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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The evolution of an artist’s life and work, being a personal and reflective journal Stanbridge, Harry Andrew 1982

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THE  EVOLUTION OF AN  ARTIST'S LIFE AND WORK BEING A PERSONAL AND REFLECTIVE JOURNAL by Harry Andrew Stanbridge B.Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE  DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OF VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS IN EDUCATION  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to t h e r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982  (c) Harry Andrew S t a n b r i d g e , 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Harry Andrew Stanbridge  Department of  Visual and Performing Arts in Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  April 16,  1982  written  ABSTRACT  This personal  and r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l concerns  i t s e l f w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n o f an a r t i s t ' s l i f e s p e c i f i c a l l y as i t r e l a t e s to those f o r c e s determine the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p h i l o s o p h i c  and work  that  perspective,  as w e l l as shape the form and content o f h i s a r t . Three d i s t i n c t y e t r e l a t e d aspects o f the a r t i s t ' s l i f e were analyzed  by u s i n g s l i d e s o f the a r t i s t ' s  p a i n t i n g s t h a t were produced i n the r e l e v a n t C h r i s t i a n conversion  and i t s subsequent e f f e c t on  the a r t i s t ' s l i f e and philosophy consideration.  periods.  were the f i r s t  An a n a l y s i s i s done o f the work l e a d i n g  to t h e c o n v e r s i o n  showing the e f f e c t on the a r t i s t  o f i n f l u e n t i a l l o c a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r t i s t s .  As  w e l l , the r o l e o f l i t e r a r y ideas as a stimulus f o r v i s u a l expression and  i s touched upon.  The nature o f form  content, as i t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n the p a i n t i n g s  done d u r i n g  the c o n v e r s i o n  p e r i o d and afterward, i s  examined i n an attempt to show a r e s o l u t i o n o f s t y l e i n the a r t i s t ' s work. The  second area o f r e f l e c t i v e i n q u i r y was the r o l e  o f the a r t i s t as a teacher level.  o f a r t a t the secondary  Teaching and working i n d i f f e r e n t mediums i n  the classroom s i t u a t i o n were looked a t to see what influence,  i f any, they had on the a r t i s t ' s a t t i t u d e t o  form and content i n h i s own work. of teaching,  apart  The general demands  from the d i s c i p l i n e o f a r t , a r e  c o n s i d e r e d as they r e l a t e to the p r e s s u r e s o f time and t h e i r importance i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the a r t i s t ' s work. The  t h i r d area r e l a t e s to the f i r s t as i t  p a r a l l e l s and e v o l v e s o u t o f the p h i l o s o p h i c p e r c e p t i o n s o f the a r t i s t and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to his public.  Throughout the j o u r n a l and i n the a n a l y s i s  o f the s l i d e s , c l o s e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d to s t y l e , t h a t is,  the form the content takes and whether o r not the  a r t i s t ' s i n t e n t has been r e a l i z e d , i n making h i s a r t visually The and  accessible. t e x t i s an e x e g e t i c a l account o f the s l i d e s  i t i s recommended t h a t i t be read i n c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h the p r o j e c t e d  s l i d e images o f the author's work.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF FIGURES  V  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION  1  Growing Up Formative Years a t A r t School Mentors A Dark Foreshadowing Post A r t School II.  THE CONVERSION  20  The Search f o r Meaning A Purge A i r b r u s h Drawings III.  CHANGES  32  Bread, Thorns, Rocks A Short Tangent A Change o f P l a c e S y n t h e s i s by S e r e n d i p i t y IV.  THE ARTIST IN SCHOOL  45  S u r v i v i n g the System Great E x p e c t a t i o n s Temptations V.  RECLAMATION  56  VI.  CONCLUSIONS  62  ENDNOTES  7  BIBLIOGRAPHY  7 2  0  APPENDIX A.  LIST OF SLIDES, IN ORDER OF APPEARANCE IN THE TEXT, WITH SIZE, MEDIUM AND DATE  (\ioVc: "TWe-=>e -slide.*, o~<e- \ * Spexta\ Co llcc-fio^s..  7  4  V  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure Page 1.  2.  A Close-up L i n e Drawing o f Tombs #1  14  A Close-up L i n e Drawing o f Saved by Grace  23  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  T o l s t o y s a i d t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e any human a c t i v i t y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o understand i t s sense and importance; and i n o r d e r t o do t h i s i t i s p r i m a r i l y n e c e s s a r y t o examine t h a t a c t i v i t y i n i t s e l f , i n i t s dependence on i t s causes and i n connection with i t s e f f e c t s . 1 Heeding t h i s a d v i c e , I s h a l l b e g i n t h i s  reflective  j o u r n a l w i t h a s h o r t preamble t h a t d e a l s w i t h some s a l i e n t e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t h e l p e d make my p e r s o n a l i t y and character.  Though these e x p e r i e n c e s happened b e f o r e  the p e r i o d I i n t e n d t o c o n s i d e r , I b e l i e v e they a r e among t h e prime reasons f o r the m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n my c o n s c i o u s and unconscious mind o f p o w e r f u l death images t h a t haunted my dreams.  Those p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s  started  out as e x t r a o r d i n a r y events and c o n t i n u e d to shape my p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r as I matured.  Formative as  they were, they a r e i n t e g r a l to t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f my e a r l y work.  Growing Up  I was born i n Quesnel, town i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B.C.  a t t h a t time a t i n y  sawmill  My p a r e n t s were what I  2  considered and  I was  to be i n the broadest sense, middle c l a s s r a i s e d with the s e n s i b i l i t i e s u s u a l l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t group. childhood, and  and  I had  a r e l a t i v e l y happy  I r e t a i n fond memories o f the  i t s seasonal  tranformations.  A  experience marred t h i s otherwise  traumatic  undisturbed  pre-adolescence.  My  time, and  into disreputable r e l a t i o n s h i p s that  he f e l l  n e a r l y broke up our me  f a t h e r was  landscape  family.  that fear of unreconciled  an a l c o h o l i c at t h a t  I still  c a r r y deep w i t h i n  separation  and a l i e n a t i o n .  I t l i e s a t the door of every r e l a t i o n s h i p . t h i s can be seen i n the p a i n t i n g Blue Lady & 2) which demonstrates a preoccupation specific psychological condition.  (Slides 1  with that  I w i l l come back to  an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s work f u r t h e r on i n the My  s c h o o l i n g had  grade two,  and  i t d i d not  improve when I became a  (along w i t h one  school mates) i n grade t e n .  seventh o f  I t h i n k t h a t I was  my  passed  school when there remained no more a r t  c l a s s e s f o r me  to  take.  As a teenager, my who  paper.  a dubious s t a r t , as I f a i l e d  teenager, f a i l i n g again  out of high  Evidence o f  peer group c o n s i s t e d of those  were as a t h l e t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d as I .  My  art  involvement a t that time c o n s i s t e d of p a i n t i n g b u i l d i n g d i s p l a y s i n my  f a t h e r ' s grocery,  and  signs, painting  3  the names on the s i d e s o f hot rods. I t was me  t h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c a r s t h a t would l e a d  to the most c a t a c l y s m i c experience o f my  peer group drank e x c e s s i v e l y , and I was  life.  My  no e x c e p t i o n .  Many weekends c o u l d be counted as l o s t i n t h a t small i n t e r i o r town, but none more than t h a t f a t e f u l one t h a t a l t e r e d my  l i f e i n the F a l l of 1962.  I was  involved i n  a s p e c t a c u l a r c a r c r a s h t h a t claimed the l i f e o f a girlfriend;  and, as I was  r e s p o n s i b l e , the g u i l t o f  t h i s a c t r e s t e d h e a v i l y upon my I was  s h o u l d e r s , even though  f o r g i v e n by the g i r l ' s f a m i l y . For years afterwards I dreamed o f the s c r e e c h i n g  t i r e s and the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the c a r . the bodies, d o l l - l i k e ,  awesome death.  Before me  In that i n s t a n t I saw The  see  spread down the d i t c h where the  crushed c a r came to r e s t . transformed.  I can s t i l l  zest f o r l i f e  I saw my  life,  f i n a l i t y and  silent  I once had p a l e d  as the experience continued to a f f e c t me,  my  and,  laugh  became crimped, t a i n t e d w i t h another knowledge.  I t was  a knowledge t h a t h e l d i n sharp focus the r e a l i t y o f death.  I t was  because of these potent experiences t h a t  I would l a t e r become preoccupied w i t h dreams as a source of imagery i n my a r t .  4  Formative  Years a t A r t School  . In r e v i e w i n g my l i f e i n t r a c i n g i t s course, I f i l l my c e l l w i t h the p l e a s u r e o f being...so t h a t I may h u r l myself i n t o them as i n t o dark p i t s , those moments when I s t r a y e d through t r a p - r i d d e n compartments o f a subterranean sky.2 In 1963 I e n r o l l e d a t the Vancouver School o f A r t w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f becoming a commercial  artist,  perhaps encouraged by the s m a l l success I experienced i n my f a t h e r ' s g r o c e r y s t o r e .  I t was a t a r t school  t h a t I began to search f o r a meaning t o the q u e s t i o n s so b r u t a l l y posed by my e a r l i e r e x p e r i e n c e s .  In the  w r i t i n g s o f e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s such as Jean Paul S a r t r e and A l b e r t Camus, i n the p e r v e r t e d p h i l o s o p h y o f Marquis de Sade, and the sexual l i b e r a t i o n o f Henry M i l l e r and Jean Genet, I s t a r t e d t o form a t h o u g h t f u l s t r u c t u r e , hoping to understand, past.  and cope w i t h , the  Genet's w r i t i n g was e s p e c i a l l y f o r m a t i v e .  He  seemed to express from h i s r e a l p r i s o n the desperate trapped f e e l i n g I had experienced i n my s e l f one.  Comparing the p a i n t i n g Blue Lady  imposed  ( S l i d e 2) w i t h  the p r e c e d i n g quote from Genet's Our Lady o f Flowers makes t h i s p o i n t as the man i n the p a i n t i n g s t a r e s i n t o 3 the t r a p - r i d d e n compartments o f a subterranean sky." The e x i s t e n t i a l and L i b e r t i n e p h i l o s o p h y I was  5  d e v e l o p i n g by r e a d i n g t h i s type o f l i t e r a t u r e gave me a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t helped make some sense o f the p a i n and g u i l t I was b e a r i n g .  Furthermore,  the heavy  nightmares  t h a t generated the desperate f i g u r e s p e o p l i n g the landscapes o f my canvases were confirmed by these w r i t e r s ' v i s i o n o f an absurd u n i v e r s e .  Nevertheless,  the p a s s i o n and commitment I found i n the work o f these w r i t e r s and the c o r r e l a t i o n to the e v o l u t i o n o f my a r t e d u c a t i o n convinced me t h a t I must p a i n t . n o t h i n g e l s e as important.  There was  I f e l t c a l l e d to t h a t  p a r t i c u l a r form o f a r t .  Mentors  From my s t u d i e s I was i n s p i r e d by the a r t i s t s who c o u l d manipulate p a i n t and g i v e to t h a t c o l o r e d mud e x p r e s s i o n s o f deep human f e e l i n g s . (1894-1943), Willem de Kooning Bacon  (1909-  Chaim Soutine  (1904- ), and F r a n c i s  ) were among the master p a i n t e r s I  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p l a s t i c way. They transformed t h e i r angst i n t o a t a n g i b l e and o f t e n t e r r i b l e r e a l i t y as they rendered i n p a i n t the human c o n d i t i o n i n a manner t h a t had never been before. o f man  attempted  These a r t i s t s bore witness to the darker side i n an absurd world f l o a t i n g i n a s i l e n t  6  universe.  T h i s bleak view o f humanity was a shared  a t t i t u d e o f Bacon and de Kooning at that time, and I i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i t completely, though perhaps a l i t t l e naively.  Their philosophy  on p a i n t i n g d o v e t a i l e d  b e a u t i f u l l y i n t o my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the e x i s t e n t i a l thought o f Camus, the l i b e r a l i s m o f M i l l e r , and seemed, to me a t l e a s t , v i v i d l y to r e c a l l de Sade. L i k e many o f the a r t i s t s and poets o f the time de Kooning and Bacon p e r c e i v e i s l e f t behind as they curse  chance as a muse.  Reason  the f l e s h t h a t houses  t h e i r humanity. F r a n c i s Bacon s t a t e s , " . . . r e a l p a i n t i n g i s a  4 mysterious and continuous s t r u g g l e w i t h chance." Bacon appears t o have p e r c e i v e d  the u n i v e r s e  as a  c h a o t i c grouping o f a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s where man s t r u g g l e s w i t h chance much as Sysyphus pushed the boulder up the h i l l .  There a r e no absolute  answers f o r  Bacon who was "obsessed by the c r u e l t y shown by humans to t h e i r f e l l o w s , and t o a n i m a l s . B a c o n ' s  philosophy  i s c a r r i e d over i n t o h i s p a i n t i n g , where the "...subject  i s subordinate to the p a i n t , and p a i n t i n g  i s an a c c i d e n t . "  de Kooning echoes t h i s same a t t i t u d e .  In d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Thomas Hess about the way he p a i n t s , Hess r e f l e c t s t h a t , " . . . p a r t o f h i s i d e a i s t o keep everything  up i n the a i r at the same time, to make  7  h i m s e l f open, to l e t any  i d e a t h a t happens to  be  7  f l o a t i n g around have i t s chance." philosophy  manifested  I t i s i n the  i n Bacon's and  de Kooning's  p a i n t i n g methods t h a t I found purpose and f o r the u n i v e r s a l s i l e n c e of Camus. Absolute,  There was  not even a reason to answer to —  myself, swept up by the p e r s u a s i v e Camus and  justification  S a r t r e , and  de Kooning and  no  only  philosophies  of  the e x p r e s s i v e p a i n t i n g s o f  Bacon, and  abandoned to the winds of  chance. Soutine  portrayed  " f l e s h " as the "primary element, g  the p r i m o r d i a l m a t e r i a l . "  L i k e de Kooning,  Soutine  imbued h i s e x p r e s s i v e l y e n e r g e t i c brush strokes with emotional q u a l i t y :  as much o f the content  rested i n  the a c t u a l brush strokes as i n the f i g u r e . s e l f - p o r t r a i t s and p a i n t i n g s o f carcasses i n p a i n t e r l y terms what I f e l t : scream.  