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Johann Hermann Schein and Musica poetica : a study of the application of musical-rhetorical figures in… Johnston, Gregory Scott 1982

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JOHANN HERMANN SCHEIN AND MUSICA POETICA: A STUDY OF THE APPLICATION OF MUSICAL-RHETORICAL FIGURES .IN THE SPIRITUAL MADRIGALS OF THE ISRAELSBR&NNLEIN (1623) by GREGORY SCOTT JOHNSTON B. Mus., Univ e r s i t y of Calgary, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1982 ©Gregory Scott Johnston, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Music The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date September 10, 1982 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The present study examines the mu s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures of the of the 17th-century Figuventehve as they are applied to the s p i r i t u a l madrigals of Johann Hermann Schein's Israelsbrunnlein (1623). Although analogies between music and text had been made long before the turn of the 17th century, i t was not u n t i l Schein's own l i f e t i m e that a c o d i f i e d l i s t of musical p a r a l l e l s to the c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l figures of oratory was compiled by Joachim Burmeister i n 1599. The consequent e f f e c t of the Fi-guvenlehve on ..music composition (musica poetica) during the remainder of the Baroque period was such that t h i s p r o t o t y p i c a l l i s t of musical-r h e t o r i c a l figures underwent constant r e v i s i o n and expansion during the next one hundred and f i f t y years. Schein wrote at l e a s t one t r e a t i s e on the subject of music composi-t i o n which may very well have treated the subject of musical r h e t o r i c . But owing to the disappearance of t h i s manuscript, i t i s necessary to examine Schein's own background, assessing the pertinent elements of h i s own musical and r h e t o r i c a l education, i n order to amass s u f f i c i e n t h i s -torical..evidence to j u s t i f y a m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l analysis of his s p i r i t u a l madrigals. This study presents an abundance of substantiating evidence to support an analysis of t h i s nature with regard to his through-composed works. The figures applied to Schein's works i n t h i s thesis are derived i i f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y German t r e a t i s e s , and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s show t h a t m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s p e r v a d e t h e e n t i r e compo-s i t i o n , e i t h e r as r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f d e c o r a t i o n o r as f i g u r e s o f s t r u c -t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n b o t h c a s e s , t h o u g h , t h e p r e v a i l i n g m u s i c a l - r h e -t o r i c a l f i g u r e s p a r a l l e l a t a l l t i m e s t h e a f f e c t o r r h e t o r i c e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s a c r e d t e x t s , s h o w i n g u l t i m a t e l y t h e c o a l e s c e n t p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF EXAMPLES. . , . v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . . . 1 I I . JOHANN HERMANN SCHEIN: HIS BACKGROUND IN MUSICA POETICA AND RHETORIC 17 I I I . MUSICAL-RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF SCHEIN'S SPIRITUAL MADRIGALS 42 IV. CONCLUSIONS 73 BIBLIOGRAPHY 76 i v L I S T OF E X A M P L E S 1 . S c h e i n : Isvaetsbvunnlei-n, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 1 - 7 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 47 2 . S c h e i n : Israelsbvimnlein, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 8 - 1 2 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 4 8 3 . S c h e i n : Isvaelsbvunnlein, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 1 2 - 1 7 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n . 5 1 4 . S c h e i n : Israelsbriinnlein, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 1 8 - 2 1 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 54 5 . S c h e i n : Israelsbrunnlein, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 2 2 - 2 6 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 5 5 6 . S c h e i n : Israetsbrimnlein, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 2 6 - 3 2 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 56 7 . S c h e i n : Israelsbrunnlein, D i e m i t T r a n e n s ' a e n , m e a s u r e s 3 2 - 3 8 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 58 8 . S c h e i n : IsvaetsbvunnZein, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 3 8 - 4 4 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 58 9 . S c h e i n : Isvaetsbvunnlein, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 4 4 - 5 1 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 59 1 0 . S c h e i n : Isvaelsbvunn'le'ln, D i e m i t T r a n e n s a e n , m e a s u r e s 5 1 - 5 4 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n 6 1 1 1 . 5Schein: IsvaelsbvunnZe-in, S i e h e , n a c h T r o s t w a r m i r s e h r b a n g e , m e a s u r e s 1 - 7 . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 6 3 b y B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l a n d B a s e l . R e p r i n t e d b y p e r m i s s i o n , 6 3 v 12. Schein: Israetsbrunnle-in, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 11-17. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission 64 13. Schein: Isvaelsbviinnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 18-23. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission . 65 14. Schein: Israelsbrunnle-in, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 24-26. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission 66 15. Schein: Isvaelsbvunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 27-33. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission 67 16. Schein: Israelsbriinnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 34-39. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission 68 17. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 40-44. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. . 69 18. Schein: Israetsbrunntein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 44-50. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission 70 19. Schein: Israelsbvunrile%n, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 51-58. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission 70 20. Schein: Israelsbvunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 59-65. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission 71 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer expresses h i s thanks to the f a c u l t y members of the Music History d i v i s i o n i n the Department of Music, a l l of whom have contributed much to hi s understanding of music, and whose generous counsel has a l -ways been appreciated. The f a c u l t y and s t a f f of the Music L i b r a r y , too, are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged for t h e i r kind and e f f i c i e n t s e rvice. F i n a l l y , the author extends h i s sincere gratitude to the members of his committee, e s p e c i a l l y to Professor Gregory G. Butler, whose own work i t was which f i r s t kindled an i n t e r e s t i n the area of musical r h e t o r i c , and whose pa-t i e n t supervision and thoughtful suggestions have been invaluable i n the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . v i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Johann Hermann Schein, Samuel Scheldt and Heinrich Schutz are f r e -quently r e f e r r e d to c o l l e c t i v e l y as the "three S's" of the German Baroque. As early as 1690, the t r i o i s described as the "three famous S's" i n Wolfgang Caspar P r i n t z ' s Histovische Beschveibung der edlen Sing- und Klingkunst,^ but the passage of time has resulted i n a d i s t o r t e d perspec-t i v e of music h i s t o r y , causing Schein and Scheidt to be unjustly eclipsed by Schutz. C e r t a i n l y Schutz's studies i n I t a l y under Giovanni G a b r i e l i , and h i s long and p r o l i f i c musical career account for some of the addi-t i o n a l modern studies, but to epitomize him as the paragon of 17th-century German music i s inconsistent with the opinions held by even his own con-temporaries. One must bear i n mind that these three composers, as at-tested to by P r i n t z and others, constituted a v i r t u a l musical triumvirate i n Germany at the turn of the 17th century. These three'musicians were as successful as t h e i r profession, would allow, acquiring for'them the :more prestigious musical appointments in' the•Electorate of Saxony: Scheidt served as the Hofkapellmeister i n i t h e :city of H a l l e S c h u t z . s u c c e e d e d Rogier Michael as the Hofkapellmeister i n Dresden; and Schein was u l t i -1. W. C. P r i n t z , Historisohe Besohveibung der edlen Sing- und Kling-kunst (Dresden, 1690), p. 137. "drey Beriihmte S." 1 2 v mately appointed to the p o s i t i o n of Thomaskantor i n L e i p z i g , a century before Johann Sebastian Bach was to assume that same post. In order to regain a h i s t o r i c a l equilibrium with respect to these three German com-posers, further i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the achievements of Scheidt and Schein 2 i s necessary. The present study w i l l focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the music and text i n the s p i r i t u a l madrigals of Schein's Israelsbrunn-lein (1623), using the precepts of the Figurenlehre as the p r i n c i p a l 3 ' nexus i n r e l a t i n g these two elements. In many instances, the l i t e r a r y 2. The most s i g n i f i c a n t studies to date which deal e x c l u s i v e l y with J. H. Schein and h i s music include A. P r i i f e r , Johan Herman Schein (Leipzig: Breitkopf & H a r t e l , 1895), which stands as the most comprehen-sive and exhaustive biography of Schein; I. Hueck, "Die kiinstlerische Entwicklung J . H. Scheins d a r g e s t e l l t an seinen g e i s t l i c h e n Werken" (Ph.D. d i s s . , Freiburg U n i v e r s i t y , 1943), i n which Schein's s t y l i s t i c developments are examined i n terms of musical influences, attempting to determine ap-proximate dates for some of Schein's "compositions by comparing c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c elements with comparable elements i n h i s other works for which the date of composition i s known; H. Rauhe, "Dichtung und Musik im welt-l i c h e n Vokalwerk J . H. Scheins. S t i l i s t i s c h e und kompositionstechnische Untersuchungen zum Wort-Ton-Verhaltnis im Lichte der rhetorischen ausge-richteten'Sprach- und Musiktheorie des 17. Jahrhunderts" (Ph.D. d i s s . , Hamburg U n i v e r s i t y , I960). 3. Modern musicolbgical studies of r h e t o r i c a l elements i n music compo-s i t i o n (musica poetica) i n Germany, from the inchoate stages of the Baroque to the end of t h i s s t y l i s t i c period, date back to the f i r s t decade of the 20th century. The e a r l i e s t s i g n i f i c a n t musicological i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the subject of musical r h e t o r i c i s A. Sobering "Die Lehre von den musi-kalischen Figuren," Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 21- (1908): 106-14. A l -though Schering's a r t i c l e i s r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , i t did provide a point of departure for related studies by other scholars interested i n the creative processes of German composers i n the l a t e Renaissance and i n the Baroque. Two important subsequent works i n t h i s area continue along the l i n e s i n i -t i a t e d i n Schering's a r t i c l e : H. Brandes, Studien sur musikalisehen Fig-urenlehre im 16. Jahrhundert ( B e r l i n : T r i l t s c h & Huther, 1935) i s b a s i c a l -l y an elaboration of the material found i n Schering's w r i t i n g , defining and discussing at length the early developments of the Figurenlehre; H. Unger, Die Beziehungen zwisehen Musik und Rhetorik im 16.-18. Jahrhundert (Wurzburg: Konrad T r i l t s c h Verlag, 1941) i s l a r g e l y a comparative study d i s t i l l e d from a large number of musica poetica t r e a t i s e s from the 16th through 18th centuries i n which Unger demonstrates the homologous r e l a t i o n -ships between music and text. 3 r h e t o r i c a l figures i n the b i b l i c a l texts of these madrigals w i l l imme-d i a t e l y suggest comparable m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , but the implement-ing of the musical: r h e t o r i c a l figures can also be understood as s a l i e n t ' elements i n the actual musical structure of these texted compositions. The work which i s most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the present * study i s Hermann Rauhe's doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , "Dichtung und Musik im weltlichen Vokalwerk J. H. Scheins," i n which Rauhe pursues the r h e t o r i c a l content of Schein's secular music and poetry. Work s i m i l a r to the d i s s e r t a t i o n was previously done by Rauhe for h i s Staatsexamensavbeit at the Hamburg 4 Hochschule fur Musik i n 1955. The l a t t e r study was an examination of the Figurenlehre i n Schein's sacred music, and Rauhe shows the cumulative r e s u l t s of his m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l study of Schein's sacred and secular music i n Chapter 3 of h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n under the heading "Das w e l t l i c h e Vokalwerk Scheins im Verhaltnis zu seiner g e i s t l i c h e n Musik." 5 Rauhe's i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s unquestionably thorough, and he presents l u c i d l y the re-s u l t s of t h i s comparative study of Schein's sacred and secular music by means of various charts and graphs which demonstrate the frequency with which the d i f f e r e n t figures are employed. Although the r e s u l t s of Rauhe's somewhat empirical methodology are estimable enough, the present study w i l l be concerned more with the a p p l i c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures i n p a r t i c u l a r compositions, as the figures are suggested by the text and as they function s t r u c t u r a l l y within the piece. During the f i r s t h a l f of the 16th century, the written references to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between music and r h e t o r i c became more frequent 4. Rauhe, op. c i t . , p. 2. 5. I b i d . , pp. 222-52. 4 as the importance of the text i n music composition increased. (The e a r l i e s t analogies between the arts were being made already by Franchirius Gaffurius [1451-1522].and Faber Stapulensis [?-?] i n the l a t e 15th cen-tury.) Composers were find i n g i t necessary to give more consideration to the a f f e c t i v e and grammatical elements of the text as they t r i e d to f i n d the best way to correlate word and music. In 1552, Aridrien P e t i t Coclicus gives an example of a group of three notes (simplex) and a somewhat ornamented version of what i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same three-note pattern (elegans) i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "De Elegantia et Ornatu, aut pronunciatione i n canendo" i n his Compendium musices. This i s compara-ble to the pure an ornate s t y l i s t i c features of verbal, and l a t e r musi-c a l , r h e t o r i c . This aspect of musical r h e t o r i c s h a l l be discussed i n greater depth momentarily. Eleven years a f t e r the appearance of CocTicus' compendium, GalTus Dressier includes the purely musical structures fuga, cadentia and syn-copatio among his "ornamentum musicae" i n the manuscript'of h i s unpublished Praecepta musioae poeticae (Magdeburg, 1563-64). 7 Seth C a l v i s i u s takes the next major step i n the development of musical r h e t o r i c i n the Melo-poeia sive melodiae oandendae vatio ( L e i p z i g , 1592). In his t r e a t i s e , C a l v i s i u s compares musical pauses and cadences to various types of gram-matical punctuation. For example, C a l v i s i u s ' clausula secundaria (half g cadence) i s compared to the colon i n poetic and prosaic l i t e r a t u r e . C a l v i s i u s , as w i l l also be seen i n Lippius' own discussion of musical 6. Unger, op. c i t p. 29. 7. Ibid. , p. 30. 8. Ibid p. 31. 5 f i g u r e s , describes c e r t a i n melodic f i g u r a t i o n s without taking the f i n a l step of providing them with r h e t o r i c a l l a b e l s . It i s hot d i f f i c u l t to see, then, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Joachim Burmeister's contribution to the Figuren-lehre; he took the i n e v i t a b l e step of asc r i b i n g r h e t o r i c a l names to the already e x i s t i n g musical f i g u r e s . The codification' of mu s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures was by no means a completely heterodox incident i n the development of music composition practices i n t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l period between the Renaissance and Baroque i n Germany. F i r s t , what Burmeister did i n providing r h e t o r i c a l names to these musical figures was symptomatic of the humanists' penchant f o r "an-9 atomizing and categorizing knowledge." As i n the case of verbal rheto-r i c , the Figurenlehre was arrived at in d u c t i v e l y by assigning names to s p e c i f i c musical f i g u r a t i o n s and devices which had been f l o u r i s h i n g and st e a d i l y evolving throughout the en t i r e 16th century. Secondly, the l a t e 16th and early 17th centuries witnessed a movement towards a high degree of ornateness i n a l l forms of a r t i s t i c expression, including r h e t o r i c . Rhetoric had been defined by c l a s s i c a l authors as the art of persuasive speech, but r h e t o r i c had come to be defined by Renaissance r h e t o r i c i a n s as the art of decoration or decorative speech.^ This d e f i n i t i o n , i n turn, found i t s way in t o music composition. The almost explosive i n t e r e s t i n r h e t o r i c a l decoration i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the 16th century i s exem-p l i f i e d by the marked increase i n the number of ornamental tropes and 9. E. P. J . Corbett", Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), p. 460. 