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The waltz : its pervasiveness in the first half of the nineteenth century, and its transformation into… Simpson-Candelaria, Joyce 1982

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THE WALTZ: ITS PERVASIVENESS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, AND ITS TRANSFORMATION INTO A SYMBOL OF THE BIEDERMEIERZEIT IN THE WORKS OF JOSEPH LANNER, JOHANN STRAUSS, AND FRANZ SCHUBERT B. Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Music We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA c)Joyce Simpson-Candelaria, 1982 by JOYCE SIMPSON-CANDELARIA May 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Music The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e A p r i l 2 6 , 1.98? DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s d o c u m e n t s t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e w a l t z i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e x a m i n i n g t h e c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i t s g e n e r a l p o p u l a r i t y and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n t h e w o r k s o f J o s e p h L a n n e r , J o h a n n S t r a u s s , S r . , and F r a n z S c h u b e r t . T h i s s t u d y c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e w a l t z was a r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e d a n c e commonly known as t h e L H n d l e r and t h a t t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was •the r e s u l t o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f c a s u a l t a v e r n and o u t d o o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t , a n d t h e c o n s e -q u e n t a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e w a l t z i n t o t h e u p p e r e c h e l o n s o f s o c i e t y . T h e t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e a s c e n d a n c y o f t h e w a l t z p a r a l l e l e d t h e p o l i t i c a l a s c e n d a n c y o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e , and t h a t t h e w a l t z i s more s p e c i f i c a l l y a p o t e n t s y m b o l o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r z e i t i n A u s t r i a , w i t h L a n n e r and S t r a u s s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p u b l i c f a c e o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r t e m p e r a m e n t and S c h u b e r t t h e p r i v a t e f a c e . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter I DANCE AS SYMBOLIC GESTURE 5 A. The Minuet: I t s C u l t u r a l S i g n i f i c a n c e and i t s D e c l i ne 5 B. The Waltz: I t s C u l t u r a l S i g n i f i c a n c e 8 I I THE POPULARIZATION OF THE WALTZ 14 A. Etymology 14 B. The E v o l u t i o n of the P o p u l a r i t y of the Waltz . . . 17 1. From R u r a l O r i g i n s to the A u s t r i a n Court . . . 17 2. From the Casual to the Commercial: The Viennese Waltz 19 3. The D i f f u s i o n of the Waltz i n t o " S e r i o u s " Works w i t h P a r t i c u l a r Reference to Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, and F r e d e r i c Chopin . . . . 21 C. Conclusion 34 I I I THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE WALTZ 36 General I n t r o d u c t i o n 36 P a r t I : From the Landler to the Waltz i n the Works of Joseph Lanner, Johann Strauss, and Franz Schubert 40 A. The Landler: I t s Gestures and i t s Music 40 B. The Waltz: I t s Gestures and i t s Music . . 44 C. Conclusion 64 Par t I I : The Transformation of the Waltz as a R e f l e c -t i o n of the Biedermeier Z e i t g e i s t 65 I n t r o d u c t i o n 65 A. The Bi e d e r m e i e r z e i t 66 B. The Symbolic S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Waltz . . 71 1. The P u b l i c Face of the Waltz: Joseph Lanner and Johann Strauss . . . 71 2. The P r i v a t e Face of the Waltz: Franz Schubert 78 i i i IV CONCLUSION . . . . . 89 NOTES 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY 104 APPENDICES 110 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I g r a t e f u l l y a c know ledge t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f my s u p e r v i s o r D r . D i m i t r i Conomos i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . I w i s h a l s o t o t h a n k my p a r e n t s George and t h e l a t e L i l l i a n Gee f o r f o s t e r i n g my m u s i c a l i n t e r e s t s , and l a s t b u t n o t l e a s t my husband D r . F r e d C a n d e l a r i a whose encou ragement , a d v i c e , and f o r e b e a r a n c e saw me t h r o u g h t h i s t h e s i s . v INTRODUCTION The aim of t h i s study i s to examine the waltz as a c u l t u r a l symbol of the B i e d e r m e i e r z e i t , a term used to describe A u s t r i a during the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century. This i s the p e r i o d i s which the Landler was transformed i n t o the Viennese w a l t z . In underscoring t h i s t r a n s -formation, we w i l l show that i n i t s pervasiveness the w a l t z , p e n e t r a t i n g as i t d i d the t e x t u r e s of a l l genres of s e r i o u s music, was more than j u s t the epitome of popular entertainment. Although t h i s dance was widely e x p l o i t e d , because of the necessary l i m i t a t i o n s of the scope of t h i s study, we w i l l be confined to a c o n s i d e r -a t i o n of i n s t r u m e n t a l works only. We w i l l f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t our focus to those composers who, i n the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, turned more r e a d i l y than any others to the w a l t z : Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, and F r e d e r i c Chopin. For a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the transforma-t i o n s of the waltz we w i l l look to the o r c h e s t r a l waltzes of Joseph Lanner and Johann Strauss, and the piano waltzes of Franz Schubert, as these works are g e n e r a l l y considered to be the c h i e f musical r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of Biedermeier Vienna. The s c h o l a r s h i p r e l a t e d to the waltz i s not extensive. Though important s t u d i e s of t h i s genre do e x i s t , they do not deal w i t h i t along the l i n e s pursued i n t h i s essay. The most recent book on the w a l t z , A l f r e d Stenger's Studien zur Geschichte des K l a v i e r w a l z e r s , published i n 1978, g e n e r a l l y sums up the s t a t e of s c h o l a r s h i p on the w a l t z : 1 2 D i e b i s h e r n u r b e i l a u f i g e Behand lung des W a l z e r s i n d e r m u s i k -w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e n L i t e r a t u r i s t s y m p t o m a t i s c h f u r das gesamte P u b l i k a t i o n s b i l d h i n s i c h t l i c h d e r t a n z e r i s c h e n K l e i n f o r m e n . L e d i g l i c h d i e umfas sende D a r s t e l l u n g Mosco C a r n e r " The H i s t o r y o f t h e W a l t z " i s t a l s w i s s e n s c h a f t - W a l z e r l i t e r a t u r z u nennen . S t e n g e r o v e r l o o k s Edua rd R e e s e r ' s The H i s t o r y o f t h e W a l t z ( 1 9 4 9 ) , and o f c o u r s e one must a cknow ledge C u r t S a c h s ' W o r l d H i s t o r y o f t h e Dance and P a u l N e t t l ' s The S t o r y o f Dance M u s i c . These s t u d i e s a r e p r i m a r i l y e x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e w a l t z , and w h i l e t h e y have been e s s e n -t i a l f o r b a ckg r ound i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y a r e o n l y t a n g e n t i a l t o t h e s p e c i f i c t o p i c d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s p a p e r . Mosco e a r n e r ' s The W a l t z c o n c e n t r a t e s on b o t h t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e w a l t z and i t s p o p u l a r i t y a s a " l i g h t " m u s i c g e n r e . A l t h o u g h a p r i m a r y s t r e s s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a l s o be on t h o s e composer s o f " l i g h t " m u s i c — J o s e p h L a n n e r and Johann S t r a u s s t h e e l d e r — ou r emphas i s i s d e c i d e d l y d i f f e r e n t . We l o o k a t t h e s e composer s f r om a more c r i t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w : we examine t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L a n d l e r i n t o t h e w a l t z i n t h e l i g h t o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l -i z a t i o n o f m u s i c and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r wo rk s o f a r t c l a s s i f i e d as B i e d e r m e i e r . S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z e s a r e v e r y c u r s o r i l y d e a l t w i t h by a l l s o u r c e s e x c e p t A l f r e d S t e n g e r . However , he m i s s e s t h e mark t o some d e g r e e as he o n l y d e a l s w i t h t h o s e work s w h i c h b e a r t h e t i t l e " w a l t z , " t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z c o m p o s i t i o n s . T h i s o v e r s i g h t i s more s e r i o u s w i t h Schumann, whose w a l t z c o m p o s i t i o n s r a r e l y b e a r t h e t i t l e " w a l t z . " I n so f a r a s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e w a l t z a s a c u l t u r a l s ymbo l i s c o n c e r n e d , s c h o l a r s r e a d i l y a cknow ledge t h a t i t u s h e r e d i n t h e s p i r i t o f a new age , b u t no one ha s y e t a t t e m p t e d t o a c c o u n t d i r e c t l y f o r t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e w a l t z and i t s m u s i c i n a c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . The o r i g i n s o f t h e w a l t z a r e o b s c u r e d by c l o u d s o f c o n t r o v e r s y . 3 A l t h o u g h most s c h o l a r s c r e d i t A u s t r i a w i t h i t s p a r e n t a g e , t h e r e a r e t h o s e who e l e c t a F r e n c h o r i g i n i n t h e v o l t e ( I t a l i a n v o l t a ) . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l n o t e n t e r i n t o t h e a r gument , b u t we w i l l a c know ledge i t and d i r e c t t h e r e a d e r t o t h e r e l e v a n t s c h o l a r s h i p . The t e r m i n o l o g y d e s i g n a t i n g a w a l t z i s i n d e c i s i v e up u n t i l abou t 1825 ; L a n d l e r , D e u t s c h , and W a l z e r were i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y u sed t o d e s c r i b e t h e same d a n c e . I t w i l l be u n d e r s t o o d t h e n t h a t i n C h a p t e r I what we d e s i g n a t e as w a l t z r e f e r s t o t h e e a r l y o r r u s t i c w a l t z ; b u t i n C h a p t e r s I I and I I I i t w i l l be c a l l e d L a n d l e r so a s t o d i s t i n g u i s h be tween t h e r u s t i c dance and t h e V i e n n e s e w a l t z . T h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e m u s i c i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y show t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e w a l t z and i l l u m i n a t e t h e c o n t e x t s o f t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r I i s c a l l e d "The Dance as S y m b o l i c G e s t u r e . " Th rough a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e m i n u e t and t h e w a l t z , we e x p l o r e t h e r e a s o n s t h a t t h e w a l t z a s cended t o a p o s i -t i o n where i t became t h e a e s t h e t i c s ymbo l o f an a ge , t a k i n g o v e r t h e r o l e p r e v i o u s l y p l a y e d by t h e m i n u e t . C h a p t e r I I i s e n t i t l e d "The P o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e W a l t z . " He re we examine t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e w a l t z came t o d o m i n a t e n o t o n l y Eu rope b u t s p e c i f i c a l l y A u s t r i a . What were t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t c au sed t h e w a l t z and i t s p r i n c i p a l p u r v e y o r s , L a n n e r and S t r a u s s , t o ove r shadow t h e work s o f " s e r i o u s " composers ? F i n a l l y , we p r o v e i t s p o p u l a r i t y by documen t i n g i t s i n f i l t r a t i o n i n t o t h e " s e r i o u s " c o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e e r a a s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l wo r k s o f S c h u b e r t , Schumann, and C h o p i n . C h a p t e r I I I i s e n t i t l e d " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e W a l t z . " A l e n g t h y s t u d y , i t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two m a j o r p a r t s . P a r t I i s e n t i t l e d " F r om t h e L a n d l e r t o t h e W a l t z i n t h e Works o f J o s e p h L a n n e r , J ohann S t r a u s s , and F r a n z S c h u b e r t , " and i t d e a l s w i t h t h e p u r e l y m u s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e two g e n r e s a s t h e y r e l a t e t o a r e f i n e m e n t i n t h e g e s t u r e s o f t h e dance and i t s s e t t i n g . P a r t I I , e n t i t l e d "The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e W a l t z a s a R e f l e c t i o n o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r Z e i t g e i s t , " i s d i v i d e d i n t o f u r t h e r s u b -s e c t i o n s : t h e f i r s t , " The B i e d e r m e i e r z e i t , " e x p l a i n s t h e o r i g i n of: t h i s t e r m and i l l u s t r a t e s i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by c i t i n g r e l e v a n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n l i t e r a t u r e and a r t ; t h e s e c o n d , " The S y m b o l i c S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e W a l t z , " examines t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e w a l t z e s o f L a n n e r , S t r a u s s , and S c h u b e r t t o t h i s c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . CHAPTER ONE DANCE AS SYMBOLIC GESTURE As i n p o l i t i c s , so i n music, r e v o l u t i o n a r y changes penetrate i n t o a l l homes, great and s m a l l . In music the new i n f l u e n c e i s p e r c e p t i b l e even where i t s sensual t i e s w i t h l i f e are stron g e s t , that i s , i n the dance. Robert Schumann Dance i s symbolic gesture. I t i s a complex symbol which f u n c t i o n s simultaneously on many l e v e l s . Our own experience t e l l s us that dance plays a r o l e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sexes, i n marking e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , whether i t be the d i v i s i o n between young and o l d or between s o c i a l c l a s s e s . Dance a l s o serves a s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n as an aspect of t e n s i o n - r e l e a s e . " V a r i a -t i o n s i n the s o c i a l dance are never f o r t u i t o u s or random, but . . . are so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e that the dance must be seen as a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the t o t a l c u l t u r a l pattern.""*" At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a marked change i n the s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y was heralded by the c a p i t u l a t i o n of the minuet, the dance emblem of the eighteenth century, to the w a l t z . A. The Minuet: I t s C u l t u r a l S i g n i f i c a n c e and i t s Decline The minuet was the c u l t u r a l symbol of the p e r i o d 1650 to 1750—an 2 age i n which i t dominated the courts of Europe. O r i g i n a l l y a simple, e r o t i c ancient dance of c o u r t s h i p , once i n the court the minuet f e l l under the i n f l u e n c e of an a r i s t o c r a t i c a e s t h e t i c which emphasised the 5 6 studied, the formal, and the refined. A l l aspects of l i f e , even to the doffing of one's hat and the offering of snuff, were ruled by definite 3 formulae and could be mastered only after years of instruction. The minuet was a product of i t s age, and in i t s f i n a l transformation i t became the "choreographic expression of the s t i f f and r i g i d ceremonial 4 that governed high society in the eighteenth century," and has even been described as "not a dance at a l l , but . . . one of the finest schools of courtesy and deportment ever invented.""' The decline of the minuet in the second half of the eighteenth cen-tury paralleled the decline of courtly l i f e with i t s stress on ceremony. As the influence of parliament and pol i t i c ians in state af fa i rs increased, the nobi l i ty retreated to their country estates. Entertainment in this milieu tended to be more casual and to encourage the mixing of gentry and tenants. In this setting, the minuet was out of place, the lower classes, lacking the necessary instruction, could not perform the dance; and, the minuet had a ceremonial significance that was relevant only in the formal-i t y of a court setting. "People began to feel that a party i s not a course in etiquette, and for a long time society turned promptly to the contre."^ The contre dance existed alongside the minuet in the eighteenth century: in 1723 Bonnet described i t as "next to the minuet, the most g popular dance at court. . . . " By the latter half of the century, however, i t had usurped the minuet's popularity, and although i t s domin-ant position was short- l ived, i t s ascendancy was nonetheless important because i t reflected societal trends which paved the way for the popularization of the waltz. The appeal of the contre dance rested primarily on i t s accessibi l i ty 7 to the general populace of the country estate. Although i t had been refined into a f igural dance in the court, i t did not require the exten-9 sive tutoring the minuet had; "unschooled" dancers could participate. Because the contre dance promoted amateurism, i t ran para l le l with the trend toward simplici ty in the late eighteenth century. Its strong democratic character reflected the popularity of egalitarianism: not only did i t contribute to the mixing of classes, but i t had i t s origins in the choral dance"^ (as opposed to the couple dance), where the essen-t i a l feature was the cooperation of the couples and the integration of the individual into the group. "It i s not simply by chance that some dances disappear, and others— but not a l l aspirants—take their p l a c e . T h e contre dance was such an unsuccessful aspirant. Although in i t s casual simplicity i t repre-sented a reaction to the studied, ceremonious a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the minuet, i t was too much of a r e l i c of a courtly society to have the v i t a l i t y to oppose seriously the aesthetic values mirrored in the minuet: having existed i n a courtly milieu since the time of Elizabeth I and functioning as no more than a frivolous pastime, the contre dance had lost the serious association basic to i t s origin—that of the love combat of the choral dance. The loss of the erotic element fundamental to this dance is emphatically pointed up in the publication of Neuer Tanz-und-Ball-Kalender fur das Jahr 1801, where the contre dance i s described as "characterless tr ipping, something l i k e a horsetrot, to c a l l a coarse thing by a coarse 13 name," hardly a serious contender for the aesthetic role that the nineteenth century required of the dance. A dance manual of the early nineteenth century states that the true dance "must have soul, 8 express passion, imitate nature!"'1''* This i s found in the waltz with i t s barely veiled wooing of the sexes. Ernst Moritz Arndt describes a waltz at a vi l lage near Erlangen: The dancers held up the dresses of their partners very high so that they should not t r a i l and be stepped on, wrapped them t ightly in this shroud, bringing both under one covering, as close together as possible, and thus the turning went on in the most indecent posi -tions; the hand holding the dress lay hard against the breasts press-ing lasciviously at every movement; the g i r l s , meanwhile, looked half mad and ready to swoon. As they waltzed around on the darker side of the room, the clasps and kisses became s t i l l bolder.15 B. The Waltz: Its Cultural Significance The dance must have soul, express passion, imitate nature !-'-The beginning of the waltz era i s generally set at about 1780,"^ 18 precisely when the cultural background was ready for i t . The f a l l of the minuet and the r ise of the waltz was contemporary with the ousting of the courtly opera seria by the musical play in the vernacular and the 19 I tal ian aria by the folk song. This development was paralleled by similar moves i n the other arts : the shif t in English poetry away from the s t r i c t , polished heroic couplets of the Augustans, as in Alexander Pope's poems, for example, to the profusion of l y r i c a l forms which allowed for a free expression of emotions, as in the poems of Wordsworth and Shelley; and in art , with the shif t in popularity from the didactic works of David to an emotional emphasis in the works of his immediate followers: the sensuality of Gerard's "Psyche Receiving the F i rs t Kiss from Cupid" (1798), and the melodrama of Gericault 's "Raft of the Medusa" (1818). It was a significant change in the arts that occurred con-currently with a significant change in the structure of society. The French Revolution dramatfeally announced to the world the ascendancy of 9 t h e b o u r g e o i s i e t o a p o s i t i o n o f s o c i a l and economic power . The s p i r i t u a l c o u n t e r p a r t s o f t h i s r e v o l u t i o n were a t t i t u d e s w h i c h v e n e r a t e d i d e a l s o f democracy and i n d i v i d u a l i s m . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s , howeve r , much more comp lex t h a n j u s t a s h i f t i n p h i l o s o p h y and i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c power f r om one c l a s s t o a n o t h e r . Such e g a l i t a r i a n i d e a l s a s democracy and i n d i v i d -u a l i s m i n a b r o a d e r c o n t e x t empha s i ze f r e e d o m — f r e e d o m f r o m c o n s t r a i n t s on many l e v e l s . T h i s c h a n g i n g s p i r i t was n a t u r a l l y a c compan i ed by a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e o b s o l e s c e n c e o f t h e fo rms and s ymbo l s o f t h e f o r m e r c o u r t l y s o c i e t y and a s e a r c h f o r more r e l e v a n t o n e s . I n t h e d a n c e , i t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t s o c i e t y s p o n t a n e o u s l y embraced t h e w a l t z a s s ym-b o l i c o f a new s p i r i t w h i c h s t r e s s e d , e q u a l i t y , s i m p l i c i t y , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and s p o n t a n e i t y . Becau se o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l s , t h e w a l t z r e f l e c t e d t h e t r e n d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o l e v e l o u t s o c i a l d i s t i n c -t i o n s , a s may be seen f r o m an a c c o u n t g i v e n by a t r a v e l l e r f r o m B a v a r i a : The p e o p l e h e r e a r e e x c e s s i v e l y f o n d o f t h e p l e a s u r e o f d a n c i n g ; t h e y need o n l y h e a r t h e m u s i c o f a w a l t z t o b e g i n t o c a p e r , no m a t t e r where t h e y a r e . The p u b l i c dance f l o o r s a r e v i s i t e d by a l l c l a s s e s ; t h e s e a r e t h e p l a c e s where a n c e s t o r s and r a n k seem t o be f o r g o t t e n , and a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i d e l a i d a s i d e . H e r e we see a r t i s a n s , a r t i s t s , m e r c h a n t s , c o u n c i l l o r s , b a r o n s , c o u n t s , and e x c e l l e n c i e s d a n c i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h w a i t r e s s e s , women o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s and l a d i e s . The o v e r w h e l m i n g a p p e a l o f t h e w a l t z was due i n p a r t t o i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y : b e cau se o f i t s s i m p l e t w i r l i n g movement, i t r e q u i r e d no i n s t r u c t i o n . I t s s i m p l i c i t y was d e c i d e l y i n t u n e w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g s p i r i t o f t h e t i m e . The a s c e n d a n c y o f t h e c o u p l e dance ( t h e w a l t z ) o v e r t h e c h o r a l dance ( t h e c o n t r e dance ) was i n e v i t a b l e once t h e t r i u m p h o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m had m a t e r i a l i z e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C u r t Sachs c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e 21 c h o r a l dance i s a communal dance w h i c h demands a compact s o c i a l o r d e r . The desire of the bourgeoisie for social mobility in the name of individual freedom precluded the establishment of an alternative communal society, for the aims of the bourgeoisie were of necessity divisive and s e l f -oriented. Janos Marothy sees the waltz as one of the symbols of the completion of egocentricity, and regards the spread of the closed couple dance as " . . . a phenomenon s t r i c t l y connected with bourgeois develop-22 ment," beginning in the sixteenth century with the I tal ian volta , through the various types of Dreher and Landler, intruding into the minuet, and 23 ending i n the waltz. A l l of "these dances represent the i n d i v i d u a l i z -ing tendency, not only as a couple dance but also as definite types inside 24 the couple dance," as seen in the comparison of the waltz and i t s o f f i -c i a l predecessor, the minuet: The movement structure of the minuet i s l i t t l e dancing, but much bowing and bending outward, in the direction of the world. That of the waltz i s an obstinate gyration, egocentrically, under the charm of an interior v i s i o n . . . . In this entrancement, the world i s submerged, annihilated with nothing else surviving but the Me and Mine: the dancer and the one who, mesmerized by the dance, had become his p a r t n e r . Z J This analogy between the waltz, intoxication, and unrestrained sensuality reflects the extremes to which the new s p i r i t of freedom had reached. Spontaneous dancing had become so much the fashion that i t resulted i n a thoroughgoing reform of professional dance. Jean-Georges Noverre (1727-1810) proclaimed in his Lettres sur l a danse et sur les bal le ts : Nature! Nature! And our compositions must be beautiful ; let us renounce art , when i t i s not simple; i t convinces only when i t i s unrecognized and is taken for nature. . . . A beautiful painting is only a copy of nature; a beautiful ballet i s nature herself , enhanced by a l l the charms of art . . . . We must not merely practise steps; we must study the passions.