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Map reading : the object is to form a true mental picture of the ground Smith, Gordon E. 1982

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MAP READING: THE OBJECT  IS  TO FORM A TRUE  MENTAL PICTURE  OF THE GROUND  by  GORDON E. SMITH B . E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL  THE REQUIREMENTS  FULFILMENT OF  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  IN  EDUCATION  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department of S o c i a l and Educational Studies)  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1982 ©  Gordon E. Smith, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  Social  Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  written  ii  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s  study was to determine i f  c r e a t e a : t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l mental  student map users  image of the landscape d e p i c t e d  by a t o p o g r a p h i c map. A review of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y that human beings  can and do form t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l mental  S i n c e a t o p o g r a p h i c map is a form of c a r t o g r a p h i c  the same symbol  landscape,  this  To t e s t  To be  system and, f u r t h e r , that  the  is a b l e to make the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from map to t h r e e image.  is h y p o t h e s i z e d that both of these requirements can be met. these hypotheses a quasi-experimenta1 r e s e a r c h design  anexperimental chosen.  landscape.  into  c a r t o g r a p h i c communication r e q u i r e s that both c a r t o g r a p h e r  dimens:iona.l mental It  that a map user who shares  image of the o r i g i n a l  and map-user share a common symbol map-user  system attempts  system should be a b l e to transform the symbols  a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l mental successful  it follows  images.  communication  in which the c a r t o g r a p h e r using an a p p r o p r i a t e symbol to represent a real  indicates  and a c o n t r o l group and a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t  using  format was  Two groups o f Grade 10 and two groups o f Grade 12 students :  participated  in the study with one group from each grade  in the  experimental  group and the o t h e r a c t i n g as a c o n t r o l group.  To  i ii  e v a l u a t e the mental  image formed students were asked to draw a  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a mental  image and a l s o  to w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n  of one. The r e s u l t s o f the r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y support that c a r t o g r a p h e r  the  hypothesis  and map user can share a common symbol  While the attempt to draw a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a mental largely  unsuccessful,  hypothesis images of also  the w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s  that map users landscapes  dimensional, mental  image was  c l e a r l y support  can and do form t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  d e p i c t e d by t o p o g r a p h i c maps.  suggest a p o s s i b i l i t y  system.  that  the a b i l i t y  The  the  mental  results  to form complex t h r e e -  images may in part be a f u n c t i o n of  maturation.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page # ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  viii  CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  9  Part  1:  Part 2:  The Map as a Communication System Map S k i l l s  . . . .  Research  9 13  CHAPTER THREE:  THE EXPERIMENTAL  Part  The Research Design  19  Part 2:  The Sample  20  Part 3:  The Instruments  21  Part k:  Scoring  25  Part 5:  The I n t e r v e n t i o n  27  1:  DESIGN  .  . . .  18  CHAPTER FOUR:  THE RESULTS  29  CHAPTER FIVE:  DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS  36  Part  1:  37  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C  vi  LIST OF TABLES  Page # TABLE 1 ( a ) :  MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5  30  MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5  30  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5  31  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5  31  MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10  33  MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10  33  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10  3k  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10  3^  TABLE 5:  GROUP MEANS AS A % OF TOTAL POSSIBLE SCORE  kk  TABLE 6:  RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 10 CONTROL GROUP  7k  TABLE 1 ( b ) :  TABLE 2 ( a ) :  TABLE ,2(b):  TABLE 3(a):  TABLE 3 ( b ) :  TABLE M a ) :  TABLE 4 ( b ) :  . .  vi i  Page # TABLE 7:  RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  75  TABLE 8:  RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 12 CONTROL GROUP . . .  76  TABLE 9:  RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  77  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The w r i t e r for his  is g r e a t l y  encouragement,  indebted to h i s a d v i s o r ,  help and guidance;  Dr. Dennis M i l b u r n and Dr. N e i l  to h i s  the p r o j e c t and to the students  School whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n made t h i s  Last, and h i s  but not  and d e v e l o p -  and teachers o f Alpha  study  in the devel opment,, eva 1 uat i on and grading Mrs.  Wright,  assistance;  in the design  Secondary  possible.  A p p r e c i a t i o n is a l s o expressed to the teachers who  and to my t y p i s t  Ian  committee members,  Sutherland, for t h e i r  to Dr. N e v i l l e V. S c a r f e f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e ment o f  Dr.  of  the t e s t  assisted instruments,  Lynda M i l l e r .  least,  the w r i t e r  is  indebted to h i s w i f e , H e l e n ,  sons f o r their encouragement and p a t i e n c e .  CHAPTER ONE  I n t r o d u c t ion  The January, Examination  1981 B r i t i s h Columbia Geography  i n c l u d e d a s e r i e s of  map s k i l l s .  The e l e v a t i o n of Adams H i l l quadrant of the map is 1. 2. 3. k. 5.  more more more more more  than than than than than  in the  northeast  950 metres, l e s s than 1000 metres, l e s s than 1100 metres, l e s s than 1150 metres, l e s s than 1250 metres, l e s s than  1000 metres. 1050 metres. 1150 metres. 1200 metres. 1300 metres.  The approximate d i s t a n c e along the creek which d r a i n s Skmana Lake to i t s c o n f l u e n c e with the Adams R i v e r is 1. 2. 3. h. 5-  19.  on  as:  I  18.  ten m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s  Students were presented with a map and were r e q u i r e d  to answer such q u e s t i o n s 17.  12 S c h o l a r s h i p  3.3 k i l o m e t r e s . 6.2 k i l o m e t r e s . 8.5 k i l o m e t r e s . 12.0 k i l o m e t r e s . 15.9 k i l o m e t r e s .  A c c o r d i n g to the data shown on the map, Chase K 2. 3. k. 5.  a a a a a  has  s c h o o l , a r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n and park. sawmill and marina. survey c o n t r o l p o i n t and benchmark. h o s p i t a l , p o s t - o f f i c e and customs o f f i c e . p o s t - o f f i c e and a s c h o o l .  2  21.  The p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e l o c a t e d at c o - o r d i n a t e 023044 may be best d e s c r i b e d as 1. 2. 3. k. 5.  22.  2. 3. k. 5. 23.  the c o r r e c t statement  below.  Agnes Creek (southwest quadrant) d r a i n s a lake l o c a t e d at a lower e l e v a t i o n than the lake which is d r a i n e d by nearby Chee Creek. Both lakes on the two creeks are at the same e l e v a t i o n . Both creeks d r a i n i n t o N i s k o n l i t h Lake. Both creeks are i n t e r m i t t e n t . Both lakes are i n d e f i n i t e .  The l i n e a r nature of the s e t t l e m e n t at the north end of L i t t l e Shuswap Lake suggests a human response to the f a c t that 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Following  a c i r q u e - l a k e or t a r n . a permanent lake with marsh. an oxbow lake r e s u l t i n g from recent stream channel adjustment. a lake c r e a t e d by seasonal f l o o d i n g . a small i n t e r m i t t e n t lake with an e a r t h - f i l l dam.  Identify 1.  point  the area is o n l y a c c e s s i b l e by water. the housing is water r e c r e a t i o n o r i e n t e d . the area is i m p o s s i b l e f o r road b u i l d i n g . the h i l l s i d e s are extremely u n s t a b l e and s u b j e c t to si i d e s . the housing is l o c a t e d on an e l e v a t e d t e r r a c e , well above the lake l e v e l .  immediately a f t e r these was t h i s  question:  Va 1 ue 5  A.  The paragraph below d e s c r i b e s an imaginary l o c a t i o n which could occur in B r i t i s h Columbia. Use the i n f o r m a t i o n given to draw a t o p o g r a p h i c map showing the f o l l o w i n g : (a) contour l i n e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y l a b e l l e d . (b) p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s d e s c r i b e d and/ or i m p l i e d in the d e s c r i p t i o n . The small town of F i s h e r b r o o k e is l o c a t e d a t the c o n f l u e n c e of two r i v e r s . The l a r g e r of the two d r a i n s a l a r g e area to the n o r t h , w h i l e the s m a l l e r r i v e r flows from the east c u t t i n g i t s way through the stepped t e r r a c e which f l a n k s the l a r g e r i v e r on both s i d e s . The lower t e r r a c e e l e v a t e d about e i g h t y metres above the r i v e r , c a r r i e s the r a i l w a y which passes below  3  Fisherbrooke. The upper t e r r a c e , l o c a t e d twenty metres h i g h e r , accommodates the town and the main highway which turns east at t h i s p o i n t a f t e r f o l l o w i n g the main r i v e r f o r some d i s t a n c e . The highway is hard a g a i n s t the steep h i l l s which r i s e behind the town and form i t s e a s t e r n boundary. F i s h e r b r o o k e is a small s a w - m i l l i n g c e n t r e served by the r a i l r o a d and its siding. Employment in the sawmill and in s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d highway f a c i l i t i e s , p r o v i d e s jobs f o r i t s p o p u l a t i o n of about one hundred and f i f t y p e o p l e . The town and i t s houses huddle around the p o s t - o f f i c e , church and general s t o r e . F i s h e r b r o o k e is hot and dry with the o n l y green v i s i b l e being in the lawns of the w e l l - k e p t cemetery and the small park beside the church. Not much happens in F i s h e r b r o o k e , e s p e c i a l l y on a hot day. Draw your map in the space An a n a l y s i s d i s c l o s e s -that".the f i r s t respondents a knowledge of symbol  system,  (i.e.  that  (l) £  questions  (2)  and so o n ) ,  into actual  distances  are e s s e n t i a l l y  r e q u i r e from the  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  t o p o g r a p h i c map  r e p r e s e n t s a s c h o o l , a blue l i n e  a r i v e r , and p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s valleys  below.  of contour l i n e s  represents  represent  how to use map s c a l e to t r a n s l a t e map d i s t a n c e s  and  (3)  compass d i r e c t i o n .  r e c a l 1 or mechanical  skills.  The map c o n s t r u c t i o n  requires that,  b a s i c map symbols,  s c a l e and d i r e c t i o n , students must possess some  will  mental  that a l l  or are possessed  the v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n  skills  The author of  which  that mental  the q u e s t i o n has  of the r e q u i r e d knowledge and s k i l l s  of  into a three  image of a landscape and then t r a n s l a t e  image i n t o a t o p o g r a p h i c map. assumed  to the knowledge  i n t e r p r e t a t i v e and c a r t o g r a p h i c  enable them to t r a n s l a t e  dimensional  in a d d i t i o n  These e x e r c i s e s  q u e s t i o n , however,  rather s o p h i s t i c a t e d  hills,  presumably  have been taught  by the students who wrote the e x a m i n a t i o n .  When I presented t h i s  last  q u e s t i o n to my Geography  I too assumed they would have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y with  12 c l a s s ,  it.  Although  we had not spent much time on drawing t o p g r a p h i c maps, the  students  had done e x t e n s i v e work with t o p o g r a p h i c map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  I was  s u r p r i s e d by the f a c t  students  c o u l d not progress  that over h a l f  the c l a s s of '.twenty-f i ve  beyond drawing a r i v e r , a road and a  railway.  E i g h t of the students gave up a f t e r two or three f r u i t l e s s All  of the students  attempts.  spent more than the f i v e or s i x minutes the q u e s t i o n  should have r e q u i r e d and none produced a " g o o d " map. T h i s phenomenon o c c u r r e d d e s p i t e the emphasis c u r r i c u l a on the study of geography,  (I960,  145)  p.  points  in S o c i a l  maps and map s k i l l s .  Studies  As McLendon  out:  Maps serve as b a s i c t o o l s of geographers and are i n d i s p e n s a b l e a l s o in l e a r n i n g geography. They p r o v i d e the most f e a s i b l e means yet developed f o r d e p i c t i n g in l i m i t e d space great amounts o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the p h y s i c a l environment. In S o c i a l  Studies,  to more or transmit It  less  many kinds of maps are used, from simple  complex thematic and t o p o g r a p h i c maps,  knowledge about geography and g e o g r a p h i c a l  is not s u r p r i s i n g  prominent p l a c e  then,  in S o c i a l  outlines  in o r d e r to  relationships.  that the t e a c h i n g o f map s k i l l s  occupies a  Studies c u r r i c u l a .  However, being a b l e to i n t e r p r e t t o p g r a p h i c map symbols not mean that a student can v i s u a l i z e mental  image o f )  p. 286) p o i n t s  (i.e.  does  form a t h r e e dimensional  the landscape d e p i c t e d on a map.  As E l i o t  (1970,  out:  A c r i t i c a l weakness o f most map s k i l l s programs is the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n that knowlege of symbolic conventions  5  n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l s the a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e arrangement of the o b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d . Addressing  spatial  the same problem from the p o i n t o f view of map c o n s t r u c t i o n  B l u e s t e i n and A c r e d o l o  (1977) a s s e r t  A l l too o f t e n . . . any f a i l u r e s in the inadequacies in the r e a l i t y the problem representation. . . Once the students top, classroom,  have drawn the r e q u i s i t e s i m p l i f i e d maps of  school  and s c h o o l y a r d  they can v i s u a l i z e an a c t u a l  visualization  process which  However, most of  that:  the a b i l i t y to map is assumed and r e s u l t i n g map are a t t r i b u t e d to u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , when in may be in the t r a n s l a t i o n of that .  and have used a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e s that  the  desk  in the e a r l y elementary grades  and symbols, spatial  it  is  then assumed  arrangement.  It  is  this  is at the heart of map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  the a l l o t t e d "map s k i l l s "  time  is  spent on  inter-  p r e t a t i o n e x e r c i s e s which are usua11y nothing more than symbol recognition exercises  similar  examination on page one. in,  nor e v a l u a t i o n of  to the examples  from the  These e x e r c i s e s p r o v i d e n e i t h e r p r a c t i c e  the s t u d e n t s '  ability  to r e - c r e a t e a t h r e e  dimensional  r e a l i t y from a map.  possible  borne out by a pamphlet from the Surveys  Branch of (1975)  is  scholarship  The assumption  the Department o f Energy,  that  re-creation and  Mines and Resources,  is  Mapping Canada  entitled: everyone should be a b l e to use a map THE OBJECT IS TO FORM A TRUE MENTAL PICTURE OF THE GROUND  Yet,  i f everyone should be a b l e to form a t r u e mental  ground, why d i d a Geography  p i c t u r e of  12 c l a s s have so much d i f f i c u l t y ?  