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Bolshevism and the Chinese revolution : the conceptual origins of the program of the Chinese Communist.. 1981

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( BOLSHEVISM AND THE CHINESE REVOLUTION: THE CONCEPTUAL ORIGINS OF THE PROGRAM OF THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY AT THE TIME OF ITS FIRST CONGRESS, • 1 917-1921 by TIMOTHY JOHN STANLEY B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t r e a l , 1975 A THESIS SU3MITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department of H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1981 ( c ) T i m o t h y John S t a n l e y , 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agr e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f History. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ©ctober. 20,, 1981 DE-fi (2/19) A b s t r a c t T h i s i s a study of the i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i g i n s of the program of the Chinese Communist P a r t y d u r i n g the p e r i o d between the October 1917 B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a and the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y i n the summer of 1921. T h i s study examines the p o s i t i o n s put f o r w a r d i n Gongchandang ("The Communist"), the t h e o r e t i c a l organ of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee of the Chinese Communist P a r t y . A l t h o u g h these p o s i t i o n s were i n f l u e n c e d by L e n i n ' s t h e o r i e s t o some e x t e n t , they were m a i a l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s r e a c t i o n t o the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s and c o n c e p t s of s o c i a l change. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n was seen i n terms of the a n a r c h i s t concept of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . Marx's t h e o r i e s of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m f a i l e d t o a l t e r the fundamental p e r c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y of i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i n c l u d i n g those who c o n s i d e r e d themselves t o be M a r x i s t s . Marx's t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e was seen as e q u i v a l e n t t o the a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e was seen as one among s e v e r a l methods of a c h i e v i n g " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . Nowhere was the i n f l u e n c e of a n a r c h i s m more e v i d e n t than i n c l a s s c o n c e p t s . Anarchism had i d e n t i f i e d the e x i s t e n c e of two c l a s s e s i n C h i n a - - t h e r u l e r s and the r u l e d . The i n f l u e n c e of B o l s h e v i s m and Marxism on c l a s s c o n c e p t s was l i m i t e d t o s u p p l y i n g an economic c o n t e n t t o these a n a r c h i s t c l a s s e s . E s s e n t i a l l y l a n d l o r d s and and c a p i t a l i s t s were seen as the c l a s s t h a t owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n , w h i l e p e a s a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l workers were seen as the c l a s s which d i d not own any i i i means of p r o d u c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y t r a n s l a t i o n s of the terms " p r o l e t a r i a t " and " b o u r g e o i s i e " — "wuchan j i e j i " and "you chan j i e j i " were u n d e r s t o o d as " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and " p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of c l a s s e s i n t u r n l e d the Chinese Communist P a r t y , a t the time of i t s F i r s t Congress, t o a n a l y s e Chinese s o c i e t y i n terms of the " p r o p e r t i e d " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d " c l a s s e s . Based on t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t deve l o p e d a s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n aimed a t o r g a n i z i n g and r o u s i n g the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the members of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s as a s i n g l e c l a s s , and of workers and peasants as a s i n g l e c l a s s , a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s between peasants and p r o l e t a r i a t , between l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , were not a p p a r e n t , a t l e a s t t o Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s , between 1917 and 1921. i v Table of Co n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i INTRODUCTION 1 1. The Problem Of The E a r l y Communist Movement 1 2. The Sources For T h i s Study 5 3. A Comment On Western H i s t o r i o g r a p h y On 1917-1921 11 CHAPTER I . REVOLUTION: RUSSIA AND CHINA 20 1. R u s s i a : The Concept Of " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " 20 2. C h i n a : The N e c e s s i t y Of " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " 32 CHAPTER I I . MARXISM: IDEAS, PROPERTY AND CLASS STRUGGLE-... 4 5 1. The D e s c r i p t i o n Of Marxism, 1919-1920 45 2. The M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n Of H i s t o r y 50 3. The Theory Of S u r p l u s V a l u e •'. . 57 4. C l a s s e s And C l a s s S t r u g g l e 66 CHAPTER I I I . THE BOURGEOISIE AND THE PROLETARIAT 76 1. The P o l a r i z a t i o n Of S o c i e t y : The Concept Of " C l a s s " .. 76 2. Two Great Camps: The B o u r g e o i s i e And The P r o l e t a r i a t . 85 CHAPTER IV. COMMUNISM: THE GONGCHANDANG PROGRAMME 99 1 . Communism And China 99 2. R e v o l u t i o n And D i c t a t o r s h i p : C r i t i q u e Of Anarchism ...106 3. The A n a l y s i s Of C l a s s e s In Chi n e s e S o c i e t y 114 4. S e i z e P o l i t i c a l Power: The R e v o l u t i o n a r y Road 122 CONCLUSION 131 F o o t n o t e s . .• 136 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y 157 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The Problem of the E a r l y Communist Movement In August 1921, the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y convened i n S h a n g h a i . 1 B e f o r e t h i s Congress c o u l d be c a l l e d , communist o r g a n i z a t i o n s which would serve as the s t r u c t u r a l n u c l e i of the f u t u r e p a r t y had t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the major c i t i e s of C h i n a , and the p a r t y ' s program which mapped out i t s o b j e c t i v e s and the means of t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t had t o be d e f i n e d . In l a r g e p a r t these two t a s k s were a c c o m p l i s h e d under the o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of the p a r t y ' s P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee which had been formed i n Shanghai i n May 1920. 2 The f i r s t t a s k was a c c o m p l i s h e d d u r i n g the summer of 1920. Communist o r g a n i z a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n P e k i n g , Shanghai and o t h e r Chinese c i t i e s , as w e l l as i n Tokyo and P a r i s . 3 As Chow Tse-tsung has s u g g e s t e d , the months between A p r i l 1920 and the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y , i n the summer of 1921 marked "the t r a n s i t i o n t o a c t i o n " f o r those i n t e l l e c t u a l s who embraced communism." The second t a s k was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n the pages of Gongchandang("The Communist"), the t h e o r e t i c a l organ of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee. Gongchandang add r e s s e d two fundamental concerns of the e a r l y communist movement i n C h i n a - - what was communism and c o u l d i t be a c h i e v e d i n China? The second issue--how communist r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d be. a c h i e v e d i n C h i n a — r e q u i r e d the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a p l a u s i b l e s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n which would a t t r a c t members t o the new p a r t y . T h i s s t r a t e g y had t o i d e n t i f y the f r i e n d s and enemies of 2 t h e r e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h c l a s s e s w e r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d w h i c h n o t . G o n g c h a n d a n g a l s o h a d t o d e s c r i b e t h e m e t h o d o f b r i n g i n g a b o u t c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n , a n d t h e means o f a w a k e n i n g t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f p o t e n t i a l l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s . The f i r s t i s s u e — w h a t c o m m u n i s m w a s - - i n v o l v e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c o m m u n i s m f r o m o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y p h i l o s o p h i e s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y f r o m a n a r c h i s m . T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h r e e a r e a s : 1) t h e o b j e c t i v e o f r e v o l u t i o n - - i . e . t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t ; 2 ) t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t r e v o l u t i o n — o n e t h a t m e r e l y s o u g h t p o l i t i c a l p o w e r o r o n e t h a t s o u g h t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s ; a n d 3 ) g i v e n M a r x ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n was t h e i n e v i t a b l e o u t c o m e o f d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a . B u t G o n g c h a n d a n g d e v e l o p e d t h e p r o g r a m o f t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y a t a t i m e when t h e r e was l i m i t e d a c c e s s i n C h i n e s e t o t h e w o r k s o f M a r x a n d L e n i n . 5 A t t h e t i m e o f t h e F i r s t C o n g r e s s , M a r x ' s t h e o r i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m , c l a s s s t r u g g l e a n d c a p i t a l i s m , w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n C h i n e s e o n l y t h r o u g h s e c o n d a r y , e v e n t e r t i a r y , s o u r c e s w h i c h h a d o f t e n b e e n w r i t t e n by t h o s e h o s t i l e t o M a r x i s m . Of M a r x ' s m a j o r w o r k s o n l y h i s c a l l f o r c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n , T h e C o m m u n i s t M a n i f e s t o , h a d b e e n p u b l i s h e d i n c o m p l e t e C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n . 6 Of t h e L e n i n i s t c l a s s i c s , e a r l y c o m m u n i s t s o n l y h a d a c c e s s t o The S t a t e a n d R e v o l u t i o n w h i c h p r e s e n t e d h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e c l a s s n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t n e e d f o r t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t a f t e r t h e c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n . E v e n t h i s was o n l y a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h , 7 a n d i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n had o n l y begun a t the time o f . t h e F i r s t C o n g r e s s . 8 L e n i n ' s two e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the t h e o r y of communist r e v o l u t i o n - - t h e "vanguard p a r t y " and h i s t h e s i s on i m p e r i a l i s m - - were s i m p l y i n a c c e s s i b l e . L e n i n ' s b l u e p r i n t f o r r e v o l u t i o n , What i s t o be Done?, and h i s a n a l y s i s of i m p e r i a l i s m and the p o s s i b i l i t y of communist r e v o l u t i o n i n r e l a t i v e l y e c o n o m i c a l l y backward c o u n t r i e s , I m p e r i a l i s m : The H i g h e s t Stage of C a p i t a l i s t ? ^ had yet t o be t r a n s l a t e d . Thus the e a r l y communists i n China o n l y had i n d i r e c t a c c e s s t o L e n i n i s m . T h e i r knowledge of L e n i n i s m came from t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , i n R u s s i a . G i v e n such l i m i t e d and o f t e n i n d i r e c t a c c e s s t o Marxism- L e n i n i s m , the program of the Chinese Communist P a r t y as s e t out i n Gongchandang was i n a c e r t a i n sense n e i t h e r M a r x i s t not L e n i n i s t . The program o u t l i n e d i n Gongchandang d i d n o t h i n g l e s s than propose the w h o l e s a l e i m p o r t a t i o n i n t o C h ina of Marxism- L e n i n i s m as i t had developed i n R u s s i a . In s h o r t , the e a r l y communists were Chinese B o l s h e v i k s . 9 Gongchandang's program was i n l a r g e p a r t a response t o a n a r c h i s m . Anarchism had enjoy e d a s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o n g e r h i s t o r y i n China than the M a r x i s t approach t o r e v o l u t i o n . 1 0 Consequently a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n s on r e v o l u t i o n were much b e t t e r known and shaped the p o s i t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n Gongchandang i n two ways. F i r s t , i t was the a n a r c h i s t t h e o r y of r e v o l u t i o n t h a t Gongchandang spent most of i t s time a t t a c k i n g . S e c o n d l y , a n a r c h i s t c o n c e p t s s u b t l y c o l o u r e d the e a r l y communists' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r s o c i e t y , i t s problems and the s o l u t i o n s t o these problems. Anarchism runs as a common t h r e a d t hrough t h i s study of the i n t e l l e c t u a l o r g i n s of the program of the Chinese Communist P a r t y at the time of i t s f o r m a t i o n . The B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was seen i n terms of the a n a r c h i s t concept of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y was u n d e r s t o o d t o e s t a b l i s h the a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . When i n t e l l e c t u a l s used c l a s s c o n c e p t s t o a n a l y s e t h e i r s o c i e t y , the c l a s s e s they i d e n t i f i e d were i n p r a c t i c e those which had been i d e n t i f i e d by a n a r c h i s m . T h i s c o n t a m i n a t i o n of c o n c e p t s of the n a t u r e of s o c i e t y , economic t h e o r y and s o c i a l change, s e r i o u s l y e f f e c t e d the new p a r t y ' s l i n e . The c e n t r a l c oncern of t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o t r a c e the c o n c e p t u a l f a c t o r s which shaped the C h i n e s e . B o l s h e v i s m of Gongchandang. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s tudy examines i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' r e a c t i o n s t o and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Marxism, t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and use of c l a s s c o n c e p t s , and the L e n i n i s t i n f l u e n c e s on the program of Gongchandang. The f i r s t t h r e e f a c t o r s — B o l s h e v i s m , Marxism and c l a s s c o n c e p t s — a r e examined i n the f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . These c h a p t e r s a l l c o v e r the p e r i o d between the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i n November 1917 and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t complete Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o i n A p r i l 1920. The f o u r t h c h a p t e r examines the p o s i t i o n s put f o r w a r d i n Gongchandang and i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the p e r i o d between the f o r m a t i o n of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee i n May 1920 and the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y i n August 1921. 5 2. The Sources f o r t h i s Study D u r i n g the p e r i o d between the mid 1910s and the e a r l y 1920s, t h e r e was an e x p l o s i v e i n c r e a s e i n the number of j o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d i n C h i n a . J o u r n a l s from t h i s p e r i o d , the e r a of the New C u l t u r e and May F o u r t h movements, have been the p r i n c i p l e s o u r c e s used i n t h i s study of the c o n c e p t u a l o r i g i n s of the l i n e of the Chinese Communist P a r t y at the time of i t s f o r m a t i o n . The j o u r n a l s of the New C u l t u r e and May F o u r t h movements are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l t r e n d s i n Chinese thought between 1917 and 1921. The t r a d i t i o n a l i s t , even r e a c t i o n a r y , t r e n d i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l p u b l i c a t i o n s of the p e r i o d . C o n s e q u e n t l y I can o n l y s p e c u l a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r u l i n g e l i t e ' s r e c e p t i o n of the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n and M a r x i s t i d e a s . The s o u r c e s used i n t h i s study are a l s o not . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l of the p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l t r e n d s d u r i n g the p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the l e f t i s t t r e n d s amongst younger i n t e l l e c t u a l s . For schematic p u r p o s e s , p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l t e n d e n c i e s can be a s c r i b e d t o t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . 1 1 A l t h o u g h the c o n c e r n s of these g e n e r a t i o n s o v e r l a p t o some e x t e n t , and some i n d i v i d u a l s , n o t a b l y L i Dazhao, Chen Duxiu and Hu Hanmin, belong t o more than one g e n e r a t i o n , each g e n e r a t i o n ' s approach t o the problems t h a t c o n f r o n t e d C h i n e s e s o c i e t y f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e d from t h a t of the o t h e r s . The c e n t r a l i s s u e t h a t c o n f r o n t e d a l l t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s had been d e f i n e d by the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . How c o u l d C h i n a a t t a i n the w e a l t h and power of the West? The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t of the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n , was concerned w i t h s o l v i n g t h i s problem w h i l e a t the same time p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s C h i n e s e n e s s . The members of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l s l i k e L i a n g Qichao and Sun Y a t - s e n , sought p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms which would a l l o w China to overcome her r e l a t i v e weakness w i t h o u t f u n d a m e n t a l l y a f f e c t i n g the n a t u r e of Chinese c u l t u r e . I have not examined the thought of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . My main concern has been t o t r a c e the o r i g i n s of the p o s i t i o n s of the Chinese Communist P a r t y at the time of the p a r t y ' s F i r s t Congress. G i v e n t h e i r c o n cerns f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s such as L i a n g p l a y e d major r o l e s i n f o r m u l a t i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i n g the elements of C h i n e s e B o l s h e v i s m . T h i s was p r o b a b l y a l s o the case w i t h Sun Y a t - s e n . I have not examined h i s w r i t i n g s between 1917 and 1921. H i s appearance i n t h i s study i s i n c i d e n t a l i n so f a r as h i s a p p r o b a t i o n of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n h e l p e d t o e s t a b l i s h the l e g i t i m a c y of B o l s h e v i s m i n the eyes of p r o g r e s s i v e C h i n e s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the p a u c i t y of r e f e r e n c e s t o statements on R u s s i a and Marxism t h a t were made by Sun d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d s u g gests t h a t he d i d not p l a y a major r o l e i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g communist tho u g h t . T h i s would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Sun's p o l i t i c s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . S i n c e he was r e p e a t e d l y t r y i n g t o a l l y w i t h v a r i o u s w a r l o r d f a c t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , he would not have been i n a p o s i t i o n t o say much on the d i s t u r b i n g e v e nts i n R u s s i a . I n t e l l e c t u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the New C u l t u r e Movement c o n s t i t u t e d the second g e n e r a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The New C u l t u r e Movement r e j e c t e d p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as the bes t method of overcoming C h i n e s e backwardness. U n l i k e the p r e c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n which had been, and c o n t i n u e d t o be, a c t i v e i n the w o r l d of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , c o n s t i t u t i o n s and c o n s p i r a c i e s t o g a i n c o n t r o l of the c e n t r a l government, the New C u l t u r e g e n e r a t i o n r e j e c t e d d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i n f a v o u r of mass e n l i g h t e n m e n t . I n s t e a d of t r y i n g t o r e p l a c e Chinese i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h Western p o l i t i c a l forms, they sought t o t r a n s f o r m the Chinese view of the w o r l d through the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the most modern Western i d e a s . In p a r t i c u l a r they sought t o r e p l a c e C o n f u c i a n i s m w i t h " s c i e n c e " and "democracy". Co n s e q u e n t l y t h i s g e n e r a t i o n was much l e s s concerned w i t h p r e s e r v i n g Chineseness which i t equated w i t h backwardness. T h i s study has made c o n s i d e r a b l e use of the j o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d by New C u l t u r e i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Formost among these was X i n Q i n g n i a n (New Youth or "La j e u n e s s e " ) . 1 2 As the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l j o u r n a l of the day, and the most i m p o r t a n t forum f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of New C u l t u r e i d e a l s , X i n Q i n g n i a n regrouped aD number of prominent u n i v e r s i t y i n t e l l e c t u a l s . These i n c l u d e d Chen D u x i u , X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s e d i t o r ; L i Dazhao, the f i r s t C hinese M a r x i s t ; Hu S h i h , the o r i g i n a t o r of the v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e movement; and C a i Y u a n p e i , the p r i n c i p l e of P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y and the f i r s t m i n i s t e r of e d u c a t i o n i n the Chinese R e p u b l i c . Another source used i n t h i s s t udy was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o X i n Q i n g n i a n . W h i l e Meizhou P i n g l u n ("The Weekly C r i t i c " ) was more d i r e c t l y o r i e n t e d towards p o l i t i c a l commentary than X i n Q i n g n i a n , i t a p p e a l e d t o the same audience and was p u b l i s h e d by members of X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s e d i t o r i a l board i n c l u d i n g Chen D u x i u . 1 3 8 The t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h a t of the May F o u r t h Movement, tended to be the s t u d e n t s of the New C u l t u r e p r o f e s s o r s . A f t e r t h e i r r a d i c a l i z a t i o n by the Western A l l i e s ' b e t r a y a l of Chinese s o v e r e i g n t y a t the V e r s a i l l e s peace t a l k s , t h i s g e n e r a t i o n r e j e c t e d t h e i r t e a c h e r s ' c o ncerns f o r mass e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n f a v o u r of d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n and o v e r a l l s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l problems. To be s u r e , some of t h e i r t e a c h e r s , n o t a b l y L i Dazhao and Chen D u x i u , j o i n e d them i n t h i s c o n c e r n f o r s o c i a l problems. Indeed, i n t e r e s t i n s o c i e t y was the d i r e c t consequence of the New C u l t u r e Movement's i c o n o c l a s m . A t t a c k s on C o n f u c i a n i s m l e d t o i n t e r e s t i n the f a m i l y and the r o l e of women i n s o c i e t y . These were both problems which i n v o l v e d s o c i a l s t u c t u r e s as w e l l as i d e o l o g y . The appearance of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n marked a s p l i t i n the New C u l t u r e movement between those such as L i Dazhao who advocated s o c i a l s o l u t i o n s , and those such as Hu S h i h who c o n t i n u e d t o advocate the l i b e r a l approach of e d u c a t i o n and mass e n l i g h t e n m e n t . The t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s tended t o be e x t r e m e l y s y m p a t h e t i c towards the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n and o f t e n p l a y e d l e a d i n g r o l e s i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g M a r x i s t i d e a s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they a re amongst the most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s f o r the study of r a d i c a l thought d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and I have r e l i e d h e a v i l y upon them. In p a r t i c u l a r , I have made use of the s t u d e n t j o u r n a l s X i n Chao (New T i d e or "The R e n a i s s a n c e " ) 1 " and Guomin ("The C i t i z e n " ) . 1 5 X i n Chao was the most i n f l u e n t i a l s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n of the day. Guomin, the organ of the s t u d e n t " S o c i e t y of N a t i o n a l S a l v a t i o n " , was o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l but was more r a d i c a l i n o r i e n t a t i o n . My major source f o r the l i n e of the C hinese Communist P a r t y - - Gongchandang ("The Communist")--can be i n c l u d e d i n the ranks of the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n of C hinese r a d i c a l s . A l t h o u g h Gongchandang was the o f f i c i a l organ of the p a r t y ' s P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee, i t s most im p o r t a n t i d e o l o g i s t s , Zhou F u h a i and S h i Cuntong, were members of the May F o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n . The concern w i t h methods of r e v o l u t i o n shown by the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang p r o p e r l y r e f l e c t s the g e n e r a l t r e n d , a l t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y the p o l i t i c s , of the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n . Gongchandang was not the o n l y j o u r n a l t h a t put f o r w a r d the views of the e a r l y communists b e f o r e the F i r s t Congress. The P e k i n g communist o r g a n i z a t i o n p u b l i s h e d Laodonq J i e "(The World of Labour) and X i n Q i n g n i a n was communist c o n t r o l l e d a f t e r i t s June 1920 i s s u e . But as the organ of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee, Gongchandang a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d the views of the p a r t y c e n t r e on q u e s t i o n s of s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s . Dongfang Z a z h i ("The E a s t e r n M i s c e l l a n y " ) has proven t o be an i n v a l u a b e source f o r t h i s s t u d y . 1 6 U n l i k e the o t h e r j o u r n a l s of the p e r i o d which were aimed a t a r e s t r i c t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l a u d i e n c e , Dongfang Z a z h i was e s s e n t i a l l y a newsmagazine aimed at the mass market of the new urban mi d d l e c l a s s . Every i s s u e reproduced or p u b l i s h e d a v a r i e t y of a r t i c l e s on the q u e s t i o n s of the day which were w r i t t e n from a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . A l t h o u g h Dongfang Zazhi had a l i b e r a l e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y , r e l a t i v e t o the o t h e r j o u r n a l s used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y , i t was c o n s e r v a t i v e . I t s c o n s e r v a t i s m can be seen i n the f a c t t h a t i t c o n t i n u e d t o use the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e of w r i t t e n Chinese u n t i l the end of 1919 which was l o n g 10 a f t e r o t h e r j o u r n a l s of the p e r i o d had c o n v e r t e d t o v e r n a c u l a r C h i n e s e . Dongfang Z a z h i ' s c o n t e n t s r e f l e c t e d what i t s e d i t o r s b e l i e v e d the i n formed c i t i z e n s h o u l d know. I t s a r t i c l e s r e f l e c t e d the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the d a i l y p a p ers. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l as a source f o r d e t e r m i n i n g what the average informed c i t i z e n was l i k e l y t o have known about the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n , Marxism, e t c . . . A major gap i n the s o u r c e s f o r t h i s study i s the absence of a n a r c h i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I have not had a c c e s s t o the a n a r c h i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s of the May F o u r t h E r a . The o n l y a c c e s s I have had t o a n a r c h i s t thought has come i n secondary s o u r c e s , or i n a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by a n a r c h i s t s , or about a n a r c h i s m , i n o t h e r j o u r n a l s such as X i n Q i n g n i a n and Dongfang Z a z h i . Except i n so f a r as the s o u r c e s t h a t I have examined appear t o be responses t o a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n s , or i n f l u e n c e d by a n a r c h i s t i d e a s , I am c o n s e q u e n t l y not i n a p o s i t i o n t o s p e c u l a t e on the p o s i t i o n s b e i n g put f o r w a r d by a n a r c h i s t s on the i s s u e s of the day. I.E. i t i s p o s s i b l e ( a l t h o u g h I s u s p e c t u n l i k e l y ) t h a t a n a r c h i s t j o u r n a l s p l a y e d the major r o l e i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g M a r x i s t i d e a s i n C h i n a d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 1 7 T h i s study has found t h a t a number of e l e m e n t s — c o n c e p t s of c l a s s e s , r e v o l u t i o n , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Marxism-- were brought t o g e t h e r i n Chinese B o l s h e v i s m . These elements, a l o n g w i t h B o l s h e v i s m i t s e l f , emerged i n the c o u r s e of sharp debates over the n a t u r e of t h e problems t h a t a f f l i c t e d C h inese s o c i e t y and t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . These debates took p l a c e between t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s and p r o g r e s s i v e s , l i b e r a l s and r a d i c a l s , M a r x i s t s and a n a r c h i s t s . The p o s i t i o n s t h a t I have t r a c e d have 11 tended t o be those taken by o n l y one s i d e i n t h e s e d e b a t e s . For example, I have examined the r e a c t i o n s of both l i b e r a l s and r a d i c a l s t o the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n , but a f t e r the New C u l t u r e movement s p l i t i n t o two camps, I do not c o n s i d e r the l i b e r a l s ' p o s i t i o n s . Thus I o n l y examine L i Dazhao's response t o Hu S h i h ' s p o s i t i o n i n the Problems and "Isms" debate. To have l o o k e d a t both s i d e s i n these debates would have c e r t a i n l y g i v e n a much more b a l a n c e d p i c t u r e of the c o n c e p t u a l f l u x t h a t came t o g e t h e r i n the p o s i t i o n s of Gongchandang, but t h a t would have been a much l o n g e r , and s u b s t a n t i a l l y more complex s t u d y . 3. A Comment on Western H i s t o r i o g r a p h y on 1917-1921 My c e n t r a l argument i s t h a t the c o n c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y and the n a t u r e of communist r e v o l u t i o n which emerged i n the New C u l t u r e / M a y F o u r t h Era d e t e r m i n e d the l i n e of the Chinese Communist P a r t y a t the time of i t s f o r m a t i o n . Western h i s t o r i o g r a p h y on the Chinese Communist P a r t y has tended t o g l o s s over the p e r i o d between the 1917 October R e v o l u t i o n and the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y i n 1921. Survey h i s t o r i e s of the C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y u s u a l l y b e g i n w i t h the p a r t y ' s F i r s t Congress and c o n s e q u e n t l y o n l y devote a few i n t r o d u c t o r y pages, or even p a r a g r a p h s , t o the pre-1921 p e r i o d . 1 8 T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e s i n c e i t has l e d t o a tendency t o see the l i n e of the Chinese Communist P a r t y a t the time of the p a r t y ' s f o r m a t i o n i n the l i g h t of l a t e r l i n e s t r u g g l e s . For example, one of the i s s u e s t h a t dominated the h i s t o r y of the Chinese Communist P a r t y b e f o r e the 1930s was whether the p a r t y s h o u l d o r g a n i z e peasants or i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . My study of the 12 1917-1921 p e r i o d has found t h a t t h i s was not an i s s u e f o r Chinese communists b e f o r e the F i r s t Congress. In f a c t , i n the c o n t e x t of the g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s , t h i s i s s u e c o u l d not e x i s t as a q u e s t i o n of p r i n c i p l e at t h i s t i m e . 1 9 I have found t h a t peasants and i n d u s t r i a l workers were commonly seen as members of the same c l a s s — " t h e u n p r o p e r t i e d " . The Chinese term used t o r e f e r t o t h i s c l a s s was "wuchan j i e j i " 3Lff'ffi4&, which today i s taken t o r e f e r t o the c l a s s of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , i . e . the p r o l e t a r i a t . I t can be argue.d t h a t s u r vey h i s t o r i e s of the Chinese Communist P a r t y do not have t o examine the i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i g i n s of the p a r t y ' s p o l i t i c a l l i n e s s i n c e t h e i r c o n c e r n i s not t o t r a c e the h i s t o r y of i d e a s . Among the works which do t r e a t the p a r t y ' s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s as the s u b j e c t of i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y i s M a u r i c e M e i s n e r ' s L i Da-chao and the O r i q i n s of Chinese Marxism. E s s e n t i a l l y , M e i s n e r argues t h a t the demands of n a t i o n a l i s m and C h i n a ' s a b j e c t c o n d i t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h p r e v i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , c o n s p i r e d t o " t r a n s f o r m " M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e i n t o "Chinese Marxism". He e s t a b l i s h e s t h i s t h e s i s t h r o ugh the e x a m i n a t i o n of the e v o l u t i o n of L i Dazhao's p e r c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y and c o n c e p t s of s o c i a l change. I am not i n a p o s i t i o n t o prove or d i s p r o v e M e i s n e r ' s c e n t r a l t h e s i s , but my study of t h i s p e r i o d s u g g e s t s t h a t some of M e i s n e r ' s s p e c i f i c arguments can be q u e s t i o n e d . For example, M e i s n e r s u g g e s t s t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m combined w i t h L i ' s Marxism, l e d him t o f o r m u l a t e the i s s u e c o n f r o n t i n g China i n terms of the c o n f r o n t a t i o n between China as a " p r o l e t a r i a n " c o u n t r y and the West as " c a p i t a l i s t " c o u n t r i e s . M e i s n e r suggests t h a t t h i s p o s i t i o n was e f f e c t i v e l y 13 t h a t the b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n Chinese s o c i e t y was between f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s m and the Chinese n a t i o n . But i f my t h e s i s i s c o r r e c t , L i ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of China as a " p r o l e t a r i a n " c o u n t r y meant l i t t l e more than t h a t China was b e i n g i m p o v e r i s h e d by the p e n e t r a t i o n of f o r e i g n i n d u s t r y , i . e t h a t i t was becoming " u n p r o p e r t i e d " , and would have been i n t e r p r e t e d as such by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . T h i s s u ggests t h a t i t can be dangerous t o r e l y upon the development of a s i n g l e i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s thought t o e s t a b l i s h a g e n e r a l t h e s i s on how and why the Chinese Communist P a r t y a r r i v e d at a g i v e n p o s i t i o n . The problem w i t h t h i s approach, which has been taken a number of t i m e s , 2 0 i s t h a t i t can r e s u l t i n i s o l a t i n g the thought of the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l from the g e n e r a l h i s t o r i c a l l y d e t ermined c o n c e p t u a l c o n t e x t . T h e r e f o r e , I have p u r p o s e l y not concerned myself w i t h the development of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' t h ought. I n s t e a d , I have attempted t o approach the problem by examining the g e n e r a l s o c i a l mix of i d e a s , and the e f f e c t s t h a t t h i s mix had on the p o s i t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r group of i n t e l l e c t u a l s — t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang. The h e a r t of t h i s approach i s the view t h a t i d e a s , whether those of an i n d i v i d u a l or a group of i n d i v i d u a l s , a re s o c i a l and not p r i v a t e e n t i t i e s . Even the i d e a s of an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a re s o c i a l i n so f a r as they are c o n d i t i o n e d by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s (or m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ) of o t h e r i d e a s which a r e themselves s o c i a l . T h i s approach t o the h i s t o r y of i d e a s i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t taken by A r i f D i r l i k in. H i s t o r y and R e v o l u t i o n . 2 1 Except i n so f a r as D i r l i k ' s p r i m a r i l y c oncern i s the o r i g i n s of M a r x i s t 14 h i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n C h i n a , he argues t h a t the a p p a r e n t l y academic i s s u e s t h a t c o n f r o n t e d Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s were r e f l e c t i o n s of r e a l p o l i t i c a l c oncerns and t h a t these c o n c e r n s c o n d i t i o n e d the p o s i t i o n s put f o r w a r d by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s . My study b e g i n s w i t h the October R e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a and ends w i t h the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y . I t can be argued t h a t M a r x i s t i d e a s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o China b e f o r e 1911 i n the cour s e of debates between the Tongmenghui and o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y f a c t i o n s 2 2 and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t M a r x i s t thought does not o r i g i n a t e w i t h the October R e v o l u t i o n . My study of the 1917 t o 1921 p e r i o d does not q u e s t i o n the f a c t t h a t Marxism was d i s c u s s e d i n China b e f o r e 1911, nor does i t q u e s t i o n the f a c t t h a t the people who d i s c u s s e d Marxism b e f o r e 1911 were sometimes the same people who d i s c u s s e d i t a f t e r 1 9 1 7 , 2 3 but my t h e s i s does q u e s t i o n the argument t h a t t h e r e was any g e n e r a l c o n c e p t u a l c o n t i n u i t y between t h e s e p e r i o d s , i . e t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n g e n e r a l were f a m i l i a r w i t h Marxism, even i f they d i d not d i s c u s s i t , b e f o r e i t was r e s u r r e c t e d i n the wake of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . One of the arguments put fo r w a r d by those who h o l d t h a t t h e r e i s c o n c e p t u a l c o n t i n u i t y between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and the 1917-1921 p e r i o d i s t h a t Japan, not R u s s i a , was Chinese Marxism's place, of o r i g i n . T h i s i s the p o s i t i o n taken by L i Yu- n i n g i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n of S o c i a l i s m i n t o C h i n a . 2 4 L i argues t h a t Marxism was i n t r o d u c e d from Japan b e f o r e the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n and t h a t the terms used by Chinese M a r x i s t s e s t a b l i s h t h i s . She w r i t e s , Thousands of Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s came t o know the names of Marx and E n g e l s a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s 15 c e n t u r y . There then took p l a c e what must be re g a r d e d as the e a r l i e s t d i s c u s s i o n on the n a t u r e of Chinese s o c i e t y from the M a r x i s t s t a n d p o i n t and the appearence of s e v e r a l r e c u r r e n t themes i n l a t e r c o n t r o v e r s i e s . Chinese Marxism was s t i m u l a t e d by Japanese r a t h e r than R u s s i a n s o u r c e s , a s a l i e n t p o i n t i n p a r t e v i d e n c e d by the widespr e a d use of Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n s of M a r x i s t t e r m i n o l o g y . . , 2 5 I do not d i s p u t e t h a t many Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s were exposed t o Marxism b e f o r e 1911. I a l s o do not d i s p u t e t h e f a c t t h a t Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s t u r n e d t o Japanese s o u r c e s when t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n Marxism was r e k i n d l e d by the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . But I do q u e s t i o n t h a t c o n c e p t u a l c o n t i n u i t y between the two p e r i o d s can be seen i n the use of Japanese t e r m i n o l o g y . For example, L i l i s t s the modern Chinese terms f o r " s t r u g g l e " and " b o u r g e o i s i e " , i . e "douzheng" ^ a n d " z i c h a n j i e j i " ffi P# , as b e i n g d e r i v e d from the J a p a n e s e . 2 6 T h i s i s undoubtedly t r u e , but i f t h e r e w a s . c o n t i n u i t y between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and the 1917- 1921 p e r i o d , why d i d L i Dazhao a t f i r s t render the M a r x i s t term " c l a s s s t r u g g l e " ( j i e j i douzheng p/tiA^^f ) as " c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n " ( j i e j i j ingzheng /3/jr JO ^ ^ ) 2 7 w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s rendered i t as " c l a s s war" ( j i e j i zhanzheng Furthermore the v a s t m a j o r i t y of Chi n e s e w r i t e r s between 1917 and 1921, and e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r mid-1919, even though they were r e a d i n g Japanese s o u r c e s on Marxism, r e f e r r e d t o t h a t c l a s s which i s the s o c i a l o p p o s i t e of the c l a s s of workers not as the " z i c h a n j i e j i " j* IfyriJL ( b o u r g e o i s i e ) , but as "youchan j i e j i " -fo fiftliL ( p r o p e r t i e d ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , L i does not s t a t e when these terms were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o C h i n a . The p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e r e was c o n c e p t u a l c o n t i n u i t y i n M a r x i s t thought between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and the New 1 6 Culture/May F o u r t h p e r i o d i s a l s o put f o r w a r d by M a r t i n B e r n a l i n Chinese S o c i a l i s m t o 1 9 0 7 . 2 9 T h i s i s the f i r s t volume of a proposed t r i l o g y on the h i s t o r y of Chinese S o c i a l i s m u n t i l 1919. However, the d i f f i c u l t y p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s e x p e r i e n c e d i n coming t o terms w i t h the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n and M a r x i s t c o n c e p t s suggests t h a t they were i g n o r a n t of Marx's a c t u a l p o s i t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t t h e r e was no c o n t i n u i t y i n M a r x i s t thought between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and the 1917-1919 p e r i o d . What the pre-1911 g e n e r a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s may have known.about Marxism was not n e c e s s a r i l y known t o the New C u l t u r e g e n e r a t i o n and c e r t a i n l y not known t o the May F o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n . Pending the c o m p l e t i o n of B e r n a l ' s t r i l o g y , the best statement on t h i s q u e s t i o n o f : c o n t i n u i t y i n Chinese M a r x i s t thought can be found i n M e i s n e r : Marxism, i n i t s p r e - L e n i n i s t form, presupposed the e x i s t e n c e of . . . a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d urban p r o l e t a r i a t . In the absence of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s Marxism c o u l d not y e t s e r v e as a m e a n i n g f u l guide t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . To many members of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who were a t t r a c t e d t o s o c i a l i s m , Marx appeared as one among many Western s o c i a l i s t t h i n k e r s — indeed one who was h e l d i n c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s esteem than K r o p o t k i n and Bakunin or even S a i n t - S i m o n and Henry George. Thus Marx was known t o Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the c e n t u r y , but h i s t h e o r y c l e a r l y f a i l e d t o s t r i k e a r e s p o n s i v e c h o r d . 3 0 S i n c e Marxism was seen as r e q u i r i n g an advanced i n d u s t r i a l economy b e f o r e i t c o u l d be a "guide t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , " i t was seen as e s s e n t i a l l y i r r e l e v e n t t o C h i n a . Thus, a l t h o u g h i n t e l l e c t u a l s had heard of Marx, and were aware t h a t he was an i m p o r t a n t Western s o c i a l i s t , they were not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t h e o r i e s , and p r e f e r r e d t o study o t h e r s c h o o l s 17 of s o c i a l i s m . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n Marxism r e s u l t e d i n g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e of h i s t h e o r i e s . Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n g e n e r a l o n l y began t o study Marxism when i t became a "meaningful guide t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n " , i . e when the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n proved t h a t M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n was p o s s i b l e i n a c o u n t r y l i k e C h i n a . Where t h e r e was c o n t i n u i t y between the pre-1911 p e r i o d and 1917—.1919 was i n the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n . A narchism runs as a common t h r e a d throughout the h i s t o r y of r a d i c a l thought i n China d u r i n g the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . 3 1 T h e r e f o r e i t i s argued, t h a t a n a r c h i s m s e r v e d as the Chinese e q u i v a l e n t of a s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n . The advantage of a s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n from the p o i n t of view of a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a r t y i s t h a t s o c i a l democracy makes l a r g e segments of s o c i e t y f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e r m i n o l o g y and con c e p t s used by a communist p a r t y . 3 2 S i n c e China d i d not have such a t r a d i t i o n , a n a r c h i s m s e r v e d as the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s of Marxism. C o n c r e t e l y a n a r c h i s m i n t r o d u c e d Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o such c o n c e p t s as " c l a s s " , " r e v o l u t i o n " and even "communism", which f ac i 1 rfrarte'd t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of M a r x i s t t h o u g h t . A l t h o u g h a n a r c h i s m p l a y e d an imp o r t a n t r o l e as the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of M a r x i s t thought i n C h i n a , C h i n e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o n f u s e d Marxism and a n a r c h i s m . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a n a r c h i s t d e f i n i t i o n s of t e r m i n o l o g y common t o both a n a r c h i s m and Marxism, l e d Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o assume t h a t a n a r c h i s t and M a r x i s t terms r e f e r r e d t o the same t h i n g s . Where h i s t o r i a n s have p r e v i o u s l y s t r e s s e d anarchism's r o l e as the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of Marxism i n C h i n a , 3 3 my study has c o n c e n t r a t e d on the r o l e of a n a r c h i s m as a 18 contaminant of M a r x i s t i d e o l o g y i n C h i n a . Anarchism and Marxism have fundamental and i r r e c o n c i l a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s . Anarchism's e s s e n t i a l t h e s i s i s t h a t a communist, i . e . c l a s s l e s s and s t a t e l e s s , s o c i e t y i s p o s s i b l e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the r e v o l u t i o n which overthrows the modern s t a t e . The l o g i c a l consequence of the a n a r c h i s t t h e s i s i s t h a t c l a s s e s are p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s d e f i n e d by t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s t a t e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e o n l y two c l a s s e s — t h e r u l i n g c l a s s and the r u l e d . Once the s t a t e i s a b o l i s h e d , s i n c e t h e r e are no l o n g e r r u l e r s and r u l e d , c l a s s e s a u t o m a t i c a l l y cease to e x i s t . 