Soutine,  an  In h i s he  expressed  a s o r t of choked  w i t h i n the e x p r e s s i v e meaning o f h i s  brush s t r o k e s , communicated h i s p a s s i o n with an almost screaming s i l e n c e . I f u l l y endorsed these a r t i s t s ' p e r c e p t i o n mankind.  T h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c and metaphyscial  to p a i n t i n g became my  a t t i t u d e as w e l l .  t h e i r methods o f composition described  I  attitude incorporated  as I f e l t they best  the i d e a of a l i e n a t i o n .  With a  of  few  8  e x c e p t i o n s , t h e i r f i g u r a t i v e work i s s t r u c t u r e d i n a totemic manner.  T h i s i s , the ground i n which the  f i g u r e a c t s , i s s u b o r d i n a t e to the f i g u r e .  The focus  i s on a s i n g u l a r dominant  floats  image t h a t e i t h e r  alone o r i s entangled on an almost empty ground, as i n Bacon's work, o r i s f i l l e d to i t s e x t r e m i t i e s as i n de Kooning's Women. a t t r a c t e d me  This compositional device  because i t seemed to emphasize  the  importance o f the f i g u r e i n a l l i t s e x p r e s s i o n s ; as w e l l , i t r e i n f o r c e d the concept o f a l i e n a t i o n i n the s i n g u l a r i t y o f the image as i t r e l a t e d to the individual. Except f o r s l i d e s and p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e i r work, these a r t i s t s were f a r removed from me,  e i t h e r dead, as  i n the case o f Soutine, o r g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , as i n the case o f Bacon i n England, and de Kooning i n New I t was  two Vancouver  and Claude Breeze  a r t i s t s , David Mayrs (19 35- ),  (1938- ), who  touched m y . l i f e most  i n t e n s e l y , and i n f l u e n c e d my work most d i r e c t l y . Mayrs, who  was  York.  to become a c l o s e f r i e n d , was  David  himself  s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d i n h i s e a r l y work by de Kooning, an example being the l a r g e f i g u r a t i v e work, 9 American Tragedy, o f  1964.  Claude Breeze tended more to the s e n s i b i l i t i e s o f F r a n c i s Bacon.  Breeze's i n f l u e n c e i s q u i t e e v i d e n t i n  9  my work o f t h a t p e r i o d , and I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s due i n p a r t to s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n s around us.  we had o f the world  Breeze's concern f o r f l a t c o l o r f i e l d s w i t h  l o o s e e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c brush work d e f i n i n g the f i g u r a t i v e form, as i n the p a i n t i n g , Sunday A f t e r n o o n , (from an American photograph) o f 1968"^ a l s o i n f l u e n c e d me.  P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , I was s t i l l  to my own sources, expressing It  connected  and the p a i n and a l i e n a t i o n I was  were no l e s s r e a l .  i s noteworthy, comparing the work o f Breeze to  mine, t h a t d u r i n g t h i s time he seemed to have solved most o f h i s figure/ground  problems, whereas I was  still  w r e s t l i n g w i t h the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n juxtaposing  color f i e l d  painting styles.  and e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c f i g u r a t i v e  In attempting to m a i n t a i n the v i s u a l  u n i t y o f the f r e e g e s t u r a l brush strokes pure c o l o r f i e l d  to f l o a t  flat  a t e n s i o n was s e t up w i t h i n me t h a t  i n h i b i t e d t h e f r e e brushwork. t h a t should  i n that  T h i s caused the f i g u r e s  have been rendered i n an e x p r e s s i v e  s t i f f l y on t h e s u r f a c e o f the canvas.  manner This  can be seen c l e a r l y i n Tomb 2 ( S l i d e 4 ) . In r e t r o s p e c t it had  seems t h a t a r e s o l u t i o n could have come about i f I broken the s u r f a c e o f my ground w i t h some  intermediate  rendering;  t h a t would s o f t e n up the edge  d e f i n i n g the f i g u r e and the ground.  T h i s i s the d e v i c e  10  t h a t Breeze used to u n i f y f i g u r e and ground. problem was 1969  to concern me  This  from approximately 196 7 to  ( S l i d e s 1-15)„ At that time I d i d not f u l l y understand  the  p h i l o s o p h i c i n t e n t o f the almost a s c e t i c p o s i t i v i s m o f formalism, o f which hardedge and c o l o r f i e l d  painting  were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Hardedge and c o l o r f i e l d were j u s t becoming p o p u l a r i n my  painting  f i n a l year o f a r t  s c h o o l , and t h i s p o p u l a r i t y coupled w i t h the advance o f p l a s t i c p a i n t technology and marketing, unavoidable  influence.  The s e d u c t i o n o f the new important r o l e i n my With a growing  m a t e r i a l s p l a y e d an  image development i n t h i s  budget ,the A r t School was  o r d e r s o f canvas and p a i n t . have to purchase was  became an  sense.  buying bulk  No l o n g e r d i d students  at r e t a i l p r i c e s .  The p l a s t i c s market  becoming v i g o r o u s i n winning over " o i l p a i n t e r s " to  t h i s b e t t e r n o n - t o x i c s m e l l - f r e e way  of painting.  Many  r e c e n t graduates and i n f l u e n t i a l young a r t i s t s were r e t u r n i n g from abroad w i t h what seemed r e v o l u t i o n a r y a t t i t u d e s to p a i n t usage.  At t h a t time, Bodo P f e i f f e r ,  another Vancouver a r t i s t was  completing a major  hardedge mural complementing Guido M o l i n a r i ' s green orange s t r i p e s a t the Vancouver A i r p o r t . had r e t u r n e d from London, and h i s  and  Michael Morris  stainless  steel/  11  m i r r o r e d / s t r i p e p a i n t i n g s were becoming i n f l u e n t i a l . Furthermore, the Los Angeles Six; L a r r y B e l l ,  Irwin,  et a l . e x h i b i t i o n a t the Vancouver A r t Gallery"'"''" showed everyone j u s t how s l i c k and sensuous a s u r f a c e c o u l d be achieved The  with the appropriate  technology.  new found a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f masking tape,  r o l l e r s , and spray guns expanded my p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p a i n t e r l y discovery. a l s o exerted  These new t o o l s and techniques  some i n f l u e n c e on the d i r e c t i o n t h a t  content and meaning were to take i n my p a i n t i n g .  As an  awareness o f t h e importance o f s u r f a c e was a predominant concern f o r many p a i n t e r s a t t h i s time, the move to p l a s t i c p a i n t from o i l p a i n t was i n e v i t a b l e . The  major problem I had g e t t i n g l a r g e f i e l d s o f c o l o r  to be completely even and without d r y spots now no longer  existed.  R o l l e d on g l a z e s , a i r b r u s h e d  sprayed t o n a l modulations were now p o s s i b l e .  blends, One d i d  not have to use a brush and make a thousand s t r o k e s t o accomplish t h e same e f f e c t .  Not o n l y was t h e s u r f a c e  as a sensuous and t a c t i l e component important a t t h i s time, but the edge o f t h e form, t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f space where t h a t sensuous s u r f a c e e x i s t e d , became c l e a r e r , f i n e r and harder w i t h t h e use o f masking tape. Everything  was being  cleaned  except my s t a t e o f mind.  12  A Dark Foreshadowing  It  i s now  necessary to r e t u r n to a p e r s o n a l  anecdote i n order to understand One  the next development.  evening, w h i l e i n second  year a t a r t s c h o o l ,  t h r e e a r t student f r i e n d s and I p l a y e d the O u i j a board. It  seemed to work i n whatever manner those boards do,  and as the evening progressed we  asked the board more  s p e c i f i c and p e n e t r a t i n g q u e s t i o n s , the most memorable being a t what age each o f us would d i e . for  prediction  the t h r e e o t h e r a r t students* deaths a l l ranged i n  the 69-72 age b r a c k e t . my  The  death was  However, the p r e d i c t i o n f o r  27 years o f age.  We  a l l laughed,  n e r v o u s l y ended the game, drank the r e s t o f our wine and went our separate ways. evening haunted me; my  The p r e d i c t i o n of the  however, I t r i e d to put i t out of  mind. I not o n l y had a dark h e a r t c o n d i t i o n , but a l s o a  bleak o u t l o o k on l i f e .  As w e l l I had a mind f u l l  of  loose ends t h a t were being compounded by the i n f l u e n c e of  Formalism  on t h i s i n h e r e n t l y e x p r e s s i v e p a i n t e r .  mentioned b e f o r e , I was  a t t r a c t e d to those a r t i s t s  As who  w i t h e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c brush s t r o k e s v i s u a l i z e d d r a m a t i c a l l y the i n n e r s t a t e o f man. c o u l d achieve a ground t h a t gave one  I f e l t that, i f I the f e e l i n g of  13  empty space and v i s u a l l y u n i t e i t w i t h the e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c brush work and p a i n t e r l y f i g u r e , I would a c h i e v e a s u i t a b l e e x i s t e n t i a l statement v i s u a l l y expressed my and  views t h a t man  that  e x i s t s i n a vacant  s i l e n t space, where every and any d e c i s i o n i s  r e a l l y absurd,  and o n l y death i s a b s o l u t e .  A s i d e from s u r f a c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the i n my  composition  e a r l y work, though being totemic, i n v o l v e d the  use o f ambiguous f i g u r e / g r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such Blue Lady ( S l i d e 1 ) .  as  T h i s has been a r e c u r r i n g  convention i n my work, f i n d i n g i t s r o o t s i n the work o f P i c a s s o and Cubism  (see h i s women of the 1963 p e r i o d ) .  T h i s convention, I b e l i e v e , allowed me simultaneous  to attempt  v i s u a l i z i n g of o p p o s i t e i d e a s o f  such as l o v e and hate.  I t was  the  feelings,  a p e r f e c t v e h i c l e to  convey the h o r r o r o f d e c e i t behind the mask o f l o v e and compassion, g i v i n g the viewer an u n s e t t l i n g  feeling  t h a t perhaps t h i n g s are not what they appear. A constant theme i n these e a r l y works ( S l i d e s i s t h a t of a l i e n a t i o n :  a theme sympathetic  with  e x i s t e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h y and compatible w i t h t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e o f mind.  1-7)  artist's  The d e c a p i t a t e d f i g u r e s ^  heads a r e not o n l y separated from t h e i r body but, as i n Tomb 1 ( S l i d e 3), those same heads, being r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the psyche,  f l o a t above the o p p o s i t e body.  14  The male head i s above a d i s i n t e g r a t i n g the  female form and  female head i s above a neuro-sexual c u t out diagram  of the male.  T h i s was how  I p e r c e i v e d myself at the  time i n r e l a t i o n to those c l o s e s t to me.  Connected y e t  not w h o l l y t h e r e , an o b s e r v e r , sensing and f e e l i n g but  15  i n the same s i t u a t i o n estranged. a l i e n a t i o n i s heightened suggest the end o f two  T h i s sense o f  by four p a r a l l e l o g r a m s  that  p h a l l i c shaped c o f f i n s .  attempted embrace o f these two  strange  In the  figures that  h o l d each o t h e r as o b j e c t s , an awkward balance  is  achieved,  w i t h the ends of the c o f f i n s p i n c h i n g the  heads and  h o l d i n g them l i k e a t r a p .  Tomb 2 ( S l i d e 4)  shows a f l o a t i n g o r  two  ascending  female form, again d e c a p i t a t e d , with s i l h o u e t t e s i n bubbles moving o f f i n p e r s p e c t i v e to what appears to a r e c t a n g u l a r m i r r o r shape o r open c o f f i n ,  be  reflecting  or c o n t a i n i n g a t r a n s p a r e n t mask r e c e d i n g i n t o the darkness. This preoccupation  w i t h d e c a p i t a t i o n and  l i f e / d e a t h masks began to subside art  reflected  shortly after I l e f t  school and reached a p a r t i a l c o n c l u s i o n i n the  p a i n t i n g s Ash Box  and P r i s o n  l a t e r works such as Sense Box  ( S l i d e s 6 & 7).  In  these  ( S l i d e 5), f r e e r brush  work i n the landforms can be seen a s s e r t i n g i t s e l f the hardedges and  c l e a n monochromatic s u r f a c e s .  s i g n i f i e d a change.  on  This  Post A r t School  The works f o l l o w i n g t h i s p e r i o d show a d i s t i n c t e v o l u t i o n towards the u n i f i c a t i o n o f f i g u r e and ground. I t i s here t h a t an open space appears i n t h e p i c t u r e plane.  The r e c t a n g l e o r box shape t h a t once h e l d o n l y  ominous death masks o r grim r e f l e c t i o n s , has now become a window.  W i t h i n t h i s window a landscape  can be seen,  i n t i m a t i n g a sense o f freedom, as i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l p a i n t i n g Dream Room 1 ( S l i d e 8); n e v e r t h e l e s s i t s t i l l r e t a i n s a sense o f h e l p l e s s a l i e n a t i o n .  The two  f i g u r e s i n Dream Room 1 have become one and seem to be o b s e r v i n g , from a m a n i k i n - l i k e head,  (the male f i g u r e  has no head) a t r a n s p a r e n t screen on which the ambiguous forms o f male/female g e n i t a l s are the f o c i . The  s u r f a c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g works ( S l i d e s 8-12)  becomes more s u b t l e . greyed.  The c o l o r s become c o o l e r and  In the Dream Room p a i n t i n g s ( S l i d e s 8 & 9) the  influence o f airbrush spraying i s evident. e f f e c t i s used t o enhance the continued with ambiguous space.  involvement  I t incorporates s t y l i z e d  r e f e r e n c e s to male and female g e n i t a l s .  I t i s also  s i g n i f i c a n t , I think, that t h i s developing was  The spray  h e l p i n g to r e s o l v e t h e f i g u r e / g r o u n d  convention  relationships,  most n o t a b l y i n t h e p a i n t i n g In ( S l i d e 10).  With t h i s  17  p a i n t i n g , as w e l l as i n Dream Room 2 and Hydra ( S l i d e s 9 & 12), the sprayed c u t out female forms do not remain as an o b j e c t o f a t t e n t i o n by the f i g u r e s rendered i n f l e s h l i k e brush s t r o k e s as they do i n Dream Room 1 ( S l i d e 8 ) . the space around  Rather, they seem t o a c t i v a t e  the f i g u r e .  