the  This  6  q u e s t i o n was phrased somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y by Jenks  (1970, p. 180)  when he asked: Does he [the average map reader] m e n t a l l y t r a n s f o r m i t [a map] i n t o a 3-D shape or does he j u s t see a l o t of w i g g l y 1ines? In answering  h i s q u e s t i o n , Jenks goes on to  say:  Experience w i t h many u n t r a i n e d map users i n d i c a t e s the l a t t e r and, as a r e s u l t , I suggest that 3-D r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s be i n c l u d e d with many types of maps. . . . Jenks  1  assertion  that  representations w i l l  repeated exposure to three dimensional aid  in the mental  image formation e s s e n t i a l  t o p o g r a p h i c map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is borne out of Gould and White (1971).  All  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Hannay  mental  dependent upon p r i o r sensory  in part by the work  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Horowitz  (1970) and Segal  images and that  these  images are  information.  Much of the c u r r e n t research in both psychology  and  has s t u d i e d map use and map c o n s t r u c t i o n as an aspect o f  in h i s  Of p a r t i c u l a r concern has been the map u s e r ' s perception of  the c a r t o g r a p h i c communication.  communication t h e o r i s t s  the use o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l of the same symbol  ful,  system,  landscape  symbol  the map u s e r ' s  communication  mental  landscape. mental  The map u s e r ,  then t r a n s l a t e s  If  mental  the  his map by  possessed  the two dimensional image which is  map  similar  the communication has been  image w i l l  processes  Briefly,  i n t o a two dimensional  system.  i n t o a three dimensional  to the map maker's  cartography  suggest that the map maker c o n v e r t s  view o f a t h r e e . d i m e n s i o n a l  information  to  of these r e s e a r c h e r s conclude that most human beings  form t h r e e dimensional  theory.  r  success-  conform very c l o s e l y to the  7  original  landscape.  As B l u e s t e i n and A c r e d o l o (1977) p l a c e s where t h i s  (p. 5) p o i n t out t h e r e are t h r e e key  communication system can m a l f u n c t i o n .  map maker and map user must share a common symbol  system.  the map user must be a b l e to p e r c e i v e that the symbols three dimensional  o b j e c t s which he r e c o g n i z e s .  First,  both  Second,  represent  T h i r d , and perhaps  most c r i t i c a l l y , the map user must be a b l e to t r a n s f o r m the two dimensional  t o p o g r a p h i c map i n t o a t h r e e dimensional mental  image.  These t h r e e f a c t o r s generated the hypotheses which were t e s t e d by this  study. Hypothesis  #1  Mean p o s t - t e s t scores o f students in the experimental groups w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p = .05) than mean p o s t - t e s t scores of the c o n t r o l groups on t e s t s o f map symbol r e c o g n i t i o n . Hypothesis #2 Mean p o s t - t e s t scores o f students in the experimental groups w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p = .05) than mean p o s t - t e s t scores of the c o n t r o l groups on t e s t s measuring a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l landscapes from t o p o g r a p h i c maps. To t e s t  these hypotheses, a quasi-experimenta1  using a c o n t r o l group and a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t  r e s e a r c h design  format was chosen.  Two groups o f Grade 10 students and two groups of Grade 12 students were given tests.  the p r e t e s t which was composed of ten s e p a r a t e map  skills'  One group o f Grade 10 and one group of Grade 12 students were  then given s i x weeks of d a i l y  instruction  in a v a r i e t y of map  skills  r e l a t e d to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t o p o g r a p h i c maps and the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of  topographic space.  During  this  time the o t h e r two groups  received  no map s k i l l s period a l l items as  instruction.  At the end o f the teaching-1 e a r n i n g  f o u r groups wrote a p o s t t e s t which comprised the same  the p r e t e s t .  9  CHAPTER TWO  Review of the L i t e r a t u r e  Part  I:  The Map as a Communication System  The process of t o p o g r a p h i c map c o n s t r u c t i o n and is one form o f c a r t o g r a p h i c  communication.  interpretation  Cartographic  has been both a s u b j e c t of, and a model for, communicat ion and a review of  the research l i t e r a t u r e w i l l  i n t o the s p e c i f i c problems Human communication being as  it  relates  is  involves  research  p r o v i d e some  insights  in Chapter One. the i n t e n t i o n a l a c t o f a human  to the sending or r e c e i v i n g of a s t i m u l u s  to produce u n d e r s t a n d i n g , communication  raised  communication  s o c i a l i z a t i o n or a c t i o n .  intended  Cartographic  then a s p e c i a l i z e d form of human communication wherein  the map maker, drawing  i n f o r m a t i o n from the " r e a l  c l e a r l y d e f i n e d symbol  system, produces a g r a p h i c communication or  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of decodes t h i s original  the r e a l i t y he p e r c e i v e s .  g r a p h i c communication  reality.  (a map)  w o r l d " and using a  The map user  then  thereby r e c r e a t i n g  F i g u r e 1 is a model of t h i s  cartographic  the  communication.  Before embarking on a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f the model, t h e r e are several  general  comments which should be made.  First,  specific  FIGURE I A CARTOGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION MODEL THE MAPfA ' KER "REALITY" "R" Noise -THE SENSES"N" Noise  THE "REAL" ENVIRONMENT  •7<  PERCEIVED REALITY 'N" Noise "ITUDES BELIEFSp S Y C H 0 L 0 G I C A L  V  "P" Noise BRAIN -  i  ENCODER {Editing and Selection _ Process)  The •Car tographi c Cosnmun i ca t i on A Topographic *Hap —  The Topog raph i c Map as Perce t ved  "N" Noise PERCEIVED REALITY Noise —THE SENGES"R" Noise  Oecoder Delai I seicct i Symbo1s and Referonts Pre-ext st i ng Men taI Maps re-ex i st i ng Mental Images p  11  'REAL I TY" URPOSE-  THE SENSES "N" Noise PERCEIVED REALITY 'N" Not se IT ITUDES BELIEF S— "P" Noise -BRA I N-  - rre-ex\ s ting  Mental Maps - Symbols and Re f e rant s  THE MAP-USER "REAL ITY" "R" Noise  THE "REAL" ENVIRONMENT  Three D i nensiona1 Mental Image of Landscape  "P" Noise -PURPOSE "N" Noi se PERCEIVED REAL m "N" Noise •THE SENSES "R" Noi 5 0  11  r e f e r e n c e to the problems omitted.  involved  in a c t u a l l y  The technology of p r i n t i n g ,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  papers and i n k s ,  together with the t e c h n i c a l  p r i n t i n g process  by which the v a r i o u s  to the map w i l l process.  obviously  p r i n t i n g a map  problems  The nature and e x t e n t of t h i s  Muehrcke the  (1969),  (1970),  various  Gertsen  Petchenik  boundaries  (1970), (1974)  in the  are added  i n t e r f e r e n c e in the communication i n t e r f e r e n c e has been amply  (1973),  demonstrated by the r e s e a r c h of Bartholomew and Kinniburgh Carmichael  various  inherent  colour separations  be a source of  is  Hodgkiss  (1981),  and S o r r e l  (1970),  Merriam  1 (1974).  in the model are presented as  Second,  although  rectangles,  it  would be more a c c u r a t e to v i s u a l i z e them as s i m i l a r  to the membrane  which surrounds  These  will  and g i v e s d e f i n i t i o n to an amoeba.  be c o n s t a n t l y  Finally  changing  shape as v a r i o u s  stimuli  boundaries  are p e r c e i v e d .  i t should be remembered that map maker and map user w i l l  not n e c e s s a r i l y  share the same "Real  Environment" e i t h e r  in space  o r i n t i me. Although Kolacny  the model  is  similar  in many r e s p e c t s to those of  (1976)  (1969) and Robi nson and Petchenik  conceptualization.  As a s t a r t i n g  point  it  of some a b s o l u t e " r e a l environment" which  is is  From t h i s environment come a wide v a r i e t y of from which, by means o f the senses, These  impulses and s t i m u l i  and t h i s  senses  is  useful  the  author's  to t h i n k  the same f o r a l l impulses  each i n d i v i d u a l  and  in terms individuals.  stimuli  perceives  "reality."  both augment and i n t e r f e r e with each o t h e r  i n t e r a c t i o n produces what is c a l l e d  The map maker's  it  (perceptual  filters)  in the model "R" s e l e c t from t h i s  noise. background  12  certain stimuli  which are passed along  environment." "reality."  For the map maker t h i s  The s e l e c t i o n process  o n l y c e r t a i n wave lengths a c t i v a t e the e a r .  to c r e a t e h i s " p e r c e i v e d p e r c e i v e d environment  results  in p a r t from the f a c t  noise)  selects  The elements which make up the p e r c e i v e d environment  which  in turn p r o v i d e s  from these elements.  psychological  purpose  the w o r l d , a t t i t u d e s  interactions the map maker  time, however, the f i l t e r and  in c o n s t r u c t i n g  is g r e a t l y the map.  toward map making and map users  i n t e r f e r e n c e ("P"  from the sense o r g a n s , along ference,  This  i n t e r f e r e n c e as  r a t h e r than p h y s i o l o g i c a l  by the map maker's  additional  that  a c t i v a t e the eye and c e r t a i n sound f r e q u e n c i e s  impinge on the sense organs to p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y of ("N"  represents  to the b r a i n .  noise)  is  influenced  Beliefs  about  p r o v i d e some  to the t r a n s m i s s i o n  of  perceptions  the n e r v e s , which a l s o c o n t r i b u t e  At t h i s  p o i n t the map maker's  inter-  perceptions  are added to and i n f l u e n c e d by any p r e - e x i s t i n g mental maps he may have and t r a n s m i t t e d to the encoder s e c t i o n s of the b r a i n . maker s e l e c t s  from h i s  the " b e s t " way of  s t o r e of map symbols and c a r t o g r a p h i c  representing his  perceptions.  These  The map techniques  selections  are then t r a n s m i t t e d from the b r a i n back to the sense organs where they are several form.  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the map. times as  Assuming  communication  is  The map is environment.  It  the map maker e d i t s the p r i n t i n g  process  T h i s process w i l l  be repeated  h i s communication  into  its  final  produces a t r u e copy, the map  now ready f o r the map u s e r . p e r c e i v e d by the map user as p a r t of h i s is  processed through h i s  p e r c e p t u a l and  "real" psychological  13  filters the  to h i s b r a i n .  Assuming  that map maker and map user a s c r i b e  same meanings to the symbols and c a r t o g r a p h i c techniques used  by the map maker, the map u s e r ' s the it  symbols will  i n t o a mental  image.  If  produce, in the map u s e r ' s  image of a landscape.  If  three dimensional mental original the  decoding apparatus w i l l  landscape.  the communication  translate  is  successful,  b r a i n , a t h r e e dimensional mental  the process works w e l l , the map u s e r ' s image w i l l  be a reasonable f a c s i m i l e o f  In o r d e r to c r e a t e t h i s mental  the  image, however,  map user must understand the c a r t o g r a p h i c conventions of  symbol,  s c a l e and d i r e c t i o n .  Part  II:  Map S k i l l s  Research  Most of the r e s e a r c h which has been done on map symbols has with ways o f Researchers  Petchenik DeLuccia  improving the q u a l i t y o r v i s i b i l i t y o f map symbols.  (1975),  Gertsen  (1970),  Robinson  Flannery  (1971),  Merriam  (1970),  Monmonier  Arnheim  (1976),  Wood  such as Olson  (1973),  Crawford  (197*0, (1972),  Phillips,  (1968),  McCleary  DeLuccia and S k e l t o n  and Bartholomew and Kinniburgh the  dealt  (1973)  (1975),  (1970), (1977),  (1970), Stringer  have s t u d i e d such t o p i c s  (.1973)  as  optimum s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of d o t , c i r c l e and square symbols  on d i s t r i b u t i o n maps;  the optimum width o f  problems with f i g u r e - g r o u n d  f o r ease o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p e r c e p t i o n s ;  and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of symbol relief;  lines  design;  the best method of  visibility;  improvement  portraying  the s i z e , s t y l e and q u a l i t y of type and the best c o l o u r s  use on maps.  While t h i s  r e s e a r c h has great  potential  for  to  improving  14  the  c a r t o g r a p h i c q u a l i t y of maps, many o f these r e s e a r c h e r s  out that much depends on the map u s e r ' s more r e s e a r c h heeds to be done in t h i s Sorrel skills  1 (1974,  p.  84)  outlines  abilities  point  and knowledge and  area.  an e s s e n t i a l  development f o r the map user when he  problem in map  states:  The r o l e o f the map as a communication medium is f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l output by g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n t o the form of symbols. No matter how p e r f e c t l y designed great  the symbol  system  is  it s t i l l  causes  d i f f i c u l t y f o r the map reader because the symbols are not  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the t h i n g s s y m b o l i z e d .  The problem of  was addressed by Gardner, Howard and P e r k i n s a distinction  (1974,  p.  between icons which resemble the t h i n g s  symbolization  29) they  (e.g.  p i c t u r e s , statues)  and symbols which are c o n v e n t i o n a l  (e.g.  words, n u m e r a l s ) .  They a l s o agree t h a t the symbol  i t s own set of problems. map symbols S o r r e l 1  For the map user attempting  (p. 84) suggests  to  who make represent representations  system c r e a t e s interpret  that:  Even a f t e r the necessary i n s t r u c t i o n s in d e c o d i n g , the reader is l e f t w i t h the bare bones o f the message, which then r e q u i r e s the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of d e t a i l d e r i v e d from the r e a d e r ' s own f i e l d of knowledge to r e c o n s t r u c t the o r i g i n a l p e r c e p t u a l s t i m u l u s which the map maker is t r y i n g to communicate. The  great  difficulty  involved  in l e a r n i n g  these symbol  codes was  f u r t h e r demonstrated by the r e s e a r c h of Pearson, Wiedel and  Castner  (1974).  subjects  They c a r r i e d out a maze experiment using  o f whom t h i r t e e n were c a r t o g r a p h e r s , non-geographers.  sixty-one  t h i r t y - s e v e n geographers  and e l e v e n  Subjects were b l i n d f o l d e d a f t e r having an o p p o r t u n i t y  15  to l e a r n the symbols  used on maps f o r the b l i n d and asked to use a  map t o work t h e i r way through a maze. of the group s u c c e s s f u l l y  Only t h i r t y - e i g h t per cent  completed the maze.  f o r g e t t i n g o r m i s i n t e r p r e t i n g map symbols, were s i m i l a r and misjudgement authors o f the study p o i n t  Common problems  involved  c o n f u s i o n where two  of s c a l e and a c t u a l d i s t a n c e s .  