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Expressive uses of word order in Iliad Stiles, Lewis 1982

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EXPRESSIVE USES OF WORD ORDER IN ILIAD I by LEWIS STILES B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Classics) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1982 (S) Lewis S t i l e s , 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of CI The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Homer uses some poetic e f f e c t s i n the I l i a d which have not "been properly studied. These include enjambement, balance, t r i a d i c structure, assonance, rhyme and r e p e t i t i o n with v a r i -ation. A l l of them are dependant on word order, and are as-sociated to a large extent with enjambement. In th i s thesis, each of these special e f f e c t s i s discussed in the Introduction, In the body of the thesis, they are ex-amined and discussed i n d e t a i l as they occur i n I l i a d I, This i s done i n three ways. F i r s t , an Annotated Text indicates d e t a i l s of assonance and metre which are too numerous to pre-sent i n any other way, as well as many of the other e f f e c t s . Second, a Translation serves as a gloss on the Text and pro-vides a fixed record of word order and word choice useful for i s o l a t i n g the r e p e t i t i o n s , as well as many of the other e f f e c t s , i n the book. F i n a l l y , a Commentary discusses s p e c i f i c l i n e s and the effects found i n them i n d e t a i l , and presents arguments for new interpretations of the poetry which arise from these discussions. Thesis Supervisor i H. G. Edinger TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Acknowledgements iv Chapter One: Introduction 1 Chapter Twoi Text and Translation 12 Chapter Three: Commentary 69 Footnotes 1^ 8 Bibliography 158 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n me b y S , S u l -l i v a n , A , J . P o d l e c k i and my s u p e r v i s o r , H . G . E d i n g e r . The t a s k o f f i n d i n g r e l a t e d l i n e s i n I l i a d I was made i m m e a s u r a b l y e a s i e r b y my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e c i t a l o f more t h a n h a l f o f t h e b o o k , a t t h e i n v i t a t i o n o f M. Shaw and I, A r t h y . The h o u r s o f d i s c u s s i o n , m e m o r i z a t i o n and r e h e a r s a l i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t have h e l p e d me more t h a n I c a n s a y . I a l s o w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e , A . S t i l e s , f o r h e r m o r a l s u p p o r t , and t o my f r i e n d , P. K o p a s , f o r h i s h e l p i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f i n a l c o p y . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k I. A r t h y , who i n t h e c o u r s e o f a v e r y c l o s e r e a d i n g o f t h e t h e s i s p r o v i d e d me w i t h many i d e a s and s a v e d me f r o m a l m o s t as many e r r o r s . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Homer uses very l i t t l e subordination; hence his presentation of the very complex set of ideas which i s the I l i a d i s made by a kind of juxtaposition. That i s , i t i s usually the order i n which the ideas are presented that t e l l s how they are to be re-lated. This method of presentation gives r i s e to a number of special effects dependent upon word order. In t h i s thesis, the Introduction b r i e f l y discusses these special e f f e c t s . The Annotated Text of Book I notes them as they occur, while the Translation attempts to duplicate Homer's word order in English. F i n a l l y , the Commentary points out passages wherein word order and the special effects associated with i t enhance our appreciation of the poetry. It should be stressed that the thesis i s exploratory and tentative rather than conclusive. I t may be that an examination of a l l Homeric poetry w i l l reveal that some of the effects considered here are c l e a r l y f o r tuitous, and that others, c l e a r l y not f ortuitous, have been overlooked. But that examination has yet to be made, and i t i s hoped that t h i s thesis w i l l indicate some of the directions i t w i l l have to take. Enjambement The most obvious cases of e f f e c t i v e word order i n Homer occur when an unexpected or f o r c e f u l word appears both l a s t 2 i n i t s sentence and f i r s t i n i t s l i n e . The enjambed s i n g l e word " s h o t " ( 1 . 5 2 ) has been c i t e d 1 as perhaps the b e s t example of t h i s k i n d o f emphasis by p o s i t i o n . But enjambement does not always c r e a t e emphasis. Of the 726 s i m p l e s e n t e n c e s i n B o o k ' l , 198 (27f0) are enjambed, but o n l y 41 o f thos e enjambed groups c o n s i s t of a s i n g l e word, and not a l l of the 41 are emph a t i c . Yet many may f e e l , w i t h P a r r y , t h a t Homer's use o f enjambement i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f our i m p r e s s i o n of "the l a r g e r movement of the th o u g h t , the way i n which the sense 3 passes from v e r s e t o v e r s e , " v or o f our "sense of the way i n which a poet has " f i t t e d h i s thought t o the p a t t e r n o f h i s ii. v e r s e s . " B a s s e t , c o n v i n c e d t h a t enjambement f o r the sake of em-p h a s i s i s r a r e , argues t h a t s i n g l e words were enjambed i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a t r a n s i t i o n t o the n e x t thought o r sentence,-' T h i s view has a p p a r e n t l y never been c h a l l e n g e d . But a count o f those enjambed words o r p h r a s e s w h i c h occupy l e s s t h a n a whole l i n e i n the f i r s t 162 l i n e s of Book 1 r e v e a l s t h a t , w h i l e t h e y do f u n c t i o n as " m e d i a r i e s " 25 t i m e s , t h e y c l e a r l y do n o t so f u n c t i o n 11 t i m e s . A l s o , the l a s t words o f unenjambed s e n t e n c e s p r o v i d e the same k i n d o f t r a n s i t i o n 15 t i m e s a t the end of the l i n e and 22 t i m e s a t the c a e s u r a . Thus what B a s s e t may have i d e n t i f i e d s h o u l d r a t h e r be s i m p l y t h a t the l a s t word of the sentence o f t e n f u n c t i o n s as a medi a r y , whether the sentence i s enjambed o r n o t . What has emerged from my s t u d y of a l l the enjambed words 3 of Book 1 i s t h a t a v a r i e t y of s p e c i a l e f f e c t s , a l l dependent i n t h e i r own r i g h t on word o r d e r , o c c u r s o f t e n where t h e r e i s enjambement. T h i s i s perhaps s i m p l y because enjambement gave the p o e t more room t o o r d e r t h i n g s i n p a r t i c u l a r ways. I f the v e r y e a r l i e s t hexameters tended t o c o n t a i n one sentence i n one l i n e , ^ t h e n the o c c a s i o n a l r u n - o v e r (when e v e r y t h i n g grammatic-a l l y e s s e n t i a l t o the sentence would n ot f i t i n one l i n e ) and the r e s u l t i n g n e c c e s s i t y of f i l l i n g out the second l i n e may have produced some of thes e s p e c i a l e f f e c t s a l m o s t by a c -c i d e n t . But by the time of Homer the poet c o u l d perhaps go f u r t h e r , and p u r p o s e l y use enjambement i n o r d e r t o produce them. F o r example, many i m p o r t a n t or e s s e n t i a l enjambed words and ph r a s e s i n Book 1 c o u l d (one f e e l s ) have gone i n t o the p r e -c e d i n g l i n e w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y , i f the poet had wanted t o put them t h e r e . B a l a n c e d Arrangements The s i m p l e s t type of b a l a n c e d l i n e o c c u r s when a p a t t e r n i n the f i r s t h a l f of the l i n e i s d u p l i c a t e d o r r e v e r s e d i n the second h a l f . T h i s can happen w i t h nouns and t h e i r m o d i f i e r s : I i , v 7 A t r e i d e s l o r d o f men and Z e u s - l i k e A k h i l l e u s (7); I 1 w i t h p a r t i c i p l e s and t h e i r o b j e c t s t f o r l o o s i n g h i s ^ d a u g h t e r b e a r i n g b o u n d l e s s ransom ( 1 3 ) ; w i t h i n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e s i  t o o u t - s a c k P r i a m o s ' c i t y and w e l l h o u s e - w a r g o j j | g . o r w i t h v i r t u a l l y a n y c o m b i n a t i o n s o f g r a m m a t i c a l e l e m e n t s . S u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e o f t e n e x p r e s s i v e o f a n e q u a l b a l a n c e o f t h o u g h t , as a t 1 3 , where t h e " r a n s o m " i s p r e s e n t e d a s b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t , and e q u a l t o , t h e " d a u g h t e r . " S e p a r a t i o n T h i s i s a s p e c i a l c a s e o f b a l a n c e d a r r a n g e m e n t , where two p a r a l l e l wo rds o r p a r t s o f s p e e c h s t a n d a t t h e e x t r e m e s o f t h e l i n e . The b e s t examp le o f t h i s k i n d o f b a l a n c e u s e d e x p r e s -s i v e l y i s p e r h a p s i n 7, where t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f " A t r e i d e " s " i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n f r o m ' A k h i l l e u s " i n f i n a l i s a w o r d - p i c t u r e o f t h e i d e a i n t h e p r e c e d i n g l i n e : " t h e y t h o r o u g h l y - ( a p a r t - ) s t o o d q u a r r e l l i n g . " T r i a d s and T e t r a d s A l s o c a l l e d " t r i c o l a c r e s c e n d o e s , " t r i a d s a r e a s p e c i a l t y p e o f what W i l k i n s o n c a l l s " t h e l aw o f i n c r e a s i n g m e m b e r s , " t h e r h e t o r i c a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t i n a g r o u p , " t h e l a s t member Q s h o u l d be l o n g e r t h a n t h e r e s t . " The s i m p l e s t t y p e o f H o m e r i c t r i a d o c c u r s a t 4 0 0 : H e r e and P o s e i d o n and P a l l a s A t h e n e . B u t t r i a d s c a n a l s o c o n s i s t o f p h r a s e s , as a t 1 2 - 1 5 , where o f t h r e e ' p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e s , t h e f i r s t two a r e c o n t a i n e d i n one l i n e w h i l e t h e t h i r d o c c u p i e s a l i n e and a h a l f ? o r o f s e n t e n c e s , a s a t 2 - 5 , where t h e t h r e e s e n t e n c e s d e s c r i b i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e " r a g e o f A k h i l l e u s " a r e e a c h l o n g e r t h a n t h e one p r e c e d i n g . 5 Sometimes triads may even be discerned in the deep structure, as at 5 0 - 2 , Mules f i r s t he upon-came (attacking) and dogs (with) flashing (feet); again really against (the men) themselves the shot bite-holding, he on-sending shot, Here, although two quite different sentences are involved the deep structure is he attacked mules (expressed in half a line) he attacked dogs (expressed in half a line) he attacked men (expressed in more than a line). Tetrads are a special case of expanded triad, where a fourth element is added, as at 145-6: either Aias, or Idomeneus, or Zeus-like Odysseus; or you, Peleide~s, of a l l the most out(standing), of men. The effect of triads and tetrads is to give the last element a weight, in the mind of the hearer, greater than that of the other elements. Rhopalic Lines Another special type of the law of increasing members, a rhopalic line is one "in which each word is longer by one syllable Q than i t s predecessor," as at Iliad 3.182, Such lines are rare, and properly there are none in Book 1, Even so, we do find some lines that are rhopalic in effect, and others in which 6 a few c o n s e c u t i v e w o r d s a r e r h o p a l i c . L i k e t r i a d s and t e t r a d s , r h o p a l i c l i n e s and p h r a s e s c a n g i v e a n e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g w e i g h t . A good examp le i n E n g l i s h i s " f r i e n d s , Romans , c o u n t r y -m e n . " 1 0 A s s o n a n c e U n d e r t h i s h e a d i n g a r e i n c l u d e d a l l n o t a b l e p l a y s o f r e p e a t e d o r v a r i e d s o u n d s e x c e p t ( p e r h a p s a r b i t r a r i l y ) r h y m e , 1 1 The e f f e c t i v e u s e s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s o f a s s o n a n c e w i l l p r o b a b l y a l w a y s r e m a i n a s u b j e c t i v e p r o b l e m , and an a r e a i n w h i c h the 12 t e m p t a t i o n t o o v e r - i n t e r p r e t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o r e s i s t . E v e n t h e t e r m " e u p h o n y " i s m i s l e a d i n g and s u b j e c t i v e , and i t i s a v o i d e d i n the t h e s i s . Bu t s o u n d - p l a y d o e s a f f e c t u s , a f t e r a l l , s i n c e a t t h e v e r y l e a s t i t c a n e n h a n c e o u r p l e a s u r e i n r e c i t i n g t h e p o e t r y . T h e r e f o r e i n t h e A n n o t a t e d T e x t I h a ve marked a l l e x a m p l e s o f i t t h a t seemed n o t a b l e , A l e s s s u b j e c t i v e e f f e c t o f a s s o n a n c e i s i t s u se t o r e i n f o r c e a b a l a n c e a l r e a d y i n h e r e n t i n t h e w o r d s t h e m s e l v e s and i n t h e i r a r r a n g e m e n t , a s a t 27 , where s i m i l a r s o u n d s o c c u r i n g r a m m a t -i c a l l y p a r a l l e l w o r d s . I n a n o t h e r e f f e c t i v e u s e o f a s s o n a n c e , t h e s o u n d s o f one w o r d , d u p l i c a t i n g o r o n l y s l i g h t l y v a r y i n g t h e s o u n d s o f a n o t h e r q u i t e d i f f e r e n t w o r d , may e v o k e i n t h e m ind a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n themt f o r e x a m p l e , t h e fxrjyty (1) w h i c h i s cvXzf--evn v ( 2 ) . I n a n y d i s c u s s i o n o f s o u n d s , some k i n d o f o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g r a r i t y i s n e c c e s s a r y . P a c k a r d ' s t a b l e o f 7 "sound density" has been very useful in this respect. J' J It is reproduced in Chapter Two, and the lines with notable sound densities which he points out in Book I have been noted in the Annotated Text. It bears repeating that I make no attempt to mark a l l cases of assonance in the Annotated Text. Assonance i s a very complex thing which becomes more lucid only as one practices reading aloud, (A good self-test is the t r i - s y l l a b i c end-rhyme of 1 9 - 2 0 i when one "feels" this as naturally as a rhyme in English poetry, one is "feeling" a special case of assonance.) When the ear is accustomed to i t , many complexities, such as the way a l l of the sounds of f i n a l "Akhaioi" (22) play through the following line, w i l l become more and more obvious. Rhyme By "rhyme" I mean assonance occuring either between the third foot (not necessarily at the caesura) and the line end or between two successive line ends. Often, like other forms of assonance, i t may be expressive of a connection or balance already inherent in the words and their balanced arrangement; sometimes i t perhaps adds an ironic twist by connecting ideas which are actually opposed. The second type (over successive line ends) is often between two verbs, and i t often occurs where the beginning of the f i r s t line is occupied by enjambed material belonging to a preceeding sentence, and the rhymed word of the second line is 8 i t s e l f f o l l o w e d b y r u n - o v e r m a t e r i a l ," L" T A n o t h e r p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e o f e n d - l i n e rhyme i s t h a t i t o f t e n o c c u r s a t o r n e a r t h e end o f s p e e c h e s o r s e c t i o n s o f n a r r a t i v e . I t may t h u s h a v e b e e n u s e d s o m e t i m e s t o s i g n a l t h e end o f s o m e t h i n g , a s i n E l i z a b e t h a n t r a g e d y , ^ " ^ C o i n c i d e n c e o f M e t r i c a l I c t u s and Word A c c e n t The e f f e c t o f t h i s f e a t u r e o f t h e h e x a m e t e r i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . P e r h a p s t h e mos t t h a t c a n be s u g g e s t e d i s t h a t t h o s e r a r e v e r s e s w i t h s i x a c c e n t e d s y l l a b l e s b e a r i n g t h e m e t r i c a l i c t u s a r e t o some e x t e n t e x p r e s s i v e o f h a r m o n y . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l a s t l i n e o f K h r y s e s * s p e e c h t o t h e A k h a i a n s (21) and t h e l a s t l i n e b e f o r e h i s p r a y e r t o A p o l l o n (36) l a c k t h e c o i n c i d e n c e e n t i r e l y , w h i l e t h e l a s t l i n e o f t h e b o o k (611) h a s i t s i x t i m e s . I n a n y c a s e , a l l o f t h e " z e r o s " , " s i x e s " and t h e s l i g h t l y commoner " f i v e s " a r e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e A n n o t a t e d T e x t and some o f them a r e r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e C o m m e n t a r y . The c o i n c i d e n c e o f i c t u s and a c c e n t i n t h e f i f t h and s i x t h f o o t i s ma rked i n t h e T e x t when t h o s e f e e t c o n s i s t o f one word e a c h , and t h o s e s i n g l e w o r d s w h i c h f i l l t h e e n t i r e f i f t h and s i x t h f e e t a r e a l s o m a r k e d . A g a i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s , b u t t h e y p e r h a p s s o m e t i m e s a d d w e i g h t t o t h e s t a t e m e n t b e i n g madeJ f o r e x a m p l e a t 88, A k h i l l e u s e x p a n d s h i s vow f r o m " w i t h me l i v i n g " t o *and u p o n t h e g r o u n d l o o k i n g " ( w i t h t h e l a s t word o c c u p y i n g t h e l a s t two f e e t ) , and a t 91, where t h e l a s t two w o r d s o f t h e same s p e e c h o c c u p y t h e 9 l a s t two f e e t w i t h c o i n c i d e n c e of i c t u s and a c c e n t . R e p e t i t i o n s Homeric r e p e t i t i o n s , o f t e n passed over as mere r e p e t i t i o n s , d e s e r v e more a t t e n t i o n . They can perhaps be u s e f u l l y viewed as l a r g e - s c a l e examples o f assonance and b a l a n c e d arrangement. When K h r y s e s p r a y s t o A p o l l o n f o r an end t o the p l a g u e ( 4 5 1 - 6 ) , u s i n g as h i s i n v o c a t i o n (451-2) the same words he used i n p r a y i n g f o r i t s b e g i n n i n g ( 3 7 - 8 ) , the r e s o l u t i o n of p l o t i s r e i n f o r c e d by the resonance of r e p e t i t i o n . The a t t e n t i v e h e a r e r may thus f e e l an a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e a k i n t o t h a t c r e a t e d by assonance or b a l a n c e w i t h i n a s i n g l e l i n e . R e p e t i t i o n a l s o enhances our a p p r e c i a t i o n (sometimes even our p e r c e p t i o n ) o f o t h e r p a r a l l e l s . I t has been p o i n t e d o u t , 1 ^ 1 f o r example, t h a t the q u a r r e l of her o e s i n the f i r s t p a r t of Book I i s b a l a n c e d by the q u a r r e l of gods i n the second p a r t . Both q u a r r e l s a re o c c a s i o n e d by Agamemnon's u n j u s t o r a r r o g a n t p o s s e s s i o n of a woman; i n bo t h cases t h i s causes the s u p p l i c a t i o n of a h i g h e r power; i n b o t h cases the s u p p l i c a t i o n i s g r a n t e d , and t h e q u a r r e l r e s u l t s . An att e m p t a t m e d i a t i o n i s made, and i n b o t h cases t h e m a t t e r i s r e s o l v e d by, and t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f , t he acknowledged l e a d e r . The g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e - - t h a t Here s l e e p s b e s i d e Zeus a t the end, w h i l e A k h i l l e u s w i l l s i t a p a r t " r a g i n g " f o r most of the poem--is a supremely i r o n i c t o u c h . Yet t h i s f e a t u r e o f Homer's a r t o f t e n goes u n n o t i c e d , p a r t l y because on a c a s u a l r e a d i n g we do n o t hear the many r e p e a t e d 10 words, phrases and juxtaposed ideas that evoke i t . The attempt to pay attention to word order in this much larger sense necessitates an attempt to pay attention to the meaning of each word. If this seems self-evident, let me say I refer to the "meaning" in terms of the word i t s e l f rather than in terms of i t s lexical variants. Consider the Homeric words for the part of the emotional spectrum loosely described by the word "anger". They are usually translated by a slightly smaller group of English words, covering the same part of the spectrum, each of which, in the right context, can be equivalent to any of the Homeric words. This "selection" of lexical meaning goes on even in the absence of translation, when we read the Greek, That i s , we often do not notice when Homer's choice of words is i t s e l f expressive, and so we miss the connotations words pick up by repeated use. The career of the f^rjvcs of line 1 is a good example. It is very specifically the property of Akhilleus (1), and the narrative of the quarrel t e l l s us how i t came to be so. Apollon had i t f i r s t (75); he passed i t on to Agamemnon (247); Agamemnon in turn gave i t to Akhilleus (422), who s t i l l has i t when we last see him (488), It is not to be supposed that every use of every word is an allusion to a previous use. On the other hand, as we are not native speakers of Homeric Greek, we cannot be too careful. Hence my translation. While the cases of repetition that seem most remarkable have been noted in the Commentary, the translation 11 i s based on a p r i n c i p l e o f c o n s i s t e n c y : so f a r as i s p o s s i b l e , one Greek word i s r e n d e r e d by one and o n l y one E n g l i s h word, and each E n g l i s h word r e p r e s e n t s one and o n l y one Greek word. P r e c i s e l y because of the "awkwardness" t h u s f o r c e d upon the r e a d e r , o r as I would p r e f e r t o s a y , because o f the f r e s h n e s s of an u n f a m i l i a r d i a l e c t , a c a r e f u l r e a d i n g of my t r a n s l a t i o n may r e v e a l f e l i c i t i e s of word o r d e r and r e p e t i t i o n . These, though p r e s e n t i n Homer, o f t e n go u n n o t i c e d even when we r e a d him i n Greek, and a r e always obscured when we r e a d him i n orthodox t r a n s l a t i o n s . To g i v e one example from E n g l i s h p o e t r y : "the f i r e t h a t s t i r s about h e r when she s t i r s " would o b v i o u s l y n o t be what i t i s i f Ye a t s had w r i t t e n "the f i r e t h a t s t i r s about h e r when she moves," L e s s o b v i o u s l y (but more i m p o r t a n t -l y as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r my t r a n s l a t i o n ) , i t i s n o t what i t i s i f we s i m p l y f a i l t o n o t i c e the r e p e t i t i o n because o f our f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the words; t h a t i s , because the two d i f f e r e n t l e x i c a l meanings of " s t i r " demanded by the two d i f f e r e n t con-t e x t s are uppermost i n our minds. 12 CHAPTER TWO ANNOTATED TEXT AND TRANSLATION OF BOOK I Note on the Text The text following is a copy of Willcock's except in the case of one line (see the Commentary on 97). It i s annotated in order to demonstrate to the reader some effects which may be easily f e l t i f they are pointed out to him as he is actually reading, but which would be less accessible i f relegated to the Commentary. In addition to the names of special effects (see the Intro-duction) which are given in the right margin where appropriate, some other symbols have been used: 1) In the l e f t margin: E.../ = enjambed material continuing to...the end of the sentence, (E) = enjambed material following a whole line of enjambement. 0 = zero coincidence of word accent and metrical ictus. 5,6 = five or six coincidences of word accent and metrical ictus. 2) In the line: '(over a syllable) indicates metrical ictus. indicates that the sounds thus underlined are similar and should be noticed, as should their positions in the lin e ( s ) . Double underlining indicates a different group of sounds. 13 3) I n t h e r i g h t m a r g i n : 5-6=1 means t h a t t h e f i f t h and s i x t h f e e t a r e e n t i r e l y -o c c u p i e d b y one w o r d . 5-6=2 means t h a t t h e f i f t h and s i x t h f e e t c o n s i s t o f e x a c t l y one word e a c h , w i t h c o i n c i d e n c e o f word a c c e n t and m e t r i c a l i c t u s , P a c k a r d ' s t a b l e o f " Sound D e n s i t i e s , " l i s t i n g t h e number o f t i m e s a n y g i v e n s o u n d o c c u r s i n one l i n e , i s r e p r o d u c e d b e l o w 2 and s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d f o r any s t r i k i n g c o l l o c a t i o n s o f s o u n d . 14 SOUND DLNSITIIS IN THE Iliad 3 4 5 6 7 8 y i o l l 12 13 14 15 a 671 2214 3723 3676 2791 1565 7M -35 71 19 jS 13127 22S7 249 17 2 y 9774 4699 1044 155 9 I 6 4461 6291 3484 1164 243 36 3 e 296 1432 2956 3870 3420 2127 1037 393 115 25 £ 14546 110S 28 e 4773 6065 3320 1171 299 8455 5455 1549 200 22 48 1 6 3143 5528 4286 2016 543 141 23 2 4342 6104 3669 1221 290 46 9 1 A 4852 5558 3364 1359 409 121 16 3 A< 4395 6069 3668 1208 292 47 2 1 1'' 0 609 2258 4005 3905 2810 1421 497 146 27 4 1362 3366 4167 3417 2075 896 3H 67 16 2 77 4160 5752 3764 1545 375 73 13 P -739 5429 4691 2114 574 118 13 4 a S24 2585 390S 3918 260S 1236 450 '  126 23 3 T 1716 4220 4812 3012 1329 461 100 28 4 8152 5682 1591 240 17 10552 4386 692 46 5 1 99S0 4607 965 122 7 1 w 6609 5727 2494 671 157 20 4 at 8004 5596 1734 305 39 4 av 13520 2050 107 5 €1 8932 5207 1339 193 10 1 €U 13055 2461 159 7 01 9227 4852 1340 226 33 2 2 ov 10860 3897 826 82 17 VI 15100 577 5 Tjl 13358 1966 333 23 1 I TjV 15296 386 Wl 13922 1552 200 7 1 3 L 1 26 159 537 1345 2248 2980 2980 2397 1576 2197 4556 4671 2815 1008 362 66 4 1 2 T 178 917 2402 3718 3793 2600 1338 515 177 40 K 1357 3990 4974 3310 1479 451 103 17 yK 14999 677 6 Notes to the Table: 1. Xi is separated into kappa and sigma. 2. Psi is separated into p i and sigma. 3. L = Liquids (lamda, rho, mu, nu). P = Labial Stops (pi, beta, phi). T = Dentals (delta, theta, tau). K = gutturals (gamma, kappa, chi). K = nasalized gamma. M_!'<»' ae[B(, Ota, IIa\_(fiSfa> 'A^iXjjb? 5 ; ouXoitt'i'_i',/_ pvp" ' Actuals iX^tf* tdnicry. TroXXav 8 ' ifeffi'fioif jjri^a? "At8t ypotayjrw y j j I'lpaxjvJavTois Sf (\o>pta fti'Xe nvvtacrtii g tilwyolai TC vu<ri.fStii^ 8' tVtXeuTo /3ov\q, 6 « ' £ o 5 8 1 ; Ta —paiTa Xin tptaavTt j '\Tp(ict]i; rt avhp£>v na\ 8 i o ? "A^iXXet/v./ H < <T/> < T ( £ f i > f Qfiliv "piBi £vi>ir)K€ fitigeaffat ; Ai]Tot"i Km Aiov i«uv. o 7a/j /3rtTiXi)« ^oXrjflfi? E i'0*<70»' orptnuji itipat KaK>7vJo\cK6vTo 8t Xaoi, (_|_ro T__ \pvar)i' VTiuaGti' i<pi?r";pa 11 B 'A__ri'Sij9. / d */a/j •/XcJf ('o_, «7Tt i ,. :J_ 'A^aiwi' 5 Xi/trd/ifi'd? Tf Svyarpa __>t/wwi' T ' uTTtptioi 'iifoiva. (E) crtppar' t^ti)v y^€pa\v fi<q/3_X,ou *A_l__toj'OS (E) _oi'^*V ff._V'rTPV>'/Afa' ^ " r , T I 1 w t i i T a ? 'A_/aioi/9, E St /i(iX<(rra 8i5w, KotTp.T)Topt \atov'f Id " 'Arpfi'Snt T< «rrit i^XXnt € U K i ' » // i i8 f s "A^-aiof, L>/iiV / i f r t?f)« SoFfi' ' ( ) \ i > / i — i a Biopar' f^oi'Tf? E _ c j f ' p _ _ l _ _ r i / i « / i n / « _ < X M ' , t i f 5 ' oitfaS* IK(<T9(XI 'f jalSfl 8 f'/ioi X i / a a « T f _TX»/i' TO 8 ' <Tj_oti'a hf-^fcrOm. OjE u f d / i f f o i A«os uTof tKiiBo\ni> ' ATroWravn."/ 21 ei/0* UXXOJ / i t i ' — y t i / T t s ' tTLthfai'ipijoav 'A^aiol «XX* ou< 'Arpei'Br) 'AyauiULVOfi "p'havt Bvpoi, _X__k___.a>? afyiti, Kpartpov 8 eVl fivBov irt\\ev• " fin gf• _;'poi', _pi'X»7<rii' irapa vi)va\ £'__(_ E »f t»i"i' Si7fl_<__ _ U?T(poii nvns iuvTa( I wi vv T o t o u y_pai<Tpr) wtj^irrpov _ _ _ _ _ _ _ y j / x a fitoto. •?r)v 8 ' f'yoi oi) Xu<rw* TT/>_ AIM; *a! ft/pag iiretan' t'lUfTtpM jj_i oTier.t j _ » "Apvfi. Tl/Xo*"'* 7rc<Tpi/ \ - , 30 ( E ) ' ° " r £_ t'~otyo"f'',fl_' f'i"tUi Xfyoc tfj'TtuJo'pf. / «XX" "0i,fpij p.' ipidi^f,\aa-oT(po<: ta< *f vt>iat."t J>^  t^aT*Jthtiacv 5 ' o -/ipiovjxai i-rrtiOno fivQio, iidft'tSi' TTjipa £lra TrpKvfiSoia&pio _ a X < i g g T ? t . _oXXa 8 ' t c f J T ' (S_y<i'fut9f u r t f o j * rjpad' d yepaio<i 35 0 , E '_ydXXfI>JJ_ J I _ _ « t T _ , / T O I ' » } V ' « f O / i O ? T f ' l T f A ^ T M * Noun t r i a d End rhyme Balance Ba lance; separa t ion Separat ion Balance; rhyme Balance Balance Ba lance; separa t ion Separa t ion ; rhyme Balance; separa t ion Balance; end-rhyme Balance Balance; rhyme .Balance; rhyme Balance; 5-6=1 Sentence Tr iad Sentence T r i ad Balance 1 6 \ " _X0^i fitv, iip%.vpi>To£, bs SpCcrriv up.j»/3t'flrT_ic Balance TJj J^i'XXai' re ^afiiTjvJ'Ytvihoiu re t<jf>j nvaaaeis, ft el Sn'TroTv TO* ygT_ 7n'oi_ /*r>p£ f*ry_ 40 _n_ rnyme E ravpwv »}S' al"fuiv,JTohe pot Kpijryov £_X8&JJ>' rlcrttav A a m _ fVa tdicpva g-oibi 0(\(craiv.' Balance j noun t r i a d o>? ((par' ev^opevos, rov &' (K\V€ ^olfios ' A T T O X . Xo)i', Si «a T* OvXifiiroto Kap{i['<oi' Xf'"V',<';,'o,g  K~IP, E TO_* fY__»M^T7pf f^Vi Tf ^ apjrprjv.l 45 Balance; Separat ion ; 3 p h i ' s ficXaytav &' op' oiorot err y(fop.(vo(Q. E OUTOD Ktvr)6ivros'l o S' rjtf I»U*TI e'otKws. e^er' erretr a-rravevde vecov, per a &' tbv eijxev' Separat ion _fnr) hi ^x<?yyn y'i'f_' I'tpyvptoJn /9io_ Balance ou/)r)ov> /ifP rrpi'irov trrw^ero «rai Kuraf " ^ 7 0 1 ^ , 50 avrap tiretr' avroicrt _Xo? e;£t"_ lure? f*_(f tt E _<iXX'7a irt* Se vvpgx IKKVOSV KalpvTo Oapuju. Rhyme fvvyiiap /__ " v n arparov ut-^ero >ci)Xn ffeoto, T__f«uTj__' a^o^rji'jf *aX«(T<raTO Xaoy A^«XXfU?" 6 r'?> yap tirl <ppial Qi]Kt Of a XtvKwKei'os "\iprf 55 Noun t r i a d ; separat ion *r;SfT_ yap L\avaS>v, on pa ffyijaKoi'Ta* opajj^. Balance; separa t ion , oi o' tVel ovv 'nto6(v ouvyepies re yiiovro. Ba lance; end-rhyme rolat B' avtaraptvos pereiprj rroSas WKVS 'A^fXXevs* " 'Arpethrj, i'vv appe TTIIXIV •nXnyyjBivras oi'a) E _ _ ii7 rg' / 0 < T T I7 g f* | /-/*' * _ 6<ivarov yt <f>vyolpcji. «° ei £q o/ioO 7TOX*__ Tt hapa teal Xoi___ 'A^atouv. 5 aXX' aye ft] rtua pavriv epetopev fj teprja E 17 qvtipoTToKov.fitai tap T " oi'ap «* A/05 eartv, £ os K' e"rro\, OTI roaaav eytooaro 'hqifloc 'A__XXfi>i', 5 • 7* '« 'X e i '^_S ('irtpeptperai 1" 0' tKaro/iffus. HhjTne aT K(V Trios apt'iiji Kviafis alyuhi. Tf TeXfi_it 66 Rhyme E fiovXerat axjiaoas nutv giro Xoiygy auvvai."/ j; rot o y ws emuiv tar ap t^ero, rota o av. 1,E KaXXas Warnptii*. ntwiwroXiSi- o'x' Zpt'aros,/ Balance; f i r s t 3 words rhopa l i c o? pfirj T O T * t'oi'Tn T»' T ' io a opera, rrpi t" f'pi'Ta. 70 Balance; 7 ta i l ' s xat vr\eaa* rjyrjaar' 'Abattoir "IXtoi' eica ^—6=2 E _ 2«a uavroavvvv./rriK ot rrope tyoiQos *A_XXa>y o o~<f>tv (V ippoviiov nyoprjoaro Kat furntrrev' "to 'A^«X*0, KfXfgxfif, BitipiXe, uTiPncrrio-Pai Rhyme _ fiijviv ' ATTOXXOJVOS, <__r;y9<X;'Tao u r _ _ _ 7 75 Balance j four words, roiyap eydv ('pi'o.fav Se avvQeoJKai p.01 Sfiocraov Sentence Tr iad •g i^ € ' ' ' A 0 * VP<>$PWV ttrtiTip KaX yp<rti» clprifftt>. / 5 Qy^P °"°Pal dvZpa xoXwo-efiev, o's p-eya. rravrw 0 , E Apyei'wv Kpariiificai oi rreiOo'vrat W^aioi. Balance; separat ion \ 17 gptitrovvyap PaatXtW. art ^rrtrai m^pl^JpTjf Glance; separation fl rrtp yap T < j^oXo;' yt Kai avr'/pap Kiirg-rrcylrr). 81 uXX« Tf Kal fLtruTTiaQtv f\(t KVTOV, 5<ppa TfXfV__ Eni—rhyme E iv _T»?f_cr_«/ f__./ __Sf tppt'ivm. ft p.t o-nr.Wf/c." p sigrna's T O P f iirrapfiBoptvos rrpoait^rj rrohai; d«w W^/X-" 6aptTi)cas tidXa tnre fffoTrpmrini', OTI o'ofla' 85 ov pa. yap *AiroXXri>i>a Sn'tpiXov, ut rt o~v, Ki'tX^av, Balance E €i)x"M"'0<r ^graoio-i ffeoirpoiri'as slvfupqi'veis./ Four words; balance oi" T I V iptv fwi'T"? Aral irrl ^Ooi'l h(pKoptvoio 5—6=1 S aol KolXrjs Trapa prjvol Bapua^ ytTpas iiroiffti Balance (E) ) ci_T-_rT_ir Anrni'if./ovij ifV 'Ayn lit uvovn. ftrrjjs, !>0 vvv TTOXXOI' (iptaros 'A^an'iv fi_^fTg_ eivm." 5-6=2 nn\ TOTf 9t\pai)(it ical fji'iVi jitivris iipvprov 5 " nrY tip' o 7* fvxttiXr&fTTiptptpiTai ovfl' tKartipBris. Rhyme E fiXX' eW*' dpi)T~)pos,[br ^rip-qa 'Ayapipvmv oiK iWiXvo-f 0vy£rp£ <al puV »7rfoVf_T' ^7ro*i'£. 35 Balance; rhyme TotwV lip' riX7f' tE't'Kfl' fKrjfioXns i n ouS' 5 7r/.ii' Xo'./icSo x&£e_i *y*S* c Eni-rhyme _yw'i/ 7 <Jjr.o jyiTpt jfJXeo Buperat eXtfiroTrjF.g QtvpTjv p i ' s E :»TTpictT>yi' I'II'UJLOIrov,fdy(jj'm6' UpQ£ fKuropBf^ 09 End-rhyme E €5 Xpi^ggi' fro'ri K£I> ptv iXarrorifimu rrtrrifiaLUilL-" P.hyms T) rot o 7 o»5 einUiv tear ap t^tro, rotai o av. /• IOTT) E p^&>? '__i/sfi,Sij? ivpv xptir^ 'Ajayipvyv Balance C , (E) ' ir^VUHtlit'/ Ml'l 'ffc & nt/a <i>pivti np$l piXaivai c, rrru'sj 12 " l i q u i d s " S iripTrXavr'/oaat hi oi rrvpl Xaprrfroiovrt iiKrrjv. 101 KuXyarra rrpwrtora KUJC onnoutvn^ rrppqi,irrtv 5 " pavrt fcqufaif, oi; TTJO T O T C poi T O tcpijyuov tlrras' 5>—6=2 0 <u'f i TOi Ta «ra«c' f'crTi £iXa £ptal pdvrtveadai, 5~6=1 €<r0Xbv S* ouTt rt _;a> t^ r-ac {Trog oi/Tf TeXfo-o-ag. urai vim {v Aaraolai QioTTpoirttisv dyoptv(i<;, o>? S7 T O U S ' "vend a<fiiv ij^rjSoXos uX'yftt jf'v^it, 110 5~6=2 ouj'fjr* f _ ( " efvpys SpvoijiBos u^Xa* _7TOM'_ . Balance E OVK fOfXov hf^aoBai^—itrtl TTOXV BovXopai avrrjv 0(_o( ijfttv. _at ^ _Jp pa KXvraipvq^Tprjs rrpoBi-BouXa, E Kovpihiys (IXoyou.AVft oy fflfV to*Tt -^tpiiw, 114 E o_J5_ua? ot'S< A U I / K , QI/ .T' up £p(ra<; OVT( TI tpya. / Tetrad j U omicron-upsilons dXXa Kai €0iXw finpeTruXii/, ft T O 7' apf'ivov' 6 Bo'vXop' t'y<S Xaov aoov tputva^ 1)'uiroX(<r0(^ avrap tpol ytpas auVty* iroiptlaar , 6<f>pa pi] 010s 0,E 'Ap~j(i<ou u^gaaros t<o/iml oiiSi tolxtv' 5 Xfi/fffffTf T O 3£ irajrrf?, o /io« ^tga^ ifi^£.rai ^—6=2 uXXi/." reo 18 rbr 8 ' tipiiBcr* (TTi'na irohupicns S i n s ' "AxtXXfi/?' "'ArpttZf) KvSto-re, QXaKTtmj^aTf Balance; four words; U-5=l TOJV y<ip TOI SjJcroecrt yipai ptyiiflvpoi A^aioi; oiihi T I — o r r8 /xei ' * f i / i f I ' l l v d X X | £ , u X X a T O /iff iroXuav cl-(TrpAfioptv, ra Sebaffrai, \'25 \aovi S' OVK tVt;u<*f x t i X t X X i r / r t TaP'T* tiraytiptiv. iiXXa irv / i t i» T»J»'Se 0(io irpo:<, airap ' A m a t o l 3 TPITTX') T€Tprnr\r> r' i « 7 r o T ( ' f f o / i f f / a " ici TO0I Z f i » % " g J u a - L . ITIJXII ' Tpoirji' f u r t t ' ^ f o f ?