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Aspects of structure in Gabriel Fauré’s Le jardin clos and related works Skoumal, Zdenek Denny 1982

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ASPECTS OF STRUCTURE IN GABRIEL FAURE'S LE JARDIN CLOS AND RELATED WORKS by ZDENEK DENNY SKOUMAL B.Mus., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A. THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Music We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. August 1982 (c) Zdenek Denny Skouroal, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Music The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date August 13, 1982 ABSTRACT Despite an ever-increasing number of specialized stu-dies i n music theory, only a li m i t e d number can be found which examine the music of Gabriel Faure. Most discussions of t h i s music are i n context of a h i s t o r i c a l overview, with emphasis on Faure's use of modality. This thesis presents detailed ana-lyses of songs from the cycle Le Jardin Clos, Op. 106, and highlights several aspects of Faure's s t y l e . Various e a r l i e r songs are brought into the discussion i n order to trace s t y l i s -t i c development and present evidence f o r views taken with re-gard to Le Jardin Clos. Although modality i s p e r i o d i c a l l y discussed ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Chapters III and IV), the focus i s not on t h i s feature. Chapter I introduces the notion of ambiguity, a problem encountered commonly in the analysis of Faure's music. It then proceeds to point out one source of ambiguity--harmonic progressions derived from the implications inherent in the motions of outer voices. P a r t i c u l a r attention i s given to i n -stances where the outer voices move "in contrary motion to create wedge-shaped structures. In t h i s chapter, l i n e a r motion i s emphasized. Chapter II turns to various structures of t h i r d - r e l a t i o n . The most extended portion of the chapter i s devoted to a d i s -cussion of the "superchord", a t e r t i a n structure which, a l -though heard i n segments only, appears as a c o n t r o l l i n g element i i i i n larger areas of music. D i s t i n c t i o n i s made between th i s phenomenon and a normal progression i n thirds ( i - V I - i v ) . Other structures related to the superchord are also considered. The l a s t example of Chapter II shows a structure based on a combination of a t e r t i a n design and a wedge shape. In Chapter I I I , various non-traditional ways of trea-t i n g the leading tone are examined. In addition to leading tones which are lowered (in modal and tonal contexts) or avoi-ded, the discussion concentrates on melodic l i n e s which r i s e to the leading tone and retreat downward. Chapter IV reviews melodic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s encountered up to that point, and, with the addition of further features, presents a melody t y p i c a l of Faure's l a t e r s t y l e . The major issue in t h i s chapter concerns melodies that center around the f i f t h degree of the scale. The f i n a l chapter returns to the topic of ambiguity by discussing instances where two tonal centers are juxtaposed. This feature of Faure's music i s distinguished from b i t o n a l i -ty, as the l a t t e r i s generally understood. Thesis Supervisor i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF EXAMPLES . v SYMBOLS USED IN THE ANALYTICAL SKETCHES v i i i . • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ix INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I. OUTER-VOICE MOTION 5 CHAPTER I I . STRUCTURES OF THIRD-RELATION 19 CHAPTER I I I . THE LEADING TONE kj, The leading tone at more immediate s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s ( 4 - 3 ) The leading tone at higher s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s (50) CHAPTER IV. THE MELODY 60 CHAPTER V. DOUBLE TONALITIES 71 CONCLUSION 79 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 82 APPENDIX: POEMS USED IN LE JA.RDIN CLOS 84 TRANSLATIONS OF THE POEMS 88 V LIST OF EXAMPLES 1.1. "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2, mm. 1-6 7 1.2. "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2, Background harmonic progression 8 1.3- '"Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'" Op. 106/2 9 1.^a^bfeTwo interpretations of outer-voice motion i n mm. 1-5 of "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux...'", Op. 106/2 11 1.4c Outer-voice wedge structure of "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2 11 1.5 Outer-voice motion of "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux...'", Op. 106/2, mm. 13-20 12 1.6a "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5, mm. 1-13 15 1.6b "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5, mm. 1-5 15 1.7. Outer-voice motion of "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5, mm. 1-13 17 2.1. Twelfth Nocturne. Op. 107, mm. 1-13 20 2.2. Superchord complex b u i l t from tr i a d s 22 2.3. Superchord complex b u i l t from seventh chords . . 23 2.4. Chromatic al t e r a t i o n s necessitated by the super-chordal structure 24 2.5. "Inscription sur le sable", Op. 106/8, mm. 1-5 . 25 2.6. U n t i t l e d 28 2.7. "Inscription sur l e sable", Op. 106/8 30 2.8. "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 1-3 33 2.9. "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6. An alternative interpretation of mm. 1-3 33 2.10. "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 1-8 34 2.11. "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 7-9• End of a superchordal structure, symbolized by stepwise motion between stable harmonies . . 36 v i 2.12. "Spleen", Op. 51/3. nun. 39-43. . A superchord-related structure 37 2.13. "Les Matelote", Op. 2/2, mm. 1-12 38 2.14a "La mer est i n f i n i e . . . " , Op. 118/1, mm. 1-12 . . 40 2.14b "Lamer est i n f i n i e . . . " , Op. 118/1, mm. 1-3 . . . 40 3.1. "Aubade", Op. 6/1, mm. 5-10 44 3.2. "L 1 Absent", Op. 5/3. mm. 1-7 5^ 3.3> "'II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 9-10 46 3.4. "Inscription sur l e sable", Op. 106/8, mm. 16-19. ^8 3.5* "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux..."', Op. 106/2, mm. 21-26 48 3.6. "*I1 m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 44-47 49 3.7. "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2, mm. 11-12 49 3.8. "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 13-14 . . . . 50 3.9. Untitled 51 3.10. "Lydia", Op. 4/2, mm. 1-7 52 3.11. Main tonal centers in "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2, mm. 1-10 54 3.12. Main tonal centers in "Lydia", Op. 4/2, mm. 1-6 . 54 3.13. "'II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op. 106/7. High-level melodic motion 55 3.14. "'Je me poserai sur ton coeur...'", Op. 106/4. High-level melodic motion 56 3.15. "'Je me poserai sur ton coeur...'", Op. 106/4, mm. 16-17 57 3.16. "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2. High-level melodic motion 58 4.1. "'II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...*", Op. 106/7, mm. 45-50 ' 6l v i i 4.2. "Exaucement", Op. 106/1, mm. 25-28 6l 4.3. "Inscription sur l e sable", Op. 106/8. Melodic a c t i v i t y 62 4.4. "A Clymene", Op. 58/4, mm. 1-7 63 4.5. "Paradis", Op. 95/1, mm. 1-11 64 4.6. Comparison of the Lydian and Dorian modes . . . 66 4.7. Surface melodic a c t i v i t y in the opening measures of songs from Le Jardin Clos. Op. 106, and L*Horizon Chimerique, Op. 118 67 4.8. "'II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 12-15 68 4.9. Comparison of early and late melodies 69 4.10. "Exaucement", Op. 106/1.- Melodic a c t i v i t y . . . 70 5.1. "'II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 5-6 72 5.2. Possible connection between mm. 6-7 and m. 15 of "'II m'est cher, Amour, le bandeau...'" Op. 106/7 73 5.3. "'II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'". Op. 106/7, mm. 13-15 73 5.4. Appearances of the dominant of a secondary tona-l i t y in "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5 75 5.5. "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5, mm. 21-24 . . . . 76 5.6. "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2, mm. 1-2 76 5.7. S i m i l a r i t i e s of phrases 1, 2, and 5 of "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2 78 V l l l SYMBOLS USED IN THE ANALYTICAL SKETCHES Slurs are used to trace stepwise melodic motion as well as to delineate spans. \ Dotted slurs (or l i n e s ) indicate retained pitches. Parentheses surround notes or chords which are not of primary importance, but which are he l p f u l i n understan-ding the musical events. Square brackets enclose notes or chords which are supplied by the author. These may be heard at a d i f -ferent octave, or simply implied by the voice leading. Q This sequence indicates the r e l a t i v e importance of notes; s t a r t i n g with the lea s t important at l e f t . In general, larger noteheads indicate greater importance. or Transfer of a voice to a d i f f e r e n t octave. Voice exchange. i n place of a notehead., Non-existent p i t c h which would be l o g i c a l at that point. Slash—used with Roman numerals. These show that the chord i s in some way altered (for example, i f the dominant i s heard with a lowered 5) . ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It i s with gratitude that I wish to acknowledge Professor William E. Benjamin, whose help and guidance allowed my ideas to develop and assume a presentable form. I also would l i k e to thank Professor Cortland Hultberg f o r his help-f u l suggestions, and Mrs. Maria Kahovec f o r help with French texts. The translations of the poems are mainly her work. F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my parents, whose support and encouragement allowed me to complete th i s endeavor. 1 INTRODUCTION The work o f G a b r i e l Faure' (1845-1924) o c c u p i e s a c u -r i o u s p o s i t i o n i n t h e h i s t o r y o f mu s i c . A l t h o u g h many p e o p l e r e c o g n i z e Faure' as an i m p o r t a n t composer, o n l y a few o f h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s a r e performed w i t h some degree o f r e g u l a r i t y — t h e Requiem. Op. 48, t h e Pavane. Op. 50, t h e B a l l a d e f o r p i a n o and o r c h e s t r a , Op. 19, t h e two v i o l i n s o n a t a s , Op. 13 and 108, t h e E l e g i e f o r c e l l o and p i a n o , Op. 24, and songs such as L y d i a . Op. 4/2, and Apres un r e v e . Op. 7/1. H i s music i s most o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as d r y o r u n i n t e r e s t i n g , and i n g e n e r a l d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d . Such d e s c r i p t i o n s seem t o a p p l y most c o m f o r t a b l y t o F a u r e ' s l a t e r w o r k s j one s h o u l d n o t e t h a t , w i t h one ex-, c e p t i o n , a l l o f t h e abovementioned c o m p o s i t i o n s have r e l a t i -v e l y e a r l y opus numbers ( F a u r e ' s l a s t c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e s t r i n g q u a r t e t , i s Op. 121). The r e c e p t i o n o f Faur e ' s songs c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the p u b l i c ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r h i s e a r l i e r c o m p o s i t i o n s ; w h i l e i t i s v e r y common t o f i n d F aure*s name on t h e program o f a v o i c e r e -c i t a l , i t i s u n u s u a l t o h e a r songs beyond t h o s e o f Op. 61 ( L a  Bonne Chanson), and r a r e t o h e a r any o f t h e l a s t f o u r song c y c l e s . Kenneth D. P e n n i n g t o n e f f e c t i v e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n t 2 S e v e r a l o f t h e m e l o d i e s o f t h e e a r l y and m i d d l e p e r i o d s (such as " L y d i a " , "Apres un r e v e " , a n d H C l a i r de l u n e " ) have a t t a i n e d a u n i v e r s a l p o p u l a r i t y , b u t even t h e s e r i o u s s t u -dent o f song l i t e r a t u r e i s u s u a l l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h most o f F a u r e * s m e l o d i e s a f t e r L a Bonne Chanson. I t i s i r o n i c t h a t F a u r e , whose l a t e r development was so pronounced, s h o u l d be known t o many as the composer o f a few songs t h a t were p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n by h i s t w e n t i e t h y e a r . l Robert Orledge e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s The p u b l i c i s n o t k i n d t o composers who e v o l v e away from a f a m i l i a r s t y l e : t h e m a j o r i t y o f R a v e l ' s e n t h u s i a s t i c a u d i e n c e f o r -Jeux d'eau were u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o the H i s t o i -r e s n a t u r e l l e s and t h e V a l s e s n o b l e s e t s e n t i m e n t a l e s . j u s t as Faure l e f t h i s a u d i e n c e b e h i n d w i t h La Bonne Chan-son. Time and a g a i n h i s music i s judged d i f f i c u l t t o un- • d e r s t a n d o r p l a c e i n i t s p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e . 2 A l t h o u g h Orledge w r i t e s " i t i s o n l y v e r y r e c e n t l y t h a t s i g n s o f an e n t h u s i a s t i c and s c h o l a r l y r e d i s c o v e r y [ o f Faure's m u s i c ] have begun t o emerge", 3 Aaron Copland's 1924 d e s c r i p t i o n o f Faure as a " n e g l e c t e d m a s t e r " s t i l l a p p l i e s when one con-4 s i d e r s s t u d i e s o f a t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e . Very few a n a l y s e s o f F a u r e ' s works can be found and t h o s e t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e a r e o f t e n o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s o f a l a r g e number o f v a r i e d p i e c e s . The aim o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o c l o s e l y examine a l a t e - p e r i o d work and t o p o i n t out t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t s e t Faure a p a r t from o t h e r composers w o r k i n g i n t h e late-Roman-Kenneth D. P e n n i n g t o n , "A. H i s t o r i c a l and S t y l i s t i c Study o f t h e M e l o d i e s o f G a b r i e l F a u r e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I n d i a n a , 1961), p. 195-2 R o b e r t O r l e d g e , G a b r i e l Faure (London 1 E u l e n b u r g Books, 1979). p. 41. 3 I b i d . , p. 43. - Aaron Copland, " G a b r i e l F a u r e , a N e g l e c t e d M a s t e r . " M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 10 ( O c t o b e r 1924)»573. 3 t i c idiom. Ultimately, reasons w i l l be suggested f o r the l e s s e r popularity of h i s l a t e works. The songs Although examples w i l l be given from a variety of Faure's pieces, the main a n a l y t i c a l emphasis w i l l be on the song cycle Le Jardin Clos, Op. 106. The cycle was composed du-r i n g the second h a l f of 1914 and sets the poetry of the Belgian Symbolist poet Charles Van Lerberghe (1861-1907). The source was the c o l l e c t i o n Entre v i s ions (1898) from which Faure' selec-ted eight poems on the basis of thematic unity. Although En-t r e v i s i o n s contains a poetic cycle t i t l e d Le Jardin Clos. only three of the l a t t e r ' s component poems were used by the composer.-* It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the poem "Exaucement", which includes the l i n e "Fee endormie au jardin c l o s " , i s not part of Lerberghe's poetic cycle? nevertheless, i t i s the f i r s t song of Faure'*s song cycle. Faure''s Le Jardin Clos comprises of the following eight songss 1. Exaucement 2. "Quand tu^plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux..." 3. La Messagere 4. "Je me poserai sur ton coeur..." 5. Dans l a nymphee 6. Dans l a penombre 7. "II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau..." 8. I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e 0 "'These are the u n t i t l e d poems in the Appendix. ^Beginning i n Chapter I, c i t a t i o n s of these songs w i l l often appear with pa r e n t h e t i c a l l y enclosed numbers. These num-bers s i g n i f y the p o s i t i o n i n g of the songs i n the cycle and w i l l be useful i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the members of Le Jardin Clos from other works being discussed. 4 Only t h r e e o f t h e songs a r e n o t s e t t i n g s o f t h e complete poems; the f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a s have been o m i t t e d , s t a n z a 3 i n "Exaucement". s t a n z a 2 i n "Dans l a penombre", and s t a n z a s 4 and 5 i n " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e a s a b l e " . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t a n z a s o f " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " were n o t used t o a s s u r e a t r a g i c e n d i n g t o t h e song, and hence, t o t h e c y c l e as a whole (Van L e r b e r g h e ' s poem ends somewhat e n i g m a t i c a l l y , w i t h an im-p l i c a t i o n t h a t d e a t h i s somehow n o t f i n a l ) • I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e song i s t h e o n l y one i n the c y c l e w h i c h i s i n a minor k e y . 