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The revitalization of the inner city : a case study of the Fairview Slopes neighbourhood, Vancouver,… Fujii, George T. 1981

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THE REVITALIZATION OF THE INNER CITY: A CASE STUDY OF THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES NEIGHBOURHOOD, VANCOUVER, B.C. by George T. F u j i i B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Dept. o f Geography) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1981 © George T. F u j i i , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Geography , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 28, 1981 7Q ^  DOONESBURY EXPLAIN ID OUR- i^f^ffa iusmesmtr %*nAJj£?; VWmfiCAMH" M ™ * * * ^ ' MEANS- Avem&EP \ NEJOHBOKHCW: HE FIXES IT UPAHDPESEUS IT w A mm MmE-aA&amE. THIS Ewm&owceemrTOBUY m THENEIWOWV, AND BEFOtE L0N6, A FAMASnC&AL ESTAIE MARKET BOOMS UT€PE NONE EXISTW BEFORE' / AW WHAT HAP-PEHST01HEUX) INCOME TENANTS U/HOAREPIS-PLACEDrPOES ANYONE CAPS? SK.UBPO. THESE PEOPLE \ ARE VEKf IMPORTANT TDTHEUHOLE\ PKCES&f I ABSTRACT Am i d s t the m i d d l e c l a s s " f l i g h t " t o the sub-u r b s , a s e l e c t group o f young, w e l l - e d u c a t e d , and r e l a -t i v e l y a f f l u e n t h o u s e h o l d s have moved i n t o f o r m e r l y low and modest income, o c c a s i o n a l l y run-down, i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhoods. Major changes i n the economic and s o c i a l , f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the c e n t r a l c i t y as an e x c i t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g p l a c e t o l i v e have l e d t o the middle c l a s s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y . H a s t e n i n g the renewal p r o c e s s has been the f a v o u r a b l e r e s p o n s e s o f the development i n d u s t r y and f i n a n c i a l community and the p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government. T h e o r e t i c a l approaches which do not emphasize the c o n j u n -c t i o n o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l i f e s t y l e v a l u e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s are much too narrow i n scope f o r a complete a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . A s o c i a l movements approach based on an i d e o l o g y o f a e s t h e t i c s m and s t y l e a v o i d s t h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e o r e t i c a l narrowness. I n c o r p o r a t i n g such a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h i s t h e s i s examines the complex i n t e r p l a y o f s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n the renewal o f the Fair-view S l o p e s , an i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhood i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, B.C. A r i s i n g as a r e a c t i o n t o the growth-o r i e n t e d i d e o l o g y o f the N o n - P a r t i s a n A s s o c i a t i o n a t c i t y h a l l , The E l e c t o r ' s A c t i o n Movement (T.E.A.M.), an urban r e f o r m p a r t y i n power from 1972 t o 1978, s t r e s s e d the importance o f a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e i n the p l a n n i n g o f - i i i -t he urban environment. I t i s w i t h i n such a c o n t e x t o f l i v a b i l i t y t h a t the p r o c e s s o f renewal has ta k e n p l a c e on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s d u r i n g the 1970's. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s from a neighbourhood o f o l d wooden frame houses i n t o one o f contemporary townhouse developments and immaculate.reno-v a t i o n s ; t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s s p e c t a c u l a r view and c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n , have made i t a v e r y d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e . I n o r d e r t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f t h i s change, i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Vancouver c i t y p l a n n i n g department as w e l l as v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t s , d e v e l o p e r s , and r e a l e s t a t e p e r s o n n e l . A neighbourhood s u r v e y o f randomly s e l e c t e d F a i r v i e w S l o p e s r e s i d e n t s p r o v i d e s the major source o f d a t a u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Four g e n e r a l a r e a s were e x p l o r e d i n the neighbourhood q u e s t i o n n a i r e : (1) h o u s i n g and neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s (2) the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f Vancouver as a p l a c e t o l i v e (3) urban l a n d use and development p r i o r i t i e s and (4) the s o c i a l and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . I m p l i c i t i n many o f the res p o n s e s are the co n c e r n s f o r a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e f i r s t a d v ocated by T.E.A.M. d u r i n g the e a r l y 1970's L i v a b i l i t y , however, i s not n e c e s s a r i l y s y n -onymous w i t h e q u i t y and s o c i a l j u s t i c e . A l t h o u g h l a r g e l y u n i n t e n d e d , a number o f l e s s than- : d e s i r a b l e consequences - i v -have accompanied the m i d d l e c l a s s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y . The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s case study i l l u s -t r a t e s how the demands o f the market p l a c e , d e s p i t e the b e s t i n t e n t i o n s o f p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s , can app r o -p r i a t e the a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s o f a p p a r e n t l y humane urban l a n d use p o l i c i e s . -V-TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i i L i s t o f Maps x L i s t o f F i g u r e s x i Acknowledgements x i i Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 A New D i r e c t i o n f o r the I n n e r C i t y : M i d d l e C l a s s Renewal 1 -1.2 Terminology 7 1.3 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l U n d e r p i n n i n g s and Statement o f I n t e n t 8 1.4 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C h a p t e r s 9 2 THE URBAN DYNAMIC: THE MIDDLE CLASS RENEWAL OF THE INNER CITY 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 2.2 F a c t o r s E n c o u r a g i n g I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n 12 2.2.1 Economic and Demographic F a c t o r s 12 2.2.2 Young P r o f e s s i o n a l s and the A t t r a c t i o n o f I n n e r C i t y L i v i n g 17 2.3 The Geography o f R e v i t a l i z a t i o n 23 2.4 The P o l i t i c a l - E c o n o m i c S e c t o r and R e v i t a l i z a t i o n 28 2.4.1 The Development I n d u s t r y 28 2.4.2 F i n a n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s 31 2.4.3 R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and the Role o f L o c a l Government 32 2.5 The P r o c e s s o f I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l -i z a t i o n : The I n t e r p l a y o f P u b l i c and P r i v a t e 34 2.5.1 A Model o f R e v i t a l i z a t i o n 35 2.6 Summary 37' - v i -C h a p t e r Page 3 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TOWARDS GENTRIFICATION 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 42 3.2 The Demographic Approach 42 3.3 The H u m a n - E c o l o g i c a l Approach 43 3.4 The S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Approach 46 3.5 The P o l i t i c a l - E c o n o m i c Approach 49 3.5.1 Marxism and G e n t r i f i c a t i o n 49 3.5.2 G e n t r i f i c a t i o n and C a p i t a l A c c u m u l a t i o n 53 3.6 The S o c i a l Movements Approach 60 3.6.1 S o c i a l Movements, I d e o l o g y , and I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n 63 3.7 Summary 73 4 INNER CITY RENEWAL IN VANCOUVER: THE CASE OF THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 76 4.2 L i b e r a l I d e o l o g y and the L i v a b l e C i t y 79 4.3 F a l s e Creek and the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 85 4.4 A New D i r e c t i o n f o r F a i r v i e w 91 4.5 F a i r v i e w S l o p e s : P r e c u r s o r t o Change 96 4.6 The I n t e r a c t i o n o f P u b l i c and P r i v a t e : The Role o f the Development I n d u s t r y i n the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 103 4.7 M a r k e t p l a c e Demands and the Redev-elopment o f F a i r v i e w 112 4.8 Summary 117 5 THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES RESIDENT SURVEY 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 122 5.2 Methods and Data 123 5.3 S o c i a l and D e m o g r a p h i c f C h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f Respondents 126 5.4 The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a P l a c e t o L i v e 130 5.5 The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s and the F u t u r e o f Development 142 5.6 Summary 146 - v i i -C h a p t e r Page 6 CONCLUDING REMARKS 6.1 The I n n e r C i t y and Theory 148 6.2 P l a n n i n g and P o l i t i c s i n Vancouver: Theory and R e a l i t y 150 6.3 Young P r o f e s s i o n a l s and the P u r s u i t o f S e l f - i n t e r e s t s 159 6.4 S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f I n n e r C i t y Renewal 162 6.5 I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : Some F i n a l Thoughts 166 BIBLIOGRAPHY 168 APPENDICES 1 C o v e r i n g L e t t e r 178 2 R e s i d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 180 - v i i i -LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1.1 Change i n Number o f Households R e c e i v i n g Incomes o f $20,000 o r More and L i v i n g i n C e n t r a l C i t i e s : 1970-1974 3 1.2 Number and P e r c e n t o f C e n t r a l C i t i e s E x p e r i e n c i n g P r i v a t e - M a r k e t Housing R e n o v a t i o n i n O l d e r A r e a s by P o p u l a t i o n -S i z e C l a s s , 1975 4 3.1 O c c u p a t i o n a l Breakdown o f the Canadian Labour F o r c e , 1931-1971. 