10. L. Rockas, Modes of Rhetoric (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1964), p. i x . 6 figures which could be found i n r h e t o r i c a l text books of the day. For example, only s i x t y - f i v e r h e t o r i c a l figures were included i n the Rhetorioa ad Rerennium, a popular book for r h e t o r i c a l studies i n the Renaissance. This l i s t was extended to include one hundred and thirty-two figures i n Joannes Susenbrotus' Epitome troporum ac schematum i n 1540 and was i n -creased to one hundred and eighty-four i n Henry Peacham's The Garden of 11 Eloquence i n 1577. P a r a l l e l emphasis on musical decoration combined with the humanists' propensity f o r cataloging resulted i n Burmeister's c o d i f i c a t i o n of twenty-two mu s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures i n his Rypomnematum 12 musicae poeticae synopsis (Rostock, 1599). Joachim Burmeister (1564-1629) i s the most important t h e o r i s t i n the discussion of early developments of the Figurenlehre i n Germany. His l i f e and work have been examined extensively by Martin Ruhnke i n Joachim 13 Burmeister: em Beitrag zur Musiklehre urn 1600. In addition to a syn-o p t i c presentation of the contents of Burmeister's pedagogically i n c l i n e d t r e a t i s e s , Ruhnke gives a r e l a t i v e l y thorough account of Burmeister's. l i f e from h i s early years at the Liineburg Lateinschule (Johanneum), to his studies at the u n i v e r s i t y i n Rostock, and f i n a l l y to h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l post as cantor at the N i c o l a i k i r c h e i n Rostock and as teacher at the Rostock Stadtschule. Although Burmeister's i n s t r u c t i o n i n musica theorica 11. Corbett, op. c i t . , p. 460. 12. The number of figures was increased to twenty-seven i n a t h i r d e d i -t i o n of Burmeister's work, Musica poetica (Rostock, 1606). •13. M. Ruhnke, Joachim Burmeister: ein Beitrag zur Musiklehre um 1600 (Kassel: Barenreiter Verlag, 1955). 14 and poetica i n Llineburg took place i n private lessons outside the school, one can e a s i l y see the emphasis of r h e t o r i c i n a l l of h i s o£her s c h o l a s t i c studies. Under the auspices of Lucas Lossius, Burmeister studied the d i -a l e c t i c and r h e t o r i c of Melanchthon arid Erasmus, and even i n the r e l i g i o u s lessons, the Bible was studied i n terms of grammar, l o g i c , d i a l e c t i c , and rhetoric."'" 5 Burmeister was also instructed in ; analyzing and imitating the speeches of Cicero and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the production of L a t i n and German 16 comedies arid tragedies. The strong predominance of language i n Burr-; meister's early studies continued throughout his years at the University of Rostock, where he entered the a r t s f a c u l t y i n 1587."^ Here, Burmeister read the l e t t e r s of Cicero and the comedies of Terence, studied the d i a -l e c t i c of A r i s t o t l e and the r h e t o r i c of Cicero and Q u i n t i l i a n , practised oration'and poetics by analyzing and i m i t a t i n g the works of the c l a s s i c a l 18 authors, and received i n s t r u c t i o n i n e t h i c s , Hebrew and Greek. As a teacher at the Rostock Stadtsohule, Burmeistzer'-s duties included i n i t i a l l y the teaching of elementary Latin' grammar to the student's of the Quartet and Tertia l e v e l s . A promotion which occurred sometime between 1599 and 1601 allowed Burmeister to teach the students of the Sekunda 19 l e v e l . Burmeister taught advanced L a t i n grammar and elementary Greek 14. Ibid. , p. 25. 15*.- Ibid. , p. 15. 16. "- Ibid. , p. 14. 17. Ibid. , p. 25. 18. Ibid., p. 30. 19. I b i d . , p. 45. 8 grammar at t h i s l e v e l , demonstrating the proper usage of these languages 20 through the works of c l a s s i c a l authors. In studying the poetry and ora-tions of Roman and Greek a n t i q u i t y i n t h i s upper l e v e l c l a s s , r h e t o r i c was probably used as one of the main exegetical methods of a n a l y s i s , as had been used by Burmeister himself as a student at Liiheburg. Bearing in'mind the fact that a l l music lessons within the curriculum were r e s t r i c t e d to musica practica arid, to a lesser extent, theorica, i t i s easier to see some of the reasoning i n Burmeister's method of i n s t r u c t -ing students i n the art'of musica poetica. By the time a student was old enough to study composition p r i v a t e l y , he would already have mastered a great' many grammatical, s y n t a c t i c a l and r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l s which were a necessary part of h i s language studies. Burmeister found that making analogies between music and language was the most expedient manner of teaching music composition. In the same way that the students i n the language classes imitated Cicero and A r i s t o t l e , the student of musica poetica analyzed arid emulated the works of the great composers. Just as the students had studied language from the rules of elementary grammar to the decorative art of r h e t o r i c , the student composer proceeded i n tfhe same manner—from the grammatical elemeri'ts of notatiori, consonance arid dissoriarice; to the s y n t a c t i c a l elements of chordal combinations, soloecis-. 21 m%, caderices, arid modes; and f i n a l l y to the r h e t o r i c a l elemerits of geri-22 e r i c s t y l e and m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s . The mastery of employing 20. Ibid. 21. Sotoecismi, or s y n t a c t i c a l e r r o r s , can be used i n t e n t i o n a l l y as an expressive device, i n which case i t becomes a r h e t o r i c a l element. See Ruhnke, op. c i t . , pp. 111-14. 9 m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures was the apotheosis, so to speak, i n the art of music composition, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s period when1 great art—whether that art i s v i s u a l , l i t e r a r y or musical—was exemplified by the integrated use of decoration. A work which i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n understanding the proximity with which r h e t o r i c arid music was viewed in' the early 17th century i s the PhiZosophiae vevae ac sinoevae synoptioae, a c o l l e c t i o n of writings by 23 the musician arid r h e t o r i c i a n , Johannes Lippius (1585-1612), which was published posthumously i n Wittenberg i n 1614. The f i r s t part of t h i s work i s comprised of Lippius' unabridged Synopsis musicae novae (Strasbourg, 1612), i t s e l f a synoptic c o l l e c t i o r i of material which had e a r l i e r appeared i n the s i x disputations given* by Lippius at the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Wittenberg and Jena i n the years 1609 to 1611. Iri the second part of the PhiZosophiae vevae ao sinoevae synopticae,.Lippius discusses a v a r i e t y of subjects amorig which i s his discussion of r h e t o r i c . Although Lippius never did undertake to write about the FiguvenZehve per se, there are several reasons for i n -cluding some mention, however cursory, of L i p p i u s ' w r i t i n g s : 1) Lippius i s orie of the very few musicians of t h i s period to write at length about music arid r h e t o r i c ; 2) although Lippius died at a very early age, he was an active and i r i f l u e n t i a l contemporary of Scheiri; 3) Lippius f l o u r i s h e d 22. Ruhnke, op. c i t . , pp. 100-70. 23.' For additiorial biographic information on Johanries Lippius, see B. V. Rivera, Gevman Music Theovy in the EavZy 17th ,Centuvy: The Tvea-tises of Johannes Lippius (Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1980), pp. 1-10; M. Ruhrike, "Lippius, Johariries," Die Musik in Geschichte uhd Gegenwavt (1960), 8, c o l s . 930-31; G. J . Buelow, "Lippius, Johannes," The New Gvove Dictionavy of Music and Musicians (1980), 11, p. 17. 10 i n the same geographic area as Schein—namely, i n that area around Witten-berg and L e i p z i g i n the Electorate of Saxony; 4) Lippius was, by h i s own 24 admission, d i r e c t l y influenced by Seth C a l v i s i u s (1556-1615), who was at that time teaching h i s t o r y and poetry at the U n i v e r s i t y of L e i p z i g and was serving simultaneously as cantor at the Thomaskirche. In f a c t , i t i s not u n l i k e l y that Lippius' and Schein's paths may have crossed i n or . around"Leipzig during the • first'decade of the 17th century. It can be seen to what extent t h i s contemporary of Schein drew par-a l l e l s between the two s i s t e r arts of music and r h e t o r i c by looking at the Synopsis musioae novae. For L i p p i u s , the text was absolutely necessary for music composition i n that i t provided many of the guidelines for w r i t -ing r h e t o r i c a l l y persuasive and ornate music. Even i n the case of the i n -strumental music, Lippius recommends that the composer use an imaginary text as a guide for composing a r h e t o r i c a l l y convincing piece of pure i n -strumental music. In the part of the t r e a t i s e e n t i t l e d "Concerning the 25 Form of a Harmonic Piece," Lippius writes: The form of a harmonic piece consists i n the a r t f u l and prudent ar-rangement of i t s material elements or parts, namely, i t s monads, dyads, and t r i a d s , which are combined or composed according to the sense of the text. Therefore, the musical text provides a soul, as i t were, to the harmonic piece. The harmonic piece i s the image of the text. Just as the text cannot be depicted and expressed unless i t properly un-derstood with the^aid of the philosophia instvumentalis and philosophia practioa vedlis, so too i t must be expressed according to the way i t i s understood. For the image must resemble the model. 24. < Rivera, op. c i t . , p. 5. See also J. Lippius, Synopsis of New Music {Synopsis Musicae Novae), trans, by B. V. Rivera, (Colorado Springs: Colorado College Music Press, 1977), p. 60. At the end of t h i s t r e a t i s e , Lippius has appended a t r i b u t a r y poem written for him by C a l v i s i u s . 25. Lippius, op. c i t . , p. 43. 26. Grammar, r h e t o r i c , l o g i c . 11 Lippius' treatment of verbal r h e t o r i c i s derived p r i m a r i l y from the three p r i n c i p a l c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n s : Cicero, Q u i n t i l i a n and the ariony-28 mous author of the Rhetorica ad Rerennium. The f i v e subdivisions of r h e t o r i c are inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pvonuhciatio. Inventio and dispositio are as important i n music as they are i n oratory, but the subdivision of r h e t o r i c which i s most important to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study i s elocutio. To the c l a s s i c a l l y trained r h e t o r i c i a n , elocutio meant 29 " s t y l e . " Elocutio may be described as the choice of words which expresses most e f f e c t i v e l y the subject of the discourse. Of the f i r s t three sub-d i v i s i o n s of r h e t o r i c mentioned above, i t i s elocutio which distinguishes the true r h e t o r i c i a n from the nori-rhetorician (Lippius says that any man of good sense could deal with inventio and dispositio), and the degree of s k i l l an orator has i n handling elocutio distinguishes the good r h e t o r i c i a n from the mediocre. There are three s t y l i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which come under the head-ing of elocutio and help determine the actual kind of d e l i v e r y used by the r h e t o r i c i a n . The f i r s t of these i s a s t y l e appropriate for teaching (do-cendi) arid may be c a l l e d the " p l a i r i " or "ordinary" s t y l e (attenuata, humi-l i s , levis, tenuis, subtile); the second i s the "moderate" or "middle" s t y l e (mediocris., moderata, vobusta) and i s s u i t a b l e for moving (movendi) the l i s t e n e r ; and the l a s t type i s the "grand" or " f l o r i d " s t y l e (florida, grandis, gravis), the most sophisticated of the three s t y l e s , which serves 27. E t h i c s , economics, p o l i t i c s . 28. - The following overview of L i p p i u s ' discussion of r h e t o r i c i s c i t e d l a r g e l y from Rivera, German Music Theory, op. c i t . , pp. 167-69. Addi-t i o n a l material from other sources w i l l be duly acknowledged. 29'.." Corbett, op. c i t . , p. 37. 12 30 the purpose of charming.;,(delectandi) the audience. Although a l l three of these genera of r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e are considered i n the c l a s s i c a l sources and i n most of the r h e t o r i c a l t r e a t i s e s of the German humanists, such as Lucas L o s s i u s 1 Erotemata Dialectioae et Rhetoriaae Philippi Melanehthonis (Leipzig, 1562), and had found musical p a r a l l e l s i n Burmeister's t r e a -31 txses, Lippius focuses his attention only on the grand s t y l e , relegating the f i r s t two s t y l e s to the status of grammar. Several s t y l i s t i c considerations may be included with the discussion of elooutio, such as appropriateness, p u r i t y (the use of foreign words, 32 for example), c l a r i t y , correctness, s i m p l i c i t y , and ornatehess. Lippius uses the terms which r e l a t e to the pure (purus) and ornate (omatus) sty-l i s t i c features i n his r h e t o r i c a l t r e a t i s e and correspondingly includes 33 the two subheadings, "Concerning the Pure Style of Composition" and "Concerning the Ornate Style of Composition," i n the Synopsis musioae novae. It i s these s p e c i f i c aspects of Lippius' 17th-century work which hark back to the simplex and elegans s t y l e s i n Coclicus' previously men-tioned Compendium musioes, and more importantly to the elements of eloeu-t i o . Ornate speech (oratio ornata) i s the apogee of the r h e t o r i c a l art and i s considered by Lippius to be the sole instrument of persuasion. 30. Ib i d . 31. \ Ruhnke, Joachim Burmeister, op. c i t , , pp. 106-108. 32. , Corbett, op. c i t . , p. 37. 33., Lippius, op. c i t . , pp. 45-46. 34.A Ibid. , p. 49. 13 Oratio ornata Is so c a l l e d owing to i t s verbal ornaments (flores, colores) which can be further subdivided into the categories of tropes and figu r e s . Trope can be defined as a word or expression used i n a f i g u r a t i v e or non-l i t e r a l sense (metaphor, simile, hyperbole, e t c . ) . A r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e , on the other hand, i s a word or expression that does not change the ac-t u a l meaning of the expression, rather i t employs the expression i n an extraordinary way. Lippius discusses two a d d i t i o n a l subtypes of the rhe-t o r i c a l f i g u r e i n his t r e a t i s e : one i s a fi g u r e of thought (figura sensus) and the other i s a fi g u r e of speech (figura sermonis). Lippius gives the fig u r e of exclamation (exolamatio) as an example of the figura sensus. Exolamatio can be c l a s s i f i e d as a f i g u r e of thought because an orator does not generally speak e x c l a m i t o r i l y . Any one of the numerous figures of r e p e t i t i o n (e.g. anaphora, anadiplosis, polyptoton, etc.) would success-f u l l y exemplify one type of figura sermonis. Generally speaking, the figures of speech are of a more emphatic character than the oftentimes oblique figures of thought. In h i s discussion of the "puresstyle" and "ornate s t y l e " of music composition, Lippius writes that the pure s t y l e should be simple i n i t s dimensions to accord with the s i m p l i c i t y of i t s accompanying text. A l l of what Lippius writes about the pure s t y l e of composition bespeaks the s i m p l i c i t y of the text; the s e t t i n g of the text should be homophonic and 35 homorhythmic, and proceed with "uniform, preferably p l a i n , volume." The ornate s t y l e of composition, by contrast, i s a "more f l o r i d , and more c o l -36 ored harmonic piece [produced] by using b e a u t i f u l ornaments." 35.- Ibid. , p. 46. 36.."1 Ibid. , p. 40. 14 The " b e a u t i f u l o r n a m e n t s " r e f e r r e d t o by L i p p i u s i n t h e Synopsis 37 musioae novae a r e , i n f a c t , t h e Figuren. He w r i t e s : L i k e an a r t f u l o r a t o r , t h e m u s i c i a n u s e s t h e s e o rnamen ts t o p o l i s h h i s h a r m o n i c o r a t i o n i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t e x t and t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f p e r s o n s , t i m e , p l a c e , e t c . L i p p i u s m e n t i o n s t h e o rnamen ts o f d u r a t i o n , vo lume and p i t c h as t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e t e x t i n t h e o r n a t e s t y l e o f c o m p o s i t i o n . He does n o t a s -c r i b e any o f t h e r h e t o r i c a l te rms t o t h e m u s i c a l o r n a m e n t s , b u t he does d e s c r i b e u n m i s t a k e a b l y s e v e r a l m u s i c a l f i g u r e s t o w h i c h B u r m e i s t e r had g i v e n s p e c i f i c names. F o r e x a m p l e , when L i p p i u s s a y s t h a t " m e l o d i e s may 38 somet imes a s c e n d o r d e s c e n d beyond t h e i r o r d i n a r y r a n g e , " he i s m e r e l y p r o v i d i n g a d e f i n i t i o n o f what B u r m e i s t e r w o u l d c a l l hyperbole and hypo-botei L i p p i u s c o n c l u d e s t h e s e c t i o n on t h e o r n a t e s t y l e o f c o m p o s i t i o n by b e s t o w i n g a c c o l a d e s upon O r l a n d o L a s s o and L u c a M a r e n z i o — m u s i c a l . c o u n -t e r p a r t s t o C i c e r o and A r i s t o t l e — w h o s e m a s t e r y o f t e x t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was a c k n o w l e d g e d t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e and whose m u s i c was p e r f o r m e d and p r e -39 sumab ly s t u d i e d by S c h e i n . D u r i n g S c h e i n ' s own l i f e t i m e , a t o t a l o f f i v e p e d a g o g i c a l t r e a t i s e s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h r h e t o r i c a l l y l a b e l l e d m u s i c a l f i g u r e s were w r i t t e n and p u b l i s h e d i n Germany: J o a c h i m B u r m e i s t e r , Eypomnematum musioae poeticae synopsis ( R o s t o c k , 1599). J o a c h i m B u r m e i s t e r , Musioae autoschediastike ( R o s t o c k , 1601). J o a c h i m B u r m e i s t e r , Musica poetica ( R o s t o c k , 1606). 