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House and home in Vancouver: the emergence of west coast urban landscape, 1886-1929 Holdsworth, Deryck 1981

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HOUSE AND HOME IN VANCOUVER The Emergence o f a West Coast Urban Landscape 1886-1929 by DERYCK WILLIAM HOLDSWORTH M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Geography U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1981 © Deryck Wi11iam H o l d s w o r t h , 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the making o f the Vancouver r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c a p e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i f t y y e a r s a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . A c i t y o f uncommon a t t r a c t i v e n e s s s e t next t o sea and mo u n t a i n , Vancouver o f f e r e d unusual r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n a r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g commercial and i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . High wages and cheap l a n d made a c c e s s i b l e by the s t r e e t c a r e n a b l e d even v e r y o r d i n a r y p e o p l e t o buy o r b u i l d houses on l o t s up t o e i g h t m i l e s from t h e i r p l a c e o f work. V a n c o u v e r i t e s admired the r e s u l t i n g suburban l a n d s c a p e , s e t away from i n d u s t r y and commerce and p r o v i d i n g open s p a c e , g a r d e n s , and r u r a l f l a v o u r . Land and home o w n e r s h i p , amid t h e r e b y c o n t r o l o v e r the d o m e s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t , were i m p o r t a n t t o them; Suburban Vancouver r e f l e c t e d i mported v a l u e s and l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and both were o r c h e s t r a t e d by a p r o p e r t y market t h a t was dominated by s p e c u l a t i o n . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n the f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s o f the t h e s i s . The next t h r e e c h a p t e r s d e a l w i t h house s t y l e s i n Vancouver, as i n f l u e n c e d by b u i l d e r s , p a t t e r n books, and a r c h i t e c t s . Three broad s t y l e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d . The f i r s t , i n the p e r i o d from 1886 t o 1910, were l a t e V i c t o r i a n d e s i g n s used f o r a range o f c a b i n s , c o t t a g e s , frame t w o - s t o r e y houses and mansions. G i n g e r b r e a d t r i m , t u r r e t s o r e l a b o r a t e p o r c h e s , m o s t l y a c q u i r e d from f a c t o r y o r m i l l a l o n g w i t h o t h e r b u i l d i n g e l e m e n t s , suggest the i n d u s t r i a l and American p e d i g r e e o f houses on the downtown p e n i n s u l a and p r o x i m a t e s u b u r b s . A second s t y l e , s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the A r t s ^ a n d C r a f t s movement in C a l i f o r n i a , a p p a r e n t l y r e j e c t e d e a r l i e r s t a n d a r d i z e d i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t s . The C a l i f o r n i a Bungalow, p o p u l a r from about 1910 t o t h e mid-1920s, was a s i m p l e i i and open house t h a t emphasized the t e x t u r e o f s h i n g l e , r a f t e r , b r i c k and s t o n e . These bungalows were a v a i l a b l e i n one- and t w o - s t o r e y v e r s i o n s and were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n n o v a t i v e m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n C a l i f o r n i a . M i m i c k i n g b o t h C a l i f o r n i a s t y l e s and r e a l e s t a t e p r a c t i c e s , Vancouver b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r s added a s t r o n g l y West Coast element t o the c i t y ' s s t r e e t s c a p e s a f t e r 1910. A t h i r d s t y l e , an e x p l i c i t y E n g l i s h p r e - i n d u s t r i a 1 r e v i v a l , was a v a r i a n t o f A r t s and C r a f t s i n f l u e n c e i n s p i r e d by E n g l i s h Tudor C o t t a g e s and t h a t c h e d farmhouses. For the c i t y ' s l a r g e l y a n g l o - s a x o n e l i t e , Tudor mansions were p o p u l a r ; t h e i r e x p a n s i v e form and h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l had been i n t e r p r e t e d i n N o r t h American t a s t e - m a k i n g c e n t r e s such as P h i l a d e l p h i a . The same Tudor and t h a t c h e d c o t t a g e m o t i f s , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r r e v i v a l i s t s t y l e s , s e r v e d s m a l l e r houses i n the l a r g e l y m i d d l e c l a s s suburbs of P o i n t Grey and t h e r e b y h i n t e d a t e s t a t e l i v i n g , a l b e i t on a s m a l l l o t . The s i g n i l f i c a n c e o f t h e s e l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s is.i d i s c u s s e d from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, s o c i a l v a l u e s , c l a s s r e l a t i o n s , and r e g i o n a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . W h i l e Vancouver houses were the p r o d u c t o f an i n d u s t r i a l s y stem, t h e h i g h l e v e l o f home-ownership and t h e s u c c e s s f u l s e p a r a t i o n o f home and work mark an i m p o r t a n t s t a g e i n the e v o l u t i o n o f urban form beyond t h a t o f the t y p i c a l i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . The c i t y - a s - s u b u r b a n - 1 a n d s c a p e , g e n e r i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e on the c o n t i n e n t , came t o Vancouver w i t h a u n i q u e mix o f e l e m e n t s t h a t r e f l e c t the r e g i o n ' s m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s , s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s and economy. As an e x e r c i s e i n urban h i s t o r i c a l geography, the t h e s i s a l s o o f f e r s a c o n c r e t e p e r s p e c t i v e on i s s u e s o f i d e n t i t y and meaning t h a t a r e o f c o n c e r n i n c ontemporary human geography. i i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF TABLES . i x FRONTISPIECE x PREFACE x i CHAPTER ONE. IMPRESSIONS OF A CITY OF HOMES 1 P l a c e s and Faces: Elements o f t h e S o c i a l Landscape o f Vancouver Views From O u t s i d e CHAPTER TWO THE IMPORTANCE OF HOUSE AND HOME FOR VANCOUVER ITES 3^ The B r i t i s h I n d u s t r i a l C i t y The N o r t h American p a r a l l e l s CHAPTER THREE THE SELLING OF VANCOUVER LAND 59 The s h a p i n g o f the Vancouver c a d a s t r e Land as i n v e s t m e n t : some s p e c u l a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s Land A c c e s s i b i l i t y : i m p o r t a n c e o f c o r p o r a t e l a n d s t r a t e g i e s P l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r l a n d development CHAPTER FOUR VICTORIAN IMAGES ON THE WEST COAST FRONTIER: HOUSE AND HOME, 1886-1910 109 S o c i a l and s t y l i s t i c zones i n t h e e a r l y c i t y The Home Landscape o f W e a l t h The S t a r t o f t h e Suburbs CHAPTER FIVE THE WEST COAST ALTERNATIVE: THE IMPACT OF THE CALIFORNIA BUNGALOW, 1910-1930 162 A d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e o f p a t t e r n books The bungalow i n C a l i f o r n i a The Vancouver r e p l i c a t i o n CHAPTER SIX OLD WORLD STYLES IN SUBURBIA: THE ENGLISH CONNECTION, 1900-1930 206 The N o r t h American P o p u l a r i t y o f Tudor A r c h i t e c t - d e s i g n e d Tudor R e v i v a l i n Vancouver The d i f f u s i o n o f Tudor s t y l e s t o s u b u r b a n . 1 o t s CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 248 Vancouver's v a r i e t y o f h o u s i n g s t y l e s Vancouver and I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y S o u rces o f Vancouver's v a r i e t y P o s t s c r i p t FOOTNOTES 2 8 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 2 2 1 v LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 Be i t e v e r so humble, t h e r e ' s no p l a c e l i k e home . . . . ( 1 ) k 1 . 2 View o f Vancouver from Mount P l e a s a n t , 1893 1 . 3 K i t s i l a n o s t r e e t s c a p e , 1929 6 1. k Car L i n e s , Area Served and P o p u l a t i o n , 1929 10 1 . 5 R e s i d e n t i a l B u i l d i n g s E r e c t e d P r i o r t o 1916 11 1 . 6 Grimmett 13 1 . 7 T u l k Mansion, Shaughnessy H e i g h t s 15 1 . 8 T h i r d Shaughnessy 15 1 . 9 R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n , 1 9 2 2 , by s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s 18 1 . 1 0 Grandview: t h e mix o f houses 20 1.11 Grandview: t h e f i r s t house 2k 1 . 1 2 Grandview: t h r e e s t y l e s o f house 26 2 . 1 E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l l a n d s c a p e s 39 2 . 2 E n g l i s h suburban and garden c i t y l a n d s c a p e s k5 2 . 3 H e a r t h and Home, brought t o you by N a t i o n a l F i n a n c e 52 2. h P a t t e r n book d e s i g n s f o r w o r k i n g men's c o t t a g e s ( a n d o t h e r s ) 56 3 . 1 E v o l u t i o n o f t h e Vancouver C a d a s t r e , 1 8 6 5 ^ 8 5 63 3 . 2 C a d a s t r a l U n i t s , C i t y o f Vancouver 65 3 . 3 S u b d i v i s i o n s t r a t e g i e s , C i t y H e i g h t s 70 3 . 4 B a l m o r a l O r c h a r d : a d v e r t i s m e n t f o r the s a l e o f l o t s 72 3 - 5 P r o v i n c i a l Government Land A u c t i o n , K i t s i l a n o , 1886 ~]k 3 . 6 A c r e a g e S a l e s , L ocarno Beach, 1905 77 3 . 7 S e l e c t e d examples o f land o w n e r s h i p , P o i n t Grey M u n i c i p a l i.ty, 1912 77 3 . 8 S t r e e t P l a n and s u b d i v i s i o n s , P o i n t Grey M u n i c i p a l i t y , 1912 79 3 . 9 P o i n t Grey M u n i c i p a l H a l l 81 v 3 . 10 The C i r c l e Game: r e a l e s t a t e map o f Vancouver,1910 83 3 . 11 A l v o Von A l v e n s l e b e n r e a l e s t a t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t , K i t s i l a n o , 1 9 0 9 90 3 . 12 B.C.E.R. s t r e e t c a r t r a c k s i n C.P.R.'s D.L. 526 96 3 . 13 D e t a i l o f C.P.R. s u b d i v i s i o n , C i t y o f Vancouver 99 3 . 14 Re-alignment o f s t r e e t s i n Bartholomew P l a n , 1929 105 4 . 1 Y a l e t o w n : c o t t a g e s and c a b i n s 112 4 . 2 Y a l e t o w n : t w o - s t o r e y houses 114 4 . 3 C.P.R. C o t t a g e B 116 4 . 4 Dr. L e f e v r e ' s house 119 4 . 5 C D . Rand's house, G e o r g i a S t r e e t 119 4 . 6 West End mansions 121 4 . 7 M i d d l e - c l a s s h o u s i n g , Seymour S t r e e t 123 4 . 8 D e t a i l o f h o u s i n g , H a m i l t o n S t r e e t 123 4. 9 P r i z e w i n n i n g d e s i g n s , M i c h i g a n , 1889 125 4 . 10 Thur l o w S t r e e t example o f M i c h i g a n d e s i g n 125 4 . 11 Ea s t End l a n d s c a p e , H a s t i n g s M i l l a r e a 128 4 . 12 P r i o r S t r e e t c o t t a g e s 130 4 . 13 Heterogeneous l a n d s c a p e , E a s t End 132 4 . 14 Mount P l e a s a n t v i s t a , , 1 9 0 0 134 4 . 15 P a r r and Fee's house s t y l e 141 4 . 16 At Home Days: t h e West End, 1908 145 4 . 17 1000 B l o c k P a c i f i c S t r e e t 149 4 . 18 K i t s i l a n o r e p l i c a t i o n o f West End images 153 4 . 19 Queen Anne i n t h e suburbs 156 4 . 20 20th A n n i v e r s a r y Parade Most S u c c e s s f u l J 5 8 4 . 21 B.C. M i l l s p r e f a b s : examples o f t h e s t y l e . 158 v i 5.1 E a s t e r n p a t t e r n book houses, Grandview,191 2 165 5 . 2 P a t t e r n books added 'bungalows' t o t h e i r l i s t i n g s 165 5 . 3 Greene and Greene's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a d e s i g n 174 5 . 4 W i l s o n and Hodgson p a t t e r n - b o o k bungalows 177 5 . 5 The S n i d e r house, K i t s i l a n o 180 5 . 6 P r u d e n t i a l B u i l d e r s ' v e r s i o n o f the "Vancouver" bungalow 182 5 . 7 T a l t o n P l a c e , p r e f a b r i c a t e d Los A n g e l e s 184 5 . 8 B a x t e r house 186 5 . 9 Houses B u i l t , C i t y o f Vancouver,191 2, by v a l u e and p e r m i t t y p e 188 5.10 Houses B u i l t , C i t y o f Vancouver, 1912, by D i s t r i c t Lot and v a l u e 189 5.11 Upper m i d d l e c l a s s houses, i.n West K i t s i l a n o 191 5.12 B e n t l e y and Wear's v a r i a n t on the "Vancouver" model 192 5.13 King and queen beam b r a c k e t s , and f l o o r p l a n s , MacDonald S t , 194 5.14 Bungalow F i n a n c e Company bungalows 196 5.-15 C o t t a g e s w i t h bungalow porches and eaves 196 5.16 Jud Yoho p a t t e r n book 201 5.17 E a s t End bungalows 203 5.18 1920s Bungalows i n K i t s i l a n o 203 6.1 B u i I d e r s Tudor, 1911 207 6 . 2 The A m e r i c a n ' o r i g i n s ' o f Queen Anne 210 6 . 3 P h i l a d e l p h i a Tudor, W.Eyre 210 6 . 4 The M a c l u r e f l o o r p l a n 214 6 . 5 N i c h o l s house, The C r e s c e n t 216 6 . 6 Shaughnessy H e i g h t s Tudor 216 6 . 7 Honeyman house 218 6 . 8 J.Z. H a l l ' s K i l l a r n e y i n K i t s i l a n o 219 6 . 9 West Coast Tudor i n Burnaby 219 v i i 6.10 Voysey's cosy c o t t a g e s 222 6.11 C r a f t s m a n s t y l i n g s f o r c o u n t r y c o t t a g e s 222 6.12 Voysey i n Vancouver 224 6.13 F r i p p ' s Tudor R e v i v a l 224 6.14 Non E n g l i s h r e v i v a l i s t images f o r e l i t e Vancouve 225 6.15 Connaught Avenue i n T h i r d Shaughnessy 229 6.16 Townley and Matheson's Vancouver v e r n a c u l a r 231 6.17 B e r n a r d Palmer's p o s t war Tudor 233 6 . 1 8 U n i v e r s i t y Endownment Lands: a v i l l a g e i n t h e g r e e n 236 6.19 A " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - t y p e " house 238 6.20 B u i l d e r s Tudor, K e r r i s d a l e 240 6.21 F i r e H a l l s as Home ( f i r e s i n the h e a r t h ? ) 241 6.22 Voysey i n West P o i n t Grey 24l 6.23 I n m i g r a n t s , K e r r i s d a l e 1924 243 6.24 Bungalow c o t t a g e i n the East End, 1927 2 i* 5 7.1 Vancouver: t h e range o f house t y p e s 250 7.2 K i t s i l a n o m o s aic 2-54 7.3 Y a l e t o w n and t h e West End 257 7.4 P o i n t Grey suburban p a s t o r a l ism 2 5 8 7-5 South Vancouver and t h e sun i n Heaven 26.H 7 . 6 Be i t e v e r so humble, t h e r e ' s no p l a c e l i k e home, 2 269 7.7 C a l i f o r n i a and England i n Vancouver 274 vi T i LIST OF TABLES 1. THE ENEFER CLAN: RESIDENTIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY 13 2 . BIRTHPLACE OF VANCOUVER'S NATIVE-BORN POPULATION, 1891-1931 35 . 3 . BIRTHPLACE OF VANCOUVER'S FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION, 1891~1931 35 4 . SELECTED WAGE RATES: VANCOUVER, TORONTO & SAINT JOHN, 1911 , 2 1 61 5. CONCENTRATION OF LAND OWNERSHIP, VANCOUVER, 1889 68 6 . OCCUPATIONS, HOUSE VALUES, YALETOWN 1888 111 7. ARCHITECTS PRACTICING IN VANCOUVER BY 1.890 117 8 . BUILDERS IN VANCOUVER'S WEST END, 1901-1904 148 i x FRONTISPIECE An A r c h i t e c t u r a l Tragedy I met a m e l a n c h o l y s n a i l Z i g z a g g i n g on the w a l k He c r i e d , " I w i s h t o ease my s o u l ! Do 1 i s t e n w h i l e I t a l k . I l i v e d i n c o m f o r t a b l e ease T i l l I grew r i c h . A l a c k ! My w i f e then s t a r t e d t o improve The house upon my back." She s a i d , " T h i s house i s o u t o f s t y l e C a l l i n the a r c h i t e c t ; It ought t o have some wings and be R e n a i s s a n c e i n e f f e c t . " Her mother wanted g a b l e s b u i l t To make me more Queen Anne; Her s i s t e r t h o ught C o l o n i a l Would be the p r o p e r p l a n . The o t h e r s w i s h e d a bungalow But now t h a t i t i s done You see t h e s o l e r e s u l t a t t a i n e d A bughouse b u i l t f o r one! from B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, J a n u a r y 1914, ( V o l . X , No.1), p.1 x PREFACE E a r l y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y Vancouver had an i n d u s t r i a l base i n a boom-and-bust r e s o u r c e economy, a l a r g e l y immigrant and w o r k i n g c l a s s s o c i e t y , and a l a n d s c a p e o f homes. The r e s i d e n t i a l 1 a n d s c a p e — d e t a c h e d houses, f a m i l y g a r d e n s , and a c r e s o f neighbourhood p a r k l a n d - - c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e c i t y ' s p l e b i a n s t o c k . In v e r y few a r e a s c o u l d be found the t e r r a c e s and tenements o f most, i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s . Homes b e s i d e the sea and a g a i n s t a backdrop o f f o r e s t and mountains made a p l a c e t h a t v i s i t o r s and Vancouver-i t e s c o n s i d e r e d t o be s p e c i a l . Most r e s i d e n t s c o u l d own a house t h a t was more s p a c i o u s and c o m f o r t a b l e than t h e y had known b e f o r e . R e l a t i v e l y , l a n d was a v a i l a b l e and wages were good. To be s u r e , o t h e r c i t i e s on the West Coast o f N o r t h A merica o f f e r e d a t t r a c t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r l a n d and house o w n e r s h i p , but i n t h i s l a r g e s t Canadian c i t y on the P a c i f i c , t h e r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c a p e soon d i f f e r e d m a r k e d l y from any t o the s o u t h . The aim here i s t o d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n t h i s l a n d s c a p e o f uncommon c h a r a c t e r . A t h e s i s t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e s on houses i s an e n t r e t o b r o a d e r a r e a s o f i n q u i r y . ^ The a s p i r a t i o n s and a c h i e v e m e n t s o f an immigrant s o c i e t y emerge t h r o u g h an assessment o f i t s s h e l t e r . The house a l s o r e f l e c t s the r o l e o f d e s i g n e r s and c o n t r a c t o r s i n t r a n s l a t i n g w i d e r n o t i o n s o f home, t e c h n o l o g y and t a s t e f o r a mass market. Those i d e a s , l i k e the p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s , were f o r the most p a r t e x t e r n a l t o the c i t y and the r e g i o n , and so t h i s s t u d y n e c e s s i t a t e s some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e geography o f B r i t i s h and E a s t e r n N o r t h American s o c i e t y a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c e n t u r y . However, x i w h i l e a s t u d y o f Vancouver has t o l o o k beyond the c i t y , a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a d o p t i o n o f the c o n c e p t s o f d i f f u s i o n , c u l t u r a l h e a r t h s and c u l t u r a l 2 change as used i n c u l t u r a l geography, i s not a p p r o p r i a t e . S t u d i e s by 3 h 5 . Evans i n I r e l a n d , B r u n s k i l l i n E n g l a n d , G l a s s i e i n V i r g i n i a , Manion and M i l l s i n Newfoundland, as w e l l as many o t h e r s w o r k i n g on p r e -i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s ^ have s u c c e s s f u l l y used v e r n a c u l a r h o u s i n g t o e s t a b l i s h r e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s and t o de m o n s t r a t e p a t t e r n s o f d i f f u s i o n from c u l t u r a l h e a r t h s . For the most p a r t , however, a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e a l s w i t h s a d d l e -bag c a b i n s , m a s s i v e c e n t r a l chimneys, a v a r i e t y o f l o g no t c h e s and the l i k e , i s o f l i t t l e use t o a s t u d y o f h o u s i n g i n Vancouver. V a n c o u v e r i t e s r a r e l y b u i l t t h e i r own houses. They bought houses from b u i l d e r s and c a r p e n t e r s who used m a t e r i a l s t h a t were p r e - c u t and pre-assembled from f a c t o r y o u t l e t s and t h a t conformed t o d e s i g n c r i t e r i a drawn from p l a n s made i n C h i c a g o , New York o r Los A n g e l e s . These p l a n s had been m a i l e d o u t , p u b l i s h e d i n maga-z i n e s o r c o l l e c t e d i n p a t t e r n books. Such a p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g has l i t t l e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the o r a l f o l k v e r n a c u l a r o f the Kentucky d o g - t r o t house o r the G a l a c i a n t h a t c h e d c o t t a g e . I f you w i l l , g Vancouver's houses r e f l e c t e d an i n d u s t r i a l v e r n a c u l a r and drew on a p o t e n t i a l l y u n i v e r s a l s e t o f s t y l e s and m a t e r i a l s . Yet V a n c o u v e r i t e s p r e -f e r r e d j u s t a few s t y l e s and t h e i r mix was not r e p e a t e d i n o t h e r c i t i e s . Even n e i g h b o u r i n g S e a t t l e was s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t . To e x p l a i n t h i s d i s -t i n c t i v e n e s s i s t o shed l i g h t on t h e un i q u e n e s s o f Vancouver w i t h i n the b r o a d l y f a m i l i a r p r a c t i c e s o f an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a . For t h i s s t u d y o f Vancouver's o r d i n a r y h o u s i n g , the l i t e r a t u r e i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y has been f r u s t r a t i n g 1 y i r r e l e v a n t . There a r e s e v e r a l broad g u i d e s t o s t y l e s , such as W h i f f e n ' s p o p u l a r Guide t o American A r c h i -9 t e c t u r e S i n c e 1780, but they s t r e s s b u i l d i n g s t h a t have been d e s i g n e d by x i i a r c h i t e c t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s . In most s t u d i e s o f the b u i l d i n g s o f a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y , a r c h i t e c t s and t h e i r c l i e n t s a r e emphasized a t the expense o f o r d i n a r y anonymous a r c h i t e c t u r e . In B r i t i s h Columbia both M a r t i n Segger's s t u d y o f the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f V i c t o r i a ^ and H a r o l d Kalman's u s e f u l g u i d e t o V a n c o u v e r ^ r e f l e c t t h i s b i a s ; n e i t h e r c o n s i d e r s even a r c h i t e c t s ' 1 2 and t h e i r c l i e n t s w i t h i n a b r o a d e r s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t . But most Vancouver houses had f a r more t o do w i t h b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s , l a n d t a x e s , c i v i c b y l a w s , f a c t o r y - b u i l t p a r t s and p a t t e r n books than w i t h a r c h i t e c t s . In t h i s s t u d y , I have r e t a i n e d f o r m a l s t y l i s t i c l a b e l s when d i s c u s s i n g a r c h i t e c t - d e s i g n e d houses b u i l t f o r the more w e l l - t o - d o , but not when d e a l i n g w i t h s t r u c t u r e s t h a t a r e the p r o d u c t o f a d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s . J u s t as the language o f t h e b u i l d e r s ' p a t t e r n book r e v e a l s the house, so does the r h e t o r i c s u r r o u n d i n g i t s s a l e . R e a l t o r s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t r a n s m i t t i n g and d e f i n i n g images o f home. T h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g and t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s f o r m a r k e t i n g l a n d and houses need e x a m i n a t i o n as much as any s t y l i s t i c canons. B u i l d e r s , r e a l t o r s and m a n u f a c t u r e r s a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o p a c k a g i n g the a s p i r a t i o n s o f home-ownership i n t o a m a r k e t a b l e r e a l i t y . Beyond such a g e n t s was the consumer o f h o u s i n g , t h a t l a r g e l y immigrant s o c i e t y l i v i n g i n Vancouver. T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h the meaning o f l a n d s c a p e . I f such a p e r s p e c t i v e has re-emerged i n geography i n response t o the more s t a t i s t i c a l and geomet-r i c a l models t h a t have been c o n s t r u c t e d t o e x p l a i n urban p a t t e r n s and p r o c e s s e s , i t embodies t r a d i t i o n a l g e o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e q u a l i t y o f 13 p l a c e . S u r p r i s i n g l y , the urban house as a s o c i a l o r c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n human geography, e x c e p t t h r o u g h the l i t e r a t u r e on a g g r e g a t e h o u s i n g s t a r t s and r e s i d e n t i a l s e a r c h b e h a v i o u r . 15 House as home has been d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y by Y i - f u Tuan i n Topoph i l i a , and x i i i by C l a r e C o o p e r ^ i n a work i n f l u e n c e d by Gaston B a c h e l a r d ' s The P o e t i c s o f Space.