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The diffusion of novelty in American higher education : the antiwar student movement Le Brun, Thierry Georges 1981

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THE DIFFUSION OF NOVELTY IN AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ANTIWAR STUDENT MOVEMENT by THIERRY GEORGES LE BRUN .A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE © UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1981 T h i e r r y Georges Le Brun, 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date F e b r u a r y 24, 19 81 /7Q) ABSTRACT The study i s concerned w i t h the r e c u r r e n t d i f f u s i o n o f n o v e l t y i n American h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . By n o v e l t y i s meant any body o f thought, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form, and spontaneous phenomenon o f c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r which i s p e r c e i v e d as new by members o f academic i n s t i t u t i o n s . The g e n e r a l t h e s i s o f the work i s t h a t the d i s -s e mination o f n o v e l t y t y p i c a l l y o c c u r s a l o n g l i n e s o f d e c r e a s i n g academic p r e s t i g e . T h i s view i s d e r i v e d from a h o s t o f p o r p o s i t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e w i t h academic t a l e n t , the c r e a t i o n and communication of n o v e l t y , the academic m a r k e t p l a c e , p e r m i s s i v e n e s s , i m i t a t i o n , and embarrassment. T h i s t h e s i s i s v e r i f i e d f o r the i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n o f the antiwar s t u d e n t movement o f the n i n e -teen s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s . The c e n t r a l ' h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s case study i s t h a t the more p r e s t i g i o u s an academic i n s t i t u t i o n was a t the time o f the b i r t h o f the movement, the sooner some o f i t s s t u d e n t s i n i t i a l l y p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t American involvement i n t h e Vietnam war. I n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , the.independent v a r i a b l e , i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n terms of " o b j e c t i v e " i n d i c e s . The dependent v a r i a b l e i s the degree t o which s t u d e n t s i n an i n s t i t u t i o n were r e l a t i v e l y e a r l i e r i n i n i t i a l l y p r o t e s t i n g than s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . The antiwar student p r o t e s t s used to t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s were c o l l e c t e d from The New York Times  Index. For each i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t was r e p o r t e d , o n l y the f i r s t or e a r l i e s t campus p r o t e s t was c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s assumed t h a t the c r i t e r i a governing the news-paper's s e l e c t i o n of p r o t e s t s were the same f o r the e n t i r e d u r a t i o n o f the movement. Two counter-hypotheses are a l s o examined. I t i s proposed t h a t the l a r g e r an i n s t i t u t i o n was a t the time of the b i r t h of the movement, the l e s s time i t took f o r some of i t s students to i n i t i a l l y p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e American involvement i n the Vietnam war. I t i s a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the o l d e r the i n s t i t u t i o n , the l o n g e r i t took b e f o r e some of i t s students f i r s t p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h i s m i l i t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n abroad. The r e s u l t s p r o v i d e , a t best, moderate support to the main h y p o t h e s i s o f the case study w h i l e f l a t l y r e j e c t i n g i t s counter-hypotheses. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t . i i Table of Contents i v L i s t o f Tables v i i i Chapter One INTRODUCTION 1 Footnotes to Chapter One 9 Two THE THESIS. 10 SUGGESTED FACTORS 14 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and Academic T a l e n t 14 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and the Communication of Novelty 18 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and the Academic Marketplace 24 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and Permissiveness 26 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and I m i t a t i o n 28 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and Embarrassment 31 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and the C r e a t i o n of Novelty 32 Footnotes to Chapter Two 35 Three THE PACKAGE: THE STUDENT MOVEMENT AGAINST AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE VIETNAM WAR . 38 1. D e f i n i n g the Package f o r the Purpose of the Study 39 i v Chapter Page Three 2. The Adequacy of the Package f o r the T e s t i n g o f the Th e s i s 40 3. The S p e c i a l I n t e r e s t t h a t L i e s i n V e r i f y i n g the Th e s i s o f the D i f f u s i o n o f the Package. . . . . . . 42 Footnotes to Chapter Three . 45 Four THE RESEARCH DESIGN 4 6 1. The Hypotheses 4 7 The I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e Hypothesis 4 7 The I n s t i t u t i o n a l S i z e Hypothesis . . 48 The I n s t i t u t i o n a l Age Hypothesis . . 4 8 2. O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 4 9 A. Cases 49 a) D e f i n i t i o n 50 b) The Source o f Case Data 52 c) The Study's Universe o f Cases and "the" Universe o f Cases. . . 54 B. V a r i a b l e s 55 a) I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e 56 i) Woodrow Wilson Fellows by C o l l e g e of O r i g i n 57 •• The R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u -t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s , Academic J o u r n a l s 58 i i ) The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s Science J o u r n a l s 60 i i i ) The P r o p o r t i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s i n the Same P r e s t i g i o u s Science ; J o u r n a l s 61 v Chapter Page Four i v ) The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s . . . . . 61 v) The P r o p o r t i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s i n the Same P r e s t i g i o u s S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s 62 v i ) The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Both Science and S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s . 63 b) I n s t i t u t i o n a l S i z e 63 c) I n s t i t u t i o n a l Age 6 3 d) I n s t i t u t i o n a l Innovativeness . . 64 Footnotes to Chapter Four 67 F i v e RESULTS 69 F i n d i n g s 70 Innovativeness 70 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e 70 I n s t i t u t i o n a l S i z e 71 I n s t i t u t i o n a l Age 71 D i s c u s s i o n 76 Six CONCLUSION 78 1. The S y n t h e s i s 78 2. Suggestions f o r Future Research . . . 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY 86 APPENDICES 90 v i Chapter Page APPENDIX A. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ACADEMIC TALENT IN AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION 90 APPENDIX B. THE DATA 96 APPENDIX C. WILLIAM JAMES ON ACADEMIC PRESTIGE 136 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among Independent V a r i a b l e s 71 I I . C o r r e l a t i o n s between the Independent V a r i a b l e s and the Dependent One 7 3 I I I . P r o p o r t i o n o f Freshmen per I n s t i t u t i o n Who Obtained 75% or More on the V e r b a l P a r t o f the S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t . . . 91 IV. P r o p o r t i o n o f Freshmen Per I n s t i t u t i o n Who Obtained 75% or More on the Mathematical P a r t o f the S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t 94 V. Woodrow Wilson Fellows by C o l l e g e o f O r i g i n (1964) 97 VI. The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u -t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s Science J o u r n a l s . . 101 V I I . The P r o p o r t i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s Science J o u r n a l s 105 V I I I . The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u -t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s S o c i a l S c i ence J o u r n a l s 109 IX. The P r o p o r t i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s 114 X. The Rep r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s Science and S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s 119 XI. Enrollment Per I n s t i t u t i o n 123 XII.. The Year Each I n s t i t u t i o n was E s t a b l i s h e d 128 X I I I . Time Scores 132 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Th i s work would not have been undertaken i f P r o f e s s o r Marriage had not enabled me to c u l t i v a t e my i n t e r e s t i n the s o c i o l o g y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . I have l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l while working under h i s guidance. I a l s o thank him f o r h i s c o n t i n u a l support and a d v i c e d u r i n g the completion o f the study. I am a l s o g r e a t l y indebted to P r o f e s s o r Cohn f o r h i s concern, e f f i c i e n t a d v i c e , u n f a i l i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y and support. He has pr o v i d e d me w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n to q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s without which t h i s p r o j e c t would not have m a t e r i a l i z e d . He has taught me a g r e a t d e a l about r e s e a r c h . I thank P r o f e s s o r Robson f o r h i s b e n e f i c i a l advice and h i s c o n s i s t e n t l y r i g o r o u s , f a i r , and con-s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s o f the work a t d i f f e r e n t stages o f i t s completion. I thank P r o f e s s o r Hundert o f the Department of H i s t o r y f o r a g r e e i n g to read the work and f o r b e i n g one o f i t s o f f i c i a l e v a l u a t o r s . Stan K i t a of The Computer Center has a l s o p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the w r i t i n g of the SPSS programs r e q u i r e d by the study. I am g r a t e f u l f o r h i s c o o p e r a t i o n . I take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to thank the l i b r a r i a n s of the S o c i a l Science D i v i s i o n o f the Main L i b r a r y i x for t h e i r help. They have greatly f a c i l i t a t e d the completion of the study. I was lucky to have Mrs. da S i l v a type the thesis. I also thank Lewis S t i l e s , Serena Newman, Paul Kopas, William Kerr, and my parents for t h e i r contributions and support. x 1 C h a p t e r One INTRODUCTION That A m e r i c a n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e c u r r e n t d i f f u s i o n o f new c l u s t e r s o f i d e a s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms and phenomena o f c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t when one i s c o n -f r o n t e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f e x e m p l i f y i n g t h e phenomenon. Hence , f o r i n s t a n c e , s e m i o t i c s , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar, s t r u c t u r a l i s m , f u n c t i o n a l i s m , t h e d e s c h o o l i n g s o c i e t y s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t , c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , t h e K e y -n e s i a n s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t i n m a c r o - e c o n o m i c s , m o n e t a r i s t t h e o r y , a n t i - p s y c h i a t r y , t h e o r i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e d i v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e n u c l e u s w h i c h have r e n d e r e d a t o m i c f i s s i o n p o s s i b l e , n u c l e a r p h y s i c s and t h e t h e o r y o f r e l a t i v i t y , quantum m e c h a n i c s , t h e e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e g e n e t i c c o d e , t h e t h e o r y o f c o n t i n e n t a l d r i f t , women's s t u d i e s , b l a c k s t u d i e s , d e p a r t m e n t s o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g , e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s , d e n t a l h y g i e n e , c o u r s e s i n r e -c r e a t i o n , t h e n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t movements w h i c h r e v o l v e d a round r a c i a l i s s u e s , s t u d e n t l i f e i s s u e s , t h e p o l l u t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , and A m e r i c a n m i l i t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 i n the Vietnam war - have a l l found c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , i f only f o r a sh o r t p e r i o d of time i n some cases, i n many of the country's i n s t i t u t i o n s . In t h i s study, f o r the sake of t e r m i n o l o g i c a l convenience, such bodies of thought, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms, and phenomena of c o l l e c t i v e behaviour are subsumed under the n o t i o n of ''package". A package i s d e f i n e d as new i f i t i s p e r c e i v e d as such by members of an i n s t i t u t i o n . Given t h a t n o v e l t y i s d e f i n e d i n t h i s s u b j e c t i v e sense, i t does not matter when a package came i n t o being. The adoption of the same new packages by members of v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i s g r e a t l y accommodated and f a c i l i t a t e d by c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of American hig h e r e d u c a t i o n . One of these i s the l a r g e extent to which high e r e d u c a t i o n has become i n t e g r a t e d on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . I t c o n t a i n s a n a t i o n a l system of job placement and replacement. There are n a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s s e t t i n g standards and s e r v i n g v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e i r members s c a t t e r e d throughout the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the system. There are n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d r e g i o n a l agencies which a c c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s , thus c l a s s i f y i n g them, and i n a sense p o l i c i n g them by making sure they s a t i s f y e s t a b l i s h e d minimum academic c r i t e r i a . N a t i o n a l award-granting bodies are wi d e l y r e c o g n i z e d . N a t i o n a l foundations f i n a n c e r e s e a r c h pro-j e c t s formulated by a p p l i c a n t s working throughout the 3 system. American higher education i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i n g l e , complex p r e s t i g e system i n which i n d i v i d u a l s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , departments, p u b l i c a t i o n s and awards d i f f e r i n standing i n g e n e r a l o p i n i o n . One w i l l a l s o f i n d c o o p e r a t i o n among i n s t i t u t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the country. Another aspect of t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the exchange of ideas among members of d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s . Hence d i s c i p l i n e s have t h e i r own n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l s f o r t h e i r own p r a c t i o n e r s . Regional and n a t i o n a l meetings a t which s c h o l a r s submit papers and d i s c u s s one a n o t h e r 1 s works have become annual a f f a i r s . Renowned t h i n k e r s and prominent people are r e g u l a r l y i n v i t e d to p u b l i c l y convey t h e i r thoughts t o d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . I n s t i t u t i o n s en-l i s t one another's students, graduates and f a c u l t y members who a l s o f u n c t i o n as t r a n s m i t t e r s of idea s among d i f f e r e n t orders of l e a r n i n g and r e s e a r c h . A l s o , a gr e a t d e a l of communication of ideas among members of d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s takes p l a c e i n f o r m a l l y through the i n t e r p e r s o n a l networks of academia, i n c l u d i n g those of i t s many r e s e a r c h communities. The d i f f u s i o n of packages throughout hi g h e r education i s not onl y accommodated by t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , i t i s ^ a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d by the ex t e n s i v e homogeneity of many academic i n s t i t u t i o n s 4 and the extent to which t h e i r members are like-minded. T h i s homogeneity i s r e f l e c t e d i n many f a c e t s of p o s t -secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . As David Riesman put i t : ".... a l l one has to do i s read c a t a l o g u e s t o be con-v i n c e d of t h i s isomorphism."^,' Large i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r the same l i n e of s u b j e c t s and o f t e n even the courses are s i m i l a r . Smaller i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r o n l y some of these s u b j e c t s . W i t h i n these s u b j e c t s or d i s c i p l i n e s , the same c u r r i c u l u m , f o r the most p a r t , i s being taught. S p e c i a l i s t s i n these d i s c i p l i n e s l a r g e l y share the same r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n s and work on the same problems. I t i s not uncommon f o r them t o independently reach the same f i n d i n g s . They a l l r e c o g n i z e the same degree c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . What Riesman and Jencks wrote about the h i g h e s t l e v e l graduates of the two dozen major u n i v e r s i t i e s which had emerged by World War I (that they !'.... d e s p i t e conspicuous e x c e p t i o n s , mostly have q u i t e s i m i l a r ideas about what t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e c o v e r s , how i t should be taught, and how i t s f r o n t i e r s should 2 be advanced" ) holds t r u e today, not onl y f o r the Ph.D's, but a l s o f o r the Masters and the Bac h e l o r s turned out by most i n s t i t u t i o n s of the country. To be sure, t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n and homogeneity are by no means t o t a l and there are a few pockets of l o c a l i s m and s e c t a r i a n s i m t h a t remain, but even these are not a l l t h a t immune from the n a t i o n a l i z i n g tendencies o f American higher e d u c a t i o n . ^ 5 While the frequent recurrent adoption of packages by members of d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and the trendiness of academics that i t indicates are rather evident to anyone fam i l i a r with higher education, there i s a s t r i k i n g lack of systematic knowledge about t h i s d i f f u s i o n i t s e l f . Does the flow of packages among i n s t i t u t i o n s take place v i a a set i t i n e r a r y i n a t y p i c a l temporal order? Is American higher education characterized by a deeply-seated flow of influence among i n s t i t u t i o n s ? I f so, what form or forms do t h i s sequence and t h i s chain of influence assume and what are t h e i r determinants? Do ce r t a i n categories of packages disseminate along some set i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l routes while others t y p i c a l l y follow d i f f e r e n t ones? These questions and many others pertaining to t h i s d i f f u s i o n remain unanswered. To f i l l t h i s gap i n knowledge i s of in t e r e s t for a variety of reasons. While t h i s i s not the place to discuss i n depth the significance of the study of the d i f f u s i o n of packages throughout higher education, a few observations about i t do seem appropriate. One of the reasons for undertaking such a study i s that after a l l , although "no law provides that u n i v e r s i t i e s should be responsible for a l l of high c u l t u r e , .... we have come i n recent years p r e t t y c l o s e to a c c e p t i n g the academic l i f e as the n e a r l y u n i v e r s a l v e h i c l e f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s and 4 even a r t i s t i c ones". That h i g h c u l t u r e has been "academicized" i s e v i d e n t , f o r i n s t a n c e , when one bears i n mind t h a t , taken c o l l e c t i v e l y , the c u r r i c u l a of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c a l l y c o n s t i t u t e America! s o f f i c i a l ontology. The study of how packages become i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s of the s i t u a t i o n i n academia at l a r g e i s then t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent, the study of some of the dynamics of hig h c u l t u r e i t s e l f . Such study would permit us to address w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n important q u e r i e s p e r t a i n i n g to the management of n o v e l t y , not onl y i n academia, but a l s o i n the wider area of h i g h c u l t u r e . D i f f u s i o n s t u d i e s c o u l d , f o r example, l e a d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the r e a l c u s t o d i a n s of higher education and of t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n i t s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o u l d enable us to determine whether or not the power to c o n s t r u c t academic i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y i s monopolized by a s i n g l e e l i t e c o ncentrated i n a few i n s t i t u t i o n s . Hence, they c o u l d t e l l us whether or not some i n s t i t u t i o n s f u n c t i o n as both gatekeepers and 7 p a c e s e t t e r s f o r the r e s t of the country's c o l l e g e s . And i f t h i s r e s e a r c h were to c o n t r i b u t e to the e l u c i -d a t i o n of such a government of academic mental l i f e , then a l l kinds of ques t i o n s c o u l d be f r u i t f u l l y r a i s e d and, perhaps, p a r t i a l l y answered about the nature of t h i s government. By the same token, d i f f u s i o n s t u d i e s c o u l d r e v e a l whether or not t h i s power of the d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y i n academia i s d i f f u s e d throughout the system. Again, i f these s t u d i e s showed t h a t t h i s power i s w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the n a t i o n a l , academic s o c i a l system, t h i s i n i t s e l f c o u l d l e a d to the f o r m u l a t i o n and, i n p a r t , to the answering of many important q u e s t i o n s . Knowledge about the cus t o d i a n s of academic mental l i f e and about t h e i r power or i n -f l u e n c e c o u l d , f o r i n s t a n c e , enable us t o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s concerning the chances t h a t arguably worth-w h i l e new packages have,;>of -being at l e a s t communicated i n the n a t i o n a l forums and networks of high e r e d u c a t i o n . D i f f u s i o n r e s e a r c h , then, i s i n t r i c a t e l y t i e d to t h i s fundamentally p o l i t i c a l i s s u e of academic e l i t e s and power. The e x p l o r a t i o n of these q u e s t i o n s , and many ot h e r s , would thus g r e a t l y b e n e f i t from a sound understanding of the d i f f u s i o n of packages among 8 i n s t i t u t i o n s and academics. Such understanding can on l y be achieved i f both t h e o r e t i c a l work on and e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of many packages are undertaken. By advancing a t h e s i s about t h i s d i f f u s i o n and v e r i f y i n g i t e m p i r i c a l l y f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of a s p e c i f i c package, the ensuing work p u r p o r t s t o c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n and t h a t understanding. F o o t n o t e s D a v i d R i e s m a n , C o n s t r a i n t and V a r i e t y i n A m e r i c a n  E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k : A n c h o r B o o k s , D o u b l e d a y & Company, I n c . , 1958 , p p . 3 5 - 3 6 . C h r i s t o p h e r J e n c k s and D a v i d R i e s m a n , The Academic  R e v o l u t i o n , Garden C i t y , N . Y . : N A n c h o r B o o k s , D o u b l e d a y & Company, 1969 , p p . 1 3 - 1 4 . See The Academic R e v o l u t i o n f o r a competent d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n , h o m o g e n e i t y and o f t h e s e p o c k e t s . See a l s o R i e s m a n ' s p u b l i s h e d l e c t u r e , " T h e Academic P r o c e s s i o n " i n C o n s t r a i n t and V a r i e t y i n A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n . D a v i d R i e s m a n , C o n s t r a i n t and V a r i e t y i n A m e r i c a n  E d u c a t i o n , p .119 As he w r i t e s on t h e same page , " . . . t h e ' f r e e i n t e l l e c t u a l ' o f K a r l Mannheim's " w r i t i n g s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y u n c o m m i t t e d ° i s t o d a y a r a r i t y . " Chapter Two THE THESIS " I t may be i l l u m i n a t i n g t o see t h e avant garde, b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l and more g e n e r a l l y c u l t u r a l , as the head o f a s n a k e - l i k e p r o c e s s i o n — the head o f which i s o f t e n t u r n i n g back upon i t s e l f , as a t p r e s e n t , w h i l e the m i d d l e p a r t seeks t o c a t c h up w i t h where t h e head once was. When the m i d d l e p a r t becomes aware, as d o esn't always happen, t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e head has s h i f t e d , i t may t r y t o t u r n i n two d i r e c t i o n s a t once. Da v i d Riesman "... we have noted t h e d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by s c i e n t i s t s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a n d i n g a r e t h e most l i k e l y t o e n t e r p r o m p t l y and w i d e l y i n t o t h e communication n e t -works o f s c i e n c e , and so t o a c c e l e r a t e i t s development."2 R o b e r t K. Merton "... e v e r y t h i n g i n g r a d u a t e s t u d y , i n s c i e n c e and i n s c h o l a r s h i p , i s communicable and hence can be and has been d i s s e m i n a t e d from t h e s t r o n g e r t o the weaker i n s t i t u t i o n s . As a knowledgeable e d u c a t o r s a i d to" me: 'they can do t h i n g s , a t Kansas now t h a t used t o be done o n l y a t H a r v a r d ' . " ^ B e r n a r d B e r e l s o n The c e n t r a l p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h i s work i s t h a t , i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f n o v e l t y i s m e d i a t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . I t i s advanced t h a t l e s s e r u n i v e r s i t i e s u s u a l l y a d o p t what e l i t e u n i v e r s i t i e s have a l r e a d y e n d o r s e d . A d m i t t e d l y , t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s o f f e n s i v e . We s h o u l d f o l l o w o u r own r e a s o n e d c o n v i c t i o n s r a t h e r than- t h e t r e n d . And t h e s e c o n v i c t i o n s may b e , a t t i m e s , u n f a s h i o n a b l e and a n t i c o n f o r m i s t . T h e r e a r e moments w h i c h c a l l f o r d i s s e n t a g a i n s t m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . And y e t , one can be s u r e t h a t p e o p l e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h Oklahoma S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , O s c a r Rose J u n i o r C o l l e g e , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f D a l l a s , o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f L o u i s v i l l e e x e r t l i t t l e i n -f l u e n c e o v e r t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y , o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n a t M a d i s o n ; i t i s t h e c o n t r a r y t h a t seems t o be t h e c a s e . I n more g e n e r a l t e r m s , t h e s u s p i c i o n i s t h a t i n a c a d e m i a , as i n o t h e r s o c i a l s y s t e m s , " . . . a mere l i b e r a l i s t i c f reedom o f communi-c a t i o n i s n o t i n e v e r y d a y l i f e a n e u t r a l i d e a , b u t a way i n w h i c h an e n t e r p r i s e w i t h many r e s o u r c e s a t i t s d i s p o s a l has g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a n weaker b r e t h r e n t o make 4 i t s own hegemony a c c e p t e d . " I f n o v e l t y i s c o n t i n u a l l y v a l i d a t e d by t h e same e l i t e , i f i t c o n s i s t e n t l y f i l t e r s down t h e h i e r a r c h y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , t h e danger i s t h a t t h e c o n t r o l o f 12 the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f academia i t s e l f i s or c o u l d be monopolized by t h a t s i n g l e e l i t e . The same forms of e x c e l l e n c e c o u l d be r e g u l a r l y promoted w h i l e o t h e r s c o u l d be r e p e a t e d l y d i s c a r d e d . And t h i s would s e r i o u s l y reduce the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l renewal. The h i s t o r i c a l v i c t o r y of the academic over the a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m rampant i n s o c i e t y at l a r g e may a l s o t u r n out to be a v i c t o r y over the i n t e l l e c t u a l . Academics w i t h the b e s t i n t e n t i o n s , c o u l d put a damper on an i n t e l l e c t u a l w i t h o r i g i n a l i n s i g h t s . In t h i s work, the t h e s i s t h a t the acceptance of n o v e l t y i s mediated by p r e s t i g e i s g i v e n p r e c i s e form: i t i s expected t h a t the d i f f u s i o n o f packages occurs along l i n e s o f d i m i n i s h i n g academic p r e s t i g e . The more renowned the u n i v e r s i t y or department, the sooner ( i f a t a l l ) i t s members adopt a new package. T h i s view i s h e l d f o r the d i f f u s i o n o f a wide a r r a y of packages: namely, new c l u s t e r s o f i d e a s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms and spontaneous phenomena of c o l l e c t i v e behaviour. Orthodox n o v e l t y as w e l l as new types and forms of p r o t e s t such as r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s c h a l l e n g i n g regnant paradigms, a c t i v e student p r o t e s t and c i v i l d i s obedience would be disseminated as h y p o t h e s i z e d . 