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An evaluation of pollution control mechanisms in the Paraiba do Sul River basin, Brazil Codato, Eleoterio 1982

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EVALUATION  OF  P O L L U T I O N CONTROL MECHANISMS SUL R I V E R B A S I N - B R A Z I L  IN THE  PARAIBA  by  ELEOTERIO B.A.Sc.,  Universidade  A THESIS THE  CODATO  Estadual  SUBMITTED  De  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR OF  -  THE  Londrina,  FULFILMENT DEGREE  1976  OF  OF  SCIENCE  in THE  School  We  FACULTY  Of  THE  Community  accept to  OF  this  GRADUATE And  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  October  ©  Eleoterio  STUDIES  Regional  as  Planning  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1982  Codato,  1982  In  presenting  requirements  f o r an  Columbia,  I  available  for  permission  this  thesis advanced  agree  for  degree  reference  and  study.  I  the  or  representatives.  It  allowed  granted  copying  this  without  Department  of  my  thesis written  School  Of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date:  1 October  1982  for  Head is  this  of  my  thesis  gain  Columbia  And  Regional  British  i t  for  freely  that  that  scholarly  or  by  copying  shall  permission.  Community  the  agree  Department  understood  of  make  further  of  financial  of  University  shall  by  of  the  Library  may  publication  at  fulfilment  the  purposes her  partial  that  extensive  be  in  Planning  not  his or be  i i  Abstract The  purpose  alternative Paraiba for  do  Sul River  and  the  reports  (CETESB)  and  field  CETESB's  personnel  regional  office,  water  done  by  at  office,  i n Sao  the water  quality  problems  solution  indicates  of  the  this  water  can  be  of  Basin  technical  analysis  control  is  agency  interviews Paulo,  l a g o o n s f o r sewage  that  such a  solution  well  above  means  that  the  would  with  and  the  to  other  municipal  sewage  would  municipalities  and  is  are helped of  dissolved  oxygen  be  sections  would, not  of  capacity  created  which  Such  a  however, likely  treatment  River  indicates to  rise  river.  for could  This  biochemical possibly  solution  come  the  adopting  levels  the  impose  to  by  also  of  for  Paraiba  cost, It  dischargers.  problem  i n the  treatment.  i n most  technical  importance  minimum  assimilative  (BOD)  allocated  at  cause  standard  additional  standards  and  that  paramount  done,  facultative  ability  physical  in Taubate.  quality  The  and  The  involved  of  municipalities  are examined.  the  mechanisms-  River  problems  which  realization  upon  Paraiba  and  in  The  investigations  for their  demand  quality  the c e n t r a l  on  pollution.  pollution  is  oxygen  It focuses  the  existing  control  state  discharges  that  of  solution  municipal  and  pollution  in Brazil.  water  the  the  analysis  opportunities  i s to evaluate  i n s t i t u t i o n s of  for their  upon  The  for  Basin,  and  opportunities  thesis  point-sources  economy,  described  based  this  mechanisms  controlling  features, are  of  to  be the  a heavy  burden  about  unless  financially.  the mechanism  to provide  municipalities  with  some  financial  capacity two  of  the  criteria  pollution charge  system  This  a  and  likely  standards  of  the  to  the  to  Paraiba would the  to  requirements  with  allocate  assimilative  and  equitably  were  the  assessing  the  existing  system  for  the  Paraiba  the  transferable  River.  indicates bring  of  the  efficiently  River  the  for  is  able  only  the  river  and  adapt  would upon  municipalities  a  the  are  lagoons.  of  changes  have  the  greater  water  River.  An  system  suggests  to  TDP  the  TDP  which  municipalities  (TDP)  modified  Paraiba of  effluent  permits  realization  developed to  the  discharge  application  be  facultative  Basin,  that  about  the  f i n a n c i a l burden  permits  to  established  example  system  discharged reducing  in  and  in  assessment  illustrative section  both  applied  control  is  quality  of  river  system,  system.  such  assistance  in  than  a  that  wasteloads  potential if  to  for  allocations discharge  Table  of  Contents  Abstract i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of F i g u r e s .. vi Acknowledgement v i i I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. STUDY BACKGROUND AND R A T I O N A L E 4 B. STUDY O B J E C T I V E S 11 C. STUDY METHODS 13 II. THE P A R A I B A R I V E R B A S I N : P H Y S I C A L F E A T U R E S , ECONOMY, AND INSTITUTIONS 15 A. PHYSICAL FEATURES 15 B. . THE ECONOMY OF T H E P A R A I B A R I V E R B A S I N - SECTOR PAULISTA 16 C. I N S T I T U T I O N A L ARRANGEMENTS 23 T H E E X I S T I N G P O L L U T I O N CONTROL S Y S T E M 23 I S S U A N C E OF P E R M I T S 24 MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT 25 III. THE T E C H N I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF WATER Q U A L I T Y MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND O P P O R T U N I T I E S I N T H E P A R A I B A DO S U L R I V E R BASIN 29 A. I N D I C A T O R S OF Q U A L I T Y 29 D I S S O L V E D OXYGEN (D.O.) AND B I O C H E M I C A L OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) 30 COLIFORM BACTERIA 31 B. D I S S O L V E D OXYGEN P R E D I C T I O N MODELS 32 C. C O N S T R A I N T S AND O P P O R T U N I T I E S P R E S E N T E D BY T H E C O L I F O R M B A C T E R I A PROBLEM TO A L E A S T - C O S T S Y S T E M TO A C H I E V E T H E D.O. STANDARD ....43 D. A N A L Y S I S OF THE S O L U T I O N TO T H E PROBLEM OF SEWAGE D I S C H A R G E FROM URBAN COMMUNITIES 47 CONCLUSION 52 IV. A S S E S S M E N T OF T H E E X I S T I N G MECHANISM FOR WATER P O L L U T I O N CONTROL ; 53 A. F I N A N C I A L I M P L I C A T I O N S FOR M U N I C I P A L I T I E S OF THE S O L U T I O N TO THE PROBLEM OF SEWAGE D I S C H A R G E FROM URBAN COMMUNITIES 53 B. A S S E S S M E N T OF T H E E X I S T I N G WATER Q U A L I T Y MANAGEMENT S Y S T E M 57 C. A L T E R N A T I V E APPROACHES TO T H E WATER Q U A L I T Y MANAGEMENT S Y S T E M FOR T H E P A R A I B A R I V E R B A S I N ...60 1. E F F L U E N T CHARGES 61 2. TRANSFERABLE DISCHARGE PERMITS 63 A P P L I C A T I O N OF THE TDP S Y S T E M TO THE P A R A I B A R I V E R (KM 122 TO 2 6 6 ) 67 A N A L Y S I S AND E V A L U A T I O N OF T H E TDP S Y S T E M 73 CONCLUSION 75 V. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY 82  V  List  I. II. III. IV. V. VI.  VIII. IX. X. XI. XII.  XIII. XIV.  Tables  Opportunities for Applying Institutional Instruments f o r Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l 3 Ambient S t a n d a r d s f o r C l a s s 2 R i v e r s . 9 Minimum F l o w s f o r t h e P a r a i b a R i v e r 17 P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n the P a r a i b a R i v e r Basin - S t a t e of Sao P a u l o 19 U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n P r o j e c t i o n s f o r t h e 14 M o s t P o p u l o u s C i t i e s o f t h e P a r a i b a R i v e r B a s i n - Sao P a u l o 21 M o n t h l y Records of F e c a l C o l i f o r m Counts f o r 1978, 1979, and 1 980 ( 1 0 MPN/1 0 0 m l ) 35 L i s t of I n d u s t r i e s R e s p o n s i b l e f o r 85% o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l P o t e n t i a l Organic Load i n the P a r a i b a River B a s i n - Sao P a u l o (1980) 37 P o t e n t i a l a n d D i s c h a r g e d BOD Loads from Urban Communities (1979) 38 Per C a p i t a Cost E s t i m a t e s f o r A l t e r n a t i v e Wastewater Treatment Technologies 45 M u n i c i p a l O r g a n i c L o a d s f o r D i f f e r e n t BOD Removal Rates 49 Municipal Discharges f o r a 9 0 % BOD Removal Rate 1980 and 1985 51 I n v e s t m e n t s and C o s t per C a p i t a f o r t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n of F a c u l t a t i v e Lagoons f o r the C i t i e s i n the Paraiba River Basin-Sao Paulo (1979) 55 M u n i c i p a l G r o s s L o a d s f o r 1980, 1 9 8 5 , and 1990. ...69 L i s t of I n d u s t r i e s and T h e i r P o t e n t i a l and Discharged BOD L o a d i n g s i n R e a c h Km 122 t o 266 (1980) 70 3  VII.  of  vi  List  1. 2. 3. 4.  of  Figures  Map o f t h e P a r a i b a do S u l R i v e r B a s i n C u r v e o f D i s s o l v e d O x y g e n f o r Low Flow P e r i o d s (19711977) C u r v e s of D i s s o l v e d Oxygen O b t a i n e d with A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e MAPS S i m u l a t i o n M o d e l D i s s o l v e d O x y g e n S i m u l a t i o n C u r v e f o r BOD Cutbacks of 90% a t Sao J o s e dos Campos, 50% a t S i m a o , a n d 40% a t A l l Other C i t i e s  6 34 41  42  vii  Acknowledgement  I my  would  parents  provided  like  to express  not  only  b u t , more  encouragement  to  my  profound  gratitude  f o r the financial  importantly, pursue  my  for  academic  the  support  to they  everlasting  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  ideals. I  would  also  like  Fox  for  their  Irving revising  this  providing  constructive  Finally, especially for  their  Canada  t o thank  thesis  I would  J i l l  as pleasant  dedication so  many  criticism like  McKee,  sincere  both  and  and  and  patience  in  as  as  ever  well  suggestions.  a l l o f my  Brooks,  f r i e n d s h i p which as i t could  Dorcey  times,  t o thank  Kathy  Tony  and Mike  made be.  my  friends, Taschuk stay  in  1  I.  The  object  existing the  and  Paraiba For  water  the  quality  river  urban  thesis  Sul River,  last  experiencing  this  i s t o examine  a l t e r n a t i v e water  do  the  of  INTRODUCTION  decade  in  increases  i s used  as  a  communities,  i n the there  the  pollution State  has  Paraiba  source  including  of  Sao  The  and  -  the  Brazil.  concern  basin  industrial  drinking the  Paulo  mounting  River.  of  evaluate  c o n t r o l mechanisms f o r  been  in population  and  water  metropolitan  for  has  been  growth  while  for  numerous  area  of  Rio  de  Jane i r o . For  many  years,  the a p p a r e n t abundance  Brazil's  water  desirable  q u a l i t y and  indefinitely. programs of  an  population  the  water  growth  demands  sources  Pollution, externality In  and,  controlling  by  believe  able  to  Dealing a  afford.  that  mediate  in  in the  with  problems  that  However,  as  This  only  economic  of has  Brazil, led  to  to protect  i t squality,  between  competing  demands  focuses  one  do  nature,  therefore,  calls  pollution,  the  solely  setting:  Paraiba  very  services  measures  thesis  problem  of  environmental  luxury  intensified.  of  water  sustain  rejected  considered  have  and  its  availability  p r o c e e d e d .in c e r t a i n areas  active  pollution  be had  could  water  This  resource  of  was  of  resources.  would  to  to development.  have  on  many  Brazil  countries  i t s flows,  water  1973,  pollution  establishment  control  led  quantity  obstacle  developed  conflicting  the  Until  environmental  highly and  as  resources  and  Sul  on  one  for  aspect  controlling  of  point  River.  is a  typical  problem  of  for governmental  intervention.  government  make  can  use  of  2  numerous  mechanisms  suasion, Also, of  (2)  taxation,  these policy  production  Grima  (1981)  production for  water  stages.  which (3)  in  control  illustrative  grouped  be  of  a  consumption  pollution For  may  consumption  summarizes,  be  subsidies,  mechanisms  and  and  can  and  that  (4)  applied  goods  table,  and  into:  which the  regulations.  cause  may  be  stages  policy  applied  of  mechanisms  i n each  table  stages  pollution.  various  different  the  moral  at different  the  purposes,  (1)  is  of  these  reproduced  below. Because pollution  the  existing  control  i n the  controlling  pollutant  for  exist  water  mechanisms This  that  does  not  production  and  in  controlling The  control of  each  the  arguments  system,  while  the  Ruhr  collective perhaps,  one  to control  pollutant  importance and  on  and  policy  one  can  mechanism  others of  are a  in  towards  standards  analysis  to  those  discharges.  other  applicable  mechanisms find  based  complex  stages  of  policy  mechanisms  for  water  pollution  one  argument  on  of  quality on  successful  favor may  c o n c e p t s , such  as  effluent  charge  experiences. management  the  application  in  arguments  the  practical  based  and  These  theoretical  in support  water  known  least  to date.  on  Germany,  best  at  known  based  treatment plants the  the  of  water  pollution.  e c o n o m i s t s make  of  ambient  applied  Some a r e  region,  although  be  the  for  is directed  this  consumption  implementation  --  Basin  restricted  literature  in nature.  discharges  negate  different  River  I have  water  vary  Paraiba  arrangement  --,  can  i s vast  institutional  of  system  construction user  experiences  The in of  charges i s , that  3  Table I  -  Opportunities f o r Applying I n s t i t u t i o n a l Instruments f o r Water P o l u t i o n C o n t r o l  P r o d u c t i o n - Consumption Input  Stage  Mix  Policy  Instrument  u s e r charges taxes, p r i c i n g raw m a t e r i a l s s p e c i f i c a t i o n subsidies/grants  Production  land use zoning taxes subsidies/grants process s p e c i f i c a t i o n  Product  Output  product taxes  Product  Use  taxes subsidies/grants  Pollutant  Discharge  Environment (ambient  Source:  specification  c o l l e c t i v e treatment (user charges) e f f l u e n t charges emission standards subsidies/grants dilution rights/transferable d i s c h a r g e permits withold discharge during p e r i o d s o f low flow water)  ambient standards mixing zones s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  A.P. Grima, " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Instruments f o r Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l " , GeoJournal, V o l . 5 (1981), No. 5, p.504.  4  supports  the  practical are  experiences  related The  application  by  Paraiba  River  Environmental in  charge  compliance ambient  and  Basin  parameters  is  compliance  but,  Brown.  not  f o r water  control.  for  terms  the  and  conducted for  of  pollution  Other  1  policy  mechanisms  control  regulatory. (CETESB)  It  water  rather,  kinds  system.  2  Technology  permit  standards  charge  is essentially  pollution with  user  different  mechanism  Sanitation  of  a  with  Johnson  existing  of  issues  i s the  exist,  agency  and  checks  standards.  purpose  determining  of  state  Although  monitoring  the  the  Company  permits  effluent  for  The  in  of  of  indices  these  checking of  water  quality. In  this  problems then,  involving  according  problems,  assess  alternative  A.  STUDY  2  water  pollution  the  characteristics  control  criteria  derived  the  existing  system  from and  in  that  the  analysis  the  of  basin of  the and,  those  applicability  of  mechanisms.  the  resource.  The or  RATIONALE  Fraser  state,  life  describe  to  undeveloped  aquatic  I will  BACKGROUND AND  Unlike  1  study,  is  Paraiba related  River,  the  Paraiba  what  one  could  not is  not  famous  opportunities for  for  River, call  a  supporting  outdoor  in  its  valuable valuable  recreation.  A l l e n V. K n e e s e a n d B l a i r T. Bower. Managing Water Q u a l i t y : Economics, Technology, Institutions. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1968. R a l p h W. J o h n s o n a n d G a r d n e r M. BrownJr. C l e a n i n g Up E u r o p e ' s Waters . New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1976.  5  However, it  the  flows.  Paraiba  It  i s the  urban  communities  source  of  1976,  an  the  2000  at  The  related  when  different (12%);  (Paraibuna--Paraitinga;  which note  with  border  of  To  some  extent, order the  the  River  in  the  reach  to  in  are  year  order  of is  projected  (26%);  recreation  the  upper  present  and  portion study  Paulo  the  Santa  -  the  exist.  deterioration  f i g . uses On of  Branca; It  concerned and,  Branca  Sao  three  basin.  