65 3.2 O c c u p a t i o n a l S h i f t s i n the Canadian Labour F o r c e , 1951-1971 67 4.1 Land Use on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , 1969 88 4.2 Land Use Changes on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 1974-1978 114 5.1 S o c i a l and Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Survey Respondents 127 5.2 R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n o f Respondents P r i o r t o Moving to the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 129 5.3 Length o f Residence on the S l o p e s 129 5.4 D e s i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 136 5.5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s Which Respondents D i s l i k e 141 5.6 A s p e c t s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s V/hich C o u l d Cause Respondents t o Move 144 5.7 Types o f Development Favoured f o r the F u t u r e o f S l o p e s 144 6.1 The G o a l s f o r Vancouver Program: I m p o r t a n t T h i n g s About Vancouver t h a t Should Not Change 153 6.2 A s p e c t s o f Vancouver t h a t S h o u l d Not Change 154 - i x -T able Page 6.3 A s p e c t s o f Vancouver t h a t Should Change o r Improve 155 6.4 P r i o r i t i e s f o r F u t u r e Urban P l a n n i n g 156 6.5 D e m o l i t i o n s by D w e l l i n g Type, C i t y o f Vancouver, 1973 t o 1977 165 -X-LIST OF MAPS Map Page 1 The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i n C o n t e x t 77 2 F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 78 - x i -LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 3.1 The R e a l E s t a t e I n d u s t r y and Image- 72 C r e a t i o n 4.1 U l t r a - M o d e r n Townhouses on the S l o p e s 109 4.2 The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as S t y l e and Grandeur 110 4.3 Example o f a F a i r v i e w S l o p e s R e n o v a t i o n 110 4.4 Frame Houses o f a Not too D i s t a n t P a s t 115 5.1 The R e s i d e n t i a l Core o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 125 5.2 The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s View 131 5.3 C o n s t r u c t i o n Annoyances and Poor S t r e e t C o n d i t i o n s 137 5.4 O n - S t r e e t P a r k i n g on the S l o p e s 137 - x i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank J i m Duncan and D a v i d Ley f o r t h e i r guidance and a s s i s t a n c e throughout the co u r s e o f my r e s e a r c h . By p r o v i d i n g t h o u g h t f u l comments on my work they have taught me the importance o f a c r i t i c a l eye. A s p e c i a l note o f thanks must go to a l l the r e s o u r c e p e o p l e ( p l a n n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , d e v e l o p e r s , and r e a l t o r s ) w i t h o u t whose knowledge and e x p e r t i s e t h i s s tudy would not have been p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my p a r t n e r s i n c r i m e f o r the many e n j o y a b l e hours we have spent t o g e t h e r over the l a s t few y e a r s . C h a p t e r 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 A New D i r e c t i o n f o r the I n n e r C i t y : M i d d l e C l a s s Renewal The d e p r i v a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y r e l a t i v e t o i t s suburban c o u n t e r p a r t i s a p r e v a l e n t theme o f b o t h academic and p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e . S t e r n l i e b and F o r d (1979), f o r example, note the d e c l i n e o f f a m i l y households i n the c e n t r a l c i t i e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s from s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n 17 m i l l i o n i n 1970 t o b a r e l y 15 m i l l i o n i n 1974 and the i n -e q u a l i t y o f incomes between c e n t r a l c i t y and suburban r e s i d e n t s ; f a m i l i e s l e a v i n g the c i t y between 1970 and 1974 had mean incomes o f $14,169 p e r y e a r whereas those moving t o the c i t y e arned an average o f $12,864. As f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f d e c l i n e , o t h e r commentators p o i n t t o the h i g h b l a c k p r o p o r t i o n o f the c e n t r a l c i t y p o p u l a t i o n and the r a p i d l o s s o f j o b s i n c e n t r a l c i t i e s as compared t o the suburbs (see f o r example, Bourne, 1978). A s e r i o u s con-sequence o f t h e s e e v e n t s has been the abandonment o f h o u s i n g and a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n the r e s i d e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s o f many i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods ( H a r t s h o r n e , 1971). A number o f r e c e n t t r e n d s , however, seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g number o f i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods a re under-g o i n g p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . One o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t o f these r e c e n t t r e n d s has been the growing a f f l u e n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o r s o f some c e n t r a l c i t y p o p u l a t i o n s . Measured i n c o n s t a n t 1973 d o l l a r s , c e n t r a l c i t y h o u s e h o l d s r e c e i v i n g incomes o f a t l e a s t $20,000 pe r annum i n c r e a s e d by n e a r l y 20 p e r c e n t between 1970 and 1974 ( S t e r n l i e b and F o r d , 1979). A l l age c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the o l d e s t h o u s e h o l d s , t h a t have a t l e a s t two i n d i v i d u a l s i n them, e n j o y e d such i n c r e a s e s ( T a b l e 1.1). D u r i n g the same p e r i o d , the number o f i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g a l o n e who ea r n a t l e a s t $20,000 i n c r e a s e d by 56.5 p e r c e n t i n c e n t r a l c i t i e s . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f the expanding a f f l u e n c e o f cen-t r a l c i t y h o u s e h o l d s i s the i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f home ownership. D e s p i t e d e c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , the number o f ho u s e h o l d s t h a t owned t h e i r accommodation i n c r e a s e d by 8.7 p e r c e n t , w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y y o u t h f u l e n j o y i n g the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e ( S t e r n l i e b and F o r d , 1979). The i n c r e a s e d number o f home bu y e r s may be re g a r d e d as one measure o f the c o m p e t i t i v e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f c e n t r a l c i t i e s . R e l a t e d t o t h i s growing a f f l u e n c e i s the r e c e n t d i s -c o v e r y o f the h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the i n n e r c i t y . A sur v e y u n d e r t a k e n i n 1975 by the Urban Land I n s t i t u t e (U.L.I) r e v e a l e d t h a t '124 ( o r 48 p e r c e n t o f the 260) c e n t r a l c i t i e s w i t h p o p u l a t i o n o f over 50,000 had e x p e r i e n c e d some degree o f p r i v a t e - m a r k e t h o u s i n g r e n o v a t i o n i n o l d e r , rundown a r e a s ( B l a c k , 1975). The i n c i d e n c e o f r e n o v a t i o n a c t i v i t y v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y by c i t y s i z e . As shown i n Table 1.2, 19 o f 26 .3 Table 1.1 Change i n Numbers o f Households R e c e i v i n g Incomes o f $20,000 o r More and L i v i n g i n C e n t r a l C i t i e s : 1970 - 1974 Number o f Households Household ( i n thousands) Perce; C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1970 1974 Chang' Two-or-More Person: Households 3, 242 3,868 19.3 Husband-Wife f a m i l i e s 2,945 3,520 19. 5 Less t h a n 25 y e a r s o l d 38 89 134. 2 25-34 403 718 78.2 35-44 688 808 17.4 45-54 1,591 1,698 6.7 65 o r o l d e r 225 207 -8.0 Other male heads 134 157 17.2 Less t h a n 65 y e a r s o l d 113 141 24.8 65 o r o l d e r 21 16 -23. 8 Female Heads 163 191 17.2 Less t h a n 65 y e a r s o l d 118 151 28.8 65 o r o l d e r 45 40 -11.1 One-Person Households 168 263 56.5 Less t h a n 65 y e a r s o l d 131 212 61.8 65 o r o l d e r 37 52 40.5 T o t a l Households 3,410 4,131 21.1 Source: George S t e r n l i e b and K r i s t i n a F o r d . "The F u t u r e o f the R e t u r n - t o - t h e - C i t y Movement", i n H e r r i n g t o n J . B r y c e ( e d . ) , R e v i t a l i z i n g  C i t i e s • L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: L e x i n t o n Books, 1979, pp. 77-104. R e f e r e n c e on p.83. o r 73 p e r c e n t o f the c e n t r a l c i t i e s i n the 500,000 and ov e r p o p u l a t i o n group r e p o r t e d some type o f r e n o v a t i o n a c t i v i t y . T h i s p e r c e n t a g e drops w i t h the s i z e c l a s s . T a b l e 1.2 Number and P e r c e n t o f C e n t r a l C i t i e s E x p e r i e n c i n g P r i v a t e Market Housing  R e n o v a t i o n i n O l d e r A r e a s by  P o p u l a t i o n - S i z e C l a s s , 1975 P o p u l a t i o n -S i z e C l a s s T o t a l Number o f C i t i e s i n C l a s s C i t i e s E x p e r i e n c i n g R e n o v a t i o n A c t i v i t y Number P e r c e n t 500,000 and o v e r 250,000 - 500,000 100,000 - 250,000 50,000 - 100,000 260 26 30 79 125 124 19 19 46 40 73 63 58 32 48 Source: J.T. B l a c k . " P r i v a t e Market Housing R e n o v a t i o n i n C e n t r a l C i t i e s " . Urban Land. 34, 10 (1975), pp. 3-9. I n an e f f o r t t o update the 1975 r e n o v a t i o n s u r v e y , the U.L.I. i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s about r e n o v a t i o n and m i d d l e -income h o u s i n g demand i n a n a t i o n a l s u r v e y o f c e n t r a l c i t y i n v e s t m e n t a c t i v i t y i n J a n u a r y , 1979. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s u r v e y show t h a t r e n o v a t i o n o f o l d e r p r o p e r t i e s has s p r e a d to more c i t i e s . R e n o v a t i o n a c t i v i t y was r e p o r t e d i n 86 p e r -c e n t o f c i t i e s w i t h over 150,000 r e s i d e n t s as compared t o 65 p e r c e n t i n 1975 ( B l a c k , 1980). Moreover, i n c o n t r a s t t o the e a r l i e r s u r v e y where v e r y few new h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s were r e p o r t e d , v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the c e n t r a l c i t i e s a r e now e x p e r i e n c i n g new c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r m i d d l e and upper-m i d d l e income occupancy. The volumes, however, t e n d t o be r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l compared t o t o t a l new h o u s i n g i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . F u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n the i n n e r c i t y a r e the f i n d i n g s o f P h i l l i p C l a y (1979; 1980). Through r e s e a r c h conducted between 1976 and 1979, C l a y found e v i d e n c e o f p r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l r e i n v e s t m e n t i n a l l t h i r t y o f America's l a r g e s t c i