3.7. I b i d . 38.' I b i d . , p . 52. 39;. I b i d . 15 Johannes N u c i u s , ^ Musicae poeticae sive de compositione cantus (Neisse, 41 1 6 1 3>-Joachim Thuringus, Opusculum b%part%tum ( B e r l i n , 1625). By v i r t u e of t h e i r contemporaneity and t h e i r c l a r i t y j ~ the t r e a t i s e s of Burmeister w i l l serve as the primary t h e o r e t i c a l sources for the ensu-ing examination of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l elements of Schein's s p i r i t u a l mad-A 2 r i g a l s . Nucius' and Thuringus' t r e a t i s e s are quite c l e a r l y d e r i v a t i v e of Burmeister's works, while at the same time there are various aspects within these t r e a t i s e s which are at variance with each other, e s p e c i a l l y with regard to semantics. It may very well be that such semantic discrep-ancies i n the developmental stages of the Bigurerilehre, innocuous as they may seem at the outset, are premonitory of the fate of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l element of musica poetica i n Germany. During the one hundred and twenty-five years following the p u b l i c a t i o n of Thuringus' t r e a t i s e , 40. ' See G. J . Buelow, "Nucius, Johannes," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), 13, p. 448; W. H. Rubsamen, "Nucius, Johannes," Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (1961), 9, c o l s . 1742-45; R. Starke, "Johannes Nux (Nucis oder Nucius)," Monatshefte filr Musikgeschichte 34 (1904): 195-209; F. Feldmann, "Musiktheoretiker i n eigenen Kompositionen; Untersuchungen am Werk des T i n c t o r i s , Adam von Fulda und Nucius," Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft 1 (1957): 55; Schering, op. c i t . , pp. 108-109. 41. G. J . Buelow, "Thuringus, Joachim," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), 18, p. 797; R. Federhofer-K6nigs, "Thuringus, Joachim," Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (1966), 13, c o l s . 380-81; F. Feldmann, "Das 'Opusculum bipartitum' des Joachim Thuringus (1625), besonders i n seinen Beziehungen zu Joh. Nucius (1613)," Archiv fur Musik-wissenschaft 15 (1958); 123-42. 42. D e f i n i t i o n s for the m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures used i n t h i s study can be found i n the following sources: Ruhnke, Joachim Burmeister, op. c i t . , pp. 147-66; Schering, op. c i t . , pp. 108-109; Feldmann, "Musiktheo-r e t i k e r . . . , " op. c i t . , pp. 56-61; G..;J. Buelow, "Rhetoric and Music," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), 15, pp. 796-800; Feldmann, "Das 'Opusculum bipartitum'...," op. c i t . , pp. 131-42; Brandes, op...cit., pp. 9-23; Unger, op. c i t . , pp. 62-98; A. Schmitz, "Figure, musi-k a l i s c h - r h e t o r i s c h e , " Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (1955), 4,--c o l s . 176-83. 16 numerous t r e a t i s e s which included some discussion of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l 43 figures i n composition were s t i l l being written i n Germany. However, i n t h i s period of time, there were m u l t i f o l d r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l , eco-nomic, s o c i a l , and a r t i s t i c changes. The constantly evolving musical st y l e s during these years extending from the l a t e Renaissance to the Pre-C l a s s i c era, and the m u l t i p l i c i t y of independent educational systems would multiply and magnify the problems f i r s t evidenced i n the musica poetica t r e a t i s e s before 1630. This inherent semantic weakness found i n the early t r e a t i s e s would eventually r e s u l t i n the obsolescence of the Figuvenlehve as a v i a b l e pedagogical method and p r a c t i c a l technique of composition i n the l a t e r 18th century. In the following chapter, Schein w i l l be seen i n h i s capacity of t h e o r i s t ; for i t i s known that Schein, too, wrote one, possibly two, t r e a -t i s e s on composition, whether Schein a c t u a l l y wrote about the Figuven-lehve i s not known, but he was c e r t a i n l y aware of the p r a c t i c e , and there i s no reason whatsoever to believe that Schein would have incorporated the m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures any d i f f e r e n t l y than would h i s contempo-r a r i e s . This would be e s p e c i a l l y true i n the early years of the 17th century when the precepts of the "doctrine of f i g u r e s " were r e l a t i v e l y unadulterated. But to understand -better.Schein's use of musical r h e t o r i c , i t i s necessary now to survey h i s own background i n music and r h e t o r i c . 43. Unger, op. c i t . , pp.; 156-59. CHAPTER II JOHANN HERMANN SCHEIN: HIS BACKGROUND IN MUSICA POETICA AND RHETORIC The e a r l i e s t extant source i n which Schein receives mention as a w r i t -er of pedagogical t r e a t i s e s i s Johann Mattheson's Gvundlage einev Ehven-pforte (Hamburg, 1740). This encyclopedic work makes two references to the t h e o r e t i c a l works by Schein, and i n both cases the acknowledgements are i n c i d e n t a l to other subjects. The f i r s t appearance of Schein's name i n Mattheson's work i s i n a l i s t representing the inventory of Valentin Bartholomaus Haussmann's l i b r a r y holdings i n 1678.^ Hevm, Scheins man-ductio Musicam poeticam, a work which then existed only i n manuscript 2 form and i s now l o s t , i s shown as the fourth item on th i s r e g i s t e r . The second reference to Schein i n Mattheson's Gvundlage einev Ehven-pfovte i s found i n an entry which i t s e l f i s pr i m a r i l y concerned with Steffan Otto and h i s own work e n t i t l e d Etliche nothwendige Fvagen von 3 der poetischen odev Tichtmusik. The appendix to t h i s missing work, dated June 24, 1632, i s Etlichen Lehven3 so einem 'Incipienten' in der 1. J . Mattheson, Gvundlage einev Ehven-pfovte (Hamburg, 1740), p. 106. 2.. Ibi d . This manuscript a t t r i b u t e d to Schein i s also referred to i n Jacob Adlung's Anleitung zu dev musikalischen Gelahvtheit ( E r f u r t , 1758), p. 868, but t h i s reference appears to be derived from Mattheson's book. 3. Ibid., op. c i t . , p. 243. 17 18 'Musica' 'poetica,' wie sie genennet wird3 vornehmlich zu wissen von 4 nothen3 von Johann Hermann Schein. F i f t y years a f t e r Mattheson had published h i s book, the authen t i c i t y of the Manductio1s authorship i s questioned by Johann Nikolaus Forkel i n his Allgemeine Litteratur der Musik:'' Whether the noted Joh. Hermann Schein i s to be construed here cannot ';be maintained since t h i s work Manductio i s considered neither by Mattheson, nor Walther, nor by any other music l i t e r a t o r under h i s [ Schein's] name. A view s i m i l a r to that of Forkel i s expressed by Ernst Ludwig Gerber i n the Neues historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonkunstler:^ Whether, however, the Maductio ad musicam poeticam manuscript men-tioned i n Hausmann's catalogue was genuine cannot be maintained. Gerber's h e s i t a t i o n to accept Schein as the genuine author of the Manductio shows a lack of congruity with what he writes e a r l i e r i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n of his lexicon. In the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n , Gerber comments c u r s o r i l y upon Otto's t r e a t i s e and accepts without question Schein as the primary source f o r the appended m a t e r i a l . 7 In the intervening period be-tween the appearance of the o r i g i n a l version of his lexicon and the pub-4. ;.'Ibid. 5. J . N. For k e l , Allgemeine Litteratur der Musik ( L e i p z i g : Schwikert, 1792), p. 500. "Ob der bekannte Joh. Herrmann [sic] Schein h i e r zu ver-stehen i s t , kann nicht behauptet werden, da weder von Mattheson noch Walther, noch von einem andern mus. L i t t e r a t o r unter seinem Namen dieses Werks gedacht wird." 6. E . L . Gerber, Neues historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonkunstler ( L e i p z i g : A. Kiihnel, 1813-14), part 4, c o l . 45- "Ob aber die i n Hausmanns Bucherverzeichniss angefuhrte Manductio ad musicam poeticam, Mst, acht ge-wesen i s t , kann nicht behauptet werden." 7. E. L. Gerber, Historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonkunstler (Leipzig: J . G. I. Breitkopf, 1792), part 2, co l s . 51-52. 19 l i c a t i o r i of the revised e d i t i o n , Gerber had obviously consulted Forkel's Allgemeine Litteratur der Musik and subsequently assumed Forkel's mis-givings concerning the o r i g i n s of the Manductio ad musicam poeticam. These skeptics are l a t e r taken to task by Francois-Joseph F e t i s i n g his short biographical sketch of Schein: We see i n Mattheson's 'Ehren-Pforte' (p. 106) that Hausmann possessed a composition t r e a t i s e of Schein under the t i t l e of Manductio ad musicam poeticam. We do not know why Forkel and others doubted whether t h i s work was by Schein, or i f i t was orie and the same with the t r e a t i s e of Otto (see t h i s name) i n German on the same subject; i t i s evident by the t i t l e i t s e l f of th i s l a s t one that i t was ex-tracted from numerous works, notably that of Schein. Arthur Prufer, Schein's p r i n c i p a l biographer, provides yet further , insi g h t into Schein's t h e o r e t i c a l work with an extract from Carl August Grenser's Geschichte der Musik, hauptsachlich aber des Grossen Konzert-und Theater-Orchester in Leipzig. Grenser writes that "he [_ ScheihJ a l -so l e f t behind a manuscript e n t i t l e d 'Etlichen Lehre, so einem Incipienten i n der Musica poetica, wie s i e genennet wird, vornehmlich zu wissen von Nothen. It also e x i s t s (!) under the t i t l e manductio ad musicam poeticam.1 Whether or not Schein's t r e a t i s e did i n fact s t i l l " e x i s t " i n 1849 can-not possibly be v e r i f i e d since Grehser f a i l e d to record the sources of 8'. F. J . F e t i s , Biographie universelle des musiciens, 2nd ed. , 8 vo l s . (Paris: Firmin-Didot et Cie. , 1867), 7: 450. "On v o i t dans 1'Ehren-Pf'orte of Mattheson (page 106) que Hausmann possedait im t r a i t e de composition, de Schein, son l e t i t r e de Manductio ad musicam poeticam. On ne s a i t pourquoi Forkel et d'autres on mis en doute s i cet ouvrage est de Schein, ou s i ' i l n'est qu'une seule et meme chose avec l e t r a i t e d'Otto (voyez ce nom) en langue allemande sur l e meme sujet; i l est evident, par l e t i t r e meme de ce d e r n i e r , q u ' i l e t a i t e x t r a i t de plusieurs ouvrages, notamment de c e l u i de Schein. " 9. A. Prufer, Johan Herman Schein ( L e i p z i g : Breitkopf & Har t e l , 1895), p. 10. Carl August Grenser, f i r s t f l a u t i s t i n the Grosses Konzert- und Theater-Orchester i n L e i p z i g , wrote his Geschichte der Musik i n 1840, the unpaginated manuscript of which i s , at the time of Prufer's w r i t i n g s , i n the possession of the Bibliothek des Vereins fur die Geschichte L e i p z i g s . 10. I b i d . , p. 39. "Er (S) h i n t e r l i e s s auch ein Manuscript, b e t i t e l t : 20 hi s information. Although Grenser's ma t e r i a l , as Prufer r e a d i l y points out, i s "frequently inaccurate and i n need of improvement,""'""'" Prufer does nevertheless concur with Grenser as far as, b e l i e v i n g the - Manductio and 12 the Etlichen Lehren to be the same work. In any case, i t i s highly un-l i k e l y that Schein's teaching methodology could have changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y within the span of h i s short career. There i s greater l i k l i h o o d that the appendix to Otto's t r e a t i s e consisted of p a r t i c u l a r features from Schein's 13 Manductio not dealt with by Otto; or perhaps the Etlichen Lehren was simply a modified version of the Manductio, comparable to the revisions undergone by s i m i l a r d i d a c t i c t r e a t i s e s by Joachim Burmeister and Seth C a l v i s i u s . "*""* I t i s known ,that Schein had also intended to write a t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a -t i s e on musica practica, but t h i s work was never brought to f r u i t i o n due .to h i s untimely death."'"5 Because t h i s work was never completed, and h i s 'E t l i c h e Lehren, so einem Incipienten i n der Musica ipoetica, wie s i e ge-nennet wird, vornehmlich zu wissen von Nothen.' Es e x i s t i r t (!) auch un-ter dem T i t e l manductio ad musicam poeticam." 11. I b i d . , p. 10. " v i e l f a c h ungenau und verbesserungsbedurftig." 12. I b i d . , p. 38. 13. Gerber, Historisch-biographisches. Lexikon...., c o l s . 51-52.. The four chapters i n Otto's t r e a t i s e were: 1) The Nature of Harmony; 2) Com-bining of Tones; 3) Phrases, Antecedent Phrases, D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s , Ca-dences, Pauses, Fugues, etc.; 4) Modes and Their Transpositions. 14. A'revised e d i t i o n of Burmeister's Hypomnematum Musicae poeticae sy-nopsis (1599) was published i n 1601 under the t i t l e ' Musica Autoschediastike,, and a f i n a l version appeared i n 1606 with the t i t l e Musica poetica. C a l v i s i u s ' Compendium musicae pro incipientibus (1594) was printed i n a s i m p l i f i e d t h i r d e d i t i o n i n 1612 e n t i t l e d Musicae artis praecepta nova et f a c i l l i m a . 15. See J . A. Herbst, Musica Practica, sive Instructio pro Symphoniacis (Nuremberg, 1642), p. i i j . In the preface to Johann Andreas Herbst's t r e a -t i s e , on musica practica, he writes that other composers, including Johann Hermann Schein, Michael Praetorius and.Caspar K i t t e l , had also agreed to 21 work on musica poetica, however apocryphal, i s now l o s t , one must examine .the ambient academic and a r t i s t i c conditions i n which Schein f l o u r i s h e d i n order to gain an understanding of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between music and r h e t o r i c i n h i s compositions. The ensuing discourse cannot hope to achieve more than a composite sketch of Schein's implementation of the Figurenlehre, but by gleaning relevant information from a v a i l a b l e sources, the end r e s u l t w i l l provide s u f f i c i e n t h i s t o r i c a l evidence to J u s t i f y an analysis of Schein's music i n the r h e t o r i c a l terms of the Figurenlehre. 16 Johann Hermann Schein was born i n Griinhain i n Saxony. From his e a r l i e s t years, Schein was strongly influenced by the Lutheran f a i t h , as his father, Hieronymous Schein (1533-1593), was the Lutheran pastor i n Griinhain during t h i s period of r e l i g i o u s intolerance i n Saxony. (At t h i s time r e l i g i o u s antagonism was c h i e f l y between the C a l v i n i s t s and the Lutherans.) Hieronymous himself had at one time been a student at the Furstenschule St. Afra i n Meissen (1549-1555) and l a t e r studied theology at the u n i v e r s i t y i n L e i p z i g . Johann Hermann, i t seems, i n h e r i t e d a num-ber of talents from h i s father; Hieronymous had been praised for "the charm of h i s voice and of h i s eloquence as a preacher,"^ 7 for his knowledge write s i m i l a r musica practica texts which would, l i k e Herbst's, deal with phrasal decoration and cadential ornamentation, as w e l l as i n s t r u c t the choirboys i n the I t a l i a n s t y l e of singing. Although Schein was unable to author such a book, Herbst's introductory note a t t e s t s to the fact that Schein possessed a thorough and fu n c t i o n a l understanding of contemporary performance practices i n I t a l y . 161 Priifer's biography of Schein w i l l serve as the primary source of i n -formation for t h i s biographical sketch. Priifer had access to, and incor-porated i n t h i s work, various i r r e p l a c e a b l e written documents and music manuscripts which have since been destroyed. Although much of the following material w i l l be derived from t h i s source, a d d i t i o n a l information w i l l be credited accordingly. W\ H. E r n e s t i , Commentationes novae in Comelium Nepotem etc. ( L e i p z i g , 1707), p. 274. "...suavitas i n faciendo ad populum verbo o r i s ac v o c i s . " Cited from Pr i i f e r , op. c i t . , pp. 2-3. 22 18 of Greek, and as a "distinguished poet." In addition to h i s poetic and o r a t o r i c a l a b i l i t i e s , Hieronymous was also a p r o f i c i e n t musician, having 19 served as Sehlosskantor i n Weesenstein from 1574 to 1578. Following the death of Hieronymous i n 1593, the remainder of the family moved to Dresden where, on the recommendation of Polycarp Leyser der A l t e r , the supervisor of court music, Johann Hermann was accepted i n 1599 as a choirboy to the Hofkapelle which was then under the d i r e c t i o n of Rogier Michael. There i s no record of Schein's a c t i v i t i e s between the years 1593 and 1599, but he must have received some p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g and experience i n music during t h i s time i n order for him to have been ad-mitted into such a prestigious court. This .same Kantorei, founded i n 1548 by E l e c t o r Moritz von Sachsen, already had an i l l u s t r i o u s h i s t o r y of music d i r e c t o r s p r i o r to Michael's appointment i n 1587: Johann Walther (1548-1554), Mattheus Le Maistre (1554-20 1568), Antonio Scandello (1568-1587). The Hofkapelle was very cosmo-p o l i t a n and had a reputation for i t s excellent native and foreign musicians. 21 As early as 1554, seven of the twenty-five musicians were I t a l i a n . By 18; (?). Melzer, Jenisius3 Annabergae Historia etc. (Dresden, 1705), p. 64. "poeta praeclarus." Cited from Prufer, op. c i t . , p. 3. 19. A. Adrio, "Schein, Johann Hermann," Die Musik in Geschichte und Ge-genwart (1963), 10, c o l . 1642. 20... Prufer, op. c i t . , p. 4. 21... W. Steude, "Dresden," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), 5, p. 616. The term "welsch" has been erroneously translated as "Netherlanders" i n t h i s a r t i c l e rather than " I t a l i a n s . " Compare M. Ruhnke, Beitrage zu einer Geschichte der deutschen Hofmusikkollegien im 16. Jahr-hundert ( B e r l i n : Verlag Merseburger, 1963), p. 217. Ruhnke gives the names of the singers and instrumentalists of the Dresden Hofkapelle of 1555; sev-en of the twelve instrumentalists are I t a l i a n , the remaining singers and instrumentalists are ostensibly German. 