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Aspects of structure in Gabriel Fauré’s Le jardin clos and related works Skoumal, Zdenek Denny 1982

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ASPECTS OF STRUCTURE IN GABRIEL FAURE'S LE JARDIN CLOS AND RELATED WORKS by ZDENEK DENNY SKOUMAL B.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980  A. THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Music  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as t o the r e q u i r e d  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. August 1982  (c)  Zdenek Denny Skouroal, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t for  that  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  g r a n t e d by  publication  not  be  Date  August  13,  1982  of  further this  Columbia  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Music  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  the  representatives.  permission.  Department o f  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood  the  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  ABSTRACT Despite an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number of s p e c i a l i z e d  stu-  d i e s i n music theory, only a l i m i t e d number can be found which examine the music of G a b r i e l Faure.  Most d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s  music are i n context of a h i s t o r i c a l overview, on Faure's use of m o d a l i t y .  with emphasis  T h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t s d e t a i l e d ana-  l y s e s of songs from the c y c l e Le J a r d i n C l o s , Op. h i g h l i g h t s s e v e r a l aspects of Faure's songs are brought  Various  and earlier  i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n i n order t o t r a c e s t y l i s -  t i c development and present evidence gard to Le J a r d i n C l o s . discussed  style.  106,  f o r views taken with r e -  Although m o d a l i t y i s p e r i o d i c a l l y  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Chapters  I I I and I V ) , the focus i s  not on t h i s f e a t u r e . Chapter I i n t r o d u c e s the n o t i o n of ambiguity, encountered  a problem  commonly i n the a n a l y s i s of Faure's music.  then proceeds  to p o i n t out one  source of  It  ambiguity--harmonic  p r o g r e s s i o n s d e r i v e d from the i m p l i c a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the motions of outer v o i c e s .  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s given to i n -  stances where the o u t e r v o i c e s move "in c o n t r a r y motion to create wedge-shaped s t r u c t u r e s .  In t h i s chapter, l i n e a r motion  i s emphasized. Chapter  I I t u r n s to v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s of t h i r d - r e l a t i o n .  The most extended  p o r t i o n of the chapter i s devoted  c u s s i o n of the "superchord", though heard  to a d i s -  a t e r t i a n s t r u c t u r e which, a l -  i n segments only, appears  as a c o n t r o l l i n g element  iii  i n l a r g e r areas of music.  D i s t i n c t i o n i s made between t h i s  phenomenon and a normal p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h i r d s  (i-VI-iv).  Other s t r u c t u r e s r e l a t e d to the superchord are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . The l a s t example of Chapter I I shows a s t r u c t u r e based on a combination of a t e r t i a n d e s i g n and a wedge shape. In Chapter I I I , v a r i o u s n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l ways of t r e a t i n g the l e a d i n g tone are examined.  In a d d i t i o n to l e a d i n g  tones which are lowered ( i n modal and t o n a l c o n t e x t s ) or a v o i ded, the d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e n t r a t e s on melodic l i n e s which  rise  to the l e a d i n g tone and r e t r e a t downward. Chapter IV reviews melodic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  encountered  up t o t h a t p o i n t , and, with the a d d i t i o n of f u r t h e r f e a t u r e s , p r e s e n t s a melody t y p i c a l of Faure's l a t e r s t y l e .  The major  i s s u e i n t h i s chapter concerns melodies t h a t c e n t e r around the f i f t h degree of the s c a l e . The f i n a l chapter r e t u r n s to the t o p i c of ambiguity by d i s c u s s i n g i n s t a n c e s where two t o n a l c e n t e r s are juxtaposed. T h i s f e a t u r e of Faure's music  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from b i t o n a l i -  t y , as the l a t t e r i s g e n e r a l l y understood.  Thesis Supervisor  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF EXAMPLES .  v  SYMBOLS USED IN THE ANALYTICAL SKETCHES  viii.•  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  ix  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER I .  OUTER-VOICE MOTION  CHAPTER I I .  STRUCTURES OF THIRD-RELATION  CHAPTER I I I .  THE LEADING TONE  The l e a d i n g tone a t more immediate levels (4-3)  5 19 kj, structural  The l e a d i n g tone a t h i g h e r s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s ( 5 0 ) CHAPTER IV.  THE MELODY  60  CHAPTER V.  DOUBLE TONALITIES  71  CONCLUSION  79  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  82  APPENDIX:  POEMS USED IN LE JA.RDIN CLOS  84  TRANSLATIONS OF THE POEMS  88  V  LIST OF EXAMPLES 1.1.  "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2, mm.  1-6  1.2.  "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2, Background harmonic progression  8  1.3-  '"Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'" Op. 106/2  9  7  1.^a^bfeTwo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of o u t e r - v o i c e motion i n mm. 1-5 o f "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux...'", Op. 106/2 1.4c 1.5  Outer-voice wedge s t r u c t u r e o f "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2  11 11  Outer-voice motion of "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux...'", Op. 106/2, mm.  13-20  12  1.6a  "Dans l a nymphee",  Op. 106/5, mm.  1-13  15  1.6b  "Dans l a nymphee",  Op. 106/5, mm.  1-5  15  1.7.  Outer-voice motion o f "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5, mm.  1-13  17  2.1.  T w e l f t h Nocturne. Op. 107, mm.  1-13  20  2.2.  Superchord complex b u i l t from t r i a d s  22  2.3. 2.4.  23  2.5.  Superchord complex b u i l t from seventh chords . . Chromatic a l t e r a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d by the superchordal structure " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " , Op. 106/8, mm. 1-5 .  2.6.  Untitled  28  2.7.  " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " , Op. 106/8  30  2.8.  "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm.  33  2.9.  "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of mm. 1-3  2.10.  "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm.  2.11.  "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 7-9• End o f a s u p e r c h o r d a l s t r u c t u r e , symbolized by stepwise motion between s t a b l e harmonies . .  1-3  An a l t e r n a t i v e 1-8  24 25  33 34  36  vi  2.12.  "Spleen", Op. 51/3. nun. related structure  39-43.  2.13.  "Les Matelote",  2.14a  "La mer e s t i n f i n i e . . . " ,  Op. 118/1, mm.  1-12  2.14b  "Lamer e s t i n f i n i e . . . " ,  Op. 118/1, mm.  1-3  3.1.  "Aubade", Op. 6/1, mm.  3.2.  " L Absent", Op. 5/3.  3.3>  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  Op. 2/2, mm.  superchord-  37  1-12  38 . . ..  .  5-10  mm.  1  . A  1-7  ^5  46  3.4.  " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " , Op. 106/8, mm.  3.5*  "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux..."', Op. 106/2, mm. 21-26  16-19.  48  106/7, mm. 44-47  49  "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'",  Op. 106/2, mm. 11-12  49  106/6,  3.8.  "Dans l a penombre",  3.9.  Untitled  3.10.  " L y d i a " , Op. 4/2, mm.  3.11.  Main t o n a l c e n t e r s i n "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. mm.  Op.  mm.  13-14  1-7  54  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  3.16.  Op. 106/7. H i g h - l e v e l melodic motion "'Je me p o s e r a i s u r ton coeur...'", Op. H i g h - l e v e l melodic motion "'Je me p o s e r a i s u r ton coeur...'", Op.  mm.  1-6  106/4.  .  54  55 56  106/4,  16-17  57  "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2.  4.1.  2/2,  1-10  3.13.  mm.  50 52  Main t o n a l c e n t e r s i n " L y d i a " , Op. 4/2,  3.15.  . . . .  51  3.12.  3.14.  ^8  "*I1 m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op.  3.7.  40 44  Op. 106/7, mm. 9-10  3.6.  40  H i g h - l e v e l melodic  motion  58  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...*", Op.  106/7, mm. 45-50  '  6l  vii  4.2. 4.3.  106/1,  "Exaucement", Op.  mm.  " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " , Op. activity  106/8.  Melodic  4.4.  "A Clymene", Op. 58/4,  4.5.  " P a r a d i s " , Op. 95/1,  4.6.  Comparison of the L y d i a n and Dorian modes  4.7.  Surface melodic a c t i v i t y i n the opening measures of songs from Le J a r d i n C l o s . Op. 106, and L*Horizon Chimerique, Op. 118  4.8.  mm.  6l  25-28  mm.  1-7  63  1-11  64 . . .  Comparison of e a r l y and l a t e melodies  4.10.  "Exaucement", Op.  5.1.  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  106/1.-  69  Melodic a c t i v i t y  . . .  70  Op. 106/7, mm. 5-6  72  P o s s i b l e connection between mm. 6-7 and m. 15 of " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'" Op. 106/7  73  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'".  Op. 106/7, mm. 13-15  73  5.4.  Appearances of the dominant of a secondary tonal i t y i n "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5  5.5.  "Dans l a nymphee", Op.  5.6.  "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'",  5.7.  67  68  4.9.  5.3.  66  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  Op. 106/7, mm. 12-15  5.2.  62  106/5,  mm.  21-24  . . . .  75  76  Op. 106/2, mm. 1-2  76  S i m i l a r i t i e s of phrases 1, 2, and 5 of "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2  78  V l l l  SYMBOLS USED I N THE ANALYTICAL SKETCHES  S l u r s are used to t r a c e stepwise melodic motion as w e l l as to d e l i n e a t e spans. \  Dotted s l u r s  (or lines) indicate retained pitches.  Parentheses surround notes o r chords which are n o t o f primary importance, but which are h e l p f u l i n understand i n g the m u s i c a l events. Square b r a c k e t s e n c l o s e notes o r chords which are s u p p l i e d by the author. These may be heard a t a d i f f e r e n t octave, o r simply i m p l i e d by the v o i c e l e a d i n g . Q T h i s sequence i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e importance of notes; s t a r t i n g w i t h the l e a s t important a t l e f t . In g e n e r a l , l a r g e r noteheads i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r importance. or  T r a n s f e r o f a v o i c e t o a d i f f e r e n t octave. Voice exchange.  i n p l a c e o f a notehead., Non-existent p i t c h which would be l o g i c a l a t that p o i n t . S l a s h — u s e d with Roman numerals. These show t h a t the chord i s i n some way a l t e r e d ( f o r example, i f the dominant i s heard with a lowered 5 ) .  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I t i s w i t h g r a t i t u d e t h a t I wish t o acknowledge P r o f e s s o r W i l l i a m E. Benjamin, whose help and guidance my ideas t o develop and assume a p r e s e n t a b l e form.  allowed  I also  would l i k e t o thank P r o f e s s o r C o r t l a n d H u l t b e r g f o r h i s h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s , and Mrs. Maria Kahovec f o r h e l p with texts.  French  The t r a n s l a t i o n s o f the poems are mainly h e r work. F i n a l l y , I wish t o thank my p a r e n t s , whose support and  encouragement allowed me t o complete t h i s endeavor.  1  INTRODUCTION  The  w o r k o f G a b r i e l Faure' ( 1 8 4 5 - 1 9 2 4 ) o c c u p i e s a c u -  rious position  i n the h i s t o r y o f music.  A l t h o u g h many  people  r e c o g n i z e Faure' a s a n i m p o r t a n t c o m p o s e r , o n l y a f e w o f h i s compositions a r e performed  w i t h some d e g r e e o f r e g u l a r i t y — t h e  R e q u i e m . Op. 4 8 , t h e P a v a n e . Op. 50, o r c h e s t r a , Op. 1 9 , t h e two v i o l i n  t h e B a l l a d e f o r p i a n o and  s o n a t a s , Op. 13 a n d 1 0 8 , t h e  E l e g i e f o r c e l l o a n d p i a n o , Op. 2 4 , a n d s o n g s s u c h a s L y d i a . Op. 4/2, a n d A p r e s u n r e v e . Op. 7 / 1 .  H i s m u s i c i s most o f t e n  d e s c r i b e d as d r y o r u n i n t e r e s t i n g , and i n g e n e r a l d i f f i c u l t t o understand. to  Faure's  S u c h d e s c r i p t i o n s seem t o a p p l y m o s t c o m f o r t a b l y l a t e r worksj  one s h o u l d n o t e t h a t , w i t h one ex-,  c e p t i o n , a l l o f t h e abovementioned c o m p o s i t i o n s have  relati-  v e l y e a r l y opus n u m b e r s ( F a u r e ' s l a s t c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e s t r i n g quartet,  i s Op. 1 2 1 ) . The  r e c e p t i o n o f Faure's  songs c l e a r l y  indicates the  public's preference f o r h i s e a r l i e r compositions; while i t i s v e r y common t o f i n d cital,  i t i s unusual  F a u r e * s name on t h e p r o g r a m o f a v o i c e r e t o hear  songs beyond those  o f Op. 61 ( L a  Bonne C h a n s o n ) , a n d r a r e t o h e a r a n y o f t h e l a s t f o u r s o n g c y c l e s . K e n n e t h D. P e n n i n g t o n situationt  effectively  characterizes this  2  S e v e r a l o f t h e m e l o d i e s o f t h e e a r l y and m i d d l e p e r i o d s ( s u c h a s " L y d i a " , " A p r e s un r e v e " , a n d C l a i r de l u n e " ) h a v e a t t a i n e d a u n i v e r s a l p o p u l a r i t y , b u t even t h e s e r i o u s s t u d e n t o f s o n g l i t e r a t u r e i s u s u a l l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h most o f F a u r e * s m e l o d i e s a f t e r L a Bonne C h a n s o n . I t i s ironic t h a t F a u r e , whose l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t was so p r o n o u n c e d , s h o u l d be known t o many a s t h e c o m p o s e r o f a f e w s o n g s t h a t were p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n by h i s t w e n t i e t h y e a r . l H  Robert Orledge expresses a s i m i l a r opinions The p u b l i c i s n o t k i n d t o c o m p o s e r s who e v o l v e away f r o m a familiar style: the m a j o r i t y of Ravel's e n t h u s i a s t i c a u d i e n c e f o r -Jeux d'eau w e r e u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e H i s t o i r e s n a t u r e l l e s and t h e V a l s e s n o b l e s e t s e n t i m e n t a l e s . j u s t a s F a u r e l e f t h i s a u d i e n c e b e h i n d w i t h L a Bonne Chanson. Time and a g a i n h i s m u s i c i s j u d g e d d i f f i c u l t t o u n - • derstand or place i n i t s proper perspective.2 Although Orledge w r i t e s  " i t i s only very recently  that  s i g n s o f an e n t h u s i a s t i c and s c h o l a r l y r e d i s c o v e r y [ o f F a u r e ' s m u s i c ] have begun t o emerge", of  3  Aaron Copland's  Faure as a " n e g l e c t e d m a s t e r " s t i l l  siders studies of a t h e o r e t i c a l nature.  1924  description  a p p l i e s when one 4  con-  V e r y few a n a l y s e s o f  F a u r e ' s w o r k s c a n be f o u n d and t h o s e t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e  are  o f t e n o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s o f a l a r g e number o f v a r i e d pieces.  The  aim o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o c l o s e l y examine a  l a t e - p e r i o d work and t o p o i n t out t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s set  Faure a p a r t from o t h e r composers w o r k i n g i n the  that  late-Roman-  K e n n e t h D. P e n n i n g t o n , "A. H i s t o r i c a l a n d S t y l i s t i c S t u d y o f t h e M e l o d i e s o f G a b r i e l F a u r e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I n d i a n a , 1961), p . 195R o b e r t Orledge, G a b r i e l Faure 1979). p . 41. 2  Books,  3  I b i d . , p.  (London 1  Eulenburg  43.  - Aaron Copland, " G a b r i e l Faure, a N e g l e c t e d Master." M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 10 ( O c t o b e r 1924)»573.  3  tic  idiom.  Ultimately,  reasons w i l l be  suggested f o r the  l e s s e r p o p u l a r i t y of h i s l a t e works. The  songs  Although examples w i l l be g i v e n Faure's p i e c e s ,  the main a n a l y t i c a l emphasis w i l l be  song c y c l e Le J a r d i n C l o s , Op. r i n g the second h a l f of 1914 Symbolist poet Charles was  the  from a v a r i e t y of  Van  106.  and  The  c y c l e was  three  composed  The  Belgian source  Although  a p o e t i c c y c l e t i t l e d Le J a r d i n C l o s .  of the l a t t e r ' s component poems were used by the  Enonly  composer.-*  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the poem "Exaucement", which i n c l u d e s line  "Fee  endormie au  du-  (1898) from which Faure' s e l e c -  t e d e i g h t poems on the b a s i s of thematic u n i t y . t r e v i s i o n s contains  the  s e t s the p o e t r y of the  Lerberghe (1861-1907).  c o l l e c t i o n Entre v i s ions  on  the  j a r d i n c l o s " , i s not p a r t o f Lerberghe's  p o e t i c cycle? nevertheless,  i t i s the f i r s t  song of Faure'*s  song c y c l e . Faure''s Le J a r d i n Clos comprises o f the eight  following  songss 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Exaucement "Quand tu^plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux..." La Messagere "Je me p o s e r a i sur ton coeur..." Dans l a nymphee Dans l a penombre " I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau..." I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e 0  "'These are the u n t i t l e d poems i n the  Appendix.  ^Beginning i n Chapter I, c i t a t i o n s of these songs w i l l o f t e n appear w i t h p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y enclosed numbers. These numbers s i g n i f y the p o s i t i o n i n g of the songs i n the c y c l e and w i l l be u s e f u l i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the members of Le J a r d i n Clos from o t h e r works b e i n g d i s c u s s e d .  4  Only t h r e e o f t h e songs a r e n o t s e t t i n g s o f t h e complete poems; t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a s h a v e b e e n o m i t t e d ,  stanza 3 i n  " E x a u c e m e n t " . s t a n z a 2 i n "Dans l a p e n o m b r e " , a n d s t a n z a s 4 and 5 i n " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e a s a b l e " .  