Furthermore,  while  m a i n t a i n i n g the i n t e g r i t y o f the female form, the shapes continue t o render the s u r f a c e o f the p i c t u r e plane i n an ambiguous manner. window, remains;  The box, now become  however, i t i s u n a t t a i n a b l e , an  i d e a l i z e d p e a c e f u l landscape. As much o f my i n s p i r a t i o n has come from sources, as w e l l as dreams, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  literary that  t h e r e i s a n a r r a t i v e q u a l i t y t o much o f my work; my work can be r e a d .  For example, i n Dream Room 2  ( S l i d e 9), the dark blue p a r t o f the p i c t u r e plane has become l i k e t h e b o x / c o f f i n , e n c l o s i n g o r framing the action.  An arm reaches out and across towards the  i n v i t i n g , h o p e f u l window.  The owner o f the arm i s  hidden, but by i m p l i c a t i o n he i s p o s i t i o n e d f a c i n g a deep blue w a l l .  H i s reach i s i n t e r c e p t e d by a b r e a s t  rendered i n f l e s h tones.  A l l the forms, both p o s i t i v e  and n e g a t i v e , are feminine, and they a c t i v a t e t h e space i n which t h e owner o f the arm r e s i d e s . not g r i p t h e b r e a s t , i t i s t e n t a t i v e .  H i s hand does T h i s i s not what  18  it  i s seeking.  Perhaps  t h i s p a i n t i n g , more than  o t h e r , i l l u s t r a t e s the i n n e r need I f e l t  f o r some  meaning o u t s i d e o f , y e t r e l a t e d t o , myself. need to go beyond the absurd.  I wanted  meaningful, even as a b s o l u t e as death.  any  I had a  something In an  attempt  to f i n d some meaning i n my e x i s t e n c e I began r e a d i n g K h a l i l Gibran, whose w r i t i n g awoke w i t h i n me  a sense of  the e t e r n a l that i s i n a l l men.  At the same time I  s t u d i e d the Tao and experimented  w i t h the I Ching, an  a n c i e n t Chinese book of wisdom t h a t was time.  p o p u l a r a t the  The search f o r meaning seemed to be e v o l v i n g  towards s p i r i t u a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f existence. Among my  contemporaries  i n the l a t e s i x t i e s ,  p o s i t i v e and e n l i g h t e n i n g sensory and  spiritual  experiences o b t a i n e d through the use o f mind drugs was  being e x t o l l e d .  these experiments  expanding  I enthusiastically  endorsed  i n hope t h a t they would l e a d to a  more meaningful p e r c e p t i o n o f who However, f o r me  the  I was  i n the world.  i t o n l y widened the gap between my  p e r c e i v e d need f o r a meaningful a b s o l u t e o t h e r than death, and the absurd e x i s t e n t i a l a t t i t u d e I tenuously maintained.  In the p a i n t i n g s Recept and Hydra  (Slides  11 & 12) t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the box/window convention i s l o s i n g i t s potency, unable to h o l d the  19  figure.  F o r example, the f i g u r e appears t o be throwing  i t s e l f about the p i c t u r e  plane i n Recept  T h i s work foreshadows what i s to come.  ( S l i d e 11).  20  CHAPTER II  THE  CONVERSION  "How can a man be born when he i s o l d ? " Nicodemus asked. Jesus answered, "I t e l l you the t r u t h . Unless a man i s born o f water and the s p i r i t , he cannot enter the kingdom o f God. Flesh gives b i r t h to f l e s h , but the s p i r i t g i v e s b i r t h to spirit." John 3, V. 4,5,6. In my  twenty seventh year I p a i n t e d  ( S l i d e 13). had  T h i s canvas was  an i n t e n s e p h y s i c a l and  attending  Saved by  executed the day  after I  s p i r i t u a l experience w h i l e  a s m a l l , crowded church i n East Vancouver.  At t h a t time I experienced an u n c o n d i t i o n a l  release  from g u i l t .  I t seemed an i n e x p l i c a b l e t h i n g t h a t  happened to  me.  Metaphysically board had  I had  predicted.  p h y s i c a l l y cleansed time o f reasoning time my  Grace  d i e d , j u s t as the o u i j a  I f e l t psychologically and whole.  how  o r why  I had  i t happened.  c a r e e r as a n , a r t i s t and my  a b i l i t i e s had good p a r t - t i m e  s u s t a i n e d me  no way  and at t h a t  Up  to  s o c i a l and  reasonably w e l l .  this  economic I had  a  job as a k i t c h e n p o r t e r at a l o c a l  h o s p i t a l t h a t enabled me studio, with l i v i n g  to m a i n t a i n a s t o r e f r o n t  space, i n the r e a r .  i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n f o r my  work.  I was  I had won  receiving the  Purchase Award at the 4 0th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Northwest  21  Printmakers to  E x h i b i t i n S e a t t l e and  e x h i b i t i o n s as A  Recept  two  man  (Slides  f a r south  G a l l e r y was  & 11)  a  threshold  A in  my  of  counterpoint  t o me  and  On  substantial  guilt  I  run  the  life  knowing t h a t  caused  spiritual  i n my  concepts  personal  to  life  work the  me  up  to  the"  style,  of  mentors.  expectancy e x i s t e d  i t s h a p e d my excessive  encourage a  behavior  drinking, This  and  type  positive the  already  bearing. like  the  e v e n t u a l l y w e a r away t h e stone  i n how  to  My  on  c o n t r a r y , i t added t o  I was my  I was  bohemian l i f e s t y l e .  existence did nothing  prints  been p l a g u i n g  positive  given  and  Bonnieman.  that  At  was  silkscreen  s h a d o w s o f my  this  I was  grant  and  well  success.  a r e s o l u t i o n of  a wholly  to  attitude  a libertine,  guilt,  (Terra)  p r o b l e m s t h a t had  realizing  self-concept.  my  Bill  from under the  could  financial  series of  e v o l v i n g towards  towards others.  of  a  a  social  living  not  Bau-Xi  to produce  I t appeared  moving out  the  Canada C o u n c i l  figure/ground date.  at  short-term  w i t h master p r i n t e r  this  Diego.  10  that  seemed t o be  doors  p a i n t i n g s In_  t h o u g h i t was  e n a b l i n g me  San  opened  show t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e  received, time  as  this  water over  water of  stone, only  but  the  life the  would ripple  grew l a r g e r .  I h e l d were a blend  stone  of  that  The eastern  of  22  mysticism, t h e Tao, e x i s t e n t i a l i d e a s , and s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n imaginings.  They d i d not seem to o f f e r  a reasonable way t o e x p i a t e my g u i l t . stream, my l i f e The  L i k e t h e running  j u s t seemed to keep on moving.  answer came i n t h a t i n e x p l i c a b l e numinous  experience when t h e transcendent "Other" acted l o v e and forgiveness  upon me.  I d i d not know what to name the  experience o r what to c a l l t h e author.  In my a r t I  attempted a v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e experience and Saved by Grace  ( S l i d e 13) was the r e s u l t .  rough and r e g r e s s i v e manner. figure/ground point. my l i f e ,  I t i s painted  ina  I t seems t o have l o s t any  r e s o l u t i o n t h a t had been gained t o t h i s  Nevertheless,  i t i l l u s t r a t e s a turning point i n  and subsequently i n my work.  In an a n a l y s i s o f t h e work, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the f i g u r e , rendered f l e s h - l i k e and s o l i d on the f i g h t s i d e , i s c l u t c h i n g a p r o t r u d i n g  phallic  shape  t h a t emanates from the box c o n t a i n i n g the i n t e r l o c k e d female/male form.  T h i s image r e c u r s i n much o f the  work, such as Dream Room 1 ( S l i d e 8 ) . The o t h e r  side  23  24  of the f i g u r e , brushed i n a more t r a n s p a r e n t  manner,  perhaps i n d i c a t e s t h a t there has been a s p i r i t u a l awakening.  The t r a n s p a r e n t  s i d e o f the f i g u r e has  grasped the ephemeral, e l u s i v e box c o n t a i n i n g the peaceful, caress  i d e a l i z e d landscape.  the f i g u r e .  S w i r l i n g white  clouds  A d u a l i t y seems t o be e s t a b l i s h e d  between f l e s h and s p i r i t .  T h i s p a i n t i n g was e x h i b i t e d  i n a solo e x h i b i t i o n a t the Bau-Xi G a l l e r y i n 1970, and  as Joan Lowndes wrote:,, " I t deserves mention as a 12  p o i n t o f departure."  The  Search f o r Meaning  "Reason's l a s t step i s the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t there are an i n f i n i t e number o f things which are beyond it. I f n a t u r a l t h i n g s are beyond i t , what are we to say about s u p e r n a t u r a l things?"13 I kept r e t u r n i n g t o t h a t small church. visit  Upon each  I was c o n t i n u a l l y moved by f e e l i n g s which I can  only c a l l  love.  Between v i s i t s ,  I attempted to make  some sense o f the experiences I was having by r e a d i n g the B i b l e , as w e l l as o t h e r m y s t i c a l and metaphysical writings.  A f t e r about a month o r so o f enquiry,  I  c o u l d reasonably i d e n t i f y the author o f those experiences.  I concluded t h a t i t was the Holy S p i r i t  who, t h e o l o g i c a l l y speaking, enables o r a c t i v a t e s  faith  25  in  such a way  t h a t Jesus i s seen and r e l a t e d to as the  i n c a r n a t e God,  the C h r i s t .  P a s c a l i n h i s Pensees expresses the paradox of the seeking p i l g r i m hoping f o r an answer from a  silent  u n i v e r s e when he s t a t e s , "The e t e r n a l s i l e n c e o f those i n f i n i t e spaces f i l l s me w i t h dread.  Be comforted; i t  i s not from y o u r s e l f t h a t you must expect i t , but on the c o n t r a r y , you must expect i t by e x p e c t i n g n o t h i n g 14 from y o u r s e l f . " In silent,  s e a r c h i n g , I was  The u n i v e r s e , though  had meaning, a meaning given by t h a t which  c a l l e d i t i n t o being. a b s o l u t e as death. I saw w i t h new w i t h new  found.  hands.  For me,  I was  l i f e now  became as  c r e a t e d "a new c r e a t u r e " ,  eyes, heard w i t h new  e a r s , and  touched  I t was w i t h a g r e a t sense o f  freedom  and joy t h a t I went through the next month o r so, and then the r e a l i t y of 2 7 years of i n t e n s i v e b e h a v i o r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g made i t s e l f came t o l i f e  felt.  B i b l i c a l truths  i n the r e a l world f o r me.  I was  a  now new  c r e a t u r e , l o v e d and f o r g i v e n , but as w e l l , I had the old,  c a r n a l , u n s p i r i t u a l man  still  l i v i n g within  me.  T h i s t r u t h and the process o f t h a t t r u t h became e v i d e n t when I r e t u r n e d to my a r t .  26  A Purge  The b l a c k , s e x u a l l y s i n i s t e r a i r b r u s h p a i n t i n g s ( S l i d e 15), p a i n t e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d d u r i n g which I analyzed and r e f l e c t e d on the s p i r i t u a l experiences I was having seem now to be connected First,  to two sources.  I b e l i e v e they were a f i n a l purging o f t h a t  s i n g u l a r dark image o f death and a l i e n a t i o n t h a t r e s i d e d i n me, and i n t h a t sense they seem now to have been t h e r a p e u t i c .  Second, much o f the " s t r e e t  t e a c h i n g " o f the young C h r i s t i a n s I was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d u r i n g t h a t time was a p o c a l y p t i c .  With a negative and  a d m i t t e d l y n a i v e world view, such h o r r i f i c images o f the end times, such as those i n t h e a i r b r u s h drawings, p a r t i c u l a r l y the P h a l l i c Locust on the extreme l e f t s i d e o f s l i d e 15, seem c o n t r a r y to the s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t i o n I was going. At the same time as I was producing the a i r b r u s h drawings, prints  I was a l s o working on a s e r i e s o f s i l k s c r e e n  ( S l i d e 16). The b l a c k a i r b r u s h and s i l k s c r e e n  s t y l e s seemed d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed. t h a t t h i n g s had come a p a r t .  I t was e v i d e n t  Whereas the a i r b r u s h works  are almost completely concerned  with superimposition o f  anatomical p a r t s i n a n i g h t m a r i s h b l a c k v o i d , the screen p r i n t s seem g i v e n over t o formal  sensibilities  27  v e r g i n g on pure design concerns.  Furthermore,  p r i n t s i l l u s t r a t e an a t t i t u d e t o landscape  the  t h a t to t h i s  time had o n l y been used as a c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e v i c e to hold o r a c t i v a t e the f i g u r e s on the canvas;  o r to a c t  as a symbolic r e f e r e n c e to some meaning o t h e r than the landscape  itself.  As a seasonal worker, I had o c c a s i o n to work i n the woods p l a n t i n g t r e e s , before the e x e c u t i o n o f these p r i n t s i n the F a l l o f 1969, and t h i s exposed me to the sea and mountainous f j o r d s o f the c o a s t o f B.C.  These  p r i n t s are the r e s u l t o f a v i s i t back to those areas, and r e f l e c t an i n f l u e n c e and p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n the l a n d c o u l d g i v e t o my imagery.  But t h i s d i r e c t i o n was  not the one I was to take. With the formative nature o f my f a i t h being a p o c a l y p t i c , my m o t i v a t i o n was not t o be the hardedge, i d e a l i s t i c landscapes, p o i n t e d a t i n the p r i n t s , but r a t h e r the c o n d i t i o n o f man's s o u l and i t s need t o be saved.  A l l t h i s was generated  assimilating.  from the theology I was  My p a i n t i n g became not o n l y a way o f  e x p r e s s i n g myself, but a l s o a d i d a c t i c  tool,  i n c o r p o r a t i n g as content, b i b l i c a l concepts w i t h a s p e c i f i c a l l y Christian motif. In l a t e August, 1970 I had a s o l o e x h i b i t i o n a t the Bau-Xi G a l l e r y .  By t h i s time, I had q u i t my  28  part-time  job and was now f u l l y employed with a  landscape maintenance f i r m .  I a l s o had moved o u t o f my  s t u d i o and was l i v i n g i n a basement s u i t e .  However,  a l l the work i n t h i s e x h i b i t i o n had been completed i n the s t u d i o amidst a t r a n s i e n t group o f young people who c o u l d f l u c t u a t e between four and 12 a n i g h t . The work i n t h i s show was v a r i e d i n both t h e media used, and the form the content a c r y l i c paintings watercolors, 18)  took.  ( S l i d e s 13 & 14),  As w e l l as l a r g e there were s m a l l  and medium s i z e a i r b r u s h drawings  that s t i l l  seemed to c o n t a i n sexual  (Slide  references  d e s p i t e the attempt a t statements o f C h r i s t i a n r e b i r t h . The  l a r g e a c r y l i c Burden o f Dhuma ( S l i d e 17)  i l l u s t r a t e s a synthesis o f figure/ground r e l a t i o n s h i p s , not achieved  i n the work Ask ( S l i d e 14).  There i s no  attempt to i n v o l v e the s u r f a c e o f t h e canvas i n an ambiguous way with a i r b r u s h e d  shapes.  Rather, the  p i c t u r e plane has become c l e a r , and though ambiguity e x i s t s i n the band o f yellow horizon,  across the d e s o l a t e  i t i s p e r i p h e r a l to t h e focus o f the p a i n t i n g .  