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The revitalization of the inner city : a case study of the Fairview Slopes neighbourhood, Vancouver,… Fujii, George T. 1981

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THE R E V I T A L I Z A T I O N OF THE INNER C I T Y : A CASE STUDY OF THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES NEIGHBOURHOOD, VANCOUVER, B.C. by G e o r g e T. B.A.,  University  Fujii  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  1978  I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Dept. o f Geography)  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April, ©  1981  G e o r g e T. F u j i i ,  1981  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and study.  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Iti s  understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f G e o g r a p h y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date  7Q ^  April  2 8 , 1981  , Columbia  written  DOONESBURY EXPLAIN ID OUR-  i^f^ffa  iusmesmtr %* Jj£?; VWmfiCAMH" M ™ * * * ^ ' MEANSAvem&EP \ NEJOHBOKHCW: n  A  HE FIXES IT UPAHDPESEUS IT w A mm MmE-aA&amE. THIS  Ewm&owceemrTOBUY m  THENEIWOWV,  BEFOtE L0N6, A  AND  FAMASnC&AL  ESTAIE MARKET BOOMS UT€PE NONE EXISTW BEFORE' /  AW WHAT HAP- SK.UBPO.  PEHST01HEUX)  THESE PEOPLE \  INCOME TENANTS ARE VEKf U/HOAREPISIMPORTANT PLACEDrPOES TDTHEUHOLE\ ANYONE CAPS? PKCES&f I  ABSTRACT Amidst the middle c l a s s " f l i g h t " u r b s , a s e l e c t group o f young, tively  neighbourhoods.  the  w e l l - e d u c a t e d , and r e l a -  a f f l u e n t h o u s e h o l d s h a v e moved i n t o f o r m e r l y  and modest i n c o m e ,  fabric  t o t h e sub-  occasionally  Major changes  run-down, i n n e r i n t h e economic  of society together with  central city  an i n c r e a s i n g  low  city and s o c i a l ,  interest i n  as an e x c i t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g p l a c e  to  l i v e have l e d t o t h e m i d d l e c l a s s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e inner c i t y . favourable  H a s t e n i n g t h e renewal p r o c e s s has been t h e responses o f t h e development  i n d u s t r y and  f i n a n c i a l community and t h e p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l Theoretical  a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h do n o t e m p h a s i z e  ction of socio-cultural l i f e s t y l e and e c o n o m i c  values with  government. the conjunpolitical  f a c t o r s a r e much t o o n a r r o w i n s c o p e f o r a  c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . A s o c i a l movements a p p r o a c h b a s e d on an i d e o l o g y  of aestheticsm  and s t y l e  avoids t h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e o r e t i c a l narrowness. Incorporating t h i s t h e s i s examines economic, Fair-view  hall,  t h e complex  and p o l i t i c a l  perspective,  interplay of social,  f a c t o r s i n the renewal o f the  S l o p e s , an i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n t h e c i t y  o f V a n c o u v e r , B.C. oriented  such a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  ideology  A r i s i n g as a r e a c t i o n t o the growtho f the Non-Partisan A s s o c i a t i o n  at c i t y  The E l e c t o r ' s A c t i o n Movement (T.E.A.M.), an u r b a n  reform party  i n p o w e r f r o m 1972 t o 1 9 7 8 , s t r e s s e d t h e  importance of a e s t h e t i c s  and s t y l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g  of  - i i i the urban environment. livability  I t i s w i t h i n such a c o n t e x t o f  that the process o f renewal has taken p l a c e  on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . The  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e F a i r v i e w Slopes from  a n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f o l d wooden f r a m e h o u s e s i n t o one o f contemporary vations;  townhouse developments  and immaculate.reno-  t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s s p e c t a c u l a r view and c e n t r a l  l o c a t i o n , h a v e made i t a v e r y d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e . I n o r d e r t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f t h i s change,  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Vancouver c i t y p l a n n i n g  department  as w e l l as v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t s , d e v e l o p e r s , and r e a l personnel.  A neighbourhood s u r v e y o f randomly  estate  selected  F a i r v i e w S l o p e s r e s i d e n t s p r o v i d e s t h e major source o f data u t i l i z e d  i n t h i s study.  F o u r g e n e r a l a r e a s were  explored i n the neighbourhood q u e s t i o n n a i r e :  (1) h o u s i n g  and n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s (2) t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f Vancouver  as a place to l i v e  (3) u r b a n l a n d u s e and development s o c i a l and demographic respondents.  priorities  and (4)  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the survey  I m p l i c i t i n many o f t h e r e s p o n s e s a r e t h e  c o n c e r n s f o r a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e f i r s t T.E.A.M. d u r i n g t h e e a r l y Livability,  a d v o c a t e d by  1970's  however,  onymous w i t h e q u i t y a n d s o c i a l  i s not necessarily justice.  Although largely  u n i n t e n d e d , a number o f l e s s than- d e s i r a b l e :  syn-  consequences  -ivhave accompanied t h e m i d d l e c l a s s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  of  the  illus-  inner c i t y .  The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s c a s e s t u d y  t r a t e s how t h e demands o f t h e m a r k e t p l a c e , best  i n t e n t i o n s of planners  priate  and p o l i t i c i a n s ,  t h e a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l  humane u r b a n l a n d u s e p o l i c i e s .  despite the can appro-  objectives of  apparently  -V-  TABLE OF  CONTENTS Page  Abstract  i i  L i s t of Tables  viii  List  o f Maps  x  List of Figures  xi  Acknowledgements  x i i  Chapter 1  2  INTRODUCTION 1.1  A New D i r e c t i o n f o r t h e I n n e r C i t y : M i d d l e C l a s s Renewal  1-  1.2  Terminology  7  1.3  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l U n d e r p i n n i n g s and Statement o f I n t e n t  8  1.4  Organization of Chapters  9  THE URBAN DYNAMIC: THE MIDDLE CLASS RENEWAL OF THE INNER CITY 2.1  Introduction  2.2  Factors Encouraging Inner C i t y Revitalization 2.2.1 Economic and Demographic Factors 2.2.2 Young P r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d t h e A t t r a c t i o n of Inner City Living  12  2.3  The G e o g r a p h y o f R e v i t a l i z a t i o n  23  2.4  The P o l i t i c a l - E c o n o m i c S e c t o r a n d Revitalization 2.4.1 The D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y 2.4.2 F i n a n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s 2.4.3 R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and t h e R o l e o f L o c a l Government  2.5  2.6  11 12  17  28 28 31 32  The P r o c e s s o f I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : The I n t e r p l a y o f P u b l i c and P r i v a t e 2.5.1 A Model o f R e v i t a l i z a t i o n  34 35  Summary  37'  -viChapter 3  Page THEORETICAL APPROACHES TOWARDS GENTRIFICATION 3.1  Introduction  42  3.2  The  Demographic Approach  42  3.3  The  Human-Ecological  43  3.4  The  S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Approach  3.5  The P o l i t i c a l - E c o n o m i c A p p r o a c h 3.5.1 M a r x i s m and G e n t r i f i c a t i o n 3.5.2 G e n t r i f i c a t i o n and C a p i t a l Accumulation  49 49  The S o c i a l Movements A p p r o a c h 3.6.1 S o c i a l Movements, I d e o l o g y , and I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n  60 63  Summary  73  3.6  3.7 4  5  Approach  46  INNER C I T Y RENEWAL I N VANCOUVER: CASE OF THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES  53  THE  4.1  Introduction  4.2  Liberal  4.3  F a l s e Creek  4.4  A New  4.5  Fairview Slopes: Precursor  4.6  The I n t e r a c t i o n o f P u b l i c and P r i v a t e : The R o l e o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y i n the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w Slopes 103  4.7  M a r k e t p l a c e Demands and elopment of F a i r v i e w  4.8  Summary  THE  76  I d e o l o g y and and  the L i v a b l e C i t y  the F a i r v i e w Slopes  Direction for Fairview  79 85 91  t o Change  t h e Redev-  96  112 117  FAIRVIEW SLOPES RESIDENT SURVEY  5.1  Introduction  122  5.2  M e t h o d s and D a t a  123  5.3  S o c i a l and DemographicfCharacteri s t i c s of Respondents  126  The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a s a P l a c e Live  130  5.4 5.5 5.6  The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s and o f Development Summary  the  to  Future 142 146  -viiChapter 6  Page CONCLUDING REMARKS 6.1  The I n n e r C i t y a n d T h e o r y  148  6.2  P l a n n i n g and P o l i t i c s Theory and R e a l i t y  150  6.3  Young P r o f e s s i o n a l s of S e l f - i n t e r e s t s  and t h e P u r s u i t  6.4  Social Implications Renewal  o f Inner  6.5  I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : Some F i n a l Thoughts  i n Vancouver:  159  BIBLIOGRAPHY  City  162 166 168  APPENDICES 1  Covering Letter  178  2  Resident Questionnaire  180  -viiiL I S T OF TABLES Table 1.1  1.2  Page Change i n Number o f H o u s e h o l d s R e c e i v i n g Incomes o f $20,000 o r More and L i v i n g i n C e n t r a l C i t i e s : 1970-1974  3  Number and P e r c e n t o f C e n t r a l C i t i e s E x p e r i e n c i n g Private-Market Housing R e n o v a t i o n i n O l d e r A r e a s by P o p u l a t i o n S i z e C l a s s , 1975  4  3.1  O c c u p a t i o n a l Breakdown o f the C a n a d i a n L a b o u r F o r c e , 1931-1971.  65  3.2  Occupational S h i f t s i n the Canadian L a b o u r F o r c e , 1951-1971  67  4.1  L a n d Use on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , 1969  88  4.2  L a n d Use Changes 1974-1978  5.1 5.2  on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 114  S o c i a l and Demographic of Survey Respondents  Characteristics  R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n o f Respondents to Moving to the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s  127 Prior 129  5.3  L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c e on t h e S l o p e s  5.4  D e s i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the F a i r v i e w Slopes 136  5.5  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the F a i r v i e w Slopes Which Respondents D i s l i k e  141  A s p e c t s o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s V/hich C o u l d C a u s e R e s p o n d e n t s t o Move  144  5.7  Types o f Development Future of Slopes  144  6.1  The G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r P r o g r a m : I m p o r t a n t T h i n g s A b o u t V a n c o u v e r t h a t S h o u l d Not Change 153  6.2  A s p e c t s o f V a n c o u v e r t h a t S h o u l d Not Change  5.6  Favoured f o r the  129  154  -ixTable 6.3  Aspects o f Vancouver t h a t Change o r I m p r o v e  Should  6.4  Priorities  f o r Future Urban P l a n n i n g  6.5  D e m o l i t i o n s by D w e l l i n g T y p e , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1973 t o 1977  Page 155 156 165  -X-  L I S T OF  MAPS  Map  Page  1  The  Fairview Slopes i n Context  2  Fairview Slopes  77 78  -xiL I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  3.1  The R e a l E s t a t e I n d u s t r y Creation  a n d Image-  4.1  U l t r a - M o d e r n Townhouses on t h e S l o p e s  4.2  The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a s S t y l e and  72 109  Grandeur  110  4.3  Example o f a F a i r v i e w S l o p e s R e n o v a t i o n  110  4.4  Frame H o u s e s o f a N o t t o o D i s t a n t P a s t  115  5.1  The R e s i d e n t i a l C o r e o f t h e F a i r v i e w Slopes The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s V i e w  125 131  5.3  C o n s t r u c t i o n A n n o y a n c e s and P o o r S t r e e t Conditions  137  5.4  O n - S t r e e t P a r k i n g on t h e S l o p e s  137  5.2  -xii-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would  like  t o thank J i m Duncan and D a v i d  Ley f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e and a s s i s t a n c e c o u r s e o f my r e s e a r c h .  By p r o v i d i n g  throughout the thoughtful  comments  on my w o r k t h e y h a v e t a u g h t me t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c r i t i c a l eye. people  A s p e c i a l n o t e o f t h a n k s must go t o a l l t h e r e s o u r c e (planners, architects,  d e v e l o p e r s , and r e a l t o r s )  w i t h o u t whose k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r t i s e t h i s s t u d y n o t have been p o s s i b l e .  Finally,  I would  like  would  t o thank  my p a r t n e r s i n c r i m e f o r t h e many e n j o y a b l e h o u r s we have s p e n t t o g e t h e r o v e r t h e l a s t  few y e a r s .  Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1  A New D i r e c t i o n  f o r the Inner C i t y : Middle Class  The  deprivation  o f the inner  city  Renewal  relative  to i t s  s u b u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t i s a p r e v a l e n t theme o f b o t h a c a d e m i c and  popular l i t e r a t u r e .  Sternlieb  example, note t h e d e c l i n e cities  of family  equality  i n 1970 t o b a r e l y  15 m i l l i o n  (1979), f o r  households i n the c e n t r a l  o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s from s l i g h t l y  million  l e s s t h a n 17  i n 1974 a n d t h e i n -  o f incomes between c e n t r a l c i t y and suburban  residents; had  and Ford  families leaving  t h e c i t y b e t w e e n 1970 a n d 1974  mean i n c o m e s o f $14,169 p e r y e a r w h e r e a s t h o s e m o v i n g  to the c i t y  e a r n e d a n a v e r a g e o f $12,864.  evidence o f d e c l i n e , black proportion rapid  As  o t h e r commentators p o i n t  further t o the high  o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y p o p u l a t i o n and t h e  l o s s o f j o b s i n c e n t r a l c i t i e s as compared t o t h e  suburbs ( s e e f o r example, Bourne, 1978).  A serious  con-  s e q u e n c e o f t h e s e e v e n t s h a s b e e n t h e abandonment o f h o u s i n g and a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e o f many i n n e r  i n the residental  structures  c i t y neighbourhoods (Hartshorne, 1971).  number o f r e c e n t t r e n d s , h o w e v e r , seem t o i n d i c a t e increasing  number o f i n n e r  going p h y s i c a l ,  that  A an  c i t y neighbourhoods are under-  e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  revitalization.  One has  o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e  recent  trends  b e e n t h e g r o w i n g a f f l u e n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o r s o f some  central c i t y populations.  Measured i n constant  1973 d o l l a r s ,  c e n t r a l c i t y households r e c e i v i n g incomes o f a t l e a s t per 1974  annum i n c r e a s e d by n e a r l y 20 p e r c e n t ( S t e r n l i e b and Ford,  the e x c e p t i o n two  1979).  b e t w e e n 1970 a n d  A l l age c a t e g o r i e s ,  with  o f t h e o l d e s t h o u s e h o l d s , t h a t have a t l e a s t  i n d i v i d u a l s i n them, e n j o y e d s u c h i n c r e a s e s  During  $20,000  (Table 1.1).  t h e same p e r i o d , t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g  who e a r n  a t l e a s t $20,000 i n c r e a s e d b y 56.5 p e r c e n t  alone  i ncentral  cities. Further tral  evidence o f the expanding a f f l u e n c e o f cen-  c i t y h o u s e h o l d s i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f home o w n e r s h i p .  Despite  decreasing  population,  t h e number o f h o u s e h o l d s  owned t h e i r a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n c r e a s e d b y 8.7 p e r c e n t , r e l a t i v e l y youthful enjoying increase  with the  the l a r g e s t proportionate  ( S t e r n l i e b and Ford,  home b u y e r s may be r e g a r d e d  that  1979).  The i n c r e a s e d number o f  a s one m e a s u r e o f t h e c o m p e t i t i v e  attractiveness of central cities. Related  t o t h i s growing a f f l u e n c e i s the recent  covery  o f the housing  survey  u n d e r t a k e n i n 1975 b y t h e U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e  revealed  opportunities of the inner c i t y .  t h a t '124 ( o r 48 p e r c e n t  (Black, 1975).  housing  renovation  size.  (U.L.I)  some d e g r e e  i n o l d e r , rundown a r e a s  The i n c i d e n c e o f r e n o v a t i o n  c o n s i d e r a b l y by c i t y  A  o f t h e 260) c e n t r a l c i t i e s  w i t h p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r 50,000 h a d e x p e r i e n c e d of private-market  dis-  activity  varies  A s shown i n T a b l e 1.2, 19 o f 26  .3 T a b l e 1.1  Change i n Numbers o f H o u s e h o l d s R e c e i v i n g I n c o m e s o f $20,000 o r More and L i v i n g i n C e n t r a l C i t i e s : 1970 - 1974  Household Characteristics  Number o f H o u s e h o l d s ( i n thousands) 1970 1974  Two-or-More P e r s o n : Households  3, 242  3,868  19.3  Husband-Wife f a m i l i e s L e s s t h a n 25 y e a r s o l d 25-34 35-44 45-54 65 o r o l d e r  2,945 38 403 688 1,591 225  3,520 89 718 808 1,698 207  19. 5 134. 2 78.2 17.4 6.7 -8.0  O t h e r male heads L e s s t h a n 65 y e a r s o l d 65 o r o l d e r  134 113 21  157 141 16  17.2 24.8 -23. 8  F e m a l e Heads L e s s t h a n 65 y e a r s o l d 65 o r o l d e r  163 118 45  191 151 40  17.2 28.8 -11.1  One-Person  168  263  56.5  131 37  212 52  61.8 40.5  Households  L e s s t h a n 65 y e a r s o l d 65 o r o l d e r Total  Households  Source:  3,410  4,131  Perce; Chang'  21.1  G e o r g e S t e r n l i e b and K r i s t i n a F o r d . "The F u t u r e o f t h e R e t u r n - t o - t h e - C i t y Movement", i n H e r r i n g t o n J . Bryce (ed.), R e v i t a l i z i n g Cities• L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: L e x i n t o n Books, 1979, pp. 77-104. R e f e r e n c e on p . 8 3 .  or  73 p e r c e n t o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t i e s i n t h e 500,000 a n d  o v e r p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p r e p o r t e d some t y p e o f r e n o v a t i o n activity.  This percentage  Table  1.2  In the U.L.I.  26 30 79 125 260  73 63 58 32 48  19 19 46 40 124  J.T. B l a c k . " P r i v a t e Market Housing R e n o v a t i o n i n C e n t r a l C i t i e s " . U r b a n L a n d . 34, 10 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 3-9. an e f f o r t  t o u p d a t e t h e 1975 r e n o v a t i o n s u r v e y ,  i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t r e n o v a t i o n and m i d d l e -  income h o u s i n g investment  Cities Experiencing Renovation A c t i v i t y Number Percent  T o t a l Number of C i t i e s i n Class  and o v e r - 500,000 - 250,000 - 100,000  Source:  class.  Number and P e r c e n t o f C e n t r a l C i t i e s E x p e r i e n c i n g P r i v a t e Market Housing R e n o v a t i o n i n O l d e r A r e a s by P o p u l a t i o n - S i z e C l a s s , 1975  PopulationSize Class 500,000 250,000 100,000 50,000  drops w i t h the s i z e  demand  activity  i n a n a t i o n a l survey of c e n t r a l  i n January,  1979.  The r e s u l t s o f  city this  s u r v e y show t h a t r e n o v a t i o n o f o l d e r p r o p e r t i e s h a s s p r e a d t o more c i t i e s .  Renovation  a c t i v i t y was r e p o r t e d i n 86 p e r -  c e n t o f c i t i e s w i t h o v e r 150,000 r e s i d e n t s a s c o m p a r e d t o 65 p e r c e n t i n 1975 ( B l a c k , 1 9 8 0 ) . the e a r l i e r  Moreover, i n c o n t r a s t t o  s u r v e y where v e r y f e w new h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n  p r o j e c t s were r e p o r t e d , v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e c e n t r a l  cities  a r e now e x p e r i e n c i n g new c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r m i d d l e and  upper-  middle  income occupancy.  relatively  The v o l u m e s , h o w e v e r , t e n d t o be  s m a l l compared t o t o t a l  new h o u s i n g  i n metropolitan  areas. Further substantiating the r e s i d e n t i a l i n the inner c i t y 1980).  are the f i n d i n g s of P h i l l i p Clay  thirty  and  cities.  The p a c e a n d e x t e n t  o f W a s h i n g t o n , San F r a n c i s c o  as h a v i n g  experienced  extensive  I n the middle  parts of the c i t y ,  up-grading  by l o n g time  experiencing significant residents.  These i n c l u d e  Boston,  thus  f a r been v e r y  l i m i t e d - each o f these  renewal cities  Orleans  F i n a l l y , there are older i n d u s t r i a l  s u c h a s D e t r o i t , Newark, a n d C l e v e l a n d where has  range  t h a t a r e u n d e r g o i n g s u b s t a n t i a l economic d e c l i n e  s u c h a s S t . L o u i s , B a l t i m o r e , P h i l a d e l p h i a , New and  these  population loss, but are simultaneously, although i n  different and  The c i t i e s  r e n e w a l and r e s e t t l e m e n t .  are c i t i e s  reinvestment i n  h o w e v e r , v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y among  S e a t t l e a r e noted  private  and  of private residential  o f America's l a r g e s t c i t i e s .  of t h i s renewal, thirty  (1979;  T h r o u g h r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d b e t w e e n 1976 a n d 1 9 7 9 ,  Clay found evidence all  interest  cities  reinvestment cities  being  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o n l y one s m a l l i n s t a n c e o f r e n e w a l . The  pace, a n d e x t e n t o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n n o t o n l y  v a r i e s between c i t i e s cities.  b u t a l s o among n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h i n  Almost without  e x c e p t i o n , n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h have  undergone g e n t r i f i c a t i o n  a r e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e downtown a n d  possess d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l ,  a e s t h e t i c and/or s t a t u s  f e a t u r e s o f topography. Although  d e c l i n e h a s n o t been as marked i n c i t i e s  o u t s i d e o f t h e U.S., t h e y  t o o have e x p e r i e n c e d  inner  city  renewal. Stobie, 1978)  Toronto (Rebizant, 1979)  provide  and Sydney  provides  At  A u s t r a l i a n examples;  example  a first  and V a n c o u v e r  (Hamnett,  glance,  1973;  the data  and  (Maher, London  1980).  suggest that  d e c l i n e o f the i n n e r c i t y has been r e v e r s e d . however,  ( L e y , 1979b;  Canadian examples; Melbourne  provide  a British  1974)  the  This  must be v i e w e d w i t h a s e n s e o f c a u t i o u s  trend,  optimism. i  R e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s a s m a l l b u t w i d e s p r e a d phenomenon. A l t h o u g h many c i t i e s , have; u n d e r g o n e  renewal, the s i z e o f  upgraded neighbourhoods v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y , a few b l o c k s  to d i s t r i c t - s i z e d  areas.  activity  is still  relatively  to t o t a l housing c o n s t r u c t i o n (Black, movement h a s t h u s f a r b e e n l i m i t e d the p o p u l a t i o n . Bourne, the  1978  and L a n g , 1980)  be a t e m p o r a r y phenomenon.  limited  1980).  refutes traditional  compared  segment o f  b u y e r s and r e n t e r s may  Despite  i s a phenomenon w h i c h  t h e o r i e s o f u r b a n l a n d u s e and  estate sector.  recognized  only  t h i s s m a l l s c a l e , the  has  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y m a k e r s and  real  this  t h a t the: i n t e r e s t i n  As C l a y w r i t e s ,  t h e i r s i z e and c o n f i g u r a t i o n , g e n t r i f i c a t i o n are  Francisco  Moreover,  to a small  caution  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the inner c i t y  private  and San  of  I n d e e d , some w r i t e r s ( s e e f o r e x a m p l e  i n n e r c i t y by m i d d l e - c l a s s  important  from  With the e x c e p t i o n  a few c i t i e s - A t l a n t a , B o s t o n , W a s h i n g t o n - renovation  ranging  i n their central cities,  the  "...Whatever neighbourhoods  and t h e i r  and i m p o r t a n c e o f t e n e x c e e d s t h e i r t r u e s i z e . "  images  Furthermore,  a l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l number o f r e v i t a l i z e r s may " . . . t h i s p o p u l a t i o n sometimes number" ( C l a y , 1.2  small,  has i n f l u e n c e f a r beyond i t s  17).  Terminology Clay  ization and  1979,  be  (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t n e i g h b o u r h o o d  i n v o l v e s two d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s :  (2) u p g r a d i n g .  (1)  revital-  gentrification  In neighbourhoods undergoing  gentri-  f i c a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n change i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n p h y s i c a l change, "The  a l t h o u g h the p h y s i c a l improvements  are a l s o important.  ' g e n t r y ' c r e a t e a n e i g h b o u r h o o d ambience  and a  style  t h a t r e f l e c t u p p e r m i d d l e c l a s s t a s t e s and v a l u e s ;  their  t a s t e s and v a l u e s s u p p l a n t t h o s e o f the l o w e r income ulation (Clay,  pop-  t h a t dominated the a r e a b e f o r e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " 1979,6).  I n comparison, the major feature o f  grading i s that physical  improvement  takes place at a s u b s t a n t i a l  by i n c u m b e n t  up-  residents  r a t e w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t  i n the socio-economic s t a t u s of the p o p u l a t i o n .  The  change lower  or working c l a s s c h a r a c t e r of the neighbourhood i s not changed.  I n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h have  both s o c i a l  and p h y s i c a l c h a n g e a r e t h e f o c a l  this research project.  In a d d i t i o n to the  and r e n o v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g  compared t o m a s s i v e )  points  of  rehabilitation  houses, the d e f i n i t i o n  s e c t o r r e i n v e s t m e n t used i n t h i s (as  undergone  study includes  of private-  small-scale  redevelopment.  V a r i o u s terms have been u s e d t o d e s c r i b e  the  emergence o f m i d d l e - and u p p e r m i d d l e - c l a s s e n c l a v e s i n f o r m e r l y run-down n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  Some o f t h e more p o p u l a r  include g e n t r i f i c a t i o n ,  inner c i t y  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , , middle  c l a s s renewal, p r i v a t e urban renewal, middle c l a s s  resettle-  ment, and u r b a n r e i n v e s t m e n t .  used  These terms w i l l  be  interchangeably throughout t h i s study. 1.3  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l U n d e r p i n n i n g s and S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t A complex i n t e r p l a y o f changing p u b l i c  towards i n - c i t y  living  amongst a s e l e c t g r o u p o f  attitudes individuals,  t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f d e v e l o p e r s and f i n a n c i e r s , the p o l i t i c s  o f p l a n n i n g have l e d t o the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  the i n n e r c i t y .  A n a l y s e s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n w h i c h do  r e c o g n i z e the i n t e r p l a y between t h e s e v a r i o u s economic,  and  and p o l i t i c a l  not  social,  f a c t o r s a r e , i n the view o f  w r i t e r , much t o o r e s t r i c t i v e .  of  this  An a p p r o a c h a c k n o w l e d g i n g  the c o n j u n c t i o n o f socio-economic l i f e s t y l e v a l u e s w i t h political  and e c o n o m i c  factors,  i t i s suggested, h o l d s the  most p r o m i s e f o r a c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f i n n e r c i t y ization.  revital-  A s o c i a l movements a p p r o a c h b a s e d on a g u i d i n g  i d e o l o g y o f a e s t h e t i c i s m and s t y l e p r o v i d e s a s t e p i n this  direction. The  B.C.  F a i r v i e w Slopes neighbourhood i n Vancouver,  provides, a r e l e v a n t study area i n which to c o n s i d e r  this interplay of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , f a c t o r s Lb t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n bourhood.  G u i d e d by a new  and  economic  o f an o l d e r i n n e r c i t y n e i g h -  ideology of l i v a b i l i t y  by c i t y c o u n c i l and i t s p l a n n i n g s t a f f ,  adopted  u l t r a - m o d e r n town-  h o u s e s and i m m a c u l a t e r e n o v a t i o n s h a v e r e p l a c e d many o f t h e  older,  s t r u c t u r a l l y u n s o u n d h o u s e s on t h e S l o p e s .  Utilizing  newspaper d a t a , p l a n n i n g department r e p o r t s , committee c o u n c i l m i n u t e s , and  interviews with various  department o f f i c i a l s ,  developers,  f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w Slopes  and  was  A.M.)  ten years  E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement  Despite  situation  relatively affluent  individ-  a t t h e e x p e n s e o f a l o w and  social  justice  n e c e s s a r i l y by-products  of l i b e r a l  and  social  modest  f o r h u m a n i t y and <C  t h i s apparent concern  social progressiveness,  Slopes  Economic  market f o r c e s , however, have l e d t o a  u a l s have been f a v o u r e d  1.4  and (T.E.  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w  where a g r o u p o f w e l l - e d u c a t e d ,  i n c o m e one.  Implicit  for aesthetics  improved the q u a l i t y of the neighbourhood.  r e a l i t i e s and  quality  ago.  Overall, has  and  trans-  discussed.  undertaken.  i n many o f t h e r e s p o n s e s i s t h e c o n c e r n a d v o c a t e d by The  the  i s described.-.and  o f t h i s change, a r e s i d e n t survey  style first  planning  architects,  I n o r d e r t o g e t more i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e  and  e q u a l i t y are  not  movements.  Organization of Chapters The  v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d t o  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y , f e a t u r e s o f the c i t i e s gone r e n e w a l ,  and  social  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h have u n d e r -  the r o l e s of the v a r i o u s a c t o r s i n the  g e n t r i f i c a t i o n process of the e x i s t i n g  and  t h e l o c a t i o n a l and  the  are reviewed  literature  i n C h a p t e r 2.  r e v e a l s t h e use  native explanations of g e n t r i f i c a t i o n .  The  of f i v e  A  review  alter-  theoretical  e m p i r i c a l m e r i t s of these v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s are  and  assessed  ... 10 i n C h a p t e r 3.  Following the methodological  developed i n the previous  chapter,  perspective  Chapter 4 provides  comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e e v e n t s to  the transformation o f the F a i r v i e w Slopes.  of the F a i r v i e w Slopes C h a p t e r 5.  r e s i d e n t survey  I n the f i n a l  chapter,  The  a leading  results  are presented i n  some o f t h e more  serious  s o c i a l and economic i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n phenomenon a r e c o n s i d e r e d liberal  ideology  through a reassessment of the  t h e s i s d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r 3.  Chapter THE  URBAN DYNAMIC: RENEWAL OF  2.1  THE  THE  MIDDLE CLASS  INNER CITY  Introduction Major changes i n the  of s o c i e t y , together c i t y as an the  2  social  fabric  w i t h a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the  i n t e r e s t i n g and  discovery  e c o n o m i c and  of formerly  central  s t i m u l a t i n g p l a c e , have l e d to run-down i n n e r c i t y  as h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s  t o l i v e by  neighbourhoods  a fairly affluent  group o f young, m i d d l e c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s .  Not  a l l inner  c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , however, have undergone t h i s t r a n s f o r mation.  R e n e w a l has  occurred  u n i q u e s e t o f l o c a t i o n a l and g e n t r i f i e d neighbourhoods. i n n e r c i t y has  "high  risk"  are  The  i s to present  the  renewal o f the  develop-  f o c a l points of p r i v a t e following  inner city.  More  analysis specifically,  upon t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h have  social  the  N e i g h b o u r h o o d s once  a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n and  buted to-the  i n n e r c i t y by  contri-  the m i d d l e c l a s s ,  f e a t u r e s o f t h e c i t i e s and  bourhoods w h i c h have e x p e r i e n c e d o f the v a r i o u s  e x t e n d e d by  major purpose of the  focuses  A  characterize  class interest in  today the  t h i s chapter  l o c a t i o n a l and  selective basis.  features  community.  o f the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the  the  social Middle  financial  sector investment. chapter  a very  b e e n r e i n f o r c e d and  ment i n d u s t r y and considered  on  rejuvenation,  a c t o r s i n the g e n t r i f i c a t i o n  and  the  process.  neighroles  .12 2.2  Factors Encouraging Inner C i t y  Revitalization  A number o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s last  few y e a r s  w h i c h appear t o have s t i m u l a t e d t h e r e c e n t  trend towards i n n e r c i t y relate  have a r i s e n o v e r t h e  revitalization.  Some o f t h e s e  t o economic and demographic f a c t o r s , whereas  relate to the increased attractiveness of inner c i t y 2.2.1  Economic and Demographic  others living.  Factors  Recent changes i n t h e demographic s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e n e w a l o f t h e i n n e r The: r e c e n t and  city.  t r e n d towards s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s , fewer c h i l d r e n ,  non-family  households i s very i  B e t w e e n 1971 a n d 1 9 7 6 ,  important  i n this: regard.  t h e number o f two p e r s o n f a m i l i e s  i n C a n a d a i n c r e a s e d b y 26 p e r c e n t  whereas t h e t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d b y o n l y 13 p e r c e n t .  Similarly,  t h e number o f f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s i n c r e a s e d b y o n l y the: number o f n o n - f a m i l y  14  family whereas percent  h o u s e h o l d s i n c r e a s e d b y 28 p e r c e n t .  These changes have l e d t o a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of l a r g e suburban houses which tend and  t o h a v e more b e d r o o m s  o u t s i d e p l a y space f o r c h i l d r e n .  s u i t a b l e f o r non-family  Moreover,  households and unattached  i s more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y urban l o c a t i o n s . s i n g l e and m a r r i e d  housing  Likewise,  than i n sub-  the i n c r e a s i n g entry of both  women i n t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a n d t h e r i s i n g  numbers o f d u e l w a g e - e a r n e r f a m i l i e s h a s somewhat the c h o i c e s  individuals  i n residential  restricted  l o c a t i o n open t o many h o u s e h o l d s  because o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o i n t  commuting.  . . .13 The  central city,  w i t h a greater d i v e r s i t y of jobs  v a r i a b l e modes o f t r a n s p o r t , t h u s h a s (Bourne,  and  become more  attractive  1978). The  shifting  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the l a b o u r f o r c e i s  a s e c o n d f a c t o r w h i c h h a s had o f the c i t y .  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  m a j o r i t y of the  engaged i n p r i m a r y  or secondary  l a b o u r f o r c e i s no  has  accounted  f o r over  percent  o f t h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r f o r c e s i n c e 1961.  roughly  58 p e r c e n t  service  occupations.  o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e was p  expansion  In  white  collar  of white  government  c o l l a r occupations.  has  g r o w t h o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and  1951  and  1971,  c r e a s e d by be and  180  p r o f e s s i o n a l and percent.  63 p e r c e n t  t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  groups because of the convenience centre.  to  technical,  c l a s s than other  associated with  -  location  I n a d d i t i o n t o work o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  a g r e a t amount o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y concentrated  between  residences tend  managereal s u b - c l a s s e s of the middle  near the c i t y  I n Canada,  technical occupations i n -  Central city  r e l a t i v e l y more a t t r a c t i v e  this  been i n the  t e c h n i c a l employment.  i n c r e a s e d by  size  Within  s e c t o r , t h e most r a p i d c h a n g e h a s  whereas a l l o c c u p a t i o n s  1971,  employed i n  b r o u g h t about a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the r e l a t i v e importance  50  o f t h e s e r v i c e economy w i t h i t s  e m p h a s i s on o f f i c e w o r k , e d u c a t i o n , and  and  longer  a c t i v i t i e s but i n s e r v i c e s .  Employment i n s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s  The  geography  and  entertainment  i s also  i n the c i t y c e n t r e , p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r advantages  t o an i n n e r c i t y  location.  ... 14 Related recent  to this s h i f t  i n employment h a s b e e n t h e  g r o w t h i n o f f i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n downtown a r e a s .  c o n s t r u c t i o n has f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d inner c i t y  among an i n c r e a s i n g number o f p e o p l e  Levy and C y b r i w s k y , 1980). covery of r e s i d e n t i a l not  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  As C l a y  opportunities  This  of the  (Black,  1975;  p o i n t s o u t , "The r e d i s i n the c e n t r a l c i t y i s  an i s o l a t e d phenomenon b u t p a r t o f t h e more  significant  t r e n d i n w h i c h t h e p r e e m i n e n c e o f t h e downtown i s b e i n g reestablished, p r i n c i p a l l y with  offices,  activities  opportunities"  and s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l  s e r v i c e .sector ( C l a y , 1979,  13) . The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f a downtown o f f i c e stems p r i m a r i l y from t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y contacts This and  and h i g h  density  of  face-to-face  i n t e r a c t i o n (Gottman,  i s e s p e c i a l l y important f o r corporate head  location  1966).  headquarters  offices.  ...As a b r o a d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , v e r y l a r g e a n d small f i r m s , e s p e c i a l l y those p l a y i n g the r o l e of head o f f i c e , continue t o p r e f e r the c e n t r a l c i t y , where t h e y c a n t a k e advantage o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a l a b o u r f o r c e a n d CBD's e x t e r n a l economies... s i n c e they r e q u i r e i n p u t s o f a d v i c e , d a t a and e x p e r t i s e from a v a r i e t y o f p r o f e s s i o n s and o t h e r s e r v i c e s that are r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t to obtain i n a s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n ( M a n n e r s , 1974, 1 0 0 ) . In addition to providing  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  new o f f i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n h a s s t i m u l a t e d  many p o s i t i v e m u l t i p l i e r  e f f e c t s , p e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t b e i n g retail  the expansion of  a n d s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s t o s e r v e t h e new o f f i c e s a n d  employees.  This  infusion of a c t i v i t y  i n t h e downtown h a s  helped and  to reverse  the f i s c a l  crisis  of the c i t y  (Alcaly  Merrnelstein, 1977). The  rising  often described  demand f o r an i n n e r c i t y  a s a r e s u l t o f a d j u s t m e n t s a n d accommoda-  t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f r e v i t a l i z e r s housing  and energy c o s t s .  housing  c o n s t r u c t i o n coupled  Falling  (Zeitz,  1979).  r a t e s o f new  suburban  i fnot r i s i n g  i n t h e p r i c e o f new  A s a r e s u l t , p e o p l e h a v e become  more aware o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l  o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the inner  c i t y where t h e p r i c e o f h o u s i n g of housing  to sharply escalating  with a steady,  demand h a v e l e d t o s h a r p i n c r e a s e s housing  residence i s  i n the suburbs.  has been l e s s than t h e c o s t  A c c e l e r a t e d by t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  c h e a p e r l a n d a t t h e f r i n g e (made a c c e s s i b l e b y t h e e x t e n s i v e network o f American freeways), between b l a c k s and w h i t e s , well-to-do the p r o c e s s city  t o take  the uneasy r e l a t i o n s h i p s  a n d t h e d e s i r e among t h e r e l a t i v e l y  a d v a n t a g e o f new u r b a n o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  of suburbanization  l a n d and h o u s i n g  h a s weakened t h e c e n t r a l  markets i n the United  States.-  In  c o n t r a s t , C a n a d i a n c e n t r a l c i t y markets have n o t been w e a k e n e d b y p e r i p h e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h e same d e g r e e a s t h e i r American counterparts.  They t y p i c a l l y h a v e h a d v e r y  low v a c a n c y r a t e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s  because o f a h i g h  o f demand a n d a l a g g i n g n e t i n c r e a s e i n s u p p l y 1979;  G o l d b e r g and M e r c e r , 1980).  c i t y m a r k e t s i s r e f l e c t e d by v e r y  level  (Mercer,  T h i s demand f o r c e n t r a l buoyant house p r i c e s i n  many C a n a d i a n c i t i e s .  Over t h e l a s t  decade h o u s i n g  prices  have r i s e n a t d r a m a t i c  r a t e s and e q u i v a l e n t p r o p e r t i e s i n  ... 16 A m e r i c a n c i t i e s a r e now Moreover,  "much o f t h i s i n c r e a s e i s n o t a t t r i b u t a b l e  i n c r e a s e d p r i c e s f o r new the  resale price of  central city" market of  l e s s r a t h e r t h a n more e x p e n s i v e . to  housing but to marked-increases i n  'used h o u s i n g ' , much o f i t i n t h e  ( M e r c e r , 1979,  128).  Although private-  h o u s i n g r e n o v a t i o n has o c c u r r e d i n the i n n e r  Canadian urban a r e a s , the e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t  cities the  h i g h c o s t o f h o u s i n g h a s l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n where r e n e w a l has t a k e n the form o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t , rise  i n the form o f h i g h  r e n t a l a p a r t m e n t s i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s and more r e c e n t l y  c o n d o m i n i u m s and t o w n h o u s e s , urban  as compared t o r e n o v a t i o n i n  Canada. A l t h o u g h the q u a l i t y . o f the i n n e r c i t y  s t o c k i s o f t e n not as comparable  i n quality,  the  housing prices  h a v e b e e n so l o w ( a t l e a s t i n t h e A m e r i c a n c o n t e x t ) t h a t w i t h some r e n o v a t i o n and "sweat  e q u i t y " , a home o f g o o d  q u a l i t y has been p o s s i b l e a t l e s s c o s t P o l i c y P l a n n i n g , 1979). are  usually short lived.  (Seattle Office  These c o s t a d v a n t a g e s ,  advantages  climbs rapidly. rising toric  typical  changes,  d e c l i n e and t h e c o s t o f a l l u n i t s  F o r d (1979), f o r example,  h o u s i n g c o s t s i n German V i l l a g e , district  however,  Once t h e r e n e w a l p r o c e s s g a i n s  momentum and t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d economic  of  i n Columbus, O h i o .  r e s t o r a b l e h o u s e was  about  documents the  a designated h i s -  I n 1963,  the c o s t of a  $5,000.  By 1970  the  c o s t f o r an a v e r a g e u n r e n o v a t e d h o u s e had r i s e n t o $19,000 and by 1977  i t was  n o t uncommon f o r u n r e n o v a t e d h o u s e s  to  . . .17 sell  f o r $40,000 w i t h  $100,000.  S i m i l a r l y , i n Society  bourhood i n the  The  high  Hill,  t o $87,000 i n 1975  uncertain  (Ley,  l e d to a s i t u a t i o n of r a p i d l y r i s i n g costs  associated  with  the  t i m e and  in their lives. a t t r a c t i v e as 2.2.2.  As  such, the  a place  to  costs.  Given  distance  r o l e of c i t y has  supplies  of  and  commuting,  transportation become i n c r e a s i n g l y  the A t t r a c t i o n of  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the  inner c i t y  r e s u l t of s t r u c t u r a l changes i n s o c i e t y .  Inner  i s not  many p e o p l e , as  recent  simply  Although  s i n g l e f a m i l y home i n a s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n i s s t i l l v a l u e d by  with  suburbia  there and  has  intra-metropolitan  migra-  i t s r e l a t e d images c o u p l e d w i t h has  many l o n g  o f h o u s i n g , the  b e e n e x p r e s s e d by  class individuals. between the hoods.  increasing  greatly stimulated  time r e s i d e n t s  of the  because o f economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s , are  choice has  This  an  the  movement.  Unlike who,  of  been a growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  i n t e r e s t i n urban l i v i n g . revitalization  a  highly  t i o n s t a t i s t i c s w o u l d s u g g e s t , among a s e l e c t segment the p o p u l a t i o n  the  live.  Young P r o f e s s i o n a l s City Living The  inner  rose  1979).  nature of f u t u r e . energy  p e o p l e h a v e become more aware o f t h e  the  a g e n t r i f i e d neigh-  h e a r t o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , house p r i c e s  f r o m $13,000 i n 1963  has  n i c e l y renovated houses exceeding  recent a fairly  and  34  city,  limited in their  interest i n inner c i t y a f f l u e n t group o f  P r o f e s s i o n a l and  a g e s o f 25  inner  white c o l l a r  living  middle workers  dominate g e n t r i f i e d neighbour-  I n d i v i d u a l s e m p l o y e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and  white  collar  ... 18 o c c u p a t i o n s account f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n 74 p e r c e n t o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s  s u r v e y e d by C l a y ( 1 9 7 9 ) .  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s a r e r e p o r t e d by G a l e of inner c i t y  renewal.  (1979)  i n h i s study  Not o n l y a r e many o f t h e  of renewal neighbourhoods  residents  employed i n h i g h s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s ,  t h e m a j o r i t y o f them p o s s e s s u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e s and make i n e x c e s s o f $20,000 p e r y e a r . many o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s .  D u a l wage e a r n e r s c h a r a c t e r i z e  Yet another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n households  i s t h e i r small household  of size.  The most t y p i c a l h o u s e h o l d i s composed o f s i n g l e s o r  child-  less couples. One  o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  findings with respect  to r e s e t t l e r s are t h e i r geographic o r i g i n s . p o p u l a r wisdom, i n n e r c i t y equated w i t h  "back  revitalization  to the c i t y "  because  Contrary to  should not  t h i s phrase  implies  t h a t w h i t e s are r e t u r n i n g from the suburbs i n l a r g e Both Nelson  (1978)  and Goodman (1978)  be  numbers.  have documented a  c o n t i n u e d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the white p o p u l a t i o n from central cities  t o s u b u r b s and n o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s  r a t e s o f s u b u r b a n - t o - c i t y movement no g r e a t e r i n t h e 1970's t h a n t h e y were f o r 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 7 0 . that a r e l a t i v e l y  evidence  mid-  suggests  s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f h o u s e h o l d s h a v e moved  i n t o g e n t r i f i e d neighbourhoods D a t a p r e s e n t e d by G a l e Boston, Cambridge,  The  and  (1979)  from suburban  locations.  f o r the c i t i e s o f A t l a n t a ,  and W a s h i n g t o n  i n d i c a t e t h a t the  o f r e s e t t l e r s a l r e a d y were s e a s o n e d  majority  u r b a n i t e s , h a v i n g moved  f r o m somewhere w i t h i n t h e c i t i e s m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s .  ...19 S i m i l a r p a t t e r n s have been f o u n d by L a s k a and S p a i n  (1980)  for  New O r l e a n s .  The o n l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e i s from-  St.  L o u i s where a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f a l l r e n o v a t o r s  were f r o m t h e s u b u r b s (Hu, 1 9 7 8 ) . N o t o n l y do f e w r e s e t t l e r s a p p e a r t o be e x s u b urbanites,  i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e y have c o n s c i o u s l y  inner c i t y  living  and r e j e c t e d  a place to l i v e .  embraced  s u b u r b i a when s e a r c h i n g f o r  The r e j e c t i o n o f s u b u r b i a i s c i t e d b y a  number o f w r i t e r s a s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r w h i c h h a s h e l p e d t o encourage example  the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the inner c i t y  Fichter,  1977 a n d Z e i t z ,  Changing a t i o n b o r n between  (see f o r  1979).  s o c i a l v a l u e s among t h e b a b y boom g e n e r 1940 a n d 1960 h a v e made  home-centredness,  child-rearing,  and l o c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s ,  the f o c a l p o i n t s of  suburban l i f e ,  l e s s a p p e a l i n g t o a g r o w i n g number o f p e o p l e .  Many o f t h e o r i g i n a l m o t i v a t i o n s f o r m o v i n g a h e a l t h y e n v i r o n m e n t f o r one's  to the suburbs -  c h i l d r e n , more  friendly  neighbours, people o f s i m i l a r socio-economic background are  no l o n g e r a p p l i c a b l e  (Bell,  1958). . Furthermore, the  e n n u i , o r p e r c e i v e d e n n u i o f s u b u r b i a due t o i t s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l h o m o g e n i e t y a mounting  i s another f a c t o r which has l e d t o  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h suburban l i f e ,  among y o u n g  especially  people.  Complementing magnetic p u l l  of city  the push o f the suburbs i s the  living.  The c i t y  i n t e r e s t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g l i v i n g degree o f c o n v e n i e n c e , c u l t u r a l  i s v i e w e d a s an  environment w i t h a h i g h  activity,  and s o c i a l  . . .20 interaction.  Being  a f a i r l y well-educated  g r o u p , r e s e t t l e r s h a v e more t i m e interests  and improving  i s much more s u i t a b l e  activities,  their properties.  than  affluent  a n d money t o d e v o t e t o  such as t h e i r c a r e e r s , v o l u n t e e r  entertainment, city  and  The  central  the suburbs f o r the p u r s u i t  of a d u l t - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s  such as t h e a t r e s and r e s t a u r -  ants that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  o f a l i f e s t y l e o f "urban  sophistication"  and c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m  view of the c i t y  (Hamnett, 1973).  The  a s an e x c i t i n g p l a c e i s i n m a r k e d c o n t r a s t  t o t h a t o f d e t a c h m e n t a n d a l o o f n e s s h e l d by many s u b u r b anites  (Fava, The  1975). interest  the economic, s o c i a l , city.  i n urban l i v i n g  stems i n p a r t  and c u l t u r a l h e t e r o g e n i e t y  S u c h d i v e r s i t y i s much more a p p e a l i n g  sterility  o f the suburbs f o r those  the i n n e r c i t y . captured  choosing  from  o f the  than the to l i v e i n  The v a l u e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i v e r s i t y i s  i n the f o l l o w i n g  quote:  'Why d i d n ' t I move t o t h e s u b u r b s ' . . . ' I d o n ' t know. F o r me, t h e r e i s more f r e e d o m i n t h e v a r i e t y of the c i t y . I want a r a c i a l l y and s o c i a l l y mixed neighbourhood. I t ' s t h e way I t h i n k t h i s c o u n t r y h a s t o g o . To p u t i t a n o t h e r way, I d o n ' t want t o l i v e w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n o f p e o p l e who a r e j u s t l i k e I am p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y . . . ' ( F i c h t e r , 1977, 2) T h i s renewed i n t e r e s t  i n the c i t y  and a s s o c i a t e d  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u b u r b a n l i v i n g may be a n a l y z e d d e c l i n e i n " f a m i l i s m " and i t s r e l a t e d and  norms o f c o n s u m p t i o n  an i n c r e a s e d e m p h a s i s on " c a r e e r i s m "  preference  p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an  as a  and " c o n s u m e r s h i p " , urban-oriented..  lifestyle  (Bell,  1958).  By c a r e e r i s m i s meant t h e s p e n d i n g  o f t i m e , money, a n d e n e r g y on o n e ' s c a r e e r .  Those p e r s o n s  who r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n s u m e r s h i p c h o i c e p a t t e r n e x p e n d efforts, it  t i m e , a n d money on " h a v i n g a good  up", o r " e n j o y i n g l i f e  time",  a s much a s p o s s i b l e " .  and c o n s u m e r s h i p a r e p u r s u e d a t t h e e x p e n s e  ages, c h i l d - c e n t r e d n e s s ,  those a c t i v i t i e s The y o u n g  a n d most  "living  Careerism  of familisrn.  There i s n o t a h i g h v a l u a t i o n on f a m i l y l i v i n g , a t young  their  marriage  significantly,  and p o s s e s s i o n s s y m b o l i c o f f a m i l i s r n .  p r o f e s s i o n a l s who h a v e moved i n t o i n n e r  city  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s may be t h o u g h t o f a s p u r s u i n g c a r e e r i s m and c o n s u m e r s h i p p a t t e r n s . where t h e a c t i o n The  To t h i s g r o u p , " t h e c i t y i s  is".  growing s o c i e t a l c o n c e r n f o r a e s t h e t i c s and  a wariness towards massive redevelopment i s another v a l u e r e l a t e d f a c t o r which has s t i m u l a t e d i n n e r c i t y  renewal  ( F o r d , 1979; F o r d a n d F u s c h , 1976; O ' l o u g h l i n a n d M u n s k i , 1979).  I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been a g r o w i n g  against p l a s t i c , an i n c r e a s i n g  modern, s t e r i l e  reaction  environments coupled w i t h  i n t e r e s t i n t h e "sense o f h i s t o r y " .  Buildings  and n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h were n o t l o n g ago c o n s i d e r e d o b s o l e t e a n d v a l u e l e s s have b e e n " r e d i s c o v e r e d " f o r t h e i r architectural  and/or h i s t o r i c a l  significance.  Various  i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s h a v e b e e n t h e o b j e c t o f much o f this discovery.  I n many c a s e s , c e n t r a l c i t y a r e a s were  m i d d l e - o r u p p e r - m i d d l e income built.  Because  of this,  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s when  and because  o f the general  first period  i n w h i c h t h e y were c o n s t r u c t e d , many o f t h e s e h o u s e s h a v e f e a t u r e s w h i c h c a n n o t be f o u n d i n more r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d housing. surveyed  F o r e x a m p l e 79 p e r c e n t by C l a y  (1979) have d i s t i n c t i v e e i g h t e e n t h o r  nineteenth century and  o f the neighbourhoods  architecture.  I n many i n s t a n c e s ,  p r e s e r v a t i o n have been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  d e s i g n a t i o n o f neighbourhoods as h i s t o r i c  through the  districts  d e s i g n a t i o n o f houses as h e r i t a g e s t r u c t u r e s ( Z e i t z , This o l d e r housing  history  or the 1979).  stock has o f f e r e d people the  challenge of transforming a deteriorated dwelling into a p r e s t i g i o u s house. Rebizant and  (1974),  creativity  c i t y home.  Referred  t o a s a " f r o n t i e r e t h i c " by  many r e s i d e n t s e n j o y  t h e sense o f adventure  i n v o l v e d i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g an o l d e r ,  The g e n e r a l a i r o f r e b i r t h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t u r n a t t r a c t s more p e o p l e bourhood.  central  to a neigh-  .23 2.3  The G e o g r a p h y The  is  of R e v i t a l i z a t i o n  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of inner c i t y  o c c u r r i n g i n a v e r y s e l e c t i v e manner.  neighbourhoods The m i d d l e  class  have b e e n a t t r a c t e d t o c e n t r a l c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t h a t a r e , in  some r e s p e c t s , u n u s u a l o r s p e c i a l .  notes,  "The  As C l a y  (1979,  15)  commitment t o c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s by t h e m i d d l e  c l a s s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a commitment t o t h e whole c i t y but r a t h e r t o s e l e c t e d p a r t s o f i t . " has r e n e w a l a c t i v i t y it  occurred i n p a r t i c u l a r  has o c c u r r e d i n p a r t i c u l a r c i t i e s .  a geography city  Not  only  neighbourhoods,  In effect,  there i s  o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n a t b o t h t h e i n t e r - and  intra-  scales. 4 Administrative central business d i s t r i c t s  heavy the  industry,  without  and w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t c o m m u t i n g d i s t a n c e t o  suburbs from the core are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  traits  of  cities  which are l i k e l y  to contain g e n t r i f i e d  (Lipton,  That renewal i s r e l a t e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  1977).  neighbourhoods  CBD s i s not s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n the prominence 1  downtown o f f i c e  s p a c e c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e m i x o f h i g h  status, white c o l l a r the  j o b s as f a c t o r s w h i c h have  stimulated  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movement. To some w r i t e r s ,  the f o r t u n e s o f the i n n e r  i n d e e d , t h e c e n t r a l c i t y as a w h o l e to  attached to  are i n t r i c a l l y  city,  linked  w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s and t h e h e a l t h o f t h e downtown  core.  A s one c o m m e n t a t o r n o t e s : The g r i m i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s o f y e s t e r y e a r , w h i c h h a v e l i t t l e i n t h e way o f downtown a c t i v i t i e s , l i t t l e i n t h e way o f l e i s u r e t i m e i n v e s t m e n t  .24 h a v e n o t g o t much t o o f f e r t h i s g r o u p . The future o f these c i t i e s i n our p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l society i s very In the United  States,  of the north-east rich  doubtful  ( S t e r n l i e b & Ford,  and the growth e x p e r i e n c e d  ( S t e r n l i e b and Hughes,  cities  by t h e a m e n i t y -  provides  good  evidence  1975).  Loca-t-ional f e a t u r e s a r e p r o b a b l y ant  102).  the decline of the o l d i n d u s t r i a l  l o c a t i o n s o f t h e west and south  of t h i s  1979,  t h e most  import-  set of physical characteristics associated with  gentri-  f i e d neighbourhoods. district  Proximity  to the c e n t r a l  business  i s a common f e a t u r e o f s u c h n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  Given  t h e p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e emergence o f j o b s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d u l t r e c r e a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n , i t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s o many o f t h e r e v i t a l i z e d  are  i n the c i t y ' s core.  G e n t r i f i e d neighbourhoods a l s o  command some o f t h e c i t y ' s most a t t r a c t i v e features.  neighbourhoods  High e l e v a t i o n , proximity  topographic  t o water, and s c e n i c  v i e w s a r e some o f t h e s t a t u s f e a t u r e s o f t o p o g r a p h y by n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h h a v e u n d e r g o n e  revitalization.  Renewal n e i g h b o u r h o o d s o f t e n p o s s e s s  architecturally  d i s t i n c t i v e housing and/or h i s t o r i c a l  significance.  sense o f h i s t o r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t t r a c t i o n i n i t s own  shared  The  t h e s e f e a t u r e s i s an  right.  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  f e a t u r e i s t h e sense o f  momentum a n d c h a n g e g e n e r a t e d b y t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f a g r o u p o f homeowners a n d d e v e l o p e r s an a r e a .  dedicated  t o t h e improvement o f  This usually also includes the b e l i e f that  middle c l a s s households w i l l  move i n t o t h e a r e a .  other  ... 25 These changes  advantages of l o c a t i o n ,  i n the s o c i a l ,  demographic,  together with  and e c o n o m i c  fabric  s o c i e t y h a v e h e l p e d t o c h a n g e t h e n e g a t i v e image o f inner c i t y neighbourhoods. a r e now  of  select  Once f o r m e r l y run-down a r e a s  v i e w e d as h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s t o l i v e .  many i n s t a n c e s ,  the  In  t h e f i r s t newcomers t o a f o r m e r l y r u n -  down n e i g h b o u r h o o d h a v e c o n s c i o u s l y a i m e d t o c r e a t e p o s i t i v e n e i g h b o u r h o o d image.  The  a  adoption of a neighbour-  hood name a n d a c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t by r e s i d e n t s t o l i v e t o t h e name p r o v i d e s an example i s n o t e d by A n d e r s o n  of image-creation.  ( 1 9 7 7 , 85) i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n  r e n e w a l i n s e v e r a l New  York C i t y  up  This of  neighbourhoods.  ...What c o n f e r r e d p r e s t i g e u p o n t h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s was n o t j u s t t h e s t a t e l y brownstones t h a t l i n e d the s t r e e t s or the p r o s p e r o u s c l a s s t o w h i c h most o f t h e r e s i d e n t s belonged but a l s o the f a s h i o n a b l e names t h a t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s b o r e . Who w o u l d n ' t h a v e w a n t e d t o l i v e i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d w i t h a name l i k e B r o o k l y n Heights or C l i n t o n H i l l or Park Slope. During the e a r l y stages o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , positive  images  c o n f e r r e d u p o n an a r e a by t h e  and l a t e r t h e m e d i a , may images, however,  n o t be t o t a l l y  h a v e a way  p r o p h e c i e s i n many i n s t a n c e s .  Brophy,  Positive  talk helps  i s becoming is.  and i n v e s t m e n t e n v i r o n m e n t  1975). may  What r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e be more s i g n i f i c a n t  These  self-fulfilling  a p o s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n which i n turn creates a psychological  "pioneers",  accurate.  o f becoming  the  favourable  (Ahlbrandt  their  instill  and  neighbourhood  t h a n what i t a c t u a l l y  More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e s e b e l i e f s a f f e c t t h e i m a g e s  of  . . .26 n e i g h b o u r h o o d i d e n t i t i e s h e l d by o t h e r r e s i d e n t s o f t h e and by p e o p l e t h i n k i n g a b o u t m o v i n g  i n t o the neighbourhood.  I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , where s e v e r a l  neighbourhoods  are b e i n g r e j u v e n a t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y , a different filling  reputation.  These  e a c h may  reputations are  t o be most c o n g e n i a l t o t h e i r  acquire  self-ful-  b e c a u s e newcomers move i n t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d s  appear l i k e l y  city  that  lifestyle.  As W i n t e r s (1979) p e r c e p t i v e l y n o t e s : ...The d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n a r e j u v e n a t i n g a r e a i s r a r e l y b a s e d on e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a l o n e . Most s o c i a l l y d i s t i n c t neighbourhoods r e s u l t f r o m p e o p l e ' s n e e d t o i d e n t i f y and e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s by t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l c h o i c e , and d u r i n g t h e 1970*s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s e l f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n h a v e grown l u x u r i o u s l y . He  i n turn i d e n t i f i e s  several distinctive  neighbourhood  t y p e s w h i c h h a v e emerged d u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y h e t e r o g e n e o u s , c h i c , gay, family, black r e v i t a l i z e d ,  including  artists',  and w o r k i n g c l a s s  revitalized  neighbourhoods. The t h e most p a r t ,  literature  on i n n e r c i t y  revitalization, for  d e a l s w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y and  d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n of the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y  ethnically  heterogeneous  n e i g h b o u r h o o d and t h e f a s h i o n a b l e , c h i c n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h e new  "urban e l i t e "  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n may  (Fleetwood, 1979).  of  In both cases,  r e s u l t i n a l o w e r income  g r o u p and i t s  a s s o c i a t e d t a s t e s and v a l u e s b e i n g s u p p l a n t e d by t h o s e o f a middle c l a s s group. c o n f l i c t s between  T h i s sequence  o f e v e n t s may  t h e newcomers and n e i g h b o u r h o o d  lead to incumbents.  C y b r i w s k y (1978) i n h i s p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s t u d y o f  the Fairmount  area of inner c i t y P h i l a d e l p h i a ,  f o r example,  n o t e s t h e t e n s i o n s b e t w e e n t h e y o u n g p r o f e s s i o n a l newcomers and  long time  residents.  Ironically,  t h e v e r y d i v e r s i t y and  cultural  h e t e r o g e n e i t y w h i c h h a s a t t r a c t e d many m i d d l e s e t t l e r s may  be  l o s t as more and more m i d d l e  uals discover inner city becomes t o o e x p e n s i v e  living.  Inner c i t y  f o r most p e o p l e .  ing a housing bargain decreases  The  class reclass  individ-  living  simply  chance o f  r a p i d l y as t h e p r o c e s s  r e j u v e n a t i o n g a i n s momentum and n e i g h b o u r h o o d change.  t h e p r i c e o f h o u s i n g h a s gone f r o m  v e r y o f t e n , above, t h e a v e r a g e  occurred,  e x t r e m e l y low  of inner c i t y  of  reputations  I n e v e r y i n s t a n c e where r e n o v a t i o n h a s  to p r i c e s above the average  find-  levels  d w e l l i n g s , and  c o s t o f suburban  ( S e a t t l e O f f i c e o f P o l i c y P l a n n i n g , 1979).  housing  This  has  r e s u l t e d i n c o n f l i c t s not o n l y between l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t s and newcomers, b u t a l s o b e t w e e n " p i o n e e r " newcomers " l a t e r " newcomers.  Whereas t h e p i o n e e r s may  enjoy  s o c i a l .and e c o n o m i c d i v e r s i t y o f t h e a r e a , l a t e r a r e more c o n c e r n e d  about t h e i r investment  a respectable middle c e n t s u r v e y o f two Gale  c l a s s neighbourhood.  neighbourhoods  and  choosing to l i v e  was  the  newcomers  in establishi  Indeed,  i n inner city  i n a re-  Washington,  (1980) found t h a t the i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f  house p u r c h a s e d  and  the  t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n among r e s e t t l e r s i n  i n .the i n n e r c i t y .  .28 2.4  The P o l i t i c a l - E c o n o m i c The  discovery  desirable l i v i n g  Sector  and R e v i t a l i z a t i o n  o f t h e i n n e r c i t y as a h i g h l y  e n v i r o n m e n t by a r e l a t i v e l y  affluent  group o f young, m i d d l e c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s has i n t u r n altered  the perception  involved i n the supply longer  o f the i n n e r c i t y by those of housing.  automatically perceived  actors  The i n n e r c i t y  t o be a h i g h  risk  i s no environ-  ment by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y a n d t h e f i n a n c i a l  community.  R a t h e r , i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e l e c t i v e sense o f optimism and  confidence.  These c h a n g e s h a v e h a d i m p o r t a n t  quences f o r t h e pace and d i r e c t i o n o f r e n o v a t i o n  conseand  redevelopment i n s e l e c t inner c i t y neighbourhoods. a d d i t i o n t o changes i n s o c i a l  In  a t t i t u d e s and consumer  demand, t h e p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e decisions of the private sector.  These i n t u r n have had  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l inner 2.4.1  renewal o f the  city. The D e v e l o p m e n t  Industry  D e v e l o p e r s s e r v e as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s production. subject  i n housing  They r e s p o n d t o t h e demands o f t h e m a r k e t p l a c e  t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s i m p o s e d on t h e i r  a c t i v i t i e s by government and by t h e r e s p o n s e s o f c i t i z e n s t o proposed p r o j e c t s the b a s i c  ( G o l d b e r g and U l l i n d e r , 1975).  entrepreneurial  One o f  s t r a t e g i e s o f the development  i n d u s t r y i s t o c l e a r l y a s c e r t a i n and reduce t h e r i s k s associated  with  investment.  Although the weighing o f costs  i s an is  important factor,  l a r g e l y b a s e d on  a developer's p e r c e p t i o n of  h i s estimates of m a r k e t a b i l i t y  consumer p r e f e r e n c e s .  Developers w i l l  market i f they b e l i e v e  that a p a r t i c u l a r  ment w i l l  be  successful.  affecting  marketability,  characteristics Locational location  are  Of  the  of a s i t e .  the  values.  locational  characteristic  tional characteristics applied the  I m p o s e d by  s u c h t h i n g s as  l a n d use  By  advising  change, t h e r e are e r a t e i f not ally,  most i m p o r t a n t  a l , 1966).  that i t s analysis  out  c l i e n t s of  Institu-  that  investment w i l l  are  not"inherent  W e i s s and  the  in  include  themselves are  various  developers  Kaiser,  1970).  impending  and sites.  neighbourhood  i n which r e a l t o r s  can  accelOccasion-  speculators, hoping that  y i e l d substantial  is For  r e a l estate agents  s e a r c h p r o c e s s f o r new  t r e n d s and  situations  by  i n i t i a t e market t r e n d s (Palm, 1976).  realtors  on  community a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t are  d e v e l o p e r s r e l y on  s p e c u l a t o r s to c a r r y  depend  zoning.  ( B o u r n e , 1976;  most p a r t ,  in  importance of m a r k e t a b i l i t y ,  case s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e  the  but  relative  s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , these  D e s p i t e the  unsystematic  1966).  is fixed  represent attributes  d i r e c t l y to a s i t e ,  site.  (Weiss,  l e v e l i s the  (Weiss et  develop-  institutional  characteristics  prestige  the  characteristics  d e r i v e d from the  surrounding c o n t e x t of Social  type of  Since a s i t e i t s e l f  space, changes i n l o c a t i o n a l  and  and  most i m p o r t a n t are  and  respond to  property  locational  characteristics  s h i f t s i n the  risk  their  returns for their r i s k s .  . . .30 Although t h e i r assessments  d e v e l o p e r s may a c t c o n s e r v a t i v e l y i n of risk,  m a r k e t a b i l i t y , and consumer  p r e f e r e n c e , they a r e quick t o take advantage o f s t r o n g m a r k e t demands.  The r o l e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  industry  i n t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n n e r c i t y p r o v i d e s a good example o f t h i s .  As t h e s o c i a l p r e s t i g e  i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods e f f o r t s o f renewal  has improved,  undertaken  level of select the i n i t i a l  by a group o f p i o n e e r s has  b e e n s p e e d e d up by t h e a c t i o n s o f d e v e l o p e r s .  Developers  p l a y e d a k e y r o l e a t an e a r l y p o i n t i n t h e renewal i n 42 p e r c e n t o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s  process  s u r v e y e d by C l a y  (1979).  I n a d d i t i o n t o s h a p i n g t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f renewal  a r e a s , t h e development  industry,  t h r o u g h a d v e r t i s i n g and m a r k e t i n g , has h e l p e d t o p u b l i c i z e the renewal  o f p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhoods  to the p u b l i c .  I n t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g s t r a t e g i e s d e v e l o p e r s and r e a l t o r s o f t e n make r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s t a t u s a n d p r e s t i g e of renewal  a r e a s a s w e l l a s more c o n v e n t i o n a l f e a t u r e s  such as a c c e s s i b i l i t y Rebizant  aspects  t o t h e downtown a n d  topography.  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , i n a study o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and change  i n T o r o n t o , n o t e s how t h e Don V a l e a r e a i s d e s c r i b e d i n some a d s a s " f a s h i o n a b l e " , " t h e i n - p l a c e t o l i v e " , l o c a t i o n a n d " a l o c a t i o n t h a t i s v e r y much s o u g h t As w e l l a s p r o m o t i n g i n d u s t r y has the p o t e n t i a l process.  a"fun" after".  renewal, the development  to exploit  The d e s i r e f o r q u i c k p r o f i t s  the reinvestment occassionally  r e s u l t s i n l e s s t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y care- t a k e n by d e v e l o p e r s  in their renovation instances,  and townhouse p r o j e c t s .  I n many-  t h e y have been c h a r g e d w i t h b e i n g i n s e n s i t i v e  to the adverse e f f e c t s o f t h e i r operations, e s p e c i a l l y the  e f f e c t s on f o r m e r t e n a n t s  for architectural detail 2.4.2  and t h e i r  i n renovation  lack of concern endeavours.  Financial Institutions A l t h o u g h n o t p l a y i n g as d i r e c t a r o l e as t h e  development i n d u s t r y , f i n a n c i a l been i m p o r t a n t The  i n s t i t u t i o n s have  i n shaping the fortunes  influence of financial  also  o f the inner  institutions i sprimarily felt  through the r e a l e s t a t e market as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r decisions.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  terms, p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t  Brophy,  part i n the a b i l i t y  of prospective  of property  (Ahlbrandt  1975).  Financial  i n s t i t u t i o n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  r e l u c t a n t t o extend c r e d i t t o those wishing  low e x p e c t a t i o n s  images and  associated with t h i s part o f the c i t y .  Numerous s t u d i e s h a v e c i t e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s p e o p l e i n acquiring financing during  revitalization Williams,  the i n i t i a l  ( A n d e r s o n , 1977; B l a c k ,  1976).  the e a r l y p i o n e e r s  stages  have of  1977; C l a y , 1 9 7 9 ;  This, to a large extent,  s i g n i f i c a n t use o f p r i v a t e c a p i t a l  hoods.  been  to purchase  i n n e r c i t y p r o p e r t i e s because o f t h e n e g a t i v e  had  lending  o f f i n a n c i n g , as w e l l as i t s  p u r c h a s e r s t o a f f o r d t o buy a p i e c e and  city.  explains the  and sweat e q u i t y  o f many p r e s e n t l y g e n t r i f i e d  among  neighbour-  W i t h t h e growing r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e i n n e r c i t y as  a p o s i t i v e i n v e s t m e n t e n v i r o n m e n t , m o r t g a g e money become much more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . case given  This  has  i s e s p e c i a l l y the  the middle c l a s s , p r o f e s s i o n a l background  those people wishing  to l i v e i n the  (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t the  end  of  inner c i t y .  of  Fleetwood  "redlining" policies  by  b a n k s i s p e r h a p s t h e most p o s i t i v e p r o o f o f  revitalization.  2.4.3  Government  R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and The  e r s and by  perception  financial  the R o l e of L o c a l of the  i n n e r c i t y h e l d by. d e v e l o p -  i n s t i t u t i o n s may  be  the p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government.  r e i n f o r c e d and  extended  I n d e e d , a number  w r i t e r s suggest that p u b l i c s e c t o r involvement i s a requisite  f o r the  s u c c e s s f u l r e n e w a l o f an  inner  of  pre-  city  neighbourhood. . . . I n o r d e r t o stem d e c l i n e , the p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e i n v e s t o r s (homeowners, l a n d l o r d s , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and o t h e r p r i v a t e s e c t o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) must be a l t e r e d . This necessitates the i n t e r v e n t i o n of the p u b l i c s e c t o r through h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n v e s t m e n t and i m p r o v e d service delivery... P u b l i c sector involvement i s a prerequ i s i t e because w i t h o u t i t , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r w i l l h a v e no v i s i b l e means t h r o u g h w h i c h t o r e v i s e i t s u n c e r t a i n t y about the n e i g h b o u r hood's f u t u r e . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the demand f o r h o u s i n g w i l l s u d d e n l y i n c r e a s e w i t h o u t some o u t s i d e s t i m u l u s . . . ( A h l b r a n d t and B r o p h y , 1975, 34) Of  the  local regulatory  government, z o n i n g Zoning provides  c o n t r o l s are  functions performed  p e r h a p s t h e most  important.  t h e most d i r e c t i n s t i t u t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m  w h i c h t h e use >of p r i v a t e l a n d i s r e g u l a t e d  (Babcock,  Among t h o s e a s p e c t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h a f f e c t e d by  by  zoning  are  the  l o c a t i o n , design,  by  1966).  are  construction,  • ••33 and u s e  of b u i l d i n g s ,  t h e h e i g h t and number o f  buildings,  and most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f l a n d u s e s may  be p e r m i t t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n  commercial,  recreational,  Historic  industrial,  district  (e.g.  and  so  which  residental,  on).  d e s i g n a t i o n i s perhaps  the  most a l l e n c o m p a s s i n g z o n i n g m e c h a n i s m t h r o u g h w h i c h g o v e r n m e n t may ization  i n f l u e n c e t h e p a c e and  (Zeitz,  1979).  The  d i r e c t i o n of  main f u n c t i o n o f  revital-  historic  d e s i g n a t i o n i s t o p r e s e r v e and m a i n t a i n t h e u n i q u e and  special  s t a t u s o f an a r e a t h r o u g h  restoration,  quality  the  protection,  and m a i n t e n a n c e o f an a r e a ' s  historical,  architectural,  and  cultural character.  Z o n i n g p r o v i d e s a q u a l i t a t i v e measure o f importance  the  developers a t t a c h to planning r e s t r i c t i o n s  w e l l a s an o v e r a l l subsequently  image o f u r b a n  respond  (Bourne,  s t r u c t u r e to which  1976).  t o shy away f r o m  expected  tunities  so on,  revenues,  especially  tend  interpretation  t h e a c q u i r i n g o f d e v e l o p m e n t and  p e r m i t s , and  they  l o c a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c h u n c e r t a i n t y .  p o t e n t i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  of by-laws,  as  Unclear zoning  i m p l i e s a h i g h d e g r e e o f r i s k and h e n c e , d e v e l o p e r s  The  local  the case  building  a f f e c t a developer's expected and  the r i s k o f investment.  costs,  This i s  i f there are b e t t e r investment  oppor-  elsewhere. Design c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s are o f t e n used  the p u b l i c  s e c t o r to supplement z o n i n g .  d e v e l o p e r s and  by  These t o o l s g i v e  o t h e r s g u i d e l i n e s as t o the d e s i r e d shape,  . . .34 size,  a n d e x t e r i o r a p p e a r a n c e o f b o t h r e n o v a t i o n s a n d new  developments i n neighbourhoods In addition decisions use  undergoing  t o shaping p r i v a t e  have been u s e d by t h e p u b l i c  sector  bourhood change and i n s t i l l i n g sector.  street lights, public  the p u b l i c  sector  activities  through  promoting 2.5  more c o n f i d e n c e among t h e  allocated  undergoing  by l o c a l  revitalization.  media campaigns and o r g a n i z e d  attempts  living.  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the inner c i t y and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f once  neighbourhoods.  marketin  of opportunities f o r  The P r o c e s s o f I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : I n t e r p l a y o f P r i v a t e and P u b l i c  the p h y s i c a l  Also,  s u c h means a s m u n i c i p a l s u p p o r t f o r  and i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c  The  govern-  has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n neighbourhood  fairs,  city  i n directing neigh-  s t r e e t improvements, and improvements t o  ments t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d s  house t o u r s ,  strategies  F u n d s f o r i t e m s s u c h a s new s i d e w a l k s ,  areas are frequently  to educate  development  t h r o u g h z o n i n g and o t h e r m e c h a n i s m s o f l a n d  a n d d e s i g n c o n t r o l , a number o f o t h e r  private  renewal.  The  i s more  than  deteriorated  I t i s the i n t e r p l a y between the changing  r e s i d e n t a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f a s e l e c t group o f i n d i v i d u a l s , the r e a c t i o n  o f d e v e l o p e r s and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o  these changing  p r e f e r e n c e s , and t h e p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l  g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h may e i t h e r r e i n f o r c e stabilize  i t , or reverse i t .  l e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g  and extend t h e p r o c e s s  T h i s i n t e r p l a y has i n t u r n  interest i n city  l i v i n g among a  . . .35 g r e a t e r number o f p e o p l e  which  i n t u r n has s t i m u l a t e d  more r e n o v a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . successful r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  I n many i n s t a n c e s , t h e  o f one i n n e r c i t y  neighbourhood  h a s h a d p o s i t i v e c o n t a g i o n e f f e c t s on o t h e r , n e a r b y bourhoods.  neigh-  T h e s e "new" a r e a s i n v a r i a b l y s h a r e many o f t h e  features of the " i n i t i a l "  one.  Having  witnessed the  s u c c e s s o f one a r e a , t h e p o t e n t i a l r i s k o f i n v e s t m e n t i s much l o w e r f o r p o t e n t i a l  i n v e s t o r s i n subsequent n e i g h -  bourhoods . The  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s a c t o r s  i n v o l v e d i n the renewal  p r o c e s s and the " s n o w - b a l l i n g "  n a t u r e o f t h e phenomenon i s b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d d e s c r i p t i v e model o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n 2.5.1  A Model o f G e n t r i f i c a t i o n  i fa simple  i s considered.  7  A s m a l l group o f r i s k - o b l i v i o u s people and  renovate  move i n  p r o p e r t i e s f o r t h e i r own u s e d u r i n g t h e  stages o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .  This f i r s t  initial  g r o u p o f newcomers  u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l s or  a r t i s t s who h a v e t h e s k i l l ,  take e x t e n s i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . noted as b e i n g  liberal  t i m e , and a b i l i t y These p e o p l e  in political  t o under-  are often  a t t i t u d e and h a v i n g  sense o f a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h i s t o r y : ...They became known a s b r o w n s t o n e r e n o v a t o r s . . . B u t s i n c e , a s e d u c a t e d p e o p l e , t h e y were t a k e n w i t h V i c t o r i a n ambience - c o n s c i o u s o f t h e r e s i d e n t a l t r a d i t i o n t h e y were a t t e m p t i n g t o r e s t o r e - t h e y much p r e f e r r e d t h e s t y l i s h term "brownstoners". I t i m p l i e d t h a t they were n o t j u s t r e p a i r i n g a n d l i v i n g i n b r o w n s t o n e s - i g n o r a n t , l i k e so many o r d i n a r y  a  t e n a n t s o f t h e c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l background of these o l d d w e l l i n g s - but t h a t t h e y were q u a l i f i e d by i m a g i n a t i o n and t a s t e t o a p p r e c i a t e what t h e y o n c e stood f o r . . . ( A n d e r s o n , 1977, 90-91) Moreover, t h i s young, l i b e r a l , willing  t o p u t up w i t h t h e more n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f  neighbourhood. dirty,  At t h i s  n o i s y and  p i o n e e r s may new  p r o f e s s i o n a l group i s  stage, neighbourhoods  often actually  dangerous.  the  are o f t e n In fact,  e v e n be a t t r a c t e d t o t h e " g a m i n e s s " o f  these their  environment. At t h i s e a r l y stage there i s l i t t l e  recognition or assistance. have a d i f f i c u l t financial  A l s o , t h e newcomers u s u a l l y  time i n a c q u i r i n g mortgage f u n d s ,  the  community b e i n g v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o i n v e s t i n  neighbourhoods and b a d  public  w h i c h h a v e b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  decline  i m a g e s f o r many y e a r s . In  the second  s t a g e o f r e n e w a l , a few more o f  t h e same t y p e o f p e o p l e move i n and t h e i r own  use.  They w i l l  than the i n i t i a l a r e b e g u n and  pioneers.  pay  f i x up h o u s e s f o r  a b i t more f o r t h e i r  Subtle promotional a c t i v i t i e s  a number o f s m a l l - s c a l e s p e c u l a t o r s  r e n o v a t e a few h o u s e s f o r r e s a l e o r r e n t a l . ment o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d  homes  i n c u m b e n t s may  may  Some d i s p l a c e -  o c c u r as  vacant  h o u s i n g becomes s c a r c e . Major media or o f f i c i a l a neighbourhood  i s directed  i n the t h i r d stage o f renewal.  