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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of the management system for the Pitt Wildlife Management Area McGrenere, Michael Francis 1981

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AN EVALUATION OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE PITT WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA by MICHAEL FRANCIS MCGRENERE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1981 'cT) M i c h a e l F r a n c i s McGrenere, 1981 i i I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t . o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT The d i f f e r i n g o b j e c t i v e s of the p u b l i c i n managing and u s i n g both w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e c r e a t e problems f o r w i l d l i f e managers who must f i n d s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s . How s h o u l d t he r e s o u r c e be a l l o c a t e d among a l t e r n a t i v e uses such as h u n t i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n ? Should p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s be g i v e n p r i o r i t y i n the management of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e and, i f so, which ones? What t r a d e o f f s s h o u l d be made t o a r r i v e at s o l u t i o n s which a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e f l e c t the p u b l i c ' s l e g i t i m a t e • i n t e r e s t and concern w i t h the management of t h i s r e s o u r c e ? The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o e v a l u a t e the performance of the management system e s t a b l i s h e d as a means of a r r i v i n g a t s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s i n the management of w i l d l i f e a t the P i t t W i l d l i f e Management Area (PWMA). The study f o c u s e s on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee as a forum f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o p o l i c y and management d e c i s i o n s a t the PWMA. Whi l e the "Proposed Wetlands P o l i c y " f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Government c a l l s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committees, the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee i s the f i r s t p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee e s t a b l i s h e d i n B.C. f o r t h e purpose of a d v i s i n g the F&WB on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o w i l d l i f e management i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a . Normative c r i t e r i a have been d e r i v e d f o r e v a l u a t i n g the performance of an i d e a l p r o c e s s f o r w i l d l i f e management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . These c r i t e r i a f o l l o w l o g i c a l l y from s o c i a l v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n a l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c system. A b a s i c i v a s sumption b e h i n d these c r i t e r i a i s t h a t s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s can be e l i c i t e d t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s which r e f l e c t s s o c i a l v a l u e s . The norm a t i v e c r i t e r i a used f o r e v a l u a t i n g the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a r e : (1) a l l i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d ; (2) d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be based on adequate i n f o r m a t i o n ; (3) i n t e r a c t i o n s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e among p a r t i c i p a n t s ; ( 4 ) p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e f f o r t s s h o u l d be of v a l u e ; and ( 5 ) the system s h o u l d be e f f i c i e n t . T h i s study documents the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r f o u r i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the PWMA - the f o r m a t i o n of a management p l a n , the a l l o c a t i o n of a S a n d h i l l Crane r e s e r v e , the w a t e r f o w l h u n t i n g p o l i c y , and the f o r m a t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . The PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee has opened up the w i l d l i f e management d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s a g r e a t d e a l . However, the r e s u l t s of the e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e a number of weaknesses i n the p r o c e s s . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of L e g i t i m a t e I n t e r e s t s ; Four c a t e g o r i e s of i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by the management of the PWMA were i d e n t i f i e d : those who use the PWMA, thos e who do not r e g u l a r l y use the a r e a but are i n t e r e s t e d i n enhancing w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s i n the a r e a , those who don't use the a r e a but a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e s e r v i n g the d i v e r s i t y of w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s , and those a f f e c t e d by the e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s of managing the a r e a . The e v a l u a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t a good c r o s s - s e c t i o n of i n t e r e s t s i s r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee except f o r those i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a l uses of the a r e a . F i v e s t a g e s of a t y p i c a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s V i n c l u d e i s s u e f o r m u l a t i o n , p l a n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . In o r d e r f o r a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s t o be a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d , they must be a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t a l l s t a g e s of the p r o c e s s . T h i s has not been the case w i t h the A d v i s o r y Committee. Because of the g e n e r a l l a c k of a s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e s s , none of the i n t e r e s t s have been w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a l l i s s u e s . Adequacy of I n f o r m a t i o n : A l t e r n a t i v e p l a n n i n g and management s t r a t e g i e s were not g e n e r a t e d f o r most i s s u e s . In f a c t , f o r the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e ( p e r t a i n i n g t o the h u n t i n g r e g i m e ) , no a l t e r n a t i v e s were f o r m a l l y d i s c u s s e d f o r e i t h e r of the two changes which were made. Because of the absence of management a l t e r n a t i v e s , v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has been produced f o r e v a l u a t i n g management s t r a t e g i e s . I n t e r a c t i o n : B a r g a i n i n g i s a common method f o r r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . A l t h o u g h the F&WB has encouraged debate among committee members, v e r y l i t t l e b a r g a i n i n g or compromise has o c c u r r e d on i s s u e s where d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n have e x i s t e d . T h i s appears t o be r e l a t e d t o the absence of many of the p l a n n i n g s t a g e s a t which b a r g a i n i n g c o u l d have t a k e n p l a c e . A l l government a g e n c i e s have shown c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s of c o n c e r n t o the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups. E f f e c t i v e n e s s : Almost e v e r y p u b l i c i n t e r e s t group q u a l i f i e d the e x t e n t t o which t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been of v a l u e t o the p l a n n i n g process.. Most of these members f e l t t h a t , on a t l e a s t one i s s u e , t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n was d i s r e g a r d e d or t h a t they were not g i v e n adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . E f f i c i e n c y : A l l government a g e n c i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the time and v i r e s o u r c e s spent on committee a c t i v i t i e s were v e r y p r o d u c t i v e . The e v a l u a t i o n has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a number of weaknesses i n the management system as r e v e a l e d by the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The f o l l o w i n g recommendations are made t o s t r e n g t h e n the p r o c e s s i n terms of the n o r m a t i v e elements of the d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s and i n l i g h t of t h e o r i e s of p o l i t i c a l -a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b e h a v i o r : (1) There s h o u l d be b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by p u b l i c groups a f f e c t e d by r e c r e a t i o n a l developments a t the PWMA; (2) There s h o u l d be s t r u c t u r a l changes t o the management system i n v o l v i n g a l o n g - r a n g e p l a n which i s updated a n n u a l l y , the p r o d u c t i o n of annual p l a n s which c o i n c i d e w i t h the F&WB budgetary p r o c e s s , and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a budget f o r the management of the PWMA; and (3) There s h o u l d be r u l e changes i n the terms of r e f e r e n c e of the A d v i s o r y Committee which would ensure the p r o d u c t i o n of d e t a i l e d agendas, i n f o r m a t i o n and problem s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g the most i m p o r t a n t items on the agendas, a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s i n the r e s o l u t i o n of a l l i s s u e s , and i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e s . I f the o p e r a t i o n of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee i s r e o r g a n i z e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e recommendations, t h i s management system s h o u l d s e r v e as a u s e f u l model f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n w i l d l i f e management i n o t h e r a r e a s of B.C. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION .1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 1 MANAGEMENT OF THE WILDLIFE RESOURCE 2 THE IMPORTANCE OF WILDLIFE IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY 3 LEGAL STATUS OF WILDLIFE IN B.C. 4 PITT WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 5 L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n 5 H i s t o r y of Tenure and Land Use 7 L e g a l S t a t u s of W i l d l i f e Management Areas 8 G e n e r a l Management of the Area 9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY 10 Scope 10 O b j e c t i v e s 10 Importance 10 Data Sources 11 Chapter 2 A THEORETICAL AND ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK 12 THE NATURE OF THE MANAGEMENT PROBLEM 12 DEMOCRATIC THEORY AND NORMATIVE CRITERIA 15 POLITICAL-ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR 19 The New Despotism 19 P u b l i c C h o i c e Theory 20 L i m i t a t i o n s on P u b l i c C h o i c e Theory 25 R a t i o n a l i t y 25 I d e o l o g y 27 FURTHER EXPLANATIONS OF POLITICAL-ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR 27 SUMMARY 29 Chapter 3 PITT WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA PLANNING PROCESS 30 ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE 30 TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE- 32 THE COMMITTEE MEMBERS 33 Government A g e n c i e s 33 v i i i O r g a n i z a t i o n s S u p p o r t i n g Consumptive Uses of W i l d l i f e a t PWMA 37 O r g a n i z a t i o n s S u p p o r t i n g Non-consumptive Uses of W i l d l i f e a t PWMA 38 S p e c i a l I n t e r e s t s 40 THE PROCESS 41 A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1975 42 A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1976 42 A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1977 46 A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1978 47 A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1979 53 A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1980 62 Chapter 4 EVALUATION OF THE PWMA PLANNING PROCESS 64 REPRESENTATION OF LEGITIMATE INTERESTS 64 A l l L e g i t i m a t e I n t e r e s t s R e p r e s e n t e d 66 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t A l l R e l e v a n t Stages 69 Summary of R e p r e s e n t a t i o n C r i t e r i o n 74 ADEQUACY OF INFORMATION - 7 4 A l t e r n a t i v e s R e f l e c t V a l u e s of A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s 75 G e n e r a t i o n of I n f o r m a t i o n f o r E v a l u a t i o n 79 D e c i s i o n s and R a t i o n a l e Conveyed 82 Summary of I n f o r m a t i o n C r i t e r i o n 83 INTERACTION 84 O p p o r t u n i t y f o r R e s o l v i n g D i f f e r e n c e s 84 C o - o p e r a t i o n Demonstrated by Government A g e n c i e s 86 Summary of I n t e r a c t i o n C r i t e r i o n 87 EFFECTIVENESS 87 P a r t i c i p a n t s ' E f f o r t s Are P r o d u c t i v e 87 D e c i s i o n s S h o u l d Be Implemented 89 Summary of E f f e c t i v e n e s s C r i t e r i o n 89 EFFICIENCY 90 Pr o c e s s Not W a s t e f u l of Time or Resources 90 Chapter 5 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 93 CONCLUSIONS 98 BIBLIOGRAPHY 100 APPENDICIES Appendix A Proposed Wetland P o l i c y 104 Appendix B Terms of Reference f o r A d v i s o r y Committee 106 i x LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Page TABLES 1 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA 65 FIGURES 1 2 LOCATION OF PWMA PITT WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 6 44 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank my t h e s i s a d v i s o r s , I r v i n g Fox, f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s and gu i d a n c e , and B i l l Rees, f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m on c o n t e n t and w r i t i n g s t y l e . I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Tom Burgess of the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch f o r p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r r e v i e w i n g a d r a f t of the t h e s i s and t o the members of the P.W.M.A. A d v i s o r y Committee f o r t h e i r c o-o p e r a t i o n . And f i n a l l y , thanks t o my w i f e , Barb, f o r t y p i n g and r e v i e w i n g a l l d r a f t c o p i e s of the t h e s i s . 1 CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o e v a l u a t e the performance of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement e s t a b l i s h e d as a means of a r r i v i n g a t s o c i a l l y , a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s i n the management of w i l d l i f e a t the P i t t W i l d l i f e Management Area (PWMA). In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s s tudy w i l l examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y and management d e c i s i o n s a t the PWMA. The d i f f e r i n g p r e f e r e n c e s of the p u b l i c i n managing and u s i n g both w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e c r e a t e problems f o r w i l d l i f e managers who must f i n d s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s . What c o n s t i t u t e s an e q u i t a b l e a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s between consumptive and non-consumptive u s e r s ? What s p e c i e s , i f any, s h o u l d have p r i o r i t y i n the management of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e ? What t r a d e o f f s s h o u l d be made i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a r r i v e a t s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s ? The w i l d l i f e manager cannot s a t i s f y e veryone. However, the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e i s owned by the p u b l i c and, t h e r e f o r e , the p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t and conc e r n must be r e f l e c t e d i n management. In a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a r t i c u l a t e e x a c t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e or b e s t use of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e . S o c i e t y uses a v a r i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements t o a r r i v e a t d e c i s i o n s r e f l e c t i n g the s o c i a l w i l l . Fox (1976 p.743) d e f i n e s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement as "...an 2 i n t e r r e l a t e d s e t of e n t i t i e s .and r u l e s t h a t s e r v e t o o r g a n i z e s o c i e t i e s ' a c t i v i t i e s so as t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l g o a l s . " An assessment of an- i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement w i l l e s t a b l i s h whether w i l d l i f e management d e c i s i o n s a re made which do i n f a c t r e f l e c t the d e s i r e s of s o c i e t y . MANAGEMENT OF THE WILDLIFE RESOURCE Al d o L e o p o l d (1933 p.3) p r o v i d e d a b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n of w i l d l i f e management when he s t a t e d , "Game management i s the a r t of making l a n d produce s u s t a i n e d a n n u a l c r o p s of w i l d game f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use." T h i s d e f i n i t i o n has been expanded by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch of B r i t i s h Columbia (1979 p.12): " W i l d l i f e management i s the s c i e n c e and a r t of managing s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s of a n i m a l s and t h e i r h a b i t a t i n response t o p u b l i c needs and demands." The c e n t r a l t h r e a d t h a t runs through a l l c o n c e p t s of w i l d l i f e management i s the need t o p r e s e r v e and m a i n t a i n s u i t a b l e h a b i t a t . L e o p o l d r e c o g n i z e d t h i s i n 1933 when he s a i d , " c r e a t i o n of a f a v o u r a b l e environment i s the f i r s t c o n c e r n of management." S p e c i e s ' p r o t e c t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t element of w i l d l i f e management but i t s h o u l d not be seen as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r h a b i t a t . The p r e s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t i s i m p o r t a n t to m a i n t a i n both the number and d i v e r s i t y of w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s . I r a G a b r i e l s o n (1948) acknowledged the f a c t t h a t w i l d l i f e management i n v o l v e s much more than managing the w i l d l i f e i t s e l f ; i t a l s o r e q u i r e s the management of human a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a f f e c t w i l d l i f e and human use of the r e s o u r c e i f i t i s t o succeed. T h i s endeavour becomes more c h a l l e n g i n g each year as the p u b l i c 3 becomes more i n t e r e s t e d i n w i l d l i f e and e n j o y s i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e time i n which t o p a r t a k e i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . The p r o d u c t s of w i l d l i f e management ar e not o n l y the w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s themselves (and the maintenance of the gene p o o l ) but a l s o i n c l u d e the w i l d l i f e - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t g e n e r a t e s a sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the minds of the w i l d l i f e u s e r s . S i n c e w i l d l i f e - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i m p l y a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree of u s e r - r e s o u r c e i n t e r a c t i o n , one of the o b j e c t i v e s of w i l d l i f e management s h o u l d be to p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S i n c e v a l u e systems, e x p e r i e n c e and a t t i t u d e s v a r y among p e o p l e , t h e r e are l i k e l y t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n s i n the p e r c e p t i o n s of the uses which s h o u l d be made of the r e s o u r c e . THE IMPORTANCE OF WILDLIFE IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY W i l d l i f e i s an i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . Some of the most p r e v a l e n t forms of w i l d l i f e a r e the w a t e r f o w l and o t h e r b i r d s which f l o u r i s h i n marsh and e s t u a r i n e e nvironments i n t h i s a r e a . Large p o p u l a t i o n s of b i r d s from A s i a , N o r t h America and South America converge a t the w e t l a n d s of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y as they m i g r a t e between b r e e d i n g and w i n t e r i n g grounds a l o n g the P a c i f i c f l y w a y . The F r a s e r w e t l a n d s r e p r e s e n t the most i m p o r t a n t b i r d h a b i t a t i n B r i t i s h Columbia and support the l a r g e s t w i n t e r i n g p o p u l a t i o n of w a t e r f o w l i n Canada ( N o r t h c o t e 1976). H a l l a d a y and H a r r i s (1972) have e s t i m a t e d t h a t 250,000 ducks, 20,000 snow geese and 1,000,000 s h o r e b i r d s remain d u r i n g the w i n t e r on the t i d a l marshes and 4 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s of the v a l l e y . • • The F r a s e r wetlands a r e a l s o e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i n p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y of the expanding urban m e t r o p o l i s of Vancouver. Over one m i l l i o n p eople i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area l i v e w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h i s w e t l a n d h a b i t a t . The p o t e n t i a l of the we t l a n d s as a r e c r e a t i o n a l o u t l e t i s enhanced by the g e n e r a l l y n a t u r a l appearance of the w e t l a n d a r e a s and by the abundance of w a t e r f o w l p o p u l a t i o n s and o t h e r w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s which i n h a b i t t h i s ecosystem. With such a l a r g e urban p o p u l a t i o n l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o the we t l a n d environment, v a l u a b l e w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t a r e a s a r e b e i n g c o n t i n u a l l y t h r e a t e n e d by the p r e s s u r e of expanding urban and i n d u s t r i a l development. At the same t i m e , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r w i l d l i f e - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The p r e s e r v a t i o n and management of r e m a i n i n g w e t l a n d a r e a s i s , t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l t o m a i n t a i n adequate w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o urban a r e a s . LEGAL STATUS OF WILDLIFE IN B.C. The B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t does not c l e a r l y d e f i n e j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r w i l d l i f e (Bryan 1973). The p r o v i n c i a l governments have assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of w i l d l i f e a l o n g w i t h o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , however, does not i n c l u d e m i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l . In 1916 the M i g r a t o r y B i r d s T r e a t y was s i g n e d by Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s and v e s t e d the prime a u t h o r i t y over m i g r a t o r y b i r d s w i t h the f e d e r a l government. Because of t h i s 5 o v e r l a p p i n g o b l i g a t i o n i n the management of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e , j u r i s d i c t i o n over m i g r a t o r y b i r d s i s shared by both the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments. Ownership of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s r e t a i n e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Crown when w i l d l i f e i s a l i v e , r e g a r d l e s s of the a r e a s f r e q u e n t e d by the w i l d l i f e . In most s i t u a t i o n s the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r anch, the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the management of w i l d l i f e i n B.C., does not have d i r e c t j u r i s d i c t i o n over t e r r e s t r i a l and a q u a t i c h a b i t a t . P r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d s come under the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l of the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s and the Lands and Housing R e g i o n a l O p e r a t i o n s D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Hou s i n g . The F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch has management a u t h o r i t y over r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p a r c e l s of l a n d which have been c o n s i g n e d t o the Branch t o meet s p e c i f i c w i l d l i f e management o b j e c t i v e s . The P i t t W i l d l i f e Management Area i s one such a r e a . PITT WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA  L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n The P i t t W i l d l i f e Management Area o c c u p i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1457 h e c t a r e s of marsh, bog and woodland i n the Lower P i t t V a l l e y , some 65 k i l o m e t r e s e a s t of the C i t y of Vancouver. I t i s bordered on the e a s t by the mountainous t e r r a i n of the U.B.C. r e s e a r c h f o r e s t and on the n o r t h and west by P i t t Lake and the P i t t R i v e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The P i t t P o l d e r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s l i e t o the south of the W i l d l i f e Management Area (see F i g u r e 1 ) . The PWMA has an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e and v a r i e d w i l d l i f e 7 community. S i x t y b i r d s p e c i e s have been r e c o r d e d i n t h i s a r e a , i n c l u d i n g numerous w a t e r f o w l , a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of w i n t e r i n g r a p t o r s and abundant p a s s e r i n e s . The ar e a i s a l s o the home of a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n of g r e a t e r s a n d h i l l c r a n e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the l a s t b r e e d i n g p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s s p e c i e s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . F i f t e e n s p e c i e s of mammals f r e q u e n t the d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t s w i t h i n the PWMA, i n c l u d i n g b l a c k bear, b e a v e r , muskrat and b l a c k - t a i l e d deer (Sturmanis 1980). The P i t t marshes p l a y an i m p o r t a n t and i n t e g r a l r o l e i n wet l a n d management f o r the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . W a t e r f o w l move f r e e l y back and f o r t h between the F r a s e r e s t u a r y f o r e s h o r e s and the P i t t marshes. A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t h i s marsh h a b i t a t i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the PWMA. A l t h o u g h the P i t t marshes a r e not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p r o d u c t i v e b r e e d i n g a r e a f o r w a t e r f o w l a t p r e s e n t , they r e p r e s e n t an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t w i n t e r i n g and s t a g i n g a r e a f o r many w a t e r f o w l s p e c i e s . H i s t o r y of Tenure and Land Use P r i o r t o 1909, much of the a r e a i n the Lower P i t t R i v e r V a l l e y was under c o n t r o l of the P r o v i n c i a l Crown. In 1909, the Crown made a c o n d i t i o n a l s a l e of 2750 h e c t a r e s , i n c l u d i n g the p r e s e n t PWMA, t o be used p r i m a r i l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s . P r i v a t e l y f i n a n c e d d y k i n g commenced i n 1911 and was completed i n 1913, a t which time the l a n d was deeded t o p r i v a t e ownership. S e v e r a l a t t e m p t s were made t o farm the l a n d but c o n t i n u e d f l o o d i n g caused these endeavours t o be abandoned. A group of wea l t h y sportsmen, r e c o g n i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l of t h i s l a n d t o a t t r a c t and m a i n t a i n l a r g e numbers of w a t e r f o w l , p u r c h a s e d the 8 l a n d i n the e a r l y 1930's and formed the Sturgeon Slough Game C l u b . The area then became an e x c l u s i v e w a t e r f o w l h u n t i n g r e s e r v e . In 1951 the l a n d was s o l d t o the P i t t P o l d e r Company which proceeded w i t h e x t e n s i v e d y k i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o r e c l a i m some of the l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s . A l a r g e a r e a of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1376 h e c t a r e s was l e f t undeveloped and l e a s e d t o the Sturgeon Slough Gun C l u b i n 1952 f o r duck h u n t i n g p u r p o s e s . In 1958, the P r o v i n c i a l Government purc h a s e d a 266 h e c t a r e ^ p o r t i o n of the l a n d a d j a c e n t t o P i t t Lake from P i t t P o l d e r L i m i t e d and e s t a b l i s h e d a r e s e r v e f o r game management p u r p o s e s . A f u r t h e r 1191 h e c t a r e s were purchased by the P r o v i n c e i n August, 1972, w i t h monies from the G r e e n b e l t P r o t e c t i o n Fund. T h i s p r o p e r t y was i n i t i a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by the B.C. Land Commission. However, on A p r i l 22, 1975, the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch f o r m a l l y a c c e p t e d management a u t h o r i t y over t h i s l a n d . The PWMA now i n c l u d e s the l a n d of the game management r e s e r v e and t h a t p u r c h a s e d as a g r e e n b e l t a r e a (1457 h e c t a r e s ) . The Sturgeon Slough Gun C l u b l e a s e on the g r e e n b e l t l a n d e x p i r e d i n J a n u a r y , 1978. L e g a l S t a t u s of W i l d l i f e Management Areas W i l d l i f e Management Areas have no l e g a l s t a t u s a t p r e s e n t w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A new W i l d l i f e A c t i s now under r e v i e w which, i f passed by the l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e s s , w i l l make W i l d l i f e Management Areas l e g a l e n t i t i e s . At p r e s e n t , the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch management a u t h o r i t y over the ar e a can o n l y be e n f o r c e d by means of o t h e r a c t s of the B.C. l e g i s l a t u r e (such as 9 thos e p e r t a i n i n g t o l i t t e r c o n t r o l and f i r e a r m s c o n t r o l ) . Though a l e g a l d i s t i n c t i o n , e x i s t s a t the p r e s e n t time between the two p r o p e r t i e s c o m p r i s i n g the a r e a , management p r o c e s s e s over the e n t i r e a rea a re the same. G e n e r a l Management of the Area "The p r i m a r y management o b j e c t i v e s f o r the PWMA a r e t o p r o v i d e f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n needs of i t s w i l d l i f e and f i s h t h o s e s p e c i e s p r e s e n t and tho s e p o s s i b l y t o be i n t r o d u c e d - and, s u b j e c t t o t h i s c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e , t o p r o v i d e f o r the p u b l i c as e x t e n s i v e and v a r i e d a r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as i s p o s s i b l e . " ( B r i t i s h Columbia 1976). A m u l t i p l e use system i s pl a n n e d f o r the a r e a a l l o w i n g f o r consumptive and non-consumptive uses of a l l p l a n t and a n i m a l s p e c i e s , s c i e n t i f i c study of the e c o l o g y of the a r e a and a g r i c u l t u r a l use on s u i t a b l e l a n d . Because of p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t s w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e and i n o r d e r t o ensure the p u b l i c of a " q u a l i t y " outdoor e x p e r i e n c e , the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch a n t i c i p a t e s both a r e a l and t e m p o r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s uses of the a r e a . A p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee c o m p r i s i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups and v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g and management a g e n c i e s from d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government has been a p p o i n t e d t o a d v i s e the Branch on management s t r a t e g i e s f o r the a r e a . ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY  Scope T h i s study f o c u s e s on the r o l e of the P i t t W i l d l i f e Management Area A d v i s o r y Committee as a forum f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o the w i l d l i f e management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The stu d y endeavours t o determine whether the A d v i s o r y Committee i s an e f f e c t i v e mechanism f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n w i l d l i f e management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . O b j e c t i v e s The proposed study w i l l have the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : 1) t o document the major a c t i v i t i e s of the PWMA; 2) t o e v a l u a t e the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee as a means of i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o w i l d l i f e management d e c i s i o n s ; and 3) t o i d e n t i f y i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s which c o u l d improve the o p e r a t i o n of the management system. Importance The PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee i s the f i r s t p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee e s t a b l i s h e d i n B.C. f o r the purpose of a d v i s i n g the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o w i l d l i f e management i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a . Because of the m u l t i p l e uses a n t i c i p a t e d f o r and the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d w i t h the a r e a , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the A d v i s o r y Committee was seen as a p o s i t i v e s t e p f o r i m p r o v i n g p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n the d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s f o r w i l d l i f e management. The committee has now been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r over f i v e y e a r s and t h i s t h e s i s r e p r e s e n t s 11 the f i r s t d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of the o p e r a t i o n of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement. It- i s hoped t h a t the c r i t i c i s m s and recommendations d e r i v e d from t h i s s t u d y can be used t o improve the o p e r a t i o n of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement and any o t h e r s which may be mo d e l l e d on the e x i s t i n g arrangement. Data Sources The s o u r c e s of d a t a a r e the minutes of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee m e e t i n g s , s u b m i s s i o n s forwarded t o the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch by the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups, c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between i n t e r e s t groups and the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government concerned w i t h the management of the PWMA, and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h members of a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s who have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the management of the PWMA. 12 CHAPTER 2 A THEORETICAL AND ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e v e l o p a framework based upon r e l e v a n t t h e o r y t o e v a l u a t e the performance of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee. The framework i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t p r e s e n t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e t h a t d e f i n e the n a t u r e of the management problem and t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n management d e c i s i o n s . The second p a r t e s t a b l i s h e s the normative c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the management system. The t h i r d p a r t e s t a b l i s h e s p r i n c i p l e s which i n f l u e n c e the performance of management systems. These p r i n c i p l e s w i l l be used i n e x p l a i n i n g the performance of the A d v i s o r y Committee as a management system and w i l l a l s o be used t o e s t i m a t e the i n f l u e n c e of any recommendations on a m o d i f i e d management system. THE NATURE OF THE MANAGEMENT PROBLEM W i l d l i f e management can be viewed as a problem of a l l o c a t i n g the s e r v i c e s of s c a r c e w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s among competing ends or uses. Economic t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s t h a t under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , markets can s o l v e the problem of r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n i n an e f f i c i e n t and o p t i m a l manner. The p r i c e s of goods and r e s o u r c e s a r e used t o convey i n f o r m a t i o n t o the d e c i s i o n maker i n an i d e a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g market system. "Where a l l goods and r e s o u r c e s pass t h r o u g h markets t h a t a r e c o m p e t i t i v e and where o t h e r n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e s a t i s f i e d , 13 p r i c e s s e r v e t o guide r e s o u r c e s and goods i n t o t h e i r most b e n e f i c i a l use" (Freeman et a l . 1973 p.65). The market system i s an i n a p p r o p r i a t e method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e s i n the a l l o c a t i o n of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e because many of the assumptions of the system do not h o l d . The i d e a l i z e d market system has. the f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s : a l l markets a r e c o m p e t i t i v e ; a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a re f u l l y i n f o r m e d ; a l l r e s o u r c e s a re i n d i v i d u a l l y owned; and buyers and s e l l e r s bear a l l c o s t s and r e c e i v e a l l b e n e f i t s . The common p r o p e r t y n a t u r e of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e , however, p r e s e n t s s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s on the market system. Howe (1979 p.241) l i s t s two c o n d i t i o n s which c r e a t e a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e : "(1) u n r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o the r e s o u r c e system by a l l those who c a r e t o use i t , and (2) some type of advers e i n t e r a c t i o n among the u s e r s of the system ( i . e . the c r e a t i o n of ' e x t e r n a l i t i e s ' among the u s e r s ) . " A f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s i s • t h a t the r e s o u r c e i t s e l f i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o s u b d i v i d e f o r i n d i v i d u a l o wnership. W i l d l i f e i s g e n e r a l l y t r e a t e d as a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e because of the f u g i t i v e n a t u r e of the r e s o u r c e . Many w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s m i g r a t e , f r e q u e n t l y over v e r y l a r g e a r e a s , so i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u b d i v i d e f o r ownership p u r p o s e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , f o r example, t o m a i n t a i n w i l d l i f e w i t h i n s m a l l b o u n d a r i e s . Many u n g u l a t e s p e c i e s m i g r a t e a n n u a l l y between mountain meadows i n the summer months and f o r e s t e d v a l l e y s d u r i n g the w i n t e r whereas m i g r a t o r y b i r d s f r e e l y c r o s s c o n t i n e n t s . One of the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a common p r o p e r t y 14 r e s o u r c e i s t h a t no user has an economic m o t i v a t i o n t o co n s e r v e the r e s o u r c e . The i n d i v i d u a l user of a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e i s u s u a l l y competing w i t h a l l o t h e r u s e r s i n an attempt t o c a p t u r e a l a r g e share of the r e s o u r c e f o r h i m s e l f . I t i s unrea s o n a b l e t o expect an i n d i v i d u a l user t o w i l l f u l l y r e s t r a i n h i s h a r v e s t so as t o m a i n t a i n the l o n g term p r o d u c t i v i t y of the r e s o u r c e ; a n y t h i n g he l e a v e s w i l l be taken by o t h e r u s e r s . In the case of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e , t h i s type of b e h a v i o r can r e s u l t i n the o v e r e x p l o i t a t i o n of the r e s o u r c e and can even d e s t r o y a n o r m a l l y s e l f - r e n e w i n g system. The f a t e of the passenger p i g e o n and the American b i s o n i n N o r t h America a t t e s t to the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of market b e h a v i o r r e s p e c t i n g common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s . I f o v e r e x p l o i t a t i o n i s t o be a v o i d e d t h e r e must be some type of c o l l e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n of the amount of use of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e . H a r d i n (1968) m a i n t a i n s t h a t s o c i a l arrangements t h a t produce r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e arrangements t h a t c r e a t e c o e r c i o n . He q u a l i f i e s t h i s p o i n t by s t a t i n g , "The o n l y k i n d of c o e r c i o n I recommend i s mutual c o e r c i o n , m u t u a l l y agreed upon by the m a j o r i t y of the peopl e a f f e c t e d " ( H a r d i n 1968 p. 1247). The c o e r c i v e d e v i c e which N o r t h American s o c i e t y has chosen t o escape the t r a g e d y of the commons i s government r e g u l a t i o n of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e . Government c o n t r o l of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e , however, i s not w i t h o u t problems. I f ad v e r s e i n t e r a c t i o n among r e s o u r c e u s e r s i s t o be p r e v e n t e d , governments must attempt t o f i n d s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the q u e s t i o n s of how the r e s o u r c e i s t o be u t i l i z e d and who w i l l b e n e f i t from t h i s use. 15 T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e the f o r m a t i o n of management systems by which to a l l o c a t e the r e s o u r c e between consumptive and non-consumptive uses and among i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n each of these c a t e g o r i e s of use. DEMOCRATIC THEORY AND NORMATIVE CRITERIA H.B. Mayo, i n An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Democratic Theory, i d e n t i f i e s f o u r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p r i n c i p l e s of a d e m o c r a t i c system. These f o u r p r i n c i p l e s a r e : p o p u l a r c o n t r o l of p o l i c y makers; p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y or the e q u a l i t y of a l l a d u l t c i t i z e n s i n v o t i n g ; p o l i t i c a l freedom t o ensure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o p u l a r c o n t r o l ; and m a j o r i t y r u l e . C o n s i d e r e d i n both o p e r a t i o n a l and no r m a t i v e terms, t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s make up a d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y which both e x p l a i n s and j u s t i f i e s a d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l system. In g e n e r a l , members of a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y h o l d v a l u e s which d e t e r m i n e what d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . These . v a l u e s a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f o u r p r i n c i p l e s of democracy and a l s o p e r t a i n t o those v a l u e s which ar e i n h e r e n t i n a d e m o c r a t i c system but a r e o n l y m a n i f e s t e d when the system i s i n o p e r a t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n below p r e s e n t s the normative c r i t e r i a which are used t o e v a l u a t e performance of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee and o u t l i n e s the s o c i a l v a l u e s which a re used t o d e v e l o p the assessment c r i t e r i a . A b a s i c assumption b e h i n d these c r i t e r i a i s t h a t s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s can be e l i c i t e d t h r o u g h a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which r e f l e c t s t h e s e s o c i a l v a l u e s . The nor m a t i v e c r i t e r i a f o l l o w l o g i c a l l y from the fo u r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g 16 p r i n c i p l e s of a d e m o c r a t i c system. The d e s i g n and performance of i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements i n the d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l system of B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d meet the s e v a l u e s t o as g r e a t an e x t e n t as p o s s i b l e . A) R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of L e g i t i m a t e I n t e r e s t s I n t e r e s t groups r e c o g n i z e d by s o c i e t y as h a v i n g l e g i t i m a t e p r i o r i t i e s and r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t l e a d t o a d e c i s i o n which a f f e c t s t h e i r w e l f a r e . T h i s means t h a t a l l those who tend t o g a i n or l o s e s h o u l d always be r e p r e s e n t e d i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . A f u r t h e r s o c i a l v a l u e which i s i m p o r t a n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s t h a t a l l l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t a l l r e l e v a n t s t a g e s of the p r o c e s s ( i s s u e f o r m u l a t i o n , p l a n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ) t o e f f e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t and defend t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . Adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n throughout the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and enhance the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p a r t i c i p a n t s of a l l t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s and t h e i r consequences. B) Adequacy of I n f o r m a t i o n The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t groups t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n the d e c i s i o n making-process must be accompanied by adequate a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n . The l a c k of adequate i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n inadequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of some i n t e r e s t s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l 17 v a l u e s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s assessment c r i t e r i o n : 1. A l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s s h o u l d be g e n e r a t e d which r e f l e c t the range of c o n c e r n s of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s - when t h i s c r i t e r i o n has not been met, the r e l e v a n t i n t e r e s t group, as f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e , s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h the r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o g e n e r a t e t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e ; 2. Good i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i o n - t e c h n i c a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic, s o c i a l , r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e - s h o u l d be g e n e r a t e d p e r t a i n i n g t o p l a n n i n g and management p r o p o s a l s and communicated i n a manner which i s e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d ; 3. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d be i n f o r m e d of d e c i s i o n s and the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s e d e c i s i o n s . Good i n f o r m a t i o n and e q u a l a c c e s s t o a l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l l a y the b a s i s f o r b a r g a i n i n g among p a r t i c i p a n t s and w i l l promote d e m o c r a t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . C) I n t e r a c t i o n T h i s c r i t e r i o n r e f e r s t o b o t h i n t e r a c t i o n among the p u b l i c groups and i n d i v i d u a l s t a k i n g p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s and i n t e r a c t i o n between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and d e c i s i o n -makers. The f i r s t form of i n t e r a c t i o n r e f e r s t o b a r g a i n i n g amongst the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . B a r g a i n i n g s h o u l d be a l l o w e d -at a l l s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as a means of r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b a r g a i n i n g w i l l r e f l e c t the range of v a l u e s h e l d by the i n t e r e s t groups and w i l l encourage the g e n e r a t i o n of e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n which s a t i s f i e s the c o n c e r n s of a l l i n t e r e s t s . The b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l a l s o 18 p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s of the support f o r v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . The second form of i n t e r a c t i o n r e f e r s t o c o - o p e r a t i o n between the government a g e n c i e s and the p u b l i c groups. There s h o u l d be a w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of the b u r e a c r a t s or p u b l i c s e r v a n t s t o work w i t h the p u b l i c groups and t o d i s c u s s a l l i s s u e s of c o n c e r n t o the s e i n t e r e s t s . D) E f f e c t i v e n e s s The p a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d f e e l t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s have been of some v a l u e t o the d e c i s i o n s which have been made. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs which are p u r e l y ornamental w i l l a c h i e v e few s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and a r e more l i k e l y t o c r e a t e , r a t h e r than r e s o l v e , c o n f l i c t . E f f e c t i v e n e s s a l s o p e r t a i n s t o the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of d e c i s i o n s . A l l d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be implemented t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n ' of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . E) E f f i c i e n c y P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d not be w a s t e f u l of time or - p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s i n v e s t e d i n the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s . The b e n e f i t s o b t a i n e d from p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , i n terms of more a c c e p t a b l e d e c i s i o n s and the more e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g of government a g e n c i e s , s h o u l d be g r e a t e r than the c o s t s of the program. 19 POLITlCAL-ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR  The New Despotism C i v i 1 . s e r v a n t s have o f t e n been r e g a r d e d as n e u t r a l e n t i t i e s i n governmental d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h e o r y of democracy m a i n t a i n s t h a t government p o l i c i e s are e s t a b l i s h e d by d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t h a t p u b l i c s e r v a n t s a r e merely r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing these p o l i c i e s . Government i n s t i t u t i o n s , however, do not f u n c t i o n i n t h i s manner. Because of the reasons e l u c i d a t e d by Lane (1979), governments have been d e l e g a t i n g some d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o the b u r e a u c r a c i e s i n an attempt t o promote more r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . The d e l e g a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s u n a v o i d a b l e , f o r p u b l i c p o l i c i e s o f t e n d e a l w i t h c o m p l e x i t i e s i n which a l l l i k e l y c o n t i n g e n c i e s cannot be a n t i c i p a t e d or u n d e r s t o o d . Rosenbaum (1973 p.101) e l a b o r a t e s f u r t h e r on the d e l e g a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y : "The r e s u l t of t h i s d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y i s t o bestow on a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . many o p t i o n s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and a p p l y i n g g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s - which amounts t o making p o l i c y . Moreover, l e g i s l a t o r s o f t e n p r e f e r t o l e t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s work out p o l i c y d e t a i l s and t o n e g o t i a t e among i n t e r e s t s t o a r r i v e a t an a c c e p t a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p o l i c y . . . " The i n c r e a s i n g power and i n f l u e n c e of the b u r e a u c r a c y has l e d t o a h e i g h t e n e d demand f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n governmental d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . As a r e s u l t , p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g has become i n c r e a s i n g l y p l u r a l i s t i c , i n v o l v i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s among a number of i n t e r e s t groups and government a g e n c i e s . V i n c e n t Ostrom (1973) m a i n t a i n s t h a t p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s w i l l approach the d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l i f a l a r g e number of 20 i n t e r e s t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n the p o l i c y making p r o c e s s . The PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee i s a p l u r a l i s t i c form of p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . When e v a l u a t i n g the performance of the A d v i s o r y Committee as a management system, one must be c o g n i z a n t of the major i n f l u e n c e s which a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the performance of the management system. P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y i s one concept which i s u s e f u l f o r e x p l a i n i n g some of the b e h a v o r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement. P u b l i c C h o i c e Theory P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y i s concerned w i t h the mechanisms by .which human s o c i e t i e s make d e c i s i o n s about t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e l i v e s ( R u s s e l l 1979). I t has been p r i m a r i l y a concern of economists and has o f t e n been d e s c r i b e d as the economic study of non-market d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r i s t s have endeavoured t o b u i l d models of i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r and c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g based upon a s i m p l e • s e t of a s s u m p t i o n s : 1) t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a c t r a t i o n a l l y and 2) t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t . These a r e two v e r y l a r g e assumptions and the t h e o r y i s s u b j e c t t o s e v e r a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which are d i s c u s s e d below. However, by t a k i n g c o g n i z a n c e of these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a good a p p r o x i m a t i o n of the way a c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s w i l l behave. I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o t a k e a more d e t a i l e d l o o k a t the two assumptions on which p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y i s based. Downs (1957) c h a r a c t e r i z e s the b e h a v i o r of a • r a t i o n a l person as f o l l o w s : 21 "(1) he can always make a d e c i s i o n when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a range of a l t e r n a t i v e s ; (2) he ranks a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s f a c i n g him i n o r d e r of h i s p r e f e r e n c e i n such a way t h a t each i s p r e f e r r e d t o , i n d i f f e r e n t t o , or i n f e r i o r t o each o t h e r ; (3) h i s p r e f e r e n c e r a n k i n g i s t r a n s i t i v e ; (4) he always chooses from among the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t which ranks h i g h e s t i n h i s p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r i n g ; and (5) he always makes the same d e c i s i o n each time he i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the same a l t e r n a t i v e s . " (Downs 1957 p.6)' A l l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ' i n the p u b l i c c h o i c e model .