8 W h i l e Le J a r d i n C l o s w i l l be the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t o f a t t e n t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages, o t h e r songs w i l l be examined as w e l l . These i n c l u d e " P a r a d i s " from L a Chanson D * Eve. Op. 95i "La mer e s t i n f i n i e . . . " from L * H o r i z o n Chimerique. Op. 118, and v a r i o u s e a r l i e r songs, used m a i n l y t o t r a c e s t y -l i s t i c t r a i t s . One p i a n o w o r k — t h e T w e l f t h N o c t u r n e . Op. 107 - - i s q uoted t o i l l u s t r a t e a more g e n e r a l c o n c e p t . I t s p r e -sence i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s j u s t i f i e d by i t s c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o -x i m i t y t o Le J a r d i n C l o s . ' A l l t h e poems a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y i n t h e Appendix. 8 ' Rober t Orledge n o t e s t h a t i n Faure's o r i g i n a l manu-s c r i p t t h e song ends w i t h a " t i e r c e de p i c a r d i e . " 9 One may s p e c u l a t e t h a t Faure had i n mind t h e l e s s t r a g i c e n d i n g o f the o r i g i n a l poem. ^ O r l e d g e , G a b r i e l F a u r e , p. 1^ 5. 5 CHAPTER I OUTER-VOICE MOTION I t i s p r o b a b l y s a f e t o say t h a t d u r i n g t h e l a t e n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y complex. A d m i t t e d l y , s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d be made w i t h r e g a r d t o o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s j however, the l a t e Romantic e r a i s s p e c i a l i n t h a t t h e c o m p l e x i t y r e s u l t s n o t o n l y f rom the evo-l u t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h e d m u s i c a l p a t t e r n s , b u t a l s o from the e f f e c t s o f new i d e a s t h a t a r e n o t based upon t r a d i t i o n . Such a m i x t u r e i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t s i n t h e appearance o f a problem t h a t i s a n y t h i n g b u t uncommon i n the a n a l y s i s o f t h i s m u s i c i a m b i g u i t y o f r e f e r e n c e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l and n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f o l d and new appears t o be m a i n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e ambiguous n a t u r e o f Faure's m u s i c ; t h e com-p o s e r i s s t i l l w o r k i n g w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l c h o r d s , b u t i s o r g a n i -z i n g them i n u n u s u a l p a t t e r n s o f s u c c e s s i o n . The music i s s t i l l t o n a l — m a j o r / m i n o r c h o r d s t r u c t u r e s p r e v a i l , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t o n a l i t i e s i s n o t a problem, v o i c e - l e a d i n g i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y by s t e p — a n d y e t , t h e l i s t e n e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s as t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s i m p l i e d by t h e chords a r e n o t always f u l f i l l e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , w h i l e t h e music may appear s i m p l e on the s u r f a c e , i t becomes f r u s t r a t i n g l y e n i g m a t i c on c l o s e r s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , the f o r -6 m a t i o n o f a c o n v i n c i n g a n a l y s i s becomes more c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t Faure was somewhat i n c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s use o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l elements t one f i n d s t h a t w h i l e some works may i n -c l u d e o n l y a few o b s c u r i n g f e a t u r e s , o t h e r s may be a l t o g e t h e r based on a new u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c . The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , Chapter I I , and C h a p t e r V c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e q u e s t i o n o f harmonic o r -g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e m u s i c , and aim t o account f o r the a m b i g u i t y o f Faure's music i n t h i s d i m e n s i o n o f s t r u c t u r e . A t t e n t i o n w i l l f i r s t be f o c u s e d on a v e r y e a r l y song — "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2, w r i t t e n i n 1865 when Faure' was 20 y e a r s o l d . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s song p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e l i n e a t e t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e music t h a t a r e u n d e r s t o o d t o be t r a d i t i o n a l and a l l o w s one t o show t h a t even an e a r l y song such as t h i s c o n t a i n s f e a t u r e s prominent i n Faure's l a t e r s t y l e . Example 1.1 shows a m i d d l e g r o u n d s k e t c h t h a t o u t l i n e s th e f u n d a m e n t a l harmony, as w e l l as the m e l o d i c d i r e c t i o n s o f f o u r e s s e n t i a l v o i c e s . The r o o t - m o t i o n embodied i n t h e s e v o i c e s , i n c l u d i n g t h a t w h i c h emerges o v e r t h e p e d a l i n mm. 1-8, i s shown c l e a r l y on t h e t h i r d s t a f f ( n o t e s i n p a r e n t h e s e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o i n a l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n ) ; . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i o n by d e s c e n d i n g f i f t h s p r e d o m i n a t e s , b u t i t has t o be p o i n t e d out t h a t i t does n o t s e r v e as t h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r i n a l l s i x t e e n measures. W h i l e the f i r s t two p h r a s e s a r e based on a c o n v e n t i o n a l harmonic d e s i g n , t h e harmony o f mm. 9 t o 16 i s c l e a r l y t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t r a r y motion between t h e soprano and b a s s . Even though a V-I p r o g r e s s i o n does appear i n m. 13» i t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d t o have any harmonic meaning a s i d e from 7 Example 1.1 "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2, mm. 1-16. i t s p u r e l y l o c a l f u n c t i o n . L i n e a r m o t i o n i s t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r h e r e j t h e harmony i s a b y - p r o d u c t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , though, t h a t c a r e has been t a k e n t o a s s u r e t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g f o r e g r o u n d i s s t i l l t r a d i t i o n a l — n o u n u s u a l c hords a r e genera-t e d and v o i c e - l e a d i n g i s c o n v e n t i o n a l . I n f a c t , o n l y a m i d d l e -ground harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n i s m i s s i n g , and, as has j u s t been mentioned, i t s f u n c t i o n has been r e p l a c e d by t h e d i v e r g i n g me-l o d i c l i n e s . The f i n a l cadence i s n o t e w o r t h y s i n c e i t b r i n g s about a b r e a k i n t h e s t e p w i s e bass m o t i o n o f t h e p r e c e d i n g mea-s u r e s . The d e s c e n d i n g - f i f t h l e a p s u g g e s t s a r e t u r n t o t h e l o g i c 8 of the opening eight measures, and hints at a possible con-nection between the two areas. The connection i s not d i f f i c u l t to see; the f i n a l cadence serves as the conclusion of a back-up ground I - i i i - V -I progression (Example 1.2). Example 1.2 "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2. Background harmonic progression. E ^ i I- - i i i . . V 7 _ ^  I Example 1.3. a graph of "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux'" (2), provides an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison to "Les Matelots". Written 5 0 years l a t e r , the former s t i l l retains some of the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seen in Faure's early s t y l e . The most notable s i m i l a r i t i e s to the e a r l i e r song are the presence of fifth-based progressions and the appearance of extended con-trary motion in the outer voices. The t r a d i t i o n a l progressions may be obvious (mm. 10-12), p a r t l y hidden (mm. 1-4), or t o t a l l y obscure (mm. 13-19), but t h e i r presence does appear to have some bearing on the design of the song as a whole. There are f i v e phrases i n the song--mm. 1-5. mm. 5~9, mm. 10-13, mm. 14-20, and mm. 20-26—and each phrase can be seen as influenced by a t r a -d i t i o n a l harmonic plan to a certain degree. The contrary motion i s clearest i n mm. 1 - 5 ; in mm. 5 - 7 i t i s less obvious because of an incomplete bass l i n e , while in mm. 10-12 only the upper Example 1.3 "'Quand t u plonges t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2. 10 o f t h e c o n t r a s t i n g l i n e s remains} the b a s s i s c l e a r l y harmo-n i c . Thus, i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e p h r a s e s t h e r e appears t o be a g r a d u a l change from a m e l o d i c t o a harmonic bass l i n e . S t a r t i n g i n m. 12, a c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n i s h e a r d w h i c h b r i n g s about a r e t u r n t o c o n t r a r y m o t i o n . Both mm. 1-5 and mm. 13-20 w i l l now be examined i n more d e t a i l . W hile i t i s normal t o f i n d c o n t r a r y m o t i o n i n t r a d i -t i o n a l harmony, t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s o f the f i r s t p h r a s e i s u n u s u a l . The soprano C i n mm. 3 and 4, which would n o r m a l l y be harmonized by a V c h o r d , appears o v e r t h e Q IV, and a I V 7 c h o r d i s formed. S i n c e t h i s harmony i s meant t o f u n c t i o n as a s t r u c t u r a l e n t i t y and n o t t o sound as a p a s -s i n g c h o r d , i t i s g i v e n g r e a t e r f o c u s by t h e l e a p o f a f o u r t h i n t h e b a s s ; t h e E - f l a t i n t h e b a s s o f m. 3 i s used i n p l a c e of t h e e x p e c t e d C. The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the two o u t e r v o i c e s can be u n d e r s t o o d i n two wayst 1) as t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r -p o i n t (Example 1.4a), b u t i n a v e r s i o n where th e soprano com-p l e t e s i t s p a t h from P t o C a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n u s u a l and s u b s e q u e n t l y " w a i t s " f o r t h e b a s s t o f i n i s h i t s c o u r s e , o r 2) as an i n c o m p l e t e v e r s i o n o f a l a r g e s y m m e t r i c a l wedge s t r u c -t u r e (Example 1.4b). A l t h o u g h b o t h o f t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e p l a u s i b l e , the second i s e a s i e r t o s u b s t a n t i a t e } t h e number o f o c c u r e n c e s o f s i m i l a r shapes i n F a u r e ' s o t h e r works i s u n u s u a l l y h i g h . One was a l r e a d y seen i n "Les M a t e l o t s " (see Example 1.4c f o r a c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n ) ; o t h e r s can be f o und i n "Dans l a nymphee" (5)» and t h e T w e l f t h N o c t u r n e , Op. 107. The wedge s t r u c t u r e must be viewed as an e s s e n t i a l 11 element of Faure's compositional technique. Example 1.4 Two interpretations of outer-voice motion in mm. 1-5 of "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux...'", Op. 106/2. a b i r h — a  ^ r-z _ « 1 J 1 , — • — * - — •—• » T~ » 1 T ' i « r-Example 1.4c Outer-voice wedge Op. 2/2. structure of "Les Matelots", , . - In ' ft' 1—'—'— — — * — f » — i " — h i — i — i n — L 7 — • 1-1 M There are two main features that set mm. 13-20 apart from the remainder of the song: 1) increased p a r a l l e l motion at a l e v e l just below the surface, and 2) a change of mode from F major to F minor. The par a l l e l i s m , seen in mm. 14-16 and 18-19, i s further evidence of a break from t r a d i -t i o n a l voice-leading. Although, as i s customary i n Faure's music, i t i s hidden in the foreground by sequential and neigh-bouring motions, i t i s c l e a r l y seen in a middleground sketch where i t plays an important role as a f o i l to the c o n t r o l l i n g contrary motion (Example 1.5)• More s p e c i f i c a l l y , in "'Quand tu plonges...'" i t also serves as an agent of prolongation by 12 d e l a y i n g t h e bass motion from D - f l a t t o C i n mm. 14-17 w h i l e the melody moves from A - f l a t t o C. The change o f mode men-t i o n e d above does n o t r e f e r t o t h e o v e r a l l harmony o f t h e s e c t i o n , b u t r a t h e r t o the a l l - i m p o r t a n t o u t e r v o i c e s . A l -though t h e b a s i c shape has remained s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the p r e c e d i n g p h r a s e s , the l i n e s appear t o be based on an F-minor s c a l e . The f o l l o w i n g example summarizes the main m e l o d i c m o t i o n . Example 1.5 O u t e r - v o i c e motion o f "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s yeux...'", Op. 106/2, mm. 13-20. ». 13 ' 16 19 " • f t u , — ) 1 _MS i-i 9 i ' « — -ijr-r * In fc-j» f t t » bi i J IU b 9 * r • i — f — f j — IV V The p r o l o n g a t i o n ( o r d i v e r s i o n o f d e s c e n t ) i n mm. 14-17 has a l r e a d y been mentionedt t h e s e e m i n g l y f o r e i g n f i n a l c hord i l l u s t r a t e s the phenomenon o f double t o n a l i t i e s t h a t w i l l be t h e s u b j e c t o f C h a p t e r V. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e here t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e changes from the p r e v i o u s p h r a s e s , a I-IV-V p r o -g r e s s i o n can s t i l l be i s o l a t e d . The e n t i r e a r e a o f m. 13 t o m. 16 i s u n d e r s t o o d as I ( t h e D - f l a t c h o r d i n mm. 13-14 i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r an F-chord and accomodates the A - f l a t i n t h e melody), t h e IV i s h e a r d i n m. 18, and t h e V i n m. 19. C l e a r -l y , though, as a r e s u l t o f t h e weak I and t h e p r e s e n c e o f a major s e v e n t h i n the V, the t r a d i t i o n a l p r o g r e s s i o n does n o t emerge as s u c h . These remnants o f t r a d i t i o n a l harmony are de-13 c i d e d l y s e c o n d a r y t o t h e c o n t r o l l i n g d e s i g n o f the o u t e r v o i c e s . One f i n a l example w i l l be d i s c u s s e d h e r e , mm. 1-13 o f "Dans l a nymphee" ( 5 ) . T h i s e x c e r p t was chosen f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s * t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l and non-conven-t i o n a l elements becomes more pronounced, the l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e c o n t r o l s a much l a r g e r a r e a , and p a r a l l e l m o t i o n t a k e s on g r e a t e r s t r u c t u r a l i m p o r t a n c e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , s i n c e t h e l i n e a r d e s i g n i s l e s s o b v i o u s here t h a n i t was i n p r e v i o u s examples, an a n a l y s i s w i l l show i t i s i n f a c t more i m p o r t a n t t h a n may a t f i r s t be a p p a r e n t . I n some sense," "Dans l a nymphee" seems more complex t h a n o t h e r songs o f Op. 106; t h i s i s u n d o u b t e d l y due t o the i n c r e a s e d c h r o m a t i c i s m . A l t h o u g h Faure d i d n o t a v o i d chroma-t i c i s m e l s e w h e r e , i t i s e s p e c i a l l y prominent here as i t i s used t o c r e a t e t h e e t h e r e a l atmosphere s u g g e s t e d by t h e t e x t . * I t a ppears m a i n l y i n two f o r m s j as a s u r f a c e phenomenon ( f o r example i n mm. 2 and 3) and as a b a s i s f o r a d e s i g n w h i c h i n -2 v o l v e s s i m u l t a n e o u s use o f two t o n a l i t i e s . However, n e i t h e r o f t h e s e f a c t o r s p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the p r e s e n t d i s -c u s s i o n , and hence the a n a l y s i s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d o n l y i n 1 F o r t e x t s and t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s , see t h e Appendix. 2 F o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s t e r m i n o l o g y see d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s song i n Ch a p t e r V, pp. 74-76. 14 terms o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s i n t r o d u c e d t h u s f a r . A graph o f t h e f i r s t t h i r t e e n measures i s shown i n Example 1.6a. The c l e a r e s t way t o p e r c e i v e the s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s song i s t o examine v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s , s t a r t i n g w i t h one t h a t i s most remote ( w h i t e n o t e s i n the g r a p h ) . A. t r a d i -t i o n a l background p r o g r e s s i o n can be i s o l a t e d , one t h a t i s n o t u n l i k e t h a t seen i n Example 1.1. The main harmonic motion i s from I (mm. 1-5), t o i i i (m. 13), t o V 7 (mm. 23), t o I (mm. 23-24.) The i n i t i a l I i s p r o l o n g e d by a s e p a r a t e , c h r o -m a t i c a l l y f i l l e d - i n I - V ' - I . The s e c t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n here f i l l s i n background m o t i o n from I t o i i i . The main l i n k between the I and i i i i s a I I , t h e E - f l a t , f o u r - t h r e e c h o r d i n m. 9, which c r e a t e s a s t e p w i s e 7 7 I - I I - i i i p r o g r e s s i o n . A l t h o u g h the p r o g r e s s i o n I I - i i i i s n o t common, i t i s e x p l a i n a b l e i n t r a d i t i o n a l harmony ( i t can be h e a r d as a d e c e p t i v e cadence i n A - f l a t ) . The c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e s e harmonies a r e , however, more p r o b l e m a t i c , as t h e r e i s no m i d d l e g r o u n d l e v e l i n t h e same harmonic language t h a t can be seen t o p r o l o n g the main s t r u c t u r a l e v e n t s . The abovementioned . I - V 7 - I o f mm. 1-5 c o u l d be s a i d t o s e r v e t h a t p u r p o s e , b u t i t i t s e l f i s p r o l o n g e d i n an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l way. I n f a c t , t h e o n l y way t h e m i d d l e g r o u n d can be e x p l a i n e d i s once a g a i n by e x a m i n a t i o n o f the o u t e r voices-. The melody i s somewhat c l e a r e r ; i t o r i g i n a t e s on F i n m. 1, r i s e s t h r o u g h A - f l a t t o D - f l a t i n m. 9 (= C-sharp i n m. 10) and descends back t o F i n m. 12, t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g a l a r g e a r c h w h i c h , i n i t s a s c e n t , a r p e g g i a t e s the t o n i c t r i a d . Example 1.6 "Dans l a nympheeV, Op.' 10.6/5. s 7 8 W-^ e ft' ) 5 — ^ • — ^ • ^ — V | s % ^ — t • ^  1 L i — — i i D I ? I I v ' I ( C i I V 7 V 9 I 7 ) 9 11 13 22 23 i i i V 7 I D Alternate version of mm. 1 jf 0 L L -5 J f i h j L — © - " 4 M H 1 .