3 4 T h i s i s the d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s of the M a r x i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t c l a s s e s are f u n d a m e n t a l l y economic e n t i t i e s . The a b o l i t i o n of the modern s t a t e , t h e r e f o r e , does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n t h e . a b o l i t i o n of c l a s s e s . There i s n o t h i n g t o s t o p the c a p i t a l i s t s from c o n t i n u i n g t o e x p l o i t the workers. The o b j e c t of Marx's r e v o l u t i o n i s not the immediate a b o l i t i o n of the s t a t e , but the d e s t r u c t i o n of the s t a t e which s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s t a t e t h a t s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s of the w o r k i ng c l a s s . T h i s w o r k i ng c l a s s s t a t e , a c c o r d i n g t o Marx, c o r r e s p o n d s t o a " p o l i t i c a l t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d " between communist s o c i e t y and c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y d u r i n g which the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s (and f o r t h a t m a t t e r a l l c l a s s e s ) w i l l be a b o l i s h e d because the c a p i t a l i s t method of p r o d u c t i o n ( p r i v a t e consumption, s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n ) w i l l be a b o l i s h e d . Only then can communist s o c i e t y be i m p l e m e n t e d . 3 5 Chinese M a r x i s t s , and l a t e r C hinese communists, were w e l l aware of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between communism and a n a r c h i s m . 19 T h i s i s the reason t h a t Gongchandang put a g r e a t d e a l of e f f o r t i n t o a n t i - a n a r c h i s t p o l e m i c s which r e v o l v e d around the t h e o r e t i c a l need f o r the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t . A narchism d e f i n e d the t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s t h a t M a r x i s t s and communists c o n f r o n t e d u n t i l 1921. Up t o the F i r s t Congress of the C hinese Communist P a r t y , communists sought t o win over i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n c l i n e d towards r e v o l u t i o n who o t h e r w i s e would become a n a r c h i s t s . But at the same time t h a t they were aware t h a t a n a r c h i s m was the most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e which c o n f r o n t e d them, a n a r c h i s m had u n c o n s c i o u s l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of Chinese s o c i e t y , and r e v o l u t i o n . Nowhere i s t h i s more e v i d e n t than i n the e a r l y communists' c l a s s c o n c e p t s . Even though they d e f i n e d c l a s s e s i n economic terms, when they l o o k e d at Chinese society.- they saw the same c l a s s e s t h a t had been i d e n t i f i e d by the a n a r c h i s t s . In p r a c t i c e the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s between the communists' c l a s s e s and those of the a n a r c h i s t s were t h a t i n s t e a d of c a l l i n g t hese c l a s s e s the r u l i n g c l a s s and the r u l e d c l a s s , the e a r l y communists c a l l e d them the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the c l a s s n a t u r e of s o c i e t y a f f e c t e d t h e i r s t r a t e g i c a n a l y s i s of the p a t h to communist r e v o l u t i o n which i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e d t h e i r subsequent p r a c t i c e . 20 Chapter One R e v o l u t i o n ; R u s s i a and China 1 . R u s s i a : The Concept of " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " In the absence of a M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n i n C h i n a , i n t e l l e c t u a l s e x p e r i e n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p l a i n i n g the B o l s h e v i k coup d ' e t a t which overthrew Kerensky's P r o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t / T h i s d i f f i c u l t y was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t on the p a r t of those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the New C u l t u r e Movement. In the p a s t , l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n Marxism, on the grounds t h a t i t was o n l y r e l e v a n t t o the advanced i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s of the West, meant t h a t these i n t e l l e c t u a l s were much more f a m i l i a r w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s of s o c i a l i s t t h ought. Ignorance of Marx and Marxism was such t h a t the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n c o u l d not r e a d i l y be e x p l a i n e d as the communist r e v o l u t i o n h e r a l d e d by Marx. Even i f C h i n e s e commentators were aware of the f a c t t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s c l a i m e d t o be M a r x i s t s , a statement t o t h i s e f f e c t would not have been p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l i n g t o t h e i r a u d i e n c e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e was a tendency t o see the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i n terms of a n a r c h i s m - - t h e r a d i c a l p h i l o s o p h y of r e v o l u t i o n which was the b e s t known t o Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p o l i c i e s of the B o l s h e v i k government, f o r example, c a t a g o r i z e d them as r e s e m b l i n g a n a r c h i s m ; f o r i n d e e d , those p o l i c i e s d i d resemble a n a r c h i s m t o most Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Such d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o u p l e d w i t h g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e of Marxism, r e s u l t e d i n the c o n f u s i o n between B o l s h e v i s m and a n a r c h i s m , and l a t e r between Marxism and a n a r c h i s m , which was to r e p e a t e d l y m a n i f e s t i t s e l f d u r i n g the next few y e a r s . In t h i s c o n t e x t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i t was not u n t i l the f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y of the B o l s h e v i k coup t h a t L i Dazhao remarked t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s were f o l l o w e r s of K a r l Marx. D e s p i t e t h i s c o n f u s i o n between B o l s h e v i s m and anar c h i s m , d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r a d i c a l measures implemented by the B o l s h e v i k government made i t e v i d e n t t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n was unprecedented i n terms of i t s n a t u r e and scope. " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " was the term Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s of v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n s used t o r e f e r t o t h i s new k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n . Sympathy f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n on the p a r t of p r o g r e s s i v e s , c o u p l e d w i t h an awareness t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was a d d r e s s i n g many s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l problems which were p e r c e i v e d as common t o both China and R u s s i a , l e d t o re p e a t e d c a l l s f o r R u s s i a n - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n C h i n a . Many of thes e c a l l s p r e d a t e d g e n e r a l awareness of the Karakhan D e c l a r a t i o n by which the B o l s h e v i k government renounced a l l c z a r i s t c l a i m s on Chinese t e r r i t o r y . Some even p r e d a t e d the d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of May 1919 which p r o t e s t e d the Western power's s e l l o u t of Chi n e s e i n t e r e s t s a t the V e r s a i l l e s peace t a l k s , and marked the t r a n s i t i o n from the the New C u l t u r e Movement's i d e a l of i d e o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o n a t i o n a l i s t and r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i n t r o d u c e d a new concept i n t o the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l u n i v e r s e - - t h a t of a r e v o l u t i o n which not o n l y sought a change i n the r u l i n g e l i t e , but which sought the c o n s c i o u s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s was the concept of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 22 News of the B o l s h e v i k coup d ' e t a t a g a i n s t Kerensky's p r o v i s i o n a l government was p u b l i s h e d i n Guomin Ribao on November 10, 1917, w i t h i n t h r e e days a f t e r i t s o c c u r r e n c e . The next day, ot h e r Chinese papers a l s o r e p o r t e d the coup. 1 Chinese r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were q u i c k t o gr a s p the r e v o l u t i o n ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e . On New Year's Day, 1918, an e d i t o r i a l i n the Guomindang newspaper Guomin Ribao s t a t e d , " T h i s b i g reform [da g a i q e ] i n our near neighbour has caused us t o be overcome w i t h hope." 2 The f i r s t major f i g u r e t o h e r a l d the October R e v o l u t i o n was Sun Y a t - s e n . In a c o n g r a t u l a t o r y t e l e g r a m t o L e n i n he s t a t e d , C h i n a ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y not o n l y e x p r e s s e s the utmost r e s p e c t towards the arduous and b r i l l i a n t s t r u g g l e of the members of your honourable c o u n t r y ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y , but a l s o hopes t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t i e s of China and R u s s i a w i l l u n i t e t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r common s t r u g g l e . 3 Sun was t o l a t e r add, "The October R e v o l u t i o n caused humanity t o produce a g r e a t hope."" Lau d i n g of the E o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was not r e s t r i c t e d t o n a t i o n a l i s t c i r c l e s . E a r l y i n 1918 the a n a r c h i s t j o u r n a l Laodonq 5 saw the r e v o l u t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g l i g h t : The European World War which has f r i g h t e n e d p e o p l e has a l r e a d y been g o i n g on f o r many y e a r s . The e a r t h s h a k i n g R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n has a l s o f r i g h t e n e d p e o p l e . Of the personages of the w o r l d none do not s t a r e a t i t w i t h c o n c e r n , and examine i t s e f f e c t s . Those who are b u r e a u c r a t s and o f f i c i a l s f e a r t h a t i t s d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l expand, t h a t t h e i r w e a l t h and p o s i t i o n s of power w i l l not be p r e s e r v a b l e . B i g l a n d l o r d s and the r i c h a l s o f e a r t h a t i t s d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l expand, t h a t a communist w o r l d w i l l one day be r e a l i z e d , and t h a t t h e i r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y which was s e c u r e d t h r o u g h e x p l o i t a t i o n w i l l - be gone. . . . Only the u n f o r t u n a t e l a b o u r e r s d a i l y hope f o r the e a r l y s u c c e s s of the [ R u s s i a n ] R e v o l u t i o n , i t s e a r l y e x t e n s i o n , and the time when a g r e a t many people w i l l e n j o y the b l e s s i n g s of e q u a l i t y and l i v e through happy d a y s . 6 A l t h o u g h Chinese r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were q u i c k to h e r a l d the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n as the h a r b i n g e r of a new age, i n t e l l e c t u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h X i n Q i n g n i a n d i d not comment on the r e v o l u t i o n f o r s e v e r a l months. T h i s was i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r prompt and f a v o u r a b l e r e a c t i o n t o the e a r l i e r F e bruary R e v o l u t i o n which had overthrown the c z a r . 7 The reason t h a t X i n Q i n g n i a n f a i l e d t o comment upon the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n . T h i s f a i l u r e may e i t h e r have been the r e s u l t of the e d i t o r s ' d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e the j o u r n a l ' s " n o n - p o l i t i c a l " - c h a r a c t e r , or as M e i s n e r has s u g g e s t e d , the r e s u l t of t h e i r view t h a t the s o l u t i o n t o C h i n a ' s problems l a y w i t h the Western A l l i e s , the u p h o l d e r s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l cause of democracy, and a consequenty a m b i v a l e n t a t t i t u d e towards the B o l s h e v i k s who were n e g o t i a t i n g a s e p a r a t e peace w i t h Germany. 8 In any c a s e , i t a l s o took a number of months f o r L i Dazhao, who d i d not suppport the A l l i e s , 9 t o comment on the r e v o l u t i o n . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o X i n Q i n g n i a n were s i m p l y c o n f u s e d by e v e n t s i n R u s s i a . Where the F e b r u a r y R e v o l u t i o n had been r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e as R u s s i a ' s v e r s i o n of the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n , and had been d e s c r i b e d as such i n X i n Q i n g n i a n , 1 0 the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was s i m p l y u n a c c o u n t a b l e . In the absence of a t r a d i t i o n of M a r x i s t thought i n C h i n a , the B o l s h e v i k coup would have appeared t o be l i t t l e more than one p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n o v e r t h r o w i n g a n o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , these i n t e l l e c t u a l s d i d not a c c e p t a ready made p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y 24 which they c o u l d use as a y a r d s t i c k f o r measuring the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , or as a b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g i t . R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , on the o t h e r hand, c o u l d r e a d i l y come to terms w i t h the B o l s h e v i k v i c t o r y . Whether or not Sun Yat-sen s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the Chinese and R u s s i a n people shared "a common s t r u g g l e " , h i s p r a g m a t i c s e a r c h f o r p o s s i b l e a l l i e s d i c t a t e d t h a t he c o n g r a t u l a t e L e n i n . A n a r c h i s t s saw the v i c t o r y as the a r r i v a l of the a n a r c h i s t m i l l e n i u m . Had not the oppressed masses overthrown t h e i r o p p r e s s o r s ? Wasn't the B o l s h e v i k programme j u s t as r a d i c a l as t h e i r own? T h i s c o n f u s i o n between a n a r c h i s m and B o l s h e v i s m was t o p r e v a i l f o r a number of y e a r s . As l a t e as 1921, the F i r s t Congress of the C hinese Communist P a r t y i s s u e d a d i r e c t i v e e x p e l l i n g a n a r c h i s t s from the p a r t y . 1 1 T h i s s u g gests t h a t a n a r c h i s t s , as w e l l as some communists, were not aware t h a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p h i l o s o p h i e s were a n t i t h e t i c a l i n terms of approach and immediate o b j e c t i v e s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of a c c o u n t s of the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n i n p o p u l a r j o u r n a l s of the p e r i o d makes the d i f f i c u l t l y e n c o u ntered by X i n Q i n g n i a n commentators r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . I t was some time b e f o r e the p o p u l a r p r e s s p o i n t e d out t h a t B o l s h e v i s m c l a i m e d t o be the i n t e l l e c t u a l descendent of Marxism. T y p i c a l of the e a r l y coverage of the r e v o l u t i o n was Zhang X i c h e n ' s a r t i c l e , "A F u r t h e r Report on the P r e s e n t S i t u a t i o n i n R u s s i a " , p u b l i s h e d i n the J a n u a r y , 1918, Dongfang Za z h i ("The E a s t e r n M i s c e l l a n y " ) . 1 2 L i k e o t h e r w r i t e r s of the p e r i o d , Zhang r e f e r r e d t o the 25 B o l s h e v i k s as "quoj i p a i ", meaning "the r a d i c a l (or e x t r e m i s t ) f a c t i o n . " 1 3 He gave the f o l l o w i n g reasons f o r the B o l s h e v i k coup: Because of the i n t e r f e r e n c e of the Workers' and S o l d i e r s ' S o v i e t s [ l a o b i n g tuan ffi j £ ] , the p r o c l a i m e d r e p u b l i c a n system of Mr. Kerensky c o u l d not be e s t a b l i s h e d . The S o v i e t s c a l l e d f o r : (1) the f i x i n g of a d e m o c r a t i c r e p u b l i c a n system; (2) the a b o l i t i o n of land' t e n u r e , and the g r a n t i n g of l a n d and n e c e s s a r y a g r i c u l t u r a l commodities t o the p e a s a n t s ; and (3) the c e d i n g of a l l power over p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n t o the l a b o u r e r s . 1 * A c c o r d i n g t o Zhang, th e s e p o l i c i e s c o u l d not be implemented by Kerensky because they c o n f i c t e d w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of h i s s u p p o r t e r s--the zhongchan j i e j i *)* Vft ill, ( l i t . "middle p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " ) . On the o t h e r hand, the S o v i e t s , which were c o n t r o l l e d by the B o l s h e v i k s , c o u l d implement them because they were s u p p o r t e d by the x i a c e n g j i e j i "jC PftbR>{lit. "lower c l a s s " ) . A f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n L e n i n , the B o l s h e v i k l e a d e r , brought out t h r e e major p o l i c i e s : (1) the new government would o r d e r the end of the war; (2) l a n d would be d i s t r i b u t e d t o the p e a s a n t s ; (3) . . .the domestic economic c r i s i s would be r e s o l v e d . He a l s o p r o c l a i m e d t o the S o v i e t s of a l l a r e a s t h a t p o l i t i c a l power would be g r a n t e d t o the R a d i c a l F a c t i o n . 1 5 These p o l i c i e s , Zhang wrote, r e f l e c t e d the B o l s h e v i k ' s u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y of "extreme e g a l i t a r i a n i s m " ( j iduan z h i j u n f u z h u y i 3$ i^^^i^ l i t . "average w e a l t h i s m " ) , and had d e v e l o p e d out of the R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t movement which wanted t o end l a n d l o r d o p p r e s s i o n of the p e a s a n t r y . 1 6 W h i l e Zhang a c c u r a t e l y l i s t e d B o l s h e v i k p o l i c i e s , and even suggested t h a t the u p heavals of F e b r u a r y and October were 2 6 r e v o l u t i o n s s u p p o r t e d by d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , he d i d not p o i n t out t h a t B o l s h e v i s m c l a i m e d t o be M a r x i s t . Furthermore, h i s c a t a g o r i z a t i o n of the B o l s h e v i k s as "extreme e g a l i t a r i a n s " d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e B o l s h e v i s m from a n a r c h i s m . In F e b r u a r y 1918, Dongfang Z a z h i added t h a t " L e n i n ' s F a c t i o n " was p a r t of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l Democratic Labour P a r t y which had the s l o g a n "Labourers of A l l C o u n t r i e s U n i t e . " 1 7 In March, the same j o u r n a l d e c r i b e d the B o l s h e v i k programme as "the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r a d i c a l s o c i a l i s m r e s e m b l i n g a n a r c h i s m . " 1 8 Such d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o u p l e d w i t h g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e of Marxism, i f a n y t h i n g , g e n e r a t e d f u r t h e r c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between B o l s h e v i s m and a n a r c h i s m . In A p r i l , Dongfang Z a z h i p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The E v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Movement", which d e s c r i b e d the B o l s h e v i k s as one of the two f a c t i o n s of the " R u s s i a n S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y " . 1 9 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a r t i c l e , the p r i n c i p l e s of the S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y , as s t a t e d by Plekhanov i n i t s m a n i f e s t o , were: The s u p p o r t e r s of d e s p o t i s m are the i g n o r a n t , incompetent [ wuzhi wuneng j& & jjfc] p e a s a n t s . The main f o r c e of the r e v o l u t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r e r and not the p e a s a n t s . The s e i z u r e of p o l i t i c a l power by the l a b o u r e r s can p r e v e n t r e a c t i o n . Because the l a b o u r e r s must f i r s t g r a s p r e a l p o l i t i c a l power the s u c c e s s of the r e v o l u t i o n l i e s i n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s [ z i jue 3 of the l a b o u r e r s . 2 0 The B o l s h e v i k s and the M e n s h i v i k s s p l i t over how t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d : A c c o r d i n g t o Mr Plekhanov, a l t h o u g h the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the l a b o u r e r i s a l o g i c a l premise [ q i a n t i ^ j , t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s has an a p p r o p r i a t e sequence. I f the r e v o l u t i o n i s f o o l i s h l y pushed f o r w a r d , t h i s sequence w i l l be d e s t r o y e d . F u r t h e r , d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the r e a l i z a t i o n of i d e a l s [ l i x i a n q , the a d v o c a t e s of 27 r a d i c a l i s m must be opposed. T h i s l e d t o a c o n f l i c t w i t h Mr. L i n i n g ^ * ^ [ L e n i n ] i n the 1903 Congress which was won by the L i n i n g F a c t i o n . From then on t h e L i n i n q ^ F a c t i o n was known as the B o l s h e v i k s [ duoshu p a i 4 q&WCi l i t . " M a j o r i t y F a c t i o n " ] and the Plekhanov F a c t i o n as the Mensheviks [ shaoshu p a i A? £ l i t . " M i n o r i t y F a c t i o n " ] . 2 1 By the s p r i n g of 1918, i t was e v i d e n t t h a t the October R e v o l u t i o n was a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from p r e v i o u s r e v o l u t i o n s . P u b l i s h e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r e v o l u t i o n ' s " r a d i c a l " measures showed t h a t i t s o b j e c t i v e was not s i m p l y a change i n government, but the fundamental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s of power and p r o p e r t y which e x i s t e d i n R u s s i a . I t was a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was based upon a d e v e l o p e d t h e o r y of r e v o l u t i o n which h e l d t h a t i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r e r s were the main r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e . Where o t h e r c l a s s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p e a s a n t s , f i t i n t o t h i s t h e o r y remained t o be d e s c r i b e d . The e x t e n t of t h e B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n ' s d e p a r t u r e from e a r l i e r r e v o l u t i o n s was best seen when i t was compared t o the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . "The E v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Movement" suggested t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the two r e v o l u t i o n s was t h a t The R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n has a v e r y s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o l o u r a t i o n . You p r o b a b l y say t h a t d u r i n g the time of the French R e v o l u t i o n communism a l r e a d y e x i s t e d . T h i s cannot be d e n i e d , but the t e n e t s of modern s o c i a l i s m and the communism of t h a t time are c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t . A l t h o u g h the French R e v o l u t i o n appeared to be s i m i l a r t o today's s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , the appearance of s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n , i n f a c t b e g i n s w i t h t o day's R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n . 2 2 In the f i r s t a r t i c l e which was w r i t t e n a f t e r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n s o l e l y devoted t o a comparison of the two r e v o l u t i o n s , 2 3 L i Dazhao a l s o d e s c r i b e d the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n 28 as a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 2 " In "A Comparison of the R u s s i a n and Fren c h R e v o l u t i o n s " , L i argued t h a t the French R e v o l u t i o n was "a p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n w i t h a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o l o u r a t i o n " , w h i l e the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was "a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n [ s h e h u i geming £ ^ ] t h a t d e f i n i t e l y has a w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o l o u r a t i o n . " The former was a " n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " , w h i l e the l a t t e r was a " s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " . 2 5 The f a c t t h a t Marxism was the i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s of t h i s " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was not w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l the f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y of the October R e v o l u t i o n . I t wasn't u n t i l November 1918, f o r example, t h a t L i Dazhao l i n k e d B o l s h e v i s m and Marxism. In "The V i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' " , 2 6 p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n , he d e s c r i b e d B o l s h e v i s m as f o l l o w s : T h e i r 'ism' i s t h a t of r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s m ' . T h e i r p a r t y i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s t p a r t y . They f o l l o w the German s o c i a l i s t Makeshi [Jj*4frfc] ('Marx'). T h e i r o b j e c t i v e i s t o d e s t r o y the modern l i m i t s on s o c i a l i s m of s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s , t o d e s t r o y the c a p i t a l i s t system i n which p r o d u c t i o n o n l y b e n e f i t s i n d i v i d u a l s . 2 7 Even th e n , L i was more i n t e r e s t e d i n B o l s h e v i k i n s t i t u t i o n s than i n M a r x i s t p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n the r e s t of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m . They [t h e B o l s h e v i k s ] advocate t h a t a l l men and women sh o u l d work, t h a t a l l working men and women s h o u l d o r g a n i z e and e n t e r i n t o c o a l i t i o n s [ l i a n h e j S ; ^ ], 2 8 t h a t each c o a l i t i o n s h o u l d have a c e n t r a l r u l i n g assembly, t h a t these a s s e m b l i e s s h o u l d o r g a n i z e a l l of the governments of the w o r l d . . .There w i l l be no r u l e r s , but t h e r e w i l l be the a s s e m b l i e s of the worker's c o a l i t i o n s . E v e r y t h i n g w i l l be s u b j e c t t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . A l l p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s w i l l be owned by the workers of t h a t e n t e r p r i s e , o t h e r than t h i s t h e r e w i l l be no r i g h t s of ownership. They w i l l u n i t e t o g e t h e r the u n p r o p e r t i e d common peopl e [wuchan shumin $i ] 2 9 °f t n e whole w o r l d , take t h e i r g r e a t e s t s t r o n g e s t power of o p p o s i t i o n and c r e a t e a f r e e c o u n t r y , and f i r s t c r e a t e a European Democratic Union making i t the b a s i s f o r a World U n i o n . T h i s i s the 'ism' of ' B o l s h e v i k i ' . T h i s i s the new c r e e d of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . 3 0 In o t h e r words, L i f e l t t h a t what th e system of S o v i e t s , not Marxism, was the most a t t r a c t i v e element of B o l s h e v i s m . In F e b r u a r y 1919, L i ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e s o v i e t system l e d him t o propose i t as the form of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n best s u i t e d t o the needs of the modern w o r l d . In "Unionism and World O r g a n i z a t i o n " , 3 1 L i proposed the R u s s i a n s o v i e t system as the i n s t i t u t i o n a l model f o r both C h i n a and the r e s t of the w o r l d . He wrote t h a t the R u s s i a n and German r e v o l u t i o n s had c r e a t e d "a new k i n d of o r g a n i z a t i o n " . A c c o r d i n g t o L i , T h i s new o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a new u n i o n [ l i a n h e j&' i f r ] , which i n c r e a s e s the o l d o r g a n i z a t i o n one l e v e l , because each k i n d of i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l , s t a t e , e t h n i c , and g l o b a l , l i f e has produced a l l k i n d s of new demands which cannot be adapted t o , or s a t i s f i e d by, the o l d o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 2 In essence L i thought he was p r o p o s i n g a system of autonomous S o v i e t s e x t e n d i n g from the l o c a l t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . 3 3 However, most i n t e l l e c t u a l s were not even i n t e r e s t e d i n the system of S o v i e t s . They were i n t e r e s t e d i n B o l s h e v i s m because i t had produced a new k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n - - " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . The word " s o c i a l " (shehui ) i n the term " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i s not the r e s u l t of c o n f u s i o n w i t h the word " s o c i a l i s t " ( s h u h u i z h u y i j f ^ ^ T ^ ^ ) i n the term " s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " ( s h e h u i z h u y i geming ^ iJT xt j$ . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n both "The E v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Movement", and i n L i ' s "A Comparison of the R u s s i a n and F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n s " 30 which were the f i r s t works t o use the terms. Both used two c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t terms — s h e h u i z h u y i geminq and shehui geming. The B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y " s o c i a l " and " s o c i a l i s t " . L i opposed " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " t o " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " , and " s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " t o " n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n " . The term " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " a p p a r e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o r e v o l u t i o n s t h a t sought changes i n s o c i a l or c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s , w h i l e " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s " r e f e r r e d t o changes i n p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s or r u l i n g e l i t e s , such as t h a t i n v o l v e d i n the 1911 Chinese R e v o l u t i o n . However,.the use of the term " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " t o d e s c r i b e the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n s u g g e s t s the e x t e n t of the c o n f u s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o B o l s h e v i s m and a n a r c h i s m . " S o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was the a n a r c h i s t term f o r the r e v o l u t i o n t h a t they wished t o c r e a t e . 3 4 The d i s t i n c t i o n between " s o c i a l " and " p o l i t i c a l " r e v o l u t i o n s was m a i n t a i n e d by i n t e l l e c t u a l s of v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s . There were those who agreed w i t h L i Dazhao t h a t the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n had u n l eashed "a t i d e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . . . [ w h i c h ] . . .must f i l l the w o r l d " . 3 5 In the b e g i n n i n g of 1919, f o r example, a c o n t r i b u t o r t o X i n Chao wrote, C o u n t r i e s of Europe and China r i s e up i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ! R e v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n type has a l r e a d y reached Germany. From now on, r e v o l u t i o n s of the F r e n c h t y p e — p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s — h a v e , f o r the most p a r t , become t h i n g s of the p a s t . R e v o l u t i o n s of the R u s s i a n type w i l l spread e v e r y w h e r e . 3 6 Those who r e j e c t e d s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n as a premature s o l u t i o n t o C h i n a ' s problems, a l s o a c c e p t e d the d i s t i n c t i o n between p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s . In May 1919,'for example, a c o n t r i b u t o r t o Meizhou P i n g l u n p o i n t e d out i n "The E v i l s of the . 3 1 Gentry C l a s s " t h a t t h e r e were two typ e s of r e v o l u t i o n s i n h i s t o r y — F r e n c h - s t y l e " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s " i n which the b o u r g e o i s i e " (youchan zhe j i e j i jft% pffjIL l i t . " p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " ) overthrew "the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s ( g u i z u j i e j i ̂  ^ and R u s s i a n - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s " of "the p r o l e t a r i a t " ( wuchan zhe j i e j i ^ > j j £ f i i f o f f i , l i t . " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " ) a g a i n s t "the b o u r g e o i s i e " . C h i n a , the a r t i c l e c o n t i n u e d , was not ready f o r " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " because the 1911 " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " had o n l y overthrown the Emperor. Ch i n a ' s e q u i v a l e n t of "the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s " - , "the g e n t r y c l a s s " ( s h i d a i f u j i e j i ^ flfi ^/S. ) was s t i l l i n power. China f i r s t had t o complete her " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n o r d e r t o re a c h the age of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . The second r e v o l u t i o n would be r e l a t i v e l y easy t o ac h i e v e because of the weakness of the domestic b o u r g e o i s i e . 3 7 Chen D u x i u , who b e f o r e the May F o u r t h Movement d i d not advocate e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , a l s o a d m i t t e d t h a t the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n was a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 3 8 Even i n f a r o f f p r o v i n c i a l Hunan, i t was argued t h a t t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e between F r e n c h s t y l e " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s " and R u s s i a n - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s " . In J u l y 1919, w r i t i n g i n "The Great U n i t y of the P o p u l a r M a s s e s " , 3 9 Mao Tse-tung s t a t e d , •ince t h e ^ v i c t o r y of "the p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m " [ z h e n q z h i [aige /%B#J?} i n France i n which the g r e a t union of S: 2a: the p o p u l a r masses overcame the g r e a t union of the f o l l o w e r s of the k i n g , a l l c o u n t r i e s have f o l l o w e d them g i v i n g r i s e t o many " p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m s " . S i n c e the . v i c t o r y of the " s o c i a l r e f o r m " [ shehui g a i g e ] i n R u s s i a l a s t y e a r , i n which the g r e a t union of the po p u l a r masses overcame the g r e a t union of the a r i s t o c r a t s , and c a p i t a l i s t s , c o u n t r i e s l i k e Hungary, A u s t r i a , C z e c h o s l o v a k i a and Germany, have f o l l o w e d i t 32 g i v i n g r i s e t o many " s o c i a l r e f o r m s " . A l t h o u g h i t s v i c t o r y i s not y e t complete, i t i s c o n c e i v a l b e not o n l y t h a t i t w i l l be completed but t h a t i t w i l l s pread throughout the w o r l d . * 0 I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s widely, a c c e p t e d the view t h a t the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was a new k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n - - " a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " , a k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n which was s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those of the p a s t . At the same t i m e , however, the mere f a c t t h a t Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s used the term " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " to d e s c r i b e B o l s h e v i s m suggests t h a t they saw the r e v o l u t i o n i n the l i g h t of a n o n - M a r x i s t p h i l o s o p h y — a n a r c h i s m . To the C h i n e s e , B o l s h e v i s m resembled a n a r c h i s m becaue they were p r o f o u n d l y i g n o r a n t of B o l s h e v i s m ' s r e a l i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s - - M a r x i s m . 2. C h i n a : The N e c e s s i t y of " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " W i t h i n a few months of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , i t was apparent t h a t the w o r l d would never be the same, t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of B o l s h e v i s m would e x t e n d f a r beyond the b o r d e r s of R u s s i a . By e a r l y 1919, some i n t e l l e c t u a l s , most n o t a b l y L i Dazhao, were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . B o l s h e v i s m was seen as the s o l u t i o n t o many of the problems t h a t a f f l i c t e d C h i n a . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n s i n R u s s i a and China l e d t o r e p e a t e d c a l l s f o r B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n C h i n a . In A p r i l 1918, "The E v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Movement" c a l l e d the r e v o l u t i o n "the most i m p o r t a n t event i n the h i s t o r y of w o r l d c i v i l i z a t i o n " , " 1 w h i l e L i Dazhao added i n June t h a t 33 H i s t o r y i s the r e c o r d of common p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . . .The Fre n c h R e v o l u t i o n was not o n l y an i n d i c a t i o n of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the sentiment of the the French p e o p l e , but i n f a c t was an i n d i c a t i o n of the the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the common human ps y c h o l o g y of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n i s not o n l y a s i g n of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the sentiment of the R u s s i a n p e o p l e , but i n f a c t i s a c l e a r s i g n of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of common human p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . " 2 By the summer of 1918, L i was sy m p a t h e t i c t o the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , but had not w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a c c e p t e d B o l s h e v i s m as the s o l u t i o n t o China's problems. L i was not t o r e c o g n i z e B o l s h e v i s m as the p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o Chinese problems u n t i l B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e r e v o l u t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n A u s t r i a and Germany. In "The V i c t o r y of the Common P e o p l e " , * 3 p u b l i s h e d i n November, 1918, L i Dazhao p o i n t e d out t h a t the d e f e a t . o f Germany was not "the v i c t o r y of t h e f o r c e of arms of the A l l i e s ; i t i s t h a t of the new. s p i r i t of mankind." P o l i t i c a l l y , the s u r r e n d e r of Germany was the d e f e a t of "Pan ism" (da z h u y i K) and m i l i t a r i s m . S o c i a l l y i t was the v i c t o r y of democracy and of "the common p e o p l e " (shumin ). I t was "the d e f e a t of c a p i t a l i s m and the v i c t o r y of l a b o u r i s m [ la o q o n g z h u y i $ V( ] . " * " L i gave the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of the war: . . .The r e a l reason f o r t h i s war was the development of c a p i t a l i s m . I t s p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s [shengchan l i ^ ^ "f\ ] c o u l d no l o n g e r be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of a s t a t e . The c a p i t a l i s t governments r e l i e d on war t o .. e s t a b l i s h w o r l d empires c e n t r e d i n t h e i r o w n ^ c o u n t r i e s so as t o e s t a b l i s h an economic o r g a n i z a t i o n which s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r d omestic c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s . " 5 W h i l e the competing i n t e r e s t s of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s of the d i f f e r e n t powers had s t a r t e d the war,. 34 The l a b o u r s o c i e t i e s [ laodonq shehui JfilJI j& < ] of R u s s i a , Germany, and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , f i r s t saw through [the c a p i t a l i s t s ' ] a m b i t i o n s , and d u r i n g the war rose up i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , and r e p r e s s e d the c a p i t a l i s t governments' war." 6 In "The V i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' " , a l s o p u b l i s h e d at t h i s t i m e , L i r e s t a t e d h i s view t h a t the A l l i e d v i c t o r y was not the r e s u l t of armed f o r c e . R a t h e r , i t i s the v i c t o r y of German s o c i a l i s m over German m i l i t a r i s m . . . . [ I t ] i s the v i c t o r y of humanism; the v i c t o r y of p e a c e f u l i d e o l o g y ; the v i c t o r y of common r i g h t ; the v i c t o r y of s o c i a l i s m ; the v i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' . " 7 The B o l s h e v i k s denounced the war as the C z a r ' s , the K a i s e r ' s , and the c a p i t a l i s t s ' , and not t h a t of the p e o p l e . . . .[The B o l s h e v i k s ' ] war i s c l a s s war; t h a t i s a war a l o n g s i d e the w o r l d u n p r o p e r t i e d common people [wuchan shumin a g a i n s t w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m . " 8 In L i ' s view, the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n had unleashed an i n t e r n a t i o n a l t i d e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . " 9 T h i s view was w i d e l y shared a t the b e g i n n i n g of 1919 as c a l l s f o r r e v o l u t i o n were made. In Ja n u a r y , 1919, X i n Chao wrote t h a t B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e r e v o l u t i o n was s p r e a d i n g throughout the w o r l d and c a l l e d upon the p e o p l e of China " t o r i s e up i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 5 0 In F e b r u a r y , the s t u d e n t j o u r n a l , Guomin, e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r v i e w s : The t i d e of new thought which s t a r t e d i n R u s s i a has reached Germany; i t s r i p p l e s a r e c o v e r i n g the A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c and are even r e a c h i n g our A s i a , 5 1 T h i s " t i d e " was r e s u l t i n g i n the c r e a t i o n of l a b o u r e r s ' governments throughout the w o r l d . . . . R u s s i a and Germany have not o n l y overthrown t h e i r u n c a r i n g b u r e a u c r a t s , but have s e t up a l a b o u r e r ' s government. I f Englan d , F r a n c e , A merica, I t a l y , a l l have 35 a l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , the new w o r l d of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w i l l be put i n t o e f f e c t , l a b o u r e r ' s governments w i l l cover the w o r l d . 5 2 Meizhou P i n g l u n j o i n e d the c a l l f o r " i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n February 1919. The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y F r e n c h people were not a b l e t o bear the a u t h o r i t y [qiangquan] of the a r i s t o c r a t s , and a c c o r d i n g l y rose up i n domestic r e v o l u t i o n . In the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , the people of a l l weak c o u n t r i e s are unable t o bear the a u t h o r i t y of the s t r o n g c o u n t r i e s , and w i l l a c c o r d i n g l y r i s e u p . i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n . The o b j e c t of r e v o l u t i o n i s a u t h o r i t y . The hope of r e v o l u t i o n i s freedom. No matter the l e v e l of development of p o l i t i c s i n each c o u n t r y today, t h e r e i s o n l y one k i n d of a u t h o r i t y on top of i t s p e o p l e . Our China i s even more p i t i f u l . A s i d e from domestic a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e i s e v e r y k i n d of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . Domestic a u t h o r i t y i s f u r t h e r s p l i t up i n t o the a u t h o r i t y of the n o r t h and t h a t of the s o u t h . Three k i n d s of a u t h o r i t y are f i x e d upon the heads of our p e o p l e . I f we wish t o a b o l i s h a u t h o r i t y we must a b o l i s h a l l t h r e e . 5 3 By A p r i l 1919, sympathy f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n on the p a r t of the n a t i o n a l i s t p r e s s was r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . Guomin R i b a o , the Guomindang organ, f o r example, p u b l i s h e d " R u s s i a under the Rule of the Workers' and P e a s a n t s ' G o v e r n m e n t — t h e T r u t h about C a r r y i n g out S o c i a l Communism," 5" which f a v o u r a b l y compared the s i t u a t i o n i n R u s s i a w i t h t h a t i n C h i n a . In terms of e d u c a t i o n , the system of l a n d t e n u r e , e l e c t i o n s , government o r g a n i z a t i o n , s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n , unemployment i n s u r a n c e , m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s , and s e x u a l e q u a l i t y , i t found R u s s i a f a r s u p e r i o r t o C h i n a . 5 5 On the eve of the May F o u r t h Movement even Chen Duxiu g r u d g i n g l y a d m i t t e d t h a t C o n t e m p o r a r i e s of the p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s of e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y F r a n c e , and the s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n of t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y R u s s i a s e v e r e l y c u r s e d them; but l a t e r 36 h i s t o r i a n s w i l l make them the keys t o the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of human s o c i e t y and advancement. 5 6 Not a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l s s h a red t h i s e nthusiasm f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . Most s t i l l c l u n g t o the view t h a t the s o l u t i o n to C h i n a ' s problems l a y w i t h the Western A l l i e s . The much r e p r i n t e d views of C a i Yuanpei were an example of t h i s a t t i t u d e towards the A l l i e s . In h i s a r t i c l e , "The Great War and P h i l o s o p h y " , C a i suggested t h a t , "the Great War i n Europe i s the most im p o r t a n t w o r l d event s i n c e the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . " 5 7 J u s t as the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n had c r e a t e d an i n f l u e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h y - - democracy, so had the F i r s t World War. In f a c t , the war was one of c o n t e n d i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s . F i r s t i s N i e t z s c h e ' s p h i l o s o p h y of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m [ qiangquanzhuy i ^Jjl •£ yC] . I w i l l use Germany's p r i n c i p l e s as proof of t h i s . Second i s T o l s t o y ' s p h i l o s o p h y of n o n - r e s i s t a n c e [wu d i k a n q z h u y i ^ stfl- ^ ^ J• 1 w i l l use the p r i n c i p l e s of the R u s s i a n R a d i c a l F a c t i o n as p r o o f of t h i s . T h i r d i s K r o p o t k i n ' s p h i l o s o p h y of mutual a i d [huzhu^Jjjf ] . I w i l l use the A l l i e s as p r o o f of t h i s . 5 8 A l t h o u g h he a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e were some d i f f e r e n c e s between the B o l s h e v i k s and T o l s t o y , C a i s a i d , The l e a d e r s of the R a d i c a l F a c t i o n , L i n i n g ( ' L e n i n e ' ) , e t c . , embraced communism, j u s t l i k e T o l s t o y , and n a t u r a l l y embraced n o n - r e s i s t a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , they s e p a r a t e l y t a l k e d peace w i t h Germany and were u n w i l l i n g t o make war t o g e t h e r w i t h the A l l i e s . 5 9 C a i c o n c l u d e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the v i c t o r y of the A l l i e s , who had c o - o p e r a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , proved t h a t m u t u a l - a i d was the best of the t h r e e p h i l o s o p h i e s . 6 0 "The Great War and P h i l o s o p h y " r e v e a l s the ambivalence t h a t most i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the New C u l t u r e Movement f e l t towards the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n b e f o r e May 4 , 1 9 1 9 . 37 A l t h o u g h the a r t i c l e i s d a t e d June 1918 i n C a i ' s c o l l e c t e d works, i t was r e p r i n t e d a t l e a s t t w i c e i n e a r l y 1 9 1 9 . 6 1 A s i m i l a r a r t i c l e w i t h the same t i t l e appears i n the November 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n . 