^6 The emphasis on feeling lead to a preoccupation with the theme of love in Romantic;, works of art because of love's potential for passionate in to x i -cation which in i t s extreme form could escape or transcend the material 11 27 world. That the w a l t z — t h e c o u r t i n g dance of the nineteenth c e n t u r y — could e x i s t on t h i s more e s o t e r i c plane i s evident i n Goethe's Werther (1801), where he r e f e r s to the w a l t z : " . . . never have I moved so l i g h t l y . I was no longer a human being. To hold the most adorable creature i n one's arms and f l y around w i t h her l i k e the wind, so that 28 everything around us fades away. . . . " The w a l t z w i t h i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r u n b r i d l e d e r o t i c i s m had to break through the b a r r i e r s of a r i s t o c r a t i c s o c i e t y before i t conquered Europe. The eighteenth century s o c i e t y ' s a l l e g i a n c e to minnesinger i d e a l s of c h i v a l r y was r e f l e c t e d i n i t s dance symbol of s t y l i z e d c o u r t s h i p as exem-p l i f i e d i n the minuet; eros was devotion: "To dance the minuet i s to 29 pay homage to woman." I t d i d not admit the p h y s i c a l . The w a l t z , t h e r e f o r e , threatened t h i s moral code because of the overt p h y s i c a l i t y of i t s performance. Introduced i n B e r l i n at a court b a l l i n 1794, i t so s hocked the Queen that i t was b anned , and i t r e m a i n e d so u n t i l the 30 r e i g n of W i l l i a m I I . Resistance to the waltz was strongest i n Eng-land. In h i s "Reminiscences" (London 1826) Michael K e l l y r a i l e d a gainst " . . . t h i s f i e n d of German b i r t h , d e s t i t u t e of grace, d e l i c a c y 31 and p r o p r i e t y , a d i s g u s t i n g p r a c t i c e . . . . " Burney r e f l e c t s on ". . . how uneasy an E n g l i s h mother would be to see her daughter so 32 f a m i l i a r l y t r e a t e d . " The more popular the waltz became, the more necessary i t was to warn against i t s excesses. A book by Salamo Jacob Wolf, Erorterung derer w i c h t i g s t e n Ursachen der Schwache unserer Genera- t i o n i n H i n s i c h t auf das Walzen (1797) discusses the most important causes of moral weakness of t h a t generation w i t h regard to the w a l t z . The f i r s t e d i t i o n s o l d out and a second e d i t i o n was published two years l a t e r under a more severe t i t l e : Beweis dass das Walzen eine Hauptquelle 12 der Schwache des Kbrpers und des G e i s t s unserer Generation sey. Deutsch-lands Sohnen und Tochtern a n g e l e g e n t l i c h s t empfohlen ("Proof that the waltz i s a main source of the weakness of body and mind of our generation. 33 Most u r g e n t l y recommended to the sons and daughters of Germany"). In s p i t e of the conservative r e s i s t a n c e of the o l d e r a r i s t o c r a c y and the dancing masters, the p o p u l a r i t y of the waltz increased and r e s i s -tance began to weaken. This can be seen i n the almost about-face w i t h which some E n g l i s h dancing masters, anxious to b e n e f i t from the current f a s h i o n of dance, attempted to whitewash the waltz i n the face of the charges of immorality. Thomas Wilson's "A D e s c r i p t i o n of the Correct Method of W a l t z i n g " (1816), assured the p u b l i c that the waltz " . . . i s g e n e r a l l y admitted to be a promoter of vigorous h e a l t h and productive of h i l a r i t y of s p i r i t s , " and that as danced i n England i t i s ". . . t o t a l l y d e s t i t u t e of the complained of a t t i t u d e s and movements used i n warmer and l i g h t e r c l i m a t e s , " and consequently " . . . not an enemy of true morals." 35 England c a p i t u l a t e d to the waltz on 12 J u l y 1816. The waltz was o f f i c i a l l y approved when i t was included i n a b a l l given by the P r i n c e Regent. The Times reported the event on 15 J u l y 1816: On F r i d a y n i g h t the P r i n c e Regent gave a grand b a l l and supper at C a r l t o n House. . . . A f t e r supper dancing was resumed. . . . The dancing c o n s i s t e d only of w a l t z i n g and c o t i l l i o n s , i n which none of the Royal Family joined.^6 Resistance to the w a l t z , then, gave way to a kind of cautious acceptance. A r e v u l s i o n / a t t r a c t i o n dynamism becomes b a s i c to the symbolism of the waltz at the t u r n of the nineteenth century. Lord Byron's poem, "The Waltz: An Apostrophic Hymn," p e r s o n i f i e s the waltz as a mistress--an i r r e s i s t i b l e seductress who has s u c c e s s f u l l y challenged conventional values and mores: 13 S e d u c t i v e W a l t z ! — t h o u g h on t h y n a t i v e s h o r e Even W e r t e r ' s s e l f p r o c l a i m ' d t h e e h a l f a w h o r e — W e r t e r , t o d e c e n t v i c e t hough much i n c l i n e d , Y e t warm n o t w a n t o n , d a z z l e d b u t n o t b l i n d ; Though g e n t l e G e n l i s , i n h e r s t r i f e w i t h S t a e l , Would even p r o s c r i b e t h e e f r o m a P a r i s b a l l ; The f a s h i o n h a i l s — f r o m c o u n t e s s e s t o queen s , And m a i d s and v a l e t s w a l t z b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s . Wide and more w i d e t h y w i t c h i n g c i r c l e s p r e a d s , And t u r n s — i f n o t h i n g e l s e — a t l e a s t ou r h e a d s ; W i t h t h e e even c l umsy c i t s a t t e m p t t o bounce , And c o c k n e y s p r a c t i s e what t h e y c a n ' t p r o n o u n c e . Gods! how g l o r i o u s theme my s t r a i n e x a l t s , And rhyme f i n d s p a r t n e r r h y m e ' i n p r a i s e o f ' W a l t z ! ' B l e s t was t h e t i m e W a l t z c ho se f o r h e r d e b u t : The c o u r t , t h e R e g e n t , l i k e h e r s e l f were new; New f a c e f o r f r i e n d s , f o r f o e s some new r e w a r d s ; New o rnament s f o r b l a c k and r o y a l g u a r d s ; New l a w s t o hang t h e r o g u e s t h a t r o a r ' d f o r b r e a d ; New c o i n s (most new) t o f o l l o w t h o s e t h a t f l e d ; New v i c t o r i e s — n o r can we p r i z e them l e s s , Though J e n k y wonder s a t h i s own s u c c e s s ; New w a r s , be cau se t h e o l d s u c c e e d so w e l l Tha t most s u r v i v o r s envy t h o s e who f e l l ; New m i s t r e s s e s — n o , o l d — a n d y e t ' t i s t r u e , Though t h e y be o l d , t h e t h i n g i s s ometh i n g new; E a c h new, q u i t e new ( e x c e p t some a n c i e n t t r i c k s ) , New w h i t e - s t i c k s , g o l d - s t i c k s , b r o o m s t i c k s , a l l new s t i c k s ! W i t h v e s t s o r r i b a n d s — d e c k ' d a l i k e i n hue , New t r o o p e r s s t r u t , new t u r n c o a t s b l u s h i n b l u e . So s a i t h t h e muse: m y — , what say you? Such was t h e t i m e , n o r e v e r y e t was s u c h ; Hoops a r e no more , and p e t t i c o a t s n o t much: M o r a l s and m i n u e t s , v i r t u e and h e r s t a y s , And t e l l - t a l e p o w d e r — a l l have had t h e i r d a y s . To y o u , ye s i n g l e g e n t l e m e n , who seek To rment s f o r l i f e o r p l e a s u r e s f o r a week, As Love o r Hymen y o u r endeavou r s g u i d e To g a i n y o u r own o r s n a t c h a n o t h e r ' s b r i d e ; — To one and a l l t h e l o v e l y s t r a n g e r came, And e v e r y b a l l - r o o m echoes w i t h h e r name.37 CHAPTER TWO THE POPULARIZATION OF THE WALTZ . . . waltzes and nothing but waltzes are now so much the f a s h i o n that at dances nothing e l s e i s looked a t ; one need only be able to w a l t z and everything i s a l l r i g h t . . . . Jo u r n a l des Luxus und der Moden, March, 1792 The focus of t h i s chapter w i l l be on the developing p o p u l a r i t y of the w a l t z : i t s r i s e from r u r a l to n a t i o n a l favour, i t s transformation i n t o the Viennese w a l t z , and i t s subsequent i n t e r n a t i o n a l preeminence. The chapter ends w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f u s i o n of the waltz and waltz elements i n t o the " s e r i o u s " works of prominent composers of the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to the works of Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, and F r e d e r i c Chopin. We suggest that the p o p u l a r i t y of the waltz was such that i t wove i t s way i n t o the very f a b r i c of s o c i e t y . A. Etymology Because the o r i g i n s of the waltz are obscure and clouded i n d i s p u t e , anr.examination of the etymology of the word w i l l not only i d e n t i f y the gestures b a s i c to t h i s dance, but w i l l a l s o help i n our understanding of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of e s t a b l i s h i n g one d e f i n i t i v e name f o r t h i s dance form. The word " w a l t z " was f i r s t used around 1750 i n a musical comedy c a l l e d Bernarden w r i t t e n by the Viennese clown F e l i x von Kurz."'" Some dances i n t h i s work are c a l l e d "Walzer," and one such piece i s a 14 vocal waltz whose words evoke the basic gestures of the dance: Balden walzen umadum Mit heirassa drum (Turn about waltzing and cheer as you turn) In German, the word "waltz" i s walzer or walzen, the latter walzen being cognate with the Old High German walzan and the Old Norse velta (to revolve, to turn), which is related to the Latin volvere (to turn around) and vertere (to turn). The Walze, used side by side with walzan, l i k e the Dutch wals, s ignified a r o l l or cylinder. The French form of waltz i s valse; the Spanish i s v a l s ; the Portugese i s valsa ; and the I tal ian i s valzar. Signif icantly , the words ;turn, twist, walk, and wallow share the same Indo-European base with these other words meaning or related to 2 waltz. Although the word "waltz" to denote whirling or revolving does not come into general use u n t i l the mid-eighteenth century, words suggestive of the same meaning were in existence long before this . In 1525, the Nuremberg Meistersinger Kunz comments on what was then a modern dance: Ytzund tanzt man den wiisten weller Den spinner, oder wie sies nennen. (And now they dance the giddy "Weller ," ^ The "Spinner," or whatever they c a l l i t . ) As a l l of this suggests, the Germans had a variety of names to refer to the same gesture. For example, the characteristic turning conveyed in Weller and Spinner i s also conveyed by the names Dreher and Schleifer . Then again, the name given to the turning couple dance might simply denote the particular d i s t r i c t in which the dance was popular, i . e . , Steirer from Styria , and Landler from Land ("Land ob der Enns" i s another name for Upper Austria) . Another common name for this dance was Deutsch or 16 4 Teutsche—the generic name for a l l South German folk dances. To compli-cate matters further, numerous scholars from Casti l -Blaze , Fet is , L i t t r e , Larousse, Reeser, and Marothy-—all claim that the waltz i s descended from the volta , a turning couple dance where couples turned and hopped in close embrace."' There is also the claim that the Allemande in t r i p l e rhythm danced in France in the second half of the eighteenth century was in fact an early form of the waltz.^ By the turn of the nineteenth century, the myriad names denoting the same gesture, namely a round dance i n t r i p l e time, danced by single couples in close embrace, where hopping, stamping, and throwing the female partner i n the air were the .outstanding features,^ had, for the most g part, dwindled to three, the Landler, the Deutsche, and the Walzer. 9 Although there i s some evidence of minor distinguishing characteristics, by and large these names were used indiscriminately in the f i r s t two decades of the nineteenth century as Schubert's collections of dances indicate. Schubert wrote many of his dances i n several different v e r s i o n s : ^ he might c a l l a dance a Landler in one manuscript, a Deutsche in another, and publish i t eventually as Waltzer. For example, Op. 171/D. 790 are published as Zwolf Deutsche Tanze gennant, Landler. The pieces of Op. 18/D. 145 are twelve waltzes, but the f i r s t three were or ig inal ly numbers one, two, and four of the Deutsche Tanze composed for the open air f e s t i v a l at A t z e n b r u g g e r . P u b l i s h e r s were equally indifferent : after Schubert's death they had no compunction about selecting works from a 12 col lect ion of.:Deutsche and t i t l i n g them Landler or Walzer. This indifference by the composer and his publishers i s easily explained: there simply was no difference between the Waltz, Landler, and Deutsche of this time."1""" It was not u n t i l the transformation of this early form of the waltz into the Viennese waltz that the etymological confusion was c l a r i -f i e d . Hereafter, for the sake of c l a r i t y , we shall refer to the variously named early rustic waltz by the designation most commonly used today, Landler. B. The Evolution of the Popularity of the Waltz 1. From Rural Origins to the Austrian Court The waltz is said to have had i t s roots in tunes which were sung or played on the f iddle and some alpine wind instrument; the music was intended to accompany the mechanical actions of manual work. "One form of such work songs i s s t i l l a l ive i n the southern German Schnadahupf1, 14 l i t e r a l l y the hopping of the reaper, which is both sung and danced." From here these work dances evolved into independent dances which imitated in a stylized form the work associated with their origins (these are the roots of the German guild dances of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries). 16 But other dances were overtly associated with pantomimic love-play. Aside from i t s role as a mimetic symbol of rural l i f e , the waltz also had a tradition as the staple form of entertainment on the cargo ships which sailed the Danube, in the taverns situated along this r i v e r , and in the open-air restaurants where Lanner and Strauss began their 17 careers. During the seventeenth century, the Landler became an integral 18 part of Austrian court entertainment. In this context, i t was usual to combine i t with a slow stately dance in common time, forming a con-trasting pair , Tanz and Nachtanz. The stately dance, the allemande, was 18 followed by the rustic dance, often simply referred to as the t r i p l a or 19 upspring. However, unlike the gavotte, minuet, contre-dance, e tc . , the Landler did not evolve into a refined courtly dance because of the 20 strong popular musical tradition in Austria . Popular music played an important role in the seventeenth century dramatic presentations of scenes from peasant l i f e during Carnival time (called Wirschaften, Landschaften, Konigreiche, and Bauernhochzeiten). At these carnivals the aristocracy would dress as peasants and act out these scenes complete with folk songs and dances .^ At the beginning of the eighteenth century the allemande became obsolete and the Landler became independent again, acquiring (as discussed above) the variety of names referring to i t s characteristic turning ges-22 ture or the d i s t r i c t of i t s popularity. The practice of having the Landler at court was carried on in this century primarily through the masked balls held at the Emperor's summer residence at Schb'nbrunn. These masked balls were open to a l l classes. The strongly feudal nature of Austria encouraged close contact among the different strata of society, thus helping to keep the simplicity of the waltz intact . The waltz was 23 never banned in Austria as i t was i n other countries, and from about 24 1750, i t was as popular as the minuet i n court. The waltz did not become popular amongst fashionable society out-side of Germany u n t i l the lat ter part of the eighteenth century. It began i t s conquest of Europe i n the late eighteenth century in associa-t ion with the then popular contre dance. These amalgamated dances were alternately called the Tyroloise, Strasbourgeoise, and the Styrienne. As the popularity of the waltz grew, i t s association with the contre dance was expected: 19 The waltz has now become such a general favourite and i s so fashionable that no one can any longer be reconciled to the Eng l i s h dance without i t , for p r a c t i c a l l y a l l E n g l i s h dances are usually mixed with two turns of the waltz. . . .25 2. From the Casual to the Commercial: The Viennese Waltz The Viennese waltz had i t s roots i n the t r a d i t i o n s of tavern and coffee house entertainment. In the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century these simple, popular t r a d i t i o n s of informal music making were turned 26 into large scale commercial enterprises. The coincidence of an over-abundance of amateur tal e n t and a dance mania which gripped Vienna at 27 t h i s time encouraged entrepreneurism i n the f i e l d of entertainment. C a p i t a l i z i n g on the lack of a v a i l a b l e dance space, speculators poured huge amounts of money into dance h a l l s . The most ostentatious and pre-tentious of these, o v e r t l y aping the proportions and decor of a palace (indeed i t was c a l l e d a dance palace), was the A p o l l o s a l , opened i n 1809 by the entrepreneur par excellence, Sigmund Wolffsohn. The Apollo H a l l was a c t u a l l y f i f t e e n connecting h a l l s . I t boasted of having the larges t ballroom, the l a r g e s t table service (worth 60,000 gulden), the most kitchens, the best food, the f i n e s t service, and foremost orchestras. The following d e s c r i p t i o n appeared i n an anonymous pamphlet e n t i t l e d "The Journey of the Goddess of the Dance to the Vienna Apollo Palace": jlhe main h a l l j i s a c i r c u l a r h a l l b u i l t to perfect proportions. At equal i n t e r v a l s Ionic p i l l a r s are placed against the blue background of the walls and between these are narrow mirrors with w a l l brackets. Below the cornices there are l i t t l e c a v i t i e s around the h a l l which are ornamented with colored glass and illuminated from within. Pictures from mythology decorate the c e i l i n g . Set around the h a l l are one hundred round tables, each with i t s own t a s t e f u l comfortable ch a i r s . On each table there i s a center-piece co n s i s t i n g of e i t h e r a f i g u r i n e , a candelabra or a basin from which springs f o r t h a fountain. Under the influence of nineteenth century entrepreneurs, industry triumphed over music: anyone who owned a dance h a l l also owned i t s p u b l i c , and musicians were effectively put at the beck and c a l l of the owners of 29 - ' amusement palaces. Music which had the potential for a "quick sale" was promoted. The result was a veritable waltz monopoly for the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century, and as a consequence amateurism in com-positions was encouraged as the t i t l e of a book published at the turn of the century suggests: A method of composing with two dice as many Waltzes and Schleifer as one wishes, without being musical or knowing 30 anything of composition. Chopin writing from Vienna in 1831 said: Here, Waltzes are called works! And Strauss and Lanner, who play them for dancing, are called Kapellmeistern. This does not mean that everyone thinks l i k e that; indeed, nearly everyone laughs about i t ; but only Waltzes get printed.31 The waltz monopoly l i t e r a l l y transformed the character of the con-cert world. William Weber in a study of the growth of public concerts in London, Paris , and Vienna, explores a phenomenon which witnessed the divis ion of music into two, for the most part, alienated categories, the " l i g h t " or "popular" (today i t passes for what i t real ly i s "commercial") and the "serious." Serious concerts concentrated on the tr ied and true repertoire, generally ignoring contemporary works, whereas popular con-certs tended to feature contemporary music. There were two types of popular concerts, one of which was the benefit concert, usually held in a salon, where v i r tuosi such as L i s z t , Chopin, and Paganini would promote their own and other contemporary composers' works; the other was the promenade concert which carried on the traditions of amateur music making 32 of the streets and taverns. It i s the latter that i s pertinent to the popularity of the Viennese waltz, as this genre was the backbone of the promenade concert: " . . . i n Vienna the waltz nights remained the one 33 form of mass musical entertainment throughout the century." By 1830 promenade concerts had eclipsed a l l other types of concerts, the direct 21 result of the commercial exploitation of popular traditions of informal 34 entertainment. It was this milieu that allowed such self-taught musicians as Joseph Lanner, the son of a glove maker, and Johann Strauss, the son of an inn-keeper, to amass "waltz empires," and to acquire a status which would formerly have been available only to schooled a r t i s t s . In 1829 Lanner was appointed to direct the concerts of the Redoutensall and was honoured 35 with the t i t l e of K'dniglish und Kaiserl ich Hofballmusikdirector. Such was the international popularity of the waltz in 1834 that Strauss and his orchestra were welcomed into the ballrooms of royalty i n Germany, 36 Russia, Belgium, and England. Strauss' popularity—his messianic hold over his audience—is attested to by Richard Wagner i n 1832: . . . this demon of the Viennese musical s p i r i t shook l i k e a Pythian priestess on the tripod, and veritable groans of ecstacy raised the magic v i o l i n i s t to almost bewildering heights of frenzy.37 3. The Diffusion of the Waltz into "Serious" Works with Particular  Reference to Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, and Frederic Chopin The waltz was in the a i r , and everyone in the nineteenth century was subject to i t s permeating influence, as the tables in Appendix VI indicate. We have chosen to tabulate overt and covert waltzes in the instrumental works of three of the most prominent composers (Schubert, Schumann, Chopin) whose compositions f a l l within the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century, as proof of this phenomena. Nowhere are waltzes more omnipresent than in the compositions of Franz Schubert. Schubert occupies a unique place v i s - a - v i s his relationship to 38 " l ight music," a category to which his 313 waltzes belong. These dance s w e r e , a l o n g w i t h h i s s ong s , t h e b a s i c f o r m