symbols As the  out:  These problems were unexpected, s i n c e a l l o f the symbols employed had been easy f o r b l i n d s u b j e c t s to i d e n t i f y . . . . The process of  l e a r n i n g the symbolic code and a c q u i r i n g competence  in i t has been the s u b j e c t of some study. o f symbolc competence Gross  In d i s c u s s i n g  (197^, p. 57) s t a t e s  the a c q u i s i t i o n  that  T h i n k i n g is an act i v i ty embracing the p e r c e p t i o n and ;; the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g , s t o r a g e , and r e t r i e v a l of structured information. S t r u c t u r e d and meaningful i n f o r m a t i o n can be r e c e i v e d , s t o r e d , transformed and communicated through a v a r i e t y of symbolic modes. . . . These modes . . . a r e b a s i c a l l y learned o n l y through a c t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e to the p a r t i c u l a r mode. A c c o r d i n g to B a l c h i n  (1976, pp. 33 f f )  r e l a t e d to what he c a l l s human beings have. 1. 2. 3. *4.  the f o u r b a s i c  these symbolic modes are types of a b i l i t y which a l l  These a r e :  1 i t e r a c y - - t h e a b i l i t y to use w r i t t e n communication a r t i c u l a c y — V e r b a l s k i l l s , the a b i l i t y to make " s o c i a l noi s e s . " numeracy—the f a c u l t y f o r d e a l i n g with numerical symbolism and graph i c a c y - - s p a t i a l a b i l i t y — t h e educated c o u n t e r p a r t o f the v i s u a l - s p a t i a l a s p e c t o f human i n t e l l i g e n c e and communication.  He goes on to a s s e r t  that:  In a b r a i n as h i g h l y evolved as that of a human being the p o t e n t i a l f o r a l l f o u r types of a b i l i t y is i n b o r n , but none of them can come to f u l l f r u i t i o n without education.  Drawing on the work of P i a g e t , Myer  (1973), Downs and Stea  ability  researchers  (1977), Rushdoony  (1977) and Muehrcke  B l u e s t e i n and A c r e d o l o spatial  a number of  develops g r a d u a l l y  including  (1969), S o r r e l 1  (1978) argue that  (197*0.  the  through a number of stages  as  s t u d i e d map reading s k i l l s  of  c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r . B l u e s t e i n and A c r e d o l o three-,  (1977)  f o u r - , and f i v e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n  in an attempt  at what age c h i l d r e n develop what are c a l l e d the " t h r e e  to f i n d out distinct  c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s " which enable them to i n f e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h e i r environment from a map.  The t h r e e processes  are  about  (p. 5 ) :  . . . the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of two dimensional c a r t o g r a p h i c or p i c t o g r a p h i c symbols and the understanding they they r e f e r to real t h r e e dimensional c o u n t e r p a r t s . The second . . . i n v o l v e s the formation of a mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the map . . . to serve as the a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k between map and space, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the map and the space a r e not viewed t o g e t h e r . The t h i r d process . . . is the p r o j e c t i o n or s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of the mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the map on the environment i t s e l f . . . . The study demonstrated t h a t were capable of It  t h r e e - , f o u r - and f i v e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n  l e a r n i n g and  interpreting cartographic  a l s o showed that n e a r l y h a l f  f o u r - and f i v e - y e a r - o l d s  the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s and most of  c o u l d form a mental  mentally  r e - o r i e n t or  was not c o r r e c t l y l i n e d up to Milburn  (1980)  Only the f i v e - y e a r - o l d s  r o t a t e the map to f i t  the  image of the map and,  provided the map was c o r r e c t l y o r i e n t e d with the space, the map on the environment.  symbols.  superimpose  however,  the environment  if  could it  start.  in a study of elementary school  mapping  concludes  17  that elementary school  c h i l d r e n , p r o v i d e d they are given  a p p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r l e v e l , can l e a r n a v a r i e t y o f map Beginning  in the primary grades  a v a r i e t y of mapping  skills.  c h i l d r e n can s u c c e s s f u l l y  tasks although  the r e s u l t s  the c h i l d r e n ' s developmental  complete  must be assessed  in  light  of  finds  that most c h i l d r e n have developed concepts of s c a l e , d i r e c t i o n ,  and s y m b o l i z a t i o n ,  stage.  training  can p r o j e c t a " p i l o t ' s  By age e l e v e n M i l b u r n  e y e " view of a space  and are ready to begin working with t o p o g r a p h i c maps. e a r l i e r experiment d e s c r i b e d Report  (1941)  patterns.  and a l s o of  in the T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e Group Committee  shows, many c h i l d r e n are capable of  Some 40,000 B r i t i s h  a picture  school  to match a map with a p i c t u r e .  half eighty  recognizing  contour  c h i l d r e n were asked to match  ( a l i n e drawing o f a landscape)  the students  As a much  with an a p p r o p r i a t e map  By age twelve f i f t y  percent  c o u l d do both e x e r c i s e s and by age f i f t e e n and a  percent of the students  could s u c c e s s f u l l y  complete the  exerc i s e s . A summary of symbol  systems,  the research s t u d i e s  that students  match them to i s o l a t e d  suggests that students  can r e c o g n i z e contour p a t t e r n s  physical  and  and  The r e s e a r c h  i n d i c a t e however whether or not a student can look at a  t o p o g r a p h i c map and form a t h r e e dimensional scape.  learn  f e a t u r e s , a n d that they can form mental  images of simple maps and r e l a t e them to an environment. does not  can  It  is  mental  image of a l a n d -  t h i s q u e s t i o n which led to the r e s e a r c h  hypotheses.  questions  18  CHAPTER THREE  The Experimental  The c e n t r a l map users Since  purpose of  the present study was to f i n d out  can and do " f o r m a t r u e mental p i c t u r e of  i n f o r m a t i o n about the ground  of a v a r i e t y of symbol  systems,  is  it  of  this  systems.  is  full  the g r o u n d . "  Once the map user  knowledge however, another problem a r i s e s .  and thereby b u i l d up an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  literature  of  student  that map users must  given enough time, can " r e a d " a map by v e r b a l l y symbol  if  p o r t r a y e d on maps by the use  is obvious  possess a knowledge of those symbol possessed  Design  r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s  is  Map  i n t e r p r e t i n g each the map.  The  aspect of map p e r c e p t i o n  which  is analogous to the process  by which the l e a r n i n g of  takes  place.  have learned to read the l i t e r a l  Only a f t e r students  vocabulary  meaning of words can they begin to a p p r e c i a t e the r i c h n e s s of symbolism.  As the work of Petchenik  (1976) demonstrates,  c o r r e s p o n d i n g mental t h i s mental  image.  (197*0 and Robinson  visual  image of the ground.  literary  and Petchenik  however, e f f e c t i v e map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  a d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n between the t o t a l  users,  involves  d i s p l a y o f the map and a  The problem is  to e v a l u a t e  There appear to be o n l y two methods f o r  evaluating  19  the mental This  image.  involves  graphic)  One is  to ask  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the image  symbol  system.  The o t h e r  v e r b a l l y d e s c r i b e the image. i n t o a d i f f e r e n t symbol  1.  The Research  design  for  Control  This  is  into a d i f f e r e n t  to have the  similarly  considerations  study.  provides  i n t a c t school  involves  (i.e.  possessor  transformation  in mind, i t was decided to pretest-postest  and S t a n l e y  (1970, p.  the most e f f e c t i v e r e s e a r c h design  classes.  experimental  The design was based on the Nonequiva1ent  Group Design d e s c r i b e d by Campbell  T h i s design  image  image.  system.  group - experimental group,  this  to draw the  Pesign  With the f o r e g o i n g use a c o n t r o l  the image possessor  As Campbell  and S t a n l e y  hi).  involving  (pp. ^7-8)  point  out: The more s i m i l a r the experimental and the c o n t r o l groups are in t h e i r r e c r u i t m e n t , and the more t h i s s i m i l a r i t y is confirmed by the s c o r e s on the p r e t e s t , the more e f f e c t i v e t h i s c o n t r o l becomes. Assuming that these d e s i d e r a t a are approximated f o r purposes of i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y , we can regard the design as c o n t r o l l i n g the main e f f e c t s of h i s t o r y , m a t u r a t i o n , t e s t i n g and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , in that the d i f f e r e n c e f o r the experimental group between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t ( i f g r e a t e r .than that f o r the c o n t r o l group) cannot be e x p l a i n e d by main e f f e c t s of these v a r i a b l e s such as would be found a f f e c t i n g both the experimental and the c o n t r o l group. All  students were given  The c o n t r o l groups maps.  the same p r e t e s t at the same time.  r e c e i v e d no f u r t h e r  instructional  contact  The experimental group on the o t h e r hand,. r e c e i v e d  and p r a c t i c e in the v a r i e t y of map s k i l l s  with  instruction  deemed by the r e s e a r c h  20  to be necessary  f o r map users  to be e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s  c a r t o g r a p h i c communication p r o c e s s . period a l l all  students  in the  At the c o n c l u s i o n o f the treatment  rewrote the p r e t e s t as a p o s t t e s t .  Scores  for  p a r t i c i p a n t s were recorded and are i n c l u d e d in Appendix C.  2.  The Sample Alpha Secondary  School  is  located  Burnaby, a suburb of Vancouver. to twelve.  The school  which c o n t a i n s class  It  population  is  A p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty percent o f than E n g l i s h at home. and c o m p o s i t i o n  in grades  levels  ranging  Italy,  the students  The students  display  speak: a normal  the  range of  students  reading  skills.  the s c h o o l .  in t h i s  The l a r g e s t  (ages 1 5 l 6 ) . _  study were drawn from two  group was from Grade 10 S o c i a l  At the Grade 10 level in B r i t i s h  i s compulsory and Alpha Secondary School  Social  Studies  10 c l a s s e s .  Assignment of students  is done by a computerwhich is equitably according  The computer program  Because of  to  to the number of c l a s s e s  is designed  enrols  Columbia, five  particular  programmed to d i s t r i b u t e  the  available.  to produce a reasonable balance of  sexes w i t h i n c l a s s e s as w e l l as a balance o f t o t a l classes.  from working  a language o t h e r  Studies  students  area  I n d i a , Hong Kong or Korea.  Social  classes  of  eight  drawn from the surrounding  in.  The students who p a r t i c i p a t e d  classes  students  Approximately ten percent of  were born o u t s i d e Canada, mainly  Studies  enrols  a v a r i e t y of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  to upper middle c l a s s .  grades w i t h i n  in the north western p a r t  numbers between  the l a r g e number of compulsory s u b j e c t s  and  21  l i m i t e d number of o p t i o n s at the Grade 10 l e v e l , in S o c i a l  Studies  group  C l a s s e s are assigned  The two c l a s s e s  (n = 4l) were taught  to t e a c h e r s  by the r e s e a r c h e r .  The experimental group  in the a u t h o r ' s  in an e q u a l l y  The two c l a s s e s  Geography  from Grade  (n = 26) c o n s i s t e d o f  12 c l a s s w h i l e an E n g l i s h  (n = 28) which met at the same time served as a c o n t r o l . English  12 is compulsory,  However, Geography  students choose f o r a v a r i e t y of at the beginning of the course of  the students  reasons.  the  12 c l a s s  Because  the c o n t r o l group was reasonably  of the Grade 12 p o p u l a t i o n .  (n =  to a c o o p e r a t i v e c o l l e a g u e .  The second and s m a l l e r group c o n s i s t e d of students  students  in  p a r t i c i p a t i n g as the experimental  37) chosen as the c o n t r o l were both a s s i g n e d  12 (ages 17—18).  distributions  are as c l o s e to a random s e l e c t i o n as p o s s i b l e  an e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l . random f a s h i o n .  the c l a s s  representative  12 is an o p t i o n which  An informal  survey  i n d i c a t e d that some s i x t y  taken  percent  took the course because they w e r e : i n t e r e s t e d in the  s u b j e c t m a t t e r , twenty percent because o f the f i e l d t r i p s , w h i l e the remainder wanted a s c h o l a r s h i p examinable c o u r s e , o r needed a Grade 12 l e v e l timetable.  3.  c r e d i t c o u r s e , or c o u l d n ' t f i t  As the two samples  differed,  anything e l s e  results  into t h e i r  are analyzed s e p a r a t e l y .  The Instruments Working  from the a u t h o r ' s  on the January 1981, r e s e a r c h of Myer  Geography  analysis  o f the topographic map q u e s t i o n s  12 S c h o l a r s h i p  Examination and the  (1973) and Monk and Alexander (1973), a l i s t of  t o p o g r a p h i c map s k i l l s  was drawn up which would be p r e r e q u i s i t e to  22  the development of t o p g r a p h i c map.  the a b i l i t y  to v i s u a l i z e a landscape from a  The map s k i l l s  are:  1.  a b i l i t y to use d i r e c t i o n - - b o t h on the map and on the ground, and the a b i l i t y to c o r r e c t l y o r i e n t a map.  2.  an understanding of map s c a l e and an a b i l i t y map d i s t a n c e to a c t u a l d i s t a n c e .  3.  an understanding o f map symbols and an a b i l i t y r e c o g n i z e common symbols from memory.  k.  an understanding of contour l i n e s and an a b i l i t y r e c o g n i z e contour l i n e p a t t e r n s .  5.  an a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t contour l i n e p a t t e r n s in o r d e r to develop a g e n e r a l i z e d image of a landscape.  6.  an a b i l i t y to form a t h r e e dimensional mental a landscape symbolized on a topographic map.  The t e s t was d i v i d e d  instrument c o n s i s t e d of ten s u b - t e s t s  into three parts)  specific skill  with each t e s t  or combination of s k i l l s .  to c o n v e r t from map d i s t a n c e to a c t u a l specifically. using  instructions  1:  to  to  image of  to measure a  to use d i r e c t i o n and  d i s t a n c e were not  tested  and t e s t q u e s t i o n s were formed  d i r e c t i o n and s c a l e f a c t o r s wherever a p p r o p r i a t e .  sequence was as Test  Rather,  relate  (one of which  desgined  Ability  to  The t e s t  follows.  Students  were asked to l o c a t e ten common symbols on a  relatively  uncomplicated t o p o g r a p h i c map.  (i.e.  no  v e g e t a t i o n and few contours) Test 2:  Students  were asked to l o c a t e ten d i f f e r e n t but common  symbols on a more complex t o p o g r a p h i c map. T e s t 3:  Students were asked to l o c a t e , on a map, contour  line  p a t t e r n s which  valleys  indicated three h i l l s  (3a),  two  23  (3b) T e s t k:  and the s t e e p e s t s l o p e  in the landscape  (3c).  Students were asked to determine r e l a t i v e h e i g h t s of a number o f p o i n t s marked on a t o p o g r a p h i c map.  Test 5-  Students were asked to match a sample t o p o g r a p h i c map to one of four p o s s i b l e  landscape sketches and to match a  landscape sketch to one of f o u r t o p o g r a p h i c T e s t 6:  Students were asked to imagine themselves  maps.  in the  landscape  and to draw v e r t i c a l e l e v a t i o n s of t h r e e b u i l d i n g s  symbolized  on a t o p o g r a p h i c map. T e s t 7-  Students were asked to imagine themselves  in the  landscape  at a s p e c i f i c p o i n t on a s i m p l i f i e d t o p o g r a p h i c map and determine whether they would be a b l e to see v a r i o u s  points  marked on the map. T e s t 8:  The same as t e s t 6 except that a normal  topographic map  was used. T e s t 9:  Students were asked to l o c a t e themselves at a s p e c i f i c spot on a t o p o g r a p h i c map and draw what they would see they were in the  Test  10:  if  landscape.  