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Conflict and compromise : a case study of the decision-making process in the Downtown Eastside Huzel, Suzanne Zenovia 1982

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CONFLICT AND COMPROMISE A Case S tudy o f the D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s In The Downtown E a s t s i d e by SUZANNE ZENOVIA HUZEL i B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con fo rm ing to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982 (c) Suzanne Z e n o v i a Huze l , 1982 In present ing th is thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho la r ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l ica t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 • 6 1 1 . ABSTRACT Community p l a n n e r s f r e q u e n t l y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s d e a l i n g w i t h c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e as a r e s u l t o f d i v e r g e n c e o f g o a l s or v a l u e s among the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a ne ighbou rhood d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g roup . Ye t t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y o f t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n the p l a n n i n g f i e l d t h a t examines the dynamic o f the community p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and g i v e s d i r e c t i o n to the p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r . T h i s t h e s i s s u g g e s t s a f ramework o f s a l i e n t e lements f o r s t r u c t u r i n g the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s t h a t may a s s i s t the p l a n n e r i n ove rcoming group c o n f l i c t and i n p romo t i ng agreement . A case s tudy approach i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , i s used to a n a l y s e a c o n t r o v e r s i a l ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n V a n c o u v e r ' s Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a . T h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e conce rned w i t h c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , r o l e of the p l a n n e r , and b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i s r e v i e w e d f o r r e l e v a n t c o n s t r u c t s a p p l i c a b l e to the a n a l y s i s o f the case s t u d y . C o n s t r u c t s j udged to be u s e f u l a re d i v i d e d i n t o s t r u c t u r a l e l emen ts t h a t d e s c r i b e p h y s i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and p r o c e s s e lemen ts t h a t d e s c r i b e the b e h a v i o u r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s . C o n c l u s i o n s drawn s u g g e s t t h a t the l e a d e r s h i p r o l e of the p l a n n e r i s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n ove rcom ing c o n f l i c t and e n c o u r a g i n g a s u c c e s s f u l group d e c i s i o n outcome. The p l a n n e r can e x e r c i s e l e a d e r s h i p by s e c u r i n g a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r the g r o u p , by s e t t i n g a s t r i c t d e a d l i n e f o r agreement and by m e d i a t i n g d i s p u t e s . Fu r the rmore , i . the use o f t i m e l y c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s w i l l e n a b l e the p l a n n e r t o promote agreement by e n c o u r a g i n g a c l i m a t e o f t r u s t and c o o p e r a t i o n i n the g roup . These c o n c l u s i o n s sugges t some improvements to community p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e and a c o n t r i b u t i o n to community p l a n n i n g t h e o r y . iv CHAPTER I: CHAPTER II CHAPTER I I I : CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 .0 Con tex t 3.0 The I s s u e s 4 . 0 Ne ighbourhood Improvement Program 5.0 Methodo logy 6 .0 T h e s i s Format THEORY 1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 .0 T h e o r i e s o f Community D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g 3.0 C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , A u t h o r i t y and I n f1uence 4 . 0 - Ro le o f the P l a n n e r 5 .0 B a r g a i n i n g S t r a t e g i e s 6 .0 Summary CASE STUDY 0 0 3.0 4 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i on I n i t i a t i o n o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s - S tage I I n i t i a t i o n of P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s - S tage II S ummary ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY 1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 .0 The C o n s t r u c t s 3.0 A n a l y s i s o f Case Study 4 . 0 S umma ry CONCLUSIONS 1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 .0 T h e s i s Summary 3.0 R e l e v a n c e of T h e o r e t i c a l L i t e r a t u r e 4 . 0 C o n c l u s i o n s 5 .0 Re levance to P l a n n i n g Knowledge PAGE 1 2 6 9 16 17 21 21 28 31 33 39 45 46 56 68 71 71 74 86 89 89 92 94 96 9 7 101 V LIST OF FIGURES PAGE 1. Map of D o w n t o w n / E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r A rea 1. CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION The experience of neighbourhood or l o c a l area planning suggests that the achievement of community goals i s seldom a simple or l i n e a r process. In a neighbourhood with many c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s , the se v e r a l stages of the planning process, i n c l u d i n g goal f o r m u l a t i o n , i s s u e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , option s e l e c t i o n and implementation represent a s e r i e s of mutual accommodations or compromises reached by the actors i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n -making process. This t h e s i s examines a neighbourhood planning process i n the C i t y of Vancouver. 1.1 PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to examine the planning d e c i s i o n -making process in a neighbourhood with a d i v e r s i t y of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s , i n order to d i s c o v e r the elements that c o n t r i b u t e toward a s u c c e s s f u l outcome. For the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , s u c c e s s f u l outcome w i l l be taken to mean agreement on goals. The t h e s i s employs a case study approach, to analyze a p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l and p r o t r a c t e d segment of a l a r g e r neighbourhood planning process: the planning of a community hea l t h f a c i l i t y . The h e a l t h f a c i l i t y planning process proved to be appropr i a t e f o r a case study, s i n c e i t developed i n t o a microcosm of the t r o u b l e d , c o n f 1 i c t - r i d d e n and c i r c u l a r process of planning that c h a r a c t e r i z e d the whole neighbourhood planning process i n the Downtown Eastside/Oppenheimer area. My personal involvement with t h i s neighbourhood, as a member of the planning s t a f f during part of the health f a c i l i t y planning 2. and the ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , may l e n d t h i s s tudy a l e v e l o f a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l and o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t wou ld be m i s s i n g i n a s tudy by a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t . 2.0 CONTEXT 2.1 L o c a t i o n Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r In o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d the na tu re o f p l a n n i n g i n the a r e a , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to u n d e r s t a n d the h i s t o r i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c , and demo-g r a p h i c c o n t e x t o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The Downtown E a s t s i d e / Oppenheimer a rea i s a s m a l l , m i xed -use downtown n e i g h b o u r h o o d , l o c a t e d i n the n o r t h - e a s t s e c t o r o f the C i t y o f Vancouve r . I t i s b o r d e r e d on the no r th by the w a t e r f r o n t and p o r t , on the sou th by Ch ina town and S t r a t h c o n a , on the west by Gastown and 3. the C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t , and on the e a s t by an i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . The ne ighbou rhood c o n t a i n s a wide v a r i e t y o f l a n d uses c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a s m a l l 22 b l o c k a r e a . Because o f i t s h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n , l a n d u s e s , such as i n d u s t r i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x i s t s i d e by s i d e , w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Wh i l e some c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f uses can be seen i n the c l u s t e r i n g o f r e t a i l and commerc ia l uses a l o n g a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s and i n d u s t r i a l uses a l o n g the w a t e r f r o n t , the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n g e n e r a t e d by the a rea i s one of c o n s i d e r -a b l e l a n d use d i v e r s i t y 2 .2 H i s t o r y The Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r ne ighbou rhood i s one of the o l d e s t and most c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e a reas o f Vancouve r . I t t akes i t s name p a r t i a l l y f rom Oppenheimer P a r k , wh ich i s l o c a t e d at the g e o g r a p h i c h e a r t o f the a r e a , and p a r t i a l l y f rom a name c o i n e d by the Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n ( D . E . R . A . ) . In 1867, C a p t a i n Edward Stamp founded a lumber m i l l , c a l l e d S tamp 's M i l l , on a s p i t o f l a n d i n B u r r a r d I n l e t , at the f o o t o f what i s now Don leavy S t r e e t i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n -he imer a r e a . By the 1 8 8 0 ' s , a s i z a b l e and f l o u r i s h i n g community had grown around the m i l l and had i t s own s c h o o l , pos t o f f i c e , c h u r c h , and hosp i t a l . By the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , however , b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s moved f u r t h e r w e s t , and w i t h them went the more p rominen t f a m i l i e s . Oppenheimer became the home of i m m i g r a n t s , w o r k i n g c l a s s f a m i l i e s , and s i n g l e , u n a t t a c h e d men. Much of the a r e a ' s 4. e x i s t i n g housing was b u i l t at t h i s time to house the worker p o p u l a t i o n . The Japanese community began to move i n t o t h i s area, while the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n s e t t l e d f u r t h e r south, i n Strathcona. By 1930, the area was s e t t l e d almost e n t i r e l y by Japanese people and became known as "Japantown". However, in the e a r l y 1940's an event occurred which had a profound e f f e c t on the subsequent development of the neighbourhood. During World War I I , the Japanese r e s i d e n t s of the area were evacuated to internment camps outside the C i t y . Following the war, few Japanese people returned to l i v e i n the neighbourhood, although some Japanese r e t a i l s t ores and businesses were r e - e s t a b l i s h e d and two major c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s were re-activated'. Today, the area f u n c t i o n s as the c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s , and shopping centre f o r the C i t y ' s Japanese-Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . During the 1940's another event occurred that had a pronouced e f f e c t on the area - the zoning of the neighbourhood f o r heavy i n d u s t r i a l uses. This event i n i t i a t e d a p e r i o d , i n which i n d u s t r y and l a r g e p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s expanded at the expense of housing, while the remaining housing was allowed to run down The l o s s of t h i s housing c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y toward the d e c l i n e of the area p o p u l a t i o n , from 4,200 in 1965 to 2,200 in 19 76. The area soon gained the r e p u t a t i o n of being a s l e a z y "Skid Road". The process of i n d u s t r i a l re-development and r e s i d e n t i a l decay continued u n t i l the mid 1970's. 5. 2 . 3 P o p u l a t i o n One of the most un ique f e a t u r e s o f the Downtown E a s t s i d e / Oppenheimer a rea t o d a y , and one t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d most toward the need f o r a b e t t e r h e a l t h f a c i l i t y , i s the n a t u r e of i t s p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s i d e n t s o f the a r e a a re c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s h a r i n g t hese f a c t o r s : o l d a g e , p o v e r t y , poor h e a l t h , and l a c k o f f a m i l y t i e s . Most (68%) o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s ove r the age o f 45 y e a r s . The m a j o r i t y (60%) o f r e s i d e n t s a re s i n g l e , w idowed , o r d i v o r c e d . Women c o n s t i t u t e a m i n o r i t y (25%) o f the p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e r e are very few c h i l d r e n (6%) r e s i d i n g i n the a r e a . T h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the r e s i d e n t s had annual incomes o f l e s s than $3,000 i n 1 9 7 6 . 2 A p p r o x i m a t e l y 40% o f the p o p u l a -t i o n has some form of p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l o r p s y c h i a t r i c 3 h a n d i c a p . Compared to the s t a t i s t i c s f o r the C i t y as a w h o l e , the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r p o p u l a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the most d i s a d v a n t a g e d group i n the C i t y . 2 . 4 H o u s i n g Ano the r un ique a s p e c t o f the a r e a , i s the t ype and c o n d i t i o n o f hous ing s t o c k . An ove rwhe lm ing m a j o r i t y o f h o u s i n g u n i t s (92%) c o n s i s t s o f s i n g l e s l e e p i n g or h o u s e k e e p i n g rooms, many o f wh ich (30%) are c o n s i d e r e d to be s e r i o u s l y s u b s t a n d a r d . ^ A s l e e p i n g room i s a s i n g l e room w i t h no c o o k i n g or p r i v a t e washroom f a c i l i t i e s , where as a h o u s e k e e p i n g room has l i g h t c o o k i n g f a c i l i t i e s but no p r i v a t e washroom f a c i l i t i e s . The poor c o n d i t i o n o f the h o u s i n g s t o c k i s not s u r p r i s i n g , g i v e n the f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f h o t e l s and rooming houses were b u i l t at the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y and few have been r e n o v a t e d 6 . s i n c e . The m a j o r i t y (83%) o f r e s i d e n t s l i v e i n s l e e p i n g o r h o u s e k e e p i n g rooms wh ich have a f l o o r a rea o f l e s s than 100 square f e e t . F u r t h e r m o r e , an e s t i m a t e d 30% of a l l rooms are l o c a t e d on narrow l i g h t w e l l s t h a t p r o v i d e s u b s t a n d a r d l e v e l s o f l i g h t and v e n t i l a t i o n . Only about 25% o f the e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k i s c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a t e , and t h i s i n c l u d e s a l l the government s u b s i d i z e d new p u b l i c h o u s i n g b u i l t i n the l a s t 5 10 y e a r s . The poor h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h i n a d e q u a t e s p a c e , l i g h t , heat and v e n t i l a t i o n , l a c k o f c o o k i n g and wash ing f a c i l i t i e s , and o f t e n the p r e s e n c e o f p e s t s , may c o n t r i b u t e as much to the poor h e a l t h of the a rea p o p u l a t i o n as demograph ic g and income f a c t o r s . 3.0 ISSUES 3. 1 Land Use The i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g t h i s ne ighbou rhood stem from the e v o l u -t i o n a r y deve lopment o f the a rea and the na tu re o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n . The d i v e r s i t y o f l a n d uses l o c a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to one a n o t h e r causes c o n s i d e r a b l e f r i c t i o n among i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . R e s i d e n t i a l uses are c o n t i n u a l l y t h r e a t e n e d by the e x p a n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and commerc ia l uses and by the d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s b rough t on by age. Some i n d u s t r i e s i n the a r e a g e n e r a t e n e g a t i v e impac ts on the community i n terms of heavy t r a f f i c , n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n . H igh volumes o f t r a f f i c r u n n i n g th rough the ne ighbou rhood on t h r e e major a r t e r i a l s a l s o pose prob lems o f s a f e t y , p o l l u t i o n and n o i s e . 7. 3.2 Hous ing New h o u s i n g i s not c u r r e n t l y b e i n g b u i l t by the p r i v a t e market s e c t o r , s i n c e the a rea i s not a t t r a c t i v e to the m i d d l e and h igh income p e o p l e , who c o u l d a f f o r d to l i v e i n the new u n i t s . R e s i d e n t s of "the a r e a , l i v i n g i n s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g , w i sh t o move i n t o new u n i t s , but cannot a f f o r d the p o t e n t i a l l y h i gh market r e n t s . The o n l y way t h a t new h o u s i n g , a f f o r d a b l e to a rea r e s i d e n t s , can be b u i l t i s t h rough the mechanism of government s u b s i d i e s . In the l a s t f i v e y e a r s , t hese s u b s i d i e s have f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e , and s u b s e q u e n t l y no new h o u s i n g has been b u i l t . The R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program ( R . R . A . P . ) f u n d s , p r o v i d e d by the F e d e r a l government i n i t i a l l y to a s s i s t low income s i n g l e f a m i l y homeowners to r e h a b i l i t a t e t h e i r homes, were not a p p l i c a b l e to h o u s i n g u n i t s c o n s i s t i n g o f s i n g l e rooms u n t i l 1980. C o n s e q u e n t l y , ve ry few h o u s i n g u n i t s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a have been r e n o v a t e d under t h i s program or i ndeed th rough p r i v a t e means. 3 .3 I n s t i t u t i o n a l Growth R e s i d e n t s and merchants o f the ne ighbou rhood are conce rned about the i n c r e a s i n g number o f l a r g e p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s l o c a t i n g i n the a r e a . They f e a r t h a t the a rea may become an i n s t i t u t i o n a l " g h e t t o " , an image as n e g a t i v e as the " S k i d Road" image. Large p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , l i k e the P u b l i c S a f e t y B u i l d i n g , Remand C e n t r e , and Drug and A l c o h o l T rea tment C e n t r e , s e r v e a C i t y - w i d e p o p u l a t i o n , y e t occupy l a r g e p a r c e l s o f l a n d t h a t a re needed i n the ne ighbou rhood to b u i l d hous ing and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the 8. l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . Furthermore,, i t i s feared that the i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies which serve people with p s y c h i a t r i c , a l c o h o l i c or drug a d d i c t i o n problems, may, i n f a c t , be drawing these "problem" people i n t o the nieghbourhood, thereby adding to the pool of neighbourhood problems r a t h e r than d i s p e r s i n g the problem throughout the C i t y , to be d e a l t with by each neighbour-hood on a f a i r share b a s i s . 3.4 Crime and Alcohol There i s a consensus among neighbourhood s o c i a l s e r v i c e agency workers and the P o l i c e Department, that the presence of twelve l i q u o r establishments i n a 22 block area, c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i -c a n t l y toward the obvious a l c o h o l i s m of a p o r t i o n of the neigh-bourhood p o p u l a t i o n , and toward the area's high crime rate. Area workers contend that a l c o h o l i s m could be reduced by reducing the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l c o h o l and by the p r o v i s i o n of a l t e r n a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n . The P o l i c e report that mugging i s the most dominant crime, and i t tends to be perpetuated by the area's younger r e s i d e n t s who prey on i n e b r i a t e d o l d e r r e s i d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y during the two times a month, when welfare cheques are issued. N i g h t l y p o l i c e foot p a t r o l s through pubs and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s have a d e f i n i t e deterent e f f e c t , but the lack of s u f f i c i e n t funds prevents the p o l i c e from extending t h i s s e r v i c e throughout the area. The wide range and depth of the issues a f f e c t i n g the Downtown Eastside/Oppenheimer area became manifested in the d i v e r s i t y 9. o f v a l u e s and o p i n i o n s t h a t emerged i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t was i n i t i a t e d by the C i t y i n 1975. 4 .0 NEIGHBOURHOOD IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM o In the f a l l o f 1975, Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l d e s i g n a t e d the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a rea as be ing e l i g i b l e f o r the Ne ighbourhood Improvement Program ( N . I . P . ) funded j o i n t l y by the F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and C i t y governments f o r the improvement of ne ighbou rhood a m e n i t i e s and s o c i a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n o l d e r , l ower income r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . At the same t i m e , C i t y C o u n c i l changed the z o n i n g f rom a p r i m a r i l y i n d u s t r i a l and commerc ia l z o n i n g to a Comprehens ive Development D i s t r i c t ( C D - I ) , wh ich encou raged the r e t e n t i o n o f e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s , and new h o u s i n g deve lopmen t , w h i l e r e s t r i c t i n g new i n d u s t r i a l and o f f i c e u s e s . These a c t i o n s were t aken i n an a t tempt to h a l t the p h y s i c a l d e c l i n e o f the a r e a , and to s t a b i l i z e i t f o r the b e n e f i t o f a rea r e s i d e n t s . The Ne ighbourhood Improvement Program p r o v i d e d funds f o r " p l a n n i n g " as w e l l as c a p i t a l imp rovemen ts , and r e q u i r e d the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of ne ighbou rhood c i t i z e n s i n the a l l o c a t i o n of N . I . P . f u n d s . A c c o r d i n g l y , p l a n n i n g s t a f f were a s s i g n e d to a s i t e o f f i c e i n the communi ty , and p roceeded to g a t h e r da ta and to s o l i c i t c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t f rom the ne ighbou rhood p o p u l a t i o n . P l a n n i n g s t a f f c o n s u l t e d w i t h a l l ne ighbou rhood i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , c h i e f among w h i c h , by v i r t u e o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and v o c i f e r o u s approach was the Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n ( D . E . R . A . ) 10. 4 .1 Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n The Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a s o c i e t y i n A u g u s t , 1973 as a response to the C i t y ' s i n a b i l i t y o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s to dea l w i t h the many prob lems i n the a r e a . D . E . R . A . p roceeded to c o l l e c t and document i n f o r m a t i o n about the a r e a , and to p r e s s u r e C i t y C o u n c i l to do someth ing about the t e r r i b l e c o n d i t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d by the r e s i d e n t s i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . D . E . R . A . p e t i t i o n e d C i t y C o u n c i l f o r the N . I . P . d e s i g n a t i o n and f o r the CD-I r e z o n i n g , w i t h p e r s i s t e n c e and f l a i r . The l e a d e r s o f the D . E . R . A . o r g a n i z a t i o n were s k i l l e d communica tors and o r g a n i z e r s who g a t h e r e d much p u b l i c s u p p o r t and who took advantage of media cove rage to promote t h e i r c a u s e . T h e i r p u b l i c image was t h a t o f r a d i c a l , ou tspoken champions of the poor and o p p r e s s e d . Dur ing the l a t t e r p a r t o f the 1 9 7 0 ' s , a l l t h r e e D . E . R . A . l e a d e r s ran ( u n s u c c e s s f u l l y ) f o r m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c o f f i c e . In the 1980 e l e c t i o n , one was e l e c t e d to C i t y C o u n c i l and one to the Pa rks B o a r d . The t h i r d D . E . R . A . l e a d e r ran f o r the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n the 1979 e l e c t i o n , and n a r r o w l y m i ssed w i n n i n g the s e a t . D . E . R . A . a l s o c o i n e d the name "Downtown E a s t s i d e " i n a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t to change the p u b l i c image of the a rea f rom the n e g a t i v e image o f " s k i d r o a d " / , t o an image o f a d i s a d v a n t a g e d r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Members of D . E . R . A . p l a y e d a l a r g e and o f t e n c o n t r o v e r s i a l r o l e i n both the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y and ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 11. 4.2 Oppenheimer Area Planning Committee Unlike other N.I.P. areas, where c i t i z e n s advisory committees were formed on a voluntary b a s i s , and were open to anyone who wished to p a r t i c i p a t e , the N.I.P. Committee i n the Downtown Eastside/Oppenheimer area was. s e l e c t e d by means of a neigh-bourhood e l e c t i o n . The e l e c t i o n was held at the suggestion of D.E.R.A. who argued that a voluntary committee would not represent the area r e s i d e n t s , s i n c e most r e s i d e n t s were too a l i e n a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e and that n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r e s t s would come to dominate a committee that was open to everyone. A c c o r d i n g l y , an e l e c t i o n was held on May 12, 1976 f o r the 12 member N.I.P. Committee to represent the area's many i n t e r e s t groups: r e s i d e n t s , i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , merchants, s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies and e t h n i c groups. In the e l e c t i o n , only r e s i d e n t s could vote f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , only i n d u s t r i a l i s t s f o r the i n d u s t r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and so on f o r a l l the i n t e r e s t group c a t e g o r i e s . ^ Four of the p o s i t i o n s were f i l l e d by D.E.R.A. members and two by D.E.R.A. supporters. The 12 member Oppenheimer Area Planning Committee (O.A.P.C.) was endorsed by the C i t y Council on June 1, 1976. The r o l e of the Committee was to prepare a N.I.P. Concept Plan f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of funding to community improvement p r o j e c t s , and, in g e n e r a l , to advise C i t y Council on planning issues a f f e c t i n g the neighbourhood. The r o l e of Planning s t a f f was to a s s i s t the Committee by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , advice and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , and to transmit the Committee's views by preparing reports to Ci t y C o u n c i l . The O . A . P . C . chose a c h a i r p e r s o n (a D . E . R . A . member), s e t a quorum ( 6 ) , and met week ly at f i r s t ( l a t e r e v e r y two w e e k s ) , to p l a n N . I . P . p r o j e c t s , f o r m u l a t e g o a l s f o r the ne ighbourhood and a d v i s e C i t y C o u n c i l on deve lopment p r o p o s a l s . Of the 12 e l e c t e d members, o n l y 10 a t t e n d e d meet ings on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Even among the r e g u l a r 10 members, a t t e n d a n c e f l u c t u a t e d from meet ing to m e e t i n g . Those who a t t e n d e d most r e g u l a r l y , were the f o u r D . E . R . A . members ( i n c l u d i n g C h a i r p e r s o n ) and two D . E . R . A . s u p p o r t e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the D . E . R . A . c o a l i t i o n was a b l e to dominate the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , and to i n f l u e n c e most Commit tee d e c i s i o n s . 