13 Formulating the t h e s i s i n more formal language, i t i s proposed t h a t the " i n n o v a t i v e n e s s " of academic i n s t i t u t i o n s v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r p r e s t i g e . Innovativeness r e f e r s to the degree to which members of an i n s t i t u t i o n are r e l a t i v e l y e a r l i e r than members 5 of other i n s t i t u t i o n s i n adopting a new package. The p r e s t i g e of an i n s t i t u t i o n i s d e f i n e d as the standing, c r e d i t and weight t h a t i t has i n g e n e r a l o p i n i o n . To eva l u a t e the p r e s t i g e o f an i n s t i t u t i o n i s to say something about i t s ascendancy, i t s honour, i t s r e p u t a t i o n , and i t s i n f l u e n c e . ^ There i s no doubt t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s are being compared i n terms of p r e s t i g e and t h a t these comparisons or r a t i n g s command a modicum of consensus i n American s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . Indeed, a survey conducted by The American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n r e v e a l s an e x t r a -o r d i n a r i l y high degree of consensus among academics about the r e l a t i v e standing of departments i n a l l academic f i e l d s . T h i s survey, by comparing i t s own r e s u l t s w i t h those o f pre v i o u s o p i n i o n p o l l s a l s o demonstrated t h a t rankings over time show remarkable s t a b i l i t y . Why would the d i f f u s i o n o f packages conform to the hypothesized p a t t e r n ? Given the extreme complexity of the d i f f u s i o n of phenomena i n g e n e r a l and the l a c k of r e s e a r c h on t h a t of n o v e l t y i n academia, any answer to 14 t h e q u e s t i o n must be h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e . T h i s b e i n g s a i d , s e v e r a l r e a s o n s come t o m i n d . R e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e i s d i s c u s s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n s u i n g a n a l y s i s . SUGGESTED FACTORS I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and Academic T a l e n t One o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t w o u l d s t r e a m l i n e t h e f l o w o f packages a l o n g t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d c o u r s e i s , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e e x t e n s i v e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f academic t a l e n t a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . The p h r a s e " academic t a l e n t " i s , a d m i t t e d l y , i m -p r e c i s e . I n t h i s s t u d y i t r e f e r s t o t h o s e v e r y q u a l i t i e s w h i c h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n promotes and w h i c h make f o r s u c c e s s : i t c o n n o t e s i n t e l l i g e n c e , a c a p a c i t y f o r a b s t r a c t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y , a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n , t h e a b i l i t y t o be a r t i c u l a t e and v o c a l and an i n t e r e s t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e m i n d . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n w i l l s u f f i c e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s a t h a n d . I t i s advanced h e r e t h a t s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s o f academic t a l e n t n a t u r a l l y a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h t h e r a t e a t w h i c h new packages a r e a d o p t e d . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , i t seems v e r y r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e academic t a l e n t , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t new packages a r e g o i n g t o be p e r c e i v e d and i d e n t i f i e d . To be able to i d e n t i f y , s o r t , o r g a n i z e , and order mental s t i m u l i i s , a f t e r a l l , one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g marks of such t a l e n t . Hence, the more academic t a l e n t i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , the g r e a t e r the chances t h a t i t s members w i l l p e r c e i v e n o v e l t y i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Secondly, i t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t the g r e a t e r the academic t a l e n t , the q u i c k e r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , c o n c e p t u a l mastery and e v a l u a t i o n of a new package. I t i s a commonplace t h a t , l a c k i n g the f a c i l i t y of t h e i r more a b l e peers, l e s s t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s must spend longer and work harder to achieve the same r e s u l t s . The g r e a t e r the academic t a l e n t i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , then, the g r e a t e r the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t some of i t s members w i l l have adopted or r e j e c t e d a new package f a s t e r than members of other i n s t i t u t i o n s . In the language of d i f f u s i o n s t u d i e s , the g r e a t e r the academic t a l e n t i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , the s h o r t e r "the i n n o v a t i o n -d e c i s i o n p e r i o d " of a t l e a s t some of i t s members. Rogers d e f i n e s the i n n o v a t i o n - d e c i s i o n process as "the mental process through which an i n d i v i d u a l passes from f i r s t knowledge of an i n n o v a t i o n to a d e c i s i o n to adopt or r e j e c t ..."^ T h i r d l y , i t seems to be t r u e , by d e f i n i t i o n , t h a t the g r e a t e r the academic t a l e n t , the more com-petent t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a s s i m i l a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n 16 of new packages i s . The more t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y t o i d e n t i f y , grasp and eva l u a t e a new package more c o r r e c t l y than a l e s s t a l e n t e d one. The former i s l e s s l i k e l y to overlook a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f a new package which would a f f e c t one's judgment of i t . I f these p r o p o s i t i o n s about academic t a l e n t are granted, then i t can be seen how i t would a f f e c t the d i f f u s i o n of packages. The u n i v e r s i t y w i t h the academic t a l e n t i s l i k e l y to i d e n t i f y more new packages and f a s t e r , adopt them more q u i c k l y and e x e r c i s e a more competent judgment i n the process than the u n i v e r s i t y w i t h l e s s academic t a l e n t which, i n t u r n , has a s i m i l a r advantage over another u n i v e r s i t y with even l e s s such t a l e n t . The phrase "academic t a l e n t i n an i n s t i t u t i o n " i s ambiguous and t h i s ambiguity has been d e l i b e r a t e . I t i s not c l e a r whether the u n i v e r s i t y w i t h the g r e a t e r a b s o l u t e number of t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s or t h a t w i t h the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f such persons i s l i k e l y to p e r c e i v e more packages f a s t e r , e x e r c i s e a s u r e r judg-ment and adopt them more q u i c k l y . The amount and f r e -quency of i n t e r a c t i o n among t a l e n t e d students and p r o f e s s o r s i n any given i n s t i t u t i o n , i f measureable, would probably go a long way towards c l a r i f y i n g t h i s p o i n t . 17 On t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s , s i n c e academic t a l e n t i s l a r g e l y s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , i t i s c o n t e n d e d t h a t new packages t r i c k l e down t h e s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y o f A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . T h i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n has been documented e l s e -where by B e r e l s o n ( I 9 6 0 ) , and A s t i n ( 1 9 6 6 ) . F o r i n t e r e s t ' s s a k e , I have c o l l e c t e d s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on s t a n d a r d i z e d s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e t e s t s by f re shmen a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s work (see T a b l e I I I and T a b l e I V i n A p p e n d i x A ) . W h i l e t h i s i s n o t t h e p l a c e t o d i s c u s s t h e com-p l e x i t y o f f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , one o f t h e s e d e s e r v e s a t t e n t i o n because i t a f f e c t s t h e i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n o f packages i n a h o s t o f m u t u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g and i n t e r l o c k i n g w a y s . These w i l l be emphas i zed a s . t h e a n a l y s i s p r o c e e d s . I am r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g o r v a l i d a t i n g n a t u r e o f i n s t i t u -t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i t s e l f . E l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s a t t r a c t more h i g h l y t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r s t h a n l e s s e m i n e n t ones s i m p l y because t h e y a r e more p r e s t i g i o u s . F u n c t i o n i n g much l i k e a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c y , t h e p r o c e s s i s c i r c u l a r : t h e " b e t t e r " s t u d e n t s and g r a d u a t e s seek membership i n t h e " b e t t e r " s c h o o l s and t h e s e , i n t u r n , c o n t i n u e t o be p e r c e i v e d as " b e t t e r " 18 i n g e n e r a l o p i n i o n because they a t t r a c t and s e l e c t the " b e t t e r " people. T h i s process i s r o o t e d i n the p e r v a s i v e tendency to g r a v i t a t e towards people and p l a c e s p e r c e i v e d as b e t t e r and o f f e r i n g more p o t e n t i a l rewards, both m a t e r i a l and non - m a t e r i a l . The widespread view i s t h a t to grow, to become b e t t e r educated, to achieve more s t a t u s , and p o s s i b l y more power, means to g r a v i t a t e towards the top of the pyramid. High s t a t u s schools are thus viewed as c e n t r e s of improvement and low s t a t u s schools as a t l e a s t c e n t r e s of s t a g n a t i o n , i f not of d e t e r i o r a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and the Communication of Novelty The argument from t a l e n t suggests t h a t members o f a more p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n are more l i k e l y to adopt a new package f a s t e r even when both groups achieve t h i s knowledge more or l e s s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . S e v e r a l reasons suggest t h a t the communication of n o v e l t y may a l s o t r i c k l e down the pyramid of p r e s t i g e . The sooner members of an i n s t i t u t i o n are exposed to a new package, the sooner they are l i k e l y to adopt or r e j e c t i t . According to t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n , the members of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , O b e r l i n C o l l e g e , or S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y are l i k e l y to know about new developments b e f o r e t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n , f o r example, the U n i v e r s i t y o f Western Washington, the U n i v e r s i t y of Arkansas or P o n t i f i c a l C o l l e g e Josephinum. Why would the communication of n o v e l t y be thus s t r a t i f i e d ? S e v e r a l l i k e l y f a c t o r s are apparent. In the f i r s t p l a c e , although there i s no a v a i l a b l e data to c o r r o b o r a t e t h i s , i t i s h i g h l y probable t h a t the more p r e s t i g i o u s the i n s t i t u t i o n , the more i t s members are l i k e l y to be "cosmopolite", to use the language o f d i f f u s i o n s t u d i e s . The g r e a t e r the p r e s t i g e , of an i n s t i t u t i o n the more conferences are l i k e l y to be attended by i t s members, the more i n v i t a t i o n s to g i v e l e c t u r e s are l i k e l y to be r e c e i v e d and accepted, the more c o n s u l t i n g work i s l i k e l y to be done: i n b r i e f , the g r e a t e r the number of c o n t a c t s and of r e f e r e n c e groups o u t s i d e o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n . Caplow and McGee put i t t h i s way f o r the academic e l i t e : "... members of h i g h p r e s t i g e departments tend to be g e n e r a l l y i n -v e t e r a t e t r a v e l l e r s , s h u t t l i n g from Teheran t o Texas and from one Cambridge to the other on s c h o l a r l y errands which - by convention - do not need to be 9-f i n a l l y e x p l a i n e d . " Indeed, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y has been j o k i n g l y compared w i t h the s t r a t e g i c a i r command "one t h i r d of the s t r e n g t h i s a i r b o r n e a t any giv e n t i m e . " T h i s m o b i l i t y stems i n p a r t from the f a c t t h a t the high e r the p r e s t i g e o f an i n s t i t u t i o n , the more i t s members are o r i e n t e d to t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e s r a t h e r than to the u n i v e r s i t y . In l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s 20 u n i v e r s i t i e s , p r e s t i g e - g a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s are not d i s c i p l i n a r y but i n s t i t u t i o n a l . Thus, "they discourage m o b i l i t y by rewarding e f f o r t i n a n o n - t r a n s f e r r a b l e c urrency and f o r nonmobility a c t i v i t i e s . " 1 " 1 ' More cosmopolite, the members of a p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n , then, are l i k e l y to spot and adopt or r e j e c t more new packages f a s t e r and communicate some of these to t h e i r students. Secondly, i t seems e q u a l l y reasonable to assume t h a t the more eminent the i n s t i t u t i o n , the more i t s members p a r t i c i p a t e i n the n a t i o n a l l i f e o f academia. The e d i t o r i a l boards of p r e s t i g i o u s j o u r n a l s , and the boards of n a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , n a t i o n a l f o u ndations, and n a t i o n a l award-granting bodies are predominantly composed — some would say d i s p r o -p o r t i o n a t e l y so — of members of e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . ^ 2 Very probably, then, the more p r e s t i g i o u s the i n s t i t u t i o n , the more i t s members are l i k e l y t o be s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d i n p o s i t i o n s where they can not o n l y achieve knowledge of more new packages, sooner, but a l s o f a c i l i t a t e and o r i e n t the c r e a t i o n and d i f f u s i o n o f many of them. T h i r d l y , the s e l f - c o n f i r m i n g nature of i n -s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e appears to be a t work i n yet another way. I t would seem t h a t promulgators of new packages a s p i r e t o communicate these i n the more p r e s t i g i o u s 21 academic i n s t i t u t i o n s and forums f i r s t . The a u t h o r o f a book i s l i k e l y t o s u b m i t i t f i r s t t o t h e most renowned p r e s s e s , and hope t h a t , i f p u b l i s h e d , i t w i l l be r e v i e w e d by t h e most renowned s p e c i a l i s t s on t h e s u b j e c t ; t h e a u t h o r o f an a r t i c l e w i l l s u b m i t i t f i r s t t o t h e e d i t o r i a l b o a r d s o f t h e most p r e s t i g i o u s j o u r n a l s . L e s s known p r e s s e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s must p r o b a b l y s e t t l e f o r t h e l e f t o v e r s . The same h o l d s f o r g u e s t s p e a k e r s . And a l t h o u g h , a g a i n , t h e r e i s no d a t a t o s u p p o r t o r r e j e c t t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n , i t seems s a f e t o a s s e r t t h a t t h e r e a r e few academic s who w o u l d n o t r a t h e r convey t h e i r t h o u g h t s on e m i n e n t campuses b e f o r e a d d r e s s i n g a u d i e n c e s o f l e s s known o r unknown p l a c e s . I t i s u n l i k e l y , f o r example , t h a t R o l a n d B a r t h e s , B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , , J o h n K e n n e t h • G a l b r a i t h , George S t e i n e r , H e r b e r t M a r c u s e , E r i c h Fromm, Noam C h o m s k i , S a u l B e l l o w , M a r s h a l l M c L u h a n , R . D . L a i n g , and E r i k E r i k s o n chose o r / and choose t o c o n f e r f i r s t w i t h p u b l i c s i n t h e " m i n o r l e a g u e " and i n t h e " b u s h l e a g u e " . I t i s n o t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e s e c e l e b r i t i e s w o u l d even go t o c o l l e g e s • in:'_... t h e b o t t o m r a n k s , and i t i s v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t such i n s t i t u t i o n s c a n n o t a f f o r d t o i n v i t e them. And h e r e a g a i n t h e t a u t o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n appear s t o be a t w o r k . The more p r e s t i g i o u s t h e i n -s t i t u t i o n t h e more funds i t a t t r a c t s o f i t s p r e s t i g e a n d , by i t s w e a l t h , i t i s endowed w i t h more means 22 to r e t a i n t h a t p r e s t i g e . Being w e a l t h i e r , i t s l i b r a r i e s and f a c u l t y can a f f o r d t o purchase more new books and s u b s c r i b e to more p e r i o d i c a l s and i t can compete f o r the b e t t e r promulgators o f n o v e l t y , o f f e r i n g them not o n l y more s t a t u s but a l s o more s e c u r i t y and a u t h o r i t y . I t can compete f o r them with a t t r a c t i v e i n v i t a t i o n s or by h i r i n g them o u t r i g h t l y as t e a c h e r s . Given a l l t h i s , i t i s no wonder t h a t e l i t e , u n i v e r s i t i e s are g e n e r a l l y viewed as the academic c a p i t a l s of "the new and the l a t e s t " and t h e i r members as the v a l i -d a t o r s and c e r t i f i e r s _ o f new developments i n the mental l i f e o f n a t i o n a l h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . The p r o p o s i t i o n , then, i s t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e a t t r a c t s , and a t t r a c t s the means to a t t r a c t , promulgators of new packages f i r s t . F o u r t h , i t may be t h a t the v i s i b i l i t y o f new packages i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s heightened when these are propagated by more p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r members. Merton (1968) suggests t h i s f o r the communication of new s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Basing h i m s e l f on an a n a l y s i s of the composite of experience r e -ported i n H a r r i e t Zuckerman's i n t e r v i e w s with Nobel l a u r e a t e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , he d i s c e r n s i n American s c i e n c e a fundamental p a t t e r n o f d i s c r i m a t i o n , which he c a l l s the Matthew e f f e c t . R e c o g n i t i o n f o r the same c o n t r i -b u t i o n s made by men of d i s t i n c t l y unequal rank, as i n the case of c o l l a b o r a t i o n and m u l t i p l e d i s c o v e r i e s , appears to be granted to those s c i e n t i s t s whose p r e s t i g e i s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d and w i t h h e l d from those who have not ye t made t h e i r mark. In t h i s way, the a l r e a d y p r e s t i g i o u s s c i e n t i s t s (mostly concentrated i n top i n s t i t u t i o n s ) become even more p r e s t i g i o u s , w h ile those who have not made t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n (mostly concentrated i n the l e s s eminent i n s t i t u t i o n s ) become even more o u t d i s t a n c e d s t a t u s w i s e . He suggests t h a t t h i s fundamental d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n may a l s o operate f o r the communication of s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s : "..., c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s i m p l i -c a t i o n s f o r the reward system, the Matthew e f f e c t i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l f o r the c a r e e r s of i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t s who are p e n a l i z e d i n the e a r l y stages o f t h e i r development, but c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the communication system, the Matthew e f f e c t , i n cases of c o l l a b o r a t i o n and m u l t i p l e d i s c o v e r i e s , may operate to heighten the v i s i b i l i t y of new s c i e n t i f i c communications. There seems to be no reason why t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , suggested f o r s c i e n c e , would not be v a l i d f o r the i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n 14 of other packages as w e l l . F i n a l l y , the communication of n o v e l t y i n academia i s very probably, i f not c e r t a i n l y , s t r a t i f i e d by another f a c t o r . However, because t h i s determinant bears d i r e c t l y on b o t h t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a d o p t i o n o f new p a c k a g e s , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and t h e Academic M a r k e t p l a c e The i n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n o f a g r a d u a t e o r p r o f e s s o r a f f e c t s d e c i s i v e l y where he o r she c a n be h i r e d i n t h e n a t i o n a l s c a l e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . What Logan W i l s o n n o t e d y e a r s ago has s i n c e been e m p i r i c a l l y c o r r o b o r a t e d : t h e academic r e c r u i t c a n n o t e x p e c t p l a c e -ment i n an i n s t i t u t i o n o f h i g h e r p r e s t i g e t h a n t h e one f rom w h i c h he was g r a d u a t e d . Caplow and McGee a r e e m p h a t i c "The i n i t i a l c h o i c e o f a g r a d u a t e s c h o o l s e t s an i n d e l i b l e mark on t h e s t u d e n t ' s c a r e e r . I n many d i s c i p l i n e s men t r a i n e d i n m i n o r u n i v e r s i t i e s have v i r t u a l l y no chance o f a c h i e v i n g eminence . . . The h a n d i c a p o f i n i t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a d e p a r t m e n t o f low p r e s t i g e i s h a r d l y e v e r c o m p l e t e l y overcome."15 The m o b i l i t y i s l a r g e l y downward, much more s o , o f c o u r s e , when t h e s u p p l y o f d o c t o r a t e s exceeds t h e demand f o r them. B e r e l s o n p u t s i t t h i s way : "What i s m o r e . . . t h e b e t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n s have f o r y e a r s been c o l o n i z i n g t h e weaker o n e s . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g , o n l y t h e b e t t e r ones were p r o d u c i n g many d o c t o r a t e s and t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s t h e y have been among t h e ma jor p r o d u c e r s . S i n c e as r a c l a s s t h e y c o u l d n o t a b s o r b a l l t h e i r own d o c t o r a t e s , t h e i r g r a d u a t e s have gone e l s e w h e r e — l a r g e l y t o o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s where d o c t o r a l programs were o f f e r e d sooner o r l a t e r , w i t h t h e i r own p a r t i c i p a -t i o n and o f t e n l e a d e r s h i p . So o v e r t h e y e a r s t h e weaker i n s t i t u t i o n s have been s t r e n g t h e n e d b y a s u p p l y f rom t h o s e up a h e a d . T h i s f i l t e r i n g - d o w n p r o c e s s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n a l sy s tem has now l o c a t e d s i z a b l e 25 c o n t i n g e n t s o f d o c t o r a t e s i n i n -s t i t u t i o n s o f l e s s e r q u a l i t y t h a n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m w h i c h t h e y s e c u r e d t h e i r own d o c t o r a t e s . . . P u t a n o t h e r way, s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e f a c u l t i e s o f l e s s e r i n s t i t u t i o n s were t r a i n e d a t t h e b e t t e r p l a c e s . " 1 6 These s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n s n o t o n l y f u n c t i o n as t r a n s m i t t e r s o f t h e l a t e s t f a s h i o n s and d e v e l o p m e n t s c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g p l a c e a t t h e t o p , t h e y a l s o a t t e m p t t o r e p r o d u c e some o f them i n t h e i r new u n i v e r s i t i e s o r c o l l e g e s . They s e r v e p r i m a r i l y t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e and t h e a d j u s t m e n t between t h e s e i n t e r e s t s and t h e l o c a l l o y a l t i e s o f each campus i s n o t a l w a y s e a s y . B u t sooner o r l a t e r , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , 17 " t h e home g u a r d " can be p e r s u a d e d and t h u s t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n t i n u a l l y shape and r e s h a p e t h e m s e l v e s somewhat i n t h e image o f t h e t o p . T h i s " f i l t e r i n g - d o w n p r o c e s s " does n o t s t o p t h e r e . On t h e s e campuses , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e e d u c a t e d by t h e s e p r o d u c t s o f e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and by o t h e r f a c u l t y i n -f l u e n c e d by them. A f t e r g r a d u a t i o n , some o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s , i n t u r n , t r a n s m i t and r e p r o d u c e some o f t h e new d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e i r p a r e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n . They t o o come t o t h e i r new campuses w i t h i m a g e s , ( formed somewhere up a b o v e ) , o f what a p r o p e r u n i v e r s i t y s h o u l d 2 6 l o o k l i k e and t r y t o shape t h e i r new i n s t i t u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e i m a g e s . T h u s , i n t h i s c h a i n - l i k e manner , c u r r i c u l a , d i s c i p l i n e s , s u b d i s c i p l i n e s and r e -s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n s become n a t i o n a l i z e d a n d , f o r b e t t e r o r w o r s e , sys temwide i n t e l l e c t u a l c a r t e l s f o r m . And t h i s i s a l s o one o f t h e ways i n w h i c h more g e n e r a l l y c u l t u r a l and spontaneous c u r r e n t s d i s s e m i n a t e t h r o u g h o u t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and P e r m i s s i v e n e s s The d i f f u s i o n o f new packages may be c h a n n e l e d a l o n g t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d s t a t u s l i n e s by y e t a n o t h e r f a c t o r : n a m e l y , what L a z a r s f e l d and T h i e l e n s c a l l p e r -m i s s i v e n e s s . By p e r m i s s i v e n e s s i s meant t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h o s e who e x p l o r e , p u r s u e and h o l d u n o r t h o d o x v i e w s a r e t o l e r a t e d by t h e members o f an i n s t i t u t i o n . The more p e r m i s s i v e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e more l i k e l y i t i s t o a d o p t new packages s o o n e r . I n a s t u d y o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , t h e s e a u t h o r s have found t h a t p e r m i s s i v e n e s s i n c r e a s e s a l o n g w i t h p e r c e i v e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l q u a l i t y : " t h e b e t t e r t h e c o l l e g e , t h e l a r g e r t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p e r m i s s i v e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n c l u d e d i n i t s f a c u l t y . " H e n c e , " p e r m i s s i v e t e a c h e r s a r e more l i k e l y t o a c h i e v e p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n . " More p r e - . c i s e l y , " t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e s c h o l a r s (an i n d e x 27 o f q u a l i t y ) r i s e s as we move f rom t h e v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e 18 t o t h e v e r y p e r m i s s i v e r e s p o n d e n t s . " Why w o u l d t h i s be t h e c a s e , and can t h i s f i n d i n g be g e n e r a l i z e d f o r s t u d e n t b o d i e s and f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f d i s c i p l i n e s o t h e r t h a n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ? Here a g a i n , r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e s e l f - c o n f i r m i n g n a t u r e o f i n -s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t more p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s w o u l d be more p e r m i s s i v e i n a l l f i e l d s . L a z a r s f e l d and T h i e l e n s p u t i t t h i s way f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s : " C o l l e g e s w h i c h have l a r g e r r e s o u r c e s and more d e s i r a b l e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s a t t r a c t more d i s t i n g u i s h e d s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . These t e a c h e r s i n t u r n a r e more l i k e l y t o be p e r m i s s i v e . The o r i g i n a l m i n o r i t y among them w i l l o f t e n have a n a l y t i c a l minds w h i c h do n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c e p t c u r r e n t b e l i e f s , minds w i l l i n g t o e n t e r t a i n u n o r t h o d o x i d e a s as t o how a modern s o c i e t y can b e s t f u n c t i o n . N e x t t o t h e c r e a t i v e l e a d e r comes t h e com-p e t e n t t e a c h e r and p r o d u c t i v e r e s e a r c h s c h o l a r . Even i f he m i g h t be by n a t u r e more amenable t o t h e g e n e r a l c u r r e n t s o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n , he i s more d i r e c t l y i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e l e a d e r s o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n . . . Thus he t o o w i l l add t o a p e r m i s s i v e c l i m a t e when a p p o i n t e d t o a d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n . " 1 9 The e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h e s e two a u t h o r s s u g g e s t f o r t h e i r f i n d i n g seems t o be l a r g e l y r e l e v a n t f o r s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r s i n a l l d i s c i p l i n e s . What i s s u g g e s t e d h e r e i s t h a t t h e more renowned t h e c o l l e g e , t h e more p e r m i s s i v e i t s members a r e l i k e l y t o be w i t h r e g a r d t o new packages w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r f a m i l y o f d i s c i p l i n e s : h e n c e , i n an e l i t e u n i v e r s i t y , 2 8 s c i e n t i s t s are m o r e ' l i k e l y to be p e r m i s s i v e about new unorthodox s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s than s c i e n t i s t s i n a l e s s renowned p l a c e , p r o f e s s o r s of bu s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n are more l i k e l y to be p e r m i s s i v e about i n n o v a t i o n s i n commerce than t h e i r peers i n a l e s s e r i n s t i t u t i o n , and, to i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t one more time, members of the f a c u l t y of education are more l i k e l y to be p e r m i s s i v e towards new e d u c a t i o n a l f a s h i o n s than t h e i r peers i n a l e s s eminent s c h o o l . In c o n c l u s i o n , the more p r e s t i g i o u s an i n s t i t u t i o n i s , the more p e r m i s s i v e i t s p o p u l a t i o n and g e n e r a l c l i m a t e probably are and thus the more l i k e l y i t i s t h a t any s i n g l e new package w i l l be adopted there and sooner. I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and I m i t a t i o n Academia may a l s o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c h a i n of i m i t a t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e p r e c i s e l y along the hypothesized l i n e s of d e c r e a s i n g s t a t u s . I l l u s t r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s are emulated by l e s s prominent ones, which are, i n t u r n , modelled by even l e s s renowned s c h o o l s . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the g i s t of the conception o f the movement and rhythm of academic development advanced by David Riesman i n a p u b l i s h e d l e c t u r e which c o n s t i t u t e s the most g e n e r a l statement of the t h e s i s of t h i s work to be found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . To be more p r e c i s e , h i s main suggestion i s t h a t there i s i n higher e d u c a t i o n a 29 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , r e c u r r e n t s n a k e - l i k e academic p r o c e s s i o n of ideas (see the q u o t a t i o n w i t h which t h i s chapter .opens) . The sheer, e x t e n s i v e homogeneity of c o l l e g e s suggests t h a t i m i t a t i o n does take p l a c e i n higher education, but why i t would occur as s p e c i f i e d above along l i n e s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i s not c l e a r . Given the com-p l e x i t y of i m i t a t i o n and t h a t the workings and. the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f o s t e r i t are s t i l l l a r g e l y unknown, the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be c o n f i n e d to o n l y a few b r i e f remarks. I t has a l r e a d y been mentioned t h a t i n academia, the v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y t h a t does occur i n i t s marketplace i s downward. And we have a l s o noted t h a t new e n t r a n t s i n the academic p r o f e s s i o n who are h i r e d i n l e s s renowned p l a c e s attempt to f a s h i o n t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to images formed higher up i n the a pyramid of what a proper u n i v e r s i t y should look l i k e . T h i s i s emphasized by Riesman i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the Academic P r o c e s s i o n . I m i t a t i o n may a l s o be a sub-case of the quest f o r p r e s t i g e . By m o d e l l i n g themselves up on more p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , members of a l e s s renowned one are becoming l e s s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the former. I f i t becomes known t h a t the l e s s prominent c o l l e g e has become as s t r o n g i n c e r t a i n departments as a major u n i v e r s i t y , the s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two p l a c e s w i l l disappear 30 i n a t l e a s t some r e s p e c t s . The p a t t e r n o f e m u l a t i o n s u g g e s t e d by Riesman may a l s o be grounded i n and e x a c e r b a t e d b y , on t h e •©hie h a n d , t h e s p i r i t and e t h o s o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p e r v a s i v e i n t h e economy w h i c h permeates academic i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p r e s t i g e among i n s t i t u t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e upper l e v e l s o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . B o t h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e advanced and 20 d i s c u s s e d by R i e s m a n . I n t h e i r c l a s s i c a l work on i m i t a t i o n , M i l l e r and D o l l a r d (1941) s u g g e s t s t h a t o t h e r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , b e -s i d e s t h o s e w i t h h i g h e r s t a t u s a r e e m u l a t e d s u c h as s u p e r i o r s i n an i n t e l l i g e n c e r a n k i n g s y s t e m as w e l l as t o p t e c h n i c i a n s i n any f i e l d . We have a l r e a d y empha- ' s i z e d t h e h i g h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e be tween t h e h i e r a r c h y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f academic t a l e n t . There i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e more p r e s t i g i o u s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e more h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t and com-p e t e n t p e o p l e i t c o m p r i s e s i n c l u d i n g m e n t a l t e c h n i c i a n s o f one v a r i e t y o r a n o t h e r . L e s s p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s may mode l t h e m s e l v e s upon more d i s t i n g u i s h e d ones a l s o because what happens i n t h e l a t t e r i s p r o b a b l y more v i s i b l e , as M e r t o n s u g g e s t s , t h a n new d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p l a c e s w i t h l e s s s t a t u s . And as w i l l be a r g u e d b e l o w i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e b u l k o f new packages p r o d u c e d i n academia emanate f rom e l i t e 31 i n s t i t u t i o n s . I f t h i s i s indeed the case, i n s t i t u t i o n s lower down would i m i t a t e those h i g h e r up a l s o because t h i s i s simply where the new models are g e n e r a l l y to be found. So f a r , a few reasons have been advanced suggesting why members of l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s p l a c e s would model them-s e l v e s on more r a t h e r than l e s s eminent u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . T h i s , however, does not e x p l a i n why emulation i s l i k e l y t o take p l a c e between juxtaposed p r e s t i g e leagues r a t h e r than between those which are s o c i a l l y d i s t a n t from one another. Why t h i s would be the case i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r . I t may be t h a t the members of an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h J . n f e r i o r s t a t u s may e a s i l y accept the f a c t t h a t other i n -s t i t u t i o n s have a g r e a t d e a l more p r e s t i g e than i t does. On the other hand, they may r e s e n t and f e e l s l i g h t l y humiliated by the f a c t t h a t other i n s t i t u t i o n s enjoy a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r standing i n g e n e r a l o p i n i o n . I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h i s resentment i s l i k e l y to impel them to a t l e a s t equal and match the standards of those u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s w i t h a l i t t l e more p r e s t i g e . 21 I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and Embarrassment I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t there i s a c e r t a i n embarrassment atta c h e d to not adopting or adopting l a t e new packages which have been accepted i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s . And, i t i s probable t h a t t h i s embarrassment i n c r e a s e s along w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . I t i s much more embarrassing f o r the s c i e n t i s t s of M.I.T. than f o r the s c i e n t i s t s i n a c o l l e g e i n the bush league to have endorsed very l a t e a new d i s c o v e r y which i s 32 c o n s e n s u a l l y deemed to be a breakthrough i n knowledge. And to i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t once more, i t i s probably much more embarrassing f o r l i b e r a l and l e f t i s t s tudents i n a p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n than f o r such students i n a l e s s n o t o r i o u s school t o not have p r o t e s t e d a c t i v e l y a g a i n s t American m i l i t a r y involvement i n the Vietnam war. We o b v i o u s l y do not have the same e x p e c t a t i o n s from members of low-status c o l l e g e s . Having more o f a r e p u t a t i o n to maintain, members o f h i g h - s t a t u s i n s t i t u t i o n s are more l i k e l y to be a t t e n t i v e to n o v e l t y and adopt new packages sooner not simply because they deem them' to be worthwhile but a l s o i n o r d e r to a v o i d embarrassment and i n c u r a l o s s i n p r e s t i g e . They are more p r e s s u r e d t o adopt n o v e l t y and e a r l i e r than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n l e s s prominent c e n t r e s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and the C r e a t i o n o f No v e l t y I f e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s are the major producers o f new packages i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , then t h i s would strengthen t h e i r p o s i t i o n even more. They would not be simply the l i k e l y v a l i d a t o r s o f n o v e l t y i n the nationwide system but would themselves be a t the f o r e -f r o n t o f the very c r e a t i o n o f academic, and more 33 g e n e r a l l y , c u l t u r a l l i f e . They would be t r u l y and g e n e r a l l y the p a c e s e t t e r s and tastemakers of the system. And a top down d i f f u s i o n of new packages would be a l l the more probable. I t seems reasonable to c o n j e c t u r e t h a t more new packages are c r e a t e d a t the top than a t any other l e v e l of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . T h i s i s p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e ~" there are no s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e - but not groundless. In the f i r s t p l a c e , e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s a t t r a c t and r e c r u i t more t a l e n t , i n c l u d i n g c r e a t i v e minds. What Logan Wilson observed years ago appears to be j u s t as t r u e today: "The v a s t m a j o r i t y of the n a t i o n ' s l e a d i n g s c h o l a r s and s c i e n t i s t s ... (and I should add students) are found i n the major u n i v e r s i t i e s , and the more promising ones i n " o u t l y i n g p l a c e s are c o n s t a n t l y 22 being r e c r u i t e d to them." Indeed, i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y at the top, compete f o r p o t e n t i a l as well, as proven l u m i n a r i e s and i n n o v a t o r s . The p r e s t i g e mechanism of academia produces a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t a l e n t e d , c r e a t i v e and o r i g i n a l minds a t the top. Secondly, the more t a l e n t e d and c r e a t i v e minds i n t e r a c t , the g r e a t e r the chances t h a t they w i l l open new conc e p t u a l doors. And as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the more p r e s t i g i o u s an i n s t i t u t i o n , the more and the more f r e q u e n t l y such i n t e r a c t i o n i s l i k e l y to take p l a c e . 34 The two p r o p o s i t i o n s are not.only advanced f o r f a c u l t y . Hence, most o f the student movements and o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the 1960s and e a r l y 1970s were i n i t i a t e d by students from e l i t e c o l l e g e s . T h i r d l y , s i n c e there i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t the top i s more p e r m i s s i v e , i t may be e a s i e r t o pursue an untrodden path there than i n l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . I f e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s are indeed more p e r m i s s i v e , i t may be e a s i e r there to undertake new work which may prove t o be unpopular. Moreover, the pre s s u r e to c o n t r i b u t e to and advance knowledge i s g r e a t e r a t the top; more i s expected of p r o f e s s o r s . F i n a l l y , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s to c r e a t e are g r e a t e r i n more p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . Hence, the more renowned u n i v e r s i t i e s have b e t t e r l i b r a r i e s and l a b o r a t o r i e s , more experts to c o n s u l t i n the process of r e s e a r c h , b e t t e r access t o i n f o r m a t i o n , and probably b e t t e r chances to o b t a i n funding. 35 Chapter Two-Footnotes David Riesman, Constraint and Variety i n American  Education, New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1958, p.35. 2Robert K. Merton, "The Matthew E f f e c t i n Science", Science, 159. 1968, p.60. 3Bernard Berelson, Graduate Education i n the United States New York: Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 19 60, p.108. ^Herbert I. S c h i l l e r , Communication and C u l t u r a l Domination, White Plains, N.Y., Free Flow of Information: Towards a Reconsideration of National and International Communication P o l i c i e s " address before Symposium on the International Flow of Te l e v i s i o n Programmes, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland, May 21, 1973. 5 I have adapted Everett Rogers' d e f i n i t i o n of the term to s u i t the purposes of the study. He defines innovative-ness as ". .., the degree to which an i n d i v i d u a l i s re-l a t i v e l y e a r l i e r i n adopting new ideas than other members of his s o c i a l system." See Everett Rogers with F. Floyd Shoemaker, Communication of Innovations, New York: The Free Press, a D i v i s i o n of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1971, p.175. 6 Webster's Third International Dictionary defines prestige as "standing or estimation i n the eyes of people: weight or c r e d i t i n general opinion: ASCENDANCY, HONOR, INFLUENCE, REPUTATION (the power and prestige of the aristocracy and the landed gentry were unimpaired — Bertrand Russell)(Such l u s t e r — or prestige — or mana — as i n d i v i d u a l writers possess i s usually owned, not to the q u a l i t y of t h e i r work, but to i t s public acceptance — Times L i t . Suppl.)". 36 7 A l l a n M. C a r t t e r , An Assessment of Q u a l i t y i n Graduate  Ed u c a t i o n , Washington, D.C. : American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1964. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the degree o f agreement among experts see pp. 8-9. E v e r e t t Rogers w i t h F. F l o y d Shoemaker, Communication of Innovations, New York, the Free P r e s s , a D i v i s i o n of Macmillan P u b l i s h i n g Co., Inc., 1971, p.99. 9 Theodore Caplow and Reece J . McGee, The Academic Market-p l a c e , New York : Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1965, p.91. " ^ C h r i s t o p h e r Rathbone, The Times, Higher E d u c a t i o n Supple-ment, 1980. "'""'"Caplow and McGee, The Academic Marketplace, p. 91. 12 I would not be s u r p r i s e d i f t h i s was a l s o t r u e f o r n a t i o n a l student o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p u b l i c a t i o n s when they do s u r f a c e t e m p o r a r i l y as i s u s u a l l y the case. 13 Merton, The Matthew E f f e c t , p.59. 14 To i l l u s t r a t e the phenomenon i n a minor way, the b i b l i o -graphy of t h i s work i s q u i t e u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y composed of works produced by mostly authors a f f i l i a t e d w i t h p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . 15 Caplow and McGee, The Academic Marketplace, p.193. " ^ B e r e l s o n , Graduate E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , p.108. 17 For a d i s c u s s i o n of the -r-elationship between the "home guard" and "cosmopolitans" i n u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e s see Riesman, The Academic P r o c e s s i o n , p.35, 18 Paul F. L a z a r s f e l d , Wagner J r . , T h i e l e n s , The Academic  Mind : S o c i a l S c i e n t i s t s i n a Time of C r i s i s , I l l i n o i s : The Free Press of Glencoe, 1958. The f i r s t two q u o t a t i o n s are from p.144, the t h i r d i s from p. 161. 1 9 I b i d , pp. 161-162. 20 See, Riesman, The Academic P r o f e s s i o n and Rathbone, 37 I am indebted to P r o f e s s o r R.A. Robson f o r the b a s i c i d e a presented i n the ensuing s e c t i o n . Logan Wilson, The Academic Man : A Study i n the  S o c i o l o g y of A P r o f e s s i o n , New York: Octagon Books Inc., 1964, p.172. 3 8 C h a p t e r Three THE PACKAGE THE STUDENT MOVEMENT AGAINST AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE VIETNAM WAR I n what p r e c e d e s t h e f i r s t o v e r r i d i n g t a s k o f t h e work has been f u l f i l l e d . A t h e s i s a b o u t t h e d i f f u s i o n o f n o v e l t y has been a r t i c u l a t e d . I t has been a r g u e d t h a t t h e d i s s e m i -n a t i o n o f new packages i n academia t y p i c a l l y o c c u r s a l o n g l i n e s o f d e c r e a s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . T h i s t h e s i s was g rounded i n a h o s t o f s p e c u l a t i o n s . H e n c e , a g e n e r a l e x -p l a n a t o r y framework has been e l a b o r a t e d . The second o v e r -r i d i n g t a s k o f t h e work c o n s i s t s i n v e r i f y i n g e m p i r i c a l l y t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n f o r t h e i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n o f a s p e c i f i c p a c k a g e : n a m e l y , t h e s t u d e n t movement a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e V i e t n a m w a r . T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s t h i s p r o j e c t by c e n t e r i n g on t h i s h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon. To be p r e c i s e , i t i s t o 1) d e f i n e i t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , 2) d i s c u s s i t s adequacy f o r t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e t h e s i s , and 3) s p e c i f y some of the reasons f o r which i t i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o v e r i f y the main pro-p o s i t i o n of the work f o r the d i f f u s i o n of t h i s package. 1) Defining,, the Package f o r the Purpose of the Study The t h e s i s of the work, then, i s to be t e s t e d f o r the i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n of the student movement which p r o t e s t e d the involvement o f the United States.. For the sake of convenience., t h i s movement w i l l o f t e n be r e f e r r e d to as the antiwar student movement. L i k e most, i f not a l l , s u s t a i n e d , widespread, and spontaneous phenomena of c o l l e c t i v e behaviour, t h i s movement assumed d i f f e r e n t forms d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of i t s e x i s t e n c e . Thus, f o r example, i n one phase of the movement or another, t h e r e were s e r i e s of teachr-ins, f a s t s , a n t i -R.O.T.C. and anti-Dow Chemical p r o t e s t s . I t may be asked, then, how what was e s s e n t i a l l y dynamic and protean can be l a b e l l e d as a package. The reason i s very simply t h a t whatever forms they assumed, a l l antiwar student p r o t e s t s s t r o v e towards the same b a s i c g o a l : the t e r m i n a t i o n of American m i l i t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Vietnam war. Many of these i n c i d e n t s of d i s s e n t c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another i n terms of i s s u e s , t a c t i c s , s t y l e s and i n other r e s p e c t s , but t h e i r fundamental purpose remained the same a l l along. The study, then, focuses on the i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l 40 d i f f u s i o n o f a n t i w a r s t u d e n t p r o t e s t per se w i t h o u t p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e v a r i o u s forms t h a t i t assumed a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e . To borrow an a n a l o g y from botany, t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n c e n t e r s on t h e genus ( a n t i w a r s t u d e n t p r o t e s t p e r se) and not on i t s s p e c i e s ( t e a c h - i n s , f a s t s , anti-R.O.T.C., a n t i -Dow Che m i c a l p r o t e s t s , e t c . ) . And as i m p l i e d . a b o v e , t h e i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o p a g a t i o n o f the genus i s not t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h a t o f anyone o f i t s s p e c i e s . T h i s b e i n g s a i d , i t i s worth n o t i n g p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y t h a t t h e spec u -l a t i o n s advanced i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r l e a d us t o ex-p e c t t h a t n o t o n l y t h e d i f f u s i o n o f t h e genus b u t a l s o t h a t of each one o f i t s s p e c i e s o c c u r r e d a l o n g l i n e s o f d e c r e a s -i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . The a u t h o r i t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s forms o r t y p e s o f a n t i w a r s t u d e n t p r o t e s t and o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f t h e movement remains t o be un d e r t a k e n . 2. The Adequacy o f t h e Package f o r t h e T e s t i n g o f t h e T h e s i s I n t h i s s t u d y , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e a n t i w a r s t u d e n t movement i s an h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon t h a t i s adequate f o r t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e t h e s i s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n remains an open e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . To s e t t l e t h i s m a t t e r would r e q u i r e , a t l e a s t , a g r e a t d e a l o f h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e x c e e d i n g by f a r t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y . However, on t h e b a s i s o f r e a d i n g s , i t appears t h a t we a r e on sound h i s t o r i c a l grounds. T h i s movement o b v i o u s l y meets one o f the c r i t e r i a f o r the e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the t h e s i s : i t c l e a r l y spread over time t o u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s d i f f e r i n g i n p r e s t i g e . While t h i s f a c t i s commonly known, th e r e are n a t i o n a l estimates f o r f o u r academic years which g i v e us a more p r e c i s e i d e a o f the i n c i d e n c e of the movement. These estimates are based on surveys conducted by the E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e (ETS) and the American C o u n c i l on Education (ACE). Although the p o p u l a t i o n bases are not the same f o r the d i f f e r e n t y e a r s , the surveys are s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t o g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f the spread of the movement among i n s t i t u t i o n s over time. In 1964-1965, a c c o r d i n g t o an ETS survey, 21 per c e n t o f b a c c a l a u r e a t e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s had a p r o t e s t i n c i d e n t about U n i t e d S t a t e s 1 p o l i c i e s i n Vietnam. Another ETS survey r e v e a l s t h a t by 1967-1968, American involvement was p r o t e s t e d i n 38 percent of b a s i -c a l l y the same i n s t i t u t i o n s . From then on the movement's i n c i d e n c e d e c l i n e s . In 1969-1970, ACE r e s e a r c h r e v e a l s t h a t 38 percent of the surveyed i n s t i t u t i o n s observed the October moratorium, 11 per c e n t p r o t e s t e d w a r - r e l a t e d campus i s s u e s , 25 p e r c e n t p r o t e s t e d g e n e r a l U n i t e d S t a t e s p o l i c y i n Southeast A s i a and 16 percent p r o t e s t e d the Cambodian i n v a s i o n . In 1970-1971, another ACE survey i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n i n c i d e n c e r e v e a l i n g t h a t 20 p e r c e n t of the i n s t i t u t i o n s had a p r o t e s t about a w a r - r e l a t e d i s s u e . 