U n l i k e the e a r l i e r works, such as In ( S l i d e 10), where the f i g u r e r e s i d e s w i t h i n the ambiguous space, the Burden o f Dhuma's s u n r i s e o r sunset  i s de-emphasized  and becomes a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n l y a f t e r the a c t i o n o f the f i g u r e / s n a k e  i s experienced  and understood.  29  The show was Simmons, who i n a new "at  reviewed  by Joan Lowndes and Richard  both concluded  way.  t h a t I was  In Simmons' own  starting  again  words, Stanbridge  the beginning again because the o l d forms  was  cannot  15 express the new  inquiry."  f i n a l abandonment o f my  T h i s e x h i b i t i o n marked the  p a s t concerns w i t h  figure/  ground r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and w i t h e x i s t e n t i a l and s e x u a l l y o r i e n t e d content.  I felt  I now  and p l a s t i c e x p r e s s i o n t h a t was Christian  had to evolve a v i s u a l i n t e g r a l to my  new  faith. A i r b r u s h Drawings  I t was  a f t e r the s o l o show at the Bau-Xi,  and  while l i v i n g i n the basement s u i t e , t h a t I s t a r t e d producing a i r b r u s h drawings on paper.  At the same  time, I continued working on s m a l l e r o i l p a i n t i n g s , such as The P r i c e  ( S l i d e 19).  This p a r t i c u l a r painting  demonstrates the t e n t a t i v e , f r u s t r a t e d type o f p l a s t i c i n q u i r y I was  going through.  I was  working a t a  p h y s i c a l l y demanding job as a landscape gardener, had l i t t l e time o r energy  l e f t over f o r p a i n t i n g ,  e s p e c i a l l y p a i n t i n g t h a t was Consequently,  and I  i n i t s formative stage.  I f e e l t h a t n e a r l y a l l o f the o i l  p a i n t i n g s from t h i s e r a  ( S l i d e s 19,  26, 27), as w e l l as  30  the  f o l l o w i n g three y e a r s , were obvious f a i l u r e s ,  and  they have a l l been destroyed. The  a i r b r u s h work, on the o t h e r hand, was  successful  i n q u i r y i n t o a form that matched  intentions. l i v i n g and  The  my  r e s t r i c t i v e spaces i n which I  p a i n t i n g made the modular type o f  practical.  a more  Moreover, Ken  p i c t u r e framer and  f r i e n d , was  the  format  P r i e s t l e y , a prominent always amenable to  unorthodox ways of d i s p l a y i n g images. pre-OPEC e r a , and  was  I t was  r e l a t i v e cheapness  the  and  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p l a s t i c s were evoking from a r t i s t s a wide v a r i e t y o f v i s u a l responses. F a l l i n g Woman, o f 1 9 6 8 , i n f l u e n c e , and  i t was  1 6  Audrey Capel Doray's  i s a good example o f t h i s  i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n I s t a r t e d to  move. three l a r g e a i r b r u s h works ( S l i d e s 2 0 , 2 1 ,  The  were f i r s t  exhibited  i n a group show c a l l e d the  Mythadromas at the A v e l l e s G a l l e r y i n 1 9 7 2 . Lowndes commented on Out  o f My  Belly  22)  the l a r g e 8'  ( S l i d e 20)  x 4'  Joan  T-shaped work  as being "the v i s i o n of  a  17  mystic, but w i t h f u l l a r t i s t i c c o n t r o l " , the work i n g e n e r a l as having "great  and much o f  religious  18  intensity." the  two  I t appeared then t h a t I was  fulfilling  major c r i t e r i a f o r a work of a r t i n the  world; t h a t being a form and  content t h a t  secular  communicates  31  to a l l men. integrated paintings  Form and content i n these works appear as the c o l o r , shape and the t e x t u r e o f the  works to both complement and expand the  content: the image o f C h r i s t .  Furthermore, the use o f  p o p u l a r techniques such as a i r brush, the modular structure,  and shaped format, work to separate the  paintings  from t r a d i t i o n a l and sacred methods of  depicting  the i d e a o f C h r i s t t h e Man/God.  This  new  form, the a i r b r u s h e d modular f i g u r e , seemed s u i t a b l e to the  new d i r e c t i o n I should t a k e .  r e c e i v i n g very p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n s Indeed, i t was on the s t r e n g t h  As w e l l , I was from my  public.  o f these three works i n  the Mythodromas show t h a t J y t t e A l l e n , an a g r e s s i v e a r t dealer, of  persuaded me to become one o f her growing  artists.  stable  32  CHAPTER I I I  CHANGES  I t was a t t h i s c r u c i a l p e r i o d  i n the development  of my p a i n t i n g t h a t i n a matter o f a few months I married, e n r o l l e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f becoming an a r t teacher, and secured a p o s i t i o n as a house parent f o r t r a n s i e n t youths. The  e f f e c t o f my marriage on my o u t l o o k  socially,  spiritually,  and a e s t h e t i c a l l y , can o n l y be d e s c r i b e d  as p o s i t i v e .  My wife i s an a r t i s t as w e l l , and t h i s  made f o r not o n l y a compatible r e l a t i o n s h i p o f shared i n t e r e s t s but a l s o kept me a t that time  persevering  in art. While studying able  to become an a r t teacher I was o n l y  to take one s t u d i o  and one a r t h i s t o r y course.  Furthermore, I had to take numerous E n g l i s h courses as t h a t was to be my second area. on r e f l e c t i n g on t h i s p e r i o d literary  I t seems c o n c e i v a b l e  t h a t my a t t i t u d e to  concepts as t r a n s l a t e d i n t o v i s u a l form went  through c o n s i d e r a b l e  growth.  T h i s move l e f t  time to pursue the f r u i t f u l l o o k i n g l a r g e a i r b r u s h assemblages indicated.  little  d i r e c t i o n t h a t the  ( S l i d e s 21, 22, 23)  33  S p i r i t u a l , e t h i c a l and moral a t t i t u d e s t h a t were e v o l v i n g i n my  C h r i s t i a n experience  p a i n t i n g i n a new be an end  perspective.  i n i t s e l f as i t had  u l t i m a t e demand of my  i d e a l s I had  been i n the p a s t . time and  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God  found l o v e f o r mankind.  to see  my  P r i m a r i l y , i t ceased to  p a i n t i n g on my  became secondary to my  to e v a l u a t e  caused me  The  energy and my  new  As w e l l , the demand allowed  me  the s e l f - c e n t e r e d , s o - c a l l e d c r e a t i v e developed at a r t s c h o o l .  These concepts,  such as "your work at a l l c o s t s , " "your a r t must come before  f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , " p a l e d i n the l i g h t o f C h r i s t ' s  sayings.  "Lest you  and Brother,  love me  more than Mother,  you are not worthy o f  Jesus C h r i s t and  His teachings  the u l t i m a t e g o a l , a u t h o r i t y and o f t r u t h and  relationships.  the n e c e s s i t y f o r my  Father  me." now  r e p l a c e d a r t as  experience,  From t h i s I saw  and  definer  i n myself  c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y to  through a l o n g p e r i o d o f redemptive P a r t o f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  go  transformation.  I perceived,  could  be  f a c i l i t a t e d by working w i t h those l e s s f o r t u n a t e than I.  T h i s d e s i r e was  i n p a r t the impetus t h a t l e d me  work i n t r a n s i e n t group homes, and to c o n s i d e r  to  the  t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n as a v o c a t i o n . Nevertheless, continued  to p a i n t .  while a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y , I I resumed work w i t h the a i r b r u s h  34  ( S l i d e s 23-25) and a l s o attempted some l a r g e o i l paintings  ( S l i d e s 26-27).  The o i l p a i n t i n g s were  heavy-handed attempts to i l l u s t r a t e my  faith.  Done i n  a v a r i e t y o f s t y l e s , sometimes u s i n g two o r more p a i n t e r l y conventions i n one canvas, these p a i n t i n g s show the f r u s t r a t i n g s t r u g g l e I was  having i n e v o l v i n g  an image and a format capable o f e x p r e s s i n g my self.  For example, No More ( S l i d e 26), i s overwrought  w i t h b l a t a n t symbolism, El  new  an u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt at an  Greco sky, and a l i t t l e  white o u t l i n e s .  "pop  a r t " thrown i n w i t h  I t i s a p a i n t i n g f u l l o f conventions  t h a t i n t h e i r j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g , approach the b i z a r r e ; a s i l v e r sprayed c r o s s stands g l i s t e n i n g over a c r o s s s e c t i o n view o f an empty grave w i t h blood soaked clothes. was  In r e f l e c t i n g on t h i s work i t seems t h a t I  t r y i n g to i n c o r p o r a t e as much C h r i s t i a n  as I c o u l d i n t o the canvas.  symbolism  Consequently, the  n a r r a t i v e aspect o f the p a i n t i n g i s l e s s e n e d because o f the  c o n t r a s t i n g s t y l e s and t h i s l e a d s to an  u n i n t e n t i o n a l , almost g r o s s , parody o f the very concepts I was In  t r y i n g t o communicate.  sharp c o n t r a s t to the l a r g e o i l s ,  the  a i r b r u s h e s , though not as s u c c e s s f u l as the e a r l i e r l a r g e works, seem to be working towards  some form o f  r e s o l u t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g a k i n d o f s o f t cubism  35  ( S l i d e s 23-25).  They too  s u f f e r from an image and  message t h a t i s too e a s i l y read.  The  images,  ( e s p e c i a l l y the C h r i s t f i g u r e s ) seem to have l o s t  the  m y s t i c a l power they a t t a i n e d i n the l a r g e r work. I b e l i e v e , was and  due  a  This,  to the s c a l e of the s m a l l e r works,  the framed-in image, whereas the l a r g e r p i e c e s  expand and move across ( S l i d e 22),  implying  the w a l l as i n F o r g i v e Them  a g r e a t e r unseen drama.  The  smaller works, crimped i n t h e i r frames, remain unthreatening  and perhaps even a l i t t l e  illustrative. p o i n t , as one focus,  Greater  than Jonah ( S l i d e 25)  i s drawn i n t o the work by the  makes t h i s circle  r a t h e r than the o b t r u s i v e work i n F o r g i v e Them.  Bread, Thorns and  I t i s i n p a r t due school  too  Rocks  to both my  nature, and my  art  t r a i n i n g that I approached the a c t o f p a i n t i n g  i n a r e l a t i v e l y unsystematic way. neophyte on P i c a s s o ' s  Brought up as a  dictum, " I f you know e x a c t l y what 19  you're going to do,  what's the p o i n t o f doing i t ? " ,  the p r e p l a n n i n g  of an a r t work was  consideration.  Rather, the images, forms, and  evolved  never a primary colors  from an experience i n nature, perhaps r e l a t e d  to an i n s p i r a t i o n a l l i t e r a r y i d e a , such as, i n my  early  36  work, I found i n Genet's Our Lady o f the Flowers.  More  o f t e n , such images grew o u t o f work a l r e a d y i n p r o g r e s s . T h i s method o f r e a l i z i n g  a cogent v i s u a l  statement was  f i n e when my work was e v o l v i n g from an e s t a b l i s h e d  base,  and I was mature and c o n f i d e n t enough w i t h the t o o l s and a b i l i t i e s I had. did  S t a r t i n g from square one again  not a l l o w such p o s i t i v e l u x u r y .  I t was d u r i n g the  F a l l o f 1973 t h a t I decided t o hoard what l i t t l e had.  I made an i n t e l l e c t u a l  time I  d e c i s i o n to l i m i t myself  to o n l y t h r e e images, and even then, l i m i t them t o c e r t a i n formats.  I wanted t o r e p r e s e n t i n my work  three fundamental a s p e c t s o f my f a i t h as I l i v e d i t . First,  I would r e p r e s e n t o r symbolize the substance o f  my f a i t h with Bread images. to  Second, I would  symbolize t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f my f a i t h .  use Rocks  T h i r d , I used  Thorns t o r e p r e s e n t the p a s s i o n o f my f a i t h .  T h i s was  done i n an attempt t o c l a r i f y and d i r e c t me i n t o  visual  images t h a t would be worthy o f the s p i r i t u a l experience they r e p r e s e n t e d .  I d i d not i n t e n d the images to  become sacred and i n t h a t sense i c o n o g r a p h i c .  Rather I  d e s i r e d t o express through the Bread, Rock and Thorn images my r e a c t i o n as a t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y man t o God and the World. traditional art,  Furthermore, I d i d n o t look t o  C h r i s t i a n orthodoxy, whether dogma o r sacred  f o r a guide t o my c h o i c e o f imagery.  Instead I  37  depended on a p e r s o n a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the B i b l e  and  from t h a t developed a p e r s p e c t i v e on what i t means to be a C h r i s t i a n and  an a r t i s t , and  the  subsequent  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t a r i s e from such a  perspective.  In l i m i t i n g the images to bread, rocks I a l s o gained c o n t r o l o f my and  focussed  image rendered w i t h  I intended  the  on a s i n g u l a r image, and  significant detail.  which the image e x i s t e d was unobtrusive.  thorns,  tendency towards a crowded  s u r r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e plane.  p a i n t i n g s to be  and  to be c l e a r  Manna from Heaven and  The  ground i n  and  Cosmic Bread  ( S l i d e s 2 9 & 30)  demonstrate t h i s c u t t i n g away o f  unnecessary, and  f o c u s s i n g on the s p e c i f i c  Manna from Heaven  ( S l i d e 29)  small format o i l - o n - c a n v a s  was  one  image.  p a i n t i n g s t h a t I f e l t were  p a i n t i n g s o f which Cosmic Bread  larger acrylic  ( S l i d e 30)  example.  The  handling,  the l a c k of complex c o l o r and  i s an  s i m p l i c i t y o f the composition and  to achieve two  First,  important my  I c o u l d approach the canvas w i t h a  minimum amount o f problem s o l v i n g ahead o f me, me had  paint  textural  t h i n g s t h a t were s i g n i f i c a n t i n m a i n t a i n i n g motivation.  the  of a s e r i e s of  i n t e g r a l steps l e a d i n g to the l a t e r and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , enabled me  that  allowing  to spend a generous p r o p o r t i o n o f the meager time I f o r a r t , a c t u a l l y p a i n t i n g my  ideas.  As  I  38  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , much o f my work i s i n s p i r e d l i t e r a r y sources.  For example,  from  upon r e a d i n g a  p a r t i c u l a r B i b l i c a l passage the p i c t u r e i s formed i n the  mind; c o l o r s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , images i n harmony  and c o n f l i c t .  A c o r o l l a r y i s seen i n everyday  life.  Bread i s broken to be eaten so as to s u s t a i n us. Son o f Man the  The  i s broken on t h e c r o s s and becomes the bread,  Manna from Heaven.  We who  are l i k e c o l d dead stones  consume t h i s and s p r i n g to l i f e .  To g i v e t h i s  vision  form, to f l e s h i t i n w i t h p a i n t and g i v e i t t a n g i b i l i t y i s most rewarding.  