t i e s . The pace and e x t e n t o f t h i s r e n e w a l , however, v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y among t h e s e t h i r t y c i t i e s . The c i t i e s o f Washington, San F r a n c i s c o and S e a t t l e a r e noted as h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d e x t e n s i v e p r i v a t e renewal and r e s e t t l e m e n t . I n the middl e range are c i t i e s t h a t a re un d e r g o i n g s u b s t a n t i a l economic d e c l i n e and p o p u l a t i o n l o s s , but are s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a l t h o u g h i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the c i t y , e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t renewal and u p - g r a d i n g by l o n g time r e s i d e n t s . These i n c l u d e c i t i e s such as S t . L o u i s , B a l t i m o r e , P h i l a d e l p h i a , New O r l e a n s and B o s t o n , F i n a l l y , t h e r e a re o l d e r i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s such as D e t r o i t , Newark, and C l e v e l a n d where r e i n v e s t m e n t has t h u s f a r been v e r y l i m i t e d - each o f these c i t i e s b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o n l y one s m a l l i n s t a n c e o f r e n e w a l . The pace, and e x t e n t o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n not o n l y v a r i e s between c i t i e s but a l s o among neighbourhoods w i t h i n c i t i e s . A l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , neighbourhoods which have undergone g e n t r i f i c a t i o n a r e l o c a t e d near the downtown and po s s e s s d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l , a e s t h e t i c and/or s t a t u s f e a t u r e s o f topography. A l t h o u g h d e c l i n e has not been as marked i n c i t i e s o u t s i d e o f the U.S., they too have e x p e r i e n c e d i n n e r c i t y r e n e w a l . Toronto ( R e b i z a n t , 1974) and Vancouver (Ley, 1979b; S t o b i e , 1979) p r o v i d e Canadian examples; Melbourne (Maher, 1978) and Sydney p r o v i d e A u s t r a l i a n examples; and London p r o v i d e s a B r i t i s h example (Hamnett, 1973; 1980). A t a f i r s t g l a n c e , the d a t a suggest t h a t the d e c l i n e o f the i n n e r c i t y has been r e v e r s e d . T h i s t r e n d , however, must be viewed w i t h a sense o f c a u t i o u s o p t i m i s m . i R e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s a s m a l l but w i d e s p r e a d phenomenon. A l t h o u g h many c i t i e s , have; undergone r e n e w a l , the s i z e o f upgraded neighbourhoods v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y , r a n g i n g from a few b l o c k s t o d i s t r i c t - s i z e d a r e a s . W ith the e x c e p t i o n o f a few c i t i e s - A t l a n t a , B o s t o n , Washington and San F r a n c i s c o - r e n o v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d compared t o t o t a l h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ( B l a c k , 1980). Moreover, t h i s movement has thus f a r been l i m i t e d t o a s m a l l segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n . Indeed, some w r i t e r s (see f o r example Bourne, 1978 and Lang, 1980) c a u t i o n t h a t the: i n t e r e s t i n the i n n e r c i t y by m i d d l e - c l a s s b u y e r s and r e n t e r s may o n l y be a temporary phenomenon. D e s p i t e t h i s s m a l l s c a l e , the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y i s a phenomenon which r e f u t e s t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s o f urban l a n d use and has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y makers and the p r i v a t e r e a l e s t a t e s e c t o r . As C l a y w r i t e s , "...Whatever t h e i r s i z e and c o n f i g u r a t i o n , g e n t r i f i c a t i o n neighbourhoods are r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e i r c e n t r a l c i t i e s , and t h e i r images and i m p or tance o f t e n exceeds t h e i r t r u e s i z e . " F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h the t o t a l number o f r e v i t a l i z e r s may be s m a l l , " . . . t h i s p o p u l a t i o n sometimes has i n f l u e n c e f a r beyond i t s number" ( C l a y , 1979, 1 7 ) . 1.2 T e r m i n o l o g y C l a y (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t neighbourhood r e v i t a l -i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s two d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s : (1) g e n t r i f i c a t i o n and (2) u p g r a d i n g . I n neighbourhoods u n d e r g o i n g g e n t r i -f i c a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n change i s more i m p o r t a n t than p h y s i c a l change, a l t h o u g h the p h y s i c a l improvements are a l s o i m p o r t a n t . "The ' g e n t r y ' c r e a t e a neighbourhood ambience and a s t y l e t h a t r e f l e c t upper m i d d l e c l a s s t a s t e s and v a l u e s ; t h e i r t a s t e s and v a l u e s s u p p l a n t those o f the l o w e r income pop-u l a t i o n t h a t dominated the a r e a b e f o r e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " ( C l a y , 1979,6). I n comparison, the major f e a