UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A public recreation planning model based on current recreation theory Nichols, Thomas Matthew 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A6_7 N54.pdf [ 4.6MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095554.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095554-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095554-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095554-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095554-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095554-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095554-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095554-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095554.ris

Full Text

A PUBLIC RECREATION PLANNING MODEL BASED ON CURRENT RECREATION THEORY by THOMAS MATTHEW NICHOLS M.D.C.M., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1959 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1982 © Thomas Matthew N i c h o l s , 1982 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School of Community D e p a r t m e n t o f and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 16 October 1982 /«i *\ i i ABSTRACT A PUBLIC RECREATION PLANNING MODEL BASED ON CURRENT RECREATION THEORY The b a s i c q u e s t i o n f a c i n g r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s i s : how much and what k i n d s o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d p u b l i c a g e n c i e s p r o v i d e ? T h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n by e x a m i n i n g r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e j u s t what i t i s t h a t p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h . E a r l y r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r i e s , w h i l e t h e y p r o v i d e d an answer i n t h e f o r m of n a t i o n w i d e s t a n d a r d s , were f o u n d t o be t o o s i m p l i s t i c . More r e c e n t t h e o r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e b a s e d on h u m a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y o r " r e c r e a t i o n a l need", a r e t o o open ended t o g i v e any q u a l i t a t i v e or q u a n t i t a t i v e g u i d a n c e t o t h e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r . In o r d e r f o r i t t o be w o r t h w h i l e f o r s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y t o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y must b e n e f i t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e o r i e s b a s e d on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( h u m a n i s t i c t h e o r i e s ) a r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as a s o l e b a s i s f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . I t a p p e a r s t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o t a k e a p u r e l y p o s i t i v i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e b e c a u s e t o o l i t t l e i s known a b o u t what r e c r e a t i o n ( o r i t s a b s e n c e ) d o e s t o an i n d i v i d u a l t o be a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e how much i s enough. I t i s c o n c l u d e d • t h a t u n t i l s u c h t i m e as t h e i i i n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e f f e c t s of r e c r e a t i o n i s f o r t h c o m i n g , n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s e m p l o y i n g community v a l u e s w i l l be n e c e s s a r y . In t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g model i s d e v e l o p e d . The model b e g i n s w i t h community v a l u e s , as e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n t h e form of g o a l s . The g o a l s a r e t h e n c o n v e r t e d v i a o b j e c t i v e s i n t o f a c i l i t i e s and p r o g r a m s . The r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h u s p r o v i d e d p r o d u c e p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . The l a t t e r a r e compared w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e r e c r e a t i o n p r o g ram (program e v a l u a t i o n ) . In P a r t II t h e P l a n n i n g Model i s compared w i t h c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r (B. C.) M a s t e r P l a n f o r P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t e d : 1) t h e model i s d e v o t e d t o f u l f i l l i n g l o n g - t e r m g o a l s w h i l e t h e M a s t e r P l a n e m p h a s i z e s m e e t i n g demand f o r f a c i l i t i e s and p rograms 2) t h e model r e l i e s on c i t i z e n i n p u t f o r d i r e c t i o n w h i l e t h e M a s t e r P l a n p l a c e s g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on p r o f e s s i o n a l j udgment 3) The M odel r e q u i r e s a commitment t o p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n and o n g o i n g p l a n i n g w h i l e t h e M a s t e r P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d t h e p r o d u c t i o n of a s i n g l e end p r o d u c t . T hese d i f f e r e n c e s i m p l y t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e P l a n n i n g Model w i l l r e q u i r e a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of e f f o r t on t h e p a r t of t h e community i n terms of c h o o s i n g t h e r i g h t p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , c o m m i t t i n g s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s , and d e v e l o p i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y p o l i t i c a l w i l l power. I t i s hoped t h a t r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s w i l l f i n d t h e M odel s u f f i c i e n t l y c o m p e l l i n g i v i n t e l l e c t u a l l y t o go t o t h e e f f o r t t h a t i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i l l e n t a i l . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t . . . . i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s . v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t 1 X PART I : THE THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING 1 CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n ............ 2 B a c k g r o u n d 5 CHAPTER 2 T h e o r i e s o f R e c r e a t i o n 13 The D e v e l o p m e n t o f C u r r e n t R e c r e a t i o n T h e o r y 13 " E a r l y " T h e o r i e s 1 5 B e h a v i o u r a l T h e o r i e s 1 6 H u m a n i s t i c T h e o r y 16 S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y T h e o r y 18 R e c r e a t i o n i s t s ' T h e o r i e s 19 R e c r e a t i o n a l Need 23 R e c r e a t i o n a l Demand, S a t i s f a c t i o n , & B e n e f i t s 26 B u i l d i n g t h e M o d e l . 27 CHAPTER 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s 31 G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s ; 33 E v a l u a t i o n i 35 v i R e c r e a t i o n Demand 40 V a l u e s 46 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 49 Summary 60 CHAPTER 4 Summary and D i s c u s s i o n o f P a r t I 63 PART I I : THE PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING 68 CHAPTER 5 The C o n t e n t and P r o c e s s of t h e V a n c o u v e r M a s t e r P l a n f o r P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n 70 C o n t e n t 70 P r o c e s s 71 P u b l i c I n p u t 72 S u r v e y s 74 Demand A n a l y s i s 74 S u p p l y A n a l y s i s 74 E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n F o r m u l a t i o n 76 A p p r o v a l and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 79 CHAPTER 6 A C o m p a r i s o n of t h e P l a n n i n g Model and t h e V a n c o u v e r M a s t e r P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 81 REFERENCES ...89 v i i L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e I : A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S e l e c t e d T y p e s of R e c r e a t i o n S t a n d a r d s 9 T a b l e I I A : P l a n n i n g T y p e s and P u r p o s e s 56 T a b l e I I B : P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s e s A p p r o p r i a t e t o V a r i o u s T y p e s of P l a n n i n g 57 T a b l e I I I : C o m p a r i s o n of Model and M a s t e r P l a n 86 v i i i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1. A D i a g r a m of U s e r R e s o u r c e R e l a t i o n s h i p s 8 F i g u r e 2. P l a n n i n g Model - S t e p 2 29 F i g u r e 3. P l a n n i n g Model - S t e p 3 30' F i g u r e 4. P l a n n i n g Model - Complete 61 F i g u r e 5. M a s t e r P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 73 F i g u r e 6 . P l a n n i n g Model - C o m p l e t e 82 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e my i n d e b t e d n e s s t o K e v i n P i k e and P i e t e r R u t g e r s of t h e V a n c o u v e r P a r k s B o a r d , t o B r i a n J o h n s t o n o f t h e Department of R e c r e a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t o B a r b a r a H e n d r i c k s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING Chapter J_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y PART I THE THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING 2 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r J_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION & HISTORY "No p r o f e s s i o n c an a d v a n c e when t h e r e i s t o o g r e a t a gap between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . " * I n t r o d u c t i o n The most b a s i c q u e s t i o n f a c i n g t h e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r i s : "how much and what k i n d s of r e c r e a t i o n do p e o p l e need?" W i t h o u t a s t a n d a r d of p r o v i s i o n , t h e p l a n n e r i s h a r d p u t t o j u s t i f y h i s recommendations t o t h e d e c i s i o n makers and t h e d e c i s i o n makers have no c o n c r e t e g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s t o r e c r e a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n of need f o r r e c r e a t i o n c an be answered o n l y by r e f e r e n c e t o r e c r e a t i o n •theory; i . e . , how much r e c r e a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y depends on t h e p u r p o s e of r e c r e a t i o n . And p u r p o s e i s d e r i v e d from t h e o r y . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t h e o r i e s and p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g r e c r e a t i o n and t h e i r e f f e c t s on p l a n n i n g f o r p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n , w h i l e t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n compares t h e p l a n n i n g model d e r i v e d i n S e c t i o n I w i t h an a c t u a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . * S a p o r a , AV, q u o t e d i n P e l e g r i n o , D A 6 3 3 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING Chapter J_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y The theory u n d e r l y i n g the p r o v i s i o n of urban parks and r e c r e a t i o n has undergone s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n recent y e a r s . Whereas in the e a r l y years parks were c r e a t e d to provide an o u t l e t f o r the - c o n s t r u c t i v e use of l e i s u r e time and e n e r g i e s of urban d w e l l e r s , recent t h e o r i e s speak of d e s i g n i n g r e c r e a t i o n experiences to permit the f u l f i l l m e n t of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o t e n t i a l . The e a r l i e r theory was developed by members of the parks and r e c r e a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n while the l a t e r approach has developed out of r e s e a r c h done by s o c i o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s . The " r u r a l atmosphere and c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t y " school of thought that p r e v a i l e d d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the century developed t r a d i t i o n a l standards f o r the p r o v i s i o n of park space, such as the space per p o p u l a t i o n standard of 10 acres per 1 , 000 persons. While such standards were recognized as being a r b i t r a r y , there was a conceptual l i n k between the "need" of everyone fo r a minimum amount of f r e s h a i r and a c t i v i t y and a nationwide standard. In an era when the purpose of parks was seen as being l i m i t e d to these two simple f u n c t i o n s , a q u a n t i t a t i v e planning approach which regarded a l l persons as having i d e n t i c a l needs was compatible with theory. However, with the advent of the new t h e o r i e s based on the uniqueness of each i n d i v i d u a l in h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l needs, the planners were cut a d r i f t from general standards. What i s proposed i n the remainder of t h i s t r e a t i s e i s to examine the response of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g to t h i s c h a l l e n g e in the f o l l o w i n g way: 4 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r J_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y P a r t I 1. U n d e r t a k e a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d r e v i e w of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n movement 2. Review t h e l i t e r a t u r e on r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t a f f e c t s p l a n n i n g 3. Review t h e l i t e r a t u r e on r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , t o d e t e r m i n e i t s c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s and methods 4. P r e p a r e a p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g model w h i c h r e f l e c t s c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y P a r t II_ 1. Review t h e 1982 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n M a s t e r P l a n 2. C r i t i c a l l y examine the p l a n n i n g model i n t h e l i g h t of c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r M a s t e r P l a n B e c a u s e of t h e s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y of t h e f i e l d o f r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d t o u r b a n p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n and w i l l n o t i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f e a s i b i l i t y o r p r o j e c t p l a n s . P a r k s a r e c o n s i d e r e d from th e p o i n t of view o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n as s i t e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n ( i n t h e wide s e n s e ) ; t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o c i t y form and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n i s e x c l u d e d . In t r a c i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g how much and what k i n d s of r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d , a number of p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s and methods w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d . F o l l o w i n g a d e f i n i t i o n , t h e a d v a n t a g e s and 5 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r _1_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y d i s a d v a n t a g e s of e a c h method w i l l be d i s c u s s e d by way o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s u g g e s t e d . Bac k q r o u n d The m u n i c i p a l p a r k movement i n N o r t h A m e r i c a can be s a i d t o have begun w i t h F r e d e r i c k Law O l m s t e d ' s p r i z e w i n n i n g d e s i g n f o r New York C i t y ' s C e n t r a l Park i n 1857. A d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n w i n n i n g t h e c o m p e t i t i o n was O l m s t e d ' s u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y of t h e p u r p o s e of p a r k s : " . . . a s p e c i m e n o f God's h a n d i w o r k t h a t s h a l l be t o them, i n e x p e n s i v e l y , what a month o r two i n t h e White M o u n t a i n s , or t h e A d i r o n d a c k s , i s t o t h o s e i n e a s i e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " * T h i s p h i l o s o p h y and t h e l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t u r e t h a t went w i t h i t soon s p r e a d t o most of t h e major c i t i e s on t h e c o n t i n e n t . V a n c o u v e r r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of S t a n l e y Park i n 1887. The p h i l o s o p h y was w e l l e x p r e s s e d i n t h e m i n u t e s of T o r o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l i n 1859: " I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e [ p a r k s ] f u r n i s h t o t h e w e a l t h y p l a c e s of a g r e e a b l e r e s o r t , e i t h e r f o r d r i v i n g or w a l k i n g , and f r e e from t h e h e a t and d u s t of an o r d i n a r y r o a d . . . t h u s e n a b l i n g them t o e n j o y t h e i n e s t i m a b l e b l e s s i n g of t h e f r e e open a i r of t h e C o u n t r y - so c o n d u c i v e t o t h e p r o m o t i o n of h e a l t h and m o r a l i t y . " 5 1 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s of t h e t i m e l a c k e d t h e c a r r i a g e s f o r d r i v i n g , t h e t i m e f o r w a l k i n g , and t h e p r e s e n c e o f p a r k s i n t h e i r crowded n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . In r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s * FL O l m s t e d , q u o t e d i n B u r t o n , TL, e t a l 1 3 6 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r J_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y f a c t , t h e p l a y g r o u n d movement began i n t h e e a r l y 1900's r e a c h i n g V a n c o u v e r i n 1912 w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p l a y g r o u n d s a t McLean P a r k . The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h e p l a y g r o u n d movement was t w o - f o l d : 1. O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r wholesome r e c r e a t i o n a r e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t 2. T h e i r p r e v e n t i o n of s o c i a l d i s o r d e r s s u c h a s d e l i n q u e n c y and d r u n k e n n e s s 5 1 The p l a n n i n g methods w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e e a r l y b e g i n n i n g s c o u l d o n l y be c l a s s e d a s ad hoc and i n c r e m e n t a l a c q u i s i t i o n . However, as e a r l y as 1906, minimum s t a n d a r d s of p a r k p r o v i s i o n d i d b e g i n t o a p p e a r , s u c h as "2 a c r e s p e r 4,000 c h i l d r e n i n p l a y g r o u n d s " 8 1 and "one a t h l e t i c f i e l d f o r e a c h of t h e f o u r s e c t i o n s of t h e c i t y . " 8 1 The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i s i o n was t h a t " t h e a t h l e t i c f i e l d i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w e l l - b e i n g of o l d e r boys and men and forms t h e s t r o n g e s t r i v a l of t h e s a l o o n and o t h e r e v i l i n f l u e n c e s ' i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . " 8 1 Thus t h e use of n a t i o n w i d e s t a n d a r d of r e c r e a t i o n p r o v i s i o n i s seen t o be l i n k e d w i t h t h e h e a l t h and m o r a l i t y c o n c e p t of p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n from an e a r l y d a t e . W i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e , s t a n d a r d s became much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n 1965 t h e (U S) N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n and Park A s s o c i a t i o n (NRPA) o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s t a n d a r d r a t i o s : 1. R e c r e a t i o n s p a c e p e r p o p u l a t i o n , e.g., t h e 10 a c r e s / 1 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n a d o p t e d by t h e NRPA 7 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r j_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y 2. R e c r e a t i o n s p a c e p e r a r e a , e.g., 10% of an a r e a t o be s u b d i v i d e d s h o u l d be i n r e c r e a t i o n and open s p a c e , or t h e r e s h o u l d be a p l a y g r o u n d w i t h i n 1/4 - 1/2 mi p l a y f i e l d w i t h i n 1/2 - 1 1/2 mi d i s t r i c t p a r k w i t h i n 1 - 3 mi r e g i o n a l p a r k w i t h i n 3/4 - 1 h r 3. R e c r e a t i o n s p a c e p e r u s e r need, b a s e d on: d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n t y p e of u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t h o u s i n g s t r u c t u r e s p a t t e r n s of economic d e v e l o p m e n t 8 1 The u s e r need method of s t a n d a r d d e v e l o p m e n t r e f e r r e d t o i n i t e m 3 above was e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n ' s " U s e r - R e s o u r c e R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g M e t h o d " , 8 0 p u b l i s h e d i n 1959 and d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 1. G o l d ( 1 9 7 3 ) 3 3 o f f e r s a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d s as d e m o n s t r a t e d i n T a b l e I . S t a n d a r d s p r o b a b l y r e a c h e d t h e i r z e n i t h i n 1969 w i t h t h e NRPA's p u b l i c a t i o n of " N a t i o n a l P a r k , R e c r e a t i o n , and Open Space S t a n d a r d s . " 8 In i t p a r k p l a n n e r s a r e admonished t h a t s t a n d a r d s were t o be c o n s i d e r e d ' g u i d e l i n e s ' and t o r e p r e s e n t 'minimum' v a l u e s . In a d d i t i o n t h e y s h o u l d meet t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : - r e f l e c t t h e needs of t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a b e i n g s e r v e d ; i . e . , t i m e - d i s t a n c e from p a r k s , d e m o g r a p h i c p r o f i l e s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s , c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , g e o g r a p h i c a l 8 Figure 1 A DIAGRAM OF USER-RESOURCE RELATIONSHIPS* A IDENTIFY RECREATION USERS AND RESOURCES A n a l y s i s of Recreation I n t e r e s t s and A c t i v i t i e s I r e s u l t s 1n i Formation of User Groups (based upon s i m i l a r r e c r e a t i o n experiences and resource requirements). which have I C e r t a i n S o c i a l and Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A n a l y s i s of A l l Land and Waterj Resources to determine the Landscape P e r s o n a l i t y which i n c l u d e s e v e r a l i Major Recreation Resource Types which are used to B ESTIMATE RECREATION DEMAND AND SUPPLY I of Requirements of User Groups 4 I of P o t e n t i a l Resource Types which are r e l a t e d through the use of Recreation Planning Guides Landscape I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and Design | Recreation Costs and B e n e f i t s *? C PROPOSE A RECREATION PLAN T For the Region or Planning Area * U. S. National Advisory Council on Regional Recreation Planning TABLE I A CLASSIFICATION OF SELECTED TYPES OF RECREATION STANDARDS* General o r i e n t a t i o n S p e c i f i c type Measurement u n i t s I l l u s t r a t i v e examples Recreation use Population r a t i o Recreation demand Percent of area Area/population Area/user group Area/planning u n i t 1 acre neighbourhood park/1000 pop. 1 acre playground/600 c h i l d r e n 10% of planning u n i t area Recreation development F a c i l i t y to s i t e F a c i l i t y placement F a c i l i t y to a c t i v i t y F a c i l i t y s i z e Units/acre Distance bet. u n i t s Units/user group A r e a / f a c i l i t y 16 p i c n i c tables/acre P i c n i c tables 50 f t . apart 1 s o f t b a l l diamond/10,000 pop. 3-5 acres neighbourhood playground Carrying cap a c i t y User to resource User to time U s e r s / s i t e Users/time/site 400 people/mile of t r a i l 50 people/mile of t r a i l / h r . Recreation program A c t i v i t y to population Leadership requirements A c t i v i t y / p o p u l a t i o n L e a d e r s / a c t i v i t y 1 arboretum/10,000 pop. 2 leaders/100 c h i l d r e n Recreation management Supervisors to users Maintenance to s i t e S t a f f / p o p u l a t i o n Degree/area 1 supervisor/1000 users 1 laborer/10 acres playground Gold, SM 3 5 10 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r J_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y l o c a t i o n , and c l i m a t e -be r e a s o n a b l y o b t a i n a b l e -be a c c e p t a b l e and u s a b l e -be b a s e d on sound p r i n c i p l e s and a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n - s t a n d t h e t e s t of t i m e 8 Thus, t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s a p p r o a c h t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and t h e ' f r e s h a i r and wholesome a c t i v i t y ' t h e o r y t h a t went w i t h i t a r e seen t o have p e r s i s t e d f o r m a l l y , t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l y m o d i f i e d , u n t i l 1969. However, d e s p i t e t h e two r e v i s i o n s j u s t r e f e r r e d t o , t h e p r o m o t i o n of n a t i o n w i d e s t a n d a r d s i n t h e p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e a p p e a r s t o have ended w i t h t h e 60's. B e g i n n i n g w i t h H e r b e r t Gans i n 1968, r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g by s t a n d a r d s came under i n c r e a s i n g a t t a c k on t h e b a s i s of t h e new t h e o r i e s w hich were b e i n g p r o p o s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e meaning of l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . Gans c h a l l e n g e d t h e c l a i m t h a t r e c r e a t i o n per se i n v a r i a b l y p r o m oted m e n t a l h e a l t h , c i t i n g t h e a b s e n c e of any r e l i a b l e e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , m e n t a l h e a l t h and m e n t a l i l l n e s s . 