6 2 T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t e d i t o r s l i k e d t o use C a i ' s a r t i c l e t o r e f u t e L i Dazhao's view t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s were the r e a l v i c t o r s of the war. And y e t , the a r t i c l e c o n t a i n s g r o s s i d e o l o g i c a l d i s t o r t i o n s of the p r i n c i p l e s of the new government i n R u s s i a , and, f o r t h a t m a t t e r , those of the A l l i e s . I t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between T o l s t o y ' s U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s m and the communism of the B o l s h e v i k s . T o l s t o y would have a c c e p t e d n e i t h e r the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t nor v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n . I t i s e q u a l l y d o u b t f u l t h a t K r o p o t k i n would have s e r i o u s l y argued t h a t the T r i p l e E n t e n t e was a " p r o o f " of the s u p e r i o r i t y of mutual a i d . I f C a i ' s a r t i c l e was indeed w r i t t e n i n June, then h i s e q u a t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m w i t h the U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s m of T o l s t o y was e x c u s a b l e . Indeed, g i v e n the r a t h e r p r i m i t i v e a n a l y s i s of B o l s h e v i s m t h a t e x i s t e d a t t h a t t i m e , h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m w i t h "communism" was a s i g n i f i c a n t advancement. But t h i s would not account f o r the a r t i c l e ' s r e p r o d u c t i o n . As has been remarked above, most i n t e l l e c t u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the New C u l t u r e Movement su p p o r t e d the Western A l l i e s . C a i was no e x c e p t i o n . The f a c t t h a t he was the keynote speaker a t the November r a l l y i n Tiananmen square, which c e l e b r a t e d the A l l i e d v i c t o r y , 6 3 s u g g e s t s t h a t he was one of the c h i e f p a r t i s a n s of the A l l i e d c a use. He must, t h e r e f o r e , have viewed R u s s i a ' s s e p a r a t e peace w i t h Germany as a d i s a s t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , C a i h e l d the v i e w, shared by o t h e r New 38 C u l t u r e i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n c l u d i n g L i Dazhao, t h a t e d u c a t i o n , not the p u t c h i s m p r e v a l e n t i n Chinese r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c s a t the t i m e , was the s o l u t i o n t o C hina's p r o b l e m s . 6 " Thus he would n a t u r a l l y be d i s t r u s t f u l of the r e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a . Even then C a i ' s c r i t i q u e of B o l s h e v i s m was remarkably g e n t l e . H i s t h e s i s was t h a t mutual a i d ( i . e the A l l i e d cause) was more e f f e c t i v e than n o n - r e s i s t a n c e ( i . e . B o l s h e v i s m ) and not t h a t the former was somehow m o r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o the l a t t e r . H i s e q u a t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m and the n o n - v i o l e n c e of the s a i n t e d T o l s t o y was i n e f f e c t a statement t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was not a l l t h a t bad. F u r t h e r m o r e , h i s a n a l y s i s e n a b l e d him t o e x p l a i n the R u s s i a n w i t h d r a w l from the war w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o condemn i t . Thus not even C a i Yuanpei was w i l l i n g t o r e j e c t B o l s h e v i s m out of hand. Other i n t e l l e c t u a l s agreed t h a t " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was i n e v i t a b l e i n C h ina but argued t h a t the time was not y e t r i p e . T h i s was the p o s i t i o n t aken i n "The Reasons f o r the Lack of Success of China's P o l i t i c a l R e v o l u t i o n and the Non- Occurrence of S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " , 6 5 which was p u b l i s h e d i n the A p r i l , 1919, Dongfang Z a z h i . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a r t i c l e , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n s had been s u c c e s s f u l i n Europe because they had u n i t e d knowledge and a c t i o n . 6 6 S o c i e t y e v o l v e d t h r ough t h r e e s t a g e s . In the f i r s t s t age l a b o u r was i n d i v i d u a l . Those whose m i l i t a r y a b i l i t i e s , and those whose "knowledge power" ( z h i l i j] ), were b e t t e r than the s o c i a l average became the a r i s t o c r a t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . As the a r i s t o c r a t s came t o share the knowledge of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the two c l a s s e s become a s i n g l e c l a s s . S o c i e t y became o r g a n i z e d i n t o the two c l a s s e s of the r u l e r s and the r u l e d . The a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s [ g u i z u 39 and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s [ z h i s h i j i e j i %Lu%jit%ill] combined t o g e t h e r becoming the r u l i n g c l a s s L z h i zhe j i e j i ^ % ffffft] • The l a b o u r i n g c l a s s became the r u l e d c l a s s [ b e i z h i zhe j i e j i ^^.Pff^} . 6 7 E v e n t u a l l y p r o p e r t y appeared. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the " P o l i t i c a l R e v o l u t i o n " and the second stage i n which.an i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s once a g a i n came i n t o e x i s t e n c e . I n t e l l e c t u a l s ' knowledge a l l o w e d them, t o i n v e n t new methods of p r o d u c i n g p r o p e r t y , or a l l o w e d them to manage e x i s t i n g e n t e r p r i s e s more e f f i c i e n t l y , thus they j o i n e d the ranks of the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . A g a i n , S o c i e t y became o r g a n i z e d i n t o the two c l a s s e s of the managers and the managed. The p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [ c a i c h a n j i e j i j£q r % //?3 and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s combined t o g e t h e r t o form the managing c l a s s [ z h i p e i j i e j i ffij fift i>JL. ]• T n e l a b o u r i n g c l a s s becomes the managed c l a s s [ b e i z h i p e i j i e j i . 6 8 But p r o p e r t y accumulated i n the hands of the few, t h u s , The m i d d l e c l a s s [ zhongdenq j i e j i which p o s s e s s e d p r o p e r t y or knowledge, or those who had l o s t t h e i r p r o p e r t y , or those who owned l i t t l e p r o p e r t y , were unable t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r l i v e s , and c o u l d o n l y e n t e r the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d . T h i s was the l a b o u r i z a t i o n .[laodonghua $a-iJi fo] of the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s . 6 9 Meanwhile the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s , because of the spread of e d u c a t i o n , had become educated and i t s c o n s c i o u s n e s s had been awakened. Workers and i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e r e f o r e would u n i t e t o g e t h e r and b r i n g about the " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " and the t h i r d p e r i o d i n which c l a s s e s would be a b o l i s h e d and e q u a l i t y and freedom r e a l i z e d . 7 0 The a r t i c l e went on t o p o i n t out t h a t Europe and America were i n the t h i r d stage w h i l e China was s t i l l i n the second s t a g e . T h e r e f o r e China had not y e t reached the stage of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . 7 1 T h i s p o s i t i o n - - t h a t s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e but not immanent—was a l s o taken by Meizhou P i n q l u n i n "The E v i l s of the Gentry C l a s s " p u b l i s h e d i n May, 1 9 1 9 . 7 2 A f t e r the news reached P e k i n g t h a t the Western A l l i e s d i d not i n t e n d t o honour t h e i r propaganda about "democracy" and " n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n " , the view t h a t a major t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Chinese s o c i e t y was i n e v i t a b l e and n e c e s s a r y became w i d e l y h e l d . In J u l y 1919, Mao Tse-tung p o i n t e d out t h a t s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was s p r e a d i n g thoughout the w o r l d . The key to t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , he argued, was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of unions of p e o p l e , and unions of u n i o n s — t h u s e c h o i n g the p o s i t i o n t h a t h i s sometime t e a c h e r , L i Dazhao, had put f o r w a r d i n F e b r u a r y of the same y e a r . 7 3 L i h i m s e l f argued f o r s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . In the summer of 1919, he wrote i n " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and M u t u a l A i d " 7 " t h a t "the s p i r i t of mutual a i d " was. i n complete c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g " s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " . T h e r e f o r e , t o p r e s e r v e the s p i r i t of mutual a i d , " c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n " had t o be u s e d . 7 5 In "Again on Problems and 'Isms'" he argued t h a t the study of "isms" was e s s e n t i a l t o b r i n g i n g about the fundamental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 7 6 H i s views were shared by h i s f e l l o w M a r x i s t Zhou Fuh a i who a l s o i d e n t i f i e d two k i n d s of r e v o l u t i o n s - - p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l , and advocated the l a t t e r i n C h i n a . 7 7 In September 1919, J i e f a n g yu G a i z a o ("The E m a n c i p a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Weekly"), the J i n b u d a n g organ, r e c o r d e d the f o l l o w i n g h i s t o r i c a l phenomena i n i t s M a n i f e s t o : At the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the h i s t o r y of c i v i l i z a t i o n , the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s [ g u i z u j i e j i % -frfe Pf/tiL) got power. L a t e r the market-merchant c l a s s [ s h i s h a n g j i e j i $ Pffid.] (BOURGEOISIE) ar o s e w i t h the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 41 movement thus g e t t i n g power. Today the peasant-worker c l a s s [ nonggong j i e j i feX- PfitJS*) (PROLETARIAT) i s a r i s i n g and must i n e v i t a b l y a t t a i n p o w e r . 7 8 The m a n i f e s t o went on t o say t h a t s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be brought about by " a l l c l a s s e s and n a t i o n s " u n i t i n g t o g e t h e r f o r t h e "common h a p p i n e s s of h u m a n i t y " . 7 9 By November 1919, the view was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a major s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was immanent. An example of t h i s view can be found i n "The Second Stage of World T r a n s f o r m a t i o n " which was p u b l i s h e d i n the November 1919 i s s u e of Dongfang Z a z h i . 8 0 The f i r s t " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " had been the c r e a t i o n of the League of N a t i o n s . The second stage " w i l l not r e l y upon the power of the s t a t e but w i l l r e l y upon the power of the masses t o f u n d a m e n t a l l y t r a n s f o r m s o c i e t y . " W h i l e the League of N a t i o n s had r e s o l v e d the c o n f l i c t between n a t i o n s , i t remained t o r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t between "the upper c l a s s " (shangcenq j i e j i _t 4; ffifM.) and "the lower c l a s s " ( x i a c e n q j i e j i 'tM Pff&) , between "the r i c h c l a s s " ( f u z h e j i e j i $ % Pftjfi) and "the c l a s s of the poor" ( p i n zhe j i e j i Pff^) , and between "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " ( z i b e n j i e j i '[j&t$B) and the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s (laodong j i e j i ffif^ fft£$^8 1 The problem was t h a t A l t h o u g h the s t a t e as a u n i t of defense a g a i n s t f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n , as a u n i t f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the l i v e s and p r o p e r t y of the p e o p l e , and as a u n i t of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , has done a g r e a t d e a l f o r humanity, i t has, at the same t i m e , a l s o brought the g r e a t e s t m i s f o r t u n e upon humanity, most of which can be blamed upon the use of the s t a t e f o r i t s own ends by the upper c l a s s m i n o r i t y . The a c t i o n s of the s t a t e i n f o r e i g n a f f a i r s are d e termined by the o p i n i o n of p a r t of the upper c l a s s . The people don't know t h i s so they p r a i s e , or consent t o , the i n t e r e s t s of the s t a t e , i . e . from b i r t h they answer the c a l l s of the upper c l a s s , t a k i n g i t s i n t e r e s t s as t h e i r own. I dare not hope t o s u b v e r t the government of e v e r y c o u n t r y , I dare not hope t h a t every c o u n t r y w i l l r i s e up 42 i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n t o d e s t r o y the p r e s e n t o r d e r , but from now on s o c i e t y i s ad v a n c i n g towards the a c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c l a s s e s . 8 2 T h e r e f o r e , the second stage of w o r l d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n would see the a b o l i t i o n of c l a s s e s . The s t u d e n t j o u r n a l Guomin a l s o argued f o r " s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " . In November 1919, one of i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s , e x h i b i t i n g the d i s t a s t e t h a t many young i n t e l l e c t u a l s f e l t f o r Chin e s e s o c i e t y , condemned i t i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: What, k i n d of s o c i e t y i s the s o c i e t y of the w o r l d today? I t i s a s o c i e t y of p a r a s i t i c l i f e , a s o c i e t y w i t h an advanced system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , a s o c i e t y i n which w a r l o r d s oppress the common p e o p l e , a s o c i e t y i n which c a p i t a l i s t s oppress l a b o u r e r s , a s o c i e t y i n which men oppress women. A l a s , ' t h e s o c i e t y of today i s a s o c i e t y w i t h o u t a o a t h of l i f e . I t i s an a u t h o r i t i a r i a n ( qiangquanjjl^frsO s o c i e t y t h a t l a c k s r e a s o n . I t i s a s o c i e t y o f e v i l s p i r i t s , d a r k n e s s , a m e r c i l e s s heaven and of i n h u m a n i t y . 8 3 The b a s i c problem of t h i s inhumane s o c i e t y l a y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l . L e t ' s look a t the s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n today's s o c i e t y . The average l a b o u r e r , who works more than t w e l v e hours a day u n t i l hands and f e e t a r e c a l l o u s e d , sweats t o produce e v e r y t h i n g . The bread earned by t h i s l a b o u r i s b a r e l y enough t o a v o i d s t a r v i n g t o dea t h . The wages earned today a re o n l y enough f o r today's f o o d . The wages earned tomorrow a re o n l y enough f o r tomorrow's c l o t h e s . When an unexpected e v e n t , such as drought and n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r or p l a g u e , happens, they cannot work and must s i t a w a i t i n g d eath by s t a r v a t i o n . The c a p i t a l i s t s own banks, f a c t o r i e s , and l a n d , and are ve r y r i c h . In b u s i n e s s they add p r o f i t on top of p r o f i t , as l a n d l o r d s they use l a n d t o buy more l a n d . They expend a few ve r y low wages t o h i r e c o u n t l e s s workers t o produce f o r them, thus r e a p i n g t h e i r p r o f i t s s e v e r a l times o v e r . They use t h i s c l e v e r l y d e c e i t f u l method of l i v i n g t o f u l f i l t h e i r p a r a s i t i c l i v e s . . . . The o r d i n a r y l a b o u r e r becomes a l a b o u r machine whose sons and daughters become the s l a v e s of the c a p i t a l i s t . 8 " A c c o r d i n g t o Guomin the sour c e of t h i s i n e q u i t y was p r i v a t e 43 p r o p e r t y . T h i s p a l p a b l e d i s t a s t e f o r the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r , was a l s o e v i d e n t i n o t h e r j o u r n a l s . The November 1919 m a n i f e s t o of Zhuguang, s a i d , Those of us who l i v e i n modern Chinese s o c i e t y , f e e l t h a t the a i r a l l around us i s dark and f o u l as i f we were i n the i n n e r most c i r c l e of h e l l . How can i t s t a y l i k e t h i s w i t h o u t b e i n g reformed and remain a human s o c i e t y ? T h e r e f o r e , we are not a t peace w i t h l i f e today and w i s h t o c r e a t e a new l i f e , we a r e not c o n t e n t w i t h s o c i e t y today and wish t o c r e a t e a new s o c i e t y . 8 5 In December 1919, X i a o n i a n Shehui saw s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as the key t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of democracy In our c o u n t r y , e v i l b u r e a u c r a t s have p o l i t i c a l power, w a r l o r d s have m i l i t a r y power, c a p i t a l i s t s have economic power. I t i s r e a l l y u n f a i r t h a t t h i s gang of p e o p l e s a c r i f i c e s the ha p p i n e s s of a m a j o r i t y f o r t h e i r own ha p p i n e s s even though they are a m i n o r i t y . A c l a s s l i k e t h i s i s a s o c i a l d i s e a s e . I f we want s o c i e t y t o be h e a l t h y , we must move towards democracy, . . . i n which case we must overthrow the e v i l b u r e a u c r a t s , d e s t r o y the w a r l o r d s , c o n t r o l the c a p i t a l i s t s , i n a word, e r a d i c a t e c l a s s e s , and work f o r the e q u a l i t y of a l l . 8 6 On the eve of the May F o u r t h I n c i d e n t , sympathy f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was r e a d i l y apparent on the p a r t of some i n t e l l e c t u a l s . I t seemed as i f the m i l l e n i a was a t hand and t h a t B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " would soon u n f o l d i n C h i n a . Even those who r e j e c t e d " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " as premature g i v e n C hinese c o n d i t i o n s , acknowledged t h a t i n the lon g run i t was not o n l y i n e v i t a b l e , but d e s i r a b l e . Thus, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t by the end of 1919 the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n was seen as a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from p r e v i o u s r e v o l u t i o n s . At the same t i m e , B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was seen by a t l e a s t some i n t e l l e c t u a l s as the 44 s o l u t i o n t o Chinese s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problems. T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of B o l s h e v i s m as the s o l u t i o n t o Chinese problems would s h o r t l y l e a d t o the b e g i n n i n g s of the Chinese communist movement which would d e f i n e B o l s h e v i k " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " as i t s o b j e c t i v e , and R u s s i a as i t s model. The b a s i s of t h i s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t B o l s h e v i s m as a methodology of r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d b e . d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o China was the b e l i e f t h a t the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of China and p r e - B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a were s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r as t o be almost i d e n t i c a l . T h i s b e l i e f i n the s i m i l a r i t y of R u s s i a n and Chinese s o c i e t y would r e s u l t i n what was, i n e f f e c t , the m e c h a n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the B o l s h e v i k model of communist r e v o l u t i o n , i n so f a r as the e a r l y C hinese communists u n d e r s t o o d i t , t o Chinese c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s meant t h a t the e a r l y Chinese communists were t o t a l l y unaware of the s t r a t e g i c problems they would encounter on the way t o t h e i r v i c t o r y . For the time b e i n g , t h e i r p a t h of r e v o l u t i o n was c l e a r — t h a t taken by the B o l s h e v i k s i n R u s s i a . They c o u l d even j u s t i f y the use of t h i s p a t h i n C h i n a , on the grounds t h a t i t had worked i n R u s s i a . A f t e r November 1918 , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s knew t h a t Marxism, not a n a r c h i s m , was the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of B o l s h e v i s m , But they knew next t o n o t h i n g of Marxism. T h i s i g n o r a n c e of Marxism had e a r l i e r l e d them t o h e r a l d the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n as the a n a r c h i s t m i l l e n i u m - - t h e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . Now they found themselves i n the odd p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g t o l e a r n more about Marxism i f they were t o b r i n g about a n a r c h i s m ' s much d e s i r e d " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 45 Chapter Two Marxism: Id e a s , P r o p e r t y and C l a s s S t r u g g l e 1. The D e s c r i p t i o n of Marxism, 1919-1920 D u r i n g the year between the p u b l i c a t i o n of X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s " S p e c i a l Issue on Marxism" i n May 1919, and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t complete t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o i n A p r i l 1920, M a r x i s t thought became w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d i n C h i n a . But Marxism d i d not have an immediate r e v o l u t i o n a r y impact upon the fundamental w o r l d - v i e w of the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l . I n t e l l e c t u a l s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of Marxism were at best s u p e r f i c i a l , and were c o n s e q u e n t l y c o n t a m i n a t e d by by the n o n - M a r x i s t i d e a s and t h e o r i e s a l r e a d y w e l l known i n C h i n a . T h i s c o n t a m i n a t i o n was no l e s s e v i d e n t on the p a r t of those who c o n s i d e r e d themsleves t o be M a r x i s t s than on the p a r t of n o n - M a r x i s t s . Those who t r i e d t o a p p l y Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y t o the h i s t o r y of Chinese thought c o n f u s e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m w i t h economic d e t e r m i n i s m , and i n e f f e c t c o n t i n u e d t o h o l d t o an i d e a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y . The t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e was reduced t o the a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t Marx h e l d t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . C l a s s s t r u g g l e was seen as one amongst many methods of b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . C h i n e s e M a r x i s t s remained c o m p l e t e l y unaware of the c o m p l e x i t y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n C h i n a , and i n e f f e c t m e c h a n i c a l l y a p p l i e d the European model of s t r u g g l e between two c l a s s e s t o t h e i r own soc i e t y . As i t became apparent t h a t the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n was no o r d i n a r y p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s became 46 i n t e r e s t e d i n the p h i l o s o p h y of K a r l Marx. S i n c e the B o l s h e v i k s were c a r r y i n g out a M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n a c o u n t r y whose economy, l i k e t h a t of C h i n a , was backwards, Marxism ceased t o be a p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y t h a t was o n l y " r e l e v e n t t o the advanced s o c i e t i e s of the West", and the way was c l e a r f o r Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s t o the problems which a f f i c t e d t h e i r s o c i e t y , t o s t u d y Marxism. 1 I n t e r e s t i n Marxism was e v i d e n t by A p r i l 1919. The A p r i l 1919 i s s u e of Dongfang Zazhi p u b l i s h e d an o u t l i n e of Marx's p h i l o s o p h y of " s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m " . 2 T h i s o u t l i n e l i s t e d Marx's t h e o r i e s as the economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y , s u r p l u s v a l u e , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e ( j i e j i z h i zhanzheng . Pft tf% 2-Pf£*^t l i t . " c l a s s war") on the one hand, and the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c a p i t a l on the o t h e r , 3 but the a r t i c l e d i d not d e s c r i b e t h e s e t h e o r i e s . At the b e g i n n i n g of A p r i l , Meizhou P i n g l u n t r a n s l a t e d the s e c t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o which o u t l i n e s the immediate measures t o be taken by a communist government once i t g e t s i n t o power." Such measures as the a b o l i t i o n of l a n d t e n u r e and the c r e a t i o n of a s t a t e bank must have sounded f a m i l i a r t o r e a d e r s of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , f o r t h e s e were measures which they knew had a l r e a d y been taken by the B o l s h e v i k government. The most d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of Marxism b e f o r e May 1919 was a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l : i n Meizhou P i n g l u n . " A n a r c h i s t Communism and S t a t e S o c i a l i s m " 5 compared the t h e o r i e s of K r o p o t k i n and Marx. I t gave the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of K r o p o t k i n ' s t h e o r y of m u t u a l - a i d : M u t u a l - a i d a n a r c h i s m [As opposed t o o t h e r s c h o o l s of an a r c h i s m ] i s o r g a n i z e d , p o s i t i v e , and c o n s t r u c t i v e . I t 47 seeks the overthrow of the e x t r e m e l y s o r r o w f u l s o c i e t y of t o d a y , c r e a t i n g i n i t s p l a c e a f o r t u n a t e new s o c i e t y . On the n e g a t i v e s i d e , m u t u a l - a i d a n a r c h i s m opposes a l l forms of a u t h o r i t y [qianqquanfffr ] , whether t h a t of the s t a t e , r e l i g i o n , s o c i e t y , or the f a m i l y . In terms of i t s p o s i t i v e a s p e c t , i t seeks the c r e a t i o n of an e x t r e m e l y e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y based upon m u t u a l - a i d . . . .In o t h e r words, [ K r o p o t k i n ' s ] o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i d e a d e p a r t s from the a u t h o r i t a r i a n p o l i t i c a l r u l e of the m i n o r i t y and e s t a b l i s h e s autonomous b o d i e s [ z i z h i t u a n t i a p p r o p r i a t e to human e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t b e i n g burdened by a l a r g e s t a t e . In terms of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , [he] adv o c a t e s t h a t organs of p r o d u c t i o n ( l i k e l a n d , machinery, e t c . ) and p r o d u c t s ( l i k e a g r i c u l t u r e produce, h o u s i n g , e t c . ) s h o u l d be communally owned by these s o c i a l b o d i e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g a communal s o c i e t y [gongchan d i shehui j£ j* teJ&i£} based on the p r i n c i p l e of from each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t y , t o each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s need. 6 The a r t i c l e then found t h a t Marxism was remarkably s i m i l a r t o K r o p o t k i n i s m . [Marxism] advocates c l a s s war which w i l l see the l a b o u r e r s overthrow the c a p i t a l i s t s , and themselves o r g a n i z e a government which c o n t r o l s a l l p r o d u c t i v e organs and c e n t r a l i z e s c o n t r o l over t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications. Because [ i t ] makes much of the importance of the s t a t e , and makes p o l i t i c a l power v e r y i m p o r t a n t , i n terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i d e a s , i t i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from the m u t u a l - a i d a n a r c h i s m e x p l a i n e d above. In terms of economic i d e a s , i t ad v o c a t e s c o l l e c t i v e p r o d u c t i o n i s m - - t h a t i s p u b l i c o wnership of the organs of p r o d u c t i o n and p r i v a t e o wnership of the t h i n g s produced except f o r t h a t which can be a means of p r o d u c t i o n . . . . 7 The a r t i c l e c o n c l u d e d : . . . M u t u a l - a i d a n a r c h i s m and s t a t e s o c i a l i s m , a re f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i s s i m i l a r i n terms of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i d e a s . S i n c e they both h o l d t h a t organs of p r o d u c t i o n , and p r o d u c t s which can become means of p r o d u c t i o n , s h o u l d be p u b l i c l y owned, they a re i n complete agreement i n terms of t h e i r economic i d e a s . 8 Even though Marxism and a n a r c h i s m had f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t approaches t o r e v o l u t i o n even i f t h e i r g o a l s a p p r e a r e d e s s e n t i a l l y the same, Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s saw an a r c h i s m and 4 8 Marxism as c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d s c h o o l s of s o c i a l i s t t h ought. A f t e r a l l , both c l a i m e d t o be " s c i e n t i f i c " and both sought " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . C o n f u s i o n between a n a r c h i s m and communism can be seen i n the f i r s t d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of Marxism a f t e r the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n - - t h e " S p e c i a l I ssue on Marxism" of X i n Q i n q n i a n which was p u b l i s h e d under the e d i t o r i a l d i r e c t i o n of L i Dazhao. The May 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n p r e s e n t e d e i g h t a r t i c l e s on Marxism: "Marx's Theory" by Gu Mengyu; 9 "A C r i t i c i s m of Marx's Theory" by L i n g Shuang;' 0 "My M a r x i s t Views" by L i Dazhao ; 1 1 Two b i o g r a p h i e s of M a r x ; 1 2 "Marx's M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y and the Problem of Female V i r t u e " by Chen B a o y i n , 1 3 which was an attempt t o a p p l y Marx's t h e o r y of h i s t o r i c a l s t a g e s t o an a n a l y s i s of "female v i r t u e " ; and "Marx's M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y " , a t r a n s l a t i o n from the Japanese of an a r t i c l e by the M a r x i s t s c h o l a r Rawakami H a j i r n e . 1 * The e i g h t h a r t i c l e was a b i o g r a p h y of Bakunin which suggests t h a t even L i Dazhao, who c l a i m e d t o be a M a r x i s t by t h i s t i m e , was i g n o r a n t of the d i f f e r e n c e s which s e p a r a t e a n a r c h i s m and communism. The a r t i c l e s i n the May 1919 X i n Q i n g n i a n were m a i n l y academic e l u c i d a t i o n s of M a r x i s t p h i l o s o p h y - - i . e of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y , the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . S i n c e d i s t o r t i o n s of Marx's p h i l o s o p h y which d i d occur i n t h e s e e l u c i d a t i o n s tended t o be made by everyone, t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e of d e l i b e r a t e d i s t o r t i o n s of Marxism on the p a r t of the a n a r c h i s t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s i s s u e . X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s commentaries on Marxism i n c l u d e d a number of e x c e r p t s from Marx's own works, The Communist M a n i f e s t o , "A 49 P r e f a c e t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o a C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy", the p r e f a c e t o C a p i t a l , and The P o v e r t y of P h i l o s o p h y . 1 5 The same e x c e r p t s from these works were t r a n s l a t e d and r e - t r a n s l a t e d d u r i n g the next months. For example, the same passages from The Communist M a n i f e s t o were p r e s e n t e d by L i Dazhao i n "My M a r x i s t Views".and by Kawakami Hajime i n the May 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n , as were p r e s e n t e d by Hu Hanmin i n "A C r i t i c i s m of the C r i t i c i s m of the M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y " 1 6 which was p u b l i s h e d i n the November 1919 i s s u e of J i a n s h e . Hu's a r t i c l e a l s o e x c e r p t e d the " P r e f a c e t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy", The Holy F a m i l y , The P o v e r t y of P h i l o s o p h y , Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l , "The 18th Brumaire of L o u i s - N a p o l e o n , and the p r e f a c e t o C a p i t a l . A f t e r May 1919, Marx's own pamplet, Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l , was p u b l i s h e d i n the J i n b u d a n g newpaper, Chen Bao between May 6, and June 1, 1 9 1 9 . 1 7 K a r l K a u t s k y ' s commentary on C a p i t a l , The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx , was p u b l i s h e d i n the same j o u r n a l from June 2, t o November 11, 1919, as w e l l as i n J i a n s h e from November 1919 t o J u l y 1 9 2 0 . 1 8 A Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of K a u t s k y ' s The C l a s s S t r u g g l e was a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n l a t e 1919. 1 9 I n t e r e s t i n Marx and Marxism c u l m i n a t e d w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n , i n A p r i l 1920, of the f i r s t complete Ch i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o . The f a c t t h a t t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n was made by an a n a r c h i s t , Chen Wangdao, i s i n d i c a t i v e of i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' e c l e c t i c approach t o t h e o r i e s of r e v o l u t i o n . 50 2. The M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y D u r i n g the New C u l t u r e Movement, the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r l d was dominated by the theme t h a t i d e a s were the keys t o s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Bankrupt C o n f u c i a n i s m was t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h modern i d e a l s of " s c i e n c e " and "democracy". Ideas r e f l e c t e d i n a new and p o p u l a r c u l t u r e were t o l i f t . t h e C h i n e s e masses out of t h e i r backwardness. Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y was the d i r e c t o p p o s i t e of the New C u l t u r e ' s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i d e a l i s t w o r l d - v i e w . A c c o r d i n g t o Marx, s o c i a l change causes c o n c e p t u a l change, and not the o t h e r way around. Consequently C o n f u c i a n i s m was bankrupt because Chinese s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s had been a l t e r e d by Western c a p i t a l i s m . X i n Q i n g n i a n ' s a n t i - C o n f u c i a n p o l e m i c s , t h e r e f o r e , d i d not d e f e a t C o n f u c i a n i s m , but merely r e f l e c t e d the f a c t t h a t C o n f u c i a n i d e o l o g y no l o n g e r conformed t o the needs of Chinese s o c i e t y . G iven the New C u l t u r e p r e j u d i c e f o r i d e a s , i t was not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Gu Mengyu went t o g r e a t p a i n s t o p o i n t out i n h i s a r t i c l e i n the May 1919 X i n Q i n g n i a n t h a t "The M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y " d e f i n i t e l y does not negate the f u n c t i o n of i d e a l s [lixiang^£jffi]. No mat t e r whether i t i s i n the p a s t , or the future., man's s o c i a l i d e a l s may be the immediate cause of the reform of law and the re f o r m of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . However, man's i d e a l s of good and e v i l do not e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d . . . . These i d e a l s a r e not the f i n a l cause of s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n , but are a k i n d of r e f l e c t i o n [ y i n q z i of s o c i a l economy. 2 0 I t i s a l s o not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n t e r e s t i n i d e a s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o c i a l economy, dominated the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o use the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y as a t o o l of h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t attempt t o make use of the p r i n c i p l e t h a t 5 1 " s o c i a l b e i n g d e t e r m i n e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " was p u b l i s h e d i n the May X i n Q i n g n i a n . Chen Baoying's a r t i c l e , "Marx's M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y and the Problem of Female V i r t u e " , a p p l i e d the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y t o the development of s o c i a l e t h i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the concept of "female v i r t u e " . 2 1 Chen suggested t h a t h i s t o r y c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s t a g e s . In the f i r s t s t a g e , because t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y few human b e i n g s , n a t u r e was a b l e t o s u p p l y the needs of humanity d i r e c t l y . There was no need f o r work, nor f o r human a c t i o n upon n a t u r e . T h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e f o r e , had a " n a t u r a l " as. opposed t o " a r t i f i c i a l " s o c i a l e t h i c . G r a d u a l l y , as the p o p u l a t i o n grew, n a t u r e was no l o n g e r a b l e t o s u p p l y the needs of humanity. In t h i s , the second s t a g e , work appeared. Because most peopl e d i d not have any e x p e r i e n c e w i t h work, they d i d not w i s h . t o work. R e l a t i v e l y i n t e l l i g e n t people s k i l l e d i n . the m a r t i a l a r t s e s t a b l i s h e d "an a r t i f i c i a l m o r a l i t y of a b s o l u t e s u b m i s s i o n t o c o e r c e the weak and f o o l i s h t o work and thus produce the m a t e r i a l means of l i f e . " 2 2 T h i s stage saw the development of a m o r a l i t y of complete s u b m i s s i o n . In the t h i r d p e r i o d , p r o d u c t i o n was once a g a i n unable t o meet the needs of the p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s stage r e q u i r e d the use of more l a b o u r , and i t s method of p r o d u c t i o n was much more complex than t h a t of the second p e r i o d . T h e r e f o r e , the a b s o l u t e c o e r c i o n of l a b o u r was i n e f f e c t i v e . In o r d e r to get humanity t o produce w i t h i t s e n t i r e s t r e n g t h and i n more c o m p l i c a t e d ways, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e a m o r a l i t y which would "cause people t o have a mind t h a t d e s i r e d t o work." T h e r e f o r e t h i s stage saw the development of a m o r a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l b e n e f i t . But once a g a i n 5 2 p o p u l a t i o n growth o u t s t r i p p e d p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s l e d t o the f o u r t h p e r i o d i n which i t had become n e c e s s a r y " t o c a l c u l a t e the s i t u a t i o n as a whole . . . and c a r r y out d i s t r i b u t i o n on the l a r g e s t s c a l e . " 2 3 The m o r a l i t y of t h i s p e r i o d was t h a t of c o l l e c t i v i s m , mutual a i d and s o c i a l i s m . Chen then o u t l i n e d s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e s towards women i n each p e r i o d . I t i s i m m e d i a t e l y apparent t h a t Chen's r a t h e r f a n c i f u l o u t l i n e of h i s t o r y reduces the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y t o M a l t h u s ' t h e s i s of p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s . While M a l t h u s was i n some ways a p r i m i t i v e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t , h i s t h e s i s f e l l s u b s t a n t i a l l y s h o r t of Marx's view t h a t i d e a s are d etermined by the manner i n which a s o c i e t y produces i t s means of m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t Ch'en's f o u r s t a g e s are not Marx's f o u r modes of p r o d u c t i o n — p r i m i t i v e communism, s l a v e s o c i e t y , f e u d a l i s m , and c a p i t a l i s m . Chen d i d not seem t o be aware of t h e s e modes. In f a c t , Chen's s t a g e s were e s s e n t i a l l y the same as those o u t l i n e d by K r o p o t k i n i n Mutual A i d . 2 " T h i s suggests t h a t t h e r e was a tendency t o c o n f u s e Marx's approach t o h i s t o r y w i t h d e c i d e d l y n o n - M a r x i s t approaches. T h i s tendency can a l s o be seen i n the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y d i r e c t l y t o Chinese h i s t o r y . Once a g a i n , t h e s e a t t e m p t s - - Hu Hanmin's " M a t e r i a l i s t Researches on the H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s o p h y " and L i Dazhao's "An Economic E x p l a n a t i o n of the Recent I d e o l o g i c a l Changes i n C h i n a " — f o c u s e d on i d e a s . 2 5 These two works, a l o n g w i t h an e a r l i e r essay by Dai J i t a o , 2 6 were the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m t o Chinese h i s t o r y . " M a t e r i a l i s t Researches on the H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s o p h y " argued t h a t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s c o u l d not be i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the means of p r o d u c t i o n , t h a t i d e a s are d e t e r m i n e d by p r e v i o u s knowledge and the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l l i f e , and t h a t t h e s e determine the thought of a p e r i o d . S i n c e the major problem i n Chinese thought was t h a t of " p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e " (daodejfjf fj&^) , Hu a n a l y s e d the e v o l u t i o n of " p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e " and found t h a t changes i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l sytems were the r e s u l t of economic d i s o r d e r . 2 7 A c c o r d i n g t o Hu, the p h i l o s o p h i e s of C o n f u c i u s , Lao Tzu, and Mo t z u , were a l l responses t o the economic chaos caused by the d e s t r u c t i o n of p r i m i t i v e communal s o c i e t y — t h e w e l l f i e l d s y s t e m — w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a s h o r t a g e of l a n d and wars between s t a t e s . Subsequent changes i n p h i l o s o p h y were a l s o responses t o economic d i s o r d e r , but they had t o s t a y w i t h i n the l i m i t s e s t a b l i s h e d by these f i r s t p h i l o s o p h i e s . . 2 8 L i Dazhao took a s i m i l a r approach i n January 1920. W r i t i n g i n "An Economic E x p l a n a t i o n of Recent I d e o l o g i c a l Changes i n C h i n a " , he suggested t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l China was an a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y based on the extended f a m i l y system. The i d e o l o g y of t h i s system was C o n f u c i a n i s m . However, under the impact of Western i m p e r i a l i s m , t h i s system was b e i n g d e s t r o y e d : . . .China's a g r i c u l t u r a l economy cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n i n d u s t r i a l economy, her c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n f a c t o r y i n d u s t r y , her h a n d c r a f t s p r o d u c t i o n cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n mechanized p r o d u c t i o n . Most domestic i n d u s t r y has been d e s t r o y e d , i m p o r t s s u r p a s s e x p o r t s , the p e o p l e of the whole c o u n t r y are becoming p a r t of the w o r l d u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [ wuchan j i e j i jc> f> Pfilfl}, a l l l i f e i s f i l l e d w i t h s o r r o w . " T h i s " p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n " of the c o u n t r y by f o r e i g n c a p i t a l made 54 the c o n d i t i o n of C h i n a , a c c o r d i n g t o L i , even more p i t i a b l e than t h a t of the p r o l e t a r i a t of the western c o u n t r i e s . 3 0 Recent i n t e l l e c t u a l changes were a n t i - C o n f u c i a n , d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of the extended f a m i l y . Thus, Ch i n a ' s l a b o u r movement i s a l s o a movement t o d e s t r o y C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i sm [ j i e j i z h u y i (if j/ff-jf ̂  ]. The d o c t r i n e of the C o n f u c i a n i s t s . always p l a c e s them i n the p o s i t i o n of the r u l e d , becoming the s a c r i f i c i a l lambs of the r u l e r s . . . . Modern economic o r g a n i z a t i o n r a i s e s the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s [laogong j i e j i i& IrPfrirlL}, a c c o r d i n g t o the new demands of s o c i e t y , c r e a t e s a new t h e o r y of "The S a n c t i t y of Labour", which i s a l s o the n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t of the new economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 1 N e i t h e r L i nor Hu succeeded i n w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l i s t h i s t o r y . Both reduced the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y t o economic d e t e r m i n i s m . N e i t h e r f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d the c l a s s n a t u r e of i d e o l o g y nor the i m p l i c a t i o n s of Marx's view t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s plays an im p o r t a n t r o l e i n sha p i n g h i s t o r i c a l development. L i , f o r example, reduced C o n f u c i a n i s m t o the i d e o l o g y of the extended f a m i l y system, not t o the i n t e r e s t s of the t r a d i t i o n a l r u l i n g c l a s s . Hu, on the o t h e r hand, a t t r i b u t e d a l l changes i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l systems t o economic chaos, i n s t e a d of i d e o l o g i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s of changes i n the a l i g n m e n t of c l a s s f o r c e s . In e f f e c t , L i and Hu were s t i l l w r i t i n g i d e a l i s t h i s t o r y . I d e a l i s m was a l s o e v i d e n t when i t came t o f o r m u l a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m . In " P r e f a c e t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy", Marx s t a t e d t h a t The mode of p r o d u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l l i f e c o n d i t i o n s the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l abd i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e - p r o c e s s i n 55 g e n e r a l . I t i s not the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of men t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r b e i n g , but on the c o n t r a r y i t i s t h e i r s o c i a l b e i n g t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 3 2 When t h i s p r i n c i p l e was t r a n s l a t e d from Kawakami Hajime i n the May 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n , i t became, The method of p r o d u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l l i f e may [ k e y i tfj*^] determine a l l p o l i t i c a l and s p i r i t u a l l i f e p r o c e s s e s . Man's c o n s c i o u s n e s s cannot determine h i s l i f e ; r a t h e r man's s o c i a l l i f e may determine h i s c o n s c i o u s s n e s s . 3 3 T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n suggests t h a t s o c i a l b e i n g , as w e l l as o t h e r f a c t o r s , d e t e r m i n e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l t h o u g h L i Dazhao s t a t e d " s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e d e t e r m i n e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " i n "My M a r x i s t Views" i n May 1919, i n December 1919 he wrote: M a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s and economics may [ keyi'tfJit* ] determine i d e o l o g y , 'isms', p h i l o s o p h y , r e l i g i o n , v i r t u e , law, e t c . 3 " I t appears t h a t L i was not w i l l i n g t o ac c e p t m a t e r i a l i s m as an a b s o l u t e p r i n c i p l e . Hu Hanmin, on the o t h e r hand, was q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s usage. In October and December, 1919, he wrote, " I t i s not c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t d e t e r m i n e s l i f e , but s o c i a l l i f e t h a t d e t e r m i n e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " 3 5 T h i s suggests t h a t Hu was more w i l l i n g than L i t o a c c e p t the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y as b e i n g t h e o r e t i c a l l y a b s o l u t e . L i ' s a t t i t u d e can a l s o be seen i n "Again on Problems and 'Isms'", p u b l i s h e d i n August 1919. A r g u i n g f o r " b a s i c r e s o l u t i o n " (genben j i e jue of s o c i a l problems, he wrote, A c c o r d i n g t o Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y , the laws, p o l i t i c s , t h e o r i e s and o t h e r s p i r i t u a l s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i e t y a r e a l l s u p e r f i c i a l . Economic s t r u c t u r e s a re t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g b a s i s . As soon as economic o r g a n i z a t i o n changes, they a l s o change. In 5 6 o t h e r words, the r e s o l u t i o n of economic problems i s b a s i c r e s o l u t i o n . When economic problems a re r e s o l v e d , a l l problems of p o l i t i c s , law, the f a m i l y system, the l i b e r a t i o n of women, the l i b e r a t i o n of worker s , can be r e s o l v e d . 3 6 In o t h e r words, economic change c r e a t e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the s o l u t i o n of s o c i a l problems. In " M a t e r i a l i s t Researches on the H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s o p h y " , which was p u b l i s h e d i n l a t e 1919, Hu Hanmin showed t h a t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Marxism was more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than L i ' s . He wrote, A l l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s change w i t h the change i n the method of m a t e r i a l l i f e . A l l of the f e e l i n g s , i m a g i n i n g s , b e l i e f s and views of l i f e of humanity, a r e based on the s i t u a t i o n of s o c i a l l i f e . They a r i s e from the m a t e r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . 3 7 In o t h e r words, i d e a s a re c o n d i t i o n e d by " s o c i a l " as opposed t o "economic" i n t e r a c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h , i n p r a c t i c e , both L i and Hu had d i f f i c u l t y a p p l y i n g h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m , t h e i r works r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t uses of Marxism t o defend the New C u l t u r e Movement from i t s c i r i t i c s . The e f f e c t of Hu's " M a t e r i a l i s t Researches on the H i s t o r y of Chi n e s e P h i l o s o p h y " was t o show t h a t i d e o l o g i e s change because of the d i s r u p t i o n of economic systems. He wrot e : R e c e n t l y as the r e s u l t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , C h ina has f e l t the i n f l u e n c e of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , and i t s economic o p p r e s s i o n w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o r e s i s t i t . 3 8 China was c o n s e q u e n t l y undergoing an i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which resembled t h a t caused by the breakdown of p r i m i t i v e communal economy. In "An Economic E x p l a n a t i o n of Recent I d e o l o g i c a l 57 Changes i n C h i n a " , L i c o n c l u d e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n by p o i n t i n g out t h a t the "new i d e a s " were not c r e a t e d by "a few youths out of t h i n a i r , " but were r e f l e c t i o n s of m a t e r i a l changes. T h e r e f o r e , a l l t h a t those who found the "new i d e a s " o b j e c t i o n a b l e had t o do was t o s t o p economic development, r e s t o r e the o l d system, and d e s t r o y Western c a p i t a l i s m . 3 9 I t wasn't u n t i l a f t e r A p r i l 1920 t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s l i k e L i Dazhao t u r n e d away from t h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h i d e a s and s t a r t e d t o work towards communist r e v o l u t i o n . 3. The Theory of S u r p l u s V a l u e The t h e o r y of s u r p l u s - v a l u e was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d i n Gu Mengyu's a r t i c l e , "Marx's Theory", i n the May 1919 i s s u e of X i n Q i n g n i a n . A c c o r d i n g t o Gu, Marx h e l d t h a t when two commodities are exchanged, the same amount of s o c i a l l y averaged l a b o u r i s i n f a c t c h a n g i n g hands. The o n l y t h i n g t h a t any two commodities have i n common i s t h a t they a r e the r e s u l t of work (gongzuo d i j i e q u o *° T h e r e f o r e , the v a l u e [ j i a z h i fofe ] of a l l commodities i s d e t e r m i n e d by the amount of " s o c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y " or "averaged" work n e c e s s a r y t o manufacture i t . " 1 In o r d e r f o r someone t o produce a commodity, two t h i n g s are n e c e s s a r y - - t o o l s , and the m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o s u s t a i n the l i f e of the p r o d u c e r . In modern s o c i e t y , v e r y few p e o p l e have th e s e two r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , the worker must s e l l "work power" (gongzuo l i $fojj ) t o the c a p i t a l i s t who owns the t o o l s and o t h e r m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s . "Work power" becomes a commodity l i k e any o t h e r . I t s v a l u e , l i k e t h a t of any o t h e r commodity, i s the amount of "work" which goes i n t o i t s c r e a t i o n , i . e . the v a l u e of those commodities which are n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n the l i f e and f a m i l y of the l a b o u r e r from day t o day. S i n c e the c a p i t a l i s t f o r c e s the l a b o u r e r t o work l o n g e r hours than i s n e c e s s a r y t o meet the l a b o u r e r ' s own needs, " s u r p l u s v a l u e " i s c r e a t e d . The c a p i t a l i s t , w i s h i n g t o i n c r e a s e h i s s u r p l u s v a l u e , makes use of v a r i o u s methods t o i n c r e a s e the amount of time the l a b o u r e r works. T h i s r e s u l t s i n a c o n f l i c t , between the worker and the c a p i t a l i s t over the l e n g t h of the w o r k i n g day, c h i l d l a b o u r , m e c h a n i z a t i o n , e t c . Because of the c a p i t a l i s t ' s d e s i r e t o r e a p the maximum p o s s i b l e p r o f i t , c a p i t a l becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d . T h i s r e s u l t s i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the s m a l l p r o d u c e r , and the c r e a t i o n of a l a r g e r w o r k i n g c l a s s , u n t i l the p o i n t i s reached when i t i s easy f o r the w o r k i ng c l a s s t o overthrow the c a p i t a l i s t s . " 2 Gu's d e s c r i p t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e was supplemented d u r i n g the next few months by t r a n s l a t i o n s of Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l , The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx , and The C l a s s S t r u g g l e . Marx wrote Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l b e f o r e he had c ompleted h i s c r i t i q u e of p o l i t i c a l economy, and b e f o r e he had f o r m u l a t e d h i s t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e . The p r i n c i p l e c oncern of Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l was t o d e s c r i b e "the economic r e l a t i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e the m a t e r i a l f o u n d a t i o n of the p r e s e n t c l a s s s t r u g g l e , " " 3 i . e . the economic r e l a t i o n s between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l . I t t h e r e f o r e remained f o r the works of K a r l Kautsky t o p r e s e n t a d e s c r i p t i o n of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e as i t was u n d e r s t o o d by Marx. The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx "" was one of the f i r s t commentaries on C a p i t a l , and i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c c u r a t e . The two t r a n s l a t i o n s of The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx made d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e a v a i l a b l e t o Chinese r e a d e r s . Another i n f l u e n t i a l work of Ka u t s k y ' s which was p u b l i s h e d i n 1919 was The C l a s s S t r u g g l e ( E r f u r t P r o g r a m ) , " 5 K a u t s k y ' s commentary on and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the " E r f u r t Programme" of the German S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y . T h i s programme was adopted a t the p a r t y ' s c o n g r e s s h e l d i n E r f u r t , Germany, i n 1891. At the E r f u r t Congress, the p a r t y abandoned v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n and the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t f o r a p a r l i a m e n t a r y e l e c t o r a l p l a t f o r m . A l t h o u g h L e n i n l a t e r s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d t h i s programme as n o n - M a r x i s t j The C l a s s S t r u g g l e d i d pr e s e n t a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y i n t r a d i t i o n a l M a r x i s t terms. In p a r t i c u l a r , the f i r s t s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d the o r i g i n s of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n , and of the p r o l e t a r i a t and the b o u r g e o i s i e . By the end of 1919, Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s had c o n s i d e r a b l e a c c e s s t o Marx's t h e o r y of c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n . However, t h i s a c c e s s was p r o b a b l y not complete because of the poor q u a l i t y of t r a n s l a t i o n s . The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx had t o be t r a n s l a t e d t w i c e w i t h i n a y e a r ; moreover the second t r a n s l a t i o n , t h a t of Dai J i t a o , was from a Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n of an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l German." 6' S i n c e both t r a n s l a t i o n s were o n l y p a r t i a l , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t much was l o s t . i n these t r a n s l a t i o n s . The p a r t i a l n a t u r e of these t r a n s l a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r e l a t i v e l y vague u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e . L i k e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of 60 h i s t o r y , i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e was c o l o u r e d by n o n - M a r x i s t economic t h e o r i e s — i n t h i s case by a n a r c h i s m . T h i s c o n t a m i n a t i o n can r e a d i l y be seen i n "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " which was p u b l i s h e d from September, t o November 1919, i n Dongfang Z a z h i . " 7 "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " was e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e s e n t i n g a c r i t i q u e of Marxism which, i t s a i d , " i s r e c o g n i z e d by the m a j o r i t y of s o c i a l i s t s as the t r u t h of the w o r l d . " " 8 I t s d e s c r i p t i o n of M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y was as f o l l o w s : A l l w e a l t h i s produced by l a b o u r , t h e r e f o r e a l l w e a l t h s h o u l d belong t o l a b o u r . " How do people f e e l when they come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e ? There s h o u l d be a g r e a t many of us who know the i n s t i n c t f o r r i g h t e o u s n e s s and the i n s t i n c t f o r greed and y e t welcome t h i s p r i n c i p l e . I t can be deduced as f o l l o w s : " A l l w e a l t h i s the r e s u l t of l a b o u r . To own t h i s w e a l t h w i t h o u t h a v i n g l a b o u r e d f o r i t i s i n the na t u r e of t h e f t . Only f u r t h e r l a b o u r can r e s t o r e t h i s s t o l e n w e a l t h . " " 9 A c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r , Marx added "an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the h i s t o r y of p r o d u c t i o n " t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e . T h e r e f o r e : In p r i m i t i v e communal s o c i e t y [ y u a n s h i z h i shehui ^ - # # 3 ^ ], each person made h i s own m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s f o r l i f e , s u p p l y i n g p e r s o n a l needs and consumption. A f t e r a l i t t l e w h i l e each person would exchange the t h i n g s t h a t he had made f o r the t h i n g s made by a n o t h e r , so as t o f u l f i l l each o t h e r s ' n e c e s s i t i e s . However, today the t h i n g s made by l a b o u r do not su p p l y the use and consumption of the l a b o u r e r , whose l a b o u r time i s not l i m i t e d t o making the t h i n g s needed f o r t h e i r own consumption, but goes t o the c a p i t a l i s t . 5 0 S i n c e the c a p i t a l i s t g a i n s w e a l t h w i t h o u t h a v i n g l a b o u r e d t o produce i t , e v e r y t h i n g owned by the c a p i t a l i s t i s " s t o l e n " from the l a b o u r e r . The view t h a t Marx h e l d t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " was 61 made more e x p l i c i t i n the s e c t i o n 'The Dawn of C a p i t a l i s m ' , which gave the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of Marx's a n a l y s i s of the the s o c i a l " f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n , but which i s unable t o own the t o o l s n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o d u c t i o n — m a c h i n e s and c a p i t a l — b e c a u s e these are s o l e l y owned by the o t h e r group, a m i n o r i t y , the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s [ z i b e n j i a z h i j i e j i ^ & &?J$yi) ' T n e r e a l p r o d u c e r s i n s o c i e t y , the m a j o r i t y of men and women, must h i r e themselves out and d a i l y engage i n f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n and o t h e r b i t t e r l a b o u r , f o r o t h e r w i s e they would s t a r v e t o d e a t h . A g a i n s t them i s the m i n o r i t y which owns the machinery of p r o d u c t i o n . As the owners of f a c t o r i e s [gongchang zhu "£>f&] and l a n d l o r d s [ d i z h u ^ ^ ], they w i e l d the power of h i r i n g and f i r i n g , of l i f e and d e a t h , over t h e i r l a b o u r e r s . A s i d e from g i v i n g t h e i r l a b o u r e r s the bare minimum of l i f e n e c e s s i t i e s , a l l p r o d u c t s b e l o n g t o them. A l l v a l u e i s c r e a t e d by the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s , but, a s i d e from t h a t which goes f o r wages and o t h e r c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n , i t pours i n t o the p u r s e s of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . T h e r e f o r e , c a p i t a l , i n t e r e s t and p r o f i t , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , are s t o l e n from the l a b o u r e r s and the t h i n g s t h a t they have c r e a t e d . 5 1 S o c i e t y becomes p o l a r i z e d because s m a l l p r o d u c e r s and the m i d d l e c l a s s a r e "swallowed up by the b i g c a p i t a l i s t s . " 5 2 T h e r e f o r e , "today, those who are not c a p i t a l i s t s are p i t i f u l l a b o u e r s . " 5 3 But, a c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r , Marxism h o l d s t h a t "the day must come when t h a t which was s t o l e n . . . i s r e t u r n e d . " A f t e r which, " l a b o u r e r s w i l l l i v e f o r e v e r communally, and the w o r l d w i l l be e t e r n a l l y r i c h . " 5 4 economic t h e o r y t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t p r o p e r t y i s " s t o l e n " by the c a p i t a l i s t s . I t s c r i t i q u e of Marxism was t h a t p r o p e r t y was not s t o l e n , but was earned through the c a p i t a l i s t ' s g e n i u s as an i n v e n t o r and o r g a n i z e r of p r o d u c t o n . 5 5 But " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " c l a s s n a t u r e of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y : In essence "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " reduced M a r x i s t was not Marx's p o s i t i o n on c a p i t a l i s t economy. 6 2 Marx, who f i l l e d t h r e e volumes d e s c r i b i n g the dynamics of c a p i t a l i s t economy i n C a p i t a l , would not have a c c e p t e d t h a t h i s t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t . In C a p i t a l , Marx c l a i m e d t h a t t h a t o n l y s o c i a l l y u s e f u l p r o d u c t s of human l a b o u r are v a l u a b l e i n the economic sense. When two q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t c o m m i d i t i e s are exchanged the o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c they share i n common i s t h a t they are p r o d u c t s of human l a b o u r . T h e r e f o r e , the r e l a t i v e v a l u e s of commodities are d e t e r m i n e d by the amount of s o c i a l l y averaged "labour-power" which went i n t o t h e i r c r e a t i o n . But c a p i t a l i s m seems t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . The c a p i t a l i s t i n v e s t s a c e r t a i n amount of c a p i t a l i n machinery, raw m a t e r i a l s , e t c . , and a f u r t h e r amount i n labour-power, i . e . h i r e s workers t o t r a n f o r m the raw m a t e r i a l s . M a g i c a l l y an e x t r a v a l u e , i . e . p r o f i t , emerges out of t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n ( t h a t i s i f the c a p i t a l i s t i s s u c c e s s f u l ) . The q u e s t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , where does t h i s s u r p l u s o r i g i n a t e . Marx e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i t can o n l y be the r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t labour-power, as a commodity, i s purchased f o r l e s s than i t s r e a l v a l u e , i . e . t h a t the p r o f i t i s the r e s u l t of the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the l a b o u r e r . No matter how f a i r t h a t c a p i t a l i s t i s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r i c e he pays f o r l a b o u r - power, i f a p r o f i t i s made, the l a b o u r e r i s b e i n g e x p l o i t e d . T h i s system i s p o s s i b l e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y because l a b o u r power i s a commodity s u b j e c t t o market f o r c e s . S i n c e the s u p p l y of l a b o u r outpaces the demand, i . e . t h e r e i s unemployment, the c a p i t a l i s t can get away w i t h a r t i f i c i a l l y r e d u c i n g i t s p r i c e . In e f f e c t , the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e argues t h a t c a p i t a l i s t s economy has two n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s — t h e a b i l i t y of the c a p i t a l i s t t o use accumulated w e a l t h to amass s t i l l g r e a t e r w e a l t h , and the a b i l i t y of the worker t o s e l l h i s or her l a b o u r - power. Labour and c a p i t a l , p r o l e t a r i a t and b o u r g e o i s i e , are i n t i m i t e l y r e l a t e d . One cannot e x i s t w i t h o u t the o t h e r . But t h i s system i s doomed, because the p r o d u c t i o n of c a p i t a l t a k e s the e f f o r t s of the e n t i r e s o c i e t y w h i l e o n l y a m i n o r i t y reaps i t s rewards. The s o l u t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o a b o l i s h t h a t m i n o r i t y ' s g r i p on the economic system, i . e . by a b o l i s h i n g the c a p i t a l i s t s as a c l a s s . 5 6 In a c e r t a i n sense, the b a s i s of Marx's c r i t i q u e of c a p i t a l i s m was t h a t i t i s p e o p l e , and not m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s , which s h o u l d be v a l u e d . T h i s r a t h e r A r i s t o t e l e a n view of economy, i . e . t h a t economy i s the s o c i a l e x t e n t i o n of e t h i c s , cannot be reduced t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " w i t h o u t a l s o r e d u c i n g i t s c e n t r a l c r i t i c i s m , and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . " P r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " i m p l i e s t h a t the e x p l o i t a t i o n of l a b o u r i s the s o l e c o n d i t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r the e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s t economy. The p o s i t i o n t h a t e x p l o i t a t i o n i s the s o l e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s m c o n t r a d i c t s both the essence of Marx's a n a l y s i s of c a p i t a l i s m - - t h a t c a p i t a l i s m i s c o n d i t i o n e d by both e x p l o i t a t i o n and the e x i s t e n c e of a l a b o u r market--as w e l l as the t h r u s t of h i s c r i t i c i s m of c a p i t a l i s m . The i m p l i c a t i o n of Marx's a n a l y s i s of c a p i t a l i s m i s t h a t i n o r d e r t o r e a c h a communist, i . e . c l a s s l e s s , s o c i e t y a means of p r e v e n t i n g the a c c u m u l a t i o n of w e a l t h by the c a p i t a l i s t , and p r e v e n t i n g labour-power from a c t i n g as a commodity, i s r e q u i r e d . In o t h e r words, t h a t communist s o c i e t y cannot be a c h i e v e d o v e r n i g h t because some form of s t a t e i s needed. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " , however, i s t h a t the a b i l i t y of the c a p i t a l i s t t o e x p r o p r i a t e the p r o d u c t of o t h e r s l a b o u r i s the s o l e c r i t e r i a f o r the e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s m . The c a p i t a l i s t i s a b l e get away w i t h the e x p r o p r i a t i o n , i . e . t h e f t , of the f r u i t s of the l a b o u r of o t h e r s because of the e x i s t e n c e of the s t a t e . S t a t e and c a p i t a l i s m c o - e x i s t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the a b o l i t i o n once and f o r a l l of the s t a t e makes p o s s i b l e the immediate a b o l i t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t s as a c l a s s i n so f a r as they no l o n g e r have ac c e s s t o an i n s t r u m e n t of r o b b e r y - - a s t a t e . " P r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " , t h e r e f o r e , i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t c l a s s e s are e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s , t h a t t h e r e a r e two c l a s s e s — t h e r u l i n g c l a s s and the r u l e d c l a s s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p o s i t i o n , communist s o c i e t y i s p o s s i b l e because once the s t a t e i s o v e r t h r o w n , t h e r e can no l o n g e r be any c l a s s e s , s i n c e t h e r e i s no l o n g e r a r u l e d and a r u l e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " was e s s e n t i a l l y an a n a r c h i s t p o s i t i o n . 5 7 The p o s i t i o n t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " can a l s o be found i n Yang Y i c e n g ' s a r t i c l e , "Why Must S o c i e t y be Transformed", which was p u b l i s h e d i n the November 1 9 1 9 i s s u e of the s t u d e n t paper Guomin. 5 8 Yang i d e n t i f i e d " p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y " as the fundamental problem i n Chinese s o c i e t y . On the one hand p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y causes the c a p i t a l i s t s t o be l a z y , a r r o g a n t , and t o not engage i n p r o d u c t i o n ; on the o t h e r hand, i t causes the l a b o u r e r s t o pass t h e i r days i n b i t t e r l a b o u r so t h a t they cannot l i v e . 5 9 S i n c e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i s the r o o t cause of C h i n a ' s many s o c i a l i l l s , how does i t come about? A c c o r d i n g t o Yang, P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o r g i n i g a t e s i n t h e f t : the r i c h s t e a l the poor's means of p r o d u c t i o n , the c a p i t a l i s t s t e a l s 65 the l a b o u r e r ' s p r o d u c t s . The more t h a t the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y has advanced, the more b i t t e r the l a b o u r e r ' s l o t has become. 6 0 But modern economic t h e o r y , which c l a i m s t h a t l a n d , l a b o u r and c a p i t a l are the t h r e e key i n g r e d i e n t s i n p r o d u c t i o n , cannot e x p l a i n how " p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o r i g i n a t e s i n t h e f t . " T h i s i s because "modern economic t h e o r y i s a t h e o r y t h a t c o m p l e t e l y s e r v e s p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p . " 6 1 In f a c t , o n l y l a b o u r i s a key element i n p r o d u c t i o n s i n c e o n l y i t can c r e a t e v a l u e . T h e r e f o r e , " t o use c a p i t a l as the most i m p o r t a n t p r o d u c t i s t h e f t . " T h i s was " c l e a r l y shown by Marx," Yang c l a i m e d . 6 2 A c c o r d i n g t o Marx, In modern s o c i e t y o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y own the t o o l s of p r o d u c t i o n and have accumulated p r o d u c t s ( t h a t i s t o say c a p i t a l ) , the remainder, the v a s t m a j o r i t y , o n l y own t h e i r own work power [ gongzuo li^Xfefl ]. I f they w i s h t o l i v e they must d e f i n i t e l y s e l l t h e i r work power t o the c a p i t a l i s t s . 6 3 Thus Yang made use of M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y t o d i s c r e d i t "modern economic t h e o r y " , but Yang's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h a t t h e o r y was t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . T h i s was the same p o s i t i o n as t h a t of "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " . M a r x i s t economics, t h e n , was u n d e r s t o o d t o prove t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . In r e a l i t y t h i s was an a r n a r c h i s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f u n c t i o n i n g of modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , and was a r e f l e c t i o n of the c o n f u s i o n between the n o n - M a r x i s t p o s i t i o n s t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s a l r e a d y knew and M a r x i s t t h e o r y . T h i s does not mean, however, t h a t M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y had no impact on Chinese thought at t h i s t i m e , f o r i t d i d l e n d an economic c o n t e n t t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , a p o s i t i o n which was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y . 66 4. C l a s s e s and C l a s s S t r u g g l e C l a s s s t r u g g l e was the t h i r d element of M a r x i s t t h e o r y t h a t drew the a t t e n t i o n of C h i n e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n 1919-1920. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n t e l l e c t u a l s of a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s acknowledged the e x i s t e n c e ( a l t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y the d e s i r a b l i t y ) of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Those who were i n c l i n e d towards communism were p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c l a s s s t r u g g l e as the best amongst many means of c r e a t i n g s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . But even h e r e , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s s t r u g g l e was c o n f u s e d w i t h a n a r c h i s m . They were a l s o unaware of the c o m p l e x i t y of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n C h i n a , and the consequent c o m p l e x i t y of Chinese c l a s s s t r u g g l e . As one of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s most i n t e r e s t e d i n R u s s i a n - s t y l e s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , L i Dazhao p l a y e d a major r o l e i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g Marx's d o c t r i n e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . C l a s s s t r u g g l e was one of L i Dazhao's p r i m a r y concerns i n h i s a r t i c l e "My M a r x i s t Views". L i wrote, Mr. Marx f e l t t h a t one s o c i a l group r e l i e s upon the monopoly of the p r o d u c t i v e means [shengchan shouduan i ' n order t o p l u n d e r the s u r p l u s l a b o u r and s u r p l u s v a l u e of another group. However, these two k i n d s of c l a s s e s , a t the b e g i n n i n g , do not c o n s i d e r themselves to be c l a s s e s , i n f a c t the c l a s s i n i t s e l f [ j i e j i d i benshen Wf fysfcjf} has not y e t become a c l a s s , i t i s s t i l l not c l a s s c o n s c i o u s . L a t e r when i t becomes a c l a s s , and knows t h a t i t i s i n a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n from o t h e r c l a s s e s , c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n [ j i e j i j ingzheng Pff &/[ 0 ] i s i t s u n a v o i d a b l e f a t e . That i s t o say, where t n e r e i s c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , c o m p e t i t i o n o c c u r s between c l a s s e s . Of c o u r s e , a t f i r s t t h e r e i s o n l y economic c o m p e t i t i o n over economic i n t e r e s t s , l a t e r i t advances to p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n over p o l i t i c a l power, u n t i l the economic s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d on t h i s c l a s s o p p o s i t i o n i t s e l f advances, and a new k i n d of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s . 6 " Thus L i was aware t h a t b e f o r e c l a s s e s c o u l d s t r u g g l e , and even 6 7 i n a c e r t a i n sense e x i s t , they had t o be c o n s c i o u s . S i n c e consciousness c o u l d be induced t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , the d o c t r i n e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e d i d not p r e c l u d e the p e d a g o g i c a l t h r u s t of the New C u l t u r e Movement. D e s p i t e t h i s , L i was s t i l l r a t h e r a p o l o g e t i c about c l a s s s t r u g g l e . He wrote, In t h i s r e g a r d , Mr Marx does not ackowledge t h a t c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n , o c c u r s throughout a l l of human h i s t o r y , he o n l y a p p l i e s h i s t h e o r y of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n t o p r e v i o u s human h i s t o r y , not through a l l of the p a s t , the p r e s e n t , and the f u t u r e . 6 5 In "My M a r x i s t Views" L i was a l s o concerned w i t h the apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n between Marx's t h e o r y of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s and h i s t h e o r y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . A c c o r d i n g t o L i , T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y and the t h e o r y o f . c l a s s s t r u g g l e c o u n t s as a ve r y i m p o r t a n t p o i n t . Mr. Marx, on the one hand, a s s e r t s t h a t the motive f o r c e s . . . of h i s t o r y are the f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n ; on the o t h e r hand, he a l s o says t h a t a l l p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y i s the h i s t o r y of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n , t h a t i s t o say t h a t c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n i s the u l t i m a t e method of h i s t o r y ; the c r e a t o r of h i s t o r y i s none o t h e r than c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n . On the one hand he negates the a c t i v i t i e s of c l a s s e s , no ma t t e r whether those a c t i v i t i e s are d i r e c t l y economic or i n d i r e c t , s i n c e the l i m i t a t i o n s of p r o p e r t y and o t h e r o r d i n a r y laws can o f t e n have an e f f e c t i n d e t e r m i n i n g economic d i r e c t i o n ; on the o t h e r hand, he says t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n may produce the e s s e n t i a l f a c t s of h i s t o r y , and determine the d i r e c t i o n of advancement. 6 6 L i r e s o l v e d t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n by p o i n t i n g out t h a t As soon as the f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n undergo a change, the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s change a c c o r d i n g l y . But the change i n the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s depend upon the a c t i v i t y of the c l a s s t h a t i s i n the e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d , Mr. Marx r e a l l y p l a c e d c l a s s a c t i v i t y i n the framework of n a t u r a l change w i t h i n the economic p r o c e s s . 6 7 L i ' s view t h a t t h e r e was no c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the d o c t r i n e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y was s u p p o r t e d by Hu Hanmin. In "A C r i t i c i s m of a C r i t i c i s m of the M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n of H i s t o r y " , Hu examined the p o s i t i o n s of Marx's c r i t i c s and p o i n t e d out t h e i r e r r o r s . 6 8 As has been p o i n t e d out above, when i t carneto the h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s e s of both L i and Hu, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c e n t r a l i t y of the d o c t r i n e of c l a s s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n Marx's thought f a i l e d t o i n f o r m t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y . In e f f e c t , t hey f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t Marx saw c l a s s s t r u g g l e as a u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon, and saw c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n a f u n d a m e n t a l l y more l i m i t e d manner. They saw i t as a means o f , a d e v i c e f o r , the c r e a t i o n of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . They were w i l l i n g t o admit t h a t i t was not the o n l y such means, but L i Dazhao at l e a s t h e l d t h a t i t was the most e f f e c t i v e means. The o t h e r methodology of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was a n a r c h i s m . S i n c e a n a r c h i s m was the b e t t e r known p h i l o s o p h y of r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , and because i t r e j e c t e d c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n f a v o u r of g r a d u a l advancement towards mutual a i d , L i t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e r e was no c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the a n a r c h i s t o b j e c t i v e of a s o c i e t y based on mutual a i d , and the M a r x i s t means of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . 6 9 In " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and Mutual A i d " , p u b l i s h e d i n J u l y 1919, L i suggested t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e was the o n l y means of r e a l i z i n g mutual a i d : In the w o r l d of t o d a y , d a r k n e s s has reached an extreme. To be a b l e t o c o n t i n u e the h i s t o r y of humanity, we must g i v e r i s e t o a g r e a t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s l i k e Noah's g r e a t f l o o d : i t w i l l wash c l e a n the o l d w o r l d of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n g i v i n g r i s e t o the brand new b r i g h t w o r l d of mutual a i d . The p a t h of t h i s f i n a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s t h a t of the s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n of c l a s s s o c i e t y . I t must be taken and cannot be a v o i d e d . 7 0 69 C l a s s s t r u g g l e would make p o s s i b l e the m a t e r i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which i n t u r n would produce the s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of mutual a i d . The f i n a l c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n i s the means f o r the t r a n f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p r i n c i p l e of mutual a i d i s the c r e e d of t h i s t r a n s f o r m n a t i o n of the human s p i r i t . We advocate m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a complete t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 7 1 Thus, f o r L i , c l a s s s t r u g g l e was a means t o an end. T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s s t r u g g l e as a d e v i c e was a l s o e v i d e n t i n the d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s s t r u g g l e t h a t L i p r e s e n t e d i n " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and Mutual A i d " . L i agreed w i t h the a n a r c h i s t s t h a t " s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n must be brought about by the. m a j o r i t y of people w i t h i n a s o c i e t y , " but p o i n t e d out t h a t The f o r c e which i s the b a s i s of a s o c i a l movement must come from t h a t c l a s s which does not p r o f i t from the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . That c l a s s which i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r o f i t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a few i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h noble a s p i r a t i o n s , must oppose t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . One c l a s s pushes t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , one c l a s s opposes i t . T h i s i s the essence of c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n . 7 2 In o t h e r words, c l a s s s t r u g g l e was caused by the dominant c l a s s ' s r e s i s t a n c e t o s o c i a l change. C l a s s s t r u g g l e then becomes the means of a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l change. When i t came t o f u r t h e r i d e n t i f y i n g the n a t u r e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , however, L i made i t e v i d e n t t h a t he o n l y r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of s t r u g g l e between the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . He wrote, S o - c a l l e d c l a s s e s a r e f i e r c e l y opposed economic c l a s s e s . C o n c r e t e l y , l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s are the c l a s s which owns the means of p r o d u c t i o n , workers and peasants a r e the c l a s s which does not own the means of p r o d u c t i o n . In p r i m i t i v e communal s o c i e t y , because economic t e c h n i q u e s were not v e r y d e v e l o p e d , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l a b o u r was-only enough f o r s e l f - 70 s u f f i c i e n c y , no s u r p l u s was produced and c l a s s e s d i d not e x i s t . L a t e r , as t e c h n i q u e s became more r e f i n e d , the economy r a p i d l y developed and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l a b o u r became more than enough. T h i s e x t r a , then, i s s u r p l u s l a b o u r . From then on, s u r p l u s l a b o u r g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d u n t i l i t was s e i z e d by those who owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n c r e a t i n g a s o c i e t y based upon c l a s s o p p o s i t i o n . 7 3 I.E. the c l a s s t h a t owns the means of p r o d u c t i o n , the b o u r g e o i s i e , e x p r o p r i a t e s the s u r p l u s l a b o u r the c l a s s which does not own the means of p r o d u c t i o n , the p r o l e t a r i a t . T h i s , and o n l y t h i s , g i v e s r i s e t o " c l a s s o p p o s i t i o n " , t h a t i s c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Not a l l M a r x i s t s agreed w i t h L i ' s a n a l y s i s t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e o n l y o c c u r s between the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . Zhou F u h a i , f o r example, argued i n "China's C l a s s S t r u g g l e " t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e took s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f o r m s 7 " . W r i t i n g i n J i e f a n g yu G a i z a o i n December 1-919, Zhou gave the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of c l a s s s t r u g g l e : Why must c l a s s e s s t r u g g l e ? S i m p l y p u t , i t i s because one c l a s s stands i n a s o c i a l l y dominant [ z h i p e i p o s i t i o n , and a t the same t i m e , one c l a s s s t a n d s i n a s o c i a l l y dominated p o s i t o n . T h e i r p o s i t i o n s are not o n l y d i f f e r e n t , but v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . In o r d e r t o s e r v e i t s own i n t e r e s t s , the dominated c l a s s must c a r r y out a s o c i a l movement a g a i n s t the dominant c l a s s . T h i s i s the major reason f o r c l a s s s t r u g g l e . 7 5 Thus Zhou agreed w i t h L i t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e was the r e s u l t the c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s between two c l a s s e s , but Zhou went on t o argue t h a t t h e r e were, i n g e n e r a l , two k i n d s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e s . The f i r s t , as i n the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , was between "the m i d d l e c l a s s " ( z h o n q l i u j i e j i *f ffif>) and "the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s " ( g u i z u j i e j i \ $f#D • The second form was the r e s u l t of "the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n " and o c c u r r e d between "the l a b o u r i n g 71 c l a s s " (laodonq j i e j i ^ jjf and "the b o u r g e o i s i e " ( z i c h a n j i e j i  xJjfc ^ . 7 6 The 1911 R e v o l u t i o n was an example of the former k i n d of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . The p r e s e n t form of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n China was not the l a t t e r , however, because both the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s and the b o u r g e o i s i e i n China were too s m a l l . C h inese c l a s s s t r u g g l e , t h e r e f o r e , was between the " p a r a s i t i c c l a s s " ( q i s h e n q j i e j i ^ % WfH) which was composed of w a r l o r d s , b u r e a u c r a t s and o f f i c i a l s , and the " s e l f s u f f i c e n t c l a s s " ( z i g e i j i e j i A l t h o u g h Zhou had r e j e c t e d the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of E u r o p e a n - s t y l e c l a s s e s t o the a n a l y s i s of Chinese s o c i e t y , he s t i l l embraced c l a s s s t r u g g l e as the key t o s o c i a l change i n C h i n a . He wrote: To t r a n s f o r m s o c i e t y , we must f i r s t e l i m i n a t e the o b s t a c l e s . The o b s t a c l e i s the p a r a s i t i c c l a s s . T h e r e f o r e , we must f i r s t e l i m i n a t e the p a r a s i t i c c l a s s . To remove the p a r a s i t i c c l a s s , we must be u n i t e d w i t h the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c l a s s and c a r r y o u t c l a s s s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e m . 7 7 Thus Zhou F u h a i was aware of the f a c t t h a t Chinese s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e d i d not conform t o t h a t of Europe. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t a debate between Chinese M a r x i s t s over the nat u r e of Chinese s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e d i d not emerge a t t h i s t i m e . Such a debate c o u l d have made those i n c l i n e d towards communism aware t h a t the m e c h a n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of European and R u s s i a n models t o Chinese^ s o c i e t y was h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c . In any event, no such debate m a t e r i a l i z e d , and i n l e s s than a year Zhou was p u t t i n g f o r w a r d L i ' s p o s i t i o n on c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n C h i n a . 7 8 The document which seems t o have p l a y e d the major r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the c r e d i b i l i t y of L i ' s p o s i t i o n on Chinese c l a s s s t r u g g l e was o d d l y enough written by Marx h i m s e l f and was h i s most f o r c e f u l statement on the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of communist r e v o l u t i o n a r i s i n g from the s t r u g g l e between the p r o l e t a r i a t and b o u r g e o i s i e - - The Communist M a n i f e s t o . In A p r i l 1920, Chen Wangdao p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t complete Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o . 7 9 I t i s u n l i k e l y however t h a t t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l l y d e p a r t e d from e a r l i e r p a r t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n s such as the t r a n s l a t i o n of the f i r s t c h a p t e r of The Communist M a n i f e s t o , " B o u r g e o i s and P r o l e t a r i a n s " , which was p u b l i s h e d i n the November 1919 i s s u e of Guomin. 8 0 T h i s s e c t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o p r e s e n t e d Marx's view t h a t a l l h i s t o r y i s a h i s t o r y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Modern b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y , which o r i g i n a t e d i n f e u d a l s o c i e t y , h a s a c l a s s s t r u c t u r e which i s s i m p l e r than a l l p r e v i o u s s o c i e t i e s . I t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y becoming p o l a r i z e d i n t o "two g r e a t camps"--the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . The b o u r g e o i s i e has p l a y e d a p o s i t i v e c r e a t i v e r o l e i n h i s t o r y . I t has c r e a t e d f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n which surpass those of p r e v i o u s modes of p r o d u c t i o n . In a c e r t a i n sense, i t has even c r e a t e d the w o r l d . But, a c c o r d i n g t o Marx, i t has ceased t o p l a y a p o s i t i v e h i s t o r i c a l r o l e , and has become a h i n d e r a n c e t o p r o d u c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e i t w i l l be overthrown by the p r o l e t a r i a t j u s t as the b o u r g e o i s i e overthrew the f e u d a l system when the l a t t e r had become a h i n d e r a n c e t o economic d e v e l o p m e n t . 8 1 W h i l e t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n d i d make Marx's c l e a r e s t statement of the i n e v i t a b l y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e a v a i l a b l e t o C h inese i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i t was not f r e e of problems. For example i t s a i d , The s o c i e t y of the p r o p e r t i e d [youchanzhe ], which sprang from the d e s t r u c t i o n of f e u d a l s o c i e t y , cannot 73 a v o i d c l a s s c o n f r o n t a t i o n [ j i e j i z h i d u i z h i 0 f " U S . 2 ~ % 3 ( , I t has a g a i n c r e a t e d a new k i n d of c l a s s f j i e j i flfffi J , a new means of o p p r e s s i o n , new forms of s t r u g g l e t o r e p l a c e the o l d . In our e r a , which can be c a l l e d the e r a of the p r o p e r t i e d , c l a s s c o n f r o n t a t i o n has become much s i m p l e r . The whole of s o c i e t y has become d i v i d e d i n t o two m u t u a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c g r e a t camps, two c o n f r o n t i n g g r e a t c l a s s e s : the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [youchanzhe j i e j i "M ̂ T&PtfflZ) and the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s ["wuchanzhe j i e j i 3 ' ' * Thus, t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o t r a n s l a t e d " b o u r g e o i s i e " and " p r o l e t a r i a t " as the " p r o p e r t i e d " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d " c l a s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The e f f e c t of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n was t o j u s t i f y L i Dazhao's p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e r e were two c l a s s e s , one which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . was p r o p e r t i e d , and one which d i d n o t , i . e . was u n p r o p e r t i e d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t the European c l a s s s t r u g g l e between p r o p e r t i e d and u n p r o p e r t i e d was u n i v e r s a l . The e x i s t e n c e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e was not o n l y r e c o g n i z e d by Chinese M a r x i s t s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s i s r e a d i l y apparent i n Dongfang Z a z h i . In F e b r u a r y and March 1920, Dongfang Zazhi p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e by Lu Hongyu, c a l l e d , "The c o n s c r i p t Labour S y s t e m " . 8 3 In t h i s a r t i c l e Lu argued t h a t f o r c e d l a b o u r , as opposed t o s o c i a l i s m , was the s o l u t i o n t o China's problems. F o r c e d l a b o u r would a l l o w the m o b i l i z a t i o n of l a r g e f o r c e s which would e n a b l e China t o overcome her weakness i n the f a c e of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d West. A c c o r d i n g t o Lu c l a s s s t r u g g l e o r g i n a t e d w i t h the i d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n Europe: In the i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s of Europe, when c o t t a g e manufacture moved t o f a c t o r y manufacture, a k i n d of mutual o p p o s i t i o n between the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s [laodong j i e j i ffi jff PjtfH] and the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s [ z i b e n j i e j i appeared. *< In C h ina t h i s " o p p r e s s i o n " had o n l y r e c e n t l y appeared. T h e r e f o r e : In o r d e r t o n i p e v i l i n the bud, the s t a t e must make use of the c o n s c r i p t i o n of l a b o u r e r s . . . p r e v e n t i n g the f u t u r e antagonism of the two c l a s s e s of l a b o u r e r s and c a p i t a l i s t s . 8 5 In o t h e r words the system of f o r c e d l a b o u r c o u l d be used t o p r e v e n t the c l a s s s t r u g g l e which accompanies i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The e d i t o r of Dongfang Z a z h i a l s o made use of c l a s s terms and spoke of c l a s s s t r u g g l e by the end of t h i s p e r i o d . For example, i n an e d i t o r i a l i n A p r i l , he t r a c e d s o c i a l problems t o an economic l e v e l : In t h e . w o r l d today, a l l k i n d s of economic problems cause temporary d i s t u r b a n c e s , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s c l e a r l y becoming more u r g e n t . C l a s s s t r u g g l e i s caused by n o t h i n g more than the system c f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , so the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s h o u l d be reformed. . . I f the problem of p r o p e r t y i s r e s o l v e d , a l l problems can be r e s o l v e d . 6 6 Thus i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t even n o n - M a r x i s t s tended t o see c l a s s s t r u g g l e as o c c u r r i n g between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l , u n p r o p e r t i e d and p r o p e r t i e d , p r o l e t a r i a t and b o u r g e o i s i e . The e a r l y communist movement would share t h i s view of c l a s s s t r u g g l e a s a d e v i c e f o r a c h i e v i n g r e v o l u t i o n which a r i s e s from the c o n f r o n t a t i o n between owners and non-owners of p r o p e r t y . The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang would argue t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e was the means of a t t a i n i n g s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . L i k e t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , they would o n l y be aware of the e x i s t e n c e of s t r u g g l e between two c l a s s e s — t h e p r o p e r t i e d and the u n p r o p e r t i e d . Thus i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a l t h o u g h M a r x i s t i d e a s were 75 w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d i n China between May 1919 and A p r i l 1920, Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s had r a t h e r l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of these i d e a s . They c o n f u s e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m and economic d e t e r m i n i s m , M a r x i s t and a n a r c h i s t economic t h e o r y , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n China w i t h t h a t of Europe. These u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , even on the p a r t of the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d of Chinese M a r x i s t s , were ove r w h e l m i n g l y m e c h a n i c a l . The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of t h i s was an e q u a l l y m e c h a n i c a l approach t o the Chinese r e v o l u t i o n on the p a r t of the e a r l y communist movement. I n t e l l e c t u a l s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . o f Marxism l e n t l i t t l e more than a veneer, a s m a t t e r i n g of M a r x i s t t e r m i n o l o g y , t o a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t s . Nowhere i s t h i s * m o r e e v i d e n t t h a t the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s shown by p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s between the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n and the b e g i n n i n g s of the communist movement. 