£aXtnrtit;ai" f 5"6=1 TUV 8 ' i'nrnfi£tj3i'tpfvos irpoai<f>r) tepduiv 'Aya/xep-I'fiJi'* 130 " pi] S»; O U T C J T , « I - y a t ? d ? 7Tf/j etui', fltof iVf\' ' A y X ^ . f 5 . B __7TTf votpjiirii ov Traptktvaaiifovhe pt Trfiffci<;.f Negative sentenee t r i a d t/ ttf(\et<;, o(pp' air of ylpas, avrap ip a_ra? 3 alpha-upsilons K i)o0ai Seud/ifi'oi',/<ct'Xfa» Sf /if T»/fS urroh'ouvai ; Rhyme < i X X fi /iff Sidaouai yipas p(yu0vpox A^atq£, 135 . apaavrf; Kara 0vpov,forr(i]<; uvru^iov torai" fi S c «tf /i>; hiixoaiv, iyio S e * f i ' O U T O ? fXfi>/ia» 5,S >;*Tfo/'V/ ATafTOV t'cSf yipasji) OBvariftR Triad < T c - o ) iX/ov'lb St «cti' ^ cciyoXajo-fTat, o f *ff licaipai. ^ g r a p p a s H X X ' i) rot /iff TauTa (itrafypaaoptaOa xal auTt?, 1 4 0 fOf 8 ' a^f v?,a piXalpaa ipiocoptv tU S X a B'tau, Rhyme; balance; 12 " l i q u i d s " f'f 8 tptras fViT»jSf? uyttpoptv, f's" 8 tKaropfirjv 5 • t?tiQjtfI'./'if 8 ' avrijv XpuarjiSa KaXXitrt'ipf/ov 5—6=1 E 8>'>gptuv'lf8f Tt? " P ^ o s " <tr^ p /3ovXr)<p6pos tareo, 15 i; Ai'a? »/ I 8 o/ifff_y. ^  8109 OSJcrctuy 145 Triad; rhyme (E))>}f o"«J, Uv ^ - f ' S ^ i TTi'iVTWv {KjiayXorar' avipMU./ Triad o^>/>' V/itf JKatpyov i\dacr€(ii ttpa. pffay. T O I » h' up' inrohpa Ihcov irpoo-i^rj T r d S a s * cu/tu? ' A ^ t X X f " to/iw, <ti'aiSftV fVtft/if'ff, K(pla\(o<*>pov, Four •words; rhopalic; 5-6-1 7rw? TI? Tot Trpo<f>pr'<v lirtaiv TTtlBrfTai A^ac__ 1 5 0 HhyTne E 1 7 °S6f tX0tfifvalrj ai-Spuaiv 7<f>t / t J^fcrf?_i,-/ Rhyme; balance o i l 7«/) fTpf/nJf fff* v j X u f l o f at'_YitT7T<ifi)i». "Rhyme; 5—6=1 • E Bevpo / i a ^ T j a d / i f f o v . / l e V f I oj2.Tt /lot airioi daw ov ydp Trio ITO-T f/ia? floffc ijXaaav o j i S f /iff Rhyme; U omicron-upsilons r~7rot/y. ouSt 7TOT' tf 'I'rlij^ tpiR")XaKi f5t*Tiavtip^ 155Rhyme; 5"~6=1 g Kap-rrov ihifXijoavr ,fiir(\ »/ /iiiXn 7roXXn AtfTofu. g ovpea Tt QKtotvTa OiiXaao-d Tf T^-yr;fo-p-q* / Hhyme; balance; 3"*6=1 u X X a cot', a > fiiy urai&ls, a / i lo-nopeO', 5<f>pa vi/ E Ttufi)' Mpi'tVffot M f i ' f X a y o"oi Tf, KvvvTra, ( E ) irpbs 'Yptittov• ITMV ov rt pfTarpiirrj ouB% t l X f y / f f t ? • « f a i 8 » / /tot 7tpa« auTtJ? a<paipi'i<re<r0at «t7rftXfiy, 161 Etd-rhyme 5,E w t V i TroXXn poyncra, hoaav St' pot vus A-yaiatv. ov piv aol rrort Xaov t\y> ytpas, jyrnror A yatoi Tpwmv tKirkpowa iv vaioptvov rrmMtBpovt tlXXA TO / i f f TrXflOf TToXtHtlUcds' TToXf'/IOlO 165 j^fTpfs" f'/i<d hUrrova ,farap ")v rrore laapbs ixnrat. B a l a n c e trol TO ytpas rroXv ptltyv, iyut 8 0X1*701' T f <piXnv Tf ipyou fywv fart f Qat.AVfT « Ktifia) TroXf^ii^wv. B a l a n c e I'Of 8 d / i i 'I'tflJJl'S , f V f »/ TTOXII <f>iprtpui> ianv oiKab' Xptv crvv vnvo-i Kopwviaivjovhi a biro 170 ivBdh" artyos t'Jji' ac^ )f»'oy * a i irXovrpv_n^v^tiv."l rbv 8' t)p^i/3ffeoiTTtna avaE «i'8pt"n' A-yft/if'/if <uf • " dxvyf pdX , « TO» Bvpbs itrioo-vrai, oiiii a iyi'o yt Kiaaopal tn'f« f nfio ptvtiv \ trap ipoi ye /rat aXXot, * 0" * f /if rifi^aovat, udXiara Sf /ijjTi'fTa Zfuv. 175 t^Bio-ros 8f* /101 f V a t BioTpf<p(ti>v /Sao-(X»/ti>r'' a i d 7<i/> Tot tp's" Tf <^ i'X»7 ToXtpoi rt_ pd%ai Tf.. f l pd\n KapTtpot toot, flfos" TTOK aot TO 7 thtoictv. o7xnh' iu>v cvi' vv'vai rt aris xai Q-QK irdpaimv 179 Mup/iiSdyfgg-if avacriJi.fiiiBtv 8' ryc^ 01!^ " X f ^ ' f ^ 0178 Sffopai KOTfovrof «7rfiXi/o-ti» 8f T o i OJSC* a)? f / i * iKpaipdrat Xpuo-rji'Sa •J'oi/Sos" ArroXX&jf, TTJV /ifi» ryot* Cfw frn' T" f'n7 «rai f'uoT^ tTdp^aJUL_ Trcp^fi}. ffyoS 8f «c' f?-y&) Hp<o-T/i8a jtpXXi7T<ipJ70i' <HJTOS" icof KXitri-qvhf, TO 0"dV ytpasjoipp' iv fi8j5? 185 OOQ-QV ipiprtpbs tlfii at fit v, arvyip Sf * a i aXXos" ig»f f'/if5i -f>ucrdai Kal bpoiioOt]p(vai ufTT/f." ^ £><; tpdro'J ITifXf i'ftirt 8' a^o? yivtr'Jiv Sf 01 '/TO/) CTi}#£ff_2XK Xnaioim ^invBiva ffpu'*(?ifff./ 7 o 7 f <pdayarov oft 1 ipvaadfi(vo<; irapa prjpov 1 9 0 Toi/? / i f f <ifao,T>fo-ftfi'. d 8' Arptthrjv ivapi^oi, »/!r ^ dXoi> Traucrfiff iprnvcrtit rt flvuov. flos" d ravO' aippaivf Kara <f>pera xat /car^jPuunv, tX<rfTo 8' f i /roXforo ftf*7fl f/^oc. »)Xflf 8* 'A^>yfj^ oiipavoQtvfirpb yap f/Kf fica XfVKwXfi'os "HpiL 1 9 5 " E u i — r h y m e dfitt>to d/jM? ffvtim (fyiXiovad T f K7]Bofi.(iij rt. j arJih' omdtv, PavOJjk Sf Kopjfc <Xf I l£Xfi'aipa, o"fi) fyatvopivTiJroyv 8 oXXcui' ow TIV opdro. ffdfifSiiotv 8' 'A^iXfuv, ptra 8 irpdirtr', avriiea 8" tyvo) IlaXXaS' 'Adr}vair}ii'(B(ivi'i) St* 01' oo-fff tpdavflfv. 2 0 0 B & 1 & D C 6 >cai piv ^fijfi/ffas" t7Tfa •nrtpLtvra vpoo-TiCla' " TIVT* OUT', alyio^oto Aid? T«/C(K, f*tXi/XoD^av ; 5 — c > B l »/ "fa vftpiv thy *Ayapipvovos 'A'rprfdao ; 5—6*1 /iXX* «"»; TO« tp€mt TO 8f * a i rtXitafiai oij&; Rhywe Rhyme; t r i a d 1 1 s i g m a s i n s e n t e n c e B a l a n c e B a l a n c e 5-6-1 B a l a n c e ; s e p a r a t i o n ; U-5=2 S e n t e n c e t r i a d U w o r d s ; 6 i o t a s B a l a n c e B a l a n c e E n d - r h y m e 20 lis VTT<pinrXtT<!X TroTf fivpitv o\t'___. 205 ror h avrt Trpoaittrrt Ota yXavKi'ims 'AOi'/vrj' " yXflov f'/iu rravaovaa TO obi> ptvo<, at Kt iriffrjai, g ovparuffcv'/rrpo hi p ')*( $ta \rvKtiiXtvos "II/IIJ, E ap(firc opios Ovpy (fttXiovad re KTjhopivTf T(. I uXX' ayfjXTiy tpthoi.junht'Picpos eXicto %fipi'l 2 1 0 »\X »; TOI trrtaiv ptv bveihtoov tl>s tatrai irtp. t'thf yap i^tpiti), TO OY KO'I TtTfXftrpivov tarat' xai TTOTC TOI Tpis Toaaa Trapiao'nai dyXaa hwpa 5,E vBpios uvtna rifaht'fo-v h' io-yeo, rrtitfto h' ifplv." Trfv h urrapctBuptvo^ Trpoaitpt) iruhas UIKVS A ^ - I X -\<vs' 2 1 5 " \ph P*v cfyu'nipov yt, 6(d, tiros (lpvaoao~6ai, E Kai pdXa trtp 6vpo" KtyoXMiiivovfios yap auetvoi'' os Kt 0(ois iTriir(i0r)Tai, ptiXa^ r ZKXVOV ainov. ^ Kai iir dpyvpijj KWTTT) ayi0( yjlpa Baouav, a>Jr h' is KovXtbi' wot piya £l(pos, oiih dir'i0t)o-iv E pv6<p '\0f)vair)s'j»/ h' OuXu/zTToj'Sf BtBiJKtiv 221 E hdipar is^aiyto^oio Aius ptra haipovas uXXoi>s-l IIyXeihns h i^avrts uTaprrjpois iTritaaiv £ 'Arpdhrjv Trpoo~(tiTT(,jKal ov Tr&j Xijyt TfuXtuoj 2 2 4 " o'tvoBap'es, KUI'OS' oppar t^otv, Kpuhir/v h iXdtpoto.  OVT( TTOT is TroX(pov ii pa Xa to OospnyOnvai E OUT( Xo^oi'8 itval cvv upiaTi)(<Toiv Aymwi' (E))Te'TX»7»:o:5 0vp£>'(TO hi r»t Ki/p &&(jat fivai. t) iroXv Xi'mav iari Kara ffTparou tvpvv AvnoTn' E' hu)p' air oat pels 0ai, Jos TIS aiOtv UVT'IOV (\TTT) 2 3 0 hrjpn£i>pos BjiotXfvs, t V f l ovTihavoiatv tiviitraets.' 7) yap av, Arpdht), vuv varara XrD/9i/o-a<o. iiXX* €K TOI ipieo xai irrl piyav opxov opovpai-i>al pa ToSf ffKrJTTTpov' TO piv ov TTOT* ^>UXXO xai 5{ovs E &''fi.fiirtl hrj rrpioTa Top>p> iv optoai XiXonrtv. 2 3 5 oiih iii>a&T)Xi'io-(t' iTfp't yiip pa i yjaXKos tXetyev 5»E <f>*uXX»i T€ * a i <^\oiui'" tvi'v avrt piv vlts %Aya'itov E ci' TraXtiprjs (ftOpiovai htKaairoXoiJol rt Oipmras E irp'is Sths rtpvc.Tat'to hi rot piyas iaatrat opKOS' */ TTOT ' A y i X X Q i x irnOt) i^irni vtas Abattoir 240 J avpTratTas'tTint h ov rt hvvijotai uyrvpvos mp j j l xpato-pfivjf vr av rroXXol v<f>"\'iKTopos uvSprxpovoto g 0vjoKovTfs irlTrTtoai'Jav S ' fvho0i 0vp'ov itpv^fis 0, E t X<^opfvos,fo T apio~TOv 'A^aiiZv ovhiv trta-as. tos JJUTO rir^Xf ihrjs, Trorl hi o-KtiTrrpov QjlXt yaifl V. yovfftin'ts 'tXnt'tft THjrappivovJi^fTO h' airoi' 246 'ATptihqs h' iriptiifftr iptji'K. roiai hi N«rrci>p 3 e t a - i o t a * 8 S e p a r a t i o n S e n t e n c e t r i a d ; b a l a n c e 11 e p s i l o n s ?-6=l 12 liquids B a l a n c e B a l a n c e B a l a n c e ; 5-6=2 B a l a n c e T r i a d ; b a l a n c e 5-6=1 5-6=2 E n d - r h y m e A B A B 5-6=1 E n d — r h y m e 5-6=2 B a l a n c e 5-6=1 S e p a r a t i o n 21 E ulvtrrH'; nvbpnvot, Xj^Ls. dyopiJTy;, / fall r h O P a l l c rov Kat dvb yXi!iarrrj< /IC'XITOS" yXvflvp piiv aih%. *^ rc3 5' TJ8»7 SiJo piv ytv<a\ pfpurrrltv uvBpiZtrtov 2.'.0 BalanCS E i<f>6iaff',/o7 o! rrpuodev apa rpd<f>tv r/oi yivoiro Separat ion E iv TIUXM qyaPijj./ptra hi rpirdro'atv avaaatv. b a<f>tv ii) <ppov(o>v dyopijaaro Kat pirettrrtv' End—rhyme 5 " it TTUTTOt, »/*piya irVi'Pos 'Aya'itha yatav tKuvei' Balance >; Ktv yijOtjcat I \pi'niiov 1 \pidunib rt jualSfs", 255 (iXXoi rt Tpr"<f? P*ya Ktv Ktyapoiaro Gvpui, tl trQoiiv Tiiht rrdvra irvPoiaro papvapivotiv, 5~6=1 of 7rfr>\ piv (3ov\r]v kavawv, rrrpl h itrri pil^eaffai. Balance u X X a rriBtaff ' ap<pa> hi vttoripoi iarbv iptio. i]ht} yap rror iyat KOI tiptiooiv fji irtp vp'iv 260 E dvhpuatv wpiXrjaa./Kal ov rrori p ol y' dPipt^ov. 0 ov yap wo) roiovs thov avipas oihi "hrouat. g olov Wtipidobv rt Apvavrd rt notpiva Xaoiv Noun t r i a d (E) Kaivia T KfdStili,' n Kal dvrWtov YloXvfynpQx T r i ad j rhyme (E) ttijatn T Alytihijv, imciKtXov ViOavdro'iaiv / 2G5 T r i ad J balance J 5—6=1 Kapriaroi hh Kttvot iirtjffiorltov rpdtptv avhptiiv' Balance Kaprtarbt piv taav xal Kapriaro'i<; ipd^ovro. Balance OjE <pqpatv bpioKo'io'totJxai HcrrdyXw d-rrbxiaaav. xat piv rolatv iyu> ptdopiXtov ix TlvXov iXPtov, Of E rrjXbdev V f a-rrtr^ yatns 'txaXiadvro yap a'i/Toi' 270 xal pa^bp^v * O T tp airbv iya>' xtlvoiai h av ov E ravrnl vvv §poroi t'tcrtv iirf)(6bvioij-pax(QJjo.[ OBlicron-iotaf S KOX piv ptv fipvXitov %vvttv rrtlBbyro rt pvSrp. Balance dXXA rrlOeafft xa\ vppts, f7Tft jrelO'irBat apttvov. ^ the ta ' s 6 p'^Tt °"v r'bvh' dya0b\ rrtp iwv tiTroaTpto Kovprjv, 275 aXX* l a , i v ol irptora hbaav ytpas i/Ie? 'Ap^ateuv' PBJt av, T\gXt(h£, 0iX' (pitypfvai fiaatXJit E dvTt/3LTJy,liTrtl nv iroff' buolv$ typopt T<"m*K E 0K7)inoir)(o$ ffaaiXtvsJtTt re Zfi»v KvhoK thfiiKtv. 27P ti hi av KapTtpb<s ~o~o~i. 8ta hi at yelvaro piyrijp, $—6=2 aXX' oht <p*tprtpb<; 'ia~riv, iirtl rrXtgyiaaiv dvTiaan. _ 'Arpttht), ov hi iravt rtbv pivot'favrap iydi yt Balance i n f i r s t sentence E Xlaaop' 'A^tXXrJt p.t0iptv ^dXoi\/os piya vaaiv E fpsot 'Avtitoiaiv •g^rrd't HQ$Jyo±o Kaxq^p."/ Balance rbv h' aTrapti/36ptvos rrpoac<f>r} Kptitov 'Ayapip-vasv 285 " vat hf] ravrd yt rrdvra. yipov, Kara polpav ttttrts. «;xx' 5h' t'tvijp iPiXti rrtp\ ydyr^u ft"""" <IXX«BI». ^jj l i q u i d s ; 5-6=2 rrdvrwv piv Koartttv iff^e^, rrdvrtaai h (ii'daatiVj Balance j rhyiBe Tragi hi avuntvtty, a rtv oi rrtlataBat otto. fl hi pir ar^ynriiv (Pradv foot nfiv ibvrts, 290Balance 2 2 295 310 f vs. TdVVtKri oi TTpoBlovrriv ovtihta fivfit'innrrPnt ; " TOP 8 dp VTTo3\t'jhj)P fiptlBtTO hios \y_i\\tvs " fj yap K€V 8«iXflj T f KOX oiirthavasL KaX(oipr)v, ^ (i 8'/ aoi Trap Hpyov vrrti^opaijorri nev firrys'l K 'aXXotaiv hi] TODT' iTrtr'iX\eo.fpr] yap ipoi yt E ot'jpaip 'jov ynp iyV> x *Tt °"ot rrt'taiaBat oijgj. d\\o hi roi ip'& TV 8' fvl (pp(0~) ftrlWfo ajjaiP' 5 y^Pai P*1' T 0 ' fX*'' X* pn^taopnt *tv(&fi &rn>pr)s 5jE oi 'Tf ff.o! oi'irf rut uXXr^ /eVfi u<pi\to~0i yt toi-ris' T'~<i' 8 <?XX<*r. « ^ o * t O " T * # 0 7 rrapa I'ljl^ piXaivr^ T(7l|' O L ' X I I I ' T J <p(poiS «5l'fXoJI» ( I f K O I T O C C / i f l O . 301 fi 8 < i y f pi]pfmipt]ffai,fipa yptowai xa\ o'tht'j ahfru TOI glp-Q. KtXa'vov (pwrjcru rrept hovpl." o'^rai y nvriBio'ttrt p.ayi)2flp.ivu> irrifoaiv E rtrgTi/Twi'/Xugai* 8* dyop^v rrapa vhvaiv * A y _ a i c l ) i > . n^Xfi'Sr/v /*fi» tV* ATXIo-yii •'VOS *'Va£ 306 E >/K T f Mfi'OiTmSr) /rfli JUS (Tupa'taty. / 'ATpfi'87;? 8 apa fya tfoju; a X a 8 f rrpoipva-atv, iy 8' ipiras ZfiptPfP ifltcoaip, {]>' 8 i/caTOfi/3ijv E /9*;o"f Btio.Jdva hi Kpyartiha KaXXnrdpr)ov E. t 7 o - f i > uyMv'fip 8 dp^ ov «73rj 7 r o X u ^ u j T i ? *OSv<r<xcv 0 / /icv trruT iivaBuvrts (jrhrXeop ir/"* ACfXfL'flgf, 0 Xaou? 8 * \ T p f i ' 8 ^ 5 aTroXuunii'io-Bai dvwycv. oi 8 <<TTfXiatnn'ot/ro « c n i f j ? nXa XI'unr tBaWnv, "phov 8 y\7ToXXfi>i't TtXvt'aons itearouBas 315 E Tauptof »}8 alyusv rrapa. 6lv dXos yrpvyiro'to' I Kviar) 8 ovpav'ov l*ep iXiaaopipr) rrtpt j^arr^ut. t)S oi fiev ra Trivovro Kara ffrparcp' oiih 'Ayn-fiifipwp E. Xjjfjr ipthos,/r]xp jrj>d>rop ijrrjjitiX^o-' 'A^ iXjji, (iXX* o ye "Ta\0vBi6p rt «cal HvpvBdrijp rrpoaittrrtv, nit oi eaap KrjpvKt xai orp-npio Bipuiroint' 321 " tpyioBov KXiairjp WrjXrftdht<o A^ /X»;o?-Xfip'os fXoiT dyifitp Hpianiha KaXXtwdprjoP' ft hi Kt p.!) hti)T)o~iv, iyio hi K*P ai/rus tXmpat E (X0a)P ai/P TrXtoPtaffffTO oi teal piyior taraj." 325 t)S eiiraip rrpoUt, tcparepbp h itrt fivffbp t T f X X f r . TO) 8' diicopTt Bdrrjv rrapa 0tp dXbs arpvyirbto, yivp/xihopcop 8 irri TfjcXtaias KOX mias itciaOriP. 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Xotyta tpya rub eaaerat ovo tr uvexra, et Sh a<pa) evexa BVTJTWV eptSaiverov aiSt, iv Si Beoiai xoXwbv eXavverow oiiSi rt Satrbs 6 7 5 iaBXijs taoerai t)Sos,1irre\ ret yepelotia vtxa. prjrpX S' eyu> Trapd<f>fipi. xai aiirrj rrep voeovarj, rrarpt tjiiXnt irri vpa cbipe'iv Aii/o&pa prj avre vetxeirjat rrar^pjai/v S' fjptv Saira rapd^rj. et rrep yap x iBiXrjatv ()Xvprrtos d'areporrriThs 5 8 0 i^iSiiDV arv(f>eXiJjai'f 6 yap rroXv (pipraros eariv. fiXXA ail rov 7 irrieaat xaBdrrreaBai pTiXoxoiajV' aiTtx erretB tXaos ilXvpmos taaerat iipl%. &>S dp' i(pi], xai dvai^as Sirras dp<f>LKinreXXov p^rpt ipiXjj iv XfV* T-iBeiJxai piv rrpoaie'tirev 5 8 5 " rirXaBt, pijrep epr), xai uvda%eo x-nSopiw} rrep, pr) ae <f>iXvv rrep eovaav iv 6<f.6aXpoiatv iSwpat E Peiropivjv'trbre S ov rt Sirvrjaopai d^vvpevos rrep E ypatapeiv'I dpyaXios yap 'OXvprrios dvrupipeoBai. <;S>7 ydp pt xai aXXor dXe^epevat pepadra 5 9 0 6,E 5 5 E E E E 0,E Rhyme End—rhyme Rhyme End—rhyme 5-6=1 Balance Balance 3 phi's Balance 5-6=1 Triple End-rhyme 5-6=1 Balance 2 9 E ptyc 7roSo9 TtTayaiv dwo firfXov Btawcolo'to. / wav 8' ypap fe'popTjv, a pa 8* iJtXi'cij Karah'vvTi E icdwwtanv iv \ripvtp,jo\lyot 8' (Tl ffvpbs ivrjfV tv0a pt SiT'Tttc; gyo'pts d(pap Koplaavro TrtaovTa." 5 wv tparo, pei&ncriv hi 0ea \€VKtv\tvos"ripr), 595 prir\i'nTao~a Sf waihbs ihi^aro Xtipl KvweWov. avrap 6 TOTJ aWo'ai 0col<; fVSeJia rraaiv E olvoyoti yKvicv vtKTap, dwo tcpijr'ipos u<pvo-cru>v. f aadeo-TO? o" ap' ipwpro yiXcos paicdpeaa-i Otoiatv, coy i&ov "Hepaicrov Sta huipara woiwvvdvra. 600 ws" TOTC / i f f wpbwav rjpap <*$ ^eXxoi' y g r a S w T a E hatvvvr'.lovo'i Tt 0vpb<; t'Seufro Sarros* iio-r)S, ov piv <f>6ppiyyos wepitcaXXios, fjv e^* 'A7rdXX<ui/, OjE Movo-JcJi> 0',/QJ t W apttBbp.(VQ^ owl KaXrj. avrap iwei tcarihv Xapwpbv <f>do<; i/eXi'oio, 606 ot / i f f KaKKtiovres tBav ol/cfivhe (Kao~ro^r i)X-1 *%i''a" r'? hwpa rrepi^vrbt dp<ptyjjtj(ts E 'Htpato-ro? woirfaev iZvir/oi wpawtheoo-tv, / Zev? Si- 7rpos" Xf '^o? »jt 'OXi5/i7rio? ub-Tf/>07rqT»7s\ LuBjLTrdpofc KOiuaB'. OTf / i i v <yXv*i/c; {""Tri/os" ticdvof 610 6 et'fla icaBivb" avaBd's, rrapa S«*ypvaoBpopos "tipif. 5-6 -1 Balance 5-6=1 End-rhyme 8 denta l s 5 k a p p a ' s 5-6=1 U -words 5-6=1 30 Note on the T r a n s l a t i o n The main p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n b ear r e s t a t i n g : where p o s s i b l e , Homer's word o r d e r i s k e p t , and each Greek word i s r e n d e r e d by one and o n l y one E n g l i s h word w h i l e each E n g l i s h word r e p r e s e n t s one and o n l y one Greek word.- The o b j e c t i s p a r t l y t o show t h a t Homer (perhaps a l o n e o f a n c i e n t a u t h o r s ) can be t r a n s l a t e d i n such a way as t o make e v i d e n t and a c -c e s s i b l e a t l e a s t some of the e f f e c t s I am concerned w i t h , and p a r t l y t o p r o v i d e an "extended commentary" i n which the com-ment a t o r ' s i d e a s are t h o r o u g h l y embodied and by which they w i l l s t a n d or f a l l . To r ead t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n r e q u i r e s a " w i l l i n g s u s p e n s i o n of d i s b e l i e f " i n the f a c e of an extended v i o l a t i o n of E n g l i s h s y n t a x . But the r e a d e r w i l l f i n d t h a t a l t h o u g h E n g l i s h s y n t a x i s v i o l a t e d , E n g l i s h grammar i s n o t . The words s t a n d i n a g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r which i s c a p a b l e o f o n l y one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . R e a d i n g a l o u d w i l l h e l p , and r e a d i n g some p h r a s e s more t h a n once may be n e c e s s a r y . A more a b s t r a c t g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e must be a d m i t t e d . The v i o l e n c e w h i c h t r a n s l a t i o n does t o p o e t r y i s u s u a l l y done t o the o r d e r i n g o f the words i n the o r i g i n a l l a nguage. Here, by c o n t r a s t , i s an attempt t o r e n d e r some u n d e r - r a t e d f e a t u r e s o f Homeric p o e t r y by d o i n g v i o l e n c e t o the h o s t language i n s t e a d . I t i s hoped t h a t the u n f a m i l i a r i t y of t h i s method w i l l f o r c e a c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n t o the o r d e r o f the words and p h r a s e s t h a n even the most c a r e f u l r e a d e r s g i v e n o r m a l l y t o e i t h e r E n g l i s h or Greek. 31 Rage s i n g , (0) goddess, P e l e i d e s A k h i l l e u s ' d e s t r o y i n g ( r a g e ) , which a m y r i a d , on the A k h a i a n s , p a i n s s e t , and many m u s c u l a r s p i r i t s t o Hades f o r t h - t h r e w , ( s p i r i t s ) of h e r o e s , and themselves s e i z e a b l e ( s p o i l ) made f o r dogs, and f o r b i r d s a l l ; and of Zeus was r e a l i z e d the p l a n ; out o f t h a t (time when) indeed f i r s t t h e y t h o r o u g h l y - ( a p a r t - ) s t o o d q u a r r e l l i n g , A t r e i d e s (Agamemnon) l o r d of men and Z e u s - l i k e A k h i l l e u s , And who r e a l l y them, of the gods f o r q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h (each o t h e r ) s e n t t o f i g h t ? L e t o ' s and Zeus' son ( A p o l l o n ) , F o r he, by k i n g (Agamemnon) g a l l e d , s i c k n e s s up(on) the army r o u s e d , e v i l ( s i c k n e s s ) , and t h e y were d e s t r o y e d , the s o l d i e r s ; because t o him, K h r y s e s , he p a i d d i s h o n o r - -t o the p r a y - e r ( K h r y s e s ) - -A t r e i d e s (Agamemnon d i d ) . F o r he ( K h r y s e s ) came upon the ( f a s t - ) r u n n i n g s h i p s o f the A k h a i a n s , f o r r e l e a s i n g (his) d a u g h t e r b e a r i n g b o u n d l e s s ransom, a g a r l a n d h o l d i n g i n ( h i s ) hands, o f f a r - s h o o t i n g A p o l l o n , up(on) a g o l d e n s t a f f , and begged a l l the A k h a i a n s , 15 32 and A t r e u s ' (sons) m o s t l y , the two (of them), the a r r a n g e r s of the s o l d i e r s J " A t r e u s ' (sons) and o t h e r w e l l - s h i n - g u a r d e d A k h a i a n s , t o you may the gods g i v e i t , Olympian home h o l d i n g ( g o d s ) , t o o u t - s a c k Priamos* c i t y and w e l l house-ward t o come: hut the c h i l d t o me (may you) r e l e a s e , dear ( c h i l d ) , and th e s e t h i n g s (as) ransom a c c e p t , r e v e r i n g Zeus' s o n , f a r - s h o o t i n g A p o l l o n . " Then the o t h e r s a l l ( l o u d l y i n agreement) w e l l - s p o k e , the A k h a i a n s - -t o r e s p e c t the holy(-man) and the b r i g h t t h i n g s t o a c c e p t (as) ransom. But n o t t o A t r e i d e s Agamemnon was i t sweet i n ( h i s ) s o u l , but e v i l l y he o f f - s e n t ( h i m ) , and a p o w e r f u l , upon ( h i m ) , d e c l a r a t i o n d i r e c t e d : 25 "Not (upon) you, o l d man, l e t me b e s i d e the h o l l o w s h i p s come, e i t h e r now d e l a y i n g , o r l a t e r a g a i n coming; l e s t now you ( t h e y ) n o t d e f e n d , the s t a f f and g a r l a n d o f the god. And h e r I ( m y s e l f ) n o t w i l l r e l e a s e . B e f o r e ( t h a t ) , upon h e r even o l d age w i l l come, i n our house, i n A r g o s , d i s t a n t from h e r f a t h e r ' s ( l a n d ) , the s t a n d i n g ( - l o o m ) coming t o , and i n my bed ( l y i n g ) o p p o s i t e . 30-But go, l e s t me you p r o v o k e : s a f e r so might you r e t u r n " . So spoke he; and he f e a r e d , the o l d man, and was persuaded by the d e c l a r a t i o n , and walked s i l e n t b e s i d e the beach of the m u c h - r o a r i n g ocean. And much t h e n , o f f a l o o f moving, p r a y e d the o l d man t o A p o l l o n the l o r d , whom the w e l l - h a i r e d one b o r e , L e t o : "Hear me, s i l v e r - b o w , who (around) Khryse(-town) on b o t h s i d e s w a l k , and K l l l a the v e r y g o d l y , and Tenedos by muscle a re l o r d o v e r , S m i n t h e u s - - i f e v e r f o r you a p l e a s i n g temple I c o v e r e d , or i f ind e e d ever f o r you down f a t t h i g h s I burned of b u l l s and c e r t a i n l y of g o a t s , t h i s f o r me a c c o m p l i s h , ( t h i s ) l o n g i n g : l e t them pay honor, the Danaan ( A k h a i a n s ) , f o r my t e a r s , by your s h o t s . " So spoke he,vowing; and him t h e r e h e a r d P h o i b o s A p o l l o n , and walked down from Olympos'heads angered i n h e a r t , bow on s h o u l d e r s h o l d i n g , and o n - b o t h - s i d e s - c o v e r e d q u i v e r . And t h e y c l a n g e d r e a l l y , the ( d e a t h - ) b e a r e r s , upon the s h o u l d e r s o f him angered, of h i m s e l f movingj and he went n i g h t - s e e m i n g . He s a t then o f f a l o o f from the s h i p s , and a f t e r (them) an arrow s e n t : and f e a r f u l the c l a n g was of the s i l v e r bow. Mules f i r s t he upon-came ( a t t a c k i n g ) , and dogs ( w i t h ) f l a s h i n g ( f e e t ) ; a g a i n r e a l l y t h e n a g a i n s t (the men) t h e m s e l v e s , the s h o t b i t e - h o l d i n g , he o n - s e n d i n g s h o t : and always the f i r e s o f c o r p s e s burned, t h i c k . Nine days up(on) the army came ( a t t a c k i n g ) the s h a f t s of the god, and on the t e n t h assembly-ward he c a l l e d the s o l d i e r s , A k h i l l e u s ( d i d ) , f o r t o him upon h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g she s e t i t , the goddess, white-armed Here"; f o r she cared about the Danaan ( A k h a i a n s ) , because r e a l l y them d y i n g she saw. And when t h e y t h e r e f o r e were assembled, and i n the same ( p l a c e ) assembled were, among them u p - s t a n d i n g spoke f o o t - s w i f t A k h i l l e u s : " A t r e i d e s , now us b a c k - s t r i c k e n I e x p e c t back o f f t o r e t u r n - -i f d e ath ( a t l e a s t ) we can f l e e - -i f i n d e e d a t the same ( t i m e ) w a r tames, and even p l a g u e , the A k h a i a n s . But l e a d (on) i n d e e d : some d i v i n e r l e t us a s k , or h o l y fran), o r even dream-tender--f o r even a l s o a dream out o f Zeus i s - -35 who might say f o r what so much angered i s P h o i b o s A p o l l o n ; i f a l s o r e a l l y he ( a t l e a s t ) f o r a vow f a u l t s (usJ7 or i f f o r a h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) ; 65 i f somehow, f o r lambs* b u r n t - f a t - o d b r and g o a t s ' , r e a l i z e d - ( i n m a t u r i t y ) - ( g o a t s ' ) , he might w i s h , by ( h o l d i n g t h a t odor) o p p o s i t e (and e q u a l ) o f f us the harm t o a v e r t , " C e r t a i n l y he ( a t l e a s t ) so s a y i n g down r e a l l y s a t ; and among them up-stood K a l k h a s T h e s t o r i d e s , of b i r d ( - s i g n ) - t e n d e r s v e r y much the b e s t , who p e r c e i v e d those t h i n g s ( t h a t ) were, and those t h i n g s t h a t were t o be, and ( t h a t ) b e f o r e had been, and the s h i p s had g u i d e d , of t h e A k h a i a n s , t o I l i o n , 71 through h i s d i v i n a t i o n , which on him t h e r e bestowed P h o i b o s A p o l l o n . He t o them, w e l l - u n d e r s t a n d i n g spoke i n assembly, and among (them) s a i d : "0 A k h i l l e u s , you command me, dear t o Zeus, t o d e c l a r e ( t h e ) rage of A p o l l o n , the f a r - s h o o t i n g l o r d : 75 f o r t h a t ( r e a s o n ) , I fayself) w i l l t e l l ; and l e t you ( y o u r s e l f ) w i t h (me) r u n ( i n agreement) and t o me swear ( t h a t ) c e r t a i n l y me, (you) w i t h f o r t h ( - r i g h t ) - u n d e r s t a n d i n g by s a y i n g s and even by hands w i l l h e l p . F o r c e r t a i n l y I e x p e c t ( t h a t ) a man (I w i l l ) g a l l who g r e a t l y over a l l A r g i v e ( A k h a i a n s ) has power, and by whom are persuaded t h e A k h a i a n s . / F o r more p o w e r f u l ( i s ) a k i n g , when angered by a man worse t f o r though h i s g a l l ( a t l e a s t ) the s e l f ( - s a m e ) day he might down-swallow, ( y e t ) even a f t e r w a r d s he h o l d s r e s e n t m e n t - -u n t i l he might r e a l i z e ( i t ) - -i n t he c h e s t of him, And you ( y o u r s e l f ) e x p l a i n , i f me you w i l l s a v e. And, him o f f - a n s w e r i n g , spoke f o o t - s w i f t A k h i l l e u s t •"Encouraged the more, say the god's pur p o s e , whatever you have p e r c e i v e d : f o r n o t , by A p o l l o n dear t o Zeus--t o whom a l s o you ( y o u r s e l f ) , K a l k h a s , vowing, t o the Danaan ( A k h a i a n s ) the god's purpose (bring) up t o l i g h t - -n o t anyone, me l i v i n g and upon the ground l o o k i n g , upon you b e s i d e the h o l l o w s h i p s heavy hands s h a l l b e a r , of a l l Danaan ( A k h a i a n s ) ; not even i f "Agamemnon" you say, who nov; much the b e s t of Akha i a n s vows ( h i m s e l f ) t o be." And indeed he was encouraged and t a l k e d , the d i v i n e r b l a m e l e s s : "Not r e a l l y does he ( a t l e a s t ) f o r a vow f a u l t u s , and n o t f o r a h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) , b u t because of the p r a y - e r , t o whom t h e r e p a i d d i s h o n o r Agamemnon:' and n o t o f f ( - h a n d ) - r e l e a s e d he the d a u g h t e r , and n o t o f f ( - h a n d ) - a c c e p t e d he the ransom; 3? f o r t h a t cause r e a l l y p a i n s gave he, the f a r - s h o o t e r , and c e r t a i n l y y e t w i l l g i v e . And n o t he ( a t l e a s t , b e f o r e , from the Danaan ( A k h a i a n s ) p l a g u e ' s heavy hands w i l l o f f - h o l d , b e f o r e (at l e a s t ) o f f t o (her ) f a t h e r dear t h e y g i v e the c u r l - f a c e d g i r l , w i t h o u t p r i c e w i t h o u t ransom, and l e a d a h o l y h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) i n t o Khryse(-town)5 t h e n might (we) him, h a v i n g appeased, p e r s u a d e . " 100 C e r t a i n l y he_ ( a t l e a s t ) so s a y i n g down r e a l l y s a t ; and among them up-stood ( t h e ) hero A t r e i d e s , w i d e l y a c c o m p l i s h i n g Agamemnon, g r i e v e d ; and w i t h p a s s i o n g r e a t l y h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , on both s i d e s b l a c k , f i l l e d ; the two eyes of him f i r e l a m p ( - f l a s h i n g ) seemed. To K a l k h a s f i r s t of a l l , e v i l l y e y e i n g (him) he s a i d t 105 " D i v i n e r o f e v i l s , n o t y e t ever f o r me the r e a l d i d you s a y i a lways f o r you t h i n g s e v i l a r e d e a r , i n your u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t o be d i v i n e d ; and a f i n e t h i n g not a l s o a t a l l y e t d i d you say (as a) s a y i n g , n o r d i d you r e a l i z e ( o n e ) . Even now among the Danaan ( A k h a i a n s ) , the god's purpose r e v e a l i n g , you speak i n assembly, t h a t i n d e e d f o r t h i s c a u s e , a g a i n s t them t h e f a r - s h o o t e r p a i n s makes, 110 because I ( m y s e l f ) the g i r l ' s — K h r y s e l s * — b r i g h t ransom 38 d i d n o t want t o a c c e p t ; s i n c e much I w i s h h e r ( s e l f ) i n my house t o h o l d . F o r r e a l l y , even (compared t o ) K l y t a i m n e s t r a , I w i s h p r e f e r a b l y h e r , (compared t o ) my wedded w i f e , s i n c e n o t t h a n h e r i s she worse — no t i n body, and n o t i n growth, and not r e a l l y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and not a t a l l i n works. But even so, I want t o g i v e ( h e r ) back, i f t h a t ( a t l e a s t ) ( i s ) b e t t e r . 116 (But) a g a i n r e a l l y f o r me a p r i z e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e p a r e , t h a t n o t a l o n e of A r g i v e ( A k h a i a n s ) u n - p r i z e d I be, s i n c e n o t i s ( i t ) seemly; f o r b e h o l d t h i s ( at l e a s t ) , a l l (of you ) i t h i s my p r i z e goes t o a n o t h e r ( p l a c e ) . " 120 And him t h e r e answered t h e n f o o t - a b l e Z e u s - l i k e A k h i l l e u s : " A t r e i d e s , most g l o r i o u s , most d e a r l y ( - l o v i n g ) - p o s s e s s i o n s of a l l - -f o r how t o you w i l l t h e y g i v e a p r i z e , the g r e a t - s o u l e d A k h a i a n s ? Not a t a l l anywhere do we p e r c e i v e common Cstores of them) l y i n g , many, but those (which) from c i t i e s we o u t - s a c k e d , those a r e s h a r e d . 125 And (from) the s o l d i e r s n o t i s ( i t ) seemly, a g a i n - c o l l e c t e d , those ( p r i z e s ) t o assemble: b u t you ( y o u r s e l f ) now t h i s ( g i r l ) t o the god f o r t h - s e n d ; a g a i n r e a l l y (-we) A k h a i a n s t h r e e f o l d and f o u r f o l d w i l l pay (you) honor, i f e v e r Zeus g i v e s ( i t t o us) the c i t y of Tr o y the w e l l - w a l l e d t o o u t - e x h a u s t . " 39 And, him o f f - a n s w e r i n g , spoke the a c c o m p l i s h e r , Agamemnon: 130 "Do not indeed i n t h i s way, good though b e i n g , god-seeming A k h i l l e u s , cheat (me) i n t h o u g h t , s i n c e n ot w i l l you b e s i d e (me) come, and not me w i l l you p e r s u a d e . C e r t a i n l y , do you want ( i t ) , t h a t (you) y o u r s e l f h o l d (your) p r i z e , a g a i n r e a l l y ( t h a t ) I ( m y s e l f ) i n the s e l f ( - s a m e ) way s i t l a c k i n g ; and do you command me h e r t o o f f - g i v e ? But i f t h e y g i v e (me) a p r i z e , the g r e a t - s o u l e d A k h a i a n s 135 f i t t i n g ( i t ) down ( a l o n g my) s o u l , so t h a t ( i t ) o f o p p o s i t e (and e q u a l ) w o r t h i s - - ! But i f t h e y do not g i v e , I my v e r y s e l f w i l l s e i z e e i t h e r y our, or A i a s ' - - ( m y s e l f ) g o i n g - -p r i z e , o r Odysseus' I w i l l l e a d , s e i z i n g ( h e r ) : and he w i l l be g a l l e d , (upon) whom I come. But c e r t a i n l y , f o r you, t h e s e t h i n g s l e t us a f t e r - c x p l a i n even a g a i n ; l*fO and now l e a d ( o n ) : a s h i p b l a c k l e t us draw i n t o the s a l t ( - s e a ) Z e u s - l i k e , and i n ( i t ) oarsmen s u f f i c i e n t l e t us assemble, and i n t o ( i t ) a h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) l e t us s e t , and up (onto i t ) h e r s e l f , K h r y s e t s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d l e t us w a l k ; and l e t one (man), some--(as) leader--man, a p l a n - b e a r e r , be: e i t h e r A i a s , o r Idomeneus, o r Z e u s - l i k e Odysseus, 1^5 or you ( y o u r s e l f ) , P e l e i d e s , o f a l l the most o u t ( - s t a n d i n g l y ) - s t r i k i n g o f men, 40 t h a t f o r u s , t h e f a r - w o r k e r you might appease, h o l y t h i n g s w o r k i n g . " And, him r e a l l y from under brows p e r c e i v i n g , t h e r e spoke f o o t - s w i f t A k h i l l e u s i "Ome; i n d i s r e s p e c t c l o t h e d , p r o f i t - u n d e r s t a n d e r , how c o u l d any, f o r you, f o r t h ( - r i g h t ) - u n d e r s t a n d e r by (your) s a y i n g s be per s u a d e d , (any) of the A k h a i a n s , 150 e i t h e r a road to go or w i t h men by muscle t o f i g h t ? F o r not d i d I ( m y s e l f ) f o r T r o j a n s ' cause come, f o r (Trojan) spearmen's, here f o r f i g h t i n g ; s i n c e not a t a l l t o me g u i l t y a r e t h e y : f o r not y e t ever my cows drove t h e y , and not (my) h o r s e s , and not ever i n P h t h i a the ( w e l l - ) c l o d d e d f e e d e r of men 155 (my) f r u i t r avaged; s i n c e c e r t a i n l y a v e r y many t h i n g s (are) between--mountains a l s o shadowy, oceans a l s o echoey. But you, o g r e a t l y d i s r e s p e c t f u l , t o g e t h e r we f o l l o w e d , t h a t you might be p l e a s e d : h o n o r a b l e payment g a i n i n g f o r Menelaos and f o r you, d o g - f a c e , from the T r o j a n s . To those t h i n g s n o t a t a l l do you a f t e r - t u r n , and not (about them) are you concerned: even in d e e d my p r i z e (you) y o u r s e l f t o o f f - s e i z e t h r e a t e n , l 6 l f o r w h i c h much I l a b o r e d , and which t h e y gave me, the sons of A k h a i a n s . 