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An evaluation of the impact of a nutrition innovation on the teaching practices of British Columbia secondary… Clampett, Dorothy Mae 1982

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EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF A NUTRITION INNOVATION ON THE TEACHING PRACTICES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATORS by ^ DOROTHY MAE CLAMPETT A.S.T.C., Sydney T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e , 1958 Di p . Ed., Sydney Teachers C o l l e g e , 1972 A THESIS SUMBITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D i v i s i o n of Human N u t r i t i o n S c h o o l of Home Economics We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH January 1982 © Dorothy Clampett, COLUMBIA 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an ad v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my Department o r by h i s or h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D i v i s i o n of Human N u t r i t i o n S c h o o l of Home Economics The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Westbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada. D a t e : 14 J a n u a r y , 1982 i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was t o e v a l u a t e t h e impact o f ' F o o d s t y l e s : P e r s p e c t i v e s on Food f o r P e o p l e ' ( F o o d s t y l e s ) , on th e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s of s e c o n d a r y Home Ec o n o m i c s e d u c a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F o o d s t y l e s i s a n u t r i t i o n i n n o v a t i o n i n t e n d e d f o r use i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n s e c t i o n of th e p r o v i n c i a l Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m . The d e s i g n of ' t h e s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d from c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were d e r i v e d from t h e c o n c e r n s of program d e v e l o p e r s , workshop l e a d e r s and t e a c h e r s . The q u e s t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t e d how t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s , i f t e a c h e r s who use t h e program a c c e p t i t s r a t i o n a l e , what f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e use of t h e program and i n what ways F o o d s t y l e s i s . of v a l u e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . P a t t e r n s of t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s were s e l e c t e d as t h e c r i t e r a f o r j u d g i n g t h e impact of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . D a t a were o b t a i n e d by q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d t o t e a c h e r s who had a t t e n d e d a F o o d s t y l e s workshop and who were t e a c h i n g Home Ec o n o m i c s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h a t a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . Of th e 113 t e a c h e r s who r e s p o n d e d (51.8 p e r c e n t ) , 75 t a u g h t Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g 1980-81 and were i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s . A sample of t e n r e s p o n d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d t o o b t a i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s . R e s u l t s of t h e a n a l y s e s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a t o g e t h e r w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s from t h e i n t e r v i e w s were used t o c o n s t r u c t " P r o f i l e s of T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s " f o r h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s . A p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s used t h e s e t h r e e p r o f i l e s t o judge t h e v a l u e of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . R e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s used i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s from F o o d s t y l e s t h a t were c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s . They most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d j u n i o r - l e v e l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were p r e s e n t e d a t workshops, were r e l a t e d t o f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g f o o d c h o i c e and were r e a d y f o r immediate c l a s s r o o m u s e . C o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s and s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s w hich r e f l e c t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e . D u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s , h i g h - u s e r s (18.7 p e r c e n t ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s from F o o d s t y l e s t o e n c o u r a g e s t u d e n t s t o c h o o s e f o o d p a t t e r n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r needs and l i f e s t y l e s . H i g h - u s e r s i n c l u d e d F o o d s t y l e s i n l e s s o n s as i n t e n d e d by program d e v e l o p e r s and as t h e p a n e l b e l i e v e d i t s h o u l d be u s e d . Low-users, (33.3 p e r c e n t ) , r e p o r t e d u s i n g t h e i n n o v a t i o n o n l y t o t e a c h n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . Program d e v e l o p e r s and members of t h e p a n e l c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s was not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i n t e n t s of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . M o d e r a t e u s e r s (48.0 p e r c e n t ) showed no d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s . T e a c h e r s were fo u n d t o be more l i k e l y t o use F o o d s t y l e s i f t h e y t a u g h t s e n i o r c l a s s e s , t a u g h t o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s , a t t e n d e d a workshop as a t e a c h e r r a t h e r t h a n as a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r , r e c e i v e d t h e n e w s l e t t e r "In T o uch" and had i v p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward th e program as measured by t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The p a n e l j u d g e d F o o d s t y l e s t o r e p r e s e n t a v a l u a b l e a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n . The r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s has had o n l y a moderate impact on t h e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s of s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e and t o n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h were i n f e r r e d from the s t u d y . S p e c i f i c recommendations f o r t h e r e v i e w and m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program and workshop a l s o emerged. O v e r a l l , t h e a p p r o a c h t o e v a l u a t i o n used i n t h i s s t u d y p e r m i t t e d judgements t o be made ab o u t the impact of t h e i n n o v a t i o n i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s recommended f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n of t h o s e i n n o v a t i o n s which a r e d e s i g n e d t o complement e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Problem 1 Foodstyles: Perspectives on Food for People 5 Evaluation of Nutrition Innovations 9 The Problem 12 The Research Questions 13 Limitations of the Study- . ... 15 Organization of the Study 16 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 17 Evaluation Practices in Nutrition Education 17 Developments in Curriculum Evaluation 24 The Goals and Roles of Evaluation 25 The Nature of Evaluation 26 C r i t e r i a for Judging the Value of Innovations .. 33 Who Should Judge the Value of an Innovation .... 37 A Process for the Evaluation of Foodstyles 39 v i C h a p t e r I I I . DESIGN OF THE STUDY 42 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 42 P o p u l a t i o n a n d S a m p l e 46 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n I n s t r u m e n t s 50 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 53 P r e p a r a t i o n o f D a t a f o r A n a l y s i s 55 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D a t a 55 R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 56 C o m p a r i s o n o f E a r l y a n d L a t e R e s p o n s e s 57 I n t e r v i e w D a t a 59 A n a l y s i s o f D a t a 59 The D e m o g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s 60 T e a c h e r Use o f F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s 61 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f H i g h , M o d e r a t e a n d L o w - U s e r s o f F o o d s t y l e s 61 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 62 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 62 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 63 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3 64 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4 66 I V . RESULTS AND D ISCUSSION 71 The R e s p o n s e R a t e 71 D e s c r i p t i o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e S t u d y 72 T e a c h e r Use o f F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s 76 v i i Chapter D e s c r i p t i o n of H i g h , Moderate and Low-Users of F o o d s t y l e s 78 The Research Q u e s t i o n s 83 Research Q u e s t i o n 1 83 Research Q u e s t i o n 2 92 Research Q u e s t i o n 3 96 Research Q u e s t i o n 4 105 V. SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 116 Summary 116 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study 122 I m p l i c a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o the F o o d s t y l e s Program . 123 I m p l i c a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o the F o o d s t y l e s Workshop 124 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Secondary N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n . 125 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n Research .. 126 Recommendations 128 C o n c l u s i o n 130 LITERATURE CITED 131 APPENDIX A. O u t l i n e of the F o o d s t y l e s Program 137 B. A p p r o v a l f o r Research 140 C. D r a f t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 144 D. V a l i d a t i o n of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 151 v i i i A p p e n d i x E . F i n a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d C o v e r L e t t e r 166 F . R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 174 G . P r o f i l e s o f T e a c h e r Use o f F o o d s t y l e s 177 H . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r V a r i a b l e s I n f l u e n c i n g U s e o f F o o d s t y l e s 193 i x L I S T OF TABLES 1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r s a n d S t u d e n t - T e a c h e r s A t t e n d i n g W o r k s h o p s b e t w e e n S e p t e m b e r 1978 a n d D e c e m b e r 1980 47 2 . S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s C o n s e n t i n g t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Use o f F o o d s t y l e s by Home E c o n o m i c s T e a c h e r s 48 3 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r s i n t h e S u r v e y S a m p l e by S t a t u s when A t t e n d i n g W o r k s h o p 49 4 . D a t a S o u r c e s f o r D e p e n d e n t a n d I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s 51 5 . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s a n d R e l a t e d I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s 54 6 . C o m p a r i s o n o f E a r l y a n d L a t e R e s p o n s e s t o Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r D e p e n d e n t a n d N o n - D e m o g r a p h i c I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s 58 7 . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f R e s p o n d e n t s 73 8 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s by S c o r e f o r Use o f F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s 76 9 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d I n t e r v i e w R e s p o n d e n t s by C a t e g o r y o f U s e o f F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s 77 1 0 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H i g h , M o d e r a t e a n d L o w - U s e r s o f F o o d s t y l e s by D e m o g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s 79 1 1 . Mean S c o r e a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n f o r D e m o g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s by L e v e l o f U s e o f F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s 80 1 2 . P e r c e n t a g e U s e o f F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s a s R e p o r t e d by R e s p o n d e n t s 84 1 3 . Use o f J u n i o r F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s a s R e p o r t e d by H i g h , M o d e r a t e a n d L o w - U s e r s o f t h e P r o g r a m . . . . 86 1 4 . U s e . o f S e n i o r F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s a s R e p o r t e d by H i g h , M o d e r a t e a n d L o w - U s e r s o f t h e P r o g r a m . . . . 88 1 5 . Mean S c o r e a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n f o r Use o f j u n i o r F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s by L e v e l o f F o o d s a n d N u t r i t i o n T a u g h t i n 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 89 X 16. Mean S c o r e s f o r Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s R e l a t e d t o Program C o n c e p t s 93 17. D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e s p o n d e n t s by S c o r e f o r A c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s R a t i o n a l e 94 18. D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e s p o n d e n t s by S c o r e f o r A t t i t u d e t o ward t h e F o o d s t y l e s Program 97 1 9 . P e r c e n t a g e Responses t o S t a t e m e n t s about t h e F o o d s t y l e s Program 98 20. D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e s p o n d e n t s by S c o r e f o r A t t i t u d e t o ward t h e F o o d s t y l e s Workshop 99 21. P e r c e n t a g e Responses t o S t a t e m e n t s about t h e F o o d s t y l e s Workshop 100 22. D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e s p o n d e n t s by S c o r e f o r A t t i t u d e t o ward F a c t o r s i n t h e S c h o o l E n v i r o n m e n t 101 23. P e r c e n t a g e Responses t o S t a t e m e n t s about F a c t o r s i n t h e S c h o o l E n v i r o n m e n t 102 24. V a r i a b l e s I n f l u e n c i n g Use of F o o d s t y l e s 104 25. D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e s p o n s e s t o Item 10, P a r t IV of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 106 x i L I S T OF FIGURES 1 . An E v a l u a t i o n A p p r o a c h A d a p t e d t o F o o d s t y l e s 43 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h o s e who h e l p e d me c o m p l e t e t h i s s t u d y . My v e r y s p e c i a l t h a n k s go t o Dr. Nancy S c h w a r t z , c h a i r m a n o f my t h e s i s committee, f o r h e r g u i d a n c e , encouragement and p a t i e n c e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of r e s e a r c h and t h r o u g h o u t p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e m a n u s c r i p t . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Dr. D o n a l d C. W i l s o n , a member of my t h e s i s committee, f o r h i s d e t a i l e d g u i d a n c e and d i s c u s s i o n s and f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t w h i l e on l e a v e . S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e a l s o e x t e n d e d t o Dr. E l e a n o r e V a i n e s who as a member of my t h e s i s committee o f f e r e d e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e s t u d y and a l s o , a s s i s t e d by c h a i r i n g t h e p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n th e s t u d y . I a l s o w i s h t o thank Dr. P a t r i c i a G a l l o f o r w o r k i n g on my t h e s i s c ommittee, Dr. R o b e r t Conry f o r s e r v i n g as an examiner and Dr. I n d r a j i t D e s a i who c h a i r e d my t h e s i s e x a minat i o n . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o acknowledge t h e a s s i s t a n c e of t h e two o r g a n i z a t i o n s who made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . My g r a t i t u d e i s e x t e n d e d t o t h e s t a f f of B.C. D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o t h e F o o d s t y l e s program and f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Sydney T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , A u s t r a l i a , f o r g r a n t i n g me l e a v e t o s t u d y a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background to the Problem E d u c a t i o n i s concerned w i t h many f a c e t s of modern l i f e . I t aims to i n c r e a s e the c a p a c i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s t o d e a l s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h t h e i r environment so t h a t they can s e l e c t and u t i l i z e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s t o s a t i s i f y t h e i r needs. Nowhere i s e d u c a t i o n more important than i n the complex a r e a of food s e l e c t i o n t o meet n u t r i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . N u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n i s the pr o c e s s of p r e p a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to use i n f o r m a t i o n about food and n u t r i t i o n which w i l l e nable them t o d e v e l o p food h a b i t s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h e a l t h promotion and p e r s o n a l l i f e s t y l e s (Todhunter, 1980). N u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n i s designed to improve the w e l l - b e i n g of members of the community. I t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the q u a l i t y of i n f o r m a l and for m a l e d u c a t i o n , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the p a r e n t s i n the home, e n l a r g i n g i n a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n throughout the elementary and secondary s c h o o l s , and c o n t i n u i n g throughout l i f e t o meet the p a r t i c u l a r needs of people i n v a r i o u s stages of the l i f e c y c l e (Robinson, 1973, p. 406). The task of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s i s t o b r i d g e the gap between n u t r i t i o n r e s e a r c h and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , by t r a n s l a t i n g s c i e n t i f i c f i n d i n g s i n t o s i m p l e everyday terms. T h i s task has become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t i n r e c e n t y e a r s . Technology has produced changes i n the nature of our food s u p p l y and has 2 p r o v i d e d an e v e r i n c r e a s i n g range of f r e s h , p r o c e s s e d and f a b r i c a t e d f o o d s i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e . The n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e of many of t h e s e f o o d s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o h e a l t h p r o m o t i o n and d i s e a s e p r e v e n t i o n i s o f t e n not w e l l u n d e r s t o o d by members of t h e p u b l i c . I t i s i n t h i s a r e a t h a t n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n c an make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y . N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n t e r e s t i n n u t r i t i o n has f l u c t u a t e d g r e a t l y i n t h e p a s t s i x t y y e a r s . Between 1920 and 1940, t h e f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n was on t h e n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c y d i s e a s e s , t h e i r c a u s e s and p r e v e n t i o n . The l a t e 1950s saw t h e de v e l o p m e n t of the e l e c t r o n m i c r o s c o p e and t h e u l t r a - c e n t r i f u g e w i t h s u b s e q u e n t emphasis on b i o m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g n u t r i t i o n t o human m e t a b o l i s m . In t h e mid 1960's i n t e r e s t c e n t r e d on p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n a d e q u a t e f o o d s u p p l i e s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . At t h i s t i m e , t h e r e was a c o m p l a c e n t b e l i e f among w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l i s e d n a t i o n s t h a t t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s were a d e q u a t e l y n o u r i s h e d and t h a t o n l y t h e T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s were f a c e d w i t h n u t r i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s ( F r a n k l e & Owen, 1978, pp. 2 - 3 ) . But i n 1968, N o r t h A m e r i c a n s were s h o c k e d t o l e a r n of t h e w i d e s p r e a d p r e v a l e n c e of hunger and m a l n u t r i t i o n i n t h e i r own c o n t i n e n t . Hunger U.S.A. ( 1 9 6 8 ) , a r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by a c i t i z e n s ' B o a r d of I n q u i r y , c i t e d s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s of i n a d e q u a t e f o o d s u p p l i e s i n M i s s i s s i p p i . P u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s r e p o r t was f o l l o w e d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y by a n a t i o n w i d e t e l e v i s i o n documentary on t h e s u b j e c t t h a t p r o v o k e d c i t i z e n s a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t t o demand t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n t o i d e n t i f y 3 t h e e x t e n t of n u t r i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e i r a l l e v i a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1969, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s c o n v e n e d t h e W h i t e house C o n f e r e n c e on Food, N u t r i t i o n and H e a l t h . The p u r p o s e of t h i s c o n f e r e n c e was t o f o c u s n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n on n u t r i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e a t t e m p t s t o overcome them. A major outcome of t h e c o n f e r e n c e was a recommendation f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n of a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and s e q u e n t i a l program of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n i n e v e r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m (Whitehouse C o n f e r e n c e on Food, N u t r i t i o n and H e a l t h , 1970). In 1970, t h e C a n a d i a n Department of H e a l t h and W e l f a r e u n d e r t o o k a n a t i o n a l n u t r i t i o n s u r v e y t o o b t a i n q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on t h e n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n ( N u t r i t i o n Canada, 1973). I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e s e d a t a would p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r d i r e c t i n g f u t u r e i n f o r m a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c h e a l t h and s o c i a l w e l f a r e p r o g r a m s . The s u r v e y recommendations e m p h a s i z e d t h a t : n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m ; n u t r i t i o n programs s h o u l d p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h f a c i l i t i e s and p r a c t i c e s i n t h e home and i n t h e s c h o o l ; and n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d r e l a t e n u t r i t i o n t o p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and f i t n e s s . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n , i n 1973, formed a Committee on N u t r i t i o n t o r e v i e w t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s c h o o l b o a r d s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e toward the n u t r i t i o n of c h i l d r e n . The Committee r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c h i l d n u t r i t i o n i s 4 c y c l i c a l . I n i t i a l l y , t h e n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t e of t h e c h i l d i s d ependent upon t h e n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of t h e mother. W i t h m a t u r i t y , c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own n u t r i t i o n and i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e t h e f o o d h a b i t s of t h e i r own o f f s p r i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e N u t r i t i o n Committee a f f i r m e d t h a t " n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n must b e g i n a t t h e p o i n t of e n t r y of c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m and t h a t an e n t i r e program of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n must be c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d t h r o u g h o u t the s c h o o l y e a r s " (B.C. S c h o o l T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1974, p. 2 ) . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n has a l s o e n d o r s e d t h e i n c l u s i o n of n u t r i t i o n i n a l l l e v e l s of t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . The c u r r e n t e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m i n c o r p o r a t e s a program of n u t r i t i o n a t t h e P r i m a r y and I n t e r m e d i a t e L e v e l s i n t h e Human L i f e S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m , Y e a r s 1-7 ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1971, pp. 4-12). U n i t s on n u t r i t i o n a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h e Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e (8-12) ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y , 1979, pp. 10-29) and i n t h e F i t n e s s segment of t h e S e c o n d a r y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m and R e s o u r c e G u i d e ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1980, p. 134). S c h o o l B o a r d s have a l s o e m p h a s i z e d the" c o n t i n u i n g need f o r n u t r i t i o n i n t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y programs of i n s t r u c t i o n . F o r example, t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d s t a t e d t h a t : N u t r i t i o n a l s u r v e y s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e need f o r sound, p r a c t i c a l and p o s i t i v e n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n a t t h e s c h o o l l e v e l has n e v e r been g r e a t e r ... Poor n u t r i t i o n e x i s t s i n a l l s o c i o e c o n o m i c groups w i t h i n our s o c i e t y ... From the 5 t i m e a c h i l d i s c o n c e i v e d , n u t r i t i o n p l a y s a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n b o t h th e p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l d evelopment which w i l l d e t e r m i n e p o t e n t i a l and a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e c h i l d ' s f u t u r e ... Poor n u t r i t i o n a f f e c t s l e a r n i n g i n a number of ways ... N u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e s h i f t t owards p r e v e n t i o n of h e a l t h p r o b l e m s ( V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , 1980, p. i i i ) . D u r i n g t h e l a s t two d e c a d e s , n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n has p a s s e d t h r o u g h a p e r i o d of i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n and e x p a n s i o n . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o w a r d s t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t . R e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have l e d t o g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h e f i e l d of n u t r i t i o n . P u b l i c c o n c e r n f o r h e a l t h and f i t n e s s has i n c r e a s e d . The i m p o r t a n c e of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n as an i n t e g r a l component of t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m has been r e c o g n i z e d . W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t of e x p a n s i o n many t e a c h e r s r e q u e s t e d new programs and new a p p r o a c h e s t o h e l p them d e v e l o p more m e a n i n g f u l c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . In 1978, i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e . r e q u e s t s , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n d e v e l o p e d ' F o o d s t y l e s : P e r s p e c t i v e s on Food F o r P e o p l e ' (B.C. D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n , 1978). F o o d s t y l e s i s t h e f i n a l segment i n a g r a d e d , s e q u e n t i a l s e r i e s of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs which b e g i n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . ' F o o d s t y l e s : P e r s p e c t i v e s on Food f o r P e o p l e ' ' F o o d s t y l e s : P e r s p e c t i v e s on Foods f o r P e o p l e ' (B.C. D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 7 8 ) i s a n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n i n n o v a t i o n d e s i g n e d f o r use i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n s e c t i o n of 6 t h e Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m ( G r a d e s 8-12) i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In t h i s s t u d y , an i n n o v a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as any t y p e of p l a n n e d change t h a t i s i n t e n d e d t o e n r i c h or m o d i f y an e x i s t i n g s c h o o l p rogram. The F o o d s t y l e s program i s an i n n o v a t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t i s a d e p a r t u r e from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis on t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e of knowledge of f o o d g r o u p s , n u t r i e n t s , f o o d g u i d e s and t h e e f f e c t s of n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s . T hese a s p e c t s of n u t r i t i o n a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s program but t h e y a r e not t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e s . I n s t e a d , t h e program f o c u s e s on t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e i r n u t r i e n t and e n e r g y needs, f o o d p r e f e r e n c e s and d i e t a r y h a b i t s . F o o d s t y l e s i s b a s e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r i n t e r e s t i n h e a l t h a r i s e s m a i n l y from a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e i r p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , f i t n e s s f o r s p o r t and s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e . D e v e l o p e r s of F o o d s t y l e s c o n t e n d t h a t t o be e f f e c t i v e , n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n must be l i n k e d t o t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s c o n c e r n f o r s e l f -d e v e l o p m e n t . Second, F o o d s t y l e s e m p h a s i z e s th e use of a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t h a t e n c o u r a g e s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n l e a r n i n g . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s a p p r o a c h t o n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n was e n d o r s e d by McAfee and Hughes: N u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n must e l i c i t p e r s o n a l meanings on t h e p a r t of s t u d e n t s . P e r s o n a l meanings a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h l e a r n i n g i n a l l of i t s a s p e c t s , t h a t i s t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g and a c t i n g . Programs d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s of l e a r n i n g c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o p e r s o n a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n ... We c a n n o t e x p e c t t o b r i d g e the gap between knowledge and a p p l i c a t i o n i f we c o n t i n u e t o i g n o r e t h e l e a r n e r as a f e e l i n g , a c t i n g and t h i n k i n g p e r s o n . C u r r i c u l a must emphasize s t u d e n t 7 c o n c e r n s , i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s (McAfee & Hughes, 1976, p. 6 3 ) . The F o o d s t y l e s program c o n s i s t s of a s e t of c o n c e p t s , o b j e c t i v e s and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , d e v e l o p e d from a r a t i o n a l e t h a t assumes s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , t h e i r p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . D e v e l o p e r s of F o o d s t y l e s a l s o assume t h a t t h e n u t r i t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r of s t u d e n t s i s more l i k e l y t o be m o d i f i e d by l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s where s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s c o n f r o n t and i n d i v i d u a l l y a n a l y z e t h e i r p e r s o n a l f o o d p r e f e r e n c e s , n u t r i e n t needs and f o o d h a b i t s t h a n by a l t e r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s where n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i s m e r e l y p r e s e n t e d , by t h e t e a c h e r i n a p r e s c r i p t i v e manner. The i n t e n t of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program i s t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e n u t r i t i o n a l needs, and so promote f o o d h a b i t s which a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r f o o d p r e f e r e n c e s , p h y s i c a l needs and l i f e s t y l e s . These i n t e n t s a r e d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h r e e c o n c e p t s : (1) E a c h s t u d e n t has p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs f o r food;,, (2) The s t u d e n t ' s p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs f o r f o o d v a r y w i t h changes i n l i f e s t y l e ; and (3) T h e r e a r e many ways of m e e t i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs f o r f o o d . E ach c o n c e p t i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h s e v e r a l o b j e c t i v e s s p e c i f i e d f o r j u n i o r and s e n i o r s t u d e n t s . L e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t to t h e t i m e and space c o n s t r a i n t s of Home 8 Economics l e s s o n s a re i n c l u d e d f o r each o b j e c t i v e . F o o d s t y l e s emphasizes s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s and s t r e s s e s the r o l e of the teacher as guide and a d v i s e r i n the c l a s s r o o m . The program i n c l u d e s master c o p i e s of a v a r i e t y of st u d e n t worksheets, i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the use of t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s and support m a t e r i a l s f o r a number of the a c t i v i t i e s . The c o n c e p t s , o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n F o o d s t y l e s f o r j u n i o r and s e n i o r Home Economics s t u d e n t s are o u t l i n e d i n Appendix A. The F o o d s t y l e s program i s i n t r o d u c e d t o t e a c h e r s d u r i n g three-hour workshop s e s s i o n s conducted by n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s from the B r i t i s h Columbia D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n . These workshops i n c l u d e an e x p l a n a t i o n of the r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g F o o d s t y l e s , as w e l l as a review of the o b j e c t i v e s and c o n t e n t of the program. In a d d i t i o n , s e l e c t e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s from F o o d s t y l e s a re p r e s e n t e d and t e a c h e r s a re encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n the workshops by r o l e p l a y i n g as s t u d e n t s . At the c o n c l u s i o n of the workshop, t e a c h e r s a re i n v i t e d t o complete a re q u e s t f o r a copy of the n e w s l e t t e r , "In Touch". T h i s n e w s l e t t e r i s produced s e m i - a n n u a l l y and c o n t a i n s n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , book r e v i e w s , g e n e r a l i d e a s f o r the t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n and s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s f o r ways t h a t F o o d s t y l e s can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . . Although F o o d s t y l e s has been a v a i l a b l e f o r c l a s s r o o m use f o r over t h r e e y e a r s , no attempt has y e t been made to determine i t s impact on the t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s of secondary Home Economics educators i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 9 E v a l u a t i o n of N u t r i t i o n I n n o v a t i o n s At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , many n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s a r e f o c u s i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s . They a r e u r g i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s t o improve v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f e x i s t i n g n u t r i t i o n programs s u c h as c l a r i t y of o b j e c t i v e s , c o n t e n t , t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s ( B r u n , 1980). In 1979, t h e f i r s t N o r t h A m e r i c a n C o n f e r e n c e on N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n was h e l d i n M a r y l a n d , U.S.A. t o d e f i n e s t r a t e g i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e nex t d e c a d e . C o n f e r e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s recommended t h a t h i g h p r i o r i t y be g i v e n t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n of c u r r e n t and f u t u r e n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs. They s t r e s s e d t h e need f o r r e s e a r c h t o d e v e l o p improved methods of e v a l u a t i o n r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n (Egan, Goodwin, & M a r e t z k i , 1980). A l m o s t a l l r e c e n t e v a l u a t i o n s of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs have used t h e g o a l - b a s e d model of e v a l u a t i o n which j u d g e s t h e v a l u e o f a program i n terms o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . Programs e v a l u a t e d by t h i s a p p r o a c h i n c l u d e : t h e O n t a r i o M i l k M a r k e t i n g B o a r d program 'Winning a t L o s i n g : a Food, N u t r i t i o n and Weight C o n t r o l U n i t f o r T e a c h e r s of Gr a d e s 7-10' (Metzger and L a i n g , 1979); t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s D a i r y C o u n c i l program 'Food ... Your C h o i c e ' ( O f f i c e of E v a l u a t i o n R e s e a r c h , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1977); 'A Food and N u t r i t i o n M i n i c o u r s e f o r 11th and 12th G r a d e s ' w h i c h was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o B o s t o n s c h o o l s i n 1975 ( P i c a r d i & P o r t e r , 1976); ' N u t r i t i o n i n a Ch a n g i n g World - A Comprehensive I n t e g r a t e d C u r r i c u l u m f o r Gra d e s K-6' (Shannon e t a l . , 1981). In t h e g o a l - b a s e d model of 10 e v a l u a t i o n , ...an e v a l u a t o r s t a t e s t h e program o b j e c t i v e s , d e v e l o p s a p l a n t o c o l l e c t d a t a t h a t w i l l d e s c r i b e whether t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s have been met, makes judgements about program e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n m e e t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s and r e p o r t s t h e d a t a f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of program improvement and/or c o n t i n u a n c e d e c i s i o n s ( Holzemer, 1980, pp. 3 9 - 4 0 ) . S o l e r e l i a n c e on t h i s a p p r o a c h t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n of n u t r i t i o n i n n o v a t i o n s can be q u e s t i o n e d on t h r e e c o u n t s . F i r s t , g o a l - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n does not accommodate i n n o v a t i o n s i n t e n d e d t o complement e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m s . In r e p o r t i n g t h e a c h i e v e m e n t of o b j e c t i v e s , g o a l - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h outcomes r e s u l t i n g from t h e i n n o v a t i o n . I t can a s s e s s a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e i n n o v a t i o n as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y but not outcomes r e s u l t i n g from t h e f u s i o n of t h e i n n o v a t i o n w i t h a p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m . Second, i n u s i n g t h e g o a l s of a program as t h e c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g i t s s u c c e s s , g o a l - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n assumes t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l a d o p t programs as i n t e n d e d by t h e program d e v e l o p e r s . In t h e c a s e o f F o o d s t y l e s , t e a c h e r s a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e program d u r i n g i n - s e r v i c e workshops. A f t e r w a r d s t h e y d e c i d e how t h e y w i l l use t h e i n n o v a t i o n and when t h e y w i l l i n t e g r a t e t h e new i d e a s i n t o t h e i r s c h o o l program. E v a l u a t i o n b a s e d s o l e l y on t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e i n n o v a t i o n becomes i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e c a u s e i t does not examine the d e g r e e or s u c c e s s of t e a c h e r i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e new and e x i s t i n g p r ograms. G o a l - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n o n l y examines the e x t e n t t o which the o b j e c t i v e s of t h e i n n o v a t i o n were a c h i e v e d as a s e p a r a t e program. 11 T h i r d , g o a l - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n e m p h a s i z e s t h e a s s e s s m e n t of s h o r t - t e r m e f f e c t s . N u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n , however, i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l o n g - t e r m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f n u t r i t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r . A s s e s s i n g t h e worth of an i n n o v a t i o n w i t h l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s by an e v a l u a t i o n method c o n c e r n e d w i t h s h o r t - t e r m e f f e c t s can p r o v i d e o n l y a l i m i t e d view of t h e v a l u e of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . To e v a l u a t e t h e impact of an i n n o v a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o complement an e x i s t i n g program i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e l e c t an a p p r o a c h which f o c u s e s on a c r i t e r i o n e x t e r n a l t o b o t h t h e i n n o v a t i o n and t h e o r i g i n a l program f o r j u d g i n g t h e w orth of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . One such c r i t e r i o n i s use of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , models a r e s t i l l b e i n g d e v e l o p e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e ways i n n o v a t i o n s a r e a c t u a l l y used i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r w o rth i n t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . P a r l e t t and H a m i l t o n , f o r example, have o u t l i n e d an a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h t o e v a l u a t i o n w h i c h examines t h e use of an i n n o v a t i o n i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . When an i n n o v a t i o n c e a s e s t o be an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t or p l a n and becomes p a r t of t h e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g i n a s c h o o l , i t assumes a d i f f e r e n t form a l t o g e t h e r ... I t i s i t s t r a n s l a t i o n and enactment by t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s t h a t i s of c o n c e r n ... I f t h i s i s a c k nowledged, i t becomes i m p e r a t i v e t o s t u d y an i n n o v a t i o n t h r o u g h th e medium of i t s p e r f o r m a n c e and t o adopt a r e s e a r c h s t y l e and m e t h o d o l o g y t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e ( P a r l e t t & H a m i l t o n , 1977, p. 10). They have i d e n t i f i e d " i l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n " as an a p p r o a c h which d e s c r i b e s an i n n o v a t i o n t h r o u g h i t s a c t u a l use i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n e m p h a s i z e s the need t o u n d e r s t a n d , as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e 1 2 e d u c a t i o n a l environment as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the v a l u e of the i n n o v a t i o n i n t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . By s e l e c t i n g use as the c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g the worth of an i n n o v a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o develop a d e s c r i p t i o n of the degree and p a t t e r n s of tea c h e r use of the i n n o v a t i o n i n the cl a s s r o o m . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e s e d u c a t o r s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t e nables them t o make judgements about the impact of the i n n o v a t i o n i n t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . The Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to e v a l u a t e the impact of F o o d s t y l e s , a n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n i n n o v a t i o n , on the t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s of secondary Home Economics e d u c a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. F o o d s t y l e s was designed by the B r i t i s h Columbia D a i r y Foundation f o r use i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Foods and N u t r i t i o n s e c t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m , (Years 8-12). Teacher use of the i n n o v a t i o n d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s was s e l e c t e d as the c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g the v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . The r o l e of the e v a l u a t i o n was f o r m a t i v e i n n a t u r e , s i n c e i t was i n t e n d e d t h a t the r e s u l t s of the study would be used by program d e v e l o p e r s t o review and modify the i n n o v a t i o n . 1 3 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s To c o n d u c t t h i s e v a l u a t i o n of F o o d s t y l e s , f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were g e n e r a t e d . 1. How do t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? 2. Do t e a c h e r s who use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s ? 3. What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r use o f F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s ? 