Sao  between  of  the only  of  states  of  of  Santa  is  State  the  activities  reservoirs  the  basin  a l l of  outdoor  the  that  between  map  to  other  l i e in  the  (see  in  the  industrial  plants  power  to  the  irrigation  uses  mostly  Paraiba  contribute  supply  on  for  4  Janeiro  quality  water  the  January  be  In  industrial  for  occur  important  the  among  to  will  major  withdrawn  (7%);  demands  withdrawls  November  being  supply  a  the  purposes.  water  to  the  were  which  for  is also  and  specifically,  a  of  and  industrial  water  through  water  fishing  Jaguari),  with  and  Projected  water  region  drinking  (70%).  3  the  i t s course  of  3  shares  (62%).  hydroelectric and  of  water  follows: municipal  Sports  7.1m /s  to  municipal  months  i t s peak.  irrigation  3  of  that  the  source  irrigation  irrigation  for  3  and  for  indicate  is vital  located along  average  and  65m /s  is  major  f o l l o w i n g uses:  (23%);  as  water  River  more  reservoir  Paulo  and  Rio  de  1). require the  water  water  other quality  of  certain  hand,  they a l l  i n the  basin.  World Health Organization. P a r a i b a R i v e r B a s i n Water Q u a l i t y F o r e c a s t i n g and Management , 1977. CEEIVAP, 1979. Projeto Gerencial 0002/79 - R e l a t o r i o no.2, pp.8-9.  7  Water  for  returned  drinking, to  containing purposes water be  river  organic  and  undoubtedly  quality  treated  to  the  industrial,  i s in greatest  certain  in  need  Although  of  Water  of a t t e n t i o n  water  for this  in order  is  wastewater  for  f o r consumption,  parameters  purposes  the form  wastes.  to distribution  to  irrigation  use  inorganic  i s concerned.  prior  conform  after  and  drinking  insofar  as  purpose  can  the source  has  t o be  suitable for  treatment. According to  certain  federal  parameters  Ministry  no.0013  This  waterbodies  they of  1,  for  decree  waterbody  each  according  River  Basin  are  Class  2,  the  Paraiba  and  the ambient  and  River  to  specific  established,  through  general  2,  less  left  1 waterbodies  up  the  22,  water which  standards  for this  receive  are Class are Class to this  any  system  The 4.  to  state,  the since  the predominant  1977,  class  of  different  2 to Class  of Sao  1, 4.  system. others The  thesis  are presented  uses  Paulo,  classifies  classification  interest  i t s Act  discharge.  individual  In the s t a t e  o t h e r s which i s of  to  the  classes  cannot  Class  to determine  to  which  from  to each  November  still  prior  uses,  t o which  classification  of  has p a r t s  4 --  conform  classification  different  and  strict  position  waterbody  four  3,  this  should  allow  waterbody.  no.10755  a waterbody  i s treatment  of  was  i n the best  a  Class  i f there  waterbodies  water  Paraiba  1976,  Class  even  order  considers  application  were  state  15,  system  —  that  the I n t e r i o r  s t a n d a r d s become  The various  in  standards apply.  effluents, ambient  of  of January  system.  ambient  to the p r i n c i p l e  the each The  which  reach of  i s Class in  2  Table  8  II  below.  These  framework  to  comparable  to  Criteria the  ambient  determine the  (1972)  United  standards levels  standards by  States,  the as  seem of  established  as  to  provide  water  Environmental  well  to  an  acceptable  quality.  in  the  They  Water  Quality  P r o t e c t i o n Agency  standards  are  (EPA)  e s t a b l i s h e d by  of  other  countries. The Brazil.  Paraiba  River  Studies  dating  hydrological  water  60's in  and  ambient water  Although  Paraiba  quality and  effluent  River  and  oxygen  the  river  conform  same  study  caused the  by  river  also the  were  simulation done  was  not  to  1974  done were  to  (BOD) the  amounts  be  standard  of  raw  for  hydropower  the  management  water  , the 1976,  That  would  be  for  on  state  study  caused  significant  schemes  the  study  after  pollution very  in  pollution  first  established.  which  the  5  in  river's  developed  of  until  alternative  indicates that large  in  study  recognizes  waste  demand  River  rivers  the  potential  Paraiba  was  studied  with  the  presents  biochemical  deal  its  standards  organic  most  with  management  biodegradable  5  River  the  studies concerned  a  management  quality  Paraiba  in  of 1963  and  other  quantity 70's.  the  water  Many  one  from  features  development. of  is  in  of by the  curtailing to  make  f o r d i s s o l v e d oxygen.  The  coliform sewage  necessary  bacteria  being  problem  discharged  into  is serious.  Carai R.A. d a s A g u a s na 1974.  Bastos B a c i a do  et a l . Paraiba  Urn E s f o r c o do S u l .  para Simular a P o l u i c a o CETESB, July/December,  9  Table  II  -  Ambient Standards f o r C l a s s 2 R i v e r s  PARAMETER  STANDARDS  Amonia  0.5mg o f  Arsenic  0.1mg/l  Barium  1.0mg/l  Cadmium  0.01mg/l  Chromium  N per  0.05mg/l  (total)  Cyanide  0.2mg/l  Copper  1.0mg/l  Lead  0.1mg/l  Tin  2.0mg/l  Phenols  0.001mg/l  Fluorine  1.4mg/l  Mercury  0.002mg/l  Nitrate  lO.Omg o f  Nitrite  l.Omg  Selenium  0.01mg/l  of  N per N per  Zinc  5.0mg/l  Total  C o l i f o r m (MPN)  5,000/lOOml  Fecal  C o l i f o r m (MPN)  1,000/LOOml  BOD (5  days a t  20°C)  5mg/l 5mg/l  DO  Source:  liter  CETESB, Federal  Legislacao Basica Poluicao Ambiental Estadual ( L e g i s l a c a o E s s t a d u a l ) , 1980, p p . 1 1 - 1 2 .  e  liter liter  10  Another —  done  water  by  causing  a  in  of  by  mills, run-off. of  Given  technical  likely  explicit  for  the  the  adoption  Sao  the  of  of  This which  Sul  concludes  that  affected  that  this  quality,  bacteria levels. in  wastes  received  the from  are  caused  pulp  the  this  been  in  terms  The  study are  and  major and  these  study  by  paper  agricultural  River,  by  has  Paraiba  through  Paraiba  levels,  studies  More  Studies  the  and  water  and  problem  do  mostly  phenols  the  Paraiba  1980,  is  of  Rio  source that  the  discharges  will  not  give  phenols.  here.  water  in  discharges  of  phenol  assigned  including  Paulo.  some  and  of  sewage  technical  Integrated  created  basin,  to  mentioned  was  of  case  a t t e n t i o n to  not  levels  do  river  coliform  municipal  the  other  the  insecticides  lower  Several are  high  that  solution  revised River  into  and  as  in  and  Aguas  deterioration  discharge  well  phenols  will  sewage  that  das  Paraiba  oxygen  the  as  1978,  the  progressive  concludes  caused  Qualidade in  raw  dissolved  also  —  CETESB  quality  discharges  of  study  of  r e c e n t l y , the the  the  committee were  of  of  put  as  River  policies  together of  water  quality Committee  Basin  (CEEIVAP)  recommendations  Gerais,  sources  on  Executive  making  control Minas  has  used  Paraiba  task  pollution states  completed  Rio a  for de  number  the  whole  Janeiro, of  information  for  and  reports, for  this  thesis. At Paraiba at  a  time  River  alternative  when are  new  being  water  pollution  studied,  mechanisms  i t may  for policy  control be  policies  advantageous  implementation.  for to  the look  11  B.  STUDY  OBJECTIVES  The which  general  are likely  quality the  State  o f Sao  more  I.  Describe  to bring  about  study  In  Paulo.  research  has  f o r the Paraiba  general  Basin  t o be  developed.  and economic  I  so as  briefly  features  of  the  pollution  control  system  in effect.  pollution  control  system  in effect  system,  use  more  information actually system  of  the  gathered  works. is  The  ( i i ) monitoring  with  the issuance to  operate  go  monitoring  and  procedures  applied  a  in  t o CETESB of  the  parts:  describes  order  enforcement CETESB  of  as how  The  Basin,  well the  existing  I  that as  system  regulatory  ( i ) issuance  of  permits;  section  concerned  the procedures  applicants  to obtain The  on  water  defines  1976,  in  water  the  River  which  visit  important  of the  describing  legislation  which  specify  aspects  o f May,  two  and  features in  t h e most  no.997  activities.  by  in  subdivided  the context  basin,  In  enforcement.  of permits  through  polluting  Law  into  and  water  Sul River, be  i n the Paraiba  description  subdivided  and,  have  in  do  the  institutional  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  state  specifically  of  can  describe  greater  made  detail  and  to create  somewhat  have  goal  mechanisms  objectives:  River  Two,  i s to explore  realization  the p h y s i c a l , economic,  Chapter  physical  This  thesis the  established  specific  the Paraiba  this  of t h i s  standards  into  of  goal  permits  second  section  regulations  in monitoring  to locate on  describes  effluent  quality  and the the from  1 2  point  sources  regulations  II.  of  in  Examine  as  gathered  by  problems  and  an  offered  by  quality  III. in  the  Assess  the  Chapter the  Two  purpose existing  of  River  water  for  in  I  in  the  the  Paraiba  the  about the  Paraiba  to  criteria  in  to  water  quality  followed  to  deal of  River  with  the  an these  solution of  a  that  a  of  the  realization  water  system water  River.  water  pollution  certain  mechanism  from  water an  the  i s adequate  in of  management is  provided  for  water  analysis  assessment  and  for  described  quality  framework  control  criteria.  derived  basin  by  Basin.  Basin  system  the  on  River  Such  the  quality  is  existing  for  control  problems  for  the  the  pollution  the  according  whether  and  water  criteria  Paraiba  Three.  problems  implementation  I derive  opportunities  determining  quality  for  assess  Chapter  This  implications  mechanism  Basin  Four,  and  water  with  the  data  available  the  bring  describe  years.  analysis  to  management  a n a l y s i s of  the  program  according  out  compliance  Basin.  and  technology  existing  control  problems  carried  the  the  Chapter  pollution  an  established for  Paraiba  In  by  foregoing  level  River  technologies  in order  quality  identify  a n a l y s i s of  these  meet  I  through  the  management  From  Paraiba  Three,  CETESB of  should  the  indicated  examination  quality  in enforcing  t e c h n i c a l water  in  Chapter  problems  and  effect.  the  opportunities  In  pollution  to  for  the  by  the  deal  with  identifying  any  13 deficiencies  IV.  Assess  water  i n that  the  pollution  Also  in  alternative according  the  water  Basin.  This  views  o n how  River  Basin  STUDY  The  of  ecological,  on  for  applicability  the  of  discharge  i n the assessment  of the  Paraiba  at providing discharge  state  Law  as  interviews o f some  dischargers' taken  general and  River  alternative  i n the  source  control no.997 with  Paraiba  to carry  as well  on  problems  thesis  economic,  aspects  as documents,  of  water  papers,  of the Paraiba  l e g i s l a t i o n , both  and  River.  In  federal  and  control. on t h e  and t h e p r o c e d u r e s  o f May, CETESB's  1976, a l t h o u g h staff  also  provided out  for this  literature  of information  dischargers files  research  administrative  the existing  pollution  principal  theoretical  pollution  I examined  the  steps  of p o l l u t a n t  abatement,  specific  pollution  files  and  engineering,  on w a t e r  My  aims  discharge.  pollutant  in  for  with.  reviewing  and i t s  addition, state,  used  system  of the study  be d e a l t  the  controlling  control  mechanisms  of p o l l u t a n t  assess  criteria  the problems may  I  for  pollution  background  pollution  Four,  to address.  alternative  at the stage  same  section  of  i t fails  METHODS  consisted  reports  control,  Chapter  to  i . e . what  applicability  mechanisms  existing  C.  system,  the  members  contributed. me  with  established other  The  system  by  i t was  sources  and i n s p e c t i o n  a better  procedures  existing  such of the  inspection insight  established  of  into  the  in  the  1 4  legislation. Data reports reports.  on  done  water by  quality  CETESB  were  and, a l s o ,  drawn  from  from  a  several  number  of  studies  and  CEEIVAP's  15  II.  THE  PARAIBA  RIVER  BASIN:  PHYSICAL  FEATURES,  ECONOMY,  AND  INSTITUTIONS  A.  PHYSICAL  The  FEATURES  Paraiba  River  between  the  parallels  41°00'  and  46°30'W.  kilometers Minas  which  Gerais,  Basin  20°26' It  Sao  and  has  i s shared  and  is located  by  Paulo.  kilometers  de  Paraitinga  River,  tributaries  of  is  in  the  Paraiba  rivers,  in  the  State  Piabanha  and  Dois  Rios  The  Paraiba  There,  the  which  makes  the  waters  Rio  de In  Paraiba its  Paraiba  of  its  Paraibuna  of  Sao the  Paulo;  in  the  westward  Atlantic  River  course flows  headwaters,  through  rivers,  almost  de  Janeiro,  forms  the  are:  Sao  i s blocked  i t turn the  River  flows  Rio  square  a  natural  linking  the  Paulo.  State  of  Rio  de  i t reaches  Mantiqueira  180°  and  flow  Campos  approximately  1,100  Preto,  Janeiro. Guararema.  mountain  eastward  near  Buquira  Pirai,  the  the major  and  the  by  Ocean,  and  The  Jaguari and  until  River  in  until the  range meeting  State  of  Janeiro.  Guararema,  280  River  by  State  of  longitudes  Janeiro.  formed  the  Brazil  55,400  hundred  Paulo  of  of  Valley  Sao  River  area  Paraiba  cities  Paraiba  total  the  The three  The  and  states  approximately Rio  southeastern  the  of  and  23°38'  a  corridor of  in  at  an  archean  kilometer  of  through  at  an  altitude terrains  stretch  various  altitude of and  distinctive of  572  Upper  1,800  steep  terrains. meters,  meters,  presents  is called  kilometers,  the  down  the From to  Paraiba  runs  inclinations.  This  Paraiba.  16  From meters,  Guararema  the  terrains  range  Paraiba  of  mountain  the  through  a  Sao  meters,  the  and  by  by  the in  flat  valley.  This  simply  an  altitude  kilometers  moves  or  at  Entrenched  north  In  Middle  kilometers  estuary. In  This the  controlled  on  the  Serra a  of  Mantiqueira  do  Mar  coastal  twisting  stretch Paraiba  515  sedimentary  course  i s known  i n the  by  River  several  points  THE  The  on  ECONOMY OF  economic  nineteenth  Earlier  above  III  Sao  of  very  Paulo,  Sao  the  on  archean  terrains  the  as  as  the  State  of  Jose  dos  40m /s 3  flow  of  the  Paraiba  is runs  reaching  3  Paraiba and  The  are  I0m /s  respectively.  430  inclination  the  Guararema  River  for  of  its  Paraiba.  Campos.  and  elevation  inclinations  Lower  the  an  average Finally,  small  Paraiba  of  one  minimum  estimated  at  the  These  River  Santa  minimum  on  is the  flows  for  for  the  Branca  and  flows  are  below.  THE  PARAIBA  history  century  settlements  development  at  meter.  i s known  reservoirs,  in Table  Fidelis,  r e s e r v o i r s above  discharges  Jaguari  shown  two  per  with  of  Sao  stretch,  meter  stretch  State  Jaguari  minimum  0.001  to  flows  this  for  90  Paulista  Paraiba  over  the  300  Paraiba  Cachoeira  slightly  B.  for  the  Paraiba,  kilometers.  the  Paulista,  Paulo. From  20  the  south,  Upper-middle  runs  origin.  on  large  Cachoeira  River  tertiary  range  on  to  small  of  with in  craft  RIVER  the  the  the  BASIN  Paraiba  spread upper  textile  and  of  -  SECTOR  River  Basin  coffee  valley other  had  PAULISTA  started  in  cultivation. resulted  industries in  in  the  small  17  Table  III  -  Minimum F l o w s  f o r the Paraiba River*  POINTS  ^  Point  6 (Freguesia  da E s c a d a )  Point  9c ( S a o J o s e  d o s Campos)  Point  16  (Cacapava)  Point  19  (Tremembe)  Point  21  (Pindamonhangaba)  Point  25  (Putins)  Point  36 ( C a c h o e i r a  Point  42  m 3 / s  >  42.2 43.4 60.3 61.5 63.3 64.8 70.5  Paulista)  76.3  (Queluz)  *Considering  <  Q = 40m /s 3  at Santa  B r a n c a Dam a n d  Q = 10m Is a t J a g u a r i Dam 3  Source:  CETESB.  Q u a l i d a d e d a s A g u a s d o R i o P a r a i b a do S u l , p . l  18  villages  such  the  zone  i n the  State  Sao  Paulo.  