42 Although there i s no data f o r the f u l l subsequent year, i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t , " i n A p r i l 1970, the renewed bombing of North Vietnam t r i g g e r e d campus u n r e s t , p r i m a r i l y of a n o n d i s r u p t i v e and l e g a l nature, a t approximately one-f o u r t h 027 percent) of American i n s t i t u t i o n s . " I t i s not c l e a r when the movement p r e c i s e l y ended. However, as the authors of the most systematic study and overview of student u n r e s t i n the nineteen s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s put i t : "although n a t i o n a l data on the i n c i d e n c e of u n r e s t s i n c e 1972 do not e x i s t , i t i s c l e a r t h a t an 2 era has ended." I t stands to reason t h a t not a l l of the p r o t e s t - p r o n e i n s t i t u t i o n s uncovered by these e x t e n s i v e surveys enjoyed the same p r e s t i g e . 3. The S p e c i a l I n t e r e s t t h a t L i e s i n V e r i f y i n g the  T h e s i s of the D i f f u s i o n of the Package To v e r i f y the t h e s i s f o r the d i f f u s i o n of t h i s package i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r a t l e a s t two reasons. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t Riesman (1958) suggest t h i s t h e s i s f o r the d i f f u s i o n of c u r r i c u l a r , p e d agogical and o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s and t h a t Merton (1968) advances a s i m i l a r p r o p o s i t i o n f o r the communication of new s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s . To them, i t i s h i g h l y probable t h a t the o l d i d e a t h a t the flow of n o v e l t y i s c h a n n e l l e d by s t a t u s i s t r u e f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f formal academic i n n o v a t i o n s . However, the thought t h a t c u r r e n t s of 4 3 student p r o t e s t a l s o t y p i c a l l y spread along these l i n e s i s much more c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e . I f the t h e s i s i s t r u e f o r the d i f f u s i o n of such v o l a t i l e / girassroot forms of c o l l e c t i v e behaviour, the s u s p i c i o n would be t h a t the s o c i a l system o f higher e d u c a t i o n r e g u l a t e s the flow o f not o n l y orthodox academic n o v e l t y but a l s o t h a t o f something as seemingly p e r s o n a l , d e e p l y - f e l t , and spontaneous as r e b e l l i o n . The suggestion would be t h a t the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of academia i s an a l l powerful d i s t r i b u t o r of i n f l u e n c e , thought, and a c t i o n . The v e r i f i c a t i o n of the t h e s i s f o r the propaga t i o n o f the antiwar student movement would e i t h e r support or d i s c r e d i t t h i s s u ggestion. So much f o r the f i r s t reason. To a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent, student u n r e s t t y p i c a l l y spreads v i a channels d i f f e r e n t from those by way of which academic i n n o v a t i o n s are communicated. Hence, the a n t i -war student movement as w e l l as ot h e r s i n the nineteen s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s were l a r g e l y disseminated by the n a t i o n a l media and by v e h i c l e s of t r a n s m i s s i o n c r e a t e d by the student m i l i t a n t s themselves as w e l l as by non-academic youth (e.g., Students f o r a Democratic S o c i e t y , the Vietnam Day Committee, the Committee f o r No n v i o l e n t A c t i o n , scores o f s o - c a l l e d "underground" newspapers). These are o b v i o u s l y not the same r e g u l a r channels by way of which i n n o v a t i o n s l i k e s t r u c t u r a l i s m , f u n c t i o n a l i s m , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar, and the g e n e t i c 44 code spread (e.g., annual conferences, e s t a b l i s h e d j o u r n a l s ) . Should student p r o t e s t movements which generate t h e i r own media and forums of communication reproduce themselves as hypothesized, the sugg e s t i o n would c l e a r l y be t h a t the t h e s i s i s v a l i d f o r the d i f f u s i o n of packages v i a a l l channels, a t y p i c a l as w e l l as t y p i c a l ones. The v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the p r o p o s i t i o n o f the work f o r the propagation o f the antiwar student movement would e i t h e r support or d i s c r e d i t t h a t s u g g e s t i o n . So much f o r the second reason. 45 C h a p t e r Three FOOTNOTES To m e n t i o n o n l y some f o t h e r e l e v a n t works s e e : J u l i a n F o s t e r and Durward Long e d s . P r o t e s t ! S t u d e n t A c t i v i s m i n A m e r i c a , New Y o r k : W i l l i m a Morrow and Company, I n c . , 1970. I r w i n U n g e r , The Movement: A H i s t o r y o f t h e A m e r i c a n New  L e f t , 1959-1972, New Y o r k : Dodd, Mead and Company, 1974. The R e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s C o m m i s s i o n on Campus U n r e s t , New Y o r k , A r n o P r e s s , 197 0. A l e x a n d e r W. A s t i n , H e l e n S . A s t i n , A l a n E . B a y e r , Ann S. B i s c o n t i , The Power o f P r o t e s t , San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y Bos s P u b l i s h e r s , 1975. A l e x a n d e r W. A s t i n e t a l . The d a t a on t h e i n c i d e n c e o f t h e movement and t h e q u o t a t i o n s a r e f rom pages 38-40. 46 Chapter Four THE RESEARCH DESIGN The g e n e r a l t h e s i s of the work, then, i s to be t e s t e d f o r the d i f f u s i o n of the package i n t r o d u c e d i n the l a s t c hapter. In other words, i t i s expected t h a t the d i f f u s i o n o f the antiwar student movement throughout h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o c c u r r e d along l i n e s of d e c r e a s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . Of course, t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s not the o n l y one t h a t c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y account f o r the i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n of the antiwar student movement. Others c o u l d have been s e l e c t e d and t h e o r e t i c a l l y supported. Hence, i n order t o c o m p a r a t i v e l y assess the q u a l i t y of our c h o i c e , a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses t h a t not o n l y seem reasonable but t h a t can a l s o be v e r i f i e d are i n c l u d e d i n the study. T h i s chapter 1) p r e s e n t s a l l of the hypotheses of the e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n : the main one as w e l l as the a l t e r n a t i v e ones," 2) renders these p r o p o s i t i o n s e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e and c o n s i d e r s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s study's u n i v e r s e o f data and the u n i v e r s e of such data. 47 1) The H y p o t h e s e s B e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s e s , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o m e n t i o n t h a t , n a t u r a l l y , o n l y academic i n s t i t u t i o n s whose s t u d e n t s p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t /American i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e V i e t n a m war a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , a t t h i s p o i n t , t h a t , i n t h i s w o r k , we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e sequence i n w h i c h t h e movement began i n t h e s e " p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n " i n s t i t u t i o n s . F o r each u n i v e r -s i t y and c o l l e g e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y , we a r e c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e i n i t i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a n t i w a r s t u d e n t p r o t e s t . F o r t h e sake o f c o n v e n i e n c e , t h e m a i n h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e work w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as " t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e h y p o t h e s i s " and t h e a l t e r n a t i v e ones w i l l b e . k n o w n r e s p e c t i v e l y as " t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i z e h y p o t h e s i s " and " t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l age h y p o t h e s i s " . T h e . I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e H y p o t h e s i s The ma in h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e work has a l r e a d y been f o r m u l a t e d . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e a n t i w a r s t u d e n t movement s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l o n g l i n e s o f d e c r e a s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , we a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r e s t i g e o f an i n s t i t u t i o n was a t t h e t i m e o f t h e b i r t h o f t h e movement (1964-196 5), t h e l e s s t i m e i t t o o k f o r a g roup o f i t s s t u d e n t s t o i n i t i a l l y p r o t e s t t h e /American i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e V i e t n a m w a r . The h y p o t h e s i s , t h e n , i s t h a t a d e c r e a s e i n 48 i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the amount of time t h a t e l a p s e d b e f o r e these f i r s t p r o t e s t s o c c u r r e d . The I n s t i t u t i o n a l S i z e Hypothesis I t c o u l d be argued t h a t the l a r g e r an i n s t i t u t i o n was a t the time of the b i r t h o f the movement, the g r e a t e r the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t i t had a " c r i t i c a l mass" of students with the a t t r i b u t e s t h a t made f o r e a r l y i n i t i a l adoption of the antiwar package. I f t h i s i s t r u e , we expect t h a t the l a r g e r an i n s t i t u t i o n was i n 1964-196 5, the l e s s time i t took f o r some of i t s students t o i n i t i a l l y p r o t e s t the American involvement i n the Vietnam war. The h y p o t h e s i s , then, i s t h a t a decrease i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i z e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the amount of time t h a t e l a p s e d b e f o r e these f i r s t p r o t e s t s o c c u r r e d . The I n s t i t u t i o n a l Age Hypothesis I t i s commonly claimed t h a t o l d e r u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s are more c o n s e r v a t i v e i n the sense t h a t , on the whole, t h e i r members adopt n o v e l t y more s l o w l y and d i s -c r i m i n a t e l y than do the members of younger i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t f o l l o w s from t h i s popular n o t i o n t h a t the o l d e r the i n s t i t u t i o n , the longer i t took b e f o r e some of i t s students f i r s t adopted the antiwar package. The h y p o t h e s i s , then, i s t h a t a decrease i n the age of i n s t i t u t i o n s i s a s s o c i a t e d with a decrease i n the r a t e a t which some o f t h e i r students i n i t i a l l y p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t American involvement i n the Vietnam war. I t has been i m p l i c i t l y assumed a l l along, i n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h a t rank o r d e r s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n terms of p r e s t i g e , s i z e and age would be n o t i c e a b l y d i s s i m i l a r . 2) O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s C e r t a i n o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s are necessary i n order to t e s t these hypotheses. We must d e f i n e what we c a l l a case, t h a t i s s o l i d proof t h a t the antiwar package has been adopted by a c o l l e c t i v i t y o f students unmistakably a f f i l i a t e d t o an i n s t i t u t i o n . And f o r each case, v a r i o u s measurements must be o b t a i n e d . We need t o know not o n l y the r a t e a t which the group of student a c t i v i s t s i n i t i a l l y adopted the antiwar package, but a l s o the p r e s t i g e , s i z e and age of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n . What f o l l o w s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s A) these cases and B) these v a r i a b l e s and i n d i c a t e s where and how they were obta i n e d . A) Cases To be p r e c i s e , t h i s s e c t i o n a) d e f i n e s the cases b) d e s c r i b e s and d i s c u s s e s the source of case data, and 50 c) focuses on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the study's u n i v e r s e o f cases and "the" u n i v e r s e o f cases a) D e f i n i t i o n A case i s simply d e f i n e d as an i n c i d e n t of student p r o t e s t t h a t 1) belonged to any of the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e c a t e g o r i e s — U.S. m i l i t a r y p o l i c y i n Vietnam — U.S. s e l e c t i v e s e r v i c e p o l i c y — R.O.T.C. and N.R.O.T.C. programs — On-campus m i l i t a r y government r e s e a r c h — On-campus r e c r u i t i n g by government or i n d u s t r y , ^ 2) took p l a c e between 196 5 and 1971 i n c l u s i v e , 3) was i n i t i a t e d by student groups unmistakably a f f i l i a t e d w ith a post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n , 4) was h e l d on or i n the v i c i n i t y o f the campus, 5) was c o l l e c t i v e , v i s i b l e and primary. The student p r o t e s t e r s , then, must have a c t e d i n unison. T h e i r p r o t e s t mush have been v i s i b l e t o n o n - p r o t e s t e r s . Hence, f o r example, a p e t i t i o n even by many students would not q u a l i f y as a case because, almost by d e f i n i t i o n , not a l l the p e t i t i o n e r s c o u l d have signed i t a t the same time and p l a c e and have commanded p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n by doing so. The word primary i s i n c l u d e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e cases as they have been j u s t d e f i n e d from what c o u l d be termed secondary p r o t e s t s ; namely, p r o t e s t s 51 a g a i n s t the a u t h o r i t i e s ' response (e.g., p o l i c y b r u t a l i t y , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s e x p e l l i n g s t u d e n t s , etc.) t o a re c e n t , primary i n c i d e n t o f antiwar p r o t e s t by a group of students b e l o n g i n g t o an i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n excludes i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e s o f p r o t e s t such as a l e t t e r t o the e d i t o r o f a newspaper, an e d i t o r i a l , an i n d i v i d u a l b u r n i n g h i s d r a f t c a r d o r f i r e -bombing a b u i l d i n g . I t excludes p r o t e s t s t h a t were not c l e a r l y i n i t i a t e d and undertaken by students o f i d e n t i f i a b l campuses. I t must be mentioned t h a t j o i n t p r o t e s t s i n v o l v i n g student groups from s e v e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are i n c l u d e d i n t h study. For example, when Harvard U n i v e r s i t y and R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e students j o i n e d i n a p r o t e s t , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t a group from each i n s t i t u t i o n has i n f a c t p r o t e s t e d the American involvement i n the war; t h a t i s , one p r o t e s t i s co n s i d e r e d to be two cases. Such j o i n t p r o t e s t s q u a l i f y as cases o n l y when they were s t r i c t l y o r g a n i z e d by the students of the represented i n s t i t u t i o n s themselves. P r o t e s t s which were mixed bags issuewi s e are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d as cases as long as at l e a s t one of the i s s u e s was antiwar, as d e f i n e d above. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n embraces as many d i f f e r e n t kinds and types of student antiwar p r o t e s t as p o s s i b l e ; i . e . , cases i n v o l v i n g few and many p a r t i c i p a n t s , o f s h o r t and long d u r a t i o n , d i s r u p t i v e and n o n - d i s r u p t i v e , e t c . T h i s i s to permit the g a t h e r i n g o f data t h a t would r e f l e c t as much as p o s s i b l e the h i s t o r i c a l , o v e r a l l d r i f t o f the movement over time and through i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t may be asked, however, i f i t i s a c c e p t a b l e t o t r e a t cases t h a t d i f f e r e d i n such r e s p e c t s as equal u n i t s f o r the t e s t i n g of the h y p o t h e s i s . Can, f o r i n s t a n c e , a p r o t e s t which i n v o l v e d ten percent o f the student body, l a s t e d t h r e e weeks and d e f i e d a u t h o r i t i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s be put on the same f o o t i n g as a p r o t e s t which i n v o l v e d l e s s than one percent of the student body, l a s t e d h a l f a day, and was p e r f e c t l y l e g a l and n o n d i s r u p t i v e ? I t seems reason-able to assume t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of cases v a r y i n g i n i n t e n s i t y , d u r a t i o n , number of p r o t e s t e r s , d e f i a n c e of a u t h o r i t i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s e t c . was, grosso modo, even at a l l l e v e l s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . In o t h e r words, i f f o r i n s t a n c e , i n s t i t u t i o n s of p r e s t i g e X witnessed ten percent of a l l cases of the movement, i t would be expected t h a t they had ten percent of a l l s m a l l , l a r g e , s h o r t , l o n g , d i s r u p t i v e , n o n - d i s r u p t i v e , spontaneous, o r g a n i z e d p r o t e s t s of the movement. T h i s assumption remains an open, e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . b) The Source of Case Data What f o l l o w s c e n t e r s on the c o l l e c t i o n of the cases of the study. T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s where and how we obtained them. This data was taken from The New York Times Index. 53 T h i s source o f case data not o n l y presented the advantage of b e i n g e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e but a l s o seemed as good as any other i n the American n a t i o n a l media. The cases were obtained from the f o l l o w i n g u n d e r l i n e d sub-headings o f the index from 1965 to 1971 i n c l u s i v e : — U.S. Armament and Defence — D r a f t , M o b i l i z a t i o n / Recruitment — Reserves — N a t i o n a l Guard — R'O'T.C. — Vietnam 2 — U.S. or Domestic Reaction to I have achieved s u f f i c i e n t f a m i l i a r i t y with the index to a s s e r t w i t h c o n f i d e n c e t h a t these were the g e n e r a l headings under which most and probably a l l covered antiwar, student p r o t e s t s were c l a s s i f i e d . The a l t e r n a t i v e way of c o l l e c t i n g cases would have been to l e a d through each voluminous volume and comb through the summary ca p s u l e s c l a s s i f i e d under each i n s t i t u t i o n l i s t e d . Not o n l y was t h i s l o g i s t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , but t h e r e i s no reason t o doubt t h a t both ways of proceeding would have y i e l d e d e x a c t l y the same sample o f cases.^ In s p i t e of a l l the r e s e r v a t i o n s t h a t one may e n t e r -t a i n ( r i g h t l y , i n my opinion) about the accuracy of the p i c t u r e of antiwar student p r o t e s t s as conveyed by a n a t i o n a l d a i l y such as The New York Times, i t s coverage of s e l e c t e d i n c i d e n t s d i d f u r n i s h the data necessary f o r the purpose o f t e s t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s study. The i s s u e or : i s s u e s of a p r o t e s t , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n , i f any, of i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s , and i t s p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n were r e l a t e d by the paper. While not i n v a r i a b l y s u p p l y i n g an e stimate of the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s , the summary cap-s u l e s of the index always made i t c l e a r whether or not the i n c i d e n t was undertaken by a c o l l e c t i v i t y of s tudents. I t was a l s o e v i d e n t from these capsules whether or not an i n c i d e n t was primary or secondary. The date on which the i n c i d e n t s began was a l s o g e n e r a l l y g i v e n , but i f not, i t was assumed t h a t the covered p r o t e s t s t a r t e d the day b e f o r e the date o f the r e l e a s e o f the newspaper. These s p e c i f i c items of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d by the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a case must be accepted on t r u s t as c o r r e c t . For a s m a l l number o f r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s , the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d was i n s u f f i c i e n t and too i m p r e c i s e . These i n c i d e n t s , n eedless to say, were excluded from the study's u n i v e r s e of cases. c) The Study's Universe of Cases and "the" Universe of  Cases The c r i t e r i a governing The New York Times' s e l e c t i o n of cases c o u l d not be. s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e l u c i d a t e d . However, i t i s assumed t h a t the b a s i s f o r t h i s s e l e c t i o n was the same f o r the e n t i r e l i f e s p a n of the movement. The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s study's r e s u l t s r e s t s on t h i s assumption of con-s i s t e n t s e l e c t i o n . 55 I t could not be determined systematically, then, whether or not the newspaper's coverage was biased. How-ever, any cursory glance at the i n s t i t u t i o n s covered by the national d a i l y w i l l leave anyone with the impression that cases i n e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s (themselves d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of prestige) are overreported. I t would seem, then, that the results of t h i s investigation would be v a l i d for a l l protest-stricken u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges at the upper levels of the nation's higher educational pyramid of i n -s t i t u t i o n a l prestige. B) Variables For each case obtained from The New York Times Index, we want to measure the prestige, size and age of the covered i n s t i t u t i o n . We.also need to determine i t s innovativeness; i . e . , the rate at which some of i t s students protested. It must be obvious by now that i n s t i t u t i o n a l prestige, si z e , and age are the independent variables i n terms of which we attempt to account for the dependent one, i n s t i t u t i o n a l innovativeness. Insofar as possible, we seek measurements of the independent variables for the time of the b i r t h of the movement: the academic year 1964-65. What follows operationalizes a) i n s t i t u t i o n a l prestige, b) . i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i z e , c) i n s t i t u t i o n a l age, and d) i n s t i t u t i o n a l innovativeness. 