Students were asked to imagine themselves walking along a road shown on a map and to d e s c r i b e what they would see.  Copies of the t e s t  instruments are a t t a c h e d as Appendix A.  s i m p l i f i e d t o p o g r a p h i c map used  in T e s t 3c and T e s t 7 was taken from a  t o p o g r a p h i c map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n k i t Co.  (1964).  The •  produced by Hubbard S c i e n t i f i c  The map used in T e s t 8 and T e s t 9 was taken from Gunn  (1968, p. 6). A l l o t h e r maps were from C h e v r i e r and A i t k e n s (1970,  2k  p.  132, p.  116, p. 9 2 ) .  The ten s u b - t e s t s tests  break i n t o two groups.  The f i r s t  1 to 5 were designed to a s s e s s the s t u d e n t s '  map symbol  The second group,  the s t u d e n t s '  ability  t o p o g r a p h i c maps.  the  from c a r t o g r a p h i c (1975) T e s t s  tests  Surveys and Mapping  6 to 10, were designed to a s s e s s  to v i s u a l i z e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  All  T e s t 6 were a d a p t a t i o n s  landscapes  of t e s t s  researchers  or map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e x e r c i s e s  [e.g.  Phillips,  1, 2, 3, A, 7 and 8; DeLucia  DeLucia and  (1972) T e s t s  that students might  without producing a mental  image of  it.  Skelton  1 and 2]  development  (1981), Graham (1968) T e s t s 3, 7, 8, 9 and 10].  based on the assumption  from  of the t e s t s with the e x c e p t i o n of T e s t 5 and  or from books used in t o p o g r a p h i c map s k i l l s Kemball  knowledge o f  system used on t o p o g r a p h i c maps produced by the Canadian  Department o f Energy, Mines and Resources, Branch.  group,  [e.g. T e s t 6 was  be a b l e to "name" a symbol  Students were i n s t r u c t e d  to draw r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the r e f e r e n t s  of s p e c i f i c symbols  being t o l d what the symbols  Test 5 was used by S c a r f e  who a d m i n i s t e r e d the t e s t  represented.  in B r i t a i n  C o l l e g e Group Committee (19**l)]t e s t s were v a l i d and r e l i a b l e .  It  in 1938/39 [Report by the T r a i n i n g is t h e r e f o r e assumed that  As an a d d i t i o n a l  teachers who found them to be v a l i d f o r the purposes 1, 2 and 3 were laminated  so that students c o u l d r e c o r d t h e i r responses using overhead p r o j e c t o r pens.  the  check the t e s t s were  submitted to a group of t h r e e e x p e r i e n c e d high school  The maps used in T e s t s  without  geography intended. in  plastic  d i r e c t l y on the maps  A time l i m i t was used f o r each e x e r c i s e  25  in an attempt  to c o n t r o l  test administration r a t h e r than v e r b a l  f o r sources of v a r i a n c e ,  and to t r y to f o r c e the students analysis  of the maps.  the Grade 12 students  3(b)  to r e l y on v i s u a l 6, 7»  took f o r f i f t y percent  to complete the e x e r c i s e s .  Test  3(a),  and each p a r t of Test 5 were a l l o t t e d one and o n e - h a l f  and Test 3(c)  k.  standardize  1, 2, k,  In T e s t s  8, 9 and 10 the time allowed was the time i t of  to  minutes  was a l l o t t e d one minute.  Scor i ng Tests  either  1 - 5 were e s s e n t i a l l y  right  or wrong.  o b j e c t i v e t e s t s where answers  One mark was awarded f o r each c o r r e c t  For Test 6 students were awarded one mark e l e v a t i o n of  the b u i l d i n g , one mark i f  c o r r e c t s i d e and one mark i f clearly  that the f i r s t  the t h i r d a s c h o o l .  if  were  response.  they drew a v e r t i c a l  the e l e v a t i o n was of  they added d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  the  details  indicating  b u i l d i n g was a house, the second a barn and  Tests  7 and 8 were s i m i l a r  to T e s t s  1 - 5  in that answers were e i t h e r r i g h t or wrong and again one mark was awarded f o r each c o r r e c t response. the students  . . . ?),  (i.e.  "If  the answers  by t h r e e high school The s c o r i n g was assumed  7 and 8 r e q u i r e d  to i n t e r p r e t the maps and draw c o n c l u s i o n s  mapped landscape see  Because T e s t s  that  you were standing  about  the  at p o i n t x c o u l d you  to both t e s t s were checked and v e r i f i e d  geography  teachers.  f o r Test 9 presented some d i f f i c u l t i e s  in that  t h e r e would be some d i f f e r e n c e s  drawings  which would be the r e s u l t of a r t i s t i c  talent  in the  it  r a t h e r than map v i s u a l i z a t i o n  26  abilities.  In o r d e r to make the s c o r i n g as o b j e c t i v e and c o n s i s t e n t  as p o s s i b l e  the f o l l o w i n g procedure was used.  The landscape to be  i n t e r p r e t e d was a n a l y z e d and was found to c o n s i s t  of the f o l l o w i n g .  The c e n t r a l f e a t u r e is a t y p i c a l U-shaped g l a c i a l  v a l l e y with a stream  f l o w i n g down the c e n t r e .  A road runs beside the stream and  crosses  i t s h o r t l y a f t e r the stream leaves a swampy area near the f o r e g r o u n d . There  is a high mountain peak on the east at the entrance to the v a l l e y  with two g l a c i e r s it.  separated by an a r e t e immediately to the south of  The western s i d e of the v a l l e y  is not as steep and has two  s e p a r a t e peaks which would have been v i s i b l e . part way up both s i d e s of the v a l l e y . a v a l l e y with s t e e p l y s l o p i n g  is  reached.  s l o p e than the e a s t ,  mark  if  sides.  side,  t h r e e marks i f  i f v e g e t a t i o n was  the  two marks  the west s i d e of the v a l l e y  o f the v a l l e y was c o r r e c t , one mark each i f were shown, one mark  indicates  It was decided to  i f peaks were i n d i c a t e d on the east  f o r peaks on the west, one mark i f a more gradual  The c o n t o u r : p a t t e r n  s i d e s which become l e s s steep as  r e l a t i v e l y wide, f l a t v a l l e y f l o o r award two marks  F o r e s t cover grows  the general  indicated shape  the road and the r i v e r  i n d i c a t e d and one a d d i t i o n a l  the v e g e t a t i o n d i d not go more than halfway up the v a l l e y The t o t a l  Test  possible  s c o r e was t h e r e f o r e twelve.  10 c a l l e d f o r a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of the landscape the  student would pass through w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g along were given f o r  i n d i c a t i o n s o f changes  type and number of b u i l d i n g s ,  the road.  in s l o p e and d i r e c t i o n , l o c a t i o n ,  road s u r f a c e , d e s c r i p t i o n s of  stream beside the road ( i n d i c a t i o n s  Marks  the  of d i r e c t i o n of f l o w , v e l o c i t y ,  27  etc.), along  vegetation,  i n d i c a t i o n s o f the comparative width of the v a l l e y  the route and i n d i c a t i o n s o f the e x t e n t o f the area which would  be in view at any one time. operative colleagues answers  The t e s t was submitted to four c o -  who wrote  it.  Comparison and a n a l y s i s o f  their  i n d i c a t e d that w h i l e the t e s t was somewhat " o p e n - e n d e d "  t w e n t y - f i v e marks would be a reasonable p o s s i b l e maximum s c o r e . a d d i t i o n c o p i e s were made o f a random sample o f student both T e s t s 9 and 10 and these same c o l l e a g u e s , marked them.  working  responses  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r s c o r i n g and that of  the a u t h o r .  attempt to ensure c o n s i s t e n c y  p r e - and  responses  f o r Test  all  to  independently,  When the r e s u l t s were compared t h e r e were no  in s c o r i n g ,  In  substantial In an  post-test  10 were marked at the same time. . The t e s t  answers  were then reviewed one week l a t e r and no i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s were found.  5.  The Intervent ion The p r e t e s t s were f o l l o w e d by s i x weeks of  t o p o g r a p h i c map s k i l l s  i n t e n s i v e work with  f o r the experimental groups.  taught and e x e r c i s e s used are  included  in Appendix B.  Samples of Students  worked through a s e r i e s of e x e r c i s e s which were designed them with common t o p o g r a p h i c map symbols as well standing  of  to both c o n s t r u c t and  a l s o worked with s c a l e ,  There were many  i n t e r p r e t contour maps.  d i r e c t i o n and e l e v a t i o n e x c e r c i s e s  the drawing of p r o f i l e s and the c a l c u l a t i o n of g r a d i e n t s . possible,  students  to f a m i l i a r i z e  as gain an under-  the f u n c t i o n s and use o f contour l i n e s .  opportunities  were given  lessons  the o p p o r t u n i t y to compare  Students including Where  photographs  28  of an area with maps of the same a r e a . by DeLeeuw and Carswell  (1981, p. 8) c o n s i d e r a b l e time was spent by  the s t u d e n t s comparing a e r i a l maps.  F o l l o w i n g a s u g g e s t i o n made  s t e r e o photographs w i t h  F i n a l l y students were taken on two f i e l d t r i p s  t o p o g r a p h i c maps were used.  During  these t r i p s  was paid to matching contour p a t t e r n s  topographic in which  particular attention  to the e x i s t i n g  landscape  and, when c l i m b i n g , to d e t e r m i n i n g when v a r i o u s c o n t o u r s were c r o s s e d . The o v e r a l l design o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l assumption maps. all  that students  Instruction  the students  12 s t u d e n t s .  program was based on the  knew v i r t u a l l y nothing about  topographic  and p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s were designed  to the l e v e l  o f competence expected o f  to b r i n g Geography  29  CHAPTER FOUR  Results  The o v e r a l l Table  1(a)  lists  experimental (Tests  results  (raw scores)  the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the Grade 10  and c o n t r o l groups  1-5).  T a b l e 1(b)  Grade 12 groups.  are presented in Appendix C.  f o r the t e s t s of map symbol  lists  T a b l e s 2(a)  recognition  the data f o r the same t e s t s  and 2(b)  are a n a l y s i s  of  variance  1 - 5 f o r the Grade 10 and Grade 12 groups  summary t a b l e s  for Tests  respectively.  In T a b l e 2(a)  and 2(b)  Source A compares the o v e r a l l  t e s t mean of the c o n t r o l group with that of the experimental f o r each grade and determines the differences.  statistical  Source AC is a c o v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s  which compares the means with  the d i f f e r e n c e s between the experimental group p r e - and means Source AC t h e r e f o r e measures  the a n a l y s i s  In s e v e r a l  the e f f e c t ,  instances e.g.  of v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s  posttest  i f any, of  the  Grade 10 T e s t 2, 3 and 5  show an apparent  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r Source A r e s u l t s .  group  s i g n i f i c a n c e of any  d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n t r o l group p r e - and p o s t t e s t  intervention.  f o r the  lack of  The cause of t h i s  statistical  anomaly  is  discussed  in the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n o f Chapter 5 in r e f e r e n c e to  each t e s t  f o r which  it occurs.  30  TABLE 1(a) MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5  Test #  Max Score  Group  Pretest  Standard Deviation  '1  10  Exp. Cont.  4.805 5.189  1.631 2.158  2  10  Exp. Cont.  4.829  6.081  2.519 1.991  Standard Deviation  N  8.732 5.757  1 .597 2.204  41 37  7.341  6.027  1.755 1.979  41 37  Posttest  3  6  Exp. Cont.  2.976 3.243  2.139 2.408  4.610 3.243  1.745 2.350  41 37  4  7  Exp. Corit.  3.488 3.514  1.645 1.456  5.317 3.568  1.474 1.591  41 37  5  2  Exp. Cont.  0.805 0.973  0.782  1.195 0.973  0.601 0.763  41 37  TABLE  0.763 Kb)  MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE"12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5  "•  10  Exp. Cont.  6.654 6.250  1.875 2.137  9.346 7.071  0.745 2.054  26  2  10  Exp. Cont.  7.269 5-750  1.951 2.030  8.308 5.857  2.475  1.087  26  3  6  Exp. Cont.  3.923 3.357  2.513 2.345  5.308 3-357  1.289 2.329  26 28  7  Exp. Cont.  3.731 3.036  2.342 2.063  5.692 3.000  1.517 1.981  26  2  Exp. Cont.  1.308 0.893  0.679 0.737  1 .500 0.821  0.648 0.723  26  1  5  •  !  28 28  28 28  31  TABLE  2(a)  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5  Test #  Source  Sum of Squares  1  A AC  65.264 109.736  2  A AC  3  Degrees o f Freedom  Mean Squares  F Ratio  1 1  65.264 109.736  10.354 115.945  .0.002 0.001  0.038 64.041  1 1  0.038 64.041  0.005 63.152  0.944 0.001  A AC  11.743 25.968  1 1  11.743 25.968  1 .351 38.132  0.249 0.001  4  A AC  28.896 30.645  1 1  28.896 30.645  6.467 97.660  0.013 0.001  5  A AC  0.028 1.481  1 1  0.028 1.481  0.029 19-148  0.866 0.001  TABLE  Probability  2(b)  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 1-5  1  A AC  48.363 23.594  1 1  48.363 23.594  8.980 20.857  0.004  2  A AC  106.228  5.847  1  1  106.228  5.847  14.710 11.775  0.001 0.001  3  A AC  42.687 12.923  1 1  42.687 12.923  5.009 13.156  0.030 0.001  4  A AC  77.345 26.889  1 1  77.345 26.889  10.511 42.418  0.002 0.001  5  A AC  8.059 0.469  1 1  8.059 0.469  9.135 4.928  0.004  0.001  0.031  32  Hypothesis  1 stated  that  Mean p o s t - t e s t scores f o r students in the experimental groups w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p - .05) than mean p o s t - t e s t scores of the c o n t r o l groups on the t e s t s of map symbols r e c o g n i t i o n . It  can be seen from the data  to p o s t - t e s t significant Hypothesis  differences  T a b l e 3(a)  (Tests  lists  6 -  are  the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s  10).  T a b l e 3(b)  v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e s  in the same way as  lists  T a b l e s 4(a)  statistically  f o r the  f o r the v i s u a l i z a t i o n the data from the same  and 4(b)  are a n a l y s i s  tests  of  for Tests 6 - 1 0  f o r the Grade 10 and Grade  The s t a t i s t i c s  f o r these t a b l e s are d e r i v e d  respectively.  Hypothesis  f i v e tests  pre-  therefore supported.  f o r the Grade 12 groups.  12 groups  that a l l  except Grade 12 T e s t 5 where p = .031)  Grade 10 experimental and c o n t r o l groups tests  and 2(b)  (Source AC) on a l l  (p = .001 on a l l 1 is  in T a b l e 2(a)  those f o r T a b l e 2(a)  2 stated  and  (b).  that  Mean.-post-test scores of s t u d e n t s . i n the experimental groups w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p = .05) than mean p o s t - t e s t scores of the c o n t r o l groups on t e s t s measuring a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l l a n d scapes from topographic maps. It test  can be seen from the data  to p o s t - t e s t  differences  Grade 10 are s t a t i s t i c a l l y are found f o r T a b l e 4(b) the p r e - t e s t to p o s t - t e s t (p = .090)  it f a l l s  in T a b l e 4(a)  that a l l  (Source AC) on a l l  significant  (p  <  the p r e -  f i v e tests  .024).  Similar  for results  with the e x c e p t i o n of T e s t 9 where although difference  is  c l o s e to s t a t i s t i c a l  o u t s i d e the o r i g i n a l l y  set  significance  significance test  33  TABLE 3(a) MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR GRADE. 