Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Bolshevism and the Chinese revolution : the conceptual origins of the program of the Chinese Communist… Stanley, Timothy John 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1981_A8 S77.pdf [ 9.06MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095524.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095524-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095524-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095524-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095524-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095524-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095524-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095524-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095524.ris

Full Text

( BOLSHEVISM AND THE CHINESE REVOLUTION: THE CONCEPTUAL ORIGINS OF THE PROGRAM OF THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY AT THE TIME OF ITS FIRST CONGRESS, • 1 917-1921 by TIMOTHY JOHN STANLEY B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t r e a l , 1975 A THESIS SU3MITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department of H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1981 ( c ) T i m o t h y John S t a n l e y , 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agr e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f History. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ©ctober. 20,, 1981 DE-fi (2/19) A b s t r a c t T h i s i s a study of the i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i g i n s of the program of the Chinese Communist P a r t y d u r i n g the p e r i o d between the October 1917 B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a and the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y i n the summer of 1921. T h i s study examines the p o s i t i o n s put f o r w a r d i n Gongchandang ("The Communist"), the t h e o r e t i c a l organ of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee of the Chinese Communist P a r t y . A l t h o u g h these p o s i t i o n s were i n f l u e n c e d by L e n i n ' s t h e o r i e s t o some e x t e n t , they were m a i a l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s r e a c t i o n t o the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s and c o n c e p t s of s o c i a l change. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n was seen i n terms of the a n a r c h i s t concept of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . Marx's t h e o r i e s of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m f a i l e d t o a l t e r the fundamental p e r c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y of i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i n c l u d i n g those who c o n s i d e r e d themselves t o be M a r x i s t s . Marx's t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e was seen as e q u i v a l e n t t o the a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e was seen as one among s e v e r a l methods of a c h i e v i n g " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . Nowhere was the i n f l u e n c e of a n a r c h i s m more e v i d e n t than i n c l a s s c o n c e p t s . Anarchism had i d e n t i f i e d the e x i s t e n c e of two c l a s s e s i n C h i n a - - t h e r u l e r s and the r u l e d . The i n f l u e n c e of B o l s h e v i s m and Marxism on c l a s s c o n c e p t s was l i m i t e d t o s u p p l y i n g an economic c o n t e n t t o these a n a r c h i s t c l a s s e s . E s s e n t i a l l y l a n d l o r d s and and c a p i t a l i s t s were seen as the c l a s s t h a t owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n , w h i l e p e a s a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l workers were seen as the c l a s s which d i d not own any i i i means of p r o d u c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y t r a n s l a t i o n s of the terms " p r o l e t a r i a t " and " b o u r g e o i s i e " — "wuchan j i e j i " and "you chan  j i e j i " were u n d e r s t o o d as " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and " p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of c l a s s e s i n t u r n l e d the Chinese Communist P a r t y , a t the time of i t s F i r s t Congress, t o a n a l y s e Chinese s o c i e t y i n terms of the " p r o p e r t i e d " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d " c l a s s e s . Based on t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t deve l o p e d a s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n aimed a t o r g a n i z i n g and r o u s i n g the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the members of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s as a s i n g l e c l a s s , and of workers and peasants as a s i n g l e c l a s s , a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s between peasants and p r o l e t a r i a t , between l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , were not a p p a r e n t , a t l e a s t t o Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s , between 1917 and 1921. i v Table of Co n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i INTRODUCTION 1 1. The Problem Of The E a r l y Communist Movement 1 2. The Sources For T h i s Study 5 3. A Comment On Western H i s t o r i o g r a p h y On 1917-1921 11 CHAPTER I . REVOLUTION: RUSSIA AND CHINA 20 1. R u s s i a : The Concept Of " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " 20 2. C h i n a : The N e c e s s i t y Of " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " 32 CHAPTER I I . MARXISM: IDEAS, PROPERTY AND CLASS STRUGGLE-... 4 5 1. The D e s c r i p t i o n Of Marxism, 1919-1920 45 2. The M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n Of H i s t o r y 50 3. The Theory Of S u r p l u s V a l u e •'. . 57 4. C l a s s e s And C l a s s S t r u g g l e 66 CHAPTER I I I . THE BOURGEOISIE AND THE PROLETARIAT 76 1. The P o l a r i z a t i o n Of S o c i e t y : The Concept Of " C l a s s " .. 76 2. Two Great Camps: The B o u r g e o i s i e And The P r o l e t a r i a t . 85 CHAPTER IV. COMMUNISM: THE GONGCHANDANG PROGRAMME 99 1 . Communism And China 99 2. R e v o l u t i o n And D i c t a t o r s h i p : C r i t i q u e Of Anarchism ...106 3. The A n a l y s i s Of C l a s s e s In Chi n e s e S o c i e t y 114 4. S e i z e P o l i t i c a l Power: The R e v o l u t i o n a r y Road 122 CONCLUSION 131 F o o t n o t e s . .• 136 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y 157 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The Problem of the E a r l y Communist Movement In August 1921, the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y convened i n S h a n g h a i . 1 B e f o r e t h i s Congress c o u l d be c a l l e d , communist o r g a n i z a t i o n s which would serve as the s t r u c t u r a l n u c l e i of the f u t u r e p a r t y had t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the major c i t i e s of C h i n a , and the p a r t y ' s program which mapped out i t s o b j e c t i v e s and the means of t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t had t o be d e f i n e d . In l a r g e p a r t these two t a s k s were a c c o m p l i s h e d under the o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of the p a r t y ' s P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee which had been formed i n Shanghai i n May 1920. 2 The f i r s t t a s k was a c c o m p l i s h e d d u r i n g the summer of 1920. Communist o r g a n i z a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n P e k i n g , Shanghai and o t h e r Chinese c i t i e s , as w e l l as i n Tokyo and P a r i s . 3 As Chow Tse-tsung has s u g g e s t e d , the months between A p r i l 1920 and the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y , i n the summer of 1921 marked "the t r a n s i t i o n t o a c t i o n " f o r those i n t e l l e c t u a l s who embraced communism." The second t a s k was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n the pages of Gongchandang("The Communist"), the t h e o r e t i c a l organ of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee. Gongchandang add r e s s e d two fundamental concerns of the e a r l y communist movement i n C h i n a - -what was communism and c o u l d i t be a c h i e v e d i n China? The second issue--how communist r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d be. a c h i e v e d i n C h i n a — r e q u i r e d the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a p l a u s i b l e s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n which would a t t r a c t members t o the new p a r t y . T h i s s t r a t e g y had t o i d e n t i f y the f r i e n d s and enemies of 2 t h e r e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h c l a s s e s w e r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d w h i c h n o t . G o n g c h a n d a n g a l s o h a d t o d e s c r i b e t h e m e t h o d o f b r i n g i n g a b o u t c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n , a n d t h e means o f a w a k e n i n g t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f p o t e n t i a l l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s . The f i r s t i s s u e — w h a t c o m m u n i s m w a s - - i n v o l v e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c o m m u n i s m f r o m o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y p h i l o s o p h i e s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y f r o m a n a r c h i s m . T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h r e e a r e a s : 1) t h e o b j e c t i v e o f r e v o l u t i o n - - i . e . t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t ; 2 ) t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t r e v o l u t i o n — o n e t h a t m e r e l y s o u g h t p o l i t i c a l p o w e r o r o n e t h a t s o u g h t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s ; a n d 3 ) g i v e n M a r x ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n was t h e i n e v i t a b l e o u t c o m e o f d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a . B u t G o n g c h a n d a n g d e v e l o p e d t h e p r o g r a m o f t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y a t a t i m e when t h e r e was l i m i t e d a c c e s s i n C h i n e s e t o t h e w o r k s o f M a r x a n d L e n i n . 5 A t t h e t i m e o f t h e F i r s t C o n g r e s s , M a r x ' s t h e o r i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m , c l a s s s t r u g g l e a n d c a p i t a l i s m , w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n C h i n e s e o n l y t h r o u g h s e c o n d a r y , e v e n t e r t i a r y , s o u r c e s w h i c h h a d o f t e n b e e n w r i t t e n by t h o s e h o s t i l e t o M a r x i s m . Of M a r x ' s m a j o r w o r k s o n l y h i s c a l l f o r c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n , T h e C o m m u n i s t M a n i f e s t o , h a d b e e n p u b l i s h e d i n c o m p l e t e C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n . 6 Of t h e L e n i n i s t c l a s s i c s , e a r l y c o m m u n i s t s o n l y h a d a c c e s s t o The S t a t e a n d  R e v o l u t i o n w h i c h p r e s e n t e d h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e c l a s s n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t n e e d f o r t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t a f t e r t h e c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n . E v e n t h i s was o n l y a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h , 7 a n d i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n had o n l y begun a t the time o f . t h e F i r s t C o n g r e s s . 8 L e n i n ' s two e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the t h e o r y of communist r e v o l u t i o n - - t h e "vanguard p a r t y " and h i s t h e s i s on i m p e r i a l i s m - -were s i m p l y i n a c c e s s i b l e . L e n i n ' s b l u e p r i n t f o r r e v o l u t i o n , What i s t o be Done?, and h i s a n a l y s i s of i m p e r i a l i s m and the p o s s i b i l i t y of communist r e v o l u t i o n i n r e l a t i v e l y e c o n o m i c a l l y backward c o u n t r i e s , I m p e r i a l i s m : The H i g h e s t Stage of C a p i t a l i s t ? ^ had yet t o be t r a n s l a t e d . Thus the e a r l y communists i n China o n l y had i n d i r e c t a c c e s s t o L e n i n i s m . T h e i r knowledge of L e n i n i s m came from t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , i n R u s s i a . G i v e n such l i m i t e d and o f t e n i n d i r e c t a c c e s s t o Marxism-L e n i n i s m , the program of the Chinese Communist P a r t y as s e t out i n Gongchandang was i n a c e r t a i n sense n e i t h e r M a r x i s t not L e n i n i s t . The program o u t l i n e d i n Gongchandang d i d n o t h i n g l e s s than propose the w h o l e s a l e i m p o r t a t i o n i n t o C h ina of Marxism-L e n i n i s m as i t had developed i n R u s s i a . In s h o r t , the e a r l y communists were Chinese B o l s h e v i k s . 9 Gongchandang's program was i n l a r g e p a r t a response t o a n a r c h i s m . Anarchism had enjoy e d a s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o n g e r h i s t o r y i n China than the M a r x i s t approach t o r e v o l u t i o n . 1 0 Consequently a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n s on r e v o l u t i o n were much b e t t e r known and shaped the p o s i t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n Gongchandang i n two ways. F i r s t , i t was the a n a r c h i s t t h e o r y of r e v o l u t i o n t h a t Gongchandang spent most of i t s time a t t a c k i n g . S e c o n d l y , a n a r c h i s t c o n c e p t s s u b t l y c o l o u r e d the e a r l y communists' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r s o c i e t y , i t s problems and the s o l u t i o n s t o these problems. Anarchism runs as a common t h r e a d t hrough t h i s study of the i n t e l l e c t u a l o r g i n s of the program of the Chinese Communist P a r t y at the time of i t s f o r m a t i o n . The B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was seen i n terms of the a n a r c h i s t concept of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y was u n d e r s t o o d t o e s t a b l i s h the a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . When i n t e l l e c t u a l s used c l a s s c o n c e p t s t o a n a l y s e t h e i r s o c i e t y , the c l a s s e s they i d e n t i f i e d were i n p r a c t i c e those which had been i d e n t i f i e d by a n a r c h i s m . T h i s c o n t a m i n a t i o n of c o n c e p t s of the n a t u r e of s o c i e t y , economic t h e o r y and s o c i a l change, s e r i o u s l y e f f e c t e d the new p a r t y ' s l i n e . The c e n t r a l c oncern of t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o t r a c e the c o n c e p t u a l f a c t o r s which shaped the C h i n e s e . B o l s h e v i s m of Gongchandang. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s tudy examines i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' r e a c t i o n s t o and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Marxism, t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and use of c l a s s c o n c e p t s , and the L e n i n i s t i n f l u e n c e s on the program of Gongchandang. The f i r s t t h r e e f a c t o r s — B o l s h e v i s m , Marxism and c l a s s c o n c e p t s — a r e examined i n the f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . These c h a p t e r s a l l c o v e r the p e r i o d between the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i n November 1917 and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t complete Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o i n A p r i l 1920. The f o u r t h c h a p t e r examines the p o s i t i o n s put f o r w a r d i n Gongchandang and i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the p e r i o d between the f o r m a t i o n of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee i n May 1920 and the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y i n August 1921. 5 2. The Sources f o r t h i s Study D u r i n g the p e r i o d between the mid 1910s and the e a r l y 1920s, t h e r e was an e x p l o s i v e i n c r e a s e i n the number of j o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d i n C h i n a . J o u r n a l s from t h i s p e r i o d , the e r a of the New C u l t u r e and May F o u r t h movements, have been the p r i n c i p l e s o u r c e s used i n t h i s study of the c o n c e p t u a l o r i g i n s of the l i n e of the Chinese Communist P a r t y at the time of i t s f o r m a t i o n . The j o u r n a l s of the New C u l t u r e and May F o u r t h movements are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l t r e n d s i n Chinese thought between 1917 and 1921. The t r a d i t i o n a l i s t , even r e a c t i o n a r y , t r e n d i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l p u b l i c a t i o n s of the p e r i o d . C o n s e q u e n t l y I can o n l y s p e c u l a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r u l i n g e l i t e ' s r e c e p t i o n of the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n and M a r x i s t i d e a s . The s o u r c e s used i n t h i s study are a l s o not . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l of the p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l t r e n d s d u r i n g the p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the l e f t i s t t r e n d s amongst younger i n t e l l e c t u a l s . For schematic p u r p o s e s , p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l t e n d e n c i e s can be a s c r i b e d t o t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . 1 1 A l t h o u g h the c o n c e r n s of these g e n e r a t i o n s o v e r l a p t o some e x t e n t , and some i n d i v i d u a l s , n o t a b l y L i Dazhao, Chen Duxiu and Hu Hanmin, belong t o more than one g e n e r a t i o n , each g e n e r a t i o n ' s approach t o the problems t h a t c o n f r o n t e d C h i n e s e s o c i e t y f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e d from t h a t of the o t h e r s . The c e n t r a l i s s u e t h a t c o n f r o n t e d a l l t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s had been d e f i n e d by the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . How c o u l d C h i n a a t t a i n the w e a l t h and power of the West? The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t of the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n , was concerned w i t h s o l v i n g t h i s problem w h i l e a t the same time p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s C h i n e s e n e s s . The members of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l s l i k e L i a n g Qichao and Sun Y a t - s e n , sought p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms which would a l l o w China to overcome her r e l a t i v e weakness w i t h o u t f u n d a m e n t a l l y a f f e c t i n g the n a t u r e of Chinese c u l t u r e . I have not examined the thought of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . My main concern has been t o t r a c e the o r i g i n s of the p o s i t i o n s of the Chinese Communist P a r t y at the time of the p a r t y ' s F i r s t Congress. G i v e n t h e i r c o n cerns f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s such as L i a n g p l a y e d major r o l e s i n f o r m u l a t i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i n g the elements of C h i n e s e B o l s h e v i s m . T h i s was p r o b a b l y a l s o the case w i t h Sun Y a t - s e n . I have not examined h i s w r i t i n g s between 1917 and 1921. H i s appearance i n t h i s study i s i n c i d e n t a l i n so f a r as h i s a p p r o b a t i o n of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n h e l p e d t o e s t a b l i s h the l e g i t i m a c y of B o l s h e v i s m i n the eyes of p r o g r e s s i v e C h i n e s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the p a u c i t y of r e f e r e n c e s t o statements on R u s s i a and Marxism t h a t were made by Sun d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d s u g gests t h a t he d i d not p l a y a major r o l e i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g communist tho u g h t . T h i s would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Sun's p o l i t i c s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . S i n c e he was r e p e a t e d l y t r y i n g t o a l l y w i t h v a r i o u s w a r l o r d f a c t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , he would not have been i n a p o s i t i o n t o say much on the d i s t u r b i n g e v e nts i n R u s s i a . I n t e l l e c t u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the New C u l t u r e Movement c o n s t i t u t e d the second g e n e r a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The New C u l t u r e Movement r e j e c t e d p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as the bes t method of overcoming C h i n e s e backwardness. U n l i k e the p r e c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n which had been, and c o n t i n u e d t o be, a c t i v e i n the w o r l d of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , c o n s t i t u t i o n s and c o n s p i r a c i e s t o g a i n c o n t r o l of the c e n t r a l government, the New C u l t u r e g e n e r a t i o n r e j e c t e d d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i n f a v o u r of mass e n l i g h t e n m e n t . I n s t e a d of t r y i n g t o r e p l a c e Chinese i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h Western p o l i t i c a l forms, they sought t o t r a n s f o r m the Chinese view of the w o r l d through the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the most modern Western i d e a s . In p a r t i c u l a r they sought t o r e p l a c e C o n f u c i a n i s m w i t h " s c i e n c e " and "democracy". Co n s e q u e n t l y t h i s g e n e r a t i o n was much l e s s concerned w i t h p r e s e r v i n g Chineseness which i t equated w i t h backwardness. T h i s study has made c o n s i d e r a b l e use of the j o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d by New C u l t u r e i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Formost among these was X i n Q i n g n i a n (New Youth or "La j e u n e s s e " ) . 1 2 As the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l j o u r n a l of the day, and the most i m p o r t a n t forum f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of New C u l t u r e i d e a l s , X i n  Q i n g n i a n regrouped aD number of prominent u n i v e r s i t y i n t e l l e c t u a l s . These i n c l u d e d Chen D u x i u , X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s e d i t o r ; L i Dazhao, the f i r s t C hinese M a r x i s t ; Hu S h i h , the o r i g i n a t o r of the v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e movement; and C a i Y u a n p e i , the p r i n c i p l e of P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y and the f i r s t m i n i s t e r of e d u c a t i o n i n the Chinese R e p u b l i c . Another source used i n t h i s s t udy was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o X i n Q i n g n i a n . W h i l e Meizhou P i n g l u n ("The Weekly C r i t i c " ) was more d i r e c t l y o r i e n t e d towards p o l i t i c a l commentary than X i n Q i n g n i a n , i t a p p e a l e d t o the same audience and was p u b l i s h e d by members of X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s e d i t o r i a l board i n c l u d i n g Chen D u x i u . 1 3 8 The t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h a t of the May F o u r t h Movement, tended to be the s t u d e n t s of the New C u l t u r e p r o f e s s o r s . A f t e r t h e i r r a d i c a l i z a t i o n by the Western A l l i e s ' b e t r a y a l of Chinese s o v e r e i g n t y a t the V e r s a i l l e s peace t a l k s , t h i s g e n e r a t i o n r e j e c t e d t h e i r t e a c h e r s ' c o ncerns f o r mass e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n f a v o u r of d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n and o v e r a l l s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l problems. To be s u r e , some of t h e i r t e a c h e r s , n o t a b l y L i Dazhao and Chen D u x i u , j o i n e d them i n t h i s c o n c e r n f o r s o c i a l problems. Indeed, i n t e r e s t i n s o c i e t y was the d i r e c t consequence of the New C u l t u r e Movement's i c o n o c l a s m . A t t a c k s on C o n f u c i a n i s m l e d t o i n t e r e s t i n the f a m i l y and the r o l e of women i n s o c i e t y . These were both problems which i n v o l v e d s o c i a l s t u c t u r e s as w e l l as i d e o l o g y . The appearance of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n marked a s p l i t i n the New C u l t u r e movement between those such as L i Dazhao who advocated s o c i a l s o l u t i o n s , and those such as Hu S h i h who c o n t i n u e d t o advocate the l i b e r a l approach of e d u c a t i o n and mass e n l i g h t e n m e n t . The t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s tended t o be e x t r e m e l y s y m p a t h e t i c towards the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n and o f t e n p l a y e d l e a d i n g r o l e s i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g M a r x i s t i d e a s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they a re amongst the most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s f o r the study of r a d i c a l thought d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and I have r e l i e d h e a v i l y upon them. In p a r t i c u l a r , I have made use of the s t u d e n t j o u r n a l s X i n Chao (New T i d e or "The R e n a i s s a n c e " ) 1 " and Guomin ("The C i t i z e n " ) . 1 5 X i n Chao was the most i n f l u e n t i a l s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n of the day. Guomin, the organ of the s t u d e n t " S o c i e t y of N a t i o n a l S a l v a t i o n " , was o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l but was more r a d i c a l i n o r i e n t a t i o n . My major source f o r the l i n e of the C hinese Communist P a r t y - - Gongchandang ("The Communist")--can be i n c l u d e d i n the ranks of the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n of C hinese r a d i c a l s . A l t h o u g h Gongchandang was the o f f i c i a l organ of the p a r t y ' s P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee, i t s most im p o r t a n t i d e o l o g i s t s , Zhou F u h a i and S h i Cuntong, were members of the May F o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n . The concern w i t h methods of r e v o l u t i o n shown by the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang p r o p e r l y r e f l e c t s the g e n e r a l t r e n d , a l t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y the p o l i t i c s , of the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n . Gongchandang was not the o n l y j o u r n a l t h a t put f o r w a r d the views of the e a r l y communists b e f o r e the F i r s t Congress. The P e k i n g communist o r g a n i z a t i o n p u b l i s h e d Laodonq J i e "(The World of Labour) and X i n Q i n g n i a n was communist c o n t r o l l e d a f t e r i t s June 1920 i s s u e . But as the organ of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee, Gongchandang a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d the views of the p a r t y c e n t r e on q u e s t i o n s of s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s . Dongfang Z a z h i ("The E a s t e r n M i s c e l l a n y " ) has proven t o be an i n v a l u a b e source f o r t h i s s t u d y . 1 6 U n l i k e the o t h e r j o u r n a l s of the p e r i o d which were aimed a t a r e s t r i c t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l a u d i e n c e , Dongfang Z a z h i was e s s e n t i a l l y a newsmagazine aimed at the mass market of the new urban mi d d l e c l a s s . Every i s s u e reproduced or p u b l i s h e d a v a r i e t y of a r t i c l e s on the q u e s t i o n s of the day which were w r i t t e n from a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . A l t h o u g h Dongfang Zazhi had a l i b e r a l e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y , r e l a t i v e t o the o t h e r j o u r n a l s used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y , i t was c o n s e r v a t i v e . I t s c o n s e r v a t i s m can be seen i n the f a c t t h a t i t c o n t i n u e d t o use the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e of w r i t t e n Chinese u n t i l the end of 1919 which was l o n g 10 a f t e r o t h e r j o u r n a l s of the p e r i o d had c o n v e r t e d t o v e r n a c u l a r C h i n e s e . Dongfang Z a z h i ' s c o n t e n t s r e f l e c t e d what i t s e d i t o r s b e l i e v e d the i n formed c i t i z e n s h o u l d know. I t s a r t i c l e s r e f l e c t e d the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the d a i l y p a p ers. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l as a source f o r d e t e r m i n i n g what the average informed c i t i z e n was l i k e l y t o have known about the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n , Marxism, e t c . . . A major gap i n the s o u r c e s f o r t h i s study i s the absence of a n a r c h i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I have not had a c c e s s t o the a n a r c h i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s of the May F o u r t h E r a . The o n l y a c c e s s I have had t o a n a r c h i s t thought has come i n secondary s o u r c e s , or i n a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by a n a r c h i s t s , or about a n a r c h i s m , i n o t h e r j o u r n a l s such as X i n Q i n g n i a n and Dongfang  Z a z h i . Except i n so f a r as the s o u r c e s t h a t I have examined appear t o be responses t o a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n s , or i n f l u e n c e d by a n a r c h i s t i d e a s , I am c o n s e q u e n t l y not i n a p o s i t i o n t o s p e c u l a t e on the p o s i t i o n s b e i n g put f o r w a r d by a n a r c h i s t s on the i s s u e s of the day. I.E. i t i s p o s s i b l e ( a l t h o u g h I s u s p e c t u n l i k e l y ) t h a t a n a r c h i s t j o u r n a l s p l a y e d the major r o l e i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g M a r x i s t i d e a s i n C h i n a d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 1 7 T h i s study has found t h a t a number of e l e m e n t s — c o n c e p t s of c l a s s e s , r e v o l u t i o n , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Marxism-- were brought t o g e t h e r i n Chinese B o l s h e v i s m . These elements, a l o n g w i t h B o l s h e v i s m i t s e l f , emerged i n the c o u r s e of sharp debates over the n a t u r e of t h e problems t h a t a f f l i c t e d C h inese s o c i e t y and t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . These debates took p l a c e between t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s and p r o g r e s s i v e s , l i b e r a l s and r a d i c a l s , M a r x i s t s and a n a r c h i s t s . The p o s i t i o n s t h a t I have t r a c e d have 11 tended t o be those taken by o n l y one s i d e i n t h e s e d e b a t e s . For example, I have examined the r e a c t i o n s of both l i b e r a l s and r a d i c a l s t o the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n , but a f t e r the New C u l t u r e movement s p l i t i n t o two camps, I do not c o n s i d e r the l i b e r a l s ' p o s i t i o n s . Thus I o n l y examine L i Dazhao's response t o Hu S h i h ' s p o s i t i o n i n the Problems and "Isms" debate. To have l o o k e d a t both s i d e s i n these debates would have c e r t a i n l y g i v e n a much more b a l a n c e d p i c t u r e of the c o n c e p t u a l f l u x t h a t came t o g e t h e r i n the p o s i t i o n s of Gongchandang, but t h a t would have been a much l o n g e r , and s u b s t a n t i a l l y more complex s t u d y . 3. A Comment on Western H i s t o r i o g r a p h y on 1917-1921 My c e n t r a l argument i s t h a t the c o n c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y and the n a t u r e of communist r e v o l u t i o n which emerged i n the New C u l t u r e / M a y F o u r t h Era d e t e r m i n e d the l i n e of the Chinese Communist P a r t y a t the time of i t s f o r m a t i o n . Western h i s t o r i o g r a p h y on the Chinese Communist P a r t y has tended t o g l o s s over the p e r i o d between the 1917 October R e v o l u t i o n and the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y i n 1921. Survey h i s t o r i e s of the C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y u s u a l l y b e g i n w i t h the p a r t y ' s F i r s t Congress and c o n s e q u e n t l y o n l y devote a few i n t r o d u c t o r y pages, or even p a r a g r a p h s , t o the pre-1921 p e r i o d . 1 8 T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e s i n c e i t has l e d t o a tendency t o see the l i n e of the Chinese Communist P a r t y a t the time of the p a r t y ' s f o r m a t i o n i n the l i g h t of l a t e r l i n e s t r u g g l e s . For example, one of the i s s u e s t h a t dominated the h i s t o r y of the Chinese Communist P a r t y b e f o r e the 1930s was whether the p a r t y s h o u l d o r g a n i z e peasants or i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . My study of the 12 1917-1921 p e r i o d has found t h a t t h i s was not an i s s u e f o r Chinese communists b e f o r e the F i r s t Congress. In f a c t , i n the c o n t e x t of the g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s , t h i s i s s u e c o u l d not e x i s t as a q u e s t i o n of p r i n c i p l e at t h i s t i m e . 1 9 I have found t h a t peasants and i n d u s t r i a l workers were commonly seen as members of the same c l a s s — " t h e u n p r o p e r t i e d " . The Chinese term used t o r e f e r t o t h i s c l a s s was "wuchan j i e j i " 3Lff'ffi4&, which today i s taken t o r e f e r t o the c l a s s of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , i . e . the p r o l e t a r i a t . I t can be argue.d t h a t s u r vey h i s t o r i e s of the Chinese Communist P a r t y do not have t o examine the i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i g i n s of the p a r t y ' s p o l i t i c a l l i n e s s i n c e t h e i r c o n c e r n i s not t o t r a c e the h i s t o r y of i d e a s . Among the works which do t r e a t the p a r t y ' s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s as the s u b j e c t of i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y i s M a u r i c e M e i s n e r ' s L i Da-chao and the O r i q i n s of  Chinese Marxism. E s s e n t i a l l y , M e i s n e r argues t h a t the demands of n a t i o n a l i s m and C h i n a ' s a b j e c t c o n d i t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h p r e v i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , c o n s p i r e d t o " t r a n s f o r m " M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e i n t o "Chinese Marxism". He e s t a b l i s h e s t h i s t h e s i s t h r o ugh the e x a m i n a t i o n of the e v o l u t i o n of L i Dazhao's p e r c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y and c o n c e p t s of s o c i a l change. I am not i n a p o s i t i o n t o prove or d i s p r o v e M e i s n e r ' s c e n t r a l t h e s i s , but my study of t h i s p e r i o d s u g g e s t s t h a t some of M e i s n e r ' s s p e c i f i c arguments can be q u e s t i o n e d . For example, M e i s n e r s u g g e s t s t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m combined w i t h L i ' s Marxism, l e d him t o f o r m u l a t e the i s s u e c o n f r o n t i n g China i n terms of the c o n f r o n t a t i o n between China as a " p r o l e t a r i a n " c o u n t r y and the West as " c a p i t a l i s t " c o u n t r i e s . M e i s n e r suggests t h a t t h i s p o s i t i o n was e f f e c t i v e l y 13 t h a t the b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n Chinese s o c i e t y was between f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s m and the Chinese n a t i o n . But i f my t h e s i s i s c o r r e c t , L i ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of China as a " p r o l e t a r i a n " c o u n t r y meant l i t t l e more than t h a t China was b e i n g i m p o v e r i s h e d by the p e n e t r a t i o n of f o r e i g n i n d u s t r y , i . e t h a t i t was becoming " u n p r o p e r t i e d " , and would have been i n t e r p r e t e d as such by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . T h i s s u ggests t h a t i t can be dangerous t o r e l y upon the development of a s i n g l e i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s thought t o e s t a b l i s h a g e n e r a l t h e s i s on how and why the Chinese Communist P a r t y a r r i v e d at a g i v e n p o s i t i o n . The problem w i t h t h i s approach, which has been taken a number of t i m e s , 2 0 i s t h a t i t can r e s u l t i n i s o l a t i n g the thought of the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l from the g e n e r a l h i s t o r i c a l l y d e t ermined c o n c e p t u a l c o n t e x t . T h e r e f o r e , I have p u r p o s e l y not concerned myself w i t h the development of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' t h ought. I n s t e a d , I have attempted t o approach the problem by examining the g e n e r a l s o c i a l mix of i d e a s , and the e f f e c t s t h a t t h i s mix had on the p o s i t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r group of i n t e l l e c t u a l s — t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang. The h e a r t of t h i s approach i s the view t h a t i d e a s , whether those of an i n d i v i d u a l or a group of i n d i v i d u a l s , a re s o c i a l and not p r i v a t e e n t i t i e s . Even the i d e a s of an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a re s o c i a l i n so f a r as they are c o n d i t i o n e d by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s (or m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ) of o t h e r i d e a s which a r e themselves s o c i a l . T h i s approach t o the h i s t o r y of i d e a s i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t taken by A r i f D i r l i k in. H i s t o r y and R e v o l u t i o n . 2 1 Except i n so f a r as D i r l i k ' s p r i m a r i l y c oncern i s the o r i g i n s of M a r x i s t 14 h i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n C h i n a , he argues t h a t the a p p a r e n t l y academic i s s u e s t h a t c o n f r o n t e d Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s were r e f l e c t i o n s of r e a l p o l i t i c a l c oncerns and t h a t these c o n c e r n s c o n d i t i o n e d the p o s i t i o n s put f o r w a r d by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s . My study b e g i n s w i t h the October R e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a and ends w i t h the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y . I t can be argued t h a t M a r x i s t i d e a s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o China b e f o r e 1911 i n the cour s e of debates between the Tongmenghui and o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y f a c t i o n s 2 2 and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t M a r x i s t thought does not o r i g i n a t e w i t h the October R e v o l u t i o n . My study of the 1917 t o 1921 p e r i o d does not q u e s t i o n the f a c t t h a t Marxism was d i s c u s s e d i n China b e f o r e 1911, nor does i t q u e s t i o n the f a c t t h a t the people who d i s c u s s e d Marxism b e f o r e 1911 were sometimes the same people who d i s c u s s e d i t a f t e r 1 9 1 7 , 2 3 but my t h e s i s does q u e s t i o n the argument t h a t t h e r e was any g e n e r a l c o n c e p t u a l c o n t i n u i t y between t h e s e p e r i o d s , i . e t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n g e n e r a l were f a m i l i a r w i t h Marxism, even i f they d i d not d i s c u s s i t , b e f o r e i t was r e s u r r e c t e d i n the wake of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . One of the arguments put fo r w a r d by those who h o l d t h a t t h e r e i s c o n c e p t u a l c o n t i n u i t y between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and the 1917-1921 p e r i o d i s t h a t Japan, not R u s s i a , was Chinese Marxism's place, of o r i g i n . T h i s i s the p o s i t i o n taken by L i Yu-n i n g i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n of S o c i a l i s m i n t o C h i n a . 2 4 L i argues t h a t Marxism was i n t r o d u c e d from Japan b e f o r e the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n and t h a t the terms used by Chinese M a r x i s t s e s t a b l i s h t h i s . She w r i t e s , Thousands of Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s came t o know the names of Marx and E n g e l s a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s 15 c e n t u r y . There then took p l a c e what must be re g a r d e d as the e a r l i e s t d i s c u s s i o n on the n a t u r e of Chinese s o c i e t y from the M a r x i s t s t a n d p o i n t and the appearence of s e v e r a l r e c u r r e n t themes i n l a t e r c o n t r o v e r s i e s . Chinese Marxism was s t i m u l a t e d by Japanese r a t h e r than R u s s i a n s o u r c e s , a s a l i e n t p o i n t i n p a r t e v i d e n c e d by the widespr e a d use of Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n s of M a r x i s t t e r m i n o l o g y . . , 2 5 I do not d i s p u t e t h a t many Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s were exposed t o Marxism b e f o r e 1911. I a l s o do not d i s p u t e t h e f a c t t h a t Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s t u r n e d t o Japanese s o u r c e s when t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n Marxism was r e k i n d l e d by the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . But I do q u e s t i o n t h a t c o n c e p t u a l c o n t i n u i t y between the two p e r i o d s can be seen i n the use of Japanese t e r m i n o l o g y . For example, L i l i s t s the modern Chinese terms f o r " s t r u g g l e " and " b o u r g e o i s i e " , i . e "douzheng" ^ a n d " z i c h a n j i e j i " ffi P# , as b e i n g d e r i v e d from the J a p a n e s e . 2 6 T h i s i s undoubtedly t r u e , but i f t h e r e w a s . c o n t i n u i t y between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and the 1917-1921 p e r i o d , why d i d L i Dazhao a t f i r s t render the M a r x i s t term " c l a s s s t r u g g l e " ( j i e j i douzheng p/tiA^^f ) as " c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n " ( j i e j i j ingzheng /3/jr JO ^ ^ ) 2 7 w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s rendered i t as " c l a s s war" ( j i e j i zhanzheng Furthermore the v a s t m a j o r i t y of Chi n e s e w r i t e r s between 1917 and 1921, and e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r mid-1919, even though they were r e a d i n g Japanese s o u r c e s on Marxism, r e f e r r e d t o t h a t c l a s s which i s the s o c i a l o p p o s i t e of the c l a s s of workers not as the " z i c h a n j i e j i " j* IfyriJL ( b o u r g e o i s i e ) , but as "youchan j i e j i " -fo fiftliL ( p r o p e r t i e d ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , L i does not s t a t e when these terms were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o C h i n a . The p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e r e was c o n c e p t u a l c o n t i n u i t y i n M a r x i s t thought between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and the New 1 6 Culture/May F o u r t h p e r i o d i s a l s o put f o r w a r d by M a r t i n B e r n a l i n Chinese S o c i a l i s m t o 1 9 0 7 . 2 9 T h i s i s the f i r s t volume of a proposed t r i l o g y on the h i s t o r y of Chinese S o c i a l i s m u n t i l 1919. However, the d i f f i c u l t y p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s e x p e r i e n c e d i n coming t o terms w i t h the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n and M a r x i s t c o n c e p t s suggests t h a t they were i g n o r a n t of Marx's a c t u a l p o s i t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t t h e r e was no c o n t i n u i t y i n M a r x i s t thought between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and the 1917-1919 p e r i o d . What the pre-1911 g e n e r a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s may have known.about Marxism was not n e c e s s a r i l y known t o the New C u l t u r e g e n e r a t i o n and c e r t a i n l y not known t o the May F o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n . Pending the c o m p l e t i o n of B e r n a l ' s t r i l o g y , the best statement on t h i s q u e s t i o n o f : c o n t i n u i t y i n Chinese M a r x i s t thought can be found i n M e i s n e r : Marxism, i n i t s p r e - L e n i n i s t form, presupposed the e x i s t e n c e of . . . a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d urban p r o l e t a r i a t . In the absence of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s Marxism c o u l d not y e t s e r v e as a m e a n i n g f u l guide t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . To many members of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who were a t t r a c t e d t o s o c i a l i s m , Marx appeared as one among many Western s o c i a l i s t t h i n k e r s — indeed one who was h e l d i n c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s esteem than K r o p o t k i n and Bakunin or even S a i n t - S i m o n and Henry George. Thus Marx was known t o Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the c e n t u r y , but h i s t h e o r y c l e a r l y f a i l e d t o s t r i k e a r e s p o n s i v e c h o r d . 3 0 S i n c e Marxism was seen as r e q u i r i n g an advanced i n d u s t r i a l economy b e f o r e i t c o u l d be a "guide t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , " i t was seen as e s s e n t i a l l y i r r e l e v e n t t o C h i n a . Thus, a l t h o u g h i n t e l l e c t u a l s had heard of Marx, and were aware t h a t he was an i m p o r t a n t Western s o c i a l i s t , they were not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t h e o r i e s , and p r e f e r r e d t o study o t h e r s c h o o l s 17 of s o c i a l i s m . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n Marxism r e s u l t e d i n g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e of h i s t h e o r i e s . Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n g e n e r a l o n l y began t o study Marxism when i t became a "meaningful guide t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n " , i . e when the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n proved t h a t M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n was p o s s i b l e i n a c o u n t r y l i k e C h i n a . Where t h e r e was c o n t i n u i t y between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and 1917—.1919 was i n the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n . A narchism runs as a common t h r e a d throughout the h i s t o r y of r a d i c a l thought i n China d u r i n g the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . 3 1 T h e r e f o r e i t i s argued, t h a t a n a r c h i s m s e r v e d as the Chinese e q u i v a l e n t of a s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n . The advantage of a s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n from the p o i n t of view of a M a r x i s t -L e n i n i s t p a r t y i s t h a t s o c i a l democracy makes l a r g e segments of s o c i e t y f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e r m i n o l o g y and con c e p t s used by a communist p a r t y . 3 2 S i n c e China d i d not have such a t r a d i t i o n , a n a r c h i s m s e r v e d as the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s of Marxism. C o n c r e t e l y a n a r c h i s m i n t r o d u c e d Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o such c o n c e p t s as " c l a s s " , " r e v o l u t i o n " and even "communism", which f ac i 1 rfrarte'd t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of M a r x i s t t h o u g h t . A l t h o u g h a n a r c h i s m p l a y e d an imp o r t a n t r o l e as the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of M a r x i s t thought i n C h i n a , C h i n e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o n f u s e d Marxism and a n a r c h i s m . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a n a r c h i s t d e f i n i t i o n s of t e r m i n o l o g y common t o both a n a r c h i s m and Marxism, l e d Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o assume t h a t a n a r c h i s t and M a r x i s t terms r e f e r r e d t o the same t h i n g s . Where h i s t o r i a n s have p r e v i o u s l y s t r e s s e d anarchism's r o l e as the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of Marxism i n C h i n a , 3 3 my study has c o n c e n t r a t e d on the r o l e of a n a r c h i s m as a 18 contaminant of M a r x i s t i d e o l o g y i n C h i n a . Anarchism and Marxism have fundamental and i r r e c o n c i l a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s . Anarchism's e s s e n t i a l t h e s i s i s t h a t a communist, i . e . c l a s s l e s s and s t a t e l e s s , s o c i e t y i s p o s s i b l e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the r e v o l u t i o n which overthrows the modern s t a t e . The l o g i c a l consequence of the a n a r c h i s t t h e s i s i s t h a t c l a s s e s are p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s d e f i n e d by t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s t a t e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e o n l y two c l a s s e s — t h e r u l i n g c l a s s and the r u l e d . Once the s t a t e i s a b o l i s h e d , s i n c e t h e r e are no l o n g e r r u l e r s and r u l e d , c l a s s e s a u t o m a t i c a l l y cease to e x i s t . 3 4 T h i s i s the d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s of the M a r x i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t c l a s s e s are f u n d a m e n t a l l y economic e n t i t i e s . The a b o l i t i o n of the modern s t a t e , t h e r e f o r e , does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n t h e . a b o l i t i o n of c l a s s e s . There i s n o t h i n g t o s t o p the c a p i t a l i s t s from c o n t i n u i n g t o e x p l o i t the workers. The o b j e c t of Marx's r e v o l u t i o n i s not the immediate a b o l i t i o n of the s t a t e , but the d e s t r u c t i o n of the s t a t e which s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s t a t e t h a t s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s of the w o r k i ng c l a s s . T h i s w o r k i ng c l a s s s t a t e , a c c o r d i n g t o Marx, c o r r e s p o n d s t o a " p o l i t i c a l t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d " between communist s o c i e t y and c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y d u r i n g which the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s (and f o r t h a t m a t t e r a l l c l a s s e s ) w i l l be a b o l i s h e d because the c a p i t a l i s t method of p r o d u c t i o n ( p r i v a t e consumption, s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n ) w i l l be a b o l i s h e d . Only then can communist s o c i e t y be i m p l e m e n t e d . 3 5 Chinese M a r x i s t s , and l a t e r C hinese communists, were w e l l aware of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between communism and a n a r c h i s m . 