I t i s possible that the  s t a n z a s o f " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " were n o t used t o a s s u r e a t r a g i c e n d i n g t o t h e song, and hence,  t o t h e c y c l e as a whole  ( V a n L e r b e r g h e ' s poem e n d s somewhat e n i g m a t i c a l l y , w i t h a n i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t d e a t h i s somehow n o t f i n a l ) •  I t i s noteworthy  t h a t t h e s o n g i s t h e o n l y one i n t h e c y c l e w h i c h key.  i s i n a minor  8  W h i l e Le J a r d i n C l o s w i l l be t h e p r i n c i p a l a t t e n t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages, as w e l l . Op. 95i  These i n c l u d e  object of  o t h e r songs w i l l be examined  " P a r a d i s " from L a Chanson D * Eve.  " L a mer e s t i n f i n i e . . . "  from L*Horizon  Chimerique.  Op. 1 1 8 , a n d v a r i o u s e a r l i e r s o n g s , u s e d m a i n l y t o t r a c e listic  traits.  One p i a n o w o r k — t h e  - - i s quoted t o i l l u s t r a t e sence  a more g e n e r a l c o n c e p t .  i n the discussion i s j u s t i f i e d  x i m i t y t o Le J a r d i n  T w e l f t h N o c t u r n e . Op.  sty107  I t s pre-  by i t s c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o -  Clos.  ' A l l t h e poems a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y i n t h e Appendix. 8  ' R o b e r t O r l e d g e n o t e s t h a t i n F a u r e ' s o r i g i n a l manus c r i p t t h e s o n g e n d s w i t h a " t i e r c e de p i c a r d i e . " 9 One may s p e c u l a t e t h a t Faure had i n mind t h e l e s s t r a g i c e n d i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l poem. ^Orledge, G a b r i e l Faure, p.  1^5.  5  CHAPTER  I  OUTER-VOICE MOTION It  i sprobably  safe t o say that during the l a t e  teenth century musical Admittedly,  nine-  s t r u c t u r e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x .  s i m i l a r statements  c o u l d b e made w i t h r e g a r d t o  o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s j however, t h e l a t e Romantic e r a i s special  i n that the complexity  r e s u l t s n o t o n l y from t h e evo-  l u t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h e d musical p a t t e r n s , b u t a l s o from the e f f e c t s o f new i d e a s t h a t a r e n o t b a s e d u p o n t r a d i t i o n . a mixture  inevitably results  i n t h e appearance o f a problem  t h a t i s a n y t h i n g b u t uncommon i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h i s ambiguity  Such  o f r e f e r e n c e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l and  musici  non-conventional  structures. The  j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f o l d a n d new a p p e a r s t o b e m a i n l y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e ambiguous n a t u r e poser  i sstill  working  z i n g them i n u n u s u a l tonal—major/minor tonalities step—and  o f F a u r e ' s m u s i c ; t h e com-  with traditional  chords,  patterns of succession.  chord  structures prevail,  but i s organi-  The m u s i c i s s t i l l identification of  i sn o t a problem, v o i c e - l e a d i n g i spredominantly  by  y e t , t h e l i s t e n e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s as t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s  i m p l i e d by t h e chords a r e n o t always f u l f i l l e d . w h i l e t h e m u s i c may a p p e a r s i m p l e f r u s t r a t i n g l y enigmatic  Consequently,  on t h e s u r f a c e , i t becomes  on c l o s e r s t u d y .  Furthermore, the f o r -  6  m a t i o n o f a c o n v i n c i n g a n a l y s i s becomes more c o m p l i c a t e d b y the  f a c t t h a t F a u r e was  t r a d i t i o n a l elements t  somewhat i n c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s u s e o f t h e one  f i n d s t h a t w h i l e some w o r k s may i n -  c l u d e o n l y a f e w o b s c u r i n g f e a t u r e s , o t h e r s may b a s e d on a new II,  underlying logic.  be  altogether  The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r  a n d C h a p t e r V c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e q u e s t i o n o f h a r m o n i c  or-  g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e m u s i c , and a i m t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e a m b i g u i t y o f Faure's music  i n t h i s dimension of  Attention w i l l — " L e s M a t e l o t s " , Op.  f i r s t be f o c u s e d on a v e r y e a r l y 2/2,  w r i t t e n i n 1865  years o l d . Examination of t h i s to  structure. song  when Faure' was  song p r o v i d e s the  opportunity  d e l i n e a t e those aspects of the music t h a t are understood t o  be t r a d i t i o n a l a n d a l l o w s one t o show t h a t e v e n a n e a r l y such as t h i s  contains f e a t u r e s prominent  E x a m p l e 1.1 the  song  i n Faure's l a t e r  shows a m i d d l e g r o u n d s k e t c h t h a t  style.  outlines  f u n d a m e n t a l harmony, as w e l l as t h e m e l o d i c d i r e c t i o n s  f o u r e s s e n t i a l v o i c e s . The  clearly  on t h e t h i r d s t a f f  i n a l a t e r discussion);.  1-8,  (notes i n parentheses are  i s shown  referred  I t i s clear that traditional  motion  b y d e s c e n d i n g f i f t h s p r e d o m i n a t e s , b u t i t h a s t o be p o i n t e d t h a t i t does n o t s e r v e as t h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l l i n g s i x t e e n measures.  While the f i r s t  c o n v e n t i o n a l harmonic  two p h r a s e s a r e b a s e d on  d e s i g n , t h e harmony o f mm.  it  a  9 t o 16 i s soprano  E v e n t h o u g h a V - I p r o g r e s s i o n d o e s a p p e a r i n m.  c a n n o t be  out  factor i n a l l  c l e a r l y the r e s u l t o f the c o n t r a r y motion between the and b a s s .  of  r o o t - m o t i o n embodied i n t h e s e v o i c e s ,  i n c l u d i n g t h a t w h i c h e m e r g e s o v e r t h e p e d a l i n mm.  to  20  c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e any h a r m o n i c m e a n i n g a s i d e  13» from  7  E x a m p l e 1.1  "Les M a t e l o t s " ,  Op. 2/2, mm.  i t s p u r e l y l o c a l f u n c t i o n . Linear motion i s the  1-16.  determining  f a c t o r h e r e j t h e harmony i s a b y - p r o d u c t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , though, t h a t care has been taken foreground  is still  t o assure  that the r e s u l t i n g  t r a d i t i o n a l — n o unusual chords are genera-  t e d and v o i c e - l e a d i n g i s c o n v e n t i o n a l . ground harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n  In f a c t ,  only a  middle-  i s m i s s i n g , and, as has j u s t been  mentioned, i t s f u n c t i o n has been r e p l a c e d by t h e d i v e r g i n g lodic lines.  The f i n a l  me-  cadence i s noteworthy s i n c e i t b r i n g s  about a break i n the stepwise  bass motion of the preceding  mea-  s u r e s . The d e s c e n d i n g - f i f t h l e a p s u g g e s t s a r e t u r n t o t h e l o g i c  8 of the opening e i g h t measures,  and h i n t s a t a p o s s i b l e  n e c t i o n between the two a r e a s . to see; the f i n a l cadence  con-  The connection i s n o t d i f f i c u l t  serves as the c o n c l u s i o n o f a back-  up  ground I - i i i - V  -I progression  Example 1.2  (Example 1.2).  "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2. Background  E^i  I- -  iii  harmonic  . . V  7  progression.  _^ I  Example 1.3. a graph o f "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux'" ( 2 ) , p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison t o "Les Matelots".  W r i t t e n 5 0 years l a t e r , the former s t i l l  r e t a i n s some  of the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seen i n Faure's e a r l y s t y l e .  The  most n o t a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s to the e a r l i e r song are the presence of f i f t h - b a s e d p r o g r e s s i o n s and the appearance t r a r y motion i n the o u t e r v o i c e s .  o f extended con-  The t r a d i t i o n a l p r o g r e s s i o n s  may be obvious (mm. 10-12), p a r t l y hidden (mm. 1-4), o r t o t a l l y obscure (mm. 13-19), but t h e i r presence does appear t o have some b e a r i n g on the d e s i g n o f the song as a whole. phrases i n the song--mm. 1 - 5 . mm. mm.  5~9, mm.  There are f i v e  10-13, mm.  14-20, and  20-26—and each phrase can be seen as i n f l u e n c e d by a t r a -  d i t i o n a l harmonic p l a n t o a c e r t a i n degree. i s c l e a r e s t i n mm.  1 - 5 ; i n mm.  The c o n t r a r y motion  5 - 7 i t i s l e s s obvious because  of an incomplete bass l i n e , w h i l e i n mm.  10-12 o n l y the upper  E x a m p l e 1.3  "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s y e u x dans mes y e u x . . . ' " , Op.  106/2.  10 of  the c o n t r a s t i n g l i n e s remains}  nic.  t h e b a s s i s c l e a r l y harmo-  Thus, i n the course o f the f i r s t  three phrases there  a p p e a r s t o be a g r a d u a l change f r o m a m e l o d i c t o a bass l i n e .  S t a r t i n g i n m.  12,  a c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n i s heard  which b r i n g s about a r e t u r n t o c o n t r a r y motion. a n d mm.  13-20  will  now  harmonic  be e x a m i n e d i n more  While i t i s normal t o f i n d  B o t h mm.  1-5  detail.  contrary motion i n t r a d i -  t i o n a l harmony, t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s o f t h e f i r s t phrase i s unusual.  The  s o p r a n o C i n mm.  3 and 4,  which  w o u l d n o r m a l l y be h a r m o n i z e d b y a V c h o r d , a p p e a r s o v e r t h e Q  IV, to  and a I V  chord i s formed.  7  S i n c e t h i s harmony i s meant  f u n c t i o n a s a s t r u c t u r a l e n t i t y and n o t t o s o u n d a s a p a s -  s i n g c h o r d , i t i s g i v e n g r e a t e r f o c u s by t h e l e a p o f a in  the bass; the E - f l a t  i n t h e b a s s o f m.  of  t h e e x p e c t e d C.  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two  The  c a n be u n d e r s t o o d i n two w a y s t point  (Example  1.4a),  1)  fourth  3 i s used i n p l a c e outer voices  as t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r -  b u t i n a v e r s i o n where t h e soprano  p l e t e s i t s path from P t o C a t a f a s t e r rate than u s u a l subsequently  "waits" f o r the bass to f i n i s h  are  (Example  1.4b).  Although both of these  is unusually high. (see  E x a m p l e 1.4c  One  was  Op.  107.  struc-  the  i n Faure's o t h e r works  a l r e a d y s e e n i n "Les  f o r a clear illustration);  f o u n d i n "Dans l a nymphee" (5)»  2)  interpretations  p l a u s i b l e , the second i s e a s i e r t o s u b s t a n t i a t e }  number o f o c c u r e n c e s o f s i m i l a r s h a p e s  and  i t s course, or  a s an i n c o m p l e t e v e r s i o n o f a l a r g e s y m m e t r i c a l wedge ture  com-  Matelots"  o t h e r s c a n be  and t h e T w e l f t h N o c t u r n e ,  The wedge s t r u c t u r e m u s t be v i e w e d a s a n  essential  11  element of Faure's c o m p o s i t i o n a l technique. Example 1.4  Two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of o u t e r - v o i c e motion i n mm. 1-5 of "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux...'", Op. 106/2.  a  b  i^r h —r-z _  a  J1  1  «  1  Example 1.4c  •—•  -  »  T~  1—'—'—  .  - In  '  i  «  r-  '  — — * — f » — i " — h i — i — i n — L 7 • 1-1 M  —  apart from the remainder of the song: motion at a l e v e l  13-20  1) i n c r e a s e d  parallel  j u s t below the s u r f a c e , and 2) a change of  mode from F major to F minor. 14-16  » T  There are two main f e a t u r e s t h a t s e t mm.  mm.  —  Outer-voice wedge s t r u c t u r e of "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2.  ,  ft'  , — • — *  The p a r a l l e l i s m , seen i n  and 18-19, i s f u r t h e r evidence of a break from t r a d i -  tional voice-leading.  Although, as i s customary i n Faure's  music, i t i s hidden i n the foreground by s e q u e n t i a l and n e i g h b o u r i n g motions, i t i s c l e a r l y seen i n a middleground sketch where i t p l a y s an important r o l e as a f o i l to the c o n t r o l l i n g c o n t r a r y motion (Example  1.5)•  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i n "'Quand  t u p l o n g e s . . . ' " i t a l s o serves as an agent of p r o l o n g a t i o n by  12 d e l a y i n g t h e b a s s m o t i o n f r o m D - f l a t t o C i n mm. t h e m e l o d y moves f r o m A - f l a t t o C.  The  14-17  while  change o f mode men-  t i o n e d a b o v e d o e s n o t r e f e r t o t h e o v e r a l l harmony o f t h e s e c t i o n , but r a t h e r t o the a l l - i m p o r t a n t outer v o i c e s . though t h e b a s i c shape has remained  s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the  p r e c e d i n g p h r a s e s , t h e l i n e s a p p e a r t o be b a s e d on a n scale.  The  Al-  f o l l o w i n g example summarizes  F-minor  the main m e l o d i c  motion. E x a m p l e 1.5  O u t e r - v o i c e m o t i o n o f "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s y e u x . . . ' " , Op. 106/2, mm. 13-20.  ».  f tu _MS -ijr-r  IU  ) 1  , — i-i *  "  19  ' 16  13  i  9  ' «  fc-j» f t t  In  »  9*  b  The p r o l o n g a t i o n  bi  •  r  •  i  —  J  i — f — f j — IV V  ( o r d i v e r s i o n o f d e s c e n t ) i n mm.  has a l r e a d y been mentionedt  the seemingly f o r e i g n f i n a l  14-17 chord  i l l u s t r a t e s t h e phenomenon o f d o u b l e t o n a l i t i e s t h a t w i l l  be  t h e s u b j e c t o f C h a p t e r V.  that,  d e s p i t e t h e changes g r e s s i o n can s t i l l m.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note here  from the p r e v i o u s p h r a s e s , a I-IV-V p r o be  isolated.  The  e n t i r e a r e a o f m.  16 i s u n d e r s t o o d a s I ( t h e D - f l a t c h o r d i n mm.  13-14  13  to  is  s u b s t i t u t e d f o r an F - c h o r d a n d a c c o m o d a t e s t h e A - f l a t i n t h e m e l o d y ) , t h e I V i s h e a r d i n m.  18,  and t h e V i n m.  19.  Clear-  l y , t h o u g h , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e weak I a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f a m a j o r s e v e n t h i n t h e V, t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o g r e s s i o n d o e s n o t emerge a s s u c h .  These remnants  o f t r a d i t i o n a l harmony a r e  de-  13  c i d e d l y secondary  t o the c o n t r o l l i n g design of the outer  voices. One f i n a l  example w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d h e r e , mm.  "Dans l a nymphee" ( 5 ) . T h i s e x c e r p t was c h o s e n reasons*  1-13 o f  f o r several  t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l and non-conven-  t i o n a l elements  becomes more p r o n o u n c e d ,  the l i n e a r  structure  c o n t r o l s a much l a r g e r a r e a , a n d p a r a l l e l m o t i o n t a k e s on greater structural  importance.  Additionally,  since the l i n e a r  d e s i g n i s l e s s o b v i o u s h e r e t h a n i t was i n p r e v i o u s an a n a l y s i s w i l l at  f i r s t be In  examples,  show i t i s i n f a c t more i m p o r t a n t t h a n may  apparent.  some sense," "Dans l a nymphee" seems more c o m p l e x  t h a n o t h e r s o n g s o f Op. 1 0 6 ; t h i s i s u n d o u b t e d l y increased chromaticism. t i c i s m elsewhere,  due t o t h e  A l t h o u g h Faure d i d n o t a v o i d chroma-  i t i s e s p e c i a l l y prominent  here as i t i s  used t o c r e a t e t h e e t h e r e a l atmosphere suggested by t h e t e x t . * It  a p p e a r s m a i n l y i n two f o r m s j  e x a m p l e i n mm.  a s a s u r f a c e phenomenon ( f o r  2 a n d 3) a n d a s a b a s i s f o r a d e s i g n w h i c h i n 2  v o l v e s s i m u l t a n e o u s u s e o f two t o n a l i t i e s . of  these f a c t o r s plays a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e  c u s s i o n , and hence t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l  1  However, n e i t h e r i n the present  dis-  be p r e s e n t e d o n l y i n  F o r t e x t s and t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s , see t h e Appendix.  2 of  this  For c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s t e r m i n o l o g y see d i s c u s s i o n s o n g i n C h a p t e r V, p p . 7 4 - 7 6 .  14  terms of the p r i n c i p l e s first  introduced thus f a r .  A graph of  t h i r t e e n m e a s u r e s i s shown i n E x a m p l e The  c l e a r e s t way  1.6a.  to p e r c e i v e the s t r u c t u r e of  song i s t o examine v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s , one  t h a t i s most remote ( w h i t e n o t e s  this  starting with  i n the graph).  t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d p r o g r e s s i o n c a n be  the  isolated,  one  A. t r a d i that i s not  u n l i k e t h a t s e e n i n E x a m p l e 1.1.  The  main harmonic motion i s  f r o m I (mm.  to V  7  1-5),  23-24.)  (mm.  The  t o i i i (m.  The  (mm.  i n i t i a l I i s prolonged  matically filled-in here f i l l s  13),  I-V'-I.  The  23),  to  I  by a s e p a r a t e ,  chro-  s e c t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i n background motion from I to m a i n l i n k b e t w e e n t h e I and  iii.  i i i i s a I I , the  E - f l a t , f o u r - t h r e e c h o r d i n m. 9, w h i c h c r e a t e s a s t e p w i s e 7 7 I - I I - i i i p r o g r e s s i o n . Although the p r o g r e s s i o n I I - i i i i s not  common, i t i s e x p l a i n a b l e i n t r a d i t i o n a l harmony ( i t c a n  be h e a r d  as a d e c e p t i v e  cadence i n A - f l a t ) .  The  connections  b e t w e e n t h e s e h a r m o n i e s a r e , h o w e v e r , more p r o b l e m a t i c , t h e r e i s no m i d d l e g r o u n d t h a t c a n be  level  i n t h e same h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e  seen t o p r o l o n g the main s t r u c t u r a l events.  abovementioned . I - V - I  o f mm.  purpose, but  i s prolonged  7  In  i t itself  f a c t , t h e o n l y way  m.  1,  m.  10)  c o u l d be  that  i n an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l  way.  c a n be  explained i s  o f the o u t e r voices-. i t o r i g i n a t e s on F i n  A - f l a t t o D - f l a t i n m.  d e s c e n d s b a c k t o F i n m.  l a r g e arch which,  The  s a i d to serve  m e l o d y i s somewhat c l e a r e r ;  r i s e s through and  1-5  the middleground  once a g a i n b y e x a m i n a t i o n The  as  12,  9  (= C - s h a r p i n  thereby  creating a  i n i t s ascent, a r p e g g i a t e s the t o n i c  triad.  