^ ^  Most o f the w r i t i n g on home i n h u m a n i s t i c geography has been f r u s t r a t i n g l y a b s t r a c t , and r a r e l y r o o t e d i n any r e g i o n a l o r temporal con-18 t e x t . The complex p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t s r a i s e d by B a c h e l a r d and o t h e r s have not been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s t h a t move beyond c l i c h e s . The m o r p h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on c i t i e s a l s o i s b a r r e n ground f o r m a t e r i a l on the house as home. Indeed B r i a n Robson i n a r e v i e w o f s o c i a l urban geography comments t h a t B r i t i s h g e o g r a p h e r s have o n l y r e c e n t l y d i s -19 c o v e r e d t h a t c i t i e s a r e i n h a b i t e d by p e o p l e . Urban h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h i e s o f t e n t r e a t p e o p l e i n a b s t r a c t a g g r e g a t e . P e t e r Goheen 1s V i c t o r i a n T o r o n t o 20 r a r e l y s u g g e s t s t h e peo p l e d r e a l i t y o f a " B r i t i s h town on American s o i l " , and t he r e c e n t e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h q u a n t i f i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h h i s t o r i c a l geo-21 graphy p r e s e n t a d e p r e s s i n g l y p a s s i o n l e s s p e r s p e c t i v e on the E n g l i s h c i t y . Even M i c h a e l Conzen's r e v i e w o f g e o g r a p h i c a l approaches t o the s t u d y o f urban 22 l a n d s c a p e o f f e r s few p o i n t s o f c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t e n t i a l r e a l i t i e s o f home. Any s t u d y t h a t a t t e m p t s t o l i n k p e o p l e and a r t i f a c t s tends e i t h e r t o h i g h l i g h t i d i o s y n c r a t i c c a s e s o r t o d e a l w i t h a g g l o m e r a t i o n s t h a t i n some way deny i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The word "home" has i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n s , and y e t i n any s t u d y o f o r d i n a r y h o u s i n g , l i n k s between houses and i n d i v i d -u a l s have t o be g e n e r a l i z e d . I f a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s tend t o d w e l l on s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s , they r a r e l y o f f e r a p e r s p e c t i v e on o r d i n a r y houses. In urban h i s t o r i e s a few prominent p e o p l e a r e o f t e n emphasized. Yet w h i l e P l a n n i n g Commissioner Frank Buck was i m p o r t a n t i n p l a n n i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e 23 o f P o i n t Grey, the m i d d l e c l a s s l a n d s c a p e t h a t was e a r l y P o i n t Grey r e f l e c t e d thousands o f i n d i v i d u a l s who were a l l d i f f e r e n t from Frank Buck. How f a r can we g e n e r a l i z e from l e a d i n g f i g u r e s , o r from a l l - e m b r a c i n g c l a s s 2k o r i d e o l o g i c a l l a b e l s ? x i v The pendulum seems t o swing between the i n d i v i d u a l and the mass. In f o c u s s i n g on i n d i v i d u a l s r e g a r d e d as Vancouver's c e n t r a l f i g u r e s Donald G u t s t e i n p r o b a b l y o v e r s t a t e s the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f power i n h i s p o l e m i c a l a t t e m p t t o a c c o u n t f o r the c i t y ' s p r e s e n t economic and s o c i a l p r o f i l e . James L o r i m e r f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r r o u t e t o d e s c r i b e the l e a d i n g Canadian 26 d e v e l o p e r s i n the l a n d i n d u s t r y . I g n o r i n g c o n t e x t and c o m p l e x i t y , n e i t h e r work i s q u i t e c r e d i b l e . Yet t h e r e a r e s t u d i e s t h a t c a p t u r e the r i c h s o c i a l l a n d s c a p e o f home. R i c h a r d Hoggart and Robert R o b e r t s p r o v i d e two B r i t i s h e xamples, and O s b e r t L a n c a s t e r ' s c a r t o o n s k e t c h e s o f house t y p e s s u p p o r t 27 some v e r y p e r c e p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s about B r i t i s h homes. Through h i s work 28 on s u b u r b i a and h i s e d i t o r s h i p o f The V i c t o r i a n C i t y , J i m Dyos su g g e s t e d a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i n c l u d e s p e o p l e and p l a c e s , l a n d s c a p e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . P o s s i b l y the b e s t N o r t h American model i s Rayner Banham's s t u d y o f Los 29 A n g e l e s , an i n t e n s e l y v i s u a l , h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the l a n d s c a p e o f t h i s q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y t w e n t i e t y c e n t u r y c i t y . Sam Warner has a c h i e v e d the same 30 b a l a n c e i n h i s work on n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Boston and P h i l a d e l p h i a . In a b r o a d e r s t u d y o f Western urban c o n d i t i o n s R i c h a r d S e n n e t t ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c man r a i s e s themes t h a t can be borrowed f o r the s t u d y o f 31 p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e s . In e s s e n c e , a l l t h e s e s t u d i e s use t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r -i c a l a pproaches t o s i f t e v i d e n c e and argue f o r c e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t o e x p l o r e the s o c i a l meaning o f h o u s i n g w i t h i n a c o n c r e t e r a t h e r t h a n 1 a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s e t t i n g - - a c i t y ' s r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d -scape i n i t s s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t . The f i r s t c h a p t e r i n t r o -duces Vancouver's houses and r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i n a d e l i b e r a t e l y i m p r e s s -i o n i s t i c manner. I n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r houses and some p a r t s o f t h e i r l i f e w o r k s a r e d e s c r i b e d . Some o f t h e s e p e o p l e and houses were w e l l known l o c a l l y . O t h e r s were v i r t u a l l y anonymous. In sum t h e s e v i g n e t t e s i n t r o d u c e xv the themes examined i n subsequent s e c t i o n s . V a n c o u v e r i t e s 1 p r i o r w o r l d s a r e e x p l o r e d i n C h a p t e r 2. The v a l u e and meaning o f home away from work and o f home o w n e r s h i p a r e t r e a t e d as r o o t s o f a broad p e r c e p t i o n o f ' i d e a l ' urban s e t t i n g s i n a m o b i l e , i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g s o c i e t y . The n a t u r e o f a c c e s s t o l a n d i n Vancouver i s examined i n C h a p t e r 3- The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f s u r v e y o r s , la n d owners and r e a l e s t a t e agents t o the c r e a t i o n o f land use p a t t e r n s i s a s s e s s e d as a p r e l u d e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the l a n d s c a p e o f home. Many s u c c e s s -f u l urban g e o g r a p h i e s have t r e a t e d l a n d and lan d p r i c e s i n a more a b s t r a c t 32 f a s h i o n ; here the terms o f a c c e s s t o l a n d a r e seen as a f a c t o r i n the e v o l u t i o n o f an urban c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . F o l l o w i n g t h e s e c h a p t e r s i n wh i c h i n g r e d i e n t s o f home a r e e x p l o r e d , the s t u d y t u r n s t o t h e dominant house s t y l e s and t y p i c a l n eighbourhoods i n Vancouver. C h a p t e r k c o n s i d e r s the l a t e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d when a r c h i t e c t s and p a t t e r n books r e p l i c a t e d e a s t e r n Canadian and American s t y l e s i n Van-c o u v e r . As the l o c a l economy matured, Vancouver f a c t o r i e s g e n e r a t e d v a r i -a n t s on t h e s e e a s t e r n p l a n s . C h a p t e r 5 examines C a l i f o r n i a n i n f l u e n c e s t h a t brought bungalows, " c r a f t s m a n " a r c h i t e c t u r a l i d e as and new r e a l e s t a t e p r a c t i c e s t o Vancouver. W h i l e C a l i f o r n i a became the s o u r c e f o r w o r k i n g c l a s s and m i d d l e c l a s s house s t y l e s i n the s t r e e t c a r suburbs t h a t d e v e l o p e d a f t e r 1910, the c i t y ' s e l i t e o p t e d f o r an E n g l i s h v a r i a n t o f c r a f t s m a n homes, and i t i s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 6. Large Tudor R e v i v a l homes were s e t i n p a s t o r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s away from the c i t y , o r i n e x c l u s i v e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y s u b d i v i s i o n s . In the 1920's and 30's t h e s e r e v i v a l i s t s t y l e s f i l t e r e d down t o m i d d l e c l a s s h o u s i n g . O f t e n the house s t y l e s t h a t a r e the s u b j e c t o f t h e s e t h r e e c h a p t e r s were j u x t a p o s e d on the same s t r e e t . These v a r i e g a t e d Vancouver s t r e e t -scapes c o m p r i s e a l a n d s c a p e t y p e t h a t seems d i s t i n c t i v e t o Vancouver. The xv i house s t y l e s , t h e m s e l v e s and the s t r e e t c a r suburbs* a r e found e l s e w h e r e ; but the Vgncouyer h o u s e s c a p e s , b u i l t o f wood and s u r r o u n d e d by t r e e s and gardens, r e f l e c t a unique and f a s c i n a t i n g mix o f B r i t i s h and C a l i f o r n i a n i n f l u e n c e s . W h i l e many d r s m r s s the ' p l a c e l e s s ' s u b u r b s , t h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s an a n a l y s i s o f the appearance and meaning o f suburban Vancouver, and s u g g e s t s the need f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f o r c e s t h a t l a y b e h i n d a l a n d s c a p e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e meaning. In e x p l o r i n g the emergence o f a west c o a s t urban l a n d s c a p e , i t t r e a t s t h e B r i t i s h and C a l i f o r n i a i n f l u e n c e s t h a t h e l p c r e a t e a Canadian p l a c e . The f o l l o w i n g acknowledgements a r e an i n t e g r a l component o f the work t h a t f o l l o w s : F i r s t o f a l l , I would l i k e t o thank C o l e H a r r i s , whose warm s u p p o r t o f my e f f o r t s , a l l the w h i l e i n s i s t i n g on h i g h s t a n d a r d s , moulded t h i s work t h r o u g h y a r i o u s d r a f t s . He has- made | t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o b e g i n t o a r t i c u l a t e , i n w r i t t e n form, a n a l y s e s o f l a n d s c a p e s t h a t seemed a t f i r s t v iew t o be f a r more e a s i l y conveyed through, v i s u a l images. S e c o n d l y , W a l t e r Hardwi ck s h a r e d h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e y e a r s o f academic, e x p e r i e n t i a l and p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f Vancouver i n h e l p i n g t o shape my s t u d y . E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , Dayid Ley has been a s u b t l e g u i d e , f o r c i n g me t o go beyond q u e s t i o n s o f form t o those o f meaning. Ed Gibson has h e l p e d i n more ways than he might r e a l i s e -- a ploughed road i s more c o m f o r t a b l y t r a v e l l e d . The chairmen o f geography a t U.B.C., Bob Smith and John Chapman, a r e warmly thanked f o r t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g when t e a c h i n g -p r e p a r a t i o n s t a l l e d the c o m p l e t i o n o f the t e x t . Three f r i e n d s need t o be mentioned f o r t h e i r tremendous s u p p o r t . Ted M i l l s , h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r w i t h : t h e Canadian i n v e n t o r y o f H i s t o r i c xv i i B u i l d i n g , h e l p e d c l a r i f y the d i s p a r a t e a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l on Vancouver b u i l d i n g s , and o u r complementary i n t e r e s t s r e s u l t e d i n j o i n t r e s e a r c h , on e a r l y p r e f a b r i c a t e d houses. Angus- R o b e r t s o n worked on Vancouver's West End w h i l e I was t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d the b r o a d e r c i t y . Our many long days i n the C i t y A r c h i v e s - p r o v i d e d many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and i m b i b i n g , and h i s i n s i g h t s c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the p e r s p e c t i v e o f f e r e d h e r e , ria l Kalman, as t e a c h e r , co-worker and f r i e n d , p r o v i d e d me w i t h most o f my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Canadian a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y . F r i e n d s i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l know how th e y h e l p e d a l o n g the way; f o r t h e i r own s p e c i a l f r i e n d s h i p , thanks a r e due t o Joh n , A r t h u r , Warren G., Warren S., Mary, J o a n , P a u l , A d r i a n n e , Roz and Y o l a n d e . O u t s i d e g r a d u a t e s c h o o l and Vancouver, I have., a p p r e c i a t e d Tnany'rusef ul: d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h C e c i l Houston, J i m Lemon and Kathy M a c k i e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , and P e t e r Ennals and Min H e r b e r t a t Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y . J i m Dyos, i n a p e r i o d o f s t u d y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f L e i c e s t e r , gave me a model o f humanity and f r i e n d l i n e s s t o a s p i r e t o i n academic work. H i s u n t i m e l y death was a l o s s t o a l l t h o s e who ask q u e s t i o n s o f the V i c t o r i a n C i t y , and t h i s work i s a p a r t i a l r e sponse t o h i s generous s u p p o r t o f my work. A v r i 1 O r l o f f and Gayle Dykeman a r e thanked f o r t h e i r h e l p i n t y p i n g v a r i o u s d r a f t s , and Ken T u r n e r f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n f i n a l i z i n g t he v i s u a l s . The s t a f f s o f the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s and U.B.C. S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s d e s e r v e r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h e i r t i r e l e s s a v a i l a b i l i t y when e a r l y l e a d s were b e i n g e x p l o r e d . Though t h e r e a r e indeed rewards f o r p e r s e v e r i n g w i t h the h a r d s l o g o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , i t can a l s o be a d r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . For h e l p i n g me cope w i t h the da r k moments, my warm and e t e r n a l thanks go t o Meg. xv i i i 1 CHAPTER ONE VANCOUVER, THE CITY OF HOMES Wh i l e the f i n e b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n i s s t e a d i l y i m p r o v i n g and b u i l d i n g up, the e x c e l l e n t s t r e e t c a r system i s a s s i s t i n g i n a r a p i d suburban e x p a n s i o n . The t r o l l e y l i n e t o S t e v e s t o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , shows the b a t t l e t h a t i s b e i n g waged a g a i n s t f o r e s t s and stumps by the makers o f homes. On one l o t w i l l be seen a neat frame c o t t a g e , w i t h a b i t o f lawn, a p r o f u s i o n o f f l o w e r s , and a k i t c h e n g a r d e n , w h i l e a d j o i n i n g i t the once f i r e - s w e p t f o r e s t a w a i t i n g the more complete s u b j u g a t i o n a t the h andle o f man. More room, more homes f o r more p e o p l e i s the c r y o f Vancouver, and the homes o f the new c i t y a r e models o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e , a l l embowered w i t h a w e a l t h o f f l o w e r s and v i n e s . 1 Such d e s c r i p t i o n s were common t h r o u g h o u t Vancouver's f i r s t h a l f -c e n t u r y . T h e i r images were a p p l i e d w i t h equal c o n v i c t i o n t o the c i t y i n the 1 . 8 8 0 's, t o t h a t o f t h e g r e a t p r e - w o r l d war boom, o r even t o t h a t o f the d e p r e s s i o n o f the 1 9 3 0 1s. They d e s c r i b e d l o c a t i o n s between s i x hundred y a r d s and s i x m i l e s from t h e c i t y ' s o r i g i n a l m i l l - t o w n f o c u s , and i n any landward d i r e c t i o n . C a b i n and mansion were ' c o t t a g e s ' ( c o t t a g e b e i n g a broad term warmly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 'home'); 2 5 - f e e t l o t s and t e n -a c r e e s t a t e s p r o v i d e d 'lawns'. G r a d u a l l y , i n a s u c c e s s i o n o f booms, the s t u m p - f i l l e d spaces between the c o t t a g e s were b u i l t upon, the e a r l i e r homes were j o i n e d by b u i l d i n g s o f d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s , and s t r e e t f r o n t a g e s were l i n k e d up i n t o a c o n t i g u o u s , i f somewhat v a r i e g a t e d , whole. The emerging r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t c o n f i r m e d e a r l y V a n c o u v e r i t e s i n the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t they were p a r t o f a unique urban l a n d s c a p e , one s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d by l a n d and home. Unique i t was by the s t a n d a r d s o f 2 the day and the e x p e r i e n c e o f urban l i f e i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s and E a s t e r n North A m e r i c a . For most segments o f Vancouver's s o c i e t y , home-ownership l e v e l s were h i g h , and urban r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s were low. By 1 9 2 9 , 72% o f t he houses i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver were s i n g l e - f a m i l y , d e t a c h e d homes; i n t he M u n i c i p a l i t y o f South Vancouver t h e s i n g l e - f a m i l y house c o m p r i s e d 13% o f a l l r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation, and 8k% o f th e s e houses were owner-3 o c c u p i e d . When Vancouver was b e i n g t o u t e d as t h e "Glasgow o f the N o r t h 4 West", o v e r 60% o f Glasgow's p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n one o r two tenement rooms.^ When Vancouver was a town o f 2 5 , 0 0 0 and g i d d i l y l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o o u t s t r i p p i n g New York and the o t h e r g r e a t p o r t c i t i e s o f the e a s t e r n s e a b o a r d , Robert Hunter's s e m i n a l s u r v e y o f p o v e r t y r e v e a l e d t h a t i n the l a r g e s t c i t y i n the l a n d o f u n i v e r s a l o p p o r t u n i t y , Sk% o f the p o p u l a t i o n were r e n t e r s . B u i l d i n g on Jacob R i 1 s * j o u r n a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f the New York tenements,'' and on t h e e q u a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by C h a r l e s Booth i n London's Ea s t End and by Seebohm Rowntree i n p r o v i n c i a l g Y o r k , t h e s e t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y r e p o r t s were p a r t o f a w i d e s p r e a d and a n x i o u s assessment o f urban r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . At e v e r y t u r n , the Vancouver e x p e r i e n c e seemed a d e p a r t u r e from o l d ways. D e s t i n e d f o r ' m e t r o p o l i t a n : g r e a t n e s s 1 as the "new L i v e r p o o l o f the P a c i f i c " , e a r l y Vancouver was d e f i n e d by i n t e r n a l g r e e n e r y and f l o w e r s as much by i t s frame o f sea and mou n t a i n s . The "models o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e " , a l m o s t e n t i r e l y s i n g l e - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d homes, were the c o n v e r s e o f the a p a r t m e n t s , tenements, c o u r t s and row h o u s i n g i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s . I f the consequences o f r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n were b e i n g r e a l i z e d i n o l d e r c i t i e s , V a n c o u v e r i t e s , a l e r t t o t h e i r unique o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a f r e s h s t a r t , r a r e l y f a i l e d t o a p p r e c i a t e t he d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e i r emerging c i t y . 3 1 ( i ) P l a c e s and F a c e s : Elements o f the S o c i a l Geography o f Vancouver W h i l e the b o o s t e r s ' s t a t i s t i c a l e xuberances drew a t t e n t i o n t o the c i t y ' s s i z e and s c a l e ("she has o v e r one-hundred m i l e s o f cement s i d e w a l k s , the l a r g e s t a r e a o f any c i t y i n Canada, the b i r t h r a t e i s h i g h e r than any Q c i t y i n the c o n t i n e n t . . . " ) most r e s i d e n t s emphasized the i n d i v i d u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c q u i r i n g l a n d and s h e l t e r . For most, the o p p o r t u n i t y Vancouver p r e s e n t e d was e x p r e s s e d by a f a m i l y house s u r r o u n d e d by i t s garden and f e n c e s , as F i g . 1.1 so v i v i d l y p o r t r a y s . The same image dominated r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f an E a s t End c h i l d h o o d i n the 1890 1s: Up P o w e l l S t . , about 2 houses from where we l i v e d , s t o o d a s m a l l and v e r y w h i t e c o t t a g e behind a snowy w h i t e > p i c k e t f e n c e . F l o w e r s grew i n the f r o n t y a r d and green s h r u b b e r y banked the f e n c e from the i n s i d e . A broad f l i g h t o f s t e p s , f o u r o r f i v e i n number l e d from the garden w a l l t o t h e verandah o f the c o t t a g e whose f r o n t door was o f t e n l e f t o pen...(and, on her own h o u s e ) . . . A p i c k e t f e n c e ran around the whole from the b a c k y a r d and s e p a r a t e d i t from a h a l f - v a c a n t l o t on the o t h e r s i d e . Through the f e n c e one c o u l d see b l a c k b e r r y v i n e s growing on the l o t and one c o u l d hear b i r d s c h i r p i n g i n the morning s u n s h i n e . ^ Small c o t t a g e s and c a b i n s were common, gardens and p i c k e t f e n c e s e n c l o s i n g the d o m e s t i c w o r l d s o f V a n c o u v e r i t e s . S i m p l e houses, o n e - s t o r e y h i g h , one-room deep and b a l a n c e d s y m m e t r i c a l l y around a c e n t r a l doorway, they p r e s e n t e d a f o l k c l a s s i c i s m as e l e g a n t as f a r more e x p e n s i v e s t r u c -t u r e s e l s e w h e r e i n the c i t y . The s u r r o u n d i n g s may have been c h a o t i c , but the stumps t e s t i f i e d t o c l e a r i n g done. I n s i d e the p i c k e t f e n c e was 'home 1, the p i v o t a l space o f the f a m i l y , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s s o c i a l o r o c c u p a t i o n a l pos i t i on. E a r l y s n a p s h o t s o f t h i s l o w - d e n s i t y c i t y r e v e a l many such s m a l l c o t t a g e s , and some l a r g e r houses, s e t w i t h i n the c l e a r e d bush. ( F i g . 1.2) k F i g . 1 . 1 "Be i t e v e r so humble, t h e r e ' s no p l a c e l i k e home" ( l ) ; t h e D a n i e l McPhalen house, 209 H a r r i s S t r e e t ( l a t e r E . G e o r g i a ) , I 8 9 I (VCA) F i g . 1 . 2 View o f Vancouver from Mount PIeasant,1 8 9 3 5 As e a r l y as 1891, a new r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a j u s t s o u t h o f F a l s e Creek (Mount P l e a s a n t ) was d e s c r i b e d t h u s : Upon the b e a u t i f u l h e i g h t s t h a t o v e r l o o k the busy lower c i t y , a l l among t h o s e f o r e s t t r e e s , a r e homes i n which c o m f o r t and r e f i n e m e n t a r e e v e r b l e n d e d . V i l l a g e l a n e s o r c o u n t r y homes would h a r d l y know g r e a t e r peace and s e c u r i t y ; they a r e a t p r e s e n t ' f a r from the madding crowd's i g n o b l e s t r i f e ' i n the c i t y b e l o w . ^ At t h i s d a t e , Vancouver was a s m a l l town o f fewer :than 14,000 p e o p l e and was o n l y f i v e y e a r s o l d . The "madding crowd's i g n o b l e s t r i f e " seemed r e l a t i v e l y a b s e nt i n t h i s new, l o w - d e n s i t y c i t y . Perhaps the o b s e r v e r was r e a c t i n g t o c i t y l i f e e l s e w h e r e . Though t h e r e were some co n g e s t e d groups o f shacks and c a b i n s near t o the saw m i l l s and r a i l r o a d 1 2 round house, Vancouver had no c l o s e c o u n t e r p a r t o f S t . He n r i i n M o n t r e a l , o f the b a c k - t o - b a c k h o u s i n g t h a t were s t i l l b e i n g b u i l t i n B r i t a i n , o r even o f the r e f o r m e r s ' model tenements t h a t c o u l d be e i g h t s t o r i e s h i g h , 1 3 da r k , and g a r d e n l e s s . What was a dream i n o l d e r c i t i e s c o u l d be a r e a l i t y i n ' f r e s h ' Vancouver w i t h i t s q u a n t i t i e s o f a v a i l a b l e space. T h i s p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i n g a " p r i v a t e s p a c e " , whether c o t t a g e o r mansion, c o n t i n u e d w e l l t hrough the 1920's and 30's, as the i l l u s t r a t i o n o f K i t s i l a n o i n F i g . 1.3 s u g g e s t s . Here, some t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r the f i r s t European s e t t l e m e n t i n t h i s a r e a t h r e e m i l e s west o f the c i t y c e n t r e , stumps were s t i l l common, and s m a l l u n p r e t e n t i o u s houses, not u n l i k e the c o t t a g e s on P o w e l l S t r e e t i n the 1890's, were s t i l l b e i n g b u i l t . These new houses, a d v e r t i s e d as 'bungalows' and i n s p i r e d by p a t t e r n books w r i t t e n i n C a l i f o r n i a , o f f e r e d w o r k i n g - c l a s s h o u s i n g a t a c c e s s i b l e p r i c e s on cheap l a n d . " F u r t h e r o u t " , up the h i l l s i d e i n West P o i n t Grey, new r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s were b e i n g d e l i n e a t e d i n the s c r u b , t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n s u r i n g the slow t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f v a c a n t l o t s i n e x i s t i n g b u i l t - u p a r e a s . F i g . 