Second, I was a b l e to complete the  p a i n t i n g s , and as the work evolved from i d e a to i d e a and canvas to canvas, a p r o g r e s s and e v o l u t i o n , however slow, c o u l d be observed.  D e s i g n i n g the c o n c e p t u a l and  p l a s t i c a s p e c t s o f my work to s u i t the amount o f time a v a i l a b l e f o r e x e c u t i o n was a b s o l u t e l y necessary to m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y and a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t depth o r meaning.  So i t was,  i n the a c t of p a i n t i n g , and i n the  reward o f t h a t a c t , the f i n i s h e d a r t work, t h a t I found reason and m o t i v a t i o n to c o n t i n u e . A noteworthy i n f l u e n c e on my s e t t i n g myself up i n such a way. demands and, i n p a r t , my  imagery arose from Because o f the time  g r e g a r i o u s n a t u r e , there was  tendency towards g e s t u r e and the quick s k e t c h . tendency m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n the l a r g e p e n c i l  a  This drawings  39  o f thorns  ( S l i d e s 31 & 32) , as w e l l as i n the  p a i n t i n g s t h a t grew out of t h a t graphic images, the thorns i n p e n c i l and  airbrush  inquiry.  airbrush  These  (Slides  33-35), seem to foreshadow a d i r e c t i o n t h a t I was take i n the near f u t u r e .  I t would not be the  rigid,  almost a s c e t i c bread p a i n t i n g s t h a t would l e a d me resolution or discovery.  T h i s i s due  to  to  to a number o f  reasons, but the most important i s t h a t the method I had  constructed  with my  i n the long term was  personality.  d i s c i p l i n e and  Though I b e n e f i t e d  c o n t r o l t h a t I had  p a i n t i n g s , i t was  not  compatible from the  to e x e r t i n the bread  i n the more e x p r e s s i v e  and  g e s t i c u l a t i n g works ( S l i d e s 33-35) t h a t I found freedom of expression.  I t was  i n these works, I b e l i e v e , t h a t  the image became l e s s s u r r e a l and more p a i n t e r l y , r e s u r r e c t i n g the more p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f Bacon de  and  Kooning.  A Short  I t was  during  Tangent  the summer months o f 1973  took a tangent t h a t was  that. I  generated from an experience I  had w h i l e t e a c h i n g A r t s & C r a f t s workshops f o r the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ' s S a t e l l i t e program. n o t i c e d a p e n c i l l y i n g on a w i n d o w s i l l ;  One  day  sharpened a t  I  40  both ends.  I t s t r u c k me  as a b s u r d l y  an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t from another world tool?  From t h i s experience  small p a i n t i n g s  funny.  What would  t h i n k of such a  I produced a s e r i e s o f  ( S l i d e s 36-38).  Furthermore; w h i l e  our workshops were on d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , I would c r e a t e p a i n t i n g s o f p e n c i l s o f every  s i z e , shape and  form, from a 20 f o o t y e l l o w eagle p a i n t e d on  the  pavement o f a p a r k i n g l o t , to the p e n c i l snake p a i n t e d on paper  ( S l i d e 37).  I mention t h i s because I f e e l  the  i d e a shows an e c l e c t i c a t t i t u d e i n the g a t h e r i n g o f v i s u a l ideas as w e l l as i n the manner of  transforming  them i n t o p a i n t i n g s . These tangents may e v o l u t i o n o f my  own  o r may  work.  One  not enhance the  general  t h i n g they do cause i s a  decrease i n the amount o f time I have to spend working on those p i e c e s t h a t I c o n s i d e r more important.  On  the  p o s i t i v e s i d e , these adventures c o u l d r e s u l t i n c r e a t i v e breakthroughs, l i b e r a t i n g an a r t i s t who s l a v e to h i s own  style.  explained i n a l a t e r  T h i s i d e a w i l l be f u r t h e r  chapter.  A Change o f  Upon graduating  has become a  from UBC,  Place  I obtained  a position in  V i c t o r i a at a community school t e a c h i n g A r t and  English  41  a t the grade 10,  11,  p e r i o d when I was  and  12 l e v e l .  I t was  during  the  j u s t becoming i n v o l v e d i n the  g e s t u r a l a i r b r u s h work t h a t I moved my f a m i l y to Vancouver I s l a n d .  We  had  s t u d i o and  my  a c h i l d of two  by  t h i s time. S e t t i n g up house and f u l l - t i m e teaching i t was  preparing  f o r my  first  job took up most o f t h a t summer, so  not u n t i l midway through the year t h a t I s t a r t e d  to work i n my rock and  studio.  I decided  then to pursue  the  bread theme ( S l i d e s 3 9 & 4 0) i n some small  a c r y l i c s on paper. expressive  I continued  g e s t u r a l thorn  to explore  the  i d e a , o n l y i n s t e a d of  employing an a i r b r u s h , I opted f o r c h a r c o a l .  I gained  a modicum of success w i t h both, but n e i t h e r took me step c l o s e r to d e c i d i n g which d i r e c t i o n I choose.  A r e f i n i n g and  i n the bread and seemed c o n t r a r y thorn  images.  a  should  t i g h t e n i n g up o f e x e c u t i o n ,  rock images was  t a k i n g p l a c e , and i t  to the d i r e c t i o n I was A s y n t h e s i s was  as  taking with  needed.  How  I was  the to  achieve t h i s s y n t h e s i s proved a most unexpected, though pleasant  surprise.  Synthesis  In the S p r i n g of 1975  by  Serendipity  I e x h i b i t e d the  thorns  42  ( S l i d e s 31-35), and the rock and bread drawings and paintings  ( S l i d e s 39 & 40) a t the G a l l e r i e A l l e n .  was a d i s a p p o i n t i n g show:  It  no reviews, and few s a l e s .  R e a l i z i n g the l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n c y  i n my work, I  s t r u c k out i n another path t o purge myself o f what I thought were d i s t r a c t i n g elements i n my a r t . to e l i m i n a t e the e x p r e s s i v e ,  I decided  g e s t u r a l work, and pursue  the more s u r r e a l i s t i c imagery found i n my bread and rock p a i n t i n g s .  I decided  t h a t perhaps I c o u l d enhance  these p a i n t i n g s by i n c o r p o r a t i n g the f i g u r e . w i t h the f i g u r e came complex, compositional  However, and content  problems, as can be seen i n the small a c r y l i c , Take ( S l i d e 41).  I c o u l d sense the same type o f s i t u a t i o n  e v o l v i n g t h a t had generated those e a r l y awkward symbolic works, o f which, No More and Oh Jerusalem ( S l i d e s 26 & 27) are good examples. Dream  With Eunuch's  ( S l i d e 43), t h i s t i g h t e n i n g up o f technique can  be observed, even though the s l i d e shows the work i n an unfinished  state.  l a t e r p a i n t e d over.  I d i d f i n i s h t h i s work, but i t was The work t h a t f o l l o w e d was a l a r g e  a c r y l i c o f two f i g u r e s l o o k i n g out o f v e g e t a t i o n ; Adam and Eve ( S l i d e 44).  an  As I progressed through t h i s  p a i n t i n g I experienced a growing sense o f f r u s t r a t i o n . I f e l t disconnected branches.  t o the images o f leaves and  The content i t s e l f  seemed t r i t e  i n this  43  form.  Whereas the bread and rock p a i n t i n g s avoided  p i t f a l l of being too i l l u s t r a t i v e , employing  t h i s work by  the f i g u r e s seemed d e s t i n e d to t h a t end.  stood back, looked a t the overworked l e a v e s and lifeless  the  I  stiff  f l e s h I had been p a i n t i n g , walked over to  my  p a l e t t e , mixed up l a r g e gobs o f c o l o r , and a t t a c k e d the canvas. of was  My  impulses now  canvas.  arm,  i n s t e a d o f being merely  a transmitter  f o r small i n t r i c a t e movements to my  fingers,  the mover, as i t gestured to and over the I t had happened:  " s y n t h e s i s by  serendipity."  I t seemed pure therapy i n the beginning, but as I continued, the form o f the f i g u r e s i n the could s t i l l  be seen, the s t r u c t u r e was  f a c t , the f i g u r e s now  appeared  composition  maintained.  In  i n t e g r a t e d , w i t h the  p i c t u r e p l a n e , and not o n l y emerged from the v e g e t a t i o n , i m p l i e d by the brush work, but merged and re-emerged from the a c t u a l p l a s t i c s u r f a c e o f the p a i n t i n g . attempt  to focus the f i g u r e s , the brush s t r o k e s were  d e f i n e d w i t h b l a c k o u t l i n i n g here and t h e r e . joy  was  In an  Another  d i s c o v e r e d as gestures and brush s t r o k e s were  r e - e x p e r i e n c e d , as my brush d e l i n e a t e d and  emphasized  those d r i b b l e s , haphazard shapes and c o l o r s t h a t would not o n l y enhance the form, but make the content as w e l l .  subtler  44  This p a i n t i n g , t i t l e d  Come F o r t h ,  what I f e e l a l l the p r e v i o u s I t was a c u l m i n a t i o n  ( S l i d e 44) was  y e a r s ' work had l e d t o .  o f those many years o f s t r u g g l i n g  to f i n d myself, as w e l l as to f i n d the a p p r o p r i a t e of e x p r e s s i n g  that s e l f .  way  I t was a l s o a r e b i r t h t h a t  a r r i v e d a f t e r years o f hard, f r u s t r a t i n g work, and o f more f a i l u r e than success. everything style.  In one work i t seemed as i f  had f a l l e n i n t o p l a c e , t h a t I had found my  I began p a i n t i n g i n t e n s e l y and through the  summer o f 1976 and the f o l l o w i n g years, produced a s u f f i c i e n t number o f canvases and a c r y l i c s on paper ( S l i d e s 44-47) to have a l a r g e show o f 40 works a t Open Space G a l l e r y i n V i c t o r i a i n the S p r i n g o f 1978. I was c o n f i d e n t acquired  a t t h i s time t h a t the s t y l e I had  would evolve on i t s own accord,  as one p a i n t i n g  would grow out o f the next, where concepts and images h i n t e d a t i n one work would become a focus i n the next. It  seemed t h a t my new found s t y l e was w e l l s u i t e d to  the amount o f time l e f t a f t e r the demands o f t e a c h i n g art  full  time had been met.  45  CHAPTER IV  THE ARTIST IN SCHOOL  In t h i s chapter I w i l l be r e f l e c t i n g on those f o r c e s and i n f l u e n c e s t h a t most s i g n i f i c a n t l y the a r t i s t who teaches.  affect  These could best be d e s c r i b e d  under two general c a t e g o r i e s :  the t e a c h i n g  environment; and the nature, o r c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y , o f the a r t i s t .  I t i s not my i n t e n t i o n to  do e i t h e r a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the school system, or a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o r t r a i t o f the a r t i s t , but r a t h e r to  r e f l e c t on how as one a r t i s t / t e a c h e r I maintain an  a c t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e l i f e as an a r t i s t while full  teaching  time. It  i s obvious  t h a t my t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n i s  unique, as indeed everyone's i s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , are c o n s t a n t s i n the education V i c t o r i a o r Dawson Creek.  there  system, whether i n  T h i s i s a l s o t r u e o f the  i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t / t e a c h e r , r e g a r d l e s s o f the s c h o o l . As a r t i s t s , education  t e a c h e r s , and c i t i z e n s working w i t h i n the  system, we share many common  Perhaps the most obvious  concerns;  i s our b e l i e f t h a t a r t , as a  c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , must be recognized as a worthwhile endeavor and e n r i c h i n g a c t i v i t y f o r every human b e i n g .  46  I b e l i e v e t h i s i d e a i s u n i v e r s a l among a r t t e a c h e r s ; yet, i n the l i g h t o f t h a t statement, there remain o n l y a few  teachers who  are a b l e to continue  very p h i l o s o p h y they propose. follow w i l l education  i l l u s t r a t e how  to pursue the  The r e f l e c t i o n s t h a t  I see myself  i n the  system and what I am doing about my  artistic  survival in i t . G e n e r a l l y speaking,  h i g h schools are  considered  c o n s e r v a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s , and the one where I teach a r t i s no e x c e p t i o n , even though i t has a d i s t r i c t , i f not province-wide  r e p u t a t i o n o f being p r o g r e s s i v e .  The  s t e r e o t y p e d image o f a secondary school i s a p l a c e where students are expected treated l i k e children. systems and memos. white-faced  to behave l i k e a d u l t s and  C o n t r o l i s administered  P.A.  Movement i s c o n t r o l l e d by l a r g e  c l o c k s and P a v l o v i a n b e l l s .  arid conformity are r e i n f o r c e d by "School  by  S p i r i t Days".  "Pep  Nevertheless  Herd m e n t a l i t y  Rallies"  the High  and  School  p h i l o s o p h y w r i t t e n up i n the s t a f f handbook u s u a l l y p r o c l a i m s as i t s h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e the r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l as a l e a r n e r and a p r o s p e c t i v e citizen. In r e a l i t y , our schools are n o t h i n g more than a m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n o f the s o c i e t y they s e r v e .  Though  the r e f l e c t e d image i s softened, a t l e a s t f o r the  47  student, i t i s s h a r p l y focused on the t e a c h e r , who answer to the demands o f the i d e a l i s t i c and a t  must  times  unreasonable e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a s o c i e t y t h a t wants the school to s o l v e problems t h a t no one parent taxpayer asks: teachers so much?  e l s e can.  I s n ' t t h a t why  we  The  are paying  L i k e a l l t e a c h e r s , the teacher o f  a r t i s s u b j e c t to t h i s p r e s s u r e both i n the media, and i n h i s community.  I t can wear one down.  W i t h i n the student body and  i n the f a c u l t y  itself  i s r e f l e c t e d the d i v e r s i t y o f p h i l o s o p h i c p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s and p e r c e p t i o n s found i n the community the s c h o o l s e r v e s .  To t h i s mosaic the  a r t i s t / t e a c h e r adds h i s small bohemian t i l e . the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r i s expected h i s a c t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . a r t i s t s who  to f i l l  Indeed,  that role, i n  With the e x c e p t i o n o f a  have become e s t a b l i s h e d and  few  s u c c e s s f u l , the  a r t i s t / t e a c h e r i s much l i k e h i s c o u n t e r p a r t i n the larger society.  Though t o l e r a t e d , the a r t i s t i s teased  and c h i d e d t h a t he w i l l have to d i e before h i s work w i l l be found worthwhile.  L i k e w i s e the s t a t u s o f a r t  remains a poor c o u s i n i n the c u r r i c u l u m , t o l e r a t e d , misunderstood.  