Example  1.6  "Dans l a nympheeV, Op.' 10.6/5.  8  7 s  W-^  e  ft' ) 5  ^  —  • — ^  •  ^ — V |%  s  ^ — t  1  •^  L i — —  i  D I ? I I  v '  I  11  9  13  iii  Alternate version of mm. 1 -5  D  LL JfihjL  jf 0  —  ©-"4 rV  m  S <  L —  1  .>*. .1*4  Hi-** b V — g  K  1  c  B  MH  6  -i  - » - > — * — ^ Hrr- — j — — 1 •  ^  — ' LT  i  (Ci I V  ?  ©-  22  7  V  I  9  23  V  7  I  7  )  16  This arch  i s overlapped  b y a s m a l l e r o n e , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e s on  the  A - f l a t o f m. k ( G - s h a r p o f m. 5 ) , r i s e s t o t h e same  and  then descends t o the A - f l a t  The  problematic  two  l a r g e segments w h i c h a r e n o t l i n e a r l y c o n n e c t e d .  is  voice  climax,  i n m. 13 ( s e e E x a m p l e 1.7).  i s t h e b a s s , s i n c e i t c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o  a p p a r e n t i n m e a s u r e s 1-5;  The  first  i t d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e t o n i c i n m. 1  t o t h e d o m i n a n t i n m. 4, a n d l e a p s b a c k t o t h e t o n i c i n m. 5» The  s e c o n d s e g m e n t , w h i c h b e g i n s i n m. 6, c a n a l s o be t r a c e d  to the f i r s t  measure, b u t o n l y w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o r i g i n a t e s as an i n n e r v o i c e .  Beginning  3  the melody, and c o n t i n u i n g i n u n i s o n  with  that i t  on t h e same n o t e a s i t i n mm.  1-4 ( F ,  F - s h a r p , G ) , t h i s v o i c e becomes i n d e p e n d e n t i n m. :4, where i t moves t o G - f l a t , r e t u r n i n g t o F i n m. 5« exchange o c c u r s — t h e and  A-flat  moves t o t h e m e l o d y .  At that point a voice-  i n t h e b a s s i s r e s p e l l e d a s G-sharp  The new b a s s t h e n c o n t i n u e s  t o E a n d D i n m. 7, C a n d B i n m. 8, B - f l a t i n m. 10, a n d E - f l a t D-flat The  stepwise  i n m. 9, A, G, F  i n m. 11, f i n a l l y r e a c h i n g  i n m. 12, w h e r e t h e l a r g e m e l o d i c a r c h  the t o n i c  i s completed.  D - f l a t , however, i s n o t heard as a g o a l ; b o t h v o i c e s  d i r e c t i o n a t t h a t p o i n t and r i s e s t r u c t u r a l F m i n o r i n m. 13. significant) that t h i s l a s t  change  i n p a r a l l e l motion t o the  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g (and perhaps ascent ( D - f l a t seventh,  E-flat  seventh, F minor) i s a microcosmic v e r s i o n o f the background  T h i s was a l r e a d y  seen i n Example  1.1.  17  harmony up to t h i s p o i n t .  A s k e l e t a l summary of the  comments i s shown i n Example Example 1.7  preceding  1.7.  Outer-voice motion o f "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5, mm. 1-13.  1  5  .  9  ,  A. noteworthy f e a t u r e i n the graph i s the motion of mm. i n Example 1.3  10-13. (mm.  Although t h i s f e a t u r e was  13.  parallel p r e v i o u s l y seen  14-16), i t o n l y appeared as a l o c a l  prolon-  gation} a r e s u l t of a momentary change i n the d i r e c t i o n of of the v o i c e s .  Here i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the  s t r u c t u r e , b e i n g of equal motion.  In g e n e r a l , one  one  linear  importance to the p r e c e d i n g  contrary  f i n d s t h a t p a r a l l e l motion i s l e s s  common i n Faure's music than c o n t r a r y motion.  One  reason  would  seem to be t h a t the l a t t e r tends to suggest more i n t e r e s t i n g and unusual chord The  successions.  foreground  of t h i s example r e p r e s e n t s the  prolon-  g a t i o n s or e l a b o r a t i o n s of those harmonies t h a t were d e r i v e d a t the middleground l e v e l from the o u t e r - v o i c e motion. problems of ambiguity appear: e l a b o r a t e d , and those t e n t manner.  In mm.  Two  not a l l middleground chords are  t h a t are are e l a b o r a t e d i n an i n c o n s i s 6-11,  a t l e a s t two  means of p r o l o n g a t i o n  18  c a n be f o u n d  (see Example 1 . 6 a ) .  I n m.  6, t h e s e c o n d a r y  l o d i c motion G-sharp, F-sharp, E - n a t u r a l d e l a y s the o f m. are  7.  The  A-natural  t h r e e m e l o d i c n o t e s are s u p p o r t e d by chords  r e l a t e d o n l y b y s t e p w i s e v o i c e - l e a d i n g } t h e r e i s no  c a t i o n o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l harmonic p a t t e r n . f o r e g r o u n d p a t t e r n s o f mm. d i t i o n a l harmony. the  C c h o r d i n m.  cending f i f t h  me-  The  7,  D c h o r d i n m.  impli-  In contrast,  8 a n d 11 v e r y much r e l y  that  the  on  tra-  7 i s e x t e n d e d by i t s i i i ,  8 i s p r e p a r e d b y i t s I V a n d V, and t h e d e s -  m o t i o n i n mm.  10 and 11 i s o b v i o u s .  The  problem  c r e a t e d b y t h i s s e c o n d t y p e o f f o r e g r o u n d a c t i v i t y s h o u l d be apparent:  since the  raiddleground  c h o r d s do n o t  generally  f o l l o w c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , the f o r e g r o u n d appears as s e r i e s of seemingly unrelated tonal c e l l s , c l e a r when t a k e n o u t o f  a  each, however, q u i t e  context.  T h i s a n a l y s i s shows how,  i n Faure's music, the  ground tends t o suggest approaches which w i l l vide clues to the o r g a n i z i n g l o g i c .  not always pro-  Some comments c a n  be made r e g a r d i n g f o r e g r o u n d and b a c k g r o u n d  fore-  usually  elements, but r e -  l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h connect t h e s e extreme l e v e l s can o f t e n  remain  hidden u n l e s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to the motion of the o u t e r voices.  19  CHAPTER  II  STRUCTURES OF THIRD-RELATION  From C h a p t e r  I i t s h o u l d be a p p a r e n t  s t r u c t u r e p l a y s a major, r o l e r i s t i c way i n w h i c h discussed}  i n this  introduced.  i n Faure's music.  linear  One c h a r a c t e -  t h e music i s o r g a n i z e d has a l r e a d y been chapter a d i f f e r e n t organizational l o g i c i s  The m a i n o b j e c t s o f s t u d y w i l l  t u r e s and t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s . to  that  be v e r t i c a l  These c o n n e c t i o n s w i l l  struc-  be seen  d e p a r t , t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t , from t r a d i t i o n a l v o i c e -  l e a d i n g p a t t e r n s ; however, i n a l l cases s t e p - m o t i o n l e n t and t h e sense o f l i n e notes and p a s s i n g The  i s preva-  i s p r e s e r v e d by the use o f p a s s i n g  chords.  n o t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e t h a t w i l l now be e x a m i n e d i s  b e s t d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f t h e r o l e s i t a s s i g n s t o chains o f thirds.  Although  some o f t h e s e a r e t o t a l l y  conventional, others  are unusual, and r e q u i r e a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n . stances  i n which  third-chains are given conventional functions  are those  i n which  descending  thirds  l o c a l p r o g r e s s i o n s a r e b a s e d on a s e r i e s o f ( f o r example I - v i - I V ) , and t h o s e  l a r g e r motions are through ters.  Among t h e i n -  i n which  a series of third-related tonal  Example 2.1, from t h e T w e l f t h N o c t u r n e .  v i d e s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f b o t h  cases.  cen-  Op. 1 0 7 , p r o -  20  E x a m p l e 2.1  T w e l f t h N o c t u r n e . Op.  107,  mm.  ^1  r  Emi  idtfc  1»  n  1  1-13.  ,M»  ''  M«> r 10  >i' ; 35  Gmi  T  13  (whole-tone scale)  35  The b a c k g r o u n d m o t i o n f r o m E (Em), t o G (Gm),  to B-flat  i s obvious from the s k e t c h ; i t forms a d i m i n i s h e d - t r i a d d e s i g n t h a t c a n be f o u n d i n w o r k s o f c o m p o s e r s s u c h a s Haydn, b e r t , a n d Wagner.  The  i - V I - i v ; the F-sharp  l o c a l c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n i n mm.  i n m.  3 i s u n d e r s t o o d a s an a d d e d  to the i v , r a t h e r than the r o o t of i i . IV are g i v e n harmonic  The  contrary motions.  1-3  is  sixth  s c a l e s t e p s VI  f o c u s i n a t r a d i t i o n a l way.  a p p r o a c h e d b y s t e p f r o m b e l o w and t h e u n d e r l y i n g o f b a s s and u p p e r m o s t  Schu-  and  they are parallelism  voice i s obscured i n a s e r i e s of  local  I t s h o u l d a l s o be o b s e r v e d t h a t , a s a r e -  21  s u i t of the passing notes  i n the third-related l o c a l  s i o n s , t h e melody i s a g a i n s t r i c t l y obvious  linear.  Nevertheless, the  t e r t i a n design d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h i s s t r u c t u r e from  near s t r u c t u r e s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  I.  bass has been completed Attention w i l l  (mm. 3-5  b u t w h i c h m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d style.  technique  Although  related, unconventional  din  tic  i n traditional  music,  f o ra proper a p p r e c i a t i o n of compositional  i n a l a r g e number o f p i e c e s , some  structural  i d e a s c a n be i s o l a t e d .  One  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o p a r t s o f Le J a r -  C l o s and w i l l  clarity,  8-10).  t h e r e i s no one s p e c i f i c  t h a t i s apparent  such p r i n c i p l e  a n d mm.  of the t r i a -  now be s h i f t e d t o s t r u c t u r e s o f t h i r d -  r e l a t i o n which a r e n o t n o r m a l l y found  Faure's  l i -  The wedge s t r u c t u r e  does o c c u r here a l s o , b u t o n l y a f t e r t h e descent dic  progres-  be d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l .  t h i s p r i n c i p l e w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  outline before  F o r t h e sake o f i n a formal-theore-  s p e c i f i c pieces are analyzed.  A. s t r u c t u r i n g o f r o o t movement w h i c h f o l l o w s t h e same p a t t e r n a s t h e s t r u c t u r i n g o f common c h o r d s of t h i r d s ) ,  inevitably results  (that i s , a series  i n a very close  b e t w e e n a n y two s u c c e s s i v e h a r m o n i e s .  relationship  One h a r m o n y c a n be s e e n  as g e n e r a t i n g t h e n e x t , a n d , p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e met,  t h e sum t o t a l  o f the chords  t h a t c o n t r o l s a s e c t i o n of music. perchord" to  c a n be i m a g i n e d  becomes a s t a b l e s t r u c t u r e I n a sense,  a type  of "su-  t h a t may c o n t r o l a s e c t i o n o f f o u r  e i g h t m e a s u r e s i n t h e same way t h a t a s i m p l e t r i a d may  m a l l y c o n t r o l one o r two m e a s u r e s ( E x a m p l e 2 . 2 ) .  nor-  22 E x a m p l e 2.2  Superchord complex b u i l t from  triads.  superchord  >  (  i * + =  h It  |  i s significant that,  ,  •*-  g  or  l=f=  t 0  8  =^  i n t h i s system, t h e bond be-  tween s u c c e s s i v e chords i s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y a d d i n g s e v e n t h s t o the t r i a d s  ( t h r e e o f f o u r n o t e s a r e h e l d i n common).  not unreasonable t o suppose,  It is  then, that Faure's easily-demon-  s t r a t e d r e l i a n c e on s e v e n t h c h o r d s w i t h i n t h i s schema i s i n tended t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e bonds between components o f a s u p e r chord, thereby enhancing the u n i t y o f the l a t t e r .  (The s u b -  t l e t y o f s t y l e which r e s u l t s from the e v e r - s o - g r a d u a l i n t e r n a l motions o f these harmonic  complexes  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f F a u r e ' s music. ") 3  i s o f t e n mentioned Moreover,  s i v e use o f seventh chords which p a r t i c u l a r l y  as a  i ti s the extendistinguishes  Faure''s employment o f t h i r d - r e l a t e d c h o r d s u c c e s s i o n s ( E x a m p l e  2.3). The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l v i e w s o f F a u r e ' s music: "His idiom...yields i t s f u l l flavour only with famil i a r i t y , a n d i t i s s o s u b t l e a n d r e t i c e n t an i d i o m t h a t , i t i s l i k e l y t o r e p e l t h o s e who h a v e n o t a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f g e n e r a l cultivation." W i l f r i d M e l l e r s , "The L a t e r Work o f G a b r i e l Faure", S t u d i e s i n Contemporary Music (London: D e n n i s Dobson L t d . , 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 70. " E v i d e n t l y t h i s i s a s t y l e o f e x t r e m e s u b t l e t y . " W i l l i a m W. A u s t i n , M u s i c i n t h e 20th C e n t u r y (New Y o r k : W.W.Norton a n d Company, I n c . , 1966), p. 150.  23 E x a m p l e 2.3  Superchord chords.  complex b u i l t from  seventh  superchord  1  i- i-  X  =  ^  i  }  1  1—h—  or  ?  •  r+  It  i  ; 5  f  ff  —,  i s a p p a r e n t f r o m E x a m p l e s 2.2 a n d 2.3 t h a t a s u p e r -  chord s t r u c t u r e generates chord p r o g r e s s i o n s t h a t are not unfamiliar  f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l harmony.  I t now n e e d s t o be d e f i n e d  more s p e c i f i c a l l y w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s a s u p e r c h o r d a n d how s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r s f r o m more c o n v e n t i o n a l h a r m o n i c  this  designs.  A "superchord" i s a s t a b l e s t r u c t u r e b u i l t from a s e r i e s of  seventh chords  the i n t e r v a l  (and/or t r i a d s ) , a l l o f which a r e r e l a t e d by  of a third.  A r o o t m o t i o n b y an i n t e r v a l  other  t h a n a t h i r d s i g n i f i e s t h e end o r c o l l a p s e o f t h e c h o r d plex.  The s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e  com-  i s dependent upon t h e  s t a b i l i t y o f i t s component c h o r d s a n d i s a c h i e v e d b y t h e e x c l u s i v e use o f a l t e r n a t i n g major and minor t h i r d s . t e r n a t i o n c l e a r l y produces  Such a l -  o n l y p e r f e c t f i f t h s and thus t h e  o n l y c h o r d s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d s t a b l e and can be seen as p a r t of  the superchord are major  sevenths.  Added n o t e s  (+M2  change t h e b a s i c q u a l i t y used.  and minor  triads,  a n d MM a n d mm  o r +P4) w i t h i n t r i a d s  do n o t  o f t h e c h o r d a n d t h u s c a n a l s o be  The p i t c h e s a r e k e p t w i t h i n a k e y a s l o n g a s p o s s i b l e ;  n e v e r t h e l e s s , as soon as t h e d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n  produces  a  24  tritone the  i n one  interval  o f t h e component c h o r d s , one  of the notes of  i s chromatically a l t e r e d or avoided  E x a m p l e 2.4  a »  t  Chromatic a l t e r a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d superchordal structure.  i  i  i  ^ =  -  ;  i•  i  i  — f  altogether. by  •  the  • *  »  -=t  iy  1  1 1  •  m  .  *  A l t e r a t i o n s such as t h a t seen  i  i n E x a m p l e 2.4  necessarily  a t e p i t c h c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t do n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e t o n i c and t h u s a c c o u n t f o r t h e modal appearance ( i n the f i r s t  that  original  o f some p i e c e s  o f the n o n - s p e c i f i c examples above,  l y d i a n s c a l e c o u l d be a s s u m e d ) .  cre-  the C-Mixo-  I t i s necessary to point  out  i n such cases the m o d a l i t y i s only a by-product of the  underlying One  structure. o f t h e most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s  of the superchord i s  t h e u n u s u a l v o i c e - l e a d i n g b e t w e e n component c h o r d s .  The  ele-  ments o f t h e s u p e r c h o r d a r e p i t c h e s w h i c h form a s e r i e s o f uniformly  descending or ascending t h i r d s ; these elements  n o t p i t c h c l a s s e s u n c o n s t r a i n e d by r e g i s t r a l  are  representation.  As a n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t , t h e v o i c e - l e a d i n g b e t w e e n component chords i s by p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . somewhat o b s c u r e d b y s u r f a c e t r a n s f e r o f one  of the voices  A l t h o u g h s u c h m o t i o n may  be  d e t a i l a n d an i s o l a t e d o c t a v e ( n e c e s s a r y , f o r example,  t o keep  the melody w i t h i n a g i v e n r e g i s t r a l r a n g e ) , the s t r u c t u r a l  25 p a r a l l e l i s m i s always e v i d e n t .  Finally,  i t has  to be empha-  s i z e d t h a t a superchord i s an a b s t r a c t concept} an a c t u a l sound of t h i s type i s never heard as a s i m u l t a n e i t y . a complex which i s heard i n segments and  serves  It is  as an o r g a n i -  zational force. Two  songs from Le J a r d i n Clos show the  structure quite c l e a r l y ,  superchord  "Dans l a pe'nombre" (6) and " I n r r "  s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e " ( 8 ) . Evidence o f i t s presence i s a l s o found i n "Exaucement" (1), but because i t o f f e r s a l e s s c l e a r i n s t a n c e , t h i s song w i l l not be analyzed  here.  " I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e " (8) i s i n ABA form, with each s e c t i o n corresponding (A--mm. 1-6, B—mm. 6-10,  to one sentence of the poem A—mm. 12-19).  r e - t r a n s i t i o n from B to A. The  Mm. 10 and  almost i d e n t i c a l A s e c t i o n s  show an i n s t a n c e of a superchord i n pure form, while s e c t i o n r e f l e c t s a much f r e e r , but r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r e . the comments on mm.  1-5  w i l l a l s o p e r t a i n to mm.  f e r e n c e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d Example 2.5  11 are a  the B A l l of  12-151  dif-  separately.  " I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e " , Op. 106/8, mm. 1-5.  superchord  26 Mm.  1-4  sketched  i n E x a m p l e 2.5. chordsj  ward e x t e n d i n g s e r i e s of seventh as a segment o f t h e s u p e r c h o r d is  important t o note  t h a t Faure  chord g r e a t e r t h a n a s e v e n t h by  a r e b a s e d on a down- . each b e i n g  shown on t h e t h i r d  understood  staff.  a v o i d s the f o r m a t i o n of  o f t h e way  i n which  harmonies are  n o - d i r e c t p a r a l l e l motion  t h i s example o c c u r s chord  disappearance  i n the middle  (F major-seventh)  The  Both  of the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e of  o f m.  4,  w h e r e one stable  seventh  as t h e r e s u l t  t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y when one  tation;  stable  chord which  is  involve only perfect f i f t h s  chord  i s an  because i t r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of m o d a l i t y .  