of  the  that  This  serve  the  to  the  and  to  search  of  promoted the --; of  two ( i i )a  relatively  effects  in  of  of  to  the  as  Sao  national  water  distribution  steel  1945,  in  of  mill,in  also  the  a  from  Greater  Sao  Paulo,  Paulo and,  other (i) and  of  the  and  size  Paraiba of  the  1970,  as  shown  in  Table  in c i t i e s Janeiro,  J o h n P. Dickenson. Brazil 1978, p.171. Janet D. Henshall and B r a z i l i a n D e v e l o p m e n t , G. p . 177. Ibid.  both  de  in have to  Janeiro  .  along  the  the  Dutra  Dawson  &  Momsen Sons  &  Jr. Ltd,  From  industrial  Highway,  Sons  major  predominantely  Because  p o p u l a t i o n tends  wm. R.P. Bell  IV.  had  population.  urban  de  Paulo  proximity  Valley  p o p u l a t i o n became  Rio  Sao  resources.  the  and  response  factors  Rio  8  ( i i i ) availability  1940,  Paulo  parts,  as  in  Sao  base  ocurred  valley:  system;  vehicle  the  Janeiro.  Three  Sao  of  de  rural  occurred  federal  Rio  markedly in  the  industrial  making  near  the  by  and  firms  markets  transportation  of  industrialization  sites. of  area  Paulo  locate  industrial  metropolitan  those  base  cheaper  a  6  important  Janeiro,  o u t - m i g r a t i o n of  and  most  expansion such  Taubate.  the  de  industrial  abundant  the  development  8  firms,  industrialization on  after  industrialization  good  and  i s the  Rio  i n the  firms trying  major  The  the  larger  the  of  industries  of  foreign  Paulo  landmark  many  of  trend  Campos  establishment  resulted  with  expansion  Sao  the  area  The  of  State  is  dos  Paraiba Valley  Redonda,  valley.  Jose  The  7  government  7  Sao  Today,  Volta  6  as  to  Ltd,  between  be  England,  A Geography of London, 1974,  Table  IV  -  Population  Growth i n the P a r a i b a  River  -  10  urban  total  (%)  rural  1940  396013  150127  (37.9)  245886  1950  485081  212496  (43.8)  1960  612477  361240  (59.0)  1970  Source:  830421  607423  CETESB.  (73.2)  Alternativas Trecho  State  GROWTH RATES  POPULATION  YEAR  Basin  total(%)  (%)  (62.1)  of  Sao  Paulo  GROWTH INDEX  FOR EVERY  R E L A T I V E L Y TO 1940  YEARS  urban(%)  rural(%)  urban  rural  100  100  100 110.9  -  -  272585 ( 5 6 . 2 )  22.5  41.5  10.9  122.5  141.5  251237  26.3  70.0  -7.8  154.7  240.6  2.2  209.7  304.6  90.7  (41.0)  222998 ( 2 6 . 8 )  35.6  68.2  para a P r e s e r v a c a o da Q u a l i d a d e  Paulista.  1976,  p.19  -  total  -11.2  d a A g u a do R i o P a r a i b a  do S u l -  20  concentrated  in that  the  basin.  entire  fourteen  most  Paulista) and a  as  1990.  little  and  more  1980, Jose  than  i s expected  other to  of  almost  one  the  double  well  to  ten  the  as  population the  of  a  Paraiba  major  i t s position  have  grown  by  Sao  Jose  of  years.  their  and  per  cent,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , from  more  water  will of  view  be  of  will  be  dumped  water  the  agriculture  is  industries,  such  distilleries important  needed  into  for  the  such  projections for in  dos and  per  to  population  a  in  1980,  when i t s  is  1990. growth  In  expected are  61.19  and  had  cent.  Jacarei by  1985  basin,  1990,  Campos  increased  with  the  inhabitants  d r i n k i n g purposes  river,  for  to  note  Sao  Dickenson,  still as  milk  that  of  also  per  cent  From  the  means  that  more  sewage  consequent d e t e r i o r a t i o n  the  and  industrialization economic  and  processing  meat  the  Paraiba  Rio  de  plants  of  some  the  sector.  Valley  through  is  the  basin, Many  plants  regional agriculture.  Janeiro.  electricity of  of  important  to  activity  power  p.172.  an  linked  Paulo  economic  hydroelectric  significant  are  Generation another  thesis,  the  Basin(Sector  through  1980  of  quality.  Despite  source  this  population  River  94.88  Taubate  throughout  population  city  million  have  of  urban  the  to  86.66  homogeneously  in  quarter  population  in  lists  Campos,  maintain  than  expected  point  9  as  dos  to  V  cities  is projected  words,  rather  Table  populous  Sao  population  area,  major  and It  is  milk  9  hydroelectric plants  importance  in  the  Paraibuna-Paraitinga,  basin. Santa  is The  21  Table V  -  Urban P o p u l a t i o n  P r o j e c t i o n s f o r the 14 most populus  C i t i e s o f the P a r a i b a  R i v e r B a s i n - Sao Paulo  URBAN POPULATION CITIES  Sao  Jose dos Campos  1980  1985  1990  253310  353624  493663  Taubate  159312  202264  256796  Jacarei  90616  123802  169141  90312  106694  Guaratingueta  76446  Lorena  59696  73296  89993  Cruzeiro  58147  68130  79829  P i ndamonhangaba  40521  48570  58217  Cacapava  36489  44416  54065  34650  42462  52035  16263  21590  28661  16731  18994  21564  Tremembe  12009  15392  19729  Piquete  15057  16454  17980  7679  10430  13271  Aparecida Santa  do Norte  Izabel  Cachoeira  Paulista  Guararema  Source:  CEEIVAP.  P r o j e t o G e r e n c i a l 0003/79, R e l a t o r i o No.5, p.9  22  Branca The  and Jaguari  Funil  Janeiro, these and,  by d o i n g  so, offer  foregoing  influenced  of the border, capacity plants  some  capacity  control  o f 148MW.  i n the State  o f 210MW.  protection  to  water  discharged.  Paraiba which  generate  as  1  0  o f R i o de  The r e s e r v o i r s o f  11  the flows  i n the  to the flood  upon  the  river  plain  Industrial which Cities  discharged.  be  major  source  of t h e urban  zones  conflicts  water  organic  dangerous  using  river  Projeto  contain  as  quality  a  drinking  p.192.  002/79  source  their  wastes can  also  rely  water  of  on t h e  and as a place t o  Sao  plants  Paulo. support  and a r e  in  the  dependent  Despite  and  between  and inorganic  for drinking  of  the  this  by i n d u s t r i e s a n d u r b a n  containing  to the health  Gerencial  a n d Momsen,  organic  of  as a  the latter.  among  wastes  resources  of economic  by  of the basin  Hydroelectric  population  provided  generates  water  and f o r Greater  t h e use o f t h e waterway  potentially  CEEIVAP, p.8. Henshall  as s u p p l i e r s of labour,  pool  discharge  River  t o which  can  t o degrade  the  the Paraiba  and as a place  discharges  tend  t h e water  of drinking  growth  interdependency, communities  upon  by  t h e economy  a source  the  labour  suggests  extent  f o rthe region  Industries, promote  rely  supply  wastes  power  some  Cities,  River  their  basin,  information  Industries  industrial  1 1  installed  the river.  region.  1 0  east  has an i n s t a l l e d  The  be  just  a total  h y d r o e l e c t r i c power  along  is  plant,  have  source.  materials purposes.  pathogens  downstream  them.  which a r e  communities Because t h e  - R e l a t o r i o n o . 2 , May 1 9 8 0 ,  23  problems and  of water  industrial  region  level  a  institutional  the  to  aggravated  concern  by  of public  maintain  the  population  policy  i nthe  established  water  ARRANGEMENTS  of  'arrangement  of t h i s  pollution  what  constitutes  f o r water  i s of primary  objective  water  t o be  a major  way  understanding  operated  tend  of t h e waterway.  INSTITUTIONAL  An  is  growth,  i s to find  quality  C.  quality  pollution  importance  section  control  to this  control  existing  a n d how i t  thesis.  i s to provide  system  the  Therefore,  information  in effect  on  i n the Paraiba  the River  Basin.  THE  EXISTING  POLLUTION  In  Brazil,  pollution  although  the federal this  pioneered  i n the f i e l d  i t s heavy  with  other  agency,  In  May,  in  the Special  1976,  in  of  control,  state  where  perhaps  urbanization The  state  June,  1973,  in  the state has always  as a  pollution and  control  preceded  i n October,  federal  the State  1973.  enacted  control  the  (SEMA)  legislation  o f Sao P a u l o  pollution  result  comparison  f o r the Environment  with  the e x i s t i n g  initiative,  Sao P a u l o  control,  of the I n t e r i o r ,  i n 'accord  established  a  get involved  Secretariat  Ministry  pollution  which  Brazil.  is  State  of p o l l u t i o n  was c r e a t e d  the federal  industrial no.997  states  of  The  may  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  CETESB,  creation within  activity.  SYSTEM  control  government  neglects  of  CONTROL  on Law  system.  24  This  law  CETESB.  requires The  already  law  was  an  operation  enacted  establishing This  In is  were  waste  requested  for  River  o u t by C E T E S B ,  and  a permit  CETESB  assigned  with  the  emission  from  at the time  with  then  compliance  effluents,  the Paraiba  dischargers  was  e s t a b l i s h e d ambient and  to obtain  to register  CETESB  schedules  waters  carried  dischargers  existing  permit.  law a l s o  receiving  a l l waste  to  the  obtain  the task  of  regulations.  standards  f o r the  control  activity  respectively.  Basin,  the p o l l u t i o n  through  i t s regional  office  located in  Taubate.  ISSUANCE  All  location  in  example,  on  This  pollution  on  of  wastewater  is water  generated  In  light  whether  (i)  emission  must  be  accompanied  by  industry,  supply  process  by  of t h i s  the  t o be  and  to  which  provides  activity  and  must  equipment,  utilized provide of  by  the  For provide  including industry.  information daily  a  extensive  entails.  the a p p l i c a n t  estimates  amounts  on of  industry.  information,  the e f f l u e n t standards,  and  existing for a  o f an  requested  expand  application  particular  also  to an  that  equipment  or  submit  activity  materials,  abatement  applicant  must  the  what  raw  to locate  application  of  i n the case  information  wish  basin  study  information  the  the  permit.  preliminary  sources  PERMITS  p o l l u t e r s that  operations  The  OF  of  CETESB  proceeds  the p o l l u t i n g  to  activity  ( i i ) the discharge  will  determine conforms not  to  cause  25  the  receiving  information applicant site  water  i s used  option  Before operating  violate  as a basis  i s not awarded  or propose  latter  to  level  starting which  i n the location  i n order  If  t o look  treatment,  were  the  fora  new  i f  this  lines  that  met.  This  the conditions  Where  pollution  operating  ef i c i e n c y  permit  and  verify  met.  CETESB  is  helped  by  municipalities,  and o p e r a t i o n  i f  that  treatment  power  inspection.  a temporary  are being  for electrical  site  ensure  including  of l o c a t i o n  i t s power by  waste  that  agencies,  company  to  permit  t o check  noteworthy  issued  want  waste  upon  i s installed,  It  state  be  order  specifications  enforcement  done  in  project  government  to  done  equipment  i s  permit.  This  t h e a p p l i c a n t h a s t o o b t a i n an  i s issued  established  that  of  operations,  i s  issued  h e may  a  standards.  i s available.  inspection  is  for issuing  a permit  a higher  permit  abatement  t h e ambient  permits.  will  several in  the  F o r example, t h e  n o t hook  i n d u s t r y does  up an  n o t have  industry a  permit  CETESB.  MONITORING  AND  Monitoring  t o check  sporadically  reported  ENFORCEMENT  compliance  by C E T E S B  by a n y p e r s o n .  with  effluent  personnel,  although  v i o l a t i o n s can  procedures  f o r monitoring  The normal  standards  is  are: 1.  samples  2.  t h e samples  of t h e e f f l u e n t are  tested  are collected; according  to  the  "Standard  26  Methods  f o r Examination  laboratories 3. one  of the r e g i o n a l  i f the t e s t s  The  Wastewater"  i n the  office;  indicate  that the standards were  violated,  ( i i ) f i n e ; or ( i i i ) shutdown.  the e f f l u e n t  of  a  notification  d i d not conform to the emission  that the d i s c h a r g e r  certain  which  standards  i s expected to report t o CETESB w i t h i n a  p e r i o d of time to e x p l a i n the f a c t and make commitments  on a c t i v e  measures to s o l v e the problem.  imposed  when  the  violation  r e g a r d l e s s of the i n t e n s i t y . issued be  and  advertence penalty c o n s i s t s  indicates  is  Water  of the three f o l l o w i n g p e n a l t i e s i s imposed on the v i o l a t o r :  ( i ) advertence;  and  of  Usually, this  occurs  f o r the  penalty  first  time,  An advertence penalty can a l s o  be  on other o c c a s i o n s , i f CETESB c o n s i d e r s the v i o l a t i o n to  of low i n t e n s i t y . A daily  expiration  fine of  i s imposed  on  the s t i p u l a t e d  the  violator  i f , after  time, the e f f l u e n t  still  the  does not  conform to the standards.  In t h i s case, monitoring i s done on a  d a i l y b a s i s while the f i n e  i s being a p p l i e d .  The  avoid  applying  extension  a  daily  fine  by  previously stipulated  f o r an  time f o r improving e f f l u e n t  If a s e r i o u s v i o l a t i o n occurs, a after  the  violator  d e f i n i t i o n of explicit  what  and,  constitutes  therefore,  i s noteworthy  application  of  fines  serious  i t i s up  quality.  fine  is  applied  to  violation CETESB  The  i s not  to make t h i s  basis.  that do  a  can  of the  has been given an advertence p e n a l t y .  d i s t i n c t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l It  simple  violator  the  not  revenues  become  generated  CETESB  funds,  by the but are  27  allotted  to the state  (DAEE).  Therefore,  of  fines.  that  transfers  is  effluents  very  municipalities  the state  battle  that  being not  fair,  since  treated  a  prerogative  CETESB.  only the  decree  be  that  shut  small  regulation shutdowns  does  n o t want  ( i i ) money fees. sewage  consequently,  any p e n a l t y .  This  i s so  to get involved  political  in  consequences.  to regard  (municipalities  and f i n e  the system  a  This as not  and i n d u s t r i e s )  down  Secretary  o f Works  are  enumerates  i s  a  industries  o f Works  which  has occurred by  did  in  this  federal  industrial activities and not  i n the Paraiba the  industrial  that  activities  few  secretary  a  I t i s noteworthy  of  a  by  can  order.  only  of  of  therefore,  by p r e s i d e n t i a l  that  Environment,  constrained  and,  is  of d i r e c t o r s  series  interest  by t h e  activities  and  the board  penalty  industrial  are applied  of p o l l u t i n g  from  of t h i s  by t h e S e c r e t a r y  imposed  penalties  shutdown  are of national  i s so broad  down  given  services  municipal  and,  been  proposal  which  classification  decree shut  shutdown  The a p p l i c a t i o n  activities  that  monitored  office,  of the state  a  federal  of  the advertence  of the r e g i o n a l  following  (i)technical  and, ( i i i ) permit  industries  polluters  the application  institutions;  note  disastrous  many  from  Energy  equally.  While head  have  has caused  to  been  government  would  from:  private  never  and E l e c t r i c a l  not benefit come  important  have  of Water  government;  never  because  behaviour  and  the state  have  does  revenues  to public  from  It  CETESB  CETESB  are sold  Department  Environment. comply  with  River  Basin.  can  be  c a n be  Shutdown  the e x i s t i n g Although  overruled  by  28  presidential  order,  this  has  not  happened  in  those  cases.  29  III.  THE TECHNICAL  ANALYSIS  PROBLEMS AND O P P O R T U N I T I E S  In  this  River  Basin  constraints those  water  INDICATORS  Water  compounds water  OF  have  for  i s that  CETESB  over  physical and  i s usually  While  undertaken  of  the  solution  of  also  review the  as  indicators  parameters  o f a model f o r  change.  by  will  t o imply  using  that  chemical  ,  1 2  this  a r e based  for this  those parameters  See, f o r example, t h e G r e a t Ecosystem Approach."  in  a  Lakes  concepts  of  in  on  use  reason Paraiba  g a t h e r e d by  chemical that  analysis  and  chemical of  water  i n the Paraiba,  provide  comprehensive  Science  will  the  data  the fact  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  define,  or  The major  available  which  substances  study  quality  despite  be u s e d  problems  parameters  encompassing  of water  However,  with  of q u a l i t y .  