but  I t i s t h e r e f o r e a f a m i l i a r niche the  a r t i s t / t e a c h e r f i n d s f o r h i m s e l f whether i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r s t a f f members o r i n the o f h i s d i s c i p l i n e to the r e s t o f the  school's  relation  48  curriculum.  S u r v i v i n g the System  In my d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h other  a r t teachers,  what i t i s to be an a r t i s t and to teach, many, a t t h e time, d i d not c o n s i d e r  about  I found t h a t  themselves a r t i s t s .  Most expressed a d e s i r e t o do a r t , but complained o f teacher  "burn-out", l a c k o f time and sundry commitments  t h a t kept them from e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r art-making i n any  s o r t o f c o n s i s t e n t manner.  as w e l l as t h e i r p r o f e s s e d  As I r e f l e c t on my own,  reasons f o r being unable to  s u s t a i n work h a b i t s and a r t output, I must concede t h a t teaching  i s a consuming  Teaching i s very  occupation.  s t r e s s f u l , and many teachers  the summer h o l i d a y s to recoup energies  that w i l l  need allow  them to be v i t a l when they r e t u r n to work i n t h e F a l l . The q u e s t i o n  i s what i s t h e most p r o f i t a b l e way to  regain v i t a l i t y .  Some a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s f i n d t h a t  or working i n a job t h a t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i s h e l p f u l i n renewing t h e i r energy.  travel,  adult-oriented  Others f e e l  months a r e o n l y f o r l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n .  summer  Few, i t  seems, have the a t t i t u d e t h a t the summer months a r e a time to e s t a b l i s h momentum i n t h e making o f t h e i r a r t , and o f these many r e q u i r e a summer school course t o  49  get them going.  I p e r s o n a l l y b e l i e v e the rewards  o b t a i n e d by having completed a p a i n t i n g , and observed an e v o l u t i o n i n t h e work I do, w i l l motivate me to continue w e l l i n t o the school year.  F o r me, summer  o f f e r s t h a t u n i n t e r r u p t e d time f o r concentrated painting.  I t i s a time f o r work t h a t i n c l u d e s i n i t s  method a time o f contemplation, come by when t e a c h i n g f u l l  time.  a boon t h a t i s hard t o I t then seems l o g i c a l  t h a t i f summer i s t h e l o n g e s t s u s t a i n e d non-contact time w i t h the school system, and i f one i s s e r i o u s about b e i n g an a r t i s t ,  that the designing of a  s e l f - m o t i v a t i n g component i n t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r time i s paramount t o both the e v o l u t i o n and e x i s t e n c e o f an artist. In an e f f o r t to accomplish been developing  t h i s momentum I have  over the years a s t y l e o f p a i n t i n g t h a t  i s a b l e t o be r e a l i z e d i n a s u c c e s s f u l way, given t h e amount o f time I have on hand f o r the t a s k . experience  From  I have been l e a r n i n g , i n many cases t h e hard  way, to a v o i d l a r g e , complex p r o j e c t s .  Concepts t h a t  need e x t e n s i v e i n q u i r y , and s u s t a i n e d t e c h n i c a l development to reach r e s o l u t i o n , I a v o i d . screen p r i n t I p u l l e d l a s t  A silk  summer i s a prime example.  Not o n l y d i d i t e a t i n t o p r e c i o u s time f o r p a i n t i n g due l a r g e l y to my l a c k o f e x p e r t i s e with t h e medium, but  50  the rewards gained from the completed negligible.  I t d i d not r e a l l y l e a d me  anything i t slowed my  image were  the momentum I was  anywhere and i f b u i l d i n g up i n  painting.  Great E x p e c t a t i o n s  The  job d e s c r i p t i o n o f an a r t teacher goes f a r  beyond t h a t o f the d i s c i p l i n e , o r body of knowledge, and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s needed i n the s t u d i o s i t u a t i o n . The a r t teacher, a t l e a s t i n my expect i t i s a unique  s c h o o l , and I don't  s i t u a t i o n , i s expected  to keep  c l o s e l i a i s o n between the students i n h i s Teacher A d v i s o r group, the students' v a r i o u s s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s , and t h e i r p a r e n t s .  The a r t i s t / t e a c h e r i s expected  to  work a t f i r s t l i n e c o u n s e l l i n g , d e v e l o p i n g each i n d i v i d u a l student's program, and ensuring t h a t the proper courses are taken which w i l l to graduate.  enable the  As w e l l as t h i s c o u n s e l l i n g and  student clerical  type o f work the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r must a c t as a "Buyer and Merchant".  With budgets i n the area of thousands  o f d o l l a r s , the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r must y e a r l y d e f i n e s p e c i f i c m a t e r i a l s and  s u p p l i e s f o r the c u r r i c u l u m .  knowledge of the q u a l i t y of products f o r e v e r y t h i n g from k i l n s to p a i n t brushes  i s expected  as w e l l as of  A  51  who the best and cheapest  suppliers are.  Another  e x p e c t a t i o n o f the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r i s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , and c o n t r i b u t i o n t o , s c h o o l "tone".  This includes,  being s u b j e c t to and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s i l l y and outrageous a c t i v i t i e s ;  such as being the t a r g e t i n a  pie  T h i s i s a l l done i n the name o f  throwing  contest.  b e t t e r teacher/student  r e l a t i o n s and school s p i r i t .  Most schools need funds f o r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r activities.  A r t i s t / t e a c h e r s a r e expected  share i n events designed  to do t h e i r  t o r a i s e money f o r the s c h o o l .  In an a c t i v e s c h o o l , an a r t i s t / t e a c h e r may a l s o be expected  to sponsor a c l u b o r coach a team.  activities  A l l these  take time, and more o f t e n than not t h a t time  comes a f t e r the r e g u l a r school day i s f i n i s h e d .  It i s  no wonder t h a t with so many d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s the t e a c h e r can f e e l  h i m s e l f spread v e r y t h i n l y and not  very much l i k e the c o n c e n t r a t e d  s e n s i t i v e l y i n t e n s e and  focused i n d i v i d u a l t h a t an a r t i s t should be.  Temptations  Art  teachers, g e n e r a l l y speaking,  w e l l equipped  have access t o  s t u d i o s and though i t i s t h e i r p l a c e o f  employment, and the equipment and f a c i l i t y are meant p r i m a r i l y f o r student use, there s t i l l  remain times,  52  such as spares,  lunch hours and  evenings when a  p h o t o / s t e n c i l can be made, a pot thrown, o r a p r i n t developed.  The  s t u d i o I teach i n i s w e l l equipped  with  a dark room, complete w i t h c o l o r equipment, k i l n s ,  high  q u a l i t y wheels, vacuum t a b l e s , a r c lamps, e t c h i n g presses,  a i r b r u s h e s and Raku f i r i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  In  my  case i t would be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d such equipment to work w i t h .  I c e r t a i n l y c o u l d not a f f o r d to s e t up  a s t u d i o , and  there are not the c o - o p e r a t i v e  such  studios,  20  such as the "Dunderave P r i n t Workshop",  in Victoria.  I f e e l the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r i s l u c k y to have a p l a c e t h a t enables  ongoing c r e a t i v e i n q u i r y r e l a t i n g to  as w e l l as the p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t . teacher  o f ceramics I was  it. my in;  artist/  For example, i n the  temptation instruction  c o n s i d e r a b l y weak, but the more I  the s u b j e c t , the f u r t h e r I became f a s c i n a t e d by  C l a y work, i n p a r t i c u l a r Raku, subsequently hobby. i t was  having  any  I t was  became  an a r t form I c o u l d i n v o l v e myself  both t h e r a p e u t i c and  rewarding  without  c r i t i c a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l baggage attached  to i t s making.  The  Raku process  a meaningful i n t e n t i o n t h a t had my  the  i s a l s o s u b j e c t to what I f e e l i s a  to master every a r e a .  taught  But  teaching  psyche l i k e my  painting did.  d i d not demand from  me  i t s r o o t s deep set i n Nevertheless  nature o f Raku t h a t i t i s p u r p o s i v e ,  and  i t i s the  I can see  that  53  I am not going to be able to t r e a t i t as a mere hobby forever.  Even now  I can see i t e v o l v i n g i n t o a more  complex p l a s t i c enquiry t h a t demands more c r i t i c a l awareness. in  What s t a r t e d out as a joyous a c t i v i t y done  classroom demonstrations i s g e t t i n g to the p o i n t  where I am s t a r t i n g to demand of my skill  commensurate w i t h my  craft.  c l a y work forms and  growing knowledge o f the  T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s the spending o f more time  doing what was  once a t h e r a p e u t i c hobby w i t h the r e s u l t  t h a t a c h i e v i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i n e i t h e r area i s l i m i t e d  by  the amount of a v a i l a b l e time f o r the work. One  can look a t t h i s phenomenon as a b l e s s i n g or a  curse, or both.  I f , f o r example, an a r t i s t i s the type  t h a t gets i n a r u t , and ends up r e p e a t i n g h i s successes with no ongoing i n q u i r y , i t c o u l d be j u s t the c a t a l y s t to  push him out o f h i s r u t and onto a new  track.  the o t h e r hand i t c o u l d become a curse bouncing around  from one novel experience to another,  On him  giving  l o t s o f breadth but l i t t l e depth, never l e t t i n g  him  focus i n and r e f i n e , expand, o r exhaust a p a r t i c u l a r possibility. P a r t o f my  t e a c h i n g technique i s to f o l l o w  through  from demonstration to completion many o f the p r o j e c t s I propose.  I t was  demonstration,  j u s t such a response to one (on the a r t of assemblage) t h a t I was  54  i n s p i r e d or perhaps even seduced by the v i s u a l l y e x c i t i n g , and humorous, p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h i n g s a t t a c h e d t o , or f l o a t i n g on a two  dimensional  I f i n d t h a t when I r e s e a r c h the  plane.  literature,  s l i d e s and examples on a s u b j e c t such as Assemblage, I am i n v a r i a b l y tempted to t r a n s l a t e the media and method i n t o my own  v i s u a l expression.  Though the  temptation  never u s u a l l y goes beyond the demonstration  example I  produce, there have been o c c a s i o n s when the time r i p e , and  was  the i n f l u e n c e too strong to r e s i s t .  The assemblages I produced i n 1979 i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s point.  A f t e r the s o l o show a t  Open Space i n the S p r i n g 1978 s t i f f e n up a g a i n .  my  images began to  I f e l t cramped and unable  the s p o n t a n e i t y t h a t my work was can observe  are a p e r f e c t  to achieve  dependent on.  One  s e q u e n t i a l l y , from the i n i t i a l p a i n t i n g  Come F o r t h ( S l i d e 44) d e f i n i t e refinement  to N a t h a n i a l ' s Tree  l e a d i n g to l e s s and  e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c paint handling.  ( S l i d e 46)  less  As w e l l the  composition  becomes more formal and totemic, the f i g u r e s end  up  centered on l a r g e f i e l d s of c o l o r w i t h o n l y a  slight  i n d i c a t i o n of brush work.  this  The c u l m i n a t i o n o f  movement can be seen i n the p a i n t i n g Dove Son ( S l i d e 48) where there i s l i t t l e or no i n d i c a t i o n o f e x p r e s s i v e brush work.  a  The p a i n t e r l y e x p r e s s i v e  55  g e s t u r e s i n t h i s work have given way to dead and conventional squiggles.  However, i t was a t r a n s i t i o n a l  p a i n t i n g t h a t l e d t o the assemblage Son R i s e ( S l i d e 4 9).  A t a weak moment I was swayed by the  s t i m u l a t i o n o f an e x c i t i n g l e s s o n i n c l a s s .  This,  coupled w i t h the aforementioned problems i n my own work, and a mind t h a t i s s u b j e c t t o t h i s type o f i n q u i r y , made the jump to assemblage both l o g i c a l and attractive.  As w e l l , i t was f o r me a time to do some  l i g h t h e a r t e d , humorous a r t , poking fun not o n l y a t myself and my own work as i n Red Brush  ( S l i d e 5 0) but  a l s o a t c e r t a i n modern a r t conventions as found i n Yellow, Red, Blue,  ( S l i d e 51).  I had a p r o d u c t i v e and  f u l f i l l i n g time e x p l o r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f s u r f a c e and i l l u s i o n , o f b r e a k i n g out from the conventions t h a t had come t o b i n d me.  I became an e n t h u s i a s t i c  advocate  o f assemblage as a method o f v i s u a l a r t i c u l a t i o n .  This  l i b e r a t i o n enabled me t o feed back i n t o the classroom s i t u a t i o n many o f the new d i s c o v e r i e s I had experienced.  56  CHAPTER V  RECLAMATION  The on two  j o u r n a l to t h i s p o i n t has  reflectively  major concerns t h a t l e a d up to and  are  dwelt  relevant  to the s t u d i o p a r t of t h i s t h e s i s as represented S l i d e s 53-54, 56-57, 59-66. w i t h my  personal  The  primary concern d e a l t  s u r v i v a l as an a r t i s t ,  s o c i a l l y , s p i r i t u a l l y , economically, an a r t i s t . was  The  intellectually,  but e s s e n t i a l l y as  second concern, r e l a t e d to the  the idea of e v o l u t i o n i n my  by  work:  first,  t h a t i s , how  does  the imagery change i n accordance w i t h p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , or s p i r i t u a l s t a t e s of These two two  concerns became a c u t e l y focused  years o f s t r u g g l i n g academically,  the s t u d i o again. thin i c e .  The  canvas posing I was  ( S l i d e 53).  uptight.  I t was  when, a f t e r  I found myself i n  l i k e standing  on the edge of  s t u d i o i s a dangerous p l a c e , every blank the same q u e s t i o n :  Where to s t a r t ?  i n t e r e s t e d i n i n q u i r i n g f u r t h e r i n t o some  s i l k screen  canvases.  consciousness?  techniques I had I had  been working on a t  school  prepared a number o f medium s i z e  They made me  f e e l even more i n t i m i d a t e d  T h i s , coupled w i t h the prospect  and  o f a show a t  the end of a short few months o f s t u d i o work, w i t h  the  57  expectation  to produce mature r e s o l v e d p a i n t i n g s ,  almost enough to d e b i l i t a t e me. of:  One  was  t h i n g I was  sure  I d i d not want to work i n assemblage. I decided  to s t a r t on  some g r a p h i t e drawing  see where that would l e a d me. witness of l i v i n g  men,  Notwithstanding  the i d e a o f my  founded on the testament o f a few parchment from the p a s t moved me the word became f l e s h .  