23 1590, the chapel choir under Michael consisted of f i v e basses, f i v e tenors, four a l t o s , and eight boy sopranos. Of the nineteen instrumentalists, ap-22 proximately one-third of them bore I t a l i a n surnames. In addition to the I t a l i a n musicians at t h i s court, there was an abundance of music from 23 I t a l y by Adrian W i l l a e r t , Orazio Vecchi, Vincenzo Ruffo, and others. The I t a l i a n influence on Schein must have been quite strong during h i s stay i n Dresden. Schein's education i n Dresden was directed by the Kapellmeister and cantor, Rogier Michael (1550-1619), arid the Choirboy-preceptor (Cantorei-knaben-Praeceptor) , Magister Andreas Petermann (ca. 1531-1611) . Michael had formerly been'a choirboy i n the Dresden Hofkapelle under Antonio Scandeilo. Succeeding Scandello i n 1587, Michael held the p o s i t i o n of Kapellmeister u n t i l some time around 1615. Michael directed the usual group singing lessons and composed pieces to L a t i n , German and I t a l i a n 24 texts for the boys to sing at the dinner table and on other occasions. In addition to learning "to play a b i t on a l l ' instruments" i n Dresden, Schein-' also received i n s t r u c t i o n at the hand of Michael " i n t h e o r e t i c a l 25 music as well as p r a c t i c a l . " L i t t l e i s known about Andreas Petermann-, 22. .-Priifer, op. c i t . , p. 5. 2'3.- I. Becker-Glauch, "Dresden," Die Musik in Gesehichte und Gegenwart (1954), 3, c o l . 759. 2.4.. P r i i f e r , op. c i t . , pp. 5-6. 25. P. S p i t t a , "Leichensermone auf Musiker des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhun-derts," Monatshefte fur Musikgeschichte 3 (1871): 27. [This c o l l e c t i o n of funeral sermons includes a r e p r i n t of Johann Hopner's "Leichensermon auf Johann Hermann Schein" from Schein's funeral (1630)]. " auff a l i e n instrumenten etwas zu praestiren" and " i n der Musica sowol Theoretica als- Practicd. " 24 except that he was educated i n Wittenberg, where he matriculated i n 2 6 1554. It was his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as preceptor to provide the boys with a strong r e l i g i o u s foundation and to prepare them academically f o r a more advanced humanistic education at one of the three e l e c t o r a l L a t i n schools.' In 1603, with a stipend given him by the El e c t o r C h r i s t i a n I I , Schein was enrolled i n the University of L e i p z i g , matriculated at the beginning of the summer semester and was then accepted as "studiosus Lipsiensis"' at the e l e c t o r a l Landessohule i n Pforta on May 18, 1603, where he remained u n t i l A p r i l 26, 1607. It was i n Pfo r t a that Schein received a sub s t a n t i a l amount of h i s humanistic education. For much of Germany, the early 17th century was a period of p h i l o -sophical transformation and attempts at educational reform. The great German humanistic movement of the 16th century had a l l but subsided by the turn of the century, and while one reformer, Wolfgang Ratichius, un-dertook to impose a degree of conformity on the disparate educational 28 systems i n Germany, another advocate of t h i s reformation, Johann Amos Comenius, issued his maledictions against a l l of the "heathens" of An-29 cient Rome and Greece. The vociferousness of these a c t i v i s t s did meet with some degree of success, and academic i n t e r e s t i n c l a s s i c a l studies 26. : R. Ei t n e r , "Petermann, Andreas," Quellen-Lexikon der liusiker und Musikgelehrten, 2nd ed. (1959), 7: 389. 27. Prufer, op. c i t . , p. 5. 28-.- F. Paulsen, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts, 3rd ed., 2 vol s . ( L e i p z i g : V e i t & Comp., 1919), 1: 474. 29; Ib i d . , p. 477. 25 waned as a r e s u l t . By the end of the 16th century, A r i s t o t l e was s e l -dom mentioned at the Un i v e r s i t y of L e i p z i g or the University of Wittenberg, and pr i n t i n g s of editions of Greek l i t e r a t u r e v i r t u a l l y ceased i n Ger-many and Switzerland from the early 17th century u n t i l the l a t t e r h a l f 30 of the 18th century. The q u a l i t y of Schein's education did not s u f f e r noticeably as a r e s u l t of t h i s educational reform; perhaps the humanistic E l e c t o r of Saxony was hesitant to allow the introduction of such p o t e n t i a l l y r e t r o -gressive measures into h i s progressive Lateinschulen. Nevertheless, Schein became well-acquainted with the l i t e r a t u r e of numerous authors 31 of Roman and Greek an t i q u i t y — m o s t importantly the writings of Cicero. It i s also known that dramatic productions were staged twice yearly by 32 the students at Schulpforta, and through his required p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the performance of these plays, Schein very l i k e l y became f a m i l i a r with the works of Terence, whose comedies were p a r t i c u l a r l y popular throughout 33 Germany at the turn of the 17th century. What harm to c l a s s i c a l studies was incurred by the advocacy of Ratichius' and Comenius' movement was mitigated by increased i n t e r e s t i n the writings of the early C h r i s t i a n Church Fathers, contemporary Ger-man l i t e r a t u r e , and the B i b l e . The Church Fathers served as C h r i s t i a n representatives of antique education. Schooled i n the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , 30. i b i d . , p. 487. 31..; P r i i f e r , op. c i t . , p. 7. 32. I b i d . , p. 8. 33. - E. F. Livingstone, "The Place of Music i n German Education around 1600," Journal of Research in Music Education 19 (1971): 160. t h e i r works were substituted as models of l i t e r a r y s t y l e f o r the students to analyze and imitate. The Fathers of the C h r i s t i a n Church were highly esteemed for t h e i r wisdom i n numerous d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d s , and j u s t as the Renaissance humanists had looked to the p r e - C h r i s t i a n c l a s s i c i s t s for answers, the 17th-century scholars often referred to the Church Fathers as they sought a f t e r solutions to problems of astrology, medicine, chronol-34 ogy, the natural sciences, or philosophy. Rhetoricians i n the 17th-cen-tury, too, suggested that students wishing to learn the art "do-it l i k e the ^ancient L a t i n and Greek Church Fathers, who have i n t h e i r youth practised 35 poesy, and have made a l l kinds of b e a u t i f u l , s p i r i t u a l songs." Although Schein's own s k i l l s as a r h e t o r i c i a n and poet would not manifest them-selves i n p r i n t u n t i l 1609, he i s c e r t a i n to have been influenced at 36 Pforta by the hymns of the early C h r i s t i a n s , Prudentius and Sedulius. The l i k e l y manner i n which he r e f i n e d h i s natural poetic g i f t i s out-l i n e d by Johann Balthasar Schupp i n a text book for r h e t o r i c a l studies 37 from the mid-17th century: If you want to p r a c t i s e i n German poetry, you young people, take now and again the hymns of Prudentius, Bernhard, Ambrose, Hieronymus, Augustine, and other Church teachers. Translate them into the Ger-man vernacular, or into German verse, [and] make anew out of these verses German orations. I assure you, you w i l l not be sorry for i t . : 34.' J . Dyck, Ticht-Runst: Deutsche Barockpoetik und rhetorische Tradition (Bad Homburg von der Hohe, B e r l i n , Zurich: Verlag Dr. Max Gehlen, 1966), p. 143. 35. J . B. Schupp, Boot: Joh: Bdlth: Schuppi Schrifften (Hanau, 1663), p. 936. "Macht es wie die a l t e Lateinische und Griechische Kirchen-Vater / welch s i c h i n der Jugend geiibt haben i n der Poesie / und allerhand schbne g e i s t l i c h e Lieder gemacht haben." Cited from Dyck, op. c i t . , p. 144. 36. Prufer, op. c i t . , pp. 7-8. 37. Schupp, op. c i t . , p. 937. "Wolt i h r euch / i h r junge Leut / i n der deutschen Poeterey iiben / so nehmet unterweilens fur euch die Hymnos Pru d e n t i i , Bernhardi, Ambrosii, Hieronymi, Augustini, und anderer Griech-ischen und Lateinischen Kirchenlehrer. Versetzt s i e i n deutsche Sprach / Comparative observations regarding c l a s s i c a l Greek and Roman l i t -erature and the Bible were made by the early Church Fathers i n order to understand better the contents of both. Naturally, many differences were seen but also many s i m i l a r i t i e s . One of the Church Fathers mentioned i n the previous quotation by Schupp, Hieronymus (ca.347-ca.420), whose own works were sty l e d a f t e r Cicero, shows comparisons between the r h e t o r i c a l figures hyperbole and apostrophe as they appear i n the Bi b l e and i n w r i t -38 ings by V i r g i l . Yet another observation made by Hieronymus concerns the usage of c l a s s i c a l poetic meter i n the books of Job, Jeremiah, and the 39 Psalms. That the art of r h e t o r i c was an e s s e n t i a l t o o l i n b i b l i c a l exegesis, whether i l l u m i n a t i n g passages from the Bible i n L a t i n or German, i s clear from various r h e t o r i c a l text books used i n schools throughout the Baroque period. Conversely the Bible i t s e l f was also held by rhet o r i c i a n s to be 40 one of the "fontes inventioms" of r h e t o r i c . In Germany, Bartholomaeus Westhammer (Westhemerus) was one of the e a r l i e s t scholars to deal exten-s i v e l y with the r h e t o r i c a l contents of the Bible i n his Tropi insigniores veteris atque novi testamenti (1528); and almost a century l a t e r , Johann Heinrich Alsted's Tri-umphus Bibliaus (1625) includes a discussion of rhe-t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , exemplifying the a p p l i c a t i o n of each f i g u r e with an ap-oder i n deutsche Vers / mach auss diesen Versen wiederumb deutsche O r a t i -onis. Ich versichere euch / es wird euch nicht gereuen." Cited from Dyck, op. c i t . , p. 147. 38., Dyck, op. c i t . , p. 138. 39. I b i d . , pp. 138-39. Hieronymus, along with H i l a r y and Ambrose, i s referred to as an authority by the Roman statesman and monk, Cassiodorus (ca.477-ca.570), when he analyses the r h e t o r i c of the Psalm verses. 40.. N. Caussinus, De eloquentia sacra et humana (1657), 4: 195. Cited from Dyck, op. c i t . , p. 157. 28 41 propriate b i b l i c a l passage. The founder of Protestantism, Martin Luther, was regarded as a formi-dable orator by a l l . Having antedated the extreme orthodoxy which was to burgeon i n the 17th century, Luther was schooled i n the humanistic t r a -d i t i o n of c l a s s i c a l studies and was alleged to have made s t y l i s t i c com-42 parisons between the works of Cicero and the Book of Isaiah. As a pro-fessor of b i b l i c a l theology at the University of Wittenberg, Luther was c r i t i c a l l y aware of the polemic s i g n i f i c a n c e of b i b l i c a l r h e t o r i c and was successful i n preserving many of the r h e t o r i c a l tropes and figures when he translated the Bible into the German vernacular (1521-1534). So suc-c e s s f u l was the German t r a n s l a t i o n , i n f a c t , that Luther was lauded there-a f t e r as a "proper German Cicero...and whoever wants to learn proper Ger-43 man w i l l read d i l i g e n t l y the German B i b l e . " The art of r h e t o r i c , as both an a n a l y t i c a l device and as an e s s e n t i a l part of compositional technique, was pervasive i n the studies of a l l stu-dents i n the early 17th century, and to a greater degree s t i l l i n the l a n -guage dominated Lateinschulen. The p r a c t i c e of eloquence, however, was not confined to the classroom, for i t continued throughout one's l i f e to 41. Alsted, as a contemporary of Schein and one of the major polyhistors of the early 17th century, i s not without s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the study of mu-s i c h i s t o r y . Alsted's writings on music are concerned p r i m a r i l y with musi-ca theoretica and practical the importance of h i s discussions of musica poetica i s severely l i m i t e d by his adherence to C a l v i n i s t i c dogma. See I. Schultz, Studien zur Musikanschauung und Musiklehre Johann Heinrich Alsteds (1588-1638) (Marburg: Gorich & Weierhauser, 1967), pp. 65-79. 42. J . Hulsemann, De Veteris et Novi Testamenti natura ( L e i p z i g , 1714). Cited from Dyck, op. c i t , , pp. 160-61. 43. J . B. Schupp, Der Teutsche Lehrmeister, ed. Paul Stotzner (Leipzig, 1891), p. 33. "...rechter Teutscher Cicero gewesen. Und wer recht gut Teutsch lernen w i l , der lese f l e i s s i g die Teutsche B i b e l . " Cited from Dyck, op. c i t . , p. 153. 29 serve as a sign of one's education and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . Schein's i n -herent a f f i n i t y f o r a r t i s t i c expression caused him to continually c u l -t i v a t e t h i s art through i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to h i s own poetry and to his mu-s i c . The musical t r a i n i n g which Schein received at Pforta was very much influenced by two of the former cantors, Seth C a l v i s i u s (1582-1594) and Erhard Bodenschatz (1601-1603). C a l v i s i u s , an exemplar of humanistic education, was a chronologer, a h i s t o r i a n , an astronomer, a music t h e o r i s t , a poet, a composer, and a pedagogue. It was during his residency as can-tor at Pf o r t a that C a l v i s i u s produced one of h i s most s i g n i f i c a n t works— Melopoeia seu melodiae aandendae ratio ( E r f u r t , 1592). In t h i s t r e a t i s e , C a l v i s i u s does not a c t u a l l y apply poetic figures to music, as did Burmeister seven years l a t e r , but he does deal b r i e f l y with some aspects of expressing a f f e c t i n Chapter 16 (De pausis) and stresses i n Chapter 18 (De oratione sive textu) the importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the music and text 44 i n support of h i s d e f i n i t i o n of melopoeia from Chapter 1: Melopoeia, moreover, i s the art of r i g h t l y conjoining and a l t e r i n g har-monic i n t e r v a l s , e f f e c t i n g a concent i n diverse sounds, and thus accom-modating a proposed oration. C a l v i s i u s ' treatment of a f f e c t and text underlay i n Melopoeia i s derived l a r g e l y from Volumes 3 and 4 of Gioseffo Zarlino's Le Istitutioni harmoniohe 45 (1558). What C a l v i s i u s did was prepare an updated, reorganized and sim-p l i f i e d version of Zarlino's I s t i t u t i o n i , thereby transforming an I t a l i a n 44. s. C a l v i s i u s , Melopoeia seu melodiae aandendae ratio ( E r f u r t , 1592), Cap. 1. "Est autem Melopoeia ars recte conjugendi et i n f l e c t e n d i i n t e r -v a l l a Harmonica, i n d i v e r s i s sonis concentum e f f i c i e n t i a , ac o r a t i o n i pro-positae accomodata." 4.5V See K. Benndorf, "Sethus C a l v i s i u s a l s Musiktheoretiker," Viertel-jahrschrift fur Musikwissensohaft 10 (1894): 435-49; and R. H. Robbins, Beitvage zur Geschichte des Kontrapunkts von Zavlino bis Schutz ( B e r l i n : T r i l t s c h & Huther, 1938), pp. 72-86. 30 t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e into a p r a c t i c a l textbook for German composition students. The musical-poetical concept of teaching, however, was not e n t i r e l y new at Pforta i n 1592; documented evidence shows that C a l v i s i u s was already teaching along these l i n e s ten years p r i o r to the p u b l i c a t i o n 46 of the Melopoeia. This p r a c t i c e , then, would have been a fi r m l y rooted t r a d i t i o n at Pforta when' Schein'began his studies there. The teaching method used by C a l v i s i u s was furthered by Erhard Bodenschatz (1575-1636) who, having studied under C a l v i s i u s from 1591 to 1594, served as cantor at Pforta from 1601 to 1603, vacating h i s o f f i c e only shortly before Schein commenced his studies at t h i s e l e c t o r a l school. Bodenschatz's influence on Schein stems from the cantor's anthological pursuits at P f o r t a . Schein presumably became well-acquainted with the L a t i n - and German-texted motets of Bodenschatz's Florilegium selectis-simarum oantionum (1603), the second e d i t i o n of which, under the t i t l e Flovilegium Portense (1618), comprised the f i r s t tome of a two-volume c o l -47 48 l e c t i o n of motets. The completed second volume was published i n 1621. 46. C. Dahlhaus, "Nachlass des Sethus C a l v i s i u s , " Die Musikforsehung 9 (1956): 130-31. 47. 0. Riemer, Erhard Bodenschatz und sein Florilegium Portense (Sch'dningen: J u l : Kaminsky, 1928), p. 52. Riemer's published d i s s e r t a t i o n includes, i n addition to a general d e s c r i p t i o n of the m i l i e u at Pforta i n the early 17th century, an overview of the motets i n the two volumes of the Florilegium Portense (1618, 1621). Each motet i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the tables (pp. 107-17) by i t s melodic and textual i n c i p i t , the number of voices, the source of the text, the appropriate performance occasion, and the name of the composer. 48. Rudolph Wustmann points out that the compilation and publishing preparation of the motets of the f i r s t e d i t i o n could not have possibly .... been accomplished by Bodenschatz i n the two years spent at Pforta, and consequently a t t r i b u t e s the actual amassing of most of the motets to C a l v i s i u s . See R. Wustmann, Musikgeschiohte Leiipzigs bis zur Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts, 2 v o l s . ( L e i p z i g : F. Kristner & C. F. W. S i e g e l , 1926), p. 376. 31 Students became f a m i l i a r with these motets by singing them before and 49 a f t e r each meal as well as on'other occasions. The use of the Flori-legium Povtense, e s p e c i a l l y the f i r s t volume, was widespread and remained one of the most popular motet anthologies of 17th-century Saxony."