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10  Test #  Max Score  Group  Pretest  Standard P,eviat ion  Posttest  Standard Deviation  N  6  9  Exp. Cont.  2.659 1.595  2.698 1.518  4.780 1.757  3.094 1 .690  41 37  7  10  Exp. Cont.  6.561 6.189  2.248 1 .912  7.171 6.162  1.716 1.893  41 37  8  6  Exp. Cont.  4.024 4.595  1 .405 1 .166  4.463 4.541  1.185 1.192  41 37  9  12  Exp. Cont.  1 .024 1.162  1.151 1 .302  1.268 1.135  1.323 1.134  41 37  10  25  Exp. Cont.  5.634 6.243  4.128 3.467  10.902 6.054  5.580 3.472  41 37  2.366 2.332  26 28  TABLE  3(b)  MEAN SCORES AND. STANDARD DEVJAT0NS FOR GRADE  ]2  EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10  6  9  Exp. Cont.  4.846 3.536  2.949  7.000  2.472  3.429  7  10  Exp. Cont.  6.357  7.077  1.547 2.297  7.500 6.321  1.556 2.480  26 28  8  6  Exp. Cont.  4.346 3.786  1 .294 1 .371  4.808 3.750  0.749  26  1 .430  28  Exp. Cont.  1.654  1 .231 1.213  2.000  1.286  1.265  26 28  Exp. Cont..  5.036  4.618 3.646  14.731 5.214  9  12  10  25  7.731  1.357  1.283  3.573 3.843  26 28  34  TABLE 4(a) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6-10  Source  Sum of Squares  Degrees o f Freedom  6  A AC  162.485 37.350  1 1  7  A AC  18.529 3.943  1 1  18.529 3.943  2.555 10.207  0.114 0.002  8  A AC  4.075 2.365  1 1  4.075 2.365  1 .452 8.171  0.232 0.005  9  A AC  0.000 0.714  1 1  0.000 0.714  0.000 5.284  0.994 0.024  10  A AC  1 74.7.62 289.631  1  174.762  5.609 51.688  0.020 0.001  3St  #  Mean Squares  F Ratio  Probabi1  162.485 15.626 37-350 40.720  1  289.631  0.001 0.001  TABLE 4(b) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE  12  EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR TESTS 6- 10  6  A AC  160.650 34.459  1 1  7  A AC  24.292 1 .419  1  1.419  24.292  3.013 7.642  0.008  8  A AC  17.650 1.667  1 1  17.650 1.667  6.071 8.090  0.017 0.006  9  A AC  6.890  6.509  1 1  6.890 0.509  2.339 2.982  0.132 0.090  .10  A AC  1005.193  1  1005.193  38.551  0.001 0.001  313.655  1  1  160.650 13.152 34.459 52.653  313.655 64.199  0.001 0.001 0.089  35  (p = . 0 5 ) . discussed  The f a c t o r s which combined to produce t h i s in Chapter 5-  p r o v i d e s overwhelming  Examination of T a b l e 4(a)  support  f o r the c o n c l u s i o n  e x c e p t i o n noted above, Hypothesis  2 is  supported.  result  and 4(b)  t h a t , with  are  however the  36  CHAPTER FIVE  Discussion  The purpose of t h i s  and  Conclusions  study was to determine i f  c r e a t e a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l mental by a t o p o g r a p h i c map.  student map users  image of the landscape d e p i c t e d  The r e s e a r c h of Hannay  (1971)  and o t h e r s  r e f e r r e d to in Chapter 1 i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y that most human can and do form t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l mental and A c r e d o l o (1977)  d e s c r i b e two p r i o r e s s e n t i a l s  v i s u a l i z a t i o n process. 1. 2.  If  images.  Further, Bluestein f o r the  landscape  These a r e :  that both map maker and map user share a common symbol system. that the map user understands that the symbols represent r e c o g n i z a b l e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s .  both these e s s e n t i a l s  are met i t should be p o s s i b l e  map user to t r a n s f o r m the two dimensional three-dimensional  mental  image.  f o r the  t o p o g r a p h i c map i n t o a  Both the t e s t  instruments and the  i n t e r v e n t i o n were designed to ensure that these e s s e n t i a l s met.  beings  As a r e s u l t the d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s  into three p a r t s .  divides  were logically  37  Part 1 The f i r s t students' there  s e r i e s of tests  knowledge of  the common map symbols.  is a marked i n c r e a s e  groups  (1 - 5) were designed  in the p o s t - t e s t  to e v a l u a t e  As T a b l e  I  indicates,  means f o r both experimental  as well as a r e d u c t i o n in the standard d e v i a t i o n f o r each  o f the p o s t - t e s t reduction  means as compared with those of  i n d i c a t e s an o v e r a l l  should a l s o  This  in the performance of  experimental  group.  the students  completed the p r e t e s t s w i t h i n a l l o t t e d time l i m i t s  all  It  improvement  the p r e t e s t .  the experimental group students  within  the time s p e c i f i e d .  not o n l y more knowledgeable The r e s u l t s experimental of  of T e s t s  and c o n t r o l  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  symbols.  Indeed  line  it  is  be noted that o n l y h a l f  of  well  Students  in the treatment groups  were  but a l s o  faster.  1 and 2 i n d i c a t e that students groups  a l r e a d y possessed  (rivers,  roads)  and p o i n t  some  in both  knowledge  (schools,  the c o m p a r a t i v e l y good performance o f  churches) the the  lack of s i g n i f i c a n c e  (p = 0.944) when group means are compared.  However the a n a l y s i s  of v a r i a n c e s t a t i s t i c s  gain Tests  means c l e a r l y  (p = 0.001)  indicate a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  recognition  The map used f o r Test  in p r e -  significant  in Grade 10.  p r i m a r i l y with map symbol  used were somewhat d i f f e r e n t . an area  comparing changes  f o r the experimental group  1 and 2 deal  while  completed the p o s t - t e s t s  Grade 10 c o n t r o l group on T e s t 2 (mean = 6.081) which produces  test-post-test  the  Although the maps  1 was a map of  in the Canadian p r a i r i e s which c o n t a i n e d o n l y t h r e e contour  l i n e s and v i r t u a l l y no v e g e t a t i o n c o l o u r .  The map used f o r Test 2  38  on the o t h e r hand c o n t a i n e d numerous contour c o l o u r e d with the green v e g e t a t i o n the  mean scores  support  f o r the two t e s t s  the c o n c l u s i o n s  and Wood  (1972)  symbol.  l i n e s and was  extensively  The d i f f e r e n c e between  f o r both groups would seem to  reached by Merriam  (1970),  (1972)  DeLucia  that ease and accuracy of n o n - r e l i e f symbol  are enhanced when v e g e t a t i o n  shading  and contour l i n e  recognition  densities  are reduced. Tests of  3, 4 and 5 were designed  the contour  l i n e symbol  o f p a t t e r n s o f contour  to e v a l u a t e s t u d e n t s '  system.  lines  knowledge  Test 3 e v a l u a t e d s t u d e n t s '  indicating  specific relief  perceptions  features,  Test k e v a l u a t e d p e r c e p t i o n o f d i r e c t i o n of s l o p e and Test 5 assessed students'  ability  illustrations. for  to match contour p a t t e r n s with  Both Test 3 and T e s t 5 a n a l y s i s  the Grade 10 groups  reasons.  In a l l  statistically where p =  of v a r i a n c e  results  f o l l o w the p a t t e r n of Test 2 f o r the same  three t e s t s ,  significant  however,.experimental group gains were  (p = 0.001 f o r a l l  but Grade 12 Test 5  0.031).  Although  the r e s u l t s  f o r Test 3 show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  gain f o r the experimental groups, of e x e r c i s e and a weakness  a source of d i f f i c u l t y  significant in t h i s  the i n t e r v e n t i o n .  procedure in the i n t r o d u c t o r y lessons  Following  on contour  contour maps of "one h i l l "  of v a r i o u s islands.  geometric f i g u r e s  the  symbols,  students were given an o p p o r t u n i t y to draw contour diagrams h e i g h t s , .contour diagrams  type  in most t o p o g r a p h i c map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i n s t r u c t i o n became apparent d u r i n g normal  three-dimensional  from spot  and simple  On a subsequent q u i z a l l  students  39  in the experimental groups were a b l e to diagrams etc.).  r e p r e s e n t i n g common r e l i e f  i d e n t i f y f i v e separate  features  (a h i l l ,  valley,  contour cliff,  However, when these same students were asked to f i n d contour  patterns  r e p r e s e n t i n g the same f i v e  relief  map, they had c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y .  f e a t u r e s on a  topographic  When these contour  line  patterns  became p a r t o f a more complex contour system t h e r e appeared to be a tendency f o r the students wiggly  lines."  As  to see what Jenks  (197P) c a l l s  "a  lot  in the r e s e a r c h of Pearson, Wiedel and Castner  (1974) working with b l i n d f o l d e d s u b j e c t s  using  symbols  designed  use on maps f o r the b l i n d , knowledge of the separate symbols n e c e s s a r i l y mean that map users w i l l those symbols  be a b l e to c o r r e c t l y  when they are combined together on a map.  present study a l s o ,  the contour p a t t e r n s  C l e a r l y Pawling's  (1973) assumption  maps is  skills"  are taught  In  the symbols  f o r a r i d g e and a v a l l e y .  that a f t e r " o n l y a few b a s i c  subjects w i l l  be a b l e to  interpret Pearson,  Castner.  The r e s u l t s  of Test k support  DeLucia and S k e l t o n  (1975)  e s t i m a t i o n of  the s u g g e s t i o n of  Phillips,  that where there were enough contour  to make the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  problem.  not  interpret  not supported e i t h e r by the present study or by that of  Wiedel and  for  does  map users e x p e r i e n c e d c o n f u s i o n where two  were s i m i l a r e . g .  map-reading  of  the d i r e c t i o n of s l o p e  the r e l a t i v e h e i g h t s  of v a r i o u s  relatively  p o i n t s was not a  The map used f o r Test k had f i v e contour  lines easy, serious  l i n e s and a small  stream in the area where the p o i n t s were marked which p r o v i d e d easy  ko  c l u e s to the d i r e c t i o n of s l o p e . possible  f o r students  As a r e s u l t  i t would have been  to determine the d i r e c t i o n of s l o p e  relatively  e a s i l y without attempting to v i s u a l i z e the landscape, provided that they understood the nature and f u n c t i o n of contour l i n e  symbols.  The r e s u l t s  f o r both experimental groups showed a s u b s t a n t i a l  mean scores  between p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s  demonstrating  that  gain  in  students  were a b l e to e x t r a c t the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n from the map. The r e s u l t s of Test 5 are somewhat at odds with the o b t a i n e d on the same t e s t (1941).  results  by the T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e Group Committee  The Committee found t h a t more than f i f t y per cent of the t w e l v e -  y e a r - o l d students  t e s t e d c o u l d do both e x e r c i s e s c o r r e c t l y .  In the  present study o n l y twenty-one per cent of the Grade 10 (age  15)  experimental  twenty-  group and the Grade 12 (age  17) c o n t r o l group,  seven per cent of the Grade 10 c o n t r o l group and f o r t y - t w o per cent of the Grade 12 experimental group c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y complete both e x e r c i s e s on the p r e t e s t .  While  it  is  t r u e that n e a r l y s i x t y  per  cent of the t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d s had had some i n s t r u c t i o n on contour symbols,  the Grade 10 and 12 experimental groups p o s t - t e s t  were o n l y twenty-nine and f i f t y - e i g h t i n t e r e s t i n g t o note however t h a t at  per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y .  least  sixty  least  l e a s t one of  is students  the  n i n e t y per cent of the experimental  groups achieved the same standard on the p o s t - t e s t . the authors of the o r i g i n a l  It  per cent of a l l  in the present study c o u l d c o r r e c t l y complete at e x e r c i s e s on the p r e t e s t and at  percentages  study suggest  (p.  ]k0)  In t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n , that  students  41  . . . can i n t e r p r e t shape c o r r e c t l y from contour l i n e s and f u r t h e r that t h i s c a p a c i t y may e x i s t without any s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g . This  s u g g e s t i o n was based on the f a c t  that  in t h e i r study more than  t h i r t y per cent of c h i l d r e n as young as e i g h t instruction  in c o n t o u r s ,  and a h a l f , with no  could c o r r e c t l y complete both e x e r c i s e s .  In a d d i t i o n the percentage of c o r r e c t responses per cent f o r s i x t e e n - y e a r - o l d s . support  this  suggestion  to produce r e s u l t s responses.  increases  on the order o f  by the present  t w e n t y - f i v e per cent c o r r e c t  instruction  are not  impressive.  in contour p a t t e r n  to r e c o g n i z e shape from contours was  During  recognition supported  study.  One f u r t h e r comment on t h i s map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s k i l l made.  not  random guessing c o u l d be expected  On that b a s i s the present r e s u l t s  the a b i l i t y  eighty  The present study however, does  in as much as  The second c o n c l u s i o n that  rose to over  the course of  should be  the i n s t r u c t i o n on contour p a t t e r n s  it  became apparent that both experimental groups had e i t h e r had very little  instruction  in t o p o g r a p h i c map s k i l l s  much of what they had been taught.  or had not  As part of  the  retained  intervention  students were given an o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i c e matching a wide of contour diagrams with features.  r e l a t i v e l y simple b l o c k diagrams of  On a subsequent q u i z  (see Appendix B)  variety  relief  students were asked  to compare t h i r t e e n contour p a t t e r n s with t h i r t e e n b l o c k diagrams. Two of the contour p a t t e r n s were f a i r l y s i m i l a r and a number of confused the two. or t h i r t e e n .  students  The scores on the q u i z however were e i t h e r e l e v e n  The o n l y e r r o r s on the q u i z  involved confusion  between  two s i m i l a r relatively  patterns. poor r e s u l t s  problems found  The d i f f e r e n c e between these r e s u l t s and the f o r T e s t 5 appears  in T e s t 3.  to be analagous to the  The more, complex the landscape represented  (the t e s t diagrams c o n t a i n a combination of simple r e l i e f the g r e a t e r the d i f f i c u l t y students e x p e r i e n c e d .  features),  Obviously  it  cannot  be assumed that knowledge of and p r a c t i c e with s i m p l i f i e d , d i s c r e t e patterns w i l l  n e c e s s a r i l y produce f a c i l i t y  in r e c o g n i z i n g and  inter-  p r e t i n g more complex p a t t e r n s . The o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n which can be drawn from the r e s u l t s Tests  1 - 5 is  that  it  is p o s s i b l e  map user share a common symbol  (1977)  Part  first  essential  of  to ensure that both map maker and  system.  B l u e s t e i n and A c r e d o l o ' s  can be a c h i e v e d .  2 T e s t 6, 7 and 8 were designed  to e v a l u a t e s t u d e n t s '  understanding  that the map symbols represent r e c o g n i z a b l e , t h r e e dimensional T e s t 6 e v a l u a t e d students  p e r c e p t i o n o f n o n - r e l i e f symbols and T e s t s  7 and 8 e v a l u a t e d s t u d e n t s ' of contour  objects.  p e r c e p t i o n of the t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y  symbols.  T e s t 6 asked students  to imagine themselves at a p a r t i c u l a r  in the landscape and, l o o k i n g n o r t h , draw what they would see.  spot The  symbols they were asked to draw r e p r e s e n t e d a house, a barn and a school.  On the p r e t e s t s i x t y - s i x  per cent of the Grade 10 and t h i r t y -  t h r e e per cent of the Grade 12 students symbols.  As S o r r e l  1 (197*0  points out,  simply  reproduced the map  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of map symbols  43  is a complex process which is made more d i f f i c u l t by the f a c t that most map symbols are not r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the o b j e c t s symbolized but conventional  d e v i c e s which must be t r a n s l a t e d  As the r e s u l t s of T e s t translating  the square,  i n t o the v e r b a l clearly  into other  1 and 2 i n d i c a t e , students  forms.  had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y  r e c t a n g l e and square with a f l a g map symbols  symbols, house, barn and s c h o o l .  