4. In what ways i s F o o d s t y l e s . of v a l u e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among Home Ec o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s ? Between September 1978, when F o o d s t y l e s was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d , and December 1980, a t o t a l of 454 Home E c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t t e n d e d workshop s e s s i o n s d e s i g n e d t o i n t r o d u c e t h e program. No d a t a had been c o l l e c t e d on t h e e x t e n t t o which Home Ec o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s use t h e F o o d s t y l e s program, on t h e ways t h a t t h e y i n t e g r a t e t h e program i n t o t h e i r n u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s , nor on t h e r e a s o n s why t h e y use or do not use t h e i n n o v a t i o n . G i v e n the number of t e a c h e r s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n workshop s e s s i o n s and the l e n g t h o f time the program had been a v a i l a b l e , i t was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o a s s e s s t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among s e c o n d a r y Home Ec o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s . A f t e r t e a c h e r s a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o F o o d s t y l e s a t a workshop 1 4 t h e y may d e c i d e t o use t h e i n n o v a t i o n i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n . T e a c h e r s may i n c o r p o r a t e some, none, o r a l l , of t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n n o v a t i o n i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . The f i r s t s t e p , t h e r e f o r e , i n a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e was t o o b t a i n d a t a t o d e s c r i b e how F o o d s t y l e s was a c t u a l l y used i n n u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . The f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e , was: 1. How do t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? The F o o d s t y l e s workshop o u t l i n e s t h e F o o d s t y l e s program i t s o b j e c t i v e s , c o n c e p t s and a c t i v i t i e s . These components of t h e i n n o v a t i o n a r e a l l based on a r a t i o n a l e which e m p h a s i z e s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n as i t r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e i n t e r e s t s of s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The r a t i o n a l e a l s o s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s e l e c t i n g a s t y l e of t e a c h i n g which e n c o u r a g e s s t u d e n t s t o use n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n t o meet t h e i r own needs and s o l v e t h e i r own p r o b l e m s . One way t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e i s t o e s t i m a t e whether t e a c h e r s who use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s a dopt a s t y l e of t e a c h i n g , as r e f l e c t e d by t h e i r c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . The s e c o n d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e , was: 2. Do t e a c h e r s who use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s ? T h i s s t u d y a l s o a n a l y z e d f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e 1 5 t e a c h e r s t o use or not use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . F o ur c l u s t e r s o f f a c t o r s were i n v e s t i g a t e d - t h o s e r e l a t e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t e a c h e r s ; t h o s e r e l a t e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n n o v a t i o n ; t h o s e r e l a t e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e workshop; and t h o s e r e l a t e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The t h i r d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , was: 3. What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s ? E v a l u a t i o n s r e q u i r e t h a t d a t a be c o l l e c t e d and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d f o r a n a l y s i s and r e v i e w . T h i s s t e p , however, r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one p a r t of t h e t o t a l p r o c e s s . D a t a c o l l e c t e d and o r g a n i z e d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s of an e v a l u a t i o n must a l s o p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r making judgements about t h e worth of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . The f o u r t h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was: 4. In what ways i s F o o d s t y l e s of v a l u e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among Home Economics t e a c h e r s ? L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Stu d y I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o p e r a t e d w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s was l i m i t e d t o s e l f - r e p o r t t e c h n i q u e s . No o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e c l a s s r o o m use of t h e i n n o v a t i o n were u n d e r t a k e n . Second, the e v a l u a t i o n was l i m i t e d t o t h e F o o d s t y l e s program f o r s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s . A l t h o u g h an 1 6 a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program has been i n t r o d u c e d f o r s e c o n d a r y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , t h i s was not e v a l u a t e d . T h i r d , o n l y t h o s e t e a c h e r s who a t t e n d e d a F o o d s t y l e s workshop between September 1978 and December 1980 p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . T e a c h e r s who a t t e n d e d workshops d u r i n g t h e t r i a l p e r i o d b e f o r e September 1978, were not i n c l u d e d . F o u r t h , t h e s u r v e y was r e s t r i c t e d t o a p o p u l a t i o n o f Home Economics t e a c h e r s who, d u r i n g 1980-81, t a u g h t i n t h e s i x t y - t w o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a which a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s e v a l u a t i o n s t u d y . O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e Study T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e d t h e b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e p r o b l e m , th e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s c o n s t r a i n i n g t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r II r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e on e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e f i e l d of c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n . The t h i r d c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e d e s i g n of t h e s t u d y w h i l e C h a p t e r IV p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s and a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e major f i n d i n g s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a summary of the s t u d y w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations b a s e d on t h e major f i n d i n g s . A p p e n d i c e s c o n t a i n m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y and a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d i n t h o s e s e c t i o n s of t h e t e x t t o which t h e y a p p l y . 1 7 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE T h i s c h a p t e r reviews the e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s of s e l e c t e d n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y those developed f o r secondary s c h o o l s , and a l s o p r o v i d e s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of developments i n c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n . I s s u e s of concern among e v a l u a t i o n t h e o r i s t s are o u t l i n e d and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i o n are i d e n t i f i e d . F i n a l l y , a p r o c e s s of e v a l u a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d t h a t i s grounded i n the l i t e r a t u r e and r e c o g n i z e s the p a r t i c u l a r needs of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n of F o o d s t y l e s . E v a l u a t i o n P r a c t i c e s i n N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n The o b j e c t i v e of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n i s t o t r a n s m i t knowledge about n u t r i t i o n needs and the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e of foods t o i n d i v i d u a l s so they w i l l be m o t i v a t e d t o use t h i s knowledge t o s e l e c t food p a t t e r n s t h a t promote h e a l t h and w e l l -b e i n g . S i n c e "the s c h o o l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i t t i n g the c h i l d f o r s o c i e t y and h e l p i n g him be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i m s e l f and h i s h e a l t h " ( M a r t i n , 1954), the s c h o o l i s a l o g i c a l focus f o r n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . N u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the s c h o o l c o n t e x t i s o n l y one of the many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c h i l d r e n ' s d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s (Nestor & G l o t z e r , 1981). N e v e r t h e l e s s , s c h o o l n u t r i t i o n programs are important because they p r o v i d e a unique o p p o r t u n i t y to o f f e r a c c u r a t e n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n and a t the same time, to 18 i n f l u e n c e food a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r . But how e f f e c t i v e are n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs? Attempts t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n have v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y as c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of programs have changed. The success of many e a r l y n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs was determined by the change i n h e i g h t , weight or o t h e r a n t h r o p o m e t r i c measure of p a r t i c i p a t i n g c h i l d r e n . Whitehead (1957), f o r example, r e p o r t e d the work of R o b e r t s i n C h i c a g o a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c e n t u r y and E i c h e l b e r g e r i n Moberley, M i s s o u r i d u r i n g the 1920s. Both these n u t r i t i o n programs used r e d u c t i o n i n the number of underweight c h i l d r e n as the c r i t e r i o n f o r measuring s u c c e s s . In New J e r s e y d u r i n g the 1920s, "open window c l a s s e s " were conducted f o r c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e d to be s u s c e p t i b l e t o t u b e r c u l o s i s . The c h i l d r e n i n each c l a s s were g i v e n supplementary m i l k or cocoa, a d d i t i o n a l r e s t and p l e n t y of f r e s h a i r . In 1921, the New J e r s e y T u b e r c u l o s i s League i n t r o d u c e d a n u t r i t i o n c l a s s i n one of the p u b l i c s c h o o l s and measured the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program i n terms of g a i n s i n weight and improvements i n p h y s i c a l s t a t u s . The program was found t o be more s u c c e s s f u l than the "open window c l a s s e s " . As a r e s u l t , a Department of N u t r i t i o n w i t h i n the M e d i c a l D i v i s i o n of the Board of E d u c a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n New J e r s e y i n 1924 t o conduct n u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s and to c a r r y out h e i g h t and weight surveys of e n t i r e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s . One of the outcomes of t h i s program was t h a t i t s o r g a n i z e r s ... became c o n v i n c e d t h a t the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of 19 any g e n e r a t i o n i n a community c o u l d not be g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d through-the c o r r e c t i o n a l n u t r i t i o n c l a s s a l o n e , and t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r w eight, must be g i v e n an i n t e r e s t i n and a knowledge of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of n u t r i t i o n i f they are to use judgement and to make wise c h o i c e s f o r themselves (Whitehouse Conference on C h i l d H e a l t h & P r o t e c t i o n , 1932, c i t e d i n Whitehead, 1957, p. 884). Du r i n g the 1930s, the focus f o r o b j e c t i v e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n moved from merely d i s s e m i n a t i n g n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n toward improving d i e t a r y behaviour as w e l l . Van Horn (1941), f o r example, contended t h a t n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e o n l y when s t u d e n t s p r a c t i s e d the p r i n c i p l e s of good n u t r i t i o n . About t h i s time e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s began to use changes i n food h a b i t s as the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s c h o o l n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs. One of the e a r l i e s t of these s t u d i e s was reviewed by Whitehead (1973). She d e s c r i b e d the work of McLeod who, i n 1939, r e p o r t e d t h a t the food h a b i t s of 5,000 Tennessee h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s had improved c o n s i d e r a b l y a f t e r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs. Improvement i n food h a b i t s was determined by i n c r e a s e d consumption of m i l k , f r u i t , v e g e t a b l e s and whole g r a i n c e r e a l s . Improved food h a b i t s were a l s o used as the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the success of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n by Hatcher (1941). She showed t h a t n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n among s c h o o l c h i l d r e n was e f f e c t i v e when t e a c h e r s guided p u p i l s t o a n a l y z e t h e i r d i e t s , t o de c i d e how t o improve them and to check on t h e i r p r o g r e s s . However, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the d i e t s of p u p i l s when a l e c t u r e method of p r e s e n t i n g n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n 20 was used. S i n c e long-term improvement i n d i e t a r y b e h a v i o u r i s the u l t i m a t e g o a l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n , changes i n food h a b i t s or h e a l t h s t a t u s over a p e r i o d of time have a l s o been used as c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the success of n u t r i t i o n programs. One of the e a r l i e s t l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n v o l v i n g s c h o o l p u p i l s , p a r e n t s and h e a l t h workers was conducted from 1944-48 i n A s c e n s i o n P a r i s h , L o u i s i a n a (Whitehead, 1952). Seven-day food r e c o r d s were kept and e v a l u a t e d by p u p i l s under the guidance of t h e i r t e a c h e r s . Food h a b i t s were r a t e d as "good", " f a i r " or "poor" on a 14-point s c a l e . The i n i t i a l survey showed o n l y 1.6 p e r c e n t of the r e c o r d s were r a t e d as "good". A f t e r f o u r y e a r s of n u t r i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n , 25.4 p e r c e n t of the r e c o r d s were r a t e d as "good". Because of t h i s improvement i n food h a b i t s , the n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t at A s c e n s i o n was a s s e s s e d as e f f e c t i v e . Another e a r l y l o n g i t u d i n a l study was conducted at East York, O n t a r i o by Shaver, E l s e r , Mosley and McHendry (1948). They used a v a r i e t y of procedures i n t h e i r s c h o o l n u t r i t i o n program which were de s i g n e d to i n i t i a t e s p e c i f i c d i e t a r y changes i n t h e i r p u p i l s . The need f o r these d i e t a r y changes had been e s t a b l i s h e d by a h e a l t h survey conducted at the b e g i n n i n g of the st u d y . U s i n g improvement i n h e a l t h s t a t u s as the c r i t e r i o n f o r s u c c e s s , Shaver et a l . , c o ncluded t h a t at the end of the f i r s t y e a r , the program was e f f e c t i v e . T h i s improvement, however, was not m a i n t a i n e d and a f t e r two years some d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n h e a l t h s t a t u s among the p u p i l s was r e p o r t e d . 21 More re c e n t s t u d i e s have focused on changes i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s as the c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . In e v a l u a t i n g a 30-hour Food and N u t r i t i o n m i n i - c o u r s e i n t r o d u c e d i n Boston to Grades 11 and 12, P i c a r d i and P o r t e r (1976) used c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups to measure p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t changes i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s . I n c r e a s e s i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge were s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l groups when compared w i t h the c o n t r o l groups. The a u t h o r s , however, a s s e s s e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program as " d i s a p p o i n t i n g " because they found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e or behaviour change between the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups. An e v a l u a t i o n of a program i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r n u t r i t i o n f o r Grade 10 B i o l o g y s t u d e n t s was.conducted i n New J e r s e y by P o d e l l , K e l l e r , M u l v i h i l l , Berger and Kent (1978). , T h i s program was e v a l u a t e d f o r i t s e f f e c t on s t u d e n t s ' n u t r i t i o n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s toward d i e t a r y behaviour and serum l i p i d l e v e l s . The e f f e c t of each of these v a r i a b l e s was determined by matching student s c o r e s on p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s . The a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s toward l o w - c h o l e s t e r o l d i e t s , and r e p o r t e d e a t i n g p a t t e r n s . However, the r i s e i n serum c h o l e s t e r o l l e v e l s a f t e r one year was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the r i s e i n serum c h o l e s t e r o l l e v e l s of those s t u d e n t s who had not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of h i g h s c h o o l n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g Home Economics l e s s o n s i n Ohio was a s s e s s e d by Schwartz, 22 Dalrymple and V i v i a n (1974). The c r i t e r i a of e f f e c t i v e n e s s used i n t h i s study were n u t r i t i o n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s among women fo u r y e a r s a f t e r t h e i r g r a d u a t i o n from h i g h s c h o o l . An ex-post f a c t o d e s i g n was used which compared r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from those who had a t t e n d e d up to t h r e e y e a r s of Home Economics c l a s s e s w i t h those who had not taken any h i g h s c h o o l Home Economics. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the n u t r i t i o n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of the two groups. A f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of 'Body Weight as a H e a l t h Index : A M i n i c o u r s e i n N u t r i t i o n ' f o r Grade 11 and 12 S c i e n c e or B i o l o g y s t u d e n t s ( P a l g i , P a r i s e r , P o r t e r & Scrimshaw, 1976) used a p r e t e s t , p o s t t e s t d e s i g n t o a s s e s s g a i n s i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge. Other c r i t e r i a used as measures of suc c e s s were: assessments of studen t a t t i t u d e s t o the c o u r s e ; comments from a t r a i n e d c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v e r who monitored l e s s o n c o n t e n t , t e a c h i n g methods, and t e c h n i c a l problems e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g l a b o r a t o r y s e s s i o n s ; and an a n a l y s i s of s t u d e n t s ' home p r o j e c t s . T h i s 15-20 hour program was taught to 77 s t u d e n t s a t f i v e Boston h i g h s c h o o l s . I t was taught i n i t s o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n a t School 1, then r e v i s e d on the b a s i s of an e v a l u a t i o n conducted at t h a t s c h o o l . The r e v i s e d v e r s i o n was taught at S c h o o l s 2, 3 and 4, and the program was r e v i s e d a g a i n on the b a s i s of the e v a l u a t i o n s conducted a t these s c h o o l s . The program was taught i n i t s f i n a l form and then e v a l u a t e d a t School 5. T h i s program r e s u l t e d i n about a 23 per c e n t g a i n i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge when the s c o r e s on the p r e t e s t m a t e r i a l were between 30 and 60 pe r c e n t . The au t h o r s concluded t h a t t h i s program was an 23 i n t e r e s t i n g and s u c c e s s f u l method of t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n a t the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l . The i n t e n t of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review was t o i d e n t i f y an approach t o e v a l u a t i o n from n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n which was a p p l i c a b l e t o the e v a l u a t i o n of F o o d s t y l e s . Most of the e v a l u a t i o n s reviewed used e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group d e s i g n s w i t h or w i t h o u t p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s , w h i l e one used an ex-post f a c t o d e s i g n . An assumption u n d e r l y i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group d e s i g n i s t h a t a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l groups r e c e i v e the same t r e a t m e n t . T h i s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e r e f o r e , i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of an i n n o v a t i o n such as F o o d s t y l e s which i s i n t e n d e d t o be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n whatever manner and t o whatever e x t e n t i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r a p p r o p r i a t e . S i m i l a r l y , the ex-post f a c t o d e s i g n assumes t h a t the groups s t u d i e d which have been exposed t o the treatment under st u d y , have been s i m i l a r l y exposed to t h a t t r e a t m e n t . T h i s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e r e f o r e , i s a l s o u n s u i t a b l e f o r an e v a l u a t i o n of F o o d s t y l e s . A s e a r c h of the l i t e r a t u r e of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n f a i l e d t o r e v e a l a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n t h a t acknowledged the e v a l u a t i o n of an i n n o v a t i o n i n t e n d e d t o be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a p r o v i n c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m . The l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h from t h i s p o i n t onwards, t h e r e f o r e , f o c u s e d on the wider f i e l d of c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n . 24 Developments i n C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n Expansion i n c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n i s a r e c e n t phenomenon t h a t i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m development of the e a r l y 1960s. D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , many new programs were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o elementary and secondary s c h o o l s i n an attempt t o improve the q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y , most of the new programs were s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s igned t o r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l a . Implementation of these replacement programs proved t o be e x t r e m e l y c o s t l y , so t h a t by the 1970s, emphasis i n c u r r i c u l u m development had moved toward i n n o v a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o supplement, e x t e n d , or e n r i c h e x i s t i n g programs. Concurrent w i t h t h i s expansion i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n n o v a t i v e programs, the need to a s s e s s t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s was r e c o g n i z e d . E d u c a t o r s , p o l i c y makers, and a wide spectrum of the p u b l i c began to demand evidence c o n c e r n i n g the su c c e s s of i n n o v a t i o n s t o j u s t i f y the l a r g e sums i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r development and im p l e m e n t a t i o n . Many d e c i s i o n s had t o be made about the c o n t i n u a t i o n , t e r m i n a t i o n , or m o d i f i c a t i o n of these programs. E v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , t h e r e f o r e , grew out of the need to make d e c i s i o n s about the f u t u r e of i n n o v a t i o n s . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d no common view c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e or purposes of c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n . P a r l e t t and H a m i l t o n expressed concern about t h i s l a c k of consensus i n a d i s c u s s i o n of approaches to e v a l u a t i o n . They s t a t e d t h a t : As a new f i e l d , program e v a l u a t i o n has encountered a wide range of problems, both t h e o r e t i c a l and 25 m e t h o d o l o g i c a l ... Co n f u s i o n i s engendered as r i v a l p r o p o s a l s , models and t e r m i n o l o g i e s a r e v o i c e d and then r a p i d l y c o u n t e r e d . As a d e v e l o p i n g f i e l d of study, e v a l u a t i o n proceeds i n the absence of coherent or agreed frames of r e f e r e n c e ( P a r l e t t & H a m i l t o n , 1977, p. 6 ) . Numerous t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s pervade the l i t e r a t u r e on c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n . D i f f e r i n g v i e w p o i n t s have been ex p r e s s e d about the g o a l s and r o l e s of e v a l u a t i o n ; the nat u r e and purposes of e v a l u a t i o n ; the c r i t e r i a used f o r j u d g i n g the worth of programs; and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those who make the judgements. S i n c e these i s s u e s a r e a l l r e l e v a n t t o the e v a l u a t i o n of the impact of F o o d s t y l e s , each i s d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . The Goals and Roles of E v a l u a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n i s a pr o c e s s of r e n d e r i n g a d e c i s i o n about the v a l u e or worth of a c u r r i c u l u m . The fundamental g o a l of e v a l u a t i o n i s t o make judgements about e f f o r t s t o d e v e l o p i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s . While the ta s k of e v a l u a t i o n has always been t o render a judgement, e v a l u a t i o n may perform a v a r i e t y of r o l e s w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g ( S c r i v e n , 1967). E v a l u a t i o n may be, f o r example, a component of c u r r i c u l u m development, p a r t of the p i l o t t e s t i n g of a program, p a r t of a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y , a component of reso u r c e s e l e c t i o n , or the b a s i s f o r d e c i d i n g the f u t u r e of a program. S c r i v e n (1967) d i s t i n g u i s h e d the r o l e s of e v a l u a t i o n as 26 either formative or summative. Formative evaluation is part of the process of curriculum development and provides feedback to program developers or teachers about the strengths and weaknesses of a program. Formative information i s intended to assist developers improve the program. Summative evaluation permits educators or education administrators to decide whether they w i l l implement, fund, continue or discontinue a program. The role that evaluation is to f u l f i l l , either formative or summative, determines the strategies for conducting an evaluation - the questions asked, the methods used, the data collected and the ways the results are interpreted. The Nature of Evaluation A search of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed d i f f e r i n g perspectives on the nature of evaluation. Most are derived from Tyler's (1949) seminal analysis of the evaluation process. This review, although b r i e f , presents Tyler's o r i g i n a l analysis together with five alternate perspectives which form the foundations for the conceptual development of evaluation. The following authors, while not exhaustive of the f i e l d , were selected to i l l u s t r a t e the major perspectives in evaluation. Tyler (1949), contended that an evaluation should determine the extent to which defined program objectives have been achieved as a result of instruction. Since educational objectives aim to "produce certain desirable changes in behaviour patterns of the student, then evaluation is the process for determining the degree to which these changes in 27 behaviour are a c t u a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e " ( T y l e r , 1949, p. 105). T h i s g o a l - b a s e d T y l e r i a n approach t o e v a l u a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r two reasons (Hamilton e t a l . , 1977, p. 25). F i r s t , i t had an immense impact on c u r r i c u l u m development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n N o r t h America d u r i n g the 1960s, w i t h the r i s e i n demands f o r evidence of the e x t e n t t o which s t u d e n t s , exposed t o an i n n o v a t i o n a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d i t s s t a t e d l e a r n i n g outcomes. Second, a l t e r n a t e approaches to e v a l u a t i o n have e v o l v e d i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the shortcomings of the T y l e r i a n r a t i o n a l e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h many of the d i v e r s e r o l e s e v a l u a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g l y e x p e c t ed t o f u l f i l l . An a l t e r n a t e approach t o e v a l u a t i o n , o u t l i n e d by S c r i v e n (1967), contended t h a t the fundamental purpose of e v a l u a t i o n i s t o judge the worth of a c u r r i c u l u m . I f a judgement i s not e f f e c t e d , e v a l u a t i o n has not o c c u r r e d . But, u n l i k e T y l e r , S c r i v e n argued t h a t t h i s judgement s h o u l d not be based s o l e l y on the achievement of the s t a t e d program o b j e c t i v e s and t h a t r e p o r t i n g achievements i s o n l y a d e s c r i p t i o n , not a judgement. Furthermore, he contended t h a t even though a l l the o b j e c t i v e s may be a t t a i n e d , t h e r e can be s i d e e f f e c t s t h a t can enhance or l e s s e n the v a l u e of a program. S c r i v e n t h e r e f o r e , d eveloped the n o t i o n of g o a l - f r e e e v a l u a t i o n which uses s t a n d a r d s e x t e r n a l t o the program t h a t w i l l c o n s i d e r a l l e f f e c t s . Over the y e a r s , Robert Stake has developed an approach to e v a l u a t i o n t h a t emphasizes a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m , program or i n n o v a t i o n as i t i s used i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . The d e s c r i p t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l component 28 i n making d e c i s i o n s about the worth of a program. I n i t i a l l y Stake (1967) b e l i e v e d t h a t an e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l the congruence between the e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l environment, the i n t e n d e d outcomes of the i n n o v a t i o n and the observed outcomes so t h a t judgements c o u l d be made about the worth of the i n n o v a t i o n . To-day, Stake (1972, 1978) i d e n t i f i e s two e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an e v a l u a t i o n : a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the program or i n n o v a t i o n as i t o p e r a t e s w i t h i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , and a judgement about the worth of the program rendered by e d u c a t o r s and not by the e v a l u a t o r . Another approach t o e v a l u a t i o n was proposed by S t u f f l e b e a m (1971). He argued t h a t the purpose of e v a l u a t i o n i s t o d e l i n e a t e areas of concern about a program, and t o c o l l e c t and o r g a n i z e d a t a r e l e v a n t t o those concerns so t h a t judgements can be made about.the program. The judgement does not form p a r t of the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s but occurs subsequent t o the e v a l u a t i o n . In d e v e l o p i n g t h i s approach, S t u f f l e b e a m (1967) o u t l i n e d a model t h a t focused on fo u r components of the i n n o v a t i o n : i t s C o n t e x t , I n p u t , P r o c e s s and P r o d u c t . The model d e f i n e s the c o n t e x t of the e d u c a t i o n a l environment i n which the i n n o v a t i o n i s used; a s s e s s e s the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the i n n o v a t i o n ; o u t l i n e s the s t r a t e g i e s by which i t was implemented; and measures the l e a r n i n g outcomes of the i n n o v a t i o n a g a i n s t p r e - d e t e r m i n e d s t a n d a r d s . The purpose of t h i s p r o c e s s of e v a l u a t i o n i s t o s e l e c t , c o l l e c t and o r g a n i z e data t o f a c i l i t a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by o t h e r s about the f u t u r e of an i n n o v a t i o n . The approaches t o e v a l u a t i o n so f a r o u t l i n e d , r e l y h e a v i l y 29 on the g o a l - b a s e d model which judges the v a l u e of a program i n terms of the achievement of i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . R e c e n t l y however, a number of w r i t e r s i n the f i e l d of e v a l u a t i o n have exp r e s s e d concern about the adequacy of the g o a l - b a s e d model. P a r l e t t and H a m i l t o n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , have argued t h a t i t i s founded on the assumption t h a t an e v a l u a t o r can c o n t r o l f o r the many v a r i a b l e s which may i n f l u e n c e the a t t a i n m e n t of i n t e n d e d o b j e c t i v e s . Y e t , such c o n t r o l , they b e l i e v e , i s seldom p o s s i b l e or e t h i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e i n the e v a l u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n programs because of the complex n a t u r e of the e d u c a t i o n a l environment. Furthermore, attempts t o c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s d i s t o r t t h i s environment so much t h a t an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s may have l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . In h i s more re c e n t w r i t i n g s , Stake (1972, 1978), has c r i t i c i z e d the g o a l - b a s e d model. He argued t h a t e v a l u a t i o n must encompass an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the complex i n t e r a c t i o n s which occur w i t h i n the l e a r n i n g environment. T h i s c o m p l e x i t y can best be understood by examining the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t to d e v e l o p a comprehensive p o r t r a y a l of the program as i t o p e r a t e s i n p r a c t i c e . F o c u s i n g on o n l y one or s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s and measuring e f f e c t s i n terms of the achievement of s t a t e d program o b j e c t i v e s , produces an i n t e n s i v e , o v e r s i m p l i f i e d , m i c r o s c o p i c d e s c r i p t i o n . I t i s u n l i k e l y such a model would promote a comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a program. Stake (1976) was a l s o c r i t i c a l of g o a l - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n s because o f t e n they do not c o n s i d e r how audiences p e r c e i v e the r e s u l t s of e v a l u a t i o n s . He contended t h a t one way t o i n c r e a s e 30 the u s e f u l n e s s of e v a l u a t i o n s i s t o ensure t h a t they r e f l e c t the concerns of those i n v o l v e d w i t h the program. Stake named e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s type " r e s p o n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n " i f ... i t o r i e n t s more d i r e c t l y t o program a c t i v i t i e s than t o program i n t e n t s ; i f i t responds t o audience req u i r e m e n t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ; and i f the d i f f e r e n t v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s p r e s e n t a re r e f e r r e d t o i n r e p o r t i n g the success and f a i l u r e of the program (S t a k e , 1976, p. 116). To conduct r e s p o n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n , e v a l u a t o r s must i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c needs and concerns of program d e v e l o p e r s , sponsors and u s e r s . T h i s i s a c h i e v e d through i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n s and n e g o t i a t i o n s . The i s s u e s , problems and p o t e n t i a l problems i d e n t i f i e d form the framework f o r the d a t a - g a t h e r i n g p l a n and the e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . Stake and E a s l e y (1978), a p p l i e d t h i s n o t i o n of r e s p o n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n t o t h e i r Case S t u d i e s i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n which were conducted f o r the N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . E a r l y i n the p l a n n i n g of these s t u d i e s , a t t e m p t s were made " t o i d e n t i f y and understand major i s s u e s as they were p e r c e i v e d i n the f i e l d by t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and c u r r i c u l u m s u p e r v i s o r s . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s were sought and r e c o r d e d by i n t e n s i v e u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s as w e l l as by s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s " (Stake & E a s l e y , 1978, p. C:7). Data f o r t h i s e v a l u a t i o n were c o l l e c t e d by means of c a s e -s t u d i e s . The a u t h o r s b e l i e v e d t h i s method of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was v a l i d because " i t g i v e s an a c c u r a t e and u s e f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the case i n a c e r t a i n s e t t i n g - w i t h r e f e r e n c e 31 to c e r t a i n r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s " (Stake & E a s l e y , 1978, p. C:28). In 1972, a co n f e r e n c e h e l d i n Cambridge, England h i g h l i g h t e d many of the concerns about the use of the goa l - b a s e d model of e v a l u a t i o n and e x p l o r e d n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l modes of e v a l u a t i o n (Hamilton et a l . , 1977). P a r t i c i p a n t s q u e s t i o n e d the v a l u e of the goa l - b a s e d approach because i t has o f t e n f a i l e d t o meet the needs of those who seek e v i d e n c e about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n n o v a t i o n s . They suggested t h r e e reasons f o r t h i s f a i l u r e . F i r s t , g o a l - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n s pay t o o l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n which i n n o v a t i o n s a r e used. Second, they overemphasize the importance of measurable st u d e n t outcomes and t h i r d , many do not answer the p r a c t i c a l concerns and problems of those a c t u a l l y u s i n g the i n n o v a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of the c o n f e r e n c e , p a r t i c i p a n t s recommended t h a t f u t u r e e v a l u a t i o n s of i n n o v a t i o n s s h o u l d be " r e s p o n s i v e t o the needs and p e r s p e c t i v e s of d i f f e r i n g a u d i ences and i l l u m i n a t i v e of the complex o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s a t i s s u e " (Hamilton et a l , 1977, p. v i i ) . In a d d i t i o n , P a r l e t t and Hamilton (1977) developed an " i l l u m i n a t i v e " approach to e v a l u a t i o n which seeks t o study an i n n o v a t i o n through i t s use i n the c l a s s r o o m . I l l u m i n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i s not a p r e s c r i b e d methodology, but r a t h e r an approach to e v a l u a t i o n which o u t l i n e s a set of broad g u i d e l i n e s t h a t a l l o w f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n a p p l i c a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , i t r e l i e s on r e s e a r c h methods such as o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t e s t s , combined w i t h documentary and background s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e the i n n o v a t i o n . 32 No attempt i s made to c o n t r o l f o r the e f f e c t of v a r i a b l e s such as d i f f e r e n c e s among t e a c h e r s , or the p r o p o r t i o n of time a s s i g n e d t o the program. Emphasis i s p l a c e d on u n d e r s t a n d i n g the nature of the p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e by d e s c r i b i n g the use of the i n n o v a t i o n i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o j u d g i n g i t s v a l u e . Apple (1974) a s s e r t e d t h a t many e v a l u a t i o n s i n the past have p r o v i d e d o n l y a p a r t i a l view of the worth of programs because they have r e c o g n i z e d o n l y one p e r s p e c t i v e f o r a s s e s s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l endeavours. He b e l i e v e s t h a t e v a l u a t i o n i s a pr o c e s s of a s s i g n i n g v a l u e t o v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and f u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t t h i s a s s i g n i n g of v a l u e i m p l i e s a c h o i c e among a number of v a l u e systems. S i n c e the v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s can be viewed from s e v e r a l p o i n t s of view, a c r i t i c a l i s s u e i s the v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e from which an e v a l u a t i o n i s conducted. A v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e i s d e f i n e d as a s e t of v a l u e s which i n f l u e n c e the judgement of worth which i s a t t r i b u t e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . House (1979) suggested t h e r e a re t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t dominate the e v a l u a t i o n of i n n o v a t i o n s : the t e c h n o l o g i c a l , the p o l i t i c a l and the c u l t u r a l . Each p e r s p e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s the s p e c i f i c concerns and q u e s t i o n s of the e v a l u a t i o n . A t e c h n o l o g i c a l approach seeks answers t o q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , components and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n n o v a t i o n i t s e l f . A p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e focuses on q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o c o n f l i c t s between i n t e r e s t groups a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n n o v a t i o n 33 f o r example, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l b o a r d s , and t h e ways t h a t t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s i n f l u e n c e t h e s u c c e s s of p rograms. A c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e c e n t r e s on q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w orth of t h e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l changes t h a t o c c u r as an i n n o v a t i o n i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o i t s e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , d i f f e r i n g v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the worth of i n n o v a t i o n s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s p o n s o r s , e v a l u a t o r s and a u d i e n c e s r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s o p e r a t i n g i n any e v a l u a t i o n so t h a t e f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s between t h e s e g r o u p s can o c c u r . W i t h o u t s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n , g r o s s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s , may o c c u r . C r i t e r i a f o r J u d g i n g t h e V a l u e of I n n o v a t i o n s Most e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1960s, have u s e d s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t of s t a t e d l e a r n i n g outcomes as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r m e a s u r i n g s u c c e s s . In g e n e r a l , t h e s e s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d on m a s t e r y of s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o j u d g e t h e w orth of p r ograms. A l t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y easy t o c o n d u c t , s u c h s t u d i e s do not acknowledge t h e p r o b l e m s of e s t a b l i s h i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s u c c e s s of a l l i n n o v a t i o n s . One a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a l t e r n a t e c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g t h e v a l u e of i n n o v a t i o n s was t h e c o m p a r a t i v e a p p r o a c h of Walker and S c h a f f a r z i c k ( 1 9 7 4 ) . These a u t h o r s r e v i e w e d t w e n t y - t h r e e s t u d i e s d e s i g n e d t o compare the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a c h i e v e m e n t of s t u d e n t s e x p o s e d t o i n n o v a t i v e c u r r i c u l a w i t h t h o s e e x p o s e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a . The c r i t e r i o n measure u s e d i n each s t u d y 34 was a paper and p e n c i l t e s t of s u b j e c t matter a d m i n i s t e r e d immediately a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of the program. A n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n n o v a t i v e c u r r i c u l a almost always l e d t o h i g h e r achievement sc o r e s on t e s t s whose c o n t e n t resembled t h a t of the i n n o v a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m , w h i l e t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a g e n e r a l l y l e d t o h i g h e r s c o r e s on t e s t s whose c o n t e n t resembled t h a t of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m . These c o n c l u s i o n s serve as a c a u t i o n f o r e v a l u a t o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g comparison as a c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n n o v a t i o n s . I t appears t h a t c u r r i c u l a tend t o a c h i e v e t h e i r c o n t e n t - m a t t e r o b j e c t i v e s whether they are t r a d i t i o n a l or i n n o v a t i v e . F o c u s i n g s o l e l y on achievement of o b j e c t i v e s may o n l y p r o v i d e a very l i m i t e d view of the v a l u e of an i n n o v a t i o n . H a m ilton (1973) warned of another problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u s i n g achievement of s t a t e d program o b j e c t i v e s as the s o l e c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g the worth of an i n n o v a t i o n . The f i r s t s t e p i n the c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of an i n n o v a t i o n u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a d i s c u s s i o n of the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s or g o a l s . Next, an a n a l y s i s i s undertaken to determine the e x t e n t t o which these o b j e c t i v e s were a c h i e v e d i n the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t s i n d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t about the m e r i t s of the i n n o v a t i o n because of the i n e v i t a b l e gap between a n t i c i p a t e d and a c t u a l outcomes. T h i s gap o c c u r s because of d i f f e r e n c e s between the use of the i n n o v a t i o n as i n t e n d e d by d e v e l o p e r s and i t s a c t u a l use i n the c l a s s r o o m . In an attempt t o overcome t h i s problem, H a m i l t o n suggested 35 an a l t e r n a t e approach which employs use of the i n n o v a t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m as the c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g i t s worth. T h i s approach begins w i t h a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n n o v a t i o n as i t i s implemented day by day, and then judges the v a l u e of the i n n o v a t i o n on the b a s i s of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . Implementation has been d e f i n e d as " ... the a c t u a l use or the p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e of a p a r t i c u l a r change" ( F u l l a n , 1979, p. 40). He contended t h a t implementation s h o u l d be viewed i n t h i s way because t e a c h e r s do not always use i n n o v a t i o n s e x a c t l y as d e v e l o p e r s i n t e n d e d . In p r a c t i c e , wide v a r i a t i o n s occur i n the use of an i n n o v a t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m , p a r t i c u l a r l y where the i n n o v a t i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m . F o c u s i n g on the use of an i n n o v a t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g a program c r e a t e s a problem of d e f i n i t i o n . How much of an i n n o v a t i o n , d e s i g n e d to complement an e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m , must be implemented b e f o r e one can say t h a t the i n n o v a t i o n i s b e i n g used? In what ways i s the i n n o v a t i o n used i n the classroom? Do a l l t e a c h e r s use the i n n o v a t i o n i n the same way and w i t h the same i n t e n t s ? The d i v e r s e responses to such q u e s t i o n s emphasize the problems f a c i n g those who attempt to e v a l u a t e an i n n o v a t i o n i n terms of i t s use. F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) suggested i t i s b e n e f i c i a l t o view i n n o v a t i o n s w i t h i n a c o n t e x t of "mutual a d a p t a t i o n " . They assume t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s modify the l e a r n i n g environment t o accommodate the i n n o v a t i o n and t h a t the i n n o v a t i o n i s adapted t o s u i t the p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g 36 environment within which i t is used. Under such conditions of mutual adaptation,, an essential step in the evaluation of an innovation is the description of how the innovation is used in the classroom. H a l l , Loucks, Rutherford and Newlove (1977), suggested that most teachers pass through several developmental stages in the use of an innovation. These stages range from non-use, when teachers have knowledge about the innovation but do not use i t ; through planning to use; exploratory use, where teachers modify the innovation to suit personal teaching styles; refined use, where teachers modify the innovation to meet the needs of their students; to seeking a replacement for the innovation. Hall et a l . , therefore, contend that an evaluation must determine how an innovation is actually used in the classroom. The successful implementation of an innovation is a complex process because so many factors impinge upon teachers' decisions to use new programs in the classroom. Fullan and Pomfret (1977), l i s t e d four groups of factors that may influence implementation: characteristics of the innovation; characteristics of the adopting unit; methods used to introduce the innovation; and characteristics of the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l system in which the adopting unit is located. McLaughlin and Marsh (1978), in a four year study i n i t i a t e d by the Rand Corporation, examined federally funded programs designed to introduce and spread innovations in United States schools. They id e n t i f i e d four clusters of factors which influence implementation. These were factors related to: i n s t i t u t i o n a l 37 m o t i v a t i o n ; s t r a t e g i e s f o r implementing the i n n o v a t i o n ; i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i n promoting the i n n o v a t i o n ; and te a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , a b i l i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e . In a study of im p l e m e n t a t i o n , Doyle and Ponder (1978) suggested t h a t t e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s t o use an i n n o v a t i o n a r e based on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of i t s " p r a c t i c a l i t y " . To be p r a c t i c a l , an i n n o v a t i o n must be s t a t e d i n c o n c r e t e and c l e a r terms ( i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y ) ; i t must be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the t e a c h i n g c o n t e x t i n which i t w i l l be used (congruence); and the change i n v o l v e d i n implementing i t must be p e r c e i v e d by the te a c h e r as wo r t h w h i l e ( c o s t ) . Doyle and Ponder suggest t h a t t e a c h e r s a re more l i k e l y t o implement an i n n o v a t i o n when they p e r c e i v e i t t o be " p r a c t i c a l " . Who Should Judge the Value of an I n n o v a t i o n Another i s s u e which permeates e v a l u a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i s who sh o u l d judge the v a l u e of an i n n o v a t i o n . Answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y among e d u c a t o r s i n the f i e l d of e v a l u a t i o n . S t u f f l e b e a m , f o r example, d e f i n e d e v a l u a t i o n as "...the p r o c e s s of d e l i n e a t i n g , o b t a i n i n g , and p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r j u d g i n g d e c i s i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s " ( S t u f f l e b e a m , 1971, p. 40). He contended t h a t the task of the e v a l u a t o r i s t o o r g a n i z e d a t a so t h a t d e c i s i o n makers oth e r than the e v a l u a t o r can make judgements about the worth of programs. For S t u f f l e b e a m , the a c t of j u d g i n g i s not a p a r t of h i s e v a l u a t i o n 38 p r o c e s s . S c r i v e n (1967), however, adopted a very d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of view. He s t r e s s e d t h a t e v a l u a t i o n has o n l y one f u n c t i o n a l g o a l i n e d u c a t i o n - t o judge the worth of a program, c u r r i c u l u m or i n n o v a t i o n . No study can be l a b e l l e d an e v a l u a t i o n u n l e s s the a c t of judgement i s performed. F u r t h e r m o r e , e v a l u a t o r s themselves s h o u l d make the judgements. S c r i v e n argues t h a t e v a l u a t o r s who do not c a r r y out t h i s judgemental t a s k , have f a i l e d t o f u l f i l l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Yet, many e d u c a t o r s i n the f i e l d of c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n who b e l i e v e t h a t judgement s h o u l d be an i n t e g r a l component of e v a l u a t i o n , a r e concerned about t h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t e v a l u a t o r s render judgements. Stake (1967), f o r example, acknowledged t h a t e v a l u a t o r s , because of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and d e t a i l e d knowledge of the program be i n g s t u d i e d , a re a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y q u a l i f i e d t o judge. However, he q u e s t i o n e d the wisdom of t h i s p r o c e d u r e . I f e v a l u a t o r s a re i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p a s s i n g of judgements, t h e i r a c c e s s to data c o n c e r n i n g programs may d i m i n i s h g r e a t l y s i n c e many ed u c a t o r s and t e a c h e r s view the a c t i v i t i e s of an e v a l u a t i o n as t h r e a t e n i n g . He suggested t h a t t h i s dilemma may be s o l v e d i f e v a l u a t o r s seek out and r e c o r d the o p i n i o n s and judgements of persons w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r t i s e who are independent of the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , Stake contended t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o c e s s i n g judgements i s more a c c e p t a b l e t o most e v a l u a t o r s than the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e n d e r i n g judgements. 