>*. .1*4 Hi-** b V — g rV L 1 K ? m — 6 - » - > — * — ^ Hrr- - i ©-— j — — S < Bc ^ '— LT 1 • 16 T h i s a r c h i s o v e r l a p p e d by a s m a l l e r one, wh i c h o r i g i n a t e s on the A - f l a t o f m. k (G-sharp o f m. 5), r i s e s t o t h e same c l i m a x , and t h e n descends t o t h e A - f l a t i n m. 13 (see Example 1.7). The p r o b l e m a t i c v o i c e i s t h e b a s s , s i n c e i t can be d i v i d e d i n t o two l a r g e segments w h i c h a r e n o t l i n e a r l y c o n n e c t e d . The f i r s t i s a p p a r e n t i n measures 1-5; i t descends from the t o n i c i n m. 1 t o t h e dominant i n m. 4, and l e a p s back t o t h e t o n i c i n m. 5» The second segment, w h i c h b e g i n s i n m. 6, can a l s o be t r a c e d t o t h e f i r s t measure, b u t o n l y w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i t o r i g i n a t e s as an i n n e r v o i c e . 3 B e g i n n i n g on the same note as the melody, and c o n t i n u i n g i n u n i s o n w i t h i t i n mm. 1-4 (F, F-sharp, G), t h i s v o i c e becomes independent i n m. :4, where i t moves t o G - f l a t , r e t u r n i n g t o F i n m. 5« At t h a t p o i n t a v o i c e -exchange o c c u r s — t h e A - f l a t i n t h e bass i s r e s p e l l e d as G-sharp and moves t o t h e melody. The new b a s s t h e n c o n t i n u e s s t e p w i s e t o E and D i n m. 7, C and B i n m. 8, B - f l a t i n m. 9, A, G, F i n m. 10, and E - f l a t i n m. 11, f i n a l l y r e a c h i n g the t o n i c D - f l a t i n m. 12, where t h e l a r g e m e l o d i c a r c h i s completed. The D - f l a t , however, i s n o t he a r d as a g o a l ; b o t h v o i c e s change d i r e c t i o n a t t h a t p o i n t and r i s e i n p a r a l l e l m o tion t o the s t r u c t u r a l F minor i n m. 13. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g (and perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t ) t h a t t h i s l a s t a s c e n t ( D - f l a t s e v e n t h , E - f l a t s e v e n t h , F min o r ) i s a m i c r o c o s m i c v e r s i o n o f t h e background T h i s was a l r e a d y seen i n Example 1.1. 17 harmony up to t h i s point. A s k e l e t a l summary of the preceding comments i s shown in Example 1.7. Example 1.7 Outer-voice motion of "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5, mm. 1-13. 1 5 . 9 , 13. A. noteworthy feature in the graph i s the p a r a l l e l motion of mm. 10-13. Although t h i s feature was previously seen in Example 1.3 (mm. 14-16), i t only appeared as a l o c a l prolon-gation} a r e s u l t of a momentary change i n the d i r e c t i o n of one of the voices. Here i t i s an i n t e g r a l part of the l i n e a r structure, being of equal importance to the preceding contrary motion. In general, one finds that p a r a l l e l motion i s less common in Faure's music than contrary motion. One reason would seem to be that the l a t t e r tends to suggest more i n t e r e s t i n g and unusual chord successions. The foreground of t h i s example represents the prolon-gations or elaborations of those harmonies that were derived at the middleground l e v e l from the outer-voice motion. Two problems of ambiguity appear: not a l l middleground chords are elaborated, and those that are are elaborated i n an inconsis-tent manner. In mm. 6-11, at l e a s t two means of prolongation 18 can be found (see Example 1.6a). I n m. 6, t h e s e c o n d a r y me-l o d i c m o t i o n G-sharp, F-sharp, E - n a t u r a l d e l a y s the A - n a t u r a l o f m. 7. The t h r e e m e l o d i c n o t e s a r e s u p p o r t e d by chords t h a t a r e r e l a t e d o n l y by s t e p w i s e v o i c e - l e a d i n g } t h e r e i s no i m p l i -c a t i o n o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l harmonic p a t t e r n . I n c o n t r a s t , the f o r e g r o u n d p a t t e r n s o f mm. 7, 8 and 11 v e r y much r e l y on t r a -d i t i o n a l harmony. The D c h o r d i n m. 7 i s extended by i t s i i i , t h e C c h o r d i n m. 8 i s p r e p a r e d by i t s IV and V, and t h e des-c e n d i n g f i f t h m o t i o n i n mm. 10 and 11 i s o b v i o u s . The problem c r e a t e d by t h i s second type o f f o r e g r o u n d a c t i v i t y s h o u l d be a p p a r e n t : s i n c e t h e raiddleground chords do n o t g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , t h e f o r e g r o u n d appears as a s e r i e s o f s e e m i n g l y u n r e l a t e d t o n a l c e l l s , each, however, q u i t e c l e a r when t a k e n out o f c o n t e x t . T h i s a n a l y s i s shows how, i n Faure's music, the f o r e -ground t e n d s t o s u g g e s t approaches which w i l l n o t always p r o -v i d e c l u e s t o t h e o r g a n i z i n g l o g i c . Some comments can u s u a l l y be made r e g a r d i n g f o r e g r o u n d and background e l e m e n t s , b u t r e -l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h connect t h e s e extreme l e v e l s can o f t e n remain h i d d e n u n l e s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o the m o t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s . 19 CHAPTER I I STRUCTURES OF THIRD-RELATION From Ch a p t e r I i t s h o u l d be ap p a r e n t t h a t l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e p l a y s a major, r o l e i n F a u r e ' s music. One c h a r a c t e -r i s t i c way i n w h i c h t h e music i s o r g a n i z e d has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d } i n t h i s c h a p t e r a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o g i c i s i n t r o d u c e d . The main o b j e c t s o f s t u d y w i l l be v e r t i c a l s t r u c -t u r e s and t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s . These c o n n e c t i o n s w i l l be seen t o d e p a r t , t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t , from t r a d i t i o n a l v o i c e -l e a d i n g p a t t e r n s ; however, i n a l l cases s t e p - m o t i o n i s p r e v a -l e n t and the sense o f l i n e i s p r e s e r v e d by the use o f p a s s i n g n o t e s and p a s s i n g c h o r d s . The n o t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e t h a t w i l l now be examined i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f t h e r o l e s i t a s s i g n s t o c h a i n s o f t h i r d s . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e s e a r e t o t a l l y c o n v e n t i o n a l , o t h e r s a r e u n u s u a l , and r e q u i r e a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n . Among the i n -s t a n c e s i n whi c h t h i r d - c h a i n s a r e g i v e n c o n v e n t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s are t h o s e i n w h i c h l o c a l p r o g r e s s i o n s a re based on a s e r i e s o f d e s c e n d i n g t h i r d s ( f o r example I - v i - I V ) , and t h o s e i n which l a r g e r m o t ions are t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f t h i r d - r e l a t e d t o n a l cen-t e r s . Example 2.1, from t h e T w e l f t h Nocturne. Op. 107, p r o -v i d e s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f b o t h c a s e s . 20 Example 2.1 T w e l f t h N o c t u r n e . Op. 107, mm. 1-13. ^1 ,M» ' ' M r Emi idtfc r 1 «> 10 1» n >i' ; 35 Gmi 13 T (whole-tone scale) 35 The background m o t i o n from E (Em), t o G (Gm), t o B - f l a t i s o b v i o u s from t h e s k e t c h ; i t forms a d i m i n i s h e d - t r i a d d e s i g n t h a t can be found i n works o f composers such as Haydn, Schu-b e r t , and Wagner. The l o c a l c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n i n mm. 1-3 i s i - V I - i v ; t h e F-sharp i n m. 3 i s u n d e r s t o o d as an added s i x t h t o the i v , r a t h e r t h a n the r o o t o f i i . The s c a l e s t e p s VI and IV are g i v e n harmonic f o c u s i n a t r a d i t i o n a l way. t h e y are approached by s t e p from below and the u n d e r l y i n g p a r a l l e l i s m o f b a s s and uppermost v o i c e i s obscured i n a s e r i e s o f l o c a l c o n t r a r y m o t i o n s . I t s h o u l d a l s o be o b s e r v e d t h a t , as a r e -21 s u i t o f t h e p a s s i n g n o t e s i n t h e t h i r d - r e l a t e d l o c a l p r o g r e s -s i o n s , the melody i s a g a i n s t r i c t l y l i n e a r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e obv i o u s t e r t i a n d e s i g n d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h i s s t r u c t u r e from l i -n e a r s t r u c t u r e s d i s c u s s e d i n Ch a p t e r I . The wedge s t r u c t u r e does o c c u r here a l s o , b u t o n l y a f t e r the des c e n t o f the t r i a -d i c b a ss has been completed (mm. 3-5 and mm. 8-10). A t t e n t i o n w i l l now be s h i f t e d t o s t r u c t u r e s o f t h i r d -r e l a t i o n w h i c h a r e n o t n o r m a l l y found i n t r a d i t i o n a l music, b u t w h i c h must be u n d e r s t o o d f o r a p r o p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f Faure's s t y l e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no one s p e c i f i c c o m p o s i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e t h a t i s ap p a r e n t i n a l a r g e number o f p i e c e s , some r e l a t e d , u n c o n v e n t i o n a l s t r u c t u r a l i d e a s can be i s o l a t e d . One such p r i n c i p l e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o p a r t s o f Le J a r -d i n C l o s and w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . F o r the sake o f c l a r i t y , t h i s p r i n c i p l e w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n a f o r m a l - t h e o r e -t i c o u t l i n e b e f o r e s p e c i f i c p i e c e s a re a n a l y z e d . A. s t r u c t u r i n g o f r o o t movement wh i c h f o l l o w s t h e same p a t t e r n as the s t r u c t u r i n g o f common chords ( t h a t i s , a s e r i e s o f t h i r d s ) , i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t s i n a v e r y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between any two s u c c e s s i v e harmonies. One harmony can be seen as g e n e r a t i n g t h e n e x t , and, p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e met, t h e sum t o t a l o f the chords becomes a s t a b l e s t r u c t u r e t h a t c o n t r o l s a s e c t i o n o f music. I n a sense, a t y p e o f "su-p e r c h o r d " can be imagined t h a t may c o n t r o l a s e c t i o n o f f o u r t o e i g h t measures i n the same way t h a t a s i m p l e t r i a d may n o r -m a l l y c o n t r o l one o r two measures (Example 2.2). 22 Example 2.2 Super c h o r d complex b u i l t from t r i a d s . superchord (> i * + = •*-l=f= , g or t 8 = ^ h | 0 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , i n t h i s system, the bond be-tween s u c c e s s i v e c h o rds i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by a d d i n g s e v e n t h s t o the t r i a d s ( t h r e e o f f o u r n o t e s a r e h e l d i n common). I t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose, t h e n , t h a t Faure's e a s i l y - d e m o n -s t r a t e d r e l i a n c e on s e v e n t h chords w i t h i n t h i s schema i s i n -tended t o s t r e n g t h e n the bonds between components o f a s u p e r -c h o r d , t h e r e b y e n h a n c i n g the u n i t y o f t h e l a t t e r . (The sub-t l e t y o f s t y l e w h i c h r e s u l t s from t h e e v e r - s o - g r a d u a l i n t e r n a l motions o f t h e s e harmonic complexes i s o f t e n mentioned as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Faure's music. 3") Moreover, i t i s t h e e x t e n -s i v e use o f s e v e n t h c h o r d s w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s Faure''s employment o f t h i r d - r e l a t e d c h o r d s u c c e s s i o n s (Example 2.3). The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l v i e w s o f Faure's m u s i c : " H i s i d i o m . . . y i e l d s i t s f u l l f l a v o u r o n l y w i t h f a m i -l i a r i t y , and i t i s so s u b t l e and r e t i c e n t an i d i o m t h a t , i t i s l i k e l y t o r e p e l t h o s e who have n o t a c e r t a i n degree o f g e n e r a l c u l t i v a t i o n . " W i l f r i d M e l l e r s , "The L a t e r Work o f G a b r i e l F a u re", S t u d i e s i n Contemporary M u s i c (London: Dennis Dobson L t d . , 1947), p. 70. " E v i d e n t l y t h i s i s a s t y l e o f extreme s u b t l e t y . " W i l l i a m W. A u s t i n , Music i n t h e 20th C e n t u r y (New York: W.W.Norton and Company, I n c . , 1966), p. 150. 23 Example 2.3 Super c h o r d complex b u i l t from s e v e n t h c h o r d s . superchord 1 i- i- X = ? • i ; ^ i 1—h— or } 1 r+ 5  ff f —, I t i s a p p a r e n t from Examples 2.2 and 2.3 t h a t a s u p e r -c h o r d s t r u c t u r e g e n e r a t e s c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n s t h a t a re n o t un-f a m i l i a r from t r a d i t i o n a l harmony. I t now needs t o be d e f i n e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a s u p e r c h o r d and how t h i s s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r s from more c o n v e n t i o n a l harmonic d e s i g n s . A " s u p e r c h o r d " i s a s t a b l e s t r u c t u r e b u i l t from a s e r i e s of s e v e n t h chords (and/or t r i a d s ) , a l l o f wh i c h a r e r e l a t e d by the i n t e r v a l o f a t h i r d . A r o o t m o t i o n by an i n t e r v a l o t h e r t h a n a t h i r d s i g n i f i e s the end o r c o l l a p s e o f t h e cho r d com-p l e x . The s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e i s dependent upon the s t a b i l i t y o f i t s component chords and i s a c h i e v e d by the ex-c l u s i v e use o f a l t e r n a t i n g m ajor and m i n o r t h i r d s . Such a l -t e r n a t i o n c l e a r l y produces o n l y p e r f e c t f i f t h s and thus the  o n l y c h o r d s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d s t a b l e and can be seen as p a r t o f the s u p e r c h o r d a r e major and minor t r i a d s , and MM and mm s e v e n t h s . Added n o t e s (+M2 o r +P4) w i t h i n t r i a d s do n o t change t h e b a s i c q u a l i t y o f t h e c h o r d and t h u s can a l s o be used. The p i t c h e s a r e k e p t w i t h i n a key as l o n g as p o s s i b l e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , as soon as the d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n produces a 24 t t r i t o n e i n one o f t h e component c h o r d s , one o f t h e n o t e s o f the i n t e r v a l i s c h r o m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d o r a v o i d e d a l t o g e t h e r . Example 2.4 C h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d by the s u p e r c h o r d a l s t r u c t u r e . a - ; i » i i i ^ = -=t » 1 1 • i i • • • — f * i iy 1 m . * A l t e r a t i o n s such as t h a t seen i n Example 2.4 n e c e s s a r i l y c r e -a t e p i t c h c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t do n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e o r i g i n a l t o n i c and t h u s a c c o u n t f o r t h e modal appearance o f some p i e c e s ( i n t h e f i r s t o f t h e n o n - s p e c i f i c examples above, the C-Mixo-l y d i a n s c a l e c o u l d be assumed). I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t out t h a t i n such cases t h e m o d a l i t y i s o n l y a b y - p r o d u c t o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e . One o f t h e most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e s u p e r c h o r d i s the u n u s u a l v o i c e - l e a d i n g between component c h o r d s . The e l e -ments o f the s u p e r c h o r d a r e p i t c h e s w h i c h form a s e r i e s o f u n i f o r m l y d e s c e n d i n g o r a s c e n d i n g t h i r d s ; t h e s e elements a r e n o t p i t c h c l a s s e s u n c o n s t r a i n e d by r e g i s t r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . As a n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t , the v o i c e - l e a d i n g between component chords i s by p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . A l t h o u g h such m o t i o n may be somewhat obs c u r e d by s u r f a c e d e t a i l and an i s o l a t e d o c t a v e t r a n s f e r o f one o f t h e v o i c e s ( n e c e s s a r y , f o r example, t o keep the melody w i t h i n a g i v e n r e g i s t r a l r a n g e ) , t h e s t r u c t u r a l 25 p a r a l l e l i s m i s always evident. F i n a l l y , i t has to be empha-sized that a superchord i s an abstract concept} an actual sound of t h i s type i s never heard as a simultaneity. I t i s a complex which i s heard i n segments and serves as an organi-zational force. Two songs from Le Jardin Clos show the superchord structure quite c l e a r l y , "Dans l a pe'nombre" (6) and "Inrr" s c r i p t i o n sur l e sable" (8). Evidence of i t s presence i s also found i n "Exaucement" (1), but because i t offers a less clear instance, t h i s song w i l l not be analyzed here. "Inscription sur l e sable" (8) i s i n ABA form, with each section corresponding to one sentence of the poem (A--mm. 1-6, B—mm. 6-10, A—mm. 12-19). Mm. 10 and 11 are a re - t r a n s i t i o n from B to A. The almost i d e n t i c a l A sections show an instance of a superchord in pure form, while the B section r e f l e c t s a much fre e r , but related structure. A l l of the comments on mm. 1-5 w i l l also pertain to mm. 12-151 d i f -ferences w i l l be discussed separately. Example 2.5 "Inscription sur l e sable", Op. 106/8, mm. 1-5. superchord 26 Mm. 1-4 s k e t c h e d i n Example 2.5. a r e based on a down- . ward e x t e n d i n g s e r i e s o f s e v e n t h c h o r d s j each b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d as a segment o f t h e s u p e r c h o r d shown on the t h i r d s t a f f . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t Faure a v o i d s the f o r m a t i o n o f any c h o r d g r e a t e r t h a n a s e v e n t h by c o n s i s t e n t l y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e uppermost t h i r d b e f o r e ^ t h e downward e x t e n s i o n o c c u r s . As a r e -s u l t o f the way i n w h i c h harmonies a r e j o i n e d by p a s s i n g n o t e s , n o - d i r e c t p a r a l l e l m o t i o n i s found between the soprano and b a s s ; however, th e g e n e r a l d e s c e n d i n g p a r a l l e l i s m i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s passage s h o u l d n o t be a n a l y z e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y (i-VI-vi->£-i). The d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s example o c c u r s i n t h e m i d d l e o f m. 4, where one s t a b l e c h o r d (F m a j o r - s e v e n t h ) moves t o a second s t a b l e chord which i s o n l y a s t e p away (E m i n o r ) . Both i n v o l v e o n l y p e r f e c t f i f t h s and b o t h a r e i n r o o t p o s i t i o n . The r o o t o f t h e F MM s e v e n t h c h o r d i s an i m p o r t a n t note because i t r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f m o d a l i t y . Some w r i t e r s have e x p l a i n e d t h i s n o t e as the r e s u l t o f modal m i x t u r e " ^ — a d i s -t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y when one c o n s i d e r s well-documented modal i n -f l u e n c e s on F a u r e . There i s some ev i d e n c e f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n ; i n t h e f i r s t p h r a se t h e o u t e r v o i c e s use F - n a t u r a l F o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f symbols see p. v i i i ; 3 ^See i n p a r t i c u l a r C h a p t e r I i m James L. K u r t z , "Pro-blems o f T o n a l S t r u c t u r e i n Songs o f G a b r i e l F a u r e " (Ph.D. d i s -s e r t a t i o n , B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y , 1970). 4 ' The r e f e r e n c e i s t o Faure's e a r l y t r a i n i n g a t the N i e -dermeyer s c h o o l i n P a r i s , w h e r e t h e s t u d y o f c h u r c h modes was 27 exclusively, while the inner voices use F-sharp. However, a problem arises in m. 3 with the appearance of B - f l a t ; a note belonging to an inner voice. Since there i s no reason to i n -voke a G minor scale (to account f o r both B - f l a t and F-sharp), a d i f f e r e n t explanation must be considered. As was'mentioned e a r l i e r , chromatic alt e r a t i o n s do occur within superchord structures to avoid tritones and thus preserve the s t a b i l i t y of the complex as a whole. In the pre-sent example, the F-natural avoids an F-sharp/C triton e and permits a superchord to unfold which embraces an entire diato-nic c o l l e c t i o n (except f o r D which can be assumed above the ope-ning G/B dyad, and which i n i t i a t e s the second statement of the-superchord i n m. 11). Because the c o l l e c t i o n is;.that o f a-C major scale, and, as a whole, i s used to approach E s i , the mu-s i c takes on a Phrygian .quality at t h i s l e v e l . A.s i n Example 2.4, here the modality i s a r e s u l t of the s t r u c t u r a l design, and not vice versa. It i s now possible to account for the B - f l a t i n m. 3 by evaluating possible versions of mm. 3 and 4 (Example 2.6). emphasized. Since t h i s phase of Faure's career i s not covered in the present study, the reader may be referred to the bio-graphical chapters in the following studies» Robert Orledge, Gabriel Faure. Norman Suckling, Faure (London» J.M.Dent and Sons Ltd., 1946). 28 Example 2.6 p i t g T ^7 I n Example 2.6a, t h e F-sharp/C t r i t o n e i s a v o i d e d , as d i s -cussed above; no o t h e r changes a r e made. While the background s t r u c t u r e c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s t a b l e , t h e m u s i c a l e f f e c t i s h i g h l y d i s t u r b i n g due t o the s u r f a c e c r o s s r e l a t i o n between the o u t e r v o i c e s . I n 2.6b t h i s problem i s s o l v e d by a change t o F - n a t u r a l i n t h e upper v o i c e o f m. 3. b u t d i f f e r e n t t r i t o n e r e s u l t s — B / F on the l a s t b e a t o f m. 3. A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t i n g c h o r d i s n o t s t r u c t u r a l l y i m p o r t a n t , the t r i t o n e t o n i c i z e s the subsequent A. m i nor and makes the c o n c l u s i o n o f the s u p e r c h o r d sound t a c k e d on. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n Example 2.6c, the B i s a l -t e r e d t o B - f l a t and t h e m u s i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l problems are r e s o l v e d ; the t r i t o n e s a r e a v o i d e d and the B - f l a t p o i n t s t o -ward the a p p r o a c h i n g A. w i t h o u t t o n i c i z i n g i t . T h i s i s how the passage appears i n the song. Two e x t r a b e a t s have been i n c l u -2 9 ded in t h i s example to show that when structure-related a l t e -rations are no longer necessary, there i s a prompt return to F-sharp and B-natural. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the opening measures of "Inscription sur'le sable" with those of the Twelfth Nocturne (sketched i n Example 2.1). Written within months of each o t h e r , b o t h works are i n the key of E minor, and both begin with a progression that would be t r a d i t i o n a l l y analyzed as i - V I - i v . However, there i s l i t t l e evidence that a superchord structure exists in the Nocturne. Since l ) t t h e bass moves in f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l counterpoint to the upper voices, 2) the progression does not extend beyond the iv chord, and 3) the F-sharp/C tr i t o n e in m. 3 i s not avoided (but used to return to the t o n i c ) , i t would be misleading to analyze the passage by other than t r a d i t i o n a l means. Clearly, Faure did not re-s t r i c t himself to one s p e c i f i c technique at any given time, but rather used general concepts (such as patterning by way of series of thirds) to obtain a variety of musical e f f e c t s . S t a r t i n g i n m. 6, the analysis of "Inscription sur l e sable" becomes more d i f f i c u l t by reason of greater foreground a c t i v i t y and l e s s e r adherence to a s t r i c t s t r u c t u r a l design. The diminished c l a r i t y of process found here i s not unlike that seen in "Dans l a nymphee" in Chapter I; certain foreground events obscure the underlying l o g i c which organizes them. Robert Orledge, Gabriel Faure', pp. 312-3. Example 2.7 " I n s c r i p t i o n sur l e s a b l e " , Op. 106/8. 31 The f i r s t s t r u c t u r a l harmony that appears a f t e r the E minor of m. 5 i s the F-major chord in m. 7 (see Example 2.7). Although the chords that occur i n mm. 5 and 6 may appear im-portant, they are secondary i n the ov e r a l l design of the piece. There would seem to be no question, from a t r a d i t i o n a l perspec-t i v e , that the four-two chord in m. 6 i s the V of E minor. However, i n the present context, the chord i s not considered a true dominant f o r two reasons: 1) i t s inversion i s not j u s t i -f i e d — t h e bass could have e a s i l y moved to the root B—, and 2) i t s resolution i s f a r from conventional. Indeed, the long-range i-V connection can be heard, but i t i s secondary to the motion to the G chord i n m. 6. Under t h i s interpretation, the A. in the bass of the B chord i s understood as an approach to the G. Had the bass moved to a B, the following G chord would have appeared i l l o g i c a l . The function of G MM seventh i s how-ever not a s t r u c t u r a l one; i t only reinforces the E minor har-mony, as i f i t were the next component in an ascending super-chord based on an E minor t r i a d . (At the completion of the superchord i n m. 4 the E minor i s brought about rather sudden-l y [the expectation i s perhaps down a further t h i r d , toward D minor], and thus the G harmony helps to confirm the tonic at the lower octave). The G chord also i n i t i a t e s a b r i e f c i r c l e of f i f t h s (G-C-F) which brings about the F chord i n m. 7» The next s t r u c t u r a l chord i s that of A. minor, in m. 8, which i s followed at i t s l e v e l by the C chord i n m. 10. Both chords are approached by plagal sounding cadences, in m. 7 and 32 m. 9, respectively. Thus the background motion i s F-natural, A, C—the reverse of the descent seen in the A. section. The structure of F, A. minor, and C chords could be seen as simply r e t r a c i n g the path of the t e r t i a n descent but i t cannot r e a l l y be considered a good instance of the superchord because of the greater freedom of octave placement of the upper voices. A l -though p a r a l l e l motion of the lower voices i s cle a r at the background l e v e l between the C and A. minor chords, the melodic design precludes an o v e r a l l p a r a l l e l ascent. An F-natural once again prevents the formation of a tr i t o n e i n the structu-r a l chords and thus the B section can be understood as con-t a i n i n g a structure related to the superchord. Conversely, i t can be said that a superchord such as that seen i n the A section i s a refinement or d i s t i l l a t i o n of more general t h i r d - r e l a t e d progressions. In m. 10 the bass i s transferred up one octave, moves by step to a B, and commences the second descent by th i r d s . The B i s coupled with a D i n the soprano which i n i t i a t e s a descent in that voice.. As was mentioned r e a r l i e r , the D com-pletes the C diatonic c o l l e c t i o n . At the completion of the superchord i n m. 14, the tonic, appearing now in the lower octave, i s once again reinforced, t h i s time by a t e r t i a n bass motion; the background harmony moves from E minor (m. 14), to a G six-three chord (m. 16), to a G MM seventh (m. 17) and back to E minor (mm. 18 and 19). The bass outlines an E minor t r i a d and the authenticity of the f i n a l t r i a d i s confirmed. 33 An ascending version of the superchord i s found i n "Dans l a penombre" (6). Although the structure i s treated s l i g h t l y more f r e e l y than i t was i n the f i r s t measures of "Inscription sur l e sable" (the melody does not follow a t r i a -dic pattern), i t c l e a r l y functions as the c o n t r o l l i n g element of mm. 1-8. F i r s t , two interpretations of the opening three mea-sures are given to indicate why a more t r a d i t i o n a l analytic approach was not employed. Example 2:8 "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 1-3. l 2 3 i iv v Example 2.9 "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6. An a l t e r -native interpretation of mm. 1-3. i 34 I n Example 2.8, mm. 1-3 a r e shown as an expanded v e r s i o n o f a I-IV-V p r o g r e s s i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s a p o s s i b l e view o f the passage, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does n o t t a k e i n t o a ccount the r h y t h m i c - m o t i v i c n a t u r e o f t h e b a s s . Example 2.9 p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s which r e l i e s on a p a r t i t i o n i n g more i n k e e p i n g w i t h the s u r f a c e rhythm. From t h e example th e passage i s seen t o be c o n t r o l l e d by a b a s s w h i c h moves i n t h i r d s ( w i t h p a s s i n g t o n e s ) , w i t h each o f i t s main n o t e s f u n c t i o n i n g as the r o o t o f a d i a t o n i c c h o r d . A. q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o why t h e B c h o r d i n m. 3 i s heard w i t h an added f o u r t h i n s t e a d o f t h e u s u a l s e v e n t h . I n o r d e r t o g i v e a v a l i d answer, the remainder o f the f i r s t e i g h t measures needs t o be examined. Example 2.10 "Dans l a penombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 1-8. 1 2 3 7 8 A. s u c c e s s i o n o f chords b u i l t on E, G-sharp, and B may suggest the s u p e r c h o r d s t r u c t u r e and i m p l y , as the n e x t e v e n t , ' a chord b u i l t on t h e s e v e n t h degree. T h i s i s i n d e e d what 35 appears i n m. 4, a l t h o u g h a D - n a t u r a l i n s t e a d o f a D-sharp i s used f o r r e a s o n s t o be g i v e n s h o r t l y . (The f i r s t appearance of D as a harmonic s t e p , i n m. k, i s u n s t a b l e , b u t t h e second, which comes i n m. 7, a f t e r i n t e r v e n i n g p r o l o n g a t i o n a l a c t i v i -t y , i s as t h e r o o t o f a s e v e n t h c h o r d ) . A s u p e r c h o r d can t h u s be c o n s t r u c t e d which spans E3 t o C5~sharp (see Example 2.7)• The a s c e n d i n g p a r a l l e l i s m o f the v o i c e s s u g g e s t s t h a t the C-sharp b e l o n g s one o c t a v e h i g h e r , b u t i s t r a n s f e r r e d down t o keep th e melody from r i s i n g above the f i f t h degree o f the s c a l e (Faure's p r e f e r e n c e f o r m e l o d i e s t h a t emphasize 5 i s d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r I V ) . The s u p e r c h o r d , as shown i n the example, p r o v i d e s c l u e s t o two i m p o r t a n t harmonic a l t e r -a t i o n s . F i r s t , t h e B chord i n m. 3 c o n t a i n s the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d added f o u r t h (E) and n o t t h e e x p e c t e d s e v e n t h (A.) t o a v o i d a D-sharp/A. t r i t o n e and p r e v e n t a s t r o n g dominant sound on B. S i n c e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the music i s upward, toward t h e D, a do-minant a t t h i s p o i n t would d i s t u r b t h e e n t i r e s u p e r c h o r d s t r u c t u r e . A. r e p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e A i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e r v e t h e f o u r - v o i c e t e x t u r e , and E i s used t o c r e a t e a l o c a l , t r a -d i t i o n a l v o i c e - l e a d i n g p a t t e r n o v e r the bass m o t i o n A. t o B. The second a l t e r a t i o n s e r v e s a s i m i l a r p urpose. To a v o i d the same D-sharp/A. t r i t o n e , the r o o t o f the f o u r t h component cho r d i s l o w e r e d t o D - n a t u r a l . I n t h i s way, a l l f o u r component chords r e m a i n s t a b l e (as d e f i n e d e a r l i e r ) and the e n t i r e seven-measure a r e a can be s a i d t o u n f o l d a s i n g l e harmonic e n t i t y . T h i s e n t i t y may be termed a " q u a s i - s u p e r c h o r d " i n t h a t , w h i l e i t s components obey th e r u l e o f s t r i c t a l t e r n a t i o n o f major 36 and minor t h i r d s , i t does n o t , t a k e n as a whole. One w i l l n o t e t h a t b o t h D - n a t u r a l and D-sharp a r e p a r t o f the s t r u c t u r e — a s a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n s o f 7 which are n o t h e a r d t o g e t h e r . As mentioned e a r l i e r , a s u p e r c h o r d i s an a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r a l con-c e p t n o t sounded as a s i m u l t a n e i t y . The d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h i s q u a s i - s u p e r c h o r d o c c u r s i n m. 8 where a v o i c e - l e a d i n g c h o r d b r i n g s back t h e t o n i c . As can be seen from Example 2.11, t h e motion between the two s t r u c t u r a l c h o r ds ( D - n a t u r a l MM and E MM) i s by s t e p . Example 2.11 "Dans l a pe'nombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 7-9. End o f a s u p e r c h o r d a l s t r u c t u r e , s y m b o l i z e d by s t e p w i s e m o t i o n between s t a b l e harmonies. - pe - e, La chere en. fant au coeur sub-til Example 2.12, a r e d u c t i o n o f mm. 39-^ 3 from the song " S p l e e n " , Op. 51/3» i s a much e a r l i e r i n s t a n c e o f a t h i r d -based c h o r d s u c c e s s i o n . W r i t t e n i n 1888, t h i s passage may a t f i r s t appear as a s u p e r c h o r d s t r u c t u r e , b u t a c l o s e r exami-n a t i o n r e v e a l s o t h e r w i s e . A l t h o u g h the g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e here i s a t e r t i a n a s c e n t t o t h e t o n i c , two f e a t u r e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h i s song from t h e p r e v i o u s examples: 1) n o t a l l t h e chords ar e s t a b l e , and 2) t h e v o i c i n g o f the chords p r e v e n t s an o v e r -l a p o f common t o n e s . The s t a b i l i t y and u n i t y o f an u n f o l d i n g 37 superchord i s not present here. Instead, a "fixed hands" pa-r a l l e l i s m i s used, in a way which foreshadows procedures e v i -dent in the works of Claude Debussy. Clearly, though, there i s a rela t i o n s h i p between t h i s song and the l a t e r songs examined above. It can be said that harmonic procedures such as t h i s present structures related to a superchord, or, more speci-f i c a l l y , that examples l i k e t h i s indicate a thought process which w i l l eventually be further modified and refined to create superchordal structures. Example 2.12 "Spleen", Op. 51/3, mm. 39-43. A superchord-related structure. 