3 1 He saw t h e r e c r e a t i o n movement as an a t t e m p t of t h e m i d d l e c l a s s t o c o n v e r t t h e lower c l a s s c i t y d w e l l e r t o t h e p a t t e r n s of t h e i r c u l t u r e . H i s view of t h e c o n n e c t i o n between r e c r e a t i o n and m e n t a l h e a l t h was not as a means t o an end, but r a t h e r t h a t s a t i s f y i n g l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r i s a p a r t of t h e good l i f e and t h e r e f o r a c o n s t i t u e n t of m e n t a l h e a l t h . S a t i s f y i n g l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r , i n h i s view, was b e s t p r o d u c e d by making a v a i l a b l e t h o s e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h w i l l a p p e a l t o p e o p l e ' s 11 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r j_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y l e i s u r e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s . 3 1 T h i s t h e o r y and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s l e f t no room f o r n a t i o n - w i d e s t a n d a r d s . O t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e NRPA, have c a t a l o g u e d t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f n a t i o n w i d e s t a n d a r d s as f o l l o w s : 8 1 1 1 3 3 3 6 6 9 3 The a r e a / p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o does not t a k e l o c a l f a c t o r s i n t o a c c o u n t The a r e a / p e r c e n t r a t i o d o e s n ' t measure d e v e l o p m e n t o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l o c a t i o n The u s e r needs method has not been d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be p r a c t i c a l a t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l The s t a n d a r d i s p e r c e i v e d as an end i n i t s e l f A r b i t r a r i n e s s , i m p l y i n g u n p r o v e n v a l u e judgements S u p p l i e r o r i e n t a t i o n F a c i l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n Not o r i e n t e d t o w a r d community g o a l s L i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r u s e r b e h a v i o u r C a n ' t be u s e d t o s e t p r i o r i t i e s They a l l o w no o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p l y i n n o v a t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of new i n s i g h t s They do not m o t i v a t e t h e p u b l i c i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s B e n e f i t s a r e not o p t i m i z e d They do not promote p u b l i c s u p p o r t of r e c r e a t i o n I n t e r n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between t h e s e r v i c e r a d i u s and p o p u l a t i o n s e r v e d (NRPA 12 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r J_ I n t r o d u c t i o n & H i s t o r y S t a n d a r d s ) They r e f l e c t c u r r e n t l e v e l s of p r o v i s i o n , w h i c h may have no r e l a t i o n t o a d e q u a c y . U s e r p r e f e r e n c e s a r e n o t accommodated T h e r e a r e no p r o v i s i o n s f o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y They a r e u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y h i g h and n o t r e a s o n a b l y a t t a i n a b l e P r a c t i c a l e v i d e n c e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f n a t i o n w i d e s t a n d a r d s i s seen i n t h e v a s t d i f f e r e n c e i n p r o v i s i o n of open s p a c e i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , r a n g i n g from 285 a c r e s p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n a t G l a c e Bay t o 0.7/1,000 i n V a n i e r C i t y and C o t e S t . L u c . 1 0 T h e s e w i d e l y v a r y i n g r a t i o s d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g a t i m e when the a c c e p t e d minimum s t a n d a r d was 10 a c r e s per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . W h i l e some of t h e o b j e c t i o n s t o s t a n d a r d s a r e on t e c h n i c a l g r o u n d s , by f a r t h e m a j o r i t y r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of s t a n d a r d s w i t h t h e c u r r e n t c o n c e p t s of t h e f u n c t i o n s of open sp a c e and r e c r e a t i o n . Whereas t h e c o n c e p t of ' f r e s h a i r and wholesome a c t i v i t y ' was seen t o a p p l y e q u a l l y t o huge segments of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s i m p l y t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s a v e r y p e r s o n a l phenomenon and i s t h e r e f o r e a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e c o n c e p t of n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . In o t h e r words, how can t h e same n a t i o n w i d e s t a n d a r d a p p l y t o towns or even n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h d i f f e r i n g age c o m p o s i t i o n s , s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , h o u s i n g d e n s i t i e s , or community r e s o u r c e s when t h e emphasis of r e c r e a t i o n i s on t h e u n i q u e n e s s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ? The c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s of r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . 13 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n CHAPTER 2 THEORIES OF RECREATION "a t h e o r y i s a s e t of i n t e r r e l a t e d p r i n c i p l e s and d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t s e r v e s c o n c e p t u a l l y t o o r g a n i z e s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t h e e m p i r i c a l w o r l d i n a s y s t e m a t i c way"* The Development of C u r r e n t R e c r e a t i o n T h e o r y As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i n o r d e r t o know how much and what k i n d of r e c r e a t i o n t o p l a n . f o r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know what i t i s t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h . S i n c e v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e c u r r e n t a u t h o r s have r e j e c t e d t h e f r e s h a i r and a c t i v i t y t h e o r y f o r p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n , i t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o examine what t h e y have r e p l a c e d i t w i t h . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s , c o n c e p t s , p h i l o s o p h i e s , and d e f i n i t i o n s of r e c r e a t i o n and i t s companion, l e i s u r e . A sound t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r r e c r e a t i o n i s d e s i r e d by t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n as much as by t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i t s p l a n n i n g . As Hendee s a y s "To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e o r y and c o n c e p t s a r e not d e v e l o p e d , l e i s u r e d a t a w i l l f a i l t o * Murphy, J F 5 6 14 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s o f R e c r e a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o human b e h a v i o r i n g e n e r a l , and s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and p r e d i c t i o n s t o l e i s u r e s e t t i n g s w i l l be l i m i t e d as w e l l . " * O t h e r s have w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n o v e r t h e m a t u r i t y and s t a t e of d e v e l o p m e n t of r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y as f o l l o w s : "The l a c k of a u n i f y i n g t h e o r y on l e i s u r e i s s een as a s t u m b l i n g b l o c k t o any p r o d u c t i v e l e i s u r e s t u d i e s . " * * S i n c e , as H i l m i s t a t e s , t h e o r y i s "a c o n c e p t u a l framework w h i c h a l l o w s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and m a i n l y e x p l a n a t i o n ; s e c o n d a r i l y t o p r e d i c t and c o n t r o l " * * * most new t h e o r y i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d by r e s e a r c h s c i e n t i s t s i n t h e f i e l d s o f s o c i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y r a t h e r t h a n by r e c r e a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s . In f a c t , t h e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h d e v e l o p i n g a u n i f y i n g t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g r e c r e a t i o n may be t h e v a r i e t y o f d i s c i p l i n e s u n d e r t a k i n g t h e r e s e a r c h . 6 3 G i v e n t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h d e v e l o p i n g a t h e o r y of r e c r e a t i o n , t h e v i e w s of r e c e n t a u t h o r s on t h e s u b j e c t w i l l be examined. F i r s t , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y w i l l be f o l l o w e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y f r o m t h e 1950's t o t h e 1980's as t h e e a r l y c o n c e p t s were s u p e r s e d e d by b e h a v i o u r a l , h u m a n i s t i c , s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and v a l u e - o r i e n t e d t h e o r i e s . Then, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e c o n c e p t s of ' r e c r e a t i o n a l need' and ' r e c r e a t i o n a l demand' w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . The end p r o d u c t o f t h e c h a p t e r * Hendee, J C 3 8 ** H i l m i , I , q u o t e d i n P e l e g r i n o , D A 6 3 *** I b i d . 15 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n w i l l be a g r a p h i c model o f r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y d e r i v e d from what a r e , i n my o p i n i o n , t h e most u s e f u l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d t h e o r i e s . " E a r l y " T h e o r i e s The v i e w s of r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e p o p u l a r d u r i n g t h e 50's and 60's, w h i l e r e a s o n a b l y p r e c i s e , l a c k much of t h e e s s e n c e of l e i s u r e i d e n t i f i e d i n l a t e r c o n c e p t s . The most common c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of l e i s u r e h e l d d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d were 1) f r e e t i m e ( B r i g h t b i l l , 1960; C l a w s o n , 1964), o r 2) a form of a c t i v i t y ( D u m a z e d i e r , 1967) 3 6 O t h e r more r e s t r i c t i v e c o n c e p t s o f t h e meaning of l e i s u r e p r o p o s e d d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) an o u t l e t f o r s u r p l u s e n e r g y 2) a n e c e s s a r y r e f r e s h m e n t a f t e r l a b o u r 3) p r a c t i c e f o r l a t e r l i f e 4) l i v i n g of a s e r i e s of c u l t u r a l e p o c h s of c i v i l i z a t i o n 5) a s a f e t y v a l v e 6) a form of s e l f e x p r e s s i o n 7) c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r n o n - f u l f i l l m e n t i n o t h e r s p h e r e s ( e . g . , work) 8) a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e u n d e r t a k e n b e c a u s e of t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y or n o v e l t y 9) a w o r k i n g out of p r o b l e m s ( p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y ) 10) a means of a c h i e v i n g p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a n d / o r s o c i a l b a l a n c e ' 6 16 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n B e h a v i o u r a l * T h e o r i e s D u r i n g t h e 1960's p s y c h o l o g i s t s began t o examine l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n from t h e b e h a v i o r a l p o i n t of v i e w . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s a p p r o a c h a r e t h e w r i t i n g s o f D r i v e r and T o c h e r , 2 5 , 2 6 w h i c h d e s c r i b e d r e c r e a t i o n a s an e x p e r i e n c e or a s t a t e o f mind. These a u t h o r s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t : r e c r e a t i o n i s an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m r e c r e a t i o n a l engagements, r e c r e a t i o n engagements a r e s e l f - r e w a r d i n g , and t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i n v o l v e s p e r s o n a l and f r e e c h o i c e and o c c u r s d u r i n g non-o b l i g a t e d t i m e . On a p e r s o n a l l e v e l t h e y saw t h e r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e as h a v i n g as i t s o b j e c t t h e p u r s u i t of a p e r s o n a l g o a l o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n of a need. On a s o c i a l l e v e l t h e y v i e w e d r e c r e a t i o n a s a s o c i a l s e r v i c e , "an i m p o r t a n t and n e c e s s a r y i n p u t t o m a i n t a i n t h e i n t e g r i t y and promote t h e growth and d e v e l o p m e n t of s o c i e t y " . * * O t h e r t e n e t s o f t h e s e w r i t e r s were t h a t l e i s u r e i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s of work, and t h a t p l e a s a n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e c o l l e c t i o n s a r e an i n t r i n s i c p a r t of t h e l e i s u r e e x p e r i e n c e . " 6 Human i s t i c * * * t h e o r y Gans, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r h u m a n i s t s , a p p r o a c h e s t h e c o n c e p t of * " B e h a v i o r a l a p p r o a c h : human b e h a v i o r and e v e n t s i n l e i s u r e s e t t i n g s i n f l u e n c e t h e c h o i c e o f how, where, and when p e o p l e use t h e i r f r e e t i m e . " ( G o l d , S 3 5 ) ** D r i v e r , B, & SR T o c h e r 2 6 *** Humanism: "a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t . . . r e g a r d s man as a n a t u r a l o b j e c t , and a s s e r t s t h e e s s e n t i a l d i g n i t y and w o r t h of man and h i s c a p a c i t y t o a c h i e v e s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e use of r e a s o n and s c i e n t i f i c method" ( W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y , G & C M e r r i a m Co., S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass., 1966) 17 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n l e i s u r e , m e n t a l h e a l t h , and r e c r e a t i o n s t r i c t l y from t h e p o i n t of view of t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a s can be seen from t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from " P e o p l e and P l a n s " . 3 1 1) m e n t a l h e a l t h depends on t h e a b i l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l t o move t o w a r d h i s v i s i o n of t h e good l i f e 2) s a t i s f y i n g l e i s u r e b e h a v i o r i s a p a r t of t h e good l i f e 3) t h e r e f o r e , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h h e l p t o make l e i s u r e s a t i s f y i n g a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t of m e n t a l h e a l t h 4) t o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h w i l l l e a d t o s a t i s f y i n g r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o r i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d out what t h e p e o p l e want now and t o o f f e r i n n o v a t i v e f a c i l i t i e s t o d e t e r m i n e what e l s e t h e y might p r e f e r S i m i l a r v i e w s have been o f f e r e d by Weiner and by Murphy: "t h e f o c u s [ o f r e c r e a t i o n ] seems t o be on t h e i n d i v i d u a l and i n c r e a t i n g a t o t a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e human c a n f l o u r i s h a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own i n t e r e s t s and c a p a b i l i t i e s , t o meet h i s i n d i v i d u a l needs as he c o p e s w i t h t h e t e n s i o n s of a h i g h d e n s i t y l i f e " * " R e c r e a t i o n i s t o s e r v e as a means o f human f u l f i l l m e n t . " * * "The v a l u e of r e c r e a t i o n i s i t s a b i l i t y t o s a t i s f y needs w h i c h a r i s e w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . " * * * Gray and G r e b e n , w r i t i n g i n 1979, d e s c r i b e r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g h u m a n i s t i c t e r m s : " R e c r e a t i o n i s an e m o t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g t h a t f l o w s from a * W e i n e r , M, q u o t e d i n Murphy, J F 5 6 ** Murphy, J F 5 6 *** I b i d . 18 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n f e e l i n g o f w e l l - b e i n g and s a t i s f a c t i o n . . . I t i s i n d e p e n d e n t of a c t i v i t y l e i s u r e , or s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e . " * I t can be seen from t h e p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n s t h a t t h e t e r m s l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a r e u s e d m o r e - o r - l e s s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y from a u t h o r t o a u t h o r . However, t h e s e a u t h o r s a g r e e t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e a r e not c o n f i n e d t o : 1) an a c t i v i t y 2) a p e r i o d o f t i m e 3) a means t o an end, or 4) a p a n a c e a f o r s o c i a l i l l s . 1 6 Soc i a l P s y c h o l o g y * * T h e o r y A u t h o r s , s u c h as I s o - A h o l a , * 3 i n v o l v e d w i t h a p p l y i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y t o l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f l e i s u r e . N e u l i n g e r 5 7 s t r e s s e s t h a t p e r c e i v e d f r e e d o m and i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l t o l e i s u r e e x p e r i e n c e w h i l e Ragheb & B e a r d 6 " p e r c e i v e o f l e i s u r e as p r o v i d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g * G r a y , DE, and S G r e b e n 3 2 ** " S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y s t r e s s e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and e m p h a s i z e s th e s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e p r o c e s s u n d e r l y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " ( H o l l a n d e r , q u o t e d i n I s o - A h o l a , S E a 3 ) "an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d and e x p l a i n how t h e t h o u g h t , f e e l i n g and b e h a v i o r of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e a c t u a l , i m a g i n e d , or i m p l i e d p r e s e n c e of o t h e r s " ( A l l p o r t , q u o t e d i n N e u l i n g e r , J 5 7 ) 19 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g scheme: ( l e i s u r e ) a t t i t u d e s — > ( l e i s u r e ) s a t i s f a c t i o n s — > h a p p i n e s s T h e i r s t u d i e s show p r e v i o u s s a t i s f a c t i o n as a m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t of l e i s u r e c h o i c e , h a v i n g a p r e d i c t i v e ( r 2 ) v a l u e of .49 w i t h r e s p e c t t o c h o i c e of h o b b i e s , .42 w i t h r e s p e c t t o c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and .34 w i t h r e s p e c t t o s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s . R e c r e a t i o n i s t s ' T h e o r i e s In r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s , a u t h o r s from t h e r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d f r e q u e n t l y have s y n t h e s i z e d or a b s t r a c t e d e l e m e n t s from t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d s o c i o l o g i c and p s y c h o l o g i c t h e o r i e s . F o r example, C a r l s o n e t a l . 1 6 speak of an " h o l i s t i c " c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of l e i s u r e w h i c h i n c l u d e s a c t i v i t y , f r e e t i m e , and a s t a t e of mind. G o l d has a t t e m p t e d t o s o r t out t h e c o n c e p t s of r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e as f o l l o w s : L e i s u r e -"any p o r t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t i m e not o c c u p i e d by employment or i n p u r s u i t o f e s s e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s " R e c r e a t i o n -"any l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t y w hich i s p u r s u e d f o r i t s own s a k e , or what happens t o a p e r s o n as a r e s u l t of a r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e " " [ I t ] i s what happens t o p e o p l e i n t e r m s of image, a c h i e v e m e n t or s a t i s f a c t i o n and can o c c u r a t any t i m e and i n many p l a c e s . " * * G o l d , S 3 5 20 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n F i n a l l y , Chubb & Chubb o f f e r t h i s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g , a r c h -h u m a n i s t d e f i n i t i o n : " r e c r e a t i o n [ i s ] any t y p e of c o n s c i o u s e n j o y m e n t . I t can t a k e p l a c e a t any t i m e and a t any l o c a t i o n . I t may i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e n o r m a l l y t h o u g h t of as b a s i c b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y a b n o r m a l , o r even a c t i v i t i e s t h a t damage o b j e c t s , t h e . i n d i v i d u a l o r s o c i e t y . The o n l y c r i t e r i o n i s whether or n o t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t p e r c e i v e s t h e a c t i v i t y as r e c r e a t i o n a l " * T h i s d e f i n i t i o n c o u l d be s h o r t e n e d , w i t h o u t l o s s of p r e c i s i o n , t o : i f i t f e e l s good i t must be r e c r e a t i o n ! * * * Up t o t h i s p o i n t t h e * t r e n d i s seen t o be t o c o n s i d e r r e c r e a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g l y as a p e r s o n a l m a t t e r . B e g i n n i n g w i t h the g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i d e a s of t i m e and a c t i v i t y , r e c r e a t i o n has s u b s e q u e n t l y been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d f i r s t as a r e s p o n s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t ( b e h a v i o u r i s m ) and s u b s e q u e n t l y as a r e s p o n s e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e i r own a t t i t i u d e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n s . T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n Cheek's view of t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a v i n g t h r e e r o l e s : 1) t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a member of a s o c i a l g r o u p 2) t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a s o c i a l p e r s o n 3) t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a b e i n g * * F o r p u r p o s e s of r e s e a r c h , t h e f i r s t r o l e w ould f a l l t o t h e s o c i o l o g i s t s , t h e t h i r d r o l e t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and t h e * Chubb, M, & Chubb, HR 1 9 ** Cheek, N H f 8 2 1 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 Theor i e s o f R e c r e a t i o n s e c o n d r o l e m i ght be b e s t i n v e s t i g a t e d by t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . In any c a s e , i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s b a s e d on r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y as one p r o g r e s s e s from s e r v i n g s o c i a l g r o u p s t o i n d i v i d u a l s and from s a t i s f y i n g g r o u p wants t o i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s . P e r h a p s i t i s i n p a r t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e l a c k of d i r e c t i o n o f f e r e d by h u m a n i s t i c t h e o r i e s t h a t some of t h e most r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s s t a t e m e n t s s u c h a s : "To p r e a c h t h e s a n c t i t y of s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t s o c i e t y does not s o l v e a n y t h i n g ; t o h i d e b e h i n d t h e j a r g o n of ' e n a b l i n g e v e r y o n e t o r e a c h h i s / h e r f u l l p o t e n t i a l ' l e a d s us nowhere."