and these data  parameters  to  more  developed  any a n a l y s i s  management  information  will  variables  various  as i n d i c a t o r s  parameters.  not intend  It  Paraiba  analysis  technical  associated  of  been  the years  physical  quality do  be  i n the  the u t i l i z a t i o n  as c e r t a i n  i n the water.  only  an  BASIN  QUALITY  parameters  this  problems  the  and chemical  MANAGEMENT  DO S U L R I V E R  and  examined.  concentrations  quality  for  discuss  quality  certain  can  1 2  and  quality  indicate  be  physical  quality  predicting  A.  will  quality  identified  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  of using  water  be  QUALITY  IN THE PARAIBA  t h e water  will  problems  problem of  chapter,  OF WATER  sufficient  fashion,  Advisory  I  the  B o a r d , "The  30  relationship on  the  aquatic  parameters improve A are  between  ecosystem.  provide  a  practical  quite  extensive  list  of  by  on  regular  CETESB  range  from  water  in  river  waters.  standards  adopted  for  Gerencial  0002/79  -  namely  standards  Dissolved  oxygen  per  process  of  decay  expressed  in  a  interrelated  inasmuch  water  a  be  oxygen  discharged  function  of  dissolved  oxygen  anaerobic  miligrams  preservation  of  aquatic  and  oxygen  per  to  the  the  waterway;  and zero,  Demand  of  however,  the  oxygen  is  represents  the  oxygen  odors  D.O.  the  minimum containing  in  are the  organic is also  waterway.  will  of  of  in  decaying  offensive  (BOD)  parameters of  of  Waters  oxygen.  kilograms  and  These  oxygen  no.2),  materials  aeration  considered  life.  Relatorio  Dissolved  amount  Dissolved  are  Projeto  in  concentration  those  (CEEIVAP,  Oxygen  liter  metals  on  dissolved  the of  heavy  ambient  organic  period.  parameters  the  expressed the  to  parameters  focus  and  as  conditions. liter  vol.2  water.  temperature  per  of  River  the  into  drops  by  of  violate  in  function  materials  is  actions  These  will  to  level  selected  physical  Biochemical  five-day  milligrams of  to  coliform  demand  and  study  no.1,  on  impacts  Basin.  basis.  Paraiba  utilized  over  River  found  their  data  concentrations  this  (D.O.) A n d  concentration  will  the  oxygen  liter  to  been  for  and  initiating  chemical  Relatorio  Oxygen  Biochemical  a  However, have  land  for  Paraiba  temperature  which  the  the  basis  quality  parameters  in  on  Nevertheless,  water  monitored  the  man's a c t i v i t i e s  result,  three levels D.O.  or  a If due  four  for  the  levels  31 below  two  drinking  miligrams  purposes,  the  Paraiba  the  industrial  portion  of  associated mills,  per l i t e r  i f treated  River,  and  waste  numerous  food  chemical  not s u i t a b l e f o r  conventional  sources  municipal  the organic with  by  the major  and  are considered  of decaying  waste loads  processing  The  industrial plants,  which  In  materials  loadings.  from  industries  technology.  deal  largest  sources  pulp  are  and  with  are  paper organic  compounds. Coliform  The  Bacteria  c o l i f o r m count  causing  bacteria.  i s used  CETESB  total  c o l i f o r m count  and  total  c o l i f o r m count  gives  kinds  of  coliform  fecal  coliform  originating causing the River found  in  by  can  direct  disease  human  be  receives  same  urban  contact,  time,  lethal quite  i s used  communities,  MPN  These as  hundred of  t o be  either  is  the skin  man.  Then,  of d r i n k i n g  fecal  coliform  Paraiba  that  a disease  o f human  count  called  membranes  water.  This  that  sewage  water  are  known.  considering  as a  the  In the  o r mucous  loads  source  bacteria  commonly  significant  the  sewage,  i n g e s t i o n of contaminated to  ofa l l  i n human  bacteria  most  the  disease-  importance. the  the  Because  b a c t e r i a cause i t  (MPN)  coliform  present  of  While  milliliters,  excrement.  i s one  through  o r by  the  i s o f much  sewage.  man  number  one  disease-  parameters:  probable  per  likely  of these  of  count.  and animal  or b i l h a r z i a ,  enter  can  Paraiba the  human  indicator  coliform  t h e most  the schistosome  schistosomiasis They  two  gives  c o l i f o r m count  Basin,  monitors  the fecal  b a c t e r i a a r e most  fecal  an  bacteria  count  from  as  and, a t  for  assumes  the  a  many very  32  important  place  Dissolved indicators River but  are  paper  to  and  fecal  which  unpleasant  the  sewage  vol.2  the  and  D.O. of  taste  Relatorio problem  to  the  for  be  no.2).  water  i n the  are  domestic  parameter  any  sewage  does  substances  also  found  not  to  Although  (including  Paraiba  two  Paraiba  Paraiba.  sources  Since  the  non-toxic  the  i n the  to  River  P r o j e t o G e r e n c i a l 0002/79  from  this  quality.  problems  are  many  source  (CEEIVAP,  phenols,  which  from  major  water  quality  established  originate  of  c o l i f o r m s appear  water Phenols  standard  mills),  removal  oxygen  give  may  domestic no.1,  indicators  associated.  the  phenols  the  with  which  violate  among  pulp  and  Basin  is  -  Relatorio  technical  solution  would need  result  to  in  be  the  treated  separately. In Paraiba of  summary, River  Basin  water must  quality  be  for  As  these  important might  be  relative  task  Paraiba attention  parameters of  this  attained, costs  DISSOLVED  Data  and  previously stated, two  would  OXYGEN  collected River  show  extends  approximately  primarily  maintenance the  are  study  what  management  concerned  disease-causing bacteria  levels.  B.  a  ambient  determine  would  be  with  for  the  the  control  dissolved  oxygen  standards  acceptable  i s to  measures  of  program  and, how  established  therefore,  these  r e q u i r e d and  an  standards what  the  be.  PREDICTION  by  CETESB  that from  the  on  MODELS  water  reach  Guararema  300-kilometer  of  quality the to  stretch,  conditions in  river  most  Queluz. available  the  i n need In  of  this  evidence  33  indicates ways.  that  First  records  of  below  along  the  Jose  dos  of  river  from  1970  levels  recorded a  Sao  levels  river  shows  the  of two  the at  dos  D.O.  this  to  the  contains  at  300  at  water  as  low  intake as  records  show  the  range  values  conditions  This  shows  that  the  critical  main  points.  at  taken  of  as  D.O. curve  estimated each  of  monitoring one  stem  The  of  of  zero.  based  mean  upon  point  the  upon  of  dissolved  p o r t i o n of  monitoring  the  of  the  flow  is  based  monitoring  different curve  number  oxygen  every  bars  the  in a  levels  levels  over  of  that  point  vertical  Campos  comes  count  from  for Only  Queluz,  do  by  a  Paraiba  River f o r the  water  data  fecal  from  1978  three  records,  exceed data  CETESB's shows  Qualidade  on  monitoring  not  fecal  conditions  three  Further  provided  of  records,  river.  CETESB. Jan.1980.  observed  zero  each  that  show  monitoring  The  indication  parameter.  values  at  monthly  coliform  dissolved  1970  degraded  the  point  f a r as  D.O.  concerned.  Another the  of  levels  1977.  points.  are  measures  registered  for  Jose  be  kilometer  line  levels  monitoring at  and  to  been  The  oxygen  between  D.O.  have  Campos  2 charts  tends  since  river.  represents  1 3  a l l , the  4mg/l  Figure the  waterway  accumulated  oxygen  Sao  the  analysis  report that  coliform  das  Aguas  1 3  for  coliform to  on  at  along  of the  water  a l l monitoring  counts  recorded  do  Paraiba  Rio  Table  fecal  the  same  reach  do  Norte for  coliform  and this  counts  quality  of  the  points  the  mean  between  do  VI  the  standard  fecal  of  of  Aparecida  stream  portion  counts.  1980,  points  one  the  in this  Sul  1971  , Sao  and  Paulo,  FIG. 2 - CURVE OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN FOR LOW FLOW PERIODS (1971-77) WITH MAJOR DISCHARGES  Source:  CETESB-DAEE  (1980) Q u a l i d a d e d a s Aguas do R i o P a r a i b a do S u l , F i g . 6.27,  p.5*i.  Table VI  -  MONTHLY RECORDS OF FECAL COLIFORM COUNTS FOR 1978, 1979, and 1980 ( 1 0 MPN/100 ml) 3  POINT : 00SP61PA2098  POINT: 00SP61PA2310  POINT: OOSP61PA2490  Sao Jose dos Campos  Aparecida do Norte  Queluz  1978  1979  1980  1978  1979  1980  1978  1979  1980  49.0  7.9  14.0  2.3  49.0  13.0  Jan.  3.3  3.3  3.3  Feb.  1.7  33.0  3.3  4.9  4.9  13.0  1.9  11.0  3.3  Mar.  2.8  1.3  7.9  110.0  7.0  17.0  17.0  17.0  11.0  Apr.  2.3  24.0  110.0  7.9  11.0  2.3  7.9  79.0  13.0  May  4.9  79.0  350.0  7.9  17.0  7.9  1.4  23.0  7.9  Jun.  13.0  3.3  350.0  4.9  0.79* 18.0  1.7  4.9  4.6  Jul.  23.0  49.0  2.8  3.3  7.9  3.3  4.9  4.9  13.0  Aug.  33.0  17.0  79.0  3.3  23.0  4.9  0.94*  3.3  3.3  Sep.  79.0  240.0  540.0  4.9  11.0  7.9  3.3  3.3  3.3  Oct.  1.1  33.0  17.0  4.6  11.0  23.0  3.3  3.3  1.1  Nov.  11.0  33.0  160.0  7.0  4.9  1.1  17.0  13.0  Dec.  33.0  140.0  3.3  1.1  2.2  79.0  7.0  13.0  *Records  t h a t do not exceed  Source:  CETESB (1978,  the ambient  standard (1.0 x 1 0 MPN/100 ml) 3  1979, 1980) - Qualidade das Aguas I n t e r l o r e s do Estado de Sao Paulo  0.23* 49.0  36  1977  are  the  waters  public  well  VII  industries to  VIII  of  to  shows  1979.  to  can  certain  not  points  of  dangerous  to  Certain  through problems, primary  due and  have  to  or  the  easy  i s the  economically  be  of  and,  to  kilometer  in  1980. from  15  discharges from  1979  to  300  Table  r e p o r t e d by  a  the  urban SABESP  from  the  1980,  the  such  as  a  of  determine  In  the  case  coliform  organic wasteload  reduction  ponds,  can  effect.  et  address  ponds  a l . ,  D.O. whether  of  methods  have  methods  might  solution  to  proved in  1976:301).  problem this  both  Chlorination  alternative  stabilization  the  releases  fecal  conventional treatment  how  in  management  are  (Gloy'na  to  waste  facilities  these.  water  in  through  of  up  quality  die-off  treatments  levels  reduction  flow  problem by  D.O.  aeration  combination  addressed  know  then,  be:  in  stabilization  over  bring  can  , increase  However,  to  taken  mechanical  maintenance  need  section,  measures  bacterial  ponds.  advantages and  be  secondary  stabilization  can  measures,  retention  same  from  comparatively.  however,  also  river  discharges  significantly  river  Paraiba River,  program.  there  that  discharges  CETESB  organic wasteload  These  the  from  r e p o r t e d by  i n the  s t o r a g e , or  must  cost  used  installation  bacteria  of  indicates  potentially  portion  wasteload  changed  measures  reservoir  the  the  standard.  loadings,  to  This  organic wasteload  in this  rivdr  that  be  Numerous  of  standard.  major  organic  the  two  required  river  the  Given  tables  the  kilometer zero  have  from  stream  Paraiba River are  shows  industries  a  the  the  river  communities in  the  health.  Table  down  above  terms Thus,  be  solved  would  be  Table  VII  -  List of  Industries Responsible  Paraibo River Basin -  for  Sao P a u l o  85% o f  the  Location  Industries  Industrial  Potential  Organic Load  in  the  (1980)  Organic  Type  Load  potential  (k.g/B0D/day) discharged  BOD removal  Z Industrias  de  Papel  Simao  C i c e r o Prado C e l u l o s e Ford B r a s i l S/A Rhodia S/A Inquibras H e n k e l do B r a s i l B a s f B r a s i l e i r a S/A F a b r i c a de P a p e l N . S .  e  S.A.  Papel  M o t o r s do  Aparecida  Brasil  S/A  Alim.  Nestle  S/A  P e t r o l e o B r a s i l e i r o S / A REVAP Johnson & Johnson S/A I n d u s t r i a s Monsanto S / A I n d u s t r i a s Quimicas Taubate F r i g o r i f i c o Cleumar S / A V o l g s w a g e n do B r a s i l S / A  S/A  Coop. C e n t r a l de L a t i c . d o E s t . d e Ibrape E l e t r o n i c a S/A A b a t e d o u r a Tretnerabe L t d a . Mecrom L t d a . Embraer S/A Granja Itambi  Soc.  C i a . F l u m i n e n s e de Geraldo B. Rangel  Civil  S.Paulo  Ltda.  Kefrigerantes  Jose L u i s Caltabiano COPA - C o m p a n h i a de P a p e l s C o o p . L a t i c Sao J o s e dos Campos Antenor da S i l v a Andrade  Source:  Ltda.  S/A CEEIVAP -  19092  12384  Pindamonhangaba Taubate  pulp/paper mechanical chemical  6825 4148 3805 3730 3520  1785 55 1862 3730 139 1914  Projeto  chemical chemical chemical  Aparecida Cacapava  pulp/paper food p r o c .  Jacarei Guaratingueta  textile destillary  S. J o s e S. Jose S. J o s e S. J o s e Taubate  mechanical chemical chemical chemical chemical  Campos Campos Campos Campos  Gerencial  2885 1962 1911 1570 1314 1080 1008 867 768 747 724 700 670 659 511  Cruzeiro Taubate Guaratingueta S. J o s e Campos Tremembe  food p r o c . mechanical dairy proc. electronic food p r o c .  S.  food proc mechanical  483 464  food p r o c . beverages  452 392  Guaratingueta  destillary  S . J o s e Campos Guaratingueta Cruzeiro  food proc. destillary paper  368 349  S. J o s e Campos P i ndamonhangaba Jacarei  Jose  Campos  S . J o s e Campos S. J o s e Campos Pindamonhangaba  Frigovalpa  Rhodia  pulp/paper  S. J o s e Campos Jacarei Jacarei G u a r a t i n g u e ta  C i a . B r a s i l e i r a de P r o d u t o s LAVALPA D e s t i l a r i a V a l p a r a i b a S/A General  S.A  Jacarei  0001/79,  Relatorio,  35 74 98.7 51 0 96 34  898 191 785 0  55 90 50 100  54 144  95 85.7  66 58 0  92.4 92.5 100  724 56 185 82 0  0 92 72.4  338 16 17 39 0 62 0 60  87.5 100 30 96.5 96.2 90 100 82.2  dairy proc. destillary  343 330 310 294  31 0  100 82 90 100  textile  275  163  41  No.l,  Plate  2.V,  p.2.24  Table  VIII  -  Potential  Municipal  Urban P o p u l a t i o n  Jacarei J o s e d o s Campos  Cacapava  from Urban Communities  BOD L o a d s Potential  (1979)  (kg BOD/day)  Total  Serviced  5800  4460  240  240  88000  65000  3500  3500  230000  126500  6830  5910  Guararema  Sao  and D i s c h a r g e d BOD l o a d s  Discharged  44000  26800  1450  220  145000  91000  4900  4900  Tremembe  11000  6600  360  360  Pindamonhangaba  45000  34600  1900  280  2200  2050  110  20  Taubate  Roseira A p a r e c i d a do Guaratingueta  Norte .  Lorena Cachoeira  Paulista  Cruzeiro  35000  19800  1070  1070  90000  54600  2900  2900  55000  44000  2400  360  18000  10080  550  550  57000  49000  2600  2600  600  260  10  10  5000  4500  240  240  Lavrinhas Queluz  Source:  CEEIVAP -  Projeto  G e r e n c i a l 0001/79 -  Relatorio  N o . l , Plates  2.VIII  and 2 . I X  39  adequate whether  to address other  measures  Dissolved that  makes  solve  reduction  D.O. of  mechanical  will  make  MAPS  use  to the Paraiba  CETESB Aguas  under  of  Water  models  f o r the analysis  study  done  oxygen  simulation  equations. The  model  to  oxygen  the  to  how  much  flow,  or  to maintain This  a  study  The r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d da  Paulista"  in  in  das  (Alternatives for  the Paraiba  quality  by  Qualidade  do S u l R i v e r  i s a combination a  of  -  simulation  waterbody.  The  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the d i s s o l v e d  with  on  the  in  regard  i n t h e summer to  40m /s 3  Jaguari  i n the waters  stratification  in  conditions.  i s based  situation  c a n be r e d u c e d  dissolved  measures show  be n e c e s s a r y  tool  Streeter-Phelps-  "  occurs  and  can  Preservacao  MAPS  which  and  Dam  a  shows  oxygen  Branca  necessary  increase  specified  of water  dissolved flows  would  Quality  CETESB  critical  or  i n 1976.  The model  1  are the technical  models  do S u l - T r e c h o  Paulista).  by  or  t h e r e s u l t s of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e model  Sector  Camp  both  River,  do R i o P a r a i b a  the  These  wasteload, or  problem  necessary.  to determine  i n " A l t e r n a t i v a s para  Preservation  1  of  bacteria  p r e d i c t i o n models  organic  o f D.O.  coliform  be  problem.  aeration,  level  fecal  would  oxygen  i t possible  the  certain  the  the  Dam,  when and  to the parameter temperatures  I0m /s 3  respectively.  released  reservoir,  at  the  Low  by t h e J a g u a r i are another  * These e q u a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e t h e D.O. d e f i c i t that l o a d causes t o a r i v e r under s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s temperature.  