4 . 3 N . I . P . Concept P l a n On September 2 9 , 1976 C i t y C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r e d and approved the P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t t h a t recommended a Land Use P o l i c y and a N . I . P . Concept P l a n f o r the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a . The Concept P l a n recommended the a l l o c a t i o n o f a p p r o x -i m a t e l y $685,000 to seven b road c a t e g o r i e s , i n c l u d i n g , community h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s , s o c i a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , Japanese community f a c i l i t i e s , p u b l i c open s p a c e , p r o j e c t s e n c o u r a g i n g employment , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n t i n g e n c y . These c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d the g e n e r a l t ype o f ne ighbou rhood f a c i l i t i e s t h a t r e q u i r e d improvement . The funds had to be spen t or commi t ted to s p e c i f i c N . I . P . p r o j e c t s by M a r c h , 1980. The r e p o r t a l s o i n c l u d e d two a p e n d i c e s t h a t c o n t a i n e d the d i s s e n t i n g p o s i t i o n o f the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , o and the p o s i t i o n o f the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g . The O . A . P . C . 13. had recommended t h a t N . I . P . a l l o c a t i o n s go to s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s . They had a l l o c a t e d funds t o the J a p a n e s e B u d d h i s t C h u r c h , the Japanese Language S c h o o l , the Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c S o c i e t y and t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f 616 E a s t Cordova as a s i t e f o r h o u s i n g and community f a c i l i t i e s . The P l a n n i n g Depar tment append i x p o i n t e d out t h a t the pu rpose o f the g e n e r a l Concept P l a n a l l o c a t i o n s was t o s e c u r e f u n d i n g , but t h a t c h o o s i n g the s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s f o r N . I . P . f u n d i n g , wou ld r e q u i r e more c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s , to e n s u r e t h a t they wou ld meet the i d e n t i f i e d community n e e d s . I t s h o u l d be no ted t h a t t h e C o u n c i l a p p r o v e d N . I . P . a l l o c a t i o n f o r community h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t " f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be combined w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d h o u s i n g . " T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was s t r e n g t h e n e d by the comment o f the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g i n t he a p p e n d i x , t h a t " a s w i t h o t h e r p r o p o s e d a l l o c a t i o n s f o r N . I . P . s p e n d i n g , the money c o u l d be used f o r s i t e a c q u i s i t i o n and be combined w i t h f u n d i n g f rom the s e n i o r l e v e l s of g o v e r n m e n t , i f a v a i l a b l e , to p r o v i d e s p e c i a l i z e d h o u s i n g u n i t s on the upper s t o r e y s . " 1 0 The i s s u e s o f h o u s i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y became the c e n t r a l c o n t r o v e r s y i n the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s i s s u e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . The C i t y C o u n c i l a p p r o v e d (and P l a n n i n g Depar tment recommended) N . I . P . . Concept P l a n a l l o c a t e d top p r i o r i t y and f u n d i n g ( $ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 ) to community h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s . The O . A . P . C . Concept P l a n , on the o t h e r hand , a l l o c a t e d top p r i o r i t y and f u n d i n g ( $ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 ) to the a c q u i s i t i o n o f 616 E a s t Cordova S t r e e t . The b u i l d i n g 14. a t 616 E a s t Cordova S t r e e t was l e a s e d by D . E . R . A . f rom the Ne ighbourhood S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , and p r o v i d e d space f o r a dayca re c e n t r e , a s e n i o r s d r o p - i n c e n t r e , and the D . E . R . A . o f f i c e s . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h i s b u i l d i n g became a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e i n the p l a n n i n g of N . I . P . p r o j e c t s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e / Oppenheimer a r e a . 4 .4 616 Eas t Cordova S t r e e t The N . I . P . Concept P l a n approved by C i t y C o u n c i l on September 18, 1976, a l l o c a t e d $200,000 to h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s and $130,000 to s o c i a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . Soon a f t e r t h i s d a t e , the D . E . R . A . members on the Committee b rought a p r o p o s a l to the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commit tee to pu rchase 616 Eas t Cordova S t r e e t w i t h the $130 ,000 N . I . P . f u n d s . The D . E . R . A . p r o p o s a l f o r the s i t e r e q u e s t e d the C i t y to pu r chase the s i t e as a c o n t r i b u t i o n toward r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t h a t would be i n c l u d e d i n a n o n - p r o f i t r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g to be c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g funds f rom the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Hous ing C o r p o r a t i o n ( C . H . M . C . ) . On s e v e r a l o c c a s s i o n s , the O . A . P . C . vo ted to a l l o c a t e N . I . P . funds to pu r chase 616 Eas t Cordova S t r e e t f o r a combined r e s i d e n t i a 1 / r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y . F r u s t r a t e d w i t h the p l a n n e r ' s i n a c t i o n i n reponse to t h e i r p r o p o s a l , D . E . R . A . wro te two l e t t e r s to C o u n c i l ' s Community S e r v i c e s Commi t tee , on Feb rua ry 2 1 , 1977 and June 7, 1977, r e q u e s t i n g a h e a r i n g . The second l e t t e r had the d e s i r e d e f f e c t : the C i t y C l e r k r e q u e s t e d a r e p o r t f rom the P l a n n i n g Department about the D . E . R . A . p r o p o s a l . 15. The P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t o f J u l y 7, 1977 recommended t h a t the N . I . P . funds not be used to pu rchase 616 E a s t Cordova S t r e e t . Two main reasons were g i v e n f o r t h i s recommendat ion . The f i r s t one was a conce rn about the p r o b a b l e d e l a y i n spend -i ng the N . I . P . funds on the D . E . R . A . p r o p o s a l , s i n c e the D . E . R . A . needed C . M . H . C . funds f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l p o r t i o n o f the p r o j e c t , but had as y e t r e c e i v e d no a s s u r a n c e o f g e t t i n g them. The second reason was t h a t s e v e r a l compet ing p r o p o s a l s f o r the N . I . P . f u n d i n g had been found to p o s s e s s more m e r i t than the D . E . R . A . p r o p o s a l . In c o n s i d e r i n g the r e p o r t C o u n c i l heard d e l e g a t i o n s - f rom the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , and D . E . R . A . , both o f which urged C o u n c i l to approve the $130,000 N . I . P . funds f o r the pu r chase of 616 E a s t Cordova S t r e e t . In s p i t e of t h e s e u r g i n g s , C i t y C o u n c i l vo ted to approve the P l a n n i n g Department recommendat ion t h a t the N . I . P . funds s h o u l d not be used to pu r chase the s i t e f o r D . E . R . A . ' s redeve lopment p r o p o s a l . F o l l o w i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n , the O . A . P . C . wro te a l e t t e r to C i t y C o u n c i l s a y i n g : "Does C i t y C o u n c i l r e a l l y want our a d v i c e ? Does our Commit tee r e a l l y have any s t a t u r e i n the eyes o f C i t y C o u n c i l ? Is t h e r e any p o i n t i n us c o n t i n u i n g to d e l i b e r a t e and make recommenda-t i o n s to C o u n c i l when our recommendat ions are i gnored ?" H The anger and f r u s t r a t i o n e v i d e n t i n the l e t t e r r e f l e c t e d the growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f O . A . P . C . members w i t h the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The D . E . R . A . members o f the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , had c o m p l a i n e d s e v e r a l t imes to the D i r e c t o r o f 16. P l a n n i n g about the o p e r a t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g p rogram. They c l a i m e d t h a t the p l a n n e r promoted i d e a s t h a t were not s u p p o r t e d by the O . A . P . C , ( n o t a b l y i n the Concept P l a n ) and t h a t the o p e r a t i o n o f the ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g o f f i c e was i n e f f i c i e n t . A l t h o u g h the P l a n n i n g Deapartment a t t emp ted to c o r r e c t t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the a tmosphere o f d i s t r u s t between the D . E . R . A . members o f the O . A . P . C . and p l a n n i n g s t a f f c o n t i n u e d , and i ndeed e s c a l a t e d d u r i n g the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 5 .0 METHODOLOGY The methodo logy f o r t h i s t h e s i s i n v o l v e s a case s tudy a p p r o a c h , wh ich f o c u s e s on a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t of a l a r g e r and more complex ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The case s tudy w i l l examine the p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g a ne ighbou rhood h e a l t h ca re f a c i l i t y i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a , as a way of d e r i v i n g the e lements t h a t l e a d toward a s u c c e s s f u l ou tcome, i n s p i t e of c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f l i c t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the s tudy w i l l examine the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t may have been employed i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The advan tage of the case s tudy ap roach i s the o p p o r t u n i t y i t o f f e r s to reduce the c o m p l e x i t y o f a comprehens i ve ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s to managable p r o p o r t i o n s , and to o f f e r a very f i n e l e v e l o f d e t a i l f o r a n a l y s i s , as w e l l as an e m p i r i c a l c o n t e x t a g a i n s t wh ich t h e o r i e s o f d e c i s i o n -making may be examined . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f a case s tudy approach a re the d i f f i c u l t y of e x t r a p o l a t i n g case l e v e l f i n d i n g s to a b r o a d e r p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t 17. a and the value biases inherent i n a study that i n v o l v e d personal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the process. The f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n has minor a p p l i c a b i l i t y to t h i s case study, s i n c e the elements in the heal t h f a c i l i t y planning process (such as a c t o r s , issues and c o n f l i c t s ) , p a r a l l e l e d almost e x a c t l y the elements of the comprehensive neighbourhood planning process. The second l i m i t a t i o n , value bias or lack of o b j e c t i v i t y when d e a l i n g with the actors and events in the case study, can, I b e l i e v e , be diminished by a rigorous s t r u c t u r i n g of the c o n s t r u c t s to be used i n a n a l y z i n g the case study outcomes. The c o n s t r u c t s are based on a review of the r e l e v a n t planning and decision-making theory. 6.0 THESIS FORMAT 6.1 Chapter I - I n t r o d u c t i o n This chapter has introduced the purpose of the t h e s i s and provided a geographic, h i s t o r i c a l , and demographic background d e s c r i p t i o n of the Downtown Eastside/Oppenheimer area, the s i t e of the case study. A review of the major neighbourhood planning i s s u e s has a l s o been provided. F i n a l l y , a method-ology, with a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the advantages and l i m i t a -t i o n s of the case study approach has been o u t l i n e d . 6.2 Chapter II - Theory This chapter reviews the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e most r e l e v a n t to t h i s t h e s i s . The i n t e n t of the review i s to provide a framework or p e r s p e c t i v e from which to s t r u c t u r e the a n a l y s i s of the case study; but, i t i s not the i n t e n t ' o f t h i s t h e s i s 18. to t e s t a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r y or mode l . The r e v i e w cove rs l i t e r a t u r e on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n t e r - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , r o l e of the p l a n n e r and b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . 6 .3 Chap te r I I I - Case Study S i n c e the even t s cove red i n the case s tudy o c c u r r e d i n two s t a g e s , t h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s each s t a g e by d e s c r i b i n g the a c t o r s i n v o l v e d and t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , the i s s u e s t h a t a r o s e , and the even ts t h a t u n f o l d e d d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S tage I o c c u r r e d between March 1977 and June 1978 and i n v o l v e d the work of a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g Sub -commi t t ee and Task Force r e s p o n s i b l e t o the O . A . P . C . S tage II o c c u r r e d between J u l y 1978 and September 1979 and i n v o l v e d the work o f the S t ra thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commi t tee , a p p o i n t e d by Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . 6 .4 Chap te r IV - A n a l y s i s T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s by i n t r o d u c i n g the c o n s t r u c t s by wh ich the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l be a n a l y z e d . C o n s t r u c t s based on the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e a re b r o a d l y grouped i n t o s t r u c t u r a l and p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s . The s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s a r e : a u t h o r i z a t i o n , t ime and s i t e c o n s t r a i n t s . P r o c e s s c o n s t r u c t s i n c l u d e r o l e of the p l a n n e r , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n methods and b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . These c o n s t r u c t s a re used to examine the d i f f e r e n c e s between S tage I, wh ich ended i n s t a l e m a t e and Stage I I , wh ich ended i n agreement . 6.5 Chapter V - Conclusions The concluding chapter b r i e f l y summarizes the purpose of the t h e s i s , the major events in the case study, and the f i n d i n g s of the a n a l y s i s chapter. T h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n the theory chapter i s evaluated f o r i t s relevance to the case study. The chapter concludes with recommendations f o r s t r u c t u r i n g the community decision-making process, to i n c l u d e the elements that have proved c r u c i a l f o r a c h i e v i n g a s u c c e s s f u l outcome i n a c o n t r o v e r s i a l neighbourhood planning process. The f o l l o w i n g chapter r e l e v a n t to the study making process. reviews the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e of a c o n t r o v e r s i a l community d e c i s i o n -20 . Chap te r I - F o o t n o t e s 1. Vancouver P l a n n i n g Depar tmen t : Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r A rea P o l i c y P l a n . Vancouve r . Feb rua ry 1981. 2. 1976 Census 3. Data p r o v i d e d by ne ighbou rhood s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . 4 . Vancouver P l a n n i n g Depar tment : Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r Area P o l i c y P l a n . Vancouve r . Feb rua ry 1981. 5. I b i d . 6. B a k a n , Dr . R. " R e p o r t on H e a l t h S t a t u s o f Census T r a c t s 5 7 , 58 and 59" U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . Vancouver P l a n n i n g and H e a l t h Depa r tmen ts . Vancouve r . December 1978. 7. Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commit tee C o m p o s i t i o n : 1. C o m m e r c i a l / S o c i a l S e r v i c e Owner 2. C o m m e r c i a l / S o c i a l S e r v i c e Tenant 3. Empolyee 4 . I n d u s t r i a l Owner 5. I n d u s t r i a l Tenant 6. R e s i d e n t i a l P r o p e r t y Owner ( N o n - r e s i d e n t ) 7. R e s i d e n t a i l P r o p e r t y Owner ( R e s i d e n t ) 8. R e s i d e n t i a l Tenant 9. R e s i d e n t i a l Tenant 10. R e s i d e n t i a l Tenant 11. C h i n e s e 12. Japanese 8. I t i s a c o n v e n t i o n i n the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , t h a t P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t s a lways beg in w i t h "The D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g r e p o r t s as f o l l o w s " 9. Vancouver P l a n n i n g Depar tment . "Oppenhe imer A rea Land Use P l a n and Concept P l a n " . C i t y C o u n c i l r e p o r t . Vancouve r . September 2 , 1976. 10. I b i d . Append i x I I . 11. L e t t e r to Mayor and C o u n c i l f rom Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee . August 2 , 1977. 12. Memo to A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g f rom D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g . March 7, 1977. 21. CHAPTER II - THEORY 1.0 INTRODUCTION This t h e s i s attempts to understand the dynamics of community decision-making through the a n a l y s i s of a case study of a c o n f 1 i c t - r i d d e n planning process. An examination of the re l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e w i l l help to s t r u c t u r e the a n a l y s i s and to develop a p e r s p e c t i v e on the problem. Since the f i e l d of community decision-making in planning c o n s i s t s of many academic d i s c i p l i n e s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the l i t e r a t u r e does not contain a comprehensive t h e o r e t i c a l package but r a t h e r a mixture of t h e o r i e s , models and e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s c o v e r i n g a spectrum that ranges from t h e o r i e s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and group dynamics to s t r a t e g i e s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f review of some of the l i t e r a t u r e most r e l e v a n t to t h i s study. 2.0 THEORIES OF COMMUNITY DECISI ON-MAKING Edward B a n f i e l d in P o l i t i c a l I n fluence points out that there are two b a s i c approaches to community decision-making. The f i r s t i s Central D e c i s i o n , in which a leader makes a d e c i s i o n based on h i s / h e r knowledge of s o c i a l values and the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . However, he contends that "no matter how competent and w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d , a d e c i s i o n maker can never make an important d e c i s i o n on grounds that are not i n some degree a r b i t r a r y or non-1ogical". 1 22. Instead, B a n f i e l d suggests that S o c i a l Choice, a process where d i v e r s e and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t groups compete with each other f o r p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , i s a p r e f e r r e d and more democratic decision-making process. It allows a l l r e l e v a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s to be examined and given due a t t e n t i o n . S o c i a l Choice "leads to the production of more info r m a t i o n about the various a l t e r n a t i v e s and to a c l a r -i f i c a t i o n of the values that are i n v o l v e d . Not only are the o f f i c i a l s compelled to take i n t o account more than they otherwise would, but the i n t e r e s t s themselves are brought to examine t h e i r own and each other's p o s i t i o n s with great care". 2 A s i m i l a r l i n e of thought is pursued by s e v e r a l Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s on the value of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in planning. McNiven contends that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s valuable not only because i t provides e f f e c t i v e feedback f o r p o l i c y makers, but because i t i s a developmental t o o l which inc r e a s e s the 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n . Expanding on the l a t t e r theme, a report by the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y s t a t e s that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s educative s i n c e i t exposes people to new i d e a s , enhances s e l f - e s t e e m , promotes i n t e l l e c t u a l independence and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and encourages a f e e l i n g of f e l l o w s h i p and a sense of community. In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n is i n t e g r a t i v e , in that i t f o r c e s people to take the i n t e r e s t of others i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , thereby expanding t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e and i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r understanding. Moreover, p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s towards p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y s i n c e i t gives a voice to t r a d i t i o n a l l y disadvantaged groups and i n c r e a s e s acceptance of d e c i s i o n s by people who have i n f l u e n c e d them, thereby n e u t r a l i z i n g 4 d i s s e n t . Indeed, according to Thayer, " p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s probably the most e f f e c t i v e and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e manner of making d e c i s i o n s . While conventional wisdom argues that p a r t i c -i p a t i o n slows down d e c i s i o n processes, adds to the o v e r a l l costs and design of implementation, and i n t r o d u c e s a host of i r r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n may do p r e c i s e l y the opposite. Most decision-making s t u d i e s never examine the cost of overcoming consequences not foreseen, in advance. There can be no b e t t e r way of d i s c o v e r i n g these unforeseen consequences, long a major problem of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , than by i n v o l v i n g in the d e c i s i o n process those l i k e l y to be a f f e c t e d by them. A slower d e c i s i o n can be economical over the long term. P a r t i c i p a t i o n , in other words, may be cost-e f f e c t i v e through cost-avoidance i n a few years."5 A noted American a u t h o r i t y takes a more c y n i c a l view of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r e a t i n g a ranked typology of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . At the bottom of Sherry A r n s t e i n ' s "ladder" of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s Man i pu1ati on, where c i t i z e n s g are placed on "rubber stamp advisory committees" which amount to " p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s v e h i c l e s " ^ of the powerholders. The second rung, The rapy, i s not much b e t t e r in that i t attempts to cure people of t h e i r pathology of powerlessness through therapy, r a t h e r than a t t a c k i n g the causes. Both forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n are l a b e l l e d n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n by A r n s t e i n . The next three rungs on the ladder are c a l l e d Degrees of Tokenism, s i n c e they i n v o l v e some measure of e f f e c t i v e 24. p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but stop short of p e r m i t t i n g c i t i z e n c o n t r o l . Informi ng provides c i t i z e n s with r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n but does not set up a system f o r feedback. Cons u l t a t i on i n v i t e s c i t i z e n o p i n i o n , but o f f e r s no assurance of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r o p i n i o n s . P I a c a t i on :al1ows " C i t i z e n s to advise or plan ad i n f i n i t u m but r e t a i n s f o r powerholders the r i g h t g to judge the l e g i t i m a c y or f e a s i b i l i t y of the advice." The top three rungs on the ladder are c a l l e d Degrees of C i t i z e n Power, o f f e r i n g ever i n c r e a s i n g amounts of c i t i z e n c o n t r o l over decision-making. P a r t n e r s h i p i n v o l v e s a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power among c i t i z e n s and powerholders, so that decision-making becomes a shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Delegated  Power i s achieved when c i t i z e n s develop dominant decision-making a u t h o r i t y over a plan or programme. F i n a l l y , C i t i z e n Control • is i n e f f e c t when c i t i z e n s are i n f u l l charge of p o l i c y and the managerial aspects of a plan or programme, as may occur in the context of a neighbourhood c o p o r a t i o n . A r n s t e i n concludes that most examples of citi-zen p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning f a l l short of a c h i e v i n g c i t i z e n power, but do o f f e r a l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n that f a l l s w i t h i n the Degrees of Tokenism. An important idea that emerges from the l i t e r a t u r e i s that interdependencies e x i s t among the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups that make up the community, and in s p i t e of divergence of 25. i n t e r e s t s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n g o a l s , j o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g among groups can be s u c c e s s f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t . T u i t e con tends t h a t where i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s e x i s t , j o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g can i n c r e a s e the rewards to a l l p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . In o r d e r f o r j o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g to happen , the e x i s t e n c e of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s must f i r s t be r e c o g n i z e d . Then, i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n the community sys tem can be i n i t i a t e d t h a t f a c i l i t a t e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l a f f e c t e d g r o u p s . F i n a l l y , an a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y or s t r u c t u r e f o r the exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r a u t h o r i z i n g d e c i s i o n -9 making must be c o n s t r u c t e d . N i x ag rees t h a t the r e c o g n i t i o n o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s cause groups to overcome t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s because they " r e a l i z e t h a t i t r e q u i r e s some c o o r d i n a t i o n and compromise to p r o v i d e s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the b r o a d e r community w i t h i n wh ich to pursue e f f e c t i v e l y t h e i r s p e c i a l g o a l s w h i l e o b t a i n i n g the goods and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by o t h e r s " . 