1.3 K i t s i l a n o i n 1929, l o o k i n g west from t h e s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f 12th Avenue and T r a f a l g a r . T r e e stumps and v a c a n t l o t s s u r r o u n d t h e s m a l l bungalows and c o t t a g e s b u i l t i n t h e e a r l y 1920s. F u r t h e r w e s t , up t h e h i l l i n West P o i n t Grey, more l a n d was a v a i l a b l e f o r suburban house b u i l d e r s . T r a f a l g a r S t . was t h e w e s t e r n boundary o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y l a n d g r a n t . N o t i c e t h e d i f f e r e n t s t r e e t a l i g n m e n t , t h e s i d e w a l k and t h e t r e e s e a s t o f T r a f a l g a r . 7 Land was a v a i l a b l e and houses were cheap. B a l l o o n frame c o n s t r u c -t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h f a c t o r y - m a d e components a t hand. A l t h o u g h most houses were b u i l t by s p e c u l a t i v e b u i l d e r s , t h e r e were some o w n e r - b u i 1 t c o t t a g e s . For the e n t e r p r i s i n g p e r s o n , the low c o s t o f l a n d and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l t o g e t h e r w i t h h i g h wages meant t h a t a house o f t e n c o u l d be a c q u i r e d r a p i d l y . Henry Boam's b o o s t e r j o u r n a l i s m r e p o r t e d t h a t : A c a r p e n t e r landed i n B.C. i n March 1911 w i t h the sum o f $200 i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , was h i r e d by a f i r m a t the customary s a l a r y o f from $ 4 . 2 5 t o $5 per day. D u r i n g the weekend and i n h i s s p a r e t i m e , o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h the a s s i s t -ance o f h i r e d l a b o u r , he s e t about t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a house. W i t h i n n i n e months the r e s i d e n c e was c o m p l e t e d , and save f o r a debt o f $200 on the s i t e the c a r p e n t e r i n q u e s t i o n was the owner o f a p r o p e r t y v a l u e d a t $ 2 0 0 0 . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g time he had, o f c o u r s e , kept him-s e l f and h i s w i f e , and i n a d d i t i o n saved a c e r t a i n amount o f money.^ Such an o p p o r t u n i t y c o n t r a s t s v i v i d l y w i t h t h e p l i g h t o f a r a i l w a y c l e r k i n Edwardian London who, a c c o r d i n g t o A l a n J a c k s o n ' s a n a l y s i s , was a d v i s e d t o be e a r n i n g ^ 9 0 a y e a r b e f o r e he c o n t e m p l a t e d m a r r i a g e . He c o u l d then a f f o r d t o r e n t a two-bedroom c o t t a g e o r h a l f - h o u s e a t between 7s 6d and 9 s h i l l i n g s a w e e k . ^ A f a m i l y man s e e k i n g h bedrooms needed a s a l a r y o f £ 1 5 0 b e f o r e n e w l y - c o n s t r u c t e d r e n t a l p r o p e r t y was w i t h i n r e a c h . At t h a t t i m e , a c l e r k o r shop a s s i s t a n t r a r e l y r e c e i v e d a f l 2 0 - <£l30 a y e a r , and a s k i l l e d w o r k e r no more than | 1 1 0 - # 1 2 0 . So c r i t i ca1 was t h e wage l e v e l t o h o u s i n g a c c e s s t h a t "a d i f f e r e n c e o f a s h i l l i n g o r two 1 ^ i n a w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r s weekly o u t g o i n g s r e a l l y m a t t e r e d . " For B r i t i s h c l e r k s o r a r t i s a n s , home-ownership was a l m o s t out o f the q u e s t i o n . Only l o n g - t e r m membership i n a b u i l d i n g s o c i e t y , backed by s e c u r e employ-ment and sound d o m e s t i c management c o u l d make the p r o s p e c t o f independence 8 from l a n d l o r d s even a remote p o s s i b i l i t y . For t h e m a j o r i t y , a suburban a l t e r n a t i v e t o t e r r a c e s o r tenements m a t e r i a l i z e d o n l y as l o c a l g o v e r n -17 ments i n t e r v e n e d t o p u r c h a s e la n d and c o n s t r u c t e s t a t e s . L i k e o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c i t i e s i n the N o r t h A m e r i c a n West a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , suburban growth o n t o f r i n g e l a n d was not c o n s t r a i n e d by r u r a l 18 l a n d uses t h a t a c t e d as b a r r i e r s t o e x p a n s i o n . The n e w l y - d e v e l o p e d m a s s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems o f I n t e r u r b a n R a i l w a y and e l e c t r i c s t r e e t c a r systems came i n t o Vancouver a l m o s t from the o u t s e t . Combined w i t h a broad swath o f cheap l a n d t o t h e s o u t h and e a s t o f t h e e a r l y c o r e t h a t p r o v i d e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a f o r e x p a n s i o n , r e l a t i v e l y good wages e n a b l e d w i d e s p r e a d a c c e s s t o suburban homes. These f a c t o r s h e l p e d d i f f e r e n t i a t e Vancouver and a few o t h e r w e s t e r n c i t i e s from the l a y o u t s o f most e a s t e r n N o r t h American and B r i t i s h c i t i e s ; t h e h i s t o r i c a l sequences o f z o n a l e x p a n s i o n 1Q t h a t o f t e n d e f i n e t h o s e p l a c e s were l e s s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n Vancouver. T h i s was p a r t l y because p e o p l e t r a v e l l e d out t o t h e end o f t h e s t r e e t c a r l i n e , and would w a l k f u r t h e r u n t i l t h e y reached t h e i r own p i e c e o f t h e w o r l d , a suburban l o t a t a p r i c e they c o u l d a f f o r d : I t i s a t r a i t n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e p e o p l e o f Vancouver t h a t t h e homemeaker would r a t h e r l i v e i n a l a r g e c o m f o r t a b l e r e s i d e n c e a few m i l e s o u t o f town than e x i s t i n a shack i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e c i t y . The b e s t , even i f he has t o go t o some d a i l y t r o u b l e t o g e t i t , i s an aim c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e V a n c o u v e r i t e . T h i s i d e a he c a r r i e s o u t i n h i s e v e r y d a y i n s t i s t e n c e on t h e b e s t i n t h e way o f homes t h a t has b rought about t h e r a p i d u p b u i l d i n g o f the suburban d i s t r i c t s t r i b u t a r y t o V a n c o u v e r . 2 ^ Most p a r t s o f t h e B u r r a d P e n i n s u l a became e f f e c t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l space as an e a r l y B e l t L i n e r a i l w a y a c r o s s F a l s e Creek, and i n t e r u r b a n t r a n s i t l i n e s t o New W e s t m i n s t e r and S t e v e s t o n were supplemented by a network o f s t r e e t -c a r l i n e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e e t c a r a c c e s s and suburban growth 9 i s c l e a r l y shown by F i g . 1.4 As l a t e as 1929 (when the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the t h r e e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was 250,000), few r e s i d e n t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were more than a q u a r t e r m i l e from a s t r e e t c a r l i n e . The e x t e n t o f sub-urban growth can be seen i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u s i n g i n 1916 ( f i g . 1.5). A c e n t r a l a r e a o f r e l a t i v e l y dense h o u s i n g r e f l e c t e d t h i r t y y e a r s o f b u i l d i n g c l o s e t o c e n t r a l commerce and t o w a t e r s i d e and r a i l - r e l a t e d i n d u s -t r i e s . Most o f the h o u s i n g away from t h i s c e n t r a l a r e a b e l o n g e d t o w o r k i n g p e o p l e . The a r e a s o f upper m i d d l e c l a s s h o u s i n g i n the West End, K i t s i l a n o , F a i r v i e w , and Shaughnessy were c l o s e i n . Working c l a s s h o u s i n g i n the E a s t End and i n South Vancouver d i s t r i c t s such as Cedar C o t t a g e and C o l l i n g -wood s p r e a d up t o 8 m i l e s from t h e c o r e . The d i s t i n c t i o n between r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s i n Vancouver and i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s was r e c o g n i z e d , v a l u e d and d e f e n d e d : There w i l l be no slums i n South Vancouver, no t e n e -ment d i s t r i c t , and t h e l i v i n g f a c t o r i e s t h a t g r a c e them-s e l v e s w i t h t h e name o f apartment houses dare not e n t e r where t h e r e i s room f o r neat c o t t a g e s and gardens and c h i c k e n y a r d s ; where the w o r k i n g man may b r i n g h i s f a m i l y up i n the f r e s h a i r ; and the r a y s from the sun i n Heaven may e n t e r w i t h o u t r e s t r a i n t . 2 ^ Here i n the Vancouver World o f 1912 was a r e s i d e n t i a l image t h a t had c h a r a c t e r i z e d Vancouver f o r more than twenty y e a r s -- gardens f o r f r u i t , v e g e t a b l e s and p o u l t r y , d e t a c h e d homes i n h e a l t h y , v i r t u a l l y r u r a l s e t t i n g s . Throughout South Vancouver as a whole i n 1929 t h e r e were 9 p e o p l e per 22 a c r e , and t h e r e were many p a r t s o f South Vancouver w i t h f a r lower den-s i t i e s . In Grimmett ( F i g . 1.6), a t the s o u t h e r n end o f Main S t r e e t , the 23 d e n s i t y was one p e r s o n p e r a c r e . Most o f the o c c u p a n t s o f t h e s e i s o l a t e d houses were u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s o r u n s k i l l e d a r t i s a n s — m a i n l y c a r p e n t e r s , s a w m i l l workers and t e a m s t e r s . They were t h i r t y m i n u t e s from downtown employment by s t r e e t c a r , and as c l o s e t o s a w m i l l s a t Eburne and New West-m i n s t e r v i a the I n t e r u r b a n t h a t ran a l o n g the a l l u v i a l f l a t s t o the s o u t h . Here, a t a time when E n g l i s h e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h Garden C i t y a l t e r n a t i v e s t o h i g h d e n s i t y w o r k i n g c l a s s h o u s i n g were i n t h e i r i n f a n c y , was a r e s i d e n -t i a l e n v i ronment t h a t f i t t e d South Vancouver's c o n f i d e n t b o a s t t h a t i t was the "Garden Suburb o f the W e s t . " 2 5 For t h e most p a r t , the p e o p l e o f Grimmett a r e anonymous. No p e r -s o n a l h i s t o r i e s s u r v i v e , no g r e a t achievements come from t h e i r s t a y i n Vancouver. T h e i r homes were s i m p l e , y e t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e shaped much o f Vancouver's r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c a p e . I t was an e x p e r i e n c e o f m o b i l i t y and advancement, f a c i l i t a t e d by the c o n s t a n t l y e x p a n d i n g c i t y . A r e v e a l i n g example comes t o l i g h t i n an e y e c a t c h i n g e n t r y i n the S t r e e t D i r e c t o r y o f 1913 w h i c h l i s t s n i n e males surnamed E n e f e r , a l l l i v i n g w i t h i n n i n e b l o c k s o f each o t h e r i n f i v e d i f f e r e n t houses (Tab l e 1 ) . The E n e f e r h i s t o r y i n Vancouver can be t r a c e d back t o 1908, when J e s s e E n e f e r l i v e d i n rooms on P r i o r S t r e e t w h i l e w o r k i n g as a l a b o u r e r f o r McDonald M a r p o l e Coal ( t h e C.P.R. c o a l a g e n t ) . He moved h a l f a b l o c k t o a house on Gore Avenue two y e a r s l a t e r , w o r k i n g a g a i n as a l a b o u r e r , d i g g i n g p i p e - l i n e s f o r a plumb-ing c o n t r a c t o r . T h e r e , J e s s e , now j o i n e d by S i d n e y E n e f e r , was p a r t o f a 26 pool o f u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r i n the East End c l o s e t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t . By 1910 J e s s e E n e f e r had moved 31 m i l e s s o u t h ( E a s t 4 8 t h Avenue) to t a ke advantage o f cheap l a n d a t the end o f the Main and F r a s e r c a r l i n e s i n South Vancouver. Three y e a r s l a t e r he had moved e l e v e n b l o c k s f u r t h e r s o u t h . J o i n i n g him i n the new "South H i l l " o r " G rimmett" a r e a were f i v e o t h e r house-owning E n e f e r s a l l l i v i n g i n s e p a r a t e houses. A l l were l i s t e d as l a b o u r e r s , i n c l u d i n g A l f , J a c k and Lawrence, the t h r e e sons o f J o s e p h TABLE 1; The ENEFER 'Clan': R e s i d e n t i a l and Occupational M o b i l i t y 1908 Jesse rooms 407 P r i o r lab, McDonald-Marpole Coal 1910 Jesse l i v e s 831 Gore digger Murray Plumbers Sydney h 831 Gore labourer 1913 Jesse h 132 W.59th labourer Sydney h 38 E.57th labourer A l f r e d h 354 W.65th labourer Fredk h 245 E.51st labourer Luke h 141 E.57th labourer Joseph h 455 E.56th labourer » A l f r 455 E.56th labourer *• Jack r 455 E.56th labourer • Lawrence r 455 E.56th labourer 1922 Jesse h 172 W.63rd Sydney h 38 E.57th teamster, C i t y of Van A l f h 150 Goodmurphy d r i v e r , Eburne Gravel (77th/Hudson) A l f r e d h 561 E.54th labourer. South Van Munic Fredk h 3849 Commercial chauffeur, Hodgson Lumber Luke r Municipal Yard yardman, S.Van Munic. Bert h 6250 Windsor constable, S.Van Munic. Joseph L h 325 E.47th j a n i t o r Mobely School Joseph h 455 E.56th labourer T Jack r 455 E.56th labourer, S.Van Munic. T Rcgd r 455 E.56th emp.. P a c i f i c Box + Miss A r 455 E.56th emp.. Royal Crown Soap Mary E r 431 E.Georgia emp.. Royal Crown Soap 1936 A l f r e d h 565 E.55th fireman. Van C i t y Bert h 838 i t h S t . , New West In s t r u c t o r , BC Penetentiary E l i j a h h 776 E.22nd helper, Van C i t y E l l e n r 4750 Angus housekeeper Esgate h 7803 C a r t i e r d r i v e r , ECER + Percy r 7803 C a r t i e r plumber Fredk B h 3849 Commercial d r i v e r , Hodgson Lumber • C e l i n e r 3849 Commercial T Edward r 3849 Commercial benchman Roberston Sash & Door • Maud F r 3849 Commercial saleswoman Spencers Dept. Store * Minnie G. r 3849 Commercial saleswoman W. Rennie Seeds Jack h 586 E.50th longshoreman Jos L h 525 E.45th school j a n i t o r Van C i t y T A l f M r 525 E.45th helper B.C.Box Jas M h 665 E.54th labourer T Reg r 665 E.54th labourer, Vancouver & D i s t r i c t Sewage Sidney C h 1310 E.24th swamper Van C i t y F i g . 1.6 G r i m m e t t ( o r S o u t h H i l l ) W o r k i n g - c l a s s h o u s i n g a t low d e n s i t i e s , c o n n e c t e d t o c e n t r a l a r e a w o r k p l a c e s by t h e M a i n S t . and F r a s e r S t . c a r l i n e s . Smoke f r o m F a l s e C r e e k s a w m i l l s mask t h e downtown a r e a and most o f t h e N o r t h S h o r e m o u n t a i n s . The u n d e v e l o p e d s o u t h - e a s t p o r t i o n o f t h e C.P.R. Land G r a n t l i e s t o t h e l e f t o f O n t a r i o S t . E n e f e r . The 1922 d i r e c t o r y r e v e a l s f u r t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y — one had moved t o Cedar C o t t a g e , a n o t h e r t o Eburne, and o n l y two o f the n i n e were a t t h e i r 1916 a d d r e s s — but no o c c u p a t i o n a l movement. A l l s t i l l had un-s k i l l e d j o b s . The p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e D e p r e s s i o n . I n s t a b i l i t y a l s o seemed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the m i d d l e c l a s s as w e l l , who tended t o l i v e west o f Grimmett i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f P o i n t Grey. In P o i n t Grey i n 1916 (see F i g . 1.5) a t h i n s c a t t e r o f s e t t l e m e n t f o l l o w e d one s t r e e t c a r l i n e n o r t h west from the i n t e r u r b a n a t 4 1 s t i n K e r r i s d a l e . Shaughnessy H e i g h t s , i n the n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y , was the o n l y r e s i d e n t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , but i t s d e n s i t y was f a r lower than F i g . 1.5 i n d i c a t e s ( o c c u p i e d a c r e - l o t s were shaded i n ) . Shaughnessy, the C.P.R.'s e x c l u s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n , a t t r a c t e d the w e a l t h y from t h e i r e a r l i e r homes i n the West End. Many o f t h e s e p e o p l e had moved from the West End, t h r o u g h two o r t h r e e homes i n Shaughnessy, and.on t o M a r i n e D r i v e , drawn by the r e s i d e n t i a l and s p e c u l a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d by l a r g e l o t s i n e x c l u s i v e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . In Shaughnessy as i n Grimmett s o c i e t y tended t o be homogeneous; the Shaughnessy mix was f l a v o u r e d by b a r r i s t e r s , company 27 d i r e c t o r s , p u b l i c s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s and w h o l e s a l e m erchants. I f Shaughnessy was e c o n o m i c a l l y homogeneous, i t was a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y v a r i e d , a t l e a s t on the s u r f a c e . The dominant house s t y l e echoed E n g l i s h l a t e m e d i e v a l manors. S u b s t a n t i a l l y b u i l t w i t h a ground f l o o r o f rough l o c a l s t o n e , and a second s t o r e y t h a t was both h a l f - t i m b e r e d and s h i n g l e d , the o v e r a l l f a c a d e was broken up w i t h p r o j e c t i n g bays o r end-wings, and o f t e n appeared t o have been c o n s t r u c t e d o v e r a number o f g e n e r a t i o n s . The home o f prominent b a r r i s t e r A.E. T u l k i s a good example o f t h i s Tudor R e v i v a l s t y l e i n Vancouver, ( F i g . 1.7). W i t h s e v e r a l a p p a r e n t ages o f c o n s t r u c t i o n — a Jacobean s t o n e archway and s m a l l e r wing added t o an 15 F i g . 1.8 A t h a t c h e d c o t t a g e f o r a B o s t o n merchant, T h i r d Shaughnessy 16 e a r l i e r ' E l i z a b e t h a n ' house — the appearance b e l i e d i t s newness, but p r o -v i d e d a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and " r o o t e d " s e t t i n g f o r a f a m i l y t o e n j o y i t s new p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y and c i t y . Such ' E n g l i s h manor houses', w i t h t h e i r r u r a l o u t b u i l d i n g s o r s h i n g l e - t h a t c h e d coachhouses gave the stamp o f d i s -t i n c t i v e n e s s t o the c i t y ' s e l i t e s u burb. Few were i d e n t i c a l i n d e s i g n , and they j o i n e d a v a r i e d s t r e e t s c a p e t h a t might a l s o i n c l u d e r e v i v a l i s t i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f rough s t u c c o e d E n g l i s h farmhouses, smooth-stuccoed and r e d -t i l e d S p a n i s h M i s s i o n , g a m b r e l l e d - r o o f Dutch C o l o n i a l farmhouses o r even f 1 a m b o y a n t l y - p o r t i c o e d c o l o n i a l mansions o f the American South. Such s t r u c t u r e s were b u i l t i n Shaughnessy f o r o v e r twenty y e a r s as the a r e a i n f i l l e d t o the s o u t h . One o f the most i m p r e s s i v e h a l f - t i m b e r e d houses from the 1920's was the r e s i d e n c e o f A l v a h Hager, an American from Boston who came w e s t , b u i l t up a f o r t u n e and then e n j o y e d i t i n one o f the most e m p h a t i c a l l y E n g l i s h houses anywhere i n the c i t y ( F i g . 1.8). What does i t mean t h a t an American from Boston l i v e d i n Shaughnessy i n an i m i t a t i o n t h a t c h e d c o t t a g e c o s t i n g $30,000, t h a t the s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t f o r the C i t y l i v e d i n a Dutch c o l o n i a l house, o r t h a t the V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f an import g r o c e r y c o n c e r n l i v e d i n an E n g l i s h s t u c c o farmhouse? Even more f a s c i n a t i n g perhaps i s the f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e s e s u c c e s s f u l men changed r e s i d e n c e , many o f them h a v i n g a t l e a s t two d i s t i n g u i s h e d a d d r e s s e s w i t h i n a decade. What r e s t l e s s n e s s l a y b e h i n d such seeming r o o t 1essness? What k i n d o f ' c i t y o f homes' was r e p r e s e n t e d by such m o b i l i t y ? Grimmett and Shaughnessy, two homogeneous but s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a 1 1 y d i s t i n c t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , r e v e a l a s t r i k i n g s e g r e g a t i o n o f Vancouver's suburban p o p u l a t i o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n between e a s t - s i d e and w e s t - s i d e Vancouver, noted as e a r l y as 1891 ("the West End i s the home o f the mer-28 c h a n t and p r o f e s s i o n a l , the East t h a t o f the lumber k i n g and mechanic") 17 29 i s c l e a r l y d e m onstrated by maps o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s by o c c u p a t i o n s ( F i g . 1 . 9 ) . Houses o f the c i t y ' s b a r r i s t e r s ( 9 a ) and t h o s e o f the c i t y ' s s t r e e t c a r motormen and c o n d u c t o r s ( 9 b ) i l l u s t r a t e two w o r l d s o f e a r l y V a n c o u v e r i t e s . B a r r i s t e r s o c c u p i e d the west s i d e o f the c i t y , the motormen the e a s t . There was l i t t l e o v e r l a p . Such p a t t e r n s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f the s p a t i a l s o r t i n g t h a t d e v e l o p e d as suburban s i t e s became a v a i l a b l e . E.P. D a v i s , a prominent l a w y e r who made the move from the West End :to a house a t the t i p o f the P o i n t Grey p e n i n s u l a , i s an i n t e r e s t i n g example a t the upper end o f the s o c i a l s c a l e . In 1 9 2 2 the West End c l e a r l y r e t a i n e d i t s image as a p r e s t i g e l o c a t i o n , but the p r e s s u r e s o f change had begun to erode i t s e a r l i e r e x c l u s i v e n e s s . D a v i s had l i v e d on Seaton S t r e e t , v e r y c l o s e t o the w a t e r f r o n t . O r i g i n a l l y p a r t o f the a r e a o f CPR e x e c u t i v e s ' homes, Seaton S t r e e t i n 1 9 0 5 c o u l d boast b e s i d e s D a v i s , a n o t h e r b a r r i s t e r , F.C. Wade (who became p r o p r i e t o r o f The Sun newspaper), Ed Mahon and W. N i c h o l s (two o f the c i t y ' s l e a d i n g r e a l e s t a t e f i g u r e s ) , Townley (a p a s t mayor) and s e v e r a l bankers and m e r c h a n t s . Yet by 1 9 0 8 the s t r e e t i n c l u d e d a brewery, and i n 1 9 1 2 a l a r g e p r i v a t e house had been r e p l a c e d by the 1 0 - s u i t e "Seaton A p a r t m e n t s " . E x p a n s i o n o f p o r t and r a i l f a c i l i t i e s beneath the Seaton S t r e e t b l u f f had i n t e r r u p t e d the v i e w o v e r Coal Harbour t o the m o u n t a i n s . D a v i s moved t o a l o c a t i o n w i t h an even more d r a m a t i c v i e w , the t i p o f P o i n t Grey p e n i n s u l a where he b u i l t a h a l f - t i m b e r e d mansion s e t i n 1 i a c r e s o f garden and o v e r l o o k i n g Howe Sound and the Coast Moun-t a i n s . ^ O t h e r s o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n and c l a s s a l s o moved out o f the West End, u s u a l l y t o Shaughnessy o r K i t s i l a n o . BCER motormen, on the o t h e r hand, were l e s s f l e x i b l e i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f suburban l a n d ; most o f them o c c u p i e d modest homes i n South Vancouver. CO FIGURE 1.9. RES IDENT IAL L O C A T I O N , 1922 BY S E L E C T E D O C C U P A T I O N S 19 Yet the c i t y was not t o t a l l y c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d on r i g i d c l a s s o r o c c u p a t i o n a l l i n e s . In K i t s i l a n o and Grandview p a r t i c u l a r l y , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r a t a o v e r l a p p e d . B u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r s were s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t the C i t y , and o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e l i v e d i n South Vancouver and P o i n t Grey. Some o f the Grandview c o n t r a c t o r s would move t o P o i n t Grey as t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s d e v e l o p e d . Many C.P.R. workmen l i v e d n o r t h o f F a l s e Creek i n Y a l e t o w n , the s i t e o f the C.P.R. Roundhouse and R e p a i r y a r d s , but many a l s o l i v e d i n K i t s i l a n o ( i n a r e a s a l s o o c c u p i e d by b a r r i s t e r s ) and o t h e r s l i v e d a l o n g s i d e the s t r e e t c a r motormen i n South Vancouver. The j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s was no-where c l e a r e r than ; i n Grandview i n Vancouver's E a s t End. The n o r t h - s o u t h V i c t o r i a D r i v e was a s t r e e t f l a n k e d , i n the space o f a few b l o c k s , by i m p r e s s i v e Queen Anne t u r r e t e d houses and by p l a i n c a b i n s ( F i g . 1.10). Two V i c t o r i a D r i v e r e s i d e n t s b u i l t i m p r e s s i v e homes, and a l s o apartment b u i l d i n g s o r r e a l e s t a t e o f f i c e s a t the o t h e r end o f the same b l o c k . The owner o f the l a r g e s t t u r r e t e d house on V i c t o r i a ( F i g . 