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The opinions of the adult deaf community towards methods of communication in the education of deaf children Stewart, David Alan 1982

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THE OPINIONS OF THE ADULT DEAF COMMUNITY TOWARDS METHODS OF COMMUNICATION IN THE EDUCATION OF DEAF CHILDREN by DAVID ALAN STEWART B . S C , SIMON FRASER UN IVERS ITY , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULF ILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t Of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y And S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERS ITY OF BR IT ISH COLUMBIA November 1982 © D a v i d A l a n S t e w a r t , 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y And S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e : 15 S e p t e m b e r 1982 i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o s u r v e y t h e a d u l t Dea f and document t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s on a p p r o p r i a t e me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t me thods were b e i n g u s e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f . S i g n l a n g u a g e i s one o f t h e me thods t h a t i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g u s e d a s a means f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . H o w e v e r , i t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e u t i l i z e d by t h e Dea f w i t h i n t h e Dea f commun i t y i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m s i g n s b e i n g u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n p u t f r o m t h e Dea f commun i t y i s no t a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g how s i g n s a r e t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f r amework o f o u r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . T h e s e f i n d i n g s gave d i r e c t i o n s f o r a s u r v e y o f t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d , p i l o t - t e s t e d , and t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 162 Dea f a d u l t s i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . The q u e s t i o n s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h v i e w p o i n t s on s i g n l a n g u a g e and i t s r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d e a f c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e c o m p a r a t i v e r o l e s o f Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s . D a t a a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h e o v e r a l l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e Dea f commun i t y o f d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The c o n s e n s u s o f t h e Dea f was t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be l e a r n e d a t an e a r l y age and b e f o r e s p e e c h ; l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be a c q u i r e d b i l i n g u a l l y w i t h Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s f o r m i n g the b a s i s i i i o f t h e two l a n g u a g e s ; and d e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be a b l e t o o b t a i n a b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n and have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be a b l e t o c o n v e r s e i n e i t h e r l a n g u a g e w i t h t e a c h e r s o f t h e D e a f . F i n a l l y , members o f t h e D e a f commun i t y s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s i n e d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f . i v T A B L E OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES Y i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 7 DEF IN IT ION OF TERMS 8 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE L ITERATURE 11 SIGN LANGUAGE 12 SIGN SYSTEMS 24 Page t-Gorman S i g n S y s t e m (PGSS) 29 S e e i n g E s s e n t i a l E n g l i s h (SEE I) 31 S i g n i n g E x a c t E n g l i s h (SEE I I ) 32 L i n g u i s t i c o f V i s u a l E n g l i s h (LOVE) 34 M a n u a l E n g l i s h (ME) ' . . . . 3 4 S i g n e d E n g l i s h (SE) 35 EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND SIGN LANGUAGE 38 B IL INGUAL EDUCATION ' 47 PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF SIGN LANGUAGE 56 TELEV I S ION CAPTIONING 64 CHAPTER I I I : RESEARCH DESIGN 71 DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT 7 2 A . B a c k g r o u n d 72 B. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 72 C . P i l o t T e s t 74 PROCEDURE 7 4 V A . Sample S e l e c t i o n 74 B. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 75 C . D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n 78 D. D a t a A n a l y s i s 78 CHAPTER I V : RESULTS 81 PART 1: POPULATION CHARACTER IST ICS 82 Age 82 G e n d e r 82 O n s e t o f d e a f n e s s 82 H e a r i n g a i d u s a g e 84 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m f i r s t l e a r n e d 84 Age l e a r n e d t o s i g n 84 V o i c e w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e 84 D o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e . . . . 8 5 S o c i a l - c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s h i p 85 C a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n 86 EXPECTATIONS OF METHODS OF COMMUNICATION FOR CHILDREN 89 S i g n l a n g u a g e a s a me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n 89 B e n e f i t o f a b i l i n g u a l k n o w l e d g e o f s i g n s . i 90 P r o p e r s i g n s f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r s 91 I n v o l v e m e n t o f Dea f p e o p l e i n d e c i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n 94 CROSSTABULATIONS AND CHI-SQUARES 95 Age 95 G e n d e r 96 O n s e t o f d e a f n e s s 97 H e a r i n g a i d u sage 97 v i Age l e a r n e d t o s i g n 98 Use o f v o i c e w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 S o c i a l g r o u p p r e f e r e n c e 99 C o m m u n i c a t i o n f i r s t l e a r n e d 100 Dea f commun i t y m e m b e r s h i p 101 D o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e 102 D e c o d e r 102 P r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n e d o r i n t e r p r e t e d news 102 U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n 103 PART 2': METHODS OF COMMUNICATION 104" M e t h o d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r e s e n t l y u s e d 105 P r e f e r e n c e f o r me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n 107 CROSSTABULATIONS AND CHI-SQUARE 110 T y p e o f s i g n i n g t o be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d 110. T ime a t w h i c h a d e a f c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n . . . . . 1 1 2 F r e q u e n c y o f u se o f Dea f s i g n s w i t h a t e a c h e r 113 F r e q u e n c y o f use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h a t e a c h e r . . . . 1 1 4 F r e q u e n c y o f u se o f Dea f s i g n s w i t h a c h i l d 115 F r e q u e n c y o f use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h a c h i l d 115 CHAPTER V : DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 118 S i g n L a n g u a g e as a M e t h o d o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n 119 S i g n s t o be I n i t i a l l y A c q u i r e d 120 Age t o S t a r t S i g n i n g 124 B e n e f i t o f a B i l i n g u a l Know l edge o f S i g n s 128 P r o p e r S i g n s f o r Dea f C h i l d r e n 128 P r o p e r S i g n s f o r T e a c h e r s 130 Dea f S i g n s f o r T e a c h e r s o f t h e Dea f 134 v i i I n v o l v e m e n t o f Dea f P e o p l e i n D e c i d i n g E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s f o r D e a f C h i l d r e n . . . . . 1 3 6 C a p t i o n e d T e l e v i s i o n . . . 1 3 9 CHAPTER V I : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPL ICAT IONS , L IM ITAT IONS , AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 141 Summary 141 C o n c l u s i o n s 145 I m p l i c a t i o n s 149 L i m i t a t i o n s 153 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 154' REFERENCES • 157 A p p e n d i x A 178 A p p e n d i x B 188 A p p e n d i x C 202 v i i i LIST OF TABLES 1. Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F i n a l S a m p l e . . . . . . . . 83 2. P r e f e r e n c e f o r S o c i a l Group and Community Membership . . 8 5 3. C a p t i o n e d T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i s t i c s 87 4. O p i n i o n s on Method of Communication 89 5. B i l i n g u a l A c q u i s i t i o n o f S i g n s 91 6. S igns t o be Used by the S tudents and Teachers 9 2 7. Deaf Involvement i n E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s 94 8. Method of Communication P r e s e n t l y Used 10 6 9. Method of Communication P r e f e r r e d to U s e . . . . . 108 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s t h e s i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f i n p u t a n d s u p p o r t f r o m many i n d i v i d u a l s . I w o u l d l i k e t o g i v e s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my p r i m a r y a d v i s o r D r . B r y a n C l a r k e whose w isdom p r o v i d e d me w i t h a p e r s o n a l ' c r i s i s c e n t e r ' t o whom I o f t e n r e s o r t e d . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e o t h e r members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , D r . P e r r y L e s l i e and D r . T o d d R o g e r s , f o r t h e s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e t h a t k e p t me on t h e r i g h t t r a c k . I s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d t h e e f f o r t s and s u p p o r t g i v e n t o me by t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e Dea f and e s p e c i a l l y by t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . F u r t h e r t h a n k s i s e x t e n d e d t o a l l t h o s e members o f t he V a n c o u v e r Dea f commun i t y who w i l l i n g l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s u r v e y and whose v e r y e x i s t e n c e i s t h e h e a r t o f t h i s d o c u m e n t . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k M a r g a r e t B a s k e t t e f o r h e r m o r a l s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e and B e t t y I f e f o r h e r t y p i n g and c o m m e n t s . Many t h a n k s t o my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s who h e l p e d e a s e t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s and e x t e n d t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t were a p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e c t . T h a n k s t o my s i s t e r s , D i a n e and S h e r r y , f o r t h e i r comments and t y p i n g . F i n a l l y , a s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my f r i e n d M a r i a n n e f o r h e r comments , t y p i n g , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 1 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION E d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f i s c u r r e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f c h a n g e s i n m e t h o d o l o g y t h a t were i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g t h e l a t e s i x t i e s and a r e s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . The two m a j o r c h a n g e s t h a t have o c c u r r e d a r e t h e t r e n d away f r o m an o r a l a p p r o a c h t o w a r d s t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f s i g n s y s t e m s f o r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n ( J o r d a n , G u s t a s o n , and R o s e n , 1 9 7 9 ) . A l t h o u g h , b o t h a r e no t h i s t o r i c a l l y new c o n c e p t s t h e y do r e p r e s e n t an a r e a o f p r o f o u n d p o t e n t i a l . B o t h c h a n g e s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d and t h e i r i m p a c t i s u l t i m a t e l y d e p e n d e n t upon t h e r o l e s i g n l a n g u a g e w i l l p l a y i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . T h u s , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s i g n l a n g u a g e must p r e c e d e an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e ou tcome o f t h e t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a p p r o a c h and t h e v a l u e o f s i g n s y s t e m s . S i g n l a n g u a g e i s a v i s u a l f o r m o f l a n g u a g e t h a t h a s been d e v e l o p e d and u t i l i z e d by t h e Dea f f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ( S t o k o e , 1 9 8 1 ) . The a c t u a l e x p r e s s i o n o f s i g n l a n g u a g e i s a c commoda ted by a f o r m o f manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h i s i n v o l v e s movements o f t h e h a n d s , f i n g e r s , b o d y , and f a c i a l f e a t u r e s w h i c h a l l o w t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f l a n g u a g e . S y m b o l s , f o r m e d by t h e h a n d s , a r e c a l l e d s i g n s and a r e a n a l o g o u s t o t h e words and p h r a s e s o f a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . Due t o t h e v i s u a l a s p e c t s o f r e c e p t i o n and the a r t i c u l a t o r y d y n a m i c s o f manua l movemen t s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i g n l a n g u a g e has i n c o r p o r a t e d 2 t h e s e f e a t u r e s i n t o a g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s u n i q u e and d i s t i n c t f r o m c o u n t e r p a r t s w i t h i n t h e f r amework o f s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s ( S t o k o e , 1 9 8 1 ) . A d e a f p e r s o n c a n be d e f i n e d a s a p e r s o n "whose h e a r i n g i s d i s a b l e d t o t h e e x t e n t . . . t h a t p r e c l u d e s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s p e e c h t h r o u g h t h e e a r a l o n e , w i t h o u t o r w i t h t h e use o f a h e a r i n g a i d " ( M o o r e s , 1 9 7 8 a , p . 5 ) . S i n c e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s a r e a u d i t o r a l l y d e p e n d e n t t h e n a t u r e and d e g r e e o f a h e a r i n g l o s s w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . H e n c e , f o r a c o n g e n i t a l l y d e a f c h i l d t h e r e i s o f t e n a d i r e c t c a u s e a n d e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween h i s own d e a f n e s s and h i s a b i l i t y t o speak and c o m p r e h e n d a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . To c o m p r e h e n d s p e e c h d e a f c h i l d r e n o f t e n w i l l have t o d e p e n d upon s p e e c h r e a d i n g i n t h e a b s e n c e o f o t h e r v i s u a l c u e s . A s t u d y by C o n r a d (1979) showed t h a t t h e a v e r a g e d e a f s c h o o l l e a v e r s had s p e e c h r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s t h a t were no b e t t e r t h a n t h e i r a v e r a g e h e a r i n g p e e r s . F u r t h (1966) c a l c u l a t e d t h a t amongs t d e a f a d u l t s o n l y 12 p e r c e n t were l i n g u i s t i c a l l y a d e p t i n a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e and a mere f o u r p e r c e n t were s k i l l f u l s p e e c h r e a d e r s o r s p e a k e r s . F u r t h e r , i t has been shown t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y have a low l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y ( W r i g h t s t o n e e t . a l . , 1963 ; M c C l u r e , 1966 ; B o a t n e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . T h e s e s t u d i e s show t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g o f a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e t h r o u g h the use o f s p e e c h and a u d i t i o n i s a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r m o r e , B r i l l (1969) i n a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d on t h e a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o f d e a f c h i l d r e n c o n c l u d e d 3 t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n a t a young age i s more f e a s i b l e when a d e a f c h i l d i s e x p o s e d t o s i g n s and i s n o t l i m i t e d t o E n g l i s h . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e n t h a t f o r many d e a f i n d i v i d u a l s s i g n l a n g u a g e i s t h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e t o be l e a r n e d . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f s i g n l a n g u a g e i s t h a t i t has a c u l t u r a l e n t i t y (Cha r row and W i l b u r , 1 9 7 5 ) . Due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n v e r s i n g o r a l l y many Dea f p e o p l e g r a v i t a t e t o w a r d s t h e Dea f commun i t y m a i n l y f o r t h e e a s e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h i t o f f e r s ( J a c o b s , 1974a , 1 9 7 4 b ) . S i g n l a n g u a g e a l l o w s i t s u s e r s t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o t h i s c o m m u n i t y . T h r o u g h s i g n i n g t h e s e g r o u p members a r e a b l e t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c u l i a r t o a commun i t y bound by d e a f n e s s and t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t h i s e n t a i l s . S i g n l a n g u a g e , c u l t u r e , and t h e D e a f commun i t y a r e t h r e e s o c i a l phenomena t h a t a r e n u r t u r e d by t h e need t o f u l f i l l t h o s e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s u n i q u e t o p e o p l e who c a n n o t h e a r ( J a c o b s , 1974a , 1974b ; B a k e r and P a d d e n , 1978 ; K a n n a p e l l , 1 9 8 2 ) . On t h e o b v e r s e s i d e o f t h e c o i n , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o i n c u l c a t e a p p r o v e d s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r s i n t o s o c i e t y ' s y o u t h ( B u r r e l l o and S a g e , 1 9 7 9 ) . They draw upon t h e m o r e s , b e l i e f s , and v a l u e s o f t h e d o m i n a n t c u l t u r e t o e n s u r e t h a t a u n i f o r m s t r a t e g y i s a p p l i e d i n a l l s c h o o l s . T e a c h e r s a r e c a s t a s r o l e m o d e l s u p h o l d i n g t h e c u l t u r a l i n g r e d i e n t s w h i c h i d e n t i f y t h e commun i t y i n w h i c h t h e y r e s i d e . T h e i r l a n g u a g e i s a c c e p t a b l e b o t h t o p a r e n t s and o t h e r c i t i z e n s . As a n o t h e r 4 m i n o r i t y g r o u p , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a t t e m p t s a r e made t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e D e a f t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e i n t o t h e d o m i n a n t H e a r i n g s o c i e t y . G e n e r a l l y e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s do n o t a l l o w d e a f c h i l d r e n f u l l o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e s i g n l a n g u a g e a s a p a r t o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , s i g n s y s t e m s a r e u t i l i z e d a s a t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y i n many p r o g r a m s ( J o r d a n e t . a l . , 1979) bu t t h e s e s y s t e m s a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d w i t h i n t h e Dea f commun i t y ( E r t i n g , 1978 ; K a n n a p e l l , 1 9 8 2 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a d e a f c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n i s l a r g e l y b a s e d on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e H e a r i n g w o r l d . T h i s p o i n t becomes c r i t i c a l when v i e w e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r e s e n t c h a n g e s i n e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Dea f w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n g u a g e u s a g e . T o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y i n e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Dea f as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o o r a l i s m . Whereas o r a l i s m f o c u s e d on a s p e c t s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s u c h as l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , s p e e c h , and s p e e c h r e a d i n g , t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n c o m b i n e d t h e o r a l a p p r o a c h w i t h o t h e r v i s u a l a s p e c t s . I n d e e d , s i g n i n g was v i e w e d as b o t h an a d j u n c t t o and an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a p p r o a c h . In a d h e r i n g t o t h e t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a p p r o a c h e d u c a t o r s had t o d e t e r m i n e a method o f s i g n i n g a s a s t a n d a r d f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . H e r e , t h e c h o i c e s were e i t h e r t o a d o p t t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e u s e d by t h e Dea f or t o u t i l i z e one o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s i g n s y s t e m s . E s s e n t i a l l y s i g n s y s t e m s r e f e r t o s i g n i n g i n a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e word o r d e r . T h u s , u n l i k e a s i g n 5 l a n g u a g e s u c h a s A m e r i c a n S i g n L anguage w h i c h h a s a g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m E n g l i s h ( S t o k o e , 1 9 6 0 ) , s i g n s y s t e m s f o l l o w t h e grammar o f a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . In o t h e r w o r d s , s i g n s y s t e m s v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t t h e a u d i t o r a l l y b a s e d l a n g u a g e , and a s s u c h t h e y a r e n o t r e g a r d e d a s l a n g u a g e s p e r se ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 3 ; W i l b u r , 1 9 7 9 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , due t o t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s s i g n s y s t e m s were c h o s e n as t h e p r o p e r means o f s i g n i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . F rom t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g t h e r e have been d o u b t s as t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s c h o i c e (Woodward , 1 9 7 3 a ; B a t t i s o n , 1974; S t o k o e , 1975 ; S t e v e n s , 1976 ; K l u w i n , 1 9 8 1 b ) . B r i e f l y , t h e o v e r - r i d i n g c o n c e r n o f many e d u c a t o r s , l i n g u i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s a l i k e has been t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f u t i l i z i n g a v i s u a l mode t o r e p r e s e n t an a u d i t o r a l l y b a s e d l a n g u a g e . H o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e Dea f i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e n d o r s e d t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n (Pahz and P a h z , 1 9 7 8 ) , t h e r e was no s i m i l a r s u p p o r t g i v e n t o t h e u s e o f a s i g n s y s t e m as a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . To r e i t e r a t e , s i g n l a n g u a g e i s u s e d by t h e s i g n i n g Dea f as t h e i r p r i m a r y means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( K a n n a p e l l , 1 9 8 2 ) . U n t i l t h e l a t e s i x t i e s , s i g n i n g had no t seen much use a s a method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t he e d u c a t i o n o f t he Dea f ( V e r n o n and Makowsky , 1969). W i t h t h e r e - e m e r g e n c e o f s i g n i n g as p a r t o f an a p p r o p r i a t e method i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t s i g n s y s t e m s w i t h an a u d i t o r y l a n g u a g e b a s e d grammar were more d e s i r a b l e f o r 6 c l a s s r o o m use t h a n s i g n l a n g u a g e . S u f f i c i e n t d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e o f Dea f a d u l t s t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f s i g n s y s t e m s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n c a n n o t be f o u n d . T h i s i s i r o n i c c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t Dea f a d u l t s a r e t h e p r i m a r y c o n s u m e r s and a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f o u r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The v i e w s o f Dea f a d u l t s r e g a r d i n g me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a r e w o r t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g ; t h e r e s u l t s c o u l d a s s i s t i n t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i g n i n g w i t h i n s c h o o l s and p r o g r a m s f o r t h e D e a f . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and p r e s e n t day e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s i g n i n g i n t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o know t h e mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e Dea f commun i t y f e e l s a d e a f c h i l d s h o u l d , u se t o a c q u i r e l a n g u a g e , t h e l a n g u a g e a c h i l d s h o u l d use f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , and t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t s h o u l d e x i s t be tween d e a f s t u d e n t s and t h e i r t e a c h e r s . 7 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM C e n t r a l t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were t h e v i e w s o f t h e a d u l t Dea f commun i t y p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s e d i n t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s i g n l a n g u a g e u s e d by Dea f a d u l t s (Dea f s i g n s ) - o r s i g n s y s t e m s ( E n g l i s h s i g n s ) w o u l d be c h o s e n by Dea f a d u l t s a s b e i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f d e a f s c h o o l aged ' c h i l d r e n . The d o m i n a n t q u e s t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t e d were as f o l l o w s : Do t h e v i e w s o f D e a f a d u l t s s u p p o r t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f E n g l i s h s i g n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ? How do Dea f a d u l t s see t h e r o l e s , r e l a t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r , o f Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s ' i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d e a f c h i l d ? A d d i t i o n a l l y , f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l v i e w p o i n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , what i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e f e r r e d method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and the me thod s/he s u g g e s t e d f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n ? What d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a r e r e l a t e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t e d p r e f e r e n c e ? I s c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n e x e r t i n g an i n f l u e n c e on o n e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s ? I s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e Dea f commun i t y r e l a t e d t o o n e ' s o p i n i o n ? I t was h o p e d t h a t a n s w e r s t o t h e s e and o t h e r r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s w o u l d p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e v i e w s o f t h e a d u l t Deaf commun i t y on me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e r e b y e n h a n c i n g our know l edge a b o u t t he a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f s i g n l a n g u a g e . 8 DEF IN IT ION OF TERMS A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e : i s a v i s u a l - g e s t u r a l l a n g u a g e c r e a t e d by d e a f p e o p l e ( Bake r and C o k e l y , 1 9 8 0 ) , and i s u s e d m o s t l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a . Known a l s o a s ASL o r A m e s l a n , i t i s t he most w i d e l y s t u d i e d s i g n l a n g u a g e and t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s d o c u m e n t . An i n d e p t h d e s c r i p t i o n o f ASL i s g i v e n i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e 1 i t e r a t u r e . Dea f c o m m u n i t y : c o n s i s t s o f a g r o u p o f p e o p l e s h a r i n g s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , s i g n l a n g u a g e , and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s d e a f n e s s . A l t h o u g h l a r g e l y composed o f Dea f p e o p l e , h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s may a l s o b e l o n g t o t h i s c o m m u n i t y . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s must meet t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a a s s t a t e d by H i g g i n s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , " ( 1 ) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t he Dea f w o r l d , (2) s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t comes o f b e i n g h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , and (3) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s . " ( p . 38) Dea f c u l t u r e : i s a r e f e r e n c e t o a g r o u p o f a c t i v i t i e s and a s e t o f l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h o s e Dea f p e o p l e who use s i g n l a n g u a g e as t h e i r p r i m a r y means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Members o f t h e Dea f c u l t u r e " b e h a v e as Dea f p e o p l e d o , use t h e l a n g u a g e o f Dea f p e o p l e , and s h a r e t h e b e l i e f s o f Dea f p e o p l e t o w a r d s t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r p e o p l e who a r e no t D e a f " ( P a d d e n , 1980 , p . 9 3 ) . 9 Dea f p e r s o n : " o n e whose h e a r i n g i s d i s a b l e d t o an e x t e n t . . . t h a t p r e c l u d e s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s p e e c h t h r o u g h t h e e a r a l o n e , w i t h o u t o r w i t h t h e use o f a h e a r i n g a i d " ( M o o r e s , 1978 , p . 5 ) . D e a f s i g n s : i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y , r e f e r s t o t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e u s e d by t h e Dea f a d u l t s w i t h i n t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . The use o f t h i s t e r m i n p l a c e o f a more f o r m a l d e s i g n a t i o n s u c h a s A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e , i s due t o t h e g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y o f Dea f a d u l t s a s t o t h e m e a n i n g and i n t e n t o f t h e f o r m e r e x p r e s s i o n . E n g l i s h s i g n s : r e f e r s t o a me thod o f s i g n i n g t h a t has s i g n s e x p r e s s e d i n E n g l i s h word o r d e r . H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g : " o n e whose h e a r i n g i s d i s a b l e d t o an e x t e n t . . . t h a t makes d i f f i c u l t , b u t d o e s no t p r e c l u d e , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s p e e c h t h r o u g h t h e e a r a l o n e , w i t h o u t o r w i t h a h e a r i n g a i d " ( M o o r e s , 1978 , p. 5 ) . H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d : a c a t e g o r i c a l t e r m t h a t e n c o m p a s s e s b o t h t h e Dea f and t h e H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g . T h a t i s , i t c a n be u s e d t o r e f e r t o a n y o n e w i t h a h e a r i n g l o s s . T o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : an a p p r o a c h i n e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Dea f t h a t u s e s b o t h v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y c u e s t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n . S i g n l a n g u a g e : r e f e r s t o a me thod o f manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t i s u s e d by t h e D e a f . I t i s a l a n g u a g e t h a t has u n d e r g o n e e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d upon i t s f u n c t i o n a l b e n e f i t s as a 10 means f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S i g n s y s t e m : i s one o f a number o f me thods o f manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I t r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a me thod o f s i g n i n g t h a t has been d e v e l o p e d a s a means o f r e p r e s e n t i n g a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . I t s grammar i s l i k e w i s e b a s e d upon a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . 11 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE L ITERATURE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o s i g n l a n g u a g e and s i g n s y s t e m s . F i r s t , a d e s c r i p t i v e r e v i e w i s g i v e n and t h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an e x a m i n a t i o n o f some o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f s i g n i n g . F i n a l l y , a r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n i s p r e s e n t e d s i n c e i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s a r e a m i g h t a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e use o f s i g n l a n g u a g e a n d / o r s i g n s y s t e m s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . 12 SIGN LANGUAGE F o r a t h o r o u g h c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y i t i s p e r t i n e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e u n i q u e f e a t u r e s o f t h e n a t i v e s i g n l a n g u a g e o f t h e D e a f . Due t o t h e e m p h a s i s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , A m e r i c a n S i g n L anguage (ASL ) i s c h o s e n as b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a n a t i v e s i g n l a n g u a g e w i t h a l l due r e s p e c t t o and a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f t h e c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e s y m b o l i z e d by t h e C a n a d i a n C u l t u r a l S o c i e t y o f t h e D e a f f a v o u r i n g t h e t e r m C a n a d i a n S i g n L a n g u a g e ( L a m b e r t , 1 9 8 1 ) . The i n t e n t h e r e i s t o p r o v i d e an o v e r v i e w o f r e s e a r c h on A S L . F o r an i n d e p t h d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s y n t a x , v o c a b u l a r y and f e a t u r e s o f ASL t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e work o f S t o k o e e t . a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) , S t o k o e ( 1 9 6 0 , 1971 , 1972 , 1976 , 1978 , 1980 , 1 9 8 1 ) , F a n t ( 1 9 7 2 ) , M a r k o w i c z ( 1 9 7 2 ) , F r i e d m a n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , B a k e r and Padden ( 1 9 7 8 ) , W i l b u r ( 1 9 7 9 ) , and K l i m a and B e l l u g i ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A S L , a l s o known as A m e s l a n , i s t h e t h i r d most u s e d l a n g u a g e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( W i l b u r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The p r e s e n t day f o r m o f ASL i s t h o u g h t t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e F r e n c h S i g n L a n g u a g e (FSL ) b r o u g h t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by Thomas G a l l a u d e t a n d L a u r e n t C l e r c i n t h e e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y as a means f o r t e a c h i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n ( S t o k o e , 1971 ; F r i e d m a n , 1977 ; H o e m a n n , 1 9 7 8 ) . Woodward (1978) h o w e v e r , d o e s no t see ASL as a l a n g u a g e d i r e c t l y d e r i v e d f rom F S L , bu t r a t h e r as a c r e o l i z a t i o n o f the FSL s i g n s and w h a t e v e r s i g n s t h a t were a l r e a d y i n use b e f o r e G a l l a u d e t and C l e r c began t h e i r wo rk . 13 At t h i s p o i n t a d i s t i n c t i o n be tween s i g n l a n g u a g e and s i g n s y s t e m s must be made. S i g n s y s t e m s , i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , a r e a r e s u l t o f b o r r o w i n g s i g n s f r o m A S L , c r e a t i n g new ones and u s i n g t h e s e s i g n s i n a g r a m m a t i c a l l y c o r r e c t E n g l i s h word o r d e r . S i g n l a n g u a g e s on t h e o t h e r hand a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s d i s t i n c t l a n g u a g e s w h i c h c o n s i s t o f a grammar and l e x i c o n w h i c h i s u n i q u e i n i t s v i s u a l e m p h a s i s and t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y d y n a m i c c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t a c t upon i t s e x p r e s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n ( F r i e d m a n , 1977 ; W i l b u r , 1979 ; K l i m a a n d B e l l u g i , 1979 ; S t o k o e , 1 9 8 1 ) . In c o n t r a s t , s i g n s y s t e m s c o n f o r m t o t h e grammar o f t h e a u d i t o r y - b a s e d l a n g u a g e and a r e no t c o n s i d e r e d a s e p a r a t e l a n g u a g e ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 3 ) . W i t h i n t h e P e a f commun i t y a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n i s made. H e r e , ASL i s c u l t u r a l l y b a s e d and i s u s e d among n a t i v e and f l u e n t s i g n e r s ( M a r k o w i c z , 1972 ; S t e w a r t , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r o l e ASL has had i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f . S i g n l a n g u a g e was u s e d a s t h e method of c o m m u n i c a t i o n when t h e f i r s t A m e r i c a n p u b l i c S c h o o l f o r t h e Dea f was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1817 ( B e n d e r , 1 9 7 0 ) . F o r t h e n e x t f i f t y y e a r s s i g n l a n g u a g e f l o u r i s h e d and e n j o y e d a r e s p e c t a b l e s t a t u s . Howeve r , w i t h t h e a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , o f t he f i r s t o r a l r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l f o r t h e Dea f i n 1867 , o r a l i s m g r a d u a l l y t o o k o v e r and became t h e o f f i c i a l l y p r e f e r r e d method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n by t h e end o f t he n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (Pahz and P a h z , 1 9 7 8 ) . O r a l i s m , wh i ch i s a means o f t e a c h i n g t h r o u g h t h e use o f r e s i d u a l h e a r i n g and 1 4 l i p r e a d i n g s k i l l s , was p r o m u l g a t e d t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e was " t r e a t e d a s u n s u i t a b l e b e h a v i o u r , s o m e t h i n g t o be ashamed o f o r r e p r e s s e d " ( S t o k o e , 1 9 8 1 , p. x i ) . T h i s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e i s s t i l l a p p a r e n t among t o d a y ' s o r a l i s t s who, l i k e Van Uden ( 1 9 7 0 ) , b e l i e v e t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e i s i n f e r i o r t o t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y and t h a t d e a f p e r s o n s who r e c e i v e no o r a l s u p p o r t " w i l l n e v e r r e a c h h i g h e r c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o d e s t h a n s i g n s and some a t t e m p t s a t l i p r e a d i n g and s p e a k i n g " ( p . 7 5 ) . A l t h o u g h , t h e Dea f have c o n t i n u e d t o use s i g n l a n g u a g e as a means f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and have d e n o u n c e d a t t e m p t s t o d e n i g r a t e t h e i r l a n g u a g e , e d u c a t o r s have been s l ow i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o e x a m i n e s i g n l a n g u a g e a s a p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l t o o l ( E r t i n g , 1 9 8 1 ) . The b a r r i e r t h a t has p r e v e n t e d s i g n l a n g u a g e f r o m b e i n g a c c e p t e d a s an a p p r o p r i a t e mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g c o n s i s t s o f two ma jo r f a l s e p r e m i s e s . One o f t h e s e i s t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e i s no t a l a n g u a g e c o m p a r a b l e w i t h s p o k e n l a n g u a g e ( K a n n a p e l l , 1 9 7 5 a ) . The o t h e r f a l s e p r e m i s e i s t he b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e i s no need t o i n v o l v e t h e D e a f commun i t y i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s and s t r a t e g i e s ( R e e v e s , 1 9 7 5 ) . Ove r t h e p a s t 100 y e a r s t h e s c a n t a t t e n t i o n t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e has r e c e i v e d f rom e d u c a t o r s was e q u a l l y m a t c h e d i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n by members o f t h e Dea f commun i t y who r e c o g n i z e d s i g n l a n g u a g e as t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e and have come t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e . 1 5 s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i t s r o l e i n t h e i r l i v e s (Gagnon , 1 9 8 1 ) . I t i s o n l y w i t h i n t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s t h a t a t t e m p t s have been made by l i n g u i s t s a n d s o c i o l o g i s t s t o g r a n t s i g n l a n g u a g e a s t a t u s on a p a r w i t h s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . T h r o u g h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f A S L , S t o k o e (1960) p r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f A S L . He r e t h e l i n g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f ASL and i t s e x i s t e n c e a s a c u l t u r a l e n t i t y were r e c o g n i z e d : . . . t h e c u l t u r a l s y s t e m w h i c h e m p l o y s c e r t a i n o f t h e v i s i b l e a c t i o n s o f t h e f a c e a n d h a n d s , c o m b i n e s them i n r e c u r r e n t s e q u e n c e s , and a r r a n g e s t h e s e s e q u e n c e s i n t o s y s t e m a t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o e a c h o t h e r and i n r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s ( p . 3 0 ) . S t o k o e ' s work i n t h i s r e g a r d was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s t i m u l a t i n g f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a n d a n a l y s e s . S t o k o e , C a s t e r l i n e and C r o n e b e r g (1976) p u b l i s h e d t h e i r f i r s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i s t o f ASL s i g n s i n t h e " D i c t i o n a r y o f A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e " . A d d i t i o n a l l y , S t o k o e e x a m i n e d t h e p h o n o l o g y , m o r p h o l o g y , s e m o l o g y , s y n t a x , i c o n i c i t y and p h o n e t i c and phonemic n o t a t i o n o f ASL s t r u c t u r e s ( S t o k o e , 1960 , 1970 , 1972 , 1980 , 1 9 8 1 ) . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f s i g n l a n g u a g e p r o v i d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e f o r r e s e a r c h e r s . . . . . . s i g n l a n g u a g e i s q u i t e l i k e E n g l i s h o r any o t h e r l a n g u a g e . I t s e l e m e n t s c o n t r a s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r ( v i s i b l y i n s t e a d o f a u d i b l y ) . They c o m b i n e i n c e r t a i n ways , no t i n o t h e r s . T h e s e c o m b i n a t i o n s , s i g n s , " h a v e m e a n i n g " a s words o r morphemes d o . C o n s t r u c t i o n s c o m b i n i n g s i g n s l i k e c o n s t r u c t i o n s c o m b i n i n g w o r d s , e x p r e s s mean ing more c o m p l e t e l y and c o m p l e x l y t h a n s i n g l e s i g n s o r words c a n . T h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s a r e s y s t e m a t i c r u l e - g o v e r n e d s t r u c t u r e s . But t h e r e i s a u n i q u e s e t o f r u l e s f o r mak ing s i g n l a n g u a g e c o n s t r u c t i o n s j u s t a s t h e r e i s f o r m a k i n g s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h c o n s t r u c t i o n s , n o n - s t a n d a r d 16 E n g l i s h c o n s t r u c t i o n s o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f any l a n g u a g e ( 1 9 8 1 , p . x v ) . In o t h e r words s i g n l a n g u a g e was no l o n g e r r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g p a n t o m i m i c o r i c o n i c i n n a t u r e , a s many l i n g u i s t s and l aymen a l i k e had s u p p o s e d ( B o n v i l l i a n e t . a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , l i n g u i s t s began t o e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e was a c q u i r e d i n a s i m i l a r manner t o s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s . S t u d i e s t o d a t e v e r i f y t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n o f d e a f p a r e n t s ' a c q u i r e ASL ' i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e t h a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n go t h r o u g h a s t h e y a c q u i r e a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e ( S c h l e s i n g e r and Meadow, 1972 ; B e l l u g i and K l i m a , l 9 7 2 ; N a s h , 1 9 7 3 ; M c l n t i r e , 1977 , H o f f m e i s t e r , 1 9 7 8 ; K a n t o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , B e l l u g i and K l i m a (1972) showed t h a t s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s l e a r n e d i n s p o k e n E n g l i s h were a l s o l e a r n e d i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f ASL a c q u i s i t i o n . S c h l e s i n g e r and Meadow (1972) r e v e a l e d two a s p e c t s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r i n b o t h h e a r i n g and d e a f c h i l d r e n . T h e s e a r e t h e o v e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e f e r e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f s i g n s and words and t h e h o l o p h r a s t i c n a t u r e o f some s i g n s o r words ( t h a t i s , u s i n g one s i g n o r word i n p l a c e o f a who le p h r a s e ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was f o u n d t h a t when s i g n i n g i s t h e me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s e d t h e n t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s w i l l d i s p l a y an i n t e r a c t i o n be tween i n f a n t s and d e a f p a r e n t s t h a t i s r e l a x e d n a t u r a l , and c o m m u n i c a t i v e l y e f f e c t i v e ( M o o r e s , 1 9 8 0 ) . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s were a l s o g i v e n t o a c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g o f h i m s e l f and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e need t o c o n n e c t t h e s e f e e l i n g s w i t h n a t i v e s i g n s ( C i c o u r e l and B o e s e , 1 9 7 2 ) . 17 R e s e a r c h e r s were a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f e a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n o f s i g n l a n g u a g e upon e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t s . P r i o r t o t h e m i d s i x t i e s t h e m a j o r i t y o f s c h o o l s and p r o g r a m s f o r t h e Dea f d i d n o t a d v o c a t e t h e use o f s i g n i n g as a m e t h o d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , h e n c e most s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d ou t w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n o f d e a f p a r e n t s who were c o m p a r e d t o d e a f c h i l d r e n o f h e a r i n g p a r e n t s . R e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s showed t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n o f d e a f p a r e n t s had h i g h e r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , b e t t e r l a n g u a g e a b i l i t i e s , b e t t e r s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t and d i s p l a y e d s i m i l a r s p e e c h d e v e l o p m e n t t o d e a f c h i l d r e n o f h e a r i n g p a r e n t s ( S t e v e n s o n , 1964 ; S t u c k l e s s and B i r c h , 1966 ; Meadow, 1968 ; B r i l l , 1969 ; V e r n o n and K o h , 1 9 7 0 ) . V e r n o n and Koh (1971) c o m p a r e d o r a l p r e - s c h o o l e r s t o d e a f c h i l d r e n w i t h e a r l y m a n u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n e x p o s u r e and no p r e s c h o o l . The l a t t e r g r o u p were f o u n d t o be s u p e r i o r a c a d e m i c a l l y . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e may f u n c t i o n i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s . H o w e v e r , N i x (1975) has c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t t h e f u l l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e above s t u d i e s s u p p o r t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s u s i n g s i g n s . In an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g i e s i n a l l o f t h e above s t u d i e s e x c e p t B r i l l ' s he f o u n d e x p e r i m e n t a l d e f i c i e n c i e s t h a t may i n v a l i d a t e some o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s made . B r i e f l y , two o f h i s c l a i m s were t h a t some s t u d i e s were no t d e s i g n e d t o compare t he e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o g r a m s e m p l o y i n g s i g n s ( t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) t o o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s and t h a t f a u l t y 18 r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s f a i l e d t o c o n t r o l p o s s i b l e c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s . I t must a l s o be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t n o t a l l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d s t u d e n t s w i t h s i g n l a n g u a g e s k i l l s a r e s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e who have a u d i t o r y b a s e d s k i l l s o n l y . One s t u d y by C a r s o n a n d G o e t z i n g e r (1975) r e v e a l e d t h a t a g r o u p u s i n g s i g n s , l i p r e a d i n g , and a u d i t i o n d i d n o t p e r f o r m b e t t e r on a n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e l e a r n i n g t a s k t h a n n o n - s i g n i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s . They i m p l i e d t h a t t h e me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n may n o t be a s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e . C o m p a r i s o n o f o r a l and manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n me thods i s no t uncommon. S i g h i n g by i t s e l f i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a me thod and i s b e i n g e n c o u r a g e d o n l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . H o w e v e r , s k e p t i c s p e r s i s t i n c h a r g i n g t h a t s i g n i n g i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s p e e c h and E n g l i s h . The o r a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t he A l e x a n d e r Graham B e l l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e D e a f , f o r e x a m p l e , r e j e c t s s i g n i n g a s b e i n g i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e f f o r t s t o m a x i m i z e s p e e c h s k i l l s ( Pahz and P a h z , 1 9 7 8 ) . The l i m i t a t i o n t h a t s i g n i n g s u p p o s e d l y imposes upon s p e e c h s k i l l s i s s h a r e d by many who b e l i e v e t h a t s i g n i n g i s an ' e a s y way o u t ' and t h a t most d e a f c h i l d r e n w o u l d o p t f o r s i g n i n l i e u o f s p e a k i n g ( M i n d e l , 1972 ; Van U d e n , 1970 ; R e e v e s , 1 9 7 7 ) . A v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h d o e s no t s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s e c l a i m s . R a t h e r , e x p o s u r e t o and use o f s i g n l a n g u a g e d o e s no t have a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on s p e e c h o r s p e e c h r e a d i n g s k i l l s (Mon tgomery , 1 9 6 6 ) . > 19 M o o r e s and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( 1 9 7 3 a , 1973b , 1978b) have c o n d u c t e d r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t he r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t i e s o f g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n t a u g h t by t h e o r a l - a u r a l m e t h o d , t h e R o c h e s t e r me thod ( f i n g e r s p e l l i n g and s p e e c h ) , a n d t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e t h o d . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s use o f s p e e c h and s i g n s l e d t o h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e use o f s o u n d a l o n e o r s o u n d a n d s p e e c h r e a d i n g o n l y . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e use o f s i g n s e n h a n c e d r e c e p t i v e a b i l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n v o c a l a r t i c u l a t o r y s k i l l s w h i c h c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o any o f t h e s e m e t h o d s . P e d a g o g i c a l l y , t h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e i s n o t d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e e c h . Howeve r , r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s m i n i m a l and s t u d i e s a r e n e e d e d t h a t r e l a t e means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( T o m l i n s o n - R e a s y and K e l l y , 1978 ; W a t t s , 1 9 7 9 ) . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s a l s o r e q u i r e d t o d e s c r i b e t h o s e p r o c e s s e s o f e n c o d i n g t h a t a l l o w i n f o r m a t i o n t o be a b s o r b e d and g r o u p e d i n t o s e m a n t i c c a t e g o r i e s and l a t e r t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s ( A b b o t t , 1975 ; H a s e n s t a b and B e v i l a c q u a , 1 9 8 0 ) . P o s s i b l y , t h e human c a p a c i t y t o encode l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n t o s o u n d s i g n a l s i s an e v o l u t i o n a r y r e s u l t w h i c h o n t o g e n i t i c a l l y f o l l o w s t h e a b i l i t y t o e n c o d e a l i n g u i s t i c s i g n s y s t e m ( S t o k o e , 1 9 8 0 ) . A n o t h e r m i l e s t o n e i n t he advancemen t o f ASL as a ' t r u e ' l a n g u a g e was t h e i n v a l i d a t i o n o f c l a i m s d e p i c t i n g ASL as b e i n g 20 w h o l l y i c o n i c and u n i v e r s a l i n n a t u r e . E x p e r i m e n t s by Hoemann (1975) c o n c l u d e d t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f ASL s i g n s have t r a n s p a r e n t m e a n i n g s . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f i c o n i c s i g n s a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h e l a r g e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s i g n s a r e a r b i t r a r y ( M a n d e l l , 1 9 7 7 ) . F r i s h b e r g (1975) r e p o r t i n g on t h e h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e s i n A S L , showed t h a t t h e t r e n d away f r o m i c o n i c i t y ha s l e d t o more i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f symmetry (two h a n d e d s i g n s i n s t e a d o f o n e ) , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ( hands m o v i n g up f r o m t h e w a i s t ) , and ' s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f s i g n s i n f r o n t o f t h e f a c e (one hand i n s t e a d o f two h a n d s ) . The c r e a t i o n and v a r i a t i o n o f s i g n s i s a l s o g o v e r n e d by g r a m m a t i c a l p r o c e s s e s and p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s i n h e r e n t w i t h i n t he l a n g u a g e r a t h e r t h a n by d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e f e r e n t s o f t h e s i g n s (Woodward e t . a l . , 1976 ; K l i m a and B e l l u g i , 1 9 7 9 ; B e l l u g i and N e w k i r k , 1 9 8 1 ) . The u n i v e r s a l i t y o f s i g n l a n g u a g e i s a l s o a myth t h a t has s e r v e d t o r e s t r i c t a c c e p t a n c e o f A S L . T h i s l o n g h e l d n o t i o n was d i s p r o v e d when i t was d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t f l u e n t s i g n e r s o f ASL e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y a n d f r u s t r a t i o n when e x p o s e d t o a f o r e i g n s i g n l a n g u a g e ( B a t t i s o n and J o r d a n , 1976 ; J o r d a n and B a t t i s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e s t a t e o f t h e a r t i n s i g n l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h i s r e l a t i v e l y new and no t w e l l a d v a n c e d ( S t o k o e , 1980) s t u d i e s t h u s f a r have i n d i c a t e d a l e g i t i m a t e c o n c e r n f o r and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f A S L . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been l i m i t e d t o s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s i n an a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n a more t h o r o u g h e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e n a t u r e o f s i g n l a n g u a g e . E x a m p l e s a r e : e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e m u t a b i l i t y o f 21 v e r b a l s i g n s s u c h as t h e a l t e r a t i o n o f v e r b s t o r e f l e c t c h a n g i n g s y n t a c t i c a n d s e m a t i c a s p e c t s ( F i s c h e r and G o u g h , 1 9 7 8 ) ; a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r o n o m i n a l c l a s s i f i e r s i n ASL d u r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d ( K a n t o r , 1 9 8 0 ) ; d e s i g n o f a m o d e l u n d e r w h i c h t h e s y n t a x o f ASL c a n be e x a m i n e d ( I n g r a m , 1 9 7 8 ) ; t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on s i g n l a n g u a g e imposed by human v i s i o n ( S i p l e , 1 9 7 8 ) ; t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s y n t a c t i c t h e o r y f o r d e s c r i b i n g ASL s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e s ( P a d d e n , 1 9 8 1 ) ; a n d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e u n i v e r s a l s d u r i n g a d e a f c h i l d ' s f i r s t y e a r s , p r e s c h o o l , s c h o o l y e a r s , and a d u l t l i f e t o d e t e r m i n e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s ( T e r v o o r t , 1 9 8 0 ) . The e f f o r t s of- s i g n l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h e r s has r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n a c c e p t a n c e and use o f s i g n l a n g u a g e by p a r e n t s , e d u c a t o r s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i e l d o f d e a f n e s s . A l e a r n e r o f s i g n l a n g u a g e i s u s u a l l y f a c e d w i t h m a k i n g a d e c i s i o n w h e t h e r t o l e a r n ASL t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e Dea f o r t o l e a r n one o f t h e s i g n s y s t e m s , t h u s , c o n f o r m i n g w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n p o l i c i e s . G u s t a s o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t v a r i a t i o n among s i g n s y s t e m s m i g h t have an a d v e r s e e f f e c t on e f f o r t s t o e n c o u r a g e p e o p l e t o a c c e p t s i g n i n g . T h i s c o n c e r n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by J o r d a n e t . a l . ( l 9 7 6 , 1979) whose s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d an i n c o n s i s t e n c y amongst s i g n s y s t e m s i n v a r i o u s t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . To c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n t he i n f l u e n c e o f E n g l i s h upon ASL w i l l be e x a m i n e d . I n v a r i a b l y , some e f f e c t s on a m i n o r i t y 22 l a n g u a g e c a n be e x p e c t e d when t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u s i n g i t i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s u t i l i z i n g t h e common l a n g u a g e o f t h a t s o c i e t y . The e f f e c t s w o u l d be i n c r e a s e d i f n e i t h e r o f t he two knew t h e o t h e r ' s l a n g u a g e w e l l a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n e x i s t e d i n a d i s t o r t e d manner (Nash and N a s h , 1 9 7 8 ) . When t h e modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t t h e s i t u a t i o n becomes more c o m p l i c a t e d . Such i s t h e c a s e o f t h e Dea f commun i t y l i v i n g w i t h i n a l a r g e H e a r i n g s o c i e t y . In s u c h an e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e d e a f i n d i v i d u a l must be a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e i n many d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . T h e s e w o u l d i n c l u d e A S L , spoken E n g l i s h , w r i t t e n E n g l i s h and s i g n s y s t e m s f o l l o w i n g E n g l i s h word o r d e r . To c o p e , a s i g n e r may r e s o r t t o a l t e r i n g h i s own s i g n l a n g u a g e t o c o n f o r m w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s ( S t o k o e , 1 9 7 0 ) . One s u c h v a r i a t i o n i s P i d g i n S i g n E n g l i s h (PSE) w h i c h was d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g a m i x t u r e o f E n g l i s h and s i g n (Woodward, 1 9 7 3 c ) . PSE d o e s no t a d h e r e t o t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f e i t h e r ASL o r E n g l i s h bu t p u t s s i g n s i n E n g l i s h word o r d e r a l o n g w i t h t h e d e l e t i o n and a l t e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e s (Woodward, 1 9 7 3 c ) . T h u s , on a c o n t i n u u m o f s i g n l a n g u a g e and s i g n s y s t e m s PSE w o u l d l i e be tween ASL a t one e x t r e m e and s i g n E n g l i s h a t t h e o t h e r w i t h v a r i a t i o n s i n PSE a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x t e n t i n w h i c h ASL o r E n g l i s h f e a t u r e s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 8 ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e E n g l i s h word o r d e r i n g PSE has become t h e p r e f e r r e d s y s t e m of most H e a r i n g a d u l t s ( B o r n s t e i n , 1978 ; R e i l l y and M c l n t i r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t Dea f p e o p l e who use PSE a r e , t o some e x t e n t , 23 f a m i l i a r w i t h E n g l i s h ( R e i l l y a n d M c l n t i r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , f l u e n t s i g n e r s a r e f o u n d t o w r i t e t h e way t h e y w o u l d s i g n i n PSE ( J o n e s , 1 9 7 9 ) . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s s i b l e use o f PSE i n t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h . PSE may w e l l be an i n t e r m e d i a r y s t e p be tween ASL and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . A l o n g t h e same v i e w , B r a g g (1973) e x a m i n e d a n o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n o f ASL and E n g l i s h a s u s e d w i t h i n t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . He u s e d t h e t e r m A m e s l i s h t o r e f e r t o t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f ASL and E n g l i s h w h i c h he b e l i e v e d i s u s e d most o f t e n by D e a f p e o p l e . ASL i s g e n e r a l l y u s e d o n l y by D e a f p e o p l e w i t h o t h e r Dea f p e o p l e . A m e s l i s h i s u s e d by t h e Dea f w i t h H e a r i n g s i g n e r s and can be a d a p t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e demands o f t h e c o u m m u n i c a t i v e s e t t i n g and t h e v e r b a l l e v e l s o f t h e c o m u n i c a t o r s . What B r a g g has r e f e r r e d t o as A m e s l i s h may w e l l be a f o r m o f PSE. ' B o t h , A m e s l i s h and PSE , seem t o be e x a m p l e s of one l a n g u a g e , A S L , t h a t has been i n f l u e n c e d by a n o t h e r , E n g l i s h . 24 SIGN SYSTEMS The p r e s e n t day use o f s i g n s y s t e m s t o t e a c h d e a f c h i l d r e n s t ems f r o m a p o p u l a r movement t o i n c o r p o r a t e v a r i o u s s y s t e m s i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s e s p e c i a l l y when t h e r e was a c h a n g e f r o m an o r a l t o a t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m ( J o r d a n e t . a l . , 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 9 ) . The i m p e t u s f o r t h i s movement c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o an u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a s i g n s y s t e m w h i c h p a r a l l e l e d E n g l i s h w o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g w r i t t e n " E n g l i s h s y n t a x t h a n ASL ( W i l b u r , 1 9 7 9 ) . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f ASL as a l a n g u a g e i n i t s own r i g h t c o i n c i d e d w i t h e d u c a t o r s and l i n g u i s t s s p e c u l a t i n g on t h e p o t e n t i a l o f u t i l i z i n g s i g n s a s a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e ' s a u d i t o r y - o r i e n t e d s t i m u l i . Whe the r i t was t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f ASL p e r se t h a t c a u s e d t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n , s t i l l r e m a i n s t o be s e e n . P o s s i b l y , t h e b e l i e f t h a t ASL i s a d i f f i c u l t l a n g u a g e t o l e a r n l e d o t h e r s t o v i ew s i g n s y s t e m s as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s (Meadow, 1 9 7 5 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , v a r i o u s s i g n s y s t e m s were d e v i s e d w h i c h s h a r e d two common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E a c h had a o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e be tween s i g n s and words o r morphemes o f s p o k e n E n g l i s h and e a c h i n c o r p o r a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t e x t e n t s , t h e use o f ASL s i g n s ( C r y s t a l and C r a i g , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be f u r t h e r e x p a n d e d upon i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n on s p e c i f i c s i g n s y s t e m s w h i c h f o l l o w s . 25 An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e s e s y s t e m s i s t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d e n v i r o n m e n t . They a r e u s e d o n l y w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f a c l a s s r o o m and i n i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween t h e t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y u se s i g n s y s t e m s t o r e p r e s e n t E n g l i s h v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s i g n e r and r a r e l y a p p r o a c h e s a t r u e o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e be tween s i g n s and E n g l i s h word o r d e r (Marmor and P e t i t t o , 1979 ; K l u w i n , 1 9 8 1 a ) . H e r e i n l i e s a m a j o r d rawback t o t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f a c c u r a t e l y s i g n i n g and s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s m e t h o d , r e f e r r e d t o a s s i m u l t a n e o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r e q u i r e s more t i m e t o s a y a word when s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , s i g n i n g i t t h a n when s p e a k i n g o n l y ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 9 ) . B o r n s t e i n ' s s t u d y was b a s e d upon t h e t i m e r a t e f o r s e n t e n c e s and may no t a p p l y t o an e x t e n d e d d i a l o g u e . T h i s p r o c e d u r e needs t o be e x a m i n e d f u r t h e r b e f o r e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c a n be made c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f s p e e c h t i m i n g d u r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 9 ) . B e l l u g i and F i s c h e r (1972) a l s o e x a m i n e d t h e r a t e o f p r o d u c t i o n f o r s i g n s and s p o k e n l a n g u a g e and f o u n d t h a t s i g n s r e q u i r e d ' m o r e t i m e t o p r o d u c e t h a n s p o k e n words b u t a p h r a s e p r o d u c e d i n ASL had a b o u t t he same r a t e a s s p o k e n E n g l i s h . T h i s c o m p a t i b l i t y i n t i m e r a t e o f s p o k e n E n g l i s h and s i g n i n g i n ASL and t h e p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h i s a n e g l e c t e d a r e a t h a t needs t o be p u r s u e d . S t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a c o u l d r e v e a l ways o f r e d e s i g n i n g s i g n s y s t e m s and p o s s i b l y r e d u c i n g t h e t i m e d i s t o r t i o n o f s i m u l t a n e o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 26 K l i m a and B e l l u g i (1979) have d e s c r i b e d v a r i o u s g r a m m a t i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f ASL and t h e l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s t h a t a l l o w p r o p o s i t i o n r a t e s o f ASL t o be i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s . K l u w i n (1981b) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s t o o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o s i g n s y s t e m s i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h s p o k e n E n g l i s h . The r e s t r i c t e d e n v i r o n m e n t o f s i g n s y s t e m s may i n i t s e l f be s e l f - d e f e a t i n g d e s p i t e t h e i r p u r p o s e f o r t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h t h r o u g h a v i s u a l mode. L a n g u a g e i s a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a s s u c h s e r v e s a c r i t i c a l f u n c t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . The Dea f commun i t y d o e s n o t u s e s i g n s y s t e m s t o c o m m u n i c a t e amongs t t h e m s e l v e s and g e n e r a l l y u se a f o r m o f P i d g i n S i g n L a n g u a g e when c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h p e o p l e who do no t know ASL (Woodward, 1 9 7 3 b ) . In t h i s s e n s e a s i g n s y s t e m i s p e r h a p s n o n - f u n c t i o n a l , y i e l d i n g good s e n t e n c e s f o r w r i t i n g b u t p o o r ones f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n s ( S t e v e n s , 1 9 7 6 ) . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n d e a f s t u d e n t s may f i n d i t i n h e r e n t l y d i f f i c u l t o r f r u s t r a t i n g t o c o m p r e h e n d a c o m m u n i c a t i o n mode t h a t a p p a r e n t l y d e f i e s t h e l o g i c o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I d e n t i f i e d synonyms f o r s i g n s y s t e m s a r e ' c o n t r i v e d s i g n l a n g u a g e s ' , ' s e e - s i g n s ' , 'new s i g n s ' and 'new s i g n l a n g u a g e s ' ( S t o k o e , 1 9 7 5 ) . Y e t , t h e s e s y s t e m s a r e no t deemed t o be l a n g u a g e s , r a t h e r t h e y a r e means o f r e p r e s e n t i n g E n g l i s h ( M a r k o w i c z , 1972 ; Woodward, 1973b ; S t o k o e , 1976 ; M o o r e s , 1 9 7 8 a ; C r y s t a l and C r a i g , 1978 ; K l u w i n , 1981b ; E r t i n g , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h u s , 27 t h e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s w h e t h e r s i g n s y s t e m s a r e a c q u i r e d i n t h e same manner a s n a t i v e s i g n l a n g u a g e s ? T h e i r r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t i m p o s e s l i m i t s upon t h e p o s s i b l e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h i s a s p e c t . H o w e v e r , o b s e r v a t i o n s have r e v e a l e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e o r i n h i b i t t h e p r o c e s s e s o f n a t u r a l a c q u i s i t i o n . B a t t i s o n (1974) b e l i e v e d t h a t s i g n s y s t e m s impose c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e n a t u r a l p h o n o l o g y , m o r p h o l o g y and s y n t a x o f A S L . T h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d a s t he s i g n s t h e m s e l v e s a r e l i m i t e d by t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y d y n a m i c s o f t h e b o d y . H i s c o n c e r n was t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t h e n a t u r a l n e s s o f s i g n s a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e . The E n g l i s h b a s e d r u l e s o f s i g n s y s t e m s may o r may n o t be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e c h a n g e o f r o l e s t h a t s i g n s t h e m s e l v e s must u n d e r g o when b o r r o w e d f r o m A S L . S t o k o e ( 1 9 7 5 ) , s e e s ASL a s c o n s i s t i n g o f a s e t o f l e x i c o - s e m a n t i c , s y n t a c t i c , and e x p r e s s i v e r u l e s a l l o p e r a t i n g t o g e t h e r i n a l i n g u i s t i c s y s t e m . When s i g n s a r e t a k e n o u t o f t h e l a n g u a g e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y o p e r a t e , and p l a c e d i n a d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e mode a c h a n g e i n m e a n i n g may r e s u l t . S t o k o e (1975) has s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e d u c t i o n o r c a n n i b a l i z a t i o n o f a s i g n l a n g u a g e t o s e r v e as an i m p e r f e c t c o d e f o r E n g l i s h may f a i l i n i t s p u r p o s e and l e a v e t h e c h i l d w i t h l i t t l e c o m p e t e n c e i n e i t h e r l a n g u a g e " (p . 4 1 9 ) . K l u w i n (1981 a ) , wa rned a g a i n s t f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s b r o u g h t on by t h e use o f w r i t t e n E n g l i s h as a mode l f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g E n g l i s h m a n u a l l y . The b a s i c p r e m i s e i s t h a t p e o p l e do no t speak t h e way t h e y w r i t e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , 28 i t h a s been s a i d t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e m p h a s i s on t h e s y n t a x o f w r i t t e n E n g l i s h i n s c h o o l s i s a c a u s e o f c o n f u s i o n , b e c a u s e o f t h e n e e d t o f o c u s on what i s b e i n g s a i d r a t h e r t h a n how i t i s s a i d ( G o r m l e y and F r a n z e n , 1 9 7 8 ) . Hoemann (1978) e x a m i n e d t h e s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t o f s i g n s y s t e m s and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n v e n t e d s i g n s o f t h e s e s y s t e m s may' be a c c e p t e d by t he Dea f c o m m u n i t y , b u t i f t h e y v i o l a t e t h e g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e s o f ASL t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o be u n s t a b l e ' . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n o r d e r t o c o n f o r m t h e y w i l l c h a n g e o v e r t i m e . The e m p h a s i s on t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f s i g n s y s t e m s i s n o t an a t t e m p t t o c r i t i c i z e t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n w i t h i n c l a s s r o o m s . I t i s , h o w e v e r , an a t t e m p t t o r a i s e some o f t h e f a l l a c i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r w i d e s p r e a d a d o p t i o n w i t h o u t d e m o n s t r a t e d e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s . I t i s t h e c o n f u s i o n o f e d u c a t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s , a l i k e , t h a t has c a u s e d s i g n s y s t e m s t o be w i d e l y a c c e p t e d a s t h e new " p a n a c e a " i n me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e Dea f w i t h o u t t he b e n e f i t o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . A l o n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f s i g n i n g t h e s e s y s t e m s , whe the r t h r o u g h l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e o r t h e i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y o f t he s y s t e m s t h e m s e l v e s , o b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e i r v a l u e h a s been h a r d t o d e m o n s t r a t e . The s t a t e o f t he a r t o f s i g n s y s t e m s i s p l a c e d i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e f i r s t s y s t e m was u s e d i n a S c h o o l f o r t h e Dea f i n P a r i s d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y by Abbe C h a r l e s M i c h e l de l ' E p e e ( B e n d e r , 1 9 7 0 ) . He 29 e m p l o y e d m e t h o d i c a l s i g n s a s a b a s i s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n F r e n c h grammar ( S t o k o e , 1 9 7 5 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , he d i s t i n g u i s h e d be tween t h e ' n a t u r a l ' s i g n l a n g u a g e u s e d by t h e Dea f and s i g n s w h i c h he i n v e n t e d . T h i s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f s i g n l a n g u a g e by de l ' E p e e two h u n d r e d y e a r s ago i s i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h e o n l y r e c e n t a c c e p t a n c e o f n a t i v e s i g n l a n g u a g e as a l a n g u a g e p e r s e . F o r a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f s i g n s y s t e m s , s e v e r a l w i l l now be d e s c r i b e d . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f s i g n s y s t e m s have been made by A n t h o n y e t . a l . , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , B o r n s t e i n ( 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 9 ) , Meadow ( 1 9 7 5 ) , F enn ( 1 9 7 6 ) , C r y s t a l and C r a i g ( 1 9 7 8 ) , Re imer ( 1 9 7 9 ) , and G r i f f i t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e i r work w i l l p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n h e r e . To be e x a m i n e d a r e the. P a g e t - G o r m a n S i g n S y s t e m , S e e i n g E s s e n t i a l E n g l i s h , S i g n i n g E x a c t E n g l i s h , L i n g u i s t i c o f V i s u a l E n g l i s h , M a n u a l E n g l i s h and S i g n e d E n g l i s h . P a g e t - G o r m a n S i g n S y s t e m ( PGSS ) . O r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as "A New S i g n L a n g u a g e " ( P a g e t , 1 9 5 1 ) , t h e n c h a n g e d t o a " S y s t e m a t i c S i g n L a n g u a g e " ( P a g e t and Go rman , 1968) t h e p r e s e n t name was f i n a l l y d e r i v e d i n 1971 i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e PGSS i s no t a l a n g u a g e a n d s h o u l d no t be c a t e g o r i z e d w i t h t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s o f t h e Dea f ( C r a i g , 1 9 7 5 ) . D e v e l o p e d by S i r R i c h a r d P a g e t and u s e d i n E n g l a n d i t i s m e n t i o n e d h e r e o n l y b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t E n g l i s h - b a s e d s y s t e m d e v i s e d ( P a g e t , 1 9 5 1 ) . B o r n s t e i n (19.73) 30 has d e s c r i b e d t h e g u i d e l i n e s P a g e t u s e d i n s e l e c t i n g and a r r a n g i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s i g n s a s : (1) a s i g n s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t a s i n g l e E n g l i s h word o r p a r t o f a w o r d , (2) s i g n s s h o u l d be o r d e r e d a s words a r e o r d e r e d i n s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s , (3) s i g n s s h o u l d be " i n f l e c t e d " s i m i l a r t o i n f l e c t i o n s o f s p o k e n w o r d s , and (4) s i g n s s h o u l d be a d a p t e d o r i n v e n t e d t o f o r m an i n i t i a l b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y . P a g e t a d d e d new' s i g n s f o r word r o o t s , s u f f i x e s , and p r e f i x e s , t h e r e b y , e n h a n c i n g a o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h E n g l i s h . W i t h i n t h e s y s t e m 37 " b a s i c s i g n s " a r e u s e d t o i d e n t i f y g r o u p s o f words w i t h a common theme and an a d d i t i o n a l m o d i f i e r s i g n i s a d d e d t o e a c h f o r f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( C r y s t a l and C r a i g , 1 9 7 8 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , one hand may f o r m t h e b a s i c s i g n PERSON and t h e o t h e r c o u l d f o r m t h e m o d i f i e r s i g n f o r TOOTH t o g i v e d e n t i s t ; TEACH t o g i v e t e a c h e r o r F IRE t o g i v e f i r e m a n ( W i l b u r , 1 9 7 9 ) . F i n g e r s p e l l i n g i s a l s o u s e d , b u t o n l y f o r p r o p e r names . The ma jo r v a l u e o f t h i s s y s t e m may w e l l be t h e r o l e i t p l a y e d i n t h e l e s s e n i n g o f h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d s t h e use o f manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e l i t t l e o r no c o n c l u s i v e d a t a a r e y e t a v a i l a b l e on i t s u s e f u l n e s s ( F e n n , 1 9 7 6 ) . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f PGSS and B r i t i s h S i g n L anguage ( B S L ) . S i n c e t h e B r i t i s h Dea f commun i t y u s e s BSL i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a s y s t e m no t b a s e d upon t h e s i g n s t h e y use w o u l d no t be e a s i l y a c c e p t e d ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 9 ) . 31 S e e i n g E s s e n t i a l E n g l i s h (SEE I ) . O r i g i n a l l y , c a l l e d S i g n i n g E s s e n t i a l E n g l i s h t h e name was c h a n g e d t o a p p e a l t o p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s a n d t o o f f s e t t h e s t i g m a o f manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( A n t h o n y e t . a l . , 1 9 7 1 ) . I t was d e v e l o p e d u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a d e a f man D a v i d A n t h o n y , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g a v i s u a l medium t o c o m p l e m e n t s p e e c h . D e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g t h e l a r g e s t number o f v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 9 ) , i t u s e s ASL a s i t s base and a t t e m p t s t o i n v e n t new s i g n s i n an e f f o r t t o k e e p f i n g e r s p e l l i n g t o a minimum and a l l o w f o r a c l o s e o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h E n g l i s h . S e p a r a t e s i g n s have been i n v e n t e d t o r e p r e s e n t r o o t s , p r e f i x e s , and s u f f i x e s and i n d i v i d u a l s i g n s may be u s e d f o r a w o r d , a b a s e e l e m e n t i n a c o m p l e x w o r d , o r a s a p a r t o f a compound word ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 3 ) . A s p e c i a l f e a t u r e o f t h i s s y s t e m i s t h a t i t i s n o t mean ing b a s e d . T h u s , two words w i l l have t h e same s i g n p r o v i d e d t h e y ma t ch on two ou t o f t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e i d e n t i f i e d as s o u n d , m e a n i n g , and s p e l l i n g . The word ' c a l l ' w i l l have t h e same s i g n r e g a r d l e s s o f i n t e n d e d m e a n i n g ( G r i f f i t h , 1 9 8 0 ) . As an a n o t h e r examp le t h e s i g n f o r ' f i r e ' w i l l be t h e same whe the r t he i n t e n d e d usage i m p l i e d t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s b u r n i n g o r t h a t t h e t r i g g e r o f a gun s h o u l d be p u l l e d . T h u s , SEE I i s no t a mean ing or a c o n c e p t b a s e d s i g n s y s t e m . In e x p l a i n i n g the u s e f u l n e s s o f SEE I Washburn (19 ) c l a i m e d t h a t A . S . L . i s hampe red by i t s own s y n t a x and i d i o m s and 32 p e r c e i v e d SEE I a s f i n a l l y a l l o w i n g E n g l i s h s y n t a x t o be v i s u a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e l a n g u a g e o f s i g n s . The a u t h o r s o f SEE I, h o w e v e r , d i d n o t c a t e g o r i z e SEE I a s a s i g n l a n g u a g e , bu t r a t h e r a s a medium f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g i n E n g l i s h ( A n t h o n y e t . a l . , 1 9 7 1 ) . The m a j o r b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t h i s s y s t e m a r e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s who have t r o u b l e c o m m u n i c a t i n g i n ASL and d e a f c h i l d r e n who w i l l now be a b l e t o a c q u i r e E n g l i s h . The use o f A S L , i s i m p l i e d ' by t h e a u t h o r s a s b e i n g i n e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h . S i g n i n g E x a c t E n g l i s h (SEE I I ) . S i g n i n g E x a c t E n g l i s h i s a s p i n o f f f r o m SEE I and was d e v e l o p e d by G u s t a s o n , P f e t z i n g and Zawolkow (1972) who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f SEE I ( B o r n s t e i n , 1 9 7 3 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e a r e many s i m i l i a r i t i e s be tween SEE I and SEE I I . N o t a b l y , b o t h a r e m o r p h e m i c - b a s e d s y s t e m s i n t h a t s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d t o morphemic u n i t s and b o t h i n c o r p o r a t e t he use o f f i n g e r s p e l l i n g ( R e i m e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The t w o - o u t - o f - t h r e e p r i n c i p l e d e s c r i b e d f o r SEE I a l s o a p p l i e s h e r e , t h u s , t h e a f f i x " - s h i p " , t he noun " s h i p " , and t h e v e r b " s h i p " a r e a l l g i v e n t he same s i g n . B o r n s t e i n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , i n a p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f rom G u s t a s o n was g i v e n t h r e e r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f SEE I I . F i r s t l y , t he n o t a t i o n a l s y s t e m as d e s c r i b e d i n the SEE I manua l was t o o d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e were o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f SEE I m a n u a l s p r i n t e d and l a s t l y , t h e s i g n s o f SEE I were i n 33 some c a s e s t o o u n r e l a t e d t o A S L . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t h e l a s t i n s t a n c e , r o o t words were i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e f i n e d l e a d i n g t o c o n f u s i o n amongs t p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e a u t h o r s o f SEE II d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h SEE I ' s me thod o f u s i n g t h e r o o t " g e n e " a s a s i g n i n " g e n e r a l " , " g e n e r o u s " , o r " g e n e t i c " . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y u s e d o n l y t h o s e s i g n s most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f b a s i c w o r d s . H o w e v e r , B o r n s t e i n (1973) h a s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y an 80 p e r c e n t o v e r l a p o f s i g n s w i t h i n t h e s e two s y s t e m s . SEE II h a s t h e l a r g e s t use i n p r o g r a m s f o r t h e Dea f ( J o r d a n e t . a l . , 1976 , 1979 ; B o r n s t e i n , 1979) and i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o g i v e some e x a m p l e s o f t h e s e s i g n s a s d e s c r i b e d by W i l b u r ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The word " r e d d e n " has two s i g n s , one f o r t h e a d j e c t i v e " r e d " and one f o r t h e s u f f i x " - e n " . The s i g n f o r " - e n " i s t h e F IN ISH s i g n w h i c h i s a l s o u s e d w i t h t h e CHICK s i g n t o g e t " c h i c k e n " . Some words do n o t f o l l o w t h e t w o - o u t - o f - t h r e e p r i n c i p l e bu t a r e b r o k e n down i n t o morphemic d i v i s i o n s . " H e i g h t " becomes HIGH + T , " s o r r o w " becomes SORRY + W and " j e w e l r y " becomes JEWL + R + Y . Compound w o r d s r e t a i n t h e m e a n i n g o f e a c h word i n s i g n s f o r " b a b y s i t (BABY + S IT ) and " s h e p h e r d " (SHEEP + HERD ) . Compound words w i t h u n p r e d i c t a b l e m e a n i n g s a r e g i v e n new s i g n s . " C a r p e t " , f o r e x a m p l e , has o n l y one s i g n and i s no t 'CAR + P E T ' . In s p i t e o f , o r p o s s i b l y , as a r e s u l t o f i t s e l a b o r a t e n e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f SEE II r e m a i n s t o be d e m o n s t r a t e d . E ven p r o p o n e n t s o f t h i s s y s t e m a d m i t t h a t a s a method o f 34 c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e r e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t r e s e a r c h t o j u s t i f y i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( R e i m e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . L i n g u i s t i c o f V i s u a l E n g l i s h ( L O V E ) . T h i s s y s t e m d e v e l o p e d by Wampler (1971) u s e s s i g n s t o p a r a l l e l t h e r h y t h m o f s p e e c h . As d e s c r i b e d by G r i f f i t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) , " e a c h s i g n i n c l u d e s as many movements a s t h e r e a r e s y l l a b l e s i n a w o r d " ( p . 1 0 1 ) . I t i s a l s o an o f f - s h o o t o f SEE II w i t h s i g n s d e r i v e d f r o m ASL and i s m o r p h e m i c - b a s e d . LOVE d i f f e r s f r o m SEE I and SEE II i n t h a t e a c h s i g n r e p r e s e n t s a morpheme, bu t t h e t w o - o u t - o f - t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s t i l l a p p l i e s i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e morphemes . C o k e l y and G a w l i c k (1973) have r e v i e w e d some o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e LOVE s y s t e m . They e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t a t t e m p t s made t o r e t a i n a b a s i c ASL v o c a b u l a r y had n o t been s u c c e s s f u l . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s f a i l u r e was c i t e d a s b e i n g t h e a d h e r e n c e , by LOVE p r i n c i p l e s , t o have a word s i g n e d i n t h e same manner i r r e s p e c t i v e o f m e a n i n g . Such a r u l e c h a n g e s t h e ASL m e a n i n g o f s i g n s and t h e r e f o r e , c a n no l o n g e r be r e f e r r e d t o a s ASL s i g n s . An examp le o f t h i s w o u l d be t h e word ' f l y ' . LOVE w o u l d have j u s t one s i g n t o i n d i c a t e b o t h t h e noun and t h e v e r b , whe reas ASL w o u l d have two s i g n s . B o r n s t e i n (1979) d e s c r i b e d LOVE as an a b o r t i v e a t t e m p t w h i c h i s i n l i t t l e u s e . M a n u a l E n g l i s h (ME ) . M a n u a l E n g l i s h was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t he W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e S c h o o l f o r t h e Dea f (WSD) as a means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a t o t a l 35 c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m (Anonymous , WSD, 1 9 7 2 ) . WSD i s r e p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o r m a t o f t h i s s y s t e m w h i c h i s u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s p e e c h . L i k e a l l t h e p r e v i o u s s y s t e m s , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e was c e n t r a l i n i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f ME i s t h a t i t i s m e a n i n g - b a s e d a n d r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon A S L . No a t t e m p t i s made t o a l t e r t h e m e a n i n g g i v e n t o a s i g n by t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . R a t h e r , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f E n g l i s h words i s r e v e a l e d by i n i t i a l i n g o f s i g n s w i t h i n c e r t a i n c l a s s e s , v e r b f o r m m a r k e r s , and s i g n s f o r word e n d i n g s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s i g n F IN ISH when i n i t i a l i z e d w i t h a C - h a n d s h a p e becomes t h e s i g n f o r ' c o m p l e t e ' , and l i k e w i s e an E-handshape w i l l c h a n g e t h e m e a n i n g t o ' e n d ' . The word " l e a v e " w i l l h a ve a s e p a r a t e s i g n a s a t r a n s i t i v e a n d an i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b . F i n g e r s p e l l i n g i s a l s o more w i d e l y u s e d t h a n i n p r e v i o u s s y s t e m s ( W i l b u r , 1 9 7 9 ) . By d e p e n d i n g upon ASL ME a v o i d e d some of the m i s t a k e s i n i n v e n t i n g new s i g n s w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o v a l o r c o n s u l t a t i o n o f t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . S i g n e d E n g l i s h ( S E ) . S i g n e d E n g l i s h i s t h e most r e c e n t s i g n s y s t e m d e v i s e d , b u t i t s c o u r s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e v a l u a t i o n i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y w e l l d o c u m e n t e d ( B o r n s t e i n , 1973 , 1974 , 1979 , 1982 ; B o r n s t e i n e t . a l . , 1975, 1980 ; B o r n s t e i n and S a u l n i e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . O r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i t was e x t e n d e d t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a n d i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g a d v o c a t e d by B o r n s t e i n (1982) as s u i t a b l e f o r a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s . L i k e M a n u a l 36 E n g l i s h , SE i s n o t as c o m p l e x a s o t h e r c o n t r i v e d s y s t e m s . ASL s i g n s p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e v o c a b u l a r y and f o u r t e e n s i g n m a r k e r s a r e u s e d t o i n d i c a t e word f o r m c h a n g e s w i t h f i v e o f t h e s e m a r k e r s b e i n g a d o p t e d f r o m A S L . O n l y one s i g n m a r k e r may be a d d e d t o a s i g n word and t h o s e words t h a t c a n n o t be r e p r e s e n t e d a r e f i n g e r s p e l l e d . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f SE has no t been c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d bu t a s t u d y by B o r n s t e i n and S a ' u l n i e r (1981 ) on c h i l d r e n who have u s e d SE f o r f o u r y e a r s , showed a n o t e w o r t h y r a t e o f g r o w t h i n v o c a b u l a r y . In t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f u s i n g S E , t h i s r a t e was d e t e r m i n e d t o be 43 p e r c e n t o f t h e r a t e h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n n o r m a l l y p r o g r e s s e d . H o w e v e r , i n t h e f i n a l y e a r o f t h e s t u d y t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e i n t h i s r a t e . A l s o i n d i c a t e d was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f some c o m p e t e n c e i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . A p a r a l l e l s t u d y w i t h o t h e r me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i l l be n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e o b j e c t i v e c l a i m s c a n be made f o r t h e v a l u e o f u s i n g S E . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e s t u d y d i d show t h a t m o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y , a c q u i r e d s i g n i n g s k i l l s t h a t r a n g e d f r o m b e g i n n e r t o an a v e r a g e l e v e l , w h e r e a s , f a t h e r s d i d no t g e t p a s t t h e b e g i n n e r ' s s t a g e . One o f S E ' s o r i g i n a t o r s , H a r r y B o r n s t e i n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , i s now a d v o c a t i n g t h a t t h e c o m p l e t e SE s y s t e m be u s e d w i t h c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d u n t i l t h e y have o b t a i n e d a m a s t e r y , i n any m o d a l i t y , o f c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s o f E n g l i s h . A t t h i s t i m e d e l e t i o n s o f . s i g n words and s i g n m a r k e r s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d i f 37 t h e c o r r e c t E n g l i s h c a n be i n f e r r e d o r i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t i t u t e a s i n g l e s i g n f o r two o r more w o r d s . T h i s c h a n g e i n p h i l o s o p h y i s a r e s u l t o f c o n c e d i n g t h a t SE i s n o t an e f f i c i e n t mode f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g and t h a t o l d e r s t u d e n t s who have o b t a i n e d m a s t e r y o f c e r t a i n E n g l i s h e l e m e n t s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o s i g n i n a more c o m f o r t a b l e m a n n e r . The q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s m o d i f i e d f o r m a w a i t s f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n b u t i t may w e l l be a v a r i a t i o n o f P S E . 38 EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND SIGN LANGUAGE H i s t o r i c a l l y , the r o l e of s i g n language i n e d u c a t i o n of the Deaf has not always been r e c o g n i z e d as a r e a l i s t i c and p r a c t i c a l method. Except f o r a p e r i o d i n the 1800s, s i g n i n g has been overshadowed by the p o p u l a r i t y of o r a l i s m (see Bender, 1970). In S p a i n , Juan M a r t i n P a b l o Bonet i n the f i r s t book w r i t t e n on t e a c h i n g the Deaf, advocated the use of s i g n language and t h e manual a l p h a b e t (Bender, 1 970") . U s i n g the manual a l p h a b e t , s i m i l a r t o the one used today i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , Bonet encouraged f a m i l i e s t o s u r r o u n d t h e i r c h i l d i n a language environment a t an e a r l y age and t o use f i n g e r s p e l l i n g as a b a s i s f o r t e a c h i n g speech (Moores, 1978a). Bonet's p e r c e p t i o n , i n 1620, of the unique problems d i c t a t e d by a h e a r i n g l o s s preceded c u r r e n t s p e c u l a t i o n s t h a t e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n , f a m i l y i n v o l v e m e n t , and t o t a l communication would p r o v i d e avenues of s u c c e s s f o r a deaf c h i l d . In E n g l a n d , the use of the manual a l p h a b e t and s i g n s were f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by John Bulwer i n 1648 (Bender, 1970). W i l l i a m Holden and John W a l l i s a r e acknowledged as the f i r s t t e a c h e r s t o a p p l y the manual a l p h a b e t and s i g n s i n p r a c t i c e (Moores, 1978a). A l s o i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , George D a l g a r n o p r e s c r i b e d the c o n t i n u a l use of f i n g e r s p e l l i n g and proposed t h a t the deaf c h i l d ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g was s i m i l a r t o a h e a r i n g c h i l d g i v e n a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s (Di C a r l o , 1964; Moores, 1978a). The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y saw Thomas Braidwood add 39 g e s t u r e s and s i g n s t o the two-handed a l p h a b e t used by o t h e r s and i n the e a r l y 1800s, John A r r o w s m i t h , p r a i s e d de l'Epee's method and expounded the need t o a s s i s t p a r e n t s i n t e a c h i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t home (Bender, 1970; Moores, 1978a). No a t t e m p t s t o d u p l i c a t e and expand upon the s e e a r l i e r t e c h n i q u e s were f o r t h c o m i n g u n t i l r e c e n t l y when s i g n s began i t s t r i a l of ac c e p t a n c e (Denmark, 1975). T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n , i n En g l a n d , has been s e t back by the a t t i t u d e s o f some a u t h o r s , l i k e Watson (1975), who contend t h a t s i g n i n g i s perhaps most u s e f u l f o r c h i l d r e n of low a b i l i t y . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h i s statement might be r e l e v a n t i f such p e r s p e c t i v e s i n c o r p o r a t e d deaf c h i l d r e n i n t o a c a t e g o r y s e p a r a t e from the H e a r i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , one can not g e n e r a l i z e t h a t low a b i l i t y h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n might b e n e f i t from a communication mode o t h e r than s p e a k i n g , or perhaps, from a lower form of E n g l i s h . Trends i n e d u c a t i o n of the Deaf i n Canada has p a r a l l e l e d t hose i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Winzer, 1979,1980) and w i l l not be s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h . As noted e a r l i e r s i g n language has been g i v e n s c a n t a t t e n t i o n i n N o r t h America s i n c e the f i r s t few y e a r s a f t e r i t was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o e d u c a t i o n by G a l l a u d e t as a means of t e a c h i n g the Deaf. C o n v e r s e l y , s i g n language has always been the method of communication w i t h i n the Deaf community, w i t h ASL b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d as the n a t i v e language of most Deaf a d u l t s (Robinson, 1980). T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s one reason why p e d a g o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i n e d u c a t i n g deaf c h i l d r e n a re 40 b e g i n n i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n p u t f r o m t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . O t h e r r e a s o n s i n c l u d e t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s i g n l a n g u a g e a s a l a n g u a g e , a s was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , and t h e emergence o f t h e t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p h i l o s o p h y . T o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n has been d e f i n e d i n v a r i o u s w a y s . Some d e f i n i t i o n s m a i n t a i n t h a t t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s a p h i l o s o p h y ( D e n t o n , 1 9 7 2 ) , w h e r e a s , o t h e r s r e g a r d i t a s a me thod ( L e v i n e , 1 9 8 1 ) . The t e r m was f i r s t c o i n e d by Roy HoTcomb i n t h e l a t e s i x t i e s ( C l a r k e , 1972) and i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e use o f " s p e e c h , l i p r e a d i n g , c u e d s p e e c h , a m p l i f i e d s y s t e m s , w r i t i n g , p r i n t i n g , a p p r o p r i a t e g e s t u r e s and p o s s i b l y m o r e " ( L e v i n e , 1981, p . 1 3 3 ) i n an e f f o r t t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n . H o l c o m b ( 1 9 7 2 ) , v i e w e d t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n as c o n s t i t u t i n g one p a r t o f a t o t a l a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g . T h i s a p p r o a c h i n c l u d e d t h e use o f p a r e n t s , h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , t e a c h e r , c u r r i c u l u m , t h e c o m m u n i t y , and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The W a s h i n g t o n S c h o o l f o r t h e Dea f has d e f i n e d t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o mean t h a t t h e Dea f c h i l d u n d e r s t a n d s a n d , i n t u r n , i s u n d e r s t o o d ( W . S . D . , Anonymous , 1 9 7 2 ) . D e n t o n (1972) d e c l a r e d t h a t i t i s t h e r i g h t o f a d e a f c h i l d t o l e a r n t o u s e a l l f o r m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t l a n g u a g e c o m p e t e n c e may be d e v e l o p e d . C o n f u s i o n as t o whe the r t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s a me thod o r a p h i l o s o p h y c a n be c l a r i f i e d by e x a m i n i n g i t f r o m d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . In t h e o r y , i t r e f l e c t s an a t t i t u d e e m b r a c e d by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and c h i l d r e n w h i c h a l l o w s them t o use any 41 a v a i l a b l e means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o e x p r e s s a t h o u g h t . T h u s , i t i s a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t u r g e s n o t how one c o m m u n i c a t e s b u t t h a t one c o m m u n i c a t e s e f f e c t i v e l y . In p r a c t i c e , t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n c a l l s f o r t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s t o d e v e l o p b o t h t h e i r s k i l l s , and t h o s e o f a c h i l d , t o u t i l i z e v a r i o u s a b i l i t i e s o f t r a n s m i t t i n g and r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . H e n c e , i t c a n a l s o be v i e w e d a s a m e t h o d . The s u b s t a n c e o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n was t h e a c c e p t a n c e e d u c a t o r s now e x t e n d e d t o w a r d s t h e v a l u e o f s i g n i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . No l o n g e r was s i g n i n g p r o h i b i t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a d e a f c h i l d c o u l d be m o l d e d i n t o a " f i c t i t i o u s v e r s i o n o f a h e a r i n g c h i l d " ( V e r n o n and Makowsky , 1971 , p . 4 ) . N e i t h e r was s i g n l a n g u a g e t o be u s e d a s a l a s t r e s o r t f o r o r a l f a i l u r e s (Newman, 1 9 7 1 ) . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i g n l a n g u a g e g a i n e d r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . Due t o t h e r o l e o f s i g n l a n g u a g e , t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n was a l s o e n d o r s e d by t h e l a r g e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e a f i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f t he D e a f , ( Pahz and P a h z , 1 9 7 8 ) . Ken t (1971) s u m m a r i z e d t h e i m p a c t o f t h e Dea f on t h i s new a c c e p t a n c e . . . In t h e f i n a l a n l y s i s , i t h a s been t h e l i v i n g e x a m p l e o f t h e f a m i l i a r l y d e a f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r d e a f p a r e n t s f r o m whom we have l e a r n e d m o s t . They have d e m o n s t r a t e d t o us p a t i e n t l y and c l e a r l y t he h e i g h t s t o w h i c h ou r d e a f c h i l d r e n can a s p i r e . I t i s ou r a im t o p r o v i d e t h i s same o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l p r o f o u n d l y d e a f c h i l d r e n t o have t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m an e a r l y age . ( p . 7 ) S t o k o e ( 1 9 7 6 ) , has p o s t u l a t e d t h a t by l e a r n i n g t o s i g n e a r l y d e a f c h i l d r e n o f h e a r i n g p a r e n t s w i l l b e s t be a b l e t o r i s e i n 42 t h e i r s o c i e t y l i k e t h o s e d e a f c h i l d r e n w i t h d e a f p a r e n t s who a r e n a t u r a l l y e n c u l t u r a t e d . Dea f p a r e n t s , t o o , a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f s i g n i n g o r t o u s e s p e e c h o n l y . The m a j o r i t y ha s been f o u n d t o f a v o u r s i g n i n g (Meadow, 1 9 7 2 ) . P r o p o n e n t s o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e now a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r s t r a t e g i e s by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e use o f s i g n s by h e a r i n g p a r e n t s ( D e n t o n , 1 9 7 2 ) . Newman (1971) i d e n t i f i e d a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , i s an o l d e r p h i l o s o p h y g i v e n new r e c o g n i t i o n . And Dykman (1972) i d e n t i f i e d d e t r a c t o r s o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n who c l a i m e d t h a t i t i s o n l y a n o t h e r f o r m o f m a n u a l i s m . C o n t r a r y t o t h e s e b e l i e f s , s i n c e t h e e a r l y d a y s o f e d u c a t i o n t h e r e has been no e d u c a t o r s a d v o c a t i n g t h e use o f a manua l o n l y s y s t e m (Pahz and P a h z , 1 9 7 8 ) . M a n u a l i s m i s a c r u t c h t h a t o r a l i s t s use t o d i s c r e d i t t h e use o f s i g n l a n g u a g e . T o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a d v o c a t e s t h e use o f s i g n s and s p e e c h a s w e l l a s o t h e r means t o c o m m u n i c a t e . Unde r t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , s i m u l t a n e o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s j u s t one a s p e c t t h a t e n c o u r a g e s t h e use o f more t h a n one means t o e n h a n c e u n d e r s t a n d i n g (Newman, 1 9 7 1 ) . An i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t w i t h i n t h i s new p h i l o s o p h y i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d t o d e t e r m i n e a p p r o p r i a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e t h o d s . To f u l l y r e a l i z e l a n g u a g e p o t e n t i a l , a c h i l d ' s m o d a l i t y p r e f e r e n c e must p r o v i d e t h e g u i d a n c e ( T e r v o o r t , 1 9 8 0 ) . G o s s (1970) i m p l i e d t h a t an a b i l i t y t o i n t e r a c t w h i c h w o u l d make c o m m u n i c a t i o n l e s s d i f f i c u l t and f r u s t r a t i n g i s l i k e l y t o a i d h e a r i n g m o t h e r s i n a t t a i n i n g a n a t u r a l b e h a v i o u r 43 w i t h t h e i r d e a f i n f a n t s . M o o r e s e t . a l . ( 1 9 7 3 a ) r e p o r t e d t h a t among d e a f c h i l d r e n s i g n and g e s t u r e s a r e t h e most commonly u s e d f o r m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . B e c k m e y e r ' s (1976) s t u d y on t h e v a r i o u s modes u s e d w i t h i n t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s showed t h a t t h e most e f f i c i e n t mode was r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d ' s p r e f e r e n c e . T h a t i s , f o r c o m m u n i c a t i v e p u r p o s e s o r a l was b e s t f o r t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d t h e o r a l m e t h o d , and manua l was b e s t f o r t h o s e w i t h manua l p r e f e r e n c e a s w e l l a s t h o s e w i t h b o t h o r a l and manua l p r e f e r e n c e . Some e d u c a t o r s have s u g g e s t e d t h e l i m i t i n g o f t h i s p r e f e r e n c e by i n s i s t i n g t h a t an E n g l i s h s i g n s y s t e m be u s e d (Herx and H u n t , 1 9 7 6 ) . P a u l (1976b) s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d t o a d h e r e t o a c h i l d ' s c h o i c e and t o a v o i d i n s t i l l i n g t h e n o t i o n t h a t E n g l i s h and s p e e c h were s u p e r i o r by f o r c i n g a c h i l d t o speak when he s i g n s . T o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r i n g s new c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o t h e s u r f a c e . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d be aware t h a t when c o m u n i c a t i o n i s t e a c h e r d o m i n a t e d d e a f c h i l d r e n a r e p r e v e n t e d f r o m e x p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s f r e e l y ( C r a i g and C o l l i n s , 1 9 7 0 ) . T o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n h o w e v e r , i s a two way p r o c e s s . C o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g t h e Dea f c a n b e s t be u n d e r s t o o d and f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e Dea f commun i t y i t s e l f (Woodward, 1 9 7 3 a ) . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y f o r H e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s whose v i e w p o i n t s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m a na r row s p h e r e o f c o n t a c t s made w i t h i n t h e o f f i c e o r c l a s s r o o m ( V e r n o n and M i n d e l , 1 9 7 1 ) . To o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y 44 t e a c h e r s n e e d t o know more t h a n j u s t a l o t o f s i g n s ( B r ennan a n d C o l v i l l e , 1 9 7 9 ) . The r o l e o f ASL i n a t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m must no t be r e l e g a t e d t o an i n f e r i o r s t a t u s a s i s u s u a l l y t h e c a s e when ASL i s c o m p a r e d w i t h a s i g n s y s t e m w h i c h f o l l o w s E n g l i s h word o r d e r ( M a r k o w i c z , 1 9 7 2 ) . R e s e a r c h e r s were f a c e d w i t h many new q u e s t i o n s t h a t t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p o s e d . R e i c h and B i c k (1976) i n c o m p a r i n g f i n g e r s p e l l i n g w i t h t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n showed t h a t by u s i n g t h e l a t t e r t h e r e was a more v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E n g l i s h . G r e e n b e r g (1980) n o t e d t h a t f a m i l i e s u s i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s had more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s and l e s s s t r e s s t h a n f a m i l i e s u s i n g t h e o r a l m e t h o d . M o o r e s (1978b ) c a l l e d f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f m e s s a g e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r e s e n t e d by v o i c e and s i g n s and f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween s i g n s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e e c h . B r o a d b e n t (1956) had e a r l e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t p r o c e s s i n g i n two s e n s o r y c h a n n e l s i s f e a s i b l e g i v e n two d i s t i n c t i v e c h a n n e l s s u c h a s t h e e a r and t h e e y e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , r e c e p t i v e s k i l l s were deemed t o be b e t t e r v i a d i r e c t s i m u l t a n e o u s t r a n s m i s s i o n i n s i g n s and s p e e c h t h a n t h r o u g h an o r a l - m a n u a l i n t e r p r e t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( C a c c a m i s e and B l a s d e l l , 1 9 7 7 ) . S t u d i e s on the i n f l u e n c e o f u s i n g s i g n s w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n a r e m a i n l y p o s i t i v e . E x a m i n i n g p r e - s c h o o l r u b e l l a c h i l d r e n w i t h h e a r i n g p a r e n t s , Howse and F i t c h (1972) c o n c l u d e d t h a t c h i l d r e n e x p o s e d t o s i g n s g a i n e d an a d v a n t a g e i n d e v e l o p m e n t . On t h e 45 o t h e r h a n d L u t e r m a n (1976) i n f e r r e d f r o m h i s r e s u l t s t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e s k i l l s o f c h i l d r e n t r a i n e d by t h e a u d i t o r y - o r a l method were s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e t r a i n e d by t h e v i s u a l - o r a l m e t h o d . K l o p p i n g (1972 ) c o m p a r e d t h e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f s t u d e n t s be tween t h e age o f t h i r t e e n and t w e n t y y e a r s u s i n g e i t h e r t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e R o c h e s t e r m e t h o d , o r s p e e c h r e a d i n g w i t h v o i c e as t h e i r means o f t r a n s m i t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Of t h e t h r e e m e t h o d s , t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s f o l l o w e d by t h e R o c h e s t e r m e t h o d . T h i s s u g g e s t e d p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s i n s u p p l e m e n t i n g s p e e c h r e a d i n g and o r a l s k i l l s w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l v i s u a l c u e s p r o v i d e d by f i n g e r s p e l l i n g and s i g n s . W h i t e a n d S t e v e n s o n (1975) c o m p a r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and g r a p h i c s on t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . G r a p h i c s r e s u l t e d i n t h e h i g h e s t a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e s e t h r e e me thods a l l o b t a i n e d h i g h e r r e s u l t s t h a n o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r m e t h o d s o f s i g n i n g w o u l d r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n c e s was a l s o r a i s e d . B o t h o f t he s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d h e r e c o m p a r e d ASL and S i g l i s h , where S i g l i s h i s d e f i n e d s i m i l a r l y t o P i d g i n S i g n E n g l i s h . H i g g i n s (1973) u s e d v i d e o t a p e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r f i n g e r s p e l l i n g , S i g l i s h , o r ASL was e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d . H i s f i n d i n g s , b a s e d on a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t , showed S i g l i s h t o be t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i b l e 46 f o l l o w e d by A S L . Murphy and F l e i s c h e r (1977) h o w e v e r , f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s be tween S i g l i s h and ASL p r e s e n t a t i o n s . P e r h a p s t h e mos t c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t w h i c h c a n be made r e g a r d i n g t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s t h a t i t has had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t upon d e a f c h i l d r e n s a b i l i t y t o r e c e i v e more i n f o r m a t i o n when c o m m u n i c a t i n g . Howeve r , more r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t arid d i r e c t i o n o f i t ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The r o l e o f ASL a n d s i g n s y s t e m s n e e d t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d more t h o r o u g h l y . E x a m i n i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v a r i o u s c o m p o n e n t s o f a t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m may d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s t h a t s p e e c h , s i g n s , s p e e c h r e a d i n g , a u d i t o r y s k i l l s , f i n g e r s p e l l i n g a n d o t h e r a s p e c t s h a v e upon e a c h o t h e r . More i m p o r t a n t l y , t o e n s u r e t h a t t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e c e i v e s a f a i r c h a n c e t o p r o v e i t s e l f , t e a c h e r s and p r o g r a m s must i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f o r t s i n a d h e r i n g t o i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . I t h a s been o b s e r v e d t h a t amongst s c h o o l s and c l a s s e s f o r t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d t h e t r e n d i s t o w a r d s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , l a r g e l y a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o r a l p r o g r a m s ( J o r d a n e t . a l . , 1976 , 1 9 7 9 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p h i l o s o p h y , i n many i n s t a n c e s , i s n o t b e i n g p r o p e r l y i m p l e m e n t e d ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s may i m p l y t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h y i t s e l f i s a t f a u l t o r more l i k e l y t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o i m p l e m e n t a t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m n e e d more t i m e t o d e v e l o p . 47 BILINGUAL EDUCATION The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the t o t a l communication p h i l o s o p h y gave s i g n language a s t a t u s unheard of s i n c e the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y when o r a l i s m came to dominate the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s i n e d u c a t i o n of the D e a f . T h i s s t a t u s was p r i m a r i l y based on the r e c o g n i t i o n of s i g n language as a t r u s language and as a n a t i v e language of many deaf c h i l d r e n . The l o g i c a l consequence of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n was the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t deaf c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h were perhaps b i l i n g u a l , u s i n g ASL as t h e i r n a t i v e language and E n g l i s h as a second l a n g u a g e . A c c e p t a n c e of t h i s n o t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s an a l t e r a t i o n of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which accounts f o r language development p a t t e r n s i n c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g a second l a n g u a g e . I n t e r e s t i n t h i s f i e l d i s m i n i m a l and b a s i c a l l y c o n j e c t u r a l , p o s s i b l y , due to the n o v e l t y of the i d e a . V a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s and uses of the term b i l i n g u a l i s m can be f o u n d . S c h l e s i n g e r (1978), suggested a common d e f i n i t i o n as b e i n g " the c o e x i s t e n c e of two languages which d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y i n most l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s w i t h o n l y m i n i m a l s h a r i n g of v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s " ( p . 6 3 ) . Stokoe (1976), r e f e r r e d to b i l i n g u a l i s m as " the c o n s t a n t use of two languages " ( p . 2 2 ) . K a n n a p e l l (1974) adopted a d e f i n i t i o n which has r e f e r e n c e to people who are a b l e to c o m f o r t a b l y converse i n two d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s . One who i s c o m f o r t a b l e s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h and s i g n i n g i n ASL would be an example of a b i l i n g u a l p e r s o n . 48 A d i s t i n c t i o n between ASL and s i g n systems, as they r e l a t e to b i l i n g u a l i s m , i s c r u c i a l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r p o s s i b l e r o l e s i n b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . B i l i n g u a l i s m i m p l i e s the use of two l a n g u a g e s . T h e r e f o r e , s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h and s i g n i n g i n E n g l i s h word o r d e r r e p r e s e n t s the use of two m o d a l i t i e s as opposed to two l a n g u a g e s . H e r e , b i m o d a l i s m i s the a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i v e term to d e s c r i b e the v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a language u t i l i t i z i n g two m o d a l i t i e s ( S c h l e s i n g e r , 1978). B i m o d a l i s m i s used when one language i s e x p r e s s e d i n two m o d a l i t i e s or two languages i n two m o d a l i t i e s . One who can use speech or s i g n s to communicate, r e g a r d l e s s of e x t e n t of f l u e n c y , i s a b l e to o f f e r a b imodal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of l a n g u a g e . T h u s , b i l i n g u a l i s m i s a g e n e r i c term s e p a r a t e d from b i m o d a l i s m because i t r e p r e s e n t s the use of two languages r a t h e r than the m a n i p u l a t i o n of two communicat ive modes. F u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n i s needed to d e s c r i b e s i t u a t i o n s i n which a language i s a l t e r e d a c c o r d i n g to communicat ive needs . Woodward (1973b) c o n c e p t u a l i z e d s i g n language as a cont inuum r a n g i n g from ASL at one extreme to the exact v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of E n g l i s h t h r o u g h s i g n s at the o t h e r . V a r i a t i o n w i l l occur a c c o r d i n g to the s i g n i n g s k i l l s of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . Shared knowledge of A S L , between two speakers f o r example, would tend to r e s u l t i n communication i n s i g n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the ASL end of the c o n t i n u u m . A c o n d i t i o n which u t i l i z e s d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of a language a c c o r d i n g to 49 t h e needs o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o a s d i g l o s s i a ( F e r g u s o n , 1 9 5 9 ) . P i d g i n S i g n E n g l i s h i s a d i g l o s s i c f o r m o f A S L . S t o k o e (1971) r e s o r t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f d i g l o s s i a f o r p o s s i b l e c l u e s t o e x p l a i n i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d u s e o f s i g n s . B o t h d i g l o s s i a and b i m o d a l i s m add t o t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f i n t e g r a t i n g a b i l i n g u a l p h i l o s o p h y w i t h t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v i n g s i g n l a n g u a g e . As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n by K l o p p i n g (1972) and W h i t e and S t e v e n s o n (1975) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e e f f i c a c y o f u t i l i z i n g more t h a n one c o m m u n i c a t i o n mode i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . B r o o k s e t . a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) , more s p e c i f i c a l l y e x a m i n e d v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f modes and r a t e s o f l e a r n i n g . U s i n g a u d i t i o n , l i p r e a d i n g , and f i n g e r s p e l l i n g a s t h e t h r e e m o d a l i t i e s i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t b i m o d a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s were s u p e r i o r t o u n i m o d a l m e t h o d s . F u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e i s s u e o f b i l i n g u a l i s m i s t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e l a n g u a g e q u e s t i o n : Wh i ch l a n g u a g e i s t o be a d e a f c h i l d ' s f i r s t l a n g u a g e , ASL o r E n g l i s h ? S u p e r i o r i t y o f one l a n g u a g e i s n o t a c r i t e r i a i n t h i s d e b a t e and o t h e r f a c t o r s n e e d t o be e x p l o r e d . L i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s r e v e a l e d t h e n a t u r e o f some p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s . F i s h m a n (1970) e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f commun i t y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s , t he r e s p e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s c a l l i n g f o r a p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e u s a g e , and t h e s t a b i l i y o f e a c h l a n g u a g e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . R i c h a r d s (1970) r e l a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l 50 programs and b i l i n g u a l p o l i c i e s by i m p l y i n g t h a t a b i l i n g u a l program w i l l o n l y be e f f e c t i v e t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t " r e c o g n i z e s and r e i n f o r c e s community a s p i r a t i o n s and v a l u e s " ( p . 1 ) . Walker (1979), i n r e v i e w i n g Mackey's (1972) concept of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d f o u r r e l e v a n t d i m e n s i o n s as the home be h a v i o u r of the b i l i n g u a l , the s c h o o l ' s c u r r i c u l u m , the s u r r o u n d i n g community i n the immediate a r e a , and the s t a t u s of each of the languages". I t has been f u r t h e r noted t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y which c h i l d r e n from two c u l t u r e s e x p e r i e n c e i n s c h o o l , a r i s e s from c u l t u r a l r a t h e r than l i n g u i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e (Walker, 1979). To supplement the advantages brought on by u s i n g a c h i l d ' s f i r s t l a nguage, the s t a t e of Texas has i n c l u d e d i n i t s components of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n the r e q u i r e m e n t of a t t e n d i n g t o the development i n a c h i l d of "a p o s i t i v e i d e n t i t y w t i h h i s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , s e l f a s s u r a n c e , and c o n f i d e n c e " (Walker, 1979). A l t h o u g h , d e l i b e r a t e l y s h o r t , t h i s review r e v e a l e d t h a t the a c c e n t i n b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n i s on r e s p e c t f o r the m i n o r i t y 's language and the c u l t u r e i n which i t i s embedded. That the Deaf p o p u l a t i o n i s w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d w i t h i n the l a r g e r H e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d not d e t r a c t from the v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s which the Deaf community u p h o l d s . P a r a l l e l s between the Deaf community and o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s are s u p p o r t a b l e due t o s i g n language and Deaf c u l t u r e b e i n g l e g i t i m a t e a s p e c t s h a v i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s i n a l l c o m m u n i t i e s , m a j o r i t y based or n o t . Thus, 51 i t i s d e f e n s i b l e t o demand , a s K a n n a p e l l (1974) d i d , t h a t ASL be r e c o g n i z e d a s a d e a f c h i l d ' s f i r s t l a n g u a g e and u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g E n g l i s h s k i l l s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s . K a n n a p e l l (1975b) f u r t h e r a r g u e d t h a t i n p r a c t i c e t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o an i m p r o v e d s e l f - c o n c e p t and a d e s i r e by a d e a f c h i l d t o l e a r n E n g l i s h a s a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . O t h e r r e w a r d s i n l e a r n i n g ASL f i r s t were shown by H a t f i e l d e t . a l . d 978) i n a t e s t o f 219 d e a f s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f v i d e o t a p e d s t o r i e s i n ASL and m a n u a l l y c o d e d E n g l i s h . T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s , b a s e d on t h e i r f i n d i n g t h a t t h e most f l u e n t ASL s i g n e r s made t h e f e w e s t e r r o r s on t h e m a n u a l l y c o d e d E n g l i s h s t o r i e s , was t o s u g g e s t t h a t ASL may e n h a n c e d e v e l o p m e n t o f E n g l i s h s k i l l s . C h i n c h o r e t . a l . ( l 9 7 6 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t ASL s i g n e r s were a b l e t o c o m p r e h e n d s i g n e d E n g l i s h more e a s i l y t h a n s i g n e d E n g l i s h o n l y u s e r s were a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d A S L . P r i n z and P r i n z (1979) i n a s t u d y o f b i l i n g u a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e ( i e . E n g l i s h and s i g n l a n g u a g e ) i n a h e a r i n g c h i l d i n s i s t e d t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s a c q u i s i t i o n d i d no t impede t h e c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l s e m a n t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . D i f f e r e n c e s i n m o d a l i t i e s , may a l s o l e a d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d i f f e r e n t c o d i n g s t r a t e g i e s . C o d i n g , o r i n t e r n a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i s t h o u g h t t o c o n s i s t o f a p h o n e t i c componen t w h i c h r e l a t e s t o t h e sound o f t h e words p i c k e d up a u d i t o r a l l y o r r e a d f r o m p r i n t (Hung e t . a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . Dea f c h i l d r e n , l a c k i n g a s p e e c h c o d e , t e n d e d t o r e l y on a 52 semantic code w i t h r e g a r d s to w r i t t e n and s i g n e d i n f o r m a t i o n (Frumkin and A n i s f e l d , 1977). A d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e p e r t a i n i n g to d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o d i n g s t r a t e g i e s was o b t a i n e d by Odom e t . a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) , who compared the a b i l i t y to r e c a l l words t h a t can be s i g n e d and words t h a t must be f i n g e r s p e l l e d . A h e a r i n g n o n - s i g n i n g group was used as a c o m p a r i s o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r score was o b t a i n e d by the deaf group on the l i s t of s i g n a b l e words . W i l b u r (1974), p r o p o s e d that ASL u s e r s c o n v e r t e d E n g l i s h to a s i g n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r c o d i n g and s t o r a g e . The p o s s i b i l i t y of d u a l c o d i n g a b i l i t i e s i s s u p p o r t e d i n the b i l i n g u a l development of a young h e a r i n g c h i l d who demonstrated a p p r o p r i a t e manual and o r a l ba .bbling b e h a v i o u r ( P r i n z and P r i n z , 1981). T e r v o o r t (1978), e x p r e s s e d concern about the u n i l a t e r a l or mutual i n f l u e n c e of one language upon a n o t h e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the dominant language w i l l tend to e x e r t a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e upon the l e s s e r used language , however, T e r v o o r t a d v i s e d that b e f o r e b i l i n g u a l i n t e r f e r e n c e o c c u r r i n g between two d i f f e r e n t modes may be examined i t i s e s s e n t i a l to u n d e r s t a n d the nature of n o n l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication of s i g n e r s . T h u s , a complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s i g n language must be a t t a i n e d b e f o r e a c r e d i b l e comparison w i t h spoken languages can be made. In b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n amongst spoken languages the b e l i e f s and v a l u e s of the m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e to which a c h i l d belongs has a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the development of that c h i l d ' s s e l f - i d e n t i t y . 53 The n e g l e c t of t h i s fundamental c o n n e c t i o n tended to d i s f a v o u r the m i n o r i t y c h i l d ' s own p e r c e p t i o n of h i s s e l f worth amongst p e e r s of the predominant c u l t u r e . T h i s may be a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n of the low achievement a t t a i n e d by h e a r i n g m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s i n an Anglo o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n a l system ( U . S . Commission on C i v i l R i g h t s , 1971). Teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s i s another p o s s i b l e f a c t o r as d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s are not expec ted to a c h i e v e ^ a s h i g h as o t h e r s and t h e r e f o r e , do not ( R o s e n t h a l and J a c o b s o n , 1968). The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t c h i l d r e n must be a c c e p t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s and not s t e r e o t y p e d (Walker , 1979). Acceptance s t a r t s i n the home and as C o r s o n ' s (1973) s tudy has shown, p a r e n t a l acceptance i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the development of deaf c h i l d r e n . A c c e p t a n c e of a c h i l d ' s d e a f n e s s may, f o r some p a r e n t s , mean the use of s i g n language to f a c i l i t a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . L a y t o n e t . a l . ( l 9 7 9 ) q u e s t i o n e d the f u l l advantages of n o n f l u e n t H e a r i n g s i g n e r s s i g n i n g to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Concern i s e x p r e s s e d at the p o s s i b i l i t y of s i g n s l e a r n e d t h r o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n s not b e i n g c o m p a t i b l e w i t h normal language d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence . Van Metre and Maxwell (1981) found t h a t s t u d e n t s do not use ASL w i t h h e a r i n g p a r e n t s but do so e i g h t y p e r c e n t of the t ime w i t h t h e i r p e e r s . They i n f e r r e d t h i s to be an i n d i c a t i o n of the need to make s i g n s used at home conform w i t h s i g n s i n the s c h o o l s . Research has not been c a r r i e d out on b i l i n g u a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n v o l v i n g s i g n language to the same ex tent as i t has w i t h those 54 i n v o l v i n g a m i n o r i t y s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . The q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r ASL o r E n g l i s h s h o u l d be t h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e s t i l l a w a i t s s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s . E d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s m o s t l y u s e s i g n s y s t e m s a s t h e i r b a s i s o f t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h . B a s e d on t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f b i l i n g u a l i s m i t i s d e b a t a b l e w h e t h e r t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a t r u e b i l i n g u a l e x p e r i e n c e . S a l l o p (1973) i n a s i x week e x p e r i m e n t t a u g h t E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . H i s e x p e r i e n c e s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n u s i n g g e s t u r e s o n l y , ASL s h o u l d be t a u g h t , and f o r t h o s e who knew A S L , s i g n e d E n g l i s h was t h e n a p p r o p r i a t e . The T u t o r i a l C e n t e r o f G a l l a u d e t C o l l e g e u s e s w r i t t e n E n g l i s h a s a means f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g E n g l i s h and s i g n s t o i m p a r t c o n c e p t s ( G o l d b e r g and Bo rdman , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h i s b r i n g s t o l i g h t a ma jo r o b s t a c l e i n t h a t ASL has no w r i t t e n f o r m , a l t h o u g h , S t o k o e (1976) c l a i m e d t h a t s u c h a f o r m i s now p o s s i b l e . The n o t i o n o f a w r i t t e n fo rm f o r s i g n s a p p e a l s t o t h e p r a g m a t i c i n t e r e s t s o f e d u c a t o r s and new i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f a s i g n l a n g u a g e may a l t e r p r e s e n t me thods i n t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e (ASL o r E n g l i s h ) t o t h e D e a f . H o w e v e r , t h e p r e s e n t method o f d e p i c t i n g s i g n s by a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n may p r o v e t o be t o o cumbersome t o j u s t i f y i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . J u s t as s i g n s a r e a p p e a l i n g t o Dea f s i g n e r s , t h e p r i n t e d f o r m must a l s o be p r e s e n t e d as a p r a c t i c a l and u s e f u l med ium. In summary, b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n o f f e r s a new and p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e method f o r t e a c h i n g the D e a f . I t s s u c c e s s d e p e n d s on t h e c h o i c e o f an a p p r o p r i a t e f i r s t l a n g u a g e and 55 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t e n t on i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f Dea f c u l t u r e i n t o s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . 56 PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF SIGN LANGUAGE E d u c a t i o n a l systems are the e s t a b l i s h e d means of e n s u r i n g t h a t the s t r u c t u r e s and v a l u e systems of the c o n t r o l l i n g s o c i e t y remain i n t a c t (S tokoe , 1978). C h i l d r e n a re p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h these systems i n order to be s o c i a l l y and c o m m u n i c a t i v e l y e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n s . I n s t i t u t i o n s depend upon a common language f o r a s h a r i n g of ideas and an i n c u l c a t i o n of b e l i e f s and mores . U s i n g language as a code , i n f o r m a t i o n i s t r a n s m i t t e d through a p p r o p r i a t e communicat ive modes r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s use of the s e n s o r y o r g a n s . S i g n i n g , s p e a k i n g , w r i t i n g , b r a i l l e , and f i n g e r s p e l l i n g e x e m p l i f y the use of v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , and t a c t i l e senses to express and p e r c e i v e messages. The language used i s r e l a t e d to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i e t y and r e p r e s e n t s a l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t of that s o c i e t y ' s c u l t u r e ( H o i j e r , 1948). The mode used i s u s u a l l y speech which may be v i s u a l f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d or t a c t i l e f o r the d e a f - b l i n d . A spoken language i s the dominant form of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o n s e q u e n t l y , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s c a t e r i n g to s o c i e t y ' s needs are g e n e r a l l y based upon the norms e s t a b l i s h e d by h e a r i n g speakers of the common l a n g u a g e . The use of ASL among Deaf p e o p l e i s a s a l i e n t g e s t u r e t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l system must adapt i f i t i s to f u l f i l l the r o l e of t e a c h i n g s o c i e t y ' s b e l i e f s and mores. Foremost , i n t h i s a d a p t i o n i s the p r e r e q u i s i t e t h a t the Deaf be a c c e p t e d as c i t i z e n s w i t h r i g h t s s i m i l a r to H e a r i n g c i t i z e n s . 57 However, the common a t t i t u d e towards those w i t h p h y s i c a l d e v i a t i o n s i s one of a v e r s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f the d i s a b i l i t y i s i m p a i r e d h e a r i n g . Deafness however, i s an i n v i s i b l e h a n d i c a p and does not evoke the a v e r s i o n d i s p l a y e d t o more o b v i o u s h a n d i c a p s such as c e r e b r a l p a l s y . I t i s the communication system used by the Deaf who o t h e r w i s e l o o k normal t h a t f r i g h t e n s o f f H e a r i n g p e r s o n s . The e f f e c t s of d e a f n e s s a r e g e n e r a l l y m i s j u d g e d by those p e r s o n s who a c c e p t the myth or the 'obvious' s o l u t i o n t h a t h e a r i n g a i d s and l i p r e a d i n g s o l v e a l l p r o b l e m s . ( L e v i n e , 1981) F u r t h e r m o r e , the o r a l - m a n u a l c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t has raged s i n c e the 1860s has f a i l e d t o account f o r or base i t s argument upon the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s p r e f e r e n c e or the group p r e f e r e n c e ( L l o y d , 1973). L i k e w i s e , as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , the r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g v a r i o u s s i g n systems i s not based upon o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s . I n s t e a d , the problem of overcoming the d u a l communicative problem imposed by a l o s s of h e a r i n g and a speech impairment has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s i m p l e minded s o l u t i o n s b e i n g o f f e r e d t o a s s i s t i n a deaf c h i l d ' s development ( M i n d e l , 1972). 'Talk l o u d e r ' , 'Speak more s l o w l y ' , 'Have him f e e l h i s t h r o a t when v o i c i n g ' , and 'Sign i n the E n g l i s h word o r d e r ' a r e not s o l u t i o n s and s e r v e t o d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n from the c r u c i a l i s s u e of accommodating a c h i l d ' s needs. Watson (1973), c r i t i c i z e d the e d u c a t i o n a l system f o r f o r c i n g the c h i l d t o meet the needs of a system which i s d e s i g n e d around a p a r t i c u l a r 58 communicat ive method. M i n d e l (1974) remarked t h a t "deaf c h i l d r e n seemed to be commodit ies u t i l i z e d i n the suppor t of an e d u c a t i o n a l system o f f e ' r i n g the g r e a t e s t awards to p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s " ( p . 