1 0 He d e s c r i b e s the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g groups as a c o o r d i n- a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p whose f u n c t i o n i s to manage the r e l a t i o n s h i p between groups i n the community which have " d i f f e r i n g and p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . " * * Ba tes and Harvey a s s i g n the c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n to what they term an i n t e r s t i t i a l group wh ich draws members from d i v e r s e e l e m e n t a l g r o u p s . The f u n c t i o n of the i n t e r s t i t i a l group i s 26. "to accomplish some kind of t r a n s f e r of the consequences of behaviour from one group to another, or to f u r n i s h a channel through which i n f o r m a t i o n , o r d e r s , d i r e c t i o n s , i n s t r u c t i o n s and other inputs and outputs may flow from one group to another."12 These authors agree that the community decision-making group, composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t groups, f u n c t i o n s as a body that coordinates and i n t e g r a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n and behaviour in order to sol v e a common problem or reach a common goal . Warren speculates that the,way i n which i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s or groups i n t e r a c t in the decision-making process depends upon the s o r t of community decision-making s t r u c t u r e they f i n d themselves i n . He proposes a typology of community d e c i s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s (C.D.)'.'s that d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s to the community d e c i s i o n organ-i z a t i o n in terms of go a l s , locus of a u t h o r i t y , d i v i s i o n of labour, commitment to C.D.O. l e a d e r s h i p and o r i e n t a t i o n toward 13 c o 1 1 e c t l v i ty. At one end of the spectrum of C.D.O. types i s the uni t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , where the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s are organized f o r the achievement of a common g o a l , d e c i s i o n s are made at the top of the h i e r a r c h y and there i s a high commitment to the C.D.O. l e a d e r s h i p . An example of a u n i t a r y C.D.O. would be a municipal h e a l t h department. 27. In a f e d e r a t i ve C . D . O . , the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s have t h e i r own g o a l s , but agree on a common g o a l ; d e c i s i o n s a re made at the top of the C . D . O . , but must be r a t i f i e d by the u n i t s ; t h e r e i s a moderate degree of c o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n and of commitment to C . D . O . l e a d e r s h i p ; a n d , a l t h o u g h the u n i t s a re s t r u c t u r e d a u t o n o m o u s l y , t h e r e i s a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n p u r s u i t of the common g o a l . A C o u n c i l of Churches and a C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s a re good examples o f a f e d e r a t i v e C . D . O . A c o a l i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s composed of g roups who are autonomous and have t h e i r own g o a l s , but who c o l l a b o r a t e g e n e r a l l y on an ad hoc b a s i s , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a c o l l e c t i v e g o a l . An example o f c o a l i t i o n a l C . D . O . would be c i t i z e n groups who come t o g e t h e r to s e c u r e a needed community f a c i l i t y . In t h i s t ype of C . D . O . , d e c i s i o n s a re made w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and t h e r e i s no commitment t o the l e a d e r s h i p o f the c o a l i t i o n , but t h e r e may be an ad hoc d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n p u r s u i t of the g o a l . At the o t h e r end o f the t y p o l o g y spec t rum i s the s o c i a l c h o i c e C . D . O . , as e x e m p l i f i e d by c i t i z e n s f i g h t i n g h i g h r i s e s i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The i n d i v i d u a l g roups may not agree on any common g o a l s , nor e f f e c t any d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . There i s no c o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n or commitment t o any l e a d e r s h i p ' o the r than t h e i r own l e a d e r . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , s o c i a l  cho i ce d e s c r i b e s a spon taneous communtiy movement w i t h o u t an ongo ing o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . 28. Warren contends that most community planning o r g a n i z a t i o n s are e i t h e r f e d e r a t i v e or c o a l i t i o n a l ; f e d e r a t i o n s tending to be longstanding and i n h e r e n t l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , while c o a l i t i o n s have a short but t u r b u l e n t l i f e : "The f e d e r a t i o n depending u l t i m a t e l y on the continued asset of i t s autonomous c o n s t i t u e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s under great c o n s t r a i n t to operate on a consensus b a s i s . Since innova-t i o n s or major system changes are l i k e l y to threaten t h i s consensus, they are under c o n s t r a i n t to avoid them. On the other hand, c o a l i t i o n s , because t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s based s o l e l y upon a convergence of i n t e r e s t s around some p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e , may engage f r e e l y in c o n t r o v e r s y , but have l i t t l e p e r s i s t e n c e beyond the immediate issue."14 Warren implies t h a t , i n terms of s t a b i l i t y and a c t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n or task achievement, the more h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d an o r g a i n i z a t i o n , the most l i k e l y i t w i l l succeed. 3.0 CONFLICT RESOLUTION, AUTHORITY AND INFLUENCE Inherent i n any decision-making process that i n v o l v e s more than one group or more than one set of i n t e r e s t s or values, is the issue of c o n f l i c t and the n e c e s s i t y f o r i t s r e s o l u t i o n . At the global s c a l e , the i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t may lead to war, while at the community l e v e l , c o n f l i c t can cause h o s t i l i t y among p a r t i e s , delay i n decision-making, or c a n c e l l a t i o n of a needed p r o j e c t or programme. Most a u t h o r i t i e s agree that c o n f l i c t has an e s s e n t i a l l y negative impact on d e c i s i o n outcomes, although some authors contend that c o n f l i c t in small doses can lead to more c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to problems. 29. Pondy, i n h i s study of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , points out that c o n f l i c t in o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s caused by competitions f o r scarce resources, by d r i v e s f o r autonomy, "when one party e i t h e r seeks to e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over some a c t i v i t y that another party regards as his own pro v i n c e , or seeks to 15 i n s u l a t e i t s e l f from such c o n t r o l " , or by a divergence of goals which occurs when "two p a r t i e s who must cooperate i n v o l v e a divergence of go a l s , although elements of the other two f a c t o r s are often present. Raven and Kruglanski suggest a number of methods f o r reducing c o n f l i c t and promoting cooperation. Open exchange of r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n at the beginning of a decision-making s e s s i o n w i l l engender a f e e l i n g of t r u s t in a group. Awarding mat e r i a l or emotional rewards to group p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l tend to encourage cooperation and t r u s t . Reference to the expert or s u p e r i o r knowledge of a t r u s t e d and neu t r a l t h i r d p a r t y , w i l l help to re s o l v e group c o n f l i c t . F i n a l l y , a method often used when a l l other c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n methods have f a i l e d , i s the use of a u t h o r i t y . A u t h o r i t y " r e f e r s to a p a r t i c u l a r type of power that stems from the c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e which defines r o l e s that people 18 play i n r e l a t i o n to one other." More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a u t h o r i t y i s "the l e g a l r i g h t to command others to act i n accordance to 19 one s w i l l " although " i t s e x e r c i s e i s hedged about with s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the values to be served and the s o r t s of 20 commands that may be i s s u e d " . These s p e c i f i c a t i o n s take 30. the fo rm of s t a t u t e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s and j u d i c i a l p r e c e n d e n t s . A u t h o r i t y i s o f t e n e x e r c i s e d on a group th rough the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : " 1 . d i r e c t i n g g r o u p ' s a c t i v i t i e s by g i v i n g o r d e r s , d i r e c t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s ; 2. making the r u l e s w i t h r e s p e c t to members \ of the g r o u p ; 3. s e t t i n g g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and s t a n d a r d s ; o f p e r f o r m a n c e ; 4. s e l e c t i n g members o f the g r o u p ; 5. e n f o r c i n g the r u l e s by s a n c t i o n s , rewards and p u n i s h m e n t s . " 2 1 Whenever an i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p . h a s the a u t h o r i t y to s e l e c t members o f a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g group and to s e t the g o a l s and r u l e s f o r t he g r o u p , i t i s e x e r c i s i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e power ove r the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s and the d e c i s i o n outcome. I n f l u e n c e " i s a l l power t h a t r e s t s on o t h e r f o u n d a t i o n s than 2 2 a u t h o r i t y . " I t may be based on the c o n t r o l o f " s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s such as j o b s , money, c r e d i t , l a n d , g o o d s , s e r v i c e s , 2 3 and means of c o m m u n i c a t i o n " o r on " p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s such as a p p e a r a n c e , a g e , f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d , c h a r a c t e r , s k i l l s , 24 knowledge and commun ica t ion s k i l l s . " In a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r o u p , power i s commonly e x e r t e d th rough a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e i n the r o l e o f the l e a d e r o r c h a i r p e r s o n . The l e a d e r e x e r c i s e s c o n s i d e r a b l e power i n s e t t i n g the agenda , c o n t r o l l i n g the meet ing and s e l e c t i v e l y summar i z i ng i n f o r m a t i o n . However , the power o f the l e a d e r r e s t s not o n l y on a u t h o r i t y , but a l s o on p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s 31. which a re s h a r e d by a l l p o w e r h o l d e r s i n any s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . These a t t r i b u t e s i n c l u d e i n t e l l i g e n c e , rank and e d u c a t i o n , a r e p u t a t i o n f o r compe tence , a l a c k of a n x i e t y , a h i gh p a r t i c i -25 p a t i o n l e v e l ( o r t a l k a t i v e n e s s ) , and a sha red v a l u e s e t . I n f l u e n c e i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n p r o v i d i n g l e v e r a g e or w e i g h t to i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups engaged i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . M a i e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the l e a d e r p l a y s a c r u c i a l r o l e i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t i n g r o u p s . By f a c i l i t a t i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n , p romo t i ng agreement on g o a l s , and s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n about d i s a g r e e m e n t s , a l e a d e r can encourage group c o o p e r a t i o n and t r u s t . The l e a d e r can f a c i l i t a t e the " p r o c e s s o f r e s o l v i n g 7 fi d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e s e t t i n g 1 wh ich " c a u s e s the e x p l o r a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l a reas and l e a d s to s o l u t i o n s t h a t are 2 7 i n t e g r a t i v e " , by emp loy i ng t e c h n i q u e s o f p e r m i s s i v e n e s s and d e l a y . However , w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t s u f f i c i e n t t ime must be a l l o c a t e d to d i s c u s s i o n , i f a l l v iews are to be heard and c o n f l i c t s m i n i m i z e d , a good l e a d e r w i l l not a l l o w meet ings to drag on u n t i l f a t i g u e b e g i n s t o s e t i n . S i m i l a r l y , a good l e a d e r w i l l ensu re the e x p r e s s i o n o f m i n o r i t y v i e w s , and w i l l see p e o p l e who d i s a g r e e as p e o p l e w i t h i d e a s , r a t h e r than as t r o u b l e m a k e r s . A l t o g e t h e r , M a i e r makes a s t r o n g case f o r the i m p o r t a n c e o f a group l e a d e r i n any p rob lem s o l v i n g g roup . 4 .0 Ro le o f the P l a n n e r The r o l e o f the p l a n n e r i n the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s o f t e n v a r i e d , but never s t a t i c . Depending on the n a t u r e o f the communi ty , the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , and the p l a n n e r ' s va l ue o r i e n t a t i o n , the r o l e can vary a l o n g a con t inuum t h a t i n c l u d e s : 32. a u t h o r i t a r i a n , l e a d e r , c a t a l y s t , enabler, informant, f o l l o w e r 2 8 and servant. Since the two extremes ( a u t h o r i t a r i a n and servant) r a r e l y occur i n p r a c t i c e , most community planners operate in a r o l e that ranges, between leader and informant, at d i f f e r e n t times and with d i f f e r e n t community groups. Bolan suggests two f a c t o r s that may i n f l u e n c e the planner's p o s i t i o n on the r o l e continuum. The f i r s t f a c t o r i s the past h i s t o r y of the r e a l t i o n s h i p between the community and the planner. I f the past h i s t o r y has been harmonious, the planner might play the enabler r o l e ; however, i f the h i s t o r y had been acrimonious, the pi anner' s1 , r o l e might be l i m i t e d to the lower end of the continuum. The second f a c t o r i s the status d i f f e r e n t i a l between the planner and the community group. A low s t a t u s group would expect the planner to be a l e a d e r , while a high status group would expect the planner's r o l e to d r i f t toward the submissive end of the continuum. In Bolan's a n a l y s i s , the r o l e of the planner depends f i r s t l y , on the degree of t r u s t inherent in the r e l a t i o n s h i p between planner and community, and secondly, on the l e v e l of the community's dependence on the planner. An a l t e r n a t e p e r s p e c t i v e on planners r o l e s , presents a continuum s p e c i f i c to l o c a l community planners. At one end i s the o f f i c i a l party l i n e r , who takes refuge behind the p o l i c i e s of his s u p e r i o r s or p o l i t i c i a n s . At the other end i s the c i t i z e n party l i n e r , who i n c o r p o r a t e s the c i t i z e n group point of view. In between is the broker who f u n c t i o n s as a 33. mediator. Most l o c a l planners perform the r o l e of broker, but 2 9 with g r e a t e r or l e s s e r s k i l l and committment. Although t h i s i s a simple model of planners r o l e s , i t does emphasize the ambiguity of the r o l e of the community planner. The ambiguity i s derived from the community planner's p o s i t i o n as l i a i s o n between the community and C i t y H a l l . "As the planning l i n k between the c i t y and the community, planners f i n d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s the f o c a l p o i n t of strong c o n t r a d i c t o r y demands l i n k e d together i n what might be c a l l e d the community pressure system."3° The c o n t r a d i c t o r y demands come from community r e s i d e n t s , on the one hand, who want quick a c t i o n on p r o j e c t s of t h e i r c h o i c e , and from the planning department (and c i t y government) on the other hand, which expects the planner to r e s o l v e community c o n f l i c t s , produce a comprehensive plan and stay out of controversy. Caught i n the pressure system, the planner has to e i t h e r choose s i d e s or evolve an independent middle p o s i t i o n . 5.0 BARGAINING STRATEGIES Bargaining behaviour occurs i n any decision-making or problem s o l v i n g group, where there i s a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t , divergent goals or unequal rewards to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The absence of any of these f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e s the e x i s t e n c e of a cooperative r e l a t i o n s h i p . Cooperation has been defined as "a j o i n t or c o l l a b o r a t i v e behaviour that i s d i r e c t e d toward some goal i n 31 which there i s common i n t e r e s t or hope of reward." 34. Since t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned with a community decision-making group that experienced a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of c o n f l i c t , i t i s useful to examine the elements of bargaining i n order to understand s u c c e s s f u l b a r g a i n i n g outcomes. One of the key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of bargaining i s the dependence of the p a r t i e s on each other f o r the b a r g a i n i n g outcome. In order to develop a b a r g a i n i n g approach, each party has to acquire i n f o r m a t i o n about the other party's i n t e n t i o n s , preferences and p e r c e p t i o n s . But, to acquire t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the party has to adopt a stance that may reveal i t s p r e f e r e n c e s , i n t e n t i o n s , and p e r c e p t i o n s , which could then be sued by the other party to develop i t s own b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g y . Hence, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s t r a n s m i t t e d between p a r t i e s i n a complex system of give and take. Rubin and Brown have c a l l e d the elements of the system ( i n which each party t r i e s to determine the other's i n t e n t i o n s , without r e v e a l i n g i t s own) the language of opening moves, patterns of concessions, and the system of promises and t h r e a t s . Opening moves are important in s e t t i n g the tone of the b a r g a i n i n g process, at the beginning when p o s i t i o n s are s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e and have not become entrenched as they (inevitably do l a t e r i n the process. In g e n e r a l , opening moves that are c o o p e r a t i v e tend to promote cooperation and t r u s t , whereas e a r l y competitive behavior tends to i n c l u d e ^mutual s u s p i c i o n and h o s t i l i t y . The authors note that "bargainers often seem to co n s i d e r i t accept-able and a p p r o p r i a t e f o r opening moves to be used to t e s t l i m i t s and to explore a v a r i e t y of behaviours with one's adversary before ^ committing o n e s e l f to a p a r t i c u l a r posture." There i s evidence to support that bargainers who s t a r t with extreme demands, but make moderating concessions during the process of the n e g o t i a t i o n s are more often s u c c e s s f u l than those that s t a r t with more moderate demands. Concessions have an important n e g o t i a t i n g f u n c t i o n , but they a l s o t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n about a bargainer's p e r c e p t i o n of his adversary. "By making p o s i t i v e c o n c e s s i o n s , bargainers may communicate t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the other as a s t r o n g , worthy and tough opponent and i n so doing may i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of inducing p o s i t i v e concessions in return."33 Conversely, negative o f f e r s may convey a negative image of the opponent and t h e r e f o r e e l i c i t f u r t h e r negative behaviours. The system of promises and.threats provides leverage between p a r t i e s engaged in a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . A bargainer's t h r e a t s can range from a r e f u s a l to make f u r t h e r concessions unless his o f f e r i s accepted, to the ultimate t h r e a t of le a v i n g the bargaining r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i m i l a r l y , a bargainer can promise to come to an immediate agreement i f his o f f e r i s accepted, or to make a major concession. Like concessions, promises and t h r e a t s a l s o convey inf o r m a t i o n about a bargainer's i n t e n t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s . The frequency, i n t e n s i t y and timing of promises or t h r e a t s i n d i c a t e s the magni tude o f the b a r g a i n e r ' s d e s i r e f o r the a d v e r s a r y ' s c o o p e r a t i o n o r c o m p l i a n c e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , p rom ises tend to convey a d m i r a t i o n f o r the o t h e r w h i l e t h r e a t s convey con tempt . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , " t he use o f p rom ises tends to e l i c i t g e n e r a l l i k i n g f o r the t r a n s m i t t e r , w h i l e the use o f 34 t h r e a t s tends to e l i c i t g r e a t e r h o s t i l i t y . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , p rom ises tend to be t r a n s m i t t e d w i t h g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y than t h r e a t s and t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t " o v e r the cou rse o f the b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p the use o f p rom ises tends to i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d o f b a r g a i n e r s r e a c h i n g a m u t u a l l y f a v o u r a b l e 35 a g r e e m e n t . " As a b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g y , the use o f p rom ises and t h r e a t s " c a n he lp c o o r d i n a t e mutual e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n t e n t i o n s " i n s i t u a t i o n s where the c o n f l i c t i s m i n o r . However , when the c o n f l i c t i s l a r g e , the use o f p rom ises and t h r e a t s tends to be v iewed as c o e r c i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e . 5.1 I s s u e s i n B a r g a i n i n g Other a s p e c t s o f b a r g a i n i n g , such as p h y s i c a l and i s s u e components can a l s o have an e f f e c t on b a r g a i n i n g ou tcomes. I s sues can be d i v i d e d i n t o t a n g i b l e i s s u e s , wh ich are the m a n i f e s t i s s u e s at s t a k e i n b a r g a i n i n g , and i n t a n g i b l e i s s u e s , wh ich are c o n c e r n e d w i t h the b a r g a i n e r ' s image , r e p u t a t i o n , s t a t u s or honour . B a r g a i n e r s t end to d e f e r o r make c o n c e s s i o n s to t hose they p e r c e i v e to have a h i g h e r s t a t u s than t h e i r own, and i n r e t u r n , they e x p e c t d e f e r e n c e f rom those they v iew as h a v i n g i n f e r i o r s t a t u s . I n t a n g i b l e i s s u e s " a r e o f t e n g e n e r a t e d by needs to p r o j e c t an appearance of s t r e n g t h to the o p p o s i n g p a r t y and to o t h e r s a l i e n t a u d i e n c e s . Such needs appear to be grounded i n the s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t one must look s t r o n g i n o r d e r to o b t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y ou tcome, t h a t one must a v o i d i n a p p r o p r i a t e d e f e r e n t i a l b e h a v i o u r toward a n o t h e r , and t h a t on a l e s s c o n s c i o u s l e v e l , one must p r o t e c t o n e s e l f a g a i n s t i n j u r i e s to s e l f - e s t e e m t h a t may a r i s e f rom b e i n g e v a l u a t e d n e g a t i v e l y . " 3 7 S i nee t : n tang i b:le i ssues can i n t e r f e r e w i t h b a r g a i n e r s d e s i r e c a p a c i t y to reach ag reemen t , they s h o u l d be acknow ledged and c o n v e r t e d to more t a n g i b l e i s s u e s whenever p o s s i b l e . T a n g i b l e i s s u e s can a f f e c t the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i f t h e i r number or c o m p l e x i t y r e q u i r e s a l o n g e r t ime p e r i o d to reach agreement . Rubin and Brown s u g g e s t t h a t " i f i n c r e a s i n g l y complex m u l t i f a c e t e d d i s p u t e s are to be r e s o l v e d more e f f e c t i v e l y v i a nego-t i a t i o n s , b a r g a i n e r s . m u s t beg in to c o n s i d e r more c o n s c i o u s l y the f o r m u l a t i o n , as w e l l as 0 3 s u b s t a n c e o f the i s s u e s w i t h wh ich they d e a l . " M o r e o v e r , s e t t i n g a t ime d e a d l i n e f o r n e g o t i a t i o n can speed b a r g a i n i n g s i nee " t ime p r e s s u r e s i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d o f agreement and tend to be m a n i f e s t e d i n r e d u c -t i o n s i n b a r g a i n i n g a s p i r a t i o n s , demands, and the amount o f b l u f f i n g t h a t o d c u r s . " 3 9 5.2 P h y s i c a l A s p e c t s o f B a r g a i n i n g The p h y s i c a l components o f a b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n such as l o c a t i o n o f the mee t ing and s e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , can a l s o i n f l u e n c e ou tcomes . In terms o f l o c a t i o n , the 38. " a d v a n t a g e s g a i n e d f rom b a r g a i n i n g on o n e ' s own t e r r i t o r y r e p r e s e n t p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s o f s t r e n g t h t h a t are l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e both the a s s e r t i veness o f and the outcomes o b t a i ned by the s i t e c o n t r o l l e r . In c o n t r a s t , a b a r g a i n e r who i s a gues t may come to v iew h i m s e l f as o c c u p y i n g s u b o r d i n a t e s t a t u s and may thus be i n d u c e d to behave l e s s a s s e r t i v e l y o r even d e f e r e n t i a l l y toward h i s h o s t . " 4 0 C o n s e q u e n t l y , the l o c a t i o n o f a n e u t r a l s i t e f o r the b a r g a i n i n g meet ings can m i n i m i z e the p o t e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e i n t a n g i b l e i s s u e s . 