19 T h i s i s the reason t h a t Gongchandang put a g r e a t d e a l of e f f o r t i n t o a n t i - a n a r c h i s t p o l e m i c s which r e v o l v e d around the t h e o r e t i c a l need f o r the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t . A narchism d e f i n e d the t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s t h a t M a r x i s t s and communists c o n f r o n t e d u n t i l 1921. Up t o the F i r s t Congress of the C hinese Communist P a r t y , communists sought t o win over i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n c l i n e d towards r e v o l u t i o n who o t h e r w i s e would become a n a r c h i s t s . But at the same time t h a t they were aware t h a t a n a r c h i s m was the most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e which c o n f r o n t e d them, a n a r c h i s m had u n c o n s c i o u s l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of Chinese s o c i e t y , and r e v o l u t i o n . Nowhere i s t h i s more e v i d e n t than i n the e a r l y communists' c l a s s c o n c e p t s . Even though they d e f i n e d c l a s s e s i n economic terms, when they l o o k e d at Chinese society.- they saw the same c l a s s e s t h a t had been i d e n t i f i e d by the a n a r c h i s t s . In p r a c t i c e the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s between the communists' c l a s s e s and those of the a n a r c h i s t s were t h a t i n s t e a d of c a l l i n g t hese c l a s s e s the r u l i n g c l a s s and the r u l e d c l a s s , the e a r l y communists c a l l e d them the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the c l a s s n a t u r e of s o c i e t y a f f e c t e d t h e i r s t r a t e g i c a n a l y s i s of the p a t h to communist r e v o l u t i o n which i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e d t h e i r subsequent p r a c t i c e . 20 Chapter One  R e v o l u t i o n ; R u s s i a and China 1 . R u s s i a : The Concept of " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " In the absence of a M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n i n C h i n a , i n t e l l e c t u a l s e x p e r i e n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p l a i n i n g the B o l s h e v i k coup d ' e t a t which overthrew Kerensky's P r o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t / T h i s d i f f i c u l t y was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t on the p a r t of those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the New C u l t u r e Movement. In the p a s t , l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n Marxism, on the grounds t h a t i t was o n l y r e l e v a n t t o the advanced i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s of the West, meant t h a t these i n t e l l e c t u a l s were much more f a m i l i a r w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s of s o c i a l i s t t h ought. Ignorance of Marx and Marxism was such t h a t the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n c o u l d not r e a d i l y be e x p l a i n e d as the communist r e v o l u t i o n h e r a l d e d by Marx. Even i f C h i n e s e commentators were aware of the f a c t t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s c l a i m e d t o be M a r x i s t s , a statement t o t h i s e f f e c t would not have been p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l i n g t o t h e i r a u d i e n c e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e was a tendency t o see the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i n terms of a n a r c h i s m - - t h e r a d i c a l p h i l o s o p h y of r e v o l u t i o n which was the b e s t known t o Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p o l i c i e s of the B o l s h e v i k government, f o r example, c a t a g o r i z e d them as r e s e m b l i n g a n a r c h i s m ; f o r i n d e e d , those p o l i c i e s d i d resemble a n a r c h i s m t o most Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Such d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o u p l e d w i t h g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e of Marxism, r e s u l t e d i n the c o n f u s i o n between B o l s h e v i s m and a n a r c h i s m , and l a t e r between Marxism and a n a r c h i s m , which was to r e p e a t e d l y m a n i f e s t i t s e l f d u r i n g the next few y e a r s . In t h i s c o n t e x t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i t was not u n t i l the f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y of the B o l s h e v i k coup t h a t L i Dazhao remarked t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s were f o l l o w e r s of K a r l Marx. D e s p i t e t h i s c o n f u s i o n between B o l s h e v i s m and anar c h i s m , d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r a d i c a l measures implemented by the B o l s h e v i k government made i t e v i d e n t t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n was unprecedented i n terms of i t s n a t u r e and scope. " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " was the term Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s of v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n s used t o r e f e r t o t h i s new k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n . Sympathy f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n on the p a r t of p r o g r e s s i v e s , c o u p l e d w i t h an awareness t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was a d d r e s s i n g many s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l problems which were p e r c e i v e d as common t o both China and R u s s i a , l e d t o re p e a t e d c a l l s f o r R u s s i a n - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n C h i n a . Many of thes e c a l l s p r e d a t e d g e n e r a l awareness of the Karakhan D e c l a r a t i o n by which the B o l s h e v i k government renounced a l l c z a r i s t c l a i m s on Chinese t e r r i t o r y . Some even p r e d a t e d the d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of May 1919 which p r o t e s t e d the Western power's s e l l o u t of Chi n e s e i n t e r e s t s a t the V e r s a i l l e s peace t a l k s , and marked the t r a n s i t i o n from the the New C u l t u r e Movement's i d e a l of i d e o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o n a t i o n a l i s t and r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i n t r o d u c e d a new concept i n t o the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l u n i v e r s e - - t h a t of a r e v o l u t i o n which not o n l y sought a change i n the r u l i n g e l i t e , but which sought the c o n s c i o u s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s was the concept of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 22 News of the B o l s h e v i k coup d ' e t a t a g a i n s t Kerensky's p r o v i s i o n a l government was p u b l i s h e d i n Guomin Ribao on November 10, 1917, w i t h i n t h r e e days a f t e r i t s o c c u r r e n c e . The next day, ot h e r Chinese papers a l s o r e p o r t e d the coup. 1 Chinese r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were q u i c k t o gr a s p the r e v o l u t i o n ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e . On New Year's Day, 1918, an e d i t o r i a l i n the Guomindang newspaper Guomin Ribao s t a t e d , " T h i s b i g reform [da g a i q e ] i n our near neighbour has caused us t o be overcome w i t h hope." 2 The f i r s t major f i g u r e t o h e r a l d the October R e v o l u t i o n was Sun Y a t - s e n . In a c o n g r a t u l a t o r y t e l e g r a m t o L e n i n he s t a t e d , C h i n a ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y not o n l y e x p r e s s e s the utmost r e s p e c t towards the arduous and b r i l l i a n t s t r u g g l e of the members of your honourable c o u n t r y ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y , but a l s o hopes t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t i e s of China and R u s s i a w i l l u n i t e t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r common s t r u g g l e . 3 Sun was t o l a t e r add, "The October R e v o l u t i o n caused humanity t o produce a g r e a t hope."" Lau d i n g of the E o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was not r e s t r i c t e d t o n a t i o n a l i s t c i r c l e s . E a r l y i n 1918 the a n a r c h i s t j o u r n a l Laodonq 5 saw the r e v o l u t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g l i g h t : The European World War which has f r i g h t e n e d p e o p l e has a l r e a d y been g o i n g on f o r many y e a r s . The e a r t h s h a k i n g R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n has a l s o f r i g h t e n e d p e o p l e . Of the personages of the w o r l d none do not s t a r e a t i t w i t h c o n c e r n , and examine i t s e f f e c t s . Those who are b u r e a u c r a t s and o f f i c i a l s f e a r t h a t i t s d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l expand, t h a t t h e i r w e a l t h and p o s i t i o n s of power w i l l not be p r e s e r v a b l e . B i g l a n d l o r d s and the r i c h a l s o f e a r t h a t i t s d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l expand, t h a t a communist w o r l d w i l l one day be r e a l i z e d , and t h a t t h e i r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y which was s e c u r e d t h r o u g h e x p l o i t a t i o n w i l l - be gone. . . . Only the u n f o r t u n a t e l a b o u r e r s d a i l y hope f o r the e a r l y s u c c e s s of the [ R u s s i a n ] R e v o l u t i o n , i t s e a r l y e x t e n s i o n , and the time when a g r e a t many people w i l l e n j o y the b l e s s i n g s of e q u a l i t y and l i v e through happy d a y s . 6 A l t h o u g h Chinese r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were q u i c k to h e r a l d the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n as the h a r b i n g e r of a new age, i n t e l l e c t u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h X i n Q i n g n i a n d i d not comment on the r e v o l u t i o n f o r s e v e r a l months. T h i s was i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r prompt and f a v o u r a b l e r e a c t i o n t o the e a r l i e r F e bruary R e v o l u t i o n which had overthrown the c z a r . 7 The reason t h a t X i n Q i n g n i a n f a i l e d t o comment upon the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n . T h i s f a i l u r e may e i t h e r have been the r e s u l t of the e d i t o r s ' d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e the j o u r n a l ' s " n o n - p o l i t i c a l " - c h a r a c t e r , or as M e i s n e r has s u g g e s t e d , the r e s u l t of t h e i r view t h a t the s o l u t i o n t o C h i n a ' s problems l a y w i t h the Western A l l i e s , the u p h o l d e r s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l cause of democracy, and a consequenty a m b i v a l e n t a t t i t u d e towards the B o l s h e v i k s who were n e g o t i a t i n g a s e p a r a t e peace w i t h Germany. 8 In any c a s e , i t a l s o took a number of months f o r L i Dazhao, who d i d not suppport the A l l i e s , 9 t o comment on the r e v o l u t i o n . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o X i n Q i n g n i a n were s i m p l y c o n f u s e d by e v e n t s i n R u s s i a . Where the F e b r u a r y R e v o l u t i o n had been r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e as R u s s i a ' s v e r s i o n of the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n , and had been d e s c r i b e d as such i n X i n  Q i n g n i a n , 1 0 the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was s i m p l y u n a c c o u n t a b l e . In the absence of a t r a d i t i o n of M a r x i s t thought i n C h i n a , the B o l s h e v i k coup would have appeared t o be l i t t l e more than one p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n o v e r t h r o w i n g a n o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , these i n t e l l e c t u a l s d i d not a c c e p t a ready made p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y 24 which they c o u l d use as a y a r d s t i c k f o r measuring the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , or as a b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g i t . R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , on the o t h e r hand, c o u l d r e a d i l y come to terms w i t h the B o l s h e v i k v i c t o r y . Whether or not Sun Yat-sen s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the Chinese and R u s s i a n people shared "a common s t r u g g l e " , h i s p r a g m a t i c s e a r c h f o r p o s s i b l e a l l i e s d i c t a t e d t h a t he c o n g r a t u l a t e L e n i n . A n a r c h i s t s saw the v i c t o r y as the a r r i v a l of the a n a r c h i s t m i l l e n i u m . Had not the oppressed masses overthrown t h e i r o p p r e s s o r s ? Wasn't the B o l s h e v i k programme j u s t as r a d i c a l as t h e i r own? T h i s c o n f u s i o n between a n a r c h i s m and B o l s h e v i s m was t o p r e v a i l f o r a number of y e a r s . As l a t e as 1921, the F i r s t Congress of the C hinese Communist P a r t y i s s u e d a d i r e c t i v e e x p e l l i n g a n a r c h i s t s from the p a r t y . 1 1 T h i s s u g gests t h a t a n a r c h i s t s , as w e l l as some communists, were not aware t h a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p h i l o s o p h i e s were a n t i t h e t i c a l i n terms of approach and immediate o b j e c t i v e s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of a c c o u n t s of the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n i n p o p u l a r j o u r n a l s of the p e r i o d makes the d i f f i c u l t l y e n c o u ntered by X i n Q i n g n i a n commentators r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . I t was some time b e f o r e the p o p u l a r p r e s s p o i n t e d out t h a t B o l s h e v i s m c l a i m e d t o be the i n t e l l e c t u a l descendent of Marxism. T y p i c a l of the e a r l y coverage of the r e v o l u t i o n was Zhang X i c h e n ' s a r t i c l e , "A F u r t h e r Report on the P r e s e n t S i t u a t i o n i n R u s s i a " , p u b l i s h e d i n the J a n u a r y , 1918, Dongfang  Za z h i ("The E a s t e r n M i s c e l l a n y " ) . 1 2 L i k e o t h e r w r i t e r s of the p e r i o d , Zhang r e f e r r e d t o the 25 B o l s h e v i k s as "quoj i p a i ", meaning "the r a d i c a l (or e x t r e m i s t ) f a c t i o n . " 1 3 He gave the f o l l o w i n g reasons f o r the B o l s h e v i k coup: Because of the i n t e r f e r e n c e of the Workers' and S o l d i e r s ' S o v i e t s [ l a o b i n g tuan ffi j £ ] , the p r o c l a i m e d r e p u b l i c a n system of Mr. Kerensky c o u l d not be e s t a b l i s h e d . The S o v i e t s c a l l e d f o r : (1) the f i x i n g of a d e m o c r a t i c r e p u b l i c a n system; (2) the a b o l i t i o n of land' t e n u r e , and the g r a n t i n g of l a n d and n e c e s s a r y a g r i c u l t u r a l commodities t o the p e a s a n t s ; and (3) the c e d i n g of a l l power over p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n t o the l a b o u r e r s . 1 * A c c o r d i n g t o Zhang, th e s e p o l i c i e s c o u l d not be implemented by Kerensky because they c o n f i c t e d w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of h i s s u p p o r t e r s--the zhongchan j i e j i *)* Vft ill, ( l i t . "middle p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " ) . On the o t h e r hand, the S o v i e t s , which were c o n t r o l l e d by the B o l s h e v i k s , c o u l d implement them because they were s u p p o r t e d by the x i a c e n g j i e j i "jC PftbR>{lit. "lower c l a s s " ) . A f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n L e n i n , the B o l s h e v i k l e a d e r , brought out t h r e e major p o l i c i e s : (1) the new government would o r d e r the end of the war; (2) l a n d would be d i s t r i b u t e d t o the p e a s a n t s ; (3) . . .the domestic economic c r i s i s would be r e s o l v e d . He a l s o p r o c l a i m e d t o the S o v i e t s of a l l a r e a s t h a t p o l i t i c a l power would be g r a n t e d t o the R a d i c a l F a c t i o n . 1 5 These p o l i c i e s , Zhang wrote, r e f l e c t e d the B o l s h e v i k ' s u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y of "extreme e g a l i t a r i a n i s m " ( j iduan z h i  j u n f u z h u y i 3$ i^^^i^ l i t . "average w e a l t h i s m " ) , and had d e v e l o p e d out of the R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t movement which wanted t o end l a n d l o r d o p p r e s s i o n of the p e a s a n t r y . 1 6 W h i l e Zhang a c c u r a t e l y l i s t e d B o l s h e v i k p o l i c i e s , and even suggested t h a t the u p heavals of F e b r u a r y and October were 2 6 r e v o l u t i o n s s u p p o r t e d by d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , he d i d not p o i n t out t h a t B o l s h e v i s m c l a i m e d t o be M a r x i s t . Furthermore, h i s c a t a g o r i z a t i o n of the B o l s h e v i k s as "extreme e g a l i t a r i a n s " d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e B o l s h e v i s m from a n a r c h i s m . In F e b r u a r y 1918, Dongfang Z a z h i added t h a t " L e n i n ' s F a c t i o n " was p a r t of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l Democratic Labour P a r t y which had the s l o g a n "Labourers of A l l C o u n t r i e s U n i t e . " 1 7 In March, the same j o u r n a l d e c r i b e d the B o l s h e v i k programme as "the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r a d i c a l s o c i a l i s m r e s e m b l i n g a n a r c h i s m . " 1 8 Such d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o u p l e d w i t h g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e of Marxism, i f a n y t h i n g , g e n e r a t e d f u r t h e r c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between B o l s h e v i s m and a n a r c h i s m . In A p r i l , Dongfang Z a z h i p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The E v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Movement", which d e s c r i b e d the B o l s h e v i k s as one of the two f a c t i o n s of the " R u s s i a n S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y " . 1 9 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a r t i c l e , the p r i n c i p l e s of the S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y , as s t a t e d by Plekhanov i n i t s m a n i f e s t o , were: The s u p p o r t e r s of d e s p o t i s m are the i g n o r a n t , incompetent [ wuzhi wuneng j& & jjfc] p e a s a n t s . The main f o r c e of the r e v o l u t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r e r and not the p e a s a n t s . The s e i z u r e of p o l i t i c a l power by the l a b o u r e r s can p r e v e n t r e a c t i o n . Because the l a b o u r e r s must f i r s t g r a s p r e a l p o l i t i c a l power the s u c c e s s of the r e v o l u t i o n l i e s i n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s [ z i jue 3 of the l a b o u r e r s . 2 0 The B o l s h e v i k s and the M e n s h i v i k s s p l i t over how t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d : A c c o r d i n g t o Mr Plekhanov, a l t h o u g h the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the l a b o u r e r i s a l o g i c a l premise [ q i a n t i ^ j , t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s has an a p p r o p r i a t e sequence. I f the r e v o l u t i o n i s f o o l i s h l y pushed f o r w a r d , t h i s sequence w i l l be d e s t r o y e d . F u r t h e r , d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the r e a l i z a t i o n of i d e a l s [ l i x i a n q , the a d v o c a t e s of 27 r a d i c a l i s m must be opposed. T h i s l e d t o a c o n f l i c t w i t h Mr. L i n i n g ^ * ^ [ L e n i n ] i n the 1903 Congress which was won by the L i n i n g F a c t i o n . From then on t h e L i n i n q ^ F a c t i o n was known as the B o l s h e v i k s [ duoshu p a i 4 q&WCi l i t . " M a j o r i t y F a c t i o n " ] and the Plekhanov F a c t i o n as the Mensheviks [ shaoshu p a i A? £ l i t . " M i n o r i t y F a c t i o n " ] . 2 1 By the s p r i n g of 1918, i t was e v i d e n t t h a t the October R e v o l u t i o n was a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from p r e v i o u s r e v o l u t i o n s . P u b l i s h e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r e v o l u t i o n ' s " r a d i c a l " measures showed t h a t i t s o b j e c t i v e was not s i m p l y a change i n government, but the fundamental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s of power and p r o p e r t y which e x i s t e d i n R u s s i a . I t was a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was based upon a d e v e l o p e d t h e o r y of r e v o l u t i o n which h e l d t h a t i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r e r s were the main r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e . Where o t h e r c l a s s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p e a s a n t s , f i t i n t o t h i s t h e o r y remained t o be d e s c r i b e d . The e x t e n t of t h e B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n ' s d e p a r t u r e from e a r l i e r r e v o l u t i o n s was best seen when i t was compared t o the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . "The E v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Movement" suggested t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the two r e v o l u t i o n s was t h a t The R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n has a v e r y s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o l o u r a t i o n . You p r o b a b l y say t h a t d u r i n g the time of the French R e v o l u t i o n communism a l r e a d y e x i s t e d . T h i s cannot be d e n i e d , but the t e n e t s of modern s o c i a l i s m and the communism of t h a t time are c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t . A l t h o u g h the French R e v o l u t i o n appeared to be s i m i l a r t o today's s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , the appearance of s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n , i n f a c t b e g i n s w i t h t o day's R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n . 2 2 In the f i r s t a r t i c l e which was w r i t t e n a f t e r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n s o l e l y devoted t o a comparison of the two r e v o l u t i o n s , 2 3 L i Dazhao a l s o d e s c r i b e d the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n 28 as a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 2 " In "A Comparison of the R u s s i a n and Fren c h R e v o l u t i o n s " , L i argued t h a t the French R e v o l u t i o n was "a p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n w i t h a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o l o u r a t i o n " , w h i l e the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was "a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n [ s h e h u i geming £ ^ ] t h a t d e f i n i t e l y has a w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o l o u r a t i o n . " The former was a " n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " , w h i l e the l a t t e r was a " s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " . 2 5 The f a c t t h a t Marxism was the i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s of t h i s " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was not w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l the f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y of the October R e v o l u t i o n . I t wasn't u n t i l November 1918, f o r example, t h a t L i Dazhao l i n k e d B o l s h e v i s m and Marxism. In "The V i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' " , 2 6 p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n , he d e s c r i b e d B o l s h e v i s m as f o l l o w s : T h e i r 'ism' i s t h a t of r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s m ' . T h e i r p a r t y i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s t p a r t y . They f o l l o w the German s o c i a l i s t Makeshi [Jj*4frfc] ('Marx'). T h e i r o b j e c t i v e i s t o d e s t r o y the modern l i m i t s on s o c i a l i s m of s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s , t o d e s t r o y the c a p i t a l i s t system i n which p r o d u c t i o n o n l y b e n e f i t s i n d i v i d u a l s . 2 7 Even th e n , L i was more i n t e r e s t e d i n B o l s h e v i k i n s t i t u t i o n s than i n M a r x i s t p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n the r e s t of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m . They [t h e B o l s h e v i k s ] advocate t h a t a l l men and women sh o u l d work, t h a t a l l working men and women s h o u l d o r g a n i z e and e n t e r i n t o c o a l i t i o n s [ l i a n h e j S ; ^ ], 2 8 t h a t each c o a l i t i o n s h o u l d have a c e n t r a l r u l i n g assembly, t h a t these a s s e m b l i e s s h o u l d o r g a n i z e a l l of the governments of the w o r l d . . .There w i l l be no r u l e r s , but t h e r e w i l l be the a s s e m b l i e s of the worker's c o a l i t i o n s . E v e r y t h i n g w i l l be s u b j e c t t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . A l l p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s w i l l be owned by the workers of t h a t e n t e r p r i s e , o t h e r than t h i s t h e r e w i l l be no r i g h t s of ownership. They w i l l u n i t e t o g e t h e r the u n p r o p e r t i e d common peopl e [wuchan shumin $i ] 2 9 °f t n e whole w o r l d , take t h e i r g r e a t e s t s t r o n g e s t power of o p p o s i t i o n and c r e a t e a f r e e c o u n t r y , and f i r s t c r e a t e a European Democratic Union making i t the b a s i s f o r a World U n i o n . T h i s i s the 'ism' of ' B o l s h e v i k i ' . T h i s i s the new c r e e d of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . 3 0 In o t h e r words, L i f e l t t h a t what th e system of S o v i e t s , not Marxism, was the most a t t r a c t i v e element of B o l s h e v i s m . In F e b r u a r y 1919, L i ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e s o v i e t system l e d him t o propose i t as the form of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n best s u i t e d t o the needs of the modern w o r l d . In "Unionism and World O r g a n i z a t i o n " , 3 1 L i proposed the R u s s i a n s o v i e t system as the i n s t i t u t i o n a l model f o r both C h i n a and the r e s t of the w o r l d . He wrote t h a t the R u s s i a n and German r e v o l u t i o n s had c r e a t e d "a new k i n d of o r g a n i z a t i o n " . A c c o r d i n g t o L i , T h i s new o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a new u n i o n [ l i a n h e j&' i f r ] , which i n c r e a s e s the o l d o r g a n i z a t i o n one l e v e l , because each k i n d of i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l , s t a t e , e t h n i c , and g l o b a l , l i f e has produced a l l k i n d s of new demands which cannot be adapted t o , or s a t i s f i e d by, the o l d o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 2 In essence L i thought he was p r o p o s i n g a system of autonomous S o v i e t s e x t e n d i n g from the l o c a l t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . 3 3 However, most i n t e l l e c t u a l s were not even i n t e r e s t e d i n the system of S o v i e t s . They were i n t e r e s t e d i n B o l s h e v i s m because i t had produced a new k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n - - " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . The word " s o c i a l " (shehui ) i n the term " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i s not the r e s u l t of c o n f u s i o n w i t h the word " s o c i a l i s t " ( s h u h u i z h u y i j f ^ ^ T ^ ^ ) i n the term " s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " ( s h e h u i z h u y i geming ^ iJT xt j$ . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n both "The E v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Movement", and i n L i ' s "A Comparison of the R u s s i a n and F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n s " 30 which were the f i r s t works t o use the terms. Both used two c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t terms — s h e h u i z h u y i geminq and shehui geming. The B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y " s o c i a l " and " s o c i a l i s t " . L i opposed " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " t o " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " , and " s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " t o " n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " . The term " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " a p p a r e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o r e v o l u t i o n s t h a t sought changes i n s o c i a l or c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s , w h i l e " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s " r e f e r r e d t o changes i n p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s or r u l i n g e l i t e s , such as t h a t i n v o l v e d i n the 1911 Chinese R e v o l u t i o n . However,.the use of the term " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " t o d e s c r i b e the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n s u g g e s t s the e x t e n t of the c o n f u s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o B o l s h e v i s m and a n a r c h i s m . " S o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was the a n a r c h i s t term f o r the r e v o l u t i o n t h a t they wished t o c r e a t e . 3 4 The d i s t i n c t i o n between " s o c i a l " and " p o l i t i c a l " r e v o l u t i o n s was m a i n t a i n e d by i n t e l l e c t u a l s of v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s . There were those who agreed w i t h L i Dazhao t h a t the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n had u n l eashed "a t i d e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . . . [ w h i c h ] . . .must f i l l the w o r l d " . 3 5 In the b e g i n n i n g of 1919, f o r example, a c o n t r i b u t o r t o X i n Chao wrote, C o u n t r i e s of Europe and China r i s e up i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ! R e v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n type has a l r e a d y reached Germany. From now on, r e v o l u t i o n s of the F r e n c h t y p e — p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s — h a v e , f o r the most p a r t , become t h i n g s of the p a s t . R e v o l u t i o n s of the R u s s i a n type w i l l spread e v e r y w h e r e . 3 6 Those who r e j e c t e d s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n as a premature s o l u t i o n t o C h i n a ' s problems, a l s o a c c e p t e d the d i s t i n c t i o n between p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s . In May 1919,'for example, a c o n t r i b u t o r t o Meizhou P i n g l u n p o i n t e d out i n "The E v i l s of the . 3 1 Gentry C l a s s " t h a t t h e r e were two typ e s of r e v o l u t i o n s i n h i s t o r y — F r e n c h - s t y l e " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s " i n which the b o u r g e o i s i e " (youchan zhe j i e j i jft% pffjIL l i t . " p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " ) overthrew "the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s ( g u i z u j i e j i ^  ^ and R u s s i a n - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s " of "the p r o l e t a r i a t " ( wuchan zhe j i e j i ^ > j j £ f i i f o f f i , l i t . " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " ) a g a i n s t "the b o u r g e o i s i e " . C h i n a , the a r t i c l e c o n t i n u e d , was not ready f o r " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " because the 1911 " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " had o n l y overthrown the Emperor. Ch i n a ' s e q u i v a l e n t of "the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s " - , "the g e n t r y c l a s s " ( s h i d a i f u j i e j i ^ flfi ^/S. ) was s t i l l i n power. China f i r s t had t o complete her " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n o r d e r t o re a c h the age of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . The second r e v o l u t i o n would be r e l a t i v e l y easy t o ac h i e v e because of the weakness of the domestic b o u r g e o i s i e . 3 7 Chen D u x i u , who b e f o r e the May F o u r t h Movement d i d not advocate e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , a l s o a d m i t t e d t h a t the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n was a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 3 8 Even i n f a r o f f p r o v i n c i a l Hunan, i t was argued t h a t t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e between F r e n c h s t y l e " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s " and R u s s i a n - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s " . In J u l y 1919, w r i t i n g i n "The Great U n i t y of the P o p u l a r M a s s e s " , 3 9 Mao Tse-tung s t a t e d , •ince t h e ^ v i c t o r y of "the p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m " [ z h e n q z h i  [aige /%B#J?} i n France i n which the g r e a t union of S: 2a: the p o p u l a r masses overcame the g r e a t union of the f o l l o w e r s of the k i n g , a l l c o u n t r i e s have f o l l o w e d them g i v i n g r i s e t o many " p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m s " . S i n c e the . v i c t o r y of the " s o c i a l r e f o r m " [ shehui g a i g e ] i n R u s s i a l a s t y e a r , i n which the g r e a t union of the po p u l a r masses overcame the g r e a t union of the a r i s t o c r a t s , and c a p i t a l i s t s , c o u n t r i e s l i k e Hungary, A u s t r i a , C z e c h o s l o v a k i a and Germany, have f o l l o w e d i t 32 g i v i n g r i s e t o many " s o c i a l r e f o r m s " . A l t h o u g h i t s v i c t o r y i s not y e t complete, i t i s c o n c e i v a l b e not o n l y t h a t i t w i l l be completed but t h a t i t w i l l s pread throughout the w o r l d . * 0 I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s widely, a c c e p t e d the view t h a t the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was a new k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n - - " a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " , a k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n which was s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those of the p a s t . At the same t i m e , however, the mere f a c t t h a t Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s used the term " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " to d e s c r i b e B o l s h e v i s m suggests t h a t they saw the r e v o l u t i o n i n the l i g h t of a n o n - M a r x i s t p h i l o s o p h y — a n a r c h i s m . To the C h i n e s e , B o l s h e v i s m resembled a n a r c h i s m becaue they were p r o f o u n d l y i g n o r a n t of B o l s h e v i s m ' s r e a l i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s - - M a r x i s m . 2. C h i n a : The N e c e s s i t y of " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " W i t h i n a few months of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , i t was apparent t h a t the w o r l d would never be the same, t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of B o l s h e v i s m would e x t e n d f a r beyond the b o r d e r s of R u s s i a . By e a r l y 1919, some i n t e l l e c t u a l s , most n o t a b l y L i Dazhao, were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . B o l s h e v i s m was seen as the s o l u t i o n t o many of the problems t h a t a f f l i c t e d C h i n a . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n s i n R u s s i a and China l e d t o r e p e a t e d c a l l s f o r B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n C h i n a . In A p r i l 1918, "The E v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Movement" c a l l e d the r e v o l u t i o n "the most i m p o r t a n t event i n the h i s t o r y of w o r l d c i v i l i z a t i o n " , " 1 w h i l e L i Dazhao added i n June t h a t 33 H i s t o r y i s the r e c o r d of common p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . . .The Fre n c h R e v o l u t i o n was not o n l y an i n d i c a t i o n of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the sentiment of the the French p e o p l e , but i n f a c t was an i n d i c a t i o n of the the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the common human ps y c h o l o g y of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n i s not o n l y a s i g n of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the sentiment of the R u s s i a n p e o p l e , but i n f a c t i s a c l e a r s i g n of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of common human p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . " 2 By the summer of 1918, L i was sy m p a t h e t i c t o the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , but had not w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a c c e p t e d B o l s h e v i s m as the s o l u t i o n t o China's problems. L i was not t o r e c o g n i z e B o l s h e v i s m as the p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o Chinese problems u n t i l B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e r e v o l u t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n A u s t r i a and Germany. In "The V i c t o r y of the Common P e o p l e " , * 3 p u b l i s h e d i n November, 1918, L i Dazhao p o i n t e d out t h a t the d e f e a t . o f Germany was not "the v i c t o r y of t h e f o r c e of arms of the A l l i e s ; i t i s t h a t of the new. s p i r i t of mankind." P o l i t i c a l l y , the s u r r e n d e r of Germany was the d e f e a t of "Pan ism" (da z h u y i K) and m i l i t a r i s m . S o c i a l l y i t was the v i c t o r y of democracy and of "the common p e o p l e " (shumin ). I t was "the d e f e a t of c a p i t a l i s m and the v i c t o r y of l a b o u r i s m [ la o q o n g z h u y i $ V( ] . " * " L i gave the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of the war: . . .The r e a l reason f o r t h i s war was the development of c a p i t a l i s m . I t s p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s [shengchan l i ^ ^ "f\ ] c o u l d no l o n g e r be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of a s t a t e . The c a p i t a l i s t governments r e l i e d on war t o .. e s t a b l i s h w o r l d empires c e n t r e d i n t h e i r o w n ^ c o u n t r i e s so as t o e s t a b l i s h an economic o r g a n i z a t i o n which s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r d omestic c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s . " 5 W h i l e the competing i n t e r e s t s of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s of the d i f f e r e n t powers had s t a r t e d the war,. 34 The l a b o u r s o c i e t i e s [ laodonq shehui JfilJI j& < ] of R u s s i a , Germany, and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , f i r s t saw through [the c a p i t a l i s t s ' ] a m b i t i o n s , and d u r i n g the war rose up i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , and r e p r e s s e d the c a p i t a l i s t governments' war." 6 In "The V i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' " , a l s o p u b l i s h e d at t h i s t i m e , L i r e s t a t e d h i s view t h a t the A l l i e d v i c t o r y was not the r e s u l t of armed f o r c e . R a t h e r , i t i s the v i c t o r y of German s o c i a l i s m over German m i l i t a r i s m . . . . [ I t ] i s the v i c t o r y of humanism; the v i c t o r y of p e a c e f u l i d e o l o g y ; the v i c t o r y of common r i g h t ; the v i c t o r y of s o c i a l i s m ; the v i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' . " 7 The B o l s h e v i k s denounced the war as the C z a r ' s , the K a i s e r ' s , and the c a p i t a l i s t s ' , and not t h a t of the p e o p l e . . . .[The B o l s h e v i k s ' ] war i s c l a s s war; t h a t i s a war a l o n g s i d e the w o r l d u n p r o p e r t i e d common people [wuchan  shumin a g a i n s t w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m . " 8 In L i ' s view, the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n had unleashed an i n t e r n a t i o n a l t i d e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . " 9 T h i s view was w i d e l y shared a t the b e g i n n i n g of 1919 as c a l l s f o r r e v o l u t i o n were made. In Ja n u a r y , 1919, X i n Chao wrote t h a t B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e r e v o l u t i o n was s p r e a d i n g throughout the w o r l d and c a l l e d upon the p e o p l e of China " t o r i s e up i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 5 0 In F e b r u a r y , the s t u d e n t j o u r n a l , Guomin, e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r v i e w s : The t i d e of new thought which s t a r t e d i n R u s s i a has reached Germany; i t s r i p p l e s a r e c o v e r i n g the A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c and are even r e a c h i n g our A s i a , 5 1 T h i s " t i d e " was r e s u l t i n g i n the c r e a t i o n of l a b o u r e r s ' governments throughout the w o r l d . . . . R u s s i a and Germany have not o n l y overthrown t h e i r u n c a r i n g b u r e a u c r a t s , but have s e t up a l a b o u r e r ' s government. I f Englan d , F r a n c e , A merica, I t a l y , a l l have 35 a l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , the new w o r l d of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w i l l be put i n t o e f f e c t , l a b o u r e r ' s governments w i l l cover the w o r l d . 5 2 Meizhou P i n g l u n j o i n e d the c a l l f o r " i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n February 1919. The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y F r e n c h people were not a b l e t o bear the a u t h o r i t y [qiangquan] of the a r i s t o c r a t s , and a c c o r d i n g l y rose up i n domestic r e v o l u t i o n . In the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , the people of a l l weak c o u n t r i e s are unable t o bear the a u t h o r i t y of the s t r o n g c o u n t r i e s , and w i l l a c c o r d i n g l y r i s e u p . i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n . The o b j e c t of r e v o l u t i o n i s a u t h o r i t y . The hope of r e v o l u t i o n i s freedom. No matter the l e v e l of development of p o l i t i c s i n each c o u n t r y today, t h e r e i s o n l y one k i n d of a u t h o r i t y on top of i t s p e o p l e . Our China i s even more p i t i f u l . A s i d e from domestic a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e i s e v e r y k i n d of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . Domestic a u t h o r i t y i s f u r t h e r s p l i t up i n t o the a u t h o r i t y of the n o r t h and t h a t of the s o u t h . Three k i n d s of a u t h o r i t y are f i x e d upon the heads of our p e o p l e . I f we wish t o a b o l i s h a u t h o r i t y we must a b o l i s h a l l t h r e e . 5 3 By A p r i l 1919, sympathy f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n on the p a r t of the n a t i o n a l i s t p r e s s was r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . Guomin  R i b a o , the Guomindang organ, f o r example, p u b l i s h e d " R u s s i a under the Rule of the Workers' and P e a s a n t s ' G o v e r n m e n t — t h e T r u t h about C a r r y i n g out S o c i a l Communism," 5" which f a v o u r a b l y compared the s i t u a t i o n i n R u s s i a w i t h t h a t i n C h i n a . In terms of e d u c a t i o n , the system of l a n d t e n u r e , e l e c t i o n s , government o r g a n i z a t i o n , s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n , unemployment i n s u r a n c e , m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s , and s e x u a l e q u a l i t y , i t found R u s s i a f a r s u p e r i o r t o C h i n a . 5 5 On the eve of the May F o u r t h Movement even Chen Duxiu g r u d g i n g l y a d m i t t e d t h a t C o n t e m p o r a r i e s of the p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s of e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y F r a n c e , and the s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n of t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y R u s s i a s e v e r e l y c u r s e d them; but l a t e r 36 h i s t o r i a n s w i l l make them the keys t o the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of human s o c i e t y and advancement. 5 6 Not a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l s s h a red t h i s e nthusiasm f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . Most s t i l l c l u n g t o the view t h a t the s o l u t i o n to C h i n a ' s problems l a y w i t h the Western A l l i e s . The much r e p r i n t e d views of C a i Yuanpei were an example of t h i s a t t i t u d e towards the A l l i e s . In h i s a r t i c l e , "The Great War and P h i l o s o p h y " , C a i suggested t h a t , "the Great War i n Europe i s the most im p o r t a n t w o r l d event s i n c e the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . " 5 7 J u s t as the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n had c r e a t e d an i n f l u e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h y - -democracy, so had the F i r s t World War. In f a c t , the war was one of c o n t e n d i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s . F i r s t i s N i e t z s c h e ' s p h i l o s o p h y of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m [ qiangquanzhuy i ^Jjl •£ yC] . I w i l l use Germany's p r i n c i p l e s as proof of t h i s . Second i s T o l s t o y ' s p h i l o s o p h y of n o n - r e s i s t a n c e [wu d i k a n q z h u y i ^ stfl- ^ ^ J• 1 w i l l use the p r i n c i p l e s of the R u s s i a n R a d i c a l F a c t i o n as p r o o f of t h i s . T h i r d i s K r o p o t k i n ' s p h i l o s o p h y of mutual a i d [huzhu^Jjjf ] . I w i l l use the A l l i e s as p r o o f of t h i s . 5 8 A l t h o u g h he a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e were some d i f f e r e n c e s between the B o l s h e v i k s and T o l s t o y , C a i s a i d , The l e a d e r s of the R a d i c a l F a c t i o n , L i n i n g ( ' L e n i n e ' ) , e t c . , embraced communism, j u s t l i k e T o l s t o y , and n a t u r a l l y embraced n o n - r e s i s t a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , they s e p a r a t e l y t a l k e d peace w i t h Germany and were u n w i l l i n g t o make war t o g e t h e r w i t h the A l l i e s . 5 9 C a i c o n c l u d e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the v i c t o r y of the A l l i e s , who had c o - o p e r a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , proved t h a t m u t u a l - a i d was the best of the t h r e e p h i l o s o p h i e s . 6 0 "The Great War and P h i l o s o p h y " r e v e a l s the ambivalence t h a t most i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the New C u l t u r e Movement f e l t towards the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n b e f o r e May 4 , 1 9 1 9 . 37 A l t h o u g h the a r t i c l e i s d a t e d June 1918 i n C a i ' s c o l l e c t e d works, i t was r e p r i n t e d a t l e a s t t w i c e i n e a r l y 1 9 1 9 . 6 1 A s i m i l a r a r t i c l e w i t h the same t i t l e appears i n the November 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n . 6 2 T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t e d i t o r s l i k e d t o use C a i ' s a r t i c l e t o r e f u t e L i Dazhao's view t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s were the r e a l v i c t o r s of the war. And y e t , the a r t i c l e c o n t a i n s g r o s s i d e o l o g i c a l d i s t o r t i o n s of the p r i n c i p l e s of the new government i n R u s s i a , and, f o r t h a t m a t t e r , those of the A l l i e s . I t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between T o l s t o y ' s U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s m and the communism of the B o l s h e v i k s . T o l s t o y would have a c c e p t e d n e i t h e r the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t nor v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n . I t i s e q u a l l y d o u b t f u l t h a t K r o p o t k i n would have s e r i o u s l y argued t h a t the T r i p l e E n t e n t e was a " p r o o f " of the s u p e r i o r i t y of mutual a i d . I f C a i ' s a r t i c l e was indeed w r i t t e n i n June, then h i s e q u a t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m w i t h the U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s m of T o l s t o y was e x c u s a b l e . Indeed, g i v e n the r a t h e r p r i m i t i v e a n a l y s i s of B o l s h e v i s m t h a t e x i s t e d a t t h a t t i m e , h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m w i t h "communism" was a s i g n i f i c a n t advancement. But t h i s would not account f o r the a r t i c l e ' s r e p r o d u c t i o n . As has been remarked above, most i n t e l l e c t u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the New C u l t u r e Movement su p p o r t e d the Western A l l i e s . C a i was no e x c e p t i o n . The f a c t t h a t he was the keynote speaker a t the November r a l l y i n Tiananmen square, which c e l e b r a t e d the A l l i e d v i c t o r y , 6 3 s u g g e s t s t h a t he was one of the c h i e f p a r t i s a n s of the A l l i e d c a use. He must, t h e r e f o r e , have viewed R u s s i a ' s s e p a r a t e peace w i t h Germany as a d i s a s t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , C a i h e l d the v i e w, shared by o t h e r New 38 C u l t u r e i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n c l u d i n g L i Dazhao, t h a t e d u c a t i o n , not the p u t c h i s m p r e v a l e n t i n Chinese r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c s a t the t i m e , was the s o l u t i o n t o C hina's p r o b l e m s . 6 " Thus he would n a t u r a l l y be d i s t r u s t f u l of the r e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a . Even then C a i ' s c r i t i q u e of B o l s h e v i s m was remarkably g e n t l e . H i s t h e s i s was t h a t mutual a i d ( i . e the A l l i e d cause) was more e f f e c t i v e than n o n - r e s i s t a n c e ( i . e . B o l s h e v i s m ) and not t h a t the former was somehow m o r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o the l a t t e r . H i s e q u a t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m and the n o n - v i o l e n c e of the s a i n t e d T o l s t o y was i n e f f e c t a statement t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was not a l l t h a t bad. F u r t h e r m o r e , h i s a n a l y s i s e n a b l e d him t o e x p l a i n the R u s s i a n w i t h d r a w l from the war w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o condemn i t . Thus not even C a i Yuanpei was w i l l i n g t o r e j e c t B o l s h e v i s m out of hand. Other i n t e l l e c t u a l s agreed t h a t " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was i n e v i t a b l e i n C h ina but argued t h a t the time was not y e t r i p e . T h i s was the p o s i t i o n t aken i n "The Reasons f o r the Lack of Success of China's P o l i t i c a l R e v o l u t i o n and the Non-Occurrence of S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " , 6 5 which was p u b l i s h e d i n the A p r i l , 1919, Dongfang Z a z h i . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a r t i c l e , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s had been s u c c e s s f u l i n Europe because they had u n i t e d knowledge and a c t i o n . 