i n d i c a t e however, a s i g n i f i c a n t  As T e s t 6 r e s u l t s  number of the students  not or c o u l d not make the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from map or verbal to an image of a house, barn or s c h o o l .  symbol  Even a f t e r working with  e x e r c i s e s where the f a c t that c o n v e n t i o n a l r e c o g n i z a b l e and f a m i l i a r  did  symbols r e p r e s e n t  real,  t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s , t h i r t y - o n e per  cent of the Grade 10 and e l e v e n per cent of the Grade 12 experimental groups were s t i l l post-tests.  unable to demonstrate t h i s  Obviously  understanding on the  i f students are unable to r e c o g n i z e that common  map symbols r e p r e s e n t real  objects  r a t h e r than v e r b a l  symbols f o r  those o b j e c t s , the attempt to c r e a t e a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l mapped landscape  image of a  is a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k .  T e s t s 7 and 8 were e s s e n t i a l l y  the same except :that Test 7 used  a s i m p l i f i e d t o p o g r a p h i c map with r e l a t i v e l y simple and l i m i t e d non-relief  symbols,  fewer contour l i n e s and no v e g e t a t i o n c o l o u r  symbol.  The i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the experimental groups  for this  type of s y m b o l i z a t i o n emphasized the drawing o f  diagrams and encouraged students cross-sectional  diagram  cross-sectional  to attempt to produce a rough, mental  by examining the c o n t o u r s .  A great deal  of emphasis was placed on t r a n s l a t i n g directly plains,  to v i s u a l valleys,  of the t o t a l interesting  the contour p a t t e r n  images without attempting  etc.  possible patterns  If  to l a b e l  symbols  them as  hills,  the group means are c a l c u l a t e d as a percentage  scores  f o r each o f the t h r e e t e s t s ,  some  occur.  TABLE 5 GROUP MEANS AS A % OF TOTAL POSSIBLE SCORE Test #  Grade 10 Pretest  Grade 10 Post-test  Grade 12 Pretest  Grade 12 Post-test  6  29.5%  53.1%  53.8%  77.7%  7  65.6%  71  70.7%  75.0%  8  51M  74.0%  72.0%  80.0%  First,  it  is obvious  .1%  that s t u d e n t s '  c o n s i d e r a b l y poorer than on T e s t s the map symbol-to verbal earlier  7 or 8.  a significant  to v e r b a l  factor.  symbols  problem  raised  The absence of any need to c o n v e r t inherent  in T e s t s  7 and 8 could be  Second, the s i m i l a r i t y of the percentages  7 and 8 appear to suggest that  in t h i s  In f a c t  i t would appear that  e a s i e r to i n t e r p r e t . t a b l e appears  Third,  to suggest that  little  the more complex map is  the i n c r e a s e  for  type of map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  e x e r c i s e the r e l a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y of the t o p o g r a p h i c map has effect.  is  T h i s may be a product of  visualization  in c o n n e c t i o n with Test 6.  contour symbols  Tests  symbol-to  performance on Test 6  in percentages  t h e r e is a developmental  marginally  across  the  progression  in  h5  students' a b i l i t y to perform this type of exercise. the increase  In each case  in percentage between pre- and post-test scores for the  Grade 10 and Grade 12 groups is so close that one is tempted to conclude that the pretest-post-test gain can be attributed to the effect of the intervention while the differences between Grade 10 and Grade 12 pretest scores is a product of maturation.  However, tempting as  such speculation may be, the fact that the two experimental groups were not equivalent in a l l aspects except age makes such a conclusion tenuous at best.  The pattern  i l l u s t r a t e d by Table V does, however,  suggest a direction for further  research.  Part .3 . Tests 9 and 10 were designed to evaluate the students' a b i l i t y to form three-dimensional mental images of a landscape represented by a topographic map.  As mentioned e a r l i e r ,  ways to evaluate a mental image.  there are only two  One way is to ask subjects to draw  their mental image (Test 9) and the other is to ask for a verbal description (Test 10). In Test 9 students were asked to imagine themselves at a particular point in a landscape facing south and draw what they would see. If aligned correctly the students would be facing towards a mountain valley.  The orientation of map and student presented no d i f f i c u l t y  but as the results show this exercise was extremely poorly done. The dramatic lack of success for Test 9 is attributable to two factors which are not normally considered to be a part of a map s k i l l s program.  46  First,  the drawing of even r e l a t i v e l y simple  degree o f a r t i s t i c Second, the a b i l i t y  t a l e n t which  the students  not possessed  to draw the kind of  f o r Test 9 r e q u i r e s the s k i l l of  is  possessed  skill.  requires a  by many p e o p l e .  landscape d e p i c t e d by the map  of drawing  this  landscapes  perspectives.  This  Very few  lack of a r t i s t i c  ability  was a l s o a p p a r e n t . i n Test 6 where many of  the students who d i d draw  the requi red bui1dings  f r o n t and s i d e  drew a view showing  the f r o n t o_r s i d e views which the e x e r c i s e c a l l e d f o r . the q u a l i t y of  the drawings  in Test 9 was very poor.  attempt was made to keep r e c o r d s , the most f r u s t r a t i n g  students.  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of  then g i v i n g  over top of out.  Several  to hand  o t h e r s of  expressed an u n w i l l i n g n e s s  can't  draw  with  anyway!".  the e x e r c i s e ,  in an attempt  to have anyone e l s e  t h e i r poor a r t i s t i c  scribbled  to b l o c k them  the c o n c l u s i o n of the t e s t . look at  unwilling  They  their  drawings.  performance the raw scores o f  the groups show c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m i l a r i t y and the  who  the Grade 12 students were, at f i r s t ,  in t h e i r drawings at  Because of  number o f  the drawing  a f t e r making an attempt at  t h e i r drawings a p p a r e n t l y  that  l i n e s on the paper and  up, u s u a l l y with the comment "I  A number of s t u d e n t s ,  both in the numerical  frequency of both p r e - and p o s t - t e s t  scores.  Only s i x of  all  value  In the Grade  12 experimental group f o r example t h e r e are very few scores show any change from p r e - to p o s t - t e s t .  6,  no  the Grade 12 students  s c r i b b l i n g a few quick  than  in Test  Although  e x e r c i s e f o r the g r e a t e s t  to make a s u s t a i n e d attempt at  many of them simply  As  i t was noted by the author  Test 9 was  seemed u n w i l l i n g  rather  which  the twenty  six  hi  scores changes test. test  show any c h a n g e - - f o u r  scores change by o n l y one mark, one  by two and one changes  by t h r e e marks.from p r e t e s t to  Given the very minor v a r i a t i o n s o f very low scores it  is not s u r p r i s i n g  l i t t l e or no s t a t i s t i c a l  that the s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the r e s u l t s .  e f f e c t of the problems with T e s t 9 was that T e s t device for evaluating mental  the s t u d e n t s '  10 asked the students  d e p i c t e d by a t o p o g r a p h i c map.  The net  10 became the o n l y  to form t h r e e dimensional  to imagine themselves  in a  They were asked to imagine  Throughout the s e r i e s of t e s t s  on the time f a c t o r  in completing the t e s t s .  to work as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e .  landscape themselves  symbols to v i s u a l i z a t i o n s  emphasis was p l a c e d  Students were encouraged  The purpose of t h i s  was to t r y to prevent the students  emphasis on time  from t r a n s l a t i n g map symbols to  and to t r y to f o r c e the students  move d i r e c t l y from map symbols to v i s u a l i z a t i o n . attempt  indicated  along a road from one p l a c e to another and to d e s c r i b e what  they would see.  verbal  this  images.  Test  walking  ability  for  post-  The success of  to this  is demonstrated by the wealth of d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l which the  successful  students  i n c l u d e d in t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s w h i l e s t i l l  the e x e r c i s e w i t h i n the a l l o t t e d time. The r e s u l t s of T e s t  (See Appendix C Part  finishing 2.)  10 demonstrate that many students are capable  of forming t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l mental  images o f mapped landscapes.  It  should be noted however, that f o r t y - f o u r per cent of the Grade 10 experimental twenty-five.  group achieved a s c o r e of ten or The r e s u l t s  l e s s out of a  possible  f o r the Grade 12 experimental group were  48  considerably  better,  some t h i r t y - f i v e intervention out  t h e mean p r e t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s  per cent  two f i e l d  h i g h e r f o r t h e G r a d e 12 g r o u p .  t r i p s were a r r a n g e d  v a r i o u s e x e r c i s e s comparing  mapped a r e a .  results achieved  Muehrcke  (1978),  ( 1 9 7 4 ) who f o u n d improved  on T e s t  t h a t map  DeLucia  10.  on t h e s e e x e r c i s e s  Goodman  (1968) a n d G r o s s  symbols  i s achieved  the a b i l i t y  t o form  scapes, w i l l difference  with  skills  were c o n s i d e r a b l y in field  I f , as communication t h e o r i s t s  (1974) a r g u e ,  by p r a c t i c e  competence  i n working  i t f o l l o w s t h a t map  by f i e l d  such as  in interpreting  w i t h symbols and t h e i r  interpretation  three-dimensional  be e n h a n c e d  (1941),  (1975) a n d S o r r e l 1  when map u s e r s had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e  then  to carry  This correlates  and S k e l t o n  interpretation  w o r k u s i n g t o p o g r a p h i c maps.  mental  skills,  including  images o f mapped l a n d -  w o r k w i t h maps.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e  i n p e r f o r m a n c e b e t w e e n t h e G r a d e 10 a n d 12 g r o u p s  to the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t t h e r e may be a m a t u r a t i o n  d e v e l o p m e n t o f symbol early  students  by t h e T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e G r o u p C o m m i t t e e  Phillips,  referrents,  During the  t o p o g r a p h i c maps d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e  In most c a s e s , s t u d e n t s who d i d w e l l  ( m o s t l y G r a d e 12) a l s o d i d w e l l the  t o permit  being  childhood  interpretation  effect  competency e x t e n d i n g  adds  i n the beyond t h e  years.  Implications f o r Teaching First  and f o r e m o s t  Eliot's  (1970,  p. 286) a s s e r t i o n  that  k n o w l e d g e o f s y m b o l i c c o n v e n t i o n s , [does n o t ] n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l the a b i l i t y t o v i s u a l i z e the s p a t i a l arrangement of the objects represented.  49  is c l e a r l y supported by .the present s t u d y . equate knowledge of c o n v e n t i o n a l maps and t h i s  (1975,P-l)  a map  is  11  assertion  the Surveys  and  Mapping  interpretive s k i l l s . p i c t u r e of  In o r d e r f o r  the ground"  a l s o be necessary  to p r o v i d e f o r more o p p o r t u n i t i e s  to l e a r n these s k i l l s as  photographs,  models and o t h e r t h r e e dimensional  Assumptions  the amount of  time f o r comparing  r e p l a c e d by an acceptance o f the very r e a l  symbols.  Learning  as complex a process as Successful  Implications for Further  i n t e r p r e t map symbols  to read and i n t e r p r e t verbal  One area  learning  to read  books.  Research  There are two major areas study.  have to be  achievement of map reading competence may very  r e q u i r e as much time and e f f o r t as  by t h i s  f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h which are suggested  involves  investigation  i n t o the e f f e c t  e x t e n s i v e f i e l d work with t o p o g r a p h i c maps of f a m i l i a r areas have o n . t h e a b i l i t y  with  problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s  to read and learning  stereo  and map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  techniques are simple and uncomplicated processes w i l l  is e a s i l y  f o r map  illustrations  that the l e a r n i n g of map s k i l l s  inherent :.i.n the p r o c e s s .  objects.  by comparing maps d i r e c t l y with the mapped  area as well  maps.  increasing  the  instruction  have to ensure that map symbols are seen to represent real  It. w i l l  well  interpret  to become a r e a l i t y then o b v i o u s l y more a t t e n t i o n must  map user to " f o r m a t r u e mental  users  If  to  programs  that "everyone should be a b l e to use  be pa id " t o ' : the development of  will  symbols with a b i l i t y  is c l e a r l y a m i s t a k e .  Branch  Most map s k i l l s  to v i s u a l i z e u n f a m i l i a r  landscapes  from  that  would topographic  50  maps.  Several  studies  a l l u d e d to the apparent c o n n e c t i o n between  f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e and map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a b i l i t y which s p e c i f i c a l l y s t u d i e d t h i s The second area  involves  connection.  investigation  that the stages of development of mapping and o t h e r s  but none were found  i n t o the  skills  possibility  d e s c r i b e d by P i a g e t  f o r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d may in f a c t c o n t i n u e to develop  through the l a t e r y e a r s . 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M o n k s , J a n i c e J . a n d A l e x a n d e r , C.S., " D e v e l o p i n g S k i l l s i n a P h y s i c a l G e o g r a p h y L a b o r a t o r y , " J o u r n a l o f Geography, V o l . 7 2 , O c t o b e r ,  1973,  PP. 18-24.  M o n m o n i e r , M a r k S., Maps, D i s t o r t i o n a n d M e a n i n g , A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , R e s o u r c e P a p e r No. 7 5 * 4 , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1977. M u e h r c k e , P h i l l i p C , Map U s e — R e a d i n g , A n a l y s i s a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , J . P . P u b l i c a t i o n s , M a d i s o n , W i s e , 1978. Myer,  J u d i t h M.W., "Map S k i l l s I n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h e C h i l d ' s D e v e l o p i n g C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s , " J o u r n a l o f G e o g r a p h y , V o l . 72, S e p t e m b e r , 1973, PP. 27-35.  01 s o n , J u d y A., " E x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e Improvement o f C a r t o g r a p h i c C o m m u n i c a t i o n , " The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , V o l . 12, No. 2, December, 1 9 7 5 , p p . 9 4 - 1 0 8 . P a w l i n g , J o h n W., " D e s i g n f o r t h e T e a c h i n g o f L a n d f o r m G e o g r a p h y , " J o u r n a l o f Geography, V o l . 7 2 , J a n u a r y , 1973, pp.22-30.  54  Pearson, K a r e n . L . , W i e d e l , Joseph W. and C a s t n e r , Henry W., " I n t r o ducing the Sighted to Maps f o r the B l i n d : A Report on the I.G.U. T a c t u a l Map E x h i b i t , " The American C a r t o g r a p h e r , V o l . 1, 1974, pp. 72-76. P e t c h e n i k , Barbara B., "A Verbal Approach to C h a r a c t e r i z i n g the Look of Maps," The American C a r t o g r a p h e r , V o l . 1, 1974, pp.  63 71. _  P h i l l i p s , Richard J . , DeLucia, Alan and S k e l t o n , N i c h o l a s , "Some O b j e c t i v e T e s t s of the L e g i b i l i t y of R e l i e f Maps," The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , V o l . . 