* "The c e n t r a l p r o b l e m of v i r t u a l l y a l l r e c r e a t i o n f o r e c a s t i n g t o d a t e i s t h a t i t has f a i l e d t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f , o r come t o g r i p s w i t h , t h e n o t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s . . . I f one b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l of i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s ... f o r e c a s t e r s must d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h v a l u e s . " * * and " i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o f o c u s on l e i s u r e v a l u e s " * * * U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h e i r z e a l t o l i b e r a t e l e i s u r e from t h e work e t h i c and c l a s s d o m i n a t i o n , t h e h u m a n i s t w r i t e r s a l s o removed t h e s o c i a l v a l u e s w h i c h had been u s e d t o j u s t i f y t h e e x p e n d i t u r e of p u b l i c f u n d s on r e c r e a t i o n . * * * * The l a s t t h r e e * B r e g h a , F 7 ** B u r t o n , T L 1 2 *** B r e g h a , F 7 **** W h i l e t h e s t a t e m e n t s of t h e h u m a n i s t w r i t i e r s c a n be s a i d t o a p p l y t o r e c r e a t i o n g e n e r a l l y , t h e y do not have a u s e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , w h i c h i s t h e s u b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s . 22 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n q u o t a t i o n s would a p p e a r t o bespeak a r e v e r s a l o f t h e t r e n d t o w a r d u t t e r p e r m i s s i v e n e s s i n r e c r e a t i o n p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h was so p r e v a l e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e of t h e 70's. I f , as recommended by B u r t o n , r e s e a r c h i s r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d f u n d a m e n t a l s t u d i e s o f t h e v a l u e s o f r e c r e a t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l s and t o s o c i e t y , t h e a n s w ers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s of how much and what k i n d s of r e c r e a t i o n may y e t be f o r t h c o m i n g . T h e s e answers w i l l , p e r f o r c e , be b a s e d on v a l u e s and t h u s beg t h e q u e s t i o n "whose v a l u e s ? " Here a g a i n , r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t o what d i f f e r e n t forms of l e i s u r e do t o us, and how human d e v e l o p m e n t can be a d v a n c e d t h r o u g h r e c r e a t i o n . W h i l e t h i s c ombined p h i l o s o p h i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l / p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h i s b e s e t w i t h many p r o b l e m s , i t would a p p e a r t o have f a r more t o o f f e r t h a n t h e view t h a t r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be p u r s u e d b e c a u s e i t i s good p e r s e . F o r , as Bregha o b s e r v e s , "We do not d e s i r e l e i s u r e b e c a u s e we c o n s i d e r i t good - r a t h e r we c o n s i d e r i t good b e c a u s e we d e s i r e i t . " * W h i l e a w a i t i n g t h e r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t forms of l e i s u r e on i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y , and a w a i t i n g t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o l e i s u r e t h e o r y , what s h o u l d be t h e p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n ? J o h n s t o n ' s "A R a t i o n a l e f o r M u n i c i p a l L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s " 4 5 , which o f f e r s an e t h i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of income i m p l i c i t i n any p u b l i c l y f u n d e d r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s , p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r a n s w e r i n g t h i s * B r e g h a , F 7 23 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2^  T heor i e s of R e c r e a t i o n q u e s t i o n . He s t a t e s t h a t t h e p u b l i c f u n d i n g of r e c r e a t i o n w h i c h not e v e r y o n e u s e s , l i k e t h e f u n d i n g of s c h o o l s w h i c h n o t e v e r y o n e u s e s , "can o n l y be j u s t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s of some i n d i r e c t t y p e of b e n e f i t s f o r t h o s e not d i r e c t l y s u b s c r i b i n g t o th e s e r v i c e " . * In o t h e r words, i t i s not enough t o s u b s i d i z e r e c r e a t i o n b e c a u s e t h o s e who a r e u s i n g i t l i k e i t ; we must be a b l e t o make a r e a s o n e d argument why t h e p a r t i c u l a r form of r e c r e a t i o n b e i n g s u b s i d i z e d i s p r o v i d i n g i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s w h i c h h e l p a c h i e v e s o c i a l g o a l s . T h e s e g o a l s and t h e v a l u e s t h a t l i e b e h i n d them can be e v e r y b i t as p l u r a l i s t i c as t h e l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h have been a d v o c a t e d as a b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g by t h e h u m a n i s t i c r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s . The p r a c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between g o a l s and p r e f e r e n c e s i s t h a t g o a l s can a l s o be u s e d t o e t h i c a l l y j u s t i f y e x p e n d i t u r e s on t h e p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l s . G i v e n t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e of knowledge, d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l be e n c o u n t e r e d i n o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g some of t h e g o a l s ; however, t h e l u r e of f u n d s made a v a i l a b l e f o r programs w h i c h can be j u s t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s of s o c i a l g o a l s s h o u l d s t i m u l a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n a l Need A r r i v i n g a t a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s would be g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d by i n v o k i n g a b a s i c need f o r r e c r e a t i o n . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e agreement among r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s a s t o whether man i n d e e d has a need f o r * J o h n s t o n , B" 5 24 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n r e c r e a t i o n . 5 " On t h e one hand t h e r e a r e w r i t e r s l i k e l i t i s who s t a t e " i t seems l i k e l y t h a t we (humans) a r e g e n e t i c a l l y programmed t o a n a t u r a l h a b i t a t o f c l e a n a i r and a v a r i e d g r e e n l a n d s c a p e l i k e any o t h e r mammal. To be r e l a x e d and f e e l h e a l t h y u s u a l l y means s i m p l y a l l o w i n g our b o d i e s t o r e a c t a s e v o l u t i o n has e q u i p p e d us t o do f o r 100 m i l l i o n y e a r s " * w h i l e Gans r e s p o n d s w i t h " i t has n e v e r been p r o v e d t h a t a l a c k of r e c r e a t i o n or open space e v e r c a u s e d m e n t a l or p h y s i c a l s t r e s s " * * and C h a p p e l l e c o n t i n u e s " I f you i n t e r p r e t need t o mean n e c e s s i t y f o r human l i v i n g t h e n I b e l i e v e t h a t [ c o n s i d e r i n g r e c r e a t i o n as a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of human l i f e ] i s c l e a r l y i n v a l i d a t e d by o b s e r v a t i o n of c o n t r a r y human b e h a v i o r . " * * * A u t h o r s e x p r e s s i n g v i e w s between t h e s e two e x t r e m e s f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of need i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e c r e a t i o n t o human n e e d s . The most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t of Maslow, who p r o p o s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g a s c e n d i n g l e v e l s of n e e d s : p h y s i o l o g i c a l s a f e t y b e l o n g i n g e s teem s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n * * * * * l i t i s , HH, OL L o u c k s , & P Andrews, q u o t e d i n M e r c e r , D 5 4 ** Gans, H, q u o t e d i n M e r c e r , D 5" *** C h a p p e l l e , D E 1 7 **** Maslow, q u o t e d i n D r i v e r , B L 2 5 25 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s o f R e c r e a t i o n As soon as one l e v e l i s s a t i s f i e d , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e e k s t o s a t i s f y needs a t t h e n e x t h i g h e r l e v e l . R e c r e a t i o n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n f a l l s w i t h i n t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e c o n c e p t of s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n g i v e s l i t t l e q u a l i t a t i v e o r q u a n t i t a t i v e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d by B u r t o n . M e r c e r has a p p l i e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o r e c r e a t i o n need w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s s e v e r a l of t h e a p p r o a c h e s t o r e c r e a t i o n d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . 1) n o r m a t i v e need ( s t a n d a r d s a p p r o a c h ) 2) f e l t need ( h u m a n i s t i c a p p r o a c h ) 3) e x p r e s s e d need ( c o n s u m p t i o n ) 4) c o m p a r a t i v e n e e d 5 " He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s h o u l d t a k e a l l f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of need i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when d e v e l o p i n g r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y . W h i l e h i s i s a u s e f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of need, as t h e t e r m i s used by c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r i s t s , i t does l i t t l e t o s e t t l e t h e d i s p u t e o v e r t h e e x i s t e n c e of a b a s i c need f o r l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . O t h e r u s e s of t h e t e r m " r e c r e a t i o n a l need" i n c l u d e 1) t h e d e f i c i t between s u p p l y and d e m a n d 2 7 , 7 0 , 7 7 , and 2) t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t p u b l i s h e d by W e i n e r 8 9 growth and m a t u r a t i o n ( p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s s k i l l and t a l e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s t i m u l a t e d e v e l o p m e n t of c r e a t i v i t y promote e n v i r o n m e n t a l enjoyment 26 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s p o r t c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g r e d u c i n g p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y , g r o u p or community t e n s i o n s r e - c r e a t i o n f o r m e e t i n g d a i l y p u r s u i t s s t r e n g t h e n i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i d e n t i t i e s e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y p o s i t i v e c h a n n e l i n g o f a s o c i e t a l b e h a v i o r i n t o community a c c e p t e d e n d e a v o r s promote community a c t i v i t y and i n v o l v e m e n t meet i n d i v i d u a l c r i s e s W h i l e t h e s e have been l a b e l e d "needs" by W e i n e r , i n my view t h e y a r e c l o s e r t o p o t e n t i a l v a l u e s 1 6 or t o a s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h a community m i g h t w i s h i t s r e c r e a t i o n program t o s t r e s s . The o b j e c t i v e s c h o s e n from t h i s l i s t would be d e r i v e d from community g o a l s w h i c h i n t u r n would be b a s e d on community v a l u e s . The C o n c e p t s of R e c r e a t i o n a l Demand, S a t i s f a c t i o n , and Benef i t s Much o f t h e r e c e n t r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h why p e o p l e c h o o s e (demand) t h e r e c r e a t i o n p u r s u i t s t h e y do. T h i s c o n c e p t of "demand" i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e e c o n o m i s t s ' " c o n s u m p t i o n " and i s t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e i r demand c u r v e , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e amount of r e c r e a t i o n consumed o v e r a g i v e n p r i c e r a n g e . R e c r e a t i o n demand and p r e f e r e n c e s r e s u l t from m o t i v a t i o n s w h i c h i n t u r n r e p r e s e n t a n t i c i p a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n s and b e n e f i t s . C a m p b e l l 1 " u s e s s a t i s f a c t i o n s t o 27 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s o f R e c r e a t i o n r e f e r t o t h e immediate p e r s o n a l p l e a s u r e s and b e n e f i t s t o i n c l u d e t h o s e more e n d u r i n g i m p r o v e d c o n d i t i o n s a c c r u i n g t o s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y . He t h e n c o n n e c t s t h e s e s e v e r a l c o n c e p t s as f o l l o w s : o b j e c t i v e s — > f a c i l i t i e s — > a c t i v i t i e s — > s a t i s f a c t i o n s — > b e n e f i t s B u i l d i n g t h e model T h e s e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d c o n c e p t s form t h e c o r e of t h e model o f r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y w h i c h i s t o be d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s c h a p t e r . The f i r s t s t e p i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e model i s t o c l o s e t h e l o o p , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d f u l f i l l t h e o b j e c t i v e s , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: '< o b j e c t i v e s — > f a c i l i t i e s — > a c t i v i t i e s — > s a t i s f a c t i o n s — > b e n e f i t s i i ( f u l f i l l m e n t ) H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d t h e b a s i c n u c l e u s of t h e model, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of g o a l s , v a l u e s , and e v a l u a t i o n can be worked i n . The o b j e c t i v e s would be e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s of d e m o c r a t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d s o c i a l g o a l s . The s o c i a l g o a l s i n t u r n would r e f l e c t community v a l u e s . Community v a l u e s would a l s o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h ( p e r s o n a l ) s a t i s f a c t i o n s p r o d u c e d ( s o c i a l ) b e n e f i t s . The f u l f i l l m e n t of o b j e c t i v e s i s measured by 28 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 2 T h e o r i e s of R e c r e a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g model, as d e v e l o p e d t o t h i s p o i n t , has t h e form shown i n F i g u r e 2. R e c r e a t i o n c o n s u m p t i o n i s c o n c e i v e d of as b e i n g o u t s i d e o f t h i s c y c l e and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h i t t h r o u g h t h e s t e p s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n s . The r e c r e a t i o n c o n s u m p t i o n c y c l e a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e s t e p s of p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and m o t i v a t i o n s ( s e e F i g u r e 3 ) . W h i l e s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s t o t h e models of B a n n o n 3 and B u r t o n 1 0 , t h i s d i a g r a m d i f f e r s i n t h a t i t e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e r o l e of community v a l u e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g o a l s of t h e m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n . The s o u r c e ( s ) of v a l u e s and t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f f u l f i l l m e n t of o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s . The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g p l a n n i n g as i t r e l a t e s t o r e c r e a t i o n . 29 GOALS OBJECTIVES SOCIAL BENEFITS FACILITIES & PROGRAMS PERSONAL SATISFACTIONS FIGURE 2 PLANNING MODEL - STEP 2 30 GOALS FIGURE 3 PLANNING MODEL - STEP 3 31 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s CHAPTER 3 PLANNING PRINCIPLES " p e r h a p s t h e c o n t r o l l e d 'ad h o c e r y ' s y s t e m i n w h i c h we work p r o v i d e s some g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e e x c e s s e s of e i t h e r r a t i o n a l e v a n g e l i s m or i d e o l o g i c a l p o l e m i c s or a c a d e m i c ' o b j e c t i v i t y ' i n a s s e s s i n g a n y t h i n g as complex as t h e s o c i a l impact of r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . " * A p a r t from t h e t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k remark q u o t e d above, t h e r e i s l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e abandonment of p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n . * * B a r t o n & M a l c o l m " o f f e r t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n of p l a n n i n g : " P l a n n i n g a t t e m p t s t o a l l o c a t e r e s o u r c e s (human, p h y s i c a l and f i n a n c i a l ) among c o m p e t i n g u s e s i n an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e manner. I t i s an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h p r o v i d e s a framework w i t h i n w h i c h c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s c an be made. P l a n n i n g c o n n o t e s p o l i c y - m a k i n g and p r e s e n t and f u t u r e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g i n v o l v i n g s h o r t and l o n g t e r m a p p r o a c h e s . I t sometimes a t t e m p t s t o i n d u c e change w h i l e a t o t h e r t i m e s i t s t r i v e s t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r l y d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e s t a t u s quo".*** To t h o s e who a r e r e p e l l e d by t h e c o l d , c a l c u l a t i n g n a t u r e of p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s b a s e d on economic e f f i c i e n c y , Gray & Greben o f f e r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s s u r a n c e : " C r i t i c s a r g u e t h a t much p l a n n i n g i s ant i h u m a n and i n many c a s e s t h e y a r e r i g h t . I t i s e a s y t o l o s e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and * C a m p b e l l , CK, 1" ** A d m i t t e d l y , 'muddling t h r o u g h ' " 9 a p p r o a c h e s v e r y c l o s e t o n o n - p l a n n i n g d e s p i t e t h e c l o a k of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i t g a i n e d f o l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of L i n d b l o m ' s a r t i c l e . 5 8 *** B a r t o n , C, & R M a l c o l m " 32 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a l u e s i n t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g d e s i r e t o maximize economic e f f i c i e n c y . The answer t o t h e c r i t i c i s m i s n o t t o a c t w i t h o u t a p l a n ; t h a t a p p r o a c h c r e a t e s i t s own t y r a n n y . R a t h e r i t i s t o d e v i s e a p l a n n i n g method t h a t p e r m i t s s o c i a l c o s t -b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . L a c k i n g s u c h a s y s t e m , we a r e t u r n i n g c o n t r o l o f our s o c i a l e n t e r p r i s e s o v e r t o t h e a c c o u n t i n g mind."* H a v i n g d e f i n e d ( f o r p u r p o s e s of t h i s p a p e r ) what p l a n n i n g i s , i t i s p r o p o s e d n e x t t o l o o k a t how p l a n n i n g t a k e s p l a c e . The p l a n n i n g model w h i c h r e s u l t s w i l l be compared w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d r e c r e a t i o n model ( F i g u r e 3) t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e y r e l a t e , and where t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s of j u n c t u r e a r e . A r e v i e w of a number of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g t e x t s and a r t i c l e s 3 , " , 1 0 , " 8 , 5 9 , 6 0 , 7 8 , 9 3 r e s u l t s i n a c o m p o s i t e l i s t c o n s i s t i n g of t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a n n i n g s t e p s . 1) t e r m s of r e f e r e n c e / p r o c e s s d e s i g n ( 4 ) * * 2) d a t a g a t h e r i n g / d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s u p p l y and demand (8) 3) d a t a a n a l y s i s / i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i s s u e s (6) 4) s e t t i n g of goal's and o b j e c t i v e s (7) 5) d e v e l o p m e n t and e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s (5) 6) a c t i o n p l a n (8) 7) i m p l e m e n t a t i o n (8) 8) r e v i e w / e v a l u a t i o n (3) T hese s t e p s a r e p a r a p h r a s e d by Crompton's m a r k e t i n g a p p r o a c h " 2 , w h i c h d e s c r i b e s r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g as a s e t o f * G r a y , DE, & S G r e b e n 3 2 ** The number i n p a r e n t h e s e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e number out o f e i g h t p u b l i c a t i o n s examined w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l y m e n t i o n e d t h a t s p e c i f i c s t e p . 33 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3_ P l a n n i n q P r i n c i p l e s m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , namely: 1) g a t h e r i n g market i n t e l l i g e n c e 2) s e l e c t i o n of c l i e n t g r o u p s 3) d e v e l o p m e n t of o b j e c t i v e s and program s t r a t e g y 4) m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y - p r o d u c t - p r i c e - d i s t r i b u t i o n -promot i o n The a s p e c t s of r e c r e a t i o n t h e o r y most c e n t r a l t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , as d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p a r i n g F i g u r e 3 w i t h t h e c o m p o s i t e l i s t a bove, a r e seen t o be g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , and t h e  f u l f i l l m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s (as measured by e v a l u a t i o n ) . A d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p l a n n i n g s t e p s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e t h r e e c o n c e p t s f o l l o w s . G o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s " c o m p e t i n g needs f o r u r b a n s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e u r b a n p l a n n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o s h a r p e n t h e i r g o a l s , i f t h e y a r e t o compete w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s f o r f u n d s i n an e r a of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s " * The above q u o t a t i o n g i v e s s u f f i c i e n t p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n why r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s s h o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n g o a l f o r m u l a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n . G o l d goes on t o say t h a t w i t h t h e abandonment of a r b i t r a r y s t a n d a r d s as a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s w i l l now be r e q u i r e d t o j u s t i f y t h e i r b u d g e t s on t h e * G o l d , S 3 5 34 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s b a s i s of r a t i o n a l measures o f p e r f o r m a n c e . S i n c e t r a d i t i o n a l c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s i s not r e a d i l y a p p l i e d t o r e c r e a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n , a s s e s s m e n t of p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l r e q u i r e some measurement of g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , he a r g u e s , c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o g o a l d e f i n i t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y - p l a t i t u d e s w i l l n ot do. G o a l s a r e d e f i n e d as t h e ends t o w h i c h a d e s i g n t r e n d s . 9 " , 9 5 They a r e a b s t r a c t , u n i v e r s a l , and l a s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o w a r d w h i c h s o c i e t y s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d , o r d i r e c t i o n s or v a l u e s t o be s o u g h t . 