f l u e n c e s on F a u r e .  indicates  position.  r o o t o f t h e F MM  explained t h i s note  and  traditionally  moves t o a s e c o n d  o n l y a s t e p away (E m i n o r ) . and b o t h a r e i n r o o t  As a r e -  i s found between the soprano  t h a t t h i s p a s s a g e s h o u l d n o t be a n a l y z e d The  the  j o i n e d by p a s s i n g n o t e s ,  b a s s ; however, the g e n e r a l d e s c e n d i n g p a r a l l e l i s m  (i-VI-vi->£-i).  any  consistently eliminating  u p p e r m o s t t h i r d b e f o r e ^ t h e downward e x t e n s i o n o c c u r s . sult  It  note  Some w r i t e r s  have  o f modal m i x t u r e " ^ — a  c o n s i d e r s well-documented  T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e  i n the f i r s t phrase  important  for this  t h e o u t e r v o i c e s use  F o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f s y m b o l s s e e p.  dis-  modal i n interpre-  F-natural  viii;  3  ^See i n p a r t i c u l a r C h a p t e r I i m James L. K u r t z , " P r o b l e m s o f T o n a l S t r u c t u r e i n S o n g s o f G a b r i e l F a u r e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y , 1970).  4The  '  reference i s to Faure's e a r l y t r a i n i n g a t the N i e d e r m e y e r s c h o o l i n P a r i s , w h e r e t h e s t u d y o f c h u r c h modes was  27 e x c l u s i v e l y , w h i l e the i n n e r v o i c e s use F-sharp. problem  a r i s e s i n m.  3 with the appearance of B - f l a t ; a note  b e l o n g i n g to an i n n e r v o i c e . voke a G minor s c a l e  However, a  Since there i s no reason to i n -  (to account  f o r both B - f l a t and  F-sharp),  a d i f f e r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d . As was'mentioned e a r l i e r ,  chromatic a l t e r a t i o n s  do  occur w i t h i n superchord s t r u c t u r e s to a v o i d t r i t o n e s and p r e s e r v e the s t a b i l i t y of the complex as a whole.  thus  In the p r e -  sent example, the F - n a t u r a l avoids an F-sharp/C t r i t o n e  and  permits a superchord to u n f o l d which embraces an e n t i r e  diato-  nic collection n i n g G/B  (except f o r D which can be assumed above the ope-  dyad, and which i n i t i a t e s the second  superchord i n m.  11).  statement  Because the c o l l e c t i o n i s ; . t h a t o f a-C  major s c a l e , and, as a whole, i s used to approach s i c takes on a Phrygian . q u a l i t y a t t h i s l e v e l . 2.4,  of the-  E s i , the  mu-  A.s i n Example  here the m o d a l i t y i s a r e s u l t of the s t r u c t u r a l design,  and not v i c e v e r s a . I t i s now  p o s s i b l e to account f o r the B - f l a t i n m.  e v a l u a t i n g p o s s i b l e v e r s i o n s of mm.  3 and 4 (Example  3 by  2.6).  emphasized. Since t h i s phase of Faure's c a r e e r i s not covered i n the p r e s e n t study, the reader may be r e f e r r e d to the b i o g r a p h i c a l chapters i n the f o l l o w i n g studies» Robert Orledge, G a b r i e l Faure. Norman S u c k l i n g , Faure (London» J.M.Dent and Sons L t d . , 1946).  28  Example  2.6  t  g  p i  ^7  T  I n E x a m p l e 2.6a,  the F-sharp/C t r i t o n e  cussed  o t h e r c h a n g e s a r e made.  a b o v e ; no  s t r u c t u r e c o u l d be  I n 2.6b  3. b u t d i f f e r e n t  o f m.  3.  s t r u c t u r a l l y important,  Although  Consequently,  t e r e d t o B - f l a t and  the  are avoided  and  Two  the  superchord  the B i s a l -  s t r u c t u r a l problems  are  the B - f l a t p o i n t s t o -  A. w i t h o u t t o n i c i z i n g i t .  passage appears i n the song.  resulting  the t r i t o n e t o n i c i z e s  i n E x a m p l e 2.6c,  t h e m u s i c a l and  r e s o l v e d ; the t r i t o n e s ward the a p p r o a c h i n g  is  tritone  the  s u b s e q u e n t A. m i n o r and makes t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e sound t a c k e d on.  background  t h i s p r o b l e m i s s o l v e d b y a change t o  r e s u l t s — B / F on t h e l a s t b e a t i s not  the  dis-  t o the s u r f a c e c r o s s r e l a t i o n between  F - n a t u r a l i n t h e u p p e r v o i c e o f m.  chord  While  as  considered s t a b l e , the m u s i c a l e f f e c t  h i g h l y d i s t u r b i n g due outer voices.  i s avoided,  T h i s i s how  the  e x t r a b e a t s have been i n c l u -  29  ded  i n t h i s example to show t h a t when s t r u c t u r e - r e l a t e d  r a t i o n s are no l o n g e r necessary, F-sharp and It  alte-  there i s a prompt r e t u r n to  B-natural.  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the opening measures of  " I n s c r i p t i o n sur'le s a b l e " w i t h those of the Twelfth Nocturne (sketched i n Example 2.1). other,both  W r i t t e n w i t h i n months of each  works are i n the key of E minor, and both  begin  with a p r o g r e s s i o n t h a t would be t r a d i t i o n a l l y analyzed i-VI-iv.  However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e  s t r u c t u r e e x i s t s i n the Nocturne.  evidence  that a  as  superchord  Since l ) t t h e bass moves i n  f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r p o i n t to the upper v o i c e s , 2) the p r o g r e s s i o n does not extend beyond the i v chord, and 3) the F-sharp/C t r i t o n e to  the t o n i c ) ,  i n m.  3 i s not avoided  (but used to r e t u r n  i t would be m i s l e a d i n g to analyze the passage  by other than t r a d i t i o n a l means. s t r i c t h i m s e l f to one  C l e a r l y , Faure d i d not r e -  s p e c i f i c technique  but r a t h e r used g e n e r a l concepts  at any g i v e n  (such as p a t t e r n i n g by way  s e r i e s of t h i r d s ) to o b t a i n a v a r i e t y of musical S t a r t i n g i n m.  6, the a n a l y s i s of " I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e  a c t i v i t y and l e s s e r adherence to a s t r i c t  seen i n "Dans l a nymphee" i n Chapter obscure  Robert  foreground  s t r u c t u r a l design.  d i m i n i s h e d c l a r i t y of process found here  events  of  effects.  s a b l e " becomes more d i f f i c u l t by reason of g r e a t e r  The  time,  i s not u n l i k e t h a t  I; c e r t a i n  foreground  the u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c which o r g a n i z e s them.  Orledge,  G a b r i e l Faure', pp. 312-3.  Example 2.7  "Inscription  sur  le sable",  Op.  106/8.  31 The f i r s t E minor of m.  s t r u c t u r a l harmony t h a t appears a f t e r the  5 i s the F-major chord i n m.  Although the chords t h a t occur i n mm.  7 (see Example  5 and 6 may  2.7).  appear im-  p o r t a n t , they are secondary i n the o v e r a l l d e s i g n of the p i e c e . There would seem t o be no q u e s t i o n , from a t r a d i t i o n a l perspect i v e , t h a t the four-two chord i n m.  6 i s the V of E minor.  However, i n the p r e s e n t context, the chord i s not considered a t r u e dominant  f o r two r e a s o n s :  1) i t s i n v e r s i o n i s not  justi-  f i e d — t h e bass could have e a s i l y moved to the r o o t B — , 2) i t s r e s o l u t i o n i s f a r from c o n v e n t i o n a l .  and  Indeed, the l o n g -  range i - V c o n n e c t i o n can be heard, but i t i s secondary t o the motion t o the G chord i n m.  6.  Under t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the  A. i n the bass of the B chord i s understood as an approach to the G.  Had the bass moved to a B, the f o l l o w i n g G chord would  have appeared i l l o g i c a l .  The f u n c t i o n of G MM seventh i s how-  ever not a s t r u c t u r a l one; i t only r e i n f o r c e s the E minor harmony, as i f i t were the next component i n an ascending superchord based on an E minor t r i a d .  (At the completion o f the  superchord i n m. 4 the E minor i s brought about r a t h e r l y [ t h e e x p e c t a t i o n i s perhaps down a f u r t h e r t h i r d ,  sudden-  toward  D m i n o r ] , and thus the G harmony h e l p s t o c o n f i r m the t o n i c a t the lower o c t a v e ) . of f i f t h s  The G chord a l s o i n i t i a t e s a b r i e f  (G-C-F) which b r i n g s about the F chord i n m.  circle 7»  The next s t r u c t u r a l chord i s t h a t of A. minor, i n m.  8,  which i s f o l l o w e d a t i t s l e v e l by the C chord i n m. 10.  Both  chords are approached by p l a g a l sounding cadences, i n m.  7 and  32 m. 9, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Thus the background  motion  i s F-natural,  A, C — t h e r e v e r s e o f the descent seen i n the A. s e c t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e o f F, A. minor,  and C chords could be seen as simply  r e t r a c i n g the path o f the t e r t i a n descent but i t cannot  really  be c o n s i d e r e d a good i n s t a n c e o f the superchord because  o f the  g r e a t e r freedom  o f octave placement  of the upper v o i c e s . A l -  though p a r a l l e l motion o f the lower v o i c e s i s c l e a r a t the background  l e v e l between the C and A. minor chords, the melodic  design p r e c l u d e s an o v e r a l l p a r a l l e l a s c e n t .  An F - n a t u r a l  once again prevents the f o r m a t i o n of a t r i t o n e i n the s t r u c t u r a l chords and thus the B s e c t i o n can be understood as cont a i n i n g a s t r u c t u r e r e l a t e d t o the superchord.  Conversely, i t  can be s a i d t h a t a superchord such as t h a t seen i n the A s e c t i o n i s a refinement o r d i s t i l l a t i o n o f more g e n e r a l t h i r d - r e l a t e d progressions. In m. 10 the bass i s t r a n s f e r r e d up one octave, moves by step t o a B, and commences the second descent by t h i r d s . The B i s coupled w i t h a D i n the soprano which i n i t i a t e s a descent i n t h a t v o i c e . . As was mentioned p l e t e s the C d i a t o n i c  r e a r l i e r , the D com-  collection.  At the completion o f the superchord i n m. 14, the t o n i c , appearing now i n the lower octave, i s once again r e i n f o r c e d , t h i s time by a t e r t i a n bass motion; the background  harmony  moves from E minor (m. 14), t o a G s i x - t h r e e chord (m. 16), t o a G MM seventh (m. 17) and back t o E minor (mm. 18 and 19). The bass o u t l i n e s an E minor t r i a d and the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the final triad  i s confirmed.  33 An a s c e n d i n g v e r s i o n o f the superchord i s found i n "Dans l a penombre" (6).  Although the s t r u c t u r e i s t r e a t e d  s l i g h t l y more f r e e l y than i t was i n the f i r s t measures o f " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " (the melody does not f o l l o w a t r i a dic  p a t t e r n ) , i t c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n s as the c o n t r o l l i n g element  of mm.  1-8. F i r s t , two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the opening three mea-  sures are given t o i n d i c a t e why a more t r a d i t i o n a l a n a l y t i c approach was n o t employed. Example  2:8  2  l  i  Example 2.9  106/6,  "Dans l a penombre", Op.  iv  mm.  1-3.  3  v  "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6. An a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f mm. 1-3.  i  34 I n E x a m p l e 2.8,  mm.  1-3  I-IV-V p r o g r e s s i o n . passage,  a r e shown a s an e x p a n d e d v e r s i o n o f a  Although t h i s  i s a p o s s i b l e view of the  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t  rhythmic-motivic nature of the bass.  E x a m p l e 2.9  the  p r e s e n t s an  a n a l y s i s w h i c h r e l i e s on a p a r t i t i o n i n g more i n k e e p i n g w i t h the s u r f a c e rhythm.  From t h e e x a m p l e t h e p a s s a g e  c o n t r o l l e d b y a b a s s w h i c h moves i n t h i r d s t o n e s ) , w i t h each  (with passing  o f i t s main n o t e s f u n c t i o n i n g as the r o o t o f  a d i a t o n i c chord. m.  i s s e e n t o be  A. q u e s t i o n a r i s e s a s t o why  the B chord  in  3 i s h e a r d w i t h an a d d e d f o u r t h i n s t e a d o f t h e u s u a l s e v e n t h .  In o r d e r t o g i v e a v a l i d answer, the remainder e i g h t m e a s u r e s n e e d s t o be Example 1 2  2.10  first  examined.  "Dans l a p e n o m b r e " , Op.  3  A. s u c c e s s i o n o f c h o r d s b u i l t s u g g e s t t h e s u p e r c h o r d s t r u c t u r e and a chord b u i l t  of the  on t h e s e v e n t h d e g r e e .  7  106/6, mm.  1-8.  8  on E, G - s h a r p , and B  may  i m p l y , as the n e x t e v e n t , ' T h i s i s i n d e e d what  35 appears used of  be The  4,  a l t h o u g h a D - n a t u r a l i n s t e a d o f a D-sharp i s  f o r r e a s o n s t o be g i v e n s h o r t l y .  D as a harmonic  which ty,  i n m.  comes i n m.  s t e p , i n m. 7,  k,  (The  appearance  i s u n s t a b l e , but the  after intervening prolongational  i s as the r o o t of a s e v e n t h c h o r d ) . c o n s t r u c t e d which  first  s p a n s E3  activi-  A s u p e r c h o r d can  t o C5~sharp (see Example  ascending p a r a l l e l i s m of the v o i c e s suggests t h a t  C - s h a r p b e l o n g s one  second,  thus  2.7)• the  o c t a v e h i g h e r , b u t i s t r a n s f e r r e d down t o  keep t h e melody f r o m r i s i n g above t h e f i f t h  degree  of the  scale  (Faure's p r e f e r e n c e f o r m e l o d i e s t h a t e m p h a s i z e 5 i s d i s c u s s e d in  greater detail  i n Chapter I V ) .  The  t h e e x a m p l e , p r o v i d e s c l u e s t o two ations.  First,  added f o u r t h  t h e B c h o r d i n m.  s u p e r c h o r d , a s shown i n  important harmonic 3 c o n t a i n s the  (E) and n o t t h e e x p e c t e d s e v e n t h  alter-  aforementioned  (A.) t o a v o i d a  D-sharp/A. t r i t o n e and p r e v e n t a s t r o n g d o m i n a n t s o u n d on Since the d i r e c t i o n of the music minant  a t t h i s p o i n t would  structure.  A. r e p l a c e m e n t  i s upward, toward  d i s t u r b the e n t i r e  t h e D,  B. a  do-  superchord  f o r the A i s necessary to preserve  t h e f o u r - v o i c e t e x t u r e , and E i s u s e d t o c r e a t e a l o c a l ,  tra-  d i t i o n a l v o i c e - l e a d i n g p a t t e r n o v e r t h e b a s s m o t i o n A. t o  B.  The  second  a l t e r a t i o n serves a s i m i l a r purpose.  same D-sharp/A. t r i t o n e , is  stable  m e a s u r e a r e a c a n be T h i s e n t i t y may its  t h e r o o t o f t h e f o u r t h component c h o r d  lowered to D-natural.  chords remain  be  To a v o i d t h e  I n t h i s way,  a l l f o u r component  ( a s d e f i n e d e a r l i e r ) and t h e e n t i r e s a i d t o u n f o l d a s i n g l e harmonic  termed  seven-  entity.  a "quasi-superchord" i n that, while  c o m p o n e n t s obey t h e r u l e o f s t r i c t a l t e r n a t i o n o f  major  36 and m i n o r t h i r d s ,  i t d o e s n o t , t a k e n as a w h o l e .  One  t h a t b o t h D - n a t u r a l and D-sharp a r e p a r t o f t h e  will  structure—as  a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n s of 7 which are not heard t o g e t h e r . mentioned  earlier,  cept n o t sounded The m.  As  a s u p e r c h o r d i s an a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r a l  as a  disappearance of t h i s quasi-superchord occurs i n  c a n be s e e n f r o m E x a m p l e 2.11,  Example  con-  simultaneity.  8 where a v o i c e - l e a d i n g c h o r d b r i n g s b a c k t h e t o n i c .  structural  note  c h o r d s ( D - n a t u r a l MM  2.11  the motion between the and E MM)  "Dans l a pe'nombre", Op.  i s by  step.  106/6, mm.  7-9.  As  two  End o f a s u p e r c h o r d a l s t r u c t u r e , s y m b o l i z e d b y s t e p w i s e motion between s t a b l e harmonies.  - pe  -  e,  E x a m p l e 2.12, " S p l e e n " , Op.  51/3»  La  chere en. fant  au  a r e d u c t i o n o f mm.  coeur  sub-til  39-^3  from the  i s a much e a r l i e r i n s t a n c e o f a  based  chord succession.  W r i t t e n i n 1888,  first  appear as a s u p e r c h o r d s t r u c t u r e , b u t a c l o s e r  song  third-  t h i s p a s s a g e may exami-  n a t i o n r e v e a l s otherwise. Although the governing p r i n c i p l e i s a t e r t i a n a s c e n t t o t h e t o n i c , two f e a t u r e s t h i s song from the p r e v i o u s examples:  at  here  differentiate  1) n o t a l l t h e  chords  are  s t a b l e , and 2) t h e v o i c i n g o f t h e c h o r d s p r e v e n t s an o v e r -  lap  o f common t o n e s .  The  s t a b i l i t y and u n i t y o f an  unfolding  37 superchord  i s n o t present here.  Instead, a " f i x e d hands" pa-  r a l l e l i s m i s used, i n a way which foreshadows procedures dent  i n the works of Claude Debussy.  evi-  C l e a r l y , though, there i s  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s song and the l a t e r songs examined above.  I t can be s a i d t h a t harmonic procedures  p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e s r e l a t e d t o a superchord,  such as t h i s  o r , more s p e c i -  f i c a l l y , t h a t examples l i k e t h i s i n d i c a t e a thought  process  which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d and r e f i n e d t o create superchordal s t r u c t u r e s . Example  2.12  "Spleen",  Op.  51/3, mm. 39-43.  A superchord-related s t r u c t u r e . 39  41  43  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r whether there i s even e a r l i e r evidence  f o r t e r t i a n s t r u c t u r e s i n Faure's music.  song "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2,  i n t r o d u c e d i n Chapter  The  I to i l l u s -  t r a t e an e a r l y i n s t a n c e o f wedge s t r u c t u r e (Example 1.1), i s e q u a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the present d i s c u s s i o n : motion, I - i i i - V - I 7  (Example 1.2), suggests  the background  an e a r l y  i n s t r u c t u r e s o f t h i r d r e l a t i o n , l a t e r t o culminate chord d e s i g n s . this notion:  interest i n super-  Three f e a t u r e s are e s p e c i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e o f 1) the o u t l i n i n g o f a seventh  dy a t the background l e v e l  chord i n the melo-  (Example 1.2), 2) the t r i a d i c  design  38  Example  2.13  LES MATELOTS Pb-m <t- TIIEOPBII.E  GAUT1ER.  3Ui Tempo  animato  quasi  Allegro.  CH/l(Vr  PIANO  ftVd: a ch»(jUf nil  I  Mons a l l o o s  k  vova . (j^anl.  Eu  .  t~ vi  .  v  run .  i • ?r ^ Uitiil Ir u i ' i u . d r  39  of  1-4 (Example 2 . 1 3 ) ,  the v o c a l melody o f mm.  and 3 ) the  rd t r a n s p o s i t i o n ' o f the same melody up a minor 3 The l a s t mentioned literal  i n mm. 6-10.  