A Report on the I.G.U. Tactual Map E x h i b i t , " The American Cartographer, Vo l . 1, 1974, pp. 72-76. Petchenik, Barbara B., "A Verbal Approach to Character iz ing the Look of Maps," The American Cartographer, Vo l . 1, 1974, pp. 63 _ 71. P h i l l i p s , Richard J . , DeLucia, Alan and Skelton, Nicholas, "Some Object ive Tests of the L e g i b i l i t y of Re l i e f Maps," The Cartographic Journa l , V o l . .12 , N o . : i , June, 1975, pp. 39~46. Robinson, Arthur H., " Sca l ing Non-numerical Map Symbols," Proceedirigs  of :the Amer ican Congress on Survey i ng and Mappi ng, 30th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., March, 1970, pp. 210-217-Robinson, Arthur H., and Petchenik, Barbara B., "The Map as a Communication System," The Cartographic Journa l , Vo l . 12, No. 1, June, 1975, PP. 7-15. Robinson, Arthur H., and Petchenik, Barbara B., The Nature of Maps, The Un ivers i ty of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1976. Rushdoony, Haig A., "Achievement in Map-Reading: An Experimental Study," Current Research i n Elementary Social Studies, Wayne L. Herman, ed, Col 1ier-Macmi11 an Canada, L t d . , Toronto, 1969, pp.407-413. Segal, Sydney Joel son, e d . , Imagery: Current Cognit ive Approaches, Academic Press, New York, 1971. Sorrel 1, P., "Map Design—With the Young in Mind," The Cartographic  Journa l , Vo l . 11, No. 2, December, 1974, pp. 82-90. St r inger , Peter, "Colour and Base in Urban Planning Maps," The Carto- graphic Journa l , Vo l . 10, No. 2, December, 1973, pp. 89-94. Surveys and Mapping Branch, "Everyone Should Be Able to Use a Map," A pamphlet prepared by the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, Ottawa, 1975. The Tra in ing Col lege Group Committee, "An Invest igat ion Into Ch i l d ren ' s Ab i l i t y to Interpret Contour L ine s , " Geography, Vo l . XXVI, 1941, pp. 131-140. Wood, M., "V i sua l Perception and Map Design," The Cartographic Journa l , Vo l . 5, No. 1, June, 1968, pp.54-64. 55 Wood, M., "Human Factors In Cartographic Communication," The Cartographic Journa l , Vo l . 9, No. 2, December, 1972, pp. 123-132. APPENDIX A The Test Instruments Test #1 Each item in the fo l lowi of a symbol. Put the number appropriate symbol on the map. 1 . A School 2. A Church 3. A Bridge k. A House 5. A Post O f f i c e l i s t is shown on the map by means the item immediately beside the Find only one example of each. 6. A Railway Stat ion 7. A Bench Mark 8. A Contour Line 9. A Farm 10. A Town Test #2 Each item in the fo l lowing l i s t is shown on the map by means of a symbol. Put the number of the item immediately beside the appropriate symbol on the map. Find only one example of each. 1. A Lake 2. A River 3. A Smal1 Stream k. A Railway Line 5. A Main Highway 6. A Gravel Road 7. A D i r t Road 8. A Path 9. A Dyke 10. A Power Transmission Line Test #3 A. The blue l i ne numbered 90 d iv ides the map approximately in ha l f . Find: three h i l l s in the southern hal f of the map and put aii "H " on top of each. 57 B. Find two va l leys in the southern ha 1f of the map and put a "V" in each. C. Mark the steepest slope on the map with an X. Test #k The l e t t e r s A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are pr inted in black type on the map. Assume that each l e t t e r represents a spot on the ground. Answer the fo l lowing by wr i t ing the l e t t e r of the correct answer for each pair on the l i ne to the r ight of the pa i r . Which is higher 1. A or B? 2. E or F? 3. C or D? k. H or C? 5. H or D? 6. H or B? 7. H or A? Test #5 The maps are c o r r e c t l y or iented when the arrow points away from you. A. Which one of the four p ictures matches the map? Answer 58 \x ^" _. - r- — — H S A 59 ' v s X rVic.,»-' 'Tib ft 1 -A I ffl? rev I j 'i MI i I A'-§ 1 mm 1:1 I f ' m ; \W-y / • • -i * I-t jk \ 3 1 Test #6 Imagine that you are standing on the ground in the area of the map. Draw the fo l lowing bui ld ings as i f you were standing at the.:spot marked X in each case and looking due north. 