o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t a t m i d d l e c l a s s house p a r t i e s , and a r e t h e r e s u l t o f h o u r s o f i m p r o v i s i n g 39 a t t h e p i a n o w h i l e h i s f r i e n d s l i s t e n e d and d a n c e d . A t a t i m e when m u s i c a l t r i v i a t ended t o ove r shadow t h e m u s i c a l l a n d m a r k s o f " s e r i o u s " 40 c o m p o s i t i o n , S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z e s o f t e n " k e p t t h e w o l f f r o m t h e d o o r . " I n S c h u b e r t ' s t i m e , m i d d l e c l a s s home m u s i c had a b u r g e o n i n g c o m m e r c i a l Jc „42 41 v a l u e . J o h n Reed see s h im " a s t h e f i r s t v i c t i m o f t h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f t a s t e . The s c h i s m between " l i g h t " and " s e r i o u s " m u s i c w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y m a n i f e s t i n S c h u b e r t ' s w o r k s : 43 he had a f o o t i n b o t h w o r l d s . As Reed s a y s : . . . h i s m u s i c s peak s w i t h e q u a l d i r e c t n e s s and f o r c e t o t h e c o n n o i s s e u r and t o t h e m u s i c a l l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and t h i s . . . i s n o t t o be e x p l a i n e d away by p r e t e n d i n g t h a t t h e w a l t z e s we re u n c o n s i d e r e d t r i f l e s t o s s e d o f f i n t h e i n t e r v a l s be tween more s e r i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n . ^ The key t o t h e n a t u r a l b l e n d o f b o t h f i e l d s i s a p t l y a c c o u n t e d f o r by A r t h u r H u t c h i n g s when he w r i t e s t h a t " F r a n z S c h u b e r t came f r o m t h e m i d d l e 45 c l a s s and i t was f o r t h e i r e m o t i o n a l demands t h a t he w r o t e . " T h i s l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n be tween t h e " l i g h t " and t h e " s e r i o u s " i s p r e s e n t i n S c h u b e r t ' s wo r k s w h i c h have a p l a c e i n t h e " s e r i o u s " r e p e r -t o i r e o f t o d a y . J . A . Wes t rup n o t e s t h a t " . . . t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e 46 c a f e and t h e a t r e i s . . . e v e r y w h e r e . . . . " i n t h e chamber w o r k s . W r i t i n g abou t h i s p i a n o s o n a t a s , K a t h l e e n D a l e r ema rk s t h a t " S c h u b e r t , t h e composer o f hund red s o f songs and s c o r e s o f d a n c e s , c o u l d n o t h a p p i l y w r i t e a p i a n o s o n a t a w i t h o u t d r a w i n g upon h i s i n e x h a u s t i b l e r e s e r v e s o f v o c a l m e l o d i e s and dance measu re s and i n t r o d u c i n g them unashamed ly when -47 e v e r he f e l t i n c l i n e d . " W e s t r u p ' s and D a l e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o n -f i r m e d by t h e l i s t o f w a l t z e l e m e n t s i n t h e work s i n v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t a l 23 genres at the end of this chapter. The most l i k e l y place for elements of the waltz to appear i s in the dance movements of those works which employ the sonata cycle, that i s , the minuet and t r i o . It i s in the t r io that we might expect to hear the Landler. Examining the character of the t r io of the minuet, Eric Blom cites a transformation from the musette-like t r io of Bach's minuet and trios to the LSndler-like tr ios coming conspicuously to the fore in the second 48 half of the eighteenth century. This type of t r io i s prevalent in the 49 works of the Mannheim composers and in many of Mozart's t r ios , for example K. 525 and K. 5 5 0 . S c h u b e r t inherited and expanded upon this t radi t ion. Table 1 (Appendix VI) i l lus t ra tes the pervasiveness of the Landler in the t r i o s , whether they be called Menuetto and Trio or Scherzo and T r i o . Table 1 also i l lus t ra tes the trend toward the refinement of the LSndler into the Viennese waltz, as in the t r io of the String Quartet, D. 87 that mediates between Landler and waltz, and as in the String Quar-tet, D. 810 that has a t r io which is a true waltz. More significant in terms of the pervasiveness of the Landler and the waltz i s the extent to which they penetrated the principal section of the dance movement in the sonata cycle. By Schubert's time, the Minuet and Trio was in the throes of being transformed into the Scherzo and T r i o . The former no longer had any sociological relevance in the early nineteenth century, yet i t was not suff ic ient ly passe to be consciously used as an his tor i ca l a l lusion. This movement, alluding to the origins of c lass ica l absolute music in the dance suite, however, had been associ-ated with the minuet since i t s inception, and the name persisted though the content changed. As the l i s t s of waltz elements i n Appendix VI show 24 the t i t l e s Meneutto and Scherzo are used indiscriminately, part icularly so with regard to the Menuetto. They are rarely true menuettos, but rather scherzi, Landler, waltzes, and often a mixture. Less frequent are Landler and waltzes that masquerade as scherzi; the scherzi of the Symphony, D. 944 and of the Piano T r i o , D. 898 are but two exceptions. This disparity between content and t i t l e in Schubert' s work's reflects the transitional phase that movements t radit ional ly associated with the dance were i n . On the one hand, the scherzi were a response to absolute music's shedding her identity with her lowly origins in the dance suite. On the other hand, when Landler and waltzes masquerade as scherzi and part icularly minuets, we are simultaneously affected two ways: we are reminded of the tradit ional origins of the genres of absolute music (sonatas, symphonies, chamber works), and we are also reminded of the obsolescence of the minuet, as well as the fact that common practice pre-cedes etymological c l a r i f i c a t i o n in periods of t ransit ion. Nonetheless, the diffusion of waltz and part icularly Landler elements in the principal section of the dance movement i s more extensive with Schubert than with any other composer of the time, and that effect ively demonstrates the prominent role the Landler and the waltz played in the "serious" works of his time. The waltz plays an important role in the instrumental works of Robert Schumann, part icularly the piano works. By the time Schumann had begun writing, Lanner and Strauss had effect ively transformed the Landler into the Viennese waltz. This inherited dist inct ion can be seen in Schumann's Albumblatter, Op. 124, where of. a.series of twenty short pieces, the seventh i s called Landler, and numbers 4, 10, and 15 are t i t l e d Walzer. 25 U n l i k e Schubert's works, Schumann's waltzes and waltz-based works have only a remote connection w i t h the f i e l d of l i g h t music. They are not f u n c t i o n a l p i e c e s , and they are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h popular music only to the extent that they are concerned w i t h d e p i c t i n g popular dance f e s t i v a l s . I t i s the e x t r a - m u s i c a l — t h e symbolism a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these f e s t i v i t i e s — t h a t Schumann's waltzes are o f t e n r e q u i r e d to p o r t r a y : to the Romantic ". . . the C a r n i v a l becomes the prophetic v o i c e seeking behind the mask 52 i t s own e s s e n t i a l nature." The waltz i s a prominent f e a t u r e i n Schumann's works to the extent that the works are programmatic. Consequently, we should not expect to f i n d an abundance of waltzes i n h i s l a t e r o r c h e s t r a l and chamber works given the f a c t of h i s a e s t h e t i c s h i f t to a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r absolute music. We know that because of h i s t u r n toward absolute music he made a l t e r a t i o n s i n the second e d i t i o n s of some of h i s e a r l y scores, f o r example i n the Davidsbiindlertanze. I n the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n (1838), Schumann emphasized the programmatic nature of the work by p u b l i s h i n g i t under h i s pseudonyms, F l o r e s t a n and Eusebius, appending to each piece the i n i t i a l of one or the other or both according to the character of the 53 music. He gave stage d i r e c t i o n s a f t e r two of the dances. A f t e r number 8, he notes, "Herewith F l o r e s t a n made an end, and h i s l i p s quivered p a i n f u l l y , " and a f t e r number 18, he w r i t e s , "Quite s u p e r f l u o u s l y Eusebius 54 remarked as f o l l o w s ; but a l l the time great b l i s s spoke from h i s eyes." In the second e d i t i o n (1850), Schumann omitted the word "dances" from the 55 t i t l e , expunging the work of synaesthesic d e s c r i p t i v e notes. We w i l l d eal f i r s t w i t h the works which r e f l e c t the waltz the l e a s t , the symphonic, the c o n c e r t i , and the chamber p i e c e s , proceeding from there to the m u l t i - f a c e t e d pervasiveness of the waltz i n the works of h i s e a r l y p e r i o d , the piano compositions. Only the f i r s t of the symphonies and overtures contains a w a l t z . I t appears i n the most l o g i c a l movement f o r a dance, the Scherzo and T r i o . One would expect to hear the waltz i n the T r i o ; however, i t occurs i n the Scherzo, thus c o n t i n u i n g the p r a c t i c e e s t a b l i s h e d by Schu-be r t of w r i t i n g waltzes which masquerade as s c h e r z i . The presence of the waltz i s confirmed by Robert S c h a u f f l e r : " A f t e r the sweetness of the Larghetto, the almost grim v i r i l i t y of the Scherzo's opening . . . 56 melts i n t o one of Schumann's waltz tunes." The ConcertstUck f o r four horns i n F-major i s the only one of the f i n i s h e d c o n c e r t i that has a suggestion of a w a l t z . I t occurs i n the second theme of the second movement: the p i z z i c a t o accompaniment of the c e l l o evokes the g u i t a r bass (oom-pa-pa) of the w a l t z . The s i t u a t i o n changes i n the chamber works, where the piano t r i o s show a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the w a l t z . In the T r i o of the Scherzo ( t h i r d movement), one overhears the ghost of a w a l t z : i t s almost too quick but steady three-quarter time has the l i l t of the w a l t z . More obvious waltz elements pervade the other two important piano t r i o s . The second and t h i r d movements of Op. 80 focus on the w a l t z . The second movement marked "Mit innigem Ausdruck" has two b a s i c c h a r a c t e r s , A and B. A i s a w a l t z and B i s i n duple time; there i s f l u i d movement between these two s e c t i o n s to evoke an a l t e r n a t i o n form. The t h i r d movement, marked "In massiger Bewugung," evokes a three-part dance movement, and we hear W a l t z / T r i o ( l e s s o b v i o u s l y a w a l t z ) / W a l t z . In Op. 110 the second move-ment i s marked " Z i e m l i c h langsam," and i t i s i n a three-part form i n which, a slow, sentimental waltz frames a q u i c k e r , rough scherzo movement. The waltz p o r t i o n , as the example below shows, i s i n 12/8 time, not the 27 expected 3/4 or even 3/8. This example recal ls the important question, How does one determine what i s a waltz? Some form of t r i p l e time i s obviously necessary, and the tempo must usually accommodate the suggestion of dancing. Beyond that, the elongation of the f i r s t beat J J or J.1^j and the guitar bass ^ > the "oom-pa-pa" as we commonly refer to i t , are what chief ly 57 distinguish the waltz from the Landler. The slow tempo of the example cited allows the l istener to hear i t as 3/4, and the guitar bass of the piano accompaniment establishes the waltz character of this movement. We turn now to Schumann's early compositions, those written for 58 piano, where the most important manifestations of the waltz occur. This i s the period of Schumann's preoccupation with synaesthesic imagery. Moritz Katz's comparative study of a preference for such imagery among German Romantics revealed that Schumann used more synaesthesic images than some leading writers : Ludwig Tieck = 696, E. T. A. Hoffmann = 652, 59 and Robert Schumann = 824. The relevant point here is that Schumann 28 not only used the waltz overtly and simply as one of a number of dances in a dance suite but also covertly to convey the image of the popular masked b a l l . Schumann l i k e many other Romantics was fascinated by the hidden associations that this image could convey. For the moment we shall delineate the various categories that his waltzes and waltz-based composi-tions f a l l into. Examples w i l l be given, but more complete categoriza-tions of these works w i l l be found in Table 2 .(Appendix VI) . With the exception of the earliest works, the unpublished Sechs Walzer and the Eight Polonaises for Four Hands, Op. I l l (not published 60 u n t i l 1935), Schumann's waltzes for piano are programmatic. There i s , however, a significant difference in the degree to which the programmatic allusions permeate the various works. For this reason, we w i l l divide the discussion of these early compositions into two main categories: the remotely programmatic and the intimately programmatic. These two categories w i l l further be distinguished into those overtly related to the dance and those which covertly suggest the dance or are unrelated to the dance. Remotely programmatic compositions. These works bear a synaes-thesic t i t l e which more than anything else serves l o g i c a l l y to bind a number of otherwise disparate pieces together in a picturesque way. Some are clearly related to the dance but others are not. When a waltz appears in an overt way, Schumann always entit les i t "waltz"; when i t i s covertly suggested, obviously Schumann refrains from using this t i t l e . The Kinderball , Op. 130, and Ball-scenen, Op. 109, feature the waltz as one of a number of national dances. They are dance suites whose t i t l e s both overtly suggest a direct connection with the dance while at the same time locating the dance in i t s functional place, the ballroom. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the above i s the AlbumblStter, Op. 124, where among a s e r i e s of twenty pieces there are three waltzes and one L a n d l e r , a l l designated as such. The t i t l e of the c o l l e c t i o n i s not suggestive of the dance because i t i s r e q u i r e d to bind together such a v a r i e t y of pieces as "Walzer," " V i s i o n , " and "Canon." These works were not con-ceived as c o n t r i b u t i n g to a u n i f i e d whole, being composed anywhere between 1832 and 1845. We know, f o r i n s t a n c e , that number three, "Scherzino," was r e j e c t e d from C a r n i v a l , ^ that number f o u r , "Walzer," was r e j e c t e d from P a p i l l o n s . This i s but one instance of Schumann's i n c l i n a t i o n to salvage as many of h i s compositions as p o s s i b l e . As we i n d i c a t e i n Table 2, the covert waltzes i n t h i s category are more prevalent than the overt ones. Neither the t i t l e s nor the i n d i v i d -u a l waltzes which appear a l l u d e to the dance; t h e r e f o r e we have to r e l y on the music and other a s s o c i a t i o n s to determine the presence of the w a l t z . We w i l l d i s c u s s two of the works here; the'others can be found i n Table 2. In the "Funf Albumblatter" from Bunte B l a t t e r , Op. 99, number three i s a w a l t z . We determine t h i s from the music, which i s a simple b i n a r y form composition w i t h waltz c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This i s f u r t h e r confirmed when we discover that i t was o r i g i n a l l y a part of the 62 waltz-based C a r n i v a l . The Bunte B l a t t e r are another example of Schumann's compulsion to "get h i s house i n order" as he neared the end of h i s l i f e . The pieces i n t h i s opus span the years 1832 to 1849; 63 Schumann d i d not decide to salvage them f o r p u b l i c a t i o n u n t i l 1851. The I n t e r m e z z i , Op. 4, e x h i b i t a s i g n i f i c a n t number of waltz elements. As we show i n Table 2, four of the s i x pieces i n t h i s work evoke the w a l t z . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of these i n t e r m e z z i to the waltz i s more strongly established when we recognize the. kinship between Op. 4 and Op. 2, Papillons, a work most defini tely associated with the waltz. Schumann himself considered these works related, for in a letter to Dr. T. Topken of 5 A p r i l 1833, he said, "At Easter w i l l appear Intermezzi (two books; 64 they are extended Papi l lons) . " Kathleen Dale has determined that the coda of the Intermezzi was taken from a rejected sixteen bar Papillon in 3/4 time.^"* Other examples of this type of waltz element can be found in Table 2. Intimately programmatic compositions. There are a total of f ive works in this category, and they are l i s ted in Table 2. They are a l l either overtly or covertly associated with the image of the masked b a l l , an image which dominates most of the works in this category. It i s a multi-faceted image where we are simultaneously faced with disguise and revelation. Though we rely on t i t l e s associated with the b a l l to con-vey the programmatic intent of the work, i t i s the presence of the music of the waltz, the most popular dance at these b a l l s , that convinces us that we are at a b a l l . The most obvious associations with the masked b a l l are conveyed by the t i t l e s of Carnival, Op. 9, and Faschingsschwank  aus Wien: Fantasiebilder. Carnival i s the more expl ic i t i n i t s association with this image: along with the overt reference of the t i t l e go the masked participants in the b a l l whose disguise is revealed both l i t e r a l l y and musically, that i s , Chopin, who is both disguised and revealed by the Nocturne. Of the twenty-one pieces in this work, thirteen are waltzes with two pieces, the "Valse Noble" and the "Valse Allemande," overtly designated as such. Faschingsschwank, whose t i t l e i s equally suggestive of the masked b a l l i s the latest of the s i g n i f i -cantly programmatic waltz-based compositions. Because only the Allegro 31 of this f ive movement work is an undesignated waltz, the programmatic al lusion of this t i t l e i s more tenuous. The Davidbiindlertanze, Op. 6, as i t s t i t l e specifies , i s a col lect ion of dances. Of the two volumes of nine dances each, at least seven are undesignated waltzes. The t i t l e l inks i t to Carnival, where the chief participants are members of the Davidsbund, thus establishing the masked b a l l as the image common to them both. Papillons, Op. 2, and the Abegg Variations, Op. 1, are covertly connected with this image. Their t i t l e s do not suggest the connection, but the music does. Although none of the eight pieces in Op. 2 i s given a dance t i t l e , each i s i n binary form, and six of the eight have the characteristics of the waltz. Op. 1 has a theme, four variations, and a f i n a l e . Of these the theme and three of the variations are waltzes. Moreover, there is programmatic evidence to suggest that these works were influenced by the image of the masked b a l l . The Abegg Variations are said to have been inspired by a dancing partner of Schumann's at a 66 Mannheim ball—Meta Abegg, and Papillons was identif ied by Schumann himself as being inspired by a chapter in Jean Paul Richeter's Flegeljahr: . . . I w i l l allow myself a few words about the origins of the Papillons; for the thread that binds them together i s barely v i s i b l e . You w i l l remember the last scenes of the Flegeljahr -—masked ball—Walt—Vult—masks—Wina—Vult's dancing. . . 6'/ It i s inevitable that we almost inst inct ively think of Chopin— and Strauss Jr.—when considering the waltz—at any time, not just in the nineteenth century. But in the realm of "serious" music, i t i s Chopin who shaped our consciousness of the salon or concert waltz t h r o u g h h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s g e n r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , we a r e n o t s u r -p r i s e d when we o v e r h e a r s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e w a l t z i n h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t o v e r t l y w a l t z e s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l m a j o r wo r k s i n w h i c h t h e w a l t z i s an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e , b u t t h e r e a r e o t h e r s where ou r b e g u i l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n o f C h o p i n w i t h t h e w a l t z may m i s l e a d u s . We m i g h t a l l t o o o f t e n m i s t a k e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e mazu r ka f o r an echo o f t h e w a l t z ( t h i n k f o r i n s t a n c e o f t h e t h i r d movement o f t h e second p i a n o C o n c e r t o , Op. 21), and f o r good r e a s o n . The s t y l i z a t i o n o f t h e mazu r ka c u r i o u s l y p a r a l l e l s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s t y l i z a t i o n o f t h e w a l t z f r o m i t s r o o t s i n t h e r u s t i c L a n d l e r : The mazurek i n i t s p r i m i t i v e f o r m and as t h e common p e o p l e dance i t , i s o n l y a k i n d o f k r a k o w i a k , o n l y l e s s l i v e l y and l e s s s a u t i l l a n t . The a g i l e C r a c o v i a n s and t h e m o u n t a i n e e r s o f t h e C a r p a t h i a n s c a l l t h e mazurek danced by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e p l a i n b u t a d w a r f e d k r a k o w i a k . The p r o x i m i t y o f t h e Germans, o r r a t h e r t h e s o j o u r n o f t h e German t r o o p s , h a s - c a u s e d t h e t r u e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e mazurek among t h e p e o p l e t o be l o s t ; t h i s dance has become a k i n d o f awkward w a l t z . 