39 4 1 43 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to consider whether there i s even e a r l i e r evidence f o r t e r t i a n structures in Faure's music. The song "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2, introduced in Chapter I to i l l u s -t rate an early instance of wedge structure (Example 1.1), i s equally relevant to the present discussion: the background motion, I - i i i - V 7 - I (Example 1.2), suggests an early interest i n structures of t h i r d r e l a t i o n , l a t e r to culminate i n super-chord designs. Three features are es p e c i a l l y supportive of t h i s notion: 1) the o u t l i n i n g of a seventh chord i n the melo-dy at the background l e v e l (Example 1.2), 2) the t r i a d i c design 38 Example 2.13 LES MATELOTS Pb-m <t- TIIEOPBII.E GAUT1ER. 3Ui Tempo animato quasi A l l e g r o . CH/l(Vr PIANO ftVd: a ch»(jUf nil I k t~ v i • ? r ^ Mons al loos vova . ( j ^ a n l . E u . v i . run . Ui t i i l Ir u i ' i u . d r 39 of the vocal melody of mm. 1-4 (Example 2 . 1 3 ) , and 3) the rd transposition'of the same melody up a minor 3 i n mm. 6-10. The l a s t mentioned item i s the most in t r i g u i n g ; the almost l i t e r a l restatement of the melody a t h i r d higher suggests that the E - f l a t major-seventh chord i n m. 7 i s not i n fact only the res u l t of a descending inner-voice, but that i t i s created by the addition of a G minor t r i a d above the E - f l a t pedal. (The root motion which results from t h i s alternative interpretation i s indicated by the notes in parentheses on the t h i r d s t a f f of Example 1.1). It should be obvious that the generation of an E - f l a t MM seventh chord by the superimposition of E - f l a t major and G minor chords i s not unlike the process seen i n "In-s c r i p t i o n sur le sable". In "Les Matelots" t h i s i s c l e a r l y much less s i g n i f i c a n t , but i t points to Faure's interest i n th i r d - r e l a t e d structures throughout his career. To conclude t h i s chapter, an example i s now given which u t i l i z e s a t e r t i a n structure based neither on the superchord nor on t r a d i t i o n a l harmony. "La mer est i n f i n i e . . . " i s the f i r s t song in Faure's l a s t song cycle, L'Horizon chimerique. Op. 118, written i n 1921, three years before the composer's death. The area of interest i s the extended motion from I to V^which occupies mm. 1-12. A sketch of these measures i s given in Example 2.l4a; the t e r t i a n design r e f l e c t e d i n the graph i s supported by the rhythmic organization of the melody in the music i t s e l f , given i n Example 2.l4b. 40 Example 2.l4a "La mer est i n f i n i e . . . " , Op. 118/1, mm. 1-12. Example 2.14b "La mer i s i n f i n i e . . . " , Op. 118/1, mm. 1-3. Andante quasi allegretto •mezzo p CHANT PIANO At the middleground l e v e l the melody i s a pattern of alterna-t i n g major and minor thi r d s which together form a D ninth chord. It however cannot be considered indicative of a super-chord, as the supporting harmony follows a d i f f e r e n t l o g i c . This harmony i s the re s u l t of two fac t o r s : 1) acceptance of chords suggested by the expansive wedge structure (as intror-duced i n Chapter I ) , and 2) the attempt to s t a b i l i z e each of the harmonically important scale steps without creating an 41 unwanted tendency toward resolution. A A As can be seen from the graph, scale steps 1 and 3 are supported by the tonic, but at the 5 the expected dominant i s avoided. The F-natural chord of m. 4 could be seen as the re-s u l t of chromatic passing motion, but i t i s more probable that i t s presence i s necessitated by harmonic events about to follow. The t e r t i a n design of the melody w i l l necessarily present the seventh and ninth scale degrees as more important than the to-n i c at the octave. They must, therefore, be prepared and har-monized i n such a way that they w i l l sound stable. The tonic on the other hand, needs to be treated with care, i n order to avoid a sense of completion when i t i s reached. The function A, of the F chord i s to avoid a strong dominant with the 5» thereby disrupting the D major t o n a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t l y to allow the C-sharp in m. 6 to stand as a chord tone without a need for resolution to the tonic. The F chord can be also thought to prepare the B - f l a t chord which substitutes f o r the I in m. 7 and prevents a f e e l i n g of resolution at that point. A l -though the D i s reached in the melody, i t s role as the t h i r d of B - f l a t diminishes i t s tonic function and prepares the re-turn to C-sharp i n m. 7 as a return to a stable scale degree. Once the p o s i t i o n of the C-sharp i s established, the D, in i t s next appearance i n m. 10, i s heard as a passing note. I t i s also important to note that at that point i t i s not approached by step, but by a leap from B. The climactic E i n m. 10 completes the t e r t i a n ascent. Clearly, the chordal structure of t h i s passage must be 42 viewed d i f f e r e n t l y from s t r u c t u r e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . Many o f the e v e n t s cannot he e x p l a i n e d by t r a d i t i o n a l means, and the s u p e r c h o r d i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e h e r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , an aware-ness o f Faure's fondness f o r t h i r d - b a s e d s t r u c t u r e s p r o v i d e s a c l u e toward m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s . 43 CHAPTER III THE LEADING TONE The conclusion of Chapter II dealt with an example i n which the leading tone was s t a b i l i z e d i n order to avoid i t s normal function as an approach to the tonic. The present chapter demonstrates that t h i s i s not an isola t e d case; rather, the unconventional handling of the leading tone i s a s t y l i s t i c t r a i t found i n many of Faure's works. The behaviour of the leading tone w i l l f i r s t be examined at more immediate structu-r a l l e v e l s ; t h i s w i l l prepare a discussion of background events seen in Le Jardin Clos. The leading tone at more immediate s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s Three ways i n which the leading tone i s unusually t r e a -ted at these l e v e l s can be i s o l a t e d : i t may be flattened, avoided, or i t may be heard as the highest note of a melodic l i n e which stops short of the tonic and retreats downward. The most common appearance of the flattened leading tone (or, more pr e c i s e l y , the lowered seventh degree) i s i n passages that are generally modal i n character. Four commonly used modes do contain t h i s scale degree—the Dorian, Phrygian, Mi-xolydian, and Aeolian—and a l l can be found in Faure's songs. Example 3.1, taken from the song "Aubade", Op. 6/1, shows an 44 instance of the Mixolydian mode; the E - f l a t , heard prominently in mm. 7 and 10, replaces a major-scale E-natural, which i s not heard in the melody at a l l . In m. 7 the E - f l a t i s supported by a modally derived f l a t - V I I major t r i a d , while i n m. 10 i t i s part of a diminished-seventh chord acting as a secondary domi-nant. Example 3.1 "Aubade", Op. 6/1, mm. 5-10. S o u . v r i r dt* toute p a r t . _ E n _ ( m i l . v r e l a p a u p i e . r e , 0 Example 3.2, the beginning of "L*Absent", Op. 5/3, shows the use of the Aeolian mode. Although the A minor t o n a l i t y i s established in the f i r s t three measures through the use of a 45 G-sharp i n t h e dominant c h o r d , t h e modal G - n a t u r a l i s heard c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t h e n e x t f i v e measures. The E minor chord i n m. 7 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u p p o r t i v e o f modal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . G-sharp does r e t u r n i n measures t h a t p r e p a r e t h e dominant o f m. 15, and p o i n t s t o a p r e f e r e n c e f o r non-modal cadences a t i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r a l p o i n t s . A s i m i l a r case was seen i n Example 2.1 ( T w e l f t h N o c t u r n e ) ; the f i r s t p h r a s e , which i s i n E minor, uses D - n a t u r a l q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t l y u n t i l t h e c a d e n t i a l dominant s e v e n t h c h o r d (m. 5). where t h e l e a d i n g tone i s b r i e f l y h e a r d . I n d i c a t e d here i s an avo i d a n c e o f modal pheno-mena a t i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r a l p o i n t s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e Nocturne i s m. 3» where a D-sharp might have been ex-p e c t e d on t h e t h i r d e i g h t h n o t e . Example 3.2 "L'Absent", Op. 5/3, mm. 1-7. Si'ii . Anduutt* sostanulo. 46 One o t h e r example w h i c h can be mentioned i s the p r e -v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " (8) (Example 2.7). D - n a t u r a l i s used e x c l u s i v e l y , b u t i n t h i s case i t s f u n c t i o n i s n o t s o l e l y a modal one. As was d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I , the D i s d e r i v e d from t h e u n d e r l y i n g s u p e r c h o r d s t r u c t u r e . A. l i t e r a l f l a t t e n i n g o f the l e a d i n g tone can be found i n p a r t s o f Le J a r d i n C l o s . A. s t r i k i n g example o c c u r s i n the song "*I1 m'est c h e r , Amour, l e bandeau...'" (7) (Example 3.3) • Example 3.3 " ' I I m'est c h e r , Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 9-10. Because o f a temporary m o d u l a t i o n from F t o C major, the two B - n a t u r a l s i n m. 9 a r e h e a r d as l e a d i n g t o n e s and appear t o b r e a k a p r e c e p t o f t r a d i t i o n a l harmony, th e i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t d o u b l i n g t h e l e a d i n g t o n e . S i n c e Faure, as a r u l e , d i d not use p a r a l l e l o c t a v e s , t h e problem h e r e i s r e s o l v e d by f l a t t e n i n g 1 the l o w e r B. The r e s u l t i n g m u s i c a l e f f e c t i s somewhat One may t h i n k o f the a c t i v i t y o f the o u t e r v o i c e s as b e i n g t h e r e v e r s e o f t h a t seen i n a r e s o l u t i o n o f an augmented - s i x t h t o t h e dominant. 47 enigmatic; the expected resolution to the C does occur (in the soprano), and yet there i s a sense of incompletion. A type of elided cadence i s heard which preserves a f e e l i n g of motion and continuity. A d e f i n i t e cadence i s not heard u n t i l m. 15, where a s t r u c t u r a l l y important change of harmony occurs. Another instance of the flattened leading tone was al r e a -dy encountered in "Dans l a penombre" (6), (Example 2.10). As was made clear at that time, the change from D-sharp to D-natu-r a l was necessitated by the superchord structure. In general i t can be said that, although the s p e c i f i c reasons f o r a f l a t -seventh degree may vary, examples such as 2.10 and 3»4 point to Faure's willingness to treat that scale step more f r e e l y than had been prevalent i n conventional harmony. Avoidance of the leading tone i s also common i n Faure's music, although t h i s i s mostly a cadential harmonic phenomenon. The melody, in f a c t , often seems to emphasize the leading tone. Although a l l r e s u l t i n the i d e n t i c a l dominant sound, at least three d i f f e r e n t versions of leading-tone avoidance can be i s o -A A l a t e d : the 1 by which 7 i s replaced i n the dominant complex may act as an an t i c i p a t i o n , a suspension, or a tonic pedal. Example 3*4 shows a t y p i c a l cadence in which the tonic pitch anticipates the f i n a l I by replacing the t h i r d of the dominant (m. 17, beat 4). A. noticeable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of such a l t e -r a t i o n of the dominant i s the f a c t that the question of a tonal or modal cadence i s sidestepped completely. 48 Example 3 - 4 " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e s a b l e " . Op. 1 0 6 / 8 , mm. 16-19, Example 3 « 5 shows an i n s t a n c e where the a l t e r e d note o f the dominant ( F , m. 2 3 , beat 3 ) i s p a r t o f a t o n i c p e d a l t h a t extends t h r o u g h the l a s t f i v e measures. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the r e t e n t i o n o f the B - f l a t i n t o the chord o f r e s o l u t i o n i n m. 24. Only w i t h the p e n u l t i m a t e a t t a c k i s the complete r e -s o l u t i o n h e a r d . Example 3 • 5 "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s yeux dans mes yeux... Op. 1 0 6 / 2 , mm. 2 1 - 2 6 . T »^ 7 i-T I n o t h e r c a s e s , such as i n Example 3 . 6 , one f i n d s a l e n g t h y d e l a y o f the l e a d i n g t o n e . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e r e i s a r e s o l u t i o n , 49 but i t appears that t h i s i s done almost r e l u c t a n t l y — o n the l a s t possible beat. Example 3.6 *"I1 m'est cher, Amour, le bandeau...*", Op. 106/7, mm. 44-47. tor f j r B 1 [" fleuye 1 em . . . bra - se! .,—. fl . 1 F T T ^ ,— i i i i . . F ^ ^ - i — r r i i i i i i i — I . i i i i i I J i . i . h - n U. L J The melody too may p a r t i c i p a t e i n avoidance of the l e a -ding tone. In Example 3.7 the vocal l i n e doubles that harmo-ni c voice in which a n t i c i p a t i o n of the tonic takes place ( f i r s t beat of m. 12). Example 3«7 "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2, mm. 11-12. An i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n of t h i s type of cadence i s seen i n Example 3.8, where a dominant with suspended fourth (m. 13, l a s t beat) leads to a tonic MM seventh chord. To a certain extent, t r a d i t i o n a l harmony i s reversed here; the 50 dominant does not contain the leading tone, while the tonic does. In t h i s context, the 7 should not be viewed as having a leading-tone function, but rather as a chordal tone which does not require resolution. This observation i s of course supported by the d e f i n i t i o n of "stable", as proposed in Chap-t e r II (p. 23). Example 3«8 "Dans l a pe'nombre", Op. 106/6, mm. 13-14. The leading tone at higher s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s The seventh scale degree often appears as the highest note of a melodic l i n e . When t h i s note i s the lowered seventh, i t tends to point downward and a resolution to the tonic i s not implied. I t would t r a d i t i o n a l l y be used as part of a se-condary dominant which prepares a subdominant harmony. An example of such a case was seen i n m. 10 of "Aubade", Op. 6/1 (Example 3.1). The lowered seventh may also be harmonized i n a way which allows continuation i n either d i r e c t i o n , as in m. 7 of the same example, where the consonant harmonization of E - f l a t would have permitted a continuing ascent. Never-theless, in Faure''s music the melody often does retreat 51 downward and t h u s i s o l a t e s t h e l o w e r e d s e v e n t h as t h e c l i m a c -t i c n o t e o f a p h r a s e . The m i d d l e g r o u n d m e l o d i c l i n e t h a t was seen i n "Les Ma-t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2, (Example 1.1) a l s o emphasizes t h e l o w e r e d s e v e n t h degree. A l t h o u g h t h e l i n e , as a whole, does r i s e t o the t o n i c , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the l o w e r e d s e v e n t h degree, which appears here as an e x t r a n o te i n the s c a l e , i s empha-s i z e d by a l o c a l V-I p r o g r e s s i o n . I n Faure's m u s i c , passages a r e a l s o o f t e n found i n which t h e melody r i s e s t o t h e ma.jor s e v e n t h and no f u r t h e r . A I n such c a s e s , t h e 7 needs t o be s t a b i l i z e d t o c o u n t e r a c t i t s p o t e n t i a l l e a d i n g tone f u n c t i o n , and hence one commonly f i n d s a temporary m o d u l a t i o n t o t h e mediant, o r l e s s o f t e n the do-minant, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the a r r i v a l o f the l e a d i n g t o n e . E i t h e r m o d u l a t i o n produces t h e same r e s u l t : the 7 i s A A m o m e n t a r i l y h e a r d as a t o n i c t r i a d member (5 o r 3) and a r e -s o l u t i o n t o 8 i s n o t i m p l i e d . S i m i l a r l y , s i n c e the two secon-d a r y keys share t h e same key s i g n a t u r e e i t h e r can be used t o A account f o r a r a i s e d 4 i n t h e o r i g i n a l key, a commonly encoun-t e r e d f e a t u r e o f Faure's music*(Example 3*9). Example 3.9 i 52 For a c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n af a leading-tone s t a b i l i -zation, we may look at "Lydia", Op. 4/2 (Example 3.10). Example 3.10 "Lydia", Op. 4/2, mm. 1-7. Xadami. M .HIK TRKLAT. Anilaiitv CHANT. j M V - J ! r \". r P r r 7 1 " —F—-J—=f= a h j^l, ! 