are  of  high Santa  levels  of  Dam,  due  factor  that  a c e r t a i n BOD of flow and  40  worsens that  the  the  D.O.  as  Taking  of  low  zero,  of  all  90%  result into and  27  schemes could  released 1977,  by  the  study  costs  flow  different  established I0m /s 3  Jose  the  the  dos  as  22  tonnes The in  the  the  would  be  increases  of de  minimum Jaguari  flow Aguas  flows Dam.  DAEE/SONDOTECNICA. Estudo Setor Paulista ,1976.  of  of  and e  40%  This  would  discharged  amount  effluent  at  Therefore,  H i d r o l o g i c o do  In of  ,which  1 5  load  the the  Rio  at  cities  for  this  curtailment  above.  Energia 3  (iii)  conditions,  the  BOD  40m /s  ;  curve  application  those  industry)  Other  in  DAEE/SONDOTECNICA with  to  and,  flow  mentioned the  have  wasteload  4.  in  stream  would  paper  p r e d i c t e d D.O. figure  of  the  c o n t r i b u t e d by  for different  results  load  a  determined  Paraiba.  total  value.  produced  i t was  Campos;  of  presented  above  and  Given  levels  model is  BOD  .  critical  the  level  along  reservoirs  Nacional  a  which  D.O.  BOD  augmentation  the at  Sao  through  by  1980,  of  combinations  Departamento  and  done  as  account,  SimaoCpulp  simulated  the  experienced  taken  Paraiba,  i s shown  two  on  another  the  of  which  achieved by  the  at  temperature  s i m u l a t i o n model,  industries.  also  based  of  of  scheme  were be  city  tonnes  river  into  communities  49  curtailment  1 5  the  tonnes  along  and  have  was  for  maintain  flow  Dam  level  same  ( i ) 50%  urban  in  the  by:  at  other  to  the  5mg/l  curtailed  this  levels  Using  of  Jaguari  -factors  D.O.  in order  (ii)  the  these  3.  standard be  as  a l l  figure  c o n d i t i o n s of  waters  prediction  that,  critical  which  of  water  february  MAPS a n d  compares  on the  treatment  for  reduction,  the  Eletrica Santa  (DNAEE)  Branca  Dam  foregoing  Paraiba  do  Sul  -  JAGUARI SAO JOSE RIVER DOS CAMPOS  SIMAO (IND.)  D.O.  TAUBATE  CICERO PRADO (IND.)  (mg/f) 10.0 -\  8.0  H  H  6.0  5.0-  4.0  (90% cutback in Jacarei. S.J. dos Campos + Taubate ' 5 0 % cutback at Simao  H  .40% cutback in all cities '50% cutback at Simao situation 1980 without treatment  2.0  H  RIVER 255  215  209  180  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  122 (5)  100 (6)  95  () 7  FIG. 3 - Curves of Dissolved Oxygen Obtained with Application of the MAPS Simulation Model Source: CETESB. Alternativas para a Preservacao da Qualidade das Aquas do Rio Paraiba do Sul - Trecho Paulista, 1976, p. 52.  1 (8)  KM  D.O. (mg/f)  SIMAC (INO.)  JAGUARI RIVER  SAOJOSE DOS CAMPOS  CICERO PRAOO (IND.)  10.0  RIVER KM FIG. 4 - Dissolved Oxygen Simulation Curve for BOD Cutbacks of 9 0 % at Sao Jose dos Campos, 5 0 % at Simao, and 4 0 % at all other cities. Source: CETESB. Alternativas para a Preservacao da Qualidade das Aquas do Rio Paraiba do Sul - Trecho Paulista, 1976, p. 73.  43  analysis is  a  indicates  least-cost  Paraiba  River,  treatment  might load  cost  is  next  C.  when  also  of  reduction  flow  scheme  t h e D.O.  for  standard  augmentation  since  -- t h e m e c h a n i c a l  be c o n s i d e r e d ,  to  scheme  achieve  BOD  and  section  the  the design  standards  of t h i s  chapter  AND  PROBLEM  D.O.  and  1980  f o r the effluent  TO  of a  cost  system  parameters.  that The  problem.  PRESENTED TO  least-  f o r the Paraiba.  of these  SYSTEM  a  the  are interrelated i t  least  this  river  whether  i s indeed  levels  addresses  A LEAST-COST  to determine  above  f o r both  OPPORTUNITIES  a e r a t i o n of the  standard  coliform  the  CONSTRAINTS  i n order  mentioned  fecal  to consider  realize  BACTERIA  load  to achieve  costs  curtailment  necessary  will  system  alternative  system  However,  t h e BOD  are considered.  Another  BOD  that  BY  THE  ACHIEVE  COLIFORM THE  D.O.  STANDARD  Arceivala(1981:820) concentrations  generally  coliforms/100ml, 1000  states  and  i f they  coliforms/100ml,  required  are  the  Paraiba  and  1000  on  River,  where  a r e t o be  of  count  respectively,  required  would  also  (i)  that  chlorination  be  present of  reduced,  on  is  primary  s  to  coliform  removal  5000  efficiencies  count •  and  and  For  fecal  efficiencies  of 99.9% and h i g h e r .  effluent,  9  coliforms/100ml  removal  removal  10  for instance, to  coliform  coliform  the order  such  10  coliform  t o 99.999% and h i g h e r . "  f o r the t o t a l  coliform  alternatives  99.9  sewage  around  coliform  the standard  coliforms/100ml  "raw  average  the  the order  that  efficiency ( i i )  Two are:  secondary  44  treatment  by  While  stabilization  chlorination  acceptable  levels  of  BOD  would  be  removal  municipal in by  terms  sewage, of  stabilization  (1981:790) coliform  says  climates.  CETESB  problems system  to deal  in  the  the  municipalities.  municipalities,  1 6  1 7  tonnes  i f only  1980,  a  of  by  BOD  under  the  would,  of  use  this in 40%  than  system  Indeed,  Arceivala  IX).  by  the  chlorine  need  specified to  be  warm  municipal  and  economic  bacteria  and  the  D.O.  least  cost  coliform  of  BOD  In  and  lagoons  3,687  4.  by  a l l  other  the  tonnes  with  of  These  distributed  as  45 27  by  22,119  words,  d i s c h a r g e of  in Figure  D.O.  through  in comparison  appropriately  in  of  Therefore, a  a  high  technical  fecal  permit  their  economically  treatment  realized.  would  to  an  d i s c h a r g e of  result  were  , due  1 6  municipal dischargers instead  assumptions course,  would  removal  treatment  removal a  the  secondary  with  facultative  90%  of  favourably  coliform  of  40%  compare  not  best  for  that  does  Basin.  technology,  1980,  least-cost other  the  standard  Assuming  of  that  time  in  treatment  constitute  i s the  both  same  result  primary  desinfection  agrees  would  the  lagoons  may  lagoons  the  at  Table  Paraiba River  involve  application  to  with  for achieving  would  (see  also  facultative  alternative  capita"  facultative  alternative  by  per  efficiency,  1 7  by  alternative  cost  that  effluent  removal  achieved  ponds  removal  primary  coliform  feasible  sewage  of  this  "average  ponds.  of  tonnes tonnes  discharges along  F a c u l t a t i v e lagoons are stabilization ponds in which a e r o b i c and a n a e r o b i c c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t CETESB. A l t e r n a t i v a s p a r a a P r e s e r v a c a o da Q u a l i d a d e da do R i o P a r a i b a d o S u l - T r e c h o P a u l i s t a , 1976, p.74.  the  both Agua  45  Table  IX  -  Per  Capita Cost  Treatment  Treatment  Estimates  for  Alternative  Wastewater  Technologies  Technology  BOD R e m o v a l  Average  Efficiency  Per  Cost  Capita  (US$)  % A n a e r o b i c Lagoons Combination of Anaerobic/ Aerobic  Lagoons  Facultative Aerated  Lagoons  Aerobic  Aeration  Lagoons  Pond  Conventional  40  to  70  0.5  to  1.0  1.5  to  3.0  90  to  95  80  to  95  2.0  to  3.0  90  to  95  2.0  to  4.0  45  to  65  4.0  to  8.0  5.0  to  10.0  Primary  Treatment  30  to  40  Oxidation  Ditch  90  to  95  8.0  to  12.0  Trickling  Filters  80  to  90  15.0  to  20.0  Activated  Sludge  85  to  97  20.0  to  30.0  Source:  CETESB,  1976.  Alternativas Qualidade  das  para a Preservacao Aguas  Trecho P a u l i s t a ,  da  do R i o P a r a i b a do  p.75  Sul  -  46  river  in accord  with  the a s s i m i l a t i v e  sections.  Such  application  of the Streeter-Phelps equations.  Because on  BOD  the order  treat  a distribution  capacities  removal  o f 80  municipal  Paraiba than  would the  simulation Campos.  result  Given  mechanical  the  D.O.  aeration  may  warrant  exceed  the  utilized cost  and  acceptable search  for a  oxygen  levels.  Given coliform  that  bacteria  construction that  separate  of  important solut ion.  when  the and  would to look  D.O.  facultative  fall more  to  closely  then,  on at the  the  date  i f that  the  are  least-  discharges unnecessary  f o r both on  the  the the  treatment  of those  and  treatment  municipalities,  implications  to  dissolved  depends  f o r sewage  to  Mechanical  lagoons  of the standards  lagoons  system  realize  parameters  dos  consider  discharges  BOD  a n d makes  f o r the construction solely  in  reduces  system  realization the  to  future  I n summary,  D.O.  f o r Sao J o s e  facultative  problem  least-cost  some  greater  the  least-cost  result  a l l locations  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  facilities  at  growth  standards  at  by  i n the Paraiba River.  t c the coliform  levels  for a  to  along the  are  i t seems u n n e c e s s a r y  a l l municipalities.  solution  which  indicated  consideration  industrial  lagoons  communities  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e one  standard  ambient  by  as  the  lagoons are  these  reductions  a s an a l t e r n a t i v e  achieve  population  load  of  various  through  in facultative  a l l urban  situation,  aeration  be d e t e r m i n e d  adoption  reductions  with  this  in  i n BOD  required model,  efficiencies  t o 95%, t h e sewage  could  of the  of  i ti s such  a  47  D.  ANALYSIS  FROM URBAN  The urban  OF  solution  to  the  communities  is  most  lagoons  to  load  D.O.  SOLUTION  As  treat  which  we  have  assimilative wasteload  i s greater  capacity  discharge  assimilative  by  using  The  of  sewage  created  point  is  of  50%  at  which  are  5mg/l  along  the  entire  the  loads  that  measures  estimated  and-  that  the  to  be  reduction be  this in  is  treated  figures by  of  the  The of  cause  the  dissolved  organic  the  BOD  ; and  have are  been  ( i i ) taking discharged  discharged  for  Even though, t h i s set of measures results s l i g h t l y below 5mg/l, as seen i n f i g . 3 .  in  the  required. capacity  through  use  of  additional  urban  the  BOD  community  level  the  to  be  difference  under  i f 90%  load  determined  are  oxygen  the  additional  the  every  the  additional  (i) considering at  of by  However,  40%  that  facultative  additional assimilative  derived  8  of  accurately  estimates  the  industrial  reduction  increase  equations.  sewage  1  a  expect  and  would  loads  90%  from  indicated  Simao,  river  discharge  sources.  could  Rough can  an  approximate  i f municipal  capacity  a  discharges  lagoons.  could  for  by  only  available  permit  industrial  study  reduction  between  DISCHARGE  benefit  reduction  one  used  this  assimilative load  SEWAGE  construction  will  the  Streeter-Phelps  facultative  of  than  be  sewage to  the  sewage  Thus,  to  of  likely  the  important  becomes  PROBLEM OF  problem  from  capacity  municipal  purpose  THE  seen,  municipal  p r e d i c t i o n model.  from  TO  COMMUNITIES  dischargers.  BOD  THE  of  D.O.  this the  set BOD  levels  48  load  from  Table  X.  urban Again,  the  total  does  not  were  Table tonnes  X  industries,  with  also,  that  This  expansion  is  the  and,  D.O.  equations for  specific Even  1980, along  the  though  this  change  Paraiba  communities  will  population  growth,  from  those  load  not  in  increase even  communities  estimate in Table  load  is  may  the  total  from  likely  that  not  X  urban to  into  basin  be  that  based  additional  Paraiba expand.  industrial  requiring  any  sources.  It  additional  along  the  BOD/day  the  this  distributed  continue  in  without  the  river  concentration  in on  a  the  of  existing  could  industrial  for  the  only  increase  though,  model  few  of  points.  Streeter-Phelps  assimilative  capacity  river.  i s what  grow.  BOD  implies  from  of  the  the  of  wasteloads  allow  tonnes  the  the  BOD/day,  i s unevenly  of  the  presented.  in  a  of  remember,  reaches  it will  until  BOD  determine  in  presented  figure  organic  prediction  could  of  tonnes  18  is synthesized  additional assimilative capacity  activity  happen  does  Again,  real  Simao,  capacity  totaling  of  exception  to  discharges  i f 90%  actually  an  that  capacity  This  18  therefore,  a  one  This  note  is created.  existing  important  assimilative  the  present  could  the  to  The  industrial  reaches on  reality  that  their  but,  cutbacks  than  BOD/day  discharge  discharge  to  shows  of  important  removed.  smaller  i s removed.  assimilative  correspond  slightly  to  i t is  created  communities  18  communities  the  situation  future  as  Indeed, over  future  though  a  is maintained.  would  the  the  BOD  years 90%  urban load  as  removal  Thus,  part  look  like  communities from  urban  a  function  of  the  of  in  the  BOD  of load  49  Table X -  M u n i c i p a l Organic Loads  (1) Remaining Load f o r a 40% BOD Removal(kg/day)  Municipalities  Guararema Jacarei Sao  Jose  dos  Campos;  Cacapava Taubate Tremembe Pindamonhangaba  for  Different  BOD R e m o v a l  (2) Remaining Load f o r a 90% BOD Removal(kg/day)  ( 1 ) " (2) Created Ass imilative Capacity (kg/day)  199  33  166  2349  391  1958  6565  1094  5471  946  158  788  4129  688  3441  311  52  259  1050  175  875  57  10  47  898  150  748  Guaratingueta  1981  330  1651  Lorena  1547  258  1289  434  72  362  1507  251  1256  16 130  3 22  13 108  Roseira A p a r e c i d a do  Cachoeira Cruzeiro Lavrinhas Queluz  TOTALS  Norte  Paulista  22119  3687  Rates  18432  50  additional  assimilative capacity  communities Table load  from  themselves  as  XI  that,  shows  urban  between  1980  Therefore,  in  communities and  1985,  five  years,  roughly  6%  up  increase  by  an  This  means  have  to  that  BOD  by  be  in  of  limited  river,  used  up  by  Of  which  the  treatment,  option  levels  the  waters  order-to  determine  industries  of  could the  or  the  the  Jaguari the  in  of  of  the  Dam,  D.O.  have  to  consider  set  of  measures.  level the It  be  in  raw of  into  in  relative is  will or  from  the  industrial capacity  materials  higher  Due  to  set  of  the costs  important  turbine  Paraiba.  to  dos In  measures  river, of  the  D.O.  Jose  of  of  turbine low  Sao  the  of  a or  levels  River,  below  or  used  curtailed  load  installation  flows  D.O.  basin  certain points  levels  River  be  i n d u s t r i e s have  considered.  Jaguari  to  Paraiba  l e a s t - c o s t measure the  in  29%  capacity  BOD  the  changes  be  will  assimilative  this,  BOD  represent  the  expansion  aeration  to  in  the  the  the  communities.  have  utilization  case  improve  maintain  would  measures  utilized,  urban  BOD/day.  which  urban  will  as  For  include  In  where  of  assimilative  an  long  mechanical  another  would  so  forth.  Campos,  rate,  4761kg  expansion  increase  course,  may  processes  devices  to  the  sources  exceeded.  is  those  remaining  the  approximately  BOD/day  from  the  i s not  aeration  by  removal by  3687  of  industrial  river  of  from  up  grows.  BOD  increase  load  industrial  aeration  which  BOD  occur  so  90%  1074kg  always  and  a  will  can  industrial effluent  for  that to  from  options  used  population  i.e.  the  communities.  the  be  additional assimilative capacity  either  amount  activities  range  the  loads  the  urban  of  of  their  will  each  the of  remember,  Table  XI  -  Municipal Discharges  f o r a 90% BOD R e m o v a l R a t e  -  1980 a n d 1985  1980 Municipality  Guararema  1985  Urban Pop.  BOD L o a d  Urban Pop.  BOD L o a d  Serviced*  (kg/day)  Serviced*  (kg/day)  6143  Jacarei  33  8344  45  72493  391  99042  535  202648  1094  282900  1528  29191  158  35534  192  127450  688  161811  874  9607  52  12314  66  32417  175  38856  210  1760  10  2160  12  27720  150  33970  183  Guaratingueta  61157  330  72250  390  Lorena  47757  258  58637  317  13385  72  15195  82  46518  251  54504  294  480  3  1200  7  Queluz  4000  22  4800  26  TOTALS  682726  3687  881517  4761  Sao  J o s e dos  Campos  Cacapava Taubate Tremembe P i ndamonhangaba Roseira A p a r e c i d a do  Cachoeira  Norte  Paulista  Cruzeiro Lavrinhas  (*)  Based and  on T a b l e  Tables  N o . 