- p o l i t i c i a n s , v o t e r s and b u r e a u c r a t s - e x h i b i t the same r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r . The b a s i c b e h a v i o r a l p o s t u l a t e u n d e r l y i n g p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s e l f - i n t e r e s t m a x i m i z e r s ( M u e l l e r 1979). In the w o r l d of market c h o i c e s where economic o b j e c t i v e s are i n v o l v e d , i n d i v i d u a l s u s u a l l y attempt t o f u r t h e r t h e i r s e l f -i n t e r e s t ( e . g . i n d i v i d u a l businessmen seek h i g h e r p r o f i t s , i n d i v i d u a l consumers seek lower p r i c e s ) . When th e s e i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r the w o r l d of c o l l e c t i v e c h o i c e s , t h e i r b e h a v i o r i s not ex p e c t e d t o change. P o l i t i c i a n s , b u r e a u c r a t s and members of i n t e r e s t groups are encompassed by t h i s t h e o r y . P o l i t i c i a n s a r e assumed t o be v o t e -m a x i m i z e r s and w i l l not be m o t i v a t e d t o ad d r e s s major i s s u e s ; t h e s e i s s u e s w i l l o n l y be a d d r e s s e d by the p o l i t i c i a n i f they d i r e c t l y a f f e c t h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s and c o n t r i b u t o r s who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s r e - e l e c t i o n . B u r e a u c r a t s w i l l not aim a t making s o c i a l l y o p t i m a l d e c i s i o n s but w i l l attempt t o maximize t h e i r power by expanding t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l scope, i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r budgets and s t a f f and m o n o p o l i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Members of i n t e r e s t groups w i l l be concerned about t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l economic i n t e r e s t s p e r t a i n i n g t o a problem r a t h e r than the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and w i l l attempt t o maximize t h e i r "income" i n 22 s o l u t i o n s t o problems. At the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c h a p t e r , the market system was c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s f a i l u r e as an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s . We must now ask how a system of government i n which a l l a c t o r s a re s e l f - i n t e r e s t m a x i m i z e r s w i l l a r r i v e a t d e c i s i o n s which a r e s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e . I s an i m p e r f e c t government any b e t t e r than an i m p e r f e c t market? Governments have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed as s e e k i n g the " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p r o d u c i n g d e c i s i o n s which would b e n e f i t the p e o p l e . Government d e c i s i o n -makers were thought t o o p e r a t e on e s s e n t i a l l y good m o t i v e s . P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y , however, p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e s e m o t i v e s . B u r e a u c r a t s and p o l i t i c i a n s a r e now thought t o be no b e t t e r , or no worse, than anyone e l s e ; a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a re assumed t o be b a s i c a l l y s e l f - s e e k i n g r a t h e r than i n t e r e s t e d i n m a x i m i z i n g the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . One of the emphases i n p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y i s "...the d e s i g n of i n s t i t u t i o n s which would l e a d s e l f - s e e k i n g b u r e a u c r a t s or p o l i t i c i a n s t o ge n e r a t e p u b l i c w e l f a r e i n the same sense t h a t the market l e a d s some s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d businessmen t o produce a s o c i a l s u r p l u s " ( T u l l o c k 1979 p.3 2 ) . Downs (1967 p.87) t a k e s t h i s emphasis one s t e p f u r t h e r : " I t may seem s t r a n g e t o a s s e r t t h a t most (government) o f f i c i a l s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o t i v a t e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t when t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i s to s e r v e the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . . . A l t h o u g h many o f f i c i a l s s e r v e the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t as they p e r c e i v e i t , i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t they a r e p r i v a t e l y m o t i v a t e d s o l e l y or even m a i n l y by a d e s i r e t o s e r v e the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t per se. I f s o c i e t y has c r e a t e d the proper i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements, t h e i r p r i v a t e m o t i v e s w i l l l e a d them t o ac t i n what they b e l i e v e t o be the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , 23 even though these m o t i v e s , l i k e everyone e l s e ' s , a r e p a r t l y r o o t e d i n t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t . T h e r e f o r e , whether or not the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t w i l l i n f a c t be s e r v e d depends upon how e f f i c i e n t l y s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e t h a t purpose. S o c i e t y cannot i n s u r e t h a t i t w i l l be s e r v e d merely by a s s i g n i n g someone t o s e r v e i t . " I f the problems i n h e r e n t i n the t r a g e d y of the commons are t o be overcome, then a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements must be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d f o r making s o c i a l c h o i c e s . The " s t r u c t u r e of e v e n t s " i n h e r e n t i n a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e can be used as a b a s i s f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the community of i n t e r e s t s which need t o be taken i n t o account i n d e s i g n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements (Ostrom 1973). T h i s community i s formed by the i n d i v i d u a l s and i n t e r e s t groups who use or e n j o y a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e . Ostrom e v a l u a t e s a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements and proposes the development of m u l t i - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements based upon the paradigm of d e m o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A m u l t i - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of d e c i s i o n -making can t a k e advantage of the o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s and the f r a g m e n t a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y i n h e r e n t i n our p o l i t i c a l system. D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power i s d i s t r i b u t e d v e r t i c a l l y among the n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l government l e v e l s and h o r i z o n t a l l y among the t h r e e l e v e l s of government. The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i n t h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Rosenbaum (1973 p.98), " . . . i s t h a t the v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l d i v i s i o n s of power i n government c r e a t e numerous c e n t r e s of a u t h o r i t y t h a t , whether i n c o - o p e r a t i o n or i n c o m p e t i t i o n , d i s p e r s e power i n p o l i c y making." Ostrom m a i n t a i n s t h a t i n t e r e s t groups s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d a t a l l l e v e l s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n d e c i s i o n -24 making i s a s s u r e d i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangement because each p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e i s a c c o u n t a b l e t o i t s r e l e v a n t community of i n t e r e s t s and because the f r a g m e n t a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y p r o v i d e s v e t o c a p a b i l i t i e s among the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a l l o w i n g each l e v e l the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e the a c t i v i t i e s of the o t h e r s . T h i s system f o r making s o c i a l c h o i c e s r e g a r d i n g common p r o p e r t y or p u b l i c goods i n c o r p o r a t e s p l u r a l i s m i n t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and ensu r e s t h a t d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s a re approached i n -the p l a n n i n g of common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement has been d e s i g n e d t o produce d e c i s i o n s t h a t are s o c i a l l y o p t i m a l , t h e r e i s not a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d body of p r i n c i p l e s t h a t s e r v e t h i s purpose. R a t i o n a l , s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d b e h a v i o r c o u l d i n h i b i t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n t e r e s t groups i n a p l u r a l i s t i c d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s . Mancur Olso n (1965) argues t h a t r a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s i n l a r g e " l a t e n t " groups have no i n c e n t i v e t o form o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the purpose of f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r common i n t e r e s t by l o b b y i n g . Common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o everyone so r a t i o n a l , u t i l i t y - m a x i m i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l s ' w i l l have no i n c e n t i v e t o a c h i e v e a group b e n e f i t which can be enj o y e d by o t h e r s who do not c o n t r i b u t e . T h i s i s b e t t e r known as the f r e e r i d e r c o n c e p t . Two f u r t h e r p r o p e r t i e s of l a r g e groups which i n h i b i t c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n b e i n g t a k e n f o r c o l l e c t i v e goods a r e : "(1) Each i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l be such a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the group's r e s o u r c e s t h a t he w i l l view i t as i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l i n a f f e c t i n g the outcomes of the group's a c t i o n : the i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y .problem. (2) The c o s t s of o r g a n i z i n g l a r g e groups a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e , c r e a t i n g a h u r d l e t h a t must be jumped b e f o r e any of the c o l l e c t i v e goods can be o b t a i n e d : the o r g a n i z a t i o n problem." ( M i t c h e l l 1979 p.89-90) 25 Because of these problems, t h e r e may be i n t e r e s t s which a r e not r e p r e s e n t e d i n a p u b l i c c h o i c e model of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . O l s o n (1965) summarizes the e f f e c t which t h i s s i t u a t i o n can have i n a d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s : "The s m a l l e r groups - the p r i v i l e g e d and i n t e r m e d i a t e groups - can o f t e n d e f e a t the l a r g e r groups - the l a t e n t groups - which a r e n o r m a l l y supposed t o p r e v a i l i n a democracy. The p r i v i l e g e d and i n t e r m e d i a t e groups o f t e n t r i u m p h over the n u m e r i c a l l y s u p e r i o r f o r c e s i n the l a t e n t or l a r g e groups because the former a re g e n e r a l l y o r g a n i z e d and a c t i v e w h i l e the l a t t e r a r e n o r m a l l y u n o r g a n i z e d and i n a c t i v e . " (p.128) Large groups, a c c o r d i n g t o O l s o n , w i l l o n l y be formed i f t h e r e i s c o e r c i o n or some o t h e r s p e c i a l d e v i c e t o make i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n t h e i r common i n t e r e s t . L i m i t a t i o n s on P u b l i c C h o i c e Theory P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y e x p l a i n s many a s p e c t s of p o l i t i c a l -a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b e h a v i o r . However, t h e r e a re many s i t u a t i o n s i n which the two assumptions a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Two of the major l i m i t a t i o n s on p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y a r e d i s c u s s e d below. R a t i o n a l i t y R a t i o n a l i t y i m p l i e s a complete knowledge of the consequences when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a' c h o i c e . Each i n d i v i d u a l , however, never has more than a fragment of the knowledge r e q u i r e d t o make a r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n . Simon (1957) suggests t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s employ "bounded r a t i o n a l i t y " where o n l y a l i m i t e d number of a l t e r n a t i v e s a re c o n s i d e r e d . D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s r e p l a c e o p t i m i z a t i o n w i t h a " s a t i s f i c i n g " p r o c e s s whereby one 26 aims a t a s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t h e r than a t m a x i m i z a t i o n . Downs (1957) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a re l i m i t a t i o n s on the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the human mind can a s s i m i l a t e and l i m i t a t i o n s on the amount of time t h a t a r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -maker can spend i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s can r a d i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e the a t t a i n m e n t of a r a t i o n a l outcome. The p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by one's e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e s . Fox (1966) notes t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s use t h e i r own v a l u e frameworks i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . V a l u e judgments a r e a l s o used i n s e l e c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S e w e l l (1971) c o n f i r m s the i n f l u e n c e of a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h h i s e m p i r i c a l s t u d y of e n g i n e e r s and p u b l i c h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s . He p r e s e n t s the f o l l o w i n g summary: " . . . i t seems t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s of the two groups of p r o f e s s i o n a l s s t u d i e d have a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a c l o s e d system. T h e i r ' v i e w s seem t o be h i g h l y c o n d i t i o n e d by t r a i n i n g , adherence t o s t a n d a r d s and p r a c t i c e s of the r e s p e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n s , and a l l e g i a n c e t o the a g e n c i e s ' or f i r m ' s g o a l or m i s s i o n . " ( S e w e l l 1971 p.40) Many p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h codes of e t h i c s which encourage u n i f o r m i t y i n b e h a v i o r and appear t o i s o l a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s from the p u b l i c . A common f e a t u r e of p e r c e p t i o n i s d i s t o r t i o n of u n f a m i l i a r phenomena t o a d j u s t t o f a m i l i a r o r i e n t a t i o n (White 1966). T h i s i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as " c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e " . P e o p l e w i l l 2 7 o n l y absorb i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they want t o know and they w i l l i g n o r e o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . Much of t h i s b e h a v i o r i s r e l a t e d t o one's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n . I d e o l o g y Mancur Olson's major c o n c e r n i s w i t h economic goods and he uses the premise t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l not t a k e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n u n l e s s the economic b e n e f i t s of the a c t i o n are g r e a t e r than the c o s t s . However, many l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e formed because of i d e o l o g i e s , e t h i c s , and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s r a t h e r than by p e r s o n a l economic g a i n . The c o n s e r v a t i o n movement i n N o r t h America i s a good example of the growth of l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from a b e l i e f i n a c o n s e r v a t i o n e t h i c . T h i s h e l p s t o e x p l a i n the f o r m a t i o n of such l a r g e groups as the S i e r r a C l u b , N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , N a t i o n a l Audubon S o c i e t y , e t c . Most i n d i v i d u a l s . d o have some con c e r n f o r o t h e r p e o p l e and t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s and, t h e r e f o r e , are not e n t i r e l y s e l f i s h i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and b e h a v i o r . FURTHER EXPLANATIONS OF POLITICAL-ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR There are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which hamper the procurement, a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . These f a c t o r s p e r t a i n t o the t i m e , money and e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o g a t h e r and use i n f o r m a t i o n i n making a d e c i s i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s do not have e q u a l a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s which can be used t o h a n d l e complex i n f o r m a t i o n . Some government a g e n c i e s have a monopoly on i n f o r m a t i o n and can p r e v e n t i n t e r e s t s from h a v i n g a c c e s s t o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h a monopoly on , 28 i n f o r m a t i o n might d e c i d e t o communicate o n l y t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n which s u p p o r t s t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of a problem or they might d e c i d e t o s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y t o those groups which s u p p o r t the a c t i v i t i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Government a g e n c i e s o f t e n have s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups t h a t may be reg a r d e d as the agency's c l i e n t e l e . These i n t e r e s t groups e s t a b l i s h c o n t i n u i n g c o n t a c t w i t h the agency's s t a f f members and are a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e the manner i n which programs and p o l i c i e s a r e implemented. U n c e r t a i n t y can i n f l u e n c e p o l i t i c a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b e h a v i o r . Some p o l i c y - m a k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s may be u n c e r t a i n of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or may be u n c e r t a i n of the consequences of many of the i s s u e s . The l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g many common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s i s u s u a l l y the prime reason f o r u n c e r t a i n t y i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . S e v e r a l of the u n c e r t a i n t i e s of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e p e r t a i n t o the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e - n a t a l i t y , m o r t a l i t y and the i n f l u e n c e of m i g r a t i o n t o and from the p o p u l a t i o n . There i s a l s o much u n c e r t a i n t y p e r t a i n i n g t o the demand f o r use . of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e which poses s e r i o u s problems f o r w i l d l i f e management i n s t i t u t i o n s . U n c e r t a i n t y i s f r e q u e n t l y i g n o r e d i n many d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s , e s p e c i a l l y when the n a t u r e of f u t u r e outcomes i s unknown. Some u n c e r t a i n t i e s can be reduced by f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n but i t i s u s u a l l y d e a l t w i t h by u s i n g i n c r e m e n t a l approaches t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( L i n d b l o m 1959, H o l l i n g 1978). 29 SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g the performance of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee. Normative c r i t e r i a have been d e s c r i b e d and are used i n Chapter 4 t o i n v e s t i g a t e the o p e r a t i o n of the management system as a means of i d e n t i f y i n g the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of the system. P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y p l u s i t s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e then used t o examine the b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the management system and t o p r o v i d e a framework w i t h i n which t o make recommendations f o r i m p r o v i n g the system. 30 CHAPTER 3 PITT WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA PLANNING PROCESS An i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement was d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r as a s e t of r u l e s and e n t i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l g o a l s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p l a n n i n g and management of the P i t t W i l d l i f e Management Area i s d e s c r i b e d below. The major component of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement, and the forum f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , i s the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee. The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e the f o r m a t i o n of thie A d v i s o r y Committee, the r u l e s under which i t o p e r a t e s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee, and some of the major p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y i s s u e s used i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the A d v i s o r y Committee. ESTABLISHMENT. OF AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE The F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch was f o r m a l l y r e q u e s t e d t o ac c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the management of the 1191 h e c t a r e P i t t P o l d e r G r e e n b e l t S i t e i n a l e t t e r d a t e d March 7, 1975, from the B.C. Land Commission t o the then M i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , the Hon. Jack R a d f o r d . T h i s l e t t e r a l s o c o n t a i n e d a r e q u e s t t h a t , because of the m u l t i p l e use concept f o r the a r e a , an a d v i s o r y committee be a p p o i n t e d c o m p r i s i n g a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s suggested i n the l e t t e r . The F&WB a c c e p t e d management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a r e a on A p r i l 22, 1975, and, i n t h e i r l e t t e r of a c c e p t a n c e , e l a b o r a t e d on the f o r m a t i o n of a management a d v i s o r y committee. The l e t t e r 31 s t a t e d t h a t the Adv i s o r y • C o m m i t t e e would comprise two groups: a cor e management group and a p o l i c y a d v i s o r y group. The former group would comprise a number of government a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n the ar e a and would d e a l w i t h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of management p l a n s . The l a t t e r group would i n c l u d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the management group as w e l l as p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups and a d d i t i o n a l government a g e n c i e s . T h i s group would a d v i s e on management o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c y and would r e v i e w management p l a n s . D u r i n g the i n t e r v a l between the acc e p t a n c e of management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the area and the date of the f i r s t committee meeting on November 26, 1975, the F&WB d e c i d e d not t o d i v i d e the committee i n t o two groups b u t , i n s t e a d , t o have one g e n e r a l a d v i s o r y committee. The committee was o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d the " p o l i c y a d v i s o r y committee" but has s i n c e dropped the word " p o l i c y " and i s now a g e n e r a l a d v i s o r y committee f o r the p l a n n i n g and management of the a r e a . The concept of a d v i s o r y committees as a means of i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o w i l d l i f e management d e c i s i o n s was g i v e n wider a c c e p t a n c e by the F&WB w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of the concept i n i t s "Proposed Wetlands P o l i c y , " p r e s e n t e d a t the f i r s t meeting of the committee. The p o l i c y statement suggested a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s t o s e r v e on p o l i c y a d v i s o r y committees r e l a t i n g t o w e t l a n d management, a l t h o u g h not a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be r e p r e s e n t e d on any one committee. The proposed w e t l a n d p o l i c y has had no fo r m a l s a n c t i o n but i t i s s t i l l used as a guide by the F&WB. Appendix A o u t l i n e s the p o l i c y . 32 TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE The f u n c t i o n of the A d v i s o r y Committee i s t o p r o v i d e a d v i c e t o the F&WB on a l l a s p e c t s of management f o r the a r e a , whether r e l a t e d t o t e c h n i c a l or p o l i c y m a t t e r s . Committee recommendations a r e conveyed t o the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e of the F&WB f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A u t h o r i t y f o r making d e c i s i o n s r e s t s w i t h the F&WB ( i . e . the committee has no d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power). C o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o h i g h e r l e v e l s i n the d e c i s i o n h i e r a r c h y . I f committee members a r e not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the d e c i s i o n s of the F&WB, they can use ou t - o f - c o m m i t t e e c h a n n e l s t o ex p r e s s t h e i r v iews e i t h e r t o p u b l i c s e r v a n t s a t a h i g h e r l e v e l i n the F&WB or t o p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The committee members a r e encouraged t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c y i d e a s and p l a n s f o r d i s c u s s i o n a t meetings and a r e e x p e c t e d t o revi e w and t o suggest m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o p r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l s p r e s e n t e d by the F&WB or o t h e r committee members. V o t i n g i n meetings seldom o c c u r s because of the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of government a g e n c i e s i n comparison t o p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups and because of the l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of members c o m p r i s i n g each of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups. The committee i s sc h e d u l e d t o meet t w i c e per y e a r ; however, a d d i t i o n a l meetings can be s c h e d u l e d i f the need a r i s e s . The terms of r e f e r e n c e , as p r e s e n t e d a t the f i r s t m e e t i n g , appear i n Appendix B. 33 THE COMMITTEE MEMBERS The terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee l i s t e d f o u r t e e n a g e n c i e s and groups which would form the o committee membership. Some of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as the B.C. Land Commission and the B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , a r e no l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t e d w h i l e o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been added on the a d v i c e of the committee. The a c t i v i t i e s of the f i f t e e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t c u r r e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e the A d v i s o r y Committee a r e summarized below. Government A g e n c i e s (1) F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a nch, M i n i s t r y of Environment (F&WB) The o v e r a l l g o a l of the F&WB i s " . . . t o p r o v i d e s u s t a i n e d b e n e f i t s f o r the people of B r i t i s h Columbia t h r o u g h the management and p r o t e c t i o n of the f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s " ( B r i t i s h Columbia 1977 p . 3 ) . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l , two broad o b j e c t i v e s have been s e t : t o m a i n t a i n f i s h and w i l d l i f e -s p e c i e s and t h e i r h a b i t a t and t o use th e s e s p e c i e s i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways. The R e g i o n a l O f f i c e of the F&WB i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w i l d l i f e management i n the Lower M a i n l a n d and uses the g e n e r a l management d i r e c t i o n s l i s t e d above t o a s s i s t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of s p e c i e s and h a b i t a t use p l a n s . The Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l O f f i c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the management of the PWMA. D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the day-to-day management of the a r e a a r e made by p e r s o n n e l i n the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e . However, d e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a change i n w e t lands management p o l i c y or d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g major budget items a r e r e f e r r e d t o the head o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a f o r 34 a p p r o v a l . D e l i c a t e d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i s s u e s where concensus among committee members cannot be reached a re u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o V i c t o r i a a l o n g w i t h comments and recommendations from the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e . The Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l O f f i c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g meetings and f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l b r i e f s s u b m i t t e d by committee members as w e l l as meeting agendas are c i r c u l a t e d p r i o r t o mee t i n g s . The F&WB has a l s o a c c e p t e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g a chairman f o r the committee m e e t i n g s . (2) Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , Environment Canada (CWS) Under the M i g r a t o r y B i r d s C o n v e n t i o n Act and R e g u l a t i o n s , the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the management of most m i g r a t o r y b i r d s i n Canada. Each y e a r , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the P r o v i n c e s and T e r r i t o r i e s , CWS s e t s d a t e s f o r the h u n t i n g seasons and bag l i m i t s on the m i g r a t o r y b i r d p o p u l a t i o n s . CWS i s a l s o the government branch a s s i g n e d t o d i s c h a r g e f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s under the Canada W i l d l i f e A c t of 1973. CWS i s the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the A d v i s o r y Committee. The Canada W i l d l i f e Act a l l o w s CWS t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the management of the PWMA on r e q u e s t from the P r o v i n c e of B.C. CWS p e r c e i v e s i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the committee as r e l a t i n g t o any i s s u e s of n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and t o the s e t t i n g of bag l i m i t s f o r the a r e a . I t i s not concerned w i t h h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n a t the PWMA. 3 5 ( 3 ) I n s p e c t o r of Dykes, M i n i s t r y of Environment The I n s p e c t o r of Dykes works under the Dykes Maintenance Act and i s concerned w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of a l l dykes c o n s t r u c t e d on p u b l i c l a n d s and any dykes b o r d e r i n g p r i v a t e l a n d . A l l dyke work a t the PWMA must be approved by the I n s p e c t o r of Dykes. T h i s i n c l u d e s any maintenance on the dykes as w e l l as any f a c i l i t i e s which are t o be p l a c e d on the dykes. (4) Lands and Housing R e g i o n a l O p e r a t i o n s D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s , and Housing The Lands and Housing D i v i s i o n i s one of the government a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g Crown l a n d f o r t h e b e n e f i t of the p u b l i c . I t i s . c o ncerned w i t h the p l a n n i n g , management and a l l o c a t i o n of n o n - f o r e s t Crown l a n d i n B'.C. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f o r e s h o r e l a n d i n the Lower M a i n l a n d r e g i o n . The Lands and Housing D i v i s i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s h o r e l i n e uses of the l a n d a t the PWMA. T h i s p e r t a i n s t o the l e a s i n g of s h o r e l i n e f o r the s t o r a g e of l o g s . S i n c e the l e a s i n g of l a n d a l o n g P i t t Lake i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Lands and Housing D i v i s i o n , i t i s a l s o c o n cerned w i t h the f u t u r e of the Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h ramp because most of the p e o p l e h o l d i n g c o t t a g e l e a s e s a l o n g the l a k e use t h i s boat l a u n c h t o rea c h t h e i r c o t t a g e s . 