The  faith's  from one the two  being  fragments o f to c o n s i d e r  appropriate  the Logos;,  Indeed, i t was  as i f I had  o f those drawings and  areas  scripture  technique i s not u n l i k e  which I employed i n the bread drawings o f ( S l i d e 55) ,  the  I began d e f i n i n g surface  around prose I had w r i t t e n , and from the B i b l e .  and  that  1974.  taken the  stretched i t f l a t  crust with  edges o f the c r u s t becoming the worn, ragged  extremity  o f the a n c i e n t  scroll.  From the idea of the word becoming f l e s h , and success I was  having i n the drawings, I embarked  some l a r g e g e s t u r a l w o r d / l e t t e r I had  used p r e v i o u s  on  p a i n t i n g s i n the  to the assemblage tangent.  the  style I  felt  unconnected to the imagery, going through t e c h n i c a l motions t h a t I had Whereas my  resolved  i n the p r e v i o u s  i n t e n t i o n seemed f u l f i l l e d  the forms and  content r e f l e c t e d my  emotional c o n v i c t i o n .  The  work.  i n the drawings,  intellectual  p a i n t i n g s , on the  and  other  58  hand, seemed a t r a v e s t y o f j u s t those t h i n g s . At the time I was  r e a d i n g Nikos K a z a n t z a k i s '  novel The L a s t Temptation o f C h r i s t . sensually e x p l i c i t , spiritual  His i d e a s , so  i m a g i n a t i v e l y conjured up the  s t r u g g l e among man,  God and the Adversary.  Kazantzakis d e f i n e d the s p i r i t u a l a b i l i t y to transform the d e s c r i p t i v e and the n a r r a t i v e i n t o a powerful metaphor.  I was  i n s p i r e d to generate my p a i n t i n g  a source o t h e r than my from photographs  drawings.  from  I decided to work  t h a t I had taken o f body b u i l d e r s  were posed i n w r e s t l i n g p o s i t i o n s .  From t h i s  who  source  I s t a r t e d doing sketches and working on i d e a s f o r paintings.  As w e l l , I d e s t r o y e d a l l the w o r d / l e t t e r  p a i n t i n g s , except David's S c r o l l David's S c r o l l was  ( S l i d e 57).  saved because  i t represents, I  f e e l , a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage between the p a i n t i n g The Mocking  ( S l i d e 58), which was  the assemblages,  done j u s t p r i o r to  and the i n q u i r y i n t o the w o r d / l e t t e r  p a i n t i n g s ; and the work I.am  about to d i s c u s s .  The w r e s t l e r p a i n t i n g s were preceded by the screen p r i n t e n t i t l e d Do Men ( S l i d e 59). economy o f my  S t i l l Wrestle AngeLs?  As mentioned  b e f o r e , i n c o n s i d e r i n g the  time, t h i s p r i n t s e t me back about a week  and demonstrated  to me  the n e c e s s i t y o f a v o i d i n g  complex techniques w i t h p r o j e c t s I have not  mastered.  59  Jacob's Angel  ( S l i d e 60), the f i r s t  wrestling  p a i n t i n g I completed, d i d not i n d i c a t e promise. too  I t was  t i g h t l y p a i n t e d and the f i g u r e s appear s t i f f and  lifeless.  However, t h e emergence o f the h o r i z o n i n  t h i s p a i n t i n g proved i n t e r e s t i n g enough t o warrant more work i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n .  I t was i n Jacob's Ladder's End  ( S l i d e 61) t h a t a l o o s e n i n g o f the brush work becomes e v i d e n t , the f i g u r e s , though appearing s l i g h t l y  stiff,  do n o t c o n t r a d i c t the c o m p o s i t i o n a l i n t e n t as does Jacob's Angel, where t h e l e g o f Jacob, h e l d by the Angel  ( i n b l u e ) , appears t o be shrunk out o f  proportion.  Instead o f becoming t h e fulcrum o f the  a c t i o n , i t becomes merely a c o n f u s i o n o f g e s t u r e s . T h i s p a i n t i n g w i l l p r o b a b l y be reworked i n an attempt to  reclaim the o r i g i n a l  idea.  Jacob's Ladder's End ( S l i d e 61) and Angel a t Dawn ( S l i d e 62) w i t h t h e i r continuance o f the h o r i z o n foreshadow  the re-emergence  o f t h e landscape concerns  t h a t were e v i d e n t i n e a r l y works such as Come F o r t h and Lazarus  ( S l i d e s 44 & 45).  The f i r s t r e a l landscape  emerges near the end o f my w r e s t l e r s e r i e s . it  i s a f i g u r e p a i n t i n g without f i g u r e s .  Garden  Outside the  ( S l i d e 64) i s about C a i n and A b e l , the f i r s t  c o n f l i c t between men. to  In f a c t ,  Cain i s jealous.  God has not been accepted, A b e l ' s has.  His s a c r i f i c e Cain k i l l s  60  Abel and hides i n the f o l i a g e .  God i n q u i r e s !  I was  going to t i t l e the p a i n t i n g The F i r s t Murder; however I thought b e t t e r o f i t , as the e f f e c t o f such a s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t o r o f content would of  the work.  l i m i t the emotional impact  The red s l a s h on brown a t the lower  c e n t e r o f the canvas h i g h l i g h t e d by a ragged yellow/white g e s t u r e emphasizes  the focus below the  darkness i n the middle o f the canvas. darkness are white g e s t u r e s . Forming q u e s t i o n s ? darkness?  I t was  Over the  Are they becoming words?  I n q u i r i n g o f and framed i n the  i n t h i s work t h a t I sensed myself  p a i n t i n g w i t h c o n f i d e n c e and  authority.  I t was a l s o September and time t o p r e p a r e f o r the r e t u r n to school and the f i n i s h i n g up o f my  thesis  proposal.  and the  work was  However, I had some momentum now e v o l v i n g a t a s i g n i f i c a n t pace.  Outside t h e Garden  #2  Outside the Garden  #1 X S l i d e 63) shows a column o f  red  (Slide  64) t h a t  The p a i n t i n g  followed  r i s i n g from g r e e n i s h brown ground as l i g h t moves  a c r o s s the canvas from top l e f t i n a d i a g o n a l motion. The g e s t u r e s over the red v e r t i c a l t h a t symbolizes blood, s p e l l out the name A b e l .  As t h i s name appears  and merges never f u l l y v i s i b l e , except once, the i d e a of A b e l ' s blood speaking from the e a r t h i s a c h i e v e d . The word-forms I p r e v i o u s l y had d i s r e g a r d e d as u s e l e s s  61  were re-emerging, h e l d , i t seems to me, i n a landscape with potency and v i g o u r .  In t h i s p a i n t i n g the dark  area to the r i g h t i m p l i e s the hidden C a i n ; the d i a g o n a l l i g h t i n d i c a t e s the approaching presence o f God.  This  growing p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h l i g h t i s repeated i n the l a s t two p a i n t i n g s F l e s h Box o f My Body  ( S l i d e 65) and  Outside the Garden #3 ( S l i d e 66). In F l e s h Box o f My Body the l i g h t emanates from the c e n t e r weaving together the two opposing images, whereas i n Outside the Garden #3 the l i g h t i s much c o o l e r . the l e f t ,  i t bounces around the canvas,  R a d i a t i n g from highlighting  the contours and gestures o f the two f i g u r e s . The d e v e l o p i n g concern f o r l i g h t e f f e c t w i t h i n these p a i n t i n g s can be t r a c e d to the development  o f the  h o r i z o n i n the W r e s t l e r S e r i e s such as Angel a t Dawn ( S l i d e 62) and Jacob's Ladder's' End ( S l i d e 61) . appears to be an e v o l v i n g a s p e c t o f my p a i n t i n g  This that  w i l l be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d when I r e t u r n to my work.  62  CHAPTER VI  CONCLUSIONS  It  seems reasonable, a f t e r r e f l e c t i n g on  e v o l u t i o n of my  a r t , to say t h a t the causes o f  p a r t i c u l a r image t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  fall  categories:  f i r s t , a change i n my  perspective;  second, the constant  teaching  the  career;  and  Profound and  into  my  three  philosophic influence of  my  t h i r d , the demands o f the p u b l i c .  obvious s h i f t s have been e f f e c t e d by  a r a d i c a l change i n my  philosophic perspective.  Here  i t would be b e n e f i c i a l to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between r a d i c a l transformation  and  evolving resolution.  For  example,  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e can be c l e a r l y understood i f we the work t h a t surrounds and experience,  (Note s l i d e s 12,  i n c l u d e s the 13,  14),  compare  conversion  and  the work  t h a t l e d up t o , and proceeds from the p a i n t i n g Come Forth  ( S l i d e 44).  evolving  The  former d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t s e l f  s o l e l y from a non-art experience, whereas the  l a t t e r developed as a r e s u l t of s t r u g g l i n g w i t h p l a s t i c and The  conceptual  problem o f f i t t i n g  form was  by  an  problems of making a p a i n t i n g . the concept i n t o the  i n t e l l e c t u a l one  p h i l o s o p h i c base.  the  appropriate  t h a t grew from a s t a b l e  I t would be d e f i n e d  as an  evolving  63  resolution. by Grace  In viewing  the two key p a i n t i n g s , Saved  ( S l i d e 13) and Come F o r t h  ( S l i d e 44) t h a t  i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , the more profound change would a t f i r s t appear i n the l a t t e r work where the p a i n t a p p l i c a t i o n , s u r f a c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and the whole s t y l e , changes from one p a i n t i n g , Eunuch's Dream ( S l i d e 43) t o the next; Come F o r t h . Saved by Grace  On the o t h e r hand  ( S l i d e 13) and the f o l l o w i n g work Ask  ( S l i d e 14) show no s i g n o f s t y l i s t i c change, but r a t h e r the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n The  has taken p l a c e w i t h i n the a r t i s t .  development o f forms t h a t would express the new  content resolve.  i n a meaningful way would take a l o n g time t o T h i s i s due t o the p h i l o s o p h i c i n t e n t i o n o f  the a r t i s t being transformed, l e a v i n g the s t y l e o f painting void of conviction. To understand t h i s aspect o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n chronology must be considered;  i t a f f e c t s both the  e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a r t and the maturing p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f the a r t i s t . transformation  covers  This period of  a seven year p e r i o d from Saved  by Grace ( S l i d e 13) to Eunuch's Dream ( S l i d e 43). p e r i o d i n c l u d e d a number o f formative  This  happenings, but  as the s l i d e s i l l u s t r a t e and t h e t e x t d e s c r i b e s , the r e s o l u t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c i n t e n t and a compatible p l a s t i c expression  i s e i t h e r never r e a l i z e d as i n the  64  oil  p a i n t i n g No More ( S l i d e 26), o r i f i t begins to  show promise as i n the l a r g e a i r b r u s h F o r g i v e Them ( S l i d e 22) i t i s thwarted by the temporal life.  demands o f  I t i s no wonder, then, t h a t the a r t i s t ' s  p o s t - c o n v e r s i o n e v o l u t i o n appears  to have taken many  t e n t a t i v e d i r e c t i o n s without ever thoroughly f o l l o w i n g along one l i n e o f i n q u i r y . important  Furthermore,  to note t h a t the s t y l i s t i c  i t is  direction  e v e n t u a l l y taken i n 1976, o f which the p a i n t i n g Come F o r t h ( S l i d e 44) i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i s now a f t e r seven years being r e v i s i t e d .  In a sense t h i s v a l i d a t e s  the l a t e r works o f the same s t y l e , demonstrating,  as i n  Outside the Garden #3 ( S l i d e 66) the worth o f a f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i n t o both the p l a s t i c problems, i n h e r e n t i n the style  (such as g e s t u r a l p a i n t handling) and evolved  content concerns t h a t a r e bound to the p a r t i c u l a r of  state  my p h i l o s o p h y . The constant e f f e c t o f l i f e  category o f image t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  f o r c e s i s the second I t manifests  itself  most n o t a b l y i n the form o f t h e job by which I earn my living.  I am a teacher o f a r t and i t i s from w i t h i n  t h a t context t h a t I have been i n f l u e n c e d to pursue a t d i f f e r e n t times i n my c a r e e r a v a r i e t y o f modes o f v i s u a l expression.  The e a r l i e s t example o f t h i s can be  65  seen i n the P e n c i l P a i n t i n g s were i n s p i r e d  ( S l i d e s 36,37 & 38)  that  from t e a c h i n g i n a workshop s i t u a t i o n .  A  l a t e r example i s the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d but none the l e s s humorous work done i n assemblage, Rise  ( S l i d e 4 9) i s an example.  of which  Son  These works have been  d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n the t e x t but i t would  be  p e r t i n e n t to r a i s e the q u e s t i o n as to what e f f e c t they have on my  r e p u t a t i o n i f I pursue t h i s type o f  e c l e c t i c i s m i n my a r t .  I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that the work  c o u l d be viewed as the u n r e s o l v e d i n q u i r y o f a r o o t l e s s artist.  Whatever the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f the work,  those a r e the formal q u a l i t i e s such as p a i n t h a n d l i n g , s c a l e and p h i l o s o p h i c i n t e n t r e s o l v e d w i t h i n each canvas.  Furthermore, a c o n n e c t i o n to the main body o f  work can be seen i n such works as Red Brush  (Slide  50)  where the s t y l i z e d b r u s h s t r o k e s , the s c a l e o f the works, and the s u r f a c e treatment are s i m i l a r .  However,  i f one has such e c l e c t i c t e n d e n c i e s , one takes a chance at d e f e r r i n g o r even m i s s i n g a major breakthrough i n one's work.  As w e l l , the a r t world, marketplace and  even one's contemporaries may  p e r c e i v e one's i n t e n t i o n s  as s u p e r f i c i a l , and the a r t i s t would  sense the impact  o f the subsequent r e a c t i o n s and perhaps respond i n a manner t h a t would not b e n e f i t e i t h e r h i s r e p u t a t i o n o r production.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , these c r e a t i v e tangents a r e ,  66  to me,  worth the r i s k .  they a l l o w me atrophying,  to be  and  I am  f r e e from conventions  to r e g a i n a vigorous  creative process. I w i l l continue  They are j u s t i f i e d i n t h a t t h a t are  approach to the  So i t i s t h a t when the need a r i s e s  to respond to those  s u b j e c t to each day  creative influences  t h a t I teach a r t .  I t would be b e n e f i c i a l to look at the r o l e  the  a r t i s t ' s p u b l i c p l a y s i n the phenomenon o f image transformation.  