t o p r i v a t e home o w n e r s , t h e r e a l policy  interest  In  addition  e s t a t e i n d u s t r y and  m a k e r s become i m p o r t a n t a g e n t s  i n shaping  to  the  civic  . . .37 r e v i t a l i z a t i o n process. a r e a and  loans  b u y e r s and  become r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o m i d d l e  i n v e s t o r s w i t h i n the  m e n t s become v e r y general  dominate i n the near  trend  redevelopment  the  Unlike  the  t h i s stage i n c l u d e  aware o f t h e  the  i s set  activity  continues neigh-  f i r s t g r o u p o f newcomers, t h e  arrivals  i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f p e o p l e who  i n v e s t m e n t as w e l l as a p l a c e  "conservative"  Prices  future.  displacement of former r e s i d e n t s  h o u s i n g as an  the  The  i n c r e a s i n g number o f newcomers move i n t o t h e  bourhood.  This  improve-  I t i s at t h i s stage that  k i n d o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  The  in  rapidly.  p o i n t of upgrading i s reached.  that w i l l  as an  Physical  class  i m p r o v e m e n t t h e y make t o t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  critical the  area.  the  v i s i b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r v o l u m e and  begin to r i s e very  for  Banks b e g i n to " g r e e n l i n e "  to  see  live.  y o u n g , p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p i s more  negative  features  of t h e i r surroundings  e f f e c t t h o s e s u r r o u n d i n g s may  h a v e on  future  and  resale  values. I n the  final  s t a g e o f r e n e w a l , a l a r g e r number o f  p r o p e r t i e s are  g e n t r i f i e d as m i d d l e c l a s s  in-migration  continues.  t h i s p r o c e s s p r o c e e d s , the  neighbourhood  may  As  become i n c r e a s i n g l y homogeneous, p e r h a p s a  ethnic point  grocery  store being  t o when e x t o l l i n g  the  the  one  diverse  relic  which  character  small residents of  their  neighbourhood. 2.6  Summary The  discovery  of urban l i v i n g  by  a growing  ... 38 number o f y o u n g , renewed  life  m i d d l e c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s has g i v e n  to formerly  Changing s o c i a l values trends  run-down i n n e r c i t y  coupled with  towards s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s ,  recent  a  neighbourhoods. demographic  f e w e r c h i l d r e n , and  non-  f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , h a v e made t h e i n n e r c i t y , w i t h i t s proximity  t o downtown employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  o f c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  and g e n e r a l  " e x c i t e m e n t " and " a c t i o n " , a much s o u g h t a f t e r , desirable residential  diversity a i r of  highly  environment.  Not a l l i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , however, undergone occurred  middle c l a s s resettlement. i n a very  characteristics significance,  s e l e c t i v e manner.  have  G e n t r i f i c a t i o n has Unusual or s p e c i a l  s u c h as l o c a t i o n n e a r t h e downtown,  d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e , or status  historical  features  o f t o p o g r a p h y a r e f e a t u r e s s h a r e d by r e v i t a l i z i n g  neigh-  bourhoods . The  changing r e p u t a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y  m i d d l e c l a s s h o u s e h o l d e r s h a s n o t gone u n n o t i c e d development  i n d u s t r y and f i n a n c i a l  s e c t o r i n v e s t m e n t and d e v e l o p m e n t  by  institutions. i n formerly  amongst the  Private  "redlined"  a r e a s h a s r e i n f o r c e d and e x t e n d e d t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s e l e c t inner c i t y neighbourhoods.  of  I n many i n s t a n c e s ,  p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t  the  have a l s o a f f e c t e d  t h e p a c e and d i r e c t i o n o f r e n e w a l . I n summary, r e v i t a l i z a t i o n transformation  i s not simply  the  o f a run-down n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n t o a f a s h i o n -  able middle c l a s s enclave.  I t i s the i n t e r p l a y between  the changing  r e s i d e n t i a l preferences of a select  individuals,  the responses  to these changing government.  of developers  p r e f e r e n c e s , and  and.  group  of  financiers  the p o l i c i e s of  local  Footnotes  These f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t changes i n t h e C a n a d i a n popu l a t i o n b e t w e e n 1971 a n d 1 9 7 6 . They a r e a d o p t e d f r o m S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, F a m i l i e s . C a t . 93714, 1 9 7 1 ; S t a t i s t i c s Canada* Census o f Canada, F a m i l i e s • Cat. 93-821, 1976; S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, H o u s e h o l d s . C a t . 93-703, 1971; and S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, D w e l l i n g s and H o u s e h o l d s . C a t . 93-806, 1976. o These f i g u r e s a r e a d a p t e d from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census of Canada, O c c u p a t i o n s , H i s t o r i c a l f o r Canada and P r o v i n c e s . C a t . 94-716, 1 9 7 1 . 3  I  b i  d.  4  The l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y was m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f s q u a r e f e e t o f o f f i c e s p a c e i n t h e CBD i n 1960 and 1 9 7 0 , t h e number o f w o r k e r s i n t h e CBD a s w e l l a s t h e number a n d p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r k f o r c e i n t h e c i t y a n d t h e SMSA t h a t w e r e e n g a g e d i n w h i t e - c o l l a r a n d e x e c u t i v e employment. E x e c u t i v e employment was d e f i n e d a s t h o s e i n c l u d e d i n the census category p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and k i n d r e d w o r k e r s a n d t h o s e c a t e g o r i z e d a s m a n a g e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k f o r c e i n c l u d e d those d e f i n e d as e x e c u t i v e p l u s s a l e s workers, c l e r i c a l , and k i n d r e d w o r k e r s . See'S. G r e g o r y L i p t o n . " E v i d e n c e of C e n t r a l C i t y R e v i v a l " , J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 43.2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 136-147.  5  MLS d a t a p r e s e n t e d b y G o l d b e r g ( 1 9 7 7 ) f o r V a n c o u v e r a n d S e a t t l e , f o r e x a m p l e , show t h a t V a n c o u v e r h o u s e p r i c e s r o s e b y 160 p e r c e n t s i n c e 1971 w h e r e a s t h e y i n c r e a s e d by o n l y 34 p e r c e n t i n S e a t t l e . F o r more d e t a i l s e e M i c h a e l A. G o l d b e r g . " H o u s i n g a n d L a n d P r i c e s i n C a n a d a and t h e U.S.", i n L a w r e n c e B. S m i t h a n d M i c h a e l W a l k e r ( e d s . ) , P u b l i c P r o p e r t y ? The H a b i t a t D e b a t e C o n t i n u e d ) The F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e : V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 7 7 .  6 On i n n e r c i t y r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n C a n a d a s e e f o r e x a m p l e L.S. B o u r n e , " M a r k e t L o c a t z o n a n d S i t e S e l e c t i o n I n A p a r t m e n t C o n s t r u c t i o n " , C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , 12, 4 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . 211-266; S.W. H a m i l t o n , C o n d o m i n i u m s : A Decade o f E x p e r i e n c e i n B.C., V a n c o u v e r : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e a l E s t a t e A s s o c i a t i o n , 1978; Ann McAfee, " E v o l v i n g I n n e r C i t y R e s i d e n t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t s : The Case o f V a n c o u v e r ' s West E n d " , i n J . M i n g h i ( e d . ) ,  P e o p l e s o f the L i v i n g Land: Geography o f C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver: Tantalus R e s e a r c h , 1972, pp. 163-182; R.E. Murphy, " A p a r t m e n t L o c a t i o n : The B a l a n c e B e t w e e n D e v e l o p e r a n d Community", i n C.N. F o r w a r d ( e d . ) , R e s i d e n t i a l a n d N e i g h b o u r h o o d S t u d i e s , W e s t e r n G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s No. 5, U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a : V i c t o r i a , 1973, p p . 149-177; P . J . S m i t h and L.D. McCann. "The S e q u e n c e o f P h y s i c a l Change i n A p a r t m e n t R e d e v e l o p m e n t A r e a s i n Edmonton", P l a n C a n a d a , 15 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 30-37. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s b a s e d on P h i l l i p C l a y ' s a n a l y s i s o f a m o d e l o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by Tim P a t t i s o n and a s i m i l a r m o d e l p r e s e n t e d by R o b e r t F i c h t e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) .  .42  Chapter  3  THEORETICAL APPROACHES TOWARDS GENTRIFICATION 3.1  Introduc t i o n A review  t h e use  of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s  of f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e  gentrification.  theoretical  U s u a l l y more i m p l i c i t t h a n  they emphasize the f o l l o w i n g (2) e c o l o g y , and is  factors:  (3) c u l t u r a l v a l u e s ,  ( 5 ) s o c i a l movements. to o u t l i n e  and  The  assess both  (1)  theoretical An  the c o n j u n c t i o n o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  with p o l i t i c a l  and  demography, economy,  main purpose o f t h i s the  economic f a c t o r s ,  a p p r o a c h emphalifestyle  direction.  3.2  The  i t i s suggested, city  l i v a b i l i t y provides  an  a step  from the demographic  in  perspec-  i s a f o r m o f m i g r a t i o n t h a t i s b o t h c a u s e and  sequence o f changes i n p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n . maturing  holds  Demographic Approach Gentrification,  tive,  values  A s o c i a l movements a p p r o a c h b a s e d on  i d e o l o g y o f a e s t h e t i c i s m and this  chapter  and e m p i r i c a l  t h e most p r o m i s e f o r a c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f i n n e r revitalization.  of  explicit,  (4) p o l i t i c a l  m e r i t s of these v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s . sizing  explanations  o f the post-World  War  con-  The  I I b a b y boom g e n e r a t i o n ,  the growing p e r c e n t a g e o f the p o p u l a t i o n between the  ages  . . .43 o f 25 a n d 3 5 , d e c l i n i n g f e r t i l i t y number o f d u a l w a g e - e a r n e r labour  households, i n c r e a s i n g female  force participation,  of conventional  r a t e s , the r i s i n g  and t h e growing  instability  m a r r i a g e a r e a l l demographic  which, taken together,  have made u r b a n l i v i n g  t o a g r o w i n g number o f y o u n g ,  relatively  factors attractive  a f f l u e n t house-  holders . 3.3  The Human E c o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h C e n t r a l t o human e c o l o g y i s t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e  p r o c e s s e s a n d f o r m s o f man's a d j u s t m e n t t o h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . As s u c h , a n e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e a l l o w s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s of both the s t a t i c ization.  a n d dynamic  dimensions of s o c i a l  organ-  D y n a m i c c o n c e p t s a r e most r e l e v a n t f o r t h e s t u d y  of inner c i t y  revitalization.  Particularly applicable i s  the c o n c e p t o f i n v a s i o n - s u c c e s s i o n . The changes  term s u c c e s s i o n  r e f e r s t o t h e sequence o f  by w h i c h u n i t s o f one l a n d u s e o r p o p u l a t i o n  r e p l a c e t h o s e o f a n o t h e r i n an a r e a .  type  These c h a n g e s a r e  s a i d t o be t h e o u t c o m e s o f a s e r i e s o f i n v a s i o n s .  The  initiation  o f i n v a s i o n - s u c c e s s i o n , as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n  ecological  theory,  i o r a t i o n as h i g h e r status groups. changes  u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n neighbourhood  deter-  s t a t u s groups a r e r e p l a c e d by l o w e r  Hudson ( 1 9 8 0 ) , i n l i g h t o f t h e c u r r e n t  i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial p a t t e r n s o f  p a r t i c u l a r inner c i t y areas,  argues that t h i s  of u n i d i r e c t i o n a l i t y  u n n e c e s s a r y l i m i t a t i o n s on  imposes  assumption  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e i n v a s i o n - s u c c e s s i o n c o n c e p t .  He  . . .44 suggests  that g e n t r i f i c a t i o n i s simply a reversal of  usual p a t t e r n of neighbourhood understood  one  i n terms of these e c o l o g i c a l A fundamental  ;  c h a n g e and  as s u c h c a n  and  insight of ecological  conflict  I n the words o f McKenzie (1967,  be  concepts.  t h a t i s v e r y a p p l i c a b l e i n the c o n t e x t of  i s that displacement  the  analysis, gentrification,  o f t e n accompany i n v a s i o n s .  76):  D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n v a s i o n i n t o a new a r e a , e i t h e r o f use o r t y p e , t h e r e t a k e s p l a c e a p r o c e s s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t and s e l e c t i o n d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i n v a d e r and o f t h e a r e a i n v a d e d . The e a r l y s t a g e s a r e u s u a l l y m a r k e d by k e e n e s s o f c o m p e t i t i o n which f r e q u e n t l y manifests i t s e l f i n outward c l a s h e s . . . In a s i m i l a r vein,  the i n - m i g r a t i o n o f young p r o f e s s i o n a l s  i n t o i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods o f t e n r e s u l t s i n c l a s h e s b e t w e e n newcomers and  l o n g time neighbourhood  (see f o r example C y b r i w s k y , The  1978;  incumbents  L e v y and C y b r i w s k y ,  1980).  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of communities t h a t reach  "climax" stage of i n v a s i o n are e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t to a n a l y s i s of g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . process  i s reached  to Robert  Park,  to s t a b i l i z e ,  ecological  i s a b l e to w i t h s t a n d the  s i o n s of o t h e r forms of i n v a s i o n . h a s much u t i l i t y  The  concept  i n a n a l y z i n g the c l i m a x stage. "the fundamental  t h a t o r d e r and  a r e e m b o d i e d " ( P a r k , 1967,  162).  of  intru-  "dominance" According  f u n c t i o n o f dominance i s  t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r and p e r m i t  s t r u c t u r e i n which  an  T h i s stage i n the i n v a s i o n  once a d o m i n a n t t y p e o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n emerges w h i c h  the  the growth  of  the corresponding f u n c t i o n The  uprooting of a formerly  l o w - c l a s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d by t h e v a l u e s a n d m a t e r i a l s y m b o l s of middle-  a n d u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s c h i c c a n be r e g a r d e d  as  a form o f dominance. W i t h i t s acknowledgment t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n  fre-  quently manifests  itself  o f power i m p l i c i t  i n t h e c o n c e p t o f d o m i n a n c e , human  ecological theory  seems t o h o l d a g r e a t d e a l o f p o t e n t i a l  for  i n outward c l a s h e s and t h e n o t i o n  an a n a l y s i s o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .  A number  o f t h e o r e t i c a l weaknesses, however, s e v e r l y c u r t a i l t h e applicability cation. for  o f a human e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o g e n t r i f i -  T h i s m o d e l assumes a n o p e n m a r k e t  competition  space and o f spontaneous c o m p e t i t i o n and as Z e i t z  p o i n t s out, "the nature as t h a t o f c o n f l i c t "  of competition  (Zeitz,  i s n o t t h e same  1 9 7 9 , 1 3 ) . Whereas  conflict  i s c o n s c i o u s l y c r e a t e d , a s f o r e x a m p l e , when a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s e x p l o i t e d f o r economic g a i n , c o m p e t i t i o n , as p e r c e i v e d by  t h e urban e c o l o g i c a l s c h o o l , i s e s s e n t i a l l y an uncon-  scious process.  T h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c i t y i s  v i e w e d i n t e r m s o f p h y s i c a l g r o w t h , d e v o i d o f human v a t i o n and d e s i r e . predetermined  Growth o c c u r s  stages.  T h e r e i s no i n t e n t ,  of progression o r c o n f l i c t Obviously,  the treatment  ideas as unproblematic  through  moti-  a series of consciousness  i n v o l v e d i n the process.  o f human m o t i v a t i o n s , v a l u e s a n d  i s a s e r i o u s shortcoming  of ecological  analysis. The  assumption o f an u n c o n t r o l l e d , f r e e  competitive  system l e a d s t o a second weakness o f e c o l o g i c a l t h e o r y .  . . .46 T h e r e i s no r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y s y s t e m c a n be d e l i b e r a t e l y m a n i p u l a t e d  t h a t an economic  to provide  f o r some w h i l e p e r m a n e n t l y d e p r i v i n g o t h e r s .  The assump-  t i o n i s t h a t a l l a r e f r e e t o compete u n d e r e q u a l stances.  human e c o l o g y of t h i s sort.  3.4  i s : .not c a p a b l e  Indeed,  theoretically,  of incorporating questions  I n s h o r t , these  two s h o r t c o m i n g s  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f urban ecology  inner c i t y  circum-  W i t h i n such a framework o f a n a l y s i s s o c i a l  j u s t i c e and e q u i t y a r e n o t i s s u e s .  limit  profit  severely  t o an a n a l y s i s o f  revitalization.  The S o c i o - c u l t u r a l A p p r o a c h I n c o n t r a s t t o demographic o r e c o l o g i c a l e x p l a n -  ations of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n ,  socio-cultural  explanations  focus  n o t on a g g r e g a t e o r s t r u c t u r e d u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s ( i . e . p o p u l a t i o n s a n d t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) b u t on v a l u e s , attitudes,  c h o i c e s , and b e l i e f s as f a c t o r s  human b e h a v i o u r . it  The l a t e s i x t i e s a n d e a r l y s e v e n t i e s ,  i s a r g u e d , spawned t h e g r o w t h o f a h o s t  movements t h a t s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d and  career patterns.  Values  f o r community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s e l f - h e l p and c o o p e r a t i v e  emphasizing shared  efforts,  of social  traditional a high  living a n d an  ideology that s t r e s s e d p r e s e r v a t i o n arose the l o n g s t a n d i n g  determining  lifestyles regard  experiences, environmental i n reaction to  d o c t r i n e s o f economic i n d i v i d u a l i s m  (London, e t a l , 1980).  R e i n f o r c i n g and e x t e n d i n g  these  c h a n g i n g s o c i a l v a l u e s h a s b e e n t h e emergence o f a p r o - u r b a n  . . .47 value  system.  of the c i t y  Among a g r o w i n g number o f p e o p l e , t h e image  a s an u n n a t u r a l  and u n p l e a s a n t e n v i r o n m e n t , i n  t h e w o r d s o f Hadden a n d B a r t o n not  (1973),  "an image t h a t  will  d i e " , h a s g i v e n way t o a v i e w o f t h e c i t y a s a n  e x c i t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g p l a c e  to l i v e .  Writers  espousing  a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l approach agree t h a t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these changes i n v a l u e s , tial  f o r a thorough understanding In a very  the  a t t i t u d e s , and l i f e s t y l e s  impact o f value  of inner c i t y  c h a n g e s i n some d e t a i l .  is a leitmotif  neighbourhood"  the  social  diversity.  (Allen,  "Socio-cultural diversity  environment, A l l e n argues, provides  element o f s u r p r i s e b o r d e r i n g diversity,  on t h e m a g i c a l  of  a source  arid s u r r e a l .  f o r example, adds l o c a l c o l o u r , a wide and food  general  community.  a i r of a cosmopolitan diversity  shops, and t h e  t h a t i s much v a l u e d  however, i n c l u d e a l l t h e v a r i e t y o f c i t y  does n o t ,  life.  ( 1 9 7 5 ) p o i n t s o u t , d i v e r s i t y u s u a l l y means ' s a f e By  housing  I t a f f o r d s i n t e r e s t a n d an  variety of ethnic restaurants  The  a  towards the value o f  1980, 4 1 5 ) . The c o m p l e x i t y  of s t i m u l a t i o n and r e n e w a l .  Ethnic  For him, the  i n t h e new t a s t e s f o r c e n t r a l c i t y  and  explores  o f the inner c i t y represents  change i n A m e r i c a n community i d e o l o g y and c u l t u r a l  revitalization.  i n t e r e s t i n g p a p e r , A l l e n (1980)  middle c l a s s resettlement  social  i s essen-  As  Wilson  diversity'.  t h i s he means a h a r m l e s s v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s ,  e s o t e r i c bookshops, e t h n i c r e s t a u r a n t s , and h i g h b r o w cultural enterprises.  The ' e t h n i c i t y '  of the lower  classes  . . .48 i s not  usually  settlers.  p a r t of  the  diversity  Moreover, d i v e r s i t y  s o u g h t by  seems t o  the  t a k e on  new  a  greater  value i f i t i s outside rather than w i t h i n  a neighbourhood.  Many o f  less  the  aspects of  new  u r b a n i t e s p r e f e r t h a t the  d i v e r s i t y be  sense t h a t A l l e n of  (1980) speaks o f  "the  It is in  ambivalent  of  the  socio-cultural  of  emphasize dominant v a l u e s r a t h e r than changing  g e n t r i f i c a t i o n movements a r e  l a t t e r day  s u c h t r a d i t i o n a l A m e r i c a n v a l u e s as  individuality tation  of  historic  an  and  architecturally  the  expression of  other writers,  the  An attitudes,  however, too social  realize  rehabili-  85).  beliefs  old  i s not  of  values  symbolization A number  of  (1978;  between s e l f In e f f e c t , an  a  interesting  symbol.  o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n b a s e d on  restrictive.  structure  h e a r t of  an  words  the  the  choice.  the  newest s t a t u s  analysis  and  success,  The  i n the  relationship  residential  neighbourhood at  be  expressions  most n o t a b l y C h r i s t o p h e r W i n t e r s  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  c i t y may  to  s . e l f - i d e n t i t y and  1979), have a l s o n o t e d the  gentrified  way  s u c c e s s " XLondon, 1980,  of m a t e r i a l  values.  s i g n i f i c a n t home i n  i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d may,  seeks  preservation  economic  personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  B r u c e L o n d o n , "...be a new of  value  approach  F u s c h ( 1 9 7 8 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , s u g g e s t s t h a t the and  this  pluralism". A variation  to  some d i s t a n c e away.  desirable  values,  i n i t s e l f wrong; i t i s ,  I n many s i t u a t i o n s ,  l e a d to p r a c t i c e s  power  and  t h a t o v e r - r i d e human  . . .49 will  and m o t i v a t i o n .  limited,  are circumscribed,  and molded by such f a c t o r s as f i n a n c i a l  institutional 1977).  People's choices  c o n s t r a i n t s a n d r u l e s (Duncan a n d S a y e r ,  To f r e e i t s e l f  psychologism,  from t h e charge o f v o l u n t a r i s m and  a socio-cultural  explanation of inner  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n must be p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e w i d e r totality day  o f t h e economic and p o l i t i c a l  city  social  r e a l i t i e s of  every-  life.  3.5  The P o l i t i c a l - E c o n o m i c A p p r o a c h Analyses  rubric and  and  o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n f a l l i n g under the  of p o l i t i c a l  economy c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o  M a r x i s t approaches.  competition, on.  Inner  supply  city  traditional  The f o r m e r t e n d s t o e m p h a s i z e  a n d demand, m a r k e t e f f i c i e n c y ,  a n d so  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s seen as a s e r i e s o f  a d j u s t m e n t s a n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f m i d d l e c l a s s households to r i s i n g availability  suburban housing  o f suburban land, i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s o f  e n e r g y , and t h e r e l a t i v e l y (at  c o s t s , the decreasing  least during  low c o s t o f i n n e r c i t y  the i n i t i a l  stages  of  housing  renewal).  Marxist interpretations of gentrification,  on  t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e more c o m p l e x b e c a u s e o f t h e i n h e r e n t l y abstract nature  of Marxist writings i n general.  it  i s necessary  to present  on  this particular theoretical  3.5.1  As such,  a somewhat e x t e n d e d d i s c u s s i o n approach.  Marxism and G e n t r i f i c a t i o n To w r i t e r s e s p o u s i n g  a M a r x i a n framework o f  analysis,  spatial  f o r m s a r e s h a p e d by t h e l o g i c  u n d e r l y i n g economic system n o t hidden  exogeneous f a c t o r s  such as t h e " i n v i s i b l e hand" o f t h e market. question i s f i r s t  ofthe  and foremost t h e product  "The u r b a n of the c a p i t a l i s t  mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h r e q u i r e s a s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which f a c i l i t a t e s  the c i r c u l a t i o n of c a p i t a l ,  commodities,  i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . " (Lamarche, 1972, 8 6 ) . An  understanding  o f c a p i t a l i s m a s a mode o f p r o d u c t i o n  requires a brief  a n a l y s i s o f M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y .  More  it  r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  surplus value  specifically,  o f the dual concepts o f  and t h e accumulation  o f c a p i t a l - t h e two  e s s e n t i a l m e c h a n i s m s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n (CMP). A fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of capitalist  s o c i e t y i s t h e emergence o f a s e c t o r o f s o c i e t y w h i c h , through  t h e monopoly p o s s e s s i o n  o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n ,  i s a b l e t o e x t r a c t t h e s u r p l u s l a b o u r power o f a l a b o u r i n g c l a s s f o r i t s own b e n e f i t .  According  t o Marx, t h e p r o -  d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s .  A part  of labour i s used f o r the s u b s i s t e n c e o f t h e producers themselves.  A second p a r t o f l a b o u r i s used t o m a i n t a i n  a ruling class. and- t h e  latter  performing  Marx c a l l s  the former necessary  surplus labour.  necessary  When t h e p r o d u c e r i s  l a b o u r he i s p r o d u c i n g  product.  When he i s p r o d u c i n g  producing  a social  labour  a  necessary  s u r p l u s l a b o u r , he i s  surplus product.  Surplus v a l u e ' i s  s i m p l y t h e monetary form o f t h e s o c i a l  surplus  product.  "It  i s the monetary form o f t h a t p a r t o f t h e worker's  production  w h i c h he s u r r e n d e r s  of production (Mandell, stitute  without  r e c e i v i n g anything  i n return"  1969, 2 4 ) . Not o n l y does s u r p l u s v a l u e  t h e income o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t ,  " d i r e c t aim and d e t e r m i n i n g ( S w e e z y , 1942,. :58). italist  t o t h e owner o f t h e means  will  production  con-  i t provides the  incentive of production"  I t f o l l o w s from t h i s  that the cap-  l a y o u t money f o r l a b o u r power a n d means o f  o n l y i f he c a n a c q u i r e  a f t e r a process  of production  a l a r g e r amount o f money  has been completed.  Marx d e p i c t s t h e c a p i t a l i s t ' s surplus value  t h r o u g h h i s M-C-M  appropriation of  notation.  The  capitalist  g o e s t o t h e m a r k e t w i t h money ( M ) , p u r c h a s e s c o m m o d i t i e s (C) to  ( i . e . l a b o u r power a n d means o f p r o d u c t i o n ) , the market w i t h a product  money (M ) .  returns  w h i c h he a g a i n c o n v e r t s  Given the c a p i t a l i s t ' s  preoccupation  into  with  p r o d u c t i v e i n v e s t m e n t , t h e p r o c e s s w i l l n o t be m e a n i n g f u l 1 u n l e s s M i s l a r g e r t h a n M. The i n c r e m e n t o f money, i the d i f f e r e n c e between M value  a n d M i s t h e amount o f s u r p l u s  accruing t o the c a p i t a l i s t . The  appropriation of surplus value  c o n d i t i o n f o r the accumulation surplus value it  being  portion,  i s withdrawn from t h e p r o c e s s  unproductively  subsistence  of capital.  purposes.  i sa  A part of of production,  consumed by t h e c a p i t a l i s t f o r A second p a r t , f r e q u e n t l y the major  i s a c c u m u l a t e d a n d i s u t i l i z e d by b e i n g  formed i n t o c a p i t a l  necessary  trans-  e i t h e r f o r the purposes o f purchasing  additional  q u a n t i t i e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s , m a c h i n e s , b u i l d i n g s  or h i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l workers. enables  the c a p i t a l i s t  T h i s augmented c a p i t a l  to appropriate s t i l l  more s u r p l u s  v a l u e , w h i c h he i n t u r n c o n v e r t s i n t o a d d i t i o n a l and  so o n .  This process,  accumulation capitalist  of capital,  referred  then  capital  t o b y Marx a s t h e  c o n s t i t u t e s the d r i v i n g  force of  development. The  tendency f o r c a p i t a l i s t s  stocks of wealth  to increase  i s , f o r Marx, s t r u c t u r a l l y  their  determined,  f o r c a p i t a l i s m a s a mode o f p r o d u c t i o n d e p e n d s on t h e accumulation  of capital  f o r i t s perpetuation.  w o r d s o f P a u l Sweezy, c a p i t a l  I n the  accumulation;  . . . i s n o t a t a l l . a q u e s t i o n o f i n n a t e human p r o p e n s i t i e s or i n s t i n c t s ; the d e s i r e o f the c a p i t a l i s t t o expand t h e v a l u e under h i s c o n t r o l ( I . e . t o accumulate c a p i t a l ) s p r i n g s from h i s s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n . . . The c a p i t a l i s t i s a c a p i t a l i s t . . . o n l y i n so f a r a s he i s t h e owner a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f capital. D e p r i v e d o f h i s c a p i t a l , he w o u l d be n o t h i n g . . . S u c c e s s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t s i n a d d i n g t o one's c a p i t a l (Sweezy, 1942, 8 0 ) . The  competitive nature  o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t economy  a b l y f o r c e s owners o f c a p i t a l t h e i r c o m p e t i t o r s by p r o d u c i n g more a n d more p r o f i t "  t o p r o t e c t themselves more g o o d s a n d  are a c o n s t a n t l y changing  accumulating  the accumulation  set of social  institutions.  duced by t h e v e r y f o r c e s d e f i n i n g and d r i v i n g institutions  from  (Gordon, 1978, 5 ) .  R e i n f o r c i n g and e x t e n d i n g  these  "inevit-  l a r g e l y determine  process Pro-  capitalism,  t h e n a t u r e and  and  content of d a i l y l i f e  w e l l as ist  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e b a s i c  s o c i e t i e s are  3.5.2  in capitalist  s o c i e t i e s , as  forces  C a p i t a l Accumulation  E x t e n d i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s to the urban development, the  and  be  v a l u e i s r e g a r d e d as labour  As  surplus  s o c i e t i e s can  ( H a r v e y , 1973,  writes,  then i t  creation, appropriation  value"  pattern  manifestation  conditions,  that urbanism i n c a p i t a l i s t  c u l a t i o n of  231).  be and  cir-  Mediating  c i r c u l a t i o n of c a p i t a l w i t h i n the urban sphere are  set of f i n a n c i a l  institutions.  these i n s t i t u t i o n s , o f d e v e l o p e r s and  The  together with  lending  the  o t h e r members o f  investment  the  o f the  city.  These i n t e r m e d i a r y  l a r g e r n e e d s o f c a p i t a l by Marx a r g u e s t h a t  help  social  leads  individual capitalists  r e s u l t s which are  contradictory  I n d i c a t i v e of t h i s i s the  structure to  " b a l a n c e d g r o w t h " can  serve  often  be  of  society.  This  to produce c o l l e c t i v e  t o t h e i r own  a l l too  wealth.  never  structure  relations prevailing in capitalist  structure  industry  m a x i m i z i n g t h e i r own  a c h i e v e d under c a p i t a l i s m because of the  of  decisions  real estate  actors  a  practices  have, to a l a r g e measure, shaped the p h y s i c a l  the  the  David Harvey  a particular  under c a p i t a l i s t  a n a l y z e d i n terms o f the  the  of  a n a l y z e d i n terms o f v a r i a t i o n s i n the  "If surplus  follows  framework  i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of  pace of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n .  of surplus  capital-  manifested.  G e n t r i f i c a t i o n and  c i t y may  driving  class interests,  tendency f o r  the  ... 54 overproduction of c a p i t a l to employ t h a t c a p i t a l .  relative  to the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  T h i s tendency  towards  over-  a c c u m u l a t i o n i s m a n i f e s t i n a v a r i e t y o f g u i s e s : (1) p r o d u c t i o n o f commodities (3) s u r p l u s c a p i t a l acity  of  lacking opportunities for  Counteracting this  i n t h i s r e g a r d i s t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and f l o w s and  ments ( H a r v e y ,  1978).  channels The  restructuring  for productive invest-  f r a m e w o r k o f a n a l y s i s , p r o v i d e s an e x a m p l e o f a f o r productive investment".  simultaneous  rerouting of c a p i t a l profitable  Essential  mediating role  Financial tional  a situation  (due  where  institutions  of f i n a n c i a l  the to  the  surplus value expansion.  T h i s has  has  institutions.  are the l a t e s t  of p r o f i t have r e g u l a t e d the i n v e s t m e n t institutions.  and  to these processes  a d a p t a t i o n to the dual problems of  a c c u m u l a t i o n and  the  t o t h e i n n e r c i t y h a s become a  investment.  been the c a p i t a l  "new  i n the suburbs,  devaluation of p r e s e n t l y accumulating c a p i t a l has produced  a  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  devaluation of inner c i t y c a p i t a l  overaccumulation)  of  institutions  i n n e r c i t y , w i t h i n such  the overaccumulation of c a p i t a l  re-  Important  the s t r u c t u r i n g of m e d i a t i n g  i n o r d e r t o open up new  channel  tendency  o v e r a c c u m u l a t i o n i s a c o n s t a n t o r d e r i n g and  o r d e r i n g of the c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n system.  capital  profitable  (4) s u r p l u s l a b o u r and/or the r i s i n g c o s t  l a b o u r power e x p l o i t a t i o n .  towards  rates of p r o f i t  i n the form o f i d l e p r o d u c t i v e cap-  o r money c a p i t a l  employment and  (2) f a l l i n g  over-  institu-  capital The  dictates  decisions of  these  resulted i n discriminatory lending  p r a c t i c e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y , p a t t e r n s o f uneven development.  urban  B r a d f o r d and R u b i n o w i t z ( 1 9 7 5 ) , f o r ' e x a m p l e ,  n o t e how t h e i n v e s t m e n t , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , ment d e c i s i o n s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l and m o r t g a g e  disinvest-  investors, developers,  b a n k e r s have l e d t o t h e decay o f o l d e r  neighbourhoods and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f s u b u r b i a . Harvey  (1977)  selective  suggests that f i n a n c i a l  urban  Similarly,  institutions  through  f i n a n c i n g , have f o r c e d t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e  suburban p e r i p h e r y .  Commenting on t h e B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e ,  Boddy ( 1 9 7 6 ) p o i n t s t o t h e t e n d e n c y o f b u i l d i n g to f a v o u r suburban areas over the i n n e r c i t y  societies  i n their  a l l o c a t i o n o f f u n d s thus e n c o u r a g i n g urban decay and t h e writing-off of existing property.  Much i n t h e same  W i l l i a m s (1976) n o t e s t h e r o l e o f b u i l d i n g  vein,  s o c i e t i e s and  estate agents i n shaping the rate o f neighbourhood i n I s l i n g t o n through t h e i r investment decisions.  change Invest-  ment a n d d i s i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s o f t h i s s o r t , S m i t h  (1979)  a r g u e s , have r e s u l t e d i n " r e n t gaps" o f s i g n i f i c a n t w i d t h t o make r e i n v e s t m e n t i n u r b a n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s  profitable  endeavours. The  flow of investment c a p i t a l  t o the suburbs  a l o n g w i t h t h e d e v a l u a t i o n and d e p r e c i a t i o n o f i n n e r c a p i t a l has p r o d u c e d t h e r e n t gap. gap  i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  Technically,  city  the rent  t h e amount o f r e n t t h a t  may  be c a p i t a l i z e d u n d e r t h e " h i g h e s t a n d t h e b e s t u s e " o f a particular  site  o r neighbourhood  ( p o t e n t i a l ground  rent)  and t h e a c t u a l q u a n t i t y o f r e n t c l a i m e d b y l a n d o w n e r s o r  users of  t h e i r land  stem f r o m e i t h e r offered  by  l i m i t s of  ( c a p i t a l i z e d ground r e n t ) .  the  s i t u a t i o n a l or  a s i t e or the  the  These  locational  rents  advantages  advantages contained w i t h i n  p r o p e r t y , a d v a n t a g e s w h i c h depend  the  primarily  o on  the  characteristics  o c c u r s when t h e  of  r e n t gap  the  occupants.  Gentrification  i s w i d e enough t h a t a  developer's  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o s t s are  s u c h t h a t he  the  product f o r a sale  t h a t l e a v e s him  price  can  sell a  end  satisfactory  return. Once t h e may  be  initiated  different state,  the  the  inner c i t y  r e n e w a l , i n the words of  redirecting  industry, action,  capital  S m i t h , 1979b f o r a c a s e  study).  i n d i v i d u a l consumer p r e f e r e n c e i s not least  i n the  Marxian analysis  Smith  world w i l l  source of  (see  The  development  o r more commonly, t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e  a preeminent r o l e , at  the  several  housing market.  f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , or  Interestingly,  in  l a n d and  r e v e r s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d d e c a y by  back to  the  i s w i d e enough g e n t r i f i c a t i o n  i n a g i v e n n e i g h b o u r h o o d by  a c t o r s i n the  singularly, may  r e n t gap  (1979a, 545),  of  initial  stages  given  of  gentrification.  In  " A l l consumer p r e f e r e n c e  amount t o n o u g h t u n l e s s t h i s l o n g  f u n d i n g r e a p p e a r s ; mortgage c a p i t a l i s a  absent pre-  requisite . " G o v e r n m e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and d e f i n e d by the  the  structures,  M a r x i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , have a c t i v e l y  d i s i n v e s t m e n t and  ;.as supported  subsequent reinvestment d e c i s i o n s  of  ... 57 the  private  sector.  c i t y governments of the i n n e r  D e p e n d e n t as t h e y a r e on t a x r e v e n u e s ,  have a d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n the  city.  T h i s view o f the s t a t e  revitalization  i s b a s e d on  two  a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c a p i t a l i s m and t h e r o l e o f g o v e r n ment (Sweezy, to solve  1942,  27).  First,  t h e s t a t e power i s i n v o k e d  p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e p o s e d by t h e e c o n o m i c  ment o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f s o c i e t y u n d e r i n t h i s case c a p i t a l i s m .  Second,  i n t e r e s t s of the c a p i t a l i s t state  i s d e d i c a t e d to the p r e s e r v a t i o n  accept the p o s t u l a t e s society.  decision  making  "growth machines" the  who  r e f e r e n c e i s o f t e n made t o  of r e a l t y , develop-  and G u t s t e i n ,  cities  and  how  government a r e  commerce, and c o n s t r u c t i o n  (1976) c h a r a c t e r i z e s  of  o f t h i s form o f  processes of c i v i c  f o r e x a m p l e L o r i m e r , 1972  the  o f the s t r u c t u r e  d o m i n a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ment, i n d u s t r y ,  serves the  be s t a f f e d by t h o s e  and o b j e c t i v e s  In t h i s context,  consideration,  ( i . e . ruling) class since  c a p i t a l i s m and must t h e r e f o r e  the  the s t a t e  develop-  i n t e r e s t s (see  1974).  Molotoch  t h e i r governments  as  which are developed p r i m a r i l y to serve  i n t e r e s t s o f p r i v i l e d g e d groups a t the expense  of  workers. In sharp c o n t r a s t p l u r a l i s t view of society starting point  to the Marxian view i s the  ( G u t e r b o c k , 1980a;  of t h i s perspective  Marxian assumption that and e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l of the r u l i n g c l a s s .  1980b).  The  i s the r e j e c t i o n of the  the s t r u c t u r e  of American  society  i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v e the i n t e r e s t s A number o f r e l a t e d a s s u m p t i o n s  stem  from t h i s b a s i c  belief:  (1) G o v e r n m e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v e a s an a r e n a f o r the representation o f diverse i n t e r e s t s a n d r e s o l u t i o n o f d i s p u t e s among them by means o f c o m p r o m i s e . (2) Due t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of a l l sectors of s o c i e t y , the b e n e f i t s of productive a c t i v i t y are u s u a l l y widely dispersed. (3) P r o c e s s e s o f c h a n g e i n u r b a n s t r u c t u r e are responsive t o pressures o f popular demand. (4) Urban form i s e f f e c t i v e l y m o d i f i e d by the a c t i o n s o f e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r e s t g r o u p s a n d e m e r g i n g s o c i a l movements. Following  these assumptions, urban r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s  applauded f o r the p o t e n t i a l the  decline of the quality  This view represents  the e x p l o i t a t i o n  and  the middle  i t may p l a y i n r e v e r s i n g  of l i f e  a radical  analysis of gentrification for  role  i n inner c i t y  departure  as j u s t  from the M a r x i a n  one more m e c h a n i s m  o f t h e l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s by t h e r i c h  class.  I n summary, f r o m a M a r x i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , fication i s a structural markets.  force of  t o the suburbs along  depreciation, of inner c i t y capital  accumulation, with the has produced  the o b j e c t i v e economic c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o f i t a b l e city  reinvestment.  deteriorated end  of long  gentri-  p r o d u c t o f t h e l a n d and h o u s i n g  P r o p e l l e d by t h e d r i v i n g  t h e movement o f c a p i t a l continued  areas.  T h i s movement o f c a p i t a l  inner  t o once  i n n e r c i t y a r e a s h a s b e e n h a s t e n e d by t h e standing  institutions.  