^ Dur-ing the period that Schein worked i n L e i p z i g , the churches' copies of the Florilegium Povtense were used so frequently that Tobias Michael', Schein's successor as Thomaskantor, had to recommend that new copies be purchased by both the Thomaskirche and the N i c o l a i k i r c h e . Lessons i n music composition—Schein supposedly studied composition at Pforta—would have taken place outside of the school time, as was the 52 i p r a c t i c e i n the Baroque period. The a c t i v i t i e s of Schein's music teach-ers at* P f o r t a , Bartholomaus Scheraeus (1603-1606) and Martin Rothe (1606-1607), have not been well-documented, and i t i s therefore d i f f i c u l t to comment unequivocally on Schein's t r a i n i n g i n musica poetica at the Latein-schule. Rothe, nevertheless, was not without recognition as a composer i n h i s own day; the 1621 volume of the FZovitegium Povtense contains t h i r -teen of h i s eight-voice motets ori German and L a t i n texts. (Several of these same texts were l a t e r set by Schein.) Schein completed his studies, and l e f t P forta on A p r i l 25, 1607, re-turning •to h i s home i n Dresden. What i t was that Schein did i n t h i s year i s open'to speculation. In early 1608, Schein had again taken up r e s i -49. Riemer, op. c i t . , p. 9. See also Livingstone, op. c i t . , pp. 157-62. 50. Wustmann,' op. c i t . , p. 375. 51; I b i d . 52. M. Ruhnke, Joachim Burmeister: ein Beitrag sur Idusiklehre urn 1600 (Kassel: Barenreiter Verlag, 1955), pp. 100-101. 32 dence i n L e i p z i g as a student at the u n i v e r s i t y where "he studied, be-53 s i d e s ^ l i b e r a l a r t s , jurisprudence." Priifer makes i t very clear that those subjects which make up the l i b e r a l arts i n the 17th centfury are i n many ways synonymous with subject areas which r e l a t e to the f i n e a r t s — that i s , Schein's secondary studies, i f one can consider them being of 54 le s s e r import, consisted of poetics and music. Iii order to study law at the u n i v e r s i t y , Schein would have had to become c l o s e l y acquainted with the three genera of eloquence which were recognized i n the 17th century: genus iudiciale ( j u d i c i a l speech), genus deliberativum ( d e l i b e r a t i v e speech), and genus demonstrativum ( e u l o g i s t i c or censorious s p e e c h ) . T h e main sources for t h i s part of the law stu-dents' studies were Herennian'rhetoric, Q u i n t i l i a n ' s Institutio oratorio. 56 and, of course, the works of Cicero. Not only would Schein have studied the various types of r h e t o r i c at' the u n i v e r s i t y , he would have received ample p r a c t i c e i h employing them, for a l l of the students at the univer-s i t y were expected to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i h r e c i t a t i o n s , l e c t u r e s , arid debates Schein undoubtedly came into corit-act with a great deal of music dur-ing h i s early years iri L e i p z i g . As a devout Lutheran, he would have at-tended r e g u l a r l y the Sunday Gottesdienst. It i s not unreasonable, then, 53. S p i t t a , op. c i t . , p. 28. "...riebenst den freyen Ktinsten die Juris-prudentiam studiret." 54. Prii f e r , op. c i t . , p. 11. 55. Dyck', op. c i t . , p. 10. 56" Ibid. 57. . F. Schulze & R. Ssymank, Das deutsche Studententum von den aeltes'ten1... Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart ( L e i p z i g : R. Voigtlanders Verlag, 1910), pp. 90-91. 3 3 to assume that Schein would have attended the divine service at the Thomaskirche. Seth C a l v i s i u s , a musician of high repute, was Thomas-kantor at that time, and Schein, from his years spent at P f o r t a , was a l -ready well-aware of C a l v i s i u s ' musical prowess. Schein's studies of poetics at the u n i v e r s i t y may also have made him f a m i l i a r with the Thomas-kantor's poetry, since C a l v i s i u s had formerly been professor of both h i s -tory and poetry at the University of L e i p z i g at least as l a t e as 1606 when the c o n f l i c t s between the p o l i c i e s of that i n s t i t u t i o n and the Thomas-i <- • i .58 kantorei began. Schein had been i n L e i p z i g f or approximately a year when he published his f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of music, Venus-Kr'dntslein (1609), which shows the twenty-one-year-old student i n his capacity of both composer and poet. Uni v e r s i t y students i n general were expected to sustain some degree of musical study, but, as was the case i n studying musioa poetica at Pforta, t h i s t u i t i o n was to take place outside the u n i v e r s i t y . For t h i s reason, i t i s impossible to i d e n t i f y with c e r t a i n t y Schein's teacher i n L e i p z i g . Could i t possibly have been C a l v i s i u s ? Schein was c e r t a i n l y f a m i l i a r with some of C a l v i s i u s ' t h e o r e t i c a l and musical works before h i s a r r i v a l i n 59 L e i p z i g . L e i p z i g at t h i s time had a population of approximately 15,500, and C a l v i s i u s ' and Schein's mutual t ies with Pforta i n addition to t h e i r shared i n t e r e s t and superlative s k i l l s ' i n music and poetry, would have circumscribed t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l group to some extent. It i s "unlikely that these two, sharing so much i n common, could have been act i v e within the musical c i r c l e s of L e i p z i g without becoming at l e a s t 58. A. Adrio, " C a l v i s i u s , Sethus," Die blusik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (1952), 2, c o l s . 679-80. .59. D. Krickeberg, Das protestantische Kantovat im 17. Jahrhundert: Stu-dien sum Amt des deutschen Kantorats ( B e r l i n : Verlag Merseburger, 1965), 34 marginally acquainted with one another. As did the Thomaskantors of the preceding and following generations, C a l v i s i u s would necessa r i l y have sup-plemented hi s income by teaching, and i t seems that Schein, whose a r t i s t i c p o t e n t i a l can already be seen i n h i s premier work, could have been r e a d i l y accepted as a p u p i l by the Thomaskantor, i n which case Schein's education i n musical r h e t o r i c would have been f i r s t hand. Because L e i p z i g was one of the foremost publishing and trade centres i n Germany at the beginning of the 17th century, i t was possible for Schein to become f a m i l i a r with a great deal of music l i t e r a t u r e during h i s student years i n that c i t y . Schein's years of experience with German and Nether-lands motets at P f o r t a were o f f s e t by the state of music i n early 17th-century L e i p z i g . The poetry and the music of c u l t u r a l l y advanced I t a l y came to t h i s u n i v e r s i t y c i t y i n the sophisticated form of the text-dom-inated madrigal. The extent to which the I t a l i a n s t y l e was f e l t i n L e i p z i g i s commented upon by Wustmann: Around 1580, the I t a l i a n madrigals were s t i l l advancing on L e i p z i g ; i n 1600, the musical sphere of the c i t y i s inundated by them. It i s evident that Schein's i n t e r e s t i n the I t a l i a n madrigal was equally d i s t r i b u t e d between the music and -the text. His own poetry, es-p e c i a l l y i n h i s l a t e r secular works, i s very much i n the s p i r i t of t h i s new madrigalian s t y l e . Schein was i n fact one of the e a r l i e s t German p. 23. This estimate i s based on the population of L e i p z i g i n the years 1585 (13,600) and 1623 (17,312). In the interim of these two years at L e i p z i g , there were no p a r t i c u l a r l y decimating outbreaks of p e s t i l e n c e , and the e f f e c t s of the T h i r t y Years War would not reach t h i s c i t y f o r sev-e r a l years. 60. Wustmann, op. c i t . , p. 292. "Gegen 1580 waren die i t a l i e n i s c h e n Madrigale fur L e i p z i g noch im Andringen b e g r i f f e n ; urn 1600 i s t die musi-kalische Sphare der Stadt von ihnen iiberf l u t e t , . .." 35 poets to adapt to the German language the pastoral s t y l e of Torquato Tasso (1544-1595) and Giambattista Guarini (1538-1612), thereby f i g u r i n g importantly i n the h i s t o r y of German poetry of the early Baroque along-61 side Paul Fleming (1609-1640), who was one of Schein's students at L e i p z i g , and Martin Opitz (1597-1639). 6 2 Schein also had ample opportunity to acquaint himself with numerous t h e o r e t i c a l works during t h i s period i n L e i p z i g , several of which contained some discussion of musica poetica. '.^Although the following sample ante-dates Schein's a r r i v a l i n L e i p z i g by about s i x years, i t does exemplify the opportunities which were a v a i l a b l e to one wishing to become f a m i l i a r with the t h e o r e t i c a l music l i t e r a t u r e which existed i n L e i p z i g around 1600. Andreas Hoffmann, a bookkeeper from Wittenberg, died i n 1600, and an en-suing inventory of h i s two L e i p z i g warehouses was taken on December 6, 6 3 1600. The t i t l e s l i s t e d below represent the t h e o r e t i c a l and pedagogical books which are known to have been part of the stock: Stock as Shown I d e n t i f c a t i o n of Works 2 Magiri Musica Johannes Magirus' Artis musicae (Frankfurt, 1596). 11 Introductio Musicae i n 4° ? 6 C a l v i s i i Exercitationes Mus. Seth Calvisius'' Exevcitationes musicae duae ( L e i p z i g , 1600). 61. Adrio, "Schein, Johann Hermann," MGG, c o l . 1644. 62. For more on Schein's poetic s t y l e see P. Hankamer, Deutsche Gegen-reformation und deutsche Barock: Die deutsche Literature im Zeitvaum des 17, Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart: J . B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1935), pp. 159-62; A. E i n s t e i n , The Italian Madrigal, 2 v o l s . (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949), 1: 205-42; W. Brauer, "Jacob Regnart, J. H. Schein und die Anfange der deutschen Barocklyrik," Deutsche Viertel-jahrschrift fur Litevaturwissenschaft 17 (1939): 371-404; H. Rauhe, "Dicht-ung und Musik im Weltlichen Vokalwerk J . H. Scheins," (Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Hamburg, 1960); D. Paisey, "Some occasional Aspects of Johann Hermann Schein," British Library Journal 1 (1975): 171-80; H. Osthoff, Die 36 5 C a l v i s i i Melodiae ^MelopoiaeJ Seth C a l v i s i u s ' Melopoeia ( E r f u r t , E r f t . 1592). 149 Lystenij Musica Nicolaus L i s t e n i u s ' Musica (Witten-berg, 1537). The e d i t i o n which most c l o s e l y coincides with t h i s inventory was printed i n Nuremberg i n 1583.' 4 Dresseri Musica This could be Gallus Dressier's Musicae pvacticae elementa (Magde-burg, 1571). 9 Fa b r i Musica l a t . I f t h i s entry i s r e f e r r i n g to Heinrich Faber, the t r e a t i s e could be Ad musicam pvacticam intvoductio (Nuremberg, 1550), but more l i k e l y his Compendiolum musicae pro in-cipientibus (Braunschweig, Nurem-berg, and Frankfurt, 1548) which went through an extraordinary num-ber of t r a n s l a t i o n s and revisions throughout the second h a l f of the 16th and f i r s t h a l f of the 17th centuries. This compendium was f i r s t translated into German i n 1572, so the book was a v a i l a b l e i n both German and L a t i n at the time o f t h i s inventory. The term " l a t . " i n t h i s entry, then, could merely explain which of the two versions was i n stock. 6 C r u s i i Musica Noribg. J o h a n n Crusius' Isagoge ad avtem musicam (Nuremberg, 1592). The importance of more prosaic music l i t e r a t u r e i n the early 1600s, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the place and date of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , can be r e a d i l y seen i n t h i s inventory. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of such materials can be more f u l l y understood when one considers that t h i s inventory represents the holdings of one book dealer of apparently modest means i n one of the ma-Eiederlander und das deutsche Lied (1400-1640) (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1967), pp. 317 and 381; G. M i i l l e r , Geschichte des deutschen Liedes (Munich: Drei Masken Verlag, 1925), pp. 21-24. Rauhe's d i s s e r t a t i o n i s extremely valuable for i t s r h e t o r i c a l analyses of Schein's poetry. 63. Wustmann, op. c i t . , pp. 170-71. j o r publishing and trade centres of Europe. Which t h e o r e t i c a l books Schein had f a m i l i a r i z e d himself with i t i s impossible to say, but i t may be assumed that he was acquainted with the contents of some them. Schein completed h i s u n i v e r s i t y studies i n 1612 and s h o r t l y there-a f t e r received an o f f e r of employment from G o t t f r i e d von Wolffersdorf, the Hauptmann at Schloss Weissenfels. G o t t f r i e d , too, had been a stu-dent at Pforta (1598-1604) and a fellow classmate of Schein. Schein ac-cepted G o t t f r i e d ' s i n v i t a t i o n to become "preceptor for h i s young gentry 64 and the d i r e c t o r of domestic music." It was during t h i s time at Weissen-f e l s that Schein met and became fa s t friends with Samuel Scheldt and Heinrich Schutz, sh o r t l y a f t e r Schutz's return to Germany from h i s stu-dies i n I t a l y with Giovanni G a b r i e l i . Two years a f t e r Schein began his work at Weissenfels, he accepted the p o s i t i o n of Hofkapellmeistev to Herzog Johann Ernst der Junge i n Weimar on May 21, 1615. Schein's tenure here, however, was shorter s t i l l , for he l e f t Weimar on August 19, 1616 to replace Seth C a l v i s i u s , who had died on November 24 of the previous year, as the cantor at the Thomaskirche i n L e i p z i g . Schein assumed the p o s i t i o n of Thomaskantor o f f i c i a l l y on August 31, 1616. Because more i s known abouf..the o f f i c e of the Thomaskantor, i t i s possible to deduce more about Schein's musical a c t i v i t i e s i n L e i p z i g than i n either Weissenfels or Weimar. His duties as cantor, not unlike h i s predecessors and successors, demanded much more of him than preparing the choirs f or the Sunday Gottesdienst at the Thomaskirche and N i c o l a i k i r c h e . Within the curriculum i t s e l f , the students were a l l o t t e d only four hours 64-. S p i t t a , op. c i t . , p. 28.' "zu seiner jungen Edelleute Praeoeptoren vnd.. .B.a\iszmusik D-Lrectoren. " 38 of music study per week. A l l four l e v e l s of students were assembled on Mondays and Fridays during the noon hour for group singing, while the same hour on Tuesdays and Wednesdays was reserved f or i n s t r u c t i n g the two lower l e v e l s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e of solmization and modern I t a l i a n singing techniques, thus incorporating the new t r e a t i s e s on musica prac-tica and theoretical Of course, a d d i t i o n a l hours would be needed for rehearsing occasional music for performances at weddings, funerals, c i v i c f e s t i v a l s , r a n d other events. These performances provided the sole income for the students and supplemented the cantor's income for h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the performances. Schein also enhanced his salary by re c e i v i n g com-missions to compose s p e c i f i c music for these occasions. The close t i e s between language and music which were evident through-out Schein's early years persisted i n h i s r o l e as Thomaskantor i n L e i p z i g . In a d d i t i o n to the four hours of i n - c l a s s musical i n s t r u c t i o n each week, Schein was obliged to teach ten hours of non-musical subjects to the up-66 per l e v e l students. Schein's teaching schedule i s shown below: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Friday Saturday 6-7 L a t i n Grammar L a t i n Grammar L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e L a t i n Catechism 7-8 German Catechism 12-1 Music Music Music Music 1-2 L a t i n Syntax L a t i n Syntax L a t i n Syntax L a t i n Syntax The s i g n i f i c a n c e of r h e t o r i c i n the above-mentioned courses i s ap-parent. The emphasis on using r h e t o r i c as a v e h i c l e f o r studying l i t e r a -ture has been discussed already. Four hours per week—as much time as was 65. ' Pr i i f e r , op. c i t . , pp. 37-38. 66. Wustmann, op. c i t . , p. 105. 39 spent on music—was given over to the study of L a t i n syntax, arid syntax as a subject of study i s inseparable from studying the art of r h e t o r i c . For instance, Lee A. Sonnino includes i n one of the indices to A Handbook to Sixteenth-Century Rhetoric a t o t a l of twerity-five d i f f e r e n t r h e t o r i c a l 6 7 figures "which vary the normal syntax" of a sentence. Even the classes i n L a t i n grammar, a l b e i t to a le s s e r extent, could be taught with some reference to r h e t o r i c as 'there are a number of r h e t o r i c a l figures which 6 8 s p e c i f i c a l l y " a l t e r the form of grammatical status of a word." Having surveyed the a v a i l a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l texts i n L e i p z i g and the r h e t o r i c a l l y oriented language courses which Schein taught, one must con-side r the musical influences that Schein came under i n the course of h i s a r t i s t i c a l l y f e r t i l e years as Thomaskantor. What music Schein had per-formed i h L e i p z i g n a t u r a l l y says much about' his own personal musical tastes, and consequently about h i s own compositions. Certainly Lutheran hymns and the motets from the Ftoritegium Portense constitute part of t h i s music, but Schein was ah exceptionally progressive musician who strove to keep abreast of the most current musical developments of the day—namely, con-temporary I t a l i a n pefformarice arid composition p r a c t i c e s , the madrigaliah a s s o c i a t i o n of poetry arid music, arid the superimpositiori of the German musica poetica precepts on the more Italiariate p r a c t i c e s . Without having ventured as f a r a f i e l d as his i t i n e r a n t colleague Schutz, Schein neverthe-less succeeded iri becoming a formidably cosmopolitan: composer. He effected t h i s v i c a r i o u s l y by using his authority as Thomaskantor to procure riewly published I t a l i a n music for the Kantorei. On orie occasion, February 14, 67. L. A. Sorininb, A Handbook to Sixteenth-Century Rhetoric (Loridori: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968), pp. 264-65. 68, r. Ibid. , p. 266. 