19 o f  CEEIVAP -  N o . 2. IX a n d N o . 5 . I I  of  Projeto  Gerencial  Ceeivap -  Projeto  0003/79  -  Gerencial  Relatorio 0001/79  No. 5,  Relatorio  p.  93.  No.l  52  though,  that  substances expansion  other  in of  the  factors water  industrial  such  as  should  activities  be  concentration considered  i n the  of  for  toxic future  basin.  CONCLUSION The and  technical  opportunities  solution  t o water  bacteria  analysis  of water  i n the Paraiba quality  factor.  problems  This  capacity  which  development  in  basin.  addressed a  water  i n the design  quality  River  may  These  program  Basin  for  issues  problems  indicates by  creates  be u s e d  of the p o l i c y  management  management  i s dictated  solution  assimilative  the  quality  the an  further will  mechanism  that  the  coliform additional industrial  need  to  be  f o r implementing  f o r the Paraiba  River  Basin.  53  IV.  A S S E S S M E N T OF  THE  EXISTING  MECHANISM  FOR  WATER  POLLUTION  CONTROL  The  previous  opportunities  chapter  associated  examined  with  water  q u a l i t y problems  in  that  the  technical  least-cost  coliform loads the  than  would  Paraiba  result these  could  counts  be  River.  in  It  also  not  increase  only  them  standard.  the  to  implementation  of  a  Paraiba  basin  River  suitability  for  address.  will  It  problem  solution  created  A.  FINANCIAL  THE  PROBLEM OF  As  we  discharge the  by  be  imposes  seen,  from  urban  construction Even  of  on  could  FOR  the  high  the  ambient for  the  for  the  their  program  burden  but  should  that  the  how  the  solved.  THE  SOLUTION  TO  COMMUNITIES  the the  lagoons  technology  paper  wasteloads  program  a  OF  along  would  determine  such  BOD for  and  mechanisms  MUNICIPALITIES  to  of  because  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  FROM URBAN  fecal  solution  violating  be  facultative  concluded  standard a  possibly  solution  It  pulp  financial the  the  dischargers  to  problems  the  communities  though  such  examined  the  burden  the  D.O.  q u a l i t y management  SEWAGE D I S C H A R G E  have  communities.  policy  s o l u t i o n of  reduction  present  chapter,  with  IMPLICATIONS  their  and  the  Simao  without  examine  that  of  extent  will  dealing  the  industrial  exception  water  also  to  to  that  problems  Basin.  greater  achieve  concluded  some  this  technical  to  in  discharge  In  River  solution  results  potential benefits  could  technical  Paraiba  necessary  dischargers(with  mill)  DO  bacteria  the  the  the  for  problem Paraiba  of  sewage  consists  in  each  of  the  construction  of  those of  54  facultative  lagoons  is  economical  solution,  facilities  requires  important  to  treatment the  the  the  program  for  construction  of  who  available  construction  quite  examine  municipalities,  readily  substantial  economic the  those  implications  local  to  of  residents  take  represents  of  who  Thus,  such have  initiative  a  i t is sewage  to  facilities, the  an  treatment  investments.  treatment  have  and  pay  for  and to  for  build  those  facilities. The is  necessary  presented  in  inhabitant  ratio  population  and  ratios  vary  appears  to  In  to  In  the 1982  Cr$20,198.00 amortization rate  of  of  80%  case,  goals  of  the  the  cruzeiros, or of  found but  total  approximately this  the  amortization  by  each  monthly.  This  cost  amount  to  be  inhabitant monthly  communities  which  20 set  kind  investments  total  aim  for  population.  per  US$130.00. over  sewage  the  cost  years  If at  aside  for  population. a  we  figure  ratio  consider annual  annually  represents  serviced  This  inhabitant  an  in  sanitation.  i s approximately  figure  ratio  of  any  part  capital  these  those  further  guidelines  per  for  require  urban  though  occurs  those  of  cost  representative  have  projects  federal  the  for  a  project-serviced  Even  it  not  communities  shows  the  most  that  do  urban  table  using  the  given  treatment  20%,  US$2.25  to  appropriate  of  the  investments.  effluents an  of  same  calculated  r a t i o s are  their  each The  presently,  a l l sewage  population  was  case  service  Brazil,  XII.  Cr$5800.00,  Lower  for  required  which,  treat  reflects  which  the  be  treatment.  order  Table  from  communities  already  investment  is the  interest for  the  US$27.00,  roughly  2%  of  or  Table  XII  -  Urban Communities  I n v e s t m e n t s and C o s t per I n h a b i t a n t f o r the C o n s t r u c t i o n o f F a c u l t a t i v e l a g o o n s f o r t h e C i t i e s i n t h e P a r a i b a R i v e r B a s i n - Sao P a u l o ( 1 9 7 9 )  Population  (1000  inhabitants)  Urban  Serviced  Potential  BOD L o a d  (kg/day)  Investment (million  Cost/Inhab.  Cr$) (Cr$1000.00)  6  5  250  27  5.4  88  70  3800  409  5.8  230  184  9940  732  3.9  44  35  1900  146  4.2  145  116  6260  678  5.8  Tremembe  11  9  480  24  2.7  Pindamonhangaba  45  36  1950  220  6.1  Aparecida  35  28  1500  164  5.8  Guaratingueta  90  72  3900  421  5.8  Lorena  55  44  2400  39  0.9  2  2  90  15  7.5  18  14  780  180  12.8  57  46  2460  269  5.8  Guarrema Jacarei Sao  J o s e d o s Campos  Cacapava Taubate  do  Norte  Roseira Cachoeira  Paulista  Cruceiro  Source:  CEEIVAP  001/79 -  Relatorio  N o . 2,  p.  42  56  the  minimum  1982. most  Even likely The  monthly though to  wage this  impose  a  Cr$16,608.00  figure  may  of  such  a  very  difficult  municipalities  which  operate  Aparecida  Norte,  do  Taubate.  The  program  would  most  annual  by  respectively, 1980.  It  Campos.  The  represent  worst  budget. a  their  available  to  money to  note  that after in  Taubate the  cost  corresponds  Thus,  systems  municipalities  fact  not  sanitation  and  the  budget  cost  of  to  have  of  such  f o r the  the  the  Jose  dos  where  the  the  1979  investments  municipalities.  access  systems  for  have  municipalities  programs. whose  Paulista  that  that  Sao  217%  of  represents,  Jacarei  of  Cachoeira  burden  the  do  investment  Jacarei  city  i t i s evident  financial by  of  and  estimated m u n i c i p a l budgets  is  1 9  for  the  namely,  an  amortization and  the  Jacarei,  such  portion  Taubate  is  would  for  systems;  of  case  i s worsened own  of  basin,  substantial  situation  federal  50%  i n the  amortization  municipal  operate  and  of  May,  i t  program  problem  Guaratingueta,  annual  cities  i s important  budgets  This  the  30%  largest  annual  The  treatment  own  significant  of  poor.  financial their  as  astronomical,  the  amortization cost  represent a  (US$107.00),  be  sewage  Cruzeiro,  municipalities.  investments  not  some h a r d s h i p on  implementation  represent  of  This are  to  which  subsidized  money  i s only  operated  by  SABESP. The  1 9  apparent  Figures on the Projeto Gerencial no.2, p.18.  solution  for those  municipalities  municipal budgets were t a k e n 0001/79, R e l a t o r i o no.1, p.4.9  from and  operating  CEEIVAP Relatorio  57  their  own  systems  However, they the of  would  authority  would  the local  most  i t seems  municipalities  problems, local  i t  summary,  Paraiba  n o t seem  River  a  water  Basin  would  the assimilative  in  of  face  communities, easing  issue  and  ( i i )  i n t h e burden  charge  the  users.  of the systems  care  of  t o be p o l i t i c a l l y  that  the  from  financial  appealing  tothe  River  existing  previous  quality  management  system  and t o look  OF  we h a v e system  dischargers,  established  I  deficiencies  propose  and, Taking  system to  the  ( i i ) these  for  assess  at alternative of  urban  the  the  systems  former,  i f  are identified.  ASSESSMENT  management  the  chapter;  management  meet,  remedy  from  on t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  water  f o r the  development  discharge  should  deficiencies  system,  industrial  Basin  could  As  to  wasteload  i n the  system  t o a d d r e s s two p r o b l e m s : ( i )  capacity  burden a  management  have  increasing  as indicated  criteria  which  an  the financial  Paraiba  the  take  quality  allocating  B.  would  SABESP.  governments. In  as  local  i n an i n c r e a s e  SABESP  would  to  t o do s o b e c a u s e ( i )  the transference  t o SABESP  does  systems  an i m p o r t a n t  result  since that  their  are reluctant  over  likely  tax-payer,  while  be t o hand  municipalities  lose  action  Thus, the  some  would  THE E X I S T I N G  seen  i n chapter  operates who  WATER  i t  two, t h e e x i s t i n g  through the issuance  have  to  by t h e l e g i s l a t i o n .  although  Q U A L I T Y MANAGEMENT  offers  comply  with  incentives  water  of  a  quality  permits  effluent  It i s essentially  SYSTEM  to  standards regulatory  f o rcompliance with the  58  effluent of  standards  through  a p p l i c a t i o n of  fines  in  the  case  violations. The  permit  calculations to  locate  the not  at  exceeded  other  by  of  words,  other  from  be  we  have  from  urban  grow.  the  i s completely  could  be  were from  set  Even aside  urban  for  used  But,  be how  assimilative has  basin  been  required could  the  capacity  were  90% be  the  no  procedure that  the  reduction  consumed. over  of to  This  time.But,  organic  wasteload as  assimilative capacity  of  over  polluting  standards  the  organic  whenever  the  system  adapt  activities  are  not  to  be  assimilative capacity wasteload  discharges  curtailment  a l l  this  time  more  of  is  allocated  increase  the  The  a  whether  assimilative  means  constant  three,  further  allocated?  ambient  reach,  This  totally  i f ambient  when  by  would  i t was  once  in  It  created  c e r t a i n amount  increases  used.  study.  utilized,  communities,  would  capacity  the  if a  wasteloads up.  in  the  Following  the  on  discharger  specific  until  communities  Therefore,  allowed  violated.  until  in a  activity.  discharges  chapter  populations river  this  i f discharges  in  the  violating  totally  capacity  activities,  seen  discharges  being  municipal  acceptable  river,  granted  for  for  based  calculations indicate  the  be  discharger,  without  polluting  was  assimilative  polluting  would  river  the  possibility  these  proposed  implications  load  to  site  of  would  the  important  BOD  the  permits  additional  as  particular  assimilative capacity  capacity  the  granted  i n d i c a t e the  a  In  procedure,  has  is  which  standards.  for  the  amount to  set  organic aside  increasing  available  existing  of  is  demands  assimilative  management  system  59  would  be  static  unable  to  deal  arrangement  the  future.  which  To  the  present  reductions  by  existing  with  to  do.  effluent  violating  The  might  there  nothing  is  their  wasteloads,  However,  to  legislation is  not  on  for  Because  direct  that  the  be  of  that  substantial  are  municipalities industrial distribution  of  municipalities the  to  created  This  the would to  lion's  not  concentration  of  standards  i t  standards),  are  standards be  would  reduce  imposed. the  state  amended.  result  to  dischargers, by  the  somehow in  in  This higher  appear  additional  the  dischargers  not  fair  capacity  basin  from  that  the  could  pay share  significantly the of  costs the  of tax  improve  will  the  impose  increase from  in the  However,  capability  treatment  revenues  the  Certainly,  result  the  any  because  additional assimilative capacity. not  municipal  without  municipalities. benefit  the  the  treating  other  does  upon  would  are  ambient  to  very  compliance  make d i s c h a r g e r s  additional assimilative  activities  benefits  because  granted  distributed  costs  on  be  state.  capacity  would  would  to  have  in  require  the  c o n t r o l would  entire  to  of  effluent  since  this  the  effluent  higher  compensation.  creation  higher  have  a  wasteload  i f dischargers  though  done  in  based  therefore,  be  happen,  permits  is  i t is  conditions  would But,  violation  can  unless  to  system  (even  nature  increases  system  and,  causing  pollution  assimilative effluents  existing  By  changed  dischargers.  introduce  likely  standards  these  be  to  future  management  standards  discharges  situations.  adapt  with  standards  these  such  cannot  deal  discharges,  difficult  with  of  facilities  generated  by  60  industries  belong  municipalities. ability  to  compensate  The  provide  t h e sewage  and,  ultimately,  in  n o t seem  the organic  of  system  the  governments,  f o r the  system  creation  of  ease  imposes  existing  to help  effluents.  problems.  Therefore,  management  systems  which  the  would  additional  on t h e  burden  municipalities  tax-payers. water  the a b i l i t y  f o rthe Paraiba  the  the financial  quality  t o adapt  i t  which  future  Basin  a water  must  be  quality  be a b l e  able  increases  pay o f f t h e c o s t s management  to address  i s worthwhile t o look might  system  and t o provide f o r  municipalities  Indeed,  River  management  to  w a s t e l o a d s from m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  their  not to  lacks  arrangements  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  arrangements  treating  financial  the local  t o have  and state  management  treatment program  summary,  financial  for  capacity  that  does  existing  municipalities  assimilative  In  to the federal  to  both  at alternative overcome  these  problems.  C.  ALTERNATIVE  SYSTEM  APPROACHES TO T H E WATER  FOR T H E P A R A I B A  In  selecting  management  system  for  h a s been  the  financial  burden  of  adapting  to  fully  concern.  the  given  imposed  These  were  studied.  t o t h e water  River  t o t h e need  for  when  offer  These  promise  to  a n d t o be  BOD a s s i m i l a t i v e  considerations  quality  examination,  f o r the system  on m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  Two m e c h a n i s m s t h a t  requirements  approaches  Paraiba  conditions  utilized.  MANAGEMENT  BASIN  alternative  consideration  being  RIVER  QUALITY  were  capable  capacity i s  of  paramount  of f u l f i l l i n g  are the effluent  limit  charge  these system  61  and  a  system  1.  that  permits  EFFLUENT  CHARGES  Economists reduction The  can  basic  the of  be  idea  pollution control  claim  pollution waste  can  problem  because  monetary  terms. that  water  be to  Paraiba  To  to  reduce  met. the  a  decision  in  discharger  should  this  him  to  is  his  wasteload  way  decide  discharge  an  sense,  charge  would  of  his  through  the  that  to  effluent  the  wasteload  not and  alternative  it pay  benefits  is and  to  waste  standards  could system  already  be  easily  for  adjust  That  i s more  economical  methods.  This  the  exist.  would  charge  in  charges  costs.  the  of  generally  the  charges  waste  practical  incentive  discharger his  a  the  that  from  estimation  it  standards  each  or  by  management  minimize  whether  caused  established  point  unit  socially  benefits  presents  economic  from  each  the  the  of  pollution  that  problem,  quality  set,  as  to  for  induce  measuring  be  system.  result  charge  implies  waste  level  of  that  However,  standards provide  a  damages  this  given  a  This  overcome  Basin,  such  that would  difficulty  discharges  In  that  cost  .  of  optimal  social  improvement  e x i s t i n g water  River  Once  the  level  benefits  and  permits  e f f l u e n t charge  total  (or  quality  of  as  to  set  discharge  socially  calculated.  ambient  designed  producers  be  a  activity be  an  social  improvement  from  added  total  pollution.  