1. The bui1ding at A. 2. The bu i ld ing at B. 3• The bui1d ing at C. Test #7 1. If you were standing on the dam at Blue Lake could you see a. Norton? b. Dixon? ' c. Rockv i l le? 2. If you were standing at the mine on Bald Peak could you see a. the top of White Mountain? b. Rockv i l le? c. Dixon? 3. If you were standing at the top of Summit H i l l , could you see a. Norton? b. Dixon? c. Blue Lake? d. Roaring Stream? Test #8 If you were standing on the railway tracks at the bench mark near Hector, could you see a. Ross Lake? b. Stephen? c. The Warden's Cabin? .  d. The f i r e lookout tower on Paget Peak? e. Vanguard Peak? ' f. The P la in of the Six G lac iers? 63 Test #9 Imagine: that you are standing on the railway tracks at the bench mark near Hector and fac ing toward the south. Draw what you would see. Test #10 Imagine yourse l f s t a r t i ng from the edge of the town of White Rock and walking along the road north from White Rock to the junct ion of that road and Highway 1. Describe as f u l l y as you can what you would see"along the way. 64 APPENDIX B Some Examples of the Topographic Map S k i l l s Development Instruct ional Program The fo l lowing are some examples of the kinds of topics and exerc ises used in the intervent ion phase of th is research. For the most part the exercises fol lowed a standard format for topo-graphic map s k i l l s development, re ly ing pr imar i l y on the works of Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, Kembal1, Canada and The World  Book Two; and Chevrier and Ai tkens, Topographic Map and A i r Photo  In terpretat ion. Addit iona l exerc i ses , demonstrations and explanations developed by the author were inserted where previous experience with th i s type of program indicated that problems would a r i s e . No attempt has been made to provide a deta i led descr ip t ion of or de ta i l ed lesson plans for the in tervent ion. The fo l lowing is intended only as an ou t l i ne of the topics and sequence of the lessons taught. Lesson #3 ~ The Map Grid Purpose: 1. To teach students the funct ion of a gr id system. 2. To enable students to gain f a c i l i t y in the use of g r id systems. Method: Students w i l l work through three exercises using gr id systems. Exercise #1: Students draw an eight column by eight row g r i d . Rows and columns are l abe l led using numbers for one and l e t t e r s for the other. Some students w i l l use l e t te r s for columns and some w i l l use numbers. Students are asked to colour several squares i d e n t i f i e d by letter-number combinations. Comparison of student responses and teacher intent w i l l ind icate the need to standardize numbering systems. 65 Exercise #2: Students draw a second eight by eight g r id but number both rows and columns. Squares to be coloured are indicated by g iv ing the column number f i r s t followed by the row number Exercise #3: Students play a game of Batt lesh i p. Students number the spaces across the top and down the l e f t side of the paper beginning at the top l e f t in each case. Each student has a " f l e e t " of eight " s h i p s " which can be located anywhere on the graph paper. Larger ships would occupy more than one square. Students attempt to sink each others ships by c a l l i n g out in turn the number co-ordinates of various squares f i r s t g iv ing the column and then the row number. Lesson #7 - Line and Point Symbols Purpose: To f a m i l i a r i z e students with the common l ine and point symbols used on Canadian topographic maps. References: 1. Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, Chapter 4, pp. 94-98 and Assignment p. 102. 2. Kemball, Canada and The World Book Two, A c t i v i t y 10 pp.24-25. Method: Follow the procedures indicated by the references. Lesson #8 - Map Interpretat ion Purpose: To give students p rac t i ce in applying knowledge acquired. Method: Detai led ana lys i s of several topographic map sheets using exerc ises such as: Question Sheet 1 Map Sheet 92G/7C 1. What d i r ec t i on would you travel to reach Alpha Secondary School from the area shown in the centre of th i s map? 2. What type of trees are found along the banks of the Coquitlam r iver? 3- Give a gr id reference for a house near the r ight bank of the Coquitlam r i v e r . 