3 3 , 3 " O b j e c t i v e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e a t t a i n a b l e ends and a r e c a p a b l e of measurement. U s i n g t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s , s t a n d a r d s c an be employed as means t o d e f i n e o b j e c t i v e s , as l o n g as t h e y a r e not a l l o w e d t o become ends i n t h e m s e l v e s . P o l i c i e s , p r o g r a m s , and p r a c t i c e s a r e means u s e d t o a c h i e v e t h e ends s p e c i f i e d by t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . To be e f f e c t i v e , g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d do t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) s t a t e an o v e r a l l p u r p o s e 2) i n d i c a t e an a w a r e n e s s of t h e e f f e c t of t h a t p u r p o s e on o t h e r p u r p o s e s 3) p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t e t a r g e t t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e o v e r a l l p u r p o s e and whose a t t a i n m e n t a p p e a r s f e a s i b l e 4) i n f e r a c o u r s e of a c t i o n Y o u n g 9 " , 9 5 t h e n l i s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s i n t h e g o a l s e t t i n g p r o c e s s 1) e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e p e r i m e t e r ( s ) o f c o n c e r n 2) . e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e range of c h o i c e 3 5 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s 3 ) t e c h n i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e range of p o t e n t i a l g o a l s 4) e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e g o a l s as p o l i c y And f i n a l l y , t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e o f f e r e d f o r c o n v e r t i n g t h e g o a l s t o o b j e c t i v e s : 1) f u l f i l l t h e l e t t e r and t h e s p i r i t of t h e r e l a t e d g o a l 2) be s p e c i f i c 3 ) s u g g e s t a means of a t t a i n m e n t 4) be f e a s i b l e P r e p a r e d i n t h i s way, g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s form a r a t i o n a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t and c o n s i s t e n t d i r e c t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g w h i l e r e m a i n i n g f l e x i b l e i n t h e f a c e o f day t o day c o n t i n g e n c i e s . T h a t i s t o s a y , p o l i c y p l a n s p r e p a r e d from g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s have a f l e x i b i l i t y l a c k i n g i n m a s t e r p l a n s . "They can p r o v i d e .a v a r i e t y of g u i d e s t o p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h o u t t h e [ l e g a l ] r e s t r i c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p h y s i c a l p l a n s or maps."* At t h e same t i m e , g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s c a n be u s e d t o d e r i v e s t a n d a r d s of s o c i a l b e n e f i t t o t h e community. Programs and f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y f u l f i l l s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s c a n be j u d g e d worthy of i n c l u s i o n a n d / o r s u b s i d i z a t i o n i n a m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m . The p r o c e s s of c o m p a r i n g o b j e c t i v e s t o p e r f o r m a n c e i s c o v e r e d by t h e s t u d y o f e v a l u a t i o n . E v a l u a t i o n " I f t h e f i e l d [ o f r e c r e a t i o n ] i s t o j u s t i f y * G o l d , S 3 " 36 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3^  P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s i t s c l a i m f o r s u p p o r t i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t i t w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y n e c e s s a r y t o document i t s v a l u e s and outcomes."* E v a l u a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d by T h e o b a l d 7 5 as b e i n g t h e k e y s t o n e t o th e d e l i v e r y of l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s , i s t h e s u b j e c t of a number of t e x t s and a r t i c l e s , b o t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l 9 0 , 9 2 and r e c r e a t i o n a l 3 0 , 3 7 , 5 9 f i e l d s , among o t h e r s . F o r p u r p o s e s of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , e v a l u a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of " t h e w o r t h , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , o r outcomes o f a program, f a c i l i t y o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e " . * * F o l l o w i n g t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n p e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o H a t r y & Dunn e v a l u a t i o n s e r v e s t o : 1) p r o v i d e c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on how r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e m e e t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l need 2) p r o v i d e a b a s e l i n e from w h i c h f u t u r e p r o g r e s s c an be measured 3) e s t i m a t e t h e f u t u r e e f f e c t i v n e s s of c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n programs 4) e s t i m a t e t h e budget 5) h e l p p r e p a r e community p l a n s f o r l a n d , f a c i l i t i e s , and c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t 6) p r o v i d e an a n n u a l s t a t u s r e p o r t 7) d e a l w i t h q u e s t i o n s from t h e p u b l i c 3 7 And T h e o b a l d l i s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l u s e s o f r e c r e a t i o n program e v a l u a t i o n : 1 ) t o d e m o n s t r a t e t o o t h e r s t h a t t h e program i s w o r t h w h i l e * K r a u s , RG, & JG C u r t i s " ** i b i d . 37 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3_ P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s 2) t o d e t e r m i n e whether o r not a program i s moving i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n 3) t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e needs f o r wh i c h t h e program was d e s i g n e d a r e b e i n g met 4) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o s t s of t h e p r o g r a m i n terms of money or e f f o r t 5) t o j u s t i f y p a s t o r p r o j e c t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s 6) t o s u p p o r t program e x p a n s i o n 7) t o compare d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f programs i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s or e f f e c t 7 5 T h e r e a r e f o u r b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f a p p r o a c h e s t o e v a l u a t i o n : e x p e r i m e n t a l , f a c i l i t i e s measurement ( s t a n d a r d s ) , s a t i s f a c t i o n s and b e n e f i t s , and g o a l f u l f i l l m e n t 1 " , 2 9 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , e v a l u a t i o n i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t e x t i s s e l d o m p o s s i b l e i n t h e c o u r s e of l e i s u r e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . The drawbacks t o s t a n d a r d s have been l i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y ( s e e C h a p t e r 1) and T h e o b a l d n o t e s t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e e n c o u n t e r e d when e v a l u a t i n g a g a i n s t a r b i t r a r y s t a n d a r d s : 1) s t a n d a r d s change 2) t h e v a l u e judgements u s e d t o s e t t h e s t a n d a r d s a r e o b s c u r e d 3) u n p r o v e n judgements r e d u c e t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y 4) e v a l u a t i o n i s o f t e n l i m i t e d t o t h o s e c r i t e r i a t h a t c an be e a s i l y m e a s u r e d 7 5 S a t i s f a c t i o n / b e n e f i t c h e c k l i s t s a r e o f f e r e d by M u r p h y 5 6 , F i s k & H a t r y 3 0 and van d e r S m i s s e n 8 5 and i n c l u d e s u c h u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n s as a c c e s s i b i l i t y , v a r i e t y , a v o i d a n c e of 38 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n q P r i n c i p l e s c r o w d e d n e s s , and s a f e t y , and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s i n d i c a t o r s s u c h as c r i m e and d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s , community h e a l t h , and e f f e c t s on t h e l o c a l economy. R e c r e a t i o n s a t i s f a c t i o n measurements have t h e i r d rawbacks t o o , among them b e i n g s u b j e c t i v i t y , d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a s s e s s m e n t and measurement, v a r i a t i o n s i n s a t i s f a c t i o n s d e r i v e d between i n d i v i d u a l s and a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e 3 7 , and l a c k of c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s 7 5 . F o l l o w i n g t h e scheme d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 3, g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t a s s e s s m e n t a p p e a r s t o be t h e most r a t i o n a l form of a s s e s s m e n t of t h e f o u r a p r o a c h e s j u s t c o n s i d e r e d . The g o a l s d e s c r i b e what i t i s t h a t t h e community wants from i t s r e c r e a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s . S i n c e c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t w i l l l i k e l y have gone i n t o p r e p a r a t i o n and o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of t h e g o a l s , i t would be a waste of e f f o r t and p o s s i b l y c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e i f a s e p a r a t e l i s t of d e s i r e d s a t i s f a c t i o n s and b e n e f i t s were p r e p a r e d . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , however, t h e use of g o a l s f o r e v a l u a t i o n does have i t s p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . F o r example: 1) t h e g o a l s a r e o f t e n h azy 2) p rograms move not o n l y t o w a r d o f f i c i a l g o a l s 3) e l e m e n t s of t h e p r o g ram a r e n o t s e p a r a t e d out 4) c a u s e s of program m a l f u n c t i o n a r e not i d e n t i f i e d 9 0 To m i n i m i z e t h e s e p r o b l e m s , W e i s s recommends t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p w i s e a p p r o a c h : 1) f o r m u l a t e t h e g o a l s t o be u s e d as c r i t e r i a 2) c h o o s e among m u l t i p l e g o a l s on t h e b a s i s o f u s a b i l i t y i m p o r t a n c e 39 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s c o m p a t i b i l i t y 3) i n v e s t i g a t e u n a n t i c i p a t e d c o n s e q u e n c e s 4) measure outcomes 5) measure p r o g r a m i n p u t s and i n t e r v e n i n g p r o c e s s e s 6) c o l l e c t t h e n e c e s s a r y d a t a 7) compare w i t h o b j e c t i v e s 9 0 S c r i v e n 9 2 p o i n t s out t h a t p u r e p a y - o f f e v a l u a t i o n , as o p p o s e d t o e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e program, f a i l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between d e f i c i e n c i e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e , d e f i c i e n c i e s i n g o a l s , and d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s e m p l o y e d . In a d d i t i o n , p a y - o f f e v a l u a t i o n f a i l s t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e t h e p r o g r a m i s i n p r o g r e s s . In r e s p o n s e , S t u f f l e b e a m has d e v e l o p e d a f o r m a t f o r s e p a r a t e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of p rograms - c o n t e x t , i n p u t , p r o c e s s , and p r o d u c t - w h i c h he has a c r o n y m i c a l l y t i t l e d CIPP. S e v e r a l e v a l u a t i o n methods have been d e v e l o p e d from s y s t e m s a n d / o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y : e . g . , Program E v a l u a t i o n and Review T e c h n i q u e (PERT), C r i t i c a l P a t h Method (CPM), and P l a n n i n g - Programming - B u d g e t i n g System (PPBS). In o r d e r t o a s s u r e t h a t e v a l u a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t , PPBS, a g o a l - b a s e d , b u d g e t - o r i e n t e d p l a n n i n g s y s t e m , was made mandatory i n U.S. F e d e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e s d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1960's. I t s w i t h d r a w a l as a r e q u i r e d program some f i v e y e a r s l a t e r was i n r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n a r i g i d l y and u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i e d complex e v a l u a t i v e mechanism as w e l l as t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o change by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a c c u s t o m e d t o l i n e i t e m budget i n g . 5 9 40 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s In summary, f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n of a s e r v i c e as v a r i e d i n sp a c e and t i m e as l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s , c h e c k l i s t s a r e t o o s u p e r f i c i a l and s y s t e m s models a r e t o o complex. G o a l a c h i e v e m e n t , by v i r t u e o f i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , c a n s t e e r c l e a r o f t h e s e e x t r e m e s . R e c r e a t i o n "demand" A l t h o u g h a b s e n t from F i g u r e 3, r e c r e a t i o n demand w a r r a n t s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s : 1) t h e t o p i c o f r e c r e a t i o n demand f o r e c a s t i n g has consumed s u c h a l a r g e p o r t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s 2) i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have a d e t a i l e d knowledge o f r e c r e a t i o n s p a c e s and f a c i l i t i e s demanded when d e c i d i n g w h i c h of s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s i s t o be implemented i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a p a r t i c u l a r g o a l . T h i s s e c t i o n f i r s t l o o k s a t a t t e m p t s t o p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n by means of demand f o r e c a s t i n g . The d i s c u s s i o n t h e n moves t o p r e s c r i p t i v e f o r e c a s t i n g and t o t h e use of demand as a means of g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t . " P r e d i c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n c o n s u m p t i o n and r e l a t i n g i t t o s u p p l y i s t h e A c h i l l e s h e e l of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s . " * " V i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h i s needed t o d e v e l o p models o f t h e economic demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n t h a t w i l l make p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n of s o c i o l o g i c a l and d e m o g r a p h i c a s p e c t s by a n a l y s i n g t h e dependence o f t h e number, q u a l i t y , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s s o u g h t on t h e * Chubb M, q u o t e d i n S h a f e r , EL, & G M o e l l e r 7 3 41 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s l o c a t i o n , s i z e , s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs of t h e u s e r p o p u l a t i o n . " * The above q u o t a t i o n s from 1969 and 1971 r e f l e c t t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e economic demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n as w e l l as t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t e of t h e a r t o f t h e t i m e . A s i z e a b l e l i t e r a t u r e was p r o d u c e d a s e c o n o m i s t s g r a p p l e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t i v e , non-market, d i v e r s e , and i l l - d e f i n e d a s p e c t s of r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l b r i e f l y examine t h e r e c r e a t i o n demand l i t e r a t u r e by c r i t i c i s i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l methods and c o n c l u d i n g w i t h an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s of demand g e n e r a l l y i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . T h e r e a r e a number of a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e f o r e c a s t i n g of r e c r e a t i o n demand. A c o m p o s i t e l i s t f o l l o w s 1 5 , 9 1 : 1) e c o n o m i c s (demand s c h e d u l e s ) 2) p r o j e c t i o n s t r e n d e x t r a p o l a t i o n s o c i o e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e e x t r a p o l a t i o n " s o f t " t e c h n i q u e s D e l p h i s c e n a r i o w r i t i n g 3) m o d e l l i n g g r a v i t y and i n e r t i a m odels s y s t e m s models A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n and c r i t i c i s m of e a c h of t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s * U. S. N a t i o n a l Academy of S c i e n c e s 7 9 42 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s f o l l o w s . Economic a p p r o a c h e s : As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , economic demand must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from comsumption. Consumption i s an h i s t o r i c a l s t a t i s t i c w h i c h r e c o r d s t h e amount of use a f a c i l i t y o r f a c i l i t i e s r e c e i v e s d u r i n g a c e r t a i n p e r i o d of t i m e , w h i l e demand a l s o r e f l e c t s f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s and t h u s c an be u s e d i n f o r e c a s t i n g . G o l d 3 5 d e v e l o p s t h e c o n c e p t of demand by s e p a r a t i n g i t i n t o t h r e e t y p e s e x p r e s s e d l a t e n t i n d u c e d ( i n d u c e a b l e ) E x p r e s s e d demand p r o d u c e s a c e r t a i n l e v e l of c o n s u m p t i o n , u t i l i z i n g e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . L a t e n t demand i s t h a t w h i c h would be e x p r e s s e d i f s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e , w h i l e i n d u c e a b l e demand i s t h a t p o r t i o n of l a t e n t demand w h i c h can be e x p l o i t e d by e n c o u r a g i n g p e o p l e t o change t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n p a t t e r n s . One of t h e c h i e f f a i l u r e s of f o r e c a s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n demand on t h e b a s i s o f e x t r a p o l a t i n g p r e s e n t c o n s u m p t i o n i s t h a t i t d o e s n ' t t a k e l a t e n t demand i n t o a c c o u n t . W o r k i n g w i t h r e c r e a t i o n demand i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s a non-market commodity. T h i s non-market n a t u r e d e r i v e s from a number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c r e a t i o n , namely: 43 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s 1 ) i t i s a p u b l i c good* 2) i n d i v i s i b i l i t y 3) s p i l l o v e r s , e x t e r n a l i t i e s , and u n a p p r o p r i a b l e t h i r d p a r t y b e n e f i t s 4) m e r i t wants ( g r a t i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be s e p a r a b l e f r o m a b i l i t y t o pay) 5) t h e e x o r b i t a n t c o s t of c o l l e c t i n g u s e r f e e s 7 9 The non-market n a t u r e of r e c r e a t i o n means t h a t a demand a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s imputed p r i c e s . Methods d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e i n c l u d e : 1) market b e n e f i t s method 2) market p r i c e of f i s h method 3) t r a v e l c o s t m e t h o d 2 0 , 2 1 , " 7 , 7 6 The f i r s t method, w h i c h c a l c u l a t e s t h e g r o s s e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e c r e a t i o n , r e s u l t s i n i n f l a t e d f i g u r e s b e c a u s e many of t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e m e r e l y t r a n s f e r r e d from some o t h e r form o f c o n s u m p t i o n . F o r example, t h e money t h a t i s s p e n t on f o o d f o r a camping t r i p o n l y r e p l a c e s t h e money t h a t would be s p e n t on f o o d a t home and does not r e p r e s e n t a new c a s h f l o w s t i m u l a t e d by r e c r e a t i o n . E v a l u a t i n g a f i s h i n g t r i p on t h e b a s i s of t h e c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e of t h e f i s h c a u g h t i m p l i e s t h a t f o o d v a l u e s were a l l t h a t were o b t a i n e d from t h e e x p e r i e n c e . The t r a v e l c o s t method u s e s t h e t r a v e l c o s t s i n c u r r e d by a r e c r e a t i o n i s t a s * a p u b l i c good i s a good whi c h , once s u p p l i e d , i s g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l (one man's c o n s u m p t i o n does not d e t r a c t from a n o t h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o c o n s u m e ) 6 44 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3^  P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s a p r o x y f o r p r i c e and has been a p p l i e d t o b o t h f o r e c a s t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . I t has been f u r t h e r e x t e n d e d by P e a r s e 6 2 by means of t h e c o n c e p t o f consumers' s u r p l u s . Though i t i s t h e most p r o m i s i n g o f t h e e c o n o m i c s - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n f o r e c a s t i n g , t h e t r a v e l c o s t method has t h e f o l l o w i n g d r a w b a c k s : 1) i t assumes t h a t t h e o n l y v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e c o s t o f a v i s i t a r e i n t h e c o s t of t r a v e l 2) i t assumes t h a t t h e c o s t o f t r a v e l t o a s p e c i f i c s i t e f rom a s p e c i f i c a r e a i s c o n s t a n t among i n d i v i d u a l s 3) i t l a c k s a sound t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n ( t h e demand e q u a t i o n s a r e not e x p l i c i t l y d e r i v e d from a model of consumer b e h a v i o u r ) 4) i t d o e s n ' t r e c o g n i z e t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s i t e 5 5 P r o j e c t i o n s : E x t r a p o l a t i o n of e x i s t i n g r a t e s of c o n s u m p t i o n i s u s e f u l o n l y i n s h o r t term management s i t u a t i o n s as i t assumes t h a t n e i t h e r t h e s u p p l y nor t h e r a t e of c o n s u m p t i o n w i l l change d u r i n g t h e s t u d y i n t e r v a l , and i t d o e s n ' t t a k e a c c o u n t of p r i c e , s u p p l y , d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s , n o n - u s e r s , or n e c e s s a r y e x p e r i e n c e . P r e d i c t i o n b a s e d on t h e e f f e c t s of m u l t i p l e s o c i o e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s has been e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d , but t h e s t r e n g t h s of t h e p r e d i c t i o n s have been v a r i a b l e and o f t e n l o w 7 3 . " S o f t " t e c h n i q u e s , l i k e t h e D e l p h i method and s c e n a r i o w r i t i n g , a r e v a l u e d not so much f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t t h e f u t u r e as t h e y a r e f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s e n s i t i z e 45 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3_ P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s p l a n n e r s t o t h e r a n g e of p o s s i b i l i t i e s 1 5 . T h e i r g r e a t e r c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s r e s u l t s from t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of demand-s h a p i n g f o r c e s not c o n s i d e r e d by o t h e r methods, e.g., p s y c h o l o g i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l 9 , 1 0 . G r a v i t y and i n e r t i a models j o i n t l y c o n s i d e r d i s t a n c e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s , w h i l e s y s t e m s m o dels c o n s i d e r a wide r a n g e of v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . Systems m o d e l s , a l t h o u g h t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e most a c c u r a t e and b e n e f i c i a l , have f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l and a r e l i t t l e u s e d b e c a u s e of " t h e e x p e r t i s e , e x p e n s e , and d a t a base n e c e s s a r y t o make them e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g t o o l s " . * In a d d i t i o n t o a l l t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l f a i l i n g s , t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d methods of r e c r e a t i o n f o r e c a s t i n g have two f u n d a m e n t a l f l a w s i n common: t h e y assume 1) t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e e v e n t s on t h e b a s i s of p r e s e n t knowledge** and 2) t h a t a l l r e c r e a t i o n d e s i r e s s h o u l d be s a t i s f i e d 7 " . In p l a c e o f t h e s e p a s s i v e forms of " f o r e c a s t i n g , B u r t o n recommends p r e s c r i p t i v e f o r e c a s t i n g . R a t h e r t h a n s e l e c t i n g one of s e v e r a l p r e d i c t e d f u t u r e s , u s i n g r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o u r as t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e and s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s as t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , he recommends s t a r t i n g from v a l u e s and t h e n s e e k i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e k i n d of r e c r e a t i o n f u t u r e we want. When s p e n d i n g p u b l i c money on a s e r v i c e , s u c h a g o a l - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h would * G o l d , S 3 5 ** T i s s h a w , e t a l . , r e s p o n d t o t h i s c r i t i c i s m by s t a t i n g : " F u t u r e p r e d i c t i o n i s o n l y u s e f u l i f l o o k e d a t . w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i t i s not an i n s t r u m e n t of ' t r u t h ' , but a t o o l t o m i n i m i z e r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g . " 7 7 46 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s seem most a p p r o p r i a t e . Thus, once a g a i n , we a r r i v e back a t v a l u e s as b e i n g a t t h e f o c u s of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . In a g o a l - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h t o , r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , demand f o r e c a s t s a r e not us e d as a " s h o p p i n g l i s t " f o r p r o j e c t s t o be imp l e m e n t e d . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t demand s t u d i e s a r e u n n e c e s s a r y . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e r e c r e a t i o n g o a l s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y and i n o r d e r t o be a s s u r e d o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s (demand) of t h e community. Thus, r e c r e a t i o n demand i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e p l a n n i n g model. The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t i n t h e model demand a n a l y s i s i s a means t o t h e end o f g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t , whereas i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g methods t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n demand i s u s u a l l y an end i n i t s e l f . V a l u e s V a l u e s s e r v e as t h e s o u r c e of g o a l s 3 " , " 6 and t h u s a r e t h e u l t i m a t e b a s i s f o r t h e c h o i c e of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , b o t h i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y . B u r t o n o f f e r s an a d d i t i o n a l argument i n f a v o r of t h e use of v a l u e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s . He s a y s t h a t a l t h o u g h s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s have a c t e d as f a i r l y r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s of p u b l i c v a l u e s i n t h e p a s t , t h e s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a l u e s and s o c i o l o g i c v a r i a b l e s a p p e a r s t o be b r e a k i n g down. T h e r e f o r e , v a l u e s s h o u l d be u s e d d i r e c t l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g f o r e c a s t i n g , s i n c e " o n l y v a l u e s have t h e n e c e s s a r y b r e a d t h and s t r e t c h i n s o c i a l t i m e and s p a c e t o p r o v i d e a s t a b l e 47 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s b a se f o r f o r e c a s t i n g and hence p l a n n i n g . " * E a c h i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s a r e e q u a l and t h e r e i s no s i n g l e " c o r r e c t " v a l u e 1 2 . As a r e s u l t , t h e use o f v a l u e s has been condemned on t h e b a s i s t h a t by i n c o r p o r a t i n g one v a l u e i n s t e a d of a n o t h e r , one i n d i v i d u a l or a g r o u p may be f a v o r e d o v e r a n o t h e r . However, s i n c e v a l u e s u n d e r l i e a l l our d e c i s i o n s , t h e y c a n n o t be a v o i d e d and i t i s b e t t e r t o d e a l w i t h them f r a n k l y and e x p l i c i t l y . In a d d i t i o n t o v a r y i n g from p e r s o n t o p e r s o n , v a l u e s v a r y from t i m e t o t i m e . The s h i f t s i n r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s o v e r t i m e a r e e x p r e s s e d i n R e i c h ' s t h r e e c o n s c i o u s n e s s l e v e l s 6 5 : I b e f o r e 1945 i n n e r d i r e c t e d n e s s ; t h e s e l f made man II 1945 - 1960 o t h e r d i r e c t e d ; a d o p t s v a l u e s s e t by g r o u p I I I a f t e r 1960 l e i s u r e s o c i e t y ; h u m a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y ** S i n c e v a l u e s a r e so v a r i a b l e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e whose v a l u e s a r e t o be u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g o a l s of t h e r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s : th e a g e n c y s t a f f ' s , t h e p a r k c o m m i s s i o n ' s , or t h e community's? A g r e a t d e a l has been w r i t t e n a b o u t a d h e r i n g t o t h e v a l u e s of t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , b e c a u s e of t h e i r t r a i n i n g and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n m a t t e r s . Balmer & W i l l i a m s ask r h e t o r i c a l l y of r e c r e a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s : "Are we r e q u i r e d t o work w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y v a l u e s as measured by our p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , or s h o u l d we assume a more d e s i r a b l e s e t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b o t h our * B u r t o n , T L , 1 2 ** These v a l u e s h i f t s a r e r e a d i l y t r a c e d i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e q u o t e d i n c h a p t e r s 1 and 2. 48 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3_ P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and our p r o f e s s i o n a l s e n s e o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c h a n g e ? " * U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t i s l i k e l y t o a r i s e i f a g e n c y s t a f f v a l u e s a r e t o d o m i n a t e . I t i s a w e l l documented f e a t u r e of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r t h a t agency o f f i c i a l s v a l u e t h e s u r v i v a l of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as much or more t h a n t h e y do t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y were c o m m i s s i o n e d t o p r o v i d e 2 8 . The r e c r e a t i o n c o m m i s s i o n , b e i n g a p o l i t i c a l l y e l e c t e d o r a p p o i n t e d b o a r d s h o u l d be b e t t e r a b l e t o r e p r e s e n t t h e community's r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s . In t h e o r y , t h e i r s u r v i v a l depends on v o t e s , not on t h e e x i s t e n c e of an a g e n c y . However, i n t h e p a r t y s y s t e m , a s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r i n g an a l l e g i a n c e d i v i d e d between c l i e n t and o r g a n i z a t i o n a g a i n a r i s e s . W h i l e an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s c o n s t i t u e n t s may want him t o v o t e one way on an i s s u e , h i s s u r v i v a l i n t h e p a r t y and t h e p a r t y ' s s u r v i v a l as a government may r e q u i r e him t o v o t e t h e o t h e r way. A l s o , s i n c e v a l u e s a r e s h i f t i n g so r a p i d l y t h e s e d a y s , e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t h e i r a p p o i n t e e s a r e o f t e n i n t h e p o s i t i o n of f o l l o w i n g t h e p e o p l e , i n s t e a d of l e a d i n g them. T h e r e f o r e , h a v i n g e l i m i n a t e d r e c r e a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s and e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s as t h e s o u r c e of t h e v a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e community r e c r e a t i o n g o a l s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o seek a n o t h e r s o u r c e of v a l u e s and a mechanism f o r t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n . The one r e m a i n i n g s o u r c e i s t h e community, and t h e mechanism t h e y c h o s e has come t o be known as " p u b l i c B a l m e r , K, & DS W i l l i a m s , q u o t e d i n B e r e s , L R 5 4 9 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g d u r i n g t h e 1960's as s t r i d e n t demands f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t s i g n a l l e d w i d e s p r e a d u n h a p p i n e s s w i t h government g e n e r a l l y , and r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y , b e i n g c a r r i e d out s t r i c t l y " f r o m t h e t o p down." P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t has been a p a r t of t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g scene f o r some 20 y e a r s , l i k e most p l a n n i n g methods has f a i l e d t o s o l v e a l l t h e p r o b l e m s i t s e t out t o s o l v e and has c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s of i t s own. The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l examine t h e a d v a n t a g e s and p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t , and w i l l a t t e m p t t o show how t h e p r o b l e m s can be overcome t o t h e p o i n t where p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a v i a b l e means of i n c o r p o r a t i n g community v a l u e s i n t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s . P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n "as t h e p u b l i c has become more k n o w l e d g e a b l e , more v o c a l , and more c r i t i c a l of d e c i s i o n s of government, [ t h e q u e s t i o n whether i t s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d ] has a l l but d i s a p p e a r e d . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c must be c o n s u l t e d " * From t h i s t h e s i s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e r i v e s i t s i m p o r t a n c e from b e i n g c e n t r a l t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e g o a l s w h i c h w i l l d i r e c t t h e e n t i r e r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m . H a v i n g r e j e c t e d t h e c i v i l s e r v a n t s ' and t h e p o l i t i c i a n s ' v a l u e s as not b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t t o d e t e r m i n e r e c r e a t i o n g o a l s , one i s l e f t w i t h * D o e l l , CE, & LF T w a r d z i k 2 " 50 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3^  P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s h a v i n g t o e x t r a c t an a p p r o p r i a t e s e t of g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s d i r e c t l y from t h e p o p u l a t i o n , b a s e d on t h e i r v a l u e s . W h i l e t h i s p r o c e s s , known as c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i s c o m p l i c a t e d b o t h p o l i t i c a l l y and l o g i s t i c a l l y , i t has g r e a t s c o p e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t and w a r r a n t s t h e e f f o r t n e c e s s a r y t o overcome i t s p r a c t i c a l drawbac k s . C r o m p t o n " 2 v i e w s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a means of i m p l e m e n t i n g h i s ' m a r k e t i n g c o n c e p t ' of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . L o o k e d a t i n a n o t h e r way, t h e m a r k e t i n g c o n c e p t i s a means of d e s c r i b i n g what p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r i e s t o do, i n b u s i n e s s management t e r m s . W r i g h t d e f i n e s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as " t h e i n v o l v e m e n t of c i t i z e n s and c i t i z e n g r o u p s t o a f f e c t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t a l l s t a g e s of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o w a r d t h e f u l f i l l m e n t of a g r e e d upon g o a l s " * T h i s d e f i n i t i o n p o i n t s up t h e d u a l l e v e l of a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e p u b l i c ' s v a l u e s t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g : 1) i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f ( a g r e e d upon) g o a l s , and 2) i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h o s e g o a l s . In a c t u a l f a c t , t h e b u l k of t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h f u n c t i o n s not r e l a t e d t o g o a l s e t t i n g , as i n d i c a t e d by t h e l i s t below. T h e s e ' o t h e r ' f u n c t i o n s a r e v i e w e d as v a l u a b l e b o n u s e s by t h o s e who p e r c e i v e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s ' s r a i s o n d ' e t r e as b e i n g g o a l d e r i v a t i o n . Of t h e numerous f u n c t i o n s t h a t have been a s c r i b e d t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , B u r t o n et. a_l. l i s t t h e * W r i g h t , JR, e t a l 9 3 51 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s f o l l o w i n g : ** 1) i t p r o v i d e s d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s w i t h some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n , p r e f e r r e d community g o a l s , and v a l u e s 2) i t p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h may not have been c o n s i d e r e d o r i d e n t i f i e d by p l a n n e r s 3) i t can a c h i e v e t h e most r e s p o n s i v e p o l i c y and p rograms t h r o u g h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s making t h e t r a d e - o f f s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y 4) i t can be a s o u r c e of new i d e a s and i m a g i n a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s 5) i t r e s u l t s i n a more k n o w l e d g e a b l e community w h i c h w i l l be s u p p o r t i v e i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s * A s i m i l a r r a t i o n a l e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l i s t e d by t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e and R e c r e a t i o n 6 0 . H e s t e r l i s t s t h e a d v a n t a g e s of u s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n from a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e d e s i g n e r ' s p o i n t of v i e w : ** 1) p r o v i d e s a d e s i g n more r e l a t e d t o a b a l a n c e of u s e r v a l u e s ** 2) p r o v i d e s a s e t t i n g i n w h i c h a range o f v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s can be u n c o v e r e d 3) p r o v i d e s f o r a d e m o c r a t i c c l i m a t e and i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 4) c r e a t e s an a w a r e n e s s of t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s w h i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t can a p p l y e l s e w h e r e * B u r t o n , TL, e t a l 1 3 ** i t e m s i n w h i c h v a l u e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d 52 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s 5) d i s p e l s t h e i d e a t h a t nobody c a r e s 6) d e a l s r e a l i s t i c a l l y and o p e n l y w i t h c o n f l i c t s and r e s o l v e s them t h r o u g h p o s i t i v e c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y * L u t z i n & S t o r e y p o i n t out t h e i n s u r a n c e v a l u e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n : "The mere e x i s t e n c e of a p l a n h a v i n g b r o a d c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i s t h e s t r o n g e s t p o s s i b l e weapon a g a i n s t p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h w o u l d t h w a r t or d i l u t e a l l or p a r t of t h e p l a n . " * * F i n a l l y , Hendee, C l a r k , & S t a n k e y r e f e r t o t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s w h i c h c o u l d ensue f r o m t h e a b s e n c e o r i n a d e q u a c y o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t "The f a i l u r e t o s o l i c i t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a g r e s s i v e l y and i n n o v a t i v e l y can r e s u l t i n l o s s of a g e n c y s t a t u r e , damaging p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m o f a g e n c y p r o g r a m s , and c o n t i n u i n g a n t a g o n i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s between t h e agency and some of i t s c l i e n t e l e . " * * * T h ese q u o t a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t has' much t o o f f e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , numerous c o n c e r n s have been v o i c e d by b o t h c i t i z e n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a b o u t i t s v a l u e . The p r o b l e m most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d by p l a n n e r s i s t h a t c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t makes d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g more t i m e - c o n s u m i n g , more c o m p l i c a t e d , and more c o s t l y 8 8 , d i v e r t i n g e n e r g y from t h e c o n c e r n s t h a t t h e y were o r i g i n a l l y c o m m i s s i o n e d t o d e a l w i t h . C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s c o n c e r n on t h e p a r t of c i v i l s e r v a n t s i s t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m t h e i r t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . * H e s t e r , R T , 4 1 ** L u t z i n , SG, & EH S t o r e y 5 0 *** Hendee, J C , e t a l . 4 0 53 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3_ P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s A n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i s t h e r e j e c t i o n of u n i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n 3 9 , and w i t h i t t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e l e g i t i m a t e n e e d s , v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e c i t i z e n r y 7 1 . Such an o u t l o o k on t h e p a r t o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s keeps them p e r p e t u a l l y i n a d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c l i e n t e l e t h e y a r e s e r v i n g . J u s t as some b u r e a u c r a t s f e e l t h e r e i s t o o much p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , o t h e r s , t o g e t h e r w i t h members of t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , b e l i e v e t h e r e i s t o o l i t t l e . A r n s t e i n 1 w r i t e s t h a t a n y t h i n g l e s s t h a n f u l l c i t i z e n p a r t n e r s h i p i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s t o k e n i s m . O t h e r s have v o i c e d f e a r s t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l become mere c i t i z e n i n p u t , or o u t p u t , or t h a t t h e p u b l i c ' s v i e w s w i l l n ot be g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t w e i g h t d u r i n g t h e e v a l u a t i o n p h a s e 3 9 , 6 1 , 7 1 . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n i s t h a t of non-p a r t i c i p a t i o n and whether one s h o u l d r e c r u i t t h e ' s i l e n t m a j o r i t y ' 6 1 , 6 8 . W h i l e t h e v a l u e d e r i v e d from s u c h a r e c r u i t m e n t i s i n d o u b t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e non-p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s on t h e b a s i s of u n e x p r e s s e d m i l d p r e f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t han a l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n d i f f e r e n c e , o r p o l i t i c a l i n e f f i c i e n c y . P r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o i s t h e p r o b l e m w i t h t h e " q u a l i t y " of c i t i z e n i n p u t . Government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have c l a i m e d t h a t i t i s b i a s e d 6 9 , 8 7 and u n d u l y r e f l e c t s t h e v i e w s of v o c a l m i n o r i t i e s . C i t i z e n i n p u t i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b e i n g e m o t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n f a c t u a l . The p u b l i c , on t h e o t h e r hand, has on o c c a s i o n ' been l e f t w i t h t h e f e e l i n g t h a t anyone d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e b u r e a u c r a c y i s i m m e d i a t e l y b r a n d e d as b e i n g 54 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3_ P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s e m o t i o n a l 6 1 . O t h e r i s s u e s f a c i n g p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n c l u d e t h e r e l a t i v e w e i g h t i n g of d i f f e r e n t forms of p u b l i c i n p u t " 0 , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n s a p p i n g t h e v i t a l i t y o f t h e m o v e m e n t 7 1 , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o r p o r a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s can f i n a n c e t h e i r i n p u t out of o p e r a t i n g e x p e n s e s w h i l e t h e p u b l i c must pay most of t h e i r e x p e n s e s w i t h a f t e r - t a x d o l l a r s . Some answers t o t h e above c o n c e r n s In t h i s s e c t i o n an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o show t h a t , g i v e n a c c e p t a n c e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r i n c i p l e , most of t h e p r o b l e m s j u s t l i s t e d can be s u f f i c i e n t l y m i t i g a t e d by t e c h n i c a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e means and t h a t t h e r e i s no need f o r a p e s s i m i s t i c or d e f e n s i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c . To b e g i n w i t h , b o t h s i d e s s h o u l d see c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t as b e n e f i t t i n g them. Once r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s see t h a t i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i s i n t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t and t h e p u b l i c can be c o n v i n c e d of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s s i n c e r i t y , t h e way i s open t o e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n manager, the i n c r e a s e d s h o r t - t e r m c o s t s of i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c can be o f f s e t i n t h e l o n g run by a v o i d i n g c o s t l y c o r r e c t i o n s and e m b a r r a s s i n g r e v e r s a l s o f p o l i c y 8 8 . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can a l s o be v i e w e d as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e manager t o c u l t i v a t e a c o n s t i t u e n c y and mold a c l i m a t e f a v o u r a b l e t o p u b l i c p o l i c y . At t h e same time t h a t t h e p u b l i c i s i n f o r m i n g t h e manager of i s s u e s of c o n c e r n t o them, he can be i n f o r m i n g them of t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s . 