item i s the most i n t r i g u i n g ; the almost  restatement o f the melody a t h i r d h i g h e r suggests t h a t  the E - f l a t major-seventh  chord i n m. 7 i s not i n f a c t only the  r e s u l t of a descending i n n e r - v o i c e , but t h a t i t i s c r e a t e d by the a d d i t i o n o f a G minor t r i a d above the E - f l a t p e d a l . r o o t motion which r e s u l t s from t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e  (The  interpretation  i s i n d i c a t e d by the notes i n parentheses on the t h i r d s t a f f of Example 1.1). I t should be obvious t h a t the g e n e r a t i o n of an E - f l a t MM seventh chord by the s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f E - f l a t major and G minor chords i s not u n l i k e the process seen i n "Ins c r i p t i o n sur l e sable".  In "Les M a t e l o t s " t h i s i s c l e a r l y  much l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , but i t p o i n t s t o Faure's i n t e r e s t i n t h i r d - r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r e s throughout h i s c a r e e r . To conclude t h i s chapter, an example i s now given which u t i l i z e s a t e r t i a n s t r u c t u r e based n e i t h e r on the superchord nor on t r a d i t i o n a l harmony. first  "La mer e s t i n f i n i e . . . " i s the  song i n Faure's l a s t song c y c l e , L'Horizon chimerique.  Op. 118, w r i t t e n i n 1921, t h r e e years b e f o r e the composer's death.  The area o f i n t e r e s t  V^which occupies mm.  1-12.  i s the extended motion from I to A sketch o f these measures i s g i v e n  i n Example 2.l4a; the t e r t i a n d e s i g n r e f l e c t e d i n the graph i s supported by the rhythmic o r g a n i z a t i o n of the melody i n the music  itself,  g i v e n i n Example 2.l4b.  40 Example 2.l4a  "La mer e s t i n f i n i e . . . " , Op. 118/1, mm. 1-12.  Example 2.14b  "La mer i s i n f i n i e . . . " , Op. 118/1, mm. 1-3.  A n d a n t e quasi a l l e g r e t t o •mezzo  p  CHANT  PIANO  At the middleground l e v e l the melody i s a p a t t e r n o f a l t e r n a t i n g major and minor t h i r d s which t o g e t h e r form a D n i n t h chord.  I t however cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t i v e of a super-  chord, as the s u p p o r t i n g harmony f o l l o w s a d i f f e r e n t T h i s harmony i s the r e s u l t o f two f a c t o r s :  logic.  1) acceptance o f  chords suggested by the expansive wedge s t r u c t u r e  (as intror-  duced i n Chapter I ) , and 2) the attempt t o s t a b i l i z e each o f the h a r m o n i c a l l y important s c a l e steps without c r e a t i n g an  41  unwanted tendency toward  resolution. A  A  As can be seen from the graph, s c a l e steps 1 and 3 are supported by the t o n i c , but a t the 5 the expected dominant i s avoided.  The F - n a t u r a l chord of m. 4 c o u l d be seen as the r e -  s u l t of chromatic p a s s i n g motion, but i t i s more probable t h a t i t s presence i s n e c e s s i t a t e d by harmonic events about to f o l l o w . The t e r t i a n d e s i g n of the melody w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y present the seventh and n i n t h s c a l e degrees as more important than the t o n i c a t the octave.  They must, t h e r e f o r e , be prepared and har-  monized i n such a way  t h a t they w i l l sound s t a b l e .  The  tonic  on the o t h e r hand, needs to be t r e a t e d with care, i n order t o a v o i d a sense of completion when i t i s reached.  The  function A,  of the F chord i s to a v o i d a s t r o n g dominant with the 5» thereby d i s r u p t i n g the D major t o n a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t l y t o a l l o w the C-sharp  i n m.  6 to stand as a chord tone without a need  f o r r e s o l u t i o n t o the t o n i c .  The F chord can be a l s o  thought  to prepare the B - f l a t chord which s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the I i n m.  7 and prevents a f e e l i n g of r e s o l u t i o n at t h a t p o i n t .  though  Al-  the D i s reached i n the melody, i t s r o l e as the t h i r d  of B - f l a t d i m i n i s h e s i t s t o n i c f u n c t i o n and prepares the r e t u r n to C-sharp  i n m.  7 as a r e t u r n to a s t a b l e s c a l e  Once the p o s i t i o n of the C-sharp i t s next appearance  i n m.  10,  degree.  i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the D, i n  i s heard as a p a s s i n g note. I t  i s a l s o important to note t h a t a t t h a t p o i n t i t i s not approached m.  10  by s t e p , but by a l e a p from B.  completes  The c l i m a c t i c E i n  the t e r t i a n a s c e n t .  C l e a r l y , the c h o r d a l s t r u c t u r e of t h i s passage must be  42  viewed d i f f e r e n t l y  from s t r u c t u r e s d i s c u s s e d  earlier.  Many  o f t h e e v e n t s c a n n o t he e x p l a i n e d b y t r a d i t i o n a l means, a n d the  superchord i s not a p p l i c a b l e here.  Nevertheless,  ness o f Faure's fondness f o r t h i r d - b a s e d s t r u c t u r e s a clue toward meaningful a n a l y s i s .  an awareprovides  43  CHAPTER I I I THE LEADING TONE  The  c o n c l u s i o n o f Chapter I I d e a l t with an example i n  which the l e a d i n g tone was s t a b i l i z e d i n order t o a v o i d i t s normal f u n c t i o n as an approach t o the t o n i c . chapter demonstrates the  The p r e s e n t  t h a t t h i s i s not an i s o l a t e d case; r a t h e r ,  u n c o n v e n t i o n a l h a n d l i n g o f the l e a d i n g tone i s a s t y l i s t i c  t r a i t found i n many o f Faure's works. l e a d i n g tone w i l l  The behaviour o f the  f i r s t be examined a t more immediate  structu-  r a l l e v e l s ; t h i s w i l l prepare a d i s c u s s i o n of background seen i n Le J a r d i n  events  Clos.  The l e a d i n g tone a t more immediate  structural  levels  Three ways i n which the l e a d i n g tone i s u n u s u a l l y t r e a ted  a t these l e v e l s can be i s o l a t e d :  i t may be f l a t t e n e d ,  avoided, o r i t may be heard as the h i g h e s t note o f a melodic l i n e which stops s h o r t o f the t o n i c and r e t r e a t s downward. The most common appearance  o f the f l a t t e n e d l e a d i n g tone ( o r ,  more p r e c i s e l y , the lowered seventh degree) i s i n passages t h a t are g e n e r a l l y modal i n c h a r a c t e r .  Four commonly used  modes do c o n t a i n t h i s s c a l e d e g r e e — t h e  Dorian, Phrygian, Mi-  x o l y d i a n , and A e o l i a n — a n d a l l can be found i n Faure's  songs.  Example 3.1, taken from the song "Aubade", Op. 6/1, shows an  44  instance of the M i x o l y d i a n mode; the E - f l a t , heard  prominently  i n mm. 7 and 10, r e p l a c e s a major-scale E - n a t u r a l , which i s n o t heard i n the melody a t a l l .  In m. 7 the E - f l a t  i s supported  by a modally d e r i v e d f l a t - V I I major t r i a d , while i n m. 10 i t i s p a r t of a diminished-seventh chord a c t i n g as a secondary  domi-  nant. Example 3.1  Sou . vrir  dt* t o u t e  "Aubade", Op. 6/1, mm. 5-10.  part._  En _ ( m i l . v r e  la  paupie  .  re,  0  Example 3 . 2 , the b e g i n n i n g o f "L*Absent", the use o f the A e o l i a n mode.  Op. 5/3, shows  Although the A minor t o n a l i t y i s  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t three measures through the use of a  45 G-sharp i n t h e dominant c h o r d , t h e modal G - n a t u r a l i s h e a r d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t h e next f i v e measures. m. 7 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  supportive  The E m i n o r c h o r d i n  o f modal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  G-sharp does r e t u r n i n measures t h a t p r e p a r e t h e dominant o f m. 15, a n d p o i n t s  t o a p r e f e r e n c e f o r non-modal cadences a t  important s t r u c t u r a l points. E x a m p l e 2.1  (Twelfth  A s i m i l a r c a s e was s e e n i n  Nocturne); the f i r s t phrase, which i s i n  E minor, uses D-natural quite  consistently u n t i l the cadential  d o m i n a n t s e v e n t h c h o r d (m. 5). where t h e l e a d i n g t o n e i s b r i e f l y heard.  I n d i c a t e d h e r e i s an a v o i d a n c e o f modal pheno-  mena a t i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r a l p o i n t s .  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t  i n t h e N o c t u r n e i s m. 3» w h e r e a D - s h a r p m i g h t h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d on t h e t h i r d E x a m p l e 3.2  eighth  note.  " L ' A b s e n t " , Op. 5/3, mm.  Si'ii . Anduutt*  sostanulo.  1-7.  46  One  o t h e r e x a m p l e w h i c h c a n be m e n t i o n e d  viously discussed  "Inscription sur l e sable"  i s the pre-  (8)  2.7).  (Example  D - n a t u r a l i s used e x c l u s i v e l y , but i n t h i s case i t s f u n c t i o n i s n o t s o l e l y a m o d a l one.  As was  discussed i n Chapter I I , the  D i s d e r i v e d from the u n d e r l y i n g superchord s t r u c t u r e . A. l i t e r a l  f l a t t e n i n g o f t h e l e a d i n g t o n e c a n be  i n p a r t s o f Le J a r d i n C l o s . song  "*I1  Because  A. s t r i k i n g e x a m p l e o c c u r s i n t h e  m ' e s t c h e r , Amour, l e b a n d e a u . . . ' " (7)  E x a m p l e 3.3  (Example  3.3) •  " ' I I m ' e s t c h e r , Amour, l e b a n d e a u . . . ' " ,  Op. 106/7, mm.  9-10.  o f a temporary modulation from F to C major, the  B - n a t u r a l s i n m.  two  9 a r e h e a r d as l e a d i n g t o n e s and a p p e a r t o  b r e a k a p r e c e p t o f t r a d i t i o n a l harmony, t h e i n j u n c t i o n doubling the l e a d i n g tone. parallel  found  against  S i n c e F a u r e , as a r u l e , d i d n o t  o c t a v e s , the problem here i s r e s o l v e d by  use  flattening  1  t h e l o w e r B.  The  r e s u l t i n g m u s i c a l e f f e c t i s somewhat  One may t h i n k o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s a s b e i n g t h e r e v e r s e o f t h a t s e e n i n a r e s o l u t i o n o f an augmented - s i x t h t o the dominant.  47 enigmatic; the expected r e s o l u t i o n to the C does occur ( i n the soprano), and y e t t h e r e i s a sense o f i n c o m p l e t i o n . e l i d e d cadence  A type o f  i s heard which p r e s e r v e s a f e e l i n g of motion and  c o n t i n u i t y . A d e f i n i t e cadence  i s not heard u n t i l m. 15,  where  a s t r u c t u r a l l y important change of harmony o c c u r s . Another i n s t a n c e o f the f l a t t e n e d l e a d i n g tone was a l r e a dy encountered i n "Dans l a penombre" (6), (Example 2.10). was  made c l e a r a t t h a t time, the change from D-sharp t o D-natu-  r a l was n e c e s s i t a t e d by the superchord s t r u c t u r e . it  As  In g e n e r a l  can be s a i d t h a t , although the s p e c i f i c reasons f o r a f l a t -  seventh degree may v a r y , examples such as 2.10 and 3»4 p o i n t t o Faure's w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r e a t t h a t s c a l e step more f r e e l y than had been p r e v a l e n t i n c o n v e n t i o n a l harmony. Avoidance  of the l e a d i n g tone i s a l s o common i n Faure's  music, although t h i s i s mostly a c a d e n t i a l harmonic  phenomenon.  The melody, i n f a c t , o f t e n seems to emphasize the l e a d i n g tone. Although a l l r e s u l t i n the i d e n t i c a l dominant sound, a t l e a s t three d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of l e a d i n g - t o n e avoidance can be i s o A  lated:  A  the 1 by which 7 i s r e p l a c e d i n the dominant complex may  a c t as an a n t i c i p a t i o n , a suspension, o r a t o n i c p e d a l . Example 3*4 shows a t y p i c a l cadence  i n which the t o n i c p i t c h  a n t i c i p a t e s the f i n a l I by r e p l a c i n g the t h i r d o f the dominant (m. 17, beat 4 ) .  A. n o t i c e a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of such a l t e -  r a t i o n o f the dominant i s the f a c t t h a t the q u e s t i o n o f a t o n a l or modal cadence  i s s i d e s t e p p e d completely.  48 Example 3 - 4  " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " . Op.  Example 3«5 the  dominant  ( F , m.  i n m.  24.  solution Example  16-19,  23,  b e a t 3)  of  i s part of a t o n i c pedal that I t i s interesting to  of the B - f l a t i n t o the chord of  resolution  Only w i t h the p e n u l t i m a t e a t t a c k i s the complete r e heard. 3•5  "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s y e u x dans mes Op.  106/2,  mm.  T  i-  7  T  o t h e r c a s e s , such as i n Example 3 . 6 ,  delay of the l e a d i n g tone.  yeux...  21-26.  ^»  In  mm.  shows an i n s t a n c e w h e r e t h e a l t e r e d n o t e  extends t h r o u g h the l a s t f i v e measures. note the r e t e n t i o n  106/8,  one  finds a lengthy  Eventually, there i s a  resolution,  49 but i t appears t h a t t h i s i s done almost r e l u c t a n t l y — o n the l a s t possible beat. Example 3.6  *"I1 m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...*",  Op. 106/7, mm. 44-47.  f  tor  j r 1 em  fleuye fl .  F T T ^  1  ,—i  B 1 [" .  .  i i i .  .  bra  - se! .,—.  . F ^ ^ - i — r r  i i i i i i i — I . i i i i i I J i.i.h-n  U.  L  J  The melody too may p a r t i c i p a t e i n avoidance of the l e a d i n g tone.  In Example 3.7 the v o c a l l i n e doubles t h a t  harmo-  n i c v o i c e i n which a n t i c i p a t i o n of the t o n i c takes p l a c e  (first  beat of m. 12). Example 3«7  "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2, mm. 11-12.  An i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n of t h i s type of cadence i s seen i n Example 3.8,  where a dominant with suspended f o u r t h  (m. 13, l a s t b e a t ) l e a d s t o a t o n i c MM seventh chord. c e r t a i n e x t e n t , t r a d i t i o n a l harmony  To a  i s r e v e r s e d here; the  50 dominant does.  does not c o n t a i n the l e a d i n g tone, w h i l e the t o n i c  In t h i s c o n t e x t , the 7 should not be viewed as h a v i n g  a l e a d i n g - t o n e f u n c t i o n , but r a t h e r as a c h o r d a l tone which does not r e q u i r e r e s o l u t i o n .  T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s of course  supported by the d e f i n i t i o n o f " s t a b l e " , as proposed i n Chapt e r I I (p. 23). Example 3«8  "Dans l a pe'nombre", Op. 106/6, mm.  The l e a d i n g tone a t h i g h e r s t r u c t u r a l  13-14.  levels  The seventh s c a l e degree o f t e n appears as the h i g h e s t note of a melodic l i n e .  When t h i s note i s the lowered seventh,  i t tends to p o i n t downward and a r e s o l u t i o n to the t o n i c i s not i m p l i e d .  I t would t r a d i t i o n a l l y be used as p a r t of a se-  condary dominant  which prepares a subdominant  example of such a case was (Example  harmony.  An  seen i n m. 10 of "Aubade", Op.  3.1). The lowered seventh may  6/1  a l s o be harmonized i n  a way which a l l o w s c o n t i n u a t i o n i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n , as i n m.  7 of the same example, where the consonant harmonization  of E - f l a t would have p e r m i t t e d a c o n t i n u i n g a s c e n t . t h e l e s s , i n Faure''s music the melody o f t e n does  Never-  retreat  51 downward and t h u s i s o l a t e s t h e l o w e r e d s e v e n t h a s t h e  climac-  t i c note of a phrase. The m i d d l e g r o u n d m e l o d i c l i n e t h a t was telots",  Op.  2/2,  seventh degree. the  ( E x a m p l e 1.1)  s e e n i n "Les  a l s o emphasizes  Although the l i n e ,  as a whole,  Ma-  the lowered does r i s e  to  t o n i c , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the lowered seventh degree,  w h i c h a p p e a r s h e r e a s a n e x t r a n o t e i n t h e s c a l e , i s emphas i z e d by a l o c a l V-I  progression.  In Faure's music, passages are a l s o o f t e n found i n w h i c h t h e m e l o d y r i s e s t o t h e ma.jor s e v e n t h a n d no  further.  A I n s u c h c a s e s , t h e 7 n e e d s t o be s t a b i l i z e d t o c o u n t e r a c t i t s p o t e n t i a l l e a d i n g t o n e f u n c t i o n , and h e n c e one  commonly f i n d s  a temporary modulation t o the mediant, or l e s s often the minant,  c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the a r r i v a l  of the l e a d i n g tone.  E i t h e r m o d u l a t i o n p r o d u c e s t h e same r e s u l t :  A Similarly,  d a r y k e y s s h a r e t h e same k e y s i g n a t u r e  the 7 i s  A  m o m e n t a r i l y h e a r d a s a t o n i c t r i a d member (5 o r 3) s o l u t i o n to 8 i s not implied.  do-  and a r e -  s i n c e t h e two  secon-  e i t h e r c a n be u s e d t o  A a c c o u n t f o r a r a i s e d 4 i n t h e o r i g i n a l k e y , a commonly e n c o u n tered feature Example  of Faure's music*(Example 3.9  i  3*9).  52 For  a c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n a f a leading-tone  z a t i o n , we may  look a t " L y d i a " , Op.  Example 3.10  4/  2  " L y d i a " , Op. 4/2,  (Example mm.  stabili-  3.10).  1-7.  Xadami. M.HIK T R K L A T .  Anilaiitv  CHANT.  J ! r \". r P r r 7 1 "  jMV-  Et sur ton col frais fl si  a  h  j^l, !  1  j r - f T 7 V r3  ^nhh  —F—-J—=f=  blunt*.  Roiile  ciT r /V ^ r  ^ i j  J  r r CJ-  The main s t r u c t u r a l harmonies are F (mm.  —  e _  J  r  1-3)  r~  and A minor  (m. 6), which are connected by a G p a s s i n g chord and the dominant o f A. minor.  I t i s important t h a t the A. minor i s heard  as a temporary i r a t h e r than merely as i i i of F, to assure t h a t the high E does sound as 5-  (The A. minor t o n i c i s indeed  temporary--necessary only to support the l e a d i n g tone i n m. the  5—  F t o n a l i t y i s r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n m. 6 with i t s dominant.)  B - n a t u r a l i s the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t which h e l p s t o t o n i c i z e A. and a v o i d s a B - f l a t / E t r i t o n e which would r e q u i r e r e s o l u t i o n of the E t o F.  The t r i t o n e which i s c r e a t e d (F, m. 3/B-natural,  53 m.4)  i s p r o p e r l y r e s o l v e d i n m. 6 ( r i g h t h a n d o f t h e p i a n o ) ,  and a i d s tural  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the A minor  tonal center.  The B-na-  i s t h e r a i s e d 4 o f F, a n d t h u s t h e m e l o d y o f t h e s o n g  t a k e s on t h e L y d i a n c h a r a c t e r r e f l e c t e d  i n the t i t l e .  A s i m i l a r example o f a l e a d i n g tone s t a b i l i z a t i o n i s seen  2/2  i n " L e s M a t e l o t s " , Op.  degree  which appears  s u r e s o c c u r s i n mm.  (Example  2.13).  The s e v e n t h  as t h e h i g h e s t note o f t h e f i r s t 7 a n d 9.  