1.10b), W.H. Copp, was an E n g l i s h master m a r i n e r who had s a i l e d i n t o B u r r a r d I n l e t one summer i n the 1880 1s to c o l l e c t a l o a d o f t i m b e r f o r the A u s t r a l i a n market. T o l d t o r e p o r t t o Customs i n Vancouver, he was w a l k i n g up H a m i l t o n S t r e e t when he met F r a n c i s 31 W. R o u n s e f e l 1 , one o f the c i t y ' s l e a d i n g r e a l e s t a t e promoters and they renewed an a c q u a i n t a n c e they had begun w h i l e they worked f o r the same s h i p p i n g f i r m i n London, E n g l a n d . On R o u n s e f e l l ' s a d v i c e , Copp bought l a n d i n H a s t i n g s Townside and some 18 a c r e s o f l a n d i n Grandview, where he would 32 e v e n t u a l l y b u i l d a house. Copp bought more land on subsequent t r i p s t o Vancouver, e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d i n the c i t y and began h i s own s h i p y a r d i n F a l s e Creek. A f t e r u n s u c c e s s f u l a d v e n t u r e s i n the B e r i n g Sea s e a l t r a d e , he had t o go t o sea a g a i n , t h i s time as a master employed by a Glasgow 21 s t e a m s h i p l i n e . H i s t r a v e l s i n v o l v e d him i n the A r g e n t i n i a n meat t r a d e between the R i v e r P l a t e and L i v e r p o o l , i n work as a Japanese t r o o p c a r r i e r d u r i n g the R u s s i a n - J a p a n e s e war, and i n c o u n t l e s s o t h e r j o u r n e y s on o r d e r s from h i s Glasgow e m p l o y e r s . He had been an independent e n t r e p r e n e u r i n the 33 o l d e r days o f s a i l , and the l a n d b u s i n e s s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the booming s p e c u l a t i v e days o f e a r l y Vancouver, had some o f the o l d e r a s s o c i a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l 7 r i s k and o p p o r t u n i t y . When he f i n a l l y r e t i r e d from the s e a , Copp s e t up i n r e a l e s t a t e and i n 1910 b u i l t h i s house on V i c t o r i a D r i v e . Two y e a r s l a t e r , he b u i l t an apartment b l o c k a t the s o u t h e r n end o f the 1200 b l o c k V i c t o r i a D r i v e , not f i f t y y a r d s from h i s house. Near Copp t h e r e were t e n more master m a r i n e r s , perhaps not s u r p r i s -i n g g i v e n Grandview's p r o x i m i t y o f the B u r r a r d I n l e t dock a r e a s . There 34 were a l s o some twenty p o l i c e m e n , most o f them from S c o t l a n d o r U l s t e r , a p p a r e n t l y a c o n c e n t r a t i o n hot found i n o t h e r a r e a s o f the c i t y . S i x members o f t h e Odium f a m i l y l i v e d i n t h e a r e a . The Odiums were a p i o n e e r f a m i l y i n Vancouver w i t h d i s t i n g u i s h e d members i n both m i l i t a r y and educa-t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . One o f the Odiums had a f i n e Queen Anne mansion s e t w i t h i n ample grounds, but a n o t h e r l i v e d more m o d e s t l y i n a p r e f a b r i c a t e d c o t t a g e -- a house commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w o r k i n g c l a s s owners. In s h o r t , Grandview c o n t a i n e d a wide m i x t u r e o f s o c i a l and l a n d s c a p e g roups. There were d a i r i e s on Semi i n S t r e e t , a Danish s m i t h c a l l e d Goodrup on V i c t o r i a D r i v e who m a i n t a i n e d the m i l k wagons, a sheet metal works on V e n a b l e s , and s i x o r seven apartment b l o c k s by 1 9 1 3 . In an a r e a o v e r w h e l m i n g l y w o r k i n g c l a s s , w i t h t y p i c a l w o r k p l a c e s a t the H a s t i n g s M i l l , Rogers Sugar R e f i n e r y o r the Iron Foundry ( a l l d o c k s i d e ) , t h e r e was a r i b b o n o f d i s t i n c t and e x p e n s i v e houses a l o n g V i c t o r i a D r i v e and a d j a c e n t s t r e e t s . 2 2 Perhaps the l e a d i n g member o f t h e Grandview e l i t e was an I r i s h m a n , 3 5 George McSpadden. He was the b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r f o r the C i t y o f Van-couve r from 1 9 0 0 t o 1 9 0 7 , and then went i n t o p r i v a t e p r a c t i s e as a r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t , making Grandview t h e f o c u s o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s . As h i s b i o g r a p h e r n o t e d : When he f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f t h e r e he found o n l y a few crude shacks e a s t o f Campbell Avenue, and he i m m e d i a t e l y began t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f whic h he saw w i t h a keen b u s i n e s s eye. Nine y e a r s ago, he b u i l t h i s own b e a u t i f u l r e s i d e n c e on Commercial D r i v e and C h a r l e s S t r e e t , t h i s b e i n g one o f the f i r s t a t t r a c t i v e houses i n Grandview, and he watched the development o f t h i s b e a u t i -f u l l o c a l i t y , h i s work f o r m i n g one o f the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e f o r c e s i n i t s growth. 3 6 W i t h a background as B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t o r , B u i l d i n g C o n t r a c t o r and C i t y A s s e s s o r , and l a t e r s i x y e a r s as Alderman f o r t h a t Ward o f the C i t y , he was, as h i s own a d v e r t i s e m e n t s c l a i m e d , " w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o a d v i s e upon the 37 pur c h a s e o r s a l e o f any d e s c r i p t i o n o f Real E s t a t e . " L i k e Copp, home and work were c o m f o r t a b l e n e i g h b o u r s f o r McSpadden, f o r h i s r e a l e s t a t e o f f i c e was l o c a t e d a t 1 2 0 1 Park D r i v e and h i s house a t t h e o t h e r end o f the b l o c k . Through h i s agency, t h e shacks t h a t - f i r s t t y p i f i e d the a r e a gave way t o f a r more s o l i d homes. Not a l l were mansions. More were one o r t w o - s t o r e y e d bungalows and frame houses ( F i g . 1 0 e ) . Then, n i n e y e a r s a f t e r McSpadden s e t t l e d i n Grandview, he moved t o suburban P o i n t Grey. W i t h i n a decade he had l i v e d i n t h r e e imposing houses. The more o r d i n a r y p e o p l e o f Grandview O Q were a l s o m o b i l e ; o n l y 2 5 % o f the p e o p l e sampled i n the a r e a l i v e d i n the same house o v e r the s i x y e a r p e r i o d from 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 2 . The e a r l i e r " s h a c k s " a r e the m s e l v e s r e v e a l i n g . The 1 8 9 4 d i r e c t o r y l i s t e d e i g h t p e o p l e l i v i n g i n Grandview as f o l l o w s : Grand View Lot 264a, B l o c k 63 Lot 264b, B l o c k 137 W i l l i a m s , G.H.. La b o u r e r Cronk, B.M. c a r p e n t e r Mason, John L a b o u r e r S m i t h , J.W. c a r p e n t e r Shunn, F r a n k l i n H a s t i n g s M i l l R a i n e , N. c a r p e t l a y e r B u r n s , Chas. foreman, Royal C i t y M i l l H a m i l t o n , J.B. H a s t i n g s M i l l Here was a w o r k i n g - c l a s s " r u r a l " o u t l i e r from the main s a w m i l l -o r i e n t e d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o f the o l d East End o f Vancouver, John Mason, whose house i s shown i n F i g . 1.11, was t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e Grandview r e s i -39 d e n t s . B u i l t i n 1892 a t what became 1617 G r a v e l y S t r e e t , h i s house i s a good example o f the common f o l k c a b i n i n e a r l y Vancouver -- a s i m p l e , one-s t o r e y house, r e c t a n g u l a r , w i t h a c e n t r a l doorway and b a l a n c e d windows on e i t h e r s i d e . The o n l y d e p a r t u r e from i t s c l a s s i c i s m appears i n the j i g -sawed d e c o r a t i v e b r a c k e t s around t h e porch s h e l t e r . When t h i s p o r c h was r e p l a c e d the f o l l o w i n g y e a r by a verandah a c r o s s the e n t i r e f r o n t , a g a i n the e y e - c a t c h i n g d e t a i l was the V i c t o r i a n b r a c k e t t i n g . L i k e so many photos o f such h o u s i n g i n t h e C i t y A r c h i v e s , the t o t a l g r o u p i n g o f s i m p l e house, p i c k e t f e n c e and p r o u d l y - p o s e d f a m i l y group u n d e r s c o r e d the r h e t o r i c o f those who e x t o l l e d t he d i s t i n c t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n Vancouver. In sum, e a r l y Vancouver c o n t a i n e d many r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c a p e s . Some can e a s i l y be d e s c r i b e d as 'working c l a s s 1 o r 'upper c l a s s ' , but Vancouver was not a c i t y o f rows and rows o f d e n s e l y - p a c k e d w o r k e r s h o u s i n g , surround-ed by a s o l i d b e l t o f l o w - d e n s i t y , m i d d l e - c l a s s h o u s i n g . On the c o n t r a r y , Grimmett was w o r k i n g c l a s s and t h o r o u g h l y suburban whereas the lower mana-g e r i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups who l i v e d i n K i t s i l a n o , F a i r v i e w and the West End o c c u p i e d r e l a t i v e l y dense rows o f (detached) 2 i s t o r e y houses. O v e r a l l , t h e r e was not the extreme r e s i d e n t i a l s o r t i n g t h a t 25. c h a r a c t e r i z e d e a s t e r n and B r i t i s h c i t i e s a t the same t i m e . In Grandview, r i c h and poor c o n t i n u e d t o i n v e s t i n homes o v e r s e v e r a l decades. Three r e s i d e n c e s , a l l w i t h i n Grandview and Cedar C o t t a g e , a r e shown i n F i g . 1.12. One, an e i g h t - u n i t tenement, o c c u p i e d i t s e n t i r e l o t r i g h t up t o the s i d e -w a l k , an i s o l a t e d example i n a s e t o f a d j a c e n t c a b i n s and c o t t a g e s . A n o t h e r , an I t a l i a n a t e c o u n t r y house, was s e t amidst ample lawns. A t h i r d example was a common w o r k e r s home, r e m i n i s c e n t o f tho s e i n the c o a l m i n i n g towns o f L a d y s m i t h and Cumberland on Vancouver I s l a n d . Other photos i n t he s e r i e s i l l u s t r a t e a s y m m e t r i c a l O n t a r i o - s t y l e farmhouses, w i t h g i n g e r -bread eaves and p o r c h e s . How a r e we t o ac c o u n t f o r such v a r i e d e x p r e s s i o n s o f home, such v a r i e d use o f l a n d , w i t h i n the same a r e a a t the same t i m e - p e r i o d ? Some d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the e a r l y c i t y would s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s v a r i e t y was p r e s e n t from the s t a r t . In the West End The f i n e s t r e s i d e n t i a l p o r t i o n o f the c i t y crowns the summit wh i c h o v e r l o o k s E n g l i s h Bay, and t h i s i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h some o f the f i n e s t p a l a t i a l r e s i d e n c e s t o be found i n B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. Here a r e found b u i l d i n g s a t w h i c h r u s t i c s and E a s t e r n t e n d e r f e e t gaze w i t h equal wonder and amazement. M i n g l i n g w i t h t h e s e a r e the c o t t -a g e s , w h i c h a r e the abodes o f happy f a m i l i e s , the heads o f w h i c h f i n d r e m u n e r a t i v e employment i n Morse's l a r g e lumber m i l l and Heaps f u r n i t u r e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t . I f the West End had c o t t a g e s o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s e s , the Ea s t End was eq u a 1 l y mi xed: Somewhat u n s i g h t l y a r e some p a r t s o f t h i s East End--huge lumber m i l l s , e t c . ; more i n v i t i n g a r e the b l o c k s o f wooden homes, the c o m f o r t a b l e abode o f hundreds o f o p e r a t i v e s . And o c c a s i o n a l l y we have b l o c k s o f handsome d w e l l i n g s , a p p r o a c h i n g i n grandeur and e l e g a n c e some o f t h e homes o f o u r a r i s t o c r a t s o f t h e West End. As Shaughnessy and t o some e x t e n t K i t s i l a n o d e v e l o p e d i n t o s o l i d l y homo-geneous n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , much o f t h i s v a r i e t y d i m i n i s h e d , but m i l d m i x t u r e 27 r a t h e r than h a r s h s e g r e g a t i o n s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d much o f the Vancouver r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c a p e on the eve o f World War I. 1 ( i i ) Views from O u t s i d e A l t h o u g h a new and d i s t i n c t i v e c i t y , Vancouver d e v e l o p e d i n response t o urban images t h a t had been framed e l s e w h e r e . Most V a n c o u v e r i t e s were c r i t i c a l o f the c o n g e s t i o n o f the i n d u s t r i a l c i t y -- p e o p l e " l i v i n g i n f a c t o r i e s t h a t g r a c e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the name o f apartment houses" -- and, i n a s e n s e , Vancouver d e v e l o p e d i n r e a c t i o n t o o t h e r urban e n v i r o n m e n t s . A t r a n s p l a n t e d c r i t i c i s m o f h i g h d e n s i t y urban l i f e i s c r u c i a l t o any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the e v o l u t i o n o f a Vancouver l a n d s c a p e - w h i c h grew o u t o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t p r e - d a t e Vancouver. These e x p e r i e n c e s were o f o t h e r p l a c e s and o t h e r t i m e s , and the sense t h a t here was a w o r l d a p a r t came not j u s t from t h e b o o s t e r i s m o f t h e p l a c e i t s e l f , but more s t r i k i n g l y from the common a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the d i s t i n c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Vancouver. One p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e f o r such urban comparisons i s p r o v i d e d by the p u b l i s h e d d i a r y o f J . J . M i l l e r , Grandview r e s i d e n t and r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t . An A u s t r a l i a n o f Devon p a r e n t s , M i l l e r a r r i v e d i n Vancouver i n 1905 on h i s way t o e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f i n the Winnipeg wheat b u s i n e s s . A t t r a c t e d by the o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Vancouver, he s t a y e d , p r o s p e r e d , and by 1912 was r i c h enough t o embark on a four-month t r i p t o London t o a t t e n d the c o r o n a t i o n o f George V. T r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s b e f o r e s a i l -i ng on the L u s i t a n i a from New York and c a r r y i n g an image o f Vancouver as home ("snow was f a l l i n g on A p r i l 8 , between Winnipeg and F t . W i l l i a m , and we thought o f our b e a u t i f u l d a f f o d i l s and h y a c i n t h s and green lawns a t Grandview, and the l i v e l y s p r i n g weather t h e r e " ) , M i l l e r c a p t u r e d the 28 d i f f e r e n c e between h i s West and the urban E a s t . Of T o r o n t o , he o b s e r v e d : For m i l e s and m i l e s o f suburbs n o t h i n g but s u b s t a n t i a l b r i c k houses g r e e t s the eye. The o n l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e f e a t u r e i s the sameness o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . E v i d e n t l y b r i c k c o n s t r u c -t i o n does not l e n d i t s e l f t o the a d o p t i o n o f a t t r a c t i v e j ~ a r c h i t e c t u r e so w e l l as the wooden b u i l d i n g s o f Vancouver. The c o n t r a s t between Vancouver and e a s t e r n c i t i e s comes out even more s t r o n g l y i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f New York: The main p a r t o f the c i t y e x t e n d s f o r m i l e s upon m i l e s o f f o u r and f i v e s t o r e y b r i c k b u i l d i n g s . The l i f e o f the p e o p l e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c i t y l i f e . Nowhere w i t h i n e asy re a c h o f the c i t y can be seen the b e a u t i f u l bungalows o r p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s w i t h f l o w e r gardens and lawns such as may be seen a t V a n c o u v e r . ^ When M i l l e r had p u l l e d out o f the C.P.R. s t a t i o n i n Vancouver and passed th r o u g h P o r t Moody and i n t o the F r a s e r V a l l e y he had noted the homes o f Vancouver w o r k e r s i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h o r c h a r d s and cows. Even when M i l l e r reached B r i t a i n , h i s d i a r y c a s t s l i g h t on Van-c o u v e r . In e v e r y p l a c e he v i s i t e d , he had a c o n t a c t from b u s i n e s s a c q u a i n t a n c e s i n Vancouver. At an O d d f e l l o w s C o n v e n t i o n i n B r i g h t o n , M i l l e r brought g r e e t i n g s from the b r e t h r e n o f B.C., and was then immedi-a t e l y s u r r o u n d e d by ' b r e t h r e n ' who had r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s i n Canada: One b r o t h e r from M a i d s t o n e had a f r i e n d , C h a r l i e W i l l i a m s , a t Mt. P l e a s a n t . A n o t h e r from S h i p l e y knows M i s s E l l a G i l b e r t i n Vancouver. A n o t h e r from Southampton had a f r i e n d i n Mr. W. Hays i n Vancouver. Bro. R a p l e y o f S t e y n i n g had a f r i e n d , Bro. T.H. Brown, o f the U n i t e d S e r v i c e s C l u b , Vancouver. Bro. W i l k i n o f L i v e r p o o l had an o l d chum S h e e l s h e a r , a t Mt. P l e a s a n t . ^ M i l l e r a s s u r e d h i s r e a d e r s t h a t s e v e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s he had had would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n some e m i g r a t i o n t o t h i s w o n d e r f u l p a r t o f the w o r l d . A f u r t h e r V a n c o u v e r - E n g l a n d l i n k i s shown when M i l l e r a t t e m p t e d t o get i n t o t h e House o f Commons. C h a l l e n g e d by a c o n s t a b l e a t the door t o i d e n t i f y 29 h i s member, M i l l e r r e p l i e d , " S i r Joseph M a r t i n " . M a r t i n was a t the time member f o r E a s t S t . P a n c r a s i n London, but M i l l e r and o t h e r Vancouver East r e s i d e n t s remembered him as the stormy A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l and b r i e f l y P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and M.L.A. f o r Vancouver E a s t a t the t u r n o f the 46 c e n t u r y . Voted o u t i n 1903, he went t o E n g l a n d , and i n h i s wake a l a r g e a r e a o f Grandview was s o l d as the M a r t i n E s t a t e . So even i n London, the l i n k s t o B.C. c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . The "community" t h a t was p r e s e n t i n the O d d f e l l o w s o f the M a nchester U n i t y b r i d g e d the ocean. As a businessman, M i l l e r c o u l d walk the s t r e e t s o f London and bump i n t o P r e m i e r M c B r i d e o u t -s i d e the B.C. t r a d e o f f i c e s . As a f e r v e n t i m p e r i a l i s t , he c o u l d ask t o see ' h i s ' M.P. on " c o l o n i a l b u s i n e s s " . And, as a c o l o n i a l i s t , he c o u l d go on a p i l g r i m a g e t o h i s f a t h e r ' s v i l l a g e i n s e a r c h o f h i s a n c e s t o r s : To the c o l o n i a l g e n e r a t i o n i t was i m p r e s s i v e l y r o m a n t i c and s u b l i m e t o be s t a n d i n g around the bones o f o u r a n c e s t o r s i n t h i s q u i e t c o r n e r o f t h e Old W o r l d , r e a d i n g t h e i r names and i n s c r i p t i o n s . There i s no one o f the name and no r e l a t i v e s now i n t h e p l a c e , w h i c h f o r c e n t u r i e s had been the home o f the M i l l e r s . In a few y e a r s t i m e , t h e r e w i l l be no c i t i z e n l e f t who has any p e r s o n a l r e c o l l e c t i o n o f the f a m i l y ; the o l d tombs w i l l remain o n l y as a r e m i n d e r t h a t they once l i v e d ; and t h o s e o f the same name who l i v e i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a a r e l e f t f o r h i s t o r y t o r e p e a t i t s e l f i n a new l a n d , under perhaps h a p p i e r and b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s . 7 The p o w e r f u l s o l e m n i t y o f the s e t t i n g f o r t h e s e t h o u g h t s checked M i l l e r ' s o t h e r w i s e u n b r i d l e d e n t h u s i a s m f o r Vancouver: perhaps c o n d i t i o n s were h a p p i e r and b e t t e r . But f o r a g r e a t army o f e m i g r a n t s coming out o f o l d e r r u r a l and urban w o r l d s , the 'perhaps' was a c l e a r c h a l l e n g e i n the f a c e o f a known p r e s e n t , a p r e s e n t t h a t was o f t e n a s t a g n a n t w o r l d , w i t h o p p o r t u -48 n i t y d e n i e d by p o v e r t y o r c l a s s . I t was a w o r l d t h a t e n t i c e d newcomers and t u r n e d them i n t o c o n f i d e n t b o o s t e r s o f t h e i r new s e t t i n g s . H a r r y A r c h i b a l d , a c i v i l e n g i n e e r who had come t o Vancouver from 30 T r u r o , Nova S c o t i a , s e n t r e g u l a r l e t t e r s back t o h i s f a t h e r i n Musquodoboit, where t h e A r c h i b a l d f a m i l y had l i v e d and worked s i n c e a r r i v i n g as L o y a l i s t s a c e n t u r y and a q u a r t e r e a r l i e r . From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f someone from r u r a l Nova S c o t i a , Vancouver c o n t a i n e d many s u r p r i s e s : T h i s Vancouver i s f u l l o f S o c i a l i s t s . A p e c u l i a r t h i n g i s t h a t the S o c i a l i s t s a r e n e a r l y always f o r e i g n e r s - - E n g l a n d e r s , Germans, A m e r i c a n s , e t c . They have m e e t i n g s n e a r l y e v e r y e v e n i n g and on Sundays. T h e i r b i g m e e t i n g i s on Sunday e v e n i n g . Was t h e r e once, but do not t h i n k I w i l l j o i n f o r a w h i l e a t l e a s t . T h e i r ways a r e not my ways, .• and a t p r e s e n t we have n o t h i n g i n common. But n e a r l y e v e r y e v e n i n g a t the s t r e e t - c o r n e r s once can see a crowd o f them h o l d i n g f o r t h . Many o f them remind me o f the g r e a t unwashed. One o f the drawbacks t o t h i s p l a c e i s t h e E n g l a n d e r , o r as he i s more f a m i l i a r l y known, the R e m i t t a n c e Man. Some o f t h e E a s t e r n papers c a l l Vancouver "The R e m i t t a n c e Man's C l e a r i n g " . He knows i t a l l , and we sometimes have q u i t e a l o t o f t r o u b l e t o beat i t i n t o h i s head t h a t he i s not " i t " . A f t e r a w h i l e they t a k e a tumble t h a t they a r e not t h e "whole c h e e s e " , and a f t e r t h a t they a r e not t o o bad. The C.P.R. i s v e r y s t r o n g h e r e , and one f i n d s them engaged i n v a r i o u s l i n e s c o f b u s i n e s s under o t h e r names. E v e r y one, o r n e a r l y s o , t h i n k s t h i s i s t h e o n l y p l a c e , and t h a t h e l p s a l o t t o push a town ahead. 49 S o c i a l i s t s , t h e R e m i t t a n c e Man, the C.P.R.; add t o them o t h e r a l i e n e l e ments m i l d c l i m a t e s , m o u n t a i n s , C h i n e s e and Japanese w o r k e r s - -and A r c h i b a l d ' s l e t t e r s r e v e a l as much about t h e M a r i t i m e s as about Vancouver. Some o f h i s r e s p o n s e s were c a u t i o u s and t e n t a t i v e ; t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f S o c i a l i s t s were c e r t a i n l y u n f a m i l i a r and, t o him, somewhat un-Canadian. Y e t A r c h i b a l d t o o , f o r a l l h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f u n f a m i l i a r . a c t i v i t i e s and p e o p l e , was a b o o s t e r : " t h e Land o f E v a n g e l i n e i s a goodc'. c o u n t r y , but t h i s i s a l o n g way ahead o f i t " . * ^ He was f a s c i n a t e d by t h e pace o f change, and from h i s s t a b l e , r u r a l background c o u l d not h e l p but o b s e r v e : 31 E v e r y t h i n g i s raw, c r u d e , and u n f i n i s h e d , as the work i s s t i l l under p r o g r e s s . I t i s a v e r y e x p e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n - - a s stumps here cannot be p u l l e d out w i t h a yoke o f oxen as back E a s t . What do you t h i n k o f c l e a r i n g t r e e s f o u r f e e t i n d i a m e t e r and one hundred f e e t h i g h o f f l a n d t o make room f o r a c i t y r e s i d e n c e ? 5 1 A r c h i b a l d , M i l l e r , Copp, McSpadden, E n e f e r , D a v i s and Hager r e v e a l something o f the s p e c i f i c l i n k s between Vancouver and a p r i o r w o r l d . E m o t i o n a l l y and e x p e r i e n t i a l l y , the r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s were l a r g e l y E a s t e r n C a n a d i a n , B r i t i s h o r I m p e r i a l . O f t e n such e x p e r i e n c e had been m o d i f i e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e New W o r l d , and had been f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d by the New World pace and economy o f Vancouver i t s e l f . But however m o d i f i e d , Vancou-v e r i t e s stamped p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h a n o t h e r home on t h i s n e w l y - b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . They l o o k e d back t o o t h e r , remembered p l a c e s , and saw a measure o f t h e m s e l v e s . They l o o k e d a t t h e l a n d s c a p e o f V a ncouver, and e n l a r g e d t h e i r v i s i o n o f what was p o s s i b l e i n a c i t y . The d e t a c h e d s i n g l e f a m i l y house as home -- an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s e t w i t h i n a Garden World and an i n t e r n a l space where f a m i l y d e v e l o p e d — was a t the h e a r t o f t h a t v i s i o n , as i t was i n the psyche o f V a n c o u v e r i t e s . Home may w e l l be where the h e a r t i s , but home was a l s o where p r o f i t l a y . The concept o f home-ownership l a y b e h i n d much o f the demand f o r l a n d . Real e s t a t e i n t e r e s t s i n the c i t y s k i l f u l l y promoted the i m p o r t a n c e o f home-ownership. Rent had a s e t o f s p e c i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n s and memories; 'home' evoked a n o t h e r s e t o f dreams. A house owned was the s a f e s t form o f s e c u r i t y . So argued t h e i n d u s t r y . Under a s k e t c h o f a mother k n e e l i n g b e s i d e her baby's c r i b , one a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r suburban land s u g g e s t e d : T r y and f i g u r e out what the l a n d v a l u e s o f P o i n t Grey w i l l be when your boy o r g i r l becomes o f age. Do you not t h i n k a p i e c e o f p r o p e r t y i n t h i s b e a u t i f u l l o c a l i t y would l i g h t e n t h e i r path a l o n g l i f e ' s highway? 