76 Chapter Three C l a s s e s : The B o u r g e o i s i e and the P r o l e t a r i a t 1. The P o l a r i z a t i o n of S o c i e t y : The Concept of " C l a s s " Between the October R e v o l u t i o n and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t complete Chinese e d i t i o n of The Communist M a n i f e s t o , the term "jieji" f f i j j f f i , which today i s u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d " c l a s s " , became w i d e l y used i n C h i n a . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was l i t t l e agreement amongst i n t e l l e c t u a l s on the q u e s t i o n of which c l a s s e s e x i s t e d i n C h inese s o c i e t y , or even,.when they d i d agree, l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y i n the terms they used, t h e r e were s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s on c l a s s e s , and the c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n of s o c i e t y , which were g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . However, c l a s s c o n c e p t s , more than any o t h e r f a c e t of the thought of the p e r i o d , r e f l e c t e d the i n f l u e n c e of the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n . Most i n t e l l e c t u a l s tended t o d i v i d e Chinese s o c i e t y i n t o two b a s i c c l a s s e s . Whether they r e f e r r e d to these two c l a s s e s as the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t , the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s and the g e n t r y c l a s s , or i n some o t h e r manner; i n t e l l e c t u a l s r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of two c l a s s e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a c l a s s of o p p r e s s o r s and a c l a s s of o p p r e s s e d . Moreover, they i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of the o ppressed masses. S e c o n d l y , they tended t o d e f i n e c l a s s e s i n economic terms, i d e n t i f y i n g one c l a s s which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and one c l a s s which l a b o u r e d . A l t h o u g h the economic d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s was an i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l advancement r e l a t i v e t o a n a r c h i s t c l a s s c o n c e p t s , i n p r a c t i c e i n t e l l e c t u a l s o n l y r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of what were, i n e f f e c t , the same c l a s s e s e a r l i e r i d e n t i f i e d by a n a r c h i s m . I n s t e a d of d e s c r i b i n g c l a s s e s i n terms of t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n s , i n a c t u a l i t y they i n c l u d e d l a n d l o r d s as w e l l as c a p i t a l i s t s i n the ranks of the " b o u r g e o i s i e " , and p e asants as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l workers i n the ranks of the " p r o l e t a r i a t " . At the same time t h a t they were becoming aware of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , many Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s became c o n s c i o u s of the p o l a r i z a t i o n of t h e i r s o c i e t y i n t o the l a b o u r i n g masses on the one hand, and the p a r a s i t e s , b u r e a u c r a t s , and e x p l o i t e r s on the o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , they i d e n t i f i e d themselves w i t h the l a b o u r i n g masses. By "1919, t h i s d i v i s i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o o p p r e s s o r and o p p r e s s e d was e x p r e s s e d i n c l a s s terms. A n a r c h i s t thought had been w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d i n C h ina b e f o r e the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . 1 Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e f o r e , i t was a n a r c h i s m t h a t p r o v i d e d the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n . The a n a r c h i s t i n f l u e n c e i s r e a d i l y apparent i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n Dongfang Zazhi on the eve of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t ion'. 2 T h i s a r t i c l e , "Labourism", d e s c r i b e d a U t o p i a n s o c i e t y i n which t h e r e would be n e i t h e r p a r a s i t e s nor e x p l o i t e d . I t p o i n t e d out t h a t the source of a l l w e a l t h was l a n d , c a p i t a l , and "labour-power" ( l a o l i ffi ji ). A c c o r d i n g t o "Labourism" f o r something t o be of v a l u e i t had t o be t r a n s f o r m e d by l a b o u r . Those who owned l a n d , or h e l d c a p i t a l , and who d i d not l a b o u r , were p a r a s i t e s whose w e a l t h was d e r i v e d from the l a b o u r of o t h e r s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y . The s o l u t i o n was " l a b o u r i s m " ( l a o l i z h u y i f f i ? ^ £ k )--a economic system i n which everyone would engage i n l a b o u r t o meet t h e i r 78 d a i l y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Labourism would have the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : (1) the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r would be a b o l i s h e d ; (2) a l l o c c u p a t i o n s would be e q u a l ; (3) s o c i a l p r e s s u r e would be the work i n c e n t i v e i n a n o n - e x p l o i t a t i v e system; (4) a l l p e o p l e would have e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y . 3 "Labourism" c o n t i n u e d t o be p o p u l a r throughout t h i s p e r i o d , as was the h i g h l y romantic image which i n t e l l e c t u a l s had of t h e i r r o l e as e n l i g h t e n e r s of the l a b o u r i n g masses. For example, the j o u r n a l Laodong ( L a b o u r ) , which was founded i n March, 1918, was devoted t o n o t h i n g l e s s than The r e v e r e n c e of l a b o u r , the promotion of l a b o u r i s m [ l a o d o n g z h u y i tfff}) gT ̂  ], the c u l t i v a t i o n of the m o r a l i t y of l a b o u r , the b r i n g i n g of w o r l d knowledge t o the l a b o u r e r , the r e c o r d i n g of the a c t i o n s of the w o r l d l a b o u r movement, the e x p l a n a t i o n of the t r u t h about s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s , and the e x p e d i t i o n of the r e s o l u t i o n of the s o c i a l problems of l a b o u r e r s i n our c o u n t r y and the w o r l d . * Laodong's a t t i t u d e towards l a b o u r was shared by many o t h e r s , of whom C a i Yuanpei and L i Dazhao were perhaps the best known and most i n f l u e n t i a l . In h i s speech at the r a l l y h e l d a t Tiananmen square i n P e k i n g t o c e l e b r a t e the A l l i e d v i c t o r y i n the F i r s t World War, C a i p o i n t e d out t h a t d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t no Chinese c i t i z e n s (except f o r a few l a b o u r e r s i n F r a n c e ) had d i r e c t l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the war e f f o r t , the Chinese s h o u l d c e l e b r a t e : T h i s i s not a s t r a n g e t h i n g . The w o r l d , from now on, i s the w o r l d of l a b o u r ( l a o g o n g f f i J " ) . That which I c a l l l a b o u r i s not o n l y metal and wood work, e t c . On the c o n t r a r y i t i s the use of one's l a b o u r f o r the b e n e f i t of o t h e r s . No m a t t e r i f one uses p h y s i c a l or mental l a b o u r , both a r e l a b o u r . T h e r e f o r e , a g r i c u l t u r e i s the l a b o u r of p l a n t i n g c r o p s . Commerce i s the l a b o u r of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The s t a f f of s c h o o l s , a u t h o r s and i n v e n t o r s , are e d u c a t i o n a l l a b o u r e r s . We are a l l l a b o u r e r s . We must each r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e of 79 l a b o u r . The S a n c t i t y of Labour (laodong shengui •5 Labour, C a i c o n t i n u e d , s h o u l d not be seen as the o b j e c t of e x p l o i t a t i o n , but as something t h a t s h o u l d be v a l u e d i n i t s own r i g h t . C a i ' s views on "The S a n c t i t y of Labour" were shared by a number of prominent i n t e l l e c t u a l s . 6 In November 1918, f o r example, w r i t i n g i n "The V i c t o r y of the Common P e o p l e " , L i Dazhao agreed t h a t the war was "the d e f e a t of c a p i t a l i s m and the v i c t o r y of l a b o u r i s m " . 7 T h i s r omantic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on the p a r t of i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h the l a b o u r i n g masses l e d t o R u s s i a n - s t y l e p o p u l i s m , and c a l l s f o r s t u d e n t s t o go down t o the c o u n t r y s i d e and become "one" w i t h the masses. T h i s c a l l was c l e a r l y s t a t e d by L i Dazhao i n F e b r u a r y 1919. In "Youth and the C o u n t r y s i d e " , he wrote, 8 . ; ' A l t h o u g h the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i n our China i s i n many ways d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of R u s s i a , our youth s h o u l d go to the c o u n t r y s i d e , t a k i n g the s p i r i t of the R u s s i a n youths i n the propaganda movement i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , t o de v e l o p the c o u n t r y s i d e . . . Our China i s an a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r y , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s [ laogong j i e j i tj£ ̂  P/t#L ] ar e p e a s a n t s . I f they a re not l i b e r a t e d , the whole people of our c o u n t r y w i l l not be l i b e r a t e d ; t h e i r m i s e r y i s the mi s e r y of the whole peopl e of our c o u n t r y ; t h e i r d a r k n e s s i s the darkness of the whole people of our c o u n t r y ; the meanness of t h e i r l i v e s i s the meanness of our whole government. Go de v e l o p them, cause them t o know the d e s i r e f o r l i b e r a t i o n , e x p l a i n t h e i r m i s e r y , r e l i e v e t h e i r d a r k n e s s . . . O f f w i t h you our few y o u t h s , our whole n a t i o n i s s l e e p i n g , who e l s e i s t h e r e ? 9 In F e b r u a r y 1919, Chenbao ("The morning p o s t " ) e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r v i e w s : Those who are o u t s i d e the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d and l o u d l y scream cannot do b e t t e r than t o e n t e r the l a b o u r i n g 80 w o r l d and c a r r y out r e f o r m . Because they s t a n d o u t s i d e the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d , what they imagine t o be i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the l a b o u r e r s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the l a b o u r e r s ' best i n t e r e s t . I f they p e r s o n a l l y e n t e r the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d , they can then know the t r u e h a p p i n e s s and b i t t e r n e s s of the l a b o u r i n g w o r l d . 1 0 Thus, i n t e l l e c t u a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y young i n t e l l e c t u a l s , were urged t o go down t o the masses i n o r d e r t o t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e the problems and c o n d i t i o n s of the working p e o p l e . As the d i r e c t consequence of t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the l a b o u r i n g masses, i n t e l l e c t u a l s denounced the r u l i n g e l i t e as p a r a s i t i c o p p r e s s o r s . T h i s a t t i t u d e towards the e l i t e can be seen i n the w r i t i n g s of Chen D u x i u . In 1917, h i s a p p r o v a l of the F e b r u a r y R e v o l u t i o n as a v i c t o r y f o r a n t i - m i l i t a r i s t d e m o c r a t i c f o r c e s 1 1 had been i n d i c a t i v e of h i s view t h a t m i l i t a r i s m , and the l a c k of democracy, were the major p o l i t i c a l problems i n C h i n a . In F e b r u a r y 1919, he h e l d a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n . In " E l i m i n a t e t h e Three V e r m i n " , 1 2 he d e s c r i b e d m i l i t a r i s t s , b u r e a u c r a t s and c o r r u p t p o l i t i c i a n s as the t h r e e enemies of democracy i n C h i n a . At f i r s t o p p r e s s i o n was not seen i n w e l l - d e f i n e d c l a s s terms. Rather a g e n e r i c term, "qianqquan , was used t o d e s c r i b e o p p r e s s i o n . The term "qiangquan" l i t e r a l l y meant " s t r o n g power" and i s the a n a r c h i s t term f o r " a u t h o r i t y " . 1 3 I t was used much as we would use the term " t y r a n n y " . C a i Yuanpei used the term qianqquan t o d e s c r i b e German m i l i t a r i s m . 1 " L i Dazhao used i t t o d e s c r i b e Japan's " p a n - A s i a n i s m " . 1 5 Meizhou P i n g l u n saw i t as "the o b j e c t of r e v o l u t i o n " . 1 6 B e g i n n i n g i n l a t e 1918 the p o l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o o p p r e s s o r s and oppressed came t o be seen i n terms of c l a s s e s . In 81 November 1918, L i Dazhao p o i n t e d out i n "The V i c t o r y of the Common P e o p l e " t h a t the war ended because of "the d e f e a t of c a p i t a l i s m and the v i c t o r y of l a b o u r i s m " . 1 7 He a l s o i d e n t i f i e d the c a p i t a l i s t s as a c l a s s and equated " l a b o u r i s m " w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d common p e o p l e " (wuchan shumin ), which was p r o b a b l y an attempt t o render the term " p r o l e t a r i a n s " i n Chi n e s e . At the same time t h a t L i was b e g i n n i n g t o e x p r e s s s o c i a l p o l a r i z a t i o n i n terms of c l a s s e s , he was b u b b l i n g w i t h enthusiasm f o r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . In "The V i c t o r y of 'B o l s h e v i s m ' " , a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n November, he wrote t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s "advocate t h a t a l l men and women s h o u l d w o r k , " 1 8 i . e . t h a t they advocated " l a b o u r i s m " . By Febr u a r y 1919, L i saw c l a s s - l i b e r a t i o n as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the g e n e r a l movement towards l i b e r a t i o n . The p r e s e n t e r a i s an e r a of l i b e r a t i o n , modern c i v i l i z a t i o n i s a c i v i l i z a t i o n of l i b e r a t i o n . The people w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from the s t a t e , l o c a l i t i e s w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from the c e n t r e , c o l o n i e s w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from the m e t r o p o l i s , weak s m a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from s t r o n g l a r g e n a t i o n a l i t i e s , p e a s a n t s w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from l a n d l o r d s , workers wish t o be l i b e r a t e d from c a p i t a l i s t s , women w i s h t o be l i b e r a t e d from men, c h i l d r e n w ish t o be l i b e r a t e d from p a r e n t s . Modern p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l movements a r e a l l l i b e r a t i o n movements. 1 9 In "Youth and the C o u n t r y s i d e " , a l s o w r i t t e n i n F e b r u a r y , L i i d e n t i f i e d the " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " as t h a t c l a s s which had t o be l i b e r a t e d . 2 0 At the same time t h a t L i was i d e n t i f y i n g the oppressed as a c l a s s , the o p p r e s s o r s were b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as a c l a s s . In Fe b r u a r y 1919, Chen Duxiu d e s c i b e d the r u l e r s of Ch i n a as "the t h r e e v e r m i n " " - - w a r l o r d s , b u r e a u c r a t s , and c o r r u p t 82 p o l i t i c i a n s . 2 1 In May 1919, Meizhou P i n g l u n d e s c r i b e d the r u l e r s of China as "the g e n t r y c l a s s " . 2 2 As has been mentionned above, i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i t h those of the o p p r e s s e d masses. But as the e d i t o r of P e k i n g ' s Chen Bao had p o i n t e d out i n F e b r u a r y , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s were n o t , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , p a r t of the working masses. By A p r i l 1919, t h i s view was b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n c l a s s terms. "The Reasons f o r the Lack of Success of C h i n a ' s . P o l i t i c a l R e v o l u t i o n and the Non-Occurrence of S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " was one of the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y a c l a s s a n a l y s i s t o China's p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . 2 3 A l t h o u g h t h i s a r t i c l e ' s main concern was t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t China had not y e t reached the e r a of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " , i t , i n e f f e c t , d emonstrated t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s have a d e t e r m i n i n g r o l e to p l a y i n h i s t o r y . H i s t o r i c a l development i s c o n d i t i o n e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s ' s a l l i a n c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o the a r t i c l e , C h i na had not reached the e r a of " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " because i n t e l l e c t u a l s had s t i l l not j o i n e d the working masses, and added t h a t the time had come f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s to a l l y w i t h the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s . The s o l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s view and the e a r l i e r p o p u l i s m was t h a t i t was now b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n c l a s s terms. T h i s view was r e i n f o r c e d by a t r a n s l a t i o n from the Japanese which a n a l y s e d s o c i a l problems i n terms of c l a s s e s . "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " , 2 " p u b l i s h e d i n the J u l y , 1919, i s s u e of Dongfang Z a z h i , argued t h a t "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " ( z h i s h i j i e j i ji. ) or modern "middle c l a s s " (zhongdeng j i e j i had become p a r t of the " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " (wuchan j i e j i 3 & ^ MfRj i .e .• p r o l e t a r i a t ) , and t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l s were p l a y i n g the key r o l e i n the " l a b o u r and s o c i a l movements". 2 5 In o t h e r words, i n t e l l e c t u a l s as a c l a s s had come t o have the same i n t e r e s t s as the c l a s s of l a b o u r e r s . The view t h a t s o c i e t y was d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s was even more e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d by C h i n e s e M a r x i s t s . T h i s i s q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n of c l a s s e s p r e s e n t e d i n the May, 1919, X i n Q i n g n i a n . Gu Mengyu's commentary on Marxism, and Kawakami Hajime's e x c e r p t s from The Communist M a n i f e s t o made i t a b u n d e n t l y c l e a r t h a t Marx h e l d t h a t s o c i e t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s - - t h e b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t , and t h a t a l l s o c i e t i e s a re composed of c l a s s e s . 2 6 I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t L i Dazhao, w r i t i n g i n " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and Mutual A i d " i n J u l y 1919, d i v i d e d s o c i e t y i n t o two c l a s s e s : . . . L a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s a re the c l a s s which owns the means of p r o d u c t i o n , workers and peasants a r e the c l a s s which does not own the means of p r o d u c t i o n . 2 7 In e f f e c t L i r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of two c l a s s e s — o n e which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and one which d i d n o t . The f a c t t h a t Zhou F u h a i d i d not u n c r i t i c l y a p p l y Western models of c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s t o Chinese s o c i e t y s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s Marxism was more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than L i ' s , but Zhou s t i l l r e c o g n i z e d the d i v i s i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o two b a s i c c l a s s e s . W r i t i n g i n "China's C l a s s S t r u g g l e " i n December, 1919, Zhou r e j e c t e d the i d e a t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n China was between "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " (laodong j i e j i ffizft dfi ffi) and "the b o u r g e o i s i e " ( z i c h a n j i e j i $| ̂  . I n s t e a d , he wrote t h a t C hinese c l a s s s t r u g g l e was between "the p a r a s i t i c c l a s s " ( q i s h e n g j i e j i if fyPfts%-\ and "the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c l a s s " ( z i g e i j i e j i The view t h a t s o c i e t y was d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s e s was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d by those who d i d not a c c e p t the M a r x i s t approach to China's problems. For i n s t a n c e , i n September 1919 J i e f a n g Yu G a i z a o r e c o g n i z e d the d i v i s i o n of Chinese s o c i e t y i n t o the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t 2 9 In November 1919, the s t u d e n t j o u r n a l Guomin acknowledged the same d i v i s i o n when i t reduced the o p p r e s s i o n of the masses by w a r l o r d s , , l a b o u r e r s by c a p i t a l i s t s , even women by men, t o the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . 3 0 Guomin d e s c r i b e d t h i s system i n terms of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l . I . E . i t reduced the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o p p r e s s o r and oppressed t o a c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p . In December 1919, Shaonian Shehui r e f e r r e d t o the o p p r e s s o r s — t h e b u r e a u c r a t s , w a r l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s - - a s a s i n g l e c l a s s . 3 1 I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the j o u r n a l would have a l s o r e f e r r e d t o the oppressed as a s i n g l e c l a s s . By December, when he was s t i l l a d v o c a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n a l o n g the l i n e s of England and A m e r i c a , Chen Duxiu had began t o use c l a s s - t e r m i n o l o g y . He argued t h a t c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s had t o be e l i m i n a t e d i n order_ to e s t a b l i s h the s o c i a l b a s i s of democracy. 3 2 In F e b r u a r y 1920, Lu H i n g y u , w r i t i n g i n Dongfang Z a z h i , proposed the c o n s c r i p t i o n of l a b o u r as the best means of a v o i d i n g the o t h e r w i s e i n e v i t a b l e antagonism between the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s (laodong j i e j i ~j$tfl fit'IL,) and the c a p i t a l i s t 8 5 c l a s s ( z i b e n j i a j i e j i ^ ^jjcfytJR.) •3 3 By May 1920, even the e d i t o r of the r e l a t i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e Dongfang Z a z h i was u s i n g c l a s s t e r m i n o l o g y . In an e d i t o r i a l , he p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e were two c l a s s e s i n Chinese s o c i e t y - - " t h e o f f i c i a l c l a s s " ( g u a n l i a o j i e j i ^ ^fpf^?) , and "the p e o p l e " . "The o f f i c i a l c l a s s " h e l p e d the c a p i t a l i s t s t o oppress the l a b o u r e r s . Only the f u l l i n s t i t u t i o n of democracy, he c o n c l u d e d , c o u l d c r e a t e a s o c i e t y i n which c a p i t a l i s t s would be unable t o e x p l o i t l a b o u r e r s . 3 " Thus by the time t h a t the f i r s t complete Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of the The Communist M a n i f e s t o was p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1920, c l a s s t e r m i n o l o g y had become w i d e l y used i n C h i n a . The p e r c e p t i o n of the p o l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o o p p r e s s o r and oppressed, which had been r e f l e c t e d e a r l i e r i n l a b o u r i s m and p o p u l i s m , was now e x p r e s s e d i n c l a s s terms. 2. Two Great Camps: The B o u r g e o i s i e and the P r o l e t a r i a t Given the c o m p l e x i t y of Chinese s o c i e t y , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e agreement on which c l a s s e s e x i s t e d i n C h i n a . What i s s u r p r i s i n g , however, was t h a t a l l of the w r i t e r s of the p e r i o d r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of o n l y two, or a t most t h r e e , c l a s s e s . Even those who i d e n t i f i e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s as a s e p a r a t e c l a s s q u i c k l y p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s were v i c t i m i z e d by the o p p r e s s o r c l a s s and t h e r e f o r e had the same i n t e r e s t s as the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s . The reason f o r t h i s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of Chinese c l a s s s t r u c t u r e was t h a t c l a s s e s were l o o k e d upon as p u r e l y economic e n t i t i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e was one c l a s s — t h e o p p r e s s o r 86 c l a s s — w h i c h owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e r e was another c l a s s - - t h e oppressed c l a s s - - w h i c h l a b o u r e d . B e f o r e O c t o b e r , 1917, the term " j i e. j i " seems t o have meant l i t t l e more than the d i s t i n c t i o n between i n f e r i o r s and s u p e r i o r s . In J u l y , 1917, f o r example, X i n Qingn i a n p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e - - " T h e e v i l s of the c l a s s system advocated by the C o n f u c i a n i s t s " 3 5 - - w h i c h d e s c r i b e d the C o n f u c i a n " c l a s s system" ( j i e j i z h i d u P^TJS-^^iMi as the F i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s — r u l e r and s u b j e c t , f a t h e r and son, e l d e r b r o t h e r and younger b r o t h e r , husband and w i f e , and f r i e n d and f r i e n d . 3 6 W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the l a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l l of these r e l a t i o n s are between s u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l . f i v e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s are between i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d , t h e r e f o r e , how the term " j i e j i " i n i t s modern and s o c i a l sense of " c l a s s " c o u l d be used t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t seems t h a t " j i e j i " meant l i t t l e more than d i s t i n c t i o n s between l e v e l s of rank or i m p o r t a n c e . 3 7 A f t e r the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , the term " j i e j i " was i n c r e a s i n g l y used i n i t s modern, i . e . s o c i a l , sense. In January 1918, f o r example, Zhang X i c h e n used i t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the F e b r u a r y and October R e v o l u t i o n s i n R u s s i a . 3 8 The former, he argued, was a r e v o l u t i o n of the "zhongchan j i e j i " , i . e "the m i d d l e c l a s s " , w h i l e the l a t t e r was of the " x i a c e n g j i e j i " , i . e . "the lower c l a s s " . These are c l e a r l y s o c i a l , not i n d i v i d u a l , c o n c e p t s . Moreover, the f a c t t h a t Zhang's term f o r "middle c l a s s "--zhongchan j i e j i ^jfifyfty ~~ l i t e r a l l y meant "mi d d l e - p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " s u g g ests t h a t h i s concept of " c l a s s " was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y d e f i n e d by economic p o s i t i o n , and c o n s e q u e n t l y h i s c l a s s e s were s o c i a l e n t i t i e s . 87 By the f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y of the r e v o l u t i o n , L i Dazhao was b e g i n n i n g t o use c l a s s c o n c e p t s t o a n a l y s e w o r l d a f f a i r s . In "The V i c t o r y of the Common Pe o p l e " and i n "The V i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' " , L i blamed World War One on the i n t e r e s t s of the c a p i t a l i s t s whom he i d e n t i f i e d as a c l a s s . 3 9 At the same t i m e , he i d e n t i f i e d B o l s h e v i s m , and the B o l s h e v i k - s t y l e r e v o l u t i o n s i n Germany and A u s t r i a which ended the war, w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d common p e o p l e " (wuchan s h u m i n ^ ^ i r j s f j ^ ) . In e f f e c t , L i was b e g i n n i n g t o make use of s o c i a l c o n c e p t s of economic s t r a t a — i . e . c l a s s e s d e f i n e d by ownership of p r o p e r t y . The f i r s t attempt t o make e x p l i c i t use of c l a s s c o n c e p t s to a n a l y s e Chinese p o l i t i c s — " T h e Reasons f o r the Lack, of Success of C h i n a ' s P o l i t i c a l R e v o l u t i o n and the Non-Occurrence of S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " , p u b l i s h e d i n the A p r i l 1919 i s s u e of Dongfang Z a z h i - - a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c l a s s e s were economic e n t i t i e s . For example, i t s a i d , S o c i e t y becomes o r g a n i z e d i n t o the two c l a s s e s of the managers, and the managed. The p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [ c a i c h a n j i e j i wrPfi'fA} and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s combine t o g e t h e r t o form the managing c l a s s [ z h i p e i j i e j i 4jr(] $JL tycftfl} - The l a b o u r i n g c l a s s becomes the managed c l a s s [ b e i z h i p e i j i e j i Thus c l a s s e s e i t h e r " l a b o u r " or own " w e a l t h " , e i t h e r "manage" or "are managed", i . e . have d i f f e r e n t economic r o l e s . By the summer of 1 9 1 9 , L i Dazhao was making e x p l i c i t use of c l a s s e s d e f i n e d i n economic terms. In " C l a s s C o m p e t i t i o n and Mutual A i d " , he p o i n t e d out t h a t " c l a s s e s are f i e r c e l y opposed economic" e n t i t i e s and t h a t t h e r e were two c l a s s e s — o n e t h a t owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and one t h a t d i d n o t . " 1 Even s o u r c e s h o s t i l e t o Marxism a c c e p t e d economic d e f i n i t i o n s of c l a s s e s . In September 1919, J i e f a n g Yu Gaozao t r a n s l a t e d " b o u r g e o i s i e " as "the market-merchant c l a s s " ( s h i shang j i e j i if 0 Pftjft.) and " p r o l e t a r i a t " as "the peasant-worker c l a s s " (nonggong j i e j i Pfttfl)."2 "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " , p u b l i s h e d i n the f a l l of 1919, d i d not q u e s t i o n the economic d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s , j u s t the i d e a t h a t " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " . I t p o i n t e d o u t : "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " d e f i n e d c l a s s e s i n economic terms. I t i d e n t i f i e d two c l a s s e s - - " t h e c l a s s of l a b o u r e r s " (laodong z h i j i e j i £. ffiM-) and "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " ( z i b e n . j i a z h i j i e j i £ ijfi L, fyiffiii) • I t i d e n t i f i e d the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s as t h a t c l a s s which " i s the r e a l p o s s e s s o r of the s o c i a l f o r c e s . o f p r o d u c t i o n " and the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s as t h a t c l a s s which "owns the machinery of p r o d u c t i o n . " " 3 By the S p r i n g of 1920, the view t h a t c l a s s e s were economic e n t i t i e s was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Even the e d i t o r of the r e l a t i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e Dongfang Z a z h i a d m i t t e d t h i s i n an e d i t o r i a l i n A p r i l , when he p o i n t e d out t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s caused by "the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . " " " F o r e i g n s o u r c e s tended t o r e i n f o r c e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s . For example, "The Second Stage of World T r a n s f o r m a t i o n " i d e n t i f i e d "the c l a s s of the r i c h " ( f uzhe j j j Q i $ j& ftiffi)  an& "the c l a s s of the poor" ( p i n z h e j i e j i P^fff} •" 5 F i n a l l y , the r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d t r a n s l a t i o n s of Marx and Kautsky which became a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g 1919 would not have n e c e s s a r i l y d i s a b u s e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s of the n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e were o n l y two c l a s s e s i n China w i t h d i f f e r e n t economic r o l e s . These t r a n s l a t i o n s tended t o suggest t h a t Marx h e l d the view t h a t a l l s o c i e t i e s are d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s — t h e o p p r e s s o r s 89 and the oppressed-?--merely adding t h a t the former always e x p l o i t the l a t t e r t hrough the c r e a t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e . The prime c o n c e r n of Marx's own pamplet, Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l , f o r example, had been t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h a t t h e r e i s an economic b a s i s f o r the s t r u g g l e between b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t . The t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e , e x p l a i n e d by Kautsky i n The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx, would o n l y add to t h i s view by d e s c r i b i n g the dynamics of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a b o u r and c a p i t a l . Even i n The C l a s s S t r u g g l e , Kautsky p r e s e n t e d d e f i n i t i o n s of the b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t i n terms of t h e i r s o c i a l r o l e i n p r o d u c t i o n . Of c o u r s e , both Marx and Kautsky m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e r e were e a r l i e r modes of p r o d u c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , and t h a t the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s of these p r e - c a p i t a l i s t modes tended t o be more complex." 6 But t h e i r works which were t r a n s l a t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d would not n e c e s s a r i l y have l e d Chin e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s aware t o p e r c e i v e t h a t China d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y have the same form of s o c i e t y as the modern West. Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l o n l y d e s c r i b e d the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n . I t d i d not mention the e x i s t e n c e of e a r l i e r modes of p r o d u c t i o n . A l t h o u g h K a u t s k y ' s works d i d mention these e a r l i e r modes, they d i d not d e s c r i b e them i n any d e t a i l . For example, i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the r i s e of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n i n The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx, Kautsky c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e between the f e u d a l n o b i l i t y and the r i s i n g b o u r g e o i s i e , as w e l l as on the o r i g i n s of the modern p r o l e t a r i a t from h a n d i c r a f t s l a b o u r e r s and d i s p o s s e s s e d p e a s a n t s . He d i d not d e s c r i b e the f e u d a l mode of 90 p r o d u c t i o n except i n so f a r as he s a i d : The w e a l t h of the f e u d a l noble was based on the p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s or c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n k i n d of the dependent p e a s a n t s . With him money was s c a r c e . He t r i e d t o s t e a l what he c o u l d not buy." 7 S i n c e China no l o n g e r had a n o b i l i t y , i t would not have been imme d i a t e l y c l e a r t h a t Chinese c l a s s s t r u c t u r e was not composed of a b o u r g e o i s i e and a p r o l e t a r i a t . In The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Marx, Kautsky d e s c r i b e d the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n as t h a t mode which had r e c e n t l y appeared i n Europe and European- d e r i v e d n a t i o n s , b u t , In r e c e n t times our mode of p r o d u c t i o n has taken r o o t among o t h e r n a t i o n s , f o r example, the Japanese and the H i n d o o s . * 8 T h i s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y e x c l u d e China from the l i s t of n a t i o n s where the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n had r e c e n t l y taken r o u t e . The C l a s s S t r u g g l e would have f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d the view t h a t C h ina was a c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r y w i t h a b o u r g e o i s i e and a p r o l e t a r i a t . In the d i s c u s s i o n on r e n t , f o r example, Kautsky p o i n t e d out t h a t landed c a p i t a l i s t s a r e i n a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s , f o r t h e i r monopoly does not e a s i l y d i s a p p e a r . The o n l y m i t i g a t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s monopoly i s t h a t not a l l l a n d i s owned by someone, or used p r o d u c t i v e l y . "Even i n C h i n a , " Kautsky wrote, " t h e r e are s t i l l wide s t r e t c h e s of u n p r o d u c t i v e l a n d , " * 9 thus i m p l y i n g t h a t c a p i t a l i s m based on l a n d was the l a n d l o r d economy of r u r u a l C h i n a . These examples suggest t h a t i t would have been p o s s i b l e f o r Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o b e l i e v e t h a t Marx's t h e o r y of s u r p l u s - v a l u e d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o C h i n a , and thus t o h o l d t h a t 91 Chinese s o c i e t y i n 1919 was d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s — t h e b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . In o t h e r words, a l l t h a t t h e s e works were l i k e l y t o have added t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s was t h a t Marx, h i m s e l f , viewed c l a s s e s as p u r e l y economic e n t i t i e s and o n l y r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of two c l a s s e s i n modern s o c i e t y — o n e which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and one which d i d not. tendency t o see Chinese s o c i e t y as p o l a r i z e d i n t o two c l a s s e s , i m p l i e d t h a t when the terms " b o u r g e o i s i e " and " p r o l e t a r i a t " were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e , or used by Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e i r r e a d e r s , and they t h e m s e l v e s , u n d e r s t o o d "the b o u r g e o i s i e " t o r e f e r t o t h a t c l a s s which owned the means of p r o d u c t i o n and a c t e d as o p p r e s s o r s , and "the p r o l e t a r i a t " to r e f e r t o t h a t c l a s s which owned no means of p r o d u c t i o n and was o p p r e s s e d . T h i s would f u r t h e r imply t h a t l a n d l o r d s , as w e l l as c a p i t a l i s t s , mad w h i l e p e a s a n t s , as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , made up "the p r o l e t a r i a t " . tf?}v ffi™ ) were used i n t e r c h a n g e b l y w i t h "you chan j i e j i " and " wuchan j i e j i " r e s p e c t i v e l y . In f a c t , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s u n d e r s t o o d "you chan j i e j i " and "wuchan j i e j i " i n a manner c l o s e r t o the l i t e r a l sense suggested by the c h a r a c t e r s than i n the manner t h a t " b o u r g e o i s i e " and " p r o l e t a r i a t " are u n d e r s t o o d today. They T h i s economic d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s , c o u p l e d w i t h the and " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " (laodong j i e j i 92 understood these terms t o mean "h a v i n g p r o p e r t y c l a s s " and "wi t h o u t p r o p e r t y c l a s s " , or i n s l i g h t l y b e t t e r E n g l i s h — " p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . T h i s i s e v i d e n t when the a c t u a l usages of these terms are examined, s i n c e i n t e l l e c t u a l s tended t o lump t o g e t h e r peasants and workers on the one hand, and l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s on the o t h e r . In F e b r u a r y 1919, f o r example, L i Dazhao i d e n t i f i e d p e asants as "the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s (laoqonq 1 i e ~ l 1 i n C h i n a . In J u l y 1919, he e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t , "workers and peasants a re the c l a s s which does not own the means of p r o d u c t i o n " . 5 0 L i ' s views were shared by J i e f a n g yu Ga i z a o which t r a n s l a t e d the term " p r o l e t a r i a t " as "the peasant- worker c l a s s " (nonggong j i e j i In November 1919, Guomin i d e n t i f i e d the problem of Chinese s o c i e t y as the r e l a t i o n s h i p betwen " l a b o u r " and " c a p i t a l " . R e f e r r i n g t o the b i t t e r l o t of l a b o u r e r s , i t p o i n t e d o u t , "when an unexpected e v e n t , l i k e a drought or n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r , happens, they cannot work and s t a r v e t o d e a t h . " 5 2 Very few i n d u s t r i a l workers a re unable t o work because of " d r o u g h t s " . Thus t h i s statement c l e a r l y p l a c e d peasants i n the ranks of " l a b o u r " , i . e . "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " . A l t h o u g h "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " , which was p u b l i s h e d i n the F a l l of 1919, d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e t h a t such was the c a s e , i t d i d not p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p e a s a n t s , as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , were p a r t of "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " . In i t s d i s c u s s i o n of Marxism, "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " p o i n t e d out t h a t the members of the "laodong z h i j i e j i " itf^ l> l i t . "the c l a s s of l a b o u r e r s " ) , " d a i l y engage i n f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n 93 and o t h e r b i t t e r l a b o u r . " 5 3 The c l a s s of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s was the d i a l e c t i c a l o p p o s i t e of the c l a s s of peasants and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . Indeed the term " c a p i t a l i s t " (z i ben j i a ^ ) o f t e n r e f e r r e d d i r e c t l y t o l a n d l o r d s . L i Dazaho, f o r example, r e f e r r e d t o " l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s " as "the c l a s s , which owns the means of p r o d u c t i o n , " i n J u l y , 1919. 5 * In the f a l l of the same y e a r , "A Report on S o c i a l i s m " , r e f e r r i n g t o "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " ( z i b e n j i a z h i j i e j i 'ijf Jf" $C 2$/%) , p o i n t e d out t h a t , "as owners of f a c t o r i e s [ gongchangzhu 'X/f ^ ] and as l a n d l o r d s [ d i z h u tf{ ^ ] , they w i e l d the power of h i r i n g and f i r i n g , of l i f e and d e a t h , over t h e i r l a b o u r e r s , " 5 5 i . e . t h a t both l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s made up "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " . F i n a l l y , Guomin p o i n t e d out i n November: The c a p i t a l i s t s own banks, f a c t o r i e s and l a n d , and a r e ve r y r i c h . In b u s i n e s s they add p r o f i t on top of p r o f i t as l a n d l o r d s they use l a n d t o buy more l a n d . 5 6 In o t h e r words, " l a n d l o r d s " a r e " c a p i t a l i s t s " . Two i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e s of t h i s p e r i o d a re v i r t u a l l y u n i t e l l i g i b l e i f "you chan j i e j i " and "wuchan j i e j i " a r e not taken t o mean " p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . F i r s t i s the r a t h e r e n i g m a t i c t r a n s l a t i o n from the Japanese, "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " , which was p u b l i s h e d i n the J u l y 1919 i s s u e of Dongfang Z a z h i . 5 7 T h i s a r t i c l e d e f i n e d c l a s s e s i n terms of ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n as w e l l as i n terms of t h e i r s o c a i l r o l e i n p r o d u c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " , "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " (laodonq j i e j i was composed of those who, 94 d i r e c t l y c a r r y out p r o d u c t i o n , are h i r e d by the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s , s e l l i n g them t h e i r l a b o u r power, and t h e r e f o r e , g e t t i n g wages a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i c e of t h e i r l a b o u r . . . . The l a b o u r i n g c l a s s i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o the c a p i t a l i s t and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s e s . I t i s a key element i n c a r r y i n g out p r o d u c t i o n on the one hand, and i n s u p p l y i n g i t on the o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , i t s s a l a r i e s come from i n t e r e s t , p r o f i t , or l a b o u r - power . 5 8 "The m i d d l e c l a s s " (zhongdeng j i e j i ^ J f t 4 & - ) was d i s t i n c t from "the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " . • [The m i d d l e c l a s s ] i s composed of b u r e a u c r a t s , o f f i c i a l s , t e a c h e r s and those who engage i n the f r e e p r o f e s s i o n s and do not d i r e c t l y engage i n p r o d u c t i o n . They own more than l a b o u r e r s and t h e r e f o r e they are i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t o n than l a b o u r e r s . . . . The m i d d l e c l a s s i s d i f f e r e n t i n so f a r as i t i s opposed t o the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s i n terms of i t s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . . . and i t s members e i t h e r get a monthly s a l a r y or engage i n the f r e e p r o f e s s i o n s . 5 9 The problem of the m i d d l e c l a s s was t h a t i t s income was not. d i r e c t l y t i e d t o p r o d u c t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t they earn comes f o r the d i v i s i o n of p r o f i t s by those who d i r e c t l y engage i n economic p r o d u c t i o n and they a r e t h e r e f o r e s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e s e p e o p l e . 6 0 C o n s e q u e n t l y i n times of economic c r i s i s the m i d d l e c l a s s i s unable t o m a i n t a i n i t s independence and becomes i m p o v e r i s h e d , i . e . " p r o p e r t y l e s s " . T h i s modern m i d d l e c l a s s i s d i s t i n c t from the middle c l a s s of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t e r a : The economic p o s i t i o n and c o n d i t i o n [of the new m i d d l e c l a s s ] i s not t h a t of the o l d m i d d l e c l a s s because i t l a c k s the n e c e s s a r y p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n of b e i n g i n the m i d d l e . As e x p l a i n e d above, t h e i r problem i s the same as t h a t of the l a b o u r e r . The v a s t m a j o r i t y of p e o p l e who make up the m i d d l e c l a s s have no c a p i t a l [wu z i c h a n zhe>£S ffi/^jg , l i t . " w i t h o u t - c a p i t a l - i s t " ] and have no source of income o t h e r than r e l y i n g on t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . T h e i r s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e t h a t of the l a b o u r e r who r e l i e s on h i s own s t r e n g t h t o make a l i v i n g , except 95 t h a t l a b o u r e r s r e l y upon the p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h of t h e i r own b o d i e s . A l t h o u g h the form of l a b o u r i s d i f f e r e n t . t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s not v e r y g r e a t . In g e n e r a l terms, both are u n p r o p e r t i e d [wuchan zhe jf£ , l i t . " w i t h o u t p r o p e r t y i s t s " ] r e l y i n g upon t h e i r own s t r e n g t h t o make a l i v i n g . T h e r e f o r e , the s o - c a l l e d m i d d l e c l a s s i s i n the same p o s i t i o n as the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [Wuchan j i e j i In o t h e r words, "the middle c l a s s " i s p a r t of the p r o l e t a r i a t because i t i s " u n p r o p e r t i e d " . And a g a i n i t s t a t e s , . . .1 of c o u r s e know the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o p e r t y owning middle p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [youchan zhe z h i c l a s s . At the same time I know t'hat the problem of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s of the most r e s e a r c h v a l u e i n modern s o c i e t y , and t h a t the problem of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s and of the middle c l a s s which make up the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s the most im p o r t a n t and p r o f o u n d i n the s i t u a t i o n of modern Japan. The importance of the u n p r o p e r t i e d m i d d l e c l a s s , t h e s o - c a l l e d i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s [ z h i s h i j i e j i ^T>^ Pffffli i s shown by the l a b o u r . and broad s o c i a l movements of o t h e r . c o u n t r i e s . 