36 (5) P a r k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s , and Housing T h i s p r o v i n c i a l agency i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g and co-o r d i n a t i n g the p r o t e c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l use of the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s on Crown l a n d i n B.C. I t i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l a n d s c a p e s of B.C. and f o r the enhancement of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . The major concern of t h i s agency i n the PWMA i s the p r o v i s i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n as p a r t of the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r the a r e a . The purpose of the p l a n i s t o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t w i l l enhance the management o b j e c t i v e s f o r the PWMA. (6) G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (GVRD) The GVRD a d m i n i s t e r s a number of s e r v i c e s and programs t h a t a f f e c t the e n t i r e u r b a n i z e d a r e a and f r i n g e s s u r r o u n d i n g Vancouver. One of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s the p r o v i s i o n of r e g i o n a l p a r k s . GVRD park p o l i c i e s s u p p o r t the a c q u i s i t i o n and development of park ar e a s and encourage the r e s e r v a t i o n of ar e a s of s i g n i f i c a n t r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l or h i g h b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . • The GVRD i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the PWMA f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . The community of Maple Ridge c o n t r i b u t e s t o the GVRD's r e g i o n a l park p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . The boat l a u n c h a t Grant Narrows i s a major a c c e s s p o i n t t o Widgeon Slough on the west s i d e of the P i t t R i v e r . Widgeon Slough i s i n GVRD's p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n . The GVRD i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e c r e a t i o n c o n c e p t s f o r the PWMA because t h i s c o u l d a f f e c t o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n the 37 g e n e r a l a r e a . (7) Dewdney-Alouette R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (DARD) DARD, l i k e most o t h e r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n B.C., p r o v i d e s some e s s e n t i a l r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . DARD, however, does not have a pa r k s f u n c t i o n . The PWMA i s w i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n i n c o r p o r a t e s the PWMA. The major c o n c e r n of DARD i s the r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l of the ar e a as w e l l as the up g r a d i n g of c u r r e n t p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r the u s e r s o f 1 the Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h . O r g a n i z a t i o n s S u p p o r t i n g Consumptive Uses of W i l d l i f e a t PWMA (1) B.C W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n (BCWF) T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a f e d e r a t i o n of some 160 f i s h , game, and outdoor c l u b s c o m p r i s i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21,000 members. Many of i t s members are h u n t e r s and f i s h e r m e n (however, some a re n e i t h e r ) "who seek t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n i n the g r e a t o u t d o o r s . " One of i t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s i s t o ensure the sound, l o n g - t e r m management of B.C.'s f i s h , w i l d l i f e , park and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . • The BCWF has been i n t e r e s t e d i n the ar e a s i n c e the 1950's. I t h e l p e d t o d e v e l o p - t h e 266 h e c t a r e P u b l i c . S h o o t i n g Marsh a f t e r the Crown purchased i t from P i t t P o l d e r L t d . The BCWF would l i k e t o see the marsh a r e a managed t o i n c r e a s e i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r w a t e r f o w l and would p r e f e r a minimum of f a c i l i t i e s i n the a r e a . 38 (2) Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l B ranch, B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n (LMRB) T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y r o d and gun c l u b s c o m p r i s i n g 6,000 members. The g o a l s of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e s i m i l a r t o those of the p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , the B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n . The LMRB i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the PWMA because some of the member c l u b s a r e from the P i t t a r e a and use the marsh f o r w a t e r f o w l h u n t i n g . (3) P i t t W a t e r f o w l Management A s s o c i a t i o n The major i n t e r e s t of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s w a t e r f o w l c o n s e r v a t i o n . I t has been i n v o l v e d i n many w a t e r f o w l enhancement programs i n the P i t t V a l l e y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Canada Goose Program and the Wood Duck Program. The A s s o c i a t i o n has a s m a l l membership - o n l y t w e l v e members - most of whom a r e a l s o members of l o c a l rod and gun c l u b s . The p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n the PWMA i s the b r e e d i n g of w a t e r f o w l i n the marsh a r e a s . I t has i n s t i g a t e d many of the w a t e r f o w l p r o p a g a t i o n programs t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n the a r e a . O r g a n i z a t i o n s S u p p o r t i n g Non-consumptive Uses of W i l d l i f e a t  PWMA (1) F e d e r a t i o n of B.C. N a t u r a l i s t s (FBCN) The motto of the FBCN i s " t o know n a t u r e and t o keep i t worth knowing." I t s p r i m a r y g o a l s p e r t a i n t o n a t u r e c o n s e r v a t i o n and na t u r e e d u c a t i o n . I t i s a f e d e r a t i o n of 39 t h i r t y - f i v e c l u b s w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5,000 members. The FBCN m a i n t a i n s t h a t the PWMA i s one of the l a s t f r e s h w a t e r w e t l a n d a r e a s r e m a i n i n g i n the Lower M a i n l a n d t h a t i s s t i l l i n a q u a s i - n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n . The a r e a i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s and i t s h o u l d be used p r i m a r i l y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . (2) A l o u e t t e F i e l d N a t u r a l i s t s (AFN) The A l o u e t t e F i e l d N a t u r a l i s t s were o r i g i n a l l y , formed t o a s s i s t i n the p r o t e c t i o n of the G r e a t e r S a n d h i l l Cranes which breed i n the P i t t V a l l e y . T h e i r o b j e c t i v e s have now broadened t o the g e n e r a l enjoyment of n a t u r e and the pro m o t i o n of n a t u r e e d u c a t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n has a membership of a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty p e o p l e . The major i n t e r e s t of the AFN i n the PWMA i s the p r o t e c t i o n of G r e a t e r S a n d h i l l Crane n e s t i n g h a b i t a t . (3) I n s t i t u t e of E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s , Douglas C o l l e g e The I n s t i t u t e i s v e r y concerned w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t i n the Lower M a i n l a n d and i s i n v o l v e d w i t h community e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t s . The D i r e c t o r of the I n s t i t u t e of E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s , Dr. B a r r y Leach, was one of the fo u n d i n g d i r e c t o r s of the B.C. Water f o w l S o c i e t y . Because of h i s knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h w i l d l i f e , he. was i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on the A d v i s o r y Committee. A l t h o u g h he i s not opposed t o h u n t i n g , he would l i k e t o see a ba l a n c e of h u n t i n g and non-hunting a t the PWMA. He would l i k e t o see the a r e a improved t o a t t r a c t l a r g e r w a t e r f o w l , 40 such as swans and geese. S p e c i a l I n t e r e s t s (1) Ducks U n l i m i t e d , Canada (DU) "Ducks U n l i m i t e d i s a p r i v a t e n o n - p r o f i t c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n d e d i c a t e d t o the p e r p e t u a t i o n and i n c r e a s e of N o r t h America's w a t e r f o w l r e s o u r c e . T h i s g o a l i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the r e s t o r a t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n and c r e a t i o n of prime w a t e r f o w l b r e e d i n g h a b i t a t i n Canada" (Ducks U n l i m i t e d B r o c h u r e ) . DU i s c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h the F&WB t o r e c r e a t e marsh c o n d i t i o n s a t the PWMA. At p r e s e n t , DU i s p r o v i d i n g a l l of the e n g i n e e r i n g s e r v i c e s and most of the f u n d i n g f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of dykes and water c o n t r o l o u t l e t s i n the a r e a . DU has c o n t r i b u t e d over $600,000 towards the improvement of the PWMA d u r i n g the p a s t f i v e y e a r s (1976-1980). (2) P i t t P o l d e r L i m i t e d T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a l a n d h o l d i n g company which owned the PWMA p r i o r t o i t s purchase by the G r e e n b e l t P r o t e c t i o n Fund. P i t t P o l d e r L t d . c o n s t r u c t e d some of the o r i g i n a l dykes which c u r r e n t l y e x i s t i n the PWMA. T h i s company owns the l a n d a d j a c e n t t o the PWMA. P i t t P o l d e r L t d . has a l a r g e investment i n the are a a d j a c e n t t o the PWMA and the company i s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e v e n t i n g the f l o o d i n g of t h e i r p r o p e r t y from f r e s h e t f l o o d w a t e r . The company's prime i n t e r e s t i s i n the maintenance of the dykes which border the PWMA. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n pumping water from t h e i r l a n d i n t o the PWMA. 41 THE PROCESS The p l a n n i n g and management of the PWMA i s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . Many p l a n n i n g , p o l i c y and management i s s u e s have been d i s c u s s e d by the Committee and r e s o l v e d and the d e c i s i o n s have been implemented or are i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . Other i s s u e s a r e s t i l l i n the p l a n n i n g s t a g e . Some of the management s t r a t e g i e s a r e a d a p t i v e i n na t u r e and a r e d i s c u s s e d on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s i n o r d e r t o make any n e c e s s a r y a d a p t a t i o n s t o chang i n g c o n d i t i o n s . There a re a l s o management t a s k s of a r o u t i n e n a t u r e such as m a i n t a i n i n g water l e v e l s and m o n i t o r i n g w i l d l i f e use of the a r e a . Four major p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y i s s u e s w i l l form the b a s i s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the A d v i s o r y Committee. These p e r t a i n t o : (1) the f o r m a t i o n of the management p l a n , (2) the a l l o c a t i o n of a r e s e r v e f o r the p o p u l a t i o n of G r e a t e r S a n d h i l l Cranes which breed i n the PWMA, (3) the w a t e r f o w l h u n t i n g p o l i c y , and (4) the f o r m a t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n f o r the a r e a . Because of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e i s s u e s , many of the a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s have c o n c e r n e d more than one i s s u e . The e x p l a n a t i o n of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e , appears i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r and h i g h l i g h t s major e v e n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o the f o u r i s s u e s . W r i t t e n m i n u t e s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s have been used t o d e s c r i b e what o c c u r r e d . 42 A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1975 The f i r s t meeting of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee was h e l d on November 26, 1975. The purpose of t h i s meeting was t o i n t r o d u c e F&WB p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y f o r w e t l a n d s management, the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the A d v i s o r y Committee, and t e n t a t i v e management p r o p o s a l s f o r the a r e a . A l l t h r e e items were c o n t a i n e d i n d i s c u s s i o n papers which had been p r e v i o u s l y sent t o a l l member o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s . Three p o i n t s a r o s e from t h i s meeting. F i r s t , i t was agreed t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the LMRB of the BCWF would be i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on the committee. Second, the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t the ar e a suggested f o r S a n d h i l l Crane management was not s u f f i c i e n t . T h i r d , the AFN inf o r m e d the committee t h a t they i n t e n d e d t o i n v i t e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the Crane I n s t i t u t e i n W i s c o n s i n t o a s s e s s the a r e a . The F&WB suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g some f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e towards the t r a v e l expenses i n c u r r e d by the Crane I n s t i t u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1976 Mr. Tom Howard from the Crane I n s t i t u t e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n a t t e n d e d the second meeting of the A d v i s o r y Committee i n January as a guest of the AFN (Mr. Howard's expenses were p a i d by the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups; the F&WB were not a b l e t o p r o v i d e f u n d i n g ) . Mr. Howard p r e s e n t e d h i s recommendations r e g a r d i n g the S a n d h i l l Cranes a t the PWMA. H i s main recommendation was t o e n l a r g e the ar e a r e c o g n i z e d as crane n e s t i n g h a b i t a t , a p o i n t p r e v i o u s l y e x p r e s s e d by the 43 n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups. R e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g was a l s o d i s c u s s e d at t h i s m e e t i n g . Concern was e x p r e s s e d t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l use s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d t o degrade the n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s of the a r e a . The B.C. Land Commission and the BCWF p r e p a r e d p o s i t i o n papers r e g a r d i n g the development of the PWMA and p r e s e n t e d t h e s e papers a t the January meeting. A d r a f t 5-year p l a n was p r e p a r e d by the F&WB between J a n u a r y , 1976 and August, 1976. The o n l y p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o the p l a n was from i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s between the F&WB and the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups. T h i s p l a n was sent t o a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r i o r t o the committee meeting i n August and w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s and comments were r e q u e s t e d . The management p l a n f o r the a r e a d e s c r i b e s the management o b j e c t i v e s and examines some of the management t e c h n i q u e s which c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o the a r e a , such as p o p u l a t i o n m a n i p u l a t i o n , c o n t r o l of p r e d a t o r s and d i s e a s e , s p e c i e s i n t r o d u c t i o n and h a b i t a t improvement. The major p a r t of t h i s p l a n d e s c r i b e s s t r a t e g i e s f o r h a b i t a t improvement. The management a r e a i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x management u n i t s and an enhancement program i s proposed f o r each u n i t i n terms of water c o n t r o l s t r u c t u r e s , n u t r i e n t f l o w , f o o d , c o v e r , and n e s t i n g and l o a f i n g s i t e s (see F i g u r e 2 ) . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n the a r e a a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d . Each of the management u n i t s i s t o be s e p a r a t e d by dykes where n e c e s s a r y and a t h r e e phase c o n s t r u c t i o n program i s o u t l i n e d f o r the dyke work. Many r e c r e a t i o n a l uses a r e d i s c u s s e d ; however, w a t e r f o w l h u n t i n g i s g i v e n the most d e t a i l e d assessment. The p r e l i m i n a r y management p l a n dominated the d i s c u s s i o n a t 45 the August committee meeting (no minutes were kept; however, a summary of t h i s meeting was p r e s e n t e d a t the A p r i l , 1978 m e e t i n g ) . S u b m i s s i o n s were r e c e i v e d from v i r t u a l l y e v e r y p u b l i c i n t e r e s t group on the committee and some t h a t were not r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee ( S i e r r a C l u b , S u r r e y / W h i t e Rock N a t u r a l i s t s ) . A l t h o u g h the F&WB had i n c o r p o r a t e d a l a r g e r crane a r e a i n the p l a n , the main c o n c e r n s of the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups were: an apparent l a c k of p l a n n i n g f o r non-consumptive r e c r e a t i o n ; an apparent o v e r - b a l a n c e towards h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g ; and a l a c k of a c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d i n t e n t f o r the p r o v i s i o n of s e c u r i t y f o r S a n d h i l l Cranes. The c r i t i c i s m s of the management p l a n by the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups l e d t o the a d m i s s i o n by the F&WB t h a t t h e i r e x p e r t i s e was i n managing h u n t i n g and not i n - p r o v i d i n g f o r the needs of the non-consumptive u s e r s . S e v e r a l of the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups were prompted t o w r i t e t o the M i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n p o i n t i n g out the acknowledged d e f i c i e n c y of the F&WB i n the f i e l d of non-consumptive r e c r e a t i o n a l uses of w i l d l i f e . In the minutes of the A p r i l 4, 1978 committee meeting, r e f e r e n c e i s made t o a F&WB s t a f f meeting h e l d l a t e r i n the month of August, 1976, i n which the f o l l o w i n g d e c i s i o n was made: "Because (F&WB) does not have the e x p e r t i s e t o a d e q u a t e l y p l a n f o r non-consumptive r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r e a , and because the committee f e l t t h a t t he Branch was u n d e r r a t i n g non-consumptive use p l a n n i n g f o r the management a r e a , P a r k s Branch would be asked t o a s s e s s the p o t e n t i a l f o r v a r i o u s outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h (F&WB), t o a s s e s s t h e i r c o s t and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . " ( B r i t i s h Columbia 1978 p.2) A l s o d i s c u s s e d a t the August 10 committee meeting was the e x t e n s i o n of the l e a s e t o the Sturgeon Slough Gun C l u b , which 46 was l e a s i n g 1376 h e c t a r e s of the PWMA. S i n c e management s t u d i e s were not complete, the committee d e c i d e d t o ext e n d the l e a s e f o r one more y e a r . T h i s o p t i o n met w i t h the l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e from committee members. There was a l s o g e n e r a l concensus by the committee t o be g i n work on the Phase I dyke work proposed i n the management p l a n . The AFN were not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the management p l a n as p r e s e n t e d a t the August 10 meeting and, as a r e s u l t , s u b m i t t e d t an a l t e r n a t i v e management p l a n t o the F&WB f o r i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n November, 1976. T h i s p l a n d i v i d e d the a r e a i n t o s i x d i f f e r e n t management u n i t s i n v o l v i n g much l e s s dyke work. The major f e a t u r e of the p l a n was a much l a r g e r a r e a s e t a s i d e f o r S a n d h i l l Crane management. The p l a n a l s o i n c l u d e d p r o p o s a l s f o r non-consumptive r e c r e a t i o n a l uses of the a r e a . The F&WB d i d not c i r c u l a t e t h i s p l a n t o committee members because i t was r e c e i v e d t h r e e months a f t e r the committee had approved the Phase I development p r o p o s a l s and the F&WB f e l t t h a t t h e s e p r o p o s a l s a l r e a d y a ccounted f o r the AFN v i e w p o i n t . A number of s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h i s p l a n were s u b s e q u e n t l y used i n the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1977 • There were no meetings of the A d v i s o r y Committee h e l d i n 1977. In f a c t , t h e r e was a twenty month p e r i o d from August, 1976, t o A p r i l , 1978, between m e e t i n g s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of dykes a t the PWMA proceeded d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and b i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out on the marsh a r e a s . There was v e r y l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n between the F&WB and committee members i n 47 1977. The dyke c o n s t r u c t i o n was not w i t h o u t i t s mishaps. On the a d v i c e of Mr. Howard from the Crane I n s t i t u t e , F&WB changed the o r i g i n a l a l i g n m e n t of the cr a n e r e s e r v e dyke but the amended p l a n s were not g i v e n t o the c o n t r a c t o r . Both AFN members and a c o n t r a c t b i o l o g i s t n o t i c e d t h i s e r r o r a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n had commenced. F o r t u n a t e l y , v e r y l i t t l e c o n s t r u c t i o n had taken p l a c e so the e r r o r was c o r r e c t e d b e f o r e c o n s i d e r a b l e damage was done. However, d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the pr o p e r dyke, a d i t c h was e x c a v a t e d on the crane bog s i d e of the dyke which r e s u l t e d i n subsequent low water l e v e l s i n the bog. The d i t c h , which s u p p l i e d m a t e r i a l f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the dyke, was supposed t o be p l a c e d on the o p p o s i t e s i d e of the dyke. The AFN p l a c e d s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s i n l o c a l newspapers c o m p l a i n i n g of the dyke c o n s t r u c t i o n . P l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s commenced i n 1977. In May, t he Pa r k s Branch was r e q u e s t e d by the F&WB t o d e v e l o p a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n as p a r t of the o v e r a l l p l a n f o r t he a r e a . A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1978 The A d v i s o r y Committee met on A p r i l 4 t o d i s c u s s developments which had o c c u r r e d i n the management a r e a over the pa s t twenty months and t o i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n of f u t u r e management. F&WB had r e c e i v e d c orrespondence from FBCN e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n f o r the l a c k of committee meetings and f o r the l a c k of out - o f - c o m m i t t e e communication. The n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups a l s o c o m plained of h a b i t a t d e s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g dyke c o n s t r u c t i o n . Areas of the crane n e s t i n g compartment were b a d l y 48 damaged by the d y k i n g equipment moving a c r o s s the a r e a . The F&WB c o u l d not p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s m i s t a k e . The t o p i c of g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t t o committee members was the proposed 1978 h u n t i n g regime f o r the area which was f o r m u l a t e d w i t h o u t the c o n s u l t a t i o n of the A d v i s o r y Committee. A year 'round no s h o o t i n g a r e a was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the S a n d h i l l Crane n e s t i n g a r e a . T h i s would p r o v i d e an area ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 232 ha.) f o r non-consumptive u s e r s t o r e c r e a t e d u r i n g the h u n t i n g season and would p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n f o r c r a n e s which l i n g e r e d i n t o the h u n t i n g season and f o r a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n of b l a c k t a i l deer which used an upla n d a r e a l o c a t e d w i t h i n the cra n e r e s e r v e . The remainder of the management ar e a would be open t o h u n t i n g f o r t h r e e days per week d u r i n g the w a t e r f o w l season. W a t e r f o w l h u n t i n g would be a f f e c t e d m i n i m a l l y by the c l o s u r e of the crane n e s t i n g a r e a because the l a n d had v e r y few open water a r e a s . The F&WB s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s o p t i o n was o n l y e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o u l d be changed i n t h e f u t u r e . They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t f u t u r e management o p t i o n s would r e q u i r e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a w i l d l i f e r e f u g e i n the a r e a , . p o s s i b l y i n the P u b l i c S h o o t i n g Marsh. No o p p o s i t i o n was shown a t the meeting r e g a r d i n g the h u n t i n g proposed regime. However, on May 19, Mayor J.L. Tonn ( C o q u i t l a m ) , Chairman, GVRD Pa r k s Committee wrote t o the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r of the F&WB w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e q u e s t : "I u r g e n t l y r e q u e s t t h a t you w i t h h o l d making any major e x t e n s i o n s of h u n t i n g i n (the P i t t P o l d e r , Widgeon V a l l e y and Minnekhada Ranch a r e a s ) and r e s t r i c t i t t o the c u r r e n t p u b l i c s h o o t i n g a r e a u n t i l a comprehensive ( r e c r e a t i o n a l ) program f o r thes e a r e a s has been e x p l o r e d . " ( l e t t e r from Tonn t o West May 19, 1978) 49 The " e x t e n s i o n " t h a t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n the l e t t e r i s an e x t e n s i o n of p u b l i c h u n t i n g i n t o a r e a s which were f o r m e r l y l e a s e d f o r p r i v a t e h u n t i n g . C o p i e s of Mayor Tonn's l e t t e r were sent t o the M i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n as w e l l as the Deputy M i n i s t e r . In a memorandum t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r , the A c t i n g D i r e c t o r of the F&WB s t a t e d : "There has been a r e d u c t i o n i n the ar e a open t o h u n t i n g . P u b l i c h u n t i n g was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r p r i v a t e h u n t i n g , the number of days per week i n which h u n t i n g i s a l l o w e d has been reduced from seven t o t h r e e , and 600 a c r e s have been c l o s e d t o s h o o t i n g . A l s o we have p u b l i c l y s t a t e d we are l o o k i n g c l o s e l y a t the d e s i r a b i l i t y of c l o s i n g t o s h o o t i n g an a d d i t i o n a l 600 a c r e s . " (Robinson t o Brooks June 5, 1978) At a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same t i m e , B a r r y Leach, the D i r e c t o r of the I n s t i t u t e of E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s a t Douglas C o l l e g e (and not y e t a member of the A d v i s o r y Committee), wrote t o the then M i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , the Hon. S. B a w l f , o b j e c t i n g t o the e x t e n s i o n of the p u b l i c s h o o t i n g a r e a . H i s major c o n c e r n s c e n t r e d on the f a i l u r e of p l a n n i n g f o r the PWMA to c o n s i d e r both the r e c r e a t i o n needs of the peopl e and the needs of w i l d l i f e i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . The M i n i s t e r ' s r e p l y emphasized t h a t t h e r e were no o b j e c t i o n s r e c e i v e d a t the meeting r e g a r d i n g the h u n t i n g d e c i s i o n , t h a t compromise i s needed i n p l a n n i n g , and t h a t " A l l i n t e r e s t groups cannot be t o t a l l y p l e a s e d " ( l e t t e r from Bawlf t o Leach September 11, 1978). The AFN r e g i s t e r e d t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s w i t h the M i n i s t e r r e g a r d i n g the 1978 h u n t i n g regime i n a l e t t e r d a t e d October 20, 1978. The AFN m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the absence of o b j e c t i o n t o the p r o p o s a l . d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y mean support and t h a t , s i n c e the committee i s not supposed t o v o t e , they c o u l d not v o t e a g a i n s t the p r o p o s a l . The AFN a l s o emphasized t h a t the G r e e n b e l t a r e a s 50 were bought w i t h p u b l i c funds f o r use by the p u b l i c and were not meant t o be used e x c l u s i v e l y by the h u n t i n g f r a t e r n i t y - The r e p l y t o the AFN, from the h e a d q u a r t e r s of the F&WB i n V i c t o r i a , r e p e a t e d many of the p o i n t s which had been mentioned i n the l e t t e r t o B a r r y Leach. In O ctober, f e a t u r e a r t i c l e s began t o appear i n The  Vancouver Sun and The Maple Ridge G a z e t t e r e g a r d i n g the use of w a t e r f o w l i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . On October 3, an a r t i c l e by B a r r y Leach appeared i n The Vancouver Sun e n t i t l e d , " P r e s e r v e our w a t e r f o w l - don't h a r v e s t i t . " The major emphasis i n t h i s a r t i c l e was t h a t d i s t u r b a n c e caused by h u n t i n g was a major f a c t o r i n d e c l i n i n g w a t e r f o w l p o p u l a t i o n s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . John D i x o n , a member of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee, p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e i n The Vancouver Sun on October 24 e n t i t l e d , "The Hunter's R i g h t : To