6 8 F o r a l l h i s a c q u i r e d F r e n c h s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , C h o p i n was d e e p l y r o o t e d i n h i s n a t i v e P o l i s h m u s i c , a s we canno t h e l p b u t n o t e i n c a t a -l o g i n g h i s numerous c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e p o l o n a i s e and t h e m a z u r k a , and t h e s e r o o t s b e a r f r u i t i n u n e x p e c t e d p l a c e s . Where we m i g h t e x p e c t a w a l t z ( i n t h e t r i o o f a s c h e r z o ) , we h e a r a m a z u r k a , b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e many common f e a t u r e s be tween t h e two dance s (most n o t a b l y t h e m e t r e and t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e g u i t a r b a s s ) we may c a s u a l l y b l u r t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s . However , once a l e r t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m , we w i l l a p p r e c i a t e ou r a n a c h r o n -i s t i c d i f f i c u l t y , b u t a t t h e same t i m e we s h o u l d r e i n f o r c e c l e a r d i s t i n c -t i o n s . T h e r e a r e C h o p i n ' s w a l t z e s , t h e work s he o v e r t l y t i t l e s w a l t z e s ; and t h e r e a r e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e w a l t z c o v e r t l y p l a y s a r o l e . C h o p i n w r o t e s e v e n t e e n o v e r t w a l t z e s w h i c h a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 3 33 (Appendix VI) , but he was affected by the waltz in other works not associated with this genre. In the Minuetto of the f i r s t piano Sonata, Op. 4, we respond to a movement that i s properly t i t l e d minuet, except a section, bars 16-48, which conveys a touch of the waltz. The Scherzo of the T r i o , Op. 8, might have had a trace of the waltz swing but for the rather interfering contrapuntal l ines of the v i o l i n and c e l l o . The T r i o , however, i s str iking insofar as i t s theme evokes not so much the l i l t of the waltz as a Landler-like rhythm (bars 82-97). The Nocturne, Op. 9, No. 2, poses a problem: do t r i p l e t - l i k e figurations of chords suff ic ient ly enough evoke the guitar bass accom-paniment of the waltz so that we may legitimately refer to these works as manifesting a waltz influence? Perhaps the answer l i e s in the tempo. Bearing in mind Chopin's a-minor waltz, we may have warrant to accept this Nocturne into the canon of pieces influenced by the waltz. The sweep of the f i r s t Ballade, Op. 23, i s l i k e the dance gesture of the waltz. Immediately after the opening, the 6/4 bars assume the character of a fast 3/4 x 2, and the l i l t of the waltz i s established to contrast dramatically with other elements of the piece throughout the work. Of the four Scherzos only the second, Op. 31, betrays a clear influence of the waltz. The sostenuto section, bars 265-582, and analagous passages, i s an agitated waltz. Frenzied as the waltz element i s in the above Scherzo, the Scherzo of the second piano Sonata, Op. 35, in i t s Piu Lento section affords us an instance of a slow waltz (bars 81-183 and 274 to the end). The fourth Ballade, Op. 52, i s influenced throughout by the waltz. After the eight-bar introduction, a waltz-l ike melody enters accompanied by a " t r i p l e t " figuration in eighth notes in 6/8 that discretely affects a waltz-l ike accompaniment. This piece may be the instance of Chopin's assimilation of the waltz. The influence of this genre is hardly overt, yet neither i s i t disguised; rather i t i s transformed and elaborated and stands as a testament to the powerful influence of the waltz in Chopin's time—and in Chopin's work. C. Conclusion In chapter two we traced the history of the popularity of the waltz, culminating in i t s exclusive dominance over other dance forms in the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century. In this period, the broader impact of the waltz on society was indicated by the fact that "popular" waltz concerts eclipsed "serious" concerts, a situation which was further underscored by the degree to which the waltz was assimilated into " s e r i -ous" composition. We concluded that this phenomenon was the result of the commercialization of the traditions of popular, casual entertainment. We have observed that the Viennese waltz developed in a setting far removed from i t s origins . Its evolution from a simple, outdoor country dance to a sophisticated ballroom dance resulted not only in a refinement of the waltz's or iginal gestures, but also in the symbolic content of this dance. The form of the waltz which we discussed in chapter one symbolized a universal aesthetic shif t away from the c u l t i -vated, s tyl ized, and emotionally contained aesthetic of the eighteenth century positing in i t s stead the simple, the natural, and the emotionally unrestrained. In the next chapter, with the Viennese waltz, we w i l l witness a contraction in the symbolism of the waltz into something that i s again class-oriented: as the minuet was the aesthetic symbol of the aristocracy, the waltz became the aesthetic symbol of the bourgeoisie. In the works of Joseph Lanner, Johann Strauss, and Franz Schubert, the waltz f a l l s into a category of art which part icularly reflected the Austrian bourgeoisie of the period 1815 to 1848—an era which has been retrospectively named the Biedermeier epoch. CHAPTER THREE THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE WALTZ Musical l i k e p o l i t i c a l revolutions penetrate under the lowest roof into the smallest matter. In music we observe the new influence in precisely that branch where art i s sensuously a l l i e d to common l i f e — i n the dance. As contrapuntal predom-inance disappeared, miniature sarabands and gavottes, hoops and patches, went out of fashion, and pigta i l s became much shorter. Then the minuets of Mozart and Haydn rustled by in their long trains, while people stood facing each other decorously and s i l e n t l y , bowing often, and f i n a l l y walking away. . . . Then young Beethoven broke i n , breathless, yet embarrassed and d i s -turbed with long, disordered hair . . . and people were greatly astonished at the eccentric fellow; but the ballroom was too narrow and tiresome for him, so he rushed out into the darkness . . . elbowing fashion and ceremony, but moving aside lest he should step on the flowers; and those who are pleased with such a nature c a l l i t a caprice, or anything you l i k e . And then a new generation grew up; the children became youths and maidens, so shy, so dreamy . . . no one thinks anymore of so c iabi l i ty , of sympathy; each one thinks and acts for himself. . . . A clear and merry strain s t i l l resounds from Strauss; but the deeper ones seized by the s p i r i t of the day, are overpowered . . . how w i l l i t a l l end, and whither are we tending? Robert Schumann General Introduction This chapter i s divided into two parts. Part one w i l l deal with the musical evolution of the Landler into the waltz, and Part two w i l l examine the significance of this transformation. We w i l l see how, through the waltzes of Joseph Lanner, Johann Strauss, and Franz Schubert, the transformation of the waltz reflected the aesthetic characteristics of the Biedermeier epoch. In order to deal with this subject, some h i s t o r i c a l background i s necessary. 36 37 Nowhere was the waltz so much an Integral part of society as in the lands of i t s origins , Austria and Germany. During the period 1800 to 1850, Germany and Austria were not mutually exclusive terr i tor ies but formed part of a collection of lands within the largely f i c t i o n a l frame-work of the Holy Roman Empire. A loose confederation of thirty-nine p o l i t i c a l units of which four were free c i t i e s , was known as the Germanic Confederation. The majority of these units were sandwiched between the two major outside powers of this confederation, Austria and Prussia which during the course of the nineteenth century competed for the leadership of the German states.'*" In the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century, Austria had the greater influence because she held the position of per-2 manent president of the main organ of the confederation, the Bundestag. It i s for this reason that Ralph Tymms says that "Vienna—the one only 3 'Kaiserstadt'—was in a sense the capital of Germany." Because the waltz i s generally associated with Vienna, we w i l l consider i t a musical national emblem of both Germany and Austria . A s p i r i t of escapism dominated the German lands in the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century. The new benefits of the wave of l iberalism unleashed by the French Revolution and aided by industrialism were matched 4 by new abuses. The cobblers' revolt in Austria in 1811 was a small portent of what was to come in 1848, and the Napoleonic wars which were waged in the name of extending the l i b e r a l reforms of the French Revolu-tion ended in despotism leaving Europe ravaged and dis i l lus ioned. The conservative reaction of almost every major country was never more strongly manifest than with the Metternich regime in Austria . The aim of this regime was the abolit ion of the l i b e r a l reforms of Joseph II (1780-1790) and a return to the autocratic absolutism of Maria 38 Theresa's rule (1740-1780).^ In this period, the Hapsburg Empire was secure and class relationships, however hierarchically s t r a t i f i e d , were stable.^ The period 1815 to 1848, the Biedermeier epoch, i s often referred to as "The Golden Age of Vienna,"^ yet i t was a period of severe p o l i t i c a l repression, as Robert Schumann attests. Writing to H. Hirschback from Vienna (May 31, 1839), he says, "You were quite right in your former g opinions about Vienna: one does not dare say what one thinks." Through censorship—both p o l i t i c a l and artistic—Metternich was able to isolate Austria from revolutionary forces within: the only meaningful dissent which emanated from the students mil i ta t ing for enfranchisement and con-9 s t i tut ional government was quickly suppressed. S c h i l l e r ' s William T e l l was banned"^ because of i t s p o l i t i c a l implications. Austria was i s o -lated from revolutionary forces from without by the res t r ic t ion of t ravel . By and large, these repressive measures met with l i t t l e resistance. A complacent, a p o l i t i c a l temper characterized the Biedermeier epoch i n Austria : the bourgeoisie shunned c i v i c concerns and compensated by idealizing the commonplace such as home, family, friends, and simple s o c i a b i l i t y . Entertainment, which was ideally suited to intensify apathy and encourage the escapism of a cheap t h r i l l , was the order of the day. Authors, prevented through censorship from identifying with practical r e a l i t y , took refuge in the fairytale and personalized l y r i c , and Schundromantik (cheap f i c t i o n purveyed to the circulating l ibraries) glutted the market. Popular theatre (vaudeville and burlesque) actually undermined the serious efforts of the great German dramatists, while in the opera Rossini and Meyerbeer provided the Scheinwelt which 39 appealed to the s p i r i t of escape. In the fine arts , the popularity of genre painting of local customs, costumes, and landscape reflected this society's remoteness from social and p o l i t i c a l criticism,"'"''' a fact which i s emphasized in their reverence for the waltz, which according to Heinrich Laube was to the Viennese what the Napoleonic victories had been 12 to the French. These mundane pursuits were encouraged by the Metternich regime, part icularly music and dancing. While the visual and l i te rary arts were watched closely, music and dancing were considered at worst harmless, and at best an effective opiate. As Frances Trollope said in her memoirs published in 1838: Far from checking this universal s p i r i t of gaiety, the wise government of Austria fosters i t , as one of the surest means of keeping the minds of people from . . . gloomy discontent .^ Art is ts who created for the Biedermeier sensibi l i ty—for example the novelist Adalbert S t i f t e r , the painter Moritz von Schwind, and the musi-cians Joseph Lanner, Johann Strauss, and Franz Schubert—were affection-ately received by the bourgeoisie citizens for whom their work was 14 intended, and encouraged by the government of Austria who saw this art as an effective tool with which to divert the attention of the populace from the rea l i ty of c iv ic concerns. 40 Pa r t One: From the Landler to the Waltz i n the Works of  Joseph Lanner, Joharin Strauss, and Franz Schubert The Landler . . . changed comparatively l i t t l e on merging i n t o the urban and middle c l a s s w a l t z . E r i c Blom The waltz d i d not a t t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o p u l a r i t y u n t i l the peasant dances from which i t derived were r e f i n e d i n t o the Viennese w a l t z . This tran s f o r m a t i o n took place i n the f i r s t three decades of the nineteenth century and i s g e n e r a l l y considered to be the achievement of Joseph Lanner, Johann Strauss, and to some degree Franz Schubert. We w i l l e l u c i d a t e the above f i r s t , by e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the music of the Landler to i t s gestures and s o c i a l m i l i e u , and secondly, by examining the g e s t u r a l and musical transformations of the Landler which f i n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the w a l t z . A. The Landler: I t s Gestures and i t s Music The Landler was a p r i m i t i v e , r u s t i c dance, the gestures and mus i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of which were shaped by f a c t o r s which predated i t s appearance as an independent dance. The dance tunes which accom-panied the Landler were once sung or played on f i d d l e s and wind i n s t r u -ments and were intended to accompany stereotyped manual work and f e r t i l -i t y r i t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t : In T r a n s y l v a n i a dancers leap h i g h i n the a i r i n order to make the crops grow t a l l ; elsewhere women jump over newly planted crops to ensure the l a t t e r ' s f e r t i l i t y . - ' - - ' The hopping and stamping of the Landler i m i t a t e d i t s o r i g i n s i n a s t y l i z e d manner. S i m i l a r l y , other tunes grew out of hunting c a l l s and 16 the work songs of boatmen and blacksmiths. 41 The slow tempo of the L a n d l e r , J - = 48, was d i c t a t e d by i t s s e t t i n g and g e s t u r a l movements. I t was the custom i n a r u r a l environment to dance out of doors on rough ground, hence heavy f o o t w e a r — h o b n a i l e d boots-were r e q u i r e d . The gestures i n v o l v e d the passing of the couples under one another's arms and the throwing of the female over the male's s h o u l -der. The combination of gestures and heavy footwear n e c e s s i t a t e d the slow tempo.^ The rhythmic c h a r a c t e r of the dance a l s o owed much to i t s o r i g i n s . The manual work which the dance tunes accompanied r e q u i r e d a marked and 18 r e g u l a r rhythm because of the mechanical labour i n v o l v e d . Conse-q u e n t l y , the Landler has a square, s t o l i d c h a r a c t e r brought about by the f a c t t h a t the three beats tend to be accented s e p a r a t e l y ( d i v i s i o n occurs w i t h i n the b e a t ) , w i t h the stamped emphasis on the second beat not being uncommon. Th i s can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g example from Mozart's Sechs L a n d l e r i s c h e Tanze, No. 3: Example #1 42 Melodies which accompanied the Landler were diatonic and character-19 ized by wide-spaced intervals which primarily outlined t r iadic harmony. They have their roots i n the construction and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the instruments on which they were played: the alphorn, shepherd's pipe, and chalameau. These instruments stressed the natural intervals of the octave, fourth, and f i f t h , producing a type of melody i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following example : ^ Example #2 1 3 5 Of* m r /pi 1J ^ri^ ir J J J |Nj The term "Dudeln" which appears i n this example indicates that i t was to be played on a dudelsack (bagpipe). The term "Yodeln" would also com-monly appear as an appendix to Landler tunes thus also suggesting a d e r i -vation from alpine yodell ing. These "forest cr ies" were uttered so forceful ly that the voice skipped over into the octave, double octave, seventh, f i f t h , fourth, and thi rd , as the following example of a Styrian 21 forest cry (Waldgschroa) reveals: Example #3 It i s a melodic characteristic f a i t h f u l l y adhered to by Mozart i n No. 6 of his Sechs Landlerische Tanze: Example #4 O ,_',.t ; . 1 1 m ! ' | w * 1 ! 1 i [ —* • •#• * -s- • * * * i * V 1 « ' 1 1 Simplicity of melody i s supported by an equally simple approach to harmony and form, and this i s reflected i n Mozart's Sechs Landlerische Tanze (see Appendix I) considered by Eduard Reeser to be "true c l a s s i c a l 22 examples of the Landler ." We observe that a l l six dances are i n major keys, for as Er ic Blom says, "Austrian dances are rarely i n minor keys 23 even i n the form cultivated by the c l a s s i c s . " We also observe the most simple of the binary dance forms: two eight-measure periods repeated. Because early waltzes were short, the tediousness of a con-t inual repeti t ion caused composers to string them together in sets con-s is t ing of six to twelve dances. They were further extended by the practice of adding a t r io or alternativo to each main dance on the model of a minuet and t r i o , with the whole set rounded off by a coda. These early suites, however, usually had no inner unity: there was no melodic 24 connection or l o g i c a l sequence of keys. The musical texture of the t r i o of the early waltz derives from the t radi t ional instrumental combinations used by the t ravel l ing bands who played at inns along the Danube. These bands generally consisted of three or four instruments: two v i o l i n s , or a v i o l i n and c lar inet , a 25 guitar , and often a double bass. 44 B. The Waltz: Its Gestures and i t s Music During the phase of the transformation of the L'andler into the waltz, the tempo increased from = 48 to 7 6 . ^ A number of factors were responsible for this . With the indoor setting of the dance h a l l , hobnailed boots were no longer needed and were replaced by l ight sl ippers . This more refined footwear was actually a requirement 27 in the dancehalls with their highly polished parquet f loors . These two practical factors combined to encourage the accelerating speed of the waltz, which then hindered the gestures of the Landler. Eventually the hopping, stamping, and turning under the arm were eliminated in 28 favour of the gliding step with the couple rotating in close embrace. Two other factors relating to the acceleration of the waltz tempo should be considered. Some scholars l ink the acceleration in speed to the dance mania 29 which gripped Europe in the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century. The basis of this opinion i s an anthropological interest in the relationship of dance manias and social turmoil. Frances Rust traces the re la t ion-ship between psychopathological dances of primitive societies where 30 dancing develops 'out of frenzy and extreme neuropathic disturbances," and the dance madness which characterized two epochs: the dance mania during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries—a response to the devasta-31 tion of the black death; and the dance mania of the nineteenthucentury— a response to the social turmoil caused by the French Revolution and the 32 Napoleonic wars. The dance mania of the latter period is further attested to by the fact that by 1797 there were 684 public dance halls 33 in France, and during the carnival season in Vienna i n 1832, 772 balls 34 were given (nearly half of the population is said to have attended). This i s further confirmed by a statement made by the German conductor, Johann Reichardt, following the Napoleonic wars: "The love of dancing 35 here i s now i n t e n s i f i e d to the point of becoming a mania." Another factor i n f l u e n c i n g the compulsion to frenzied dance was the penchant for virtuoso dance e x h i b i t i o n s . Adolphe Bauerle, a Viennese wri t e r , described t h i s phenomenon: It was the fashion to be a dashing dancer and the man had to w h i r l h i s partner with the greatest possible speed from one end of the h a l l to the other. If one round of the immense h a l l would have been considered s u f f i c i e n t , one might have allowed t h i s bacchantic dance to pass. But the c i r c u i t had to be made s i x to eight times at top speed and without pause. Each couple endeavoured to top the performance of the other. . . .36 In 1837 the Sperl (the dance h a l l made famous by Johann Strauss, Sr.) started i t s noted champagne b a l l s where b o t t l e s of French champagne were . j . . 37 given as prizes f or v i r t u o s i t y m dance competitions. The music which accompanied the waltz was gradually r e f i n e d i n t h i s new s o c i a l s e t t i n g . This dance, which characterizes the Biedermeier period, i s not the sophisticated, a r i s t o c r a t i c waltz music we associate with the era of Johann Strauss, J r . "The true Viennese Gemutlichkeit with the flavour of beer, rather than the heady wine of the l a t e r 38 waltz" i s captured by the waltz i n i t s t r a n s i t i o n a l phase between the Landler and the f i n a l form of the Viennese waltz. We w i l l f i r s t con-sider the degree to which the waltzes of Schubert, Lanner, and Strauss evoke the r u s t i c t r a d i t i o n , and then examine the transformations of t h i s t r a d i t i o n which resulted i n the waltz as we know i t . The l i n k with the r u s t i c waltz i s immediately evident when we r e c a l l that contemporaries did not d i s t i n g u i s h among the various desig-nations of the same dance. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s most pronounced i n Schubert who, as has been previously stated, did not discriminate between the t i t l e s Landler, Deutsch, or Walzer. His most immediate follower, Lanner, at f i r s t i s not particular about the t i t l e s he gives his dances, c a l l i n g them Landler, Deutsch, or by the cognate Styrian. It i s not 39 u n t i l Op. 7 that he uses the t i t l e "waltz" and then not consistently. The key to what we c a l l a waltz l i e s i n the gradual establishment of the guitar bass as i t s chief feature: Example #5 • m • • II rp # • — i , While this feature i s found more frequently i n Schubert's dances of the 40 waltz-type than i n any of his predecessors, he c learly does not con-sciously associate i t with works called waltz. For example, i n the twelve waltzes and seventeen Landler of Op. 18 (D.145), the guitar bass appears i n both genre, but i s more prominently featured i n those dances called L'andler than i n those called Walzer. On the other hand, the guitar bass i s present in Johann Strauss' waltzes from Op. 1, and his works suffer from no etymological ambivalence: they are simply called waltzes. The rust ic t radit ion of the waltz i s apparent in other aspects of the music of this t ransi t ional period. Melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic treatment evoke this dance's simple or igins , as does the treatment of form and orchestration. Diatonic melodies which move predominantly i n quarter and eighth notes evoke the square rhythmic character of the early waltz. This feature dominates Schubert's dances of the waltz-type, an example of which i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n D. 378, No. 3: 47 Example #6 An examination of the works of Strauss and Lanner reveals similar char-a c t e r i s t i c s , but only i n the very early works. For instance, the follow-ing two excerpts from Lanner's Dornbacher Landler, Op. 9, and Strauss' Tauberln-Walzer, Op. 1, exhibit the square approach to rhythm character-i s t i c of the rust ic waltz. Example #7: Lanner—Dornbacher Landler, Op. 9, #3 48 Example #8: Strauss—Tauberln-Walzer, Op. 1, #1 The melodic treatment in Lanner's dance i s diatonic, but Strauss' piece exhibits a tendency toward chromaticism characteristic of the f u l l y developed Viennese waltz. The treatment of form i s another indication of the t ransi t ional phase of the waltz, par t icular ly i n the works of Schubert and occasion-a l l y i n the works of Lanner. There i s , by and large, l i t t l e formal inno-vation i n Schubert's dances of the waltz-type; a l l but 59 of his 313 dances have the simple binary form of the early waltz. Most of the others are i n asymmetrical binary form > with the odd one i n o+o lo+lo rounded binary form (see Op. 50, D. 779, No. 3). A real ternary form as i n D. 366, No. 1, i s an exception as are the two rondo forms of 49 41 D. 820. There are no extended introductions or codas in Schubert's waltzes. The brevity of the individual dances i s a factor which l i k e l y resulted in their publication in large sets of twelve, thirty-two, or t h i r t y - s i x , thus evoking the large and varied set combinations of the earliest waltz publications. It i s speculated that Schubert i s known to have composed i n sets, but the publishers of the time tended to ignore this , eliminating, substituting, and adding to sets at w i l l . A case in point i s D i a b e l l i ' s posthumous publication of Schubert's Op. 127, where contrary to the t i t l e "last Waltzes" some earl ier waltzes are included. Moreover, some sections of the or iginal collection have been transposed, 42 some omitted, and the order changed. On the other hand, D. 420, a collection of twelve German Dances with a logical key scheme, i s obviously an intended set. We know that Op. 171, D. 790, i s a set of twelve German Dances published by Brahms with f i d e l i t y to Schubert's wishes. From these two publications we can determine that Schubert, when thinking i n terms of a set or suite, possibly conceived of them in groups of twelve, thus evoking the size of the early Landler publications in the late eighteenth century. Lanner's and Strauss' treatment of form underscores the inconsis-tency of the waltz "suite" during the early nineteenth century. The former does not desert the simply binary form u n t i l Op. 15, Vermahluns- walzer, where he expands the form to the sixteen measure period one finds i n most of his works. In the works of both, one witnesses a further development in the transition to what was to become the standard number of dances i n the waltz suite, namely, f i v e . Up u n t i l Op. 64 (1832) Lanner wrote suites consisting of six waltzes; prior to Op. 3 Strauss wrote suites consisting of seven waltzes. 