t u r e o f up-g r a d i n g i s t h a t p h y s i c a l improvement by incumbent r e s i d e n t s t a k e s p l a c e a t a s u b s t a n t i a l r a t e w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . The l o w e r o r w o r k i n g c l a s s c h a r a c t e r o f the neighbourhood i s not changed. I n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods which have undergone b o t h s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l change are the f o c a l p o i n t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . I n a d d i t i o n t o the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e n o v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g houses, the d e f i n i t i o n o f p r i v a t e -s e c t o r r e i n v e s t m e n t used i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e s s m a l l - s c a l e (as compared t o massive) redevelopment. V a r i o u s terms have been used t o d e s c r i b e the emergence o f m i d d l e - and upper m i d d l e - c l a s s e n c l a v e s i n f o r m e r l y run-down neighbourhoods. Some o f the more p o p u l a r i n c l u d e g e n t r i f i c a t i o n , i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , , m i d d l e c l a s s r e n e w a l , p r i v a t e urban r e n e w a l , m i d d l e c l a s s r e s e t t l e -ment, and urban r e i n v e s t m e n t . These terms w i l l be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y throughout t h i s s t u d y . 1.3 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l U n d e r p i n n i n g s and Statement o f I n t e n t A complex i n t e r p l a y o f c h a n g i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s towards i n - c i t y l i v i n g amongst a s e l e c t group o f i n d i v i d u a l s , the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f d e v e l o p e r s and f i n a n c i e r s , and the p o l i t i c s o f p l a n n i n g have l e d t o the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y . A n a l y s e s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n which do not r e c o g n i z e the i n t e r p l a y between t h e s e v a r i o u s s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s a r e , i n the v i e w o f t h i s w r i t e r , much too r e s t r i c t i v e . An approach a c k n o w l e d g i n g the c o n j u n c t i o n o f socio-economic l i f e s t y l e v a l u e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s , i t i s s u g g e s t e d , h o l d s the most promise f o r a complete a n a l y s i s o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l -i z a t i o n . A s o c i a l movements approach based on a g u i d i n g i d e o l o g y o f a e s t h e t i c i s m and s t y l e p r o v i d e s a s t e p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s neighbourhood i n Vancouver, B.C. p r o v i d e s , a r e l e v a n t study a r e a i n which t o c o n s i d e r t h i s i n t e r p l a y o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic f a c t o r s Lb the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f an o l d e r i n n e r c i t y n e i g h -bourhood. Guided by a new i d e o l o g y o f l i v a b i l i t y adopted by c i t y c o u n c i l and i t s p l a n n i n g s t a f f , u l t r a - m o d e r n town-houses and immaculate r e n o v a t i o n s have r e p l a c e d many o f the o l d e r , s t r u c t u r a l l y unsound houses on the S l o p e s . U t i l i z i n g newspaper d a t a , p l a n n i n g department r e p o r t s , committee and c o u n c i l m i n u t e s , and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g department o f f i c i a l s , d e v e l o p e r s , and a r c h i t e c t s , the t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i s described.-.and d i s c u s s e d . I n o r d e r t o get more i n s i g h t i n t o the n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f t h i s change, a r e s i d e n t s u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n . I m p l i c i t i n many o f the r e s p o n s e s i s the c o n c e r n f o r a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e f i r s t a d v o c a t e d by The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement (T.E. A.M.) t e n y e a r s ago. O v e r a l l , the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s has improved the q u a l i t y o f the neighbourhood. Economic r e a l i t i e s and market f o r c e s , however, have l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n where a group o f w e l l - e d u c a t e d , r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t i n d i v i d -u a l s have been f a v o u r e d a t the expense o f a low and modest income one. D e s p i t e t h i s a pparent c o n c e r n f o r humanity and <C s o c i a l p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s , s o c i a l j u s t i c e and e q u a l i t y a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y b y - p r o d u c t s o f l i b e r a l s o c i a l movements. 