1 j Et sur ton col frais fl si r-fT7V r3 blunt*. Roiile e _ ^ i j J — J ^ n h h r ciT r CJ-/ V ^ r r r r~ The main s t r u c t u r a l harmonies are F (mm. 1-3) and A minor (m. 6), which are connected by a G passing chord and the do-minant of A. minor. It i s important that the A. minor i s heard as a temporary i rather than merely as i i i of F, to assure that the high E does sound as 5- (The A. minor tonic i s indeed temporary--necessary only to support the leading tone i n m. 5— the F t o n a l i t y i s reestablished i n m. 6 with i t s dominant.) B-natural i s the e s s e n t i a l ingredient which helps to tonicize A. and avoids a B-f l a t / E t r i t o n e which would require resolution of the E to F. The triton e which i s created (F, m. 3/B-natural, 53 m.4) i s p r o p e r l y r e s o l v e d i n m. 6 ( r i g h t hand o f t h e p i a n o ) , and a i d s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the A minor t o n a l c e n t e r . The B-na-t u r a l i s the r a i s e d 4 o f F, and t h u s the melody o f the song t a k e s on t h e L y d i a n c h a r a c t e r r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t i t l e . A s i m i l a r example o f a l e a d i n g tone s t a b i l i z a t i o n i s seen i n "Les M a t e l o t s " , Op. 2/2 (Example 2.13). The s e v e n t h degree w h i c h appears as the h i g h e s t note o f t h e f i r s t t e n mea-s u r e s o c c u r s i n mm. 7 and 9. I n m. 7 i t does n o t need r e s o -l u t i o n because i t i s h e a r d as a member o f an a r p e g g i a t e d G m i -n o r t r i a d ( w i t h an E - f l a t p e d a l ) , and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t i s p a r t o f a d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c l i n e i n the r i g h t hand o f the p i a -no. I n m. 9 t h e D i s n o t hea r d as a l e a d i n g tone because o f a m o d u l a t i o n t o G minor. The m o d u l a t i o n a c c o u n t s f o r the A-na-t u r a l (mm. 8 and 9), which i s n e c e s s a r y t o a v o i d an A - f l a t / D t r i t o n e . As can be seen i n Example 1.1, the A - n a t u r a l i s p a r t of a l o w e r - l e v e l m e l o d i c l i n e w hich i s a g a i n L y d i a n i n c h a r a c -t e r . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n "Les M a t e l o t s " i s m. 7, which c o n t a i n s an E - f l a t MM s e v e n t h c h o r d , i n t e r p r e t e d i n Ch a p t e r I I as a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f E - f l a t and G minor t r i a d s . E - f l a t and G-minor are t h e two main t o n a l c e n t e r s , and hence, by e x t e n s i o n , one can view t h e e n t i r e a r e a o f mm. 1-10 as b e i n g b u i l t i n an E - f l a t MM s e v e n t h chord s t r u c t u r e (Example J.ll). T h i s i d e a i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p e a l i n g when one c o n s i d e r s the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f such a s t r u c t u r e t o the s u p e r c h o r d . The g e n e r a t i o n p r o c e s s i s i d e n t i c a l - - o n e chord i s extended by a second which i s r e l a -t e d by an i n t e r v a l o f a t h i r d . There a re two n o t i c e a b l e 54 differences between the structure in "Les Matelots" and a super-chord » 1) the former uses t r i a d s , as opposed to seventh chords, (seventh chords such as those heard in mm. 5 and 9 do not appear at t h i s l e v e l of structure), and 2) the o v e r a l l structure i s smaller; i t contains only two component chords. Nevertheless, s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l l o g i c i s obvious. Example 3-11 Main tonal centers i n "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2 mm. 1-1Q. ft | 1-6 7-iQ / v An i d e n t i c a l underlying structure can be assumed i n "Lydia", although here the seventh chord i s never heard as a s i -multaneity (Example 3.12). Example 3.12 Main tonal centers i n "Lydia", Op. 4/2, mm. 1-6. The interpretation of a MM seventh chord as a s t r u c t u r a l element i s strengthened by the d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s chord as stable, proposed in Chapter I I . Although l o c a l l y the 7 must be s t a b i l i z e d , at a remote s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l t h i s note i s the upper most element of a stable structure and hence does not require 55 r e s o l u t i o n . I n t h i s way, Faure's m e l o d i e s t h a t r i s e t o the l e a d i n g tone a r e u n d e r s t o o d as s i m p l y s t a y i n g w i t h i n the con-f i n e s o f the main s t r u c t u r a l harmony. The o v e r a l l d e s i g n , a t a v e r y h i g h l e v e l , o f the upper v o i c e i n a number o f Faure's songs a l s o d i s p l a y s some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d t h u s f a r . The t h r e e songs which w i l l be examined i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n a r e a l l p a r t o f Le J a r d i n C l o s . Example 3.13 " ' I I .m'est c h e r , Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op. 106/?. H i g h - l e v e l m e l o d i c m o t i o n . 1 4 15 27 44 I I I V I " ' I l ^ n r ' e s t c h e r , Amour, l e bandeau...'", (7), s k e t c h e d i n Example 3.13, shows a background melody which b e g i n s on 5. moves A * A t o 6 and f l a t - 7 . and r e t u r n s t o 5 i n the l a s t measures. The more immediate melody w h i c h e l a b o r a t e s each o f t h e a s c e n d i n g s t e p s u s u a l l y moves w i t h i n t h e c h o r d a l o u t l i n e o f the suppor-t i n g harmony. The harmony i s u n u s u a l i n i t s o b v i o u s p a r a l l e -l i s m , b u t i s does n o t d i f f e r e x t e n s i v e l y from p r o g r e s s i o n s seen e a r l i e r . I t a g a i n p r o v i d e s a t r i a d on the mediant which sup-A- A p o r t s t h e 7; however, s i n c e t h e 7 i s f l a t t e n e d , the r o o t o f the t r i a d i s a l s o l o w e r e d t o o b t a i n a s t a b l e p e r f e c t f i f t h . A. major d i f f e r e n c e between background s t r u c t u r e s and more immediate 56 structures discussed above i s the fa c t that, since the back-ground motions extend over a much larger area, t h e i r t h i r d - r e -lated t r i a d s function more independently and are not e a s i l y heard as r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t sections of the same harmony. In the present example, the A - f l a t chord obviously cannot be super-imposed on the F to construct a stable s k e l e t a l structure ( a l -though one could view such a chord in the same way that the superchord was viewed—as an organizational construct that i s not meant to be taken as a simultaneity). The next example, (Example 3«l4) the background motion of "'Je me poserai sur ton coeur...'" (4), shows another melo-Aj die l i n e that emphasizes the 7, which i n t h i s case does eventu-a l l y resolve. Example 3.14 "'Je me poserai sur ton coeur...'", Op. 106/4. High-level melodic motion. " 1 0 13 17 20 25 " 26 32 A A A The motion b e g i n s on 5 and re a c h e s t h e 7 i n m. 14. Here, the 7 o c c u r s as p a r t o f a G mm s e v e n t h chord ( i i i ) w h ich i n m. 15 i s r e p l a c e d by i t s dominant. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t , as e a r l y as m. 8, A - f l a t , w h i c h b e l o n g s t o the t o n i c E - f l a t s c a l e , i s 57 r e p l a c e d by A - n a t u r a l which g i v e s the G minor chord g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y . Up t o m. 16, "'Je me p o s e r a i . . . " ' does n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from some o f t h e examples p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r . How-e v e r , s t a r t i n g i n m. 17, the s t r u c t u r e a i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The above mentioned V o f i i i i s r e s o l v e d u n e x p e c t e d l y t o b r i n g about G - f l a t . As can be seen from Example 3«15. a l t h o u g h t h e v o i c e l e a d i n g d i f f e r s , t he p r o g r e s s i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p r o g r e s s i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e au g m e n t e d - s i x t h . Example 3.15 "'Je me p o s e r a i s u r t o n c o e u r . . . ' " , Op. 106/4, mm. 16-17. S i n c e ^the o p e n i n g measures a r e now r e p e a t e d a m i n o r - t h i r d h i g h e r , the background melody n o t e i s D - f l a t - - t h e l o w e r e d s e -v e n t h o f t h e o r i g i n a l t o n i c . A l t h o u g h the D - f l a t i s e l a b o r a -t e d , i t does n o t move upward w i t h i n the G - f l a t harmonic a r e a . I n s t e a d , i t moves up t o D - n a t u r a l o n l y when a m o d u l a t i o n b r i n g s back t h e dominant o f E - f l a t i n m. 2$. T h i s motion i s immedia-t e l y f o l l o w e d by a r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e t o n i c . I n summary, what i s seen here i s a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e l e a d i n g tone t h a t i s de-l a y e d by t e n measures. I n i t i a l l y t h e l e a d i n g tone i s s t a b i -l i z e d by t h e mediant; i t ;then i s f l a t t e n e d and he a r d as the 5 o f the f l a t t e n e d mediant. When i t r e t u r n s i n i t s n a t u r a l form. 58 i t i s p a r t o f t h e V and r e s o l v e s . Once the t o n i c i s r e a c h e d , t h e melody l e a p s back t o the i n i t i a l p i t c h o f the background, where, a l t h o u g h e l a b o r a t e d by a more l o c a l m e l o d i c i n v e r t e d a r c h , i t p e r s i s t s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the music. The f i n a l example (3.16) examines t h e m e l o d i c motion o f a song a n a l y z e d i n Ch a p t e r I , "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'" (2). Example 3«l6 "'Quand t u p l o n g e s t e s yeux dans mes yeux...'", Op. 106/2. H i g h - l e v e l m e l o d i c m o t i o n . 8 ' 17 19 23 ff y i 1 /• '*{ r (Y i * •Us—^—5  * « a V i j — ' —•? 1 r ^ [ f The background melody once a g a i n b e g i n s on 5, h u t here i t moves up c h r o m a t i c a l l y t o D - f l a t i n m. 8 , t o D - n a t u r a l i n mm. 11 and 17f, and f i n a l l y t o E i n m. 19. S i n c e t h i s melody r e -t u r n s t o C i n t h e l a s t p h r a s e , the l e a d i n g tone i s a g a i n i s o -l a t e d as the c l i m a x . (One might note t h a t F5 i s b r i e f l y h e a r d i n t h e melody o f m. 12, b u t i t s appearance t h e r e i s c l e a r l y a l o c a l phenomenon n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e o v e r a l l r i s i n g l i n e . A d d i -t i o n a l l y , i t w i l l be remembered t h a t the F a c t s as a s u b s t i -t u t i o n f o r E i n t h e c a d e n t i a l dominant (see Example 3.7). The r e a l m e l o d i c i m p l i c a t i o n here i s o f the l e a d i n g t o n e ) . The h a r m o n i z a t i o n o f the c l i m a c t i c l e a d i n g tone i n m. 19 59 d i f f e r s somewhat from what we have seen i n p r e v i o u s examples. Even though t h e mediant was h e a r d on the p r e c e d i n g b e a t , the l e a d i n g tone i s p a r t o f a chord b u i l t on 5. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a B - n a t u r a l r e p l a c e s the d i a t o n i c B - f l a t and a v o i d s a t r i t o n e w h i c h would r e q u i r e a r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e t o n i c . The melody-does move t o F i n the second h a l f o f the measure, b u t s i n c e t h a t n ote i s an o c t a v e l o w e r , the l e a d i n g tone remains as the h i g h p o i n t o f the background m e l o d i c m o t i o n . 60 CHAPTER IV THE MELODY In the discussion thus f a r , several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Faure's melodies have been noted. The aim of the present chap-ter i s to review and elaborate those findings, and, with the inclusion of others, to portray a model melody as found in Faure's late songs. Two c l o s e l y related features were seen i n Chapter I I I - -the r i s e of the melody to the leading tone and the presence of raised 4, which permits the leading tone to remain stable. As was evident from the example chosen, these two melodic pro-perties appear i n songs from various periods of Faure's careers they are no less manifest in Le Jardin Clos than in his f i r s t opus numbers. A. t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which was v i s i b l e i n the l a s t three examples, but which was not discussed, i s the tendency of melodic l i n e s to emphasize the f i f t h degree of the scale. This i s generally r e f l e c t e d in the background melodic a c t i v i -ty. Although at a more immediate s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l the melody may terminate on the tonic (Examples 3«4 and 3*5). "the songs commonly end on 5 even at the foreground l e v e l (Example 4.1 and 4.2). 61 Example 4.1 "'II m'est cher, Amour, le bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 45-50. Example 4.2 "Exaucement", Op. 106/1, mm. 25-28. James Kurtz, who has examined some of Faure's songs in d e t a i l , also stresses t h i s s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s [One notes] upper voice a c t i v i t y pivoted around the f i f t h degree of the tonic chord and less often the t h i r d . . . Ra-r e l y w i l l there be a s t r u c t u r a l descent from t h i s retained tone to the tonic.* James Lawrence Kurtz, "Problems of Tonal Structure in  Songs of Gabriel Faure",, (Ph.D. di s s e r t a t i o n , Brandeis Univer-62 In the case of "Inscription sur le sable", the emphasis * on 5 i s achieved i n two ways: 1) the melody centres around B in the two A sections, while in the B section, which appears s t r u c t u r a l l y based on F, i t surrounds C, and 2) i n mm. 5 and 15 the B i s given greater focus by a D, C-sharp approach (Example 4.3)« There i s a s l i g h t suggestion of B minor in those measures; the melody alone points to B as a tonic. Example 4.3 "Inscription sur le sable", Op. 106/8. Melodic a c t i v i t y . _ .. __. Foreground 1 7 10 Background 1 7 H It i s perhaps i n v i t i n g to view the C-sharp as a modal feature implying the use of a Dorian scale. Such usage i s s i t y , 1970.),.. ' Songs analyzed include "Les Presents", Op. 46/1, "Puisque l'aube grandit", Op. 61, "Soir", Op. 83/2, and "Inscription sur le sable". Since Kurtz emphasizes the modal aspect of Faure's music much more than the present study does, his ana-l y s i s of the last-mentioned song d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that presented in Chapter III of t h i s study. 63 evident i n an e a r l i e r song in the same key, "A Clymene", Op. 5 8 / 4 (Example 4 . 4 ) . Example 4 . 4 "A. Clymene", Op. 5 8 / 4 , mm. 1-7. Poesie de P. Verlaine. . Q p Andantino. (i=92) CHANT. PIANO Although the dominant seventh appears regularly at four-measure in t e r v a l s , the f i r s t sixteen measures c l e a r l y do u t i l i z e the E Dorian scale. In the introductory phrase the melody focuses A on 5 in a manner s i m i l a r to that seen in "Inscription sur l e sable" ( i t i s approached from both d i r e c t i o n s ) . However, whereas in "A. Clymene" 5 i s emphasized by the use of a modal scale, in "Inscription sur l e sable" only the s i g n i f i c a n t A feature of that scale i s retained (the raised 6). The C-sharp occurs at two cadential points when B i s c l e a r l y the centre; there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of a Dorian mode i n the harmony. As was 64 d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , the song i s based on a s u p e r c h o r d s t r u c t u r e . T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r the F - n a t u r a l i n m. 3 which would o t h e r w i s e be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h C-sharp as members of a modal s c a l e . One must r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two n o t e s have d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n s . F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d be added t h a t , i n F a u r e ' s m u s i c , t h e t o n i c i z a t i o n o f 5 can be s u p p o r t e d by a q u a s i - t o n i c i z a t i o n o f V. A l t h o u g h i n " I n s c r i p t i o n s u r l e sab-l e " B minor was o n l y suggested by m e l o d i c m o t i o n , i n an e a r -l i e r song ( " P a r a d i s " , the f i r s t song of the c y c l e La Chanson  d'Eve. Op. 95). t h e V i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d as a c h o r d (Example 4 . 