The  a r t i s t ' s p u b l i c can be d e f i n e d  those groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s who  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  a r t i s t ' s work by c r i t i c i z i n g , e x t o l l i n g , encouraging, reviewing, purchasing  viewing,  the a r t i s t ' s work.  as  denying,  r e j e c t i n g or  How  much i n f l u e n c e the  p u b l i c e x e r t s on the a r t i s t depends on a number o f complex s o c i a l and  economic v a r i a b l e s t h a t are beyond  the scope o f t h i s paper, and  I w i l l o n l y r e f l e c t on  how  the a r t i s t p e r c e i v e s and responds to h i s p u b l i c i n h i s work- and how  t h a t may  possibly effect  transformation.  I have c e r t a i n assumptions about the nature man,  and  of  thus the p u b l i c , t h a t are rooted i n a  philosophy  based on C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s .  man  i n the B i b l i c a l  and  loved.  I perceive  sense as being f a l l e n yet redeemed  From t h i s p o s i t i o n man  can be seen as  i n need of encouragement and e x h o r t a t i o n .  being  Therefore,  my  67  i n t e n t i o n i s the e x p r e s s i o n o f b i b l i c a l p r e c e p t s t h a t d e a l w i t h the nature o f man both -in c o n f l i c t and i n harmony w i t h God.  A good example o f t h i s i s seen i n  the r e c e n t l y completed W r e s t l e r S e r i e s  ( S l i d e s 60-62)  where the a n c i e n t p r o t o t y p e o f the a g g r e s s i v e and e n t e r p r i s i n g man  i s seen i n Jacob  (whose name means  Usurper), w r e s t l i n g w i t h the Angel o f the L o r d .  In  t h i s sense my work i s d i d a c t i c as i t e v o l v e s from a given p r e c e p t , i s s y n t h e s i z e d i n t o a contemporary  and  t h e o l o g i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , and f i n a l l y i s expressed i n v i s u a l form -- as i n the p a i n t i n g Angel a t Dawn ( S l i d e 62). The problem o f b e i n g too i l l u s t r a t i v e , which i s i n h e r e n t i n d i d a c t i c a r t , i s e v i d e n t i n much o f the work from 1969  to 1976  ( S l i d e s 8-43).  the a i r b r u s h p a i n t i n g For the World the viewer has l i t t l e the content.  An example i s  ( S l i d e 23) where  time r e f l e c t i v e l y to i n t e r p r e t  I t i s a l l c l e a r l y s t a t e d so t h a t the  v i s u a l d i a l o g u e i s minimal, c a u s i n g the viewer's r o l e to be more o f an endorser than t h a t o f a p a r t i c i p a n t . T h i s problem has now Outside Garden  been r e s o l v e d .  #1 and #2  In the works  ( S l i d e s 63 & 64), the  p a i n t i n g s a r e f i r s t experienced on an emotional l e v e l as the viewer responds to the c o l o r , t e x t u r e , and gestures o f the brush s t r o k e s .  The s u b j e c t matter and  68  the s t y l e have been s y n t h e s i z e d to such a degree t h a t they are e m o t i o n a l l y experienced  b e f o r e they  are  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d , a l l o w i n g the viewer to participate i n a v i s u a l dialogue. the a r t i s t ,  The i n t e n t i o n s o f  s t r u c t u r e d i n t o the p a i n t i n g , are  s l o w l y to u n f o l d before the  fully  allowed  viewer.  The p u b l i c i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n f l u e n c e i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f an a r t i s t ' s imagery o n l y inasmuch as the a r t i s t i s concerned t h a t what he i s p a i n t i n g i s worth c o n s i d e r a t i o n and t h a t with honesty and  integrity  the a r t i s t w i l l do a l l t h a t i s needed to enable  the  p u b l i c to e n t e r i n t o a d i a l o g u e with h i s work. N e i t h e r man,  nor the world  he l i v e s i n are  constant; both are ever changing as they a c t upon and t r a n s f o r m one i n one  another.  As do a l l men,  I l i v e day by  day;  i n s t a n c e being the s u b j e c t o f change and  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and  i n another  the author.  My  p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e based on f a i t h i n an does not remain s t a t i c as i t evolves and a s s i m i l a t e d and experiences,  sometimes r e j e c t e d are my  absolute  expands; personal  i d e o l o g i e s , v a l u e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s .  My  c r e a t i v e process i s thus e x p l a i n e d not as an end i n i t s e l f , but r a t h e r as a means to an end.  The  slides  t h a t i l l u s t r a t e t h i s r e f l e c t i v e j o u r n a l are a v i s u a l  69  record that i n d i c a t e t h i s process.  Though the q u a l i t y ,  meaning and i n t r i n s i c value i n the i n d i v i d u a l p a i n t i n g s are by nature debatable, they a t t e s t to those f o r c e s i n which we p a r t i c i p a t e , f o r c e s t h a t t r a n s f o r m and shape our l i v e s .  Endnotes  L e o T o l s t o y , What i s A r t , "Trans.", A. Maude. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955. P. 116. x  2 Jean Genet, Our Lady o f the Flowers, "Trans.", Bernard Fiechtman. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1963. P. 70. 3  I b i d . , P.  70.  4 John R. MacDonald, Modern E n g l i s h P a i n t e r s : to Hockriey. London: 1974. P. 172. 5  I b i d . , P.  6  I b i d . , P. 169.  Wood  169.  7 New  Thomas B. Hess, de Kooning - Recent P a i n t i n g s . York: Walter and Company, 1967. P. 31.  Maurice Truchman, Chaim Soutine, 18 93-194 3, Los Angeles County Museum o f A r t , 1968. P. 16. 9 D o r i s Shadbolt, "B.C.'s New T a l e n t Show to Tour Canada", Canadian A r t , 21, Sept./Oct., 1964. B a r r y Lord, "Sunday A f t e r n o o n " , A r t s Canada, Jan., 1967. Pp. 14, 15. 1 0  24,  "'""'"John Coplans, Los Angeles S i x , The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , March 31 - May 5, 1968. 12 Joan Lowndes, " V i s i o n Changes H i s A r t " , Vancouver Sun, 11 Oct., 1970. 13  ' B l a i s e P a s c a l , Pensees, "Trans.", H.J. Krailsheimer. London: Penguin Books, L t d . , 1966. P. 85.  71  1 4  Ibid.,  P.  95  15 R i c h a r d Simmons, " A r t i s t C r i e s Out P r o f o u n d l y But Message Unconvincing", The P r o v i n c e , 12 Aug., 1970. •j c  M i c h a e l Rhodes, "Audrey Capel Doray", A r t s Canada, 25, D e c , 1968. P. 51. 17 Joan Lowndes, "An Oddly A s s o r t e d Company", Vancouver Sun, 22 Feb., 1972. Ibid. 19 Helen Parmelin, P i c a s s o : Women, Cannes, and Mougins, 1954-1963, "Trans.", Humphrey Hare. Paris: E d i t i o n s C e r c l e D'Art, S.A., and Amsterdam: Harry N. Abrams, 1964. P. 55. 20  The Dunderave P r i n t Workshop i s one of Vancouver's o l d e r , c o - o p e r a t i v e p r i n t s t u d i o s run by and f o r artists. I t p r o v i d e s a broad s e l e c t i o n o f l a r g e presses. I t i s p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d on G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d . 21  ^Logos - the word became f l e s h taken from the Greek: A o y C U or X C y i O S , i s c l e a r l y the e x p r e s s i o n o f the i n c a r n a t i o n of C h r i s t as d e s c r i b e d i n John's Gospel (Ch 1, v . l , v.14). For the a r t i s t i n t h i s case i t a l s o a l l u d e s to the i d e a o f the a r t i s t , b e c o m i n g t a n g i b l e i n the c r e a t e d work (the drawing or p a i n t i n g ) . 22  Nikos Kazanzakis, The L a s t Temptation o f C h r i s t , "Trans.", P.A. B i e n . New York: Bantam Books, 1971.  72  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Articles Lord, B a r r y . Sunday A f t e r n o o n . Jan., 1967. Pp. 14, 15.  A r t s Canada, 24,  Rhodes, M i c h a e l . Audrey Capel Doray. 25, D e c , 1968. P. 51.  A r t s Canada,  Shadbolt, D o r i s . B.C.'s New T a l e n t to Tour Canada. Canadian A r t , 21, Sept./Oct., 1964. P. 301. Books Genet, Jean. Our Lady o f the Flowers. t r a n s . Bernard Fiechtman. New York: Grove P r e s s Inc., 1963. Hess, Thomas, B. de Kooning — Recent P a i n t i n g s . New York: Walter and Company, 1967. K a z a n t z a k i s , N i k o s . The L a s t Temptation o f C h r i s t , t r a n s . P.A. Bien. New York: Bantam Books, 1971. MacDonald, John R. Modern E n g l i s h P a i n t e r s : Hockriey. London, 1974 .  Wood to  Parmelin, Helen. P i c a s s o : Women, Cannes and Mougins, 1954-19 63. t r a n s . Humphrey Hare. P a r i s : Cercle D'Art, S.A., and Amsterdam: Harry N. Abrams, N.V., 1964 Pascal, Blaise. Pensees. t r a n s . A . J . K r a i l s h e i m e r . London: Penguin Books L t d . , 1966. T o l s t o y , Leo. What i s A r t . t r a n s . A. Maude. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955.  London:  Truchman, Maurice. Chaim S o u t i n e , 189 3-194 3. Angeles County Museum o f A r t , 1968.  Los  Catalogues Coplans, John. Los Angeles S i x . The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , March 31-May 5, 1968. Reviews Lowndes, Joan, V i s i o n Changes H i s A r t . Sun, 11 Oct., 1970. An Oddly A s s o r t e d Company. ~Sun, 22 Feb., 1972.  Vancouver Vancouver  Simmons, R i c h a r d . A r t i s t C r i e s Out P r o f o u n d l y But Message Unconvincing. Vancouver P r o v i n c e , 12 Aug., 1970.  74  Appendix A SLIDE NO .  TITLE  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  Blue Lady Blue Lady (Close up) Tomb #1 Tomb #2 Sense Box Ash Box Prison Dream Room #1 Dream Room #2 In Recept Hydra Saved by Grace Ask Installation Installation  17 18 19 20  Burden o f Dhuma A i r b r u s h Drawing The P r i c e Out o f My B e l l y  21  Four Faces  22  F o r g i v e Them  23 24 25  For t h e World T h i e f s Choice Greater than Jonah No More Oh Jerusalem Bread Drawing Manna from Heaven Cosmic Bread Thorn Drawing Thorn Drawing Night Thorn Birth White V e r t i c a l Pencil  1 2  26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36  SIZE IN CM 121 .9x152.4  MEDIUM  A c r y l i c / C a n v a s 1968  121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152.4 152 .4x152.4 121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152.4 121 .9x152 .4  Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Airbrush Silkscreen Print 121 .9x182.88 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s Ink/Paper 25. 4x30.48 121 .9x121.9 Oil/Canvas 121 .9x293.84 Ink/Paper/ Plexiglass 60. 96x293.84 Ink/Paper/ Plexiglass 60. 96x293.84 Ink/Paper/ Plexiglass 45. 72x60.96 Ink/Paper 45. 72x 6 0.96 Ink/Paper 45. 72x60.96 152 .4x182.8 152 .4x182.2 25 .4x35.56 8.1.28x81.28 121 .92x152.4 45. 72x60.96 45. 72x60.96 71. 12x106.68 71. 12x106.68 71. 12x106.68 25. 4x30.48  DATE  Ink/Paper Oil/Canvas Oil/Canvas Graphite/Paper Oil/Canvas Acrylic/Canvas Graphite/Paper Graphite/Paper Ink/Showcard Ink/Showcard Ink/Showcard Acrylic/Paper  1968 1968 1968 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1970 1970 1970 1970 1971 1971 1971 1971 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1974 1973 1974 1974 1974 1974 1974 1974 1973  75  SLIDE NO. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66  SIZE IN CM  TITLE  MEDIUM  60.96x182.88 P o s t e r P a i n t / Drug Bond 25.4x30.48 A c rylic/Paper Culvert Pencil 45.72x60.96 A c rylic/Paper F l o a t i n g Bread 45.72x60.96 A c r ylic/Paper Rocks 45.72x60.96 A c r ylic/Paper Take 121.92x129.9 A c r y lic/Canvas Break 152.4x152.4 A c r y lic/Canvas Eunich's Dream 127.0x165.1 A c r y lic/Canvas Come F o r t h 91.44x182.8 A c r y l ic/Canvas Lazarus 91.44x152.4 A c r y l ic/Canvas N a t h a n i a l s Tree 91.44x152.4 A c r y l i c/Canvas Jonah's Prayer 132.08x165.1 A c r y l i c/Canvas Dove Son 132.08x165.1 Mixed Media Son R i s e 71.12x106.68 A c r y l i c/Paper Red Brush 132.08x165.1 A c r y l i c /Canvas Yellow, Red, Blue 132.08x165.1 Mixed Media P o i n t No P o i n t 45.72x60.96 S i l k s c r e e n W i l d Horse Print 45.72x60.96 Graphite/Paper Fragment Drawing 25.4x35.56 Graphite/Paper Bread Drawing 45.72x60.96 Graphite/Paper Fragment Drawing 71.12x152.4 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s David's S c r o l l 96.52x121.92 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s The Mocking Do Men S t i l l Wrestle Angels? 45.72x60.96 S i l k s c r e e n Print Jacob's Angel 132.08x165.1 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s Jacob's Ladder's 132.08x165.1 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s End 96.52x121.92 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s Angel a t Dawn Outside the 96.52x121.92 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s Garden #1 Outside the 121.9x121.9 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s Garden #2 F l e s h Box o f My 132.08x165.1 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s Body Outside the 121.9x152.4 A c r y l i c / C a n v a s Garden #3 Snake P e n c i l  1  DATE 1973 1973 1974 1974 1975 1975 1976 1976 1976 1977 1977 1978 1979 1979 1979 1979 1981 1981 1973 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981  ARTIST HARRY STANBRIDGE 4526 Hughes Rd., R.R. 3, V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8X-6G3 B. 1943, Quesnel, B.C. Honors graduate, Vancouver School o f A r t , 1968. Bachelor A r t E d u c a t i o n , U..B.C. 1974 P r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g A r t a t the Senior High School l e v e l i n V i c t o r i a , B.C.  Solo  Exhibitions  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , G a l l e r y West, 1968. P r e i s t l a y G a l l e r y , Vancouver, 196 9. Bau-Xi G a l l e r y , Vancouver, 1970. P r e i s t l a y G a l l e r y , Vancouver, 1971. G a l l e r y A l l e n , Vancouver, 1972. G a l l e r y A l l e n , Vancouver, 1975. Open Space, V i c t o r i a , 1976. Open Space, V i c t o r i a , 1978. Media G a l l e r y , V i c t o r i a , 1979.  J u r i e d and Group Shows 4 0th I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r i n t E x h i b i t i o n , S e a t t l e A r t Museum Man and H i s World, Vancouver P a i n t e r s , Montreal, 1968. 9th Annual Graphics Show, C a l g a r y , 1969. 1st San Diego I n v i t a t i o n a l , Fine A r t s G a l l e r y o f San Diego, C a l i f . 1969. West Coast Sky Scapes, C.C.A.A.C., Oakland, C a l i f . 1970. Woman, Burnaby A r t G a l l e r y , 1972. K i n e s i s , V i c t o r i a A r t G a l l e r y , 1976. 5, Open Space G a l l e r y , V i c t o r i a , 1977. A r t i s t s from the lower I s l a n d , V i c t o r i a A r t G a l l e r y , 1977.  C o l l e c t i o n s and Awards Museum o f Modern A r t , S e a t t l e , Wash. L i b r a r y , N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada, Ottawa U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, L i b r a r y U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton Rothmans o f Canada C i t y o f Vancouver P r o v i n c i a l C o l l e c t i o n , Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia Many P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n s Canada C o u n c i l Grant Short Term (196 9) Purchase Award, 4 0th I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r i n t E x h i b i t i o n , S e a t t l e A r t Museum  

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