41 Not t o you e v e r an e q u a l t h i n g do I h o l d (as) p r i z e , whenever the A k h a i a n s of the T r o j a n s o u t - s a c k a w e l l - d w e l l e d - i n c i t y ; b u t the f u l l e s t p a r t of much-shaking war 165 hands of mine f o l l o w t h r o u g h ; a g a i n r e a l l y , i f e v e r a s h a r i n g ( - o u t ) comes, f o r you the p r i z e ( i s ) much g r e a t e r , and I ( m y s e l f ) a s m a l l t h i n g (as my own) dear t h i n g come h o l d i n g t o (my) s h i p s , when I am worn out w a r r i n g . And now I w i l l go P h t h i a - w a r d , when c e r t a i n l y by much b e a r i n g more (weight w i t h me) i s i t house-ward t o go w i t h s h i p s c u r v e d ; and not f o r you do I e x p e c t , 170 (me) here w i t h o u t h o n o r a b l e payment b e i n g , w e a l t h and even r i c h e s t o g a t h e r , " And him t h e r e answered t h e n the l o r d o f men Agamemnon: " F l e e the more, i f f o r you the s o u l o n - h u r r i e s ( y o u ) ; and not you (do) I ( a t l e a s t ) beg because of me t o r e m a i n . B e s i d e me ( a t l e a s t ) ( a r e ) even o t h e r s who w i l l t o me pay honor, and m o s t l y the a d v i s e r Zeus. 175 And most h a t e f u l t o me a r e you of Z e u s - n o u r i s h e d k i n g s : f o r always t o you q u a r r e l l i n g ( i s ) d e a r , and wars and f i g h t s a l s o . I f v e r y much the more p o w e r f u l you a r e , a god somehow t o you t h a t ( q u a l i t y ) ( a t l e a s t ) gave. 42 House-ward g o i n g w i t h s h i p s o f yo u r s and even w i t h your comrades, the Myrmidons be l o r d o v e r . And about you I ( m y s e l f ) am n o t c o n c e r n e d , 180 and n o t w o r r i e d about you r e s e n t i n g ; and I t h r e a t e n you t h u s i As from me he o f f - s e i z e s K h r y s e T s , P h o i b o s A p o l l o n ( d o e s ) - -h e r I ( m y s e l f ) w i t h s h i p o f mine and even w i t h my comrades w i l l d i s p a t c h - - ( s o ) I ( m y s e l f ) w i l l l e a d B r i s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d , m y s e l f g o i n g toward (your) l e a n - t o , t h i s your (own) p r i z e ; t h a t you w e l l might p e r c e i v e 185 how much more ( w e i g h t - ) b e a r i n g I am t h a n you, and ( t h a t ) he might l o a t h e , even a n o t h e r man, e q u a l l y w i t h me t o speak and t o be the same (as me) i n o p p o s i t i o n . " So spoke he; and i n P e l e i d e s g r i e f was, and i n him the c o r e , i n t he c h e s t shaggy, up t h r o u g h two (ways) c o n s i d e r e d ! e i t h e r he ( a t l e a s t ) , the b l a d e sharp d r a w i n g (from) b e s i d e ( h i s ) t h i g h , the o t h e r s s h o u l d (cause t o ) u p - s t a n d , and A t r e i d e s he s h o u l d s t r i p of weapons; o r ( h i s own) g a l l he s h o u l d s t o p , and r e s t r a i n ( h i s own) s o u l . W h i l e he t h o s e t h i n g s s t i r r e d down (th r o u g h ) h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and down (though) h i s s o u l , and dragged out of i t s s h e a t h t h e g r e a t sword, t h e r e came Athene 43 from heaven; f o r f o r t h s e n t h e r the goddess white-armed Here, 195 "both (frien) the same i n h e r s o u l d e a r l y l o v i n g , and c a r i n g about a l s o . And she s t o o d b e h i n d , and by ( h i s ) y e l l o w h a i r s e i z e d P e l e i d e s , to (him) al o n e coming t o l i g h t ; and of the o t h e r s n o t anyone saw. And he wondered, A k h i l l e u s , and a f t e r - t u r n e d and i m m e d i a t e l y knew P a l l a s Athene: and f e a r f u l h e r two eyes were a l i g h t , 200 Even t o h e r , v o i c i n g words w i t h wings he t a l k e d ; "For what e v e r , a g a i n , a e g i s - h o l d i n g Zeus' b o r n ( c h i l d ) , came you? C e r t a i n l y t h a t the arrogance you might p e r c e i v e o f Agamemnon A t r e i d e s ? But out t o you I w i l l t e l l ( i t ) , and t h i s even w i l l be r e a l i z e d , I e x p e c t : by h i s over-armored (confidence) soon th e n h i s s o u l he w i l l d e s t r o y . " 205 And t o him a g a i n t h e r e s a i d the goddess s h i n i n g - f a c e d Athene: "Came I ( m y s e l f ) f o r s t o p p i n g t h i s your p a s s i o n , i f you might be p e r s u a d e d , from heaven; and f o r t h me she s e n t , the goddess white-armed Here, b o t h (of you) the same i n h e r s o u l d e a r l y l o v i n g , and c a r i n g about a l s o . But l e a d ( o n ) : l a y o f f q u a r r e l l i n g , and do not the sword d r a g w i t h (your) hand; 210 but c e r t a i n l y , f o r you, w i t h s a y i n g s r e p r o a c h ( h i m ) , ( h o w ) i t " w i l l be. 44 For thus out w i l l I t e l l ( i t ) , and t h i s even r e a l i z e d w i l l be : even then for you thrice as many things beside (you) w i l l be, bright g i f t s -arrogance the cause, t h i s (arrogance). Let you hold ( o f f ) , and be persuaded by us," And, her off-answering, there spoke foot-swift Akhilleus: 215 "Need (there i s ) - - o f you two (at l e a s t ) , goddess--the saying to keep (in mind), (for a man) even though very much i n soul galled; for so i t i s better: who(ever) would by gods be persuaded, very much also would they hear (him) himself," Ke spoke, and upon the s i l v e r h i l t held his hand heavy, and back into the sheath he thrust the great sword, and not was he unpersuaded by the declaration of Athene; and she Olympos-ward walked into the home of aegis-holding Zeus, among the other supernatural beings. And Peleides out-again with b a l e f u l saying to Atreides said, and not at a l l l a i d o ff (his) g a l l : "Wine-heavy, a dog's seeing(-eyes) holding, and heart of a deer, 225 not also ever into war together (with) the so l d i e r s to breast-plate (yourself), 45 not a l s o ambush-ward t o go w i t h the b e s t of A k h a i a n s do you endure i n (your) s o u l : b u t t h a t f o r you a f a t e ( o f death) i s p e r c e i v e d t o be. C e r t a i n l y much b e t t e r i s i t down ( a l o n g ) the army wide of the Ak h a i a n s g i f t s t o o f f - s e i z e , ^hen) some one t o you i n o p p o s i t i o n s peaks. 230 F o l k - c a t i n g k i n g , s i n c e o ver ( g o o d - f o r - ) n o t h i n g (men) you a r e l o r d - -f o r c e r t a i n l y ( o t h e r w i s e ) , A t r e i d e s , now f o r the l a s t ( t i m e ) you would (commit) o u t r a g e . But out t o you w i l l I t e l l , and even upon a g r e a t t o k e n w i l l I swear: yes, by t h i s s t a f f - -w h ich n ot e v e r l e a v e s (nor) even shoots w i l l grow, s i n c e indeed f i r s t i t s c u t (stump) i n the mountains i t l e f t , 235 and not w i l l i t u p - f l o u r i s h , f o r around i t r e a l l y the bronze (axe) p e e l e d l e a v e s and even b a r k ; now a g a i n i t the sons of Akha i a n s i n ( t h e i r ) palms b e a r , the judgement-tenders who a l s o s t a n d i n g ( p r e c e d e n t s ) from Zeus keep: and t h i s f o r you g r e a t w i l l be (as) a t o k e n -c e r t a i n l y sometime, f o r A k h i l l e u s a y e a r n i n g w i l l come upon the sons of Ak h a i a n s 240 a l l ; and t h e n n o t a t a l l w i l l you be a b l e , though g r i e v e d , t o d efend (them), whenever many under H e c t o r the m a n - s l a u g h t e r i n g d y i n g s h a l l f a l l ; and you, w i t h i n , your s o u l w i l l t e a r , 46 angered, t h a t t o the b e s t of Akha i a n s i n no way you p a i d honor." So spoke P e l e i d e s , and the s t a f f he shot (upon) the e a r t h , 245 (the s t a f f ) v/ith g o l d e n n a i l s p i e r c e d , and s a t , h i m s e l f : and A t r e i d e s on the o t h e r s i d e r a g e d . And among them N e s t o r the s w e e t - s a y e r u p - l e a p t , the c l e a r ( - v o i c e d ) P y l i a n a s s e m b l y - s p e a k e r - -(from) him, even from ( h i s ) tongue, than honey s w e e t e r - t a s t i n g f l o w e d t a l k ; and f o r him a l r e a d y two g e n e r a t i o n s of d i v i d i n g - v o i c e d men 250 had wasted away, who with him before together were nourished and c e r t a i n l y b o r n in Pylos the very godly, and among the t h i r d he was l o r d - -he t o them, w e l l - u n d e r s t a n d i n g spoke i n assembly and s a i d : "0 a l a s ; c e r t a i n l y g r e a t l y sorrow upon the A k h a i a n e a r t h comes: c e r t a i n l y would t h e y r e j o i c e , Priamos and P r i a m o s ' c h i l d r e n a l s o ; 255 the o t h e r T r o j a n s a l s o g r e a t l y would be p l e a s e d i n s o u l , i f (about) you two t h e s e t h i n g s a l l t h e y s h o u l d l e a r n , (about) you two b a t t l i n g - -who r o u n d l y ( b e s t ) ( a r e ) i n p l a n n i n g , of the Danaan ( A k h a i a n s ) , and r o u n d l y ( b e s t ) t o f i g h t . But be per s u a d e d : b o t h of you younger are t h a n me. 4? F o r a l r e a d y once I ( m y s e l f ) even b e t t e r t h a n you 260 men accompanied, and not even e v e r me d i d t h e y ( a t l e a s t ) s l i g h t . F o r not y e t such men have I p e r c e i v e d , and not w i l l I p e r c e i v e , as P e r i t h o o s and Dryas a l s o , shepherd of the s o l d i e r s ; K a i neus and E x a d i o s a l s o , and g o d ( - l i k e ) Polyphemos; Theseus A i g e i d e s a l s o , seeming ( l i k e ) the d e a t h l e s s ones, 265 Most p o w e r f u l indeed those of upon-the-ground n o u r i s h e d men; most p o w e r f u l t h e y were, and w i t h the most p o w e r f u l they b a t t l e d , w i t h f i e r c e mountain-men; and o u t - s t r i k i n g l y t h e y d e s t r o y e d (them). Even those I ( m y s e l f ) among-accornpanied, out of P y l o s coming, out of the d i s t a n t A p i a n e a r t h : f o r t h e y c a l l e d me, t h e m s e l v e s . 270 And I f o u g h t i n d e p e n d e n t l y , I m y s e l f ; and w i t h those not anyone of ithese who now m o r t a l are upon the ground c o u l d f i g h t . And w i t h my p l a n s t h e y t o g e t h e r - w e n t ( i n agreement) and were persuaded by (my) d e c l a r a t i o n : but be persuaded even y o u r s e l v e s , s i n c e t o be persuaded i s b e t t e r . Do n o t you (from) him, (you) though good b e i n g , o f f - s e i z e the g i r l , 0 48 but l e t (him) be? as t o him f i r s t t h e y gave (her a s ) p r i z e , the sons of A k h a i a n s ; Do not a l s o you, P e l e i d e s , want t o q u a r r e l ( a g a i n s t ) the k i n g w i t h o p p o s i n g f o r c e , s i n c e n o t ever the same t h i n g has he been a p p o r t i o n e d (as) h o n o r a b l e payment, a s t a f f - h o l d i n g k i n g , t o whom a l s o Zeus g l o r y gave. And i f you more p o w e r f u l a r e , and a goddess bore you (as) mother, 280 y e t t h a t man more ( w e i g h t - ) b e a r i n g i s , s i n c e over more men he i s l o r d . A t r e i d e s , you s t o p your p a s s i o n ; a g a i n r e a l l y I ( m y s e l f ) ( a t l e a s t ) beg ( t h a t ) from A k h i l l e u s (you) send away (your) g a l l ; he g r e a t l y f o r a l l ( a s ) a fence f o r the Akhaians e x i s t s , from war e v i l , " And, him o f f - a n s w e r i n g , t h e r e spoke the a c c o m p l i s h e r Agamemnon: 285 "Yes i n d e e d , those t h i n g s ( a t l e a s t ) a l l , o l d man, down Talong) ( p r o p e r ) measure you s a y . But t h i s man wants r o u n d l y ( b e s t ) of a l l t o be, (of a l l ) o t h e r s ; over a l l t o have power he wants, over a l l t o be l o r d , and t o a l l t o give signs--by which someone w i l l n o t be p e r s u a d e d , I e x p e c t . And i f him (as) a ( s p e a r - ) p o i n t - m a n t h e y s e t , the gods always b e i n g , 290 because of t h a t f o r him do t h e y f o r t h - r u n , ( h i s ) r e p r o a c h e s , t o be d e c l a r e d ? " 49 And him, u n d e r ( - h a n d e d l y ) - s h o o t i n g (a word) t h e r e answered Z e u s - l i k e A k h i l l e u s t "For c e r t a i n l y i t would be " f e a r i n g " and even " ( g o o d - f o r - ) n o t h i n g " I would be c a l l e d , i f i n d e e d t o you i n e v e r y work I s h o u l d u n d e r - y i e l d , whatever you might say. Upon o t h e r s indeed those t h i n g s d i r e c t , but do not t o me ( a t l e a s t ) 295 g i v e s i g n s ; f o r not I ( m y s e l f ) ( a t l e a s t ) ' s t i l l by you w i l l be p e r s u a d e d , I e x p e c t . And a n o t h e r t h i n g t o you w i l l I t e l l , and l e t you ( y o u r s e l f ) i n t o t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g shoot i t , o f yours t w i t h hands not a g a i n s t you I ( m y s e l f ) ( a t l e a s t ) w i l l f i g h t because of a g i r l , n ot a g a i n s t you and not a l s o a g a i n s t any o t h e r , s i n c e from me you o f f - s e i z e ( a t l e a s t ) , h a v i n g g i v e n (her) But of those o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h mine a r e , b e s i d e (my) ( f a s t - ) r u n n i n g s h i p b l a c k , 300 of those t h i n g s not a n y t h i n g might you bear ( o f f ) , u p - s e i z i n g ( i t ) , w i t h me b e i n g u n w i l l i n g . But l e a d ( o n ) : t r y ( i t ) , t h a t they may know, even these men: q u i c k l y f o r you the b l o o d dark w i l l s p i r t around my ( s p e a r - ) s h a f t , " So t h o s e two ( a t l e a s t ) , w i t h o p p o s i n g - f o r c e f u l t h i n g s f i g h t i n g , w i t h words, u p - s t o o d , and r e l e a s e d the assembly b e s i d e the s h i p s o f the A k h a i a n s . P e l e i d e s t o ( h i s ) l e a n - t o s and s h i p s e q u a l l y ( b a l a n c e d ) went, w i t h M e n o i t i a d e s ( P a t r o c l o s ) and h i s comrades; 50 b u t A t r e i d e s a s h i p ( f a s t - ) r u n n i n g s a l t ( - s e a ) - w a r d f o r t h - d r a g g e d , and i n ( i t ) oarsmen he chose, t w e n t y , and i n t o ( i t ) a h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) he w a l k e d f o r t h e god, and up ( i n i t ) K h r y s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d 310 he s a t , l e a d i n g ( h e r ) ; and i n ( i t ) (as) l e a d e r walked m u c h - a d v i s i n g Odysseus, They t h e n , h a v i n g up-walked, s a i l e d l i q u i d ways; but the s o l d i e r s A t r e i d e s t o o f f - w a s h ( t h e m s e l v e s ) o r d e r e d . and t h e y off-washed ( t h e m s e l v e s ) and i n t o the s a l t ( - s e a ) the washings t h e y s h o t , and worked f o r A p o l l o n r e a l i z e d ( - i n - m a t u r i t y ) h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g s ) 315 of b u l l s and c e r t a i n l y of goats b e s i d e the beach of the s a l t ( - s e a ) b a r r e n . And the b u r n t - f a t - o d o r t o heaven came, c u r l i n g around the smoke. So t h e y on t h o s e t h i n g s t o i l e d down ( a l o n g ) the army. But n o t d i d Agamemnon l a y o f f q u a r r e l l i n g , w h i c h f i r s t he had t h r e a t e n e d A k h i l l e u s ; b u t he ( a t l e a s t ) t o T a l t h y b i o s and E u r y b a t e s s a i d , who were h i s h e r a l d s and r e a d y servants« "Go t o the l e a n - t o o f P e l e i d e s A k h i l l e u s i by the hand s e i z i n g ( h e r ) , l e a d B r i s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d ; 51 and i f he does n o t g i v e , I my ( v e r y ) s e l f w i l l s e i z e ( h e r ) , coming w i t h more mem t h a t f o r him even more c h i l l i n g w i l l be." 325 So s a y i n g f o r t h - s e n t - h e (them), and a p o w e r f u l , upon (them), d e c l a r a t i o n d i r e c t e d . And t h e y u n w i l l i n g walked b e s i d e the beach o f the s a l t ( - s e a ) b a r r e n , and upon the Myrmidons' l e a n - t o s and s h i p s came. And him t h e y f o u n d , b e s i d e t h i s ) l e a n - t o and s h i p b l a c k s i t t i n g ; and n o t r e a l l y , them ( a t l e a s t ) p e r c e i v i n g , r e j o i c e d A k h i l l e u s . 330 They, t r e m b l i n g and r e s p e c t i n g the k i n g , s t o o d , and not a n y t h i n g t o him v o i c e d and n o t ( a n y t h i n g ) a s k e d . A g a i n r e a l l y he knew i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and v o i c e d ( i t ) i " P l e a s a n t ( g r e e t i n g s ) , h e r a l d s — Z e u s * messengers and c e r t a i n l y men's— c l o s e r come: n o t a t a l l t o me ( a r e ) you g u i l t y , b u t Agamemnon ( i s ) , 335 who you f o r t h - s e n t , B r i s e i s the g i r l t he cause. But l e a d (on)1 Zeus-born P a t r o c l o s , o u t - l e a d the g i r l ; even t o them g i v e ( h e r ) t o l e a d . And l e t t h e s e t hemselves w i t n e s s e s be b e f o r e the gods b l e s s e d and b e f o r e d e a t h l i n g men; even b e f o r e h i m , t h e k i n g w i t h a w a y ( - t u r n e d ) - f a c e , i f e v e r i n d e e d a g a i n JkO 52 need of me t h e r e i s unseemly harm t o a v e r t from those o t h e r s ; f o r c e r t a i n l y he ( a t l e a s t ) i n d e s t r u c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g r u s h e s , and n o t a t a l l p e r c e i v e s ( t h a t he must) t h i n k about t o g e t h e r t h i n g s b e f o r e and a f t e r , so t h a t t h e y b e s i d e the s h i p s s a f e might f i g h t , the A k h a i a n s . " So spoke he, and P a t r o c l o s by h i s d e a r comrade was p e r s u a d e d , 345 and out l e d from the l e a n - t o B r i s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d , and gave (h e r ) ( t o them) t o l e a d . And t h e y two a g a i n went b e s i d e the s h i p s o f the A k h a i a n s , and, she u n w i l l i n g , t o g e t h e r w i t h them the woman moved. A g a i n r e a l l y A k h i l l e u s (weeping) t e a r s , from h i s f r i e n d s f o r t h w i t h s a t , away b e n d i n g , upon the beach of the s a l t ( - s e a ) g r a y , e y e i n g the w i n e - f a c e d s e a , 350 And much t o h i s mother dear he p r a y e d , h i s hands r e a c h i n g i "Mother, s i n c e me you bore ( a t l e a s t ) , (pie) though s h o r t ( - l i v e d ) b e i n g , h o n o r a b l e payment t o me ought the Olympian t o p u t i n the h o l l o w o f my hand, Zeus h i g h - t h u n d e r i n g ; b u t now n o t me (even) a l i t t l e has he h o n o r a b l y p a i d . F o r c e r t a i n l y t o me A t r e i d e s w i d e l y - a c c o m p l i s h i n g Agamemnon 355 p a i d d i s h o n o r ! f o r h a v i n g s e i z e d , he h o l d s (my) p r i z e , h i m s e l f h a v i n g o f f - t a k e n ( i t ) . 53 So spoke he, t e a r s p o u r i n g , and him h e a r d h i s l a d y mother s i t t i n g i n the depths of the s a l t ( - s e a ) b e s i d e h e r f a t h e r o l d . And n i m b l y she out-sank from the g r a y s a l t ( - s e a ) , (coming) as a m i s t ; and r e a l l y b e s i d e h i m s e l f down-sat-she, (him) t e a r s p o u r i n g , 360 and w i t h (her) hand him c a r r e s s e d , and a s a y i n g spoke, and o u t ( - l o u d ) named ( h i m ) i "Born ( c h i l d ) , f o r what do you weep? And what upon you i n your u n d e r s t a n d i n g comes (as) sorrow? O u t - t a l k i do not h i d e ( i t ) i n (your) t h o u g h t , t h a t we may p e r c e i v e b o t h . " And t o h e r , h e a v i l y g r o a n i n g spoke f o o t - s w i f t Akhilleus« "You have p e r c e i v e d . Why, c e r t a i n l y t o you t h o s e t h i n g s p e r c e i v i n g , a l l s h o u l d I speak (as) i n assembly? 365 Came we ( a t t a c k i n g ) i n t o Thebes, h o l y c i t y of E e t i o n , and i t we t h o r o u g h l y - s a c k e d , and a l s o l e d h i t h e r a l l ( s p o i l ) ; and t h o s e t h i n g s t h e y w e l l s h a r e d among t h e m s e l v e s , the sons of A k h a i a n s , and out (from t h o s e ) t h e y s e i z e d f o r A t r e i d e s K h r y s e l s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d . And K h r y s e s a g a i n , h o l y man o f f a r - s h o o t i n g A p o l l o n 370 came upon the ( f a s t - ) r u n n i n g s h i p s of the A k h a i a n s b r o n z e - c o a t e d , f o r r e l e a s i n g h i s d a u g h t e r b e a r i n g b o u n d l e s s ransom, 54 a g a r l a n d h o l d i n g i n ( h i s ) hands, o f f a r - s h o o t i n g A p o l l o n , up(on) a g o l d e n s t a f f , and "begged a l l the A k h a i a n s , and A t r e u s ' (sons) m o s t l y , the two ( o f them), the a r r a n g e r s of the s o l d i e r s , 375 Then the o t h e r s a l l ( l o u d l y i n agreement) w e l l - s p o k e , the A k h a i a n s — t o r e s p e c t the h o l y man and the b r i g h t t h i n g s t o a c c e p t (as) ransom; but n o t t o A t r e i d e s Agamemnon was i t sweet i n h i s s o u l , b u t e v i l l y he o f f - s e n t ( h i m ) , and a p o w e r f u l , upon (him) d e c l a r a t i o n d i r e c t e d . And angered t h a t o l d man back came; and him A p o l l o n , 380 (him) vowing, l i s t e n e d t o , s i n c e v e r y much t o him d e a r (the o l d man) was, and s e n t upon the A r g i v e ( A k h a i a n s ) an e v i l s h o t ; and t h e y now, the s o l d i e r s , d i e d c l o s e upon (one a n o t h e r ) ; and those on-came ( a t t a c k i n g ) , the s h a f t s o f the god, a l l up ( a l o n g ) the army wide of the A k h a i a n s , And t o us the d i v i n e r w e l l - p e r c e i v i n g spoke i n assembly the god's-purpose of the f a r - s h o o t e r . 385 I m m e d i a t e l y I ( m y s e l f ) f i r s t commanded (them) the god t o appease« and A t r e i d e s t h e n g a l l g r a s p e d , and q u i c k l y u p - s t a n d i n g he t h r e a t e n e d me w i t h a d e c l a r a t i o n , w h i c h i n d e e d r e a l i z e d i s . F o r h e r ( K h r y s e i s ) w i t h a s h i p ( f a s t - ) r u n n i n g the c u r l - f a c e d A k h a i a n s t o K h r y s e s a re d i s p a t c h i n g , and l e a d i n g g i f t s t o the l o r d . But h e r - - n e w l y toward my l e a n - t o walked h e r a l d s f o r l e a d i n g the g i r l ( d a u g h ter) o f B r i s e u s , whom t o me t h e y gave, the sons of A k h a i a n s , But you, i f you a r e a b l e ( a t l e a s t ) , ( p r o t e c t i n g l y ) a r o u n d - h o l d t h i s c h i l d of y o u r s i g o i n g Olympos-ward Zeus beg, i f e v e r i n d e e d a t a l l e i t h e r by s a y i n g you b e n e f i t e d the h e a r t of Zeus, or even by work. F o r many t i m e s you i n your f a t h e r ' s h a l l s have I l i s t e n e d t o , (you) vowing, when you s a i d t h a t from d a r k - c l o u d e d K r o n i d e s (Zeus) (you) a l o n e among the d e a t h l e s s ones unseemly harm a v e r t e d , whenever ( i t was) him t o b i n d the Olympians w i s h e d , the o t h e r s , Here and P o s e i d o n and P a l l a s Athene. But you, t o him ( a t l e a s t ) coming, goddess, r e l e a s e d (him) from the bonds, s w i f t l y the hundred-handed one h a v i n g c a l l e d i n t o huge Olympos, whom ' B r i a r e o s ' t h e y c a l l , t he gods, and (whom) men a l l ( c a l l ) • A i g a i o n ' — f o r he a g a i n i n f o r c e t h a n h i s f a t h e r ( i s ) b e t t e r — who r e a l l y b e s i d e K r o n i d e s (Zeus) down-sat, i n h i s g l o r y r e j o i c i n g . 56 And him t h e y f e a r e d , the b l e s s e d gods, and d i d n o t b i n d . Of t h o s e t h i n g s now him r e m i n d i n g , b e s i d e (him) s i t and grasp ( h i s ) knees; i f he would somehow want, ( f i r s t ) the T r o j a n s t o h e l p , and (second) those ( o t h e r s ) down ( a l o n g ) the s t e r n s ( o f t h e i r s h i p s ) and around the s a l t ( - s e a ) t o pen i n , ( t h o s e ) A k h a i a n s , f o r k i l l i n g , t h a t a l l might touch upon (the u s e f u l l n e s s ) of ( t h e i r ) k i n g , 410 and t h a t he might know, even A t r e i d e s w i d e l y - a c c o m p l i s h i n g Agamemnon, h i s b l i n d n e s s , i n t h a t t o the b e s t o f A k h a i a n s he i n no way p a i d honor." And him she answered t h e n , T h e t i s , down t e a r s p o u r i n g ! "0 me, b o r n ( c h i l d ) of mine, * f o r what, now, you d i d I n o u r i s h , t e r r i b l e i n my ( c h i l d - ) b e a r i n g ? You ought b e s i d e the s h i p s w i t h o u t t e a r s , even w i t h o u t woe 415 t o s i t , s i n c e now f o r you the f a t e s h o r t ( - l i v e d ) ( i s ) , not i n any way v e r y l o n g , and now t o g e t h e r w i t h s w i f t e s t ( - p a s s i n g ) measure, even m i s e r a b l e beyond a l l you e x i s t : t h e r e f o r e you t o an e v i l f a t e I bore i n the h a l l s . And t h i s , f o r you, f o r t e l l i n g ( t h i s ) s a y i n g , t o Zeus d e l i g h t i n g - i n - t h u n d e r , (I) w i l l go m y s e l f t o Olympos the v e r y snowy, i f he might be p e r s u a d e d . ^ 2 0 But you now a t the s h i p s s i t t i n g , b e s i d e (them) s w i f t - p i e r c i n g , 57 rage a g a i n s t the A k h a i a n s , and from war s t o p a l l ( - t o g e t h e r ) , F o r Zeus i n t o Okeanos, a f t e r the b l a m e l e s s f i r e - f a c e d ( p e o p l e ) y e s t e r d a y w a l k e d , a f t e r a s h a r e d ( f e a s t ) , and the gods t o g e t h e r a l l f o l l o w e d . And i n t w e l v e d a y s , f o r you, a g a i n he w i l l go Olympos-ward; 425 even t h e n , f o r you, I w i l l go t o Zeus' bronze-walk(-wayed) home, and him (take by t h e ) knees; and him t o be persuaded I e x p e c t . " So r e a l l y h a v i n g v o i c e d ( i t ) she o f f - w a l k e d ; and him she l e f t i n the s e l f ( - s a m e p l a c e ) , angered down ( a l o n g ) h i s s o u l f o r the w e l l - g i r d l e d woman, whom r e a l l y by f o r c e , from h i m s e l f u n w i l l i n g , t h e y o f f - t o o k . A g a i n r e a l l y Odysseus 430 i n t o K h r yse(-town) came l e a d i n g the h o l y h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) . And t h e y , when inde e d the h a r b o r of much depth w i t h i n t h e y had come, the s t a n d i n g ( - s a i l s ) p u t i n o r d e r and s e t i n the s h i p b l a c k ; and the s t a n d i n g ( - m a s t ) t o the s t a n d i n g ( - m a s t ) - a c c e p t i n g ( - p l a c e ) t h e y c a r r i e d n e a r , by the f o r e - s t a y s l o w e r i n g i t n i m b l y , and i t (the s h i p ) i n t o anchorage t h e y f o r t h - o a r e d w i t h o a r s . 435 And out the ( a n c h o r - ) b e d ( - s t o n e s ) t h e y s h o t , and down ( a l o n g ) the s t e r n t h e y bound (the s h i p ) ; 58 and out even ( t h e y ) t h e m s e l v e s walked upon the b r e a k e r s of the ocean, and out the h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) t h e y walked f o r f a r - s h o o t i n g A p o l l o n } and out K h r y s e i s from the s h i p w a l k e d , from the s e a - p i e r c i n g ( s h i p ) . Her t h e n t o the walked(-upon a l t a r ) l e a d i n g , m u c h - a d v i s i n g Odysseus kkO t o h e r f a t h e r dear i n h i s hand s e t , and t o him s a i d : " 0 K h r y s e s , f o r t h me t h e r e d i s p a t c h e d the l o r d of men Agamemnon, (your) c h i l d t o you t o l e a d , and t o P h o i b o s ( A p o l l o n ) a h o l y h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) t o work, from the Danaan ( A k h a i a n s ) ; t h a t we might appease the l o r d , who now upon the A r g i v e ( A k h a i a n s ) much-groaning c a r e s has s e n t . " 4^5 So s p e a k i n g , i n h i s hand he s e t ( h e r ) ; and he a c c e p t e d , p l e a s e d , (his) c h i l d d e a r . And t h e y s w i f t l y , f o r the god, the h o l y h u n d r e d - b u l l ( - o f f e r i n g ) one by one s t o o d around the w e l l - b u i l t walked(-upon a l t a r ) ; and t h e i r hands t h e y washed t h e n and b a r l e y g r a i n s u p - s e i z e d . And f o r them K h r y s e s g r e a t l y ( l o u d ) vowed, ( h i s ) hands u p - h o l d i n g : ^50 "Hear me, s i l v e r - b o w , who (around) K h r y s e ( - t o w n ) on b o t h s i d e s w a l k , and K i l l a the v e r y g o d l y , and Tenedos by muscle a r e l o r d o v e r : (even) as i n d e e d t h e n me, f o r m e r l y , you h e a r d vowing--you h o n o r a b l y p a i d me, and g r e a t l y smote the s so y e t even now f o r me t h i s a c c o m p l i s h , ( t h i s ) a l r e a d y now from the Danaan unseemly harm a v e r t . " o l d i e r s of the A k h a i a n s — l o n g i n g : ( A k h a i a n s ) So spoke he vowing; and him t h e r e heard P h o i b o s A p o l l o n . A g a i n r e a l l y t h e n t h e y vowed and b a r l e y g r a i n s t h e y f o r t h - s h o t ; t h e y up-drew (the v i c t i m s ' heads) f i r s t and c u t ( t h e i r ) t h r o a t s and s k i n n e d (them); and the t h i g h s t h e y o u t - c u t , and down ( a l o n g them) w i t h b u r n a b l e - f a t h i d (them), t w o - f o l d f a s h i o n i n g (the c o v e r i n g ) , and upon these t h e y s e t raw ( f l e s h ) . And he burned (them) upon a s p l i n t e r , the o l d man, and upon them f i r e - f a c e d wine poured as l i b a t i o n ; and the young men b e s i d e him h e l d f i v e - p r o n g e d f o r k s i n ( t h e i r ) hands. A g a i n r e a l l y t h e n down the t h i g h s burned; and upon th e e n t r a i l s t h e y f e d ; and t h e y c u t up the o t h e r p i e c e s and on b o t h s i d e s w i t h prongs p i e r c e d them, and r o a s t e d (them) i n the r o u n d l y ( - b e s t ) - e x p l a i n e d ( - w a y ) , and drew ( o f f ) a l l . A g a i n r e a l l y when t h e y had stopped from t o i l and made a shared ( f e a s t ) , t h e y s h a r e d (the f e a s t ) , and n o t a t a l l d i d (anyone's) s o u l l a c k of the ( f e a s t ) s h a red e q u a l . A g a i n r e a l l y when f o r d r i n k and f o r meat d e s i r e t h e y had o u t - s e n t , t h e boys c r a t e r s s t u f f e d w i t h d r i n k 60 and d i s t r i b u t e d ( i t ) r e a l l y t o a l l , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the l i b a t i o n cups--and t h e y a l l day, by d a n c i n g , the god appeased, a l o v e l y t h i n g s i n g i n g (as) a paean, the boys of the A k h a i a n s , d a n c i n g f o r the f a r - w o r k e r ; and he i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g was d e l i g h t e d , l i s t e n i n g . And when the sun down-sank, and upon (them) dusk came, 475 i n d e e d t h e n t h e y l a y b e s i d e the s t e r n - r o p e s o f the s h i p . And when the e a r l y - b o r n one came t o l i g h t , r o s e - f i n g e r e d dawn, even t h e n , t h e r e u p o n , t h e y u p - l e d (the s h i p ) (for s t a r t i n g ) a f t e r the camp wide of the A k h a i a n s ; and t o them a (well-)come f a v o r a b l e ( b r e e z e ) he s e n t , the f a r - w o r k e r A p o l l o n . And t h e y the s t a n d i n g ( - m a s t ) s t o o d , and up (on i t ) the s t a n d i n g ( - s a i l ) w h i t e t h e y s p r e a d ; 480 and i n the wind p u f f e d t o the middl e of the s t a n d i n g ( - s a i l ) , and on b o t h s i d e s the s w e l l (of the s e a ) , a g a i n s t the s t i f f ( k e e l ) , g l e a m i n g , g r e a t l y ( l o u d ) s h o u t e d , w i t h the s h i p g o i n g ; and she r a n down ( a l o n g ) the s w e l l ( o f the sea) t h r o u g h - p e r f o r m i n g h e r way. A g a i n r e a l l y when t h e y came down ( a l o n g ) t h e army wide o f t h e A k h a i a n s , the s h i p t h e y ( a t l e a s t ) , a b l a c k ( s h i p ) , upon the b o u n d l e s s (mainland) drew 485 h i g h upon the sand, and under ( i t ) the pr o p s l o n g t h e y s t r e t c h e d ; and ( t h e y ) t h e m s e l v e s s c a t t e r e d down ( a l o n g ) the l e a n - t o s and s h i p s . A g a i n r e a l l y t h a t (man) r a g e d , a t the s h i p s b e s i d e - s i t t i n g , s w i f t - p i e r c i n g ( s h i p s ) , Zeus-born P e l e u s * s o n , f o o t - s w i f t A k h i l l e u s ; n o t a l s o e v e r t h e n i n t o assembly was he w a n d e r i n g , g l o r i o u s ( p l a c e ) f o r a man, not a l s o e v e r t h e n i n t o war; b u t was w a s t i n g h i s dear h e a r t t h e r e r e m a i n i n g , and was y e a r n i n g f o r the ( w a r - ) c r y and war a l s o . But when indeed r e a l l y from t h a t (day) the t w e l f t h was, ( a t ) dawn, even t h e n indeed towards Olympos went the gods always b e i n g , a l l t o g e t h e r , and Zeus began. And T h e t i s d i d not f o r g e t the upon-sent (commands) of h e r c h i l d , b u t she ( a t l e a s t ) up-sank from the s w e l l of the ocean, and e a r l y up-walked t o g r e a t heaven and Olympos a l s o , and found w i d e - f a c e d K r o n i d e s (Zeus) a p a r t s i t t i n g from the o t h e r s a t the topmost helmet of much-ridged Olympos. And b e f o r e h i m s e l f down-sat-she, and grasped ( h i s ) knees w i t h ( h e r ) l e f t (hand), and w i t h (her) r i g h t under (where the h a i r ) blossoms s e i z i n g him, b e g g i n g she s a i d t o Zeus K r o n i d e s the l o r d ; "Zeus f a t h e r , i f e v e r i n d e e d you among the d e a t h l e s s ones I b e n e f i t e d 62 e i t h e r by s a y i n g o r by work, t h i s f o r me a c c o m p l i s h , ( t h i s ) l o n g i n g : pay honor f o r me t o (my) son, who w i t h the s w i f t e s t ( - p a s s i n g ) measure, (compared t o o t h e r s ) e x i s t s ; a g a i n r e a l l y t o him now ( a t l e a s t ) . the l o r d of men Agamemnon 506 has p a i d d i s h o n o r s f o r h a v i n g s e i z e d , he h o l d s ( h i s ) p r i z e , h i m s e l f h a v i n g o f f - t a k e n ( i t ) . But you though t o him pay honor, Olympian a d v i s e r Zeus: u n t i l ( t h i s ) , upon the T r o j a n s s e t power, u n t i l the Ak h a i a n s t o the son of me pay honor, and i n c r e a s e him w i t h h o n o r a b l e payment." 