6 2 In o t h e r words, the a u t h o r of t h i s a r t i c l e knows the d i f f e r e n c e between the c l a s s t h a t owns some p r o p e r t y (the p e t t y b o u r g o e i s i e ) and t h a t which owns none (the p r o l e t a r i a t ) . The modern "middle c l a s s " (zhonqdeng j i e j i ^pJTJIL l i t . "middle l e v e l c l a s s " ) , however, i s net p a r t of the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e , but p a r t of the p r o l e t a r i a t . In any e v e n t , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the term "wuchan j i e j i " i n t h i s a r t i c l e d i d not s o l e l y - r e f e r t o the c l a s s of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . C l a s s " i d e n t i f i e d the middle c l a s s - as b e i n g " u n p r o p e r t i e d " , he c o n s i t e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d a d i s t i n c t i o n between the "zhongdeng j i e j i " , which i s l i t e r a l l y "the m i d d l e l e v e l c l a s s " , i . e . "the m i d d l e c l a s s " , and the "zhongchan j i e j i " , l i t e r a l l y "the m i d d l e - p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . 6 1 and the u n p r o p e r t i e d At the same time t h a t the a u t h o r of "On the M i d d l e 96 The "zhongchan j i e j i " , or the m e d i e v a l b o u r g e o i s i e , was o r i g i n a l l y composed o f , . . . a r t i s a n s , m i d d l e and s m a l l shopkeepers, independent f a r m e r s , e t c . B e f o r e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of modern c a p i t a l i s t economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , they were the p r e s e r v e r s of the economy as w e l l as i t s o r g a n i z e r s . They belonged t o the c l a s s of b u r g e r s [ s h i m i n • f f i ' ^ , l i t . " c i t y d w e l l e r s " ] and were the n u c l e u s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 6 3 T h i s "zhongchan j i e j i " became "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " . Modern c a p i t a l i s t economic o r g a n i z a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , and the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s which p r e s e r v e s t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was, i n f a c t , produced from t h i s c l a s s . . . 6" That i s t o say, they have become the "you chan j i e j i " , the c l a s s which Marx c a l l s "the b o u r g e o i s i e " . However, we f i n d t h a t the "zhongchan j i e j i " , or the "middle p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " , was o r i g i n a l l y the "zhongdeng j i e j i " , or "the m i d d l e l e v e l c l a s s " , i . e . "the m i d d l e c l a s s " . Because of the independent economic p o s i t i o n of the o l d m iddle c l a s s , and because i t owned a f a i r amount of p r o p e r t y , i t c o u l d a l s o be c a l l e d the m i d d l e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . In f a c t , i t was the middle c l a s s of s o c i e t y , and the m i d d l e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s of the economy. 6 5 In o t h e r words i t was i n the "middle" both i n terms.of economic p o s i t i o n and i n terms of the ownership of p r o p e r t y . The new m i d d l e c l a s s i s n o t . A l t h o u g h i t i s e x t r e m e l y s u i t a b l e i f the new m i d d l e c l a s s i s c a l l e d the m i d d l e c l a s s of s o c i e t y , because i t i s not independent e c o n o m i c a l l y , and moreover, does not have the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o p e r t y , i t cannot be c a l l e d the m i d d l e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . 6 6 S i n c e i t does not own " p r o p e r t y " i t i s not p a r t of "the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . A l t h o u g h "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " d e f i n e d c l a s s e s on the b a s i s of t h e i r s o c i a l as w e l l as economic p o s i t i o n s , i n e f f e c t , i t s argument f o r c i b l y i m p l i e d t h a t the term "wuchan j i e j i " d i d not r e f e r t o the c l a s s of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , but t o a l l u n p r o p e r t i e d i n g e n e r a l . T h i s i n t u r n suggests t h a t the term " you chan j i e j i " d i d not r e f e r t o the c l a s s of c a p i t a l i s t s , but to a l l owners of p r o p e r t y i n g e n e r a l . j i e j i " meant l i t t l e more than " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " was p r e s e n t e d by L i Dazhao i n J a n u a r y , 1920. In "An Economic E x p l a n a t i o n of Recent I d e o l o g i c a l Changes i n China!', he wrote t h a t . . .China's a g r i c u l t u r a l economy cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n i n d u s t r i a l economy, Chi n a ' s c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n f a c t o r y i n d u s t r y , China's h a n d c r a f t s p r o d u c t i o n cannot w i t h s t a n d the o p p r e s s i o n of f o r e i g n mechanized p r o d u c t i o n . Most domestic i n d u s t r y has been d e s t r o y e d , i m p o r t s s u r p a s s e x p o r t s . . , 6 7 China was b e i n g p a u p e r i z e d by f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s m . T h e r e f o r e , as L i wrote, . . .The people of the whole c o u n t r y a r e becoming p a r t I . E . t h i s p a u p e r i z a t i o n was making China " u n p r o p e r t i e d " , and t h e r e f o r e p a r t of the "wuchan j i e j i " or " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . " o w nership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , - 2 ) as the r e s u l t of the p o l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o o p p r e s s o r and o p p r e s s e d , and 3) as the b o u r g e o i s i e i n c l u d i n g b oth l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s on the one hand, and the p r o l e t a r i a t i n c l u d i n g p e a s a n t s as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , on the o t h e r — w a s t o have grave consequences The second argument t h a t suggests t h a t the term "wuchan T h i s view of c l a s s e s - - 1 ) a s economic e n t i t i e s d e f i n e d by 98 f o r the e a r l y communist movement. L i k e t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , the e a r l y communists e s s e n t i a l l y u n d e r s t o o d c l a s s e s i n the manner d e s c r i b e d above. On the b a s i s of t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g they f o r m u l a t e d a s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n which i n the l o n g run was t o r e s u l t i n d i s a s t e r . 99 Chapter Four Communism: The Gongchandang Programme 1. Communism and China The f o r m a t i o n of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee i n May 1920, marked the a c t u a l b e g i n n i n g of the Chinese communist movement. 1 B e f o r e the l o o s e c o l l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s who c o n s i d e r e d themselves t o be communists c o u l d be f o r m a l l y welded i n t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , a b a s i s of u n i t y had t o be reached. T h i s b a s i s of u n i t y had t o d e f i n e the p a r t y ' s program, i t s g o a l s and the means of t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t . At the same t i m e , as many p o t e n t i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s as- p o s s i b l e had t o be r a l l i e d t o the communist cause. These t a s k s were taken up, t o no s m a l l degree, by the t h e o r e t i c a l organ of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l Committee-- Gonqchandang 2--when i t began p u b l i c a t i o n i n November 1919. By the time i t stopped p u b l i s h i n g - - A u g u s t 1 9 2 1 — Gongchandang had o u t l i n e d the p a r t y ' s program. But t h i s program was uniformed w i t h r e s p e c t t o the essence of L e n i n i s m . The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang knew n o t h i n g of L e n i n ' s t h e s i s on i m p e r i a l i s m , and the need f o r a d i s c i p l i n e d army of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , i . e . the need f o r a "vanguard p a r t y " . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t they were t o t a l l y i g n o r a n t of L e n i n ' s p o s i t i o n s on a number of i s s u e s . In f a c t , where they were aware of h i s p o s i t i o n s , they made use of them. Where they were n o t , they f e l l back on the g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s which were a l r e a d y w e l l known amongst p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s . In the f i r s t i s s u e of Gongchandang, Zhou Fuh a i d e f i n e d 100 communism, i . e . "Communist p a r t y ( B o l s h e v i k ) ism" ( Gongchandang (duoshupai ) z h u y i $(f £ ^ ) as "the amalgamation of c o l l e c t i v i s m [ j i c h a n z h u y i ^ & $ ] and the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [wuchan j i e j i d i zhuanzheng f&fltftJS.ftfffl."3 In "Marking the T h i r d A n n i v e r s a r y of the Founding of the R u s s i a n Communist Government", Zhou wrote t h a t communism was " n e i t h e r a n a r c h i s m nor s y n d i c a l i s m " , because the former "opposes a l l c e n t r a l power," w h i l e the l a t t e r " c a l l s l o u d l y f o r c e n t r a l power." Communism, however, "has many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h g u i l d s o c i a l i s m and orthodox Marxism."* A c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, communism and g u i l d s o c i a l i s m were the same i n terms of " s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " , but d i f f e r e d i n terms of " p o l i t i c a l o r g a n z a t i o n . " Both communism and g u i l d s o c i a l i s m a l l o w e d "the l a b o u r e r t o o r g a n i z e so as t o c o m p l e t e l y c a r r y out the r i g h t of s e l f - r u l e i n the sphere of p r o d u c t i o n , " but the l a t t e r "does not r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " G u i l d s o c i a l i s m u n n e c e s s a r i l y caused economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " t o be opposed". Communism, on the o t h e r hand, " b e l i e v e s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s a p r o d u c e r , and a t the same time i s d e f i n i t e l y a consumer." P r o d u c t i o n and consumption "merely r e p r e s e n t two a s p e c t s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and i t i s not n e c e s s a r y f o r these two a s p e c t s t o be opposed." 5 Communism, a c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, was orthodox Marxism, "because both advocate the d i r e c t o p e r a t i o n of c l a s s w a r f a r e and the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . " For the r e a l i z a t i o n of " r e a l democracy", the d i c a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t was e s s e n t i a l : 101 T h i s i s what Marx s a i d d u r i n g h i s l a t e r y e a r s i n the C r i t i q u e of the Gotha Programme: "Between c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and communist s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d d u r i n g which s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n moves from one t o the o t h e r . C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s p e r i o d i s a p o l i t i c a l t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the r e v o l u t i o n a r y d i c t a t o r i a l government of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . " I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t i n o r d e r t o r e a c h the o b j e c t i v e of r e a l s o c i a l i s m , the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s cannot be l e f t o u t . 6 The d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t , a c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, was i n f a c t t r u e democracy. He wrote, L e n i n s a i d , "The s o - c a l l e d e q u a l i t y i n which t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n c t i o n s on the b a s i s of sex, r e l i g i o n , r a c e or n a t i o n a l o r g i n , i s what the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s o f t e n says i t wishes t o r e a l i z e . However, under c a p i t a l i s m i t has never been a c h i e v e d . But the power of the l a b o u r e r s ' and p e a s a n t s ' a s s e m b l i e s [ w o r k e r s ' and P e a sants' S o v i e t s ] , i n o t h e r words, the d i c t a t o r s h i p o f . t h e u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , c o m p l e t e l y r e a l i z e d i t i n one blow." T h e r e f o r e , the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s not o n l y not i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the p r i n c i p l e of u n i v e r s a l democracy, but i s the o n l y means of r e a l i z i n g i t . 7 L i k e o t h e r e a r l y Chinese communists, Zhou was w e l l aware t h a t Marx, i n The Communist Man i f e s t o , had argued t h a t d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s m must i n e v i t a b l y g i v e r i s e t o communism, but as Gongchandang had i t s e l f a d m i t t e d : " c a p i t a l i s m has j u s t s t a r t e d t o d e v e l o p " in_ C h i n a . 8 As S h i Cuntong wrote i n June 1921, 9 The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r the r e a l i z i n g of communism i s "the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of a l l p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s . " In o t h e r words, a l l p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s must be c o n t r o l l e d by s o c i e t y , and a b s o l u t e l y must not be c o n t r o l l e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . . . . The fundamental weakness of c a p i t a l i s m i s " s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n , p r i v a t e o wnership." Communism wants t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s i l l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Marx c l e a r l y saw t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n , knowing t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t s a l r e a d y had l o s t the a b i l i t y t o manage p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s and t h a t d i r e c t c o n t r o l by s o c i e t y was needed. . . .He saw t h a t the m a t e r i a l f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n were a l r e a d y a d v a n c i n g towards the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of communism, and t h e r e f o r e dared t o c o n c l u d e t h a t communism i s the advent 102 of n e c e s s i t y . I f communism does not have t h i s economic base, i t d e f i n i t e l y cannot be r e a l i z e d . 1 0 To c o u n t e r t h i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e argument a g a i n s t o r g a n i z i n g a communist p a r t y i n C h i n a , i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r the communists t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t communism was a r e a l i s t i c o b j e c t i v e i n C h i n a . The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang e s s e n t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d t h r e e arguments on t h i s q u e s t i o n . F i r s t , they argued t h a t s i n c e communist r e v o l u t i o n had succeeded i n R u s s i a , i t would work i n C h i n a . T h i s was the p o s i t i o n taken by Zhou Fuh a i i n November 1920..In "Marking the T h i r d A n n i v e r s a r y of the Founding of the R u s s i a n Communist Government," he wrote, A c c o r d i n g t o my own i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the c o n d i t i o n of C h i na i s s i m p l y the same as t h a t of R u s s i a . (Of c o u r s e , t h e r e are some d i f f e r e n c e s , but t h e s e are v e r y s m a l l . ) Today, they are both a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r i e s , and t h e i r i n d u s t r y i s not v e r y d e v e l o p e d . . . T h e i r s i t u a t i o n s i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s a r e a l s o q u i t e s i m i l a r . In what way are the m i l i t a r i s t s , o f f i c i a l s , and p r o p e r t y - o w n i n g bosses of China d i f f e r e n t from the a r i s t o c r a t s , c l e r g y , c a p i t a l i s t s , and l a n d l o r d s of R u s s i a ? In what way a r e the c r i m e s of the s m a l l p o l i t i c i a n s , p e t t y o f f i c i a l s , and of the average shameless, e d u c a t e d , o f f i c e - s e e k e r of C h i na d i f f e r e n t from those of the R u s s i a n s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s ? In what way i s the l a c k of c o n s i o u s n e s s , the l a c k of t r a i n i n g and the l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n of the the Chinese u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of R u s s i a ? The s i t u a t i o n s are the same. 1 1 In o t h e r words, Zhou argued t h a t s i n c e the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of C h ina and R u s s i a were the same, t h e i r p a t h s of r e v o l u t i o n must a l s o be the same. The second argument, a t f i r s t g l a n c e , appeared t o echo L e n i n ' s t h e s i s on i m p e r i a l i s m . C a p i t a l i s m and communism are m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l systems, the argument r a n , t h e r e f o r e , s u p e r i o r communism must i n e v i t a b l y r e p l a c e 103 c a p i t a l i s m . T h i s argument was p r e s e n t e d by S h i Cuntong i n "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? , 1 2 i n June 1921. Shi r e a d i l y a d m i t t e d t h a t communism would be "an i d l e dream" w i t h o u t the a p p r o p r i a t e economic b a s e , 1 3 but even though Chinese c a p i t a l i s m was not very d e v e l o p e d , w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m was: . . . C a p i t a l i s m i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , and wants t o conquer the w o r l d . Communism i s s i m i l a r . I t , to o , i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e and wants t o conquer the whole w o r l d . These two 'isms' a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y opposed and cannot c o - e x i s t i n the same w o r l d . The u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s of each c o u n t r y must r i s e up and overthrow the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , and w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of our R u s s i a n comrades e s t a b l i s h a communist w o r l d . China i s p a r t of the w o r l d . The u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s t h a t l i v e s i n t h i s p a r t of i t , a l s o wishes t o r i s e up and, w i t h the sy m p a t h e t i c a s s i s t a n c e of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s of the whole w o r l d , make a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , and t o g e t h e r c r e a t e , a "human w o r l d " . I f we don't r i s e up and do t h i s , I f e a r t h a t t h i s "human w o r l d " w i l l not be a t t a i n e d . To sum up, a l t h o u g h Chinese c a p i t a l i s m has not d e v e l o p e d , w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m has r i p e n e d t o the p o i n t of c o l l a p s e . There i s no way i n which w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m can d i e out and C h i n e s e c a p i t a l i s m e x i s t a l o n e . From the p o i n t of view of g r e a t w o r l d i n f l u e n c e s , t h i s i s why China w i l l r e a l i z e communism. 1" In f a c t , t h i s argument was not r e l a t e d t o L e n i n ' s p o s i t i o n on i m p e r i a l i s m . In I m p e r i a l i s m : The H i g h e s t Stage of Capi t a l i sm, L e n i n argued t h a t monopoly c a p i t a l i s m l e a d s t o i m p e r i a l i s m . T h i s adds a new s e t of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s — t h a t between the c o l o n i z e d n a t i o n and the monopoly c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s of the m e t r o p o l i s - - t o the t r a d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t c o n t r a d i c t i o n between b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t . In o t h e r words, i m p e r i a l i s m causes the i n t e r e s t s of the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the people of the w o r l d to be opposed t o c a p i t a l i s m . T h i s c r e a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of communist r e v o l u t i o n i n r e l a t i v e l y u n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s l i k e R u s s i a . Where Marx b e l i e v e d t h a t communist r e v o l u t i o n would 1 0 4 occur i n the most "advanced" and " d e m o c r a t i c " c o u n t r i e s of Europe, i m p e r i a l i s m makes communist r e v o l u t i o n p o s s i b l e i n those c o u n t r i e s which are "the weakest l i n k s " i n the g l o b a l c h a i n of i m p e r i a l i s m , i . e . where the people are the most aware of the problems c r e a t e d by i m p e r i a l i s m . 1 5 L e n i n ' s t h e s i s on i m p e r i a l i s m was h i s e s s e n t i a l a d d i t i o n t o M a r x i s t t h e o r y and c o n s t i t u t e d the t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n i n c o u n t r i e s such as R u s s i a and China which were e c o n o m i c a l l y backward r e l a t i v e t o the advanced c o u n t r i e s of the West. The f a c t t h a t t h i s "weakest l i n k " argument was never used i n Gongchandang suggests t h a t the e a r l y communists were unaware of i t . However, the argument t h a t c a p i t a l i s m and communism are i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope does seem t o r e f l e c t a p o s i t i o n put f o r w a r d by L e n i n . In "Economics and P o l i t i c s i n the Era of the D i c t a t o r s h i p of the P r o l e t a r i a t " , f o r example, L e n i n wrote, The c l a s s of e x p l o i t e r s , the landowners and c a p i t a l i s t s , has not d i s a p p e a r e d and cannot d i s a p p e a r a l l a t once. . . The e x p l o i t e r s have been smashed but not d e s t r o y e d . They s t i l l have an i n t e r n a t i o n a l base i n the form of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l , of which they a r e a b r a n c h . 1 6 S h i Cuntong's t h e s i s , t h a t the C h i n e s e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s cannot s u r v i v e the d e s t r u c t i o n of i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l base, seems t o be a m i r r o r - i m a g e of L e n i n ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t the e x p l o i t e r s s u r v i v e i n R u s s i a because t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l base s t i l l e x i s t s . S h i Cuntong a l s o p r e s e n t e d the t h i r d argument i n "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " . In e ssence, S h i ' s argument h e l d t h a t o n l y communism c o u l d c r e a t e a s o c i a l i s t economic base. As S h i w rote, 105' . . . I f the Chinese u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s t o l e a v e i t s "inhuman l i f e " and l i v e a "human l i f e " , p r o d u c t i o n and m a t e r i a l commodites must be i n c r e a s e d . U s i n g c a p i t a l i s m to d e v e l o p p r o d u c t i o n not o n l y cannot g i v e "human l i f e " t o the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , but w i l l g i v e a g r e a t many of them the most f r i g h t e n i n g m i s e r y . T h i s i s something t h a t the advanced c o u n t r i e s of Europe and America have a l r e a d y shown us. I t i s a l s o something t h a t Shanghai and o t h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s have shown u s . 1 7 In o t h e r words, c a p i t a l i s m c o u l d not improve the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the p r o l e t a r i a t , but S h i b e l i e v e d communism c o u l d , . . . A l l of the b e n e f i t s of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n are p r e s e r v e d w i t h i n the communist method of p r o d u c t i o n . That which i s d i f f e r e n t i s t h a t every k i n d of c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the c a p i t a l i s t method of p r o d u c t i o n i s r e s o l v e d . The f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n under the communist method of p r o d u c t i o n can o n l y i n c r e a s e i n comparison t o those of c a p i t a l i s m , and cannot decrease i n comparison to i t . . . . Add t o t h i s e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n and i t w i l l not be d i f f i c u l t t o cause a l l members of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s t o l i v e a "human l i f e " . 1 8 In o t h e r words, communism was the o n l y means of i m p r o v i n g the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of t h e p e o p l e of China — the u n p r o p e r t i e d . Thus, a l t h o u g h Gongchandang's arguments on the p o s s i b i l i t y of communist r e v o l u t i o n i n China d i d not make use of L e n i n ' s t h e o r y of i m p e r i a l i s m , they d i d make use of h i s view t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s was i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope. In e f f e c t , Gongchandang argued t h a t communism was p o s s i b l e i n China because i t had worked i n R u s s i a and i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s was the o n l y means of " s a v i n g " C h i n a . 106 2. R e v o l u t i o n and D i c t a t o r s h i p : The C r i t i q u e of Anarchism Communism was not the o n l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y p h i l o s o p h y t h a t e x i s t e d i n China between 1920 and 1921. There were s e v e r a l - o t h e r s r a n g i n g from Sun Y a t - s e n ' s n a t i o n a l i s m t o ana r c h i s m . Of t h e s e , a n a r c h i s m was the p h i l o s o p h y of r e v o l u t i o n t h a t was the c l o s e s t t o communism. L i k e communism, i t sought the fundamental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i e t y . Given the c o n f u s i o n t h a t surrounded • communism and ana r c h i s m between 1917 and 1921, i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r the e a r l y communists t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e i r program from t h a t of a n a r c h i s m . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e a n a r c h i s m was an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n C h i n a , 1 9 i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r the e a r l y communists t o prove t h a t communism was f a r more r e a l i s t i c . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Gongchandang c o n t a i n s a l a r g e number of a n t i - a n a r c h i s t p o l e m i c s . 2 0 For the e a r l y communist movement, a n a r c h i s m was the key i s s u e . Gongchandang's a n t i - a n a r c h i s t p o l e m i c s c e n t r e d around two i s s u e s - - t h e n a t u r e of the r e v o l u t i o n which would overthrow c a p i t a l i s m , i . e . whether the r e v o l u t i o n would be " p o l i t i c a l " or " s o c i a l " , and s e c o n d l y the reasons t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n had t o i n s t i t u t e the system of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t . . The q u e s t i o n of the n a t u r e of the r e v o l u t i o n had been d e f i n e d by the Chinese response to the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n which they had seen as a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . S i n c e " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was the a n a r c h i s t o b j e c t i v e , Gongchandang had t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e i r communist " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " from t h a t of the a n a r c h i s t s . In the c o u r s e of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e i r " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " from t h a t of the a n a r c h i s t s , Gongchandang i n t r o d u c e d a new c o n c e p t . The communist r e v o l u t i o n would be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s o c i a l and 1 0 7 p o l i t i c a l . In d i s c u s s i n g the second q u e s t i o n - - t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t - - Gongchandang made use of use of the f a v o u r i t e argument a g a i n s t a n a r c h i s m of M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s s t r e t c h i n g back to Marx h i m s e l f . A l t h o u g h the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t as i n s t i t u t e d i n R u s s i a had been d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r on a number of o c c a s i o n s , 2 1 Gongchandang's p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t was the f i r s t such e x p o s i t i o n i n C h i n a . I t i s a l s o i n i t s d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r y of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t t h a t Gongchandang was the most f a i t h f u l t o the p o s i t i o n s of L e n i n . •Responding t o an a r c h i s m was one of the main concerns of S h i Cuntong i n "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? " . S h i argued t h a t a l t h o u g h a n a r c h i s m and communism shared the same o b j e c t i v e — " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " , they d i f f e r e d on the q u e s t i o n of how t o b r i n g about t h i s s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , the a n a r c h i s t or " g r a d u a l i s t method" wished To get r i d of p o l i t i c s and i s a c t i v e i n terms of s o c i e t y . I t w a i t s u n t i l the v a s t m a j o r i t y of s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s i n the p a r t i c u l a r 'ism', and o n l y then r i s e s up i n r e v o l u t i o n a b o l i s h i n g governments f o r e v e r . 2 2 The communist or " r a d i c a l method" was . . . a c t i v e both i n terms of s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c s . H aving a few peop l e who b e l i e v e i n the p a r t i c u l a r 'ism', i t s e i z e s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r i s e up, g r a s p s p o l i t i c a l power i n i t s hands, and t a k e s advantage of s u p e r i o r p o l i t i c a l power t o complete the r e v o l u t i o n . 2 3 The " g r a d u a l i s t method", he m a j o r i t y of s o c i e t y a l r e a d y p h i l o s o p h y . For example, i t s a i d , presupposed t h a t the v a s t agreed w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y assumed t h a t " f r e e l y o r g a n i z e d 108 p r o d u c e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s " e x i s t e d b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , t h i s was not p o s s i b l e i n a c o u n t r y l i k e China i n which c a p i t a l i s m was not h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d , because t h e r e were no o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o d u c e r s t o come t o g e t h e r , l e t a l o n e f o r them t o e s t a b l i s h " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s " . 2 " I t would a l s o take a g r e a t d e a l of time b e f o r e such a l a r g e number of people agreed w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p h i l o s o p h y which, i n any event, would p r o b a b l y be i m p o s s i b l e b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n had a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d . 2 5 S h i saw the g r a d u a l i s t method as p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s u i t e d t o Chinese c o n d i t i o n s . To w a i t u n t i l the v a s t m a j o r i t y b e l i e v e and then r i s e up i n s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n f a c t a b s o l u t e l y cannot be done: (1) the v a s t m a j o r i t y of independent p e a s a n t s cannot be i n c i t e d t o r i s e up i n r e v o l u t i o n ; (2) the m a j o r i t y of h a n d c r a f t l a b o u r e r s a l s o cannot be i n c i t e d t o r i s e up. How can t h e r e be a m a j o r i t y i f i t does not i n c l u d e t h e s e two k i n d s of pe o p l e ? Chinese i n d u s t r y i s not deve l o p e d . As y e t , i n the whole c o u n t r y , t h e r e a r e l e s s than one m i l l i o n l a b o u r e r s i n mechanized i n d u s t r y . . . .From t h i s i t i s c l e a r t h a t a m a j o r i t y r e v o l u t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e . . . .Before the r e v o l u t i o n o n l y (1) f a c t o r y l a b o u r e r s and (2) l a n d l e s s peasants can u n i t e . Except f o r these two k i n d s of l a b o u r e r s , u n i t y i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t . 2 6 The o b j e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , meant t h a t the a n a r c h i s t " m a j o r i t y r e v o l u t i o n " was unworkable i n C h i n a . Only a h i g h l y c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y , what L e n i n r e f e r r e d t o as a "vangaurd", c o u l d b r i n g about " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i n C h i n a . . . . R e v o l u t i o n s a re always the a f f a i r of a m i n o r i t y . T h i s m i n o r i t y of mine i s not one of a few hundred, or a few thousand, but i s one of s e v e r a l hundred thousand. . . .In my view, R u s s i a ' s s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was a l s o a m i n o r i t y r e v o l u t i o n . My s o - c a l l e d r e v o l u t i o n i s made by a c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y , and does not need t o w a i t u n t i l the m a j o r i t y i s c o n s c i o u s b e f o r e i t o c c u r s . . . . M i n o r i t y r e v o l u t i o n i s a r e v o l u t i o n of r a d i c a l s . . , 2 7 S h i f u r t h e r argued t h a t t h i s " r e v o l u t i o n of r a d i c a l s " 109 must combine " s o c i a l " and " p o l i t i c a l " r e v o l u t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , In s i m p l e terms, s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n t r a n s f o r m s economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . (In s i m p l e terms, p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n t r a n s f o r m s p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . ) . . . . N a t u r a l l y s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n wishes t o t r a n s f o r m p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a t the same t i m e , but the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e . 2 8 I.E i n o r d e r f o r " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " t o succeed, i t had t o be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 2 9 T h i s t h e s i s t h a t " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " was the v e h i c l e f o r " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was remarkably s i m i l a r t o Mao Tse-tung's l a t e r t h e s i s on New Democratic R e v o l u t i o n . L i k e Mao, S h i b e l i e v e d t h a t the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n was i n c o m p l e t e and c o u l d o n l y be completed under the r u l e of the communist p a r t y . Once i n power, both h e l d t h a t the communist s t a t e c o u l d complete t h i s r e v o l u t i o n and e s t a b l i s h the d e v e l o p e d m a t e r i a l base f o r what Mao c a l l e d s o c i a l i s m and S h i c a l l e d " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 3 0 As S h i wrote, China's [ 1 9 1 1 ] p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n d i d not succeed. Chinese l a b o u r e r s d i d not get p o l i t i c a l freedom. T h e r e f o r e , the r e v o l u t i o n which we now seek t o b r i n g about combines t o g e t h e r p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . Our f i r s t s t e p i s t o overthrow the p r e s e n t government and o u r s e l v e s take the r u l i n g c l a s s ' s p o s i t i o n i n o r d e r t o use s u p e r i o r p o l i t i c a l power t o t r a n f o r m economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 1 In e f f e c t , S h i ' s c r i t i q u e of a n a r c h i s m b o i l e d down t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t the a n a r c h i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y program was unworkable i n C h i n a . The major i d e o l o g i c a l weapon used by C h inese communists a g a i n s t a n a r c h i s m was the concept of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of t h e " p r o l e t a r i a t . In "Marking the T h i r d A n n i v e r s a r y of the Founding of the R u s s i a n Communist 110 Government," Zhou Fuh a i had argued t h a t the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t was the s o l e means of e s t a b l i s h i n g " r e a l s o c i a l i s m " and " u n i v e r s a l d e m o c r a c y " . 3 2 In A p r i l 1921, Zhou used the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t t o d e v e l o p ' a c r i t i q u e of a n a r c h i s m . In "Why Do We Advocate Communism?", 3 3 he argued t h a t a n a r c h i s m , i n h o l d i n g t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n can a b o l i s h the s t a t e , "sees c l a s s e s as too unimportant and s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n as too e a s y . " 3 " Even though "the o l d r u l i n g c l a s s " would have been ov e r t h r o w n , the r e v o l u t i o n would not have a b o l i s h e d c l a s s e s i m m e d i a t e l y . "A c l a s s , " Zhou p o i n t e d o u t , " i s not l i k e an a n i m a l which once k i l l e d i m m e d i a t e l y d i e s and doesn't need a method of p r e v e n t i n g i t s r e s u r r e c t i o n . " 3 5 A l t h o u g h the o l d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w i l l have been b a s i c a l l y d e s t r o y e d i n the r e v o l u t i o n , "the deep r o o t s of the o l d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " would remain. Because everyone w i l l be f r e e t o a c t as they wish a f t e r the a n a r c h i s t r e v o l u t i o n , communist s o c i e t y would be u n a t t a i n a b l e i f the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s does not v o l u n t a r i l y s u r r e n d e r i t s p r o p e r t y . 3 6 T h i s d i d not mean t h a t communist s o c i e t y was i m p o s s i b l e , but r a t h e r t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of c l a s s e s had t o be f u l l y " r e c o g n i z e d " . A c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, Communism t a k e s the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the l a b o u r e r s [ laodong d i zhuanzhenq ifi^ ffa^ias i t s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e . That i s t o say, i t uses the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the l a b o u r e r s t o p r e v e n t r e s t o r a t i o n i s t movements on the p a r t of the o l d r u l i n g c l a s s , and t o d i g up the r o o t s of the o l d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , so t h a t i t can never i n t e r f e r e w i t h our c o n s t r u c t i o n . 3 7 He then c i t e d an e x c e r p t from a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Workers of the World by the Communist I n t e r n a t i o n a l which p o i n t e d out the importance of a workers' 111 s t a t e : To smash the c a p i t a l i s t s ' s t a t e , t o d e s t r o y the c a p i t a l i s t s ' h e l p i n g hand, t o e l i m i n a t e the weapons of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , t o be f r e e of the c a p i t a l i s t s ' p r o p e r t y , t o p l a c e e v e r y t h i n g under the common c o n t r o l of the c o l l e c t i v e w o r k i ng c l a s s — m a n y t h i n g s must be done which are i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a government, w i t h o u t a s t a t e . 3 8 Zhou c o n c l u d e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t by r e - e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t w i t h o u t i t "the i n f l u e n c e of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s ( t o d a y ' s r u i n g c l a s s ) cannot be e l i m i n a t e d and the r o o t s of the c a p i t a l i s t system ( t o d a y ' s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) cannot be dug u p . " 3 9 In o t h e r words, a c c o r d i n g t o Zhou, an a r c h i s m c o u l d not a t t a i n communist s o c i e t y , because i t sought the immediate a b o l i t i o n of the s t a t e . the p r o l e t a r i a t was i n S h i Cuntong's a r t i c l e , "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? " . He saw the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t as the n e c e s s a r y consequence of the c l a s s n a t u r e of s o c i e t y . C l a s s s t r u g g l e i s something t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r s under a c l a s s system, and i s something t h a t i s o n l y s u i t a b l e t o a c l a s s system. . . . T h e d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s a l s o something t h a t o c c u r s under a d e f i n i t e s o c i e t y , and moreover, i s o n l y s u i t a b l e t o a s o c i e t y i n which c l a s s e s are i r r e c o n c i l a b l y opposed. The d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s a k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n a r y means, and i s d e f i n i t e l y not the o b j e c t i v e of the communist p a r t y . The o b j e c t i v e of the communist p a r t y i s t o r e a l i z e communism." 0 Of c o u r s e , communism was a l s o the o b j e c t i v e of a n a r c h i s m , but a c c o r d i n g t o S h i , o n l y the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t c o u l d c r e a t e a c l a s s l e s s , s t a t e l e s s , i . e . communist, s o c i e t y : Communists d e f i n i t e l y advocate the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s t a t e of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s a f t e r the overthrow of the s t a t e of the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s [youchan j i e j i The most s o p h i s t i c a t e d t r e a t m e n t of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of 1 1 2 s t a t e i s the mechanism by which one c l a s s o p p r e s s e s a n o t h e r , o n l y when c l a s s e s cease t o e x i s t can the s t a t e a l s o n a t u r a l l y cease t o e x i s t . Our u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e i s . . . t h a t t h e r e be no s t a t e . B e f o r e c l a s s e s have ceased t o e x i s t , we not o n l y f o r c e f u l l y advocate a s t a t e , but the p o w e r f u l s t a t e of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . " 1 In o t h e r words, the overthrow of the b o u r g e o i s s t a t e does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n the a b o l i t i o n of c l a s s e s , b u t , As c l a s s e s day by day cease t o e x i s t , the s t a t e , a l s o day by day, l o s e s i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Our o b j e c t i v e i s not t o use the s t a t e t o c o n s o l i d a t e the p r i v i l e g e s of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , but i s t o use the s t a t e t o a b o l i s h a l l c l a s s e s . " 2 Moreover, the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t i s the means of c o m p l e t i n g the r e v o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o . S h i : The d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s the means by which s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i s completed and communism i s reached. A f t e r a l l c l a s s e s have ceased to e x i s t , communism i s c o m p l e t e l y r e a l i z e d and the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s n a t u r a l l y l o s e s i t s u s e f u l n e s s . L e n i n s a i d t h a t the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s has t h r e e p urposes: ( 1 ) t o oppress the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s ; ( 2 ) t o c o e r c e the s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s ; ( 3 ) t o t r a i n t h e u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two p u r p o s e s : ( 1 ) t o d e a l w i t h the opposing c l a s s e s ; ( 2 ) t o d e a l w i t h our own c l a s s . The former i s t o oppress the opposing c l a s s e s so t h a t they g r a d u a l l y cease t o e x i s t . The l a t t e r i s t o t r a i n our own c l a s s so t h a t each member of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s becomes a r e v o l u t i o n a r y who can take charge of the e n t e r p r i s e s of communist s o c i e t y . S imply p u t , the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s the o n l y means of c r e a t i n g the economic o r g a n i z a t i o n of communism. I f the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s not put i n t o e f f e c t , communism cannot be r e a l i z e d . " 3 Thus, a c c o r i n g t o S h i , o n l y the replacement of the b o u r g e o i s s t a t e w i t h the p r o l e t a r i a n s t a t e c o u l d r e a l i z e communism. The a n a r c h i s t s charged t h a t t h i s d i c t a t o r s h i p would not be e x e r c i s e d by the people but by the p a r t y . S h i answered t h a t t h i s was o n l y r e a l i s t i c . In p r a c t i c e , 113 The s o - c a l l e d d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s a t f i r s t the d i c t a t o r s h i p of a m i n o r i t y . T h i s i s something which cannot be, and need not be, a v o i d e d . . . . How can the u n c o n s c i o u s , u n t r a i n e d , u n o r g a n i z e d , m a j o r i t y be c a l l e d upon t o e x e r c i s e d i c t a t o r s h i p ? I f they a r e c a l l e d upon to e x e r c i s e d i c t a t o r s h i p , how c o u l d communism not be i n a mess? T h e r e f o r e , so as not t o endanger communism, a t f i r s t , d i c t a t o r s h i p must be c a r r i e d out by a m i n o r i t y of c o n s c i o u s , t r a i n e d , o r g a n i z e d , u n p r o p e r t i e d [ w u c h a n z h e , i . e . p r o l e t a r i a n s ] . " " As the number of c o n s c i o u s , t r a i n e d , and o r g a n i z e d , members of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i n c r e a s e d , d i c t a t o r s h i p would be c a r r i e d out by p r o g r e s s i v e l y more and more p e o p l e , u n t i l i t would be c a r r i e d out by a l l and no l o n g e r needed." 5 Gongchandang's arguments a g a i n s t a n a r c h i s m were i n e f f e c t t h a t a n a r c h i s m was unworkable because i t d i d not f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e C hina's t r u e s i t u a t i o n . On the one had, China's backwardness d i c t a t e d t h a t few p e o p l e were c a p a b l e of u n i t i n g t o g e t h e r i n t o c o l l e c t i v e s — e i t h e r because of t h e i r own l a c k of. c o n s c i o u s n e s s or l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y . But the argument t h a t c a r r i e d the most weight was t h a t a n a r c h i s m d i d not f u l l y r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e of c l a s s e s , w h i l e communism d i d . Communism, t h e r e f o r e , a d m i t t e d the need f o r a s t a t e - - t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t — a f t e r the b o u r g e o i s s t a t e was o v erthrown. T h i s p o s i t i o n , as a t l e a s t some of the e a r l y communists were aware, had been put f o r w a r d by L e n i n i n The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n . * 6 1 1 4 3. The A n a l y s i s of C l a s s e s i n Chinese S o c i e t y The c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n of s o c i e t y i s c e n t r a l t o a communist p a r t y ' s s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n . Which c l a s s e s a r e the f r i e n d s of the r e v o l u t i o n ? Which a r e i t s enemies? Which c l a s s e s can be won over t o the r e v o l u t i o n a r y cause? Which cannot? The answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s d e t e r m i n e the road t h a t the communist p a r t y f o l l o w s , because' i t d e t e r m i n e s which c l a s s e s i t f i g h t s , and which i t o r g a n i z e s - - i . e . i t s s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n . A l t h o u g h Marx never d e f i n e d what he meant by the term " c l a s s " , L e n i n d i d . To L e n i n c l a s s e s were d e f i n e d by the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the means of p r o d u c t i o n ( o w n e r s h i p ) , s o c i a l l y by t h e i r r o l e i n the system of p r o d u c t i o n ( o v e r s e e i n g , l a b o u r i n g , e x p r o p r i a t i n g , e t c . ) , and belong t o a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h the e a r l y communists seem t o have heard of some L e n i n ' s c l a s s terms, they remained e s s e n t i a l l y uninformed w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s d i d not d e p a r t from t h a t of t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Gongchandang d i d not p r e s e n t a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of Chinese s o c i e t y i n any s i n g l e a r t i c l e , but a composite of s e p a r a t e a r t i c l e s s u g g ests t h a t the e a r l y communists agreed on the e x i s t e n c e of s e v e r a l c l a s s e s i n C h i n a . "A C a l l t o the Peasants of C h i n a " 0 7 p r e s e n t e d one of the most d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of c l a s s e s i n Chinese s o c i e t y . The a u t h o r of t h i s a r t i c l e , which was p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1921, argued t h a t any s u c c e s s f u l " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " had t o i n c l u d e p e a s a n t s . Some people say t h a t the l i v e s of Chinese p e a s a n t s 1 1 5 a r e not c o m p l e t e l y s o r r o w f u l , and t h a t they are not c o m p l e t e l y oppressed. Because peasants a l l own l a n d which they c u l t i v a t e t h e m s e l v e s , they do not s o l e l y r e l y upon r e n t e d f i e l d s t o make t h e i r l i v i n g . Even i f the produce from r e n t e d f i e l d s i s d i v i d e d i n h a l f , i t i s d i v i d e d e v e n l y , and t h e r e i s n ' t , t h e r e f o r e , any i n e q u i t y i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . Because of t h i s , you cannot d e v e l o p t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s by p r o p a g a n d i z i n g them." 8 The a u t h o r of "A C a l l t o the Peasants of C h i n a " s a i d t h a t t h i s argument was " c o m p l e t e l y f a l s e " . " 9 He used the s i t u a t i o n of p e a s a n t s i n h i s "hometown" t o p r e s e n t a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of r u r a l soc i e t y . The a u t h o r p o i n t e d out t h a t w h i l e i t may have been t r u e t h a t many pe a s a n t s owned some l a n d , t h i s d i d not mean t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of a l l peasants were the same, or t h a t some peasants were not o p p r e s s e d . Some people say t h a t a l l Chinese p e a s a n t s own l a n d . T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y t r u e but i t i s a b i t too sweeping. A t h r e e - p e r s o n household which owns a thousand mu c o u n t s as owning l a n d , as does a t e n - p e r s o n household which owns one mu. On the b a s i s of t h i s k i n d of ownership can you say t h a t the l i v e s of a l l peasants are the same and t h a t t h e r e i s no e x c e p t i o n a l s u f f e r i n g ? 