Ha r v e s t a Resource," d i s p u t i n g many p o i n t s i n the p r e v i o u s a r t i c l e . Dixon c l a i m e d t h a t the l o s s of h a b i t a t was the main reason f o r d e c l i n i n g w a t e r f o w l p o p u l a t i o n s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . A t h i r d a r t i c l e appeared i n The Maple Ridge G a z e t t e on November 10 p e r t a i n i n g t o the h u n t i n g / n o n - h u n t i n g c o n f l i c t . The a r t i c l e by K e i t h Hobson e n t i t l e d , "Hunting - A N a t u r a l i s t ' s View," r e l a t e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e s a t the PWMA d u r i n g h u n t i n g season. Hobson p r o c l a i m e d t h a t the imp o r t a n t i s s u e a t the PWMA " . . . i s the e x t e n t t o which the i n t e r e s t s of each group ( h u n t e r s and non-hunters) a re c a t e r e d t o by our e l e c t e d government" (Hobson 1978). Hobson accompanied t h i s a r t i c l e w i t h a l e t t e r t o the M i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . T h i s was a. v e r y 51 i m p o r t a n t event because, not o n l y was the M i n i s t e r r e c e i v i n g o b j e c t i o n s t o the h u n t i n g d e c i s i o n from committee members, he a l s o began r e c e i v i n g l e t t e r s from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . In the l e t t e r , the M i n i s t e r was reminded t h a t the l a n d a t PWMA was p u b l i c l a n d and t h a t i t s h o u l d not c a t e r t o a s i n g l e i n t e r e s t group. A f u r t h e r l e t t e r was w r i t t e n by Hobson i n l a t e December to the Pre m i e r a s k i n g f o r a r e p l y t o the former l e t t e r . When the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee convened on November 28, the r o l e of the A d v i s o r y Committee was d i s c u s s e d . The Chairman commented on the correspondence r e c e i v e d by the M i n i s t e r and s t r e s s e d the a d v i s o r y r o l e of the committee. He s t r e s s e d the importance of e x p r e s s i n g , i n committee m e e t i n g s , o b j e c t i o n s t o or support f o r p r o p o s a l s made by the F&WB -or o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n committee meetings. The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the state m e n t s made by the Chairman t o the Committee: " I t i s o n l y by u n d e r s t a n d i n g c l e a r l y the p o s i t i o n s of committee members t h a t the committee as a whole can come t o g r i p s w i t h the s u b j e c t s and o f f e r a p p r o p r i a t e a d v i c e t o the Branch. V i r t u a l l y no s u b j e c t brought f o r w a r d f o r d i s c u s s i o n a t committee meetings s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as p r e v i o u s l y d e c i d e d upon by the Bra n c h . . . Committee members s h o u l d t a k e i t as t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o o b t a i n from the Branch the reaso n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l agency recommendations not b e i n g f o l l o w e d . I f they a r e s t i l l unhappy w i t h the respo n s e , i t i s then a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them t o u t i l i z e o u t - o f - c o m m i t t e e c h a n n e l s f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r v i e w s . " ( B r i t i s h Columbia 1978 p . l ) The r e c r e a t i o n p l a n f o r the PWMA was d i s c u s s e d a t t h i s m e eting. The Pa r k s Branch had completed i t s r e p o r t on the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and i t was s u b m i t t e d t o the F&WB i n September. C o p i e s of the r e p o r t were sent t o a l l members p r i o r t o the meet i n g . The major f e a t u r e s of the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n were an 52 i n t e r p r e t i v e c e n t r e t o be l o c a t e d a t P i n e M ountain, r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h ramp away from the beach a r e a , no improvements i n boat l a u n c h p a r k i n g , s e v e r a l p a r k i n g a r e a s l o c a t e d a t v a r i o u s s i t e s w i t h i n the a r e a f o r p i c n i c k e r s , an i n t e r p r e t i v e canoe r o u t e and t r a i l s f o r h i k i n g , b i c y c l i n g and horseback r i d i n g . I t was s t r e s s e d by the Pa r k s Branch t h a t the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r e s e n t e d were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e f o r the ar e a and t h a t the p l a n c o n s i d e r e d r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d elsewhere i n the P i t t V a l l e y . The ensu i n g d i s c u s s i o n concerned the f a i l u r e of the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n t o c o n s i d e r the demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a t the PWMA, the need f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o make t r a d e - o f f s among uses of the area and the need f o r g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The GVRD was e s p e c i a l l y c oncerned w i t h the need f o r a wider p e r s p e c t i v e i n the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g f o r the a r e a . I t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t r e s s e d t h a t p l a n n i n g i n the PWMA s h o u l d take i n t o account r e c r e a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n p o t e n t i a l i n the e n t i r e P i t t V a l l e y . S i n c e the F&WB has no mandate f o r p l a n n i n g o u t s i d e of the management a r e a , the GVRD suggested t h a t a sub-committee be formed t o loo k i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of a study f o r a l a r g e r a r e a . A two p a r t motion was passed by the Committee r e g a r d i n g the f o r m a t i o n and scope of such a subcommittee. A s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g meeting was h e l d i n December w i t h members of the F&WB, Pa r k s Branch, hu n t e r groups and n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i s c u s s e d the p r o p o s a l f o r c a n o e i n g i n the marsh a r e a , the l o c a t i o n of a na t u r e 5 3 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c e n t r e , a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r boat l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s f o r P i t t Lake and a p e t i t i o n from the Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h u s e r s a s k i n g f o r improved f a c i l i t i e s . The P a r k s Branch emphasized t h a t a s i m i l a r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y ( i . e . a l a r g e marsh) does not e x i s t i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . A f t e r an e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n of many a s p e c t s of the p l a n , concensus was reached on the r e c r e a t i o n p r o p o s a l s i n c o r p o r a t i n g t he m o d i f i c a t i o n s suggested i n the d i s c u s s i o n . A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1979 A l t h o u g h concensus had been reached on the r e c r e a t i o n p r o p o s a l s f o r the PWMA, the n a t u r a l i s t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s were s t i l l not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g f o r the PWMA. On January 22, B a r r y L e a c h wrote t o the Hon. Rafe M a i r , the new M i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , e x p r e s s i n g concern t h a t the enhancement of w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s a t the PWMA would be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d i f the p r e s e n t h u n t i n g p o l i c y was a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e and i f f u t u r e p l a n s f o r c a n o e i n g i n the c e n t r a l marsh were a l l o w e d t o procee d . He emphasized t h a t t h e r e were e x t e n s i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r both a c t i v i t i e s e l s e w h e r e i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . The proposed w e t l a n d developments f o r 1979, or the Phase I I c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o p o s a l s f o r the a r e a , were sent t o a l l members i n mid-January. The Phase I I p r o p o s a l s r e f e r r e d t o improvements t o d i t c h e s and dykes a l r e a d y i n the a r e a , c o n s t r u c t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l dykes and water c o n t r o l s t r u c t u r e s and. t h e m e c h a n i c a l c u t t i n g of hardhack i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . On F e b r u a r y 4, the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e of the F&WB r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from the AFN 54 r e g i s t e r i n g c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e p r o p o s a l s . Some of the proposed developments were s c h e d u l e d i n a r e a s used by S a n d h i l l Cranes f o r n e s t i n g and thes e p r o p o s a l s were not a c c e p t a b l e t o the AFN. They suggested t h a t the F&WB s h o u l d l o o k a t the " a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n " f o r the PWMA which the AFN had produced i n 1976. The FBCN became aware of the AFN's n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the F&WB and t e l e p h o n e d the Branch on F e b r u a r y 7 t o r e l a t e t h e i r c o n c e r n over the resentment and m i s t r u s t between the n a t u r a l i s t s and the F&WB. The FBCN was p a r t i c u l a r l y c oncerned about m i s t r u s t over a c t i v i t y i n cr a n e a r e a s and suggested t h a t a meeting be h e l d between the n a t u r a l i s t s and the F&WB (which was never h e l d ) . A l l f o u r major i s s u e s were d i s c u s s e d a t the next A d v i s o r y Committee meeting on Fe b r u a r y 13, 1979. The AFN e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the amount of the PWMA set a s i d e as a crane r e s e r v e , w i t h the former d y k i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n the a r e a , and w i t h the f a c t t h a t Tom Howard from the Crane I n s t i t u t e recommended a g a i n s t c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of the PWMA which . was c u r r e n t l y b e i n g s u ggested i n the development p r o p o s a l s . A hea t e d d i s c u s s i o n ensued r e g a r d i n g the pr o p e r management of the crane a r e a w i t h the F&WB e x p r e s s i n g the need t o experiment w i t h s m a l l p o r t i o n s of h a b i t a t and AFN s t a t i n g t h a t they were not w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h such a s m a l l number of- c r a n e s i n the a r e a . A l l members agreed t h a t the cr a n e p o p u l a t i o n was v e r y low. B a r r y Leach suggested b r i n g i n g i n "new" c r a n e s t o h e l p b u i l d up the r e l i c p o p u l a t i o n and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a crane subcommittee was d i s c u s s e d . The AFN a l s o e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n s about the Phase I I 55 development p r o p o s a l s f o r the management a r e a . They agreed t o c e r t a i n works as l o n g as the crane h a b i t a t was not d i s t u r b e d . The F&WB agreed t o r e v i s e the development p r o p o s a l s based upon the suggested m o d i f i c a t i o n s . The r e c r e a t i o n p l a n was a l s o r e v i e w e d . The FBCN s t a t e d t h a t the n a t u r a l i s t s ' r e q u e s t s f o r the a r e a were b e i n g i g n o r e d by the F&WB. T h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n s were t h a t a r e g i o n a l view f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s was needed t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s e l s e w h e r e , t h a t w i l d l i f e management must be t i e d i n w i t h the r e s t of the F r a s e r V a l l e y , and t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n had been r e l e g a t e d t o second p l a c e b e h i n d r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The F&WB r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t e d t h a t a l l s u b m i s s i o n s towards the management p l a n had been c o n s i d e r e d and t h a t they f e l t concensus had been reached on the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . The AFN i n t r o d u c e d K e i t h Hobson's a r t i c l e a g a i n s t h u n t i n g i n the PWMA. The en s u i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the h u n t e r s and n a t u r a l i s t s were s t i l l f a r a p a r t on t h e i r views r e g a r d i n g h u n t i n g i n the a r e a . The n a t u r a l i s t s s t r e s s e d t he need t o c l o s e the whole a r e a t o h u n t i n g u n t i l h a b i t a t and w i l d l i f e i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d . They a l s o emphasized t h a t any d e s i g n a t i o n of use sh o u l d be based on a s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n r a t h e r than a tempora l s e p a r a t i o n . The F&WB f a v o u r e d the i d e a of s e p a r a t i n g h u n t e r s and- n o n - h u n t e r s , but m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h i s was not r e q u i r e d a t p r e s e n t . The h u n t e r s s t a t e d t h a t h u n t i n g had l i t t l e or no e f f e c t on b i r d p o p u l a t i o n s a t the PWMA. They a l s o emphasized t h a t h u n t e r s had c o n t r i b u t e d f o r y e a r s t o . e s t a b l i s h w a t e r f o w l p o p u l a t i o n s and t h a t numerous non-hunting a r e a s a l r e a d y e x i s t e d 56 on p r i v a t e l a n d . The p o s s i b i l i t y of r e d u c i n g h u n t i n g by one day per week was d i s c u s s e d . The h u n t i n g i s s u e , however, was l e f t u n r e s o l v e d . One of the most i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s i n the PWMA p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o c c u r r e d on Fe b r u a r y 23. The AFN, r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups on the committee, met w i t h The M i n i s t e r of the Environment, the Hon. Rafe M a i r , t o e x p r e s s t h e i r c o n c e r n t h a t n a t u r a l i s t s ' views were not b e i n g g i v e n p r o p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the F&WB. A l e t t e r was p r e s e n t e d t o the M i n i s t e r o u t l i n i n g t h e i r major g r i e v a n c e s . When asked t o respond t o the p o i n t s r a i s e d i n the AFN l e t t e r , the F&WB p r e s e n t e d the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n : "I f e e l we (F&WB) have bent over backwards t o ' accommodate t h e i r p o i n t s of view. They have been c o n s i s t e n t l y u n r e a s o n a b l e and even underhanded i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t of the Branch a t the R e g i o n a l l e v e l . Any minor f a i l u r e s on our p a r t - and t h e r e have been a few, a d m i t t e d l y - have been blown up out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n . . . Most of the remainder of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee approves of the management e f f o r t s the Branch i s u n d e r t a k i n g . I t would be most u n f o r t u n a t e i f the s t r i d e n t b l e a t i n g s of one v e r y s m a l l , but n o i s y group r e s u l t e d i n our M i n i s t e r r e a c t i n g u n f a v o u r a b l y towards both the committee and the management o b j e c t i v e s we . are a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e . " ( l e t t e r from Burgess t o Munro F e b r u a r y 28, 1979) The h u n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s began t o w r i t e t o the M i n i s t e r of Environment i n March. The LMRB wrote to. the M i n i s t e r t o o b j e c t t o any r e d u c t i o n of h u n t i n g a t PWMA, r e f e r r i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y t o any i n t e n d e d r e d u c t i o n i n the number of h u n t i n g days. The LMRB was backed up by one of t h e i r l o c a l members, the S u r r e y F i s h and Game C l u b , which s t a t e d t h a t c l u b members had spent c o u n t l e s s d o l l a r s and hours i n h a b i t a t improvement i n the ar e a and t h a t 45 days h u n t i n g i n the PWMA was not e x c e s s i v e . 57 At the same t i m e , the M i n i s t e r was r e p l y i n g t o l e t t e r s from B a r r y Leach and K e i t h Hobson which had been sent i n 1978. In h i s l e t t e r t o B a r r y Leach, the M i n i s t e r s t a t e d , " r e g u l a t i o n s f o r 1979 have not y e t been f o r m a l i z e d , but I un d e r s t a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n t o r e d u c i n g the c o n f l i c t s between h u n t e r s and non-hunters." ( l e t t e r from M a i r t o Leach March 5, 1979). A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n was g i v e n t h a t t h e r e might be a change i n the h u n t i n g regime when M a i r wrote t o Hobson and s t a t e d t h a t "...the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i s c o n s i d e r i n g f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s t o h u n t i n g " ( l e t t e r from M a i r t o Hobson March 7, 1979). A change i n the h u n t i n g regime was announced a t the A p r i l 21 meeting of the A d v i s o r y Committee. The former P u b l i c S h o o t i n g Marsh, a 266 h e c t a r e a r e a a t the n o r t h end of the PWMA, would be c l o s e d t o h u n t i n g and was t o be viewed as an i n t e r i m w i l d l i f e r e f u g e . No comments were r e c e i v e d from e i t h e r the hu n t e r s or the n a t u r a l i s t s . T h i s change appeared t o be a d i r e c t response t o the AFN meeting w i t h the M i n i s t e r , a l t h o u g h the h u n t i n g regime was not l i s t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the AFN's l i s t of o b j e c t i o n s . The committee Chairman announced t h a t the Deputy M i n i s t e r f e l t a change i n the chairman s t r u c t u r e was needed, w i t h one of the p u b l i c groups c h a i r i n g the committee on a r o t a t i n g b a s i s . The F&WB f e l t t h a t they s h o u l d not be l e a d i n g the committee but merely a c c e p t i n g a d v i c e . The committee members c o u l d not suggest an a l t e r n a t i v e method of c h a i r i n g the committee and f i n a l l y a g r e e d , by v o t e , t o keep the p r e s e n t committee s t r u c t u r e . I t was a l s o announced a t t h i s meeting t h a t the head 58 o f f i c e of the F&WB had approved the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n and t h a t s p e c i f i c s i t e p l a n s would be r e q u e s t e d i n the near f u t u r e . The LMRB and the S u r r e y F i s h and.Game C l u b r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s of r e p l y from the M i n i s t e r of Environment i n mid-May. By t h i s t i m e , of c o u r s e , they were both aware of the r e d u c t i o n i n h u n t i n g a r e a a t the PWMA. Both l e t t e r s had the same message the M i n i s t r y was b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d f o r not b e i n g r e s p o n s i v e t o non-consumptive user needs a t the PWMA so a change had been made i n the h u n t i n g regime. A l t h o u g h the i d e a of a w i l d l i f e r e f u g e had o n l y been b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d , a t p r e v i o u s m e e t i n g s , the M i n i s t r y d e c i d e d t h a t the i n c r e a s i n g c r i t i c i s m from non-hunters was a s u f f i c i e n t reason t o d e s i g n a t e the r e f u g e t h i s y e a r . In the l e t t e r t o the LMRB, the M i n i s t e r made the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : " T h i s w i l l a l l e v i a t e much of the non-hunter concern...and w i l l i n f a c t make i t e a s i e r t o r e t a i n a h u n t i n g o p t i o n , s i n c e non-hunter and a n t i - h u n t e r demands w i l l l a r g e l y have been met...Please u n d e r s t a n d . . . t h a t my M i n i s t r y must a l s o p r o v i d e f o r the non-consumptive user on a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s , not j u s t i n c l o s e d - t o - h u n t i n g p e r i o d s . " ( l e t t e r from M a i r t o Godt May 15, 1979) The h u n t i n g i s s u e a t the PWMA was not over y e t . The BCWF, the p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a l l h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g c l u b s , wrote t o the M i n i s t e r of Environment on May 25 r e f e r r i n g t o the " i d i o t i c d e c i s i o n " t o reduce the h u n t i n g a r e a a t the PWMA. The E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the BCWF r e l a t e d the p a s t h i s t o r y of hun t e r involvement i n the are a and s t a t e d t h a t i t was t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t kept the a r e a s u i t a b l e f o r w a t e r f o w l . I t was a l s o emphasized t h a t h u n t e r s , i n the p a s t , had p r o v i d e d the b u l k of the f u n d i n g f o r the e f f o r t s of the F&WB and t h a t t h e r e was no 59 need t o p e n a l i z e h u n t e r s because of the need t o s a t i s f y non-consumptive u s e r s . In h i s r e p l y t o the BCWF on June 4, the M i n i s t e r s t a t e d t h a t he had been a d v i s e d t h a t t he A d v i s o r y Committee had recommended the c o u r s e of a c t i o n t aken t o date r e g a r d i n g the h u n t i n g i s s u e . However, e v i d e n c e of t h i s recommendation can be found nowhere i n the minutes of the committee m e e t i n g s . In commenting on the M i n i s t e r ' s r e p l y , the BCWF s t a t e d , " . . . t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d on t h a t committee and the p r o p o s a l t o c l o s e the a r e a i n q u e s t i o n was never even o f f i c i a l l y d i s c u s s e d , never mind recommended" ( l e t t e r from Otway t o M a i r J u l y 9, 1979). The LMRB was a l s o not g o i n g t o l e t the i s s u e r e s t so e a s i l y . The LMRB sent another l e t t e r t o the M i n i s t e r o b j e c t i n g t o the c l o s u r e of the P u b l i c S h o o t i n g Marsh t o h u n t i n g . They s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no b i o l o g i c a l reason f o r the c l o s u r e . The LMRB quoted s e v e r a l passages from the minutes of the F e b r u a r y 13, 1979 meeti n g , i n which the F&WB had s t a t e d t h a t any d e s i g n a t i o n of a s a n c t u a r y was " y e a r s o f f " and t h a t "...not enough was known about f u t u r e changes i n the a r e a t o d e s i g n a t e a re f u g e or s a n c t u a r y now." The LMRB c o n c l u d e d t h i s argument w i t h the s t a t e m e n t , "What p o i n t i s t h e r e t o make our i n p u t i n t o these meetings when your s t a f f sees f i t t o a c t i n t o t a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o i t s own s t a t e m e n t s ? " ( l e t t e r from Godt t o M a i r J u l y 15, 1979). In h i s r e p l y t o the LMRB on September 24, the M i n i s t e r s i m p l y s t a t e d t h a t the d e c i s i o n was not goin g t o be changed. Dr. Leach, an advocate of a s a n c t u a r y s t a t u s f o r the PWMA, wrote t o the F&WB d u r i n g t h i s time t o re q u e s t c l a r i f i c a t i o n of 60 the h u n t i n g d e c i s i o n . In r e p l y i n g t o t h i s l e t t e r , the F&WB p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r c l o s i n g the P u b l i c S h o o t i n g Marsh. S i n c e 3 5 % of the a r e a was now c l o s e d t o h u n t i n g , the F&WB hoped t h a t the hunter/non-hunter ' c o n f l i c t would be d e f u s e d . The former P u b l i c S h o o t i n g Marsh a l s o p r o v i d e d l o n g range views of w i l d l i f e and c o u l d e a s i l y be c i r c u m n a v i g a t e d . As the h u n t i n g i s s u e s u b s i d e d , r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g rose t o the f o r e f r o n t of committee a c t i v i t y . On October 3 , an a r t i c l e appeared i n The Maple Ridge G a z e t t e e n t i t l e d , "DARD pushes f o r P i t t improvements." DARD's con c e r n over the l a c k of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n the P i t t Lake a r e a prompted them t o d r a f t a p l a n t o improve the s i t u a t i o n . The p l a n emphasized boat l a u n c h i n g , p a r k i n g and s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s i n the a r e a . The p l a n was su b m i t t e d t o the M i n i s t e r of Lands, P a r k s and Housing f o r h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . DARD's s u b m i s s i o n r e q u e s t e d the M i n i s t r y t o c a r r y out and pay f o r the recommended improvements. The next meeting of the PWMA A d v i s o r y Committee was h e l d on December 4. Seven t o p i c s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s tudy were d i s c u s s e d : 1) N a t u r a l i s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n over the l a c k of enforcement of h u n t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n the PWMA. F&WB s t a t e d t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o e n f o r c e a l l r e g u l a t i o n s because of the l a c k of manpower needed f o r t h i s t a s k . 2) B a r r y Leach e x p r e s s e d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t a t the l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n of CWS a t committee m e e t i n g s . F&WB s t a t e d t h a t CWS . had been asked o n l y i n f o r m a l l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . However, w i t h the unanimous a p p r o v a l of the committee i n fa v o u r of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , F&WB would send a l e t t e r w i t h a f o r m a l i n v i t a t i o n 61 f o r CWS t o p a r t i c i p a t e on the committee. 3) The ta s k t o examine r e g i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the management of the PWMA had now been undertaken by the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t i n the form of the C o q u i t l a m Area Mountain Study (CAMS). The study would p e r t a i n t o w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , l a n d use and r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g on p u b l i c l a n d s w i t h i n the study a r e a . 4) A s u g g e s t i o n was put f o r t h t h a t the Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l be asked t o become a member of the committee. The GVRD s t a t e d t h a t they were i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h a t the ORC had never e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee. 5) DARD commented on t h e i r p r o p o s a l t o improve the boat l a u n c h i n g f a c i l i t i e s a t Grant Narrows. F&WB s t a t e d t h a t the p r o p o s a l would be s t u d i e d by CAMS and t h a t no d e c i s i o n would be made u n t i l CAMS was complete. 6) P a r k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n ( f o r m e r l y P a r k s Branch) o f f e r e d t o p r e p a r e d e s i g n p l a n s f o r the major r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s a t PWMA. The committee approved t h i s o f f e r . 7) The LMRB r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x p r e s s e d h i s co n c e r n over the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c i n p u t r e g a r d i n g p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . He f e l t t h a t the d e c i s i o n t o reduce the h u n t i n g a r e a had been made c o n t r a r y t o s t a t e m e n t s a t p r e v i o u s m e e t i n g s . F&WB s t a t e d t h a t a l l views had been taken i n t o account and t h a t i t was not always p o s s i b l e t o s a t i s f y a l l groups' o b j e c t i v e s . 62 A c t i v i t i e s and I n t e r a c t i o n s i n 1980 R e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and the e v e n t s of the S a n d h i l l Crane subcommittee dominated the a c t i v i t i e s of the A d v i s o r y Committee i n 1980. At the May 24 meeting of the committee, more d e t a i l e d p l a n s of the r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e developments were p r e s e n t e d by the P a r k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h p l a n was of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o the committee members. The p l a n i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e change i n the boat l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s . A f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h i s p l a n , the committee f e l t t h a t an ' a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d i n d i c a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The P i t t Meadows and Maple Ridge L i o n s C l u b s had i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n the PWMA and were i n v i t e d t o t h i s meeting t o p r e s e n t t h e i r p l a n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l developments i n the management a r e a . T h e i r p r o p o s a l p e r t a i n e d t o a p a r k i n g s i t e and a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s which would occupy a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 h e c t a r e s . They i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s type of "camping" a r e a was p o p u l a r a t A l o u e t t e Lake. T h i s p r o p o s a l r e c e i v e d a n e g a t i v e response from most of the committee members p r e s e n t a t the meeting. Most of the members emphasized t h a t the ar e a had been d e s i g n a t e d as a w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a and t h a t t h i s type of- a c t i v i t y was not c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e f o r the a r e a . The Chairman s t a t e d t h a t t h i s p r o p o s a l would be c o n s i d e r e d by CAMS a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p r o p o s a l s f o r the a r e a . The S a n d h i l l Crane subcommittee, which had been formed i n F e b r u a r y , r e p o r t e d on i t s a c t i v i t i e s t o d a t e . The subcommittee had r e c e i v e d a $10,000 g r a n t from the F&WB's p u b l i c c o n s e r v a t i o n 63 a s s i s t a n c e fund t o i n t r o d u c e more c r a n e s i n t o the P i t t V a l l e y . Two members of the subcommittee had j u s t r e t u r n e d from a t r i p t o Idaho where they had c o l l e c t e d 30 S a n d h i l l Crane eggs which were now b e i n g i n c u b a t e d . Another egg was o b t a i n e d from the PWMA. The subcommittee had a l s o o b t a i n e d f e d e r a l f u n d i n g t o c o v e r the s a l a r i e s of t h r e e s t u d e n t s who would be wo r k i n g on the p r o j e c t . The d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w e d t h e s e announcements p e r t a i n e d t o the time of r e l e a s e of the c r a n e s i n the PWMA. The AFN were concerned t h a t the b i r d s might not m i g r a t e . The second A d v i s o r y Committee meeting of 1980 was h e l d on December 5. The major emphasis of t h i s meeting was t o update the committee members on the Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h p l a n s , t o r e p o r t on the a c t i v i t i e s of the S a n d h i l l Crane subcommittee and to summarize F&WB and DU work i n the a r e a i n 1980. No d e c i s i o n s were made a t t h i s m eeting. 