510 So spoke she; and t o h e r not a n y t h i n g spoke the c l o u d - a s s e m b l e r Zeus, b u t s i l e n t l o n g s a t . And T h e t i s so f a s t e n e d upon h i s knees ( t h a t ) she h e l d (as) upon(-him)-grown, and asked him a second ( t i m e ) a g a i n : " U n m i s t a k e a b l y i n d e e d f o r me u n d e r ( t a k e ) a p r o m i s e , and down-nod; or o f f - s a y me--since n ot f o r you upon(-comes) f e a r - -t h a t I w e l l p e r c e i v e 515 how much I ( m y s e l f ) among a l l the most d i s h o n o r a b l y p a i d god am." And t o h e r , he g r e a t l y burdened spoke, the c l o u d - a s s e m b l e r Zeust " C e r t a i n l y i n d e e d h a r m f u l w o r k s j t h a t me t o be h a t e d you on-send, (hated) by Here , whenever me she pr o v o k e s w i t h r e p r o a c h f u l s a y i n g s , 63 And she even i n the s e l f ( - s a m e way) a g a i n s t me alw a y s among the d e a t h l e s s gods 520 s t r i v e s ; and a l s o o f me she says (that) i n f i g h t i n g , the T r o j a n s ( I ) a i d . But you now a g a i n o f f - d e p a r t , . l e s t a n y t h i n g she t h i n k , Here; and t o me thos e t h i n g s w i l l be a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y u n t i l I r e a l i z e (them). But l e a d ( o n ) i f o r you, w i t h (my) head, down I w i l l nod, u n t i l you be persuaded: f o r t h a t out of me ( a t l e a s t ) among the d e a t h l e s s ones ( i s ) the g r e a t e s t 5 2 5 mark; f o r not ( i s ) my (mark) b a c k - s e i z a b l e and not d e c e i t f u l and n o t u n r e a l i z e d , t o which w i t h my head, down I nod," He spoke, and w i t h d a r k brows nodded, K r o n i d e s ( Z e u s ) ; and the a m b r o s i a l h a i r on-streamed o f f the l o r d ' s head d e a t h l e s s ; and t h e g r e a t ( p l a c e ) he shook, Olympos. 530 They ( a t l e a s t ) so h a v i n g p l a n n e d s e p a r a t e d : she t h e n i n t o the s a l t ( - s e a ) s a l l i e d deep from b r i g h t Olympos, and Zeus toward h i s home. And the gods t o g e t h e r a l l up-stood out of ( t h e i r ) s e a t s , t h e i r f a t h e r o p p o s i t e , and n o t anyone endured t o r e m a i n ( s e a t e d ) a t h i s on-coming, but o p p o s i t e t h e y s t o o d a l i i 535 64 so he t h e r e down-sat upon h i s t h r o n e . And n o t o f him was Here unknowing, h a v i n g p e r c e i v e d t h a t w i t h him she had e x p l a i n e d p l a n s , s i l v e r - f o o t e d The"tis, d a u g h t e r of the s a l t ( - s e a ' s ) o l d man. Imme d i a t e l y w i t h r e n d i n g (words) Zeus K r o n i d e s she t a l k e d against» "And who a g a i n , f o r you, c r a f t y - a d v i s e r , o f the gods w i t h (you) e x p l a i n e d p l a n s ? 540 Always f o r you dear i t i s , from me off-away b e i n g , h i d d e n t h i n g s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t o judge? and not i n any way ev e r t o me w i t h f o r t h ( - r i g h t ) - u n d e r s t a n d i n g do you endure t o say a s a y i n g , what t h i n g you t h i n k , " And h e r he answered t h e n , the f a t h e r of men and gods a l s o i "Here, do n o t in d e e d a l l t h i n g s of mine hope, ( a l l my) d e c l a r a t i o n s , 545 t o p e r c e i v e ; d i f f i c u l t f o r you w i l l t h e y be, ( f o r you) though (my) w i f e b e i n g . But what ( i t i s ) seemly t o l i s t e n t o , not anyone t h e n , not o f the gods, b e f o r e (you) t h a t ( a t l e a s t ) w i l l p e r c e i v e , and n o t (anyone) o f men. But what I ( m y s e l f ) o f f a l o o f f rom the gods want t o t h i n k , n o t i n any way l e t you (about) those t h i n g s , each ( o f them), t h o r o u g h l y a s k , and l e t you n o t make q u e s t i o n . " 550 And him she answered t h e n , cow-faced l a d y Here: "Most t e r r i b l e K r o n i d e s ( Z e u s ) , what k i n d ( i s ) t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n you say! Even t o o much you f o r m e r l y ( a t l e a s t ) n o t have I a s k e d , and not have I made q u e s t i o n } b u t v e r y w i l l i n g t hose t h i n g s you e x p l a i n e d , whatever you wanted t o . And now t e r r i b l y I f e a r down ( a l o n g ) my u n d e r s t a n d i n g , l e s t you she has a s i d e - s a i d , s i l v e r - f o o t e d T h e t i s , d a u g h t e r of the s a l t ( - s e a ' s ) o l d mant f o r a t dawn you ( a t l e a s t ) she b e s i d e - s a t , and grasped (your) knees; t o h e r you I e x p e c t down-nodded t r u t h f u l l y , t h a t t o A k h i l l e u s you w i l l pay honor, and d e s t r o y many a t the s h i p s of the A k h a i a n s , " And, h e r o f f - a n s w e r i n g , spoke the c l o u d - a s s e m b l e r Z e u s i " S u p e r n a t u r a l one, always you ' e x p e c t , ' and not by you am I f o r g o t t e n . But t o p e r f o r m a t a l l , n o t i n any way w i l l you be a b l e , b u t ( f a r away) from my s o u l the more, f o r me, w i l l you b e i and t h a t f o r you even more c h i l l i n g w i l l be. And i f t h u s t h i s t h i n g i s , t o me i t must dear be. But s i l e n t d o w n - s i t , and by mine be p e r s u a d e d , (my) d e c l a r a t i o n , l e s t now you t h e y n o t defend ( a g a i n s t ) — as many gods as a r e i n Olympos--(me) c l o s e r coming, when upon you my u n f a s t e n e d hands I send," 66 So spoke he; and she f e a r e d , cow-faced l a d y Here; and s i l e n t down-sat, r e p r e s s i n g h e r dear h e a r t . And burdened up (through) the home of Zeus (were) the gods h e a v e n l y ; 570 and among them H e p h a i s t o s , f a m e d - f o r - t e c h n i q u e , began t o speak i n assembly, t o h i s mother dear d e s i r e a b l e t h i n g s b e a r i n g , t o white-armed Here: " C e r t a i n l y i n d e e d h a r m f u l works t h e s e w i l l be, and n o t y e t u p - h o l d a b l e , i f i n d e e d you two because of d e a t h l i n g s q u a r r e l t h u s , and among the gods d i n d r i v e ; and n ot i n any way o f the shared ( f e a s t ) 575 f i n e w i l l t h e r e be sweetness, when the worse t h i n g s w i n . And t o (my) mother I ( m y s e l f ) b e s i d e - s p e a k , even t o h e r s e l f though (she i s ) t h o u g h t f u l i t o (my) f a t h e r dear d e s i r e a b l e t h i n g s (she s h o u l d ) b e a r , t o Zeus, t h a t n o t a g a i n he s t r i v e s , (my) f a t h e r , and w i t h us the f e a s t c o n f u s e s : f o r though i f he s h o u l d want, the Olympian l i g h t e n i n g - f l a s h e r , 580 out of (our) s e a t s t o knock ( u s ) — J f o r he much the most ( w e i g h t - ) b e a r i n g i s . But you him ( a t l e a s t ) w i t h s a y i n g s d o w n - f a s t e n , s o f t ( s a y i n g s ) ; i m m e d i a t e l y t h e n appeased the Olympian w i l l be f o r u s , " 67 So r e a l l y spoke he, and u p - s p r i n g i n g a cup o n - b o t h - s i d e s - h i l t e d f o r h i s mother dear i n ( h e r ) hand he s e t , and t o h e r s a i d i 585 "Endure, mother mine, and u p - h o l d ( y o u r s e l f ) , though c a r i n g ; l e s t you, though d e a r b e i n g , w i t h (my) eyes I p e r c e i v e dashed; and t h e n n o t i n any way w i l l I be a b l e , though g r e i v e d , t o defend ( y o u ) . F o r o p p r e s s i v e i s the Olympian t o be o p p o s i t e l y - b o r n e . F o r a l r e a d y me, even a t a n o t h e r ( t i m e ) , (me) t o r e s i s t b e i n g e a g e r , 590 he h u r l e d , by the f o o t t a c k l i n g (me), o f f the walked(-upon t h r e s h o l d ) g o d l y - s a i d . And a l l the day I was borne, and t o g e t h e r w i t h the sun's d o w n - s i n k i n g d o w n - f e l l I i n Lemnos, and a s m a l l ( p a r t ) y e t ( o f my) s o u l i n (me) was; t h e r e me the S i n t i a n men f o r t h w i t h a t t e n d e d , (me) f a l l e n . " So spoke he; and she s m i l e d , t h e goddess white-armed He~rS, 595 and s m i l i n g , from h e r c h i l d a c c e p t e d i n h e r hand the h i l t e d ( c u p ) . A g a i n r e a l l y he f o r those o t h e r gods, (from l e f t ) t o r i g h t , a l l , ( a s ) wine poured s w e e t - t a s t i n g n e c t a r , from a c r a t e r g a t h e r i n g ( i t ) . And unquenchable r e a l l y was r o u s e d the l a u g h t e r i n the b l e s s e d gods; 68 so t h e y p e r c e i v e d H e p h a i s t o s t h r o u g h the home, ( h a r d - ) b r e a t h i n g . 600 So t h e n a l l the day t o the sun's d o w n - s i n k i n g t h e y s h a r e d (the f e a s t ) , and n o t a n y t h i n g d i d (anyone's) s o u l l a c k of the ( f e a s t ) shared e q u a l , nor of the ( s h o u l d e r - ) b o r n e ( l y r e ) v e r y l o v e l y , w h ich he h e l d , A p o l l o n , nor of the Muses, who sang ( a l t e r n a t e l y ) a n s w e r i n g w i t h v o i c e l o v e l y . A g a i n r e a l l y when down-sank the l a m p ( - l i k e ) l i g h t of the sun, 605 t h e y f o r d o w n - l y i n g walked houseward, each, where f o r each a home the v e r y famous o n - b o t h - s i d e s - l a m e H e p h a i s t o s had f a s h i o n e d w i t h p e r c e p t i v e b r e a s t ; and Zeus t o h i s bed went, the Olympian l i g h t e n i n g ( - f l a s h e r ) , t h e r e (where) f o r m e r l y he l a y , when on him s w e e t - t a s t i n g s l e e p came; 610 t h e r e he s l e p t , h a v i n g up-walked; and b e s i d e (him) g o l d - t h r o n e d H e r e . 69 CHAPTER THREE COMMENTARY 1, The f i r s t word i s the s u b j e c t o f the whole poem. The l i n e ' s t h r e e nouns form a t r i a d , rage goddess P e l e i d e s A k h i l l e u s , g i v i n g the name of the owner of the "rage" a c e r t a i n emphasis i n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t which i t has by b e i n g i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . 2 - 5 . These t h r e e s e n t e n c e s form a t r i a d o f t h e i r own, i n which the l a s t i s l o n g e s t and most i m p r e s s i v e * the d e s t r o y i n g rage w i l l l e a v e men's b o d i e s f o r dogs and b i r d s t o s e i z e l i k e s p o i l from sacked c i t i e s . The scope o f the rage i n c r e a s e s t h r o u g h the t r i a d , from " A k h a i a n s " ( 2 ) , t h r o u g h " h e r o e s " i n g e n e r a l ( 3 - 4 ) , t o the " a l l men" i m p l i e d by the image i n the l a s t sentence ( 4 -5 ) The e n d - l i n e rhyme between the v e r b s of 2 and 3 ( w i t h the p a r t i a l e n d - l i n e rhyme of 3 a n d 4) may ser v e t o remind us t h a t t h e t h r e e v e r b s share one s u b j e c t - - d e s t r o y i n g r a g e . 2 . " D e s t r o y i n g , " as R e d f i e l d n o t e s , i s elsewhere used i n the I l i a d o n l y o f p e o p l e , and thus i t may s e r v e t o p e r s o n i f y the "r a g e " h e r e . The enjambed word i s v e r y emphatic f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s i f i r s t , i t reopens "what has appeared t o be a c l o s e d s y n t a c t i c u n i t , " - ^ second, i t o c c u p i e s the same p o s i t i o n as 70 " r a g e " i n the p r e v i o u s l i n e and t h i r d , i t becomes, t h r o u g h j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h the r e l a t i v e "which," the s u b j e c t o f the e n s u i n g t h r e e s e n t e n c e s . T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n r e i n f o r c e s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , as R e d f i e l d goes on t o p o i n t o u t ! u s u a l l y 4 o n l y gods i n f l i c t " p a i n s . " N o t i c e a l s o the u n i t i n g assonance of p-fryi-y and o j ' X o ^ i V ^ y and t h a t the p r o b a b l y rare-* c o l l o c a t i o n of e t a ' s i n the f i r s t s e n t e n c e c u l m i n a t e s i n the j u x t a p o s i t i o n , o v e r the sent e n c e end, of the p a r t i c i p l e and the r e l a t i v e pronoun. The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of " A k h a i a n s " and " p a i n s " g i v e s the l a s t t h r e e words a p l e a s i n g assonance, w h i l e the s e p a r a t e d m o d i f i e r a l l o w s the A k h a i a n s t o be p i c t o r i a l l y s urrounded by t h e i r " m y r i a d . . . p a i n s . " 3-5. The p r o g r e s s i o n of the "ra g e " from l o w e s t t o h i g h e s t i s i n t e r e s t i n g ! s o u l s i n Hades (3)» b o d i e s and dogs on the ground ( 4 ) ; b i r d s i n the sky ( 5 ) ; Zeus above a l l ( 5 ) . ^ As Pope remarks, t h i s i s e x a c t l y how "the D e s i g n of the Poem goes o n i the Anger wh i c h began the Eook o v e r s p r e a d s a l l e x i s t e n t B e i n g s by the l a t t e r end of i t . " ' ' 7 R e d f i e l d , n o t i n g t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n , c l a i m s t h a t i n i t , as "we move a b r u p t l y from the l o w e s t t o the h i g h e s t , ...the a s s o c i a t i o n o f Zeus w i t h the c a r r i o n s c a v e n g e r s i s 1 8 r e i n f o r c e d by the a s p e c t o f the verbs." I would add t h a t a d d i t i o n a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s g i v e n by the p a r a l l e l p o s i t i o n s of the two elements of each p a i r o f v e r b s , and by the rhyme of the two a o r i s t s . 71 3. I f the k i n d of mimesis by w h i c h the a c t i o n o f the mouth i n p r o d u c i n g a sound a c t u a l l y mimics a n o t h e r k i n d of mouth a c t i o n i s more t h a n i m a g i n a t i o n , ^ the f i v e p l o s i v e p i sounds here may evoke the mouth's i n s t i n c t i v e method of " t h r o w i n g f o r t h . " 7 . The b a l a n c e here ( p r o p e r noun + m o d i f i e r i m o d i f i e r + p r o p e r noun) s e p a r a t e s the two s u b j e c t s of the p r e c e d i n g v e r b as w i d e l y as p o s s i b l e . R e d f i e l d ' s o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t out of some f i f t y Homeric o c c u r e n c e s of " l o r d o f men" i t i s f o u n d o n l y here b e f o r e the c a e s u r a , 1 0 may h e l p s u p p o r t the i d e a t h a t t h i s l i n e i s an i n t e n t i o n a l word p i c t u r e of the two who " t h o r o u g h l y ( - a p a r t ) s t o o d s t r i v i n g . " " A k h i l l e u s " i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n c l o s e s t h i s f i r s t s t a tement of the poem's s u b j e c t by a l l u d i n g i n r i n g f a s h i o n t o the l a s t word of 1 . 8 , N o t i c e the p i l i n g - u p of v e r b a l i d e a s , perhaps t r i a d i c i n f o r c e i f not i n f orm, of " f o r q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h (each o t h e r ) s e n t t o f i g h t " (and see on 177 and 4-90). 1 0 . " S i c k n e s s , " enjambed i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , i s e m phatic, and w i t h i t s m o d i f i e r , " e v i l , " i t v e r b a l l y e n c l o s e s the "army" i t a f f l i c t s . 1 1 We may be reminded of the way the "myriad p a i n s " s u r r o u n d the " A k h a i a n s " i n 2 . T h i s l i n e a l s o r e p e a t s the i d e a o f 2, i n a more s p e c i f i c way, and i n the mind ?2 o f an a t t e n t i v e l i s t e n e r , m ight thus s e t up t h e f a l s e e x p e c t -a t i o n t h a t he i s a l r e a d y h e a r i n g about a consequence of the "rage o f A k h i l l e u s . " N o t i c e how the nu's o f i n i t i a l youaoy r e v e r b e r a t e t h r o u g h the n e x t two s e n t e n c e s , 11. A f t e r the v e r b we e x p e c t a s u b j e c t , as one i s demanded, and as the o b j e c t has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t w i c e . I n s t e a d we get a t h i r d s t a tement of the o b j e c t , which i s thus p r e s e n t e d as a t r i a d : him K h r y s e s the p r a y - e r . T h i s g i v e s g r e a t f o r c e t o the d e s i g n a t i o n of K h r y s e s by the a s p e c t t h r o u g h which he w i l l b r i n g p l a g u e upon the army. The f o r c e of " p r a y - e r " i s a l s o enhanced by i t s j u x t a p o s i t i o n ( o v e r the l i n e - e n d ) w i t h the enjambed s u b j e c t o f the s e n t e n c e . N o t i c e e s p e c i a l l y t h a t " A t r e " i d e s " b e g i n s w i t h t h r e e of the f o u r sounds wh i c h make up the p a l i n d r o m e aprj-T-r^p^ (and perhaps w i t h a v a r -i a t i o n on t h e f o u r t h , d e p e n d i n g on how e p s i l o n - i o t a was pron o u n c e d ) . 12. " A t r e i d e s " i s no doubt e m p h a t i c . B a s s e t p o i n t s out t h a t the f o l l o w i n g o y<\p i s unique i n t h a t the pronoun r e f e r s t o 12 K h r y s e s r a t h e r t h a n t o Agamemnon. The t r a n s i t i o n i s thus v e r y a b r u p t , and f i t t i n g l y s o , as t h i s i s the end o f the second p a r t o f the p r o l o g u e and the a c t u a l b e g i n n i n g o f the n a r r a t i v e The s e p a r a t i o n o f i n i t i a l " A t r e i d e s " from f i n a l " A k h a i a n s " 73 appears t o be p a r t o f a p a t t e r n i 12 . Atre"ide"s ,,. A k h a i a n s 1 5 . — A k h a i a n s 1 6 . A t r e u s * sons s o l d i e r s 1 7 . A t r e u s * sons A k h a i a n s T h i s p a t t e r n i s perhaps a l l u d e d t o by the f i n a l words o f o t h e r l i n e s t 1. A k h i l l e u s 7 . A t r e i d e s A k h i l l e u s l 4 . A p o l l o n 21, A p o l l o n 2 2 . A k h a i a n s I t i s a t l e a s t p o s s i b l e t o see i n t h i s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between A k h i l l e u s and A p o l l o n , i n g e n e r a l o p p o s i t i o n t o Agamemnon. The p o i n t may g a i n some f o r c e from the f a c t t h a t w h i l e f o r the i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i n a l i n e the " c o n v e n i e n t shape" of forms of " A t r e i d e s " and " P e l e i d e s " "are q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y used," 1'' " P e l e i d e s " does n o t o c c u r i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n u n t i l 223 ( a f t e r the p a t t e r n n o t i c e d h e r e has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ) . 1 3 - 1 5 . A t r i a d of enjambed p a t r i c i p i a l p h r a s e s m o d i f i e s " K h r y s e s , " the t h i r d p r e s e n t i n g the most s i g n i f i c a n t and i m p r e s s i v e f a c t : K h r y s e s i s the p r i e s t of A p o l l o n , Compare t h i s t o the t r i a d o f o b j e c t s i n 1 1 . ^ 1 3 . The b a l a n c e d arrangement ( p a r t i c i p l e + o b j e c t 1 p a r t i c i p l e + o b j e c t ) i s perhaps enhanced by the p a r t i a l rhyme of the o b j e c t s . T o g e t h e r , the b a l a n c e and rhyme may suggest 74 the p e r f e c t l o g i c o f K h r y s e s ' r e q u e s t and the e x a c t e q u i v a -l e n c e of the ransom he w i l l pay and the g i r l he w i l l pay i t f o r . 1 6 - 2 2 . " A t r e u s * s o n s , " m o d i f i e d by the whole of l i n e 16 and j u x t a p o s e d over the l i n e end w i t h " a l l A k h a i a n s " ( 1 5 ) , w h i l e n o t e x a c t l y e m p h a t i c , i s a t l e a s t g i v e n much more importance t h a n " A k h a i a n s " (who are reduced even f u r t h e r by b e i n g the m o d i f i e r of a m o d i f i e r i n " a r r a n g e r s of the s o l d i e r s " ) . T h i s would h a r d l y be w o r t h n o t i n g , e x c e p t t h a t i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e , so a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r , the emphasis i s e x a c t l y r e v e r s e d i Agamemnon g e t s h i s share o f the s i n g l e - w o r d p a t r o n y m i c , w h i l e "the A k h a i a n s " get the w e i g h t o f m o d i f i c a t i o n (an i m p r e s s i o n perhaps s t r e n g t h e n e d by the rhyme). Because of t h i s emphasis, and because o f the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o v e r the l i n e end ("Akhaians/ f o r y o u " ) , " f o r you" a t the b e g i n n i n g of 18 may be f e l t as " f o r you A k h a i a n s - - n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y 'Agamemnon*." What " I - - t h e p r i e s t — a m demanding from the gods--who are v e r y p o w e r f u l ( f o r t h e y get the l i n e - f i l l i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n i n 1 8 ) — f o r you A k h a i a n s " i s e x p r e s s e d by two a l m o s t p e r f e c t l y b a l a n c e d p h r a s e s ( i n f i n i t i v e + m o d i f i e r + o b j e c t i m o d i f i e r + " o b j e c t " + i n f i n i t i v e ) i n 19t where the p l o s i v e assonance and the rhymed i n f i n i t i v e s may a l s o be n o t i c e d . The two i n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e s c o n t a i n the p r a y e r " t h a t t h e y may o b t a i n the two B l e s s i n g s t h e y had most i n v i e w " (Pope 86 note 2 3 ) . 75 As Pope h i n t s e l s e w h e r e (see on 91), t h e y may not be Agamemnon's g o a l s . There i s a b a l a n c e i n 20 ( o b j e c t + i m p e r a t i v e i o b j e c t + i m p e r a t i v e ) , b u t i t s h o u l d be c o n t r a s t e d t o t h a t i n 13, where the p e r f e c t b a l a n c e s u g g e s t s an e q u a l i t y between i m p l i e d r e q u e s t and i m p l i e d b e n e f i t . Here the b a l a n c e i s d i s t o r t e d by the a d d i t i o n a l — a n d perhaps s e n t i m e n t a l — " f o r me" and "dear." More i m p o r t a n t l y , i n p l a c e of t h e p a r a l l e l p a r t i c i p l e s o f 13» the p o l i t e o p t a t i v e " r e l e a s e " i s a l m o s t s l i p p e d i n among the rhymed i n f i n i t i v e s ( i n i t i a l and f i n a l i n 19t f i n a l i n 20); t h a t i s , the r e q u e s t f o r a f a v o r i s s l i p p e d i n among a l i s t of t h r e e b e n e f i t s t h a t w i l l r e s u l t . The r e q u e s t i s e f f a c e d even f u r t h e r when we n o t i c e the i m p l i c i t t h i r d element of a t r i a d - -i t s e l f c o n t a i n i n g a t h i n l y - v e i l e d t h r e a t , i n the word " f a r -s h o o t e r " — i n the n e x t l i n e i r e l e a s e my dau g h t e r a c c e p t my ransom r e v e r e my p a r t i c u l a r god. The r e a s o n we may n o t i c e t h a t what K h r y s e s a c t u a l l y says i s i n some ways d i f f e r e n t from what the n a r r a t o r t o l d us he was g o i n g t o s a y , i s t h a t h i s r h e t o r i c w o r k s i the Akha i a n s a r e e n t i r e l y p e r s u a d e d . They agree s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the l a s t two elements of the t r i a d of 20-21, w i t h o u t even m e n t i o n i n g the f i r s t ; t o r e s p e c t the h o l y man (=to r e v e r e A p o l l o n ) and t o a c c e p t the ransom (23). The r e v e r s e d o r d e r and the b a l a n c e of the two p h r a s e s (the 76 l a t t e r s t r e n g t h e n e d perhaps by assonance and p a r t i a l rhyme) g i v e a c o n c l u s i v e n e s s t o the r e a c t i o n of the s o l d i e r s — t h e r e i s no more, i t seems, t o be s a i d . So, as Agamemnon p r o b a b l y r e a l i z e s (hence the f o r c e o f h i s r e a c t i o n , which o t h e r w i s e seems t o i n d i c a t e o n l y s e l f i s h bad te m p e r ) , K h r y s e s has won t o h i s cause " a l l the o t h e r A k h a i a n s " (22) by making h i s p i t c h s p e c i f i c a l l y t o them. T h i s nuance, missed i f we see 17 as i d e n t i c a l i n i m p l i c a t i o n t o 16, and 18-20 as a s i m p l e r e s t a t e m e n t of the n a r r a t o r ' s s t r a i g h t -f o r w a r d 13-15i sheds some l i g h t on Agamemnon's r e a c t i o n . The s p i t e f u l n e s s of h i s r e p l y ( p a r t i c u l a r l y 30-1) i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y because he i s i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n : he wants t o get r i d of an e f f e c t i v e opponent as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Thus he i g n o r e s the two elements of the speech t h a t a p p e a l e d t o the s o l d i e r s and responds d i r e c t l y o n l y i n terms of the r e l e a s e of the g i r l . But by h i s h y b r i s t i c - s e e m i n g " l e s t now you ( t h e y ) not d e f e n d , the s t a f f and g a r l a n d of t h e god" (28), he i m p l i c i t l y answers t h a t a s p e c t of K h r y s e s ' s peech. Perhaps too h i s "her I ( m y s e l f ) w i l l n o t r e l e a s e : b e f o r e t h a t , upon h e r even o l d age w i l l come/ i n my house i n A r g o s " ( 29 -30) i s a s u b t l e way o f s a y i n g " I am g o i n g t o 'well-houseward come*— I don't need your 'gods.'" The i r r i t a t i o n t h a t Agamemnon n a t u r a l l y f e e l s h e r e , a t b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o an attempt t o m a n i p u l a t e h i s t r o o p s , may p e r s i s t i n t o the q u a r r e l w i t h A k h i l l e u s . We may suppose t h a t the o p i n i o n o f the army d i d 77 n o t change o v e r the t e n days of the p l a g u e , and t h a t the sympathy f e l t "by the s o l d i e r s f o r K h r y s e s would make them d i s p o s e d t o agree w i t h A k h i l l e u s . Looked a t from t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , the r e s p o n s e s of Agamemnon ( t o K h r y s e s and to A k h i l l e u s ) seem more s u i t a b l e t o a mature and p e r c e p t i v e k i n g : f a r from f i n d i n g him a l m o s t u n b e l i e v a b l y s e l f i s h and u n - s e e i n g , we may a l m o s t admire h i s r e s t r a i n t . 1 9 - 2 0 . The t r i p l e rhyme of the i n f i n i t i v e s i s t r i - s y l l a b i c , w h i l e t h e o p t a t i v e " r e l e a s e " s h a r e s none of t h e s e sounds. 1 9 . P a l e y reminds us t h a t "the S c h o l i a s t s n o t i c e the a p p a r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n c y of K h r y s e s , whose n a t i v e l a n d was the T r o a d , w i s h i n g s u c c e s s t o the enemy i n d e s t r o y i n g h i s own c o u n t r y , " and adds i n e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t " h i s words must n o t be p r e s s e d beyond the f o r c e of an o r d i n a r y f o r m u l a : 'so may you succeed 17 i n your d e s i g n , i f you s u r r e n d e r t o me my d a u g h t e r , 1 " But the i n c o n s i s t e n c y ( i f i t i s o n e ) , g i v e s one more i n d i c a t i o n of how much the o l d man's da u g h t e r i s w o r t h t o him (we see how the ransom i s " b o u n d l e s s " ) . I n a d d i t i o n , the a p p e a l t o "Olympian home-holding gods" t o d e s t r o y "Priamos' c i t y " ( i . e . , the homes of h i s p e o p l e ) and l e t the A k h a i a n s " w e l l houses-ward come" may be i r o n i c . 20. The b a l a n c e i s c o n t r a s t i v e i "The a r t i c l e p o i n t s the c o n t r a s t : n o t 'take t h i s ransom,• bu t 'take the o t h e r , the 78 ransom' = 'take i n s t e a d the ransom.•" x o This perhaps reminds us of the equivalence of "daughter" and "ransom" i n 13. 21. The a c c u s a t i v e case endings make the assonance of f i n a l -/SoXov ?A- rrc\\o-w more e f f e c t i v e than i t i s i n the g e n i t i v e s of 14. Pope, presumably n o t i c i n g " f a r - s h o o t e r , " remarks t h a t Khryses "concludes w i t h b i d d i n g them f e a r the God i f they r e -fuse i t ; l i k e one who from h i s O f f i c e seems to foresee t h e i r 1 q Misery...." 7 2 2 - 5 . The r e a c t i o n s of the two p a r t i e s (the Akhaians and Agamemnon) are narrated i n two l i n e s each. 24. Agamemnon i s a c t u a l l y named f i r s t here, "only at the 20 moment of h i s t r a g i c blunder," though he has been r e f e r r e d to f i v e times p r e v i o u s l y by patronymic or t i t l e . 2 7 , The balance of t h i s l i n e i s brought out by i t s remark-able assonance, r e p e t i t i o n and rhyme. The second phrase i s h i g h l y i r o n i c i n view of what a c t u a l l y happens (see on 1 0 0 ) . 2 9 - 3 0 . The s e p a r a t i o n to the extremes of the couplet of i n i t i a l "her" and f i n a l " f a t h e r ' s ( l a n d ) " perhaps gives a word p i c t u r e of the d i s t a n c e r e f e r r e d t o . 79 2 9 . "Old age" so soon a f t e r " o l d man" (26) i s perhaps ex-p r e s s i v e : "She w i l l "be o l d — l i k e you." N o t i c e t h a t the n a r r a t o r p i c k s up the term i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h i s s p eech, a t 3 2 , and uses i t a g a i n a t 3 5 . I f o l d age i s b e i n g s u b t l y emphasized h e r e , t h e r e i s the a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t t h a t , as P a l e y n o t e s , i t "would make h e r l e s s p r i z e d e i t h e r as a concubine o r a s l a v e ; " t h u s "the sense t h e n i s , ' I w i l l keep h e r from you even when I no l o n g e r want he r m y s e l f . ' " 2 1 31. The assonance c o n n e c t s the b a l a n c e d p a r t s of t h i s l i n e , w h i l e the u g l y p i c t u r e i s g i v e n more f o r c e by the w e i g h t of the l a s t word, which o c c u p i e s two f u l l f e e t . 32. There i s a t r i a d of s e n t e n c e s i n the l i n e : b u t go l e s t me you provoke s a f e r so might you r e t u r n . The l a s t , w eighted element c o n t a i n s an i m p l i c i t t h r e a t which may be Agamemnon's s c o r n f u l answer t o the i m p l i c i t t h r e a t i n t h e l a s t l i n e of K h r y s e s ' speech ( 2 1 ) . At any r a t e , a c c o r d i n g t o the n a r r a t o r , the t h r e a t t o h i s s a f e t y does seem uppermost i n K h r y s e s ' mind: "he f e a r e d , the o l d man...." ( 3 3 ) . 33. A l t h o u g h the s u b j e c t changes, t h e r e i s a t r i a d o f se n t e n c e s i n t h i s l i n e as w e l l . Such l i n e s o c c u r o n l y e i g h t t i m e s i n 80 the book, so t h a t t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f two i n a row here i s a t l e a s t s u r p r i s i n g . Perhaps the s t r u c t u r e o f 3 3 , by t h u s p a r a l l e l i n g t h a t of 3 2 , i s e x p r e s s i v e o f K h r y s e s ' humble o b e d i e n c e . 3^, Most l i s t e n e r s would p r o b a b l y agree w i t h Pope (88 note 47) t h a t "the m e l a n c h o l y F l o w i n g o f the Verse a d m i r a b l y e x p r e s s e s the C o n d i t i o n of the m o u r n f u l and d e s e r t e d F a t h e r , " but i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d o b j e c t i v e r e a s o n s f o r so sub-22 j e c t i v e a f e e l i n g . The assonance p r o b a b l y h e l p s , as does the l o n g word "much-roaring" ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n t r a s t t o " s i l e n t " ) . 3 5 - 6 . P r i e s t and god are j u x t a p o s e d over the l i n e end, w h i l e the god's mother s t a n d s a t the o p p o s i t e end o f 36 from h e r son, i n the same f i n a l p o s i t i o n as the p r i e s t . As Khryses i s about t o speak, the p r o g r e s s i o n ( p r i e s t ; god; god's mother) i s i n r e v e r s e o r d e r t o the r e l a t i v e importance of the c h a r a c t e r s a t t h i s p o i n t . 3 6 . " A p o l l o n " must be emphatic h e r e . The name, o c c u r r i n g 131 t i m e s i n the I l i a d , i s i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n a l l but 27 t i m e s , and 23 i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n o n l y h e r e . J Once enjambed, i t i s w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d from " L e t o " i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . P e r h a p s , p r e p a t o r y t o t h e god's a c t u a l e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e , we have here a r i n g - f a s h i o n a l l u s i o n t o the f i r s t m e ntion of him a t 9« 81 "Leto's and Zeus* son." The enjambed e p i t h e t " l o r d " (only here, as an e p i t h e t of Ap o l l o n i n Book I) i s appropriate to what Khryses w i l l s a y i •'...(who) (over) Tenedos are l o r d " (38). I t may a l s o provide more assonance w i t h "Apollon" than any of the god's other e p i t h e t s i n the d a t i v e case. A p o l l o n may a l s o be s p e c i f i c -a l l y " l o r d " here "because he i s strong to punish ' l o r d ' Agamemnon 1 he i s a l s o , f o r our p i t y of K h r y s e i s , h i s mother 24 Leto's son." 37-42. A f t e r the c a r e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n s he has made before (see on 16-22), Khryses s u r p r i s e s us here i n two waysi he does not pray f o r help i n g e t t i n g h i s daughter back, and he invokes d i s a s t e r on "the Danaans" (42), o m i t t i n g Agamemnon by s p e c i f y i n g the s o l d i e r s . In the f i r s t case, we have an example of one i n j u r y developing i n t o another (the i n s u l t to Khryses becomes more important to him than the l o s s of h i s daughter), which f o r e -shadows the response of A k h i l l e u s to the t a k i n g of B r i s e l s . In the second case, the appeal to A p o l l o n to hurt (and t h e r e -by change the mind of) Agamemnon by harming the troops i s e x a c t l y p a r a l l e l to A k h i l l e u s ' appeal to h i s mother (and Zeus) to make Agamemnon recognize h i s b l i n d n e s s (411-12) by harming the s o l d i e r s (409-10). I f enjambed elements are disregarded, the s i x l i n e speech c o n s i s t s of two l i n e s of i n v o c a t i o n , two of reasons why the 82 god s h o u l d l i s t e n , and two g i v i n g the r e q u e s t i t s e l f . The p a t t e r n , o r a t l e a s t the o r d e r , i s the same as a t 1 7 - 2 1 , 5 9 - 6 3 , 4-51-6, and 5 0 2 - 5 . I t i s p r o b a b l y t r i a d i c , w i t h the t h i r d element (the r e q u e s t ) t h u s b e i n g the w e i g h t i e s t p a r t . 