4. What is the contour interva l of th i s map? 66 5. How high is the top of Cypress Mountain? (It is west of the Coquitlam River and approximately four ki lometres north of the junct ion of Hoy and Scott Creeks). 6. What is the e levat ion of Cypress Lake? 7. What is the e levat ion of the top of the dam at the south end of Coquitlam Lake? 8. What is the gr id references for the dam in 7? 9. What use is made of the waters of Buntzen Lake? 10. What is the natural d i r e c t i o n of flow of the waters of Buntzen Creek? Lesson #9 - Contour Symbols. Purpose: To introduce students to contour l i ne symbols. References: 1. Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, Assignment p. 41. 2. Hubbard S c i e n t i f i c , Topographic Map K i t , P l a s t i c model and overhead transparencies. Method: Follow procedures indicated by the references and guidebooks. Lesson #10 - Contour Symbols Purpose: To have students draw contour maps from indicated spot heights. Reference: Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, pp. 42-45. Method: As out l ined in the reference. Lesson #12 - Contour Symbol Patterns Purpose: To f a m i l i a r i z e students with various contour patterns and the landforms they represent. References: 1. Kemball, Canada and The World Book Two, pp. 27~30. 2. Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, pp. 62-73. 67 Method: 1. F o l l o w p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d i n the r e f e r e n c e s . S p e c i a l emphasis i s g i v e n t o a d e t a i l e d c o m p arison o f ph o t o g r a p h s , b l o c k diagrams and c o n t o u r diagrams. 2. Three minute q u i z on i d e n t i f y i n g s i m p l e l a n d f o r m s . C e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s o f c o n t o u r l i n e s r e p r e s e n t d i s t i n c t l a n d f o r m s . One o f the f i r s t t h i n g s i n t o p o g r a p h i c map s t u d y i s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e s e p a t t e r n s . Study the c o n t o u r l i n e s below and see how they r e p r e s e n t the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f l a n d f o r m s . A l l o f th e s e p a t t e r n s a r e taken from a c t u a l p l a c e s t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . L a b e l each. N o r r h w e s f Montana South France North Scotland \ ^ S 1 6 0 0 \ _ y / ~ 1 6 5 0 ' - 17 0 0 I 7 5 0 180 0 Mart i niaue Martinique and South France in Metres Southeast- England 600 S7V 550' 52 5, 500 68 Lesson #15 ~ Review of Contour Patterns. Purpose: To assess students ' a b i l i t y to re la te contour patterns to s p e c i f i c landforms. Method: 1. Quiz (see pp. Students match contour diagrams with block diagrams. 2. Complete exercises pp. 87-89 "Descr ib ing Surface Features from Contour Maps," Graham, Reading Topp-graphic Maps. Lessons #16, 17 and 18 - Map Interpretat ion Purpose: To have students p rac t i ce map in terpreta t ion s k i l l s . Method: 1. A de ta i l ed ana lys i s of Rosyth Sheet, p. 138 of Chevrier and A i t k i n s , Topographic Map and A i r Photo Interpretat ion. 2. Complete Assignments pp. 103, 106 of Graham, Reading  Topographic Maps. 3. Complete A c t i v i t y 2h, p. 60 of Kemball, Canada and The World Book Two. 70 74 APPENDIX C Part 1 TABLE 6 RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 10 CONTROL GROUP Pretest--Column A. Posttest--Column B Test # 1. 