64 CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF THE PWMA PLANNING PROCESS T h i s c h a p t e r a p p l i e s the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d i n Chapter 2 t o the PWMA p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T a b l e I p r o v i d e s a summary of the major c r i t e r i a and the s u b - c r i t e r i a which a r e used i n the e v a l u a t i o n . The c r i t e r i a a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e . o r d e r t h a t they appear i n the t a b l e . REPRESENTATION OF LEGITIMATE INTERESTS There are two i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s t o t h i s c r i t e r i o n . F i r s t , a l l those who w i l l t e n d t o g a i n or l o s e as a r e s u l t of the d e c i s i o n s ( the a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s ) s h o u l d have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to t ake p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Second, the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e s h o u l d e x i s t at a l l s t a g e s of the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s a t which i m p o r t a n t v a l u e judgments a r e made. In o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y a s s e s s t h e s e two s u b - c r i t e r i a , t he f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l r e q u i r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1) Who a r e the i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by the management and use of w i l d l i f e a t the PWMA? 2) At what s t a g e s i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s s h o u l d a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s be r e p r e s e n t e d ? 3) Were a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d a t thes e s t a g e s i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s ? These q u e s t i o n s a re a d d r e s s e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d below. 65 TABLE 1: EVALUATIVE CRITERIA REPRESENTATION OF LEGITIMATE INTERESTS (1) A l l l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d . (2) R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be a l l o w e d a t a l l r e l e v a n t s t a g e s of the p r o c e s s . ADEQUACY OF INFORMATION (1) A l t e r n a t i v e s s h o u l d r e f l e c t the v a l u e s of l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . (2) Good e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be g e n e r a t e d . (3) D e c i s i o n s and r a t i o n a l e s h o u l d be conveyed. INTERACTION (1) O p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t hroughout the p r o c e s s . (2) Government a g e n c i e s s h o u l d be w i l l i n g t o i n t e r a c t w i t h a l l p u b l i c groups. EFFECTIVENESS (1) P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d know t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s have been of v a l u e . (2) D e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be f a i t h f u l l y implemented. EFFICIENCY (1) The p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s s h o u l d not be w a s t e f u l of time and r e s o u r c e s . 66 A l l L e g i t i m a t e I n t e r e s t s R e p r e s e n t e d Three broad c a t e g o r i e s of i n t e r e s t s can be i d e n t i f i e d which a r e a f f e c t e d by the management d e c i s i o n s f o r the PWMA. The f i r s t c a t e g o r y of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s p e r t a i n s t o those who v a l u e h a v i n g a r e a s of t h i s k i n d and t h e i r w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s p r o t e c t e d i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e the d i v e r s i t y of s p e c i e s f o r the b e n e f i t of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . T h i s c a t e g o r y of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o r the a r e a . The p r i m a r y aim of a l l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee i s the c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l a r e a s and w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s . A l t h o u g h the hunt e r and n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups su p p o r t w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the use of w i l d l i f e , they a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t p u b l i c groups i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s e r v a t i o n . The AFN and LMRB r e p r e s e n t the l o c a l i n t e r e s t s i n c o n s e r v a t i o n , the FBCN and the BCWF r e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s , and the l a t t e r two groups a r e members of n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a r e a b l e t o comment on c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s i n the PWMA which are of n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . A l t h o u g h both groups a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n of a l l w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s , the m a j o r i t y of n a t u r a l i s t s have a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n non-game w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s w h i l e the h u n t e r s a re o r i e n t e d towards game s p e c i e s i n the a r e a . The P i t t W a t e r f o w l Management A s s o c i a t i o n , Ducks U n l i m i t e d , Dr. B a r r y Leach, and CWS a l s o r e p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e i n the a r e a . DU i s c o n t r i b u t i n g the m a j o r i t y of f u n d i n g f o r h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n and i s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by most p l a n n i n g and management d e c i s i o n s . Other 67 c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x i s t i n the Lower M a i n l a n d ; however, t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the PWMA are s i m i l a r t o those c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee. The second c a t e g o r y of i n t e r e s t s c o n s i s t s of those i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l uses i n the a r e a . There a r e two d i s t i n c t s e c t o r s of i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y : t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n w i l d l i f e - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and those i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which a re not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o w i l d l i f e . The p r i m a r y w i l d l i f e - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l uses of the are a p e r t a i n t o the h u n t i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e . Those i n t e r e s t e d i n thes e uses a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee. The LMRB and the BCWF r e p r e s e n t h u n t i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the ar e a w h i l e the AFN and the FBCN r e p r e s e n t those w i s h i n g t o observe w i l d l i f e . The second s e c t o r of r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s a r e p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee. There a r e no p u b l i c groups r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee whose r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a r e not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o w i l d l i f e (such as h i k i n g , c a n o e i n g , and the use of the Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h ramp). Both the GVRD and DARD a r e r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee; however, they r e p r e s e n t o n l y the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e government a g e n c i e s . The P a r k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most of the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n the PWMA. T h i s government agency has p r o v i d e d both n o r m a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l i n p u t i n t o r e c r e a t i o n ' p l a n n i n g . However, i t s main purpose i s t o a c t as a c o n s u l t a n t t o the committee i n the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the views e x p r e s s e d 68 by the committee. S i n c e r e c r e a t i o n a l uses are s t a t e d as the second o b j e c t i v e f o r the a r e a , r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d have a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v o i c e on the committee. The Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l was suggested as a p o s s i b l e committee member d u r i n g a meeting i n December, 1979, but the GVRD m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t he pr e s e n t ad hoc communication system w i t h t h i s group was adequate. Under the p r e s e n t committee s t r u c t u r e , i n t e r e s t groups not r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee but which i n d i c a t e a s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n the use of the ar e a a r e a l l o w e d t o p r e s e n t p r o p o s a l s t o the committee. The L i o n s ' C l u b s i n the P i t t V a l l e y were i n v i t e d t o p r e s e n t t h e i r p r o p o s a l e n c o u r a g i n g the development of a r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e c a m p s i t e i n the a r e a . A l t h o u g h t h i s i d e a invoked l i t t l e e n t husiasm among committee members, the L i o n s ' Clubs were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r views t o the F&WB r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The t h i r d c a t e g o r y of i n t e r e s t s c o m p r i s e s t h o s e who might be a f f e c t e d as a r e s u l t of a c t i o n s t o d e v e l o p , manage or use the r e s o u r c e s of the PWMA because of the e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s of such a c t i v i t i e s . I n d i v i d u a l s and groups t h a t hunt or observe m i g r a t o r y b i r d s _ i n o t h e r p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e or c o u n t r y and i n ot h e r c o u n t r i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Both the FBCN and BCWF a r e - a b l e t o comment on the management s t r a t e g i e s and uses of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e a t the PWMA which c o u l d a f f e c t w i l d l i f e - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e the management a r e a . DU and CWS have i n t e r e s t s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l movement of m i g r a t o r y b i r d s . 6 9 T h i s c a t e g o r y a l s o i n c l u d e s those who may be i n f l u e n c e d by e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s o c c u r r i n g i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o the PWMA. The l a n d i m m e d i a t e l y south of the PWMA i s p r o t e c t e d by the dykes which border the a r e a . P i t t P o l d e r L i m i t e d owns t h i s l a n d and i s r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee. The I n s p e c t o r of Dykes a l s o r e p r e s e n t s d y k i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the a r e a . The Lands and Housing D i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee t o add r e s s any e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s o c c u r r i n g i n the s h o r e l i n e a r e a s of the PWMA. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t A l l R e l e v a n t Stages The s t a g e s of a t y p i c a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i n c l u d e i s s u e f o r m u l a t i o n , p l a n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Each of th e s e s t a g e s i s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d below: 1) I s s u e f o r m u l a t i o n i n v o l v e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problems of importance t o the p l a n n i n g and management of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e a t the PWMA. I n t e r e s t groups s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d a t t h i s s t a g e so the y can i d e n t i f y i s s u e s r e l e v a n t t o thems e l v e s and determine how they s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e t o a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n thes e i s s u e s . 2) P l a n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and g e n e r a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e management approaches which r e f l e c t the p r e f e r e n c e s of the i n t e r e s t groups. I n t e r e s t groups s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d d u r i n g t h i s s tage t o e x p r e s s t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y . 3) E v a l u a t i o n i n v o l v e s a debate by a l l i n t e r e s t s i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e the v a r i o u s e f f e c t s of the a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s . Any r e v i s i o n s s h o u l d be based on t h i s debate. The a l t e r n a t i v e s and 70 e v a l u a t i o n a r e then communicated t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r . 4 ) D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g • i n v o l v e s the s e l e c t i o n of a p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e . I n t e r e s t groups are not i n v o l v e d but may a p p e a l t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r i f they do not agree w i t h the d e c i s i o n . 5) Implementation i n v o l v e s c a r r y i n g out the d e c i s i o n . I n t e r e s t groups a r e i n v o l v e d a t t h i s s t a g e , e i t h e r by a s s i s t i n g i n or o b s e r v i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , t o ensure t h a t the p l a n i s implemented i n accordance w i t h the d e c i s i o n . However, as c o n d i t i o n s change and new i n f o r m a t i o n i s brought t o l i g h t d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e , a d j u s t m e n t s s h o u l d be made t o adapt the p l a n t o u n f o r e s e e n c o n d i t i o n s . The s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s have not always been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d so i t has been d i f f i c u l t f o r the i n t e r e s t groups t o know when and how they s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . In the p r e p a r a t i o n of the management p l a n , t h e r e was never any f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n aimed a t i d e n t i f y i n g the i s s u e s of co n c e r n t o the committee members, nor was t h e r e any attempt t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e a l t e r n a t i v e management s t r a t e g i e s t o ta k e i n t o account d i f f e r i n g v a l u e s . At the f i r s t committee me e t i n g , the F&WB p r e s e n t e d each member w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n paper b r i e f l y o u t l i n i n g a t e n t a t i v e management scheme f o r the a r e a . T h i s p l a n d i d not e l i c i t much d i s c u s s i o n , p r o b a b l y because of i t s b r e v i t y and i t s l a c k of s p e c i f i c management p r o p o s a l s f o r the a r e a . A l t h o u g h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the management and use of the a r e a was not d e n i e d , t h i s s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d i d not f o r m a l l y o c c u r . Very l i t t l e p u b l i c i n p u t was i n c l u d e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g the management p l a n . The f i r s t s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i c i n p u t o c c u r r e d when a d r a f t 71 copy of the 5-year p l a n was sent t o committee members f o r comment. T h i s p l a n was h e a v i l y c r i t i c i z e d by the non-consumptive u s e r s p r i o r t o the August 10, 1976 mee t i n g , as most of t h e s e groups r e a c t e d t o the heavy o r i e n t a t i o n of the p l a n towards w a t e r f o w l p r o d u c t i o n and w a t e r f o w l h u n t i n g . The, AFN was the o n l y group t o p r e p a r e an a l t e r n a t e management p l a n but t h i s was not r e c e i v e d u n t i l a f t e r the d e c i s i o n was made t o approve the Phase I d y k i n g p r o p o s a l s . T h i s p l a n was never g i v e n d i r e c t c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the committee. The e f f e c t s of the management p l a n were never e x p l i c i t l y a s s e s s e d b e f o r e the Phase I development p r o p o s a l s f o r the are a were approved a t the August, 1976 meeting. In f a c t , a study of the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s was undertaken t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b l e consequences of h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n a f t e r t h i s d e c i s i o n was made. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d a t a committee meeting but was not used i n any f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n of the management p l a n . There was no need f o r p u b l i c involvement d u r i n g t he im p l e m e n t a t i o n stage of the Phase I development p r o p o s a l s . I t was much e a s i e r f o r committee members t o r e a l i z e a t what ' stage the p l a n n i n g f o r the S a n d h i l l Crane r e s e r v e was b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . The AFN i s the major i n t e r e s t group concerned w i t h the management of S a n d h i l l Cranes a t the PWMA. Because of the AFN's p r i o r involvement w i t h the F&WB c o n c e r n i n g the S a n d h i l l Cranes, the i s s u e f o r m u l a t i o n stage had commenced p r i o r t o the f o r m a t i o n of the A d v i s o r y Committee. P l a n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n f o r a crane r e s e r v e o c c u r r e d a t the same time t h a t the management p l a n was b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . The 72 a l l o c a t i o n of a s p e c i f i c a r e a as crane h a b i t a t was mentioned i n the t e n t a t i v e management p l a n . Even though the AFN d i d not p r e s e n t a s p e c i f i c p l a n i n the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s i s s u e , they p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n recommending a l a r g e r a r e a as crane h a b i t a t and p r o p o s i n g v a r i o u s management s t r a t e g i e s f o r ar e a s f r e q u e n t e d by the c r a n e s . A l t h o u g h the A d v i s o r y Committee d i s c u s s e d Mr. Howard's recommendations, a f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n of the recommendations d i d not tak e p l a c e . The d e c i s i o n t o a l l o c a t e a r e s e r v e f o r the S a n d h i l l Cranes was made a t the same time as the Phase I development p r o p o s a l s were d e c i d e d upon. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the dyke f o r m i n g the e a s t e r n boundary of the r e s e r v e was i n c l u d e d i n the Phase I p r o p o s a l s . D u r i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e , the AFN n o t i c e d t h a t the dyke was not b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d as i t had been approved by the committee. However, t h i s s i t u a t i o n was q u i c k l y r e c t i f i e d by the F&WB. The two changes i n the h u n t i n g regime have not been h a n d l e d w e l l a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c r i t e r i o n . H u n t i n g i n the PWMA has been an i s s u e w i t h the n a t u r a l i s t s ever s i n c e the committee was formed. The h u n t i n g regime announced i n A p r i l , 1978, was never d i s c u s s e d a t a committee meeting. The committee members d i d not even know a d e c i s i o n was t o be announced a t t h a t t i m e . The second h u n t i n g regime, announced a t the A p r i l , 1979 m e e t i n g , was never f o r m a l l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o making a change i n the h u n t i n g p o l i c y e x i s t i n g a t t h a t t i m e . Some d i s c u s s i o n had o c c u r r e d i n committee meetings r e g a r d i n g p o s s i b l e changes i n the h u n t i n g regime but the i s s u e was never d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o a c t u a l l y making a change. Very few of the 73 committee members r e a l i z e d t h a t a change i n the h u n t i n g regime was a n t i c i p a t e d a t the time i t o c c u r r e d . Numerous l e t t e r s were w r i t t e n t o the M i n i s t e r a f t e r both d e c i s i o n s were announced but the d e c i s i o n s were not changed. The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of both h u n t i n g regimes was c r i t i c i z e d by committee members because of the absence of enforcement o f f i c e r s i n the a r e a . T h i s stage of the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i s d i s c u s s e d below under the e f f e c t i v e n e s s c r i t e r i o n . The p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l developments a t the PWMA i s c u r r e n t l y a t the stage of p r e p a r i n g d e t a i l e d p l a n s f o r proposed developments. A l t h o u g h committee members have had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of th e s e p l a n s , the p r o c e s s has not f o l l o w e d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d above. R e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g became an i s s u e a t the August, 1976 meeting, when the F&WB announced t h a t i t d i d not have e x p e r t i s e i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The P a r k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n i s now a c t i n g as a c o n s u l t a n t t o the F&WB f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . T h e i r major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has been the p r o d u c t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n i n d i c a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the a r e a . However, the p u b l i c groups were not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s p l a n . A l t h o u g h p r e v i o u s s u b m i s s i o n s t o the F&WB were used and some f i e l d i n s p e c t i o n s were c a r r i e d out w i t h n a t u r a l i s t members, no f o r m a l g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s took p l a c e . The e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s p l a n has r e s u l t e d i n some a d d i t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s b e i n g g e n e r a t e d and some r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s b e i n g downgraded. A l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s have been produced f o r the Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h ramp and a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s have been 74 c o n s i d e r e d f o r the proposed n a t u r e house. The p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s c u r r e n t l y a p p r o a c h i n g the e v a l u a t i o n s t a g e . Summary of R e p r e s e n t a t i o n C r i t e r i o n A good c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i s r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee. Those groups i n t e r e s t e d i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n of the w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e i n the a r e a and those i n t e r e s t e d i n w i l d l i f e - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee. However, those p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n some of the g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the ar e a ( e.g. the b o a t e r u s i n g Grant Narrows l a u n c h ramp) a r e not r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee. Because of the g e n e r a l l a c k of a s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , none of the i n t e r e s t s have been e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the v a r i o u s s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g and management a c t i v i t i e s . ADEQUACY OF INFORMATION Three major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an i d e a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a r e examined under t h i s c r i t e r i o n . The f i r s t i s t h a t the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d e l i c i t a range of a l t e r n a t i v e s r e f l e c t i n g the v a l u e s of a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s . The second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h a t good e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be g e n e r a t e d on the a l t e r n a t i v e s . Good e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n means t h a t the e f f e c t s of a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n on i n t e r e s t groups a r e r e c o g n i z e d and communicated i n a manner which i s easy t o comprehend. Any i n f o r m a t i o n which i s p e r c e i v e d as n e c e s s a r y by an i n t e r e s t i n o r d e r t o rank i t s 75 p r e f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be g e n e r a t e d and communicated. The t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h a t a l l d e c i s i o n s and the r a t i o n a l e f o r the d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be communicated t o a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s . A l t e r n a t i v e s R e f l e c t V a l u e s of A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s One of the r o l e s of the A d v i s o r y Committee i s t o f o r m u l a t e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s and management p l a n s f o r committee d i s c u s s i o n and t o recommend m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o p l a n n i n g and management p r o p o s a l s . However, a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s have not always been f o r t h c o m i n g from the e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of the 5 -year management p l a n d i d not e l i c i t a l t e r n a t i v e management s t r a t e g i e s f o r the ar e a u n t i l the p r e l i m i n a r y management p l a n was produced. The AFN was the o n l y group t o pr e p a r e an a l t e r n a t e management p l a n f o r the a r e a . T h i s p l a n , however, was r e c e i v e d by the F&WB t h r e e months a f t e r t he Phase I dyke work of the management p l a n had been approved by the committee. Some of the dyke work had commenced by the time the F&WB had r e c e i v e d the p l a n . Had the AFN i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were i n the p r o c e s s of p r e p a r i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n , the F&WB c o u l d have d e l a y e d a d e c i s i o n on the Phase I work or a t l e a s t c o u l d have d e l a y e d a d e c i s i o n on the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l a r e a s . I t appears t h a t both the F&WB and the committee members were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the o p e r a t i o n of the a d v i s o r y committee mechanism and were not f u l l y c o g n i z a n t of the p r o c e s s which s h o u l d have been f o l l o w e d . A s t r u c t u r e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d i d not e x i s t which would have g e n e r a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s r e f l e c t i n g the v a l u e s of a l l i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by the management p l a n . 76 As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , the AFN i s the major i n t e r e s t a f f e c t e d by the management of the S a n d h i l l Cranes. The AFN was the o n l y i n t e r e s t group t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the management of the S a n d h i l l Cranes. A l t h o u g h the AFN d i d not p r e s e n t a f o r m a l a l t e r n a t i v e p r i o r t o the d e c i s i o n on the a l l o c a t i o n of a r e s e r v e , t h e i r c o ncern f o r a l a r g e r c r ane r e s e r v e was r e i n f o r c e d by Mr. Howard's recommendations. Based upon t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the F&WB e n l a r g e d the a r e a d e s i g n a t e d as crane h a b i t a t , a l t h o u g h the new are a was not as l a r g e as t h a t recommended by Mr. Howard. The h u n t i n g regime i s the i s s u e most c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k of a l t e r n a t i v e s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The F&WB i s aware of the extreme views of the hunt e r and n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups' r e g a r d i n g h u n t i n g i n the PWMA - the hunte r groups p r e f e r r i n g t o have almost the whole a r e a open t o h u n t i n g and the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups p r e f e r r i n g t o have the former g r e e n b e l t l a n d s c l o s e d t o h u n t i n g . When the 1978/79 h u n t i n g regime was proposed a t the A p r i l , 1978 meeting, the F&WB f e l t t h a t t h i s p l a n r e p r e s e n t e d a compromise between the two extreme v i e w s . However, the hunt e r and n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups were not p r o v i d e d w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s and were, t h e r e f o r e , d e n i e d t he o p p o r t u n i t y t o b a r g a i n on p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e s . No o b j e c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h i s d e c i s i o n were- v o i c e d a t the meetin g . S i n c e the meetings a re h e l d t o p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t groups w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r views on management i s s u e s , both the hunter and n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups s h o u l d have used t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r views on t h i s d e c i s i o n or t o propose m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the h u n t i n g regime t h a t was announced. 