2 - ' 3 7 . The i n t r i c a t e b a l a n c e (second p e r s o n v e r b + pronoun o b j e c t <*- " s u b j e c t " 1 pronoun s u b j e c t • o b j e c t + second p e r s o n v e r b ) i s perhaps h e l p e d by the f i v e g u t t u r a l s . " S i l v e r - b o w " i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the terms o f the p r a y e r ( e s p e c i a l l y t o the l a s t word, " s h o t s " ) , and " K h r y s e ( - t o w n ) " i s o b v i o u s l y ap-p r o p r i a t e t o a p r i e s t named " K h r y s e s . " I f the metaphor here i s p a r t l y , as P a l e y s u g g e s t s , "from a b e a s t t h a t walks around i t s young," t h e n i t may be p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r the f a t h e r K h r y s e s . Compare A k h i l l e u s t o h i s mother: " ( p r o t e c t i n g l y ) a r o u n d - h o l d t h i s c h i l d of y o u r s " ( 3 9 3 ) . 39-4o. These two l i n e s , c o n t a i n i n g the reaso n s why A p o l l o n s h o u l d l i s t e n t o h i s p r i e s t , a r e s k i l l f u l l y l i n k e d by end-l i n e rhyme, and by the r e p e t i t i o n of many of the sounds o f 39 i n the f i r s t words of 40. 3 9 . "Smintheus" remains a m y s t e r y . B e i n g a s i n g l e - w o r d enjambed v o c a t i v e i n no o b v i o u s way connected t o what f o l l o w s and i n no obvio u s way p r e d i c t a b l e from what p r e c e d e s , and b e i n g the l a s t element o f the i n v o c a t i o n , i t must be w e i g h t y and 83 emphatic. With " s i l v e r - b o w , M the other v o c a t i v e , i t makes Ap o l l o n l i t e r a l l y "walk on both s i d e s " of the places men-t i o n e d . Aside from the word p i c t u r e thus evoked, t h i s p o i n t may help j u s t i f y us i n assuming t h a t "Smintheus" does r e f e r i n some way to A p o l l o n s p e c i f i c a l l y as the dangerous god of Plague, The o l d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n "Mouse-god" ("a t i t l e given to A p o l l o as the god who had d e l i v e r e d some l o c a l com-2 6 munity from a plague of f i e l d - m i c e " ), i s l e s s u n s a t i s f a c t -ory when we remember our own E n g l i s h use of "pest," d e r i v e d from a word meaning " p e s t i l e n c e " or "plague," to r e f e r to 27 mice, r a t s , bugs and sm a l l annoying creatures g e n e r a l l y , ' There i s one more argument f o r supposing the word to r e l a t e to the plague« at 4 5 1 - 6 , Khryses prays again, t h i s time to stop the plague, and while he repeats 3 7 - 8 , he omits "Smintheus"—presumably because whatever aspect of the god i s connoted by the word i s no longer r e l e v a n t . 42, The request i s given e x t r a f o r c e by the p o s i t i o n of "shots" at the very end. The s i x words of the l i n e f a l l i n t o three groups of two words each. The l a s t two of the groups are p e r f e c t l y balanced (possessive + noun t possessive + noun). This perhaps evokes an e q u a l i t y : "the s u f f e r i n g represented by my t e a r s w i l l be e x a c t l y p a i d f o r by the su f -f e r i n g i n f l i c t e d by your arrows." 84 45-6. The weapons--or p a r t s o f one w e a p o n — a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t r i a d f o rm, "bow" and " q u i v e r " o c c u p y i n g the extremes of 45, and " ( d e a t h - ) b e a r i n g ( a r r o w s ) , " the most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t , the m i d d l e o f 46. W i t h 44, these l i n e s are a t o u r - d e - f o r c e o f sound b u i l t " 28 around the word eK\ocy^o<T/. I n c o n t r a s t t o the p r o g r e s s i o n 29 o f g u t t u r a l s and n a s a l s 7 which evoke the sonorous " c l a n g " even b e f o r e the word i s i t s e l f u s e d , the sound p l a y o f cxjurffipe-gfetx Efe c^pt-jcriyjs e n t i r e l y s o f t e r — p e r h a p s because "on-b o t h - s i d e s c o v e r e d q u i v e r " i s , by i t s e l f , a h a r m l e s s a d j u n c t t o the f e a r f u l "bow and arrow."- 7 4?. Enjambed "of h i m s e l f moving" l e a d s n a t u r a l l y t o the f o l l o w i n g "he went n i g h t seeming;" a good example of the t r a n s i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n B a s s e t t r i e d t o a p p l y t o v i r t u a l l y a l l 31 enjambed words. 49, N o t i c e how " q u i e t l y " the b o w s t r i n g f i n a l l y twangs, a f t e r the c l a n g o r a t 45-6, P o s s i b l y t h i s f i r s t arrow s e n t from the " s i l v e r " bow marks, i n r i n g f a s h i o n , the a c t u a l answer t o the p r a y e r which began, "hear me, s i l v e r - b o w " (37). 52, "Shot" i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e and e m phatic, the more so because i t i s the o n l y enjambed m o n o s y l l a b l e f o l l o w e d by a s t r o n g b r e a k i n Book I , Coming so soon a f t e r the cognate noun, i t s a t i s f i e s the e a r . As the l a s t word of the l a s t 85 element of the t r i a d i m p l i c i t i n 50-1, " ^ he a t t a c k e d mules he a t t a c k e d dogs f i n a l l y , and w o r s t , he a t t c k e d men, i t has g r e a t f o r c e 5 i n a d d i t i o n , i t perhaps r e c a l l s the f o r c e f u l "your s h o t s " a t the end of K h r y s e s ' p r a y e r . F i n a l l y , the m o n o s y l l a b l e , w i t h the p l o s i v e b e t a (coming a t the end of a p l o s i v e s e q u e n c e ) , the open a l p h a and the d o u b l e , r e v e r -b e r a t i n g lamdas, has an u n d e n i a b l e m i m e t i c e f f e c t , as perhaps 32 of a hand banged down on a t a b l e . The r e m ainder o f the l i n e p r e s e n t s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e n a r r a t i v e jump t o the r e s u l t s of the s h o t s . The b u i l d - u p has been g r a p h i c : we "see" A p o l l o n come, s i t , s h o o t - - now we have the n a r r a t i v e e q u i v a l e n t of a " c u t " i n cinema: And always the f i r e s o f c o r p s e s b u r n e d , t h i c k , The sentence h a s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the assonance and rhyme of the a l p h a - i o t a d i p h t h o n g , a r a r e r e v e r s a l of the f i r s t two s y l l a b l e s i n the l a s t two: xlec Qn^-tLxl. F i n a l l y , t h i s sentence may remind us of the theme of " u n b u r i e d b o d i e s , " i n t r o d u c e d i n 4-5. B u t , t e r r i b l e as the ; p l a g u e i s , the dogs a r e not e a t i n g b o d i e s ( i n f a c t t h e y are d y i n g t h e m s e l v e s ) , and c o r p s e s a r e s t i l l b e i n g a t t e n d e d t o . A g a i n , Homer may be c r e a t i n g a f a l s e e x p e c t a t i o n i n the mind of the h e a r e r (see a l s o on 1 0 ) . But i n f a c t the rage of A k h i l l e u s has not even begun. 86 53-4, These l i n e s a r e p a r a l l e l i n s t r u c t u r e w i t h 54 a n s w e r i n g term f o r term t o 53« M o n the t e n t h " t o "nine d a y s , " "assembly-ward" t o "upon the army", " b a l l e d " t o "came ( a t t a c k i n g ) " , " s o l d i e r s " t o " s h a f t s " , and " A k h i l l e u s " t o "the god." Perhaps t h i s i s a somewhat p l a y f u l e x p a n s i o n o f the yuer... ha i d e a of c o n t r a s t t h r o u g h c o n n e c t i o n , 55. "Among the d i v i n i t i e s , He"re i s the most b i t t e r and u n r e l e n t i n g enemy of the T r o j a n s " w h i l e " A p o l l o n i s the most i m p o r t a n t d i v i n i t y a c t i v e f o r the T r o j a n s , n J J I t i s thus a k i n d o f f o r e s h a d o w i n g t h a t , as the f i r s t two gods mentioned (except f o r the m o r e - o r - l e s s n e u t r a l Zeus) one sends plague a g a i n s t the A k h a i a n s and the o t h e r moves t o h e l p them. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , by b e i n g i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n 54, A k h i l l e u s s t a n d s d i r e c t l y between f i n a l "the god ( A p o l l o n ) " (53) and "Here" (55)5 h a v i n g been s i n g l e d out by the l a t t e r , he w i l l emerge s h o r t l y as the p a r t i c u l a r champion of the f o r m e r . 58- 9. The a n t a g o n i s t s a r e j u x t a p o s e d over the l i n e end. See a l s o 121-2. 59- 67. N o t i c e the c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h c o i n c i d e n c e o f word a c c e n t and m e t r i c a l i c t u s here ( t h r e e l i n e s have i t f i v e t imes e a c h ) . A s i m i l a r c o l l o c a t i o n i n a speech o f A k h i l l e u s w i l l be found a t 294-303. Three l i n e s i n a row have the f i f t h 87 and s i x t h f o o t c o n s i s t i n g of e x a c t l y one word each, w i t h coincidence of m e t r i c a l i c t u s and word accent, i n a speech by him at 336-8. Four l i n e s close together i n the speech of h i s mother (414-26) end with s i n g l e words occupying the l a s t two f e e t . These c o l l o c a t i o n s (not found elsewhere i n the book), by being a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A k h i l l e u s (and h i s mother i n answering h i s lament) may p o s s i b l y suggest a kind of straight-forwardness i n h i s character--he speaks l i k e a " p l a i n man," perhaps, f o r c e f u l l y and (seemingly) w i t h l i t t l e a r t i f i c e . Nestor's speech (254-84) by c o n t r a s t contains three l i n e s w i t h zero coincidence of accent and i c t u s , and i s the most s t r i k i n g passage i n the book wherein most of the l i n e s have a very low coincidence. 60. Perhaps there i s an e f f e c t i v e word-play h e r e i i f " a n o — o f f " i s "hidden" i n , , « ! Y / back", (as the assonance might suggest) then the main i d e a , " o f f - r e t u r n " i s s u b t l y r e i n f o r c e d . In any case, the enjambed words are very emphatic i n t h a t we have the c h i e f hero of the Greeks i n t r o d u c i n g the idea of r e t r e a t . Leaf notes t h a t the f o l l o w i n g sentence "comes i n l i k e a sudden c o r r e c t i o n of a too confident expression." 62-3. Notice the t r i a d i d i v i n e r holy-man dream-tender. 88 When K a l k h a s i s i n t r o d u c e d ( 6 9 - 7 2 ) , he i s f i r s t c a l l e d M b e s t of b i r d ( s i g n - ) t e n d e r s , " and l a s t ( i n a k i n d o f i n v e r t e d t r i a d ) , one w i t h " d i v i n a t i o n . " When we c o n s i d e r the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t A k h i l l e u s knows e x a c t l y whom he i s c a l l i n g up, and e x a c t l y what K a l k h a s i s g o i n g t o s a y , h i s c h o i c e of words here i s i r o n i c . 6 5 . The rhyme here perhaps emphasizes the e q u a l i t y of the two a l t e r n a t i v e s — a g a i n i r o n i c a l l y , i f A k h i l l e u s knows what the problem r e a l l y i s . 6 9 . K a l k h a s i s g i v e n an i m p r e s s i v e e n t r a n c e by the f a c t t h a t h i s name, i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , i s enjambed w i t h i t s e p i t h e t s which f i l l the l i n e . 7 0 , S h o r t words, the r a r e t h r e e - s y l l a b l e rhyme, and seven t a u ' s make t h i s a choppy l i n e ; perhaps i n c o n t r a s t t o the fo u r - w o r d l i n e p r e c e e d i n g . (Note a l s o t h a t 68 i s f u l l of s h o r t words,) 7 2 . The assonance of the j u x t a p o s e d noun and r e l a t i v e pronoun p r o v i d e s a smooth t r a n s i t i o n t o the n e x t s e n t e n c e . 74. "Having once n o t i c e d the s e r i e s "Zeus 1 p l a n " (5). " Z e u s - l i k e A k h i l l e u s " ( 7 ) , " L e t o ' s and Zeus' son" ( 9 ) . you 89 w i l l f e e l the e f f e c t o f ? 4... ,dear t o Zeus.* A c h i l l e s (86) m o d e s t l y t r a n s f e r s the e p i t h e t t o A p o l l o . " - ' "You command me" i s a s u r p r i s i n g l y s p e c i f i c r e s ponse t o A k h i l l e u s ' vague "some d i v i n e r " ( 6 2 - 3 ) , u n l e s s we suppose t h a t the scene was p r e a r r a n g e d by the two a c t o r s . 7 5 - 82, K a l k h a s g i v e s us a " c a t a l o g u e " of "anger" words» "ra g e " ( 7 5 ) , " g a l l " ( v e r b ) ( 7 8 ) , "anger" ( 8 0 ) , " g a l l " (noun) ( 8 1 ) , "resentment" ( 8 2 ) . 7 5 . "Rage" appears f o r the f i r s t t i me i n the s t o r y p r o p e r , enjambed i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . The f a c t t h a t the l i n e has f o u r words (the f i r s t t h r e e r h o p a l i c ) , and a b a l a n c e s i m i l a r t o t h a t of 6 9 , may s e r v e t o r e c a l l the e a r l i e r l i n e . The rhyme u n d e r s c o r e s the i d e n t i t y of " A p o l l o n " and "lord*,' 7 6 - 8 3 , Sheppard a p t l y p o i n t s out t h a t K a l k h a s * c o n c e r n here i s l a r g e l y because o f Agamemnon's r e c e n t t r e a t m e n t o f h i s 3 5 f e l l o w p r i e s t , K h r y s e s . y j 7 8 - 9 . The way K a l k h a s ' l i g h t l y - v e i l e d a l l u s i o n t o Agamemnon here i s answered by A k h i l l e u s a t 90 - 1 may h e l p t o make i t o b v i o u s t h a t the hero and the p r i e s t have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h i s and a r e a c t i n g i n c o l l u s i o n . Perhaps i t i s e q u a l l y ob-v i o u s — a n d i n f u r i a t i n g — t o Agamemnon, who i s a f t e r a l l " t r a p p e d " by A k h i l l e u s ' b o a s t a t 9 0 - 1 . The t r a p c o n s i s t s 90 i n the f a c t t h a t A k h i l l e u s makes a s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t t o the assembly b e f o r e Agamemnon i s g i v e n a chance t o r e a c t , and t h a t t h u s , as was the case w i t h K h r y s e s , the assembly i s b e i n g s u b t l y swung a g a i n s t h i m - - t h i s time b e f o r e he even knows what i s g o i n g on. As R e d f i e l d s a y s , "by the time Agamemnon ge t s the f l o o r , he i s a l r e a d y e m b a t t l e d . He f i n d s h i m s e l f t r y i n g t o do s e v e r a l t h i n g s a t on c e i t o excuse h i m s e l f , t o r e v e r s e h i m s e l f , and t o r e a s s e r t h i s a u t h o r i t y . G i v e n the c o n f u s i o n i n which he f i n d s h i m s e l f , he does n o t do too b a d l y . " 3 6 8 0 - 3 . The s t a t e m e n t , i n a manner worthy of the " d i v i n e r " e l s e w h e r e noted f o r h i s c r y p t i c u t t e r a n c e s (see e s p e c i a l l y h i s r o l e i n the Agamemnon), i s s u b j e c t t o two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ! by "more p o w e r f u l " and "worse," K a l k h a s o v e r t l y means "Ag-amemnon" and " m y s e l f ; " b u t the s e p a r a t i o n of "more p o w e r f u l " i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n from "worse" i n f i n a l a l l u d e s , I t h i n k , t o the p a t t e r n n o t i c e d e a r l i e r ( a t 1 2 ) , w h e r e i n "Agamemnon" and " A k h i l l e u s " a r e i n a way s y m b o l i z e d by the extreme ends of the l i n e . C e r t a i n l y Agamemnon i s "more p o w e r f u l " and A k h i l l e u s "worse" when the l a t t e r g i v e s up B r i s e i s . The theme i s g i v e n an i r o n i c t w i s t l a t e r by Agamemnon h i m s e l f , when he c a l l s A k h i l l e u s "(more) p o w e r f u l " (178) and h i m s e l f "more ( w e i g h t - ) b e a r i n g " ( 1 8 6 ) ; t h i s i s u n d e r s c o r e d by N e s t o n 91 I f you ( A k h i l l e u s ) (more) p o w e r f u l a r e , . . . y e t t h a t man (Agamemnon) more ( w e i g h t - ) b e a r i n g i s , . . . ( 2 8 0 - 1 ) . I c a l l t h i s i r o n i c because one o f the w o n d e r f u l i r o n i e s of the whole " r a g e " theme i s summed up i f we s u b s t i t u t e the new e q u a t i o n i n t o K a l k h a s ' o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t ! (more) p o w e r f u l i s a k i n g , when angered by a man worse (meaning "Agamemnon" i n c o n t r a s t t o " K a l k h a s " and " A k h i l l e u s " ) , becomes " A k h i l l e u s , ( a l s o a k i n g ) i s (more) p o w e r f u l when, angered w i t h the worse Agamemnon." And t h i s l a s t o r d e r of t h i n g s i s of course the one t h a t p r e v a i l s u n t i l the r e c o n c i l -i a t i o n i n Book 16. T h i s i r o n i c , v e i l e d s t a t e m e n t of the p l o t o f the whole poem becomes more o b v i o u s as we c o n t i n u e ! f o r though he h i s g a l l ( a t l e a s t ) the s e l f ( - s a m e ) day might down-swallow, y e t even a f t e r w a r d s he h o l d s r e s e n t m e n t — u n t i l he might r e a l i z e ( i t ) — i n the b r e a s t of him. ( 8 1 - 3 ) . A g a i n , the o v e r t r e f e r e n c e i s t o Agamemnon, the h i d d e n one t o what A k h i l l e u s w i l l do f o r most of the I l i a d . 81-3. The rhymed f i n a l v e r b s may emphasize the i n e v i t a b l e c o n n e c t i o n between the two a c t i o n s . The sigmas o f the rhyme l e a d n a t u r a l l y t o 83, which ( a l o n g w i t h o n l y t h r e e o t h e r l i n e s i n the I l i a d ) has a r e m a r k a b l e n i n e o c c u r r e n c e s o f the sound so d i s p a r a g e d by l a t e r Greeks. T h i s may be a s u b t l y t h r e a t -e n i n g h i s s t 3 " ' ' A k h i l l e u s , though he may know what K a l k h a s 92 w i l l say, nevertheless cannot know the t e r r i b l e consequences to h i m s e l f of h i s promise to champion the p r i e s t . Kalkhas, on the other hand, may know them very w e l l . 86. A k h i l l e u s * i n v o c a t i o n of A p o l l o n here has a double s i g -n i f i c a n c e , i f he already knows e x a c t l y why the god i s angry. Not only i s A p o l l o n the p a r t i c u l a r d e i t y to whom Kalkhas prays\ but a l s o he i s the d e i t y most i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e s u l t s of the guarantee A k h i l l e u s i s making. A c h i t y notes that " i t i s f i t t i n g t hat A k h i l l e u s * f i r s t oath i s by A p o l l o , since Agamemnon has s p e c i f i c a l l y countermanded the o r d e r l y power of that god's sceptre ( 2 8 ) — j u s t as he w i l l speak i n anger against the other p r i e s t of A p o l l o , Kalkhas (105).""^ 89- 90. The rare t r i p l e balance ( a d j e c t i v e + noun 1 a d j e c t i v e + noun/ 1 a d j e c t i v e + noun) of p l u r a l words, and the sound plays i n fix p e c * •> y c-'cp<s and c ^ ^ r r k v r i ^ v i\*v*.Zv may heighten the solemnity of the vow. These e f f e c t s a l s o provide an i n t r o -d u c t i o n , by c o n t r a s t , to the emphatic and unmodified "Agamem-non ." 90- 1. " A f t e r A c h i l l e s had brought i n Calchas by h i s dark Doubts concerning Agamemnon, Calchas who p e r c e i v ' d them, and was u n w i l l i n g to be the f i r s t t hat nam'd the King, a r t -f u l l y demands a P r o t e c t i o n i n such a manner, as confirms these Doubts, and e x t o r t s from A c h i l l e s t h i s warm and p a r t -93 i c u l a r E x p r e s s i o n ' t h a t he would p r o t e c t him even a g a i n s t Agamemnon,' who, as he says i s now the g r e a t e s t Man o f Gree c e , t o h i n t t h a t a t the E x p i r a t i o n o f the War he s h o u l d be a g a i n reduc'd" t o be b a r e l y K i n g of Mycenae" (Pope, 92 note 1 1 5 ) . 93-4, There i s a t r i a d i c s t r u c t u r e to« not f o r a vow not f o r a hecatomb but because of the p r i e s t . The rhyme and r e p e t i t i o n (as i n 65) perhaps emphasize the e q u a l i t y of the two r e j e c t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i n c o n t r a s t t o the enjambed t r u t h . 95. Rhyme, r e p e t i t i o n and p e r f e c t b a l a n c e a g a i n emphasize the l o g i c a l e q u a l i t y between the two h a l v e s of the same t r a n s -a c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e (here) Agamemnon's i r r a t i o n a l i t y i n not a c c e p t i n g the t r a d e . 97-8. Hogan, i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t "the double nptv...repre-s e n t s a r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e which Homer has l o c a l i z e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t degree i n the p e r s o n and a c t i o n s of A c h i l l e s , " n o t i c e s t h i s passage as one which "does n o t p e r t a i n d i r e c t l y t o A c h i l l e s . " ^ But i t may be one o f the s u b t l e ways i n which K a l k h a s i s i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h h i s p r o t e c t o r . 97. Here I p r e f e r the MSS, r e a d i n g . Can a " p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n 94 of ,\oCfJ.o% " ("very un-Homeric"' + u) "be s u r p r i s i n g from a poet who has j u s t g i v e n us the w o n d e r f u l p i c t u r e o f i t s i n c e p t i o n ( 4 3 - 5 2 ) ? (See P a l e y , who p r i n t s t he l i n e as h e r e , w i t h h i s n o t e . ) C o n t r a s t e d t o 96, w i t h which i t s h a r e s rhyme i n the f i n a l v e r b s ( d i s y l l a b i c a c c o r d i n g t o the v a r i a n t wrrcJc-feL, m o n o s y l l a b i c a c c o r d i n g t o the MSS,), which as u s u a l emphasizes the c l o s e r e l a t i o n between the two a c t i o n s , the e x p a n s i o n - -and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n - - o f the vague " p a i n s " i n t o the s p e c i f i c " p l a g u e ' s heavy hands" i s v e r y s a t i s f y i n g . I t may a l s o be an a l l u s i o n t o A k h i l l e u s ' somewhat o v e r - a s s u r e d s tatement about "heavy hands" e i g h t l i n e s e a r l i e r . N o t i c e t h a t , l i k e K h r y s e s (see on 1 6 - 2 2 ) , K a l k h a s here s u b t l y s h i f t s the emphasis away from Agamemnon and onto the Ak h a i a n s g e n e r a l l y . M e n t i o n of them i n t h i s l i n e makes them, r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r l e a d e r ("whose name he perhaps p u r p o s e l y o m i t s , " P a l e y ) the l o g i c a l s u b j e c t of the f o l l o w i n g two i n -f i n i t i v e s 1 t h e y , n o t Agamemnon, must g i v e the g i r l back. 9 8 - 1 0 0 . 98 has a b a l a n c e d n o u n - e p i t h e t group, w i t h " f a t h e r " and " g i r l " w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d , as a t 2 9 - 3 0 . The e n d l i n e rhyme emphasizes t h a t the two t h i n g s , g i r l and g i f t , a r e t o be s e n t as w e l l as g i v e n , w h i l e the rhymed s y l l a b l e -7?r echoes t h r o u g h 99 t o c u l m i n a t e i n 100 £ j Xpto-rjv, and modulates i n t o - e y f o r the r e s t o f the l i n e . The s o - f a r u n p a r a l l e l e d use o f rhyme i n t h i s speech s h o u l d be n o t i c e d J c a e s u r a t o end rhyme a t 9 3 . 95 and perhaps 99 and 95 100; endline rhyme a t 96-7 and 9 8 - 9 . 9 9 . The double word enjambed c o n d i t i o n i s s u r e l y e m p hatic. The r e t u r n of the g i r l i s a p r e d i c t a b l e demand, b u t t h a t she s h o u l d be g i v e n up " w i t h o u t p r i c e w i t h o u t ransom" i s much worse. The e f f e c t i s h e l p e d by the l a c k o f c o n n e c t o r s , and by the assonance of CXTT-, ar*rr- w i t h t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n of 98 <*nc ( n o t i c e a l s o the seven p i ' s of t h i s s e n t e n c e ) . Things get worse y e t ; she i s not m e r e l y t o be r e t u r n e d " w i t h o u t p r i c e w i t h o u t ransom," b u t the Greeks must a l s o g i v e a " h u n d r e d - b u l l o f f e r i n g " (perhaps i t s e l f as e x p e n s i v e as the r e j e c t e d "bound-l e s s ransom"). 100, The w o r s t c o n d i t i o n i s p u t l a s t . No humble s u p p l i a n t w i l l come b e g g i n g a g a i n , as Agamemnon seems t o have e x p e c t e d a t 2 6-7. R a t h e r , the g i r l and g i f t s a r e t o be a c t u a l l y s e n t " t o K h r y s e ( - t o w n ) " (enjambed f o r g r e a t e m p h a s i s ) . The i n s u l t t o Agamemnon here may be thus much g r e a t e r t h a n i s g e n e r a l l y 41 t h o u g h t . x I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t i c e t h a t w h i l e K a l k h a s has s h i f t e d the onus from Agamemnon p e r s o n a l l y t o the Ak h a i a n s a t l a r g e , he i n v o l v e s h i m s e l f i n the g e n e r a l problem o n l y i n the f i r s t p e r s o n p l u r a l f i n a l s y l l a b l e of the speech. 1 0 1 - 8 . The t r a p (see on 7 8 - 9 ) works; though Agamemnon's anger i s d e s c r i b e d here by the n a r r a t o r more v i v i d l y t h a n 96 at any other p o i n t i n the book, h i s atta c k on Kalkhas i s v e r b a l only. I s A k h i l l e u s * power so great, and h i s word so i r r e v o c a b l e , t h a t Agamemnon i s a c t u a l l y i n t i m i d a t e d ? I f so, an i n i t i a l element i n the pro g r e s s i o n of events culmin-a t i n g i n the t a k i n g of B r i s e i s (see on 147) i s set up here. 103. "Grieved" i s very emphatic, not because the emotion s u r p r i s e s us here (the word perhaps means "thoroughly embarrassed" i n t h i s c o n t e x t ) , but because a f t e r the enjambed whole-line subject (102) we expect a new sentence instead of a new d e t a i l . (Contrast the very s i m i l a r i n t r o d u c t i o n of Kalkhas 1 68 =101, and 69--also whole-line enjambement--desc r i b e s the prophet i n terms s i m i l a r to those used f o r Agamemnon here; but there the sentence ends w i t h the l i n e end. The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the enjambed p a r t i c i p l e with "passion" provides a p e r f e c t t r a n s i t i o n to the next sentence, which i s helped by the sound p l a y i n where the t r i p l e r e - w r i t i n g of the consonants of p-yvcs i s perhaps designed to suggest that word to us. 103-7. The pr o g r e s s i o n here i s i n t e r e s t i n g . Agamemnon rose "grieved," then "passion" f i l l e d him (103-4)--you could t e l l because h i s 'eyes were l i k e f i r e l a m p ( - f l a s h i n g " (104). 97 W i t h t h o s e same p a s s i o n - f i l l e d f i r e - l i k e "eyes" he M e y e s M K a l k h a s i n an " e v i l ' ' way ( 1 0 5 ) , and even imputes t h a t same " e v i l " t o h i m i " d i v i n e r o f e v i l s " ( 1 0 8 ) , "always f o r you t h i n g s e v i l a r e d e a r . . . " ( 1 0 7 ) . 112, " H e r s e l f , " i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n , i s emphatic and i n s p e c i f i c c o n t r a s t t o the "ransom" ( i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n 1 1 ) , a c c o r d i n g t o L e a f . But i t may be t h a t the c o n t r a s t a l s o l o o k s f o r w a r d t o K l y t a i m n e s t r a . 115. A t e t r a d ; the l a s t element i s expanded by the a d v e r b i a l " a t a l l . " The sounds of t h i s l i n e a r e i n t e r e s t i n g . The r e f r a i n , b e g i n n i n g i n 114, of the q u i t e r a r e o m i c r o n - u p s i l o n d i p h t h o n g s r u n s l i k e a c o u n t e r p o i n t t o the i n t e r p l a y of m o n o s y l l a b l e s and d i s y l l a b i c words, g i v i n g perhaps a sense t h a t Agamemnon i s l i n g e r i n g o v er the g i r l ' s q u a l i t i e s . T h i s i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e when i n the n e x t l i n e he q u i e t l y says he w i l l g i v e h e r back, 116-17. N o t i c e t h a t the r e l a t i v e calm of the unenjambed l i n e s , coming a f t e r the f o u r r e l a t i v e l y e x c i t e d enjambed ones, i s e x p r e s s i v e o f the change i n tone from o f f e n d e d d i g n i t y t o q u i e t a c q u i e s e n c e (and see on 1 4 0 ) . 98 118-20, N o t i c e yfc'pxs i n each o f thes e l a s t t h r e e l i n e s o f the speech. The au d i e n c e i s n o t t o t h i n k of the ransom, nor of the g o l d , n o r of s a c k i n g T r o y and coming home i r a t h e r the r e p e t i t i o n e x p r e s s i v e l y i n v i t e s them t o " l o o k a t t h i s . . . t h a t my p r i z e goes elsewhere.** I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s w h i c h evokes A k h i l l e u s * \oxrenvoirxre i n the f i r s t l i n e o f the n e x t speech. 120. Agamemnon ends t h i s speech as he began i t (106), w i t h "harmonious" f i f t h and s i x t h f e e t . The l a s t l i n e , w i t h c o i n c i d e n c e of i c t u s and a c c e n t f i v e t i m e s , s t a n d s i n c o n t r a s t to the one p r e c e d i n g , which has z e r o c o i n c i d e n c e ; t h i s r e v e r s e s the p a t t e r n of the two op e n i n g l i n e s (106-7). 122-9. Owen, r e m a r k i n g on the s u r p r i s i n g f a c t t h a t Agamemnon makes no r e f e r e n c e t o A k h i l l e u s 0-06-20), and does not a c t u a l l y t h r e a t e n K a l k h a s (as f o r example, he t h r e a t e n s Khryse~s a t 26-8 and 3 2 ) , p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e seems t o be 42 no r e a s o n f o r A k h i l l e u s t o "put h i m s e l f f o r w a r d " h e r e . A g a i n , the s i t u a t i o n would be more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d by i m a g i n i n g a p r e v i o u s agreement between A k h i l l e u s and the p r i e s t t h a n by c o n c l u d i n g ( w i t h Owen) t h a t "headlong and t a c t l e s s , " A k h i l l e u s shows " t h a t he r e g a r d s h i m s e l f as the most i m p o r t a n t man i n the army." 122. The l o n g word "most d e a r l y - l o v i n g p o s s e s s i o n s , " 99 (one o f the t h r e e words i n Book I wh i c h occupy more t h a n two f e e t ) s t a n d s i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o the o t h e r s u p e r l a t i v e w i t h w hich i t i s j u x t a p o s e d . A t the o t h e r f o u r t e e n o c c u r r e n c e s of "most g l o r i o u s " i n the I l i a d , i t i s f o l l o w e d by o t h e r mod-i f i e r s i n d i c a t i v e o f the honor o r power of the one a d d r e s s e d ( e x c e p t t h a t " A t r e i d e s most g l o r i o u s " i s used a l o n e o n c e ) . I n f a c t , the f u l l l i n e , A t r e i d e s most g l o r i o u s , l o r d of men Agamemnon, o c c u r s e i g h t t i m e s . Thus the j u x t a p o s i t i o n here i s d o u b l y s h o c k i n g , f i r s t i n i t s e f f e c t as c o n s i d e r e d o n l y i n i t s p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , and second i n t h a t i t v i o l a t e s what was e v i d e n t l y an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n . 132 . The f i r s t two sounds of the enjambed word " r e s o l v e " the assonance of the l a s t two words of 1 3 1 . Agamemnon's " b l u n t r e j e c t i o n " ( P a l e y ) of A k h i l l e u s ' p r o p o s a l i s perhaps r e m i n i s c e n t of h i s t r e a t m e n t of K h r y s e s . Both p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e the i d e a t h a t the gods may a l l o w the Akh a i a n s t o sack T r o y , and perhaps Agamemnon's s u r p r i s i n g d i s r e g a r d o f t h a t i d e a b o t h t i m e s i t o c c u r s i n Book I i s p a r t o f the p a t t e r n o f h i s b l i n d n e s s so d e l i g h t f u l l y de-s c r i b e d by S h e p p a r d . ^ A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s f e a t u r e of A k h i l l e u s ' c o n c l u s i o n , r e m i n d i n g Agamemnon o f K h r y s e s ' p r o p o s a l , t h a t l e a d s the k i n g t o answer, "do n o t inde e d i n t h i s way.../ cheat me i n t h o u g h t " — t h a t i s , " i n t he way K h r y s e s was t r y i n g t o c h e a t me" (see on 1 6 - 2 2 ) , 100 133. The t h r e e a l p h a - u p s i l o n d i p h t h o n g s are r a r e , so t h a t t h e i r a l l i t e r a t i o n here i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e , r e i n f o r c i n g the a l r e a d y s t r o n g tx QTO\. 135. N o t i c e t h a t Agamemnon's "t h e y w i l l g i v e a p r i z e , the g r e a t - s o u l e d A k h a i a n s " r e p e a t s A k h i l l e u s ' q u e s t i o n (123) e x a c t l y , w i t h an i m p o r t a n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n added i n enjambement: th e y must now " f i t " i t t o h i s " s o u l . " Perhaps the d e t a i l was u l t i m a t e l y t r i g g e r e d by A k h i l l e u s ' use of " g r e a t - s o u l e d " a t 122 (compare the t r e a t m e n t of " u n d e r s t a n d i n g " a t 14-9-50). N o t i c e a l s o t h a t , w h i l e the s i n g u l a r of the e p i t h e t i s used of h eroes on e i t h e r s i d e , the p l u r a l , n o r m a l l y used of T r o j a n s , 44 m o d i f i e s " A k h a i a n s " i n the I l i a d o n l y i n thes e two l i n e s . 