55 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n q P r i n c i p l e s One of t h e most i n t e n s i v e l y r e s e a r c h e d and d e v e l o p e d a s p e c t s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h e v a r i o u s forms i t may t a k e . I t was r e c o g n i z e d e a r l y on t h a t open p u b l i c m e e t i n g s were not th e answer t o a l l c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t s i t u a t i o n s and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e m a t t e r of d a t a g a t h e r i n g . W h i l e p u b l i c i n p u t i s i m p o r t a n t a t a l l s t a g e s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i t i s most e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d a t t h e d a t a g a t h e r i n g / d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s u p p l y and demand s t a g e . In o r d e r t o o b t a i n a f u l l r a n g e of v i e w s from a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , a wide v a r i e t y of d a t a g a t h e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s have been d e v e l o p e d , i n c l u d i n g r e f e r e n d a , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , a d v i s o r y g r o u p s , i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , w orkshops, r o l e p l a y i n g , e x p e r t p a n e l s ( i n c l u d i n g D e l p h i ) 1 3 , gaming, and g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n 5 2 . As an a i d t o knowing w h i c h f o r m a t t o c h o o s e f o r w h i c h t y p e of p l a n n i n g , B u r t o n e_t a_l. have made t h e a n a l y s i s t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e s I I A and I I B . A l s o a v a i l a b l e a r e s e v e r a l m a t r i c e s w h i c h e v a l u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods a g a i n s t v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l c r i t e r i a 2 , 1 3 , 5 2 , 7 1 , 7 2 , 7 8 . M a k 5 2 summarizes h e r e v a l u a t i o n by recommending t h a t i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i s b e s t a c c o m p l i s h e d by u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s t h a t b a l a n c e s t h e s t r e n g t h s of one a g a i n s t t h e weaknesses of a n o t h e r . She goes on t o recommend t h a t t e c h n i q u e s be us e d s e q u e n t i a l l y , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h o s e t h a t a r e t h e most f l e x i b l e and i n e x p e n s i v e and u s i n g t h o s e r e s u l t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e o p t i o n s f o r t h e n e x t s t a g e . Two p r o b l e m s f r e q u e n t l y v o i c e d by r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s a r e 56 TABLE IIA PLANNING TYPES & PURPOSES* Planning horizon (yrs) Type of planning Type of end i n view Main purpose 25 - 40 Goal planning goals d i r e c t i o n 10 - 25 Development planning o b j e c t i v e s strategy 3 - 1 0 Comprehensive planning t a r g e t s and p r i o r i t i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or formulation 1 Program planning tasks implementation * adapted from Burton, TL, e t a l . a a* '0 rt to Oi Ml o 3 to c H. rt O 3 ••3 Program planning Comprehensive planning Development planning Goal planning X X X Vote or referendum X X Public hearings X X X X Large public meetings X X X X Advisory groups X X X X Surveys X X X X Small group meetings X X Telecommunication X X Workshop X X Participant observation X X Role playing X X Expert panel z w o o a cn cn M % 8 w H 5 w •a o $ w M O G cn * W cn O <% T J C z H z * 1-3 g f M 58 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s 1) t h e i n p u t t h e y r e c e i v e f r o m t h e p u b l i c i s b i a s e d and u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and 2) t h e i n p u t i s e m o t i o n a l and of low t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t y ; W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f i r s t p r o b l e m , s t u d i e s by S a d l e r showed t h a t , i n t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d , t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were t h e same as t h o s e h e l d by a random sample of t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n 6 9 . C o n c e r n i n g t h e s e c o n d p r o b l e m , t e c h n i c a l methods have been d e v e l o p e d t o r e d u c e the c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e e f f e c t s of e m o t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h i s a n a t u r a l o u t g r o w t h of c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . Wagar & F o l k m a n 8 8 recommend: 1) e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e f a c t s s u r r o u n d i n g an i s s u e as a p r e l u d e t o any d e b a t e 2) e n c o u r a g i n g s i t e - s p e c i f i c i n p u t 3) a i r i n g t h e i s s u e s i n s m a l l g r o u p s a t an open house p r i o r t o p u b l i c m e e t i n g s D a u b e r t 2 3 a d v i s e s h a n d l i n g c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s by a method he c a l l s C o n f l i c t Management. The e s s e n c e of h i s a p p r o a c h i s t o s e p a r a t e t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i n t o 1) c o n f l i c t s o v e r c o n t e n t ( t h e f a c t s ) and 2) c o n f l i c t o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s (between t h e two p a r t i e s i n t h e c o n f l i c t ) . He f i n d s t h a t when t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c o n t e n t and r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e c o g n i z e d and t h e i s s u e s a r e kept s e p a r a t e , u s e f u l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d . I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement by government s p o n s o r e d p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t programs i s l e s s t o be f e a r e d by t h e p u b l i c when t h e y r e a l i z e t h a t , s h o u l d t h e need a r i s e f o r renewed c o n f r o n t a t i o n , a 'new g e n e r a t i o n ' o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s i s f r e e t o s p r i n g up. 59 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s To a v o i d t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d p i t f a l l s and o t h e r s , Hendee e t a l . u r g e s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a . E f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d have t h e f o l l o w i n g a t t r i b u t e s : be e x p l i c i t be v i s i b l e be a v a i l a b l e f o r r e v i e w summarize and d i s p l a y i n p u t - d e s c r i b e n a t u r e and e x t e n t of p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n - c l a s s i f y s o u r c e s o f i n p u t by l o c a t i o n and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t - r e c o r d b o t h d i r e c t ( e . g . , l e t t e r s ) and i n d i r e c t ( e . g . , p e t i t i o n s ) i n p u t - p r o v i d e f o r c o n t i n u i t y , summary - r e s p o n d t o g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c e x p r e s s i o n s o f v a l u e s be t r a c e a b l e t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and e v a l u a t i o n show a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s shown be h a n d l e d s k i l l f u l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y - r a n g e of a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of e a c h a l t e r n a t i v e shown - e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r e c o r d s d e m o n s t r a t e w e i g h t i n g of i n p u t ( u n a v o i d a b l e ) i n c l u d e b o t h q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y i n p u t ( a l l i n p u t e x p r e s s e s v a l u e s ) 60 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3 P l a n n i n g P r i n c i p l e s no v o t e c o u n t i n g p u b l i c i n p u t does not d i c t a t e t h e d e c i s i o n e n s u r e c o n t i n u i n g i n p u t e s p e c i a l l y where a change i n v a l u e s i s s u s p e c t e d 4 0 I f t h e above c r i t e r i a a r e f u l f i l l e d and forms of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n a r e c h o s e n , t h e r e s u l t s h o u l d be a s e t of r e c r e a t i o n g o a l s m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e c i t i z e n s , a gency o f f i c i a l s , and e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Summary When t h e c o n c e p t s of g o a l d e r i v a t i o n , v a l u e s , c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , and demand f o r e c a s t i n g a r e added t o th e p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d r e c r e a t i o n model ( F i g u r e 3 ) , t h e r e s u l t i s t h e model shown i n F i g u r e 4. A l t h o u g h t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g c y c l e i s s t i l l c e n t r a l t o t h e model, i t has been d i v i d e d c o n c e p t u a l l y by t h e d i a g o n a l l i n e i n t o t h o s e a s p e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l demand and t h o s e a s p e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t . Such a d i v i s i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n demand c y c l e can f u n c t i o n on i t s own, w i t h o u t t h e a d d i t i o n of s o c i a l b e n e f i t s , g o a l s , or o b j e c t i v e s . In f a c t , r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g b a s e d on m e e t i n g demand f o r e c a s t s goes no f u r t h e r t h a n t h a t . A l s o , t h e p e r s o n a l demand a p p r o a c h would a p p e a r t o be s u f f i c i e n t t o accommodate h u m a n i s t p r i n c i p l e s , b e h a v i o u r a l t h e o r y , and t h e n a t i o n w i d e s t a n d a r d s a p p r o a c h . 61 ATTITUDES FIGURE 4 PLANNING MODEL - COMPLETE 62 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 3^  P l a n n i n q P r i n c i p l e s However, t h e c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t i n o r d e r f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g t o be e f f e c t i v e and e q u i t a b l e , p e r s o n a l demands r e q u i r e t h e o v e r r i d i n g g u i d a n c e o f s o c i a l g o a l s . In t h i s way t h e u n a v o i d a b l e c h o i c e s between w h i c h r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d and w h i c h w i l l n ot w i l l be g u i d e d by t h e community's v a l u e s r a t h e r t h a n by p r e s s u r e g r o u p s o r p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y . 63 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 4 Summary & D i s c u s s i o n of P a r t I_ CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF PART I The o b j e c t i v e s of P a r t I have been 1) t o e x t r a c t from t h e r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e a t h e o r y w h i c h w i l l s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n "how much and what k i n d s of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d ? " and 2) t o d e r i v e a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g method c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t t h e o r y . The f o l l o w i n g t h e o r i e s were examined: 1) t h e f r e s h a i r and c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t y t h e o r i e s of t h e e a r l y p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n movements 2) b e h a v i o u r a l t h e o r y , w h i c h r e l a t e s t h e r e c r e a t i o n r e s p o n s e of i n d i v i d u a l s - t o t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t 3) h u m a n i s t i c t h e o r y , w h i c h s t r e s s e s t h e p e r s o n a l n a t u r e of t h e r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , and 4) r e c e n t t h e o r i e s d e v e l o p e d by r e c r e a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s , w h i c h combine e l e m e n t s of t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e c l a s s e s of t h e o r i e s A l t h o u g h t h e s e t h e o r i e s do s e r v e t o o r g a n i z e and e x p l a i n s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of o b s e r v e d r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o u r , most of them do n o t , i n my o p i n i o n , p r o v i d e a u s e f u l and e q u i t a b l e f o u n d a t i o n on w h i c h t o base the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c l y f u n d e d r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 64 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 4 Summary & P i s c u s s i o n of P a r t I_ To r e c a p i t u l a t e b r i e f l y , t h e e a r l y t h e o r i e s o f r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e a r e seen as b e i n g t o o s i m p l i s t i c t o encompass a l l t h e a s p e c t s t h a t s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g method. T h e s e e a r l y methods a r e a s s o c i a t e d and t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g on t h e b a s i s o f s t a n d a r d s . B o t h g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d s and t h e t h e o r i e s u n d e r l y i n g them have been g e n e r a l l y r e j e c t e d as t h e y do not t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o demography, s o c i a l f a c t o r s , r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , or community r e s o u r c e s . R e s e a r c h b a s e d on b e h a v i o u r a l t h e o r y has p r o v i d e d a g r e a t many i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n r e s p o n s e s cfi d i f f e r e n t segments of t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The v a s t l i t e r a t u r e on demand f o r e c a s t i n g f a l l s i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . W h i l e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o u r t h a t t h e s e s t u d i e s have p r o v i d e d has been of g r e a t use t o p l a n n e r s , t h e y have not a n s w e r e d t h e b a s i c q u e s t i o n u n d e r l y i n g m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n , namely, w h i c h r e c r e a t i o n programs and f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h p u b l i c money? The a p p l i c a t i o n of h u m a n i s t i c t h e o r y makes r a t i o n a l f u n d i n g and p l a n n i n g of p u b i c r e c r e a t i o n even more d i f f i c u l t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e h u m a n i s t s , e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h an e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h he can a c h i e v e h i s f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l . T h i s s e n t i m e n t , w h i l e v e r y n o b l e , does not o f f e r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y much q u a l i t a t i v e o r q u a n t i t a t i v e g u i d a n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The t y p e o f p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s l i k e l y t o 65 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING Chapter £ Summary & D i s c u s s i o n of Part I_ be f o s t e r e d by such an approach are r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e surveys and being p o l i t i c a l l y p r e ssured by s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups. Since i t i s not yet p o s s i b l e f o r everyone to have a l l the r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s they might l i k e , how i s one to determine who gets how much? Humanistic theory p r o v i d e s n e i t h e r an answer to nor a mechanism for answering t h i s q u e s t i o n . R e f e r r i n g to F i g u r e 4, the t h e o r i e s and concepts so f a r d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter are c o n f i n e d below the d i a g o n a l l i n e and are centered around the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s a t t i t u d e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , m o t i v a t i o n s , demands, and s a t i s f a c t i o n s . S o c i a l b e n e f i t s , g o a ls, and o b j e c t i v e s have yet to be c o n s i d e r e d and p l a n n i n g has yet to be r a t i o n a l i z e d i n terms of s o c i a l g o a l s . Such vague goals as " p r o v i d i n g everyone with the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n " and " s a t i s f y i n g p u b l i c demand" cannot be used by themselves to e t h i c a l l y j u s t i f y the expenditure of p u b l i c money on r e c r e a t i o n . Attempts to demonstrate a b a s i c need for r e c r e a t i o n have been i n c o n c l u s i v e . Therefore one must invoke s o c i a l goals or i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s to s o c i e t y in order to be able to j u s t i f y the e x i s t e n c e of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n and to d i r e c t i t s p l a n n i n g . However, while using s o c i e t a l goals i s c o n c e p t u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , i t runs the r i s k of b i a s i n the s e l e c t i o n of whose goals to pursue. For reasons p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d , the planners' goals w i l l not do and the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' goals have been p e r c e i v e d as i n s u f f i c i e n t l y responsive to those of t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s . It i s t h e r e f o r e suggested that s o c i e t y ' s goals be expressed 66 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 4 Summary & D i s c u s s i o n of P a r t I_ t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t t o c o n v e n t i o n a l l o b b y i n g , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n g i v e s a l l c i t i z e n s an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y . The p r o c e s s of c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t has been u n d e r g o i n g p r o g r e s s i v e r e f i n e m e n t d u r i n g t h e l a s t 20 y e a r s and many of t h e p r o b l e m s i t f a c e d i n i t i a l l y c a n now be a v o i d e d . Mechanisms f o r g e t t i n g t h e most out of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e s I I A and I I B (pages 56 and 5 7 ) . A s s e s s i n g and u s i n g s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n g o a l s does r e q u i r e some r e a l i g n m e n t of t h e p l a n n e r ' s r o l e i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . I n s t e a d of b a s i n g t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d upon h i s p e r c e p t i o n of what t h e p u b l i c wants, he c o n s u l t s t h e p u b l i c d i r e c t l y and f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In t h i s way r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and programs a r e l i n k e d f i r m l y t o s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s t h r o u g h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e f o r m u l a t i o n , o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of g o a l s . Under t h i s scheme, t h e p l a n n e r ' s r o l e i s no l e s s v i t a l , and c e r t a i n l y no l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g and demanding of h i s e x p e r t i s e than when he r e l i e s upon h i s e x p e r i e n c e t o d e t e r m i n e how much and what k i n d s of r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d . R e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s t h u s f a l l i n t o two e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t c a t e g o r i e s , t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of g o a l s and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of g o a l s . D u r i n g t h e f o r m u l a t i o n phase p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t s k i l l s a r e r e q u i r e d , w h i l e d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase t h e p l a n n e r r e l i e s on h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e t o draw up (a) p r o g r a m ( s ) w h i c h w i l l b e s t meet t h e p r e s c r i b e d g o a l s and f i t i n w i t h t h e r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s and 67 THEORY OF RECREATION PLANNING Chapter 4 Summary & Piscussion of Part I_ resources of the community, 68 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING PART II THE PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING AN EXAMINATION OF THE PLANNING MODEL IN THE LIGHT OF CURRENT RECREATION PLANNING PRACTICE 69 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING PART I I THE PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING The model d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s has been b a s e d on t h e " t h o u g h t " l i t e r a t u r e , i . e . , l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h r e c r e a t i o n c o n c e p t s r a t h e r t h a n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e t h e s i s , t h e model w i l l be examined i n t h e l i g h t of c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d V a n c o u v e r (B. C.) M a s t e r P l a n f o r P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n . T h i s p l a n was two y e a r s i n p r e p a r a t i o n and i n v o l v e d t h e f u l l - t i m e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s from t h e f i e l d s of p l a n n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n as w e l l as p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s and o t h e r i n - h o u s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The c o m p a r i s o n w i l l be b a s e d on t h e two p u b l i s h e d documents d e s c r i b i n g t h e M a s t e r P l a n 8 2 , 8 3 s u p p l e m e n t e d by i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e M a s t e r P l a n n i n g s t a f f . C h a p t e r 5 b e g i n s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e c o n t e n t of t h e M a s t e r P l a n and c o n c l u d e s w i t h an a n a l y s i s of t h e p r o c e s s u s e d i n i t s p r e p a r a t i o n . The f i n a l c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r 6, compares t h e P l a n n i n g Model and t h e M a s t e r P l a n and d i s c u s s e s t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . 70 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5_ V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n CHAPTER 5 THE CONTENT AND PROCESS OF THE VANCOUVER MASTER PLAN FOR PARKS AND RECREATION I . C o n t e n t The V a n c o u v e r B o a r d of P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n M a s t e r P l a n 8 3 i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e document. I t has a p p e a r e d i n a c o m p l e t e form ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 400 pages) and i n t h e f o r m of a 75 page C a p i t a l P l a n 8 2 d e s i g n e d f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e c i t y w i d e C e n t e n n i a l C a p i t a l P l a n . An a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n of t h e M a s t e r P l a n f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h an a n t i c i p a t e d p l e b i s c i t e i s i n p r e p a r a t i o n . The M a s t e r P l a n was d e s i g n e d t o " d e t e r m i n e what V a n c o u v e r c i t i z e n s want i n t h e i r p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m , t h e c h a n g e s r e q u i r e d t o meet f u t u r e needs, and how t h e s e c h a n g e s c a n be e f f e c t e d i n an e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t manner."* In k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s g o a l i t r e c o r d s e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , r e s e a r c h i n t o t r e n d s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n of p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n and s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h o s e t r e n d s , a n a l y s i s of s u p p l y , demand, and d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , and r e c ommendations as t o how t h o s e d e f i c i e n c i e s m i ght b e s t be * V a n c o u v e r B o a r d of P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n 71 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n met d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1983 - 1986 i n t e r m s o f p o l i c i e s , p r o j e c t s , and f i n a n c i n g . However, r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g o r g a n i z e d i n s u c h a p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d f o r m a t , t h e r e p o r t i s a r r a n g e d a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e B o a r d , i . e . , l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n (13 a c t i v i t i e s ) , u r b a n open s p a c e ( l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t , and c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n ) , s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s ( m a i n t e n a n c e , f o o d c o n c e s s i o n s ) , and f i n a n c e ( c a p i t a l p r o g r a m and s o u r c e s of f u n d i n g ) . The r e p o r t p r e s e n t s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n b o t h from a c i t y w i d e p e r s p e c t i v e and, i n a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n , i n more d e t a i l f r o m a n e i g h b o u r h o o d - b y - n e i g h b o u r h o o d v i e w p o i n t . W h i l e t h i s t w o - f o l d a p p r o a c h r e s u l t s i n d u p l i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l , t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s s e c t i o n does r e s p o n d i n more d e t a i l t o t h e r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n w h i c h took p l a c e . 