2 3(a) 3(b) 3(c) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Student # A B A _B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B 10C1 7 7 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 5 6 2 2 3 3 8 7 6 6 4 3 8 6 10C2 6 7 6 6 3 3 1 1 0 0 4 4 1 1 1 1 7 7 5 5 1 1 7 6 10C3 k 6 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 1 1 0 0 6 6 5 5 0 0 5 5 10C4 7 6 8 7 3 3 2 2 1 1 5 5 1 1 2 2 7 7 5 5 1 2 6 8 10C5 5 5 6 5 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 0 0 2 2 6 6 4 4 0 0 4 5 10C6 k k 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 0 0 5 5 4 4 2 2 8 8 10C7 8 8 9 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 5 5 2 2 3 3 7 7 5 5 2 1 10 11 10C8 8 9 9 9 3 3 1 1 0 0 4 4 2 2 5 5 6 6 4 4 4 3 15 15 1 10C9 5 7 6 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 3 2 3 3 0 0 0 IOC 10 5 6 5 5 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 1 1 2 2 7 7 5 5 1 0 5 5 10C11 3 3 4 .4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 1 1 5 7 IOC 12 9 10 10 7 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 6 2 2 4 4 10 9 6 6 2 2 10 10 IOC 13 7 8 7 7 3 3 1 1 0 0 4 4 1 1 2 2 7 7 5 5 0 0 3 2 IOC 14 0 1 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 1 6 6 4 4 0 0 0 0 IOC 15 k 4 5 5 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 2 2 2 2 7 7 5 5 2 2 8 10 IOC 16 1 2 4 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 5 5 4 4 0 0 2 2 IOC 17 5 5 4 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 6 7 4 4 1 1 2 4 IOC 18 5 8 7 8 3 3 1 1 1 0 6 6 2 2 2 2 9 9 6 6 0 0 7 7 IOC 19 k 4 5 6 3 3 1 1 0 0 4 4 1 1 2 1 7 7 5 3 2 2 6 5 10C20 k 5 6 ,6 3 3 0 0 0 0 4 4 1 1 3 3 8 8 6 6 0 0 6 5 10C21 3 3 4 4 3 3 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 6 6 4 5 0 0 2 1 10C22 0 2 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 6 3 3 0 0 2 2 10C23 7 7 7 "7 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 1 1 2 2 7 7 6 6 3 3 9 6 10C24 5 5 5 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 0 1 2 6 5 5 5 0 0 3 3 10C25 8 10 9 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 7 2 2 6 7 9 9 6 6 2 2 10 10 10C26 6 7 6 6 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 1 1 1 2 6 6 5 5 2 2 8 10 10C27 5 5 7 7 1 1 0 1 0 0 5 5 1 1 2 2 8 8 6 6 1 1 6 8 10C28 k 4 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 1 1 0 0 6 6 5 5 0 2 7 4 10C29 3 3 5 5 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 5 5 5 4 1 1 3 4 10C30 7 8 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 6 1 1 3 4 9 9 6 6 0 0 6 7 10C31 k 4 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 2 3 3 0 1 6 4 10C32 1 7 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 2 2 3 5 7 7 5 5 4 3 13 8 10C33 6 6 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 1 1 5 6 4 4 1 1 8 8 10C34 5 6 5 i 3 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 4 4 2 2 3 3 4 3 10C35 7 7 8 8 3 3 1 1 0 0 4 5 2 2 2 2 7 , 7 5 5 1 1 11 13 10C36 6 6 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 2 2 0 0 5 2 10C37 8 8 9 8 3 3 0 0 0 0 4 4 2 2 3 3 6 6 5 5 3 3 11 8 75 APPENDIX C — P a r t 1 Table 7 RAW SCORE RESULTS FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP Pretest--Column A. Posttest--Column B Test. # 1 2 3 (a) 3(b) 3(c) 4 5 6 7 ' 8 i 9 I i o udent # A A V B/ A B A B A B A B A B A B A B • A B A B' A ,. 10E1 7 10 8 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 7 7 2 2 8 9 10 10 ' '.•6 6 0 0 10 16 10E2 6 10 7 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 5 7 1 1 5 7 8 8 5 5 3 3 7 it 10E3 5 10 5 10 3 3 0 1 0 0 4 6 0 1 4 5 7 8 3 3 1 1 3 13 10E4 3 8 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 2 4 0 1 0 7 5 5 3 3 0 0 1 11 10E5 4 9 4 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 5 0 0 2 5 7 8 5 5 0 0 2 1 10E6 6 10 6 10 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 3 1 1 2 3 1 5 2 2 1 1 7 13 10E7 8 9 9 10 3 3 1 2 1 1 7 7 2 2 9 9 10 10 6 6 it it 15 19 10E8 5 9 8 3 3 2 2 0 0 3 4 1 1 3 6 6 6 it it 2 2 8 19 10E9 3 9 3 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 7 0 2 0 0 5 5 3 2 1 1 it 6 10E10 6 10 7 8 3 3 2 2 0 1 4 5 2 2 5 8 7 8 5 5 2 2 9 10 10E1 1 8 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 1 1 0 0 6 6 3 it 1 1 6 ; •*4 10E12 5 9 6 8 3 3 1 2 0 1 it 6 1 1 3 7 7 7 5 5 1 1 7 'l 10E13 2 3 0 1 3 0 2 0 1 2 4 1 2 0 0 3 . ,'5 2 5 0 0 8 17 10E14 6 10 6 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 7 2 2 8 9 9 9 6 6 it it 13 2 4 10E15 4 10 3 7 3 3 