140, Agamemnon's s w i t c h i n tone here i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t a t 116, where he s u d d e n l y announces t h a t he w i l l r e t u r n the g i r l . I t i s perhaps p a r t l y i n d i c a t e d (as a t 116) by two w h o l e - l i n e s e n t e n c e s coming a f t e r so many enjambed ones. Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e two passages show us an Agamemnon w i t h a f i t n e s s f o r the k i n g s h i p ( f o r a l l h i s apparent " a r r o g a n c e " ) t h a t i s not shared by A k h i l l e u s . Agamemnon can t h i n k of two t h i n g s a t o n c e - - h i s own d e s i r e s and the p u b l i c g o o d — w h i l e A k h i l l e u s t h i n k s o n l y of h i s own i n j u r e d p r i d e . 141. The rhyme s e r v e s t o u n i t e the two b a l a n c e d n o u n - e p i t h e t g roups. 101 143-4. The two enjambed v e r b s , s e e m i n g l y w i t h o u t p a r t i c u l a r emphasis, a re re m a r k a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Of the t e n most com-mon sentence p a t t e r n s , the p a t t e r n O b j e c t H- Verb i s by f a r 45 the r a r e s t t o be i n v o l v e d i n enjambement. ^ Yet here we f i n d i t w i t h the v e r b enjambed t w i c e i n a row. 14-3. K h r y s e i s i s f i r s t named h e r e . Hogan, commenting on K h r y s e i s and B r i s e " i s , p o i n t s out t h a t the names "have the same m e t r i c a l shape" and t h a t "both a re accompanied by the same a d j e c t i v e " ( i n the same f i n a l p o s i t i o n , we might a d d ) , 46 "as i f t o suggest t h e i r i d e n t i t y as p r i z e s , " An exam-i n a t i o n of the o c c u r r e n c e s o f the two names i n Book I r e v e a l a p a t t e r n which can be s c h e m a t i z e d as f o l l o w s : s daug h t e r of Kh r y s e s 111 K h r y s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d 143 B r i s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d 184 K h r y s e i s 182 K h r y s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d 310 B r i s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d 323 B r i s e i s 336 B r i s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d 346 K h r y s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d 3&9 daughter of B r i s e s 392 K h r y s e i s 439 I t w i l l be seen t h a t the methods of naming have a s u r p r i s i n g l y e x a c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e : "daughter o f " once each; w i t h a d j e c t i v e t h r e e t i m e s each; the s i m p l e name once f o r B r i s e i s and t w i c e f o r K h r y s e i s . The second time ' K h r y s e i s " o c c u r s a l o n e (439), i s i n a scene f o r w h i c h we have no p a r a l l e l i n the case o f B r i s e i s : the r e c e i v i n g of the g i r l by the man who demanded h e r . I f t h i s anomalous e n t r y i s d i s r e g a r d e d , the p a t t e r n a l s o has a r i n g form, "daughter o f " (392) a n s w e r i n g t o "daughter o f " 0-11). A l l t h i s g i v e s s u p p o r t f o r Hogan's i d e a . 102 147. The e t y m o l o g i c a l p l a y i s e f f e c t i v e ! "you w i l l appease the f a r - w o r k e r "by w o r k i n g s a c r i f i c e s f o r him." Agamemnon's use of the word "appease" i n t h i s l a s t l i n e of the speech may, by r e c a l l i n g K a l k h a s ' use o f the same word i n the l a s t l i n e of h i s speech ( 1 0 0 ) , i n d i c a t e how c o m p l e t e l y Agamemnon, who has become p r o g r e s s i v e l y calmer s i n c e h i s i n i t i a l o u t b u r s t , has "come around" ( r i n g f a s h i o n ) t o the 47 i n e v i t a b l e . The speech r e p r e s e n t s a c r i t i c a l moment i n the q u a r r e l . The t h r e a t a t 137 - 9 i s c o n d i t i o n a l , as A k h i l l e u s i s not s i n g l e d out here ( i n f a c t he o c c u p i e s the f i r s t and l e a s t l i k e l y p os-i t i o n i n the t r i a d a t 138). He r e a l l y s h o u l d f i n d even l e s s t o o b j e c t t o a t t h i s p o i n t t h a n e i t h e r A i a s or Odysseus, who have done n o t h i n g t o w a r r a n t Agamemnon's use of t h e i r names. I s u s p e c t t h a t the k i n g here i s m e r e l y naming names because, as k i n g , he must say something s t r o n g . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by the f a c t t h a t the same l i s t , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of Idomeneus, o c c u r s a t 145-6, where Agamemnon, i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t "some" l e a d e r s h o u l d have the d i s t i n c t i o n o f r e t u r n i n g K h r y s e i s (and i t must be a d i s t i n c t i o n ) , a c t u a l l y f a v o r s 48 A k h i l l e u s by naming him l a s t i n the weigh t e d t e t r a d . Perhaps i t i s j u s t here t h a t , i f A k h i l l e u s had been endowed w i t h a l i t t l e more judgement, the q u a r r e l would have ended more o r l e s s h a p p i l y . As i t i s , when A k h i l l e u s r e p l i e s he "seems h a r d l y t o have h e a r d the second h a l f of Agamemnon's speech" ( W i l l c o c k . ^ 9 But see on 151.) 103 149-50. Of thes e e i g h t l i n e s , s i x have rhyme between the t h i r d and s i x t h f e e t . The c l o s e s t p a r a l l e l s f o r t h i s d e n s i t y o f rhyme a r e i n Agamemnon's p r e c e d i n g speech ( f o u r i n s e v e n t e e n l i n e s ) and K a l k h a s ' second speech (93-100, w i t h f o u r i n e i g h t l i n e s ) . T h i s type o f rhyme, wh i c h has been c o m p a r a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t up t o t h i s p o i n t , i s i n the rem a i n d e r of A the book q u i t e r a r e . 149. The speech b e g i n s , as d i d A k h i l l e u s ' p r e c e d i n g speech ( 1 2 2 ) , w i t h a f o u r - w o r d l i n e . I n e f f e c t i t i s r h o p a l i c , as the l a s t - - a n d s t r o n g e s t — w o r d , o c c u p y i n g two f u l l m e t r i c a l f e e t , i s s u r e l y f e l t as the l o n g e s t . N o t i c e how " p r o f i t - u n d e r s t a n d e r " here may sug g e s t the c o n t r a s t i v e " f o r t h ( - r i g h t ) - u n d e r s t a n d e r " of the f o l l o w i n g l i n e . 151. Perhaps A k h i l l e u s ' r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n here i s en-gendered by h i s e x a s p e r a t i o n a t Agamemnon's k i n g l y a t -tempt t o g i v e o r d e r s (140-7), w h i c h A k h i l l e u s would see as a d i s t r a c t i o n from the p o i n t a t hand (perhaps r i g h t l y ) . The p e r f e c t b a l a n c e ("or" + o b j e c t + i n f i n i t i v e t " o r " + o b j e c t + i n f i n i t i v e ) i s sharpened by the rhyme, and i l l u s t r a t e s the two a s p e c t s of l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h a r e r e l -e v ant h e r e . A k h i l l e u s e x p r e s s e s them t o g e t h e r , w i t h r e f -erence t o h i m s e l f , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g two l i n e s 1 " I came h e r e " (152) " f o r f i g h t i n g " ( 1 5 3 ) . 104 1 5 3 . The h a l f - l i n e " s i n c e n o t a t a l l t o me g u i l t y a r e t h e y " t a k e s on a h e i g h t e n e d e f f e c t when we compare i t t o A k h i l l e u s ' g r e e t i n g t o the h e r a l d s i "not a t a l l t o me ( a r e ) you g u i l t y , b u t Agamemnon ( i s ) " ( 3 3 5 ) . The same l o g i c i s o p e r a t i n g i n b o t h cases—Agamemnon here i s " g u i l t y " of the f a c t t h a t A k h i l l e u s i s even a t Troy, 1 5 4 - 7 . Here I t h i n k the rhymes, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the a s -sonance and b a l a n c e of 157 (where the perhaps weak rhyme of a l p h a ' s i s r e i n f o r c e d by the sound's o c c u r r e n c e a t the ends of a l l f o u r main w o r d s ) , show A k h i l l e u s l i n g e r i n g f o n d l y over the memory of the home he l e f t f o r the sake of Agamem-non. The e n t i r e l y a g r i c u l t u r a l / p a s t o r a l v o c a b u l a r y h e l p s i "cows., h o r s e s and f r u i t , " i n a " w e l l - c l o d d e d " l a n d which i s a " f e e d e r o f men," s e p a r a t e d from T r o y by "many shadowy mountains and much echoey ocean," The p r o g r e s s i o n from i n d i g n a n t s t a t e m e n t , through a l i n g e r i n g , day-dream l i k e e u l o g y , and t h e n s u d d e n l y (158) back t o r e a l i t y , reminds me o f the v e r y s i m i l a r p r o g r e s s i o n i n Agamemnon's answer t o Kalkhas« 106-12 are i n d i g n a n t , 1 1 2 - 1 5 form the e u l o g y (which as her e c o n c l u d e s w i t h an e s p e c i a l l y l i n g e r i n g l i n e ) , and 116 comes back t o r e a l i t y . Perhaps a v e r y s u b t l e p a r a l l e l between t h e two men i s b e i n g drawn h e r e , i n terms o f a k i n d of c o n t r o l l e d c a p a c i t y f o r w i s t -f u l l n e s s . 1 159. I t i s here t h a t Pope (97 note 213) says t h a t Homer p o i n t s out "the B l i n d n e s s and P a r t i a l i t y of Mankind t o t h e i r own F a u l t s ? the G r a e c i a n s make a War t o r e c o v e r a Woman t h a t was r a v i s h * d , and a r e i n danger t o f a i l i n the Attempt by a D i s p u t e over a n o t h e r . Agamemnon w h i l e he i s r e v e n g i n g a Rape, commits one; and A c h i l l e s w h i l e he i s i n the utmost F u r y h i m s e l f , r e p r o a c h e s Agamemnon f o r h i s P a s s i o n a t e Temper." The o n l y o v e r t mention of Menelaos i n t h i s book i s thus e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e , g i v i n g A k h i l l e u s * c o m p l a i n t a g r e a t e r degree o f i n d i g n a t i o n ! " I came her e t o g e t H e l e n back f o r Menelaos; now (161) you a r e t a k i n g B r i s e i s from me." That A k h i l l e u s i s n o t unaware of the p a r a l l e l i s shown by h i s l a r g e r development of i t i n Book 9 ( 9 . 3 ^ 0 - 1 ) . 173. The f i r s t word, " f l e e , " shows t h a t Agamemnon i s con -t e m p t u o u s l y i g n o r i n g a l l o f A k h i l l e u s ' p o w e r f u l s t a t e m e n t — d o u b t l e s s f o r the p a r t i c u l a r r h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t o f seeming t o see t h r o u g h an argument t o the b a s i c (and base!) c h a r a c -t e r f l a w w h i c h prompted i t i " i f you c a n ' t t a k e i t any more, go, and don't embarrass us w i t h c l e v e r excuses."-' 0 The word may a l s o be an a l l u s i o n t o A k h i l l e u s ' v e r y f i r s t s t a t e m e n t ! "now we must go back, i f we can f l e e d e a t h " ( 5 9 - 6 0 ) . F i n a l l y , o f t h i s word, Pope says t h a t " A c h i l l e s h a v i n g ...spoken of h i s w a r l i k e A c t i o n s ( 1 5 6 ) , the Poet here p u t s an a r t f u l P i e c e of S p i t e i n t h e Mouth o f Agamemnon" (97.225) 106 174. The assonance i s s t r i k i n g * the vowels and n a s a l s o f £CV&K epeco a r e i n a way r e s o l v e d i n pereLV, The power and d i g n i t y w h i c h the s t a t e m e n t g a i n s from t h e assonance h e i g h t -ens the i r o n y i t t a k e s on when c o n t r a s t e d t o the a t t e m p t t o w i n A k h i l l e u s back i n Book 9,-*x 175-6. "...And m o s t l y the a d v i s e r Zeus" i s a r a s h t h i n g f o r Agamemnon t o s a y , and h i g h l y i r o n i c i n view of what happens l a t e r . Perhaps "Zeus," e s p e c i a l l y as a f a v o r i n g d e i t y , s u g -g e s t s " Z e u s - n o u r i s h e d " i n the n e x t l i n e , and so p a r t i a l l y con-t r i b u t e s t o the i n t e r e s t i n g j u x t a p o s i t i o n over the l i n e end: "Zeus/ Most h a t e f u l . " But the c o l l o c a t i o n i s perhaps an u l t -i m a t e l y i n e x p l i c a b l e t a n g l e of i r o n i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s : t o me i t i s m o s t l y Zeus who pays honor, f o r he s u p p o r t s k i n g s ; t o me i t i s you who a r e most h a t e f u l o f a l l k i n g s who are n o u r i s h e d by Zeus. 175. The range of meaning of the v e r b a l l o w s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , "even i f you won't s t a y and 'gather r i c h e s f o r me' (171, A k h i l l e u s ' l a s t w o r d s ) , t h e r e a r e o t h e r s who w i l l . " 177. T h i s l i n e has been o b j e c t e d t o because "wars and f i g h t s a r e no rebuke t o a hero i n the f i e l d " ( L e a f ) . T h i s m i s s e s the p o i n t i n two ways. F i r s t , t h i s i s e m p h a t i c a l l y n o t the " f i e l d " (see n o t e on 490). Second, i f we remember the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f 107 " q u a r r e l H and " f i g h t " a t 8, we can see tha t Agamemnon's statement i s more s u b t l e than i t looks« i t i s j u s t because A k h i l l e u s ' love of " f i g h t s " ( l a s t i n the t r i a d ) i n the sense of "wars" i s inseparable from h i s love of " f i g h t s " i n the sense of " q u a r r e l s " (these two terms are j o i n e d by rhyme) th a t he i s "most h a t e f u l " to the k i n g . The whole n o t i o n i s a l s o very a p t i "you have j u s t been q u a r r e l l i n g , so I say q u a r r e l s are dear to you," (Compare A k h i l l e u s a t 122i "you have j u s t been t a l k i n g about p r i z e s , so I say possessions are dear to you.") Pope remarks t h a t Agamemnon "lessen s " "the Appearance of ( A k h i l l e u s ' ) Courage by c a l l i n g i t the Love of Contention and Slaughter" (97 note 225). 179- 80. The balance of nouns and e p i t h e t s i n 179 i s r e -i n f o r c e d by the nu-sigma assonance which culminates over the li n e - e n d (where the new sentence i s " j o i n e d " by c a r e f u l j u x t a p o s i t i o n ) . The sentence has eleven sigma's, and i f they can connote h i s s i n g scorn (see on 81-3), t h a t mimetic p r i n c i p l e i s s u r e l y o p e r a t i n g here. 180- 1. The king's statement here (two verbs meaning " I don't care," f o l l o w e d by " I thr e a t e n you thus") i s probably d i r e c t l y i n s p i r e d by A k h i l l e u s ' m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Aga-memnon's previous speech (see on 14-7), a t 160-11 108 t o t h o s e t h i n g s n o t a t a l l do you a f t e r - t u r n , and n o t about them a r e you concernedt even i n d e e d my p r i z e (you) y o u r s e l f t o o f f - s e i z e t h r e a t e n . T h i s p u t s A k h i l l e u s i n the h i g h l y i r o n i c p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g h i m s e l f s u g g e s t e d Agamemnon's t r e a t m e n t of him. Agamemnon, h a v i n g c o n c e i v e d t h i s s p e c i f i c p l a n by a k i n d of i n s p i r a t i o n f r o m A k h i l l e u s * words, c a t c h e s f i r e w i t h the i d e a . I t be-comes p a r t of a p e r f e c t l y l o g i c a l cosmic b a l a n c e (182-4), t h e n a p e r f e c t method o f r e e s t a b l i s h i n g a u t h o r i t y o v e r A k h i l l e u s (185-6), and f i n a l l y a p e r f e c t symbol of k i n g l y power f o r the b e n e f i t of the r e s t of the army (186-7). The c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n of A k h i l l e u s * anger f o l l o w i n g t h i s (188 -92) i s t h e n p a r a l l e l t o the d e s c r i p -t i o n o f Agamemnon*s a f t e r K a l k h a s * second speech (102-5). I n b o t h c a s e s , the s u b j e c t has u n d e r s t o o d , by an i n n e r l o g i c , t h a t he i s b e i n g put i n t o an i m p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n (see on 78-9), and the n a r r a t o r shows us t h a t the consequent exasp-e r a t i o n i s beyond words by s h i f t i n g from d i r e c t speech t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . 180. "*Myrmidons,* i r o n i c a l l y s a i d , p e r h a p s , s i n c e Agamemnon h i m s e l f i s tupi K^GCU-v *• ( P a l e y ) . 183-7. The h i g h d e n s i t y of pronouns i n t h e s e l i n e s i s em-p h a s i z e d by the h i g h c o i n c i d e n c e on them of a c c e n t and i c t u s . T h i s g i v e s p a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t f o r c e t o 183-4, w i t h two f i r s t -109 p e r s o n v e r b s and f o u r f i r s t - p e r s o n pronouns i n o n l y a l i n e and a h a l f , a l l u n i t e d by v a r i o u s k i n d s of a s s o n a n c e . ^ 2 183, The p a r t i c u l a r nouns and e p i t h e t s may r e c a l l 170 (both s e n t e n c e s a l s o have t h e i r v e r b s enjambed). I f s o , a l o n g w i t h the s t r o n g c o n t r a s t ("You do t h a t ; I do t h i s " ) goes a c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l : Agamemnon i s s e n d i n g A k h i l l e u s away " w i t h h i s s h i p s and w i t h h i s comrades" j u s t as much as he i s s e n d i n g the g i r l back. 1 8 4 , The assonance of the enjambed v e r b w i t h the s u b j e c t and v e r b of the new sentence j o i n s the two p a r t s of the ptfeV... kr/ c o n s t r u c t i o n v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y , and ( n o t i c e t h a t the pronoun, found i n the same m e t r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n 1 8 3 , here s t a n d s between the two v e r b s ) perhaps the omega's r e i n f o r c e the a u t h o r i t a t i v e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r . Thus the c o n t r a s t i n g i d e a s , " I am s e n d i n g t h a t one away, but t a k i n g t h i s one," a r e n e a t l y j u x t a p o s e d , w h i l e the two women r e f e r r e d t o b r a c k e t the c o u p l e t by b e i n g mentioned a t i t s e x t r e m i t i e s , 1 8 6 . Agamemnon's use of the word "more ( w e i g h t ) - b e a r i n g " here i s perhaps s u g g e s t e d by, and i n p a r t an answer t o , A k h i l l e u s ' use of i t i n I 6 9 : "So t h a t i s 'more w e i g h t - b e a r i n g ' t o you? L e t me remind you, now you m e n t i o n i t , how much 'more 110 w e i g h t - b e a r i n g ' I am t h a n you." 18?, The meaning o f Agamemnon's f i n a l rebuke h e r e i s perhaps enhanced by the s e p a r a t i o n o f M e q u a l H and " i n o p p o s i t i o n " t o the l i n e ends. The g r e a t e r w e i g h t of the second i n f i n i t i v e (one o f t h r e e words i n the book o c c u p y i n g more t h a n two f e e t j n o t i c e t h a t a n o t h e r i s used by A k h i l l e u s a t 122) may be ex-p r e s s i v e o f how much more Agamemnon r e s e n t s the b e i n g t h a n the s p e a k i n g . 188-91. The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t A k h i l l e u s c o n s i d e r s i s , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, whether he s h o u l d v i g o r o u s l y do j u s t what Agamemnon has s a i d he wants t o show the army t h e y s h o u l d not do--to "be the same (as him) i n o p p o s i t i o n " ( 1 8 ? ) . That i s , he c o n s i d e r s r e s i s t i n g by f o r c e . (See on 278 f o r the c o n n e c t i o n between " o p p o s i t i o n " and " f o r c e . " ) I89. I t i s b a r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t enjambed " ( i n h i s ) c h e s t shaggy," w i t h i t s sigma assonance, r e c a l l s what K a l k h a s s a i d about the k i n g who " h o l d s r e s e n t m e n t , . . / ( i n t h e ) c h e s t o f him" (82-3). I f s o , we have a v e r y s u b t l e example of the way r e p e t i t i o n w i t h v a r i a t i o n can enhance meaning. I n 192 i t i s " g a l l " t h a t A k h i l l e u s t h i n k s o f s t o p p i n g . He u l t i m a t e l y does, and we c o u l d s a y , w i t h K a l k h a s (81-3), "that he "down-s w a l l o w s " " h i s g a l l , " "but even a f t e r w a r d s he h o l d s r e s e n t -m e n t — u n t i l he might r e a l i z e i t - - i n the c h e s t o f him." I l l 1*91-2. W h i l e each of the two l i n e s r e p r e s e n t i n g A k h i l l e u s ' c h o i c e s i s b a l a n c e d , and w h i l e t h e y a r e j o i n e d by the v e r b a s s o n a n c e , i t i s i n 192 t h a t t h e b a l a n c e and j u x t a p o s e d v e r b s ( a l s o j o i n e d by assonance) a r e most s t r i k i n g . 194. A f t e r "sword*' the e p i t h e t *py\ipo-r}\o-v "would have been n a t u r a l . But the c r i s i s i s a c u t e , and Athene l o s e s no t i m e — ...she b r u s q u e l y shoves a s i d e the p a t i e n t o l d e p i t h e t and b u r s t s i n t o the v e r s e a t the C c a e s u r a . " 5 3 195-200, The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t r i c t l y s e q u e n t i a l n a r r a t i v e f a c t s i s i n t e r r u p t e d and slowed by the d e t a i l s added i n enjambement a t 195» 196 and 198. T h i s i s perhaps e x p r e s s i v e , as the a r r i v a l of Athene c e r t a i n l y does i n t e r r u p t and s low the a c t i o n . A k h i l l e u s ' r e a c t i o n (199-200) i s by c o n t r a s t r a p i d , w i t h a t r i a d o f s e n t e n c e s i n v i r t u a l l y one l i n e , 195. The emphatic and t r a n s i t i o n a l e f f e c t o f enjambed "from heaven" may b e s t be i n d i c a t e d by p a r a p h r a s e * "Athene c a m e — not on h e r own, b u t a c t u a l l y from heaven; i n f a c t , she was s e n t — b y Here." The end-rhyme (19^-5) h e l p s t h i s e f f e c t . 197. The d e t a i l of Athene s t a n d i n g b e h i n d A k h i l l e u s and p l u c k i n g h i s h a i r i s a d e l i g h t f u l image. I t i s a l s o u n u s u a l , as d e i t i e s u s u a l l y l a n d i n f r o n t o f t h e p e r s o n i n whose l i f e t h e y a r e g o i n g t o i n t e r v e n e . Athene's a r r i v a l f r o m b e h i n d 112 here may be symbolic of the f a c t t h a t she represents a com-l e t e l y unexpected p o s s i b i l i t y . A k h i l l e u s i s very l i t e r a l l y l o o k i n g i n f r o n t of h i m s e l f , examining--perhaps v i s u a l i z i n g - -h i s only two p o s s i b l e courses of a c t i o n . As the f i r s t p a r t of 194 suggests, he i s l e a n i n g toward the formerj thus he i s probably l o o k i n g i n t e n t l y at h i s enemy. Thus Athene's a r r i v a l from behind i s very e f f e c t i v e . (The reminder i n 199, "and he a f t e r - t u r n e d , " should a l s o be noticed.) 198-200. The cognates, "(coming to) l i g h t " (198) and "were a l i g h t " (200) may suggest t h a t he knew here because "her two eyes were a l i g h t . " The f a c t t h a t she appears "to him alone" augurs w e l l f o r the s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n A k h i l l e u s holds with r e s p e c t - t o d i v i n i t i e s throughout the poem. 200. " P a l l a s Athene" i s very emphatic, being enjambed, and 54 being the l a s t element of a t r i a d of sentences. 202. Although we have no way of knowing i f Athene was the emissary at 55, "the small word "again" here, o f t e n ignored, reminds us that what we have here (194-222) i s a f u l l p r e s -e n t a t i o n of what must have happened i n some way " o f f - s t a g e " a l i t t l e e a r l i e r » ^ f o r to him ( A k h i l l e u s ) upon h i s understanding she set i t , the goddess white-armed Here. (55) The curious coincidence, that the l a s t word of the n a r r a t i v e 113 of the coming of the goddess (cVp«ro 198) i s the same as the l a s t word o f the c o u p l e t a t 55-6, i s n o t i c e d by P a l e y , 203. The r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n ( i t s e l f a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n , "why d i d you come?") p r e f i g u r e s A k h i l l e u s ' i n v o c a t i o n o f " w i t n e s s e s " a t 338-40. C e r t a i n l y the gods do make e f f e c t i v e " w i t n e s s e s , " as the f a t e o f the A k h a i a n army f o r the n e x t f i f t e e n books shows. Thus h i s a c q u i e s c e n c e t o Athene's p r o p o s a l ( 2 l 8 ) i the whole i d e a of a p p e a l i n g t o Zeus f o r r e d r e s s i s f o r m i n g i n h i s mind h e r e , " A c h i l l e s ' u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t the f a u l t may p o s s i b l y be on h i s own s i d e , i s v e r y n a t u r a l l y p u t . H e n c e , , , i n the r e p l y ( 2 0 7 ) , ' i t was your rage (not h i s ufiy^s ) t h a t I came to s t o p " ( P a l e y ) . 205. The ass o n a n c e - - a l m o s t rhyme--perhaps r e i n f o r c e s the c o n n e c t i o n between cause and e f f e c t . 207. "Came I . " Athene's f i r s t word by a n s w e r i n g the l a s t word of A k h i l l e u s ' f i r s t q u e s t i o n , (201) may convey the g e n t l e h i n t t h a t she i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n h e a r i n g about h i s g r i e v a n c e . 212. There i s a l a r g e (and i r o n i c ) d i f f e r e n c e between A k h i l l e u s ' ...and t h i s even ( w i l l be) r e a l i z e d , I e x p e c t (204) 114 and Athene's a l l u s i v e ...and t h i s even r e a l i z e d w i l l be. 213-4. The b a l a n c e o v e r the l i n e end ( a d j e c t i v e + noun » noun + a d j e c t i v e ) j u x t a p o s e s t h e " g i f t s " A k h i l l e u s w i l l get w i t h the " a r r o g a n c e " t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e them. 213, N o t i c e t h a t Athene's promise o f recompense f o r the g i r l , i n the form " t h r e e t i m e s as many b r i g h t g i f t s , " a l l u d e s f i r s t t o the ransom f o r the o t h e r g i r l o f f e r e d by K h r y s e s ( " b r i g h t t h i n g s as ransom", 23) and second, t o " t h r e e - f o l d and f o u r - f o l d " repayment f o r h e r p r e d i c t e d by A k h i l l e u s h i m s e l f t o Agamemnon (128). The recompense A k h i l l e u s i s a c t u a l l y o f f e r e d i n Book 9 i s , o f c o u r s e , much more t h a n " t h r e e - f o l d " - - i n f a c t i t i s more l i k e t h e " b o u n d l e s s ransom" f i r s t proposed by K h r y s e s (13)» 217, Perhaps the sound p l a y and t h e word o r d e r s u g g e s t ( i r o n i c a l l y ) t h a t t o be g a l l e d i s b e t t e r . 223-4. A k h i l l e u s "not a t a l l l a i d o f f h i s g a l l } " t h i s , as P a l e y remarks, " i n s p i t e o f h i s promise t o the goddess ( 2 1 6 ) , who had s a i d ' l a y o f f q u a r r e l l i n g ' ( 2 1 0 ) . " But a c t u a l l y the seeming d i s o b e d i e n c e s e r v e s t o show a d i f f e r e n c e between the two o p e r a t i v e words ( " g a l l " and " q u a r r e l l i n g " ) . A k h i l l e u s 115 i s i n f a c t o b e y i n g the goddess* commandi " w i t h s a y i n g s r e -p r o a c h him, how i t w i l l b e M ( 2 1 1 ) . 2 2 5 . "A dog*s s e e i n g ( - e y e s ) h o l d i n g " i s a s p e c i f y i n g r e p -e t i t i o n of "d o g - f a c e " ( 1 5 9 ) . The i n s u l t g a i n s f o r c e when we remember t h a t , as A c h i t y d e m o n s t r a t e s , d o g s i n the I l i a d a r e much more b e s t i a l t h a n the ones i n the Odyssey. The t h i r d element o f the t r i a d c o n t a i n s the i d e a which i s d e v e l o p e d i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , 226-7, The two i n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e s r e f e r t o the two extreme t y p e s of w a r f a r e 1 the open b a t t l e o f common s o l d i e r s , and the "ambush,,.reserved f o r the e l i t e " ( L e a f ) , T h e y m a y a l s o be an e x p a n s i o n o f , o r a l l u s i o n t o , A k h i l l e u s * e a r l i e r charge: how c o u l d any, f o r you, f o r t h ( - r i g h t ) u n d e r s t a n d e r by your s a y i n g s be pe r s u a d e d , (any) o f the A k h a i a n s , e i t h e r a r o a d t o go or w i t h men by muscle t o f i g h t ? (150-1) I f s o , the i m p l i c a t i o n i s i " I s a i d b e f o r e no one would obey you i n g o i n g o r f i g h t i n g . Now I s a y f u r t h e r t h a t you w i l l n o t even do th e s e t h i n g s y o u r s e l f . " (The two l i n e s h e r e , l i k e 1 5 0 - 1 , f o l l o w a whole l i n e o f d e r o g a t o r y v o c a t i v e s . ) 226-9. The p o l y s y l l a b i c end rhymes ( o f the p a t t e r n ABAB) a r e no doubt f o r t u i t o u s . 228, The enjambed v e r b i s v e r y e m p h a t i c . A t the o t h e r end of 116 the l i n e , the double assonance o f d i p h t h o n g s i s w e l l b r o u g h t out by the c o i n c i d e n c e o f i c t u s , a c c e n t and m e t r i c a l f o o t i n the l a s t two words, 231. N o t i c e t h a t the l o n g word &Y)poficper by i t s p o s i t i o n and by assonance, p i c k s up ctvo/3«.p±\- ( 2 2 5 ) ; thus the i n s u l t i n g p a r t of the speech i s i n a k i n d o f r i n g c o m p o s i t i o n . There may a l s o be a n o t h e r k i n d o f a l l u s i o n t o "wine-heavy" h e r e , as ^|uo/5c'pr c o u l d a l s o mean " f a t - e a t i n g . 233- 9. The r i n g f a s h i o n oath b e g i n s and ends w i t h the s t a f f as token« ...and upon a g r e a t t o k e n w i l l I swear, yes by t h i s s t a f f 1 (233-4) ...and t h i s f o r you g r e a t w i l l be (as) a t o k e n ( 2 3 9 ) . T h i s g i v e s the s t a f f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e , h e i g h t e n i n g the e f f e c t when A k h i l l e u s throws i t on the ground. 234- 7. The f a c t t h a t the s t a f f w i l l n e v e r produce l e a v e s , s h o o t s o r f l o w e r s p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t A k h i l l e u s i s t h i n k -i n g o f i t as the o n l y t o t a l l y c h a n g e l e s s o b j e c t o r symbol he can f i n d . Perhaps a l s o h i s c h o i c e o f words h e r e , and the way he d w e l l s upon them ( n o t i c e the r e p e t i t i o n o f " l e a v e s " ) , evokes h i s p a s t o r a l / n a t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of P h t h i a (see on 1 5 ^ - 7 ) . 117 The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r way of d e s c r i b i n g the sceptre w i t h the oath which f o l l o w s (24-0-44) evokes a t l e a s t two i m p l i e d statements. F i r s t , "the sense seems to be, 'As sure as t h i s d ry wood w i l l not again put f o r t h l e a v e s , so s u r e l y w i l l the Greeks someday r e q u i r e my a i d * " (Paley, on 2 3 6 ) . Second, Mas the Wood being cut from the Tree w i l l never r e - u n i t e and f l o u r i s h , so n e i t h e r should t h e i r Amity ever f l o u r i s h again, a f t e r they were d i v i d e d by t h i s Content-i o n " (Pope 102 note 3 0 9 ) . 240. The balance ( g e n i t i v e name + subject 1 verb 1 object + g e n i t i v e name) i s r e i n f o r c e d by the assonance between " A k h i l l e u s " and "Akhaians." 245. A c h i t y suggests that A k h i l l e u s * a c t i o n against the s t a f f here "compensates f o r Agamemnon's s a c r i l i g e o u s t r e a t -ment of Khrysgs'" s c e p t r e , i n "the i n s u l t . . . s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d " a g a i n s t the s t a f f which was "the symbol of Khryses' p r i e s t l y a u t h o r i t y " (28).-^ He a l s o sees i t as the moment "@tV C f ('law') no longer p r e v a i l s among the A r g i v e s — l i t e r -a l l y , as w e l l as s y m b o l i c a l l y . " J y 246. The enjambed phrase gives the s t a f f even more "weight" when i t s t r i k e s the ground. We would expect mimesis here i f anywhere, but I do not f i n d i t (except p o s s i b l y i n the "thud-d i n g " sounds of n^z^^^-vc-v). / 118 248-9. "Sweet(-voiced) P y l i a n assembly-speaker," S t a n f o r d u u f i n d s t h i s phrase and the f o l l o w i n g l i n e mimetic of "the very f l a v o u r and savour of h i s sweet f l o w i n g eloquence....we can hear a l l the f a m i l i a r t a s t e sounds (gamma + lambdaj mu+ lambda) wi t h s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n , b u i l t around what i s semant-i c a l l y the key word KLYJS, whose consonants and vowels a n t i -c i p a t e i n timbre q u a l i t y , as w e l l as meaning, the p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s of y 'Xcjcrc-^c ^ C - X C T C J yXu^co.-K" But, while the p l a y of sounds i s undoubtedly t h e r e , I am s k e p t i c a l about the a c t u a l mimesis of "sweet t a s t e . " I t i s b e t t e r to n o t i c e t h a t i n t h i s f i v e word enjambed l i n e (248) the l a s t three words are r h o p a l i c ; t h a t the i m p l i c i t t r i a d sweet-sayer c l e a r ( - v o i c e d ) orator from h i s tongue than honey sw e e t e r ( - t a s t i n g ) flowed t a l k , c l e a r l y develops the i n i t i a l idea ("sweet-sayer," 248) i n t o the weighted c u l m i n a t i o n at the f i n a l " t a l k " ( 2 4 9 ) ; and the whole i s h e l d together by the p l e a s i n g r e p e t i t i o n of gamma and lamda and the assonance of long vowels, p a r t i c u l a r l y e t a . ^ 1 250. Even i f , of pepc'iTa;v, "we can say with confidence that i t does not mean ' a r t i c u l a t e ' " ( l i t e r a l l y , " v o i c e - d i v i d i n g " ) (Leaf; h i s i t a l i c s ) , that i s no argument that the word was not so understood, by popular etymology. Such a ren d e r i n g makes the word compatible with the " v o i c e " words of the preceding T . 