32 Such a d v e r t i s i n g a p p e a l e d through the c h i l d r e n and p l a y e d on the g u i l t o f o m i s s i o n . In a c i t y where 'the f u t u r e was g u a r a n t e e d 1 (as e v e r y b o o s t e r m a i n t a i n e d ) , a p u r c h a s e when the o p p o r t u n i t y was ' r i g h t ' g u a r a n t e e d s e c u r i t y l a t e r on as the c i t y f i l l e d up and i t s l a n d became more e x p e n s i v e . In t h i s c a s e , H i g h b u r y Park was a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e , a l o t c o u l d be p u r c h a s e d , a house b u i l t , and a home begun. As an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , "Vancouver, a C i t y o f B e a u t i f u l Homes" s u g g e s t e d : The measure o f a c i t y ' s s t a b i l i t y , f i n a n c i a l soundness and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t o the newcomer i s not t o be found i n i t s p a l a t i a l h o t e l s , s k y s c r a p e r o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s and apartment houses. The d w e l l e r i n f l a t s i s an u n c e r t a i n and u n s e t t l e d q u a n t i t y . The man i n an o f f i c e may be a f o o t - l o o s e a d v e n t u r e r . Homes a l o n e i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t and q u a l i t y o f c i t i z e n s h i p . I t i s in'them t h a t p a t r i o t i s m i s d e v e l o p e d and c h e r i s h e d . The home i s the h e a r t , the l i f e and the index o f a c i t y . Vancouver may w e l l be proud o f her b e a u t i f u l homes, and o f her g r e a t i n d u s t r i e s t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y c oncerned w i t h the p r o m o t i o n o f home-bui1ding--sawmi11s, sash and door f a c t o r i e s , and h o m e - b u i l d i n g companies. Among t h o s e who have come here from the g r e a t s c h o o l s o f o l d e r l a n d s and from the g r e a t r e p u b l i c t o t h e s o u t h o f us a r e many b r i l l i a n t young a r c h i -t e c t s who have brought t o us t h e i r g e n i u s , u n f e t t e r e d by e f f e t e c o n v e n t i o n and worn-out t r a d i t i o n . They have e v o l v e d new and a t t r a c t i v e t y p e s o f bungalows and mansions t h a t a r e a r e v e l a t i o n t o the town d w e l l e r from the e a s t o r from o v e r s e a s , where they a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t e r r a c e d rows o f c o t t a g e s t h a t seem t o have been made by the g r o s s t o one' d r e a r y p a t t e r n . The immigrant has brought w i t h him a d e e p l y i m p l a n t e d l o v e o f home l i f e . ^ 3 The a u t h o r s o f t h i s p a e a n t o house o w n e r s h i p were d i r e c t o r s o f a house-b u i l d i n g company, Vancouver Free Homes, t h a t s p e c i a l i z e d i n b u i l d i n g and s e l l i n g C a l i f o r n i a Bungalows. T h i s house type — w i t h broad v e r a n d a h s , b r i c k p o r c h s u p p o r t s , a pronounced eave, and s h i n g l e d s i d e s -- was p o p u l a r i n most p a r t s o f the c i t y , i n w o r k i n g c l a s s and e l i t e d i s t r i c t s a l i k e , and f o r the two boom p e r i o d s on e i t h e r s i d e of World War I. Though a c i t y w i t h many E n g l i s h hues, and w i t h home a s p i r a t i o n s o f t e n s t o k e d by E n g l i s h e x p e r i e n c e s , house s t y l e s were o f t e n i n s p i r e d by C a l i f o r n i a n models. 33 In 1 9 2 9 , the C i t y o f Vancouver amalgamated w i t h i t s two suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , South Vancouver and P o i n t Grey, t o c o n f i r m l e g a l l y a s p a t i a l r e a l i t y t h a t had e x i s t e d f o r the p r e v i o u s q u a r t e r c e n t u r y . T h i s p e r i o d had seen the s k e l e t o n o f the modern m e t r o p o l i s l a i d o u t , n e i g h b o u r -hoods d e f i n e d and s t a b i l i z e d and s o c i a l g r a d i e n t s d e v e l o p e d . Throughout t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e r e had been l i t t l e r e f o r m r h e t o r i c . In the minds o f c i v i c l e a d e r s and e mbryonic p l a n n e r s , t h e r e were few tenements and few a r e a s o f a b j e c t p o v e r t y , o v e r c r o w d i n g o r d i s e a s e . For n e a r l y a l l men and women, the c i t y seemed t o o f f e r adequate s h e l t e r and t h e h i n t o f f u r t h e r a f f l u -ence. L i t t l e r e f o r m i s t p l a n n i n g was thought t o be needed, because the c o l l e c t i v e v i s i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e f u t u r e f o r Vancouver found i n the a t t i t u d e s o f l a n d o w n e r / d e v e l o p e r and immigrant a l i k e seemed a l r e a d y t o be r e a l i z e d i n the l a n d s c a p e . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h i s o p t i m i s m was j u s t i f i e d . Vancouver on the eve o f the D e p r e s s i o n was e m p h a t i c a l l y s u b urban, even though the c i t y ' s economic base l a y i n a r a i l r o a d t e r m i n a l , a deep-sea p o r t , and s a w - m i l l i n g . There was not a dense c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w o r k e r s ' h o u s i n g on e x p e n s i v e i n n e r c i t y l a n d next t o the w o r k p l a c e . There was l i t t l e u n i f o r m w o r k i n g c l a s s h o u s i n g . There were not the images o f a l i e n a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Homestead i n P i t t s b u r g h , nor memories o f a community v i o l e n t l y d i v i d e d on c l a s s l i n e s as i n W i n n i p e g . E q u a l l y , t h e r e was not a u n i f o r m s u b u r b i a , but t h e r e was a c i t y o f s i n g l e f a m i l y homes p e a c e f u l l y s i t u a t e d on a p e n i n s u l a on the edge o f the P a c i f i c and a t the f o o t o f c o a s t a l m ountains. And t h e r e was the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t Vancouver p r o v i d e d a unique urban o p p o r t u n i t y f o r , i n a m a g n i f i c e n t n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , a v e r d a n t l a n d s c a p e o f p a r k s , t r e e d s t r e e t s and 'urban w i l d e r n e s s ' framed and u n i t e d a c i t y o f f a m i l y houses. •CHAPTER TWO CHANGING PRIORITIES IN AN INDUSTRIAL WORLD: THE IMPORTANCE OF HOUSE AND HOME FOR VANCOUVER ITES I t i s o n l y by g o i n g i n t o the c o u n t r y t h a t s u f f i c i e n t l a n d f o r a s i m p l e house w i t h y a r d i n f r o n t and garden i n the r e a r -- the i d e a l E n g l i s h house -- can be had E l l e n H. R i c h a r d s , 1 The Cost o f S h e l t e r , 1 9 1 3 E a r l y Vancouver was an immigrant s o c i e t y , l a r g e l y drawn from the 2 B r i t i s h I s l e s . T a b l e s 2 and 3, d e r i v e d from work by N o r b e r t MacDonald, show a c i t y where more than 30% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n were B r i t i s h born i n both the 1911 and 1921 c e n s u s e s ; t h i s group c o m p r i s e d 54% o f a l l f o r i e g n born i n 1911 and 62% o f fo r - i e g n - b o r n by 1921. C a l c u l a t e d i n a c t u a l numbers, ( f o r a c i t y t h a t grew from 25,000 i n 1901 t h r o u g h 100,000 i n 1911 and t o 165,000 by 1921), t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a few dominant m i g r a t i o n h e a r t h s i s even c l e a r e r . From England and Wales, some 15,000 p e o p l e j o i n e d t h e Vancouver census r o l l s between 1901 and 1 9 1 1 , and a f u r t h e r 14,000 between 1911 and 1921. From S c o t l a n d , t h e numbers f o r t h e same t i m e - i n t e r v a 1 s were 9,000 and 5,000. These census p e r i o d s p o s s i b l y b l u r t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i m m i g r a t i o n from the B r i t i s h I s l e s , s i n c e much o f Vancouver's growth came i n the 1909 t o 1913 pre-war boom , a c r o s s t h e 1911 census y e a r . The second l a r g e s t group o f immigrants were O n t a r i o - b o r n , 12,000 from 1901 t o 1911 and 5,000 from 1911 t o 1921, f o l l o w e d by 3,000 Americans i n the p e r i o d from 1901-11. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t e l l whether o r not t h e B r i t i s h - b o r n came d i r e c t , o r TABLE 2 BIRTHPLACE OF VANCOUVER'S NATIVE-BORN POPULATION, 1891-1931 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 Mari t i m e s 860 10. 0% 1,460 8. 8% 5,698 12 .8% 6,900 8.7% 8,033 6. 3% Quebec 480 5- 6 640 3. 9 2 , 1 7 0 4 .9 3,000 3-8 3,650 2. 8 Ontar i o 2,420 28. 3 3,950 24. 0 16,663 37 .8 21 ,200 26.6 23,809 1 8 . 6 P r a i r i e s 220 2. 6 530 3. 2 3,925 8 .9 9,100 11.4 21,763 17. 0 B r i t i s h Columbia 4,572 53. 6 9,968 60. 2 15,522 35 .4 39 , 7 2 0 49.6 71,141 55. 3 T o t a l N a t i v e - B o r n 8,552 16,548 43 , 9 7 8 79,920 1 2 8,396 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 13 , 7 0 9 27,010 100,401 163,220 246,593 ( S o u r c e : N. MacDonald , 1 9 7 0 ) TABLE 3 BIRTHPLACE OF VANCOUVER'S FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION, 1 8 9 1 - 1 9 3 1 England and Wales 1 ,551 3 0 , .2% 2,882 27 .0% S c o t l a n d 580 11. ,2 910 8 .5 1 r e l a n d 412 7. .9 512 4 .8 Norway Sweden 154 3. .0 333 3 .1 Denmark 46 0 .4 F i n l a n d F r a n c e 23 0. ,4 48 0 .5 Germany 108 2. .1 180 1 .7 P o l a n d 9 A u s t r i a S Hungary 23 0 .2 R u s s i a 23 0. .4 101 1 .0 I t a l y 55 1 . ,1 101 1 .0 Greece 2 0 .0 U n i t e d S t a t e s 870 16. .8 1,840 17 .2 C h i n a 1,065 20. .6 1 ,800 17 .0 Japan 1 ,010 9 .5 Other . . . 307 6. .0 854 8 .0 T o t a l F o p e i g h t B o r n 5,157 10,642 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 13,709 27,010 18,414 3 2 . 7 % 3 2 ,140 3 8 .4% 46 , 1 5 1 3 9 . 0% 9 , 6 5 0 17.1 14 , 9 0 0 17.8 2 1 , 6 1 3 1.8. 3 2 , 6 2 5 4.6 4 , 2 6 0 5.1 5 , 5 7 3 4. 9 575 1.0 635 0.8 1 , 7 2 3 1. 5 952 1 . 7 9 2 0 1.1 2 , 1 3 6 1. 8 180 0.3 276 0.3 715 0. 6 181 0.3 290 0.3 1 , 5 3 3 1 . 3 . 2 6 6 0 . 5 379 0 . 5 441 0. 4 733 1.3 264 0.3 893 0. 8 296 0.4 1 , 0 3 6 0. 9 500 0 . 9 237 0.3 664 0. 6 606 1.1 772 0 . 9 1 , 4 2 9 1. 2 1 , 9 2 2 3-4 1 , 1 1 0 1.3 1 , 4 7 8 1. 3 226 0.4 310 0.4 293 0. 2 1 0 , 4 0 1 1 8 . 4 1 0 , 5 0 0 1 2 . 7 1 0 , 8 7 0 1 0 . 0 3,364 6.0 8 , 1 0 0 ' 9 . 7 11 , 5 3 3 9 : 7 1,841 3.3 4 , 1 5 0 5 .0 4 , 1 3 3 3. 5 3 , 9 8 7 7.1 3 , 8 6 1 4.6 5 , 9 8 3 5 . 0 5 6 , 4 2 3 8 3 , 3 0 0 1 1 8 , 1 9 7 100,401 1 6 3 , 2 2 0 246 , 5 9 3 (s o u r c e : N ,MacDonald , 1 9 7 0 ) 36 through O n t a r i o , o r whether the " O n t a r i o - b o r n " were m i g r a n t s who came d i r e c t l y from t h a t p r o v i n c e o r who had spent some y e a r s on the P r a i r i e . B i o g r a p h i e s o f the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l group i n t h e c i t y o f t e n i n d i c a t e a p r a i r i e s o j o u r n en r o u t e from t h e E a s t , but t h e m i g r a t i o n h i s t o r i e s o f the m a j o r i t y a r e d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n s t r u c t . F u r t h e r , i t i s not c l e a r whether the m i g r a t i o n s were predom i n a n t l y " r u r a l t o urban, o r urban t o urban. Some would argue t h a t i n e i t h e r c a s e , by the b e g i n n i n g o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , most f a c e t s o f B r i t i s h s o c i e t y , urban and r u r a l , were a f f e c t e d by t h e domi-nant urban i n d u s t r i a l economy. The same argument would h o l d f o r C e n t r a l and E a s t e r n Canada.'' 2 ( i ) The B r i t i s h I n d u s t r i a l C i t y The n e g a t i v e images o f urban B r i t a i n used by Vancouver r e a l t o r s f o c u s s e d on the 1 9 t h c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . Though the c o t t o n towns o f L a n c a s h i r e , the w o o l l e n towns o f Y o r k s h i r e and the c o a l and s t e e l towns o f N o r t h u m b r i a and South Wales d i f f e r e d i n d e t a i l , a common element was the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f u n s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d r u r a l m i g r a n t s i n s q u a l i d h o u s i n g c l o s e t o the s o u r c e o f p r o d u c t i o n . Wealth was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the hands o f a few i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , and the g r a d i e n t s o f w e a l t h t h a t had t y p i -f i e d p e a s a n t - l a n d l o r d r e l a t i o n s a c e n t u r y e a r l i e r were r e p l a c e d by s i m i l a r d i s t a n c e s between p r o l e t a r i a t and c a p i t a l i s t s . Oldham, a c o t t o n c e n t r e i n L a n c a s h i r e , was t y p i c a l . Some 6 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e i n the 1 8 4 0's, l i v i n g i n unsewered slums w i t h no a c c e s s t o l a n d f o r g a r d e n s , were s u r r o u n d e d by some f i f t y employer mansions a t t h e edge of the town. T h i s l a t t e r g r o u p , 1% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , r e c e i v e d 50% o f the community income. A f t e r s e v e r a l decades o f growth i n wh i c h the 37 independent s p i n n e r s had been overwhelmed, l a r g e c o t t o n m i l l s employed o v e r h a l f the l a b o u r f o r c e (14,000 out o f 25,000). Most h o u s i n g was s h a r e d by d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s . A contemporary r e p o r t p a i n t e d an o f t e n - r e p e a t e d pi c t u r e : The g e n e r a l appearance o f t h e o p e r a t i v e s ' h o u s i n g i s f i l t h y and s m o u l d e r i n g . A i r l e s s l i t t l e b a c k s t r e e t s and n a s t y c o u r t s a r e common; p i e c e s o f d i s m a l w a ste-g r o u n d - - a l l c o v e r e d w i t h w r e a t h s o f mud and p i l e s o f b l a c k e n e d b r i c k — s e p a r a t e the mi l i s . 7 Such a w o r l d was the q u i n t e s s e n c e o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i n a l l i t s rawness, a s o c i e t y whose p e r s o n a l and b u i l t l a n d s c a p e C h a r l e s D i c k e n s d e s c r i b e d i n Hard Times. A g a i n s t a background o f m i l l m a c h i n e r y , Coketown c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l l a r g e s t r e e t s a l l l i k e one a n o t h e r , and many s m a l l s t r e e t s s t i l l more l i k e one a n o t h e r , i n h a b i t e d by p e o p l e e q u a l l y l i k e one a n o t h e r , who a l l went i n and o u t a t the same h o u r s , w i t h the same sound upon the same pavements, t o do the same work, and t o whom e v e r y day was the same as y e s t e r d a y and tomorrow, g and e v e r y y e a r the c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e l a s t and the n e x t . . . Oldham, and the o t h e r L a n c a s h i r e m i l l towns, were s a t e l l i t e s o f M a n c h e s t e r , the u l t i m a t e symbol o f the new r e l a t i o n s between man, and between man and machines. A l e x i s T o q u e v i l i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m i s e r y around the I r w e l l , s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e E n g e l s ' p o r t r a i t o f the same a r e a , d e s c r i b e s the c o n d i t i o n s o f 300,000 p e o p l e : I t i s the S t y x o f t h i s new Hades. Look up and a l l around t h i s p l a c e you w i l l see the huge p a l a c e s o f i n d u s t r y . These v a s t s t r u c t u r e s keep a i r and l i g h t o u t o f the human h a b i t a t i o n s which they dominate; they e n v e l o p e them i n p e r p e t u a l f o g ; here i s the s l a v e , t h e r e the m a s t e r ; t h e r e i s the w e a l t h o f some, here the p o v e r t y o f most; t h e r e the o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s o f thousands p r o d u c e , t o the p r o f i t o f one man, what s o c i e t y has not y e t l e a r n t t o g i v e . Here the weakness o f the i n d i v i d u a l seems more Q f e e b l e and h e l p l e s s even than i n the m i d d l e o f a w i l d e r n e s s . To t h i s E n g e l s added e v i d e n c e o f the c r u m b l i n g c o u r t s o f houses, b u i l t t o 38 l a s t o n l y t o the end o f a 20 o r 30 y e a r l a n d l e a s e , and not r e p a i r e d by t h e l a n d l o r d . And t o the c o n d i t i o n o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s he added the s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n o f c l a s s e s , the w e l l - t o - d o - g o i n g t o t h e i r h e a l t h y sub-urban l o c a t i o n s o b l i v i o u s o f the d e s p a i r b e h i n d t h e r o a d - s i d e s h o p f r o n t s . ^ W h i l e the e x c e s s e s o f t h e p e r i o d were perhaps g r e a t e s t i n new c i t i e s such as Oldham, Manchester and M i d d l e s b o r o u g h , they were r e p e a t e d i n Y o r k , Northampton and the c a p i t a l , London; indeed anywhere t h a t the new r e l a t i o n -s h i p between c a p i t a l and l a b o u r was b e i n g worked o u t . Northampton, an a r i s t o c r a t i c market town a m i d s t a r i c h , f a r m i n g a r e a , q u i c k l y became a c e n t r e f o r cheap f a c t o r y - m a d e shoes as m a n u f a c t u r e r s sought cheap l a b o u r o u t s i d e London. Wages p a i d were i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r a s i n g l e man t o s u r v i v e , and women and c h i l d r e n were q u i c k l y i n v o l v e d i n one o f the w o r s t o f the sweated t r a d e s . Northampton, as much as Oldham and M a n c h e s t e r , was a c i t y o f m i g r a n t s who c o m p r i s e d 12% o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n 1851; c u l t u r a l l y i t was a r u r a l l a b o u r f o r c e , q u i c k l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an urban p r o l e t a r i a t . F i n i s h i n g once done i n the v i l l a g e s o u t s i d e the town, became p a r t o f the f a c t o r y p r o c e s s , f o r c i n g r u r a l d w e l l e r s t o become a c a s u a l l a b o u r f o r c e c l o s e t o t h e f a c t o r i e s . By the 1840's, "medi e v a l s t r e e t s were slum s t r e e t s , 11 and the freeman's common a b r e e d i n g ground f o r c h o l e r a . " And y e t , g i v e n t h i s m a s s i v e coming t o g e t h e r o f a l a b o u r f o r c e , and a s t r o n g l y h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the many and the few, t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f c l a s s - s o l i d a r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a sense o f c l a s s r e f l e c t -ed i n homogeneous r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The a c r e s o f b a c k - t o - b a c k s and s l u m s , i d e n t i c a l a t a d i s t a n c e , ( F i g . 2 . 1 ) , c o n t a i n e d t h e i r own s o c i a l g e o g r a p h i e s . I n t e r s p e r s e d o c c u p a t i o n a l and e t h n i c groups remained d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s t h a t 12 had not d i s s o l v e d t h r o u g h common e x p e r i e n c e i n t o a c l a s s - b a s e d u n i f o r m i t y . In Y o r k , an a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c i t y t r a n s f o r m e d F i g . 2.1 W o r k i n g - c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c a p e s the numbing sameness masked complex a v i e w o f L e i c e s t e r , a t e x t i l e town i n t h e E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l c i t y ; s o c i a l g e o g r a p h i e s . T h i s i s i n t h e E a s t M i d l a n d s ko i n t o a r a i l w a y c e n t r e i n t h e 1840's, d i s c r e t e c l u s t e r s o f w o r k i n g c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n s were p r e s e n t from the s t a r t o f i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n . Whole s t r e e t s o f Northumberland and Durham-born r a i l w a y w o r k e r s -- the e l i t e o f l a b o u r drawn from the e a r l i e r c o a l f i e l d r a i l w a y s -- p r o v i d e d a c l e a r con-t r a s t t o c l u s t e r s o f u n s k i l l e d I r i s h l a b o u r e r s who l i v e d a c r o s s town i n u n s a n i t a r y swampy s i t e s near the r i v e r . The r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y o f the N o r t h e r n l a b o u r a r i s t o c r a c y a l s o kept them d i s t i n c t from the l o c a l r u r a l i mmigrants who s w e l l e d w a l l e d York i n t o a t e r r a c e d i n d u s t r i a l c i t y based on employment i n r a i l r o a d and c h o c o l a t e m a n u f a c t u r e . In both A l a n A rmstrong's s t u d y o f m i d - c e n t u r y York and Seebohm Rowntree's e x h a u s t i v e s u r v e y a t the 1 3 t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , c l e a r s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s can be d i s c e r n e d even though the m a j o r i t y l i v e d c l o s e t o p o v e r t y . Even i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , something o f the v i l l a g e m e n t a l i t y s u r v i v e d . Perhaps the b e s t example i s p r o v i d e d by Robert R o b e r t s ' g l i m p s e o f l i f e i n Edwardian S a l f o r d , the p l a c e E n g els d e f i n e d as the ' C l a s s i c Slum' : Every i n d u s t r i a l c i t y f o l d s w i t h i n i t s e l f a c l u s t e r o f l o o s e l y d e f i n e d o v e r l a p p i n g v i l l a g e s . Those i n the G r eat B r i t a i n o f s e v e n t y y e a r s ago were a l m o s t s e l f -c o n t a i n e d c o m m u n i t i e s . Our own c o n s i s t e d o f some t h i r t y s t r e e t s and a l l e y s l o c k e d a l o n g the n o r t h and s o u t h by two r a i l w a y systems a f u r l o n g a p a r t . About t w i c e t h a t d i s t a n c e t o the e a s t l a y a n o t h e r slum w h i c h t u r n e d on i t s f a r t h e r s i d e i n t o a l a n d o f bonded warehouses and the c i t y p r o p e r . West o f us, w e l l beyond the t r a m l i n e s , l a y the m i d d l e c l a s s e s , bay-windowed and begardened. We knew them n o t . ^ The w o r l d was d e f i n e d , i t s s e r v i c e s i n t e r n a l t o t h e community, and a c c e s s t o c r e d i t a t the l o c a l s t o r e s was the b a s i s o f s o c i a l s t a t u s (as was the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n r e n t on the r a i l w a y company's h o u s i n g ) : kr Our v i l l a g e r s , about t h r e e thousand i n a l l , p a t r o n i z e d f i f t e e n beer houses, a h o t e l and two o f f - 1 i c e n s e s , n i n e g r o c e r y and g e n e r a l shops, t h r e e green g r o c e r s , two t r i p e shops, t h r e e b a r b e r s , t h r e e d o g g e r s , two workshops, one f i s h and c h i p shop, and o l d c l o t h e s s t o r e , a c o u p l e o f pawn-b r o k e r s and two l o a n o f f i c e s . ^ 5 T h i s was a c o n t a i n e d w o r l d , w i t h a l l the f a c i l i t i e s t o s u p p o r t the f a m i l y i n t h a t b r i e f time away from work. The w o r l d beyond -- the 'begardened and bay-windowed' m i d d l e c l a s s -- was a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y , as much t e r r a  i ncogn i t a e f o r the w o r k i n g c l a s s as the innumerable 'East Ends' o f the B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l c i t y were t o the m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s . For both s i d e s , t h e s e w o r l d s were undimensiona1 from the o u t s i d e , and r i c h l y complex from w i t h i n . ^ I f c o u n t r y p e o p l e were thrown t o g e t h e r i n i n d u s t r i a l s lums, the j o u r n e y t o r e s p e c t a b i 1 i t y was u s u a l l y i n d i v i d u a l . S e l f h e l p , w i t h i t s c o l l e c t i v e s i d e t h r o u g h f r i e n d l y s o c i e t i e s ( i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t s i c k n e s s , o l d age, and b u r i a l f e e s ) , was more common than c o l l e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . Though Samuel S m i l e s ' p r e a c h i n g on T h r i f t and S e l f Help was a m i d d l e - c l a s s view o f what ought t o be r a t h e r than what c o u l d be, the tremendous energy t h a t f r i e n d l y s o c i e t i e s , b u i l d i n g s o c i e t i e s and t h e l i k e d i r e c t e d towards 18 i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y s a v i n g f o r house o w n e r s h i p r e v e a l s a common a s p i r a t i o n . P r i m i n g the s p i r i t o f -independence among t h e slum d w e l l e r , s e l f - h e l p t a u g h t t h a t m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y was the reward o f v i r t u e . As E n i d Gauldie o b s e r v e d i n her s t u d y o f 19th c e n t u r y B r i t i s h h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s , D i v i n e j u s t i c e r a i s e d him (the p r o p e r t y owner) t o h i s c o m f o r t a b l e s t a t u s j u s t a s d i v i n e j u s t i c e e n s u r e d t h a t the s h i f t l e s s and u n d e s e r v i n g s h o u l d remain poor and w i t h o u t property.