5 0 In o t h e r words, even i f a l l p e a s a n t s owned l a n d , i t d i d not f o l l o w t h a t they were a l l w e l l o f f . He saw the m i s e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n of some peasants as the r e s u l t of the c l a s s n a t u r e of r u r a l s o c i e t y . He suggested t h a t a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n of the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s of p e a s a n t s would r e v e a l t h a t : . . .There are s e v e r a l c l a s s e s [ j _ i ceng j i e j i JVJF\ ffiift, l i t . " s e v e r a l l e v e l s of c l a s s e s " ] amongst p e a s a n t s : ( 1 ) There a r e those who own most of the l a n d , do not c u l t i v a t e i t t h e m s e l v e s , and e i t h e r h i r e c u l t i v a t o r s or r e n t i t out t o c u l t i v a t o r s , and who r e c e i v e r e n t . These k i n d s of p e o p l e do not count as pure p e a s a n t s and are c a l l e d "the l a n d e d r i c h " [ t u c a i z h u ^ f f i ] i n my hometown. ( 2 ) Second are those who own t h e i r own l a n d , c u l t i v a t e i t t h e m s e l v e s , and a r e a b l e t o support t h e i r 116 w h o l e f a m i l y w i t h i t s p r o d u c e . A s i d e f r o m o w n i n g t h e i r own l a n d , t h e y a l s o r e n t l a n d t o o t h e r p e o p l e t o c u l t i v a t e . T h e s e k i n d s o f p e o p l e a r e c a l l e d m i d d l e p e a s a n t s [ z h o n g d e n g n o n g m i n " ^ a ^ ^ ^ ] - ( 3 ) T h i r d a r e t h o s e who own some l a n d , b u t c a n n o t s u p p o r t t h e i r w h o l e f a m i l y by r e l y i n g u p o n i t s p r o d u c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e y c a n o n l y r e l y u p o n c u l t i v a t i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s l a n d i n e x c h a n g e f o r some o f t h e i r p r o d u c e . T h e s e k i n d s o f p e o p l e c a n be c a l l e d l o w e r p e a s a n t s [ x i a j i n o n g m i n < 2 £ | k & ] . ( 4 ) F o u r t h a r e t h e " p a u p e r s " [ q i o n g g u a n g d a n T h e y h a v e no l a n d w h a t s o e v e r , a n d a r e c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n c u l t i v a t i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s l a n d i n o r d e r t o make a l i v i n g . 5 1 T h u s , " A c a l l t o t h e p e a s a n t s o f C h i n a w i d e n t i f i e d f o u r c l a s s e s i n r u r a l s o c i e t y - - " t h e l a n d e d r i c h " , m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , l o w e r p e a s a n t s , a n d " p a u p e r s " . Of t h e s e f o u r c l a s s e s , t h e f i r s t t w o c l a s s e s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a n d l e d f a i r l y c o m f o r t a b l e l i v e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e y w e r e n o t " t h e o b j e c t o f o u r q u e s t i o n " . T h e t h i r d a n d f o u r t h g r o u p s , t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f C h i n e s e p e a s a n t s , w e r e t h e o b j e c t , h o w e v e r : T h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h k i n d o f p e a s a n t i s s i m p l y e x t r e m e l y t e r r i b l e . W o r k i n g e v e r y d a y u n t i l l a t e , a f t e r a y e a r o f b i t t e r t o i l , t h e y a r e s t i l l n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o t h e d n o r h a v e e n o u g h t o e a t . When t h e l a n d l o r d i s s t u b b o r n , t h e y m o r e o r l e s s s t a r v e t o d e a t h . T h e r e f o r e , t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e p e a s a n t s a r e e x t r e m e l y s o r r o w f u l . A l t h o u g h p e a s a n t s i n t h e t h i r d c a t a g o r y own some l a n d , t h e y s t i l l r e n t o t h e r p e o p l e ' s l a n d , b u t b e c a u s e t h e i r c o s t o f l i v i n g k e e p s r i s i n g , t h e y f r a n t i c a l l y b o r r o w g o o d s , a n d a r e u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r w h o l e f a m i l i e s . T h e r e f o r e , a w h o l e y e a r ' s i n c o m e c a n n o t go i n t o t h e p e a s a n t ' s h o u s e h o l d , some m u s t go t o t h e c r e d i t o r t o p a y b a c k some o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o r t h e i n t e r e s t . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e l i t t l e l a n d t h a t y o u own c a n o n l y g r a d u a l l y be s o l d o r g i v e n t o " t h e l a n d e d r i c h " o r m i d d l e p e a s a n t s . . . a n d y o u u l t i m a t e l y e n d u p i n t h e f o u r t h c a t a g o r y o f p e a s a n t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e p e a s a n t s ' l i v e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y s o r r o w f u l . 5 2 T h e t e r m i n o l o g y t h a t " A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " a p p l i e d t o r u r a l c l a s s e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r " m i d d l e p e a s a n t s " a n d " l o w e r . . . 1 1 7 p e a s a n t s " was s u g g e s t i v e of L e n i n . But upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the m i d d l e p e a s a n t s of "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t ' s " were d i f f e r e n t from those of L e n i n . For example, L e n i n gave the f o l l o w i n g p a r t i a l d e f i n i t i o n of m i d d l e p e a s a n t s : In the economic sense, one s h o u l d understand by "middle p e a s a n t s " those s m a l l farmers who, (1) e i t h e r as owners or t e n a n t s , h o l d p l o t s of l a n d t h a t are a l s o s m a l l but. . .are s u f f i c i e n t not o n l y t o p r o v i d e , as a g e n e r a l r u l e , a meagre s u b s i s t e n c e f o r the f a m i l y and the bare, minimum needed t o m a i n t a i n the farm but a l s o produce as c e r t a i n s u r p l u s . . .; (2) q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y . . . r e s o r t t o the employment of h i r e d l a b o u r . 5 3 Thus a c c o r d i n g . t o L e n i n , the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of middle peasants was t h a t they produced a s u r p l u s over what they r e q u i r e d t o meet t h e i r needs. But f o r "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m i d d l e peasants was t h a t they owned s u f f i c i e n t l a n d t o support t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and not t h a t they produce a s u r p l u s . Thus "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " d e f i n e d i t s r u r a l c l a s s e s s o l e l y i n terms of ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . ownership of l a n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s was not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t of L e n i n , but was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e a r l i e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s i n China as economic g r o u p i n g s d e f i n e d by ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n . Thus i t appears t h a t w h i l e the a u t h o r of "A C a l l t o the Peasants of C h i n a " was f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e r m i n o l o g y L e n i n a p p l i e d t o r u r a l c l a s s e s , he was i g n o r a n t of L e n i n ' s a c t u a l d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e s e c l a s s e s . "A C a l l t o the P e a s a n t s of C h i n a " a l s o saw the phenomenon of i n c r e a s i n g p o l a r i z a t i o n between i t s f o u r r u r a l " c l a s s e s " . As more and more l a n d accumulated i n the hands of the l a n d l o r d s , more and more of the lower peasants became l a n d l e s s . 118 Land was becoming c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t o the hand of a p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r group of p e o p l e . T h e r e f o r e , " c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s are becoming c l e a r e r , and the l i f e of the average peasant i s becoming more b i t t e r . " 5 " Because of t h i s , t h e r e was a growing tendency f o r c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o appear amongst the p e a s a n t s . A c c o r d i n g l y , lower and poor peasants were p o t e n t i a l l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y . But "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t ' s " view of the p o l a r i z a t i o n of r u r a l s o c i e t y i n t o the c l a s s which owned l a n d and the c l a s s which d i d n o t , c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l l e d Marx's d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of ownership i n i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t ' s " statement t h a t c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s were becoming more e v i d e n t i n r u r a l s o c i e t y meant t h a t the c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s between " p r o p e r t i e d " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d " were becoming more apparent i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , and t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y the a u t h o r of "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " d i d not r e c o g n i z e any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between c l a s s e s i n the c o u n t r y s i d e and i n the c i t i e s . I f t h i s was the c a s e , i t r e i n f o r c e s the argument t h a t the a u t h o r of "A C a l l t o P e a s a n t s " was i g n o r a n t of the f a c t t h a t L e n i n h e l d t h a t r u r a l and urban c l a s s e s were d i s c t i n c t i n a l l but the most advanced of c a p i t a l i s t e c o n o m i e s . 5 5 The terms " p r o l e t a r i a t " and " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " were used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Zhou F u h a i , f o r example, used the term "the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " i n November 1 9 2 0 , 5 6 and the term "the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the l a b o u r e r s " i n A p r i l 1 9 2 1 , 5 7 t o d e s c r i b e the p o l i t i c a l system a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n . Some a r t i c l e s , used the term " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " , o t h e r s the term " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " , t o r e f e r t o the c l a s s which would do the 1 1 9 o v e r t h r o w i n g i n t h i s r e v o l u t i o n . 5 8 Whatever term used, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t p e a s a n t s , at l e a s t poor p e a s a n t s , were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l a s s . C o n s i d e r S h i Cuntong's d e f i n i t i o n of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " : The scope of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s i s v e r y broad. I t i n c l u d e s f a c t o r y l a b o u r e r s , mine l a b o u r e r s , shop l a b o u r e r s , communication l a b o u r e r s , barge l a b o u r e r s , t e n a n t farmers [ d i a n h u <j& f& ], a g r i c u l t u r a l h i r e d hands [ nongye gugong $ jjf^ ], u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s , disbanded s o l d i e r s , and a l l o t h e r u n p r o p e r t i e d [ wuchan zhe . Thus "tenant f a r m e r s " and " h i r e d hands" are c l e a r l y i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the ranks of "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p o s i t i o n of "A C a l l to L a b o u r " 6 0 which s a i d : The l a b o u r e r s of a l l i n d u s t r i e s and a l l p l a c e s must become c o n s c i o u s t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t s of a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p l a c e s are a c l a s s , and t h a t the l a b o u r e r s of a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p l a c e s , are a c l a s s . 6 1 But t h i s " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " d i d the f o l l o w i n g t h i n g s : G r a i n i s p l a n t e d by you. C l o t h i s woven by you. C l o t h e s a r e sewn by you. . . , 6 2 T h e r e f o r e , p l a n t e r s of g r a i n , i . e . p e a s a n t s , a r e p a r t of t h i s c l a s s of l a b o u r e r s . From these examples i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the terms " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " i n c l u d e d a l l l a b o u r e r s who owned l i t t l e or no p r o p e r t y , i . e . b o t h urban p r o l e t a r i a t and poor p e a s a n t s . The "wuchan j i e j i " , which today i s u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as "the p r o l e t a r i a t " , i n c l u d e d peasants and i n d u s t r i a l workers i n a s i n g l e c l a s s . A c l a s s , however, i s always one of a p a i r of o p p o s i t e s . I f one c l a s s i s e x p l o i t e d , t h e r e must be another which e x p l o i t s . 1 2 0 The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang r e f e r r e d t o t h i s e x p l o i t a t i v e . c l a s s as "the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " (youchan j i e j i ffi, or "the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s " ( z i b e n j i e j i [ & . L a n d l o r d s , and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s , were both seen as members of t h i s c l a s s . In f a c t , "A c a l l t o l a b o u r " e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f e d l a n d l o r d s as c a p i t a l i s t s : Those who run f a c t o r i e s a r e b i g c a p i t a l i s t s . Those who r e c e i v e r e n t and charge i n t e r e s t are s m a l l c a p i t a l i s t s . T h e i r s i z e may d i f f e r , but the e v i l t h a t they make i s the same. 6 3 T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t l a n d l o r d s , those who r e n t out l a n d and make h i g h i n t e r e s t l o a n s , were seen as " s m a l l c a p i t a l i s t s " . The " l a n d e d r i c h " of • "A C a l l t o the P e a s ants of C h i n a " were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as those who r e n t out l a n d and make l o a n s , 6 " w h i l e "A C a l l t o L a b o u r e r s , Peasants and S o l d i e r s " 6 5 i d e n t i f i e d " l a n d , m achinery, houses, and o t h e r t o o l s of p r o d u c t i o n " as t h a t which i s owned by "the c a p i t a l i s t s " . 6 6 Thus i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t l a n d l o r d s , the dominant c l a s s of L e n i n ' s " s e m i - f e u d a l " r u r a l economy, were not seen as a s e p a r a t e c l a s s , but as members of the dominant c l a s s of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y - - t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . Youchan j i e j i , the term u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as "the b o u r g e o i s i e " t o d a y , r e f e r r e d t o "the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " , which i n c l u d e d both l a n d l o r d s , and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s . T h i s view of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , on the one hand, as a s i n g l e c l a s s , and workers and p e a s a n t s , on the o t h e r hand, as a s i n g l e c l a s s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s , as s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s d e f i n e d by ownership (or non- ownership) of p r o p e r t y , which had appeared i n C h ina i n 1919. There was a l s o some agreement upon the e x i s t e n c e of a 121 two "middle c l a s s e s " - - " t h e s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " ( x i a o youchan "I l e " l 1 ) and "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " ( z h i s h i j i e j i Both Zhou Fuhai and S h i Cuntong i d e n t i f i e d t hese two c l a s s e s i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of the s t a g e s , or purposes, of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t . 6 7 Only Zhou, however, d e f i n e d t h e s e c l a s s e s . He wrote t h a t a f t e r the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t had e l i m i n a t e d the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , . . .Those who a c t i v e l y d e s t r o y s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e the s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s . In c o n c r e t e terms t h i s c l a s s i s composed of such k i n d s of people as c r a f t s m e n , t e a c h e r s , s p e c i a l i s t s , and d o c t o r s . 6 8 T h i s " d e f i n i t i o n " , however, was ambiguous. I t i s not- c l e a r whether Zhou r e f e r r e d to both "the s m a l l p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " as " t h i s c l a s s " or j u s t "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " . He d i d , however, go on t o say t h a t "the masses of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s a re l e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l s . " 6 9 The c l a s s of i n t e l l e c t u a l s a c c o r d i n g t o Gongchandang would a l l y w i t h the p r o l e t a r i a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the r e v o l u t i o n which was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the b o u r g e o i s i e . In a remarkable echo of "On the M i d d l e C l a s s " p u b l i s h e d i n J u l y 1 9 2 1 , 7 0 "A C a l l t o L a b o u r e r s , P e asants and S o l d i e r s " e x p l a i n e d why i n t e l l e c t u a l s were r e v o l u t i o n a r y : . . . I n t e l l e c t u a l work . . . i s a l s o a k i n d of commodity . . . In today's s o c i e t y i n t e l l e c t u a l work c o u n t s as h i g h l e v e l but those w i t h knowledge more o f t e n than not work f o r o t h e r p e o p l e . The l i v e s of those who work w i t h t h e i r minds are i m p o v e r i s h e d . 7 1 Thus i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , Gongchandang's d e s c r i p t i o n 1 2 2 of c l a s s e s i n Chinese s o c i e t y d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e p a r t from p r e v i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of c l a s s e s i n C h i n a . T h i s suggests t h a t the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang were f u n d a m e n t a l l y unaware of L e n i n ' s a n a l y s i s of c l a s s e s . But based on i t s c l a s s a n a l y s i s of Chinese s o c i e t y , Gongchandang d e v l o p e d a s t r a t e g y of r e v o l u t i o n . E s s e n t a i l l y , the r e v o l u t i o n would be brought about by "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and "the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s " . I t would be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t "the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " and "the s m a l l ' p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " would, f o r a time at l e a s t , a l l y w i t h "the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s " . 4. S e i z e P o l i t i c a l Power: The R e v o l u t i o n a r y Road In What i s t o be Done?, L e n i n d e s c r i b e d the g e n e r a l approach o f , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form of,, problems encountered by, and c e n t r a l t a s k s of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y . E s s e n t i a l l y , he argued t h a t p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d o n l y be brought about i f the p r o l e t a r i a t was c o n s c i o u s . T h e r e f o r e , the c e n t r a l t a s k of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y was t o educate the p r o l e t a r i a t so as t o rouse i t s l a t e n t c o n s c i o u s n e s s . S i n c e such e d u c a t i o n c o u l d o n l y be c a r r i e d out by those who were themselves c l a s s c o n s c i o u s , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y had t o c o n s i s t of those who were the most c l a s s c o n s c i o u s , i . e . those whom L e n i n r e f e r r e d t o as the "vanguard" of the p r o l e t a r i a t . A l t h o u g h Gongchandang d e a l t w i t h q u e s t i o n s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and even came c l o s e t o the concept of the vanguard p a r t y , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e which s u g g e s t s t h a t the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang"were aware of L e n i n ' s t h e s i s on the vanguard p a r t y . 123 By the s p r i n g of 1921, Gongchandang s t a r t e d t o d e s c r i b e the p a t h which the e a r l y communists thought would l e a d t o a s u c c e s s f u l " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . W r i t i n g i n June 1921, Zhou Fuhai made i t c l e a r t h a t o n l y the s e i z u r e of s t a t e power c o u l d b r i n g about s o c i a l i s m . In " S e i z e P o l i t i c a l P o w e r " , 7 2 Zhou wrote t h a t p o l i t i c a l power c o u l d o n l y be g a i n e d through v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n : F i r s t i s t o s e i z e p o l i t i c a l power. . . . O u r s o - c a l l e d s e i z u r e of power does not make use of p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n i s m t o f o o l around w i t h the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , s p r e a d i n g a l i t t l e r i g h t e o u s n e s s i n government. That i s t o say, we must use r e v o l u t i o n a r y means t o overthrow the p r o p e r t e d c l a s s , and t o p l a c e p o l i t i c a l power i n the hands of u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . 7 3 S i n c e t h i s a r t i c l e was p r i m a r i l y a c r i t i q u e of a n a r c h i s m , Zhou c o n t i n u e d by a r g u i n g t h a t "common sense" d i c t a t e d t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e i z e p o l i t i c a l power and e s t a b l i s h a new s t a t e . He d i d not d e s c r i b e the n a t u r e of t h e s e " r e v o l u t i o n a r y means". 7" "A C a l l t o L a b o u r e r s , P e a s a n t s and S o l d i e r s " i n May 1921, had been a l i t t l e more s p e c i f i c i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s r e v o l u t i o n , which would not s i m p l y be an armed i n s u r r e c t i o n . You must not be a f r a i d of t h i s word r e v o l u t i o n . To l e a v e the b i t t e r l i f e of today, we must have our own power, and r e v o l u t i o n cannot be a v o i d e d . I a s s u r e you t h a t our r e v o l u t i o n does not c a l l upon you t o take up arms. T h i s o l d - s t y l e r e v o l u t i o n cannot be used today. R e v o l u t i o n c a l l s upon you t o u n i t e , t o u n i t e t o g e t h e r so as t o c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s i s t your e n e m i e s . 7 5 In o t h e r words, the communist r e v o l u t i o n would not s i m p l y be an armed i n s u r r e c t i o n or the k i n d of extended m i l i t a r y campaign b e i n g pushed by t h e Guomindang. T h i s r e v o l u t i o n would have a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d of p r e p a r a t i o n . In o r d e r t o r e s i s t an enemy, a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s " C a l l " , 124 i t was f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y the enemy. There were t h r e e enemies i n C h i n a : F i r s t a r e o f f i c i a l s . Take a lo o k a t the p e t t y o f f i c i a l s of your v i l l a g e s and you can know the c r i m e s of a l l o f f i c i a l s . Second are the m i l i t a r i s t s . O f f i c e r s l e a d t r o o p s i n t o your v i l l a g e s , they rape your w i v e s , beat your p a r e n t s , and demand your money. These m i l i t a r i s t s are a b e t t e d by the o f f i c i a l s . They a r e e v i l i n t h e same way t h a t o f f i c i a l s a r e e v i l . T h i r d a r e the c a p i t a l i s t s . 7 6 T h i s was the f i r s t s t e p of the r e v o l u t i o n - — " t o r e c o g n i z e your enemies". 7 7 These enemies would not stand i d l y by and a l l o w themselves t o be overthrown. They would use a l l s o r t s of " l i e s " t o p r e v e n t the u n i t y of the masses. T h e r e f o r e , the second s t e p of r e v o l u t i o n would expose t h e i r manoeuvres, i . e . i t would c a r r y out i d e o l o g i c a l p r o p a g a n d a . " 7 8 E c h o i n g S h i Cuntong's t h e s i s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l n a t u r e of communism and c a p i t a l i s m , t h i s " C a l l " p o i n t e d out t h a t the t h i r d s t e p of r e v o l u t i o n would " u n i t e the l a b o u r e r s of the whole w o r l d " . T h i s u n i t y was ne c e s s a r y because the enemies of Chinese l a b o u r e r s were su p p o r t e d by the f o r e i g n powers and f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i s t s . 7 9 The f o u r t h s t e p was t o m o b i l i z e m i l i t a r y u n i t s f o r the a c t u a l s e i z u r e of p o w e r . 8 0 Only a f t e r a l l of these s t e p s c o u l d "the d i c t a t o r s h i p of l a b o u r " be i n s t i t u t e d and s o c i a l i s m be r e a l i z e d . 8 1 "A C a l l t o L a b o u r e r s , Peasants and S o l d i e r s " d i d not d e a l w i t h the i s s u e of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s , but "A C a l l t o Labour", p u b l i s h e d i n June 1921, d e s c r i b e d c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s as a n e c e s s a r y p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r r e v o l u t i o n . F i r s t , i t p o i n t e d out t o l a b o u r t h a t i t c r e a t e s a l l w e a l t h and asked: 1 25 A l l o f t h e t h i n g s o f t h e w o r l d a r e made by y o u . A l l o f t h e t h i n g s o f t h e w o r l d s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d by y o u . T h e n why i s i t t h a t y o u h a v e s u c h s u f f e r i n g ? Do y o u know w h e r e y o u r s u f f e r i n g c o m e s f r o m ? I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o s a y t h a t y o u r s u f f e r i n g c o m e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t y o u a r e a l l o p p r e s s e d l a b o u r e r s . L a n d , m a c h i n e s , h o u s e s , a n d o t h e r t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e a l l p r i v a t e l y o w n e d by t h e c a p i t a l i s t s . I f y o u w a n t t o w o r k s o t h a t y o u c a n e a t , b u t d o n o t own a n y l a n d , m a c h i n e s , h o u s e s , o r o t h e r t o o l s , y o u c a n o n l y s e l l y o u r p h y s i c a l l a b o u r p o w e r t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t s b e c o m i n g t h e i r u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r . The w a g e s g i v e n t o u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s by t h e c a p i t a l i s t s a r e o n l y e n o u g h t o f i l l o u r m o u t h s d r a g g i n g o u t o u r m i s e r a b l e e x i s t e n c e s , w h i l e m o s t o f t h e p r o f i t s p o u r i n t o t h e c o f f e r s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s t h e c a p i t a l i s t s g r o w r i c h e r d a y by d a y , w h i l e t h e l a b o u r e r s g r o w p o o r e r d a y by d a y . I f y o u w i s h t o e n d y o u r s u f f e r i n g , t h e p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d , m a c h i n e s , h o u s e s , a n d o t h e r t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n owned by t h e c a p i t a l i s t s , m u s t be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e common p r o p e r t y o f a l l l a b o u r e r s . 8 2 I n o t h e r w o r d s , c a p i t a l i s t e x p l o i t a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a b j e c t c o n d i t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r i n g m a s s e s , a n d s o c i a l i s m was t h e o n l y means o f c h a n g i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o " A C a l l t o L a b o u r " , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l i s m , The l a b o u r e r s o f a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d a l l p l a c e s m u s t become c o n s c i o u s t h a t t h e c a p i t a l i s t s o f a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p l a c e s a r e a c l a s s , a n d t h a t t h e l a b o u r e r s o f a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p l a c e s a r e a c l a s s , a n d t h a t t h e s e t w o c l a s s e s a r e f o r e v e r i n c o m p a t i b l e . . . . U n l e s s t h e l a b o u r e r s o f a l l p l a c e s a n d i n d u s t r i e s o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a c l a s s , t h e y w i l l n e v e r h a v e t h e s t r e n g t h t o r e s i s t t h e p o w e r f u l c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . W i t h o u t t h e s t r e n g t h t o r e s i s t t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s f o r m t h e c a p i t a l i s t s ' p r i v a t e l y owned t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t o t h e common p r o p e r t y o f t h e l a b o u r e r s . U n l e s s t h e t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e c o m m o n l y o w n e d by t h e l a b o u r e r s , t h e i r s u f f e r i n g c a n n e v e r be e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s , t h e n , i s c a l l e d , c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 8 3 I n o t h e r w o r d s , c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e " l a b o u r i n g c l a s s " was t h e a w a r e n e s s t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s a s a c l a s s w e r e i n i m i c a l t o t h o s e o f t h e l a b o u r e r s a s a c l a s s a n d t h a t o n l y c o l l e c t i v e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e means o f 126 p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y improve t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . Only when the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s had t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o u l d communist r e v o l u t i o n o c c u r . "A C a l l t o Labour" d i d not d e s c r i b e the manner i n which c o n s i o u s n e s s d e v e l o p s . T h i s q u e s t i o n was examined i n A p r i l 1921, i n "A C a l l t o the Peasants of C h i n a " which p o i n t e d out t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l r e v o l u t i o n i n China r e q u i r e d t h a t peasants be c l a s s consc i o u s . The peasants a re the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n . They are very i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n which r e v o l u t i o n i s p r e p a r e d , as w e l l as d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n which i t i s c a r r i e d o u t . I f they a re c l a s s c o n s c i o u s so t h a t they can r i s e up and c a r r y out c l a s s s t r u g g l e , our s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , communism, i s c o m p l e t e l y p o s s i b l e . 8 " Without the p e a s a n t s , the r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d not succeed, and the pea s a n t s would o n l y take p a r t i n the r e v o l u t i o n i f they were c l a s s c o n s c i o u s . C l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s d e v e l o p s n a t u r a l l y : C l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . i s c o m p l e t e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the n a t u r a l t e n d a n c i e s among masses. I f i t i s not induced from the o u t s i d e , i t i s something t h a t a mass i t s e l f w i l l one day d i s c o v e r . C l a s s s t r u g g l e n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r s as the n a t u r a l r e s u l t of the f i e r c e c o n f l i c t between two c o m p l e t e l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e masses r e a c h i n g i t s l i m i t , when the s u f f e r i n g of the r u l e d i s a t i t s g r e a t e s t . 8 5 A l t h o u g h c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s may be a " n a t u r a l r e s u l t " t h i s a r t i c l e went on t o p o i n t out t h a t i t s development c o u l d be encouraged. . . . I f you aw a i t i t s n a t u r a l development, i t w i l l o c cur a l i t t l e l a t e r . Because t h i s tendency e x i s t s anyways, i f you add on a r t i f i c i a l means t o promote i t , i t w i l l happen a l i t t l e s o o n e r . 8 6 In o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h the development of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s was i n e v i t a b l e , i t s development c o u l d be s t i m u l a t e d by an 127 e x t e r n a l agent. A l l t h a t was needed t o encourage the development of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s amongst the peasants was " t o t h i n k of a way t o propagandize them." 8 7 In "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? " , S h i Cuntong argued t h a t o n l y a h i g h l y c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y , i n e f f e c t what L e n i n c a l l e d a "vanguard", c o u l d b r i n g about " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . 8 8 A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , t h i s vanguard, or group of " r a d i c a l s " , was t o be composed of "the t h r e e - c o r n e r e d a l l i a n c e of the u n p r o p e r t i e d . c l a s s , s o l d i e r s and s t u d e n t s " . A l l t h r e e were needed because The p e o p l e who are the s t r o n g e s t i n making a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n China a re the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and s o l d i e r s , but the s e two k i n d s of people a re n o t * c o n s c i o u s today and do not un d e r s t a n d s o c i a l i s m . To make them c o n s c i o u s and to b e l i e v e i n s o c i a l i s m , c o n s c i o u s s t u d e n t s must e n t e r t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c a r r y out propaganda. When more of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and s o l d i e r s b e l i e v e i n s o c i a l i s m , the a l l i a n c e of the t h r e e can s e i z e ' i t s o p p o r t u n i t y t o suddenly r i s e up, c r e a t i n g a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n by g r a s p i n g p o l i t i c a l power i n our hands and u s i n g i t t o c r e a t e the economic o r g a n i z a t i o n of communism. 8 9 T h e r e f o r e , t h i s r e v o l u t i o n would be brought about by workers and s o l d i e r s who had been made c o n s c i o u s by the propaganda a c t i v i t i e s of s t u d e n t s . Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o S h i , s t u d e n t s bore the major burden of b r i n g i n g about r e v o l u t i o n . Only s t u d e n t s c o u l d p l a y the r o l e of p r o p a g a n d i s t s . Because the s i t u a t i o n of s t u d e n t s i s b e t t e r than t h a t of most members of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and most s o l d i e r s , i t i s e a s i e r f o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o occur amongst them. I t i s e a s i e r f o r them t o be a f f e c t e d by s o c i a l i s m , and t o be w i l l i n g t o make s a c r i f i c e s f o r s o c i a l i s m . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a m i n o r i t y which i s c o r r u p t , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s i s honest and i n n o c e n t . Today, most of those who read s o c i a l i s t books and newspapers are s t u d e n t s . Many of them are b e l i e v e r s i n s o c i a l i s m . I b e l i e v e t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' t a s k , t o make 1 2 8 a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , i s very heavy. Without them, s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n cannot p o s s i b l y succeed. Why? Because i n China t o d a y , o n l y s t u d e n t s can become p r o p a g a n d i s t s . I t can be s a i d t h a t s t u d e n t s a re the c a t a l y s t s f o r the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and s o l d i e r s . Without s t u d e n t s , they cannot u n i t e under one " i s m " . 9 0 S h i c o n t i n u e d by p o i n t i n g out t h a t s t u d e n t s would f i r s t , have t o o r g a n i z e themselves i n o r d e r t o c a r r y out t h i s t a s k . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n would extend from each s c h o o l t o the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and would a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o r e s e a r c h s o c i a l i s m and the c o n d i t i o n of the l a b o u r i n g p e o p l e . 9 1 S h i wrote t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n i t s e l f , was not s u f f i c i e n t t o r a i s e the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the workers and s o l d i e r s . S t u d e n t s had t o p h y s i c a l l y e n t e r f a c t o r i e s and m i l i t a r y u n i t s t o c a r r y out t h e i r propaganda t a s k s e f f e c t i v e l y . T h i s would a l l o w them t o earn the t r u s t of the workers and the s o l d i e r s , and t o t e l l them about s o c i a l i s m . 9 2 Those who were be s t a b l e t o b r i n g about s o c i a l i s m , a c c o r d i n g t o S h i , were the f a c t o r y w o r k e r s . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis, t h e r e f o r e , had t o be p l a c e d upon " p r o p a g a n d i z i n g " them. S t u d e n t s had t o e n t e r the f a c t o r i e s and cause the workers t o have " c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t r a i n i n g , and o r g a n i z a t i o n . " In p a r t i c u l a r , s t u d e n t s s h o u l d o r g a n i z e l a b o u r u n i o n s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Unions have two p u r p o s e s : one i s t o improve the l i f e of the l a b o u r e r s by s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s ; one i s t o pr e p a r e l a b o u r e r s t o c o n t r o l i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s i n the f u t u r e by t r a i n i n g them. In o r d e r f o r us t o make s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , u n i o n s must q u i c k l y be o r g a n i z e d . 9 3 T h e r e f o r e , s t u d e n t s not o n l y had t o t e l l workers about s o c i a l i s m , they had t o o r g a n i z e them i n t o t r a d e u n i o n s . Sh i was w e l l aware t h a t t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y few 1 2 9 f a c t o r y workers i n China at t h i s t i m e . He t h e r e f o r e f e l t t h a t workers d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h t o c a r r y out r e v o l u t i o n on t h e i r own. The most p o w e r f u l people i n China were s o l d i e r s . T h e r e f o r e , s t u d e n t s a l s o had t o j o i n ranks w i t h them, become t h e i r f r i e n d s and show them t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s l a y w i t h the w o r k e r s , j o i n w i t h them, s e i z e power, and b r i n g about the d e s i r e d r e v o l u t i o n . 9 " The p a t h of r e v o l u t i o n which Shi Cuntong d e s c r i b e d was v e r y c l e a r . He proposed a r e v o l u t i o n which would be brought about by "the d i r e c t a c t i o n of the t h r e e c o r n e r e d a l l i a n c e of the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , s t u d e n t s and s o l d i e r s . " 9 5 Only s t u d e n t s had a s u f f i c i e n t l y d eveloped u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Chinese s o c i e t y , and of s o c i a l i s m , t o be a b l e t o r a i s e the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the workers and s o l d i e r s . They t h e r e f o r e had t o go down t o the : workers and s o l d i e r s , j o i n w i t h them, r a i s e t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and b r i n g about a r e v o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o S h i , t h i s was the o n l y way i n which a communist r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d be brought about i n C h i n a . S h i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a t h of r e v o l u t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p o s i t i o n s of h i s c o l l e a g u e s . They a l l saw the need t o d e v e l o p " c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . They f e l t t h a t t h i s development c o u l d be s t i m u l a t e d by e f f e c t i v e p r o p a g a n d a . 9 6 Nowhere i n "How Do We Make S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n ? " does S h i p o i n t t o the n e c e s s i t y of o r g a n i z i n g the c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y i n t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . For t h a t m a t t e r , none of the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang ever made t h i s p o i n t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the e a r l y communists were unaware of the L e n i n i s t concept of a "vanguard p a r t y " . 9 7 I t i s p o s s i b l e , of c o u r s e , t h a t the e a r l y communists 1 3 0 were so p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h o r g a n i z i n g a "vanguard p a r t y " t h a t they never b o t h e r e d t o mention i t , but t h i s i s u n l i k e l y . I f t h i s was the c a s e , then i t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t one of the c o n t r i b u t o r s would have used the term "vanguard", but we f i n d t h a t S h i Cuntong, f o r example, never a p p l i e s t h i s term t o h i s c o n s c i o u s m i n o r i t y . The r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t h d e s c r i b e d i n Gongchandang was not t h a t which u l t i m a t e l y succeeded i n C h i n a . I t would take as g r e a t d e a l more p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , and s u b s t a n t i a l t h e o r e t i c a l r e - e v a l u a t i o n , b e f o r e t h a t s t r a t e g y emerged. The e a r l y communists, however, were aware t h a t i f t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n was t o succeed, t h e y , t h a t i s s t u d e n t s and young i n t e l l e c t u a l s , had t o go down p r o p a g a n d i z e , and o r g a n i z e , the masses. And t h a t , more or l e s s , i s what they d i d . 131 CONCLUSION The program of the Chinese Communist P a r t y as p r e s e n t e d i n Gongchandang was c o n d i t i o n e d by co n c e p t s which had appeared i n C h i na b e f o r e 1920. In p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t s of r e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s e s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d Gongchandang's a n a l y s i s of r e v o l u t i o n , c o n c e p t s which a r e n e i t h e r Marxism nor L e n i n i s t i n o r i g i n but were, i n f a c t , a n a r c h i s t c o n c e p t s . A c c o r d i n g t o an a r c h i s m , " S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " would l e a d t o communist, i . e . c l a s s l e s s and s t a t e l e s s , s o c i e t y . The B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n had been und e r s t o o d as such a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " and B o l s h e v i s m i t s e l f was co n f u s e d w i t h a n a r c h i s m . At the same time t h a t the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n came t o be seen as a " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " , t h e r e was an i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the need f o r such a r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a . These two e l e m e n t s — B o l s h e v i s m as " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " and the need f o r such a r e v o l u t i o n i n China--were brought t o g e t h e r i n Gongchandang. R u s s i a n - s t y l e s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was the d e c l a r e d o b j e c t i v e of the e a r l y Chinese communist movement . Gongchandang d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t s " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " from t h a t of the a n a r c h i s t s by a r g u i n g t h a t the communist " s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " would use the s e i z u r e of p o l i t i c a l power, i . e . " p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " , as the means of r e a l i z i n g the s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . In e f f e c t , Gongchandang argued t h a t o n l y communism c o u l d r e a l i z e the a n a r c h i s t dream. C l a s s s t r u g g l e was the method of b r i n g i n g about the communist r e v o l u t i o n . Gongchandang c l a i m e d , i n a remarkable echo of e a r l i e r p o p u l i s t s e n t i m e n t s , t h a t t h i s c l a s s s t r u g g l e would occur as the r e s u l t of the s t i m u l a t i o n of the development of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Thus s t u d e n t s s h o u l d go down t o , 1 3 2 p r o p a g a n d i z e and o r g a n i z e , the masses of pe a s a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . T h i s program of r e v o l u t i o n was a l s o c o n d i t i o n e d by Gongchandang's a n a l y s i s of c l a s s e s . The r e v o l u t i o n would be brought about by the a l l i a n c e of the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s and the u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s . T h i s view of i n t e l l e c t u a l s as s h a r i n g the same c l a s s i n t e r e s t s as the oppressed masses was a comon theme of the p e r i o d . Another common theme was the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s seen i n the wake of the B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . T h i s view of c l a s s e s - - s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s d e f i n e d by ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . of p r o p e r t y — a d d e d an economic c o n t e n t t o those c l a s s e s which had been p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d by a n a r c h i s m . Where a n a r c h i s t s had i d e n t i f i e d o p p r e s s o r and oppressed c l a s s e s , e x p l o i t e r and e x p l o i t e d , i . e . " p r o p e r t i e d " and " u n p r o p e r t i e d " , c l a s s e s were now seen. Gongchandang shared t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s i n so f a r as i t i d e n t i f i e d a c l a s s composed of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , as w e l l as a c l a s s composed of pe a s a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , as the b a s i c c l a s s e s of Chinese s o c i e t y . Gongchandang's p e r c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y was a l s o c o n d i t i o n e d by l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o , and consequent f r a m e n t a r y knowledge o f , Marxism and L e n i n i s m . A l t h o u g h i n t e l l e c t u a l s were f a m i l i a r w i t h the b a s i c f o r m a l elements of Marx's t h e o r i e s , i n p r a c t i c e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of r e a l i t y remained e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged. T h i s can be seen i n the i d e a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Chinese h i s t o r y found i n L i Dazhao's and Hu Hanmin's e x a m i n a t i o n s of the h i s t o r y of Chinese thought. Both were f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r i n c i p l e of the m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y , but i n p r a c t i c e c o n f u s e d i t w i t h economic d e t e r m i n i s m 1 3 3 and M a l t h u s . Marxism's f a i l u r e t o change b a s i c p e r c e p t i o n s was a l s o e v i d e n t i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t h e o r y of s u r p l u s v a l u e as e q u i v a l e n t t o " p r o p e r t y i s t h e f t " , and can even be seen i n the concept of c l a s s s t r u g g l e as a k i n d of d e v i c e or means of a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . There i s no e v i d e n c e which s u g g e s t s t h a t the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o Gongchandang were f a m i l i a r w i t h L e n i n ' s t h e o r i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , they f a i l e d t o use h i s t h e o r y of r e v o l u t i o n t o j u s t i f y communist r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , and i n s t e a d argued t h a t s i n c e Chinese and R u s s i a n s o c i e t y were of the same n a t u r e , B o l s h e v i s m c o u l d b r i n g about r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a . In so f a r as they were aware of L e n i n ' s concept of the vanguard p a r t y , the c o n t r i b u t o r s to Gongchandang never mentionned t h i s , nor used the term, nor d i s c u s s e d the importance of r e g r o u p i n g the most c o n s c i o u s elements of the u n p r o p e r t i e d i n the p a r t y . S i n c e the F i r s t Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y d i d adopt L e n i n i s t p r i n c i p l e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h e r e f o r e t h a t whatever the e a r l y communists d i d know about the vanguard p a r t y had o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the Comintern. Assuming t h a t Comintern agents were f a m i l i a r w i t h L e n i n ' s t h e o r i e s of i m p e r i a l i s m and vanguard p a r t y , Gongchandang's f a i l u r e t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e q u e s t i o n s seems t o suggest t h a t t h e r e was not much Comintern i n p u t i n t o the p o s i t i o n s of the pre-Congress communist movement i n C h i n a . F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h Gongchandang's programme was i n many ways a response t o a n a r c h i s m , a n a r c h i s t c o n c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y i n f l u e n c e d i t s p o s i t i o n s . " S o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n " was a f t e r a l l an a n a r c h i s t term. But the i n f l u e n c e of a n a r c h i s m was p a r t i c u l a r l y 134 e v i d e n t i n Gongchandang's c l a s s c o n c e p t s . In e f f e c t , Gongchandang saw s o c i e t y i n terms of two c l a s s e s - - t h e p r o p e r t i e d and the u n p r o p e r t i e d - - w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the a n a r c h i s t ' s o p p r e s s o r and oppressed c l a s s e s . L a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , who made up the r u l i n g c l a s s , i . e . the t a r g e t of the a n a r c h i s t r e v o l u t i o n , were seen as the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s , the t a r g e t of the communist r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s view of c l a s s e s , i . e . a s i n g l e c l a s s composed of l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s and a s i n g l e c l a s s composed of workers and p e a s a n t s , a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t C h i n e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s b e f o r e 1921 were c o m p l e t e l y unaware of c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s between the l a n d l o r d s and the b o u r g e o i s i e , and between the p e a s a n t r y and the p r o l e t a r i a t . In the urban w o r l d of p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , as f a r as they were aware, some l a n d l o r d s owned l a n d and some f a c t o r y owners owned l a n d . I n d u s t r i a l workers and peasants were e q u a l l y poor, t a l k e d a l i k e , d r e s s e d a l i k e , and a t e the same food s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between th e s e c l a s s e s a re e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l . C hinese f a c t o r y owners, f a c e d w i t h d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n from foreign-owned e n t e r p r i s e s , had an o b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n op p o s i n g i m p e r i a l i s m . L a n d l o r d s , on the o t h e r hand, had no such i n t e r e s t u n l e s s they were f a c e d w i t h d i r e c t e x p r o p r i a t i o n which was r a r e . I n d u s t r i a l workers were more c o n c e n t r a t e d t o g e t h e r than p e a s a n t s , and were e a s i e r to o r g a n i z e and e a s i e r t o p r o p a g a n d i z e . Poor p e a s a n t s l i k e i n d u s t r i a l workers had n o t h i n g t o l o o s e by s u p p o r t i n g the communist r e v o l u t i o n . T h e i r most immediate i n t e r e s t was not the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , however, but ownership of l a n d . Thus, the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y ' s approach t o poor peasants c o u l d not be the 1 35 same as t h a t t o i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . These d i f f e r e n c e s between l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s , between p e a s a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , were not e v i d e n t i n 1921. In 1921, communist i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' e x p e r i e n c e of Chinese s o c i e t y was too l i m i t e d . They would o n l y become aware of these d i f f e r e n c e s a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t and much r e - e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i f M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y . 