62 l i n e , 1 1 9 2 5 4 . /Torrc i . i s "an e x c l a m a t i o n formed by r a p i d l y c l o s i n g and o p e n i n g the l i p s , a n a l o g o u s to. m x r r w / l , r r o n - c ^ , and mfnu.^, which l a t t e r i s our * p i s h p i s h ! ' " ( P a l e y ) . T h i s b e a r s k e e p i n g i n mind when we see o t h e r c o l l o c a t i o n s o f the p l o s i v e s t o p s (as a t 3 ) . 2 5 8 . "Danaans" o c c u p i e s the m i d d l e of the l i n e , e f f e c t i v e l y •'surrounded" by the two rrepc p h r a s e s . 2 5 9 - 7 4 , W i l l c o c k s c h e m a t i z e s t h i s s o - c a l l e d d i g r e s s i o n : a. 2 5 9 A c c e p t my a d v i c e , b. 2 6 0 - 1 I once a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e t t e r men t h a n you, and t h e y l i s t e n e d t o me, c . 2 6 2 - ? l T h i s i s the s t o r y . b' 2 7 1 - 3 They were b e t t e r t h a n you, and t h e y l i s t e n e d t o me. a' 2 7 4 So you s h o u l d a c c e p t my a d v i c e . 2 5 9 , T h i s s t a t e m e n t has h e i g h t e n e d f o r c e by i t s p o s i t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r 2 5 8 : "You two a r e the v e r y b e s t , b u t I am b e t t e r , " I t a l s o g i v e s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r 2 5 0 - 2 ; the r e l e v a n t q u a l i t y of N e s t o r h e r e , a f t e r h i s v o i c e , i s h i s age. 2 6 l . "(And) even n o t e v e r me ( d i d ) t h e y ( a t l e a s t ) s l i g h t . " The emphasis has i t s s u b t l e i m p l i c a t i o n i "don't you two s l i g h t me." 2 6 4 . A rhymed t r i a d . 120 265. An o f t e n - r e j e c t e d l i n e , t h i s one seems e s p e c i a l l y w e l l c r a f t e d . I t i s r h o p a l i c (the l a s t word, o f two f u l l f e e t , b e i n g f e l t as l o n g e s t ) and has a c e r t a i n p l e a s i n g p l a y of sound. A l s o , t a k e n w i t h 264, i t i s the f o u r t h element of a t e t r a d of the same form as Agamemnon's e i t h e r A i a s o r Idomeneus or g o d l y Odysseus or you P e l e i d e s , o f a l l most o u t ( s t a n d i n g l y ) - s t r i k i n g , o f men ( 1 4 5 - 6 ) . 266-7, The two b a l a n c e d l i n e s w i t h t h e i r t r i p l e use of "most p o w e r f u l " emphasize the q u a l i t y of "power" which N e s t o r w i l l i n v oke a t 280. The n o t i o n t h a t N e s t o r ' s f r i e n d s , a l t h o u g h t h e y were "most powerful," f o u g h t a g a i n s t (and "de-s t r o y e d " ) p e o p l e who were a l s o "most p o w e r f u l " i s not w i t h -out i r o n y i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the c o n f l i c t between A k h i l l e u s and Agamemnon, the two most " p o w e r f u l " Greek commanders, 273-4. "But be persuaded" (274) e x a c t l y r e p e a t s the f i r s t two words o f 259, t h e b e g i n n i n g of N e s t o r ' s s o - c a l l e d " d i g r e s s i o n . " The t r i p l e use of "persuade" has g r e a t f o r c e , perhaps r e m i n d i n g us t h a t : 1) Agamemnon would n o t be persuaded by A k h i l l e u s ( 1 3 2 ) ; 2) A k h i l l e u s wondered how anyone c o u l d be persuaded by 121 Agamemnon ( 1 5 0 ) . N e s t o r has i n v o k e d the m a t c h l e s s h e r o e s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h h i s a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s p e c t . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i t i s i n e x a c t l y the same terms t h a t b o t h d i s p u t a n t s w i l l r espond t o him. I g n o r i n g the a p p e a l t o be persuaded by N e s t o r , Agamemnon w i l l n o t be persuaded by A k h i l l e u s ( 2 8 9 ) , and A k h i l l e u s w i l l n o t be persuaded by Agamemnon ( 2 9 6 ) , N o t i c e t h a t the word f i r s t o c c u r s a t the end of K a l k h a s ' second speech 1 "(when we have appeased him, t h e n we might persuade him" ( 1 0 0 ) , The o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s i o n i s thus v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . F i r s t A p o l l o n i s t o be persuaded ( 1 0 0 ) , t h e n Agamemnon ( 1 3 2 ) , t h e n A k h i l l e u s ( 1 5 0 ) . T h i s p a r a l l e l s the c o u r s e of the "r a g e , " which i s f i r s t A p o l l o n ' s (75) 1 t h e n Agamemnon's (247) and f i n a l l y A k h i l l e u s ' ( 4 2 2 ) . A u s t i n n o t e s t h a t everywhere e l s e i n the I l i a d , the Greeks do f o l l o w N e s t o r ' s a d v i c e , and t h a t when t h e y do not h e r e , "the whole poem i s the s t o r y of the d i s a s t r o u s ,,63 consequences. 275-84. Each of the a n t a g o n i s t s i s addressed f o r f i v e l i n e s , b u t N e s t o r b r a c k e t s the ad d r e s s t o A k h i l l e u s (277-81) w i t h two l i n e s b e f o r e and t h r e e a f t e r a d d r e s s e d t o Agamemnon. N o t i c e a l s o t h a t the i n i t i a l words of the f i r s t two l i n e s t o Agamemnon, "do n o t you" (275) and "b u t " (276) a r e p i c k e d up by the i n i t i a l words of the f i r s t and l a s t l i n e s t o A k h i l l e u s 1 "do n o t you" (277) and "b u t " ( 2 8 1 ) . 122 2 7 8 . "With o p p o s i n g f o r c e . " The enjambed word has a s p e c -i a l emphasis i n t h a t i t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y " o p p o s i t i o n t h a t Agamemnon cannot b e a r , as he h i m s e l f s u g g e s t s a t 187, and A k h i l l e u s p o i n t s out a t 2 3 0 . I t i s a l m o s t as though N e s t o r i s s a y i n g something l i k e what Athene s a i d i "go ahead and q u a r r e l , but not w i t h f o r c e i n o p p o s i t i o n . " 2 7 9 . The n e a r - j u x t a p o s i t i o n and assonance of /?c<^c\eJs and ~L.I=(JS may r e i n f o r c e the c o n n e c t i o n between them which N e s t o r 64 i s making. 280- 1 . The sound p l a y between the two o p e r a t i v e words ("put a n t i t h e t i c a l l y i n the same p o s i t i o n i n the two l i n e s , " W i l l -cock) enhances the s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n N e s t o r makes between them, and evokes the l a t e n t f o r c e o f the f a c t t h a t ^ ^ p r t ^ c v l o o k s l i k e a c o m p a r a t i v e . The theme d i s c u s s e d on 8 0 - 2 i s most c l e a r l y s t a t e d h e r e . 2 8 0 . N o t i c e how N e s t o r t a k e s Agamemnon's contemptuous and vague s t a t e m e n t , i f much the (more) p o w e r f u l you a r e a god somehow t o you t h a t ( q u a l i t y ) gave ( 1 7 8 ) , and makes i t a s p e c i f i c compliment by a s l i g h t change. ( T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e a f t e r the t r i p l e use of " p o w e r f u l " and 2 6 6 - 7 . ) 281- 2. D e s p i t e the sent e n c e b r e a k , the v e r b i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n 123 (281) l e a d s by n a t u r a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o the i n v o c a t i o n of i t s s u b j e c t a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n e x t l i n e . 282-3. Agamemnon's " p a s s i o n " (282) o c c u p i e s the same m e t r i c a l p o s i t i o n as h i s " g a l l " ( 283); b o t h words a r e a l s o l a s t i n t h e i r s e n t e n c e s . 283. " I beg," enjambed h e r e , may r e c a l l i t s p a r a l l e l p o s i t i o n a t 1 7 4 i ...and not you (do) I ( a t l e a s t ) beg because of me t o r e m a i n . I f N e s t o r i s making an a l l u s i o n t o Agamemnon's remark, i t s f o r c e c o u l d be p a r a p h r a s e d : "you w i l l n o t beg A k h i l l e u s ; but I w i l l beg you." 284. The speech ends w i t h an i r o n i c v e i l e d t h r e a t , and N e s t o r p r o b a b l y knows i t . By c a l l i n g A k h i l l e u s "a f e n c e from war e v i l " he t a c i t l y acknowledges what A k h i l l e u s p r e d i c t e d a t the end of h i s l a s t speech: many under H e c t o r the m a n - s l a u g h t e r i n g d y i n g s h a l l f a l l . (242-3) The phrase i s a l s o o f c o u r s e a compliment t o A k h i l l e u s , and I t h i n k the whole speech shows N e s t o r f a v o r i n g him above Agamemnon. A t 275-6 N e s t o r r e c o g n i z e s the i n j u s t i c e o f the k i n g ' s a c t i o n , and a t 278-9 he reminds A k h i l l e u s (perhaps c y n i c a l l y ) t h a t t h i s a c t i o n i s normal p r a c t i c e . More s u b t l y , the r e m i n i s c e n c e (2 60-73) makes a t l e a s t two a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t s : 124 that the heroes did not "slight" Nestor (26l) reminds every-one that Agamemnon i s slighting Akhilleus; and that Nestor came from far away (269-70), and his quiet pride in the fact ("for they called me, themselves") may recall Akhilleus' ref-erence to Phthia ( 1 5 2 - 7 ) . 286-9. Forms of rr^s occur here a remarkable five times in four lines. (Notice also repeated "want," 287-8, and the assonance of the four infinitives.) Perhaps this is ex-ressive of Agamemnon's exasperation at Nestor's use of rep-etition ("Priam," 255; "most powerful," 266-7; "be persuaded" 273-4), Or i t may be a more or less unconscious use of rep-etition as a rhetorical device, suggested by Nestor's uses. To say with Leaf, that the "tautological repetitions...are very suitable to unreasoning fury; they have to do duty for arguments," is to miss the point that Agamemnon (especially after Nestor's long speech) is a long way from "unreasoning fury." In any case the passage ends with a restatement of a now familiar theme 1 "I w i l l not be persuaded by him." (Notice also that in terms of assonance rr£uric-9«.<- in 289 stands in a similar position to the forms of mxs in the second halves of the two preceding lines.) 292. Notice that the fact that Akhilleus interrupts here is particularly apt i f we interpret the disputed preceding phrase as, "his reproaches dash forward for utterance." Homer i s 125 t h e n g i v i n g us a p e r f e c t i l l u s t r a t i o n of Agamemnon's cha r g e . A l t e r n a t e l y , we may c o n c e i v e o f Agamemnon t h i n k i n g of the remark a t the v e r y moment A k h i l l e u s i s s p r i n g i n g t o h i s f e e t , o b v i o u s l y t o b u r s t out i n t o more i n v e c t i v e . The o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v e r b i n 2 9 1 seems t o be because of a p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t the " h a l f - p e r s o n -i f i c a t i o n " ( L e a f ) i n v o l v e d . (See a l s o on 9 7 ) . But the "ex-treme h a r s h n e s s of t h i s metaphor" (which l e a d s L e a f t o con-c l u d e t h a t the passage i s " h o p e l e s s l y c o r r u p t e d " ) i s i n no way u n s u i t a b l e t o the c o n t e x t . 2 9 3 - 4 . The use of the r a r e word " ( g o o d - f o r - ) n o t h i n g , " r e p e a t e d from 2 3 1 , makes the l o g i c here perfect« " I f I obeyed you, I would be c a l l e d * ( g o o d - f o r - ) n o t h i n g , • because, as I s a i d e a r l i e r , i t i s p r e c i s e l y 'over ( g o o d - f o r - ) n o t h i n g men you are l o r d ' " ( 2 3 1 ) . 2 9 6 . N o t i c e the v e r b s a t the extremes of the l i n e , and t h a t the rhyme of the c a e s u r a and end r e p e a t s a t the c a e s u r a of 65 2 9 7 . Enjambed " g i v e s i g n s , " f o l l o w e d by " I w i l l n o t be p e r -suaded by you," i s a p e r f e c t answer t o the l a s t l i n e of Agamemnon's t i r a d e 1 (you want t o r u l e , ) t o a l l t o g i v e s i g n s } by which someone w i l l n o t be p e r s u a d e d , I e x p e c t ( 2 8 9 ) . 126 298, T r a n s l a t i n g , "No more A c h i l l e s draws/ His conqu'ring Sword i n any Woman's Cause," Pope remarks th a t by h i s "sharp d e s p i s i n g A i r , *I w i l l not f i g h t f o r the sake of a Woman1,., he glances a t Helena, and casts an oblique R e f l e c t i o n upon those Commanders whom he i s about to leave at the Siege f o r her Cause" (106 note 394). The "sharpness" may be helped by the s i x g u t t u r a l s , which are perhaps expressive of harshness. 302, "That they may know, even these men," p i c k s up Agamemnon's con c l u s i o n to the t h r e a t at 185» "that w e l l you p e r c e i v e / by how much more (weight-)bearing I am than you." 303. By the l a s t word, " ( s p e a r - ) s h a f t , " A k h i l l e u s perhaps p i c k s up Agamemnon's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of him as a "(spear-) point-man" (290). 305. The juxtaposed verbs, j o i n e d by assonance, give a Janus-l i k e e f f e c t of standing back to back re g a r d i n g the past and f u t u r e . 306-25. In connection w i t h the idea t h a t Agamemnon i s shown i n t h i s book to be i n f a c t a capable k i n g (see on 140), i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t when the assembly d i s s o l v e s , A k h i l l e u s merely goes home (306-7), while Agamemnon does three t h i n g s i n quick succession. He launches the ship to Khryse-town (308-11)j no sooner i s t h a t done (313) t than he r i t u a l l y p u r i f i e s 127 the army ( 3 1 3 - 1 5 ) ; while this is s t i l l being done (318), he dispatches the heralds to fetch Brise~is (318-15). Notice also that of the three actions, the f i r s t and sec-ond are narrated in five lines each, while the third—and most important--is treated in nine lines. 308-11. Compare Agamemnon's statement of intention (141-6). Here we find the same information in the same order, while the few changes in vocabulary (aside from those minor ones neccessitated by verb tense, mood and person) a l l make more specific details which were previously vague. "Oarsmen sufficient" (142) becomes "twenty oarsmen" ( 3 0 9 ) ; an un-modified "hecatomb" (142) is now "for the god" ( 3 1 0 ) ; the rather abrupt "Khryseis.../let us walk(iip)" (143-4) is re-placed by the more descriptive "Khryseis,../ he sat, leading (her)" (310-11); f i n a l l y , the speculative "some man.../ Aias or Idomeneus or Zeus-like Odysseus/ or (Akhilleus)" (144-7) becomes "much-advising Odysseus" ( 3 1 1 ) . The voyage should be made, says Agamemnon, "that we might appease the far-worker" (147). In the narrated version, the launching of the ship is followed by five lines (313-17) describing the i n i t i a l measures taken by the army for that purpose. 313-14. Pope notices that "this Lustration might be used as a Physical Remedy in cleansing them from the Infection of the Plague" (107 note 413). This f i t s well, particularly as the 128 " l u s t r a t i o n " i s j u x t a p o s e d w i t h the d i s p a t c h o f the s h i p t o Khryse-town: by the two a c t s the god i s appeased and the p l a g u e ended. 3 1 7 . T h i s q u i e t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e s u l t o f a l a r g e - s c a l e a c t i o n , p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f a complete s h i f t i n image, may remind us o f 5 21 "and always the f i r e s of c o r p s e s burned, t h i c k . " 3 1 9 . Enjambed " l a y o f f q u a r r e l l i n g , " by i t s emphatic p o s i t i o n may remind us t h a t A k h i l l e u s , by c o n t r a s t , d i d " l a y o f f q u a r r e l l i n g , " as commanded by Athene a t 2 1 0 . 3 2 2 - 3 . N o t i c e the f o r c e f u l f o u r - w o r d l i n e . The n o u n - e p i t h e t o r d e r o f the group a t t h e end o f 3 2 2 i s r e v e r s e d i n 3 2 3» p e r -haps f o r a c h i a s t i c e f f e c t : P e l e i d e s A k h i l l e u s B r i s e i s the l o v e l y - c h e e k e d . The p a t r o n y m i c s i n a s i m i l a r m e t r i c a l p o s i t i o n may f u r t h e r con-n e c t the two g r o u p s . 3 2 4 - 5 , Agamemnon uses the same end-rhymed v e r b s (but i n r e v e r s e o r d e r ) a t 1 3 6 - 7 , when he f i r s t f o r m u l a t e s the t h r e a t now b e i n g f u l f i l l e d . The vague r e f e r e n t i n And i f t h e y do n o t g i v e , I my ( v e r y ) s e l f w i l l s e i z e (someone's) I 3 6 - 7 ) , 129 becomes here s p e c i f i c a l l y "Akhilleus«" And i f he does n o t g i v e , I my ( v e r y ) s e l f w i l l s e i z e . . . . A s p e c i f y i n g d e t a i l , "coming w i t h more men," i s added i n 66 enjambement. S i m i l a r l y t he vague a d d i t i o n a l t h r e a t , ...and he w i l l be g a l l e d , upon whom I come (139) becomes s p e c i f i c here« . . . t h a t f o r him even more c h i l l i n g w i l l be. 328. As A k h i l l e u s w i t h d r e w " t o h i s l e a n - t o and s h i p s " ( 3 0 5 ) , so the h e r a l d s come " t o h i s l e a n - t o and s h i p s . " The p h r a s e s occupy the same m e t r i c a l p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l i n e s . The m e t r i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t r e p e t i t i o n s i n the n e x t l i n e may emphasize t h i s p a r a l l e l . 330, Enjambed " s i t t i n g , " w i t h enjambed " s t o o d " two l i n e s l a t e r , may emphasize the c o n t r a s t i v e p i c t u r e o f the s e a t e d hero s u b m i t t i n g t o the s t a n d i n g and t i m i d h e r a l d s . (Compare the famous w a l l - p a i n t i n g , "The S u r r e n d e r o f B r i s e i s , " where 6 7 A k h i l l e u s i s the o n l y one s e a t e d . ) 33^-^7, The whole passage has a h i g h d e n s i t y o f rhyme and assonance. 337-8, The t h r e e uses o f the v e r b used by Agamemnon a t 184 g i v e s A k h i l l e u s * c o m p l i a n c e here an i r o n i c t w i s t which 130 i s perhaps r e i n f o r c e d i n the n a r r a t i v e a t 346-7, where the ve r b o c c u r s a g a i n t w i c e w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g assonance. 339. The r a r e double rhyme o f the v e r y open, f u l l -cor may add s o l e m n i t y t o t h i s b a l a n c e d l i n e . 340 . The b a l a n c e (and some of the assonance) of 339 runs over i n t o t h i s l i n e . The t h i r d element of the t r i a d here has g r e a t w e i g h t . The word Kirrjvecc , " w i t h away(-turned) f a c e , " may g i v e a v i s u a l d e t a i l not even suggested by the r e n d e r i n g " w i t h o u t * p i t y , " I n the w a l l - p a i n t i n g , "The S a c r i f i c e o f I p h i g e n i a , " K a l k h a s s t a n d s on our r i g h t , i n some c o n f u s i o n , and Agamemnon 6 8 on our l e f t , w i t h a v e r t e d f a c e . 341. The rhyme perhaps h e i g h t e n s the c o n n e c t i o n between the coming i n t o b e i n g of the need and what the need w i l l be. There i s a b a l a n c e of nouns and a d j e c t i v e s which runs over the l i n e end somewhat as a t 339-40, 348. Pope c o n t r a s t s the s i l e n c e o f B r i s e i s * d e p a r t u r e w i t h the n o i s y d e s p a i r of A k h i l l e u s i n the s u c c e e d i n g l i n e s , p o i n t i n g out t h a t "the V a r i a t i o n o f the Numbers j u s t i n t h i s p l a c e " (which I ta k e t o mean t h a t the change t o spondees a t t he end o f t h i s whole l i n e of d a c t y l s o c c u r s w i t h the 131 word " A k h i l l e u s " and continues i n t o the word "weeping," enjambed i n 349) "adds a great Beauty to i t " (109 note 451), 349-50, I n 349 the p a r t i c i p l e s occupy the extremes of the l i n e , w h i l e i n 350 the p a r t i c i p l e i s i n the middle, g i v i n g a kind of balance to the c o u p l e t , (Compare the p o s i t i o n of "bow," "quiver" and "arrows" at 45-6.) 349, "The Reason why Agamemnon p a r t s not i n Tears from C h r y s e i s , and A c h i l l e s does from B r i s e i s 1 the one p a r t s w i l l i n g l y from h i s M i s t r e s s , and because he does i t f o r h i s People's S a f e t y i t becomes an Honour to himi the other i s parted u n w i l l i n g l y , and,,,the A c t i o n r e f l e c t s a Dishonour upon him" (Pope 109 note 458), We may add tha t the p a r t i n g here i s the r e a l beginning of the "rage," and so i s presented as g r a p h i c a l l y as p o s s i b l e . 351. I t i s here t h a t the second h a l f of the book begins. L i k e Khryses (33-4), A k h i l l e u s has gone o f f by the beach; l i k e him (35-42), he prays to h i s s p e c i a l d i v i n i t y f o r help because of Agamemnon's arrogant possession of a g i r l . H i s s p e c i a l d i v i n i t y i s of course h i s mother, and as Sheppard notes "we see now another reason why the poet, a t the moment when Khryses prayed to A p o l l o a t the seashore, chose to make 69 him...'born of Leto...." (36). 132 The p a r a l l e l w i t h K h r y s e s s h o u l d n o t he a l l o w e d t o obscure the f a c t t h a t g o i n g o f f by the beach and " e y e i n g the w i n e - f a c e d s e a " i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p t f o r the i n v o c a t i o n of a goddess who i s " s i t t i n g i n the depths o f the s a l t ( - s e a ) . " ( 3 5 8 ) . 353-4. "Honorable payment" b e g i n s the c o u p l e t , and " h o n o r a b l y p a i d " c l o s e s i t . N o t i c e a l s o " p a i d d i s h o n o u r " i n enjambement a t 356. 361,363. Two r a r e t h r e e - s e n t e n c e l i n e s c l o s e t o g e t h e r a g a i n (see on 33)5 the second i s a p e r f e c t t r i a d , 365-6. The harmonious c o i n c i d e n c e of i c t u s and a c c e n t found i n t he r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n i s br o k e n by the f o l l o w i n g l i n e , v/hich has c o i n c i d e n c e o n l y once. Perhaps t h i s i s the m e t r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t of an e x a s p e r a t e d s h r u g of the s h o u l d e r s . 369- 71. N o t i c e " A t r e i d e s " and " K h r y s e i s " j u x t a p o s e d over t h e c a e s u r a ( 3 6 9 ) , " K h r y s e s " and " A p o l l o n " s e p a r a t e d t o the e x t r e m i t i e s of the b a l a n c e d l i n e f o l l o w i n g , and " s h i p s " and " A k h a i a n s " j u x t a p o s e d i n the o p p o s i t e l y b a l a n c e d l a s t l i n e of the t h r e e . 370- 9. A k h i l l e u s becomes n a r r a t o r h e r e , r e p e a t i n g 12-25 133 e x c e p t f o r the speech a t 17-21. A c a r e f u l l i s t e n e r may f e e l he i s b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d back t o the b e g i n n i n g of the s t o r y — a s i n a sense he i s , f o r A k h i l l e u s * t e l l i n g o f the s t o r y here l e a d s u l t i m a t e l y t o the o t h e r q u a r r e l of the book. 371. The one n o n - v e r b a t i m l i n e of the r e p e a t e d passage. A k h i l l e u s l e a v e s out the i n i t i a l enjambed " A t r e i d e s " of 12, t h e r e b y as i t were " s h i f t i n g " the new sentence over t o the ma r g i n , and so has room t o add the f i n a l e p i t h e t , "bronze -t u n i c e d , " B e s i d e s g i v i n g the l i n e a b a l a n c e ( s u p p o r t e d by assonance) i t d i d n o t have b e f o r e , the e p i t h e t may b r i n g out the pun l a t e n t i n the name " K h r y s e s " a t the o p p o s i t e end of the c o u p l e t : the p r i e s t ' s v e r y name i s "G o l d " (and we know he i s from a town named "Golden" and has a daug h t e r named " G o l d i e " ) . He c a r r i e s as t o k e n o f o f f i c e (and perhaps as v i s i b l e symbol of w e a l t h ) a " g o l d e n " s t a f f (the a d j e c t i v e i n 15 and 374 o c c u p y i n g the same i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n as the name i n 370),whereas we know the v e n e r a b l e s t a f f of t h e A k h a i a n s t o be wooden (from A k h i l l e u s ' d e s c r i p t i o n , 2 3 4 - 7 ) , m e r e l y "studded" w i t h " g o l d e n n a i l s " (245-6). When he comes t o the "bronze-t u n i c e d A k h a i a n s " s u r e l y the ransom he b e a r s seems " b o u n d l e s s , " and s u r e l y the s o l d i e r s want t o a c c e p t i t . (The r e v e l a t i o n of the pun her e r a t h e r t h a n i n the e a r l i e r passage i s perhaps h e l p e d by the r e p e t i t i o n o f c h i - e i g h t t i m e s here i n the extended s e n t e n c e , as compared t o f i v e i n the n a r r a t e d 134 v e r s i o n — a l o n g w i t h a l i b e r a l s p r i n k l i n g of kappa's). A p o s s i b l e reason f o r Homer's e x p l o i t a t i o n of the pun here r a t h e r than i n the opening n a r r a t i v e i s t h a t A k h i l l e u s ( l i k e Khryses; see on 16-22) wants t o emphasize the s i z e of the ransom and so place Agamemnon i n a bad l i g h t . 380. This l i n e , which a c a r e l e s s l i s t e n e r , l u l l e d by the repeated sequence, may t h i n k mere paraphrase, i f not a c t u a l r e p e t i t i o n , contains the very s u r p r i s i n g word "angered.'' I n f a c t the humble s u p p l i a n t a t 33-^ i s not "angered," but e x p l i c i t l y " a f r a i d " (see on 33)* Perhaps to A k h i l l e u s "anger" i s one's only p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n when Agamemnon takes a g i r l away from one, or (more p l a u s i b l y ) he i s s l i g h t l y modifying the s t o r y to make i t more p a r a l l e l to h i s own case 1 "Khryses got s a t i s f a c t i o n (so might run the unspoken l o g i c ) — s o should I . " 382-3. I n the r e t e l l i n g of the rage of A p o l l o n (380-4), t h i s sentence stands out as d i f f e r e n t i n emphasis from i t s counterparts i n the n a r r a t i v e (51 - 2 ) . There (perhaps eu-p h e m i s t i c a l l y ) "the f i r e s of corpses burned t h i c k ? " here the s o l d i e r s are "dying" (enjambed f o r emphasis) i n heaps. Again, we may f e e l t h a t i n a s u b t l e way A k h i l l e u s i s making more of Agamemnon's i n s e n s i t i v i t y to the s u f f e r i n g caused by h i s a c t i o n than the n a r r a t o r d i d . 1 3 5 3 8 4 - 5 . Here A k h i l l e u s omits the f a c t t h a t he h i m s e l f "com-manded" ( ? 4 ) K a l k h a s t o speak. The i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t K a l k h a s spoke of h i s own a c c o r d may make Agamemnon's anger w i t h A k h i l l e u s seem t o h i s mother a l l the more u n j u s t i f i e d . I f A k h i l l e u s and K a l k h a s were a c t i n g i n c o l l u s i o n , the o m i s s i o n h e r e , w h i l e more n a t u r a l , i s even more d i s t o r t i n g . 3 8 6 . A n o t h e r e x a g g e r a t i o n . A c t u a l l y Agamemnon o f f e r e d t o g i v e back the g i r l . F o r A k h i l l e u s t o say t h a t i n a v e r y r e a s -onable way he " i m m e d i a t e l y " t o o k "command" of the s i t u a t i o n makes him l o o k b e t t e r t h a n he was. 3 8 7 - 8 . Agamemnon d i d not " q u i c k l y s t a n d up and t h r e a t e n " A k h i l l e u s . A c t u a l l y he s t o o d up s e v e r a l t i m e s , and endured a good d e a l of abuse i n between, b e f o r e making the t h r e a t ( a t 1 8 0 - 5 ) . What we have i n t h i s whole sequence ( 3 6 6 - 9 2 ) , i s a p a r t i a l answer t o A k h i l l e u s ' s e e m i n g l y r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n a t 3 6 5 « why s h o u l d he t e l l h i s mother what she knows a l r e a d y ? H i s purpose i s t o r e c a s t the e v e n t s i n t o a shape n o t i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e p t i b l e t o anyone e l s e , and thus p r e s e n t h i s g r i e v a n c e i n the terms most f a v o r a b l e t o h i m s e l f ( o r p e r h a p s , as i t a c t u a l l y seems t o h i m s e l f ) . 3 8 8 . "The rhythm--a s i n g l e word o f two spondees f i l l i n g the f i r s t two f e e t - - i s a l m o s t unique i n Homer" ( L e a f ) . T h i s no 136 doubt g i v e s g r e a t w e i g h t t o the enjambed v e r b . 395. The " b e n e f i t by s a y i n g s o r deed" b r a c k e t s the " h e a r t o f Zeus," perhaps e x p r e s s i v e l y . 397-406, The p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e o f a myth w h e r e i n a l l - p o w e r -f u l Zeus i s "bound" by the o t h e r gods i n c o n c e r t and has t o a c c e p t h e l p from o u t s i d e Olympos may be a p t h e r e , where A k h i l l e u s , though the acknowledged "most p o w e r f u l , " must f e e l "bound" and h e l p l e s s , and must seek h e l p from o u t s i d e A k h a i a n s o c i e t y , 400. The b a l a n c e d assonance o f t h i s p e r f e c t t r i a d i s worth n o t i n g . I t would be w h o l l y l a c k i n g i f we r e a d , w i t h Zenod-o t u s , "Phoibos A p o l l o n " i n p l a c e o f " P a l l a s Athene." The t h r e e gods mentioned here a r e , as P a l e y p o i n t s o u t , "the s u p p o r t e r s of the Greeks, so t h a t t h e r e i s s p e c i a l r e a s o n f o r T h e t i s a g a i n c o n s e n t i n g t o take p a r t a g a i n s t them." W i l l c o c k , a r g u i n g t h a t the s t o r y i s made up t o s u i t the s i t -u a t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t "by a s t r a n g e s o r t of r e f l e x e f f e c t t h e y t a k e the r o l e o f the o p p o s i t i o n i n the i n v e n t e d myth."' 404-5. The end l i n e rhyme may emphasize t h a t the monster " r e j o i c e s " because he i s " b e t t e r " t h a n h i s f a t h e r . Of c o u r s e , he may a l s o be y*tu ,K (a v e r y r a r e word; see L e a f ) because h i s name i s " ' A y ^ u - v N o t i c e t h a t t h e s e two words a r e a t the extremes o f the c o u p l e t . 13? Paley points out that "the name Agaion was connected with the name (Aegean) of the sea, and thus i t was assumed as a reason why he should be summoned by Thetis." 406, The rhyme helps to emphasize the sound play across the two words in which i t occurs (noticed by Paley), and heightens the polar effect of the two verbs, as well as underscoring the 71 pun.' 409. Sheppard remarks that while Akhilleus here asks Thetis to have Zeus pen the Greeks up at their ships, and that this is in fact what happens, "she asks ( 5 0 9 ) . and Zeus promises (523) something l e s s . " 7 2 The unpatriotic selfishness of "the conduct of Akhilles is well conceived for showing the intensity of the 'rage.0 For the same Akhilles had been the f i r s t to insist on the restoration of Khryseis in order to stop the plague" (Paley). 410. Enjambed "for k i l l i n g " is very emphatic, 412. Akhilleus' last speech in this book (and for some time to come) ends with his perceptive invocation of the significant word "blindness" (enjambed for emphasis), which Agamemnon w i l l later (Book 19. 88) make the basis of his explanation for his own actions. 138 413-14. Perhaps the end-rhyme suggests that Thetis is "pour-ing tears" because she was "terrible in child-bearing." 414. Thetis' f i r s t words here, "born(child)...terrible in my (child-)bearing" echo the f i r s t word of the short speech when she f i r s t arrives ("born(child)" 362), The whole speech of Akhilleus is thus "surrounded" in a way evocative of his own plea, "but let you...(protectingly) around-hold this child of yours" (393). 418. Her lament ends ("you to a terrible fate I bore in the halls") as i t began ("terrible in my child-bearing") (Monro). 421-2, "Rage" in emphatic enjambement again, for the f i r s t time (since 1) applied to Akhilleus, The word evidently lends i t s e l f to sound-play; here i t is perhaps foreshadowed by the syllables of "sitting." See also 488, where the same two words occur closer together, and the similar play between "rage" and "destroying" at 1-2.73 423-4. Is the much analyzed (by Analysts) absence of Zeus merely a humorous way of establishing some perspective? Akhilleus may feel that the world has ended, but Zeus i s on holiday. To any discussion of this twelve-day interval must be added the fact (noted by Willcock) that "there is a similar 139 i n t e r v a l of t w e l v e days a t the end o f the I l i a d , f o r such i s t h e l e n g t h o f the t r u c e w h i c h A k h i l l e u s a g r e e s w i t h P r i a m f o r the T r o j a n s t o mourn and b u r y H e c t o r (Book 24, 6 6 7 ) , " 426-7, N o t i c e the end-rhyme a t b o t h extremes of t h e s e l i n e s , w h i c h c o n c l u d e t h e i n t e r v i e w between mother and s o n . 429. L i k e " rage" ( 4 2 2 ) , "angered" h e r e i s emphatic. 433-4. The t h r e e s e n t e n c e s d e a l i n g w i t h the d i s p o s i t i o n of the r i g g i n g form a t r i a d , w h i l e the t h r e e cognate nouns, con-s i d e r e d a p a r t from t h e i r s e n t e n c e s , form a t r i a d o f t h e i r own. 436-9. The r e p e t i t i o n s here (as w e l l as those i n 4 3 3 - M a r e c e r t a i n l y s t r i k i n g . To say w i t h W i l k i n s o n t h a t "by the r e -p e a t e d €K k«C ,. .he makes more v i v i d the a c t i o n — d i s e m b a r k i n g 74 i t e m by i t e m , " ' i s r a t h e r f l a t . T h i s would a l s o be t o i g n o r e the r e p e a t e d b e t a ' s h o v e r i n g around the t h i r d f o o t t h r o u g h o u t , and t h e l o n g words w i t h p i , rho and omicron around the f o u r t h a t 434, 435, 436 and 439. Even i f Homer were i n the h a b i t of u s i n g r e p e t i t i o n t o "make the a c t i o n more v i v i d " (but he i s n o t ) , we would wonder why he s p e n t so much e f f o r t on such an u n i m p o r t a n t a c t i o n . Perhaps i t i s mere p l e a s u r e i n r e p e a t e d sounds. 