3 9 The use of independent c o n s u l t a n t s i n the judgemental p r o c e s s was a l s o d i s c u s s e d by T a y l o r and Maguire ( 1 9 6 6 ) . They i d e n t i f i e d f i v e groups who can p l a y important r o l e s i n j u d g i n g the worth of e d u c a t i o n : t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , s u b j e c t matter e x p e r t s , s t u d e n t s , and spokesmen f o r s o c i e t y . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l or some of these groups c o u l d compose p a n e l s of e x p e r t s who render the judgements i n e v a l u a t i o n s . A P r o c e s s f o r the E v a l u a t i o n of F o o d s t y l e s A f t e r r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e , i t became apparent t h a t no s i n g l e approach t o e v a l u a t i o n addressed the s p e c i f i c needs of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n s t u d y . I t was necessary t h e r e f o r e t o d e v i s e an approach t o e v a l u a t i o n which was grounded i n the l i t e r a t u r e but which r e c o g n i z e d the s p e c i f i c n a t u r e of F o o d s t y l e s and the c o n t e x t i n which i t i s used. The c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s approach were t h a t the p r o c e s s acknowledged t h a t F o o d s t y l e s was developed t o complement an e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m ; r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the i n n o v a t i o n c o u l d be used i n a v a r i e t y of ways i n the c l a s s r o o m ; used a c r i t e r i o n of e v a l u a t i o n e x t e r n a l t o both the F o o d s t y l e s program and the Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m ; and p e r m i t t e d a judgement t o be made of the impact of the i n n o v a t i o n on n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among secondary Home Economics t e a c h e r s . The e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s s e l e c t e d c o n s i s t e d of f i v e c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e components: ( 1 ) d e f i n i n g the i s s u e s , ( 2 ) e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g the worth of the i n n o v a t i o n , ( 3 ) c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y z i n g d a t a , ( 4 ) o r g a n i z i n g r e s u l t s t o 40 provide a d e s c r i p t i o n of patterns of use of the innovation, and (5) judging the value of the innovation i n terms of i t s impact on the n u t r i t i o n education p r a c t i c e s of secondary Home Economics j - •»-teachers. Defining the issues i n i t i a t e s the evaluation process by i d e n t i f y i n g the concerns of users and developers. These concerns form the basis for generating the guiding questions of the evaluation and for developing a framework for a l l the ensuing eva l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . This p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s leads to the second component of the process - the formal d e f i n i t i o n of the c r i t e r i a against which the innovation w i l l be judged. These c r i t e r i a , while defined by the evaluator, must r e f l e c t the concerns of the users and the developers and acknowledge a s p e c i f i c educational context. The f i r s t two components in t h i s e valuation process provide the g u i d e l i n e s for the t h i r d a c t i v i t y - data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . I t i s c r i t i c a l that the data c o l l e c t e d c o n t r i b u t e s toward the purposes of the e v a l u a t i o n . The data must be the source of evidence on which the judgements w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be based. Results of the data a n a l y s i s , however, cannot be used in t h e i r raw s t a t e . This leads, then, to a fourth component i n the evaluation process i n which the r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s are organized w i t h i n the guiding framework already e s t a b l i s h e d . The organization of data must r e l a t e both to the guiding questions and to the c r i t e r i a to be used i n judging the value of the 41 i n n o v a t i o n . The f i f t h and f i n a l component of the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s i s the a c t of j u d g i n g . T h i s s t e p i s performed by a pa n e l of e x p e r t s whose r o l e i s to asses s the v a l u e of the i n n o v a t i o n by comparing the d e s c r i p t i v e r e s u l t s o r g a n i z e d i n the f o u r t h component w i t h the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d i n the second component. The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l how the above components i n the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s were conducted i n t h i s study of F o o d s t y l e s . 42 CHAPTER I I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY The f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s an overview of an e v a l u a t i v e study t h a t was conducted u s i n g survey r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s t o a s s e s s the v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among Home Economics t e a c h e r s . The next s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e the p o p u l a t i o n and sample i n the study and o u t l i n e the i n s t r u m e n t s developed. T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o p r e s e n t s the p r ocedures used i n the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of da t a r e l a t i n g t o the f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Research Design The d e s i g n of the study was based on an e v a l u a t i v e approach developed from the review of l i t e r a t u r e on program e v a l u a t i o n . I t i n v o l v e d f i v e major s t e p s : (1) i d e n t i f y i n g c e n t r a l i s s u e s u n d e r l y i n g the e v a l u a t i o n and g e n e r a t i n g the g u i d i n g q u e s t i o n s ; (2) e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g the v a l u e of the i n n o v a t i o n ; (3) c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y z i n g d a t a ; (4) o r g a n i z i n g r e s u l t s t o prepare a d e s c r i p t i o n of tea c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s ; and (5) j u d g i n g the v a l u e of the i n n o v a t i o n i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . An o u t l i n e of the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i s pr e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1. The f i r s t s t e p i n the study i d e n t i f i e d the main a r e a s of concern about the i n n o v a t i o n t o p r o v i d e a f o c u s f o r g e n e r a t i n g the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Three area s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n were 43 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Concerns about  Foodsty1es among program d e v e l o p e r s workshop l e a d e r s and t e a c h e r s to determine the C e n t r a l Issues of the E v a l u a t i o n . G e n e r a t i o n of Research Qu e s t i o n s and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g the v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n P r a c t i c e . Data C o l l e c t i o n by means of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to e s t i m a t e t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s and f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r use of the i n n o v a t i o n . Data C o l l e c t i o n by means of i n t e r v i e w s to d e s c r i b e teacher use of F o o d s t y l e s and f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r use Of the i n n o v a t i o n . • • A n a l y s i s of Data by s t a t i s t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e methods to p r o v i d e a framework f o r d e v e l o p i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s . P r e p a r a t i o n of " P r o f i l e s of Teacher Use  of F o o d s t y l e s " i n N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e u s i n g data from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s . Judgement by a Panel of Experts of the v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s in N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e u s i n g the P r o f i l e s of Teacher Use as a b a s i s f o r judgement. F i g u r e 1. An E v a l u a t i o n Approach Adapted to F o o d s t y l e s 44 undertaken. F i r s t , a F o o d s t y l e s workshop was obs e r v e d . Second, i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h program d e v e l o p e r s , workshop l e a d e r s and t e a c h e r s . T h i r d , documents r e l a t i n g t o F o o d s t y l e s were examined. These i n c l u d e d the F o o d s t y l e s manual; " G u i d e l i n e s f o r Con d u c t i n g F o o d s t y l e s Workshops" p r e p a r e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n ; and t e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s of workshops. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t program d e v e l o p e r s and workshop l e a d e r s were concerned w i t h the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Do t e a c h e r s use the F o o d s t y l e s program? How do they use i t ? What i n f l u e n c e s them t o use i t ? I s the i n n o v a t i o n w o r t h w h i l e ? Teachers, on the o t h e r hand, were concerned w i t h the q u e s t i o n : How can F o o d s t y l e s be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? These i s s u e s formed the b a s i s f o r g e n e r a t i n g the f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. How do t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? 2. Do t e a c h e r s who use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s ? 3. What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? 4. In what ways i s F o o d s t y l e s of v a l u e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among Home Economics t e a c h e r s ? These r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s focus on the use of F o o d s t y l e s by 45 t e a c h e r s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . Use of t h e i n n o v a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was i d e n t i f i e d as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . The n e x t s t e p i n t h e s t u d y was t h e c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Two methods of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were u s e d . F i r s t , a s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d by means of a s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Second, i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d w i t h a sample of q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d t h e y were w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o c u s e d on t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s and t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e program, t h e workshop and f a c t o r s i n the s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t which i n f l u e n c e d use of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . The two d ependent v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s t u d y were: (1) t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s as measured by t h e e x t e n t o f use of t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e program; and (2) t e a c h e r a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e as r e f l e c t e d by c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t r a t i o n a l e . T welve i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . N i n e were demographic v a r i a b l e s and t h r e e were n o n - d e m o g r a p h i c . The demographic i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were: (1) y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; (2) y e a r s of t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n ; (3) c o u r s e s t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81; (4) l e v e l of Foods and N u t r i t i o n t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81; (5) s i z e of s c h o o l ; (6) number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s i n d e g r e e or d i p l o m a ; (7) number of u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n ; (8) s t a t u s when a t t e n d i n g a F o o d s t y l e s workshop, (9) r e c e i p t o r n o n - r e c e i p t of the F o o d s t y l e s n e w s l e t t e r , "In T o u c h " . The t h r e e non-4 6 demographic independent v a r i a b l e s were: (1) t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e toward the F o o d s t y l e s program; (2) t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e toward the F o o d s t y l e s workshop; and (3) teacher a t t i t u d e toward f a c t o r s i n the s c h o o l environment which i n f l u e n c e d use of F o o d s t y l e s . The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s was t o d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l the ways t h a t s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . I n t e r v i e w s a l s o e x p l o r e d t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward the F o o d s t y l e s program and the reasons why t e a c h e r s use or do not use the i n n o v a t i o n . The next s t e p i n the study was the a n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s . S t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s were used t o a n a l y z e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e data w h i l e the i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d t o p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s about t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s . The r e s u l t s of the review of d a t a from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the i n t e r v i e w s were used t o prepare t h r e e " P r o f i l e s of Teacher Use of F o o d s t y l e s " . The f i n a l s t e p i n the e v a l u a t i o n study i n v o l v e d a p r o c e s s of group judgement. A pan e l of e i g h t j u d g e s , a l l e x p e r t s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n , a s s e s s e d the v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among secondary Home Economics t e a c h e r s u s i n g the t h r e e " P r o f i l e s of Teacher Use of F o o d s t y l e s " as a b a s i s f o r judgement. P o p u l a t i o n and Sample The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a l l Home Economics t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who a t t e n d e d a F o o d s t y l e s workshop between September 1978 and December 1980, who taught the Foods 47 and N u t r i t i o n s e c t i o n of the Home Economics cou r s e t o y e a r s 8-12 d u r i n g the 1980 - 8 1 s c h o o l y e a r , and who were employed i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h a t consented t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . As shown i n Table 1, a t o t a l of 454 Home Economics t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s a t t e n d e d F o o d s t y l e s workshops between September 1978 and December 1980. Of t h e s e , 357 (78.6 p e r c e n t ) a t t e n d e d as t e a c h e r s and 97 (21.4 p e r c e n t ) a t t e n d e d as s t u d e n t -t e a c h e r s . T a b l e 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Teachers and Student-Teachers A t t e n d i n g Workshops between September 1978 and December 1980 Year Number of Teacher Student T o t a l Workshops Attendance Teacher Attendance Attendance 1978 12 139 13 152 1979 20 180 55 235 1980 6 38 29 67 T o t a l 38 357 97 454 A l e t t e r d e s c r i b i n g the study (see Appendix B) and i n v i t i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e , was sent t o the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s of a l l 75 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S i x t y - t w o d i s t r i c t s agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study and s i x d e c l i n e d . R e p l i e s were not r e c e i v e d from the o t h e r seven d i s t r i c t s so they were e x c l u d e d from the study. The s i x t y - t w o d i s t r i c t s which agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e a r e l i s t e d i n Table 2. 48 Table 2 School D i s t r i c t s C o n s e n t i n g to P a r t i c i p a t e i n E v a l u a t i o n of the Use of F o o d s t y l e s by Home Economics Teachers A1bern i e Arrow Lakes Burnaby Burns Lake Car i boo-Ch11 c o t 1n Cast 1egar C e n t r a l Coast C e n t r a l Okanagan Chi 11iwack Coqu i 11 am Courtenay Cowichan Creston-Kas1o Del ta Fern 1 e F o r t N e l s o n Golden Grand Forks G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a G u l f I s l a n d s Hope Howe Sound Kami oops Keremeos K e t t l e V a l l e y Kimberley K1t1mat Langley L i11ooet Merr 1 t t Nana 1 mo Nechako Nelson New Westminster North Thompson North Vancouver Peace R i v e r North Peace R i v e r South Pent i c t o n Powel1 R1ver P r i n c e George P r i nceton Oualicum Ouesnel Revel s t o k e R i chmond Sa a n i c h Shuswap Sooke South C a r i b o o Southern Okanagan S t i k i n e Summer 1 and Sunshine Coast S u r r e y T e r r a c e Vancouver Vancouver Is North Vancouver Is West Vernon West Vancouver W i ndemere The s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y was d e r i v e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y . The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f t h e 454 t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s who h a d a t t e n d e d a w o r k s h o p 49 between September 1978 and December 1980. Names of these workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r s c h o o l s were o b t a i n e d from the D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n workshop r e g i s t r a t i o n r e c o r d s and were sent t o the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n t o be checked a g a i n s t the 1980 l i s t i n g of Home Economics t e a c h e r s throughout the P r o v i n c e . The M i n i s t r y i n d i c a t e d t h a t 249 of these t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i n the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n were Home Economics t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n September 1980. The 29 t e a c h e r s employed i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s which had not agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study were e x c l u d e d from the sample. As shown i n Table 3, the survey sample c o n s i s t e d of 220 t e a c h e r s who r e p r e s e n t e d 48.5 per cent of the t o t a l 454 workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the p e r i o d . The sample was made up of 191 of the 357 p a r t i c i p a n t s who had att e n d e d workshops as t e a c h e r s (53.5 per c e n t ) , and 29 of the 97 p a r t i c i p a n t s who had a t t e n d e d as s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s (29.9 per c e n t ) . Table 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Teachers in the Survey Sample by S t a t u s when A t t e n d i n g Workshop Year of Workshop Attendance as Teacher A t tendance as Student T o t a l 1978 61 7 68 1979 105 13 1 18 1980 25 9 34 T o t a l 191 29 220 50 Data C o l l e c t i o n I n s t r u m e n t s Two d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s were d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y : (1) a s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e and (2) an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . Data r e l a t i n g t o t h e two d ependent v a r i a b l e s and t h e t w e l v e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were o b t a i n e d from t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s as shown i n T a b l e 4. The d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix C) was v a l i d a t e d by j u d g e s from t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n . D e t a i l s of v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x D. The f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see A p pendix E) c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r p a r t s : P a r t I sought g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t e a c h e r s ; P a r t I I c o l l e c t e d d a t a on t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ; P a r t I I I i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e x t e n t t o w hich t e a c h e r s s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s ; and P a r t IV s o u g h t t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s of f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e use of F o o d s t y l e s . P a r t I of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o l l e c t e d g e n e r a l d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n from t e a c h e r s . T h i s i n c l u d e d y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; number of y e a r s t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n ; l e v e l of Foods and N u t r i t i o n t a u g h t i n 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 ; o t h e r c o u r s e s t a u g h t i n 1980-81; s i z e of s c h o o l ; number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s i n d e g r e e or d i p l o m a program; number of u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n ; a t t e n d a n c e a t F o o d s t y l e s workshop as a t e a c h e r or s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r ; and r e c e i p t or non-r e c e i p t of t h e n e w s l e t t e r , "In T o u c h " . T e a c h e r s were a l s o a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e i f t h e y were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n t e r v i e w about t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s . 51 Table 4 Data Sources f o r Dependent and Independent V a r i a b l e s Dependent V a r i a b l e s 1. Teacher use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i es. 2. Teacher Acceptance of F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e Independent V a r i a b l e s 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10. A t t i t u d e toward the F o o d s t y l e s program 11. A t t i t u d e toward the F o o d s t y l e s workshop 12. A t t i t u d e toward f a c t o r s i n s c h o o l environment Data Source Score on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t II Score on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I I I Data Source Score on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t IV Items 1-6 and 9-10 Score on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t IV Items 11 to 17 Score on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t IV Items 21 to 27 Years of t e a c h i n g exper i ence Years of t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n Level of Foods and N u t r i t i o n taught Other c o u r s e s taught i n 1980-81 S i z e of school Number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s i n degree or diploma Number of u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l c o u r s e s completed s i n c e graduat i o n S t a t u s when a t t e n d i n g F o o d s t y l e s workshop. R e c e i p t of F o o d s t y l e s News 1 e t t e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I. Item 6 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I, Item 7 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I. Item 1 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I, I tern 2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I, Item 3 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I. Item 8 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I, Item 9 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I. Item 4 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a r t I, Item 5 P a r t II of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of a l i s t of ways t h a t F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n S e c t i o n of the Home E c o n o m i c s C u r r i c u l u m . 52 Teachers were asked to i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t t o which they used each a c t i v i t y by c h e c k i n g one of the f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s : "have not used"; "have not used but p l a n t o use"; "have used and w i l l not use a g a i n " ; "have used and w i l l use a g a i n " . Items were generated from a number of s o u r c e s : the F o o d s t y l e s program (B.C. D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n , 1978); A Scope and Sequence C h a r t f o r the Foods and N u t r i t i o n Program, Grades 8-12 ( F a v a r o , 1979); the Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m Guide (8-12) ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e and Technology, 1979); s u g g e s t i o n s from workshops l e a d e r s and from t e a c h e r s . An open-response s e c t i o n was a l s o i n c l u d e d where t e a c h e r s c o u l d i n d i c a t e any o t h e r ways they used F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r l e s s o n s . P a r t I I I of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of a l i s t of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which t e a c h e r s may or may not s e l e c t i n t h e i r n u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . T h i r t e e n of the items (1,2,4,5,7,8,10,12,13,15,17,18,20) d e s c r i b e d t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s w h i l e the o t h e r seven items (3 , 6,9,11,14 , 1 6,19) d e s c r i b e d s t r a t e g i e s which do not r e f l e c t the F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e . Teachers were asked t o i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t t o which they used each s t r a t e g y i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s by c h e c k i n g one of the f o l l o w i n g responses: "very f r e q u e n t l y " ; " o f t e n " ; "sometimes"; " r a r e l y " . P a r t IV of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o l l e c t e d d ata on t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s of the F o o d s t y l e s program, the workshop, the n e w s l e t t e r , and f a c t o r s i n the s c h o o l environment which i n f l u e n c e use of F o o d s t y l e s . Items i n t h i s s e c t i o n were generated from d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h program d e v e l o p e r s , workshop 53 l e a d e r s , t e a c h e r s , o b s e r v a t i o n s of workshops and from t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A L i k e r t t y p e r e s p o n s e s c a l e (Tuckman, 1972, p.157) was a t t a c h e d t o e a c h i t e m so t h a t t e a c h e r s c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r agreement or d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h e a c h s t a t e m e n t -t h a t i s , " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " , " a g r e e " , " d i s a g r e e " o r " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " . The s e c o n d i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e s t u d y was t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . T h i s c o n s i s t e d of t w e l v e open-ended q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were g e n e r a t e d d i r e c t l y from t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 5. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s A p p r o v a l f o r t h i s s t u d y was o b t a i n e d from th e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c r e e n i n g Committee f o r R e s e a r c h and O t h e r S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g Human S u b j e c t s . The c e r t i f i c a t e o f a p p r o v a l from t h i s committee a p p e a r s i n A p pendix B. Data were c o l l e c t e d by means of a s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e and by i n t e r v i e w s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d t o t h e 220 t e a c h e r s i n t h e sample on May 5 and 6, 1981. A c o v e r l e t t e r , (see A p pendix E ) , was a t t a c h e d t o e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In t h i s l e t t e r t e a c h e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s u r v e y o n l y i f t h e y were t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g t h e 1980-81 academic y e a r . I f t h e y were not t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g t h a t y e a r , t h e y were a s k e d t o r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e unanswered. The f i r s t r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e c e i v e d on May 11. 54 Table 5 Research Questions and R e l a t e d Interview Questions Research Questions Interview Questions 1. How do t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s 1. Please d e s c r i b e how you taught n u t r i t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r l e s s o n s ? t h i s year d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n 1essons. 2. How d i d you use the a c t i v i t i e s from F o o d s t y l e s i n your n u t r i t i o n lessons? 3 . Why d i d you d e c i d e to use them t h i s way? Do t e a c h e r s who use F o o d s t y l e s 4. What are some of your major o b j e c t i v e s in a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t t e a c h i n g t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n ? s t r a t e g i e s t h a t are c o n s i s t e n t with the r a t i o n a l e of 5 . Which a c t i v i t i e s from F o o d s t y l e s d i d you F o o d s t y l e s ? f i n d were most s u c c e s s f u l tn c o n t r i b u t i n g toward your o b j e c t i v e s ? 6. Which a c t i v i t i e s from F o o d s t y l e s d i d you f i n d were l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l i n c o n t r i b u t i n g toward your o b j e c t i v e s ? 3. What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e teachers 7. i n t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n 1essons? 8 . 9 . 10 What f e a t u r e s of F o o d s t y l e s i n f l u e n c e d you i n d e c i d i n g to use or not use the program in your lessons? Could you d e s c r i b e any f e a t u r e s of the workshop which c o n t r i b u t e d toward your d e c i s i o n to use F o o d s t y l e s ? How do you think the workshop c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d to help t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s more e f f e c t i v e l y ? Could you d e s c r i b e any f a c t o r s in your school which i n f l u e n c e d you in your d e c i s i o n to use or not use F o o d s t y l e s ? Please d e s c r i b e any e x p e r i e n c e s you have had as a student, a student-teacher or a teacher which i n f l u e n c e d you i n your use of F o o d s t y l e s . 4. In what ways i s F o o d s t y l e s of 12. In what ways do you think your use of value i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n F o o d s t y l e s has been of v a l u e i n your p r a c t i c e among Home Economics teaching of Foods and N u t r i t i o n ? teachers? A t o t a l of 66 r e s p o n s e s (58.4 p e r c e n t of a l l r e c e i v e d by May 25, the i n i t i a l d a t e f o r r e t u r n , l e t t e r was t h e n s e n t to a l l t e a c h e r s i n the sample r e t u r n s ) were A t h a n k - y o u Because the 55 survey was anonymous, t h i s l e t t e r a l s o r e q u e s t e d t e a c h e r s to r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i f they had not a l r e a d y done so. An a d d i t i o n a l 47 responses (41.6 p e r c e n t ) were r e c e i v e d a f t e r May 25, f o r a t o t a l of 113. C o l l e c t i o n of completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ceased on June 29 when a n a t i o n a l p o s t a l s t r i k e h a l t e d m a i l d e l i v e r i e s . Ten i n t e r v i e w s were conducted d u r i n g June and J u l y 1981 a t a time and p l a c e c o n v e n i e n t to each t e a c h e r . E i g h t were conducted i n person - s i x i n G r e a t e r Vancouver and two on Vancouver I s l a n d . These i n t e r v i e w s were r e c o r d e d on a u d i o - t a p e . Because of the d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d , the o t h e r two i n t e r v i e w s ( P r i n c e George and G o l d e n ) , were conducted by t e l e p h o n e . P r e p a r a t i o n of Data f o r A n a l y s i s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data Returned q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e groups as they were r e c e i v e d : (1) those which had been answered and were r e c e i v e d b e f o r e May 25 - the e a r l y r e s p o n s e s ; (2) those which had been answered and were r e c e i v e d a f t e r May 25 - the l a t e r e s p o n s e s ; and (3) those which had not been answered. The numbers i n each group were r e c o r d e d . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which had been answered were coded w i t h an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number. A l l demographic d a t a i n P a r t I of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c o n v e r t e d to n u m e r i c a l codes which were recorded on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Responses to P a r t II of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were s c o r e d as f o l l o w s : "have not used" - ( 0 ) ; "have not used but p l a n to use" 56 and w i l l use a g a i n " - ( 3 ) . S c o r e s f o r e a c h r e s p o n s e were r e c o r d e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Where t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e y had u s e d F o o d s t y l e s i n a way t h a t was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e i r r e s p o n s e s were a s s e s s e d f o r v a l i d i t y and s c o r e d as f o l l o w s : "have u s e d but w i l l n ot use a g a i n " - ( 2 ) ; and "have used and w i l l use a g a i n " - ( 3 ) . Responses t o P a r t I I I of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were s c o r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: " r a r e l y " - (1); "sometimes" - ( 2 ) ; " o f t e n " ( 3 ) ; and " v e r y f r e q u e n t l y " - ( 4 ) . S c o r e s were r e c o r d e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In P a r t IV o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p o s i t i v e i t e m s were s c o r e d as f o l l o w s : " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " - ( 1 ) ; " d i s a g r e e " - ( 2 ) ; " a g r e e " - ( 3 ) ; and " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " - ( 4 ) . N e g a t i v e i t e m s were r e v e r s e s c o r e d . S c o r e s f o r each i t e m were r e c o r d e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . O n l y 33 p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s answered i t e m s 18 t o 20 i n P a r t IV of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e F o o d s t y l e s n e w s l e t t e r . Because of t h i s p oor r e s p o n s e r a t e t h e s e i t e m s were e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s e s . A l l d a t a were key-punched d i r e c t l y from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and e n t e r e d i n t o a computer f i l e i n r e a d i n e s s f o r a n a l y s i s . R e l i a b i l i t y of t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P i l o t t e s t i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n o t p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e a l l t e a c h e r s who met the c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y formed t h e sample. The r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r e f o r e , was e s t i m a t e d u s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s from t h e e n t i r e s u r v e y sample. 57 A LERTAP program ( N e l s o n , 1974) was used t o determine Hoyt*s E s t i m a t e of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and f o r the f i v e s u b - s e c t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These s u b - s e c t i o n s were: Teacher use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s ; Teacher acceptance of the F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e ; Teacher a t t i t u d e s toward the F o o d s t y l e s program; Teacher a t t i t u d e s toward the F o o d s t y l e s workshop; and t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward f a c t o r s i n the s c h o o l environment which i n f l u e n c e d use of F o o d s t y l e s . R e s u l t s of the LERTAP a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were adequate. D e t a i l s of these r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix F. Comparison of E a r l y and L a t e Responses One of the concerns i n u s i n g a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r survey r e s e a r c h , i s the d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g r e t u r n s from a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample ( K e r l i n g e r , 1970, p.397). Responses are most l i k e l y t o be r e c e i v e d from those i n the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h s t r o n g views about the t o p i c under i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( F i l i o n , 1975). La r s o n and Ca t t o n (1959) demonstrated t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between e a r l y and l a t e r e t u r n s are s i m i l a r t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between r e t u r n s and n o n - r e t u r n s . Lack of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e a r l y and l a t e responses suggests t h a t r e s u l t s can be a p p l i e d t o the whole p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d w i t h a re a s o n a b l e degree of c o n f i d e n c e . To determine whether s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the e a r l y and l a t e responses i n t h i s s t u d y , mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e s and the non-58 demographic independent v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r these two groups. These d a t a were a n a l y z e d by the sub-program T-TEST from the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (Nie et a l . , 1975) . Mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e s and the non-demographic independent v a r i a b l e s among e a r l y and l a t e respondents a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 6. T-Tests on these means were not s i g n i f i c a n t . Because the numbers i n each group were unequal (n = 49 f o r the e a r l y r e t u r n s ; and n=26 f o r the l a t e r e t u r n s ) , the groups were checked f o r homogeneity of v a r i a n c e on a l l v a r i a b l e s . V a r i a n c e d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any v a r i a b l e except t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e t o the F o o d s t y l e s workshop. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the T-value f o r the sep a r a t e v a r i a n c e e s t i m a t e was used. In a l l o t h e r c a s e s where t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n v a r i a n c e between the two groups, the T-value f o r p o o l e d v a r i a n c e was used (Huck, Cormier & Bounds, 1974). Table 6 Comparison of E a r l y and Late Responses to Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Dependent and Non-Demographic Independent V a r i a b l e s V a r i a b l e s E a r l y Returns (n=49) Mean SD Late Returns (n=26) Mean SD Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s 38 . 4 12 . 3 37 .0 1 1 .6 . 48 . 63 Acceptance of R a t i o n a l e 18 .9 6 .2 20 . 3 5 . 8 .92 . 36 A t t i t u d e to F o o d s t y l e s Program 24 . 4 3 . 3 23 . 8 4 . 2 .G5 . 52 A t t i t u d e to F o o d s t y l e s Workshop 21 . 2 2 . 9 20. 8 4 . 3 . 38 . 71 A t t i t u d e to School Environment 19. 2 3 . 4 18 . 5 3 . 5 . 84 . 40 59 S i n c e T - t e s t s on the means of e a r l y and l a t e r e t u r n s were not s i g n i f i c a n t , i t can be assumed t h a t , i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e e a r l y r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e l a t e r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s a n d . t h e non-demographic i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . L a r s o n and C a t t o n (1959) r e p o r t e d t h a t l a t e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e s i m i l a r t o n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s . I f t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e a c c e p t e d , i t can be assumed t h a t i n t h i s s t u d y t h e n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from the sample can t h e r e f o r e be assumed t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of Home Economics t e a c h e r s who a t t e n d e d F o o d s t y l e s workshops between September 1978 and December 1980. I n t e r v i e w D a t a The a u d i o - t a p e s from t h e i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d and e d i t e d . E d i t i n g was n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e t h e i n t e r v i e w s , a l t h o u g h s t r u c t u r e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d , were r e l a t i v e l y i n f o r m a l . Towards the end of i n t e r v i e w s , some t e a c h e r s r e t u r n e d t o q u e s t i o n s t h e y had answered e a r l i e r t o add a d d i t i o n a l comments. E d i t i n g of t h e r e s p o n s e s d i d not a l t e r i n any way t h e e s s e n c e of the answers but d i d f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e d a t a . A n a l y s i s of Data T h i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s of d a t a r e l a t e d t o t h e demographic v a r i a b l e s ; t e a c h e r use of 60 F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s ; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s of t h e program; and the f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The Demographic V a r i a b l e s U n i v a r i a t e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s were computed f o r e a c h of t h e demographic v a r i a b l e s u s i n g t h e s u b - p r o g r a m FREQUENCIES from t h e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e , e t a l . , 1975). To p e r f o r m t h e s e a n a l y s e s , c h a n g e s were made i n s e v e r a l of t h e v a r i a b l e s . These changes were: (1) R e s p o n d e n t s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e number of Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s t h e y had t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81. These d a t a , however, were not u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e th e d u r a t i o n of c l a s s e s v a r i e d g r e a t l y among t e a c h e r s . F o r example, some c o u r s e s l a s t e d f o r a f u l l y e a r , w h i l e o t h e r s l a s t e d o n l y f o r a s e m e s t e r . The v a r i a b l e u s e d i n s t e a d was l e v e l of Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81 w i t h t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s - j u n i o r ; s e n i o r ; or j u n i o r and s e n i o r . (2) F o r t h e p u r p o s e of computer a n a l y s i s , t h e c o u r s e s t a u g h t i n 1980 - 8 1 were c o l l a p s e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s - o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n ; and o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l as Foods and N u t r i t i o n . However, the v a r i e t y of c o u r s e s t a u g h t by a l l r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was a l s o r e p o r t e d . (3) T h r e e c a t e g o r i e s were formed f o r t h e v a r i a b l e , y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . These were: l e s s t han f i v e y e a r s , f i v e t o n i n e y e a r s , and t e n or more y e a r s . (4) Number of y e a r s t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n was a l s o c o l l a p s e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s - l e s s t han f i v e y e a r s ; f i v e t o 61 nine y e a r s ; and ten or more y e a r s . (5) Number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s completed d u r i n g degree or diploma was c o l l a p s e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : 0-1; 2-3; 4-5; 6-7. (6) Number of u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s completed s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n was c o l l a p s e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 0-1; 2-3; 4 or more. Teacher Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s A v a l u e f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s , was computed f o r each respondent by add i n g t o g e t h e r the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f o r each item i n P a r t I I of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Respondents were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e groups a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t o t a l s c o r e s as f o l l o w s . The range of s c o r e s f o r a l l respondents was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e e q u a l s e c t i o n s . Respondents w i t h a score i n the top t h i r d were c l a s s i f i e d as h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s . Those w i t h a s c o r e i n the middle t h i r d were c l a s s i f i e d as moderate-users w h i l e those whose s c o r e was i n the bottom t h i r d were c l a s s e d as low - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s . The mean s c o r e s f o r use of F o o d s t y l e s among h i g h , moderate, and low-users were c a l c u l a t e d and a n a l y z e d t o dete r m i n e the e x t e n t to which the means d i f f e r e d among the t h r e e groups. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of High, Moderate and Low-Users of F o o d s t y l e s Cross t a b u l a t i o n s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h , moderate and low-users of F o o d s t y l e s by c a t e g o r i e s of the demographic v a r i a b l e s were computed u s i n g the sub-program CROSSTABS from the 62 S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e e t a l . , 1975). C h i - s q u a r e s a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e any which d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from n o r m a l . The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s P r o c e d u r e s used i n t h e a n a l y s e s of d a t a r e l e v a n t t o e a c h of t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 How do t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? S e v e r a l a p p r o a c h e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were e x p l o r e d . F i r s t , c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether t e a c h e r s u s e d t h e e n t i r e F o o d s t y l e s program or whether t h e y used o n l y p a r t of t h e program i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s . Second, f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s of r e s p o n s e s t o each i t e m i n P a r t II of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were computed u s i n g t h e sub-program FREQUENCIES from th e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e , e t a l . , 1975). The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t e p was t o e s t i m a t e t h e e x t e n t t o which t e a c h e r s used each of t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s program. T h i r d , r e s p o n s e s were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e th e e x t e n t t o which h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s of t h e program r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had used i n d i v i d u a l j u n i o r and s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s and would use them a g a i n . Next, a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e u s i n g t h e sub-program 6 3 ONEWAY from the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e , e t a l . , 1975) was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e p o r t e d use o f j u n i o r and s e n i o r F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s among t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r , o n l y s e n i o r , or b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s d u r i n g 1980-81. F i n a l l y , t r a n s c r i p t s of t h e i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e why t e a c h e r s used th e program as t h e y d i d . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 Do t e a c h e r s who use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h r e f l e c t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e ? T h r e e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were i n v e s t i g a t e d . F i r s t , p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d out t o d e t e r m i n e a c c e p t a n c e of the F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s as measured by a s c o r e on P a r t I I I of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e was computed by summing the s c o r e s on a l l i t e m s d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e r a t i o n a l e and then s u b t r a c t i n g t h e sum of a l l t h e s c o r e s on i t e m s d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t n o n - a c c e p t a n c e . Second, b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s u s i n g the program SCATTERGRAM from th e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e et a l . , 1975) was c o n d u c t e d t o e s t i m a t e whether any r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between use of F o o d s t y l e s and s e l e c t i o n of s t r a t e g i e s r e f l e c t i n g a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e , 64 and i f so, t h e s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i r d , a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e u s i n g t h e sub-program ONEWAY from th e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e e t a l . , 1975) was c a l c u l a t e d t o e s t i m a t e whether s c o r e s on a c c e p t a n c e of the F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y among h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . T r a n s c r i p t s of i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether d i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t i n t h e ways t h a t i n t e r v i e w e e s c l a s s i f i e d as h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s a c c e p t t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3 What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? Twelve i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s q u e s t i o n . N i n e were demographic v a r i a b l e s and t h r e e were non-d e m o g r a p h i c . P r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s of t h e demographic v a r i a b l e s have a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d . The f o l l o w i n g methods were u s e d t o compute s c o r e s f o r the t h r e e non-demographic v a r i a b l e s . T o t a l s c o r e s f o r a t t i t u d e toward th e F o o d s t y l e s program were c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t by summing the s c o r e s f o r items 1-6 and 9-10 i n P a r t IV o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Items 7 and 8 i n t h i s s e c t i o n r e f e r r e d t o the s u i t a b i l i t y of j u n i o r F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s f o r j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s and of s e n i o r F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s f o r s e n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n 65 c l a s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . . Responses t o t h e s e two it e m s were e x c l u d e d from t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of a t o t a l s c o r e f o r a t t i t u d e t o ward t h e program b e c a u s e some t e a c h e r s c o u l d answer o n l y one of t h e s e i t e m s w h i l e o t h e r t e a c h e r s c o u l d answer b o t h i t e m s . R e s p o n s e s t o it e m s r e l a t i n g t o t h e F o o d s t y l e s program were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t of agreement or d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h e a c h i t e m among a l l r e s p o n d e n t s . I n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s t oward t h e F o o d s t y l e s program. S c o r e s f o r a t t i t u d e toward t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop were computed by a d d i n g t o g e t h e r s c o r e s f o r it e m s 11-17 i n P a r t IV of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The e x t e n t of agreement and d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h e a c h i t e m was c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s . I n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d t o o b t a i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward the F o o d s t y l e s workshop. S i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s were used t o e s t i m a t e r e s p o n d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f a c t o r s i n t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t which i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s , and t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r agreement or d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h items 21 t o 27 i n P a r t IV of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A g a i n , i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d t o o b t a i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s t oward f a c t o r s i n the s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t which i n f l u e n c e d use of F o o d s t y l e s . A m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g the sub-program REGRESSION from the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for. t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e e t a l . , 1975), e s t i m a t e d t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r v a r i a n c e i n s c o r e s on use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . The p r o c e d u r e used i n v o l v e d f o r w a r d s t e p w i s e i n c l u s i o n of t h o s e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s which 66 e x p l a i n e d more than one p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s a n a l y s i s t h e v a r i a b l e , l e v e l of Foods and N u t r i t i o n t a u g h t , was r e c o d e d i n t o t h r e e d i c h o t o m o u s v a r i a b l e s as f o l l o w s : o n l y j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n t a u g h t - (1) no (2) y e s ; o n l y s e n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n t a u g h t (1) no, (2) y e s ; b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s t a u g h t (1) no, (2) y e s . D u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e f e a t u r e s of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program or workshop which i n f l u e n c e d them i n u s i n g or not u s i n g t h e i n n o v a t i o n . They were a l s o a s k e d whether any f a c t o r s i n t h e i r s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t o r any p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s had i n f l u e n c e d them i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o use o r not use F o o d s t y l e s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4 In what ways i s F o o d s t y l e s of v a l u e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among Home Ec o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s ? To i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s q u e s t i o n , a p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s was a s k e d t o judge t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . To a s s i s t j u d g e s i n t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t of F o o d s t y l e s , d a t a o b t a i n e d from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h e i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d and o r g a n i z e d t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n of t e a c h e r s and t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . D a t a i n c l u d e d i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n were d e r i v e d from r e s p o n s e s t o R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 1, 2, and 3 as w e l l 67 as from t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e as r e v e a l e d by r e s p o n s e s t o Item, 10 P a r t IV of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e s p o n s e s g i v e n d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s . The d e s c r i p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s and t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s were p r e s e n t e d t o j u d g e s as t h r e e " P r o f i l e s of T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s " - one f o r h i g h - u s e r s of t h e program, one f o r m o d e r a t e - u s e r s and one f o r l o w - u s e r s . S e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o f i l e s were: c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e a c h e r s ; a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n ; p a t t e r n s of use of F o o d s t y l e s ; and t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s of f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s . The " P r o f i l e s of T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s " a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix G. A l l j u d g e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f F o o d s t y l e s were i n v o l v e d i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . One was a C o - o r d i n a t o r of Home E c o n o m i c s f o r a s c h o o l b o a r d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; one was a Home Ec o n o m i c s t e a c h e r i n V a n c o u v e r ; two were community n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s ; two were f a c u l t y members Of t h e S c h o o l of Home E c o n o m i c s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; one was D i r e c t o r of N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n f o r the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n ; and the o t h e r had been D i r e c t o r of N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n f o r the D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n u n t i l A p r i l , 1981 and then became a n u t r i t i o n c o n s u l t a n t i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e . J u d g e s met i n a workshop s e s s i o n on T h u r s d a y O c t o b e r 1 5 , 1981 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . One week p r i o r t o t h i s workshop, j u d g e s were g i v e n t h e F o o d s t y l e s manual, a b r i e f b a c k g r o u n d t o F o o d s t y l e s , an o u t l i n e of t h e s t u d y , the 68 q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e , t h e t h r e e " P r o f i l e s of T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s " , and t h e q u e s t i o n s f o r d i s c u s s i o n a t the workshop s e s s i o n . J u d g e s were a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o e i g h t q u e s t i o n s d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n . T h r e e of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s were r e l a t e d t o j u d g e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n by Home E c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . T hese were: 1. How s h o u l d n u t r i t i o n be t a u g h t by s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s ? 2. What changes would you l i k e t o see i n t h e t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n by s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s ? 3. In what ways do you t h i n k F o o d s t y l e s s h o u l d be used i n Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s ? T hese q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e i t was c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t h a t j u d g e s c l a r i f y t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s of how n u t r i t i o n ought t o be t a u g h t i n s e c o n d a r y Home E c o n o m i c s p r i o r t o j u d g i n g t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . Next, j u d g e s were a s k e d t o a s s e s s t h e v a l u e o f F o o d s t y l e s by r e s p o n d i n g t o f i v e a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s , and, t o base t h e i r answers on t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y as p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h r e e " P r o f i l e s of T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s " . The a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s were: 69 4. What do you c o n s i d e r a r e t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the ways i n which t e a c h e r s a r e u s i n g F o o d s t y l e s ? 5. What s t r e n g t h s do you see i n F o o d s t y l e s which s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d and p e r h a p s d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r ? 6. What weaknesses do you see i n F o o d s t y l e s - w h i c h s h o u l d be improved o r r e v i s e d ? 7. What recommendations would you make f o r t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program and i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t e a c h e r s ? 8. What do you see as the s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y f o r u s i n g F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e Home Economics c u r r i c u l u m ? On a r r i v a l a t t h e workshop s e s s i o n , p a n e l i s t s were i n t r o d u c e d by t h e c h a i r m a n , a member of f a c u l t y from t h e S c h o o l of Home E c o n o m i c s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . J u d g e s were a s k e d t o g i v e t h e i r w r i t t e n c o n s e n t t o t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s on a u d i o - t a p e . Next, j u d g e s d i v i d e d i n t o g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a r e a s of e x p e r t i s e and i n t e r e s t , t h a t i s , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , community n u t r i t i o n , u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , and n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n f o r the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n . E a c h g r o u p was a s k e d t o d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n s which had been c i r c u l a t e d p r i o r t o t h e m e e t i n g . The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t e p was t o d e t e r m i n e a r e a s of agreement and d i s a g r e e m e n t between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h u s d e f i n e the p e r s p e c t i v e s of the i n t e r e s t g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g . I t was not i n t e n d e d t h a t e a c h g r o u p would a r r i v e a t c o n s e n s u s , but r a t h e r t h a t an 70 o p p o r t u n i t y s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r a l l o p i n i o n s t o be e x p r e s s e d . I f j u d g e s had o n l y met t o g e t h e r i n a j o i n t s e s s i o n , some p o i n t s of view, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e not w i d e l y h e l d , may have been o v e r l o o k e d . At t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e s m a l l - g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e e n t i r e p a n e l met i n a j o i n t s e s s i o n . E a c h g r o u p was i n v i t e d t o p r e s e n t a summary of t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s . O t h e r members of t h e p a n e l were f r e e t o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s o r make comments a t any t i m e . The n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s from t h e D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n r e p o r t e d t o t h e j o i n t - s e s s i o n f i r s t . They were f o l l o w e d by t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s , t h e community n u t r i t i o n i s t s and t h e u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t o r s . The p a n e l m e e t i n g c o n t i n u e d f o r a l m o s t two h o u r s . Next, t h e a u d i o -t a p e was t r a n s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d t o f a c i l i t a t e r e p o r t i n g t h e judgements of t h e p a n e l about th e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among s e c o n d a r y Home E c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s of d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 71 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s of d a t a from th e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a from t h e i n t e r v i e w s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n s of t h e c h a p t e r d i s c u s s the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e r a t e and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s t u d y . A n a l y s e s r e l a t i n g t o t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s o f t h e program. These d a t a p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e major a n a l y s e s c o n d u c t e d . t o answer the f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The r e s u l t s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The Response Rate A t o t a l of 113 out of 220 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d , f o r a r e s p o n s e r a t e of 51.8 p e r c e n t . T h i s r a t e of r e s p o n s e compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h o t h e r r e p o r t e d m a i l s u r v e y s where a 40 t o 50 p e r c e n t r e t u r n was c o n s i d e r e d good (Warwick & L i n i n g e r , 1975). Of t h e 113 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d , 75 were c o m p l e t e and were u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s . F o ur c o n t a i n e d m i s s i n g d a t a and were u n u s a b l e w h i l e 34 were r e t u r n e d unanswered, p r e s u m a b l y because t e a c h e r s were not t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g 1980-81 even though t h e y may have been t e a c h i n g t h a t c o u r s e when the y a t t e n d e d t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop. 72 D e s c r i p t i o n of P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Study The d e m ographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e : y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; y e a r s of t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n ; l e v e l of Foods and N u t r i t i o n t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81; c o u r s e s t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81; s i z e o f s c h o o l ; number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g d e g r e e or d i p l o m a ; number of u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n ; s t a t u s when a t t e n d i n g F o o d s t y l e s workshop; and r e c e i p t or n o n - r e c e i p t of t h e n e w s l e t t e r , "In T o u c h " . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e summarized i n T a b l e 7. Y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e among a l l r e s p o n d e n t s v a r i e d as shown i n T a b l e 7, from one t o 25 y e a r s w i t h a mean of 6.8 ( ± 5 . 0 ) . Twenty-seven r e s p o n d e n t s (36.0 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d t h e y had l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , 26 r e s p o n d e n t s (34.7 p e r c e n t ) had f i v e t o n i n e y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e and 22 r e s p o n d e n t s (29.3 p e r c e n t ) had 10 or more y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . E x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n r anged from one t o 20 y e a r s w i t h a mean of 6.0 ( ± 4 . 4 ) . The l e v e l of Foods and N u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s t a u g h t v a r i e d among r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i r t y - t w o r e s p o n d e n t s (42.6 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s , 16 (21.3 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s w h i l e 27 (36.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t b o t h s e n i o r and j u n i o r c l a s s e s . Most r e s p o n d e n t s t a u g h t o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l as Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 . F i f t e e n (20.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n , w h i l e 60 (80.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o t h e r T a b l e 7 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents (n=75) 73 Demographic V a r i a b l e s Frequency Percentage T o t a l T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e (Mean=6.8) Less than 5 y e a r s 5-9 y e a r s 10 or more y e a r s 27 26 22 36.0 34.7 29.3 Years T e a c h i n g Foods & N u t r i t i o n (Mean=6.0) Less than 5 y e a r s 5-9 y e a r s 10 or more y e a r s 31 28 16 41 .3 37 .4 21 .3 Level of Foods and N u t r i t i o n Taught 1980-81 Only J u n i o r Only S e n i o r J u n i o r and S e n i o r 32 16 27 42.7 21 .3 36.0 Courses Taught 1n 1980-81 Only Foods & N u t r i t i o n Other Courses as well 15 60 20.0 80.0 S i z e of School <500 pup i 1 s 500-1000 p u p i I s 1000-150O pupi1s >1500 p u p i I s 18 39 14 4 24 .0 52.0 18.7 5.3 Number N u t r i t i o n Courses In Degree (Mean=2.9) 0- 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 No Response 6 40 1 1 4 14 8.0 53.3 14 . 7 5.3 18.7 U n i v e r s i t y N u t r i t i o n Courses s i n c e Degree (Mean=0.3) 0-1 70 93.3 2-3 4 5.3 4 or more 1 1.4 S t a t u s when A t t e n d i n g Workshop Teacher S t u d e n t - t e a c h e r 65 10 86.7 13.3 R e c e i p t of N e w s l e t t e r "In Touch" Receive N e w s l e t t e r Do not Receive N e w s l e t t e r 31 44 41.3 58.7 74 s u b j e c t s as w e l l . T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g , and F a m i l y S t u d i e s were most f r e q u e n t l y t a u g h t i n a d d i t i o n t o Foods and N u t r i t i o n w h i l e B u s i n e s s , H e a l t h , L i f e s k i l l s and Human Development were l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y t a u g h t . The h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s w i t h a p u p i l e n r o l m e n t of 500-1000 d u r i n g 1980-81. T a b l e 7 shows t h a t 39 t e a c h e r s (52.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s w i t h a p u p i l e n r o l m e n t of 500-1000, 18 (24.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s w i t h l e s s t h a n 500 p u p i l s ; 14 (18.7 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s w i t h 1000-1500 p u p i l s , w h i l e o n l y 4 r e s p o n d e n t s (5.3 p e r c e n t ) were i n s c h o o l s w i t h more t h a n 1500 p u p i l s . The number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r d e g r e e or d i p l o m a program ra n g e d from 0 t o 7 w i t h a mean o f 2 . 9 ( ± 1 . 3 ) . F o u r r e s p o n d e n t s (5.3 p e r c e n t ) c o m p l e t e d no n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s ; 2 (2.7 p e r c e n t ) had c o m p l e t e d o n l y 1 c o u r s e ; 18 (24.0 p e r c e n t ) had c o m p l e t e d 2 c o u r s e s ; 22 (29.3 p e r c e n t ) had c o m p l e t e d 3 c o u r s e s ; 7 (9.3 p e r c e n t ) had c o m p l e t e d 4 c o u r s e s ; and 8 (10.6 p e r c e n t ) had c o m p l e t e d 5 or more c o u r s e s . F o u r t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s (18.7 p e r c e n t ) d i d not answer t h i s i t e m on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A t o t a l of 65 r e s p o n d e n t s (86.7 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d t h e y had not c o m p l e t e d any u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n . The maximum number of a d d i t i o n a l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d by any t e a c h e r was 4. The mean f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s was 0.3 c o u r s e s . Most p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s t u d y were t e a c h e r s when th e y a t t e n d e d a F o o d s t y l e s workshop. A t o t a l of 65 p a r t i c i p a n t s 75 (87.6 p e r c e n t ) a t t e n d e d as t e a c h e r s , w h i l e 10 (13.3 p e r c e n t ) a t t e n d e d as s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s . O v e r a l l , 31 p a r t i c i p a n t s (41.3 p e r c e n t ) r e p o r t e d t h e y r e c e i v e t h e F o o d s t y l e s n e w s l e t t e r , "In T o u c h " . In summary, r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i e d w i d e l y i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . A l m o s t h a l f t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s d u r i n g 1980-81 w h i l e t h e o t h e r h a l f t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s or b o t h s e n i o r and j u n i o r c l a s s e s . Twenty p e r c e n t of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t a u g h t o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n w h i l e t h e r e s t t a u g h t o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l . Most r e s p o n d e n t s t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s w i t h a p u p i l e n r o l m e n t of 500-1000. The m a j o r i t y had c o m p l e t e d two o r t h r e e n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s d u r i n g t h e i r d e g r e e o r d i p l o m a program and o n l y 13 p e r c e n t had a t t e n d e d any u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n . A l m o s t 90 . p e r c e n t of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a t t e n d e d F o o d s t y l e s workshops as t e a c h e r s and j u s t o v e r f o r t y p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h e y r e c e i v e the n e w s l e t t e r , "In T o u c h " . In d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s two main comments can be made. F i r s t , o n l y 20 p e r c e n t of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were Foods and N u t r i t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s . Second, a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s (59 t e a c h e r s , 78.6 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s d u r i n g 1980-81 t h a n s e n i o r c l a s s e s (43 t e a c h e r s , 57.3 p e r c e n t ) . I t can t h e r e f o r e be assumed t h a t t h e r e were more s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n t h a n s e n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d a t a from th e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n which i n d i c a t e d t h a t d u r i n g 1978-79, 47,858 s t u d e n t s 76 were e n r o l l e d i n j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s ( y e a r s 8-10) and 20,572 s t u d e n t s were e n r o l l e d i n s e n i o r c l a s s e s ( y e a r s 10-12) (Ts a n g , F o r r e s t e r & S c h l e g e l , 1979, p. 4 ) . T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s T o t a l s c o r e s f o r use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s as measured by P a r t I I of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r a n g e d from 15 t o 65 as shown i n T a b l e 8. The mean s c o r e was 38.0 (±12.0) and t h e maximum p o s s i b l e was 75. T a b l e 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Score f o r Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s S c ore' (Mean=38.0) Frequency Percentage 15-20 7 9 . 3 21-25 5 6.7 2S-30 1 1 14 . 7 31-35 10 13.3 3S-40 9 12.0 41-45 9 12.0 46-50 10 13.3 5 1 -55 9 12.0 5G-GO 3 4.0 61-65 2 2.7' T o t a l 75 100.0 Maximum Score=75 Respondents t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c l a s s i f i e d as h i g h , 77 moderate or l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s c o r e s f o r use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . The range of s c o r e s was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e e q u a l s e c t i o n s : 15-31; 32-48; and 49-65. R e s p o n d e n t s who o b t a i n e d s c o r e s between 15 and 31 were c l a s s i f i e d as l o w - u s e r s (n=25). Those whose s c o r e s were between 32 and 48 were c l a s s e d as m o d e r a t e - u s e r s (n=36) w h i l e t h o s e who o b t a i n e d s c o r e s between 49 and 65 were c l a s s i f i e d as h i g h - u s e r s ( n = l 4 ) . Among t h e 10 t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , t h r e e were i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h - u s e r s , t h r e e as m o d e r a t e - u s e r s and f o u r as l o w - u s e r s . T a b l e 9 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s among b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d e n t s and i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s . T a b l e 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and Inte r v i e w Respondents By Category of Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s C ategory of Use of Number of Number of F o o d s t y l e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Teachers Respondents Interviewed High-Users (49-65)' 14 (18.7)' 3 (30.0) Moderate-Users (32-48) 36 (48.0) 3 (30.0) Low-Users (15-31) 25 (33.3) 4 (40.0) T o t a l 75(100.0) 10(100.0) 'Range of Scor e s on Par t II of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 'Percentages a r e i n P a r e n t h e s i s The mean s c o r e f o r use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s f o r h i g h -u s e r s was 55.1 ( ± 4 . 3 ) . The mean f o r m o d e r a t e - u s e r s was 40.5 (±5.3) and t h e mean f o r l o w - u s e r s was 24.7 ( ± 5 . 0 ) . The r e s u l t s 78 of a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r t h e s e means showed t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean s c o r e s of h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s (F=173.74, df=2/74, p < . 0 0 l ) . A B a r t l e t t -Box t e s t of homogeneity of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a n c e s between the t h r e e g r o u p s (F=.34, p>.05). A S c h e f f e m u l t i p l e range t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l t h r e e means were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from e a c h o t h e r (p<.05). In commenting on t h e s e r e s u l t s , i t must be n o t e d t h a t o n l y 14 of t h e 75 r e s p o n d e n t s (18.6 p e r c e n t ) were h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s . T h i s r e s u l t i s r e g a r d e d as an e x t r e m e l y low p r o p o r t i o n of t e a c h e r s who use t h e program e x t e n s i v e l y d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . D e s c r i p t i o n of H i g h , M oderate and Low-Users of F o o d s t y l e s T a b l e 10 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h , moderate and low-u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s f o r . e a c h of t h e demographic v a r i a b l e s . C h i -s q u a r e s a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from normal f o r t h r e e of t h e v a r i a b l e s : L e v e l of Foods and N u t r i t i o n t a u g h t i n 1980 - 8 1 (X 2=17.12, df=4, P<.01); C o u r s e s t a u g h t i n 1980-81 (X 2=5.82, df=2, p<.05); S t a t u s when a t t e n d i n g workshop (X 2=7.29, df=2, p<.05). T a b l e 11 d i s p l a y s t h e means f o r y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , y e a r s of t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n and number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g d e g r e e or d i p l o m a program among h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 10, a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s have more t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e than l o w - u s e r s . 79 Table 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n of High, Moderate and Low-Users of Foodstyles by Demographic Variables (n=75) Variables High-users (n=14) Moderate-Users (n=36) Low-Users (n=25) Total Teaching Experience Number of Respondents (%) <5 years 5-9 years 10 or more years (21.4) (35.7) (42.9) 12 (33.3) 14 (38.9) 10 (27.8) 12 (48.0) 7 (28.0) 6 (24.0) Years Teaching Foods & Nutrition <5 years 5-9 years 10 or more years 4 (28.6) 5 (35.7) 5 (35.7) 13 (36.1) 17 (47.2) 6 (16.7) 14 (56.0) 6 (24.0) 5 (20.0) Level of Foods and Nutrition Taught 1 Only Junior Only Senior Both 1 (7.1) 4 (28.6) 9 (64.3) 13 (36. 1 ) 9 (25.0) 14 (38.9) 18 (72.0) 3 (12.0) 4 (16.0) Courses Taught 1n 1980-81' Only Foods & Nutrition Other Courses as wel1 6 (42.9) 8 (57.1) 6 (16.7) 30 (83.3) 3 (12.0) 22 (88.0) Size of School <500 pupi1s 500-1000 pupils 1000-1500 pupils >1500 pup 11s 2 (14.3) 7 (50.0) 5 (37.7) 0 (0.0) 11 (30.6) 17 (47.2) 7 (19.4) 1 (2.8) 5 (20.0) 15 (60.0) 2 (8.0) 3 (12.0) Nutrition Courses In Degree 0-1 courses 2-3 courses 4 or more courses 0 (0.0) 11 (78.6) 3 (21.4) 3 (8.3) 25 (69.5) 8 (22.2) 3 (12.0) 18 (72.0) 4 (16.0) Status when Attending Workshop' Teacher Student-Teacher 14 0 ( 100) (0.0) 33 (91.7) 3 (8.3) 18 (72.0) 7 (28.0) Receipt of Newsletter Received Newsletter Did not Receive Newsletter (50.0) (50.0) 16 (44.4) 20 (55.6) 8 (32.0) 17 (68.0) ' p< .01 ' p< .05 80 T a b l e 11 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Demographic V a r i a b l e s by Level of Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s (n=75) V a r i a b l e s High-users Moderate-Users Low-Users (n=14) (n=36) (n=25) Mean S ,D. Mean S.D. Mean S. ,D Years of T o t a l T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e 8.2 5. . 2 7.0 4 . 4 5.8 5 .6 Years T e a c h i n g Foods & N u t r i t i o n S.8 4 . 2 6 . 2 4.2 5.2 4 . 9 Number of N u t r i t i o n Courses i n Degree 3.6 1 . . 5 2.9 1 . 7 2 . 7 1 . , 1 J u s t o v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s (78.6 p e r c e n t ) of t h e h i g h - u s e r s , 66.7 p e r c e n t of t h e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s and 52.0 p e r c e n t of t h e l o w - u s e r s have t a u g h t f o r f i v e or more y e a r s . T a b l e 11 shows t h a t t h e mean number of y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e was g r e a t e r among h i g h - u s e r s (8.2 y e a r s ) than among m o d e r a t e - u s e r s (7.0 y e a r s ) o r l o w - u s e r s (5.8 y e a r s ) . A l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of h i g h - u s e r s have a l s o t a u g h t Foods and N u t r i t i o n f o r l o n g e r t h a n l o w - u s e r s : 71.4 p e r c e n t of h i g h -u s e r s , 63.9 p e r c e n t of m o d e r a t e - u s e r s and 44.0 p e r c e n t of low-u s e r s have t a u g h t Foods and N u t r i t i o n f o r f i v e or more y e a r s . The mean y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n , as l i s t e d i n T a b l e 11, was 6.8 y e a r s among h i g h - u s e r s , 6.2 y e a r s among m o d e r a t e - u s e r s and 5.2 y e a r s among l o w - u s e r s . A l t h o u g h h i g h - u s e r s a p p e a r e d t o be more e x p e r i e n c e d i n t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n t h a n moderate or l o w - u s e r s , a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e means of the t h r e e g r o u p s . T h i r t e e n of the 14 h i g h - u s e r s o f F o o d s t y l e s (92.9 p e r c e n t ) 81 t a u g h t s e n i o r c l a s s e s . Of t h e s e , 4 t a u g h t j u n i o r c l a s s e s as w e l l . Among the l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s , 18 (72.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s , 3 (12.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s and 4 (16.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s . M o d e r a t e - u s e r s a r e more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 13 (36.1 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s , 9 (25.0 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s and 14 ( 3 8 . 9 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s . A c h i - s q u a r e s a n a l y s i s of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n shown i n T a b l e 10 was s i g n i f i c a n t (X 2=17.12, df=4, p<.002). Twenty-two of t h e 25 r e s p o n d e n t s (88.0 p e r c e n t ) who were l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s t a u g h t o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l as Foods and N u t r i t i o n , w h i l e 3 of t h e 15 (20.0 p e r c e n t ) who t a u g h t o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n were l o w - u s e r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, 6 (42 .9 p e r c e n t ) of t h e 14 h i g h - u s e r s t a u g h t o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n and 8 (57.1 p e r c e n t ) t a u g h t o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l . A c h i -s q u a r e s a n a l y s i s of t h e numbers of h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s who t a u g h t o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n and who t a u g h t o t h e r s u b j e c t s as w e l l , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from normal (X 2=5.82, df=2, p<.05). No t r e n d s were d i s c e r n i b l e i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s who t a u g h t a t s c h o o l s of v a r y i n g s i z e s . In a l l c a s e s t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s w i t h 500-1000 p u p i l s . The number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g r e s p o n d e n t s ' d e g r e e program d i d not v a r y g r e a t l y among h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s . The mean number of c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d by 82 h i g h - u s e r s , as shown i n T a b l e 11, was 3.5, w i t h 2.9 c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d by m o d e r a t e - u s e r s and 2.7 c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d by low-u s e r s . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e means f o r t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s . A c o m p a r i s o n of h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s who a t t e n d e d workshops as t e a c h e r s or s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s showed t h a t a l l h i g h - u s e r s a t t e n d e d t h e workshop as t e a c h e r s . Among m o d e r a t e - u s e r s , 33 (91.7 p e r c e n t ) a t t e n d e d as t e a c h e r s and 3 (8.3 p e r c e n t ) were s t u d e n t s when t h e y a t t e n d e d t h e workshop. Among t h e l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s , 18 (72.0 p e r c e n t ) a t t e n d e d as t e a c h e r s and 7 (28.0 p e r c e n t ) a t t e n d e d as s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s . A c h i - s q u a r e s a n a l y s i s of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , as shown i n T a b l e 11, was s i g n i f i c a n t (X 2=7.59, df=2, p<.05). Seven (70 p e r c e n t ) of the r e s p o n d e n t s who a t t e n d e d t h e workshop as- s t u d e n t s were low-u s e r s and 3 (30 p e r c e n t ) were m o d e r a t e - u s e r s . None were h i g h -u s e r s . A n a l y s i s of t h e numbers of h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s who r e p o r t e d t h e y r e c e i v e and do not r e c e i v e the n e w s l e t t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t 7 of t h e 14 h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s (50.0 p e r c e n t ) r e c e i v e t h e n e w s l e t t e r . S i x t e e n of t h e 36 m o d e r a t e - u s e r s (44.4 p e r c e n t ) and 8 of t h e 25 l o w - u s e r s (32.0 p e r c e n t ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e t h e n e w s l e t t e r . A l t h o u g h a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of h i g h - u s e r s r e c e i v e the n e w s l e t t e r and a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of l o w - u s e r s do not r e c e i v e i t , a c h i - s q u a r e s a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n shown i n T a b l e 10 was not s i g n i f i c a n t . In summary, h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s t e n d e d t o be more 83 e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s than moderate or l o w - u s e r s . They m o s t l y t a u g h t s e n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s o r b o t h s e n i o r and j u n i o r c l a s s e s . A l m o s t h a l f t a u g h t o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 . A l l h i g h - u s e r s a t t e n d e d t h e F o o d s t y l e s Workshop as t e a c h e r s and h a l f r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e t h e n e w s l e t t e r , "In T o u c h " . Low-users of F o o d s t y l e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, t e n d e d t o have been t e a c h i n g f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d than h i g h - u s e r s , and m o s t l y t a u g h t j u n i o r Food and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s . A l m o s t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e l o w - u s e r s t a u g h t o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l as Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g 1980-81. Most of t h o s e who a t t e n d e d t h e workshop as s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s were l o w - u s e r s . About o n e - t h i r d of the l o w - u s e r s r e p o r t e d t h e y r e c e i v e t h e n e w s l e t t e r , "In T o u c h " . The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 How do t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n ? R e s ponses t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s were s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . They d i d not use t h e program as a c o m p l e t e u n i t d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s but o n l y s e l e c t e d some a c t i v i t i e s t o i n c l u d e i n t h e i r l e s s o n s . R e s p o n d e n t s v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e y used i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s from the program. T a b l e 12 l i s t s t h e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s i n d e c r e a s i n g o r d e r of use as r e p o r t e d by 84 T a b l e 12 Percentage Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s as Reported by Respondents (n=75) Have used Percentage Response Have used Have not Have ni L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y and 1 use i w11 1 aga 1 n but w i l l not use aga 1 n used but p l a n to use Used The "Bar Graphs" of n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of foods to I d e n t i f y the main n u t r i e n t s 1n foods. 84 .8 0 5 . 1 10 . 1 The "Bar Graphs" to compare the n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t of foods. 84 .8 0 5 . 1 10 . 1 The "Bar Graphs" to i d e n t i f y the main n u t r i e n t s p r o v i d e d by foods i n each of the Four Food Groups. 79 . 7 0 8 .9 1 1 .4 The "Personal P r o f i l e " u s i n g the Canadian Recommended D a i l y N u t r i e n t Intake Chart to e s t i m a t e p e r s o n a l n u t r i e n t r equirements. 69 .6 5. 1 8 .9 16 .5 The "Why's and Wherefore's of E a t i n g " to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e food h a b i t s . 68 . 4 5. 1 7 .6 19 .0 The "Why's and Wherefore's of E a t i n g " to emphasize p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and emotional needs f o r food. 60 . 8 5. 1 1 1 .4 22 .8 The " C a l o r i e Counter" to e s t i m a t e c a l o r i e requ i rements. 57 .0 11.4 13 . 9 17 .7 The "Bar Graphs" to i d e n t i f y foods which can be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r each o t h e r to p r o v i d e a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same n u t r i e n t s . 55 . 7 0 20. . 3 24 . 1 The "Personal P r o f i l e " of foods needs u s i n g Canada's Food Guide to i d e n t i f y d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l food hab i t s . 51 . 9 2.3 8. .9 36, .7 The "BuiId-A-Cel1 Game" to i l l u s t r a t e how food i s used i n b u i l d i n g c e l l s . 44 . 3 3 . 8 21 . 5 30. . 4 " E x p l o r i n g the F o o d s t y l e s of O t h e r s " to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which may I n f l u e n c e f o o d h a b i t s . 43 .0 2 . 5 16 . 5 38 . 0 "My F o o d s t y l e " to i d e n t i f y p e r s o n a l food p a t t e r n s . 43 .0 6.3 15. 2 35. 4 "Where do C a l o r i e s Come From?" to i d e n t i f y high 38 .0 1 . 3 20. 3 40. 5 ca1 or i e foods. " G u i d e l i n e s f o r E v a l u a t i n g D i e t s " to as s e s s new r e d u c i n g d i e t s . 35 . 4 1 . 3 15 . 2 48 . 1 Student s e l e c t i o n s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s to e x p l a i n what f o o d means to them. 35 . 4 6 . 3 13 . 9 44 . 3 "A Day i n the L i f e of ... " to ident i f y phys i c a l , emotional and s o c i a l needs f o r food. 34 . 2 5 . 1 16 . 5 44 . 3 "Feeding the World" to emphasize the unequal" d i s t r i b u t i o n of food r e s o u r c e s i n the world. 31 . .6 1 . 3 17 . 7 49 . 4 "Down w i t h F a t . Sugar and S a l t " to i d e n t i f y d i e t a r y p r a c t i c e s that promote optimal h e a l t h . 27 . 8 2 . 5 24 . 1 45. 6 85 Table 12 (continued) "World Foods Shortages" to ident i f y world food problems . 24. 1 0 15. 2 60 .8 "Problems of Abundance" when d iscuss ing n u t r i t i o n a l problems of a f f luent countr ies . 23 . 1 0 17 . 9 59. .0 "Eating on a Shoestr ing Budget" to plan balanced economical meals. 19. .0 1 . 3 20. . 3 59 .5 A computer ana lys is of student 's food intake from Action B.C. to assess thei r personal nutr ient Intake. 19 . 0 6.3 21 .5 53 . 2 "Food Waste in North America" to I l l u s t r a t e world food a v a i l a b i l i t y . 15 . 2 1 .3 24 . 1 59 .5 "Cooking E f f i c i e n t l y and S e l f - S u f f i c i e n t 1 y " to plan p r a c t i c a l foods c lasses . 1 1 . 4 1 . 3 17 . 7 69 .6 The questions from "Taking the Basics Apart" to ident i fy s p e c i f i c sources of nut r ients . 10 . 1 2 . 5 25 . 3 62 .0 r e s p o n d e n t s . The "Bar Graph" a c t i v i t i e s were t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used w i t h more than 80 p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t i n g t h e y "have used them and w i l l use them a g a i n " . E i g h t of t h e t e n t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d a l s o l i s t e d t h e "Bar Graph" a c t i v i t i e s a s v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r l e s s o n o b j e c t i v e s . T a b l e 13 l i s t s t h e p e r c e n t a g e of h i g h , moderate and low-u s e r s who r e p o r t e d t h e y had used j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s and would use them a g a i n . Among t h e h i g h - u s e r s , t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used a c t i v i t i e s were t h e "Bar Graph" a c t i v i t i e s (100.0 p e r c e n t ) and the l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y used was " T a k i n g the B a s i c s A p a r t " (0.0 p e r c e n t ) . Among t h e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s , the "Bar Graph" a c t i v i t i e s were a g a i n t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d (86.1 p e r c e n t ) w h i l e "Food Waste i n N o r t h A m e r i c a " (13.9 p e r c e n t ) was t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d . Among the l o w - u s e r s , the "Bar Graph" a c t i v i t i e s were most o f t e n used (80.0 p e r c e n t ) and t h e computer a n a l y s i s of s t u d e n t ' s f o o d i n t a k e was l e a s t u s e d . H i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s o f F o o d s t y l e s a l l r e p o r t e d 86 T a b l e 13 Use of J u n i o r F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s as Reported by High, Moderate and Low-Users of the Program (n=75) L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t i e s Percentage respondents who w i l l use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n H i gh-Users (n=14) Mod-Users (n=36) Low Users (n=25) The "Bar Graphs" to compare the n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t of foods. 100.0 86 . 1 . 76.0 The "Bar Graphs" to i d e n t i f y the main n u t r i e n t s p r o v i d e d by foods i n each of the Four Food Groups. 92 .9 80.8 72 .0 The "Bar Graphs" of n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of foods to i d e n t i f y the main n u t r i e n t s 1n foods. 92.9 86. 1 80.0 " E x p l o r i n g the F o o d s t y l e s of Othe r s " to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e food h a b i t s . 78.6 50.0 16.0 The "Personal P r o f i l e " u s i n g the Canadian Recommended D a i l y N u t r i e n t Intake Chart to e s t i m a t e p e r s o n a l n u t r i e n t requirements. 78.6 69.4 60.0 The "Personal P r o f i l e " of food needs u s i n g Canada's Food Guide to i d e n t i f y d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l f o o d p a t t e r n s . 71.4 58.3 32 .0 The "Bar Graphs" to I d e n t i f y foods which can be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r each o t h e r to p r o v i d e a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same n u t r i e n t s . 64 . 3 55.6 48 .0 The "Why's and Wherefore's of E a t i n g " to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e food h a b i t s . 64 . 3 83 . 3 52 .0 The "Why's and Wherefore's of E a t i n g " to emphasize p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and emotional needs f o r food. 64 . 3 72 . 2 44 . 0 "The C a l o r i e Counter" to e s t i m a t e c a l o r i e requ i rements. 64 . 3 55 .6 60.0 "My F o o d s t y l e " to i d e n t i f y p e r s o n a l food p a t t e r n s . 57 . 1 47 . 2 36.0 The "Bui1d-A-Ce11 Game" to i l l u s t r a t e how food i s used i n b u i l d i n g c e l l s . 