77 However, had the i n t e r e s t groups been i n f o r m e d of the pl a n n e d announcement p r i o r t o the meeti n g , they might have been b e t t e r a b l e t o suggest a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o the i s s u e . The F&WB made a number of m i s t a k e s r e g a r d i n g the change i n the h u n t i n g regime announced i n A p r i l , 1979. F i r s t l y , they d i d not announce t h a t a change was g o i n g t o be made, so the i n t e r e s t groups d i d not have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e p a r e a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s . S e c o n d l y , a change i n the h u n t i n g regime was never f o r m a l l y d i s c u s s e d a t any meeting. In a l e t t e r t o the S u r r e y F i s h and Game C l u b , the M i n i s t e r of the Environment s t a t e d : "In o r d e r t o address (the c o n c e r n s of non-consumptive u s e r s ) , the committee d i s c u s s e d a number of management o p t i o n s i n c l u d i n g a S a t u r d a y h u n t i n g c l o s u r e , a c l o s u r e of the dykes, and a c l o s u r e of the management compartment a d j a c e n t t o the p u b l i c a c c e s s p o i n t . • There was a d i v e r g e n c e of o p i n i o n , and my M i n i s t r y s t a f f was l e f t t o choose the most a c c e p t a b l e o p t i o n . " ( l e t t e r from M a i r t o Moorman, May 15, 1979) However, t h e s e "management o p t i o n s " were d i s c u s s e d o n l y i n f o r m a l l y , by the committee. Most of the s e o p t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d as r e a c t i o n s t o i n c i d e n t s t h a t had o c c u r r e d i n the PWMA and were never d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t of a proposed change i n the h u n t i n g regime. A summary of these o p t i o n s was never p r e s e n t e d t o the committee, not even when the change was announced. Once a g a i n , however, no o b j e c t i o n was r a i s e d a t the committee meeting r e g a r d i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n (because most groups d i d not expect a d e c i s i o n t o be announced) but numerous l e t t e r s were l a t e r w r i t t e n t o the M i n i s t e r o b j e c t i n g t o both the pro c e d u r e of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and the substance of the d e c i s i o n . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n has p r o v i d e d the i n t e r e s t groups on the committee w i t h the g r e a t e s t 78 o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s towards the f o r m u l a t i o n of t h i s p l a n . A l t h o u g h the i n i t i a l p l a n i n d i c a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n the ar e a d i d not have f o r m a l p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , i n t e r e s t groups have s i n c e had ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o suggest m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the proposed p l a n and t o p r e s e n t a l t e r n a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the a r e a . At the s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n meeting h e l d on December 8, 1978, numerous m o d i f i c a t i o n s were suggested by both n a t u r a l i s t and h u n t e r groups and these s u g g e s t i o n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the d e t a i l e d p l a n s p r e s e n t e d a t the May, 1980 meeting. The committee had o r i g i n a l l y s u g g e sted t h a t the p l a n f o r Grant Narrows boat l a u n c h be d e s i g n e d t o accommodate o n l y p r e s e n t use. However, when DARD i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were i n t e r e s t e d i n im p r o v i n g the f a c i l i t i e s a t t h i s l o c a t i o n , an a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n was d e s i g n e d and p r e s e n t e d a t the December, 1980 meeti n g . The F&WB has a l s o been r e c e p t i v e t o examining r e c r e a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s over a l a r g e r a r e a than the PWMA. A l t h o u g h the F&WB does not have a u t h o r i t y t o examine r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o u t s i d e the PWMA, the Branch s u p p o r t e d the f o r m a t i o n of a subcommittee t o review e x i s t i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n management a t the PWMA and t o tak e i n t o account s i m i l a r o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the e n t i r e P i t t V a l l e y . T h i s subcommittee was a l s o t o make recommendations on the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r a m u l t i - a g e n c y t a s k f o r c e t o re v i e w w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n the P i t t V a l l e y . However, b e f o r e t h i s subcommittee c o u l d be f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , the GVRD took the i n i t i a t i v e t o encourage the p r o v i n c i a l government t o undertake such a s t u d y . The r e s u l t was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of CAMS under 79 the d i r e c t i o n of the ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t . The F&WB does not have any funds t o a l l o c a t e t o p u b l i c groups f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s f o r the a r e a . The major p r o p o r t i o n of the F&WB's r e g i o n a l budget spent i n the PWMA i s a l l o c a t e d t o maintenance and r e g u l a t i o n enforcement a c t i v i t i e s . G e n e r a t i o n of I n f o r m a t i o n f o r E v a l u a t i o n Each committee member p e r c e i v e s d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n as ne c e s s a r y f o r the proper assessment of p l a n n i n g and management p r o p o s a l s f o r the PWMA. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the b a s i c v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s which u n d e r l i e the whole of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Three c o n d i t i o n s a r e used t o examine t h i s s u b c r i t e r i o n : i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c e i v e d as n e c e s s a r y by p u b l i c groups s h o u l d be gen e r a t e d by the F&WB; i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n a s t y l e which can be un d e r s t o o d by t h e . a p p r o p r i a t e committee members; and the c o n t e n t of the i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be s a t i s f a c t o r y . None of the f o u r i s s u e s have been s u b j e c t t o a f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has been g e n e r a t e d f o r t h i s purpose. However, some of the i s s u e s have had ad hoc e v a l u a t i o n s . The management p l a n was not e v a l u a t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , economic ' and s o c i a l consequences. A l t h o u g h d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o a l l of thes e c a t e g o r i e s might not be p r a c t i c a b l e t o g e n e r a t e , v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was produced t o a s s e s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r o p o s a l s i n the management p l a n . 80 The m a j o r i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n used i n the i n i t i a l h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n p r o p o s a l s of the management p l a n was d e r i v e d from a Ma s t e r ' s t h e s i s which examined the p r i m a r y and secondary p r o d u c t i v i t y of the marsh a r e a s . When the management p l a n was sent t o a l l committee members f o r re v i e w p r i o r t o the August, 1976 m e e t i n g , no o b j e c t i o n s were r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n base. However, when the AFN met w i t h the M i n i s t e r of the Environment i n 1979, they o b j e c t e d t o t h i s work b e i n g used as the b a s i s f o r changes i n v e g e t a t i o n . The AFN had o r i g i n a l l y o b j e c t e d t o the p r i n c i p l e of h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n i n the PWMA and t h e i r c r i t i c i s m of the i n f o r m a t i o n base appears t o r e l a t e more t o the concept of h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n than t o the q u a l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n base. A f u r t h e r b i o l o g i c a l study of the ar e a was c a r r i e d out by a c o n t r a c t b i o l o g i s t a f t e r the a p p r o v a l of the Phase I dyke work. The study was conducted t o gath e r i n f o r m a t i o n on water l e v e l s and w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s i n a r e a s where h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n was l i k e l y t o o c c u r . T h i s study would have been more a p p r o p r i a t e b e f o r e the d e c i s i o n was made t o approve the Phase I p r o p o s a l s i n or d e r t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on which t o e v a l u a t e the p r o p o s a l s . However, no con c e r n s were e x p r e s s e d by the committee r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e p o r t . Some committee members have e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t the management p l a n s h o u l d not have been d e v e l o p e d i n i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t of the F r a s e r V a l l e y and t h a t p l a n s s h o u l d be produced which t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the needs of each w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s . The F&WB m a i n t a i n s t h a t the h a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each s p e c i e s a t the PWMA are g e n e r a l l y known and a r e b e i n g taken 81 i n t o a c c o u n t . In w i l d l i f e management, many management p r e s c r i p t i o n s tend t o be based on a "gut f e e l i n g " of what s h o u l d be done. Where t h i s i s the c a s e , the p u b l i c s h o u l d be made aware of the a s p e c t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s "gut f e e l i n g " i n or d e r t h a t they may have some b a s i s on which t o judge d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s . The m a j o r i t y of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n used i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the S a n d h i l l Crane r e s e r v e was s u p p l i e d t o the F&WB by the AFN and by Mr. Tom Howard i n h i s r e p o r t on the management of S a n d h i l l Cranes i n the PWMA. Based upon t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the F&WB e n l a r g e d the are a o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n a t e d as a r e s e r v e . The' F&WB a l s o r e s p e c t e d the recommendations i n t h i s r e p o r t when they ammended the Phase I I dyke works by d e l e t i n g a proposed dyke which would have d i s r u p t e d c r ane n e s t i n g h a b i t a t . No a l t e r n a t i v e s were f o r m a l l y p r e s e n t e d r e g a r d i n g the d e c i s i o n s t o change the h u n t i n g regime so no i n f o r m a t i o n was produced t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e d e c i s i o n s . The r e c r e a t i o n p l a n r e c e i v e d the most e x t e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the f o u r i s s u e s . The o r i g i n a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n was d i s c u s s e d a t a s p e c i a l committee meeting h e l d i n December, 1978. A l t h o u g h no i n f o r m a t i o n package was p r e s e n t e d t o a s s i s t i n the assessment of the p l a n (except the p l a n , i t s e l f ) , the p u b l i c groups d i s c u s s e d a l l of the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s s u g g ested i n the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n and recommended m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o some of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Recommendations were a l s o made t o conduct an impact study on the e f f e c t s of a p o s s i b l e canoe r o u t e f o r the a r e a . The r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s were f u r t h e r e v a l u a t e d i n 82 May-, 1980 when more d e t a i l e d p l a n s were p r e s e n t e d . No f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n package was p r e s e n t e d a t t h i s meeting a l t h o u g h the Par k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was a v a i l a b l e t o answer any q u e r i e s . The r e g i o n a l a s p e c t s of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g have drawn much a t t e n t i o n from committee members. P u b l i c groups have i n d i c a t e d t h a t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n was needed r e g a r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e i n the P i t t V a l l e y . The CAMS sh o u l d p r o v i d e r e g i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on o p p o r t u n i t i e s e l s e w h e r e which c o u l d i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a t the PWMA. D e c i s i o n s and R a t i o n a l e Conveyed A l l major p l a n n i n g and management d e c i s i o n s , have been announced a t committee meetings. However, r a t i o n a l e f o r these d e c i s i o n s has not always been p r e s e n t e d a t the me e t i n g s . T h i s s u b - c r i t e r i o n was not s a t i s f i e d i n the second d e c i s i o n t o change the h u n t i n g regime. The f i r s t h u n t i n g regime f o r the PWMA was p r e s e n t e d a t the A p r i l , 1978 meeting a f t e r the e x p i r y of the Sturgeon Slough Gun Cl u b l e a s e . When the F&WB p r e s e n t e d the 1978/79 h u n t i n g regime, an i n f o r m a t i o n sheet was d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l members e x p l a i n i n g the r a t i o n a l e f o r the d e c i s i o n . A l t h o u g h subsequent o p p o s i t i o n was e x p r e s s e d towards t h i s d e c i s i o n i n the form of l e t t e r s t o the F&WB and the M i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , the d i s s e n t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e g i s t e r e d c o m p l a i n t s based upon' the s u b s t a n t i v e n a t u r e of the h u n t i n g regime r a t h e r than committee p r o c e d u r e . The h u n t i n g regime f o r 1979/80 d i d not r e c e i v e the same 8 3 p r o c e d u r a l t r e a t m e n t . The d e c i s i o n t o change the h u n t i n g regime was announced at the A p r i l , 1979 meeting w i t h o u t any r a t i o n a l e t o j u s t i f y t he change. In l e t t e r s from the M i n i s t e r of the Environment r e p l y i n g t o c r i t i c i s m of t h i s d e c i s i o n , the hunt e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s were i n f o r m e d t h a t the change was made because of c r i t i c i s m r e g a r d i n g the f a i l u r e of the F&WB t o c o n s i d e r non-consumptive u s e r s a t the PWMA. F u r t h e r r a t i o n a l e was p r e s e n t e d r e g a r d i n g the need f o r a permanent w i l d l i f e r e f u g e i n the a r e a and the amount of area s t i l l open t o h u n t i n g . T h i s r a t i o n a l e , however, was p r e s e n t e d a f t e r the d e c i s i o n was announced and o n l y t o those o r g a n i z a t i o n s which had w r i t t e n t o the M i n i s t e r . R a t i o n a l e s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d a t the time a d e c i s i o n i s announced i n o r d e r t o i n f o r m a l l members of the reasons b e h i n d the d e c i s i o n . I t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o i n f o r m o n l y those members who o b j e c t t o the d e c i s i o n . D e c i s i o n s and r a t i o n a l e r e g a r d i n g the management p l a n , the S a n d h i l l Crane r e s e r v e and the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n have been p r e s e n t e d t o the committee i n an adequate p r o c e d u r a l manner. Summary of I n f o r m a t i o n C r i t e r i o n In a l e t t e r from the F&WB t o Dr. Leach, the F&WB m a i n t a i n e d , "What our Committee i s e x p e c t e d t o do i s t o p r o v i d e the Branch w i t h as complete as p o s s i b l e an assessment of management a l t e r n a t i v e s " ( l e t t e r from Burgess t o Leach, J u l y 9, 1979). The e v a l u a t i o n has i n d i c a t e d , however, t h a t t h i s o b j e c t i v e has not been a c c o m p l i s h e d . A l t e r n a t i v e p l a n n i n g and management s t r a t e g i e s have not been g e n e r a t e d f o r most of the i s s u e s . Because of the absence 84 of management a l t e r n a t i v e s , v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has been produced w i t h which t o e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s . D e c i s i o n s and r a t i o n a l e f o r d e c i s i o n s have been announced a t committee m e e t i n g s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the r a t i o n a l e c o n c e r n i n g the second change i n the h u n t i n g regime. INTERACTION O p p o r t u n i t y f o r R e s o l v i n g D i f f e r e n c e s The F&WB has encouraged debate among committee members as a means of r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . A l l members have had e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i s c u s s i o n s and d e b a t e s . However, v e r y l i t t l e b a r g a i n i n g or compromise has o c c u r r e d on i s s u e s where d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n have e x i s t e d , n e i t h e r w i t h i n nor o u t s i d e committee meetings. For a b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s t o be e f f e c t i v e , i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be g e n e r a t e d r e g a r d i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s which r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s . In the case of the management p l a n , no a l t e r n a t i v e s were p r e s e n t e d p r i o r t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of the p l a n so v e r y l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d among committee members e i t h e r w i t h i n or o u t s i d e committee meetings. No i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d among committee members r e g a r d i n g the AFN a l t e r n a t e p l a n because i t was not f o r m a l l y p r e s e n t e d a t a committee mee t i n g . Very l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n took p l a c e among i n t e r e s t groups when the a l l o c a t i o n of a S a n d h i l l Crane r e s e r v e was b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . The AFN were s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r n a t u r a l i s t groups on the committee but no i n t e r e s t group openly o b j e c t e d to. t h i s a l l o c a t i o n . 85 With r e s p e c t t o the i s s u e r e g a r d i n g a change i n the h u n t i n g regime, where hunter and non-hunter groups had d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the f u t u r e of h u n t i n g a t the PWMA, v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was ge n e r a t e d nor were a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r m a l l y p r e s e n t e d on which a b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s c o u l d have been based. A l t h o u g h the F&WB d i d not r e f u s e t o c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o a change i n the h u n t i n g regime, t h e i r f a i l u r e t o f o r m a l l y announce t h a t a change was a n t i c i p a t e d p r e c l u d e d any o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p u b l i c groups t o b a r g a i n on p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e changes. When the o p p o r t u n i t y t o b a r g a i n has been p r e s e n t e d and d i f f e r e n c e s have not been r e s o l v e d , then i t i s the p r e r o g a t i v e of the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r t o make a d e c i s i o n based upon the p r e f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e d by the p u b l i c groups and any o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n which i s p e r t i n e n t t o the d e c i s i o n . The F&WB b e l i e v e d , based on p r e v i o u s h e a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the h u n t i n g regime, t h a t the hunter and non-hunter groups were not w i l l i n g t o compromise on a s o l u t i o n t o the i s s u e . N e i t h e r the hunter nor non-hunter groups had made any at t e m p t s d u r i n g committee meetings t o compromise on the h u n t i n g i s s u e . However, i f t hese groups had been aware t h a t a change was b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d by the F&WB, then a b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s might have ensued. D i f f e r e n c e s have a l s o been i n d i c a t e d r e g a r d i n g the p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s at the PWMA. A l t h o u g h the i n i t i a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d w i t h o u t any f o r m a l committee i n p u t , committee members have had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o debate a l l a s p e c t s of the p l a n and t o suggest m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the p l a n . 86 The CAMS s h o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s over a l a r g e r a r e a . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s on which a b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , i f n e c e s s a r y , can tak e p l a c e . C o - o p e r a t i o n Demonstrated By Government A g e n c i e s A l l government a g e n c i e s on the A d v i s o r y Committee have i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o work w i t h the p u b l i c groups. The two a g e n c i e s which have had the g r e a t e s t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c groups a re the F&WB and the Pa r k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n . The F&WB has i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s of con c e r n t o p u b l i c groups. With r e g a r d t o the S a n d h i l l Crane r e s e r v e and some of the management p l a n p r o p o s a l s , the AFN ex p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about t h e s e i s s u e s a t the i n i t i a l s t age of d i s c u s s i o n s and, as a r e s u l t , the F&WB was w i l l i n g t o modify i t s o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l s . The F&WB a l s o c o - o p e r a t e d w i t h the p u b l i c groups i n o r g a n i z i n g a s p e c i a l meeting t o d i s c u s s the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . The P a r k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n has a l s o co-op e r a t e d w i t h p u b l i c groups on the committee. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h i s government agency met w i t h members of the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups and DARD t o d i s c u s s r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t the PWMA p r i o r t o the development of the i n i t i a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . 8 7 Summary of I n t e r a c t i o n C r i t e r i o n A l t h o u g h the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b a r g a i n i n g among a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s has not been d e n i e d , the l a c k of a s t r u c t u r e d p r o c e s s i n h i b i t e d b a r g a i n i n g or compromise from t a k i n g p l a c e on i s s u e s where d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n e x i s t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the h u n t i n g regime. A l l government a g e n c i e s have been w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s of c o n c e r n t o the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups. EFFECTIVENESS P a r t i c i p a n t s ' E f f o r t s Are P r o d u c t i v e The n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups e x p r e s s e d mixed f e e l i n g s about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . At the o u t s e t , the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups d i d not f e e l t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and management d e c i s i o n s was e f f e c t i v e because the F&WB was too s e t i n t h e i r support f o r h u n t e r - o r i e n t e d management p o l i c i e s . One member even went so f a r as t o d e s c r i b e the e a r l y meetings as a " r i t u a l . d a n c e " because the F&WB was not l i s t e n i n g t o n a t u r a l i s t s ' v i e w s . T h i s n o t i o n of i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s can e a s i l y be seen i n the number of l e t t e r s w r i t t e n t o the M i n i s t e r i n d i c a t i n g the n a t u r a l i s t s ' l a c k of s a t i s f a c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g management d e c i s i o n s . The n a t u r a l i s t s e x p r e s s e d g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h more r e c e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the committee's o p e r a t i o n . They f e l t t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was b e g i n n i n g t o i n f l u e n c e the F&WB because the Branch was now t a k i n g a broader o u t l o o k on w i l d l i f e management. The n a t u r a l i s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the F&WB was g i v i n g g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o non-game s p e c i e s and t o non-consumptive 88 uses of w i l d l i f e i n i t s o v e r a l l management s t r a t e g i e s . Committee members r e p r e s e n t i n g h u n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s were d i v i d e d i n t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the o p e r a t i o n of the committee. Two members f e l t t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been w o r t h w h i l e because of the importance of i n c r e a s i n g the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the P i t t marshes f o r w a t e r f o w l and because the committee p r o v i d e d adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o management d e c i s i o n s l e a d i n g towards t h i s endeavour. One of thes e members, however, was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o c e d u r e by which the h u n t i n g regime was changed. Two members from the hun t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s had been of l i t t l e v a l u e . Both members e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the h u n t i n g regime and w i t h the manner i n which the change was made. They i n d i c a t e d t h a t p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o v e r r u l e d sound b i o l o g i c a l d a t a i n t h i s d e c i s i o n . They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t management d e c i s i o n s t o date have been i n e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the marsh f o r w a t e r f o w l . Hunter o r g a n i z a t i o n s had not e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h any a s p e c t of the committee u n t i l the d e c i s i o n t o change the h u n t i n g regime was announced i n A p r i l , 1979. P r i o r t o t h i s , they had not sent any l e t t e r s t o p o l i t i c i a n s nor had they made any comments i n meetings i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the o p e r a t i o n of the committee. Most of the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n appears t o have been g e n e r a t e d from the d e c i s i o n t o change the h u n t i n g regime. T h i s was the f i r s t d e c i s i o n i n which the h u n t e r s were c o m p e l l e d t o a c c e p t a "compromise" w i t h the p r e f e r e n c e s e x p r e s s e d by the non-hunter groups. 