8 3 ) . As f o r Deaf a d u l t s , the p r i c e i s too h i g h to p e r m i t them to p a r t a k e i n e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s which i n v a r i a b l y l e a v e the deaf c h i l d w i t h undeveloped p o t e n t i a l i n f a v o u r of s a t i s f i e d p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s ( C a r v e r , 1981). I r o n i c a l l y , i n t e n t i o n a l l y good s c h o o l p o l i c i e s may have c o n t r i b u t e d to a new p e r s p e c t i v e on d e a f n e s s y i e l d i n g the o p i n i o n t h a t , p e r h a p s , " the b i g g e s t h a n d i c a p of the deaf man i s the man w i t h s o - c a l l e d normal h e a r i n g " (Carney , 1973, p . 1 3 5 ) . In response to these o b s e r v a t i o n s , r e s e a r c h e r s are b e g i n n i n g to look at the s i g n language used by the Deaf and a l s o t o seek out o p i n i o n s of the Deaf community. Deafness and a n a t i v e s i g n language are two common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a Deaf community. Jacobs (1974b) d e s c r i b e d the Deaf community as the " n a t u r a l r e s u l t of a p e o p l e who seek t h i e r own k i n d f o r mutual p l e a s u r e and b e n e f i t " ( p . 7 0 ) . I t i s " f r e e and easy communica t ion" that s e r v e s to draw Deaf p e o p l e t o g e t h e r ( J a c o b s , 1974b, p . 7 0 ) . The impediment, to l e a r n i n g a spoken l a n g u a g e , that a h e a r i n g l o s s s i g n i f i e s makes s i g n language the o b v i o u s c h o i c e f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g . A common language s e r v e s to s a t i s f y the b a s i c human needs f o r communicat ing and i s c r i t i c a l i n the s o c i a l i z i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o t h e i r c u l t u r e ( S t e v e n s , 1976). A l t h o u g h , t h e r e are some 59 o r a l Dea f members w i t h i n t h e D e a f c o m m u n i t y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e Dea f use s i g n l a n g u a g e and v i e w t h o s e d e a f p e r s o n s who do no t as " o u t s i d e r s " ( H i g g i n s , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s d i s a s s o c i a t i o n o f s p e a k e r s and s i g n e r s , i d e n t i f i e d a s an e t h n o c e n t r i c b i a s ( S c h l e s i n g e r and Meadow, 1 9 7 2 ) , i s s i m i l a r t o t h e s p l i t be tween e d u c a t o r s who h o l d t h a t l e a r n i n g o f s p e e c h d u r i n g s c h o o l age i s more r e l e v a n t t h a n t h e l e a r n i n g o f s i g n l a n g u a g e ( N i c h o l a s , 1 9 7 5 ) , and t h o s e who a d v o c a t e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f s p e e c h a n d s i g n s t o g e t h e r ( D e n t o n , 1 9 7 2 ) . S t o k o e , (1971) e q u a t e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m w i t h a b e l i e f t h a t o n e ' s l a n g u a g e i s t h e o n l y l a n g u a g e t h a t can be l i n q u i s t i c and t o " d e n y t h a t some o t h e r l a n g u a g e i s ' s y s t e m a t i c ' and t o impu te t o t h e o u t - g r o u p u s i n g t h e l a n g u a g e a d e f i c i e n c y o f m e n t a l f u n c t i o n i n g , . . . . comes p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e t o r a c i s m " ( p . 3 6 ) . To r e g a r d s i g n i n g a s b e i n g i n f e r i o r t o s p e a k i n g i s t o i n s t i l a s e n s e o f r e j e c t i o n and c o n d e s c e n s i o n i n a d e a f c h i l d t h a t may be d a m a g i n g ( F reeman e t . a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . O t h e r s a r e c o n v i n c e d o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n be tween l a n g u a g e and t h e Dea f commun i t y and have s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y and s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as s u c h ( C h a r r o w and W i l b u r , 1975 ; . C h a r r o w , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h a t t h e r u l e s f o r l a n g u a g e u s a g e a r e o u t s i d e t h e c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l o f an i n d i v i d u a l and a r e c u l t u r a l l y p a t t e r n e d b e h a v i o u r s l e a r n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , i s a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e ( E r t i n g , 1 9 8 1 ) . In t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e e x i s i t i n g s k i l l s 60 and s t r a t e g i e s of deaf c h i l d r e n are examined r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c d e f i c i e n c e s . Woodward (1972) suggested t h a t the Deaf community be a source f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g how the language s i t u a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s a t t i t u d e s and s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to the d e a f . H a r r i s (1978) a l s o emphasized the need to u n d e r s t a n d the r o l e of ASL and the Deaf community i n a deaf i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . Gustason (1973) warned a g a i n s t the d e n i a l of a deaf c h i l d ' s access through the medium of s i g n s to Deaf c u l t u r e and suggested t h a t poor e d u c a t i o n a l achievements i s the r e s u l t of not r e s p e c t i n g the language of the D e a f . More r e s p e c t towards s i g n i n g and the o p i n i o n s of the Deaf i s a s u r f a c i n g t r e n d . D a v i s (1975), s t a t e d t h a t the deaf p e r s o n ' s c h o i c e of communication modes i s the key to the development of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l . W i l s o n (1975), v a l u e d the e x p e r i e n c e of a deaf person t h a t cannot be found i n books , through c o l l e g e c o u r s e s or l e a r n e d from H e a r i n g p e o p l e . O t h e r s , l i k e Reeves (1975) are concerned t h a t the " o p i n i o n s of the deaf themselves are based on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s " (p.11) and due to t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e na ture " the v a l i d i t i y of t h e i r o p i n i o n s i s i n some p a r t q u e s t i o n e d " ( p . 1 2 ) . C o n c e r n , i n t h i s l a t t e r sense , f a i l s to account f o r the emotions of a m i n o r i t y group a t t e m p t i n g to g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r own s t a t u s and l a n g u a g e . D e s p i t e t h i s concern communication i s a two way s t r e e t r e q u i r i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n between the two 61 p a r t i c i p a n t s ( T r o n i c k e t . a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . W h i c h way t h e Dea f c h o o s e must be c o n s i d e r e d . R e s e a r c h e r s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o a s s e s s t h e v a l u e o f t h e Dea f commun i t y and i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o w a r d s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d e a f c h i l d . E r t i n g (1978) s p e a k s o f s i g n l a n g u a g e a s an " e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c h e r i t a g e " c r u c i a l i n a l l o w i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n t h e v a l u e s and g o a l s o f t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . T h i s may be i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l o f f i r s t t e a c h i n g t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e l a r g e r H e a r i n g s o c i e t y . D e n i a l o r s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e r i g h t t o l e a r n s i g n l a n g u a g e has r e s u l t e d i n ASL b e c o m i n g a s t i g m a ( K a n n a p e l l , 1 9 7 4 ) . K a n n a p e l l (1974) l i n k e d t h i s s t i g m a t o a n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t amongs t Dea f p e o p l e , and p o s t u l a t e d t h a t " w i t h i n t h e d e a f w o r l d p e o p l e a r e r a n k e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e y c a n ' h i d e ' t h e i r s t i g m a and ' p a s s ' f o r h e a r i n g " ( p . 1 0 ) . T h a t i s , ASL i s a l o w e r f o r m of c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h a n E n g l i s h . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e Deaf may f e e l t h a t ASL makes them i n f e r i o r t o H e a r i n g p e o p l e ( K a n n a p e l l , 1 9 7 5 a ) . T h i s a t t i t u d e has been e x a c e r b a t e d by y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g when t h e Dea f were t a u g h t t o speak and w r i t e E n g l i s h i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y m i g h t be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e H e a r i n g s o c i e t y ( G u s t a s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h i s t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e has r e s t r i c t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p o s i t i v e s e l f i d e n t i t y i n d e a f c h i l d r e n ( M i n d e l , 1 9 7 4 ) . A Dea f c h i l d n e e d s t o have a d u l t Dea f m o d e l s t o h e l p h im u n d e r s t a n d h i s h a n d i c a p and i t s a f f e c t s on h i s s e l f - i m a g e , s e l f - e s t e e m and 62 s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e (Bowe, 1 9 7 3 ) . V e r n o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , s p o k e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l h a n d i c a p b e i n g a g r e a t e r d i s a b i l i t y t h a n t h e h a n d i c a p o f d e a f n e s s due t o p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s b e i n g p l a c e d upon s p e e c h , r h y t h m b a n d s , a u d i t i o n , and l i p r e a d i n g . In a d d i t i o n t o a v o i d i n g t h e v i e w s o f t h e D e a f , r e s e a r c h e r s and e d u c a t o r s have been a c c u s e d o f b e i n g u n q u a l i f i e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f s i g n l a n g u a g e . F a l b e r g , ( 1 9 6 7 ) , a d e a f p s y c h o l o g i s t , does ' no t p r e t e n d t o be c a p a b l e o f c o m p l e t e l y e x a m i n i n g h e a r i n g c l i e n t s and i s p e r p l e x e d by s t u d i e s on d e a f s u b j e c t s by h e a r i n g p e o p l e who l a c k e d e f f i c i e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S t o k o e (1972) s p o k e o f t h e i n t r i n s i c b i a s r e s e a r c h e r s , no t b o r n d e a f , w i l l h a ve t o w a r d s t h o u g h t , l a n g u a g e , and s p e e c h . P a u l ( 1 9 7 6 a ) , d e p l o r e d t h e n o t i o n o f h e a r i n g t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g s i g n s when t h e s e same t e a c h e r s c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e u s e d by t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The ' c o u p de g r a c e ' f o r t h e Dea f commun i t y i s f e l t i n o t h e r ways a s J a c o b s (1974b) e x p l a i n s "What makes t h i s s a d d e r and more i n f u r i a t i n g t o t h e d e a f a d u l t s i s t h a t t h o s e e d u c a t o r s , who have n o t b e t t e r t h a n s e c o n d h a n d e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h d e a f n e s s , s h o u l d be i n a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y where t h e y have i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u n t o l d t h o u s a n d s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . . . T h e y t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s u p e r i o r s and p a r e n t s , have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e d t o l i s t e n t o , l e t a l o n e c o n s u l t t he o n l y p e o p l e who have been t h r o u g h t h e m i l l - t h e d e a f t h e m s e l v e s . " ( p . 2 0 0 ) The l i t e r a t u r e c o n v i n c i n g l y i n d i c a t e s t h e need t o f o r m u l a t e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s b a s e d upon t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e Dea f 63 t h e m s e l v e s . I t may w e l l be that the time has come to heed the p r e m o n i t i o n of Stewart (1972) t h a t " the p a t i e n c e of the s i l e n t m a j o r i t y i s growing t h i n . " (p . ) 64 TELEV I S ION CAPTIONING In an e f f o r t t o a s s i s t t h e Dea f and t h e H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g i n p a r t a k i n g i n a c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k , t h a t i s l a r g e l y a u d i t o r y d e p e n d e n t , s c i e n t i s t s have c r e a t e d t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s t h a t a r e v i s i o n - o r i e n t e d . In t h e a r e a o f t e l e p h o n e s , t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v i c e s f o r t h e Dea f (TDDs) a l l o w s f o r o r t h o g r a p h i c e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g the t e l e p h o n e l i n e s f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i s a p p a r e n t n o t o n l y f r o m i t s o b v i o u s v a l u e t o t h e u s e r s b u t f r o m i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e needs o f t h e Dea f and H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g . C a l i f o r n i a , f o r e x a m p l e , ha s e s t a b l i s h e d r e g u l a t i o n s d i r e c t i n g t e l e p h o n e c o m p a n i e s t o p r o v i d e TDDs f o r p r o s p e c t i v e c o n s u m e r s j u s t a s t h e y s u p p l y t e l e p h o n e s t o n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g c u s t o m e r s ( S t o k e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . F o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n TDDs o f f e r e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h a v i s u a l d i s p l a y o f p r i n t e d words w h i c h i n e f f e c t r emoved t h e need t o p o s s e s s a d e q u a t e h e a r i n g as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o u t i l i z i n g t h e t e l e p h o n e . In t h e f i e l d o f t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s have made t h e a u d i o p o r t i o n s o f t e l e v i s i o n shows v i s i b l e a s p r i n t e d words w h i c h a r e known a s c a p t i o n s . T h i s o r t h o g r a p h i c d i s p l a y on t e l e v i s i o n i s r e s p o n i b l e f o r a t r e m e n d o u s i n c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n by Dea f and H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g v i e w e r s . T h e s e v i e w e r s a r e now b e t t e r a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e and e n j o y t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and e n t e r t a i n i n g a s p e c t s w h i c h t e l e v i s i o n has t o o f f e r . 65 I n i t i a l l y , c a p t i o n i n g was s u g g e s t e d by R o s s H a m i l t o n i n a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n i n t h e l a t e f o r t i e s ( S t e p p , 1 9 8 1 ) . In 1950 , t h e i d e a was i m p l e m e n t e d and s p o n s o r e d by t h e J u n i o r L e a g u e o f H a r t f o r d , C o n n e t i c u t , w h i c h h e l p e d e s t a b l i s h t h e C a p t i o n e d F i l m s f o r t h e D e a f (CFD) a s a n o n p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n ( B o a t n e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . L a t e r t h e L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s u n d e r P u b l i c Law 85-905 i n 1958 , e s t a b l i s h e d a n a t i o n a l o f f i c e f o r C F D . D u r i n g C F D ' s f i r s t few y e a r s o f e x i s t e n c e e n t e r t a i n m e n t f i l m s were c a p t i o n e d a n d d i s t r i b u t e d t o d e a f c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . W i t h an amendment t o t h e C a p t i o n e d F i l m s A c t i n 1962 and an i n c r e a s e i n f u n d i n g , c a p t i o n e d e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g f i l m s became a v a i l a b l e ( P r o p p , 1 9 7 8 ) . F u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s o c c u r r e d and CFD e x p a n d e d i t s f u n c t i o n t o i n c l u d e a s y s t e m a t i c s c r e e n i n g and s e l e c t i n g o f f i l m s . P r e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d y g u i d e s b a s e d upon new f i l m s e n t e r e d i n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l i b r a r y and t h e o r g a n i z i n g o f w o r k s h o p s f o r w r i t i n g c a p t i o n s ( P a r l a t o , 1 9 7 7 ) . In 1967 , CFD became t h e M e d i a S e r v i c e s and C a p t i o n e d F i l m s B r a n c h ( G o u g h , 1 9 6 8 ) . The name was a g a i n c h a n g e d i n 1974 t o C a p t i o n e d F i l m s and T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' s B r a n c h ( S t e p p , 1 9 8 1 ) . Among t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d and s p o n s o r e d by C a p t i o n e d F i l m s and T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s (CF&T) was t h e c a p t i o n i n g o f t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t s . CF&T f u n d e d t h e c a p t i o n i n g c e n t e r a t WGBH i n B o s t o n w h i c h c a p t i o n e d t h e ABC News, Zoom, and t h e F r e n c h C h e f . A l l o f t he shows d i s p l a y e d open c a p t i o n s w h i c h were a p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r b r o a d c a s t . T h a t i s , t h e c a p t i o n s 66 were d i s p l a y e d on e v e r y t e l e v i s i o n s e t c a r r y i n g t h e p r o g r a m . S i n c e v i e w e r s w i t h a d e q u a t e h e a r i n g may f i n d t h e c a p t i o n s d i s r u p t i n g i t was n o t f e a s i b l e t o a l l o w many p r o g r a m s t o be open c a p t i o n e d ( L u c y k , 1 9 7 9 ) . In 1971 a s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o open c a p t i o n i n g , t h e N a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h ABC T e l e v i s i o n Ne twork d e m o n s t r a t e d a s y s t e m a l l o w i n g c a p t i o n s t o be v i e w e d o n l y on t e l e v i s i o n s e t s e q u i p p e d w i t h d e c o d i n g d e v i c e s ( C a l d w e l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , known as c l o s e d c a p t i o n i n g , c o n v e r t e d d i a l o g u e i n t o e l e c t r o n i c c o d e s w h i c h were t h e n i n s e r t e d o n t o L i n e 21 on a r e g u l a r t e l e v i s i o n s e t . S i n c e L i n e 21 i s n o t v i s i b l e on t h e s c r e e n a s p e c i a l d e c o d i n g d e v i c e i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s p l a y t h e c a p t i o n s . The s u c c e s s o f c l o s e d c a p t i o n i n g l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l C a p t i o n i n g I n s t i t u t e (NCI) i n 1979 . ABC , NBC, and PBS a g r e e d t o a l l o w NCI t o c a p t i o n some o f t h e i r p r o g r a m s and S e a r s , Roebuck and Company a s sumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m a r k e t i n g a d e c o d i n g d e v i c e f o r r e g u l a r t e l e v i s i o n s e t s ( C a l d w e l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . S p u r r e d on by t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e f r o m Dea f and H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g v i e w e r s NCI e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h l i v e c a p t i o n i n g w h i c h i s t h e p r o c e s s o f p r e p a r i n g c a p t i o n s f r o m a d v a n c e c o p i e s o f s p e e c h e s and t h e n s t o r i n g them f o r l a t e r r e p l a y i n u n i s o n w i t h a s p e a k e r ' s d e l i v e r y ( C a l d w e l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n e v i t a b l y t h e s u c c e s s o f l i v e c a p t i o n i n g w i l l be f o l l o w e d by t e c h n i c a l c h a n g e s p e r m i t t i n g r e a l - t i m e c a p t i o n i n g . R e a l - t i m e 67 c a p t i o n i n g i s t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s c o n v e r s i o n o f s p o k e n c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t o p r i n t . S t u c k l e s s (1981) s p o k e o f r e a l - t i m e g r a p h i c d i s p l a y a s b e i n g t h e " p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e i n p r i n t e d o r w r i t t e n f o r m t o one p e r s o n as i t i s b e i n g g e n e r a t e d o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y o r t h r o u g h s p e e c h by a n o t h e r . " ( p . 291) T h u s , t h e a d v e n t o f r e a l - t i m e c a p t i o n i n g w i l l n o t be l i m i t e d t o t e l e v i s i o n bu t u l t i m a t e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e t h a t c o n v e r t s s p e e c h t o p r i n t d u r i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , c a p t i o n i n g i n Canada has c o n s i s t e d o f p r o g r a m s f r o m U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h a few C a n a d i a n b a s e d shows b e i n g c a p t i o n e d by NCI f o r b r o a d c a s t on C B C . H o w e v e r , i n 1981 , t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t a p p r o v e d f u n d i n g f o r a C a n a d i a n C a p t i o n i n g D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c y (CCDA) t h a t i s e x p e c t e d t o become o p e r a t i o n a l by m id-1982 ( C a n a d i a n C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l on D e a f n e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a p t i o n i n g i s t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k t h a t i t p r o v i d e s f o r Dea f and H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . S t e p p ( 1 9 8 1 ) , r e f e r r e d t o e d u c a t i o n a s b e i n g a " p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n be tween t h e l e a r n e d and h i s s o c i e t y . " ( p . 265) F rom a s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e Dea f and H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g c o n s u m e r s o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h o t h e r s due t o t h e i r new l y a c q u i r e d a c c e s s t o c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t ( C a l d w e l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s a r e a i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y new. B l a t t and S u l z e r (1981) c o n c l u d e d 68 i n t h e i r r e p o r t o f a n a t i o n a l s u r v e y o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n v i e w e r s t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d t o a s s e s s t h e i m p a c t o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n a s a m e c h a n i s m f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t , e d u c a t i o n , c i t i z e n s h i p , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n a c u l t u r e i n f l u e n c e d by t e l e v i s i o n . F rom an e d u c a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t c a p t i o n i n g o f f e r s a p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h . S t u c k l e s s (1981) d e l i n e a t e d t h r e e common a p p r o a c h e s u s e d i n t h e s c h o o l s as b e i n g a m p l i f i c a t i o n a n d a u d i t o r y t r a i n i n g , i n t e n s i v e l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n f o c u s e d on s t r u c t u r e and v o c a b u l a r y , and manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . He t h e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e a l - t i m e g r a p h i c d i s p l a y may be a v i a b l e f o u r t h a p p r o a c h . L a n g u a g e i s s e q u e n t i a l l y p r o c e s s e d by t h e e a r s and e y e s . W h e r e a s , t h e e a r s a r e a d a p t e d t o t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t e m p o r a l - s e q u e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h e e y e s a r e a b l e t o p r o c e s s s p a t i a l - s e q u e n t i a l l y . C a p t i o n s a r e a t e m p o r a l s e q u e n t i a l e v e n t . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f i n c l u d i n g v i s i o n and i t s s p a t i a l - s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g a b i l i t i e s S t u c k l e s s (1978) p r o p o s e d t h a t w i t h t h e a i d o f t e c h n o l o g y t h e t r u e l a n g u a g e f o r many Dea f c a n be t h e s p a t i a l - s e q u e n t i a l l a n g u a g e o f w r i t t e n and p r i n t e d E n g l i s h . A l t h o u g h , one m i g h t a r g u e w h e t h e r a g r a p h i c f o r m o f E n g l i s h c a n c o n s t i t u t e a t r u e l a n g u a g e , i t i s t e m p t i n g t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t c a p t i o n s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y a s s i s t i n t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . W i th row (1981 ) c a l c u l a t e d t h a t an a v e r a g e p r e s c h o o l c h i l d w a t c h e s t e l e v i s i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35 h o u r s / w e e k . 69 T h i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o 1 7 5 , 0 0 0 p a s s i v e word e x p e r i e n c e s w e e k l y . When p r i n t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a c t i o n on t h e t e l e v i s i o n s r e e n , t h i s may be t h e s o u r c e o f a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n t o r e a d . C l a r k e S c h o o l f o r t h e D e a f have r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x p o s i n g c h i l d r e n t o p r i n t e d E n g l i s h and have a c ampus-w ide c a b l e s y s t e m t h a t i s i n s t a l l e d i n a l l c l a s s r o o m s , d o r m i t o r y p l a y r o o m s , t e a c h e r r e s i d e n c e s , and s t a f f q u a r t e r ( C a n o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . W i d e s p r e a d e x p o s u r e t o w e l l - w r i t t e n c a p t i o n s h e l p s t o d i r e c t l y a t t a c k c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m s and d e v e l o p o v e r a l l l i n q u i s t i c c o m p e t e n c e ( C a l d w e l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . A s t u d y by Norwood (1976) showed t h a t Dea f a d u l t s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r on r e c a l l t e s t s when v i e w i n g a c a p t i o n e d news b r o a d c a s t t h a n a i n t e r p r e t e d news b r o a d c a s t . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o e x p r e s s e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n s o v e r i n t e r p r e t e d news . T e l e v i s i o n c a p t i o n i n g i s s t i l l a r e l a t i v e l y n o v e l e x p e r i e n c e . S u b s e q u e n t l y , r e s e a r c h i s l a c k i n g w i t h r e g a r d s t o s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c a p t i o n s . One s t u d y by B r a v e r m a n (1981) a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e e f f e c t i v e c a p t i o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r s t u d e n t s n i n e t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f a g e . U s i n g t h r e e l e v e l s o f l i n g u i s t i c c o m p l e x i t y i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e l e v e l s . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d c a p t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g f o u r t h - g r a d e w o r d s , r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s i n t h e f i n a l p o s i i t o n , i f / t h e n s e n t e n c e s , n e g a t i v e q u e s t i o n s , and i n f i n i t i v e c o m p l e m e n t s . E x a m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f c a p t i o n r a t e s i t was 70 shown t h a t c o m p r e h e n s i o n was m a i n t a i n e d when c a p t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d a s f a s t a s 120 words p e r m i n u t e . B r a v e r m a n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a m u l t i l e v e l c a p t i o n i n g a p p r o a c h be i m p l e m e n t e d t o a s s i s t l o w e r l e v e l r e a d e r s . The l a r g e r q u e s t i o n r a i s e d by t h e a d v e n t a n d w i d e s p r e a d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n i s w h e t h e r an i n c r e a s e i n t h e e x p o s u r e t o E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e w i l l h ave an e f f e c t on t h e d e a f i n d i v i d u a l ' s ' m e t h o d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . W i l l one' t e n d t o r e l y l e s s upon ASL and use a s i g n s y s t e m t h a t f o l l o w s t h e E n g l i s h word o r d e r ? Wou ld t h e r e be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e o v e r a l l E n g l i s h c o m p e t e n c y l e v e l o f d e a f s c h o o l l e a v e r s t h a t c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e use o f c a p t i o n s t o a s s i s t i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h ? What t h e n w i l l be t h e p r i m a r y s i g n s u s e d by t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s ? 71 CHAPTER I I I : RESEARCH DESIGN The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s u r v e y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e v i e w s o f t h e a d u l t Dea f commun i t y t o w a r d t h e me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s e d i n t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , s i g n l a n g u a g e i s n o t w i d e l y u s e d i n p r o g r a m s and t h e r e were some s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d a s t o t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g s i g n s y s t e m s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , o p i n i o n s o f t h e Dea f commun i t y i n t h i s r e s p e c t c o u l d n o t be f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s t h i s o m i s s i o n t h a t was a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o s o l i c i t r e l e v a n t v i e w s t o w a r d c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on a r e s p o n d e n t ' s b a c k g r o u n d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by s i g n a n d was g i v e n t o Dea f a d u l t s l i v i n g i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . Due t o t h e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t i n c l u d i n g q u e s t i o n s f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t u s e r s , t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r i d e n t i f i e s t h e s e u s e r s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y p e r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . Sample s e l e c t i o n , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and d a t a a n a l y s e s f o r t h e ma in s t u d y a r e t h e n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n . 72 DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT  A . B a c k g r o u n d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p r e s e n t e d a j o i n t e f f o r t o f two u s e r g r o u p s and t h e a u t h o r . The two u s e r g r o u p s were t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e Dea f ( G . V . A . D . ) a n d t h e W e s t e r n I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e Dea f I n t e r p r e t e r ' s C o m m i t t e e . . The G . V : A . D . was c o n c e r n e d w i t h i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o a s s o c i a t i o n m e m b e r s h i p , Dea f commun i t y i n v o l v e m e n t , and c o n s u m e r i s s u e s . The i n t e r p r e t e r ' s c o m m i t t e e , w h i c h t he a u t h o r c h a i r e d , was s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o i n t e r p r e t i n g . T h e r e f o r e q u e s t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o and p r e p a r e d by t h e s e two g r o u p s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The b u l k o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , h o w e v e r , was d e v e l o p e d by t h e a u t h o r and c o n s i s t e d o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e theme o f t h i s d o c u m e n t . B. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x A , c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r s e c t i o n s : s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l s t a t u s i n v e n t o r y ; e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n ; s u b j e c t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r e s e n t day e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s ; a n d o p i n i o n s on c a p t i o n i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s . P e r t i n e n t t o t h i s d o c u m e n t , q u e s t i o n s were composed t o s o l i c i t v i e w p o i n t s on t h e r o l e o f s i g n l a n g u a g e i n a d e a f c h i l d ' s e a r l y l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e v a l u e o f Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s r e l a t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d e a f c h i l d , and t h e b e n e f i t o f t e a c h e r s o f t h e Dea f u s i n g Dea f s i g n s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . A t o t a l o f 66 q u e s t i o n s was u s e d t o 73 g a t h e r t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , q u e s t i o n s 1-13, 2 1 , 4 1 , 4 6 , and 48 were u s e d t o g a t h e r b i o - d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e s a m p l e . Q u e s t i o n s 32-40 d e a l t w i t h t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s v i e w p o i n t s on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h i s d o c u m e n t . As i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d by t h e a u t h o r . I n p u t was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e b i o - d e m o g r a p h i c i t e m s ( S c h i e n and D e l k , 1974 ; S h r a g g e e t . a l . , 1975 ; C l a r k e e t . a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) , and f r o m t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e members . Q u e s t i o n number 9 was t a k e n f rom t h e G r e a t e r Edmonton S u r v e y o f t h e D e a f s p o n s o r e d by t h e A l b e r t a C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l on D e a f n e s s ( S h r a g g e e t . a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) ; q u e s t i o n s 24-30 were s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n s o f q u e s t i o n s u s e d by V a n M e t r e and M a x w e l l ( 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d d i v i s i o n o f t h e f a m i l y c a t e g o r y i n t o a p a r e n t s e c t i o n and a s i b l i n g s e c t i o n ; a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h p e e r s t o show o n l y t he mode ( s ) o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t ; d e l e t i o n o f t h e modes s i g n s and p i c t u r e s ; and a d d i t i o n o f t h e modes Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y may be d e s c r i b e d a s a d e s c r i p t i v e s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y . A c l o s e d i t e m f o r m a t was c h o s e n t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p i l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . The back o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d t o r e c o r d d a t a i n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s where a r e s p o n d e n t v o l u n t e e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n no t s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u e s t e d . 74 C . P i l o t T e s t . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t t e s t e d w i t h a s amp l e o f 15 Dea f a d u l t s l i v i n g i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . A l l o f t h e a d u l t s were members o f t h e G . V . A . D . B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . The r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o s u g g e s t m o d i f i c a t i o n s and f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l . The r e s u l t o f t h e p i l o t t e s t l e d t o o n l y one a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e : t h e a d d i t i o n o f ' w r i t i n g ' t o t h e l i s t o f p o s s i b l e me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n s 2 4 - 3 0 . F u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m a t b a s e d on s u g g e s t i o n s by t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e members were made b e f o r e t h e f i n a l d r a f t was p r o d u c e d . A t t h i s p o i n t s u g g e s t e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o t h e l a y o u t o f t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o f a c i l i t a t e d a t a c o m p i l a t i o n . I n c l u d e d on t h e f i n a l d r a f t was a c o d i n g f o r e a c h answer t o f a c i l i t a t e key p u n c h i n g . PROCEDURE A . Sample S e l e c t i o n . The n a t u r e o f t h e s u r v e y d i c t a t e d t h e use o f a s a m p l e . S u b j e c t s who met t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r c r i t e r i a were e l i g i b l e f o r s e l e c t i o n : 1 . d e a f ; 2. 19 y e a r s o f age o r o v e r ; 3. a b l e t o s i g n and t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e d i f f e r e n c e be tween Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s ; and 75 4. p r e s e n t l y r e s i d i n g i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . P o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d a t G.V.A.D. s o c i a l e v e n t s and thro u g h p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s of the i n t e r v i e w e r s (see b e l o w ) . One hundred and s i x t y - e i g h t s u b j e c t s so c o n t a c t e d agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e . A l t h o u g h i t can be argued t h a t the Deaf community c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of tho s e who have a h e a r i n g l o s s , h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s ' may a l s o be a member p r o v i d e d they meet c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a (Baker and C o k e l y , 1980). However, t h i s s u r v ey f o c u s e d upon th o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who saw themselves as b e i n g d e a f . T h e r e f o r e , f i v e r espondents who c l a s s i f i e d themselves as b e i n g h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g , and not d e a f , and one i n d i v i d u a l who was not sure were e x c l u d e d . Thus, the f i n a l sample c o n s i s t e d of 162 deaf i n d i v i d u a l s . B. Data C o l l e c t i o n . I n t e r v i e w e r s were used t o ask the q u e s t i o n s and r e c o r d the answers. A l t h o u g h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d i n such a way t h a t i t c o u l d be s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d , the r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g i n t e r v i e w e r s was t o ensure comprehension of the q u e s t i o n s and s o l i c i t a t i o n of comments from those r e l u c t a n t t o w r i t e them down th e m s e l v e s . INTERVIEWER TRAINING Members of the G.V.A.D. s e r v e d as the i n t e r v i e w e r s . They were t r a i n e d a t a Board of D i r e c t o r s m e e t i n g . I n i t i a l l y , t h e r e were 14 p o t e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w e r s who p a i r e d up and a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o e a c h o t h e r a f t e r b e i n g b r i e f e d on t h e recommended p r o c e d u r e s o f i n t e r v i e w i n g . The a u t h o r o b s e r v e d e a c h o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s and was a v a i l a b l e a t a l l t i m e t o r e s p o n d t o any c o n c e r n s a s t h e y a r o s e . Due t o t h e f a c t t h a t p a r t o f t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e was o f d i r e c t i n t e r e s t t o t h e G . V . A . D . and due t o a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t e a c h i n t e r v i e w e r i n d i c a t i n g an i n t e r e s t and c o n f e s s i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l q u e s t i o n s w o u l d be a c c e p t e d t o c o n d u c t i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a f i n a l s e l e c t i o n o f 12 p o t e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w e r s o f w h i c h e i g h t e v e n t u a l l y c o n d u c t e d i n t e r v i e w s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a l l i n t e r v i e w e r s were f l u e n t i n t h e use o f c o l l o q u i a l Dea f s i g n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e y were a l l a c t i v e i n t he Dea f commun i t y and w e l l known by o t h e r commun i t y members . Of t h e e i g h t i n t e r v i e w e r s , two d i d a m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s . B o t h were o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f i n t e r v i e w i n g t o e n s u r e i n t e r v i e w e r c o n s i s t e n c y ( b a s e d upon t h e a u t h o r ' s s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s ) . C r i t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s l o o k e d f o r i n c l u d e d : e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s p u r p o s e ; i m p a r t i a l b e h a v i o u r w h i l e c o n d u c t i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w ; u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f q u e s t i o n s by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ; t o l e r a n c e f o r r e s p o n d e n t s who s i d e - t r a c k e d away f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n , i n t e n t i o n a l l y o r u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y ; and a b i l i t y t o k e e p the f o c u s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . P r o g r e s s o f a l l i n t e r v i e w e r s was m o n i t o r e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l 77 c o n t a c t s made by t h e a u t h o r , t h e G . V . A . D . P r e s i d e n t , and by c o n s u l t a t i o n a t a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s m e e t i n g w h i c h o c c u r r e d a f t e r h a l f o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s had been c o m p l e t e d . S u g g e s t i o n s and a s s i s t a n c e were g i v e n when n e e d e d , and no q u o t a s were p l a c e d on t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s w i t h r e g a r d s t o c o l l e c t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Of t h e 162 i n t e r v i e w s t h a t were u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y t h e a u t h o r c o n d u c t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s . The e i g h t members o f t h e G . V . A . D . B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s u r v e y e d t h e r e m a i n i n g t h i r d . INTERVIEW PROCEDURE E a c h i n t e r v i e w e r a p p r o a c h e d a p r o s p e c t i v e s u b j e c t and b r i e f l y e x p l a i n e d s/he was c o n d u c t i n g a s u r v e y o f t h e Dea f commun i t y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e G . V . A . D . , o b t a i n i n g o p i n i o n s on i n t e r p r e t i n g s e r v i c e s , and c o l l e c t i n g d a t a f o r t h e a u t h o r who i s d o i n g a s t u d y on d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . The r e s p o n d e n t s were t h e n a s k e d i f t h e y w o u l d a g r e e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . V e r b a l c o n s e n t o n l y was r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w t o p r o c e e d . No p e r s u a s i o n t e c h n i q u e s were u s e d , and r e s p o n d e n t s were a l l o w e d t o t e r m i n a t e t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e o r t o r e q u e s t an a l t e r n a t e d a t e . The i n t e r v i e w s began d u r i n g t h e l a s t week o f F e b r u a r y 1982 , and were c o m p l e t e d by A p r i l 17. E a c h i n t e r v i e w r e q u i r e d f r o m 30 t o 40 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e . 78 C . D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d a c o d i n g d e v i c e t h a t a l l o w e d a n s w e r s t o be c o d e d as t h e y were r e c o r d e d . E a c h c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c h e c k e d by t h e a u t h o r t o e n s u r e t h a t c o r r e c t c o d e s were u s e d . The n u m e r i c c o d e ' 0 ' was a s s i g n e d t o any u n a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n and a ' 9 ' was u s e d f o r t h o s e q u e s t i o n s t h a t were n o t - a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e s u b j e c t . The d a t a were t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d o n t o a c o m p u t e r f i l e and v e r i f i e d by k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s o f t he U n i v e r s i t y ' s C o m p u t i n g S c i e n c e C e n t e r . A d d i t i o n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s c o n s i s t e d o f e x a m i n i n g a p r i n t o u t o f f r e q u e n c y t a b l e s f o r e a c h i t e m f o r ou t o f r a n g e r e s p o n s e s . On t h e who l e t h e e r r o r r a t e was v e r y low w i t h 11 e r r o r s b e i n g d e t e c t e d ou t o f a p o s s i b l e 7 6 , 6 2 6 a l l o t t e d c o m p u t e r s p a c e s . Comments were r e c o r d e d d i r e c t l y o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s . T h e s e were no t i n any ways a l t e r e d so as t o c o n f o r m t o a c o n v e n i e n t c a t e g o r y . R a t h e r , t h e y were u s e d d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s . T h e o n e s s e l e c t e d t o be q u o t e d i n t h i s document a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s s i g n l a n g u a g e . D. D a t a A n a l y s i s . R e p o r t i n g and a n a l y s e s o f t he d a t a were c o n d u c t e d u s i n g two p r o c e d u r e s . The d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were t a b u l a t e d t o show a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . The f o l l o w i n g d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d : 1 . age 2. g e n d e r 3. o n s e t o f d e a f n e s s 4 . h e a r i n g a i d u sage 5. v o i c e w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e 6 . c o m u n i c a t i o n f i r s t l e a r n e d 7. age l e a r n e d t o s i g n 8. s o c i a l g r o u p p r e f e r e n c e 9 . Dea f commun i t y m e m b e r s h i p 10 . d o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e 1 1 . d e c o d e r 12 . p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n e d o r i n t e r p r e t e d news 1 3 . c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n . The o v e r a l l v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e a f f e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s were l i k e w i s e t a b u l a t e d e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : 1. t y p e o f s i g n i n g t o be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d 2. t i m e a t w h i c h a d e a f c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n 3. f r e q u e n c y o f use o f Dea f s i g n s w i t h a t e a c h e r 4 . f r e q u e n c y o f u se o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h a t e a c h e r 5. f r e q u e n c y o f use o f Dea f s i g n s w i t h a c h i l d 6 . f r e q u e n c y o f use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h a c h i l d . By t h e m s e l v e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o p i n i o n s do no t a l l o w e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t h e two s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , o f t h e r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s t h a t may 80 i n f l u e n c e t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s were p r e p a r e d and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c h i - s q u a r e f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e c o m p u t e d . The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s t e s t was e s t a b l i s h e d a t f i v e p e r c e n t . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was s e l e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a p a t t e r n among t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t , b e c a u s e o f t h e o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o s s i b i l i l t y o f a Type 1 e r r o r , w o u l d n e e d t o be c o n f i r m e d i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . A l l a n a l y s e s were c o m p u t e d u s i n g t h e SPSS : S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : V e r s i o n 8 . 0 0 ( N i e , N . H . , e t . a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . The s u b p r o g r a m s u s e d were FREQUENCIES , CROSSTABS> and S T A T I S T I C S ( o p t i o n 1 ) . A l l d a t a were s t o r e d and a n a l y z e d on an AMDAHL 470 V/8 c o m p u t e r m a i n t a i n e d by t h e C o m p u t i n g C e n t e r . 81 CHAPTER I V : RESULTS The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o o b t a i n t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e Dea f a d u l t commun i t y t o w a r d t h e use o f s i g n l a n g u a g e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . To a d d r e s s t h i s i s s u e q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o compare t h e o p i n i o n s o f Dea f p e o p l e t o w a r d s Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s . Q u e s t i o n s were a l s o i n c l u d e d t o o b t a i n t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e Dea f p o p u l a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e r o l e o f s i g n l a n g u a g e i n t h e e a r l y l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d e a f c h i l d and t h e use o f Dea f s i g n s by t e a c h e r s o f t h e D e a f . T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . I n i t i a l l y , a r e v i e w o f t h e r e s u l t s d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e b i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s a m p l e and t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e t o t a l s amp le t o t h e t h e a f f e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g r e s p o n d e n t ' s v i e w p o i n t s t o w a r d c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d . S u b s e q u e n t l y , r e s u l t s f r o m t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s on v i e w p o i n t s w i l l be p r o v i d e d . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l e x a m i n e t h e s a m p l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s m e t h o d s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e s e w i l l be a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r i m p a c t upon v i e w p o i n t s . 82 PART U_ POPULATION CHARACTERIST ICS A g e . The m i n i m a l age r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h i s s u r v e y was 19 y e a r s . A y e a r by y e a r f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e a g e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s r a n g e d f r o m 19 y e a r s t o 92 y e a r s . As shown i n T a b l e 1, 3 6 . 6 % were 19-30 y e a r s o l d , 3 3 . 5 % were 31-44 y e a r s o l d , and 2 9 . 8 % were 45 y e a r s and o l d e r . G e n d e r . E i g h t y - s i x o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were m a l e , r e p r e s e n t i n g 5 3 . 1 % o f t he t o t a l s a m p l e ( s ee T a b l e 1 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e s e x e s a r e i n l i n e w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s . C l a r k e e t . a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) i n a s t u d y on s c h o o l a g e d h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o u n d t h a t 5 3 . 4 % o f t h e s t u d e n t s were m a l e . A h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f d e a f n e s s i n m a l e s was a l s o f o u n d i n a s t u d y on t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d e a f p o p u l a t i o n by S c h e i n and D e l k ( 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e i r s t u d y showed t h a t t h e m a l e s composed 5 8 . 7 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e f e m a l e s 4 1 . 3 % . O n s e t o f d e a f n e s s . I t i s a common o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o d i v i d e o n s e t o f d e a f n e s s i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g two c a t e g o r i e s : p r e l i n g u a l (0-2 y e a r s ) and p o s t l i n g u a l d e a f n e s s (2 y e a r s and o v e r ) . A d o p t i n g t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , t h e s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 119 ( 79 .6% ) p r e l i n g u a l l y Dea f a d u l t s ( s ee T a b l e 1 ) . Of t h e p o s t l i n g u a l l y d e a f a d u l t s ( 2 0 . 4 % ) , a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r - f i f t h s became d e a f by t h e age o f f i v e . The l a t e s t r e p o r t e d age f o r o n s e t o f d e a f n e s s was 20 y e a r s . 83 TABLE 1 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTER IST ICS OF THE F INAL SAMPLE D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c f r e q u e n c y p e r c e n t a g e 1 . Age 1 9 - 3 0 y e a r s 59 3 6 . 4 % 31 - 4 4 y e a r s 54 3 3 . 3 % 45 y e a r s and above 48 2 9 . 6 % m i s s i n g d a t a 1 0 . 6 % G e n d e r ma le 86 5 3 . 1% f e m a l e 76 4 6 . 9 % O n s e t o f d e a f n e s s 0 - 2 y e a r s 119 7 9 . 6 % 2 y e a r s and a b o v e 43 2 0 . 4 % H e a r i n g a i d s u s a g e a l l t h e t i m e 29 1 7 . 9 % some o f t h e t i m e 27 1 6 . 7 % n e v e r 105 6 4 . 8 % m i s s i n g d a t a 1 0 . 6 % C o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m f i r s t l e a r n e d s i g n l a n g u a g e 38 2 3 . 5 % s p e a k i n g 80 4 9 . 4 % b o t h , s i g n l a n g u a g e and s p e a k i n g 39 2 4 . 1% o t h e r s 4 2 .5% Age l e a r n e d t o s i g n 0 - 4 y e a r s 28 1 7 . 3 % 5 - 9 y e a r s 94 5 8 . 0 % 10 - 18 y e a r s 32 1 9 . 8 % 19 y e a r s and above 8 3 .1% V o i c e w i t h H e a r i n g p e o p l e a l w a y s 52 3 2 . 1 % somet imes 78 4 8 . 1% n e v e r 31 1 9 . 1 % m i s s i n g d a t a 1 0 . 6 % D o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e y e s 109 6 7 . 3 % no 53 3 2 . 7 % 84 H e a r i n g a i d u s a g e . W i t h i n t h e s a m p l e , 6 4 . 8 % o f t h e p e o p l e d i d no t p r e s e n t l y wear a h e a r i n g a i d , w h i l e 1 7 . 9 % i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y wore a h e a r i n g a i d a l l t h e t i m e and 1 6 . 7 % some o f t h e t i m e ( s e e T a b l e 1 ) . C o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m f i r s t l e a r n e d . N e a r l y h a l f o f t h e s a m p l e ( 49 .4% ) f i r s t l e a r n e d t o speak ( s ee T a b l e 1 ) . A l m o s t e q u a l p e r c e n t a g e s , 2 3 . 5 % and 2 4 . 1 % r e s p e c t i v e l y , l e a r n e d t o s i g n f i r s t o r t o s i g n and spea'k a t t h e same t i m e . A v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n ( 2 .5% ) a c q u i r e d a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m o t h e r t h a n t h e above and w h i c h was commonly r e f e r r e d t o a s a f o r m o f g e s t u r i n g . Age l e a r n e d t o s i g n . To p r o v i d e a f r ame o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e t y p i c a l a g e s a t w h i c h s t u d e n t s b e g i n and g r a d u a t e f r o m s c h o o l were u s e d t o h e l p r e s p o n d e n t s i d e n t i f y t h e age r a n g e d u r i n g w h i c h t h e y began t o l e a r n t o s i g n . S l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n o n e - f i f t h ( 1 7 . 3 % ; see T a b l e 1) began t o t o use s i g n s be tween t h e a g e s 0 and 4 y e a r s , o r t h e p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s . More t h a n h a l f ( 58 .0% ) began t o s i g n be tween 5 and 9 y e a r s . T h i s d r o p p e d t o 1 9 . 8 % f r o m 10 t h r o u g h 18 y e a r s . And f r o m 20 t o 37 y e a r s 3 .1% o f t h e s amp le l e a r n e d t o s i g n . V o i c e w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e . N e a r l y h a l f ( 48 .1% ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y s o m e t i m e s u s e d t h e i r v o i c e s w i t h H e a r i n g p e o p l e ( see T a b l e 1 ) . A n o t h e r t h i r d ( 32 .1% ) r e p o r t e d t h e y a l w a y s u s e d t h e i r v o i c e s , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g f i f t h ( 19 .1% ) r e p o r t e d t h e y n e v e r u s e d t h e i r v o i c e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t 85 t h e a b s e n c e o f v o i c e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y an a b s e n c e o f s p e e c h . In some i n s t a n c e s v o i c e l e s s l i p movements w i l l s u f f i c e f o r t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e e d e d a s , f o r e x a m p l e , when o r d e r i n g f o o d i n a r e s t a u r a n t . D o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e . T w o - t h i r d s ( 6 7 . 3 % ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y l i v e d i n a d o r m i t o r y a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r , * w h i l e 3 2 . 7 % r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had n o t ( s e e T a b l e 1 ) . TABLE 2 PREFERENCE FOR SOCIAL GROUP AND COMMUNITY MEMBERSHIP f r e q u e n c y p e r c e n t a g e 1 . S o c i a l g r o u p p r e f e r e n c e Dea f H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g H e a r i n g Dea f and H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g Dea f and H e a r i n g H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g and H e a r i n g D e a f , H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g , and H e a r i n g 59 0 1 3 23 65 3 6 . 4 % 0 .0% 0 .6% 8 .0% 14 .2% 0 .6% 4 0 . 1% 2. Dea f commun i t y m e m b e r s h i p f u l l - t i m e p a r t - t ime no t a member 89 68 5 5 4 . 9 % 4 2 . 0 % 3 .1% S o c i a l - c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s h i p . In r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n " W h i c h g r o u p d e s c r i b e s t h e p e o p l e y o u l i k e t o be w i t h most o f t h e t i m e ? " , 4 0 . 1 % r e s p o n d e d t h a t t h e y p r e f e r r e d t h e g r o u p D e a f , 86 H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g , and H e a r i n g (see T a b l e 2 ) . The second most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned p r e f e r e n c e was w i t h the Deaf o n l y , 36.4%. The two next most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned groups were the Deaf and H e a r i n g , 14.2% and the Deaf and H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g , 8.0%. A l l o t h e r groups were p r e f e r r e d by l e s s than one p e r c e n t of the sample. I t i s o b v i o u s from t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t the Deaf p r e f e r a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h o t h e r Deaf p e o p l e ; taken t o g e t h e r the g r o u p i n g s t h a t i n c l u d e d Deaf people a c c o u n t e d f o r 98.7% Of the t o t a l r e s p o nse. A m a j o r i t y of the sample (54.9%) s t a t e d t h a t they were f u l l - t i m e members of the Deaf community. Fewer peop l e (42.0%) saw themselves as b e i n g p a r t - t i m e members and a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e f e l t t h a t they were not members. C a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n . Four q u e s t i o n s were d i r e c t e d toward the use and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n . S i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of the respondents r e p o r t e d they owned a decoder (see Table 3 ) . More than t w o - t h i r d s , 71.6%, i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n e d news. A m a j o r i t y , 58.6%, of the r e s p o n d e n t s c l a i m e d t o u n d e r s t a n d c a p t i o n s most of the t i m e , w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t h i r d , 30.9%, i n d i c a t e d they u n d e r s t o o d c a p t i o n s p a r t of the t i m e . 87 TABLE 3 CAPTIONED T E L E V I S I O N STAT I ST ICS f r e q u e n c y p e r c e n t a g e 1. P o s s e s s i o n o f d e c o d e r y e s 102 6 3 . 0 % no 60 3 7 . 0 % 2. News p r e f e r e n c e c a p t i o n e d 116 7 1 . 6 % i n t e r p r e t e d 34 2 1 . 0 % c a n n o t d e c i d e 12 7.4% C o m p r e h e n s i o n o f c a p t i o n s most o f t h e t i m e 95 5 8 . 6 % p a r t o f t h e t i m e 50 3 0 . 9 % no 1 0 . 6 % d e p e n d s on t h e p r o g r a m 9 5.6% m i s s i n g d a t a 7 4 . 3 % E n g l i s h improvemen t y e s 133 8 2 . 1 % no 9 5.6% d o n ' t know 19 1 1 . 7 % m i s s i n g d a t a 1 0 .6% A l a r g e number ( 82 .1% ) a g r e e d t h a t c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n was h e l p i n g them t o i m p r o v e t h e i r E n g l i s h . Abou t one i n t e n ( 11 .7% ) d i d no t know i f i t was , w h i l e 5.6% s a i d t h a t c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n d i d no t i m p r o v e t h e i r E n g l i s h . T h i s q u e s t i o n d i d no t a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e what c o m p o n e n t s o f E n g l i s h ( e g . w r i t i n g s k i l l s , v o c a b u l a r y ) t h a t were i m p r o v e d . I n s t e a d t h e 88 q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d s p a c e f o r comments t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s d o c u m e n t . EXPECTATIONS OF METHODS OF COMMUNICATION FOR CHILDREN 89 S i g n l a n g u a g e as a me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . TABLE 4 OPINIONS ON METHOD OF COMMUNICATION f r e q u e n c y p e r c e n t a g e S i g n l a n g u a g e y e s no d o n ' t know f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n 1 59 0 3 9 8 . 1% 0 . 0 % 1 . 9 % S i g n s t o be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d Dea f s i g n s E n g l i s h s i g n s b o t h , Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s m i s s i n g d a t a 54 33 74 1 3 3 . 3 % 2 0 . 4 % 4 5 . 7 % 0 .6% 3. Age t o s t a r t s i g n i n g s i g n l a n g u a g e t o be a c q u i r e d f i r s t a f t e r s p e e c h has been l e a r n e d same t i m e a s s p e e c h o t h e r m i s s i n g d a t a 80 1 5 61 5 1 4 9 . 4 % 9 .3% 37 3. 0 7% 1% 6% In r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n " S h o u l d most d e a f c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o s i g n ? " , n e a r l y a l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s ( 9 8 . 1 % ) a g r e e d t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n ( see T a b l e 4 ) . T h i s r e s u l t p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n o f t he v a l u e t h a t Dea f a d u l t s a t t a c h t o s i g n i n g . 90 When f a c e d w i t h d e c i d i n g t h e t y p e o f s i g n s t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( 4 5 . 7 % ) f e l t t h a t b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by a t h i r d ( 3 3 . 3 % ) o p t i n g f o r Dea f s i g n s o n l y and a f i f t h ( 20 .4% ) a g r e e i n g t h a t E n g l i s h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t . When s i g n l a n g u a g e was c o m p a r e d w i t h s p e e c h , h a l f ( 49 .4% ) o f t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be t h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e a r n e d . T h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t a g r e e d t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n a s t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g t o s p e a k . A low p e r c e n t a g e (9 .3% ) f e l t t h a t a c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o speak b e f o r e l e a r n i n g t o s i g n . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f a s t r o n g v i e w p o i n t ( 8 7 . 1 % ) t h a t a c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n a t t h e e a r l i e s t age p o s s i b l e . B e n e f i t o f a b i l i n g u a l know l edge o f s i g n s . More t h a n f o u r - f i f t h s ( 82 .7% ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s a r e an i m p o r t a n t a d d i t i o n t o a c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( see T a b l e 5 ) . O n l y 6 .8% f e l t t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s w o u l d n o t be n e c e s s a r y and 9 . 9 % d i d no t know w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y s h o u l d be l e a r n e d . L i k e w i s e , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n , 8 3 . 3 % , f e l t t h a t Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d s t i l l be l e a r n e d e ven i f a c h i l d knew E n g l i s h s i g n s . V e r y f ew , 6 . 8 % , d i d no t see t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l e a r n i n g Dea f s i g n s once E n g l i s h s i g n s were known and 9 .3% d i d no t know i f Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d o r n o t . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a b i l i n g u a l 91 k n o w l e d g e o f s i g n s i s a f a v o u r e d p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e . TABLE 5 B IL INGUAL ACQUIS IT ION OF SIGNS f r e q u e n c y p e r c e n t a g e 1. E n g l i s h s i g n s f o r Dea f s i g n u s e r s y e s 134 8 2 . 7 % no 11 6 .8% d o n ' t know 16 9 .9% • m i s s i n g d a t a 1 0 .6% 2. Dea f s i g n s f o r E n g l i s h s i g n u s e r s y e s 135 8 3 . 3 % no 11 6 .8% d o n ' t know 15 9 .3% m i s s i n g d a t a 1 0 .6% P r o p e r s i gns- f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - f i f t h s ( 37 .7% ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d a l w a y s be u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s ( see T a b l e 6 ) . O n e - t h i r d ( 3 2 . 7 % ) a g r e e d t h a t Dea f s i g n s w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e most o f t h e t i m e and o n e - q u a r t e r ( 25 .9% ) p r e f e r r e d t h a t Dea f s i g n s o n l y be u s e d p a r t o f t h e t i m e . A v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e (3 .1% ) f e l t t h a t Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d no t be u s e d a t a l l . 92 TABLE 6 SIGNS TO BE USED BY THE STUDENTS AND TEACHERS a l w a y s m o s t l y p a r t l y n e v e r 1. S t u d e n t s Dea f s i g n s -(N) 61 53 42 5 (%) 3 7 . 7 3 2 . 7 2 5 . 9 3.1 E n g l i s h s i g n s (N) 58 60 39 4 (%) 3 5 . 8 3 7 . 0 2 4 . 1 2 .5 2. T e a c h e r s Dea f s i g n s (N) 61 54 41 6 (%) 3 7 . 7 3 3 . 3 2 5 . 3 3.7 E n g l i s h s i g n s (N) 67 61 31 4 (%) 4 1 . 4 3 7 . 7 19.1 2 .5 3. Dea f s i g n s f o r t e a c h e r s f r e q u e n c y p e r c e n t a g e y e s 1 46 9 0 . 1% no 5 3 .1% c a n n o t d e c i d e 1.0 6 .2% m i s s i n g d a t a 1 0 .6% The g r o u p r e s p o n d e d q u i t e s i m i l a r l y t o t h e use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s , a l t h o u g h t h i s t i m e t h e c h o i c e " E n g l i s h s i g n s most o f t h e t i m e " r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 3 7 . 0 % ) . E n g l i s h s i g n s a l l t h e t i m e r e c o r d e d 3 5 . 8 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s and E n g l i s h s i g n s p a r t o f t he t i m e r e c e i v e d 2 4 . 1 % . A g a i n , a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e ( 2 .5% ) f e l t t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d no t be u s e d a t a l l . 93 R e g a r d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s , t h e r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . Dea f s i g n s u s e d a l l t h e t i m e r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 37 .7% ) w h i c h was i d e n t i c a l t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e r e c e i v e d f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . A t h i r d o f t h e g r o u p f e l t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d use Dea f s i g n s most o f t h e t i m e , and 2 5 . 3 % f e l t t h a t o n l y p a r t o f t h e t i m e s h o u l d t e a c h e r s use Dea f s i g n s . O n l y 3 .7% saw no p l a c e f o r Dea f s i g n s i n a t e a c h e r ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m w i t h s t u d e n t s . In c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e s i g n i n g o f d e a f c h i l d r e n , v i e w p o i n t s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e a c h e r s ' s i g n s r e v e a l e d t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s , r e c i e v e d t h e h i g h e s t s u p p o r t ( 4 1 . 4 % ) f o r f u l l t i m e u s a g e . Nex t t h e r e were 3 7 . 7 % t h a t f e l t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d use E n g l i s h s i g n s most o f t h e t i m e and 1 9 . 1 % c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e t i m e t o be s u f f i c i e n t . O n l y one i n f o r t y ( 2 .5% ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r s i g n i n g t o t h e t e a c h e r . C o m p a r i n g s t u d e n t s ' and t e a c h e r s ' s i g n i n g , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y amongs t t he s u b j e c t s t o s ee E n g l i s h s i g n s as b e i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e when u s e d by t e a c h e r s . An o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y ( 9 0 . 1 % ) f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s o f t h e Dea f s h o u l d l e a r n d e a f s i g n s . A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e ( 3 .1% ) d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be t he c a s e , and t w i c e a s many (6 .2% ) c o u l d n o t d e c i d e . T h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , a s many H e a r i n g t e a c h e r s o f t h e Dea f do n o t know Dea f s i g n s . 94 I n v o l v e m e n t o f Dea f p e o p l e i n d e c i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  p o l i c i e s f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . A s t r o n g m a j o r i t y ( 8 4 . 6 % ) a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e was a need f o r Dea f i n v o l v e m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s ( s e e T a b l e 7 ) . O n l y one i n f o r t y ( 2 .5% ) d i d no t s ee t h e need f o r t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t , a n d 13% c o u l d n o t d e c i d e . TABLE 7 DEAF INVOLVEMENT IN EDUCATIONAL POL IC I ES f r e q u e n c y p e r c e n t a g e y e s 1 37 8 4 . 6 % no 4 2 .5% c a n n o t d e c i d e 21 1 3 . 0 % 95 CROSSTABULATIONS AND CHI-SQUARES In t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , t h e b i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s a m p l e , t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s on c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n , t h e i r o p i n i o n s w i t h r e g a r d s t o d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f Dea f p e o p l e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s were e x a m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y . In t h e p r e s e n t s e c t i o n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween s e l e c t e d b i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and t h e a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s u m m a r i z e d f o r m . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g two way t a b l e s f o r t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i c e s B and C . A g e . A g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f Dea f a d u l t s o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age f a v o u r e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f Dea f s i g n s ( 4 4 . 4 % and 4 1 . 7 % ) o r b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s ( 3 7 . 0 % and 4 1 . 7 % ) f i r s t ( p < 0 . 0 2 ; see T a b l e B 1 ) . W h i l e o v e r h a l f ( 5 7 . 6 % ) o f t h e y o u n g e s t g r o u p i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h Dea f s i g n and E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d t o g e t h e r , o n l y 1 6 . 9 % w o u l d l i k e t o see Dea f s i g n s be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d . The r e m a i n i n g 2 5 . 4 % f a v o u r e d the d e a f c h i l d l e a r n i n g t o use E n g l i s h s i g n s f i r s t . F o c u s i n g on the q u e s t i o n o f when a c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n s i g n l a n g u a g e , a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o b l e m was e n c o u n t e r e d , s i n c e two ou t o f n i n e c e l l s had an e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c y o f l e s s t h a n 5 ( see T a b l e B 2 ) . Howeve r , s i n c e t h e r e i s an o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e 96 o p i n i o n s of the younger group as compared w i t h the o l d e r g r o u p , i t was d e c i d e d to r e p o r t i t at t h i s p o i n t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , one of the low c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s (n=0) r e s u l t e d from not one of the 51 m i d d l e aged s u b j e c t s s e l e c t i n g E n g l i s h as the o n l y language deaf c h i l d r e n s h o u l d f i r s t l e a r n . T h i s i s a v e r y s t r o n g statement that may have r e s u l t e d from the i n f l u e n c e of an o r a l e d u c a t i o n , which was i n vogue d u r i n g t h e i r y e a r s of e d u c a t i o n . R e l a t e d * t o o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the age at which a c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n s i g n language t h e r e was some d i s c r e p a n c y e v i d e n c e d w i t h r e s p e c t to the age of the respondents (p<0.002, see T a b l e B 2 ) . The g e n e r a l t r e n d has a l l the groups a g r e e i n g t h a t s i g n language s h o u l d e i t h e r be the f i r s t language l e a r n e d or one of the f i r s t . T h i s o p i n i o n becomes s t r o n g e r w i t h age . Speech-by i t s e l f i s not seen to be an important aspec t of a c h i l d ' s f i r s t l a n g u a g e , a l t h o u g h i t i s seen to be d e s i r a b l e when l e a r n e d w i t h s i g n l a n g u a g e . The o l d e s t group were the l e a s t s u p p o r t i v e of l e a r n i n g both s i g n language and speech t o g e t h e r (26.1% v e r s u s 44.1% and 45.1%). F i n a l l y , t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between age g r o u p i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t to v i e w p o i n t s on the use of Deaf s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s i n the c l a s s r o o m . That i s to s a y , the age of the respondents was not found to be an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h i s r e g a r d s . G e n d e r . C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s by gender r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . T h u s , i t would appear that both male and female a d u l t s h o l d the same o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g type of s i g n s to be i n i t i a l l y 97 a c q u i r e d , t h e t i m e a t w h i c h s i g n s a r e t o be l e a r n e d , and t h e k i n d o f s i g n s t o be u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . O n s e t o f d e a f n e s s . Age o f o n s e t o f d e a f n e s s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f t i m e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t e a c h e r ' s s h o u l d s p e n d u s i n g Dea f s i g n s ( p < 0 . 0 2 ; see T a b l e B 3 ) . W h i l e a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p r e l i n g u a l g r o u p t h a n t h e p o s t l i n g u a l g r o u p f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d a l w a y s use Dea f s i g n s ( 4 3 . 4 % v e r s u s 2 4 . 2 % ) , a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r g r o u p f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d use Dea f s i g n s most o f t h e t i m e ( 5 4 . 5 % v e r s u s 2 8 . 7 % ) . Age o f o n s e t o f d e a f n e s s was not. s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s . T a k e n t o g e t h e r , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t o n s e t o f o f d e a f n e s s i s n o t a ma jo r f a c t o r i n t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . Hea r i n g a i d u s a g e . When t h e v a r i a b l e h e a r i n g a i d u s a g e was c r o s s e d w i t h t h e t i m e a t w h i c h a c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n , a s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e ( p<0 .002 ) was f o u n d ( s ee T a b l e B 4 ) . A l t h o u g h one o f t h e c e l l s had a c e l l f r e q u e n c y l e s s t h a n f i v e i t was f e l t t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d and t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o b t a i n e d w a r r a n t e d c o m m e n t i n g on t h i s r e s u l t . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e who n e v e r wore h e a r i n g a i d s ( 60 .2% ) f e l t t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h 3 5 . 7 % o f t h e g r o u p t h a t a l w a y s wear a h e a r i n g a i d , a n d 3 3 . 3 % f o r t h e g r o u p t h a t s o m e t i m e s d o . F o r t h o s e who wore an h e a r i n g a i d a l l o f t h e t i m e o r some o f t h e t i m e , t h e l a r g e s t numbers f e l t t h a t 98 s i g n l a n g u a g e a n d s p e e c h a c q u i s i t i o n s h o u l d be c o n c u r r e n t ( 3 9 . 3 % and 5 8 . 3 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . F u r t h e r d i s c r e p a n c y was n o t e d where s p e e c h was g i v e n p r e c e d e n c e o v e r s i g n l a n g u a g e . B e a r i n g i n m ind t h a t t h e o v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e was low ( 9 . 0 % ) , i t i s s e e n t h a t t h o s e who wear h e a r i n g a i d s a l l o f t h e t i m e r e s p o n d e d a f f i r m a t i v e l y t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t s i g n s be l e a r n e d a f t e r s p e e c h has been a c q u i r e d a t a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e ( 2 5 . 0 % ) t h a n t h e o t h e r s ( 8 . 3 % a n d 4 . 9 % ) . T h u s , t h o s e p e o p l e who r e l y upon a u d i t o r y s u p p o r t f o r some c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s t e n d t o g i v e more w e i g h t t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s p e e c h . H o w e v e r , t he o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f a l l g r o u p s p r e f e r r e d t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e be a c q u i r e d a t an e a r l y a g e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o u n d i n t h e o p i n i o n s o f h e a r i n g a i d u s e r s and n o n - u s e r s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e t y p e o f s i g n s t h a t a r e t o be a c q u i r e d o r u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . The use o f a h e a r i n g a i d t e n d s o n l y t o a f f e c t o n e ' s v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e r e l a t i v e r o l e s o f s i g n s and s p e e c h i n a d e a f c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Age l e a r n e d t o s i g n . The age a t w h i c h a p e r s o n l e a r n e d t o s i g n was no t f o u n d t o be a f a c t o r i n t he v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s . T h u s , i t wou ld a p p e a r t h a t t h o s e who a c q u i r e d s i g n l a n g u a g e a t an e a r l y age h o l d t h e same v i e w p o i n t s as t h o s e who a c q u i r e d s i g n l a n g u a g e a t a l a t e r age w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t y p e of s i g n s t o be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d , t h e t i m e a t w h i c h s i g n s a r e t o be l e a r n e d , and t h e k i n d o f s i g n s t o be u s e d i n t h e 99 c l a s s r o o m . Use o f v o i c e w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e . A s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e ( p<0 .04 ) o c c u r r e d when t h i s v a r i a b l e was c r o s s e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h i c h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t ( s ee T a b l e B 5 ) . The o n l y g r o u p t o show a m a j o r i t y p r e f e r e n c e ( 6 0 . 8 % ) c o n s i s t e d o f t h o s e who a l w a y s use t h e i r v o i c e s . They p r e f e r r e d t h a t a c h i l d l e a r n D e a f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s t o g e t h e r . W i t h i n t h e same g r o u p , an i d e n t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n ( 19 .6% ) f e l t t h a t one o r t h e o t h e r s h o u l d be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d . F o r t h e g r o u p u s i n g t h e i r v o i c e some o f t h e t i m e , t h e b i l i n g u a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f s i g n s a n d a c q u i s i t i o n o f s i g n s o n l y were p r e f e r r e d by more e q u a l p e r c e n t a g e s ( 4 3 . 6 % and 3 8 . 5 % ) . F o r p e o p l e who n e v e r u s e d t h e i r v o i c e s , Dea f s i g n s were f a v o u r e d by t h e l a r g e s t number ( 4 1 . 9 % ) . The c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t t h o s e who u s e d t h e i r v o i c e s a l l o r p a r t o f t h e t i m e deemed b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s t o be i m p o r t a n t ; w h e r e a s , t h o s e who d i d no t saw Dea f s i g n s a s b e i n g t h e p r i m a r y l a n g u a g e d u r i n g i n i t i a l s i g n l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . S o c i a l g r o u p p r e f e r e n c e . S o c i a l g r o u p p r e f e r e n c e r e f e r s t o t h e g r o u p o f p e o p l e whom t h e s u b j e c t s most o f t e n l i k e d t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h . No s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e s were r e v e a l e d . T h u s , t h e s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ha s l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a g r o u p ' s c o n s e n s u s . 100 C o m m u n i c a t i o n f i r s t l e a r n e d . The r e s u l t s f o r t y p e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f i r s t l e a r n e d by t h e s u b j e c t , i n d i c a t e d t h a t when t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r e s t r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e t y p e o f s i g n s t o be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e was f o u n d ( p < 0 . 0 2 ; s ee T a b l e B 6 ) . T w o - t h i r d s ( 6 9 . 2 % ) o f t h e g r o u p t h a t l e a r n e d s i g n l a n g u a g e and s p e e c h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f e l t t h a t Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d t o g e t h e r . The g r o u p s t h a t l e a r n e d s i g n l a n g u a g e f i r s t o r t h a t i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d s p e e c h were more s i m i l a r i n t h e i r p o i n t s o f v i e w . A s m a l l d i s c r e p a n c y be tween t h e two o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h t h o s e who l e a r n e d s i g n l a n g u a g e f i r s t b e i n g more s u p p o r t i v e o f E n g l i s h s i g n s t h a n t h e g r o u p t h a t had i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d s p e e c h ( 2 8 . 9 % v e r s u s 2 1 . 5 % ) . When c o m m u n i c a t i o n me thod f i r s t l e a r n e d was c r o s s e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t he q u e s t i o n "When s h o u l d a d e a f c h i l d l e a r n t o s i g n ? " , a s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e ( p < 0 . 0 0 0 l ) was r e v e a l e d ( s e e T a b l e B 7 ) . C a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d h e r e a s two ou t o f t h e n i n e c e l l s had an e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s o f l e s s t h a n 5 . 0 . T h i s r e s u l t e d f r o m v e r y few p e o p l e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s p e e c h o n l y s h o u l d be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , o n l y 5.4% o f t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e g r o u p and 2 .6% o f t h e s i g h l a n g u a g e and s p e e c h g r o u p were i n f a v o u r o f s p e e c h b e i n g l e a r n e d b e f o r e s i g n l a n g u a g e . T h i s i s c o m p a r e d w i t h 1 6 . 0 % f o r t h e g r o u p t h a t a c q u i r e d s p e e c h b e f o r e s i g n l a n g u a g e . The o t h e r ma jo r d i f f e r e n c e a p p e a r e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s i g n l a n g u a g e as t h e 101 c h i l d ' s f i r s t l a n g u a g e . A l a r g e m a j o r i t y ( 81 .1% ) o f t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e f i r s t g r o u p made t h i s t h e i r c h o i c e . A t h i r d s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e (p<0 .003 ) was o b s e r v e d f o r t h e q u e s t i o n r e v o l v i n g a r o u n d t h e use o f Dea f s i g n s by a t e a c h e r ( s e e T a b l e B 8 ) . The s o u r c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f a c t o r a p p e a r s t o be t h e b i l i n g u a l g r o u p . N e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s ( 65 .8% ) o f t h e s e p e o p l e f e l t Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d be u s e d a l l o f t h e t i m e . T h i s c a n be c o m p a r e d w i t h 3 4 . 3 % f o r t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e g r o u p and 2 7 . 3 % f o r t h e s p e e c h g r o u p . T h u s , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n f i r s t l e a r n e d by t h a a d u l t s d o e s seem t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e o p i n i o n s h e l d t o w a r d D e a f s i g n s i n e a r l y l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d Dea f s i g n s u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Dea f commun i t y m e m b e r s h i p . The two c a t e g o r i e s o f m e m b e r s h i p t h a t were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d were t h e f u l l - t i m e and p a r t - t i m e members and two s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e s were f o u n d : w i t h w h i c h s i g n s a c h i l d s h o u l d i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e ( p < 0 . 0 0 8 ; s ee T a b l e B9) and use o f D e a f s i g n s by t h e t e a c h e r ( p < 0 . 0 2 ; s ee T a b l e B 1 0 ) . The f i r s t r e s u l t stemmed f r o m t h e f u l l t i m e g r o u p g i v i n g more p r e f e r e n c e t o Dea f s i g n s t h a n d i d t h e p a r t - t i m e g r o u p ( 4 3 . 8 % v e r s u s 2 2 . 1 % ) w h i l e t h e p a r t - t i m e g r o u p f a v o u r e d E n g l i s h s i g n s more t h a n t h e f u l l - t i m e members ( 2 9 . 4 % t o 1 4 . 6 % ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% o f t h e f u l l - t i m e g r o u p f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d use D e a f s i g n s most o r a l l o f t h e t i m e w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s , w h i l e s l i g h t l y more t h a n 60% of t he p a r t - t i m e members 1 02 f e l t t h i s way . D o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e . N e a r l y a l l o f t h o s e a d u l t s who s p e n t a t l e a s t one y e a r l i v i n g i n a d o r m i t o r y w h i l e a t a s c h o o l f o r t he D e a f f a w o u r e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f s i g n s a t o r b e f o r e t h e l e a r n i n g o f s p e e c h ( 3 6 . 2 % and 6 1 . 0 % ; see T a b l e B 1 1 ) . C o n v e r s e l y , n e a r l y a q u a r t e r o f t h o s e who had n o t l i v e d i n a d o r m i t o r y f a v o u r e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f s p e e c h f i r s t . A p p a r e n t l y , d o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e i n f l u e n c e s r e s p o n d e n t ' s o p i n i o n w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e t i m e a t w h i c h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d . H o w e v e r , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s o b s e r v e d when d o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s were r e l a t e d t o t y p e o f s i g n s t o be u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . D e c o d e r . The o w n e r s h i p o f a d e c o d e r d i d n o t seem t o have an e f f e c t on t h e s u b j e c t ' s o p i n i o n t o w a r d me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r a d e a f c h i l d . P r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n e d o r i n t e r p r e t e d news . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was o b s e r v e d ( p<0 .03 ) be tween p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n e d o r i n t e r p r e t e d news and t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s ( see T a b l e B 1 2 ) . T h o s e who p r e f e r r e d c a p t i o n e d news f e l t more s t r o n g l y a b o u t t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s a l l t h e t i m e t h a n d i d t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d i n t e r p r e t e d news ( 4 4 . 0 % v e r s u s 2 6 . 5 % ) . The i n t e r p r e t e d news g r o u p r e s p o n d e d more f a v o u r a b l y t o Dea f s i g n s b e i n g u s e d most o f t h e t i m e ( 5 2 . 9 % v e r s u s 2 8 . 4 % ) . O t h e r t h a n w i t h me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m no o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be f o u n d i n v o l v i n g t h e 103 v a r i a b l e p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n e d o r i n t e r p r e t e d t e l e v i s i o n . U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n . Of t h e p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n "Do y o u u n d e r s t a n d t h e c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n ? " o n l y two , c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f c a p t i o n s most o f t h e t i m e and p a r t o f t h e t i m e , had a s u f f i c i e n t number o f r e s p o n s e s t o be e n t e r e d i n t o t h e c r o s s t a b a n a l y s e s o f c a p t i o n c o m p r e h e n s i o n w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n (see ' T a b l e 3 ) . One s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e ( p < 0 . 0 2 ) was f o u n d : c a p t i o n c o m p r e h e n s i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o w h i c h s i g n s s h o u l d be f i r s t l e a r n e d ( s ee T a b l e B 1 3 ) . Of t h o s e who r e p o r t e d t h e y u n d e r s t o o d c a p t i o n s most o f t h e t i m e , 8 7 . 2 % s u g g e s t e d t h a t Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d be t a u g h t e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a t t h e same t i m e a s E n g l i s h s i g n s w h i l e 68% o f t h o s e who i n d i c a t e d t h e y u n d e r s t o o d some o f t h e c a p t i o n s f e l t t h i s way. The o t h e r s o u r c e a r i s e s f r o m t h e p a r t o f t h e t i m e g r o u p f a v o u r i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s more t h a n t h e most o f t h e t i m e g r o u p . A s u b j e c t ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n c a p t i o n s was n o t f o u n d t o be r e l a t e d t o v i e w p o i n t s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t i m e a t w h i c h s i g n s a r e t o be l e a r n e d and w i t h me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . 1 04 PART 2j_ METHODS OF COMMUNICATION The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s was c o n c e r n e d w i t h me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Two q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d . The f i r s t one a d d r e s s e d t h e me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n most u s e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n d e a l t w i t h t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n g i v e n t h a t t h e y c o u l d o n l y use one m e t h o d . The r e s u l t s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e s 8 and 9. The r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e y u s e d f o r e a c h g r o u p and a c t i v i t y shown i n T a b l e 8. More t h a n one' me thod was p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p o r a c t i v i t y . T h u s , t h e numbers r e p o r t e d p r o v i d e i n T a b l e 8 an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e number and p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e f u l l s amp l e o f 162 who u s e d e a c h method w i t h a s p e c i f i c g r o u p o f p e o p l e o r i n a p a r t i c u l a r a c i t i v i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e t o t a l f r e q u e n c y and p e r c e n t a g e may e x c e e d 162 and 100 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r e x a m p l e , u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g ' w o r k ' a s u b j e c t may r e s p o n d t h a t s/he u s e s f i n g e r s p e l l i n g , s p e e c h , and w r i t i n g most o f t h e t i m e . C o n v e r s e l y , when a s k e d t o s t a t e t h e i r p r e f e r r e d m e t h o d , t he r e s p o n d e n t s were a l l o w e d t o c h o o s e o n l y one me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . A g a i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e i n e a c h c e l l r e p r e s e n t e d a p a r t o f t h e t o t a l s amp le p o p u l a t i o n ( 1 6 2 ) , bu t i n t h i s c a s e t he " c o l u m n " sums a r e 100%. 105 To m a i n t a i n t h e f o c u s o f t h i s p a p e r an o v e r v i e w o f T a b l e s 8 and 9 w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . S u b s e q u e n t l y , s e l e c t e d c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s o f t h e s e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e t a b l e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x C . M e t h o d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r e s e n t l y u s e d . As shown i n T a b l e 8, Dea f s i g n s a r e u s e d by a t l e a s t 95% o f t h e s amp l e when c o n v e r s i n g w i t h d e a f f r i e n d s o r a t Dea f s o c i a l e v e n t s . T h i s e x p e c t e d l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s u p p o r t s t h e c o n t e n t i o n by many r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t know ledge o f Dea f s i g n s ( A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e ) i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n a Dea f commun i t y ( H i g g i n s , 1980 ; B ake r and C o k e l y , 1980 ; K a n n a p e l l , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e r e were 6 5 . 4 % who u s e d Dea f s i g n s a t home a n d 3 7 . 0 % w i t h h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g f r i e n d s . A l m o s t one i n f i v e ( 18 .5% ) u s e d Dea f s i g n s a t wo rk . I t wou ld have been i n t e r e s t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he p e o p l e , a t home and i n t h e w o r k p l a c e , w i t h whom D e a f s i g n s were u s e d . S u c h i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h D e a f s i g n s a r e u s e d o u t s i d e t h e c i r c l e o f Dea f p e o p l e . The use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s was h i g h e s t w i t h H a r d - o f - h e a r i n g p e o p l e ( 2 5 . 3 % ) . F o l l o w i n g t h i s was t h e use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h Dea f p e o p l e ( 1 7 . 