42.9 61.1 20.0 Student s e l e c t i o n s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s to e x p l a i n what food means to them. "Food Waste i n North America" to i n d i c a t e w orld food a v a i l a b i l i t y . 42 .9 35 . 7 44 . 4 13.9 20.0 8.0 A computer a n a l y s i s of s t u d e n t ' s food i n t a k e from A c t i o n B.C. To a s s e s s t h e i r p e r s o n a l n u t r i e n t i ntake. 14.3 30.6 0.0 The q u e s t i o n s from "Taking the B a s i c s Apart" to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s of n u t r i e n t s . 0.0 19 . 4 4.0 87 t h e y i n c l u d e d t h e "Bar G r a p h s " i n t h e i r l e s s o n s more f r e q u e n t l y t h an any o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . S i x of t h e j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s , ("Bar Gr a p h s " ; " P e r s o n a l P r o f i l e " ; " E x p l o r i n g t h e F o o d s t y l e s of O t h e r s " ; " C a l o r i e C o u n t e r " ; "My F o o d s t y l e " ; "Food Waste i n N o r t h A m e r i c a " ) were used by h i g h - u s e r s more t h a n by moderate or low-u s e r s . F i v e of the j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s ("Why's and W h e r e f o r e ' s of E a t i n g " ; " B u i l d - A - C e l l Game"; S t u d e n t s e l e c t i o n s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s of f o o d s ; A c t i o n B.C. computer a n a l y s i s of f o o d i n t a k e ; and " T a k i n g t h e B a s i c s A p a r t " ) were us e d more by m o d e r a t e - u s e r s than by h i g h - u s e r s or l o w - u s e r s . T h e r e were no j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s u s e d more by l o w - u s e r s than by h i g h or m o d e r a t e - u s e r s of t h e program. T a b l e 14 shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s who i n d i c a t e d t h e y had i n c l u d e d s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r l e s s o n s and would use them a g a i n . A c t i v i t i e s a r e l i s t e d i n d e c r e a s i n g p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e f o r h i g h - u s e r s . H i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s i n c l u d e d more of t h e s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r l e s s o n s than moderate o r l o w - u s e r s . V e r y few l o w - u s e r s i n c o r p o r a t e d s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . A c o m p a r i s o n of the use o f j u n i o r F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s among r e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t v a r y i n g l e v e l s of Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s d u r i n g 1980-81 i s shown i n T a b l e 15. The mean s c o r e f o r use of j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s was 26.3 (±7.2) among r e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s , 29.8 (±5.8) among t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s , and 29,9 (±6.7) among t h o s e who t a u g h t b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s . A l t h o u g h , 88 Table 14 Use of Senior Foodstyles A c t i v i t i e s as Reported by High Moderate and Low-Users of the Program (n=75) Learning A c t i v i t i e s Percentage respondents who wi l l use Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s again High-Users Mod-Users Low Users (n=14) (n=36) (n=25) "Feeding the World" to emphasize unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of food resources in the world. "Guidel ines for Evaluating Diets" to assess new reducing d i e t s . "World Food Shortages" to ident i fy world food prob1 ems. "Problems of Abundance" when d iscuss ing n u t r i t i ona l problems in af f luent countr ies . "Where do Ca lo r ies Come From?" to ident i fy high c a l o r i e foods. "Down with Fat . Sugar and Sa l t " to ident i fy d ietary p rac t i ces that promote optimal health . "A Day in the L i f e o f . . . " to Identify physical emotional and soc ia l needs for food. "Eating on a Shoestring Budget" to plan balanced, economical meals. "Cooking E f f i c i e n t l y and Sel f -Suff1c1ent1y" to plan p r a c t i c a l foods c lasses . 87.5 71.4 7 1.4 71.4 71.4 64 . 3 57 . 1 42 . 9 35 . 7 22 . 2 44 . 4 19.4 19.4 44 . 4 36 . 1 38.9 22 . 2 11.1 12.0 4.0 4.0 0.0 12.0 0.0 16.0 4.0 0.0 r e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s a p p e a r e d t o use j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s l e s s t h an r e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s or o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s , an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean s c o r e s f o r t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s . Use of s e n i o r F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s among r e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t v a r y i n g l e v e l s of Foods and N u t r i t i o n was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . The mean s c o r e f o r use of s e n i o r F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s was 5.3 (±5.2) among r e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s , 11.4 (±6.6) among t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s and 12.9 (±7.7) among t h o s e who t a u g h t b o t h j u n i o r and 89 Table 15 Mean Score and Standard Deviat ion for Use of Junior Foodstyles A c t i v i t i e s by Level of Foods and Nut r i t i on Taught in 1980-81 Level of Classes Taught Mean Score Standard Deviation Junior Only (n=32) 26.3 7 . 1 Senior Only (n=16) 29 . 8 5.8 Both (n=27) 29.9 6.7 Total (n=75) 28.3 6.9 s e n i o r c l a s s e s . The r e s u l t s of a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of t h e s e means showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h r e e g r o u p s (F=10.86, df=2/72, p < . 0 0 l ) . A B a r t l e t t - B o x t e s t f o r homogeneity of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e s among v a r i a n c e s (F=2.24, p>.05). A S c h e f f e m u l t i p l e range t e s t i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s f o r r e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s and t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s or j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s (p<.05). T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means of t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s and t h o s e who t a u g h t b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s . A c o m p a r i s o n of t h e use of b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s among r e s p o n d e n t s t e a c h i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of Foods and N u t r i t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t the mean s c o r e f o r use of a l l a c t i v i t i e s among t h o s e who t a u g h t b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s was 4 3.1 ( ± 1 1 . 7 ) ; t h e mean f o r t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s was 41.4 ( ± 1 0 . 8 ) ; and f o r t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s the mean was 3 1 . 9 ( ± 1 0 . 1 ) . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of t h e s e means showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t h r e e g r o u p s ( F = 8 . 7 7 , df=2/72, p < . 0 0 l ) . A 90 B a r t l e t t - B o x t e s t f o r homogeneity of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e s among v a r i a n c e s (F=0.31, p>.05). A S c h e f f e m u l t i p l e range t e s t i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the means f o r r e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s and t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s or j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s (p<.05). T h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means of t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s and t h o s e who t a u g h t b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s . In s u m m a r i z i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s , the a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s program v a r i e d i n t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e y were used d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . J u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s were used more than s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s a l t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r j u n i o r c l a s s e s . R e s p o n d e n t s who t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s u s e d F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h an t h o s e who t a u g h t o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s or b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s . Two e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s t e n d e n c y can be s u g g e s t e d . F i r s t , many of t h e j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s i n F o o d s t y l e s a r e i n t r o d u c t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . They a r e r e l e v a n t f o r use w i t h j u n i o r or s e n i o r s t u d e n t s who a r e b e g i n n i n g a c o u r s e i n Foods and N u t r i t i o n and who have l i t t l e b a c k g r o u n d i n the s u b j e c t . Second, a c o m p a r i s o n of t h e c o n t e n t of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program as shown i n Appendix A, w i t h t h e c o n t e n t i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e f o r s e c o n d a r y Home E c o n o m i c s ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , . S c i e n c e & T e c h n o l o g y , 1979, pp. 11-13).and t h e Scope and Sequence G u i d e f o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n - Grades 8-12 (Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , 1981, pp. 10-15), r e v e a l s t h a t the 91 F o o d s t y l e s program i s more c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h t h e advanced l e v e l s of t h e c u r r i c u l u m t h a n t h e j u n i o r l e v e l s . The a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s program were r e - e x a m i n e d i n an a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich t h e more f r e q u e n t l y u s e d a c t i v i t i e s have i n common and which t h e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d a c t i v i t i e s have i n common. T h r e e t r e n d s were n o t e d . F i r s t , a c t i v i t i e s which r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d u s i n g more f r e q u e n t l y t e n d t o be t h o s e d e s c r i b e d or used a t t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop. F o r example, "Bar G r a p h s " , " C a l o r i e C o u n t e r " , "Why's and W h e r e f o r e ' s of E a t i n g " , and " B u i l d - a - c e l l Game". A c t i v i t i e s s u ch as "Down w i t h F a t , Sugar and S a l t " , " E a t i n g on a S h o e s t r i n g Budget", and " T a k i n g t h e B a s i c s A p a r t " a r e not s t r e s s e d a t the workshop and t h e i r r e p o r t e d use was l e s s . Those a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s program which have been more t h o r o u g h l y d e v e l o p e d , c o n t a i n s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l s and can be i n c l u d e d i n l e s s o n s w i t h o u t f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n , had a h i g h e r r e p o r t e d use than t h e l e s s d e v e l o p e d a c t i v i t i e s . F o r example, "Bar G r a p h s " , and "Why's & W h e r e f o r e ' s of E a t i n g " a r e w e l l d e v e l o p e d and had h i g h e r r e p o r t e d l e v e l s of use t h a n "My F o o d s t y l e " , " E a t i n g on a S h o e s t r i n g Budget", or " T a k i n g the B a s i c s A p a r t " which have not been as f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o Concept 1 i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s program were used more f r e q u e n t l y t han a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o Co n c e p t 2 or Concept 3. T a b l e 16 l i s t s t h e a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o each c o n c e p t and t h e mean s c o r e f o r use of each a c t i v i t y . T h i s t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t t h e o v e r a l l mean was 1.729 f o r t h e f i r s t c o n c e p t , 1.289 f o r t h e se c o n d c o n c e p t and 1.175 f o r the t h i r d 92 c o n c e p t . The maximum p o s s i b l e i n each c a s e was 3.0. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 Do t e a c h e r s who use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s w hich r e f l e c t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e ? S c o r e s f o r a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s as measured by a s c o r e on P a r t I I I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 17. T o t a l s c o r e s r a n g e d from 7 t o 34 w i t h a mean of 19.3 ( ± 5 . 9 ) . The maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e was 45. F o r t y - t w o r e s p o n d e n t s (56.0 p e r c e n t ) o b t a i n e d s c o r e s between 15 and 22, w i t h 27 r e s p o n d e n t s (36.0 p e r c e n t ) g a i n i n g s c o r e s between 19 and 22. These r e s u l t s show a wide range i n s c o r e s w i t h 39 r e s p o n d e n t s (52.0 p e r c e n t ) o b t a i n i n g s c o r e s l e s s t h a n t h e mean of 19.3. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e r e was o n l y moderate a c c e p t a n c e of th e r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g F o o d s t y l e s among r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . B i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between use o f F o o d s t y l e s (as measured by a s c o r e on P a r t I I o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) and a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e (as measured by a s c o r e on P a r t I I I of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) i n d i c a t e d t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s . Use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s among r e s p o n d e n t s i n c r e a s e d as c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s r e f l e c t i n g a c c e p t a n c e of the r a t i o n a l e a l s o i n c r e a s e d ( P e a r s o n product-moment 93 Table 16 Mean Scores for Use of Foodstyles A c t i v i t i e s Related to Program Concepts Mean Score Concept 1 : Each student has p h y s i c a l , emotional and soc ia l needs for food. Act i vi t ies : "The Personal P r o f i l e " using Nutrient Allowances 2 . 228 ?The Why's and Wherefore's of Eating" 2 . 278 "The Ca lo r ie Counter" 2 .076 "The Personal P r o f i l e " using the Four Food Groups 1 .696 "The B u i l d - A - C e l l Game" 1 . 620 "A Day in the L i f e O f . . . " 1 . 291 Overa11 Mean 1 . 729 Concept 2: The student 's phys i ca l , emotional and soc ia l needs for food wi l l vary with changes in l i f e s t y l e . Ac t i v i t i es : "The Why's and Wherefore's of Eating" 2 .038 "Exploring the Foodstyles of Others" 1 . 506 "Feeding the World" 1 . 152 "World Food Shortages" 0.873 "Problems of Abundance" 0.872 Overa11 Mean 1 . 289 Concept 3: There are various ways of meeting the student 's present and future requirements for food, taking into account the p h y s i c a l , emotional and soc ia l needs he/she has i dent i f i ed. Act i v i t i es : The Bar Graph A c t i v i t i e s ' 2 . 595 "My Foodstyle" 1 .570 "Where Do Calor ies Come From?" 1 .367 "Guidelines for Evaluating Diets" 1 .241 "Down with Fat, Sugar and Sa l t " 1 . 127 "Eating on a Shoestring Budget" 0.797 "Taking the Basics Apart" 0. 608 "Cooking E f f i c i e n t l y and Se1f -Su f f i c ien t1y" 0. 544 Overal1 Mean 1 . 175 'Highest Mean for Use of Bar Graphs 94 Table 17 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Score for Acceptance of the Foodstyles Rationale Score 1 (Mean=19.3) Frequency Percentage 7- 10 4 5.3 11-14 12 16 .0 15-18 15 20.0 19-22 27 36 .0 23-26 8 10,7 27-30 6 8.0 31-34 3 4.0 Total 75 100.0 'Maximum Score=45 c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t = 0 . 3 4 , p < . 0 l ) . However, o n l y 11.7 p e r c e n t of t h e v a r i a n c e i n s c o r e s f o r use o f F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s was e x p l a i n e d by a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e (R 2=0.117). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s i n t o h i g h , moderate, and low-u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s r e v e a l e d t h a t h i g h - u s e r s more f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t e d t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t r e f l e c t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e r a t i o n a l e t han moderate o r l o w - u s e r s . The mean s c o r e f o r h i g h -u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s was 23.6 ( ± 6 . 5 ) ; f o r m o d e r a t e - u s e r s t h e mean was 1 9 . 4 ( ± 4 . 9 ) ; and f o r l o w - u s e r s i t was 17.0 ( ± 6 . 2 ) . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of t h e s e mean s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among h i g h , moderate, and low-u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s (F=6.09, df=2/72, p < . 0 l ) . A B a r t l e t t - B o x t e s t f o r homogeneity of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d n'o d i f f e r e n c e s among v a r i a n c e s (F=1.08, p>.05). A S c h e f f e m u l t i p l e range t e s t 95 i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean s c o r e s f o r h i g h - u s e r s and t h o s e f o r moderate and l o w - u s e r s (p<.05), but no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the s c o r e s f o r moderate and low-u s e r s . E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e t r a n s c r i p t s of t h e i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n t h e h i g h - u s e r g r o u p s t r e s s e d development of t h e l o n g - t e r m a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s toward f o o d s e l e c t i o n . A t y p i c a l comment from one h i g h - u s e r was: "My g o a l i s t o t r y and h e l p my s t u d e n t s e s t a b l i s h sound e a t i n g h a b i t s t o t a k e them t h r o u g h a good number of y e a r s of t h e i r l i v e s " . H i g h -u s e r s d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e y s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s w h ich h e l p s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s . These a t t i t u d e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s . T e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d who . were i d e n t i f i e d as l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s , s t r e s s e d s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g o f n u t r i t i o n f a c t s r a t h e r t h a n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s knowledge. T h i s emphasis was e v i d e n t from comments among l o w - u s e r s s u c h as "I aim t o h e l p my s t u d e n t s g a i n knowledge of f o o d s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e ; u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y can improve t h e i r d i e t s ; and r e c o g n i z e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s . " These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t h i g h - u s e r s of t h e program more f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t e d t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t r e f l e c t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e than do moderate o r l o w - u s e r s . However, o n l y 11.7 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s , was e x p l a i n e d by A c c e p t a n c e of the R a t i o n a l e . Y e t , a n a l y s i s of i n t e r v i e w s , r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l h i g h -u s e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y i n c l u d e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r 96 l e s s o n s b ecause th e i n t e n t s of the program a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s i n t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t , among h i g h - u s e r s , a c c e p t a n c e of the F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e was a more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n i n f l u e n c i n g use of t h e program, than among moderate or l o w - u s e r s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3 What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? Twelve i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , n i n e demographic and t h r e e n on-demographic, were examined t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s . R e s u l t s f o r t h e demographic v a r i a b l e s have a l r e a d y been r e p o r t e d . The t h r e e non-demographic v a r i a b l e s were t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e toward th e F o o d s t y l e s program; t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e toward th e F o o d s t y l e s workshop; and t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e toward f a c t o r s i n the s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t which i n f l u e n c e d use of F o o d s t y l e s . S c o r e s f o r t h e s e c t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on a t t i t u d e t oward th e F o o d s t y l e s program a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 18. T o t a l s c o r e s r a n g e d from 9 t o 32 w i t h a mean of 24.2 (±3.6) and a p o s s i b l e maximum s c o r e of 32. T a b l e 19 l i s t s the p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e s f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s t o each of the s t a t e m e n t s about th e F o o d s t y l e s program i n d e c r e a s i n g o r d e r of p e r c e n t a g e of s t r o n g agreement. Almost a l l r e s p o n d e n t s (98.6 p e r c e n t ) s t r o n g l y a g r e e d or a g r e e d t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program a r e 97 Table 18 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Score for At t i tude to the Foodstyles Program Score' (Mean=24.2) Frequency Percentage 9- 1 1 1 1 . 3 12-14 0 0.0 15-17 4 5 . 3 18-20 2 2.7 21-23 15 20.0 24-26 36 48 .0 27-29 14 18 . 7 30-32 3 4.0 Total 75 100.0 'Maximum Score=32 c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s of the Foods and N u t r i t i o n s e c t i o n of t h e B r i t i s h C olumbia Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m ( Y e a r s 8-12); 93.4 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e program a p p r o a c h e s n u t r i t i o n i n a manner which i s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s w h i l e 90.8 p e r c e n t a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y a g r e e d t h a t the program meets the needs of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . E i g h t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s f i n d t h e program i n t e r e s t i n g . These comments were a l l s u p p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s . S t a t e m e n t s such a s , " F o o d s t y l e s f i t s i n w i t h my own l e s s o n o b j e c t i v e s " and "The main v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s has been i n p r o v i d i n g me w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e ways t o p r e s e n t n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n which my s t u d e n t s f i n d i n t e r e s t i n g " were r e p e a t e d l y 98 Table 19 Percentage Responses to Statements about the Foodstyles Program (n=75) Percentage of ReSDondents Statements about Foodstyles Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree The object ives of Foodstyles are consistent with the object ives of the Foods and Nutr i t ic curr icu1 urn. Foodstyles approaches n u t r i t i o n in a manner v is su i tab le for use in my lessons. The format of the Foodstyles program is easy fol1ow. The junior Foodstyles program is useful for teaching Junior secondary c lasses . Foodstyles presents n u t r i t i o n in a way that meets the needs of my students. The senior Foodstyles program is useful for teaching senior secondary c lasses . My students f ind the Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s in te res t ing . Foodstyles is d i f f i c u l t to integrate into my foods c l a s s e s . Foodstyles has been of l i t t l e value to me in teaching n u t r i t i o n . Many of the Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s involve to much preparat ion time on my part . expressed.' Most r e s p o n d e n t s (91.2 p e r c e n t ) found the format of t h e program e a s y t o f o l l o w ; w h i l e 89 . 2 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s had been of v a l u e t o them. A l l t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d a g r e e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s had been of v a l u e t o them i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n . S e v e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y found F o o d s t y l e s easy t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o t h e i r n u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s . T e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e y d i d not f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e g r a t e the program i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . S c o r e s f o r t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on a t t i t u d e toward the F o o d s t y l e s workshop a r e shown i n T a b l e 20 and range 27 .0 71 .6 1.4 which 23.7 69.7 6.6 to 17.1 75.0 6.6 1 . 3 16.4 77.6 6.0 15.8 75.0 9.2 10.7 85.7 3.6 8.2 80.8 11.0 2.7 17.8 58.9 20.5 1.4 9.5 59.5 29 . 7 o 17.3 72.0 10.7 99 from 9 to 27 with a maximum po s s i b l e score of 28. The majority of respondents obtained scores between 17 and 24 with 27 respondents (36.0 percent) gaining scores between 17 and 20, and 27 (36.0 percent) ob t a i n i n g scores between 21 and 24. The mean score for a l l respondents was 21.1 (±3.4). Table 20 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Score for Attitude toward the Foodstyles Workshop Score 1 (Mean=21. Frequency . 1 ) Percentage 9-12 2 2 . 7 13-16 ' 3 4.0 17-20 27 36 .0 21-24 27 36 .0 25-27 16 21.3 Total 75 100.0 'Maximum Score=28 T a b l e 21 p r e s e n t s the p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e f o r a l l it e m s r e l a t i n g t o the F o o d s t y l e s workshop i n d e c r e a s i n g o r d e r of s t r o n g agreement. T a b l e 21 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 97.3 p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s a g r e e d or s t r o n g l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e workshop a d e q u a t e l y o u t l i n e s t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e program; 96.0 c o n s i d e r e d the workshop p r e s e n t s t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e c l e a r l y ; 91.9 p e r c e n t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e workshop p r o v i d e s an a d e q u a t e o v e r v i e w of t h e program; 77.6 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s were a d e q u a t e l y o u t l i n e d d u r i n g the workshop; 91.5 a g r e e d or s t r o n g l y a g r e e d t h a t the workshop p r e s e n t s p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g 100 T a b l e 21 Percentage Responses to Statements about the F o o d s t y l e s Workshop (n=75) Percentage Response Statements about F o o d s t y l e s S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e I f e l t keen to t r y out some of the F o o d s t y l e s l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s at the end of the workshop. 42 . 7 54 .7 2 .7 0 The workshop o u t l i n e d the o b j e c t i v e s of F o o d s t y l e s a d e q u a t e l y . 23 . 0 74 , 3 2 .7 0 The workshop p r e s e n t e d the r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s c l e a r l y . 23 . 0 73 .0 4 . 1 0 The workshop p r e s e n t e d p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g F o o d s t y l e s i n t o my foods l e s s o n s . 22 . 5 69 .0 8 .5 0 The workshop o u t l i n e d the use of the-F o o d s t y l e s l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a d e q u a t e l y . 20 5 67 . 1 1 1 .0 1 . 4 The workshop p r o v i d e d an adequate overview of the F o o d s t y l e s program. 20 . 3 7 1 .6 6 .8 1 . 4 I would have p r e f e r r e d more n u t r i t i o n - u p - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n to be p r e s e n t e d at the workshop. 1 1 .6 38 .9 44 .2 5.6 n u t r i t i o n i n t o Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ; and 97 .4 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t the workshop g e n e r a t e d e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e program. H a l f of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s (50.5 p e r c e n t ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y would' have p r e f e r r e d more n u t r i t i o n u p - d ate i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the workshop. T e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d were a l s o v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of the F o o d s t y l e s workshop. A l l commented on the e x c e l l e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e workshops and f e l t t h a t t h e " e n t h u s i a s m of the workshop l e a d e r s was a major f a c t o r i n e n c o u r a g i n g them t o use t h e program". I n t e r v i e w e e s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some of t h e a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the workshop h e l p e d them t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how the a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y -i m p o r t a n t t o the two t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d who had a t t e n d e d the workshop as s t u d e n t s . One of t h e s e t e a c h e r s s t r e s s e d t h a t she 101 "came away from t h e workshop f e e l i n g c o m f o r t a b l e about u s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s " . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c o r e s f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s on a t t i t u d e t oward f a c t o r s i n t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t which i n f l u e n c e d use of F o o d s t y l e s i s shown i n T a b l e 22. S c o r e s r a n g e d from 4 t o 26 w i t h a maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e of 28. The m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n d e n t s (53.3 p e r c e n t ) o b t a i n e d s c o r e s of 20 or more - t h a t i s , 71.4 p e r c e n t of t h e maximum s c o r e . The mean s c o r e f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s was 19.4 ( ± 3 . 7 ) . Table 22 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Score for At t i tude toward Factors in the School Environment Score 1 (Mean=19.4) Frequency Percentage 4- 7 2 2 . 7 8- 1 1 1 1 . 3 12-15 4 5 . 3 1G- 19 28 37 . 4 20-23 33 44 .0 24-26 7 9.3 Total 75 100.0 Maximum Score=28 T a b l e 23 d i s p l a y s t h e r e s p o n s e s t o s t a t e m e n t s about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between F o o d s t y l e s and t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . Almost a l l r e s p o n d e n t s (98.7 p e r c e n t ) d i s a g r e e d or s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d t h a t l a c k of d u p l i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s p r e v e n t e d t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s f o u r t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t ease i n d u p l i c a t i n g F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t y s h e e t s 102 Table 23 Percentage Responses to Statements about Factors 1n the School Environment (n=75) Percentage Response Statements about Foodstyles — Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree Dupl icat ion f a c i l i t i e s were not ava i lab le so I 36.5 62.2 0 1.3 could not use many Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s . Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s are too cost l y for me to 29.6 64.8 5.6 0 use . I d id not use Foodstyles learning a c t i v i t i e s because i t was too d i f f i c u l t to asses the learning outcomes of my students. I received encouragement from within my school to try out Foodstyles. The time a l l o c a t i o n of my Foods and Nut r i t ion lessons is too short for me to use Foodstyles act i v i t i es . The a b i l i t y leve ls of my students var ied too much to use the Foodstyles approach to teaching n u t r i t i o n . My c lass s i zes are too large to use Foodstyles act i v1t i es. 22.5 71.8 2.8 2.8 17.9 65.7 14.9 1.5 12.3 53.4 32.9 1.3 11.1 70.8 11.1 6.9 8.2 75.3 12.3 4.2 was a major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g toward t h e i r use of t h e program. Most r e s p o n d e n t s (94.4 p e r c e n t ) d i s a g r e e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s were too c o s t l y t o use w h i l e 94.3 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g outcomes of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s d i d not p r e v e n t them from u s i n g the program. A p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d of the r e s p o n d e n t s (34.2 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the time a l l o c a t i o n of t h e i r c l a s s e s was t o o s h o r t t o use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . No comments were made by t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d on t h i s a s p e c t of t h e i r s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . About one s i x t h of the r e s p o n d e n t s (18.1 p e r c e n t ) , c o n s i d e r e d the a b i l i t y l e v e l s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s v a r i e d 1 03 t o o much f o r them t o use the F o o d s t y l e s a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n . E i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y d i d not r e c e i v e encouragement from w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l s t o use t h e F o o d s t y l e s program. I n t e r v i e w e e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s u p p o r t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l development and i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s , t h e y r e c e i v e d no s p e c i f i c encouragement t o ask f o r F o o d s t y l e s workshops or t o use th e F o o d s t y l e s program. T h r e e t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d n o t e d t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s u s i n g t h e program, e n c o u r a g e d them t o i n c o r p o r a t e i t i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . The r e s u l t s of a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f i v e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s e x p l a i n e d 39.7 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s ( R 2=.397). These f i v e v a r i a b l e s were: A t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e F o o d s t y l e s program; S t a t u s when a t t e n d i n g workshop; C o u r s e s t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81; R e c e i p t of t h e n e w s l e t t e r " In Touch"; O n l y j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81. Independent v a r i a b l e s w h i c h d i d not i n c r e a s e t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by more than one p e r c e n t were e x c l u d e d from t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . These were: S i z e of s c h o o l ; Y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; E x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n ; T e a c h i n g b o t h s e n i o r and j u n i o r c l a s s e s ; T e a c h i n g o n l y s e n i o r c l a s s e s ; Number of n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s i n d e g r e e or d i p l o m a ; number of u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s c o m p l e t e d s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n ; A t t i t u d e toward t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop; A t t i t u d e toward f a c t o r s i n t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t which i n f l u e n c e d use of 104 F o o d s t y l e s . T a b l e 24 d i s p l a y s the c o e f f i c i e n t s of m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n , R 2, and change i n R 2 f o r the s t e p w i s e i n c l u s i o n of the f i v e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . A c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r t h e f i v e v a r i a b l e s a p p e a r s i n Appendix H. Table 24 Var iables Inf luencing Use of Foodstyles Var i ables Coef f i c ient of Mu111 p 1 e Correlat ion R* Change in R' Level of Foods & Nut r i t ion Taught 0.439 0. 193 0. 193 Att i tude to Program 0.5 14 0. 264 0.072 Status when Attending Workshop 0. 587 0. 345 0.080 Courses Taught in 1980-81 0.617 0. 381 0.036 Rece1pt/Non-Receipt of Newsletter 0.629 1 0. 397 0.016 ' 'p<.001 The c o e f f i c i e n t o f m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.629) f o r t h e f i v e b e s t p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( p < . 0 0 l ) . The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e of v a r i a n c e (19.3 p e r c e n t ) i n use of F o o d s t y l e s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o l e v e l of Foods and N u t r i t i o n t a u g h t d u r i n g 1980-81. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s and t e a c h i n g o n l y j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g 1980-81. S t a t u s when a t t e n d i n g the workshop a c c o u n t e d f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 8.0 p e r c e n t of t h e v a r i a n c e i n use of F o o d s t y l e s w i t h a t t e n d a n c e as a t e a c h e r c o r r e l a t i n g w i t h h i g h e r use. T e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward the F o o d s t y l e s program a c c o u n t e d f o r an i n c r e a s e of 7.2 p e r c e n t i n the v a r i a n c e f o r s c o r e s on use of the program w i t h p o s i t i v e 1 05 a t t i t u d e s c o r r e l a t i n g w i t h h i g h e r use. An a d d i t i o n a l 3.6 p e r c e n t of t h e v a r i a n c e i n Use of F o o d s t y l e s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o c o u r s e s t a u g h t i n 1980-81 w i t h a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h i n g o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n and i n c r e a s e d use of t h e program. The p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g l e a s t t o Use of F o o d s t y l e s was r e c e i p t or n o n - r e c e i p t of t h e N e w s l e t t e r , "In Touch" w h i c h added o n l y 1.6 p e r c e n t t o t h e v a r i a n c e . R e c e i p t of the n e w s l e t t e r c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h use of t h e program. The r e s u l t s of t h i s m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s i s l i k e l y t o be g r e a t e r among t e a c h e r s who t e a c h s e n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s , who have p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward t h e F o o d s t y l e s program, who were t e a c h e r s when t h e y a t t e n d e d a F o o d s t y l e s workshop, who t e a c h o n l y Foods a n d . N u t r i t i o n , and who r e c e i v e t h e n e w s l e t t e r "In T o u c h " . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4 In what ways i s F o o d s t y l e s of v a l u e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among Home Economics t e a c h e r s ? In j u d g i n g t h e v a l u e o f F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e , t h e p a n e l of e x p e r t s u s e d t h e t h r e e " P r o f i l e s of T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s " (see A p pendix E ) . These p r o f i l e s were b a s e d on a n a l y s e s of r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and d e s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w s as p r e s e n t e d f o r R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 1, 2, and 3. In a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o f i l e s a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n 1 06 p r a c t i c e as r e f l e c t e d by r e s p o n s e s t o Item 10, P a r t IV of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e s p o n s e s t o i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n 12. Responses t o Item 10, P a r t IV of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 25 and i n d i c a t e d t h a t 67 r e s p o n d e n t s (89.4 p e r c e n t ) s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d or d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t F o o d s t y l e s had been of l i t t l e v a l u e t o them i n t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n . E i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s (10.6 p e r c e n t ) a g r e e d or s t r o n g l y a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . Table 25 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Responses to ItemiO'. Part IV of the Questionnaire Responses Frequency Percentage * Strongly Agree 1 1.3 Agree 7 9.3 Disagree 45 60.0 Strongly Disagree 22 29.4 Total 75 100.0 'This item asked teachers to respond to the statement that "Foodstyles has been of l i t t l e ' value to me in teaching n u t r i t i o n " . An a n a l y s i s of t h e t r a n s c r i p t s of t h e i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d were unanimous i n a g r e e i n g t h a t F o o d s t y l e s had been of v a l u e t o them d u r i n g n u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . They v a r i e d , however, i n t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . A l l h i g h - u s e r s i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e program was v a l u a b l e b ecause i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s i n t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n , and because i t meets t h e needs of t h e i r 1 07 s t u d e n t s . One of t h e h i g h - u s e r s e x p l a i n e d t h a t her aim i n t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n was t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s " t o d e v e l o p p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards f o o d s e l e c t i o n . . . A l o t o f t h e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s emphasize t h a t f o o d s e l e c t i o n i n v o l v e s a w e i g h i n g up of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n a r i g h t or wrong d e c i s i o n . . . They h e l p s t u d e n t s a s s e s s t h e e v i d e n c e , weigh t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s and a r r i v e a t a d e c i s i o n f o r t h e m s e l v e s " . A s e c o n d h i g h - u s e r i n t e r v i e w e d s t r e s s e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s was v a l u a b l e because i t " e n c o u r a g e s my s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k about t h e i r own l i f e s t y l e s and f o o d c h o i c e s r a t h e r than about n u t r i t i o n i n g e n e r a l terms...One of my major o b j e c t i v e s i s t o h e l p my s t u d e n t s r e c o g n i z e good f o o d c h o i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y good s n a c k i n g c h o i c e s " . A t h i r d h i g h - u s e r i n t e r v i e w e d t a u g h t o n l y Grade 12 s t u d e n t s i n a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c o n t r a c t system where s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e a s s i g n m e n t s r e l a t e d t o e a c h t o p i c a t t h e i r own pace and i n whatever o r d e r t h e y w i s h . She f i n d s F o o d s t y l e s v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e i t i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h h e r program .."When you a r e w o r k i n g on an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program, you must have so many m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e a l l t h e t i m e t o meet t h e needs of e v e r y s t u d e n t . . . The i n d i v i d u a l i z e d n a t u r e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s makes them p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r my l e s s o n s " . T h r e e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s i n t e r v i e w e d s u g g e s t e d a number of r e a s o n s why F o o d s t y l e s had been of v a l u e t o them. One commented t h a t " F o o d s t y l e s took th e p r e s s u r e away from me b e i n g t h e one t o p r e s e n t the m a t e r i a l t o be t a u g h t , and i n s t e a d the s t u d e n t s had t o d i s c o v e r t h i n g s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . . . " . A n o t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h e 1 08 program was v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e i t p r e s e n t s "a d i f f e r e n t way of t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n . . . I t i s not a t e x t b o o k a p p r o a c h but em p h a s i z e s change i n s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r " . A t h i r d m o d e r a t e - u s e r c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n n o v a t i o n was v a l u a b l e because i t i n t r o d u c e d her t o a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n - " T h i s F o o d s t y l e s i d e a i n not one which came t h r o u g h my n u t r i t i o n b a c k g r o u n d . . . F o o d s t y l e s has l e t me b r a n c h out i n t o a more l i f e - s t y l e o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h t h a n I would o t h e r w i s e have t a k e n " . O t h e r r e a s o n s g i v e n by m o d e r a t e - u s e r s f o r v a l u i n g F o o d s t y l e s i n c l u d e d : "My s t u d e n t s f i n d t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t e r e s t i n g " and "The program c o n t a i n s a w e a l t h of sound n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n " . A l l t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d who were i d e n t i f i e d a s l o w - u s e r s o f F o o d s t y l e s , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e main v a l u e o f t h e program was the s u i t a b i l i t y of t h e n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i t c o n t a i n s and t h e ease of use of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . One l o w - u s e r commented t h a t " F o o d s t y l e s has been v a l u a b l e t o me because i t p r o v i d e d me w i t h some a l t e r n a t i v e ways of p r e s e n t i n g n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n which my s t u d e n t s f i n d i n t e r e s t i n g " . A n o t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e program i s "a s o u r c e of sound i n f o r m a t i o n . . . I t i s a c o n c i s e way of p r e s e n t i n g n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n " . A t h i r d d e s c r i b e d t h e program as v a l u a b l e b ecause i t p r o v i d e s new i d e a s f o r n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . . . " I t i s a program d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . . . T h e r e i s not much e l s e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . . . F o o d s t y l e s i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d and the i n f o r m a t i o n i s c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d . . . . I t i s easy t o d u p l i c a t e " . O v e r a l l , t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r F o o d s t y l e s t o be v a l u a b l e . H i g h - u s e r s a t t r i b u t e d t h i s v a l u e , t o the program because i t 1 09 e n c o u r a g e s s t u d e n t s t o use n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n by a p p l y i n g i t t o t h e m s e l v e s . Low-users f o u n d the program v a l u a b l e b ecause i t p r o v i d e s w o r t h w h i l e n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e easy t o use. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e r e s p o n s e s of t h e p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s who j u d g e d the v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . P a n e l members based t h e i r answers t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and b e l i e f s . R e s ponses t o the f i r s t q u e s t i o n , "How s h o u l d n u t r i t i o n be t a u g h t by s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s ? " were unanimous. A l l members of t h e p a n e l a g r e e d t h a t n u t r i t i o n s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . However, t h e y a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of p r e s e n t i n g a s i n g l e l e s s o n on n u t r i t i o n w hich c o u l d t h e n p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r a s e r i e s of i n t e g r a t e d l e s s o n s . A l l s t r e s s e d t h a t n u t r i t i o n s h o u l d be t a u g h t from a p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h an an emphasis on f o o d s e l e c t i o n b e h a v i o u r . In r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e sec o n d q u e s t i o n , "What changes would you l i k e t o see i n t h e t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n by s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s ? " members of t h e p a n e l f o c u s e d on two b r o a d a r e a s of change - t h e Home Ec o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l u m , and t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n . They recommended t h a t n u t r i t i o n s h o u l d be the f o c u s f o r t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m and t h a t a r e v i s e d p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d which r e f l e c t s t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n of n u t r i t i o n i n t o a l l a r e a s of f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n . The s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l g r o u p was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u p p o r t i v e o f . t h i s s u g g e s t i o n and empha s i z e d t h a t 1 10 e a c h f o o d c o n c e p t t a u g h t s h o u l d be s t u d i e d from f o u r p e r s p e c t i v e s - N u t r i t i o n , P r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s and s t r u c t u r e of f o o d s , Methods of f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n ; Consumerism and management of r e s o u r c e s (Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , 1981, p. i ) . At t h e s c h o o l l e v e l , t h e p a n e l recommended g r e a t e r emphasis be p l a c e d on d e v e l o p i n g s t u d e n t a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between n u t r i t i o n f a c t and f a l l a c y , e v a l u a t e new f o o d p r o d u c t s , i d e n t i f y c o n t e m p o r a r y i s s u e s i n n u t r i t i o n , and r e c o g n i z e n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y of f o o d s . One g r o u p o f p a n e l i s t s i d e n t i f i e d t h e major r o l e of t h e s c h o o l as t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o become s u c c e s s f u l , h e a l t h y b e i n g s w i t h i n o u r community. D u r i n g t h e i r s c h o o l y e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , s t u d e n t s s h o u l d a c q u i r e l i f e - s k i l l s which i n c l u d e t h e a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t and p r e p a r e n u t r i t i o u s f o o d s . In r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , members of t h e p a n e l recommended t h a t t o p i c s s t u d i e d d u r i n g f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n l e s s o n s s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s of sound n u t r i t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , e n r i c h m e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s , s h o u l d be c h o s e n o n l y i f t h e y c o n t r i b u t e towards the h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g of t h e s t u d e n t . E n r i c h m e n t a c t i v i t i e s t h a t do not meet t h e s e c r i t e r i a ( s u c h as t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of m e r i n g u e s o r w h i t e c a k e s ) s h o u l d be l e f t t o a n o t h e r time i n a s t u d e n t ' s l i f e and t o an i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e community o t h e r than t h e s c h o o l . Members of the p a n e l were unanimous i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o the t h i r d q u e s t i o n , "In what ways do you t h i n k F o o d s t y l e s s h o u l d be u s e d i n Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s ? " A l l c i t e d t h e h i g h -1 1 1 u s e r s as e x e m p l i f y i n g t h e ways t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e program s h o u l d be u s e d . P a n e l i s t s recommended t h a t F o o d s t y l e s s h o u l d be an a d j u n c t t o t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m and s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t i t i n a s e q u e n t i a l manner. They c o n s i d e r e d F o o d s t y l e s s h o u l d p r o v i d e a s t i m u l u s f o r d e v e l o p i n g new i d e a s f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n . Some a c t i v i t i e s may need t o be a d a p t e d by t e a c h e r s t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c needs of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . N e x t , members of t h e p a n e l were a s k e d t o d i s c u s s t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e l i g h t of t h e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e " P r o f i l e s of T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s " . In commenting on t h e a d v a n t a g e s of t h e ways t h a t t e a c h e r s used F o o d s t y l e s , p a n e l i s t s e mphasized t h a t h i g h - u s e r s , who t e n d e d t o be t e a c h e r s of s e n i o r s t u d e n t s , r e c o g n i z e d t h e need t o d e v e l o p s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e c o n c e p t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e program. They t h e r e f o r e i n t r o d u c e t h e c o n c e p t s t o t h e i r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s by means of j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e n d e v e l o p them f u r t h e r t h r o u g h s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s . The p r a c t i c e of h i g h - u s e r s i n a d a p t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s t o meet the needs of t h e i r s t u d e n t s , was a l s o c i t e d as an example o f an a d v a n t a g e of t h e way t h e program was u s e d . But d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n t h e ways some t e a c h e r s were u s i n g t h e program were a l s o n o t e d . Members of t h e p a n e l were c o n c e r n e d t h a t many t e a c h e r s d i d not use F o o d s t y l e s s e q u e n t i a l l y . The f i r s t two c o n c e p t s i n the program a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l commitment and p e r s o n a l e v a l u a t i o n , and a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e two c o n c e p t s a r e b e i n g r e a s o n a b l y w e l l u s e d . 1 1 2 The t h i r d c o n c e p t i n v o l v e s a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e l e a r n i n g a c q u i r e d i n t h e f i r s t two c o n c e p t s , but t h e a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h i s c o n c e p t were used l e s s t h an t h e a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e o t h e r c o n c e p t s . A n o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t l o w - u s e r s u t i l i z e d t h e program o n l y t o t e a c h n u t r i t i o n f a c t s . F o o d s t y l e s , however, was not i n t e n d e d t o t e a c h o n l y n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n but was d e v e l o p e d t o e n c o u r a g e changes i n d i e t a r y b e h a v i o u r as w e l l . One s t r e n g t h of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program i s t h a t i t i s an e x c e l l e n t example of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e p r i n c i p l e s of program p l a n n i n g i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e s a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e c o n c e p t s and a c t i v i t i e s and t h e s e a l l r e l a t e t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y of t h e program. O t h e r s t r e n g t h s n o t e d by members of t h e p a n e l were the f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e program, t h e c l a r i t y o f p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e program and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e workshop i n m o t i v a t i n g t e a c h e r s t o i n c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . Members of t h e p a n e l however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s shows e v i d e n c e of some weaknesses. The program c o u l d have a much c l e a r e r s t a t e m e n t of t h e u n d e r l y i n g r a t i o n a l e . The s h o r t i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h on ± h e f i r s t page of the p u b l i s h e d program i s not a d e q u a t e t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i n t e n t s of the program and i t s p h i l o s o p h y . P a n e l i s t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t an expanded s t a t e m e n t of t h e p h i l o s o p h y of t h e program be i n c l u d e d i n the F o o d s t y l e s manual. They a l s o s u g g e s t e d more emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on e x p l a i n i n g t h e r a t i o n a l e of t h e program d u r i n g the workshops. 1 1 3 I t was a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t F o o d s t y l e s has m i s s e d i t s t a r g e t a u d i e n c e . The program was not u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y g r a d e s . Y e t , i t i s h e r e t h a t t h e program has i t s g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l s i n c e l a r g e numbers of s t u d e n t s , b o t h g i r l s and b o y s , s t u d y Home E c o n o m i c s i n Grade 8. O n l y a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of t h e s e s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e s u b j e c t t o s e n i o r l e v e l s and t h a t i s where, a t the moment, F o o d s t y l e s i s h a v i n g i t s g r e a t e s t i m p a c t . The p a n e l t h e r e f o r e , recommended t h a t the needs of j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be r e - e v a l u a t e d so t h a t new a c t i v i t i e s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . Members of t h e p a n e l n o t e d t h a t t h e more f r e q u e n t l y u s e d a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h o s e t h a t have been w e l l d e v e l o p e d and a r e s t r e s s e d a t t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshops. They t h e r e f o r e recommended -that some of t h e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be expanded t o i n c l u d e more s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e b y e n c o u r a g i n g t e a c h e r s t o use them more. Some of t h e p a n e l i s t s s u g g e s t e d t h e r e may be o t h e r r e a s o n s why a c t i v i t i e s a r e not b e i n g used e x t e n s i v e l y . Lack of use may not be o n l y a f a u l t of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program but c o u l d a l s o be a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e b a c k g r o u n d of younger t e a c h e r s who may not f e e l e q u i p p e d t o use t h e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . The p a n e l recommended t h a t a p h i l o s o p h y of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n which i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s s h o u l d be the f o u n d a t i o n f o r N u t r i t i o n and Food P r e p a r a t i o n c o u r s e s which a r e o f f e r e d f o r s t u d e n t -t e a c h e r s a t U n i v e r s i t y . They a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t s p e c i a l 1 1 4 workshops f o r b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s may f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p h i l o s o p h y of t h e program and may h e l p them r e c o g n i z e ways t h a t F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . I f t h i s was not a v i a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n i n s m a l l towns t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , an a l t e r n a t i v e may be t o p r o v i d e s p e c i a l i z e d workshops f o r s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s . Members of t h e p a n e l a l s o recommended t h a t t h e needs of t e a c h e r s f o r a d d i t i o n a l n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e F o u n d a t i o n s h o u l d m a i n t a i n i t s p r e s e n t p o l i c y of s e p a r a t i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the F o o d s t y l e s program and i d e a s f o r i t s use i n the c l a s s r o o m from t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of n u t r i t i o n u p - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . The p a n e l d i d not c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n of n u t r i t i o n u p - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s was n e c e s s a r i l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n , but t h o u g h t t h a t some o t h e r n u t r i t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n may c o n s i d e r u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s t a s k . They s u g g e s t e d a f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l development day f o r Home Ec o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s c o u l d be v a l u a b l e w i t h , f o r example, a F o o d s t y l e s workshop i n the m o r n i n g and a n u t r i t i o n - u p - d a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . O v e r a l l , members of t h e p a n e l were h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e of F o o d s t y l e s and e n d o r s e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y and c o n t e n t of the program. However, t h e y d i d not c o n s i d e r t h e program has had a s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t impact on n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among Home Economics t e a c h e r s . The p a n e l t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t t h e D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n s h o u l d r e v i e w i t s program i n an atte m p t t o i n c r e a s e t h e impact of F o o d s t y l e s i n s e c o n d a r y Home 1 1 5 Economics i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations b a s e d on t h e major f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r t o g e t h e r w i t h a summary of t h e s t u d y and c o n c l u s i o n s . 1 16 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a b r i e f r e v i e w of t h e n a t u r e of the s t u d y , t h e major f i n d i n g s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s , and recommendations s u g g e s t e d by t h e r e s u l t s . Summary The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e impact of ' F o o d s t y l e s : P e r s p e c t i v e s on Food F o r P e o p l e ' (B.C. D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n , 1978) on t h e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s of s e c o n d a r y Home Eco n o m i c s e d u c a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F o o d s t y l e s i s a n u t r i t i o n i n n o v a t i o n i n t e n d e d f o r use i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Foods and N u t r i t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m . T e a c h e r use of t h e program was s e l e c t e d as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g t h e impact of t h e i n n o v a t i o n on t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were i n t e n d e d t o d e t e r m i n e how t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s , i f t e a c h e r s who use t h e program a c c e p t i t s r a t i o n a l e , what f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r . u s e of t h e program and i n what ways F o o d s t y l e s i s of v a l u e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s . Data were o b t a i n e d by m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o 220 t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who had a t t e n d e d a F o o d s t y l e s workshop between September 1978 and December 1980 and who were t e a c h i n g Home Economics i n s c h o o l 1 1 7 d i s t r i c t s t h a t a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . Of t h e 113 (51.8 p e r c e n t ) who r e s p o n d e d , 75 were t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g 1980-81 and were i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s . R e l i a b i l i t y of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h e s t u d y w i t h H o y t ' s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ( N e l s o n , 1974) o f .83 f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t , and .77, .64, .80, .83 and .75, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r e a c h of t h e s u b - t e s t s . I n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d among a sample of t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d t h e y were w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s . The p u r p o s e of t h e i n t e r v i e w s was t o o b t a i n d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of how some t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . Data were a n a l y z e d t o c o n s t r u c t " P r o f i l e s of T e a c h e r Use of F o o d s t y l e s " f o r h i g h , moderate and l o w - u s e r s of t h e program. These t h r e e u s e r - l e v e l s were d e f i n e d by s c o r e s on t h e s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h measured t e a c h e r use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . Based on t h e s e p r o f i l e s , a p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s j u d g e d the v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s . The major f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d as t h e y r e l a t e t o each o f t h e f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1: How do t e a c h e r s use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n ? T e a c h e r s do not use t h e e n t i r e F o o d s t y l e s program as a c o m p l e t e t e a c h i n g u n i t . I n s t e a d , t h e y s e l e c t i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s from the program t h a t a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h 1 18 t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s and use t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d e n t s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e y use F o o d s t y l e s , w i t h 14 t e a c h e r s (18.7 p e r c e n t ) i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h - u s e r s , 36 (48.0 p e r c e n t ) as m o d e r a t e - u s e r s and 25 (33.3 p e r c e n t ) as l o w - u s e r s . In g e n e r a l , h i g h - u s e r s of t h e program a p p e a r e d t o use F o o d s t y l e s as i t was i n t e n d e d t o be u s e d and as t h e p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s b e l i e v e d i t s h o u l d be u s e d . H i g h - u s e r s s e l e c t e d t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h ich were c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n , which t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s would f i n d i n t e r e s t i n g , and w hich t h e y c o n s i d e r e d would e n c o u r a g e t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o a s s e s s and m o d i f y t h e i r d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s . Use o f F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s a l s o v a r i e d among t e a c h e r s . J u n i o r - l e v e l a c t i v i t i e s were used more t h a n s e n i o r - l e v e l a c t i v i t i e s and t h o s e s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d a t t h e workshops were us e d more f r e q u e n t l y than t h e o t h e r s . A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e f i r s t c o n c e p t i n t h e program were used more than t h o s e r e l a t e d t o t h e o t h e r two c o n c e p t s (see Appendix A ) . A c t i v i t i e s w h ich have been e x t e n s i v e l y d e v e l o p e d , have a d e q u a t e s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l s and a r e r e a d y f o r c l a s s r o o m use w i t h o u t f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n , were r e p o r t e d t o be used i n l e s s o n s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n a c t i v i t i e s w h ich t e a c h e r s had t o d e v e l o p f u r t h e r b e f o r e u s e . A l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s of j u n i o r c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s use of t h e program than t e a c h e r s of s e n i o r c l a s s e s or t e a c h e r s of b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s e s , d e v e l o p e r s of t h e 1 19 program c o n s i d e r t h a t the t a r g e t a u d i e n c e f o r F o o d s t y l e s i s t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y Home Economics s t u d e n t . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2: Do t e a c h e r s who use F o o d s t y l e s l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s ? A s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d between s c o r e s f o r Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s and s c o r e s f o r A c c e p t a n c e of the F o o d s t y l e s R a t i o n a l e . A c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s R a t i o n a l e a c c o u n t e d f o r 11.7 p e r c e n t of t h e v a r i a n c e i n Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s , t e a c h e r s who were i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h - u s e r s s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e y s e l e c t e d F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s f o r use i n t h e i r l e s s o n s b ecause t h e a c t i v i t i e s seemed t o f i t w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . The p a n e l of j u d g e s , however, n o t e d t h a t l i t t l e emphasis was p l a c e d on e x p l a i n i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g t h e program i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s manual. H i g h - u s e r s r e p o r t e d u s i n g F o o d s t y l e s as i n t e n d e d by program d e v e l o p e r s i n t e n d e d i t t o be u s e d , t h a t i s , t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o s e l e c t p e r s o n a l f o o d p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r needs and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s . A l t h o u g h t h e program d e v e l o p e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s was n e v e r i n t e n d e d t o be u s e d o n l y t o t e a c h n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , l o w - u s e r s t e n d e d t o use F o o d s t y l e s i n t h i s way. 1 20 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3: What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s d u r i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s ? The f o u r c l u s t e r s of f a c t o r s i n v e s t i g a t e d were t h o s e r e l a t e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t e a c h e r s , t h e program, the workshop and t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . R e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d ..that f o u r demographic v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t e a c h e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d s c o r e s f o r Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s . These were: t e a c h i n g s e n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s , t e a c h i n g o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s , a t t e n d i n g t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop as a t e a c h e r r a t h e r t h a n as a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r , ' and r e c e i v i n g t h e n e w s l e t t e r , "In To u c h " . S c o r e s f o r A t t i t u d e s toward the F o o d s t y l e s Program a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d s c o r e s f o r Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s . In g e n e r a l t e a c h e r s had v e r y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t oward t h e F o o d s t y l e s program. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d e n t s o b t a i n e d a mean s c o r e of 75.6 p e r c e n t on t h e s e c t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e which measured A t t i t u d e toward t h e F o o d s t y l e s Program. A s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between s c o r e s f o r A t t i t u d e toward t h e F o o d s t y l e s program and s c o r e s f o r Use of F o o d s t y l e s A c t i v i t i e s . A l l t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e program. O v e r a l l , t e a c h e r s were e x t r e m e l y s u p p o r t i v e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d e n t s o b t a i n e d a mean s c o r e of 78.2 p e r c e n t on t h e s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which measured A t t i t u d e toward the Workshop. T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s f o r A t t i t u d e toward t h e 121 Workshop among high, moderate and low-users. No s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were found between scores for Use of Foodstyles A c t i v i t i e s and Attitudes toward the Foodstyles Workshop. Teachers interviewed were unanimous in their support for the workshop. While f i f t y percent of the questionnaire respondents indicated a preference for more nutrition up-date information in the workshops, the panel of nutrition educators concurred with the policy of the Dairy Foundation in using the workshops to introduce ideas for teaching nutrition rather than to present nu t r i t i o n information. No s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were found between scores for Attitudes toward Factors in the School Environment and Use of Foodstyles A c t i v i t i e s . While almost eighty percent of the questionnaire respondents reported they did not receive encouragement from within their schools to use Foodstyles, teachers interviewed indicated they did not consider aspects of their school environment prevented them from using the program. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found among high, moderate and low-users on scores for Attitude toward Factors in the School Environment which influence use of Foodstyles. Research Question 4: In what ways is Foodstyles of value in nu t r i t i o n education practice among Home Economics teachers? Most teachers indicated that Foodstyles had been of value to them. Approximately ninety percent of the questionnaire respondents agreed that the innovation had been valuable to them in their teaching of Foods and Nutrition. Teachers interviewed 1 22 were unanimous i n t h e i r agreement t h a t F o o d s t y l e s had been of v a l u e t o them. Some of t h e i r r e a s o n s were t h a t F o o d s t y l e s was d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use i n C a n a d i a n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ; a c t i v i t i e s can be used i n d i v i d u a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n program; F o o d s t y l e s a s s i s t s s t u d e n t s make d e c i s i o n s about t h e i r own f o o d p a t t e r n s ; F o o d s t y l e s e mphasizes c h anges i n d i e t a r y b e h a v i o u r ; s t u d e n t s f i n d t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t e r e s t i n g ; t h e program i s w e l l p r e s e n t e d and ea s y t o use. The p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s a l l a g r e e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s i s v a l u a b l e i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s . They c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n n o v a t i o n v a l u a b l e b ecause i t • e n c o u r a g e s t h e t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n from a p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h an emphasis on changes i n d i e t a r y b e h a v i o u r . I t i s a f l e x i b l e program w h i c h can be i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m and i s an e x c e l l e n t example of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e p r i n c i p l e s of program p l a n n i n g i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e Study Based on t h e f i n d i n g s of t h e s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s can be drawn. They a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e as t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e F o o d s t y l e s program, t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop, n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e i n s e c o n d a r y Home Ec o n o m i c s and n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h . 1 23 I m p l i c a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o t h e F o o d s t y l e s Program O n l y 18.7 p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h -u s e r s of t h e program. I t must, t h e r e f o r e , be c o n c l u d e d t h a t F o o d s t y l e s has o n l y i n f l u e n c e d n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among s e c o n d a r y Home Ec o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s t o a l i m i t e d d e g r e e . T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e and use of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . The F o o d s t y l e s manual, however, i n c l u d e s o n l y a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h a t r a t i o n a l e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t an expanded s t a t e m e n t of t h e p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g F o o d s t y l e s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the manual t o i n c r e a s e t e a c h e r awareness of t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e program. A l t h o u g h t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e f o r F o o d s t y l e s i s t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y Home Ec o n o m i c s s t u d e n t , j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s were used m a i n l y w i t h s e n i o r s t u d e n t s and s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e use a t a l l . These f i n d i n g s i m p l y t h a t j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s may not be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y c l a s s e s , and t h a t s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s may not be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e c o n c e p t s i n c l u d e d i n F o o d s t y l e s (see Appendix A ) , which a r e a l l v i t a l f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e i n t e n t s of th e program. The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y show t h a t a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e f i r s t c o n c e p t were u s e d more than a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e o t h e r two c o n c e p t s . The F o o d s t y l e s program, t h e r e f o r e , may not be a c h i e v i n g i t s i n t e n t i o n s . I f t h e program i s t o have i t s maximum imp a c t , t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o a l l t h r e e c o n c e p t s i n t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n program. 124 The F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s most f r e q u e n t l y used t e n d e d t o be t h o s e t h a t a r e w e l l d e v e l o p e d , i n c l u d e s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l s and can be i n c l u d e d i n l e s s o n s w i t h o u t f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n o r d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t some of t h e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y used a c t i v i t i e s might r e c e i v e more use i f t h e y were d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r t o i n c l u d e a d e q u a t e s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l s so t h e y a r e r e a d y f o r c l a s s r o o m use. I m p l i c a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o t h e F o o d s t y l e s Workshop The f o l l o w i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop a r i s e from th e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y . T e a c h e r s were h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop and p e r c e i v e d i t t o be a s u c c e s s f u l method of o u t l i n i n g t h e program. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n s h o u l d r e t a i n t h e workshop as a means of i n t r o d u c i n g the i n n o v a t i o n t o t e a c h e r s . A c t i v i t i e s o u t l i n e d d u r i n g t h e workshop t e n d e d t o r e c e i v e most u s e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f o r m a t of t h e workshop s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e c o v e r a g e of t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d most i m p o r t a n t i n a t t a i n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e program. A l t h o u g h h a l f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y would have p r e f e r r e d more n u t r i t i o n u p - date i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e workshop, t h e p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e d t h e workshops s h o u l d be c o n f i n e d t o o u t l i n i n g methods of t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n . These f i n d i n g s i m p l y t h a t a l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s want more n u t r i t i o n u p - date i n f o r m a t i o n t h e p a n e l i s t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e 1 25 workshop may not be the most a p p r o p r i a t e way t o p r o v i d e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . Those who a t t e n d e d workshops w h i l e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s were found t o be p r e d o m i n a n t l y l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop may have l i m i t e d impact on t h o s e who a t t e n d as s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Se c o n d a r y N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n Two i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e c o n d a r y n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n c an be drawn from t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a need f o r a c o n s i s t e n t p h i l o s o p h y of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s p e r c e i v e d c o n f l i c t i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s between t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n s e c t i o n of. t h e p r o v i n c i a l Home Economics c u r r i c u l u m and F o o d s t y l e s . Members of t h e p a n e l a g r e e d t h a t n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n i n s e c o n d a r y Home Ec o n o m i c s s h o u l d be t a u g h t from a p u p i l - c e n t r e d p e r s p e c t i v e so t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o a s s e s s t h e adequacy of t h e i r own d i e t s and m o d i f y them i f n e c e s s a r y . In a d d i t i o n , p a n e l i s t s f e l t t h a t n u t r i t i o n s h o u l d be the f o c u s f o r t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m and t h a t p r a c t i c a l f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e s of sound n u t r i t i o n . The F o o d s t y l e s program was seen t o be c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h i s p h i l o s o p h y of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n , but t h e p r o v i n c i a l Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m was not c o n s i d e r e d c o m p a t i b l e . A s e c o n d i m p l i c a t i o n f o r s e c o n d a r y n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n a l s o emerged. A p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s who 126 r e s p o n d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p o r t e d t h e y would p r e f e r more n u t r i t i o n u p - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n F o o d s t y l e s workshops. V e r y few t e a c h e r s , however, r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had a t t e n d e d any u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s s i n c e t h e i r g r a d u a t i o n . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t a l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s want n u t r i t i o n u p - d ate i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y do not see f o r m a l u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r p u r p o s e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l i n - s e r v i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs i n n u t r i t i o n be p r o v i d e d f o r s e c o n d a r y Home Economics t e a c h e r s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h Two i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h i s e v a l u a t i o n . F i r s t , t h e a p p r o a c h t o e v a l u a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r s t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n of i n n o v a t i o n s which a r e d e s i g n e d f o r use i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m and which may be i n c l u d e d i n l e s s o n s i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. Comments a r e p r e s e n t e d on s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s of t h e e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n u s e d . These r e l a t e t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r o f i l e s of t e a c h e r s use of t h e i n n o v a t i o n based on s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s and on d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a from i n t e r v i e w s ; the use of a p a n e l of e x p e r t s t o judge t h e v a l u e o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n ; and t h e s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h e r use of t h e i n n o v a t i o n as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r judgement. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r o f i l e s of use of an i n n o v a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o supplement an e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m , p r o v i d e s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e b a s i s f o r j u d g i n g i t s impact on t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . 127 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a p e r m i t t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t o g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r l e v e l o f use o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n from i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d p a t t e r n s of use a t e a c h l e v e l . Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e two s o u r c e s o f d a t a p r o v i d e d a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e e x t e n t and q u a l i t y of t e a c h e r use of t h e i n n o v a t i o n . U s i n g a p a n e l o f n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s t o judge t h e v a l u e of an i n n o v a t i o n p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d c o n c u r r e n t l y . In p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s members r e v i e w e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f the i n n o v a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e i r p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . From t h i s r e v i e w , a judgement of wo r t h e v o l v e d . The p a n e l a p p r o a c h i n c r e a s e d t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f e s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d e x t e r n a l s t a n d a r d s f o r j u d g i n g t h e v a l u e of an i n n o v a t i o n . E m p l o y i n g use as a c r i t e r i o n f o r j u d g i n g t h e wo r t h of t h e i n n o v a t i o n , i d e n t i f i e d t h e p a r t i c u l a r ways t h a t t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y use t h e i n n o v a t i o n . Knowing t h i s , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e impact of t h e program on s t u d e n t f o o d p a t t e r n s c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d . F o r example, changes i n f o o d p a t t e r n s of s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h and low u s e r s c o u l d be compared. Second, t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a need f o r a s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop on t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n h e l d by Home Ec o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Q u e s t i o n s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d c o u l d i n c l u d e : What p h i l o s o p h i e s of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n a r e h e l d by Home Economics 128 t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ? Do t e a c h e r s implement F o o d s t y l e s as i n t e n d e d by t h e program d e v e l o p e r s o n l y i f t h e y a l r e a d y have a p h i l o s o p h y o f n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s when t h e y a t t e n d a workshop? Does t h e workshop i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' p h i l o s o p h y of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n ? In what ways c a n t h e f o r m a t o f t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop be m o d i f i e d t o e n c o u r a g e w i d e r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e and u l t i m a t e l y g r e a t e r use of t h e program? Answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s would p r o v i d e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n t o a s s e s s t h e v a l u e of t h e workshop i n p r o m o t i n g a d o p t i o n of t h e F o o d s t y l e s program. Recommendations Based on t h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e impact n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e among s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s , t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations a r e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n . 1. An expanded s t a t e m e n t of t h e r a t i o n a l e of F o o d s t y l e s a p p e a r i n t h e manual t o i n c l u d e t h e p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g F o o d s t y l e s , t h e i n t e n t s of t h e program and t h e r e a s o n s why t h e F o o d s t y l e s a p p r o a c h i s c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h w h i l e i n s e c o n d a r y n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . 2. A d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y Home Ec o n o m i c s s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Grade 8, be d e v e l o p e d and i n c l u d e d i n t h e program. In d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s of F o o d s t y l e s i n Home Ec o n o m i c s o f f e r e d t o t h e 129 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the needs, i n t e r e s t s , and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s o f t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e c o n t e n t a r e a s o f t h e j u n i o r Home Ec o n o m i c s C u r r i c u l u m and t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s of j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s . 3. A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e program be r e v i e w e d and i f n e c e s s a r y , m o d i f i e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l i n c l u d e a d e q u a t e s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l s so t h e y e n c o u r a g e c l a s s r o o m u s e . 4. The workshop be r e t a i n e d a s t h e method of i n t r o d u c i n g F o o d s t y l e s t o Home E c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s . The f o r m a t , however, s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d and m o d i f i e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o a l l t h r e e program c o n c e p t s r e c e i v e a d e q u a t e c o v e r a g e and t h a t t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d most i m p o r t a n t i n a t t a i n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e program a r e em p h a s i z e d . A l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s want more n u t r i t i o n u p - d ate i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s recommended t h a t t h e workshop be r e t a i n e d t o i n t r o d u c e the i n n o v a t i o n and t h a t a d d i t i o n a l n u t r i t i o n u p - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d not be i n c l u d e d . 5. I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t s p e c i a l i z e d workshops be d e v e l o p e d f o r s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s t o a s s i s t them t o r e c o g n i z e ways F o o d s t y l e s c an be use d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . 1 30 C o n c l u s i o n The p a n e l of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t ' F o o d s t y l e s : P e r s p e c t i v e s on Food F o r P e o p l e ' (B.C. D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n , 1978) r e p r e s e n t s a v a l u a b l e a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n i n s e c o n d a r y Home E c o n o m i c s . T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the F o o d s t y l e s program a p p e a r s t o have had o n l y a moderate impact on t h e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s o f s e c o n d a r y Home Economics e d u c a t o r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e impact of t h e program w i l l i n c r e a s e g r e a t l y w h i l e d i f f e r i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n a r e e v i d e n t between t h e p r o v i n c i a l Foods and N u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m and t h e F o o d s t y l e s program. 131 LITERATURE CITED A p p l e , M. W. The p r o c e s s and i d e o l o g y of v a l u i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . In M. W. A p p l e , M.'J. S u b k o v i a k & H. S. L u f l e r ( E d s . ) , E d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n : A n a l y s i s and r e s p o n s i l i t y . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan, 1974. B.C. D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n . F o o d s t y l e s : P e r s p e c t i v e s on f o o d s f o r p e o p l e . An i n t e g r a t e d n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n program f o r s t u d e n t s of Home Ec o n o m i c s and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . 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New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1967. N u t r i t i o n Canada. N u t r i t i o n : A n a t i o n a l p r i o r i t y . Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1973. O f f i c e of E v a l u a t i o n R e s e a r c h , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s a t C h i c a g o C i r c l e . R e p o r t on f i e l d t e s t of N a t i o n a l D a i r y C o u n c i l  N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t . C h i c a g o , 1977. P a l g i , A., P a r i s e r , E. R., P o r t e r , D., & Scrimshaw, N. Body weight as a h e a l t h i n d e x : A m i n i c o u r s e i n n u t r i t i o n . J o u r n a l  of N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n , 1976, 8, 126-129. P a r l e t t , M., & H a m i l t o n , D. E v a l u a t i o n as i l l u m i n a t i o n : a new a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y of i n n o v a t o r y programmes. In D. H a m i l t o n , B. McDonald, C. K i n g , D. J e n k i n s & M. P a r l e t t ( E d s . ) , Beyond t h e numbers Game. 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S c r i v e n , M. The me t h o d o l o g y of e v a l u a t i o n . An AERA Monograph S e r i e s on C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n , (No.1). C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1967. Shannon, B., B e l l , P., M a r b a r c h , E., O ' C o n n e l l . L. H., G r a v e s . K. L., & N i c e l y , R. F. A K-6 n u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n : I n s t r u c t i o n and t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n . J o u r n a l of  N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n , 1981, J_3, 9-13, S h a v e r , E. M., E l s e r , E . M., M o s l e y , W. & McHenry, E. W. N u t r i t i o n a l a s p e c t s of t h e Hartman J o n e s M e m o r i a l s c h o o l h e a l t h s t u d y . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l P u b l i c H e a l t h , 1948, 34.' 3 9 5 * S t a k e , R. E. The c o u n t e n a n c e of e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . T e a c h e r s  C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 1967, 6 8 ( 7 ) , 523-540. S t a k e , R. E. An a p p r o a c h t o the e v a l u a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs (Program p o r t r a y a l vs a n a l y s i s ) . Paper d e l i v e r e d a t the AERA A n n u a l M e e t i n g , C h i c a g o , A p r i l 1972. In D. H a m i l t o n B. McDonald, C. K i n g , D. J e n k i n s & M. P a r l e t t ( E d s . ) , Beyond  the numbers game. B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan, 1977. S t a k e , R. E. To e v a l u a t e an a r t s program. J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c  E d u c a t i o n , 1976, j_0, 115-133. S t a k e , R. E. The c a s e s t u d y method i n s o c i a l i n q u i r y . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 1978, F e b r u a r y , 5-7. S t a k e , R. E., & E a s l e y , J . Case s t u d i e s i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n ,  V o l I I : D e s i g n o v e r v i e w and g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s . I l l i n o i s : C e n t e r f o r I n s t r u c t i o n a l R e s e a r c h and C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1978. S t u f f l e b e a m , D. S. The use and abuse of e v a l u a t i o n i n T i t l e I I I . T h e o r y i n t o P r a c t i c e , 1967, 6, 126-133. 1 35 S t u f f l e b e a m , D. S. A new d e f i n i t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n . In D. L. S t u f f l e b e a m , W. J . F o l e y , W. J . G e p h a r t , E. G. Guba, R. L. Hammond, H. 0. Merriman & M. M. P r o v u s ( E d s . ) , E d u c a t i o n a l  e v a l u a t i o n and d e c i s i o n making. I t a s c a , I l l i n o i s : F. E. Peacock, 1971. T a y l o r , P. A., & M a g u i r e , T. 0. A t h e o r e t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n model. M a n i t o b a J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1966, J_, 12-17. T o d h u n t e r , E. N. A c t i o n i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h . 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J o u r n a l of The Amer i c a n D i e t e t i c  A s s o c i a t i o n , 1957, 33, 880-884, 885-889. Whitehead, F. E. N u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h . W o r l d Review of  N u t r i t i o n and D i e t e t i c s , 1973, 17, 91-149. 136 Whitehouse C o n f e r e n c e on C h i l d H e a l t h and P r o t e c t i o n . N u t r i t i o n s e r v i c e i n t h e f i e l d : A r e p o r t from t h e sub-committee on N u t r i t i o n . N.Y. C e n t u r y Co., 1932. C i t e d i n F. E. W h i t e h e a d , N u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e U.S. s i n c e 1900, P a r t I . J o u r n a l o f The A m e r i c a n D i e t e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1957, 33, 880-884. Wh i t e h o u s e C o n f e r e n c e on Food, N u t r i t i o n and H e a l t h . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1970. A P P E N D I X A OUTLINE OF THE FOODSTYLES PROGRAM OUTLINE OF 'FOODSTYLES' PROGRAM - JUNIOR SECONDARY HOME ECONOMICS Concepts Object Ives Learning A c t i v i t i e s Each student has physical, emotional and social needs for food. a. The student will study his/her food habits and identify factors which Influence what he/she eats. b. The student w i l l acquire a basic understanding of how food is used In building body c e l l s . c. The student will Identify nutrient and energy requirements. h 1 s/her a. Complete the student worksheet. Why's and Wherefore's of Eating" discuss in class. b. Playing the "Butld-a-Cel1 " (teacher directed a c t i v i t y ) . "The and Game c. Helping the Student to Identify Personal Nutrient and Energy Needs (teacher directed a c t i v i t y ) . The student's physical, emotional, and social needs for food w i l l vary with changes in 1i festy1e. 2 . The student w i l l Identify factors influencing the foodstyles of others, such as age, health, culture, r e l i g i o n , income and geographic location. Follow Instructions on student worksheet, "Exploring the Foodstyles of Others" for conducting a survey using the "Why's and Wherefore's of Eating" (student worksheet). There are various ways of meeting the student's present and future requirements for food, taking Into account the physical, emotional and social needs he/she has identified. a. In preparation for selecting a balanced diet, the student w i l l (1) identify s p e c i f i c sources of leader nutrients; and ( i l ) identify general sources of non-leader nutrients and fi b r e . a.(i) Teacher directed a c t i v i t y . "Leader Nutrients in Foods" and worksheet "Determining Leader Nutrients". (11) Study and discuss 1n groups the student worksheet. "Taking the Basics Apart". The food choices made by students c o l l e c t i v e l y as world c i t i z e n s w i l l have predictable impacts on the environment. (Review of learning a c t i v i t i e s for Objective 1 a.b.c, Is recommended before proceed i ng). b. The student w i l l select a balanced diet to meet his/her physical, emotional, and social food needs. The student w i l l then evaluate that diet for: - Its s u i t a b i l i t y In Ms/future - Its possible Impacts on the env1ronment. b. Complete Foodsty1e" student worksheet "My Also included for class discussion, "Food Waste 1n North America" (student worksheet). LO oo Concepts OUTLINE OF 'FOODSTYLES' PROGRAM - SENIOR SECONDARY HOME ECONOMICS Objectives Learning A c t i v i t i e s Each student has phys ica l , emotional and soc ia l needs for food. The student wi l l out l ine the expected consequences of his/her eating habits Including the phys ica l , emotional and social outcomes. (We suggest that you review the Junior level for a l l concepts where student background and/or a b i l i t y warrant It) . Read and complete student worksheets "A Day In the L i f e o f . . " ; Discuss study questions In small groups. The student 's phys ica l , 2. emotional , and soc ia l needs for food w i l l vary with changes In 1 I fes ty le . The student wi l l describe some of the 2. physical emotional, and soc ia l consequences of energy and nutrient 1mba1ances. Enact the teacher d i rec ted a c t i v i t y "Feeding the World". Follow-up a c t i v i t i e s : Student worksheet, "World Food Shortages" (undernutr11Ion) . Student worksheet, "Problems of Abundance" (overnutr111 on). There are various ways of meeting the student's present and future requirements for food, taking into account the p h y s i c a l , emotional and social needs he/she has Ident i f ied. The food choices made by students c o l l e c t i v e l y as world c t t i z e n s w i l l have predictable impacts on the environment. a. The student wi l l Identify dietary pract ices that promote optimal health In view of current nut r i t ion knowledge, af ter : (I) Identify ing prote in , fat and carbohydrate sources of energy; and (II) Identify ing foods and methods of food preparation which minimize fa t . sugar and salt while meeting nutr ient , f ibre and energy requirements. b. The student wi l l a b i l i t y to evaluate any according to a well cr1ter1 a. demonstrate an dietary pract ice founded set of c. The student wi l l be able to select nutr i t ious d iets for a var iety of circumstances Including l i f e s t y l e s which may be part of the student's future. (B.C. Dairy Foundation, 1978) (I) "Where do Ca lor ies Come From?" (student worksheet )°. (II) Teacher d i rected a c t i v i t y . "Minimizing Fat, Sugar, and Salt for Maximal Nut r i t ion" and student worksheet, "Down with Fat, Sugar and Sa l t " b. Students brainstorm on c r i t e r i a for good d ie ts . Discuss and compare with "Guidelines for Evaluating Diets" (student worksheet). Discuss popular dietary pract ices using the out l ines provIded. C. Complete student worksheet, "Eating on a Shoestring Budget". Plan some lab projects from "Cooking E f f i c i e n t l y and S e t f - S u f f I c l e n t l y " (teacher d i rected a c t i v i t y ) . APPENDIX B APPROVAL FOR RESEARCH: University Approval School D i s t r i c t Approval 142 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L VANCOUVER, B.C.. CANADA V6T 1W5 DIVISION O F H U M A N N U T R I T I O N S C H O O L O F H O M E E C O N O M I C S March 28, 1981, Superintendent of Schools School D i s t r i c t # Dear One of the challenges facing secondary teachers at the present time, i s the provision of creative and worthwhile learning a c t i v i t i e s for students. In September 1978, i n an attempt to provide .ideas f o r n u t r i t i o n lessons, the B.C. Dairy Foundation introduced 'Foodstyles', a n u t r i t i o n education innovation for secondary Home Economics students. Since that time, about 400 Home Economics teachers in t h i s Province have attended 'Foodstyles' workshops but l i t t l e i s known about the ways these teachers are using the 'Foodstyles' program in th e i r classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . We are conducting a survey among Home Economics teachers to obtain information about th e i r use of the program in n u t r i t i o n lessons. The r e s u l t s of the study w i l l be used by the B.C. Dairy Foundation as a basis for future modifications to the 'Foodstyles' program. Data c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be by means of a self-administered questionnaire to be mailed to a l l Home Economics teachers who attended 'Foodstyles' workshops between September 1978 and December 1980. Teachers w i l l be asked to indicate on the questionnaire whether or not they would be w i l l i n g to partici p a t e in a brief interview about t h e i r use of 'Foodstyles'. Of those respondents who indicate a willingness to be interviewed, 8 w i l l be randomly selected from the e n t i r e Province. Responses of teachers w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d and w i l l be used only as part of group r e s u l t s . We appreciate the busy schedule operating within schools but hope that teachers w i l l be able to spend about 30 minutes completing the questionnaire, and i f selected, about 30 minutes in an interview since the re s u l t s of th i s study w i l l benefit Home Economics teachers and t h e i r students. A P P E N D I X C DRAFT QUESTIONNAIRE 145 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Survey of the Use of ' F o o d s t y l e s ' In Home Economics P l e a s e check ( S) below and r e t u r n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e immediately i f you ( ) Have not a t t e n d e d a ' F o o d s t y l e s ' workshop ( ) Are not t e a c h i n g Foods & N u t r i t i o n d u r i n g t h i s academic year PART I - GENERAL INFORMATION P l e a s e check ( / ) or f i l l In b l a n k s as a p p r o p r i a t e . 1. School D i s t r l e t : 2. N u t r i t i o n Courses In Degree/Diploma: ) none ) one ) two ) three ) more than three 3. Number of Years Tea c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e : 5 Major Teaching s u b j e c t (check one o n l y ) ( ) Foods ft N u t r i t i o n ( ) H e a l t h ( ) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( ) T e x t i l e s 6 C l o t h i n g ( ) Family S t u d i e s ( ) Other P l e a s e S p e c i f y : 6 D i d you a t t e n d ' F o o d s t y l e s ' workshop: ( ) as a teacher ( ) as a student teacher 4. Number of Years Tea c h i n g Foods and Nutr11 i o n : 7. Do you r e c e i v e the n e w s l e t t e r "In Touch wi th F o o d s t y l e s " ? ( ) Yes ( ) No Would you be w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n t e r v i e w of about 30 minutes d u r a t i o n to d i s c u s s why you do or do not use ' F o o d s t y l e s ' ( ) Yes ( ) No PLEASE CHECK TO BE SURE ALL QUESTIONS HAVE BEEN ANSWERED. Comments: 146 PART II Please check ( </) the appropriate space to Indicate whether you have used the fo l lowing learning a c t i v i t i e s in the manner suggested, whether you plan to use them or whether you w i l l use them again. Have Not Have Used Used But and Have Not Plan To Have Wil l Use Used Use Used Again 1. My students have se lected I l l us t ra t ions to ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) represent "What Food Means to Me" In a c lass d i scuss ion on factors Influencing food habi ts . 2. I have used the 'Foodsty les ' learning a c t i v i t y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) "The Why's and Whereore's of Eating" to help my students discover that they have p h y s i c a l , soc ia l and emotional needs for food. 3. My students have used the "Bu11d-a-Cel1" game In a lesson on d igest ion and absorpt ion. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4. My students have obtained a computer analys is of ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) the i r food Intake from Action B.C. to help them assess the i r personal nutr ient Intake. 5. My students have f i l l e d out a "Personal P r o f i l e " of nutr ient needs from the Canadian Recommended Dal ly Nutr ient Intake Chart. 6. My students have f i l l e d out a "Personal Prof ' l le" of food needs using Canada's Food Guide. 7. My students have estimated thei r c a l o r i e requirements using the Ca lo r ie Calcu lator Included In 'Foodsty1es ' . 8. I have used the Foodstyles ' a c t i v i t y "Exploring the Foodstyles of Others" to help students ident i fy factors which may inf luence thei r food habi ts . 9. My students have used the "Bar Graphs" Included with 'Foodsty les ' to Identify the main food sources of nut r ients . 10. My students have used the "Bar Graphs" to estimate the nutr ient density of foods. 11. I have d iv ided bar graphs of foods into the four food groups and my students have iden t i f i ed the four ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) food groups and the nutr ients which they provide. 12. I have blocked out the names of the foods on a s e l e c t i o n of bar graphsto form "mystery cards" and my ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) students have i d e n t i f i e d the foods on the basis of the i r nutr ient content. 13. My students have used the bar graphs as a basis for choice between two or three foods (for example, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) to assess degree or e f fec ts of processing, se lec t ion for a soc ia l occasion, nu t r i t iona l value for money). 14. My students have c l a s s i f i e d a grocery bag of ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) packaged and canned foods into the Four Food Groups. 15. My students have used a grocery bag of canned and ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) packaged foods as part of a d iscuss ion on l a b e l l i n g . 16. My students have used recipes from "In Touch with ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Foodstyles" in the i r food preparat ion c lasses . 147 Have Not Have Used Used But and Have Not P l a n To Have W i l l Use Used Use Used Again 17. I have used the n u t r i t i o n - u p - d a t e I n f o r m a t i o n from 'In Touch w i t h F o o d s t y l e s " i n my n u t r i t i o n ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) l e s s o n s . 18. I have used the "Why's and Wherefore's of E a t i n g " d u r i n g an I n t r o d u c t o r y l a b o r a t o r y c l a s s to h e l p ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) emphasise t h a t foods c o u r s e s a r e more than c o o k i n g c l a s s e s . 19. My s t u d e n t s have used the a c t i v i t y " E x p l o r i n g the ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) F o o d s t y l e s of O t h e r s " as an I n t r o d u c t i o n to e t h n i c f o o d s . 20. My s t u d e n t s have used bar graphs to I d e n t i f y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) foods which can be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r each other to p r o v i d e the same major n u t r i e n t s . 21. My s t u d e n t s have used the "Guidl Ines f o r ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) E v a l u a t i n g D i e t s " when a new r e d u c i n g d i e t has appeared i n the p r e s s . P l e a s e d e s c r i b e any o t h e r ways you have used ' F o o d s t y l e s ' l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g Foods & N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s and whether you w i l l use use them that way a g a i n . W i l l Use W i l l Not Again Use Again PART III P l e a s e check ( v/) the a p p r o p r i a t e space to I n d i c a t e the extent to which you s e l e c t the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n your n u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . Very O f t e n Sometimes R a r e l y Frequent 1y 1. I s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s which h e l p s t u d e n t s r e a l i s e they w i l l be h e a l t h y l a t e r i n l i f e If they eat the ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) r i g h t foods now. 2. I d i s c u s s w i t h my s t u d e n t s the s o r t s of foods they s e l e c t when they a r e out w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) and want a q u i c k snack. 3. I s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s i n c l a s s where st u d e n t s can e v a l u a t e the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e of the foods they ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) s e l e c t a t the s c h o o l canteen. 4 . I t r y t o h e l p s t u d e n t s r e l a t e t h e i r f o o d h a b i t s ( ) ( ) ( ) ( • ) t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l performance. 5. I t e l l students they w i l l look a t t r a c t i v e If they eat a balanced d i e t . 6. My students try to ident i fy reasons for their preferences for p a r t i c u l a r foods. 7. I encourage my students to discuss their personal food preferences in c l a s s . 8. My students analyse the adequacy of their own food intake. 9. I help students ca l cu la te their personal ca1 or 1e needs. 10. I se lect a c t i v i t i e s where students can work out the i r own nutr ient needs. 11. My students work out the nu t r i t i ona l value of foods prepared in p rac t i ca l c lasses . 12. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s which help my students to apply nu t r i t i ona l information to themse1ves. 13. I try to help my students Identify food patterns for themselves that are consistent with the i r own food preferences and nutrient needs. 14 I se lect learning students to understand combinations of food can ba1anced d i e t . a c t i v i t i e s that help that many d i f ferent be selected to provide a 15. I concentrate on learning a c t i v i t i e s that help my students memorise sources of nut r ients . 16. I exp la in to students that nutr ient needs change during, a person's l i f e t i m e . 17. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s where students can l i s t e n to the presentat ion of nut r i t iona l 1nformat1 on. 18. I try to t e l l students they must eat the r ight foods to be healthy. 19. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that emphasise my ro le 1n t e l l i n g students about nu t r i t i ona l fac ts . 20. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that Involve students working on Individual pro jects . 21. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that Involve students working together 1n small groups In c1 ass . 22. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that help my students to memorise the funct ions of nut r ients . 23. I t ry to help students understand that their own nutr ient needs may change during thei r 1i fet ime. 24. I d iscuss with my students the reasons why they eat c e r t a i n foods. 149 PART IV Please check (V ) the appropriate space to Indicate your agreement/disagreement with the fol lowing statements. Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree 1. ' Foodsty les ' approaches n u t r i t i o n In a manner ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) which is su i tab le for use In my lessons. 2. I f i n d that 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s are useful ( ) ( ) ( ) < . ) for c lasses with mixed a b i l i t y leve ls . 3. ' Foodsty les ' presents n u t r i t i o n in a way that ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) meets the needs of my students. 4. Many of the a c t i v i t i e s in 'Foodsty les ' are too ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) cos t l y for me to use 1n my lessons. 5. My students f ind the 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Interest i ng. 6. I f ind that 'Foodsty les ' does not cover the Home ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Economics curr iculum s u f f i c i e n t l y to be useful 7. Many of the 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s involve too ( ) ( 1 ( ) ( ) much preparat ion time on my part . 8. I f ind the format of the 'Foodsty les ' program ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) easy to fol1ow. 9. The object ives of the 'Foodsty les ' p r o g r a m cor re la te well with the learning outcomes of the ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Foods and Nut r i t ion strand of the Home Economics curr1cu1 urn. 10. I f i n d 'Foodsty les ' useful for teaching Junior ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) secondary c lasses 11. Many of the 'Foodsty les ' A c t i v i t i e s are too long ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) for the time a l l o c a t i o n of my n u t r i t i o n c lasses 12. I f i n d it d i f f i c u l t to integrate 'Foodstyles ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) into the Home Economics curr iculum. 13. I f ind 'Foodsty les ' useful for teaching senior ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) secondary students. 14. 'Foodsty les ' has been of l i t t l e value to ne In ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) teaching n u t r i t i o n . 15 I f ind the rat iona le of 'Foodsty les ' is not compatible with my own philosophy of n u t r i t i o n ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) educat ion. 16. The workshop provided me with an adequate ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) overview of the 'Foodsty les ' program. 17. The workshop explained c l e a r l y the rat ionale of ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) the 'Foodsty les ' program. 18. I f e l t keen to try out some of the 'Foodsty les ' ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) learning a c t i v i t i e s at the end of the workshop. 19. I would have preferred more nut r i t ion -up -date ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) information to be presented at the workshop. 20. I f e l t the workshop out l ined adequately the use ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) of the learning a c t i v i t i e s In ' Foods ty les ' . 150 Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree 21. I thought there was i n s u f f i c i e n t time In the workshop to cover a l l aspects of the 'Foodsty les ' ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) program adequately. 22. The bas ic n u t r i t i o n Information presented at the workshop was adequate for me to use 'Foodsty les ' in ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) my lessons. 23. The workshop provided adequate suggestions for ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) the Integration of 'Foodsty les ' into the Home Economics program. 24. The workshop met my personal needs for n u t r i t i o n ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) i nformat1 on. 25. I f e l t the workshop out l ined the object ives of ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ' Foodsty les ' adequately. 26. The workshop motivated me to consider n u t r i t i o n ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) more c a r e f u l l y In my personal l i f e . 27. I f e l t enthus ias t ic about teaching nu t r i t i on ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a f te r the workshop 28. I f ind the newsletter. "In Touch with ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Foodstyles" useful for my n u t r i t i o n lessons. 29. The newsletter . "In Touch with Foodstyles" ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) provides me with useful nutr1t ion-up-date i nf orma t1 on. 30. The newsletter , "In Touch with Foodstyles" ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) provides useful ideas for integrat ing 'Foodsty les ' into the Home Economics curr iculum. 31. My c lass s i zes are too large to permit me to use ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s . 32. The time a l l o c a t i o n of my Foods and Nut r i t ion lessons is too short for me to use 'Foodsty les ' ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) act t v1 t i es. 33. I would have used 'Foodsty les ' more If there had been a resource person in my d i s t r i c t I could have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) contacted for advice about Its use. 34. I could not use 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s because ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) they are too cos t l y for my school . 35. Dupl icat ion f a c i l i t i e s were not ava i lab le so I ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) could not use many 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s . 36. I received encouragement from within my school ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) to try out ' F o o d s t y l e s ' . 37. The a b i l i t y levels of my c lasses var ied too much to be able to use the 'Foodsty les ' approach to ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) teaching n u t r i t i o n . 38. I could not use 'Foodsty les ' learning a c t i v i t i e s because It was too d i f f i c u l t to assess the learning ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) outcomes of my students. THANK YOU FOR YOUR HELP APPENDIX D VALIDATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 152 V a l i d a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was v a l i d a t e d by s i x n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t o r s from t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n . F i v e were l e a d e r s of F o o d s t y l e s workshops between September 1978 and December 1980 and t h e s i x t h was D i r e c t o r of N u t r i t i o n E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e D a i r y F o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e same p e r i o d . V a l i d a t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n t h r e e s t a g e s . In t h e f i r s t s t a g e , j u d g e s were a s k e d t o comment on t h e g e n e r a l f o r m a t and s t y l e of t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e A p pendix C ) , t h e s u i t a b i l i t y of i t e m s , t h e i r w o r d i n g , order-, l e n g t h and r e d u n d a n c y . J u d g e s were a l s o a s k e d whether any i t e m s s h o u l d be d e l e t e d or added. In t h e s e c o n d s t a g e , j u d g e s were a s k e d whether t e a c h e r s who a r e h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s would be " v e r y l i k e l y " , " l i k e l y " , " u n l i k e l y " o r " v e r y u n l i k e l y " t o use e a c h of t h e a c t i v i t i e s as d e s c r i b e d i n P a r t I I of t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R esponses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were a n a l y z e d by a LERTAP program ( N e l s o n , 1974) t o o b t a i n a mean s c o r e and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r each i t e m and a H o y t ' s E s t i m a t e of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e s e t o f i t e m s . J u d g e s were a l s o a s k e d whether the s e t of i t e m s would be " v e r y l i k e l y " , " l i k e l y " , " u n l i k e l y " o r " v e r y u n l i k e l y " t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between h i g h - u s e r s and l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . In t h e t h i r d s t a g e of t h e v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e s s , j u d g e s were a s k e d t h e l i k e l y r e s p o n s e t o each i t e m i n P a r t I I I of t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e from a t e a c h e r who a c c e p t s and implements t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e . The p u r p o s e of t h i s q u e s t i o n was t o 153 d e t e r m i n e whether t e a c h e r s who a c c e p t and implement t h e r a t i o n a l e would be l i k e l y t o g a i n h i g h s c o r e s (more t h a n 2.5) on i t e m s d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t a c c e p t a n c e and low s c o r e s ( l e s s t h an 2.5) on t h o s e d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t n o n - a c c e p t a n c e . J u d ges were a l s o a s k e d whether each i t e m i n P a r t I I I would be " v e r y l i k e l y " , " l i k e l y " , " u n l i k e l y " o r " v e r y u n l i k e l y " t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t e a c h e r s who a c c e p t and do not a c c e p t t h e r a t i o n a l e . R e s p o n s e s t o b o t h t h e s e s e t s of q u e s t i o n s were a n a l y z e d by a LERTAP program ( N e l s o n , 1974) t o o b t a i n a mean s c o r e and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r e a c h i t e m and a H o y t ' s E s t i m a t e of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r ea c h s e t o f i t e m s . R e s u l t s of t h e V a l i d a t i o n P r o c e s s The . i n i t i a l o v e r a l l r e a c t i o n from a l l j u d g e s was t h a t t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p r e h e n s i v e but l e n g t h y . J u d g e s c o n t e n t e d many t e a c h e r s would c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o o l o n g and would not r e s p o n d . As a r e s u l t , t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( see Appendix E) was c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r than t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In r e v i e w i n g P a r t I of t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , j u d g e s recommended an a d d i t i o n a l i t e m t o d e t e r m i n e whether r e s p o n d e n t s t a u g h t j u n i o r o r s e n i o r F oods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s d u r i n g 1980-81. Because j u d g e s c o n s i d e r e d s c h o o l s i z e was more l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o use F o o d s t y l e s than s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h e i t e m r e l a t i n g t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was r e p l a c e d by one on s c h o o l s i z e . Items i n P a r t I were r e - o r d e r e d so t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s would answer q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r p r e s e n t 154 t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g . In r e v i e w i n g P a r t II of t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , j u d g e s recommended t h a t o n l y i t e m s r e l a t i n g t o a c t i v i t i e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s program be i n c l u d e d . As a r e s u l t , i t e m s 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 i n t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e were d e l e t e d from t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Item 1 i s r e l a t e d t o an a c t i v i t y p r e s e n t e d a t workshops but not i n c l u d e d i n t h e manual. I t was r e t a i n e d b e c a u s e many t e a c h e r s had r e p o r t e d i t was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r own l e s s o n s . Because j u d g e s recommended t h a t a l l j u n i o r and s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s manual s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t e m s 16 t o 25, were added. J u d g e s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e same o r d e r as i n the F o o d s t y l e s manual. A l l j u d g e s e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t t h e s e t of i t e m s i n P a r t II would be " l i k e l y " t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between h i g h - u s e r s and low-u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s . A LERTAP a n a l y s i s of the r a t i n g s of the l i k e l i h o o d of h i g h -u s e r s u s i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s as s u g g e s t e d , i s shown i n T a b l e D.1 H o y t ' s E s t i m a t e of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e r a t i n g s was .90, a h i g h v a l u e which i n d i c a t e d a h i g h l e v e l of c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e r e s p o n s e s of j u d g e s . Two c r i t e r i a , mean s c o r e and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , were s e l e c t e d f o r e s t i m a t i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y of i t e m s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Items w i t h a mean s c o r e of 3.0 or more and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of .75 or l e s s were c o n s i d e r e d 155 Table D.1 Judges' Ratings of the L ike l ihood of High-Users of Foodstyles Using the A c t i v i t i e s as Described in the Questionnaire' Item No (Or ig ina l ) D i s t r ibu t ion Responses 4 3 . 2 of * 1 Mean S.D. 9 6 0 0 0 4 .00 .00 1 1 5 1 0 0 3.83 .40 1 5 1 0 0 3 . 83 . 40 3 5 1 0 0 3.83 .40 7 4 2 0 0 3.66 .51 13 3 3 0 0 3 . 50 . 54 21 3 3 0 0 3.50 . 54 12 3 3 0 0 3 . 50 .54 14 4 1 1 0 3 . 50 .83 15 3 2 1 0 3.33 .81 20 2 3 0 0 3 . 25 . 6 1 4 1 5 0 0 3.16 .40 6 1 5 0 0 3 . 16 . 40 2 1 5 0 0 3 . 16 .40 8 1 5 0 0 3 . 16 .40 16 3 1 2 0 3. 16 . 98 10 1 4 0 0 3 .08 . 49 17 2 2 2 0 3.00 . 89 5 1 3 2 0 2.83 . 75 19 0 3 1 0 2 . 66 .40 ' Hoyts Estimate ! (4) Very 1i kely of Re 1i ab i1i ty: (3) L ike ly (2) 0.90 Unl ikely (1) Very unl i ke1y d e s i r a b l e . Those w i t h a mean s c o r e of l e s s t h a n 3.0 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n g r e a t e r t h e .75 were c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e . A p p l y i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i a t o t h e r e s u l t s i n T a b l e D.1 s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t e m s 5, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 were u n d e s i r a b l e . 156 During discussions, judges also suggested that items 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 were unsuitable and were therefore deleted. Item 5, was retained but was rewritten so that i t related more closely to an a c t i v i t y in the Foodstyles program. A l l items in Part II were rewritten to reduce their length. The format of the items was modified to focus more c l e a r l y on teachers' decisions to select learning a c t i v i t i e s for their lessons. A summary of alterations to the items in Part II of the draft questionnaire i s given in Table D.2 together with those deleted and added. Table D . 2 Summary of A l t e r a t i o n s to Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Items ( P a r t I I ) F o l l o w i n g V a l i d a t i o n Procedures D r a f t Items 1. My s t u d e n t s have s e l e c t e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s to r e p r e s e n t "What Food Means to Me" i n a c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n on f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g food h a b i t s . 2 . I have used the F o o d s t y l e s l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y "The Why's and Wherefore's of E a t i n g " to h e l p my s t u d e n t s d i s c o v e r that they have p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and emotional needs f o r food. 3. My s t u d e n t s have used the " B u i l d - a -C e l l " game i n a l e s s o n on d i g e s t i o n and ab s o r p t i on. 4. My s t u d e n t s have o b t a i n e d a computer a n a l y s i s of t h e i r food i n t a k e from A c t i o n B.C. to h e l p them a s s e s s t h e i r p e r s o n a l n u t r i e n t Intake. 5. My s t u d e n t s have f i l l e d out a "Personal P r o f i l e " of n u t r i e n t needs from the Canadian Recommended D a i l y N u t r i e n t Intake C h a r t . 6. My s t u d e n t s have f i l l e d out a "Personal P r o f i l e " of food needs u s i n g Canada's Food Gu i de. 7. My s t u d e n t s have e s t i m a t e d t h e i r c a l o r i e requirements u s i n g the " C a l o r i e C a l c u l a t o r " i n c l u d e d i n F o o d s t y l e s . 8. I have used the F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t y " E x p l o r i n g the F o o d s t y l e s of Oth e r s " to h e l p s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r f o o d h a b i t s . F i n a l Items Student s e l e c t i o n s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s to e x p l a i n what food means to them. "The Why's and Wherefore's of E a t i n g " to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e food habi t s . The "Bui1d-A-Cel1 Game" to i l l u s t r a t e how food i s used In b u i l d i n g body c e l l s . A computer a n a l y s i s of s t u d e n t s ' food i n t a k e from A c t i o n B.C. to a s s e s s t h e i r p e r sonal n u t r i e n t i n t a k e . The "Personal P r o f i l e " u s i n g the Canadian Recommended D a i l y N u t r i e n t Intake Chart to e s t i m a t e p e r s o n a l n u t r i e n t requirements. The "Personal P r o f i l e " of food needs u s i n g Canada's Food Guide to i d e n t i f y d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l food p a t t e r n s . "The C a l o r i e Counter" to e s t i m a t e c a l o r i e requ i rements. " E x p l o r i n g the F o o d s t y l e s of Others" to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e food h a b i t s . 157 Draft Items F 1 n a 1 I t e m s 9. My students have used the "Bar Graphs" included with Foodstyles to ident i fy the main food sources of nut r ients . 10. My students have used the "Bar Graphs" to estimate the nutr ient density of foods. 11. I have d iv ided ' "Bar Graphs" of foods into the Four Food Groups and my students have i d e n t i f i e d the Four Food Groups and the nutr ients which they provide. 12. I have blocked out the names of the foods on a s e l e c t i o n of "Bar Graphs" to form "mystery cards" and my students have i d e n t i f i e d the foods on the basis of thei r nutr ient content. 13. My students have used the "Bar Graphs" as a basis for choice between two or three foods (for example, to assess degree or e f f e c t s of process ing, se lec t ion for a soc ia l occasion, nu t r i t i ona l value for money) . 14. My students have c l a s s i f i e d a grocery bag of packaged and canned foods into the Four Food Groups. 15. My students have used a grocery bag of canned and packaged foods as part of a d iscuss ion on l a b e l l i n g . 16. My students have used recipes from "In Touch" in the i r food preparation c lasses . 17. I have used the nut r i t ion -up -date information from "In Touch" in my n u t r i t i o n lessons. 18. I have used the "Why's and Wherefore's of Eat ing" during an introductory laboratory c lass to help emphasize that foods courses are more than cooking c1 asses. 19. My students have used the a c t i v i t y "Explor ing the Foodstyles of Others" as an introduct ion to ethnic foods. 20. My students have used the "bar graphs" to ident i fy foods which can be subst i tuted for each other to provide the same major nutr ients . 21. My students have used the "GuidHnes for Evaluating Diets" when a new reducing diet has appeared in the press. The "Bar Graphs" to compare the nutr ient content of foods. The "Bar Graphs" of nutr ient composition of foods to ident i fy the main nutr ients in foods. The "Bar Graphs" to ident i fy the main nutr ients provided by foods in each of the Four Food Groups. Deleted Deleted Deleted De1eted Deleted De1eted Deleted De1eted The "Bar Graphs" to ident i fy foods which can be subst i tuted for each other to provide approximately the same nutr ients . "Guidelines for Evaluating Diets" to assess new reducing d ie ts . 158 A d d i t i o n a l Items Added to the F i n a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 . "The Why's and Wherefore's of E a t i n g " t o emphasize p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and emotional needs f o r f o o d . 2. "My F o o d s t y l e " to i d e n t i f y p e r s o n a l food p a t t e r n s . 3. The q u e s t i o n s from "Taking the B a s i c s Apart" to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c sources of n u t r 1 e n t s . 4 . "Foods Waste i n N o r t h America" to i n d i c a t e world f o o d a v a i l a b i l i t y . 5. "A Day i n the L i f e o f . . . " to I d e n t i f y p h y s i c a l , emotional and s o c i a l needs f o r food. 6. "Feeding the World" to emphasize unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of food r e s o u r c e s i n the world. 7. "World Food S h o r t a g e s " t o i d e n t i f y w orld food problems. 8 . "Problems of Abundance" when d i s c u s s i n g the n u t r i t i o n a l problems of a f f l u e n t c o u n t r i e s . 9. "Where do C a l o r i e s come from?" to i d e n t i f y h i g h c a l o r i e foods. 10. "Down w i t h F a t , Sugar and S a l t " to i d e n t i f y d i e t a r y p r a c t i c e s that promote optimal h e a l t h . 11. " E a t i n g on a S h o e s t r i n g Budget" to p l a n balanced, economical meals. 12. "Cooking E f f i c i e n t l y and S e 1 f - S u f f 1 c i e n t 1 y " to p l a n p r a c t i c a l foods c l a s s e s In reviewing Part III of the draft questionnaire, judges indicated they considered that teachers who accept the Foodstyles rationale would be l i k e l y to obtain high scores (more than 2.5) on items designed to r e f l e c t acceptance of the rationale, and low scores (less than 2.5) on items designed to re f l e c t non-acceptance. A LERTAP analysis (Nelson, 1974) of judges estimates of the l i k e l y responses from teachers who accept and implement the rationale is given in Table D.3. The mean score for items 1, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20, which were designed to r e f l e c t non-acceptance of the rationale, was less than 2.5. Hoyt's Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y for these ratings was .91, a high estimate indicating consistent responses from judges. Table D.3 Judges' Estimates of the L ike ly Responses of Teachers who Accept and Implement the Foodstyles Rationale' D i s t r i b u t i o n of Item No Responses' Mean (Or ig ina l ) 4 3 2 1 14 5 0 0 0 3.75 .61 13 4 2 0 0 3.66 .51 12 3 3 0 0 3.50 .54 2 1 5 0 0 3.16 . 40 3 1 5 0 0 3 . 16 .40 6 3 1 2 0 3.15 .98 4 1 4 1 0 3 .00 .63 21 2 • 1 1 0 3 OO . 83 8 2 ' 2 2 0 3 .00 .89 10 2 2 2 0 3 .00 . 89 7 2 2 2 0 3 .00 .89 23 2 2 2 0 3 .00 . 89 9 2 1 3 0 2.83 .98 1 1 1 3 2 0 2.83 . 75 24 1 3 1 1 2 . 66 1 .03 20 1 0 0 1 2 . 50 . 94 1 1 2 1 2 2 . 33 1.12 1G 0 1 3 2 1 . 83 . 75 5 0 0 2 4 1 . 33 .51 18 0 0 0 5 1 .00 .00 19 0 0 0 5 1 .00 .00 17 0 0 0 6 1 .OO .OO 22 0 0 0 6 *1 .00 .00 15 0 0 0 6 1 .00 .00 ' Hoyts Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y : 0.91 ' (4) Very frequently (3) Often (2) Sometimes (1) Rarely 160 Table D .4 displays a LERTAP analysis of Judges' ratings of the l i k e l i h o o d of items in Part III to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between acceptors and non-acceptors of the rationale. Table 0.4 Oudges' Responses to the L ikel ihood of Items to D i f f e r e n t i a t e between Acceptors and Non-Acceptors of the Foodstyles Rat ionale ' Item No (Or ig inal ) D1str1but i on Responses 4 3 2 of 1 Mean S.D. 15 4 2 0 0 3.66 .51 13 4 2 0 0 3 .66 .51 17 3 3 0 0 3 . 50 .54 19 3 3 0 0 3.50 . 54 22 3 3 0 0 3 . 50 . 54 14 3 3 0 0 ' 3.50 . 54 6 3 3 o 0 3.50 .54 2 3 2 0 0 3.41 .66 24 2 4 0 0 3 . 33 .51 3 2 4 0 0 3 . 33 .51 1 1 2 4 0 0 3.33 .51 12 2 4 0 0 3 . 33 .51 7 2 4 0 0 3 . 33 .51 9 1 5 0 0 3 . 16 . 40 1 1 5 0 0 3 . 16 .40 18 2 3 1 0 3 . 16 . 75 5 2 3 1 0 3 . 16 . 75 8 2 3 1 0 3 . 16 . 75 23 2 3 1 o 3 . 16 . 75 4 2 3 1 0 3 . 16 . 75 10 1 4 1 0 3 .00 .63 16 0 3 1 0 2.66 .40 20 1 0 1 0 2.66 .68 21 0 2 1 0 2 . 58 . 37 'Hoyts Estimate of Rel iabi11ty : 0. 90 M4) Very L ike ly (3) L ike ly (2) Unl ike ly (1) Very Unl ikely 161 A g a i n , the c r i t e r i a used t o s e l e c t s u i t a b l e items were a mean sc o r e g r e a t e r than 3.0 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n l e s s than .75. Items 16, 20 and 21 o b t a i n e d a mean of l e s s than 3.0 s u g g e s t i n g they were u n d e s i r a b l e . D u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , judges i n d i c a t e d they c o n s i d e r e d items 16, 20 and 21 were u n l i k e l y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t e a c h e r s who accept and do not accept the F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e . These items t h e r e f o r e were d e l e t e d . Judges c o n s i d e r e d t h a t items 17, 19 and items 6, 7, and 24 were redundant. Each group, t h e r e f o r e was r e p l a c e d by a s i n g l e i t e m . Table D.5 summarizes the a l t e r a t i o n s t o items i n P a r t I I I of the d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d i n g those d e l e t e d and those added. T a b l e D.5 Summary of A l t e r a t i o n s to Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Items ( P a r t I I I ) F o l l o w i n g V a l i d a t i o n Procedures D r a f t Items F i n a l Items 1. I s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s which h e l p s t u d e n t s r e a l i s e they w i l l be h e a l t h y l a t e r i n l i f e i f they eat the r i g h t foods now. 2. I d i s c u s s with my st u d e n t s the s o r t s of foods they s e l e c t when they a re out with t h e i r f r i e n d s and want a quick snack. 3 . I s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s i n c l a s s where s t u d e n t s can e v a l u a t e the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e of the foods they s e l e c t at the school c a n t e e n . 4. I t r y to h e l p s t u d e n t s r e l a t e t h e i r f o o d h a b i t s to t h e i r p h y s i c a l performance. 5 . I t e l l s t u d e n t s they w i l l look a t t r a c t i v e i f they eat a b a l a n c e d d i e t . 6. My s t u d e n t s t r y to i d e n t i f y reasons f o r t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r foods. 7. I encourage my s t u d e n t s to d i s c u s s t h e i r p e r s o n a l food p r e f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s . 8. My s t u d e n t s a n a l y s e the adequacy of t h e i r own food i n t a k e . 9. I h e l p s t u d e n t s c a l c u l a t e t h e i r p e r s o n a l c a l o r i e needs. 10. I s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s where s t u d e n t s can work out t h e i r own n u t r i e n t needs. I t e l l s t udents they w i l l be h e a l t h y l a t e r i n l i f e i f they eat the r i g h t foods nciw. I have st u d e n t s d i s c u s s in c l a s s the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e of snack foods they s e l e c t when they a re out with f r i e n d s . I ask stu d e n t s to e v a l u a t e the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e of foods they eat d u r i n g school hours. I help students to r e l a t e t h e i r food h a b i t s to t h e i r p h y s i c a l well being. No Change I ask stu d e n t s to i d e n t i f y in c l a s s the reasons f o r t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r foods. D e l e t e d I have st u d e n t s a n a l y s e the adequacy of t h e i r own food i n t a k e . I have students e s t i m a t e t h e i r personal ca 1 or i e needs. No Change 162 Draft Items F < n a 1 I t e r a s 11. My students work out the nu t r i t i ona l value of foods prepared In p rac t i ca l c l a s s e s . 12. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s which help my students to apply nu t r i t i ona l information to themselves. 13. I t ry to help my students ident i fy food patterns for themselves that are consistent with the i r own food preferneces and nutr ient needs. 14. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that help students to understand that many d i f fe rent combinations of food can be selected to provide a balanced d i e t . 15. I concentrate on learning a c t i v i t i e s that help my students memorize sources of nutr ients . 1G. I explain to students that nutr ient needs change during a person's l i f e t i m e . 17. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s where students can l i s t e n to the presentation of n u t r i t i o n a l information. 18. I t ry to t e l l students they must eat the r ight foods to be healthy. 19. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that emphasize my ro le in t e l l i n g students about nu t r i t i ona l f a c t s . 20. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that involve students working on indiv idual proj ec ts . 21. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that involve students working together in small groups in c l a s s . 22. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s that help my students to memorize the functions of nutr i ents . 23. I t ry to help my students understand that thei r own nutr ient needs may change during thei r l i f e t i m e . 24. I d iscuss with my students the reasons why they eat c e r t a i n foods. I ask students to estimate the nut r i t iona l value of foods prepared in p rac t i ca l c lasses . I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s which help students to apply nut r i t iona l Information to themselves. I have students ident i fy food patterns for themselves that are consistent with their personal needs and food preferences. I encourage students to understand that many d i f fe rent combinations of foods can be selected to provide a balanced d i e t . I concentrate on learning a c t i v i t i e s that help students memorize the sources of nutr(ents. De1eted Deleted No Change I use lectures to present nut r i t ion information to students. Deleted De1eted I concentrate on learning a c t i v i t i e s that help students to memorize the functions of nutr1ents. I encourage students to recognize that their own nutrient needs may change during a 11fet ime. De1eted Addit ional Items: I teach Food Preparation and Nutr i t ion as two separate areas. I emphasize learning a c t i v i t i e s where students can ar r i ve at their own conclusions. 163 In a s s e s s i n g P a r t IV of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , j u d g e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t e m s 1 and 15; 2 and 7; 4 and 34; 6 and 9; and • 11 and 32; were r e d u n d a n t . As a r e s u l t , i t e m s 2, 4, 6, 11 and 15 were d e l e t e d . J u d g e s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t e m s 21, 22, 24, 26 and 27 d i d not r e f l e c t t h e i n t e n t s of t h e workshops, t h a t i t e m 28 was a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d by i t e m s 29 and 30, and t h a t Item 33 was more s u i t a b l e f o r i n t e r v i e w s . As a r e s u l t , t h e s e i t e m s were d e l e t e d from t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T a b l e D.6 l i s t s t h e o r i g i n a l i t e m s from P a r t IV of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and i n d i c a t e s t h o s e which were d e l e t e d o r r e w r i t t e n . 164 Table D.6 Summary of A l te rat ions to Questionnaire Items (Part IV) Following Va l idat ion Procedures Draft Items Final Items 1. Foodstyles approaches n u t r i t i o n In a manner which is su i tab le for use in my lessons. No Change 2. I f ind that Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s are useful for c lasses with mixed a b i l i t y 1 eve Is. Deleted 3. Foodstyles presents n u t r i t i o n in a way that meets the needs of my students. No Change 4. Many of the a c t i v i t i e s in Foodstyles are too cos t l y for me to use in my 1essons. Deleted 5. My students f ind the Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s in te res t ing . 6. I f i n d that Foodstyles does not cover the Home Economics curriculum s u f f i c i e n t l y to be u s e f u l . No Change Deleted 7. Many of the Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s involve too much preparation time on my par t . 8. I f i n d the format of the Foodstyles program easy to fo l low. 9. The object ives of the Foodstyles program cor re la te well with the learning outcomes of the Foods and Nut r i t ion strand of the Home Economics curr iculum. No Change The format of the Foodstyles program is easy to fo11ow. The object ives of Foodstyles are consistent with the object ives of the Foods and Nut r i t ion curriculum. 10. I f ind Foodstyles useful for teaching junior secondary c lasses . 11. Many of the Foodstyles A c t i v i t i e s are too long for the time a l l o c a t i o n of my n u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s . The junior Foodstyles program is useful for teaching junior secondary c lasses . Deleted 12. I f i n d it d i f f i c u l t to integrate Foodstyles into the Home Economics curr iculum. 13. I f ind Foodstyles useful for teaching senior secondary students. 14. Foodstyles has been of l i t t l e value to me in teaching n u t r i t i o n . 15 I f ind the rat iona le of Foodstyles is not compatible with my own philosophy of n u t r i t i o n education. 16. The workshop provided me with an adequate overview of the Foodstyles program. 17. The workshop explained c l e a r l y the ra t iona le of the Foodstyles program. 18. I f e l t keen to try out some of the Foodstyles learning a c t i v i t i e s at the end of the workshop. 19. I would have preferred more n u t r i t i o n -up-date information to be presented at the workshop. Foodstyles is d i f f i c u l t to integrate into my foods c lasses . The senior Foodstyles program is useful for teaching senior secondary students. No Change Deleted The workshop provided an adequate overview of the Foodstyles program. The workshop presented the rat ionale of Foodstyles c l e a r l y . No Change No Change 165 Draft Items Final Items 20. I f e l t the workshop out l ined adequately the use of the learning a c t i v i t i e s in Foodstyles. 