6 6 S o c i e t y e v o l v e d t h r ough t h r e e s t a g e s . In the f i r s t s t age l a b o u r was i n d i v i d u a l . Those whose m i l i t a r y a b i l i t i e s , and those whose "knowledge power" ( z h i l i j] ), were b e t t e r than the s o c i a l average became the a r i s t o c r a t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . As the a r i s t o c r a t s came t o share the knowledge of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the two c l a s s e s become a s i n g l e c l a s s . S o c i e t y became o r g a n i z e d i n t o the two c l a s s e s of the r u l e r s and the r u l e d . The a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s [ g u i z u 39 and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s [ z h i s h i j i e j i %Lu%jit%ill] combined t o g e t h e r becoming the r u l i n g c l a s s L z h i zhe j i e j i ^ % ffffft] • The l a b o u r i n g c l a s s became the r u l e d c l a s s [ b e i z h i zhe j i e j i ^^.Pff^} . 6 7 E v e n t u a l l y p r o p e r t y appeared. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the " P o l i t i c a l R e v o l u t i o n " and the second stage i n which.an i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s once a g a i n came i n t o e x i s t e n c e . I n t e l l e c t u a l s ' knowledge a l l o w e d them, t o i n v e n t new methods of p r o d u c i n g p r o p e r t y , or a l l o w e d them to manage e x i s t i n g e n t e r p r i s e s more e f f i c i e n t l y , thus they j o i n e d the ranks of the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . A g a i n , S o c i e t y became o r g a n i z e d i n t o the two c l a s s e s of the managers and the managed. The p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [ c a i c h a n  j i e j i j£q r % //?3 and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s combined t o g e t h e r t o form the managing c l a s s [ z h i p e i j i e j i ffij fift i>JL. ]• T n e l a b o u r i n g c l a s s becomes the managed c l a s s [ b e i z h i p e i j i e j i . 6 8 But p r o p e r t y accumulated i n the hands of the few, t h u s , The m i d d l e c l a s s [ zhongdenq j i e j i which p o s s e s s e d p r o p e r t y or knowledge, or those who had l o s t t h e i r p r o p e r t y , or those who owned l i t t l e p r o p e r t y , were unable t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r l i v e s , and c o u l d o n l y e n t e r the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d . T h i s was the l a b o u r i z a t i o n .[laodonghua $a-iJi fo] of the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s . 6 9 Meanwhile the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s , because of the spread of e d u c a t i o n , had become educated and i t s c o n s c i o u s n e s s had been awakened. Workers and i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e r e f o r e would u n i t e t o g e t h e r and b r i n g about the " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " and the t h i r d p e r i o d i n which c l a s s e s would be a b o l i s h e d and e q u a l i t y and freedom r e a l i z e d . 7 0 The a r t i c l e went on t o p o i n t out t h a t Europe and America were i n the t h i r d stage w h i l e China was s t i l l i n the second s t a g e . T h e r e f o r e China had not y e t reached the stage of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . 7 1 T h i s p o s i t i o n - - t h a t s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e but not immanent—was a l s o taken by Meizhou P i n q l u n i n "The E v i l s of the Gentry C l a s s " p u b l i s h e d i n May, 1 9 1 9 . 7 2 A f t e r the news reached P e k i n g t h a t the Western A l l i e s d i d not i n t e n d t o honour t h e i r propaganda about "democracy" and " n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n " , the view t h a t a major t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Chinese s o c i e t y was i n e v i t a b l e and n e c e s s a r y became w i d e l y h e l d . In J u l y 1919, Mao Tse-tung p o i n t e d out t h a t s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was s p r e a d i n g thoughout the w o r l d . The key to t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , he argued, was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of unions of p e o p l e , and unions of u n i o n s — t h u s e c h o i n g the p o s i t i o n t h a t h i s sometime t e a c h e r , L i Dazhao, had put f o r w a r d i n F e b r u a r y of the same y e a r . 7 3 L i h i m s e l f argued f o r s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . In the summer of 1919, he wrote i n " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and M u t u a l A i d " 7 " t h a t "the s p i r i t of mutual a i d " was. i n complete c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g " s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " . T h e r e f o r e , t o p r e s e r v e the s p i r i t of mutual a i d , " c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n " had t o be u s e d . 7 5 In "Again on Problems and 'Isms'" he argued t h a t the study of "isms" was e s s e n t i a l t o b r i n g i n g about the fundamental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 7 6 H i s views were shared by h i s f e l l o w M a r x i s t Zhou Fuh a i who a l s o i d e n t i f i e d two k i n d s of r e v o l u t i o n s - - p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l , and advocated the l a t t e r i n C h i n a . 7 7 In September 1919, J i e f a n g yu G a i z a o ("The E m a n c i p a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Weekly"), the J i n b u d a n g organ, r e c o r d e d the f o l l o w i n g h i s t o r i c a l phenomena i n i t s M a n i f e s t o : At the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the h i s t o r y of c i v i l i z a t i o n , the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s [ g u i z u j i e j i % -frfe Pf/tiL) got power. L a t e r the market-merchant c l a s s [ s h i s h a n g j i e j i $ Pffid.] (BOURGEOISIE) ar o s e w i t h the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 41 movement thus g e t t i n g power. Today the peasant-worker c l a s s [ nonggong j i e j i feX- PfitJS*) (PROLETARIAT) i s a r i s i n g and must i n e v i t a b l y a t t a i n p o w e r . 7 8 The m a n i f e s t o went on t o say t h a t s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be brought about by " a l l c l a s s e s and n a t i o n s " u n i t i n g t o g e t h e r f o r t h e "common h a p p i n e s s of h u m a n i t y " . 7 9 By November 1919, the view was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a major s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was immanent. An example of t h i s view can be found i n "The Second Stage of World T r a n s f o r m a t i o n " which was p u b l i s h e d i n the November 1919 i s s u e of Dongfang Z a z h i . 8 0 The f i r s t " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " had been the c r e a t i o n of the League of N a t i o n s . The second stage " w i l l not r e l y upon the power of the s t a t e but w i l l r e l y upon the power of the masses t o f u n d a m e n t a l l y t r a n s f o r m s o c i e t y . " W h i l e the League of N a t i o n s had r e s o l v e d the c o n f l i c t between n a t i o n s , i t remained t o r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t between "the upper c l a s s " (shangcenq j i e j i _t 4; ffifM.) and "the lower c l a s s " ( x i a c e n q j i e j i 'tM Pff&) , between "the r i c h c l a s s " ( f u z h e j i e j i $ % Pftjfi) and "the c l a s s of the poor" ( p i n zhe j i e j i Pff^) , and between "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " ( z i b e n j i e j i '[j&t$B) and the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s (laodong j i e j i ffif^ fft£$^8 1 The problem was t h a t A l t h o u g h the s t a t e as a u n i t of defense a g a i n s t f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n , as a u n i t f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the l i v e s and p r o p e r t y of the p e o p l e , and as a u n i t of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , has done a g r e a t d e a l f o r humanity, i t has, at the same t i m e , a l s o brought the g r e a t e s t m i s f o r t u n e upon humanity, most of which can be blamed upon the use of the s t a t e f o r i t s own ends by the upper c l a s s m i n o r i t y . The a c t i o n s of the s t a t e i n f o r e i g n a f f a i r s are d e termined by the o p i n i o n of p a r t of the upper c l a s s . The people don't know t h i s so they p r a i s e , or consent t o , the i n t e r e s t s of the s t a t e , i . e . from b i r t h they answer the c a l l s of the upper c l a s s , t a k i n g i t s i n t e r e s t s as t h e i r own. I dare not hope t o s u b v e r t the government of e v e r y c o u n t r y , I dare not hope t h a t every c o u n t r y w i l l r i s e up 42 i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n t o d e s t r o y the p r e s e n t o r d e r , but from now on s o c i e t y i s ad v a n c i n g towards the a c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c l a s s e s . 8 2 T h e r e f o r e , the second stage of w o r l d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n would see the a b o l i t i o n of c l a s s e s . The s t u d e n t j o u r n a l Guomin a l s o argued f o r " s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " . In November 1919, one of i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s , e x h i b i t i n g the d i s t a s t e t h a t many young i n t e l l e c t u a l s f e l t f o r Chin e s e s o c i e t y , condemned i t i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: What, k i n d of s o c i e t y i s the s o c i e t y of the w o r l d today? I t i s a s o c i e t y of p a r a s i t i c l i f e , a s o c i e t y w i t h an advanced system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , a s o c i e t y i n which w a r l o r d s oppress the common p e o p l e , a s o c i e t y i n which c a p i t a l i s t s oppress l a b o u r e r s , a s o c i e t y i n which men oppress women. A l a s , ' t h e s o c i e t y of today i s a s o c i e t y w i t h o u t a o a t h of l i f e . I t i s an a u t h o r i t i a r i a n ( qiangquanjjl^frsO s o c i e t y t h a t l a c k s r e a s o n . I t i s a s o c i e t y o f e v i l s p i r i t s , d a r k n e s s , a m e r c i l e s s heaven and of i n h u m a n i t y . 8 3 The b a s i c problem of t h i s inhumane s o c i e t y l a y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l . L e t ' s look a t the s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n today's s o c i e t y . The average l a b o u r e r , who works more than t w e l v e hours a day u n t i l hands and f e e t a r e c a l l o u s e d , sweats t o produce e v e r y t h i n g . The bread earned by t h i s l a b o u r i s b a r e l y enough t o a v o i d s t a r v i n g t o dea t h . The wages earned today a re o n l y enough f o r today's f o o d . The wages earned tomorrow a re o n l y enough f o r tomorrow's c l o t h e s . When an unexpected e v e n t , such as drought and n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r or p l a g u e , happens, they cannot work and must s i t a w a i t i n g d eath by s t a r v a t i o n . The c a p i t a l i s t s own banks, f a c t o r i e s , and l a n d , and are ve r y r i c h . In b u s i n e s s they add p r o f i t on top of p r o f i t , as l a n d l o r d s they use l a n d t o buy more l a n d . They expend a few ve r y low wages t o h i r e c o u n t l e s s workers t o produce f o r them, thus r e a p i n g t h e i r p r o f i t s s e v e r a l times o v e r . They use t h i s c l e v e r l y d e c e i t f u l method of l i v i n g t o f u l f i l t h e i r p a r a s i t i c l i v e s . . . . The o r d i n a r y l a b o u r e r becomes a l a b o u r machine whose sons and daughters become the s l a v e s of the c a p i t a l i s t . 8 " A c c o r d i n g t o Guomin the sour c e of t h i s i n e q u i t y was p r i v a t e 43 p r o p e r t y . T h i s p a l p a b l e d i s t a s t e f o r the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r , was a l s o e v i d e n t i n o t h e r j o u r n a l s . The November 1919 m a n i f e s t o of Zhuguang, s a i d , Those of us who l i v e i n modern Chinese s o c i e t y , f e e l t h a t the a i r a l l around us i s dark and f o u l as i f we were i n the i n n e r most c i r c l e of h e l l . How can i t s t a y l i k e t h i s w i t h o u t b e i n g reformed and remain a human s o c i e t y ? T h e r e f o r e , we are not a t peace w i t h l i f e today and w i s h t o c r e a t e a new l i f e , we a r e not c o n t e n t w i t h s o c i e t y today and wish t o c r e a t e a new s o c i e t y . 8 5 In December 1919, X i a o n i a n Shehui saw s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as the key t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of democracy In our c o u n t r y , e v i l b u r e a u c r a t s have p o l i t i c a l power, w a r l o r d s have m i l i t a r y power, c a p i t a l i s t s have economic power. I t i s r e a l l y u n f a i r t h a t t h i s gang of p e o p l e s a c r i f i c e s the ha p p i n e s s of a m a j o r i t y f o r t h e i r own ha p p i n e s s even though they are a m i n o r i t y . A c l a s s l i k e t h i s i s a s o c i a l d i s e a s e . I f we want s o c i e t y t o be h e a l t h y , we must move towards democracy, . . . i n which case we must overthrow the e v i l b u r e a u c r a t s , d e s t r o y the w a r l o r d s , c o n t r o l the c a p i t a l i s t s , i n a word, e r a d i c a t e c l a s s e s , and work f o r the e q u a l i t y of a l l . 8 6 On the eve of the May F o u r t h I n c i d e n t , sympathy f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was r e a d i l y apparent on the p a r t of some i n t e l l e c t u a l s . I t seemed as i f the m i l l e n i a was a t hand and t h a t B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " would soon u n f o l d i n C h i n a . Even those who r e j e c t e d " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " as premature g i v e n C hinese c o n d i t i o n s , acknowledged t h a t i n the lon g run i t was not o n l y i n e v i t a b l e , but d e s i r a b l e . Thus, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t by the end of 1919 the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was seen as a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from p r e v i o u s r e v o l u t i o n s . At the same t i m e , B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was seen by a t l e a s t some i n t e l l e c t u a l s as the 44 s o l u t i o n t o Chinese s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problems. T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m as the s o l u t i o n t o Chinese problems would s h o r t l y l e a d t o the b e g i n n i n g s of the Chinese communist movement which would d e f i n e B o l s h e v i k " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " as i t s o b j e c t i v e , and R u s s i a as i t s model. The b a s i s of t h i s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t B o l s h e v i s m as a methodology of r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d b e . d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o China was the b e l i e f t h a t the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of China and p r e - B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a were s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r as t o be almost i d e n t i c a l . T h i s b e l i e f i n the s i m i l a r i t y of R u s s i a n and Chinese s o c i e t y would r e s u l t i n what was, i n e f f e c t , the m e c h a n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the B o l s h e v i k model of communist r e v o l u t i o n , i n so f a r as the e a r l y C hinese communists u n d e r s t o o d i t , t o Chinese c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s meant t h a t the e a r l y Chinese communists were t o t a l l y unaware of the s t r a t e g i c problems they would encounter on the way t o t h e i r v i c t o r y . For the time b e i n g , t h e i r p a t h of r e v o l u t i o n was c l e a r — t h a t taken by the B o l s h e v i k s i n R u s s i a . They c o u l d even j u s t i f y the use of t h i s p a t h i n C h i n a , on the grounds t h a t i t had worked i n R u s s i a . A f t e r November 1918 , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s knew t h a t Marxism, not a n a r c h i s m , was the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of B o l s h e v i s m , But they knew next t o n o t h i n g of Marxism. T h i s i g n o r a n c e of Marxism had e a r l i e r l e d them t o h e r a l d the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n as the a n a r c h i s t m i l l e n i u m - - t h e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . Now they found themselves i n the odd p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g t o l e a r n more about Marxism i f they were t o b r i n g about a n a r c h i s m ' s much d e s i r e d " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 45 Chapter Two  Marxism: Id e a s , P r o p e r t y and C l a s s S t r u g g l e 1. The D e s c r i p t i o n of Marxism, 1919-1920 D u r i n g the year between the p u b l i c a t i o n of X i n  Q i n g n i a n ' s " S p e c i a l Issue on Marxism" i n May 1919, and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t complete t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist  M a n i f e s t o i n A p r i l 1920, M a r x i s t thought became w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d i n C h i n a . But Marxism d i d not have an immediate r e v o l u t i o n a r y impact upon the fundamental w o r l d - v i e w of the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l . I n t e l l e c t u a l s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of Marxism were at best s u p e r f i c i a l , and were c o n s e q u e n t l y c o n t a m i n a t e d by by the n o n - M a r x i s t i d e a s and t h e o r i e s a l r e a d y w e l l known i n C h i n a . T h i s c o n t a m i n a t i o n was no l e s s e v i d e n t on the p a r t of those who c o n s i d e r e d themsleves t o be M a r x i s t s than on the p a r t of n o n - M a r x i s t s . Those who t r i e d t o a p p l y Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y t o the h i s t o r y of Chinese thought c o n f u s e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m w i t h economic d e t e r m i n i s m , and i n e f f e c t c o n t i n u e d t o h o l d t o an i d e a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y . The t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e was reduced t o the a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t Marx h e l d t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . C l a s s s t r u g g l e was seen as one amongst many methods of b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . C h i n e s e M a r x i s t s remained c o m p l e t e l y unaware of the c o m p l e x i t y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n C h i n a , and i n e f f e c t m e c h a n i c a l l y a p p l i e d the European model of s t r u g g l e between two c l a s s e s t o t h e i r own soc i e t y . As i t became apparent t h a t the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n was no o r d i n a r y p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s became 46 i n t e r e s t e d i n the p h i l o s o p h y of K a r l Marx. S i n c e the B o l s h e v i k s were c a r r y i n g out a M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n a c o u n t r y whose economy, l i k e t h a t of C h i n a , was backwards, Marxism ceased t o be a p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y t h a t was o n l y " r e l e v e n t t o the advanced s o c i e t i e s of the West", and the way was c l e a r f o r Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s t o the problems which a f f i c t e d t h e i r s o c i e t y , t o s t u d y Marxism. 1 I n t e r e s t i n Marxism was e v i d e n t by A p r i l 1919. The A p r i l 1919 i s s u e of Dongfang Zazhi p u b l i s h e d an o u t l i n e of Marx's p h i l o s o p h y of " s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m " . 2 T h i s o u t l i n e l i s t e d Marx's t h e o r i e s as the economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y , s u r p l u s v a l u e , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e ( j i e j i z h i zhanzheng . Pft tf% 2-Pf£*^t l i t . " c l a s s war") on the one hand, and the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c a p i t a l on the o t h e r , 3 but the a r t i c l e d i d not d e s c r i b e t h e s e t h e o r i e s . At the b e g i n n i n g of A p r i l , Meizhou P i n g l u n t r a n s l a t e d the s e c t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o which o u t l i n e s the immediate measures t o be taken by a communist government once i t g e t s i n t o power." Such measures as the a b o l i t i o n of l a n d t e n u r e and the c r e a t i o n of a s t a t e bank must have sounded f a m i l i a r t o r e a d e r s of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , f o r t h e s e were measures which they knew had a l r e a d y been taken by the B o l s h e v i k government. The most d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of Marxism b e f o r e May 1919 was a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l : i n Meizhou P i n g l u n . " A n a r c h i s t Communism and S t a t e S o c i a l i s m " 5 compared the t h e o r i e s of K r o p o t k i n and Marx. I t gave the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of K r o p o t k i n ' s t h e o r y of m u t u a l - a i d : M u t u a l - a i d a n a r c h i s m [As opposed t o o t h e r s c h o o l s of an a r c h i s m ] i s o r g a n i z e d , p o s i t i v e , and c o n s t r u c t i v e . I t 47 seeks the overthrow of the e x t r e m e l y s o r r o w f u l s o c i e t y of t o d a y , c r e a t i n g i n i t s p l a c e a f o r t u n a t e new s o c i e t y . On the n e g a t i v e s i d e , m u t u a l - a i d a n a r c h i s m opposes a l l forms of a u t h o r i t y [qianqquanfffr ] , whether t h a t of the s t a t e , r e l i g i o n , s o c i e t y , or the f a m i l y . In terms of i t s p o s i t i v e a s p e c t , i t seeks the c r e a t i o n of an e x t r e m e l y e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y based upon m u t u a l - a i d . . . .In o t h e r words, [ K r o p o t k i n ' s ] o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i d e a d e p a r t s from the a u t h o r i t a r i a n p o l i t i c a l r u l e of the m i n o r i t y and e s t a b l i s h e s autonomous b o d i e s [ z i z h i t u a n t i a p p r o p r i a t e to human e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t b e i n g burdened by a l a r g e s t a t e . In terms of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , [he] adv o c a t e s t h a t organs of p r o d u c t i o n ( l i k e l a n d , machinery, e t c . ) and p r o d u c t s ( l i k e a g r i c u l t u r e produce, h o u s i n g , e t c . ) s h o u l d be communally owned by these s o c i a l b o d i e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g a communal s o c i e t y [gongchan  d i shehui j£ j* teJ&i£} based on the p r i n c i p l e of from each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t y , t o each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s need. 6 The a r t i c l e then found t h a t Marxism was remarkably s i m i l a r t o K r o p o t k i n i s m . [Marxism] advocates c l a s s war which w i l l see the l a b o u r e r s overthrow the c a p i t a l i s t s , and themselves o r g a n i z e a government which c o n t r o l s a l l p r o d u c t i v e organs and c e n t r a l i z e s c o n t r o l over t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications. Because [ i t ] makes much of the importance of the s t a t e , and makes p o l i t i c a l power v e r y i m p o r t a n t , i n terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i d e a s , i t i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from the m u t u a l - a i d a n a r c h i s m e x p l a i n e d above. In terms of economic i d e a s , i t ad v o c a t e s c o l l e c t i v e p r o d u c t i o n i s m - - t h a t i s p u b l i c o wnership of the organs of p r o d u c t i o n and p r i v a t e o wnership of the t h i n g s produced except f o r t h a t which can be a means of p r o d u c t i o n . . . . 7 The a r t i c l e c o n c l u d e d : . . . M u t u a l - a i d a n a r c h i s m and s t a t e s o c i a l i s m , a re f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i s s i m i l a r i n terms of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i d e a s . S i n c e they both h o l d t h a t organs of p r o d u c t i o n , and p r o d u c t s which can become means of p r o d u c t i o n , s h o u l d be p u b l i c l y owned, they a re i n complete agreement i n terms of t h e i r economic i d e a s . 8 Even though Marxism and a n a r c h i s m had f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t approaches t o r e v o l u t i o n even i f t h e i r g o a l s a p p r e a r e d e s s e n t i a l l y the same, Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s saw an a r c h i s m and 4 8 Marxism as c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d s c h o o l s of s o c i a l i s t t h ought. A f t e r a l l , both c l a i m e d t o be " s c i e n t i f i c " and both sought " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . C o n f u s i o n between a n a r c h i s m and communism can be seen i n the f i r s t d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of Marxism a f t e r the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n - - t h e " S p e c i a l I ssue on Marxism" of X i n Q i n q n i a n which was p u b l i s h e d under the e d i t o r i a l d i r e c t i o n of L i Dazhao. The May 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n p r e s e n t e d e i g h t a r t i c l e s on Marxism: "Marx's Theory" by Gu Mengyu; 9 "A C r i t i c i s m of Marx's Theory" by L i n g Shuang;' 0 "My M a r x i s t Views" by L i Dazhao ; 1 1 Two b i o g r a p h i e s of M a r x ; 1 2 "Marx's M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y and the Problem of Female V i r t u e " by Chen B a o y i n , 1 3 which was an attempt t o a p p l y Marx's t h e o r y of h i s t o r i c a l s t a g e s t o an a n a l y s i s of "female v i r t u e " ; and "Marx's M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y " , a t r a n s l a t i o n from the Japanese of an a r t i c l e by the M a r x i s t s c h o l a r Rawakami H a j i r n e . 1 * The e i g h t h a r t i c l e was a b i o g r a p h y of Bakunin which suggests t h a t even L i Dazhao, who c l a i m e d t o be a M a r x i s t by t h i s t i m e , was i g n o r a n t of the d i f f e r e n c e s which s e p a r a t e a n a r c h i s m and communism. The a r t i c l e s i n the May 1919 X i n Q i n g n i a n were m a i n l y academic e l u c i d a t i o n s of M a r x i s t p h i l o s o p h y - - i . e of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y , the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . S i n c e d i s t o r t i o n s of Marx's p h i l o s o p h y which d i d occur i n t h e s e e l u c i d a t i o n s tended t o be made by everyone, t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e of d e l i b e r a t e d i s t o r t i o n s of Marxism on the p a r t of the a n a r c h i s t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s i s s u e . X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s commentaries on Marxism i n c l u d e d a number of e x c e r p t s from Marx's own works, The Communist M a n i f e s t o , "A 49 P r e f a c e t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o a C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy", the p r e f a c e t o C a p i t a l , and The P o v e r t y of P h i l o s o p h y . 1 5 The same e x c e r p t s from these works were t r a n s l a t e d and r e - t r a n s l a t e d d u r i n g the next months. For example, the same passages from The  Communist M a n i f e s t o were p r e s e n t e d by L i Dazhao i n "My M a r x i s t Views".and by Kawakami Hajime i n the May 1919 i s s u e of X i n  Q i n g n i a n , as were p r e s e n t e d by Hu Hanmin i n "A C r i t i c i s m of the C r i t i c i s m of the M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y " 1 6 which was p u b l i s h e d i n the November 1919 i s s u e of J i a n s h e . Hu's a r t i c l e a l s o e x c e r p t e d the " P r e f a c e t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the C r i t i q u e of  P o l i t i c a l Economy", The Holy F a m i l y , The P o v e r t y of P h i l o s o p h y , Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l , "The 18th Brumaire of L o u i s - N a p o l e o n , and the p r e f a c e t o C a p i t a l . A f t e r May 1919, Marx's own pamplet, Wage, Labour and  C a p i t a l , was p u b l i s h e d i n the J i n b u d a n g newpaper, Chen Bao between May 6, and June 1, 1 9 1 9 . 1 7 K a r l K a u t s k y ' s commentary on C a p i t a l , The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx , was p u b l i s h e d i n the same j o u r n a l from June 2, t o November 11, 1919, as w e l l as i n J i a n s h e from November 1919 t o J u l y 1 9 2 0 . 1 8 A Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of K a u t s k y ' s The C l a s s S t r u g g l e was a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n l a t e 1919. 1 9 I n t e r e s t i n Marx and Marxism c u l m i n a t e d w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n , i n A p r i l 1920, of the f i r s t complete Ch i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o . The f a c t t h a t t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n was made by an a n a r c h i s t , Chen Wangdao, i s i n d i c a t i v e of i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' e c l e c t i c approach t o t h e o r i e s of r e v o l u t i o n . 50 2. The M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y D u r i n g the New C u l t u r e Movement, the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r l d was dominated by the theme t h a t i d e a s were the keys t o s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Bankrupt C o n f u c i a n i s m was t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h modern i d e a l s of " s c i e n c e " and "democracy". Ideas r e f l e c t e d i n a new and p o p u l a r c u l t u r e were t o l i f t . t h e C h i n e s e masses out of t h e i r backwardness. Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y was the d i r e c t o p p o s i t e of the New C u l t u r e ' s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i d e a l i s t w o r l d - v i e w . A c c o r d i n g t o Marx, s o c i a l change causes c o n c e p t u a l change, and not the o t h e r way around. Consequently C o n f u c i a n i s m was bankrupt because Chinese s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s had been a l t e r e d by Western c a p i t a l i s m . X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s a n t i - C o n f u c i a n p o l e m i c s , t h e r e f o r e , d i d not d e f e a t C o n f u c i a n i s m , but merely r e f l e c t e d the f a c t t h a t C o n f u c i a n i d e o l o g y no l o n g e r conformed t o the needs of Chinese s o c i e t y . G iven the New C u l t u r e p r e j u d i c e f o r i d e a s , i t was not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Gu Mengyu went t o g r e a t p a i n s t o p o i n t out i n h i s a r t i c l e i n the May 1919 X i n Q i n g n i a n t h a t "The M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y " d e f i n i t e l y does not negate the f u n c t i o n of i d e a l s [lixiang^£jffi]. No mat t e r whether i t i s i n the p a s t , or the future., man's s o c i a l i d e a l s may be the immediate cause of the reform of law and the re f o r m of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . However, man's i d e a l s of good and e v i l do not e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d . . . . These i d e a l s a r e not the f i n a l cause of s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n , but are a k i n d of r e f l e c t i o n [ y i n q z i of s o c i a l economy. 2 0 I t i s a l s o not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n t e r e s t i n i d e a s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o c i a l economy, dominated the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o use the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y as a t o o l of h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t attempt t o make use of the p r i n c i p l e t h a t 5 1 " s o c i a l b e i n g d e t e r m i n e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " was p u b l i s h e d i n the May X i n Q i n g n i a n . Chen Baoying's a r t i c l e , "Marx's M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y and the Problem of Female V i r t u e " , a p p l i e d the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y t o the development of s o c i a l e t h i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the concept of "female v i r t u e " . 2 1 Chen suggested t h a t h i s t o r y c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s t a g e s . In the f i r s t s t a g e , because t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y few human b e i n g s , n a t u r e was a b l e t o s u p p l y the needs of humanity d i r e c t l y . There was no need f o r work, nor f o r human a c t i o n upon n a t u r e . T h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e f o r e , had a " n a t u r a l " as. opposed t o " a r t i f i c i a l " s o c i a l e t h i c . G r a d u a l l y , as the p o p u l a t i o n grew, n a t u r e was no l o n g e r a b l e t o s u p p l y the needs of humanity. In t h i s , the second s t a g e , work appeared. Because most peopl e d i d not have any e x p e r i e n c e w i t h work, they d i d not w i s h . t o work. R e l a t i v e l y i n t e l l i g e n t people s k i l l e d i n . the m a r t i a l a r t s e s t a b l i s h e d "an a r t i f i c i a l m o r a l i t y of a b s o l u t e s u b m i s s i o n t o c o e r c e the weak and f o o l i s h t o work and thus produce the m a t e r i a l means of l i f e . " 2 2 T h i s stage saw the development of a m o r a l i t y of complete s u b m i s s i o n . In the t h i r d p e r i o d , p r o d u c t i o n was once a g a i n unable t o meet the needs of the p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s stage r e q u i r e d the use of more l a b o u r , and i t s method of p r o d u c t i o n was much more complex than t h a t of the second p e r i o d . T h e r e f o r e , the a b s o l u t e c o e r c i o n of l a b o u r was i n e f f e c t i v e . In o r d e r to get humanity t o produce w i t h i t s e n t i r e s t r e n g t h and i n more c o m p l i c a t e d ways, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e a m o r a l i t y which would "cause people t o have a mind t h a t d e s i r e d t o work." T h e r e f o r e t h i s stage saw the development of a m o r a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l b e n e f i t . But once a g a i n 5 2 p o p u l a t i o n growth o u t s t r i p p e d p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s l e d t o the f o u r t h p e r i o d i n which i t had become n e c e s s a r y " t o c a l c u l a t e the s i t u a t i o n as a whole . . . and c a r r y out d i s t r i b u t i o n on the l a r g e s t s c a l e . " 2 3 The m o r a l i t y of t h i s p e r i o d was t h a t of c o l l e c t i v i s m , mutual a i d and s o c i a l i s m . Chen then o u t l i n e d s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e s towards women i n each p e r i o d . I t i s i m m e d i a t e l y apparent t h a t Chen's r a t h e r f a n c i f u l o u t l i n e of h i s t o r y reduces the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y t o M a l t h u s ' t h e s i s of p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s . While M a l t h u s was i n some ways a p r i m i t i v e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t , h i s t h e s i s f e l l s u b s t a n t i a l l y s h o r t of Marx's view t h a t i d e a s are d etermined by the manner i n which a s o c i e t y produces i t s means of m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t Ch'en's f o u r s t a g e s are not Marx's f o u r modes of p r o d u c t i o n — p r i m i t i v e communism, s l a v e s o c i e t y , f e u d a l i s m , and c a p i t a l i s m . Chen d i d not seem t o be aware of t h e s e modes. In f a c t , Chen's s t a g e s were e s s e n t i a l l y the same as those o u t l i n e d by K r o p o t k i n i n Mutual A i d . 2 " T h i s suggests t h a t t h e r e was a tendency t o c o n f u s e Marx's approach t o h i s t o r y w i t h d e c i d e d l y n o n - M a r x i s t approaches. T h i s tendency can a l s o be seen i n the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y d i r e c t l y t o Chinese h i s t o r y . Once a g a i n , t h e s e a t t e m p t s - - Hu Hanmin's " M a t e r i a l i s t Researches on the H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s o p h y " and L i Dazhao's "An Economic E x p l a n a t i o n of the Recent I d e o l o g i c a l Changes i n C h i n a " — f o c u s e d on i d e a s . 2 5 These two works, a l o n g w i t h an e a r l i e r essay by Dai J i t a o , 2 6 were the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m t o Chinese h i s t o r y . " M a t e r i a l i s t Researches on the H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s o p h y " argued t h a t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s c o u l d not be i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the means of p r o d u c t i o n , t h a t i d e a s are d e t e r m i n e d by p r e v i o u s knowledge and the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l l i f e , and t h a t t h e s e determine the thought of a p e r i o d . S i n c e the major problem i n Chinese thought was t h a t of " p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e " (daodejfjf fj&^) , Hu a n a l y s e d the e v o l u t i o n of " p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e " and found t h a t changes i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l sytems were the r e s u l t of economic d i s o r d e r . 2 7 A c c o r d i n g t o Hu, the p h i l o s o p h i e s of C o n f u c i u s , Lao Tzu, and Mo t z u , were a l l responses t o the economic chaos caused by the d e s t r u c t i o n of p r i m i t i v e communal s o c i e t y — t h e w e l l f i e l d s y s t e m — w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a s h o r t a g e of l a n d and wars between s t a t e s . Subsequent changes i n p h i l o s o p h y were a l s o responses t o economic d i s o r d e r , but they had t o s t a y w i t h i n the l i m i t s e s t a b l i s h e d by these f i r s t p h i l o s o p h i e s . . 2 8 L i Dazhao took a s i m i l a r approach i n January 1920. W r i t i n g i n "An Economic E x p l a n a t i o n of Recent I d e o l o g i c a l Changes i n C h i n a " , he suggested t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l China was an a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y based on the extended f a m i l y system. The i d e o l o g y of t h i s system was C o n f u c i a n i s m . However, under the impact of Western i m p e r i a l i s m , t h i s system was b e i n g d e s t r o y e d : . . .China's a g r i c u l t u r a l economy cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n i n d u s t r i a l economy, her c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n f a c t o r y i n d u s t r y , her h a n d c r a f t s p r o d u c t i o n cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n mechanized p r o d u c t i o n . Most domestic i n d u s t r y has been d e s t r o y e d , i m p o r t s s u r p a s s e x p o r t s , the p e o p l e of the whole c o u n t r y are becoming p a r t of the w o r l d u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [ wuchan j i e j i jc> f> Pfilfl}, a l l l i f e i s f i l l e d w i t h s o r r o w . " T h i s " p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n " of the c o u n t r y by f o r e i g n c a p i t a l made 54 the c o n d i t i o n of C h i n a , a c c o r d i n g t o L i , even more p i t i a b l e than t h a t of the p r o l e t a r i a t of the western c o u n t r i e s . 3 0 Recent i n t e l l e c t u a l changes were a n t i - C o n f u c i a n , d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of the extended f a m i l y . Thus, Ch i n a ' s l a b o u r movement i s a l s o a movement t o d e s t r o y C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i sm [ j i e j i z h u y i (if j/ff-jf ^  ]. The d o c t r i n e of the C o n f u c i a n i s t s . always p l a c e s them i n the p o s i t i o n of the r u l e d , becoming the s a c r i f i c i a l lambs of the r u l e r s . . . . Modern economic o r g a n i z a t i o n r a i s e s the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s [laogong j i e j i i& IrPfrirlL}, a c c o r d i n g t o the new demands of s o c i e t y , c r e a t e s a new t h e o r y of "The S a n c t i t y of Labour", which i s a l s o the n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t of the new economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 1 N e i t h e r L i nor Hu succeeded i n w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l i s t h i s t o r y . Both reduced the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y t o economic d e t e r m i n i s m . N e i t h e r f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d the c l a s s n a t u r e of i d e o l o g y nor the i m p l i c a t i o n s of Marx's view t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s plays an im p o r t a n t r o l e i n sha p i n g h i s t o r i c a l development. L i , f o r example, reduced C o n f u c i a n i s m t o the i d e o l o g y of the extended f a m i l y system, not t o the i n t e r e s t s of the t r a d i t i o n a l r u l i n g c l a s s . Hu, on the o t h e r hand, a t t r i b u t e d a l l changes i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l systems t o economic chaos, i n s t e a d of i d e o l o g i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s of changes i n the a l i g n m e n t of c l a s s f o r c e s . In e f f e c t , L i and Hu were s t i l l w r i t i n g i d e a l i s t h i s t o r y . I d e a l i s m was a l s o e v i d e n t when i t came t o f o r m u l a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m . In " P r e f a c e t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy", Marx s t a t e d t h a t The mode of p r o d u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l l i f e c o n d i t i o n s the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l abd i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e - p r o c e s s i n 55 g e n e r a l . I t i s not the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of men t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r b e i n g , but on the c o n t r a r y i t i s t h e i r s o c i a l b e i n g t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 3 2 When t h i s p r i n c i p l e was t r a n s l a t e d from Kawakami Hajime i n the May 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n , i t became, The method of p r o d u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l l i f e may [ k e y i tfj*^] determine a l l p o l i t i c a l and s p i r i t u a l l i f e p r o c e s s e s . Man's c o n s c i o u s n e s s cannot determine h i s l i f e ; r a t h e r man's s o c i a l l i f e may determine h i s c o n s c i o u s s n e s s . 3 3 T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n suggests t h a t s o c i a l b e i n g , as w e l l as o t h e r f a c t o r s , d e t e r m i n e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l t h o u g h L i Dazhao s t a t e d " s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e d e t e r m i n e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " i n "My M a r x i s t Views" i n May 1919, i n December 1919 he wrote: M a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s and economics may [ keyi'tfJit* ] determine i d e o l o g y , 'isms', p h i l o s o p h y , r e l i g i o n , v i r t u e , law, e t c . 3 " I t appears t h a t L i was not w i l l i n g t o ac c e p t m a t e r i a l i s m as an a b s o l u t e p r i n c i p l e . Hu Hanmin, on the o t h e r hand, was q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s usage. In October and December, 1919, he wrote, " I t i s not c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t d e t e r m i n e s l i f e , but s o c i a l l i f e t h a t d e t e r m i n e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " 3 5 T h i s suggests t h a t Hu was more w i l l i n g than L i t o a c c e p t the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y as b e i n g t h e o r e t i c a l l y a b s o l u t e . L i ' s a t t i t u d e can a l s o be seen i n "Again on Problems and 'Isms'", p u b l i s h e d i n August 1919. A r g u i n g f o r " b a s i c r e s o l u t i o n " (genben j i e jue of s o c i a l problems, he wrote, A c c o r d i n g t o Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y , the laws, p o l i t i c s , t h e o r i e s and o t h e r s p i r i t u a l s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i e t y a r e a l l s u p e r f i c i a l . Economic s t r u c t u r e s a re t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g b a s i s . As soon as economic o r g a n i z a t i o n changes, they a l s o change. In 5 6 o t h e r words, the r e s o l u t i o n of economic problems i s b a s i c r e s o l u t i o n . When economic problems a re r e s o l v e d , a l l problems of p o l i t i c s , law, the f a m i l y system, the l i b e r a t i o n of women, the l i b e r a t i o n of worker s , can be r e s o l v e d . 3 6 In o t h e r words, economic change c r e a t e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the s o l u t i o n of s o c i a l problems. In " M a t e r i a l i s t Researches on the H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s o p h y " , which was p u b l i s h e d i n l a t e 1919, Hu Hanmin showed t h a t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Marxism was more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than L i ' s . He wrote, A l l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s change w i t h the change i n the method of m a t e r i a l l i f e . A l l of the f e e l i n g s , i m a g i n i n g s , b e l i e f s and views of l i f e of humanity, a r e based on the s i t u a t i o n of s o c i a l l i f e . They a r i s e from the m a t e r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . 3 7 In o t h e r words, i d e a s a re c o n d i t i o n e d by " s o c i a l " as opposed t o "economic" i n t e r a c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h , i n p r a c t i c e , both L i and Hu had d i f f i c u l t y a p p l y i n g h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m , t h e i r works r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t uses of Marxism t o defend the New C u l t u r e Movement from i t s c i r i t i c s . The e f f e c t of Hu's " M a t e r i a l i s t Researches on the H i s t o r y of Chi n e s e P h i l o s o p h y " was t o show t h a t i d e o l o g i e s change because of the d i s r u p t i o n of economic systems. He wrot e : R e c e n t l y as the r e s u l t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , C h ina has f e l t the i n f l u e n c e of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , and i t s economic o p p r e s s i o n w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o r e s i s t i t . 3 8 China was c o n s e q u e n t l y undergoing an i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which resembled t h a t caused by the breakdown of p r i m i t i v e communal economy. In "An Economic E x p l a n a t i o n of Recent I d e o l o g i c a l 57 Changes i n C h i n a " , L i c o n c l u d e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n by p o i n t i n g out t h a t the "new i d e a s " were not c r e a t e d by "a few youths out of t h i n a i r , " but were r e f l e c t i o n s of m a t e r i a l changes. T h e r e f o r e , a l l t h a t those who found the "new i d e a s " o b j e c t i o n a b l e had t o do was t o s t o p economic development, r e s t o r e the o l d system, and d e s t r o y Western c a p i t a l i s m . 3 9 I t wasn't u n t i l a f t e r A p r i l 1920 t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s l i k e L i Dazhao t u r n e d away from t h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h i d e a s and s t a r t e d t o work towards communist r e v o l u t i o n . 3. The Theory of S u r p l u s V a l u e The t h e o r y of s u r p l u s - v a l u e was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d i n Gu Mengyu's a r t i c l e , "Marx's Theory", i n the May 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n . A c c o r d i n g t o Gu, Marx h e l d t h a t when two commodities are exchanged, the same amount of s o c i a l l y averaged l a b o u r i s i n f a c t c h a n g i n g hands. The o n l y t h i n g t h a t any two commodities have i n common i s t h a t they a r e the r e s u l t of work (gongzuo d i j i e q u o *° T h e r e f o r e , the v a l u e [ j i a z h i fofe ] of a l l commodities i s d e t e r m i n e d by the amount of " s o c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y " or "averaged" work n e c e s s a r y t o manufacture i t . " 1 In o r d e r f o r someone t o produce a commodity, two t h i n g s are n e c e s s a r y - - t o o l s , and the m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o s u s t a i n the l i f e of the p r o d u c e r . In modern s o c i e t y , v e r y few p e o p l e have th e s e two r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , the worker must s e l l "work power" (gongzuo l i $fojj ) t o the c a p i t a l i s t who owns the t o o l s and o t h e r m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s . "Work power" becomes a commodity l i k e any o t h e r . I t s v a l u e , l i k e t h a t of any o t h e r commodity, i s the amount of "work" which goes i n t o i t s c r e a t i o n , i . e . the v a l u e of those commodities which are n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n the l i f e and f a m i l y of the l a b o u r e r from day t o day. S i n c e the c a p i t a l i s t f o r c e s the l a b o u r e r t o work l o n g e r hours than i s n e c e s s a r y t o meet the l a b o u r e r ' s own needs, " s u r p l u s v a l u e " i s c r e a t e d . The c a p i t a l i s t , w i s h i n g t o i n c r e a s e h i s s u r p l u s v a l u e , makes use of v a r i o u s methods t o i n c r e a s e the amount of time the l a b o u r e r works. T h i s r e s u l t s i n a c o n f l i c t , between the worker and the c a p i t a l i s t over the l e n g t h of the w o r k i n g day, c h i l d l a b o u r , m e c h a n i z a t i o n , e t c . Because of the c a p i t a l i s t ' s d e s i r e t o r e a p the maximum p o s s i b l e p r o f i t , c a p i t a l becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d . T h i s r e s u l t s i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the s m a l l p r o d u c e r , and the c r e a t i o n of a l a r g e r w o r k i n g c l a s s , u n t i l the p o i n t i s reached when i t i s easy f o r the w o r k i ng c l a s s t o overthrow the c a p i t a l i s t s . " 2 Gu's d e s c r i p t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e was supplemented d u r i n g the next few months by t r a n s l a t i o n s of Wage, Labour and  C a p i t a l , The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx , and The C l a s s  S t r u g g l e . Marx wrote Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l b e f o r e he had c ompleted h i s c r i t i q u e of p o l i t i c a l economy, and b e f o r e he had f o r m u l a t e d h i s t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e . The p r i n c i p l e c oncern of Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l was t o d e s c r i b e "the economic r e l a t i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e the m a t e r i a l f o u n d a t i o n of the p r e s e n t c l a s s s t r u g g l e , " " 3 i . e . the economic r e l a t i o n s between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l . I t t h e r e f o r e remained f o r the works of K a r l Kautsky t o p r e s e n t a d e s c r i p t i o n of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e as i t was u n d e r s t o o d by Marx. The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx "" was one of the f i r s t commentaries on C a p i t a l , and i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c c u r a t e . The two t r a n s l a t i o n s of The Economic  D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx made d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e a v a i l a b l e t o Chinese r e a d e r s . Another i n f l u e n t i a l work of Ka u t s k y ' s which was p u b l i s h e d i n 1919 was The C l a s s S t r u g g l e ( E r f u r t P r o g r a m ) , " 5 K a u t s k y ' s commentary on and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the " E r f u r t Programme" of the German S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y . T h i s programme was adopted a t the p a r t y ' s c o n g r e s s h e l d i n E r f u r t , Germany, i n 1891. At the E r f u r t Congress, the p a r t y abandoned v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n and the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t f o r a p a r l i a m e n t a r y e l e c t o r a l p l a t f o r m . A l t h o u g h L e n i n l a t e r s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d t h i s programme as n o n - M a r x i s t j The C l a s s S t r u g g l e d i d pr e s e n t a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y i n t r a d i t i o n a l M a r x i s t terms. In p a r t i c u l a r , the f i r s t s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d the o r i g i n s of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n , and of the p r o l e t a r i a t and the b o u r g e o i s i e . By the end of 1919, Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s had c o n s i d e r a b l e a c c e s s t o Marx's t h e o r y of c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n . However, t h i s a c c e s s was p r o b a b l y not complete because of the poor q u a l i t y of t r a n s l a t i o n s . The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l  Marx had t o be t r a n s l a t e d t w i c e w i t h i n a y e a r ; moreover the second t r a n s l a t i o n , t h a t of Dai J i t a o , was from a Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n of an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l German." 