5 .3 F i n d i n g the Formula W h i l e s t i l l f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c h o o l o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h e o r y , Zar tman p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t v iew o f n e g o t i a t i o n . He d e f i n e s n e g o t i a t i o n as t a k i n g p l a c e "when s t a l e m a t e o c c u r s , o r o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , when a d e c i s i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e by o t h e r means, and hence when - - i n some s e n s e - -the p a r t i e s have equa l s t a l e m a t i n g power ; and n e g o t i a t i o n i s a j o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n wh ich both p a r t i e s a re n e c e s s a r y to the d e c i s i o n o r , o t h e r w i s e , s t a t e d , i n wh ich each p a r t y has ve to p o w e r . " 4 1 He b e l i e v e s t h a t the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f n e g o t i a t i o n i s the p r o c e s s o f c h a n g i n g the v a l u e s o f the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . Other a u t h o r s have s t r e s s e d t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n p roceeds th rough a s e r i e s o f mutual o f f e r s , c o u n t e r - o f f e r s and c o n c e s s i o n s . Zar tman p roposes t h a t " r a t h e r than a ma t t e r o f conve rgence th rough i n c r e m e n t a l c o n c e s s i o n s f rom s p e c i f i c i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s , n e g o t i a t i o n i s a m a t t e r o f f i n d i n q the p r o p e r f o r m u l a and imp lemen t i ng d e t a i l . " 4 2 Far f rom " i n c h i n g " f o r w a r d toward each o t h e r t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f c o n c e s s i o n s , p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n tend to " jump" to 39. agreement on f i n d i n g the c o r r e c t f o r m u l a . The method o f f i n d i n g the f o r m u l a " i n v o l v e s two t ypes o f a c t i o n s : a s e l e c t i o n o f v a l u e s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the p r o p o s a l and a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t hese v a l u e s th rough p e r s u a s i o n , c o e r c i o n and f o r c e . I f no m o d i f i c a t i o n were n e c e s s a r y , n e g o t i a t i o n wou ld be mere ly a m a t t e r o f d i s c o v e r y and no c o n f l i c t wou ld be p r e s e n t . " 4 3 A l t hough Zar tman p r o v i d e s e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e o f t h i s t h e o r y i n terms o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s , he s t o p s s h o r t o f d e t a i l -i n g the s t e p s n e c e s s a r y f o r d i s c o v e r i n g the " f o r m u l a " . 6 .0 SUMMARY The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d c o v e r e d a b road spec t rum from t h e o r i e s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n to b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Edward B a n f i e l d p o i n t e d out the v a l u e o f s o c i a l c h o i c e , w h i l e a number o f Canad ian a u t h o r s d i s c u s s e d the e d u c a t i v e , i n t e -g r a t i v e and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A r n s t e i n con tended t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was too f r e q u e n t l y a m a t t e r o f t o k e n i s m . T u i t e ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s among c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t groups p a r a l l e l e d N i x ' s d i s c o v e r y o f a c o - o r d i n a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p among community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r o u p s , and Ba tes and H a r v e y ' s i n t e r s t i t i a l g roup . W a r r e n ' s t y p o l o g y of community d e c i s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s no ted t h a t the degree o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l groups w i t h the goa l s of the community d e c i s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e t e r m i n e d t h e i r b e h a v i o u r and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 40. The l i t e r a t u r e conce rned w i t h c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n no ted t h a t c o n f l i c t s a r i s e out of d r i v e s f o r autonomy o r a d i v e r g e n c e of g o a l s . Raven and K r u g l a n s k i s u g g e s t e d a number o f methods f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t , i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g , r e w a r d s , e x p e r t knowledge and a u t h o r i t y . M a i e r examined the r o l e o f the group l e a d e r i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t . The r o l e o f the community p l a n n e r was d e p i c t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as both v a r i e d and ambiguous . B o l a n p o r t r a y e d p l a n n e r s r o l e s as f a l l i n g a l o n g a con t inuum t h a t ranged from the a u t h o r i t a r i a n to the s u b m i s s i v e . The r o l e chosen was i n f l u e n c e d by the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and the s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l between p l a n n e r and communi ty . W i l s o n c o n s t r u c t e d a s i m i l a r t y p o l o g y f o r the r o l e o f the p l a n n e r . Needleman and Needleman s u g g e s t e d t h a t the a m b i g u i t y o f the community p l a n n e r ' s r o l e was d e r i v e d f rom the p l a n n e r ' s p o s i t i o n as l i n k between c i t y government and communi ty . T h i s made the p l a n n e r s u s c e p t i b l e to demands and p r e s s u r e f rom both s i d e s . 6 0 The t h e o r y of b a r g a i n i n g was a b l y p r e s e n t e d by Rubin and Brown i n t h e i r tho rough d i s c u s s i o n o f the e lements o f a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , and the b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f open ing moves, p a t t e r n s o f c o n c e s s i o n s , and sys tem of p rom ises and t h r e a t s . Zar tman d i s a g r e e d w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r y of n e g o t i a t i o n and s u g g e s t e d t h a t agreement was m o s t l y a m a t t e r of f i n d i n g the f o r m u l a , and then w o r k i n g out the d e t a i l s . T h i s t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be used to p r o v i d e a f rame-work to gu ide a n a l y s i s o f the i s s u e s and even ts i n the case s t u d y . The next c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the a c t o r s , i s s u e s and even t s i n S tage I and II of the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r H e a l t h F a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 42 . CHAPTER II - FOOTNOTES 1. B a n f i e l d , E . C . P o l i t i c a l I n f l u e n c e , Free P r e s s , New Y o r k , Y o r k , 1961. p. 329. 2. I b i d . p. 344. 3. M c N i v e n , J . D . E v a l u a t i o n of the P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Programme, I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y , H a l i f a x , 1974. p. 162-164 . 4. Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , C i t i z e n Invo l vemen t T o r o n t o , 1972. p. 2 2 - 2 5 . 5. T h a y e r , F . C . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and L i b e r a l D e m o c r a t i c Government , Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , T o r o n t o , 1971. p. 19. 6. A r n s t e i n , S . R . " E i g h t Rungs on the Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " i n Cahn , E . S . and P a s s e t t , B . C . , e d i t o r s , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : E f f e c t i n g Community  Change. P r a e g e r , New Y o r k , 1971. p. 72. 7. I b i d . p. 72. 8. I b i d . p. 80. 9. T u i t e , M. "Toward a Theory of J o i n t D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g " i n T u i t e , M. , C h i s h o l m R. and Radnor , M. ( e d i t o r s ) I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l Deci s i onrM a k i ng. A l d i n e P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1972. p. 10. N i x , H . L . The Community and I t s I nvo l vemen t i n the S tudy P l a n n i n g A c t i o n P r o c e s s , U,. S . Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e . A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a . 1977. p. 7. 11. I b i d . p. 5. 12. Ba tes F . L . and H a r v e y , " C . C . The S t r u c t u r e o f S o c i a l Systems G a r d i n e r P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1975. P. 117. 13. W a r r e n , R . L . "The I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l F i e l d as a Focus f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n " i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y December 1976. V. 12, p. 396 -419 . 14. I b i d . p. 408 . 15. Pondy , L . R . " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n f l i c t s : Concepts and M o d e l s " i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y . December 1976. V. 12 , p. 300. 16. I b i d . p. 300. 43 . 17. Raven , B . H . and K r u g l a n s k i , A.W. " C o n f l i c t and Power" i n S w i n g l e , P. ( e d . ) The S t r u c t u r e and C o n f l i c t Academic P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1970. p. 74. 18. B a t e s , F . L . and Harvey, . . C . C Op. C i t . p. 306. 19. A l t s h u l e r , A . A . Communi ty C o n t r o l . P e g a s u s , New Y o r k , 1970. p. 62 . 20 . I b i d . p. 62 . 21 . B a t e s , F . L . and H a r v e y , C . C . Op. C i t . p. 308. 22. N i x , H . L . Op. C i t . p. 10. 24. I b i d . p. 10. 25 . J a c o b s o n , W.D. Power and I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s . Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g C o . , B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a , 1972. p. 105. 26. M a i e r , N . R . F . " A s s e t s and L i a b i l i t i e s i n Group P rob lem S o l v i n g : The Need f o r an I n t e g r a t i v e F u n c t i o n " i n R i t c h i e , T.Bi . and Thompson, P. (ed . ) O r g a n i z a t i o n and P e o p l e . S t . P a u l , U . S . A . , 1976. p. 183. 27. I b i d . p. 183. 28 . B o l a n , R . S . "The S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s o f the P l a n n e r " J . A . I . P . November, 1971. p. 386 -395 . 29. W i l s o n , J .W. " C r o s s f i r e - An E x p l o r a t o r y Essay on the Dilemmas o f L o c a l A rea P l a n n e r s . " U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , September 1981. 30. Need leman, C E . and Need leman, M.L. G u e r i l l a s i n the B u rea u c r a c y . John W i l e y and S o n s , New Y o r k , 19 74. p. 119. 31 . M a r w e l l , G. and S c h m i t t , D .C. C o o p e r a t i o n - - A n E x p e r i m e n t a l A n a l y s i s . Academic P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1975. p. 5 . 32. R u b i n , J . Z . and B rown , B . C . The S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f  B a r g a i n i n g and N e g o t i a t i o n . Academic P r e s s , New Y o r k , 266. 1975 • P-33. I b i d . P- 278. 34. I b i d . P- 285 . 35. I b i d . P- 2 86. 36. I b i d . P- 288. 37. I b i d . p. 196. 38. I b i d . p. 149. 39. I b i d . p. 123. 40 . I b i d . p. 8 3 . . 4 1 . Z a r t m a n , W. " N e g o t i a t i o n as a J o i n t D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s " i n J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n . V. 2 1 , No. 4 , December, 1977. p. 523 . 42 . I b i d . p. 628 . 43 . I b i d . p. 638. 45. CHAPTER I I I - CASE STUDY 1.0 INTRODUCTION The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p r o v i d e d a f ocus f o r community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and thus i n c l u d e d , on a s m a l l e r s c a l e and i n v o l v i n g a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f a c t o r s , the e lements o f the l a r g e r n e i g h -bourhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S i n c e the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s p a r a l l e l s i n m i n i a t u r e the s a l i e n t e lements of the ne ighbou rhood p r o c e s s i n c l u d i n g d i v e r s i t y o f i n t e r e s t s , a v a r i e t y o f a c t o r s , c o n f l i c t , and n e g o t i a t i o n , i t p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y to e x a m i n e , i n a managable way, the dynamics o f group d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e v o l v e d ove r a p e r i o d of t h r e e y e a r s and c o n s i s t e d of two f a i r l y d i s t i n c t s t a g e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e n t r a t e s p r i m a r i l y on the even ts in S tage I I , a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the even ts i n S tage I i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e , i n o r d e r to s e t the scene and p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r , u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i s s u e s and p o s i t i o n s t h a t emerged i n S tage II o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A c h r o n o l o g y o f the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendi x I. 1.1 The Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c The Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c had s e r v e d the Downtown E a s t s i d e p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e 1971. The C l i n i c p r o v i d e d a d i a g n o s t i c and t r e a t m e n t s e r v i c e f o r both m e d i c a l and d e n t a l p rob lems on a n o n - r e s t i c t i v e , f i r s t - c o m e , f i r s t - s e r v e d b a s i s . Run by a community e l e c t e d Board o f D i r e c t o r s f a m i l i a r w i t h the s o c i o -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n , the C l i n i c a l s o p r o v i d e d n o n - m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s such as n u t r i t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and l o w - c o s t food s t o r e . Fund ing f o r the C l i n i c was p r o v i d e d by the B r i t i s h Co lumb ia M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h , and a d m i n i s t e r e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Board o f H e a l t h . By September 1976, the C l i n i c , though w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as p r o v i d i n g a un ique and n e c e s s a r y h e a l t h s e r v i c e , was e x p e r i -e n c i n g a s h o r t a g e o f space and i n s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e a t i t s l e a s e d p rem ises on E a s t Cordova S t r e e t . The i n t e n t o f the $200 ,000 N . I . P . f u n d i n g a l l o c a t i o n was to p r o v i d e an improved and permanent f a c i l i t y f o r the Downtown Community H e a l t h S o c i e t y C l i n i c . 2 .0 INITIATION OF PLANNING PROCESS - STAGE I The Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commit tee and P l a n n i n g S t a f f r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the $200 ,000 N . I . P . a l l o c a t i o n would be i n s u f f i c i e n t to pu rchase or c o n s t r u c t a b u i l d i n g f o r the new h e a l t h c a r e f a c i l i t y . P r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h i n d i c a t e d t h a t the M i n i s t r y would be i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t r i b u t i n g f u n d i n g toward the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y , p r o v i d e d t h a t a we l1 - documen ted c a s e , d e m o n s t r a t i n g the need f o r a new f a c i l i t y , was p r e s e n t e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commit tee d e c i d e d to form a s u b - c o m m i t t e e r e s p o n s i b l e to i t s e l f , wh ich wou ld r e s e a r c h and document a p r o p o s a l f o r an improved h e a l t h f a c i l i t y to submi t f i r s t to C i t y C o u n c i l , wh ich had the a u t h o r i t y to a p p r o p r i a t e the $200,000 N . I . P . funds a l l o c a t e d 47. f o r a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y , and s e c o n d l y , to the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h f o r a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i n g f u n d s . 2 .1 H e a l t h F a c i l i t y P l a n n i n g Sub -commi t t ee In March 1977 , the Oppenheimer A r e a P l a n n i n g Commit tee formed a h e a l t h p l a n n i n g Sub -commi t t ee ( h e n c e f o r t h to be r e f e r r e d to a s , the S u b - c o m m i t t e e ) . A c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t was made to ensu re t h a t the Sub -commi t t ee membership would be r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e of a l l u s e r s , w o r k e r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , the compos t i on of the Sub-commit tee c o n s i s t e d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , the Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c , ne ighbou rhood s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , ne ighbou rhood e t h n i c groups and s t a f f f rom the C i t y P l a n n i n g and H e a l t h Depar tmen ts . I t s h o u l d be no ted t h a t the O . A . P . C . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were D . E . R . A . members. A l t h o u g h a t t e n d a n c e at Sub -commi t t ee meet ings f l u c u a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , a s t a b l e co re group c o n s i s t i n g of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the O . A . P . C . the C l i n i c and C i t y P l a n n i n g a n d H e a l t h s t a f f , p r o v i d e d c o n t i n u i t y . The Sub -commi t t ee began i t s work by t r y i n g to d e f i n e h e a l t h ca re i s s u e s and needs i n the a r e a . A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t , e v a l u a t i n g e x i s t i n g h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , was p r e p a r e d by a C i t y H e a l t h Depar tment s t a f f member . 1 At the same t i m e , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e was i n i t i a t e d w i t h the M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h and h i s s t a f f . P o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n s , such as C i t y A l d e r m e n , and C e n t r a l Morgage and Hous ing C o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s , were i n v i t e d to the e a r l y Sub-commi t tee m e e t i n g s . 48. 2 .2 H e a l t h F a c i l i t y Task Fo rce Hav ing b r o a d l y d e f i n e d h e a l t h c a r e i s s u e s and needs i n the a r e a , the Sub -commi t t ee d e c i d e d to form a Task F o r c e , a s m a l l group which would work i n t e n s i v e l y f o r f o u r weeks to " p r o d u c e a wel1 - documented p r o p o s a l f o r a community c l i n i c f o r c o n s i d e r -2 a t i o n by the P r o v i n c e f o r f u n d i n g " : The e i g h t pe rson Task Fo rce c o n s i s t e d of one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from each o f the Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c , The Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , C i t y P l a n n i n g Depar tmen t , C i t y H e a l t h Depar tmen t , r e s i d e n t s o f the Downtown E a s t s i d e , r e s i d e n t s of S t r a t h c o n a , the C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n and the Japanese p o p u l a t i o n . The O . A . P . C . and the Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t p o s i t i o n s were h e l d by D . E . R . A . members. Head ing up the Task Force was a v o l u n t e e r h o s p i t a l a r c h i t e c t / p l a n n e r . D u r i n g June 1977 the Task Force met f o u r t imes a week to d e f i n e g o a l s , g a t h e r and a n a l y z e d a t a , and to p l a n the s e r v i c e s , s t a f f i n g and space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the p roposed c l i n i c . 2 . 3 I s s ues In the goa l f o r m u l a t i o n s t a g e , the Task Force r e a c t i v a t e d an i s s u e t h a t had f i r s t s u r f a c e d i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e N . I . P . Concept P l a n r e p o r t o f September 2 8 , 1976, but had remained dormant i n the e a r l y phase o f the S tage I p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The i s s u e , a l r e a d y p rominan t i n the comprehens i ve ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , would become the dominant i s s u e i n S tage I and c o n t i n u e to dominate the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , to i t s c o n c l u s i o n . The i s s u e was the i n c l u s i o n o f hous ing u n i t s i n the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p r o j e c t . In S tage I the a r t i c u l a t i o n 49. o f what c o n s t i t u t e d h o u s i n g was f a i r l y vague. The a rea p l a n n e r , i n two memos w r i t t e n to f i l e i n e a r l y Janua ry 1977, ment ions t h a t p e r s o n a l , i n t e r m e d i a t e and ex tended ca re u n i t s a re needed i n the a rea and c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y be combined w i t h a community h e a l t h f a c i l i t y . P e r s o n a l , i n t e r m e d i a t e and ex tended c a r e u n i t s r e f e r to non s e l f - c o n t a i n e d h o u s i n g , i n wh ich p r o g r e s s -i v e l y g r e a t e r n u r s i n g and d o m e s t i c a s s i s t a n c e i s p r o v i d e d f o r r e s i d e n t s . The r e f e r e n c e to p e r s o n a l and i n t e r m e d i a t e ca re hous ing i n the c o n t e x t o f the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y a l s o i s made s e v e r a l t imes i n the m inu tes o f the Task Fo rce and S u b - c o m m i t t e e . However , a d i s p u t e t h a t a r o s e c o n c e r n i n g the r a n k i n g o f g o a l s f o r the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y r e v e a l e d t h a t some members o f the Sub -commi t t ee ( n o t a b l y the D . E . R . A . members) made a d i s t i n c t i o n between s e l f - c o n t a i n e d h o u s i n g u n i t s , and p e r s o n a l o r i n t e r -med ia te c a r e u n i t s , and were p romo t i ng both i n the new h e a l t h 4 f a c i l i t y p r o j e c t . A l t hough the q u e s t i o n of hous ing was c o n t i n u a l l y r a i s e d (by D . E . R . A . members and o t h e r s ) i t was not d e a l t w i t h by the dominant h e a l t h - o r i e n t e d members o f the Task Fo rce and .Sub -commi t t ee who c o n s i d e r e d the i s s u e o f h o u s i n g i r r e l e v a n t to the main j o b o f p l a n n i n g a new h e a l t h c l i n i c . The p l a n n e r appears to have c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h i s o p i n i o n , f o r t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t any a t tempt was made by p l a n n i n g s t a f f to r e s e a r c h o r s e c u r e f u n d i n g f o r h o u s i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the h e a l t h c l i n i c deve lopmen t . The h o u s i n g I s s u e a rose a g a i n i n the c o n t e x t of d e c i d i n g the l o c a t i o n of the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y . The D . E . R . A . members 50 . on the Task Fo rce and Sub -commi t t ee s t r o n g l y opposed the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the new f a c i l i t y on l and t h a t was r e s i d e n t i a l , o r i n d e e d , i f the l a s t use o f the l a n d had been r e s i d e n t i a l , but riow was v a c a n t . M o r e o v e r , they a rgued t h a t i f i t became n e c e s s a r y to d e m o l i s h any hous ing u n i t s to b u i l d the f a c i l i t y , then each u n i t wou ld have to be r e p l a c e d i n the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y deve lopmen t . The p r o h i b i t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g f o r m e r l y r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d w i t h a n y t h i n g but r e s i d e n t a i l u s e s , and the r e q u i r e m e n t o f r e p l a c i n g d e m o l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s were the key p r i n c i p l e s o f the p h i l o s o p h y of the Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . 2 .4 Even ts C o n c u r r e n t w i t h the a c t i v i t y o f the Task F o r c e , p l a n n i n g s t a f f had been c o o r d i n a t i n g p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y , l i a i s i n g w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h and o t h e r government a g e n c i e s , and d e v e l o p i n g a s t r a t e g y f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the h e a l t h c l i n i c p r o j e c t . The s t r a t e g y d e v e l o p e d w i t h the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t t ee , i n v o l v e d the C i t y p u r c h a s -i ng a s i t e f o r the p roposed h e a l t h c l i n i c u s i n g the $200 ,000 N . I . P . a l l o c a t i o n . The s i t e wou ld then be o f f e r e d on a l ong term l e a s e b a s i s to the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h , who wou ld a l s o be r e q u e s t e d to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l funds f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and f o r the ongo ing o p e r a t i o n of the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y . Dur ing t h i s p e r i o d ( J u n e - J u l y , 1977) p l a n n i n g s t a f f , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the C i t y , P r o p e r t i e s s t a f f , had s e l e c t e d t h r e e s u i t a b l e s i t e s and had begun n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e p r o p e r t y owners f o r p u r c h a s e . P l a n n i n g s t a f f had kept the O . A . P . C . and 5 1 . Sub -commi t t ee i n f o r m e d about t hese n e g o t i a t i o n s , and had 5 d i s c u s s e d the chosen s i t e w i t h both g r o u p s . 2 . 4 . 