red-lining  Adding f u r t h e r stimulus  movement h a v e b e e n t h e p o l i c i e s specifically,  p o l i c i e s by f i n a n c i a l  this perspective  to the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  o f l o c a l government. suggests that the state  More  p e r f o r c e s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s of p r i v a t e and  developers,  and  the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f have n o t s .  sector financiers  thus p e r p e t u a t i n g e x i s t i n g  D e s p i t e i t s i n s i g h t i n t o power and c o n f l i c t , restricts  a fundamental  theoretical  the scope o f a M a r x i a n  This approach,  inequalities  relationships flaw severely  a n a l y s i s of  gentrification.  w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f  s u r p l u s v a l u e and  the accumulation  of c a p i t a l ,  a l l o w a t h e o r e t i c a l l y a c t i v e r o l e f o r man.  does  not  Rather,  man  i s d e f i n e d as t h e embodiment o f an a b s t r a c t q u a l i t y which 206).  capital  i s t h e s y m b o l ( B e r g e r and P u l l b e r g ,  W i t h i n t h i s framework o f a n a l y s i s ,  not, indeed, cannot,  another.  " . . . I t has  o f i t s own.  merely  t o a c t as i t s p a s s i v e c a r r i e r s ,  To t a k e n t o be  resist"  individuals  do  C a u s a l power i s  i t s own  a life  they cannot  1964,  make c h o i c e s , i n t e r a c t , n e g o t i a t e ,  o r i m p o s e c o n s t r a i n t s on one ascribed to c a p i t a l .  of  internal  I t has become r e i f i e d and  laws,  needs  men  b e a r i n g a burden  (Ley, 1979a, 7 ) .  the extent t h a t c a p i t a l accumulation i s the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r behind  many i m p o r t a n t  q u e s t i o n s are not addressed  gentrification, or  simply  t r e a t e d as u n p r o b l e m a t i c . i n t h e M a r x i s t a p p r o a c h . i n h i s analysis of g e n t r i f i c a t i o n ,  Smith  f o r e x a m p l e , acknow-  l e d g e s t h a t g e n t r i f i c a t i o n h a s become commonplace i n c i t i e s "...with important  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s and  p r o f e s s i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n " (Smith, 1979b).  a  larger  What w o u l d  a p p e a r t o be a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i s o n l y n o t e d  in  passing.  S i m i l a r l y , he makes r e f e r e n c e  move" a f t e r w h i c h S o c i e t y H i l l ,  to a  a formerly  "symbolic  rundown  neighbourhood i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , " f l o u r i s h e d " (Smith,  1979b,  30).  dev-  Despite  eloped  at a l l .  ically  and  the  importance of t h i s i d e a i t i s not  Smith, i n h i s d e s i r e to remain  ideologically  adequate treatment ings.  As  faithful,  does n o t p r o v i d e  o f v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and  s u c h , h i s r e n t gap  e x c e s s i v e l y n a r r o w and  theoret-  theory  human mean-  of g e n t r i f i c a t i o n i s  naive.  I n s h o r t , an o r t h o d o x M a r x i s t a p p r o a c h g e n t r i f i c a t i o n i s r e j e c t e d due transcendental  object  r e d u c t i o n o f man  to the p o s i n g  ( i . e . c a p i t a l ) and  as an a c t i v e a g e n t .  d i s c l a i m a l l of M a r x i s t thought. r e l a t i o n s h i p s and realistic  The  of a  the  towards reified,  consequent  T h i s i s not  to  I t s n o t i o n o f power  i t s c o n f l i c t view of s o c i e t y provide  c o n t e x t u a l environment i n which to c o n s i d e r  phenomenon o f m i d d l e c l a s s 3.6  an  a the  resettlement.  S o c i a l Movements A p p r o a c h The  m u l t i p l e causative nature  of the  gentrifi-  c a t i o n phenomenon s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n appropriate  to analyze  perspective  o f one  middle c l a s s resettlement  p a r t i c u l a r explanatory  approach acknowledging the d i a l e c t i c a l various explanations more i n s i g h t . emphasize the  framework.  i n t e r p l a y of  o u t l i n e d above-, w o u l d p r o v i d e  In particular,  and  the An  the  much  s u c h an a p p r o a c h w o u l d  conjunction of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  values with p o l i t i c a l  from  lifestyle  economic f a c t o r s i n  initiating  and  shaping the course of inner c i t y  revitalization.  It  w o u l d , i n t h e w o r d s o f L e y a n d M e r c e r ( 1 9 8 0 , 9 0 ) , "... admit the r o l e o f symbolic f a c t o r s a l o n g s i d e categories,  recognizing  steer the p a t t e r n  economic  that consumption l i f e s t y l e s  might  o f u r b a n l a n d u s e down one o f s e v e r a l  a l t e r n a t i v e and perhaps competing p a t h s . "  A point i n  t h i s d i r e c t i o n i s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n a s a s o c i a l movement, o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , "resource-mobilization"  theory  o f s o c i a l movements  a  (London,  1980). A number o f k e y i d e a s point  the s t a r t i n g  f o r a n a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l movements a n d s o c i a l  movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s . are  provide  i d e o l o g i c a l l y based  These i n c l u d e  (1) S o c i a l  ( 2 ) They a r e o r i e n t e d  towards  c h a n g e o r i m p r o v e m e n t and ( 3 ) They a r e s o c i a l l y often  movements  organized,  i n terms o f ' l e a d e r - f o l l o w e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  upon t h e s e i d e a s ,  the resource  m o b i l i z a t i o n theory  s o c i a l movements a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e d i v e r s e peting nature o f claims  staked  the urban a r e n a and t h e v a r y i n g  Building of  and o f t e n  com-  by d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n degrees o f success  these  groups have i n b r i n g i n g about change o r improvement. Particular  s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s  successful  than others  i n m o b i l i z i n g supporters  p a t h i z e r s because o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a l (McCarthy and Z a l d ,  a r e much more  1977).  a n d sym-  access to  In particular,  resources  such t h i n g s  number o f a d h e r e n t s , d e g r e e o f t h e i r c o m m i t m e n t , p o w e r and  prestige of adherents, f i n a n c i a l  resources  of the  as  movement, s u p p o r t o f v a r i o u s n o n - i n v o l v e d p u b l i c s , groups  a n d o t h e r movements, a n d t h e a b i l i t y  key d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s o r media a r e fundamental  to influence f o r an u n d e r -  standing o f the success ( o r f a i l u r e ) of a s p e c i f i c ment i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l  and s o c i a l  interest  move-  system, f o r  e x a m p l e , i s one f o r m o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a p a r t i c ular set of values. I d e o l o g i c a l commitment i s n o t t h e o n l y m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e b e h i n d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n t o s u p p o r t a s o c i a l movement.  As Heberle  (1968,  440) p o i n t s o u t , "The m o t i -  v a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n j o i n i n g a s o c i a l movement may range  f r o m r a t i o n a l b e l i e f i n t h e [movement's a i m ( V a l u e -  rational  o r i e n t a t i o n ) t o pure  opportunism."  A  particular  movement may f o s t e r t h e p u r s u i t o f p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s a n d as s u c h , t h e d e c i s i o n t o s u p p o r t i t may be p u r e l y p u r p o s i v e rational.  The r o l e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y i n t h e  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s may, i n p a r t , be a n a l y z e d a s s u c h . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l  frame-  work f o r a n a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s many o f t h e i n s i g h t s o f t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l outlined previously.  The f i r s t  e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l and make i n v e s t m e n t  urban  approaches  " p i o n e e r s " and t h e  e l i t e s who d e c i d e d t o end r e d l i n i n g  c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e may be seen, .as  b o t h d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and c u l t u r a l  t a s t e - m a k e r s ; on t h e  one h a n d , c r e a t i n g a h i g h l y p r o f i t a b l e  investment e n v i r o n -  ment a n d on t h e o t h e r , a p p l a u d i n g t h e v i r t u e s o f f a s h i o n a b l e inner c i t y  living  a s an a t t r a c t i v e new l i f e s t y l e  f o r young,  affluent 3.6.1  households.  S o c i a l Movements, I d e o l o g y , of the Inner C i t y The  on c u l t u r a l  and  the  Revitalization  emergence o f a p r o - u r b a n v a l u e  d i v e r s i t y and  p l u r a l i s m has  system  l e d to a  reassess-  ment o f l o n g s t a n d i n g p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s b a s e d on and  the  rhetoric  t h i s has  been the  o f the e n g i n e e r i n g mind.  modern,  T h i s has  w i t h , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e  s e r v a t i o n of o l d houses.  l e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g r e n o v a t i o n and  These s h i f t s  and  much b r o a d e r  s o c i e t a l change i n the economic, s o c i o -  and  d e v e l o p m e n t may  political  pre-  i n a t t i t u d e s towards  urban l i v i n g  cultural,  sterile  lexicon of planning professionals,  "anti-humane" development. concern  economics  I n d i c a t i v e of  reaction against p l a s t i c ,  environments, or i n the  based  be v i e w e d a s p a r t o f  realms of advanced  a  capitalist  countries. W i t h i t s r o o t s i n t h e c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e and demonstration  movements o f t h e  s e v e n t i e s , the gave r i s e  s o c i a l and  f o r growth's sake a l o n e .  w i t h an  -Well b e i n g  i n c r e a s i n g concern  b e e n a new  The  ideology of i s no  elite  At  1970*s  growth  longer  measured with  been r e p l a c e d  w i t h h e a l t h , a e s t h e t i c s , and  t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h i s movement  of p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e workers.  early  preoccupation  t h e q u a n t i t y o f g o o d s has  the q u a l i t y of l i f e . has  i n the  i n economic terms.  p r o d u c t i o n and  s i x t i e s and  economic c l i m a t e o f the  to a l o s s of f a i t h  exclusively  late  student  With a secure  economic  and base,  . . .64 t h i s g r o u p i s f r e e d t o d e v o t e t i m e . a n d i n t e r e s t t o more a e s t h e t i c and lifestyle  "self-actualizing"  i s c o n s u m p t i o n and  elements of l i f e .  "Their  s t a t u s - o r i e n t e d i n the p u r s u i t  of s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n while t h e i r p r e s t i g e i s considerable and  i n many ways t h e y a.re n a t i o n a l o p i n i o n l e a d e r s "  1980,  243).  structural  D a n i e l B e l l ' s a n a l y s i s of these c u l t u r a l  conceptual  to p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l  age  p r o v i d e s an  instructive  framework i n which t o c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l  ethos  today. S h i f t s i n the economic, s o c i o - c u l t u r a l ,  political  l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y have marked the  f r o m an i n d u s t r i a l  to p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l era.  and  transition At  the  o f economy, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s no  level  longer  engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g  ( i . e . goods  producing  Employment i n  a c t i v i t i e s ) but  s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s has  i n services.  accounted  f o r over  t h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r f o r c e s i n c e 1961. 58 p e r c e n t  of the  occupations  l a b o u r f o r c e was  (Table 3.1).  Particularly  important  By  50 p e r c e n t 1971,  of  roughly  employed i n s e r v i c e  T h i s f i g u r e had  66 p e r c e n t by November 1979  has  and  c h a n g e s as t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y f r o m  an i n d u s t r i a l  of  (Ley,  i n c r e a s e d to  ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada,  i n the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l  1979).  context  been the growth i n s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h , educa-  tion,  r e s e a r c h , and  government.  .65 Table  3.1  Occupational  Breakdown o f t h e  Canadian Labour  F o r c e , 1931-1971  Manufacturing and related-*-  Primary  (%)  Service  1931  • 32.2  21.1  38.5  1941  30. 5  22.8  40.5  1951  19.7  31.3  47.7  1961  12.8  29.0  55.7  25. 5  57.9  1971  7.4  2  1  Includes craftsmen, related. 2  production process,  l a b o u r e r s and  I n c l u d e s m a n a g e r i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l , c l e r i c a l , s a l e s , s e r v i c e a n d r e c r e a t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a n d communication occupations.  **May n o t a d d up t o 1 0 0 % b e c a u s e t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y "not s t a t e d " i s n o t i n c l u d e d and because o f r o u n d i n g Source: Adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971 C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , C a t . 94716, O c c u p a t i o n s , H i s t o r i c a l f o r Canada and P r o v i n c e s The  changeover to a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l  society i s  s i g n i f i e d n o t o n l y by t h e change i n s e c t o r d i s t r i b u t i o n • but a l s o i n the p a t t e r n o f o c c u p a t i o n s . society is* e s s e n t i a l l y a white  collar  Post-industrial  society.  I n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s a b o u t 5.5 m i l l i o n p e r s o n s ( o r r o u g h l y  18  percent  collar  o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e ) were employed i n w h i t e  occupations 35.6  i n 1900.  By 1 9 6 8 , t h i s f i g u r e h a d r i s e n t o  m i l l i o n o r 46.7 p e r c e n t  (Bell, percent  of the t o t a l  labour force  1 9 7 3 , 1 3 4 ) . B l u e c o l l a r employment f o r m e d 36 o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n 1968, r o u g h l y  as i n 1 9 0 0 .  4  t h e same  level  I n Canada, w h i l e t h e n a t i o n a l l a b o u r f o r c e  . . .66 grew f r o m 5,276,639 t o 3,608,704, an i n c r e a s e o f 63 b e t w e e n 1951 113  and  percent.  1971,  percent  collar  by  s e c t o r , t h e most  b e e n i n t h e g r o w t h o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and  t e c h n i c a l workers. 180  c o l l a r employment i n c r e a s e d  Within t h i s white  r a p i d c h a n g e has  by  white  percent,  Employment i n t h e s e  b e t w e e n 1951  and  1971  occupations  (Table  increased  3.2).  A c o r o l l a r y o f t h e s e employment s h i f t s i n t h e post-industrial  s t a t e i s the i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e p l a c e d  higher education. percentage  I n d e e d , b e t w e e n 1971  of Canadians having  i n c r e a s e d f r o m 10.8 At  percent  and  some u n i v e r s i t y 5  t o 16.1  the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  important  and  education  level,  this  emerging professional,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k e r s have p l a y e d  role i n reshaping  e t h i c s o f g r o w t h and society.  the  percent.  c l a s s of r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t , well-educated technical,  1976,  " I f an i n d u s t r i a l  t h e q u a n t i t y o f g o o d s as m a r k i n g a  of l i v i n g ,  the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l as m e a s u r e d by  health, education,  industrial  standard  s o c i e t y i s d e f i n e d by t h e s e r v i c e s and  r e c r e a t i o n and  deemed d e s i r a b l e and  of  the  society i s  d e f i n e d by  q u a l i t y of l i f e  an  s o c i e t a l v a l u e s towards  efficiency characteristic  As B e l l n o t e s ,  on  the  amenities  the a r t s - which are  p o s s i b l e f o r everyone"  (Bell,  now  1973,  127) . Two  a s p e c t s of the growth i d e o l o g y of  society - i n B e l l ' s terminology, thinking : 1  1  the  " e c o n o m i s t i c mode o f  - d e t r a c t from the q u a l i t y o f l i f e .  economizing  industrial  First,  measures o n l y economic goods; s o c i a l  and  -  T a b l e 3.2 O c c u p a t i o n a l S h i f t s  i n the Canadian Labour Force,  1951-1971 % Change  Occupation All  1951  occupations  White C o l l a r W o r k e r s Managerial P r o f e s s i o n a l and technical Clerical Sales 1  S e r v i c e and R e c r e a t i o n Primary Craftsmen,  1971  1951-1971  5,276,639  6,458,156  8,608,704  63.0  1,669,985 420,181  2,409,337 538,131  3,555,635 679,843  112.9 61.8  384,778 578,137 286,889  627,624 833,173 410,409  1,077,475 1,270,594 527,723  180.0 119.8 83.9  514,412  794,115  1,000,363  94.5  1,042,639  826,072  640,785  -38.5  1,303,359  1,527,129  1,792,603  37.5  351,208  344,433  407,546  16.0  production  p r o c e s s and r e l a t e d Labourers -'-Following B e l l ' s , 2  1961  Not inclusing  2  1974 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of white c o l l a r  t r a n s p o r t and c o m m u n i c a t i o n  workers  occupations  S o u r c e : A d a p t e d f r o m S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1971 C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , C a t . 94-716, O c c u p a t i o n s , H i s t o r i c a l f o r C a n a d a and P r o v i n c e s .  ... 68 aesthetic concerns are often disregarded. as measured by t r a d i t i o n a l generate  more t h a n  Second, growth  economic a c c o u n t i n g  i t s share  of negative  tends to  spillovers.  T h e s e s p i l l o v e r s become c o s t s b o r n e d i r e c t l y by o t h e r p r i v a t e p a r t i e s o r d i s t r i b u t e d among s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . The e c o l o g i s t B a r r y Commoner, f o r e x a m p l e , h a s that f o r every  percent  increase i n the gross n a t i o n a l  product,  the l e v e l s of environmental  ten-fold  (Commoner, 1 9 7 1 ) . The c h a l l e n g e  to and  pollution  increase  t o such l o n g - s t a n d i n g v a l u e s as  o p t i m i z a t i o n and m a x i m i z a t i o n c o l l a r workers,  observed  by t h i s new e l i t e  of white  A l v i n G o u l d n e r (1979) s u g g e s t s ,  i s linked  an e m e r g i n g New C l a s s i d e o l o g y b a s e d on " p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " the " c u l t u r e o f c r i t i c a l  Gouldner argues,  develops  discourse".  The New C l a s s ,  an i d e o l o g y t h a t s t r e s s e s i t s  autonomy f r o m e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s  or political  interests.  T h i s autonomy i s s a i d t o be g r o u n d e d i n t h e s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m ,  along  w i t h the o b l i g a t i o n o f educated persons to attend to the welfare, of the c o l l e c t i v i t y  (Gouldner,  The c u l t u r e o f c r i t i c a l the v a l i d i t y without  discourse requires that  o f c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g a n y s u b j e c t be  reference  authority.  1979, 1 9 ) .  to the speaker's  People  justified  societal position or  must g i v e r e a s o n s ;  t h e y c a n n o t r e l y on  their p o s i t i o n i n society or their science to j u s t i f y decisions.  As w i l l  were f o r many y e a r s  be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , b a s e d on e x p e r t  civic  affairs  decision-making  and  the r u l e s o f e n g i n e e r i n g has  The New C l a s s  l e d t h e c h a l l e n g e t o t h e s t a t u s quo. In  and  and economics.  addition to the ideology of professionalism  the c u l t u r e o f c r i t i c a l  d i s c o u r s e , a newer form o f  New C l a s s i d e o l o g y t h a t i s e m e r g i n g i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m ecology. nature of l i f e  The r e j e c t i o n o f t h e i d e a o f t h e d o m i n a t i o n  goes hand i n hand w i t h , t h e characteristic  environmentalism  i n t e r e s t i n the q u a l i t y  of post-industrial society.  This i snot t o imply for  that the growing  and t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e  concern  i s strictly  a New C l a s s phenomenon.  Members o f t h e new e l i t e ,  have p l a y e d  r o l e i n communicating these  to  an i m p o r t a n t  however,  t h e p u b l i c a t - l a r g e because o f t h e i r i n f l u e n t i a l  itions,  t h e i r access  articulate  of  values pos-  to information, their a b i l i t i e s to  and communicate i d e a s , and so on.  The C l u b o f  Rome a n d i t s v i e w s o n g r o w t h a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , S c h u m a c h e r and  h i s n o t i o n o f "Small  i sbeautiful",  and P i e r r e Trudeau's  memorable d e f i n i t i o n o f G.N.P. a s " g r o s s n a t i o n a l p o l l u t i o n " provide  e x a m p l e s o f t h e r o l e o f t h e New C l a s s a s " t a s t e -  rnakers" a n d o p i n i o n - l e a d e r s i n t h e d i f f u s i o n o f new i d e a s and  information. The  led  changing nature  o f s o c i e t y , B e l l argues, has  t o a s i t u a t i o n where t h e p r e v a i l i n g  "sociologizing" the c r i t e r i a  r a t h e r than  "economistic"  of individual u t i l i t y  become s u b o r d i n a t e d  e t h o s h a s become  t o broader  w e l f a r e and community i n t e r e s t "  " . . . i n s o f a r as  and p r o f i t  conceptions (Bell,  maximization  of social  1973, 481).  This  . . .70 a n a l y s i s , h o w e v e r , o b s c u r e s t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e Class  e g o i s t i c a l l y p u r s u e s i t s own  New  s p e c i a l vested i n t e r e s t s .  The New C l a s s ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h u s n o t "economistic". I t i s committed to producing w o r t h y o b j e c t s and s e r v i c e s and t o t h e d e v elopment of the s k i l l s r e q u i s i t e f o r these... B u t i f t h e New C l a s s i s c o m m i t t e d t o i t s work and s k i l l and t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f q u a l i t y o b j e c t s , i t i s NOT, however, c o m m i t t e d t o t h e s e w i t h o u t an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r a c c o m p a n y i n g INCOMES. ( G o u l d n e r , 1979, 20 - my e m p h a s i s ) I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t Gouldner r e f e r s to the Class  as  the  society, not  "Flawed U n i v e r s a l C l a s s " .  despite  the  n e c e s s a r i l y one  justice.  This  a later  Post-industrial  forecasts of l i b e r a l c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  i d e a w i l l be  New  theorists, i s  e q u i t y and  social  d e v e l o p e d i n more d e t a i l  in  context. At  the  of p u b l i c values ment p l a y an  l e v e l of p o l i t i c s , has  this reorientation  meant, i n d e e d demands, t h a t  a c t i v e r o l e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and  c a t i o n of resources.  The  claims  governthe  allo-  f o r more s e r v i c e s and  the  inadequacy of the market i n meeting p e o p l e ' s needs f o r a d e c e n t e n v i r o n m e n t as w e l l as b e t t e r h e a l t h and have l e d t o the  growth o f the p u b l i c s e c t o r .  education  Moreover,  the  c l a s h of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s , each f o l l o w i n g i t s  own  goals,  leads  regulation. by  the  need f o r  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , many o f t h e v a l u e s  collective  espoused  emerging e l i t e have g a i n e d l e g i t i m a c y t h r o u g h  political  the  process. The  sional,  n e c e s s a r i l y to a g r e a t e r  preoccupation  t e c h n i c a l , and  o f t h i s new  elite  of  profes-  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e workers with  amenity,  a e s t h e t i c s , and t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i t i o n o f the term urban p r o g r e s s . b u i l d i n g s a n d f r e e w a y s have, g i v e n p e o p l e and human-scale a r t i f a c t s . requires of  has l e d t o a r e d e f i n M a t e r i a l symbols o f  way t o c o n c e r n s f o r Post-industrial taste  t h a t u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t be g u i d e d b y  livability  a n d human s e n s i b i l i t y .  ideologies  I n d u s t r i a l land-  s c a p e s , as Ley (1980) n o t e s , a r e anathema t o the "canons o f g o o d t a s t e " e x h i b i t e d b y t h e p r e s e n t day  counterparts  of Veblen's l e i s u r e d c l a s s . This scale and  demand f o r a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g ,  human- •  d e v e l o p m e n t h a s n o t gone u n n o t i c e d by d e v e l o p e r s  o t h e r members o f t h e r e a l e s t a t e  at f i r s t  industry.  Although  s k e p t i c a l o f such development, over the l a t t e r  h a l f o f t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s d e v e l o p e r s a n d o t h e r s h a v e b e e n more than w i l l i n g  to i n v e s t i n both " s p e c i a l " neighbourhood  l o c a t i o n s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s the  t a s t e s o f t h e new e l i t e .  b a s e d on a e s t h e t i c s the  desirability  so as t o a p p e a l t o  In short,  a guiding  a n d s t y l e b y a new e l i t e h a s l e d t o  of select inner  city  l o c a t i o n s among a  l a r g e number o f y o u n g , a f f l u e n t h o u s e h o l d s . has,  i n p a r t , been s t i m u l a t e d  g r a n d e u r by t h e r e a l e s t a t e i n t h i s sense t h a t an  city.  This  demand  by p r o m i s e s o f s t y l e and  industry  ( F i g . 3.1).  I ti s  t h e s o c i a l movements a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s  i d e a l framework i n w h i c h t o c o n s i d e r  of the inner  ideology  the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  72  Superb Location  Luxuriously Appointed Homes  Fifteen minutes via the easy hridge' routr to downtown. Five minutes dnve to 3 private polf courses. Ten minutes to 3 public golf courses. Fifteen minutes to beaches."Fifteen minutestothe .University; Fifteen minute* to the Airport. Arburas Village Square VUlagr •shopping,restaurantsand entertainment. The Arbutus Club the other side of (he road.  Two bedroom and two hedroom*-wirh-a-dm r.vanrty With superb feature for a iiw n easy lifestyle. AMANA Touchautk'oucrowdve radar ranRf. AMANA 2BJcu.fi. "ice 'n water' dispenser S-door refrigerator. Self-clean built-in oven. Eight cycle dishwasher. Trash compactor. Log burning fireplac*Larye patio. Triple pleated TURCAL" drapes. Tnick, plmh, velvety carpet. Quarry tile way. Underground parking. Much, much more to see.  Individual Expression  N  Exclusive Address  Arbutus at Nanton. The City's prestigious Westside. An mtimatr, adult-community of only 40. homes.  From $102,000 to $119,000  and deiignteamwill work with you to personalize your Arbutuj West home. You can reflect your own lifestyle through our unique 'customizing' approjeh to living. We have some beautiful altemarTVes for you! It's easy to make a move to Arbutus West. The nb-Wo) Guaranteed Trade-fciProgram removes all the womes of .dispoting of your present home and ensures a smooth move into your new Arbutus West home  Furnished Show Home & Information Centre Now Open! Visit Us Today! Weekday* 10 A.M.to6 P.M.  Weekends:  Noon to 6 p.m. Norm Allan:  rhutus Contemporary townhouu: living  Telephone:  m Vancouver i  prestigious Wntudr  Imaginative planning by Nu-Wnt Call '  F i g . 3.1 The R e a l E s t a t e I n d u s t r y and  Image-Creation  3.7  Summary An a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n from e i t h e r t h e  demographic,  ecological, socio-cultural or p o l i t i c a l -  economic  a p p r o a c h e s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y wrong.  however,  too r e s t r i c t i v e  It i s ,  to e x p l a i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  phenomenon f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a s i n g l e a p p r o a c h . Theoretically,  a uni-explanatory  a p p r o a c h does n o t a l l o w  f o r a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i n t e r p l a y between economic,  demographic,  social,  the v a r i o u s  and p o l i t i c a l  factors  (and hence, a c t o r s ) w h i c h have l e d t o t h e m i d d l e c l a s s resettlement  of the inner c i t y .  A social  movements  e x p l a n a t i o n o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n eschews t h i s c r i t i q u e o f theoretical  restrictiveness.  I n c o r p o r a t i n g many o f t h e  i n s i g h t s of the various a l t e r n a t i v e explanations trification,  t h e s o c i a l movements a p p r o a c h  the c o n j u n c t i o n o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l political  and economic  factors.  o f gen-  acknowledges  l i f e s t y l e values  with  As such, i t p r o v i d e s  a  strong' b a s i s f o r a thorough a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n t h e c i t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia presents study  area  cultural,  i n which to consider political,  ular,  the i n t e r p l a y of s o c i o -  and economic  i z a t i o n o f an o l d e r i n n e r c i t y  an i n t e r e s t i n g  f a c t o r s i n the r e v i t a l  neighbourhood.  In partic  the " t o w n h o u s i f i c a t i o n " o f F a i r v i e w provides  a  landscape m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the ideology o f the l i v a b l e city.  Moreover,  t h e emergence o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a s  a fashionable  enclave  of inner c i t y  chic i l l u s t r a t e s  the  l e s s than d e s i r a b l e , o f t e n unintended consequences of apparently  a e s t h e t i c , humane, and  ideology.  I t i s to the case study  socially  progressive  t h a t I now  turn.  an  . . .75  Footnotes 1 F o r a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f c a p i t a l i s m see D a v i d H a r v e y , "The U r b a n P r o c e s s U n d e r C a p i t a l i s m : A Framework f o r A n a l y s i s " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f U r b a n and R e g i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 2 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , pp. 1 0 1 - 3 1 . 2  Lamarche ( 1 9 7 2 ) , a d o p t i n g Marx's d e f i n i t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , a n a l y z e s t h e s e two f o r m s o f r e n t a s D i f f e r e n t i a l R e n t 1 and D i f f e r e n t i a l R e n t 2. See F r a n c o i s L a m a r c h e , " P r o p e r t y D e v e l o p m e n t and t h e E c o n o m i c F o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e U r b a n Q u e s t i o n " , i n C.G. P i c k v a n c e ( e d . ) , Urban S o c i o l o g y : C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1977, pp. 8 5 - 1 1 8 .  ^ The c o n c e r n f o r a e s t h e t i c s and t h e r o l e o f t h e "new e l i t e " as t a s t e - m a k e r s and o p i n i o n - l e a d e r s i s d e v e l o p e d a t l e n g t h i n D a v i d L e y , " L i b e r a l I d e o l o g y and t h e P o s t I n d u s t r i a l C i t y " , Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American G e o g r a p h e r , 70 ( J u n e , 1 9 8 0 ) , pp. 238-258. 4  S e r v i c e w o r k e r s (12.4 p e r c e n t ) and f a r m w o r k e r s (46 p e r c e n t ) a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g 17 p e r c e n t o f t h e 1968 American l a b o u r f o r c e . See T a b l e 2.5 D a n i e l B e l l , The Coming o f P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1973. These f i g u r e s a r e a d a p t e d f r o m S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , P o p u l a t i o n , S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e and S c h o o l i n g , C a n a d a and B.C., C a t . 720, 1971 and S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , Census o f Canada, P o p u l a t i o n : Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , S c h o o l A t t e n d e n c e and L e v e l o f S c h o o l i n g , C a t . 92-826 ( B u l l e t i n 2 . 7 ) , 1976.  Chapter  4  INNER CITY RENEWAL I N VANCOUVER: THE CASE OF THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES  4.1  Introduc tion The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , a s i x t e e n s q u a r e b l o c k  a r e a bounded 8th  Avenue,  on t h e n o r t h b y 6 t h a v e n u e , on t h e s o u t h b y o n t h e w e s t b y Hemlock  a n d on t h e e a s t b y A s h ,  has undergone s u b s t a n t i a l r e n e w a l and redevelopment o v e r the  l a s t f i v e y e a r s (Maps 1 a n d 2 ) .  Contemporary  town-  house and a p a r t m e n t developements have s u p p l a n t e d t h e wooden f r a m e h o u s e s o f a n o t t o o d i s t a n t p a s t . of  important p o l i t i c a l  changing p u b l i c  A number  and economic f a c t o r s t o g e t h e r  with  a t t i t u d e s towards u r b a n growth and dev-  elopment have h a d s i g n i f i c a n t  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e pace  and d i r e c t i o n o f change i n t h i s i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e key e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o the "townhousification" of the Fairview  Slopes.  ...11  Map 1 The Fairview Slopes In Context  INLET  Mount Pleasant  Riley Park  . . . 78  <D  _l I  K  I I  CO  I L  Ash  Heather  Willow  ^Laurel  Oak  .Spruce  t  0  7  i n n i—i r  Alder  Birch  Hemlock  Map 2 Fairview Slopes  .79 4.2  L i b e r a l I d e o l o g y and t h e L i v a b l e  City  W i t h t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f an a t - l a r g e s y s t e m o f government  and t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e N o n - P a r t i s a n A s s o c i -  ation  (.N.P.A.) i n 1935, a n o n - p a r t i s a n / e x p e r t f o r m o f  civic  government  The model was  was  of c i v i c  instituted  i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver.,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o l l o w e d by t h e N.P.A.  t h a t o f t h e u r b a n r e f o r m movement i n t h e U n i t e d  Reform  i d e o l o g y was  b a s e d on t h e o u t l o o k t h a t t h e  States.  city  s h o u l d be r u n i n t h e manner o f an e f f i c i e n t b u s i n e s s enterprise.  The  dual processes of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  s y s t e r n a t i z a t i o n g o v e r n e d t h i s model  of c i v i c  and  administration.  P o l i c i e s n o t f o l l o w i n g t h i s p h i l o s o p h y were c r i t i c i z e d the argument t h a t way  that  "no b u s i n e s s c o u l d c o n d u c t i t s a f f a i r s  and r e m a i n i n b u s i n e s s "  t h i s c o r p o r a t e model,  (Hays, 1964).  Based  the essence o f c i v i c p o l i c y  the p r o m o t i o n o f economic surprisingly,  by  on  was  g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t .  Not  t h e most o u t s p o k e n p r o p o n e n t s o f t h i s  form  o f c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w e r e members o f l e a d i n g b u s i n e s s g r o u p s and p r o f e s s i o n a l men The w a r d  closely a l l i e d with  system o f government  o f p r e a m a l g a m a t i o n V a n c o u v e r was  characteristic  a b o l i s h e d so t h a t ,  s u m a b l y , c o u n c i l members e l e c t e d on an a t - l a r g e would g i v e  them.  less attention to l o c a l  and  basis  particularistic  m a t t e r s and more t o a f f a i r s o f a c i t y - w i d e n a t u r e . outgrowth o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o r a t e m o d e l was ment.  The  pre-  Another  arrangements o f the c o r -  the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of c i v i c  day t o day a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c i t y  were  govern-  supervised  by  a two-man b o a r d o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  senior administrators  drew t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n  and  a b o u t t h e u r b a n s c e n e f r o m t h e b u r e a u c r a c y and, n e c e s s a r y , from e x p e r t s from the  engineering  H a r d w i c k , 1974,  the  or f i n a n c i a l  91).  v i e w e d t h e m s e l v e s as acted  outside  As  sector"  trustees of  i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y were b r o a d l y  however,  translated  sector.  system o f government worked r e a s o n a b l y  many y e a r s g i v e n  at-large with  and  the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of  More o f t e n t h a n n o t ,  i n t e r e s t s o f the b u s i n e s s  and  they  the p u b l i c p u r s e  the  for  a whole.  experts  (Hardwiek  c o m m u n i t y as  This  when  f o r members o f C o u n c i l ,  i n what t h e y c o n c e i v e d t o be  the  values  system, u s u a l l y  the  as  "The  the  the p r e o c c u p a t i o n  of the  m a t e r i a l u p g r a d i n g o f the  p r e v a i l i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e t h a t g r o w t h was H a r d w i c k ( 1 9 7 4 , 184)  points  well  population  city  and  good.  the  As  out:  . . . C o u n c i l was p r o v i d i n g i n q u a n t i t a t i v e t e r m s b a s i c c i v i c n e c e s s i t i e s demanded by t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t - l a r g e . The q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s w e r e l e s s i m p o r t a n t . . . 11 i s f a i r t o s a y t h a t c i v i c g o v e r n m e n t was i n t u n e w i t h p u b l i c d e s i r e s o f the 1950's. By  the mid-1960's, however, t h i s c o r p o r a t e  o f c i v i c g o v e r n m e n t was  beginning  changing p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s . t o awaken t o c i v i c  P u b l i c o p i n i o n was  issues, i n part  c o n c e r n s a b o u t u r b a n p r o b l e m s and and  the  ment by  to f e e l the  due  to the  stress  of  beginning emerging  environmental p o l l u t i o n  l e s s than adequate t r e a t m e n t of the urban long  model  time p o l i t i c a l incumbents.  The  environ-  corporate  . . .81 m o d e l , h o w e v e r , was  too i n f l e x i b l e  to incorporate  c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s f o r i t s e t h i c was "The  non-partisan,  no b u i l t  too b u r e a u c r a t i c .  a t - l a r g e system of  government...had  i n p r o v i s i o n f o r the i n p u t s o f s u b s t a n t i a l  changes i n a t t i t u d e s o f v a r i o u s s u b s e c t i o n s o f community..." (Hardwick, the e c o n o m i s t i c ged  by  these  1974,  18).  The  the  legitimacy of  i d e o l o g y o f t h e N.P.A. b e g a n t o be c h a l l e n 1  a g r o w i n g number o f c o n c e r n e d  citizens.  These f e e l i n g s o f p u b l i c d i s c o n t e n t e r u p t e d 1967  when c i t y  c o u n c i l , on  the b a s i s o f economic  m o d e l s and  cost-benefit analyses with l i t t l e  s o c i a l and  a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r s , proposed a freeway  would cut from the east through o f t h e downtown c o r e .  The  in  efficiency  regard  for  that  Chinatown i n t o the  heart  C h i n e s e community, under  the  g u i d a n c e o f a number o f a c a d e m i c s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, m o b i l i z e d a great s i t i o n to t h i s proposal. dropped.  and  p r o p o s a l was  eventually  2  The a very  The  d e a l o f p u b l i c oppo-  Chinatown freeway c o n t r o v e r s y  o f 1967  s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i n the h i s t o r y of c i v i c  urban development i n Vancouver.  ted not o n l y a c h a l l e n g e  to a s p e c i f i c  b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t r e p r e s e n t e d corporate  model o f c i v i c  economy, e f f i c i e n c y and V a n c o u v e r saw i z a t i o n s - The  This issue  marks  politics represen-  development p r o p o s a l ,  a challenge  to  the  government w i t h i t s emphasis growth.  on  I n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r  t h e emergence o f t h r e e new  political  organ-  Committee o f P r o g r e s s i v e E l e c t o r s (C.O.P.E.),  a civic  arm o f t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y , a n d The E l e c t o r s ' -  A c t i o n Movement (T.E.A.M.). became t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t .  Of t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  T h i s was due t o t h e f a c t  t h a t T.E.A.M. s o u g h t t o be a m o d e r a t e ing to persons of a l l  political  r e f o r m group  appeal-  i d e o l o g i e s w h e r e a s C.O.P.E.  and t h e N.D.P. s o u g h t t o be more r a d i c a l g r o u p s t o p e r s o n s on t h e p o l i t i c a l  T.E.A.M.  appealing  left.  T.E.A.M. emerged a s a r e a c t i o n t o t h e b u s i n e s s o r i e n t e d p o l i c i e s o f t h e N.P.A. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d r e p r e sented the changing t i d e o f p u b l i c management a n d g r o w t h . cerned c i t i z e n  a t t i t u d e s towards  civic  The f o l l o w i n g q u o t e f r o m a c o n -  i s i n d i c a t i v e o f these changing p u b l i c  concerns. I r e c o g n i z e t h a t t o t a l k about decency i n u r b a n l i f e s o u n d s vague a n d n a i v e when everyone e l s e i s s h o u t i n g about economic r e a l i t i e s , f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and " b o t t o m l i n e " management. M o s t p o l i t i c i a n s a r e t r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e us t h a t t h e i s s u e s a r e l a n d development, t a x e s , law and o r d e r , more d i s c i p l i n e . . . T h e s e a r e i m p o r t a n t b u t t h e y o v e r l o o k what i s e s s e n t i a l t o urban l i f e - decency i n t h e way we t r e a t one a n o t h e r ( V a n . S u n , 1976, 4 ) . W h a t ' q u a l i t i e s o f a c i t y c o n t r i b u t e t o a d e c e n t way o f l i f e ? The c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n  continues:  We n e e d b e t t e r e n f o r c e m e n t o f b y - l a w s t o p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c , a t t a c k s on n o i s e a n d environmental p o l l u t i o n , improved paving o f p a r k i n g l a n e s , p e d e s t r i a n s i g n a l s and c r o s s w a l k s , more i n t e r e s t i n b u s s e r v i c e s and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , b e t t e r communi c a t i o n between c i t i z e n s and c i t y h a l l , more n e i g h b o u r h o o d - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . . . These a r e t h e s m a l l d a y - t o - d a y t h i n g s t h a t make l i f e i n t h e c i t y a l i t t l e b e t t e r , and they a r e r e a l i s t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e hands o f c i t y governments.  ... 83 S u c h a t t i t u d e s w e r e t h e r a l l y i n g p o i n t s o f T.E.A.M. By  1970 t h e " g r o w t h i s g o o d " e t h i c h e l d b y t h e  N.P.A. was b e i n g people.  questioned  b y a n i n c r e a s i n g number o f  Tom C a m p b e l l , a f o r m e r N.P.A. mayor whose  vision  o f V a n c o u v e r a s t h e "San F r a n c i s c o o f C a n a d a . . . t h e New Y o r k " was now s e e n a s u n d e s i r a b l e .  T.E.A.M. a d v o c a t e d  a more h u m a n i z e d a p p r o a c h t o g r o w t h . was  t o be a " p e o p l e - p l a c e " .  F o r them t h e c i t y  The image o f downtown e n v i s -  i o n e d b y T.E.A.M., f o r e x a m p l e , was " . . . a l o t o f p e o p l e doing but  things - doing  also enjoying  n a t u r a l l y , n o r m a l work  restaurants, entertainment,  occupations, little  b r e a k s o u t s i d e where t h e r e a r e p a r k - l i k e s e t t i n g s o r pedestrian areas" favoured  ( P r o v i n c e , 1973).  