6' S i n c e both t r a n s l a t i o n s were o n l y p a r t i a l , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t much was l o s t . i n these t r a n s l a t i o n s . The p a r t i a l n a t u r e of these t r a n s l a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r e l a t i v e l y vague u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e . L i k e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of 60 h i s t o r y , i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e was c o l o u r e d by n o n - M a r x i s t economic t h e o r i e s — i n t h i s case by a n a r c h i s m . T h i s c o n t a m i n a t i o n can r e a d i l y be seen i n "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " which was p u b l i s h e d from September, t o November 1919, i n Dongfang Z a z h i . " 7 "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " was e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e s e n t i n g a c r i t i q u e of Marxism which, i t s a i d , " i s r e c o g n i z e d by the m a j o r i t y of s o c i a l i s t s as the t r u t h of the w o r l d . " " 8 I t s d e s c r i p t i o n of M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y was as f o l l o w s : A l l w e a l t h i s produced by l a b o u r , t h e r e f o r e a l l w e a l t h s h o u l d belong t o l a b o u r . " How do people f e e l when they come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e ? There s h o u l d be a g r e a t many of us who know the i n s t i n c t f o r r i g h t e o u s n e s s and the i n s t i n c t f o r greed and y e t welcome t h i s p r i n c i p l e . I t can be deduced as f o l l o w s : " A l l w e a l t h i s the r e s u l t of l a b o u r . To own t h i s w e a l t h w i t h o u t h a v i n g l a b o u r e d f o r i t i s i n the na t u r e of t h e f t . Only f u r t h e r l a b o u r can r e s t o r e t h i s s t o l e n w e a l t h . " " 9 A c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r , Marx added "an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the h i s t o r y of p r o d u c t i o n " t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e . T h e r e f o r e : In p r i m i t i v e communal s o c i e t y [ y u a n s h i z h i shehui ^ - # # 3 ^ ], each person made h i s own m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s f o r l i f e , s u p p l y i n g p e r s o n a l needs and consumption. A f t e r a l i t t l e w h i l e each person would exchange the t h i n g s t h a t he had made f o r the t h i n g s made by a n o t h e r , so as t o f u l f i l l each o t h e r s ' n e c e s s i t i e s . However, today the t h i n g s made by l a b o u r do not su p p l y the use and consumption of the l a b o u r e r , whose l a b o u r time i s not l i m i t e d t o making the t h i n g s needed f o r t h e i r own consumption, but goes t o the c a p i t a l i s t . 5 0 S i n c e the c a p i t a l i s t g a i n s w e a l t h w i t h o u t h a v i n g l a b o u r e d t o produce i t , e v e r y t h i n g owned by the c a p i t a l i s t i s " s t o l e n " from the l a b o u r e r . The view t h a t Marx h e l d t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " was 61 made more e x p l i c i t i n the s e c t i o n 'The Dawn of C a p i t a l i s m ' , which gave the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of Marx's a n a l y s i s of the the s o c i a l " f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n , but which i s unable t o own the t o o l s n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o d u c t i o n — m a c h i n e s and c a p i t a l — b e c a u s e these are s o l e l y owned by the o t h e r group, a m i n o r i t y , the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s [ z i b e n j i a z h i  j i e j i ^ & &?J$yi) ' T n e r e a l p r o d u c e r s i n s o c i e t y , the m a j o r i t y of men and women, must h i r e themselves out and d a i l y engage i n f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n and o t h e r b i t t e r l a b o u r , f o r o t h e r w i s e they would s t a r v e t o d e a t h . A g a i n s t them i s the m i n o r i t y which owns the machinery of p r o d u c t i o n . As the owners of f a c t o r i e s [gongchang zhu "£>f&] and l a n d l o r d s [ d i z h u ^ ^ ], they w i e l d the power of h i r i n g and f i r i n g , of l i f e and d e a t h , over t h e i r l a b o u r e r s . A s i d e from g i v i n g t h e i r l a b o u r e r s the bare minimum of l i f e n e c e s s i t i e s , a l l p r o d u c t s b e l o n g t o them. A l l v a l u e i s c r e a t e d by the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s , but, a s i d e from t h a t which goes f o r wages and o t h e r c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n , i t pours i n t o the p u r s e s of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . T h e r e f o r e , c a p i t a l , i n t e r e s t and p r o f i t , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , are s t o l e n from the l a b o u r e r s and the t h i n g s t h a t they have c r e a t e d . 5 1 S o c i e t y becomes p o l a r i z e d because s m a l l p r o d u c e r s and the m i d d l e c l a s s a r e "swallowed up by the b i g c a p i t a l i s t s . " 5 2 T h e r e f o r e , "today, those who are not c a p i t a l i s t s are p i t i f u l l a b o u e r s . " 5 3 But, a c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r , Marxism h o l d s t h a t "the day must come when t h a t which was s t o l e n . . . i s r e t u r n e d . " A f t e r which, " l a b o u r e r s w i l l l i v e f o r e v e r communally, and the w o r l d w i l l be e t e r n a l l y r i c h . " 5 4 economic t h e o r y t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t p r o p e r t y i s " s t o l e n " by the c a p i t a l i s t s . I t s c r i t i q u e of Marxism was t h a t p r o p e r t y was not s t o l e n , but was earned through the c a p i t a l i s t ' s g e n i u s as an i n v e n t o r and o r g a n i z e r of p r o d u c t o n . 5 5 But " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " c l a s s n a t u r e of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y : In essence "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " reduced M a r x i s t was not Marx's p o s i t i o n on c a p i t a l i s t economy. 6 2 Marx, who f i l l e d t h r e e volumes d e s c r i b i n g the dynamics of c a p i t a l i s t economy i n C a p i t a l , would not have a c c e p t e d t h a t h i s t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t . In C a p i t a l , Marx c l a i m e d t h a t t h a t o n l y s o c i a l l y u s e f u l p r o d u c t s of human l a b o u r are v a l u a b l e i n the economic sense. When two q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t c o m m i d i t i e s are exchanged the o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c they share i n common i s t h a t they are p r o d u c t s of human l a b o u r . T h e r e f o r e , the r e l a t i v e v a l u e s of commodities are d e t e r m i n e d by the amount of s o c i a l l y averaged "labour-power" which went i n t o t h e i r c r e a t i o n . But c a p i t a l i s m seems t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . The c a p i t a l i s t i n v e s t s a c e r t a i n amount of c a p i t a l i n machinery, raw m a t e r i a l s , e t c . , and a f u r t h e r amount i n labour-power, i . e . h i r e s workers t o t r a n f o r m the raw m a t e r i a l s . M a g i c a l l y an e x t r a v a l u e , i . e . p r o f i t , emerges out of t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n ( t h a t i s i f the c a p i t a l i s t i s s u c c e s s f u l ) . The q u e s t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , where does t h i s s u r p l u s o r i g i n a t e . Marx e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i t can o n l y be the r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t labour-power, as a commodity, i s purchased f o r l e s s than i t s r e a l v a l u e , i . e . t h a t the p r o f i t i s the r e s u l t of the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the l a b o u r e r . No matter how f a i r t h a t c a p i t a l i s t i s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r i c e he pays f o r l a b o u r -power, i f a p r o f i t i s made, the l a b o u r e r i s b e i n g e x p l o i t e d . T h i s system i s p o s s i b l e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y because l a b o u r power i s a commodity s u b j e c t t o market f o r c e s . S i n c e the s u p p l y of l a b o u r outpaces the demand, i . e . t h e r e i s unemployment, the c a p i t a l i s t can get away w i t h a r t i f i c i a l l y r e d u c i n g i t s p r i c e . In e f f e c t , the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e argues t h a t c a p i t a l i s t s economy has two n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s — t h e a b i l i t y of the c a p i t a l i s t t o use accumulated w e a l t h to amass s t i l l g r e a t e r w e a l t h , and the a b i l i t y of the worker t o s e l l h i s or her l a b o u r -power. Labour and c a p i t a l , p r o l e t a r i a t and b o u r g e o i s i e , are i n t i m i t e l y r e l a t e d . One cannot e x i s t w i t h o u t the o t h e r . But t h i s system i s doomed, because the p r o d u c t i o n of c a p i t a l t a k e s the e f f o r t s of the e n t i r e s o c i e t y w h i l e o n l y a m i n o r i t y reaps i t s rewards. The s o l u t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o a b o l i s h t h a t m i n o r i t y ' s g r i p on the economic system, i . e . by a b o l i s h i n g the c a p i t a l i s t s as a c l a s s . 5 6 In a c e r t a i n sense, the b a s i s of Marx's c r i t i q u e of c a p i t a l i s m was t h a t i t i s p e o p l e , and not m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s , which s h o u l d be v a l u e d . T h i s r a t h e r A r i s t o t e l e a n view of economy, i . e . t h a t economy i s the s o c i a l e x t e n t i o n of e t h i c s , cannot be reduced t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " w i t h o u t a l s o r e d u c i n g i t s c e n t r a l c r i t i c i s m , and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . " P r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " i m p l i e s t h a t the e x p l o i t a t i o n of l a b o u r i s the s o l e c o n d i t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r the e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s t economy. The p o s i t i o n t h a t e x p l o i t a t i o n i s the s o l e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s m c o n t r a d i c t s both the essence of Marx's a n a l y s i s of c a p i t a l i s m - - t h a t c a p i t a l i s m i s c o n d i t i o n e d by both e x p l o i t a t i o n and the e x i s t e n c e of a l a b o u r market--as w e l l as the t h r u s t of h i s c r i t i c i s m of c a p i t a l i s m . The i m p l i c a t i o n of Marx's a n a l y s i s of c a p i t a l i s m i s t h a t i n o r d e r t o r e a c h a communist, i . e . c l a s s l e s s , s o c i e t y a means of p r e v e n t i n g the a c c u m u l a t i o n of w e a l t h by the c a p i t a l i s t , and p r e v e n t i n g labour-power from a c t i n g as a commodity, i s r e q u i r e d . In o t h e r words, t h a t communist s o c i e t y cannot be a c h i e v e d o v e r n i g h t because some form of s t a t e i s needed. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " , however, i s t h a t the a b i l i t y of the c a p i t a l i s t t o e x p r o p r i a t e the p r o d u c t of o t h e r s l a b o u r i s the s o l e c r i t e r i a f o r the e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s m . The c a p i t a l i s t i s a b l e get away w i t h the e x p r o p r i a t i o n , i . e . t h e f t , of the f r u i t s of the l a b o u r of o t h e r s because of the e x i s t e n c e of the s t a t e . S t a t e and c a p i t a l i s m c o - e x i s t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the a b o l i t i o n once and f o r a l l of the s t a t e makes p o s s i b l e the immediate a b o l i t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t s as a c l a s s i n so f a r as they no l o n g e r have ac c e s s t o an i n s t r u m e n t of r o b b e r y - - a s t a t e . " P r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " , t h e r e f o r e , i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t c l a s s e s are e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s , t h a t t h e r e a r e two c l a s s e s — t h e r u l i n g c l a s s and the r u l e d c l a s s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p o s i t i o n , communist s o c i e t y i s p o s s i b l e because once the s t a t e i s o v e r t h r o w n , t h e r e can no l o n g e r be any c l a s s e s , s i n c e t h e r e i s no l o n g e r a r u l e d and a r u l e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " was e s s e n t i a l l y an a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n . 5 7 The p o s i t i o n t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " can a l s o be found i n Yang Y i c e n g ' s a r t i c l e , "Why Must S o c i e t y be Transformed", which was p u b l i s h e d i n the November 1 9 1 9 i s s u e of the s t u d e n t paper Guomin. 5 8 Yang i d e n t i f i e d " p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y " as the fundamental problem i n Chinese s o c i e t y . On the one hand p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y causes the c a p i t a l i s t s t o be l a z y , a r r o g a n t , and t o not engage i n p r o d u c t i o n ; on the o t h e r hand, i t causes the l a b o u r e r s t o pass t h e i r days i n b i t t e r l a b o u r so t h a t they cannot l i v e . 5 9 S i n c e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i s the r o o t cause of C h i n a ' s many s o c i a l i l l s , how does i t come about? A c c o r d i n g t o Yang, P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o r g i n i g a t e s i n t h e f t : the r i c h s t e a l the poor's means of p r o d u c t i o n , the c a p i t a l i s t s t e a l s 65 the l a b o u r e r ' s p r o d u c t s . The more t h a t the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y has advanced, the more b i t t e r the l a b o u r e r ' s l o t has become. 6 0 But modern economic t h e o r y , which c l a i m s t h a t l a n d , l a b o u r and c a p i t a l are the t h r e e key i n g r e d i e n t s i n p r o d u c t i o n , cannot e x p l a i n how " p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o r i g i n a t e s i n t h e f t . " T h i s i s because "modern economic t h e o r y i s a t h e o r y t h a t c o m p l e t e l y s e r v e s p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p . " 6 1 In f a c t , o n l y l a b o u r i s a key element i n p r o d u c t i o n s i n c e o n l y i t can c r e a t e v a l u e . T h e r e f o r e , " t o use c a p i t a l as the most i m p o r t a n t p r o d u c t i s t h e f t . " T h i s was " c l e a r l y shown by Marx," Yang c l a i m e d . 6 2 A c c o r d i n g t o Marx, In modern s o c i e t y o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y own the t o o l s of p r o d u c t i o n and have accumulated p r o d u c t s ( t h a t i s t o say c a p i t a l ) , the remainder, the v a s t m a j o r i t y , o n l y own t h e i r own work power [ gongzuo li^Xfefl ]. I f they w i s h t o l i v e they must d e f i n i t e l y s e l l t h e i r work power t o the c a p i t a l i s t s . 6 3 Thus Yang made use of M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y t o d i s c r e d i t "modern economic t h e o r y " , but Yang's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h a t t h e o r y was t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . T h i s was the same p o s i t i o n as t h a t of "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " . M a r x i s t economics, t h e n , was u n d e r s t o o d t o prove t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . In r e a l i t y t h i s was an a r n a r c h i s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f u n c t i o n i n g of modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , and was a r e f l e c t i o n of the c o n f u s i o n between the n o n - M a r x i s t p o s i t i o n s t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s a l r e a d y knew and M a r x i s t t h e o r y . T h i s does not mean, however, t h a t M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y had no impact on Chinese thought at t h i s t i m e , f o r i t d i d l e n d an economic c o n t e n t t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , a p o s i t i o n which was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y . 66 4. C l a s s e s and C l a s s S t r u g g l e C l a s s s t r u g g l e was the t h i r d element of M a r x i s t t h e o r y t h a t drew the a t t e n t i o n of C h i n e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n 1919-1920. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n t e l l e c t u a l s of a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s acknowledged the e x i s t e n c e ( a l t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y the d e s i r a b l i t y ) of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Those who were i n c l i n e d towards communism were p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c l a s s s t r u g g l e as the best amongst many means of c r e a t i n g s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . But even h e r e , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s s t r u g g l e was c o n f u s e d w i t h a n a r c h i s m . They were a l s o unaware of the c o m p l e x i t y of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n C h i n a , and the consequent c o m p l e x i t y of Chinese c l a s s s t r u g g l e . As one of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s most i n t e r e s t e d i n R u s s i a n -s t y l e s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , L i Dazhao p l a y e d a major r o l e i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g Marx's d o c t r i n e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . C l a s s s t r u g g l e was one of L i Dazhao's p r i m a r y concerns i n h i s a r t i c l e "My M a r x i s t Views". L i wrote, Mr. Marx f e l t t h a t one s o c i a l group r e l i e s upon the monopoly of the p r o d u c t i v e means [shengchan shouduan i ' n order t o p l u n d e r the s u r p l u s l a b o u r and s u r p l u s v a l u e of another group. However, these two k i n d s of c l a s s e s , a t the b e g i n n i n g , do not c o n s i d e r themselves to be c l a s s e s , i n f a c t the c l a s s i n i t s e l f [ j i e j i d i  benshen Wf fysfcjf} has not y e t become a c l a s s , i t i s s t i l l not c l a s s c o n s c i o u s . L a t e r when i t becomes a c l a s s , and knows t h a t i t i s i n a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n from o t h e r c l a s s e s , c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n [ j i e j i j ingzheng Pff &/[ 0 ] i s i t s u n a v o i d a b l e f a t e . That i s t o say, where t n e r e i s c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , c o m p e t i t i o n o c c u r s between c l a s s e s . Of c o u r s e , a t f i r s t t h e r e i s o n l y economic c o m p e t i t i o n over economic i n t e r e s t s , l a t e r i t advances to p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n over p o l i t i c a l power, u n t i l the economic s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d on t h i s c l a s s o p p o s i t i o n i t s e l f advances, and a new k i n d of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s . 6 " Thus L i was aware t h a t b e f o r e c l a s s e s c o u l d s t r u g g l e , and even 6 7 i n a c e r t a i n sense e x i s t , they had t o be c o n s c i o u s . S i n c e consciousness c o u l d be induced t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , the d o c t r i n e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e d i d not p r e c l u d e the p e d a g o g i c a l t h r u s t of the New C u l t u r e Movement. D e s p i t e t h i s , L i was s t i l l r a t h e r a p o l o g e t i c about c l a s s s t r u g g l e . He wrote, In t h i s r e g a r d , Mr Marx does not ackowledge t h a t c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n , o c c u r s throughout a l l of human h i s t o r y , he o n l y a p p l i e s h i s t h e o r y of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n t o p r e v i o u s human h i s t o r y , not through a l l of the p a s t , the p r e s e n t , and the f u t u r e . 6 5 In "My M a r x i s t Views" L i was a l s o concerned w i t h the apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n between Marx's t h e o r y of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s and h i s t h e o r y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . A c c o r d i n g t o L i , T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y and the t h e o r y o f . c l a s s s t r u g g l e c o u n t s as a ve r y i m p o r t a n t p o i n t . Mr. Marx, on the one hand, a s s e r t s t h a t the motive f o r c e s . . . of h i s t o r y are the f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n ; on the o t h e r hand, he a l s o says t h a t a l l p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y i s the h i s t o r y of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n , t h a t i s t o say t h a t c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n i s the u l t i m a t e method of h i s t o r y ; the c r e a t o r of h i s t o r y i s none o t h e r than c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n . On the one hand he negates the a c t i v i t i e s of c l a s s e s , no ma t t e r whether those a c t i v i t i e s are d i r e c t l y economic or i n d i r e c t , s i n c e the l i m i t a t i o n s of p r o p e r t y and o t h e r o r d i n a r y laws can o f t e n have an e f f e c t i n d e t e r m i n i n g economic d i r e c t i o n ; on the o t h e r hand, he says t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n may produce the e s s e n t i a l f a c t s of h i s t o r y , and determine the d i r e c t i o n of advancement. 6 6 L i r e s o l v e d t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n by p o i n t i n g out t h a t As soon as the f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n undergo a change, the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s change a c c o r d i n g l y . But the change i n the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s depend upon the a c t i v i t y of the c l a s s t h a t i s i n the e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d , Mr. Marx r e a l l y p l a c e d c l a s s a c t i v i t y i n the framework of n a t u r a l change w i t h i n the economic p r o c e s s . 6 7 L i ' s view t h a t t h e r e was no c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the d o c t r i n e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y was s u p p o r t e d by Hu Hanmin. In "A C r i t i c i s m of a C r i t i c i s m of the M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y " , Hu examined the p o s i t i o n s of Marx's c r i t i c s and p o i n t e d out t h e i r e r r o r s . 6 8 As has been p o i n t e d out above, when i t carneto the h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s e s of both L i and Hu, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c e n t r a l i t y of the d o c t r i n e of c l a s s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n Marx's thought f a i l e d t o i n f o r m t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y . In e f f e c t , t hey f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t Marx saw c l a s s s t r u g g l e as a u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon, and saw c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n a f u n d a m e n t a l l y more l i m i t e d manner. They saw i t as a means o f , a d e v i c e f o r , the c r e a t i o n of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . They were w i l l i n g t o admit t h a t i t was not the o n l y such means, but L i Dazhao at l e a s t h e l d t h a t i t was the most e f f e c t i v e means. The o t h e r methodology of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was a n a r c h i s m . S i n c e a n a r c h i s m was the b e t t e r known p h i l o s o p h y of r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , and because i t r e j e c t e d c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n f a v o u r of g r a d u a l advancement towards mutual a i d , L i t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e r e was no c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the a n a r c h i s t o b j e c t i v e of a s o c i e t y based on mutual a i d , and the M a r x i s t means of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . 6 9 In " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and Mutual A i d " , p u b l i s h e d i n J u l y 1919, L i suggested t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e was the o n l y means of r e a l i z i n g mutual a i d : In the w o r l d of t o d a y , d a r k n e s s has reached an extreme. To be a b l e t o c o n t i n u e the h i s t o r y of humanity, we must g i v e r i s e t o a g r e a t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s l i k e Noah's g r e a t f l o o d : i t w i l l wash c l e a n the o l d w o r l d of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n g i v i n g r i s e t o the brand new b r i g h t w o r l d of mutual a i d . The p a t h of t h i s f i n a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s t h a t of the s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n of c l a s s s o c i e t y . I t must be taken and cannot be a v o i d e d . 7 0 69 C l a s s s t r u g g l e would make p o s s i b l e the m a t e r i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which i n t u r n would produce the s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of mutual a i d . The f i n a l c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n i s the means f o r the t r a n f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p r i n c i p l e of mutual a i d i s the c r e e d of t h i s t r a n s f o r m n a t i o n of the human s p i r i t . We advocate m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a complete t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 7 1 Thus, f o r L i , c l a s s s t r u g g l e was a means t o an end. T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s s t r u g g l e as a d e v i c e was a l s o e v i d e n t i n the d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s s t r u g g l e t h a t L i p r e s e n t e d i n " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and Mutual A i d " . L i agreed w i t h the a n a r c h i s t s t h a t " s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n must be brought about by the. m a j o r i t y of people w i t h i n a s o c i e t y , " but p o i n t e d out t h a t The f o r c e which i s the b a s i s of a s o c i a l movement must come from t h a t c l a s s which does not p r o f i t from the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . That c l a s s which i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r o f i t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a few i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h noble a s p i r a t i o n s , must oppose t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . One c l a s s pushes t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , one c l a s s opposes i t . T h i s i s the essence of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n . 7 2 In o t h e r words, c l a s s s t r u g g l e was caused by the dominant c l a s s ' s r e s i s t a n c e t o s o c i a l change. C l a s s s t r u g g l e then becomes the means of a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l change. When i t came t o f u r t h e r i d e n t i f y i n g the n a t u r e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , however, L i made i t e v i d e n t t h a t he o n l y r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of s t r u g g l e between the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . He wrote, S o - c a l l e d c l a s s e s a r e f i e r c e l y opposed economic c l a s s e s . C o n c r e t e l y , l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s are the c l a s s which owns the means of p r o d u c t i o n , workers and peasants a r e the c l a s s which does not own the means of p r o d u c t i o n . In p r i m i t i v e communal s o c i e t y , because economic t e c h n i q u e s were not v e r y d e v e l o p e d , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l a b o u r was-only enough f o r s e l f -70 s u f f i c i e n c y , no s u r p l u s was produced and c l a s s e s d i d not e x i s t . L a t e r , as t e c h n i q u e s became more r e f i n e d , the economy r a p i d l y developed and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l a b o u r became more than enough. T h i s e x t r a , then, i s s u r p l u s l a b o u r . From then on, s u r p l u s l a b o u r g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d u n t i l i t was s e i z e d by those who owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n c r e a t i n g a s o c i e t y based upon c l a s s o p p o s i t i o n . 7 3 I.E. the c l a s s t h a t owns the means of p r o d u c t i o n , the b o u r g e o i s i e , e x p r o p r i a t e s the s u r p l u s l a b o u r the c l a s s which does not own the means of p r o d u c t i o n , the p r o l e t a r i a t . T h i s , and o n l y t h i s , g i v e s r i s e t o " c l a s s o p p o s i t i o n " , t h a t i s c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Not a l l M a r x i s t s agreed w i t h L i ' s a n a l y s i s t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e o n l y o c c u r s between the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . Zhou F u h a i , f o r example, argued i n "China's C l a s s S t r u g g l e " t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e took s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f o r m s 7 " . W r i t i n g i n J i e f a n g yu G a i z a o i n December 1-919, Zhou gave the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of c l a s s s t r u g g l e : Why must c l a s s e s s t r u g g l e ? S i m p l y p u t , i t i s because one c l a s s stands i n a s o c i a l l y dominant [ z h i p e i p o s i t i o n , and a t the same t i m e , one c l a s s s t a n d s i n a s o c i a l l y dominated p o s i t o n . T h e i r p o s i t i o n s are not o n l y d i f f e r e n t , but v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . In o r d e r t o s e r v e i t s own i n t e r e s t s , the dominated c l a s s must c a r r y out a s o c i a l movement a g a i n s t the dominant c l a s s . T h i s i s the major reason f o r c l a s s s t r u g g l e . 7 5 Thus Zhou agreed w i t h L i t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e was the r e s u l t the c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s between two c l a s s e s , but Zhou went on t o argue t h a t t h e r e were, i n g e n e r a l , two k i n d s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e s . The f i r s t , as i n the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , was between "the m i d d l e c l a s s " ( z h o n q l i u j i e j i *f ffif>) and "the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s " ( g u i z u j i e j i \ $f#D • The second form was the r e s u l t of "the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n " and o c c u r r e d between "the l a b o u r i n g 71 c l a s s " (laodonq j i e j i ^ jjf and "the b o u r g e o i s i e " ( z i c h a n j i e j i  xJjfc ^ . 7 6 The 1911 R e v o l u t i o n was an example of the former k i n d of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . The p r e s e n t form of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n China was not the l a t t e r , however, because both the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s and the b o u r g e o i s i e i n China were too s m a l l . C h inese c l a s s s t r u g g l e , t h e r e f o r e , was between the " p a r a s i t i c c l a s s " ( q i s h e n q j i e j i ^ % WfH) which was composed of w a r l o r d s , b u r e a u c r a t s and o f f i c i a l s , and the " s e l f s u f f i c e n t c l a s s " ( z i g e i j i e j i A l t h o u g h Zhou had r e j e c t e d the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of E u r o p e a n - s t y l e c l a s s e s t o the a n a l y s i s of Chinese s o c i e t y , he s t i l l embraced c l a s s s t r u g g l e as the key t o s o c i a l change i n C h i n a . He wrote: To t r a n s f o r m s o c i e t y , we must f i r s t e l i m i n a t e the o b s t a c l e s . The o b s t a c l e i s the p a r a s i t i c c l a s s . T h e r e f o r e , we must f i r s t e l i m i n a t e the p a r a s i t i c c l a s s . To remove the p a r a s i t i c c l a s s , we must be u n i t e d w i t h the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c l a s s and c a r r y o u t c l a s s s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e m . 7 7 Thus Zhou F u h a i was aware of the f a c t t h a t Chinese s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e d i d not conform t o t h a t of Europe. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t a debate between Chinese M a r x i s t s over the nat u r e of Chinese s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e d i d not emerge a t t h i s t i m e . Such a debate c o u l d have made those i n c l i n e d towards communism aware t h a t the m e c h a n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of European and R u s s i a n models t o Chinese^ s o c i e t y was h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c . In any event, no such debate m a t e r i a l i z e d , and i n l e s s than a year Zhou was p u t t i n g f o r w a r d L i ' s p o s i t i o n on c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n C h i n a . 7 8 The document which seems t o have p l a y e d the major r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the c r e d i b i l i t y of L i ' s p o s i t i o n on Chinese c l a s s s t r u g g l e was o d d l y enough written by Marx h i m s e l f and was h i s most f o r c e f u l statement on the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of communist r e v o l u t i o n a r i s i n g from the s t r u g g l e between the p r o l e t a r i a t and b o u r g e o i s i e - - The Communist M a n i f e s t o . In A p r i l 1920, Chen Wangdao p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t complete Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of The  Communist M a n i f e s t o . 7 9 I t i s u n l i k e l y however t h a t t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l l y d e p a r t e d from e a r l i e r p a r t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n s such as the t r a n s l a t i o n of the f i r s t c h a p t e r of The  Communist M a n i f e s t o , " B o u r g e o i s and P r o l e t a r i a n s " , which was p u b l i s h e d i n the November 1919 i s s u e of Guomin. 8 0 T h i s s e c t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o p r e s e n t e d Marx's view t h a t a l l h i s t o r y i s a h i s t o r y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Modern b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y , which o r i g i n a t e d i n f e u d a l s o c i e t y , h a s a c l a s s s t r u c t u r e which i s s i m p l e r than a l l p r e v i o u s s o c i e t i e s . I t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y becoming p o l a r i z e d i n t o "two g r e a t camps"--the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . The b o u r g e o i s i e has p l a y e d a p o s i t i v e c r e a t i v e r o l e i n h i s t o r y . I t has c r e a t e d f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n which surpass those of p r e v i o u s modes of p r o d u c t i o n . In a c e r t a i n sense, i t has even c r e a t e d the w o r l d . But, a c c o r d i n g t o Marx, i t has ceased t o p l a y a p o s i t i v e h i s t o r i c a l r o l e , and has become a h i n d e r a n c e t o p r o d u c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e i t w i l l be overthrown by the p r o l e t a r i a t j u s t as the b o u r g e o i s i e overthrew the f e u d a l system when the l a t t e r had become a h i n d e r a n c e t o economic d e v e l o p m e n t . 8 1 W h i l e t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n d i d make Marx's c l e a r e s t statement of the i n e v i t a b l y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e a v a i l a b l e t o C h inese i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i t was not f r e e of problems. For example i t s a i d , The s o c i e t y of the p r o p e r t i e d [youchanzhe ], which sprang from the d e s t r u c t i o n of f e u d a l s o c i e t y , cannot 73 a v o i d c l a s s c o n f r o n t a t i o n [ j i e j i z h i d u i z h i 0 f " U S . 2 ~ % 3 ( , I t has a g a i n c r e a t e d a new k i n d of c l a s s f j i e j i flfffi J , a new means of o p p r e s s i o n , new forms of s t r u g g l e t o r e p l a c e the o l d . In our e r a , which can be c a l l e d the e r a of the p r o p e r t i e d , c l a s s c o n f r o n t a t i o n has become much s i m p l e r . The whole of s o c i e t y has become d i v i d e d i n t o two m u t u a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c g r e a t camps, two c o n f r o n t i n g g r e a t c l a s s e s : the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [youchanzhe j i e j i "M ^ T&PtfflZ) and the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s ["wuchanzhe j i e j i 3 ' ' * Thus, t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o t r a n s l a t e d " b o u r g e o i s i e " and " p r o l e t a r i a t " as the " p r o p e r t i e d " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d " c l a s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The e f f e c t of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n was t o j u s t i f y L i Dazhao's p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e r e were two c l a s s e s , one which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . was p r o p e r t i e d , and one which d i d n o t , i . e . was u n p r o p e r t i e d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t the European c l a s s s t r u g g l e between p r o p e r t i e d and u n p r o p e r t i e d was u n i v e r s a l . The e x i s t e n c e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e was not o n l y r e c o g n i z e d by Chinese M a r x i s t s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s i s r e a d i l y apparent i n Dongfang Z a z h i . In F e b r u a r y and March 1920, Dongfang Zazhi p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e by Lu Hongyu, c a l l e d , "The c o n s c r i p t Labour S y s t e m " . 8 3 In t h i s a r t i c l e Lu argued t h a t f o r c e d l a b o u r , as opposed t o s o c i a l i s m , was the s o l u t i o n t o China's problems. F o r c e d l a b o u r would a l l o w the m o b i l i z a t i o n of l a r g e f o r c e s which would e n a b l e China t o overcome her weakness i n the f a c e of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d West. A c c o r d i n g t o Lu c l a s s s t r u g g l e o r g i n a t e d w i t h the i d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n Europe: In the i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s of Europe, when c o t t a g e manufacture moved t o f a c t o r y manufacture, a k i n d of mutual o p p o s i t i o n between the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s [laodong  j i e j i ffi jff PjtfH] and the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s [ z i b e n j i e j i appeared. *< In C h ina t h i s " o p p r e s s i o n " had o n l y r e c e n t l y appeared. T h e r e f o r e : In o r d e r t o n i p e v i l i n the bud, the s t a t e must make use of the c o n s c r i p t i o n of l a b o u r e r s . . . p r e v e n t i n g the f u t u r e antagonism of the two c l a s s e s of l a b o u r e r s and c a p i t a l i s t s . 8 5 In o t h e r words the system of f o r c e d l a b o u r c o u l d be used t o p r e v e n t the c l a s s s t r u g g l e which accompanies i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The e d i t o r of Dongfang Z a z h i a l s o made use of c l a s s terms and spoke of c l a s s s t r u g g l e by the end of t h i s p e r i o d . For example, i n an e d i t o r i a l i n A p r i l , he t r a c e d s o c i a l problems t o an economic l e v e l : In t h e . w o r l d today, a l l k i n d s of economic problems cause temporary d i s t u r b a n c e s , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s c l e a r l y becoming more u r g e n t . C l a s s s t r u g g l e i s caused by n o t h i n g more than the system c f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , so the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s h o u l d be reformed. . . I f the problem of p r o p e r t y i s r e s o l v e d , a l l problems can be r e s o l v e d . 6 6 Thus i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t even n o n - M a r x i s t s tended t o see c l a s s s t r u g g l e as o c c u r r i n g between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l , u n p r o p e r t i e d and p r o p e r t i e d , p r o l e t a r i a t and b o u r g e o i s i e . The e a r l y communist movement would share t h i s view of c l a s s s t r u g g l e a s a d e v i c e f o r a c h i e v i n g r e v o l u t i o n which a r i s e s from the c o n f r o n t a t i o n between owners and non-owners of p r o p e r t y . The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang would argue t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e was the means of a t t a i n i n g s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . L i k e t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , they would o n l y be aware of the e x i s t e n c e of s t r u g g l e between two c l a s s e s — t h e p r o p e r t i e d and the u n p r o p e r t i e d . Thus i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a l t h o u g h M a r x i s t i d e a s were 75 w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d i n China between May 1919 and A p r i l 1920, Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s had r a t h e r l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of these i d e a s . They c o n f u s e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m and economic d e t e r m i n i s m , M a r x i s t and a n a r c h i s t economic t h e o r y , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n China w i t h t h a t of Europe. These u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , even on the p a r t of the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d of Chinese M a r x i s t s , were ove r w h e l m i n g l y m e c h a n i c a l . The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of t h i s was an e q u a l l y m e c h a n i c a l approach t o the Chinese r e v o l u t i o n on the p a r t of the e a r l y communist movement. I n t e l l e c t u a l s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . o f Marxism l e n t l i t t l e more than a veneer, a s m a t t e r i n g of M a r x i s t t e r m i n o l o g y , t o a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t s . Nowhere i s t h i s * m o r e e v i d e n t t h a t the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s shown by p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s between the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n and the b e g i n n i n g s of the communist movement. 76 Chapter Three  C l a s s e s : The B o u r g e o i s i e and the P r o l e t a r i a t 1. The P o l a r i z a t i o n of S o c i e t y : The Concept of " C l a s s " Between the October R e v o l u t i o n and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t complete Chinese e d i t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o , the term "jieji" f f i j j f f i , which today i s u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d " c l a s s " , became w i d e l y used i n C h i n a . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was l i t t l e agreement amongst i n t e l l e c t u a l s on the q u e s t i o n of which c l a s s e s e x i s t e d i n C h inese s o c i e t y , or even,.when they d i d agree, l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y i n the terms they used, t h e r e were s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s on c l a s s e s , and the c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n of s o c i e t y , which were g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . However, c l a s s c o n c e p t s , more than any o t h e r f a c e t of the thought of the p e r i o d , r e f l e c t e d the i n f l u e n c e of the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n . Most i n t e l l e c t u a l s tended t o d i v i d e Chinese s o c i e t y i n t o two b a s i c c l a s s e s . Whether they r e f e r r e d to these two c l a s s e s as the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t , the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s and the g e n t r y c l a s s , or i n some o t h e r manner; i n t e l l e c t u a l s r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of two c l a s s e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a c l a s s of o p p r e s s o r s and a c l a s s of o p p r e s s e d . Moreover, they i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of the o ppressed masses. S e c o n d l y , they tended t o d e f i n e c l a s s e s i n economic terms, i d e n t i f y i n g one c l a s s which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and one c l a s s which l a b o u r e d . A l t h o u g h the economic d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s was an i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l advancement r e l a t i v e t o a n a r c h i s t c l a s s c o n c e p t s , i n p r a c t i c e i n t e l l e c t u a l s o n l y r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of what were, i n e f f e c t , the same c l a s s e s e a r l i e r i d e n t i f i e d by a n a r c h i s m . I n s t e a d of d e s c r i b i n g c l a s s e s i n terms of t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n s , i n a c t u a l i t y they i n c l u d e d l a n d l o r d s as w e l l as c a p i t a l i s t s i n the ranks of the " b o u r g e o i s i e " , and p e asants as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l workers i n the ranks of the " p r o l e t a r i a t " . At the same time t h a t they were becoming aware of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , many Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s became c o n s c i o u s of the p o l a r i z a t i o n of t h e i r s o c i e t y i n t o the l a b o u r i n g masses on the one hand, and the p a r a s i t e s , b u r e a u c r a t s , and e x p l o i t e r s on the o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , they i d e n t i f i e d themselves w i t h the l a b o u r i n g masses. By "1919, t h i s d i v i s i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o o p p r e s s o r and o p p r e s s e d was e x p r e s s e d i n c l a s s terms. A n a r c h i s t thought had been w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d i n C h ina b e f o r e the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . 1 Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e f o r e , i t was a n a r c h i s m t h a t p r o v i d e d the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n . The a n a r c h i s t i n f l u e n c e i s r e a d i l y apparent i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n Dongfang Zazhi on the eve of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t ion'. 2 T h i s a r t i c l e , "Labourism", d e s c r i b e d a U t o p i a n s o c i e t y i n which t h e r e would be n e i t h e r p a r a s i t e s nor e x p l o i t e d . I t p o i n t e d out t h a t the source of a l l w e a l t h was l a n d , c a p i t a l , and "labour-power" ( l a o l i ffi ji ). A c c o r d i n g t o "Labourism" f o r something t o be of v a l u e i t had t o be t r a n s f o r m e d by l a b o u r . Those who owned l a n d , or h e l d c a p i t a l , and who d i d not l a b o u r , were p a r a s i t e s whose w e a l t h was d e r i v e d from the l a b o u r of o t h e r s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y . The s o l u t i o n was " l a b o u r i s m " ( l a o l i z h u y i f f i ? ^ £ k )--a economic system i n which everyone would engage i n l a b o u r t o meet t h e i r 78 d a i l y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Labourism would have the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : (1) the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r would be a b o l i s h e d ; (2) a l l o c c u p a t i o n s would be e q u a l ; (3) s o c i a l p r e s s u r e would be the work i n c e n t i v e i n a n o n - e x p l o i t a t i v e system; (4) a l l p e o p l e would have e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y . 