40 1620, an invoice reveals that the church paid out approximately seven-teen Gulden f o r "some foreign canzonas and other musical things, which he [Schein] had ordered from Venice v i a Augsburg."^ 9 I d e a l l y , one would examine the musical contents of the c a n t o r i a l l i b r a r y at the Thomaskirche to ascertain what music was performed under Schein's supervision at Le i p z i g . Unfortunately, owing to the heavy damages suffered by th i s repository i n World War I I , one must r e l y for the most part on the pre-war l i t e r a t u r e dealing with t h i s subject. When a cantor died i n o f f i c e at the Thomasschule, h i s c o l l e c t i o n of music was t r a d i t i o n a l l y sold by h i s widow to the town co u n c i l , which i n turn donated the music to the church f o r further use by the succeeding cantor. 7^ An inventory l i s t of the c a n t o r i a l l i b r a r y was compiled i n 1679 by Johann Schelle, who succeeded Sebastian Knlipfer as Thomaskantor i n 1677, and from t h i s compilation can be seen the t i t l e s of some of the works which would have been used by Schein. Though the complete absence of repre-sentative works by C a l v i s i u s i s indeed perplexing, works by such i n f l u e n -t i a l composers as Lasso, Handel (G a l l u s ) , Hassler, Praetorius, Scheldt, Schutz, Le Maistre, A. Scandello, de Monte, Gasto l d i , G. G a b r i e l i , and 71 Marenzio suggest several s t y l e s which Schein may have known. The degree to which Schein synthesized the s t y l e s of the I t a l i a n madrigalists and composers of motets i s t e s t i f i e d by P r i n t z i n the l a s t decade of the 17th century when he states that "he [Scheiri] was e s p e c i a l l y excellent i n the 69. Wustmann, op. c i t . , p. 113. " . . . e t z l i c h e frembte canzones und andere musikalische Sachen, die er von Venedig uber Augspurg bestelleri lassen." 70. A. Schering, "Die a l t e Chorbibliothek der Thomasschule i n L e i p z i g , " Arahiv fuv Musikwissenschaft 1 (1918-19): 276. 71. Ibid., pp. 277-78. 41 Stylo Madrigalesoo i n which he was by no means i n f e r i o r to any I t a l i a n 72 much less to any other [composer]." Schein, as a poet and musician, understood f u l l y the communicative and expressive powers of music and verse. Moreover, he understood that the melding together of music and poetry could produce a h o l i s t i c art form, a e s t h e t i c a l l y superior to e i t h e r of i t s component parts. The im-press of the I t a l i a n madrigal s t y l e upon Schein's own musical s t y l e , which i t s e l f had grown out of the m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l motet t r a d i t i o n of the nor-thern countries, sharpened Schein's awareness of music as a language—a language complete with grammar, syntax and r h e t o r i c . 72. W. C. P r i n t z , Historisohe Beschreibung der edlen Sing- und Kling-kunst (Dresden, 1690), p. 136. "Er ist'aber vornemlich f u r t r e f f l i c h ge-wesen i n dem Stylo Madrigalesoo, i n welchem er keinem I t a l i e n e r / v i e l -wehiger einem andern etwas nachgeben durfferi." CHAPTER III MUSICAL-RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF SCHEIN'S SPIRITUAL MADRIGALS Johann Hermann Schein was at the peak of his musical career i n L e i p z i g when the twenty-six s p i r i t u a l madrigals of the Israelsbrunnlein were published c o l l e c t i v e l y on January 1, 1623. Appearing two years a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Part I of the Musica boscaveccia ( L e i p z i g , 1621) and one year before the p u b l i c a t i o n of the secular madrigals of his Diletti pastovali ( L e i p z i g , 1624), the music of the s p i r i t u a l madrigals i s c l e a r l y imbued with the I t a l i a n s t y l e . F i r s t , the poetic t i t l e of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of madrigals i s given i n I t a l i a n (Fontana d'Israel) as well as i n German (Israelsbrunnlein),^ j u s t as Schein had done with the c o l l e c t i o n s which immediately preceded and succeeded the Israelsbrunnlein—Musica boscarec-^ cia/Wald-Liederlein and Diletti pastorali/Eirten Lust, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Sec-ondly, the use of the General Bass i n the Israelsbrunnlein—it i s a c t u a l l y a basso seguente which i s employed i n these c o m p o s i t i o n s — i s a r e l a t i v e l y 1- FONTANA D'ISRAEL / ISRAELS BRUNLEIN / Auserlesener Krafft-Spruch-l i n / Altes vnd Newen Testaments / Von 5. vnd 6. Stimmen sambt"/ dem General Bass, / auf eine sonderbar Anmutige Italian Madrigalische Man-i e r , / Sowol fiir s i c h a l l e i n mit lebendiger Stim, / vnd Instrumenten / Als auch i n die Orgel, Clavicimbel bequemlich zugebrauchen, / Mit f l e i s s Componirt / Von / Johan Hermano Schein Grunhain, D i r e c t o r i Musici Chori i n L e i p z i g . / Mit Churf. Sachss. Privilegio / Vnd i n Verlegung des Autovis ANNO M.DC.XIII. / 42 43 early a p p l i c a t i o n of the I t a l i a n continuo p r a c t i c e i n German music and one which Schein had been using as early as 1617 i n the instrumental suites 2 of the Banchetto musioale. T h i r d l y , Schein states that the music of the Israelsbrunnlein was written " i n a s i n g u l a r l y charming I t a l i a n madrigalian s t y l e . " 3 Though the music of the Isvaelsbrunnlein'ts heavily influenced by the secular I t a l i a n madrigal and the sacred motet' of the Netherlands, the texts of a l l of these compositions are German. The texts for two of the mad-r i g a l s , "Ach Herr, ach meiner schone" and "0, Herr Jesu C h r i s t e , " are'poems believed to have been written by Schein. The source of the remaining twenty-four madrigal texts, as suggested by the poetic t i t l e of the c o l -l e c t i o n , i s the German Bible—twenty-three from the Old Testament and only one from the New Testament. Of those s p i r i t u a l madrigals based on b i b l i c a l passages from the Old Testament, eleven of them—almost h a l f — are settings of Psalm verses. The preponderance of Psalm verses i n Schein's s p i r i t u a l madrigals i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to the present study, not so much for the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Ps'alm verses i n the Lutheran Gottesdienst ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the i n t r o i t 2. P r i o r to the acceptance of the I t a l i a n basso continuo i n Germany, German organists had already developed a very e f f i c i e n t keyboard t a b l a -ture. With changing perceptions of harmonic structures i n early 17th-century Germany, the v e r t i c a l l y conceived basso continuo began to re-place the Germans' l i n e a r l y conceived keyboard tablature. In point-of Isvaelsbvunnlein, one can see from the t i t l e of the work that Schein s t i l l presumed that some organists would want to perform these madrigals from tablature rather than r e a l i z i n g the figure bass. See fn. 1. 3. - Compare fn. 1. "auf eine sonderbar Anmutige Italian Madrigalische Manier." 44 a n d g r a d u a l ) , r a t h e r b e c a u s e t h e P s a l m v e r s e s a r e o f a h i g h l y p o e t i c , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y r h e t o r i c a l , n a t u r e . T h e P s a l m s o f D a v i d w e r e o r i g i n a l l y s e t - t o m u s i c a n d t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w o u l d s u g g e s t f u r t h e r m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s . I n t h e L u t h e r t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e B i b l e , some o f t h e P s a l m s — N o s . 4 , 5 a n d 6 , f o r e x a m p l e — h a v e o n e m o r e v e r s e t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g P s a l m i n t h e K i n g . J a m e s V e r s i o n o f t h e B i b l e , t h e a d d i t i o n a l f i r s t v e r s e b e i n g a h a c t u a l : :: r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m u s i c . E v e n L i p p i u s r e f e r s t o t h e o n e h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y P s a l m s o f D a v i d a n d o t h e r b i b l i c a l v e r s e s w h e n h e w r i t e s a b o u t w h a t " t h e H o l y S p i r i t h a s . . . t o s a y [ c o n c e r n i n g m u s i c ] i n t h e H o l y B o o k " i n h i s Synopsis musicae novae.^ J u s t a s t h e p o e t r y o f t h e P s a l m s w a s o f m u s i c a l i n t e r e s t t o t h e m u -s i c i a n , i t w a s o f r h e t o r i c a l - i n t e r e s t t o t h e r h e t o r i c i a n . T h e d i d a c t i c v a l u e o f b i b l i c a l v e r s e t o t h e 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y r h e t o r i c i a n h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d t o s o m e e x t e n t i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , a n d t h e P s a l m v e r s e s w e r e l i k e w i s e u s e d a s m o d e l s o f p o e t i c e x c e l l e n c e . One s u c h e x a m p l e c a n b e s e e n i n J o h a n n M a t t h e u s M e y f a r t ' s Teutsche. Rhetorica ( C o b u r g , 1 6 3 4 ) , a t e x t b o o k b y o n e o f S c h e i n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h G e r m a n r h e t o r i c . M e y f a r t d e f i n e s t h e r h e t o r i c a l t e r m anadiplosis a s a f i g u r e " i n w h i c h t h e l a s t w o r d o r p a r t o f t h e p r e v i o u s p a s s a g e b e c o m e s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f o l -5 6 • l o w i n g p a s s a g e , " and£quotes.?Psalm 1 2 2 : 2 - 3 t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : 4 . J . L i p p i u s , Synopsis of New Music (Synopsis Musicae Novae), t r a n s -l a t e d b y B e n i t o V . R i v e r a ( C o l o r a d o S p r i n g s : C o l o r a d o C o l l e g e M u s i c P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 5 7 - 5 8 . 5 . - j . M . M e y f a r t , Teutsche Rhetorica ( C o b u r g , 1 6 3 4 ) , p . 2 5 6 . " i n w e l c h e r d a s l e t z t e W o r t o d e r T h e i l d e s s v o r i g e n A u s s p r u c h s w i r d d e r A n -f a n g d e s s f o l g e n d e n A u s s p r u c h s . " 6 . . I b i d . , p . 2 5 7 . " U n s e r e F l i s s e w e r d e n s t e h e n i n d e i n e n T h o r e n J e r u s a l e m : J e r u s a l e m i s t g e b a w e t d a s e i n e S t a d t s e y / d a man z u s a m m e n kommen s o l . " 45 2 Now we stand within your gates, 0 Jerusalem: 3 Jerusalem that i s b u i l t to be a c i t y where people come together i n unity; Turning now to the compositions of the IsraeXsbrunrileih themselves, i t w i l l be possible to see the mus i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures as decorative and coalescent elements. That i s to say that the Figuren from the tr e a -t i s e s of the l a t e 16th and early 17th centuries could function i n a purely musical sense independent of the l i t e r a r y content, or the musical-rhe-t o r i c a l figures could r e f l e c t and simulate musically the a f f e c t and rhet-o r i c / o f the text. The f i r s t of the two sample pieces to be examined in.:,, t h i s study i s "Die mit Tranen saen," a s e t t i n g of Psalm 126:5-6: 7 5 Die mit Tranen saen, werden mit Freuden erriteri. 6 Sie gehen hin und weirien' und tragen edlen Samen und kommen mit Freuden uhd bririgen ihre Garben. In s e t t i n g these two s c r i p t u r a l verses to music, Schein had to f o r -mulate a musical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e found immediately in' Verse 5. This maxim constitutes a c l a s s i c example of the r h e t o r i c a l antithesis. Antitheton [ s i c ] i s defined by Meyfart i n Teutsche Rhetorica as a figu r e whereby "the orator uses contrasting things against each other 8 i n his speeches." Here, the d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed elements of t h i s f i g -ure are Tranen (tears) and Freuden ( j o y ) , and the verbs saen (to sow) and ernten (to reap). Given these two examples of antithesis i n Verse 5, 7: 5 They that sow with tears s h a l l reap i n joy. 6 He that goeth f o r t h and weepeth, bearing precious seed, s h a l l doubtless come again with r e j o i c i n g , bringing his sheaves with him. 8...* Meyfart, op. c i t . , p. 300. "...der Redener i n seinen Spruchen widersetzliche Dingen gegen einander brauchet." 46 one must also consider i n t h i s composition, as Schein c e r t a i n l y d id, what 9 may be thought of as an a f f e c t i v e antithesis. The antecedent clause pre-sents an a f f e c t of sorrow ( t r i s t i t i a ) and i s countered by a contrasting a f f e c t of joy (laetitia) i n the consequent clause of t h i s a p h o r i s t i c Psalm 10 verse. Schein begins the exposition of t h i s f i v e - v o i c e s p i r i t u a l madrigal i m i t a t i v e l y , employing the purely musical fuga realis (Example,' 1)." This -f i g u r e , one of the few which has no l i t e r a r y c o r r e l a t i o n , i s common i n Renaissance and Baroque motet and madrigal composition, and serves the purpose of providing a sense of formal structure and expository c l a r i t y . More c l o s e l y related to the text and to the corresponding a f f e c t i s the highly chromatic character of the melodic l i n e s . Extensiveimelodic move-ment by semitone was what Burmeister and h i s contemporaries c a l l e d patho-poeia and was applied i n music compositions to bring out the appropriate a f f e c t (Example 1). The c o r r e l a t i o n of pathqpoeia i n music and oratory .-can be seen i n Richard Sherry's d e f i n i t i o n of the term i n his 16th-century r h e t o r i c a l text, A treatise of Schemes and Tropes... Gathered out of the Best Grammarians and Oratours (London, 1550) Dionysis or i n t e n t i o n or imagination whereby fear, anger, madness, hatred, envy and l i k e other perturbations of mind i s showed and de-scribed, and oiotros or commiserations whereby. . .pity i s moved, or forgiveness. 9... See S. C a l v i s i u s , Melopoeia seu melodiae aandendae ratio ( E r f u r t , 1592) , Ch. XVIII. 10.. M. C. Weissenborn, Grundliohe Einleitung zur teutsahen und latein-isohen Oratorie (n.p., 1713), p. 236. Cited from H. Unger, Die Bezieh-ungen zwisahen Musik und Rhetorik im 16.-18. Jahrhundert (Wurzburg: K. T r i l t s c h , 1941), pp. 101-102. In addition to t r i s t i t i a and laetitia, Weissenborn l i s t s nineteen other d i s t i n c t a f f e c t s . 47 Owing to the chromatic nature of the melody and consequently con-t r i b u t i n g to the p r e v a i l i n g a f f e c t of lamentation are the numerous d i s -sonances on weak beats (symblema) created by passing tones and disso-nances on strong beats (syncope) effected by suspensions and appogiaturas (Example l ) • Example 1. Schein, Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 1-7. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Re-printed by permission. p Fuga r e a l i s to measure 12 Cantus I 11. Cited from L. A. Sonnino, A Handbook to Sixteenth-Century Rhetoric (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968), p. 107. 4 8 An e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t i v e and musically e f f e c t i v e m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figure i s employed by Schein i n the Tenor at measures 9-10 (Example 2). Example 2. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 8-12. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag,-.Kassel and[Basel. Re-printed by permission. The fragmentation of "mit Tranen" i s a very appropriate r h e t o r i c a l treatment of the text i n i t s suggestion of sobbing, and constitutes i n musical r h e t o r i c what Athanasius Kircher would l a t e r c a l l suspiratio i n his Itusurgia universalis (Rome, 1650). The r h e t o r i c i a n s , however, would probably have subsumed such a fig u r e under tmesis , hypotyposis or aposio-pesis. Tmesis (disseatio) would l a t e r take on clear musical-rhetorical s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the 18th-century t r e a t i s e s of Mauritius Vogt and Meinhard 12 Spiess, while both hypotyposis and aposiopesis have musical-rhetorical counterparts i n Burmeister 1s t r e a t i s e s of the early 17th century. The Ciceronian author of Rhetorica ad Herennium defines hypotyposis as a f i g -ure which "so explains things with words that we apprehend them as though 12. See Unger, op. c i t . , p. 72. 49 13 before oure eyes." By modifying t h i s b a s i c a l l y v i s u a l concept into an aural abstraction, one sees that Schein explains the text with music i n order that the l i s t e n e r can perceive the essence of the text with the added intimation of realism. In th i s instance, then, Schein can be seen to have superceded the boundaries of mere madrigalian word painting, p a r a l l e l i n g with estimable proximity the r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e of oratory. The second of the two above-mentioned figures i n Burmeister's t r e a t i s e s i s also deserv-ing of comment here. Because of the rests i n th i s melodic fragment, the treatment of "mit Tranen" at th i s point could be categorized as one of the aposiopetic f i g u r e s . Aposiopesis i s defined by Meyfart as "a figure 14 of s i l e n c e " and applies to, among other human conditions, s i t u a t i o n s of g r i e f , s u f f e r i n g or pain."*"5 The a p p l i c a t i o n of the pausal figure i n re-l a t i o n to t h i s text reinforces the expression of the desired a f f e c t of thi s lachyrmose part of the Psalm verse i n that i t simulates so c l o s e l y the e f f e c t of sobbing. The mu s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figure of a m p l i f i c a t i o n , congeries, i s em-ployed several times by Schein i n the f i r s t twelve measures of t h i s com-p o s i t i o n , as can be r e a d i l y seen by the al t e r n a t i n g 5's and 6's i n the numeri of the basso continuo (Example 2). Schein's a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f i g u r e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the use of congeries i n verbal r h e t o r i c . The o r a t o r i c a l congeries i s defined by J u l i u s Caesar Scaliger i n h i s Poetices tibri septem (Lyons, 1561) as a figu r e which "heaps things up i n order to 13. Cited from Sonnino, op. c i t . , p. 70. 14. Meyfart, op. c i t . , p. 366. "ein Schweigfigur." 