S e l e c t i v e g r o w t h was  b y T.E.A.M.  Our g o a l must be t o make, s u r e t h a t t h i s growth r e s u l t s i n r e a l improvement i n t h e q u a l i t y of l i v i n g f o r the people of our c o m m u n i t y . . . T h e r e c a n be s u b s t a n t i a l t a n g i b l e c o s t s when a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s d i s r u p t e d b y a f r e e w a y a n d we a r e now f i n d i n g t h a t t h e l o w e s t c o s t s o l u t i o n from an e n g i n e e r i n g s t a n d p o i n t i s o f t e n t h e most e x p e n s i v e s o l u t i o n when t h e t o t a l c o s t t o the community i s c o n s i d e r e d (Vancouver Sun, 1 9 7 1 , 3 2 ) . F o r T.E.A.M., t h e g r o w t h - o r i e n t e d e e r i n g mind" and t h e c i t y  'ideology o f the "engin-  e f f i c i e n t was r e p l a c e d b y t h e  s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c concerns o f t h e l i v a b l e The  a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p u b l i c a t - l a r g e echoed  t h a t o f T.E.A.M.  During  members o f t h e G r e a t e r D.) P l a n n i n g  city.  t h e S p r i n g and F a l l  Vancouver Regional  o f 1972,  District  (G.V.R.  C o m m i t t e e a n d S t a f f met w i t h c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s  . . .84 throughout G r e a t e r Vancouver  to i d e n t i f y issues of  tance  most commonly e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g  was  (G.V.R.D., 1 9 7 2 ) .  t h a t growth  restricted.  The  i n the r e g i o n  The  meetings  s h o u l d be  by i t s e l f was  lives.  stopped or  Many f e l t  insufficient.  t h a t economic  progress  P e o p l e saw many t h i n g s  c l e a n a i r and w a t e r , l o w d e n s i t y ,  which  wildlife,  e t c . - as b e i n g  threat-  growth. The  most i n d i c a t i v e m e a s u r e o f t h e c h a n g i n g  of p u b l i c o p i n i o n environment received  had  what i t does t o t h e  were i m p o r t a n t t o them - n a t u r e , n a t u r a l p l a c e s ,  ened by  severely  i n d i c a t e d t h a t many p e o p l e  come t o j u d g e p r o g r e s s by a s k i n g quality of t h e i r  impor-  was  towards  t h e management o f t h e  tide  urban  t h e i n c r e a s i n g e l e c t o r a l s u p p o r t T.E.A.M.  o v e r t h e f o u r y e a r p e r i o d b e t w e e n December,  and December, 1972. each o f the c i v i c  Having e l e c t e d only  e l e c t i o n s o f 1968  swept t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1972,  two  aldermen  and 1970,  in  T.E.A.M.  e l e c t i n g t h e mayor and  out of the t e n aldermanic s e a t s .  1968  eight  Interestingly, four  o u t o f t h e e i g h t T.E.A.M. a l d e r m e n w e r e u n i v e r s i t y p r o fessors . In short, changing p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s uncontrolled  towards  u r b a n g r o w t h , an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n f o r  b e a u t y and a e s t h e t i c s and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n  of  s u c h v a l u e s by T.E.A.M. l e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n t h e course o f urban development the  1970's.  and p l a n n i n g  i n Vancouver  I t i s w i t h i n such a c o n t e x t o f  t h a t the p r o c e s s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n has  over  livability  taken place  i n the  . . .85 inner c i t y neighbourhood o f the F a i r v i e w 4.3  F a l s e Creek and t h e F a i r v i e w  Slopes.  Slopes  Due t o t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e c i t y  t o make a f i r m  commitment a s t o t h e f u t u r e o f F a l s e C r e e k , a n i n d u s t r i a l zone o u t s i d e  t h e CBD, much o f t h e a r e a  i n 1967 was  char-  a c t e r i z e d by d e t e r i o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a n d p o o r l a n d u s e planning.  A r o u n d t h i s t i m e a number o f s u g g e s t i o n s  recom-  mending a l t e r n a t i v e l a n d u s e s , namely r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e s i d e n t i a l , were b e i n g  proposed.  Among t h o s e  advocating  s u c h u s e s f o r F a l s e C r e e k were Bob W i l l i a m s , a n u r b a n planner and  who i n 1966 was a c i t y a l d e r m a n , a n d W a l t e r H a r d w i c k  E d w a r d H i g h b e e o f t h e G e o g r a p h y D e p a r t m e n t a t U.B.C.  Highbee, arguing little  t h a t the land uses i n F a l s e Creek  resemblance t o the r o l e the area  relation  to the adjacent  to Council  c i t y , presented  i n November, 1967 s u g g e s t i n g  proper development o f F a l s e Creek should t i o n o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a t t r a c t i v e o f o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s and h i g h 1977). and  could play i n  downtown a n d t o t h e e m e r g i n g  v i s i o n o f Vancouver as an e x e c u t i v e report  bore  a  that the  s t r e s s the crea-  to the construction  r i s e apartments  (Elligot,  I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , the Vancouver Board o f Parks  Public Recreation  i n e a r l y 1967 d e c i d e d  t o develop  l o n g range p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e a r e a . Despite  these and o t h e r  appeals f o r the d e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  of False Creek, C i t y C o u n c i l , pressured  by  leaseholders  whose l e a s e s e x p i r e d w i t h i n t h e n e x t f e w y e a r s , a long term i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c y f o r the area  approved  i n the F a l l o f  ... 86 1967.  I n r e t r o s p e c t , as R u t h R o d g e r p o i n t s o u t ,  d e c i s i v e a c t i o n p r o v e d t o be  the b e g i n n i n g  this  o f t h e end  i n d u s t r y i n much o f t h e F a l s e C r e e k b a s i n f o r by o t h e r o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h e use and  then  o f t h e C r e e k were e m e r g i n g  Council's decision provided  to r e a c t (Rodger,  something a g a i n s t  which  1976).  Despite  C o u n c i l ' s commitment t o i n d u s t r y i n  False Creek, a great  deal of p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s s i n g  on n o n - i n d u s t r i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s t o o k p l a c e o v e r t h e year.  The  hensive  c i t y planning  d e p a r t m e n t , as p a r t o f a c o m p r e -  strong metropolitan and  t h i s p l a n was  economic f a c i l i t i e s  an  The  f o r downtown  i n t e g r a l part of t h i s plan.  An office  I t was  recog-  t h e p o t e n t i a l t o become s u c h  numerous i d e a s and  suggestions  i n d i v i d u a l s on  the  put  forward  future of  C r e e k i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e downtown V a n c o u v e r s t u d y presented  as f i v e  c o n c e p t s i n November, 1969.  Subsequent to the  development concepts,  had  t h a t the r e z o n i n g  from i n d u s t r i a l  False were  l o n g range development  t i o n of these requested  a  area.  by v a r i o u s g r o u p s and  and  The  cultural,  i n t h e downtown.  to the core  n i z e d t h a t F a l s e C r e e k had an a p a r t m e n t  the c r e a t i o n o f  o f f i c e c e n t r e w i t h major  apartment zone a d j a c e n t w o r k e r s was  1968  d e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of False Creek.  basic o b j e c t i v e behind  assessed  next  downtown p l a n , p r o d u c e d a r e p o r t i n December,  recommending the  tourist,  for  Council i n July,  o f the F a i r v i e w  t o r e s i d e n t i a l be  presenta-  studied.  1969  Slopes  S i m i l a r to  the  . . .87 city-owned imity  F a l s e Creek lands,  to the  the  envisioned  (as evidenced  by  t o be  s t a t e of  a high  t r i a l i z a t i o n o f the the  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a number o f today),  F a l s e Creek b a s i n during  r e s i d e n t a l neighbourhood occupied  a r e a was trial  residential  development o f the F a i r v i e w Slopes  t h e m i l l s and  residential  i n d u s t r i e s below i t .  I n the  4.1).  During  the  indus-  1900's  as a modest  1950's,  Despite  t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l a n d use  (Table  the  by p e o p l e e m p l o y e d i n  rezoned to l i g h t i n d u s t r y .  zoning,  Slopes  disrepair.  status  s t a t e l y mansions s e v e r a l of which stand  saw  as a p o t e n t i a l  As w i t h F a l s e C r e e k , t h e F a i r v e w  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g e n e r a l  area  with i t s prox-  downtown c o r e were e n v i s i o n e d  apartment zone.  Originally  Slopes  the  this  indus-  i n Fairview  1960's t h e  this  remained  working  c l a s s c h a r a c t e r o f F a i r v i e w underwent a r a d i c a l  change  as g r o u p s o f y o u n g , c o m m u n a l - l i v i n g  trans-  formed the  Slopes  Many o f t h e  neighbourhood i n t o a  residences  occupied  a c t e r i z e d by p h y s i c a l d i s r e p a i r . published  i n 1969,  95 p e r c e n t  of the  enthusiasts  by  "hippie-enclave".  t h i s group were According  to a  char-  study  r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s accounted f o r d i l a p i d a t e d b u i l d i n g s and  73  percent  o f the b u i l d i n g s i n need o f s u b s t a n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n (Vancouver Urban Renewal Study,  1969).  .88  T a b l e 4.1  .Land Use o n t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , 1969 TOTAL  L a n d Use 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  Vacant Residential P a r k i n g and B i l l b o a r d s Printing Metal F a b r i c a t i o n Other manufacturing Construction S t o r a g e and T r a n s p o r t Wholesale Trade R e t a i l Trade Service  TOTAL  No.  Acres  18 181 11 1 4 3 1 7 15 12 9  2.17 20.85 2.97 2.80 1.65 0.40 0.07 0.97 3.94 3.20 1.47  262  40.49  S o u r c e : Vancouver Urban Renewal S t u d y , T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t #4, I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s , A u g u s t , 1969.  The  five  concepts representing  alternatives  f o r t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F a l s e C r e e k a r e a v/ere d e s i g n e d t o remedy w h a t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t saw a s a z o n e o f blight. F a l s e Creek lands a r e p r e s e n t l y u n d e r - u t i l i z e d ; many u s e s a r e o u t d a t e d ; c o n d i t i o n s o f l a n d a n d b u i l d i n g s i n many i n s t a n c e s h a v e d e t e r i o r a t e d ; p o l l u t i o n o f a i r and w a t e r c o n t i n u e s . The e n t i r e a r e a i s an e y e s o r e and d e t r i m e n t t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n area ( C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., J a n u a r y , 1970). I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f F a l s e C r e e k F a i r v i e w would b o l s t e r investment, increase land  values,  e n h a n c e s u r r o u n d i n g s , and i m p r o v e t h e p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y o f the area.  Briefly  were a s f o l l o w s  outlined,  the f i v e  development c o n c e p t s  ( C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept.,  March,1970):  .89 Concept  1  Full Industrial  Development  R e d e v e l o p m e n t o f F a l s e C r e e k and t h e F a i r v i e w Slopes f o r l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l development. Concept  2  R e s i d e n t i a l and R e c r e a t i o n a l  Development  A predominantly r e s i d e n t i a l area with a f u l l r a n g e o f m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g t y p e s and w i t h a l l a n c i l l a r y p u b l i c and c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . Concept  3  Residential  and I n d u s t r i a l  Development  C o n t i n u e d i n d u s t r i a l usage o f p a r t o f F a l s e Creek; p r o v i s i o n s f o r a d d i t i o n a l "inner c i t y " apartment development ( t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s w e r e t o be d e v e l o p e d a s a h i g h d e n s i t y apartment d i s t r i c t ) ; the development o f p u b l i c and c o m m e r c i a l m a r i n a s . Concept  4  A r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a , i n c l u d i n g o f f i c e , r e t a i l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l u s e s compatible with multiple dwelling areas. Concept  5  R e c r e a t i o n a l , R e s i d e n t i a l and C o m m e r c i a l  Development  The c r e a t i o n o f a m a j o r p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y i n F a l s e Creek. I n a d d i t i o n , redeve l o p i n g r e m a i n i n g F a l s e C r e e k l a n d s and t h e Fairview Slopes f o r a combination of high d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . Those development  concepts s t r e s s i n g the  d e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f F a l s e C r e e k were r e c e i v e d most favourably  by t h e p u b l i c .  Particularly well  received  were t h o s e c o n c e p t s e m p h a s i z i n g r e c r e a t i o n o r p a r k - t y p e development.  Some i n t e r e s t was  also expressed f o r r e s i -  d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t .  Massive  redevelopment,  h o w e v e r , was social,  seen as u n d e s i r a b l e .  environmental,  Redevelopment  stressing  and a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r s was  advocated.  The p u b l i c a t - l a r g e d i d n o t want F a l s e C r e e k t o become a n o t h e r West E n d .  Among t h e f a v o u r e d  d i r e c t i o n s f o r the  f u t u r e o f t h e a r e a were ( C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g March,  Dept.,  1970):  1.  P l a n n i n g o f F a l s e C r e e k must be b a s e d on the needs o f a l l p e o p l e . Redevelopment should provide accomodation f o r d i f f e r e n t i n c o m e g r o u p s , age l e v e l s and h o u s e h o l d t y p e s.  2.  P r o p e r c o n t r o l s must be i n t r o d u c e d v i e w s w i l l be p r o t e c t e d .  3.  The w a t e r a r e a s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d o r e n l a r g e d and k e p t c l e a n and f r e e f r o m p o l l u tion.  4.  R e d e v e l o p m e n t o f F a l s e C r e e k must n o t be b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on s h o r t r a n g e f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , b u t r a t h e r on t h e l o n g range e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t upon i t s e l f and the r e g i o n .  In effect,  a very  i n n o v a t i v e form o f i n n e r c i t y  b a s e d on t h e i d e o l o g y for False  so  o f t h e l i v a b l e c i t y was  that  development envisioned  Creek. In A p r i l ,  1970 C o u n c i l  effectively  any f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s  eliminated  f o r the False  Creek  b a s i n by f o r m a l l y r e s o l v i n g t h a t C o n c e p t s 1 and 3 w o u l d no l o n g e r be c o n s i d e r e d  options  C r e e k and by r e q u e s t i n g  the p l a n n i n g  o v e r - a l l plans  f o r the f u t u r e of  f o r C o n c e p t s 2, 4 and 5.  c i t y o f f i c i a l s had committed t h e c i t y o f 1973  department  False  to prepare  By A u g u s t ,  1970  to a s t a r t i n g  date  on s t a g e one o f t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f F a l s e  Creek  . . .91 w i t h the g e n e r a l t e n o r b e i n g t h a t of a recreational  residential-  development.  It  i s instructive  to c o n t r a s t t h i s v i s i o n  F a l s e C r e e k i n the e a r l y 1970*s t o t h a t e x p r e s s e d  of  by  Gerald Sutton-Brown, Vancouver's d i r e c t o r of p l a n n i n g twenty was  years e a r l i e r .  necessary  Sutton-Brown b e l i e v e d t h a t i t  t o e x p a n d t h e number o f s i t e s a v a i l a b l e f o r  smale-scale  i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s because i n h i s experience  in Britain,  s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s begat b i g i n d u s t r i e s  a d d i t i o n a l employment and u r b a n p r o s p e r i t y 1974,  93).  The  4.4  A New  (Hardwick,  underlying i d e o l o g i c a l current of  " e n g i n e e r i n g mind" of the i n d u s t r i a l not e x p l i c i t ,  and  i n t h i s view of F a l s e  age  the  is implicit, i f  Creek.  Direction for Fairview By  S l o p e s was residential  1970  the i n d u s t r i a l  z o n i n g of the F a i r v i e w  being seriously questioned. and  commercial  As o u t l i n e d  above,  u s e s were p e r c e i v e d by C o u n c i l  t o be much more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e S l o p e s .  In  response  to C o u n c i l ' s r e q u e s t t h a t z o n i n g p e r m i t t i n g the  develop-  ment o f r e s i d e n t i a l adopted,  commercial  u s e s on  the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board  c r e a t i o n o f a CRM-1 behind  and  t h i s proposed  zoning schedule.  the S l o p e s  recommended  the  The o b j e c t i v e s  z o n i n g s c h e d u l e were f i v e - f o l d  o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., October,  be  1970):  1.  To s t o p i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and eventually replace existing industries.  2.  To a l l o w new d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h p e r m i t s c o m m e r c i a l use p l u s a d i v e r s i t y o f  (City  housing types.  In  3.  ( a ) To p r o t e c t a v i e w o f downtown and t h e N o r t h S h o r e m o u n t a i n s .• f r o m t h e d w e l l i n g s o f an optimum number o f the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of the area. ( b ) To p r o t e c t t h i s same v i e w f r o m s e l e c t e d vantage p o i n t s along Broadway. ( c ) To c r e a t e a " n e a r v i e w " o r e n v i r o n ment a t g r o u n d l e v e l w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e v a r i e t y and human i n t e r e s t .  4.  To e n s u r e . t h a t a d e q u a t e c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e and t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n be d e v e l o p e d h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s .  5.  To f a c i l i t a t e a f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t commensurate w i t h the p o t e n t i a l o f the a r e a i n terms of both improved e n v i r o n ment and e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y .  terms  o f u r b a n d e s i g n , t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s were t o be  a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f townhouses w i t h p r i m a r i l y n o n - f a m i l y and tial  units.  The  major  r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e CRM-1  low amenity  be b a s e d  on  s c h e d u l e was  to take f u l l  design advan-  V i e w enhancement  ' s e e i n g between' b u i l d i n g s o f  length r a t h e r than  residen-  objective affecting physical  tage o f the area's view p o t e n t i a l . to  need f a m i l y  'seeing over' b u i l d i n g s of  was  restricted differing  heights. Some t h i r t e e n d e l e g a t i o n s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r on t h i s p r o p o s e d M a r c h , 1971.  Not  CRM-1  views  schedule at a p u b l i c hearing i n  surprisingly,  real  e s t a t e and  ment i n t e r e s t s w e r e v e r y r e c e p t i v e t o t h i s  develop-  proposed  zoning schedule.  A s n o t e d i n a b r i e f p r e s e n t e d by  Real E s t a t e Board  of G r e a t e r Vancouver  (1971), "the  the new  .93 zoning w i l l are designed  attract  and  the proposed r e g u l a t i o n s  to encourage major development  on t h e s t e e p g r a d e s view p o t e n t i a l . " the l o c a l  investment  o f the Slopes w i t h m a x i m i z a t i o n  I n a d d i t i o n to the Real E s t a t e  r a t e p a y e r s ' g r o u p f a v o u r e d t h e new  Many o t h e r s , h o w e v e r , f a v o u r e d  CRM-1  proposals.  of t h i s group.  s c h e d u l e , Hawthorne s u b m i t t e d  scheme f o r t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s .  and  and p o p u l a t i o n t y p e s .  H e n r y H a w t h o r n e , a l o c a l a r c h i t e c t , was influential  of  Board,  lower height l i m i t s  more d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f h o u s i n g  v o c a l and  capitalizing  among t h e more  I n response  to  an a l t e r n a t i v e  A s w i t h t h e CRM-1  p o s a l , Hawthorne's a l t e r n a t i v e concept  was  designed  the  zoning proto  stop i n d u s t r i a l  z o n i n g and  to a l l o w a balanced mixture  residential  commercial  uses.  e v e r , was Of  and  t h e way  More s i g n i f i c a n t ,  Hawthorne sought t o a c h i e v e  of  how-  these g o a l s .  t h e b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g h i s p r o p o s a l , t h e most  n o t a b l e were ( B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 9 7 1 ) : 1.  To p r o v i d e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t t o t h o s e now e x i s t i n g i n the c i t y , i n o r d e r to expand the range of housing c h o i c e . T h i s s h o u l d be i n t e n s e l y u r b a n h o u s i n g w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s on f a m i l y h o u s i n g and w i t h u s a b l e open space i n p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o living units.  2.  To r a i s e t h e number o f p e o p l e l i v i n g on t h e S l o p e s i n o r d e r t o make t h e c h o i c e a v a i l a b l e t o a l a r g e r number and t o i n c r e a s e the c i t y ' s revenue.  3.  To e n c o u r a g e s m a l l - s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p r e f e r e n c e t o l a r g e ones i n o r d e r to p r o d u c e a more v a r i e d e n v i r o n m e n t a t a more human s c a l e . To e n c o u r a g e l o c a l owners t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t r a n s f o r mation of the area.  The  4.  To p r e s e r v e f o r e v e r y o n e a f u l l p a n o ramic view; i n c l u d i n g those people l i v i n g f u r t h e r south of the development a r e a .  5.  To e n c o u r a g e a f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h c a n accommodate t h e p r e s e n c e o f e x i s t i n g h o u s e s and o f f i c e s g r a c e f u l l y .  specific  z o n i n g p r o p o s a l s s u b m i t t e d by H a w t h o r n e  c o n s i d e r e d t o be u n w o r k a b l e by t h e p l a n n i n g The c o n c e p t o f i n t e n s e l y u r b a n , l o w r i s e however, housing  was v i e w e d a s an i n t e r e s t i n g and  department.  development, attractive  alternative. By t h i s t i m e (Autumn,  for  were  1971), the f i r s t  F a l s e C r e e k were b e i n g p r e s e n t e d t o C o u n c i l .  policies In  November, 1970  t h e C i t y h a d a p p o i n t e d Thompson, B e r w i c k -  Pratt,  a r c h i t e c t u r e and p l a n n i n g f i r m ,  a local  a development p l a n f o r F a l s e Creek. F a l s e C r e e k R e p o r t #3 was basic  theme a r i s i n g  an i n n e r c i t y to  f r o m t h i s r e p o r t was  community  consultant's  completed a year l a t e r .  The  the c r e a t i o n  t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e an  both high r i s e central c i t y  sprawling  The  to prepare  of  alternative  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and t o  suburbia.  The F a l s e C r e e k b a s i n i s c l e a r l y i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n every sense. I t i s Vancouver's l a s t chance to encourage a development o f h e a l t h y urban l i f e i n the centre of the c i t y . I t i s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o r d e r g r o w t h a n d t o c r e a t e a show p l a c e b o t h f o r t h e C i t y and t h e n a t i o n ( F a l s e C r e e k S t u d y G r o u p , 1971, 1 7 ) . F a l s e C r e e k was  t o be t h e embodiment o f t h e l i v a b l e  To t h e c o n s u l t a n t s l i v a b i l i t y  city.  meant s m a l l s c a l e d e v e l o p -  ment and t h e a p p r o p r i a t n e s s o f t h e p h y s i c a l  environment  " c l o s e a t hand";  a n e n v i r o n m e n t where " . . . t h e q u a l i t i e s  o f t h e n a t u r a l a n d man-made e n v i r o n m e n t be s o s h a p e d a n d maintained  that beauty, l e i s u r e  sense o f w e l l b e i n g Group,  1972, The  and r e l i e f ,  are available..."  and a c e r t a i n  ( F a l s e Creek  Study  79). s u g g e s t e d CRM-1 s c h e d u l e f o r F a i r v i e w d i d  not conform t o t h e proposed development  of False  Creek.  A s made c l e a r t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g i n a l e t t e r f r o m t h e c o n s u l t a n t s i n J u n e , 1 9 7 1 , "...we a r e c o n v i n c e d that progress  towards i n n o v a t i o n s i n environmental p l a n n i n g  i n t h e F a l s e C r e e k b a s i n c u r r e n t l y u n d e r way b y t h e F a l s e Creek Study group w i l l ii  Fairview  Slopes-.  be i m p e d e d  by t h e upzoning o f t h e  4  The p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t  after carefully  assessing  the Hawthorne a l t e r n a t i v e and t h e p r o p o s a l p o l i c i e s f o r F a l s e C r e e k , w i t h d r e w i t s o r i g i n a l CRM-1 p r o p o s a l . p l a c e , a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f Hawthorne's  In i t s  " l o w - r i s e module"  ( d e s i g n a t e d CRM-2) i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a m o d i f i e d CRM-1 zoning  ( d e s i g n a t e d CRM-3) a r o u n d i t s p e r i p h e r y was p r o p o s e d .  Development limit  o f t h e l o w p r o f i l e CRM-2 was t o h a v e a h e i g h t  o f 35 f e e t a n d t h a t o f t h e CRM-3 120 f e e t a s com-  p a r e d t o t h e 260 f e e t h e i g h t CRM-1  schedule.  l i m i t a t i o n proposed i n the  In addition to residential  development,  a l i m i t e d amount o f c o m m e r c i a l u s e was t o be p e r m i t t e d i n b o t h t h e CRM-2 a n d CRM-3 a r e a s . ally  similar  T h i s a p p r o a c h was b a s i c -  t o t h a t recommended b y t h e U r b a n D e s i g n P l a n  o f S a n F r a n c i s c o i n w h i c h t a l l e r b u i l d i n g s a r e l o c a t e d on  t h e h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s where t h e y landforms  emphasize t h e n a t u r a l  a n d do n o t o b s t r u c t v i e w s .  compatible  w i t h t h e wide  As w e l l as being  'see t h r o u g h  concept'  favoured  by C o u n c i l , t h e b a s i c m e r i t s o f l o w p r o f i l e b u i l d i n g s o n the Slopes,  as p e r c e i v e d by t h e p l a n n i n g  d e p a r t m e n t , was  i t s c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h t h e form o f development a n t i c i p a t e d to The  be p r o p o s e d f o r t h e c i t y - o w n e d F a i r v i e w Slopes  industrial  lands o f False Creek.  were o f f i c i a l l y  rezoned  from M - l  t o CRM-2/CRM-3 m i x e d c o m m e r c i a l r e s i d e n t i a l i n  May, 1 9 7 2 . 4.5  Fairview Slopes: Little  P r e c u r s o r t o Change  i f any redevelopment o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f the r e z o n i n g In  fact,  t o CRM-2 a n d CRM-3.  o n l y two new d e v e l o p m e n t s w e r e a p p r o v e d a n d c o n -  s t r u c t e d b e t w e e n 1972 a n d 1974 (F.R.A.C.A.S., 1 9 7 4 ) . was  due t o t h e l a c k o f p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g  the nature o f  the f u t u r e development o f t h e F a i r v i e w Slopes  and t h e  u n c e r t a i n t y as t o t h e f u t u r e o f t h e C i t y ' s F a l s e lands.  The CRM-2 s c h e d u l e  allowed  This  Creek  for considerable  dis-  c r e t i o n t o be e x e r c i s e d b y C o u n c i l i n t h e a p p r o v a l o f innovative b u i l d i n g designs.  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y was t o b u i l d  i na flexibility  would permit  suitable  experimental  designs  graphy and l o c a t i o n o f t h e a r e a w h i l e s t i l l safeguards  a g a i n s t poor design  C i v i c Development, 1972).  (Dept.  diswhich  t o the topomaintaining  o f P l a n n i n g and  T h e r e w e r e , h o w e v e r , no s p e c i f i c  ... 97 g u i d e l i n e s on w h i c h t o b a s e t h i s d i s c r e t i o n . schedule placed providing  h e a v y e m p h a s i s on  a large  were p e r m i t t e d  site  up  s i z e and  CRM-3  a bonus system.  low  s i t e coverage  t o an a d d i t i o n a l 0.95  s p a c e r a t i o o f 0.75.  The  Assembly of land  o f t h i s b o n u s s y s t e m p r o v e d t o be  an  By developers  t o t h e maximum  floor  to take  advantage  extremely  difficult  5 task  for  developers. The  r e t e n t i o n of the  another extremely contentious on and  the  r e m a i n i n g house s t o c k issue.  S l o p e s w e r e deemed t o h a v e some h e r i t a g e  i t was  o f t h e s e h o u s e s was  the C i t y d i d not n a t i o n was should  be  value,  believe  appropriate. provided  redevelop False undertaken.  A l t h o u g h the  and  historical  R a t h e r i t was  felt  for this  Fairview.'  This  land values.  yet  e v i d e n c e as  to  to  lack of f i r m planning  be  private  Fairview.  perceiving possibilities  d e n s i t i e s and  to  the  r e c r e a t i o n a l f u t u r e of False Creek, 6  redevelopment at higher  False  incentives  made a f i r m commitment  C r e e k , a c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t had  Land s p e c u l a t o r s ,  S l o p e s and  that  desig-  purpose.  d e v e l o p e r s were r e l u c t a n t t o b u i l d i n  from the  rehabilitat-  that enforced  W i t h o u t some c o n c r e t e  residential  the  s e e n as a ' d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e ,  A l t h o u g h t h e C i t y had  partly  houses  g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t a l l o f them a d d e d t o  p h y s i c a l d i v e r s i t y of the area. ion  Many o f t h e  was  for  revenues d e r i v i n g guidlines for  Creek, began p u r c h a s i n g  property  the  in  i n turn resulted i n rapidly escalating  A 50  by  120  f o o t l o t on  the  1300  block  West  . . .98 7th In  A v e n u e , f o r e x a m p l e , was November, 1971  t h e p r o p e r t y was  i t was  b o u g h t i n 1969  s o l d f o r $28,500.  r e s o l d f o r $55,000.  s o l d a g a i n i n December, 1973 and or  1973  f o r $14,000. I n May,  1972  Subsequently,  f o r $75,000.  Between  t h e v a l u e o f t h i s p r o p e r t y i n c r e a s e d by  1969 $61,000  an i n c r e d i b l e 478 p e r c e n t (F.R.A.C.A.S., 1 9 7 4 ) .  prices,  i n turn,  encouraged  owner-occupiers  High  to s e l l  at  h i g h p r o f i t s w i t h a r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e i n absentee The  i t was  u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f many o f t h e s e a b s e n t e e  owners.  landlords  s p e n d money on h o u s i n g r e p a i r s l e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g of  d e t e r i o r i a t e d h o u s e s and  area.  Furthermore,  ill-kept  s i o n of the e x i s t i n g housing stock hastened Of  t h e 170  on t h e S l o p e s , 12 were l o s t b e t w e e n 1973 of  o v e r 7.1  1974). of and  The  number  vacant l o t s i n the  t h e d e m o l i t i o n and c o m m e r c i a l  a t i o n of the neighbourhood.  to  percent i n l e s s than a year  the  converdeterior-  residential and  1974,  buildings a  loss  (F.R.A.C.A.S.,  s p e c u l a t i v e nature of F a i r v i e w l e d to the  loss  much n e e d e d a c c o m m o d a t i o n , l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n r e n t , the d i s r u p t i o n o f the " n e i g h b o u r l y " q u a l i t y o f the 7  area. Amidst instability,  t h i s a t m o s p h e r e o f p h y s i c a l and  the F a i r v i e w R e s i d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n  Community A c t i o n S o c i e t y submitted a b r i e f an a p p r o a c h  and  (F.R.A.C.A.S.) i n J a n u a r y ,  to C i t y C o u n c i l which  w h i c h c o u l d be  Fairview Slopes.  social  taken towards  T h i s b r i e f was  d e m o l i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g h o u s e s and  1974  outlined i n detail the f u t u r e of the  very c r i t i c a l  of the  displacement of present  tenants  a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r new d e v e l o p m e n t t o be  itecturally area.  and s o c i a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e  with  the  arch-  surrounding  A l t h o u g h t h e y w a n t e d t h e r e t e n t i o n o f a s many  h o u s e s a s p o s s i b l e , F.R.A.C.A.S. a l s o r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o l d e r , more d i l a p i d a t e d h o u s i n g  would  improve the p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y o f F a i r v i e w .  New  h o w e v e r , was t o be c o m p a t i b l e  and s c a l e  the e x i s t i n g  i n character  development, with  housing.  The  F.R.A.C.A.S. b r i e f " was v e r y  influential i n  t h a t s e v e r a l o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were e n d o r s e d b y t h e Director of Planning.  These  included:  1.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g committee. 2. A s t u d y on t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y of a policy of conservation. 3. The i n s t i t u t i o n o f I n t e r i m D e v e l o p m e n t Control Guidelines. On F e b r u a r y 8, 1 9 7 4 , C o u n c i l the  endorsed the establishment  Fairview Local Area Planning  hiring  of a planner,  planning regarding existing  Program, a u t h o r i z e d the  the i n i t i a t i o n of a representative  committee and approved a c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s the conservation  of the Fairview  p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l The  community's  fabric.  S u s s e x Group was r e t a i n e d b y t h e D i r e c t o r  of Planning  i n A p r i l , 1974 t o u n d e r t a k e t h e recommended  feasibility  study.  from t h i s  of  study  The b a s i c r e c o m m e n d a t i o n stemming  was t h a t a n e i g h b o u r h o o d - w i d e p r o g r a m o f  rehabilitation  and i n f i l l  through the establishment  of a  rehabilitation  c o r p o r a t i o n be i n i t i a t e d ( S u s s e x G r o u p ,  1974).  Although  t h i s b a s i c r e c o m m e n d a t i o n was  rejected  Q  for  a number o f r e a s o n s ,  the G i t y endorsed the i d e a  of  p r e s e r v i n g the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the r e s i d e n t i a l  build-  i n g s on  a  the S l o p e s .  T h i s was  p r o g r a m o f i n c e n t i v e s and for  historical  t o be  achieved  through  compensation to property  r e s t o r a t i o n and  through  owners  amendment t o  g u i d e l i n e s a p p l y i n g t o c o n d i t i o n a l u s e s i n t h e CRM to  the zones  s i m p l i f y p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l homeowners t o  serve .buildings of a r c h i t e c t u r a l or h i s t o r i c Another important  pre-  merit.  c o n c l u s i o n o f the  Sussex  Group r e p o r t p e r t a i n e d t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f l o w c o s t on t h e S l o p e s .  The  consultants concluded  f u t u r e o f t h e a r e a was  left  area would not  remain i n t a c t .  income r e s i d e n t s were t o be  t h a t i f the  to the c o n v e n t i o n a l  of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , the e x i s t i n g  housing  social  operations  fabric  of  the  Furthermore, i f lower  g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y  to  r e m a i n i n F a i r v i e w , some f o r m o f s u b s i d y o r n o n - p r o f i t o p e r a t i o n w o u l d be  necessary.  c l u s i o n Council accepted  In response to t h i s  in principle  the  recommendation  o f the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g t h a t city-owned Fairview Slopes  be  considered  f o r use  as  con-  l a n d i n the  lower  and  middle  q  income h o u s i n g The three  F a i r v i e w P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e , composed  r e s i d e n t p r o p e r t y owners, t h r e e t e n a n t s ,  business was  sites.'  persons,  officially  Ironically,  and  one  appointed  the f i r s t  committee o c c u r r e d  on  non-resident  three  property  by C o u n c i l on A p r i l  owner,  8,  s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n t a k e n by t h e day  of i t s o f f i c i a l  of  1975. this  appointment.  . . . 101 To  combat t h e  d e m o l i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g h o u s e s on  an u n o f f i c i a l 1974  f r e e z e on  through the  lines.  The  d e v e l o p m e n t was  instatement  of I n t e r i m Development G u i d e -  o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s was  t o c o m m e r c i a l use  b u i l d i n g s occupied new  d e v e l o p m e n t s be  residential n i n g and  exception  The  residential  to r e q u i r e with  C o m m i t t e e on  these g u i d e l i n e s i n  t o be h i n d e r i n g  l o c a l planning  Since  he  knew who  took  committee beforehand, Cornejo  committee.  C o u n c i l , upon emerging from i t s A p r i l confronted  by  the  on  i t s d e c i s i o n t o amend t h e  By  a s i x to f i v e vote, standing  committee.  was  c a s t by A r t P h i l l i p s ,  and  appointed informed  development  j u s t appointed  8th  committee  development c o n t r o l g u i d e l i n e s .  Council  the  reversed  the  decision  of  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  deciding  vote  t h e T.E.A.M. mayor.  s i g n i f i c a n t event i n that i t allowed  of a development p l a n f o r F a i r v i e w and  exception  w o u l d be  i n t e n t i o n s of the p l a n n i n g  of demolitions  amended  redevelopment.  them o f t h e  very  the  or a r c h i t e c t u r a l merit  Fairview l o c a l area planner  to t h i s recommendation.  m e e t i n g , was  Plan-  o n l y f i v e b u i l d i n g s ) , t h e g u i d e l i n e s be  C o r n e j o , the  that  nearby  f o l l o w i n g y e a r recommended t h a t w i t h  i n t h a t t h e y were p e r c e i v e d  to the  and  Standing  not  demolition,  generally compatible  of b u i l d i n g s of h i s t o r i c  (in effect,  Dan  1974  Development upon r e a s s e s s i n g  March o f the  to  or displacement of  on M a r c h 15,  development.  Slopes,  adopted i n March,  approve development which would i n v o l v e conversion  the  construction.  T h i s was  a  f o r the d r a f t i n g  r a t h e r than a s e r i e s  . . .102 The C o m m i t t e e Summer and F a l l  o f 1975.  were h e l d a t a p p r o p r i a t e the  l a r g e r community  r e s p o n s e and o p i n i o n s The  h e l d weekly meetings over the A number o f l a r g e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s p o i n t s i n the program  o f the Committee's  inform  work and t o  solicit  on f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s .  following planning  u p o n by t h e p l a n n i n g  to  o b j e c t i v e s were a g r e e d  c o m m i t t e e and t h e l o c a l a r e a  (Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g  Dept.,  planner  1977):  1.  P r e s e r v e and s t r e n g t h e n t h e s m a l l s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r of the F a i r v i e w Slopes, while allowing appropriate commercial development.  2.  Encourage the c o n t i n u a t i o n of a o f new and o l d b u i l d i n g s .  3.  Encourage the r e t e n t i o n o f e x i s t i n g p l a n t s and t r e e s and p r o m o t e h i g h q u a l i t y l a n d scape development as p a r t o f a l l d e v e l o p ment, w h e t h e r new o r r e n o v a t i o n .  4.  Reduce t h e i m p a c t o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y development.  5.  M a i n t a i n v i e w c o r r i d o r s down e x i s t i n g s t r e e t s and a v e n u e s , and g e n e r a l l y h a v e v i e w s f r o m t h e s t r e e t i n t o , and where p o s s i b l e , t h r o u g h new d e v e l o p m e n t .  6.  Optimize view p o t e n t i a l f o r e x i s t i n g u n i t s and f o r t h o s e i n new d e v e l o p m e n t s .  7.  Ensure t h a t p h y s i c a l improvements are u n d e r t a k e n v e r y soon, as f o r example, appropriate l i g h t i n g , paving, curbs, l a n e s , s i d e w a l k s , and u n d e r g r o u n d wiring.  8.  Reduce t h e i m p a c t o f v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c and n o n - r e s i d e n t p a r k i n g w i t h i n t h e residential streets.  9.  Promote the development o f f u n c t i o n a l p a r k s and open s p a c e s t o s e r v i c e t h e n e e d s o f c u r r e n t and f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s .  mixture  . .103 10.  Set i n motion the procedures necessary . t o e n s u r e t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e number o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l developments are c o n s t r u c t e d i n the F a i r v i e w Slopes over the next f i v e years t o help r e place low-cost u n i t s l o s t through redevelopment.  11.  Ensure that F a i r v i e w Slopes r e s i d e n t s , p r o p e r t y owners, and b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s have a c o n t i n u i n g f o r m a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n the decision-making r e l a t i n g to p l a n n i n g and development i s s u e s i n the F a i r v i e w Slopes. T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d  Fairview Slopes P o l i c y Plan.  Officially  i n t o The  a d o p t e d by C o u n c i l  on J u n e 1, 1 9 7 6 , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s was t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new FM-1 z o n i n g  schedule.  As  plan out-  l i n e d i n the p o l i c y plan: The i n t e n t o f t h i s z o n e i s t o e n h a n c e t h e small-scale r e s i d e n t i a l character o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s N e i g h b o u r h o o d by e n c o u r a g i n g r e t e n t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g houses and p e r m i t t i n g new l o w p r o f i l e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h may i n c l u d e some comp a t i b l e c o m m e r c i a l and a n c i l l a r y u s e s , designed to optimize the amenities inher-• ent i n t h e topography and l o c a t i o n o f t h i s i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood. In retrospect, the adoption the  demolition  o f t h i s p l a n has p r e c i p i t a t e d  o f e x i s t i n g houses and t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i n t o an e x c l u s i v e i n n e r c i t y  neigh-  b o u r h o o d o f e x p e n s i v e townhouse p r o j e c t s . 4.6  The I n t e r a c t i o n o f P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e : Development I n d u s t r y Fairview The  The R o l e o f  i n the Transformation  o f the  Slopes p a c e a n d d i r e c t i o n o f c h a n g e on t h e F a i r v i e w  Slopes has, to a large extent,  b e e n g u i d e d by t h e a c t i v e  ... .104 p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e development and r e a l e s t a t e To  gain a b e t t e r understanding  developers  portant  i n t e r v i e w s were  several a r c h i t e c t s , developers,  estate agents."^ empirical  of the r o l e of p r i v a t e  i n the renewal o f the Slopes,  conducted w i t h  t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a have some i m -  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r theory.  was f i r s t  development p o t e n t i a l o f the F a i r v i e w  recognized  i n t h e e a r l y 1970's.  four architect-developers interviewed  Slopes during  the period  1974-1975.  the  designer  the  Slopes (Fairview 1 ) , recognized roughly  o f one o f t h e f i r s t  Slopes  Three o f the  f o r t h i s study  expressed an i n t e r e s t t o b u i l d and d e s i g n  its  and r e a l  A s w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g some i n t e r e s t i n g  information,  The  area  industry.  