3 "Labourism" c o n t i n u e d t o be p o p u l a r throughout t h i s p e r i o d , as was the h i g h l y romantic image which i n t e l l e c t u a l s had of t h e i r r o l e as e n l i g h t e n e r s of the l a b o u r i n g masses. For example, the j o u r n a l Laodong ( L a b o u r ) , which was founded i n March, 1918, was devoted t o n o t h i n g l e s s than The r e v e r e n c e of l a b o u r , the promotion of l a b o u r i s m [ l a o d o n g z h u y i tfff}) gT ^  ], the c u l t i v a t i o n of the m o r a l i t y of l a b o u r , the b r i n g i n g of w o r l d knowledge t o the l a b o u r e r , the r e c o r d i n g of the a c t i o n s of the w o r l d l a b o u r movement, the e x p l a n a t i o n of the t r u t h about s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s , and the e x p e d i t i o n of the r e s o l u t i o n of the s o c i a l problems of l a b o u r e r s i n our c o u n t r y and the w o r l d . * Laodong's a t t i t u d e towards l a b o u r was shared by many o t h e r s , of whom C a i Yuanpei and L i Dazhao were perhaps the best known and most i n f l u e n t i a l . In h i s speech at the r a l l y h e l d a t Tiananmen square i n P e k i n g t o c e l e b r a t e the A l l i e d v i c t o r y i n the F i r s t World War, C a i p o i n t e d out t h a t d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t no Chinese c i t i z e n s (except f o r a few l a b o u r e r s i n F r a n c e ) had d i r e c t l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the war e f f o r t , the Chinese s h o u l d c e l e b r a t e : T h i s i s not a s t r a n g e t h i n g . The w o r l d , from now on, i s the w o r l d of l a b o u r ( l a o g o n g f f i J " ) . That which I c a l l l a b o u r i s not o n l y metal and wood work, e t c . On the c o n t r a r y i t i s the use of one's l a b o u r f o r the b e n e f i t of o t h e r s . No m a t t e r i f one uses p h y s i c a l or mental l a b o u r , both a r e l a b o u r . T h e r e f o r e , a g r i c u l t u r e i s the l a b o u r of p l a n t i n g c r o p s . Commerce i s the l a b o u r of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The s t a f f of s c h o o l s , a u t h o r s and i n v e n t o r s , are e d u c a t i o n a l l a b o u r e r s . We are a l l l a b o u r e r s . We must each r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e of 79 l a b o u r . The S a n c t i t y of Labour (laodong shengui •5  Labour, C a i c o n t i n u e d , s h o u l d not be seen as the o b j e c t of e x p l o i t a t i o n , but as something t h a t s h o u l d be v a l u e d i n i t s own r i g h t . C a i ' s views on "The S a n c t i t y of Labour" were shared by a number of prominent i n t e l l e c t u a l s . 6 In November 1918, f o r example, w r i t i n g i n "The V i c t o r y of the Common P e o p l e " , L i Dazhao agreed t h a t the war was "the d e f e a t of c a p i t a l i s m and the v i c t o r y of l a b o u r i s m " . 7 T h i s r omantic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on the p a r t of i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h the l a b o u r i n g masses l e d t o R u s s i a n - s t y l e p o p u l i s m , and c a l l s f o r s t u d e n t s t o go down t o the c o u n t r y s i d e and become "one" w i t h the masses. T h i s c a l l was c l e a r l y s t a t e d by L i Dazhao i n F e b r u a r y 1919. In "Youth and the C o u n t r y s i d e " , he wrote, 8 . ; ' A l t h o u g h the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i n our China i s i n many ways d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of R u s s i a , our youth s h o u l d go to the c o u n t r y s i d e , t a k i n g the s p i r i t of the R u s s i a n youths i n the propaganda movement i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , t o de v e l o p the c o u n t r y s i d e . . . Our China i s an a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r y , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s [ laogong j i e j i tj£ ^  P/t#L ] ar e p e a s a n t s . I f they a re not l i b e r a t e d , the whole people of our c o u n t r y w i l l not be l i b e r a t e d ; t h e i r m i s e r y i s the mi s e r y of the whole peopl e of our c o u n t r y ; t h e i r d a r k n e s s i s the darkness of the whole people of our c o u n t r y ; the meanness of t h e i r l i v e s i s the meanness of our whole government. Go de v e l o p them, cause them t o know the d e s i r e f o r l i b e r a t i o n , e x p l a i n t h e i r m i s e r y , r e l i e v e t h e i r d a r k n e s s . . . O f f w i t h you our few y o u t h s , our whole n a t i o n i s s l e e p i n g , who e l s e i s t h e r e ? 9 In F e b r u a r y 1919, Chenbao ("The morning p o s t " ) e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r v i e w s : Those who are o u t s i d e the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d and l o u d l y scream cannot do b e t t e r than t o e n t e r the l a b o u r i n g 80 w o r l d and c a r r y out r e f o r m . Because they s t a n d o u t s i d e the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d , what they imagine t o be i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the l a b o u r e r s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the l a b o u r e r s ' best i n t e r e s t . I f they p e r s o n a l l y e n t e r the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d , they can then know the t r u e h a p p i n e s s and b i t t e r n e s s of the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d . 1 0 Thus, i n t e l l e c t u a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y young i n t e l l e c t u a l s , were urged t o go down t o the masses i n o r d e r t o t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e the problems and c o n d i t i o n s of the working p e o p l e . As the d i r e c t consequence of t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the l a b o u r i n g masses, i n t e l l e c t u a l s denounced the r u l i n g e l i t e as p a r a s i t i c o p p r e s s o r s . T h i s a t t i t u d e towards the e l i t e can be seen i n the w r i t i n g s of Chen D u x i u . In 1917, h i s a p p r o v a l of the F e b r u a r y R e v o l u t i o n as a v i c t o r y f o r a n t i - m i l i t a r i s t d e m o c r a t i c f o r c e s 1 1 had been i n d i c a t i v e of h i s view t h a t m i l i t a r i s m , and the l a c k of democracy, were the major p o l i t i c a l problems i n C h i n a . In F e b r u a r y 1919, he h e l d a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n . In " E l i m i n a t e t h e Three V e r m i n " , 1 2 he d e s c r i b e d m i l i t a r i s t s , b u r e a u c r a t s and c o r r u p t p o l i t i c i a n s as the t h r e e enemies of democracy i n C h i n a . At f i r s t o p p r e s s i o n was not seen i n w e l l - d e f i n e d c l a s s terms. Rather a g e n e r i c term, "qianqquan , was used t o d e s c r i b e o p p r e s s i o n . The term "qiangquan" l i t e r a l l y meant " s t r o n g power" and i s the a n a r c h i s t term f o r " a u t h o r i t y " . 1 3 I t was used much as we would use the term " t y r a n n y " . C a i Yuanpei used the term qianqquan t o d e s c r i b e German m i l i t a r i s m . 1 " L i Dazhao used i t t o d e s c r i b e Japan's " p a n - A s i a n i s m " . 1 5 Meizhou  P i n g l u n saw i t as "the o b j e c t of r e v o l u t i o n " . 1 6 B e g i n n i n g i n l a t e 1918 the p o l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o o p p r e s s o r s and oppressed came t o be seen i n terms of c l a s s e s . In 81 November 1918, L i Dazhao p o i n t e d out i n "The V i c t o r y of the Common P e o p l e " t h a t the war ended because of "the d e f e a t of c a p i t a l i s m and the v i c t o r y of l a b o u r i s m " . 1 7 He a l s o i d e n t i f i e d the c a p i t a l i s t s as a c l a s s and equated " l a b o u r i s m " w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d common p e o p l e " (wuchan shumin ), which was p r o b a b l y an attempt t o render the term " p r o l e t a r i a n s " i n Chi n e s e . At the same time t h a t L i was b e g i n n i n g t o e x p r e s s s o c i a l p o l a r i z a t i o n i n terms of c l a s s e s , he was b u b b l i n g w i t h enthusiasm f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . In "The V i c t o r y of 'B o l s h e v i s m ' " , a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n November, he wrote t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s "advocate t h a t a l l men and women s h o u l d w o r k , " 1 8 i . e . t h a t they advocated " l a b o u r i s m " . By Febr u a r y 1919, L i saw c l a s s -l i b e r a t i o n as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the g e n e r a l movement towards l i b e r a t i o n . The p r e s e n t e r a i s an e r a of l i b e r a t i o n , modern c i v i l i z a t i o n i s a c i v i l i z a t i o n of l i b e r a t i o n . The people w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from the s t a t e , l o c a l i t i e s w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from the c e n t r e , c o l o n i e s w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from the m e t r o p o l i s , weak s m a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from s t r o n g l a r g e n a t i o n a l i t i e s , p e a s a n t s w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from l a n d l o r d s , workers wish t o be l i b e r a t e d from c a p i t a l i s t s , women w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from men, c h i l d r e n w ish t o be l i b e r a t e d from p a r e n t s . Modern p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l movements a r e a l l l i b e r a t i o n movements. 1 9 In "Youth and the C o u n t r y s i d e " , a l s o w r i t t e n i n F e b r u a r y , L i i d e n t i f i e d the " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " as t h a t c l a s s which had t o be l i b e r a t e d . 2 0 At the same time t h a t L i was i d e n t i f y i n g the oppressed as a c l a s s , the o p p r e s s o r s were b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as a c l a s s . In Fe b r u a r y 1919, Chen Duxiu d e s c i b e d the r u l e r s of Ch i n a as "the t h r e e v e r m i n " " - - w a r l o r d s , b u r e a u c r a t s , and c o r r u p t 82 p o l i t i c i a n s . 2 1 In May 1919, Meizhou P i n g l u n d e s c r i b e d the r u l e r s of China as "the g e n t r y c l a s s " . 2 2 As has been mentionned above, i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i t h those of the o p p r e s s e d masses. But as the e d i t o r of P e k i n g ' s Chen Bao had p o i n t e d out i n F e b r u a r y , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s were n o t , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , p a r t of the working masses. By A p r i l 1919, t h i s view was b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n c l a s s terms. "The Reasons f o r the Lack of Success of C h i n a ' s . P o l i t i c a l R e v o l u t i o n and the Non-Occurrence of S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " was one of the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y a c l a s s a n a l y s i s t o China's p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . 2 3 A l t h o u g h t h i s a r t i c l e ' s main concern was t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t China had not y e t reached the e r a of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " , i t , i n e f f e c t , d emonstrated t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s have a d e t e r m i n i n g r o l e to p l a y i n h i s t o r y . H i s t o r i c a l development i s c o n d i t i o n e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s ' s a l l i a n c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o the a r t i c l e , C h i na had not reached the e r a of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " because i n t e l l e c t u a l s had s t i l l not j o i n e d the working masses, and added t h a t the time had come f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s to a l l y w i t h the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s . The s o l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s view and the e a r l i e r p o p u l i s m was t h a t i t was now b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n c l a s s terms. T h i s view was r e i n f o r c e d by a t r a n s l a t i o n from the Japanese which a n a l y s e d s o c i a l problems i n terms of c l a s s e s . "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " , 2 " p u b l i s h e d i n the J u l y , 1919, i s s u e of Dongfang Z a z h i , argued t h a t "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " ( z h i s h i  j i e j i ji. ) or modern "middle c l a s s " (zhongdeng j i e j i had become p a r t of the " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " (wuchan  j i e j i 3 & ^ MfRj i .e .• p r o l e t a r i a t ) , and t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l s were p l a y i n g the key r o l e i n the " l a b o u r and s o c i a l movements". 2 5 In o t h e r words, i n t e l l e c t u a l s as a c l a s s had come t o have the same i n t e r e s t s as the c l a s s of l a b o u r e r s . The view t h a t s o c i e t y was d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s was even more e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d by C h i n e s e M a r x i s t s . T h i s i s q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n of c l a s s e s p r e s e n t e d i n the May, 1919, X i n Q i n g n i a n . Gu Mengyu's commentary on Marxism, and Kawakami Hajime's e x c e r p t s from The Communist M a n i f e s t o made i t a b u n d e n t l y c l e a r t h a t Marx h e l d t h a t s o c i e t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s - - t h e b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t , and t h a t a l l s o c i e t i e s a re composed of c l a s s e s . 2 6 I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t L i Dazhao, w r i t i n g i n " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and Mutual A i d " i n J u l y 1919, d i v i d e d s o c i e t y i n t o two c l a s s e s : . . . L a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s a re the c l a s s which owns the means of p r o d u c t i o n , workers and peasants a r e the c l a s s which does not own the means of p r o d u c t i o n . 2 7 In e f f e c t L i r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of two c l a s s e s — o n e which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and one which d i d n o t . The f a c t t h a t Zhou F u h a i d i d not u n c r i t i c l y a p p l y Western models of c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s t o Chinese s o c i e t y s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s Marxism was more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than L i ' s , but Zhou s t i l l r e c o g n i z e d the d i v i s i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o two b a s i c c l a s s e s . W r i t i n g i n "China's C l a s s S t r u g g l e " i n December, 1919, Zhou r e j e c t e d the i d e a t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n China was between "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " (laodong j i e j i ffizft dfi ffi) and "the b o u r g e o i s i e " ( z i c h a n j i e j i $| ^  . I n s t e a d , he wrote t h a t C hinese c l a s s s t r u g g l e was between "the p a r a s i t i c c l a s s " ( q i s h e n g j i e j i if fyPfts%-\ and "the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c l a s s " ( z i g e i j i e j i The view t h a t s o c i e t y was d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s e s was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d by those who d i d not a c c e p t the M a r x i s t approach to China's problems. For i n s t a n c e , i n September 1919 J i e f a n g Yu G a i z a o r e c o g n i z e d the d i v i s i o n of Chinese s o c i e t y i n t o the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t 2 9 In November 1919, the s t u d e n t j o u r n a l Guomin acknowledged the same d i v i s i o n when i t reduced the o p p r e s s i o n of the masses by w a r l o r d s , , l a b o u r e r s by c a p i t a l i s t s , even women by men, t o the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . 3 0 Guomin d e s c r i b e d t h i s system i n terms of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l . I . E . i t reduced the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o p p r e s s o r and oppressed t o a c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p . In December 1919, Shaonian Shehui r e f e r r e d t o the o p p r e s s o r s — t h e b u r e a u c r a t s , w a r l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s - - a s a s i n g l e c l a s s . 3 1 I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the j o u r n a l would have a l s o r e f e r r e d t o the oppressed as a s i n g l e c l a s s . By December, when he was s t i l l a d v o c a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n a l o n g the l i n e s of England and A m e r i c a , Chen Duxiu had began t o use c l a s s -t e r m i n o l o g y . He argued t h a t c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s had t o be e l i m i n a t e d i n order_ to e s t a b l i s h the s o c i a l b a s i s of democracy. 3 2 In F e b r u a r y 1920, Lu H i n g y u , w r i t i n g i n Dongfang Z a z h i , proposed the c o n s c r i p t i o n of l a b o u r as the best means of a v o i d i n g the o t h e r w i s e i n e v i t a b l e antagonism between the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s (laodong j i e j i ~j$tfl fit'IL,) and the c a p i t a l i s t 8 5 c l a s s ( z i b e n j i a j i e j i ^ ^jjcfytJR.) •3 3 By May 1920, even the e d i t o r of the r e l a t i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e Dongfang Z a z h i was u s i n g c l a s s t e r m i n o l o g y . In an e d i t o r i a l , he p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e were two c l a s s e s i n Chinese s o c i e t y - - " t h e o f f i c i a l c l a s s " ( g u a n l i a o j i e j i ^ ^fpf^?) , and "the p e o p l e " . "The o f f i c i a l c l a s s " h e l p e d the c a p i t a l i s t s t o oppress the l a b o u r e r s . Only the f u l l i n s t i t u t i o n of democracy, he c o n c l u d e d , c o u l d c r e a t e a s o c i e t y i n which c a p i t a l i s t s would be unable t o e x p l o i t l a b o u r e r s . 3 " Thus by the time t h a t the f i r s t complete Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of the The Communist M a n i f e s t o was p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1920, c l a s s t e r m i n o l o g y had become w i d e l y used i n C h i n a . The p e r c e p t i o n of the p o l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o o p p r e s s o r and oppressed, which had been r e f l e c t e d e a r l i e r i n l a b o u r i s m and p o p u l i s m , was now e x p r e s s e d i n c l a s s terms. 2. Two Great Camps: The B o u r g e o i s i e and the P r o l e t a r i a t Given the c o m p l e x i t y of Chinese s o c i e t y , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e agreement on which c l a s s e s e x i s t e d i n C h i n a . What i s s u r p r i s i n g , however, was t h a t a l l of the w r i t e r s of the p e r i o d r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of o n l y two, or a t most t h r e e , c l a s s e s . Even those who i d e n t i f i e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s as a s e p a r a t e c l a s s q u i c k l y p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s were v i c t i m i z e d by the o p p r e s s o r c l a s s and t h e r e f o r e had the same i n t e r e s t s as the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s . The reason f o r t h i s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of Chinese c l a s s s t r u c t u r e was t h a t c l a s s e s were l o o k e d upon as p u r e l y economic e n t i t i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e was one c l a s s — t h e o p p r e s s o r 86 c l a s s — w h i c h owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e r e was another c l a s s - - t h e oppressed c l a s s - - w h i c h l a b o u r e d . B e f o r e O c t o b e r , 1917, the term " j i e. j i " seems t o have meant l i t t l e more than the d i s t i n c t i o n between i n f e r i o r s and s u p e r i o r s . In J u l y , 1917, f o r example, X i n Qingn i a n p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e - - " T h e e v i l s of the c l a s s system advocated by the C o n f u c i a n i s t s " 3 5 - - w h i c h d e s c r i b e d the C o n f u c i a n " c l a s s system" ( j i e j i z h i d u P^TJS-^^iMi as the F i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s — r u l e r and s u b j e c t , f a t h e r and son, e l d e r b r o t h e r and younger b r o t h e r , husband and w i f e , and f r i e n d and f r i e n d . 3 6 W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the l a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l l of these r e l a t i o n s are between s u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l . f i v e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s are between i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d , t h e r e f o r e , how the term " j i e j i " i n i t s modern and s o c i a l sense of " c l a s s " c o u l d be used t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t seems t h a t " j i e j i " meant l i t t l e more than d i s t i n c t i o n s between l e v e l s of rank or i m p o r t a n c e . 3 7 A f t e r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , the term " j i e j i " was i n c r e a s i n g l y used i n i t s modern, i . e . s o c i a l , sense. In January 1918, f o r example, Zhang X i c h e n used i t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the F e b r u a r y and October R e v o l u t i o n s i n R u s s i a . 3 8 The former, he argued, was a r e v o l u t i o n of the "zhongchan j i e j i " , i . e "the m i d d l e c l a s s " , w h i l e the l a t t e r was of the " x i a c e n g j i e j i " , i . e . "the lower c l a s s " . These are c l e a r l y s o c i a l , not i n d i v i d u a l , c o n c e p t s . Moreover, the f a c t t h a t Zhang's term f o r "middle c l a s s "--zhongchan j i e j i ^jfifyfty ~~ l i t e r a l l y meant "mi d d l e -p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " s u g g ests t h a t h i s concept of " c l a s s " was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y d e f i n e d by economic p o s i t i o n , and c o n s e q u e n t l y h i s c l a s s e s were s o c i a l e n t i t i e s . 87 By the f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y of the r e v o l u t i o n , L i Dazhao was b e g i n n i n g t o use c l a s s c o n c e p t s t o a n a l y s e w o r l d a f f a i r s . In "The V i c t o r y of the Common Pe o p l e " and i n "The V i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' " , L i blamed World War One on the i n t e r e s t s of the c a p i t a l i s t s whom he i d e n t i f i e d as a c l a s s . 3 9 At the same t i m e , he i d e n t i f i e d B o l s h e v i s m , and the B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e r e v o l u t i o n s i n Germany and A u s t r i a which ended the war, w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d common p e o p l e " (wuchan s h u m i n ^ ^ i r j s f j ^ ) . In e f f e c t , L i was b e g i n n i n g t o make use of s o c i a l c o n c e p t s of economic s t r a t a — i . e . c l a s s e s d e f i n e d by ownership of p r o p e r t y . The f i r s t attempt t o make e x p l i c i t use of c l a s s c o n c e p t s to a n a l y s e Chinese p o l i t i c s — " T h e Reasons f o r the Lack, of Success of C h i n a ' s P o l i t i c a l R e v o l u t i o n and the Non-Occurrence of S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " , p u b l i s h e d i n the A p r i l 1919 i s s u e of Dongfang Z a z h i - - a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c l a s s e s were economic e n t i t i e s . For example, i t s a i d , S o c i e t y becomes o r g a n i z e d i n t o the two c l a s s e s of the managers, and the managed. The p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [ c a i c h a n  j i e j i wrPfi'fA} and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s combine t o g e t h e r t o form the managing c l a s s [ z h i p e i j i e j i 4jr(] $JL tycftfl} - The l a b o u r i n g c l a s s becomes the managed c l a s s [ b e i z h i p e i j i e j i Thus c l a s s e s e i t h e r " l a b o u r " or own " w e a l t h " , e i t h e r "manage" or "are managed", i . e . have d i f f e r e n t economic r o l e s . By the summer of 1 9 1 9 , L i Dazhao was making e x p l i c i t use of c l a s s e s d e f i n e d i n economic terms. In " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and Mutual A i d " , he p o i n t e d out t h a t " c l a s s e s are f i e r c e l y opposed economic" e n t i t i e s and t h a t t h e r e were two c l a s s e s — o n e t h a t owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and one t h a t d i d n o t . " 1 Even s o u r c e s h o s t i l e t o Marxism a c c e p t e d economic d e f i n i t i o n s of c l a s s e s . In September 1919, J i e f a n g Yu Gaozao t r a n s l a t e d " b o u r g e o i s i e " as "the market-merchant c l a s s " ( s h i  shang j i e j i if 0 Pftjft.) and " p r o l e t a r i a t " as "the peasant-worker c l a s s " (nonggong j i e j i Pfttfl)."2 "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " , p u b l i s h e d i n the f a l l of 1919, d i d not q u e s t i o n the economic d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s , j u s t the i d e a t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . I t p o i n t e d o u t : "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " d e f i n e d c l a s s e s i n economic terms. I t i d e n t i f i e d two c l a s s e s - - " t h e c l a s s of l a b o u r e r s " (laodong z h i j i e j i £. ffiM-) and "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " ( z i b e n . j i a z h i j i e j i £ ijfi L, fyiffiii) • I t i d e n t i f i e d the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s as t h a t c l a s s which " i s the r e a l p o s s e s s o r of the s o c i a l f o r c e s . o f p r o d u c t i o n " and the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s as t h a t c l a s s which "owns the machinery of p r o d u c t i o n . " " 3 By the S p r i n g of 1920, the view t h a t c l a s s e s were economic e n t i t i e s was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Even the e d i t o r of the r e l a t i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e Dongfang Z a z h i a d m i t t e d t h i s i n an e d i t o r i a l i n A p r i l , when he p o i n t e d out t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s caused by "the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . " " " F o r e i g n s o u r c e s tended t o r e i n f o r c e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s . For example, "The Second Stage of World T r a n s f o r m a t i o n " i d e n t i f i e d "the c l a s s of the r i c h " ( f uzhe j j j Q i $ j& ftiffi)  an& "the c l a s s of the poor" ( p i n z h e j i e j i P^fff} •" 5 F i n a l l y , the r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d t r a n s l a t i o n s of Marx and Kautsky which became a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g 1919 would not have n e c e s s a r i l y d i s a b u s e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s of the n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e were o n l y two c l a s s e s i n China w i t h d i f f e r e n t economic r o l e s . These t r a n s l a t i o n s tended t o suggest t h a t Marx h e l d the view t h a t a l l s o c i e t i e s are d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s — t h e o p p r e s s o r s 89 and the oppressed-?--merely adding t h a t the former always e x p l o i t the l a t t e r t hrough the c r e a t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e . The prime c o n c e r n of Marx's own pamplet, Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l , f o r example, had been t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h a t t h e r e i s an economic b a s i s f o r the s t r u g g l e between b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t . The t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e , e x p l a i n e d by Kautsky i n The Economic  D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx, would o n l y add to t h i s view by d e s c r i b i n g the dynamics of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l . Even i n The C l a s s S t r u g g l e , Kautsky p r e s e n t e d d e f i n i t i o n s of the b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t i n terms of t h e i r s o c i a l r o l e i n p r o d u c t i o n . Of c o u r s e , both Marx and Kautsky m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e r e were e a r l i e r modes of p r o d u c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , and t h a t the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s of these p r e - c a p i t a l i s t modes tended t o be more complex." 6 But t h e i r works which were t r a n s l a t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d would not n e c e s s a r i l y have l e d Chin e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s aware t o p e r c e i v e t h a t China d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y have the same form of s o c i e t y as the modern West. Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l o n l y d e s c r i b e d the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n . I t d i d not mention the e x i s t e n c e of e a r l i e r modes of p r o d u c t i o n . A l t h o u g h K a u t s k y ' s works d i d mention these e a r l i e r modes, they d i d not d e s c r i b e them i n any d e t a i l . For example, i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the r i s e of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n i n The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx, Kautsky c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e between the f e u d a l n o b i l i t y and the r i s i n g b o u r g e o i s i e , as w e l l as on the o r i g i n s of the modern p r o l e t a r i a t from h a n d i c r a f t s l a b o u r e r s and d i s p o s s e s s e d p e a s a n t s . He d i d not d e s c r i b e the f e u d a l mode of 90 p r o d u c t i o n except i n so f a r as he s a i d : The w e a l t h of the f e u d a l noble was based on the p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s or c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n k i n d of the dependent p e a s a n t s . With him money was s c a r c e . He t r i e d t o s t e a l what he c o u l d not buy." 7 S i n c e China no l o n g e r had a n o b i l i t y , i t would not have been imme d i a t e l y c l e a r t h a t Chinese c l a s s s t r u c t u r e was not composed of a b o u r g e o i s i e and a p r o l e t a r i a t . In The Economic D o c t r i n e s of  K a r l Marx, Kautsky d e s c r i b e d the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n as t h a t mode which had r e c e n t l y appeared i n Europe and European-d e r i v e d n a t i o n s , b u t , In r e c e n t times our mode of p r o d u c t i o n has taken r o o t among o t h e r n a t i o n s , f o r example, the Japanese and the H i n d o o s . * 8 T h i s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y e x c l u d e China from the l i s t of n a t i o n s where the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n had r e c e n t l y taken r o u t e . The C l a s s S t r u g g l e would have f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d the view t h a t C h ina was a c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r y w i t h a b o u r g e o i s i e and a p r o l e t a r i a t . In the d i s c u s s i o n on r e n t , f o r example, Kautsky p o i n t e d out t h a t landed c a p i t a l i s t s a r e i n a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s , f o r t h e i r monopoly does not e a s i l y d i s a p p e a r . The o n l y m i t i g a t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s monopoly i s t h a t not a l l l a n d i s owned by someone, or used p r o d u c t i v e l y . "Even i n C h i n a , " Kautsky wrote, " t h e r e are s t i l l wide s t r e t c h e s of u n p r o d u c t i v e l a n d , " * 9 thus i m p l y i n g t h a t c a p i t a l i s m based on l a n d was the l a n d l o r d economy of r u r u a l C h i n a . These examples suggest t h a t i t would have been p o s s i b l e f o r Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o b e l i e v e t h a t Marx's t h e o r y of s u r p l u s - v a l u e d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o C h i n a , and thus t o h o l d t h a t 91 Chinese s o c i e t y i n 1919 was d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s — t h e b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . In o t h e r words, a l l t h a t t h e s e works were l i k e l y t o have added t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s was t h a t Marx, h i m s e l f , viewed c l a s s e s as p u r e l y economic e n t i t i e s and o n l y r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of two c l a s s e s i n modern s o c i e t y — o n e which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and one which d i d not. tendency t o see Chinese s o c i e t y as p o l a r i z e d i n t o two c l a s s e s , i m p l i e d t h a t when the terms " b o u r g e o i s i e " and " p r o l e t a r i a t " were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e , or used by Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e i r r e a d e r s , and they t h e m s e l v e s , u n d e r s t o o d "the b o u r g e o i s i e " t o r e f e r t o t h a t c l a s s which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and a c t e d as o p p r e s s o r s , and "the p r o l e t a r i a t " to r e f e r t o t h a t c l a s s which owned no means of p r o d u c t i o n and was o p p r e s s e d . T h i s would f u r t h e r imply t h a t l a n d l o r d s , as w e l l as c a p i t a l i s t s , mad w h i l e p e a s a n t s , as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , made up "the p r o l e t a r i a t " . tf?}v ffi™ ) were used i n t e r c h a n g e b l y w i t h "you chan j i e j i " and " wuchan j i e j i " r e s p e c t i v e l y . In f a c t , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s u n d e r s t o o d "you chan j i e j i " and "wuchan j i e j i " i n a manner c l o s e r t o the l i t e r a l sense suggested by the c h a r a c t e r s than i n the manner t h a t " b o u r g e o i s i e " and " p r o l e t a r i a t " are u n d e r s t o o d today. They T h i s economic d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s , c o u p l e d w i t h the and " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " (laodong j i e j i 92 understood these terms t o mean "h a v i n g p r o p e r t y c l a s s " and "wi t h o u t p r o p e r t y c l a s s " , or i n s l i g h t l y b e t t e r E n g l i s h — " p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . T h i s i s e v i d e n t when the a c t u a l usages of these terms are examined, s i n c e i n t e l l e c t u a l s tended t o lump t o g e t h e r peasants and workers on the one hand, and l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s on the o t h e r . In F e b r u a r y 1919, f o r example, L i Dazhao i d e n t i f i e d p e asants as "the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s (laoqonq 1 i e ~ l 1 i n C h i n a . In J u l y 1919, he e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t , "workers and peasants a re the c l a s s which does not own the means of p r o d u c t i o n " . 5 0 L i ' s views were shared by J i e f a n g yu  Ga i z a o which t r a n s l a t e d the term " p r o l e t a r i a t " as "the peasant-worker c l a s s " (nonggong j i e j i In November 1919, Guomin i d e n t i f i e d the problem of Chinese s o c i e t y as the r e l a t i o n s h i p betwen " l a b o u r " and " c a p i t a l " . R e f e r r i n g t o the b i t t e r l o t of l a b o u r e r s , i t p o i n t e d o u t , "when an unexpected e v e n t , l i k e a drought or n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r , happens, they cannot work and s t a r v e t o d e a t h . " 5 2 Very few i n d u s t r i a l workers a re unable t o work because of " d r o u g h t s " . Thus t h i s statement c l e a r l y p l a c e d peasants i n the ranks of " l a b o u r " , i . e . "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " . A l t h o u g h "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " , which was p u b l i s h e d i n the F a l l of 1919, d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e t h a t such was the c a s e , i t d i d not p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p e a s a n t s , as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , were p a r t of "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " . In i t s d i s c u s s i o n of Marxism, "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " p o i n t e d out t h a t the members of the "laodong z h i j i e j i " itf^ l> l i t . "the c l a s s of l a b o u r e r s " ) , " d a i l y engage i n f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n 93 and o t h e r b i t t e r l a b o u r . " 5 3 The c l a s s of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s was the d i a l e c t i c a l o p p o s i t e of the c l a s s of peasants and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . Indeed the term " c a p i t a l i s t " (z i ben j i a ^ ) o f t e n r e f e r r e d d i r e c t l y t o l a n d l o r d s . L i Dazaho, f o r example, r e f e r r e d t o " l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s " as "the c l a s s , which owns the means of p r o d u c t i o n , " i n J u l y , 1919. 5 * In the f a l l of the same y e a r , "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " , r e f e r r i n g t o "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " ( z i b e n j i a z h i j i e j i 'ijf Jf" $C 2$/%) , p o i n t e d out t h a t , "as owners of f a c t o r i e s [ gongchangzhu 'X/f ^ ] and as l a n d l o r d s [ d i z h u tf{ ^ ] , they w i e l d the power of h i r i n g and f i r i n g , of l i f e and d e a t h , over t h e i r l a b o u r e r s , " 5 5 i . e . t h a t both l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s made up "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " . F i n a l l y , Guomin p o i n t e d out i n November: The c a p i t a l i s t s own banks, f a c t o r i e s and l a n d , and a r e ve r y r i c h . In b u s i n e s s they add p r o f i t on top of p r o f i t as l a n d l o r d s they use l a n d t o buy more l a n d . 5 6 In o t h e r words, " l a n d l o r d s " a r e " c a p i t a l i s t s " . Two i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e s of t h i s p e r i o d a re v i r t u a l l y u n i t e l l i g i b l e i f "you chan j i e j i " and "wuchan j i e j i " a r e not taken t o mean " p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . F i r s t i s the r a t h e r e n i g m a t i c t r a n s l a t i o n from the Japanese, "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " , which was p u b l i s h e d i n the J u l y 1919 i s s u e of Dongfang Z a z h i . 5 7 T h i s a r t i c l e d e f i n e d c l a s s e s i n terms of ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n as w e l l as i n terms of t h e i r s o c a i l r o l e i n p r o d u c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " , "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " (laodonq j i e j i was composed of those who, 94 d i r e c t l y c a r r y out p r o d u c t i o n , are h i r e d by the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s , s e l l i n g them t h e i r l a b o u r power, and t h e r e f o r e , g e t t i n g wages a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i c e of t h e i r l a b o u r . . . . The l a b o u r i n g c l a s s i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o the c a p i t a l i s t and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s e s . I t i s a key element i n c a r r y i n g out p r o d u c t i o n on the one hand, and i n s u p p l y i n g i t on the o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , i t s s a l a r i e s come from i n t e r e s t , p r o f i t , or l a b o u r -power . 5 8 "The m i d d l e c l a s s " (zhongdeng j i e j i ^ J f t 4 & - ) was d i s t i n c t from "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " . • [The m i d d l e c l a s s ] i s composed of b u r e a u c r a t s , o f f i c i a l s , t e a c h e r s and those who engage i n the f r e e p r o f e s s i o n s and do not d i r e c t l y engage i n p r o d u c t i o n . They own more than l a b o u r e r s and t h e r e f o r e they are i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t o n than l a b o u r e r s . . . . The m i d d l e c l a s s i s d i f f e r e n t i n so f a r as i t i s opposed t o the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s i n terms of i t s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . . . and i t s members e i t h e r get a monthly s a l a r y or engage i n the f r e e p r o f e s s i o n s . 5 9 The problem of the m i d d l e c l a s s was t h a t i t s income was not. d i r e c t l y t i e d t o p r o d u c t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t they earn comes f o r the d i v i s i o n of p r o f i t s by those who d i r e c t l y engage i n economic p r o d u c t i o n and they a r e t h e r e f o r e s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e s e p e o p l e . 6 0 C o n s e q u e n t l y i n times of economic c r i s i s the m i d d l e c l a s s i s unable t o m a i n t a i n i t s independence and becomes i m p o v e r i s h e d , i . e . " p r o p e r t y l e s s " . T h i s modern m i d d l e c l a s s i s d i s t i n c t from the middle c l a s s of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t e r a : The economic p o s i t i o n and c o n d i t i o n [of the new m i d d l e c l a s s ] i s not t h a t of the o l d m i d d l e c l a s s because i t l a c k s the n e c e s s a r y p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n of b e i n g i n the m i d d l e . As e x p l a i n e d above, t h e i r problem i s the same as t h a t of the l a b o u r e r . The v a s t m a j o r i t y of p e o p l e who make up the m i d d l e c l a s s have no c a p i t a l [wu z i c h a n zhe>£S ffi/^jg , l i t . " w i t h o u t - c a p i t a l - i s t " ] and have no source of income o t h e r than r e l y i n g on t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . T h e i r s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e t h a t of the l a b o u r e r who r e l i e s on h i s own s t r e n g t h t o make a l i v i n g , except 95 t h a t l a b o u r e r s r e l y upon the p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h of t h e i r own b o d i e s . A l t h o u g h the form of l a b o u r i s d i f f e r e n t . t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s not v e r y g r e a t . In g e n e r a l terms, both are u n p r o p e r t i e d [wuchan zhe jf£ , l i t . " w i t h o u t p r o p e r t y i s t s " ] r e l y i n g upon t h e i r own s t r e n g t h t o make a l i v i n g . T h e r e f o r e , the s o - c a l l e d m i d d l e c l a s s i s i n the same p o s i t i o n as the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [Wuchan j i e j i In o t h e r words, "the middle c l a s s " i s p a r t of the p r o l e t a r i a t because i t i s " u n p r o p e r t i e d " . And a g a i n i t s t a t e s , . . .1 of c o u r s e know the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o p e r t y owning middle p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [youchan zhe z h i c l a s s . At the same time I know t'hat the problem of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s of the most r e s e a r c h v a l u e i n modern s o c i e t y , and t h a t the problem of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s and of the middle c l a s s which make up the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s the most im p o r t a n t and p r o f o u n d i n the s i t u a t i o n of modern Japan. The importance of the u n p r o p e r t i e d m i d d l e c l a s s , t h e s o - c a l l e d i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s [ z h i s h i j i e j i ^T>^ Pffffli i s shown by the l a b o u r . and broad s o c i a l movements of o t h e r . c o u n t r i e s . 6 2 In o t h e r words, the a u t h o r of t h i s a r t i c l e knows the d i f f e r e n c e between the c l a s s t h a t owns some p r o p e r t y (the p e t t y b o u r g o e i s i e ) and t h a t which owns none (the p r o l e t a r i a t ) . The modern "middle c l a s s " (zhonqdeng j i e j i ^pJTJIL l i t . "middle l e v e l c l a s s " ) , however, i s net p a r t of the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e , but p a r t of the p r o l e t a r i a t . In any e v e n t , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the term "wuchan j i e j i " i n t h i s a r t i c l e d i d not s o l e l y - r e f e r t o the c l a s s of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . C l a s s " i d e n t i f i e d the middle c l a s s - as b e i n g " u n p r o p e r t i e d " , he c o n s i t e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d a d i s t i n c t i o n between the "zhongdeng  j i e j i " , which i s l i t e r a l l y "the m i d d l e l e v e l c l a s s " , i . e . "the m i d d l e c l a s s " , and the "zhongchan j i e j i " , l i t e r a l l y "the m i d d l e -p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . 6 1 and the u n p r o p e r t i e d At the same time t h a t the a u t h o r of "On the M i d d l e 96 The "zhongchan j i e j i " , or the m e d i e v a l b o u r g e o i s i e , was o r i g i n a l l y composed o f , . . . a r t i s a n s , m i d d l e and s m a l l shopkeepers, independent f a r m e r s , e t c . B e f o r e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of modern c a p i t a l i s t economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , they were the p r e s e r v e r s of the economy as w e l l as i t s o r g a n i z e r s . They belonged t o the c l a s s of b u r g e r s [ s h i m i n • f f i ' ^ , l i t . " c i t y d w e l l e r s " ] and were the n u c l e u s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 6 3 T h i s "zhongchan j i e j i " became "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " . Modern c a p i t a l i s t economic o r g a n i z a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , and the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s which p r e s e r v e s t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was, i n f a c t , produced from t h i s c l a s s . . . 6" That i s t o say, they have become the "you chan j i e j i " , the c l a s s which Marx c a l l s "the b o u r g e o i s i e " . However, we f i n d t h a t the "zhongchan j i e j i " , or the "middle p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " , was o r i g i n a l l y the "zhongdeng j i e j i " , or "the m i d d l e l e v e l c l a s s " , i . e . "the m i d d l e c l a s s " . Because of the independent economic p o s i t i o n of the o l d m iddle c l a s s , and because i t owned a f a i r amount of p r o p e r t y , i t c o u l d a l s o be c a l l e d the m i d d l e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . In f a c t , i t was the middle c l a s s of s o c i e t y , and the m i d d l e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s of the economy. 6 5 In o t h e r words i t was i n the "middle" both i n terms.of economic p o s i t i o n and i n terms of the ownership of p r o p e r t y . The new m i d d l e c l a s s i s n o t . A l t h o u g h i t i s e x t r e m e l y s u i t a b l e i f the new m i d d l e c l a s s i s c a l l e d the m i d d l e c l a s s of s o c i e t y , because i t i s not independent e c o n o m i c a l l y , and moreover, does not have the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o p e r t y , i t cannot be c a l l e d the m i d d l e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . 6 6 S i n c e i t does not own " p r o p e r t y " i t i s not p a r t of "the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . A l t h o u g h "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " d e f i n e d c l a s s e s on the b a s i s of t h e i r s o c i a l as w e l l as economic p o s i t i o n s , i n e f f e c t , i t s argument f o r c i b l y i m p l i e d t h a t the term "wuchan j i e j i " d i d not r e f e r t o the c l a s s of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , but t o a l l u n p r o p e r t i e d i n g e n e r a l . T h i s i n t u r n suggests t h a t the term " you chan j i e j i " d i d not r e f e r t o the c l a s s of c a p i t a l i s t s , but to a l l owners of p r o p e r t y i n g e n e r a l . j i e j i " meant l i t t l e more than " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " was p r e s e n t e d by L i Dazhao i n J a n u a r y , 1920. In "An Economic E x p l a n a t i o n of Recent I d e o l o g i c a l Changes i n China!', he wrote t h a t . . .China's a g r i c u l t u r a l economy cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n i n d u s t r i a l economy, Chi n a ' s c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n f a c t o r y i n d u s t r y , China's h a n d c r a f t s p r o d u c t i o n cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n mechanized p r o d u c t i o n . Most domestic i n d u s t r y has been d e s t r o y e d , i m p o r t s s u r p a s s e x p o r t s . . , 6 7 China was b e i n g p a u p e r i z e d by f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s m . T h e r e f o r e , as L i wrote, . . .The people of the whole c o u n t r y a r e becoming p a r t I . E . t h i s p a u p e r i z a t i o n was making China " u n p r o p e r t i e d " , and t h e r e f o r e p a r t of the "wuchan j i e j i " or " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . " o w nership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , - 2 ) as the r e s u l t of the p o l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o o p p r e s s o r and o p p r e s s e d , and 3) as the b o u r g e o i s i e i n c l u d i n g b oth l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s on the one hand, and the p r o l e t a r i a t i n c l u d i n g p e a s a n t s as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , on the o t h e r — w a s t o have grave consequences The second argument t h a t suggests t h a t the term "wuchan T h i s view of c l a s s e s - - 1 ) a s economic e n t i t i e s d e f i n e d by 98 f o r the e a r l y communist movement. L i k e t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , the e a r l y communists e s s e n t i a l l y u n d e r s t o o d c l a s s e s i n the manner d e s c r i b e d above. On the b a s i s of t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g they f o r m u l a t e d a s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n which i n the l o n g run was t o r e s u l t i n d i s a s t e r . 99 Chapter Four  Communism: The Gongchandang Programme 1. Communism and China The f o r m a t i o n of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee i n May 1920, marked the a c t u a l b e g i n n i n g of the Chinese communist movement. 1 B e f o r e the l o o s e c o l l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s who c o n s i d e r e d themselves t o be communists c o u l d be f o r m a l l y welded i n t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , a b a s i s of u n i t y had t o be reached. T h i s b a s i s of u n i t y had t o d e f i n e the p a r t y ' s program, i t s g o a l s and the means of t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t . At the same t i m e , as many p o t e n t i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s as- p o s s i b l e had t o be r a l l i e d t o the communist cause. These t a s k s were taken up, t o no s m a l l degree, by the t h e o r e t i c a l organ of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee--Gonqchandang 2--when i t began p u b l i c a t i o n i n November 1919. By the time i t stopped p u b l i s h i n g - - A u g u s t 1 9 2 1 — Gongchandang had o u t l i n e d the p a r t y ' s program. But t h i s program was uniformed w i t h r e s p e c t t o the essence of L e n i n i s m . The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang knew n o t h i n g of L e n i n ' s t h e s i s on i m p e r i a l i s m , and the need f o r a d i s c i p l i n e d army of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , i . e . the need f o r a "vanguard p a r t y " . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t they were t o t a l l y i g n o r a n t of L e n i n ' s p o s i t i o n s on a number of i s s u e s . In f a c t , where they were aware of h i s p o s i t i o n s , they made use of them. Where they were n o t , they f e l l back on the g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s which were a l r e a d y w e l l known amongst p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s . In the f i r s t i s s u e of Gongchandang, Zhou Fuh a i d e f i n e d 100 communism, i . e . "Communist p a r t y ( B o l s h e v i k ) ism" ( Gongchandang (duoshupai ) z h u y i $(f £ ^ ) as "the amalgamation of c o l l e c t i v i s m [ j i c h a n z h u y i ^ & $ ] and the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [wuchan j i e j i d i zhuanzheng f&fltftJS.ftfffl."3 In "Marking the T h i r d A n n i v e r s a r y of the Founding of the R u s s i a n Communist Government", Zhou wrote t h a t communism was " n e i t h e r a n a r c h i s m nor s y n d i c a l i s m " , because the former "opposes a l l c e n t r a l power," w h i l e the l a t t e r " c a l l s l o u d l y f o r c e n t r a l power." Communism, however, "has many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h g u i l d s o c i a l i s m and orthodox Marxism."