1.4 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C h a p t e r s The v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y , the l o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l f e a t u r e s o f the c i t i e s and neighbourhoods which have under-gone r e n e w a l , and the r o l e s o f the v a r i o u s a c t o r s i n the g e n t r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s are r e v i e w e d i n C hapter 2. A r e v i e w o f the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s the use o f f i v e a l t e r -n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . The t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l m e r i t s o f these v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s are a s s e s s e d ... 10 i n C h a p t e r 3. F o l l o w i n g the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e d eveloped i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r 4 p r o v i d e s a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . The r e s u l t s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s r e s i d e n t s u r v e y are p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 5. I n the f i n a l c h a p t e r , some o f the more s e r i o u s s o c i a l and economic i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n phenomenon a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h r o u g h a reassessment o f the l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y t h e s i s d e v e l o p e d i n Chapter 3. Chapter 2 THE URBAN DYNAMIC: THE MIDDLE CLASS  RENEWAL OF THE INNER CITY 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n M a j o r changes i n the economic and s o c i a l f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the c e n t r a l c i t y as an i n t e r e s t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g p l a c e , have l e d t o the d i s c o v e r y o f f o r m e r l y run-down i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods as h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s t o l i v e by a f a i r l y a f f l u e n t group o f young, m i d d l e c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s . Not a l l i n n e r c i t y n e i g hbourhoods, however, have undergone t h i s t r a n s f o r -m a t i o n . Renewal has o c c u r r e d on a v e r y s e l e c t i v e b a s i s . A unique s e t o f l o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l f e a t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i z e g e n t r i f i e d neighbourhoods. M i d d l e c l a s s i n t e r e s t i n the i n n e r c i t y has been r e i n f o r c e d and extended by the d e v e l o p -ment i n d u s t r y and f i n a n c i a l community. Neighbourhoods once c o n s i d e r e d " h i g h r i s k " are today the f o c a l p o i n t s o f p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n v e s t m e n t . The major purpose o f the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s c h a p t e r f o c u s e s upon those f a c t o r s which have c o n t r i -b u ted t o - t h e r enewal o f the i n n e r c i t y by the m i d d l e c l a s s , the l o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l f e a t u r e s o f the c i t i e s and n e i g h -bourhoods which have e x p e r i e n c e d r e j u v e n a t i o n , and the r o l e s o f the v a r i o u s a c t o r s i n the g e n t r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . .12 2.2 F a c t o r s E n c o u r a g i n g I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n A number o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s have a r i s e n o v e r the l a s t few y e a r s w h i c h appear to have s t i m u l a t e d the r e c e n t t r e n d towards i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . Some o f thes e r e l a t e t o economic and demographic f a c t o r s , whereas o t h e r s r e l a t e t o the i n c r e a s e d a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f i n n e r c i t y l i v i n g . 2.2.1 Economic and Demographic F a c t o r s Recent changes i n the demographic s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the renewal o f the i n n e r c i t y . The: r e c e n t t r e n d towards s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s , fewer c h i l d r e n , and n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s : r e g a r d . i Between 1971 and 1976, the number o f two p e r s o n f a m i l i e s i n Canada i n c r e a s e d by 26 p e r c e n t whereas the t o t a l f a m i l y p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by o n l y 13 p e r c e n t . S i m i l a r l y , whereas the number o f f a m i l y h ouseholds i n c r e a s e d by o n l y 14 p e r c e n t the: number o f n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s i n c r e a s e d by 28 p e r c e n t . These changes have l e d t o a r e d u c t i o n i n the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f l a r g e suburban houses which t e n d t o have more bedrooms and o u t s i d e p l a y space f o r c h i l d r e n . Moreover, h o u s i n g s u i t a b l e f o r n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s and u n a t t a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l s i s more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n the c e n t r a l c i t y than i n sub-urban l o c a t i o n s . L i k e w i s e , the i n c r e a s i n g e n t r y o f b o t h s i n g l e and m a r r i e d women i n t o the l a b o u r f o r c e and the r i s i n g numbers o f d u e l wage-earner f a m i l i e s has somewhat r e s t r i c t e d the c h o