-. T h i s view was s u p p o r t e d q u i t e as much by the a r t i s a n who had j u s t a t t a i n e d the s t a t u s o f owning h i s own t o o l s and workshop as i t was by the owners o f v a s t e s t a t e s . So long as t h e r e e x i s t e d a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a poor man becoming a p r o p e r t y owner i n however s m a l l a way, he would s u p p o r t the r i g h t s o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . 1 9 42 And y e t , f o r the most p a r t , the path from slum tenement t o house-ownership was s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s l o n g . When Vancouver was i n i t s i n f a n c y the o v e r -whelming m a j o r i t y o f urban B r i t o n s r e n t e d meagre accommodation. The c o n t i n u e d a l i e n a t i o n o f l a n d t o a s m a l l g r o u p . o f p r o p e r t y owners, the c o s t o f b u i l d i n g , and the r a t i o o f wages t o h o u s i n g c o s t s , meant t h a t the r e a l i s t i c achievement o f most was, a t b e s t , a r e n t e d t e r r a c e d - d w e l l i n g o f i n c r e a s i n g q u a l i t y o v e r a l i f e s p a n . In t h e i n d u s t r i a l c i t y , w o r k e r s ' homes were c o n c e n t r a t e d c l o s e t o f a c t o r y , d o c k y a r d o r o t h e r c e n t r e s o f employment. Such l o c a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d the s h e er economic r e a l i t y o f c a s u a l l y o r g a n i z e d work and d a i l y o r w eekly hi r i n g s . A h i g h degree o f i m m o b i l i t y was r e i n f o r c e d by lower r e n t s i n crowded q u a r t e r s , compensated f o r o n l y by the l a c k o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . Once t h e r e , e s t a b l i s h e d c r e d i t a t the c o r n e r s t o r e o r pub, and a sense o f community, s o l i d i f i e d w o r k i n g c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Even when the w o r s t slums were upgraded, p e o p l e d i d not move f a r . Indeed, as Young and W i l l m o t t ' s c l a s s i c s t u d y revealed,.-as"-late-as 1 9 5 3 , a twenty m i l e move t o m u n i c i p a l h o u s i n g e s t a t e s was the f i r s t s u b s t a n t i a l move f o r many B e t h n a l Green r e s i d e n t s i n the E a s t End o f London: When a woman who has l i v e d a l l her l i f e i n ' b u i l d i n g s ' , o r i n t h r e e cramped rooms i n a grubby t e r r a c e d c o t t a g e i s p r o u d l y shown around 'my s i s t e r s l o v e l y new house w i t h a garden out i n H a i n a u l t ' i t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t a d m i r a t i o n i s somehow t i n g e d w i t h envy, S i m i l a r l i m i t e d a s p i r a t i o n s f o r more room a r e found i n R o b e r t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s o f S a l f o r d . H i s f a m i l y f i n a l l y e scaped from the h e a r t o f the slum a f t e r the f i r s t World War: ( H i s mothers) y e a r n i n g , l o n g c h e r i s h e d , t o get us out o f Z i n c S t r e e t seemed a t long l a s t on the edge o f f u l f i l m e n t ....we knew her 'dream' house o f c o u r s e - near a park i t had 43 t o be, and a good l i b r a r y ; q u i e t - w i t h a p a r l o u r and a back g a r d e n : not much, but t h a t was a l l she wanted. 2^ The a t t a c k on the w o r s t e x c e s s e s o f u n s a n i t a r y h o u s i n g ' began i n the 1:860's t h r o u g h a c t s o f P a r l i a m e n t . W i t h the C r o s s and T o r r e n s A c t s o f the 1880's, d e m o l i t i o n s were l i n k e d t o a s t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e h o u s i n g w o r k e r s — y e t the r e s u l t i n g problems s i m p l y d e m onstrated t h a t the c o s t s o f b u i l d i n g decent accommodation on i n n e r c i t y l a n d was p r o h i b i t i v e f o r 22 23 t h o s e who needed i t most. P h i l a n t h r o p i s t s l i k e O c t a v i a H i l l and muni-• 24 c i p a l governments such as L i v e r p o o l ' s , b u i l t model d w e l l i n g s f o r the p o o r , o f t e n w i t h 5% p r o f i t m a r g i n s , t o t r y t o p o i n t the way f o r p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . Yet t h i s c o s t was beyond the reach o f most o f t h e poor and even t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s were tenements w h i c h i n t u r n would be c r i t i c i z e d by l a t e r r e f o r m e r s f o r t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n f r e s h a i r , l i g h t and s a n i t a t i o n . The answer t o h i g h l a n d c o s t s i n the i n n e r c i t y l a y i n the d e v e l o p -ment o f cheaper p e r i p h e r a l s i t e s , but i f w o r k i n g men were t o l i v e t h e r e , cheap t r a n s p o r t was e s s e n t i a l . The c i t y o f London, t h r o u g h the Cheap T r a i n s A c t o f 1883, r e q u i r e d p r i v a t e r a i l w a y s t o p r o v i d e workmens' s p e c i a l s ; i n o t h e r c i t i e s , a network o f trams h e l p e d l o o s e n t i e s t o the f a c t o r y g a t e . S p e c u l a t i v e b u i l d e r s c o u l d then e r e c t rows o f t e r r a c e d c o t t a g e s on cheaper l a n d . In London, t h e r e were 26,000 workmen's cheap t i c k e t s a day i n 1883, 25 and more than 326,000 by 1902. The t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y suburb' was by no means a m i d d l e - c l a s s r e t r e a t ; i n 1912 40% o f a l l commuters w i t h i n 8 m i l e s 26 o f London were w o r k i n g c l a s s t r a v e l l e r s . E n g l i s h w o r k i n g men s t i l l f a c e d a dilemma o f c o s t s and q u a l i t y . Whether they l i v e d i n h i g h d e n s i t y t e n e -ments on e x p e n s i v e i n n e r c i t y l a n d , o r i n p o o r l y - b u i l t t e r r a c e s i n the s u b u r b s , they r e n t e d r a t h e r than owned. As the s o c i a l s u r v e y s by Booth 27 and Rowntree had shown, p o v e r t y was the r o o t o f the h o u s i n g c r i s i s , and i t was c l e a r t h a t n e i t h e r S m i l e s i a n s e l f - h e l p nor f r e e - m a r k e t c a p i t a l i s m c o u l d s o l v e the problem. R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t an economic r e t u r n on c o s t s was i m p o s s i b l e , s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n became more common, w i t h l o c a l government as b u i l d e r and l a n d l o r d . Even s o , the problem had t o be a d d r e s s e d i n a t o t a l sense --not j u s t h o u s i n g , but r e n t c o n t r o l s , minimum wage, p e n s i o n and i n s u r a n c e schemes. T h i s p o i n t s towards the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w e l f a re s t a t e i n B r i t a i n , a consequence o f the f a c t t h a t a system based on the p r i v a t e c o n t r o l and development o f l a n d was s i m p l y not t a c k l i n g the human problems o f l a b o u r beyond i t s u s e f u l n e s s t o i n d u s t r y . L o o k i n g back t o a r u r a l way o f l i f e and t o a d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n d and l a b o u r , some p h i l a n t h r o p i c c a p i t a l i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Rowntree, Cadbury and L e v e r , moved t h e i r w o r k e r s ' h o u s i n g i n t o t h e c o u n t r y -28 s i d e . These e a r l y e x p e r i m e n t s i n r e s i d e n t i a l community depended on cheap land p r o v i d e d by the i n d u s t r i a l i s t , and/or r e l a t i v e l y h i g h wages ( i n the b r o a d e s t sense o f l a b o u r w e l f a r e t hrough p e n s i o n s and the p r o v i s i o n o f community s e r v i c e s ) . A r c h i t e c t / p l a n n e r s such as Raymond Unwin c o n t r a s t e d the moral and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f v i l l a g e l i f e w i t h t h a t i n the e n d l e s s 29 30 by-law h o u s i n g . In h i s Garden C i t i e s o f Tomorrow, a work t h a t s y n t h e -s i z e d much o f the l o n g i n g f o r a r u r a l , d i m e n s i o n t o urban l i f e , Ebenezer Howard p r o v i d e d t h e broad p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r m a r r y i n g r u r a l and urban l i f e . The m i d d l e c l a s s suburbs had hankered a f t e r such r u r a l i t y , y e t a t t a i n e d i t i n token amounts -- a s t a m p - s i z e garden i n f r o n t o f a semi-a t t a c h e d v i l l a o r a t e r r a c e d row, a t r e e d o r flowei—named s t r e e t ( F i g . 2 . 2). C o n s t a n t l y , the r e a l i t y o f l a n d economics and o w n e r s h i p d e n i e d t h e easy i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e suburban o r g a r d e n - c i t y p l a n s . Tig. 02. Lucas Crescent, Hampstead; Geoffrey Lucas, pre-World War I. Lucas was one of the archi tects who most carefully studied old English collage styles, particularly those of the Colswold di, trtct, which Unwin also considered the best of the traditional. nature 7 ? ' L " c ^ ' h - T h " c-P'-res the originally intended balance between 7,1 /f"'""""^ ,"""> Pl<"" t°bles rising at unusual angles to the road VmeloJve shape and d.rec.on lo the space. The architects did not usually employ theS^nJZeLfiZ ZnttuZT,^: " S " e e t h a P P e " e d M « " L » ^a-rt'plZZ F i g . 2.2 E n g l i s h suburban l a n d s c a p e s : E d w a r d i a n m i d d l e c l a s s t e r r a c e s ( a b o v e , from J a c k s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) and e a r l y garden c i t y v i s t a s ( b e l o w , f r o m C r e e s e , ] 9 6 6 ) L e t c h w o r t h , the f i r s t Garden C i t y , a t t r a c t e d a m i d d l e - c l a s s c l i e n t -e l e . I t was t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n o f t h e Labour Movement w i t h h o u s i n g r e f o r m t h a t was t o t r a n s l a t e the Unwin/Howard/Rowntree e x p e r i m e n t s i n t o a b r o a d l y a v a i l a b l e r e a l i t y . The l a b o u r movement w h o l e h e a r t e d l y adopted the idea o f the suburban house and ga r d e n . The Tudor W a l t e r s R e p o r t o f 1926 gave o f f i c i a l a p p r o v a l t o house t y p e , d e n s i t y and l a y o u t , and ensu r e d t h a t the garden suburb became the dominant b u i l d i n g form f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 31 between the wars. One a s p e c t o f the d e s i r e f o r home and p r o p e r t y -- a decent suburban environment i n which s m a l l c l u s t e r s o f t e r r a c e d rows were c a s t i n a more v e r d a n t environment -- was p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l e d t h r o u g h m u n i c i p a l s o c i a l i s m . Ownership was a n o t h e r m a t t e r . A f t e r a g e n e r a t i o n o f government l e g i s l a t i o n , accommodation was u n d o u b t e d l y more s a n i t a r y and s a f e , y e t i t was s t i l l m o s t l y r e n t e d . The s o c i a l g r a d i e n t s t h r o u g h a suburb c o u l d be d e f i n e d i n t o d i s t i n c t s t r e e t s , where a s h i l l i n g a week d i f f e r e n c e i n r e n t meant the d i f f e r e n c e between a c l e r k and a s k i l l e d tradesman's r e s i d e n c e . In the background s t i l l l a y the s p e c t r e o f p o v e r t y . As P e t e r L a s l e t t c o n c l u d e d , the w o r l d o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s i n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y B r i t a i n was the " i n h e r i t a n c e 32 from the t r a d i t i o n a l w o r l d o f p e a s a n t , c r a f t s m a n and pauper." P o p u l a r o p i n i o n might argue t h a t t h i s w o r k i n g c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n had become more inde p e n d e n t , t h a t t h e r e was more c o m f o r t i n t h e i r l i f e w i t h i n the i n d u s -t r i a l c i t y as the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y had p r o g r e s s e d , and even, because o f t h i s , t h a t t h e l a b e l " w o r k i n g c l a s s " had l e s s r e l e v a n c e . L a s l e t t , however, emphasizes c o n t i n u i t y : "To c a l l t h e p r o s p e r o u s w o r k i n g f a m i l y o f the l a t e r t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y s i m p l y b o u r g e o i s o r m i d d l e - c l a s s i s a s u p e r f i c i a l h i s -t o r i c a l m i s c o n c e p t i o n . I t i s r a t h e r the w o r k i n g f a m i l y o f the 1 9 0 0's, o f 33 the 1920's o r 1 9 3 0 1s, w i t h some o f the h o r r o r o f p o v e r t y removed." A c c o r d i n g t o J i m Dyos, t h e r e had been c o n s i d e r a b l e change and improvement i n the e n d - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y V i c t o r i a n c i t y s i n c e the days o f E n g e l s ' S a l f o r d o r F o s t e r ' s Oldham. He d e s c r i b e s change as a p r o c e s s o f s p a t i a l and s o c i a l s o r t i n g . R e l o c a t i o n s h e l p e d d e f i n e p e o p l e s ' i d e n t i t y as i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than g r o s s slum g r o u p s . For the most p a r t , such d e f i n i t i o n was s t i l l f u g i t i v e , " not o n l y f o r the m i d d l e c l a s s e s r e t r e a t i n g t o t h e i r laburnum g r o v e s , but f o r the masses f o l l o w i n g b e h i n d i n workmens' 3b t r a i n s o r making f o r the e m i g r a n t s h i p s i n s t e a d . " And, h a v i n g seen t h a t the move t o suburb might s t i l l be t o a r e n t e d t e r r a c e d c o t t a g e , some s i x -t e en f e e t o f f r o n t a g e w i t h s h a r e d w a l l s on both s i d e s , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t u r n t o the..urban a l t e r n a t i v e s beyond B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . 2 ( i i ) The North American P a r a l l e l s B r i e f l y , 19th c e n t u r y c i t i e s on b o t h s i d e s o f the A t l a n t i c had much in common. The urban f a c e o f i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m was g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r . P i t t s b u r g h , w i t h s u b w o r l d s l i k e Homestead c l u s t e r e d around C a r n e g i e ' s 35 s t e e l m i l l s , c o u l d p r o v i d e as g r i m a s o c i a l p i c t u r e as any from E n g e l s . H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x h i b i t e d d i m e n s i o n s o f i n e q u a l i t y s i m i l a r t o thos e t h a t F o r s t e r d e s c r i b e s i n the E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . O n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f H a m i l t o n owned a l l the p r o p e r t y i n the c i t y , t h r e e - q u a r t e r s r e n t e d . The most a f f l u e n t 10% h e l d 88% o f the 36 w e a l t h , t h e p o o r e s t b0% r e c e i v e d some 1% o f the c i t y ' s income. In M o n t r e a l , " t h e c i t y above t h e h i l l i s the home o f the c l a s s e s . . . . the c i t y 37 below the h i l l i s the d w e l l i n g p l a c e o f the masses", and i n Wi n n i p e g by 1914, i t was v e r y much a c i t y d i v i d e d ; d i v i d e d i n t o a r e a s o f work and r e s i d e n c e , r i c h and poo r , Anglo-Saxon and f o r e i g n e r . Income 48 and e t h n i c s e g r e g a t i o n h e l d c o n f l i c t i n g groups a p a r t . Each d i s t r i c t had a neighbourhood homogeneity t h a t gave a sense o f p l a c e and commun i ty'.'. 38 A r t i b i s e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Winnipeg c o n j u r e s w o r l d s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e des-c r i b e d by R o b e r t s ' S a l f o r d a t the same t i m e . Worlds a p a r t , y e t a f u n d a -mental s i m i l a r i t y because o f the dominant economy. And y e t , t h e N o r t h American c i t y was d i f f e r e n t from i t s B r i t i s h c o u n t e r p a r t . There was f a r g r e a t e r s o c i a l and s p a t i a l m o b i l i t y , w i t h i n and between c i t i e s . A l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n were p r o p e r t y owners. A s e r i e s o f l e t t e r s t h a t C h a r l o t t e E r i c k s o n assembled from B r i t i s h e m i g r a n t s t o N o r t h America t h r o u g h the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y 39 r e v e a l s the wide a t t r a c t i o n o f the o w n e r s h i p o f house and g a r d e n . Some 30% o f the u n s k i l l e d I r i s h m i g r a n t s a t the bottom o f the economic s c a l e i n 40 H a m i l t o n owned p r o p e r t y . M i c h a e l K a t z a t t r i b u t e s t h i s t o the p a r t i c u l a r -l y s t r o n g meaning o f land f o r the I r i s h , d r i v e n o f f the l a n d by E n g l i s h l a n d l o r d s . In g e n e r a l , N o r t h American wages were somewhat h i g h e r and urban l a n d c o s t s somewhat lower than i n Europe, and t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y gave a more t a n g i b l e o u t l e t t o a s p i r a t i o n s f o r home own e r s h i p and p r i v a c y . To be s u r e , f o r many, the same dilemma o f t r a n s p o r t c o s t s and d e n s i t y remained. In New Y o r k , t h r e s h o l d wage l i m i t s f o r m a r r i a g e were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s - r : 41 c r i b e d by J a c k s o n f o r Edwardian London. S t i l l , new mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y , a g g r e s s i v e l y implemented, and l e s s r e s t r i c t e d e x p a n s i o n a t the c i t y ' s edge, e n a b l e d the s p r e a d o f c l a s s e s o v e r a b r o a d e r N o r t h American 42 s u b u r b i a than i n B r i t a i n a t the same t i m e . P r i v a t e f a m i l y space was the c l e a r goal o f such r e l o c a t i o n . Images o f house o w n e r s h i p and o f the i d e a l home were c l o s e l y i n t e r t w i n e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . "Home" was a p a r t i c u l a r l y V i c t o r i a n s e n t i m e n t , common t o both the poor i n t h e i r slums and t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s i n the s u b u r b s . 49 The l i t e r a t u r e on the e v o l u t i o n o f the r h e t o r i c o f home i s l a r g e and s i g -43 n i f i c a n t , " and i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e many r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f the f a m i l y 44 i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . . . . F o r many, the s e n t i m e n t s o f f a m i l y and home were keys t o s u r v i v a l i n a ch a n g i n g and h o s t i l e w o r l d . For the poor home was the one p r i v a t e domain i n a w o r l d o f u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f o r c e s ; f o r the m i d d l e c l a s s s e c u r e and p r o t e c t e d f a m i l i e s were havens from the antagonisms o f c i t y l i f e . Most o f the a t t e m p t s t o a m e l i o r a t e the slums o f i n n e r c i t y l i f e sought t o c r e a t e h e a l t h y home e n v i r o n m e n t s . Ames noted w i t h r e l i e f t h a t t he M o n t r e a l poor were not l i v i n g i n t h e crowded tenements c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f New York o r P h i l a d e l p h i a , f o r " d w e l l i n g i n a s m a l l b u i l d i n g tends t o make (the slum d w e l l e r ) independent and s e l f - r e l i a n t , p r e s e r v i n g as i t does a l l t h a t p e r -45 t a i n s t o s e p a r a t e f a m i l y l i f e . " S m a l l e r tenements were b e t t e r than l a r g e , but home o w n e r s h i p was i d e a l . I t gave c o n t r o l o v e r s h e l t e r even i n tim e s of i l l n e s s o r unemployment; i t p r o v i d e d a s e c u r e b a s i s f o r the f a m i l y . The p u r s u i t o f independent f a m i l y l i f e , away from the dense i n n e r c i t y , l e d by the 1930 1s t o the i n c r e a s i n g l y p r i v a t e w o r l d o f s u b u r b i a , a w o r l d t h a t many urban c r i t i c s thought was s o u l l e s s and w i t h o u t i d e n t i t y . For most p e o p l e t h i s p r i v a t e w o r l d was a c h e r i s h e d g o a l , an autonomous p l a c e f o r s e l f and 46 f a m i l y w i t h i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y o r g a n i z e d and imperso n a l w o r l d . R e l a t i v e l y cheap l a n d i n w e s t e r n N o r t h American c i t i e s i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y appeared t o o f f e r an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r indepen-dent f a m i l y l i f e . In Vancouver, the s e n t i m e n t s o f home and f a m i l y c o l o u r e d many r e a l e s t a t e p r o m o t i o n s . Home was equated w i t h l a n d o w n e r s h i p , and i n so d o i n g p l a y e d on s e n t i m e n t s t h a t had been n u r t u r e d i n the Old C o u n t r y . 47 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s , and many v i s i t i n g s p e a k e r s t o the Canadian C l u b , c o n t r a s t -ed m u n i c i p a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the tenement problem i n England and p r i v a t e o p p o r t u n i t y i n Vancouver. Promoting a South Vancouver suburb c a l l e d 50 K e n s i n g t o n , one r e a l t o r s t a t e d : The London County C o u n c i l i s p u t t i n g up houses f o r thousands o f f a m i l i e s — not i n London, but o u t s i d e , i n the s u b u r b s , where p e o p l e can have f r e s h a i r and y a r d s f o r the c h i l d r e n t o p l a y i n and gardens -- same as here i n K e n s i n g t o n -- and when the g r e a t London County C o u n c i l a p p o i n t e d by P a r l i a m e n t does t h i n g s as t h a t a t an expense o f m i l l i o n s , i t shows how i m p o r t a n t t h i s t h i n g i s -- how v i t a l l y n e c e s s a r y i t i s f o r us t o s o l v e the l i v i n g problem. And i t i s easy t o s o l v e , here i n Vancouver, now t h a t K e n s i n g t o n has been opened up and cheap l a n d made a v a i l a b l e f o r homeowners — p l a c e d on the market at $10 down and then ten d o l l a r s a month -- f i g u r e s w i t h i n the reach o f e v e r y i n d u s t r i o u s mechanic and c l e r k . ' * 8 Such s t a t e m e n t s were made under the banner h e a d l i n e "Own Your Own Home. Every Argument Favours the Man Who Does Not Pay Rent. Be Independent and Happy -- Buy and B u i l d i n K e n s i n g t o n . " For a g e n e r a t i o n o f m i g r a n t s , the o p p o r t u n i t y t o own a home was a p o w e r f u l a t t r a c t i o n . When the Vancouver Real E s t a t e Exchange ran a c o n t e s t i n 1920 on the s u b j e c t "The Advantage o f Owning Your Own Home", the e s s a y s s u b m i t t e d by housewives and o t h e r w o r k i n g p e o p l e r e i t e r a t e d the r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y ' s a d v e r t i s i n g . Chas Clemons, a bakery c l e r k r e n t i n g on Lansdowne (a s t r e e t on the F a l s e Creek s l o p e s ) , used e x p e r i e n c e s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o d e f i n e the v a l u e o f home o w n e r s h i p : C i t i z e n s who own t h e i r own homes today have the n a t u r a l p r i d e o f p o s s e s s i o n , a s u r e s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t the u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f the f u t u r e , a r e f u g e f o r o l d age, and an i n h e r i t a n c e f o r the c h i l d r e n . Those o f us who came from crowded c i t i e s know from b i t t e r e x p e r i e n c e the dread o f the s h e r i f f i n t i m e s o f unem-ployment, and the h o r r o r o f t h e poor house m a n i f e s t e d by the o l d f o l k . From my e x p e r i e n c e i n France and E n g l a n d , w h i l e o v e r s e a s , and s e e i n g how the w o r k i n g c l a s s e s l i v e , I am g l a d t h a t I am l i v i n g i n such a c o u n t r y as Canada. Here we have e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y o f owning our homes, and the i n d u s t r i o u s w o r k e r can i n s u r e h i s f a m i l y ' s f u t u r e . " Mrs. A u l d , o f Vancouver H e i g h t s i n the E a s t End, d e s c r i b e d t h e s t a b i l i s i n g i n f l u e n c e t h a t o w n e r s h i p brought t o the w o r k i n g c l a s s : "when th e y a r e 51 i n d u s t r i o u s , t h r i f t y and c o n t e n t e d , i s n ' t the c o u n t r y o r community p r o s p e r -ous? U n r e s t a r i s e s from d i s c o n t e n t and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and i s not t h i s the f e e l i n g o f the average t e n a n t ? " 5 ^ A l l the e s s a y s o f f e r e d p l a i n , s i m p l e d e f i n i t i o n s o f the v a l u e o f home, and a l l r e v o l v e d f u n d a m e n t a l l y around the ow n e r s h i p o f l a n d . Consumer a s p i r a t i o n s and market p a c k a g i n g found many a s s o c i a t i o n s . One o f the most s t r i k i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h i s v e i n o f f e r e d l a n d f o r $375 on the New W e s t m i n s t e r I n t e r u r b a n , a t A l t a V i s t a near Royal Oak S t a t i o n "where $12 down and $12 a month s e c u r e s you a homesiteV. The l a n d was promoted under the h e a d l i n e 'The Magic Word "HOME"': There i s a w o n d e r f u l m a g i c a l power i n the s i m p l e word "home". What a w o r l d o f f o n d a s s o c i a t i o n s and dear memories i s c o n j u r e d up by tho s e f o u r l e t t e r s , "H-o-m-e". How i t makes us t h i n k o f d o m e s t i c j o y , a warm f i r e b e f o r e the h e a r t h , and warmed h e a r t s t o welcome us when the day's work i s o v e r ; b e t t e r s t i l l , how i t makes us t h i n k o f s t u r d y i n -dependence, freedom from c a r e and w o r r y and i n c r e a s i n g p r o s p e r i t y . The house you l i v e i n i s not "home" i f you don't own i t . I f you a r e p a y i n g r e n t you a r e l i v i n g i n -V. somebody e l s e ' s home, not your own home.51 The t e x t goes on t o p o i n t out t h a t w h i l e a person used t o have t o save a thousand d o l l a r s t o buy l a n d , i t was now p o s s i b l e t o make s m a l l monthly payments. The l a n d would be p a i d f o r i n l e s s than t h r e e y e a r s . A l t a V i s t a development o f f e r e d a few three-room houses f o r s a l e a t $185. "The houses a r e not e l a b o r a t e , but they a r e c o n v e n i e n t , c o m f o r t a b l e and 'homey'". Such s e n t i m e n t s c o n n e c t e d w i t h the v e r y s p e c i a l meaning o f home i n w o r k i n g c l a s s l i f e . . As R i c h a r d Hoggart summarized t h i s s e n t i m e n t , "where a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s r u l e d from o u t s i d e , i s chancey and l i k e l y t o knock you down when you l e a s t e x p e c t i t , t h e home i s s t i l l y o u r s and r e a l : the warmest 52 welcome i s s t i l l 'Mek y ' s e l f a t 'ome." The f i r e p l a c e , the h e a r t h , and the f a m i l y s i t t i n g around i n s a f e c o m f o r t was a theme used i n many house 3 H e a r t h and Home, b r o u g h t t o you by N a t i o n a l F A r e you l o o k i n g f o r a home? We a r e l o o k i n g f o r homeseekers. C a l l on us and we w i l l e n d e a v o r t o g i v e you what you a r e l o o k i n g f o r , and i f you a r e s a t i s f i e d we w i l l be g r a t i f i e d , and i f you a r e g r a t i f i e d we w i l l be s a t i s f i e d . We have i n q u i r i e s d a i l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y , and w i l l be g l a d t o have many more modern houses on o u r l i s t . West End and Mount P l e a s a n t a r e e s p e c i a l l y i n demand. N A T I O N A L F I N A N C E C O . , L T D . T e l e p h o n e S\k 412 H a s t i n g s S t . W. 53 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . The N a t i o n a l F i n a n c e Company, o f f e r i n g mortgage money f o r p o t e n t i a l p u r c h a s e r s o f P r u d e n t i a l B u i l d e r s houses, c l e v e r l y used the sym-b o l i c s k e t c h shown i n F i g . 