1 36 FOOTNOTES I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. There i s some d i s p u t e as t o the a c t u a l date of t h i s C ongress. U n t i l r e c e n t l y J u l y 1919 was the g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d d a t e . See the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n i n Jerome Ch'en, p. 79, n.32. However, the CCP now o f f i c i a l l y g i v e s August, 1921, as the date of the Congress. The F a c t t h a t Gonqchandan, the p r e - p a r t y organ, suspended p u b l i c a t i o n i n August 1921, would seem t o support the view t h a t the Congress was h e l d i n August and I have c o n s e q u e n t l y g i v e n t h i s d a t e . 2. James P i c k n e y H a r r i s o n , The Long March t o Power: A H i s t o r y of the C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y , 1921-1973 (New York and Washington: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1972), p. 28. 3. For more i n f o r m a t i o n on the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e s e communist groups see, Chow T s e - t s u n g , The May F o u r t h Movement: I n t e l l e c t u a l R e v o l u t i o n i n Modern China (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), pp. 248-249; Jerome Ch'en, Mao and the Chinese R e v o l u t i o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), pp. 72-73, 77-79; M a u r i c e M e i s n e r , L i Ta-chao and the O r i g i n s of Chinese Marxism (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967~T^ pp. 114-119; Ding Shouhe and Yan X u y i , Congwusi qimeng yundong dao M a k e s i z h u y i d i chuanbo [From the May F o u r t h e n l i g h t e n m e n t t o the t r a n s m i s s i o n of Marxism] ( P e k i n g : S a n l i a n S h u dian, 1963),pp. 211tt. 4 Chow, p.248. 5. For a l i s t of those works of Marx, L e n i n , and E n g e l s , which were t r a n s l a t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d , and t h e i r d a t e s of p u b l i c a t i o n , see Zhongguo chu ban s h i 1 i a o bu b i e n , [Supplement t o H i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s on p u b l i s h i n g i n ChinaT^ ed. Zhang J i n g l u ( P e k i n g : B e i j i n g Chonghua Sh u j u , 1957), pp. 442 f f . See a l s o Ding Shouhe, Y i n X u y i , and Zhang Pozhao, Shiyue geming d u i Zhongguo geming d i y i n g x i a n g , (The i n f l u e n c e of the October r e v o l u t i o n on the Chinese r e v o l u t i o n ) , ( P e k i n g : Renmin Chuban She, 1957), pp. 81-82. 6. I b i d . 7. A c c o r d i n g t o M e i s n e r , L i Dazhao a d m i t t e d i n 1921 t h a t he had o n l y read a c o l l e c t i o n of speeches by L e n i n , L e n i n ' s O u t l i n e of the S o v i e t Government, and The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n , and f u r t h e r m o r e t h a t L i had read a l l of these works i n E n g l i s h . See M e i s n e r , pp. 139-140. 8. The l a s t i s s u e of Gongchandang, da t e d August 7, 1921, c o n t a i n e d a t r a n s l a t i o n of the f i r s t c h a p t e r of The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n . 9. Throughout t h i s t h e s i s , "Marxism" r e f e r s t o Marx's 137 t h e o r i e s of s u r p l u s v a l u e , h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . " L e n i n i s m " r e f e r s t o the t h e o r i e s of the vanguard p a r t y and i m p e r i a l i s m . " B o l s h e v i s m " r e f e r s t o Mar x i s m - L e n i n i s m as p r a c t i c e d i n R u s s i a b e f o r e 1921. "Communism" i s used t o r e f e r t o the t h e o r i e s of a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a r t y , but i s o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h " B o l s h e v i s m " . 10. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n , see M a r t i n B e r n a l , "The Triumph of Anarchism over Marxism, 1906- 1907," China i n R e v o l u t i o n : The F i r s t Phase, ed. Mary C. Wright (New Haven & London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968). See a l s o M a r t i n B e r n a l , Chinese S o c i a l i s m t o 1907 ( I t h a c a and London: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Presi"^ 1976) which i s the most complete e x a m i n a t i o n of e a r l y M a r x i s t thought i n C h i n a . Robert S c a l a p i n o & George Yu, The Chinese A n a r c h i s t Movement ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Center f o r Chinese S t u d i e s , 1961) and L i Yu - n i n g , The I n t r o d u c t i o n of S o c i a l i s m i n t o China (New York & London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971 ). 11. The term " g e n e r a t i o n " i s used m e t a p h o r i c a l l y . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of g e n e r a t i o n s of p r o g r e s i v e i n t e l l e c u a l s f o l l o w s D i r l i k , e x c ept t h a t where D i r l i k uses the term " r a d i c a l " t o r e f e r t o the s e g e n e r a t i o n s . I use the term " p r o g r e s s i v e " on the grounds t h a t each g e n e r a t i o n was not r a d i c a l r e l a t i v e t o subsequent ones, but were p r o g r e s s i v e r e l a t i v e t o the r e s t of Chinese s o c i e t y . See A r i f D i r l i k , R e v o l u t i o n and H i s t o r y : The O r i g i n s of M a r x i s t H i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n C h i n a , 1919-1937 ( B e r k e l y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978), pp. 36- 41 . 12. See Chow T s e - t s u n g , Research Guide t o the May F o u r t h Movement (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963) , p. 29. 13. I b i d . , p. 40. 14. I b i d . , p. 43. 15. I b i d . , p. 44. 16. I b i d . , 124. 17. As a r e v i v a l s c h o o l of r e v o l u t i o n , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a n a r c h i s t j o u r n a l s would spend much time d e s c r i b i n g Marx's t h e o r i e s . A g a i n , t h e r e i s a l a c k of r e f e r e n c e s i n secondary works i n Chinese which suggest t h a t a n a r c h i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s p l a y e d major r o l e s i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g Marxism between 1917 and 1921. See, f o r example, Ding and Yan. 18. See, f o r example, H a r r i s o n . 19. See Chapter Three below. 20. For eg, i t has been taken by Benjamin Schwartz, Chinese Communism and the R i s e of Mao (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951 "5 and by Jerome Ch'en, Mao and the Chinese 138 R e v o l u t i o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 21'. See e s p e c i a l l y D i r i l i k , pp. 3-4. 22. For d e s c r i p t i o n s of these debates see B e r n a l , "The Triumph of Anarchism Over Marxism" and Chinese S o c i a l i s m t o 1907 . See a l s o S c a l a p i n o and Yu, and L i Yu-ning. 23. Zhou Fuh a i p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the pre-1911 debates as w e l l as i n the 1917-1921 d e b a t e s . 24. See note 10 above. 25. I b i d . , p. 1. 26. See L i ' s l i s t of Chinese terms d e r v i e d from the Japanese. •27. See Chapter 2, S e c t i o n 4, " C l a s s S t r u g g l e " . 28. I b i d . 29. See Note 10 above. 30. M e i s n e r , p. 54. 31. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s put f o r w a r d i n S c a l a p i n o and Yu. 32. T h i s i s not t o deny t h a t t h e r e are d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o a s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n from the p o i n t of view of a M a r x i s t - L e n i n s t p a r t y . 33. See S c a l a p i n o and Yu 34. See, f o r example, A l e x a n d e r Berkman, Now and A f t e r : The ABC of Communist Anarchism (New York: Vanguard P r e s s , 1929). 35. See V . I . L e n i n , The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1975), p. 102. Chapter 1. R e v o l u t i o n : R u s s i a and China 1. Wang C h e n g l i , "Wusi s h i q i d a s h i j i " [A r e c o r d of the major e v e n t s of the May F o u r t h p e r i o d ] , i n "Wusi" yundonq yanj i u l u n j i [Research e s s a y s on the "May F o u r t h " Movement], ed. Zhou k a n g x i e , (Hong Kong: Chong Wen Shudian, 1975), pp. 299-307. O r i g n i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n L i s h i j iaoxue w e n t i [Probelms of t e a c h i n g h i s t o r y ] 1959,4. 2. L i u Wenying, "Shiyue geming yu wusi yundong" [The October R e v o l u t i o n and the May F o u r t h Movement], "Wusi" yanj i u l u n j i , 74. ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n L i s h i J i a o x u e Wenti 1 9 5 9 , 4 . ) A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e mine. 139 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d . 5. A c c o r d i n g t o D i n g , Yan, and Zhang, p.40., Laodong had "a tendancy towards a n a r c h i s m " . T h i s p r o b a b l e means t h a t t h i s was, i n f a c t , an a n a r c h i s t p u b l i c a t i o n . 6. I b i d . , p. 41. 7. See, f o r example, Chen D u x i u , " E l u o s i geming yu wo guomin d i juewu," [The R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of our c o u n t r y ' s p e o p l e ] , D u x i u wencun [ S e l e c t e d Works of Chen D u x i u ] , 3 v o l s (Hong Kong: Yuan Dong Tu Shu G o n g s i , 1965) 1:143- 144. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 2 ( A p r i l 1, 1917). For L i Dazhao's r e a c t i o n , see M e i s n e r , p. 60. 8. M e i s n e r , p.60. 9. I b i d . 10. See X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 2 ( A p r i l i , 1917):1 i n "The r e c o r d of i m p o r t a n t f o r e i g n e v e nts s e c t i o n . " T h i s view of the importance of the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y not shared by the e d i t o r s of Dongfang Z a z h i , which was the l o n g e s t l i v e d p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d . In t h e i r c a l e n d a r of e v e n t s , they l i s t the overthrow of the c z a r as the t h i r d item f o r the date c o n c e r n e d . c_f. Dongf ang Z a z h i 1 4 , 5 ( A p r i l , 1917):216. 11. James P i c k n e y H a r r i s o n , The Long March t o Power: A H i s t o r y of the Chinese Communist P a r t y , 1921-1973 (New York and Washington: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1972), p. 28. 12. Zhang X i c h e n [ G a o l a o ] , "Xu j i Eguo z h i j i n kuang" [A f u r t h e r r e p o r t on the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n R u s s i a ] , Dongfanq Z a z h i 15,1(January, 1918):37-42. 13. Ding Shouhe and Yan X u y i , Cong Wusi qimeng yundong dao M a k e s i z h u y i d i chuanbo [From the May F o u r t h e n l i g h t e n m e n t t o the t r a n s m i s s i o n of Marxism] ( P e k i n g : S a n l i a n Shudian, 1963), p. 94. 14. Zhang, p. 37. 15. I b i d . , p. 39. 16. I b i d . , p. 42. 17. Yu Zhongying [ J u n s h i ] , "Eguo x i a n z a i zhizhengdang" [ P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s of R u s s i a t o d a y ] , Dongfanq Z a z h i 15,2 (Feb., 1918):161-164. 18. Shan J i , "Xu Eguo g u o j i p a i z h i l i n g x i u L i n i n g " [The s t o r y of L e n i n , the l e a d e r of the R u s s i a n e x t r e m i s t f a c t i o n ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 15,3:61-65. T h i s a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n i n response t o the argument t h a t L e n i n was a German agent. E s s e n t i a l l y i t 140 found t h a t h i s p o l i c i e s b e f o r e g o i n g through German c o n t r o l l e d t e r r i t o r y and h i s l a t e r p o l i c i e s remained the same. 19. Yu Zhongying [Jun S h i ] , "Eguo s h e h u i z h u y i yundong z h i b i a n q i a n " [The e v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t movement], Dongfang Z a z h i 15,4:61-65. 20. I b i d . , p. 64. 21. I b i d . .22 . Ibid.., p. 61 . 23. An a r t i c l e comparing t h e two r e v o l u t i o n s was a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n Dongfang Z a z h i , but the f a c t t h a t i t does not r e f e r t o both the Fe b r u a r y and October R e v o l u t i o n s , s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was w r i t t e n b e f o r e October, 1917. See X i e Y i n g b a i , "E Fa geming y i tong l u n " [On the d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s of the R u s s i a n and F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n s ] , Dongfang Z a z h i l 5 , 8 ( A u g u s t , 1918):31. T h i s a r t i c l e was t r a n s l a t e d from The Japan F o r e i g n Times. 24. L i Dazhao, "E Fa geming b i j i a o guan" [A comparison of the R u s s i a n and F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n s ] , La Dazhao Xuanj i [ T h e s e l e c t e d works of L i Dazhao] ( P e k i n g : Renmin Chuban She, 1959), pp. 101-104. 25. I b i d . , p. 102. 26. L i Dazhao, " B o l s h e v i s m d i s h e n g l i " [The v i c t o r y of ' B o l s h e v i s m ' ] , L_i Dazhao Xuani i , pp. 112-118. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5(November 15, 1918). 27. I b i d . , p. 114. 28. L i was t r y i n g t o d e s c r i b e the s o v i e t system. The term " s o v i e t " i s t r a n l i t e r a t e d i n modern C h i n e s e . The term " 1i a n h e , means " c o a l i t i o n " or " u n i o n " . 29. T h i s i s p r o b a b l y an attempt t o t r a n s l a t e " p r o l e t a r i a n s " which i s t r a n s l a t e d today as wuchan zhe , l i t . " p r o p e r t y l e s s " . 30. " B o l s h e v i s m d i s h e n g l i " , pp. 114-115. 31. L i Dazhao, " L i a n z h i z h u y i yu s h i j i e z u z h i " [Unionism and w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , pp. 130-134, esp. p. 130. T h i s a r t i c l e was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Chao, 1,2(Feb. 1 , 1919). 32. I b i d . , p. 132. 33. A l t h o u g h L i makes i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s i s the R u s s i a n system, he c o n f u s e s i t w i t h a f e d e r a t e d system. He comments f a v o u r a b l y upon the Canadian system and i t s a b i l i t y t o r e c o n c i l e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h . He a l s o comments upon the Union of South A f r i c a ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c o n c i l e E n g l i s h and 141 Dutch. These comments are ommitted i n L_i_ Dazhao Xuan j i . Compare L i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 122 and X i n Chao, 1,2(Feb.1, 1919.):153- 1 54. 34. See Berkman, Now and A f t e r , p. 217. See a l s o P e t e r K r o p o t k i n , The Conquest of Bread (London: Chapman and H a l l , 1906), p. 30. 35. L i Dazhao, "Zhan hou d i s h i j i e c h a o l i u " [The w o r l d t i d e a f t e r the w a r ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 135. T h i s a r t i c l e was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Chen Bao (The morning p o s t ) , Feb. 7-8, 1910. L i e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r views throughout t h i s p e r i o d . 36. Meng Zheng, "Shehui geming--Eguo s h i d i geming" [ S o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n - - R e v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n t y p e ] , X i n Chao 1,1(Jan.1,1919):128-129. T h i s a r t i c l e i s dated Nov. 20, 1918. 37. "Zhongguo s h i d a i f u j i e j i d i z u i ' e n " [The c r i m e s of China's g e n t r y c l a s s ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n 20 (May 4, 1919):1-2. 38. Chen D u x i u , " E r s h i s h i j i E l u o s i d i geming" [The twentueth c e n t u r y R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n , 18 (Apr. 20, 1919). R e p r i n t e d i n Wusi z a i Shangha i S h i L i a o Xuanj i [ S e l e c t e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s on.the May F o u r t h Movement i n Shanghai] (Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chuban She, 1960), p. 114. 39. Mao Tse-tung [ Zidong ], "Minzhong d i da l i a n h e " [The g r e a t . u n i o n of the p o p u l a r masses], X i a n g j i a n g p i n g l u n ["The Sh i a n K i a n Weekly Re v i e w " ] , no.2 ( J u l y , 21, 1919), ( J u l y 28, 1919) and no.4 (Aug. 4, 1919). A l s o r e p r i n t e d i n Mo t a k u - t o shu [The works of Mao T s e - t u n g ] , 10 v o l s . (Tokyo, 1972T 1:57-70. 40. X i a n g j i a n g P i n g l u n no. 2, p. 1. 41. Yu Zhongying, "Eguo s h e h u i z h u y i yundong z h i b i a n q i a n " [The e v o l u t i o n of the R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t movement], Dongfang Z a z h i 15,4(Apr i 1 , 1918):61. 42. L i , "E Fa geming b i j i a o guan", L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 1 04. 43. L i Dazhao, "Shumin d i s h e n g l i " [The v i c t o r y of the common p e o p l e ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , 109-111. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5 (November 15, 1918). 44. I b i d . , p. 109. 45. I b i d . , p. 110. 46. I b i d . 47. L i , " B o l s h e v i s m d i s h e n g l i " , Li_ Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 113. 48. I b i d . , p. 114. 142 49. L i , "Zhan hou d i s h i j i e c h a o l i u " , L i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 135. 50. Meng Zheng, p. 128. 51. "Guomin s i x i a n g yu s h i j i e chao" [ C i t i z e n ' s thought and the w o r l d t i d e ] , Guomin(The c i t i z e n ) , 1,2 (Feb., 1919). C i t e d i n D i n g , and Yan, p. 8. 52. I b i d . 53. Ruo Yu, " G u o j i d i geming" [ I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n TO(Feb.13,1919):3. 54. "Lao nong zhengfu x i a z h i E g u o - - z h i x i n g shehui gongchanzhuyi z h i Eguo z h e n x i a n g " [ R u s s i a under the workers' and p e a s a n t s ' g o v e r n m e n t — t h e t r u t h about c a r r y i n g out s o c i a l communism], Guomin Ribao A p r i l 12-28, 1919, r e p r i n t e d i n Wusi Yundong z a i Shanghai S h i L i a o Xuanj i , pp. 80-93. 55. I b i d . 56. See, f o o t n o t e number 37, above. 57. C a i Yuanpei, "Da zhan yu zhexue" [The g r e a t war and p h i l o s o p h y ] , C a i Yuanpei Xiansheng Yiwen L e i c h a o [The l i t e r a r y e s t a t e of Mr. C a i Y u a n p e i ] ( n . p . : n.p., 1961), pp. 167-172. 58. I b i d . , p.167. 59. I b i d . 60. . I b i d . , 169-150. 61. T h i s a r t i c l e i s d a t e d June, 1918, i n C a i L e i c h a o , see p. 172, and was p u b l i s h e d i n Dongfang Zazhi 16,1(January, 1919) and X i n Chao 1,1 ( J a n . 1, 1919). 62. See X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5.(November, 1918). 63. See X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5: 438. 64. M e i s n e r , pp. 87-88. 65. S h i Fu, "Zhongguo zhengshi geming bu cheng j i u j i shehui geming bu fasheng z h i y u a n y i n " [The reasons f o r the l a c k of s u c c e s s of China's p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and the non- o c c u r r e n c e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Dongfang Z a z h i l 6 , 4 ( A p r i l , 1919): 1-9. 66. I b i d . , p. 1 . 67. I b i d . , pp. 1b-2a. 68. I b i d . , p.2b. 70 143 69. I b i d . , p. 3a. 70. I b i d . , p. 3b. 71. I b i d . , p. 8. 72. "Zhongguo s h i d a i f u j i e j i " , Meizhou P i n g l u n 20:1-2. 73. Mao, "Minzhong d i da l i a n h e " , Mo t a k u - t o shu, 1:57- 74. " J i e j i j i n g z h e n g yu huzhu" [ C l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n and mutual a i d ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i pp. 222-225. O r g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Meizhou P i n g l u n 29 ( J u l y 6, 1919). 75. I b i d . , p. 224. 76. " Z a i l u n wenti yu z h u y i , " [Again on problems and i s m s ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 233 . , Or i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Meizhou P i n g l u n , 34 (Aug. 17, 1919). 77. Zhou F u h a i , "Zhongguo d i j i e j i douzheng" [ C h i n a ' s C l a s s S t r u g g l e ] , J i e f a n g yu g a i z a o ["The E m a n c i p a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n W e e k l y " ] , 1,7 (Dec. 1, 1919): 114-120. 78. "Xuanyan" [ M a n i f e s t o ] , J i e f a n a yu g a i z a o , 1,1 (September, 1919):1. "(BOURGEOISIE)" and "(PROLETARIAT)" appear i n the o r i g i n a l . The use of E n g l i s h terms supplementing Chinese terms was q u i t e common d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . See, f o r example, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5(May, 1919). 79. I b i d . 80. " D i e r duan z h i s h i j i e g a i z a o " [The second stage of w o r l d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 16,11(November, 1919):15— 19. 81. I b i d . , p. 16a. .82. I b i d . , pp. I8a-I8b. 83. Yang Y i c e n g , "Shehui weishenma yao g a i z a o " , Guomin 2,1:13 84. I b i d , 85. "Xuanyan", Zhuguang, Nov. 1, 1919. R e p r i n t e d i n Wusi s h i q i q i kan j i e s h a o 1 : 407. 86. C i t e d i n Ding and Yan, p. 138. 144 Chapter 2. Marxism: Id e a s , P r o p e r t y and C l a s s S t r u g g l e 1. M e i s n e r , p. 54. 2. "Fenpei w e n t i faduan" [The o r g i n s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n problem] Dongfang Z a z h i 1 6 , 4 ( A p r i l 1, 1919):593- 602. 3. I b i d . 4. "Gongchandang d i xuanyan" [The M a n i f e s t o of the Communist P a r t y ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n 1 6 ( A p r i l 4, 1919). 5. Ruo Yu, "Wuzhenfu gongchanzhuyi yu g u o j i a s h e h u i z h u y i " [ A n a r c h i s t communism and s t a t e s o c i a l i s m ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n l 8 ( A p r i l 20, I 9 l 9 ) : 2 f f . 6. I b i d . 7. I b i d . 8. I b i d . 9. Gu Mengyu [Gu T a o x i o n g ] , "Makesi xueshuo" [Marx's t h e o r y ] , X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5(May.4, 1919): 450-465. M e i s n e r , p. 279, n.1, i d e n t i f i e s him as " L i Ta-ch'ao's c o l l e g u e on the h i s t o r y f a c u l t y a t P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y , . . .a l e a d i n g member i f the Kuomintang and f o r many y e a r s a f o l l o w e r of Wang Ch i n g - w e i . " 10. L i n g Shuang, "Makesi xueshuo d i p i p i n g " [A c r i t i c i s m of Marx's t h e o r y ] , X i n Q i n q n i a n 6,5:456-469. 11. L i Dazhao, "Wo d i M a k e s i z h u y i guan', (shang)" [My M a r x i s t v i e w s , p t . I ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i pp. 173-195. P a r t I I was p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,6 (November, 1919). 12. The presence of the b i o g r a p h y of Bakunin i s i n d i c a t i v e of the e x t e n t of the p r e v a i l i n g c o n f u s i o n between Marxism and a n a r c h i s m . 13. " M a k i s i d i weiwu shiguan yu zhencao w e n t i " [Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y and the problem of female v i r t u e ] , X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:500-505. T h i s a r t i c l e appears under the s e c t i o n heading " M a r x i s t r e s e a r c h " ( M a k i s i d i yanj i u ) . M e i s n e r i d e n t i f i e s the a u t h o r as Chen Baoyin a l s o known as Chen Q i x i u , who " a l t h o u g h the f i r s t t o t r a n s l a t e a p o r t i o n of C a p i t a l i n t o C h i n e s e , a p p a r e n t l y d i d not r e g a r d h i m s e l f as a M a r x i s t and was never a communist." M e i s n e r , pp.279-280, n.1. 14. Kawakami Hajime, "Makesi d i weiwu s h i g u a n " [ Marx's m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y ] , t r . Yuan Quan, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:509-516. 15. See, f o r example, Gu Mengyu, "Makesi xueshuo", X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:450-465 and L i Dazhao, "Wo d i M a k e s i z h u y i guan", L_i 145 Dazhao Xuanj i pp. 173-195. 16. Hu Hanmin,"Weiwu s h i guan z h i p i p i n g z h i p i p i n g " [A c r i t i c i s m of the c r i t i c i s m of the m a t e r i a l c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y ] , J i a n s h e 1,5 (December, 1919):945-954. 17. Chow Tse - t s u n g , The May F o u r t h Movement: I n t e l l e c t u a l R e v o l u t i o n i n Modern China (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p. 290. The t r a n s l a t i o n was p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e , "Laodong yu z i b e n " [Labour and C a p i t a l ] . 18. I b i d . , p. 299. The second t r a n s l a t i o n was by Dai J i t a o . 19. I b i d . 20. Gu Mengyu, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:454a. 21. Chen Baoying, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:500 22. I b i d . , p. 502. 23. I b i d . , pp. 504-505. 24. P e t e r K r o p o t k i n , M u t u a l A i d : A F a c t o r of E v o l u t i o n (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann Co., 1902). 25. Hu Hanmin, "Zhongguo zhexue s h i z h i weiwu d i y a n j i u " [ M a t e r i a l i s t r e s e a r c h on the h i s t o r y of Chinese p h i l o s o p h y ] , J i a n s h e 1,3 (Oct. 1, 1919):513-534, 1,4(November 1, 1919):655—691, and L i Dazhao, "You cong j i n g j i shang j i e s h i Zhongguo j i n d a i s i x i a n g biandong d i y u a n y i n " [An economic e x p l a n a t i o n of r e c e n t i d e o l o g i c a l changes i n C h i n a ] , Li_ Dazhao Xuanj i 295-302. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 7,2 ( J a n . 1, 1920). 26. Dai J i t a o , "Cong j i n g j i shang guancha zhongguo d i l u a n yuan" [ E x a m i n a t i o n of the o r i g i n s of d i s o r d e r i n China from the economic p e r s p e c t i v e ] , J i a n s h e 1,1(September 1, 1919):1-19. I have not had a c c e s s t o t h i s work. For a d i s c u s s i o n of i t s c o n t e n t s see A r i f D i r l i k , R e v o l u t i o n and H i s t o r y : The Or i g i n s of M a r x i s t H i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n C h i n a , 1919-1937 ( B e r k e l e y , Los A n g e l e s and London: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978), pp. 25-29. 27. Hu Hanmin, "Zhongguo zhexue s h i " , J i a n s h e 1,3:513- 314. 28. See esp. J i a n s h e 1,4:690. 29. L_i Dazhao Xuan j i p. 299. 30. I b i d . I b i d . , p. 300. 1 46 32. Marx, " P r e f a c e and I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n to the C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c ' a l Economy" ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1976), p. 3. 33. Kawakami, X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:512a _512b. 34. L i Dazhao, "Wuzhi biandong yu daode biandong" [ M a t e r i a l change and change i n v i r t u e ] , Li_ Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 261. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Chao 2,2 (Dec. 1. 1919). My Emphasis. 35. Hu, "Zhongguo zhexue s h i " , J i a n s h e 1,3:520, and "Weiwu s h i guan", J i a n s h e 1,5:947. 36. Li_ Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 233. 37. Hu, "Zhongguo zhexue s h i " , J i a n s h e 1,3:513. 38. I b i d . , J i a n s h e 1,4:690. 39. L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 300. 40. Gu, "Xueshuo", X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:458a. 41. I b i d . 42. I b i d . , pp. 457b-46lb. 43. Marx, "Wage, Labour and C a p i t a l " , p. 1. Emphasis i n the o r i g i n a l . 44. See K a r l K a u t s k y , The Economic D o c t r i n e s of K a r l Ma r x, t r a n s . H . J . S t e n n i n g (New York: The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1936). 45. K a r l K a u t s k y , The C l a s s S t r u g g l e ( E r f u r t Program). t r a n s . W i l l i a m H. Bohn (C h i c a g o : C h a r l e s H. K e r r and Co., 1912). 46. See J i a n s h e 1,4. 47. Yu Zhongying [Jun S h i ] , " S h e h u i z h u y i d i j i a n t a o " [A r e p o r t on s o c i a l i s m ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 16,9 (September, 1919):100— 105; 16,10 (October, 1919):100-111; 16,11 (November, 1919):101 - 1 09. 48. Donqfang Z a z h i 16,9:102b. 49. I b i d . , pp. 102b-l03a. 50. I b i d . , p. 103a. 51. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,10:100a. 52. I b i d . , p. 100b-. 147 53. I b i d . 54. I b i d . 55. See Dongfang Zazhi 16,10 :101 a f f . and Dongfang Zazhi 16,11:101-109. 56. See K a r l Marx, Capi t a l ; v o l . 1, A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s i f Capi t a l i st Product i o n e d i ted by F r e d e r i c k Engels (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1967), Chapter 1, "Commodities", pp. 35-85. 57. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s argued by Berkman, pp. 9-15. He w r i t e s , "The employers keep that wealth as t h e i r p r o f i t , while the worker gets only a wage, j u s t enough to l i v e on so he can go on producing. . . Is that not c h e a t i n g , robbery? . . . . The whole c a p i t a l i s t system r e s t s on simple robbery." (p. 15) 58. Yang Yiceng, "Shehui weishenma yao gaizao," Guomin ["The C i t i z e n " ] 2,1 (November, 1919):13-22. 59. I b i d . , * p. 13. 60. I b i d . 61. I b i d . , p. 14. •62. I b i d . 63. I b i d . 64. "Wo d i Makes i zhuy 65. I b i d . 66. I b i d . 67. I b i d . , p. 190. 68. Hu Hanmin, "Weiwu 69. mutual a i d ] in Meizhou " J i e j i jingzheng , L i Dazhao Xuanji Pinglun no.29 ( J u l y 70. I b i d . , p. 224. 71 . I b i d . 72. I b i d . , p. 223. 73. I b i d . 74. Zhou Fuhai, "Zhongguo d i j i e j i douzheng" [China's C l a s s S t r u g g l e ] , J i e f a n g yu gaizao ["The Emancipation and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Weekly"], 1,7 (Dec. 1, 1919): 114-120. •1 48 75. I b i d . , p. 14. 76. I b i d . , pp. 116-118. 77. I b i d . , pp. 119-120. 78. See Chapter 4 below f o r Zhou's use of c l a s s t e r m i n o l o g y s t a r t i n g as of November, 1921. 79. Chow T s e - t s u n g , p. 299. The Communist M a n i f e s t o was p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e ) U Gongchandang xuanyan ["The communist p a r t y m a n i f e s t o ] . See D i n g , Yan and Zhang, p. 81. 80. "Makesi he E n g e s i gongchandang xuanyan" [The communist p a r t y m a n i f e s t o of Marx and E n g e l s ] , t r a n s . L i Z i z h a n g , Guomin 2,1:45-53. 81. See "Bourgeois and P r o l e t a r i a n s " i n K a r l Marx and F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , The"Communist M a n i f e s t o , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n - by A . J . P . T a y l o r (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1967), pp. 79-94. 82. "Gongchandang xuanyan", Guomin 2,1:46. 83. Lu Hongyu, "Zhenggong zhidu"[The c o n s c r i p t l a b o u r s y s t e m ] , Dongfanq Zazhi 17, 3 (Feb. 10, 1920):9-14; 17,4 (Feb. 25,•1920):26-32; 17,5 (March 10, 1920): 12-20. 84. I b i d . , Dongfang Z a z h i 17,3:9. 85. I b i d . , 13b. 86. "Caichan z h i d u " [The system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ] , Dongf ang Z a z h i 1 7 , 7 ( A p r i l .10, 1 920 ) : 1 . Chapter 3. C l a s s e s : The B o u r g e o i s i e and the P r o l e t a r i a t 1. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n , see M a r t i n B e r n a l , "The Triumph of Anarchism over Marxism, 1906- 1907," China i n R e v o l u t i o n : The F i r s t Phase, ed. Mary C. Wright (New Haven & London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968). See a l s o M a r t i n B e r n a l , Chinese Soc i a l i sm t o 1907 ( I t h a c a and London: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s i ~ | 1976) which i s the most complete e x a m i n a t i o n of e a r l y M a r x i s t thought i n C h i n a . Robert S c a l a p i n o & George Yu, The Chinese A n a r c h i s t Movement ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Center f o r C h i n e s e S t u d i e s , 1961) and L i Y u - n i n g , The I n t r o d u c t i o n of Soc i a l i sm i n t o China (New York & London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971). 2. Qian Z h i x i u , " L a o l i z h u y i " [ L a b o u r i s m ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 14,10 (Oct, 1 9 1 7 ) s 1 - 6 . 3. I b i d . 1 49 4. C i t e d by Ding and Yan, p. 28. 5. C a i Yuanpei, "Laodong Shenguai" [The s a n c t i t y of l a b o u r ] , X i n Qingn i a n 5,5(November, 1918) : 438-439. A l s o i n C a i Chao, p.469. 6. M e i s n e r , pp. 86-87.. 7. X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5: 438-439. 8. L i Dazhao, "Qingnian yu nongcun" [Youth and the c o u n t r y s i d e ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , pp. 146-150. O r i g i n a l l y - p u b l i s h e d i n Chen Bao, Feb. 20-23, 1919. 9. I b i d . , pp. 146-147. 10. "Xuesheng yu laodong" [The student and l a b o u r ] Chen Bao, Feb. 25-28, 1919. C i t e d i n D i n g and Yan, p. 29. 11. See Chen D u x i u , " E l u o s i geming yu wo guomin d i juewu" [The R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n and the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of our c o u n t r y ' s p e o p l e ] , D u x i u Wencun [ S e l e c t e d Works of Chen D u x i u ] , 3 v o l s (Hong Kong: Yuan Dong Tu Shu G o n g s i , 1965) 1:143-144. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 2 ( A p r i l 1 , 1 9 1 7 ) . 12. Chen D u x i u , "Chu san h a i " [ E l i m i n a t e the t h r e e v e r m i n ] , D u x i u Wencun, 2:587-591. 13. I am i n d e b t e d t o A r i f D i r l i k f o r p o i n t i n g t h i s o ut. 14. C a i Yuanpei, "Da zhan", C a i chao, p. 167. 15. L i Dazhao, "Da Y a s i y a z h u y i yu x i n Y a s i y a z h u y i " [ P a n - A s i a n i s m and new A s i a n i s m ] , L i ^ Dazhao Xuanj i , pp. 119-121. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Guomin Z a z h i 1,2(Jan. 1, 1919). 16. Ruo Yu " G u o j i d i geming" [ I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n , 10(Feb.13,1919):3. 17. L i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 109. 18. L_i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 118. 19. L i Dazhao, " L i a n z h i z h u y i yu s h i j i e z u z h i " [Unionism and w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n ] , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , pp. 130-134, esp. p. 130. T h i s a r t i c l e was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n X i n Chao 1,2(Feb. 1, 1919). 20. L_i Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 146. 21. Chen D u x i u , "Chu san h a i " [ E l i m i n a t e the t h r e e v e r m i n ] , D u x i u Wencun, 2:587-591. 22. Y i Hu, "Zhongguo s h i d a i f u j i e j i d i z u i ' e n " [The e v i l s of C h i n a ' s g e n t r y c l a s s ] , Meizhou P i n g l u n 20 (May 4, 150 1919):1-2. 23. S h i Fu, "Zhongguo zhengshi geming bu cheng j i u j i shehui geming bu fasheng z h i y u a n y i n " [The reasons f o r the l a c k of s u c c e s s of China's p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and the non- o c c u r r e n c e of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ] , Dongfang Z a z h i l 6 , 4 ( A p r i l , 1919): 1-9. 24. "Zhongdeng j i e j i l u n " , Dongfang Z a z h i 16,6:22b. 25. I b i d . , p. 23b. 26. See Gu Mengyu, "Xueshuo", X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:450-465. 27. L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 223 and Kawakami , " S h i guan", X i n Q i n g n i a n 6,5:51 Ob-511. 28. Zhou F u h a i , "Zhongguo d i j i e j i douzheng" [ C h i n a ' s C l a s s S t r u g g l e ] , J i e f a n g yu g a i z a o ["The E m a n c i p a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Weekly"] 1,7 (Dec. 1, 1919): 114-120. 29. "Xuanyan" [ M a n i f e s t o ] , J i e f a n g yu G a i z a o 1,1 (September, 1919):1. 30. Yang Y i c e n g , "Shehui-weishenma yao g a i z a o , " Guomin ["The C i t i z e n ] 2,1 (November, 1919):13-22. 31. Ding and Yan, p. 138. 32. Chen D u x i u , " S h i x i n g m i n z h i d i q i c h u " [The b a s i s f o r r e a l i z i n g democracy], X i n Q i n g n i a n 7,1(December 1, 1 919):115-1 1 6. 33. Lu Hongyu, "Zhenggong z h i d u " [The c o n s c r i p t l a b o u r s y s t e m ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 17, 3 (Feb. 10, 1920):9-14; 17,4 (Feb. 25, l 9 2 0 ) : 2 6 - 3 2 ; 17,5 (March 10, 1920): 12-20. 34. "Wu guo z h i j i e j i douzheng" [Our c o u n t r y " s c l a s s s t r u g g l e ] , Dongfang Z a z h i 17,9(May 10, 1920) : 5. 35. Wu Yu, " R u j i a zhuzhang j i e j i z h i d u z h i h a i " [The e v i l s of the c l a s s system ad v o c a t e d by the C o n f u c i a n i s t s ] , X i n Q i n g n i a n 3 , 4 ( J u l y 1, 1917):1 -4. 36. I b i d . , p. 1. 37. T h i s i s one of the d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n the term i n the C i h a i d i c t i o n a r y . 38. Zhang, " F u r t h e r r e p o r t " , Dongfang Z a z h i 5,1:37. 39. L_i Dazhao Xuanj i , p.110 and p. 114. 40. S h i Fu, Dongfang Z a z h i 16,4:2b. 41. Li_ Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 223. 151 42. "Xuanyan" [ M a n i f e s t o ] , J i e f a n g yu q a i z a o 1,1 (September, 1919) : 1 . 43. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,7:23a. 44. "Caichan z h i d u " [The system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ] , Dongfanq Z a z h i 1 7 , 7 ( A p r i l 10, 192 0 ) : 1 . 45. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,11:16a. 46. T h i s p o s i t i o n was put f o r w a r d by Marx i n The Communist M a n i f e s t o . 47. Economic D o c t r i n e s , pp. 234-235. 48. I b i d . , pp. 1-2. 49. C l a s s S t r u g g l e , , p.. 54. 50. "Qingnian yu nongcong" , L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 146. 51. "Xuanyan" [ M a n i f e s t o ] , J i e f a n g yu G a i z a o 1,1(September, 1919):1. 52. "Shehui weishenma yao g a i z a o " , Guomin 2,1:113. 53. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,10:100a. 54. " J i e j i j i n g z h e n g yu huzhu", La Dazhao Xuanj i , p. 223 . 55. Dongfang Z a z h i 16,9:102b. 56. Guomin 2,1:14. My emphasis. 57. "Zhongdeng j i e j i l u n " [On the m i d d l e c l a s s ] , t r a n s . Zhang X i c h e n [Gao L a o ] , Dongf ang Z a z h i 16,6 (June, 1 9 1 9 )': 1 9-23 . 58. I b i d . , pp. I9a-I9b. 59. I b i d . 60. I b i d . , p. 20a 61. I b i d . , p. I9b-20a. 62. I b i d . , p. 23b. 63. I b i d . , p. 20a. 64. I b i d . 65. I b i d . , p, 22b. 66. I b i d . 1 52 67. L_i Dazhao Xuan j i , p. 299. 68. I b i d . Chapter 4. Communism: The Gongchandang Programme 1. H a r r i s o n , p. 28. See a l s o Jerome Chen, pp. 72-73. 2. Other p u b l i c a t i o n s which propagated communist p h i l o s o p h y were X i n Q i n g n i a n , which was a c o m m u n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d organ a f t e r the June, 1920, i s s u e , and Laodong j i e [The w o r l d of l a b o u r ] , which w a s . p u b l i s h e d by the P e k i n g communist o r g a n i z a t i o n . I have not had a c c e s s t o the l a t t e r s o u r c e . A l t h o u g h communist c o n t r o l l e d , X i n Q i n q n i a n d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e s e n t the o f f i c i a l views of the p a r t y and I have consequenly not used i t as a source on the l i n e of the p a r t y . 3. Zhou F u h a i , "Eguo gongchandang zhengfu c h e n g l i san zhounian j i n i a n " [Marking the t h i r d a n n i v e r s a r y of the f o u n d i n g of the R u s s i a n communist government], Gongchandang ["The Communist] 1(November, 1920):2-13. 4. I b i d . , p. 3. 5 . I b i d . , p p . 2 - 3 . 6 . I b i d . , p . 8 . 7. I b i d . 8. "Duan Yan" [Prolegomena], Gongchandang 1:1. 9. S h i Cuntong, "Women zenma yang gan shehui geming?" [How do we make s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ? ] , Gongchandang 5(June 6, 1921):9-32. A l s o i n S h e h u i z h u y i t a o l u n j i (Canton: X i n Q i n g n i a n She, 1922), pp. 381-426. 10. I b i d . , pp. 12-13. 11. Zhou, "Eguo", Gongchandang 1:11. 12. S h i , "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:9-32. 13. I b i d . , p. 16. 14. I b i d . , p. 13. 15. See V . I . L e n i n , I m p e r i a l i s m : The H i g h e s t Stage of C a p i t a l i s m ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1975). 16. V . I . L e n i n , "Economics and P o l i t i c s d u r i n g the Era of the D i c t a t o r s h i p of the P r o l e t a r i a t " , V . I . L e n i n : S e l e c t e d Work, 3. v o l s , (Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1971), 111:296. 1 53 17. S h i , "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:13-14. 18. I b i d . , p. 13. 19. For so u r c e s on the a n a r c h i s t t r a d i t i o n i n C h i n a , see Chapter 3, note 1. 20. In A d d i t i o n t o S h i , "Shehui geming", See a l s o , Zhou F u h a i , "Women weishenma zhuzhang gongchanzhuyi" [ Why do we advocate communism], Gongchandang 3 ( A p r i l 7, 1921):23-30 ( r e p r i n t e d i n Shehui z h u y i t a o l u n j i . , pp. 285-298) ; Zhou Fuh a i , "Duoqu Zhengquan" [ S e i z e p o l i t i c a l power], Gongchandang 5:3-9 ( a l s o i n S h e h u i z h u y i t a o l u n j i _ , pp. 2 99-31 1 TI and L i Da, "Wuzhengfuzhuyi z h i j i e p e i " [A d i s s e c t i o n of a n a r c h i s m ] , Gongchandang 4(May 7, 1921):14-22. (and S h e h u i z h u y i t a o l u n j i , pp. 219-237). 21. Examples of a r t i c l e s on the B o l s h e v i k s which d i s c u s s e d the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t a r e : " G u o j i p a i z h i l i x i a n g j i q i s h i b a i " [The i d e a l s of the r a d i c a l f a c t i o n and i t s f a i l u r e ] , Dongfang Zazhi16,5 (May, 1919):29-43; " G u o j i s i x i a n g yu q i f a n g z h i c e " [ R a d i c a l i d e o l o g y and the p r i n c i p l e s of p r e v e n t i n g i t ] , Dongf ang Z a z h i 16,6 (June, '191-9) : 1 1 — 17.' " G u o j i z h u y i yu minzhuzhuyi z h i d u i k a n g " [The i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y of r a d i c a l i s m and democracy], Dongfang Zazhi16,8 (August, 1919):54- 56. A l l of thes e a r t i c l e s argued t h a t " r a d i c a l ism", i . e . B o l s h e v i s m , was not a d e m o c r a t i c system,; and i n v o l v e d the d i c t a t o r s h i p of "the lower c l a s s e s " over "the m i d d l e c l a s s e s " . 22. S h i , "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:18. 23. I b i d . 24. I b i d . , pp. 18-19. 25. I b i d . , p. 19. 26. I b i d . , pp. 19-20. 27. I b i d . , p. 20. 28. I b i d . 29. I b i d . 30. See, Mao Tse-tung, "On New Democracy", C o l l e c t e d Works of Mao Tse-tung, 5 v o l s . ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1967-1977T^ —II:339-384. 31. S h i , "Shehui geming, Gongchandang 5:20. 32. Zhou F u h a i , "Eguo", Gongchandang 1:2-13. 33. Zhou F u h a i , "Women weishenma zhuzhang gongchanzhuyi", Gongchandang 3:23-30 1 54 34. I b i d . , p. 25. 35. I b i d . .36. I b i d . 37. I b i d . 38 . I b i d . , pp. 25-26. 39. I b i d . , p. 26. 40. S h i , "shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:10. 41 . I b i d . , pp. 11-12. 42. I b i d . 43. I b i d . , p. 20. 44. I b i d . 45. I b i d . , p. 21.. 46. V . I . L e n i n , The S t a t e and R e v o l u t i o n ( P e k i n g : . F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1975~T! 47. "Gao Zhongguo z h i nongmin" [A c a l l t o the peasants of C h i n a ] , Gongchandang 3:2-7. The f i r s t page of t h i s " C a l l " i s m i s s i n g . I t was c e n s o r e d by the F r e n c h c o n c e s s i o n p o l i c e i n Shanghai, where Gongchandang was p u b l i s h e d . 48. I b i d . , p. 3 49. I b i d . 50. I b i d . 51. I b i d . , pp. 3-4. 52. I b i d . , p. 4. 53. V . I . L e n i n , " P r e l i m i n a r y D r a f t Theses on the A g r a r i a n Q u e s t i o n " , V . I . L e n i n : S e l e c t e d Works, I I I : 441. 54. "Gao zhongguo z h i nongmin", Gongchandang 3:4. 55. See f o r example L e n i n , " D r a f t Theses". 56. See Zhou F u h a i , "Eguo", Gongchandang 1:2. 57. See Zhou, "Gongchanzhuyi", Gongchandang 3:25. 58. S h i Cuntong used both terms i n "Shehui geming", see Gongchandang 5:9-32. 155 59. I b i d . , p. 31. 60. "Gao laodong" [A c a l l t o l a b o u r ] , Gongchandang 5;2- 6 1 . I b i d . , p . 2 . 62. I b i d . 63. I b i d . 64. "Gao Zhongguo.zhi nongmin", Gongchandang 3:3. 65. "Gao l a o b i n g nong" [A c a l l t o l a b o u r e r s , p e a s a n t s , and s o l d i e r s ] , Gongchandang 4:4-13. 66 . I b i d . , p. 5. 67. See Zhou F u h a i , "Eguo", Gongchandang 1:9, and S h i , "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:20. 68. Gongchandang 1:9. 69. I b i d . 70. "Zhongdeng j i e j i l u n " [On the mi d d l e c l a s s ] , t r a n s . Zhang X i c h e n [Gao L a o ] , Donqfang Z a z h i 16,6 (June, 1919):19-23. 71 . "Gao 72. Zhou 73. I b i d . 74. I b i d . 75. "Gao 76. I b i d . 77. I b i d . 78. I b i d . 79. I b i d . 80. I b i d . 81 . I b i d . 82. "Gao 83. I b i d . 84. "Gao p a r t y " 156 85. I b i d . , p. 3. 86. I b i d . 87. I b i d . 88. S h i never uses the terms "vanguard" or "vanguard 89. Shu, "Shehui geming", Gongchandang 5:27. 90. I b i d . , p . 28. 91. I b i d . 92. I b i d . , pp. 28-29. 93. I b i d . , p. 29. 94. I b i d . 95. I b i d . , p. 20. 96. T h i s was a l s o the p o s i t i o n taken i n "Gao laodong" and "Gao Zhongguo z h i nongmin". 97. I.E. The concept t h a t the most " c o n s c i o u s " elements of the w o r k i n g c l a s s must be o r g a n i z e d i n t o a communist p a r t y . 1 57 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. P r i m a r y Sources "Caichan z h i d u " [The system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ] . Dongfang Z a z h i 1 7 , 7 ( A p r i l 1 0 , 1 920) : 1.-6. C a i Yuanpei f£^>;£^. "Da zhan yu zhexue" [The g r e a t war and p h i l o s o p h y ] . I n J C a i Yuanpei x i a n s h e n g yiwen l e i c h a o &£&lKfB.fij?[The l i t e r a r y e s t a t e of Mr. C a i Yuanpei17 pp. 167-72. n.p.rn.p., 1971. • "Laodong shenguai [The S a n c t i t y of L a b o u r ] . X i n Q i n g n i a n 5,5(November, 1918):438-439. Chen Duxiu &r%k&. Duxiu Wencun j j ^ ^ - ^ ^ [The known w r i t n g s of Chen D u x i u ] . 2 v o l s . 7 J Hong Kong: Yuan Dong Tu Shu G o n g s i , 1965. , "Chu san h a i " . 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