1 1 0 0 3 4 0 1 2 6 7 7 5 it 0 0 3 5 10E16 4 8 2 6 2 3 0 2 0 1 3 4 0 0 0 0 7 7 it 5 0 1 1 9 10E17 3 9 2 7 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 5 1 5 1 it 0 0 1 5 10E18 9 9 9 9 3 3 1 2 1 1 6 7 2 2 7 9 8 7 5 5 3 it 16 17 10E19 6 10 6 7 3 3 1 2 1 1 it 6 2 2 2 3 7 7 3 it 1 2 9 15 10E20 5 10 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 1 1 1 6 6 it 5 0 0 3 9 10E21 7 10 8 8 3 3 1 2 0 1 5 7 1 1 5 8 8 9 5 5 1 2 11 18 10E22 3 9 2 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 1 3 5 2 6 0 0 2 12 10E23 6 10 7 6 2 2 0 2 0 0 3 V 2 2 1 7 7 7 5 5 3 3 12 17 10E24 6 9 8 8 3 3 1 2 1 1 5 7 2 2 7 8 8 6 5 5 2 3 10 16 10E25 5 7 5 5 2 2 0 1 0 '0 3 5 0 1 1 3 6 6 2 2 1 1 5 12 10E26 6 6 7 7 3 3 0 2 0 1 4 7 1 2 2 5 8 9 it 5 1 2 8 13 10E27 6 3 5 2 2 0 2 0 1 3 6 0 1 0 it 7 8 it 5 0 0 1 5 10E28 7 8 8 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 7 2 2 7 9 10 10 6 6 2 it 3 9 10E29 3 8 2 8 1 2 0 1 01 1 2 5 0 1 0 6 5 7 3 it 0 0 2 6 10E30 4 10 4 8 2 2 0 2 0 0 3 6 1 1 1 2 7 8 it 5 1 2 2 16 10E31 2 5 1 6 1 3 0 0 0 1 1 it 0 0 0 2 3 5 3 it 0 0 1 8 10E32 5 10 6 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 5 7 1 1 5 8 9 •10 6 6 1 1 6 4 10E33 9 5 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 5 0 1 3 6 8 7 5 5 0 0 1 4 10E34 3 10 1 6 2 2 0 1 0 1 4 7 1 1 2 it 8 9 5 5 2 2 1 5 10E35 4 7 4 6 0 2 0 2 0 1 2 3 0 1 0 0 6 6 3 3 0 0 1 11' 10E36 6 10 8 8 3 3 0 1 0 1 it 6 1 1 3 6 7 8 it it 1 2 7 12 10E37 8 3 7 1 1 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 1 Oi 0 6 6 3 3 0 0 it 6 10E38 6 10 7 8 3 3 1 2 1 1 5 6 1 1 5" 7 9 9 6 6 2 2 8/ 13 10E39 5 10 6 8 3 3 0 1 0 1 4 5 0 1 4 7 8 9 5 5 0 0 5 3 10E40 4 7 5 8 1 2 0 2 0 1 3 4 1 1 2 it 7 8 it it 1 1 6 18 10E41 2 9 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 2 3 1 2 0 0 2 15 76 APPENDIX C—Part 1 Table 8 RAW SCORE RESULTS FOR GRADE 12 CONTROL GROUP Pretest--Column A. Posttest—Column B Test # 1 2 3( ia) 3(b) 3(c Student # A B A B A B A B A B 12C1 1 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 12C2 7 ,8 6 6 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C3 7 8 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C4 6 7 6 7 2 2 1 1 0 0 12C5 9 9 9 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C6 8 9 7 7 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C7 4 5 5 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 12C8 1 7 5 5 2 2 1 1 0 0 12C9 7 8 7 7 2 1 0 0 0 0 12C10 6 8 6 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 12C1 1 10 10 9 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C12 5 5 4 4 2 2 1 1 0 0 12C13 5 6 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 12C14 8 9 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C15 8 8 6 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 12C16 2 '3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 12C17 8 10 8 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C18 6 7 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 12C19 4 5 6 2 2 0 0 0 0 12C20 3 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 12C21 6 7 8 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C22 5 5 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 12C23 8 8 7 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C24 5 6 5 5 2 2 1 1 0 0 12C25 8 9 6 7 3 3 2 2 1 1 12C26 7 8 6 5 3 3 1 1 0 0 12C27 6 7 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 12C28 9 10 8 8 3 3 1 1 1 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A B A B A B A B A B A B A B 2 2 0 0 0 0 6 6 4 4 0 0 0 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 5 5 3 3 2 2 5 6 4 4 1 1 7 7 8 8 5 5 1 1 4 3 1 1 0 0 3 3 5 5 3 3 1 1 3 4 6 6 2 2 7 5 10 10 6 6 4 4 11 10 4 4 2 1 6 6 8 10 5 5 2 2 8 8 2 2 0 0 2 2 7 6 4 4 0 0 2 22 0 0 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 7 7 5 5 1 1 4 4 9 9 5 5 1 1 5 5 4 4 0 0 2 2 8 8 4 4 0 0 2 1 7 6 2 2 8 8 10 10 6 6 4 4 13 13 2 2 1 1 2 2 7 7 3 3 1 2 6 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 5 5 3 3 0 0 4 6 1 1 1 1 7 7 3 3 2 2 3 3 7 8 5 5 1 1 4 4 8 8 4 4 1 1 7 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 