2.3. Two s m a l l houses a r e p l a c e d on top o f a V i c t o r i a n m a n t e l - p i e c e c l o c k . The two S t a f f o r d s h i r e c h i n a dogs a r e absent (!) but here a r e the innermost p a r t s o f the h o u s e - a s - h e a r t h i n t e r -t w i n e d w i t h the house e x t e r i o r s . The V i c t o r i a n p o p u l a r i t y o f "Home Sweet Home" and " E a s t West, Home's B e s t " t r a n s l a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t i e s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e A t l a n t i c . For many i n B r i t a i n , the s e n t i m e n t o f t e n remained as a n e e d l e p o i n t d e s i g n framed on the bedroom w a l l ; i n N o r t h America i t more o f t e n found e x p r e s s i o n i n p h y s i c a l form. An i m p o r t a n t element i n t h a t r e a l i z a t i o n was the con-s i d e r a b l e volume o f V i c t o r i a n l i t e r a t u r e p r o s e l y t i z i n g i d e a l home l i f e and an i n n o v a t i v e economy t h a t c o u l d accommodate the s u g g e s t i o n s . Many o f t h e s e books i n c l u d e d house d e s i g n s and f l o o r p l a n s and t h e r e f o r e were i n f l u e n t i a l s o u r c e s i n the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l v e r n a c u l a r h o u s i n g . They a r e a l s o v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s o f the h o m e - r h e t o r i c t h a t f u e l e d t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have documented the major t e c h n o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f A merican l i f e as the n a t i o n came t o terms w i t h t h e new i n d u s t r i a l age; they i n c l u d e John Kouwenhoven 1s t r e a t m e n t o f the impact o f new m a t e r i a l s and 53 methods on house design,' R u s s e l l L y n e s 1 a n a l y s i s o f the p o w e r f u l magazine 1 t a s t e m a k e r s ' , and Nathan Rosenberg's e x a m i n a t i o n o f the pace o f t e c h -55 n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n i n m i d - c e n t u r y . A l l r e c o g n i s e the i n c r e a s i n g c o m p a r t m e n t a 1 i s a t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g and d e s i g n p r o c e s s , and d i s c u s s t h e b r o a d e r c o m p a r t m e n t a 1 i s a t i o n t h a t was o c c u r r i n g i n s o c i e t y a t t h a t t i m e . D a v i d H a n d l i n has d e s c r i b e d the p r o g r e s s i o n o f a 19th c e n t u r y v i e w o f the s i n g l e s - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d house as the i d e a l s e t t i n g f o r American d o m e s t i c l i f e . B u i l d i n g on t h e i d e a s o f P h i l l i p e A r i e s he views the compartment-5k a l i s a t i o n o f home-space and the r i t u a 1 i s i n g o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s as an o u t -come o f a c h a n g i n g concept o f f a m i l y . 5 ^ There had been a s h i f t from the med i e v a l d e f i n i t i o n o f f a m i l y based on moral and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h t o an i n d u s t r i a l e r a ' s s e p a r a t i o n o f home and work t h e r e b y s e n t i m e n t a l i z i n g the home as d o m e s t i c i t y and p r i v a t e s p a c e . House p l a n n i n g became i m p o r t a n t and n e c e s s a r y , s i n c e t h e r e was an i n t e n t i o n on the p a r t o f many a r c h i t e c t s and m o r a l i s t s t o c r e a t e "an o r g a n i z e d e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t would be c o n d u c i v e both t o p h y s i c a l h e a l t h and the s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g o f the 58 f a m i l y " . As e a r l y as 1842 C a t h e r i n e Beecher w r o t e a T r e a t i s e on Domestic C Q Economy, and i n 1862 she p u b l i s h e d , w i t h H a r r i e t Beecher Stowe, The  American Woman's Home o r P r i n c i p l e s o f Domestic S c i e n c e ; b e i n g a g u i d e t o  the f o r m a t i o n and maintenance o f e c o n o m i c a l , h e a l t h f u l , b e a u t i f u l and  C h r i s t i a n h o m e s . ^ A l a t e r example o f t h i s genre was Lau r a H o l l o w a y ' s 1886 volume, The H e a r t h s t o n e , o r a Manual f o r Home L i f e . I t began Home i s the c e n t r a l p o i n t o f a l l h a p p i n e s s , the p i v o t upon w h i c h depends the weal o r woe o f f a m i l i e s and co m m u n i t i e s . What then so i m p o r t a n t as the r i g h t b u i l d i n g o f o u r e a r t h l y homes i n a l l s p i r i t u a l and p r a c t i c a l ways? What s u b j e c t i s so f r a u g h t w i t h g r e a t consequence as the H e a r t h s t o n e ? ^ ! In a d d i t i o n t o i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t o do the l a u n d r y , d e c o r a t e the house, answer i n v i t a t i o n s c o r r e c t l y , be good p a r e n t s , and use.some l46~pages - o f cook-e r y '. r e c i pes,. t h e r e were 25 pages o f t e x t and diagrams on house d e s i g n s . There were many s i m i l a r volumes on home-making. I t was w i t h i n t h i s medium o f home a d v i c e t h a t some o f Andrew J a c k s o n Downing's v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l i d e a s on the v a l u e o f G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e were d i s s e m i n a t e d . I n i t i a l l y he p u b l i s h e d d e s i g n s and a r t i c l e s i n r u r a l magazines such as The H o r t i c u 1 t u r a l i s t , but then 62 l a t e r i n c o l l e c t e d books such as Co t t a g e R e s i d e n c e s . E q u a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l , f o r a l a t e r and more suburban a u d i e n c e , was Edward Bok, the p u b l i s h e r 55 o f L a d i e s Home J o u r n a l . In 1905 he p u b l i s h e d two f l o o r p l a n s f o r cheap h o u s i n g by Frank L l o y d W r i g h t , but more i m p o r t a n t l y he has been c r e d i t e d w i t h removing the f o r m a l and l a r g e l y underused p a r l o u r from American homes. Many o f t h e f e a t u r e d s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e s e p a t t e r n books were o f t e n w e l l beyond t h e f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t i e s o f most w o r k e r s , but they were p r e s e n t as a g o a l t o be s t r i v e n f o r . In many c a s e s , the 'workingmans c o t t a g e 1 i n c l u d e d i n most p a t t e r n books had some elements o f the more a t t r a c t i v e and o p u l e n t d e s i g n s ( F i g . 2.4). A c q u i s i t i o n o f p r o p e r t i e s t h a t were so vehe-m e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c o r r e c t and h e a l t h y home l i f e was an i n d i c a t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ; Stephen T h e r n s t r o m has d i s c u s s e d the importance o f p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p f o r w o r k e r s i n l a t e 19th c e n t u r y N e w b u r y p o r t . ^ S o c i a l c r i t i c s such as E n g e l s r e g r e t t e d t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s h o u s i n g d e v e l o p -ments on the f r i n g e o f American c i t i e s as d i f f u s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r 66 r e v o l u t i o n . As H a n d l i n c o n c l u d e s , however, t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e appeal i n the goods and o b j e c t s f o r t h o s e who had not p r e v i o u s l y known them: The house was the b i g g e s t and most i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t t h a t the a v e r a g e wage e a r n e r might a c q u i r e . U l t i m a t e l y , because i t was a p h y s i c a l l y p e r c e i v a b l e e n t i t y , the d e t a c h e d house had an a l l u r i n g a p p e a l , no m a t t e r what s t y l e i t was i n o r how s m a l l i t was, t h a t made i t d e s i r a b l e . I t was p r e c i s e l y t h i s q u a l i t y , a t a n g i b l e p r e s e n c e t h a t went beyond q u e s t i o n s o f u t i l i t y o r money v a l u e , t h a t e n a b l e d so many p e o p l e at w h a t e v e r l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o see the i s s u e o f h o u s i n g more i n the terms o f a Downing than an E n g e l s . ^ 7 W i t h o u t d e t a i l e d case h i s t o r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l m i g r a n t s t o Vancouver, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o summarize t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o h o u s i n g . H a r r y A r c h i b a l d , the e n g i n e e r from the A n n a p o l i s V a l l e y , might have been p u z z l e d at the t r e e - c l e a r i n g i n Vancouver o n l y f o r a ' c i t y r e s i d e n c e ' . P e o p l e from the i n d u s t r i a l p a r t o f h i s p r o v i n c e , from the c o a l and s t e e l 'The Flora" Price of Plans and Specifications $S-oo Full and complete working plans and specifications of this house will be furnished for $5.00. Cost of house is from $ 1.050 to $ 1.150, according to the locality in which it is built Floor Plan of "The Flora" Width, 2« feet Length, 2t feet Blue prints consist of cellar and foundation plan; float , roof plan; front and s: de elevation. Complete typewritten specifications wilh each set of "The Brookdale" Price of Plans and Specifications $S-oo FuB and complete working plans and specifications of this house will be furnished for $5.00. Cost of this house is from $2,500 to $2,700. according to the locality in which it is built. Floor Plans or "The Brookdale" Width, 32 feet Length, 33 feet iindatfon plan; first and second floor plans: roof plan; front and Id* ritual "The Workingman" Price at Plans and Specifications $ 5 .00 Ful and complete working plans and specifications of this house will be furnished for $5.00l Cost of this house is from $400 to $500. according to the locality in which it is built Floor Plan of "The Workingman" F i g . 2.4 P a t t e r n book d e s i g n s , from Hodgson's Low Co s t A m e r i c a n Homes,(1909) 57 towns o f Cape B r e t o n , l i k e l y had a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e t o such c l e a r i n g . F o r them the mean company houses t h a t s t r e t c h e d beyond the c o l l i e r y p i t h e a d were a c o n s t a n t reminder o f t h e i r l i m i t e d economic freedom; most o f t h e i r meagre wages went t o pay the r e n t on the company house and t o pay f o r p r o -v i s i o n s a t the company s t o r e . S a l e s o f t h e s e houses t o t e n a n t s was one o f the main recommendations o f the Royal Commission t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e d the 68 cause o f the b i t t e r Cape B r e t o n c o a l s t r i k e s o f the 1920's. For r u r a l O n t a r i a n s , poor la n d on the edge o f the S h i e l d , m i g r a t i o n t o urban employ-ment, o r movement o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e were the p r o s p e c t s a t the end o f the 69 19th c e n t u r y . S e v e r a l a r t i c l e s compared t h e b a c k b r e a k i n g t a s k o f c l e a r i n g l a n d i n So u t h e r n O n t a r i o w i t h the c o m p a r a t i v e ease o f b e g i n n i n g a b e r r y f a r m o r s m a l l d a i r y o p e r a t i o n i n Burnaby, New W e s t m i n s t e r o r o t h e r communities c l o s e t o Vancouver. Not a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s were u r b a n , t o be s u r e , s i n c e t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . But f o r thos e i n urban s e t t i n g s , o r f a c i n g the p r o s p e c t o f a move t o a c i t y , home as p r i v a t e s p a c e , and home as owned r a t h e r than r e n t e d p r o p e r t y , f e a t u r e d l a r g e i n t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s . Those who chose t o m i g r a t e t o Vancouver were met by a r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y t h a t tapped such a s p i r a t i o n s . R e v i e w i n g t h e " P o t e n t i a l Suburbs o f Vancouver" i n Man t o Man Magazine (a f o r e r u n n e r t o B r i t i s h Columbia M a g a z i n e ) , one b o o s t e r s t a t e d the l a n d ques-t i o n i n terms o f home and slums: .. . t h e q u e s t i o n o f an o u t l e t f o r the s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n ... i s one o f the v e r y g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e t o ( t h e average Vancouver r e s i d e n t ) and the whole community o f w h i c h he i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n s t i t u e n t : i t means a l l the d i f f e r e n c e between s o c i a l freedom and o p p r e s s i v e c o n g e s t i o n . The l a t t e r i s i n v a r i a b l y the advance guard o r onerous h e r a l d o f the Kingdom o f Slumdom, and a l l the h o r r i f y i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c i d e n t a l t o i t s regime. T h i s b e i n g the c a s e , the q u e s t i o n o f the c i t y h a v i n g a s e r i e s o f s u i t a b l e t r i b u t a r i e s i n t o w h i c h the o v e r p l u s may emerge w i t h o u t l o s i n g t o u c h w i t h the m e t r o p o l i s becomes o f g r e a t importance.70 A e s t h e t i c s might r e a l i s t i c a l l y become a minor c o n s i d e r a t i o n compared t o o t h e r meanings o f s h e l t e r . C a l v e r t Vaux, an a r c h i t e c t u r a l contemporary o f Downing, c r i t i c i z e d the square boxes s p r i n g i n g up i n the w e s t e r n c i t i e s , but e x p l a i n e d them as the " n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f the m i g r a t o r y independent 71 s p i r i t p e r v a d i n g the i n d u s t r i o u s c l a s s e s i n A m e r i c a . " These humble d w e l l -i n g s , w i t h t h e i r d e f i n i n g f e n c e s , were the r e a l i z a t i o n o f a dream -- a detached house, a g a r d e n , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s pace. 59 CHAPTER THREE THE CIRCLE GAME: LAND FOR VANCOUVER HOUSES It a w a i t s the s u n , the end f o r which Heaven made i t , the b l e s s i n g o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . Someday i t w i l l be s o l d i n l a r g e p o r t i o n s , and the t i m b e r c u t down and made i n t o p a per, on which s h a l l be p r i n t e d p r a i s e o f p r o s p e r i t y ; and the land i t s e l f s h a l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t o w n - l o t s and s o l d , and s u b d i v i d e d and s o l d a g a i n , and boomed and r e s o l d , and b o o s t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o f i s h y young men... and g i v e n i n exchange f o r g r e a t e r sums o f money t o o l d l a d i e s i n the q u i e t e r p a r t s o f England.^ The movement o f p e o p l e s , t e c h n o l o g i e s and ideas t o Vancouver i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i d not o c c u r on a n e u t r a l base o f v i r g i n l a n d . Land was a prime element i n the r e w o r k i n g o f s o c i a l and economic a s p i r a -t i o n s , and i t was i n the hands o f t h e few b e f o r e i t came i n t o the hands o f the many. Two a t t i t u d e s towards l a n d dominated: lan d as home, and l a n d as economic a s s e t . W i t h i n the growing power o f .the m i d d l e c l a s s , and p a r t i -c u l a r l y w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the l a t t e r view had a s s e r t e d i t s e l f s t r o n g l y d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . But both had a long c o - e x i s t e n c e , and both came t o Vancouver. V e n t u r e c a p i t a l reached i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and l a n d was an a t t r a c t i v e a s s e t . In the Vancouver a r e a , c a p i t a l i s t s f i r s t i n v e s t e d i n f o r e s t s , but soon i n r e a l e s t a t e . Companies and i n d i v i d u a l s t r e a t e d l a n d as a m a r k e t a b l e commodity. In a new p l a c e w i t h o u t t r a d i t i o n a l a t t a c h m e n t t o l a n d and w i t h a b u r g e o n i n g p o p u l a t i o n , l a n d as a s s e t was p a r t i c u l a r l y a c c e s s i b l e and a t t r a c t i v e . But economic a t t r a c t i o n f r e q u e n t l y depended on 60 the l a n d ' s p o t e n t i a l as a home-site and s o , t o r e a l i z e i t s economic v a l u e , i t o f t e n had t o be marketed as home. The r h e t o r i c o f home was primed and encouraged by the r e a l t o r s and c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s o f l a n d as home were emphasized i n . t h e i r p r o m o t i o n . W i t h t h i s s t u d y f o c u s s i n g l a r g e l y on l a n d s c a p e and h o u s e s t y l e s , newspaper r e a l e s t a t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s have been examined i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d v a r i o u s l a n d s p e c u l a t o r s t r a t e g i e s , and f o r the r h e t o r i c t h a t accompanied the s a l e o f l a n d . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the b l o c k by b l o c k v a r i a t i o n s i n land c o s t s and o f the ext e n d e d sequences o f s a l e s p r i o r t o house c o n s t r u c t i o n have not been g a t h e r e d t o t h i s p o i n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , whether l a n d owners were e s s e n t i a l l y e n h a n c i n g o r c o n s t r a i n i n g t he i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c c e s s t o l a n d and home remains unanswered. That t h e r e were few tenements and many homes s u g g e s t s they were e n h a n c i n g p e o p l e s ' o p p o r t u n i t i e s . W i t h i n the c i t y ' . s boom and bust economy, s p e c u l a t o r s might w e l l have been g r e a t e r c a s u a l t i e s than the f a m i l y man a s p i r i n g t o own and then s t a y put on a s i n g l e l o t . From most a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r l a n d , as f o r l a t e r h o u s i n g i n s t a l l m e n t payments s p r e a d o v e r two o r t h r e e y e a r s were o f f e r e d as the a l t e r n a t i v e t o cash s a l e s . W h i l e l a n d c o s t s i n say T o r o n t o o r S a i n t John might not be f a i r l y compared t o Vancouver, the comparison o f average e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d s k i l l s i n t h e s e t h r e e c i t i e s ( T a b l e 4 ) does s u g g e s t t h a t in':the p e r i o d o f main m i g r a t i o n t o Vancouver, a Vancouver wo r k e r was || a f a r s t r o n g e r p o s i t i o n t o a v a i l h i m s e l f o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l a n d . The w o r k i n g s o f the r e a l e s t a t e market as i t a p p l i e s t o home pu r c h a s e w i l l be examined i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . Here the i n t e n t i s t o d i s c u s s the key a c t o r s and p r a c t i c e s i n l a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , c o r p o r a t e and i n d i v i d u a l , as they shed l i g h t on the b r o a d e r urban c u l t u r a l TABLE 4 a) AVERAGE EARNINGS, SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, 1911 6 1921 VANCOUVER SAINT JOHN TORONTO 1 911 . 1 9 2 1 1911 1921 1911 1921 Baker 927 1323 506 1065 649 1280 B r i c k l a y e r 973 1015 518 972 748 1142 C a r p e n t e r 914 1116 512 864 666 1187 C h a u f f e u r 955 1154 - 863 723 1084 Domestic 868 1087 482 910 6 0 9 1099 E l e c t r i c i a n 1022 1453 648 1120 785 1341 L a b o u r e r 629 898 390 730 512 9 6 5 Pa i n t e r 857 1097 486 841 6 2 5 1106 PI umber 963 1089 566 996 724 1275 T r a i nsman 1213 1830 746 1563 911 1813 S t r e e t R a i l w a y 8 9 5 1504 618 1234 667 1363 Sa1esman 1022 1477 6 9 2 1254 842 1507 (p.xx) b) DISTRIBUTION OF EARNINGS OF HEAD OF FAMILY ACCORDING TO, NUMBER OF PERSONS PER FAMILY SUPPORTED ( i n c i t i e s o f o v e r 30,000 people) 1911 1921 CITY RANK $ per p e r s o n RANK $ per p e r s o n from head from head VANCOUVER 1 338 5 416 VICTORIA 2 296 10 376 CALGARY 3 285 6 415 WINNIPEG 4 269 3 442 EDMONTON 5 267 8 396 REG 1NA 6 255 2 446 TORONTO 7 226 4 426 OTTAWA 8 223 6 415 WINDSOR 8 223 1 451 HAMILTON 10 202 9 388 LONDON 11 198 7 409 MONTREAL 12 184 12 313 QUEBEC 13 157 14 282 SAINT JOHN 14 147 13 295 HALIFAX 14 147 11 324 S o u r c e : Census o f Canada 1911 ,1921 ,(p.xxv) 6 2 l a n d s c a p e t h a t i s the c e n t r a l f o c u s o f t h i s work. 3 ( i ) The Shaping o f Vancouver's C a d a s t r e Vancouver's c a d a s t r a l p a t t e r n has components d a t i n g from the l a t t e r t h i r d o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , but the m a j o r i t y o f u n i t s r e f l e c t t he r e -a p p r a i s a l and r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f land a f t e r the a r r i v a l o f the C.P.R. Throughout e a r l y Vancouver, the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f some 2 8 0 D i s t r i c t L ot land p a r c e l s i n t o h o me-sites and commercial o r i n d u s t r i a l uses was the consequence o f a c t i o n s by s p e c i f i c r e a l e s t a t e companies and r e a l e s t a t e men. The key elements o f Vancouver's pre-C.P.R. c a d a s t r e a r e summarized i n F i g u r e 3 . 1 . From a New W e s t m i n s t e r base, C o l o n e l Moody o f the Royal E n g i n e e r s s u r v e y e d s e v e r a l n a v a l r e s e r v e s : a t the t i p o f the P o i n t Grey P e n i n s u l a , the broad a r e a near J e r i c h o Beach, and the Coal P e n i n s u l a (now S t a n l e y P a r k ) . He a l s o d e l i n e a t e d a r e s e r v e t h a t i s now the h e a r t o f down-town, the G r a n v i l l e T o w n s i t e , s i x D i s t r i c t L o t s , and a 1 5 0 0 a c r e T o w n s i t e o f H a s t i n g s Suburban Lands ( F i g . 1 a ) . ' H a s t i n g s T o w n s i t e ' remained o u t s i d e C i t y o f Vancouver a u t h o r i t y u n t i l annexed i n 1 9 1 1 , but i t s suburban l a b e l i n 1 8 6 5 , i n a p r o v i n c e o f fewer than 9 0 0 0 w h i t e p e o p l e , adumbrated the e v e n t u a l suburban d e n s i t y o f the p e n i n s u l a . T h e r e a f t e r the f i r s t major t r a n s f o r m a t i o n came when C a p t a i n Stamp a c q u i r e d both l a n d and t i m b e r l e a s e s 2 t o s u p p l y H a s t i n g s M i l l ( F i g . 3 . 