50 By the 1830's the waltz was the most popular dance . in the upper echelons of society, having acquired a musical refinement consistent with i t s new environment. The refinement in the gestures and the setting of the waltz were accompanied by musical transformations which resulted i n the s ignif icant distancing of the dance from i t s or ig ins . Extreme melodic leaps and wide intervals succumbed to conjunct progressions com-plete with chromatic nonharmonic tones, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the following passage from Joseph Lanner's Die Romantiker, Op. 167, No. 3: Example #9 When the melody i s disjunct , far from being an evocation of yodell ing, as was often the case with the rustic waltz, i t i s rather an outgrowth associated with vir tuosic v i o l i n improvisations: Lanner and Strauss were not your common tavern v i o l i n i s t but the v i o l i n v i r t u o s i of popular music. The following excerpt from Lanner's Die Vorstadter, Op. 195 i l l u s t r a t e s the v i o l i n i s t i c f iguration which dominated the melodic impetus 43 of the Viennese waltz: Example #10 51 Other v i o l i n i s t i c effects commonly used include the exploitation of open strings (this explains the frequent choice of G, D, A, and E as the main keys of the whole waltz set) , double stops, and tunes played on the fourth string with different bowing effects such as legato, staccato, 44 spiccato, saltando, and sul ponticel lo . With regard to rhythm, "the staccato of the Landler changed to the 45 glissando of the waltz . " The evenness of the three beats of the Landler gave way to an over-emphasis of the f i r s t beat. This was accom-plished by the emergence of the staple accompaniment figure most strongly suggestive of the waltz—the guitar bass (see example No. 5), which seems to have emerged at roughly the same time as the speed of the waltz increased: the guitar bass i s an idiom which i s natural to the guitar , and because the role of this instrument in the context of the dance band was to provide the accompaniment (to define the three basic beats of the dance), we conclude that the or igin of the guitar bass was probably a natural response, based on ease of execution, to the increase in the speed of the waltz. The emphasis this accompaniment gave to the f i r s t beat was intensif ied by the Viennese custom of anticipating the second 46 beat. In the following example, a) represents what might be written, and b) the performance practice: Example #11 52 The u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e r i g i d t r i p l e r h y t hm o f t h e r u s t i c w a l t z was f u r t h e r d i s s i p a t e d by " a f u n d o f r h y t h m i c . . . d e v i c e s — s o m e t i m e s m e r e l y ' g i m -i c k s ' — w h i c h dom ina ted t h e s ub sequen t h i s t o r y o f t h e w a l t z . T h e f o l l o w i n g examp le s on page 5 3 , g l e a n e d f r o m an a n a l y s i s o f t h e a v a i l a b l e w o r k s o f L a n n e r and S t r a u s s i n d i c a t e t h e d e g r e e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n t h e a r e a o f r h y t h m . E a c h l i n e r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t r h y t h m i c c h a r a c t e r ; v a r i e t y f o r i t s own sake dom ina ted t h e w a l t z e s o f L a n n e r and S t r a u s s . I f we f o c u s on t h e l a s t example f r o m L a n n e r , we see t h a t t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s q u e s t f o r r h y t h m i c v a r i e t y i s a b a s i c i r r e g u -l a r i t y i n t h e m e l o d i c l i n e : t h e f i r s t b e a t i s p r o l o n g e d by t h e t i e , t h e n s y n c o p a t e d , and f i n a l l y o m i t t e d . P r a c t i c e s l i k e t h i s a r e v e r y much a t odds w i t h t h e r h y t h m i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e L a n d l e r , where t h e o b j e c t o f b o t h t h e me l ody and accompaniment was t o s t r o n g l y evoke t h e t h r e e b a s i c b e a t s o f t h e d a n c e . 53 Example #12 Strauss Lanner x 1 r r r * f I C 1/ / ' I ' T""'f~ < • ! | J ! i i 1. ft| J ! »»> 11 /1 • * t \.~\ !• ~! or v a r i a n t s r r * 1 v r;->. / / r-+ & r i r m i FI n —/ / /—f—f—+ • W W W —f 11 / / 1// // —/ / / y / t n n i n | n i C T ' I ' c 1 « ? 1 * c 1 c ' * C !. 6 ! 1 1 i . /> f r j i f n-ii n t \ i i. rn / / / [ . i f f fftrtfrTf A) 5 / / / 1 f f f f rrf 1 f f r r T BY] *v f h f l «* r / i ' r \ t r r \r ft t I j * r ft J, 1 J ! ' * ! > ! Y ! S I f> J // /' ' $ r f f t / 1 y / r r i r \ f r r J ^ J 1 } \ J 1 /V J J. I ! i ! i . n , y ( > ! h n . F J . h P ' t R r ^ ^ _ J ^ / / • { ' ' / ' ' I k ' ' / ' i , M i n i , h nr rn i i , i i j i // j / — £ r f c " 1 — * — 54 A similar complexity occurs in the treatment of harmony i n the works of Lanner, Strauss, and Schubert. The following reduction of Lanner's Hymens-Feier Klange, Op. 115, shows a s ignificant departure from the simple tonic/dominant harmonic plan of the early waltz: Example #13 The neopolitan 6th i n bars nineteen and twenty-seven and the augmented 6th chord i n bar t h i r t y - f i v e indicate the harmonic sophistication of the Viennese waltz, as does the following excerpt from Lanner's Op. 93, No. 3 which opens on two chromatic progressions (German sixths) : Examp le #14, c o n t ' d in a. \ fl* Cor .UL ioF. TVbaXU. i n f . Trtoa. Tim p. Tamb.gr. F l . C L I . VI. I. VI. IL Vic. Ch. 57 Schubert i s often more daring i n the area of harmony than Lanner and Strauss (for reasons which w i l l be discussed later in the chapter). A comparison of the harmonically simple fourth dance of the eight Landler of D. 378 with the f i f t h dance of Op. 171, D. 790 indicates the extent of the harmonic range which exists i n Schubert's waltzes. Example #15: D. 378, No. 4 *f\ Itf J f f l p , f r i f f j - V t ¥ - f -4 a ' t t l • • 4 * 1 f m 0 # 5 Example #16; Op. 171, D. 790, No. 5 58 The Landler of D. 378 Csee Example 15, p. 57) i s typical of the melodic diatony and harmonic s implici ty of the rustic waltz i n i t s non-modulating evocation of tonic/dominant chord progressions. The above German Dance from Op. 171, however, despite i t s only s l i g h t l y extended form, i s f u l l of dissonances: the retardations of bars 5 and 21; 59 the appoggiaturas of bars 9 and 11; and the prolonged appoggiatura chords of bars 1 and 3 are but a few examples of these categories of dissonance which provide a harmonic tension t o t a l l y at odds with the aesthetic of the rustic waltz. The tension i s compounded by the chromatic al terat ion of chords which repeat the opening theme i n this rounded binary form, thus evoking the subtle shi f t from major to minor that i s so characteristic of Schubert's sophisticated s tyle : 60 The i n i t i a l casting of this dance in a minor key i s important. Ten of Schubert's waltzes feature the minor key in one half of the form, but twenty are cast sol idly in this mode with the result that a melancholy mood is introduced into the waltz: "Lanner and Strauss never wrote a waltz in a minor key; i t would have seemed a paradox to them. . . . 48 Schubert knew that nothing i s sadder than a sad waltz. Harmonic affect i s intensified by the practice of beginning the waltz outside the key, for example in Op. 171, No. 3, and by a modulatory scheme which i n many instances departs from the f i f th- re la ted modulations that dominate the rustic waltz and the majority of Lanner's and Strauss' waltzes. Schubert primarily favours the third relationship as in the following example from Op. 127: Example #17 61 62 The new social milieu of the waltz generated a transformation i n the l i t t l e dance band which customarily played the waltz tunes. For, as expected, the large dance hal ls required increased orchestral resources. In 1818 the t r i o of Joseph Lanner's orchestra, which consisted of two v i o l i n s and a guitar , was expanded to a quintet with the addition of a cel lo and a v i o l a (played by Johann Strauss). By 1824 the quintet had expanded to a string orchestra, and by 1825 the Lanner orchestra was so popular that, unable to meet the public demand for i t s services, Lanner was forced to divide the orchestra, putting Strauss in charge of the second hal f . By this time the ensemble had grown to the size of a f u l l c l a s s i c a l orchestra complete with winds, brass, and timpani. A compari-son of Lanner's Dornbacher Landler, Op. 9 (example 18), and Die Schon- brlinner, Op. 200 (example 19), i l l u s t r a t e s this expansion: Example #18 Dornbacher Landler Violino I Violino Et Violino rn Contrabasso Nr. 1 Op. 9 (vor 1825) ss- 1 1 !ri " .1 * i ..j. - . * * —*— * - * * |« • r* u 1 •j * .jij?..S:i i JT-JC- KTT— m * J .. 11 i ' i - — 1 63 Example #19 Fragment aus den „Schonbrunnern" nach der Originalpartitur der „Minutenspiele" Minutenspiele Nr. 11 i Walzer Tempo Solo Clarinerto I Clarioerto II in A Fagotti Co mi I H in E Contrabasso This orchestral expansion was echoed by a standardization and expansion of the form of the waltz suite in the works of Lanner and Strauss. Conforming to the c l a s s i c a l dance suite , the number of dances i n the set was reduced from six and seven (Lanner favoured s ix , Strauss seven before standardization occured) to f i v e . The individual dances were extended from two eight measure periods to two sixteen measure periods, and the suite was further expanded to include lengthy introduc-tions and codas, as we witness with the 101 bar coda of Strauss' Elizabethan Walzer, his 30 bar introduction to Die Philomelen-Walzer, 64 Op. 82, Lanner's 137 bar coda in Die Schonbrunner, Op. 200, and his 34 bar introduction to Die Werber, Op. 103. C. Conclusion The Viennese waltz evolved during the f i r s t few decades of the nine-teenth century, acquiring the basic characteristics which were to be associated with i t u n t i l the end of i t s reign as Queen of the Dance i n 49 1914. Part one of chapter- three has focussed on the musical impact of the transformation in the waltz's setting and gestures. The refinement in dress and environment was marked by a similar musical refinement: angular, diatonic melodies gave way to more conjunct, chromatically inflected ones; the slow tempo and square, simple rhythm of the Landler were abandoned in favour of the faster tempo and varied rhythmic charac-ter of the Viennese waltz. Similarly , in the area of harmony, the simple tonic/dominant relationships of the Landler were complicated by chrom-aticism, to satisfy the desire for a more sensuous sound ideal . In the works of Lanner and Strauss, the waltz suite was standardized to a set of f ive dances with an introduction and coda. F i n a l l y , the expansion of the dance ensemble from a quartet to the size and constituency of a c lass ica l orchestra reflected the waltz's new concert h a l l setting and epitomized the degree to which this dance had become distanced from i t s basic origins . While we have cited some of the more obvious reasons for the trans-formation of the Landler into the Viennese waltz, we contend that there are other factors involved. Part two of chapter three w i l l examine the cultural significance of this evolution. 65 P a r t Two: The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e W a l t z a s a  R e f l e c t i o n o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r Z e i t g e i s t Over each new w a l t z t h e j o u r n a l s seem t o go i n t o r a p t u r e s ; i n n u m e r a b l e a r t i c l e s a p p e a r e d about L a n n e r and S t r a u s s • . . l o n g e r . . . t h a n t h o s e d e v o t e d t o B e e t h o v e n and M o z a r t . . . . t h e s w e e t l y i n t o x i c a t i n g t h r e e - f o u r r h y t hm w h i c h t o o k h o l d o f heads and f e e t e c l i p s e d g r e a t and s e r i o u s m u s i c , and made t h e a u d i e n c e i n c r e a s i n g l y u n f i t - fo r any i n t e l l e c -t u a l e f f o r t . Edua rd H a n s l i c k I n t r o d u c t i o n The w a l t z e s o f Jo seph. L a n n e r , Johann S t r a u s s , and F r a n z S c h u b e r t d i f f e r f r o m t h e r u s t i c L a n d l e r - w a l t z w h i c h swept t o p r o m i n e n c e a t t h e t u r n o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y under t h e banne r o f a Roman t i c i d e a l i z a -t i o n o f t h e s i m p l e and t h e n a t u r a l . T h e i r wo r k s a r e u r b a n w a l t z e s , a f f e c t e d as t h e y were by a s o c i a l m i l i e u dom ina ted by t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e . I n t h i s p o r t i o n o f c h a p t e r t h r e e we w i l l examine t h e c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e w a l t z e s o f L a n n e r , S t r a u s s , and S c h u b e r t , c o n t e n d i n g t h a t t h e y a r e m u s i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o f B i e d e r m e i e r a r t . The t e r m B i e d e r m e i e r was c o i n e d i n l i t e r a t u r e and has s i n c e been a p p l i e d t o t h e f i n e a r t s and f u r n i t u r e s t y l e s . I t has n o t been a p p l i e d t o m u s i c i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way; v a r i o u s w r i t e r s s i m p l y s t a t e t h a t t h e w a l t z was a s ymbo l o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r z e i t w i t h o u t e x p l i c a t i o n . T h e r e -f o r e , we w i l l f i r s t f o c u s on B i e d e r m e i e r a r t , and l i t e r a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e f i n i n g t h e t e r m and e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g -i n g t h e m u s i c . P a r t two o f c h a p t e r t h r e e i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . S ub -s e c t i o n A , e n t i t l e d " T h e B i e d e r m e i e r z e i t , " i s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r where t h e h i s t o r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e 66 Beidermeier epoch was established. Here we define the term Beidermeier by examining i t s origin and i t s manifestations in art , furniture styles, and l i terature . Subsection B, entitled "The Transformation of the Waltz as a Reflection of the Biedermeier Zei tgeis t , " deals with the waltz as a Janus-faced symbol of this epoch: here we contend that the waltz had a public and a private face, the former represented by Lanner and Strauss, and the latter by Schubert—a situation which closely paralleled a basic duality in the Biedermeier c i t i z e n ' s psychology. A. The Biedermeierzeit Gayest feasting, banquets, dances Brimfull tankards, snowy necklines Sweetest rest and deepest peace In the land of Phaeacians Of the writing on the wall Of the mene takel warning Of that ogre p o l i t i c s Happy Vienna had no inkling.50 The verse above by the poet Eduard von Bauernfeld (a member of Schubert's intimate c i r c l e of friends) sums up the ostrich mentality and carefree, hedonistic temper of Gemutlichkeit which are hallmarks of the Biedermeier s p i r i t . The word Biedermeier i s a compound of bieder suggesting a contemp-tuous sense of "worthy," and Meier (or i t s variants Meyer, Maier, Mayer) which i s a common surname.^ The term was retrospectively coined in the second half of the nineteenth century in l i te rary parodies, known as Biedermeierlieder, of the parochial, a p o l i t i c a l l ives of the wealthy 52 complacent German burghers. Biedermeier was the pseudonym under which Ludwig Pfau (1821-1894), c r i t i c and poet, published some of the writings of a poor v i l lage schoolmaster, Samuel Friederich Sauter 67 53 (1766-1846). S a u t e r ' s w r i t i n g s have been v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d a s " n a i v e 54 55 m o r a l i z i n g " and " r e l i g i o u s l y t i n g e d n a t u r e p o e t r y , " some o f w h i c h P f a u p u b l i s h e d unde r t h e t i t l e S e l e c t e d Works o f W e i l a n d G o t t l i e b B i e d e r m e i e r . However , t h e y made t h e i r f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e i n F l i e g e n d e 56 B l a t t e r , a M u n i c h humorous w e e k l y , i n 1855. The a t t i t u d e s o f H e r r B i e d e r m e i e r so p a r a l l e l e d t h o s e o f t h e s e l f - r i g h t e o u s , a p o l i t i c a l b o u r g e o i s i e o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h a t h i s name was g i v e n t o a p e r i o d and a s t y l e . The B i e d e r m e i e r epoch o f V i e n n a i s n o s t a l g i c a l l y spoken o f a s i t s 57 58 " G o l d e n A g e , " t h e " l a n d o f i d y l l i c e s c a p e . " D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e b o u r g e o i s i e were a b l e t o c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n o f a s e c u r e , u n t r o u b l e d e x i s t e n c e d e s p i t e t h e many s o c i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n s o f 1848 and t h e r e p r e s s i v e p o l i c i e s o f t h e M e t t e r n i c h r e g i m e . 59 H a v i n g r i s e n r a p i d l y t o a p o s i t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , t h i s c l a s s , smug i n i t s c o m f o r t , c o n s c i o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d a code o f e x i s t e n c e d e s i g n e d t o s h u t o u t l i f e ' s h a r s h r e a l i t i e s . T h e i r c o m p l a c e n t a t t i t u d e t owa rd c i v i c c o n c e r n s was compensated on t h e one h a n d , by a s e n t i m e n t a l i d e a l -i z a t i o n o f t h e i r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s , and on t h e o t h e r hand , by t h e a d o p -t i o n o f an a t t i t u d e t owa rd l i f e w h i c h had a l l t h e ea rma rk s o f t h e c a r p e -d i em i m p e r a t i v e , " e a t , d r i n k , and be m e r r y . " By d o c u m e n t i n g t h i s phenom-enon t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f l y r i c s and p a i n t i n g s c l a s s e d as B e i d e r -m e i e r , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e i t t o t h e w a l t z , t h e dance c o n s i d e r e d by some t o be t h e most p o t e n t s ymbo l o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r z i e t . The B i e d e r m e i e r s p i r i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t h e b r o a d e s t s en se by a d u a l i t y o r an a n t a g o n i s m between t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e domains o f l i f e , a c o n f l i c t w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d and an 60 i d e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p r i v a t e w o r l d . T h i s c o n t r a c t e d w o r l d v i e w was 68 manifested i n a f e t i s h i s t i c reverence for the home and. intimate re la t ion-ships. For the Biedermeier, home became an asylum from the pressures of the external world, as i s reflected in Faust where Goethe has a p e t i t -bourgeoisie say: On Sundays, holidays, there's naught I take delight, Like gossiping of war, and war's array, When down in Turkey far away The foreign people are a-f ighting. One at the window si ts with glass and friends, And sees a l l sorts of ships go down the river g l iding , And blesses then as home he wends At night our times of peace abiding.61 The home, -.casual and comfortable, i s the setting for Friedrich von Amerling's Rudolph von Arthabur and His Children (1837) (see Appendix II) , 62 a typical example of the genre painting popular at this time. Here, middle class family l i f e i s sentimentally idealized. The decor of the room is the antithesis of courtly elegance with i t s homely clutter . The furniture with i t s curved legs, natural wood, cloth upholstery has many aspects of the popular nineteenth century furniture style known as 63 Biedermeier. The petit-bourgeoisie "did not build a palace, though he might have had the means to do so. He was content with a comfortable 64 house that was functionally suited to his needs." This pious eleva-65 tion of t h r i f t and simplicity has a much longer t radi t ion: i t s promi-nence in the nineteenth century is due to i t s t radit ional association with the bourgeoisie, and their ascendancy i n this period direct ly con-tributed to the "cult of domestici ty"^ which characterizes the Bieder-67 meier epoch. The extreme of this ideal i s featured i n Jean Baptiste Greuze The Punished Son, c. 1761 (see Appendix III) . Here, the errant son has l i t e r a l l y worried the father into his death bed. In this dramatic i n f l a t i o n of the domestic ideal of famil ia l duty, the private 69 and the intimate has eclipsed the public and the universal (this w i l l be further explicated later in the chapter). The home as a shelter image may have such symbolic equivalents as the ' l inden t ree , ' standing for the garden surrounding the home, and 68 one's country. Such i s the case with Wilhelm M i l l e r ' s poem "Der Lindenbaum" set to music by Franz Schubert in Die Winterreise: Beside the gates a fountain, Where stands a linden tree How oft beneath i t s shadow Came pleasant dreams to me! And loving words I've carved upon i t s branches f a i r ; When joy was mine or sorrow, I found my solace there! The bi t ter blasts of winter They smite upon my brow; Yet I must face the tempest; Return I"cannot now! Aye, onward, ever onward! While ever i n my ear The linden's message l ingers : "Lo, rest and peace are here!"69 In the previous context the home image appears less optimist ical ly , along with the archetype of the Wanderer for whom the comforts of home are denied. The note of melancholy resignation is typical ly Biedermeier. The ultimate aim of this imagery, however, is not pessimism: the note of longing for the remotely attainable actually intensifies the attractive-ness of the home image. In a milieu which idealized the intimate, the heart became the sym-bol ic equivalent of the home. Love, as the ultimate intimacy, assumed a primary role in bourgeoisie l y r i c s . Like the home, love was set in opposition to c i v i c d u t y . ^ It may be love for the opposite sex, or i t might be the famil ia l love of Friedrich von Amerling's Rudolph von 70 Arthabur and His Children. And then again, i t may be an elevated ideal of friendship as in the following l y r i c from Volksthumliche Lieder der im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert: I have, I have a heart, True as i s seemly Hypocrisy and pain Do not touch i t consciously! I am f a i t h f u l to my friends From the depths of my soul; I love you better brethren, Than a l l the gold in the w o r l d . ^ The pious, s l ight ly melancholy sentimentality which characterized Biedermeier intimate relations was balanced by an equally cultivated, escape-oriented happy soc iabi l i ty in .public l i f e . Wine was one of the chief symbols of this s o c i a b i l i t y , and as we shall see, the waltz was another. The following l y r i c from Sperontes Singende Muse an der Pleisse , Give me Burgundy! Let me have i t ! Burgundy is my l i f e : It gives me strength and energy, i f my heart i s heavy. And i f I have to do something You should f i l l the glasses; Then I can work wonders, Burgundy! Burgundy!7 2 indicates the importance of wine to the Viennese, a fact which i s sup-ported by the s ta t is t ics on alcohol consumption in the year 1900: 454,000 barrels of domestic wine, 19,000 barrels of Hungarian wine, and 382,000 73 barrels of beer. The escapist milieu of the Biedermeier c i t izen is an i d y l l i c one without the anxiety which characterized German Romanticism at this time, for alienation i s too strong an emotion for him. Moderation i s the key to his psychology, and this i s aptly summed up in the following verse, "Modicum, ein wenig": 71 Always a bi t gaily Always a bi t thirsty Always some money in the pocket, Always some snuff to s n i f f , Always just so-so.74 B. The Symbolic Significance of the Waltz The waltz has never changed i t s true face as one of the most symbolic expressions of the bourgeoisie.75 Walter Sorell The waltz had both a public and private face which closely parallels the duality in the Biedermeier's psychology. It w i l l be shown how Lanner and Strauss represented the former, and Schubert the la t ter . These two aspects were defined by their setting which in turn determined the musical characteristics associated with the waltz. 