15., Ibid. 50 i n c i t e a c t i o n . " " ^ In Schein's s p i r i t u a l madrigal, the "action" i n c i t e d by the ascending succession of a l t e r n a t i n g root- and f i r s t - i n v e r s i o n t r i -ads i s , i n f a c t , the following a n t i t h e t i c a l phrase of the text. The response to Schein's musical treatment of the opening text i s a v i r t u a l l y complete musical antithesis required by the text. The euphoric antithesis i s accomplished through the implementation of several opposing musical, juxtapositions which do not bear the labels of s p e c i f i c r h e t o r i c a l figures but which do function r h e t o r i c a l l y nevertheless. For instance, the rhythmic ambiguity of the melodic l i n e s , as they progress both inde-pendently and i n t e g r a l l y , of the opening phrase i s contrasted by the w e l l -defined rhythms of the second phrase. The angularity of the rhythms i n measures 12 to 17 serve a double purpose i n t h i s composition i n that these recurring rhythmic patterns are hypotypotic i n t h e i r dance-like represen-t a t i o n of the text. One need only look at the allemandes of the i n s t r u -mental suites i n Schein's Banohetto musicale to see the strong influence of the secular dance i n t h i s sacred work. Accompanying t h i s marked i n -crease of rhythmic v i t a l i t y i s an oppositive change to a s y l l a b i c s e t t i n g of the text from the melismatic s e t t i n g of the opening text. At variance with each other, too, are the chromatic and diatonic melodies used i n t h i s Psalm verse and t h e i r respective harmonic impact on the two contrasting sections of polyphony and homophony. Operating within the music of the second phrase of the text are sev-e r a l i d e n t i f i a b l e m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures which maintain the balance of t h i s p a r a l l e l structure. The j u b i l a n t nature of the text at t h i s point i s 17. Cited from Sonnino, op. c i t . , p. 57. 51 s i g n a l l e d musically by Schein through the a p p l i c a t i o n of the musical-r h e t o r i c a l exolamatio effected by the octave leaps i n the various voice parts (Example 3). According' to Cicero, exolamatio i s said to occur i n oratory when one utters "exclamations of admiration or g r i e f . T h e use of the large i n t e r v a l l i c leap i n the musical-rhetorical exolamatio i n Schein's work corresponds c l o s e l y to one of the sub d i v i s i o n a l figures of o r a t o r i c a l exolamatio i n Meyfart's Teutsche Rhetorica. The ostentatious leap at the beginning of t h i s musical section functions r h e t o r i c a l l y i n much the same manner as Meyfart's "Vor-Ruff" i n which "the orator raises 18 his voice with a sharp dictum before he broaches the issue." Schein i s obviously making use of t h i s emphatic gesture to indic a t e and confirm the t o t a l i t y of the antithesis at the moment of the textual change. Example 3. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 12-17. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Re-printed by permission. 52 Climax i s another figure incorporated by Schein i n t h i s section. (Example 3.) In oratory, climax i s seen by Meyfart as a figu r e of repe-19 t i t i o n , being "nothing other than a twofold or threefold anadiplosis." An example of climax quoted i n Teutsche Rhetorica w i l l help c l a r i f y what appears i n i t i a l l y to be a tenuous r e l a t i o n s h i p between Meyfart's d e f i n i t i o n of climax and that of Burmeister's m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e of the same name. In addition to examples given by Cicero, V i r g i l and P o l i t i c u s , -20 Meyfart quotes St. Paul from Romans 5:3-5: 3 And not only so, but we glory i n t r i b u l a t i o n s a l s o : knowing that":-t r i b u l a t i o n worketh patience; 4 And patience, experience; and experience, hope: 5 And hope maketh not ashamed because the love of God i s shed abroad i n our hearts by the Holy Ghost which i s given unto us. Apart from seeing the concatenation of anadiplosis figures i n t h i s s c r i p t u r a l quotation, one can also see the etymological importance of the r h e t o r i c a l l a b e l climax, which i s simply the Greek term for "ladder." The gradational progression i n th i s verse i s the increasing importance of the words from " s u f f e r i n g " to "hope." I t i s t h i s aspect of climax that com-pares most c l o s e l y to Burmeister's m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l climax... As a figu r e of a m p l i f i c a t i o n , Burmeister's climax denotes a melodic r e p e t i t i o n on the 17. Cited from Sonnino, op. c i t . , p. 57. 18;. Meyfart, op. c i t . , p. 355. "wann der Redener seine Stimme mit einem scharffen Spruch erhebet, ehe er die Sach...angreiffet." 19. I b i d . , p. 268. "Climax i s nichts anders / a l s eine zwey oder dreyfache Anadiplosis / wenn nemlich der Redener das Endewort dess vorgehenden Ausspruchs offemahls nimmet / und setzet es zu Anfang dess folgenden Ausspruchs." .20.; . Ibid. , p. 274. "Wir wissen das Trubsaal Gedult bringet. Gedult aber bringet Erfahrung / Erfahrung aber bringet Hoffnung. Hoffnung aber le s s e t nicht zuschanden werden." 53 next highest degree of the scale, but Brandes observes that Burmeister, i n p r a c t i c e , also allows for the r e p e t i t i o n occurring on other degrees of :. 21 the scale. In any event, the r e p e t i t i o n of the melodic fragment i n the Bassus on a higher scale degree does indeed achieve an e f f e c t of a m p l i f i -cation. Of lesser import, appearing concurrently with the r e p e t i t i v e climax j u s t mentioned, i s another example of climax a f t e r Nucius' anoma-l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the-.'figure .(Example 3) . • A m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e i n th i s section, a l b e i t one which would not be given a r h e t o r i c a l a p p e l l a t i o n u n t i l Johann Adolph Scheibe did so i n Critischer Musicus, i s paronomasia, which i s applied i n the part of . Cantus I (Example 3). A' s p e c i f i c substype of paronomasia in-verbal rhet-o r i c , derivatio, i s defined by Meyfart as being that f i g u r e which r e s u l t s 2 "when one sets together such words of which one derives from the other..." 23 "Last night I dreamed a wonderful...dream" i s the example used to i l l u s -t r a t e t h i s f i g u r e given by Meyfart i n which "dreamed" and "dream" are the root-rela t e d words. The musical analogy of t h i s f i g u r e i n Schein's com-p o s i t i o n i s e a s i l y recognized by comparing the two l i k e melodic fragments with each other. In the case of Cantus I i n measures 12 to 17, the melodic r e p e t i t i o n beginning i n measure 14 appears at f i r s t to be i d e n t i c a l to the i n i t i a l melodic statement. Halfway through measure 15, however, the melo-dy deviates somewhat from the o r i g i n a l , thus bearing a close resemblance 21. H. Brandes, Studien zur musikalischen Figurenlehre im 16. Jahr-hundert ( B e r l i n : T r i l t s c h & Huther, 1935), pp.* 17-18. 22. Meyfart, op. c i t . , p. 326. "...wenn man zusamen setzet solche Worter / derer eins von dem andern herruhret..." 23. Ibi d . "In der vorigen Nacht hat mir ein Wunderbahrer...Traum ge-treumet..." 54 t o t h e paronomasia f i g u r e o f c l a s s i c a l and R e n a i s s a n c e o r a t o r y . • Example 4. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 18-21. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Re-printed by permission. B e f i t t i n g the text and of preparatory value for the cadence appearing i n measure 22 i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of another pleonasmus which begins i n measure 19 (Example 4 ) . . The dissonant implications of the pleonasmus with the words- "und weinen" serve as an apt expression of pathos, accu-r a t e l y communicating the a f f e c t i v e content of the text. A d d i t i o n a l em-phasis i s placed on the text through the use of a f i g u r e of r e p e t i t i o n , palillogia, i n the Bassus. (Example 4 ) . Deserving of" consideration at t h i s point, too, i s the apparently conscious imposition of i n t e r v a l l i c re-s t r i c t i o n s upon the i n d i v i d u a l melodic l i n e s . Despite the f a c t that t h i s r e l a t i v e l y high concentration of semitonic movement i n measures 19 to 22 i s not s t r i c t l y adherent to the early 17th-century d e f i n i t i o n of musical-r h e t o r i c a l pathopoeia, the pathopoeic nature of the melodies i n the d i s -parate voice parts undoubtedly reinforces the a f f e c t of pathos connoted by the text (Example 4 ) . " 55 The following musical material for the next part of the text, meas-ures 22 to 26, i s melodically r e l a t e d to the preceding section. The p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e i s repetitio, and i t pervades these f i v e measures i n a com- : bi n a t i o n of musical and textual reiteration,(Example 5). Incorporated within the larger f a b r i c of r e p e t i t i o n and free i m i t a t i o n are two other d i s c e r n i b l e , m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s . Climax, according to Nucius' d e f i n i t i o n , can be seen between the Bassus and Cantus II, and again be-tween the Bassus and Tenor (Example 5). The second f i g u r e , though on a diminutive scale, i s the inversion of the main melodic fragment, moving c o n t r a r i l y and suggesting Burmeister's hypallage (Example 5). Example 5. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 22-26. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel . Re-printed by permission. 56 The music of the next section of the Psalm verse, "und kommen mit Freuden," stands once again i n contrast to the previous text, and Schein, as he had done with the opening s c r i p t u r a l verse, expresses the text i n a musical antithesis. In much the same fashion that Schein had set the text "werden mit Freuden ernten" (meas. 12-17) to the rhythmic motives of a duple-meter allemande, he sets the numerous textual r e p e t i t i o n s of "und kommen mit Freuden" i n an animated t r i p l e meter, very much l i k e the Sprungk or Naehtanz of the day. The s y l l a b i c and homophonic music at t h i s place i n Schein's s p i r i t u a l madrigal i s an example of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l noema, a homophonic section framed by preceding and succeeding sections of poly-phony (Example 6).- Because of the s y l l a b i c s e t t i n g of the text i n meas-ures 26 to 32, the words are immediately comprehensible which, when com-pared to the somewhat obscured text i n the previous section, can a c t u a l l y be perceived as an o r a t o r i c a l noema. Example 6. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 26-32. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Re-printed by permission.. 57 D i r e c t l y a f t e r the noema f i g u r e of measures 26 to 32, Schein applies another homophonic fig u r e l a b e l l e d mimesis by Burmeister (Example 7). Q u i n t i l i a n defines the o r a t o r i c a l mimesis as "the imi t a t i o n of other per-24 son's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . w h i c h serves to excite the gentler emotions," and h i s d e f i n i t i o n of the figu r e does bear quite a close resemblance to the figur e used by Schein. Similar to Q u i n t i l i a n ' s d e f i n i t i o n , Schein's a p p l i -cation of mimesis i n measures 32 to 38 imitates v i r t u a l l y a l l of the musi-c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the foregoing seven measures, d i f f e r i n g fundamental-l y only at the cadential point. Because measures 32 to 38 are written an octave lower than the noema i n measures 26 to 32, the r e s u l t i s an e f f e c t of i m i t a t i o n rather than one of pure r e p e t i t i o n . The l a s t musical-rhe-t o r i c a l f i g u r e to be used i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s portion of the text i s aux-esis (Example 8). The or a t o r i c a l • auxesis, according to Q u i n t i l i a n , , i s a f i g u r e of a m p l i f i c a t i o n and "...may be effected by one step or several and may be ca r r i e d not merely to the highest degree but even beyond i t . . . i n a continuous and unbroken seri e s i n which each word i s stronger than 25 the l a s t . 1 Burmeister brings t h i s about musically e i t h e r by employing an ascending sequence or, as Schein has done, by increasing the number of p a r t i c i p a t i n g voice parts of a noema f i g u r e . 24: Cited from Sonnino, op. c i t . , p. 109. 25. Ibid,, p. 111. 58 Example 7. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 32-38. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Re-printed by permission. Example 8. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 38-44. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Re-printed by permission. In the concluding section of the piece (meas. 44-54), Schein incor-porates a r e l a t i v e l y large number of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures and inten-s i f i e s the musical discourse further s t i l l by applying some of these f i g -ures simultaneously. Continuing throughout most of t h i s f i n a l section are the extended sequential chains of syncope figures (Example 9).-,0c-. curring with each syncopic ser i e s of suspensions are further examples of 59 Example 9. Schein: Israelsbvunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 44-51. Copyright 1963 by B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , K a s s e l and Basel. Re-p r i n t e d by permission. 45 Repetitio 60 i m i t a t i v e repetitio (Example 9). A d d i t i o n a l decorative figures can be found within the more s t r u c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t suspensions and imitations which predominate i n t h i s section. The pause which appears i n measure 46 allows each voice part to r e a r t i c u l a t e the r e p e t i t i o n of the textual phrase, and though the pause lacks the r h e t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both the caesural abruptio and the more reposeful aposiopesis, i t paradoxically seems to surpass i t s otherwise grammatical r o l e of musical punctuation i n that i t accentuates the two immediately following cases of hyperbole i n Cantus I and Cantus II (Example 9). The use of the hyperbole f i g u r e i s ; -s i g n a l l e d by the extremely high notes i n the two upper voice parts i n measures 45 and 46. This grandiose gesture i s complimented by a second hyperbolic exaggeration of the i n t e r v a l l i c distance between the sopranos' pitches on either side of the pausal f i g u r e . Such demands upon the singer were highly unusual for choral composition i n the early Baroque period. It would almost seem that Schein's a p p l i c a t i o n of these two co i n c i d e n t a l hyperbole figures was made with the awareness of Q u i n t i l i a n ' s statement 26 that "one hyperbole may be heightened by the addition of another." A true mu s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l aposiopesis i s implemented by Schein im-mediately following the penultimate cadence at measure 51 (Example 10). The r h e t o r i c a l pause of oratory, according to Q u i n t i l i a n , i s "used to i n -dicate passion or anger...or to give an impression of anxiety or scruple... 27 or as a means of t r a n s i t i o n to another t o p i c . " In Schein's composition— indeed, i n most motet compositions of t h i s t y p e — t h e aposiopesis serves a 26.. Ibid., p. 68. 27. I b i d . , p. 142. 61 preparatory purpose i n that the s i l e n c e causes the attention of the l i s -tener to be focused on the subsequent musical material. The aposiopesis at t h i s point of the piece, then, does engender i n the l i s t e n e r a degree of anxiety f or what i s to follow and serves the t r a n s i t i o n a l purpose out-l i n e d i n Q u i n t i l i a n ' s d e f i n i t i o n by i t s preparation of the conclusion of the work. The l a s t statement of the text i s presented c l e a r l y as a noema f i g u r e , and the s p i r i t u a l madrigal concludes with a highly decorative de-nouement—the supptementum- (Example 10). Example 10. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Die mit Tranen saen, measures 51-54. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Re-printed by permission. T h e s e c o n d s a m p l e c o m p o s i t i o n t o b e e x a m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s " S i e h e , 28 n a c h T r o s t w a r m i r s e h r b a n g e , " a s e t t i n g o f I s a i a h 3 8 : 1 7 - 1 9 a : 17 S i e h e um T r o s t w a r m i r s e h r b a n g e . D u a b e r h a s t d i c h m e i n e r S e e l e h e r z l i c h a n g e n o m m e n , d a s s s i e n i c h t v e r d i i r b e ; d e n n d u w i r f s t a l l e m e i n e S i i n d e n h i n t e r d i c h z u r i i c k . 18 D e n n d i e H o l l e l o b t d i c h n i c h t ; s o r i i h m t d i c h d e r T o d n i c h t , u n d d i e i n d i e G r u b e f a h r e n , w a r t e n n i c h t a u f d e i n e W a h r h e i t ; 19 S o n d e r n a l l e i n , d i e d a l e b e n , l o b e n d i c h w i e i c h j e t z t t u e . 28. 