6 6 1 1 6 7 9 9 6 6 1 1 6 7 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 4 3 1 1 2 2 7 7 5 5 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 5 5 3 3 0 0 0 1 6 6 1 1 5 4 8 8 5 4 1 1 3 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 4 / '4 3 3 1 0 3 2 3 3 2 2 5 5 8 .8 5 5 2 2 8 8 2 3 0 0 2 2 7 7 4 4 0 1 2 2 5 5 2 2 3 3 8 8 5 6 3 4 10 11 2 2 1 1 4 3 5 4 3 2 1 1 4 4 1 1 1 0 3 3 4 4 2 1 1 1 4 4 5 5 2 2 8 7 7 7 3 3 3 3 13 14 77 APPENDIX C — P a r t 1 Table 9 RAW SCORE RESULTS FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP Pretest—Column A. Postest—Column B Test # 1 2 3(a) 3(b) 3(c) k 5 6 7 8 9 10 Student # A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B 12E1 9 9 10 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 7 7 2 2 9 9 9 10 6 6 4 4 15 19 12E2 5 10 6 8 2 3 1 2 0 1 3 5 1 1 4 6 5 7 5 5 1 1 2 15 12E3 9 9 9 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 7 7 2 2 8 8 9 9 6 6 3 3 16 16 12E4 8 9 8 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 5 7 1 1 8 9 8 8 5 5 3 3 9 12 12E5 6 10 5 8 0 2 0 ,0 0 0 3 1 11 2 6 7 7 4 4 1 1 4 14 12E6 7 8 9 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 7 7 2 2 8 9 8 9 5 5 2 2 8 11 12E7 6 8 5 7 0 3 0 2 0 1 2 5 1 2 1 4 5 5 3 4 0 3 4 20 12E8 7 8 8 8 2 3 1 1 0 0 5 6 1 1 6 7 8 8. 5 5 1 1 7 17 12E9 10 10 10 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 7 2 2 8 9 9 9 6 6 4 5 17 17 12E10 5 10 it 7 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 1 0 3 5 5 3 4 0 2 4 10 12E11 8 9 8 8 2 3 1 2 0 0 6 7 2 2 2 7 8 9 5 5 2 2 8 12 12E12 8 10 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 5 1 1 7 8 5 5 3 4 1 1 9 15 12E13 7 10 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 5 6 2 2 5 7 8 .8 5 5 2 2 11 21 12E14 5 9 5 7 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 7 0 0 1 7 7 7 4 4 1 1 4 8 12E15 7 10 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 6 8 7 7 5 5 2 2 8 15 12E16 8 10 10 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 7 2 2 8 9 10 9 6 6 2 2 11 14 12E17 6 10 6 7 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 0 4 8 4 4 2 4 1 1 5 13 12E18 9 9 9 10 3 3 2 2 1 1 7 7 2 2 7 8 8 9 5 5 4 4 15 19 12E19 2 10 3 6 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 5 6 3 4 1 1 1 12 12E20 7 10 8 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 4 2 2 7 9 7 8 4 4 2 2 9 11 12E21 5 8 8 9 3 3 1 1 0 0 4 6 1 1 5 8 8 8 5 5 0 0 4 8 12E22 8 9 8 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 7 2 2 7 9 7 7 2 5 3 4 13 20 12E23 5 10 5 7 0 3 0 1 0 0 2 4 1 1 0 2 6 8 4 4 1 2 3 5 12E24 7 9 9 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 7 1 2 7 9 8 9 6 6 1 1 7 17 12E25 6 10 6 9 2 3 1 2 0 1 1 7 1 2 3 6 6 6 2 4 1 2 5 16 12E26 3 9 6 8 1 3 0 2 0 1 3 6 0 1 3 7 7 8 4 5 0 0 2 16 78 APPENDIX C—(Par t 2) The fo l lowing are some examples of student responses to Test 10, the f i r s t three from the Grade 10 Experimental Group and the others from the Grade 12 Experimental Group. In each case the student 's pretest response is followed by his or her posttest response. The pretests are for the most part merely l i s t s of the symbols on the map whereas the post - tes t s ind icate in varying degrees that the students have developed some a b i l i t y to perceive a real landscape represented by the map. 10 E 3 1. Houses, barns, school , dam and, to the l e f t you'd see cart t rack, h i l l s , farms along the road a t r a i l almost to the highway, a hor izonta l control point r ight when you get to the highway. Two schools across the highway is a gravel p i t . Also you'd see a gravel road jus t before the highway—two of them. A r i ve r along the road, go l f course and a stream. 2. S tar t ing out north you would f i r s t see a c l u s te r of houses on both sides of the road. Then the road bends west to where you meet a small stream. Back northeast you go cl imbing a gentle s lope. The road bends back and f o r t h . A few houses on the west s ide are seen as you cut across the slope of the mountain. More houses then a s l i gh t downhill s lope. The road is now straightened out and we are heading north. Coming up to a small v i l l a g e with houses l i n i n g both sides of the road. A h i l l is v i s i b l e on the r i gh t . Now you approach the point where another road cuts across our road. A few more houses on the eas t s ide , including a school then Highway 1. 