t e n mea-  I n m. 7 i t does n o t n e e d r e s o -  l u t i o n b e c a u s e i t i s h e a r d a s a member o f a n a r p e g g i a t e d G m i nor t r i a d  ( w i t h a n E - f l a t p e d a l ) , a n d , more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t i s  part of a descending melodic l i n e no.  i n t h e r i g h t hand o f t h e p i a -  I n m. 9 t h e D i s n o t h e a r d a s a l e a d i n g t o n e b e c a u s e o f a  modulation t o G minor. tural  The m o d u l a t i o n a c c o u n t s f o r t h e A-na-  (mm. 8 a n d 9), w h i c h  tritone.  As c a n b e s e e n  i s n e c e s s a r y t o a v o i d an A - f l a t / D  i n E x a m p l e 1.1,  of a l o w e r - l e v e l melodic l i n e which  the A-natural i s part  i s again Lydian i n charac-  ter. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n " L e s M a t e l o t s " i s m. 7, w h i c h c o n t a i n s a n E - f l a t MM s e v e n t h c h o r d , i n t e r p r e t e d i n C h a p t e r I I as a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f E - f l a t a n d G m i n o r  triads.  E - f l a t and  G-minor a r e t h e two m a i n t o n a l c e n t e r s , a n d h e n c e , b y e x t e n s i o n , one  c a n v i e w t h e e n t i r e a r e a o f mm.  E - f l a t MM s e v e n t h c h o r d s t r u c t u r e  1-10  as b e i n g b u i l t  ( E x a m p l e J.ll).  e s p e c i a l l y a p p e a l i n g when one c o n s i d e r s t h e c l o s e of such a s t r u c t u r e t o t h e superchord. is  identical--one  This idea i s relationship  The g e n e r a t i o n p r o c e s s  chord i s extended by a second which  t e d by an i n t e r v a l o f a t h i r d .  There  i n an  i s rela-  a r e two n o t i c e a b l e  54  d i f f e r e n c e s between the s t r u c t u r e i n "Les M a t e l o t s " and a superchord »  1) the former uses t r i a d s , as opposed  (seventh chords such as those heard i n mm.  to seventh chords,  5 and 9 do not  appear  at t h i s l e v e l of s t r u c t u r e ) , and 2) the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e i s s m a l l e r ; i t c o n t a i n s o n l y two  component chords.  Nevertheless,  s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l l o g i c i s obvious. Example 3-11  Main t o n a l c e n t e r s i n "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. mm. 1-1Q.  ft  |  1-6  7-iQ  /  2/2  v  An i d e n t i c a l u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e can be assumed i n " L y d i a " , although here the seventh chord i s never heard as a s i m u l t a n e i t y (Example Example 3.12  3.12).  Main t o n a l c e n t e r s i n "Lydia", Op. 4/2,  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a MM element  mm.  1-6.  seventh chord as a s t r u c t u r a l  i s strengthened by the d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s chord as  s t a b l e , proposed  i n Chapter I I .  Although l o c a l l y the 7 must be  s t a b i l i z e d , a t a remote s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l t h i s note i s the upper most element  of a s t a b l e s t r u c t u r e and hence does not r e q u i r e  55 resolution.  I n t h i s way,  Faure's melodies t h a t r i s e t o the  l e a d i n g tone a r e u n d e r s t o o d as s i m p l y s t a y i n g w i t h i n t h e f i n e s of the main s t r u c t u r a l The  con-  harmony.  overall design, at a very high l e v e l ,  of the  upper  v o i c e i n a number o f F a u r e ' s s o n g s a l s o d i s p l a y s some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s described thus f a r . be e x a m i n e d  in this  3.13  Example  The t h r e e s o n g s w h i c h  c o n n e c t i o n a r e a l l p a r t o f Le J a r d i n  " ' I I .m'est c h e r , Amour, l e b a n d e a u . . . ' " , Op.  will  Clos.  106/?.  High-level melodic motion. 1  4  27  15  III  44  V  I  " ' I l ^ n r ' e s t c h e r , Amour, l e b a n d e a u . . . ' " , (7), E x a m p l e 3.13, A  to  6  sketched i n  shows a b a c k g r o u n d m e l o d y w h i c h b e g i n s on 5. *  and f l a t - 7 .  moves  A  and r e t u r n s t o  5  i n the l a s t measures.  The  more i m m e d i a t e m e l o d y w h i c h e l a b o r a t e s e a c h o f t h e a s c e n d i n g s t e p s u s u a l l y moves w i t h i n t h e c h o r d a l o u t l i n e t i n g harmony.  of the  suppor-  The harmony i s u n u s u a l i n i t s o b v i o u s p a r a l l e -  l i s m , b u t i s does n o t d i f f e r e x t e n s i v e l y from p r o g r e s s i o n s seen earlier.  I t again provides a t r i a d A-  p o r t s t h e 7; triad  on t h e m e d i a n t w h i c h  sup-  A  however, s i n c e the 7 i s f l a t t e n e d , the r o o t o f the  i s a l s o l o w e r e d t o o b t a i n a s t a b l e p e r f e c t f i f t h . A. m a j o r  d i f f e r e n c e between background  s t r u c t u r e s and more  immediate  56 structures discussed ground motions  above i s the f a c t t h a t , s i n c e the back-  extend over a much l a r g e r area, t h e i r t h i r d - r e -  l a t e d t r i a d s f u n c t i o n more independently and are not  easily  heard as r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the same harmony. the present example, the A - f l a t chord o b v i o u s l y  cannot be  In  super-  imposed on the F to c o n s t r u c t a s t a b l e s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e ( a l though  one could view such a chord i n the same way  superchord was  t h a t the  v i e w e d — a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t t h a t i s  not meant to be taken as a s i m u l t a n e i t y ) . The next example, (Example 3«l4) the background  motion  of "'Je me p o s e r a i sur ton coeur...'" ( 4 ) , shows another melo-  Aj d i e l i n e t h a t emphasizes the 7, which i n t h i s case does eventually  resolve.  Example 3.14  "'Je me p o s e r a i sur ton coeur...'", Op. H i g h - l e v e l melodic "10  13  A  motion. 17  20  25  r e p l a c e d by i t s dominant.  " 26  32  A  A  The m o t i o n b e g i n s on 5 a n d r e a c h e s t h e 7 i n m. 14. o c c u r s a s p a r t o f a G mm  106/4.  Here, the 7  s e v e n t h c h o r d ( i i i ) w h i c h i n m. 15 i s I t i s interesting that,  as e a r l y as  m. 8, A - f l a t , w h i c h b e l o n g s t o t h e t o n i c E - f l a t s c a l e , i s  57 replaced by A-natural which gives the G minor chord stability.  Up t o m. 16,  greater  " ' J e me p o s e r a i . . . " ' d o e s n o t d i f f e r  s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m some o f t h e e x a m p l e s  presented e a r l i e r .  e v e r , s t a r t i n g i n m. 17,  the s t r u c t u r e a i s quite d i f f e r e n t .  above m e n t i o n e d  i s resolved unexpectedly t o b r i n g  about G - f l a t .  V of i i i  As c a n be s e e n f r o m E x a m p l e 3«15.  voice leading d i f f e r s , progressions Example  3.15  the progression  HowThe  although the  i s directly related to  i n v o l v i n g the augmented-sixth. " ' J e me p o s e r a i s u r t o n c o e u r . . . ' " , Op. mm.  106/4,  16-17.  S i n c e ^ t h e o p e n i n g m e a s u r e s a r e now r e p e a t e d a m i n o r - t h i r d higher,  t h e background melody note i s D - f l a t - - t h e lowered s e -  venth of the o r i g i n a l t o n i c . ted,  Although the D-flat i s elabora-  i t d o e s n o t move u p w a r d w i t h i n t h e G - f l a t h a r m o n i c  Instead,  area.  i t moves up t o D - n a t u r a l o n l y when a m o d u l a t i o n b r i n g s  back t h e dominant  of E-flat  i n m. 2$.  T h i s m o t i o n i s immedia-  t e l y f o l l o w e d by a r e s o l u t i o n t o the t o n i c .  I n summary, what  i s seen here i s a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e l e a d i n g tone t h a t i s del a y e d by t e n measures. l i z e d by the mediant;  Initially  t h e l e a d i n g tone i s s t a b i -  i t ;then i s f l a t t e n e d a n d h e a r d a s t h e 5  of the f l a t t e n e d mediant.  When i t r e t u r n s i n i t s n a t u r a l f o r m .  58 it  i s p a r t o f t h e V and r e s o l v e s .  Once t h e t o n i c i s r e a c h e d ,  the melody l e a p s back t o t h e i n i t i a l  p i t c h of the background,  w h e r e , a l t h o u g h e l a b o r a t e d b y a more l o c a l m e l o d i c arch,  inverted  i t p e r s i s t s t o the c o n c l u s i o n of the music. The f i n a l  example  (3.16)  examines  the melodic motion o f  a s o n g a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r I , "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s y e u x mes y e u x . . . ' " Example  (2).  3«l6  "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s y e u x d a n s mes Op.  ff  dans  106/2.  yeux...'",  H i g h - l e v e l melodic motion. 8  yi  '  17  23  19  1 /•  '*{  r  (Y  i  * « a  •Us—^— 5  r  V  i  j — '  ^  1  —•?  [  *  f  The b a c k g r o u n d m e l o d y once a g a i n b e g i n s on 5, h u t h e r e i t moves up c h r o m a t i c a l l y t o D - f l a t mm.  i n m. 8 , t o D - n a t u r a l i n  11 a n d 17 , a n d f i n a l l y t o E i n m. 1 9 . f  S i n c e t h i s melody r e -  t u r n s t o C i n the l a s t phrase, the l e a d i n g tone i s a g a i n i s o l a t e d as the climax.  (One m i g h t n o t e t h a t F5 i s b r i e f l y  i n t h e m e l o d y o f m. 1 2 , b u t i t s a p p e a r a n c e  heard  there i s clearly a  l o c a l phenomenon n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e o v e r a l l r i s i n g l i n e . tionally,  Addi-  i t w i l l be remembered t h a t t h e F a c t s a s a s u b s t i -  t u t i o n f o r E i n t h e c a d e n t i a l dominant  (see Example 3 . 7 ) .  r e a l melodic i m p l i c a t i o n here i s o f the l e a d i n g  The  tone).  The h a r m o n i z a t i o n o f t h e c l i m a c t i c l e a d i n g t o n e i n m.  19  59 differs  somewhat f r o m w h a t we h a v e s e e n i n p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e s .  E v e n t h o u g h t h e m e d i a n t was  h e a r d on t h e p r e c e d i n g b e a t , t h e  l e a d i n g tone i s p a r t of a chord b u i l t  on 5.  Nevertheless, a  B - n a t u r a l r e p l a c e s t h e d i a t o n i c B - f l a t and a v o i d s a which would r e q u i r e a r e s o l u t i o n t o the t o n i c .  tritone  The melody-  d o e s move t o F i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e m e a s u r e , b u t  since  t h a t n o t e i s a n o c t a v e l o w e r , t h e l e a d i n g t o n e r e m a i n s as t h e high p o i n t of the background melodic motion.  60  CHAPTER  IV  THE MELODY  In  the d i s c u s s i o n thus f a r , s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Faure's melodies have been noted. ter  The aim of the p r e s e n t chap-  i s to review and e l a b o r a t e those f i n d i n g s , and, with the  i n c l u s i o n of o t h e r s , to p o r t r a y a model melody as found i n Faure's l a t e Two the  songs.  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s were seen i n Chapter I I I - -  r i s e of the melody to the l e a d i n g tone and the presence of  r a i s e d 4, which permits the l e a d i n g tone to remain s t a b l e . was  As  e v i d e n t from the example chosen, these two melodic pro-  p e r t i e s appear i n songs from v a r i o u s p e r i o d s of Faure's careers they are no l e s s m a n i f e s t i n Le J a r d i n Clos than i n his  first  opus numbers.  A. t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which was three examples, of  visible  but which was not d i s c u s s e d , i s the tendency  melodic l i n e s to emphasize the f i f t h  degree of the s c a l e .  T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the background ty. may  Although a t a more immediate terminate on the t o n i c  4.2).  melodic  activi-  s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l the melody  (Examples  3«4  and 3*5).  commonly end on 5 even a t the foreground l e v e l and  i n the l a s t  "the songs  (Example  4.1  61 Example 4.1  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  Op. 106/7, mm. 45-50.  Example  4.2  "Exaucement", Op.  106/1, mm. 25-28.  James K u r t z , who has examined some of Faure's songs i n d e t a i l , also stresses this s t y l i s t i c  traits  [One n o t e s ] upper v o i c e a c t i v i t y p i v o t e d around the f i f t h degree of the t o n i c chord and l e s s o f t e n the t h i r d . . . Rar e l y w i l l there be a s t r u c t u r a l descent from t h i s r e t a i n e d tone t o the t o n i c . *  James Lawrence Kurtz, "Problems of Tonal S t r u c t u r e i n Songs of G a b r i e l Faure",, (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Brandeis Univer-  62 In  the case of " I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e " , the emphasis  *  on 5 i s achieved i n two ways: i n the two  1) the melody c e n t r e s around B  A s e c t i o n s , while i n the B s e c t i o n , which  s t r u c t u r a l l y based  on F, i t surrounds  C, and 2) i n mm.  appears 5 and  15 the B i s g i v e n g r e a t e r focus by a D, C-sharp approach (Example 4.3)«  There i s a s l i g h t s u g g e s t i o n of B minor i n  those measures; the melody alone p o i n t s t o B as a t o n i c .  4.3  Example  " I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e " , Op. Melodic a c t i v i t y .  106/8.  _  .. __.  Foreground 1  7  10  Background 1  It  7  H  i s perhaps i n v i t i n g t o view the C-sharp as a modal  f e a t u r e i m p l y i n g the use of a Dorian s c a l e .  Such usage i s  s i t y , 1970.),.. ' Songs a n a l y z e d i n c l u d e "Les P r e s e n t s " , Op. 46/1, "Puisque l'aube g r a n d i t " , Op. 61, " S o i r " , Op. 83/2, and " I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e " . Since Kurtz emphasizes the modal aspect of Faure's music much more than the present study does, h i s anal y s i s of the last-mentioned song d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t presented i n Chapter I I I of t h i s study.  63 evident  i n an e a r l i e r song i n the same key, "A Clymene",  Op. 5 8 / 4 (Example 4 . 4 ) . Example 4 . 4 Poesie de P. Verlaine. Q  "A. Clymene", Op. 5 8 / 4 , mm.  1-7.  .  p Andantino.  (i=92)  CHANT.  PIANO  Although the dominant seventh appears r e g u l a r l y a t four-measure i n t e r v a l s , the f i r s t E Dorian s c a l e .  s i x t e e n measures c l e a r l y do u t i l i z e the  In the i n t r o d u c t o r y phrase the melody focuses  A  on 5 i n a manner s i m i l a r to t h a t seen i n " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " ( i t i s approached from both d i r e c t i o n s ) .  However,  whereas i n "A. Clymene" 5 i s emphasized by the use of a modal s c a l e , i n " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " only the s i g n i f i c a n t A  feature  of t h a t s c a l e i s r e t a i n e d  (the r a i s e d 6 ) .  The C-sharp  occurs a t two c a d e n t i a l p o i n t s when B i s c l e a r l y the centre; there  i s no i n d i c a t i o n of a Dorian mode i n the harmony.  As was  64  described  i n Chapter  structure.  I I I , t h e s o n g i s b a s e d on a  This accounts  w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be modal s c a l e .  One  m u s t r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two Finally,  q u a s i - t o n i c i z a t i o n o f V.  lier  i t s h o u l d be  m u s i c , t h e t o n i c i z a t i o n o f 5 c a n be  l e " B m i n o r was  Although  o n l y suggested  song ("Paradis", the f i r s t  d'Eve. Op.  95).  95/1»  -These o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e u s e  The  supported  motion,  on t h e u s e  s c a l e d e g r e e was  by  i n an  song of the c y c l e La  " P a r a d i s " , Op.  notes  o f L y d i a n 4,  mm.  sab-  ear-  Chanson  (Example  of the Dorian 6  shed  d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  the l e a d i n g tone.  4.5).  1-11.  d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a modulation  mediant, used to s t a b i l i z e  a  i n "Inscription sur l e  by m e l o d i c  a  added t h a t , i n  t h e V i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d as a c h o r d  E x a m p l e 4.5  further light  3 which  i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h C - s h a r p a s members o f  have d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n s . Faure's  f o r t h e F - n a t u r a l i n m.  superchord  to  Specifically,  IV. the  65 t h e s h a r p e n i n g o f t h e 4 was  seen as n e c e s s a r y t o a v o i d t h e  f o r m a t i o n of a t r i t o n e which would  r e q u i r e r e s o l u t i o n t o the A  However, a s H e i n r i c h S c h e n k e r n o t e s , t h e s h a r p - 4  tonic.  also  A  5«  s e r v e s t o f o c u s on  A  A  E s p e c i a l l y i n an i n i t i a l a s c e n t t o 5, t h e s h a r p - 4 i s f r e q u e n t l y employed. The 5 r e c e i v e s t h e r e b y an e x t r a emp h a s i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d t h e c h r o m a t i c event t a k e s the form o f a m o d u l a t i o n t o the key of the dominant.2 In Faure's music  t h e m o d u l a t i o n may  ("Exaucement" (1)), l a t i v e minor  be t o t h e  dominant  o r , more commonly, t o t h e m e d i a n t - - t h e  o f t h e d o m i n a n t ( " L y d i a " , " ' J e me  coeur...'"  (4)).  ward toward  5'  re-  p o s e r a i sur ton  I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e m e l o d i c e m p h a s i s i s up-  A  A  This c o n t r a s t s w i t h p i e c e s i n which  there i s a  D o r i a n 6 and where t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m e l o d i c l i n e  i s down-  A  ward toward the I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e how  c l o s e l y the Lydian  and A  D o r i a n modes a r e r e l a t e d .  A major s c a l e w i t h r a i s e d 4 (the Ly-  d i a n mode) h a s t h e same c o n t e n t a s i t s r e l a t i v e m i n o r  with  A  r a i s e d 6 ( t h e D o r i a n mode).  4.6,  As c a n be s e e n f r o m E x a m p l e A  where i d e n t i c a l k e y s i g n a t u r e s a r e i n v o l v e d , t h e L y d i a n 4-'and A  D o r i a n 6 a r e i n e f f e c t t h e same n o t e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , as  A  above, s i n c e both are used t o emphasize 5 i n t h e i r  stated  respective  A  A  s c a l e s , the Lydian 4 i s p a r t of ascending motions, belongs t o melodic l i n e s t h a t descend.  (This should help  * p l a i n why  the Dorian 6 ex-  A  t h e r e i s no m e l o d i c t o n i c i z a t i o n o f 3 o r . 7.  These  p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t b y a n a l o g y — E x a m p l e 4.6 c l e a r l y shows t h a t H i i n r i c h Schenker. Free Composition, t r a n s . E r n s t Oster (New Y o r k : Longman I n c . , 1979), p. 46.  66  sharp-4 - 3 i s analogous to sharp-6 - 5 just as sharp-6 - 7 i s analogous to sharp-4 -  50  Example 4.6  of the Lydian and Dorian modes.  