1 S i t e P u r c h a s e On August 9 , 1977, C i t y C o u n c i l ( i n camera) approved the P l a n n i n g Depar tment r e p o r t recommending the e x p e n d i t u r e o f N . I . P . funds f o r the pu r chase of a s i t e on E a s t Cordova S t r e e t c o n t a i n i n g f o u r rundown frame houses f o r a p roposed h e a l t h f a c i l i t y . T h i s even t had a d e v i s i v e e f f e c t on the members of both the O . A . P . C . and Sub -commi t t ee and i n t r o d u c e d the c o n f 1 i c t - r i d d e n atmosphere t h a t became the dominant c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Members of the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commit tee p r o t e s t e d s t r o n g l y to the Mayor and C o u n c i l and the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g t h a t the O . A . P . C . had not been c o n s u l t e d or i n f o r m e d about the s i t e p u r c h a s e , and t h a t the a c t i o n of the P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -ment was r e p r e h e n s i b l e i n t h a t i t v i o l a t e d the p r i n c i p l e s o f g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l a rea p l a n n i n g . In s p i t e o f t h i s a s s e r t i o n , t h e r e appear s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s to the pu rchase of the s i t e i n the minu tes o f the meet ings of the S u b - c o m m i t t e e , and Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Committee as no ted above . A l t h o u g h the s i t e pu r chase had been d i s c u s s e d w i t h both g r o u p s , the O . A . P . C . had not moved a m o t i o n , nor vo ted on the e x p e n d i t u r e of N . I . P . funds f o r the s i t e p u r c h a s e . As the C o u n c i l endo rsed c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e , wh ich had been e l e c t e d by the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , the O . A . P . C . f e l t t h a t i t s r o l e 52. of r e p r e s e n t i n g the ne ighbou rhood had been passed o v e r . They saw the s i t e pu rchase as a n o t h e r example o f the p l a n n i n g s t a f f ' s o p p o s i t i o n to the c o m m i t t e e ' s w i s h e s . P l a n n i n g s t a f f responded to t h e s e a c c u s a t i o n s by p o i n t i n g out t h a t a l l groups ( i e . O . A . P . C , Sub-commi t t e e , and Task Fo rce ) had been c o n s u l t e d about the s i t e p u r c h a s e . However , s i n c e a l l C i t y p r o p e r t y p u r c h a s e s a re d e c i d e d by C o u n c i l i n camera to p r e v e n t p r i c e e s c a l a t i o n , the O . A . P . C . had not been asked to f o r m a l l y approve the s i t e pu r chase by v o t i n g , p r i o r to the r e p o r t ' s s u b m i s s i o n to C o u n c i l . ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r ( r e s i d e n t i a l ) s i t e had been chosen because i t was c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e , t h e r e were no o t h e r vacan t c o n s o l i d a t e d s i t e s i n the a r e a , and the c o s t of s i t e s d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n d u s t r i a l or commerc ia l u s e s , was s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than the amount o f N . I . P . funds a v a i l a b l e . The c o n f l i c t t h a t a rose between the Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Commit tee and p l a n n i n g s t a f f ove r the s i t e p u r c h a s e , was the l a t e s t i n a s e r i e s of c o n f l i c t s t h a t had p lagued the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f rom i t s i n c e p t i o n . Members of the O . A . P . C ( p a r t i c u -l a r l y D . E . R . A . members) had f r e q u e n t l y accused the p l a n n e r o f be ing u n c o o p e r a t i v e and m a n i p u l a t i v e w i t h r e g a r d to ma jor i s s u e s l i k e the Concept P l a n , pu rchase of 616 Eas t Cordova S t r e e t , and the h e a l t h c l i n i c s i t e . R e a l i z i n g t h a t the Downtown E a s t s i d e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was i n j e o p a r d y f o l l o w i n g the s i t e p u r c h a s e , the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g 53. i n s t i t u t e d some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes wh ich i n c l u d e d a change of p l a n n i n g s t a f f . The new s t a f f a s s u r e d the O . A . P . C . t h a t they wou ld work c l o s e l y and o p e n l y w i t h the members on a l l f u t u r e p l a n n i n g i s s u e s and p r o j e c t s . 2 . 4 . 2 Task Fo rce Repor t A n o t h e r even t t h a t r e v e a l e d the d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s o f the a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g o f the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y was the i s s u a n c e o f the d r a f t h e a l t h f a c i l i t y r e p o r t by the Task F o r c e . The response to the d r a f t r e p o r t , d i s c u s s e d at the Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Commit tee mee t ing o f O c t o b e r 18, 1977, was spea rheaded by the D . E . R . A . members on the Commit tee and was e s s e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e . The d r a f t r e p o r t recommended the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y to s e r v e the Downtown E a s t s i d e Oppenheimer a rea and n e i g h b o u r i n g S t r a t h o o n a and Gas town, as had been agreed by the Sub -commi t t ee e a r l y i n the 8 p r o c e s s . The c r i t i c i s m of the d r a f t r e p o r t was f o u r f o l d : (1) t h e r e was no h o u s i n g p l a n n e d f o r the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y , (2) the p roposed f a c i l i t y was too b i g f o r the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , (3) the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y s h o u l d s e r v e o n l y the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a , not S t r a t h c o n a or Gas town , and (4) i f the S t r a t h c o n a and Gastown were to be s e r v e d , the r e s i d e n t s of t hose a reas s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , the d r a f t r e p o r t was c r i t i c i z e d f o r p r e s e n t i n g a n e g a t i v e p o r t r a i t o f the ne ighbou rhood p o p u l a t i o n as e m o t i o n a l l y and m e n t a l l y u n s t a b l e . The q u e s t i o n o f i n c l u d i n g h o u s i n g i n the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y deve lopment had been a v o i d e d by the fo rmer p l a n n i n g s t a f f , and c o n s i d e r e d i r r e l e v a n t by the h e a l t h - o r i e n t e d members of the Task Force and S u b - c o m m i t t e e . A n d , a l t h o u g h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of S t r a t h c o n a and Gastown had been i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Sub -commi t t ee m e e t i n g s , t h e i r a c t u a l a t t e n d a n c e had been i n f r e q u e n t . D u r i n g the p r e v i o u s two mon ths , the new p l a n n i n g s t a f f had been a t t e m p t i n g to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p of mutual t r u s t w i t h the O . A . P . C . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they ag reed to r e v i s e the d r a f t Task Fo rce r e p o r t i n o r d e r to answer the above no ted c r i t i c i s m s . The new s t a f f r e a l i z e d t h a t the s u p p o r t o f the D . E . R . A . domina ted Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Commit tee was p o l i t i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y f o r the ass ignmen t o f f u r t h e r N . I . P . funds and f o r the c o m p l e t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g p rogram. 2 . 4 . 3 D e m o l i t i o n o f Houses As a consequence o f the c o n t r o v e r s y about the s i t e p u r c h a s e , the new p l a n n i n g s t a f f and Sub -commi t t ee began to i n v e s t i g a t e a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y . In the meant ime, the f o u r o l d houses on the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e , remained o c c u p i e d and t h e i r r e n t a l was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the C i v i c B u i l d i n g s Depar tment . The new p l a n n i n g s t a f f and the O . A . P . C . agreed not to d e m o l i s h the houses i n s p i t e of t h e i r poor c o n d i t i o n s , u n t i l t h e r e was a f i r m commitment to b u i l d the h e a l t h f a c i l t i y on the s i t e . I f a n o t h e r s i t e were chosen f o r the f a c i l i t y , then the houses c o u l d be r e n o v a t e d u s i n g 55. R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program ( R . R . A . P . ) f u n d s . By the summer o f 1978, p l a n n i n g s t a f f and members o f the Sub -commi t t ee and O . A . P . C . were s t i l l c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t e o p t i o n s f o r the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y , and a l t e r n a t e uses f o r the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e . S e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s had been s u b m i t t e d f o r u s i n g the s i t e . One p r o p o s a l , s u b m i t t e d by D . E . R . A . , was f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l i n f i l l p r o j e c t t h a t would r e t a i n the e x i s t i n g hous ing on t he s i t e . A n o t h e r p r o p o s a l s u g g e s t e d t h a t the houses c o u l d be r e n o v a t e d f o r use as a d a y c a r e c e n t r e . W h i l e i n s p e c t i n g the houses to de te rm ine the f e a s i b i l i t y o f the dayca re p r o p o s a l , i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the houses (now a l l empty) had been broken i n t o and t h a t f i r e s had been l i t i n some of them. In a d d i t i o n , the e s t i m a t e d c o s t of r e n o v a t i o n was w e l l beyond the funds a v a i l a b l e under the R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program or the funds a v a i l a b l e to the dayca re g roup . A c c o r d i n g l y , C i v i c B u i l d i n g s s t a f f c o n c l u d e d t h a t the bes t cou rse of a c t i o n , f rom the p o i n t o f v iew o f s a f e t y and economy, was to demo l i sh the b u i l d i n g s . A memo to the C i v i c B u i l d i n g s Department f rom P l a n n i n g S t a f f c o n c e r n i n g the c o n d i t i o n o f the hous ing was m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as recommend-i n g the d e m o l i t i o n o f the h o u s e s . When the f o u r houses on the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e were d e m o l i s h e d on June 16 , 1978, a l l f i v e D . E . R . A . members on the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Committee r e s i g n e d , s t a t i n g t h a t " t h e d e m o l i t i o n was p a r t of a p l o t to sabo tage r e s i d e n t i a l deve lopment i n the 56. a rea and undermine the work of the Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Q C o m m i t t e e . " In s p i t e o f a p o l o g i e s and o v e r t u r e s f rom P l a n n i n g and C i v i c B u i l d i n g s s t a f f , the D . E . R . A . members- r e f u s e d t h e r e -a f t e r , to r e j o i n the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee . The r e s i g n a t i o n o f the D . E . R . A . members l e f t the O . A . P . C . w i t h -out r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a rea r e s i d e n t s . A l t h o u g h r e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was s o l i c i t e d by means o f a d v e r t i s i n g , l e t t e r s and p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Committee f a i l e d to a t t r a c t s t a b l e r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to r e p l a c e the D . E . R . A . members. However , as the C i t y C o u n c i l endo rsed N . I . P . commi t tee f o r the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , the O . A . P . C . c o n t i n u e d to f u n c t i o n i n t h i s r o l e to the end o f the p l a n n i n g p rogram. In terms o f the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the d e m o l i t i o n o f the h o u s e s , and the subsequen t r e s i g n a t i o n of the D . E . R . A . members f rom the Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , marked the end of S tage I. 3.0 INITIATION OF PLANNING PROCESS - STAGE II S tage II o f t he Downtown E a s t s i d e h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was i n i t i a t e d by a C i t y C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n t h a t i n s t r u c t e d the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g to o r g a n i z e a mee t ing among r e l e v a n t C i t y depar tmen ts and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the S t r a t h c o n a community to d i s c u s s p l a n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n and h e a l t h r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s f o r the communi ty . S t r a t h c o n a r e s -i d e n t s had p e t i t i o n e d C i t y C o u n c i l to improve the h e a l t h and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s in t h e i r communi ty . In o r g a n i z i n g the 57 . m e e t i n g , P l a n n i n g s t a f f a l s o i n v i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e communi ty , i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the u n r e s o l v e d h e a l t h f a c i l i t y i s s u e i n t h a t ne ighbou rhood and the o p p o r t u n i t y to r e a c i t i v a t e d i a l o g u e w i t h an a l i e n a t e d but conce rned ne ighbou rhood g roup . At the f i r s t m e e t i n g , h e l d on J u l y 12 , 1978, and a t t e n d e d by S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s , members of D . E . R . A . , members o f O . A . P . C . and C i t y P l a n n i n g , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , H e a l t h .and Pa rks Board s t a f f , i t was d e c i d e d by t hose p r e s e n t , t h a t an o f f i c i a l commi t tee s h o u l d be se t up to i n v e s t i g a t e o p t i o n s f o r meet ing the h e a l t h c a r e needs o f both c o m m u n i t i e s . C i t y . s t a f f members d e l e g a t e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g and c h a i r i n g the p roposed Commi t tee , to the P l a n n i n g Depar tment . 3.1 S t r a thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Committee The f i r s t mee t ing o f the S t ra thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commit tee ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the A d v i s o r y Commit tee) was h e l d on August 2 , 1978. The s e n i o r p l a n n e r who c h a i r e d the m e e t i n g , p roposed a commi t tee s t r u c t u r e t h a t wou ld ensu re equa l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f both c o m m u n i t i e s , a m a j o r i t y o f r e s i d e n t s and a m i n o r i t y o f l o c a l and C i t y . p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The s t r u c t u r e c a l l e d f o r : 3 S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s 3 Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s (2 D . E . R . A . and 1 O . A . P . C . ) 1 S t r a t h c o n a Community w o r k e r 1 Downtown E a s t s i d e worke r 1 Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c s t a f f 1 C i t y H e a l t h Department s t a f f 1 C i t y P l a n n i n g Department s t a f f (Downtown E a s t s i d e ) The D . E . R . A . members p r e s e n t at the f i r s t A d v i s o r y Committee m e e t i n g , opposed the recommended commit tee s t r u c t u r e , s a y i n g , "We b e l i e v e very s t r o n g l y t h a t the p l a n n i n g o f our ne ighbou rhood and the r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n our ne ighbourhood s h o u l d be done s o l e l y by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , as i t i s us who must l i v e w i t h the r e s u l t s of any p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s f o r the Downtown E a s t s i d e . We b e l i e v e t h a t the s u b - c o m m i t t e e ( i e . A d v i s o r y Commit tee) s e t up to l o o k at p l a n s f o r a new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y s h o u l d be a l l r e s i d e n t s o f the a rea s e r v e d by the c l i n i c w i t h as many c l i n i c u s e r s as p o s s i b l e . Input f rom p l a n n i n g s t a f f , c l i n i c s t a f f , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , e t c . , s h o u l d be o f an a d v i s o r y n a t u r e o n l y ."10 The r e s t o f the members p r e s e n t a t the f i r s t mee t ing of the A d v i s o r y Commit tee found t h i s to be an ext reme p o s i t i o n t h a t they c o u l d not s u p p o r t . The D . E . R . A . members a l s o o b j e c t e d to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f any members o f the Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , which they now c o n s i d e r e d to be u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a rea because o f the absence o f any ne ighbou rhood r e s i d e n t s s i n c e the mass r e s i g n a t i o n o f a l l the D . E . R . A . members i n J u n e . The Chai rman had recommended t h a t one o f the t h r e e Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d be o c c u p i e d by a member of the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , s i n c e i t had a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r o l e i n the a l l o c a t i o n o f the Ne ighbourhood Improvement Program f u n d s , which would pay f o r the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y . The Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n p roposed t h a t the A d v i s o r y Commit tee be composed of s i x r e s i d e n t s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a , two r e s i d e n t s o f S t r a t h c o n a and two r e s i d e n t s o f Gas town , to r e f l e c t the " a c t u a l c r o s s -s e c t i o n o f the peop le who are u s e r s o f the c l i n i c . " 1 ' ' ' The S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l members of the A d v i s o r y Commit tee s u p p o r t e d the commi t tee s t r u c t u r e recommended by the Cha i rman . S i n c e no consensus on t h i s i s s u e c o u l d be r e a c h e d , i n s p i t e of c o n s i d e r a b l e t ime spen t i n d i s c u s s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e commi t tee s t r u c t u r e , and r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h i s impasse c o u l d j e o p a r d i z e the work of the A d v i s o r y Commi t tee , the Chairman d e c i d e d to r e f e r the i s s u e to C i t y C o u n c i l f o r r e s o l u t i o n . 3.2 C i t y C o u n c i l E n d o r s a t i o n On Augus t 2 9 , 1978, C i t y C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r e d a P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -ment r e p o r t wh ich recommended t h a t the o r i g i n a l commi t tee c o m p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : " 1 . V i e w p o i n t s of h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s and community wo rke rs s h o u l d not be e x c l u d e d and a re e s s e n t i a l to deve lop w o r k a b l e p r o p o s a l s . 2 . The Oppenheimer C i t i z e n s P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , as the C i t y ' s o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i -zens commit tee f o r the Downtown E a s t s i d e , has a l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m to nominate one out o f the t h r e e Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s . 3. Equal r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f rom both Downtown E a s t s i d e and S t r a t h c o n a communi-t i e s i s a r e a s o n a b l e s o l u t i o n i n v iew o f the p o p u l a t i o n of the two a r e a s . " 1 2 60. The r e p o r t a l s o recommended " t h a t i f a f t e r two months the Commit tee c o n -t i n u e s to be unab le t o f u n c t i o n , then the m a t t e r o f d e l i v e r y o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s be d e c i d e d at a j o i n t mee t ing o f P l a n n i n g and Community S e r v i c e s Commit tees (o f C o u n c i l ) wh ich w i l l dea l w i t h s t a f f r e p o r t s and p u b l i c i n p u t . " 1 3 A f t e r h e a r i n g the D . E . R . A . d e l e g a t i o n ' s o p p o s i t i o n to the p roposed A d v i s o r y Commit tee c o m p o s i t i o n , C i t y C o u n c i l approved the r e p o r t ' s recommendat ions and endo rsed the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the A d v i s o r y Commi t tee , wh ich were as f o l l o w s : "1) The ( A d v i s o r y ) Committee i s to d e v e l o p a p r o p o s a l f o r h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s and a d e l i v e r y sys tem to s e r v e the S t r a t h c o n a and Downtown E a s t s i d e c o m m u n i t i e s . 2) The ( A d v i s o r y ) Commit tee w i l l a t tempt to r e p r e s e n t o p i n i o n s of r e s i d e n t s and w o r k e r s i n S t r a t h c o n a and Downtown E a s t -s i d e and to communicate the work of the ( A d v i s o r y ) Commit tee t o both commun i t i es and to Ci t y C o u n c i 1 . " 1 4 F o l l o w i n g C i t y C o u n c i l ' s e n d o r s a t i o n , the A d v i s o r y Commi t tee , c h a i r e d by the s e n i o r p l a n n e r , met on a b i - w e e k l y b a s i s to d i s c u s s h e a l t h c a r e needs of the a r e a p o p u l a t i o n and community p r e f e r e n c e s f o r h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . 3 .3 H e a l t h S t a t u s Repor t E a r l y i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , members o f the A d v i s o r y Committee r e a l i z e d t h a t they l a c k e d hard da ta about the h e a l t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a rea r e s i d e n t s . A p r e v i o u s r e p o r t , p r e p a r e d by the C i t y H e a l t h Depa r tmen t , had e v a l u a t e d e x i s t i n g h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s but not examined the h e a l t h 6 1 . s t a t u s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . 1 J The A d v i s o r y Commi t tee , t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d to h i r e a c o n s u l t a n t to p r e p a r e a h e a l t h s t a t u s r e p o r t on the a r e a . The h e a l t h s t a t u s r e p o r t , p r e p a r e d by e p i d e m i o l -o g i s t Dr . B a k a n , no ted the ve ry poor h e a l t h of the a rea p o p u l a t i o n and a t t r i b u t e d t h i s to " a c l u s t e r o f f a c t o r s such as l a c k o f e a r l y m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t , m a l n u t r i t i o n , poor h o u s i n g , 16 and a l c o h o l a b u s e . " The r e p o r t c o n c l u d e d w i t h recommendat ions t h a t g r e a t e r emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on o u t r e a c h and p r e v e n t -i v e h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and on s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s f o c u s s i n g on the h e a l t h p rob lems of women. The Repor t summary i s a t t a c h e d i n Append ix 2. 3.4 I s sues 3 . 4 . 1 F a c i l i t y L o c a t i o n and the I n c l u s i o n o f Hous ing The q u e s t i o n o f the l o c a t i o n o f the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y emerged as one o f the dominant i s s u e s i n S tage I I , e c h o i n g the conce rn o f a s a t e l l i t e c l i n i c f o r S t r a t h c o n a . The S t r a t h c o n a members o f the A d v i s o r y Committee wanted a s m a l l c l i n i c l o c a t e d i n S t r a t h c o n a on a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e wh ich they were hop ing to d e v e l o p as a mixed r e s i d e n t i a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o j e c t . They f e l t t h a t the peop le o f S t r a t h c o n a , p a r t i c u l a r l y the e l d e r l y , d i d not use the Downtown Community H e a l t h c l i n i c because o f the b a r r i e r p r e s e n t e d by the heavy t r a f f i c on H a s t i n g s S t r e e t , d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the E n g l i s h language and the " s k i d r o a d " c h a r a c t e r o f the c l i n i c c l i e n t e l e . However , they were p r e p a r e d to a t t e n d a new h e a l t h f a c i t l i y i f i t were l o c a t e d on the sou th s i d e o f H a s t i n g s S t r e e t , w i t h a s e p a r a t e 62. S t r a t h c o n a e n t r a n c e and s t a f f who s p o k e C h i n e s e . The D.E.R.A. members o f t h e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e r e i t e r a t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s e v e r a l t i m e s d u r i n g S t a g e I I , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y s h o u l d be l o c a t e d o n l y w i t h i n t h e Down-town E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r N.I.P. a r e a , s h o u l d s e r v e o n l y t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n , and s h o u l d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , be l o c a t e d o n l y on l a n d t h a t was n o t now, and had n e v e r been i n r e s i d e n t i a l u s e . However, i f t h e new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h o u s i n g u n i t s , i t c o u l d be l o c a t e d on a r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e a n y where w i t h i n t h e Downtown E a s t s i d e / 18 O p p e n h e i m e r N.I.P. a r e a . T o w a r d t h e end o f t h e S t a g e I I p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e D.E.R.A. members m o d i f i e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o i n c l u d e a n o t h e r o p t i o n : t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f H a s t i n g s S t r e e t t o accommodate t h e needs o f S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s . 3.4.2 C I i e n t T a r g e t A n o t h e r i s s u e w h i c h a r o s e e a r l y i n t h e S t a g e II p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o n c e r n e d w h i c h c l i e n t t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n o r w h i c h a r e a b o u n d a r i e s w o u l d d e f i n e t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o . b e s e r v e d by t h e new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y . T h i s i s s u e had o r i g i n a t e d , b u t was n o t r e s o l v e d i n S t a g e I. The p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e i s s u e c o n s i s t e d o f two b a s i c p o s i t i o n s : 63. 1. S i n c e the n e w . h e a l t h f a c i l t i y was to be funded by Ne ighbourhood Improvement Program f u n d s , i t s h o u l d o n l y s e r v e the Downtown E a s t s i d e N . I . P . a r e a , and 2. s i n c e the Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c p r e s e n t l y s e r v e d an a rea p o p u l a t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e d the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r , Gas town , C . B . D . , C h i n a t o w n , and S t r a t h c o n a , the new f a c i l t i y s h o u l d a l s o s e r v e t h o s e a r e a s . The i s s u e r e v e a l e d an appa ren t i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between the c l a i m s o f comprehens i veness and e f f i c i e n c y , and the c l a i m s of ne ighbou rhood s c a l e . Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n members remained c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n s o f a d v o c a t i n g a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y t h a t would s e r v e o n l y the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r N . I . P . a r e a , as a means of k e e p i n g i t a s m a l l , ne ighbou rhood f a c i l i t y i n an a rea t h a t had more than i t s 19 f a i r sha re o f l a r g e , C i t y s e r v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s on the A d v i s o r y Committee t hough t t h a t the new f a c i l i t y s h o u l d s e r v e a l a r g e r a rea p o p u l a t i o n t o i n c l u d e Gas town, S t r a t h c o n a , C . B . D . and Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r f o r r easons of e f f i c i e n c y o f s c a l e , i n o r d e r to c o n t i n u e the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the e x i s t i n g c l i n i c and to s e r v e what they p e r c e i v e d as the p o p u l a t i o n o f " s k i d r o a d " . T h i s v i e w , t h a t the f a c i l i t y was b e i n g p l anned to s e r v e a " s k i d r o a d " p o p u l a t i o n , c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h D . E . R . A . ' s v iew t h a t the f a c i l i t y was to s e r v e a range of p o p u l a t i o n wh ich c o n s t i t u t e d a " n o r m a l " n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and t h a t the f a c i l i t y s h o u l d h e l p change the 2 0 " s k i d r o a d " image o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s d i d not t ake p a r t i n t h i s d e b a t e , but r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e d t h a t t hey were p r e p a r e d to s u p p o r t any Downtown E a s t s i d e h e a l t h f a c i l i t y , p r o v i d e d t h a t a s a t e l l i t e c l i n i c s e r v i n g the S t r a t h c o n a community on .a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s 21 would be p r o v i d e d . 