56 T h i s s e c t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e s where these measurements were o b t a i n e d . a) I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the p r e s t i g e of an i n s t i t u t i o n ; . i s d e f i n e d as the s t a n d i n g , c r e d i t , and weight t h a t i t has i n general o p i n i o n . To e v a l u a t e the p r e s t i g e of an i n s t i t u t i o n , i t was claimed, i s to say something about i t s ascendancy, i t s honour, i t s r e p u t a t i o n , and i t s i n f l u e n c e . I t was a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s are being c o n t i n u a l l y compared i n terms of p r e s t i g e and t h a t these comparisons or r a t i n g s command a modicum of consensus i n American s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . I t was mentioned t h a t a survey conducted by the American C o u n c i l on Education r e v e a l s an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h degree of consensus among academics about the r e l a t i v e s t a n d i n g of departments i n a l l academic f i e l d s . Moreover, we a l s o noted t h a t by comparing i t s own r e s u l t s w i t h those of p r e v i o u s o p i n i o n p o l l s , t h i s survey demonstrated t h a t rankings over time show remarkable 5 s t a b i l i t y . Our task, then, c o n s i s t s o f a s c e r t a i n i n g the p r e s t i g e of the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the study's u n i v e r s e of cases. No o p i n i o n p o l l c o u l d be found r a t i n g the one hundred and . t h i r t e e n i n s t i t u t i o n s of the study. T h i s means t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n terms of what i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as " o b j e c t i v e " i n d i c e s . This way of operati.onali.zing i n s t i t u t i o n a l prestige, although frequently u t i l i z e d by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , suffers from two l i m i t a t i o n s . One of these i s that as an i n t e r -subjective notion of value, i n s t i t u t i o n a l prestige i s c l e a r l y not d i r e c t l y measurable i n terms of so c a l l e d "objective" indices. However, good indices of t h i s kind enable us to a r r i v e at adequate estimates or indications 7 of the prestige of i n s t i t u t i o n s . The second l i m i t a t i o n i s that no single "objective" index i s compelling enough to indicate the prestige of i n s t i t u t i o n s . There i s a patent lack of an unidimensional basis for comparing i n -g s t i t u t i o n s i n terms of prestige. Given t h i s , i t seems more appropriate to devise several, convincing "objective" indices of i n s t i t u t i o n a l prestige rather than a single one. After much study, the following "objective" indices were chosen from the multitude of factors which influence and r e f l e c t the prestige of i n s t i t u t i o n s . i) Woodrow Wilson Fellows by College of Origin This i s an index of an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s capacity to compete for h o n o r i f i c s p o i l s bestowed nationally; more prec i s e l y , a rather scarce, prestigious, national award for students predominantly i n the humanities and the s o c i a l sciences. It does not take much r e f l e c t i o n to r e a l i z e that t h i s index i s a rough measure of an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s capacity to a t t r a c t , select and nurture talent i n the humanistic d i s c i p l i n e s . Given the s c a r c i t y and prestige of the award, 58 an I n s t i t u t i o n ' s image i s undoubtedly boosted by a s u p e r i o r p r o d u c t i o n of Woodrow Wilson f e l l o w s . One obvious l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s Index i s t h a t i t puts a t a disadvantage i n s t i t u t i o n s which are very w e l l known f o r t h e i r departments of s c i e n c e s but l e s s so f o r t h e i r departments of humanities and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . I t a l s o puts a t a disadvantage i n s t i t u t i o n s s p e c i a l i z i n g mostly i n the s c i e n c e s w i t h h a r d l y any oth e r c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s and r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s . The f i g u r e s f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n s were ob t a i n e d from 9 Woodrow Wilson F e l l o w s : 1945-1967. The data i s presented i n rank ordered form i n Table V. The R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s , Academic  J o u r n a l s I t i s through r e s e a r c h which i s re c o g n i z e d as being o f high q u a l i t y t h a t academics and i n s t i t u t i o n s p r i m a r i l y achieve d i s t i n c t i o n . As Logan Wilson puts i t : " ( t ) e a c h e r s spend much of t h e i r working time i n an u n i v e r s e o f ad o l e s c e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s , y e t o n l y by esca p i n g i n t o the u n i v e r s e o f ideas do they a t t a i n the most coveted symbols of p r e s t i g e . " And t o again borrow h i s words, although "the meaning of re s e a r c h i s so e q u i v o c a l t h a t almost any s o r t o f i n v e s t i -g a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e may be connoted, ... academic men o r d i n a r i l y have i n mind the k i n d o f i n q u i r y t h a t y i e l d s p u b l i s h a b l e r e s u l t s . " ^ P u b l i c a t i o n , then, i s an important medium f o r the achievement o f p e r s o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n . I t i s a l s o , to a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , by having a h i g h l y p u b l i s h e d f a c u l t y t h a t an i n s t i t u t i o n makes a name f o r i t s e l f o r maintains i t s good r e p u t a t i o n i n g e n e r a l o p i n i o n . P e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e are not achieved by having works p u b l i s h e d i n any j o u r n a l and by any p r e s s . Hence, a r t i c l e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , must be p u b l i s h e d i n the " r i g h t " , r e c o g n i z e d , academic j o u r n a l s . Undoubtedly, f o r both f a c u l t y and t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n i n these j o u r n a l s s i g n i f i e s p r e s t i g e and a l l t h a t i t connotes: ascendancy / honour, i n f l u e n c e and r e p u t a t i o n . A h i g h r e -p r e s e n t a t i o n of i t s f a c u l t y i n these most c o u r t e d p u b l i c a -t i o n s means t h a t an i n s t i t u t i o n i s viewed i n g e n e r a l o p i n i o n as a c e n t e r f o r h i g h e r l e a r n i n g conducive to the f r e q u e n t p r o d u c t i o n of work o f q u a l i t y . The more the authors of an u n i v e r s i t y are p u b l i s h e d between these renowned co v e r s , the more i t i s viewed by the p u b l i c as a p l a c e where what i s accepted as knowledge, i n the broad sense o f the work, i s d e f i n e d . Of course, some o f the a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n these j o u r n a l s are commonly p e r c e i v e d by competent judges to be b e t t e r than o t h e r s . T h i s index i s i n s e n s i t i v e t o such d i s t i n c t i o n s . And a d m i t t e d l y , a few s o l i d "important" a r t i c l e s from the f a c u l t y of an i n s t i t u t i o n may go f u r t h e r towards e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s r e p u t a t i o n than the sheer q u a n t i t y of a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n these j o u r n a l s . Measures o f the a b s o l u t e and the p r o p o r t i o n a l r e -p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p r e s t i g i o u s academic 60 j o u r n a l s were obt a i n e d . By a b s o l u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s meant the number of a r t i c l e s i s s u i n g out of an i n s t i t u t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n a g i v e n s e t o f these j o u r n a l s . By p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s meant simply t h i s a b s o l u t e number d i v i d e d by the s i z e o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n ' s f a c u l t y . T h i s f r a c t i o n then i s simply the measure of ab s o l u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n normalized f o r the s i z e of each i n s t i t u t i o n . i i ) The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s Science J o u r n a l s The renown o f the s c i e n c e s i n an i n s t i t u t i o n probably r e f l e c t s and c o n t r i b u t e s , more than the renown of any other f a m i l y of d i s c i p l i n e s , to the o v e r a l l p r e s t i g e of an i n -s t i t u t i o n . Each i n s t i t u t i o n i s measured by the r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f i t s s c i e n c e f a c u l t y i n p r e s t i g i o u s . academic reviews •. T h i s index s u f f e r s from., a f l a g r a n t l i m i t a t i o n : i t puts a t a disadvantage i n s t i t u t i o n s with p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l o r no s c i e n c e departments. I t must be s t a t e d t h a t , i n t h i s study, such i n s t i t u t i o n s are the e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r than the r u l e . The number of a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n these reviews was counted f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n i n the "Corporate Index" of The Science C i t a t i o n Index (1965) . T h e data obtained i s presented i n rank-ordered form i n Table VI. 61 i i i ) . The P r o p o r t i o n a l Repres en t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n the Same P r e s t i g i o u s Science J o u r n a l s In l i g h t o f the above remarks, l i t t l e needs to be s a i d about t h i s index. For each i n s t i t u t i o n , the number of f a c u l t y , (the denominator of t h i s p r o p o r t i o n ) was 12 o b t a i n e d from American U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s (1964). Although t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n does not s p e c i f y the academic year t o which these f i g u r e s apply, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t they are f o r 1962-1963, approximately the time a t which the counted a r t i c l e s were submitted t o e d i t o r i a l boards. L i k e the one j u s t above, t h i s index a l s o does not d e p i c t w e l l the p r e s t i g e o f those i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the ones w i t h an otherwise r e s p e c t e d name, which have pro-p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l or no s c i e n c e departments. I t must be r e i t e r a t e d t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s f e a t u r i n g t h i s c u r r i c u l a imbalance are more the exce p t i o n than the r u l e . The data i s presented i n rank-ordered form i n Table V I I . iv ) The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t an i n s t i t u t i o n i s not r a t e d o n l y on the p e r c e i v e d s t r e n g t h o f i t s s c i e n c e s but a l s o , (and to a l e s s e r extent i n my o p i n i o n ) , on t h a t o f i t s s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Each i n s t i t u t i o n i s measured by the r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f i t s s o c i a l s c i e n c e f a c u l t y i n p r e s t i g i o u s academic j o u r n a l s . T h i s index puts a t a disadvantage i n s t i t u t i o n s with p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l or no s o c i a l s c i e n c e departments. In t h i s study, such i n s t i t u t i o n s are, a l s o , more the ex-c e p t i o n than the r u l e . The number of a r t i c l e s f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n was counted i n the "Corporate Index" of The S o c i a l Science 13 C i t a t i o n Index (1969). Nineteen s i x t y - n i n e was the f i r s t year f o r which data was a v a i l a b l e a t the time of data c o l l e c t i o n . I t was and i s assumed t h a t the rank o r der of i n s t i t u t i o n s y i e l d e d by t h i s index f o r n i n e t e e n s i x t y nine would be s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r n i n e t e e n s i x t y f i v e . The data o b t a i n e d i s presented i n rank-ordered form i n Table V I I I . v) The P r o p o r t i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s i n the Same P r e s t i g i o u s S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s In l i g h t of p r e v i o u s remarks l i t t l e needs to be s a i d about t h i s index. For each i n s t i t u t i o n , the number of f a c u l t y , the denominator of t h i s p r o p o r t i o n , was obtained 14 from American U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s (1968). These f i g u r e s are f o r the 1966-1967 academic year, approximately the time a t which the counted a r t i c l e s were submitted.to e d i t o r i a l boards. T h i s index s u f f e r s from the l i m i t a t i o n p i n p o i n t e d j u s t above f o r the p r e v i o u s index. I t does not r e f l e c t w e l l the p r e s t i g e o f those i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the 63 ones with, an otherwise r e s p e c t e d name, which have p r o -p o r t i o n a t e l y small or no s o c i a l s c i e n c e departments. Again, In t h i s study, i n s t i t u t i o n s f e a t u r i n g t h i s imbalance are more the e x c e p t i o n than the r u l e . The data i s presented i n rank-ordered form i n Table IX. v i ) The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Both Science and  S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s The score a t t r i b u t e d to each i n s t i t u t i o n i s the number of a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n p r e s t i g i o u s j o u r n a l s authored by both, i t s s c i e n t i s t s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . The two f i g u r e s added, then, were each f o r a d i f f e r e n t year. The data i s presented i n rank-ordered form i n Table X. b) I n s t i t u t i o n a l S i z e In t h i s study, the index chosen f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s i z e i s i t s student enrollment f i g u r e . The enrollment f i g u r e s f o r .the i n s t i t u t i o n s were ob t a i n e d from American  U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s (1964). The data i s presented i n rank-ordered form i n Table XI. c) I n s t i t u t i o n a l Age In t h i s study, the age o f each i n s t i t u t i o n i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as the year i n which i t was founded. The data was ob t a i n e d i n American U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s 64 (1964) and i s presented i n rank-ordered form i n Table X I I . d) I n s t i t u t i o n a l Innovativeness A l l o f the hypotheses of the study a l s o r e q u i r e the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r dependent v a r i a b l e : i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n n o v a t i v e n e s s . T h i s measure i s simply the degree to which a group o f students i n an u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e was r e -l a t i v e l y e a r l i e r i n i n i t i a l l y p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t American p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the war than .other groups o f students b e l o n g i n g to other academic i n s t i t u t i o n s . The i n n o v a t i v e n e s s of these student groups can be m e a n i n g f u l l y measured because the war as w e l l as many student p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t i t were c o n t i n u a l l y p u b l i c i z e d by the n a t i o n a l media. A l l along d u r i n g the movement, students throughout the country c o u l d be and were i n s p i r e d by campus p r o t e s t s which were w i d e l y covered by t e l e v i s i o n networks and the p r e s s . The i n n o v a t i v e n e s s o f the student p r o t e s t e r s of an i n s t i t u t i o n (or the r a t e a t which a case occurred) i s c a l c u l a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. The date on which the e a r l i e s t case o f the study began i s d e f i n e d as day 1. The time score a s s i g n e d to each subsequent case simply c o n s i s t s of the number of days t h a t e l a p s e d between the date on which i t o c c u r r e d and the date on which the f i r s t , e a r l i e s t case took p l a c e (day 1 ) . I t has a l r e a d y been mentioned t h a t the date on which i n c i d e n t s began i s given by the summary ca p s u l e s of The New.York Times Index. I t i s not known whether or not The New York Times r e p o r t e d the e a r l i e s t case t h a t o c c u r r e d i n each i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t i t covered. But even I f i t d i d not always do so, i t i s assumed i n t h i s study t h a t t h i s newspaper does p r e s e n t q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y the temporal sequence i n which the movement i n i t i a l l y h i t these u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . T h i s assumption r e s t s on s e v e r a l grounds. In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s very l i k e l y t h a t few antiwar student, p r o t e s t s eluded the scores of news-seekers throughout the country working d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y f o r t h i s reputed n a t i o n a l d a i l y . Secondly, campus antiwar p r o t e s t i s not l i k e l y t o be missed by these j o u r n a l i s t s because i t i s as we know an extremely newsworthy phenomenon. There i s no doubt t h a t the n a t i o n a l American media, i n c l u d i n g The New  York Times, became extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n i t a t the very e a r l y stages of the movement. T h i r d l y , antiwar p r o t e s t by students of a p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n i s even more newsworthy. The h i g h r e p u t a t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e i t s e l f c o n f e r s newsworthiness to the p r o t e s t . Any glance a t the l i s t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s covered by The New York  Times c o r r o b o r a t e s t h i s . Given a l l t h i s , i t seems very l i k e l y t h a t , on the whole, the newspaper was more s e n s i t i v e t o any antiwar student p r o t e s t i n the e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the country from the very e a r l y stages o f the movement than i n l e s s renowned ones, e s p e c i a l l y the e a r l i e s t one i n each u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e t h a t i t covered. Thus, we can expect 6 6 t h a t t h i s d a i l y does p r e s e n t q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence i n w h i c h t h e movement f i r s t h i t t h e c o v e r e d campuses . The d a t a o b t a i n e d i s p r e s e n t e d i n r a n k - o r d e r e d f o r m i n T a b l e X I I I . F o r m u l a t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s e s i n o p e r a t i o n a l t e r m s , t h e n , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t a d e c r e a s e i n each i n d e x o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and i n t h a t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i z e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t i m e s c o r e s . H e n c e , an i n v e r s e , n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between each one o f t h e s e i n d i c e s and t i m e s c o r e s i s a n t i c i p a t e d . A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i n d e x o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l age and t i m e s c o r e s i s a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e s . 67 C h a p t e r F o u r F o o t n o t e s These i s s u e c a t e g o r i e s a r e t a k e n f rom a s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by The A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n : A l a n B a y e r and A l e x a n d e r A s t i n , Campus D i s r u p t i o n D u r i n g 196 8—1969, p . 9 . The New Y o r k Times I n d e x . The h e a d i n g s f o r t h e 1964 volume were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y combed t h r o u g h b u t no c a s e s were r e p o r t e d . F o r a s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f t h e E n g l i s h n a t i o n a l m e d i a ' s c o v e r a g e on an a n t i - V i e t n a m d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n London see James D. H a l l o r a n , P h i l i p E l l i o t t and Graham M u r d o c k , D e m o n s t r a t i o n s and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s : A Case S t u d y , H a r m o n d s w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 7 0 . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t c o v e r a g e o f an e v e n t by t h e E n g l i s h n a t i o n a l m e d i a i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i c a l t o c o v e r a g e o f an e v e n t by t h e A m e r i c a n n a t i o n a l m e d i a , t h e r e a r e o b v i o u s l y many s i m i l a r i t i e s . ' C a r t t e r , An A s s e s s m e n t o f Q u a l i t y i n G r a d u a t e E d u c a t i o n . B e s i d e s p r e s e n t i n g i t s own r e s u l t s , t h e ACE s u r v e y a l s o d i s p l a y s t h o s e o f t h e 1925 s u r v e y by Raymond Hughes and t h o s e o f t h e 1957 s u r v e y by K e n i s t o n . As C a r t t e r p o i n t s o u t , i t i s n o t s t r i c t l y c o r r e c t t o r e f e r t o s u c h more q u a n t i t a t i v e measures as " o b j e c t i v e " i n d i c e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e : "On r e f l e c t i o n , . . . , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e y a r e f o r t h e most p a r t " s u b j e c t i v e " measures once r emoved . D i s t i n g u i s h e d f e l l o w s , N o b e l l a u r e a t e s , and N a t i o n a l Academy members a r e s e l e c t e d by p e e r g roups on t h e b a s i s o f s u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t s , f a c u l t y s a l a r i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by someone ' s s u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t s , and endowments a r e t h e r e s u l t o f p h i l a n t h r o p i c j u d g m e n t s . Number o f vo lumes i n t h e l i b r a r y , t h o u g h more r e a d i l y q u a n t i f i a b l e , i s a f a c t o r o f l i t t l e v a l u e i n m e a s u r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s u n l e s s one c a n make a q u a l i t a t i v e judgment about t h e adequacy o f t h e h o l d i n g s . " I b i d , p . 4 . 68 For i n s t a n c e , both, C a r t t e r ( s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ) and Riesman ( i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y ) found t h a t the more " o b j e c t i v e " type of data c o r r o b o r a t e s the more " s u b j e c t i v e " types o f assessment. I b i d . p.118. See a l s o , David Riesman, "Some Observations on the I n t e r v i e w i n g i n the Teacher Apprehension Study", The Academic Mind by L a z a r s f e l d and T h i e l e n s . g See: Riesman, The Academic P r o c e s s i o n f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s problem. 9 Janet A. M i c h e l l (ed.) , "Woodrow Wilson Fellows by College; o f O r i g i n " , i n Woodrow Wilson F e l l o w s : 1945-196 7 Woodrow Wilson N a t i o n a l F e l l o w s h i p Foundation, P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y . 1 0 L o g a n Wilson, The Academic Man, p. 1 - 1 "Corporate Index" i n S o c i a l Sciences C i t a t i o n Index I n s t i t u t e f o r S c i e n t i f i c Information, P h i l a d e l p h i a , U.S.A., 1969. 12 A l l a n M. C a r t t e r , ed. American U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s , 9th ed., Washington D.C., American C o u n c i l on Education, 1964. 13 "Corporate Index" i n Science C i t a t i o n Index, I n s t i t u t e For Science Information, P h i l a d e l p h i a , U.S.A., 1965. O t i s A. S i n g l e t a r y , ed. American U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s , 10th ed., Washington D.C., American C o u n c i l on Education, 1968. Chapter F i v e RESULTS The p r e v i o u s chapter d e s c r i b e d the r e s e a r c h design o f the e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In t h a t s e c t i o n , a l l o f the hypotheses were s t a t e d i n v e r i f i a b l e (measurable) terms. And i t was noted t h a t , the r e s u l t s o f the study would be v a l i d f o r a t l e a s t the p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n u n i -v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s a t the upper l e v e l s o f the n a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . Given a l l o f t h i s , we are now i n a p o s i t i o n to f i n d out what we want to know from the r e s u l t s o f the r e s e a r c h . Thus we can now determine whether or not a l l o f the i n d i c e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i v e do i n f a c t measure the A same t h i n g . I f a l l o f these v a r i a b l e s are h i g h l y i n t e r -c o r r e l a t e d and i f they are a l s o a l l e q u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d to the dependent v a r i a b l e , then, we know t h a t one index of p r e s t i g e i s j u s t as good and u s e f u l as another. And, much more i m p o r t a n t l y , we can now a l s o f i n d out whether or not the r e s u l t s support the hypotheses and i f so, to what ext e n t . We are e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a s c e r t a i n i n g 70 whether or not the r e s u l t s support the main hypothesis more s t r o n g l y than the a l t e r n a t i v e ones. In what f o l l o w s , the f i n d i n g s answering these q u e s t i o n s are presented and d i s c u s s e d . F i n d i n g s Before u s i n g the r e s u l t s to f i n d out what we want to know, i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to f a m i l i a r i z e the reader w i t h trie.-mnemonics assigned to the v a r i a b l e s . Innovativeness TIME : time scores I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r e s t i g e PPUBSC : the p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p r e s t i g i o u s s c i e n c e j o u r n a l s ( P r o p o r t i o n a l P u b l i c a t i o n Science) . PPUBSS : the p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p r e s t i g i o u s s o c i a l s c i e n c e j o u r n a l s (Pro-p o r t i o n a l P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i a l S c i e n c e ) . PUBSS -: the a b s o l u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n these s o c i a l s c i e n c e j o u r n a l s ( P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i a l S c i e n c e ) . PUBSS : the a b s o l u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n these s o c i a l s c i e n c e j o u r n a l s ( P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i a l S c i e n c e ) . TPUB : the ab s o l u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n these s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s c i e n c e journals.. 71 WILSON : Woodrow Wilson Fellows by C o l l e g e o f O r i g i n . I n s t i t u t i o n a l 1 S i z e ENROLL : the s i z e or enrollment of i n s t i t u t i o n s . In s t i t u t i ona1 Age ESTAB : the year i n which i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d . Were a l l o f the independent::variables of the study i n f a c t necessary? In order to f i n d out, a l l of these v a r i a b l e s had t o be i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . Table I prese n t s the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d . Table I INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG INDEPENDENT VARIABLES ENROLL .56** .22** .55** WILSON .64** .41** .62** PUBSS .90** .57** .83** PPUBSS .43** .47** .38** PUBSC . 9 9 * * .64** PPUBSC .64** TPUB PPUBSS PUBSS WILSON ENROLL -.31** -.49** -.52** -.09 .10 .51** .22** .47** .64** .54** means t h a t the c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n are s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . No a s t e r i x means t h a t the measure of a s s o c i a t i o n i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t even a t the .05 l e v e l . A l l o f t h e measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n o b t a i n e d e x c e p t f o r two (ESTAB-ENROLL and ENROLL-PPUBSS) a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r , a t l e a s t t h e p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s a t t h e upper l e v e l s o f t h e n a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . These r e s u l t s r e v e a l t h a t none o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i z e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l age p r e s e n t e d s i m i l a r r a n k o r d e r s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The i n t e r c o r r e l a -t i o n s a r e a t b e s t moderate when t h e y a r e n o t weak. On t h a t b a s i s a l o n e , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l l o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were n e c e s s a r y . Do t h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s e s ? I f s o , t o what e x t e n t do t h e y s u p p o r t anyone o f them more t h a n t h e o t h e r s ? B e f o r e a n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , i t i s f i t t i n g t o b r i e f l y r e c a p i t u l a t e t h e h y p o t h e s e s . I n a n u t s h e l l , we e x p e c t an i n v e r s e , n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between each one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i c e s : PPUBSS, PPUBSC, PUBSS, PUBSC, TPUB, ENROLL, and t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , T I M E . We a l s o a n t i c i p a t e a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween ESTAB and T I M E . To d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f s u p p o r t t h a t t h e r e s u l t s p r o v i d e t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s , e ach i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e had t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h T I M E . T a b l e If-- p r e s e n t s t h e measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n o b t a i n e d . 73 TABLE II CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES AND THE DEPENDENT ONE WILSON PUBSS PPUBSS PUBSC TPLB ENROLL ESTAB Time -.48** -.41** -.39** -.35** -.37** -.18* ..21** * means that the c o e f f i c i e n t of co r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . * * means that the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . The r e s u l t s are a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . More precisely, they are a l l s i g n i f i c a n t at the i O l l e v e l except for two measures of association.: -ENROLL-TIME • and.. P-PUBSC-TIME . - "It w i l l - be r e c a l l e d that these -measures ©f association are s i g n i f i c a n t for at l e a s t the protest-stricken u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges i n the upper level s .of the national hierarchy of i n s t i t u t i o n a l prestige, The results reveal that each independent variable covaried with TIME i n the hypothesized d i r e c t i o n . Hence, as expected, a decrease i n each index of i n s t i t u t i o n a l prestige and i n that of i n s t i t u t i o n a l size i s associated with an increase i n TIME. And as anticipated, ESTAB and TIME are p o s i t i v e l y correlated. Having determined that a l l of the relationships are in the hypothesized d i r e c t i o n , we can now look at t h e i r m a g n i t u d e s . S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s emerge f rom t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i z e h y p o t h e s i s and t h e i n -s t i t u t i o n a l age h y p o t h e s i s a r e c l e a r l y r e j e c t e d by t h e r e s u l t s . The v a r i a t i o n i n ENROLL and t h a t i n ESTAB e x -p l a i n r e s p e c t i v e l y o n l y 3 p e r c e n t and 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n T I M E . N e i t h e r ENROLL n o r ESTAB a r e s u f f i c i e n t i n t h e m s e l v e s t o a c c o u n t f o r T I M E . I n c o n t r a s t , w h i l e r e j e c t i n g t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h e ca se s t u d y , t h e r e s u l t s p r o v i d e moder-a t e s u p p o r t t o i t s ma in h y p o t h e s i s . ' On t h e w h o l e , an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s p r e s t i g e i s c l e a r l y b e t t e r a s s o c i a t e d t o i t s i n n o v a t i v e n e s s t h a n i s i t s age o r s h e e r q u a n t i t y o f s t u d e n t s . Thus v a r i a t i o n i n WILSON, PUBSS, PPUBSS, PUBSC a c c o u n t r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r 23 p e r c e n t , 17 p e r c e n t , 15 p e r -c e n t , and 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n T I M E . However , v a r i a t i o n i n PPUBSC e x p l a i n s o n l y 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i -a t i o n i n T I M E . T h i s r e s u l t must be t a k e n w i t h a g r a i n o f s a l t . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t measures o f r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n i n t h e p r e s t i g i o u s s c i e n t i f i c r e v i e w s a r e m i s s i n g f o r s e v e n t e e n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , no o n l y do we s t r o n g l y s u s p e c t t h a t about two t h i r d s o f t h e s e w o u l d be h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s e j o u r n a l s , b u t we a l s o know t h a t s t u d e n t s i n a b o u t t e n o f them were e a r l y a d o p t e r s o f t h e a n t i w a r package ( i . e . , t h e y f i r s t p r o t e s t e d w i t h i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e movement) . My guess i s t h a t had t h i s m i s s i n g d a t a been a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between PPUBSC and TIME w o u l d have been n o t i c e a b l y s t r o n g e r , p r o b a b l y a l m o s t as s t r o n g as t h a t between PUBSC and T I M E . P e r h a p s , t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g i s t h a t WILSON i s t h e i n d e x o f p r e s t i g e t h a t i s t h e most s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h T I M E . I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h good s t u d e n t s ( i . e . , t h a t a r e h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e ) i n t h e h u m a n i t i e s and t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s were t h e most l i k e l y t o have had e a r l y a n t i w a r s t u d e n t p r o t e s t s . TPUB b e i n g an a r t i f a c t o f PUBSS and PUBSC, we knew a l r e a d y t h a t i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h TIME w o u l d f a l l i n between' t h e PUBSS-TIME and t h e PUBSC-TIME c o r r e l a t i o n s . G i v e n t h i s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between TPUB and TIME must be d i s c a r d e d f rom t h e r e s u l t s and t h e a n a l y s i s . 76 Discussion The case study would not be complete without a more c r i t i c a l examination of these findings about the hypothe-sized correlates of i n s t i t u t i o n a l innovativeness. In-s t i t u t i o n a l age, size and prestige are not to be viewed as equally useful and interchangeable independent variables in the design of future investigations of the d i f f u s i o n of packages i n higher education. We saw that these attributes of u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges covered by The New York Times were not equally related to the rate at which the antiwar package was i n i t i a l l y adopted i n them. Thus, we found that the age of a protest-stricken i n s t i t u t i o n i s not associated with the rate at which some of i t s students f i r s t protested against American involvement i n the war. In at le a s t t h i s study, the commonly held view that older i n s t i t u t i o n s are more conservative i n the sense that they adopt novelty more slowly and discriminately i s untenable. The s t a t i s t i c a l r e sults also c l e a r l y establish that the student enrollment of the u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges covered by the national newspaper i s not related to the rate at which some of i t s students i n i t i a l l y adopted the antiwar package. It simply i s not true that the more students such an i n s t i t u t i o n had at the time of the b i r t h of the movement, the more l i k e l y i t i s that i t contained a c r i t i c a l mass of students with the attributes that made 77 f o r e a r l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the movement. T h i s i r r e l e v a n c e of the sheer number of students t o e a r l y adoption o f the package i n v a l i d a t e s i n one s t r o k e a l l of the arguments s u p p o r t i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i z e h y p o t h e s i s as we formu-l a t e d i t . The age and mere s i z e o f an i n s t i t u t i o n , then, t e l l us nothing about the r a t e a t which some of i t s students f i r s t p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t the war. In c o n t r a s t , we found out t h a t t h e r e i s a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p . betwee"h . the p r e s t i g e of an u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e and t h i s r a t e . As mentioned e a r l i e r , the p r e s t i g e and q u a l i t y of the members of an i n s t i t u t i o n are markedly b e t t e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s i n n o v a t i v e n e s s than i s i t s age or sheer q u a n t i t y o f stu d e n t s . The r e s u l t s , then, do not u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n v a l i d a t e the s p e c u l a t i o n s advanced i n Chapter One. Sin c e the r e s u l t s o f f e r moderate support to the main h y p o t h e s i s o f the study, other f a c t o r s b e s i d e s i n -s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e account f o r the d i f f u s i o n of the antiwar student movement i n American h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . These f a c t o r s , of course, remain to be i d e n t i f i e d . At the o u t s e t o f the chapter, i t was r e c a l l e d t h a t the r e s u l t s obtained are v a l i d f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the movement w i t h i n the academic i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t are i n the upper l e v e l s o f the pyramid of p r e s t i g e . I t remains t o be determined whether or not these c o e f f i c i e n t s - o f c o r r e l a t i o n ought to be viewed as v a l i d f o r a l l p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n u n i -v e r s i t i e s , and c o l l e g e s a t a l l l e v e l s o f p r e s t i g e . 78 C h a p t e r S i x CONCLUSION Havi n g completed th e c a s e s t u d y , i t i s o n l y f i t t i n g t o end w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f t h e e n t i r e work w h i c h would g i v e t h e r e a d e r a b a l a n c e d assessment o f i t as w e l l as a p r e c i s e i d e a o f t h e l i g h t t h a t i t c a s t s on t h e o b j e c t o f i t s i n -v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s t o a c h i e v e t h i s p r o j e c t . 1) by p r e s e n t i n g a s y n t h e s i s o f the e n t e r p r i s e w h i c h b r i n g s t o g e t h e r a l l o f i t s e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s , and 2) by r e n d e r i n g e x p l i c i t t h e problems f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t e d by i t s c a s e s t u d y . 1, The S y n t h e s i s A t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e work, i t was n o t e d t h a t l i t t l e i s known about the f r e q u e n t d i f f u s i o n o f n o v e l t y t h r o u g h -o u t American h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . And t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f i l l i n g t h i s gap i n knowledge was s t r e s s e d . The t h e s i s t h a t t h e d i f f u s i o n o f n o v e l t y i n t h i s h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d n a t i o n a l s o c i a l u n i v e r s e t y p i c a l l y o c c u r s a l o n g l i n e s o f d e c r e a s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e was advanced. I t was d e r i v e d from a h o s t o f p r o p o s i t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e w i t h academic t a l e n t , the c r e a t i o n and communication (not t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o r r e j e c t i o n ) o f n o v e l t y , t h e academic m a r k e t p l a c e , p e r m i s s i v e n e s s , i m i t a t i o n , and embarrassment. T h i s t h e s i s was then v e r i f i e d f o r the i n t e r -i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n of the antiwar student movement of the nineteen s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s . T h i s case study began by c e n t e r i n g on t h i s "package" i t s e l f . I t was mentioned t h a t w h i l e the movement assumed d i f f e r e n t forms i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f i t s e x i s t e n c e , the i n v e s t i g a t i o n would focus on the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f antiwar student p r o t e s t per se. On the b a s i s o f rea d i n g s , i t was assumed t h a t t h i s h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon i s indeed adequate f o r the v e r i -f i c a t i o n of the t h e s i s . I t was then p o i n t e d out t h a t i t i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o t e s t the fundamental p r o -p o s i t i o n o f the work f o r the d i f f u s i o n o f the antiwar student movement mainly because such v e r i f i c a t i o n would tend t o e i t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e or d i s p e l two important . sug g e s t i o n s . The f i r s t i s t h a t the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f both, formal academic i n n o v a t i o n s and spontaneous, v o l a t i l e c u r r e n t s o f student p r o t e s t t y p i c a l l y occurs along the same p o s i t e d l i n e s o f d e c r e a s i n g p r e s t i g e . The second i s t h a t the t h e s i s i s t r u e f o r the i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l p ropagation of packages v i a a l l channels: a t y p i c a l as w e l l as t y p i c a l ones. The t h e s i s o f the work was then formulated f o r the d i f f u s i o n of the antiwar student movement i n h i g h e r edu-c a t i o n . I t was hypothesized t h a t the more p r e s t i g i o u s a p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n i n s t i t u t i o n or c o l l e g e was a t the b i r t h o f the movement, the e a r l i e r i n time some of i t s 80 s t u d e n t s i n i t i a l l y r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e V i e t n a m w a r . I n o r d e r t o c o m p a r a t i v e l y a s s e s s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t t h e i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n o f t h e movement were i n t r o d u c e d . T h u s , i t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e l a r g e r a p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n i n s t i t u t i o n was j u s t b e f o r e t h e movement b e g a n , t h e e a r l i e r i n t i m e some o f i t s s t u d e n t s i n i t i a l l y m a n i f e s t e d a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e w a r . And i t was advanced t h a t t h e o l d e r a p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n i n s t i t u t i o n was a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e movement, t h e l a t e r some o f i t s s t u d e n t s f i r s t a d o p t e d t h e a n t i w a r p a c k a g e . I t was e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s s o l e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h when t h e movement began i n each p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n i n -s t i t u t i o n . These t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s were t h e n e x p r e s s e d i n v e r i -f i a b l e t e r m s . T h i s was done i n b a s i c a l l y two w a y s ; by d e f i n i n g a c a s e as e s s e n t i a l l y an i n c i d e n t o f a n t i w a r p r o -t e s t by a g roup o f s t u d e n t s a f f i l i a t e d t o an i n s t i t u t i o n and by o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s : n a m e l y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , s i z e and age ( the i n d e p e n d e n t ones) and what we te rmed i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n n o v a t i v e n e s s ( t h e dependent o n e ) . The c a s e s were o b t a i n e d f rom The New Y o r k Times I n d e x . To be p r e c i s e , t h e h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d f o r o n l y t h e e a r l i e s t r e p o r t e d c a s e p e r i n s t i t u t i o n . I t was assumed t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a g o v e r n i n g t h e n e w s p a p e r ' s s e l e c t i o n o f i n c i d e n t s o f s t u d e n t a n t i w a r p r o t e s t were t h e same f o r t h e 81 e n t i r e d u r a t i o n o f the movement. And i t was a l s o supposed t h a t t h i s s e l e c t i o n was a l s o s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e t o pre s e n t a c c u r a t e l y the temporal sequence i n which the movement f i r s t h i t the covered campuses. A f t e r l o o k i n g a t the l i s t of i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t m o b i l i z e d the a t t e n t i o n of the n a t i o n a l d a i l y , i t was concluded t h a t the r e s u l t s of the case study would be v a l i d f o r the d i f f u s i o n o f the movement among a l l o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s a t the upper l e v e l s of the hi g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l pyramid of p r e s t i g e . While p r o v i d i n g moderate support t o the main hypo-t h e s i s of the study, the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f l a t l y r e j e c t e d i t s a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s . In oth e r words, the p r e s t i g e (and q u a l i t y ) o f an i n s t i t u t i o n are markedly b e t t e r a s s o c i a t e d with i t s i n n o v a t i v e n e s s than i t s age or sheer q u a n t i t y of stu d e n t s . To be even more p r e c i s e , we found out t h a t those u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s t h a t had good students i n the humanities and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s were the most l i k e l y to have had e a r l y i n i t i a l antiwar student p r o t e s t s . The support t h a t the r e s u l t s g i v e t o the main t h e s i s o f the work being moderate, i t was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t o b v i o u s l y other f a c t o r s d e t e r -mined the temporal sequence i n which the movement f i r s t h i t post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . And the case study was concluded by r a i s i n g the q u e s t i o n o f whether or not i t s r e s u l t s f o r the e l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s of the country c o u l d 82 be viewed as v a l i d f o r a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s with antiwar student p r o t e s t s . 2. Suggestions f o r Future Research S e v e r a l suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h emerge from the work's case study. T h i s overview would not be complete without r e n d e r i n g them e x p l i c i t . What f o l l o w s p r e s e n t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t a) c o u l d not be undertaken i n t h i s work but t h a t would nonetheless e n r i c h as w e l l as complete i t , b) would v e r i f y i n new ways the hypotheses of t h i s study f o r the d i f f u s i o n o f the antiwar student movement i n hig h e r e d u c a t i o n , c) are suggested by the a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s . a) In the course of the work, p r o j e c t s t h a t would improve and round o f f the study but t h a t c o u l d not be pursued were mentioned. A b r i e f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f these i s i n order a t t h i s p o i n t . In Chapter Two, i t was assumed but c o u l d not be a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the a n t i -war student movement i s a package t h a t i s adequate f o r the v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l t h e s i s o f t h e work. Although what I read on the s u b j e c t does i n d i c a t e t h a t on t h i s score the study i s on sound h i s t o r i c a l grounds, t h i s r e -mains t o be f u l l y demonstrated. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s t ask would i n v o l v e the e l u c i d a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f campus 8 3 antiwar p r o t e s t with, on the one hand, off-campus a n t i -war d i s s e n t , and, on the other hand, other contempora-neous forms and types o f d i s s e n t by youth such as the widespread r e b e l l i o n s t h a t r e v o l v e d around r a c i a l , student l i f e , and e c o l o g i c a l i s s u e s . In Chapter Three, i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t i v e measures of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e ( i t s e l f a s u b j e c t i v e notion) would have been p r e f e r a b l e to so c a l l e d " o b j e c t i v e " i n d i c e s of i t . However, we c o u l d not f i n d o p i n i o n surveys r a n k i n g a l l of the i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d i n the study. The c o l l e c t i o n o f such s u b j e c t i v e data and i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w ith the dependent v a r i a b l e of the study would g i v e us a b e t t e r i d e a o f the c o v a r i a t i o n between i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and i n n o v a t i v e n e s s . A l s o i n Chapter Three, i t was mentioned t h a t the r e s u l t s of the study are v a l i d f o r the d i f f u s i o n o f the antiwar student movement among the u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s a t the upper echelons o f the n a t i o n ' s l a d d e r o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . I t remains t o be seen i f these r e s u l t s are v a l i d f o r the propagation o f the movement i n a l l p r o t e s t - s t r i c k e n post-secondary schools o f the country a t a l l l e v e l s of p r e s t i g e . In Chapter Four, i t was made c l e a r t h a t too many measures of the p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n renowned s c i e n t i f i c reviews were m i s s i n g f o r us to have any f a i t h i n the magnitude o b t a i n e d between t h i s index of 84 p r e s t i g e and the dependent v a r i a b l e . To complete the study, i t would be worthwhile t o f i n d t h i s data (which c o u l d not be obtained l o c a l l y ) and to c o r r e l a t e . i t with i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n n o v a t i v e n e s s . Doing t h i s would enable r e s e a r c h e r s t o see i f t h i s index i s more or l e s s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e than o t h e r i n d i c e s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . b) The hypotheses of the work were t e s t e d i n one way. However, our understanding of the d i f f u s i o n o f the movement may i n c r e a s e i f we t e s t these p r o p o s i t i o n s f o r the i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s s e m i n a t i o n of antiwar student p r o t e s t i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Thus, i t would be worthwhile to undertake the same study on a r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . In Chapter Two, we drew a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t the case study c e n t e r s on the d i f f u s i o n o f antiwar student p r o t e s t per se and not on t h a t o f the v a r i o u s forms t h a t such d i s s e n t assumed i n the course o f the movement. C l e a r l y , our understanding of the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the movement would a l s o be i n c r e a s e d i f the v a r i o u s " s p e c i e s " o f antiwar student p r o t e s t were i d e n t i f i e d and i f the hypotheses of the work were t e s t e d f o r the i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l propagation of each one of them. c) Other suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h emerge from the a n a l y s i s o f the study's r e s u l t s . I t was mentioned t h a t s i n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t i t u -t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and i n n o v a t i v e n e s s i s moderate, o b v i o u s l y other f a c t o r s account f o r the i n t e r -i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n of the movement. C l e a r l y , an innumerable amount of s t u d i e s can be conceived t h a t would s y s t e m a t i c a l l y attempt to uncover these determinants. 86 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l t b a c h , P h i l i p . 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Lexington, Mass. : Lexington Books, 1974. 90 APPENDIX A THE DISTRIBUTION OF ACADEMIC TALENT IN AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION 91 Table I I I P r o p o r t i o n of Freshmen per I n s t i t u t i o n Who Obtained 75% or More on the V e r b a l P a r t of the S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e Test Bryn Mawr C o l l e g e 87 Swarthmore C o l l e g e 81 Yale U n i v e r s i t y • 76 W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e 73 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 70 Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology 69 Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y 69 Dartmouth C o l l e g e 68 Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y 67 U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago 64 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e 62 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y 61 Haverford C o l l e g e 61 Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y 59 Amherst C o l l e g e 57 Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y 54 Smith C o l l e g e 54 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 52 O b e r l i n C o l l e g e 51 C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e 49 Claremont Men's C o l l e g e 46 Colgate U n i v e r s i t y 44 Davidson C o l l e g e 42 Vassar C o l l e g e 35 Washington U n i v e r s i t y 35 G r i n n e l l C o l l e g e 34 U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin - Madison 31 B u c k n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 29 Bard C o l l e g e 28 U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan 22 Boston U n i v e r s i t y 22 Drew U n i v e r s i t y 21 Fordham U n i v e r s i t y 21 Allegheny C o l l e g e 20 Boston C o l l e g e 18 U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado 17 U n i v e r s i t y of Maine a t Orono 17 Worcester P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e 16 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles 16 cont'd.. . 92 Table I I I - continued U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara 15 H o f s t r a U n i v e r s i t y 15 U n i v e r s i t y of Denver 15 P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Park Campus 14 Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y , Cook-College 14 Drake U n i v e r s i t y 14 U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a 14 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minnesota) 14 Miami U n i v e r s i t y 14 S a i n t L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y 14 U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon 10 Manhattan C o l l e g e 10 F a i r f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y 10 U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts 9 Colorado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 9 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maryland a t C o l l e g e Park 9 Temple U n i v e r s i t y 8 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y 7 It h a c a C o l l e g e 7 U n i v e r s i t y of Rhode I s l a n d 7 U n i v e r s i t y of Hawai H i l o C o l l e g e 6 S a i n t P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e 6 S t . John's U n i v e r s i t y (New York) 6 U n i v e r s i t y of South C a r o l i n a 5 Northeastern U n i v e r s i t y 5 Monmouth C o l l e g e 4 Morehouse C o l l e g e 3 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e 1 Worcester S t a t e C o l l e g e 1 Alabama A & M U n i v e r s i t y 0 Pembroke S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 0 93 No Scores Were Given f o r the F o l l o w i n g E n t r i e s U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington New York U n i v e r s i t y Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f America U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma Howard U n i v e r s i t y P r a t t I n s t i t u t e San Jose S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y State U n i v e r s i t y of New York a t Stony Brook Iona C o l l e g e Kent State U n i v e r s i t y San F r a n c i s c o State U n i v e r s i t y Kansas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York, New York C i t y Community C o l l e g e Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f P ennsylvania Iowa State U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Barnard C o l l e g e Harvard U n i v e r s i t y R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York, Queen's C o l l e g e Brown U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Oakland U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f Puerto Rico Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r i s t y o f Alabama U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas Harpur C o l l e g e There Are No E n t r i e s f o r the F o l l o w i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t Fresno State C o l l e g e C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y of San F r a n c i s c o Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y Brooklyn C o l l e g e of the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y of New York Source: K.C. Hegener, and J . Hunter, eds. Peterson's Annual Guide to Undergraduate Study, 19 79 e d i t i o n , 2 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : Peterson's Guides), Vol.2: Tests and Majors, pp. 19-39. 