* A c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, communism and g u i l d s o c i a l i s m were the same i n terms of " s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " , but d i f f e r e d i n terms of " p o l i t i c a l o r g a n z a t i o n . " Both communism and g u i l d s o c i a l i s m a l l o w e d "the l a b o u r e r t o o r g a n i z e so as t o c o m p l e t e l y c a r r y out the r i g h t of s e l f - r u l e i n the sphere of p r o d u c t i o n , " but the l a t t e r "does not r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " G u i l d s o c i a l i s m u n n e c e s s a r i l y caused economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " t o be opposed". Communism, on the o t h e r hand, " b e l i e v e s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s a p r o d u c e r , and a t the same time i s d e f i n i t e l y a consumer." P r o d u c t i o n and consumption "merely r e p r e s e n t two a s p e c t s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and i t i s not n e c e s s a r y f o r these two a s p e c t s t o be opposed." 5 Communism, a c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, was orthodox Marxism, "because both advocate the d i r e c t o p e r a t i o n of c l a s s w a r f a r e and the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . " For the r e a l i z a t i o n of " r e a l democracy", the d i c a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t was e s s e n t i a l : 101 T h i s i s what Marx s a i d d u r i n g h i s l a t e r y e a r s i n the C r i t i q u e of the Gotha Programme: "Between c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and communist s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d d u r i n g which s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n moves from one t o the o t h e r . C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s p e r i o d i s a p o l i t i c a l t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the r e v o l u t i o n a r y d i c t a t o r i a l government of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . " I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t i n o r d e r t o r e a c h the o b j e c t i v e of r e a l s o c i a l i s m , the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s cannot be l e f t o u t . 6 The d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t , a c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, was i n f a c t t r u e democracy. He wrote, L e n i n s a i d , "The s o - c a l l e d e q u a l i t y i n which t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n c t i o n s on the b a s i s of sex, r e l i g i o n , r a c e or n a t i o n a l o r g i n , i s what the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s o f t e n says i t wishes t o r e a l i z e . However, under c a p i t a l i s m i t has never been a c h i e v e d . But the power of the l a b o u r e r s ' and p e a s a n t s ' a s s e m b l i e s [ w o r k e r s ' and P e a sants' S o v i e t s ] , i n o t h e r words, the d i c t a t o r s h i p o f . t h e u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , c o m p l e t e l y r e a l i z e d i t i n one blow." T h e r e f o r e , the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s not o n l y not i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the p r i n c i p l e of u n i v e r s a l democracy, but i s the o n l y means of r e a l i z i n g i t . 7 L i k e o t h e r e a r l y Chinese communists, Zhou was w e l l aware t h a t Marx, i n The Communist Man i f e s t o , had argued t h a t d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s m must i n e v i t a b l y g i v e r i s e t o communism, but as Gongchandang had i t s e l f a d m i t t e d : " c a p i t a l i s m has j u s t s t a r t e d t o d e v e l o p " in_ C h i n a . 8 As S h i Cuntong wrote i n June 1921, 9 The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r the r e a l i z i n g of communism i s "the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of a l l p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s . " In o t h e r words, a l l p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s must be c o n t r o l l e d by s o c i e t y , and a b s o l u t e l y must not be c o n t r o l l e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . . . . The fundamental weakness of c a p i t a l i s m i s " s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n , p r i v a t e o wnership." Communism wants t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s i l l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Marx c l e a r l y saw t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n , knowing t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t s a l r e a d y had l o s t the a b i l i t y t o manage p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s and t h a t d i r e c t c o n t r o l by s o c i e t y was needed. . . .He saw t h a t the m a t e r i a l f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n were a l r e a d y a d v a n c i n g towards the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of communism, and t h e r e f o r e dared t o c o n c l u d e t h a t communism i s the advent 102 of n e c e s s i t y . I f communism does not have t h i s economic base, i t d e f i n i t e l y cannot be r e a l i z e d . 1 0 To c o u n t e r t h i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e argument a g a i n s t o r g a n i z i n g a communist p a r t y i n C h i n a , i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r the communists t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t communism was a r e a l i s t i c o b j e c t i v e i n C h i n a . The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang e s s e n t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d t h r e e arguments on t h i s q u e s t i o n . F i r s t , they argued t h a t s i n c e communist r e v o l u t i o n had succeeded i n R u s s i a , i t would work i n C h i n a . T h i s was the p o s i t i o n taken by Zhou Fuh a i i n November 1920..In "Marking the T h i r d A n n i v e r s a r y of the Founding of the R u s s i a n Communist Government," he wrote, A c c o r d i n g t o my own i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the c o n d i t i o n of C h i na i s s i m p l y the same as t h a t of R u s s i a . (Of c o u r s e , t h e r e are some d i f f e r e n c e s , but t h e s e are v e r y s m a l l . ) Today, they are both a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r i e s , and t h e i r i n d u s t r y i s not v e r y d e v e l o p e d . . . T h e i r s i t u a t i o n s i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s a r e a l s o q u i t e s i m i l a r . In what way are the m i l i t a r i s t s , o f f i c i a l s , and p r o p e r t y - o w n i n g bosses of China d i f f e r e n t from the a r i s t o c r a t s , c l e r g y , c a p i t a l i s t s , and l a n d l o r d s of R u s s i a ? In what way a r e the c r i m e s of the s m a l l p o l i t i c i a n s , p e t t y o f f i c i a l s , and of the average shameless, e d u c a t e d , o f f i c e - s e e k e r of C h i na d i f f e r e n t from those of the R u s s i a n s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s ? In what way i s the l a c k of c o n s i o u s n e s s , the l a c k of t r a i n i n g and the l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n of the the Chinese u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of R u s s i a ? The s i t u a t i o n s are the same. 1 1 In o t h e r words, Zhou argued t h a t s i n c e the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of C h ina and R u s s i a were the same, t h e i r p a t h s of r e v o l u t i o n must a l s o be the same. The second argument, a t f i r s t g l a n c e , appeared t o echo L e n i n ' s t h e s i s on i m p e r i a l i s m . C a p i t a l i s m and communism are m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l systems, the argument r a n , t h e r e f o r e , s u p e r i o r communism must i n e v i t a b l y r e p l a c e 103 c a p i t a l i s m . T h i s argument was p r e s e n t e d by S h i Cuntong i n "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? , 1 2 i n June 1921. Shi r e a d i l y a d m i t t e d t h a t communism would be "an i d l e dream" w i t h o u t the a p p r o p r i a t e economic b a s e , 1 3 but even though Chinese c a p i t a l i s m was not very d e v e l o p e d , w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m was: . . . C a p i t a l i s m i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , and wants t o conquer the w o r l d . Communism i s s i m i l a r . I t , to o , i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e and wants t o conquer the whole w o r l d . These two 'isms' a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y opposed and cannot c o - e x i s t i n the same w o r l d . The u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s of each c o u n t r y must r i s e up and overthrow the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , and w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of our R u s s i a n comrades e s t a b l i s h a communist w o r l d . China i s p a r t of the w o r l d . The u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s t h a t l i v e s i n t h i s p a r t of i t , a l s o wishes t o r i s e up and, w i t h the sy m p a t h e t i c a s s i s t a n c e of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s of the whole w o r l d , make a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , and t o g e t h e r c r e a t e , a "human w o r l d " . I f we don't r i s e up and do t h i s , I f e a r t h a t t h i s "human w o r l d " w i l l not be a t t a i n e d . To sum up, a l t h o u g h Chinese c a p i t a l i s m has not d e v e l o p e d , w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m has r i p e n e d t o the p o i n t of c o l l a p s e . There i s no way i n which w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m can d i e out and C h i n e s e c a p i t a l i s m e x i s t a l o n e . From the p o i n t of view of g r e a t w o r l d i n f l u e n c e s , t h i s i s why China w i l l r e a l i z e communism. 1" In f a c t , t h i s argument was not r e l a t e d t o L e n i n ' s p o s i t i o n on i m p e r i a l i s m . In I m p e r i a l i s m : The H i g h e s t Stage of  Capi t a l i sm, L e n i n argued t h a t monopoly c a p i t a l i s m l e a d s t o i m p e r i a l i s m . T h i s adds a new s e t of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s — t h a t between the c o l o n i z e d n a t i o n and the monopoly c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s of the m e t r o p o l i s - - t o the t r a d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t c o n t r a d i c t i o n between b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t . In o t h e r words, i m p e r i a l i s m causes the i n t e r e s t s of the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the people of the w o r l d to be opposed t o c a p i t a l i s m . T h i s c r e a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of communist r e v o l u t i o n i n r e l a t i v e l y u n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s l i k e R u s s i a . Where Marx b e l i e v e d t h a t communist r e v o l u t i o n would 1 0 4 occur i n the most "advanced" and " d e m o c r a t i c " c o u n t r i e s of Europe, i m p e r i a l i s m makes communist r e v o l u t i o n p o s s i b l e i n those c o u n t r i e s which are "the weakest l i n k s " i n the g l o b a l c h a i n of i m p e r i a l i s m , i . e . where the people are the most aware of the problems c r e a t e d by i m p e r i a l i s m . 1 5 L e n i n ' s t h e s i s on i m p e r i a l i s m was h i s e s s e n t i a l a d d i t i o n t o M a r x i s t t h e o r y and c o n s t i t u t e d the t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n i n c o u n t r i e s such as R u s s i a and China which were e c o n o m i c a l l y backward r e l a t i v e t o the advanced c o u n t r i e s of the West. The f a c t t h a t t h i s "weakest l i n k " argument was never used i n Gongchandang suggests t h a t the e a r l y communists were unaware of i t . However, the argument t h a t c a p i t a l i s m and communism are i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope does seem t o r e f l e c t a p o s i t i o n put f o r w a r d by L e n i n . In "Economics and P o l i t i c s i n the Era of the D i c t a t o r s h i p of the P r o l e t a r i a t " , f o r example, L e n i n wrote, The c l a s s of e x p l o i t e r s , the landowners and c a p i t a l i s t s , has not d i s a p p e a r e d and cannot d i s a p p e a r a l l a t once. . . The e x p l o i t e r s have been smashed but not d e s t r o y e d . They s t i l l have an i n t e r n a t i o n a l base i n the form of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l , of which they a r e a b r a n c h . 1 6 S h i Cuntong's t h e s i s , t h a t the C h i n e s e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s cannot s u r v i v e the d e s t r u c t i o n of i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l base, seems t o be a m i r r o r - i m a g e of L e n i n ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t the e x p l o i t e r s s u r v i v e i n R u s s i a because t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l base s t i l l e x i s t s . S h i Cuntong a l s o p r e s e n t e d the t h i r d argument i n "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " . In e ssence, S h i ' s argument h e l d t h a t o n l y communism c o u l d c r e a t e a s o c i a l i s t economic base. As S h i w rote, 105' . . . I f the Chinese u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s t o l e a v e i t s "inhuman l i f e " and l i v e a "human l i f e " , p r o d u c t i o n and m a t e r i a l commodites must be i n c r e a s e d . U s i n g c a p i t a l i s m to d e v e l o p p r o d u c t i o n not o n l y cannot g i v e "human l i f e " t o the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , but w i l l g i v e a g r e a t many of them the most f r i g h t e n i n g m i s e r y . T h i s i s something t h a t the advanced c o u n t r i e s of Europe and America have a l r e a d y shown us. I t i s a l s o something t h a t Shanghai and o t h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s have shown u s . 1 7 In o t h e r words, c a p i t a l i s m c o u l d not improve the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the p r o l e t a r i a t , but S h i b e l i e v e d communism c o u l d , . . . A l l of the b e n e f i t s of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n are p r e s e r v e d w i t h i n the communist method of p r o d u c t i o n . That which i s d i f f e r e n t i s t h a t every k i n d of c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the c a p i t a l i s t method of p r o d u c t i o n i s r e s o l v e d . The f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n under the communist method of p r o d u c t i o n can o n l y i n c r e a s e i n comparison t o those of c a p i t a l i s m , and cannot decrease i n comparison to i t . . . . Add t o t h i s e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n and i t w i l l not be d i f f i c u l t t o cause a l l members of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s t o l i v e a "human l i f e " . 1 8 In o t h e r words, communism was the o n l y means of i m p r o v i n g the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of t h e p e o p l e of China — the u n p r o p e r t i e d . Thus, a l t h o u g h Gongchandang's arguments on the p o s s i b i l i t y of communist r e v o l u t i o n i n China d i d not make use of L e n i n ' s t h e o r y of i m p e r i a l i s m , they d i d make use of h i s view t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s was i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope. In e f f e c t , Gongchandang argued t h a t communism was p o s s i b l e i n China because i t had worked i n R u s s i a and i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s was the o n l y means of " s a v i n g " C h i n a . 106 2. R e v o l u t i o n and D i c t a t o r s h i p : The C r i t i q u e of Anarchism Communism was not the o n l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y p h i l o s o p h y t h a t e x i s t e d i n China between 1920 and 1921. There were s e v e r a l -o t h e r s r a n g i n g from Sun Y a t - s e n ' s n a t i o n a l i s m t o ana r c h i s m . Of t h e s e , a n a r c h i s m was the p h i l o s o p h y of r e v o l u t i o n t h a t was the c l o s e s t t o communism. L i k e communism, i t sought the fundamental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i e t y . Given the c o n f u s i o n t h a t surrounded • communism and ana r c h i s m between 1917 and 1921, i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r the e a r l y communists t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e i r program from t h a t of a n a r c h i s m . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e a n a r c h i s m was an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n C h i n a , 1 9 i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r the e a r l y communists t o prove t h a t communism was f a r more r e a l i s t i c . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Gongchandang c o n t a i n s a l a r g e number of a n t i - a n a r c h i s t p o l e m i c s . 2 0 For the e a r l y communist movement, a n a r c h i s m was the key i s s u e . Gongchandang's a n t i - a n a r c h i s t p o l e m i c s c e n t r e d around two i s s u e s - - t h e n a t u r e of the r e v o l u t i o n which would overthrow c a p i t a l i s m , i . e . whether the r e v o l u t i o n would be " p o l i t i c a l " or " s o c i a l " , and s e c o n d l y the reasons t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n had t o i n s t i t u t e the system of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t . . The q u e s t i o n of the n a t u r e of the r e v o l u t i o n had been d e f i n e d by the Chinese response to the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n which they had seen as a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . S i n c e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was the a n a r c h i s t o b j e c t i v e , Gongchandang had t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e i r communist " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " from t h a t of the a n a r c h i s t s . In the c o u r s e of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e i r " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " from t h a t of the a n a r c h i s t s , Gongchandang i n t r o d u c e d a new c o n c e p t . The communist r e v o l u t i o n would be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s o c i a l and 1 0 7 p o l i t i c a l . In d i s c u s s i n g the second q u e s t i o n - - t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t - - Gongchandang made use of use of the f a v o u r i t e argument a g a i n s t a n a r c h i s m of M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s s t r e t c h i n g back to Marx h i m s e l f . A l t h o u g h the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t as i n s t i t u t e d i n R u s s i a had been d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r on a number of o c c a s i o n s , 2 1 Gongchandang's p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t was the f i r s t such e x p o s i t i o n i n C h i n a . I t i s a l s o i n i t s d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r y of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t t h a t Gongchandang was the most f a i t h f u l t o the p o s i t i o n s of L e n i n . •Responding t o an a r c h i s m was one of the main concerns of S h i Cuntong i n "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? " . S h i argued t h a t a l t h o u g h a n a r c h i s m and communism shared the same o b j e c t i v e — " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " , they d i f f e r e d on the q u e s t i o n of how t o b r i n g about t h i s s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , the a n a r c h i s t or " g r a d u a l i s t method" wished To get r i d of p o l i t i c s and i s a c t i v e i n terms of s o c i e t y . I t w a i t s u n t i l the v a s t m a j o r i t y of s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s i n the p a r t i c u l a r 'ism', and o n l y then r i s e s up i n r e v o l u t i o n a b o l i s h i n g governments f o r e v e r . 2 2 The communist or " r a d i c a l method" was . . . a c t i v e both i n terms of s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c s . H aving a few peop l e who b e l i e v e i n the p a r t i c u l a r 'ism', i t s e i z e s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r i s e up, g r a s p s p o l i t i c a l power i n i t s hands, and t a k e s advantage of s u p e r i o r p o l i t i c a l power t o complete the r e v o l u t i o n . 2 3 The " g r a d u a l i s t method", he m a j o r i t y of s o c i e t y a l r e a d y p h i l o s o p h y . For example, i t s a i d , presupposed t h a t the v a s t agreed w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y assumed t h a t " f r e e l y o r g a n i z e d 108 p r o d u c e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s " e x i s t e d b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , t h i s was not p o s s i b l e i n a c o u n t r y l i k e China i n which c a p i t a l i s m was not h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d , because t h e r e were no o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o d u c e r s t o come t o g e t h e r , l e t a l o n e f o r them t o e s t a b l i s h " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s " . 2 " I t would a l s o take a g r e a t d e a l of time b e f o r e such a l a r g e number of people agreed w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p h i l o s o p h y which, i n any event, would p r o b a b l y be i m p o s s i b l e b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n had a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d . 2 5 S h i saw the g r a d u a l i s t method as p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s u i t e d t o Chinese c o n d i t i o n s . To w a i t u n t i l the v a s t m a j o r i t y b e l i e v e and then r i s e up i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n f a c t a b s o l u t e l y cannot be done: (1) the v a s t m a j o r i t y of independent p e a s a n t s cannot be i n c i t e d t o r i s e up i n r e v o l u t i o n ; (2) the m a j o r i t y of h a n d c r a f t l a b o u r e r s a l s o cannot be i n c i t e d t o r i s e up. How can t h e r e be a m a j o r i t y i f i t does not i n c l u d e t h e s e two k i n d s of pe o p l e ? Chinese i n d u s t r y i s not deve l o p e d . As y e t , i n the whole c o u n t r y , t h e r e a r e l e s s than one m i l l i o n l a b o u r e r s i n mechanized i n d u s t r y . . . .From t h i s i t i s c l e a r t h a t a m a j o r i t y r e v o l u t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e . . . .Before the r e v o l u t i o n o n l y (1) f a c t o r y l a b o u r e r s and (2) l a n d l e s s peasants can u n i t e . Except f o r these two k i n d s of l a b o u r e r s , u n i t y i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t . 2 6 The o b j e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , meant t h a t the a n a r c h i s t " m a j o r i t y r e v o l u t i o n " was unworkable i n C h i n a . Only a h i g h l y c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y , what L e n i n r e f e r r e d t o as a "vangaurd", c o u l d b r i n g about " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n C h i n a . . . . R e v o l u t i o n s a re always the a f f a i r of a m i n o r i t y . T h i s m i n o r i t y of mine i s not one of a few hundred, or a few thousand, but i s one of s e v e r a l hundred thousand. . . .In my view, R u s s i a ' s s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was a l s o a m i n o r i t y r e v o l u t i o n . My s o - c a l l e d r e v o l u t i o n i s made by a c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y , and does not need t o w a i t u n t i l the m a j o r i t y i s c o n s c i o u s b e f o r e i t o c c u r s . . . . M i n o r i t y r e v o l u t i o n i s a r e v o l u t i o n of r a d i c a l s . . , 2 7 S h i f u r t h e r argued t h a t t h i s " r e v o l u t i o n of r a d i c a l s " 109 must combine " s o c i a l " and " p o l i t i c a l " r e v o l u t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , In s i m p l e terms, s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n t r a n s f o r m s economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . (In s i m p l e terms, p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n t r a n s f o r m s p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . ) . . . . N a t u r a l l y s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n wishes t o t r a n s f o r m p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a t the same t i m e , but the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e . 2 8 I.E i n o r d e r f o r " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " t o succeed, i t had t o be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 2 9 T h i s t h e s i s t h a t " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " was the v e h i c l e f o r " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was remarkably s i m i l a r t o Mao Tse-tung's l a t e r t h e s i s on New Democratic R e v o l u t i o n . L i k e Mao, S h i b e l i e v e d t h a t the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n was i n c o m p l e t e and c o u l d o n l y be completed under the r u l e of the communist p a r t y . Once i n power, both h e l d t h a t the communist s t a t e c o u l d complete t h i s r e v o l u t i o n and e s t a b l i s h the d e v e l o p e d m a t e r i a l base f o r what Mao c a l l e d s o c i a l i s m and S h i c a l l e d " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 3 0 As S h i wrote, China's [ 1 9 1 1 ] p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n d i d not succeed. Chinese l a b o u r e r s d i d not get p o l i t i c a l freedom. T h e r e f o r e , the r e v o l u t i o n which we now seek t o b r i n g about combines t o g e t h e r p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . Our f i r s t s t e p i s t o overthrow the p r e s e n t government and o u r s e l v e s take the r u l i n g c l a s s ' s p o s i t i o n i n o r d e r t o use s u p e r i o r p o l i t i c a l power t o t r a n f o r m economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 1 In e f f e c t , S h i ' s c r i t i q u e of a n a r c h i s m b o i l e d down t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t the a n a r c h i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y program was unworkable i n C h i n a . The major i d e o l o g i c a l weapon used by C h inese communists a g a i n s t a n a r c h i s m was the concept of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of t h e " p r o l e t a r i a t . In "Marking the T h i r d A n n i v e r s a r y of the Founding of the R u s s i a n Communist 110 Government," Zhou Fuh a i had argued t h a t the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t was the s o l e means of e s t a b l i s h i n g " r e a l s o c i a l i s m " and " u n i v e r s a l d e m o c r a c y " . 3 2 In A p r i l 1921, Zhou used the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t t o d e v e l o p ' a c r i t i q u e of a n a r c h i s m . In "Why Do We Advocate Communism?", 3 3 he argued t h a t a n a r c h i s m , i n h o l d i n g t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n can a b o l i s h the s t a t e , "sees c l a s s e s as too unimportant and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n as too e a s y . " 3 " Even though "the o l d r u l i n g c l a s s " would have been ov e r t h r o w n , the r e v o l u t i o n would not have a b o l i s h e d c l a s s e s i m m e d i a t e l y . "A c l a s s , " Zhou p o i n t e d o u t , " i s not l i k e an a n i m a l which once k i l l e d i m m e d i a t e l y d i e s and doesn't need a method of p r e v e n t i n g i t s r e s u r r e c t i o n . " 3 5 A l t h o u g h the o l d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w i l l have been b a s i c a l l y d e s t r o y e d i n the r e v o l u t i o n , "the deep r o o t s of the o l d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " would remain. Because everyone w i l l be f r e e t o a c t as they wish a f t e r the a n a r c h i s t r e v o l u t i o n , communist s o c i e t y would be u n a t t a i n a b l e i f the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s does not v o l u n t a r i l y s u r r e n d e r i t s p r o p e r t y . 3 6 T h i s d i d not mean t h a t communist s o c i e t y was i m p o s s i b l e , but r a t h e r t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of c l a s s e s had t o be f u l l y " r e c o g n i z e d " . A c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, Communism t a k e s the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the l a b o u r e r s [ laodong d i zhuanzhenq ifi^ ffa^ias i t s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e . That i s t o say, i t uses the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the l a b o u r e r s t o p r e v e n t r e s t o r a t i o n i s t movements on the p a r t of the o l d r u l i n g c l a s s , and t o d i g up the r o o t s of the o l d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , so t h a t i t can never i n t e r f e r e w i t h our c o n s t r u c t i o n . 3 7 He then c i t e d an e x c e r p t from a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Workers of the World by the Communist I n t e r n a t i o n a l which p o i n t e d out the importance of a workers' 111 s t a t e : To smash the c a p i t a l i s t s ' s t a t e , t o d e s t r o y the c a p i t a l i s t s ' h e l p i n g hand, t o e l i m i n a t e the weapons of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , t o be f r e e of the c a p i t a l i s t s ' p r o p e r t y , t o p l a c e e v e r y t h i n g under the common c o n t r o l of the c o l l e c t i v e w o r k i ng c l a s s — m a n y t h i n g s must be done which are i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a government, w i t h o u t a s t a t e . 3 8 Zhou c o n c l u d e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t by r e - e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t w i t h o u t i t "the i n f l u e n c e of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s ( t o d a y ' s r u i n g c l a s s ) cannot be e l i m i n a t e d and the r o o t s of the c a p i t a l i s t system ( t o d a y ' s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) cannot be dug u p . " 3 9 In o t h e r words, a c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, an a r c h i s m c o u l d not a t t a i n communist s o c i e t y , because i t sought the immediate a b o l i t i o n of the s t a t e . the p r o l e t a r i a t was i n S h i Cuntong's a r t i c l e , "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? " . He saw the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t as the n e c e s s a r y consequence of the c l a s s n a t u r e of s o c i e t y . C l a s s s t r u g g l e i s something t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r s under a c l a s s system, and i s something t h a t i s o n l y s u i t a b l e t o a c l a s s system. . . . T h e d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s a l s o something t h a t o c c u r s under a d e f i n i t e s o c i e t y , and moreover, i s o n l y s u i t a b l e t o a s o c i e t y i n which c l a s s e s are i r r e c o n c i l a b l y opposed. The d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s a k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n a r y means, and i s d e f i n i t e l y not the o b j e c t i v e of the communist p a r t y . The o b j e c t i v e of the communist p a r t y i s t o r e a l i z e communism." 0 Of c o u r s e , communism was a l s o the o b j e c t i v e of a n a r c h i s m , but a c c o r d i n g t o S h i , o n l y the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t c o u l d c r e a t e a c l a s s l e s s , s t a t e l e s s , i . e . communist, s o c i e t y : Communists d e f i n i t e l y advocate the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s t a t e of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s a f t e r the overthrow of the s t a t e of the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [youchan j i e j i The most s o p h i s t i c a t e d t r e a t m e n t of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of 1 1 2 s t a t e i s the mechanism by which one c l a s s o p p r e s s e s a n o t h e r , o n l y when c l a s s e s cease t o e x i s t can the s t a t e a l s o n a t u r a l l y cease t o e x i s t . Our u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e i s . . . t h a t t h e r e be no s t a t e . B e f o r e c l a s s e s have ceased t o e x i s t , we not o n l y f o r c e f u l l y advocate a s t a t e , but the p o w e r f u l s t a t e of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . " 1 In o t h e r words, the overthrow of the b o u r g e o i s s t a t e does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n the a b o l i t i o n of c l a s s e s , b u t , As c l a s s e s day by day cease t o e x i s t , the s t a t e , a l s o day by day, l o s e s i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Our o b j e c t i v e i s not t o use the s t a t e t o c o n s o l i d a t e the p r i v i l e g e s of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , but i s t o use the s t a t e t o a b o l i s h a l l c l a s s e s . " 2 Moreover, the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t i s the means of c o m p l e t i n g the r e v o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o . S h i : The d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s the means by which s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i s completed and communism i s reached. A f t e r a l l c l a s s e s have ceased to e x i s t , communism i s c o m p l e t e l y r e a l i z e d and the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s n a t u r a l l y l o s e s i t s u s e f u l n e s s . L e n i n s a i d t h a t the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s has t h r e e p urposes: ( 1 ) t o oppress the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s ; ( 2 ) t o c o e r c e the s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s ; ( 3 ) t o t r a i n t h e u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two p u r p o s e s : ( 1 ) t o d e a l w i t h the opposing c l a s s e s ; ( 2 ) t o d e a l w i t h our own c l a s s . The former i s t o oppress the opposing c l a s s e s so t h a t they g r a d u a l l y cease t o e x i s t . The l a t t e r i s t o t r a i n our own c l a s s so t h a t each member of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s becomes a r e v o l u t i o n a r y who can take charge of the e n t e r p r i s e s of communist s o c i e t y . S imply p u t , the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s the o n l y means of c r e a t i n g the economic o r g a n i z a t i o n of communism. I f the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s not put i n t o e f f e c t , communism cannot be r e a l i z e d . " 3 Thus, a c c o r i n g t o S h i , o n l y the replacement of the b o u r g e o i s s t a t e w i t h the p r o l e t a r i a n s t a t e c o u l d r e a l i z e communism. The a n a r c h i s t s charged t h a t t h i s d i c t a t o r s h i p would not be e x e r c i s e d by the people but by the p a r t y . S h i answered t h a t t h i s was o n l y r e a l i s t i c . In p r a c t i c e , 113 The s o - c a l l e d d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s a t f i r s t the d i c t a t o r s h i p of a m i n o r i t y . T h i s i s something which cannot be, and need not be, a v o i d e d . . . . How can the u n c o n s c i o u s , u n t r a i n e d , u n o r g a n i z e d , m a j o r i t y be c a l l e d upon t o e x e r c i s e d i c t a t o r s h i p ? I f they a r e c a l l e d upon to e x e r c i s e d i c t a t o r s h i p , how c o u l d communism not be i n a mess? T h e r e f o r e , so as not t o endanger communism, a t f i r s t , d i c t a t o r s h i p must be c a r r i e d out by a m i n o r i t y of c o n s c i o u s , t r a i n e d , o r g a n i z e d , u n p r o p e r t i e d [ w u c h a n z h e , i . e . p r o l e t a r i a n s ] . " " As the number of c o n s c i o u s , t r a i n e d , and o r g a n i z e d , members of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i n c r e a s e d , d i c t a t o r s h i p would be c a r r i e d out by p r o g r e s s i v e l y more and more p e o p l e , u n t i l i t would be c a r r i e d out by a l l and no l o n g e r needed." 5 Gongchandang's arguments a g a i n s t a n a r c h i s m were i n e f f e c t t h a t a n a r c h i s m was unworkable because i t d i d not f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e C hina's t r u e s i t u a t i o n . On the one had, China's backwardness d i c t a t e d t h a t few p e o p l e were c a p a b l e of u n i t i n g t o g e t h e r i n t o c o l l e c t i v e s — e i t h e r because of t h e i r own l a c k of. c o n s c i o u s n e s s or l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y . But the argument t h a t c a r r i e d the most weight was t h a t a n a r c h i s m d i d not f u l l y r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e of c l a s s e s , w h i l e communism d i d . Communism, t h e r e f o r e , a d m i t t e d the need f o r a s t a t e - - t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t — a f t e r the b o u r g e o i s s t a t e was o v erthrown. T h i s p o s i t i o n , as a t l e a s t some of the e a r l y communists were aware, had been put f o r w a r d by L e n i n i n The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n . * 6 1 1 4 3. The A n a l y s i s of C l a s s e s i n Chinese S o c i e t y The c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n of s o c i e t y i s c e n t r a l t o a communist p a r t y ' s s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n . Which c l a s s e s a r e the f r i e n d s of the r e v o l u t i o n ? Which a r e i t s enemies? Which c l a s s e s can be won over t o the r e v o l u t i o n a r y cause? Which cannot? The answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s d e t e r m i n e the road t h a t the communist p a r t y f o l l o w s , because' i t d e t e r m i n e s which c l a s s e s i t f i g h t s , and which i t o r g a n i z e s - - i . e . i t s s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n . A l t h o u g h Marx never d e f i n e d what he meant by the term " c l a s s " , L e n i n d i d . To L e n i n c l a s s e s were d e f i n e d by the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the means of p r o d u c t i o n ( o w n e r s h i p ) , s o c i a l l y by t h e i r r o l e i n the system of p r o d u c t i o n ( o v e r s e e i n g , l a b o u r i n g , e x p r o p r i a t i n g , e t c . ) , and belong t o a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h the e a r l y communists seem t o have heard of some L e n i n ' s c l a s s terms, they remained e s s e n t i a l l y uninformed w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s d i d not d e p a r t from t h a t of t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Gongchandang d i d not p r e s e n t a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of Chinese s o c i e t y i n any s i n g l e a r t i c l e , but a composite of s e p a r a t e a r t i c l e s s u g g ests t h a t the e a r l y communists agreed on the e x i s t e n c e of s e v e r a l c l a s s e s i n C h i n a . "A C a l l t o the Peasants of C h i n a " 0 7 p r e s e n t e d one of the most d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of c l a s s e s i n Chinese s o c i e t y . The a u t h o r of t h i s a r t i c l e , which was p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1921, argued t h a t any s u c c e s s f u l " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " had t o i n c l u d e p e a s a n t s . Some people say t h a t the l i v e s of Chinese p e a s a n t s 1 1 5 a r e not c o m p l e t e l y s o r r o w f u l , and t h a t they are not c o m p l e t e l y oppressed. Because peasants a l l own l a n d which they c u l t i v a t e t h e m s e l v e s , they do not s o l e l y r e l y upon r e n t e d f i e l d s t o make t h e i r l i v i n g . Even i f the produce from r e n t e d f i e l d s i s d i v i d e d i n h a l f , i t i s d i v i d e d e v e n l y , and t h e r e i s n ' t , t h e r e f o r e , any i n e q u i t y i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . Because of t h i s , you cannot d e v e l o p t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s by p r o p a g a n d i z i n g them." 8 The a u t h o r of "A C a l l t o the Peasants of C h i n a " s a i d t h a t t h i s argument was " c o m p l e t e l y f a l s e " . " 9 He used the s i t u a t i o n of p e a s a n t s i n h i s "hometown" t o p r e s e n t a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of r u r a l soc i e t y . The a u t h o r p o i n t e d out t h a t w h i l e i t may have been t r u e t h a t many pe a s a n t s owned some l a n d , t h i s d i d not mean t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of a l l peasants were the same, or t h a t some peasants were not o p p r e s s e d . Some people say t h a t a l l Chinese p e a s a n t s own l a n d . T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y t r u e but i t i s a b i t too sweeping. A t h r e e - p e r s o n household which owns a thousand mu c o u n t s as owning l a n d , as does a t e n - p e r s o n household which owns one mu. On the b a s i s of t h i s k i n d of ownership can you say t h a t the l i v e s of a l l peasants are the same and t h a t t h e r e i s no e x c e p t i o n a l s u f f e r i n g ? 5 0 In o t h e r words, even i f a l l p e a s a n t s owned l a n d , i t d i d not f o l l o w t h a t they were a l l w e l l o f f . He saw the m i s e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n of some peasants as the r e s u l t of the c l a s s n a t u r e of r u r a l s o c i e t y . He suggested t h a t a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n of the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s of p e a s a n t s would r e v e a l t h a t : . . .There are s e v e r a l c l a s s e s [ j _ i ceng j i e j i JVJF\ ffiift, l i t . " s e v e r a l l e v e l s of c l a s s e s " ] amongst p e a s a n t s : ( 1 ) There a r e those who own most of the l a n d , do not c u l t i v a t e i t t h e m s e l v e s , and e i t h e r h i r e c u l t i v a t o r s or r e n t i t out t o c u l t i v a t o r s , and who r e c e i v e r e n t . These k i n d s of p e o p l e do not count as pure p e a s a n t s and are c a l l e d "the l a n d e d r i c h " [ t u c a i z h u ^ f f i ] i n my hometown. ( 2 ) Second are those who own t h e i r own l a n d , c u l t i v a t e i t t h e m s e l v e s , and a r e a b l e t o support t h e i r 116 w h o l e f a m i l y w i t h i t s p r o d u c e . A s i d e f r o m o w n i n g t h e i r own l a n d , t h e y a l s o r e n t l a n d t o o t h e r p e o p l e t o c u l t i v a t e . T h e s e k i n d s o f p e o p l e a r e c a l l e d m i d d l e p e a s a n t s [ z h o n g d e n g n o n g m i n " ^ a ^ ^ ^ ] - ( 3 ) T h i r d a r e t h o s e who own some l a n d , b u t c a n n o t s u p p o r t t h e i r w h o l e f a m i l y by r e l y i n g u p o n i t s p r o d u c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e y c a n o n l y r e l y u p o n c u l t i v a t i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s l a n d i n e x c h a n g e f o r some o f t h e i r p r o d u c e . T h e s e k i n d s o f p e o p l e c a n be c a l l e d l o w e r p e a s a n t s [ x i a j i n o n g m i n < 2 £ | k & ] . ( 4 ) F o u r t h a r e t h e " p a u p e r s " [ q i o n g g u a n g d a n T h e y h a v e no l a n d w h a t s o e v e r , a n d a r e c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n c u l t i v a t i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s l a n d i n o r d e r t o make a l i v i n g . 5 1 T h u s , " A c a l l t o t h e p e a s a n t s o f C h i n a w i d e n t i f i e d f o u r c l a s s e s i n r u r a l s o c i e t y - - " t h e l a n d e d r i c h " , m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , l o w e r p e a s a n t s , a n d " p a u p e r s " . Of t h e s e f o u r c l a s s e s , t h e f i r s t t w o c l a s s e s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a n d l e d f a i r l y c o m f o r t a b l e l i v e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e y w e r e n o t " t h e o b j e c t o f o u r q u e s t i o n " . T h e t h i r d a n d f o u r t h g r o u p s , t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f C h i n e s e p e a s a n t s , w e r e t h e o b j e c t , h o w e v e r : T h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h k i n d o f p e a s a n t i s s i m p l y e x t r e m e l y t e r r i b l e . W o r k i n g e v e r y d a y u n t i l l a t e , a f t e r a y e a r o f b i t t e r t o i l , t h e y a r e s t i l l n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o t h e d n o r h a v e e n o u g h t o e a t . When t h e l a n d l o r d i s s t u b b o r n , t h e y m o r e o r l e s s s t a r v e t o d e a t h . T h e r e f o r e , t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e p e a s a n t s a r e e x t r e m e l y s o r r o w f u l . A l t h o u g h p e a s a n t s i n t h e t h i r d c a t a g o r y own some l a n d , t h e y s t i l l r e n t o t h e r p e o p l e ' s l a n d , b u t b e c a u s e t h e i r c o s t o f l i v i n g k e e p s r i s i n g , t h e y f r a n t i c a l l y b o r r o w g o o d s , a n d a r e u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r w h o l e f a m i l i e s . T h e r e f o r e , a w h o l e y e a r ' s i n c o m e c a n n o t go i n t o t h e p e a s a n t ' s h o u s e h o l d , some m u s t go t o t h e c r e d i t o r t o p a y b a c k some o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o r t h e i n t e r e s t . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e l i t t l e l a n d t h a t y o u own c a n o n l y g r a d u a l l y be s o l d o r g i v e n t o " t h e l a n d e d r i c h " o r m i d d l e p e a s a n t s . . . a n d y o u u l t i m a t e l y e n d u p i n t h e f o u r t h c a t a g o r y o f p e a s a n t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e p e a s a n t s ' l i v e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y s o r r o w f u l . 5 2 T h e t e r m i n o l o g y t h a t " A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " a p p l i e d t o r u r a l c l a s s e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r " m i d d l e p e a s a n t s " a n d " l o w e r . . . 1 1 7 p e a s a n t s " was s u g g e s t i v e of L e n i n . But upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the m i d d l e p e a s a n t s of "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t ' s " were d i f f e r e n t from those of L e n i n . For example, L e n i n gave the f o l l o w i n g p a r t i a l d e f i n i t i o n of m i d d l e p e a s a n t s : In the economic sense, one s h o u l d understand by "middle p e a s a n t s " those s m a l l farmers who, (1) e i t h e r as owners or t e n a n t s , h o l d p l o t s of l a n d t h a t are a l s o s m a l l but. . .are s u f f i c i e n t not o n l y t o p r o v i d e , as a g e n e r a l r u l e , a meagre s u b s i s t e n c e f o r the f a m i l y and the bare, minimum needed t o m a i n t a i n the farm but a l s o produce as c e r t a i n s u r p l u s . . .; (2) q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y . . . r e s o r t t o the employment of h i r e d l a b o u r . 5 3 Thus a c c o r d i n g . t o L e n i n , the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of middle peasants was t h a t they produced a s u r p l u s over what they r e q u i r e d t o meet t h e i r needs. But f o r "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m i d d l e peasants was t h a t they owned s u f f i c i e n t l a n d t o support t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and not t h a t they produce a s u r p l u s . Thus "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " d e f i n e d i t s r u r a l c l a s s e s s o l e l y i n terms of ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . ownership of l a n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s was not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t of L e n i n , but was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e a r l i e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s i n China as economic g r o u p i n g s d e f i n e d by ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n . Thus i t appears t h a t w h i l e the a u t h o r of "A C a l l t o the Peasants of C h i n a " was f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e r m i n o l o g y L e n i n a p p l i e d t o r u r a l c l a s s e s , he was i g n o r a n t of L e n i n ' s a c t u a l d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e s e c l a s s e s . "A C a l l t o the P e a s a n t s of C h i n a " a l s o saw the phenomenon of i n c r e a s i n g p o l a r i z a t i o n between i t s f o u r r u r a l " c l a s s e s " . As more and more l a n d accumulated i n the hands of the l a n d l o r d s , more and more of the lower peasants became l a n d l e s s . 118 Land was becoming c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t o the hand of a p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r group of p e o p l e . T h e r e f o r e , " c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s are becoming c l e a r e r , and the l i f e of the average peasant i s becoming more b i t t e r . " 5 " Because of t h i s , t h e r e was a growing tendency f o r c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o appear amongst the p e a s a n t s . A c c o r d i n g l y , lower and poor peasants were p o t e n t i a l l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y . But "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t ' s " view of the p o l a r i z a t i o n of r u r a l s o c i e t y i n t o the c l a s s which owned l a n d and the c l a s s which d i d n o t , c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l l e d Marx's d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of ownership i n i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t ' s " statement t h a t c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s were becoming more e v i d e n t i n r u r a l s o c i e t y meant t h a t the c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s between " p r o p e r t i e d " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d " were becoming more apparent i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , and t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y the a u t h o r of "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " d i d not r e c o g n i z e any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between c l a s s e s i n the c o u n t r y s i d e and i n the c i t i e s . I f t h i s was the c a s e , i t r e i n f o r c e s the argument t h a t the a u t h o r of "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " was i g n o r a n t of the f a c t t h a t L e n i n h e l d t h a t r u r a l and urban c l a s s e s were d i s c t i n c t i n a l l but the most advanced of c a p i t a l i s t e c o n o m i e s . 