3 % ) . A low p e r c e n t a g e (12 .3% ) s i g n t h i s way w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s . S i n c e E n g l i s h s i g n s a r e more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d by H e a r i n g p e o p l e one w o u l d have e x p e c t e d a h i g h e r 106 p e r c e n t a g e h e r e . H o w e v e r , i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t a l m o s t a s many p e o p l e ( 11 .7% ) u s e d Dea f s i g n s w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s , a TABLE 8 METHOD OF COMMUNICATION PRESENTLY USED d e a f h a r d - i o f - h e a r i n g h e a r i n g h e a r i n g f r i e n d s f r i e n d s f r i e n d s p e o p l e 1. D e a f s i g n s 1 55 60 19 6 9 5 . 7 % 3 7 . 0 % 1 1 . 7 % 3 .7% 2. E n g l i s h s i g n s 28 41 20 5 1 7 . 3 % 2 5 . 3 % 1 2 . 3 % 3 .1% 3. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g 1 4 36 38 7 8 .6% 2 2 . 2 % 2 3 . 5 % 4 . 3 % 4 . g e s t u r e s 9 23 27 24 . 5.6% 1 4 . 2 % 1 6 . 7 % 1 4 . 8 % 5. s p e a k i n g 4 51 . 78 66 2 .5% 3 1 . 5 % 4 8 . 1% 4 0 . 7 % 6 . w r i t i n g 6 19 81 125 3 .7% 1 1 . 7 % 5 0 . 0 % 7 7 . 2 % work home Dea f s o c i a l H e a r i n g s o c i a ! e v e n t s e v e n t s 1 . Dea f s i g n s 30 1 06 1 54 9 1 8 . 5 % 6 5 . 4 % 9 5 . 1 % 5.5% 2. E n g l i s h s i g n s 24 22 22 10 1 4 . 8 % 1 3 . 6 % 13 .6% 6 .2% 3. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g 22 21 1 5 1 1 1 3 . 6 % 1 3 . 0 % 9 .3% 6 .8% 4 . g e s t u r e s 1 7 5 4 1 7 1 0 . 5 % 3 .1% 2 .5% 1 0 . 5 % 5. s p e a k i n g 47 59 5 52 2 9 . 0 % 3 6 . 4 % 3 .1% 3 2 . 1% 6 . w r i t i n g 67 15 2 1 07 2 2 . 8 % 9 .3% 1 . 2% 6 6 . 0 % 107 w i d e r r a n g e o f d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s m i g h t have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e g r o u p . F o r e x a m p l e , i t may w e l l have been t h a t t h e h e a r i n g ones who u s e d Dea f s i g n s were s p o u s e s , t e a c h e r s , o r i n t e r p r e t e r s w h i c h w o u l d b e a r o u t t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e use o f s p e e c h i s p e r h a p s t h e most r e l e v a n t t o t h i s p a p e r . N e a r l y h a l f ( 48 .1% ) u s e d s p e e c h w i t h t h e i r h e a r i n g f r i e n d s and 4 0 . 7 % w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e t h e y do n o t know. In t h i s l a t t e r i n s t a n c e H e a r i n g p e o p l e w o u l d i n c l u d e s a l e s p e o p l e , bank t e l l e r s , w a i t r e s s e s a n d o t h e r p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n s e r v i c i n g t h e p u b l i c . A l i t t l e more t h a n one t h i r d ( 36 .4% ) u s e d s p e e c h a t l e a s t some o f t h e t i m e a t home. The l o w e s t number ( 2 .5% ) s p o k e w i t h t h e i r d e a f f r i e n d s . T h e s e f i g u r e s must be e x a m i n e d c a r e f u l l y as t h e y do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t v o i c e was u s e d w i t h s p e e c h . R a t h e r i t c o u l d be i m p l i e d t h a t t h e movements o f l i p s , e i t h e r w i t h o r w i t h o u t v o i c e , was n e c e s s a r y f o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t i s n o t e d t h a t much c o m m u n i c a t i o n be tween d e a f and H e a r i n g p e o p l e i s i n t h e f o rm o f w r i t i n g . The c a t e g o r i e s h e a r i n g f r i e n d s , H e a r i n g p e o p l e and H e a r i n g s o c i a l e v e n t s c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e who use w r i t i n g f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n on t h e s e o c c a s i o n s ( 5 0 . 0 % , 7 7 . 2 % and 6 6 . 0 % , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . P r e f e r e n c e f o r me thod of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . H e r e , s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o s e l e c t t h e one method of c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r e a c h g r o u p t h a t t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r t o use g i v e n t h a t s u c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h 108 t h e g r o u p w o u l d be p o s s i b l e . In s i x o u t o u t o f e i g h t g r o u p s Dea f s i g n s were s e l e c t e d t h e m o s t . F rom T a b l e 9 i t i s s e e n t h a t a l m o s t n i n e o u t o f t e n p e o p l e p r e f e r r e d t h i s me thod w i t h d e a f f r i e n d s a n d i n Dea f s o c i a l e v e n t s . TABLE 9 METHOD OF COMMUNICATION PREFERRED TO USE d e a f h a r d ' -o f - h e a r i n g h e a r i n g h e a r i n g f r i e n d ' s f r i e n d s f r i e n d s p e o p l e 1. Dea f s i g n s 143 94 52 40 8 8 . 3 % 58 . 0 % 3 2 . 1% 2 4 . 7 % 2. E n g l i s h s i g n s 17 29 22 1 1 1 0 . 5 % 1 7 . 9 % 1 3 . 6 % 6 .8% 3. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g 1 1 1 1 2 8 0 . 6 % 6 . 8% 7.4% 4 . 9 % 4 . g e s t u r e s 0 3 1 4 0 .0% 1 . 9% 0 . 6 % 2 .5% 5. s p e a k i n g 1 1 7 36 27 0 .6% 1 0 . 5 % 2 2 . 2 % 1 6 . 7 % 6 . w r i t i n g 0 3 32 68 0 .0% 1 . 9% 1 9 . 8 % 4 2 . 0 % work home Dea f soc i a l H e a r i n g s o c i a l e v e n t s e v e n t s 1 . Dea f s i g n s 1 1 4 66 1 46 44 7 0 . 4 % 40 . 7 % 9 0 . 1% 2 7 . 2% 2. E n g l i s h s i g n s 19 18 1 3 19 1 1 . 7 % 1 1 . 1% 8 .0% 1 1 . 7% 3. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g 6 9 1 19 3 .7% 5 . 6 % 0 .6% 1 . 2% 4 . g e s t u r e s 0 2 0 3 0 . 0 % 1 . 2 % 0 .0% 1 . 9% 5. s p e a k i n g 18 26 1 27 1 1 . 1 % 1 6 . 0 % 0 .6% 16. 7% 6 . w r i t i n g 3 34 0 60 1 . 9 % 21 . 0% 0 .0% 3 7 . 0% 109 (Note t h a t T a b l e s 8 and 9 c a n n o t be s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o m p a r e d r e l a t i v e t o one a n o t h e r . I n s t e a d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p must f i r s t be d e t e r m i n e d , t h e n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn h e r e may be u t i l i z e d f o r i n t e r - t a b l e c o m p a r i s o n s . ) In a l l c a t e g o r i e s s p e e c h p r e f e r e n c e was s e e n t o be much l o w e r t h a n p r e s e n t u s a g e . F o r e x a m p l e , where 78 p e o p l e p r e s e n t l y u s e d s p e e c h a t some t i m e o r a n o t h e r w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s , o n l y 36 i n d i c a t e d t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o use i t . To d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a t i s t i c a l r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s d a t a i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e 78 p e o p l e u s e d t h e i r s p e e c h and t h e i r r e l i a n c e upon i t . E n g l i s h s i g n s d i d no t a p p e a r t o be a p o p u l a r c h o i c e . O n l y one i n t e n ( 10 .5% ) wou ld p r e f e r t o use i t w i t h d e a f f r i e n d s . S l i g h t l y more ( 13 .6% ) wou ld use i t w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s and t h e h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g g r o u p was t h e h i g h e s t a t 1 7 . 9 % . In c o n c l u s i o n , Dea f s i g n were by f a r t he most p o p u l a r c h o i c e . S u r p r i s i n g l y , g i v e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e v e r y o n e b e i n g a b l e t o l e a r n Dea f s i g n s many Dea f p e o p l e c o u l d s t i l l no t f a t h o m t h i s a s a r e a l i t y and c h o s e t o t r u s t t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s when q u e s t i o n e d a b o u t t h e s i g n s t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r t o use w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e and d u r i n g H e a r i n g s o c i a l e v e n t s . In t h e s e i n s t a n c e s i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t w r i t i n g w o u l d be t he b e s t manner o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( 4 2 . 0 % and 3 7 . 0 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 110 CROSSTABULATIONS AND CHI-SQUARE A t o t a l o f 384 t a b l e s w o u l d r e s u l t i f a l l o f T a b l e s 8 and 9 were c r o s s e d w i t h t h e a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s . Many o f t h e s e t a b l e s wou ld n o t be v a l i d due t o i n s u f f i c i e n t c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s . As an e x a m p l e , t h e v a r i a b l e , ' E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e ' c o u l d no t be m e a n i n g f u l l y a n a l y z e d s i n c e t h e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e c o n t a i n e d e x p e c t e d c e l l s i z e s o f i n s u f f i c i e n t number (n=11 , see T a b l e 9 ) . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y s e l e c t e d me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s were c r o s s e d ( see A p p e n d e i x C ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d i n v o l v e d e i t h e r Dea f s i g n s , E n g l i s h s i g n s , o r s p e e c h . The s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d . R e s u l t s o f d a t a a n a l y s e s have been a r r a n g e d by t h e a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a f o c u s e d d e s c r i p t i o n . T ype o f s i g n i n g t o be i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d . T h r e e me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n g r o u p c o m b i n a t i o n were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t t o i n i t i a l l a n g u a g e t o be a c q u i r e d . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ( p<0 .001 ) was f o u n d w i t h " u s e D e a f s i g n s a t home" ( see T a b l e C 1 ) . Where 4 3 . 4 % o f t h e Dea f s i g n s u s e r s a t home f e l t t h a t Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t , o n l y 1 3 . 7 % o f t h e n o n - u s e r s d i d . T h o s e who do n o t use Dea f s i g n s were h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e ( 5 6 . 9 % ) o f a c h i l d l e a r n i n g b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s t o g e t h e r , whereas 3 9 . 6 % o f Dea f s i g n u s e r s a l s o f e l t t h i s way. A h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e n o n - u s e r s ( 2 9 . 4 % ) f a v o u r e d E n g l i s h s i g n s t h a t d i d d e a f s i g n u s e r s ( 1 7 . 0 % ) . H o w e v e r , t h e s e r e s u l t s do i n d i c a t e t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f b o t h g r o u p s f e e l 111 t h a t s i g n s s h o u l d be a t l e a s t one o f t h e s i g n s i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d . A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was o b s e r v e d w i t h " p r e f e r e n c e f o r use o f D e a f s i g n s a t home" ( p < 0 . 0 l ; s ee T a b l e C 2 ) . N e a r l y e q u a l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d Dea f s i g n s a t home and t h o s e who d i d n o t f e l t t h a t b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ( 4 5 . 8 % and 4 6 . 0 % ) . And w h i l e 3 8 . 9 % o f t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d Dea f s i g n s f e l t t h a t Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d ' be l e a r n e d f i r s t , o n l y 2 0 . 8 % o f t h e n o n - u s e r s made t h i s c h o i c e ; o n e - t h i r d ( 33 .3% ) o f t h o s e n o n - u s e r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be t h e i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d s i g n s c o m p a r e d t o 1 5 . 0 % f o r t h e u s e r s . The t h i r d s i g n i f i c a n t ( p<0 .02 ) r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v e d " p r e f e r e n c e f o r u se o f E n g l i s h s i g n s a t h o m e . " A l t h o u g h t h e e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c y f o r one o f t h e c e l l was l e s s t h a n 5, t h e d i s c r e p a n c y i s s t i l l l a r g e enough t o w a r r a n t m e n t i o n . The g r o u p p r e f e r r i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s were a l m o s t e q u a l l y d i v i d e d be tween r e commend ing t h a t b o t h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t and E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t ( 4 7 . 4 % and 4 2 . 1 % ) . N e a r l y t h e same p e r c e n t ( 45 .8% ) o f t h e " p r e f e r r e d no t t o use E n g l i s h s i g n s " g r o u p f e l t t h a t b o t h s i g n me thods s h o u l d be a c q u i r e d c o n c u r r e n t l y They w e r e , h o w e v e r , l e s s i n f a v o u r o f E n g l i s h s i g n s ( 1 7 . 6 % ) ; more s u g g e s t e d Dea f s i g n s ough t t o be l e a r n e d f i r s t ( 3 6 . 6 % ) ; i n c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d E n g l i s h - s i g n s a t home ( 1 0 . 5 % ) . 1 1 2 T ime a t w h i c h a d e a f c h i I d s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n . T h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e s were f o u n d . One ( p<0 .004 ) was f o r t h e v a r i a b l e " u s e d D e a f s i g n s a t home" ( s ee T a b l e C 4 ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 60% o f t h o s e who u s e d Dea f s i g n s a t home f e l t t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h 3 2 . 0 % f o r t h e n o n - u s e r s . Of t h e Dea f s i g n u s e r s , 3 3 . 0 % t h o u g h t t h a t b o t h s i g n l a n g u a g e and s p e e c h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d t o g e t h e r , whe reas 5 4 . 0 % o f t h e n o n - u s e r s f e l t t h i s way. A s m a l l number o f b o t h g r o u p s b e l i e v e d t h a t s p e e c h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween " u s e s p e e c h a t home" and t i m e a t w h i c h a d e a f c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t ( p < 0 . 0 0 6 ; s ee T a b l e C 5 ) . S i x t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s p e a k e r s wan ted c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n t o speak f i r s t , w h i l e 5.2% o f t h e n o n - s p e a k e r s d i d . More o f t h e s p e a k e r s f e l t b o t h s i g n l a n u g a g e and s p e e c h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d c o n c u r r e n t l y t h a n d i d t he n o n - s p e a k e r s ( 4 8 . 2 % v e s u s 3 5 . 1 % ) . The s t r o n g e s t s u p p o r t f o r s i g n l a n g u a g e f i r s t came f r o m t h e n o n - s p e a k e r s ( 5 9 . 8 % ) . The s p e a k e r s , h o w e v e r , s t i l l gave a f a i r amount o f s u p p o r t ( 35 .7% ) f o r s i g n l a n g u a g e . A t h i r d s i g n i f i c a n t ( p<0 .002 ) r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t i m e s a t w h i c h s i g n s h o u l d be l e a r n e d was w i t h p r e f e r e n c e t o speak a t home ( see T a b l e C 6 ) . H a l f ( 5 0 . 0 % ) o f t h e p e o p l e who p r e f e r r e d t o s p e a k a t s c h o o l s u g g e s t e d b o t h s i g n l a n g u a g e and s p e e c h s h o u l d be a c q u i r e d t o g e t h e r , 3 1 . 3 % f a v o u r e d s p e e c h b e i n g l e a r n e d f i r s t , and 18.0% s t a t e d s i g n l a n g u a g e as t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r c h i l d r e n . In c o n t r a s t t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h e 1 13 n o n - s p e a k e r s were 3 7 . 9 % , 7 . 1 % , and 5 5 . 0 % r e s p e c t i v e l y . C a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d h e r e , a s one o u t o f s i x c e l l s had an e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c y o f l e s s t h a n 5 . 0 . F r e q u e n c y o f use o f D e a f s i g n s w i t h a t e a c h e r . F r e q u e n c y o f t e a c h e r use o f s i g n s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d ( p < 0 . 0 0 0 5 ) t o " u s e o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h d e a f f r i e n d s " ( see T a b l e C 7 ) . T h i s i s c l e a r l y i n t h e o p p o s i n g d i r e c t i o n o f t e n d e n c y be tween t h e two g r o u p s . E n g l i s h s i g n u s e r s were l e s s l i k e l y t h a n n o n - E n g l i s h s i g n u s e r s t o see Dea f s i g n s a s b e i n g a p a r t o f a c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m w i t h t h e t e a c h e r . F o r t h e c a t e g o r i e s p a r t o f t h e t i m e , most o f t h e t i m e , and a l l o f t h e t i m e , t h e E n g l i s h s i g n u s e r s r e s p o n d e d a f f i r m a t i v e l y 5 7 . 7 % , 2 3 . 1 % and 19.'2% f o r t h e g r o u p . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , n o n - E n g l i s h s i g n u s e r s r e s p o n d e d 2 0 . 8 % , 3 6 . 2 % , and 4 3 . 1 % f o r t h e r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . O b v i o u s l y , t h o s e who use E n g l i s h s i g n s a r e l e s s i n c l i n e d t o want c h i l d r e n t o use Dea f s i g n s a l l o f t h e t i m e , y e t , 4 2 . 3 % wan ted them t o use i t a t l e a s t most o f t h e t i m e . The s e c o n d ' s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e ( p<0 .03 ) was " p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dea f s i g n s a t home" ( s ee T a b l e C 8 ) . T h e r e was an o p p o s i t e t r e n d be tween t h e two g r o u p s w i t h t h o s e p r e f e r r i n g d e a f s i g n s a t home t e n d i n g t o f a v o u r more use o f Dea f s i g n s by t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s . F rom a l l o f t h e t i m e , t o p a r t o f t h e t i m e t h i s g r o u p showed 4 3 . 8 % , 3 4 . 8 % , and 2 1 . 4 % s u p p o r t . In c o n t r a s t , t h e g r o u p n o t p r e f e r r i n g Dea f s i g n s a t home were 2 7 . 3 % , 3 1 . 8 % and 4 0 , 9 % i n f a v o u r o f Dea f s i g n s i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e 1 14 c a t e g o r i e s . F r e q u e n c y o f u se o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h a t e a c h e r . F o u r s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s were f o u n d . F i r s t , f o r t h o s e who use s p e e c h a t home ( p < 0 . 0 4 ) , t h e r e was f i r m e r s u p p o r t ( 4 7 . 4 % ) f o r t h e c h i l d t o use E n g l i s h s i g n s a l l o f t h e t i m e ( s e e T a b l e C 9 ) . The n o n - u s e r s d i d no t f e e l a s s t r o n g ( 3 1 . 7 % ) , h o w e v e r , t h e y d i d f e e l s t r o n g ( 46 .9% ) t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s most o f t i m e was a'n a p p r o p r i a t e g u i d e l i n e . T h u s on t h e w h o l e , b o t h g r o u p s f e l t t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d use E n g l i s h s i g n s a t l e a s t most o f t h e t i m e , w i t h t h e n o n - u s e r s c o m i n g s l i g h t l y a h e a d ( 7 8 . 2 % v e s u s 7 3 . 7 % ) . The n e x t t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l l i n v o l v e d a p r e f e r r e d me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s . , P e o p l e p r e f e r r i n g Dea f s i g n s ( p < 0 . 0 0 7 ) showed an o p p o s i t e i n c l i n a t i o n t h a n t h o s e who d i d no t ( T a b l e B 1 0 ) . F rom a l l o f t h e t i m e , t o p a r t o f t h e t i m e , t h e i r s p r e a d was 2 3 . 5 % , 3 7 . 3 % , and 3 9 . 2 % . T h i s c o m p a r e d w i t h 4 3 . 4 % , 3 8 . 7 % , and 1 7 . 9 % f o r t h o s e who d i d no t p r e f e r Dea f s i g n s w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s . F o r t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d t o use E n g l i s h s i g n s ( p<0 .0083 ) a v e r y s t r o n g s t a n d on t h e use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s by c h i l d r e n was made ( see T a b l e C 1 l ) . One h u n d r e d p e r c e n t o f t h e g r o u p ( e x c l u d i n g t h o s e who s t a t e d t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d n e v e r be u s e d ) t h o u g h t t h a t c h i i r d e n s h o u l d use E n g l i s h s i g n s a t l e a s t mos t o f t h e t i m e . A m a j o r i t y ( 6 9 . 9 % ) o f t h e s e saw E n g l i s h s i g n s a s b e i n g u s e d most o f t h e t i m e . The o t h e r g r o u p were a l m o s t 1 15 e v e n l y d i v i d e d amongs t t h e t h r e e c h o i c e s , w i t h E n g l i s h s i g n s a l l o f t h e t i m e b e i n g c h o s e n by 3 6 . 8 % and most o f t h e t i m e by 3 4 . 6 % . F i n a l l y , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ( p<0 .02 ) f o r t h e 35 p e o p l e who p r e f e r r e d t o speak w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s ( s ee T a b l e C 1 2 ) . They were s t r o n g ( 5 7 . 1 % ) on t h e c h i l d u s i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s a l l o f t h e t i m e c o m p a r e d t o 3 1 . 1 % f o r t h o s e n o t p r e f e r r i n g t o s p e a k . The o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e f o r E n g l i s h s i g n s a t l e a s t most o f t h e t i m e was 8 2 . 8 % f o r t h e s p e e c h g r o u p , and t h e n o n - s p e a k i n g g r o u p were 7 2 . 9 % i n s u p p o r t . F r e q u e n c y o f u se o f Dea f s i g n s w i t h a c h i l d . T h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n s be tween t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d D e a f s i g n s a t home and t h o s e who d i d n o t when t h e q u e s t i o n a s k e d r e f e r r e d t o a t e a c h e r ' s f r e q u e n c y o f u se o f Dea f s i g n s w i t h a d e a f c h i l d ( p < 0 . 0 3 ; see T a b l e C 1 3 ) . The ma jo r d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d i n t h e p a r t o f t h e t i m e c a t e g o r y , where 2 0 . 5 % o f t h i s g r o u p a g r e e d and 4 1 . 9 % o f t h o s e who d i d n o t p r e f e r Dea f s i g n s a g r e e d . O v e r a l l , t h e g r o u p p r e f e r r i n g Dea f s i g n s wan ted t o see t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h o s e who d i d n o t p r e f e r Dea f s i g n s . F r e q u e n c y o f use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h a c h i l d . A d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n was e v i d e n c e d be tween t h o s e who u s e d E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h t h e i r d e a f f r i e n d s and t h o s e who d i d n o t ( p < 0 . 0 0 3 ; T a b l e C 1 4 ) . A m a j o r i t y ( 71 .4% ) o f t h e s e p e o p l e b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t f o r t e a c h e r s t o use E n g l i s h s i g n s a l l o f t h e t i m e , and a low p e r c e n t a g e (7 .1% ) f e l t t h a t p a r t o f 116 t h e t i m e was e n o u g h . T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h 3 6 . 4 % and 2 1 . 7 % r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e o t h e r g r o u p . T h u s , p e o p l e who use E n g l i s h -s i g n s a r e more i n f a v o u r o f i t s u s a g e i n t he c l a s s r o o m . The s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ( p < 0 . 0 l ) w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e c r o s s w i t h t h e g r o u p p r e f e r r i n g Dea f s i g n s w i t h d e a f f r i e n d s may i n f a c t n o t be so s i n c e one o f t h e c e l l f r e q u e n c y was 0 . 0 ( see T a b l e C 1 5 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , an a p p a r e n t w ide d i s c r e p a n c y e x i s t e d where 3 8 . 8 % o f t h e p e o p l e p r e f e r r i n g Dea f s i g n s f e l t t h a t a t e a c h e r s h o u l d use E n g l i s h s i g n s a l l o f t h e t i m e . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e o t h e r g r o u p , w h i c h o n l y c o n s i s t e d o f 18 p e o p l e , was 7 2 . 2 % i n f a v o u r . T h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( p < 0 . 0 2 ; see T a b l e C16) be tween p e o p l e who p r e f e r r e d Dea f s i g n s w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s and t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d a n o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m . Mos t o f t h e p e o p l e p r e f e r r i n g Dea f s i g n s ( 3 7 . 7 % ) saw a p l a c e f o r E n g l i s h s i g n s b e i n g u s e d most o f t h e t i m e . They were e v e n l y d i v i d e d f o r t h e o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s ( 3 1 . 4 % ) . The g r o u p t h a t d i d n o t p r e f e r Dea f s i g n s f e l t s t r o n g l y ( 48 .1% ) a b o u t t e a c h e r s u s i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s a l l o f t h e t i m e , and r e l a t i v e l y few ( 13 .2% ) saw i t b e i n g u s e d o n l y p a r t o f t he t i m e . T h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n be tween t h e g r o u p p r e f e r r i n g Dea f s i g n s i n t h e home and t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d a n o t h e r me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( p < 0 . 0 l ; see T a b l e C 1 7 ) . T h o s e t h a t d i d no t p r e f e r Dea f s i g n s f e l t s t r o n g e r a b o u t E n g l i s h s i g n s b e i n g u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r . F o r t h e a l w a y s and m o s t l y 1 17 c a t e g o r i e s , t h e y were 5 7 . 4 % and 3 6 . 2 % i n f a v o u r f o r a t o t a l o f 9 3 . 6 % . The g r o u p p r e f e r r i n g t o u s e D e a f s i g n s were 3 6 . 4 % a n d 3 9 . 1 % i n f a v o u r i n t h e same i n s t a n c e s , f o r a t o t a l o f 7 5 . 5 % In t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , f i n d i n g s t a k e n f r o m t h e r e s p o n s e s o f 162 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were h i g h l i g h t e d and d i s p l a y e d . C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s o f d e m o g r a p h i c and a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s had been p e r f o r m e d and s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a were r e p o r t e d . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i 1 . 118 CHAPTER V : D ISCUSS ION OF RESULTS The o p i n i o n o f t h e Dea f commun i t y has n o t been a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s e d w i t h and by d e a f c h i l d r e n . Dea f a d u l t s have no t been c o n s u l t e d as t o t h e r o l e a n d - t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , n o r have t h e Dea f been s u r v e y e d t o see i f t h e y s u p p o r t p r e s e n t means o f s i g n c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . P r e s e n t l y , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a d v o c a t e s t h e use o f s i g n e d E n g l i s h i n a l l t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e (o r Dea f s i g n s ) d o e s n o t r e c e i v e any r e c o g n i t i o n e i t h e r a s a l a n g u a g e w i t h i m p o r t a n t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o r as one w i t h p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t a s a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n be tween s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . T h i s r e m a i n s t he c a s e i n s p i t e o f t he f a c t t h a t ASL i s a f e a t u r e o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w i t h i n t h e Dea f commun i t y (Meadow, 1 9 7 2 ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e n h a n c e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s by g a t h e r i n g and q u a n t i f y i n g t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e a d u l t Dea f c o m m u n i t y . To f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s t h e d i s c u s s i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s f o c u s e d upon n i n e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and upon t h o s e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n . 119 S i g n L a n g u a g e a s a M e t h o d o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n The o v e r w h e l m i n g a f f i r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e ( 98 .1% ) t o t h e q u e s t i o n " S h o u l d most d e a f c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o s i g n ? " i s h i g h l y i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s t r o n g s u p p o r t t h e a d u l t Dea f commun i t y g i v e s t o s i g n i n g . A l t h o u g h , a p r o - s i g n i n g a t t i t u d e was t o be e x p e c t e d g i v e n t h a t a l l o f t he s u b j e c t s were s k i l l e d s i g n e r s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s u p p o r t s t i l l r e m a i n s . E n c r o a c h m e n t o f a H e a r i n g and s p e a k i n g s o c i e t y has no t m e l l o w e d t h e v a l u e w h i c h t h e Dea f have p l a c e d on s i g n i n g . P o s s i b l y , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s u r v i v a l a s a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y was an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n f a v o u r i n g s i g n i n g . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e Dea f o f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t t o r e s e a r c h e r s c o n t e n d i n g t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e i s an i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Dea f commun i t y (Meadow, 1972 ; M a r k o w i c z and Woodward , 1978 ; H i g g i n s , 1980 ; B ake r and C o k e l y , 1 9 8 0 ) . F u r t h e r i n s i g h t as t o t h e r e a s o n s i g n i n g i s so h e a v i l y f a v o u r e d i s e v i d e n c e d i n comments g i v e n by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e r e was a p r o n o u n c e d s t a t e m e n t f r o m many t h a t s i g n i n g f a c i l i t a t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a l l o w e d f o r an e a s e o f i n t e r a c t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n . E m p h a s i s was g i v e n t o s i g n s b e i n g a more n a t u r a l f o r m of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h a t s i g n i n g i s i n f a c t p r o p e r f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n was s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d by one s u b j e c t who s a i d t h a t " i t i s t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e and t h e y l e a r n c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t t e r i f i t i s n o t t a m p e r e d w i t h . " 1 20 C o m p a r i s o n w i t h a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e was a l s o p u t f o r t h i n a number o f commen t s . S e v e r a l s u b j e c t s n o t e d t h a t s i g n i n g was "more e x p r e s s i v e and had more l i f e " t h a n s p o k e n l a n g u a g e s . And where s p e e c h was a c c e p t a b l e i t was a l s o f e l t t h a t i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t u s i n g a " n o - f o r c e a p p r o a c h " p a y i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o a c h i l d ' s " w i s h e s and i n t e r e s t s " . A n o t h e r o b s e r v e d t h a t a " v i s u a l l a n g u a g e i s e a s i e r f o r t h e Dea f t o m a s t e r j u s t a s b r a i l l e i s e a s i e r f o r t h e b l i n d to" r e a d . " And s t i l l a n o t h e r p e r s o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t " a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d s i g n . . . ( a s ) y e a r s have been w a s t e d on g e s t u r e s and p r e t e n d i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . " T h u s , r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t s i g n i n g s h o u l d be a key p a r t o f a d e a f c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S i g n s t o be I n i t i a l l y A c q u i r e d D e a l i n g w i t h t h e i s s u e o f w h i c h s i g n s a d e a f c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( 4 5 . 7 % ) f e l t t h a t b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s q u e s t i o n r e v e a l e d a number o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i t h i n t h e s amp le p o p u l a t i o n t h a t were r e l a t e d t o t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s o f a g e , u se o f v o i c e w i t h H e a r i n g p e o p l e , c o m m u n i c a t i o n method t h e s u b j e c t f i r s t l e a r n e d , m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n , and method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r e s e n t l y u s e d and p r e f e r r e d t o u s e . E a c h o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d . 121 A s u b s t a n t i a l number o f e a c h age g r o u p i n g were i n s u p p o r t o f b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s b e i n g l e a r n e d , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was a s t r o n g e r t e n d e n c y f o r t h e y o u n g e r t o f a v o u r b o t h t y p e s o f s i g n s ( s ee T a b l e B 1 ) . T h i s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a more a c c e p t i n g a t t i t u d e o f t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p t o w a r d s E n g l i s h s i g n s . The r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i s a p l a u s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y . The few comments t h a t were o f f e r e d by young r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s were t o " a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . " H o w e v e r , a t y p i c a l comment t h a t was made t e n d s t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s mos t i m p o r t a n t . T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n a q u o t e f r o m a 31 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t who s t a t e d " D e a f c h i l d r e n must f i r s t l e a r n D e a f s i g n s w h i l e t h e y a r e u n d e r 5 y e a r s o l d . T h i s w o u l d h e l p them e x p r e s s t h e i r f e e l i n g s a n d t o d e m o n s t r a t e b e a u t i f u l e x p r e s s i o n s . " One m i g h t have e x p e c t e d t h o s e p e o p l e who use t h e i r v o i c e w i t h H e a r i n g p e o p l e t o be more f a v o u r a b l e t o w a r d s E n g l i s h s i g n s due t o t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . The s u r v e y s u p p o r t e d t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n when E n g l i s h s i g n s were v i e w e d a s p a r t o f a b i l i n g u a l f r a m e w o r k . T h a t i s , i t i s t h e c o n s e n s u s o f t h o s e who use t h e i r v o i c e s t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s w i l l be o f b e n e f i t p r o v i d e d t h e d e a f c h i l d a l s o knows Dea f s i g n s . R e g a r d i n g method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f i r s t l e a r n e d i t m i g h t have been h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t g i v e n s p e e c h i s a v a l u a b l e s k i l l and t h a t s p e a k i n g i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o a spoken l a n g u a g e t h a n 1 22 a s i g n l a n g u a g e t h e n one w o u l d e x p e c t n a t i v e s p e a k e r s t o be more i n s u p p o r t o f E n g l i s h s i g n s t h a n n a t i v e s i g n e r s . T h a t i s , t h e b e n e f i t s o f l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s w o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e b e n e f i t s a s p e r c e i v e d by E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e u s e r s . Howeve r , i n t h e s amp le t h i s was n o t e v i d e n c e d ( s e e T a b l e B 6 ) . In f a c t , a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f n a t i v e s p e a k e r s r e s p o n d e d i n f a v o u r o f E n g l i s h s i g n s t h a n d i d n a t i v e s i g n e r s . T h i s i s a p r o f o u n d s t a t e m e n t by t h e D e a f . I t has p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a b i 1 i n g u a l - b i m o d a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t e n c o u r a g e s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s i g n s f i r s t , t o e n s u r e m a s t e r y o f t h e l a n g u a g e i n a v i s u a l mode, f o l l o w e d by t h e o r a l u s age o f t h e s p o k e n c o u n t e r p a r t . I t has been w i d e l y s t a t e d t h a t ASL i s an i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Dea f commun i t y (Meadow, 1 9 7 2 ; ' M a r k o w i c z a n d Woodward , 1978 ; B a k e r and C o k e l y , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s no t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h o s e p e o p l e who c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s f u l l - t i m e members o f t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y were more s u p p o r t i v e o f Dea f s i g n s t h a n p a r t - t i m e members ( s e e T a b l e B 9 ) . One m i g h t assume t h a t t h e p a r t - t i m e members e x p e r i e n c e more s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h H e a r i n g p e o p l e , t h e r e b y h a v i n g a g r e a t e r n e e d t o use E n g l i s h t h a n t h e o t h e r s . T h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s a r e p r o j e c t e d o n t o f u t u r e Dea f a d u l t s w h i c h h e l p s t o e x p l a i n t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o s u p p o r t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h s i g n s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a p p r o p r i a t e E n g l i s h u s a g e when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h H e a r i n g p e o p l e was h i n t e d a t by a p a r t - t i m e member o f t h e Dea f commun i t y f a v o u r i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f 123 E n g l i s h s i g n s f i r s t . . . " i f d e a f c h i l d r e n a r e g i v e n t h e b a s i c s o f g o o d E n g l i s h a t an - e a r l y age t h e n t h i s w i l l s a v e them e m b a r r a s s m e n t i n t h e i r l a t e r y e a r s . " H o w e v e r , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t f o r many Dea f a d u l t s t h e l e a r n i n g o f Dea f s i g n s i s a f o r e g o n e c o n c l u s i o n , t h u s t h i s q u e s t i o n i s i n t e r p r e t e d t o i n d i c a t e whe the r o r n o t E n g l i s h s i g n s a r e t o be l e a r n e d . S u c h a p o s s i b i l t y i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t . . . " E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d ' be f i r s t l e a r n e d ' t o p r o m o t e b e t t e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f E n g l i s h . They ( dea f c h i l d r e n ) w i l l n a t u r a l l y s t a r t t o use Dea f s i g n s . " The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h o s e who u n d e r s t o o d most o f t h e c a p t i o n s showed v e r y l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r E n g l i s h s i g n s b e i n g l e a r n e d f i r s t ( s ee T a b l e B 1 3 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n i s i n f l u e n c i n g t h o s e who do no t u n d e r s t a n d much o f i t i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s a t a y o u n g age w o u l d h e l p d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s g r a s p o f E n g l i s h . C o n v e r s e l y , t h o s e who do u n d e r s t a n d most o f t h e c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n b e l i e v e d t h a t Dea f s i g n s a c q u i r e d a l o n e o r D e a f and E n g l i s h s i g n s l e a r n e d t o g e t h e r w o u l d be most a d v a n t a g e o u s t o t h e d e a f c h i l d . P e r h a p s t h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s most i m p o r t a n t a t a y o u n g e r a g e . H a v i n g m a s t e r e d a l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s more s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r s e n s e s t o a c q u i r e , t h e c h i l d may t h e n e x t r a p o l a t e t h i s k n o w l e d g e w h i l e l e a r n i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . 124 F i n a l l y , t h o s e who e i t h e r p r e s e n t l y u s e D e a f s i g n s a t home a n d / o r p r e f e r t o do so a l s o e x p r e s s e d a h i g h e r s u p p o r t f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n t o a c q u i r e Dea f s i g n s f i r s t , e i t h e r by i t s e l f o r w i t h E n g l i s h s i g n s ( s ee T a b l e s CI a n d C 2 ) . T h i s i s r e a s o n a b l e s i n c e t h e s e s u b j e c t ' s p r e s e n t l i f e s t y l e s and p r e f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g r e l i a n c e upon Dea f s i g n s . L i k e w i s e , p e o p l e p r e f e r r i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s a t home f a v o u r e d E n g l i s h s i g n s more t h a n D e a f s i g n s . H o w e v e r , i t must be n o t e d t h a t a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f a l l g r o u p s t e n d e d t o f a v o u r a b i l i n g u a l a p p r o a c h i n l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . In o t h e r w o r d s , o n e ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t y l e c a n be u s e d t o a s m a l l e x t e n t t o p r e d i c t o n e ' s t e n d e n c y i n e x p e c t a t i o n s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . Age t o S t a r t S i g n i n g T h i s q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d t h e i s s u e o f w h i c h mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e Dea f commun i t y f e l t was most c r i t i c a l f o r young d e a f c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n f i r s t . I t was s e e n t h a t h a l f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( 49 .4% ) f e l t t h a t s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d b e f o r e s p e e c h ( see T a b l e 4 ) . One m i g h t have e x p e c t e d t h i s s i n c e s i g n i n g a s a u t i l i z e d and a p r e f e r r e d means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n was c h o s e n by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s ( s ee T a b l e s 8 and 9 ) . P o s s i b l y , t h e s u b j e c t s d i d no t v i ew t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n a s b e i n g a d v a n t a g e o u s f o r o t h e r s t o f o l l o w . A l s o , t h e y may have d e c i d e d t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s o f s i g n i n g o u t w e i g h e d t h o s e o f s p e a k i n g . 125 F rom comments t o t h e p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n s i t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t s i g n i n g was s e e n a s a means o f p r o v i d i n g e f f i c i e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n . One e x a m p l e o f t h i s was by a l a d y who had h e r s e l f f i r s t l e a r n e d t o s p e a k . She s a i d t h a t s i g n i n g "makes i t e a s i e r t o c o m m u n i c a t e . " A l t h o u g h s i m p l y s t a t e d , t h i s remark was f r e q u e n t l y r e p e a t e d by many. Of f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t were comments on t h e use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s . The a d v a n t a g e s o f l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s were a l w a y s r e l a t e d t o o r t h o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E n g l i s h and no t t o s p e e c h . When a n a l y z e d by age i t was n o t e d t h a t a l l age g r o u p s were i n f a v o u r o f h a v i n g s i g n s l e a r n e d e i t h e r f i r s t o r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s p e e c h ( s ee T a b l e B 2 ) . An i n t e r e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c was r e v e a l e d by t h e 51 r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e age g r o u p 31-44 y e a r s . Not one o f them f e l t t h a t s p e e c h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t , whe reas t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p showed t h e l a r g e s t ( 18 .6%) s u p p o r t f o r s p e e c h b e i n g l e a r n e d f i r s t . P e r h a p s t h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f an o r a l v e r s u s a t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m . T o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r a l l a g e s was no t a d o p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n t i l t h e e a r l y s e v e n t i e s and u n t i l t h e n a l l e l e m e n t a r y p r o g r a m s were o r a l . I t may w e l l be t h a t an o r a l e d u c a t i o n a t a y o u n g e r a g e , s e r v e s t o s t i g m a t i z e t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f s p e e c h . T h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i s no t w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h i s d o c u m e n t , h o w e v e r , i t i s t o be h o p e d t h a t l a t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i l l l e n d some i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . 1 26 D a t a p r o v i d e d by u s e r s o f h e a r i n g a i d s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h o s e who wear them f e l t s i g n s and s p e e c h a c q u i r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r s i g n s l e a r n e d by i t s e l f were most a p p r o p r i a t e ( s ee T a b l e B 4 ) . O n l y t h o s e who wore t h e i r h e a r i n g a i d s a l l o f t h e t i m e gave any s i z e a b l e s u p p o r t ( 25 .0% ) t o s p e e c h b e i n g l e a r n e d f i r s t . Howeve r , e ven w i t h h e a r i n g a i d u s e r s s i g n l a n g u a g e r e m a i n s t he most v a l u a b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e a n s . I t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f s p e e c h a n d h e a r i n g a i d s a s d i s c e r n e d by t h e D e a f . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e s e two f a c e t s have been t h e c e n t e r p i e c e i n e d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f . Whe the r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e Dea f i n t o o r i n t e r a c t i n g them w i t h h e a r i n g members o f s o c i e t y much money has been i n v e s t e d i n t h e s e a r e a s ( V e r n o n , 1 9 7 3 ) . P e r h a p s , t h e message b e i n g d e l i v e r e d h e r e i s t h a t s i g n l a n g u a g e s h o u l d become t h e new f o c u s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and c e r t a i n l y f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . F u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e f o r e g o i n g s u p p o s i t i o n i s r e v e a l e d w i t h t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n me thod f i r s t l e a r n e d by t h e s u b j e c t s . H e r e , o f t h e 75 p e o p l e who a c q u i r e d s p e e c h f i r s t o n l y 12 f e l t t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n t o d a y s h o u l d l e a r n s p e e c h f i r s t ( see T a b l e B 7 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n ( 8 1 . 9 % ) o f t h o s e who a c q u i r e d s i g n l a n g u a g e f i r s t a l s o f e l t s i g n s s h o u l d be f i r s t l e a r n e d . A g a i n , t h e v a l u e g i v e n t o s i g n l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n i s i m p r e s s i v e w a r r a n t i n g s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . 1 27 D o r m i t o r y l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f f e r e d a p o s s i b l e f a c t o r of i n f l u e n c e . Those who had t h i s e x p e r i e n c e were more i n fav o u r of s i g n s b e i n g l e a r n e d f i r s t then the o t h e r s (see T a b l e B11). A l t h o u g h , the speech f i r s t c a t e g o r y was the lo w e s t f o r both groups those p e o p l e who l i v e d a t home v a l u e d speech a t a young age more than the d o r m i t o r y group. E n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s u r e i n the home might account f o r t h e s e d a t a as most deaf c h i l d r e n come from homes where a t l e a s t p a r t of the f a m i l y i s h e a r i n g . D o r m i t o r i e s , on the o t h e r hand o f f e r e d an environment c o n s i s t i n g m o s t l y of o t h e r deaf p e e r s . Of the t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s found i n the c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s of method of communication p r e s e n t l y u t i l i z e d and p r e f e r r e d , the two a r e a s concerned w i t h speech i n the home o f f e r e d the most i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . H a l f of the group t h a t p r e s e n t l y speaks a t home (N=56) and h a l f of the group t h a t p e r f e r r e d t o speak a t home (N=16) f e l t t h a t deaf c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n s i g n s and speech s i m u l t a n e o u s l y (see T a b l e s C5 and C6). A l t h o u g h more of the p r e f e r e n c e group f a v o u r e d c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g speech f i r s t then s i g n s the s m a l l sample s i z e s (N=5 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) does not j u s t i f y s e r i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o t h e r than t o say t h a t those p e o p l e who p r e f e r r e d t o use speech a t home tend t o s l i g h t l y f a v o u r speech b e f o r e s i g n s . 