94 Table TV P r o p o r t i o n of Freshmen Per I n s t i t u t i o n Who Obtained 75% or More on the Mathematical P a r t o f the S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e Test Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e o f Technology 97 Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y 84 Dartmouth C o l l e g e 8 3 Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y 82 Swarthmore C o l l e g e 82 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 81 St a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y 81 W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e 80 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 76 Haverford C o l l e g e 75 Bryn Mawr C o l l e g e 74 U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago 72 Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y 71 B u c k n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 71 Amherst C o l l e g e 69 Colgate U n i v e r s i t y 67 Worcester P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e 6 5 Davidson C o l l e g e 63 Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y 6 3 Claremont Men's C o l l e g e 61 C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e 61 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e 60 Washington U n i v e r s i t y 59 O b e r l i n C o l l e g e 58 U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin - Madison 55 U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan 50 Smith C o l l e g e 49 G r i n n e l l C o l l e g e 44 U n i v e r s i t y o f Colorado 37 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a - Los Angeles 36 All e g h e n y C o l l e g e 35 Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y Cook C o l l e g e 35 St. John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minnesota) 34 P e n s y l v a n i a State U n i v e r s i t y , Park Campus 34 U n i v e r s i t y o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a 3 3 Boston U n i v e r s i t y 33 Boston C o l l e g e 33 Miami U n i v e r s i t y 31 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara 29 H o f s t r a U n i v e r s i t y 29 Drake U n i v e r s i t y 29 St. L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y 2 8 cont'd... 95 TABLE IV - continued Fordham U n i v e r s i t y 26 U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver 25 Bard C o l l e g e 2 5 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maine a t Orono 25 Colorado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 2 3 Drew U n i v e r s i t y 21 Manhattan C o l l e g e 21 U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon 20 Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y 20 U n i v e r s i t y o f Rhode I s l a n d 20 F a i r f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y 20 U n i v e r s i t y o f Massachusetts 19 U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaiy H i l o C o l l e g e 18 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maryland a t C o l l e g e Park 18 Ithaca C o l l e g e 16 St. John's U n i v e r s i t y New York 14 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y 13 Temple U n i v e r s i t y 11 U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a 9 S t . P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e 7 Monmouth C o l l e g e 7 Northeastern U n i v e r s i t y 5 Worcester S t a t e C o l l e g e 4 Pembroke St a t e U n i v e r s i t y 0 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e 0 Alabama A. & M. U n i v e r s i t y 0 Morehouse C o l l e g e 0 APPENDIX B THE DATA-Table V Woodrow Wilson Fellows by C o l l e g e of O r i g i n (1964) Harvard U n i v e r s i t y ^7 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 29 Columbia U n i v e r s i t y 27 O b e r l i n C o l l e g e 2 4 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e rkeley 2 3 U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago 2 3 Swarthmore C o l l e g e 22 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 22 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y 21 Ya l e U n i v e r s i t y 20 U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan 20 Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y 19 Kansas U n i v e r s i t y 19 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles 17 U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania 17 U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin 16 Vassar C o l l e g e 14 Indiana U n i v e r s i t y 14 R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e 14 U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s 14 U n i v e r s i t y of Texas 13 C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e 13 Haverford C o l l e g e 13 Dartmouth C o l l e g e 12 U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota 12 Amherst C o l l e g e 11 continued. 98 TABLE V. - continued U n i v e r s i t y of Denver 10 C i t y C o l l e g e of the Ci 0ty U n i v e r s i t y of New York 10 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e 10 Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y 10 U n i v e r s i t y of Colarado 10 Boston C o l l e g e 9 Barnard C o l l e g e 9 Washington U n i v e r s i t y 9 Queens C o l l e g e 9 Brown U n i v e r s i t y 8 Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y 8 New York U n i v e r s i t y 8 Bryn Mawr C o l l e g e 8 Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 8 U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a 8 Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology 8 Fordham U n i v e r s i t y 7 U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland 7 W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e 7 Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y 7 U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama 7 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa 7 U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon 6 Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y 6 Hunter C o l l e g e of the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y of New York 6 S a i n t L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y 6 U n i v e r s i t y of Washington 5 U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska 5 Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y 5 G r o n n e l l C o l l e g e 4 continued. 99 TABLE V - continued San Jose S t a t e C o l l e g e 4 Davidson C o l l e g e 4 U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t 4 Manhattan C o l l e g e 4 Morehouse C o l l e g e 4 U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts 4 Brooklyn C o l l e g e 4 Pembroke C o l l e g e •. 4 Harpur C o l l e g e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York 4 Temple U n i v e r s i t y 3 Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y 3 U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma 3 Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 3 P e n n s y l v n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 3 C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America 2 U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a r o l i n a 2 lona C o l l e g e 2 Kent St a t e U n i v e r s i t y 2 B u c k n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 2 C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y 2 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara 2 N o r t h e a s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y 2 U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii 2 Oakland U n i v e r s i t y 2 U n i v e r s i t y of Maine 1 A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e 1 Drake U n i v e r s i t y 1 Drew U n i v e r s i t y 1 San F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e 1 U n i v e r s i t y of San F r a n c i s c o 1 Colarado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1 1 0 0 TABLE V - continued Claremont Men's C o l l e g e 1 F a i r f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y 1 Bard C o l l e g e 1 Fresno State C o l l e g e 1 H o f s t r a U n i v e r s i t y 0 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y 0 Howard U n i v e r s i t y 0 P r a t t I n s t i t u t e 0 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York a t Stony Brook 0 Worcester P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e 0 Kansas St a t e U n i v e r s i t y 0 Colgate U n i v e r s i t y 0 A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y 0 Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and Mechanical C o l l e g e 0 Boston U n i v e r s i t y 0 S t . P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e 0 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minnesota) 0 S t . John's U n i v e r s i t y (New York) 0 U n i v e r s i t y o f Rhode I s l a n d 0 U n i v e r s i t y of Puerto Rico 0 Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y 0 Monnouth C o l l e g e 0 Miami U n i v e r s i t y 0 Worcester S t a t e C o l l e g e 0 I t h a c a C o l l e g e 0 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e 0 101 Table VI The Absolute R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s Science J o u r n a l s Columbia University- 1700 U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s 1634 U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota 1522 U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan 1509 U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin 1454 Harvard U n i v e r s i t y 1420 Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology 1272 U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania 1232 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 1192 U n i v e r s i t y of Texas 1192 U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago 1190 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y 1134 Yale U n i v e r s i t y 1079 New York U n i v e r s i t y 1034 Johns Hopkins, U n i v e r s i t y 1012 U n i v e r s i t y of Washington 890 Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y 760 Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 740 Washington U n i v e r s i t y 603 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a 600 U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a 593 P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 580 Indiana U n i v e r s i t y 567 U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado 556 continued. 102 Table VI - c ontinued P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 550 U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland 547 Boston U n i v e r s i t y 423 Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 405 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y 385 Pembroke C o l l e g e 310 Brown U n i v e r s i t y 310 U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma 303 Temple U n i v e r s i t y 291 U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama 267 Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y 258 Kansas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 215 U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska 210 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa 205 Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y 20 3 U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t 198 Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y 194 U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii 170 U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts 159 Colorado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 152 S a i n t L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y 114 Davidson C o l l e g e 96 Dartmouth C o l l e g e 96 Howard U n i v e r s i t y 88 C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America 86 U n i v e r s i t y of Rhode I s l a n d 83 U n i v e r s i t y o f Puerto Rico 83 Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y 72 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a 69 Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y 64 c ontinued. 103 Table VI - continued U n i v e r s i t y of Maine 52 Fordham U n i v e r s i t y 50 Oregon U n i v e r s i t y 44 Boston C o l l e g e 37 Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 35 /Amherst C o l l e g e 34 C i t y C o l l e g e of the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y of New York 29 U n i v e r s i t y of South C a r o l i n a 29 Bryn Mawr C o l l e g e 29 B u c k n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 28 Brooklyn C o l l e g e 26 Swarthmore C o l l e g e 23 San Jose S t a t e C o l l e g e 21 O b e r l i n C o l l e g e 17 Miami U n i v e r s i t y 17 U n i v e r s i t y of San F r a n c i s c o 16 Smith C o l l e g e 16 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e 15 W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e 14 San F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e 13 Queens C o l l e g e 13 Hunter C o l l e g e 12 Haverford C o l l e g e 11 P r a t t I n s t i t u t e 10 Manhattan C o l l e g e 10 Worcester P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e 10 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e 9 H o f s t r a U n i v e r s i t y 8 A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y 8 co n t i n u e d . 104 Tab l e VI - c o n t i n u e d V a s s a r C o l l e g e 8 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y , (New York) 7 C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e 6 G r i n n e l l C o l l e g e 5 Oakland U n i v e r s i t y 5 Kansas U n i v e r s i t y 4 B a r n a r d C o l l e g e 4 C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y 4 Fr e s n o S t a t e C o l l e g e 4 C o l g a t e U n i v e r s i t y 4 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y 3 Claremont Men's C o l l e g e 3 Harpur C o l l e g e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York 3 Drake U n i v e r s i t y 3 I t h a c a C o l l e g e 2 Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and M e c h a n i c a l C o l l e g e 2 Drew U n i v e r s i t y 1 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York a t Stony Brook 1 S a i n t P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e 1 W o r c e s t e r S t a t e C o l l e g e 1 Bard C o l l e g e 1 N o r t h e a s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y 0 Monmouth C o l l e g e 0 U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver 0 Morehouse C o l l e g e 0 F a i r f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y 0 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minnesota) 0 A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e 0 l o n a C o l l e g e 0 R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e -1 105 T a b l e V I I The P r o p o r t i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s S c i e n c e J o u r n a l s D a v i d s o n C o l l e g e 1.2468 U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas .08359 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y . 08321 U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n .08010 B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y .07729 U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n .06940 U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o r a d o .06643 Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y .06559 U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma . 05827 I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y .04454 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s .04107 Brown U n i v e r s i t y .03856 Pembroke C o l l e g e .03856 Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y .03787 U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a .03658 U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d .03656 Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y .03386 Sy r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y .03339 P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y .03229: Kansas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . 03166 U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s . 03041 U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s .02978 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y .02937 U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama .02862 U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i .02791 c o n t i n u e d . 106 T a b l e V I I - c o n t i n u e d C o l o r a d o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y .02724 Amherst C o l l e g e .02698 U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t . 02683 New York U n i v e r s i t y .02614 Dartmouth C o l l e g e .02455 U n i v e r s i t y o f Rhode I s l a n d .02299 Temple U n i v e r s i t y .02039 Br y n Mawr C o l l e g e .01973 Swarthmore C o l l e g e .01901 C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f Amer i c a .01890 U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska . 01760 H a v e r f o r d C o l l e g e .01642 B u c k n e l l U n i v e r s i t y .01573 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maine .01409 Howard U n i v e r s i t y .01155 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa .01097 W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e .00946 S a i n t L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y .00909 Fordham U n i v e r s i t y .00864 Wo r c e s t e r P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e .00813 P r a t t I n s t i t u t e .00794 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e .00773 U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a .00749 B o s t o n C o l l e g e .00737 O b e r l i n C o l l e g e .00705 U n i v e r s i t y o f San F r a n c i s c o .00699 A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y -.00645 Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y .00632 Oakland U n i v e r s i t y .00602 Smith C o l l e g e .00602 1 0 7 Table VII - continued C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e . 0 0 5 2 2 Claremont's Men's C o l l e g e . 0 0 4 8 4 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa ."' Barbara . 0 0 4 7 2 Manhattan C o l l e g e . 0 0 4 6 9 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e . 0 0 4 6 9 U n i v e r s i t y of Puerto Rico . 0 0 4 5 1 Vassar C o l l e g e . 0 0 4 3 7 G r i n n e l l C o l l e g e . 0 0 4 2 4 Miami U n i v e r s i t y . 0 0 4 0 0 Brooklyn C o l l e g e . 0 0 3 9 3 C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y . 0 0 3 7 7 C i t y C o l l e g e of the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y of New York .00 3 4 2 U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon . 0 0 3 1 2 C o l g a t e U n i v e r s i t y . 0 0 2 8 8 U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska . 0 0 2 7 0 Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and Mechanical C o l l e g e . 0 0 2 5 6 Queens C o l l e g e of the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y of New York . 0 0 2 3 9 San Jose S t a t e C o l l e g e . 0 0 2 1 7 Harpur C o l l e g e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York . 0 0 2 0 8 Hunter C o l l e g e of the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y of New York . 0 0 2 0 4 Bard C o l l e g e . 0 0 1 8 5 H o f s t r a U n i v e r s i t y . 0 0 1 8 0 Drake U n i v e r s i t y . 0 0 1 5 3 Worcester S t a t e C o l l e g e . 0 0 1 5 2 San F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e . 0Q 1 4 5 I t h a c a C o l l e g e .0Q13-9 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y (New York) . 0 0 1 2 8 continued. 108 Table VII - continued Drew U n i v e r s i t y .00108 Fresno S t a t e C o l l e g e .00099 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y .00086 S a i n t P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e .00068 U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas .00047 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York a t Stony Brook .00041 A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e '° U n i v e r s i t y of Denver - 0 l o n a C o l l e g e '° Nort h e a s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y ' ^  F a i r f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y .0 Monmouth C o l l e g e .0 Morehouse C o l l e g e .0 S t . John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minnesota) .0 U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota - 1 . 0 0 Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e - 1 . 0 0 Columbia U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 Boston U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 Harvard U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 Washington U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago - 1 . 0 0 U n i v e r s i t y of Washington - 1 . 0 0 Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e o f Technology - 1 . 0 0 U n i v e r s i t y o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a - 1 . 0 0 Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . 0 0 109 Table V I I I The Absolute Re p r e s e n t a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s Harvard U n i v e r s i t y 560 Columbia U n i v e r s i t y 653 Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y 546 New York U n i v e r s i t y 435 U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan 435 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y 406 Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 365 U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s 336 U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin 325 Johns Hopkin's U n i v e r s i t y 319 U n i v e r s i t y of Texas 301 U n i v e r s i t y of P ennsylvania 288 G r i n n e l l C o l l e g e 279 U n i v e r s i t y of Washington 279 Temple U n i v e r s i t y 252 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 246 U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota 236 Indiana U n i v e r s i t y 223 Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 213 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 200 P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 192 Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y 19 2 U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago 184 Boston U n i v e r s i t y 177 Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y 175 continued. Table VIII - continued University of Maryland 17 3 University of Massachusetts 162 University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles 154 University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley 143 University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a 138 Kent State University 130 Pembroke College 123 Brown University 123 State University of Iowa 117 University of Colorado 114 University of Oregon 109 Kansas State University 95 University of Kansas 95 University of Connecticut 89 Brandeis University 87 Dartmouth College 86 Washington University 78 San Francisco State University 75 Boston College 71 University of Alabama 61 University of Oklahoma 6 0 University of Nebraska 60 University of Hawaii 59 Southern I l l i n o i s University 58 San Jose State College 58 Georgetown University 56 Fordham University 56 University of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara 51 Clark University 51 continued. Table V I I I - continued Queens College of The Cit y University of New York 4 8 Miami University 46 Howard University 45 University of South Carolina 42 Catholic University of America 41 Brooklyn College, State Uni-v e r s i t y of New York 40 Colorado State University 39 Bryn Mawr College 37 Smith College 36 Hofstra University 35 Wesleyan University 33 Williams College 33 University of Maine 30 Adelphi University 29 Oberlin College 28 Amherst College 27 Northeastern University 27 Swarthmore College 27 Oakland University 23 Hunter College 22 City College of the Cit y University of New York 22 University of Denver 22 Vassar College 20 Bucknell University 18 Fresno State College 18 University of Puerto Rico 18 Saint Louis University 16 continued. Table VIII — continued Haverford College Saint John's University (New York) University of Rhode Island Harpur College, State Uni-v e r s i t y of New York Drake University F a i r f i e l d University Barnard College Allegheny College Wellesley College Colgate University University of San Francisco Tuskegee In s t i t u t e Drew University Pratt I n s t i t u t e Ithaca College Claremont Men's College Carleton College Davidson College Saint Peter's College A l f r e d University Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology Morehouse College Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and Mechanical College Bard College Manhattan College Iona College Table V I I I - continued S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York at Stony Brook Worcester P o l y t e c h n i c I n s i t i i t e Worcester S t a t e C o l l e g e S t John's S t a t e C o l l e g e Monmouth C o l l e g e R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e Table IX The Proportional Representation of In s t i t u t i o n s i n Prestigious Social Science Journals 2399 2369 Princeton University .3705 Clark University .314 8 University of I l l i n o i s .2688 Yale University .2682 Bryn Mawr College .2517 Pembroke College .2505 Brown University .2505 Brandeis University .24 58 University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles Stanford University University of Texas .22 98 Williams College .2185 Columbia University .1967 Haverford College .194 8 Swarthmore College .194 2 Dartmouth College .1759 Amherst College .1753 Johns Hopkins University .1719 University of Massachusetts .1622 Ohio State University .1561 University of Wisconsin Oakland University University of Washington Syracuse University 1534 1394 1339 1335 continued. 115 Table IX - continued Kent State University .1333 G r i n n e l l College .1315 Smith College .1268 Wesleyan University .1231 Indiana University .1209 Rutgers - The State University .119 4 University of Hawaii .1130 Boston College .1106 University of Michigan .1091 Oberlin College .1085 University of Minnesota .1065 Kansas State University .1061 Temple University .1052 Fordham University .1039 New York University .10 30 University of Connecticut .0994 State University of Iowa .0981 Vassar College .0971 University of South Carolina .0957 Bucknell University .09 23 University of Colorado .0912 University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley.0903 Northwestern University .0889 University of Maryland .0857 Boston University .0846 Pennsylvania State University .0839 Allegheny College .0818 Miami University .0816 F a i r f i e l d University .0815 University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a .0688 continued. T a b l e IX - c o n t i n u e d U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a .0682 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y .0681 U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma .0667 U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas .0645 C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f America .0611 San F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e .0585 H o f s t r a U n i v e r s i t y .0571 Claremont Men's C o l l e g e .0563 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maine .0552 C o l g a t e U n i v e r s i t y .0549 Howard U n i v e r s i t y .0520 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y .0520 Queens C o l l e g e o f t h e C i t y U n i -v e r s i t y o f New York .0512 C o l o r a d o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y .0456 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e .0439 Drew U n i v e r s i t y .0438 U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver .04 20 Harpur C o l l e g e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York .0420 B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York .0403 Drake U n i v e r s i t y .0388 U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska .0377 Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y .0375 Washington U n i v e r s i t y .0351 Da v i d s o n C o l l e g e .0341 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e .0339 Bard C o l l e g e .0328 F r e s n o S t a t e C o l l e g e .0342 c o n t i n u e d . 