first  a p r o j e c t on t h e  Rhone a n d I r e d a l e ,  t o w n h o u s e p r o j e c t s on  f i f t e e n years e a r l i e r .  o f f i c e s on t h e S l o p e s i n 1961.  the p o t e n t i a l of the This firm  located  With l i t t l e  o r no  redevelopment o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n h e r e p r i o r t o 1976, t h e Fairview Slopes presented onment.  a very  risky  When a s k e d t o comment o n t h e d e g r e e o f r i s k  i n v o l v e d a t the time o f t h e i r f i r s t three The  investment e n v i r -  p r o j e c t on t h e S l o p e s ,  o f the four respondents r e p l i e d extremely  risky.  f o u r t h r e s p o n d e n t saw h i s i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n a s b e i n g  somewhat  risky. As  discussed  i n C h a p t e r 1, one o f t h e b a s i c  e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s t r a t e g i e s o f the development i n d u s t r y i s the a s c e r t a i n m e n t  and r e d u c t i o n  of risks.  A d e c i s i o n on  the p a r t o f a d e v e l o p e r t o i n v e s t i n an a r e a  such as  . . .105 Fairview circa tegy.  1974 seems t o r u n c o u n t e r t o s u c h a  A high risk  i n v e s t m e n t , h o w e v e r , may r e s u l t i n a  potentially higher return. especially  T h i s p r o s p e c t appears  t o be  a p p e a l i n g t o s m a l l a s c o m p a r e d t o medium o r  l a r g e - s i z e d firms.-  As r e v e a l e d t o t h i s w r i t e r  the course o f i n t e r v i e w s , willing  stra-  through  s m a l l e r d e v e l o p e r s a r e more  t o take r i s k s than l a r g e r ones.  Tending  t o shy  away f r o m a r e a s where l a r g e d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p a n i e s a r e firmly established,  small developers tend to search f o r  more m a r g i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s where a p o t e n t i a l exist.  demand may  I n t h e w o r d s o f one o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ,  ment d e c i s i o n i s b a s e d Similarly,  the i n v e s t -  on more o f " a g u t f e e l i n g " .  a n o t h e r a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r n o t e d how  d e v e l o p e r s were r e l u c t a n t t o b u i l d  major  on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s  b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e c u r r e n t FM-1 zoning schedule.  A c c o r d i n g t o him, t h e degree  and d i s c r e t i o n i n v o l v e d i n t h e c i v i c simply too high f o r a large firm. c a s e when t h e r e a r e m a r k e t - p r o v e n elsewhere.  Indeed,  of risk  approval process i s  This i s e s p e c i a l l y the investment  possibilities  l a r g e d e v e l o p m e n t f i r m s such' a s Daon  have n o t e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t aware) i n t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s .  ( a s f a r as t h i s w r i t e r i s Rather,  locally-based,  s m a l l - s i z e d f i r m s have g u i d e d t h e pace and d i r e c t i o n o f c h a n g e on t h e S l o p e s . A number o f f a c t o r s l e d t h e s e d e v e l o p e r s t o believe  that i n - c i t y  marketable  townhouse a c c o m m o d a t i o n w o u l d  on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s .  be  The t r e n d o f i n n e r  . 106 city  r e n e w a l and redevelopment  e v i d e n t i n many o t h e r  l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s was m e n t i o n e d ents as i n f l u e n c i n g  b y two o f t h e r e s p o n d -  their perceptions.  C i t e d as examples  in  t h i s r e g a r d were t h e r e n o v a t i o n o f V i c t o r i a n wood  in  San F r a n c i s c o a n d t h e row h o u s e s  o f London.  p o t e n t i a l a f f o r e d by s t e e p t o p o g r a p h y a l s o mentioned to  frames  The v i e w  o f t h e S l o p e s was  by two o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a s c o n t r i b u t i n g  t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t t o w n h o u s e s w o u l d be m a r k e t a b l e  there.  O t h e r f a c t o r s c i t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a r k e t a b i l i t y were t h e c e n t r a l  loca-  t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w Slopes, the amenity p o t e n t i a l o f the area w i t h the impending Granville Island, for  redevelopment  o f F a l s e Creek and  a n d more g e n e r a l l y , t h e g r o w i n g  demand  i n n e r c i t y a c c o m m o d a t i o n e x p r e s s e d by a f a i r l y  sophisticated,  and c o s m o p o l i t a n market.  affluent,  Taken t o g e t h e r ,  these f a c t o r s l e d t o the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w as a p o t e n t i a l l y  desirable  investment  Slopes  environment:  W i t h a C i t y o f Vancouver p r o j e c t underway on t h e f l a t l a n d d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e w a t e r ' s edge and due f o r c o m p l e t i o n i n 1976 t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a h i g h a m e n i t y a r e a w i t h s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w s w i l l come i n t o i t s own...the C i t y i s now p r e p a r e d t o a l l o w a number o f p r o j e c t s on t h e S l o p e s t o p r o c e e d a n d r e c o g n i z e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s a r e a has an u n u s u a l p o t e n t i a l f o r d e v e l o p m e n t into a f a s c i n a t i n g mixed-use type o f a r e a . . . I n o t h e r words, t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s have t h e p o t e n t i a l o f b e c o m i n g one o f t h e u n i q u e and i n n o v a t i v e h o u s i n g a r e a s i n N o r t h 11 America. Although a l l the respondents b e l i e v e d that a market  demand f o r i n - c i t y  townhouse a c c o m o d a t i o n  on t h e  ...107 Fairview Slopes existed, the on  composition of the  p a r t of  the  t h e y were not  t h i s market.  I n i t i a l market  development i n d u s t r y  tence of  three p o t e n t i a l markets.  singles,  young p r o f e s s i o n a l  and  older  couples.  d i f f e r e n t groups. childless, typical 1980,  i n a g r e e m e n t as  The The  actual  These i n c l u d e d or  W i t h the  $150,000 r a n g e as  households characterized  by  two  " p i o n e e r i n g " are  realtors i n describing  architect  d e s c r i b e d t h i s g r o u p as  M a z a t l a n crowd". children  Fairly affluent,  sional  as  Spring not  and t h i s group.  " s i x months i n c o u p l e s whose  o t h e r major market.  large  i s o n l y v / i t h i n the  as  the  young  profes-  l a s t three years that  m a r k e t f o r S l o p e s t o w n h o u s e s has  become w e l l  A l t h o u g h o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o be units  b u i l t b e t w e e n 1976  a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t market. g e n e r a l , the  s p a c e and  the  c i t e d by To  and  went r e n t a l  many  of  due  to  A depressed housing market  street  sporadic nature of r e a l t o r s as  the  established.  strata title,  1978  non-committal p o s i t i o n  r e s p e c t t o s u c h t h i n g s as  are  of  a  one. It  the  of  "active"  older  h a v e l e f t home c o m p r i s e t h e  T h i s group, however, i s not  two  wage e a r n e r s a r e  Terms s u c h as  u s e d by  children,  young,  price  uncommon i n t h i s g r o u p .  One  two  market i s comprised of  couples. i n the  exisyoung  f i r s t g r o u p i s composed o f  professional  townhouse u n i t  analysis  showed t h e  c o u p l e s w i t h one  to  of  City  with  i m p r o v e m e n t s and d e v e l o p m e n t on  contributing  g a i n more i n s i g h t  the  into  in  park  the  Slopes  to t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  the  actual  development  ...108 decision,  t h e a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r s were a s k e d t o n o t e t h e  most i m p o r t a n t and  build  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r decision to design  a p r o j e c t on.the F a i r v i e w Slopes.  of the study  area  t o the c i t y centre  The p r o x i m i t y  and t h e s p e c t a c u l a r  v i e w o f t h e downtown a n d N o r t h S h o r e m o u n t a i n s a r e ment i o n e d by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d on t h e S l o p e s . ment o f t h e FM-1 z o n i n g important the  factor.  s c h e d u l e i n 1976 i s a n o t h e r  M e n t i o n e d by two o f t h e f o u r  FM-1 s c h e d u l e h a s p r o v i d e d  development thus reducing eristic  The e s t a b l i s h -  of the previous  w h i c h have s i g n i f i c a n t l y  respondents,  a w e l l - d e f i n e d course of  much o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y  CRM s c h e d u l e s .  Two o t h e r  i n f l u e n c e d development  are  the trend of inner c i t y  End  and K i t s i l a n o ,  two o t h e r  charactfactors  decisions  r e d e v e l o p m e n t s e t b y t h e West i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods i n  Vancouver, and t h e development o f o t h e r around the F a i r v i e w Slopes - F a l s e Creek  p r o j e c t s i n and area.  Complete w i t h b u b b l e windows, s k y l i g h t s , and r o o f g a r d e n s , t h e t o w n h o u s e p r o j e c t s on t h e F a i r v i e w reflect  the l a t e s t  i n multi-unit living  Despite  t h e i r unique design  the a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r s  ( F i g . 4.1).  and i n n o v a t i v e  interviewed  character,  f o rthis  study  unanimously agree t h a t townhouses o f t h i s s o r t would be  Slopes  only  m a r k e t a b l e i n a r e a s which p o s s e s s a t e r r a i n and o u t l o o k  similar to that of Fairview. given  This  i s not surprising  t h a t t h e v i e w a f f o r d e d by t h e s t e e p n e s s o f t h e l o c a l  t o p o g r a p h y i s t h e most m a r k e t a b l e f e a t u r e o f t h e S l o p e s .  .109  Fig. In new  4.1  Ultra-modern  t o w n h o u s e s on t h e  order to maximize t h i s landscape amenity, developments  Slopes a l l of  h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d so as t o b r i n g ,  most d r a m a t i c c i t y s c a p e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a  the "...the  into living  areas"  a c i t y s c a p e w h i c h b r i n g s "...you f a c e - t o - f a c e w i t h the beauty  of Vancouver,  b e h i n d and  w i t h F a l s e Creek  the mountains  below,  e x c e p t i o n , unanimously  s o r t would  n o t be m a r k e t a b l e  n o t e d by one Inner c i t y  architect,  city  beyond" ( F i g . 4.2).  As w e l l as t o p o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , w i t h one  the  agree  the  respondents,  that housing of  i n suburban  locations.  this As  "Suburbia i s suburbia (and)...  h o u s i n g i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the i n n e r c i t y " .  I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t when a s k e d t o name suburban  a r e a s where h o u s i n g o f t h e s o r t l o c a t e d on  the  . . .110  oA distinctivearea foralivinginvestment MARISA PLACE is located in Fairview, an exceptional area, only minutes from downUnvn and with spectacular views of the mountains, city and water. MARINA PLACE has superb, elegant townhouses that incorporate an almost endless list offeatures. There are cedar ceilings, spacious balconies and roofdecks. kitchens with Italian ceramic tilt floors, fireplaces and double glazed windows throughout. • Each lownhouse has been designed to create a living environment that's vibrant with the interplay of light andspace and unobstructed views. Quulity and excellence are everywhere to complement your exclusive and individual lifestyle. Luxury with a view starts at $96,000.  nna Opta  Anon* oxMty Mvwoprwi By  DaBy IIjOO * 7:00  %2a^fe:N''SiM  F i g . 4.2  t *  m  A  m  The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s Grandeur  Canadome  Office and information  as S t y l e and  .... I l l S l o p e s m i g h t be m a r k e t a b l e , lower Lonsdale couver.  t h e one r e s p o n d e n t  mentioned  i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a n d p a r t s o f West V a n -  T h e s e a r e a s t e n d t o be more " u r b a n "  than  "subur-  ban" w i t h r e s p e c t t o h o u s i n g forms ( i . e . apartments and townhouses) and l i f e s t y l e  ( s i n g l e s and c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s ) .  Over t h e l a s t few y e a r s c e r t a i n d e v e l o p e r s and a r c h i t e c t s h a v e made t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s t h e i r a r e a o f specialization.  A f t e r d o i n g a few p r o j e c t s t h e y have  become more a w a r e o f t h e t y p e o f d e s i g n s t h a t t h e C i t y i s likely  t o approve o r disapprove.  i s more s t r i c t and u r b a n  When a s k e d  i f the C i t y  i n their interpretations of policy  d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s today a s compared t o t h r e e o r  f o u r y e a r s ago, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e respondents of  plans  f o u r ) r e p l i e d no.  developers f e l t  In fact,  (three out  two o f t h e a r c h i t e c t -  t h a t t h e C i t y h a d become l e s s s t r i c t  over  the l a s t few y e a r s . In  summary, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y h a s p l a y e d  a key r o l e i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the F a i r v i e w Slopes. In  a s s e s s i n g t h e a r e a f o r i t s h i g h e s t and b e s t u s e , dev-  e l o p e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t a m a r k e t demand e x i s t e d f o r i n n o v a t ively  designed  little  townhouses.  Although  premature i n i t s investment  i t may h a v e b e e n a  decision,  the p r i v a t e  s e c t o r has been b a s i c a l l y c o r r e c t i n i t s assessment o f the market.  A s o f S p r i n g , 1 9 8 0 , t h e demand f o r i n - c i t y  townhouse accommodation on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s supply.  exceeded  J u d g i n g b y t h e number o f new d e v e l o p m e n t s  being b u i l t here,  the market i s s t i l l  very s o l i d .  currently Indeed,  the  litter  a n d d e b r i s , muddy s i d e w a l k s ,  ances r e l a t e d  and o t h e r  annoy-  t o t h e pace and volume o f c o n s t r u c t i o n has  p r o m p t e d one w r i t e r t o r e f e r t o t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a s a "war z o n e " ( F o r d ,  1980).  been t h e f a v o u r a b l e establishment altered  R e i n f o r c i n g m a r k e t demands h a v e  p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government.  o f t h e FM-1 z o n i n g  schedule  significantly  the development i n d u s t r y ' s p e r c e p t i o n  I t i s reasonable have o c c u r r e d  The  of the Slopes.  t o surmise t h a t development would not  as r a p i d l y as i t h a s had i t n o t been f o r  t h i s change i n z o n i n g . The b e h a v i o u r o f t h o s e d e v e l o p e r s the  "townhousification" o f the Fairview Slopes r a i s e s  some s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s  as t o the supply  housing posed i n p o l i t i c a l and h o u s i n g m a r k e t s .  the urban s t r u c t u r e .  developers  affect  t h e shape o f  T h e i r a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s ,  that developers  demands o f t h e m a r k e t p l a c e .  however,  and t h e p o l i c i e s  The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s c a s e  i l l u s t r a t e s unequivocally the  economic approaches t o t h e l a n d  i n f l u e n c e d by c o n s u m e r p r e f e r e n c e s  of l o c a l government.  s i d e argument o f  T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e a c t i o n s  and d e c i s i o n s o f p r o p e r t y  are  involved i n  study  do n o t shape  Rather, they respond t o  them. 4.7  Market Place A great  place  Demands a n d t h e R e d e v e l o p m e n t o f F a i r v i e w d e a l o f development a c t i v i t y has taken  on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s s i n c e t h e a d o p t i o n  F a i r v i e w S l o p e s P o l i c y P l a n and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of the o f the  ...113 FM-1 z o n i n g 1975  schedule.  A l a n d use survey undertaken i n  i n d i c a t e d . t h a t the Slopes contained  approximately  350 d w e l l i n g u n i t s o f 75 s i n g l e f a m i l y .and conversion  u n i t s rented  t o l o w a n d modest i n c o m e f a m i l i e s -  (Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g there  275.multiple  Dept., 1978, 2 2 ) .  Since  h a s b e e n a 30 p e r c e n t d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f  t h e s e u n i t s a c c o m p a n i e d by a 300 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e number o f l a r g e s c a l e townhouse a n d a p a r t m e n t As  o f J u n e , 1978, a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Slopes.  i n the  developments.  270 new t o w n h o u s e a n d  apartment u n i t s had been c o n s t r u c t e d  on t h e F a i r v i e w  T h e s e c h a n g e s i n l a n d u s e a r e shown i n T a b l e 4.2. Interspersed  are  1975  among t h e new t o w n h o u s e d e v e l o p m e n t s  a number o f i m m a c u l a t e l y r e s t o r e d homes  s e v e r a l c o m m e r c i a l and l i g h t  industrial  ( F i g . 4.3),  p r o p e r t i e s , the  r e m a i n i n g frame houses o f a n o t ^ t o o d i s t a n t p a s t i n F a i r v i e w ( F i g . 4 . 4 ) , and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m p l e t e d tov/nhouses and o f f i c e The d e m o l i t i o n  s i t e s o f s o o n t o be  developments.  o f some o f t h e more d i l a p i d a t e d  h o u s i n g and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f many e x c e l l e n t has  improved the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the F a i r v i e w  Market f o r c e s private and  projects  and t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  operations  Slopes.  o f the  s e c t o r , h o w e v e r , h a v e u s u r p e d some o f t h e a e s t h e t i c  social  goals  o u t l i n e d f o r the area i n the Fairview  Slopes P o l i c y Plan.  Many o f t h e o l d h o u s e s w h i c h m i g h t  have been s a v e d , f o r example, have f a l l e n v i c t i m t o t h e developer's axe.  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  of renovation i n 13  compliance with  the National  B u i l d i n g Code  , inefficient  .114  T a b l e 4.2 L a n d Use C h a n g e s o n t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , 1974-1978 December 1974 SINGLE FAMILY &.CONVERSIONS TOWNHOUSES & APARTMENTS  December 1975  December 1976  June 1978  29%  27%  23%  19%  9%  12%/o  12 /o  27%  5%  5%  6%  33%  24%  27%  3%  12%  18%  20%  24%  2%  OFFICES & COMMERCIAL  5%  INDUSTRIAL  36%  PARKING  3%  VACANT  18%  1%  COMMUNITY  100% 100% 100% 100% The p r e c e d i n g l a n d u s e p e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on t h e a p p r o x imate square f o o t a g e s f o r each u s e . Assumptions: S i n g l e - F a m i l y - 1200 s q u a r e  feet.  Conversions  feet.  - 3000 s q u a r e  F i g u r e s f o r 1978 - I n d u s t r i a l a n d O f f i c e / C o m m e r c i a l were t a k e n f r o m a n o f f i c i a l s u r v e y .  uses  F i g u r e s f o r 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 , a n d 1976 I n d u s t r i a l a n d O f f i c e / C o m m e r c i a l u s e s a r e b a s e d on i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s o f t h e 1978 s q u a r e f o o t a g e s a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e number o f establishments. Source:  Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Study o f the R e t e n t i o n o f Houses i n F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , D r a f t , O c t o b e r , 1978.  14  utilization  o f space  , and l a c k o f economic v i a b i l i t y  discouraged  the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f o l d houses.  v a t i o n c o s t s o f up t o $50 p e r s q u a r e in. e x c e s s tive it  o f $55 p e r s q u a r e  f o r homeowners n o t t o s e l l  i s much more e x p e n s i v e  existing  reno-  f o o t and l a n d c o s t s  t h e r e i s n o t much i n c e n -  to developers.  to renovate  Economically  than t o demolish  an  s t r u c t u r e a n d p u t up a new m u l t i - r e s i d e n t i a l  development.  This i s especially  townhouse c a n be b u i l t merly  foot,  With  have  t h e c a s e when a s i x u n i t  on a f i f t y  foot frontage l o t for-  o c c u p i e d b y one s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e .  p r o v i d e homeowners w i t h more i n c e n t i v e  I n order to  to rehabilitate,  the p l a n n i n g department i s c u r r e n t l y a s s e s s i n g the m e r i t s o f a l l o w i n g 100 p e r c e n t c o m m e r c i a l  c o n v e r s i o n o f houses  r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r e s e n t maximum o f 50 p e r c e n t . Developers, development p o t e n t i a l  i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o maximize t h e o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , have c r e a t e d  a s i t u a t i o n detrimental to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of views. d e n s i t y o f development i s forming a " w a l l - l i k e "  appearance  on t h e s t r e e t s c a p e t h u s l e a d i n g t o a l o s s o f v i e w on some e n t i r e b l o c k s .  The  A s w e l l a s i t s v a l u e a s an  corridors amenity,  v i e w c o r r i d o r s c r e a t e a sense o f openness and r e l i e f i n an a r e a t h a t l a c k s open The in  space.  redevelopment o f the Slopes has a l s o  t h e l o s s o f many l o w c o s t h o u s i n g  units.  High  resulted l a n d and  b u i l d i n g c o s t s h a v e n o t made i t e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e f o r the C i t y t o u t i l i z e  i t s l a n d on t h e S l o p e s f o r n o n - m a r k e t  ...117 housing as proposed  i n t h e 1976 P o l i c y P l a n .  O n l y one  s o c i a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t c o n s i s t i n g o f 45 u n i t s 7 t h and L a u r e l ) has been b u i l t . parcel,  (located at  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one  t h e r e m a i n i n g l o t s owned b y t h e C i t y i n 1976 h a v e  been e i t h e r s o l d ,  leased, or traded f o r property located 15  elsewhere  i n Vancouver. Although unintended,  t h e demands o f t h e m a r k e t  p l a c e h a v e l e d t o t h e emergence o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a s an e x c l u s i v e i n n e r c i t y townhouse and apartment 4.8 Summary  enclave o f high-cost, ultra-modern developments.  A complex i n t e r a c t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l , and  social  f a c t o r s have l e d t o t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e  Fairview Slopes. mation  Especially  s i g n i f i c a n t i n the t r a n s f o r -  o f t h i s i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood  h a s been t h e p o l i t i c s  of p l a n n i n g and t h e c r e a t i o n o f investment Due  economic,  environments.  t o t h e u n c e r t a i n n a t u r e o f t h e CRM-2 a n d CRM-3 s c h e d u l e s ,  little  o r no r e n e w a l a c t i v i t y  d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1970*s.  took p l a c e on t h e S l o p e s  In contrast,  the adoption of the  F a i r v i e w S l o p e s P o l i c y P l a n a n d t h e i n s t a t e m e n t o f t h e FM-1 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e i n 1976 s p a r k e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i n v e s t m e n t activity  on t h e p a r t o f t h e development i n d u s t r y .  The  emergence o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a s a f a s h i o n a b l e i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood now  firmly  improved  o f ultra-modern  entrenched.  townhouse p r o j e c t s i s  These developments  have  greatly  the o v e r a l l physical q u a l i t y o f the Slopes.  Economics  a n d t h e demands o f t h e m a r k e t p l a c e , h o w e v e r ,  h a v e u s u r p e d some o f t h e a e s t h e t i c originally  adopted f o r Fairview.  and s o c i a l  objectives  .119 Footnotes  o  An i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n on p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s a n d p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y i s found i n D a v i d Ley and John M e r c e r , " L o c a t i o n a l C o n f l i c t and t h e P o l i t i c s o f Consumption", E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y , 56.2 ( A p r i l , 1 9 8 0 ) , p p . 8 9 - 1 0 9 . F o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e C h i n a t o w n F r e e w a y c o n t r o v e r s y s e e V.S. P e n d a k e e r , C i t i e s , C i t i z e n s a n d F r e e w a y s , V a n c o u v e r : V.S. P e n d a k e e r , 1972. E s p . Chap. 5. A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n 1969, n e a r l y s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f T.E.A.M.*s l e a d e r s w e r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h i l e a l i t t l e over twenty p e r c e n t were b u s i n e s s m e n . I n c o n t r a s t , almost three-quarters o f t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e N.P.A. w e r e b u s i n e s s m e n . The t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and upper l e v e l w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r s as t a s t e - m a k e r s and o p i n i o n leaders i s i m p l i c i t i n these f i g u r e s . See R o b e r t E a s t o n and P a u l T e n n a n t , " V a n c o u v e r C i v i c P a r t y L e a d e r s h i p : B a c k g r o u n d , A t t i t u d e s , and N o n - c i v i c P a r t y A f f i l i a t i o n s " , B.C. S t u d i e s , 2 (Summer, 1 9 6 9 ) , p.p. 19-29.  ^ L e t t e r f r o m Thompson, B e r w i c k a n d P r a t t , F a l s e C r e e k C o n s u l t a n t s t o W. Graham, D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , J u n e 16, 1974. 5  A s o u t l i n e d i n t h e CRM-3 s c h e d u l e i n V a n c o u v e r ' s Z o n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t B y l a w , t h e maximum f . s . r . o f 0.75 may be increased: 1. Where t h e s i t e c o v e r a g e i s r e d u c e d b e l o w 25 p e r c e n t a n amount e q u a l t o 0.35 may be added f o r e a c h one p e r c e n t o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f b y w h i c h s u c h c o v e r a g e i s r e d u c e d , b u t i n no c a s e s h a l l t h i s amount e x c e e d 0.35. 2. Where t h e a r e a o f a s i t e e x c e e d s 20,000 s q u a r e f e e t an amount may be added e q u a l t o 0.02 m u l t i p l i e d b y e a c h 1,000 s q u a r e f e e t o f s i t e i n e x c e s s o f 20,000 s q u a r e f e e t , b u t i n no c a s e s h a l l t h e amount e x c e e d 0.60.  6  Much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e u r b a n l a n d m a r k e t a n d t h e development i n d u s t r y suggests t h a t d e v e l o p e r s a r e v e r y c a u t i o u s i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s , c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s i n g market demands b e f o r e v e n t u r i n g i n t o a n y f o r m s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n n o v a t i v e development o f the s o r t e n v i s i o n e d f o r the Fairview Slopes. On t h i s g e n e r a l theme s e e L a r r y S. B o u r n e , " U r b a n S t r u c t u r e a n d L a n d Use Decisions';', A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n Geographers, 66, 4 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 531-547; M i c h a e l A. G o l d b e r g a n d D a n i e l D. U l l i n d e r , " R e s i d e n t a l D e v e l o p e r B e h a v i o u r : 1975", i n H o u s i n g : I t ' s Y o u r Move, V o l . 1 1 , T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t s , A  . . . 120 R e p o r t P u b l i s h e d by a S t u d y Team i n t h e U r b a n L a n d E c o n o m i c s D i v i s i o n , F a c u l t y o f Commerce a n d B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U.B.C., A u g u s t , 1976; E d w a r d J . K a i s e r and S h i r l e y F. W e i s s , " P u b l i c P o l i c y a n d t h e R e s i d e n t i a l Development P r o c e s s " , J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 3 6 , 1 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 30-37.. A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y u n d e r t a k e n by t h e F a i r v i e w R e s i d e n t ' s A s s o c i a t i o n a n d Community A c t i o n S o c i e t y (F.R.A.C.A.S.) d u r i n g t h e Summer o f 1 9 7 3 , t h e most l i k e d q u a l i t y o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s was t h e n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s o f t h e a r e a . See F.R.A.C.A.S. B r i e f f r o m L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e , J a n u a r y , 0L974. C o u n c i l d i d n o t endorse the recommendations o f the Sussex Group f o r a number o f r e a s o n s : 1. The S u s s e x Group S t u d y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p r i m e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r neighbourhood r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s that t h e m a j o r i t y o f owners must h a v e a s t r o n g d e s i r e a n d commitment t o p r e s e r v e t h e e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The s t u d y g o e s o n t o n o t e t h a t s u c h a d e s i r e o r commitment i s n o t e v i d e n t i n t h e a r e a . 2. R e l a t e d t o 1, t h e S u s s e x Group s t a t e d t h a t i t i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e r e be a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f owner-occupiers i n the proposed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n area. H o w e v e r , i t goes on t o s a y t h a t o n l y 36 p e r c e n t o f the owners i n F a i r v i e w a r e r e s i d e n t s . 3. A n o t h e r p r e r e q u i s i t e i s t h a t l a n d a n d h o u s i n g must be a v a i l a b l e a t r e l a t i v e l y l o w c o s t s . S u c h was n o t t h e c a s e i n F a i r v i e w - l a n d c o s t s r a n g e d b e t w e e n $15 $17 p e r s q u a r e f o o t i n 1974. 4. A b r i e f p r e s e n t e d b y t h e F a i r v i e w R e s i d e n t Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t " t h e c h i e f argument f o r p r e s e r v i n g many o f t h e o l d e r h o u s e s i s n o t t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l beauty o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , b u t t h a t t h e y a d d v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y . " ''This s t a t e m e n t i s f o l l o w e d up by a c a u t i o n t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e r i g h t to renovate, reconstruct i n p a r t , o r t o t a l l y demolish and r e b u i l d s h o u l d r e s t w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t owner s i n c e d i v e r s i t y c a n a l s o , be a c h i e v e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s m a l l s c a l e new c o n s t r u c t i o n . 9 The C i t y owned a number o f l o t s on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e d L o t s 7-14 i n c l u s i v e o f B l o c k 296 a n d L o t 13 o f B l o c k 2 9 8 L o t 7, B l o c k 2 9 2 j L o t 3, B l o c k 2 9 4 j a n d L o t 1, B l o c k 3 2 0 . {  1 0  Among t h e a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y were H e n r y H a w t h o r n e , R o g e r H u g h e s , B i l l Rhone, a n d Mr. Ramses o f Ramses, Kwan a n d A s s o c i a t e s . Among t h e r e a l t o r s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y were M a r i l y n C u r r i e o f H e r s o g R e a l t y , and J u l i e G i l a n d e r o f F u l l e r E l l i s R e a l t y .  . 121  N o t e d i n a p r o p o s a l by J.G. M o r r i s R e a l t y L t d . f o r a s t r a t a t i t l e t o w n h o u s e on t h e n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f 7 t h Avenue a n d Oak S t r e e t , J u n e , 1 9 7 5 . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , three o f the f o u r a r c h i t e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d h a v e t h e i r o f f i c e s l o c a t e d on o r n e a r t h e S l o p e s . The o f f i c e s o f Rhone and I r e d a l e a n d Ramses, Kwan and A s s o c i a t e s are l o c a t e d i n h e r i t a g e designated houses on t h e S l o p e s . R o g e r Hughes' o f f i c e i s on G r a n v i l l e Island. A l t h o u g h h i s o f f i c e i s n o t l o c a t e d on t h e S l o p e s , Henry Hawthorne l i v e s h e r e . A c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s d e v e l o p e r s and a r c h i t e c t s , t h e age o f t h e h o u s e s on t h e S l o p e s makes r e n o v a t i o n v e r y difficult. The maximum f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o o f 1.5 c a n n o t be through r e n o v a t i o n . C u r r e n t l y , a new l e a s e i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d c a p p e d " p r o j e c t on 745 W. 7 t h A v e n u e .  for a  utilized "handi-  . 122  Chapter 5 THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES RESIDENT SURVEY 5.1  Introduction The  transformation  o f the Fairview  Slopes  i n t o an i n t e n s e l y u r b a n , . i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f modern t o w n h o u s e a n d a p a r t m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i s now f i r m l y  entren-  ched.  have  Over a p e r i o d o f o n l y f i v e y e a r s  gone f r o m an a r e a  the Slopes  o f medium d e n s i t y , l o w l a n d v a l u e s , a n d  l o w c o s t a c c o m m o d a t i o n into*,one v a l u e s , and e x p e n s i v e  of high density, high  accommodation.  The h i g h c o s t o f  accommodation i n F a i r v i e w , however, has n o t d e t r a c t e d i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as a r e s i d e n t i a l l a s t two y e a r s has  land  environment.  from  Over the  t h e demand f o r a c c o m m o d a t i o n on t h e S l o p e s ,  been growing s t e a d i l y .  Indeed, d i s c u s s i o n s  with  v a r i o u s r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e demand f o r fashionable, i n - c i t y  townhouse l i v i n g  i s g r e a t e r than the c u r r e n t supply. insight into  i n amenity l o c a t i o n s I n order  t o g e t more  t h e emergence o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s  d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood, a r e s i d e n t was u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g A p r i l - M a y , t h i s chapter survey  i s to provide  results.  theoretical  1980.  survey  The p u r p o s e o f  a d e s c r i p t i v e review  I n the f o l l o w i n g chapter,  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these  as a  of the  some o f t h e more  r e s u l t s w i l l , be  t h r o u g h a n a s s e s s m e n t o f the. i d e o l o g y  of l i v a b i l i t y  considered developed.  123 i n C h a p t e r s 2- a n d 3 and t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n n e r city  i n general.  5.2  Methods and Data In order  sixty-five,  to achieve  a sample s i z e o f r o u g h l y  a random s a m p l e o f some n i n e t y F a i r v i e w  Slopes  r e s i d e n t s was drawn f r o m t h e 1979 f e d e r a l v o t e r ' s l i s t f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e  polling  introduction asking study  districts.  Initially,  a letter of  f o rresident participation i n a  on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s  was s e n t  research  t o e a c h o f t h e sam-  p l e d r e s i d e n t s ( A p p e n d i x 1 ) . T h i s was f o l l o w e d up by a personal  visit  i n which those  p a r t i n the study (Appendix 2 ) . were g i v e n  residents agreeing  were p r e s e n t e d  with a questionnaire  I n the i n t e r e s t o f time,  the option o f doing  time o f the i n i t i a l  visit  the respondents  the questionnaire  the s t r a i g h t forward  nature  I n o n l y .a f e w i n s t a n c e s was i t n e c e s s a r y a p a r t i c u l a r question. the receptiveness  which  questionnaire.  t h e most p a r t , t h e r e were no d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h  method g i v e n  by  at the  o r t a k i n g a few days a f t e r  I w o u l d r e t u r n t o p i c k up t h e c o m p l e t e d For  to take  this  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . f o r me t o c l a r i f y  O v e r a l l , I was p l e a s a n t l y s u r p r i s e d  o f the r e s i d e n t s t o the survey.  O c c a s s i o n a l l y , I had t h e p l e a s u r e  o f s h a r i n g an impromptu  d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a n i n t e r e s t e d r e s i d e n t on t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the Slopes  t h a t I had  a n d my r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g  the area.  A f t e r s e v e r a l days of f i e l d  work I r e a l i z e d  n o t drawn enough names t o  sample s i z e o f s i x t y - f i v e .  achieve  my d e s i r e d  I n many i n s t a n c e s ,  initial  ...124 c o n t a c t was  n o t made due  t o t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e homeowner  or tenant.  I f a f t e r two  subsequent  still  visits  contact  n o t made, t h e r e s i d e n t i n q u e s t i o n was  the sample. chosen  from  had  t o sample had been e i t h e r d e m o l i s h e d , v a c a t e d , o r use.  Roughly  c o n t a c t l e t t e r s I had  because the addressee longer existed. additional list.  dropped  I n o t h e r c a s e s , t h e homes o f t h o s e I  converted to commercial initial  was  Due  twenty of the  s e n t were r e t u r n e d t o  had moved o u t o r t h e a d d r e s s to these unforseen problems,  f o r t y - f i v e names w e r e . d r a w n f r o m  I n c o n t r a s t to the f i r s t  drawn on a s t r a t i f i e d  round,  random b a s i s .  me no  an  the v o t e r ' s  the sample  was  To a v o i d d r a w i n g  n o n - e x i s t e n t a d d r e s s e s , t h e s a m p l i n g u n i v e r s e was  limited  to those r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g i n the r e s i d e n t i a l core of Slopes ( F i g . 5.1).  Despite t h i s procedure,  q u i t e a few i n s t a n c e s o f n o n - c o n t a c t . round o f s t r a t i f i e d  A t h i r d and  one  returns,  a final  completed  final  additional  A f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y tv/o months  o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , I had seventy-one  t h e r e were  random s a m p l i n g a d d e d an  eleven survey respondents.  the  a total  of  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Of t h e s e , s e v e n t y - •-  t e n were d i s c a r d e d f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s  leaving  sample s i z e o f s i x t y - o n e r e s p o n d e n t s . F o u r g e n e r a l a r e a s were e x p l o r e d i n the  questionnaire:  ( 1 ) h o u s i n g and n e i g h b o u r h o o d  o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s (2) the d e s i r a b i l i t y a p l a c e to l i v e i t i e s and  (3) u r b a n  l a n d u s e and  characteristics of Vancouver  development  ( 4 ) t h e s o c i a l and d e m o g r a p h i c  prior-  characteristics  as  . . 125  «D  —I I  K  I I  CO  I L  Ash  Heather  Willow  Laurel  Oak  Spruce  Alder  0  7 i n n i—i r  Fig.  Birch  Hemlock  5.1 The R e s i d e n t i a l C o r e o f t h e F a i r v i e w  Slopes  o f the survey respondents. of t h i s chapter.  The  cussed i n Chapter  6.  5.3  Social  P a r t s 1 and  r e s u l t s o f p a r t s 2 and 3 a r e  discussed i n Chapter  p r o f e s s i o n a l " i s o f t e n used  the s o c i a l  2, t h e t e r m  dis-  "young  to d e s c r i b e the r e s i d e n t s o f  i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods. and  respondents  focus  and D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f R e s p o n d e n t s As  revitalized  4 are the  demographic background  An a n a l y s i s o f the  r e v e a l s the aptness o f t h i s  of  survey  characterization,  64 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e a r e u n i v e r s i t y - e d u c a t e d ; 52 p e r c e n t are employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and/or o c c u p a t i o n s ; and  managerial  51 p e r c e n t e a r n t o t a l h o u s e h o l d  i n e x c e s s o f $32,000 p e r y e a r h i g h income l e v e l , income h o u s e h o l d s  ( T a b l e 5.1).  incomes  Given  this  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d t h a t comprise  40 p e r c e n t o f t h e  two-  survey  sample. As  these f i g u r e s would suggest,  the  resi-  d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n of the F a i r v i e w Slopes i s q u i t e unique  one.  Indeed,  i n 1976  an  o n l y 14 p e r c e n t o f V a n c o u v e r i t e s 2  as a w h o l e h a d  t h r e e o r more y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y  t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t were e m p l o y e d i n m a n a g e r i a l 3 fessional  and  only pro-  occupations. With  disproportionately households  and  fall  r e s p e c t t o age,  t h e 25-34 c a t e g o r y i s  r e p r e s e n t e d - 42 p e r c e n t o f t h e  into t h i s category  (as compared t o  p e r c e n t f o r V a n c o u v e r as a w h o l e ) ( T a b l e 5 . 1 ) .  sample 17  Only  2  Table  5.1  S o c i a l and Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Survey Respondents  Education Some H i g h S c h o o l High School Graduate Vocational/Technical School Community C o l l e g e Some U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y Degree  % Survey  Respondents 4.9 6.6 6.6 4.9 11.5 63.9  Occupation Professional Managerial Technical Clerical Sales Service Process and manufacturing Other*  44.3 8.2 4.9 11.5 4.9 6.6 1.6 13.1  A n n u a l H o u s e h o l d Income U n d e r $8,000 $8,000-$16,000 $16,000-$24.000 $24,000-$32,000 O v e r $32,000  9.8 8.2 8.2 11.5 50.8  Age  ** 0-14 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 O v e r 65  *Includes.housewives, **% h o u s e h o l d members  11.8 2.2 14.7 41.9 19.1 6.6 2.2 0 r e t i r e e s , and s t u d e n t s  ...128 percent of the household f i v e y e a r s o f age. comprise  members, h o w e v e r , a r e o v e r  Similarly,  fifty-  c h i l d r e n under f o u r t e e n  o n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  I t s h o u l d be  n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n V a n c o u v e r as a whole has been d e c l i n i n g o v e r t h e l a s t  few y e a r s .  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1976 C e n s u s , c h i l d r e n u n d e r f o u r t e e n accounted  f o r o n l y 16 p e r c e n t o f t h e c i t y ' s t o t a l  popu-  l a t i o n a s c o m p a r e d t o 21 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 7 1 . Living  i n an i n t e n s e , h i g h l y u r b a n  i s n o t a new e x p e r i e n c e t o many o f t h e s u r v e y  environment respondents.  P r i o r t o m o v i n g t o t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , 33 p e r c e n t o f t h e sample had l i v e d  i n either Kitsilano  (18 p e r c e n t ) o r t h e  West E n d ( 1 5 p e r c e n t ) , two i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s Vancouver which  have undergone a g r e a t d e a l o f redevelopj-  ment a n d r e n e w a l . an a d d i t i o n a l  A s w e l l a s K i t s i l a n o a n d t h e West E n d ,  5 p e r c e n t had p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d i n t h e i n n e r  c i t y neighbourhoods Pleasant  in  o f G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d s and Mount  (Table 5.2).  I n s h a r p c o n t r a s t , o n l y 13 p e r c e n t  of t h e sample had l i v e d i n a suburban moving t o the S l o p e s .  