1. The Public Face of the Waltz: Joseph Lanner  and Johann Strauss The waltz played out i t s public role in the large dance hal ls and promenade concerts which were dominated by the music of Joseph Lanner and Johann Strauss: here, the waltz functioned as one of the primary symbols of soc iabi l i ty of the Biedermeier epoch. Frances Trollope, in her memoirs of 1837, reflects on the s p i r i t of gaiety which manifested i t s e l f in universal waltzing: . . . the whole population seems as much actuated by one common and universal feeling, as i f an i r r e s i s t i b l e spell had fa l len on the empire, enforcing them a l l to waltz. . . . Pleasure . . . appears the one sole and only object for which Austrians exist.76 The Vienneses' penchant for waltzing symbolized the enforced j o v i a l s p i r i t with which the Biedermeier c i t izen shut out the uncongenial r e a l -i t i e s of the external world. As such i t bears a relationship to other t r i v i a l pastimes, such as Schundromantik l i terature , which had the effect of displacing more profound works of a r t . ^ The concerts the bourgeoisie 72 preferred were not the subscription concerts where Mozart and Beethoven were featured, but the promenade performances of Joseph Lanner and Johann Strauss. The combination of the Biedermeier c i t i z e n ' s attachment to familiar , simple pastimes with his desire for a more elevated social status pro-duced the change i n setting which subsequently resulted in:the transforma-tion of the simple Landler into a sophisticated ballroom waltz: Suddenly the low-ceilinged Weinstuben and ale houses became too narrow for the expansive and growing Biedermeier bourgeoisie. . . . While strenuously and awkwardly imitating the habits and mode of l i v i n g of the highborn, they missed the simple, uninhibited pleasures of a milieu which they had abandoned in pursuit of wealth and station. The dilemma was compounded by their desire not to be seen in their former locales. . . . The bourgeoisie and newly r i ch created their own places of amusement away from old friends and haunts.78 The famous dance palace, the Apollosal (described on p. 19) was one of many elegant dance halls which sprang up in response to the status con-scious bourgeoisie's desire to social ly elevate their.entertainment mil ieu . The rationale generally advanced to explain the refinement in the dance points to l ighter clothing, more refined footwear, and the smooth floors of the dancehall. Eric Blom, however, considers this far-fetched in l ight of the fact that the " le isurely minuet" had blossomed long before in palaces (he attributes the speeding up of the waltz to the same inexplicable forces which resulted in the transformation of the minuet 79 into the scherzo). We share his scepticism, but primarily because the Landler, which had been in court since the seventeenth century, had yet undergone no such transformation. The aristocracy could engage in peasant dancing without feeling their identity threatened—so great was the d i s -parity between the rea l i ty and the masquerade. This was not, however, a viable attitude for the status-conscious bourgeoisie. The Landler was associated as much with the middle class v i s - a - v i s casual tavern enter-tainment as i t was with the peasantry. We contend that the new E l i t e ' s 80 (the wealthy "bourgeois aristocracy" as they were commonly called) conscious and unconscious desire to disassociate themselves from their poor relations—the lower middle class and peasantry—resulted in the transformation of the Landler into the Viennese waltz. We further contend that many of the purely musical developments in the works of Lanner and Strauss can be seen in this l i g h t , in their tendency to f l i r t tangen-t i a l l y with contemporary developments in "serious" music. We w i l l explicate this through an examination of innovations in orchestration and form, the expansion of the emotional range of the waltz, and the presence of the virtuosic element. In the new quasi-symphonic milieu of the waltz, Lanner's and Strauss' works overtly ape "serious" symphonic composition. The size and constituency of their orchestras (see pp. 62, 63) conformed with that of the contemporary c lass ica l symphony of the time, and the stand-ardization of the waltz suite into f ive dances evoked the c lass ica l dance suite. Additional , non-danceable movements (introduction and coda) which framed the suite , offered the scope for i n f l a t i n g the status of waltz music. They have nothing to do with the o r i g i n a l , brief func-tional entrance and exit music for the dancers which one finds in the early waltz. In their length and character they belie yet another attempt to approximate developments in "serious" music. The codas which are often almost as long as the waltz suite (Lanner's Die Schon- brunrter, Op. 200, has a 137 bar coda) have a free recapitulatory and hence developmental character. Unlike the dance music whose s t r i c t binary form had to be maintained in deference to i t s role as an anci l lary to the 74 dance, Lanner and Strauss could indulge their fancy and experiment with quasi-sonata style in these codas. Unlike the codas which were musically integrated with the dance suite, the introductions were not required to have any such overt musical connections; consequently, they enjoyed more freedom. Haydn is evoked i n the mood of mock gravity which character-izes the introduction to Lanner's The Humorists, Op. 92. The introduc-tion to his Die Romantiker, with i t s fluctuating moods and tempi, i s l i k e a tone poem, and the Hungarian march which introduces The Pesters, Op. 93, departs entirely from the expected t r i p l e rhythm to capture programatic-a l l y local colour. This programmatic tendency i s also evident in Strauss' and Lanner's practice of t i t l i n g their compositions. It was common to name waltz compositions after the locale the tune was written for , as in the case with Lanner's Die Sch'dnbrunner or Strauss' Tauberl Waltzer from the Inn of the Two Doves; or after p o l i t i c a l and social events, such as Strauss' Heitzinger Reunion Waltz, his Vic tor ia Waltz (for the coronation of Queen V i c t o r i a ) , and his Taglioni Waltz (for the dancer Maria Taglioni) . Other works were more overtly programmatic l i k e Lanner's Separation Waltz commemorating Strauss' leaving his band to start his own, and his Die  Mozartian and The Huguenots which were based on themes by Mozart and Meyerbeer respectively. In part, this was a practical tactic encouraged by publishers to attract the public . On the other hand, however, i t emulates the programmatic practice which dominated the works of "serious" 81 composers of the nineteenth century. An intensif icat ion of feeling (subjectivity) dominates nineteenth-century composition, and the harmonic and melodic chromaticism i n Strauss' 82 and Lanner's works brought waltz music "up to date": "Euphonius sixths and 'sobbing' t h i r d s , combined w i t h frequent g l i s s a n d i , impart to the 83 Viennese waltz a s l i g h t l y l a n g u i d , sentimental note." Rhythm was another area through which the emotional i n f l a t i o n of the waltz was accomplished. The i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the rhythmic s t r e s s on the f i r s t beat tended to i n f l a t e the works toward the l y r i c a l , whereas the dotted rhythmic f i g u r e i n f l a t e d them toward the m a r t i a l and the h e r o i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y when accompanied by f o r t e dynamics. On the other hand, a v a r i e t y of other rhythmic p r a c t i c e s might be used f o r sheer n o v e l t y and showmanship. The c u l t of v i r t u o s i t y was one of the c h i e f trends of the f i r s t h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century. Robert Schumann's Neue Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Musik provides us w i t h the documentation to demonstrate that the popular b e n e f i t concerts were dominated by innumerable v a r i a t i o n s on popular o p e r a t i c 84 themes, d e s p i t e t h e i r purveyor's l a c k of musical c r e d i b i l i t y . The m u s i c a l prominence of L i s z t and P a g a n i n i , f o r example, l e g i t i m i z e d t h i s trend i n the popular salon concerts, w h i l e Lanner and Strauss i m i t a t e d i t i n the context of the low s t a t u s promenade concert. Strauss' rhythmic p r a c t i c e s have t h i s v i r t u o s i c aim: "His strong p o i n t s were h i s racy i r r e s i s t a b l e rhythms and the great e l a n which he imparted to h i s waltzes by piquant syncopations, dotted f i g u r e s and an abundance of t r i l l s and 85 'wrong' accents." E a r l y Romanticism tended to l i o n i z e the super-human, and the musical v i r t u o s o was both the analogue of the Hero i n l i t e r a t u r e , and the h i s t o r i c a l Leader i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . Strauss was regarded along w i t h Paganini and L i s z t as one of the important messianic f i g u r e s of h i s day as the f o l l o w i n g account by H e i n r i c h Laube i n d i c a t e s : 76 . . . there stands the modern hero of Austria, le Napoleon austrichien, the musical director Johann Strauss. . . . The man is black as a Moor; his hair i s curly; his mouth energetic, his l i p s c u r l . . . . Typically African, too, i s the way he conducts his dances; his own limbs no longer belong to him when the desert storm of his waltz i s let loose; his fiddle-bow dances with his arms; the tempo animates his feet; . . . and the Viennese accept this passionate procedure with unexampled enthusiasm, paying such close attention to their hero and his deeds as i t would be well for the German public to pay to some other things.86 The many attempts to elevate the social status of the Viennese waltz certainly resulted in a technical transformation of the simple Landler. There i s , however, a dichotomy between the intention of the transformation and the result which is typical of Biedermeier art . Essentially what we are dealing with i s a consideration of the affective content of the technical transformations discussed in the preceding section of this chapter. Adjectives which are often used to characterize the waltzes of Lanner and Strauss—sentimental, languid, melancholy—are also common descriptions of Biedermeier l i terature and art . Under the influence of this s p i r i t , the Landler, whose musical simplicity was echoed by a direct , uncomplicated emotional affect , was inflated toward the sentimental and the melancholy. The effect of many of the innovations in form and orchestration part icular ly , was to transform the once "earthy" robust dance into one of the many tinsel-dressed paraphernalia (Schundromantik) which characterized the entertainment milieu of the Biedermeier c i t i z e n . The nature of this sentimental idealization parallels the tendency in Biedermeier l i terature and art to "render mythical what i s merely common 87 place ." The intention i s very often profundity, but the result i s sentimentality. A question which often arises i s : what constitutes sentimentality in a work of art? It i s our contention, that there are a number of technical devices of emotional i n f l a t i o n or expression which when applied to mundane subject matter, result in sentimentality rather than profundity. This can be readily seen by turning b r i e f l y to the fine arts . The paintings in Appendix III and IV—The Punished Son (c. 1761) by Jean Baptiste Greuze, and The Death of Socrates (1787) by Jacques Louis David— depict the theme of allegiance with similar compositional techniques and gestures. In David's painting, Socrates, about to drain the poison cup, stands as a symbol of allegiance to the ideal of Reason. The technical composition of the picture which counterpoints the resolute strength of Socrates against the more l y r i c a l and vulnerable dramatic gesturing of his disciples i s deliberately evocative of Christ and his disc iples . Here, the inte l lec tual idea i s equal to the form of the picture, Reason being a universally espoused ideal of this period. Consequently, the effect i s one of profundity. This i s not the case with Greuze's painting where the inte l lec tual idea i s an idealized bourgeois concept of famil ia l duty. The prodigal son has l i t e r a l l y worried his father to death. Arnold Hauser describes this work as an "apotheosis of the middle class family"; and this and other works i n this genre as "sentimental family scenes, with the cursing or blessing father, the prodigal or the good and grateful sons. . . . They are l i te rary painting in the bad sense of the word, banal, moralizing 88 . . . i n a r t i s t i c products of the nineteenth century." Greuze's melo-dramatic staging of the composition where the stoic , s a c r i f i c i a l figure of the father is counterpoised against the dramatically staged gestures of anguish of the family, closely paral lels David's painting. The 78 b i b l i c a l s cene w h i c h i s a l l u d e d t o h e r e i s t h e P i e t a , an e v o c a t i o n w h i c h u n d u l y e l e v a t e s an o t h e r w i s e w o r t h y i d e a l . The i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a i s n o t e q u a l t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l f o r m , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e e f f e c t i s one o f s e n t i -m e n t a l i t y . T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what r e s u l t s f r o m t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L a n d l e r i n t o t h e V i e n n e s e w a l t z . The r u r a l w a l t z whose g e s t u r e s once i m i t a t e d i n a s t y l i z e d manner manua l work and f e r t i l i t y r i t e s v i t a l t o human s u r v i v a l , and whose m u s i c r e f l e c t e d t h e s e o r i g i n s was r e f i n e d i n t h e u r b a n w a l t z e s o f L a n n e r and S t r a u s s i n t o a v e h i c l e f o r mere amusement. The l o s s o f i t s s e r i o u s s o c i a l mean ing was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f v i r t u o s i t y and s u b j e c t i v i t y a s ends i n t h e m s e l v e s . The d r e s s i n g o f t h e s i m p l e dance i n t h e g a r b o f t h e c l a s s i c a l o r c h e s t r a and c o m p o s i t i o n , was i n c o m p a t i b l e n o t o n l y w i t h i t s r o l e a s f u n c t i o n a l dance m u s i c , b u t a l s o w i t h i t s r o l e a s one o f t h e e s c a p e - o r i e n t e d t r i v i a l amusements o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r e p o c h . The i n t e n t i o n o f many o f t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s was p r o f u n d i t y — t h e e l e v a -t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f w a l t z m u s i c . Bu t l i k e i t s c o u n t e r p a r t s i n l i t e r a t u r e and a r t , h i s t o r y , t hough i t has been k i n d e r t o t h e w a l t z , has j u d g e d i t s e n t i m e n t a l . 2. The P r i v a t e F a c e o f t h e W a l t z : F r a n z S c h u b e r t The w a l t z p l a y e d ou t i t s p r i v a t e r o l e a s t h e s t a p l e f o r m o f e n t e r -t a i n m e n t a t t h e i n t i m a t e Hausmus ik s o c i a l s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e L a n d l e r was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e k i n d o f w a l t z w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e t e n d e n c y t owa rd t h e p r i v a t i z a t i o n o f l i f e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s a ge . I n t h i s p r i v a t e m i l i e u , F r a n z S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e " c h i e f e x t a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p o p u l a r dance m u s i c o f B i e d e r m e i e r V i e n n a . Schubert epitomized the Biedermeier c i t i z e n . He was born into a large, lower middle class family which prepared him for l i f e by providing an adequate education allowing him to pursue a vocation as schoolmaster, and i n s t i l l e d i n him virtues which reflected the typical Biedermeier temperament and outlook. An account of 1866 describes Schubert as " l i g h t -hearted, disposed to make the best of his scanty income, a dut i ful and 90 obedient son, fond of society and a l l kinds of amusement." A report published in 1957, however, i s indicative of the rather jaundiced regard the twentieth century has for the Biedermeier epoch, for he is described as "a creature of sentiment, naive, pure and somewhat fool i sh . . . . He sought out neither worldly fame nor honours and preferred family affec-91 tions or the joys of intimacy to everything that sat isf ies vani ty . " Typical of the Biedermeier tendency to idealize the intimate is Schubert's 92 attachment to a small c i r c l e of friends known affectionately to one another as the "Moonshiners." To others they were known simply as the "Schubertians," and the Hausmusik socials where Schubert entertained were known as "Schubertiads." Hausmusik socials provided the intimate occasion for the casual interaction of friends. Social climbing had no place at these events; rather, i t was the opposite. They were unpretentious gatherings where good friends congregated to enjoy one another and entertain themselves. The following excerpt from the diary of a member of Schubert's c i r c l e , Franz von Hartmann, i s an account of a typical Schubertiad: I went to Spaun's where there was a big Schubertiad. . . . There was a huge gathering . . . including Gahy (who played gloriously a quatremains with Schubert) and Vogl, who sang almost 30 splendid songs. . . . I was moved almost to tears. . . . When the music was done, there was grand feeding and then dancing.93 80 G u s t a v K l i m t r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y v i e w e d t h e u n t r o u b l e d w o r l d o f t h e " f a l s e -i d y l l " (a s t h e p e r i o d 1815 t o 1848 i s o f t e n c a l l e d ) i n h i s p a i n t i n g S c h u b e r t a t t h e P i a n o , 1899, ( s ee A p p e n d i x V ) . H e r e , Hausmus ik s y m b o l i z e s t h e " a e s t h e t i c c rown o f s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e b o t h o r d e r e d and s e c u r e . . . . 94 a B i e d e r m e i e r P a r a d i s e L o s t . " 95 S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z e s were a d i r e c t p r o d u c t o f t h e s e s o c i a l s . L i k e t h e w a l t z e s o f L a n n e r and S t r a u s s , t h e y were a l s o t h e r e s u l t o f i m p r o v i s a -t i o n , b u t t h e r e t h e c o m p a r i s o n end s . On t h e one h a n d , t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e s i m p l e , t r a d i t i o n a l dance t h e V i e n n e s e knew and l o v e d ; b u t on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y r e f l e c t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s q u i t e opposed t o t h o s e o f t h e w a l t z k i n g s . Such t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s were g e n e r a t e d by t h e i n t i m a t e s e t t i n g o f t h e w a l t z e s and by t h e s p i r i t o f s u b j e c t i v i t y w h i c h pe rmea ted t h e a r t o f t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . We a r e r e m i n d e d o f t h e e p i g r a p h t o P a r t I o f t h i s c h a p t e r : " The L a n d l e r . . . changed c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e on m e r g i n g i n t o t h e u r b a n and m i d d l e c l a s s w a l t z . " The B i e d e r m e i e r c i t i z e n ' s a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e L a n d l e r was c o m p a r a b l e w i t h h i s a t t a c h m e n t t o h i s p r i v a t e p o s s e s s i o n s . I t was b l a t a n t l y m a n i f e s t i n h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o change s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h i s d a n c e . Nowhere i s t h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n more e v i d e n t t h a n i n S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z e s where we have a l r e a d y seen l i t t l e i n n o v a t i o n i n f o r m and r h y t h m . T h i s c a n p a r t i a l l y be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t S c h u b e r t p r e c e d e s L a n n e r and S t r a u s s i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e w a l t z , b u t more i m p o r t a n t i s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c a s u a l , i n t i m a t e s e t t i n g o f h i s d a n c e s . U n l i k e L a n n e r and S t r a u s s who were r e q u i r e d t o f u n c t i o n i n a f o r m a l q u a s i - s y m p h o n i c c o n t e x t , S c h u b e r t e x p e r i e n c e d no s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n . I n t h e p r i v a c y o f h i s own home, t h e V i e n n e s e b u r g h e r was f r e e t o r e v e l i n h i s p u r e , u n a d u l t e r a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t . As we have s e e n , so many o f S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z e s 81 ref lect this simple tradit ion (D. 378 for example). Mosco Carner feels that Schubert's German Dances and Landler represent a far less sophist i -96 cated tradition than those of Mozart and Beethoven. Despite the strong evocation of the simple t radi t ion , many of Schubert's waltzes reflect the 'cult of the intimate' characteristic of the nineteenth century. While Lanner and Strauss expanded the tradit ional dance band of the waltz, Schubert contracted these forces by writing then/ for the piano, and as Alfred Stenger says, "Das Klavier war ihm das Organ der p'erson-97 lichen Aussprache, der Intimit'at." On the one hand, this was entirely practical as the piano was the one instrument a middle class home would have: i t was the normal medium of accompaniment, and the most common vehicle for transcription. This response to the popular and the common was reflected i n the music. Schubert's waltzes are simple—entirely accessible to pianists whose technical prowess i s restr ic ted. But on the other hand, however easy these dances may be, many of them reflect an untraditional introverted conception of waltz music, which prophetic-a l l y forecasts subsequent developments in the waltzes of Schumann and Chopin. The milieu of Schubert's dances was conducive to a more esoteric expression of the waltz. Unlike the dances of Lanner and Strauss, they were not necessarily required as dance music. H. E. Jacob says: We should have a wrong conception of the Schubertiaden . . . i f we were to imagine they were dance f e s t i v i t i e s . The entertain-ment was provided by Schubert at the piano accompanying the singer Michael Vogl in Schubert's own songs. Then there was eating and drinking and f i n a l l y Schubert would play some dance music for his friends and their partners. But Schubert himself could not dance and this may possibly be the real explanation of the non-danceable quality of his waltzes.98 82 Schubert's contribution to the transformation of the waltz l i e s in his expressive use of the dance form. In addition to the example #16 from Op. 171 discussed on p. 58, we offer f ive other dances to substantiate our viewpoint. Op. 18, D. 145, No. 1 (see p. 83) i l lus t ra tes a device of emotional i n f l a t i o n which commonly appears in Schubert's waltzes. The juxtaposi-tion of the aggressive, rhetorical statement (bars 1-8) and the passive, l y r i c a l reaction (bars 8-16), achieved through the extreme contrast between the forte dynamics and square rhythm of the former, and the affective use of suspensions and pianissimo dynamics of the la t ter , recal ls the opposing sides of Schubert of the sechs Grandes Marches and the Schubert of the Moments musicaux. The inf la t ion of the waltz 99 toward the heroic-pathetic evokes Robert Schumann's predilection for the juxtaposition of martial and l y r i c a l elements in his waltz-based compositions. Prophetic also, are No. 3 from Op. 171, D. 790, and No. 9 from the Valse Sentimentales , 1 ^ Op. 50, D. 779' (see pp. 84 and 85) : we hear the more familiar waltzes of Schumann and Chopin in the chromatic melodic treatment of the dance from Op. 171; and the subtle rhythmic shifts which override the barline in the example from Op. 50 are evocative of Schumann. The effect of such affective devices i s aptly summed up by Eduard Reeser with specific reference to Op. 50, D. 779, No. 13 (see p. 86) which he describes as "a perfect example of elegiac music, overcast with a haze of gentle melancholy.""'"^''" The effect of the prol iferat ion of suspensions, which i s the chief characteristic of this piece, i s to so intensify the tension by prolonging i t s resolution that a feeling of unresolved longing is evoked. The melancholy mood which is the result Example #21: Op. 171, D. 790, No. 3 84 3. =?