10 E 19 1. From White Rock we walk north. I'm going up into some h i l l s , 79. the road goes up and down. A f ter a b r ie f walk, I come across a barn in the process of being b u i l t . I keep going north un t i l I come across another barn. The distance of houses are few and far between. I see few people. I hear the noise of cars coming from my r ight but I see none. I proceed up un t i l I come across another house, here I hear the s l i gh t movement of water. I go to my r ight (south) to see where i t is coming from. I found the stream and w i l l fo l low along i t s banks up north. Following i t along I am now approaching a group of farms or maybe houses. They are b u i l t near the stream. I w i l l now depart from th i s stream and get back onto my o r i g i na l course. I proceed up and meet up with a loose surface road. 2. As I s t a r t at White Rock I proceed north on an unmarked road. This road sort of meanders along, back and f o r t h , back and f o r t h . The s ides r i s e up and kind of leave me in a v a l l e y . There are two houses on my l e f t . As I proceed further north I come to two more houses on my r ight and one on my l e f t . I am now at Deep Hollow. As I keep going north I meet another house to my l e f t . By the s ide of the road there is a b i t of a stream. As I proceed north s t i l l , I am meeting up with more homes, f i v e on the r ight and f i v e on my l e f t . As I proceed along th i s road a s ide road intercepts i t to my l e f t and another side road does the same to the r ight a l i t t l e more up. I am now going past three houses, a l l in a row to my r i gh t . They are qui te near the highway which must be noisy. I have now h i t Highway number 1. North across the f i e l d is a school with many kids playing on the play ground since i t is break time. 10 E 13 1. You would have h i l l s on both sides of the road. Through the f i r s t part there are a few bui ld ings both r ight and l e f t . Then you ome across s ix bui ld ings on the r ight and r ight across from them there are f i v e bui ld ings on the l e f t . Farther up there is a junct ion where a gravel road merges from the l e f t . On the r ight another gravel road merges. These two roads j o i n in almost the same place. Just before Highway 1 there are three bui ld ings on the r i gh t . 2. Heading northwest out of town there are two bui ld ings on both s ides of the road. A sharp r ight turn north east occurs with a s l i gh t e levat ion on both s ides. An intermittent stream crosses the road from l e f t to r ight and continues along the r ight s ide of the road. A gradual north-west turn with the land gett ing higher on both s ides . Where the road bends again (W) the intermittent stream crosses from r ight to l e f t between two bui ld ings on the l e f t . Steep slopes on e i ther s ide of the road. 80 (Passing through a small va l ley ) Heading north you come across one bu i ld ing on the l e f t and two bui ld ings d i r e c t l y across on the r i gh t . The intermittent stream crosses again staying c lose to the road. Passing a house on the l e f t and fa r ther up two bui ld ings on the r i gh t . Across from these there is another house d i r e c t i y across. It looks 1ike a small town because there are f i v e houses r ight and four houses l e f t grouped c lose c lose together. A gravel road in tersects on the l e f t and far ther up one jo ins in on the r i ght . Just before Highway 1 you pass three houses on the r i gh t . 12 E 7 1 . houses school church dam to my r ight houses,barns along the road deep hoi low more bui1dings on - jo in ing highway r ight before Highway 1, I would a school to my r i gh t . along part of the way, I would see a gravel road on my l e f t . 