11. P r o c e s s The M a s t e r P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e d a t a were s e l e c t e d , a n a l y s e d , and e v a l u a t e d i s not d e s c r i b e d i n g r e a t d e t a i l i n e i t h e r of t h e two M a s t e r P l a n p u b l i c a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h f o l l o w s , as w e l l as b e i n g d e r i v e d from t h e M a s t e r P l a n and t h e C a p i t a l p l a n , i s s u p p l e m e n t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e by i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e M a s t e r P l a n s t a f f . The d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e M a s t e r P l a n , l i k e most p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s , f o l l o w e d a r e c u r s i v e c o u r s e . K e e p i n g t h i s i n mind, 72 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n the most p r a c t i c a l p l a c e t o s t a r t t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p r o c e s s i s w i t h P u b l i c I n p u t . C i t i z e n I n p u t t o o k two f o r m s : 1) g e n e r a l g o a l s f o r p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n and 2) r e q u e s t s f o r s p e c i f i c p a r k a d d i t i o n s , f a c i l i t i e s , or p r o g r a m s . The r e q u e s t e d p r o j e c t s were a n a l y s e d i n t e r m s of t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of t h e e x i s t i n g s u p p l y and t h e n o r g a n i z e d i n t o a s e r i e s of R e q u e s t e d P r o j e c t s . The R e q u e s t e d P r o j e c t s were e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s of c r i t e r i a w h i c h were i n t u r n d e r i v e d from g o a l s . Those p r o j e c t s which b e s t f i t t h e c r i t e r i a f o r m e d t h e b a s i s o f t h e M a s t e r P l a n Recommendations, th e end p r o d u c t of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e v a r i o u s s t e p s of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 5. In t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s e a c h of t h e s t e p s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l . P u b l i c I n p u t C i t i z e n i n p u t was i n t h e from of b r i e f s and s u r v e y s : B r i e f s were r e c e i v e d f r o m A) Community C e n t r e A s s o c i a t i o n s and a f f i l i a t e s B) community i n t e r e s t g r o u p s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s C) s p o r t i n g g r o u p s D) c i v i c a g e n c i e s E) i n d i v i d u a l s S u r v e y s c o n s i s t e d of A) V a n c o u v e r R e s i d e n t s S u r v e y B) S t a n l e y P a r k U s e r s S u r v e y C) Community C e n t r e U s e r s S u r v e y D) G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r S u r v e y 73 PUBLIC STAFF RECOMMENDED PROJECTS Figure 5 Master Planning Process 74 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n W h i l e t h e s u r v e y s were f o r t h e most p a r t c o n v e n t i o n a l , a few words about t h e V a n c o u v e r R e s i d e n t s S u r v e y and t h e G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r S u r v e y w i l l make t h e q u a l i t y of t h e p u b l i c i n p u t e a s i e r t o a s s e s s . The b r i e f s r e q u i r e no f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . S u r v e y s The G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r and t h e V a n c o u v e r R e s i d e n t s S u r v e y s were c a r r i e d out i n a s i m i l a r manner. The f i r s t s t e p i n e a c h c a s e was t h e f o r m a t i o n of a f o c u s g r o u p 5 3 o f i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s ( G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r 8 " ) or s t a t i s t i c a l l y r a ndomly s e l e c t e d c i t i z e n s ( R e s i d e n t s S u r v e y ) . I s s u e s r e l a t i v e t o g o a l s or t o p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d by t h e f o c u s g r o u p s were c o n v e r t e d i n t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h was d i s t r i b u t e d t o a s t a t i s t i c a l l y v a l i d sample. In t h i s way b i a s was m i n i m i z e d . Demand A n a l y s i s The i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s was t h e n m o d i f i e d i n terms of s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s and r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s t o g e t h e r w i t h a n t i c i p a t e d t r e n d s , g i v e n t h e u n d e v e l o p e d c a p a c i t y f o r p o p u l a t i o n growth w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g V a n c o u v e r z o n i n g b y l a w s . The r e s u l t was p r o j e c t e d demand ( p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) f i g u r e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . S u p p l y A n a l y s i s The a s p i r a t i o n s f o r p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p u b l i c i n p u t were examined i n l i g h t of t h e e x i s t i n g s u p p l y o f P a r k s B o a r d s e r v i c e s . The s u p p l y was a n a l y s e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y t h r o u g h a number o f t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s : a) C i t y w i d e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y i n v e n t o r y 75 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n b) Park and p l a y i n g f i e l d q u a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t c ) R e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y q u a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t d) S t a n l e y Park f o r e s t s t u d y e) S t a n l e y Park c i r c u l a t i o n and a c c e s s s t u d y f ) S e r v i c e Y a r d s t u d y g) P r o v i s i o n of p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n i n B. C. P l a c e (A P o s i t i o n P a p e r ) . T h e s e s t u d i e s were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most e f f i c i e n t way t o f u l f i l l t h e demands p u t f o r w a r d i n t h e b r i e f s and s u r v e y s , i n terms of t h e v a r i e t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The end r e s u l t of t h e a n a l y s i s was a l i s t of r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h c o u l d not be s u p p l i e d by r e s c h e d u l i n g , e n c o u r a g i n g t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , or by any means o t h e r t h a n d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n by t h e P a r k s B o a r d . T h i s a p p e a r e d as a l i s t of R e q u e s t e d P r o j e c t s . G o a l s The g o a l s were d e r i v e d from two s o u r c e s : I) P a r k s B o a r d G o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s 8 3 G o a l - To a s s u r e a d e q u a t e l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a p l e a s a n t u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t O b j e c t i v e s -1) t o p r o v i d e c u l t u r a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l segments of t h e p o p u l a t i o n 2) t o e n c o u r a g e t h e p r o v i s i o n of a d e q u a t e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and p r o g r a m s by p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s 3) t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s t o d e v e l o p l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s 4) . t o e n c o u r a g e an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f p a r k s and open space w i t h a e s t h e t i c n a t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e f o r t h e b e n e f i t of c i t i z e n s and t h e enjoyment of v i s i t o r s 5) t o f o s t e r s t r e e t b e a u t i f i c a t i o n I I ) G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r 8 " 76 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5_ V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n a) The c i t y a s a s t a g e 1) N a t u r a l s e t t i n g : m a i n t a i n a c c e s s t o and enjoyment of t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g w h i c h i s p e r c e i v e d a s one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l components of t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n V a n c o u v e r 2) V i e w s : v i e w s of t h e m o u n t a i n s and water, s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d 3) L a n d s c a p i n g : i n c l u d e t r e e s , f l o w e r s and n a t u r a l g r e e n e r y as p a r t of t h e l a n d s c a p i n g i n a l l p a r t s of t h e c i t y 4) P a r k s and open s p a c e : (a) e n s u r e a d e q u a t e p a r k a c r e a g e on good s i t e s t o p r o v i d e f o r p a r k s of a n e i g h b o u r h o o d , l o c a l , d i s t r i c t , w a t e r f r o n t , and r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r t o s a t i s f y o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and a m e n i t y needs (b) p r o v i d e f o r i n n o v a t i v e p a r k d e s i g n s o r p a r k a m e n i t i e s i n a l l p u b l i c open s p a c e , s u c h as l i n e a r p a r k s , m i n i - p a r k s , s t r e e t l a n d s c a p i n g (c) m a i n t a i n e x i s t i n g and new p a r k s t o a s t a n d a r d i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e d e s i r e d image of V a n c o u v e r 5) W a t e r f r o n t a c c e s s : e n a b l e V a n c o u v e r r e s i d e n t s t o e n j o y more f u l l y t h e i r n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e of sea and r i v e r by i n c r e a s i n g w a t e r f r o n t a c c e s s i n a r e a s where i t i s r e s t r i c t e d b) L e i s u r e i n t h e C i t y 1) A c c e s s t o n a t u r a l a r e a s : f a c i l i t a t e a c c e s s t o and enjoyment of t h e n a t u r a l a r e a s of t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e m a i n l a n d of B.C., f o r r e s i d e n t s of t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 2) R e c r e a t i o n : (a) a d o p t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n programming and f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h u n i f i e s t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g and i m p r o v i n g t h e p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l f i t n e s s of a l l a g e s and c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , w i t h maximum v o l u n t a r y i n p u t and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t (b) c o - o r d i n a t e or i n t e g r a t e t h e management of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and programs E v a l u a t i o n and p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n A f t e r t h e p u b l i c and t e c h n i c a l demand and s u p p l y i n p u t had been a s s i m i l a t e d and a n a l y s e d , t h e n e x t s t e p i n t h e M a s t e r P l a n was t o d i v i d e t h e r e q u e s t e d p r o j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g scheme: a) p r o j e c t s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d u r i n g 1983 -1 986 b) f u t u r e p r o j e c t s ( a f t e r 1986) 77 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n c) o t h e r p r o j e c t s n ot recommended The way i n which t h i s s e p a r a t i o n was c a r i e d o u t v a r i e d w i t h t h e a s p e c t o f t h e sy s t e m b e i n g p l a n n e d , i . e . , p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t , f a c i l i t i e s , l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , or c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n . P a r k l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n : In t h e c a s e of n e i g h b o u r h o o d p a r k a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d g o a l s formed t h e b a s i s of t h e f o l l o w i n g e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a : a) n e i g h b o u r h o o d p a r k r e q u i r e m e n t s , as b a s e d on demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - age s t r u c t u r e - h o u s i n g t y p e - m o b i l i t y of p o p u l a t i o n - e t h n i c makeup s u p p l y of o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s - amount - t y p e - v a r i e t y - a c c e s s i b i l i t y b) p e r c a p i t a p r o v i s i o n of p a r k l a n d c) p a r k l a n d / r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y r a t i o d) p o t e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n growth C i t y w i d e a v e r a g e s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h e s e c r i t e r i a (a - d) and p r o j e c t s were s e l e c t e d w h i c h would h e l p t o b r i n g r e l a t i v e l y u n d e r s e r v i c e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c l o s e r t o t h i s l e v e l . S i m i l a r a p p r o p r i a t e g o a l - b a s e d c r i t e r i a were u s e d f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f c i t y w i d e and w a t e r f r o n t p a r k s , p l a y i n g f i e l d s , p l a y g r o u n d s , 78 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n t e n n i s c o u r t s , g o l f c o u r s e s and c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s f a v o u r a b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h o s e p r o j e c t s w h i c h would meet e x p r e s s e d demand and p r o v i d e a b a l a n c e of p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t e r m s of v a r i e t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n . The c r i t e r i a u s e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n p r i o r i t i e s f o r c i t y - w i d e and w a t e r f r o n t p a r k s were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d f o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d p a r k a c q u i s i t i o n . However, t h e s m a l l amount of u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d r e m a i n i n g and t h e h i g h p r i c e of d e v e l o p e d l a n d i n V a n c o u v e r p e r f o r c e made a v a i l a b i l i t y and a f f o r d a b i 1 i t y i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a . C r i t e r i a u s e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n of p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s were t h e number of p e o p l e s e r v e d p e r d o l l a r i n v e s t e d , whether or not a s i m i ' l a r s e r v i c e was a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y from a c o m m e r c i a l s o u r c e o r a community s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e v a r i e t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s * p r e s e n t i n t h e p a r k under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F a c i l i t i e s d e v e l o p m e n t : The c r i t e r i a employed f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n of r e q u e s t s f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s on f a c i l i t i e s were: 1) program c a p a b i l i t y - t h e a b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o accommodate a s t a n d a r d b a s i c l e v e l of s e r v i c e 2) community need - l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s c a t e r i n g t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s of t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d 3) l e i s u r e demand - p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s and r e q u e s t s from o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s * G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e p r o v i s i o n of p l a y g r o u n d s , p l a y i n g f i e l d s , and p a s s i v e l a n d s c a p e d a r e a s . 79 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 5 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n 4) f a c i l i t y c o n d i t i o n A p p r o v a l and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n The p l a n c o n t a i n s r e commendations f o r b o t h p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c i e s and f o r c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s . The c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s were d e v e l o p e d i n t o a f o u r y e a r c a p i t a l p r o g r a m w h i c h was i n c l u d e d b o t h as a c h a p t e r i n t h e M a s t e r P l a n and as t h e s e p a r a t e p u b l i c a t i o n C a p i t a l P l a n 1983 -1986 . B o t h t h e M a s t e r P l a n and t h e C a p i t a l P l a n were r e f e r r e d back t o community o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e i r comments and t h e r e a c t i o n of t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c was s o u g h t i n a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . The r e v i s e d documents w i l l t h e n be f o r w a r d e d f o r a p p r o v a l endorsement by t h e e l e c t e d p a r k o f f i c i a l s . The C a p i t a l P l a n w i l l a l s o r e q u i r e e ndorsement by C i t y C o u n c i l and by t h e e l e c t o r a t e i n a p l e b i s c i t e . In summary, t h e M a s t e r P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s began w i t h p u b l i c i n p u t w h i c h c o n s i s t e d of 1) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of u s e r s , 2) p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , 3) l o n g r a n g e g o a l s , and 4) p r o j e c t r e q u e s t s . The p r o j e c t r e q u e s t s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were a n a l y s e d i n terms of r e c r e a t i o n t r e n d s and t h e e x i s t i n g s u p p l y of p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The r e s u l t i n g l i s t of r e q u e s t e d p r o j e c t s was e v a l u a t e d i n terms of c r i t e r i a b a s e d on p u b l i c g o a l s and s t a f f e x p e r t i s e and a l i s t of Recommended P e o j e c t s was d e r i v e d . P a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e a p p o r t i o n i n g of e x p e n d i t u r e s between t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n ( p a r k 80 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r _5 V a n c o u v e r P a r k s M a s t e r P l a n d e v e l o p m e n t , f a c i l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , and c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n ) t h e s t a f f were a s s i s t e d by t h e use of a D e c i s i o n M a t r i x . * In u s i n g t h e m a t r i x , e a c h p r o j e c t was compared t o e v e r y o t h e r p r o j e c t and t h e f a v o r e d p r o j e c t i n e a c h i n s t a n c e was g i v e n a "+". The p r o j e c t s were t h e n r a n k e d i n o r d e r of t h e number of p l u s e s . The r e s u l t s o f s u c h t e c h n i c a l manoeuvres were t e m p e r e d w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement. A l t h o u g h t h e p u b l i c was e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of t h e p l a n t h e l a t t e r p o r t i o n s were u n d e r t a k e n a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f u n t i l t h e p u b l i c ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e p l a n ' s recommendations was s o u g h t . * C o p y r i g h t 1974 by GL M o r r i s e y , MOR A s s o c i a t e s , Buena P a r k , C a l i f . 81 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 6 C o m p a r i s o n of Model and M a s t e r P l a n CHAPTER 6 A COMPARISON OF THE PLANNING MODEL AND THE VANCOUVER MASTER PLANNING PROCESS The f i r s t p o r t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be d e v o t e d t o c o m p a r i n g t h e P l a n n i n g Model d e v e l o p e d i n P a r t I w i t h t h e p r o c e s s u s e d i n d e r i v i n g t h e V a n c o u v e r P a r k s B o a r d M a s t e r P l a n , w h i l e t h e s e c o n d p o r t i o n w i l l be t a k e n up w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two methods. The two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s c an d i f f e r i n s e v e r a l ways: 1) t h e p r e s e n c e or a b s e n c e of a component 2) t h e r e l a t i v e e mphasis p l a c e d on t h e v a r i o u s components 3) t h e way i n w h i c h t h e components a r e u s e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s The c o m p a r i s o n between t h e two methods w i l l t a k e p l a c e a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . P r e s e n c e or a b s e n c e of components Comparing t h e c o m p l e t e d form of t h e P l a n n i n g Model ( F i g u r e 6) w i t h t h e d i a g r a m of t h e M a s t e r P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s ( F i g u r e 5, f o l l o w i n g page 73) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t n e a r l y a l l t h e s t e p s i n t h e P l a n n i n g Model can a l s o be f o u n d i n t h e M a s t e r P l a n . Two s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p t i o n s o c c u r : 1) O b j e c t i v e s , and 2) (Program) E v a l u a t i o n . Removing e v a l u a t i o n b r e a k s t h e P l a n n i n g Model c y c l e 82 ATTITUDES FIGURE 6 PLANNING MODEL - COMPLETE 83 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 6 C o m p a r i s o n of Model and M a s t e r P l a n and c o n v e r t s i t i n t o a l i n e a r p r o c e s s . Removing O b j e c t i v e s f r o m t h e P l a n n i n g Model c h a n g e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between G o a l s and F a c i l i t i e s & Programs from d i r e c t and p r i m a r y t o i n d i r e c t and s e c o n d a r y . D i f f e r e n c e s of emphasis P e r h a p s t h e most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n component emphasis i n t h e two methods i s between C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n and P r o f e s s i o n a l Judgment. In t h e P l a n n i n g Model community v a l u e s a r e e x p r e s s e d d i r e c t l y v i a C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , whereas i n t h e M a s t e r P l a n c i t i z e n i n p u t i s f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e judgment of t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f e x c e p t d u r i n g t h e g o a l s e t t i n g p h a s e . D i f f e r e n c e s i n component u t i l i z a t i o n The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o component u t i l i z a t i o n c o n c e r n t h e d i f f e r e n t u s e s t o w h i c h demand and g o a l s a r e put i n t h e two methods. The P l a n n i n g model b e g i n s w i t h g o a l s and s u b s e q u e n t l y a n a l y s e s demand t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t way t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s . The r o l e s a r e r e v e r s e d i n t h e M a s t e r P l a n , w h i c h b e g i n s w i t h demand and u s e s g o a l s t o e v a l u a t e demand. C o m b i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e s e n c e or a b s e n c e of components, component e m p h a s i s and component u s e , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s between t h e two p l a n n i n g methods a r e : 1) The Model e m p h a s i z e s f u l f i l l i n g g o a l s w h i l e t h e M a s t e r P l a n e m p h a s i z e s m e e t i n g demand As m e n t i o n e d i n P a r t I, i t i s t h e p r e s e n c e of o v e r r i d i n g s o c i a l g o a l s w h i c h s e t s t h e P l a n n i n g Model a p a r t from most p l a n n i n g methods, w h i c h a r e f o c u s e d on m e e t i n g demand. A l t h o u g h 84 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 6 C o m p a r i s o n of Model and M a s t e r P l a n g o a l s have a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e M a s t e r P l a n , t h e i r use t h e r e i s s e c o n d a r y , and i s as an a i d i n e v a l u a t i n g demand. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e P l a n n i n g M o d e l , where g o a l s a r e p r i m a r y and t h e r o l e of demand i s i n t h e s e r v i c e of g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t . 2) P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n has t h e major r o l e i n d i r e c t i n g t h e p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n p r o g ram i n t h e P l a n n i n g Model w h i l e t h e M a s t e r P l a n p l a c e s g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement The s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f b o t h t h e M a s t e r P l a n and t h e P l a n n i n g M odel i s P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two i s t h a t t h e P l a n n i n g Model u s e s c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t c o n t i n u o u s l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , e.g., i n c o n v e r t i n g g o a l s i n t o o b j e c t i v e s , i n s e l e c t i n g p r o j e c t s t o f u l f i l l t h e o b j e c t i v e s , and i n d e t e r m i n i n g how f a r t h e s o c i a l b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from t h e p r o j e c t s go t o w a r d f u l f i l l i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s . In t h e M a s t e r P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i n c o n t r a s t , P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of t h e p r o c e s s . The i n t e r v e n i n g s t e p s a r e c a r r i e d out by t h e s t a f f , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e r e i s more p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement and l e s s p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n . 3) The M a s t e r P l a n i s a o n e - t i m e e f f o r t w h i l e t h e P l a n n i n g Model i n c l u d e s o n g o i n g e v a l u a t i o n o f program e f f e c t i v e n e s s One of t h e most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e M odel and t h e M a s t e r P l a n r e v e a l e d by c o m p a r i n g F i g u r e s 5 (page 73) and 6 i s t h a t t h e P l a n n i n g Model i s c y c l i c a l w h i l e t h e M a s t e r P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s o n e - d i r e c t i o n a l . The c y c l i n g back of t h e o u t p u t o f t h e Model v i a program e v a l u a t i o n i s a b s e n t from t h e M a s t e r P l a n . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e M a s t e r P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s ends w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r M a s t e r P l a n . A l t h o u g h t h e need f o r 85 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 6 C o m p a r i s o n of Model and M a s t e r P l a n f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t of t h e P l a n ' s r e commendations was r e c o g n i z e d , a mechanism t o e n s u r e t h a t t h a t t h i s would t a k e p l a c e i s n o t i n c l u d e d . The s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two p l a n n i n g methods a r e summarized i n T a b l e I I I . The f a c t t h a t t h e c h o s e n example of c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e d i f f e r s f r o m t h e P l a n n i n g M o d e l i n t h e s e i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e M o d e l . In e s s e n c e , t h e r e a r e t h r e e major u n p r o v e n c o n c e p t a r e a s i n t h e Model and t h e r e a r e t h r e e p o s s i b l e b a r r i e r s t o t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The c o n c e p t a r e a s a r e 1) a s t r i c t g o a l - b a s e d a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g 2 ) o n g o i n g p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , from g o a l f o r m u l a t i o n t o p r o g r am e v a l u a t i o n 3) a commitment t o o n g o i n g p l a n n i n g b a s e d on program e v a l u a t i on The p o s s i b l e o b s t a c l e s t o t h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e 1) l a c k of s u i t a b l e t e c h n i q u e s 2 ) l a c k of r e s o u r c e s or e x p e r t i s e i n t h e community 3) l a c k of p o l i t i c a l w i l l G o a l s A g o a l s - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h t o c i t y p l a n n i n g i s up a g a i n s t a l l t h r e e of t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d b a r r i e r s . Few c i t i e s have a t t e m p t e d s t r i c t g o a l - b a s e d p l a n n i n g and fewer s t i l l have s u c c e d e d . In what i s p e r h a p s one of t h e most a m b i t i o u s a t t e m p t s 86 STEP PLANNING MODEL MASTER PLAN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Present throughout P r i m a r i l y l i m i t e d to input phase VALUES P u b l i c values paramount P r o f e s s i o n a l judgment could overshadow p u b l i c values GOALS Recommendations derived p r i m a r i l y from goals Goals used during e v a l u a t i o n of demand OBJECTIVES E s s e n t i a l to the p r e c i s e expression & accomplishment of goals Used o c c a s i o n a l l y (neighbourhood park c r i t e r i a ) PERSONAL SATISFACTIONS Contribute to demand Contribute to demand SOCIAL BENEFITS Used i n program e v a l u a t i o n Used i n ev a l u a t i n g which of the requested p r o j e c t s w i l l be recommended f o r implementation DEMAND Used i n determining how best to achieve community goals Used as the ba s i s of the Plan's recommendations SUPPLY ANALYSIS I m p l i c i t E x p l i c i t PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT & EXPERTISE Used to a s s i s t the p u b l i c i n converting community o b j e c t i v e s i n t o f a c i l i t i e s and programs Used i n determining which of those p r o j e c t s requested w i l l be recommended PROGRAM EVALUATION E s s e n t i a l to Model Absent TYPE OF MODEL C y c l i c a l , ongoing Linear, with a s i n g l e , f i n a l product TABLE I I I COMPARISON OF MODEL & MASTER PLAN 87 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 6 C o m p a r i s o n of M odel and M a s t e r P l a n t o d e r i v e a g o a l - c e n t e r e d p l a n f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y o c c u r r e d i n D a l l a s d u r i n g t h e 1960's. By 1975 27% o f t h e g o a l s had been a c h i e v e d and moderate or s u b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e s made on 28% and 43% r e s p e c t i v e l y . 9 6 N o g r a d i r e p o r t s t h a t out o f 21 C a n a d i a n community r e c r e a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s s t u d i e d , o n l y 2 e mployed s p e c i f i c , w r i t t e n g o a l s . 9 7 From t h e s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u s i n g g o a l s t o d e t e r m i n e p o l i c i e s and p l a n s , i t can be assumed t h a t t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f g o a l - b a s e d p l a n n i n g i s a t an e a r l y s t a g e of d e v e l o p m e n t , d e s p i t e Young's i l l u m i n a t i n g a r t i c l e s on t h e s u b j e c t . 9 " , 9 5 W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p o s s i b l e i n s u f f i c i e n c y of community r e s o u r c e s i n t h i s c o n t e x t , N i n i g e r 9 6 r e p o r t s t h a t t a x e s i n D a l l a s t r i p l e d f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of t h e g o a l s program. The l a c k of p o l i t i c a l w i l l t o c a r r y t h r o u g h w i t h a f u l l - s c a l e g o a l s p r o g r a m can be seen i n V a n c o u v e r wh.ere the G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r 8 2 were r e c e i v e d by C o u n c i l but n e v e r f o r m a l l y a d o p t e d . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e d i e i s i o n - m a k e r s do not want t o be t i e d down by s p e c i f i c w r i t t e n g o a l s . C o n t i n u i n g P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3, t h e t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n can u s u a l l y be s o l v e d by t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e r i g h t method f o r t h e r i g h t s i t u a t i o n . The p r o b l e m of a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n c an be a l l e v i a t e d i n p a r t by c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of t e c h n i q u e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e main o b s t a c l e t o o n g o i n g p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i s a l a c k of p o l i t i c a l w i l l . T h e r e f o r e i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o p o n e n t s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o c o n v i n c e t h e community and i t s l e a d e r s of t h e a d v a n t a g e s of o n g o i n g c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t , p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d o u t , b e f o r e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e 88 PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING C h a p t e r 6 C o m p a r i s o n o f Model and M a s t e r P l a n P l a n n i n g Model can be a s s u r e d . C o n t i n u o u s p l a n n i n g and p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n The i n s t i t u t i o n of p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n c l o s e s t h e l o o p and c o n v e r t s t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s from l i n e a r t o c y c l i c a l and from a s i n g l e p r o d u c t p r o c e s s t o an o n g o i n g one. H e r e a g a i n t h e t e c h n i c a l methods a r e r e l a t i v e l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d and s h o u l d p r o v e no o b s t a c l e . However, t h e community needs t o be c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s of p rogram e v a l u a t i o n would be w o r t h t h e c o s t s b e f o r e t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o d e v o t e t h e n e c e s s a r y a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . The p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e a number of s i g n i f i c a n t unanswered q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p l a n n i n g model. I t i s hoped t h a t t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n n i n g of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and programs w i l l f i n d t h e Model s u f f i c i e n t l y c o m p e l l i n g i n t h e o r y t o go t o t h e t r o u b l e t h a t i t s use w i l l e n t a i l . 8 9 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING R e f e r e n c e s REFERENCES 1 A r n s t e i n , SR A L a d d e r of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s J o u r n a l 35:216,1969 2 A y e r s , GG G u i d e l i n e s f o r P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n & C o m m u n i c a t i o n , Downsview, Ont., 1977 q u o t e d i n C o n n o r 2 2 3 Bannon, JG L e i s u r e R e s o u r c e s : I t s ( s i c ) C o m p r e h e n s i v e P l a n n i n g P r e n t i c e H a l l , E nglewood C l i f f s , NJ, 1976 4 B a r t o n , C and R M a l c o l m An A p p r o a c h t o R e c r e a t i o n M a s t e r P l a n n i n g B.C. R e c r e a t i o n & F i t n e s s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y of R e c r e a t i o n & C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., no d a t e 5 B e r e s , LR P r i n c i p l e s of P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n P r a c t i c e i n A l b e r t a , Canada u n p u b l i s h e d PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , T e x a s A & M U n i v e r s i t y , 1981 6 B r a z e r , HE O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n as a P u b l i c Good and Some P r o b l e m s of F i n a n c i n g i n D r i v e r , B L 2 5 7 B r e g h a , F P h i l o s o p h y of L e i s u r e : Unanswered Q u e s t i o n s R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h Review 8 ( 1 ) : 1 5 , 1 9 8 0 8 B u e c h n e r , RD N a t i o n a l Park and R e c r e a t i o n Open Space S t a n d a r d s N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n & P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , A r l i n g t o n , Va., 1969 9 B u r t o n , TL R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h and P l a n n i n g U n i v e r s i t y of B irmingham Urban & R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s #1, Birmingham, 1970 10 B u r t o n , TL M a k i n g Man's E n v i r o n m e n t : L e i s u r e Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , T o r o n t o , 1976 11 B u r t o n , TL Urban Open Space P l a n n i n g - S t a n d a r d s and U n i f o r m i t y R e c r e a t i o n Canada 34(3):29,1976 12 B u r t o n , TL You C a n ' t Get T h e r e from Here (a P e r s o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e on R e c r e a t i o n F o r e c a s t i n g i n Canada) R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h Review 9(1) : 38,1981 13 B u r t o n , TL, JB E l l i s , and HPM Homenuck G u i d e l i n e s f o r Urban Open Space P l a n n i n g C a n a d i a n P a r k s & R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , V a n i e r C i t y , Ont., 1977 90 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING R e f e r e n c e s 14 C a m p b e l l , CK A s s e s s i n g t h e S o c i a l Impact of R e c r e a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t s P l a n n i n g R e p o r t #19, P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1975 15 C a n a d i a n O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h Committee Park and R e c r e a t i o n F u t u r e s i n Canada: I s s u e s and O p t i o n s T o r o n t o , 1976 16 C a r l s o n , RE, JR MacLean, TR Deppe, and JA P e t e r s o n R e c r e a t i o n and L e i s u r e : t h e C h a n g i n g Scene 3 r d e d i t i o n , Wadsworth, Belmont, C a l i f . , 1979 17 C h a p p e l l e , DE The "Need" f o r O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n : an Economic Conundrum J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h 5 ( 4 ) : 4 7 , 1 9 7 3 18 Cheek, NH Toward a S o c i o l o g y of Non Work P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 14:245,1971 19 Chubb, M, and HR Chubb One T h i r d of Our Time: an I n t r o d u c t i o n t o R e c r e a t i o n B e h a v i o r and R e s o u r c e s John W i l e y , New Y o r k , 1981 20 C i c c h e t t i , C J , J J S e n e c a , and P D a v i d s o n The Demand and S u p p l y of O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n U.S.Bureau of O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1969 21 C l a w s o n , M Methods of M e a s u r i n g t h e Demand f o r and V a l u e of O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1959 22 Connor, DM Model and T e c h n i q u e s f o r C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S a d l e r , B 6 7 23 D a u b e r t , TF P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t from a C o n f l i c t Management P e r s p e c t i v e W e s t e r n W i l d l a n d s 4(1):27,1978 24 D o e l l , CE, and LF T w a r d z i k E l e m e n t s of Park and R e c r e a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 4 t h E d i t i o n , B u r g e s s P u b l i s h i n g Co., M i n n e a p o l i s , 1979 25 D r i v e r , BL E l e m e n t s o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n P r e s s , Ann A r b o r , Mich.,1970 26 D r i v e r , BL, and SR T o c h e r Toward a B e h a v i o r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Engagements w i t h I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P l a n n i n g i n Van D o r e n , CS e_t a l . 8 6 27 Dunn, DR R e c r e a t i o n , Open Space, and S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Van D o r e n , CS e t a l . 8 6 28 E d g i n g t o n , C A S t u d y of G o a l s of C a n a d i a n M u n i c i p a l P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t s 2nd C a n a d i a n C o n g r e s s on L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h , 1978 29 F a r r e l l , P, and HM L u n d e g r e n The P r o c e s s of R e c r e a t i o n THEORY AND PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING R e f e r e n c e s Programming John W i l e y & Sons, T o r o n t o , 1978 30 F i s k , DM, and HP H a t r y R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s : Measurements o f E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Van D o r e n , CS, e t a l . 8 6 31 Gans, HJ P e o p l e and P l a n s B a s i c Books, New Y o r k , 1968 32 G r a y , DE, and S Greben F u t u r e P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Van D o r e n , CS, e t a l . 8 6 33 G o l d , SM Urban R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g Lea & F e b i g e r , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1973 34 G o l d , SM G o a l s t h a t Count P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n 9( 1 ):38, 1 974 35 G o l d , SM R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n McGraw H i l l , New Y o r k , 1980 36 H a r p e r , W The E x p e r i e n c e o f L e i s u r e L e i s u r e S c i e n c e s 4(2):113,1981 37 H a t r y , HP, and DR Dunn M e a s u r i n g t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of L o c a l Government S e r v i c e s : R e c r e a t i o n U r b a n I n s t i t u t e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1971 38 Hendee, JC S o c i o l o g y and A p p l i e d L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 14:360,1971 39 Hendee, JC P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R o a d l e s s A r e a Review - L e s s o n s from a C ase S t u d y i n S e w e l l , WRD, and J T C o p p o c k 7 2 40 Hendee, JC, RN C l a r k , and GH S t a n k e y A Framework f o r Agency Use of P u b l i c I n p u t i n R e s o u r c e D e c i s i o n M a k i n g J o u r n a l of S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n 29:60,1974 41 H e s t e r , RT N e i g h b o r h o o d Space Dowden, H u t c h i s o n & R o s s , S t r o u d s b u r g , Pa., 1975 42 Howard, DR, and J L Crompton F i n a n c i n q , M anaging, and M a r k e t i n g R e c r e a t i o n and Park R e s o u r c e s W.C. Brown, Dubuque, Iowa, 1980 43 I s o - A h o l a , SE S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on L e i s u r e and R e c r e a t i o n C.C. Thomas, S p r i n g f i e l d , 111., 1980 44 I s o - A h o l a , SE Toward a D i a l e c t i c a l S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f L e i s u r e and R e c r e a t i o n i n I s o - A h o l a , S E " 3 45 J o h n s t o n , B A R a t i o n a l e f o r M u n i c i p a l L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s mimeo, no d a t e 46 K a p l a n , M Le i s u r e T h e o r y and P o l i c y John W i l e y & Sons, New Y o r k , 1975 92 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING R e f e r e n c e s 47 K n e t s c h , J L , and RR D a v i s C o m p a r i s o n of Methods f o r R e c r e a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n i n Van D oren, CS, e_t a l . 8 6 48 K r a u s , RG, and J E C u r t i s C r e a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n R e c r e a t i o n and P a r k s C.V. Mosby, S t . L o u i s , 1977 49 L i n d b l o m , CE The S c i e n c e of " M u d d l i n g T h r o u g h " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review 19(2):79,1959 50 L u t z i n , SG, and EH S t o r e y Managing Munic i p a l L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Management A s s o c i a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1973 51 M a c F a r l a n d , E The Development of P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n i n Canada C a n a d i a n P a r k s & R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , V a n i e r C i t y , Ont., 1970 52 Mak, E A s s e s s m e n t of S e l e c t e d D a t a C o l l e c t i o n T e c h n i q u e s f o r Use i n Urban R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g u n p u b l i s h e d MSc t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. , 1978 53 M a r k t r e n d M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h I n c . A P r o p o s a l t o t h e V a n c o u v e r B o a r d of P a r k s V a n c o u v e r , 1980 54 M e r c e r , DE The C o n c e p t of R e c r e a t i o n Need J o u r n a l of R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h 5 ( 1 ) : 3 7 , 1 9 7 3 55 Morey, ER The Demand f o r S i t e S p e c i f i c R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s : a C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A p p r o a c h u n p u b l i s h e d PhD t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., 1978 56 Murphy, J F , and DR Howard D e l i v e r y of Community L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s : an H o i i s t i c A p p r o a c h Lea & F e b i g e r , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1977 57 N e u l i n g e r , J I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on L e i s u r e and R e c r e a t i o n i n I s o - A h o l a , S E " 3 58 N i c h o l s , TM What's Wrong w i t h " M u d d l i n g Through"? U n p u b l i s h e d monograph, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., V a n c o u v e r , 1 980 59 N i e n a b e r , J , and A W i ldawsky The B u d g e t i n g and E v a l u a t i o n of F e d e r a l R e c r e a t i o n Programs B a s i c Books, New Y o r k , 1 973 60 O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e & R e c r e a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s f o r D e v e l o p i n g P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t y S t a n d a r d s 4 t h e d i t i o n , T o r o n t o , 1976 61 O s t h e i m e r , JR The F o r e s t S e r v i c e Meets the P u b l i c : D e c i s i o n M a k i n g i n t h e C o c o n i n o N a t i o n a l F o r e s t E i s e n h o w e r C o n s o r t i u m B u l l e t i n 5:14,1977 93 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING R e f e r e n c e s 62 P e a r s e , P A New A p p r o a c h t o t h e E v a l u a t i o n of n o n - P r i c e d R e c r e a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s Land E c o n o m i c s 44(1 ):87 , 1 968 63 P e l e g r i n o , DA What R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h Says t o t h e R e c r e a t i o n P r a c t i t i o n e r A m e r i c a n A l l i a n c e f o r H e a l t h & P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1975 64 Ragheb, MG, and JG B e a r d L e i s u r e S a t i s f a c t i o n : C o n c e p t , T h e o r y and Measurement i n I s o - A h o l a , S E " 3 65 R e i c h , CA The G r e e n i n g of A m e r i c a Random House, New Y o r k , 1 970 66 R e t t i e , DF A New P e r s p e c t i v e on L e i s u r e P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n 9(8):20,1974 67 S a d l e r , B I n v o l v e m e n t and E n v i r o n m e n t P r o c e d i n g s of t h e C a n a d i a n C o n f e r e n c e on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n , E n v i r o n m e n t C o u n c i l of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, 1978 68 S a d l e r , B B a s i c I s s u e s i n P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n : a B a c k g r o u n d P e r s p e c t i v e i n S a d l e r , B 6 7 69 S a d l e r , B P u b l i c H e a r i n g s on t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l E f f e c t s o f F o r e s t r y O p e r a t i o n s i n A l b e r t a B u l l e t i n #11, A l b e r t a E n v i r o n m e n t C o n s e r v a t i o n A u t h o r i t y , Edmonton, no d a t e 70 San J o s e P a r k s & R e c r e a t i o n Department Q u a n t i t a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o Needs A s s e s s m e n t San J o s e , C a l i f . , 1974 71 S e w e l l , WRD, and SD P h i l l i p s M o d e l s f o r t h e E v a l u a t i o n of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Programs N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s J o u r n a l 19:337,1979 72 S e w e l l , WRD, and J T Coppock P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g John W i l e y & Sons, New Y o r k , 1977 73 S h a f e r , EL, and G M o e l l e r P r e d i c t i n g Q u a n t i t a t i v e and Q u a l i t a t i v e V a l u e s of R e c r e a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n Symposium P r o c e e d i n g s , N o r t h e a s t F o r e s t E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , Upper Darby, Pa., 1971 74 S m i t h L J The P o v e r t y of F u t u r o l o g y : R e t h i n k i n g t h e E l o r a P r e s c r i p t i o n ( e d i t o r i a l ) R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h Review 8 ( 0 : 1 9 , 1 9 8 0 75 T h e o b a l d , WF E v a l u a t i o n of R e c r e a t i o n and Park Programs John W i l e y & Sons, T o r o n t o , 1979 76 Thompson, B R e c r e a t i o n a l T r a v e l : a Review and P i l o t S tudy i n Van D o r e n , CS, e t a l . 8 6 77 T i s s h a w , K, and D S m i t h Towards an U n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e 80's: a V i s i o n R e p o r t of t h e V a n c o u v e r B o a r d of P a r k s & R e c r e a t i o n A n n u a l Workshop, V a n c o u v e r , 1980 94 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING R e f e r e n c e s 78 U.S. H e r i t a g e , C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e Handbook f o r R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g and A c t i o n D epartment of t h e I n t e r i o r , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 79 U.S. N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s A Program f o r O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u r e a u of O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , 1969 80 U.S. N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g A U s e r - R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g Method L o o m i s , C a l i f . , 1959 81 U.S. N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n and Park A s s o c i a t i o n O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Space S t a n d a r d s New Y o r k , 1965 82 V a n c o u v e r B o a r d of P a r k s & R e c r e a t i o n P r e l i m i n a r y C a p i t a l P l a n : 1983-1986 V a n c o u v e r , 1982 83 V a n c o u v e r B o a r d of P a r k s & R e c r e a t i o n P r e l i m i n a r y M a s t e r P l a n V a n c o u v e r , 1982 84 V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r V a n c o u v e r , 1980 85 van d e r S m i s s e n , B E v a l u a t i o n and S e l f S t u d y of P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n and Park A g e n c i e s - a G u i d e w i t h S t a n d a r d s and E v a l u a t i v e C r i t e r i a U.S. N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n and P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , A r l i n g t o n , Va., 1972 86 Van D o r e n , CS, GB P r i d d l e , and J E L e w i s Land and L e i s u r e 3 r d e d i t i o n , Methuen & Co., T o r o n t o , 1979 87 Wade, N N i c h o l a s G o r g e s c u - R o g e n : E n t r o p y t h e Measure of Economic Man S c i e n c e 190:447,1975 88 Wagar, JA, and WS Folkman P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n F o r e s t Management D e c i s i o n s J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y 72:405,1974 8 9 W e i n e r , ME A Systems A p p r o a c h t o Mun i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t P r e s s , S t o r r s , Conn., 1970 90 W e i s s , CH E v a l u a t i o n R e s e a r c h : Methods of E v a l u a t i n g Program E f f e c t i v e n e s s P r e n t i c e H a l l , E nglewood C l i f f s , N . J . , 1972 91 W i l k i n s o n , PF The Use of M o d e l s i n P r e d i c t i n g t h e Consumption of O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h 5 ( 3 ) : 3 4 , 1 9 7 3 92 Worthen, BR, and JR S a n d e r s E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n : T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e J o n e s Co., W o r t h i n g t o n , O h i o , 1973 93 W r i g h t , JR, WB B r a i t h w a i t e , Urban R e c r e a t i o n a l S p e c i f i c S t a n d a r d s and RR F o r s t e r P l a n n i n g f o r Open Space: Toward Community O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of H o u s i n g , 95 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF RECREATION PLANNING R e f e r e n c e s T o r o n t o , 1976 94 Young, RC G o a l s and G o a l S e t t i n g A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s J o u r n a l 32:76,1966 95 Young, RC E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f G o a l s and D e f i n i t i o n of O b j e c t i v e s i n D r i v e r , B L 2 5 96 N i n i g e r JR, VN Mac D o n a l d , and GY M c D i a r m i d G o a l s f o r D a l l a s 'B' - an E x p e r i m e n t i n Community G o a l S e t t i n g Queens U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , K i n g s t o n , 1975 97 N o g r a d i , GS G o a l s i n M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t s ; a Myth o r a R e a l i t y R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h Review 7( 4 ) : 2 1 , 1 9 8 0 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095554/manifest

Comment

Related Items