=fFSr- 7^ fe^5 u 1 J ilrjf W) 4-p p— \Tr11 r r*rf--#• • r ® > i s i i 3 * 3" t 4 i 3 = * Examp le #22: Op. 5Q D. 779, No. 9 85 86 1 I tari ) m F 0 m— i f f x ^ T T Vf 1 1 1 J 1 I E ' r ' 1 I 13. II. J J J J - . f f Y A—. -is -1 j J 11. "V7 y — • I2. = lj i t-*-H 87 i s not sad, but rather i t i s w i s t f u l , a more gentle emotion. The compari-son here i s to the Biedermeier l y r i c s on p. 69 with their melancholy mood but absence of angst. In the f i n a l example, No. 36 from Op. 9, the most simple of binary forms contains such a prol i fera t ion of dissonance that the manner of performance, the tempo rubato, which would naturally result from such tension, and the absence of the basic rhythm of the waltz—the guitar bass, would discourage dancing. Example #24: Op. 9, No. 36 It i s dances of the type shown i n the previous examples which have generated the following opinion: To dance them i s to degrade them. Amazement at their harmony— the swift changes from major to minor and back again to major, sometimes i n a single bar—appeals more to our imagination than to the leg muscles of the d ance. It i s not that i t i s impossible to dance these daring innovations, these suspended notes and changes of key; but their coolness, their deep solemnity makes them unsuitable. Schubert's chords are melancholy; his heartburnings, his r ippl ing sixths, his gravity . . . wrapped though they are i n his inimitable gaiety, are too heavy a compound for the dance.102 With Schubert, the waltz approached the popular miniature l y r i c piano piece, to become a personal record of the feelings of i t s composer. Schumann i n a le t ter to Fr iedrich Wieck (Nov. 6, 1825) described them as 88 103 "a diary of emotional reactions." Their subjective, non-functional character forecasts the purely concert waltzes of Schumann, Chopin, and even Liszt who in 1866 exclaimed, "Schubert!-Schubert, le musicien, le plus, poete qui fut jamais!""*"^ The Biedermeier tendency to idealize the commonplace is as basic to the waltzes of Schubert as i t i s to those of Lanner and Strauss. The lat ter inflated the simple dance through the principal of expansion: expansion i n form and texture corresponded to the intensif icat ion of the waltz's public character, as i t progressed from rural to international popularity, from unpretentious outdoor gatherings to the salons of the aristocracy and the ballrooms of royalty. Schubert idealized the waltz through the principle of contraction: by retaining the small t radit ional form and writing for a solo instrument, he emphasized the waltz's minia-ture character. The shift ing of the domain of the waltz from rural out-door gatherings to the intimate setting of the small middle class l i v i n g room, where i t had a more casual ro le , corresponded to the emergence of a more subjective quality in the waltz. CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION The transformation of the waltz in the period 1800 to 1850 paralleled a transformation in society which resulted i n the weakening of an ar is to-crat ic , feudal way of l i f e by the ascendancy of the commercialism of the bourgeoisie. The f i r s t chapter of this thesis examined the symbolic significance of the rustic waltz (the Landler) for a society which was i n the process of rejecting the sophisticated cult ivation of the eighteenth century. At this stage of the waltz's popularity, i t was the dance symbol of a Rousseauian philosophical attitude whose romance with the l i f e - s t y l e of the simple peasant crystall ized in an idealization of the peasant as "the noble savage." During this phase, the waltz was not completely accepted by a l l levels of society, a fact which enhanced i t s philosophical appeal: the waltz was unaccepted by the aristocracy (except in Austria) at the turn of the nineteenth century, and consequently could be embraced as one of the symbols of revolt against this class. The popularization of the waltz ran para l le l with the transformation of the Landler into the Viennese waltz. The second chapter traced the gradual acceptance of the waltz into the upper echelons of society. F i r s t , in order to sort out the etymo-logica l ambiguity which resulted in a myriad of names for this dance in the early stages of i t s development, we discussed i t s origins . Secondly, 89 90 we examined t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h saw t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f c a s u a l t a v e r n e n t e r t a i n m e n t t u r n e d i n t o t h e l a r g e - s c a l e c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e s , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e w a l t z e m p i r e s o f J o s e p h L a n n e r and Johann S t r a u s s and t h e s ub sequen t e c l i p s e o f " s e r i o u s " m u s i c by " l i g h t " o r p o p u l a r m u s i c . F i n a l l y , i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i m p a c t o f t h e w a l t z on s o c i e t y , we s t u d i e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e w a l t z and w a l t z e l e m e n t s were a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o " s e r i o u s " c o m p o s i t i o n . P a r t one o f t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r i l l u s t r a t e d t h e m u s i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s w h i c h t r a n s f o r m e d t h e L a n d l e r i n t o t h e w a l t z . B a s i c a l l y , t h e w a l t z was n o t a d r a s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L a n d l e r , r a t h e r i t was a r e f i n e m e n t . S c h u b e r t ' s h y b r i d w a l t z e s , m e d i a t i n g a s t h e y do between L a n d l e r and w a l t z , and t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d V i e n n e s e w a l t z o f L a n n e r and S t r a u s s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d u a l r o l e , o r t h e J a n u s f a c e o f t h e w a l t z i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r z e i t . The w a l t z e s o f L a n n e r and S t r a u s s were composed f o r a p a y i n g p u b l i c . They were p e r f o r m e d i n huge , o s t e n t a t i o u s dance p a l a c e s and a t l a r g e promenade c o n c e r t s . T h i s new s e t t i n g g e n e r a t e d t h e need f o r o r c h e s t r a s i n s t e a d o f t r a d i t i o n a l s m a l l dance b a n d s , and s u b s e q u e n t l y l e d t o a g r a n d e r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e w a l t z s u i t e c o m p l e t e w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n s and c o d a s . S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z e s r e p r e s e n t t h e o p p o s i t e t r e n d . They were com-po sed f o r p r i v a t e house p a r t i e s where S c h u b e r t wou l d have been an i n v i t e d g u e s t . T h i s c a s u a l , i n t i m a t e s e t t i n g i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s w a l t z c o m p o s i -t i o n s : w r i t t e n f o r a s o l o i n s t r u m e n t , t h e p i a n o , t h e s h o r t t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m i s l e f t r e l a t i v e l y u n t o u c h e d . The s i m p l e h a r m o n i c and r h y t h m i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e L a n d l e r i s r e c a p i t u l a t e d i n many o f t h e d a n c e s , w h i l e o t h e r s show a p e r s o n a l , s u b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h . These l a t t e r wo r k s e n t e r e d 91 i n t o t h e s p i r i t o f t h e p o p u l a r l y r i c p i a n o p i e c e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n -t u r y , t h u s p a v i n g t h e way f o r t h e n o n - f u n c t i o n a l s a l o n w a l t z e s o f C h o p i n and t h e masquerade f a n t a s i e s o f Schumann ' s w a l t z c o m p o s i t i o n s . P a r t two o f t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r examined t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e w a l t z , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e y were p o t e n t s ymbo l s o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r p e r i o d i n A u s t r i a . B a s i c t o t h e temperament o f t h i s p e r i o d was t h e t e n d e n c y t o c l i n g t o t h e commonplace and t o e x a l t i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . The w a l t z e s o f L a n n e r and S t r a u s s r e f l e c t e d t h e p u b l i c f a c e o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r z e i t . The i n f l a t i o n o f t h e s i z e and c o n s t i t u e n c y o f t h e o r c h e s t r a , t h e g r a f t i n g o f e l a b o r a t e n o n - f u n c t i o n a l i n t r o d u c t i o n s and codas o n t o t h e w a l t z s u i t e , and g i v i n g them p r e t e n t i o u s t i t l e s ( s u c h as S t r a u s s ' " F o u r Temperaments " ) r e f l e c t an a t t e m p t t o e x a l t t h e common-p l a c e dance t o a c l a s s i c a l s t a t u s . S c h u b e r t ' s w a l t z e s r e f l e c t e d t h e p r i v a t e s i d e o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r s p i r i t . P e r f o r m e d i n t h e c o z y s e t t i n g o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e home, t h e y r e v e a l an unabashed a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e s i m p l e t r a d i t i o n s o f A u s t r i a n e n t e r t a i n m e n t . The o n l y e l emen t S c h u b e r t t r a n s f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y was t h e harmony, w i t h t h e e f f e c t , i f n o t p u r p o s e , o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g a s en se o f i n t i m a c y . He i d e a l i z e d t h e w a l t z by i n f u s i n g i t w i t h an e m o t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e L a n d l e r . I n t h i s s e t t i n g t h e w a l t z became one o f t h e i d e a l i z e d s ymbo l s o f t h e B i e d e r - m e i e r ' s c h e r i s h e d p r i v a t e l i f e . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L a n d l e r i n t o t h e w a l t z was a ccompan ied by a s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s m u t a t i o n i n t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e dance . The L a n d l e r s y m b o l i z e d t h e n a t u r a l , and t h e s i m p l e ; i t s y m b o l i z e d f r eedom f r o m t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f t h e 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y c l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c , and i n t h e m ind s o f many c o n t r i b u t e d as much t o t h e u s h e r i n g i n o f a new age as d i d t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . The w a l t z p r o p e r grew up i n a m i l i e u 92 f a r removed f r o m i t s p e a s a n t o r i g i n s , and t h e i m p u l s e b e h i n d i t s r e f i n e m e n t was a n y t h i n g b u t r e v o l u t i o n a r y — r a t h e r i t was an a t t e m p t t o g a i n a c c e p t a n c e i n t o h i g h s o c i e t y as S t r a u s s ' and L a n n e r ' s w a l t z e s d e m o n s t r a t e . I t s s y m b o l i s m had n e i t h e r t h e p r o f u n d i t y n o r t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e r u s t i c w a l t z , f u n c t i o n i n g as i t d i d a s one o f t h e p r i m a r y s ymbo l s o f a c a r p e  d i em a t t i t u d e w i t h w h i c h t h e B i e d e r m e i e r c i t i z e n sought a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l e s c a p e f r om r e a l i t y t h r o u g h a s p i r i t o f " f o r c e d g a i e t y , and o f f e r e d t h e d o m e s t i c i d e a l a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r u n i v e r s a l c i v i c c o n c e r n s . The w a l t z was b o r n i n A u s t r i a d u r i n g t h e B e i d e r m e i e r e p o c h , and as W a l t e r S o r e l l s a i d , i t " h a s n e v e r changed i t s t r u e f a c e as one o f t h e most s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e . " " ' " Our s t u d y s i g n i f i c a n t l y deepens S o r e l l ' s o b s e r v a t i o n and s u b s t a n -t i a t e s ou r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e w a l t z p a r a l l e l s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Not o n l y does t h e w a l t z p e r s e .deve l op b u t i t a l s o d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y p e r -meate s t h e s e r i o u s m u s i c o f .the c e n t u r y so t h a t beyond t h e o v e r t w a l t z e s , " c o v e r t " w a l t z e l e m e n t s e x e r t a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on m u s i c o f t h e e r a beyond t h e B i e d e r m e i e r p e r i o d . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t i m e and s p a c e — t h e f a m i l i a r c o n s t r a i n t s o f a t h e s i s — h a v e r e s t r i c t e d t h i s e s s a y t o t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y . B u i l d i n g on t h i s f o u n d a t i o n , we wou l d i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s show how t h e w a l t z i n f u r t h e r t r a n s m u t a t i o n s was d i s t o r t e d t o m i r r o r s y m b o l i c a l l y t h e decadence o f t h e B i e d e r m e i e r a e s t h e t i c , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s i n wo r k s by composer s r a n g i n g f r o m L i s z t t h r o u g h M a h l e r and R i c h a r d S t r a u s s t o R a v e l . But t h a t i s a n o t h e r s t o r y — a n d beyond t h e s cope o f t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y . 93 NOTES Introduction ''"Alfred Stenger, Studien zur Geschichte des Klavierwalzers (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lan, 1978), p. 9. Chapter One "''Frances Rust, Dance in Society: An Analysis of the Relationship  Between the Social Dance and Society iii England from the Middle Ages to  the Present Day (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969), p. 1. 2 Curt Sachs, World History of Dance (New York: W. W. Norton, 1937), p. 391. 3 Rust, op. c i t . , p. 60 Slosco Carner, The Waltz (London: Max Parish, 1948), pp. 13-14. ^Reginald St. Johnson as quoted in Rust, op. c i t . , p. 60. ^Rust, op. c i t . , pp. 60-61. ^Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 398. 8 As quoted by Sachs, i b i d . , p. 421. Q Paul Net t l , The Story of Dance Music (New York: Greenwood Press, 1947), p. 213. "^Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 415. Rust, op. c i t . , p. 1. 12 Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 415. 13 Eduard Reeser, The History of the Waltz (Amsterdam: The Continental Book Company, 1949), p. 22 "^Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 429. "*"^ Mosco Carner, "Waltz," Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Eric Blom, V o l . 9 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1954), p. 166. "^Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 429. "^Carner, "Waltz," op. c i t . , p. 166. 18 N e t t l , op. c i t . , p. 254. 94 19 Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 428. 20 Carner, "Waltz," op. c i t . , p. 166. 21 Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 437. 22 Janos Marothy, Music and the B o u r g e b i s i s , Music and the P r o l e - t a r i a n , t r a n s l a t e d by Eva R6na (Budapest: Akademiai Kiad<5, 1974), p. 233. 23 I b i d . , p. 214. 2 4 I b i d , p. 233. I b i d . 26 Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 442. 27 See chapter one i n George L. Mosse, The C u l t u r e of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (n.p.: Rand McNally, 1961). 28 Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 430. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 399. 30 N e t t l e , op. c i t . , p. 254. 31 Carner, "Waltz," bp. c i t . , p. 166. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 169. 33 Sachs, op. c i t . , pp. 431-432. 34 Carner, "Waltz," op. c i t . , , p. 167. 35 . Rust, op. c i t . , p. 69. 36 As quoted by Rust, i b i d . , p. 261. 37 Gordon Lord Byron, The Complete P o e t i c a l Works, e d i t e d by Paul Elmer More (Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1905), p. 272. Chapter Two ''"Paul N e t t l , The Story of Dance Music (New York: Greenwood P r e s s , 1947), p. 256. 2 The sources f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of the etymology overlap. We are indebted to Reeser, op. c i t . , p. 1, to The Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , and to Webster's New World D i c t i o n a r y f o r t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n . 3„ Reeser, op. c i t . , p. 1. 95 4 Mosco Carner, The Waltz (London: Max Parish, 1948), p. 12. ^See Frances Rust, Dance in Society (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969), p. 45 and Mosco earner's entry on "Waltz" in Grove's Dic- tionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Eric Blom, V o l . 9 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1954). ^Verna Arvey, Choreographic Music: Music for the Dance (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1941), p. 222. In the Deutsche Tanze for piano duet, D. 820, the f i r s t dance i s entitled "Allemande" by Schubert. Could Schumann's "Valse Allemande" in the Carnaval Suite, Op. 9, be alluding to this eighteenth century cognate for the waltz—possibly a pertinent question in view of Schumann's indebtedness to Schubert's waltzes? 7Carner, The Waltz, p. 10. g Net t l , op. c i t . , p. 257. 9 When Vinzena Maschek's Landerische und deutsche Tanze appeared i n 1803, a c r i t i c for a music journal thought i t a good thing Maschek had added to his Landler the phrase, " . . . t o be played more slowly than the German Dances" (Nettl, p. 257). Reeser claims further dist inct ions , contending that the German Dance was a North German dance as opposed to the Landler, a South German dance, and that the German dance was more refined (somewhat resembling the minuet) than the f o l k - l i k e Landler (Reeser, p. 36). "^Paul Mies, Schubert Samliche Tanze (Munchen-Duisburg: G. Henle, 1956), pp. 7-8. "^Arthur Hutchings, Schubert (London: J . M. Dent, 1945, revised 1973), p. 46. 12 Maurice Brown, Essays on Schubert (New York: Macmillan, 1966), pp. 218-219. 13 This point w i l l be made again in part two through an examination of Schubert's music. 14 Carner in Grove's Dictionary, V o l . 9, p. 165. "^Carner, The Waltz, p. 11. Ibxd. 1 7 Carner , op. c i t . , pp. 33-34. 18 I b i d . , p. 16. 1 9 Carner , Grove's Dictionary, op. c i t . 2 0 Carner , The Waltz, p. 14. 96 2 1 I b i d . 22 I b i d . , p. 12. 23 Heinrich. Edward Jacob, Johann Strauss: Father and Son. A Century  of L i g h t Music, t r a n s l a t e d by M. Wolff (Richmond: The W i l l i a m B i r d P r e s s , 1940), p. 17. 2 A Egon Gartenberg, Vienna: I t s M u s i c a l Heritage ( U n i v e r s i t y Park: Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y P r ess, 1968), p. 93. 25 Reeser, op. c i t . , p. 23. 26 W i l l i a m Weber, Music and the Middle Class (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1975), p. 108. 27 Gartenberg, op. c i t . , p. 44. 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 45. 29 H e i n r i c h , op. c i t . , p. 44. 30 Reeser, op. c i t . , p. 40. l o r i t z Karasowski, F r e d e r i c Chopin: His L i f e , L e t t e r s , and  Works, V o l . I I , t r a n s l a t e d by Emily H i l l (London: W i l l i a m Reeves, 3 1 M c 1879), pp. 195-196. 32 Weber, op. c i t . , the e n t i r e book. 33 I b i d . , p. 113. I b i d . 35 Joseph Pastene, Three-Quarter Time: The L i f e and Music of the  Strauss Family of Vienna (New York: Abelard, 1951), pp. 21-22. 36 Carner, op. c i t . , p. 37. 37 Quoted i n Verna Arvey, Choreographic Music: Music f o r the Dance (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1941), p. 228. 38 This number i s based on Mies' p u b l i c a t i o n of Schubert's piano w a l t z e s , op. c i t . Excluded are twenty-six o r c h e s t r a l waltzes which a l s o appear i n t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n (only the melody i s given as o r c h e s t r a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s c o n t a i n too many u n c e r t a i n t i e s ) . 39 Maurice J . E. Brown, Schubert: A C r i t i c a l Biography (London: Macmillan, 1958), p. 230. 40 Maurice Brown, Essays on Schubert, p. 218. 41 Hutchings, op. c i t . , p. 1. John Reed, Schubert: The Young Years (London: Faber and Faber, 1972), p. 265. 4 3 J . A. Westrup, "The Chamber Music [of Schubert]," The Music of  Schubert, edited by Gerald Abraham (New York: Norton, 1947), p. 108. 44 Reed, op. c i t . , p. 150. 45 Hutchings, op. c i t . , p. 1. 46 Westrup, op. c i t . , p. 108. 47 Kathleen Dale, "The Piano Music [of Schubert], 1 1 The Music of , edited by Gerald Abrs Blom, op. c i t . , p. 163. Schubert,   aham (New York: Norton, 1947), p. 134. 48T 49 Carner, op. c i t . , p. 14. "^Blom, op. c i t . , p. 165. "^Blom finds a para l le l between the speeding up of the minuet into the scherzo and the speeding up of the Landler into the waltz, i b i d . 52 Marcel Brion, Schumann and the Romantic Age (London: C o l l i n s , 1956), p. 163. 53 Dale, op. c i t . , p. 51. 54 Robert Schauffler, Florestan: The L i f e and Work of Robert  Schumann (New York: Dover, 1945), p. 286. "^Dale, op. c i t . , p. 51. 56 Schauffler, op. c i t . , p. 400. "^Carner, op. c i t . , p. 23. 58 Later Opera 99, 124, 109, and 130 are collections of small pieces written at various times in his l i f e . 59 R. Murray Schafer, E. T. A. Hoffmann and Music (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975), p. 149. ^Both are considered as the source of some of the Papillons, Op. 2. See Edward Lippman, "Theory and Practice i n Schumann's Aesthetics," Journal of the American Musicological Society (1964), p. 318, and Thomas Alan Brown, The Aesthetics of Robert Schumann (Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1975; or ig inal ly published by the Philosophical Library, 1968), p. 169. Gerald Abrahams, "Schumann," Groves Dictionary of Music and  Musicians, V o l . VII , edited by Eric'Blom,_New.York:"" "St. Martin 's , 1954. 98 62 Schauffler, op. c i t . , p. 357. 6 3 Joan C h i s s e l l , Schumann (London: J . M. Dent & Sons, revised edition 1967; f i r s t published in 1948), p. 119. 64 Robert Schumann, The L i f e of Robert Schumann as Told in His  Letters, translated by May Herbert (London: Richard Bentley and Son, 1890), Volume I, p. 37. 65 Dale, op. c i t . , p. 49. ^Robert Schumann, Jugendbriefe von Robert Schumann, nach ben Originalen mitgetheilt von Clara Schumann (Leipzig: Breitkopf. und H'artel, 1885), p. 167. 67 Joan C h i s s e l l , Schumann (London: J . M. Dent & Sons, revised edition 1967, 1st edition 1948), p. 102. 68 Bernard Gavoty, Frederic Chopin, translated by Martin Solinsky (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1977), p. 234. Gavoty i s quoting from the poet Brodzinski. Chapter Three "'"Barbara Jelavich, The Habsburg Empire in European Affa i rs 1814- 1918 (Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1969), pp. 17-18. 2 I b i d . o Ralph Tymms, German Romantic Literature (London: Methuen, 1955), p. 36. Stareel Brion, Daily L i f e in the Vienna of Mozart and Schubert, translated by Jean Stewart (New York: Macmillan, 1962), p. 240. ^Jelavich, op. c i t . , pp. 13-20. Brion, op. c i t . , p. 229. ^Egon Gartenberg, Johann Strauss: The End of an Era (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1974), p. 68. g Robert Schumann, The L i f e of Robert Schumann as Told in His  Letters, translated by May Herbert (London: Richard Bentley and Son, 1980), V o l . I, P- 215. 9 Tymms, op. c i t . Brion, op. c i t "'""''Tymms, op. c i t 99 12 I b i d . , r e f e r r i n g to Laube's R e i s s e n o v e l l e n (1833-37), p. 41. 13 Frances T r o l l o p e , Vienna and the A u s t r i a n s , V o l . I I (London: Richard Bentley and Son, 1838), p. 183. 14 B r i o n , op. c i t . , p. 205. "^Anya Peterson Royce, The Anthropology of Dance (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1977), p. 20. 16 Mosco Carner, The Waltz (London: Max P a r i s h , 1948), p. 11. " ^ I b i d . , p. 22. We are indebted to him f o r the e n t i r e paragraph. ~*"^Ibid. , p. 11. 19 I b i d . , p. 15. 20 Paul N e t t l , . The Story of Dance Music (New York: Greenwood Pr e s s , 1947), p. 209. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 210. 22 Reeser, op. c i t . , p. 37. 23 Blom, op. c i t . , p. 166. 24 Carner, op. c i t . , p. 26. 25 I b i d . , p. 33. The t r i o of the minuet i n symphonic l i t e r a t u r e , i s considered by Carner and Blom to be more o f t e n than not a Landler ; they c i t e the normal t r i o t e x t u r e of the Lan d l e r , along w i t h the presence of a r u s t i c character as evidence f o r t h i s o p i n i o n . 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 22. 27 Information derived from a n a t i v e of Vienna—Mrs. M. B. Kahn. 28„ Carner, op. c i t . , p. 11. 