Comparison  G Lydian  E Dorian  The d i r e c t i o n of Faure's melodies i s a f u r t h e r matter of i n t e r e s t .  Whereas t r a d i t i o n a l t o n a l melodies o f t e n evince,  i n t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s , a primacy of descent over ascent,-^ many of Faure's melodies behave otherwise. ample 1.1  the middleground melody was  n i c through an e n t i r e octave. dans mes  In Ex-  seen to r i s e to the t o -  In '"Quand t u plonges t e s yeux  yeux...'" (2) there i s a r e t u r n downward t o the t o n i c ,  b u t only by a l e a p i n Example 3.15.  at  the most immediate  l e v e l ; as was  the background melody t e r m i n a t e s on 5*  shown In ge-  n e r a l , Faure's melodies are much more l i k e l y to be governed i n t h e i r whole extents by p a t t e r n s o f ascent than by descending motions.  Not i n f r e q u e n t l y , the background motions cannot be  c o n s i d e r e d to be e i t h e r ascents or descents--they o f t e n only e m b e l l i s h a primary s t r u c t u r a l tone (see Example 4.3).  James  Kurtz summarizes t h i s f e a t u r e s t a t i n g t h a t Faure's " c o m p o s i t i o n a l  A n o t i o n based on the t h e o r i e s o f H e i n r i c h  Schenker.  6?  technique creates music of i n f l e c t i o n r a t h e r than dig r e s s i o n "• Despite  the• predominance of ascending l i n e s i n Faure''s  l a t e r songs, the opening s t r u c t u r a l  note i s t y p i c a l l y ornamen-  t e d by a b r i e f motion downward.  T h i s must be  a momentary phenomenon (Example  4.7).  Example 4.7  Op.  pro-  considered  purely  Surface melodic a c t i v i t y i n the opening measures of songs from Le J a r d i n C l o s . Op. 106, and L'Horizon Chimerique, Op. 118.  106/1 ~t  "—#-  Op.  106/6  Op.  118/3  Op.  A  3B Op.  .v.  *  . •  106/7  Op.  Op.  »  106/4  118/4  118/2  . *  In h i s survey of a l l of Faure's songs, Kenneth D. Pennington  summarizes the s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s of the three  on the b a s i s of a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  periods  Of the twenty three  f e a t u r e s l i s t e d i n connection  with the l a t e p e r i o d , f i v e  particularly  discussions  1.  "The  r e l e v a n t to t h i s  compass of the songs narrows^"  major tenth i s the maximum ("La the melodies s t a y w i t h i n an  Kurtz,  are  In Le J a r d i n C l o s , a  Messagere"), and  octave.  "Problems of t o n a l s t r u c t u r e " , p.  5«  i n general  68 2. "Extremes o f ranges are a v o i d e d . "  Middle C and F 5 are the  low and h i g h p o i n t s of the c y c l e . 3. "Use of i n t e r v a l s l a r g e r than the t h i r d s h a r p l y d i m i n i s h e s . " T h i s i s the most immediately apparent f e a t u r e of the melod i e s i n Le J a r d i n C l o s . wise motion which  One f i n d s an unusual amount o f s t e p -  i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y c o n t r a s t e d with  t r i a d i c a r p e g g i a t i o n s (Example 4.8). Example 4.8  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  Op. 106/7, mm. 11-15.  eaux;  Mes  pieds  plus  4. " R e p e t i t i o n of p i t c h e s i s very h i g h .  (In one i n s t a n c e  s i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of the i n t e r v a l s of a song are repeated pitches.)"  (Example 4.8).  5. "Melodic ornamentation o f more than one note t o the s y l l a b l e i s avoided."^ A l l f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c have a common consequence; tend to make the melodies l e s s d i s t i n c t i v e , l e s s l e s s memorable.  "melodic",  By v i r t u e o f t h e i r l a c k of ornamental  Pennington,  they  detail,  "Melodies o f G a b r i e l Faure", p. 201.  69  they sound as middleground melodies even a t the foreground l e v e l and p o i n t t o an a u s t e r i t y and transparency of s t r u c t u r e i n Faure^s l a t e works.  T h i s i s c l e a r l y seen i n the f o l l o w i n g  example (4.9), i n which the melodies of two songs, at  the two  extremes  Example 4.9  of h i s c a r e e r , are compared. Comparison  Foreground (y  ' L.._  _ 0 1  7  Tl  i  F  /  f  '  y  9  . »  .  a  0  w  2/2 »  a•  #  •(  •  •  m  I  L  •  Middleground *  tr  Foreground i  of e a r l y and l a t e melodies.  "Les Matelots" Op.  •  originating  1 B  "(  "La mer est i n f i n i e . . . " Op.  •  J  •  118/1  t  -  -Wn^—  To conclude t h i s chapter, a melody i s shown which he seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of those found i n the l a t e (Example 4.10).  can  songs  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t the d e s c r i p t i v e com-  ments which f o l l o w are i n f a c t a review of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t l i n e d above. The melody begins with an ornamental motion around the A  5 to a f f i r m i t s s t r u c t u r a l r o l e . (mm.  8-9)  which  I t r i s e s to the l e a d i n g tone  i s s t a b i l i z e d by a temporary modulation. A l -  though the modulation appears to be to G, the l a c k of a secondary dominant a l l o w s an ambiguity between G and Em. dic  The melo-  o u t l i n e c l e a r l y suggests Em and thus the background  melody  70  could be i n t e r p r e t e d as moving from 5 of C to 5 of Em and back  A to 5 of C. i n mm.  As a r e s u l t of the modulation, the ascending l i n e  5 - 8 c o n t a i n s F-sharp and takes on a Lydian c h a r a c t e r .  The song ends i n the same way  i t began; with an  embellishment  A of the 5 '  The motion  8 - 9 . the l a r g e s t l e a p i n the song i s that of a  o u t l i n e i n mm. major t h i r d .  i s predominantly stepwise, with a t r i a d i c  The range of the melody i s only a minor  sixth,  E to Cj thus the s t r e s s e d 5 occurs i n the approximate  center  ( e s p e c i a l l y i n mm. single  syllables. Example 4.10 Foreground  8-9).  There i s no m e l i s m a t i c treatment of  "Exaucement", Op. 106/1. Melodic a c t i v i t y .  71  CHAPTER .  V  DOUBLE TONALITIES  T h i s chapter r e t u r n s to the q u e s t i o n of ambiguity, an aspect of Faure's music  i n t r o d u c e d i n Chapter I.  The main f o -  cus of study w i l l be those passages which show evidence of two simultaneous or juxtaposed t o n a l i t i e s , and thus c o n t a i n harmonic  events of u n c e r t a i n import.  Tonal j u x t a p o s i t i o n must be  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from b i t o n a l i t y as i t i s commonly d e f i n e d : The simultaneous use of two... d i f f e r e n t keys i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the m u s i c a l f a b r i c , e.g. B - f l a t minor i n the l e f t hand a g a i n s t F-sharp minor i n the r i g h t hand of a piano piece.* In  Faure's music,  nates. ties,  one d e f i n i t e t o n a l c e n t e r always  predomi-"-  Instead of there b e i n g a p a i r of c o o p e r a t i n g t o n a l i one main key i s e m b e l l i s h e d by a second t o n a l i t y , the i n -  c o r p o r a t i o n of which generates g r e a t e r harmonic i n t e r e s t . the m a j o r i t y of cases the j u x t a p o s i t i o n i s temporal; two f e r i n g elements  In dif-  are p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e h o r i z o n t a l l y , not v e r -  t i c a l l y . However, one example w i l l be c i t e d of apparent ver-" tical  juxtaposition  ("'Quand t u p l o n g e s . . . ' " ) .  The m a j o r i t y  of examples i n t h i s chapter are taken from Le J a r d i n  C l o s,  W i l l i Apel, Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music, Second e d i t i o n , ( C a m b r i d g e : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975) P« 96.  72 although b r i e f r e f e r e n c e w i l l he made to two o t h e r works, by Faure and the o t h e r by Claude The f i r s t  one  Debussy.  example t h a t w i l l be considered shows an augu-  r i n g appearance of an element more f u l l y developed i n an ens u i n g passage.  The background harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n of " ' I I m'e  cher, Amour, l e bandeau... " (7) comprises the f o l l o w i n g t o n i 1  cized t r i a d s : Example i n mm.  F major, G minor, A - f l a t major and F major (see  3.12). 8-10,  Aside from a b r i e f modulation t o the  the f i r s t twelve measures are f i r m l y i n F.  t h e l e s s , as can be seen from Example 5«1» major harmony makes an unexpected Example 5»1  dominant  i n mm.  Never-  6 and 7 a D  appearance.  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  Op. 106/7, mm. 5-6.  tient  les  pau _ pie  _  res  clo .  m  -  m  ses;  m  »  T h i s chord 'can be understood as foreshadowing the modulation to  the s t r u c t u r a l G minor i n m. 15.  I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t the  chord which appears immediately f o l l o w i n g the D chord i n m. suggests an a l t e r e d form of G minor. mm.  6-7  and m. 15  6  The c o n n e c t i o n between  i s p e r c e i v a b l e ? one can conceive of the music  as moving d i r e c t l y from one a r e a to the other i n the f o l l o w i n g manner (Example  5.2):  73 Example 5.2  P o s s i b l e connection between mm. 6-7 and m. 15 of " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  Op. 106/7.  It  J 1 J 1 1 1 -ri= [ 1 1I 1 N N « 'r J  X L  yb  r  r  1  f  H  M=H= '—1  }  1  •  ,  r  1-  1—  rrr—r j  1  * Jij  1—g|  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t when i n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n G minor does a r r i v e , i t i s through a p l a g a l , r a t h e r than p e r f e c t c a dence  (Example  Example 5-3  5»3)«  " ' I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'",  Op. 106/7, mm. 13-15.  Faure d i d commonly use more s u b t l e cadences such as t h i s , but one might s p e c u l a t e t h a t the dominant "used up" nine measures e a r l i e r  i s avoided s i n c e i t was  (the subsequent a r r i v a l o f the  t h i r d t o n a l area, A - f l a t i n m. 27, is. v i a an a l t e r e d form o f its  dominant). A. s i m i l a r type o f j u x t a p o s i t i o n ' and long-range con-  n e c t i o n was seen i n "La mer e s t i n f i n i e . . . "  (Example  2.l4a),  74 discussed i n greater d e t a i l  i n Chapter I I .  For reasons which  were made c l e a r a t t h a t time, w i t h i n the song's D m a j o r t o n a l i ty t h e r e are i n t e r p o l a t i o n s , i n mm. chords, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  4 and 7, of F and  Although separated by two  B-flat  intervening  measures, these n o n - d i a t o n i c chords form a u n i t by v i r t u e of t h e i r dominant-to-tonic r e l a t i o n s h i p . It  i s not suggested here t h a t t h i s s t y l i s t i c t r a i t i s  unique t o Faure.  An example of s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l l o g i c can be  seen i n Debussy's  "...La t e r r a s s e des audiences du c l a i r  lune", Prelude no. 7 from Book I I . which comprises mm. ty  of mm.  25-27.  9-12  de  (A. B - f l a t "intermezzo"  appears r e l a t e d to the E - f l a t  tonali-  T h i s long-range V-I r e l a t i o n s h i p i n E - f l a t  c o n t r a s t s w i t h the two p r i n c i p a l key c e n t r e s of the p i e c e , F-sharp and C major.)  N e v e r t h e l e s s , awareness of t h i s f i t e c h -  nique p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e t o o l i n the study of Faure's music. A. more complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between two  tonalities  appears i n Faure's "Dans l a nymphe'e", (5)t a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I .  From Example 1.5b  i t can be seen t h a t although the  song appears t o be i n the key of D - f l a t , the o u t e r - v o i c e motion of mm.  7 t o 10 suggests the presence of a d i f f e r e n t  tonality.  Since the i m p l i c a t i o n of the two l i n e s i s of D minor,  i t is  worthwhile t o examine whether any f u r t h e r evidence of t h i s  For an extended comparison of the work of Debussy and Faure', the reader i s r e f e r r e d t o : F r a n c o i s e Gervais, £tude compared des langages harmoniques de Faure at de Debussy, (Paris: R i c h a r d Masse, 1971).  75 t o n a l i t y can be found. mm.  4 and 7. up to m.  p e r i o d i c appearance  Although D major i s b r i e f l y heard i n 21,  D minor i s suggested o n l y through the  of i t s dominant—mm. 10,  (Obviously, the A. Mm  16,  20 and  21.  seventh chord i s a l s o dominant of D major,  but s i n c e the A. chord i s u s u a l l y found i n connection with chords that u t i l i z e  F - n a t u r a l , D minor seems to be the i m p l i e d  tonic).  From the c i t e d measures a g r e a t e r frequency of appearance t h i s dominant chord i s e v i d e n t as the song p r o g r e s s e s .  of  Such a  p a t t e r n suggests t h a t the avoidance of an A. harmony i n the opening measures i s i n t e n t i o n a l . c a l l y i n mm.  1-5,  The bass descends  hut A - n a t u r a l i s n o t i c e a b l y l e f t  chromatiout.  It  would c e r t a i n l y be l o g i c a l t o add an A-seventh chord, as shown i n Example 1.5b.  Once s i n g l e d out by i t s i n i t i a l absence, the  A. chord appears a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e u n t i l m. i s f i n a l l y heard (Example Example 5*4  1  »•!>•  5'4).  Appearances of the dominant of a secondary tonal i t y i n "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5. 4  ft  22, where D minor  /.  t»  10 \  16  ^  -  -fa  r+T  ,  6m. 1  h  20  •  6m.  fa  ,  22 ,  .Im. .  4m.  i  21  k\  f qi  p  " The D minor cadence cadence  i s immediately c o n t r a s t e d with the p e r f e c t  i n D - f l a t which concludes the song.  Thus the two tona-  l i t i e s which seem t o organize the music are confirmed i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y (Example  5«5)«  76 Example  i=8-dsfc==is; ^ I. Lin —Off-* f W f P A —TT1J.  t)  r  . h.  ff—• ft ^ — |j .1 J  r mine aufond  5.5  , . *•—• # »-• =•!•11yj ' *  yt  1 1• •  •  .  la nuit,  21-24.  mm.  p  '  1 de  106/5,  "Dans l a nymphe'e", Op.  re Dans le ra-pide 6. c l a i r —  J _  uJ.  ~I —  :l  ve  = = = = — _ »  •«  j  J — ^ — ••-i/l  -  dun —4  IZbi^J—^  C\  -Jl»  r  * •  r  c  j  —  — T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of D minor as a second t o n i c may not be c l e a r .  One can suggest t h a t because F i s an important  me-  l o d i c note ( i t forms the base of the l a r g e melodic arch of Example 1.7),  the use o f D - f l a t major and D minor a l l o w s that  note to remain u n a l t e r e d  (see Example  5-5)•  The next song t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , tes  "'Quand t u plonges  yeux...'" (2), has a l r e a d y been analyzed i n some d e t a i l i n  Chapter I (Example 1.3)•  In that context, no reasons were sug-  gested f o r the presence of two A major chords, found i n mm. and 20.  These appear i s o l a t e d ; the f i r s t ,  venth, does not r e s o l v e .  a c t u a l l y a Mm se-  For a c l e a r understanding of t h e i r  f u n c t i o n , one needs t o examine c l o s e l y the opening measures 5.6).  (Example Example  5.6  "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes  Op. 106/2, mm. 1-2.  yeux...'"  9  77  Two  o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made:  1) although the v o c a l p a r t  begins on F, the r i s i n g melodic l i n e a c t u a l l y begins on D i n the piano, and 2) d e s p i t e the f a c t that as a whole the song i s c l e a r l y i n the key of F, the f i r s t f i r s t - i n v e r s i o n D minor t r i a d . first  chord t h a t i s heard i s a  Admittedly, the v o i c i n g of the  chord, which i s o l a t e s F, does p o i n t t o an added-sixth  harmony, heard two beats l a t e r , but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the downbeat the C i s absent.  on  The f i r s t measure, taken as a  whole,.is a j u x t a p o s i t i o n of F and D minor t r i a d s ; F i s evident i n the bass and v o c a l melody, D minor i n the f i r s t the piano melody.  The t r i a d i c  chord and  j u x t a p o s i t i o n symbolizes the  t o n a l i t i e s found w i t h i n the song (one may  two  r e c a l l a s i m i l a r sym-  b o l i s m noted i n Chapter I I I , i n connection with the song "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2 / 2 ) . There  i s no q u e s t i o n which of the two  nates; D minor appears sures.  One  t o n a l i t i e s domi-  to be abandoned a f t e r the opening mea-  i s not reminded of i t s e x i s t e n c e u n t i l m.  i t s dominant appears.  9. where  I t i s , however, o n l y a reminder,  as the  f o l l o w i n g measures once again c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e F major (note t h a t i f the A.4 i n m. a B - f l a t , the two by s i d e ) .  10 i s understood as t e m p o r a r i l y r e p l a c i n g  dominant sevenths, on A. and on C, appear s i d e  The A. chord appears  once more, i n m.  20, although i t  does not c o n t a i n a seventh, i t a c t s as a dominant to the D minor which i s f i n a l l y heard  i n m.  21.  That measure i n i t i a t e s  the  song's l a s t phrase, which r e s t a t e s the m a t e r i a l heard i n the first  two phrases  (Example 5 ' 7 ) .  However, t h i s m a t e r i a l i s  d i f i e d so t h a t the chord, which i n the f i r s t measure was  mo-  heard  78  as  F6_, i s now  i n v e r t e d to sound as D minor seventh.  T h i s change  does not a f f e c t subsequent harmonic events and the song ends i n F major. Example  5'7  S i m i l a r i t i e s of phrases 1, 2, and 5 of "'Quand tu plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'" Op.  In  106/2.  summary i t can be s a i d . t h a t even though the song i s  i n F major, D minor i s a f a c t o r not as v i of F, but as a secondary t o n i c .  I t i s present i n the opening measure, i s r e c a l l e d by  two appearances of i t s dominant,and i s l a s t touched upon at the s t a r t of the l a s t phrase.  C l e a r l y , D minor i s not a major  issue i n t h i s s o n g - - i t adds c o l o u r to F without d i s r u p t i n g i t s s t a b i l i t y as a primary t o n i c - - b u t i t i s f e l t  enough to create  a problem of r e f e r e n c e i n the case of c e r t a i n harmonic events.  79  CONCLUSION  The s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i s study was  a d i s c u s s i o n of  ambiguity of harmonic syntax i n Faure's music.  Ambiguity  seen to r e s u l t  l e s s from the use of chords with m a n i f o l d  functions—the  "vagrant" chords of post-Wagnerian  harmony—  than from an emphasis on p r o t r a c t e d l i n e a r motion. even though succession as was  As a r e s u l t ,  a t r i a d i c harmonic vocabulary i s used, c h o r d a l is  o f t e n unusual.  "Often" i s the key word here;  p o i n t e d out i n Chapter I, Faure d i d not abandon t r a d i -  t i o n a l harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n s completely. the o l d and new t h i s music,  Rather, he  to c r e a t e h i s p e r s o n a l s t y l e .  combined  In l i s t e n i n g to  the ear wants to organize harmonic events a c c o r d i n g  to p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s , but t h i s i s not always p o s s i b l e . may  was  or may  Chords  not be used t r a d i t i o n a l l y and thus the q u e s t i o n of  t h e i r t r u e f u n c t i o n i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t of r e s o l u t i o n .  Charles  K o e c h l i n c l e a r l y p o i n t s out the h e a r t of the problem;  "...there  i s a l s o the n o v e l t y and s u b t l e t y of syntax (more than the vocabulary)".  Leslie  1  Charles K o e c h l i n , G a b r i e l Faure 1845-1924, Orrey (London: Dobson L t d . , 1945), p. 80.  trans.  80  T h i s study continued by examining the many ways i n which Faure used chains of t h i r d s t o s t r u c t u r e h i s p i e c e s . We saw t h a t Faure's fondness f o r s t r u c t u r e s of t h i r d r e l a t i o n i s undoubtedly r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the u n u s u a l l y h i g h number of seventh chords found i n h i s music. minor t h i r d s — M M  Chords  o f a l t e r n a t i n g major and  and mm s e v e n t h s — a r e e s p e c i a l l y more prominent  here than i n works o f e a r l i e r composers.  As was seen i n  Chapter IV, the MM seventh chord, as a background,  structure-  c o n t r o l l i n g , phenomenon, i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r i s e o f the melody t o the l e a d i n g tone. Both harmonic  ambiguity and the use of n o v e l t e r t i a n  s t r u c t u r e s become more pronounced seen i n Faure's l a t e r works.  with the i n c r e a s e d  austerity  As ornamental d e t a i l becomes  r a r e r , the importance o f i n d i v i d u a l notes and chords e s c a l a t e s . These are not c o n t i n u a l l y r e i t e r a t e d as would be common i n more t r a d i t i o n a l p i e c e s , and the e a r i s g i v e n l e s s time t o a d j u s t to unusual events.  T r a d i t i o n a l p r o g r e s s i o n s i n t h i r d s become more  tense and bare i n the superchord.  As was seen i n Chapter IV,  foreground melodies take on the c h a r a c t e r o f a middleground level.  "More than anything, i n the Songs,  Faure's  h a b i t of  e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f without i n s i s t e n c e p e r p l e x e s on f i r s t  hea-  r i n g ; one has t o r e - r e a d them and pore over them ( t h i s i s why French music, w i t h i t s r e s e r v e and compactness, d i f f i c u l t t o understand than Wagner)."  2  Ibid.  p  i s more  81  It  i s f e l t by t h i s author t h a t these  characteristics  create problems of a p p r e c i a t i o n which c o n t r i b u t e to the r e c e p t i o n a f f o r d e d Faure's work.  cool  They c e r t a i n l y become pro-  minent i n the l a t e r works, which have been the l e a s t w e l l r e ceived.  At the very l e a s t , t h i s k i n d of account seems more  persuasive for  than attempts to " e x p l a i n " the l a c k of enthusiasm  Faure's music outside  notable  of France on r a c i a l grounds.  of these, perhaps, i s Faure's own  Most  confessions  I am v e r y t i r e d of a l l these Germans, d e s p i t e the t r o u b l e they take to be pleasant} and above a l l I have had a s u r f e i t of music. They possess very pronounced g i f t s i n t h a t sphere; but they l a c k our n i c e t y of t a s t e and our sensitivity. And the funny t h i n g i s t h a t my music has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r b e i n g r a t h e r c o l d , r a t h e r too w e l l - b r e d ! We are not of the same race, t h a t i s c l e a r beyond doubt...3 The issue with  purpose of a n a l y s i s i s n e i t h e r to defend nor to take claims of t h i s s o r t , but  of the music i t s e l f , n i n g to i t and  study  to expose problems encountered i n l i s t e -  to suggest avenues toward t h e i r s o l u t i o n .  does not mean, however, t h a t there a n a l y s i s and  through p e n e t r a t i n g  i s no  connection  This  between  a p p r e c i a t i o n , f o r i t i s hoped, i n f a c t , t h a t  by  p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r understanding Faure's l a t e r music on i t s own  terms, s t u d i e s such as t h i s one  musical  might help to  p r e j u d i c e s which have t h e i r o r i g i n s outside  counteract of  musical  experience.  •^Hans Gal, ed., L e t t e r s of the Great Composers (Londons Thames and Hudson,,1965)t pp. 398-99. The source i s Faure's l e t t e r to h i s wife, w r i t t e n i n F r a n k f u r t , 16 January 1905.  82  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A.pel, W i l l i . H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c . Second E d i t i o n . Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975. Austin,  W i l l i a m W. "Harmonic Rhythm i n 20th-century M u s i c " , Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1950.  Austin,  William New  W.  York:  Music W.W.  i n the  Norton  20th  Century.  & Company I n c . ,  1966.  Benjamin, W i l l i a m E. "Pitch-Class Counterpoint i n Tonal Music." In Music Theory: S p e c i a l T o p i c s , pp. 1-32. E d i t e d by Richmond Browne. New Y o r k : Academic Press Inc., 1981. Bland,  Stephen Ph.D.  Copland,  F.  "The  Songs o f G a b r i e l  dissertation,  Aaron.  Musical G a l , Hans, ed. London :  "Gabriel Quarterly  Florida Faure,  Faure".  State University,  a Neglected  1976.  Master".  10, O c t o b e r 1924, pp. 573-86.  L e t t e r s o f t h e G r e a t Composers. Thames and Hudson, 1965.  G e r v a i s , F a n c o i s e . E t u d e comparee des l a n g a g e s h a r m o n i q u e s de F a u r e e t de Debussy. Paris: R i c h a r d Masse, 1971. Knox, R o g e r M a r t i n . "Counterpoint i n G a b r i e l Faure's s t r i n g q u a r t e t , Op. 121". Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Indiana, 1978. K o e c h l i n , C h a r l e s . G a b r i e l F a u r e 1845-1924. T r a n s l a t e d L e s l i e Orrey. London: Dobson L t d . , 1945Kurtz,  by  James L. "Problems o f T o n a l S t r u c t u r e i n Songs o f G a b r i e l F a u r e " , Ph.D. d i s s e r a t i o n , B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y ,  1970.  LaRue, J a n . "Bifocal Tonality: An E x p l a n a t i o n f o r Ambiguous Baroque Cadences." I n E s s a y s on M u s i c i n h o n o r o f A r c h i b a l d Thompson D a v i s o n . Cambridge: Harvard University, 1957Mellers, Wilfrid. "The L a t e r Work o f G a b r i e l F a u r e " . S t u d i e s i n Contemporary Music. London: Dennis Ltd.,  1947.  Dobson  83  Orledge, Robert. 1979.  G a b r i e l Faure.  London:  Eulenburg Books.  Pennington, Kenneth D. "A H i s t o r i c a l and S t y l i s t i c Study o f the Melodies of G a b r i e l Faure". Mus.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1961. Schenker, H e i n r i c h . E r n s t Oster. Suckling,  Norman.  Free Composition. T r a n s l a t e d by New York: Longman Inc., 1979Faure.  London:  J.M. Dent, 19^6.  Wegren, Thomas Joseph. "The Solo Piano Music o f G a b r i e l Faure", Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1973.  84  APPENDIX  Poems used i n Faure's Le J a r d i n Poet:  Charles  Source:  Van Lerberghe  Entrevisions  Clos.  (1861-190?)  (I898)  £  Indicates  ( )  U n t i t l e d poems. Faure's songs take t i t l e from the f i r s t line. These poems b e l o n g to the p o e t i c c y c l e Le J a r d i n Clos. I'  stanzas omitted i n Faure's s e t t i n g s .  Exaucement  A l o r s qu'en t e s mains de l u m i e r e Tu poses ton f r o n t d e f a i l l a n t , Que mon amour en t a p r i e r e Vienne comme un exaucement. A l o r s que l a p a r o l e e x p i r e Sur t a l e v r e q u i tremble encor, Et s'adoucit en un s o u r i r e De roses en des rayons d'orj A l o r s que t e s yeux s ' i l l u m i n e n t Et f i x e n t en ton sombre s e i n La v i s i t a t i o n d i v i n e Dont i l s sont l e s m i r o i r s l o i n t a i n s ; Que ton ame calme e t muette, Fee endormie au j a r d i n c l o s , En sa douce volonte' f a i t e Trouve l a j o i e e t l e repos. II.  (Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes  Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux, Je s u i s toute dans mes yeux. Quand t a bouche de'noue ma bouche, Mon amour n'est que ma bouche. Quand t u f r o 1 e s mes cheveux,• Je n ' e x i s t e p l u s qu'en eux.  yeux...)  85  Quand t a main e f f l e u r e mes s e i n s , J'y monte comme un f e u soudain. E s t - c e moi que t u as c h o i s i e ? La e s t mon ame, l k e s t ma v i e . Ill.  La messagere  A v r i l , e t c'est l e p o i n t du j o u r . Tes blondes soeurs q u i t e ressemblent, En ce moment, t o u t e s ensemble S'avancent v e r s t o i , cher Amour. Tu De La Le  t e t i e n s dans un c l o s ombreux myrte e t d'aubepine b l a n c h e : p o r t e s'ouvre entre l e s branches: chemin e s t mysterieux.  E l l e s , l e n t e s , en longues robes, Une a une, main dans l a main, Franchissent l e s e u i l i n d i s t i n c t Ou de l a n u i t d e v i e n t de l'aube. C e l l e q u i s'approche d'abord, Regarde 1'ombre, t e decouvre, C r i e , e t l a f l e u r de ses yeux s'ouvre Splendide dans un r i r e d'or. Et, j u s q u ' a ' l a derniere soeur, Toutes tremblent,, t e s l e v r e s touchent Leurs l e v r e s , 1 ' e c l a i r de t a bouche E c l a t e jusque dans l e u r coeur. x  IV.  (Je me p o s e r a i s u r ton coeur...)  Je me p o s e r a i s u r ton coeur Comme l e printemps s u r l a mer, Sur l e s p l a i n e s de l a mer s t e r i l e Ou n u l l e f l e u r ne peut c r o i t r e , A ses s o u f f l e s a g i l e s , Que des f l e u r s de l u m i e r e . Je me p o s e r a i s u r t o n coeur Comme l ' o i s e a u s u r l a mer, Dans l e repos de ses a i l e s l a s s e s , Et que berce l e rythme e t e r n e l Des f l o t s e t de l ' e s p a c e .  86  V.  Dans l a nymphee  Quoique t e s yeux ne l a v o i e n t pas, Sache, en ton ame, q u ' e l l e e s t l a , Comme a u t r e f o i s d i v i n e et blanche. Sur ce bord reposent ses mains. Sa t e t e e s t e n t r e ces jasmins; La, ses p i e d s e f f l e u r e n t l e s branches. E l l e sommeille en ces rameaux. Ses l e v r e s et ses yeux sont c l o s , Et sa bouche a peine r e s p i r e . P a r f o i s , l a ^ n u i t , dans un e'clair E l l e a p p a r a i t l e s yeux o u v e r t s , Et 1 ' E c l a i r dans ses yeux se mire. Un b r e f eblouissement b l e u La decouvre en ses longs cheveux; E l l e s ' e V e i l l e , e l l e se l e v e . . Et t o u t un j a r d i n e b l o u i S ' i l l u m i n e au fond de l a n u i t , Dans l e r a p i d e e c l a i r d'un reve. VI.  Dans l a pdnombre  A quoi,.dans ce matin d ' a v r i l , S i douce et d'ombre enveloppee, La chere enfant au coeur s u b t i l E s t - e l l e a i n s i t o u t occupee? La Se Je Ce  t r a c e blonde de ses pas perd parmi l e s g r i l l e s c l o s e s ; ne s a i s pas, je ne s a i s pas, sont d'impenetrables choses.  Pensivement, d'un geste l e n t , En longue robe, en robe a queue, Sur l e s o l e i l au rouet b l a n c A f i l e r de l a l a i n e b l e u e . A s o u r i r e a. son reve encor, Avec ses yeux de f i a n c e e , A t r e s s e r des f e u i l l a g e s d'or Parmi l e s l y s de sa pensee.  87  V I I . ( I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...) I I m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau Qui me t i e n t l e s paupieres c l o s e s ; I I pese comme un doux f a r d e a u De s o l e i l s u r de f a i b l e s r o s e s . S i j'avance, l ' e t r a n g e chose! Je p a r a i s marcher s u r des eaux; Mes p i e d s t r o p l o u r d s ou j e l e s pose, S'enfoncent comme en des anneaux. Qui done a d e l i e dans 1'ombre Le f a i x d'or de mes longs cheveux? Toute c e i n t e d ' e t r e i n t e s sombres, Je plonge en des vagues de f e u . Mes l e v r e s ou mon ame chante, Toute d'extase e t de b a i s e r S'ouvrent comme une f l e u r ardente Au-dessus d'un f l e u v e embrase. VIII. I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e sable Toute, avec s a robe e t ses f l e u r s , E l l e , i c i , redevint poussiere, Et son ame emportee a i l l e u r s Renaquit en chant e t l u m i e r e . Mais un l e g e r l i e n f r a g i l e Dans l a mort b r i s e doucement, E n c e r l a i t ses tempes d e b i l e s D'imperissables diamants. En signe d ' e l l e , a c e t t e p l a c e , Seules, parmi l e sable b l o n d , Les p i e r r e s e t e r n e l l e s t r a c e n t Encor 1'image de son f r o n t . C e l u i que l e s dieux ont c o n d u i t , Qui s u r s a route l e s a v u e s , S ' a r r e t e e t contemple e b l o u i Cette s p l e n d e u r q u ' i l c r o i t perdue. Perdue! E t des rayons s'y posent! 0 voyageur, t u ne s a i s pas Le sens mysterieux des choses; E l l e , s o u l e , ne l e f u t pas.  88  TRANSLATIONS OF THE POEMS I.  Fulfillment  When i n y o u r hands o f l i g h t You r e s t y o u r e x h a u s t e d f o r e h e a d , Let my l o v e e n t e r y o u r p r a y e r as a f u l f i l l m e n t . When t h e word d i e s On y o u r s t i l l t r e m b l i n g l i p s , And s o f t e n s i n t o a s m i l e Of r o s e s i n g o l d e n beams; When y o u r e y e s l i g h t up And s e c u r e i n y o u r sombre bosom The d i v i n e v i s i t a t i o n Of w h i c h t h e y a r e d i s t a n t m i r r o r s ; Let y o u r s t i l l and s i l e n t s o u l , A. f a i r y a s l e e p i n t h e e n c l o s e d g a r d e n , In h e r s w e e t l y done w i l l F i n d j o y and r e s t . II.  (When y o u immerse y o u r e y e s  When y o u immerse y o u r e y e s I am o n l y i n my e y e s .  i n my  i n my e y e s ,  When y o u r mouth u n l o c k s my mouth, My l o v e i s b u t my mouth. When y o u s t r o k e my h a i r , I do n o t e x i s t b u t i n i t . When y o u r hand g l i d e s o v e r my b r e a s t s , I f l a r e l i k e a sudden f l a m e . Is i t me y o u have c h o s e n ? T h e r e i s my s o u l , t h e r e i s my III.  life.  The m e s s e n g e r ( e s s )  A p r i l , a n d i t i s t h e b r e a k o f day. Your blonde s i s t e r s t h a t resemble you, At t h i s moment, t o g e t h e r Move t o w a r d s y o u , d e a r L o v e .  eyes...)  89  You r e m a i n i n a s h a d y g r o v e Of m y r t l e and w h i t e h a w t h o r n e s The d o o r opens amongst t h e b r a n c h e s ; The p a t h i s m y s t e r i o u s . They, s l o w l y , i n white^gowns, One by one, hand i n hand, C r o s s t h e dim t h r e s h o l d Where t h e n i g h t becomes dawn. She who a p p r o a c h e s first, L o o k s a t t h e shadow, d i s c o v e r s you, C r i e s o u t , and t h e f l o w e r o f h e r e y e s M a g n i f i c e n t l y i n golden l a u g h t e r .  opens  And, t o t h e l a s t sister, Each t r e m b l i n g , your l i p s touch T h e i r l i p s , t h e r a d i a n c e o f y o u r mouth Penetrates t h e i r soul. IV.  (I w i l l  p l a c e m y s e l f upon y o u r  heart...)  I w i l l p l a c e m y s e l f upon y o u r h e a r t As t h e s p r i n g t i m e upon t h e s e a , Upon t h e p l a i n s o f t h e b a r r e n s e a Where no f l o w e r c a n grow, by i t s g e n t l e b r e e z e s , ' except flowers of l i g h t . I w i l l p l a c e m y s e l f upon y o u r h e a r t As a b i r d on t h e s e a , R e s t i n g h i s t i r e d wings, That r o c k s i n the e t e r n a l rhythm Of waves and s p a c e . V,  In the  grotto  A l t h o u g h , y o u r e y e s do n o t see h e r , Know, i n y o u r s o u l , t h a t she i s t h e r e , As b e f o r e , d i v i n e and w h i t e . On t h i s bank r e s t h e r h a n d s . Her h e a d i s b e t w e e n t h e s e j a s m i n e s ; There, her f e e t graze the branches. She Her And  slumbers i n these boughs. l i p s and h e r e y e s a r e c l o s e d , h e r mouth h a r d l y b r e a t h e s .  90  Sometimes, i n t h e n i g h t , i n a. l i g h t n i n g She a p p e a r s w i t h open e y e s , And t h e f l a s h m i r r o r s i n h e r e y e s . A. b r i e f b l u e g l a r e Reveals her with her l o n g She wakes up, she r i s e s .  flash  hair;  And a w h o l e r e s p l e n d e n t g a r d e n L i g h t s up i n t h e d e p t h o f t h e n i g h t , I n t h e f l i c k e r o f a dream.  VI.  A t dawn  W i t h what, i n t h i s A p r i l m o r n i n g , So sweet and wrapped i n shadow, T h i s dear c h i l d o f pure h e a r t I s she thus p r e o c c u p i e d ? The f a i r t r a c e o f h e r s t e p I s l o s t among t h e c l o s e d g a t e s ; I do n o t know, I do n o t know, These a r e i m p e n e t r a b l e t h i n g s . P e n s i v e l y , w i t h a slow g e s t u r e , I n a l o n g gown, a gown w i t h a t r a i n , With s p i n n i n g a b l u e y a r n On t h e w h i t e s p i n n i n g w h e e l s u n . S t i l l s m i l i n g a t h e r dream, With f i a n c e e ' s eyes, With b r a i d i n g golden f o l i a g e Among t h e l i l i e s o f h e r t h o u g h t s . VII.  ( I t i s dear  t o me. L o v e , t h e b a n d a n a . . . )  I t i s d e a r t o me, L o v e , t h e b a n d a n a T h a t h o l d s my e y e l i d s c l o s e d ; I t w e i g h t s l i k e a sweet b u r d e n Of s u n on t h e d e l i c a t e r o s e s . I f I advance, s t r a n g e t h i n g 1 I seem t o w a l k on w a t e r s ; My f e e t t o o h e a v y where I p u t them, Sink i n l i k e i n r i n g s .  9 1  Who t h e n has u n t i e d i n t h e shadow The g o l d e n w e i g h t o f my l o n g h a i r ? A l l g i r d l e d w i t h dark embraces, I p l u n g e i n t o t h e waves o f f i r e . My l i p s where my s o u l s i n g s , A l l o f e c s t a s y and o f k i s s e s Open up l i k e a b r i l l i a n t f l o w e r Above a b l a z i n g r i v e r . VIII.  Inscription  i n the  sand.  C o m p l e t e , w i t h h e r d r e s s and h e r She, h e r e , r e t u r n e d t o d u s t , And h e r s o u l , c a r r i e d e l s e w h e r e Was r e b o r n on s o n g and l i g h t .  flowers,  But a. l i g h t f r a g i l e b o n d Gently broken i n death, E n c i r c l e d h e r weakened t e m p l e s With i m p e r i s h a b l e diamonds. I n remembrance o f h e r , a t t h i s p l a c e , Alone, i n the white sand, The e t e r n a l s t o n e s s t i l l t r a c e The image o f h e r f o r e h e a d . He whom t h e gods have g u i d e d , Who on h i s way h a s s e e n them, S t o p s a s t o n i s h e d and c o m t e m p l a t e s T h i s s p l e n d o r t h a t he b e l i e v e s l o s t . LosttS? And r a y s upon i t ! Oh t r a v e l e r , you do n o t know The!jmysterious sense o f t h i n g s ; She, a l o n e , was n o t l o s t .  

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