5 ) . Example 4.5 " P a r a d i s " , Op. 95/1» mm. 1-11. -These o b s e r v a t i o n s on the use o f the D o r i a n 6 shed f u r t h e r l i g h t on t h e use o f L y d i a n 4, d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. The s c a l e degree was d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f a m o d u l a t i o n t o the mediant, used t o s t a b i l i z e the l e a d i n g t o n e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , 65 the s h a r p e n i n g o f the 4 was seen as n e c e s s a r y t o a v o i d the f o r m a t i o n o f a t r i t o n e w h i c h would r e q u i r e r e s o l u t i o n t o the A t o n i c . However, as H e i n r i c h Schenker n o t e s , the s h a r p - 4 a l s o A s e r v e s t o f o c u s on 5« A A E s p e c i a l l y i n an i n i t i a l a s c e n t t o 5, the s h a r p - 4 i s f r e q u e n t l y employed. The 5 r e c e i v e s t h e r e b y an e x t r a em-p h a s i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d the c h r o m a t i c event t a k e s the form o f a m o d u l a t i o n t o the key o f the dominant.2 I n Faure's music the m o d u l a t i o n may be t o the dominant ("Exaucement" (1)) , o r , more commonly, t o the m e d i a n t - - t h e r e -l a t i v e m i n or o f the dominant ( " L y d i a " , "'Je me p o s e r a i s u r t o n c o e u r . . . ' " ( 4 ) ) . I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e m e l o d i c emphasis i s up-A ward toward 5 ' T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h p i e c e s i n which t h e r e i s a A D o r i a n 6 and where the d i r e c t i o n o f the m e l o d i c l i n e i s down-A ward toward the I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e how c l o s e l y t h e L y d i a n and A D o r i a n modes are r e l a t e d . A major s c a l e w i t h r a i s e d 4 ( t h e Ly-d i a n mode) has the same c o n t e n t as i t s r e l a t i v e minor w i t h A r a i s e d 6 ( t h e D o r i a n mode). As can be seen from Example 4 . 6 , A where i d e n t i c a l key s i g n a t u r e s are i n v o l v e d , t h e L y d i a n 4-'and A D o r i a n 6 are i n e f f e c t the same n o t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as s t a t e d A above, s i n c e b o t h are used t o emphasize 5 i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e A A s c a l e s , the L y d i a n 4 i s p a r t o f a s c e n d i n g m o t i o n s , the D o r i a n 6 b e l o n g s t o m e l o d i c l i n e s t h a t descend. ( T h i s s h o u l d h e l p ex-* A p l a i n why t h e r e i s no m e l o d i c t o n i c i z a t i o n o f 3 o r . 7. These p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t by a n a l o g y — E x a m p l e 4.6 c l e a r l y shows t h a t H i i n r i c h Schenker. Free C o m p o s i t i o n , t r a n s . E r n s t O s t e r (New Y o r k : Longman I n c . , 1979), p. 46. 66 sharp-4 - 3 i s analogous to sharp-6 - 5 just as sharp-6 -analogous to sharp-4 - 5 0 Example 4.6 Comparison of the Lydian and Dorian modes. 7 i s G Lydian E Dorian The d i r e c t i o n of Faure's melodies i s a further matter of i n t e r e s t . Whereas t r a d i t i o n a l tonal melodies often evince, in t h e i r underlying structures, a primacy of descent over ascent,-^ many of Faure's melodies behave otherwise. In Ex-ample 1.1 the middleground melody was seen to r i s e to the to-nic through an entire octave. In '"Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'" (2) there i s a return downward to the tonic, but only by a leap at the most immediate l e v e l ; as was shown in Example 3.15. the background melody terminates on 5* In ge-neral, Faure's melodies are much more l i k e l y to be governed in t h e i r whole extents by patterns of ascent than by descending motions. Not infrequently, the background motions cannot be considered to be eith e r ascents or descents--they often only embellish a primary s t r u c t u r a l tone (see Example 4.3). James Kurtz summarizes t h i s feature s t a t i n g that Faure's "compositional A notion based on the theories of Heinrich Schenker. 6? technique creates music of i n f l e c t i o n rather than pro-di-gression "• Despite the• predominance of ascending l i n e s in Faure''s l a t e r songs, the opening s t r u c t u r a l note i s t y p i c a l l y ornamen-ted by a b r i e f motion downward. This must be considered purely a momentary phenomenon (Example 4.7). Example 4.7 Surface melodic a c t i v i t y in the opening measures of songs from Le Jardin Clos. Op. 106, and L'Horizon Chimerique, Op. 118. Op. 106/1 Op. 1 0 6 / 4 ~t "—#- 3B A . v . . • Op. 1 0 6 / 6 Op. 1 0 6 / 7 Op. 1 1 8 / 4 Op. 118 /3 Op. 118 /2 » * . * In his survey of a l l of Faure's songs, Kenneth D. Pen-nington summarizes the s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s of the three periods on the basis of a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. Of the twenty three features l i s t e d in connection with the late period, f i v e are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to t h i s discussions 1. "The compass of the songs narrows^" In Le Jardin Clos, a major tenth i s the maximum ("La Messagere"), and in general the melodies stay within an octave. Kurtz, "Problems of tonal structure", p. 5« 68 2. "Extremes of ranges are avoided." Middle C and F5 are the low and high points of the cycle. 3. "Use of interv a l s larger than the t h i r d sharply diminishes." This i s the most immediately apparent feature of the melo-dies i n Le Jardin Clos. One finds an unusual amount of step-wise motion which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y contrasted with t r i a d i c arpeggiations (Example 4.8). Example 4.8 "'II m'est cher, Amour, le bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 11-15. eaux; Mes pieds plus 4. "Repetition of pitches i s very high. (In one instance sixty-seven percent of the interv a l s of a song are repeated p i t c h e s . ) " (Example 4.8). 5. "Melodic ornamentation of more than one note to the s y l l a b l e i s avoided."^ A l l f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c have a common consequence; they tend to make the melodies le s s d i s t i n c t i v e , less "melodic", less memorable. By virtue of t h e i r lack of ornamental d e t a i l , Pennington, "Melodies of Gabriel Faure", p. 201. 69 they sound as middleground melodies even at the foreground l e v e l and point to an austerity and transparency of structure in Faure^s l a t e works. This i s c l e a r l y seen in the following example (4.9), in which the melodies of two songs, o r i g i n a t i n g at the two extremes of his career, are compared. Example 4.9 Comparison of early and late melodies. Foreground "Les Matelots" Op. 2/2 m I L i ' . » » a • # • • • ( y ' F y 9 w •( _ 0 L.._ • Middleground 1 J • 1 Tl 0 a . B • * "( 7 tr Foreground "La mer est i n f i n i e . . . " Op. 118/1 i / f t -- W n ^ — To conclude t h i s chapter, a melody i s shown which can he seen as representative of those found in the l a t e songs (Example 4.10). It w i l l be noticed that the descriptive com-ments which follow are in fact a review of the characteris-t i c s outlined above. The melody begins with an ornamental motion around the A 5 to affirm i t s s t r u c t u r a l r o l e . It r i s e s to the leading tone (mm. 8-9) which i s s t a b i l i z e d by a temporary modulation. A l -though the modulation appears to be to G, the lack of a secon-dary dominant allows an ambiguity between G and Em. The melo-dic outline c l e a r l y suggests Em and thus the background melody 7 0 could be interpreted as moving from 5 of C to 5 of Em and back A to 5 of C. As a r e s u l t of the modulation, the ascending l i n e in mm. 5 - 8 contains F-sharp and takes on a Lydian character. The song ends in the same way i t began; with an embellishment A of the 5 ' The motion i s predominantly stepwise, with a t r i a d i c outline in mm. 8 - 9 . the largest leap in the song i s that of a major t h i r d . The range of the melody i s only a minor six t h , E to Cj thus the stressed 5 occurs in the approximate center (especially in mm. 8 - 9 ) . There i s no melismatic treatment of single s y l l a b l e s . Example 4.10 "Exaucement", Op. 106/1. Melodic a c t i v i t y . Foreground 71 CHAPTER V . DOUBLE TONALITIES This chapter returns to the question of ambiguity, an aspect of Faure's music introduced in Chapter I. The main f o -cus of study w i l l be those passages which show evidence of two simultaneous or juxtaposed t o n a l i t i e s , and thus contain harmo-nic events of uncertain import. Tonal juxtaposition must be distinguished from b i t o n a l i t y as i t i s commonly defined: The simultaneous use of two... d i f f e r e n t keys in d i f f e r e n t parts of the musical f a b r i c , e.g. B - f l a t minor in the l e f t hand against F-sharp minor in the right hand of a piano piece.* In Faure's music, one d e f i n i t e tonal center always predomi-"-nates. Instead of there being a p a i r of cooperating t o n a l i -t i e s , one main key i s embellished by a second t o n a l i t y , the i n -corporation of which generates greater harmonic int e r e s t . In the majority of cases the juxtaposition i s temporal; two d i f -f e r i n g elements are placed side by side horizontally, not ver-t i c a l l y . However, one example w i l l be c i t e d of apparent ver-" t i c a l juxtaposition ("'Quand tu plonges...'"). The majority of examples in t h i s chapter are taken from Le Jardin Clos, W i l l i Apel, Harvard Dictionary of Music, Second edition, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975) P« 96. 72 although b r i e f reference w i l l he made to two other works, one by Faure and the other by Claude Debussy. The f i r s t example that w i l l be considered shows an augu-r i n g appearance of an element more f u l l y developed in an en-suing passage. The background harmonic progression of "'II m'e cher, Amour, l e bandeau... 1" (7) comprises the following t o n i -cized t r i a d s : F major, G minor, A - f l a t major and F major (see Example 3.12). Aside from a b r i e f modulation to the dominant in mm. 8-10, the f i r s t twelve measures are f i r m l y i n F. Never-theless, as can be seen from Example 5«1» in mm. 6 and 7 a D major harmony makes an unexpected appearance. Example 5»1 "'II m'est cher, Amour, le bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 5-6. tient les pau _ pie _ re s clo . - ses; m m m » This chord 'can be understood as foreshadowing the modulation to the s t r u c t u r a l G minor i n m. 15. It i s notable that the chord which appears immediately following the D chord in m. 6 suggests an altered form of G minor. The connection between mm. 6-7 and m. 15 i s perceivable? one can conceive of the music as moving d i r e c t l y from one area to the other in the following manner (Example 5.2): 73 Example 5.2 Possible connection between mm. 6-7 and m. 15 of "'II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...'", Op. 106/7. It X L J 1 J 1 1 1 [ 1 1 1 I N N '—1 • r r r — r r r f -ri= « ' r J } , H r M=H= 1— j 1 * J i j y b 1 1 1- 1—g| It i s int e r e s t i n g that when in the o r i g i n a l version G minor does a r r i v e , i t i s through a plagal, rather than perfect ca-dence (Example 5»3)« Example 5-3 "'II m'est cher, Amour, le bandeau...'", Op. 106/7, mm. 13-15. Faure did commonly use more subtle cadences such as t h i s , but one might speculate that the dominant i s avoided since i t was "used up" nine measures e a r l i e r (the subsequent a r r i v a l of the t h i r d tonal area, A - f l a t i n m. 27, is. v i a an altered form of i t s dominant). A. s i m i l a r type of juxtaposition' and long-range con-nection was seen in "La mer est i n f i n i e . . . " (Example 2.l4a), 74 discussed in greater d e t a i l in Chapter I I . For reasons which were made clear at that time, within the song's D major t o n a l i -ty there are interpolations, in mm. 4 and 7, of F and B - f l a t chords, respectively. Although separated by two intervening measures, these non-diatonic chords form a unit by virtue of t h e i r dominant-to-tonic re l a t i o n s h i p . It i s not suggested here that t h i s s t y l i s t i c t r a i t i s unique to Faure. An example of s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l l o g i c can be seen i n Debussy's "...La terrasse des audiences du c l a i r de lune", Prelude no. 7 from Book I I . (A. B - f l a t "intermezzo" which comprises mm. 9-12 appears related to the E - f l a t t o n a l i -ty of mm. 25-27. This long-range V-I relationship in E - f l a t contrasts with the two p r i n c i p a l key centres of the piece, F-sharp and C major.) Nevertheless, awareness of thisfitech-nique provides a valuable t o o l in the study of Faure's music. A. more complex rela t i o n s h i p between two t o n a l i t i e s appears i n Faure's "Dans l a nymphe'e", (5)t also discussed i n Chapter I. From Example 1.5b i t can be seen that although the song appears to be i n the key of D-flat, the outer-voice motion of mm. 7 to 10 suggests the presence of a d i f f e r e n t t o n a l i t y . Since the implication of the two l i n e s i s of D minor, i t i s worthwhile to examine whether any further evidence of t h i s For an extended comparison of the work of Debussy and Faure', the reader i s referred to: Francoise Gervais, £tude  compared des langages harmoniques de Faure at de Debussy, (Pa-r i s : Richard Masse, 1971). 75 t o n a l i t y can be found. Although D major i s b r i e f l y heard i n mm. 4 and 7. up to m. 21, D minor i s suggested only through the periodic appearance of i t s dominant—mm. 10, 16, 20 and 21. (Obviously, the A. Mm seventh chord i s also dominant of D major, but since the A. chord i s usually found in connection with chords that u t i l i z e F-natural, D minor seems to be the implied t o n i c ) . From the c i t e d measures a greater frequency of appearance of t h i s dominant chord i s evident as the song progresses. Such a pattern suggests that the avoidance of an A. harmony in the opening measures i s i n t e n t i o n a l . The bass descends chromati-c a l l y i n mm. 1-5, hut A-natural i s noticeably l e f t out. It would c e r t a i n l y be l o g i c a l to add an A-seventh chord, as shown in Example 1.5b. Once singled out by i t s i n i t i a l absence, the A. chord appears at an increasing rate u n t i l m. 22, where D minor i s f i n a l l y heard (Example 5'4). Example 5*4 Appearances of the dominant of a secondary tona-l i t y in "Dans l a nymphee", Op. 106/5. ft1 4 10 16 20 21 22 »•!>• / . \ ^ r + T , , -fa t» 6m. , 6m. 4m. .Im. . - 1 h • fa i k\ f q i p " The D minor cadence i s immediately contrasted with the perfect cadence in D-flat which concludes the song. Thus the two tona-l i t i e s which seem to organize the music are confirmed in close proximity (Example 5«5)« 76 Example 5.5 "Dans l a nymphe'e", Op. 106/5, mm. 21-24. 1 • . ' p C\ i=8-dsfc==is; . h. , . # = 1 1 ^ I. Lin —Off-* ff—• ft ^ — *•—• •!• yj f W f P A —TT1J. |j .1 J y t »-• 1 '* • • J -Jl» - : l t) r r 1 mine aufond de la nuit, Dans le ra-pide 6. c l a i r — dun re _ ve —4 = = = = — _ » •« j j I Z b i ^ J — ^ J — ^ — • • - i / l uJ. ~I — * • r r c — —The significance of D minor as a second tonic may not be clear. One can suggest that because F i s an important me-l o d i c note ( i t forms the base of the large melodic arch of Ex-ample 1.7), the use of D-flat major and D minor allows that note to remain unaltered (see Example 5-5)• The next song that w i l l be discussed, "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux...'" (2), has already been analyzed in some d e t a i l in Chapter I (Example 1.3)• In that context, no reasons were sug-gested f o r the presence of two A major chords, found i n mm. 9 and 20. These appear isolated; the f i r s t , a c t u a l l y a Mm se-venth, does not resolve. For a clear understanding of t h e i r function, one needs to examine clo s e l y the opening measures (Example 5.6). Example 5.6 "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'" Op. 106/2, mm. 1-2. 77 Two observations can be made: 1) although the vocal part begins on F, the r i s i n g melodic l i n e a c t ually begins on D i n the piano, and 2) despite the f a c t that as a whole the song i s c l e a r l y i n the key of F, the f i r s t chord that i s heard i s a f i r s t - i n v e r s i o n D minor t r i a d . Admittedly, the voicing of the f i r s t chord, which isola t e s F, does point to an added-sixth harmony, heard two beats l a t e r , but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that on the downbeat the C i s absent. The f i r s t measure, taken as a whole,.is a juxtaposition of F and D minor t r i a d s ; F i s evident in the bass and vocal melody, D minor in the f i r s t chord and the piano melody. The t r i a d i c juxtaposition symbolizes the two t o n a l i t i e s found within the song (one may r e c a l l a s i m i l a r sym-bolism noted in Chapter I I I , i n connection with the song "Les Matelots", Op. 2/2). There i s no question which of the two t o n a l i t i e s domi-nates; D minor appears to be abandoned a f t e r the opening mea-sures. One i s not reminded of i t s existence u n t i l m. 9. where i t s dominant appears. It i s , however, only a reminder, as the following measures once again c l e a r l y indicate F major (note that i f the A.4 in m. 10 i s understood as temporarily replacing a B - f l a t , the two dominant sevenths, on A. and on C, appear side by s i d e ) . The A. chord appears once more, in m. 20, although i t does not contain a seventh, i t acts as a dominant to the D minor which i s f i n a l l y heard in m. 21. That measure i n i t i a t e s the song's l a s t phrase, which restates the material heard in the f i r s t two phrases (Example 5'7). However, t h i s material i s mo-d i f i e d so that the chord, which i n the f i r s t measure was heard 78 as F6_, i s now inverted to sound as D minor seventh. This change does not a f f e c t subsequent harmonic events and the song ends in F major. Example 5'7 S i m i l a r i t i e s of phrases 1, 2, and 5 of "'Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...'" Op. 106/2. In summary i t can be said.that even though the song i s in F major, D minor i s a factor not as v i of F, but as a secon-dary tonic. It i s present in the opening measure, i s r e c a l l e d by two appearances of i t s dominant,and i s l a s t touched upon at the star t of the l a s t phrase. Clearly, D minor i s not a major issue in t h i s song--it adds colour to F without disrupting i t s s t a b i l i t y as a primary tonic--but i t i s f e l t enough to create a problem of reference in the case of certain harmonic events. 