1.28 B e n e f i t o f a B i 1 i n g u a l Know ledge o f S i g n s A l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a n s w e r e d a f f i r m a t i v e l y f o r t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e l e a r n i n g o f Dea f s i g n s g i v e n t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s were a l r e a d y known o r t h e l e a r n i n g o f E n g l i s h s i g n s g i v e n t h a t Dea f s i g n s were a l r e a d y known ( 8 2 . 7 % a n d 8 3 . 3 % , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h i s i s a s t r o n g g e s t u r e by t h e Dea f commun i t y t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have t h e b e n e f i t s o f l e a r n i n g b o t h k i n d s o f s i g n s . T h e s e s t a t i s t i c s a l s o g i v e f i r m s u p p o r t t o t h e c o n c e p t o f a b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , an i n t e r e s t i n g c h a l l e n g e t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , e d u c a t o r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n i s r a i s e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i f t h e Dea f a r e w i l l i n g t o become b i l i n g u a l i n a H e a r i n g s o c i e t y a r e t h e members o f t h i s H e a r i n g s o c i e t y w i l l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e and e x p a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e o f t h e Dea f i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . P r o p e r S i g n s f o r Dea f C h i l d r e n The r e s u l t s i n T a b l e 6 , d e m o n s t r a t e s i m i l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e use o f b o t h D e a f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s by d e a f c h i l d r e n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . When t h e v a r i a b l e s me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r e s e n t l y u s e d and p r e f e r r e d t o use i s e x c l u d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s w i t h any o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be f o u n d . When me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n was e x a m i n e d i t was f o u n d t h a t t h o s e w i t h l e a n i n g s t o w a r d s Dea f s i g n s t e n d e d t o f a v o u r a h i g h e r amount o f Dea f s i g n s ( see T a b l e C8) and a l e s s e r amount o f E n g l i s h s i g n s ( see T a b l e C I O ) . Howeve r , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s 1 29 s h o u l d no t be made as b o t h o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a r e r e f e r e n c e s t o a s p e c i f i c g r o u p o f p e o p l e . T h a t i s , t h e y r e f e r t o p e o p l e p r e f e r r i n g t o use Dea f s i g n s a t home and t h o s e p r e f e r r i n g t o use Dea f s i g n s w i t h H e a r i n g f r i e n d s . L i k e w i s e , a s i m i l a r t r e n d was n o t e d w i t h t h o s e w i t h l e a n i n g s t o w a r d s E n g l i s h s i g n s ( s ee T a b l e s C7 and C11) and t o w a r d s s p e e c h ( s ee T a b l e C 9 ) . A l l o f t h e s e g r o u p s f a v o u r e d t h e d e a f c h i l d u s i n g l e s s Dea f s i g n s a n d more E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r . I t seems t h a t p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a l a n g u a g e seems t o be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g o n e ' s o p i n i o n o f l a n g u a g e u sage f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . T h e o r i e s o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m g i v e s s u p p o r t t o t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . I t may w e l l be t h a t t h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f a p o s s i b l e l i n e o f d i v i s i o n amongs t t h e D e a f . T h a t i s , p o l a r i z e d g r o u p s o f p r o - D e a f s i g n s and p r o - E n g l i s h s i g n s may p r e s e n t l y e x i s t o r be i n t h e p r o c e s s o f e v o l v i n g . Howeve r , t h e o v e r a l l c o n s e n s u s on t h e q u e s t i o n a t i s s u e h e r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be b i l i n g u a l i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Comments e x p r e s s e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s g i v e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t . One p e r s o n who was more i n f a v o u r o f E n g l i s h t h a n Dea f s i g n s s a i d : . . . i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r E n g l i s h , u se E n g l i s h s i g n s . F o r o t h e r c o n t e n t a r e a s t h a t r e q u i r e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f i d e a s and o p i n i o n s t h e n t h e c h i l d s h o u l d have t h e r i g h t t o e x p r e s s i n t h e most c o m f o r t a b l e s i g n s y s t e m . A n o t h e r p e r s o n who f e l t t h a t D e a f s i g n s s h o u l d be u s e d more t h a n 1 30 E n g l i s h s i g n s s t a t e d : . . . w h e n d e a f c h i l d r e n grow up t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o l e a r n more a b o u t E n g l i s h . W h i l e t h e y a r e y o u n g i t i s b e t t e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e on c o m m u n i c a t i n g . T h i s f o r e g o i n g comment s u g g e s t s t h a t E n g l i s h s i g n s a r e more u s e f u l a s a t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h t h a n c o m m u n i c a t i n g . F i n a l l y , f r o m one p e r s o n who gave e q u a l s u p p o r t t o b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s : . . . t h i s w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g be tween t h e t e a c h e r and c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n w o u l d i m p r o v e . I m p l i e d i n t h e above comment i s a f e e l i n g t h a t was e c h o e d by many o f t h e D e a f , t h a t i s , t h a t t h e b i g g e s t s t u m b l i n g b l o c k i n e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Dea f i s t h e l a c k o f e f f i c i e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n be tween t h e t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t s . P o s s i b l y , t h i s s a m p l e ' s s u g g e s t i o n o f u s i n g b o t h Dea f a n d E n g l i s h s i g n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i s one way o f o v e r c o m i n g t h i s b a r r i e r . P r o p e r S i g n s f o r T e a c h e r s As w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s a s p e c t o f c l a s s r o o m c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e r e was s i m i l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e use o f b o t h Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s by t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ( see T a b l e 6 ) . A ma jo r d i f f e r e n c e be tween a c h i l d ' s and a t e a c h e r ' s use o f s i g n s was a t e n d e n c y amongst t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o see E n g l i s h s i g n s a s b e i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e when u s e d by t e a c h e r s . A l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s i s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g comment , " t e a c h e r s s h o u l d g i v e t h e i r s t u d e n t s a good e x a m p l e t o f o l l o w . " I t d o e s seem f i t t i n g t h a t a mode l f o r E n g l i s h w o u l d have t o i n c l u d e t h e 131 t e a c h e r s i n c e d e a f p e e r s most l i k e l y use Dea f s i g n s and h e a r i n g members o f t h e f a m i l y most p r o b a b l y use s p e e c h a n d t h u s an a d e q u a t e e x a m p l e o f E n g l i s h may n o t be a v a i l a b l e . Howeve r , t h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s s h o u l d s i g n i n E n g l i s h most o f t h e t i m e as a p p r o p r i a t e s i g n i n g w o u l d " d e p e n d on t h e c l a s s s i t u a t i o n . " A l s o , t h e r e i s p o s s i b l y a d a n g e r o f o v e r u s e o f E n g l i s h s i g n s t h a t may w e l l d e f e a t t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f u s i n g t h e m . T h i s d a n g e r i s e x p r e s s e d q u i t e commonly amongs t t h e Dea f and v e r y c l e a r l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g comment , " E n g l i s h s i g n s a r e s l ow and b o r i n g . " D e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s whose i n f l u e n c e s were shown t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c l u d e d o n s e t o f d e a f n e s s ( see T a b l e B 3 ) . The p r e l i n g u a l l y d e a f f e l t more s t o n g l y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d use D e a f s i g n s t h a n d i d t h e p o s t l i n g u a l l y d e a f . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e p o s t l i n g u a l g r o u p most l i k e l y l e a r n e d t o speak f i r s t w h i c h t h e r e f o r e may have been a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f i r s t l e a r n e d , w h i c h was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t ( s e e T a b l e B8) s u p p o r t s t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s s l i g h t t h e g r o u p t h a t l e a r n e d s i g n l a n g u a g e f i r s t was more i n f a v o u r o f t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s t h a n was t h e g r o u p t h a t had a c q u i r e d s p e e c h f i r s t . The s t r o n g e s t s u p p o r t f o r Dea f s i g n s , h o w e v e r , came f r o m t h e g r o u p w h i c h had a c q u i r e d s i g n s and s p e e c h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h u s , t h e age a t w h i c h one becomes d e a f and t h e me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n one f i r s t l e a r n do seem t o a f f e c t o n e ' s 132 o p i n i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s r o o m s i g n i n g by t h e t e a c h e r . M e t h o d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n was p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d t o be an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r when t h e i s s u e was Dea f a n d / o r E n g l i s h s i g n s and s i g n l a n g u a g e a n d / o r s p e e c h ( s ee T a b l e s B6 a n d B 7 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e seems t o be an o b v i o u s r e l a t i o n be tween c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d and p r e s e n t o p i n i o n t h e r e a r e no t s u f f i c i e n t d a t a upon w h i c h one m i g h t make p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d s o l e l y upon t h i s one v a r i a b l e . M e m b e r s h i p i n t h e Dea f commun i t y was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . T h o s e who saw t h e m s e l v e s a s f u l l - t i m e members were more i n c l i n e d t o have t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s t h a n t h o s e who were p a r t - t i m e members ( see T a b l e B 1 0 ) . As w i t h t h e D e a f s i g n s a n d / o r E n g l i s h s i g n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a s p e c t m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e n t i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h Dea f s i g n s have w i t h i n t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . T h a t i s , t h e f u l l - t i m e members v a l u e t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f Dea f s i g n s more t h a n the p a r t - t i m e members . A l s o , t h e f ewe r c o n t a c t s w i t h members o u t s i d e o f t h e Dea f commun i t y may have been a f a c t o r a s t h i s i m p l i e s l e s s e x p o s u r e t o E n g l i s h . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e was f o u n d when a s u b j e c t ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n e d o r i n t e r p r e t e d news was i n v e s t i g a t e d ( see T a b l e B 1 2 ) . One m i g h t have p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d c a p t i o n e d news f o u n d c o m f o r t i n r e a d i n g c a p t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e w o u l d be more f a v o u r a b l e t o w a r d s E n g l i s h s i g n s . Howeve r , t h i s was no t t h e c a s e . The c a p t i o n e d news g r o u p t e n d e d 1 33 t o f a v o u r t h e t e a c h e r u s i n g D e a f s i g n s more t h a n t h e i n t e r p r e t e d news g r o u p . I t c o u l d be t h a t t h e c a p t i o n e d news g r o u p m i g h t have f e l t more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h E n g l i s h and t h u s f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on e a s e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e o t h e r g r o u p may n o t have f e l t a t e a s e w i t h E n g l i s h and somehow r e l a t e d t h e use o f E n g l i s h s i g n s a s a way o f i m p r o v i n g E n g l i s h s k i l l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d b e f o r e f i r m s t a t e m e n t s may be i s s u e d r e l a t i n g c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n w i t h p e r s p e c t i v e s on s i g n i n g . Y e t , a s n o t e d e a r l i e r , t h o s e who u n d e r s t o o d o n l y some o f t h e t e l e v i s i o n c a p t i o n s were a l s o more i n f a v o u r o f E n g l i s h - s i g n s t h a n t h o s e who u n d e r s t o o d most o f t h e c a p t i o n s ( s ee T a b l e B 1 3 ) . T h u s , s u c h s p e c u l a t i o n i s j u s t i f i e d and d e s e r v e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A l s o w i t h r e g a r d s t o t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e be tween p e o p l e who p r e f e r r e d Dea f s i g n s a t home and t h o s e who d i d n o t ( s e e T a b l e C 1 3 ) . T h o s e who p r e f e r r e d Dea f s i g n s f a v o u r e d t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s more t h a n the o t h e r g r o u p . I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e home s i t u a t i o n had been p r o j e c t e d i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m . P o s s i b l y , t h e c o m f o r t a b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by u s i n g Dea f s i g n s a t home was e x t e n d e d t o i m p l y a m e a n i n g l f u l e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t o be one w h i c h had t e a c h e r s u s i n g Dea f s i g n s . F i n a l l y , a d d r e s s i n g t h e i s s u e o f t e a c h e r s u s i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s t h e c a u s e o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s amp le r e s u l t e d f rom t h e v a r i a b l e method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r e s e n t l y u s e d and p r e f e r r e d t o 134 u s e . U n s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h o s e who use E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h Dea f f r i e n d s a l s o gave g r e a t e r s u p p o r t f o r t e a c h e r s t o use E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s ( s ee T a b l e C 1 4 ) . A g a i n t h e t h e o r y o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m h e l p s t o e x p l a i n t h i s . In o t h e r w o r d s , what i s g o o d f o r o n e s e l f w o u l d a l s o h o l d f o r o t h e r s . F u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were f o u n d when t h e c a t e g o r i e s were t h o s e who p r e f e r r e d t o use Dea f s i g n s w i t h d e a f f r i e n d s , h e a r i n g f r i e n d s and a t home ( see T a b l e s C 1 5 , C 1 6 , and C 1 7 ) . I t was t h e n o n - p r e f e r r i n g g r o u p i n e a c h o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more s u p p o r t i v e o f t e a c h e r s u s i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s even t h o u g h t h e p r e f e r r i n g g r o u p s a l s o gave s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . As i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , o n e ' s own h a b i t s seemed t o d e t e r m i n e o n e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s . Dea f S i g n s f o r T e a c h e r s o f t h e Dea f A f o r m i d a b l e m a j o r i t y ( 9 0 . 1 % ) r e s p o n d e d t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n Dea f s i g n s . P r e s e n t l y , p r o v i n c i a l t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n o f t h e Dea f d o e s no t r e q u i r e t h e c a n d i d a t e s t o have some s i g n i n g s k i l l s . Nor a r e t h e r e any t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s a t a C a n a d i a n U n i v e r s i t y t h a t r e q u i r e p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s t o a c h i e v e a minimum s t a n d a r d o f s i g n i n g s k i l l a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r c o u r s e w o r k c o m p l e t i o n . T h i s r e s p o n s e by t h e Dea f commun i t y e x p o s e s a s e r i o u s o m i s s i o n i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f f u t u r e t e a c h e r s o f t he D e a f . I t i s no t w i t h i n t he s c o p e o f t h i s document t o d w e l l upon t h e r e a s o n f o r s u c h an o v e r s i g h t o t h e r t h a n t o s a y t h a t i t s d i s c o v e r y w o u l d r e p r e s e n t a 1 35 ma jo r b r e a k t h r o u g h i n b r i d g i n g t h e gap be tween e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Dea f and t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . Comments by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h e l p t o p o r t r a y t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s f e e l i n g . One s u b j e c t c o m p a r e d s i g n l a n g u a g e s w i t h o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c c o m m u n i t i e s by s a y i n g : . . . t e a c h e r s o f F r e n c h c h i l d r e n a r e r e q u i r e d t o have a good; k n o w l e d g e o f t he F r e n c h l a n g u a g e — t h e same t r e a t m e n t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o Dea f s i g n s . As n o t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s e r i o u s i s s u e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e s . Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d be no e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n . One p e r s o n s t a t e d , " i f t e a c h e r s want t o work w i t h t h e Dea f t h e n t h e y s h o u l d know t h e l a n g u a g e " and a n o t h e r q u i t e b r i e f l y c l a i m e d t h a t " k n o w i n g D e a f s i g n s s h o u l d be m a n d a t o r y " amongst t e a c h e r s o f t h e D e a f . T h e s e comments a r e s u m m a r i z e d by a d e a f t e a c h e r o f t h e Dea f who i m p l i e d t h a t t e a c h e r s know ing Dea f s i g n s e n a b l e a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t : . . . t e a c h e r s o f t h e Dea f s h o u l d l e a r n Dea f s i g n s s i n c e t h e i r s t u d e n t s a r e d e a f . T h i s way t h e i r wou ld be e a s i e r a c c e s s , b e t t e r m o r a l s , h a p p i n e s s and no b a r r i e r s . O t h e r comments a l l u d e d t o t he need f o r r e s p e c t i n g Dea f e t h n i c i t y a s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s : . . . t o be aware o f D e a f c u l t u r e ; t h a t s i g n s r e p r e s e n t an u n i q u e l a n g u a g e and i s d e s e r v i n g o f r e s p e c t as o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . 1 36 . . . t o r e s p e c t Dea f c u l t u r e a n d D e a f t r a d i t i o n . I t h a s been s a i d t h a t ASL i s a means by w h i c h t h e d e a f r e t a i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and t h a t when H e a r i n g p e o p l e a r e a l l o w e d t o p a r t a k e i n u s i n g ASL t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h e Dea f w o u l d l o s e a c e r t a i n m e a s u r e o f i d e n t i t y ( K a n n a p e l l , 1 9 8 2 ) . A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e above comments may seem t o be a d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e t o t h e s e v i e w s . H o w e v e r , t h e t e r m Dea f s i g n s may be e x t e n d e d a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m a s s u g g e s t e d by Woodward ( 1 9 7 3 b ) . T h u s , i t may be t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h e r e have no i n t e n t i o n s o f h a v i n g H e a r i n g t e a c h e r s become f l u e n t i n Dea f s i g n s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y ma t ch t h e s i g n i n g s k i l l s o f t h e D e a f t h e m s e l v e s . R a t h e r , f o r t h e s e p e o p l e , i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n a know l edge o f Dea f s i g n s e q u i v a l e n t t o o n l y a s u r f a c e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Dea f s i g n s . P e r h a p s , j u s t enough t o f a c i l i t a t e e a s i e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n be tween t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h wou ld c e r t a i n l y a s s i s t i n c l a r i f y i n g t h i s i s s u e . And f i n a l l y : . . . i f a s t u d e n t has. t h e r i g h t t o use w h a t e v e r s i g n s y s t e m i s most c o m f o r t a b l e , he a l s o has t h e r i g h t t o be u n d e r s t o o d , w h i c h i n c l u d e s b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d w h i l e he e x p l a i n s h i m s e l f i n Dea f s i g n s . T h u s , i t i s t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e c h i l d t o have a t e a c h e r t h a t i s a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d h i m / h e r i n t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t i s most u s e d by t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . I n v o l v e m e n t o f Dea f P e o p l e i n D e c i d i n g E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s f o r  Dea f C h i l d r e n A h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e (84 .1% ) o f t h e s amp le f e l t t h a t Dea f p e o p l e s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n d e c i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r 1 37 d e a f c h i l d r e n . The i m p o r t o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t becomes more v i s i b l e when i t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e r e has n e v e r been a Dea f e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e s e n t l y , a l l l e v e l s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l f o r t h e D e a f and a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e t h a t a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n o f Dea f i n d i v i d u a l s a r e h e l d by H e a r i n g p e r s o n s . I t i s n o t w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t o s p e c u l a t e a s t o why t h i s has been t h e c a s e . H o w e v e r , a v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by a number o f Dea f commun i t y members : . . . M o s t e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s now a r e d e c i d e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i t h no b a c k g r o u n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e D e a f . . . . T o o many c o m m u n i c a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l m e t h o d s have been s e t up by H e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s who know n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e Dea f . . . . D e a f p e o p l e s h o u l d be m a k i n g a l l o f t h e d e c i s i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h e o n l y p e o p l e who know a n y t h i n g a b o u t d e a f n e s s . . . . H e a r i n g p e o p l e u s u a l l y c a n n o t c o m m u n i c a t e w e l l enough t o g e t f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d e a f n e s s . . . . M u s t ! They know what i s b e s t f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h t h e i r r i c h e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e s e c l a i m s a r e d i f f i c u l t i f no t i m p o s s i b l e t o i g n o r e . The c o n t r o l o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n i s s i m i l a r t o p a s t p r a c t i c e s w i t h o t h e r e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s ( see J o n e s , 1 9 7 6 ) . The comments above i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s compounded when l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Dea f commun i t y a r e c o n s i d e r e d . 138 F u r t h e r r e m a r k s r e l a t e t h e empathy t h a t t h e Dea f have t o w a r d s e a c h o t h e r : . . . T h e D e a f t h e m s e l v e s have ' h a d ' e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . . . . D e a f p e o p l e u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r b e t t e r , t h e y have more f e e l i n g s t o w a r d e a c h o t h e r a n d t h e y have had t h e e x p e r i e n c e . . . . D e a f p e o p l e a r e t h e b e s t b e t s i n c e t h e y have gone t h r o u g h i t a l l . I t i s h a r d t o p r o v e o b j e c t i v e l y why t h e r e has been l i t t l e o r no i n v o l v e m e n t a t a p o l i c y d e c i d i n g l e v e l . P o s s i b l y , few q u a l i f i e d Dea f a d u l t s have a t t e m p t e d t o o b t a i n i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e f e n c e , p e r h a p s H e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s have e v o l v e d a c o m f o r t a b l e n i c h e t h a t has become s e l f - p r o t e c t i n g t h r o u g h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e D e a f . No m a t t e r w h i c h e x p l a n a t i o n seems r e a s o n a b l e t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e Dea f commun i t y a s p r e s e n t e d h e r e c a n n o t be d i s m i s s e d . I t i s i n d e e d a s t r o n g message t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , one l a s t comment i s p r e s e n t e d ^ as a summary o f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s t h a t have been e x p e r i e n c e d o v e r t h e y e a r s . R e l a t i n g p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h h i s answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f Dea f i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s one m i d d l e a g e d g e n t l e m a n r e m a r k e d : . . . D e f i n i t e l y ! Dea f a d u l t s c l i m b e d o u t o f t h e p i t f a l l s o f p o o r l y a r r a n g e d e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s . They know what i s n e e d e d a n d what t o a v o i d . 1 39 C a p t i o n e d T e l e v i s i o n More t h a n f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( 8 2 . 1 % ) f e l t t h a t c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n was h e l p i n g i m p r o v e t h e i r E n g l i s h ( s ee T a b l e B 1 3 ) . As o n l y 5 8 . 6 % c l a i m e d t o u n d e r s t a n d c a p t i o n s most o f t h e t i m e , t h e n t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l e eway f o r improvemen t i n t h e v i e w e r ' s E n g l i s h a n d / o r a need f o r more a p p r o p r i a t e c a p t i o n s . As t h e mass p r o d u c e d d e c o d e r i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a c l o s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e c h a n g e s i n c a p t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s and on t r e n d s i n v i e w e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s on c a p t i o n i o n g w i l l h e l p i n d i r e c t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a p t i o n e d p r o g r a m s . A l s o , s u c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n •for c l a s s r o o m use o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n . T h i s q u e s t i o n d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o f o c u s upon a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f E n g l i s h , n e v e r t h e l e s s , comments g i v e some i n s i g h t i n t h i s r e s p e c t : . . . I t o p e n s my m ind f o r v o c a b u l a r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n s c i e n c e and s l a n g . . . . h e l p s my v o c a b u l a r y . Many o f t h e s u b j e c t s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s e two commen t s . V o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t o n and r e i n f o r c e m e n t s were t h e a r e a s t h a t seemed t o be b e n e f i t t i n g t h e most f r om c a p t i o n s . Not e v e r y o n e f e l t t h i s way. As t h e q u e s t i o n may have had a n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n a t t a c h e d t o i t , a remark l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g was c e r t a i n l y u n d e r s t o o d , "I t h i n k my E n g l i s h i s good e n o u g h , t h a n k s . " To a v o i d t h e d e r o g a t o r y a p p e a r a n c e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n , 1 40 f u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d r e s t a t e i t more o p e n l y . F o r e x a m p l e , one m i g h t a s k " In what way do y o u f e e l t h a t c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n i s o f a d v a n t a g e t o y o u ? " o r more s i m p l y "Why do y o u e n j o y w a t c h i n g c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n ? " H o w e v e r , t h i s q u e s t i o n d i d r e v e a l t h a t t h e v a l u e o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n l i e s d e e p e r t h a n mere o r t h o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f d i a l o g u e . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s amp l e a l s o p r e f e r r e d c a p t i o n e d news t o i n t e r p r e t e d news ( s e e T a b l e 3 ) . Many p e o p l e f r a n k l y s t a t e d t h a t c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n was " e a s i e r t o f o l l o w . " H o w e v e r , e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s must be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e a c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t c a n be j u s t i f i e d . The q u a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i n g was an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r a s s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g comment , " w i l l wa t ch i n t e r p r e t e d news a s l o n g a s t h e s i g n i n g i s g o o d . " A n o t h e r comment s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s use s i g n s t h a t a r e p e r h a p s t o o E n g l i s h , " . . . i n t e r p r e t e r s use s i g n s f o r some words t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t t h a n what t h e Dea f u s e . " In t h e o t h e r d i r e c t i o n one p e r s o n m e n t i o n e d t h a t " c a p t i o n e d news c h a n g e t o o f a s t . " T h i s i s a c r u c i a l p o i n t f o r i m p r o v e m e n t o f c a p t i o n e d p r o g r a m s t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e c e p t i b i l i t y o f t h e e y e . An opt imum c a p t i o n i n g s p e e d needs t o be f o u n d t o e n s u r e t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y o f t h e v i e w e r s a r e a b l e t o r e a d t h e c a p t i o n s . I t may w e l l be t h a t s p e e d was t h e r e a s o n f o r some of t h e p e o p l e no t u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a p t i o n s a l l o f t h e t i m e . 141 CHAPTER V I : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPL ICAT IONS , L IM ITAT IONS , AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Summary The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o s u r v e y t h e a d u l t Dea f and document t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s on a p p r o p r i a t e me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . Q u e s t i o n s a s k e d d e a l t w i t h s i g n l a n g u a g e and i t s r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d e a f c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . In a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h s i g n l a n g u a g e was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e Dea f commun i t y t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , had n o t r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f u s i n g s i g n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Upon w i d e s p r e a d a d o p t i o n o f s i g n l a n g u a g e u n d e r t h e b a n n e r o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y s e v e n t i e s i t was t h e n o b s e r v e d t h a t a w ide gamut o f new l y c r e a t e d s i g n s y s t e m s were b e i n g u t i l i z e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i n s t e a d o f t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e u s e d by t h e D e a f . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n p u t f r o m t h e Dea f commun i t y was n o t a f a c t o r i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s i g n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h e s e f i n d i n g s gave d i r e c t i o n f o r a s u r v e y o f t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e l f - d e s i g n e d and p i l o t - t e s t e d on f i f t e e n a d u l t s . The f i n a l v e r s i o n was t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a s amp le o f a d u l t s i n t he G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . Sample s e l e c t i o n was made on t h e b a s i s o f c o n v e n i e n c e . D a t a c o m p i l a t i o n a n d a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d u s i n g t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : V e r s i o n 8 . 0 0 ( N i e , e t . a l . , 1 42 1975) . A n a l y s e s o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a r e v e a l e d a s a m p l e c o n s i s t i n g o f 86 m a l e s and 76 f e m a l e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% were p r e l i n g u a l l y d e a f and 7 5 . 3 % had begun t o l e a r n s i g n s by t h e t i m e t h e y were n i n e y e a r s o l d . A l i t t l e more t h a n h a l f ( 54 .9% ) were f u l l - t i m e members o f t h e Dea f commun i t y and 4 2 . 0 % f e l t t h e y were p a r t - t i m e members . A l m o s t a l l o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( 95 .7% ) p r e s e n t l y use Dea f s i g n s w i t h d e a f f r i e n d s . P e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r a me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n showed t h a t when i n an e n v i r o n m e n t c o n s i s t i n g o f o t h e r D e a f p e o p l e a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s w o u l d p r e f e r t o u s e Dea f s i g n s . When t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s t o c o n s i s t o f H e a r i n g p e o p l e no t l i k e l y t o know how t o ' s i g n t h e n t h e most p r e f e r r e d m e t h o d was w r i t i n g . O v e r a l l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e D e a f commun i t y o f d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t a h y p o t h e t i c a l d e a f c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n b e f o r e s/he l e a r n s t o s p e a k . S/he s h o u l d a c q u i r e l a n g u a g e b i l i n g u a l l y , t h u s l e a r n i n g Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s t o g e t h e r . I f t h e c h i l d o n l y has k n o w l e d g e o f one k i n d o f s i g n i n g t h e n t h e o t h e r one s h o u l d a l s o be l e a r n e d . W h i l e i n s c h o o l b o t h Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s s h o u l d be u s e d and t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d s i g n l i k e w i s e . A c t i n g as a r o l e mode l t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d use more E n g l i s h s i g n s t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s . A l l o f t h e c h i l d ' s t e a c h e r s must be a b l e t o c o n v e r s e i n Dea f s i g n s t o a l l o w f o r c o m f o r t a b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . And f i n a l l y , d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e s e n t and f u t u r e p o l i c i e s i n e d u c a t i o n o f t h e 143 Dea f n e e d s t o i n v o l v e o t h e r members o f t h e c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p , n a m e l y , t h e Dea f a d u l t s . C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s o f t h e a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s w i t h d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s h e l p e d t o f i n d w h i c h f a c t o r s were p r o b a b l e i n f l u e n c e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o when s i g n l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be l e a r n e d t h e p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s were a g e , h e a r i n g a i d s , d o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s and method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d . R e g a r d i n g w h i c h s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t t h e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s were a g e , use o f v o i c e w i t h H e a r i n g p e o p l e , me thod of c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d , Dea f commun i t y m e m b e r s h i p and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n . The o n l y o t h e r v a r i a b l e on w h i c h t h e r e was a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s was t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e amount o f Dea f s i g n s a t e a c h e r s h o u l d u s e . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , o n s e t o f d e a f n e s s , me thod o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d , Dea f commun i t y m e m b e r s h i p , and o n e ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a p t i o n e d o r i n t e r p r e t e d news had s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e 0 . 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i n c r e a s e d t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a T ype 1 e r r o r . Due t o t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y f u t u r e r e p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e f l e c t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . F o c u s i n g on the me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r e s e n t l y u s e d and p r e f e r r e d t o be u s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s were o b s e r v e d : 1. When a c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n s i g n l a n g u a g e ? 1 44 - a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s a ) u se o f Dea f s i g n s a t home b) u se o f s p e e c h a t home c ) p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p e e c h a t home 2 . Wh i ch s i g n s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f i r s t ? - a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s a ) u se o f Dea f s i g n s a t home b) p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dea f s i g n s a t home c ) p r e f e r e n c e f o r E n g l i s h s i g n s a t home 3. Amount o f Dea f s i g n s a c h i l d s h o u l d use t o t h e i r t e a c h e r s . - a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s a) u s e o f E n g l i s h s i g n s t o d e a f f r i e n d s b) p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dea f s i g n s a t home 4. Amount o f E n g l i s h s i g n s a c h i l d s h o u l d use t o t h e t e a c h e r . - a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s a) u s e o f s p e e c h a t home b) p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dea f s i g n s w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s c ) p r e f e r e n c e f o r E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s d) p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p e e c h w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s 5. Amount o f Dea f s i g n s a t e a c h e r s h o u l d u s e . - a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s a) p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dea f s i g n s a t home 6. Amount o f E n g l i s h s i g n s a t e a c h e r s h o u l d u s e . - a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s a) u s e o f E n g l i s h s i g n s t o d e a f f r i e n d s 1 45 b) p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dea f s i g n s t o d e a f f r i e n d s c ) p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dea f s i g n s a t home d) p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dea f s i g n s w i t h h e a r i n g f r i e n d s Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and t h e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s t o w h i c h e a c h one was s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d , i t i s n o t f e a s i b l e t o p r e s e n t a summary . The u n i q u e n e s s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e s e f f e c t r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n t t a b l e s c o n t a i n e d i n C h a p t e r IV and C h a p t e r V . L a s t l y , more t h a n h a l f t he s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n ( 63 .0% ) own a d e c o d e r . A m a j o r i t y ( 7 1 . 6 % ) o f t h e s amp le p r e f e r c a p t i o n e d news t o i n t e r p r e t e d news . And where j u s t o v e r h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( 58 .6% ) u n d e r s t a n d c a p t i o n s most o f t h e t i m e a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n ( 83 .1% ) f e l t t h a t c a p t i o n s were h e l p i n g them w i t h t h e i r E n g l i s h . C o n c l u s i o n s The p r e s e n t s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d t o o b t a i n t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e a d u l t Dea f commun i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . The f o l l o w i n g o p i n i o n s were c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y : (1) Mos t d e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n . The a d v a n t a g e s o f s i g n i n g were t h a t i t p r o v i d e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s ; an e a s e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e use o f a n a t i v e l a n g u a g e , a f u l l e r and more e x p r e s s i v e l a n g u a g e , and t h a t i t was e a s i e r t o l e a r n t h a n a s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . The a d u l t Dea f have empathy 1 46 f o r t o d a y ' s c h i l d r e n and f u t u r e ones and d e s i r e t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n have t h e b e n e f i t s o f b e i n g a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h s i g n s . (2) D e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d a c q u i r e s i g n s b i l i n g u a l l y . T h a t i s , t h e y s h o u l d l e a r n b o t h D e a f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g two l a n g u a g e s . A s e p a r a t i o n was u s u a l l y made on t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e two l a n g u a g e s . D e a f s i g n s were v i e w e d as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ' l a n g u a g e t o use f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . E n g l i s h s i g n s s e r v e d as a mode l f o r t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e and a s a means o f i m p r o v i n g o n e ' s r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g s k i l l s . (3) Dea f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n t o s i g n b e f o r e t h e y l e a r n t o s p e a k . A key r a t i o n a l e g i v e n was t h e n e c e s s i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g e f f i c i e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n . E a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n o f s i g n l a n g u a g e a l s o e n s u r e s t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f an e n t i t y o f Dea f c u l t u r e a t an e a r l y a g e . T h i s i s a p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f k i n s h i p amongs t t h e Dea f o f a l l a g e s . (4) D e a f c h i l d r e n o f a l l a g e s s h o u l d have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f know ing b o t h Dea f s i g n s a n d E n g l i s h s i g n s . Know ledge o f Dea f s i g n s a l l o w s f o r m a i n t e n a n c e o f an i d e n t i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Dea f commun i t y and f o r a common means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . E n g l i s h s i g n s wou ld be an a s s i s t a n c e i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d and w r i t e E n g l i s h . ( 5 ) Dea f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be a b l e t o use b o t h Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s when c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s . 147 B i l i n g u a l l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n s h o u l d t h u s be f o l l o w e d by b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . The c l a s s r o o m becomes a f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f two l a n g u a g e s w i t h t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l o f b e i n g a t e a s e w i t h b o t h . (6) T e a c h e r s s h o u l d use b o t h Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s w h i l e p l a c i n g s l i g h t l y more e m p h a s i s on t h e l a t t e r . The t e a c h e r i s t o p r o v i d e a mode l o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . Dea f s i g n s a r e t o be u s e d t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l and s t u d e n t ' s d i a l o g u e . (7) T e a c h e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d Dea f s i g n s . T h i s i s t o o p t i m i z e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t o a v o i d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . A d h e r e n c e t o t h i s o b j e c t i v e wou ld p r o v i d e a g e s t u r e o f r e s p e c t t o t h e Dea f c u l t u r e . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h D e a f s i g n s a r e t o be l e a r n e d was no t f o u n d . Comments s u g g e s t e d t h a t a minimum s t a n d a r d w o u l d be one t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e t e a c h e r t o be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t u d e n t s when t h e y use D e a f s i g n s . (8) The Dea f a r e t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . To deny them t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y i s t o d e p r i v e t h e Dea f o f a b a s i c r i g h t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own d e s t i n y . P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e a f n e s s i s t o o v a l u a b l e t o f u r t h e r n e g l e c t . A p o l i t i c a l f r amework i s t h u s n e e d e d t o e n s u r e Dea f i n v o l v e m e n t a t a p o l i c y - d e c i s i o n l e v e l . (9) C a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n i s an u s e f u l t o o l i n h e l p i n g t h e Dea f 148 a c q u i r e and r e i n f o r c e E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y . The E n g l i s h m o d e l t h a t i s p r o v i d e d by c a p t i o n s i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t p r o v i d e d by E n g l i s h s i g n s . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t a s i g n - f o r - w o r d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e may be t o o awkward t o be f e a s i b l e t h e r e b y r e n d e r i n g i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m . M o r e o v e r , i t h a s been c r i t i c i z e d a s b e i n g " t o o s l ow and b o r i n g " t o w a t c h . On t h e o t h e r h a n d c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n a r e a we lcome a d d i t i o n t o a home l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y . The a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e e x p o s u r e t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d on t e l e v i s i o n i s more p o s i t i v e t h a n t h a t w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s i n g E n g l i s h s i g n s . T h e r e f o r e , ' t h e use o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m may s u p p l e m e n t d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p e t e n c e i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n . (10) O n e ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a l a n g u a g e a f f e c t s t h e v a l u e one p l a c e s upon i t . A l t h o u g h a s e e m i n g l y o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t o n e ' s p r e s e n t use o f a l a n g u a g e i s a r e l e v a n t f a c t o r o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n a l a n g u a g e p e r s p e c t v e . In o t h e r words l a n g u a g e u t i l i z a t i o n by a l a r g e r m a j o r i t y i s no t a s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n i n i t s e l f t o s u g g e s t t h a t l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s l i k e w i s e use i t . I n s t e a d , o n e ' s own e t h n o c e n t r i s m i s i n f l u e n c e d more by t he p r a c t i c a l i t y o f a l a n g u a g e i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 1 49 I m p l i c a t i o n s In t h i s s u r v e y i t was t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t Dea f s i g n s s h o u l d become a i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a c h i l d ' s method o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l e i t h e r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h E n g l i s h s i g n s o r by i t s e l f . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , E n g l i s h s i g n s r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t when t h e y were t o be l e a r n e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Dea f s i g n s . D u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r s b o t h a r e o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e w i t h E n g l i s h s i g n s e x p e c t e d t o be u s e d s l i g h t l y more by t e a c h e r s . T h e s e o p i n i o n s r a i s e s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e a f c h i l d r e n , e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s and t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s i f t h e s e o p i n i o n s a r e c o r r e c t , i n no o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e a r e as f o l l o w s : (1) W h e r e a s , h e a r i n g p a r e n t s c a n be e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n s i g n s and p r o v i d e a mode l o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e t o t h e i r d e a f c h i l d , t h e y must a l s o be p r e p a r e d t o l e a r n Dea f s i g n s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r c h i l d l e a r n s an e f f i c i e n t means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a t a s e a r l y an age a s p o s s i b l e . M e t h o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n w o u l d have t o be u t i l i z e d t h a t w o u l d a l l o w p a r e n t s t o a t t a i n t h i s g o a l . The s o l u t i o n s h o u l d p r e s e n t s e r i o u s l o g i s t i c a l p r o b l e m s . ( 2 ) D e v e l o p m e n t o f an a t t i t u d e f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e n o t i o n o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a b i l i n g u a l e n v i r o n m e n t wou ld have t o be r e c o g n i z e d and s e r i o u s l y d e a l t w i t h . When one e x a m i n e s t h e s k i l l s o f most h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s i t i s l i t t l e wonder 1 50 t h a t most H e a r i n g p e o p l e do no t d e v e l o p g o o d s i g n i n g s k i l l s i n e i t h e r Dea f o r E n g l i s h s i g n s . T h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few h e a r i n g m o d e l s o f i n s p i r a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . The p r e s e n t s t a t e o f t h e a r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a t t e m p t t o l e a r n Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s may be j e o p a r d i z e d by o n e ' s own c o m p a t r i o t s . T h a t i s , one i s h a r d p r e s s e d t o s u c c e e d where f a i l u r e o r r e s i s t a n c e a r e t h e r u l e s o f t h e game. ( 3 ) I f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n i s t o be i m p l e m e n t e d t h e n p r o f e s s i o n a l s p r e s e n t l y i n t h e f i e l d , e s p e c i a l l y t e a c h e r s , s h o u l d become b i l i n g u a l . As i t i s t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e Dea f t o o b t a i n t h e s k i l l s t o i n t e r a c t i n two c u l t u r e s i t must l i k e w i s e be w i t h h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e f i e l d . Where o n e ' s f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s o f d e a f c h i d r e n , no e f f o r t w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o o o v e r w h e l m i n g t o j u s t i f y c o n t i n u a t i o n o f m o n o l i n g u a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . ( 4 ) B i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n w o u l d a l s o r e q u i r e t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n r e s t a t e t h e i r j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s t o e n s u r e t h a t f u t u r e t e a c h e r s meet an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f b i l i n g u a l s k i l l s i n Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s . The use o f Dea f a d u l t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t a n d a r d f o r Dea f s i g n s wou ld be an e x a m p l e o f t h e k i n d o f i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t t h e Dea f d e s i r e . To s u p p o r t t h i s amendment t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n w o u l d need t o be c h a n g e d . S u c h a c t i o n w o u l d 151 l i k e l y r e s u l t i n a c h a n g e i n a u n i v e r s i t y ' s t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m . (5) C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f u n i v e r s i t y ' s t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n E d u c a t i o n o f t h e Dea f w o u l d need t o be r e v i s e d t o e n s u r e t h a t g r a d u a t i n g t e a c h e r s have b i l i n g u a l c o m p e t e n c e i n Dea f and E n g l i s h s i g n s . As w i t h o t h e r l a n g u a g e s t u d i e s a t t h i s l e v e l , c o u r s e p r e r e q u i s i t e s c o u l d ' be u s e d as a m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e . The u n i v e r s i t y i s a l s o an i d e a l p l a c e f o r i n s t i t u t i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s and r e s p e c t t o w a r d s an e t h n i c m i n o r i t y . (6) A f r amework needs t o be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t w i l l e n s u r e t h a t q u a l i f i e d Dea f a d u l t s be i n v o l v e d a t a p o l i c y m a k i n g l e v e l where e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , a s t r o n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l w o u l d h e l p t o e l i m i n a t e n o t i o n s o f t o k e n i s m t h a t a r e a common a c c u s a t i o n , where m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a r e c o n c e r n e d . ( 7 ) C a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n may be t h e s t a r t o f a new r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f . As more homes o b t a i n d e c o d e r s and as t h e s c h o o l s b e g i n t o i m p l e m e n t more c a p t i o n e d r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s i d e b e n e f i t s o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n w o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t improvemen t i n t he l e x i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e by t h e D e a f . T h u s , a p a r t i a l answer t o t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o t e a c h t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e t o t he Dea f may p r e s e n t l y be a t -hand. O n l y 152 t i m e w i l l t e l l i f t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n i s c o r r e c t . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s p o n s e o f t he Dea f i n t h i s s t u d y g i v e good r e a s o n s t o be o p t i m i s t i c . I f b i l i n g u a l i s m i s t o become a c o r n e r s t o n e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n t h e n i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t f e a t u r e s o f D e a f c u l t u r e be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e p o s s i b l e a d v a n t a g e s o f r e c o g n i z i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b i c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h i s p a p e r d i d no t f o c u s on t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e Dea f commun i t y i t d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e d i d have a b i l i n g u a l a t t i t u d e and a s i g n i f i c a n t number p r e f e r r e d Dea f s i g n s a s t h e i r l a n g u a g e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I f l a n g u a g e i s a c u l t u r a l e n t i t y t h e n t h e s e p o i n t s s u g g e s t t h a t b i c u l t u r a l i s m may have a p o s s i b l e r o l e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h n e e d s t o be u n d e r t a k e n t o c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two c u l t u r e s and t h e e m p h a s i s b o t h a r e t o r e c e i v e w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . 153 L i m i t a t i o n s (1) T h i s survey c o n t a i n e d the o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t a re common to a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s of t h i s t y p e . T h i s would i n c l u d e the f a c t o r of response e f f e c t which i s the tendency of a respondent to g i v e i n c o r r e c t responses (Borg and G a l l , 1979). There was no way to v e r i f y whether or not t h i s d i d occur nor whether s u b j e c t i v e comments were i n d i c a t i v e of the t r u e nature of the r e s p o n d e n t s . (2) The s e l e c t i o n of the sample l e d to the i n c l u s i o n of many p e o p l e who a t t e n d Deaf s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c e v e n t s . Whether t h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r remains f o r s t a t i s t i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h , t h i s does p l a c e a r e s t r i c t i o n on g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , the s i z e of t h i s sample may be l a r g e enough w i t h r e s p e c t to the s i z e of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Deaf community to permit such g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . (3) G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s based upon the c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d o n l y be made to a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to the sample . T h e r e f o r e , s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s must be used f o r e x t r a p o l a t i o n o n l y to those p o p u l a t i o n s d i s p l a y i n g f e a t u r e s s i m i l a r to the sample . 154 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h (1) R e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i n o t h e r D e a f c o m m u n i t i e s s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n . The o b t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d h e l p t o d e f i n e t h e r o l e o f s i g n l a n g u a g e i n t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ; d e v e l o p a c o m p o s i t e o f e t h n o g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d / o r v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e D e a f ; a l l o w f o r f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f b i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s on t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e D e a f t o w a r d s m e t h o d s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; a s s i s t i n b r i d g i n g t h e gap be tween t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y and t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f ; a s s i s t i n f o r m u l a t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p a r e n t s and p r e - s c h o o l p r o g r a m s w i t h r e g a r d s t o me thods o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n ; and e v a l u a t e t h e r o l e and e f f e c t s o f c a p t i o n e d t e l e v i s i o n on l a n g u a g e - r e l a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e s . (2) R e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o d e s i g n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r b i l i n g u a l p r o g r a m s and t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t s u c h p r o g r a m s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n needs t o be g i v e n t o i n p u t f r o m Dea f s i g n e r s e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who a r e b i l i n g u a l i n Dea f s i g n s and E n g l i s h s i g n s . S t u d i e s on t h e a t t i t u d e s o f e d u c a t o r s t o w a r d s t h e c o n c e p t o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e p o s s i b l e o b s t a c l e s t h a t may be e n c o u n t e r e d . In t h i s r e s p e c t , s t u d i e s on o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s may p r o v e t o be o f i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e . (3) S t u d i e s a r e n e e d e d t o d e v e l o p an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n 1 55 o f t h e t e r m s ' D e a f s i g n s ' and ' E n g l i s h s i g n s ' . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d h e l p p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s f o r s i g n l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m s as w e l l a s t o o f f e r d i r e c t i o n s f o r p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e D e a f . ( 4 ) A s u r v e y i s n e e d e d t h a t i s f o c u s e d upon t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e w h i c h t h e D e a f have p l a c e d upon s p e e c h and h e a r i n g a i d s . T h i s w o u l d p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s t h a t f a v o u r t h e i r u s e . L i k e w i s e , i t w o u l d h e l p d e t e r m i n e t h e e m p h a s i s t h a t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o s p e e c h t r a i n i n g and a u d i t o r y t r a i n i n g i n p r o g r a m s f o r t h e D e a f , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t i m e s p e n t on o t h e r a s p e c t s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . (5) E v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i s n e e d e d t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r e p a r i n g t e a c h e r s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p . F a c t o r s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d s h o u l d i n c l u d e c o m m u n i c a t i o n c o m p e t e n c y ; a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e Dea f c o m m u n i t y ' s c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and l a n g u a g e ; and u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s b i c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . (6) R e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s i n t h e Dea f commun i t y t h a t a r e c r i t i c a l t o c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and t o exam ine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e f a c t o r s t o t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n a H e a r i n g s o c i e t y . The c o n c e p t o f a b i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n n e e d s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d f r o m a p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s Dea f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b i c u l t u r a l i s m i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s h o u l d t h e n be i n v e s t i g a t e d . 1 57 REFERENCES A b b o t t , C . F . , E n c o d e d n e s s and s i g n l a n g u a g e . S i g n L a n g u a g e  S t u d i e s , 1975 , 7, 1 0 9 - 1 2 0 . A l e x a n d e r , K . R . , F o r g o t t e n a s p e c t s o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 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U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , Communi ty C o l l e g e o f D e n v e r , no d a t e . W a t s o n , D. ( e d . ) R e a d i n g s on d e a f n e s s . New Y o r k : D e a f n e s s R e s e a r c h and T r a i n i n g C e n t e r , 1973 . W a t s o n , T . J . P a p e r g i v e n a t a r e s i d e n t i a l s e m i n a r a t g a r n e t t c o l l e g e , R o e h a m p t o n , L o n d o n . In M e t h o d s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n  c u r r e n t l y u s e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . 176 H e r t f o r d s h i r e : G a r d e n C i t y P r e s s , 1975'. W a t t s , W . J . The i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f q u a n t i t a t i v e , s p a t i a l and s o c i a l t h i n k i n g i n d e a f c h i l d r e n . A m e r i c a n  A n n a l s o f t h e D e a f , 1979 , 124 , 4 6 - 5 6 . W h i t e , A . H . & S t e v e n s o n , V . M . The e f f e c t s o f t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , manua l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and r e a d i n g on t h e l e a r n i n g o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l d e a f c h i l d r e n . A m e r i c a n A n n a l s o f t h e  D e a f , 1975 , 120, 46 - 5 7 . W i l b u r , R .B . When i s a p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e n o t a p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e ? The m o r p h o l o g y o f S i e r r a M iwok . In A . B r u c k , R. Fox & M. L a G a l y ( e d s . ) P a p e r s f r o m t h e p a r a s e s s i o n on  n a t u r a l p h o n o l o g y . C h i c a g o : C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y , 1974 . W i l b u r , R .B . A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e and s i g n s y s t e m s . B a l t i m o r e : U n i v e r s i t y P a r k P r e s s , 1979 . W i l s o n , E . A . D e a f n e s s and m e n t a l i l l n e s s : t h e r i g h t s o f d e a f p a t i e n t s . In D e a f p r i d e P a p e r s • W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : D e a f p r i d e I n c . , 1975 . W i n z e r , M. H i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on e d u c a t i o n o f t h e d e a f i n C a n a d a . A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n Educators^. o f t h e H e a r i n g  I m p a i r e d J o u r n a l , 1979 , 6, 1 5 - 1 9 ; 1980 , 6, 3 4 - 3 8 , 5 0 - 5 3 , 7 9 - 8 9 . W i t h r o w , M. T e c h n o l o g y t o f a c i l i t a t e l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . V o l t a R e v i e w , 1981 , 8 3 , 3 1 0 - 3 2 0 . Woodward , J . C . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h among t h e d e a f . S i g n L a n g u a g e S t u d i e s , 1972, 1, 1-7. Woodward , J . C . A p r o g r a m t o p r e p a r e l a n g u a g e s p e c i a l i s t s f o r work w i t h t he d e a f . S i g n L a n g u a g e S t u d i e s , 1 9 7 3 a , 2, 1-8. Woodward , J . C . L anguage c o n t i n u u m : A d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w . 177 S i g n L a n g u a g e S t u d i e s , 1973b , 2, 8 1 - 8 3 . Woodward , J . C . Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P i d g i n S i g n E n g l i s h . S i g n L a n g u a g e S t u d i e s , 1 9 7 3 c , 3, 3 9 - 4 6 . Woodward , J . C . H i s t o r i c a l b a s e s o f A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e . In P. S i p l e ( e d . ) U n d e r s t a n d i n g l a n g u a g e t h r o u g h s i g n  l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1978 . Woodward , J . C , E r t i n g , C . & O l i v e r , S. F a c i n g and h a n d ( l ) i n g v a r i a t i o n i n A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e . S i g n L a n g u a g e S t u d i e s , 1976 , 10 , 4 3 - 5 1 . W r i g h t s t o n e J . , A r o n o w , M. & M o s k o w i t z , S. D e v e l o p i n g r e a d i n g t e s t norms f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . A m e r i c a n A n n a l s o f t h e D e a f , 1963 , 108 , 3 1 1 - 3 1 6 . 1 78 A p p e n d i x A SUBJECT'S PERSONAL STATUS I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Number 2. 3-9. 10, 11, Would you say t h a t you are. 1. deaf 2. h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g 3. not sure 179 Age Gender yea r s 1. male 2. female 4. When d i d you become deaf ? yea r s (Were you b o m deaf? Was y o u r deafness sudden o r d i d i t happen s l ow l y ? Were you a t f i r s t deaf i n one ea r and then the o the r ? ) Do you wear a h e a r i n g a i d ? 1. a l l the t ime 2. some o f the t ime 3. never 6. At what age d i d you l e a r n to s i g n ? y ea r s (From your pa ren t s ? When you s t a r t e d schoo l ? D id you l e a r n ge s tu re s a t f i r s t and then s i gn s ?) Do you use you r v o i c e w i t h h e a r i n g people ? 1. always 2. sometimes 3- never 8. What i s you r p re sen t o c c u p a t i o n ? Which o f the f o l l o w i n g groups d e s c r i b e the peop le you l i k e to be w i t h most o f the t ime ? 1. deaf people 2. h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g 3. h e a r i n g people k. deaf and h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g 5. deaf and h e a r i n g 6. h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g 7- deaf , h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g What communication d i d you f i r s t l e a r n to use ? 1. S i g n language 2. Speak ing 3. Bo th , s i g n language and speak ing k. Other Method o f communicat ion p r e s e n t l y used i ( s e l e c t the ones most used w i t h . . . ) (Can the s u b j e c t s s i g n i n 1. E n g l i s h s i g n s - • 7 - • • 8-9 - • • u-ia - • .3 - • • 7 -•18 6. Deaf s i g n s dea f f r i e n d s h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g f r i e n d s h e a r i n g f r i e n d s h e a r i n g people H 10 at E n g l i s h s i gn s 13 3H is at f i n g e r s p e l l i n g 27 20 an 30 ge s tu re s * tt « m speak ing Jfc 38 w r i t i n g n •40 fl tx ( s e l e c t the ones most used a t . . . ) work home Deaf s o c i a l events Hea r i ng s o c i a l events 1. Deaf s i g n s VI I «£-2. E n g l i s h s i gn s <o Jffl to 3- f i n g e r s p e l l i n g SI S2 « ft k. ge s tu re s s r ft. n r t 5. speak ing St CO cz 6. w r i t i n g 63 LH 180 12. Method o f communication you would p r e f e r to use. ( s e l e c t the one most p r e f e r r e d ^ 3-Deaf s i gn s deaf f r i e n d s hard-o f -he a r i n g f r i e n d s h e a r i n g f r i e n d s h e a r i n g people in 70 E n g l i s h s i gn s ii 73 7V f i n g e r s p e l l i n g * r 71, 77 77 .gestures 7* n So ?l speak ing M 93 tf f i -w r i t i n g I t 17 *t re Deaf s i gn s home work Deaf s o c i a l events H e a r i n g s o c i a l events 91 93 E n g l i s h s i gn s Of <tr ft. 17 f i n g e r s p e l l i n g *» /oo /Of ge s tu re s lOZ 103 tor speak ing UX. A>7 /Of w r i t i n g no / / / //2 I'S 13- Do you f e e l t h a t you are a member o f the Deaf community ? 1. a l l the t ime • K f 2. p a r t o f the t ime 3. not a member' l k ' K £ a 3 £ * n 2 °i c l u ^ s . a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s do you be l ong to -> What k i n d o f a c t i v i t i e s are you i n v o l v e d i n ? ' 15. Are you a G.V.A.D. member ? 16. 1. 2. yes no I f no, why not ? 1. c o s t s too much 2. never go to G.V.A.D. events 3. do not l i k e o t h e r members 4. o t h e r reasons ( s p e c i f y . - O K U 17. How often during the last year did you go to these deaf community events ? Use the following numbers to show • how often ... 1. most of the time 2. some of the time 3. never 1. b i n g o — . _____ 2. gym nights, at J.H.S. 3- dances—— 4. movies 5- games(Beat the Clock; etc.)-6. meetings — _ _ 7- wine and cheese 8, cards — 9- others(specify .) 18.. When you do not go to social events, what is usually the reason ? 1. not interested 2. too expensive 3. no babysitter h. too far to go 5. its on the wrong day 6. other reasons (specify) - • U 7 -OM8 - C M * - L _ U o - • H I 123 -• - • u r - • 121 SUBJECT'S EDUCATION 19. Did you go to school before 5 years of age ? 1. yes 2. no 20. Which type of school did you go to ? 2. 3-5-21. Age 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Ik 15 16 17 18 19 20 School for the Deaf 13.1 130 131 13! /*<. in 132 i3<* Off-campus wr 1% ill M /fv ISI ICJ Ii'* IS'f lS~L / i * 7 /vv Regular school program H' /a IU la IC7 /a id no 111 (72. f 7V Special class in regular school h7 nt m IU> iy in rw lie lie in '&9 /9o t*it ftfi Others (specify) »3 ite IC m loo Set 2CZ ZC3 2c*i 7C*> ZcSr Did you live in the school dormitory ? 1. yes 2. no 22. 23-_years If yes, how many years ? Where did you last go to school ? 1. school for the Deaf 2. off-campus 3. regular school 5. community college 5. university 6. Gallaudet College 7. other (specify ) -••i/0- ,2/ / - a M METHOD OF COMMUNICATION DURING SCHOOL YEARS ( s e l e c t the ones most used) 2k. S e l f w i t h t e a c h e r Years 5 -•£ 1 9 - 1 2 13 - 16 17 - 20 1. Deaf s i gn s M *K 2/4 2. E n g l i s h s i gn s in 118 3. speak ing m m 73J k. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g » r at in 5- ge s tu re s vn 111 _ 6. w r i t i n g W in ac *» 25. Teachers mos t l y used 1. Deaf s i g n s 5 - 8 9 - 1 2 13 - 16 17 - 20 m lit Ml lttt 2. E n g l i s h s i g n s Ml i<n >«? 3- speak ing in j « * 1*7 1vJ) k. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g *"» m tS» 2C2 5- ge s tu re s irv ta- in 6. w r i t i n g 1*7 >st in 26. S e l f w i t h peer s ( f r i e n d s ) 1. Deaf s i gn s 5 - 8 9 - 1 2 13 - 16 1? - 20 Ul ILi 713 1li 2. E n g l i s h s i gn s ILL in 3. speak ing lTD X7I 172 k. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g »>i trv ur 274 5. ge s tu re s IK 279 otc 6. w r i t i n g &M. Iti itr 27. S e l f w i t h pa ren t s 1. Deaf s i g n s 5 - 8 9 - 1 2 13 " 16 17 - 20 IK- 2ti 2. E n g l i s h s i gn s iff 2<k> Ui l u 3- speak ing 141 J«v 294" k. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g — — — ; 2*r X9f " * 5. ge s tu re s tor Its So-* Aw 6. w r i t i n g fer 1. » £ * n? 28. Pa ren t s mos t l y used ._. 5 - 8 9 - 1 2 13 - 16 17 - 20 1. Deaf s i g n s — ; I kef fit J Vf 2. E n g l i s h s i g n s 1 0 vr w 3. speak ing . ; i k. f i n g e r s p e l l i n g f %L J SJ j M l 1 IM 5- ge s tu re s — j ac j OC 2 ' * T 6 . w r i t i n g M 1 Mo X • r 1 *1 182 Self with siblings (brothers and sisters) 1. Deaf signs 5 - 8 9 - 1 2 13 - - 1 6 17 - 20 TB 2. English signs tr> 3. speaking iHl 3</r svs 4. fingerspelling iVf 3 VI IV7 JVf-5- gestures 7V4 let 6. writing 3rj 8tt 30. Siblings mostly used 1. Deaf signs Jl£L_ 2. English signs 4—. 3. speaking 4 . fingerspelling 5- gestures 6. writing 12 L__ 13 - 16 I2L. 17 - 20 JU ML. 3tt> SUBJECT'S EXPECTATIONS OF PRESENT DAY EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS 31. Which type of school do you think most deaf children should go to ? 183 Year 5-8 9-12 13-16 17-20 School for the Deaf m ?*v Off-campus special class hf IK 1*1 Regular school class We iff 191 Special class in a regular .school 2M 31V Hr iff Oral School for the Deaf <40O Others (specify) 1CX f3 COMMENTS: 32. Should most deaf children leam to sign ? 1. yes 2. no 3. don't know| COMMENTSj 33- If yes, what kind of signing should deaf children fi r s t learn ? 1. Deaf signs 2. English signs 3. Both, Deaf and English signs Why ? 34. When should deaf children learn signs ? 1. Sign language should be the fi r s t language learned. 2. After they learn to speak. 3. At the same time as they are learning to speak. 4. Other. (explains_ ) 35. If deaf children know Deaf signs should they learn English signs ? 1. yes 2. no 3- don't know 3 6 ' D e a ? e t i g n ^ ? d r e n k n ° W E n g l i s h S i g n s s h o u l d t h*y learn 1. yes 2. no 3. don't know 37. -•vo<) Deaf children should use which signs with their teachers ? Always Mostly Partly Never Deaf signs UI3 English signs His HJl. COMMENTS s 38. Teachers should use which signs ? Always Mostly Partly Never Deaf signs HIS English signs Hf3 v-2v HiS-COMMENTS 3 9 \ S_?fi__°?er8 °* t h e D e a f b e squired to learn 1. yes 2. no 3- cannot decide COMMENTS:_ — • <tt* 40. Do to you think deaf people should be involved in dPr>i ^  na-ducational policies for deaf children? Voiding 1. yes 2. no 3' cannot decide COMMENTSi • Hi OPINIONS ON CAPTIONING, -INTERPRETING AND OTHER SERVICES 4l. Do you have a decoder ? 1. 2. yes no 42. If no, why not ? 1. costs too much 2. not interested I: lt^V^0Te captioned - • Mir 43. I f ye s , how many hours a week do you watch c ap t i oned programs ? 44. 45-1. 1 to 2 hours 2. 2 to 10 hours 3. more than 10 .hours Do you watch the C.B.C. I n t e r p r e t e d News ? 1. most o f the t ime 2. some o f the t ime cannot g e t , bu t would watch I no Do you watch the A.B.C 1. most o f the t ime 2. some o f the t ime 3- cannot g e t , b u t would watch 4. no Capt ioned News ? 4*6. Which on do you p r e f e r ? ( I f Canadian News were c ap t i o ned which one would you p r e f e r ?) 1. c ap t i oned news 2. i n t e r p r e t e d news 3- cannot dec ide COMMENTS:. H3o 185 t3! -Ot3Z • U33 48. 47. I f you watch C.B.C. I n t e r p r e t e d News, how would you de s c r i be the i n t e r p r e t i n g ? 1. e x c e l l e n t 2. good 3. okay 4. poo r 5- depends on which interpreter Do you unders tand the c a p t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n ? i ; most o f the t ime 2. some o f t h e - t i m e 3. no 4. depends on the program 49. I s c ap t i o ned t e l e v i s i o n h e l p i n g you w i t h you r E n g l i s h ? 1. yes 2. no 3. d o n ' t know COMMENTSJ - Q *3C 50. I n the pa s t d i d you watch the Show o f Hands ? 1. most o f the t ime 2. some o f the t ime c o u l d not ge t , bu t would have watched 51. I: no How o f t e n have you used i n t e r p r e t e r s from W.I.D d u r i n g the l a s t y e a r ? 1. neve r 2. 1 to 2 t imes 3. 3 to 5 t imes 4. 6 t o 10 t imes 5- more than 10 t imes - Q139 52. How often have you used other interpreters during the last year ? 1. 2. I: never 1 to 2 times 3 to 5 times 6 to 10 times more than 10 times - • « J * 53• During the last year have you asked for an interpreter from W.I.D. and been told none was available ? 1. yes 2. no 3. never tried 5*K I f yes, how often did this happen ? times 55. What kind of situation was the interpreter requested for ? 1. yes 2. no 57. 61. 1. 2. 3. 4 . 5-6. emergency-medical— educational job — recreational-other 56. Have you ever hired an interpreter yourself instead of asking W.I.D. for one ? 1. yes 2. no If yes, why ? 1. no W.I.D. interpreter available 2. other reason 58. How would you rate W.I.D.'s interpreters ? (not on television) 1. excellent 2. good 3.okay t.poor 5.depends on which interpreter 59- How often did you use W.I.D.'s answering service in the last month ? 1. not at a l l 2. 1 to 2 times 3 to 5 times 6 to 10 times more than 10 60. Are you satisfied with W.I.D.'e TTy answering service ? 1. yes 2. no 3. never tried -O HS3 How often have you tried the Crisis Center's answering service in the last month ? answering 1. not at a l l 2. 1 to 2 times 3 to 5 times 6 to 10 times 5- more than 10 186 62. Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h the C r i s i s C e n t e r ' s answer ing s e r v i c e ? 1. yes 2. no 3. never t r i e d 63. How o f t e n d i d you use the r e p a i r s e r v i c e o f W.I.D. i n the l a s t y e a r ( e g . : TTY, d o o r b e l l s , e t c . ) 1. not a t a l l - • « t 2. 1 to 2 t imes 3. 3 to 5 t imes 4. more than 5 64. Would you be w i l l i n g to pay a fee f o r any o f W. I .D. ' s s e r v i c e ? 1. yes I n * ' * ' 7 2. no I 65. I f W.I.D. had to charge f e e s , wh ich s e r v i c e s shou ld be charged ? 1 f o r YES 2 f o r NO m _ 1. i n t e r p r e t i n g ire, _ 2. c o u n s e l l i n g Vt° r_ 3. TTY answer ing Vt( • 4. TTY r e p a i r 1 , 6 1 CD 5« aud io l ogy s e r v i c e s • 6. job placement and c o u n s e l l i n g 66. The deaf community wants to improve s e r v i c e s . U s i ng the numbers 1 to 5 show which s e r v i c e s are o f most impor tance . 1 i s the most impo r t an t and 5 i s the l e a s t impo r t an t . ttf _ 1. i n t e r p r e t i n g s e r v i c e s Vw O 2. te lephone s e r v i c e s D 3 ' a d u l t educa t i on v * 7 0 4 - c h i l d r e n e d u c a t i o n W . Q 5- s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s V<.?r_]6. a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s y ? e _ 7 . p u b l i c awareness V L ' IZ]8. employment s e r v i c e s " 7 7 [ _ 9 . c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s W73O1O. unde r s tand ing of. the " l aw and l e g a l s e r v i c e s 188 A p p e n d i x B Table Bl Age of Respondents by Type of Signing to be I n i t i a l l y Acquired I n i t i a l Count Deaf English Both Row Row Pet Signs Signs ° W Age Total 19-30 Yrs 10 15 34 59 16.9 25.4 57.6 36.6 31-44 ¥*s 24 10 20 54 44.4 18.5 37.0 33.5 45 Yrs & 20 8 20 48 Above 4 1 - 7 1 6 - 7 4 1 - 7 2 9 * 8 Column 54 33 7 4 R F I 1 T O t a l 3 3 ' 5 20.5 46.0 ioo.O Chi Square = 11. 72213 Df = 4 p < 0.0195 Missing Data = 1 CD KO T a b l e B2 Age o f R e s p o n d e n t s b y T i m e a t Wh i ch S i g n s S h o u l d be L e a r n e d T ime C o u n t Row P e t Age 19-30 Y r s 45 Y r s & Above S i g n s F i r s t 22 37 . 3 31-44 Y r s 28 5 4 . 9 30 6 5 . 2 A f t e r S p e e c h 11 1 8 . 6 0 0 . 0 4 8 .7 W i t h S p e e c h 26 4 4 . 1 23 4 5 . 1 12 2 6 . 1 Row T o t a l 59 3 7 . 8 51 3 2 . 7 46 2 9 . 5 Co lumn T o t a l 80 5 1 . 3 C h i S q u a r e = 1 6 . 9 0 5 1 4 M i s s i n g Da ta•= 6 15 9 .6 D f = 4 61 3 9 . 1 P < 0 . 0 0 2 156 1 0 0 . 0 IX) o T a b l e B3 O n s e t o f D e a f n e s s by F r e q u e n c y o f Use of D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l O n s e t 0-2 Y r s 34 35 53 122 2 7 . 9 2 8 . 7 4 3 . 4 7 8 . 7 More t h a n 7 18 8 33 2 Y r s 2 1 . 2 5 4 . 5 2 4 . 2 2 1 . 3 Co lumn 41 53 61 155 T o t a l 2 6 . 5 34 .2 3 9 . 4 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 7 .94689 M i s s i n g D a t a = 7 D f = 2 p < 0 . 0 1 8 8 T a b l e B4 H e a r i n g A i d Usage b y T ime a t W h i c h S i g n s S o u l d be L e a r n e d T ime C o u n t S i g n s A f t e r W i t h Row Row P e t F i r s t S p e e c h S p e e c h T o t a l H e a r i n g A i d A l w a y s 10 7 11 28 3 5 . 7 2 5 . 0 3 9 . 3 1 8 . 1 Somet imes 8 2 14 24 3 3 . 3 8.3 5 8 . 3 1 5 . 5 N e v e r 62 5 36 103 6 0 . 2 4 . 9 3 5 . 0 6 6 . 5 Co lumn 80 14 36 155 T o t a l 5 1 . 6 9 .0 3 9 . 4 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 1 7 . 0 0 6 0 6 D f = 4 P < 0 . 0 0 1 9 M i s s i n g D a t a = 7 T a b l e B5 V o i c e w i t h H e a r i n g P e o p l e b y T y p e o f S i g n i n g t o be I n i t i a l l y A c q u i r e d I n i t i a l C o u n t D e a f E n g l i s h B o t h V o i c e N e v e r 13 9 9 Co lumn 5 3 3 3 74 T o t a l 3 3 . ! 2 0 . 6 4 6 . 3 Row Row P e t S i g n s S i g n s T o t a l A l w a y s 10 10 31 51 19-6 1 9 . 6 6 0 . 8 3 1 . 9 Somet imes 30 14 34 78 3 8 . 5 1 7 . 9 4 3 . 6 4 8 . 8 31 41-9 2 9 . 0 2 9 . 0 1 9 . 4 160 100.0 C h i S q u a r e = 1 0 . 0 0 4 7 5 D f = 4 P < 0 . 0 4 0 3 M i s s i n g D a t a = 2 to Table B6 Communication f i r s t Learned by Type of Signing to be I n i t i a l l y Acquired I n i t i a l Count Row Pet Deaf Signs English Signs Both Row Total Communication Sign Language Speech Both 14 36. 8 30 38.0 8 20.5 11 28.9 17 21.5 4 10.3 13 34.2 32 40.5 27 69.2 38 24.4 79 50.6 39 25.0 Column Total 52 33. 3 32 20.5 72 46.2 156 100.0 Chi Square = 12.15121 Missing Data = 6 Df = 4 P < 0.0163 T a b l e B7 C o m m u n i c a t i o n F i r s t L e a r n e d b y T i m e a t Wh i ch S i g n s S h o u l d be L e a r n e d T ime C o u n t S i g n s A f t e r W i t h Row Row P e t F i r s t S p e e c h S p e e c h T o t a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n S i g n 30 L anguage 8 1 . 1 S p e e c h 27 3 6 . 0 B o t h 19 4 8 . 7 Co lumn 76 T o t a l 5 0 . 3 2 5 37 5.4 1 3 . 5 2 4 . 5 12 36 75 1 6 . 0 4 8 . 0 4 9 . 7 1 19 39 2.6 4 8 . 7 2 5 . 8 15 60 151 9 .9 3 9 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 2 4 . 1 8 9 8 2 M i s s i n g D a t a = 11 D f = 4 P < 0 . 0 0 0 1 T a b l e B8 C o m m u n i c a t i o n F i r s t L e a r n e d b y F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n S i g n 10 13 12 35 L a n g u a g e 2 8 . 6 3 7 . 1 3 4 . 3 2 3 . 3 S p e e c h 24 32 21 77 31 .2 4 1 . 6 2 7 . 3 5 1 . 3 B o t h 5 8 25 38 13 .2 2 1 . 1 6 5 . 8 2 5 . 3 Co lumn 39 53 58 150 T o t a l 2 6 . 0 3 5 . 3 3 8 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 16 .34944 Df = 4 P < 0 . 0 0 2 6 M i s s i n g D a t a = 12 T a b l e B9 D e a f Communi ty M e m b e r s h i p b y t y p e o f S i g n i n g t o be I n i t i a l l y A c q u i r e d I n i t i a l C o u n t D e a f E n g l i s h B o t h Row Row P e t S i g n s S i g n s T o t a l Member F u l l - t i m e 39 13 37 89 4 3 . 8 1 4 . 6 4 1 . 6 5 6 . 7 P a r t - t i m e 15 20 33 68 2 2 . 1 2 9 . 4 4 8 . 5 4 3 . 3 Co lumn 54 33 70 157 T o t a l 34 .4 2 1 . 0 4 4 . 6 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 9 .74553 M i s s i n g D a t a = 5 D f = 2 P < 0 . 0 0 7 7 T a b l e BIO D e a f Communi ty M e m b e r s h i p b y F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l Member F u l l - t i m e 15 ' 3 5 37 87 1 7 . 2 4 0 . 2 4 2 . 5 5 7 . 6 P a r t - t i m e 24 17 23 64 3 7 . 5 2 6 . 6 3 5 . 9 4 2 . 4 Co lumn 39 52 60 151 T o t a l 2 5 . 8 3 4 . 4 3 9 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 8 .26274 m i s s i n g D a t a = 11 Df = 2 P < 0 . 0 1 6 1 T a b l e B l l D o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e by T ime a t Wh i ch S i g n s S h o u l d be L e a r n e d T ime C o u n t S i g n s A f t e r ' W i t h Row Row P e t F i r s t S p e e c h S p e e c h T o t a l D o r m i t o r y Yes 64 3 38 105 6 1 . 0 2 .9 3 6 . 2 6 7 . 3 No 16 12 23 51 3 1 . 4 2 3 . 5 4 5 . 1 3 2 . 7 Co lumn 80 15 61 156 T o t a l 5 1 . 3 9 .6 3 9 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 2 1 . 8 0 9 4 6 M i s s i n g D a t a = 6 D f = 2 P < 0 . 0 0 0 0 T a b l e B12 P r e f e r e n c e f o r C a p t i o n e d o r I n t e r p r e t e d News b y F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l P r e f e r e n c e P r e f e r r e d 30 31 48 109 2 7 . 5 2 8 . 4 4 4 . 0 7 6 . 2 D i d N o t 7 18 9 34 2 0 . 6 5 2 . 9 2 6 . 5 2 3 . 8 Co lumn 37 49 57 143 T o t a l 2 5 . 9 3 4 . 3 3 9 . 9 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 7 .02806 Df = 2 P < 0 . 0 2 9 8 M i s s i n g D a t a = 19 Table B13 Understanding of Captions by Type of Signing to be I n i t i a l l y Acquired I n i t i a l Count Deaf English Both Row Row Pet Signs Signs Total Understand Most of 36 12 46 94 Captions 38.3 12.8 48.9 65.3 Some of 13 16 21 50 Captions 26.0 32.0 42.0 34.7 Column 49 28 67 144 Total 34.0 19.4 46.5 100.0 Chi Square = 7.99 798 Missing Data = 18 Df = 2 P < 0.0183 202 A p p e n d i x C T a b l e C l Use D e a f S i g n s a t Home b y T y p e o f S i g n i n g t o be I n i t i a l l y A c q u i r e d I n i t i a l C o u n t Row P e t Dea f S i g n s Use Do N o t Co lumn T o t a l C h i S q u a r e = 1 3 . 7 7 3 9 8 Df = 2 P < 0 . 0 0 1 M i s s i n g D a t a = 5 O 00 D e a f E n g l i s h B o t h Row S i g n s S i g n s T o t a l 46 18 42 106 4 3 . 4 1 7 . 0 3 9 . 6 6 7 . 5 7 15 29 51 1 3 . 7 2 9 . 4 5 6 . 9 3 2 . 5 53 33 71 157 3 3 . 8 2 1 . 0 4 5 . 2 1 0 0 . 0 Table C2 Prefer Deaf Signs at Home by Type of Signing to be I n i t i a l l y Acquired I n i t i a l Count Deaf English Both Row Row Pet Signs Signs T o t a l Deaf Signs Preferred 44 17 52 113 38.9 15.6 46.0 70.2 Did Not 10 16 22 48 20.8 33.3 45.8 29.8 Column 54 33 74 161 Total 33.5 20.5 46.0 100.0 Chi Square = 8.79042 Missing Data = 1 Df = 2 P < 0.0123 T a b l e C3 P r e f e r E n g l i s h S i g n s a t Home By T y p e o f S i g n i n g t o be I n i t i a l l y A c q u i r e d I n i t a l C o u n t D e a f E n g l i s h B o t h Row Row P e t S i g n s S i g n s T o t a l E n g l i s h S i g n s P r e f e r r e d 2 8 9 19 1 0 . 5 4 2 . 1 4 7 . 4 1 1 . 8 D i d N o t 52 25 65 142 3 6 . 6 1 7 . 6 4 5 . 8 8 8 . 2 Co lumn 54 . 3 3 74 161 T o t a l 3 3 . 5 2 0 . 5 4 6 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 8 .31841 M i s s i n g D a t a = 1 D f = 2 P < 0 . 0 1 5 6 T a b l e C4 Use o f D e a f S i g n s a t Home b y T ime a t Wh i ch s i g n s s h o u l d be L e a r n e d T ime C o u n t S i g n s A f t e r W i t h Row Row P e t F i r s t S p e e c h S p e e c h T o t a l D e a f S i g n s Use 62 7 34 103 6 0 . 2 6 .8 3 3 . 0 6 7 . 3 Do N o t 16 7 27 50 3 2 . 0 1 4 . 0 5 4 . 0 3 2 . 7 Co lumn 78 14 61 153 T o t a l 5 1 . 0 9 .2 3 9 . 9 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 10 .87724 D f = 2 P < 0 . 0 0 4 3 M i s s i n g D a t a = 9 O cn T a b l e C5 Use S p e e c h a t Home by T ime a t W h i c h S i g n s S h o u l d be L e a r n e d T ime C o u n t S i g n s A f t e r W i t h Row Row P e t F i r s t S p e e c h S p e e c h T o t a l S p e e c h Use 20 9 27 56 3 5 . 7 1 6 . 1 4 8 . 2 3 6 . 6 Do N o t 58 " 5 34 97 5 9 . 8 5.2 3 5 . 1 6 3 . 4 Co lumn 20 9 * 27 153 T o t a l 5 1 . 0 9 .2 3 9 . 9 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 10 .20484 M i s s i n g D a t a = 9 Df = 2 P < 0 . 0 0 6 1 T a b l e C6 P r e f e r S p e e c h a t Home by T ime a t Wh i ch S i g n s S h o u l d be L e a r n e d T ime C o u n t S i g n s A f t e r W i t h Row Row P e t F i r s t S p e e c h S p e e c h T o t a l S p e e c h P r e f e r r e d 3 5 8 16 1 8 . 8 3 1 . 3 5 0 . 0 1 0 . 3 D i d n o t 77 10 53 140 5 5 . 0 7.1 3 7 . 9 8 9 . 7 Co lumn 80 15 61 156 T o t a l 5 1 . 3 9 .6 3 9 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 1 2 . 8 9 9 4 0 Df = 2 P < 0 . 0 0 1 6 M i s s i n g D a t a = 6 T a b l e C7 Use E n g l i s h S i g n s t o D e a f F r i e n d s b y F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f D e a f S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r D e a f S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l E n g l i s h S i g n s Use 15 6 5 26 5 7 . 7 2 3 . 1 1 9 . 2 1 6 . 7 Do N o t 27 47 56 130 2 0 . 8 36 .2 4 3 . 1 8 3 . 3 Co lumn 42 53 61 156 T o t a l 2 6 . 9 3 4 . 0 3 9 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 1 5 . 2 1 2 8 1 D f = 2 p < 0 . 0 0 0 5 M i s s i n g D a t a = 6 T a b l e C8 P r e f e r D e a f S i g n s a t Home by F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f D e a f S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r D e a f S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r Row P e t Dea f S i g n s C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row D i d N o t 18 14 12 C h i S q u a r e = 6 .72992 D f = 2 P < 0 . 0 3 4 6 M i s s i n g D a t a = 6 T o t a l P r e f e r r e d 24 39 4 9 _ 1 2 2 1 - 4 3 4 . 8 4 3 . 8 7 1 . 8 44 4 0 . 9 3 1 . 8 2 7 . 3 2 8 . 2 Co lumn 42 53 61 156 T o t a l 2 6 , 9 3 4 . 0 3 9 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 to o T a b l e C9 Use S p e e c h a t Home by F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l S p e e c h Use 15 15 27 57 2 6 . 3 2 6 . 3 4 7 . 4 3 7 . 3 Do N o t 21 45 30 96 2 1 . 9 4 6 . 9 3 1 . 3 6 2 . 7 Co lumn 36 60 57 153 T o t a l 2 3 . 5 3 9 . 2 3 7 . 3 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 6 .64 871 M i s s i n g D a t a = 9 D f = 2 P < 0 . 036 T a b l e CIO P r e f e r D e a f S i g n s w i t h H e a r i n g F r i e n d s b y F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l D e a f S i g n s P r e f e r r e d 20 19 12 51 39 .2 3 7 . 3 2 3 . 5 6 7 . 5 D i d N o t 19 41 46 106 1 7 . 9 3 8 . 7 4 3 . 4 6 7 . 5 Co lumn 39 60 58 157 T o t a l 2 4 . 8 3 8 . 2 3 6 . 9 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 9 .98068 M i s s i n g D a t a = 5 D f = 2 P < 0 . 0 0 6 8 Table C l l Prefer English Signs with Hearing Friends by Frequency of English Signs, with a Teacher English Signs with a Teacher Count Partly Mostly Always Row Row Pet T o t a l English Signs Preferred 0 13 8 21 0.0 61.9 38.1 13.4 Did Not 39 47 50 136 28.7 34.6 36.8 86.6 Column 39 60 58 157 Total 24.8 38.2 36.9 100.0 Chi Square = 9.59030 Df = 2 p < 0.0083 Missing Data =5 M —_k co T a b l e C12 P r e f e r S p e e c h w i t h H e a r i n g F r i e n d s b y F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a T e a c h e r C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l Speech P r e f e r r e d 6 9 20 35 1 7 . 1 2 5 . 7 5 7 . 1 2 2 . 3 D i d N o t 33 51 38 122 2 7 . 0 4 1 . 8 3 1 . 1 7 7 . 7 Co lumn 39 60 58 157 T o t a l 2 4 . 8 3 8 . 2 3 6 . 9 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 7 .89161 M i s s i n g D a t a = 5 D f = 2 P < 0 . 0 1 9 3 T a b l e C13 P r e f e r d e a f S i g n s a t Home by F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d D e a f S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l Dea f S i g n s P r e f e r r e d 23 42 47 112 2 0 . 5 3 7 . 5 - 4 2 . 0 7 2 . 3 D i d N o t 18 11 14 43 4 1 . 9 2 5 . 6 3 2 . 6 2 7 . 7 Co lumn 41 53 61 155 T o t a l 2 6 . 5 3 4 . 2 3 9 . 4 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 7 .33091 Df = 2 P < 0 . 0 2 5 6 M i s s i n g D a t a = 7 T a b l e C14 Use E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h D e a f F r i e n d s b y F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d E n g l i s h s i g n s w i t h a C h i l d C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l E n g l i s h S i g n s Use 2 6 20 28 7.1 2 1 . 4 7 1 . 4 1 7 . 8 Do N o t 28 54 47 129 2 1 . 7 4 1 . 9 3 6 . 4 8 2 . 2 Co lumn 30 60 67 157 T o t a l 1 9 . 1 3 8 . 2 4 2 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 1 1 . 6 6 8 3 6 D f = 2 P < 0 . 0 0 2 9 M i s s i n g D a t a = 5 T a b l e C15 P r e f e r D e a f S i g n s w i t h D e a f F r i e n d s by F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d E n g l i s h S i g n s w i t h a C h i l d C o u n t P a r t l y M o s t l y A l w a y s Row Row P e t T o t a l Dea f S i g n s P r e f e r r e d 30 55 54 139 2 1 . 6 3 9 . 6 3 8 . 8 8 8 . 5 D i d N o t 0 5 13 18 0 .0 2 7 . 8 7 2 . 2 1 1 . 5 Co lumn 30 60 67 157 T o t a l 1 9 . 1 38 .2 4 2 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 C h i S q u a r e = 8 .62380 M i s s i n g D a t a = 5 Df = 2 P < 0 . 0 1 3 4 Table C16 Prefer Deaf Signs with Hearing Friends by Frequency of Use of English Signs with a Ch i l d English Signs with a c h i l d Count Partly Mostly Always Row Row Pet Total Deaf Signs Preferred 16 19 16 51 31.4 37.3 31.4 32.5 Did Not 14 41 51 106 13.2 38.7 48.1 67.5 Column 30 60 67 157 Total 19.1 38.2 42.7 100.0 Chi Square = 8.22553 Missing Data = 5 Df = 2 P < 0.0164 Table C17 Prefer Deaf Signs at Home by Frequency of Use of English Signs with a Child English Signs with a C h i l d Count Partly Mostly Always Row Row Pet Total Deaf Signs Preferred . 27 43 40 110 24.5 39.1 36.4 70.1 Did Not 3 17 27 47 6.4 36.2 57.4 29.9 Column 30 60 67 157 Total 19.1 38.2 42.7 100.0 Chi Square = 9.18831 Missing Data = 5 Df = 2 P < 0.0101 

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