1 2 , N o . : i , June, 1975, pp. 39~46. Robinson, A r t h u r H., " S c a l i n g Non-numerical Map Symbols," Proceedirigs o f :the Amer ican Congress on Survey i ng and Mappi ng, 30th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., March, 1970, pp. 210-217Robinson, A r t h u r H., and P e t c h e n i k , Barbara B., "The Map as a Communication System," The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , V o l . 12, No. 1, June, 1975, PP. 7-15. Robinson, A r t h u r H., and P e t c h e n i k , Barbara B., The Nature of Maps, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1976. Rushdoony, Haig A . , "Achievement in Map-Reading: An Experimental S t u d y , " Current Research i n Elementary S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Wayne L. Herman, e d , Col 1ier-Macmi11 an Canada, L t d . , T o r o n t o , 1969, pp.407-413. S e g a l , Sydney Joel son, e d . , Imagery: Academic P r e s s , New York, 1971.  Current C o g n i t i v e  Approaches,  S o r r e l 1, P., "Map D e s i g n — W i t h the Young in M i n d , " The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , V o l . 11, No. 2, December, 1974, pp. 82-90. S t r i n g e r , P e t e r , " C o l o u r and Base in Urban Planning Maps," The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , V o l . 10, No. 2, December, 1973, pp. 89-94. Surveys and Mapping Branch, "Everyone Should Be Able to Use a Map," A pamphlet prepared by the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, Ottawa, 1975. The T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e Group Committee, "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n Into C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t y to I n t e r p r e t Contour L i n e s , " Geography, V o l . XXVI, 1941, pp. 131-140. Wood, M., " V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n and Map D e s i g n , " V o l . 5, No. 1, June, 1968, pp.54-64.  The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l ,  55  Wood, M., "Human F a c t o r s In C a r t o g r a p h i c Communication," The C a r t o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , V o l . 9, No. 2, December, 1972, pp. 123-132.  APPENDIX A  The Test  Test  Instruments  #1  Each item in the f o l l o w i of a symbol. Put the number appropriate symbol on the map. 1. 2. 3. k. 5.  A A A A A  School Church Bridge House Post O f f i c e  l i s t is shown on the map by means the item immediately beside the Find o n l y one example o f each. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  A A A A A  Railway S t a t i o n Bench Mark Contour L i n e Farm Town  Test #2 Each item in the f o l l o w i n g l i s t is shown on the map by means of a symbol. Put the number o f the item immediately beside the a p p r o p r i a t e symbol on the map. F i n d o n l y one example of e a c h . 1. 2. 3. k. 5.  A A A A A  Lake River Smal1 Stream Railway L i n e Main Highway  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  A A A A A  Gravel Road D i r t Road Path Dyke Power T r a n s m i s s i o n  Line  T e s t #3 A.  The blue l i n e numbered 90 d i v i d e s the map approximately in h a l f . Find: t h r e e h i l l s in the southern h a l f of the map and put aii " H " on top of e a c h .  57 in the southern ha 1f of  B.  F i n d two v a l l e y s " V " in e a c h .  the map and put a  C.  Mark the s t e e p e s t s l o p e on the map with an X.  Test  #k  The l e t t e r s A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are p r i n t e d in b l a c k type on the map. Assume that each l e t t e r r e p r e s e n t s a spot on the ground. Answer the f o l l o w i n g by w r i t i n g the l e t t e r of the correct answer f o r each p a i r on the l i n e to the r i g h t of the p a i r . Which is  higher  1.  2. 3. k.  5. 6. 7.  A E C H H H H  or or or or or or or  B? F? D? C? D? B? A?  T e s t #5 The maps are c o r r e c t l y o r i e n t e d when the arrow p o i n t s away from you. A.  Which one o f Answer  the f o u r p i c t u r e s matches the map?  58  \x  A  ^"  _. - r-  — — H S  59  '  v  s X  rVic. »-' ,  'Tib ft  -A I  ffl? 'i  rev  I j  MI i  1  I §  mm  1  1:1 m  \W-y  A'-  ;  If' /  •  • -  I-  i*  t  jk \  1  3  T e s t #6 Imagine that you are s t a n d i n g on the ground in the area of the map. Draw the f o l l o w i n g b u i l d i n g s as i f you were s t a n d i n g at the.:spot marked X in each case and l o o k i n g due n o r t h . 1. The b u i 1 d i n g at A. 2. The b u i l d i n g at  B.  3• The bui1d ing at C.  Test #7 1.  If a. b. c.  2.  If a. b. c.  3.  If a. b. c. d.  you were s t a n d i n g on the dam a t Blue Lake c o u l d you see Norton? Dixon? Rockville?  '  you were s t a n d i n g at the mine on Bald Peak c o u l d you see the top of White Mountain? Rockville? Dixon? you were s t a n d i n g at the top of Summit H i l l ,  c o u l d you see  Norton? Dixon? Blue Lake? Roaring Stream?  T e s t #8 If you were s t a n d i n g on the r a i l w a y t r a c k s at the bench mark near H e c t o r , c o u l d you see a. b. c. d. e. f.  Ross Lake? Stephen? The Warden's Cabin? The f i r e lookout tower on Paget Peak? Vanguard Peak? The P l a i n of the Six G l a c i e r s ?  . '  63  T e s t #9 Imagine: that you are s t a n d i n g on the r a i l w a y t r a c k s at the bench mark near Hector and f a c i n g toward the s o u t h . Draw what you would see.  T e s t #10 Imagine y o u r s e l f s t a r t i n g from the edge of the town of White Rock and walking along the road north from White Rock to the j u n c t i o n of that road and Highway 1. D e s c r i b e as f u l l y as you can what you would s e e " a l o n g the way.  64  APPENDIX B  Some Examples of the Topographic Map Development  Instructional  Skills  Program  The f o l l o w i n g are some examples of the kinds of t o p i c s and e x e r c i s e s used in the i n t e r v e n t i o n phase of t h i s r e s e a r c h . For the most part the e x e r c i s e s f o l l o w e d a standard format f o r topog r a p h i c map s k i l l s development, r e l y i n g p r i m a r i l y on the works of Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, Kembal1, Canada and The World Book Two; and C h e v r i e r and A i t k e n s , Topographic Map and A i r Photo Interpretation. A d d i t i o n a l e x e r c i s e s , demonstrations and e x p l a n a t i o n s developed by the author were i n s e r t e d where p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e with t h i s type of program i n d i c a t e d that problems would a r i s e . No attempt has been made to p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of or d e t a i l e d lesson plans f o r the i n t e r v e n t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g is intended o n l y as an o u t l i n e of the t o p i c s and sequence of the lessons taught.  Lesson #3 ~ The Map G r i d Purpose:  Method:  1.  To teach students  2.  To enable students g r i d systems.  Students  will  the f u n c t i o n of a g r i d to gain f a c i l i t y  system.  in the use of  work through t h r e e e x e r c i s e s  using  grid  systems.  E x e r c i s e #1: Students draw an e i g h t column by e i g h t row g r i d . Rows and columns are l a b e l l e d using numbers f o r one and l e t t e r s f o r the o t h e r . Some students w i l l use l e t t e r s f o r columns and some w i l l use numbers. Students are asked to c o l o u r s e v e r a l squares i d e n t i f i e d by l e t t e r - n u m b e r combinations. Comparison of student responses and teacher i n t e n t w i l l i n d i c a t e the need to s t a n d a r d i z e numbering systems.  65  E x e r c i s e #2: Students draw a second e i g h t by e i g h t g r i d but number both rows and columns. Squares to be c o l o u r e d are i n d i c a t e d by g i v i n g the column number f i r s t f o l l o w e d by the row number E x e r c i s e #3: Students play a game of B a t t l e s h i p. Students number the spaces across the top and down the l e f t s i d e of the paper beginning at the top l e f t in each c a s e . Each student has a " f l e e t " of e i g h t " s h i p s " which can be l o c a t e d anywhere on the graph paper. Larger s h i p s would occupy more than one square. Students attempt to s i n k each o t h e r s s h i p s by c a l l i n g out in turn the number c o o r d i n a t e s of v a r i o u s squares f i r s t g i v i n g the column and then the row number.  Lesson #7 - L i n e and P o i n t Purpose:  Symbols  To f a m i l i a r i z e students with the common l i n e and symbols used on Canadian t o p o g r a p h i c maps.  References:  1.  2.  point  Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, Chapter 4, pp. 94-98 and Assignment p. 102. Kemball, Canada and The World Book Two, A c t i v i t y 10  pp.24-25. Method:  Follow the procedures  Lesson #8 - Map  i n d i c a t e d by the r e f e r e n c e s .  Interpretation  Purpose:  To g i v e  students  Method:  Detailed analysis of several e x e r c i s e s such as:  topographic map sheets  Question Sheet  92G/7C  1  p r a c t i c e in a p p l y i n g  Map Sheet  knowledge a c q u i r e d . using  1.  What d i r e c t i o n would you t r a v e l to reach Alpha Secondary School from the area shown in the c e n t r e of t h i s map?  2.  What type of t r e e s are found along Coquitlam r i v e r ?  3-  Give a g r i d r e f e r e n c e f o r a house near the r i g h t of the Coquitlam r i v e r .  4.  What is  the contour  i n t e r v a l of  the banks of  t h i s map?  the  bank  66  Lesson #9 Purpose:  5.  How high is the top of Cypress Mountain? (It is west of the Coquitlam R i v e r and approximately four k i l o m e t r e s north of the j u n c t i o n of Hoy and S c o t t Creeks).  6.  What is  7.  What is the e l e v a t i o n of the top of the dam at south end of Coquitlam Lake?  8.  What is  9.  What use is made o f the waters o f Buntzen  10.  What is the n a t u r a l o f Buntzen Creek?  Contour  -  Method:  d i r e c t i o n o f flow o f the waters  to contour  line  symbols.  2.  Hubbard S c i e n t i f i c , Topographic Map K i t , model and overhead t r a n s p a r e n c i e s .  Plastic  i n d i c a t e d by the r e f e r e n c e s and  guidebooks.  draw contour maps from i n d i c a t e d spot  Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, pp. As o u t l i n e d  p. 4 1 .  Symbols  To have students  in the  heights.  42-45.  reference. Patterns  To f a m i l i a r i z e students with v a r i o u s the landforms they r e p r e s e n t .  References:  Lake?  Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, Assignment  Lesson #12 - Contour Symbol Purpose:  the  r e f e r e n c e s f o r the dam in 7?  1.  Follow procedures  Reference:  Lake?  Symbols.  Lesson #10 - Contour Purpose:  the g r i d  To i n t r o d u c e students  References:  Method:  the e l e v a t i o n of Cypress  contour p a t t e r n s  1.  Kemball, Canada and The World Book Two, pp.  2.  Graham, Reading Topographic Maps, pp.  62-73.  and  27~30.  67  Method:  1.  Follow procedures o u t l i n e d i n the references. Special emphasis i s g i v e n t o a d e t a i l e d comparison o f photographs, b l o c k diagrams and c o n t o u r diagrams.  2.  T h r e e m i n u t e q u i z on i d e n t i f y i n g  simple  landforms.  Certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c patterns of contour lines represent d i s t i n c t landforms. One o f t h e f i r s t t h i n g s i n t o p o g r a p h i c map s t u d y i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s . S t u d y t h e c o n t o u r l i n e s b e l o w a n d s e e how t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e d i f f e r e n t kinds o f landforms. A l l o f these p a t t e r n s a r e taken from actual places throughout the world. Label each.  Norrhwesf  Montana  South  France  \ ^ S \ _ y / ~  North  Scotland  1 6 0 0  1  6  5  0  ' - 17 0 0 I 750  180 0  Martinique France  Mart  in  and  South Metres  i niaue Southeast-  England  600  S7V  550' 52 5, 500  68  Lesson #15  ~ Review of Contour  Patterns.  Purpose:  To a s s e s s s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y to s p e c i f i c landforms.  Method:  1.  2.  Lessons  #16,  to r e l a t e contour  Quiz (see pp. Students match contour diagrams  patterns  with block  diagrams.  Complete e x e r c i s e s pp. 87-89 " D e s c r i b i n g S u r f a c e Features from Contour Maps," Graham, Reading Toppg r a p h i c Maps.  17 and 18 - Map  Interpretation  Purpose:  To have students  p r a c t i c e map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  Method:  1.  A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f Rosyth Sheet, p. 138 of C h e v r i e r and A i t k i n s , Topographic Map and A i r Photo I n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  2.  Complete Assignments Topographic Maps.  3.  Complete A c t i v i t y 2h, p. 60 of Kemball, Canada and The World Book Two.  pp.  103,  skills.  106 of Graham,  Reading  70  74  APPENDIX C Part 1  TABLE 6 RAW SCORES FOR GRADE 10 CONTROL GROUP P r e t e s t - - C o l u m n A.  Test # Student #  A B  10C1 10C2 10C3 10C4  7 7 6 7 k 6 7 6  10C5  5 5 k k  10C6 10C7 10C8 10C9 IOC 10 10C11 IOC 12 IOC 13 IOC 14 IOC 15 IOC 16 IOC 17 IOC 18 IOC 19 10C20 10C21  10C22 10C23  10C24  10C25  10C26 10C27 10C28 10C29 10C30 10C31 10C32 10C33 10C34  10C35  10C36 10C37  2  1.  8 8 5 5 3  9 7  0  k  1 5 5  k k  3 0 7 5  8 6 5  8  9 7 6 3 10 8 1 4 2 5 8 4 5 3 2 7 5 10 7 5  k 4 3 3  7 8 k 4 1 7 6 6 5 6 7 7 6 6 8 8  3(a)  3(b) 3(c)  A  _B  A B  A B  8  8 6  3  2 1 0 2 2 0 2 1 0 2 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 0  6  4 8 6  4  5  4 10  9 9  6 5 4 10 7 4 5  4  7  5  9 5 5 .4 7 7 4 5 3 5  4 7 8 5 6 6 ,6 4 4 1 2 7 "7 5 5  9 6 7 5 5  9 6 7 5 5  8  8  3  3 8 6 i  8 7 5  8 6  8 6  9  8  Posttest--Column  3 3 3 0 0  3 3 3 3  0 0 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 0 0 3 3 3 3 0 0 3 3 0 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 3 3  3 3  0 0  3 3  0 0 3 2 3 3 0 0 3 3  A B  2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  B  4  5  6  A B  A B  A B  A  5 6  2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2  3 1 0 2 2 0 3 5 1 2 0 4 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 3 0 0 2 1  8  4 4 3 3  5 5 4 4 2 5 4 1 4 1 6 4 3 4 2 3 6 4 4 3 1 4 4 6 3 5 3 2 6 1  2 5 4 1 4 1 6 4 3 4 2 3 6 4 4 2 1 4 4  7 3 5 3 2 6 1  4 4 2 2 4 2 4  2 2  5 2 4  6  1 2 0 1 3 0 3 1 0 2 0 3  3 1 0 2 2 0  3  5 1 2 0 4 2 1 2 0 0 2 1 3 0 0 2 2 7 2 2 0 1 4 0 5 1 0 2 0 3  8  9  B  A B  A B  A  B  7 7  6 6  4 1 0 1 0 2 2 4 0 1 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 4 1 3 1 0 3  8  6 6  7  7  6  6  7 6 5 7 6 3 7 1 10 7 6 7 5 6  7 6  5 5  5 5 5 5 4 4  5  6 8 6 5  4 4 5 5 4 4 3 3 5 5 2 2 6 6 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 6 6 5 3 6 6 4 5 3 3 6 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 5 4  9  9  6 6  7  7  5 4 2 5 2 5  5 7 6 2 7 1  9 7 6  7 5 7  9  9  7 8 6 5 7 6  7 8 6 6 7 5  9  9  6  8 6 2  2  5 6 4 4 7 , 7 3 3 6 6  3  3  5  4 2  5 2 5  3 1 0 2 0 2 1 3 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 2 2 1 2 1 0 1 3 1 3 1 0 3  10  7 5  6 4  5 8  5 8 8 10 11 15 15 0 1 5 5 5 7 10 10 2 3 0 0 8 10 2 2 2 4 7 7 6 5 6 5 2 1 2 2 6 9 3 3 10 10 8 10 6 8 4 7 4 3 6 7 6 4 13 8 8 8 4 3 11 13 2 5 11 8  75  APPENDIX C — P a r t 1 Table 7 RAW SCORE RESULTS  FOR GRADE 10 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  P r e t e s t - - C o l u m n A.  2  3(a)  3(b) 3(c)  A B/  A B  A B  8 9 7 10  3 3 3 3 3 3  2 2 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  1  Test. # udent #  A  10E1 10E2 10E3 10E4 10E5 10E6 10E7 10E8 10E9 10E10 10E1 1 10E12 10E13 10E14 10E15 10E16 10E17 10E18 10E19 10E20 10E21 10E22 10E23 10E24 10E25 10E26 10E27 10E28 10E29 10E30 10E31 10E32 10E33 10E34 10E35 10E36 10E37 10E38 10E39 10E40 10E41  7 6 5 3 4 6 8 5 3 6  V  10 10 10  8 9  10  9 9 9  10  8 5 9 2 3  6 10 4 10  4 8 3 9 9 9  6 10 5 10 7 10  3 6 6 5 6  9  10  9 7 6 6 7 8 3 8  4 10 2 5 5 10  9 3 10 4 7 6 10 8 6 10 5 10 4 7 2 9  Posttest--Column B  5 10 2  4 9 6 10 9 10 8 3 6 7 8 3 7 6 8 0 6  3  2 2  9 6 6 8 2  7 8 5 7 3 8 2  4  8 7 6 7 9 7 6 8 4 6 8 5 7 5 9 8 8  1 6  6 9 5 10 1 6 4 6 8 8 3 7 7 8 6 8 5 8 0 4  1 1  3 3  2 2  3 3 3 3  0 0  3 3  0 0  3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 3  1 1  3 3 3 3  0 0  3 3  0 3 2 2  3 3  2 2  3 3  2 2 3 3 1 2 2 2 1 3  3 3 3 3  2 2 0 2  3 3  1 1  3 3 3 3  1 2 0 3  A B  2 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 '0 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 01 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0  4  5  6  A B  A B  A B  77 57  2 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 2 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1  4 6 2 4  45 1 3 77 34 2 7 45 37 it 6 2 4 6 7  34 34 13 67 it 6 2 3 57 2 3 3 V 57 5 47 3  3 6  67 2 5 36 1 it  57 45 47 2 3 it 6 2 5 56 45 34 0 3  2 8 9 1 5 7 1 4 5 1 0 7 0 2 5 1 2 3 2 9 9 1 3 6 2 0 0 2 5 8 1 0 0 1 3 7 2 0 0 2 8 9 1 2 6 0 0 0 1 0 5 2 7 9 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 5 8 0 0 1 2 1 7 2 7 8 1 1 3 2 2 5 1 0 it 2 7 9 1 0 6 1 1 2 0 0 2 1 5 8 1 3 6 1 2 it 1 0 0 1 3 6 1 Oi 0 1 5" 7 1 4 7 1 2 it 1 0 0  ' 8 i  7 A  B • A B  10 10 ' '.