3.5 Work ing out the D e t a i l s On O c t o b e r 10 , 1978, w e l l w i t h i n the two month t ime d e a d l i n e s s e t by C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n , the A d v i s o r y Committee had come to an agreement . They ag reed t h a t the new f a c i l i t y wou ld p r o v i d e the same, or s l i g h t l y expanded t r e a t m e n t s e r v i c e s as the p r e s e n t c l i n i c , but w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f o u t r e a c h s e r v i c e s and p r e v e n t i v e p rog rams . The new Downtown E a s t s i d e h e a l t h f a c i l i t y c o u l d be l o c a t e d i n an e x i s t i n g r e n o v a t e d b u i l d i n g , or i t c o u l d be i n a new b u i l d i n g combined w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s . They a l s o ag reed t ha t S t r a t h c o n a s h o u l d have a p a r t -t ime s a t e l l i t e m e d i c a l / d e n t a l c l i n i c t h a t " s h o u l d have b i l i n g u a l s t a f f and be a c c e s s i b l e and v i s i b l e to S t r a t h c o n a 22 res i d e n t s . " At t h i s m e e t i n g , members of the A d v i s o r y Committee agreed not t o meet a g a i n u n t i l the H e a l t h and P l a n n i n g Department s t a f f had d e v e l o p e d o p t i o n s f o r mee t ing the h e a l t h c a r e needs o f both commun i t ies and p r e p a r e d a d r a f t r e p o r t recommendi n.g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the bes t o p t i o n s to C i t y C o u n c i l . 65. The A d v i s o r y Commit tee d i d meet a g a i n i n e a r l y J a n u a r y , 1979 , to d i s c u s s the f i n d i n g s of the H e a l t h S t a t u s R e p o r t . The r e p o r t ' s emphasis on p r e v e n t i v e and o u t r e a c h h e a l t h s e r v i c e s s t r e n g t h e n e d the o r i e n t a t i o n o f the A d v i s o r y Commi t tee . The r e p o r t ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the poor h e a l t h o f the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n was l i n k e d w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s such as poor h o u s i n g , s u p p o r t e d D . E . R . A . ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s i n c e hous ing i n f l u e n c e d h e a l t h , i t s h o u l d be an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g . Hav ing c o n c l u d e d t h a t o u t r e a c h s e r v i c e s and improved h e a l t h ca re programs might p r o v i d e a more a p p r o p r i a t e h e a l t h s e r v i c e f o r the money a v a i l a b l e than a new f a c i l i t y , C i v i c s t a f f began to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c q u i r i n g and r e n o v a t i n g an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g to house the a b o u t - t o - b e e v i c t e d Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c , and to c o n s i d e r s e l l i n g the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e on Eas t Cordova S t r e e t t o a d e v e l o p e r to c o n s t r u c t a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g . In e a r l y M a r c h , 1979 , p l a n n i n g s t a f f were c o n t a c t e d by the G r e a t e r Vancouver Hous ing C o r p o r a t i o n ( G . V . H . C . ) who were i n v e s t i g a t i n g o p t i o n s to deve lop n o n - p r o f i t hous ing i n the Downtown a r e a . P l a n n i n g s t a f f i n f o r m e d them about the s t a t u s 2 3 of the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e , and urged them to submi t a p r o p o s a l . In subsequen t t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s , G . V . H . C . s t a f f i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e , w i t h h o u s i n g on upper f l o o r s and an o f f i c e f o r the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources on the ground f l o o r . 6 6 . M e a n w h i l e , an e x t e n s i v e s e a r c h had r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no a f f o r d a b l e b u i l d i n g s s u i t a b l e f o r r e n o v a t i o n i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r N . I . P . a r e a . M o r e o v e r , C i v i c B u i l d i n g s s t a f f r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r a s p e c i a l i z e d u s e , such as a c l i n i c , r e n o v a t i o n c o s t s f o r an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g c o u l d a c t u a l l y exceed the c o s t o f new c o n s t r u c t i o n . On A p r i l 2 0 , 1979 , G . V . H . C . s t a f f i n f o rmed the p l a n n i n g s t a f f t h a t the G . V . H . C . were go ing ahead w i t h t h e i r p r o p o s a l to b u i l d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 u n i t s o f h o u s i n g on the Eas t Cordova s i t e , but t h a t they had l o s t t h e i r ground f l o o r c l i e n t . The M i n i s t r y o f Human Resources r e q u i r e d a new o f f i c e much soone r than c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by the G . V . H . C . deve lopmen t . S e e i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y to s e c u r e a permanent home f o r the c l i n i c , p l a n n i n g s t a f f s u g g e s t e d t h a t the G . V . H . C . c o n s i d e r b u i l d i n g a c l i n i c on the ground f l o o r of t h e i r p roposed 24 deve lopmen t . The G . V . H . C . a g r e e d , and p roceeded to i n c o r p o r a t e a c l i n i c i n t o t h e i r hous ing p r o p o s a l f o r the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e on E a s t Cordova S t r e e t . Members of the A d v i s o r y Committee g r e e t e d the p r o p o s a l w i t h e n t h u s i a s m , s i n c e i t would p r o v i d e a home f o r the Downtown Community H e a l t h C l i n i c and some much needed new h o u s i n g as w e l l . N e g o t i a t i o n s about the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e t a i l s now began i n e a r n e s t at the s t a f f l e v e l , among the C i t y , P r o v i n c e ( M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h ) and the G r e a t e r Vancouver Hous ing C o r p o r a t i o n ( G . V . H . C ) . The C i t y ag reed to l e a s e the Eas t Cordova S t r e e t 67. s i t e to the G . V . H . C . f o r 60 y e a r s i n r e t u r n f o r a - r e n t a l fee equa l to the o r i g i n a l pu r chase p r i c e of the s i t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the C i t y a l s o agreed to c o n t r i b u t e t h e s e N . I . P . funds ( r e c o u p l e d as a r e n t a l fee f rom the G . V . H . C . ) f o r the c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f the c l i n i c p o r t i o n of the p r o j e c t . The M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h ag reed to c o n t r i b u t e the r e m a i n i n g c a p i t a l funds n e c e s s a r y f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the c l i n i c and to p r o v i d e the o p e r a t i n g funds th rough the C i t y H e a l t h Department who would o p e r a t e the c l i n i c . The G r e a t e r Vancouver Hous ing C o r p o r a t i o n would manage the h o u s i n g p o r t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g . The j o i n t deve lopment and o p e r a t i o n of c l i n i c and h o u s i n g would mean c a p i t a l c o s t s a v i n g s on s h a r e d l a n d , b u i l d i n g and e x c a v a t i o n c o s t s as w e l l as some sha red o p e r a t i n g c o s t s . The Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commit tee recommended the a l l o c a t i o n o f N . I . P . funds to the c l i n i c p o r t i o n o f the p r o j e c t a n d , i n g e n e r a l , approved o f the m i x e d - u s e b u i l d i n g . The A d v i s o r y Committee a l s o endo rsed the c l i n i c / r e s i d e n t i a 1 deve1opme n t . On September 2 5 , 1979 C i t y C o u n c i l app roved a j o i n t P l a n n i n g and H e a l t h Department r e p o r t recommending the deve lopment of a h e a l t h c l i n i c / r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t f o r the Downtown E a s t s i d e / Oppenheimer a rea on the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e on E a s t Cordova S t r e e t . C o u n c i l a l s o approved the recommendat ions t h a t the S t ra thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commit tee c o n t i n u e to a d v i s e on h e a l t h ca re s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s p l a n n i n g i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e and S t r a t h c o n a , 68. and that the C i t y Health Department should i n v e s t i g a t e ways 25 to d e l i v e r s a t e l l i t e dental s e r v i c e s f o r Strathcona. 4.0 SUMMARY Council approval of the c l i n i c / r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t and the subsequent c o n s t r u c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g concluded a three year long, c o n t r o v e r s i a l planning process in which important is s u e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , neighbourhood land use and housing were discuss e d i n acrimonious debate by a c t o r s who represented a wide v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s . The s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n of the community planning process i n a c h i e v i n g agreement on a disputed neighbourhood p r o j e c t and r e s o l u t i o n of most of the issues marks an event worthy, of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The next chapter analyzes the health f a c i l i t y planning process to determine the s a l i e n t elements that lead to a s u c c e s s f u l outcome. 69. CHAPTER I I I - FOOTNOTES 1. C o n s t a n c e , Dr . P. "Community H e a l t h S e r v i c e s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e A r e a " May 1977. U n p u b l i s h e d d r a f t . 2. M inu tes o f the H e a l t h F a c i l i t y P l a n n i n g Sub-Commi t tee M e e t i n g o f May 3 1 , 1972. 3. Bo th memos da ted J a n u a r y 11 , 1977. 4. M inu tes o f H e a l t h F a c i l i t y P l a n n i n g Sub-Commi t tee Mee t i ng o f F r i d a y , June 10 , 1977. 5. M inu tes o f the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commit tee Mee t ing o f June 8 , 1977. M inu tes of Sub-Commi t tee Mee t i ngs o f J u l y 12 and J u l y 19 , 1977. 6. L e t t e r to Mayor and Members of C o u n c i l f rom the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee . August 12 , 1977. 7. Memo to D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g f rom Downtown E a s t s i d e P l a n n e r ; Augus t 9 , 1977. 8. M i n u t e s o f the H e a l t h F a c i l i t y P l a n n i n g Sub-Commi t tee Mee t i ng of June 8 , 1977. 9. A r t i c l e i n Vancouver S u n , " D e m o l i t i o n o f 4 h o u s i n g r e s u l t of C i t y ' m i s t a k e ' " . June 2 2 , 1978. 10. L e t t e r to the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g f rom J i m McQueen, D . E . R . A . member. August 2 , 1978. 11. I b i d . 12. M inu tes of the S t a n d i n g Commit tee of C o u n c i l on P l a n n i n g and Deve lopment , August 17 , 1978. 13. I b i d . 14. I b i d . 15. Cons tance , Dr. P. "Community H e a l t h S e r v i c e s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e A r e a " . May, 1977. U n p u b l i s h e d d r a f t . 16. B a k a n , Dr. R. Repor t on H e a l t h S t a t u s of Census T r a c t s 5 7 , 5 8 , and 59 U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r Vancouver C i t y H e a l t h and P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s , December 1978, p. 1. 17. M i n u t e s of the S t ra thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commit tee mee t i ng o f September 2 8 , 1978. 18. I b i d . 70. 19. M inu tes of the St ra thcona/D.owntown E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commit tee Mee t i ngs o f August 2 , 1978 , August 2 9 , 1978, and September 18,. 1978. 20 . M inu tes of the S t ra thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commit tee Mee t i ng of September 18 , 1978. 21 . I b i d . 22. M i n u t e s o f the S t ra thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commit tee meet ing o f September 2 8 , 1978. 23 . Memo of Downtown E a s t s i d e p l a n n e r to o t h e r p l a n n i n g s t a f f . March 13 , 1979. 24. 25 . Memo o f Downtown E a s t s i d e p l a n n e r to f i l e . A p r i l 2 3 , 1979. Vancouver P l a n n i n g and H e a l t h Depa r tmen ts , "Downtown E a s t -s i d e N . I . P . - H e a l t h C l i n i c " , C i t y C o u n c i l r e p o r t , September 11 , 1979. 71. CHAPTER IV - ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY 1.0 INTRODUCTION The h e a l t h f a c i l i t y planning process i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e / Oppenheimer area began with co-operation and optimism and e v e n t u a l l y ended with agreement. However, the c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of c o n f l i c t that intervened between the i n i t i a t i o n and c o n c l u s i o n of the process makes t h i s case study p a r t i c u l a r l y worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . This chapter w i l l analyze Stages I and II of the health f a c i 1 i t y p1anning process, in order to d i s c o v e r which elements c o n t r i b u t e d to the s u c c e s s f u l outcome of a con-t e n t i o u s decision-making process. Stage I, which ended in stalemate, i s c o n t r a s t e d with Stage I I , which ended in agreement. T h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n Chapter II has suggested a number of c o n s t r u c t s which appear to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of community decision-making processes. The c o n s t r u c t s are used as a general framework to guide the a n a l y s i s of the events in the case study, not as c r i t e r i a to evaluate the d e c i s i o n -making process. 2.0 THE CONSTRUCTS The c o n s t r u c t s s e l e c t e d to guide the a n a l y s i s of the planning • process are grouped into two c a t e g o r i e s : s t r u c t u r a l and process c o n s t r u c t s . The s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s d e s c r i b e the p h y s i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects of the decision-making process, while the process c o n s t r u c t s d e s c r i b e aspects that are behavioural p s y c h o l o g i c a l or a t t i t u d i n a l . 72. S e l e c t i o n of u s e f u l c o n s t r u c t s from the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e a v o i d s the o b v i o u s o r s e l f - e v i d e n t , such as the d i s c u s s i o n o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e s . C e r t a i n l y , the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d a good example o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( f i t t i n g A r n s t e i n ' s P l a c a t i o n c a t e g o r y ) w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i -pants to e x p r e s s t h e i r v a l u e s , l e a r n new s k i l l s and i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s . A l l the groups i n v o l v e d i n the h e a l t h p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( O . A . P . C , Sub-commi t t e e , Task F o r c e , A d v i s o r y Commit tee) a t t e m p t e d to f u n c t i o n as i n t e r s t i t i a l o r c o o r d i n a t i v e g roups d raw ing members f rom d i v e r s e community i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , to f o c u s on a common i s s u e . C e r t a i n l y the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g groups f i t t e d W a r r e n ' s t y p o l o g y , as c o a l i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s i n c e they a t t r a c t e d members f rom groups w i t h t h e i r own g o a l s and l e a d e r s , to work toward a c o l l e c t i v e g o a l . However , the c o n s t r u c t s f rom the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e have been s e l e c t e d w i t h a v iew to g u i d i n g the a n a l y s i s o f t hose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r e l emen ts o f the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s wh ich were l e s s e v i d e n t . A c c o r d i n g l y , t he s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s t h a t a re j udged to be most r e l e v a n t t o the a n a l y s i s of the case s tudy a re a u t h o r i z a t i o n , t ime and s i t e c o n s t r a i n t s . A u t h o r i z a t i o n r e f e r s to the s o u r c e of l e g i t i m a c y o f the g roup . The a u t h o r i z a t i o n of the g r o u p ' s f u n c t i o n by an acknowledged s o u r c e o f a u t h o r i t y , such as C i t y C o u n c i l , w i l l tend to e x e r t p r e s s u r e on the group to a c h i e v e agreement . The p r e s s u r e i s i n the form o f an i m p l i e d g u a r a n t e e t h a t C i t y C o u n c i l w i l l ac t on the recommendat ions of the g roup . 73. Time c o n s t r a i n t r e f e r s to the e f f e c t of deadlines in hastening agreement in decision-making groups. S i t e c o n s t r a i n t r e f e r s to the e f f e c t of the meeting l o c a t i o n on the a t t i t u d e of p a r t i c i -pants in a decision-making process that i n v o l v e s c o n f l i c t . Process c o n s t r u c t s judged most r e l e v a n t to the a n a l y s i s of the community decision-making process are the r o l e of the planner, c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . The r o l e of the planner can range from a u t h o r i t a r i a n to submissive, but g e n e r a l l y i s l i m i t e d to l e a d e r , enabler or informant. The planner's r o l e r e f l e c t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the planner and the community in terms of t h e i r past h i s t o r y and status d i f f e r e n t i a l . I t may a l s o r e f l e c t the planner's response to the community "pressure system". C o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s may be adopted by p a r t i c i p a n t s in the planning process, p a r t i c u l a r l y the l e a d e r , to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s that a r i s e in a decision-making group. S t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e the use of personal i n f l u e n c e to encourage c o o p e r a t i o n , open i n f o r m a t i o n exchange, the use of expert knowledge of a neutral p a r t y , and reference to a u t h o r i t y f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . B a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s are a group of process c o n s t r u c t s that r e f e r to the behavioural and a t t i t u d i n a l patterns d i s p l a y e d by actors in a group decision-making process that i n v o l v e d b a r g a i n i n g . These i n c l u d e opening moves, which are the i n i t i a l postures and o f f e r s of actors in a b a r g a i n i n g group; concessions, 74. which are the o f f e r s and c o u n t e r - o f f e r s made during the course of the b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and promises and t h r e a t s , which are used by actors to give them leaverage in a b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n . These s t r u c t u r a l and process c o n s t r u c t s are meant to provide a general framework to guide the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of Stage I and II of the health f a c i l i t y planning process. 3.0 ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY 3. 1 Stage I At the outset of the health f a c i l i t y planning process, a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s showed evidence of co-operation and unanimity of purpose. There was a goal that everyone supported: p r o v i d i n g an improved and secure h e a l t h care f a c i l i t y f o r the neighbour-hood. And there was a task that drew a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s together: preparing a p e r s u a s i v e , wel1-documented, and well thought out proposal f o r C i t y Council approval of N.I.P. funding and f o r a d d i t i o n a l M i n i s t r y of Health funding. The members of the Sub-committee represented a broad spectrum of neighbourhood i n t e r e s t s . The Task Force, created by the Sub-committee to f u n c t i o n as a s m a l l , e f f i c i e n t group in order to prepare a pro p o s a l , was al s o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l community i n t e r e s t groups. At the beginning of Stage I, in March 1977, what appeared to be a common go a l , turned out during the planning process, to be a d i v e r s i t y of goals held by the three main a c t o r s . Although everyone supported the concept of an improved health f a c i l i t y , they did not agree on the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . D.E.R.A. members 75. wanted a new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y combined w i t h h o u s i n g ; the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s wanted a new c l i n i c , but saw h o u s i n g as a non h e a l t h - r e l a t e d i s s u e t h a t wou ld c o m p l i c a t e and d e l a y the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the c l i n i c ; p l a n n i n g s t a f f were c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e t t i n g an improved h e a l t h f a c i l i t y f o r the ne ighbou rhood as q u i c k l y and w i t h as much c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s as p o s s i b l e . The l a c k of agreement among the main a c t o r s caused c o n f l i c t and c o n t r i b u t e d toward the breakdown o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s by June 1978. The f a i l u r e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s o f S tage I to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t and to b u i l d agreement about a much needed ne ighbou rhood f a c i l i t y can be a n a l y z e d u s i n g the f ramework of s t r u c t u r a l and p r o c e s s c o n s t r u c t s . A l t h o u g h the Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Committee had been endo rsed by C i t y C o u n c i l as the n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' s o f f i c i a l N . I . P . a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e , n e i t h e r the S u b - c o m m i t t e e , nor the Task Fo rce had t h i s a u t h o r i z a t i o n . They were both ad -hoc commi t tees c r e a t e d by and r e s p o n s i b l e t o the O . A . P . C . S i n c e the bu l k o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y o c c u r r e d i n t hese two g r o u p s , t h e i r l a c k o f a u t h o r i z a t i o n may have h i n d e r e d the p u r s u i t of agreement . In S tage I n e i t h e r s i t e nor t ime c o n s t r a i n t s seemed s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e a l l g roups met at the ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g o f f i c e , wh ich was r e g a r d e d as n e u t r a l ground by a l l c o n c e r n e d , and the March 1980 d e a d l i n e f o r s p e n d i n g the N . I . P . funds was t h r e e y e a r s away. A l t h o u g h t ime c o n s t r a i n t was c i t e d by p l a n n i n g s t a f f as a reason f o r the p rematu re pu rchase of the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y s i t e , i t was not u t i l i z e d as a c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n or agreement b u i l d i n g t o o l . In S tage I, none of the s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s e x e r t e d much p r e s s u r e f o r agreement on the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g g r o u p s . In S tage I, the r o l e o f the p l a n n e r c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the outcome of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r , f u n c t i o n i n g as a l i a i s o n between the community and C i t y H a l l tends to see h i s / h e r r o l e as e n a b l e r o r b r o k e r . However , i f squeezed by the "communi ty p r e s s u r e s y s t e m " ' ' ' , the p l a n n e r may opt to s i d e e i t h e r w i t h the community and become a " c i t i z e n 2 p a r t y l i n e r " , or to seek s h e l t e r b e h i n d r u l e s and o f f i c i a l 3 p o l i c y and become an " o f f i c i a l p a r t y l i n e r " . Some p l a n n e r s respond to the p r e s s u r e by s t e e r i n g an i ndependen t c o u r s e . In the e a r l y p a r t o f the S tage I p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the p l a n n e r a t t emp ted to pu rsue the i ndependen t r o u t e , but ended up assuming the " o f f i c i a l p a r t y l i n e r " r o l e . T h i s r o l e became e v i d e n t i n the p l a n n e r ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r not o f f e r i n g the O . A . P . C . members the o p p o r t u n i t y to vo te on the s i t e p u r c h a s e . The reason g i v e n , was t h a t s t r i c t s e c r e c y was r e q u i r e d f o r C i t y p r o p e r t y p u r c h a s e s to p r e v e n t p r i c e e s c a l a t i o n . However , i n t h i s c a s e , the p o t e n t i a l f o r the C i t y pu rchase o f the s i t e was common knowledge i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The p l a n n e r ' s r o l e was to a l a r g e e x t e n t , i n f l u e n c e d by the p a s t h i s t o r y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p l a n n e r and the O . A . P . C . In the case of the N . I . P . Concept P l a n and the 77. pu rchase o f 616 E a s t Cordova S t r e e t , the p l a n n e r had made recommendat ions t h a t were opposed by the. O . A . P . C . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a l t h o u g h the Concept P l a n ment ioned the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the comb in ing hous ing w i t h N . I . P . funded p r o j e c t s , the p l a n n e r made no appa ren t e f f o r t to promote h o u s i n g . The f r e q u e n t a c c u s a t i o n s of the D . E . R . A . - domina ted O . A . P . C . t h a t the p l a n n e r was u n c o o p e r a t i v e and m a n i p u l a t i v e , appear to have pushed the p l a n n e r f u r t h e r toward the " o f f i c i a l " r o l e . The a n a t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t d e v e l o p e d between the p l a n n e r and the O . A . P . C . p r i o r to S tage I, may be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t to t h e i r s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l . S i n c e the D . E . R . A . members o f the O . A . P . C , had h igh s t a t u s i n terms o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s and media image , they d i d not expec t to d e f e r to the p l a n n e r . I n d e e d , they may have e x p e c t e d the p l a n n e r to assume a r o l e toward the s u b m i s s i v e end o f the a u t h o r i t a r i a n -s u b m i s s i v e c o n t i n u u m . The p l a n n e r ' s e a r l y a d o p t i o n o f an i ndependen t r o l e upset the s t a t u s b a l a n c e and c o n t r i b u t e d to the subsequen t a n i m o s i t y between p l a n n e r and members o f the O . A . P . C . A l t h o u g h i t became e v i d e n t e a r l y i n S tage I, t h a t t h e r e was a c o n f l i c t o f g o a l s among the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s , a t t emp ts to r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t were f e e b l e and m i s d i r e c t e d . The use of i n f l u e n c e as a c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g y , e n a b l e s the l e a d e r of a group to encourage d i s c u s s i o n of the c o n f l i c t and to promote agreement . T h i s was not e x e r c i s e d by e i t h e r the cha i rman o f the O . A . P . C , who was a D . E . R . A . member, or the 78. cha i rman o f the S u b - c o m m i t t e e , who was a h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l . Both cha i rmen used t h e i r i n f l u e n c e to promote t h e i r own g o a l s . The l e a d e r o f the Task Fo rce (a v o l u n t e e r a r c h i t e c t - p l a n n e r ) d i d use i n f l u e n c e to promote d i s c u s s i o n , but h i s p o s i t i o n at the bot tom of a t h r e e - t i e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s y s t e m , and l a c k of a u t h o r i z a t i o n , made h i s l e a d e r s h i p i n e f f e c t u a l . The p l a n n e r a b s t a i n e d f rom any e f f o r t to r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t ove r g o a l s . However , by a d o p t i n g the " o f f i c i a l " r o l e , w i t h i t s emphas is on r e g u l a t i o n s and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s , the p l a n n e r appeared to be s i d i n g w i t h the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e i r p u r s u i t of the e a r l y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new h e a l t h c l i n i c . In S tage I, i n f o r m a t i o n as a c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g y was m i s h a n d l e d to such an e x t e n t , t h a t i t t ended to f u n c t i o n more l i k e a c o n f l i c t g e n e r a t i o n s t r a t e g y . There were t h r e e i n c i d e n t s t h a t i n v o l v e d i n f o r m a t i o n : the s i t e p u r c h a s e , the d r a f t h e a l t h f a c i l i t y r e p o r t , and the d e m o l i t i o n o f the h o u s e s . In the f i r s t c a s e , the p l a n n e r ' s f a i l u r e to b r i n g the s i t e pu rchase m a t t e r to the O . A . P . C . f o r a f o rma l v o t e , e l i c i t e d angry a c c u s a t i o n s f rom the O . A . P . C , t h a t the p l a n n e r was d e l i b e r a t e l y w i t h h o l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and a c t i n g in a man ipu-l a t i v e manner. In t h i s c a s e , the m i s h a n d l i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e o f a n i m o s i t y . The second i n c i d e n t c o n c e r n i n g the use of i n f o r m a t i o n , o c c u r r e d , w i t h the i s s u a n c e o f the d r a f t h e a l t h f a c i l i t y r e p o r t , p roduced by the Task Force w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f the new p l a n n i n g s t a f f . The D . E . R . A . members o f the O . A . P . C c a l l e d the i n f o r m a t i o n i n 79. the r e p o r t i n a c c u r a t e and m i s l e a d i n g , i n t h a t i t p o r t r a y e d the Oppenheimer Area as p o p u l a t e d by peop le w i t h e m o t i o n a l , menta l and a l c o h o l i c p r o b l e m s , and recommended a new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y t h a t would be t oo l a r g e , c o n t a i n no h o u s i n g and s e r v e p o p u l a -t i o n . f r o m o u t s i d e the N . I . P . a r e a . The new p l a n n i n g s t a f f , who were s t r i v i n g to e s t a b l i s h a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the O . A . P . C , o f f e r e d to r e - d r a f t the r e p o r t , i n o r d e r to c o r r e c t the e r r o r s and to dea l more f u l l y w i t h the i s s u e s of h o u s i n g , s e r v i c e a r e a and c l i n i c s i z e . However , b e f o r e the new d r a f t r e p o r t was c o m p l e t e d , the t h i r d i n c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o c c u r r e d . The d e m o l i t i o n o f the f o u r houses on the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e , r e s u l t e d f rom the m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n a memo from the new p l a n n i n g s t a f f to C i v i c B u i l d i n g s s t a f f . A l t h o u g h C i t y s t a f f a t t r i b u t e d the d e m o l i t i o n to e r r o r , the D . E . R . A . members of the O . A . P . C . c a l l e d i t d e l i b e r a t e sabo tage on the p a r t o f the new p l a n n i n g s t a f f . T h i s i n c i d e n t c o n v i n c e d the D . E . R . A . members t h a t the new p l a n n i n g s t a f f were j u s t as m a n i p u l a t i v e and u n t r u s t w o r t h y as the o l d s t a f f , and r e s u l t e d i n the mass r e s i g n a t i o n o f D . E . R . A . members f rom the O . A . P . C . S tage I o f the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d i d not resemb le a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , s i n c e n e i t h e r the d i v e r g e n c e of g o a l s among the a c t o r s , nor the a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between p l a n n i n g s t a f f and O . A . P . C , were open ly acknowledged as c o n s t i t u t i n g a s i t u a t i o n of c o n f l i c t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , few b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were u s e d . 80. Of two c o n c e s s i o n s t h a t were made, both i n v o l v e d the p l a n n i n g s t a f f . The f i r s t c o n c e s s i o n was t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ' s , w i t h d r a w a l of the p l a n n e r f rom the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r Area f o l l o w i n g the D . E . R . A . members c o m p l a i n t s about the b e h a v i o u r of the p l a n n e r d u r i n g the s i t e pu rchase i n c i d e n t . T h i s c o n c e s s i o n was i n t e n d e d to demons t ra te the P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ' s good i n t e n t i o n s , i n s p i t e of h a v i n g to s u f f e r a l o s s o f f a c e . The o t h e r c o n c e s s i o n was made by the new p l a n n i n g s t a f f , when they o f f e r e d to r e - d r a f t the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y r e p o r t . With t h i s c o n c e s s i o n they hoped to i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r eage rness to e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the O . A . P . C . In a d d i t i o n , the new p l a n n i n g s t a f f p rom ised to be open and hones t w i t h the Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Commi t tee . T h i s was a response to the t h r e a t of D . E . R . A . members to w i t hd raw f rom p a r t i c i p a -t i o n on the Committee u n l e s s they were g i v e n a s s u r a n c e s t h a t t h e i r conce rns would be c o n s i d e r e d . When the e r r o r t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the d e m o l i t i o n o f the houses happened , D . E . R . A . members c o n s i d e r e d the p l a n n i n g s t a f f p romise to be b r o k e n , and they t h e r e f o r e , c a r r i e d t h e i r t h r e a t i n t o a c t i o n , and r e s i g n e d f rom the O . A . P . C . The r e s i g n a t i o n of D . E . R . A . members marked the end o f S tage I of the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The f a i l u r e to reach agreement about the new h e a l t h f a c i l i t y stemed from the i n a b i l i t y o f the a c t o r s i n v o l v e d to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s , and from the l a c k o f t r u s t t h a t e v o l v e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p l a n n i n g s t a f f and the D . E . R . A . members of the Oppenheimer A rea P l a n n i n g Commi t tee . 81. 3.2 S tage II S tage I I d i f f e r e d f rom S tage I i n n e a r l y a l l r e s p e c t s . From the very b e g i n n i n g , t h e r e was c l e a r r e c o g n i t i o n of the d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s and g o a l s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s on the S t ra thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commi t tee . I n . s p i t e o f a d i f f e r e n c e i n g o a l s , the members of the A d v i s o r y Commit tee showed a s t r o n g sense o f p u r p o s e . T h e i r r o l e was to deve lop a p r o p o s a l f o r h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s a n d / o r s e r v i c e s to s e r v e both S t r a t h c o n a and the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a . The sense of purpose was supp lemented by the l e g i t i m a c y c o n f e r r e d on the group by the C i t y Counc i 1 r e s o l u t i o n t h a t a u t h o r i z e d the A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e ' s c o m p o s i t i o n and r o l e . Very e a r l y i n S tage I I , C i t y C o u n c i l approved a P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -ment r e p o r t t h a t recommended, among o t h e r t h i n g s , a two month d e a d l i n e f o r the A d v i s o r y Commit tee to r each agreement . The t ime d e a d l i n e , t o g e t h e r w i t h a number of o t h e r key e l e m e n t s , appears to have c o n t r i b u t e d towards the s u c c e s s f u l outcome of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S i n c e the P l a n n i n g Department no l o n g e r m a i n t a i n e d a n e i g h b o u r -hood o f f i c e d u r i n g S tage I I , the i s s u e of f i n d i n g a n e u t r a l mee t ing p l a c e became i m p o r t a n t . A l t h o u g h the S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t ' s , the D . E . R . A . members and the h e a l t h c l i n i c r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s o f f e r e d t h e i r o f f i c e s as a mee t ing p l a c e , most group mem-bers showed a r e l u c t a n c e to meet a t t hese " p o l i t i c a l " s i t e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the m e e t i n g s o f the A d v i s o r y Commit tee f l u c t u a t e d between the Human Resource Board O f f i c e and the F i r s t U n i t e d 82. C h u r c h , both o f wh i ch were r e g a r d e d as n e u t r a l ne ighbou rhood a g e n c i e s by a l l group members. In S tage I I , t he s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s , a u t h o r i z a t i o n , t ime and s i t e c o n s t r a i n t s , c o n t r i b u t e d toward the A d v i s o r y Commi t t ee ' s e v e n t u a l agreement on the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p r o p o s a l . The r o l e of the p l a n n e r i n S tage II was s h a r e d between the s e n i o r p l a n n e r who c h a i r e d the A d v i s o r y Committee and the Downtown E a s t s i d e p l a n n e r who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the m e e t i n g s . The r o l e o f the l a t t e r tended to be i n f o r m a n t / e n a b l e r who p r o -v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n , a d v i c e and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , but who kept a low p r o f i l e i n o r d e r to p l a c a t e the D . E . R . A . members who were s t . i l l s m a r t i n g f rom the d e m o l i t i o n f i a s c o . The r o l e o f the s e n i o r p l a n n e r , as c h a i r m a n , f l u c t u a t e d between l e a d e r and e n a b l e r . As the more dominant of the two p l a n n i n g s t a f f , the s e n i o r p l a n n e r as cha i rman w i l l be the f ocus of t h i s a n a l y s i s . The s e n i o r p l a n n e r had an immedia te advan tage over the Downtown E a s t s i d e p l a n n e r , i n the f a c t t h a t he had no p r e v i o u s r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h the members of the A d v i s o r y Commi t tee . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he was a b l e to make an u n b i a s e d s t a r t i n the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t e v o l v e d i n S tage II., As c h a i r m a n , the s e n i o r p l a n n e r e x e r t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on the group by h i s a b i l i t y to s e t the agenda , s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n , a r b i t r a t e d i s p u t e s and summar ize i n f o r m a t i o n . The cha i rman assumed the r o l e o f l e a d e r in o r d e r to promote agreement and r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t . 83. The i n f l u e n c e of the S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o -ward e v e n t u a l agreement . T h e i r i n f l u e n c e , wh ich was p a r t l y based on t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t s t o save t h e i r ne ighbou rhood f rom be ing b u l l d o z e d i n the e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s , was o f a c o n c i l i a t o r y n a t u r e . They were r e s p e c t e d by a l l a c t o r s on the A d v i s o r y Commi t tee , and t h e i r e f f o r t s to i n t r o d u c e harmony and agreement were f r e q u e n t l y r ewa rded . Du r ing S tage I I , the cha i rman made use of two c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n methods. At the very b e g i n n i n g , when i t became e v i d e n t t h a t the d i s p u t e o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the A d v i s o r y Committee c o u l d l e a d to an i m p a s s e , the cha i rman op ted f o r a " g e t t ough" p o s i t i o n by r e f e r r i n g the i s s u e to C i t y C o u n c i l f o r d e c i s i o n . The s t r a t e g y of be i ng f a i r but tough a t the o u t s e t had the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of r e s o l v i n g the f i r s t d i s p u t e and o.f s e t t i ng the tone f o r the r e s t o f the p r o c e s s . R e f e r e n c e to C i t y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r the A d v i s o r y Committee and a d e a d l i n e f o r r e a c h i n g agreement . The second method was r e f e r e n c e to the e x p e r t knowledge of a n e u t r a l p a r t y who p roduced i n f o r m a t i o n which c o n t r i b u t e d s i g -n i f i c a n t l y to the agreement r eached by the A d v i s o r y Commi t tee . The c h a i r m a n ' s s u g g e s t i o n to h i r e a h e a l t h c o n s u l t a n t to p r e p a r e a r e p o r t on the h e a l t h s t a t u s of the ne ighbou rhood p o p u l a t i o n , was a response to the D.E.R.A.° members, who c l a i m e d t h a t the e x i s t i n g h e a l t h i n f o r m a t i o n (wh ich had been g a t h e r e d i n S tage I) was both i n a d e q u a t e and i n c o r r e c t . The H e a l t h S t a t u s r e p o r t , p roduced by a p r o f e s s i o n a l e p i d e m i o l o g i s t , 84. p r e s e n t e d , i n v i g o r o u s s t a t i s t i c a l t e r m s , an a p p a l l i n g image of the very poor h e a l t h o f the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n , and a t t r i b u t e d i t t o l a c k o f e a r l y t r e a t m e n t and to e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s such as poor n u t r i t i o n and poor h o u s i n g . The impac t o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was c r i t i c a l i n t h a t i t v a l i d a t e d the o p i n i o n s o f the D . E . R . A . members and added the w e i g h t o f exper t knowledge to t h e i r p r o m o t i o n o f b e t t e r h o u s i n g f o r the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The consequence o f the H e a l t h S t a t u s r e p o r t was t h a t i t e n a b l e d the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s on the A d v i s o r y Commit tee to concede t h a t h o u s i n g was r e l e v a n t to h e a l t h . From i t s very i n c e p t i o n , the A d v i s o r y Commit tee r e c o g n i z e d i t s e l f as a b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . The d i v e r s e g o a l s o f the v a r i o u s p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p were acknowledged and the t a s k o f r e a c h i n g agreement on h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g was g i v e n top p r i o r i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , the A d v i s o r y Committee p l a n -n ing p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d a f a i r l y c l a s s i c b a r g a i n i n g fo rmat of tough open ing moves, f o l l o w e d by mode ra t i ng c o n c e s s i o n s , i n t e r -s p e r s e d w i t h p rom ises and r e w a r d s , but no t h r e a t s . The open ing moves e s t a b l i s h e d the p o s i t i o n s of the a c t o r s i n the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . The D . E . R . A . members p r e s e n t e d a s t r o n g open ing move by demanding a s t r i c t l y r e s i d e n t s ' commi t t ee . The h e a l t h and ne ighbou rhood p r o f e s s i o n a l s and S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s opposed the D . E . R . A . p r o p o s a l , but s u p p o r t e d the commi t tee s i t u a t i o n , the cha i rman responded w i t h an e q u a l l y s t r o n g move, by r e f e r r i n g the i s s u e of commi t tee c o m p o s i t i o n to C i t y C o u n c i l f o r r e s o l u t i o n . 85. The c h a i r m a n ' s open ing move e s t a b l i s h e d h i s r o l e on the A d v i s o r y Committee as a tough but hones t b r o k e r , and c u r t a i l e d any t e n d -ency on the p a r t o f D . E . R . A . members to expec t s u b m i s s i v e n e s s f rom p l a n n i n g s t a f f , as they, had done i n S tage I. From t h i s p o i n t onward , the cha i rman a c t e d as the hones t b r o k e r , a r b i t r a t i n g between the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s and r e s i d e n t s , and between the c l a i m s of S t r a t h c o n a and the Downtown E a s t s i d e . In the c o o p e r a t i v e a tmosphere t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p e d i n the A d v i s o r y Commi t tee , a l l a c t o r s were a b l e to make c o n c e s s i o n s w i t h o u t a l o s s o f f a c e . The h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s conceded t h a t the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y c o u l d be combined w i t h h o u s i n g and r e c o g n i z e d the e f f e c t o f poor h o u s i n g on the h e a l t h o f the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . P l a n n i n g s t a f f conceded t h a t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y about h e a l t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the a r e a p o p u l a t i o n . S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s conceded t h a t a Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r H e a l t h F a c i l i t y was u r g e n t l y needed, but d i d not r e l a x t h e i r p u r s u i t of t h e i r own s a t e l l i t e c l i n i c ; and the D . E . R . A . members conceded t h a t a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y c o u l d be b u i l t on r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d p r o v i d e d t h a t h o u s i n g was i n c l u d e d i n the p r o j e c t and t h a t a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y w i t h o u t h o u s i n g , l o c a t e d on H a s t i n g s S t r e e t c o u l d s e r v e both S t r a t h c o n a and the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a . A l t h o u g h p r o m i s e s and rewards made d u r i n g S tage II were u n a r t i c -u l a t e d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , they c o n t r i b u t e d toward the sense o f c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t pe rvaded the l a t t e r p a r t o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The unspoken p rom ises i n c l u d e d a s s u r a n c e s t h a t e v e r y o n e ' s 86. conce rns wou ld be heard and c o n s i d e r e d , and t h a t the imp lemen ta -t i o n o p t i o n s f o r p r o v i d i n g the h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s would i n c o r p o r a t e the d e s i r e s o f both communi t ies and those o f h e a l t h and n e i g h -bourhood p r o f e s s i o n a l s . No t h r e a t s were made, and s u f f i c i e n t t r u s t was g e n e r a t e d t h a t the A d v i s o r y Committee on r e a c h i n g agreement on the g o a l s f o r the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y , d e c i d e d to d e l e g a t e the d e t a i l e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o p t i o n s to p l a n n i n g s t a f f . By t h i s s t a g e , members o f the A d v i s o r y Committee f e l t c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e i r c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p wou ld c o n t i n u e and be p r o d u c t i v e to the end of the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p r o j e c t . 4 .0 SUMMARY In the a n a l y s i s o f S tage I and II of the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n -n ing p r o c e s s , c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s emerged as c r i t i c a l to the s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . In S tage I, the l a c k of a u t h o r i z a t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p and t ime d e a d l i n e s , appear to have c o n t r i b u t e d as much to the r e s u l t i n g s t a l e m a t e , as d i d the c o n t e n t i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p l a n n e r and c i t i z e n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the i n a b i l i t y o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s or t o e s t a b l i s h a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t e d i n the breakdown of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . On the o t h e r hand , i n S tage I I , the same s e t o f e lements c o n t r i b u t e d towards e v e n t u a l agreement . The i n i t i a l r e c o g n i -t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s a n d , h e n c e , o f a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , s e t the s t a g e f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s among the p a r t i e s to the c o n f l i c t ; the C i t y C o u n c i l a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f the A d v i s o r y Committee gave i t l e g i t i m a c y ; and the e x i s t e n c e o f a s h o r t t ime d e a d l i n e i m p a r t e d 87. a sense of u r g e n c y . In a d d i t i o n , a l e a d e r s h i p t h a t promoted agreement and made a w i s e use of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the s u c c e s s f u l outcome. M o r e o v e r , the n e u t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p l a n n e r and c o m m i t t e e , a t the b e g i n n i n g o f S tage II e n a b l e d the p l a n n e r to assume the m e d i a t i n g r o l e o f b r o k e r . The use o f the open ing moves by the d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s to t e s t each o t h e r , and to e s t a b l i s h an a tmosphere of s e r i o u s n e s s , l e d to mutual r e s p e c t . The p a t t e r n s of c o n c e s s i o n s , wh ich were e q u i t a b l y made by a l l p a r t i e s , the l a c k of t h r e a t s , and the p rom ises of rewards f o r a l l p a r t i c i -pan ts a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to the sense of t r u s t t h a t pe rvaded the l a t t e r p a r t of the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The nex t c h a p t e r draws c o n c l u s i o n s about the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , e v a l u a t e s the r e l e v a n c e o f the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and makes recommendat ions f o r s t r u c t u r i n g the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . CHAPTER IV - FOOTNOTES 1. Need leman, C . E . , and Need leman, M.L . G u e r i l i a s i n the B u r e a u c r a c y . John W i l e y and S o n s . New Y o r k , 1974. p. 119. 2. W i l s o n , J . W . " C r o s s f i r e - An E x p l o r a t o r y Essay on the Dilemmas o f L o c a l A rea P l a n n e r s " , U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . September 1981. 3. I b i d . 89. CHAPTER V - CONCLUSIONS 1.0 INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r summar izes the purpose of the t h e s i s , the ma jor e lemen ts i n the case s tudy and the a n a l y t i c a l f i n d i n g s . The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s e v a l u a t e d f o r i t s r e l e v a n c e to the s tudy of a p r o t r a c t e d and c o n t e n t i o u s ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C o n c l u s i o n s a re drawn and recommendat ions made f o r s t r u c t u r i n g the ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s to a c h i e v e d e s i r e d ou t comes , and f i n a l l y , the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s to Canad ian p l a n n i n g knowledge i s d i s c u s s e d . 