5 5 The terms " p r o l e t a r i a t " and " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " were used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Zhou F u h a i , f o r example, used the term "the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " i n November 1 9 2 0 , 5 6 and the term "the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the l a b o u r e r s " i n A p r i l 1 9 2 1 , 5 7 t o d e s c r i b e the p o l i t i c a l system a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n . Some a r t i c l e s , used the term " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " , o t h e r s the term " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " , t o r e f e r t o the c l a s s which would do the 1 1 9 o v e r t h r o w i n g i n t h i s r e v o l u t i o n . 5 8 Whatever term used, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t p e a s a n t s , at l e a s t poor p e a s a n t s , were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l a s s . C o n s i d e r S h i Cuntong's d e f i n i t i o n of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " : The scope of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s v e r y broad. I t i n c l u d e s f a c t o r y l a b o u r e r s , mine l a b o u r e r s , shop l a b o u r e r s , communication l a b o u r e r s , barge l a b o u r e r s , t e n a n t farmers [ d i a n h u <j& f& ], a g r i c u l t u r a l h i r e d hands [ nongye gugong $ jjf^ ], u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s , disbanded s o l d i e r s , and a l l o t h e r u n p r o p e r t i e d [ wuchan zhe . Thus "tenant f a r m e r s " and " h i r e d hands" are c l e a r l y i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the ranks of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p o s i t i o n of "A C a l l to L a b o u r " 6 0 which s a i d : The l a b o u r e r s of a l l i n d u s t r i e s and a l l p l a c e s must become c o n s c i o u s t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t s of a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p l a c e s are a c l a s s , and t h a t the l a b o u r e r s of a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p l a c e s , are a c l a s s . 6 1 But t h i s " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " d i d the f o l l o w i n g t h i n g s : G r a i n i s p l a n t e d by you. C l o t h i s woven by you. C l o t h e s a r e sewn by you. . . , 6 2 T h e r e f o r e , p l a n t e r s of g r a i n , i . e . p e a s a n t s , a r e p a r t of t h i s c l a s s of l a b o u r e r s . From these examples i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the terms " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " i n c l u d e d a l l l a b o u r e r s who owned l i t t l e or no p r o p e r t y , i . e . b o t h urban p r o l e t a r i a t and poor p e a s a n t s . The "wuchan j i e j i " , which today i s u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as "the p r o l e t a r i a t " , i n c l u d e d peasants and i n d u s t r i a l workers i n a s i n g l e c l a s s . A c l a s s , however, i s always one of a p a i r of o p p o s i t e s . I f one c l a s s i s e x p l o i t e d , t h e r e must be another which e x p l o i t s . 1 2 0 The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang r e f e r r e d t o t h i s e x p l o i t a t i v e . c l a s s as "the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " (youchan j i e j i ffi, or "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " ( z i b e n j i e j i [ & . L a n d l o r d s , and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s , were both seen as members of t h i s c l a s s . In f a c t , "A c a l l t o l a b o u r " e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f e d l a n d l o r d s as c a p i t a l i s t s : Those who run f a c t o r i e s a r e b i g c a p i t a l i s t s . Those who r e c e i v e r e n t and charge i n t e r e s t are s m a l l c a p i t a l i s t s . T h e i r s i z e may d i f f e r , but the e v i l t h a t they make i s the same. 6 3 T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t l a n d l o r d s , those who r e n t out l a n d and make h i g h i n t e r e s t l o a n s , were seen as " s m a l l c a p i t a l i s t s " . The " l a n d e d r i c h " of • "A C a l l t o the P e a s ants of C h i n a " were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as those who r e n t out l a n d and make l o a n s , 6 " w h i l e "A C a l l t o L a b o u r e r s , Peasants and S o l d i e r s " 6 5 i d e n t i f i e d " l a n d , m achinery, houses, and o t h e r t o o l s of p r o d u c t i o n " as t h a t which i s owned by "the c a p i t a l i s t s " . 6 6 Thus i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t l a n d l o r d s , the dominant c l a s s of L e n i n ' s " s e m i - f e u d a l " r u r a l economy, were not seen as a s e p a r a t e c l a s s , but as members of the dominant c l a s s of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y - - t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . Youchan j i e j i , the term u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as "the b o u r g e o i s i e " t o d a y , r e f e r r e d t o "the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " , which i n c l u d e d both l a n d l o r d s , and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s . T h i s view of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , on the one hand, as a s i n g l e c l a s s , and workers and p e a s a n t s , on the o t h e r hand, as a s i n g l e c l a s s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s , as s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s d e f i n e d by ownership (or non-ownership) of p r o p e r t y , which had appeared i n C h ina i n 1919. There was a l s o some agreement upon the e x i s t e n c e of a 121 two "middle c l a s s e s " - - " t h e s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " ( x i a o youchan  "I l e " l 1 ) and "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " ( z h i s h i j i e j i Both Zhou Fuhai and S h i Cuntong i d e n t i f i e d t hese two c l a s s e s i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of the s t a g e s , or purposes, of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t . 6 7 Only Zhou, however, d e f i n e d t h e s e c l a s s e s . He wrote t h a t a f t e r the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t had e l i m i n a t e d the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , . . .Those who a c t i v e l y d e s t r o y s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e the s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s . In c o n c r e t e terms t h i s c l a s s i s composed of such k i n d s of people as c r a f t s m e n , t e a c h e r s , s p e c i a l i s t s , and d o c t o r s . 6 8 T h i s " d e f i n i t i o n " , however, was ambiguous. I t i s not- c l e a r whether Zhou r e f e r r e d to both "the s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " as " t h i s c l a s s " or j u s t "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " . He d i d , however, go on t o say t h a t "the masses of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s a re l e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l s . " 6 9 The c l a s s of i n t e l l e c t u a l s a c c o r d i n g t o Gongchandang would a l l y w i t h the p r o l e t a r i a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the r e v o l u t i o n which was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the b o u r g e o i s i e . In a remarkable echo of "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " p u b l i s h e d i n J u l y 1 9 2 1 , 7 0 "A C a l l t o L a b o u r e r s , P e asants and S o l d i e r s " e x p l a i n e d why i n t e l l e c t u a l s were r e v o l u t i o n a r y : . . . I n t e l l e c t u a l work . . . i s a l s o a k i n d of commodity . . . In today's s o c i e t y i n t e l l e c t u a l work c o u n t s as h i g h l e v e l but those w i t h knowledge more o f t e n than not work f o r o t h e r p e o p l e . The l i v e s of those who work w i t h t h e i r minds are i m p o v e r i s h e d . 7 1 Thus i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , Gongchandang's d e s c r i p t i o n 1 2 2 of c l a s s e s i n Chinese s o c i e t y d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e p a r t from p r e v i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of c l a s s e s i n C h i n a . T h i s suggests t h a t the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang were f u n d a m e n t a l l y unaware of L e n i n ' s a n a l y s i s of c l a s s e s . But based on i t s c l a s s a n a l y s i s of Chinese s o c i e t y , Gongchandang d e v l o p e d a s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n . E s s e n t a i l l y , the r e v o l u t i o n would be brought about by "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " . I t would be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t "the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and "the s m a l l ' p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " would, f o r a time at l e a s t , a l l y w i t h "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . 4. S e i z e P o l i t i c a l Power: The R e v o l u t i o n a r y Road In What i s t o be Done?, L e n i n d e s c r i b e d the g e n e r a l approach o f , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form of,, problems encountered by, and c e n t r a l t a s k s of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y . E s s e n t i a l l y , he argued t h a t p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d o n l y be brought about i f the p r o l e t a r i a t was c o n s c i o u s . T h e r e f o r e , the c e n t r a l t a s k of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y was t o educate the p r o l e t a r i a t so as t o rouse i t s l a t e n t c o n s c i o u s n e s s . S i n c e such e d u c a t i o n c o u l d o n l y be c a r r i e d out by those who were themselves c l a s s c o n s c i o u s , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y had t o c o n s i s t of those who were the most c l a s s c o n s c i o u s , i . e . those whom L e n i n r e f e r r e d t o as the "vanguard" of the p r o l e t a r i a t . A l t h o u g h Gongchandang d e a l t w i t h q u e s t i o n s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and even came c l o s e t o the concept of the vanguard p a r t y , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e which s u g g e s t s t h a t the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang"were aware of L e n i n ' s t h e s i s on the vanguard p a r t y . 123 By the s p r i n g of 1921, Gongchandang s t a r t e d t o d e s c r i b e the p a t h which the e a r l y communists thought would l e a d t o a s u c c e s s f u l " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . W r i t i n g i n June 1921, Zhou Fuhai made i t c l e a r t h a t o n l y the s e i z u r e of s t a t e power c o u l d b r i n g about s o c i a l i s m . In " S e i z e P o l i t i c a l P o w e r " , 7 2 Zhou wrote t h a t p o l i t i c a l power c o u l d o n l y be g a i n e d through v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n : F i r s t i s t o s e i z e p o l i t i c a l power. . . . O u r s o - c a l l e d s e i z u r e of power does not make use of p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n i s m t o f o o l around w i t h the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , s p r e a d i n g a l i t t l e r i g h t e o u s n e s s i n government. That i s t o say, we must use r e v o l u t i o n a r y means t o overthrow the p r o p e r t e d c l a s s , and t o p l a c e p o l i t i c a l power i n the hands of u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . 7 3 S i n c e t h i s a r t i c l e was p r i m a r i l y a c r i t i q u e of a n a r c h i s m , Zhou c o n t i n u e d by a r g u i n g t h a t "common sense" d i c t a t e d t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e i z e p o l i t i c a l power and e s t a b l i s h a new s t a t e . He d i d not d e s c r i b e the n a t u r e of t h e s e " r e v o l u t i o n a r y means". 7" "A C a l l t o L a b o u r e r s , P e a s a n t s and S o l d i e r s " i n May 1921, had been a l i t t l e more s p e c i f i c i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s r e v o l u t i o n , which would not s i m p l y be an armed i n s u r r e c t i o n . You must not be a f r a i d of t h i s word r e v o l u t i o n . To l e a v e the b i t t e r l i f e of today, we must have our own power, and r e v o l u t i o n cannot be a v o i d e d . I a s s u r e you t h a t our r e v o l u t i o n does not c a l l upon you t o take up arms. T h i s o l d - s t y l e r e v o l u t i o n cannot be used today. R e v o l u t i o n c a l l s upon you t o u n i t e , t o u n i t e t o g e t h e r so as t o c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s i s t your e n e m i e s . 7 5 In o t h e r words, the communist r e v o l u t i o n would not s i m p l y be an armed i n s u r r e c t i o n or the k i n d of extended m i l i t a r y campaign b e i n g pushed by t h e Guomindang. T h i s r e v o l u t i o n would have a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d of p r e p a r a t i o n . In o r d e r t o r e s i s t an enemy, a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s " C a l l " , 124 i t was f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y the enemy. There were t h r e e enemies i n C h i n a : F i r s t a r e o f f i c i a l s . Take a lo o k a t the p e t t y o f f i c i a l s of your v i l l a g e s and you can know the c r i m e s of a l l o f f i c i a l s . Second are the m i l i t a r i s t s . O f f i c e r s l e a d t r o o p s i n t o your v i l l a g e s , they rape your w i v e s , beat your p a r e n t s , and demand your money. These m i l i t a r i s t s are a b e t t e d by the o f f i c i a l s . They a r e e v i l i n t h e same way t h a t o f f i c i a l s a r e e v i l . T h i r d a r e the c a p i t a l i s t s . 7 6 T h i s was the f i r s t s t e p of the r e v o l u t i o n - — " t o r e c o g n i z e your enemies". 7 7 These enemies would not stand i d l y by and a l l o w themselves t o be overthrown. They would use a l l s o r t s of " l i e s " t o p r e v e n t the u n i t y of the masses. T h e r e f o r e , the second s t e p of r e v o l u t i o n would expose t h e i r manoeuvres, i . e . i t would c a r r y out i d e o l o g i c a l p r o p a g a n d a . " 7 8 E c h o i n g S h i Cuntong's t h e s i s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l n a t u r e of communism and c a p i t a l i s m , t h i s " C a l l " p o i n t e d out t h a t the t h i r d s t e p of r e v o l u t i o n would " u n i t e the l a b o u r e r s of the whole w o r l d " . T h i s u n i t y was ne c e s s a r y because the enemies of Chinese l a b o u r e r s were su p p o r t e d by the f o r e i g n powers and f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i s t s . 7 9 The f o u r t h s t e p was t o m o b i l i z e m i l i t a r y u n i t s f o r the a c t u a l s e i z u r e of p o w e r . 8 0 Only a f t e r a l l of these s t e p s c o u l d "the d i c t a t o r s h i p of l a b o u r " be i n s t i t u t e d and s o c i a l i s m be r e a l i z e d . 8 1 "A C a l l t o L a b o u r e r s , Peasants and S o l d i e r s " d i d not d e a l w i t h the i s s u e of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s , but "A C a l l t o Labour", p u b l i s h e d i n June 1921, d e s c r i b e d c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s as a n e c e s s a r y p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r r e v o l u t i o n . F i r s t , i t p o i n t e d out t o l a b o u r t h a t i t c r e a t e s a l l w e a l t h and asked: 1 25 A l l o f t h e t h i n g s o f t h e w o r l d a r e made by y o u . A l l o f t h e t h i n g s o f t h e w o r l d s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by y o u . T h e n why i s i t t h a t y o u h a v e s u c h s u f f e r i n g ? Do y o u know w h e r e y o u r s u f f e r i n g c o m e s f r o m ? I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o s a y t h a t y o u r s u f f e r i n g c o m e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t y o u a r e a l l o p p r e s s e d l a b o u r e r s . L a n d , m a c h i n e s , h o u s e s , a n d o t h e r t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e a l l p r i v a t e l y o w n e d by t h e c a p i t a l i s t s . I f y o u w a n t t o w o r k s o t h a t y o u c a n e a t , b u t d o n o t own a n y l a n d , m a c h i n e s , h o u s e s , o r o t h e r t o o l s , y o u c a n o n l y s e l l y o u r p h y s i c a l l a b o u r p o w e r t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t s b e c o m i n g t h e i r u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r . The w a g e s g i v e n t o u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s by t h e c a p i t a l i s t s a r e o n l y e n o u g h t o f i l l o u r m o u t h s d r a g g i n g o u t o u r m i s e r a b l e e x i s t e n c e s , w h i l e m o s t o f t h e p r o f i t s p o u r i n t o t h e c o f f e r s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s t h e c a p i t a l i s t s g r o w r i c h e r d a y by d a y , w h i l e t h e l a b o u r e r s g r o w p o o r e r d a y by d a y . I f y o u w i s h t o e n d y o u r s u f f e r i n g , t h e p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d , m a c h i n e s , h o u s e s , a n d o t h e r t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n owned by t h e c a p i t a l i s t s , m u s t be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e common p r o p e r t y o f a l l l a b o u r e r s . 8 2 I n o t h e r w o r d s , c a p i t a l i s t e x p l o i t a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a b j e c t c o n d i t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r i n g m a s s e s , a n d s o c i a l i s m was t h e o n l y means o f c h a n g i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o " A C a l l t o L a b o u r " , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l i s m , The l a b o u r e r s o f a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d a l l p l a c e s m u s t become c o n s c i o u s t h a t t h e c a p i t a l i s t s o f a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p l a c e s a r e a c l a s s , a n d t h a t t h e l a b o u r e r s o f a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p l a c e s a r e a c l a s s , a n d t h a t t h e s e t w o c l a s s e s a r e f o r e v e r i n c o m p a t i b l e . . . . U n l e s s t h e l a b o u r e r s o f a l l p l a c e s a n d i n d u s t r i e s o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a c l a s s , t h e y w i l l n e v e r h a v e t h e s t r e n g t h t o r e s i s t t h e p o w e r f u l c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . W i t h o u t t h e s t r e n g t h t o r e s i s t t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s f o r m t h e c a p i t a l i s t s ' p r i v a t e l y owned t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t o t h e common p r o p e r t y o f t h e l a b o u r e r s . U n l e s s t h e t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e c o m m o n l y o w n e d by t h e l a b o u r e r s , t h e i r s u f f e r i n g c a n n e v e r be e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s , t h e n , i s c a l l e d , c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 8 3 I n o t h e r w o r d s , c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " was t h e a w a r e n e s s t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s a s a c l a s s w e r e i n i m i c a l t o t h o s e o f t h e l a b o u r e r s a s a c l a s s a n d t h a t o n l y c o l l e c t i v e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e means o f 126 p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y improve t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . Only when the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s had t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o u l d communist r e v o l u t i o n o c c u r . "A C a l l t o Labour" d i d not d e s c r i b e the manner i n which c o n s i o u s n e s s d e v e l o p s . T h i s q u e s t i o n was examined i n A p r i l 1921, i n "A C a l l t o the Peasants of C h i n a " which p o i n t e d out t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l r e v o l u t i o n i n China r e q u i r e d t h a t peasants be c l a s s consc i o u s . The peasants a re the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n . They are very i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n which r e v o l u t i o n i s p r e p a r e d , as w e l l as d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n which i t i s c a r r i e d o u t . I f they a re c l a s s c o n s c i o u s so t h a t they can r i s e up and c a r r y out c l a s s s t r u g g l e , our s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , communism, i s c o m p l e t e l y p o s s i b l e . 8 " Without the p e a s a n t s , the r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d not succeed, and the pea s a n t s would o n l y take p a r t i n the r e v o l u t i o n i f they were c l a s s c o n s c i o u s . C l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s d e v e l o p s n a t u r a l l y : C l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . i s c o m p l e t e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the n a t u r a l t e n d a n c i e s among masses. I f i t i s not induced from the o u t s i d e , i t i s something t h a t a mass i t s e l f w i l l one day d i s c o v e r . C l a s s s t r u g g l e n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r s as the n a t u r a l r e s u l t of the f i e r c e c o n f l i c t between two c o m p l e t e l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e masses r e a c h i n g i t s l i m i t , when the s u f f e r i n g of the r u l e d i s a t i t s g r e a t e s t . 8 5 A l t h o u g h c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s may be a " n a t u r a l r e s u l t " t h i s a r t i c l e went on t o p o i n t out t h a t i t s development c o u l d be encouraged. . . . I f you aw a i t i t s n a t u r a l development, i t w i l l o c cur a l i t t l e l a t e r . Because t h i s tendency e x i s t s anyways, i f you add on a r t i f i c i a l means t o promote i t , i t w i l l happen a l i t t l e s o o n e r . 8 6 In o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h the development of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s was i n e v i t a b l e , i t s development c o u l d be s t i m u l a t e d by an 127 e x t e r n a l agent. A l l t h a t was needed t o encourage the development of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s amongst the peasants was " t o t h i n k of a way t o propagandize them." 8 7 In "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? " , S h i Cuntong argued t h a t o n l y a h i g h l y c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y , i n e f f e c t what L e n i n c a l l e d a "vanguard", c o u l d b r i n g about " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 8 8 A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , t h i s vanguard, or group of " r a d i c a l s " , was t o be composed of "the t h r e e - c o r n e r e d a l l i a n c e of the u n p r o p e r t i e d . c l a s s , s o l d i e r s and s t u d e n t s " . A l l t h r e e were needed because The p e o p l e who are the s t r o n g e s t i n making a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n China a re the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and s o l d i e r s , but the s e two k i n d s of people a re n o t * c o n s c i o u s today and do not un d e r s t a n d s o c i a l i s m . To make them c o n s c i o u s and to b e l i e v e i n s o c i a l i s m , c o n s c i o u s s t u d e n t s must e n t e r t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c a r r y out propaganda. When more of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and s o l d i e r s b e l i e v e i n s o c i a l i s m , the a l l i a n c e of the t h r e e can s e i z e ' i t s o p p o r t u n i t y t o suddenly r i s e up, c r e a t i n g a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n by g r a s p i n g p o l i t i c a l power i n our hands and u s i n g i t t o c r e a t e the economic o r g a n i z a t i o n of communism. 8 9 T h e r e f o r e , t h i s r e v o l u t i o n would be brought about by workers and s o l d i e r s who had been made c o n s c i o u s by the propaganda a c t i v i t i e s of s t u d e n t s . Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o S h i , s t u d e n t s bore the major burden of b r i n g i n g about r e v o l u t i o n . Only s t u d e n t s c o u l d p l a y the r o l e of p r o p a g a n d i s t s . Because the s i t u a t i o n of s t u d e n t s i s b e t t e r than t h a t of most members of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and most s o l d i e r s , i t i s e a s i e r f o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o occur amongst them. I t i s e a s i e r f o r them t o be a f f e c t e d by s o c i a l i s m , and t o be w i l l i n g t o make s a c r i f i c e s f o r s o c i a l i s m . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a m i n o r i t y which i s c o r r u p t , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s i s honest and i n n o c e n t . Today, most of those who read s o c i a l i s t books and newspapers are s t u d e n t s . Many of them are b e l i e v e r s i n s o c i a l i s m . I b e l i e v e t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' t a s k , t o make 1 2 8 a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , i s very heavy. Without them, s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n cannot p o s s i b l y succeed. Why? Because i n China t o d a y , o n l y s t u d e n t s can become p r o p a g a n d i s t s . I t can be s a i d t h a t s t u d e n t s a re the c a t a l y s t s f o r the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and s o l d i e r s . Without s t u d e n t s , they cannot u n i t e under one " i s m " . 9 0 S h i c o n t i n u e d by p o i n t i n g out t h a t s t u d e n t s would f i r s t , have t o o r g a n i z e themselves i n o r d e r t o c a r r y out t h i s t a s k . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n would extend from each s c h o o l t o the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and would a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o r e s e a r c h s o c i a l i s m and the c o n d i t i o n of the l a b o u r i n g p e o p l e . 9 1 S h i wrote t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n i t s e l f , was not s u f f i c i e n t t o r a i s e the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the workers and s o l d i e r s . S t u d e n t s had t o p h y s i c a l l y e n t e r f a c t o r i e s and m i l i t a r y u n i t s t o c a r r y out t h e i r propaganda t a s k s e f f e c t i v e l y . T h i s would a l l o w them t o earn the t r u s t of the workers and the s o l d i e r s , and t o t e l l them about s o c i a l i s m . 9 2 Those who were be s t a b l e t o b r i n g about s o c i a l i s m , a c c o r d i n g t o S h i , were the f a c t o r y w o r k e r s . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis, t h e r e f o r e , had t o be p l a c e d upon " p r o p a g a n d i z i n g " them. S t u d e n t s had t o e n t e r the f a c t o r i e s and cause the workers t o have " c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t r a i n i n g , and o r g a n i z a t i o n . " In p a r t i c u l a r , s t u d e n t s s h o u l d o r g a n i z e l a b o u r u n i o n s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Unions have two p u r p o s e s : one i s t o improve the l i f e of the l a b o u r e r s by s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s ; one i s t o pr e p a r e l a b o u r e r s t o c o n t r o l i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s i n the f u t u r e by t r a i n i n g them. In o r d e r f o r us t o make s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , u n i o n s must q u i c k l y be o r g a n i z e d . 9 3 T h e r e f o r e , s t u d e n t s not o n l y had t o t e l l workers about s o c i a l i s m , they had t o o r g a n i z e them i n t o t r a d e u n i o n s . Sh i was w e l l aware t h a t t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y few 1 2 9 f a c t o r y workers i n China at t h i s t i m e . He t h e r e f o r e f e l t t h a t workers d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h t o c a r r y out r e v o l u t i o n on t h e i r own. The most p o w e r f u l people i n China were s o l d i e r s . T h e r e f o r e , s t u d e n t s a l s o had t o j o i n ranks w i t h them, become t h e i r f r i e n d s and show them t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s l a y w i t h the w o r k e r s , j o i n w i t h them, s e i z e power, and b r i n g about the d e s i r e d r e v o l u t i o n . 9 " The p a t h of r e v o l u t i o n which Shi Cuntong d e s c r i b e d was v e r y c l e a r . He proposed a r e v o l u t i o n which would be brought about by "the d i r e c t a c t i o n of the t h r e e c o r n e r e d a l l i a n c e of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , s t u d e n t s and s o l d i e r s . " 9 5 Only s t u d e n t s had a s u f f i c i e n t l y d eveloped u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Chinese s o c i e t y , and of s o c i a l i s m , t o be a b l e t o r a i s e the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the workers and s o l d i e r s . They t h e r e f o r e had t o go down t o the : workers and s o l d i e r s , j o i n w i t h them, r a i s e t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and b r i n g about a r e v o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , t h i s was the o n l y way i n which a communist r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d be brought about i n C h i n a . S h i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a t h of r e v o l u t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p o s i t i o n s of h i s c o l l e a g u e s . They a l l saw the need t o d e v e l o p " c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . They f e l t t h a t t h i s development c o u l d be s t i m u l a t e d by e f f e c t i v e p r o p a g a n d a . 9 6 Nowhere i n "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? " does S h i p o i n t t o the n e c e s s i t y of o r g a n i z i n g the c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y i n t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . For t h a t m a t t e r , none of the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang ever made t h i s p o i n t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the e a r l y communists were unaware of the L e n i n i s t concept of a "vanguard p a r t y " . 9 7 I t i s p o s s i b l e , of c o u r s e , t h a t the e a r l y communists 1 3 0 were so p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h o r g a n i z i n g a "vanguard p a r t y " t h a t they never b o t h e r e d t o mention i t , but t h i s i s u n l i k e l y . I f t h i s was the c a s e , then i t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t one of the c o n t r i b u t o r s would have used the term "vanguard", but we f i n d t h a t S h i Cuntong, f o r example, never a p p l i e s t h i s term t o h i s c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y . The r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t h d e s c r i b e d i n Gongchandang was not t h a t which u l t i m a t e l y succeeded i n C h i n a . I t would take as g r e a t d e a l more p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , and s u b s t a n t i a l t h e o r e t i c a l r e -e v a l u a t i o n , b e f o r e t h a t s t r a t e g y emerged. The e a r l y communists, however, were aware t h a t i f t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n was t o succeed, t h e y , t h a t i s s t u d e n t s and young i n t e l l e c t u a l s , had t o go down p r o p a g a n d i z e , and o r g a n i z e , the masses. And t h a t , more or l e s s , i s what they d i d . 131 CONCLUSION The program of the Chinese Communist P a r t y as p r e s e n t e d i n Gongchandang was c o n d i t i o n e d by co n c e p t s which had appeared i n C h i na b e f o r e 1920. In p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t s of r e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s e s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d Gongchandang's a n a l y s i s of r e v o l u t i o n , c o n c e p t s which a r e n e i t h e r Marxism nor L e n i n i s t i n o r i g i n but were, i n f a c t , a n a r c h i s t c o n c e p t s . A c c o r d i n g t o an a r c h i s m , " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " would l e a d t o communist, i . e . c l a s s l e s s and s t a t e l e s s , s o c i e t y . The B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n had been und e r s t o o d as such a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " and B o l s h e v i s m i t s e l f was co n f u s e d w i t h a n a r c h i s m . At the same time t h a t the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n came t o be seen as a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " , t h e r e was an i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the need f o r such a r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a . These two e l e m e n t s — B o l s h e v i s m as " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " and the need f o r such a r e v o l u t i o n i n China--were brought t o g e t h e r i n Gongchandang. R u s s i a n - s t y l e s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was the d e c l a r e d o b j e c t i v e of the e a r l y Chinese communist movement . Gongchandang d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t s " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " from t h a t of the a n a r c h i s t s by a r g u i n g t h a t the communist " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " would use the s e i z u r e of p o l i t i c a l power, i . e . " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " , as the means of r e a l i z i n g the s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . In e f f e c t , Gongchandang argued t h a t o n l y communism c o u l d r e a l i z e the a n a r c h i s t dream. C l a s s s t r u g g l e was the method of b r i n g i n g about the communist r e v o l u t i o n . Gongchandang c l a i m e d , i n a remarkable echo of e a r l i e r p o p u l i s t s e n t i m e n t s , t h a t t h i s c l a s s s t r u g g l e would occur as the r e s u l t of the s t i m u l a t i o n of the development of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Thus s t u d e n t s s h o u l d go down t o , 1 3 2 p r o p a g a n d i z e and o r g a n i z e , the masses of pe a s a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . T h i s program of r e v o l u t i o n was a l s o c o n d i t i o n e d by Gongchandang's a n a l y s i s of c l a s s e s . The r e v o l u t i o n would be brought about by the a l l i a n c e of the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s and the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . T h i s view of i n t e l l e c t u a l s as s h a r i n g the same c l a s s i n t e r e s t s as the oppressed masses was a comon theme of the p e r i o d . Another common theme was the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s seen i n the wake of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . T h i s view of c l a s s e s - - s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s d e f i n e d by ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . of p r o p e r t y — a d d e d an economic c o n t e n t t o those c l a s s e s which had been p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d by a n a r c h i s m . Where a n a r c h i s t s had i d e n t i f i e d o p p r e s s o r and oppressed c l a s s e s , e x p l o i t e r and e x p l o i t e d , i . e . " p r o p e r t i e d " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d " , c l a s s e s were now seen. Gongchandang shared t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s i n so f a r as i t i d e n t i f i e d a c l a s s composed of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , as w e l l as a c l a s s composed of pe a s a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , as the b a s i c c l a s s e s of Chinese s o c i e t y . Gongchandang's p e r c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y was a l s o c o n d i t i o n e d by l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o , and consequent f r a m e n t a r y knowledge o f , Marxism and L e n i n i s m . A l t h o u g h i n t e l l e c t u a l s were f a m i l i a r w i t h the b a s i c f o r m a l elements of Marx's t h e o r i e s , i n p r a c t i c e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of r e a l i t y remained e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged. T h i s can be seen i n the i d e a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Chinese h i s t o r y found i n L i Dazhao's and Hu Hanmin's e x a m i n a t i o n s of the h i s t o r y of Chinese thought. Both were f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r i n c i p l e of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y , but i n p r a c t i c e c o n f u s e d i t w i t h economic d e t e r m i n i s m 1 3 3 and M a l t h u s . Marxism's f a i l u r e t o change b a s i c p e r c e p t i o n s was a l s o e v i d e n t i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e as e q u i v a l e n t t o " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " , and can even be seen i n the concept of c l a s s s t r u g g l e as a k i n d of d e v i c e or means of a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . There i s no e v i d e n c e which s u g g e s t s t h a t the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang were f a m i l i a r w i t h L e n i n ' s t h e o r i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , they f a i l e d t o use h i s t h e o r y of r e v o l u t i o n t o j u s t i f y communist r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , and i n s t e a d argued t h a t s i n c e Chinese and R u s s i a n s o c i e t y were of the same n a t u r e , B o l s h e v i s m c o u l d b r i n g about r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a . In so f a r as they were aware of L e n i n ' s concept of the vanguard p a r t y , the c o n t r i b u t o r s to Gongchandang never mentionned t h i s , nor used the term, nor d i s c u s s e d the importance of r e g r o u p i n g the most c o n s c i o u s elements of the u n p r o p e r t i e d i n the p a r t y . S i n c e the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y d i d adopt L e n i n i s t p r i n c i p l e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h e r e f o r e t h a t whatever the e a r l y communists d i d know about the vanguard p a r t y had o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the Comintern. Assuming t h a t Comintern agents were f a m i l i a r w i t h L e n i n ' s t h e o r i e s of i m p e r i a l i s m and vanguard p a r t y , Gongchandang's f a i l u r e t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e q u e s t i o n s seems t o suggest t h a t t h e r e was not much Comintern i n p u t i n t o the p o s i t i o n s of the pre-Congress communist movement i n C h i n a . F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h Gongchandang's programme was i n many ways a response t o a n a r c h i s m , a n a r c h i s t c o n c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y i n f l u e n c e d i t s p o s i t i o n s . " S o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was a f t e r a l l an a n a r c h i s t term. But the i n f l u e n c e of a n a r c h i s m was p a r t i c u l a r l y 134 e v i d e n t i n Gongchandang's c l a s s c o n c e p t s . In e f f e c t , Gongchandang saw s o c i e t y i n terms of two c l a s s e s - - t h e p r o p e r t i e d and the u n p r o p e r t i e d - - w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the a n a r c h i s t ' s o p p r e s s o r and oppressed c l a s s e s . L a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , who made up the r u l i n g c l a s s , i . e . the t a r g e t of the a n a r c h i s t r e v o l u t i o n , were seen as the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , the t a r g e t of the communist r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s view of c l a s s e s , i . e . a s i n g l e c l a s s composed of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s and a s i n g l e c l a s s composed of workers and p e a s a n t s , a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t C h i n e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s b e f o r e 1921 were c o m p l e t e l y unaware of c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s between the l a n d l o r d s and the b o u r g e o i s i e , and between the p e a s a n t r y and the p r o l e t a r i a t . In the urban w o r l d of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , as f a r as they were aware, some l a n d l o r d s owned l a n d and some f a c t o r y owners owned l a n d . I n d u s t r i a l workers and peasants were e q u a l l y poor, t a l k e d a l i k e , d r e s s e d a l i k e , and a t e the same food s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between th e s e c l a s s e s a re e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l . C hinese f a c t o r y owners, f a c e d w i t h d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n from foreign-owned e n t e r p r i s e s , had an o b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n op p o s i n g i m p e r i a l i s m . L a n d l o r d s , on the o t h e r hand, had no such i n t e r e s t u n l e s s they were f a c e d w i t h d i r e c t e x p r o p r i a t i o n which was r a r e . I n d u s t r i a l workers were more c o n c e n t r a t e d t o g e t h e r than p e a s a n t s , and were e a s i e r to o r g a n i z e and e a s i e r t o p r o p a g a n d i z e . Poor p e a s a n t s l i k e i n d u s t r i a l workers had n o t h i n g t o l o o s e by s u p p o r t i n g the communist r e v o l u t i o n . T h e i r most immediate i n t e r e s t was not the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , however, but ownership of l a n d . Thus, the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y ' s approach t o poor peasants c o u l d not be the 1 35 same as t h a t t o i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . These d i f f e r e n c e s between l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , between p e a s a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , were not e v i d e n t i n 1921. In 1921, communist i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' e x p e r i e n c e of Chinese s o c i e t y was too l i m i t e d . They would o n l y become aware of these d i f f e r e n c e s a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t and much r e - e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i f M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y . 1 36 FOOTNOTES I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. There i s some d i s p u t e as t o the a c t u a l date of t h i s C ongress. U n t i l r e c e n t l y J u l y 1919 was the g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d d a t e . See the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n i n Jerome Ch'en, p. 79, n.32. However, the CCP now o f f i c i a l l y g i v e s August, 1921, as the date of the Congress. The F a c t t h a t Gonqchandan, the p r e -p a r t y organ, suspended p u b l i c a t i o n i n August 1921, would seem t o support the view t h a t the Congress was h e l d i n August and I have c o n s e q u e n t l y g i v e n t h i s d a t e . 2. James P i c k n e y H a r r i s o n , The Long March t o Power: A H i s t o r y of the C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y , 1921-1973 (New York and Washington: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1972), p. 28. 3. For more i n f o r m a t i o n on the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e s e communist groups see, Chow T s e - t s u n g , The May F o u r t h Movement:  I n t e l l e c t u a l R e v o l u t i o n i n Modern China (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), pp. 248-249; Jerome Ch'en, Mao  and the Chinese R e v o l u t i o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), pp. 72-73, 77-79; M a u r i c e M e i s n e r , L i Ta-chao and the  O r i g i n s of Chinese Marxism (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967~T^ pp. 114-119; Ding Shouhe and Yan X u y i , Congwusi  qimeng yundong dao M a k e s i z h u y i d i chuanbo [From the May F o u r t h e n l i g h t e n m e n t t o the t r a n s m i s s i o n of Marxism] ( P e k i n g : S a n l i a n S h u dian, 1963),pp. 211tt. 4 Chow, p.248. 5. For a l i s t of those works of Marx, L e n i n , and E n g e l s , which were t r a n s l a t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d , and t h e i r d a t e s of p u b l i c a t i o n , see Zhongguo chu ban s h i 1 i a o bu b i e n , [Supplement t o H i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s on p u b l i s h i n g i n ChinaT^ ed. Zhang J i n g l u ( P e k i n g : B e i j i n g Chonghua Sh u j u , 1957), pp. 442 f f . See a l s o Ding Shouhe, Y i n X u y i , and Zhang Pozhao, Shiyue geming d u i  Zhongguo geming d i y i n g x i a n g , (The i n f l u e n c e of the October r e v o l u t i o n on the Chinese r e v o l u t i o n ) , ( P e k i n g : Renmin Chuban She, 1957), pp. 81-82. 6. I b i d . 7. A c c o r d i n g t o M e i s n e r , L i Dazhao a d m i t t e d i n 1921 t h a t he had o n l y read a c o l l e c t i o n of speeches by L e n i n , L e n i n ' s O u t l i n e of the S o v i e t Government, and The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n , and f u r t h e r m o r e t h a t L i had read a l l of these works i n E n g l i s h . See M e i s n e r , pp. 139-140. 8. The l a s t i s s u e of Gongchandang, da t e d August 7, 1921, c o n t a i n e d a t r a n s l a t i o n of the f i r s t c h a p t e r of The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n . 9. Throughout t h i s t h e s i s , "Marxism" r e f e r s t o Marx's 137 t h e o r i e s of s u r p l u s v a l u e , h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . " L e n i n i s m " r e f e r s t o the t h e o r i e s of the vanguard p a r t y and i m p e r i a l i s m . " B o l s h e v i s m " r e f e r s t o Mar x i s m - L e n i n i s m as p r a c t i c e d i n R u s s i a b e f o r e 1921. "Communism" i s used t o r e f e r t o the t h e o r i e s of a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a r t y , but i s o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h " B o l s h e v i s m " . 10. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n , see M a r t i n B e r n a l , "The Triumph of Anarchism over Marxism, 1906-1907," China i n R e v o l u t i o n : The F i r s t Phase, ed. Mary C. Wright (New Haven & London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968). See a l s o M a r t i n B e r n a l , Chinese S o c i a l i s m t o 1907 ( I t h a c a and London: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Presi"^ 1976) which i s the most complete e x a m i n a t i o n of e a r l y M a r x i s t thought i n C h i n a . Robert S c a l a p i n o & George Yu, The Chinese A n a r c h i s t Movement ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Center f o r Chinese S t u d i e s , 1961) and L i Yu - n i n g , The I n t r o d u c t i o n of S o c i a l i s m i n t o China (New York & London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971 ). 11. The term " g e n e r a t i o n " i s used m e t a p h o r i c a l l y . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of g e n e r a t i o n s of p r o g r e s i v e i n t e l l e c u a l s f o l l o w s D i r l i k , e x c ept t h a t where D i r l i k uses the term " r a d i c a l " t o r e f e r t o the s e g e n e r a t i o n s . I use the term " p r o g r e s s i v e " on the grounds t h a t each g e n e r a t i o n was not r a d i c a l r e l a t i v e t o subsequent ones, but were p r o g r e s s i v e r e l a t i v e t o the r e s t of Chinese s o c i e t y . See A r i f D i r l i k , R e v o l u t i o n and H i s t o r y : The  O r i g i n s of M a r x i s t H i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n C h i n a , 1919-1937 ( B e r k e l y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978), pp. 36-41 . 12. See Chow T s e - t s u n g , Research Guide t o the May  F o u r t h Movement (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963) , p. 29. 13. I b i d . , p. 40. 14. I b i d . , p. 43. 15. I b i d . , p. 44. 16. I b i d . , 124. 17. As a r e v i v a l s c h o o l of r e v o l u t i o n , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a n a r c h i s t j o u r n a l s would spend much time d e s c r i b i n g Marx's t h e o r i e s . A g a i n , t h e r e i s a l a c k of r e f e r e n c e s i n secondary works i n Chinese which suggest t h a t a n a r c h i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s p l a y e d major r o l e s i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g Marxism between 1917 and 1921. See, f o r example, Ding and Yan. 18. See, f o r example, H a r r i s o n . 19. See Chapter Three below. 20. For eg, i t has been taken by Benjamin Schwartz, Chinese Communism and the R i s e of Mao (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951 "5 and by Jerome Ch'en, Mao and the Chinese 138 R e v o l u t i o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 21'. See e s p e c i a l l y D i r i l i k , pp. 3-4. 22. For d e s c r i p t i o n s of these debates see B e r n a l , "The Triumph of Anarchism Over Marxism" and Chinese S o c i a l i s m t o 1907 . See a l s o S c a l a p i n o and Yu, and L i Yu-ning. 23. Zhou Fuh a i p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the pre-1911 debates as w e l l as i n the 1917-1921 d e b a t e s . 24. See note 10 above. 25. I b i d . , p. 1. 26. See L i ' s l i s t of Chinese terms d e r v i e d from the Japanese. •27. See Chapter 2, S e c t i o n 4, " C l a s s S t r u g g l e " . 28. I b i d . 29. See Note 10 above. 30. M e i s n e r , p. 54. 31. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s put f o r w a r d i n S c a l a p i n o and Yu. 32. T h i s i s not t o deny t h a t t h e r e are d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o a s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n from the p o i n t of view of a M a r x i s t - L e n i n s t p a r t y . 33. See S c a l a p i n o and Yu 34. See, f o r example, A l e x a n d e r Berkman, Now and A f t e r :  The ABC of Communist Anarchism (New York: Vanguard P r e s s , 1929). 35. See V . I . L e n i n , The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1975), p. 102. Chapter 1. R e v o l u t i o n : R u s s i a and China 1. Wang C h e n g l i , "Wusi s h i q i d a s h i j i " [A r e c o r d of the major e v e n t s of the May F o u r t h p e r i o d ] , i n "Wusi" yundonq yanj i u l u n j i [Research e s s a y s on the "May F o u r t h " Movement], ed. Zhou k a n g x i e , (Hong Kong: Chong Wen Shudian, 1975), pp. 299-307. O r i g n i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n L i s h i j iaoxue w e n t i [Probelms of t e a c h i n g h i s t o r y ] 1959,4. 2. L i u Wenying, "Shiyue geming yu wusi yundong" [The October R e v o l u t i o n and the May F o u r t h Movement], "Wusi" yanj i u l u n j i , 74. ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n L i s h i J i a o x u e Wenti 1 9 5 9 , 4 . ) A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e mine. 139 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d . 5. A c c o r d i n g t o D i n g , Yan, and Zhang, p.40., Laodong had "a tendancy towards a n a r c h i s m " . T h i s p r o b a b l e means t h a t t h i s was, i n f a c t , an a n a r c h i s t p u b l i c a t i o n . 6. I b i d . , p. 41. 7. See, f o r example, Chen D u x i u , " E l u o s i geming yu wo guomin d i juewu," [The R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of our c o u n t r y ' s p e o p l e ] , D u x i u wencun [ S e l e c t e d Works of Chen D u x i u ] , 3 v o l s (Hong Kong: Yuan Dong Tu Shu G o n g s i , 1965) 1:143-144. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 2 ( A p r i l 1, 1917). For L i Dazhao's r e a c t i o n , see M e i s n e r , p. 60. 8. M e i s n e r , p.60. 9. I b i d . 