79 CONCLUSION The s t a r t i n g point f o r t h i s study was a discussion of ambiguity of harmonic syntax in Faure's music. Ambiguity was seen to r e s u l t less from the use of chords with manifold f u n c t i o n s — t h e "vagrant" chords of post-Wagnerian harmony— than from an emphasis on protracted l i n e a r motion. As a r e s u l t , even though a t r i a d i c harmonic vocabulary i s used, chordal succession i s often unusual. "Often" i s the key word here; as was pointed out in Chapter I, Faure did not abandon t r a d i -t i o n a l harmonic progressions completely. Rather, he combined the old and new to create his personal s t y l e . In l i s t e n i n g to t h i s music, the ear wants to organize harmonic events according to p r i o r experiences, but t h i s i s not always possible. Chords may or may not be used t r a d i t i o n a l l y and thus the question of t h e i r true function i s often d i f f i c u l t of resolution. Charles Koechlin c l e a r l y points out the heart of the problem; "...there i s also the novelty and subtlety of syntax (more than the voca-b u l a r y ) " . 1 Charles Koechlin, Gabriel Faure 1845-1924, trans. L e s l i e Orrey (London: Dobson Ltd., 1945), p. 80. 80 This study continued by examining the many ways in -which Faure used chains of thirds to structure his pieces. We saw that Faure's fondness f o r structures of t h i r d r e l a t i o n i s undoubtedly responsible f o r the unusually high number of seventh chords found in his music. Chords of alt e r n a t i n g major and minor thirds—MM and mm sevenths—are e s p e c i a l l y more prominent here than in works of e a r l i e r composers. As was seen in Chapter IV, the MM seventh chord, as a background, structure-c o n t r o l l i n g , phenomenon, i s also responsible f o r a characteris-t i c r i s e of the melody to the leading tone. Both harmonic ambiguity and the use of novel t e r t i a n structures become more pronounced with the increased austerity seen i n Faure's l a t e r works. As ornamental d e t a i l becomes rarer, the importance of ind i v i d u a l notes and chords escalates. These are not continually r e i t e r a t e d as would be common in more t r a d i t i o n a l pieces, and the ear i s given less time to adjust to unusual events. T r a d i t i o n a l progressions in thirds become more tense and bare in the superchord. As was seen i n Chapter IV, foreground melodies take on the character of a middleground l e v e l . "More than anything, in the Songs, Faure's habit of expressing himself without insistence perplexes on f i r s t hea-ring; one has to re-read them and pore over them (this i s why French music, with i t s reserve and compactness, i s more p d i f f i c u l t to understand than Wagner)." 2 I b i d . 81 It i s f e l t by t h i s author that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s create problems of appreciation which contribute to the cool reception afforded Faure's work. They c e r t a i n l y become pro-minent i n the l a t e r works, which have been the l e a s t well re-ceived. At the very l e a s t , t h i s kind of account seems more persuasive than attempts to "explain" the lack of enthusiasm for Faure's music outside of France on r a c i a l grounds. Most notable of these, perhaps, i s Faure's own confessions I am very t i r e d of a l l these Germans, despite the trouble they take to be pleasant} and above a l l I have had a s u r f e i t of music. They possess very pronounced g i f t s i n that sphere; but they lack our nicety of taste and our sen-s i t i v i t y . And the funny thing i s that my music has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r being rather cold, rather too well-bred! We are not of the same race, that i s clear beyond doubt...3 The purpose of analysis i s neither to defend nor to take issue with claims of t h i s sort, but through penetrating study of the music i t s e l f , to expose problems encountered i n l i s t e -ning to i t and to suggest avenues toward t h e i r solution. This does not mean, however, that there i s no connection between analysis and appreciation, f o r i t i s hoped, in fact, that by providing a basis f o r understanding Faure's l a t e r music on i t s own terms, studies such as t h i s one might help to counteract musical prejudices which have t h e i r origins outside of musical experience. •^ Hans Gal, ed., Letters of the Great Composers (Londons Thames and Hudson,,1965)t pp. 398-99. The source i s Faure's l e t t e r to his wife, written in Frankfurt, 16 January 1905. 82 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A.pel, W i l l i . Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music. Second E d i t i o n . Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1975. A u s t i n , W i l l i a m W. "Harmonic Rhythm i n 20th-century Music", Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1950. A u s t i n , W i l l i a m W. Music i n the 20th Century. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1966. Benjamin, W i l l i a m E. " P i t c h - C l a s s Counterpoint i n Tonal Music." In Music Theory: S p e c i a l T o p i c s , pp. 1-32. E d i t e d by Richmond Browne. New York: Academic Press Inc., 1981. Bland, Stephen F. "The Songs of G a b r i e l Faure". Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. Copland, Aaron. " G a b r i e l Faure, a Neglected Master". M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 10, October 1924, pp. 573-86. Gal, Hans, ed. L e t t e r s of the Great Composers. London : Thames and Hudson, 1965. G e r v a i s , F a n c o i s e . Etude comparee des langages harmoniques  de Faure et de Debussy. P a r i s : Richard Masse, 1971. Knox, Roger M a r t i n . "Counterpoint i n G a b r i e l Faure's s t r i n g q u a r t e t , Op. 121". Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Indiana, 1978. K o e c h l i n , C h a r l e s . G a b r i e l Faure 1845-1924. T r a n s l a t e d by L e s l i e Orrey. London: Dobson L t d . , 1945-K u r t z , James L. "Problems of Tonal S t r u c t u r e i n Songs of G a b r i e l Faure", Ph.D. d i s s e r a t i o n , Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. LaRue, Jan. " B i f o c a l T o n a l i t y : An E x p l a n a t i o n f o r Ambiguous Baroque Cadences." In Essays on Music i n honor of A r c h i b a l d Thompson Davison. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1957-M e l l e r s , W i l f r i d . "The L a t e r Work of G a b r i e l Faure". Stud i e s i n Contemporary Music. London: Dennis Dobson L t d . , 1947. 83 Orledge, Robert. Gabriel Faure. London: Eulenburg Books. 1979. Pennington, Kenneth D. "A H i s t o r i c a l and S t y l i s t i c Study of the Melodies of Gabriel Faure". Mus.D. dis s e r t a t i o n , Indiana University, 1961. Schenker, Heinrich. Free Composition. Translated by Ernst Oster. New York: Longman Inc., 1979-Suckling, Norman. Faure. London: J.M. Dent, 19^6. Wegren, Thomas Joseph. "The Solo Piano Music of Gabriel Faure", Ph.D. dis s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State University, 1973. 84 APPENDIX Poems used in Faure's Le Jardin Clos. Poet: Charles Van Lerberghe (1861-190?) Source: Entrevisions (I898) £ Indicates stanzas omitted i n Faure's settings. ( ) Unt i t l e d poems. Faure's songs take t i t l e from the f i r s t l i n e . These poems belong to the poetic cycle Le Jardin Clos. I' Exaucement Alors qu'en tes mains de l u m i e r e Tu poses ton front d e f a i l l a n t , Que mon amour en ta priere Vienne comme un exaucement. Alors que l a parole expire Sur t a levre qui tremble encor, Et s'adoucit en un sourire De roses en des rayons d'orj Alors que tes yeux s'illuminent Et fixent en ton sombre sein La v i s i t a t i o n divine Dont i l s sont les miroirs l o i n t a i n s ; Que ton ame calme et muette, Fee endormie au jardin clos, En sa douce volonte' f a i t e Trouve l a joie et le repos. II. (Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux...) Quand tu plonges tes yeux dans mes yeux, Je suis toute dans mes yeux. Quand ta bouche de'noue ma bouche, Mon amour n'est que ma bouche. Quand tu fro1es mes cheveux,• Je n'existe plus qu'en eux. 85 Quand ta main effleu r e mes seins, J'y monte comme un feu soudain. Est-ce moi que tu as choisie? La est mon ame, l k est ma vi e . I l l . La messagere A v r i l , et c'est le point du jour. Tes blondes soeurs qui te ressemblent, En ce moment, toutes ensemble S'avancent vers t o i , cher Amour. Tu te tiens dans un clos ombreux De myrte et d'aubepine blanche: La porte s'ouvre entre les branches: Le chemin est mysterieux. E l l e s , lentes, en longues robes, Une a une, main dans l a main, Franchissent l e s e u i l i n d i s t i n c t Ou de l a nuit devient de l'aube. Celle qui s'approche d'abord, Regarde 1'ombre, te decouvre, Crie, et l a f l e u r de ses yeux s'ouvre Splendide dans un r i r e d'or. Et, j u s q u ' a ' l a derniere xsoeur, Toutes tremblent,, tes levres touchent Leurs levres, 1 ' e c l a i r de ta bouche Eclate jusque dans leu r coeur. IV. (Je me poserai sur ton coeur...) Je me poserai sur ton coeur Comme l e printemps sur l a mer, Sur les plaines de l a mer s t e r i l e Ou nulle f l e u r ne peut c r o i t r e , A ses souffles a g i l e s , Que des f l e u r s de lumiere. Je me poserai sur ton coeur Comme l'oiseau sur l a mer, Dans l e repos de ses a i l e s lasses, Et que berce l e rythme eternel Des f l o t s et de l'espace. 86 V. Dans l a nymphee Quoique tes yeux ne l a voient pas, Sache, en ton ame, qu'elle est l a , Comme autrefois divine et blanche. Sur ce bord reposent ses mains. Sa tete est entre ces jasmins; La, ses pieds effleurent l e s branches. E l l e sommeille en ces rameaux. Ses levres et ses yeux sont clos, Et sa bouche a peine respire. Parfois, l a ^ n u i t , dans un e'clair E l l e apparait l e s yeux ouverts, Et 1' E c l a i r dans ses yeux se mire. Un bref eblouissement bleu La decouvre en ses longs cheveux; E l l e s ' e V e i l l e , e l l e se leve. . Et tout un jardin ebloui S'illumine au fond de l a nuit, Dans l e rapide e c l a i r d'un reve. VI. Dans l a pdnombre A quoi,.dans ce matin d ' a v r i l , S i douce et d'ombre enveloppee, La chere enfant au coeur s u b t i l E s t - e l l e a i n s i tout occupee? La trace blonde de ses pas Se perd parmi les g r i l l e s closes; Je ne sais pas, je ne sais pas, Ce sont d'impenetrables choses. Pensivement, d'un geste lent, En longue robe, en robe a queue, Sur l e s o l e i l au rouet blanc A f i l e r de l a laine bleue. A sourire a. son reve encor, Avec ses yeux de fiancee, A t r e s s e r des f e u i l l a g e s d'or Parmi les l y s de sa pensee. 87 VII. (II m'est cher, Amour, l e bandeau...) II m'est cher, Amour, le bandeau Qui me t i e n t l e s paupieres closes; II pese comme un doux fardeau De s o l e i l sur de f a i b l e s roses. Si j'avance, l'etrange chose! Je parais marcher sur des eaux; Mes pieds trop lourds ou je les pose, S'enfoncent comme en des anneaux. Qui done a delie dans 1'ombre Le f a i x d'or de mes longs cheveux? Toute ceinte d'etreintes sombres, Je plonge en des vagues de feu. Mes levres ou mon ame chante, Toute d'extase et de baiser S'ouvrent comme une f l e u r ardente Au-dessus d'un fleuve embrase. VIII. In s c r i p t i o n sur l e sable Toute, avec sa robe et ses f l e u r s , E l l e , i c i , redevint poussiere, Et son ame emportee a i l l e u r s Renaquit en chant et lumiere. Mais un leger l i e n f r a g i l e Dans l a mort bris e doucement, En c e r l a i t ses tempes debiles D'imperissables diamants. En signe d ' e l l e , a cette place, Seules, parmi l e sable blond, Les pierres eternelles tracent Encor 1'image de son front. Celui que les dieux ont conduit, Qui sur sa route l e s avues, S'arrete et contemple ebloui Cette splendeur q u ' i l c r o i t perdue. Perdue! Et des rayons s'y posent! 0 voyageur, tu ne sais pas Le sens mysterieux des choses; E l l e , soule, ne l e fut pas. 88 TRANSLATIONS OF THE POEMS I. F u l f i l l m e n t When i n your hands of l i g h t You r e s t your exhausted forehead, Let my lov e e n t e r your p r a y e r as a f u l f i l l m e n t . When the word d i e s On your s t i l l t r e m b l i n g l i p s , And s o f t e n s i n t o a smile Of r o s e s i n golden beams; When your eyes l i g h t up And secure i n your sombre bosom The d i v i n e v i s i t a t i o n Of which they are d i s t a n t m i r r o r s ; Let your s t i l l and s i l e n t s o u l , A. f a i r y a s l e e p i n the encl o s e d garden, In her sweetly done w i l l F i n d joy and r e s t . I I . (When you immerse your eyes i n my eyes...) When you immerse your eyes i n my eyes, I am only i n my eyes. When your mouth unlocks my mouth, My l o v e i s but my mouth. When you str o k e my h a i r , I do not e x i s t but i n i t . When your hand g l i d e s over my b r e a s t s , I f l a r e l i k e a sudden flame. Is i t me you have chosen? There i s my s o u l , there i s my l i f e . I I I . The messenger(ess) A p r i l , and i t i s the break of day. Your blonde s i s t e r s t h a t resemble you, At t h i s moment, t o g e t h e r Move towards you, dear Love. 89 You remain i n a shady grove Of myrtle and white hawthorne s The door opens amongst the branches; The path i s mysterious. They, s l o w l y , i n white^gowns, One by one, hand i n hand, Cross the dim t h r e s h o l d Where the n i g h t becomes dawn. She who approaches f i r s t , Looks a t the shadow, d i s c o v e r s you, C r i e s out, and the f l o w e r of her eyes opens M a g n i f i c e n t l y i n golden l a u g h t e r . And, to the l a s t s i s t e r , Each t r e m b l i n g , your l i p s touch T h e i r l i p s , the radiance of your mouth Penetrates t h e i r s o u l . IV. (I w i l l p l a c e myself upon your h e a r t . . . ) I w i l l p l a c e myself upon your heart As the s p r i n g t i m e upon the sea, Upon the p l a i n s of the b a r r e n sea Where no f l o w e r can grow, by i t s g e n t l e breezes,' except f l o w e r s of l i g h t . I w i l l p l a c e myself upon your h e a r t As a b i r d on the sea, R e s t i n g h i s t i r e d wings, That rocks i n the e t e r n a l rhythm Of waves and space. V, In the g r o t t o Although, your eyes do not see her, Know, i n your s o u l , t h a t she i s t h e r e , As b e f o r e , d i v i n e and white. On t h i s bank r e s t her hands. Her head i s between these jasmines; There, her f e e t graze the branches. She slumbers i n these boughs. Her l i p s and her eyes are c l o s e d , And her mouth h a r d l y b r e a t h e s . 90 Sometimes, i n the n i g h t , i n a. l i g h t n i n g f l a s h She appears with open eyes, And the f l a s h m i r r o r s i n her eyes. A. b r i e f blue g l a r e Reveals her with her l o n g h a i r ; She wakes up, she r i s e s . And a whole re s p l e n d e n t garden L i g h t s up i n the depth of the n i g h t , In the f l i c k e r o f a dream. VI. At dawn With what, i n t h i s A p r i l morning, So sweet and wrapped i n shadow, T h i s dear c h i l d o f pure h e a r t Is she thus preoccupied? The f a i r t r a c e of her step Is l o s t among the c l o s e d gates; I do not know, I do not know, These are impenetrable t h i n g s . P e n s i v e l y , with a slow g e s t u r e , In a l o n g gown, a gown with a t r a i n , With s p i n n i n g a blue yarn On the white s p i n n i n g wheel sun. S t i l l s m i l i n g a t her dream, With f i a n c e e ' s eyes, With b r a i d i n g golden f o l i a g e Among the l i l i e s of her thoughts. V I I . ( I t i s dear to me. Love, the bandana...) I t i s dear t o me, Love, the bandana That holds my e y e l i d s c l o s e d ; I t weights l i k e a sweet burden Of sun on the d e l i c a t e r o s e s . I f I advance, strange t h i n g 1 I seem to walk on waters; My f e e t too heavy where I put them, Sink i n l i k e i n r i n g s . 9 1 Who then has u n t i e d i n the shadow The golden weight of my l o n g h a i r ? A l l g i r d l e d with dark embraces, I plunge i n t o the waves of f i r e . My l i p s where my s o u l s i n g s , A l l of e c s t a s y and of k i s s e s Open up l i k e a b r i l l i a n t f l o w e r Above a b l a z i n g r i v e r . V I I I . I n s c r i p t i o n i n the sand. Complete, wi t h her dress and her f l o w e r s , She, here, r e t u r n e d to dust, And her s o u l , c a r r i e d elsewhere Was reborn on song and l i g h t . But a. l i g h t f r a g i l e bond Gently broken i n death, E n c i r c l e d her weakened temples With imperishable diamonds. In remembrance of her, a t t h i s p l a c e , Alone, i n the white sand, The e t e r n a l stones s t i l l t r a c e The image of her forehead. He whom the gods have guided, Who on h i s way has seen them, Stops a s t o n i s h e d and comtemplates T h i s splendor t h a t he b e l i e v e s l o s t . LosttS? And rays upon i t ! Oh t r a v e l e r , you do not know The!jmysterious sense of t h i n g s ; She, alone, was not l o s t . 

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