location p r i o r to  T h i s d a t a adds f u r t h e r  to t h e m i s l e a d i n g use o f the phrase describe the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  evidence  "back-to-the-city" to  phenomenon.  Table  5.2  R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n of Respondents to Moving t o the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s %  Inner C i t y Vancouver Other Vancouver Vancouver U n s p e c i f i e d Suburban Vancouver Outside Province  Prior  Respondents 37.7 19.7 9.8 13.1 19.7  ^ I n c l u d e s the neighbourhoods o f Grandview Woodlands, K i t s i l a n o , Mount P l e a s a n t and t h e West End As  d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter,  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s from neighbourhood-  o f o l d houses to t h a t of  t o w n h o u s e s and last  r e n o v a t i o n s has  few y e a r s .  contemporary  only occurred within  have l i v e d  (56 p e r c e n t ) h a v e l i v e d  on t h e S l o p e s . here  (Table 5.2).  lived  i n the study area f o r over t e n y e a r s .  time  two  Only 5 p e r c e n t o f the sample have  t h e d e m o l i t i o n o f t h e o l d h o u s e s and  contemporary  the  The  f o r l e s s than  years  to  an unkempt  T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l e n g t h of  the survey respondents majority  the  townhouse l i v i n g ,  accompanied the p h y s i c a l  social  Due  primarily  the h i g h c o s t o f  displacement  has  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w  Slopes. Table  5.3  Length  of Residence  on t h e  Slopes %  Less 1 to 3 to 6 to Over  than 1 year 2 years 5 years 10 y e a r s 10 y e a r s  Respondents 23.0 42.6 21.3 8.2 4.9  . 130 5.4  The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a s a P l a c e t o L i v e I n o r d e r t o probe deeper i n t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l  desirability  o f the Fairview Slopes, the survey respon-  d e n t s were q u e s t i o n e d a s t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e study area.  The most o f t e n m e n t i o n e d  i n the  reason f o r l i v i n g  h e r e i s t h e s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w o f t h e downtown a n d N o r t h Shore mountains topography  a f f o r d e d by t h e s t e e p n e s s o f t h e l o c a l  ( F i g . 5.2)  71 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e  t h i s f e a t u r e as s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t i n g ion to live  on t h e S l o p e s .  cited  to their  decis-  O n l y 57 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s  w i t h o u t a u n i v e r s i t y degree mentioned-the  view as b e i n g  important.  I n c o n t r a s t , 77 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h a n  university  e d u c a t i o n a n d e a r n i n g i n e x c e s s o f $32,000  per year mentioned  this factor.  Interestingly,  o f t h e name F a i r v i e w s t e m s f r o m t h e v i e w i t s e l f . h i s t o r y has i t ,  L.A. H a m i l t o n , a C.P.R. l a n d  named F a i r v i e w a s s u c h b e c a u s e  the o r i g i n As  commissioner,  he was s o t a k e n by t h e v i e w .  The most s o u g h t a f t e r u n i t s o n t h e S l o p e s a r e specifically  d e s i g n e d so as t o maximize  the view  S u c h u n i t s demand e x t r e m e l y h i g h p r e m i u m s .  potential.  Indeed,  real-  t o r s e s t i m a t e t h e v i e w a l o n e t o be w o r t h up t o t w e n t y f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f some u n i t s . The  central  l o c a t i o n o f the Fairview Slopes i s  another important f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to i t s d e s i r a b i l i t y as a r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood.  61 p e r c e n t a n d 43 p e r c e n t  of the respondents r e s p e c t i v e l y mentioned  proximity to  . . .131  . . .132 p l a c e o f work and p r o x i m i t y t o c u l t u r a l activities  as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e on  the Slopes.  E s p e c i a l l y important  p r o x i m i t y o f the F a i r v i e w Slopes As  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  i n t h i s respect i s the t o t h e downtown  one o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d b u s i n e s s  centres of  Western Canada, a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w h i t e employment i s f o u n d i n t h e h e a r t business  district.  last  office  decade.  collar  o f Vancouver's c e n t r a l  The i m p o r t a n c e o f s u c h  activities  i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e g r o w t h o f downtown o f f i c e the  core.  space  over  B e t w e e n 1971 a n d 1 9 8 0 , t h e amount o f  s p a c e l o c a t e d i n t h e downtown p e n i n s u l a  some e i g h t - e i g h t p e r c e n t  increased  f r o m 7,935,000 s q u a r e f e e t , t o 4  roughly  15,000,000 square f e e t .  sion i n office  expan-  space has b r o u g h t w i t h i t an e x p a n s i o n o f  s e r v i c e and r e t a i l additional  Moreover, t h i s  facilities  l e a d i n g t o the c r e a t i o n o f  job opportunities. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e downtown p e n i n s u l a , t h e  Fairview Slopes  neighbourhood i s l o c a t e d a short  from t h e Broadway c o m m e r c i a l c o r e . c o r e , Broadway has t h e h i g h e s t  N e x t t o t h e downtown  concentration of white 5  c o l l a r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e c i t y . l a t i o n s h i p between o f f i c e  space and white  ment i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  distance  The r e -  collar  employ-  i n F a i r v i e w because o f i t s  h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and managerial  workers.  I n a d d i t i o n t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h e many t h e a t r e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , a n d n i g h t s p o t s make t h e downtown c o r e  t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l h e a r t  of the  . . . 133 city.  The  proximity  activities  F a i r v i e w Slopes to  a d d s t o i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as a  neighbourhood. are  of the  such  residential  This i s e s p e c i a l l y true f o r those  e m p l o y e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and  technical  occupations  (53 p e r c e n t ) .  In .contrast, respondents l a c k i n g a  sity  seem t o t a k e  education  o f the  S l o p e s than the  s a m p l e as a w h o l e .  of residence  of those l i v i n g  mentioned p r o x i m i t y  O n l y 29  percent  to c u l t u r a l  and  S i m i l a r l y , w h e r e a s 65 p e r c e n t  those owning t h e i r p l a c e o n l y 30 p e r c e n t  univer-  less interest i n this quality  of these respondents mentioned p r o x i m i t y recreational factors.  who  to c u l t u r a l  cited  of  this factor,  i n r e n t a l accommodation and  recreational  as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e  on  the  activities Fairview  Slopes. I n c o n t r a s t to such concrete view or the  c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n o f the  f o u r t h r e a s o n c i t e d by buting  sample, t h i s i s the Slopes.  t h i n g s as  ize  M e n t i o n e d by  the  developing  the  the  contri-  o f the  of  style  lends  in-city  townhouse l i v i n g  -  character-  - "The  i t s e l f more t o p r o f e s s i o n a l r a t h e r  by  such  o f the neighbourhood  the b u i l d i n g s r a t h e r than d e p r e c i a t i o n " ; the  s t y l e a f f o r d e d by  the  on what t h e y meant  n e i g h b o u r h o o d where i m p r o v e m e n t s  of  Fairview  respondents r e f e r r e d to  changing nature  the  S l o p e s i s one  34 p e r c e n t  "special character"  When a s k e d t o e l a b o r a t e  "special character",  on  the  Fairview Slopes,  s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s as  to t h e i r d e c i s i o n to l i v e  an amorphous n a t u r e .  "A  the  f e a t u r e s as  lifelife-  than  ... 134 family l i f e " ;  and  the emerging "snob-appeal"  S l o p e s - "The  s o r t o f upv/ard m o b i l i t y q u a l i t y o f  p l a c e , b e t w e e n m i d d l e - and u p p e r - m i d d l e  of  the the  class".  As  r e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o t h e s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w s and p r o x i m i t y o f t h e S l o p e s t o s u c h p l a c e s as t h e F a l s e Creek,  and G r a n v i l l e  The  final  Island.  r e a s o n , c i t e d by 31 p e r c e n t o f  F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a p l a c e t o l i v e , p o t e n t i a l of the neighbourhood.  i s the  the  investment  accommodation  (61  t h o s e e a r n i n g more t h a n $32,000 p e r y e a r  (42  p e r c e n t ) , and  t h o s e w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e (39 p e r c e n t ) .  c o n t r a s t , o n l y 13 p e r c e n t o f r e n t e r s and  those w i t h o u t a u n i v e r s i t y degree mentioned ment p o t e n t i a l o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . couver  the  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  i m p o r t a n t f o r t h o s e o w n i n g t h e i r own  In  the  downtown,  s a m p l e as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f  percent),  real  19 p e r c e n t the  steadily  As w i t h the Van-  increased.  This  the factor,  t o g e t h e r w i t h the e x c e l l e n t r e s a l e p o t e n t i a l o f the makes t h e p u r c h a s e  units  o f a F a i r v i e w S l o p e s townhouse a v e r y  investment. A number o f o t h e r r e a s o n s a r e a l s o c i t e d by  survey respondents.  These f a c t o r s a r e n o t as  as t h o s e o u t l i n e d above. to  this.  of  invest-  e s t a t e m a r k e t as a w h o l e , t h e v a l u e o f  u n i t s on t h e S l o p e s h a s  attractive  well,  important  T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , one  exception  A l t h o u g h o n l y 23 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e as  whole mention  the  t h e c o s t o f h o u s i n g , 44 p e r c e n t o f  a  those  .....135 e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $32,000 p e r y e a r c i t e h o u s i n g c o s t b e i n g an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . dominate the r e s i d e n t i a l  Although  fabric  inexpensive rental units,  h o u s e s and  apartments,  remain.  however, are a w a i t i n g redevelopment presence  both s i n g l e  may  ment, t h e f a c t r e m a i n s  not cause  family  Most o f these  units,  as e v i d e n c e d by  o f development permit a p p l i c a t i o n s .  t h i s redevelopment  townhouses  o f t h e S l o p e s , a number o f  relatively  still  expensive  as  Although  a great deal of  that people w i l l  the  displace-  be f o r c e d o u t  of  t h e i r homes. Table reasons  5.4  c i t e d by  p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e v a r i o u s  the sample as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  their  d e c i s i o n t o l i v e on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . On  the o t h e r s i d e o f the c o i n ,  there are  a  number o f t h i n g s a b o u t t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s which- t h e s u r v e y sample e x p r e s s l y d i s l i k e . of the respondents, and  s i d e w a l k s and  Mentioned  t h e unkempt c o n d i t i o n o f t h e  t h e rundown n a t u r e o f many o f  r e m a i n i n g o l d h o u s e s a r e t h e most d i s l i k e d the S l o p e s .  by 67  percent streets  the  features of  P o t - h o l e d r o a d s and muddy, c u r b l e s s s t r e e t s  a r e h i g h l y a n o m a l o u s i n an a r e a where $200,000 t o w n h o u s e s a r e commonplace ( F i g . 5 . 3 ) . nature of the neighbourhood.  T h i s i s due  to the  transitory  I t has not been p o s s i b l e  f o r t h e c i t y t o k e e p up w i t h t h e c h a n g e w h i c h h a s p l a c e on t h e S l o p e s o v e r t h e l a s t d i t i o n s are e s p e c i a l l y  troublesome  few y e a r s . in this  taken  -These c o n neighbourhood  because of the r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t n a t u r e o f the  local  T a b l e 5.4  D e s i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Slopes  Fairview  10  View o f the  downtown and  North  mountains Proximity  Respondents  Shore 70.5  t o work  60.7  P r o x i m i t y o f c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l activities S p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the neighbourhood  42.6 34.4  Investment p o t e n t i a l o f the hood  neighbour-  31.1  R e l a t i v e c o s t o f h o u s i n g as to o t h e r a r e a s i n the c i t y  compared  Proximity ment  to the  Well maintained  F a l s e Creek  23.0 redevelop-  neighbourhood dwellings  L e v e l o f p u b l i c and the area  23.0 18.0  private services in 13.1  Fig.  5.3  C o n s t r u c t i o n A n n o y a n c e s and Street Conditions  Fig.  5.4  On-street  P a r k i n g on  the  Poor  Slopes  " p o p u l a t i o n and  the  emergence o f t h e to  expectations  they  Fairview Slopes  h a v e as  to  ...138  the  as a f a s h i o n a b l e  place  live. Over the  l a s t year  o r two,  the  local  has  been f a i r l y  successful i n lobbying  and  engineering  departments to improve the  ance.  the c i t y  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a S e v e n t h Avenue  of  a v a i l a b i l i t y of parking  p o s e s a n o t h e r i s s u e o f c o n c e r n on 5.4).  traffic  s t r e e t appear-  implemented i n  1981.  The  (Fig.  planning  streetscape  i m p r o v e m e n t p r o j e c t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o be the S p r i n g  community  48 p e r c e n t  of the  as s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s .  and  through  the F a i r v i e w  traffic  Slopes  sample c i t e p a r k i n g B r o a d w a y and  both h e a v i l y used east-west t r a f f i c  and  6 t h Avenue  arteries.  8 t h Avenue  i s u s e d f o r c i r c u l a t i o n by B r o a d w a y - o r i e n t e d t r a f f i c , much o f t h i s  traffic  6th Avenue.  North-south  Oak  This t r a f f i c  Street.  fact  uses north-south  t h a t F a i r v i e w has  steep  traffic  reach  i s particularly  heavy  lane  s y s t e m and  and  on  the  very  grades.A b o u t 75 p e r c e n t  Fairview i s non-resident. o f the  s t r e e t s to  p r o b l e m i s compounded by  a limited  are  Slopes  daytime p a r k i n g  T h i s i s due  t o the  in  proximity  t o the C e n t r a l Broadway c o m m e r c i a l c o r e  the Vancouver General w i t h i n the  of the  Slopes  parking problem.  Hospital.  Commercial  development  i t s e l f a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the I f t h e p l a n o f a l l o w i n g 100  commercial conversion  of e x i s t i n g  and  local  percent  houses i s implemented,  • • • " ••. . .139 p a r k i n g v / i l l become e v e n more o f a  problem.  Overdevelopment and t h e mix o f r e s i d e n t i a l commercial  l a n d uses  view Slopes which  a r e two o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e F a i r -  t h e s u r v e y s a m p l e f i n d b o t h e r s o m e . 36  percent of the respondents c o n s t r u c t i o n which  dislike  t h e p r o s p e c t o f new  c o u l d o b s t r u c t t h e v i e w o f t h e down-  town a n d N o r t h S h o r e m o u n t a i n s .  Although zoning  regu—  6 lations call  f o r a f l o o r space  ratio  (f.s.r.)  o f 0.6,  •the d i s c r e t i o n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e FM-1 s c h e d u l e a l l o w s a developer a f . s . r .  o f up t o 1.5.  T h i s means t h e a r e a o f  t h e b u i l d i n g s may be up t o 1.5 t i m e s t h e a r e a o f t h e property.  To e a r n t h e maximum f . s . r .  take i n t o account  t h e n a t u r e and s i z e o f t h e s i t e , t h e  adequacy o f open space, of  amenities which  a d e v e l o p e r must  overall  d e s i g n and t h e p r o v i s i o n  c o u l d r e s u l t i n community  benefits.  J u d g i n g by- t h e n a t u r e o f r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t , i t a p p e a r s a s i f t h e h i g h e r d e n s i t y h a s become t h e norm r a t h e r t h a n the e x c e p t i o n .  T h i s has l e d t o the complaint t h a t p l a n n e r s  have s i m p l y rubber-stamped  everything without worrying  about whether a p r o j e c t enhances t h e neighbourhood not.  Even w i t h c a r e f u l  or  s i t e p l a n n i n g , the o b s t r u c t i o n o f  views i s i n e v i t a b l e g i v e n the d e n s i t y o f development. As w i t h overdevelopment c e n t o f t h e sample d i s l i k e cial  loss,  36 p e r -  the mixed r e s i d e n t i a l - c o m m e r -  l a n d use on t h e S l o p e s .  u s e s w h i c h v/ere a p p r o v e d  and view  Many b u i l d i n g s a n d l a n d  under the p r e v i o u s l i g h t  z o n i n g c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s .  industrial A  .,..140 manufacturer  of  ' f a s t - f o o d s ' , an a u t o b o d y s h o p , and  g r a p h i c s shop a r e among t h e most n o t a b l e o f t h e s e i n d u s t r i a l uses.  these uses  are anomalous.  v e r s i o n of o l d houses i n t o o f f i c e s ,  With  t h a t much o f a  The  con-  however, i s not  problem.  t h e s e f o u r e x c e p t i o n s , no o t h e r a s p e c t  t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i s d i s l i k e d by more t h a n p e r c e n t o f the sample (Table To  light  I n t e r s p e r s e d among t h e l u x u r y t o w n -  house developments,  p e r c e i v e d t o be  5.5).  gain further insight into  w e r e a s k e d how  the d e s i r a b l e  to a f r i e n d .  are i m p l i c i t ,  i f not e x p l i c i t ,  the  A number o f g e n e r a l themes i n these responses.  Many  r e f e r e n c e s , b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , a r e made t o n a t u r e o f the S l o p e s .  e s t i n g responses  include,  and  they would d e s c r i b e t h e i r  neighbourhood  changing  of  fifteen  n o t so d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , respondents  a  Some o f t h e more  "...under redevelopment  the  interwith  p r o s p e c t of becoming e x p e n s i v e , e x c l u s i v e , f a s h i o n a b l e and d e s i r a b l e  inner city residential  e n c l a v e " ; "A  newness i s t a k i n g p l a c e o f t h e o l d " ; "The hippy-kept buildings w i l l houses w i l l  t o r n down and  degenerate ( I ) hope town  be c o n s t r u c t e d " .  References and  the c e n t r a l i t y  Not  surprisingly,  as v e r y  be  look of  desirable.  t o the view p o t e n t i a l of the  Slopes  o f i t s l o c a t i o n a r e a l s o v e r y common. these q u a l i t i e s  of the Slopes are  seen  T a b l e 5.5  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the F a i r v i e w Slopes which Survey Respondents D i s l i k e %  Street conditions Parking  and  traffic  Overdevelopment Mixed land Excessive  a n d run-down b u i l d i n g s  and v i e w l o s s  Respondents 67.2 47. 5 36.1  uses  36.1  noise  14.8  Lack o f convenience shopping  13.1  Lack of neighbourhood f e e l i n g  9.8  Demolition  .8.2  of e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s  4.9  Neighbours Houses too c l o s e  together  3.3  .... 142 Responses r e l a t e d of l i v i n g The  t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e and  style  i n F a i r v i e w l a y t h e b a s i s f o r a f o u r t h theme.  Slopes  a r e d e s c r i b e d as  " l i k e being  "exciting";  i n t h e c o u n t r y and  "a v e r y e x c l u s i v e s l u m " . o f the change w h i c h has c r i b e s the a r e a as,  One  city  "alive";  a t t h e same  respondent,  very  "stylish"; time";  critical  t a k e n p l a c e on t h e S l o p e s ,  "Rapidly degenerating  into a  des-  rich  man's p a r a d i s e " . Finally,  a number o f r e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o  the c o s t o f h o u s i n g "One  of the b e s t  to " G e t t i n g v e r y  i n Fairview.  Responses range  deals i n q u a l i t y housing  i n Vancouver"  expensive".  I n s h o r t , i f one to bear the growing  is fairly  a f f l u e n t and  pains of a developing area,  F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , w i t h i t s s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w s and l o c a t i o n , c a n be 5.5  The  a very a t t r a c t i v e place to  F a i r v i e w S l o p e s and  over  the l a s t  o f modern t o w n h o u s e s and  the central  live.  few  t a k e n p l a c e on  years.  The c o n s t r u c t i o n  l a s t number o f y e a r s , l o c a l  neighbourhood.  r e s i d e n t s h a v e come  t o q u e s t i o n t h e q u a l i t y o f some o f t h e more r e c e n t ment.  As  d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , they  simply rubber sideration  argue t h a t  stamp e v e r y t h i n g w i t h o u t  the impact  the  the r e n o v a t i o n of o l d houses  have i m p r o v e d the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the Over the  willing  the F u t u r e o f Development  A g r e a t d e a l o f change has Fairview Slopes  from,  o f new  planners  taking into  p r o j e c t s on t h e  develop-  con-  neighbourhood.  • • • 143 Indeed,  next  to the c o s t o f h o u s i n g ,  the p h y s i c a l  change  t h a t i s t a k i n g p l a c e on t h e S l o p e s i s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned leave to  aspect of F a i r v i e w which  (Table 5.6).  c o u l d cause  someone t o  T h i s r a i s e s a number o f q u e s t i o n s  as  t h e f u t u r e o f d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s .  gain further insight  on t h i s m a t t e r ,  To  the respondents  s u r v e y e d a s t o t h e i r o p i n i o n s on t h e d i r e c t i o n  were  o f change  in Fairview. A r e s o u n d i n g m a j o r i t y (84 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e  survey  s a m p l e f a v o u r more h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e F a i r v i e w Slopes.  The  renovation of e x i s t i n g  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new particularly  townhouse p r o j e c t s a r e v i e w e d  desirable  h o w e v e r , must be  (Table 5.7).  95 and  89 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e  as k e y p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e  respectively  the p r e s e r v a t i o n  housing f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s viewed  and  as h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e .  and  townhouses,  l o w e r income f a m i l i e s Only  39 p e r c e n t o f  t o see t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  housing.  of t h i s sort i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  by t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s Only  the  government-assisted  sample would l i k e Housing  character  Slopes.  c o n t r a s t t o r e n o v a t i o n s and  development o f low r i s e apartments  or  c h a r a c t e r o f the n e i g h -  s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f the s m a l l s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l  In  as  T h i s development,  f a v o u r c o n t i n u e d v i e w p r e s e r v a t i o n ' and and  the  d e s i g n e d so a s n o t t o o b s t r u c t v i e w s  hamper t h e s m a l l s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l bourhood.  s t r u c t u r e s and  is  the  social disliked  m a k i n g i n e x c e s s o f $32,000 p e r  year.  23 p e r c e n t o f t h i s g r o u p as c o m p a r e d t o 65 p e r c e n t  of  . 144  T a b l e 5.6  A s p e c t s o f F a i r v i e w Which C o u l d Cause R e s i d e n t s t o Move % Respondents  Cost o f housing i s too expensive P h y s i c a l change Job change Increasing size of family Don't l i k e t h e p e o p l e Change i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s E x p e c t t o be e v i c t e d f r o m p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g  T a b l e 5.7  Types o f Development Favoured Future o f the Slopes  29.5 26.2 24.6 18.0 13.1 13.1 13.1  f o r the  0/  Renovation of e x i s t i n g structures Townhouses S i n g l e f a m i l y homes a n d d u p l e x e s Government-assisted housing Low r i s e a p a r t m e n t s  Respondents 68.9 67.2 49.2 39.3 34.4  .145 t h o s e e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $32,000 f a v o u r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of  government-assisted housing.  The a m b i g u o u s n a t u r e o f  opinions with respect to low-cost housing i s further e v i d e n c e d by t h e f a c t  t h a t 38 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e  favour  s u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n b u t 41 p e r c e n t o p p o s e i t . In  a similar  v e i n , o n l y 30 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e  s u r v e y e d a r e f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e development o f lov; r i s e apartments.  N o t h a v i n g made a s c o n s i d e r a b l e a n i n v e s t -  ment a s t h o s e v/ho own u n i t s , h a v i n g no s i g n i f i c a n t  r e n t e r s are p e r c e i v e d as  t i e s with the l o c a l  neighbourhood.  T h i s i n p a r t may e x p l a i n t h e d i s l i k e o f l o w r i s e  apart-  ments . The p r o s p e c t o f d e v e l o p m e n t o t h e r t h a n dential  i s viewed  respondents. commercial  v e r y u n f a v o u r a b l y by t h e s u r v e y  Under t h e p r e s e n t z o n i n g , " a p p r o p r i a t e  d e v e l o p m e n t i s a l l o w a b l e on t h e S l o p e s .  m a j o r i t y o f t h e sample Only  resi-  twenty-nine  mix o f commercial Central  (56 p e r c e n t ) f i n d  this  The  annoying.  p e r c e n t f a v o u r t h e encouragement and r e s i d e n t i a l  1 1  of a  land use.  t o the c o n t i n u e d development o f t h e  Fairview Slopes i s l o c a l  r e s i d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n and i n v o l v e -  ment i n t h e f u t u r e p l a n n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n e i g h b o u r hood.  85 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e f e e l  important.  i s very  I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o them t h a t p l a n n i n g  d e c i s i o n s n o t be made u n i l a t e r a l l y racy.  that this  by t h e c i v i c  bureac-  . 146 5.6  Summary Contemporary  inner c i t y  townhouse  living  c e n t r a l , high amenity l o c a t i o n has a t t r a c t e d a affluent, well-educated Fairview Slopes.  among t h e l o c a l  t r a n s i t i o n a l nature  gives rise  residents.  t o some  Especially  s t r e e t c o n d i t i o n s on t h e S l o p e s . future, continued  fairly  group o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e  The s t i l l  n e i g h b o u r h o o d , however,  in a  of the  dissatisfaction  d i s l i k e d are the  With respect t o the  development, as l o n g as i t i s compat-  i b l e w i t h t h e e m e r g i n g image o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s an a t t r a c t i v e  and even p r e s t i g i o u s p l a c e t o l i v e , i s  seen as h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e .  as  Footnotes The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i s i n c l u d e d i n p o l l i n g 144, 145 a n d 146. 2  districts  T h i s f i g u r e v/as a d o p t e d f r o m V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , V a n c o u v e r L o c a l A r e a s , A p r i l , 1979.  3 T h i s f i g u r e was a d o p t e d f r o m S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , F o r c e I n f o r m a t i o n , C a t . 71-001P, D e c . 9, 1980.  Labour  4  These f i g u r e s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m v a r i o u s i s s u e s o f t h e annual Real E s t a t e Board o f G r e a t e r Vancouver p u b l i c a t i o n , R e a l E s t a t e Trends i n G r e a t e r Vancouver.  5  A s o f May, 1 9 8 0 , some 2,864,000 s q u a r e f e e t o f o f f i c e s p a c e h a d b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d on B r o a d w a y .  6  The f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o ( f . s . r . ) i s t h e f i g u r e o b t a i n e d when t h e a r e a o f t h e f l o o r s o f b u i l d i n g ( s ) on a s i t e i s d i v i d e d by t h e a r e a o f t h e s i t e .  7 The f a c t t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t i s c u r r e n t l y r e v i e w i n g t h e w h o l e s i t u a t i o n on t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s tends to bear out t h i s charge o f overdevelopment.  .148  Chapter  6  CONCLUDING REMARKS 6.1  The I n n e r C i t y a n d T h e o r y M a j o r changes i n t h e economic and s o c i a l  of society  fabric  t o g e t h e r w i t h , .an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e  central city  as an e x c i t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g p l a c e  have  led to the middle c l a s s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the inner S t r e n g t h e n i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g  city.  t h e r e n e w a l p r o c e s s h a s been  the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e development i n d u s t r y and financial  community  government.  and the f a v o u r a b l e p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e F a i r v i e w  Slopes  f r o m a r e l a t i v e l y unkempt n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f o l d , s o m e t i m e s run-down h o u s e s i n t o one o f c o n t e m p o r a r y townhouse  devel-  opments a n d i m m a c u l a t e r e n o v a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e s  t h e complex  interplay of cultural,  factors i n  economic, and p o l i t i c a l  t h e r e n e w a l o f an o l d e r , i n n e r c i t y  area.  Theoretical  a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h , do n o t a c k n o w l e d g e t h i s c o n j u n c t i o n o f socio-cultural  l i f e s t y l e values with p o l i t i c a l  a n d econoriomic  f a c t o r s a r e t o o narrow i n scope t o p r o v i d e a complete analysis of gentrification.  An e x p l a n a t i o n o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n  e m p h a s i z i n g s o c i a l movements a v o i d s t h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l narrowness. A s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3, a number o f k e y p o i n t s  provide  t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r an a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l  movements a n d s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s . include  These  ( 1 ) S o c i a l movements a r e i d e o l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d  (2) They a r e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s c h a n g e o r i m p r o v e m e n t a n d (3) They a r e s o c i a l l y - o r g a n i z e d , o f t e n i n t e r m s o f l e a d e r - , follower relationships. resources  Control over the a l l o c a t i o n o f  i s o f t e n the s p e c i f i c  a movement.  t y p e o f c h a n g e s o u g h t by  Due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l  access to  resources,  p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e much more successful i n m o b i l i z i n g supporters others.  and s y m p a t h i z e r s  The l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f a movement t h r o u g h  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s perhaps the hallmark In the case o f i n n e r c i t y renewal, i n n e r c i t y the c o n t e s t e d  resource  of  than  political  success.  space i s  a n d t h e m i d d l e c l a s s newcomers a n d  the o f t e n poor, incumbent r e s i d e n t s a r e the competing The  groups.  r e s e t t l e r s may be e n c o u r a g e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s b y a  variety of leaders. political-economic  The f i r s t  urban "pioneers"  e l i t e s who d e c i d e d  and t h e  t o end r e d l i n i n g and  make i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e may be v i e w e d a s a s s u m i n g a leadership  role.  I n the c i t y o f Vancouver, the course  o f development and p l a n n i n g  o v e r t h e 1970's has been  g r e a t l y s h a p e d by t h e i d e o l o g y  of l i v a b i l i t y  first  d u c e d b y The E l e c t o r s ' A c t i o n Movement, an u r b a n party,  at the beginning  a context  of l i v a b i l i t y  o f the decade.  introreform  I t i s within  such  that the " t o w n h o u s i f i c a t i o n " of  the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s has t a k e n  place.  .150 6.2  Planning Reality  and P o l i t i c s  i n Vancouver: Theory and  In contrast to the growth-oriented the N o n - P a r t i s a n  A s s o c i a t i o n , T.E.A.M. s t r e s s e d t h e  i m p o r t a n c e o f a e s t h e t i c s and. s t y l e the urban environment. appeal  ideology of  i n the planning o f  Landscapes l a c k i n g the sensory  demanded b y p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l  a n a t h e m a t o T.E.A.M. s u p p o r t e r s .  a e s t h e t i c t a s t e were The h i s t o r i c  designa-  t i o n and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Gastown and C h i n a t o w n districts,  the construction o f the G r a n v i l l e Street  p e d e s t r i a n m a l l , v a r i o u s downzonings throughout t h e c i t y , and  the redevelopment o f F a l s e Creek a r e a l l i l l u s t r a t i v e  o f t h e " c a n o n s o f good t a s t e " . Heritage Advisory provide  Similarly,  the Vancouver  C o m m i t t e e a n d t h e U r b a n D e s i g n Group  examples o f i n s t i t u t i o n s e x p l i c i t l y  created f o r  the promotion o f a q u a l i t y urban environment. c o n c e r n s f o r a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e , magnificent  together with the  physical setting of the c i t y ,  Vancouver a very  livable  These  h a v e made  city.  A d e p r e s s e d n a t i o n a l economy c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y spiralling  inflation,  h i g h unemployment and v o l a t i l e  i n t e r e s t and'mortgage r a t e s have prompted a swing back t o more c o n s e r v a t i v e , t i g h t - f i s t e d l a s t few y e a r s .  government o v e r t h e  Fiscal conservativism,  however, h a s n o t  dampened t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e p u b l i c f o r u r b a n  environ-  ments w h i c h r e s p e c t human s e n s i b i l i t y a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f the p h y s i c a l environment.  One o f t h e more  important  . . . 151 c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a s o c i a l movement, a s M o r r i s o n e t a l (1972) n o t e ,  i s t o p r o v o k e a more " l i b e r a l "  from e s t a b l i s h e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  "Therefore,  come o f movement o r g a n i z a t i o n e f f o r t s  response the out-  i s not v i s i b l e  s i m p l y i n t h e i r own a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , b u t a l s o i n t h e responses  they b r i n g about from o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s "  ( M o r r i s o n e t a l , 1972, 2 6 9 ) . Many o f t h e " r a d i c a l " reforms  made by T.E.A.M. d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1970's p r o v i d e  the s t a n d a r d s  a g a i n s t which p l a n n i n g and development  issues are evaluated During ver City  today.  the course  o f the year  1979, t h e V a n c o u -  P l a n n i n g Commission, a group o f v o l u n t a r y  citizens  who a d v i s e c i t y c o u n c i l o n p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t had  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o radministering a goal-setting  program f o r the c i t y o f Vancouver. were b e h i n d long-term  matters,  t h i s program.  Two b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s  F i r s t , t h e g o a l s were t o a c t a s  t a r g e t s f o r t h e c i t y t o s t r i v e towards and  s e c o n d , t h e y were t o a c t a s r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s t o e v a l u a t e i s s u e s , .and p r o p o s a l s t h a t may a r i s e essence,  i n the f u t u r e .  t h i s program p r o v i d e d a mechanism whereby  In citizens  c o u l d p r o v i d e some i n p u t , a s t o t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f their city. Goals  f o r V a n c o u v e r P r o g r a m was a n o u t g r o w t h  sultative  o f the con-  m o d e l o f c i v i c g o v e r n m e n t s u b s c r i b e d t o by T.E.A.M. In  felt  As a v e h i c l e f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the  the survey  respondents  t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t  c h a r a c t e r o f Vancouver.  w e r e a s k e d what  they  elements o f the c u r r e n t  The theme o f t h e l i v a b l e c i t y i s  • " very evident; q u a l i t i e s  s u c h as " t h e g o o d p a r k s "  the " n a t u r a l environment  and b e a u t y "  v e r y i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f the c i t y Another  and  a r e p e r c e i v e d to. be (Table  s e c t i o n o f the survey asked  d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e how  152  6.1).  2  respon-  i m p o r t a n t c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s were  f o r Vancouver's f u t u r e .  The  f i v e most i m p o r t a n t  objectives  were: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)  V i e w s o f t h e m o u n t a i n s and w a t e r p r o t e c t e d C i t y w i t h an a t t r a c t i v e a p p e a r a n c e R e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n government A s s i s t e l d e r l y to r e s i d e i n the c i t y P u b l i c t r a n s i t be a v a i l a b l e t o s e r v e a l l p a r t s o f the c i t y  I m p l i c i t i n these responses  a r e t h e s o c i a l and  c o n c e r n s which.T.E.A.M. as a c i v i c In a s i m i l a r vein,  aesthetic  p a r t y brought  to the  the F a i r v i e w Slopes  survey  s a m p l e were q u e s t i o n e d as t o what t h e y b e l i e v e t o  fore.  be  (1) t h e t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s a b o u t V a n c o u v e r t h a t s h o u l d n o t c h a n g e and  (2) t h e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f V a n c o u v e r  t h a t s h o u l d change o r improve.  Mentioned  by 64  percent  o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , V a n c o u v e r ' s g r e e n a r e a s and p a r k s judged  t o be  t h e most i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e  These f e a t u r e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h o s e  are  city. employed  i n p r o f e s s i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s (77 p e r c e n t )  and  p o s s e s s i n g a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e (72 p e r c e n t ) .  this  one  e x c e p t i o n , no  o t h e r aspect o f the c i t y  by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s a m p l e ( T a b l e 6 . 2 ) .  With  is  I t should  n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t w h e r e a s o n l y 38 p e r c e n t o f s a m p l e as a w h o l e c i t e  mentioned be  the  l i v a b l e c i t y p l a n n i n g as b e i n g  a s p e c t o f V a n c o u v e r t h a t s h o u l d n o t c h a n g e , 50 p e r c e n t  an of  T a b l e 6.1  First  The G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r P r o g r a m : I m p o r t a n t T h i n g s a b o u t V a n c o u v e r t h a t s h o u l d n o t Change  ten responses  Frequency  The g o o d p a r k s N a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t and b e a u t y G r e e n e r y , l a n d s c a p i n g and t r e e s B e a c h e s and w a t e r a c t i v i t i e s Protected views Stanley Park Cleanliness Population size H e r i t a g e and h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s C u l t u r a l and e t h n i c mix Source:  338 231 152 137 119 91 75 60 57 57  "Goals f o r Vancouver Program", Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w , 6, 4 ( O c t o b e r ^ 1979) .  1  ••• the p r o f e s s i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l group mention Similarly, mentioned  o n l y one  this  ...154  factor.  aspect of Vancouver i s  by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s  need o f change o r improvement ( T a b l e 6.3).  as i n  Mentioned  59 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e , t h i s i s t h e p o o r q u a l i t y public  t r a n s i t i n the c i t y .  some f o r r e s p o n d e n t s (70 p e r c e n t ) .  This i s especially  transit  needs improvement.  I n o r d e r t o p r o b e more d e e p l y i n t o t h e of public  a t t i t u d e s and u r b a n  S l o p e s s a m p l e was  asked  series of p r i o r i t i e s and H o u s i n g  t o s t a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n s on  i d e n t i f i e d by  cities.  An  r e v e a l s the d e s i r e f o r h i g h l y urban  environments.  of public  priorities  the Canada Mortgage  livable,  f o r the  socially equitable  O v e r 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e  the r e d u c t i o n of a i r p o l l u t i o n  a  a n a l y s i s of these o p i n i o n s  t h a t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p a r k s and  ability  matter  development, the F a i r v i e w  C o r p o r a t i o n as i m p o r t a n t i n i t i a t i v e s  f u t u r e of Canadian  year  those  e a r n i n g more t h a n $32,000 p e r y e a r v i e w p u b l i c a s an a s p e c t o f V a n c o u v e r w h i c h  of  trouble-  e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $32,000 p e r  I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y 45 p e r c e n t o f  by  open space  (97 p e r c e n t ) ,  (97 p e r c e n t ) , t h e  t r a n s p o r t (95 p e r c e n t ) a r e  f o r the f u t u r e o f urban Canada.  agree  avail-  important Indeed,  with  4 two  exceptions,  ified  a l l the p r i o r i t i e s which  under the g e n e r a l r u b r i c  of l i b e r a l  more t h a n 50 p e r c e n t r e s p o n d e n t planning objectives  (Table 6.4).  c a n be  i d e o l o g y have  agreement as Conversly,  s u c h a s t h e b u i l d i n g o f more f r e e w a y s  class-  important priorities  (39 p e r c e n t )  and  T a b l e 6.2  Aspects o f Vancouver that Change (Top 5 r e s p o n s e s )  should not  % Green a r e a s and p a r k s Livable c i t y planning Natural beauty City heritage Cosmopolitan nature of c i t y  T a b l e 6.3  Respondents 63.9 37.7 32.8 26.2 24.6  A s p e c t s o f V a n c o u v e r t h a t s h o u l d Change o r I m p r o v e (Top 5 r e s p o n s e s ) %  Public transit Streets & t r a f f i c More l i v a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t Parks City social services  Respondents 59.0 29.5 26.3 23.0 18.0  ; . . 156  T a b l e 6.4  Priorities  f o r F u t u r e Urban  Planning %  P r e s e r v i n g p a r k s and open s p a c e Reducing a i r p o l l u t i o n A v a i l a b i l i t y of public t r a n s i t Reducing energy consumption P r o t e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c and h e r i t a g e Assisting elderly I n v o l v i n g people i n govn't d e c i s i o n s Housing w i t h a wide range o f r e n t s P r o t e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from urban development I m p r o v i n g downtown Improving daycare Cultural variety A t t r a c t i n g new i n d u s t r y Easy to d r i v e around c i t y B u i l d i n g more f r e e w a y s Stopping growth o f the c i t y More h i g h r i s e d e v e l o p m e n t  Respondents Agreeing 96. 7 96. 7 95. 1 95. 1 88. 5 88 . 5 86. 9 83. 6 82. 0 78. 7 73. 8 73. 8 49. 2 49. 2 39. 3 36. 1 31. 1  ....,157the c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i g h - r i s e developments are viewed  as r e l a t i v e l y  (31 p e r c e n t )  unimportant.  F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the data suggests respondents  that  e a r n i n g i n e x c e s s o f $32,000 p e r y e a r h a v e  more o f a c o n c e r n f o r e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t h a n t h e s a m p l e as a w h o l e . cited i n t h i s regard.  