10. See X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 2 ( A p r i l i , 1917):1 i n "The r e c o r d of i m p o r t a n t f o r e i g n e v e nts s e c t i o n . " T h i s view of the importance of the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y not shared by the e d i t o r s of Dongfang Z a z h i , which was the l o n g e s t l i v e d p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d . In t h e i r c a l e n d a r of e v e n t s , they l i s t the overthrow of the c z a r as the t h i r d item f o r the date c o n c e r n e d . c_f. Dongf ang Z a z h i 1 4 , 5 ( A p r i l , 1917):216. 11. James P i c k n e y H a r r i s o n , The Long March t o Power: A H i s t o r y of the Chinese Communist P a r t y , 1921-1973 (New York and Washington: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1972), p. 28. 12. Zhang X i c h e n [ G a o l a o ] , "Xu j i Eguo z h i j i n kuang" [A f u r t h e r r e p o r t on the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n R u s s i a ] , Dongfanq Z a z h i 15,1(January, 1918):37-42. 13. Ding Shouhe and Yan X u y i , Cong Wusi qimeng yundong  dao M a k e s i z h u y i d i chuanbo [From the May F o u r t h e n l i g h t e n m e n t t o the t r a n s m i s s i o n of Marxism] ( P e k i n g : S a n l i a n Shudian, 1963), p. 94. 14. Zhang, p. 37. 15. I b i d . , p. 39. 16. I b i d . , p. 42. 17. Yu Zhongying [ J u n s h i ] , "Eguo x i a n z a i zhizhengdang" [ P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s of R u s s i a t o d a y ] , Dongfanq Z a z h i 15,2 (Feb., 1918):161-164. 18. Shan J i , "Xu Eguo g u o j i p a i z h i l i n g x i u L i n i n g " [The s t o r y of L e n i n , the l e a d e r of the R u s s i a n e x t r e m i s t f a c t i o n ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 15,3:61-65. T h i s a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n i n response t o the argument t h a t L e n i n was a German agent. E s s e n t i a l l y i t 140 found t h a t h i s p o l i c i e s b e f o r e g o i n g through German c o n t r o l l e d t e r r i t o r y and h i s l a t e r p o l i c i e s remained the same. 19. Yu Zhongying [Jun S h i ] , "Eguo s h e h u i z h u y i yundong z h i b i a n q i a n " [The e v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t movement], Dongfang Z a z h i 15,4:61-65. 20. I b i d . , p. 64. 21. I b i d . .22 . Ibid.., p. 61 . 23. An a r t i c l e comparing t h e two r e v o l u t i o n s was a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n Dongfang Z a z h i , but the f a c t t h a t i t does not r e f e r t o both the Fe b r u a r y and October R e v o l u t i o n s , s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was w r i t t e n b e f o r e October, 1917. See X i e Y i n g b a i , "E Fa geming y i tong l u n " [On the d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s of the R u s s i a n and F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n s ] , Dongfang Z a z h i l 5 , 8 ( A u g u s t , 1918):31. T h i s a r t i c l e was t r a n s l a t e d from The Japan F o r e i g n Times. 24. L i Dazhao, "E Fa geming b i j i a o guan" [A comparison of the R u s s i a n and F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n s ] , La Dazhao Xuanj i [ T h e s e l e c t e d works of L i Dazhao] ( P e k i n g : Renmin Chuban She, 1959), pp. 101-104. 25. I b i d . , p. 102. 26. L i Dazhao, " B o l s h e v i s m d i s h e n g l i " [The v i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' ] , L_i Dazhao Xuani i , pp. 112-118. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5(November 15, 1918). 27. I b i d . , p. 114. 28. L i was t r y i n g t o d e s c r i b e the s o v i e t system. The term " s o v i e t " i s t r a n l i t e r a t e d i n modern C h i n e s e . The term " 1i a n h e , means " c o a l i t i o n " or " u n i o n " . 29. T h i s i s p r o b a b l y an attempt t o t r a n s l a t e " p r o l e t a r i a n s " which i s t r a n s l a t e d today as wuchan zhe , l i t . " p r o p e r t y l e s s " . 30. " B o l s h e v i s m d i s h e n g l i " , pp. 114-115. 31. L i Dazhao, " L i a n z h i z h u y i yu s h i j i e z u z h i " [Unionism and w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , pp. 130-134, esp. p. 130. T h i s a r t i c l e was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Chao, 1,2(Feb. 1 , 1919). 32. I b i d . , p. 132. 33. A l t h o u g h L i makes i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s i s the R u s s i a n system, he c o n f u s e s i t w i t h a f e d e r a t e d system. He comments f a v o u r a b l y upon the Canadian system and i t s a b i l i t y t o r e c o n c i l e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h . He a l s o comments upon the Union of South A f r i c a ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c o n c i l e E n g l i s h and 141 Dutch. These comments are ommitted i n L_i_ Dazhao Xuan j i . Compare L i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 122 and X i n Chao, 1,2(Feb.1, 1919.):153-1 54. 34. See Berkman, Now and A f t e r , p. 217. See a l s o P e t e r K r o p o t k i n , The Conquest of Bread (London: Chapman and H a l l , 1906), p. 30. 35. L i Dazhao, "Zhan hou d i s h i j i e c h a o l i u " [The w o r l d t i d e a f t e r the w a r ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 135. T h i s a r t i c l e was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Chen Bao (The morning p o s t ) , Feb. 7-8, 1910. L i e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r views throughout t h i s p e r i o d . 36. Meng Zheng, "Shehui geming--Eguo s h i d i geming" [ S o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n - - R e v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n t y p e ] , X i n Chao 1,1(Jan.1,1919):128-129. T h i s a r t i c l e i s dated Nov. 20, 1918. 37. "Zhongguo s h i d a i f u j i e j i d i z u i ' e n " [The c r i m e s of China's g e n t r y c l a s s ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n 20 (May 4, 1919):1-2. 38. Chen D u x i u , " E r s h i s h i j i E l u o s i d i geming" [The twentueth c e n t u r y R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n , 18 (Apr. 20, 1919). R e p r i n t e d i n Wusi z a i Shangha i S h i L i a o Xuanj i [ S e l e c t e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s on.the May F o u r t h Movement i n Shanghai] (Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chuban She, 1960), p. 114. 39. Mao Tse-tung [ Zidong ], "Minzhong d i da l i a n h e " [The g r e a t . u n i o n of the p o p u l a r masses], X i a n g j i a n g p i n g l u n ["The Sh i a n K i a n Weekly Re v i e w " ] , no.2 ( J u l y , 21, 1919), ( J u l y 28, 1919) and no.4 (Aug. 4, 1919). A l s o r e p r i n t e d i n Mo t a k u - t o  shu [The works of Mao T s e - t u n g ] , 10 v o l s . (Tokyo, 1972T 1:57-70. 40. X i a n g j i a n g P i n g l u n no. 2, p. 1. 41. Yu Zhongying, "Eguo s h e h u i z h u y i yundong z h i b i a n q i a n " [The e v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t movement], Dongfang Z a z h i 15,4(Apr i 1 , 1918):61. 42. L i , "E Fa geming b i j i a o guan", L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 1 04. 43. L i Dazhao, "Shumin d i s h e n g l i " [The v i c t o r y of the common p e o p l e ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , 109-111. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5 (November 15, 1918). 44. I b i d . , p. 109. 45. I b i d . , p. 110. 46. I b i d . 47. L i , " B o l s h e v i s m d i s h e n g l i " , Li_ Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 113. 48. I b i d . , p. 114. 142 49. L i , "Zhan hou d i s h i j i e c h a o l i u " , L i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 135. 50. Meng Zheng, p. 128. 51. "Guomin s i x i a n g yu s h i j i e chao" [ C i t i z e n ' s thought and the w o r l d t i d e ] , Guomin(The c i t i z e n ) , 1,2 (Feb., 1919). C i t e d i n D i n g , and Yan, p. 8. 52. I b i d . 53. Ruo Yu, " G u o j i d i geming" [ I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n TO(Feb.13,1919):3. 54. "Lao nong zhengfu x i a z h i E g u o - - z h i x i n g shehui gongchanzhuyi z h i Eguo z h e n x i a n g " [ R u s s i a under the workers' and p e a s a n t s ' g o v e r n m e n t — t h e t r u t h about c a r r y i n g out s o c i a l communism], Guomin Ribao A p r i l 12-28, 1919, r e p r i n t e d i n Wusi  Yundong z a i Shanghai S h i L i a o Xuanj i , pp. 80-93. 55. I b i d . 56. See, f o o t n o t e number 37, above. 57. C a i Yuanpei, "Da zhan yu zhexue" [The g r e a t war and p h i l o s o p h y ] , C a i Yuanpei Xiansheng Yiwen L e i c h a o [The l i t e r a r y e s t a t e of Mr. C a i Y u a n p e i ] ( n . p . : n.p., 1961), pp. 167-172. 58. I b i d . , p.167. 59. I b i d . 60. . I b i d . , 169-150. 61. T h i s a r t i c l e i s d a t e d June, 1918, i n C a i L e i c h a o , see p. 172, and was p u b l i s h e d i n Dongfang Zazhi 16,1(January, 1919) and X i n Chao 1,1 ( J a n . 1, 1919). 62. See X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5.(November, 1918). 63. See X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5: 438. 64. M e i s n e r , pp. 87-88. 65. S h i Fu, "Zhongguo zhengshi geming bu cheng j i u j i shehui geming bu fasheng z h i y u a n y i n " [The reasons f o r the l a c k of s u c c e s s of China's p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and the non-o c c u r r e n c e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Dongfang Z a z h i l 6 , 4 ( A p r i l , 1919): 1-9. 66. I b i d . , p. 1 . 67. I b i d . , pp. 1b-2a. 68. I b i d . , p.2b. 70 143 69. I b i d . , p. 3a. 70. I b i d . , p. 3b. 71. I b i d . , p. 8. 72. "Zhongguo s h i d a i f u j i e j i " , Meizhou P i n g l u n 20:1-2. 73. Mao, "Minzhong d i da l i a n h e " , Mo t a k u - t o shu, 1:57-74. " J i e j i j i n g z h e n g yu huzhu" [ C l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n and mutual a i d ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i pp. 222-225. O r g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Meizhou P i n g l u n 29 ( J u l y 6, 1919). 75. I b i d . , p. 224. 76. " Z a i l u n wenti yu z h u y i , " [Again on problems and i s m s ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 233 . , Or i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Meizhou  P i n g l u n , 34 (Aug. 17, 1919). 77. Zhou F u h a i , "Zhongguo d i j i e j i douzheng" [ C h i n a ' s C l a s s S t r u g g l e ] , J i e f a n g yu g a i z a o ["The E m a n c i p a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n W e e k l y " ] , 1,7 (Dec. 1, 1919): 114-120. 78. "Xuanyan" [ M a n i f e s t o ] , J i e f a n a yu g a i z a o , 1,1 (September, 1919):1. "(BOURGEOISIE)" and "(PROLETARIAT)" appear i n the o r i g i n a l . The use of E n g l i s h terms supplementing Chinese terms was q u i t e common d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . See, f o r example, X i n  Q i n g n i a n 6,5(May, 1919). 79. I b i d . 80. " D i e r duan z h i s h i j i e g a i z a o " [The second stage of w o r l d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 16,11(November, 1919):15— 19. 81. I b i d . , p. 16a. .82. I b i d . , pp. I8a-I8b. 83. Yang Y i c e n g , "Shehui weishenma yao g a i z a o " , Guomin 2,1:13 84. I b i d , 85. "Xuanyan", Zhuguang, Nov. 1, 1919. R e p r i n t e d i n Wusi s h i q i q i kan j i e s h a o 1 : 407. 86. C i t e d i n Ding and Yan, p. 138. 144 Chapter 2. Marxism: Id e a s , P r o p e r t y and C l a s s S t r u g g l e 1. M e i s n e r , p. 54. 2. "Fenpei w e n t i faduan" [The o r g i n s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n problem] Dongfang Z a z h i 1 6 , 4 ( A p r i l 1, 1919):593-602. 3. I b i d . 4. "Gongchandang d i xuanyan" [The M a n i f e s t o of the Communist P a r t y ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n 1 6 ( A p r i l 4, 1919). 5. Ruo Yu, "Wuzhenfu gongchanzhuyi yu g u o j i a s h e h u i z h u y i " [ A n a r c h i s t communism and s t a t e s o c i a l i s m ] , Meizhou  P i n g l u n l 8 ( A p r i l 20, I 9 l 9 ) : 2 f f . 6. I b i d . 7. I b i d . 8. I b i d . 9. Gu Mengyu [Gu T a o x i o n g ] , "Makesi xueshuo" [Marx's t h e o r y ] , X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5(May.4, 1919): 450-465. M e i s n e r , p. 279, n.1, i d e n t i f i e s him as " L i Ta-ch'ao's c o l l e g u e on the h i s t o r y f a c u l t y a t P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y , . . .a l e a d i n g member i f the Kuomintang and f o r many y e a r s a f o l l o w e r of Wang Ch i n g - w e i . " 10. L i n g Shuang, "Makesi xueshuo d i p i p i n g " [A c r i t i c i s m of Marx's t h e o r y ] , X i n Q i n q n i a n 6,5:456-469. 11. L i Dazhao, "Wo d i M a k e s i z h u y i guan', (shang)" [My M a r x i s t v i e w s , p t . I ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i pp. 173-195. P a r t I I was p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,6 (November, 1919). 12. The presence of the b i o g r a p h y of Bakunin i s i n d i c a t i v e of the e x t e n t of the p r e v a i l i n g c o n f u s i o n between Marxism and a n a r c h i s m . 13. " M a k i s i d i weiwu shiguan yu zhencao w e n t i " [Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y and the problem of female v i r t u e ] , X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:500-505. T h i s a r t i c l e appears under the s e c t i o n heading " M a r x i s t r e s e a r c h " ( M a k i s i d i yanj i u ) . M e i s n e r i d e n t i f i e s the a u t h o r as Chen Baoyin a l s o known as Chen Q i x i u , who " a l t h o u g h the f i r s t t o t r a n s l a t e a p o r t i o n of C a p i t a l i n t o C h i n e s e , a p p a r e n t l y d i d not r e g a r d h i m s e l f as a M a r x i s t and was never a communist." M e i s n e r , pp.279-280, n.1. 14. Kawakami Hajime, "Makesi d i weiwu s h i g u a n " [ Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y ] , t r . Yuan Quan, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:509-516. 15. See, f o r example, Gu Mengyu, "Makesi xueshuo", X i n  Q i n g n i a n 6,5:450-465 and L i Dazhao, "Wo d i M a k e s i z h u y i guan", L_i 145 Dazhao Xuanj i pp. 173-195. 16. Hu Hanmin,"Weiwu s h i guan z h i p i p i n g z h i p i p i n g " [A c r i t i c i s m of the c r i t i c i s m of the m a t e r i a l c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y ] , J i a n s h e 1,5 (December, 1919):945-954. 17. Chow Tse - t s u n g , The May F o u r t h Movement: I n t e l l e c t u a l R e v o l u t i o n i n Modern China (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p. 290. The t r a n s l a t i o n was p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e , "Laodong yu z i b e n " [Labour and C a p i t a l ] . 18. I b i d . , p. 299. The second t r a n s l a t i o n was by Dai J i t a o . 19. I b i d . 20. Gu Mengyu, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:454a. 21. Chen Baoying, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:500 22. I b i d . , p. 502. 23. I b i d . , pp. 504-505. 24. P e t e r K r o p o t k i n , M u t u a l A i d : A F a c t o r of E v o l u t i o n (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann Co., 1902). 25. Hu Hanmin, "Zhongguo zhexue s h i z h i weiwu d i y a n j i u " [ M a t e r i a l i s t r e s e a r c h on the h i s t o r y of Chinese p h i l o s o p h y ] , J i a n s h e 1,3 (Oct. 1, 1919):513-534, 1,4(November 1, 1919):655—691, and L i Dazhao, "You cong j i n g j i shang j i e s h i Zhongguo j i n d a i s i x i a n g biandong d i y u a n y i n " [An economic e x p l a n a t i o n of r e c e n t i d e o l o g i c a l changes i n C h i n a ] , Li_ Dazhao  Xuanj i 295-302. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 7,2 ( J a n . 1, 1920). 26. Dai J i t a o , "Cong j i n g j i shang guancha zhongguo d i l u a n yuan" [ E x a m i n a t i o n of the o r i g i n s of d i s o r d e r i n China from the economic p e r s p e c t i v e ] , J i a n s h e 1,1(September 1, 1919):1-19. I have not had a c c e s s t o t h i s work. For a d i s c u s s i o n of i t s c o n t e n t s see A r i f D i r l i k , R e v o l u t i o n and H i s t o r y : The Or i g i n s of  M a r x i s t H i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n C h i n a , 1919-1937 ( B e r k e l e y , Los A n g e l e s and London: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978), pp. 25-29. 27. Hu Hanmin, "Zhongguo zhexue s h i " , J i a n s h e 1,3:513-314. 28. See esp. J i a n s h e 1,4:690. 29. L_i Dazhao Xuan j i p. 299. 30. I b i d . I b i d . , p. 300. 1 46 32. Marx, " P r e f a c e and I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n  to the C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c ' a l Economy" ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1976), p. 3. 33. Kawakami, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:512a _512b. 34. L i Dazhao, "Wuzhi biandong yu daode biandong" [ M a t e r i a l change and change i n v i r t u e ] , Li_ Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 261. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Chao 2,2 (Dec. 1. 1919). My Emphasis. 35. Hu, "Zhongguo zhexue s h i " , J i a n s h e 1,3:520, and "Weiwu s h i guan", J i a n s h e 1,5:947. 36. Li_ Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 233. 37. Hu, "Zhongguo zhexue s h i " , J i a n s h e 1,3:513. 38. I b i d . , J i a n s h e 1,4:690. 39. L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 300. 40. Gu, "Xueshuo", X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:458a. 41. I b i d . 42. I b i d . , pp. 457b-46lb. 43. Marx, "Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l " , p. 1. Emphasis i n the o r i g i n a l . 44. See K a r l K a u t s k y , The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l  Ma r x, t r a n s . H . J . S t e n n i n g (New York: The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1936). 45. K a r l K a u t s k y , The C l a s s S t r u g g l e ( E r f u r t Program). t r a n s . W i l l i a m H. Bohn (C h i c a g o : C h a r l e s H. K e r r and Co., 1912). 46. See J i a n s h e 1,4. 47. Yu Zhongying [Jun S h i ] , " S h e h u i z h u y i d i j i a n t a o " [A r e p o r t on s o c i a l i s m ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 16,9 (September, 1919):100— 105; 16,10 (October, 1919):100-111; 16,11 (November, 1919):101 -1 09. 48. Donqfang Z a z h i 16,9:102b. 49. I b i d . , pp. 102b-l03a. 50. I b i d . , p. 103a. 51. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,10:100a. 52. I b i d . , p. 100b-. 147 53. I b i d . 54. I b i d . 55. See Dongfang Zazhi 16,10 :101 a f f . and Dongfang  Zazhi 16,11:101-109. 56. See K a r l Marx, Capi t a l ; v o l . 1, A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s  i f Capi t a l i st Product i o n e d i ted by F r e d e r i c k Engels (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1967), Chapter 1, "Commodities", pp. 35-85. 57. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s argued by Berkman, pp. 9-15. He w r i t e s , "The employers keep that wealth as t h e i r p r o f i t , while the worker gets only a wage, j u s t enough to l i v e on so he can go on producing. . . Is that not c h e a t i n g , robbery? . . . . The whole c a p i t a l i s t system r e s t s on simple robbery." (p. 15) 58. Yang Yiceng, "Shehui weishenma yao gaizao," Guomin ["The C i t i z e n " ] 2,1 (November, 1919):13-22. 59. I b i d . , * p. 13. 60. I b i d . 61. I b i d . , p. 14. •62. I b i d . 63. I b i d . 64. "Wo d i Makes i zhuy 65. I b i d . 66. I b i d . 67. I b i d . , p. 190. 68. Hu Hanmin, "Weiwu 69. mutual a i d ] in Meizhou " J i e j i jingzheng , L i Dazhao Xuanji Pinglun no.29 ( J u l y 70. I b i d . , p. 224. 71 . I b i d . 72. I b i d . , p. 223. 73. I b i d . 74. Zhou Fuhai, "Zhongguo d i j i e j i douzheng" [China's C l a s s S t r u g g l e ] , J i e f a n g yu gaizao ["The Emancipation and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Weekly"], 1,7 (Dec. 1, 1919): 114-120. •1 48 75. I b i d . , p. 14. 76. I b i d . , pp. 116-118. 77. I b i d . , pp. 119-120. 78. See Chapter 4 below f o r Zhou's use of c l a s s t e r m i n o l o g y s t a r t i n g as of November, 1921. 79. Chow T s e - t s u n g , p. 299. The Communist M a n i f e s t o was p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e ) U Gongchandang xuanyan ["The communist p a r t y m a n i f e s t o ] . See D i n g , Yan and Zhang, p. 81. 80. "Makesi he E n g e s i gongchandang xuanyan" [The communist p a r t y m a n i f e s t o of Marx and E n g e l s ] , t r a n s . L i Z i z h a n g , Guomin 2,1:45-53. 81. See "Bourgeois and P r o l e t a r i a n s " i n K a r l Marx and F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , The"Communist M a n i f e s t o , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n -by A . J . P . T a y l o r (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1967), pp. 79-94. 82. "Gongchandang xuanyan", Guomin 2,1:46. 83. Lu Hongyu, "Zhenggong zhidu"[The c o n s c r i p t l a b o u r s y s t e m ] , Dongfanq Zazhi 17, 3 (Feb. 10, 1920):9-14; 17,4 (Feb. 25,•1920):26-32; 17,5 (March 10, 1920): 12-20. 84. I b i d . , Dongfang Z a z h i 17,3:9. 85. I b i d . , 13b. 86. "Caichan z h i d u " [The system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ] , Dongf ang Z a z h i 1 7 , 7 ( A p r i l .10, 1 920 ) : 1 . Chapter 3. C l a s s e s : The B o u r g e o i s i e and the P r o l e t a r i a t 1. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n , see M a r t i n B e r n a l , "The Triumph of Anarchism over Marxism, 1906-1907," China i n R e v o l u t i o n : The F i r s t Phase, ed. Mary C. Wright (New Haven & London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968). See a l s o M a r t i n B e r n a l , Chinese Soc i a l i sm t o 1907 ( I t h a c a and London: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s i ~ | 1976) which i s the most complete e x a m i n a t i o n of e a r l y M a r x i s t thought i n C h i n a . Robert S c a l a p i n o & George Yu, The Chinese A n a r c h i s t Movement ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Center f o r C h i n e s e S t u d i e s , 1961) and L i Y u - n i n g , The I n t r o d u c t i o n of Soc i a l i sm i n t o China (New York & London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971). 2. Qian Z h i x i u , " L a o l i z h u y i " [ L a b o u r i s m ] , Dongfang  Z a z h i 14,10 (Oct, 1 9 1 7 ) s 1 - 6 . 3. I b i d . 1 49 4. C i t e d by Ding and Yan, p. 28. 5. C a i Yuanpei, "Laodong Shenguai" [The s a n c t i t y of l a b o u r ] , X i n Qingn i a n 5,5(November, 1918) : 438-439. A l s o i n C a i  Chao, p.469. 6. M e i s n e r , pp. 86-87.. 7. X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5: 438-439. 8. L i Dazhao, "Qingnian yu nongcun" [Youth and the c o u n t r y s i d e ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , pp. 146-150. O r i g i n a l l y -p u b l i s h e d i n Chen Bao, Feb. 20-23, 1919. 9. I b i d . , pp. 146-147. 10. "Xuesheng yu laodong" [The student and l a b o u r ] Chen  Bao, Feb. 25-28, 1919. C i t e d i n D i n g and Yan, p. 29. 11. See Chen D u x i u , " E l u o s i geming yu wo guomin d i juewu" [The R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n and the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of our c o u n t r y ' s p e o p l e ] , D u x i u Wencun [ S e l e c t e d Works of Chen D u x i u ] , 3 v o l s (Hong Kong: Yuan Dong Tu Shu G o n g s i , 1965) 1:143-144. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 2 ( A p r i l 1 , 1 9 1 7 ) . 12. Chen D u x i u , "Chu san h a i " [ E l i m i n a t e the t h r e e v e r m i n ] , D u x i u Wencun, 2:587-591. 13. I am i n d e b t e d t o A r i f D i r l i k f o r p o i n t i n g t h i s o ut. 14. C a i Yuanpei, "Da zhan", C a i chao, p. 167. 15. L i Dazhao, "Da Y a s i y a z h u y i yu x i n Y a s i y a z h u y i " [ P a n - A s i a n i s m and new A s i a n i s m ] , L i ^ Dazhao Xuanj i , pp. 119-121. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Guomin Z a z h i 1,2(Jan. 1, 1919). 16. Ruo Yu " G u o j i d i geming" [ I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n , 10(Feb.13,1919):3. 17. L i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 109. 18. L_i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 118. 19. L i Dazhao, " L i a n z h i z h u y i yu s h i j i e z u z h i " [Unionism and w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , pp. 130-134, esp. p. 130. T h i s a r t i c l e was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Chao 1,2(Feb. 1, 1919). 20. L_i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 146. 21. Chen D u x i u , "Chu san h a i " [ E l i m i n a t e the t h r e e v e r m i n ] , D u x i u Wencun, 2:587-591. 22. Y i Hu, "Zhongguo s h i d a i f u j i e j i d i z u i ' e n " [The e v i l s of C h i n a ' s g e n t r y c l a s s ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n 20 (May 4, 150 1919):1-2. 23. S h i Fu, "Zhongguo zhengshi geming bu cheng j i u j i shehui geming bu fasheng z h i y u a n y i n " [The reasons f o r the l a c k of s u c c e s s of China's p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and the non-o c c u r r e n c e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Dongfang Z a z h i l 6 , 4 ( A p r i l , 1919): 1-9. 24. "Zhongdeng j i e j i l u n " , Dongfang Z a z h i 16,6:22b. 25. I b i d . , p. 23b. 26. See Gu Mengyu, "Xueshuo", X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:450-465. 27. L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 223 and Kawakami , " S h i guan", X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:51 Ob-511. 28. Zhou F u h a i , "Zhongguo d i j i e j i douzheng" [ C h i n a ' s C l a s s S t r u g g l e ] , J i e f a n g yu g a i z a o ["The E m a n c i p a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Weekly"] 1,7 (Dec. 1, 1919): 114-120. 29. "Xuanyan" [ M a n i f e s t o ] , J i e f a n g yu G a i z a o 1,1 (September, 1919):1. 30. Yang Y i c e n g , "Shehui-weishenma yao g a i z a o , " Guomin ["The C i t i z e n ] 2,1 (November, 1919):13-22. 31. Ding and Yan, p. 138. 32. Chen D u x i u , " S h i x i n g m i n z h i d i q i c h u " [The b a s i s f o r r e a l i z i n g democracy], X i n Q i n g n i a n 7,1(December 1, 1 919):115-1 1 6. 33. Lu Hongyu, "Zhenggong z h i d u " [The c o n s c r i p t l a b o u r s y s t e m ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 17, 3 (Feb. 10, 1920):9-14; 17,4 (Feb. 25, l 9 2 0 ) : 2 6 - 3 2 ; 17,5 (March 10, 1920): 12-20. 34. "Wu guo z h i j i e j i douzheng" [Our c o u n t r y " s c l a s s s t r u g g l e ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 17,9(May 10, 1920) : 5. 35. Wu Yu, " R u j i a zhuzhang j i e j i z h i d u z h i h a i " [The e v i l s of the c l a s s system ad v o c a t e d by the C o n f u c i a n i s t s ] , X i n  Q i n g n i a n 3 , 4 ( J u l y 1, 1917):1 -4. 36. I b i d . , p. 1. 37. T h i s i s one of the d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n the term i n the C i h a i d i c t i o n a r y . 38. Zhang, " F u r t h e r r e p o r t " , Dongfang Z a z h i 5,1:37. 39. L_i Dazhao Xuanj i , p.110 and p. 114. 40. S h i Fu, Dongfang Z a z h i 16,4:2b. 41. Li_ Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 223. 151 42. "Xuanyan" [ M a n i f e s t o ] , J i e f a n g yu q a i z a o 1,1 (September, 1919) : 1 . 43. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,7:23a. 44. "Caichan z h i d u " [The system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ] , Dongfanq Z a z h i 1 7 , 7 ( A p r i l 10, 192 0 ) : 1 . 45. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,11:16a. 46. T h i s p o s i t i o n was put f o r w a r d by Marx i n The  Communist M a n i f e s t o . 47. Economic D o c t r i n e s , pp. 234-235. 48. I b i d . , pp. 1-2. 49. C l a s s S t r u g g l e , , p.. 54. 50. "Qingnian yu nongcong" , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 146. 51. "Xuanyan" [ M a n i f e s t o ] , J i e f a n g yu G a i z a o 1,1(September, 1919):1. 52. "Shehui weishenma yao g a i z a o " , Guomin 2,1:113. 53. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,10:100a. 54. " J i e j i j i n g z h e n g yu huzhu", La Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 223 . 55. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,9:102b. 56. Guomin 2,1:14. My emphasis. 57. "Zhongdeng j i e j i l u n " [On the m i d d l e c l a s s ] , t r a n s . Zhang X i c h e n [Gao L a o ] , Dongf ang Z a z h i 16,6 (June, 1 9 1 9 )': 1 9-23 . 58. I b i d . , pp. I9a-I9b. 59. I b i d . 60. I b i d . , p. 20a 61. I b i d . , p. I9b-20a. 62. I b i d . , p. 23b. 63. I b i d . , p. 20a. 64. I b i d . 65. I b i d . , p, 22b. 66. I b i d . 1 52 67. L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 299. 68. I b i d . Chapter 4. Communism: The Gongchandang Programme 1. H a r r i s o n , p. 28. See a l s o Jerome Chen, pp. 72-73. 2. Other p u b l i c a t i o n s which propagated communist p h i l o s o p h y were X i n Q i n g n i a n , which was a c o m m u n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d organ a f t e r the June, 1920, i s s u e , and Laodong j i e [The w o r l d of l a b o u r ] , which w a s . p u b l i s h e d by the P e k i n g communist o r g a n i z a t i o n . I have not had a c c e s s t o the l a t t e r s o u r c e . A l t h o u g h communist c o n t r o l l e d , X i n Q i n q n i a n d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e s e n t the o f f i c i a l views of the p a r t y and I have consequenly not used i t as a source on the l i n e of the p a r t y . 3. Zhou F u h a i , "Eguo gongchandang zhengfu c h e n g l i san zhounian j i n i a n " [Marking the t h i r d a n n i v e r s a r y of the f o u n d i n g of the R u s s i a n communist government], Gongchandang ["The Communist] 1(November, 1920):2-13. 4. I b i d . , p. 3. 5 . I b i d . , p p . 2 - 3 . 6 . I b i d . , p . 8 . 7. I b i d . 8. "Duan Yan" [Prolegomena], Gongchandang 1:1. 9. S h i Cuntong, "Women zenma yang gan shehui geming?" [How do we make s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ? ] , Gongchandang 5(June 6, 1921):9-32. A l s o i n S h e h u i z h u y i t a o l u n j i (Canton: X i n Q i n g n i a n She, 1922), pp. 381-426. 10. I b i d . , pp. 12-13. 11. Zhou, "Eguo", Gongchandang 1:11. 12. S h i , "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:9-32. 13. I b i d . , p. 16. 14. I b i d . , p. 13. 15. See V . I . L e n i n , I m p e r i a l i s m : The H i g h e s t Stage of  C a p i t a l i s m ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1975). 16. V . I . L e n i n , "Economics and P o l i t i c s d u r i n g the Era of the D i c t a t o r s h i p of the P r o l e t a r i a t " , V . I . L e n i n : S e l e c t e d  Work, 3. v o l s , (Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1971), 111:296. 1 53 17. S h i , "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:13-14. 18. I b i d . , p. 13. 19. For so u r c e s on the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n i n C h i n a , see Chapter 3, note 1. 20. In A d d i t i o n t o S h i , "Shehui geming", See a l s o , Zhou F u h a i , "Women weishenma zhuzhang gongchanzhuyi" [ Why do we advocate communism], Gongchandang 3 ( A p r i l 7, 1921):23-30 ( r e p r i n t e d i n Shehui z h u y i t a o l u n j i . , pp. 285-298) ; Zhou Fuh a i , "Duoqu Zhengquan" [ S e i z e p o l i t i c a l power], Gongchandang 5:3-9 ( a l s o i n S h e h u i z h u y i t a o l u n j i _ , pp. 2 99-31 1 TI and L i Da, "Wuzhengfuzhuyi z h i j i e p e i " [A d i s s e c t i o n of a n a r c h i s m ] , Gongchandang 4(May 7, 1921):14-22. (and S h e h u i z h u y i t a o l u n j i , pp. 219-237). 21. Examples of a r t i c l e s on the B o l s h e v i k s which d i s c u s s e d the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t a r e : " G u o j i p a i z h i l i x i a n g j i q i s h i b a i " [The i d e a l s of the r a d i c a l f a c t i o n and i t s f a i l u r e ] , Dongfang Zazhi16,5 (May, 1919):29-43; " G u o j i s i x i a n g yu q i f a n g z h i c e " [ R a d i c a l i d e o l o g y and the p r i n c i p l e s of p r e v e n t i n g i t ] , Dongf ang Z a z h i 16,6 (June, '191-9) : 1 1 — 17.' " G u o j i z h u y i yu minzhuzhuyi z h i d u i k a n g " [The i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y of r a d i c a l i s m and democracy], Dongfang Zazhi16,8 (August, 1919):54-56. A l l of thes e a r t i c l e s argued t h a t " r a d i c a l ism", i . e . B o l s h e v i s m , was not a d e m o c r a t i c system,; and i n v o l v e d the d i c t a t o r s h i p of "the lower c l a s s e s " over "the m i d d l e c l a s s e s " . 22. S h i , "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:18. 23. I b i d . 24. I b i d . , pp. 18-19. 25. I b i d . , p. 19. 26. I b i d . , pp. 19-20. 27. I b i d . , p. 20. 28. I b i d . 29. I b i d . 30. See, Mao Tse-tung, "On New Democracy", C o l l e c t e d Works of Mao Tse-tung, 5 v o l s . ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1967-1977T^ —II:339-384. 31. S h i , "Shehui geming, Gongchandang 5:20. 32. Zhou F u h a i , "Eguo", Gongchandang 1:2-13. 33. Zhou F u h a i , "Women weishenma zhuzhang gongchanzhuyi", Gongchandang 3:23-30 1 54 34. I b i d . , p. 25. 35. I b i d . .36. I b i d . 37. I b i d . 38 . I b i d . , pp. 25-26. 39. I b i d . , p. 26. 40. S h i , "shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:10. 41 . I b i d . , pp. 11-12. 42. I b i d . 43. I b i d . , p. 20. 44. I b i d . 45. I b i d . , p. 21.. 46. V . I . L e n i n , The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n ( P e k i n g : . F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1975~T! 47. "Gao Zhongguo z h i nongmin" [A c a l l t o the peasants of C h i n a ] , Gongchandang 3:2-7. The f i r s t page of t h i s " C a l l " i s m i s s i n g . I t was c e n s o r e d by the F r e n c h c o n c e s s i o n p o l i c e i n Shanghai, where Gongchandang was p u b l i s h e d . 48. I b i d . , p. 3 49. I b i d . 50. I b i d . 51. I b i d . , pp. 3-4. 52. I b i d . , p. 4. 53. V . I . L e n i n , " P r e l i m i n a r y D r a f t Theses on the A g r a r i a n Q u e s t i o n " , V . I . L e n i n : S e l e c t e d Works, I I I : 441. 54. "Gao zhongguo z h i nongmin", Gongchandang 3:4. 55. See f o r example L e n i n , " D r a f t Theses". 56. See Zhou F u h a i , "Eguo", Gongchandang 1:2. 57. See Zhou, "Gongchanzhuyi", Gongchandang 3:25. 58. S h i Cuntong used both terms i n "Shehui geming", see Gongchandang 5:9-32. 155 59. I b i d . , p. 31. 60. "Gao laodong" [A c a l l t o l a b o u r ] , Gongchandang 5;2-6 1 . I b i d . , p . 2 . 62. I b i d . 63. I b i d . 64. "Gao Zhongguo.zhi nongmin", Gongchandang 3:3. 65. "Gao l a o b i n g nong" [A c a l l t o l a b o u r e r s , p e a s a n t s , and s o l d i e r s ] , Gongchandang 4:4-13. 66 . I b i d . , p. 5. 67. See Zhou F u h a i , "Eguo", Gongchandang 1:9, and S h i , "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:20. 68. Gongchandang 1:9. 69. I b i d . 70. "Zhongdeng j i e j i l u n " [On the mi d d l e c l a s s ] , t r a n s . Zhang X i c h e n [Gao L a o ] , Donqfang Z a z h i 16,6 (June, 1919):19-23. 71 . "Gao 72. Zhou 73. I b i d . 74. I b i d . 75. "Gao 76. I b i d . 77. I b i d . 78. I b i d . 79. I b i d . 80. I b i d . 81 . I b i d . 82. "Gao 83. I b i d . 84. "Gao p a r t y " 156 85. I b i d . , p. 3. 86. I b i d . 87. I b i d . 88. S h i never uses the terms "vanguard" or "vanguard 89. Shu, "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:27. 90. I b i d . , p . 28. 91. I b i d . 92. I b i d . , pp. 28-29. 93. I b i d . , p. 29. 94. I b i d . 95. I b i d . , p. 20. 96. T h i s was a l s o the p o s i t i o n taken i n "Gao laodong" and "Gao Zhongguo z h i nongmin". 97. I.E. The concept t h a t the most " c o n s c i o u s " elements of the w o r k i n g c l a s s must be o r g a n i z e d i n t o a communist p a r t y . 1 57 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. P r i m a r y Sources "Caichan z h i d u " [The system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ] . Dongfang Z a z h i 1 7 , 7 ( A p r i l 1 0 , 1 920) : 1.-6. C a i Yuanpei f£^>;£^. "Da zhan yu zhexue" [The g r e a t war and p h i l o s o p h y ] . I n J C a i Yuanpei x i a n s h e n g yiwen  l e i c h a o &£&lKfB.fij?[The l i t e r a r y e s t a t e of Mr. C a i Yuanpei17 pp. 167-72. n.p.rn.p., 1971. • "Laodong shenguai [The S a n c t i t y of L a b o u r ] . X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5(November, 1918):438-439. Chen Duxiu &r%k&. Duxiu Wencun j j ^ ^ - ^ ^ [The known w r i t n g s of Chen D u x i u ] . 2 v o l s . 7 J Hong Kong: Yuan Dong Tu Shu G o n g s i , 1965. , "Chu san h a i " . D u x i u Wencu. 11:587-591. _, " E l u o s i geming yu woguo min d i juewu" %&\%^L ^'j&V'il [The R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n and the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of our c o u n t r y ' s p e o p l e ] . Duxiu Wencun. I 143-144. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 2 ( A p r i l 1,1917). " E r s h i s h i j i E l u o s i d i geming". The t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n ] . R e p r i n t e d i n ~ Shanghai Shehui Kexue Xueyuan L i s h i Y a n j i u Suo^fc ^^fhjt^'&i'^: WC [The h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h department of the Shanghai S o c i a l S c i e n c e s I n s t i t u t e ] ( E d i t o r s ) . Wusi S h a n g h a i ] , Shanghai: Shanghe Chuban She, 1963. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Meizhou  P i n g l u n 20(May 4,1919). " S h i x i n g m i n z h i d i j i c h u " *$. / f ^ ~£ fa %%&{ The b a s i s f o r r e a l i z i n g democracy]. *^ X i n Q i n g n i a n 7,1(December 1 , 1919):115-16. Chen Baoying F ^ L ^ ? ^ [Chen Q i x i u . "Makesi d i weiwu_ , shiguan yu zhencao w e n t i " ^ £ , ^ f$ ^ 4&jL M [Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y and the problem of female v i r t u e ] . X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5(May 1919):500-505. "Duan yan" ^ £ - i = [ [Prolegomenon]. Gongchandang1(November 7,1920):1. "Fenpei wenti faduan" ' T T ^ ? T h e O r i g i n s of the the d i s t r i b n u t i o n p r o b l e m ] . * 1 58 Dongfanq Z a z h i 1 6 , 4 ( A p r i l 4,1919):593-602. "Gao l a o b i n g nong" [ A c a l l t o workers , p e a s a n t s and s o l d i e r s ] . Gongchandang 4(May 7,1921):4-13. "Gao laodong"^: l)l [A c a l l t o l a b o u r ] . Gongchandang 5(June 7,1921):2—3 "Gao Zhongguo z h i nongmin" [A c a l l t o the pea s a n t s of C h i n a ] . Gongchandang 3 , 2 ( A p r i l 7 , 1 921):2-7. "Gongchandang d i xuanyan" ^ £ £ ^.[The communist p a r t y m a n i f e s t o ] . Meizhou P i n g l u n 1 6 ( A p r i l 6,1919). Gu Me^ngyu^ J i . ^  [Gu T a o x i o n g ^ ^, ^ ] . "Makesi xueshuo" ^ TL> % ^ ^ [ M a r x ' s t h e o r y ] . X i n ^ j i n g n i a n 6, 5 (May "1919): 450-465. Hu Hanmin "$>fi}%.f^ . "Weiwu shiguan p i p i n g ' z h i p i p i n g " c r i t i c i s m of a c r i t i c i s m of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y ] , J i a n s h e 1,5(December 1,1919): 949-954 .'• , Weiwu shiguan yu l u n l i z h i y a n j i u J t l . ' ^ r " ^ [Research on the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of n i s T o r y and e t h i c a l t h e o r y ] . Shanghai, 1925. , "Zhongguo zhexue s h i z h i weiwu d i yanjiu"ty $ ^^rj^l 'L-'°fy'%i % ^ ^ [ M a t e r i a l i s t r e s e a r c h e s on the h i s t o r y of c R i n e s e . p h i l o s o p h y ] , J i a n s h e 1,3(October 1 , 1 91 9):513-14 and 1,4(November 1, 1919):655~91. Kawakami Hajime {f\ J ; j | r . "Makesi d i weiwu s h i g u a n " 2>1b ^%fftllLMarx' s m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y ] . T r a n s l a t e d by Yuan Quan X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:509-516. "Lao nong zhengfu z h i x i a z h i E g u o — S h i x i n g shehui v , _ gongchangzhuyi z h i Eguo zhenxianq"%tM&iUlk&-t%fr£$fiyiwl& [ R u s s i a under the r u l e of the workers' and pe a s a n t s ' jfi -£b government—The t r u t h about c a r r y i n g out s o c i a l ^ communism]. Reproduced i n Shanghai Shehui Kexue Xueyuan L i s h i Y a n j i u Suo J ; -J§fc£ ^^)^L^%^: % [The h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h department of the Shanghai s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n s t i t u t e ] ( E d i t o r s ) . Wusi yundonq z a i Shanghai s h i l i a o x u a n j i Ifj. ^1^0 fcjt ~Jffj^ & j£, [ S e l e c t e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s on the May F o u r t h Movement i n Sh a n g h a i ] , Shanghai: Renmin Chubanshe, 1960. J i o n g Ru j$ "fjt . " D i e r duan z h i s h i j i e g a i z a o " £%-U&f\ [The second stage of w o r l d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ] . Donqfang Z a z h i 16,11(November 1919):15-19. L i Da [ J i a n g Chun >3<^jj>]. "Wuzhengfuzhuyi z h i j i e p e i " ^ f y f f i £.£ ^ A d i s s e c t i o n °f a n a r c h i s m ] . 159 Gongchandang 4(May 7 , 1919):14-22. Dazhao £ ^ £ . J . "'Bolshevism' d i s h e n g l i " B o l s h e v i s m & # £ ^ < J [The v i c t o r y of "Bolshevism'". In L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 112-118. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in Xin Qingnian 5,5(November 1918). "E Fa geming b i j i a o guan" U$L$j\ A Comparison of the Russian and French R e v o l u t i o n s ] . L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 101-104. ' J i e j i j i n g z h e n g yu huzhu" ffiiZ^^X$$ [Class competition and mutual a i d ] . L i D a z h a o 3 Xuanji pp. 222-25. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in Meizhou Pinglun 29(July 6,1919). , L i Dazhao Xuanji i ^ i ^ l ^ f T h e s e l e c t e d works of L i D a z h a o T i Peking: Renmin Chuban S h e , 1959. , " L i a n z h i z h u y i yu s h i j i e zuzhi " 1&L ^(^^^^ [Unionism and World O r g a n i z a t i o n ] . L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 130-134. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Xin Chao 1,2(February 1,1919). "Qingnian yu nongcun"-^-^"if ^  i Youth and the c o u n t r y s i d e ] . L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 146-150. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Chen Bao [The Morning P o s t ] , February 20-23, 1919. , "Shumin d i s h e n g l i " j ^ ^ , T h e v i c t o r y of the common p e o p l e ] , L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 109-111. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Xin Qingnian5,5(November 15,1918). "Wodi Makesizhuyi guan" [My Marxist views], L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 173-195. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Xin Qingnian 6,5(May 1919) and 6,6(November 1919). , "You cong j i n g j i shang j i e s h i Zhongguo . j i n d a i s i x i a n g •bii^dong z h i y S a n y i n " * ^ J^ffl % ' iM l\. 1%^ ^ A n economic e x p l a n a t i o n of recent i d e o l o g i c a l changes in C h i n a ] . L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 295-302. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Xin Qingnian 7,2(January 1920). "Zai lun wenti yu z h u y i i & ft ^ [Again on problems and isms]. L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 229-234, O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Meizhou Pinglun 35(August 17,1919). "Zhan hou d i s h i j i e chaol i u " P$ fyh'&^C'ffij^ The world t i d e a f t e r the War]. L i Dazhao Xuanji pp. 135-138 160 L i n g S h u a ng^^ "Makesi xueshuo d i p i p i n g " [A C r i t i c i s m of Marx's t h e o r y ] , X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5(May 1919):456-69. Lu H o n g y u ^ ^ ^ . "Zheng gong z h i du^>$ $1/%[ The l a b o u r c o n s c r i p t s y s t e m ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 17,3(February 10,1920):9-14,•17,4(February 25, 1920):26-32, and 17,5(March 10,1920):12-20. "Makesi he Enggesi d i gongchandang xuanyan" jJ? ^i^%J^,\[The communist p a r t y m a n i f e s t o of Marx and . E n g e l s T."^Translated by L i Zizhang iLz&'^&i. Guomin 2,1(November 1919):45-53. ^' Mao Tse-tung ^ ^ £ _ [ Z e d o n g ^ - . "Minzhong d i da l i a n h e " ^ ^ ^ 3^.^.[The g r e a t u n i t y of the p o p u l a r masses], X i a n g j i a n g P i n g l u n ["The Shi a n K i a n Weekly Review"] 2 ( J u l y 21,1919), 3 ( J u l y 28,1919) and 4(September 1919). Meng Zhen ^  ji, "Shehui geming—Eguo s h i d i geming" ^ L&^-Q^y* — k&-El^jt^ [ S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n — r e v o l u t i o n on the R u s s i a n t y p e ] . X i n 7 Chao 1,1 (January 1, 1 9 1 9):1. Qian Z h i x i u " L a o l i z h u y i "ifajl X [ L a b o u r i s m ] . Dongfang Z a z h i 14,10(October 1917):1-6. Ruo Yu%j!g}. " G u o j i d i Geming" $ fc-jfrfj^^t I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n ] . Meizhou P i n g l u n • 1 0 ( F e b r u a r y 13,1919):3. , "Wuzhengfu gongchanzhuyi yu g u o j i a s h e h u i z h u y i £f*$Cl) & l&'i^TL, £ [ A n a r c h i s t communism and s t a t e s o c i a l i s m ] . Meizhou P i n g l u n l 8 ( A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 1 9 ) : 2 f f . Shan J i 0 * "Xu Eguo g u o j i p a i z h i l i n g x i u L i n i n g " 1^1$ 33^f& 7%. ^ t T n e s t o r y of L e n i n the l e a d e r ' o f f h i e ^ * u s s i a n r a d i c a l f a c t i o n ] . Dongfanq Z a z h i 15,3(March 1918):61~65. S h e h u i z h u y i Taolun J i - ^ j ^ TZ-XY>4 < f j C o l l e c t e d debates on s o c i a l i s m j . Canton: X i n Q i n g n i a n She, 1922. Shi Cuntong ' f ^ W C . T . ] . "Women zenma yang gan shehui geming?" JlMI j t ' k *f i [How do we make social r e v o l u t i o n ? ] . Gongchandang 5 (June 7,1921):9-32. S h i Fu $ "Zhongguo z h e n g z h i geming bu c h e n o j i u i L shehui gemij£bu fasheng z h i y u a n y i n " i f $ Z # %£ X. jJL W [The reasons f o r the l a c F of s u c c e s s of C h i n a 7 s p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and the non-o c c u r r e n c e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Dongfanq Z a z h i l 6 , 4 ( A p r i l 1 9 1 9 ) s 1 - 9 . "Xuanyan" 1? % [ M a n i f e s t o ] . J i e f a n g Yu G a i z a o 1(September 1,1919):1. 161 Wu Y u ^ ijjjL " R u j i a zhuzhang j i e j i z h i d u z h i h a i " -fJS *$L"$ f t |J/rM i - ^ [ T n e e v i l s of the c l a s s system advocated by the C o n f u c i a n i s t s ] . X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 4 ( J u l y 1 , l 9 l 7 ) : 1 - 4 . Yang Y i c e n g "Shehui weishenma yao gaozao?" {f/A [Why must s o c i e t y be t r a n s f o r m e d ? ] . Guomin 2,1(November 1919):13-22. Y i Hu -/J . " Zhongguo s h i d a i f u j i e j i d i z u i ' en" * ^ H ^ [ T h e e v i l s of China's g e n t r y c l a s s ] . Meizhou P i n g l u n 20(May 4 , l 9 l 9 ) : 1 - 2 . [Jun S h i ]. "Eguo s h e h u i z h u y i yundong i " ^ ^ ^ f f 5 ^ 5 ? ^ [ T h e e v o l u t i o n of Yu Zhongying z h i b i a n q i a n ' the R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t movement] Dongfang Z a z h i 15,4(Apr i l 1918):61-65. , "Eguo x i a n z a i z h i zhengdang" [ P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s of R u s s i a n t o d a y ] . Dongfang Z a z h i 1 5 , 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1918):161-164. , ''Shehuizhuyi z h i j i a n t a o " ^ & 1 V l l ^ ^ 3 / [ A r e p o r t on soc i a l i s m ] . Dongfang Z a z h i 16,9(September 1919) : 100-105, 16,10(October 1919 ) : 100-111 and 16,11(November 1919):101-109. Zhang Xichenjj[ Gao L a o f f ? ^ ] . "Xu j i Eguo z h i j i n kuang" Vffi" $ A f u r t h e r r e p o r t on the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n R u s s i a ] . Dongfang Z a z h i 15,1(January 1918):37-42. "Zhongdeng j i e j i l u n " the mi d d l e c l a s s ] . T r a n s l a t e d by Zhang X i c h e n ^ ^ { # £ [ G a o Lao^£ & ]. Dongfang Z a z h i l 6 , 6 ( J u n e 19 T9):19-23. Zhou F u h a i ^ ^ ~M [Wu Xieip4#£] . "Eguo flongchan zhengfu c h e n g l i san zhounian j i n i a n " J f ^ ^ f & [Marking the t h i r d a n n i v e r s a r y of the fou n d i n g of the R u s s i a n communist government]. Gongchandang 1(November 1921):2-13. , "Duoqu Zhengquan" i^Jfc S e i z e p o l i t i c a l power]. Gongchandang 5 (June 7, 1921): 3-9. ,, "Women weishenma zhuzhang gongchanzhuyi?" {$(7 7 ^1 A Qjfr i $ ? [Why do we advocate communism?]. Gongchandang 3 ( A p r i l 7,1921):23-30. Zhou F u h a i . "Zhongguo d i j i e j i douzheng" [ C h i n a ' s c l a s s s t r u g g l e ] . "» J i e f a n g yu g a i z a o 1,7(December 1,1919):114-20. 1 62 Other R e f e r e n c e s Berkman, A l e x a n d e r . Now and A f t e r : The ABC of Communist  Anarchism. New York: Vanguard P r e s s , 1929. B e r n a l , M a r t i n . Chinese S o c i a l i s m t o 1907. I t h a c a and London: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976. "The Triumph of Anarchism over Marxism, 1906-1907". In China i n R e v o l u t i o n : The F i r s t Phase. E d i t e d by Mary. C W r i g h t . New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. Ch'en, Jerome. Mao and the Chinese R e v o l u t i o n . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. Chow T s e - t s u n g . The May F o u r t h Movement: I n t e l l e c t u a l R e v o l u t i o n  i n Modern C h i n a . Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. Research Guide t o the May F o u r t h Movement Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. Ding Shouhe ^ a n d Yan X u y i j ^ / £ z ^ £ Cong Wusi qimeng yundong j£ jfg-[From the May F o u r t h ErTLx^hte^merfr^oveirrlnt t o th<T * J D i s s e m i n a t i o n of M a r x i s m ] . P e k i n g : S a n l i a n Shudian, 1963. Ding Shouhe, Yan X u y i and Zhang Pozhao Shiyue geming d u i Zhongguo geming d i y i n g x i a n g -f ti t fL <fr ft/ f& %j \fa [The I n f l u e n c e of the October R e v o l u t i o n on tne C h i n e s e v R e v o l u t i o n ] . P e k i n g : Renmin Chuban She, 1957. D i r l i k , A r i f . R e v o l u t i o n and H i s t o r y : The O r i g i n s of M a r x i s t  H i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n C h i n a , 1919-1937. B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978. Haimson, L e o p o l d H. The R u s s i a n M a r x i s t s and the O r i g i n s of  B o l s h e v i s m . Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. H a r r i s o n , James P i c k n e y . The Long March t o Power: A H i s t o r y of  the C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y , 1921-1973. New York and Washington: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. K a u t s k y , K a r l . The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx. T r a n s l a t e d by H . J . S t e n n i n g . New York: The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1936. K r o p o t k i n , P e t e r . The Conquest of Bread. London: Chapman and H a l l , 1906. , Mutual A i d : A F a c t o r i n E v o l u t i o n . London: W i l l i a m Heinmann Co., 1902. 1 63 L e n i n , V . I . I m p e r i a l i s m : The H i g h e s t Stage of C a p i t a l i s m . P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1975. , The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n . P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1975. , V . I . L e n i n : S e l e c t e d Work. 3 v o l s , Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. L i Y u - n i n g . The I n t r o d u c t i o n of S o c i a l i s m i n t o C h i n a . New York and London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. Marx, K a r l . C a p i t a l . 3 v o l s . E d i t e d by F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s . New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1967. , " P r e f a c e and I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy". P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1976. Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1973. Marx, K a r l and E n g e l s , F r e d e r i c k . The Communist M a n i f e s t o . I n t r o d u c t i o n by A . J . P . T a y l o r . Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1967. M e i s n e r , M a u r i c e . L i Ta-chao and the O r i g i n s of Chinese Marxism. Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. P r i c e , Don C. R u s s i a and the Roots of the Chinese R e v o l u t i o n ,  1896-1911. Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974. S c a l a p i n o , Robert and Yu, George. The Chinese A n a r c h i s t  Movement. B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a C e n t r e f o r Chinese S t u d i e s , 1961. S c h w a r t z , Benjamin I . Chinese Communism and the R i s e of Mao. Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951. Wusi S h i q i Qikan J i e s h a o ^ r j f f &4 [ An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the p e r i o d i c a l s of the May F o u r t h P e r i o d ] . 3 v o l s . P e k i n g : Renmin Chuban She, 1958. 'Wusi' Yundong Y a n j i u Lun J i . E d i t e d by Zhou Kangxie. J P ) % , Hong Kong: Chongwen Shudian, 1975. Zhongguo Chuban S h i l i a o Bubian . £ $ jjjlfflj$ i$ [ Supplement t o m a t e r i a l s on the J j i s t ^ r y of p u b l i s h i n g i n C h i n a ] . E d i t e d by Zhang J i n g l u ^ ' P e k i n g : B e i j i n g Zhon^nTJa S h u j u , 1957. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095524/manifest

Comment

Related Items