458-74. N o t i c e the r i n g c o m p o s i t i o n ! A p o l l o n " h e a r s " the 140 p r a y e r (458), and " l i s t e n s " t o the paean (474). The whole passage i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t i t i s a s u i t i n g of a c t i o n t o the words o f Khryse"s i n the p r a y e r a t 40t " i f e v e r f o r you I burned f a t t h i g h s / of b u l l s o r of g o a t s . " Thus i t p a r t l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r e s o l u t i o n here of the problem which caused the p l a g u e , by p r e s e n t i n g , i n a n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n , K h r y s e s a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m i n g one o f the s a c r i f i c e s w hich he i n v o k e s a t 40, as a " j u s t cause" why the god s h o u l d send the p l a g u e , 467-8 The r e p e t i t i o n o f "shared ( f e a s t ) " c o n t r i b u t e s t o the remark a b l e s e v e n t e e n d e n t a l s of t h i s c o u p l e t . Perhaps the assonance here i s s i m p l y f o r p l e a s u r e , but i t may be e x p r e s s i v e of the key word . N o t i c e t h a t a t 6 0 1 - 2 , where 602=468, the assonance over the l i n e end i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The m o d i f i e r a t t a c h e d t o the t h i r d " f e a s t " word i s the ad-j e c t i v e " e q u a l ? " hence t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y an e t y m o l o g i c a l p l a y on the ro o t - m e a n i n g " s h a r e , " There may thus be an a l l u s i o n t o A k h i l l e u s ' c o m p l a i n t , Not t o you e v e r an e q u a l t h i n g do I h o l d (as) p r i z e • • • • . . . i f e v e r a s h a r i n g ( - o u t ) comes ( 1 6 3 - 6 ) , 473-4. Nagy notes t h a t "paean" "the name of the song, i s a l s o t h e e p i t h e t d e n o t i n g the h e a l i n g powers of the god." T h i s i s c r u c i a l t o h i s p o i n t t h a t the o n l y o t h e r "paean" i n the poem (22 , 391 ) i s sung when A k h i l l e u s has warded o f f t h e " p a i n s " he 7 5 had h i m s e l f i n f l i c t e d on the A k h a i a n s . ' J P a l e y n o t e s t h a t 141 " f a r - w o r k e r " i n the n e x t l i n e acknowledges the god's power, "and a p r a y e r t h a t he would w i t h o l d h i s h a n d . , , i s i m p l i e d . " 477. The h i g h c o i n c i d e n c e o f m e t r i c a l i c t u s w i t h the e t a ' s , as w e l l as the a l l i t e r a t i o n , h e l p make up the a p p e a l of t h i s 76 b e a u t i f u l f o r m u l a i c l i n e . 488-92. T h i s passage i s v e r y u n u s u a l i n t h a t i t c o n s i s t s of summary, o r background, m a t e r i a l . The c o l l o c a t i o n of f r e q u e n t -a t i v e v e r b s (490, 491, 492) w i t h t h e i r assonance c o n t r i b u t e s t o our f e e l i n g t h a t the a c t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d as b e i n g contemp-oraneous w i t h the p r e c e d i n g t r i p t o Khryse-town and the t e n days which e l a p s e i n 493. 490-1. A k h i l l e u s a c c u s e s Agamemnon o f a b s t a i n i n g f r om the two k i n d s of w a r f a r e (266-7) i n language q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t used here t o d e s c r i b e h i s own a b s t e n t i o n . ( I n p a r t i c u l a r , compare the i n i t i a l p h r a s e s . ) 490. L e a f n o t e s t h a t " g l o r i o u s f o r a man" i s "elsewhere used o f ' f i g h t i n g * o n l y . " Here I t h i n k i t i s used f o r "assembly" because the assembly i s where we have j u s t seen A k h i l l e u s s h i n e ( i t may be used i r o n i c a l l y , i n v i e w o f what has happened), and perhaps because the assembly o f t h i s book has more t h a n a l i t t l e o f " f i g h t i n g i n i t " (see on 177). 142 515-15. "That w e l l I know/ how much" r e c a l l s Agamemnon's charge t o A k h i l l e u s , , . . t h a t w e l l you know how much more ( w e i g h t - ) b e a r i n g I am t h a n you ( 1 8 5 - 6 ) , 518-19. L i k e K a l k h a s when c a l l e d upon t o speak by A k h i l l e u s , Zeus a t f i r s t demurs because he w i l l "cause h a t r e d " i n some-o n e — i n Here i n f a c t (enjambed and e m phatic, as a t 5 2 3 ) . 522-3. When Zeus f i n a l l y makes up h i s mind, h i s d e c i s i o n i s e x p r e s s e d i n two harmonious l i n e s w i t h h i g h c o i n c i d e n c e of i c t u s and a c c e n t , 523. "The vagueness of the answer i s meant t o d e t e r T h e t i s from p r e s s i n g the p o i n t " ( P a l e y ) . But see on 409. 526, "Mark," i n enjambement a f t e r an a d j e c t i v e o t h e r t h a n " a l l , " "many" or " o t h e r " (an u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n ) i s "perhaps on the b o r d e r - l i n e . . . o f what might be c a l l e d h a r s h enjambe-ment." 7^ T h i s perhaps g i v e s " h a r s h " emphasis t o the promise Zeus i s making. 533-5. N o t i c e t h a t the l a s t two words of 533 a r e a l m o s t r e -p e a t e d , i n r e v e r s e o r d e r , a t t h e end of 535. 53^ i s l i n k e d t o the assonance of t h e s e words by the r e p e a t e d O I V T C O C 143 5 4 l , "Always for you dear" ( i t is to provoke me). Compare Agamemnon, to Kalkhas, "always for you evils are dear" (107) and to Akhilleus, "always for you quarrelling (is) dear..." (177). 542-3, Two forms of the word "understanding" occur here in two lines, as when Akhilleus is reviling Agamemnon at 149-50. Also, the construction, "not,.,/do you endure" occurs in a similar context at 226-8, 553. Here's response shows an inference from Zeus' words, that he was implying the familiar "always for you i t is dear..." (used "by Here herself at 541). The charge is only here (in Book I) refuted directly, 563. "And that for you even more c h i l l i n g w i l l be," recalls Agamemnon's remark to the heralds at 326, Notice also that the verb is involved in end-rhyme in both passages. 563-6. Notice the interweaving of two groups of end-rhymes (563-4, 565-6) by the mid-line assonance of 564-5, 565, 569. The two words repeated in the same positions in these lines emphasize that when Zeus says "shut up and s i t down," that is exactly what Here does. By so much more is Zeus king of gods than is Agamemnon king of men. 144 568-9. Compare t h e s e l i n e s t o tho s e n a r r a t i n g the r e a c t i o n t o Agamemnon's d i s m i s s a l of K h r y s e s t So spoke he; and he f e a r e d , , . and walked s i l e n t . . . (33-4). 573-94. H e p h a i s t o s ' peace-making speeches a r e s i m i l a r i n many p o i n t s t o N e s t o r ' s (254-84). The b i g d i f f e r e n c e o f cours e i s t h a t H e p h a i s t o s ' speeches a re u n n e c c e s s a r y because the q u a r r e l i s over ( a t 569) w h i l e N e s t o r ' s has no r e a l e f f e c t . 573-6. S i m i l a r i n tone t o N e s t o r ' s o p e n i n g , 581, As N e s t o r d e s c r i b e s Agamemnon t o A k h i l l e u s as "more ( w e i g h t - ) b e a r i n g " (281) so H e p h a i s t o s uses the word here of Zeus, t o Here", 566-7. Sheppard i s r i g h t t h a t " i t i s d e l i g h t f u l t o observe t h a t , when Zeus t h r e a t e n s Here w i t h h i s grave d i s p l e a s u r e , he uses the f a m i l i a r f o r m u l a " (from 281 " l e s t now t h e y n o t defend y o u " ) . ^ But i n e v o k i n g the e a r l i e r l i n e t h i s one c o n t r i b u t e s t o the p a r a l l e l between the two p a r t s o f the book. 576. Enjambed " f i n e , " c a l l e d " r a t h e r h a r s h " by Edwards (on a c c o u n t o f the r a r e s e p a r a t i o n of an enjambed a d j e c t i v e 145 from i t s noun) is perhaps in i n i t i a l position for the sake of emphasis, and to bring i t into the closer association with "sweetness" (notice the assonance) in opposition to "the worse things." 582. This is similar in form (although opposite in intent) to Athene's suggestion to the angered Akhilleus (211). 583. Hephaistos wants Zeus to be "appeased," just as Kalkhas (100) and Agamemnon (147) want Apollon "appeased." 585. Similar to the presentation of Khryseis to her father (446), which ended Apollon's "quarrel" with the Akhaians. (80) 589. Similar to Kalkhas* warning to Akhilleus1 For (more) powerful (is) a king, when angered by a man worse. 591- 4, Like Nestor, Hephaistos trots out a story from the past to show that he knows what he i s talking about. 592- 3. "...and together with the sun's down-sinking/ down-fell I in Lemnos." Homer's repetition over the line end is even more effective than Milton's imitation, .. .he f e l l . . . a summer's day; and with the setting sun dropt, (Paradise Lost 1. 7^2-5), 146 so admired by W i l k i n s o n . W J " 594. F i v e m e t r i c a l l y s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f vowel + nu + d e n t a l , f o u r o f them a l s o b e a r i n g the word s t r e s s , g i v e t h i s l a s t l i n e of the l a s t speech i n the book a unique r e s o n a n c e . N o t i c e a l s o the c h i a s t i c arrangement of the vowels of the l a s t two s y l l a b l e s of the l a s t two words. The t r i p l e assonance ( w i t h i c t u s t h r e e t i m e s and a c c e n t t w i c e ) of S x ' v r ce s Ko/ucc-xvro rrccrc'i/rc* may evoke an e t y m o l o g i c a l pun, o r a t l e a s t one s u g g e s t i n g a n o t h e r r e l a t i o n between H e p h a i s t o s and the S i n t i a n s o f Lemnos. Two o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n s have been s u g g e s t e d . F i r s t , "the i s l a n d i s v o l c a n i c ; hence the m y t h i c a l c o n n e x i o n w i t h H e p h a i s t o s " (Monro). Second, the S i n t i a n s " w e r e . . . s k i l l e d i n m e t a l l u r g y , and thence c a l l e d 'the f r i e n d s o f H e p h a i s t o s , ' " ( P a l e y ) . 595-611. The q u a r r e l ends f i n a l l y w i t h a f e a s t , as i n one sense the e a r l i e r q u a r r e l ended w i t h the f e a s t i n honor of A p o l l o n (465-74). The q u i e t e n d i n g o f t h e book, w i t h peace f u l l y r e s t o r e d , s t a n d s i n i r o n i c c o n t r a s t t o our l a s t v iew of A k h i l l e u s (488-92), s t i l l b u r n i n g w i t h the " r a g e " t h a t w i l l l a s t t h r o u g h o u t the poem. 602. As A c h i t y r e m a r k s , t h i s l i n e "reminds us of the human 147 f e a s t on Tenedos a t the c o m p l e t i o n of the s u c c e s s f u l r e t u r n of K h r y s e i s ( 4 6 8 ) . " o c Through t h i s , i t may r e f e r , i n i r o n i c c o n t r a s t a g a i n , t o A k h i l l e u s ' c o m p l a i n t about " e q u a l s h a r i n g " (163-6; see note on 467-8). I t i s worth n o t i n g here t h a t a l l o t h e r t h r e a d s of the d i s r u p t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s book have now a l s o been r e s o l v e d : A p o l l o n i s appeased; Agamemnon i s appeased; T h e t i s i s happy; Zeus and H e p h a i s t o s a r e a t ea s e , w i t h Here a t l e a s t s u b m i s s i v e . Only A k h i l l e u s s t i l l " r a g e s , " 6o4. "Muses" h e r e , enjambed i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n (and f o l l o w e d by the v e r b " s i n g " ) e i g h t l i n e s from the end, may remind us t h a t the o n l y o t h e r "Muse" i n the book i s i n l i n e 1; w h i l e the j u x t a p o s i t i o n over the l i n e end w i t h " A p o l l o n " (603) may sug g e s t t h a t the "Muse" of 1 i s " w e l l - s i t u a t e d " t o t e l l us about a "rage" w h i c h comes u l t i m a t e l y from A p o l l o n . 6 l l . The book c l o s e s w i t h Zeus, who was f i r s t mentioned i n 5;^ t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r i n g s t r u c t u r e a l r e a d y made by the Muses, the s i n g i n g , and A p o l l o n , The harmony of the v e r y l a s t l i n e , w i t h c o i n c i d e n c e of a c c e n t and i c t u s s i x t i m e s , s h o u l d be n o t i c e d . 148 FOOTNOTES Chapter One 1. Bassett, "The So-Called Emphatic Position of the Runover Word in the Homeric Hexameter," TAPA 57 (1926) 119. 2. This s t a t i s t i c , as well as the few unattributed remarks, in the thesis, concerning frequencies of occurence, are based on my own counts. 3. Parry, "The Distinctive Character of Enjambement in Homeric Verse," TAPA 60 (1929) 200. 4. Parry (above, note 3) 220. 5. "In at least two-thirds of the instances i t serves as a stepping-stone by which our attention is led on to a new picture or new deta i l . This is especially true of runover adjective, participle, and adverb. These and other runover words often owe their position to a contrasting idea which immediately follows. The noun or pronoun is often placed thus to make obvious the antecedent of the following relative pronoun, or to indicate the person or circumstance to which the following words have reference. The most striking impression that is given by studying a l l the runover words in Homer is of their function as mediaries between the thought already given to the reader and the new idea to which he is to be introduced." Bassett (above, note 1) 145-6. 6. I suggest this as a possible explanation of the fact that while formulaic structures may occupy whole lines, they are rarely broken by verse ends. On this point, see Hainsworth, The F l e x i b i l i t y of the Homeric Formula (Oxford 1968) 105. Parry's demonstration (above, note 3) that enjambement occurs less frequently in oral poetry than in written may also be relevant here. 7. A l l translations in the thesis are my own unless otherwise indicated. For an explanation of the method of translation, see below, pages 9-11 and 30. 8. Wilkinson, Golden Latin Artistry (Cambridge 1963) 175. 9. Stanford, The Sound of Greek (Berkley 1967) 9^ note 2 0 . 149 10. Stanford (above, note 9) 82. 11. See below, pages 7-8. 12. See Stanford (above, note 9) for some very good basic ideas too often taken to extremes. For an example of such over-interpretation i n Book I, see below, Chapter Three, page 118. 13. Packard, "Sound Patterns in Homer," TAPA 104 (1974) 239-60. 14. This f a i r l y consistent pattern may further support the idea that enjambement was neccessary in order to give the poet freedom to create the special effect of rhyme, but I can offer no suggestion as to why the enjambement should be present in this particular pattern. 15. While i t would be a mistake to try to force this point in any way, i t may be noticed here in passing that the accepted Elizabethan convention of ending blank verse scenes with rhymed couplets was also by no means always observed. Of the five scenes of Hamlet, Act I, for example, i and i i end with no rhyme, while iv and v have their closing rhyme before the last line. 16. Mason, To Homer Through Pope (New York 1972) 36-40. Chapter Two 1. Willcock, The Iliad of Homer, Books I-XII (London 1 9 7 8 ) . 2. Packard (above, Chapter One, note 1 3 ) . The table, compiled by computer, i s useful as far as i t goes, in creating an objective standard by which to measure the r a r i t y of any repeated sound. But assonance and the effects associated with i t do not stop at the repetition of one sound, nor at the ends of the lines. Therefore I think Packard's computer should be asked some further questions (which also should be borne in mind when reading the Annotated Text in Chapter Two). 1.) How often do sounds recur within the sentence, as opposed to the line? In 180, for example, the remark-able collocation of sigma's in fact starts with the beginning of the sentence, in 179. In 339» although the computer t e l l s us that the five omega's are rare, 150 i t t e l l s us n o t h i n g about the t h r e e o t h e r omega's i n the p r e c e d i n g h a l f - l i n e (338) w h i c h b e g i n s t h e same s e n t e n c e . 2. ) How o f t e n do sounds r e c u r i n h a l f - l i n e s o r i n p h r a s e s ? 329 i s n o t e d f o r i t s t r i p l e e t a - i o t a , b u t i t may be even more r e m a r k a b l e i n t h a t t h e sounds a l l o c c u r i n one p h r a s e , o c c u p y i n g o n l y h a l f the l i n e , 3. ) How o f t e n do p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f sounds o c c u r ? F o r example, P a c k a r d ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of lambda, r h o , mu, and nu t o g e t h e r as " l i q u i d s " c o u l d more u s e f u l l y be b r o k e n down by a s k i n g the computer t o examine t h e n a s a l s (mu and nu; perhaps w i t h n a s a l i z e d gamma) as a s e p a r a t e group from the l i q u i d s p r o p e r (lambda and r h o ) . The g r o u p i n g s o f d e n t a l s and g u t t u r a l s a r e u s e f u l , b u t s h o u l d have f i g u r e s f o r s t o p s and f r i c a t i v e s as w e l l . 4. ) What happens i n the s p e c i a l case o f f o r m u l a e ? A s h o r t and p r o v o c a t i v e n ote by S t a n f o r d , "Euphonic Reasons f o r the Choice o f Homeric F o r m u l a e ? " Hermathena 108 (1969) 14-17, i s c i t e d by P a c k a r d , b u t he does n o t t a k e up the g a u n t l e t . W i t h i n Book I many f o r m u l a e show k i n d s of assonance, and i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o have t a b l e s showing f r e q u e n c i e s and p l a c e o f occurence f o r m e t r i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t f o r m u l a e w i t h d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f assonance. The c h i e f e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s a r e some o f the p a r t i c l e s and v e r b s d e n o t i n g "be" and "go," f o r w h i c h E n g l i s h has an i n s u f f i c i e n t number of near-synonyms, I n the T r a n s l a t i o n , p a r e n t h e s e s are used t o e n c l o s e words, n o t i n the Greek, which a r e n e c e s s a r y or u s e f u l f o r comprehension. Chapter Three 1. N o r m a l l y , b o d i e s would o n l y be e a t e n by b i r d s and dogs i f no one were l e f t a l i v e t o cremate them. 2. R e d f i e l d , "The Proem of the I l i a d i Homer's A r t , " CP 74 Number 2 (1979) 100. 3. R e d f i e l d (above, n o t e 2) 100. 4. R e d f i e l d (above, n o t e 2) 101. 5. T h i s i s an example of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d e t e r m i n i n g , from P a c k a r d ' s t a b l e , t h e r a r i t y o f a c o l l o c a t i o n o f 151 sounds in a sentence as opposed to a l i n e . (See above, Chapter Two, note 2 ) . This was pointed out to me by I. Arthy. Pope, Homer's Iliad, the Twickenham Edition. Vol. 7, edited by Maynard Mack (London 1967) 120 note 694, Henceforth referred to as "Pope." "Set" (2) and "forth-threw" (3) are aorists, while "made" (4) and "was realized" (5) are imperfects. Redfield (above, note 2) 108. See Stanford (above, Chapter One, note 9) 105 f f . Although he does not suggest that pi functions this way, the mouth does spit by forming the plosive b i l a b i a l stop /p/. Redfield (above, note 2) 109. The enclosure is even more striking i f we consider the preposition and the verb as two parts of single verbal idea: r— 1 sickness upon the army roused e v i l , Bassett (above, Chapter One, note 1) 1 2 5 , See 430 for a different kind of abrupt transition in mid-line. Some support may be found in this for Nagy's proposed derivations of "Akhilleus" from «xos and A « C 5 ("grief for the soldiers") and of "Akhaians" likewise from For his argument see Nagy, "The Name of Achilles* Etymology and Epic," Studies in Greek, I t a l i c and Indo- European Linguistics offered to Leonard R. Palmer on the  Occasion of Seventieth Birthday, edited by A. Davies and W. Meid, TTnnsbruck 1976) 209-56. Edwards, "Some Features of Homeric Craftsmanship," TAPA 97 (1966) 120. This point and some of the following are made in Kakrides, "The F i r s t Scene with Khryses in the I l i a d , Homer Revisited (Lund 1971) 125-37. My observations, similar in many places to his, were independently arrived at except where noted, and point to different conclusions. 152 17. Paley, The Iliad of Homer with English Notes, Vol. I (London 1866) ad loc. Henceforth referred to as "Paley." 18. Monro, Iliad Books 1-12, with...Notes (Oxford 1926) ad loc. Henceforth referred to as "Monro." 19. Pope 86 note 23. Nevertheless, he curiously ignores the epithet "far-shooter" in translating the line, and as he says adds the word "Avenging." 20. Sheppard, The Pattern of the Iliad (New York 1966) 14-15. 21. See Pope (87-8 note 41) for a discussion of this view and the opposite one, 22. See also Mure, C r i t i c a l History of...Greek Literature Vol. 2 (London 1854) 1 0 7 ^ He claims without elaborating that the sounds "contrasting the silent indignation of the priest with the boisterous roaring of the surge" are an il l u s t r a t i o n of onomatopoeia "almost too t r i t e for citation." 2 3 . Although "Phoibos Apollon" in i n i t i a l position occurs four times. "Off aloof moving" in 35 has been objected to as redundant after 34, and the name "Apollon" in one of i t s forms surely could have gone in 35 in place of that phrase i f the poet had not wanted to suspend i t over the line end. Contrast 351. of Akhilleus in a very similar situation, and much to his mother dear he prayed, his hands reaching; where the object is included in the lin e . 24. Sheppard (above, note 20) 15. 25. I. Arthy suggests that the enjambement here, by disrupting the pattern, is perhaps expressive of Khryses' agitation. He points out that there is no such disruption at 451-6, where Khryses has what he wants. 26. Murray, The Iliad (London 1976) ad loc. 27. In an interesting and persuasive a r t i c l e , "The Sminthian Apollo and the Epidemic among the Achaeans at Troy," TAPA 108 (1978) 11-14, Bernheim and Zener conclude from external evidence that "there can be l i t t l e doubt ...that Apollo Smintheus was the god of bubonic plague 153 ( s p r e a d by r o d e n t s ) and p o s s i b l y , by e x t e n s i o n , o f a l l s e v e r e p e s t i l e n c e s " (page 1 2 ) , They t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f y the p l a g u e h e r e as equine e n c e p h a l o m y e l i t i s , a d i s e a s e which " k i l l s e q u i n e s 7 t o 14 days b e f o r e symptoms appear i n man" (page 1 1 ) , T h i s d i s e a s e i s s p r e a d by m o s q u i t o e s , and thus " i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the t e r r i f y i n g sound o f A p o l l o ' s bow,,,is a metaphor f o r the t e r r i f y i n g sound o f m y r i a d s of m o s q u i t o e s , " (They add t h a t i t seems "no emphasis i s p l a c e d on the sound of the bow when A p o l l o i s s h o o t i n g h i s a r r o w s f o r o t h e r l e t h a l p u r p o s e s , " page 13 note 1 0 ) , Pope (89 n o t e s 67 and 69) s u g g e s t s t h a t the p l a g u e was due i n p a r t t o "immoderate H e a t s " s e n t by A p o l l o n , who as "the Sun was a p r i n c i p a l I n s t r u m e n t " w i t h h i s " D a r t s or Beams" (the arrows a g a i n ) , 28. A m i m e t i c word here i f t h e r e e v e r was one» compare i t s d e r i v a t i v e s c l a n g and c l a n g o r ; a l s o c l a n k , c l i n k , c l a s h , c l a p , c l i c k , c l a c k , c r a c k , c r a s h , e t c . 29. The j u x t a p o s e d . . . CjfJ-OLC-Ll/ fc)(u)-/ (44) (45) (46) s h o u l d a l s o be n o t i c e d , 30. P a c k a r d ' s computer f i n d s o n l y 46 l i n e s i n the I l i a d w i t h t h r e e p h i ' s , w h i l e here.we have t h r e e i n h a l f a l i n e . 31. B a s s e t t (above, Chapter One, note 5). 32. That the word i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t has been f e l t t o have a mi m e t i c e f f e c t appears from Edwards' remark on I l i a d 16, 104-5» "...the n o i s y r e p e t i t i o n of the r o o t ~- t h r e e t i m e s i n two l i n e s . . , , " (Above, note 15) 130. 33. Hogan, A Guide t o the I l i a d (New York 1979) 82. 34. Sheppard (above, note 20) 16. 35. Sheppard (above, note 20) 17. 36. R e d f i e l d , "The Wrath of A c h i l l e s as T r a g i c E r r o r , " E s s a y s on the I l i a d , e d i t e d by John W r i g h t ( I n d i a n a 1978) 90. 154 Compare the s i n i s t e r sigmas a t 10 .455, 11.565 and 14.94, Mure (above, note22) 107, c a l l s M t h e r e i t e r a t i o n of low s i b i l a n t sounds" a t 9.323-4 "a s t r i k i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f l e t t e r s and s y l l a b l e s i n e n h a n c i n g t h e i d e a o f s c o r n and contempt." A c h i t y , Homer's I l i a d ( I l l i n o i s 1978) 129. Hogan, "Double rrpi-y and the Language of A c h i l l e s , " CJ 71 (1976) 3 0 3 ^ L e a f , The I l i a d E d i t e d w i t h . . . N o t e s , V o l . I (Amsterdam 1971) ad l o c . H e n c e f o r t h r e f e r r e d t o as " L e a f . " As H. G, E d i n g e r p o i n t s o u t , i t w i l l come as no s u r p r i s e t o the l i s t e n e r t h a t the g i f t s a r e t o be s e n t t o a p a r t i c u l a r a l t a r of the god who was i n v o k e d i n p u r e l y l o c a l terms a t 3 7 - 9 . But the p o i n t h e r e i s s i m p l y t h a t Agamemnon s u r e l y must f e e l i n s u l t e d by h a v i n g t o a c t u a l l y send them anywhere. Owen, The S t o r y o f the I l i a d a s . T o l d i n the I l i a d ( T oronto 1946) 7^. Sheppard (above, note 20) 24-33, The u n i q u e n e s s o f the p l u r a l e p i t h e t i s p o i n t e d out by B e n a r d e t e , " A c h i l l e s and the I l i a d , " Hermes 91 (1963) 14. A l t h o u g h the p a t t e r n o b j e c t + v e r b o c c u r s 95 t i m e s i n Book I , the v e r b i s o n l y enjambed 4 t i m e s . Hogan (above, note 33) 83 . To n o t i c e the p a r a l l e l and y e t su g g e s t t h a t i t o n l y means 100 was "superadded t o s u i t t h e n a r r a t i v e " seems a s t r a n g e l a p s e i n a c r i t i c so a c u t e as P a l e y . I . A r t h y p o i n t s out t h a t the f a c t t h a t the f o l l o w i n g v e r b i s second p e r s o n s i n g u l a r g i v e s s u p p o r t f o r t h i s i d e a . W i l l c o c k , The I l i a d o f Homer E d i t e d with...Commentary, Books 1-12 (London 1978) a d ~ l o c . H e n c e f o r t h r e f e r r e d t o as " W i l l c o c k . " P a l e y ' s note t h a t q^uyst-y may mean s i m p l y " d e p a r t " does n o t d i m i n i s h the e f f e c t o f the word h e r e . 155 See T s a g a r a k i s , "The Achaean Embassy and the Wrath o f A c h i l l e s " Hermes 99 (1971) 258-77? e s p e c i a l l y 259, where he argues t h a t A k h i l l e u s "demands s u p p l i c a t i o n f r o m Agamemnon as the s o l e c o n d i t i o n f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . " T h i s was p o i n t e d out t o me by H. G. E d i n g e r . Edwards, " C o n v e n t i o n and I n d i v i d u a l i t y i n I l i a d I , " HSCP 84 (1980) 13. See h i s note 31 on the e p i t h e t , w h i c h perhaps would have been even more " n a t u r a l " because o f i t s l a m b d a - g u t t u r a l assonance w i t h the r e s t of the s e n t e n c e . P o s s i b l y " f u l l " names, o r names w e i g h t e d by p a t r o n y m i c s o r o t h e r e p i t h e t s , a r e g e n e r a l l y more e v o c a t i v e of t h e power o r a b i l i t y o f the p e r s o n named t h a n s i n g l e word d e s i g n a t i o n s . See 1, 24, 182, e t c . } and, i n enjambement, 7, 36, 69 e t c . On the o t h e r hand, t o r e a d ocwre w i t h L e a f , as "an e x p r e s s i o n o f i m p a t i e n c e , i m p l y i n g 'one v e x a t i o n a f t e r a n o t h e r , ' " i s p o s s i b l e ; b u t as L e a f adds, " c f 540;" t h e r e the r e g u l a r meaning " a g a i n " ( i m p l y i n g , " t h i s has happened b e f o r e " ) i s much more e f f e c t i v e as an e v o c a t i o n of the h e n - p e c k i n g w i f e , A c h i t y (above, note 38) 56-60. T h i s was p o i n t e d out t o me by I , A r t h y . A c h i t y (above, note 38) 123. A c h i t y (above, note 38) 130. I suppose, a l t h o u g h he does n o t s a y s o , t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s prompted by 238 S t a n f o r d (above, Chapter One, n o t e 9) 110. We may a l s o n o t i c e h e r e t h a t E n g l i s h "sweet" and " s u a s i v e " (from L a t i n ) a r e cognate w i t h rj'Swi and ^ v U v ^ and the L a t i n p a i r " s u a v i s " and " s u a d e r e . " Could the metaphor t h a t gave r i s e t o the second L a t i n word (and i t s many E n g l i s h d e r i v a t i v e s , " s u a s i o n , " "assuade," " d i s s u a d e , " "persuade," e t c . ) have been a p p a r e n t t o Homer a l s o , so t h a t f o r him a " p e r s u a s i v e " (see on "persuade," 273-4) s p e a k e r was n a t u r a l l y a " s w e e t - s a y e r ? " ( N o t i c e , f o r example, 24, where K h r y s e s ' r e q u e s t i s "not sweet" i n Agamemnon's s o u l ; t h a t i s , he i s n o t persuaded.) I f so the development o f the t r i a d ' s t h i r d element w i t h 1 5 6 an u n r e l a t e d "sweetness" word ("honey") i s an i n t e r e s t i n g e x t e n s i o n of t h a t metaphor. 6 2 . A g l a n c e a t t h e concordance r e v e a l s the i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t t h a t t h i s f o r m u l a o f t e n o c c u r s i n the environment o f s e v e r a l o t h e r p i ' s . C ould i t be t h a t s t o p s , w h i c h i n t e r r u p t the f l o w o f b r e a t h which makes up speech, were a c t u a l l y f e l t t o be " v o i c e - d i v i d i n g ? " 6 3 . A u s t i n , "The F u n c t i o n o f D i g r e s s i o n i n the I l i a d , " E s s a y s on the I l i a d , e d i t e d by John W r i g h t ( I n d i a n a 1 9 7 8 ) 7 5 . 6k. A g a i n s t the o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s l i n e , t h a t " A k h i l l e u s i s j u s t as much a ' s t a f f - b e a r i n g k i n g ' as Agamemnon" ( L e a f ) , see Book 2 . 1 0 0 - 0 8 , where the s t a f f ' s "genealogy" i s g i v e n , 6 5 . To f o l l o w A r i s t a r c h u s i n o b e l i z i n g (and F i t z g e r a l d i n o m i t t i n g ) t h i s l i n e ( 2 9 6 ) i s supreme i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o the p o e t i c v a l u e i t has i n the q u a r r e l . 6 6 . T h i s by no means, as Edwards (above, note 5 3 ) 1 6 c l a i m s , " r e p r e s e n t s a s l i g h t b a c k i n g down on h i s p r e v i o u s s t a t e m e n t , " 6 7 . I n the Musec N a z i o n a l e , N a p l e s . 6 8 . I n the House o f the T r a g i c P o e t a t P o m p e i i , The p a i n t i n g i s i n f a c t a f a s c i n a t i n g commentary on I l i a d I . The moment i s a p p a r e n t l y j u s t b e f o r e the s a c r i f i c e ; between the k i n g w i t h a v e r t e d f a c e and the t r o u b l e d p r i e s t , A k h i l l e u s and Odysseus c a r r y the g i r l demanded by A p o l l o n ' s s i s t e r . A k h i l l e u s (who i s v e r y young) i s l o o k i n g o b v i o u s l y t o K a l k h a s (and so t o the gods) f o r g u i d a n c e . Odysseus (who presumably i s s e r v i n g the gods t o the p o i n t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g ) i s l o o k i n g j u s t as o b v i o u s l y t o Agamemnon (and n o t i c e t h a t he c a r r i e s the g i r l f o r Agamemnon i n Book I a l s o , t h i s time back t o h e r f a t h e r . ) 6 9 . Sheppard (above, note 2 0 ) 28. He has a c u r i o u s m i s t a k e i n t he words "chose t o make him c a l l the god 'son.'" 7 0 . W i l l c o c k , ad l o c . F o r h i s e x p a n s i o n of the b a s i c i d e a , see h i s "Some A s p e c t s of the Gods i n the I l i a d , " E s s a y s on the I l i a d , e d i t e d by John W r i g h t ( I n d i a n a 1 9 7 8 ) 5 8 - 6 9 . 7 1 . That t h e r e i s a pun here was p o i n t e d out t o me by I . A r t h y . 157 7 2 . Sheppard (above, n o t e 2 0 ) 2 2 . 7 3 . The f a c t t h a t p a r t i c i p l e s m e r e l y happen t o end w i t h t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r consonants would n o t make i t i m p o s s i b l e t h a t Homer would j u x t a p o s e them w i t h h i s key word as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e . Forms o f y-vvis are i n f a c t found w i t h <k\t^c<-ti±Z£itwice ( 5 . 4 4 4 ) , 1 6 . 7 1 1 ) and w i t h *iGcyj^oi-c ( 2 1 . 5 2 3 ) ; a l s o w i t h 'Ay^/u /in/^vi nc^uj^c ( 1 9 . 3 5 ) ; K K X C - ' I J U T J V ( 9 . 5 1 3 ) ; (AWto-uS ( 5 1 . 1 7 8 ) ; ^ e V . . ^ ^ e V r c v ^ 1 8 . 2 5 7 ) . F i n a l l y , f o r e f f e c t i v e assonance of the same consonants w i t h a p a r t i c i p l e , see m fjirjm. / u e v £ v ( 2 , 2 9 4 ) . 7 4 . W i l k i n s o n (above, Chapter One, note 8 ) 6 7 . 7 5 . Nagy (above, note 1 4 ) 2 1 2 . 7 6 . I , A r t h y p o i n t s out t h a t 4 7 5 ( d e s c r i b i n g the s e t t i n g of the sun), i s i n some ways p a r a l l e l t o t h i s l i n e , and has some of the same a l l i t e r a t i o n , 7 7 . T h i s was p o i n t e d out t o me by H. G, E d i n g e r . See a l s o Edwards (above, note 5 3 ) 2 3 - 5 , 7 8 . Edwards (above, note 1 5 ) 1 2 7 . 7 9 . Sheppard (above, note 2 0 ) 2 3 . 80. Edwards (above, note 1 5 ) 1 3 1 . 81. W i l k i n s o n (above, Chapter One, however, n o t i c e t h a t M i l t o n i s I l i a d p a s s a g e , 8 2 . A c h i t y (above, note 3 8 ) 1 8 . 8 3 . 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