development  S e v e r a l e x a m p l e s may  First,  t o t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f new  and  t h i s group  industry  be  i s more a m e n a b l e  (61 p e r c e n t ) t h a n  m a k i n g l e s s t h a n $32,000 (35 p e r c e n t ) .  those  Second, whereas  o n l y 19 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e m a k i n g o v e r $32,000 want t o stop c i t y growth,  52 p e r c e n t o f t h e l o w e r income  group  want t o see g r o w t h  stopped.  t h a n $32,000 g r o u p  d i s a g r e e t h a t government s h o u l d r e g u l a t e  private business.  I n c o n t r a s t , 84 p e r c e n t o f t h e  income g r o u p  T h i r d , 35 p e r c e n t o f t h e  d i s a g r e e w i t h government r e g u l a t i o n .  g e n e r a l , however, the t e n o r o f o p i n i o n i s f a i r l y The  renewal  and r e d e v e l o p m e n t  There  improved  Innovative urban  liberal.  liberal  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f modern  the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the S l o p e s .  d e s i g n coupled w i t h a s p e c t a c u l a r pan-  o r a m i c v i e w and c e n t r a l  l o c a t i o n h a v e made F a i r v i e w an  aesthetically pleasing, highly desirable neighbourhood.  In  i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e d e m o l i t i o n o f  some o f t h e o l d e r h o u s i n g and townhouses has  upper  o f the F a i r v i e w  S l o p e s p r o v i d e s a d r a m a t i c landscape metaphor of ideology.  less  The  growing  residential  demand f o r i n - c i t y  townhouse  a c c o m m o d a t i o n h a s n o t gone u n n o t i c e d by t h e r e a l e s t a t e  • -...158 industry.  M o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e f o r p r o f i t s ,  d e v e l o p e r s have h a s t e n e d Without  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the Slopes.  t h e a c t i v e and w i l l i n g  elopment i n d u s t r y ,  private  p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the dev-  as. e v i d e n c e d b y t h e s t a g n a n t n a t u r e o f  the Slopes d u r i n g the e a r l y t o mid-1970's, the course o f renewal would l i k e l y  have t a k e n much l o n g e r .  however, has l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a v e r y neighbourhood. ming from  Profitability,  exclusive  I n t h e w o r d s o f L e y , "...an a c t i o n  liberal  i d e o l o g y has d i s f a v o u r e d a v u l n e r a b l e  i n c o m e g r o u p a n d f a v o u r e d t h e more p r i v i l e g e d " 256).  stem-  (Ley,  1980,  C o o p t e d b y m a r k e t p l a c e demands, an a p p a r e n t l y  a e s t h e t i c , humane, a n d s o c i a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e i d e o l o g y h a s spawned a number o f l e s s t h a n d e s i r a b l e , o f t e n u n i n t e n d e d consequences.  T h i s quandary r a i s e s s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s as  to D a n i e l B e l l ' s a n a l y s i s o f the p r e v a i l i n g ethos o f post-industrial  s o c i e t y as " s o c i o l o g i z i n g "  r a t h e r than  5 "economistic".  Individual u t i l i t y  and p r o f i t  maximiz-  a t i o n h a v e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y become s u b o r d i n a t e d t o b r o a d e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e and community Illustrative  interest.  o f t h i s i s t h e ambiguous n a t u r e o f s u r v e y  o p i n i o n s with' r e s p e c t t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f low c o s t h o u s i n g developments, i n F a i r v i e w t o h e l p r e p l a c e u n i t s l o s t through  redevelopment.  As d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s  c h a p t e r , 38 p e r c e n t o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s s u r v e y  sample  f a v o u r s u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n b u t a t t h e same t i m e 41 p e r c e n t oppose i t .  S i m i l a r l y , although a resounding m a j o r i t y of  t h e s a m p l e ( 8 4 p e r c e n t ) want t o s e e more h o u s i n g  development  on  the  Slopes,  only  39 p e r c e n t f a v o u r  the  construction  of government-assisted housing f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s  and  lov/er i n c o m e f a m i l i e s . 6.3  Young P r o f e s s i o n a l s and The  composite p i c t u r e of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  h o l d s as y o u n g (25 affluent,  the P u r s u i t of S e l f - i n t e r e s t s  and  to 35),  well-educated,  house-  relatively  employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and/or o t h e r  status white c o l l a r occupations i s suggestive  high  of a group  o f i n d i v i d u a l s f r e e d t o d e v o t e i n t e r e s t t o more a e s t h e t i c , e l e m e n t s o f human e x i s t e n c e  because t h e y have l a r g e l y  solved b a s i c m a t e r i a l problems. character the  of t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s , c r i t i c s  elitist  n a t u r e o f l i b e r a l movements.  conservation,  amenity p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  of noxious development are not living basic  Because o f the  very  i n d e g r a d e d e n v i r o n m e n t s and facilities.  and  affluent  often point  Architectural the  relevant  prevention to  those  l a c k i n g access  Opponents o f h i s t o r i c  to  preservation,  f o r example, charge t h a t i t i s j u s t a n o t h e r form o f r e m o v a l " and by  that preservation  inner c i t y  renewal  (Ford  r e s i d e n t s as and  Fusch,  p r o j e c t s are  j u s t as  to  looked  threatening  as  "poor upon  urban  1975).  I t i s o f t e n a l l e g e d t h a t t h e s e more p r i v i l e g e d groups, despite  their so-called liberal  t h e i r resources  to e x p l i c i t l y  Gregory  intentions,  e n h a n c e t h e i r own  utilize  positions.  ( 1 9 7 6 ) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f a m e n i t y movements,  f o r e x a m p l e , s u g g e s t s t h a t most l o c a l a m e n i t y b o d i e s  are  concerned to p r o t e c t not onment o f t h e i r own one  severe  critic  the environment but  members and  the  supporters.  o f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  envir-  Similarly,  movement a r g u e s  t h a t "...much o f what p o s e s f o r an i n t e r e s t i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n i s no more t h a n a d e s i r e on o f the r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - t o - d o tages,  i f necessary  them" ( C r o s l a n d , t h e new  by  to preserve  to the  "flawed  ladder  advan behind  It i s this characteristic  m i d d l e c l a s s w h i c h has  reference  part  t h e i r own  ' k i c k i n g down' t h e  1971).  the  prompted A l v i n  universal class".  of  Gouldner's  As he  writes  The p a r a d o x o f t h e New C l a s s i s t h a t i t i s b o t h e m a n c i p a t o r y and e l i t i s t . . . T h e new d i s c o u r s e i s the g r o u n d i n g f o r a c r i t i q u e o f e s t a b l i s h e d f o r m s o f d o m i n a t i o n and p r o v i d e s an e s c a p e f r o m t r a d i t i o n , b u t i t a l s o b e a r s t h e s e e d s o f a new d o m i n a t i o n . . . E v e n as i t s u b v e r t s o l d i n e q u a l i t i e s , t h e NEW CLASS S I L E N T L Y INAUGERATES A NEW HIERARCHY OF THE KNOWING, THE KNOWLEDGEABLE, THE REFLEXIVE AND INSIGHTFUL ( G o u l d n e r , 1979, 84-85) (My e m p h s i s ) . These a l l e g a t i o n s r a i s e s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s distributional  equity of amenities  and  of opportunity  c o s t s between d i f f e r e n t  the  as t o  the  distribution  sections of  soc-  iety. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h these apparently  humane and  disfavouring The  "gentry",  lower  and  many  socially equitable strategies  income g r o u p s have been u n d e r t a k e n .  because of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l  p r o f e s s i o n a l and resources  charges of e l i t i s m ,  background,  technical expertise, organizational  often well-connected  memberships,have been  '  a b l e t o sway p o l i t i c a l  decisions i n t h e i r favour.  ( 1 9 8 0 ) , f o r example, i n a s t u d y on t h e c h a n g i n g a commercial  district  A t l a n t a , notes  6  1  face o f in  of older businesses i n  d e a l i n g w i t h t h e government because,  u n l i k e t h e new  t h e y were n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t a c t i c s  r e q u i r e d t o manage an i s s u e . by L e y a n d M e r c e r conflicts  1  Chernoff  i n a r e n o v a t i n g neighbourhood  the disadvantage  business people,  • • •  L i k e w i s e , evidence  provided  (1980), i n t h e i r study o f l o c a t i o n a l  i n Vancouver, s u p p o r t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an  articulate  a n d p o l i t i c i z e d c i t i z e n r y who c a n engage i s s u e s  and e n l i s t  the involvement  of city  shows t h a t c o m m u n i t y i n t e r e s t s , and c i t y c o u n c i l w e r e a c t i v e l y  council.  This  civic organizations, involved i n disputes  c e n t r e d i n downtown a n d h i g h e r i n c o m e , w h i t e westside d i s t r i c t s .  data  collar  I n c o n t r a s t , a l l these p a r t i e s  were  more p a s s i v e i n e a s t s i d e d i s p u t e s . H a i l e d as m a x i m i z i n g of the urban  system,  a renewed sense istrators, cities.  middle  o f optimism  t h e economic  efficiency  c l a s s r e s e t t l e m e n t h a s spawned among p l a n n e r s , c i v i c  and p o l i t i c i a n s f o r t h e f u t u r e o f our i n n e r  Many f o r m e r l y d e c a y i n g a n d o b s o l e s c e n t n e i g h -  b o u r h o o d s h a v e u n d e r g o n e an e x t e n s i v e f a c e - l i f t i n g the l a s t t e n y e a r s . city,  admin-  over  The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n n e r  however, has had l e s s than d e s i r a b l e  f o r l o w and modest income h o u s e h o l d s . c o n s i d e r some o f t h e s e  implications.  implications  L e t us b r i e f l y  . . 162 6.4  Social  Implications of Inner City  Renewal  S e v e r a l consequences o f the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movement o p e n i t t o t h e c h a r g e rapidly  S p a r k e d by  r i s i n g l a n d and h o u s i n g c o s t s , these  the l o s s o f neighbourhood of  of -elitism.  diversity  long time neighbourhood The  renewal.  and t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t  residents.  e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l  c i t y i s often cited  include  diversity  as c o n t r i b u t i n g  o f the i n n e r  to middle  The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s o c i a l  class  environment,  Allen  (1980) a r g u e s , p r o v i d e s a s o u r c e o f s t i m u l a t i o n and r e n e w a l E c o n o m i c r e a l i t i e s and m a r k e t p l a c e led  t o t h e l o s s o f much o f t h i s  demands, h o w e v e r , h a v e  diversity.  Speculative  i n v e s t m e n t b o o s t e d by m a g n i f i e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d and s t a t u s h a v e g i v e n r i s e housing markets.  to inflationary  I n e v e r y i n s t a n c e where  prestige  inner c i t y revitalization  has o c c u r r e d , t h e c o s t o f h o u s i n g has d r a m a t i c a l l y effectively to upper  restricting  income h o u s e h o l d s .  neighbourhoods  Ironically,  ones.  some i n n e r c i t y  Attitudinal  "newcomers" s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l  desirable characteristic.  d a t a on i n n e r  homogeneity i s a  This i s especially  w i t h t h o s e r e s i d e n t s who move i n t o the l a t e r  neighbourhoods  a r e b e c o m i n g a s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y homo-  g e n e o u s a s most s u b u r b a n city  the access o f such  risen  stages of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .  who t e n d t o be r i s k - o b l i v i o u s ,  the case  a neighbourhood  during  U n l i k e the "pioneers"  the risk-averse  newcomers e x p l i c i t l y s e e k f a s h i o n a b l e  "later"  neighbourhoods  . 163 i n h a b i t e d by l i k e - m i n d e d  types.  D i v e r s i t y a t a m e t r o p o l i t a n s c a l e might i n d e e d be o c c u r r i n g . That i s , m i d d l e c l a s s A m e r i c a n s a r e moving back t o t h e inner c i t y , decreasing the s p a t i a l d i v e r s i t y between m i d d l e c l a s s suburb and l o w - i n c o m e i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l areas. However, on a n e i g h b o u r h o o d - b y neighbourhood basis...socio-economic homogeneity i s s t r o n g l y d e s i r e d , and the f o r c e s o f b o t h the p r i v a t e and public sector act to maintain that c o n d i t i o n ( F u s c h , 1980, 1 7 0 ) . The  d i s d a i n o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s s u r v e y sample  the development  of government-assisted housing  towards  illustrates  t h e d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l h o m o g e n e i t y .among r e s e t t l e r s . As w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s i n socio-economic backgrounds, c o n f l i c t i n g  t a s t e s and v a l u e s b e t w e e n  and l o n g t i m e r e s i d e n t s o f t e n g i v e s r i s e tensions  ( s e e f o r example  nev/comers  to neighbourhood  Levy and C y b r i w s k y , 1980).  d e s i r e among a g r o u p o f y o u n g , u p w a r d l y m o b i l e  The  individuals  t o change t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d w h i c h l o n g t i m e incumbents  f i n d p l e a s a n t and c o m f o r t a b l e o f t e n l e a d s t o  f e e l i n g s o f h o s t i l i t y between  t h e two g r o u p s .  P e r h a p s t h e most s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n o f i n n e r city revitalization bourhood  i s the displacement o f longtime n e i g h -  residents.  Due t o r a p i d l y r i s i n g h o u s i n g c o s t s ,  many t e n a n t s , r e s t r i c t e d by l i m i t e d  f i n a n c e s , have been  f o r c e d t o seek a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation.  More  often  t h a n n o t , d i s p l a c e d h o u s e h o l d s h a v e f o u n d s u c h accommodat i o n t o be l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y In a study o f p r i v a t e  than t h e i r former residences.  redevelopment and d i s p l a c e m e n t i n  ... 164 the Vancouver i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood Stobie  (1979) found  of Kitsilano,  that, e i g h t y - t h r e e percent o f h i s  s a m p l e (N=36) w o u l d n o t h a v e w i l l i n g l y moved f r o m former  r e s i d e n c e , and t h a t they p r e f e r r e d i t t o t h e i r  c u r r e n t accommodation.  T h e i r reasons  c o n d i t i o n and f e a t u r e o f t h e u n i t s , units,  their  included physical  the c o s t of those  a n d more f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r Compounding t h e p r o b l e m  growing  neighbours.  of displacement  i s the  s h o r t a g e o f h o u s i n g f o r low- and moderate-income  households.  I n Vancouver, the d e m o l i t i o n o f the i n n e r  c i t y housing  stock, p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n t h e West E n d , K i t s i l a n o ,  and G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d s , h a s l e d t o t h e l o s s o f much priced rental  accommodation (Table 6.5).  While  t h i s d e m o l i t i o n has been t h e r e s u l t o f s t o c k  lower-  some o f  deterior-  a t i o n beyond the p o i n t o f r e p a i r ,  t h e m a j o r i t y o f demo-  l i t i o n s have been o f s t r u c t u r a l l y  s o u n d s t o c k on s i t e s  where t h e owner e x p e c t s g r e a t e r r e t u r n s t h r o u g h land use.  The c o n v e r s i o n o f r e n t a l a p a r t m e n t s  m i n i u m t e n u r e has. f u r t h e r r e d u c e d priced, housing. are l o s t  changed t o condo-  the supply of moderately  I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 1,000 u n i t s a n n u a l l y  from Vancouver's lower c o s t r e n t a l  stock  (McAfee,  1977) . The  shortage o f a f f o r d a b l e housing i s h i g h -  l i g h t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e l a t e  1970's r o u g h l y  52,400 o r 33 p e r c e n t o f V a n c o u v e r h o u s e h o l d s  s p e n t more  t h a n t h e d e s i r a b l e maximum o f 25 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s on h o u s i n g .  An o v e r w h e l m i n g  income  m a j o r i t y o f those w i t h  T a b l e 6.5  D e m o l i t i o n by D w e l l i n g Type, C i t y o f 1973  Dwelling Type Single-detached Duplex Multiple Total  Conversions  J a n u a r y 1, 1973A u g u s t 15, 1975  Vancouver,  t o 1977  A u g u s t 16, 1 9 7 5 F e b r u a r y 1, 1977  Tota-1 Demolitions  1,312  768  2,080  132  74  206  4.59  1,659  547  2i, 206  49.11  3,103  1,389  4,492  100%  Source:  C i t y o f Vancouver  P l a n n i n g Department,  Understanding Vancouver's I I I Vancouver's  Housing:  Housing:  Part  ( b ) S t o c k . 1979  46. ouzo  •• a f f o r d a b i l i t y problems in contrast,  ... 16 6  e a r n l e s s t h a n $12,000 a y e a r ;  l e s s than 1 percent o f households  with i n -  comes i n e x c e s s o f $12,000 p a y e x c e s s i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r i n c o m e s on h o u s i n g .  P a r t i c u l a r l y hard h i t are the  e l d e r l y and s i n g l e p a r e n t 6.5  households.  Inner C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : The  overall  F o r m e r l y run-down a n d f o r g o t t e n  neighbourhoods  h a v e u n d e r g o n e much-needed  u p g r a d i n g and improvement. tide of public  Thoughts  impact o f middle c l a s s renewal i s  a v e r y p o s i t i v e one. inner c i t y  Some F i n a l  I n Vancouver,  the changing  o p i n i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o growth  and develop-  ment a n d t h e a d o p t i o n o f l i v a b l e - c i t y p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s h a v e l e d t o t h e emergence o f a n u r b a n i z e d by a h i g h degree  landscape character-  o f human s e n s i b i l i t y .  T h i s concern,  f o r a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e has g u i d e d t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . temporary  urban  I t s centrality of location,  con-  d e s i g n , and s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w s t o g e t h e r  w i t h i t s emergence as a f a s h i o n a b l e " i n " p l a c e t o l i v e , h a v e made t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a h i g h l y tial  neighbourhood.  desirable  residen-  E c o n o m i c s a n d t h e demands o f t h e  m a r k e t p l a c e , h o w e v e r , h a v e u s u r p e d many o f t h e a e s t h e t i c and  social  unintended,  o b j e c t i v e s f o r the Slopes.  Although  low and moderate income h o u s e h o l d s  basically have had  t o bear t h e economic and s o c i a l c o s t s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . Despite i t s apparent  concern f o r humanity  progressiveness, l i b e r a l synonymous w i t h s o c i a l  and s o c i a l  ideology i s not necessarily  j u s t i c e and e q u i t y .  . 167 Footnotes  1 F o r more d e t a i l s on t h e G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r P r o g r a m see Dan J a n c e w s k i , " G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r Program", Q u a r t e r l y Review (January, 1979). T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e f r o m an in-home s u r v e y o f 1,000 city-v/ide residents. A t t h e same t i m e a s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f t h e 1,000 h o u s e h o l d s v/as b e i n g completed, the survey r e c e i v e d g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h l i b r a r i e s , community c e n t r e s , s u p e r m a r k e t s , and o t h e r p l a c e s . A b o u t 4,500 c i t y r e s i d e n t s cornc o m p l e t e d t h e s u r v e y . The most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n f r o m t h e g e n e r a l l y - d i s t r i b u t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h a t t h e 4,500 r e s i d e n t s who r e s p o n d e d t o i t f e l t almost i d e n t i c a l l y about t h e f u t u r e o f Vancouver as t h e 1,000 h o u s e h o l d s i n t e r v i e w e d a t home. Moreover, no c o n s i s t e n t v a r i a t i o n c o u l d be f o u n d b e t w e e n d i f f e r ent p a r t s o f t h e C i t y as t o t h e importance o f v a r i o u s goals. P r i o r t o i t s demise i n March, 1979, t h e M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s undertook a s t u d y o f p e o p l e ' s assessments o f s e v e r a l aspects o f t h e i r communities. The s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on u r b a n a t t i t u d e s i s b a s e d on t h i s s t u d y . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n s e e CMHC, P u b l i c P r i o r i t i e s i n U r b a n C a n a d a : A S u r v e y o f Community C o n c e r n s ( 1 9 7 9 ) . As o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r 3, S e c t i o n 3.6.1, B e l l a r g u e s t h a t t h e p r e v a i l i n g e t h o s h a s become s o c i o l o g i z i n g r a t h e r than economistic " . . . i n s o f a r as the c r i t e r i a o f i n d i v i d u a l u t i l i t y and p r o f i t m a x i m i z a t i o n h a v e become s u b o r d i n a t e d t o b r o a d e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e and community i n t e r e s t " . T h e s e f i g u r e s a r e adapted, f r o m C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g Department, U n d e r s t a n d i n g V a n c o u v e r s ' H o u s i n g ; P a r t IV ( c ) A f f o r d a b l e H o u s i n g : What C h a n c e i n V a n c o u v e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1  . 168  BIBLIOGRAPHY A h l b r a n d t , R o g e r S. and B r o p h y , P a u l C. N e i g h b o u r h o o d R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e . L e x i n g t o n , M a s s . : L e x i n g t o n B o o k s , 1975. A l c a l y , R. and M e r m e l s t e i n , D. ( e d s . ) . The F i s c a l o f A m e r i c a n C i t i e s . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s ,  Crisis 1977.  A l l e n , I r v i n g . "The I d e o l o g y o f Dense N e i g h b o u r h o o d R e d e v e l o p m e n t : C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y and Transcendent Community E x p e r i e n c e " , U r b a n A f f a i r s Q u a r t e r l y , 15 4 ( J u n e , 1 9 8 0 ) , pp. 4 0 8 - 4 2 8 . A n d e r s o n , J e r v i s . "A R e p o r t e r A t - L a r g e , The M a k i n g Boerum H i l l " , The New Y o r k e r (Nov. 14, 1 9 7 7 ) , 88-140.  of pp.  B a b c o c k , R i c h a r d . The Z o n i n g Game. M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1966. Bell,  Daniel. The Coming o f P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1974.  B e l l , W e n d e l l . " S o c i a l C h o i c e , L i f e s t y l e s and S u b u r b a n R e s i d e n c e " , The S u b u r b a n Community. E d i t e d by W i l l i a m M. D o b r i n e r . New Y o r k : P u t n a m , 1958. B e r g e r , P e t e r and P u l l b e r g , S t a n l e y . " R e i f i c a t i o n and S o c i o l o g i c a l C r i t i q u e of Consciousness", History T h e o r y , 3, 2 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 1 9 0 - 2 1 1 .  the and  B l a c k , J . Thomas. " P r i v a t e - M a r k e t H o u s i n g R e n o v a t i o n i n C e n t r a l C i t i e s : An U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e S u r v e y " , B a c k t o t h e C i t y . E d i t e d by S h i r l e y B r a d w a y L a s k a and Daphne S p a i n . New Y o r k : P e r g a m o n P r e s s , 1980. B l a c k , J . Thomas. P r i v a t e Market Housing Renovation i n O l d e r A r e a s . ULI R e s e a r c h R e p o r t #26, W a s h i n g t o n : The U r b a n - L a n d I n s t i t u t e , 1977. B l a c k , J . Thomas. " P r i v a t e M a r k e t H o u s i n g R e n o v a t i o n C e n t r a l C i t i e s " , U r b a n L a n d , 34,'10 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. Board  in 3-9.  o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . R e p o r t t o S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e on P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t r e . H a w t h o r n e Z o n i n g P r o s a l f o r F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . May 13, 1971.  B o d d y , M.J. "The S t r u c t u r e o f M o r t g a g e F i n a n c e : B u i l d i n g S o c i e t i e s and t h e B r i t i s h S o c i a l F o r m a t i o n " , T r a n s a c t i o n s , The I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s , N.S.,  1 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , pp.  58-71.  B o u r n e , L a r r y . P e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e I n n e r C i t y . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , C e n t r e f o r U r b a n and Communi t y S t u d i e s , #94, 1978. B o u r n e , L a r r y . " U r b a n S t r u c t u r e and L a n d Use D e c i s i o n s " , Annals o f the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, 66, 4 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 531-546. B r a d f o r d , C a l v i n P. and R u b i n o w i t z , L e o n a r d S. "The U r b a n Suburban I n v e s t m e n t - D i s i n v e s t m e n t P r o c e s s : Consequenc e s f o r O l d e r U r b a n N e i g h b o u r h o o d s " , The A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , 422 (Nov. 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 77-86. Bryce, Herrington J . (ed.). R e v i t a l i z i n g C i t i e s . Lexington, M a s s . : L e x i n g t o n B o o k s , D.C. H e a t h and Company, 1979. Chernoff, Michael. " S o c i a l Displacement i n a Renovating Neighbourhood's Commercial D i s t r i c t : A t l a n t a " , Back t o t h e C i t y . E d i t e d by S h i r l e y B r a d w a y L a s k a a n d Daphne S p a i n . New Y o r k : P e r a g a m o n P r e s s , 1980. C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department. opment C o n c e p t s ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 0 ) .  F a l s e Creek D e v e l -  R e p l i e s to F a l s e Creek F i v e R e p o r t on S u b m i s s i o n ( M a r c h , 1 9 7 0 ) . re.  Concepts,  Report to Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F a i r v i e w S l o p e s R e z o n i n g ( O c t o b e r 14, 1 9 7 0 ) .  C l a y , P h i l l i p L. "The R e d i s c o v e r y o f C i t y N e i g h b o u r h o o d s : R e i n v e s t m e n t by Long Time R e s i d e n t s and New-Comers", B a c k t o t h e C i t y . E d i t e d by S h i r l e y B r a d w a y L a s k a and Daphne S p a i n . New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s , 1980. C l a y , P h i l l i p L. N e i g h b o u r h o o d R e n e w a l , M i d d l e C l a s s R e s e t t l e m e n t and I n c u m b e n t U p g r a d i n g i n A m e r i c a n N e i g h b o u r h o o d s . L e x i n g t o n M a s s . : D.C. H e a t h and Co., 1979. Commoner, B a r r y . The Books, 1971.  Closing Circle.  New  Y o r k : Bantam  C r o s l a n d , Anthony. A S o c i a l Democratic B r i t a i n . T r a c t 404, 1971.  Fabian  C y b r i w s k y , Roman A. " S o c i a l A s p e c t s o f N e i g h b o u r h o o d Change", A n n a l s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n  . 170 Geographers,  6 8 , 1 ( M a r c h , 1 9 7 8 ) , p p . 17-33.  D u n c a n , S. a n d S a y e r , A. "The 'new' B e h a v i o u r a l G e o g r a p h y " , E n v i r o n m e n t a n d P l a n n i n g A, 9 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 2 3 0 - 3 2 . E l l i g o t , F r e d r i c k J o s e p h ( R i c k ) . The P l a n n i n g D e c i s i o n Making P r o c e s s o f Vancouver's F a l s e Creek: A Case S t u d y , 1968-1974. 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"The D e c e n t C i t y " , V a n c o u v e r Sun, November 15, "The The  New  1976.  Mayor l o o k s a t h i s C i t y " , Vancouver P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 3, 1973. Sussex Group. Economic F e a s i b i l i t y o f P r e s e r v i n g F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . A u g u s t , 1974.  the  Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. F a i r v i e w Slopes D e v e l opment. P l a n . D r a f t , November 1978. Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. P l a n . J a n u a r y , 1977.  Fairview Slopes P o l i c y  V a n c o u v e r Urban Renewal S t u d y . T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s . A u g u s t , 1969.  #4,  W e i s s , S h i r l e y F., S m i t h , J o h n E., K a i s e r , Edward J . and K e n n y , K e n n e t h B. R e s i d e n t i a l D e v e l o p e r D e c i s i o n s . A Focused View o f the Urban Growth P r o c e s s . U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a at Chapel H i l l : Centre f o r U r b a n and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1966. W i l l i a m s , P.R. "The R o l e o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e I n n e r L o n d o n H o u s i n g M a r k e t : The C a s e o f I s l i n g t o n " , T r a n s a c t i o n s , I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s , N.S., 1 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 7 2 - 8 1 . W i l s o n , J.Q. 1975.  T h i n k i n g A b o u t C r i m e . New  York: Basic  Books,  W i n t e r s , C h r i s t o p h e r . "The S o c i a l I d e n t i t y o f E v o l v i n g N e i g h b o u r h o o d s " , L a n d s c a p e , 23, 1 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , pp. 8-14. Winters, Christopher. "Rejuvenation with Character", Paper p r e s e n t e d at the A s s o c i a t i o n of American G e o g r a p h e r s A n n u a l M e e t i n g , New O r l e a n s , 1978. W i n t e r s , C h r i s t o p h e r . "The G e o g r a p h y o f R e j u v e n a t i o n i n an I n n e r C i t y N e i g h b o u r h o o d : The U p p e r West S i d e o f M a n h a t t a n , 1950-77", P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers Annual Meeting, S a l t L a k e C i t y , 1977.  Z e i t z , E i l e e n . P r i v a t e Urban Renewal. L e x i n t o n , L e x i n g t o n B o o k s , 1979.  Mass.  APPENDIX  I  COVERING LETTER  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 2075 W e s t b r o o k M a l l VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY A p r i l , 1980 Dear A r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s c u r r e n t l y u n d e r w a y a t t h e Geogr a p h y d e p a r t m e n t a t U.B.C. c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of the F a i r v i e w Slopes neighbourhood o f Vancouver as a place to l i v e . A very important part o f t h i s p r o j e c t c o n s i s t s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a sample o f r o u g h l y s i x t y - f i v e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s o v e r t h e n e x t month. The p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o g a t h e r m a t i o n on:  infor-  (1) what r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e t o be t h e p r o s a n d c o n s o f l i v i n g i n t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s and (2) t h e a t t i t u d e s o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o t h e v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s C a n a d i a n c i t i e s may t a k e i n t h e n e x t tv/enty y e a r s . C o n s i s t i n g o f four p a r t s , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e takes approximately t h i r t y minutes t o complete. I t w i l l not cover issues of a personal or sensitive nature. I w o u l d be extremely g r a t e f u l f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n i n the complet i o n o f t h i s survey. The i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l r e m a i n c o m p l e t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d i s anonymous. A l l r e p l i e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a s a g r o u p a n d n o t i n d i v i d u a l l y . I w i l l c o n t a c t y o u w i t h i n t h e n e x t week t o a r r a n g e a mutually s u i t a b l e meeting date. I f y o u h a v e any q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s work, p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c o n t a c t P r o f e s s o r James D u n c a n a t U.B.C. I n c l o s i n g , l e t me t h a n k y o u i n a d v a n c e f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n and I l o o k f o r w a r d t o m e e t i n g w i t h you i n t h e n e a r future. Yours  truly  George F u j i i Graduate Student Dept. o f Geography U.B.C.  APPENDIX  RESIDENT  II  QUESTIONNAIRE  Inner C i t y L i v i n g  Study  Survey of s e l e c t e d r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g residential  desirability  Slopes neighbourhood of  George  o f Geography  University  of B r i t i s h  1980  Fairview  Vancouver  Fujii  Department  April,  of the  Columbia  the  182  FAIRVIEW SLOPES RESIDENT QUESTIONNAIRE P a r t 1 Housing 1.  and Neighbourhood  How l o n g h a v e y o u l i v e d bourhood ( i . e . the area A v e n u e , on t h e s o u t h by H e m l o c k and. on t h e e a s t  Characteristics  i n the F a i r v i e w Slopes neighb o u n d e d on t h e n o r t h by 6 t h 8 t h A v e n u e , on t h e w e s t by by A s h ) ?  a. L e s s t h a n 1 y e a r  [  |  b.  1 to 2 years  |  f  c.  3 to 5 years  |  P~"  d. 6 t o 10 y e a r s  |  )  e. O v e r 10 y e a r s  |  |  How d i d y o u f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e t y p e o f h o u s i n g Fairview Slopes?  on  a. t h e n e w s p a p e r  |  ]  b. a r e a l e s t a t e a g e n c y  \  |  c. f r i e n d s  |  ]  d. d r i v i n g by  1  |  e. O t h e r  |  1 Specify_  Where d i d y o u l i v e view Slopes?  i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e moving t o F a i r -  a. A l w a y s l i v e d i n F a i r v i e w b. I n ' V a n c o u v e r  city  proper  (neighbourhood) I n suburban  Vancouver  (Municipality) d. O t h e r c i t y / t o w n i n C a n a d a  |  |  e. O t h e r c i t y / t o w n i n B.C.  |  |  |  j  (Specify) f. O u t s i d e Canada (Specify) What k i n d o f d w e l l i n g d i d y o u l i v e here? a. S i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e  i n p r i o r t o moving  . 183 b.  Duplex (two u n i t s )  c. C o n v e r s i o n ( s u i t e i n a l a r g e house) d. Low r i s e a p a r t m e n t (up to 4 s t o r e y s ) High r i s e apartment than 4 storys)  (more |  1  Townhouse Other Specify What t y p e live in?  o f d w e l l i n g i n the F a i r v i e w Slopes  do y o u  a. S i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e b.  Duplex  (two u n i t s )  c. C o n v e r s i o n ( s u i t e i n a l a r g e house)  6.  1  I  Townhouse  1  1  Other  I  1 Specify,  d.  Low r i s e  e, f.  apartment  Have y o u l i v e d i n more t h a n one p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e i n the F a i r v i e w Slopes? a. Y e s b.  No 1 o r b. Own |  7.  Do y o u a. r e n t |  8.  Do y o u a n t i c i p a t e m o v i n g f r o m F a i r v i e w i n t h e n e x t 5 years? a. Y e s  9.  | your  dwelling?  |  j  b. No  1 |  c. D o n ' t know  j  |  From t h e l i s t b e l o w c o u l d y o u p l e a s e i n d i c a t e up t o 4 reasons c o n t r i b u t i n g to your d e c i s i o n to l i v e i n the F a i r v i e w Slopes neighbourhood. a.  S p e c i a l character o f the neighbourhood  b. W e l l m a i n t a i n e d  neighbourhood dwellings  |  |  [  |  . 184 c. P r o x i m i t y t o p l a c e d.  o f work  The p r o x i m i t y o f c u l t u r a l recreational activities  e. P r o x i m i t y t o t h e F a l s e redevelopment  and  Creek  f . A v i e w o f t h e downtown and mountains  North  Shore  g.  The i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f neighbourhood  the  h.  The r e l a t i v e c o s t o f h o u s i n g to o t h e r areas i n the c i t y  as  i.  The l e v e l o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s i n t h e l o c a l a r e a ( e g . bus s e r v i c e , day care centres, schools)  j.  Surrounding r e s i d e n t s of s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l , b a c k g r o u n d  k.  Close  1. The m.  compared  to f r i e n d s  d i v e r s i t y of the  area  Other Specify  I f (a) above ( s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d ) was a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r c o u l d you p l e a s e a n s w e r q u e s t i o n . 10. I f n o t , p l e a s e p r o c e e d t o q u e s t i o n 11. What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a " s p e c i a l a r e a " f o r you?  makes i t  From t h e l i s t b e l o w c o u l d y o u p l e a s e i n d i c a t e up reasons c o n t r i b u t i n g to your choice of residence Slopes. a. U n i q u e d e s i g n b.  Superior  c. L a r g e r  features  appliances  than average-sized  rooms  to 3 i n the [  |  |  |  1  |  . 185 d. R e s t o r a t i o n p o t e n t i a l  of dwelling  e. L a r g e p a t i o o r b a l c o n y f. Scenic  view  g. Freedom f r o m m a i n t e n a n c e h.  Cost  i.  Other  arTd u p k e e p  Specify  12. F a i r v i e w S l o p e s h a s u n d e r g o n e much change o v e r t h e l a s t few y e a r s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e a r e v a r i e d development p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the future. What a r e y o u r v i e w s o n the f o l l o w i n g ' planning/development o p t i o n s f o r the Slopes? a. E n c o u r a g e t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a m i x t u r e o f o l d a n d new b u i l d i n g s . Strongly Favour  Favour  Indifferent  Opposed  L  Strongly Opposed  •  L  P r e s e r v e and s t r e n g t h e n the s m a l l s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l character of the Slopes.  Encourage a mix o f commercial land uses. 1 2 3  and r e s i d e n t i a l 4  5  d. M a i n t a i n v i e w s f o r r e s i d e n t s o f e x i s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d f o r t h o s e i n new d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t may be b u i l t i n t h e f u t u r e . 1 2 3 4 5  Make p r o v i s i o n s t o e n s u r e t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e number o f l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e constructed i n the F a i r v i e w Slopes over the n e x t few y e a r s t o h e l p r e p l a c e u n i t s l o s t through redevelopment.  . . .186  f.  Ensure that r e s i d e n t s of F a i r v i e w Slopes, propertyo w n e r s and b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s h a v e a c o n t i n u i n g formal involvement i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e l a t i n g t o p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e s i n t h e l o c a l area. 1 2 3 4 5  • 13.  •  •  a) Do y o u f a v o u r more h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n Fairview Slopes? a. b. b)  the  Yes 1  No  I f yes,  f  what t y p e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d y o u  favour?  a. Y e s a.  Single  e.  14.  No  dupleses  |  1  I  |  structures  1 I  j ]  I 1  I 1  f a m i l y homes and  b. R e n o v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g c Townhouses d. Low r i s e a p a r t m e n t s  b.  Government a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and l o w e r i n c o m e families  V/hich ( i f any) o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s m i g h t c a u s e to leave F a i r v i e w ? a. C o s t o f h o u s i n g ( r e n t a l o r o w n i n g ) is  too  expensive here  b. D o n ' t l i k e t h e p e o p l e c. E x p e c t t o be e v i c t e d f r o m dwelling d. D o n ' t l i k e that  the p h y s i c a l  present  [  1  1  1  I  j  1  j  1  I  1  1  change  i s occurring  e.  Increasing  size of family  f.  Job  g.  Change i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s  1  I  h.  Other  i  \  change  Specify No  i n t e n t i o n of  leaving  I  you  . 187 15. How  would you d e s c r i b e  Fairview Slopes to a  friend?  16. L i s t t h e t h r e e t h i n g s y o u d i s l i k e most a b o u t t h e Fairview Slopes. a. b. c. 17. L o o k i n g b a c k o v e r t h e t i m e y o u have l i v e d i n t h e S l o p e s , w o u l d y o u say t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n t h e a r e a h a s l i v e d up t o y o u r o r i g i n a l expectations? Please elaborate.  P a r t 2 Vancouver 18. I n y o u r o p i n i o n , what a r e t h e t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s about Vancouver t h a t s h o u l d n o t change? a. b. c. 19. I f y o u were a b l e t o change o r i m p r o v e any a s p e c t s V a n c o u v e r , what t h r e e t h i n g s w o u l d y o u do? a. b.  of  . 188 P a r t 3 Urban  Concerns  20. The f o l l o w i n g p r i o r i t i e s h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a s important i n i t i a t i v e s f o r the f u t u r e of Canadian c i t i e s P l e a s e e x p r e s s y o u r o p i n i o n on t h e s e v a r i o u s p r i o r i t i e s a. T h a t p u b l i c t r a n s i t be a v a i l a b l e and s e r v e a l l p a r t s of the c i t y . Strongly Agree  Agree  Indifferent  Disagree  •  •  •  Strongly Disagree  1  b . ' B u i l d i n g more f r e e w a y s 1 2 3  6.  •  •  •  •  T h a t i t be e a s y t o d r i v e a r o u n d t h e c i t y by c a r . 1 2 3 4 5  •  d. P r o t e c t i n g p a r k s and open s p a c e i n t h e 1 2 3 4  •  e. P r o t e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l 1 2 ' 3  f.  •  •  land  g. R e d u c i n g e n e r g y 1 2  h. A t t r a c t i n g new 1 2  consumption 3  •  industry 3  from urban 4  •  •  Reducing a i r p o l l u t i o n 1 2 3  •  •  • i . S t o p p i n g the growth of the 1 2 3  1  development 5  •  •  •  to the  •  city 5  4  4  • city 4  city  •  . 189 j.  I m p r o v i n g downtown 1 2  3  k. P r o t e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c and h e r i t a g e 1 2 3 4  •  •  •  5  •  1. More h i g h - r i s e / h i g h d e n s i t y city 1 2 3  m.  buildings  •  developments  i n our  4  5  Government r e g u l a t i o n o f p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s 1 2 3 4  •  •  •  n. I n v o l v i n g p e o p l e i n g o v e r n m e n t 1 2 3  o. H o u s i n g w i t h available 1 2  •  5  c  decisions 4  .  5  a w i d e r a n g e o f r e n t s and c o s t s  •  3  4  •  be 5  rzj  n  p. A s s i s t i n g e l d e r l y i n e f f o r t s t o r e s i d e i n t h e c i t y = 1 2 3, 4 5  ]  q. I m p r o v i n g d a y c a r e 1 2  o  n  •  centres 3  •  •  1  c  r . Many t y p e s o f d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e f r o m v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l , e t h n i c , age and s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s l i v e i n t h e c i t y 1 2 3 4 5  . 190 Part 4 Biographical 21. M a r i t a l  Data  status?  a.  Single  b.  Married  c. S h a r e d accommodation d.  Widow/Widower  e. D i v o r c e d 22, How many p e o p l e i n y o u r h o u s e h o l d a r e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g age g r o u p s ? Number  Age 0-14 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 a n d o v e r 23, Do y o u b e l o n g t o a n y n e i g h p o d a  -  Y  e  s  ZZ1  organizations?  Specify  b. No 24, What i s t h e h i g h e s t attended? a. Some h i g h  l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g you have e v e r  I  school  b. H i g h s c h o o l  graduate  c. V o c a t i o n a l / t e c h n i c a l  | Yrs,  • training  d. Community c o l l e g e  I  e. Some u n i v e r s i t y f. U n i v e r s i t y degree(s)  •  25, What i s y o u r o c c u p a t i o n ?  26. a. ( I f a p p l i c a b l e ) Does y o u r s p o u s e w o r k ? a. Y e s  I  I  b. No  1  b. What s o r t o f work d o e s he o r she do?  | Yrs.  What i s y o u r t o t a l h o u s e h o l d i n c o m e ? a. U n d e r $8,000 b. $8,000 - $16,000 c. $16,000 - $24,000  |~  d. $24,000 - $32,000  [  e. O v e r $32,000  |  |  

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