17 Behold, for peace I had great b i t t e r n e s s : but thou;hast:in love to my soul delivered it from the p i t of corruption: for thou hast cast a l l 62 The presence of such a high proportion of Psalm texts i n the Israels-brunnlein i s evidence that Schein was searching for texts of poetic integ-r i t y . The decorative language, the poetic meters and the balanced poetic phrases would n a t u r a l l y suggest more musical p o s s i b i l i t i e s than would be otherwise found i n the more prosaic b i b l i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A large part of The Book of Isaiah i s written i n prose, but the verses chosen by Schein for t h i s s p i r i t u a l madrigal are taken from a poetic part of the s c r i p t u r e s . The text for "Siehe, nach Trost war mir Sehr bange" constitutes the l a s t part of a poem written by Hezekiah which i s quoted i n f u l l i n Isaiah 38: 10-20. As i n the composition "Die mit Tranen saen," the purely musical fuga realis i s the fi g u r e which pervades the expository section (exordium) of t h i s second sample piece from the Israelsbrunnlein, f u l f i l l i n g , as i t had i n the composition previously examined, a p r i m a r i l y s t r u c t u r a l func^ t i o n . Cantus I and Cantus II, paired together i n a concevtato s t y l e , be-gin t h i s i m i t a t i v e section i n s t r e t t o with each entering voice executing -an exclamatio f i g u r e on the word "Siehe" (Example 11). A comparison of-the musical fi g u r e here with Meyfart's d e f i n i t i o n of the o r a t o r i c a l figure i n Teutsche Rhetorioa i l l u s t r a t e s the appropriateness of applying musical-r h e t o r i c a l exclamatio to t h i s word. Meyfart states that " t h i s figure [ex-clamatio] i s e a s i l y recognized on the words 0, Ach, Sihe [sic]...and the 29 l i k e . " ' my sins behind thy back. 18 For the grave cannot praise thee, death can not celebrate thee: they that go down into the p i t cannot hope for thy truth. 19 The l i v i n g , the l i v i n g , he s h a l l praise thee, as I do t h i s day: 29. Meyfart, op. c i t . , p. 348. "Diese Figur wird l e i c h t l i c h erkennet an 63 Example 11. Schein: IsTaeZsbvunnZein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 1-7. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. -Fuga reatie to measure 17-Cantus The other key word of the exposition to merit m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l con-s i d e r a t i o n from Schein i s "bange." Because "bange" i s denotative of anx-i e t y , Schein approaches the musical treatment of the word accordingly. ':. For instance, the double syncope f i g u r e which appears unexpectedly i n meas-ure 4 (Example 11) reinforces the disquietude conveyed i n the text, as do the hypotypotic transformations of the subject which occur throughout t h i s section. The assertive r e p e t i t i o n s of the text "sehr bange" beginning i n '., den Worten / 0 / Ach / Sihe / wolte Gott / Leyder / Ey / Wehe / und der-gleichen." 64 measure 10 receives further emphasis through the a p p l i c a t i o n of rather agitated palillogia figures seen i n Cantus II (meas. 12-13) and Cantus I (meas. 14-15) p r i o r to the cadential pleonasmus which concludes t h i s fugal exordium (Example 12) . Example 12. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 11-17. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. Following the polyphonic f a b r i c of the f i r s t section, the second part of the text i s set contrastingly as a very declamatory noema with the re-i t e r a t i v e r h e t o r i c a l support of subsequent mimesis (Example 13). The remaining "dass s i e nicht verdurbe" i s set as a pleonasmus f i g u r e to pre-pare the cadence, but at the same time Schein applies m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l anaphora (Example 13). The anaphora of Burmeister's treatises„is de-;.. 65 fined as a fugue i n which the subject does not appear i n a l l voices, while Cicero understood the o r a t o r i c a l anaphora as a fig u r e of r e p e t i t i o n where-by "the same word [from the beginning of one sentencej may be repeated at 30 the beginning of a [different] sentence." Although Burmeister's anaphora seems to be of questionable proximity i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p a r a l l e l f i g u r e of oratory, Schein's a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figure i n h i s s p i r i t u a l madrigal i s a l u c i d enough i l l u s t r a t i o n of Burmeister's anaphora. The b i b l i c a l text of the composition provides a reason for Schein's use of anaphora i n measures 21 to 23. The German verb verderben translates into English as "to s p o i l , " "to r u i n " or "to p e r i s h , " so the connotations of p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n within the text are f i t t i n g l y matched by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the incomplete fugue of mu s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l anaphora. Example 13. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 18-23. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. - Mimesis --Noema 66 The f u l l r e p e t i t i o n of the text "du aber hast dich meiner Seelen h e r z l i c h angenommen" includes fauxbourdon (Example 14), one of Burmeister's mu s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures with no o r a t o r i c a l equivalent but whose h i s -tory harks back to the Burgundian motets of the early 15th century. Schein applies palillogia once again to accomodate the numerous textual r e p e t i -tions of "dass s i e nicht verdiirbe," drawing the m u l t i f o l d r e p e t i t i o n s to-gether through the high degree of i n t e r l o c k i n g i m i t a t i o n (polyptoton) (Example 15). The presence of palillogia i n these p a r t i c u l a r measures i s p r i m a r i l y a consequence of the emphatic textual r e p e t i t i o n s , for the aesthetic bond between the music and the text would have been se r i o u s l y weakened had Schein begun to substitute d i f f e r e n t musical ideas without changing the text as w e l l . Extending from measures 28 to 32 i s an un-derlying climax f i g u r e i n the Bassus which merges with the pleonasmus f i g u r e , both of which serve mainly musical functions; the climax acts as a cohesive element and propels the music towards the cadence, and the pleonasmus f i g u r e emphasizes the importance of the cadence which concludes that musical section (Example 15). Example 14. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 24-26. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. . 30. Cited from Sonnino, op. c i t . , p. 161. 67 Example 15. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 27-33. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. The number of musical and textual r e p e t i t i o n s and the degree of imi-t a t i o n i n measures 26 to 33 are contrasted by the musical representation of the next verse of the b i b l i c a l text. Schein i n i t i a t e s t h i s section with what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l exolamatio i n each of the three p a r t i c i p a t i n g parts at measure 34. The ascending i n t e r v a l s of fourths and sixths with the words of the text "denn du" are suggestive of a s p i r -i t u a l invocation, and the following fauxbourdon treatment of the text acts as an e f f e c t i v e hypotyposis f i g u r e by i t s representation of the casting o f f of s i n (Example 16). Schein retains the.exolamatio f i g u r e oh "denn du" when the text i s fragmented i n measures 35 to 39, but the fauxbourdon gives way to numerous examples of Nucius' repetitio, (Example 16). Though 68 the actual f i g u r e changes at t h i s point, Schein consciously avoids a l t e r i n g the melodic elements to which the text had been o r i g i n a l l y set i n measure 34, thus giving musical v a r i e t y without a f f e c t i n g the bond between the mu-s i c and text. Example 16. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 34-39. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. In measure 40, as i s generally the case i n the s p i r i t u a l madrigals of the Israelsbrunnlein, Schein follows contrapuntal music with the homophony of noema, supplementing t h i s chordal figure with the a d d i t i o n a l musical elements of Burmeister's olimax i n the Bassus i n measures 40 to 41 and with Nucius' olimax i n measures 42 to 43 (Example 17). Suggested him by the text "und i n die Gruben fahren" i n measure 42, Schein depicts the descent 69 musically by implementing hypobole i n which the voices of the Altus are required to sing unusually low (Example 17). Schein interrupts.. the de-clamatory d e l i v e r y of the text i n measure 42 where the Altus ostensibly begins the l a s t part of the text prematurely i n a madrigalian, l i t e r a l i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n of the text "warten nicht" (Example 17). Example 17. Schein: IsraelsbrUnnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 40-44. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. The j u b i l a n t character of the next part of the text i s projected v i a Schein's use of t r i p l e meter. Beginning c l e a r l y as a simple noema f i g u r e , the addition of parts i n measure 46 brings about one form of Burmeister's auxesis (Example 18), while the sequential ascent beginning at measure 51 exemplifies the other d e f i n i t i o n of Burmeister's auxesis (Example 19). The text does not change i n these measures, nor do the basic musical e l e -ments, but through the ad d i t i o n of voices and the use of the ascending se-quential movement, the music does take on the e f f e c t of r h e t o r i c a l a m p l i f i -cation as denoted i n o r a t o r i c a l auxesis. 70 Example 18. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 44-50. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. Example 19. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 51-58. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. "Anxeeie (ascending) The concluding seven measures of t h i s s p i r i t u a l madrigal return to the duple meter with which the work began, but the joyousness of the text demands that the rhythmic v i t a l i t y be sustained, and Schein complies by using the angular, dotted rhythms i n measures 59 to 62 (Example 20). The p r i n c i p a l decorative figures which serve the textual r e p e t i t i o n i n these measures are palillogia and repetitio (Example 20). However, there 71 i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of a pervasive analepsis i n measures 59 to 63. Joannes Susenbrotus, i n h i s Epitome troporum ao sohematum et grammatioorum et rhetorum (Antwerp, 1566), defines analepsis as that fi g u r e which i s used "when a f t e r some words or phrases we repeat the i n i t i a l word or phrase of 31 our speech for c l a r i t y or for some other reason." Just as Brandes ob-served that Burmeister's examples of climax were not dogmatically c o n s i s t -ent with h i s d e f i n i t i o n of the f i g u r e , i t may not be too great a l i b e r t y taken to consider measures 61 to 63 an example of analepsis for i t would be a model i l l u s t r a t i o n of the m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e were i t s l i g h t l y more homophonic. The musical r e p e t i t i o n can c e r t a i n l y be seen to f i t the textual r e i t e r a t i o n at t h i s point, but the a p p l i c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l analepsis can be seen as being premonitory of the conclusion of the work, (Example 20 ) . Also focusing the attention of the l i s t e n e r on the conclusion of the piece i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of aposiopesis i n measure 64 which provides a moment of repose before the s p i r i t u a l madrigal concludes with a b r i e f , homophonic (noema) supplementum (Example 20) . Example 20. Schein: Israelsbrunnlein, Siehe, nach Trost war mir sehr bange, measures 59-65. Copyright 1963 by Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel and Basel. Reprinted by permission. ^^^oPalillogia, Repetitio 60~ 31. I b i d . , p. 163. C O N C L U S I O N S At any given time i n the development of western culture, art has mirrored some aspect of the society responsible f o r the generation of the a r t . While each work of art i s the product of i n d i v i d u a l i n s p i r a -t i o n , the s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l circumstances surrounding the a r t i s t strongly influence a r t i s t i c thought and p r a c t i c e . Whether the a r t i s t consciously or unconsciously acknowledges the ambient s o c i a l conditions, or considers h i s own p o s i t i o n on the path of a developmental t r a d i t i o n , his work must nevertheless manifest, at least to some extent, the pre-v a i l i n g ideologies of the day. From our temporal vantage point, i t i s possible to view with a pl a u s i b l e degree of o b j e c t i v i t y the c o l l e c t i v e a r t of previous centuries, and to gauge the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of s p e c i f i c a r t i s t s , works or schools of s t y l e , as they r e l a t e to each other and as they r e l a t e to the disparate philosophies of h i s t o r y . What remains necessarily u n f u l f i l l e d , though, i s a true empathetic sense of immediacy and contemporaneity with the art of these h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . The numerous Baroque t r e a t i s e s concerned with musica poetica bespeak unequivocally the conscious a p p l i c a t i o n by composers of musi c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures i n t h e i r works, and music, which was i t s e l f understood as a la n -guage, was f e l t at that time to be i n e x t r i c a b l e from those same precepts which were so rigorously applied to speech. The study of c l a s s i c a l rhet-o r i c occupied a key p o s i t i o n i n the educational systems of 17th-century Germany, and the artfulness with which one applied these r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l s 7 3 74 i n oratory and l i t e r a t u r e was very much i n d i c a t i v e of one's s o c i a l b bearing and degree of e d i f i c a t i o n . The study of r h e t o r i c i n t h i s cen-tury, however, pales before the apogean l e v e l s attained by the Humanists between the 16th and 18th centuries. I t seems doubtful, too, that the art of c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c w i l l f i n d the favour i t did i n those centuries. As a r e s u l t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t for us i n t h i s century to comprehend and accept i n musical studies what the polymathic composers of the Baroque period understood so thoroughly and integrated with such mindful f a c i l i t y i n t h e i r works. The a p p l i c a t i o n of m u s i c a l - r h e t o r i c a l figures i n music composition was as much a consideration as the elements of mode, harmony, melody, or rhythm—indeed, these musical elements were often governed by r h e t o r i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s — b u t most of these r h e t o r i c a l elements are now obscured by our 20th-century nescience of the art of oratory. The present study has brought to l i g h t one aspect of musical r h e t o r i c i n the s p i r i t u a l madrigals of Johann Hermann Schein's Isvaetsbrunntein, though the a p p l i c a t i o n of musical r h e t o r i c i s equally i n evidence i n h i s motets and his secular madrigals. Schein's a p p l i c a t i o n of musical-rhe-t o r i c a l figures has been, shown to.be an i n t e g r a l part of his compositions, whether these figures function on a purely s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l i n the music, or as they serve i n t h e i r decorative capacity of h i g h l i g h t i n g c e r t a i n words or phrases, p a r a l l e l i n g musically the r h e t o r i c a l figures found i n the text. It was not without good reason that Schein was so widely ac-claimed as a poet and musician i n his own day, and i t can be seen from t h i s study of his s p i r i t u a l madrigals that Schein's s k i l l i n the musical treatment of the b i b l i c a l texts far exceeds the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of mere word painting. On the contrary, the seamless union between music and 75 text i n the through-composed works of the IsvaeXsbvunrilei-n displays a poetic cohesiveness based on the precepts of a r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n whose foundations had been l a i d centuries e a r l i e r by the orators of Roman and Greek a n t i q u i t y . BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and Articles Adlung, Jacob. Anleitung zu der musikalischen Gelahrtheit. E r f u r t : 1758. Facsimile r e p r i n t edited by Hans Joachim Moser. Kassel and Basel: Barenreiter-Verlag, 1953. Adrio, Adam. Die Anfange des geistlichen Konzerts. B e r l i n : Junker und Diinnhaupt Verlag, 1935. . 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Das monodische Prinzip in der protestantischen Kirchenmusik. Hildesheim: Georg 01ms Verlag, 1975. Boetticher, Wolfgang. "Orlando d i Lasso a l s Demonstrationsobjekt i n der Kompositionslehre des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts." In Bericht uber den 'Internationalen I4usikwissenschaftlichen Kongress Bamberg 1953, edited by W i l f r i e d Brennecke et a l , pp. 124-27. Kassel and Basel: Barenreiter-Verlag, 1954. Brandes, Heinz. Studien zur musikalischen Figurenlehre im 16. Jahrhun-dert. B e r l i n : T r i l t s c h & Huther, 1935. Brauer, Walter. "Jacob Regnart, J . H. Schein und die Anfange der deutschen Barocklyrik." Deutsche Vierteljahrschrift 'fur Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte 17 (1939): 371-404. Buelow, George J. "Music, Rhetoric, and the Concept of the A f f e c t i o n s ; A Selective Bibliography." NOTES 30 (1973): 250-59. "Nucius, Johannes," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musi-cians. Edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. 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" I n Bericht uber den Internationalen I4usikwissenschaftlichen Kongress Bamberg 1953, e d i t e d b y W i l f r i e d B r e n n e c k e e t a l , p p . 1 0 3 - 1 3 . K a s s e l a n d B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1 9 5 4 . . " M u s i k u n d R h e t o r i k . " Helicon 5 ( 1 9 4 4 ) : 6 7 - 8 6 . H a n k a m e r , P a u l . Deutsche Gegenveformation und Deutsches Barock: Die deutsche Literatur im Zeitraum des 17. Jahrhunderts. S t u t t g a r t : J . B . M e t z l e r s c h e V e r l a g s b u c h h a n d l u n g , 1 9 3 5 . H a r t w i g , D i e t e r . " S c a n d e l l o , A n t o n i o , " Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegen-wart. E d i t e d b y F r i e d r i c h B l u m e . K a s s e l a n d B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r -V e r l a g , 1 9 6 3 . ( V o l . 1 1 , c o l s . 1 4 7 2 - 8 0 . ) 8 0 H e r b s t , J o h a n n A n d r e a s . Musica Practica sive Instructio pro Symphoniacis. N u r e m b e r g : 1 6 4 2 . 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