2.. At White Rock 1 am standing in the middle in ter sec t ion where the two main roads meet. Behind me to the south are houses. To my r ight is a church and to my. left is a school . There is a l so a small body of water behind me. I head north and the road curves s l i g h t l y to the l e f t . The e levat ion is not too high up approx. 250. The road then curves to the r i gh t . My e levat ion stays the same. I then cross an intermittent stream. The road curves to the l e f t with i t on my l e f t there are two houses and further up before I reach Deep Hollow are three more bui ld ings (houses). The road then fol lows alongside a stream ( intermit tent at some par t s ) . The e levat ion is approx. 150. There are more houses and other bui ld ings as I get c loser to where the road jo ins the highway. Right before I get to the jo in ted area, two gravel roads merge into the main road. To my r ight there is a school and as I get to the j o i n i n g , to my l e f t is another school . The e levat ion is now about 100. The vegetation along the way has mainly been f l a t grassland or very low vegetat ion. 12 E 13 1. see the r i ve r by the road some bu i1d i ngs the land has steep sides on both sides of the road the sides of the h i l l are gett ing less steep and there are more houses going downhi 11 81 d i r t road cuts across paved one r i ver separates and flows away from road houses and school on my r ight 2. In the beginning I see houses on both sides of the road and there are no trees on the r ight s ide. Then there are trees a l l around and as there is a bend in the road, you can see the r i ve r as i t now flows beside the road. A f ter a few more bends there appear two houses on the l e f t s ide and the road enters the canyon. The stream is in termi t tent . There are more houses on both sides as I walk out of the canyon and s ta r t walking down h i l l . Two d i r t roads merge on to the paved one. And with forest only on the l e f t s ide the r i ve r veers o f f to the r i gh t . The road crosses another r i ve r (that merges into the f i r s t ) . As you reach Highway one you can a school , some larger bu i ld ings , trees, the r i v e r , dykes and a gravel p i t . 12 E 22 1. There's a stream running beside the road at a bu i ld ing there ' s another one jus t ahead the slope to my r ight is steep and the one to my l e f t i s n ' t . at a ser ies of three bui ld ings now. The slopes r i s e steeply on both s ides. This place is Deep Hollow. The bui ld ings are gett ing more densely packed and the slopes are more gent le. The road forks with two d i r t roads here and again up the road a l i t t l e . The r i ve r changes to a north-east d i r e c t i o n here. There 's three bui ld ings and a school to my r ight and I'm at the highway. 2. The road s ta r t s out going north-west and there are f i v e bui ld ings three to my l e f t and two to my r i gh t . The road is turning in a more westerly d i r e c t i o n and there is a sharp bend ahead. I'm going north-east now and a l i t t l e stream flows along (beside) the road. It jo ined the road at the sharp bend and is winding roughly along the roadway. The land to my r ight r i ses up quite steeply and i t a l so r i ses on my l e f t . I seem to be in a va l l ey . There are two houses ahead of me on the l e f t and a stream jo ins the one along the road in between the houses. The stream crosses from the r ight s ide to the l e f t s ide of the road here ( i t is f lowing southward). I'm going into Deep Hollow and there are two houses on my r ight and one on my l e f t . The road is gett ing more populated as I proceed. The stream went away from the road a quarter mile back. There are many houses along the road now on both sides and the land is becoming f l a t t e r . I am at the last three houses on the road before the highway and there is a school o f f to the r ight behind these houses. I'm at the highway. 

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