21. I thought there was i n s u f f i c i e n t time in the workshop to cover a l l aspects of the Foodstyles program adequately. 22. The bas ic n u t r i t i o n information presented at the workshop was adequate for me to use Foodstyles in my lessons. 23. The workshop provided adequate suggestions for the integrat ion of Foodstyles into the Home Economics program. 24. The workshop met my personal needs for n u t r i t i o n information. 25. I f e l t object ives of the workshop out l ined Foodstyles adequately. the 26. The workshop motivated me to consider n u t r i t i o n more c a r e f u l l y in my personal l i f e . 27. I f e l t enthus iast ic about teaching n u t r i t i o n af ter the workshop. 28. I usefu1 f i n d the newsletter, for my n u t r i t i o n 'In Touch" 29. The newsletter , "In Touch" provides me with useful nu t r i t i on -up -date information. 30. The newsletter , "In Touch" provides useful ideas for integrat ing Foodstyles into the Home Economics curr iculum. The workshop out l ined the use of the Foodstyles learning a c t i v i t i e s adequately. Deleted Deleted The workshop suggestions for into my foods presented integrat ing 1essons. pract ical Foodsty1es Deleted The workshop out l ined Foodstyles adequately. the object ives of Deleted Deleted "In Touch" provides useful suggestions for integrat ing Foodstyles into my lessons. The newsletter, "In Touch". provides useful nu t r i t i on up-date information. "In Touch" suggests recipes which are useful for my pract ica l foods c lasses . 31. My c lass s izes are too large to permit me to use Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s . 32. The time a l l o c a t i o n of my Foods and Nut r i t i on lessons is too short for me to use Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s . 33. I would have used Foodstyles more if there had been a resource person in my d i s t r i c t I could have contacted for advice about i ts use. 34. I could not use Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s because they are too cost l y for my school . 35. Dupl icat ion f a c i l i t i e s were not ava i lab le so I could not use many Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s . 36. I received encouragement from within my school to try out Foodstyles. 37. The a b i l i t y levels of my c lasses var ied too much to be able to use the Foodstyles approach to teaching n u t r i t i o n . 38. I could not use Foodstyles learning a c t i v i t i e s because it was too d i f f i c u l t to assess the learning outcomes of my students. My c lass s izes are too large to use Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s . No Change Deleted too cost ly for Foodstyles a c t i v i t i e s are me to use. No Change No Change The a b i l i t y levels of my classes varied too much to use the Foodstyles approach to teaching n u t r i t i o n . I did not use Foodstyles learning a c t i v i t i e s because i t was too d i f f i c u l t to assess my student 's progress. APPENDIX E FINAL QUESTIONNAIRE and COVER LETTER 168 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  Survey of the Use of 'Foodsty les ' 1n Home Economics This survey 1s concerned with the use of 'Foodsty les ' in secondary Foods and Nut r i t ion c l a s s e s . Please complete the questionnaire only If you have attended a 'Foodsty les ' workshop for Home Economics teachers and have taught a Foods and Nut r i t i on c lass during th is academic year. PART I - GENERAL INFORMATION Please check ( ) or f i l l 1n blanks as appropr iate. 1. Number of Foods and Nut r i t ion c lasses taught th is year: Junior Senior 2. Other courses taught th is year: 5. Do you receive the Foodstyles newsletter "In Touch"? ( ) Yes ( ) No 6. Number of years teaching experience: ( ) Health ( ) Physical Education ( ) Tex t i l es & Cloth ing ( ) Family Studies ( ) Other(s) : ( ) None 3. Total enrollment at your school 7. Number of years teaching Foods and Nutr11 ion: 8. Number of Nut r i t ion courses completed in Degree/Diploma program: ( ) Less than 50O ( ) 500 to 1000 ( ) 1000 to 1500 ( ) More than 1500 4. Did you attend a 'Foodsty les ' Workshop ( ) as a teacher ( ) as a student teacher 9. Number of other Univers i ty level Nutr i t ion courses completed: If you are w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e In an Interview concerning ' Foods ty les ' , please write your name and address 1n the space provided. The Interview wi l l be about 30 minutes in duration and w i l l be held at a time and place convenient to you. Name: Address: Please return completed questionnaire by May 25, to 169 PART I I Below is a l i s t of poss ib le ways that 'Foodstyles ' learn ing a c t i v i t i e s could be Incorporated Into Foods and Nut r i t ion lessons. Please check ( </) the appropriate space to Indicate whether or not you have used the fo l lowing a c t i v i t i e s as descr ibed: 1. "The Why's and Wherefore's of Eating" to ident i f y fac to rs which Influence foods habi ts . 2. The "Bu1ld -a -Ce l1" game to I l l us t ra te how food 1s used 1n b u i l d i n g body c e l l s . 3. "The Why's and Wherefore's of Eating" to emphasize p h y s i c a l , soc ia l and emotional needs for food. 4. "Explor ing the Foodstyles of Others" to Identify factors which may inf luence food habi ts . 5. Student se lec t ions of I l l us t ra t ions to explain what food means to them. 6. "The C a l o r i e Counter" to estimate c a l o r i e requ1rements. 7. The "Personal P r o f i l e " using the Canadian Recommended Dal ly Nutrient Intake Chart to estimate personal nutr ient requirements. 8. The "Personal P r o f i l e " of food needs using Canada's Food Guide to Identify desi rable peronal food patterns . 9. A computer analys is of student 's food Intake from Act ion B.C. to assess thei r personal nutr ient 1ntake. 10. The "Bar Graphs" of nutr ient composition of foods to Identify the main nutr ients in foods. 11. The "Bar Graphs" to compare the nutr ient content of foods. 12. The "Bar Graphs" to ident i fy the main nutr ients provided by foods in each of the Four Food Groups. 13. The "Bar Graphs" to Identify foods which can be subst i tuted for each other to provide approximately the same nut r ients . 14. The questions from "Taking the Basics Apart" to ident i f y s p e c i f i c sources of nut r ients . 15. "My Foodstyle" to Identify personal food patterns . 16. "Food Waste in North America" to Indicate world food a v a i l a b i l i t y . 17. "A Day 1n the L i f e o f . . . " To Identify physical emotional and soc ia l needs for food. 18. "Feeding the World" to emphasize unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of food resources in the world. Have Not Have used Have Used Have Not Used But but • and Used Plan To Wil l Not Wil l Use Use Use Again Again 170 Have Not Have used Have Used Have Not Used But but and Used Plan To Wil l Not Wil l Use Use Use Again Again 19. "World Food Shortages" to Identify world food problems. 20. "Problems of Abundance" when d iscuss ing n u t r i t i o n a l problems in a f f luent countr ies . 21. "Where Do Ca lo r ies Come From?" To Identify high c a l o r i e foods. 22. "Down with Fat . Sugar and Sa l t " to Identify d ietary p rac t i ces that promote optimal health . 23. "Guidel ines for Evaluating Diets" to assess new reducing d i e t s . 24. "Eating on a Shoestring Budget" to plan balanced, economical meals. 25. "Cooking E f f i c i e n t l y and Sel f -Suf f1c1ent1y" to plan p r a c t i c a l foods c lasses . Please descr ibe any other ways you have used 'Foodsty les ' learning Wil l Use Will Not a c t i v i t i e s during Foods 5 Nut r i t ion lessons and check ( -/) in the Again Use Again appropriate column whether or not you wi l l use them that way aga i n. 171 PART III Below 1s a l i s t of teaching a c t i v i t i e s which teachers may or may not se lect to use in their Foods and Nut r i t ion lessons. Please check (v') the appropriate space to indicate the extent to which you use the fo l lowing a c t i v i t i e s in your Foods and Nut r i t ion lessons. Very Often Sometimes Rarely Frequent 1y 1. I have students ident i fy food patterns for themselves that are consistent with their personal needs and food preferences. 2. I have students discuss in c lass the n u t r i t i o n a l value of snack foods they select when they are out with f r iends . 3. I t e l l students they must eat the r ight foods to be hea1 thy. 4. I se lect learning a c t i v i t i e s which help students to apply nut r i t iona l information to themse1ves. 5 . I ask students to ident i fy in c lass the reasons for the i r preferences for pa r t i cu la r foods. 6. I t e l l students they w i l l look a t t rac t i ve if they eat a balanced d i e t . 7. I encourage students to understand that many d i f fe ren t combinations of foods can be selected to provide a balanced d i e t . 8. I have students estimate their personal c a l o r i e needs . 9. I teach Food Preparation and Nut r i t ion as two separate areas. 10. I help students to re late their food habits to their physical wel l -be ing . 11. I concentrate on learning a c t i v i t i e s that help students memorize the sources of nut r ients . 12. I have students analyze the adequacy of their own food intake. 13. I ask students to estimate the nut r i t iona l value of foods prepared in p rac t i ca l c lasses . 14. I use 1ectures information to students. to present nutr i t ion 1 5 . I ask students to evaluate the nut r i t iona l value of foods they eat during school hours. 16. I t e l l students they wi l l be healthy later in l i f e if they eat the r ight foods now. 17. I se lect a c t i v i t i e s where students can work out their own nut r i t iona l needs. 18. I emphasize learning a c t i v i t i e s where students can a r r i ve at their own conclusions. 19. I concentrate on learning a c t i v i t i e s that help students to memorize the functions of nutr ients . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 20. I encourage students to recognize that their own nutr ient needs may change during a l i f e t ime . 172 PART i v Below 1s a 11st of statements about the 'Foodsty les ' program and the 'Foodsty les ' workshops. Please check (</ ) the appropriate space to indicate your agreement/disagreement with the fol lowing statements. Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree 1. 'Foodsty les ' approaches n u t r i t i o n in a manner which is su i tab le for use in my lessons. 2. 'Foodsty les ' presents n u t r i t i o n in a way that meets the needs of my students. 3. My students f ind the 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s i nterest i ng. 4. Many of the 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s involve too much preparat ion time on my part . 5. The format of the 'Foodsty les ' program is easy to fo1 low. 6. The object ives of 'Foodsty les ' are consistent with the object ives of the Foods and Nut r i t ion cur r i cu1 urn. 7. The junior 'Foodsty les ' program is useful for teaching junior secondary c lasses . 8 Thp senior 'Foodsty les ' program is useful for teaching senior secondary students 9. 'Foodsty1es ' is d i f f i c u l t to integrate into my foods c1 asses. 10. Foodsty les ' has been of l i t t l e value to me in teaching n u t r i t i o n . 11. The workshop provided an adeauate overview of the 'Foodsty les ' program. 12. The workshop presented 'Foodsty les ' c l e a r l y . th= rat i ona1e of 13, The workshop out l ined the objectives of 'Foodsty les ' adequately. 14. The workshop out l ined the use of 'Foodsty les ' learning a c t i v i t i e s adequately. the 15. I f e l t keen to try out some of the ' Foods ty 1 e's ' learning a c t i v i t i e s at the end of the workshop. 16. I would have preferred more nut r i t ion -up -date information to be presented at the workshop. 17. The workshop presented p rac t i ca l suggestions for in tegrat ing 'Foodsty les ' into my foods lessons. 18. The newsletter , "In Touch", provides useful n u t r i t i o n up-date information. 19. "In Touch" provides useful ideas for integrat ing 'Foodsty les ' into my lessons. 20. "In Touch" suggests recipes which are useful for my p r a c t i c a l foods c l a s s e s . 173 Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree 21. My c lass s i zes are too large to use 'Foodsty les ' ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) act 1vi t ies . 22. The time a l l o c a t i o n of my Foods and Nut r i t ion ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) lessons is too short for me to use 'Foodsty les ' act i v i 11es. 23 Dupl icat ion f a c i l i t i e s were not ava i lab le so I ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) could not use many 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s . 24. 'Foodsty les ' a c t i v i t i e s are too cost l y for me to ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) use . 25. I received encouragement from within my school ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) to try out ' F o o d s t y l e s ' . 26. The a b i l i t y levels of my students varied too ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) much to use the 'Foodsty les ' approach to teaching nut r i t i on. 27 I d id not use 'Foodsty les ' learning a c t i v i t i e s ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )• because it was too d i f f i c u l t to assess the learning outcomes of my students. PLEASE CHECK TO ENSURE YOU HAVE EXAMINED ALL QUESTIONS. COMMENTS : THANK YOU FOR YOUR CO OPERATION AND ASSISTANCE A P P E N D I X F R E L I A B I L I T Y O F T H E Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 175 R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was e s t i m a t e d u s i n g t h e LERTAP program ( N e l s o n , 1974). H o y t ' s E s t i m a t e s o f R e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and f o r e a c h of t h e s u b - t e s t s a r e shown i n T a b l e F.1. Table F.1 Summary of Test S t a t i s t i c s for the Questionnaire Rel iabi11ty Questionnaire Sub-Test 1 ' Total 1 2 3 4 5 Test Number of Indiv iduals 72 72 72 72 72 72 Number of I terns 25 20 8 7 7 67 Mean Score 38 . 7 54 . 5 24 .6 21 .5 20 .2 158 .5 Standard Deviat ion 12 .0 5 9 2 . 9 2 . 8 2 . 7 17.9 Standard Error 5 . 7 3 . , 4 1 . 2 1 . 1 1 . . 3 7 . 4 Hoyt 's Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y 0. . 77 0. 64 0 .80 0. .83 0. 75 0.83 •Names of Sub-Tests (1) Use of Foodstyles A c t i v i t i e s (2) Acceptance of Foodstyles Rationale (3) Att i tude toward Foodstyles Program (4) Att i tude toward Foodstyles Workshop (5) Att i tude towards Factors in School Environment The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s i s l a r g e l y dependent upon t h e p u r p o s e of t h e t e s t . T e s t d e v e l o p e r s p r e f e r t o a c h i e v e r e l i a b i l i t i e s as h i g h as p o s s i b l e , and p r e f e r a b l y i n t h e v i c i n i t y of .90 ( E b e l , 1965). N e l s o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) , however, s u g g e s t s t h a t t e s t s d e s i g n e d f o r grou p s u r v e y s s h o u l d a t t a i n r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .70 or b e t t e r w h i l e t e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s h o u l d a t t a i n c o e f f i c i e n t s of .85 or more. N u n a l l y (1967) c o n t e n d s t h a t a t t e m p t s t o improve c o e f f i c i e n t s of 176 r e l i a b i l i t y beyond a p p r o x i m a t e l y .80 u s u a l l y r e q u i r e i m p r a c t i c a l l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s r e s u l t i n g i n s e t s of i t e m s which a r e e x c e s s i v e l y t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t o a d m i n i s t e r and s c o r e . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e t o t a l - t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r a l l s u b - t e s t s e x c e p t one, e x c e e d e d .70, i n d i c a t i n g a c c e p t a b l e i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y f o r s u r v e y p u r p o s e s . The c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r one s u b - t e s t was below t h e s t a n d a r d s u g g e s t e d by N e l s o n f o r s u r v e y s . N u n a l l y , ( 1 9 6 7 ) , however, s u g g e s t s t h a t measures o f a c o n s t r u c t w h i c h has " o n l y modest r e l i a b i l i t y " , t h a t i s , a c o e f f i c i e n t between .5 and .6, a r e a d e q u a t e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g d a t a f o r p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s . W i t h t h e s e f a c t o r s i n mind, th e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y were i n t e r p r e t e d as a d e q u a t e . A P P E N D I X G P R O F I L E S OF TEACHER USE OF FOODSTYLES 178 PROFILE OF TEACHERS WHO ARE HIGH-USERS OF FOODSTYLES C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T e a c h e r s Those c o n s i d e r e d t o be h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s d u r i n g 1980-81. F o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p have been t e a c h i n g f o r more than t e n y e a r s and s e v e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t have t a u g h t f o r more than f i v e y e a r s . S e v e n t y p e r c e n t have been t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n f o r more than f i v e y e a r s . F o r t y -t h r e e p e r c e n t t a u g h t o n l y Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s d u r i n g 1980-81. J u s t o v e r n i n e t y p e r c e n t of t h e t e a c h e r s who a r e h i g h -u s e r s t a u g h t s e n i o r c l a s s e s and, of t h e s e , t h i r t y p e r c e n t a l s o t a u g h t j u n i o r c l a s s e s . L e s s than t e n p e r c e n t t a u g h t o n l y j u n i o r c l a s s e s . F i f t y p e r c e n t of t h e t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h - u s e r s t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s w i t h a p u p i l e n r o l m e n t of 500-1000. E i g h t y p e r c e n t of t h e t e a c h e r s who a r e h i g h - u s e r s c o m p l e t e d two or t h r e e n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s d u r i n g t h e i r d e g r e e or d i p l o m a program but o n l y a v e r y s m a l l number have c o m p l e t e d any a d d i t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s s i n c e . A l l t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h - u s e r s a t t e n d e d t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop as t e a c h e r s . F i f t y p e r c e n t of t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d t o be h i g h - u s e r s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g the n e w s l e t t e r "In To u c h " . T e a c h e r A t t i t u d e s toward T e a c h i n g N u t r i t i o n T e a c h e r s who a r e h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s more f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e i r l e s s o n s t h a t r e f l e c t 179 a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e t han t e a c h e r s who a r e moderate o r l o w - u s e r s of t h e program. A l m o s t a l l h i g h - u s e r s r e p o r t e d i n t e g r a t i n g n u t r i t i o n t o p i c s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . They p e r c e i v e n u t r i t i o n t o be an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of f o o d s e l e c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n . They o c c a s i o n a l l y t e a c h a l e s s o n d e v o t e d e n t i r e l y t o n u t r i t i o n but t h e y do not p r e s e n t a c o m p l e t e u n i t on n u t r i t i o n . They a r e more l i k e l y t o spend a p a r t o f most l e s s o n s on some a s p e c t of n u t r i t i o n . T e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e development of t h e l o n g t e r m a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o w a r d f o o d s e l e c t i o n . T h i s c o n c e r n was t y p i f i e d by t h e comment, "My g o a l i s t o t r y and h e l p my s t u d e n t s e s t a b l i s h sound e a t i n g h a b i t s t h a t a r e g o i n g t o t a k e them t h r o u g h a good number of y e a r s o f t h e i r l i v e s " . T e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h - u s e r s o f t e n s e l e c t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h ich e n c o u r a g e s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y n u t r i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s . They a s s i s t s t u d e n t s t o e s t i m a t e t h e i r p e r s o n a l n u t r i e n t and c a l o r i e needs, t o r e c o g n i s e f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r e a t i n g h a b i t s , t o e v a l u a t e the adequacy of t h e i r p r e s e n t f o o d i n t a k e and t o i d e n t i f y f o o d p a t t e r n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own needs and p r e f e r e n c e s . P a t t e r n s of Use of F o o d s t y l e s A l t h o u g h most t e a c h e r s i n t h e h i g h - u s e r g r o u p t e a c h s e n i o r s t u d e n t s , t h e y use a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s . 180 They t e n d t o p r e f e r t o use t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h e f i r s t time as o u t l i n e d i n t h e program or a t t h e workshop. A number of t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h e need t o m o d i f y some a c t i v i t i e s t o en c o u r a g e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and t o h e l p s t u d e n t s a r r i v e a t t h e i r own c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e t o p i c . T e a c h e r s who a r e h i g h - u s e r s f i n d t h a t t h e "Bar Graph" a c t i v i t i e s a r e e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l . They a l l use t h e "Bar G r a p h s " t o compare t h e n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t of f o o d s . N i n e t y p e r c e n t a l s o use them t o i d e n t i f y t h e n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t of common f o o d s and the main n u t r i e n t s p r o v i d e d by f o o d s i n the F o u r Food G r o u p s . O t h e r j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s u s e d by about s e v e n t y p e r c e n t of the h i g h - u s e r s a r e " E x p l o r i n g t h e F o o d s t y l e s of O t h e r s " , t h e " P e r s o n a l P r o f i l e " , t h e "Why's and W h e r e f o r e ' s of E a t i n g " and the " C a l o r i e C a l c u l a t o r " . L e s s than h a l f of t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p use t h e " B u i l d - A - C e l l Game". Some t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y one copy of t h e game i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r a whole c l a s s . O t h e r s , however, use t h i s game as an e n r i c h m e n t a c t i v i t y f o r more a b l e s t u d e n t s . No h i g h - u s e r s i n c l u d e " T a k i n g the B a s i c s A p a r t " i n t h e i r l e s s o n s . Many t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r t h e format of t h i s a c t i v i t y t o be j u v e n i l e and t h e r e f o r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s . The s e n i o r a c t i v i t y most l i k e l y t o be used by t e a c h e r s i n the h i g h - u s e r group i s " F e e d i n g t h e W o r l d " . About e i g h t y p e r c e n t i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s a c t i v i t y i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . About s e v e n t y p e r c e n t a l s o use "World Food S h o r t a g e s " , "Problems of Abundance", "Where do C a l o r i e s Come From?" and " G u i d e l i n e s f o r E v a l u a t i n g D i e t s " . H i g h - u s e r s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o use "A Day i n 181 t h e L i f e o f . . . " and "Down w i t h F a t , Sugar and S a l t " . L e s s than h a l f of t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p use " E a t i n g on a S h o e s t r i n g B u d g e t " . T h i s i s a s i m u l a t i o n t y p e a c t i v i t y d e s i g n e d t o d e v e l o p s t u d e n t awareness of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i n g an a d e q u a t e d i e t on a l i m i t e d b u d g e t . S i m i l a r l y , l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e h i g h - u s e r s i n c l u d e " C o o k i n g E f f i c i e n t l y and S e l f S u f f i c i e n t l y " . T h i s a c t i v i t y aims t o h e l p s t u d e n t s use r e s o u r c e s w i s e l y and t o become l e s s dependent on h i g h l y p r o c e s s e d f o o d s . T e a c h e r s t e n d t o s e l e c t t h e s e two a c t i v i t i e s o n l y f o r Grade 12 s t u d e n t s b ecause t h e y c o n s i d e r them t o be l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r younger p u p i l s . T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n s of F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Use of F o o d s t y l e s T e a c h e r s i n t h e h i g h - u s e r g r o u p have v e r y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t oward th e F o o d s t y l e s program. They c o n s i d e r i t t o be v a l u a b l e i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g of n u t r i t i o n . T y p i c a l r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r v i e w i n g F o o d s t y l e s as w o r t h w h i l e were: " I t f i t s i n w i t h my own l e s s o n o b j e c t i v e s " ; " I t c a p t u r e s the i n t e r e s t of my s t u d e n t s " ; and " I t i s one o f t h e few n u t r i t i o n programs d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r C a n a d i a n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . " T e a c h e r s who a r e h i g h - u s e r s of the program a r e a l s o v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop. They b e l i e v e the workshop i s a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l a p p r o a c h t o i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i n n o v a t i o n . R e p e a t e d l y , t e a c h e r s commented t h a t " t h e e n t h u s i a s m of workshop l e a d e r s was a major f a c t o r i n e n c o u r a g i n g me t o use the program", and "my p e r s o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some of the a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the workshop, h e l p e d me t o u n d e r s t a n d more 182 t h o r o u g h l y how t h e a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be used i n my l e s s o n s " . Most h i g h - u s e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a n o t h e r workshop p r o v i d e d t h a t new a c t i v i t i e s were p r e s e n t e d . Most would l i k e F o o d s t y l e s t o be expanded t o i n c l u d e g r e a t e r emphasis on consumer a s p e c t s of f o o d s e l e c t i o n . More than h a l f of t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e h i g h - u s e r g r oup, would l i k e t o see more n u t r i t i o n u p - d ate i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a t t h e workshops. T e a c h e r s who a r e h i g h - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s do not c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e were any s p e c i f i c i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e i r s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o use t h e program. A l t h o u g h t h e y p e r c e i v e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o be s u p p o r t i v e of t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v elopment of t h e i r t e a c h e r s , t h e y do not f e e l t h a t any s p e c i a l encouragement was d i r e c t e d toward th e F o o d s t y l e s program. Some t e a c h e r s i n t h e h i g h - u s e r g r o u p e n c o u r a g e l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s w i t h whom t h e y work, t o use t h e program. Where s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s on t h e same s t a f f a l l use F o o d s t y l e s , t h e t r a d i n g of i d e a s on the use of t h e program was p e r c e i v e d t o be v e r y v a l u a b l e i n d e e d . A l t h o u g h few h i g h - u s e r s c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s i s l i m i t e d by f a c t o r s i n t h e i r s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , a l m o s t h a l f i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s c h o o l t i m e - t a b l e made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o use some of t h e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . 183 PROFILE OF TEACHERS WHO ARE MODERATE-USERS OF FOODSTYLES C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as m o d e r a t e - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s have g e n e r a l l y been t e a c h i n g f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d t h a n h i g h - u s e r s of t h e program but f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d than l o w - u s e r s . Most t a u g h t j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s d u r i n g 1980-81. The h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of m o d e r a t e - u s e r s have had f i v e t o t e n y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . About t h i r t y p e r c e n t of t h e t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as m o d e r a t e - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s have been t e a c h i n g f o r more than t e n y e a r s , about f o r t y p e r c e n t f o r f i v e t o n i n e y e a r s and t h i r t y p e r c e n t f o r l e s s t h an f i v e . E i g h t y -t h r e e p e r c e n t have been t e a c h i n g Foods and N u t r i t i o n f o r l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s and f o r t y p e r c e n t f o r l e s s than f i v e . T h r e e -q u a r t e r s o f t h e t e a c h e r s who a r e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s o f t h e program t a u g h t j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s i n 1980-81 and about h a l f of t h e s e t e a c h e r s t a u g h t s e n i o r c l a s s e s as w e l l . J u s t o v e r t h r e e q u a r t e r s t a u g h t o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l as Foods and N u t r i t i o n . E i g h t y p e r c e n t t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s w i t h an e n r o l m e n t of l e s s t h a n 1000 p u p i l s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y p e r c e n t of t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p c o m p l e t e d two or t h r e e n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s d u r i n g t h e i r d e g r e e or d i p l o m a and h a r d l y any have c o m p l e t e d any u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s s i n c e . N i n e t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e m oderate-u s e r s a t t e n d e d the workshop as t e a c h e r s and f o r t y p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e the n e w s l e t t e r "In T o u c h " . 1 8 4 T e a c h e r A t t i t u d e s toward T e a c h i n g N u t r i t i o n T e a c h e r s who a r e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s more f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e i r l e s s o n s t h a t r e f l e c t a c c e p t a n c e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e than l o w - u s e r s , but l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than h i g h - u s e r s o f t h e program. T e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as m o d e r a t e - u s e r s seldom t e a c h N u t r i t i o n and Food P r e p a r a t i o n as two s e p a r a t e a r e a s . E i g h t y p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d i n t e g r a t i n g n u t r i t i o n i n t o t h e i r Foods l e s s o n s . Sometimes t h e y spend a whole l e s s o n on n u t r i t i o n but t h e y r a r e l y p r e s e n t a number of n u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s i n sequence. G e n e r a l l y , t h e y b e l i e v e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s a r e e a s y t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o Foods and N u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . Some t e a c h e r s i n the m o d e r a t e - u s e r g r o u p a r e m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e l p i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e n u t r i t i o n a l knowledge - "I want my s t u d e n t s t o remember i n t e n y e a r s t i m e t h a t t h e y need a v a r i e t y of f o o d s t o p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y of n u t r i e n t s " . O t h e r m o d e r a t e - u s e r s emphasize the i m p o r t a n c e of h e l p i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o use n u t r i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a p p l y i t t o t h e m s e l v e s . About f o r t y p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g roup s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s which h e l p s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y the r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r f o o d p r e f e r e n c e s , work out p e r s o n a l n u t r i e n t needs, or i d e n t i f y f o o d p a t t e r n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r needs and p r e f e r e n c e s . P a t t e r n s of Use of F o o d s t y l e s In g e n e r a l , m o d e r a t e - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s s e l e c t j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s s l i g h t l y more o f t e n than l o w - u s e r s and a l i t t l e l e s s 1 8 5 f r e q u e n t l y t h an h i g h - u s e r s . However, m o d e r a t e - u s e r s s e l e c t s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s a bout h a l f as o f t e n a s h i g h - u s e r s and a b o u t t w i c e as o f t e n as l o w - u s e r s . Some t e a c h e r s i n t h e m o d e r a t e - u s e r g r o u p , use t h e a c t i v i t i e s j u s t as t h e y a r e : "I d i d n ' t have t o d e v e l o p t h e a c t i v i t i e s any f u r t h e r m y s e l f . . . " O t h e r s m o d i f y some o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s : "I f o u n d a number of t h e a s s i g n m e n t s needed t o be r e v i s e d b e c a u s e t h e r e wasn't enough o f a c l o s u r e t o d i s c u s s i o n s . F o r example, ' E a t i n g on a S h o e s t r i n g Budget' I f e l t needed some more d e f i n i t e q u e s t i o n s " . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t e a c h e r s who a r e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s use t h e j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s more than t h e s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s . About n i n e t y p e r c e n t use t h e "Bar G r a p h s " i n t h e i r n u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s . About e i g h t y p e r c e n t use t h e "Why's and W h e r e f o r e ' s of E a t i n g " and t h e " P e r s o n a l P r o f i l e " . About f i f t y p e r c e n t use t h e " C a l o r i e C a l c u l a t o r " , "My F o o d s t y l e " and " E x p l o r i n g t h e F o o d s t y l e s of O t h e r s " . The j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y used a r e "Food Waste i n N o r t h A m e r i c a " and " T a k i n g t h e B a s i c s A p a r t " . O n l y about twenty p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as m o d e r a t e - u s e r s use t h e s e two a c t i v i t i e s . The s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s most f r e q u e n t l y used by t e a c h e r s who' a r e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s o f t h e program a r e " G u i d e l i n e s f o r E v a l u a t i n g D i e t s " , "Where do C a l o r i e s Come From?", "A Day i n t h e L i f e O f . . . " and "Down w i t h F a t , Sugar and S a l t " . About f o r t y p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s who a r e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s use t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . About twenty p e r c e n t i n c o r p o r a t e " F e e d i n g t h e W o r l d " , "World Food S h o r t a g e s " , "Problems of Abundance" and " E a t i n g on a S h o e s t r i n g 186 Budget" i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . O n l y t e n p e r c e n t of m o d e r a t e - u s e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y use " C o o k i n g E f f i c i e n t l y and S e l f -S u f f i c i e n t l y " . T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n s of F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Use of F o o d s t y l e s T e a c h e r s who a r e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s , have p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward t h e F o o d s t y l e s program. Almost a l l b e l i e v e t h a t t h e program has been u s e f u l t o them i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g o f n u t r i t i o n a l t h o u g h t h e y v a r y i n t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . Some i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e v a l u e of F o o d s t y l e s l i e s i n t h e q u a l i t y of t h e n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e program. O t h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h e program i s v a l u a b l e b ecause t h e i r s t u d e n t s f i n d t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t e r e s t i n g . One t e a c h e r e x p l a i n e d t h e program was v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e " t h i s F o o d s t y l e s i d e a i s not one w h i c h came t h r o u g h my b a c k g r o u n d ... F o o d s t y l e s has l e t me b r a n c h out i n t o a more l i f e s t y l e - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h t o n u t r i t i o n " . T e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as m o d e r a t e - u s e r s of t h e program a r e a l s o v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of t h e workshop. L i k e t h e h i g h - u s e r s , they commented t h a t the e n t h u s i a s m of t h e workshop l e a d e r s e n c o u r a g e d them t o t r y out the F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s . They a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some of the a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the workshop h e l p e d them u n d e r s t a n d how the a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i r l e s s o n s . A l m o s t a l l m o d e r a t e - u s e r s b e l i e v e the workshop p r e s e n t e d an a d e q u a t e o v e r v i e w of the program, and o u t l i n e d p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r u s i n g F o o d s t y l e s . O n l y one t e a c h e r who i s a m o d e r a t e - u s e r d i d not 187 f e e l keen t o t r y out some of t h e F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e end of t h e workshop. About h a l f of t h e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s would have p r e f e r r e d more n u t r i t i o n u p - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the workshop. N i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s who a r e m o d e r a t e - u s e r s , i n d i c a t e d t h e y d i d not r e c e i v e any encouragement from w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l t o use F o o d s t y l e s . Y e t , v e r y few c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e were any s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e i r s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t which made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o use t h e program. 188 PROFILE OF TEACHERS WHO ARE LOW-USERS OF FOODSTYLES C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t o be l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s g e n e r a l l y have l e s s t h an f i v e y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and t a u g h t j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s d u r i n g 1980-81. About e i g h t y p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t o be low-u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s have been t e a c h i n g f o r l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s and a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f have been t e a c h i n g f o r l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s . Many have t a u g h t Foods and N u t r i t i o n f o r t h e i r e n t i r e t e a c h i n g c a r e e r . A l m o s t s e v e n t y p e r c e n t of t h o s e who a r e low-u s e r s o n l y t a u g h t j u n i o r Foods and N u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s d u r i n g 1980-81 w h i l e n i n e t y p e r c e n t t a u g h t o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l . E i g h t y p e r c e n t t a u g h t i n a s c h o o l w i t h l e s s t h an 1000 p u p i l s e n r o l l e d . S e v e n t y p e r c e n t of t h e t e a c h e r s who a r e l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s c o m p l e t e d two or t h r e e n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s d u r i n g t h e i r d e g r e e or d i p l o m a program. H a r d l y any have c o m p l e t e d a d d i t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l n u t r i t i o n c o u r s e s s i n c e t h a t t i m e . J u s t o v e r s e v e n t y p e r c e n t a t t e n d e d t h e workshop as t e a c h e r s . Most of t h e t e a c h e r s who a t t e n d e d t h e workshop as s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s were i d e n t i f i e d as l o w - u s e r s of the program. One t h i r d of t h e low-u s e r s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g the n e w s l e t t e r "In Touch". T e a c h e r A t t i t u d e s toward T e a c h i n g N u t r i t i o n T e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t fewer t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e i r l e s s o n s 189 t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e F o o d s t y l e s r a t i o n a l e than do moderate or h i g h u s e r s of t h e program. T e a c h e r s who a r e l o w - u s e r s emphasize t h e a c q u i s i t i o n . of knowledge about n u t r i t i o n i n t h e i r l e s s o n s . Comments from low-u s e r s i n t e r v i e w e d i n c l u d e d : "I aim t o h e l p my s t u d e n t s g a i n knowledge of f o o d s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e ; u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y can improve t h e i r d i e t s ; and r e c o g n i s e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s " ; "My major aim i n t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n i s t o have s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d n u t r i t i o n so t h a t t h e y c an e v a l u a t e t h e q u a l i t y of t h e n u t r i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y e n c o u n t e r . " W i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , l o w - u s e r s do not o f t e n p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e q u a r t e r s s e l d o m e n c o u r a g e t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y the r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l f o o d p r e f e r e n c e s , e s t i m a t e t h e i r own n u t r i t i o n a l needs o r i d e n t i f y f o r t h e m s e l v e s f o o d p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r f o o d p r e f e r e n c e s and n u t r i e n t n e e d s . P a t t e r n s of Use of F o o d s t y l e s T e a c h e r s who a r e l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s use some of t h e j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r n u t r i t i o n l e s s o n s but a r e v e r y u n l i k e l y t o s e l e c t s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s . Low-users i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d they d i d not use t h e s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i r j u n i o r c l a s s e s when most of t h e i r s t u d e n t s remain a t s c h o o l u n t i l Grade 12. They c o n s i d e r i t i s b e t t e r t o l e a v e s e n i o r a c t i v i t i e s f o r s e n i o r c l a s s e s . The most f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s among l o w - u s e r s of F o o d s t y l e s a r e t h e "Bar Graph" 190 a c t i v i t i e s . About t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t o be l o w - u s e r s , use t h e "Bar Grap h " a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r l e s s o n s w h i l e j u s t o v e r h a l f use t h e " C a l o r i e C a l c u l a t o r " and t h e " P e r s o n a l P r o f i l e " . Most l o w - u s e r s r e p o r t e d u s i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s as t h e y a r e o u t l i n e d i n t h e F o o d s t y l e s program or p r e s e n t e d a t t h e workshop. The j u n i o r a c t i v i t i e s which t e a c h e r s i n t h e l o w - u s e r g r o u p a r e l e a s t l i k e l y t o use a r e " T a k i n g t h e B a s i c s A p a r t " , "Food Waste i n N o r t h A m e r i c a " and " E x p l o r i n g t h e F o o d s t y l e s of O t h e r s " . Some l o w - u s e r s c o n s i d e r " E x p l o r i n g t h e F o o d s t y l e s of O t h e r s " t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r many j u n i o r s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e young a d o l e s c e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y "not s u f f i c i e n t l y mature t o l o o k beyond t h e m s e l v e s " . No t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as l o w - u s e r s make use of t h e A c t i o n B.C. computer a n a l y s i s of s t u d e n t s ' f o o d i n t a k e . Two r e a s o n s were g i v e n f o r t h i s l a c k of use - f i r s t l y , i t i s e x p e n s i v e and s e c o n d l y , some S c h o o l B o a r d s ( f o r example, V a n c o u v e r ) have t h e i r own computer program. The s e n i o r a c t i v i t y most l i k e l y t o be used by t e a c h e r s who a r e l o w - u s e r s i s "A Day i n the L i f e O f . . . " t o i d e n t i f y p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs f o r f o o d . However, o n l y f i f t e e n p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s i n t h e l o w - u s e r g r o u p i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y have used t h i s a c t i v i t y and w i l l use i t a g a i n . About t e n p e r c e n t use " F e e d i n g t h e W o r l d " and "Where do C a l o r i e s Come From?" T h e r e were no t e a c h e r s i n t h e l o w - u s e r g r o u p who use "Problems of Abundance", "Down w i t h F a t , Sugar and S a l t " or "Coo k i n g E f f i c i e n t l y and S e l f - S u f f i c i e n t l y " . 191 T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n s of F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Use of F o o d s t y l e s E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s who a r e l o w - u s e r s o f F o o d s t y l e s , b e l i e v e t h a t t h e F o o d s t y l e s program i s v a l u a b l e i n t h e i r l e s s o n s . T h e r e appear t o be two main r e a s o n s which t e a c h e r s o f f e r f o r t h i s o p i n i o n . F i r s t l y , F o o d s t y l e s i s v a l u e d f o r t h e q u a l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n i t c o n t a i n s : "The i n f o r m a t i o n i s c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d and w e l l o r g a n i s e d " . S e c o n d l y , t e a c h e r s can s e l e c t j u s t t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h e y w i s h t o u s e : " F o o d s t y l e s i s a f l e x i b l e program. I can s i m p l y d u p l i c a t e t h e p a r t s I want t o u s e " . T e a c h e r s who a r e l o w - u s e r s of the program a r e s u p p o r t i v e of t h e F o o d s t y l e s workshop. They p e r c e i v e t h e workshop t o be w e l l p r e s e n t e d and b e l i e v e t h e " e n t h u s i a s m of t h e workshop l e a d e r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o use t h e program". One t e a c h e r who a t t e n d e d t h e workshop as a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s e d . She found " i t was g r e a t t o be g i v e n a c o m p l e t e pack I c o u l d p i c k and c h o o s e from because as a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r I d i d n ' t f e e l v e r y o r g a n i s e d . So my f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f F o o d s t y l e s were v e r y p o s i t i v e and t h o s e have s t a y e d . " A l l the t e a c h e r s i n the l o w - u s e r g r o u p who were i n t e r v i e w e d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would be w i l l i n g t o a t t e n d a n o t h e r workshop p r o v i d e d new i d e a s f o r t e a c h i n g n u t r i t i o n were p r e s e n t e d . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a d d i t i o n s t o t h e program i n c l u d e d g r e a t e r emphasis on t h e " r e l a t i o n s h i p between n u t r i t i o n and h e a l t h " , " b u d g e t i n g " , "consumer a s p e c t s of n u t r i t i o n " , "some s t a t i s t i c s on f o o d c o n s u m p t i o n p a t t e r n s b o t h i n Canada and o t h e r p a r t s of t h e W o r l d " . About h a l f of t h e l o w - u s e r s would l i k e t o 192 see more n u t r i t i o n u p - d ate i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a t t h e workshops. The m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s who a r e l o w - u s e r s do not b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t h i n d e r e d t h e i r use of F o o d s t y l e s . However, about one t h i r d of t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r c l a s s s i z e s a r e t o o l a r g e f o r them t o use F o o d s t y l e s a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t t h e l e n g t h of s c h o o l p e r i o d s i s t o o s h o r t t o use many a c t i v i t i e s and t h a t t h e a b i l i t y l e v e l s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s v a r i e d t o o much f o r them t o use t h e program t o a g r e a t e x t e n t . O n l y one q u a r t e r of t h e t e a c h e r s who a r e l o w - u s e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had r e c e i v e d encouragement from w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l t o t r y out F o o d s t y l e s . APPENDIX H CORRELATION MATRIX FOR VARIABLES INFLUENCING USE OF FOODSTYLES Table H.1 Correlat ion Matrix Level of Att itude to Status at Courses Receipt F 5 N Program Workshop Taught Newsletter Level of Foods & Nutr i t ion Taught At t i tude to Program Status when Attending Workshop Courses Taught in 1980-81 Receipt/Non-Receipt of Newsletter - . 0 0 - . 0 4 - . 2 2 .06 .04 .12 - . 0 4 .27 .22 .06 

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