of  using  the  level  benefits  would  the  when  of  appropriate  is  can  discharges)  so  by  there  control  quality  assumed  to  an  discharged  optimal water  induced  happens  i s equal  transfer  that  i s that  which  the  is,  than way,  his each for  reduce the  62  appropriate would  level  be  achieved  With  regard  counts  must  be  of with  to  s i n g l e method  at  a l l l o c a t i o n s to ambient  utilized  to  and and  financial  burden  would until  If,  after  industrial  by  of  this  violation option it  is  be  more  charge  of  but  BOD  the  to  efficient  effluent would would  be  charge greater  not  no  need  only  by to  period  This  system  were  standard  the  charges a  than  the  system  be  on  under paying  had  would  be  the  be  levels, and,  to  a  meet  in  of  that  the  assimilative entirely  result  in  charge  been  by  result  mean  BOD  developed  by  strong system.  fully  order  remaining  would  meet  charge  utilized to  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would  avoid have  no  loads  since  that  would  lagoons. likely  their  cost  be  opposed  pollution  alternative for  as  borne  imposed  their  because  to  in discharges  would  be  by  loadings  charges  effluent  be  cost  coliform  place  facultative too  BOD  effluent  likely  an  the  an  increase  would  technology  dischargers  than  to  least  a d d i t i o n a l BOD  would  coliform  a l l municipalities  This the  standards)  i s necessary  impose  took  growth.  at  reduces  fecal  assimilative capacity  u n l i k e l y that  Industrial  for  substantial  growth  that  Should  built  the  fecal  achieved  than  be  supplying  D.O.  pay  be  extent  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , to  the  effluent  be a  discharges,  D.O..  would  by  society.  lagoons)  standard  municipalities.  opposition,  an  for  to  can  municipalities  population  during  cost  this  greater  the  there  industries  the  a  lagoons  standard  capacity  and  (reflected  waste  (facultative  achieve  consequently, D.O.  municipal  standard  facultative  the  minimum  reduced  a  the  pollution  of  systems, waste  to  an  control  costs  since  they  reduction  but,  63  also,  would  they  chose  that  whereas  costs  to  could  be In  be  meet  and  the  2.  TRANSFERABLE  system  board.  market,  they  such  either  a  way  a  the  the  net  charges  paid  would  charge  place  much  of  the  probably  be  regarded  raising  fecal  could  and  would  the  system  D.O.  municipal  system  coliform burden  taxes  as to  impracticable.  Dales'  0  permits  approach  marketed  by  pollution effect  of  his  total  (TDP)  he are  an  calls  of  first of  a  priced  the water  in  effluent  his decision  cost  was  consists  what  rights  discharger adjust  the  charge  to  pollute  treatment  plus  permits.  system  of  fixed  of  the  noted  PERMITS  same  minimize  be  ,  the  that  purpose.  discharge 2  these  c a p a c i t y of  Because  make  because  the  of  should  greater  effluent  burden  rights  assimilative amount  system  Dales.  have  to  or  an  wasteload  It  be  minimum  DISCHARGE  every  as  charges  In  H.  would  waterway.  achieve  likely  Because  make  that  This  pollution  control  remaining  social  transferable  John  of  would  of  a  difficulty  would  the  the  at  other  this  costs  selling  be  would  However,  by  into  i t appears  the  developed  in  some  that  on  d i s c h a r g e r s would  municipalities.  A  and  to  would  for  brief,  charges  discharge  costs  used  inequitable  0  to  devised  upon  paying  society  standards.  2  be  permits  assimilative  transferable a  waterway  which  would  would be  c a p a c i t y of  J o h n H. Dales. Pollution, Toronto Press, 1968.  discharge  property  be  translated  allocated  a  waterway  &  permits  rights.  into  the a  to d i s c h a r g e r s . i s determined  University  by  of  64  variable  factors  constant  over  violated  i n any  should  be  time.  of  the  that  and  waterway once  the  permits so,  a  TDP  assimilative  should  involves  be  allocated  would  allocation all  necessary  of  the  costs  and,  minimize  be  waterway of  flow,  number  becomes  of  obvious  allocated,  upon  a  free  a  the  reduction  Reduction  in  the  c e r t a i n number  to  adapt  the  to  use  of By  changes  efficient  assimilative about  two  equity.  groups,  municipality questions to  market  be would  permits.  perfect  in  of  the  costs.  capacity That  much  much  to  how  much  should  be  and and,  take  industry? yet,  care  However,  This  i s , how  how  considered.  would  among  and  knowledge  therefore, these  to  potential dischargers.  encourages  is  discharge have  It  municipalities  difficult  the  to  a  not  assimilative capacity  dependent  would  of  not  total  is totally  i s able  questions  system  be  sold  the  very TDP  are  is  waterway.  individual  that  to  a  each  dischargers  control  of  these  of  the  dischargers.  only  also,  Within  if a  would  be  not  to  to  say  then  the  conditions.  dischargers  allocated  indeed  answered  but,  allocation  industries?  are  system  capacity  dischargers  to  i t  conditions  Thus,  limited  existing  could  loadings  The  of  standards  critical  factors.  critical  existing  which  i f ambient  the  be  temperature,  assimilative capacity  dischargers  wasteloads  waste  for  and  assimilative capacity  new  of  flow  the  other  for  the of  wasteload  doing  instance  a v a i l a b l e should  existence in  as  However,  calculated  temperature, permits  such  An of  this  of  they  an  These must  economist efficient  assumes  their  buy  as  also  assumes  be  that  pollution  many p e r m i t s that  as  there  65  is  perfect  the  competition  market  is  assumptions, discharge  we  most  should  permits.  assumptions,  among  i t  p o t e n t i a l permit  likely  t r y to find Even  may  i f  not  of  permits  considerations  have  t o be made  economic  allocation criteria  applied,  as  programs In  the case to  dischargers charged  financial  an  to  the  socially  among  If  have  when  possible  River  Basin,  equity  a  system  these  desirable  dischargers,  market  the  under  dischargers. to  these  allocate  operated  order  a  socially other  have  need  than  to  be  f o r subsidy  This,  effects  as w e l l ,  initial  allocation  The entirely  TDP  would  i n d u s t r i e s which could  should  described  to Dales'  pollution  in  may have  would  be  Such  the  undesirable to absorb social  i t seems l i k e any  on  system  be  their  with  in  section,  a  problems  undesirable  i s based  were  worsen  n o t be a b l e  Thus,  this  to the  would  faced  not involve  approach,  rights.  several  result  as unemployment.  of permits  system  features:  this  of course,  such  identical  marketable  following  and  which  also  more  If dischargers  municipalities  cost  would  prove  of permits  -of p e r m i t s ,  a l l ,  extra  Industries  f o r some  there.  allocation of  i t may  distribution  located  First  cost  costs.  free  instantaneous  problems.  consequences  of  a  are already  t o emerge.  extra  those  by  of the P a r a i b a  consider  who  with  same  permits  later  f o r the i n i t i a l  likely  faced  in  way  under  market  between  provided  discussed  the  operate  Because  i s indicated.  advisable  are  of  to  another  produce  distribution  desirable  not  buyers.  the  charges. though  not  t h e same  idea  would  have t h e  66  •  coliform  bacteria  counts  would  be  handled  through  regulation; •  the  assimilative  calculated •  BOD  by  capacity  using  loadings  estimated  the  of  on  river  sections  Streeter-Phelps  permitted  based  the  the  in  each  be  equations;  section  assimilative  would  would  capacity  of  be the  section; •  permissible  loadings  dischargers  in  assimilative  would  such  a  capacity  be  way of  allocated  as a  not  to  specific  to  waste  exceed  section  the of  the  river; •  a  waste  sale,  discharger  a l l or  existing be  River  can  municipal  the be  unlikely  it  seems  municipalities  would  system, the  river  a  more  the  sewage be  which among  at  Paraiba  would  This  allocate  dischargers.  standard cost  to  transfer  would  lagoons  This the the  be  Basin  BOD  for  the  through  coliform  River  through  through  loading  Such  technology  that  treatment.  handled  allocated  facultative  efficient  transfer,  an  would  body.  least by  to  discharger.  bacteria  regulation. in  allowed  his  regulatory  appropriate  through  problem  a  discharges  most  for  by  be  of  potential  achieved  that  lagoons  portion  coliform  sewage  is  handled  or  recorded  Because  a  would  would  to  done,  treatment and  that  be  by  the  counts  requiring  adopt  assimilative  it  be a l l  facultative  dissolved  application  of  developed,  bacteria  done  Paraiba  of  oxygen  the  capacity  TDP of  67  To the the  illustrate  Paraiba river  River,  To would  application per  cent  the  other  50  Lack  BOD not  must  work  if to  of  the  system  To  The  Paraiba  assimilative  TDP  system  on  be  that  applied a  to  section  River  permits  and  among With  the  among  loads  (km  permits of a  of  122  technical  data  did  capacity capacity  is  of  this was  allocation  to  With  it  allocate the  former  regard  capacity  of  the  and the  equally  proportion  permits  50  these  be  dischargers, of  to  within  would  direct  this  as  to long  which  the as  would  river  section  located.  for  not  the  dischargers  concentration  source  dischargers  to  capacity  in  between  industries,  acceptable  that  River  permits  to  and  individual  assimilative  of  regard  individual  Paraiba  individual  latter.  assumes  2 1  in  be  assimilative  allocate  actual  allocation  made.  to  the  the  i t wold  total  result  for  municipalities  cent  equations  assimilative  2 1  System  industries,  pollution of  the  application to  the the  Phelps  per  this  does  and  the  of  acceptable  where  TDP  between  of  potential  how  assumes  allocation  exceed  would  below.  The  groups  permits  this  system  application  assumptions  these  groups,  Of  illustrate  municipalities  of  an  TDP  266)  work,  within  the  is presented  Application To  how  the  application  permit  the  section estimated  of  of  the  Streeter-  calculation the  Paraiba  according  P o t e n t i a l BOD load is defined as the gross a c t i v i t y p r o d u c e s i f no t r e a t m e n t i s applied.  of River.  to  load  the  a  a  The  method  certain  68  described capacity  below. so  can  only  lack  of  derived be  likely as  the  to  (including and  be  an  method  was  derived  D.O.  level  in Figure Using  from  presented  in  Table  following  the  method  section  of  day.  industries  the  be  capacity,  gross  of  1980,  BOD of  the  per BOD  per  the  given  treatment load  from  and  day.  entitlements  to  BOD the  these  of  of  conditions meet  the  despite  the  this  river  total  this  loading  application  invalidated.  ( i ) the  the  river it  they  load total  the  Table  was  was  BOD  load  section)  for  to  the  40%  of  from  Simao.  which  result  ambient  This in  a  standard,  industrial XIV,  the  found  was  each  and  above,  as  that  municipalities  and  per  the  each  be  allowed  to  16,565kg  of  BOD  day.  both  from would  be of  be  were  to  a  However,  24,166kg  of  28,177kg  exceeding  their  the  under  river,  lagoons  applied,  reduced  of  discharge  industries is  if facultative  discharges would  per  cent  municipalities is load  capacity of  would  BOD  and  kilograms  fifty  However,  discharges  33,131  allocated  from  loads  respectively,  be  assimilative capacity  municipal  BOD  assimilative  to  assumed  Therefore,  conditions. of  section  of  and  approximately  total  day  not  corresponding  municipal  described  assimilative  in  set  XIII  Since  would  load  load  this  3. f i g u r e s on  per  are  between  roughly  the  BOD  this  assimilative  However,  industries in  BOD  the  the  inaccurate,  herein  of  50%  can  on  illustration.  of  plus  which  be  difference  amount  loadings  this  to  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  ( i i ) the  figure  conclusions  the  municipal  of  the  assimilative capacity  assumed  shown  is  taken  accuracy,  The  1980  Because  only  the  for  the  total  BOD  2,417kg  of  69  Table  XIII  -  M u n i c i p a l Gross  BOD L o a d s  f o r 1980,  BOD L o a d s Municipalities  Guararema Jacarei Sao J o s e d o s Cacapava Taubate Tremembe  Campos  1985,  a n d 1990  (kg/day)  1980  1985  1990  332 3915 10942 1576 6882 519  451 5348 15277 1919 8738  573 7307 21326 2336 11094 852  665  70  Table  XIV  -  List  of  Industries  and t h e i r  L o a d i n g s i n R e a c h Km 122  INDUSTRIES Simao Inquibras Henkel Lavalpa Rhodia ( J a c a r e i ) Fo s a n i l R h o d i a ( S . J . Campos) General Motors Petroleo B r a s i l e i r o Johnson & Johnson Monsanto lbrape Mecrom Frigovalpa C o o p . L a t . S . J . Campos Matarazzo Tecelagem Kodak Nestle Mafersa  Paraiba  F o r d do B r a s i l Jose Vicente Capeleto V o l k s w a g e n do B r a s i l Mecanica Pesada Disfran ., Moge F e c u l a r i a Bela V i s t a F e c u l a r i a Valdemar V i l a l t a Fab. Fainha N i c i a G. V i l a r t a Fab. Farinha J . Mulato Comevap Diamond Schamrock F e c u l a r i a Caldas Schrader E m b r a e r ( S . J . Campos) G r a n j a I t a m b i ( S . J . Campos) Sao P a u l o A l p a r g a t a s V i g o r ( S . J . Campos)  (S.J.Campos)  TOTALS Source:  Potential  t o 266  a n d D i s c h a r g e d BOD  (1980)  GENERATED  PRESENT  Kg  CUTBACK  BOD/day  19,092 3,730 3,520 1,570 275 241 3,805 1,080 1,008 867 768 659 483 349 310 177 166 153 1,911 74 4,148 264 700 255 134 105 90 88 83 79 66 165 120 101 464 452 141 103 .  DISCHARGE (%)  _  Projeto  G e r e n c i a l 0001/79,  BOD/da^  19,092 3,370 139 785 163 iso 1,862 54 144 66 58 82 338 62 31 147 166 46 191 31 55 56 56 26 21 73 90 62 83 55 26 26 84 41 16 17 24 29  -96 50 41 38 51 95 86 92 92 88 30 82 90 17  —  70 90 58 99 79 92 90 84 30  —  30  —  30 61 84 30 60 97 96 83 72  47,796 CEEIVAP p.2.2.24  Kg  28,177 Relatorio,  N o . 1,  Plate  2.V  71  BOD  per  day,  rate.  In  Under  match  as  total on  discharge  presently,  effluents  than  what  done the  be  greater  they  a  entitlements  are  receiving  permits  charged  price  a  industries treating  that  their  After  permits.  a  This  be  removal  day  be  have  permits.  to  need,  can  would  11,612  able  permits of  the  an  this  fifty  among industry  than  that  an  transfer, in order  what  to  the  from  than this  permit  of  those  would  the  be  is  entitled  discharging  treating  could  existing  treating less  present  BOD  would  be  take  care  industries  needs.  serve  their  i t s  for  permits  redistribution  which with  of  entity  their  a  count  same  permits  industrires,  that  to discharge  this  the  are not  able  body,  cent  which  t o be  were of  is  permits  allocation  per  i t  industry  industries  industry  would  with  complied  The  of  whose  industries  scheme  could  t o compensate  be  those  l e g i s l a t i o n and  were  effluents.  this  industries,  per  short  up  larger  per  BOD  industries  river  whereby  initial  regualtory of  the  hand,  end  the  redistribution  be  would  of  load  fact  need  Because  by  of  created  might  of  BOD  municipalities  would  that  number  the other  their  while  cent  load.  the  to the  On  loadings.  Thus,  per  kilogram  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  a  due  effluent.  one  municipalities  capacity  might  ninety  industries  BOD  during  assimilative  to  permit.  a  a l l the permits  Depending  situation  system  system,  sale,  allocated  assuming  permits,  t h e TDP  their  TDP  one  unused  through  1980,  the  translated 14,148  in  first number  need  redistribution of  would  industries amount  to  of would  11,612  permits still  permits  be  amongst i n need  which  of  could  72  be  transferred  through  sale.  facultative cost  which  any  other  words, of  This  is  interested  the  market  permits  permits  could  basin be  and  kept  expected 1990,  to  be  reducing  which  is  one  unit  by  sewage the  53  a  equal of per  municipalities  of  be  wanted in  able  to  be  BOD  to  of  finance  costs  facilities.  