•6 6  8 8 7  8  5 5 7 8 1 5  10 10  6 6 5 5 7 8 6 6 7 7 3 .,'5 9 9 7 7 7 7 1  8 7 6 8 3 7 8 6 8 7  5  7 7 6 9 5 7 6 6 9 8  10 10  5 7 7 8 3  9 8 8 6 7 6 9 8 7 2  5 •10  7 9 6 8 6 9 9 8 3  io  9I A B' A ,. 0 0  10 16  5 5 3 3 7 it 3 3 1 1 3 13 3 3 0 0 1 11 5 5 0 0 2 1 2 2 1 1 7 13 6 6 it it 15 19 it it 2 2 8 19 3 2 1 1 it 6 5 5 2 2 9 10 3 it 1 1 6 ;•*4 5 5 1 1 7 'l 2 5 0 0 8 17 6 6 5 it it 5 1 it  it 0 0 0  it 0 1 0 it 2 0 2 0  5 5 3 3 it 1 it 5 0 5 5 1 2 6 0 5 5 3 3 5 5 2 3 2 2 it 5 it 5  6 6 3 it it 5 3 it 6 6  5 5 5 5 3 3  it it  3 3 6 6 5 5  it it 1 2  1 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 0  1 2 0 it 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 1 0  13 2 4 3 5 1 9 1 5 16 17 9 15 3 9 11 18 2 12 12 17 10 16 5 12 8 13 1 5  3 9 6  2 2 1  16 8  6 4 1 4 1 5 1  7  11' 12  2  15  6 8/ 13 5 3 6 18 it  76  APPENDIX C — P a r t 1 Table 8  RAW SCORE RESULTS FOR GRADE 12 CONTROL GROUP P r e t e s t - - C o l u m n A.  1  Test # Student # 12C1 12C2 12C3 12C4 12C5 12C6 12C7 12C8 12C9 12C10 12C1 1 12C12 12C13 12C14 12C15 12C16 12C17 12C18 12C19 12C20 12C21 12C22 12C23 12C24 12C25 12C26 12C27 12C28  2  Posttest—Column B  3(ia)  3(b) 3(c  4  5  6  7  B  A B  A B  A B  A B  A B  A B  A B  A  3 7 ,8 7 8 6 7 9 9 8 9 4 5  2 2 6 6  0 0 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1  0 2 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 2 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1  2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1  0 1 1 0 2 2 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1  0 0 3 3  6 6  3 3 7 5  5 5 10 10 8 10  A 1  1 7  7  8 8  6 10 10  5 5  8 8 6 7 9 10 7 7 5 3 5 5 7 7 6 5 9 10 4 4  9 8 8  3 3 8 8 6 5  8  8 9  5 8 2  6 4 3 6  6  '3 10  7 7  5 5 8 8 5  6  8 9 7 8  6  9  7 10  2 2 4 5 6 3 2 8 10  3 3 7 8 5 5 6 7  6 5 5 5  8 8  3 3  2 2 0 0  3 3  2 2 0 0  3 3  2 2 2 2 0 1  3 3  0 3 2 3 3 1 3  0 3 2  3  3 1 3  0 2 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 2 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1  6 6 4 2 0 5 4  7  2 3 1 5 0  4 2 0 5 4  6  2 3 1 5 0  6 6  0 0 4 3 1 1  6 6 1 3 2 5 2 1 5  1 3 3 5 2 1 5  2  0 2 1 1 2  0 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 2 1 0 2  5  B 5  7 7 8 8  6 6 2 3 4 2  2 3 4 2  8 8  2 2 0 0  7 7  7 6 3  3  9 9 8 8  10 10  7 7 5 3  5 3  4 4 0 0  8 8 2  1  2 2 1 5 0 5 2 3 4 3  2  2  6 7 9 9 2 2 2 4 0 5 2 3 3 3  7 7 5  5  8 8  4 / '4 8 .8  7 7 8 8 5 4  4 4  8 7 7 7  8  9  A B  A B  A  4 3 5 3  4 3 5 3  0 5 4 3 11  5 4 2 5 4  5 4 2 5 4  0 2 1 1 4 2 0 2 1 0 4 1 0 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 3 1 1 3  6 6  6 6 3 3 2 4 1  3 3 2 4 2  2 5 3 5 3 5 4 5 3 2 3  2 5 3 4 3 5 4  6 6  6  2 1 3  0 2 1 1 4 2 0 2 1 0 4 2 0 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 4 1 1 3  10 B 1  6  3 4 10  8 8 2 22  7 7  5 5 2 1 13 13 6 3 4 6  7 8 7 9  0  0  6 7 3 1 0 3 3  3 0 1 4 2  2 10 4 4 13  2 11 4 4 14  8 8  77  APPENDIX C — P a r t 1 Table 9  RAW SCORE RESULTS  FOR GRADE 12 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  P r e t e s t — C o l u m n A.  2  1  Test # Student #  A  B  A  12E1 12E2 12E3 12E4 12E5 12E6 12E7 12E8 12E9 12E10 12E11 12E12 12E13 12E14 12E15 12E16 12E17 12E18 12E19 12E20 12E21 12E22 12E23 12E24 12E25 12E26  9 5 9 8 6 7 6 7  9  10 10  10  9  9 10  8 8  8 10 10 5 10  8 9 8 10 7 10 5 9 7 10 8 10 6 10 9 9 2  10 10  7 5 8 8 9 5  10  6  10  7 9 3 9  6 9 8 5 9 5 8  B  8 9 9 8 9 7 8  10 10 it 7  8 8 8 5 8  8 8 8 7  8 10 10  6 7 9 3  10 6 9  8 8 9 8 8 5 7 9 9 6 9 6 8  Postest—Column B  3(a) 3(b) 3(c)  k  5  6  A B  A B  A B  A B  A B  A B  A  33 2 3 33 33  2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 ,0 2 2 0 2 1 1 2 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 1 2 2 1 2 0 2  1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0  7 3 7 5 3 7  2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 11 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 0 2 2 0 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 0 1  9 4 8 8  9 6 8 9  9 5 9 8 7 8 5 8 9 5 8 5 8 7 7  0 2  33 3 3 3 3  0 2  0 0 2 3 3 3  33  1 2  33 3 3  33 33  0 3 3 3  33 33 0 3 33 2 3 13  1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1  7 5 7 7  7 5 5 6 6 7 2  1  6 7  0 5  5 6 2 7  3 6 1  7 3 7 7  0 2 1 4  4 6 4 7 2 4 6 7 1 7 3 6  8  9  B  A B  A B  10  6 5 6 5 4 5 3 5 6 3  7  2 6  8 9 1 4 6 7 8 9 0 3 2 7 7 8 5 7 1 7 6 8 8 9 4 8 7 8 0 0 7 9  7 9 8 7 9 5 8. 9 5 9 5 .8 7 7 10 9 4 4 8 9 5 7  5 8 8 7 9 7 0 2 6 7 9 8 3 6 6 3 7 7  6 8  10 A  6 4 4 15 5 1 1 2 6 3 3 16 5 3 3 9 4 1 1 4 5 2 2 8 4 0 3 4 5 1 1 7 6  4 5  5 3 4  5 5 4 4 5 5  6 6 2 4  4 0 2 1 2 1 2 2 1  5 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1  5 5 4 4 3 4 1 1  B 19 15 16  12 14 11 20 17 17 17 4 10 8 12 9 15 11 21 4  8  8  15 11 14  5  13 15 19 1 12  8 7 8 9  9 11 5 5 4 8 2 5 3 4 13 20 4 4 1 2 3 5 6 6 1 1 7 17  8  4 5  6  4 4  2 2 0 0  2 4  1 2 0 0  5 2  16 16  78  APPENDIX C — ( P a r t 2)  The f o l l o w i n g are some examples of student responses to T e s t 10, the f i r s t t h r e e from the Grade 10 Experimental Group and the o t h e r s from the Grade 12 Experimental Group. In each case the s t u d e n t ' s p r e t e s t response is f o l l o w e d by h i s or her p o s t t e s t response. The p r e t e s t s a r e f o r the most part merely l i s t s of the symbols on the map whereas the p o s t - t e s t s i n d i c a t e in v a r y i n g degrees that the students have developed some a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e a real landscape represented by the map.  10 E 3 1.  Houses, barns, s c h o o l , dam and, to the l e f t y o u ' d see c a r t t r a c k , h i l l s , farms along the road a t r a i l almost to the highway, a h o r i z o n t a l c o n t r o l p o i n t r i g h t when you get to the highway. Two s c h o o l s a c r o s s the highway is a g r a v e l p i t . Also you'd see a g r a v e l road j u s t b e f o r e the highway—two of them. A r i v e r along the road, g o l f course and a stream.  2.  S t a r t i n g out north you would f i r s t see a c l u s t e r of houses on both s i d e s of the road. Then the road bends west to where you meet a small stream. Back n o r t h e a s t you go c l i m b i n g a g e n t l e s l o p e . The road bends back and f o r t h . A few houses on the west s i d e are seen as you cut a c r o s s the s l o p e of the mountain. More houses then a s l i g h t downhill s l o p e . The road is now s t r a i g h t e n e d out and we a r e heading n o r t h . Coming up to a small v i l l a g e with houses l i n i n g both s i d e s of the road. A h i l l is v i s i b l e on the r i g h t . Now you approach the p o i n t where another road cuts a c r o s s our road. A few more houses on the e a s t s i d e , i n c l u d i n g a school then Highway 1.  10 E 19 1.  From White Rock we walk n o r t h .  I'm  going up i n t o some  hills,  79.  the road goes up and down. A f t e r a b r i e f walk, I come a c r o s s a barn in the process o f being b u i l t . I keep going north u n t i l I come a c r o s s another barn. The d i s t a n c e of houses are few and f a r between. I see few p e o p l e . I hear the n o i s e of c a r s coming from my r i g h t but I see none. I proceed up u n t i l I come a c r o s s another house, here I hear the s l i g h t movement of water. I go to my r i g h t (south) to see where i t is coming from. I found the stream and w i l l f o l l o w along i t s banks up n o r t h . Following i t along I am now approaching a group of farms o r maybe houses. They a r e b u i l t near the stream. I w i l l now depart from t h i s stream and get back onto my o r i g i n a l c o u r s e . I proceed up and meet up with a loose s u r f a c e road. 2.  As I s t a r t at White Rock I proceed north on an unmarked road. T h i s road s o r t of meanders a l o n g , back and f o r t h , back and forth. The s i d e s r i s e up and kind o f leave me in a v a l l e y . There are two houses on my l e f t . As I proceed f u r t h e r north I come to two more houses on my r i g h t and one on my l e f t . I am now at Deep Hollow. As I keep going north I meet another house to my l e f t . By the s i d e of the road t h e r e is a b i t of a stream. As I proceed north s t i l l , I am meeting up with more homes, f i v e on the r i g h t and f i v e on my l e f t . As I proceed along t h i s road a s i d e road i n t e r c e p t s i t to my l e f t and another s i d e road does the same to the r i g h t a l i t t l e more up. I am now going past t h r e e houses, a l l in a row to my r i g h t . They are q u i t e near the highway which must be n o i s y . I have now h i t Highway number 1. North a c r o s s the f i e l d is a school with many k i d s p l a y i n g on the play ground s i n c e i t is break time.  10 E 13 1.  You would have h i l l s on both s i d e s o f the road. Through the f i r s t part t h e r e are a few b u i l d i n g s both r i g h t and l e f t . Then you ome a c r o s s s i x b u i l d i n g s on the r i g h t and r i g h t a c r o s s from them t h e r e are f i v e b u i l d i n g s on the l e f t . F a r t h e r up there is a j u n c t i o n where a g r a v e l road merges from the l e f t . On the r i g h t another g r a v e l road merges. These two roads j o i n in almost the same p l a c e . J u s t before Highway 1 t h e r e a r e t h r e e b u i l d i n g s on the r i g h t .  2.  Heading northwest out of town t h e r e are two b u i l d i n g s on both s i d e s of the road. A sharp r i g h t turn north east o c c u r s with a s l i g h t e l e v a t i o n on both s i d e s . An i n t e r m i t t e n t stream c r o s s e s the road from l e f t to r i g h t and c o n t i n u e s along the r i g h t s i d e of the road. A gradual north-west turn with the land g e t t i n g h i g h e r on both s i d e s . Where the road bends again (W) the i n t e r m i t t e n t stream c r o s s e s from r i g h t to l e f t between two b u i l d i n g s on the l e f t . Steep s l o p e s on e i t h e r s i d e of the road.  80  (Passing through a small v a l l e y ) Heading north you come a c r o s s one b u i l d i n g on the l e f t and two b u i l d i n g s d i r e c t l y across on the r i g h t . The i n t e r m i t t e n t stream c r o s s e s again s t a y i n g c l o s e to the road. Passing a house on the l e f t and f a r t h e r up two b u i l d i n g s on the r i g h t . Across from these there is another house d i r e c t i y a c r o s s . It looks 1ike a small town because t h e r e are f i v e houses r i g h t and f o u r houses l e f t grouped c l o s e c l o s e together. A gravel road i n t e r s e c t s on the l e f t and f a r t h e r up one j o i n s in on the r i g h t . J u s t before Highway 1 you pass three houses on the r i g h t .  12 E 7 1.  houses school church dam to my r i g h t houses,barns along the road deep hoi low more b u i 1 d i n g s o n - j o i n i n g highway r i g h t b e f o r e Highway 1, I would a school to my r i g h t . along part of the way, I would see a gravel road on my l e f t .  2..  At White Rock 1 am s t a n d i n g in the middle i n t e r s e c t i o n where the two main roads meet. Behind me to the south are houses. To my r i g h t is a church and to m y . l e f t is a s c h o o l . There is a l s o a small body of water behind me. I head north and the road curves s l i g h t l y to the l e f t . The e l e v a t i o n is not too high up approx. 2 5 0 . The road then curves to the r i g h t . My e l e v a t i o n s t a y s the same. I then c r o s s an i n t e r m i t t e n t stream. The road curves to the l e f t with i t on my l e f t there are two houses and f u r t h e r up b e f o r e I reach Deep Hollow are three more b u i l d i n g s (houses). The road then f o l l o w s a l o n g s i d e a stream ( i n t e r m i t t e n t at some p a r t s ) . The e l e v a t i o n is approx. 150. There are more houses and other b u i l d i n g s as I get c l o s e r to where the road j o i n s the highway. Right b e f o r e I get to the j o i n t e d area, two g r a v e l roads merge i n t o the main road. To my r i g h t there is a school and as I get to the j o i n i n g , to my l e f t is another s c h o o l . The e l e v a t i o n is now about 100. The v e g e t a t i o n along the way has mainly been f l a t g r a s s l a n d or very low v e g e t a t i o n .  12 E 13 1.  see the r i v e r by the road some bu i 1 d i ngs the land has steep s i d e s on both s i d e s of the road the s i d e s of the h i l l are g e t t i n g l e s s steep and there are more houses going downhi 11  81  d i r t road cuts a c r o s s paved one r i v e r separates and flows away from road houses and school on my r i g h t 2.  In the beginning I see houses on both s i d e s of the road and there are no t r e e s on the r i g h t s i d e . Then t h e r e are t r e e s a l l around and as t h e r e is a bend in the road, you can see the r i v e r as i t now flows beside the road. A f t e r a few more bends there appear two houses on the l e f t s i d e and the road e n t e r s the canyon. The stream is i n t e r m i t t e n t . There are more houses on both s i d e s as I walk out of the canyon and s t a r t walking down h i l l . Two d i r t roads merge on to the paved one. And with forest o n l y on the l e f t s i d e the r i v e r veers o f f to the r i g h t . The road c r o s s e s another r i v e r (that merges i n t o the f i r s t ) . As you reach Highway one you can a s c h o o l , some l a r g e r b u i l d i n g s , t r e e s , the r i v e r , dykes and a g r a v e l p i t .  12 E 22 1.  There's a stream running beside the road at a b u i l d i n g t h e r e ' s another one j u s t ahead the s l o p e to my r i g h t is steep and the one to my l e f t i s n ' t . at a s e r i e s o f three b u i l d i n g s now. The s l o p e s r i s e s t e e p l y on both s i d e s . T h i s p l a c e is Deep Hollow. The b u i l d i n g s are g e t t i n g more densely packed and the s l o p e s are more g e n t l e . The road f o r k s with two d i r t roads here and again up the road a l i t t l e . The r i v e r changes to a n o r t h - e a s t d i r e c t i o n h e r e . T h e r e ' s t h r e e b u i l d i n g s and a school to my r i g h t and I'm at the highway.  2.  The road s t a r t s out going north-west and there are f i v e b u i l d i n g s three to my l e f t and two to my r i g h t . The road is t u r n i n g in a more w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n and t h e r e is a sharp bend ahead. I'm going n o r t h - e a s t now and a l i t t l e stream flows along (beside) the road. It j o i n e d the road at the sharp bend and is winding roughly along the roadway. The land to my r i g h t r i s e s up q u i t e s t e e p l y and i t a l s o r i s e s on my l e f t . I seem to be in a v a l l e y . There are two houses ahead of me on the l e f t and a stream j o i n s the one along the road in between the houses. The stream c r o s s e s from the r i g h t s i d e to the l e f t s i d e of the road here ( i t is f l o w i n g southward). I'm going i n t o Deep Hollow and t h e r e are two houses on my r i g h t and one on my l e f t . The road is g e t t i n g more populated as I p r o c e e d . The stream went away from the road a q u a r t e r m i l e back. There are many houses along the road now on both s i d e s and the land is becoming f l a t t e r . I am at the l a s t three houses on the road before the highway and t h e r e is a school o f f to the r i g h t behind these houses. I'm at the highway.  

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