1 b ) . Most o f some twenty p a r c e l s o f l a n d a l o n g the No r t h Arm o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r ( 1 c ) were f a r m s , 1 6 0 a c r e h o l d i n g s o f s o l d i e r s who r e t i r e d from the E n g i n e e r s o r o f s e t t l e r s who had come t o B.C. d u r i n g t h e g o l d r u s h e s . The l a n d g r a n t g i v e n t o the C.P.R. t o encourage i t s e x t e n s i o n from 64 P o r t Moody a t the head o f the I n l e t was superimposed on t h i s e a r l i e r cad-a s t r e ( i d ) . The G r a n v i l l e T o w n s i t e became D i s t r i c t Lot 541 and, s p a n n i n g most o f the H a s t i n g s M i l l l e a s e s on t h e P e n i n s u l a , the 6000 a c r e D i s t r i c t Lot 526 became the p r o p e r t y o f t h e C.P.R. Much o f the r e m a i n i n g p e n i n s u l a l a n d was r e d i v i d e d and s o l d , l a r g e l y i n response t o the new C.P.R. p r e s e n c e . S e v e r a l s y n d i c a t e s emerged t o t a k e advantage o f the new i n d u s t r i a l s h o r e -l i n e a l o n g B u r r a r d I n l e t and F a l s e Creek. F u r t h e r s o u t h , between the C.P.R.'s Lot 526 and what i s now the boundary w i t h the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Burnaby, lan d t h a t had been i n the H a s t i n g s M i l l t i m b e r l e a s e s were bought up i n P r o v i n c i a l government a u c t i o n s , i n D i s t r i c t Lot p a r c e l s o f 25 a c r e s . To the west o f the C.P.R.'s Lot 526, l a n d under P r o v i h e i a 1'Government owner-s h i p a l s o was a u c t i o n e d o f f , but o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d . F i g u r e 3.2 shows the b o u n d a r i e s and the numbers o f t h e s e v a r i o u s D i s t r i c t L o t s . E a r l y s p e c u l a t i v e a t t e n t i o n f o c u s s e d on two a r e a s , the East End and South Vancouver. The Vancouver Improvement Company, s e t up i n 1886 by D a v i d Oppenheimer (the f i r s t mayor) and C D . Rand ...owns the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l a n d l y i n g i n t h a t s e c t i o n o f the c i t y between W e s t m i n s t e r and Boundary Avenues, c o m p r i s i n g i n a l l about 300 a c r e s . I t i s e l i g i b l y l o c a t e d on h i g h ground, t h i c k l y s e t t l e d , and ranks among the most d e s i r a b l e and v a l u a b l e p r o p e r t y i n Vancouver.3 D e s i r a b l e i n d e e d , f o r i t was c l o s e t o w a t e r f r o n t i n d u s t r y and the C.P.R. f a c i l i t i e s t h a t would soon g e n e r a t e even more i n d u s t r y . Such a l o c a t i o n was a prime a r e a f o r s e l l i n g homes t o w o r k i n g men. W h i l e the s e l l i n g o f s u b d i v i d e d l a n d and the b u i l d i n g o f houses was f o r the most p a r t the a c t i v -i t y o f s e p a r a t e companies, t h e s e f u n c t i o n s o f t e n c o i n c i d e d . The Vancouver Improvement Company was an e a r l y example o f a f i r m F i g . 3 2 C a d a s t r a l U n i t s , C i t y o f Vancouver 66 ...engaged i n e r e c t i n g houses, on l o t s s e l e c t e d by p u r c h a s e r s , on t h e i n s t a l l m e n t p l a n , the system o f payment e x t e n d i n g o v e r a term o f t e n y e a r s . T h i s system has proven a g r e a t s u c c e s s , not o n l y here but i n the p o pulous c i t i e s o f E a s t e r n Canada and t h e S t a t e s , and i s l o o k e d upon as a boon by t h o s e d e s i r o u s o f owning homes and who, u n l e s s such an o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d , would never p o s s e s s one. Many r e s i d e n t s o f t h e x i t y today owe t h e i r p r e s e n t p r o s -perous c o n d i t i o n t o the o p p o r t u n i t y thus g i v e n them by t h e system adopted by t h i s company.4 The a c c u r a c y o f t h i s company's c l a i m cannot be e v a l u a t e d , but t h e i r i n v o l v e -ment i n both the s e l l i n g o f l a n d and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g was a p r a c t i c e f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t companies i n l a t e r l a n d booms. Not a l l the l a n d was s y n d i c a t e c o n t r o l l e d and d e v e l o p e d , however. C D . Rand o f f e r e d e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f D i s t r i c t t o t 264a. E n t i r e b l o c k s were o f f e r e d i n 1889 a t p r i c e s r a n g i n g from $200 t o $700 per b l o c k , w i t h the h i g h e s t p r i c e s a t $1000 per b l o c k . Many o f t h e s e b l o c k s would w a i t t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e the f i r s t t e n t a t i v e c a b i n s (such as t h a t o f John Mason, see C h a p t e r 1) would a p p e a r , and the marketed l a n d would be d e f i n e d by s t r e e t l o t s i n s t e a d o f b l o c k s ; but the i n i t i a l energy o f s p e c u l a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the C.P.R.'s a r r i v a l r i p p l e d w e l l beyond the s m a l l contemporary a r e a o f i n d u s t r y and home s i t e s . To the s o u t h o f t h e s e s y n d i c a t e s , i n d i v i d u a l r e a l e s t a t e magnates a c q u i r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s c l o s e t o t h e I n t e r u r b a n R a i l w a y t o New Westminr'. s t e r . Some e i g h t y r e c t a n g u l a r p a r c e l s o f 20-30 a c r e s were o f f e r e d by government a u c t i o n . As Angus R o b e r t s o n s u g g e s t s i n a map o f South Vancouver owners o f l a n d i n 1895, p r o p e r t y was not i n the hands o f many p e o p l e . West-End based r e a l t o r s such as Home, Douglas and B o d w e l l , p l u s f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t groups such as the Y o r k s h i r e T r u s t o r t h e B r i t i s h and N o r t h American Land Company, c o n t r o l l e d huge a r e a s . In t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p i n the C i t y o f Vancouver p a r a l l e l e d the 67 e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l p r o f i l e s o f H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o o r Northampton, E n g l a n d . The Vancouver World p u b l i s h e d a l i s t o f the 139 B i g g e s t Taxpayers i n 1889 under the r e v e a l i n g h e a d l i n e "Those who own the E a r t h , and Supply Grease f o r the Wheels A c c o r d i n g l y " , and a s u b h e a d i n g , "Our Real E s t a t e i s We l l D i s t r i b u t e d . Only a Few Very Heavy Owners."^ As the a n a l y s i s o f t h i s l i s t s u g g e s t s ( i n T a b l e - 5 ) , some 85% o f the a s s e s s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e a p p a r e n t l y was h e l d by 130 p e o p l e , l e a v i n g the r e m a i n i n g 15% t o the o t h e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 ' p e o p l e . Over 50% o f the l a n d was h e l d by fewer than 20 owners and one owner, the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , a c c o u n t e d f o r 30% o f i t . These f i g u r e s p e r t a i n t o the l e g a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d C i t y o f Vancouver, w h i c h e x t e n d e d o n l y as f a r so u t h as 1 6 t h Avenue, so the mapped o w n e r s h i p o f South Vancouver l a n d i s not i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e t a b u l a t i o n s , nor indeed i s the major s h a r e o f the C.P.R.'s h o l d i n g s i n suburban P o i n t Grey. Most o f the l e a d i n g names were r e a l e s t a t e companies, o r s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e s i n the C.P.R. o r H a s t i n g s S a w m i l l . Comparison o f the l e a d i n g 2§, names f o r 1888 and 1889 shows some s l i g h t d i s p e r s i o n though a g a i n the C.P.R. m a i n t a i n e d i t s 3 0 % , as d i d the g twenty owners who a c c o u n t e d f o r 5 0 % . As the c i t y grew and s t r e e t c a r s made more l a n d m a r k e t a b l e , t h i s e a r l y c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f lan d o w n e r s h i p d i m i n -i s h e d , but i t i s c r i t i c a l t o any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the e a r l y development o f the c i t y . In Vancouver's e a r l y y e a r s , a few l a r g e f i r m s p r o v i d e d a c c e s s t o l a n d t h r o u g h a g g r e s s i v e m a r k e t i n g p r a c t i c e s . The development o f the e a s t e r n s e c t o r o f the p e n i n s u l a was e x t r e m e l y b u s i n e s s l i k e and e f f i c i e n t . Land was f o r s a l e , as d e v e l o p e r s sought immediate g a i n s . I t s a t t r a c t i o n was i t s p r i c e and i t s c o n t i g u i t y t o the e a s t e r n edge o f C.P.R. l a n d and t o the key s t r e e t c a r r o u t e s t h r o u g h South Vancouver. Announcements o f ' l a n d , now on the m arket, a t t h i s p r i c e , h u r r y ' can be t r a c e d f o r s u b d i v i s i o n a f t e r TABLE 5 ^CONCENTRATION OF LAND OWNERSHIP, CITY OF VANCOUVER, 1889 Amount o f assessment No. i n Running ( '000 d o l l a r s ) c a t e g o r y T o t a l P e r c e n t o f No. o f Wea l t h P e o p l e Over one mi 11 i o n $ l(CPR) 1,700,000 30 1 125 and o v e r 4 2 , 3 2 5,000 40 5 100 - 125 2 2,525,000 7 50 - 100 10 3,055,000 50 17 30 - 50 10 3,345,000 60 27 25 - 30 10 3 , 9 5 7,000 37 20 - 25 14 4,140,000 54 15 - 20 24 4,317,000 72 78 10 - 15 35 4,929,000 113 6 - 10 17 5,099,000 85 130 T o t a l assessment f o r 1889 6,005,623 100 10,000 85% o f a s s e s s e d lan d v a l u e s h e l d by 139 owners 15% o f a s s e s s e d l a n d v a l u e s h e l d by 10,000 p e o p l e S o u r c e : Vancouver World,18 8 9 69 s u b d i v i s i o n t h r o u g h t h i s a r e a . Squeezed i n between the C.P.R. l a n d s and a semi-autonomous p r e - e m p t i o n known as D.L. 301 (Edmonds) C.S. Douglas o f f e r e d D.L.'s 628 and 629 e a r l y i n 1 8 9 1 : The f i r m c o n t r o l s and has e x c l u s i v e s a l e o f some o f the most d e s i r a b l e p r o p e r t y i n the c i t y and v i c i n i t y and c o n t r o l s the s a l e o f s e v e r a l n o t a b l e a d d i t i o n s and sub-d i v i s i o n s , n o t a b l e among wh i c h a r e s u b d i v i s i o n s 628 and 629 on Mount P l e a s a n t , b e a u t i f u l l y l o c a t e d , bound on the e a s t by W e s t m i n s t e r Avenue, and on the west by O n t a r i o S t r e e t . 9 E i g h t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , the f i r m o f f e r e d i t s more d i s t a n t South Vancouver h o l d i n g s , and s i m p l y announced: Most v a c a n t l o t s a r e g o i n g f o r s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s . A new s u b d i v i s i o n i n D.L. 709 put on the market t o d a y , and the s a l e s s t a r t e d o f f a t a good r a t e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the e n t i r e a d d i t i o n o f 132 l o t s w i l l be q u i c k l y d i s p o s e d o f . ^ Most owners were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h o p e n i n g up t h e i r own b l o c k s r a t h e r than w i t h more g e n e r a l development. P l a n n e d development might have extended e x i s t i n g r o a d s , sewers and l i g h t i n g e f f i c i e n t l y . I n s t e a d , a somewhat c h a o t i c s t r e e t s c a p e o f roads and houses e v o l v e d . Most D i s t r i c t L o t s were each i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and even s y m m e t r i c a l i n t h e i r s u b - c a d a s t r e y e t r a r e l y a l i g n e d t o t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . One o f the b e s t examples o f the con-sequences o f t h i s c o m p e t i t i v e approach t o l a n d development i s i n C i t y H e i g h t s , ( F i g . 3 - 3 ) where the i n t e r r u p t e d n o r t h - s o u t h f l o w o f Quebec S t r e e t and o f many e a s t - w e s t avenues a c r o s s Main S t r e e t r e f l e c t s o l d c a d a s t r a l b o u n d a r i e s . The 5 0 - f o o t s t r i p o f l a n d o f f e r e d as house l o t s between John S t r e e t and P r i n c e Edward i s perhaps t h e c l e a r e s t example o f the a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f independent s u b d i v i s i o n . Note the w e s t e r n edge o f D.L. 391 where i t a b u t s D.L.'s 6 3 1 , 632 and 6 3 3 . Each d e v e l o p e r sought t o a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s t o h i s own a r e a so t h a t a 70 F i g . 3 . 3 S t r e e t a l i g n m e n t s and D i s t r i c t Lot B o u n d a r i e s , C i t y H e i g h t s 71 c r i t i c a l d e n s i t y would p e r m i t the p r o f i t a b l e i n f i l l i n g o f r e m a i n i n g l o t s . These same a b s e n t e e l a n d l o r d s l o b b i e d s t r e n u o u s l y f o r m u n i c i p a l improve- : ments, the c o s t o f wh i c h was o f t e n beyond the c a p a c i t y o f the a c t u a l r e s i -d e n t s , and was t o provoke a f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n 1 9 2 2 . As one l e a d i n g South Vancouver r a t e p a y e r put i t : South Vancouver b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y a d i s t r i c t o f w o r k i n g p e o p l e , and the m a j o r i t y o f s e t t l e r s b e i n g p o s s e s s e d o f s m a l l c a p i t a l , many were c o m p e l l e d t o b u i l d t h e i r own homes and make the n e c e s s a r y c l e a r i n g and improvements d u r i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e h o u r s . Very few c o u l d s p a r e t i m e from t h e i r d u t i e s , o r even r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o r d t h e i r v o t e o f a p p r o v a l o r d i s -a p p r o v a l o f money by'laws w h i c h were p l a c e d b e f o r e the e l e c t o r a t e from t i m e t o t i m e . I t i s common knowledge, however, t h a t the h o l d e r s o f v a c a n t p r o p e r t y h e l d m o s t l y f o r s p e c u l a t i v e purposes came from a l l p a r t s o f the c i t y and s u r r o u n d i n g m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s t o v o t e i n f a v o u r o f t h e s e by law s , so t h a t they would be a b l e t o a d v e r t i s e the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t would e n a b l e them t o d i s p o s e o f t h e i r h o l d i n g s a t an advanced p r i c e t o incoming s e t t l e r s . ^ A l t h o u g h i t was m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y i n South Vancouver t o adopt the s i n g l e t a x 1 2 system i n an a t t e m p t t o s u p p r e s s the harmful extremes o f l a n d s p e c u l a -t i o n , i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t i t was t h e b e h a v i o u r o f s p e c u l a t i v e c a p i t a l i s t s and not o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y and i t s r e s i d e n t s t h a t caused the r a t h e r c h a o t i c and i n e f f i c i e n t l a n d s c a p e o f South Vancouver. A t t e m p t s t o a s s o c i a t e the l a n d s c a p e o f a w o r k i n g c l a s s South Vancouver w i t h a n a r c h o -1 3 s y n d i c a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s p r e v a l e n t a t the time o v e r l o o k the i n f l u e n c e o f a d i f f e r e n t form o f a n a r c h y . Not a l l the l a n d i n t h i s e a s t e r n s e c t o r was a l i e n a t e d i n the immedi-a t e post-C.P.R. y e a r s t o a b s e n t e e l a n d l o r d s o r t o s y n d i c a t e s . Throughout the a r e a c o u l d be found ' e s t a t e s ' t h a t were a c q u i r e d when the b l o c k - s i z e p a r c e l s o f l a n d were b e i n g o f f e r e d i n the 1890s, and t h a t were used f o r 14 o r c h a r d s , d a i r i e s , b e r r y farms and the l i k e . Many o f t h e s e d a i r y o r f r u i t F i g . 3 . 4 72 B A L M O R A L O R C H A R D on the North Arm Road, S u b d i v i d e d i n t o Large, Generous, S p a c i o u s , Commodious COUNTRY HOMESTEAD LOTS No s m a l l 2 5 , 33 o r 5 0-foot l o t s , But Country Residence S i t e s . Large enough f o r a f i n e Lawn, Large enough f o r spacious- f l o w e r beds Large enough f o r v e g e t a b l e gardens to su p p l y your f a m i l y wa.'.ts f o r a l l demands Large enough f o r s m a l l f r u i t s , such as r a s p b e r r i e s , s t r a w b e r r i e s , as w e l l as o r c h a r d t r e e s . Large enough f o r Beehives. Large enough f o r s p a c i o u s yard room. Large enough f o r horse and cow s t a b l e . Large enough f o r c h i c k e n runs t o keep hens enough t o m a i n t a i n a l a r g e f a m i l y i n eggs and g r o c e r i e s . Large enough f o r a l a r g e house. IN SHORT Large enough to support a f a m i l y and s t i l l not so l a r g e as t o be unweidly f o r a man w o r k i n g i n town. We are aware t h a t we are f i l l i n g a LONG-FELT WANT. You c o u l d not d u p l i c a t e o ur o f f e r as a l l o t h e r o u t l y i n g p r o p e r t i e s are c u t up i n t o 3 3 - f o o t o r even 25 f o o t l o t s , so sma l l t h a t you always know what your neighbour has f o r d i n n e r . What we o f f e r g i v e s your c h i l d r e n the immense advantages o f growing up i n the enjoyment o f c o u n t r y a i r , and s t i l l be w i t h i n EASY REACH OF TOWN about 15 minutes from the c a r , 20 minutes s e r v i c e , Si c a r f a r e . T h i s b e a u t i f u l s u b d i v i s i o n i s l o c a t e d on North Arm road, a l i t t l e l e s s than 1-1/4 m i l e s from the c a r terminus, a s i d e w a l k o n e - h a l f o f the way; a b e a u t i f u l walk on the best road i n the c o u n t r y , j u s t are enough south t o have a SOUTHERN EXPOSURE and c o n s e q u e n t l y e a r l y and l a t e v e g e t a t i o n . W i l l have an u n o b s t r u c t e d view o f the. Guld o f Ge o r g i a and the Coast Range. The PRICE f o r these f i n e homesteads w i l l be w i t h i n the reach o f a l l , from $350 f o r a s i t e , upwards. The TERMS: Terms so easy t h a t anybody can enjoy a c o u n t r y home — o n e - t h i r d cash, and the b a l a n c e a t $7.50 per month. I n t e r e s t a t IX. E v e r y HOMESTEAD on a wide 6 6 - f o o t road, which we w i l l b u i l d and grade, through the p r o p e r t y , and f o r which tenders a r e b e i n g c a l l e d f o r now, THE ALEXANDRA AVENUE, named a f t e r o u r most g r a c i o u s Queen. Of t h i s b e a u t i f u l p r o p e r t y about f i v e a c r e s a r e a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r , and a l a r g e p a r t o f i t i s b e a r i n g f r u i t t r e e s and seeded down to c l o v e r . The r e s t i s a l d e r - b o t t o m , second growth and easy t o c l e a r . On the l a r g e p a r t o f f t you can commence to b u i l d , and la y out your gardens. WE WANT HOME BUILDERS not s p e c u l a t o r s , as ONLY ABOUT THIRTY LOTS are i n t h i s d i v i s i o n , so come e a r l y and secure yours and g i v e your y o u n g s t e r s the chance t o have t h e i r cheeks browned by the Southern a i r s b l o w i n g o v e r the r i p p l i n g w a t ers o f the G u l f and the P a c i f i c Ocean, t h e i r lungs s t r e n g t h e n e d , and t h e i r eyes b r i g h t e n e d . THE BEST AND LARGEST SCHOOL i n the d i s t r i c t i s w i t h i n f i v e minutes walk, and THE CHURCH w i t h i n ten minutes walk o f t h i s p r o p e r t y so i s the POST OFFICE. The e x t e n s i o n o f the s t r e e t c a r past t h i s land i s o n l y a q u e s t i o n o f months. I f the c a r went past today, we c o u l d not o f f e r t h i s p r o p e r t y a t these low p r i c e s , v e r y much lower than a c i t y l o t can be bought f o r Apply GLOBE r e a l e s t a t e , o r Vogel's Ranch, North Arm Road ( h a l f way between Cemetry Car terminus and the Balmoral Orchard) t r a n s c r i p t i o n from P r o v i n c e , June 2 , 1906, p. \k 73 farms s u r v i v e d f o r j u s t one g e n e r a t i o n , and came o n t o t h e market as b u i l d i n g l o t s i n the boom b e f o r e the f i r s t World War. The e s t a b l i s h e d r u r a l v i r t u e s o f the s i t e were s t r o n g l y emphasized i n t h e s a l e s p r o m o t i o n s . The P a c i f i c Land Company, f o r example, o f f e r e d t h e Moses Gibson Homestead ( D i s t r i c t L o t s 7^7 and 749) i n Cedar C o t t a g e : " T h i s p r o p e r t y was crown g r a n t e d t o the p r e s e n t owner 21 y e a r s ago, which g i v e s c l e a r t i t l e . . . i t has been cropped f o r y e a r s . S e v e r a l l o t s a r e c o v e r e d w i t h t h r i v i n g a p p l e t r e e s . T h e o l d Vogel Ranch was marketed as 'Balmoral O r c h a r d 1 (see F i g . 3 . 4 ) . Many o f th e s e farm s u b d i v i s i o n s o f f e r e d l a r g e l o t s and the promis e o f gardens and sma11 o r c h a r d s . On the w e s t e r n f l a n k o f the C.P.R. l a n d g r a n t , the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment p l a c e d l a n d on the market o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e . The v a l u e o f C.P.R. l a n d nearby i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r one e a r l y a u c t i o n when, i n 1 8 8 6 , a l m o s t 130 b l o c k s o f l a n d i n K i t s i l a n o were put on the market ( F i g . 3 . 5 ) . U n l i k e the s m a l l - s c a l e D i s t r i c t L o t s o f f e r e d i n South Vancouver, t h i s r e g i o n was p r e - p l o t t e d w i t h a c e n t r a l a x i s o f Lansdowne Avenue, f l a n k e d by par k r e s e r v e s on B l o c k s 40 and 41. T h i s n o r t h - s o u t h o r i e n t a t i o n b e l i e d t he r e a l g e o g r a p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , one t h a t i s seen i n A u c t i o n e e r D a v i s ' s a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f the p r o p e r t y as " a d j a c e n t t o the land g r a n t e d t o the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y f o r T e r m i n a l P u r p o s e s " . ^ As the a d v e r t i s e m e n t emphasized, one o f the i m p o r t a n t r o u t e s was " F i r s t Avenue t o Connect w i t h C.P.R. Avenue". For a l l the symmetry o f t h i s s u r v e y , p u r c h a s -e r s t r e a t e d l o t s as p e r s o n a l s p e c u l a t i o n s . Land R e g i s t r a r Townley's pur-chases w i t h i n the a r e a a r e a good example. He b i d on c o r n e r l o t s w i t h i n the a r e a , t h e i r l o c a t i o n s c o n d i t i o n e d l e s s by the government's p l a n s f o r avenues and p a r k s than by h i s own sense o f prime s i t e s r e l a t i v e t o beach, C.P.R. , . . . . 17 p r o p e r t y and c 1 t y .l.im 1 ts... l i s i \ 3 U r JLs i . B A T P L A N T O B £ S O L O A T V I C T O R I A , MV PUHLIC .AUCTION' M O N D A Y , J A N U A R Y . 1 8 T H . 1 0 8 6 . jr.p. d a v h K S & o o , AUC'IONttPB. ISO v 121 V r ' 8 < 79 V 8 0 V V 7 i | 90 1 * V R t S E R V t 82 Y T i i p o 1 102 V RtSLRVE . | . i ' • -! „ ! V 1 i 113 V 1 1 IM- ! ! • * i ,22 v • 123 1 1 v i ! * i 1 i i v 6 3 IIS V " > 116 t 126 F i g . 3 . 5 P r o v i n c i a l Government Land A u c t i o n , K i t s i l a n o , 1886 75 W i t h the p r i o r a l i e n a t i o n o f the J e r i c h o Naval R e s e r v e , the farm l o t s a l o n g the F r a s e r R i v e r , and, a f t e r 1909, the Endowment Lands o f the U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , la n d west o f the C.P.R.'s g r a n t was o n l y r e a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n an L-shaped zone l a b e l l e d as D i s t r i c t L o t s 540, 2027 and 137 (see F i g . 3.2, p. 6 5 ) . Most o f t h i s l a n d was a u c t i o n e d o f f w i t h i n the f i r s t decade o f t h i s c e n t u r y , but w i t h i n p r e - s u r v e y e d b l o c k s t h a t r e i n f o r c e d a u n i f o r m g r i d - s y s t e m . Only a t the b o u n d a r i e s between t h e s e D i s t r i c t L o t s and the C.P.R.'s D.L. 526 a r e t h e r e s t r e e t j o g s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e found t h r o u g h l a r g e a r e a s o f South Vancouver. But as i n South Vancouver, a s m a l l number o f r e a l e s t a t e i n t e r e s t s were i n v o l v e d . C o n s i d e r a b l e debate was g e n e r a t e d as t o the o p t i m a l s i z e and n a t u r e o f l a n d p a r c e l s w i t h i n t h i s w e s t e r n Government R e s e r v e . Some f a v o u r e d the p l a t t i n g i n t o 3 t o 4 a c r e p a r c e l s f o r homesteading, o t h e r s i n s i s t e d t h a t as t h e s o i l was poor the l a n d s h o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l l o t s . A c c o r d i n g t o one a c c o u n t a n t , l a n d s c a p i n g o f roads and s u b d i v i s i o n s , t o t a k e advantage o f topography and v i e w s , would y i e l d $11 m i l l i o n i n s a l e s . Most agreed t h a t the development s h o u l d be t o t a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l , i t s q u a l i t y enhanced by the p r e p a r a t o r y work b e i n g c a r r i e d out by P u b l i c Works. The p r e s i d e n t o f the P o i n t Grey Improvement S o c i e t y , C M . Woodsworth, was g l e e f u l about the s p l e n d i d prospects' f o r h i s a r e a : Large p a r c e l s o f l a n d a r e t o be s o l d , p r o v i d i n g l a r g e s e t t i n g s f o r homes, w i t h i n one o f the g r e a t p a r k s o f the c o n t i n e n t . 4000 a c r e s o f government la n d s r e m a i n , t h e s e t o be s u r v e y e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government's l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t , whose specimens o f work i n suburbs o f l a r g e c i t i e s i n the e a s t f o r s e e s b e a u t i f u l d r i v e w a y s i n the new B e l g r a v i a f o r Vancouver. T h i s emphasis on e x c l u s i v e n e s s t h r o u g h morphology e x c i t e d r e a l e s t a t e l o b b y i s t s , but saddened o t h e r s . An anonymous o l d - t i m e r e s i d e n t o b s e r v e d : 76 I am c o n v i n c e d t h e r e i s a scheme on f o o t by a c e r t a i n c l a s s i n the c i t y t o make t h e s e l a n d s t h e i r e x c l u s i v e r e s e r v e by i n d u c i n g the Government t o have them p l a c e d on the market i n such a way as t o bar out the w o r k i n g c l a s s v i z . 1) By h a v i n