29 Egon Gartenberg, Vienna: I t s M u s i c a l Heritage ( U n i v e r s i t y Park: Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1968), p. 133. 30 Frances Rust, Dance i n S o c i e t y (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1969), p. 18. 31 Frances Rust, op. c i t . , p. 19. 32 Gartenberg, op. c i t . , p. 133. 33 Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 423. 34^ Carner, op. c i t . , p. 34. 100 35 Gartenberg, op. c i t . , p. 133. Reichardt made t h i s statement i n an u n i d e n t i f i e d paper he published Feb. 15, 1809. 36 Egon Gartenberg, Johann Strauss: The End of an Era ( U n i v e r s i t y Park: Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y P r ess, 1974), p. 17. 3 7 I b i d . , p. 56. 38 Arthur Hutchings, Schubert (London: J . M. Dent, 1945, r e v i s e d 1973), pp. 148-149. 39 Sachs, op. c i t . , p. 434. ^ R e e s e r , op. c i t . , p. 34. 41 We acknowledge that t h i s form was pioneered by C a r l Maria von Weber i n I n v i t a t i o n to the Dance. 42 A cursory look at Op. 127 r e v e a l s a p o t p o u r i of waltzes of v a r i e d harmonic complexity and unrelated keys. Op. 9 i s even more uneven w i t h i t s j u x t a p o s i t i o n , of waltzes of the s i m p l i c i t y of No. 7 to the complexity of No. 36. 43 Reeser, op. c i t . , p. 48. 44 Carner, op. c i t . , p. 44. 45 I b i d . , p. 23. I b i d . 4 7 P h i l i p T. B a r f o r d , "Joseph Lanner: A Further A p p r a i s a l , " Music  Review, 21 (1960), p. 180. 48 Carner, op. c i t . , p. 30. 49 Janos Marothy, Music and the B o u r g e o i s i s , Music and the P r o l e -t a r i a n , t r a n s l a t e d by Eva R6na (Budapest: Akademiai Kiad6, 1974), p. 236. "^Egon Gartenberg, Vienna: I t s M u s i c a l Heritage ( U n i v e r s i t y Park: Pennsylvania S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p. 129. "^Henry and Mary Garland, The Oxford Companion to German L i t e r a t u r e (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), p. 81. 5 2 I b i d . , pp. 81-82. 53 F r i e d e r i c h Sauter's w r i t i n g s have been c o l l e c t e d as V o l k s l i e d e r  und andere Reime (1811), and Die samtlichen Gedichte des a l t e n Dorschul-m e i s t e r s S. F r . Sauter (1845). 101 54 B r i o n , op. c i t . , p. 222. "'"'Garland, op. c i t . , p. 747. Schubert set Der Wachtelschlag.  5 6 I b i d . , p. 81 "^Gartenberg, Johann Strauss; The End of an Era, p. 68. 58 Arthur Hutchings, Schubert (London: J . M. Dent, 1945, r e v i s e d 1973), p. 5. 59 Gartenberg, i b i d . , p. 68. Under the r u l e of Joseph I I (1765-1790) who was i n f l u e n c e d by the enlightened l i b e r a l philosophy of the time, a wealthy m e r c a n t i l e c l a s s was created (Joseph even elevated some to the a r i s t o c r a c y ) as a b u f f e r c l a s s to oppose the power of the a r i s -t o c r a c y . ( B r i o n , op. c i t . , pp. 224-225.) 60 Janos Marothy, Music and the Bourgeois, Music and the P r o l e t a r i a n , t r a n s l a t e d by Eva Rona (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1974), p. 47. ^ I b i d . , p. 71. 62,, Tymms, op. c i t . , p 63 Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a , Volume 9 (Chicago: W i l l i a m Benton, 1960), p. 948-e. 64 W i l l i a m Fleming, A r t s and Ideas (New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston), pp. 386-387. 65 I b i d . The Biedermeier p e r i o d a c t u a l l y represents the triumph of middle c l a s s t a s t e i n a r t and l i f e - s t y l e which has i t s r o o t s i n the Pr o t e s t a n t c o u n t r i e s of the seventeenth century. The Key to the s t y l e i s the " c u l t of d o m e s t i c i t y . " With P i e t e r de Hooch and Jan Vermeer we see a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r scenes re p r e s e n t i n g the simple unpretentious l i f e - s t y l e of the middle c l a s s when the s t y l e i n other c o u n t r i e s was that of the sensuous and ceremonious Baroque. Under Calvanism, a u s t e r i t y of expression was imposed on p u b l i c l i f e , i . e . , the r e s t r i c t i o n of embel-lishment i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and music. T h r i f t , s i m p l i c i t y , s o b r i e t y , and conscientiousness were elevated to become part of a pious moral code which compensated f o r the mundane circumstances of middle c l a s s l i f e . 66 P i e r r e Courtheon, Romanticism, t r a n s l a t e d by Stuart G i l b e r t (Cleveland: The World P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1961), p. 63. 67 C a r l E. Schorske, Fin-De-Siecle Vienna: P o l i t i c s and Cu l t u r e (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1980), p. 6. This author contends that such bourgeois s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s has q u i t e p r o p e r l y prompted the a s s o c i a t i o n of Biedermeier and V i c t o r i a n . 68 Marothy, op. c i t . , pp. 55 and 81. 69 Schubert, Franz, Sixty Songs by Schubert, translated by Maria X. Hayes, edited by J . A. Kappey (London: Boose & Co., n.d.). 7^Gartenberg, Vienna: I t s Musical Heritage, op. c i t . , p. 6. 7 1M i arothy, op. c i t . , p. 46. 72 Ibid ., p. 213. 73 Gartenberg, Johann Strauss: The End of an Era, op. c i t . , p. 43. 74 Marothy, op. c i t . , p. 213. ^W a l t e r S o r e l l , Dance Through the Ages (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1954), p. 166. 76 Trollope, op. c i t . , p. 176. 77 Tymms, op. c i t . , pp. 39-46. 7 8 Gartenberg, op. c i t . , p. 43. 79 Blom, op. c i t . , p. 179. 80 William Weber, Music and the Middle Class (New York: Homes & Meier, 1975), p. 8. 81 Carner, op. c i t . , pp. 39-42. We are indebted f o r the information i n the above paragraph. 82 Strauss i s considered to be more conservative than Lanner i n the area of harmony. 83^ Carner, op. c i t . , p. 44. 84 Schumann's favou r i t e targets were the p i a n i s t s Huntz and Herzel. He characterized a m i l i e u where galloping p h i l i s t i n i s m was the order of the day as a "period of sleep . . . when one hal f of the musical world was s t i l l occupied with Beethoven, while the other followed the fashions of the day . . . " This statement appeared i n NZFM, Oct. 1839. 85^ Carner, op. c i t . , p. 45. 86 Carner, op. c i t . , p. 37. 87 Marothy, op. c i t . , p. 57. 88 Arnold Hauser, The S o c i a l History of A r t : Rococo, Classicism, Romanticism (New York: Vintage Books,1951 ), pp. 36-37. 89 Hutchings, op. c i t . , pp. 148-149. 90 H. R. Haweis, "Schubert and Chopin," Contemporary Review, Vol. I, (May, 1866) , p. 82. 103 P a r c e l Schneider, Schubert (Paris: Editions du S e v i l , 1957), p. 14, translated by Elizabeth Poston, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1959, reprint 1975. 92 Gahy, Mayrhoffer, Vogle, Hlittenbrenner brothers, and Schober to name a few. 93 Otto Erich Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, trans-lated by Eric Blom (London: J . M. Dent & Sons, 1946), pp. 741-42. 94 Shorske, op. c i t . , p. 220. 95 From here on we w i l l refer to Schubert's dances of the waltz-type as waltzes except where a direct reference i s made to a work. 96 Carner, op. c i t . , p. 29. 97 Alfred Stenger, Studien zur Geschichte des Klavierwalzers (Frankfurt: ..Peter Lang, 1978), p. 26. 98 Jacob, op. c i t . , p. 54. 99 Marothy, op. c i t . , p. 67. "^^Stenger, op. c i t . , pp. 23-25. This author f l i r t s with the idea that the designation Valse instead of the usual Walzer i s indicative of Schubert's perception that the Valse Sentimentales f e l l into a more sophisticated genre which forecasted the salon waltz. He claims that along with i t s counterpart the Valse Nobles, they reflect Schubert's Dbppelnatur—a dichotomy between the introvert and extrovert in his psychology comparable to Schumann's Eusebius and Florestan. It i s an interesting thought, but impossible to substantiate on the basis of a t i t l e because of the arbitrary publishing practices of the time. Paul Mies, in the preface to his publication of Schubert's Samtliche Tanze, ha=; this to say: . . . i t i s certain that the subtitles given to many dances derive not from Schubert but the publishers of the f i r s t editions. This i s probably also true of the t i t l e s of the dances Deutsch Cat. 779 Valse Sentimentales and 969 Valse Nobles. Reeser, op. c i t . , p. 43. 102 H. E. Jacob, op. c i t . , p. 53. 103 Robert Schumann, Early Letters, translated by May Herbert (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1888), p. 81. 104 Stenger, op. c i t . , p. 93. Chapter Four ^Sorel l , Dance Through the Ages (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1954), p. 166. 104 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Abraham, Gerald. Chopin's Musical Style. London: Oxford University Press, 1939. Arvey, Verna. Choreographic Music, Music for the Dance. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1941. Barnes, Harry Elmer. An Intellectual and Cultural History of the  Western World. New York: Dover Publications, 1965. Berl ioz , Hector. Memoirs of Hector Berlioz from 1803 to 1865. New York: Knopf, 1932. Brion, Marcel. Schumann: The Romantic Age. Translated by Geoffrey Sainsbury. London: C o l l i n s , 1956. Brown, Maurice. Essays on Schubert. New York: Macmillan, 1966. Brown, Maurice J . E. Schubert: A C r i t i c a l Biography. London: Macmillan, 1958. Brown, Thomas Alan. The Aesthetics of Robert Schumann. 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New York: Vienna House, 1973. Marothy, J'anos. Music and the Bourgeois, Music and the Proletarian. Translated from the Hungarian by Eva R6na. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1974. Mellers, Wilfred. Music and Society. London: Dennis Dobson, second 106 e d i t i o n , 1950. M e l l e r s , W i l f r e d . Romanticism and the 20th Century. London: R o c k l i f f , 1957. Mosse, George L. The Cul t u r e of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1961. Niecks, F r e d e r i c k . Robert Schumann: A Supplementary and C o r r e c t i v e  Biography. London: J . M. Dent & Sons, 1925. N e t t l , P a u l . The Dance i n C l a s s i c a l Music. New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1963. N e t t l , P a u l . The Story of Dance Music. New York: Greenwood P r e s s , 1947. Pastene, Jerome. Three-Quarter Time: The L i f e and Music of the Strauss  Family of Vienna. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood P r e s s , 1974. P l a n t i n g a , Leon. Schumann as C r i t i c . New Haven: Yal e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. P o r t e r , Evelyn. Music Through the Dance. London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1937. Raynor, Henry. Music and S o c i e t y Since 1815. London: B a r r i e & J e n k i n s , 1976. Reed, John. Schubert: The F i n a l Years. London: Faber and Faber, 1972. Reeser, Eduard. The H i s t o r y of the Waltz. Amsterdam: The C o n t i n e n t a l Book Co., 1949. Rust, Frances. Dance i n S o c i e t y : An A n a l y s i s of the R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the S o c i a l Dance and S o c i e t y i n England from the Middle  Ages to the Present Day. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1969. Royce, Anya Peterson. The Anthropology of Dance. Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. Sachs, Curt. The Commonwealth of A r t : S t y l e i n the Fine A r t s , Music  and the Dance. New York: Norton, 1964. Sachs, Curt. World H i s t o r y of Dance. New York: W. W. Norton, 1937. Schafer, R. Murray. E. T. A. Hoffmann and Music. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1975. S c h a u f f l e r , Robert. F l o r e s t a n : The L i f e and Work of Robert Schumann. New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1945. Schneider, Marcel. Schubert. Translated by E l i z a b e t h Poston. Connec-t i c u t : Greenwood Press, 1975. ( O r i g i n a l l y published i n 1959 by Grove Press Inc.) 107 The Music of Schubert. Edited by Gerald Abraham. New York: Morton, 1947. Schubert, Franz. Franz Schubert's Letters and Other Writings. Translated by Venetia Savi l le , edited by Otto Eric Deutsch. New York: Vienna House, 1974. Schubert: A Symposium. Edited by G. Abrahams. London: Oxford Univer-s i ty Press, 1946. Robert Schumann: The Man and His Music. Edited by Alan Walker. London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1972. Schumann, Robert. On Music and Musicians. Edited by Konrad Wolff, trans-lated by Paul Rosenfeld. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1946. Schumann, Robert. Early Letters. Translated by May Herbert. London: George B e l l & Sons, 1888. Schumann, Robert. Gesammelte Schriften uber Musik und Musiker. Edited by Martin Kreis ig . Leipzig : Breitkopf & Hartel , 1914, Vols. I and II . Schumann: A Symposium. Edited by Gerald Abraham. London: Oxford Uni-versity Press, 1952. Schumann, Robert Alexander. The Letters of Robert Schumann. Selected and edited by Dr. Karl Storck, translated by Hannah Bryant. London: J . Murray, 1907. The L i f e of Robert Schumann—Told in His Letters. Translated by May Herbert. Two volumes. London: Richard Bentley & Son, 1890. Schultze, Jurgen. Art of Nineteenth Century Europe. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1970. S o r e l l , Walter. The Dance Through the Ages. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1967. Stromberg, Roland N. An Intellectual History of Modern Europe. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966. Trollope, Frances. Vienna and the Austrians. Vols . I & II . London: Richard Bentley, 1838. Tymms, Ralph. German Romantic Literature. London: Methuen & Co. , 1955. Weber, William. Music and the Middle Class. New York: Homes & Meier, 1975. 108 Art ic les Blom, E r i c . "The Minuet-Trio." Music and Letters 22 (1941): 162-180. Eibner, F. "Die Kulmination der Form in Wiener Walzer." Osterreichische  Musikzeitschrift x x i i i (1968): 494. Flotzinger, R. "Und walzen umatum . . . zur Genealogie des Wiener Walzers." Osterreichische Musikzeitschrift XXX (1975): 505, 573. Grasberger, F. "Die Legende von der 'Erfindung' des Walzers." Osterreichische Musikzeitschrift (1967): 41. Haweis, H. R. "Schubert and Chopin." Contemporary Review (May, 1866): 80-102. Jacobs, Robert L. "Schumann and Jean-Paul." Music and Letters V o l . XXX (1949): 250. Lippman, Edward. "Theory and Practice i n Schumann's Aesthetics." JAMS (1964): 310. Mendelssohn, I. "Zur Entwicklung des Walzers." Studien zur Musikwissen- schaft XITT (1926): 57-88. Niecks, F. "Concerning the Waltz." Zei tschrif t der Internationalen  Musik-Gesellschaft VI (1904-5): 203. Niecks, F. "His tor ica l and Aesthetic Sketch of the Waltz." MMR XLVII (1917): 170, 193. Soumagnac, Myriam. "L 'a r t i s te au coeur du Siecle romantique." Chapter II in Chopin (1965). Schbnherr, M. "Modelle der Walzer Komposition: Grundlagen zu einer Theorie des Walzers." Osterreichische Musikzeitschrift XXX (1975): 273-304. Schbnherr, M. "Modelle der Walzer Komposition: Aesthetic des Walzers." Osterreichische Musikzeitschrift XXXI (1976): 56-127. Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, V o l . VII. "Schubert," by Maurice J . E. Brown. Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, V o l . y i l . "Schumann," by Gerald Abrahams. Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, V o l . IX. "Waltz," by Mosco Carner. 109 The New Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, V o l . 20. "Waltz," by Andrew Lamb. Encyclopedia Britannica, V o l . 9, 1960 ed. "Furniture: 19th and 20th Centuries." Encyclopedia Britannica, V o l . 10, 1960 ed. "German Literature After Goethe's Death: The Biedermeier Age and A f t e r . " Encyclopedia Britannica, V o l . 12, 1960 ed. "Interior Decoration: 19th and 20th Centuries." Encyclopedia of World Art , V o l . V, 1961 ed. "Furniture." Music Lanner, Joseph. Landler und Walzer. Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Oster-reich, V o l . 65. Edited by Alfred Orel . Graz: Akademische Druck-U. Verlagsanstalt, 1960. Mozart, W. A. 6 .(Sechs) Landlerische T'anze fur Orchester, K 606 i n Mozart's Werke. Series 24, supplement No. 16. (Reprint edition) (Edwards Music Reprints, Series A. No. 4). Ann Arbor, Michigan: J . W. Edwards, 1955. Schubert, Franz. Samtliche Tanze. Edited by Paul Mies. V o l . II . Munich: G. Henle, 1956. Schubert, Franz. Sixty Songs by Schubert. Translated by Maria X. Hayes, edited by J . A. Kappey. London: Boose & Co. , (no date). S t r a u s s , Johann V a t e r . A c h t W a l z e r . Denkma le r d e r Tonkun s t i n — O s t e r r e i c h , V o l . 68. E d i t e d by Hans G a l . G r a z : A kadem i s che D r u c k - U . V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1960. 110 Appendix I : Mozart, W. A. 6 (jjechsl Landlerische T'anze fur Qrches.ter, K606 I l l 112 Appendix II ; Amerling, Fr iedrich von, Rudolph von Arthabur and His  Children (1837) 113 Appendix III : Greuze, Jean Baptiste, The Punished Son (c. 1761) Appendix IV: David, Jacques Louis, The Death of Socrates (1787) 115 116 117 Appendix VI Table 1 Waltzes and Works w i t h Waltz Elements: Franz Schubert Overt Waltzes Zwblf Walzer, seibzehn Landler (und neun Ecos s a i s e n ) , Op. 18, D 145 Zwblf Wiener Deutsche, D 128 Walzer, D 139 Zwanzig Walzer genannt " L e t z t e Walzer," Op. posth. 127, D 146 Sechsunddreissig O r i g i n a l t a n z e genannt " E r s t e Walzer," Op. 9, D 365 Siebzehn Deutsche Tanze genannt "Landler," D 366 Acht Landler, D 378 Zwblf Deutsche Tanze, D 420 Deutscher Tanz (und E c o s s a i s e ) , D 643 Zwei Lan d l e r , D 679 Acht Lan d l e r , D 681 V a r i a t i o n liber einen Walzer von Anton D i a b e l l i , D 718 Deutscher Tanz, D 722 Sechzehn Landler (und zwei Eco s s a i s e n ) , Op. 67, D 734 Zwei Deutsche T'anze, D 769 V i e r u n d d r e i s s i g Valses sentimentales, Op. 50, D 779 Sechzehn Deutsche Tanze (und zwei Eco s s a i s e n ) , Op. 33, D 783 Zwblf Deutsche Tanze genannt "Landler," Op. posth. 171, D 790 Sechs Deutsche Tanze, D 820 Zwei Deutsche Tanze, D 841 Walzer genannt "Albumblatt," D 844 Zwblf Grazer Walzer, Op. 91, D 924 Zwblf Valse nobles, Op. 77, D 969 Sechs Deutsche Tanze, D 970 D r e i Deutsche T'anze, D 971 D r e i Deutsche Tanze, D 972 D r e i Deutsche Tanze, D 973 Zwei Deutsche Tanze, D 974 Deutscher Tanz, D 975 Walzer, D 978 Walzer, D 979 Zwei Walzer, D 980 V i e r Komische Landler, D 354 Acht Lan d l e r , D 355 Acht Lan d l e r , D 370 Sechs Lan d l e r , D 374 Zwei Landler, D 640 Zwei Lan d l e r , D 680 118 Table 1, continued Covert Waltzes Piano Sonatas Sonata E major, D 459, 4th movement Sonata B major, Op. 147, D 575, 3rd movement Sonata E f l a t major, Op. 122, D 568, 1st movement 3rd movement Sonata D major, Op. 53, D 850, 3rd movement Sonata G major, Op. 78, D 894, 3rd movement Sonata A major, D 959, 3rd movement Sonata B f l a t major, D 960,3rd movement Sonata A minor, Op. 143, D 784, 3rd movement Chamber Music Trios Scherzo and T r i o : scherzo is a waltz Scherzo and T r i o : scherzo is a waltz Second theme is a waltz Minuet and T r i o : waltz elements in the Menuetto, bars 14-17 Scherzo and T r i o : waltz elements i n the scherzo, bars 51-68 Menuetto and T r i o : t r i o is a waltz; waltz elements i n the Menuetto, bars 9-18 Scherzo and Tr io : t r io i s a waltz Scherzo and T r i o : scherzo i s a waltz Allegro vivace: waltz elements Trio B f l a t major, D 581, 3rd movement Noturno G major, D 96, 3rd movement Trio B f l a t major, Op. 99, D 898, 3rd movement Trio E f l a t major, Op. 100, D<929, 1st movement 3rd movement Quartets Quartet (various keys), D 18, 2nd movement Quartet C major, D 32, 2nd movement Quartet D major, D 94, 3rd movement Menuetto and T r i o : t r io i s a waltz Menuetto and T r i o : both are waltzes Scherzo and T r i o : t r io i s a waltz Allego: principal subject i s a waltz Scherzo and T r i o : scherzo is a waltz M e n u e t t o and T r i o : t r i o i s a w a l t z M e n u e t t o and T r i o : b o t h a r e w a l t z e s Menue t t o and T r i o : t r i o i s a w a l t z Table 1, continued 119 Quartet B f l a t major, D 112, 3rd movement Quartet G minor, D 173, 3rd movement Quartet D major, D 74, 3rd movement Menuetto and T r i o : Menu-etto i s a waltz Menuetto and T r i o : both are waltzes Menuetto and T r i o : Menu-etto i s a waltz Quartet G major, D 887, 3rd movement Octet Octet F major, D 803, 3rd movement Scherzo and Trio : a waltz t r io is Symphonies Symphony D major, D 82, 3rd movement Symphony B f l a t major, D 125, 3rd movement Symphony D major, D 200, 3rd movement Symphony C minor, D 417, 3rd movement Symphony B f l a t major, D 485, 3rd movement Symphony C major, D 944, 3rd movement Symphony B minor, D 759, 1st movement Menuetto and T r i o : t r io i s a waltz; the Menuetto has waltz elements in the second half of the binary form Menuetto and T r i o : waltz elements in the Menuetto in the f i r s t half of the binary form; t r io i s a waltz Menuetto and T r i o : both are waltzes Menuetto and T r i o : both are waltzes Menuetto and T r i o : t r io i s a waltz Menuetto and T r i o : both are waltzes Scherzo and T r i o : both are waltzes the second theme beginning at bar 44 i s a waltz 120 Table 2 Waltzes and Works with Waltz Elements: Robert Schumann Overt Waltzes Waltzes (afterwards used in Papillons) Carnayal, Op. 9: No. 4 "Valse noble" No. 16 "Valse allemande" Albumblatter, Op. 124: No. 4 "Waltzer" No. 7 "Landler" No. 10 "Walzer" No. 15 "Walzer" Kinderball , Op. 130: No. 2 "Walzer" Ball-Scenen, Op. 109: No. 3 "Walzer" No. 8 "Walzer" Covert Waltzes Piano Compositions Theme on the name of "Abegg" with Variations, Op. 1: Theme Variation No. 1 Variation No. 2 Variation No. 3 Papillons, Op. 2: No. 1 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 8 No. 10 No. 12 Sechs Intermezzi, Op. 4: No. 1 waltz elements i n bars 50-53, 58-61, 74-77 No. 4 although the time signature i s 12/8, the slow tempo along with the t r i p l e rhythm evokes the waltz No. 5 alternativo i s a waltz; the primo has waltz elements in bars No. 6 the alternativo i s a waltz 121 Table 2, continued David sbtindler tanze (18 characteristic pieces) : Volume I No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 9 Volume II No. 6 No. 7 the t r io of this dance has waltz elements, bars No. 9 Carnaval, Op. 9: "Preamble" "Arlequin" "Florestan" "Coquette" "Replique" "ASCH-SCHA" "Chiarina" " E s t r e l l a " "Paganini" to the extent that "Valse allemande" occurs at the of this piece "Promenade" "Pause" "Marche des ' David sbtindler' contre les P h i l i s t i n s " Sonata F# minor, Op. 11 "Scherzo" Fantasiestiicke, Op. 12: No. 4, bars 17-44, 113-140 Symphonic Variations (Supplement), Op. 13: Variation II slow 12/8 tempo evokes a waltz Variation IV Noveletten, Op. 21: No. 4 No. 5 waltz elements in bars 88-111, 231-254 No. 7 waltz elements in bars 97-144 Faschingsschwank aus Wien: Fantasiebilder, Op. 26: No. 1 Andante and Variations B f l a t major, Op. 46 Skizzen fur den Pedal-Flugel, Op. 58 Ball-Scenen, Op. 109: No. 2 "Polonaise" a hybrid dance evoking the waltz as much as i t does the polonaise No. 9 "Promenade" Bunte Blatter, Op. 99: "Albumblatter" No. 3 Acht Polonaises, Op. I l l : Published in 1933, some of the material, part icularly the tr ios were used in Papillons. These works mediate between waltz and polonaise. 122 Table 2, continued Chamber Music Trio D minor, Op. 63, 3rd movement Trio F major, Op. 80, 2nd movement 3rd movement Trio G minor, Op. 110, 2nd movement Concerti Concertstuck for 4 horns, F major, Op. 86, 2nd movement Symphonies Symphony B f l a t major, Op. 38, 3rd movement Scherzo and T r i o : t r io has a waltz character "Mit innigen Ausdruck": A-B-A form, A = waltz "In massiger Bewugung": A-B-A form, a l l sections are waltzes "Ziemlich langsam": A-B-A form, A = waltz second theme i s a waltz Scherzo and T r i o : the scherzo has waltz elements occurring i n the second half of the binary form Table 3 Waltzes and Works with Waltz Elements: Frederic Chopin Overt Waltzes E f l a t major, Op. 18 A f l a t major, Op. 34, No. 1 A minor, Op. 34, No. 2 F major, Op. 34, No. 3 A f l a t major, Op. 42 D f l a t major, Op. 64, No. 1 C sharp minor, Op. 64, No. 2 F minor, Op. 64, No. 3 A f l a t major, Op. 69, No. 1 B minor, Op. 69, No. 2 G f l a t major, Op. 70, No. 1 F minor, Op. 70, No. 2 D f l a t major, Op. 70, No. 3 A f l a t major E major E minor A minor Covert Waltzes Piano Sonata, Op. 4 Piano Sonata, Op. 35 Tr io , Op. 8 Nocturne, Op. 9, No. 2 Ballade, Op. 23 Ballade, Op. 52 Scherzo, Op. 31 second movement Minuetto bars 16-48 second movement "Scherzo" bars 81-183, 274-end second movement " T r i o " bars 82-97 bars 265-582 and analagous passages 

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