2.0 THESIS SUMMARY The pu rpose o f t h i s t h e s i s has been to examine the ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , i n o r d e r to d i s c o v e r the e lements t h a t l e d to a s u c c e s s f u l ou tcome, i n s p i t e o f i n i t i a l c o n f l i c t . A case s tudy approach was chosen to examine a c o n t r o -v e r s i a l h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , p a r t of a l a r g e r ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r a r e a . T h i s h i s t o r i c downtown mixed use ne ighbou rhood i s un ique i n the C i t y f o r i t s p r e d o m i n a n t l y e l d e r l y , poor and hand i capped p o p u l a t i o n and rundown, s i n g l e room, h o t e l h o u s i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t has been i d e n t i f i e d as " s k i d r o a d " , a l t h o u g h i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h i s image has been chang ing due to the improvements to s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s funded by the Ne ighbourhood Improvement P r o g r a m , and the work of the Downtown E a s t s i d e 90. R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n to improve h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The i s s u e s i n the ne ighbou rhood i n c l u d e heavy t r a f f i c , c o n f l i c t s caused by the d i v e r s i t y of l a n d uses l o c a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , the poor c o n d i t i o n o f the hous ing s t o c k , the growth o f l a r g e p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , a l c o h o l i s m and a h igh c r ime r a t e . The Ne ighbourhood Improvement Program ( N . I . P . ) i n i t i a t e d i n the f a l l o f 1975, p r o v i d e d funds f o r the improvement o f n e i g h b o u r -hood f a c i l i t i e s . A c i t i z e n s ' c o m m i t t e e , the Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commi t tee , was e l e c t e d by the ne ighbou rhood p o p u l a t i o n , to a d v i s e C i t y C o u n c i l on N . I . P . f u n d i n g a l l o c a t i o n s and on o t h e r ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . The O . A . P . C , which was domina ted by D . E . R . A . members and s u p p o r t e r s d i s a g r e e d w i t h the P l a n n e r a s s i g n e d to the a r e a , about a number o f i s s u e s , i n c l u d i n g the N . I . P . Concept P l a n and the pu rchase of 616 E a s t - C o r d o v a S t r e e t . The a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p e d between the p l a n n e r and commi t tee c o n t r i b u t e d to the c o n t e n t i o u s n a t u r e o f the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , d e s c r i b e d i n the case s t u d y . The case s tudy c h a p t e r examined the a c t o r s , i s s u e s and even ts i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s wh ich e v o l v e d th rough two f a i r l y d i s t i n c t s t a g e s (S tage I and Stage . Jvl) t h a t spanned a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s . In both s t a g e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e p r e s e n t e d l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , community worke rs and C i t y P l a n n i n g and H e a l t h s t a f f . In S tage I, c o n t r o v e r s y c e n t r e d on the d i v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y 91. o f i n c l u d i n g h o u s i n g i n the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p r o j e c t . Other p o i n t s o f c o n f l i c t i n c l u d e d the C i t y pu rchase of a s i t e f o r the new f a c i l i t y w i t h o u t f o rma l a p p r o v a l f rom the c i t i z e n s c o m m i t t e e , and the n e g a t i v e image of the ne ighbou rhood p o r t r a y e d i n a d r a f t r e p o r t p r o p o s i n g a new c l i n i c . These c o n f l i c t s , wh ich were not r e s o l v e d , the a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t had d e v e l o p e d between the p l a n n e r and c i t i z e n s , and the m i s t a k e n d e m o l i t i o n of o l d houses on the C i t y - o w n e d s i t e , l e a d to a breakdown o f t r u s t and a s t a l e m a t i n g o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In S tage I I , the c o n t r o v e r s y s t i l l c e n t r e d on the q u e s t i o n o f h o u s i n g and the use o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d , but i n c l u d e d a l s o , an i n i t i a l c o n f l i c t ove r membership on the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g commi t t ee . S tage II d i f f e r e d f rom Stage I, i n terms o f a u t h o r i z a t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n and outcome. The Stage I I P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s was a u t h o r i z e d by C i t y C o u n c i l , a two month d e a d l i n e was s e t f o r r e a c h i n g ag reemen t , and a s e n i o r p l a n n e r a s s i g n e d to c h a i r the m e e t i n g s . The cha i rman p r o v i d e d p o s i t i v e l e a d e r s h i p and made use o f a number o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n methods i n c l u d i n g a r e f e r e n c e to a u t h o r i t y ( C i t y C o u n c i l ) and to e x p e r t knowledge i n the form of a H e a l t h S t a t u s Repor t p r e p a r e d by a h e a l t h c o n s u l t a n t . S tage II was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the deve lopment o f c o o p e r a t i o n among the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d , and the r e a c h i n g of an agreement . The a n a l y s i s c h a p t e r d e l i n e a t e d a number o f s t r u c t u r a l and p r o c e s s c o n s t r u c t s based on t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t were used as a f ramework to gu ide a n a l y s i s o f the case s t u d y . The 92. s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s i n c l u d e d , a u t h o r i z a t i o n , t ime and s i t e c o n s t r a i n t s , w h i l e the p r o c e s s c o n s t r u c t s c o n s i s t e d o f the r o l e o f the p l a n n e r , methods of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n and the b a r g a i n -i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f open ing moves, p a t t e r n s of c o n c e s s i o n s and p rom ises or t h r e a t s . The a n a l y s i s c h a p t e r f i n d i n g s c o n c l u d e d t h a t the s u c c e s s f u l outcome i n S tage II was due t o the l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f the A d v i s o r y Commit tee by C i t y C o u n c i l , the p r e s e n c e o f a t ime dead-l i n e , the r e c o g n i t i o n of c o n f l i c t s , the m e d i a t i n g r o l e of the p l a n n e r and the deve lopment o f an a tmosphere of c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t p e r m i t t e d a l l p a r t i e s to make c o n c e s s i o n s . 3.0 RELEVANCE OF THEORETICAL LITERATURE The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e s e r v e d a dua l f u n c t i o n : i t p r o v i d e d a c o n t e x t f o r the s tudy of ne ighbou rhood d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and an a n a l y t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t p e r m i t t e d an i n - d e p t h e x a m i n a t i o n of the community group d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . B a n f i e T d ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l c h o i c e , the Canad ian l i t e r a t u r e on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and A r n s t e i n ' s t y p o l o g y of p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , p r o v i d e d a c o n t e x t f o r the community d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d i n the Case Study of the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S i m i l a r l y , the l i t e r a t u r e conce rned w i t h t ypes o f community d e c i s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s , i n t e r s t i t i a l groups and c o o r d i n a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , p r o v i d e d an e x p l i c a t i o n f o r the f u n c t i o n i n g of a community d e c i s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s l i t e r a t u r e s u p p l i e d the a n a l y t i c a l background 93. f o r the s tudy of the ne ighbou rhood d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . o The l i t e r a t u r e on the r o l e o f the. p l a n n e r , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n methods and b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s had more d i r e c t a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the a n a l y s i s of the Case S t u d y . The l i t e r a t u r e p o r t r a y e d the r o l e of the p l a n n e r as both v a r i e d and ambiguous . The p o s i t i o n of the p l a n n e r on the r o l e con t inuum depended on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t he p l a n n e r w i t h the community and on h i s / h e r r esponse to p r e s s u r e s from both community and s u p e r i o r s . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d toward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e f f e c t o f the p l a n n e r ' s r o l e on the outcome o f a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The l i t e r a t u r e on c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g f o c u s e d on the b e h a v i o u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l a s p e c t s df the d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s . I t was no ted t h a t c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e f rom a d i v e r g e n c e o f g o a l s , may be r e s o l v e d by the use o f methods t h a t i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g , l e a d e r s h i p i n f l u e n c e , r e f e r e n c e to e x p e r t knowledge or to a u t h o r i t y . The b a r g a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b e d the sys tem of g i v e and t a k e , t h a t c h a r a c t e r -i z e s a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p as a p a t t e r n o f open ing moves, c o n c e s s i o n s and p rom ises or t h r e a t s . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e was h e l p f u l f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the dynamics among the a c t o r s i n the h e a l t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f the l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e the g e n e r a l u n a v a i l -a b i l i t y of ana logous community p l a n n i n g group s t u d i e s , and the Amer ican c o n t e n t o f much o f the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on group d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , much of the b a r g a i n i n g and 94. c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n l i t e r a t u r e was conce rned w i t h l a r g e s c a l e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s , such as w a r s , and l a b o u r d i s p u t e s , and t h e r e -f o r e had l i t t l e d i r e c t a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the s tudy o f a ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The l i t e r a t u r e t h a t was s p e c i f i c to p l a n n i n g , tended to p l a c e emphasis on the s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s o f community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and a v o i d the a n a l y s i s o f the b e h a v i o u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l a s p e c t . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h i s gap i n p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e had to be f i l l e d w i t h l i t e r a t u r e f rom the f i e l d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . 4 . 0 CONCLUSIONS The r e v i e w of the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and the a n a l y s i s o f the Case Study have r e s u l t e d i n some c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s a l i e n t e lements o f a s u c c e s s f u l community d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s . In any ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g group where a d i v e r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t s or g o a l s l e a d s to c o n f l i c t , the p l a n n e r must assume a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e to p r e v e n t the c o n f l i c t f rom d i s r u p t i n g or d e s t r o y i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . By making use o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and by f a c i 1 i t a t i n g ' c o m m u n i -c a t i o n between the d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s , the p l a n n e r can s t e e r the group toward agreement . However , to be a b l e to e x e r t l e a d e r s h i p , the p l a n n e r s h o u l d deve lop a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f mutual r e s p e c t w i t h the p l a n n i n g g r o u p , at the b e g i n n i n g o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . - T h i s cannot be a c h i e v e d by t a k i n g s i d e s w i t h e i t h e r the " o f f i c i a l " o r " c i t i z e n " p o s i t i o n , but o n l y by p u r s u i n g the e n a b l i n g / m e d i a t i n g r o l e of b r o k e r . 95. This t h e s i s has assumed that the most important element in a s u c c e s s f u l community decision-making process i s the agreement on goals. The means to achieve t h i s end i n v o l v e s the assumption of a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e by the planner, the e a r l y r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t s and the promotion of cooperation and mutual accommodation. In c o n c l u s i o n , the f o l l o w i n g elements are considered to be e s s e n t i a l to a s u c c e s s f u l outcome in any neighbourhood planning process that i n v o l v e s c o n f l i c t or disagreement: 1. The planner should assume the r o l e of 1eader/enabler/broker in order to mediate disputes and promote agreement. 2. The planner should remain n e u t r a l with respect to the c o n f l i c t or disagreement. 3. C i t y Council endorsation of the planning group w i l l confer l e g i t i m a c y , a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and a sense of mission on the group, thereby hastening agreement. 4. A reasonable time deadline should be set f o r the group to reach agreement. 5. C o n f l i c t or disagreement should be acknowledged as soon as i t becomes evident. 6. The planner should endeavor to r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t by s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the disagreement, by openly sharing i n f o r m a t i o n , by ensuring that a l l d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s r e c e i v e some reward, or by r e f e r r i n g to neutral expert knowledge or a u t h o r i t y . 0 9 6 . 7. The p l a n n e r s h o u l d endeavour to promote c o o p e r a t i o n i n the g r o u p , by f a c i l i t a t i n g commun ica t i on among group members and by e n s u r i n g the open e x p r e s s i o n o f d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s . 5 .0 RELEVANCE TO PLANNING KNOWLEDGE T h i s t h e s i s has examined a c o n f 1 i c t - r i d d e n ne ighbou rhood p l a n -n ing p r o c e s s , i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r the e lements t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d toward a s u c c e s s f u l outcome. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h i s t h e s i s i s r e l e -vant to the sum of Canad ian p l a n n i n g knowledge to the e x t e n t t h a t i t c o n t r i b u t e s to the g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the n e i g h -bourhood d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . I t does t h i s by p r o v i d i n g a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f the s t r a t e g i e s used by d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s to a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s and t h e r e b y a l s o p r o v i d e s a f ramework o f c o n s t r u c t s to gu ide p l a n n e r s who work w i t h ne ighbou rhood p l a n n i n g groups t h a t e x p e r i e n c e a d i v e r g e n c e of g o a l s t h a t may l e a d to c o n f l i c t . Moreover t h i s t h e s i s a t t emp ts to f i l l a gap i n Canad ian p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , by document ing the i s s u e s , a c t o r s and e v e n t s , i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n a un ique v i a b l e downtown n e i g h b o u r h o o d . 97. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS, ARTICLES AND UNPUBLISHED REPORTS A l l e n w o r t h , D.T. The P o l i t i c a T R e a l i t i e s o f Urban P l a n n i n g P r a e g e r P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1975. A l t s h u l e r , A l l e n . Communi t.y C o n t r o l . Pegasus P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1970. A r n s t e i n , S . R . " E i g h t Rungs on the Ladder o f C i t i z e n P a r t i c i -p a t i o n " i n Cohn, E . S . and P a s s e t t , B . A . ( e d ) . C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : E f f e c t i n g Community  Change. P r a e g e r P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1971. B a n f i e l d , E . C . P o l i t i c a l I n f l u e n c e . F ree P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1961. B a t e s , F . L . and H a r v e y , C . C . The S t r u c t u r e o f S o c i a l S y s t e m s . G a r d i n e r P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1975. B o l a n , R . S . "The S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s o f the P l a n n e r : J . A . I . P . November, 1971. p. 386 -395 . B r a n d s t a t t e r , H . , D a v i s , J . H . and S c h u l e r , H. Dynamics of Group Deci s i ons . Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . . C a l i f o r n i a . 1972 Cohn, E . S . and P a s s e t t , B .D . ( e d ) . C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : E f f e c t i n g Community Change. P r a e g e r P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1971. Commit tee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y . C i t i z e n I n v o l v e m e n t . T o r o n t o . 1972. D r a p e r , J . A . ( e d ) . C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada. New P r e s s . T o r o n t o . 1971. E r b e r , E. Urban P l a n n i n g i n T r a n s i t i o n . Grossman P u b l i s h i n g Company, New Y o r k . 1970. F r i e d m a n n , J . R e t r a c k i n g A m e r i c a : A Theory o f T r a n s a c t i v e P l a n n i n g . Doub leday . New Y o r k . 1973. H i n t o n , B . L . and R e i t z , H . J . Groups and O r g a n i z a t i o n s . Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co. B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a . 1971. J a c o b s o n , W.D. Power and I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s . Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co. B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a . 1972. Low, W i l l i a m . " I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s i n L o c a l Land-Use P l a n n i n g . : U n p u b l i s h e d . M.A. T h e s i s . U . B . C . 1979. 98. M a i e r , N . R . F . " A s s e t s and L i a b i l i t i e s i n Group P rob lem S o l v i n g : the Need f o r an I n t e g r a t i v e F u n c t i o n " , i n R i t c h i e , J . B . and Thompson, P. ( e d ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n - a r i d P e o p l e . S t . P a u l , U . S . A . 1976. P. 1 7 5 - 1 8 6 . Marwe l l , G. and S c m i t t , D.C. C o o p e r a t i o n - An E x p e r i m e n t a l A n a l y s i s . Academic P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1975. M c N i v e n , J . D . E v a l u a t i o n o f the P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n P rog ram. I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s . D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s -i t y . H a l i f a x . 1974. M o t t , B . J . R . Anatomy o f a C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l . U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g P r e s s . 1968. N i x , H. L. The Community and I t ' s I nvo l vemen t i n the S tudy P l a n n i n g A c t i o n P r o c e s s . U .S . Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e . A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a . 19 77. Pondy , L . R . " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n f l i c t : -Concep ts and M o d e l s " . i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y . December, 1976. v. 12. p. 2 9 7 - 3 2 0 . Raven , B . H . and K r u g l a n s k i , A.W. " C o n f l i c t and Power" i n S w i n g l e , P. (ed') . The S t r u c t u r e o f C o n f l i c t . Academic P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1975. R u b i n , J . Z . and Brown, B . C . The S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y or B a r g a i n i n g and N e g o t i a t i o n . Academic P r e s s . New Y o r k . 1975. S t . P i e r r e , P a u l . " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an I n t e r - A g e n c y Com-; m i t t e e " . U n p u b l i x h e d . M.A. T h e s i s . U . B . C . 1977. S c h e i n , E. " I n t e r g r o u p Prob lems i n O r g a n i z a t i o n s : , i n R i t c h i e , T . B . and Thompson, P. ( e d ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n and  P e o p l e . S t . P a u l , U . S . A . 1976. p. 193 -199 . S p r e g e l , H .B . ( e d ) . C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Urban Deve lopment . N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r A p p l i e d B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 1968. T h a y e r , F . C . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and L i b e r a l D e m o c r a t i c Government . Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y . T o r o n t o . 1971. T u i t e , M. , C h i s h o l m , R. and Radno r , M. ( e d ) . I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n M a k i n g . A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co. C h i c a g o . 1972. 99. W a r r e n , R.L W i l s o n , J.W, Z a r t m a n , W. "The I n t e r o r g a n i za i t i ona l F i e l d as a Focus f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n : , i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e  Q u a r t e r l y . December 1976. V. 1. p. 396 -419 . " C r o s s - f i r e - An E x ; l o r a t o r y Essay on the Dilemmas o f L o c a l Area P l a n n e r s " U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . September 1981. N e g o t i a t i o n as a J o i n t D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s " , i n J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n . December, 1977, 2 1 . No 619 -638 . CITY OF VANCOUVER  REPORTS, MINUTES AND FILES F i l e : DowntownEas ts ide - N . I . P . S o c i a l / R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s F i l e : Downtown E a s t i d e - N . I . P . - G e n e r a l . March 1976 -M inu tes o f Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Commit tee, September 1980. M inu tes o f H e a l t h F a c i l i t y P l a n n i n g Sub-Commi t tee June 1978. March 1977 M inu tes of S t ra thcona /Down town E a s t s i d e H e a l t h F a c i l i t y i e s A d v i s o r y Commi t tee . J u l y 1978 - Janua ry 1979, M inu tes o f the S t a n d i n g Commit tee o f C o u n c i l on P l a n n i n g and Deve lopment , August 17, 1978. B a k a n , Dr . R. " R e p o r t on H e a l t h S t a t u s o f Census T r a c t s 5 7 , 58 and 5 9 . " U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . Vancouver C i t y H e a l t h and P l a n n i n g Depar tmen ts . Vancouve r . December 1978. C o n s t a n c e , Dr. P. "Community H e a l t h S e r v i c e s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e A r e a . U n p u b l i s h e d D r a f t . Vancouver H e a l t h Depar tment . Vancouve r . May, 1977. Vancouver P l a n n i n g Depar tment . Downtown E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r Area P o l i c y P l a n . Vancouve r . Feb rua ry , 1981. Vancouver P l a n n i n g Depar tment . " A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r S o c i a l / R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s - D . T . E . S . " C i t y C o u n c i l R e p o r t . J u l y 7 , 1977. 100. Vancouver P l a n n i n g Depar tmen t . "Oppenhe imer Area Land Use P l a n and Concept P l a n . " C i t y C o u n c i l r e p o r t . September 2 , 1976. Vancouver P l a n n i n g and H e a l t h Depar tmen ts . "Downtown E a s t s i d e N . I . P . - H e a l t h C l i n i c . " C i t y C o u n c i l r e p o r t . September 1 1 , 1979. 101. APPENDIX I BACKGROUND O c t o b e r 1975 November 1975 March 1976 September 1976 CASE STUDY CHRONOLOGY Downtown Eas t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e r d e s i g n a t e d a N . I . P . A r e a . D . T . E . S . / O p p e n h e i m e r rezoned to C D - I . E l e c t i o n of Oppenheimer Area P l a n n i n g Committee ( O . A . P . C . ) N . I . P . Concept P l a n approved - a l l o c a t e s $685,000 to a l l ne ighbourhood p r o j e c t s -$200 ,000 to H e a l t h F a c i l i t y . STAGE ONE March 1977 June 1977 August 9 , 1977 Aug. 12 , 1977 S e p t . 1, 1977 May 1978 June 16 , 1978 June 20 , 1978 F o r m a t i o n o f H e a l t h F a c i l i t y P l a n n i n g Sub-Commi t tee . F o r m a t i o n o f Task F o r c e . C i t y C o u n c i l app roces N . I . P . funds f o r s i t e pu rc has e. L e t t e r of p r o t e s t ove r s i t e pu r chase sen t to Mayor and C o u n c i l f rom O . A . P . C . O . A . P . C . r e q u e s t s d r a f t H e a l t h F a c i l i t y Repor t to O . A . P . C . D r a f t r e j e c t e d - p l a n n i n g s t a f f o f f e r to r e d r a f t R e p o r t . I n q u i r y f rom D . E . R . A . Daycare Group r e : use of houses on s i t e . I n s p e c t i o n r e v e a l s houses not wor th r e n o v a t i n g . D e m o l i t i o n o f f o u r houses on s i t e . R e s i g n a t i o n o f f i v e D . E . R . A . members f rom O . A . P . C , STAGE TWO J u l y 12 , 1978 Aug. 19 , 1978 Fo rma t i on o f S t r a t h c o n a / D . T . E . S . H e a l t h F a c i l i t i e s A d v i s o r y Commit tee C i t y C o u n c i l app roves A d v i s o r y Commit tee c o m p o s i t i o n terms o f r e f e r e n c e and t ime d e a d l i n e . 102. O c t o b e r 1978 December 1978 J a n u a r y 1979 A d v i s o r y Commit tee agrees on key i s s u e s . H e a l t h S t a t u s R e p o r t , i s s u e d . A d v i s o r y Commit tee g i v e p l a n n i n g s t a f f go ahead on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e t a i l s . IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS March 1979 May 9 , 1979 June 6 , 1979 August 1979 S e p t . 18 , 1979 I n q u i r y f rom G r e a t e r Vancouver Hous ing C o r p o r a t i o n ( G . V . H . C . ) r e : h o u s i n g / M . H . R . o f f i c e on s i t e . J o i n t C i t y s t a f f meets to d i s c u s s r e n o v a t i o n o p t i o n f o r h e a l t h f a c i l i t y G . V . H . C . p roposes h o u s i n g / h e a l t h f a c i l i t y on C i t y - o w n e d s i t e . J o i n t C i t y S t a f f / G . V . H . C . / M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h mee t ings to work out i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e t a i l s C i t y C o u n c i l approves a l l o c a t i o n of N . I . P . funds f o r c l i n i c p o r t i o n o f h o u s i n g / c l i n i c p r o j e c t on C i t y - o w n e d s i t e . * S e p t . 1980 S t a r t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . APPENDIX II SUMMARY This report on the health status of people in the Study Area (Census Tracts 57, 58 and 59) was prepared at the request of the Planning Department, City of Vancouver. Its purpose i s to provide health status information to the Advisory Committee responsible for developing a proposal for health care services for the Downtown Eastside and Strathcona areas. To help those using the report to gain a f u l l e r understanding of the health c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of thi s area, relevant demographic data i s included. Data related to health status of the population of the Study Area (Census Tracts 57, 58 and 59) have been collected from federal, p r o v i n c i a l and municipal sources. Reports s p e c i f i c a l l y focuss'ed on the Study Area (1, 3, 6) have also been reviewed. Analyses of the data have provided information on the following indices of health status: leading causes of death and of years of l i f e l o s t , and rates of communicable disease, dental disease and mental i l l n e s s . Wherever possible, comparisons have been made among the Sub-Areas of the Study Area and among the Study Area, Vancouver and/or B. C. Data for males and females have been analyzed separately whenever possible. The major findings of t h i s study are: 1. The o v e r a l l death rate i n the Study Area i s much higher than that of Vancouver. This i s consistent with the much greater proportion of old people l i v i n g i n the Study Area as compared to Vancouver. 2• The much higher rates of premature (before age 75) deaths  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Study Area indicate that factors  other than the age of the population are contributing to  the high death rate. 3. The single greatest discrepancy i n death rates between the Study Area and Vancouver i s the extremely high rate  of premature death from respiratory disease i n the Study  Area. This finding indicates the operation of a cluster of factors such as lack of early medical treatment, malnutrition, poor housing and alcohol abuse. Changes in the design and delivery of health services would reduce these rates to an appreciable degree. 4. Females i n the Study Area exhibit rates of premature death from c i r r h o s i s of the l i v e r which are higher than those of Study Area males. In addition, the average age of death  of females i n the Study Area i s very much lower than that  of Study Area males. These findings indicate that health needs of females i n the Study Area are not being met as well as those of males in the Study Area. 

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