8 9 D e c i s i o n s Should Be Implemented Of the t h r e e major i s s u e s on which d e c i s i o n s have been made, two have had problems d u r i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . Problems a r o s e d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the crane dyke when the c o n s t r u c t i o n company was g i v e n the o r i g i n a l p l a n s w i t h o u t the m o d i f i c a t i o n s agreed upon by the committee. The F&WB was f o r t u n a t e t o n o t i c e t h i s e r r o r b e f o r e c o n s i d e r a b l e damage was done. However, d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the proper dyke, m a t e r i a l was ex c a v a t e d on the bog s i d e of the dyke. T h i s , a g a i n , was c o n t r a r y t o the p l a n s agreed t o a t committee me e t i n g s . The change i n the h u n t i n g regime has been implemented but the s u c c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n depends upon the enforcement of the h u n t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s . Both h u n t e r and non-hunter groups s t a t e d t h a t the F&WB does not have enough s t a f f members i n the are a t o a d e q u a t e l y e n f o r c e the c u r r e n t h u n t i n g regime. Summary of E f f e c t i v e n e s s C r i t e r i o n Almost every p u b l i c group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e q u a l i f i e d the e x t e n t t o which t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been of v a l u e t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Most of th e s e members f e l t t h a t , on a t l e a s t one of the i s s u e s , t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n was d i s r e g a r d e d or they were not g i v e n adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . • 90 EFFICIENCY P r o c e s s Not W a s t e f u l of Time or Resources In the absence of ex a c t d a t a on time and r e s o u r c e s i n v o l v e d i n t he A d v i s o r y Committee mechanism, the assessment of t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s based upon the p e r c e p t i o n s of the F&WB and o t h e r government a g e n c i e s as t o whether committee a c t i v i t i e s a r e a p r o d u c t i v e use of t h e i r t i m e , whether problem s o l v i n g i s any e a s i e r , and whether the A d v i s o r y Committee mechanism l i g h t e n s the w o r k l o a d of the government a g e n c i e s . The F&WB p e r c e i v e a number of b e n e f i t s a r i s i n g from the A d v i s o r y Committee mechanism. S i n c e the Branch does not have a s t r o n g background i n non-game s p e c i e s , i t i s a b l e t o draw upon the knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e of the n a t u r a l i s t s ' groups i n f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s and management, s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v i n g t h e s e s p e c i e s . The committee mechanism has a l s o succeeded i n a v o i d i n g problems because member o r g a n i z a t i o n s are a b l e t o b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e the views of o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and have shown a w i l l i n g n e s s t o compromise on c e r t a i n i s s u e s . Communication w i t h members i s much e a s i e r i n committee meetings than by w r i t i n g l e t t e r s or making t e l e p h o n e c a l l s t o each member. The F&WB can o b t a i n p o l i t i c a l support f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n s when the d e c i s i o n s have been recommended by the committee. The committee i s a l s o a good form of p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s because the Branch now has much b e t t e r r a p p o r t w i t h p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups than b e f o r e . The major c o s t f o r the F&WB i s the s t a f f time r e q u i r e d i n p r e p a r i n g f o r and c o n d u c t i n g committee meetings. A l t h o u g h much communication t a k e s p l a c e d u r i n g m e e t i n g s , the F&WB must s t i l l r espond t o e n q u i r i e s which f o l l o w committee meetings as w e l l as 91 t o l e t t e r s t o the M i n i s t e r and t o the l o c a l newspapers. The F&WB e s t i m a t e t h a t s i x t o e i g h t man-days a re r e q u i r e d f o r each committee m e e t i n g . A f u r t h e r c o s t i s the r e s t r i c t i o n on freedom of a c t i o n . The F&WB can no l o n g e r go ahead and i n i t i a t e e x p e r i m e n t s or r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s w i t h o u t f i r s t p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e i d e a s t o the committee f o r t h e i r comments. In w e i g h i n g the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of the committee mechanism, the F&WB f e e l s t h a t the p u b l i c involvement p r o c e s s i s an e f f i c i e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g mechanism f o r the management of the PWMA. S u b s t a n t i a l b e n e f i t s a r e a c h i e v e d through t h i s p r o c e s s and the c o s t of not h a v i n g the committee t o a d v i s e on d e c i s i o n s c o u l d be g r e a t . However, the F&WB are aware t h a t the o p e r a t i o n of the A d v i s o r y Committee i s not as e f f i c i e n t as i t c o u l d be. Because of the heavy w o r k l o a d of the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e of the F&WB, v e r y l i t t l e time i s a v a i l a b l e t o p r e p a r e p r o p e r i n f o r m a t i o n packages f o r committee members p r i o r t o meetings or t o f o l l o w - u p a l l e n q u i r i e s made a t or f o l l o w i n g the meetings. A l t h o u g h t h i s would i n c r e a s e the c o s t of the p r o c e s s , the F&WB p e r c e i v e t h a t the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s b e n e f i t s would p r o b a b l y outweigh the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s . However, the F&WB's budget i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w t h i s a d d i t i o n a l e f f o r t t o be made. A l l government agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the time and r e s o u r c e s spent on committee a c t i v i t i e s was v e r y p r o d u c t i v e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from DARD and GVRD c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o be p r o d u c t i v e because i t ensured a broader o u t l o o k on the p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t the PWMA. Other agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r 92 p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o r t h w h i l e because they c o u l d d i s c u s s t h e i r agency's concerns when a l l i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s were p r e s e n t . T h i s h e l p s t o ease the w o r k l o a d d u r i n g t h e i r r e g u l a r w o r k i n g h o u r s . 93 CHAPTER 5  RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS The g o a l of p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n a management system i s t o reach b e t t e r d e c i s i o n s by making the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r aware of a range of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s r e f l e c t i n g the v a l u e s of a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s and by making him aware of the support f o r the v a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s . The A d v i s o r y Committee f o r the PWMA has opened up the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a g r e a t d e a l . The e v a l u a t i o n of the committee has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a good c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s r e f l e c t e d i n the membership of the committee, except f o r those i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a l uses of the a r e a . A l t h o u g h the c o n s e r v a t i o n groups have r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , they do not a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s (such as the use of the boat l a u n c h ramp, h i k i n g , e t c . ) . S i n c e the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s d e s i g n a t e d as the second o b j e c t i v e of the a r e a and s i n c e a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e assumed t o be s e l f - i n t e r e s t m a x i m i z e r s , any d e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n a l uses s h o u l d have i n p u t from a l l i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by the s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A c o r o l l a r y of p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y i s t h a t government o r g a n i z a t i o n s tend t o d e v e l o p o b j e c t i v e s which s e r v e the i n t e r e s t s of members of -the o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than the i n t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , the GVRD and DARD, which r e p r e s e n t the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , cannot be assumed t o a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a l l 94 o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the a r e a . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , recommended t h a t : P u b l i c groups, o t h e r than those a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t e d on the committee, which a r e . a f f e c t e d by r e c r e a t i o n a l developments a t the PWMA s h o u l d be encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s p e r t a i n i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the a r e a . The q u e s t i o n which now a r i s e s i s how s h o u l d t h o s e i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by the p r o v i s i o n of some r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t the PWMA be i d e n t i f i e d ? One p o s s i b i l i t y f o r i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n a l groups i s t o i d e n t i f y a r e g i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t group concerned w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the type o f f e r e d a t the PWMA and t o have t h i s group e i t h e r r e p r e s e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l uses or suggest l o c a l groups i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the a r e a . The second and most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e v e a l e d by the e v a l u a t i o n i s the l a c k of a s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e s s f o r a d v i s i n g the F&WB on the p l a n n i n g and management of the a r e a . The terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the A d v i s o r y Committee (see Appendix B) do not i n d i c a t e any s t r u c t u r e which s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d by the A d v i s o r y Committee. The absence of a s t r u c t u r e d p r o c e s s has meant t h a t committee members have not known e x a c t l y when and how they s h o u l d have been p a r t i c i p a t i n g t o a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the f o u r i s s u e s . I t has meant t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s have not been g e n e r a t e d . I t has meant t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s has not been f o r t h c o m i n g . And i t has meant t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s as a means of r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s has not o c c u r r e d because t h e r e have been no a l t e r n a t i v e s on which t o b a r g a i n . These d e f i c i e n c i e s have meant t h a t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t 95 groups have not had adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Three elements t h a t might be p a r t of a s t r u c t u r e d p r o c e s s are s u g g e s t e d . The f i r s t i s a lo n g - r a n g e p l a n on which the A d v i s o r y Committee can base i t s a d v i c e . The p r e s e n t 5-year p l a n , which was d r a f t e d i n 1976, s h o u l d be updated t o account f o r new i n f o r m a t i o n and any changes i n the o b j e c t i v e s f o r the a r e a . A new long-range p l a n s h o u l d be updated a n n u a l l y t o p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u o u s l o n g - t e r m p e r s p e c t i v e on the management of the a r e a . The second element of a s t r u c t u r e d p r o c e s s i s an annual p l a n which s e t s out e x a c t l y what i s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d d u r i n g the t w e l v e month p e r i o d i n o r d e r t o p r o g r e s s towards the achievement of lo n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s . A l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g management e f f o r t s which would t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g the en s u i n g t w e l v e month p e r i o d . These a l t e r n a t i v e s s h o u l d be debated a t committee meetings and the F&WB would be a d v i s e d r e g a r d i n g the outcome of the debate. An im p o r t a n t component of t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s t h a t i t s h o u l d take p l a c e a t a c r u c i a l p e r i o d i n the b u d g e t i n g p r o c e s s f o r the F&WB. The t h i r d element i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a budget f o r the management of the PWMA. At p r e s e n t , DU p r o v i d e s the m a j o r i t y of the f u n d i n g f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n works i n the management ar e a w h i l e F&WB p r o v i d e s the b u l k of the f u n d i n g f o r implementing s m a l l e r h a b i t a t management s t r a t e g i e s and f o r enforcement of r e g u l a t i o n s . In the f u t u r e , the F&WB w i l l p r o b a b l y be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f u n d i n g most of the user f a c i l i t i e s f o r the 96 a r e a , s i n c e i t i s the managing agency f o r the a r e a . Under the p r e s e n t budget arrangement, any e x p e n d i t u r e s by the F&WB f o r managing the PWMA ar e drawn from an o v e r a l l budget f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d r e g i o n . Under t h i s arrangement, the F&WB has the o p p o r t u n i t y t o shun management s t r a t e g i e s which i t does not agree w i t h by m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e r e i s not s u f f i c i e n t money nor s t a f f t o c a r r y out these s t r a t e g i e s . A l s o , i f the F&WB was t o o b t a i n a l a r g e r budget or a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f , t h e r e i s no ass u r a n c e t h a t t h e s e r e s o u r c e s would be a l l o c a t e d t o the PWMA. In l i g h t of the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n and i n l i g h t of the b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of committee members assumed by p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y , i t i s recommended t h a t : The F&WB, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the a d v i c e from the A d v i s o r y Committee, s h o u l d produce a lon g - r a n g e p l a n , t o be updated a n n u a l l y , on which the committee can base i t s a d v i c e ; The A d v i s o r y Committee p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e annual p l a n s which a re produced a t a c r u c i a l time i n the F&WB budgetary p r o c e s s and which s p e c i f y management s t r a t e g i e s , t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s and the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s towards the a t t a i n m e n t of these s t r a t e g i e s ; and A s p e c i f i c budget s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the management of the PWMA. These recommended changes i n the s t r u c t u r e of the committee o p e r a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s w i t h the opportunity-, on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , t o p r e s e n t t h e i r views on the s h o r t - t e r m and lo n g - t e r m management of the a r e a . Accompanying t h i s change i n the s t r u c t u r e of the committee, s h o u l d be a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the r u l e s under which the committee o p e r a t e s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the terms of r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d be st r e n g t h e n e d t o i n d i c a t e how i s s u e s s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d and what 97 p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d by both committee members and the F&WB. These r u l e changes s h o u l d a p p l y t o the d i s c u s s i o n of i s s u e s i n f o r m u l a t i n g t he annual management p l a n , i s s u e s n o t . r e s o l v e d i n the annual p l a n and any un f o r e s e e n i s s u e s which a r i s e d u r i n g the co u r s e of managing the a r e a . Three b a s i c weaknesses i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e i n d i c a t e d by the e v a l u a t i o n : (1) committee members have not been aware of the substa n c e of t o p i c s t o be d i s c u s s e d a t meetings;• (2) committee members have not had adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o suggest a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o i s s u e s b e f o r e p l a n s a r e pr e p a r e d and d e c i s i o n s a r e made; and (3) i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g proposed management s t r a t e g i e s has not always been f o r t h c o m i n g . In o r d e r t o a l l o w a l l member o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e i r • i n t e r e s t s i n the PWMA, the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the A d v i s o r y Committee: The F&WB w i l l p r e p a r e d e t a i l e d agendas f o r c i r c u l a t i o n p r i o r t o each committee me e t i n g . The agendas w i l l be accompanied by problem s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g the most i m p o r t a n t items on the agenda and by i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the problem which can be used as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . The A d v i s o r y Committee w i l l be asked t o propose a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o a l l i s s u e s p r i o r t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of a lo n g - r a n g e p l a n , a n n u a l p l a n s and s t r a t e g i e s f o r s p e c i f i c management i s s u e s . To the g r e a t e s t e x t e n t p r a c t i c a b l e , the F&WB w i l l p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic, s o c i a l and r e g i o n a l consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e s . P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , assumes t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e s e l f - i n t e r e s t m a x i m i z e r s . The 98 p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a t the time when i s s u e s a re b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d w i l l a l l o w committee members t o p r e p a r e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s p r i o r t o meetings and t o ga t h e r any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n which would be s u p p o r t i v e of t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n a s p e c i f i c i s s u e . The g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s f o r a l l i s s u e s s h o u l d a l l o w each e n t i t y t o engage i n a b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i n which each p a r t y has the o p p o r t u n i t y t o g i v e up something i n exchange f o r something e l s e more i m p o r t a n t t o them. In o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e , b a r g a i n i n g r e q u i r e s good i n f o r m a t i o n on which t o e v a l u a t e the importance of v a r i o u s i s s u e s t o each a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t . CONCLUSIONS Brown (1972) s t a t e s t h a t the f a i l u r e of a d v i s o r y committees i s a common o c c u r r e n c e because of the l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e which a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have w i t h t h i s type of p u b l i c i n p u t . I t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i t i s not an i n h e r e n t e v i l i n the F&WB which caused the weaknesses i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , but more l i k e l y an u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h i s k i n d of p r o c e s s and a n e c e s s i t y t o a d j u s t t o u n f a m i l i a r v a l u e s ( i . e . the non-consumptive u s e r s ) i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h many c r i t i c i s m s have been made i n t h i s study r e g a r d i n g the o p e r a t i o n of the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s , the PWMA Ad v i s o r y . Committee can be a good forum f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the management system f o r the PWMA. I f the recommendations o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the committee p r o c e s s , a b e t t e r outcome can be e x p e c t e d i n terms of the n o r m a t i v e elements of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s and i n 99 l i g h t of p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y . I t i s i m p r a c t i c a l t o hope f o r o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s t o a r i s e from the p r o c e s s because i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e a c h an agreement on what c o n s t i t u t e s the o p t i m a l . However, an improved p r o c e s s i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c i nvolvement w i l l t a k e d e c i s i o n s a s t e p c l o s e r t o t h i s i d e a l . .100 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a w l f , S. September 11, 1978. L e t t e r t o B. Leach. B r i t i s h Columbia. 1976. P i t t W i l d l i f e Management A r e a : Management P l a n . T y p e s c r i p t . 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S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., Vancouver. Leach, B.A. 1978. " P r e s e r v e our Water f o w l - Don't H a r v e s t I t . " The Vancouver Sun. October 3, pg. 6.-L e o p o l d , A l d o . 1933. Game Management. C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, New York. L i n d b l o m , C E . 1959. "The S c i e n c e of M u d d l i n g Through." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. 19(2):79-88. M a i r , K.R. March 5, 1979. L e t t e r t o B. Leach. 102 M a i r , K.R. March 7, 1979. L e t t e r t o K. Hobson. M a i r , K.R. May 15, 1979. L e t t e r t o D. Godt. M a i r , K.R. May 15, 1979. L e t t e r t o C moorman. Mayo, H.B. 1960. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Democratic Theory. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York. M i t c h e l l , R.C. 1979. " N a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l L o b b i e s and the Apparent I l l o g i c of C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n . " In C.S. R u s s e l l ( e d . ) . C o l l e c t i v e D e c i s i o n Making. The John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , pp. 87-121. M u e l l e r , D.C. 1979. "Comment on T u l l o c k ' s A r t i c l e . " In C.S. R u s s e l l ( e d . ) . C o l l e c t i v e D e c i s i o n Making. The John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , pp. 52-56. N o r t h c o t e , T.G. 1976. " B i o l o g y of the Lower F r a s e r and E c o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of P o l l u t i o n . " In A.H.J. Dorcey ( e d . ) , The U n c e r t a i n F u t u r e of the Lower F r a s e r . Westwater Research C e n t r e , U.B.C., pp. 85-119. O l s o n , M. 1965. The L o g i c of C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass. O'Riordan, J . and T. O'Riordan, 1979. "How Can C i t i z e n Input Best Be U t i l i z e d by D e c i s i o n Makers," In B. S a d l e r ( e d . ) . P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e c i s i o n Making. 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The John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , pp. 1-25. S t . P i e r r e , P.R. 1977. P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an I n t e r - agency Committee: The A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g Committee i n  Vancouver. M. A. Thesis., U.B.C. S e w e l l , W.R.D. 1971. " E n v i r o n m e n t a l P e r c e p t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s 103 of E n g i n e e r s and P u b l i c H e a l t h O f f i c i a l s . " E n v i ronmental  B e h a v i o r . March: 23-59. Simon, H.A. 1957. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B e h a v i o r . The M a c M i l l a n Company, New York. S t u r m a n i s , K a r l . 1980. " P i t t Marsh." B.C. Outdoors. F e b r u a r y : 26-27. Tonn, J.L. . May 19, 1978. L e t t e r t o A. West, R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r , F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, Burnaby. T u l l o c k , G. 1979. " P u b l i c C h oice i n P r a c t i c e . " In C.S. R u s s e l l ( e d . ) . C o l l e c t i v e D e c i s i o n Making. The John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , pp. 27-45. U t t o n , A.E., W.R.D. S e w e l l , and T. O'Riordan ( e d s . ) . 1976. N a t u r a l Resources f o r a D emocratic S o c i e t y : P u b l i c  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Westview P r e s s , B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o . W h i t e , G.F. 1966. "Formation and R o l e s of P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s . " In G.F. White ( e d . ) . E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y i n a Growing  Economy. The John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , pp.- 105-127. 104 Appendix A: Proposed Wetland P o l i c y 1. G e n e r a l P o l i c y Statement (a) Wetlands embody a wide a r r a y of p u b l i c b e n e f i t s and thus those which a r e now Crown s h o u l d remain so. Wetlands which have been a l i e n a t e d and a r e i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c v a l u e s s h o u l d be s e c u r e d by the Crown. (b) The use of wetlands s h o u l d p r i m a r i l y be det e r m i n e d t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e committee p l a n n i n g but w i t h due c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l needs. (c) The a l l o c a t i o n of • a w e t l a n d a r e a t o any use or co m b i n a t i o n of uses must be based on sound economic, e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l c r i t e r i a . 2. Development P o l i c y f o r Wetlands f o r which the F i s h &  W i l d l i f e Branch has Management R e s p o n s i b i l i t y (a) The Land Management Branch (L.M.B.) i s r e c o g n i z e d as be i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s f o r the c o o r d i n a t i o n of l a n d use and management. F i n a l consignment of use (an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s ) by the L.M.B. w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h recommendations of R e g i o n a l Resource Committees and s h a l l r e f l e c t sound economic and e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . (b) Wetlands c o n s i g n e d f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n which a re i n a n a t u r a l or near n a t u r a l s t a t e w i l l be l e f t u n d i s t u r b e d except where i t can be c l e a r l y demonstrated t h a t a c t i v e enhancement w i l l r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i v i t y and a s s o c i a t e d b e n e f i t s . (c) Wetlands c o n s i g n e d f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n which have i n the pa s t been h e a v i l y m o d i f i e d by man's a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be a c t i v e l y managed f o r i n t e g r a t e d uses and enhanced f o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e p r o d u c t i o n . (d) P o l i c y a d v i s o r y committees w i l l be formed by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, and management p l a n s d e v e l o p e d w i l l be s u b m i t t e d t o the L.M.B. f o r c i r c u l a t i o n t o o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d a g e n c i e s and the p u b l i c b e f o r e f i n a l i z a t i o n . O p t i m i z a t i o n r a t h e r than m a x i m i z a t i o n w i l l be the r u l e i n development schemes. Suggested groups and a g e n c i e s f o r membership on p o l i c y a d v i s o r y committees r e l a t i n g t o w e t l a n d management: P r o v i n c i a l A g e n c i e s F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch F o r e s t S e r v i c e Water Resources S e r v i c e 105 Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e Range D i v i s i o n Land Management Branch B.C. Land Commission P a r k s Branch O u t s i d e A g e n c i e s Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e Canadian F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s Ducks U n l i m i t e d B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s B.C F e d e r a t i o n of N a t u r a l i s t s or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s B.C. C a t t l e m a n ' s Assn. or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s N.B. Not a l l of these groups would n e c e s s a r i l y be r e p r e s e n t e d on any one committee. 106 Appendix B: Terms of Refer e n c e For A d v i s o r y Committee 1. The f u n c t i o n of the Committee i s t o p r o v i d e a d v i c e t o the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch on m a t t e r s of management p o l i c y i n the P i t t management a r e a . A u t h o r i t y f o r making f i n a l management d e c i s i o n s r e s t s w i t h the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. The Committee w i l l convey recommendations on m a t t e r s of p o l i c y t o the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e of the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. 2. The Committee w i l l p r o v i d e a d v i c e and make recommendations w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of broad p o l i c y f o r w e t l a n d s as l a i d down by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. 3. The Committee w i l l r e v iew w r i t t e n , v i s u a l and o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s on m a t t e r s of p o l i c y and management p r e s e n t e d by the Branch, or by the Committee members t h e m s e l v e s . 4. Committee members a r e encouraged t o d i s c u s s proposed p o l i c y and management p l a n s w i t h o t h e r members of the a g e n c i e s or groups which they r e p r e s e n t , and t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c y i d e a s and p l a n s f o r committee d i s c u s s i o n . 5. The Committee w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o suggest a p p r o p r i a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o p r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l s put f o r w a r d by the Branch or by i n d i v i d u a l Committee members. 6. The Committee w i l l a d v i s e the Branch as t o the s u i t a b i l i t y of a d e t a i l e d management p l a n , i n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t s of management p o l i c y , the whole a r r i v e d a t a f t e r e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n by the Committee. 7. The A d v i s o r y Committee w i l l be made up of one or more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the f o l l o w i n g a g e n c i e s or groups, w i t h f u r t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o be added on a d v i c e of the Committee: F i s h & W i l d l i f e Branch Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e P a r k s Branch Ducks U n l i m i t e d Water Resources S e r v i c e P i t t P o l d e r L t d . Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B.C. Land Commission Dewdney-Alouette R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n P i t t W a t e r f o w l Management A s s o c i a t i o n F e d e r a t i o n of B.C. N a t u r a l i s t s A l o u e t t e F i e l d N a t u r a l i s t s 8. The Branch, on a d v i s e of the Committee, w i l l h o l d a s e r i e s of Committee me e t i n g s , l e a d i n g t o the development by a Branch-d e s i g n a t e d Management Committee of a d e t a i l e d management p l a n on or b e f o r e A p r i l 15, 1976. 

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