117 T a b l e IX - c o n t i n u e d Morehouse C o l l e g e .0299 U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama .0281 U n i v e r s i t y o f San F r a n c i s c o .0272 U n i v e r s i t y o f Rhode I s l a n d .0272 S t . John's U n i v e r s i t y (New York) .0267 Hunter C o l l e g e o f the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York .0238 U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver .0210 A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y .0205 I t h a c a C o l l e g e .0187 S a i n t P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e .0163 Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and M e c h a n i c a l C o l l e g e .0156 C i t y C o l l e g e o f t h e C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York .0130 P r a t t I n s t i t u t e .0110 S a i n t L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y .0098 U n i v e r s i t y o f P u e r t o R i c o .0088 Iona C o l l e g e .0052 Manhattan C o l l e g e .0036 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York A t Stony Brook C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f Technology S t John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minnesota) W o r c e s t e r P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e Monmouth C o l l e g e • 0 W o r c e s t e r S t a t e C o l l e g e -0 H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y -1.0 S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y -1.0 U n i v e r s i t y o f Chica g o -1.0 R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e -1.0 0029 0027 0021 0 0 118 Table IX - continued U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon -1.00 Barnard C o l l e g e -1.00 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara -1.00 San Jose S t a t e C o l l e g e -1.00 119 Table X The R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e s t i g i o u s Science and S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l s Columbia U n i v e r s i t y 2353 Harvard U n i v e r s i t y 2080 U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s 1970 U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan 19 44 U n i v e r s i t y o f Wisconsin 1779 U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota 1758 Yale U n i v e r s i t y 1625 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y 1540 U n i v e r s i t y of Penn s y l v a n i a 1520 U n i v e r s i t y of Texas 149 3 New York U n i v e r s i t y 1469 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 1392 U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago 1374 Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y 1331 Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e o f Technology 1274 U n i v e r s i t y of Washington 1169 Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1105 Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y 9 52 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 796 Indiana U n i v e r s i t y 790 Pennsylvania S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 772 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a 754 U n i v e r s i t y o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a 731 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maryland 720 Washington U n i v e r s i t y 681 U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado 670 Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 618 cont i n u e d . . . Table X - continued Boston U n i v e r s i t y 500 Temple U n i v e r s i t y 543 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y 528 Pembroke C o l l e g e 433 Brown U n i v e r s i t y 433 Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y 378 U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma 36 3 U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama 328 U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma 36 3 U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama 36 3 U n i v e r s i t y of Denver 322 U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts 321 Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y 314 Kansas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 310 U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t 287 G r i n n e l l C o l l e g e 284 Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y 281 U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska 270 U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii 229 Colorado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 191 Dartmouth C o l l e g e 182 Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 165 U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon 153 Howard U n i v e r s i t y 133 S a i n t L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y 130 Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y 130 C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America 127 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara 120 c ontinued. 121 T a b l e X - c o n t i n u e d B o s t o n C o l l e g e 108 Fordham U n i v e r s i t y 106 U n i v e r s i t y o f P u e r t o R i c o 101 Kansas U n i v e r s i t y 99 D a v i d s o n C o l l e g e 99 U n i v e r s i t y o f Rhode I s l a n d 97 Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y 97 San F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e 88 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maine 82 San J o s e S t a t e C o l l e g e 79 U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a 71 Bryn Mawr C o l l e g e 66 B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e 66 Miami C o l l e g e 6 3 Queens C o l l e g e 61 7Amherst C o l l e g e 61 C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y 55 S m i t h C o l l e g e 52 C i t y C o l l e g e o f t h e C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York 51 Swarthmore C o l l e g e 50 W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e 47 B u c k n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 46 O b e r l i n C o l l e g e 45 H o f s t r a U n i v e r s i t y 43 Hunter C o l l e g e 34 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y 32 Oakland U n i v e r s i t y 28 V a s s a r C o l l e g e 28 N o r t h e a s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y 27 c o n t i n u e d . 122 Table X - continued Haverford C o l l e g e 2 6 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e 24 U n i v e r s i t y of San F r a n c i s c o 24 Fresno S t a t e C o l l e g e 22 U n i v e r s i t y of Denver 22 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y (New York) 22 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e 17 Harpur C o l l e g e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York 15 Drake U n i v e r s i t y 15 P r a t t I n s t i t u t e 15 Barnard C o l l e g e 14 Colg a t e U n i v e r s i t y 13 F a i r f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y 11 A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y 11 Manhattan C o l l e g e 11 C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e Worcester P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e 9 Claremont Men's C o l l e g e 7 Drew U n i v e r s i t y 7 Ithac a C o l l e g e 6 S a i n t P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e 4 Alabama A. and M. C o l l e g e 4 Bard C o l l e g e 3 St a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York a t Stony Brook 2 Morehouse C o l l e g e 2 lona C o l l e g e 1 Worcester S t a t e C o l l e g e 1 Monmouth C o l l e g e 0 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minnesota) 0 R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e -1 10 10 123 Table XI Enrollment Per I n s t i t u t i o n U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s 33706 U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota 33616 New York U n i v e r s i t y 32723 Indiana U n i v e r s i t y 31581 C i t y C o l l e g e o f the C i t y o f New York 30992 Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 30500 U n i v e r s i t y o f Wisconsin 25897 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley 2509 2 Pennsy l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 23584 Temple U n i v e r s i t y 22548 U n i v e r s i t y of Puerto Rico 21892 Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y 21743 Brooklyn C o l l e g e 21710 Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 21610 U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas 21390 Hunter C o l l e g e 20531 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles 20189 Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y 19877 No r t h e a s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y 19706 Boston U n i v e r s i t y 19621 U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington 19130 U n i v e r s i t y o f Pe n n s y l v a n i a 18347 San Jose S t a t e C o l l e g e 17137 Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y 16243 U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a 14899 continued... 124 Table XI - continued Washington University 14662 Columbia University 14125 Queens College 13656 University of Oklahoma 13396 University of Connecticut 13069 University of Colorado 12910 Harvard University 12354 Cornell University 12339 State University of Iowa 12114 Miami University 12060 Saint John's University (New York) 11594 Kansas University 11434 University of Oregon 10666 Kent State University 10488 University of Nebraska 10401 Stanford University 9940 University of Hawaii 9549 Hofstra University 9351 Saint Louis University 9065 Fordham University 89 51 Boston College 9802 Kansas State University 8477 University of Alabama 8 347 Johns Hopkins University 8315 Yale University 7750 Colarado State University 7304 University of South Carolina 7295 University of Massachusetts 7225 Drake University 7180 continued. 125 T a b l e XI - c o n t i n u e d Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y 714 2 U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o 69 34 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y 6808 Fresno S t a t e C o l l e g e 6793 M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f Technology 6695 Howard U n i v e r s i t y 6270 U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver 5276 C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f America 5254 U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d 5254 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maine 4928 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , S anta B a r b a r a 486 5 U n i v e r s i t y o f San F r a n c i s c o 4336 U n i v e r s i t y o f Rhode I s l a n d 4206 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 4090 P r a t t I n s t i t u t e 3975 Manhattan C o l l e g e 3598 Dartmouth C o l l e g e 3404 Brown U n i v e r s t i y 3370 Monmouth C o l l e g e 3319 B u c k n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 2671 O b e r l i n C o l l e g e 2491 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e 2450 Smit h C o l l e g e 2374 Iona C o l l e g e 2269 S a i n t P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e 2216 San F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e 2216 F a i r f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y 2147 I t h a c a C o l l e g e 2082 c o n t i n u e d . 126 Ta b l e XI - c o n t i n u e d Harpur C o l l e g e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York 2015 B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y 1751 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e 1737 W o r c e s t e r S t a t e C o l l e g e 1649 V a s s a r C o l l e g e 1537 C o l g a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1514 B a r n a r d C o l l e g e 1500 A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y 1489 A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e 1373 C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e 1327 Oakland U n i v e r s i t y 1259 W o r c e s t e r P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e 1248 S t John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minnesota) 1248 W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e 1193 G r i n n e l l C o l l e g e 1186 R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e 1160 C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y 1157 Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y 1146 Brew U n i v e r s i t y 1131 Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and M e c h a n i c a l C o l l e g e 1104 Amherst C o l l e g e 1040 B r y n Mawr C o l l e g e 10 26 D a v i d s o n C o l l e g e 989 Swarthmore C o l l e g e 977 Pembroke C o l l e g e 913 Morehouse C o l l e g e 810 c o n t i n u e d . Table XI - continued S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York a t Stony Brook Claremont Men's C o l l e g e Haverford C o l l e g e Bard C o l l e g e U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan 128 Table XII The Year Each I n s t i t u t i o n was Established Oakland University 1959 State University of New York at Stony Brook 19 57 Brandeis University 194 8 Claremont Men's College 1946 Harpur College, State University of New York 1946 F a i r f i e l d University 1942 Iona College 1940 Queens College of The City University of New York 19 37 Hofstra University 1935 Monmouth College 1933 Brooklyn College 19 30 Fresno State College 1911 Kent State University 1910 University of Hawaii 1907 University of Puerto Rico 1903 San Francisco State College 1899 Northeastern University 189 8 University of Rhode Island 1892 Ithaca College 1892 Pembroke College 1891 University of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara 1891 University of Oklahoma 1890 University of Chicago 1890 Clark University 1887 Pratt I n s t i t u t e 1887 Catholic University of America 1887 continued... Table XII - continued Stanford University 1885 Temple University 18 84 University of Texas 1883 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e 1881 University of Connecticut 1881 Drake University 1881 University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles 1881 Bryn Mawr College 18 80 University fo Southern C a l i f o r n i a 1880 Rad c l i f f e College 1879 University of Oregon 1876 Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and Mechanical College 1875 Worcester State College 1874 Saint Peter's College 1872 Smith College 1871 Hunter College of the C i t y University of New York 1870 Colorado State University 1870 Saint John's University (New York) 1870 Wellesley College 1870 Syracuse University 1870 University of Nebraska 1869 Southern I l l i n o i s University 1869 University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley 1868 Morehouse College 1867 University of I l l i n o i s 1867 Drew University 1867 Howard University 1867 Johns Hopkins University 1867 Carleton College 1866 continued. Table XII - continued Cornell University 1865 University of Maine 186 5 Worcester Polytechnic I n s t i t u t e 1865 Ohio State University 1864 Swarthmore College 1864 University of Kansas 1864 University of Denver 1864 Boston College 1863 Adelphi University 186 3 University of Massachusetts 1863 Kansas State University 1863 University of Washington 1861 Vassar College 1861 University of Colorado 1861 Bard College 1860 Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology 1860 San Jose State College 1857 St. John's University (Minnesota) 1857 A l f r e d University 1857 Pennsylvania State University 185 5 University of San Francisco 1855 Washington University 1853 Manhattan College 1853 University of Minnesota 1851 Northwestern University 1851 University of Wisconsin 1848 Ci t y College of the C i t y University of New York 1847 State University of Iowa 1847 continued. Table XII - continued Bucknell University 1846 G r i n n e l l College 1846 Fordham University 1841 Boston University 1839 Davidson College 1836 Oberlin College 1833 Haverford College 18 32 New York University 1831 University of Alabama 1831 Wesleyan University 1831 Amherst College 1821 Indiana University 1820 Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and Mechanical College 1819 Saint Louis University 1818 University of Michigan 1817 Allegheny College 1815 Miami University 1809 University of Maryland 1807 University of South Carolina 1801 Williams College 1793 Georgetown University 1789 Dartmouth College 1769 Rutgers - The State University 1766 Brown University 1764 Columbia University 1754 Barnard College 1754 Princeton University 1746 University of Pennsylvania 1740 Yale University 1701 Harvard University 16 36 132 Table XIII Time Scores O b e r l i n C o l l e g e 1 U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas 11 U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan 23 Temple U n i v e r s i t y 35 Swarthmore C o l l e g e 35 C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e 37 Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 53 U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon 53 Columbia U n i v e r s i t y 56 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 58 Drake U n i v e r s i t y 65 U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin 66 H o f s t r a U n i v e r s i t y 71 A d e l p h i U n i v e r s i t y 71 Ya l e U n i v e r s i t y 75 U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s 75 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y 82 Harvard U n i v e r s i t y 136 C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y 173 U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado 189 Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y 229 Washington U n i v e r s i t y 240 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y 246 U n i v e r s i t y of Texas 251 U n i v e r s i t y of Washington 272 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa 287 continued. 133 T a b l e X I I I - c o n t i n u e d G r i n n e l l C o l l e g e 287 U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a 288 The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o 316 H a v e r f o r d C o l l e g e 341 B r y n Mawr C o l l e g e 341 A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e 345 The C i t y C o l l e g e o f the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York 352 U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a 36 5 U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s 371 Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y 371 Amherst C o l l e g e 371 Queens C o l l e g e o f The C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York 387 B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e o f The C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York 388 Drew U n i v e r s i t y 394 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 439 Hunter C o l l e g e o f The C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f New York ' 449 U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i 451 U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver 452 New York U n i v e r s i t y 464 B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y 468 Bard C o l l e g e 481 I t h a c a 603 Pembroke C o l l e g e i n Brown U n i v e r s i t y 624 The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a 6 37 Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y 637 U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d 648 U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma 675 c o n t i n u e d . T a b l e X I I I - c o n t i n u e d Smith C o l l e g e 706 U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama 747 Howard U n i v e r s i t y 7 50 P r a t t I n s t i t u t e 779 B a r n a r d C o l l e g e 781 U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a 786 U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a 786 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y (Minn.) 788 Morehouse C o l l e g e 791 Brown U n i v e r s i t y 79 6 W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e 951 Fordham U n i v e r s i t y 9 52 B o s t o n C o l l e g e 968 I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y 973 U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t 974 R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e 987 U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles 9 88 San J o s e S t a t e C o l l e g e 994 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York a t Stony Brook 1011 The Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1059 U n i v e r s i t y o f Maine 1072 Harpur C o l l e g e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York 1088 l o n a C o l l e g e 1093 W e l l e s l e y C o l l e g e 1097 Tuskegee I n s t i t u t e 1152 Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1159 B u c k n e l l U n i v e r s i t y 1160 A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y 1170 c o n t i n u e d . 135 Tab l e X I I I - c o n t i n u e d San F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e 1178 Alabama A g r i c u l t u r a l and M e c h a n i c a l C o l l e g e 1241 U n i v e r s i t y o f San F r a n c i s c o 1297 Oakland U n i v e r s i t y 1305 S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y 1338 C o l o r a d o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1354 Dartmouth C o l l e g e 1365 U n i v e r s i t y o f Rhode I s l a n d 1383 N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y 1447 The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1449 Fr e s n o S t a t e C o l l e g e 1465 Bo s t o n U n i v e r s i t y 1500 S a i n t John's U n i v e r s i t y (N.Y.) 1519 N o r t h e a s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y 1534 S a i n t P e t e r ' s C o l l e g e 1567 U n i v e r s i t y o f P u e r t o R i c o 1682 Manhattan C o l l e g e 1694 M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f Technology 1709 S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y 1869 Miami U n i v e r s i t y 187 4 Monmouth C o l l e g e 1878 D a v i d s o n C o l l e g e 1892 W o r c e s t e r S t a t e C o l l e g e 1897 W o r c e s t e r P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e 1897 Kansas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 2025 Claremont Men's C o l l e g e 2136 U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska 2145 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara 216 7 F a i r f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y 2170 S a i n t L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y 2199 C o l g a t e U n i v e r s i t y 2281 APPENDIX C WILLIAM JAMES ON ACADEMIC PRESTIGE 137 To my knowledge, the most eloquent c r i t i c of the importance of academic p r e s t i g e In /American h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n remains W i l l i a m James. Hi s remarks on the s u b j e c t are so p e r c e p t i v e , t i m e l e s s , and s e t i n such s t y l e t h a t , l i k e Bernard B e r e l s o n , I c o u l d not r e s i s t q u o t i n g them at l e n g t h . "Graduate schools are s t i l l something of a n o v e l t y , and h i g h e r diplomas something of a r a r i t y . The l a t t e r , t h e r e f o r e , c a r r y a vague sense of p r e c i o u s n e s s and honor, and have a p a r t i c u l a r l y "up-to-date" appearance, and i t i s no wonder i f s m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , unable t o a t t r a c t p r o f e s s o r s a l r e a d y eminent, and f o r c e d to r e c r u i t t h e i r f a c u l t i e s from the r e l a t i v e l y young, should hope t o compensate f o r the o b s c u r i t y of the names of t h e i r o f f i c e r s of i n s t r u c t i o n by the abundance of d e c o r a t i v e t i t l e s by which those names are f o l l o w e d on the pages of the catalogues where they appear. The d a z z l e d reader of the l i s t , the parent or student, says to h i m s e l f , "This must be a t e r r i b l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d crowd, - t h e i r t i t l e s s h i n e l i k e the s t a r s i n the firmament; Ph.D's S.D.'s, L i t t . D . ' s , bespangle the page as i f they were s p r i n k l e d over i t from a pepper c a s t e r . " Human nature i s once f o r a l l so c h i l d i s h t h a t every r e a l i t y becomes a sham somewhere and i n the minds of P r e s i d e n t s and T r u s t e e s the Ph.D. Degree i s i n p o i n t of f a c t a l r e a d y looked upon as a mere a d v e r t i s i n g r e s o u r c e , a manner of throwing dust i n the P u b l i c ' s eyes. "No i n -s t r u c t o r who i s not a Doctor" has become a maxim i n the s m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n s ... America i s thus as a n a t i o n r a p i d l y d r i f t i n g toward a s t a t e of t h i n g s i n which no man of s c i e n c e or l e t t e r s w i l l be accounted r e s p e c t a b l e u n l e s s some k i n d of badge or diploma i s stamped upon him, and i n which mere p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be a mark of o u t c a s t e s t a t e . Our h i g h e r degrees were i n s t i t u t e d f o r the l a u d a b l e purpose of s t i m u l a t i n g s c h o l a r s h i p , e s p e c i a l l y i n the form of " o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h . " Experience has proved t h a t g r e a t as the l o v e of t r u t h may be among man, i t c o u l d be made s t i l l 138 g r e a t e r by a d v e n t i t i o u s reward. The w i n n i n g o f a dipl o m a c e r t i f y i n g mastery and ma r k i n g a b a r r i e r s u c c e s s f u l l y p a s s e d , a c t s as a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e a m b i t i o u s ; and i f the di p l o m a w i l l h e l p t o g a i n b r e a d - w i n n i n g p o s i t i o n s a l s o , i t s power as a s t i m u l u s t o work i s t remendously i n c r e a s e d .... But the i n -s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g on a l a r g e s c a l e o f any n a t u r a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f need and m o t i v e always tends t o r u n i n t o t e c h n i c a l i t y and t o d e v e l o p a t y r a n n i c a l Machine w i t h u n f o r e s e e n powers o f e x l u s i o n and c o r r u p t i o n . To i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e f r e e development o f t a l e n t , t o o b s t r u c t the n a t u r a l p l a y o f s u p p l y and demand i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , t o f o s t e r snobbery by the p r e s t i g e o f c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o t r a n s f e r a c c r e d i t e d v a l u e from e s s e n t i a l manhood t o an outward badge, to b l i g h t hopes and promote i n v i d i o u s s e n t i m e n t , to d i v e r t the a t t e n t i o n o f a s p i r i n g y o u t h from d i r e c t d e a l i n g s w i t h t r u t h t o t h e p a s s i n g o f e x a m i n a t i o n s , - such consequences, i f t h e y e x i s t , ought s u r e l y t o be r e g a r d e d as drawbacks t o t h e system, and an e n l i g h t e n e d p u b l i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s ought t o be k e e n l y a l i v e t o the importance o f r e d u c i n g t h e i r amount ... I s n o t our growing tendency t o a p p o i n t no i n -s t r u c t o r s who a r e n o t a l s o d o c t o r s an i n s t a n c e o f pure sham? W i l l anyone p r e t e n d f o r a moment t h a t t h e d o c t o r ' s degree i s a guarantee t h a t i t s p o s s e s s o r w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l as a t e a c h e r ? N o t o r i o u s l y h i s m o r a l , s o c i a l , and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may u t t e r l y d i s q u a l i f y him from s u c c e s s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ; and o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h i s d o c t o r ' s e x a m i n a t i o n i s unable to t a k e any a c c o u n t whatever .... The t r u t h i s t h a t the Doctor-Monopoly i n t e a c h i n g , which i s becoming so r o o t e d an American custom, can show no s e r i o u s grounds whatsoever f o r i t s e l f i n r e a s o n . As I t a c t u a l l y p r e v a i l s and grows i n vogue among us, i t i s due t o c h i l d i s h m o t i v e s e x c l u s i v e l y . I n r e a l i t y i t i s b u t a sham, a b a u b l e , a dodge, whereby t o d e c o r a t e t h e c a t a l o g u e s o f s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s . . . . 139 Men without marked o r i g i n a l i t y or n a t i v e f o r c e , but fond o f t r u t h and e s p e c i a l l y of books and study, ambitious of reward and r e c o g n i t i o n , poor o f t e n , and needing a degree to get a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n , meek i n the eyes o f t h e i r examiners, - among these we f i n d ... the u n f i t i n .the academic s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e . There are i n d i v i d u a l s of t h i s s o r t f o r whom to pass one degree a f t e r another seems the l i m i t of e a r t h l y a s p i r a t i o n . Your p r i v a t e a d v i c e does not d i s c o u r a g e them, they w i l l f a i l , and go away to r e c u p e r a t e , and then p r e s e n t themselves f o r another o r d e a l , and sometimes p r o l o n g the process i n t o middle l i f e .... We know t h a t t h e r e i s not t e s t , however absurd, by which, i f a t i t l e or d e c o r a t i o n , a p u b l i c badge or mark, were to be won by i t , some weakly s u g g e s t i b l e or hauntable persons would not f e e l c h a l l e n g e d , and remain unhappy i f they went without i t . We dangle our t h r e e magic l e t t e r s b e f o r e the eyes of these p r e d e s t i n e d v i c t i m s , and they swarm t o us l i k e moths t o an e l e c t r i c l i g h t . . . . The more widespread becomes the popular b e l i e f t h a t our diplomas are i n d i s p e n s a b l e hallmarks to show the s t e r l i n g metal o f t h e i r h o l d e r s , the more widespread these c o r r u p t i o n s w i l l become. We ought t o look t o the f u t u r e c a r e f u l l y , f o r i t takes g e n e r a t i o n s f o r a n a t i o n a l custom, once rooted, t o be grown away from." 1 Bernard B e r e l s o n , Graduate Education i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 19 60, quoting W i l l i a m James, pp.22-23. 

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