their  to  the  sewage  a  from other  one  unit  industries  would  rather  permits  BOD  per  than  loads  day  for for  the  These in  the or  which  are  1985  and  1980.  industries  for  municipalities  of  be  able by  revenues  industries treatment  the the  activities,  incurred  the  from  day.  BOD  might  to  locating  their  to  they  Thus,  for  In  withhold  the  cent  BOD  result  reduce  load  sold  municipalities  permits  of  per  the  cost  the  to  expand  BOD  that  methods.  municipal  of  would  the  can  industries to  of  industries.  11,612  BOD,  treatment  sale  the  new  addition  unit  municipalities  2,536kg  1,932kg  to  the  industries,  assumption  wliich would  other  a l l  to  the  consequently,  to  permit  one  from  increases and  reduce  lagoons  still  sold  which  in  that  approximately the  be  832kg  respectively,  price  would  equivalent  future  Assuming a  former  the  to  through  sold  to  on  that  and,  permits  loadings  industries for  than  cost  buying  either  to  facultative  municipalities  industries,  based  available  that  BOD  is  able  smaller  minimum  in  their  If  are  technology  a  municipalities  hypothesis  always  with  reducing  the  lagoons  i t assumes  BOD  be  from  costs.  to  recoup  building generated  would  help  73  Analysis  The  system  122  and  would  assimilative  of  266  capacity  program  achieving  the  important  of  the  application  each  of  producing  is  that  The  sold  of  there  measures transfer go way  to  a as  by  bacteria  capacity.  could of  to  counts  located  order be  which  pay  is  price  indeed  of  the  of  the  the  costs  necessary  for  bacteria.  lagoons  are  this  might  equals  One  a  least-  assumption, recoup  53  facilities  if  the  cost  of  in  Figure  1  and  treatment  which  that  municipalities  part  Under  sewage  between  allocation  coliform  fund  avoid  oxygen  between be  sewage  are  to  from which  kilometers no  demand  this  there  is  with  First,  reach  would  no  demand  revenues  discrepancies  then,  to  be  between  two  high  river.  be  able  to  assimilative alternative  generated  by  industries  administered the  s t i l l  since  not  for  the  100  would  entire  problem,  3  assimilative  reach,  the  municipalities would,  that  along  this  the  for  facilities  within  observed  deal  presented  treatment  within  since  taken.  permits  single  indicates  municipalities  municipalities  permits, In  to  loads.  that  would  built  their  BOD  building  that  need  market  used  for  section  provide  facultative  dissolved  Nevertheless,  Municipalities  that  a  the  permit.  capacity.  coliform  be  standard  for  River  and  treatment  of  however,  be  river  reducing  for  efficient  would  was  costs  (approximately)  to  the  System  system  an  indicates  curve  indicates,  the. P a r a i b a  sewage  for  the  permit  of  which  TDP  TDP  the  of  assumption  technology  The  of  ambient  cost  cent  Of  encourage  financial help a  per  Evaluation  application  kilometers  with  And  in  the would  such  capability  a of  74  municipalities fund  could  able the  to TDP In  it  state  out  sewage  treatment  by  an  municipalities  of  the  and  their  the  administered  grants  market  federal for  permits  entity  formed  Paraiba  governments  those  program.  shortly  after  by  River  the  an  Basin.  could  municipalities  This  provide  which  were  not  implementation  of  system. the  application  also  capacity  of  the  river  that  to  could  fifty be  the  and  capacity  municipalities,  system per  of  to  which,  sharing  the  industries  the  would  the  Different  pollution If,  would  have  control  costs  allocated  a l l the  and  sharing  for'example,  were  bear  River  assimilative  however,  of  river  Paraiba  municipalities  industries.  industries.  of  to  cent  allocated  devised  upon  municipalities  TDP  the  be  effects  assimilative  the  would  fifty  arrangements different  of  assumed  other  between  be  the  and  was  the  of  the  subsidies  carry  possibly  association Second,  to  costs  a l l  the  to  the  of  waste  reduct ion. Although the  river  among are  as  need  a  essential  River.  One  changes  in  capacity  of  to  to of  the a  assimilative  TDP  system  the  virtue  the  in  is  the  is  increases  seems  would  quality  ability When, fully in  existing  capacity  differences  which  water  river  the  of  system  wasteloads.  handle  reductions  for  function  dischargers,  realization  able  the  have  likely  the the  the  utilized  the  system  potential  wasteloads  wasteloads  in  such  a  location that  about  the  for  the  to  the  along  virtues  bring  system  future,  vary  relative  standards  of in  to  in  may  Paraiba  adapt  to  assimilative will by  way  still  be  inducing as  to  keep  75  the  total  By  doing  wasteload so,  allocation virtue  the  system  to the river  would  of the a s s i m i l a t i v e  of  revenues  discharged  the  TDP  burden  system  on  inducing  capacity is  f o r the municipalities  financial  be  the  constant  over  an  efficient  of the r i v e r . potential  time.  The  other  f o r generating  and, consequently,  reducing  the  them.  Conclusion  The  application  indicates  that  criteria  established  (i)  this  the a b i l i t y  finance deal  their with  To the  make  important allocate and  equally  municipalities potential  BOD  allocations devised pollution of  not  assumptions  50%  acceptable  control  permits  to  the  chapter,  help  waste  work,  two  namely:  municipalities  loads  (i)  to  from  both  of  this  i t  industries  system  for  was  be  The d e c i s i o n left  Two  acceptable  to  to their different  of the r i v e r  concerning  t o a government  be  individual  above,  different  to  municipalities  proportion  out  have  made  and, ( i i ) i t would  direct  however, costs.  to  permits  capacity  would  be  permits  pointed  were  application.  would  those in  TDPs'  assumptions  industries;  allocate  As  a  several  invalidate  the  how  the a s s i m i l a t i v e  should  meet  River  and, ( i i ) the a b i l i t y  in  number  to  loads.  which,  to  of t h i s  facilities;  were:  to  and  of  able  revenues  to illustrate  would  do  other  to the Paraiba  industries.  50% o f t h e t o t a l  the  be  increases  River  however,  system  the begining  treatment  and  TDP  would  generate  i t possible  Paraiba  which,  in  future  municipalities  the  system  to  own  of  could  effects  be  upon  the a l l o c a t i o n  agency  or a  water  76  control by  board  should  i t s decision.  quality goes  who  Because  management  beyond  himself  recognizes  the that  of t h i s  comments  even  management  adequate  organizational  design some  are  not  may  o n how  not  in itself, the  appropriate produce  f o r water  The  f o r water  and because i t  author  will  limit  However,  the  author  mechanism  the  expected  for  water  results i f  f o r i t s implementation existing  quality  problems  affected  of i n s t i t u t i o n s  above.  arrangements  those  to the p a r t i e s  thesis,  provided.  of i n s t i t u t i o n s  insights  of study  made  t h e most  quality  operation  the design  i s an a r e a  the scope  to  be a c c o u n t a b l e  literature  management  should  be  may  addressed.  and  on t h e provide  77  V.  Several Paraiba  by  the  defined  studies  River  associated  and data  indicate  with  of  counts. the  presence  in  exclusively  associated  amount  raw  coliform  discharges, loads The problems  the  low l e v e l s of both  reveals  lagoons  could  reduce  their  which  may  include  lagoons  the  of  These  problems are  input  oxygen  through  mechanical  aeration  of  a dissolved  oxygen  model  levels  load  sections  of the r i v e r .  This  means  capacity  f o r BOD  i s created  which  activities  generating  BOD  could loads.  to  have  wastes  while  range  effluent  sewage  above  that  While  would  curtailment  well  large high  municipal mostly  by  these  two  discharges.  f o r the Paraiba  to rise  animal  the  with  devices  municipal  i n a BOD  given  are caused  a wide  changes,  counts  i t i s almost  solutions  their  coliform  and  River  be a s s o c i a t e d  technical  material  human  the r i v e r .  and i n d u s t r i a l  result  other  into  high bacteria  excrement,  municipalities  treatment  oxygen  both  Paraiba  can, then,  loads  and  coliform or  the  would  dissolved  oxygen  high  for treating  BOD  are  and i n d u s t r i e s .  human  the  problems  i n the river  of d i s s o l v e d  that  quality  i n the  dumped  discharged  of  quality  wastes  of  municipal  analysis  installation  organic  either  with  counts  facultative  However,  case  on w a t e r  water  dissolved  of  sewage  bacteria  available  Although  excrement,  of  CONCLUSIONS  major  communities  by low l e v e l s  indicate  to  that  biodegradable  urban  bacteria  BOD  GENERAL  to  industries  of  measures  treatment,  or  in  the  by  facultative  which,  River,  additional  river.  according  would  the standard  possibly  adopt  cause i n most  assimilative  be a l l o c a t e d  to  78  Although sewage  facultative  discharges  problems  of  investments  necessary  to  heavy  financial  problem  seems  Paraiba  of  to  of  the  a  water  control  municipal  solution  coliform  bacteria,  for  treatment  the  therefore,  program  of  least-cost  those  to  the the  facilities  municipalities. a  which  quality  assessment in  the  of  Paraiba  the  major would  level  by  itself,  to  (specially  in  the  load  growth  i s , to  system  does  the  a  certain  not  burden  treatment  BOD  This  obstacle  bring  to  about  the  for  the  established  facilities.  financial  problem  realization  of  from  for  the  the  future  (i)  water the  increases  in  municipalities,  since  uncontrollable);  and,  was  said  i f they above,  municipalities quality  is  level  a  pollution system BOD  loads  population the  which  had  could  to  build  solution  indeed  is  (ii)  f i n a n c i a l arrangements  as  water  for  that  municipalities,  And,  of  with  extent,  the  system  indicates  deal  provide  upon  existing  River  able,  the  treatment  River.  The  ease  a  build  be,  the  and  f i n a n c i a l burden  implementation  realization  for  provide oxygen  a  not  would  dissolved  represent  the  lagoons  to  the  essential  for  established  for  the  Paraiba. A  system  municipalities of  the  thesis  and  river's to  of  demonstrated  solution  to  transferable industries  BOD  address  application has  of  the  were  assimilative both  discharge  TDP  that  such  problem  system a  to  system of  assigned  capacity  deficiencies  the  each  of a  permits  has  the  would  increasing  fifty  been  existing  reach  of  the  in  which percent  shown  in  this  system.  An  Paraiba  automatically wasteloads,  River  force given  a the  79  fixed  amount  of permits  importantly, overcome sewage would  treatment result  through  total  and  would,  Assuming  the  lower  available  municipalities of permits  section  of the r i v e r recoup  necessary because  what  their  own  sense,  the would  cost  be  to industry  a TDP  system  would  the  would  appeal  unused  ninety  percent use  are entitled  t o be  case,  used  any  be  can  by the  i n one  might  be  investment  facilities.  i f they  to both  of  they  which  to  other  of permits  capital  of  permits.  t o market  at a price be  system  sell  n o t make  be a b l e  in this  would  loadings, industries  by  to  building  estimation  treatment  sold  more  means  the unused  rough  of  sewage  to  r e d u c t i o n than  would  53%  as  in  the marketing  A  much  face  technology  o f BOD  that,  permits  BOD  treatment  indicates  a  they  t o market  municipalities  as  the  capacity  to industries,  build  those  than  this  to  would  per unit  with  ability  municipalities  be a b l e  and,  f e a t u r e of the  load  i s guaranteed.  number  to  would  BOD  sewage  cost  distribution  latter  their  of a s s i m i l a t i v e  consequently,  in a  This  back  treatment,  that  they  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s '  amount  technology  able  problems  cutting  sewage  for  municipalities  facilities.  from  By  the  result  provide  the f i n a n c i a l  permits.  the  would  available  Also,  is  lower  had t o  reduce  economizing.  In  municipalities  and  industries. Although, to  266  shows  f o r 1980,  that  the t o t a l  marketed  i s greater  have  of, the right  need  assimilative  an  than  capacity  analysis number  t h e number  t o buy  of the reach  of  of permits  permits  of the reach  permits  has  where  t o be  kilometer  that  could  industries limited  to  122 be  would the  the buyer(discharger)  80  is  located.  reach that  of  In  the  river  reach.  This  assimilative its  BOD  reaches for  of  the  would  the  a  no  grants  with  commitment  made.  Johnson  pollution and  that  subsidies poor  the  and  control it is  indeed  obtained  cases  are  TDP  due  to  a  system  quality be  In  or  for of  level  would  both  help  the  reduce  in  other  permits  the  river,  where  the  the  may  on  financial However,  case,  federal  the  that  and  necessary.  subsidy  evidence  application design  of  of  the  also of  the  sewage  would  Paraiba  They  state  necessary  a l l countries this  direct  meet  subsidies be  for  providing  contruction  in  say in  by  the  this  indeed  bring  established  entail.  the  direct  and  to  municipalities  pollution  poor  of  of  likely  overcome  help.  to  is  accomplished  program  the  one  used.  partly  argue  from  number  reach  either  be  the  a  to  sale  in  observed to  for  sale  Brown(1976:285) were  in  where  have  for  to  up  would  of  system  clean  tempting  might  results  certain  to  reach  reach  further  TDP  a  each  a  program  permits  for  required  A  on  permits  because  water  necessary  of  assimilative capacity  used  are  would  from  investments  conflict  the  means  need  be  plants.  true  of  that  treatment  subsidies  treatment  totally  is totally  a  may  capital  located  firm  there  This  municipalities  may  a  reality,  indicates  number  the  permits  with  total  exceed  established  sewage  governments  that  In  River.  or  not  though  realization  municipalities  the  i s being  capacity  Paraiba  problem  be  study  the  means  river.  be  assimilative  about  shall  even  should  This  words,  capacity  load  sale  there  other  not if  a  River  is  programs  for  they  studied  alone say  that  that  the  subsidies  in  subsidy  program.  81  In  the  case  either  of  or  the  both  municipalities given  that  dependent this  are  As  was  analysis  The  seems  of  pollutant  it  is a  fact  to provide  discharges  comprehensive  make  of  alternative  generate  wastes.  control  system  zoning, addition  raw  of  material  to a  TDP  One, can  be  system  an  for  applied of  discharge  lagoons of  is  and  that  the  water  framework River  does  not  pollution that  discharge  product  control  imply  that  control. control  apply of  the  pollutant  pollution  may  at  f o r the  consumption  River and  aimed  to c o n t r o l  comprehensive  Paraiba  the  results,  transferable  water  and  specification  system.  sewage  study  instruments  a  to  expected  achievement  f o r water  production  the  of  this  Paraiba  policy  the  from  river.  adequate  system  Therefore, for  the  subsidies  governments  facultative  in  system  a  stages  of  i n the  Indeed,  different  a  state  problem  f o r the  that  that  comprehensive  use  to the  Chapter  mechanisms  discharges. permits  in  direct  to produce  result  established  Basin, and  likely  construction  said  of  very  would  levels  River  federal  solution  the  solution  quality  the  the  on  Paraiba  may  to  the  goods  that  water involve  pollution land  specification,  use in  82  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  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