i c e s i n r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n open t o many hous e h o l d s because o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o i n t commuting. . . .13 The c e n t r a l c i t y , w i t h a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y o f j o b s and v a r i a b l e modes o f t r a n s p o r t , t h u s has become more a t t r a c t i v e (Bourne, 1978). The s h i f t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the l a b o u r f o r c e i s a second f a c t o r which has had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the geography o f the c i t y . The m a j o r i t y o f the l a b o u r f o r c e i s no l o n g e r engaged i n p r i m a r y o r secondary a c t i v i t i e s but i n s e r v i c e s . Employment i n s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s has accounted f o r o v e r 50 p e r c e n t o f the Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e s i n c e 1961. I n 1971, r o u g h l y 58 p e r c e n t o f the l a b o u r f o r c e was employed i n p s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s . The e x p a n s i o n o f the s e r v i c e economy w i t h i t s emphasis on o f f i c e work, e d u c a t i o n , and government has brought about a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the r e l a t i v e s i z e and i m p o r t a n c e o f w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . W i t h i n t h i s w h i t e c o l l a r s e c t o r , the most r a p i d change has been i n the growth o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l employment. I n Canada, whereas a l l o c c u p a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d by 63 p e r c e n t between 1951 and 1971, p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s i n -c r e a s e d by 180 p e r c e n t . C e n t r a l c i t y r e s i d e n c e s t e n d t o be r e l a t i v e l y more a t t r a c t i v e t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and managereal s u b - c l a s s e s o f the m i d d l e c l a s s than o t h e r -groups because o f the c o n v e n i e n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c a t i o n n ear the c i t y c e n t r e . I n a d d i t i o n t o work o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a g r e a t amount o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y and e n t e r t a i n m e n t i s a l s o c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the c i t y c e n t r e , p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r advantages t o an i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n . ... 14 R e l a t e d t o t h i s s h i f t i n employment has been the r e c e n t growth i n o f f i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n downtown a r e a s . T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n has f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the i n n e r c i t y among an i n c r e a s i n g number o f peop l e ( B l a c k , 1975; Levy and C y b r i w s k y , 1980). As C l a y p o i n t s o u t , "The r e d i s -c o v e r y o f r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the c e n t r a l c i t y i s not an i s o l a t e d phenomenon but p a r t o f the more s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d i n w h i c h the preeminence o f the downtown i s b e i n g r e e s t a b l i s h e d , p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h o f f i c e s , s e r v i c e . s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s and s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i t i e s " ( C l a y , 1979, 13) . The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f a downtown o f f i c e l o c a t i o n stems p r i m a r i l y from the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s and h i g h d e n s i t y i n t e r a c t i o n (Gottman, 1966). T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r c o r p o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s and head o f f i c e s . ...As a broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , v e r y l a r g e and s m a l l f i r m s , e s p e c i a l l y those p l a y i n g the r o l e o f head o f f i c e , c o n t i n u e t o p r e f e r the c e n t r a l c i t y , where they can ta k e advantage o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a l a b o u r f o r c e and CBD's e x t e r n a l economies... s i n c e they r e q u i r e i n p u t s o f a d v i c e , d a t a and e x p e r t i s e from a v a r i e t y o f p r o f e s s i o n s and o t h e r s e r v i c e s t h a t are r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n i n a suburban l o c a t i o n (Manners, 1974, 100). I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , new o f f i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n has s t i m u l a t e d many p o s i t i v e m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s , perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t b e i n g the e x p a n s i o n o f r e t a i l and s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s t o s e r v e the new o f f i c e s and employees. T h i s i n f u s i o n o f a c t i v i t y i n the downtown has h e l p e d t o r e v e r s e the f i s c a l c r i s i s o f the c i t y ( A l c a l y and M e r r n e l s t e i n , 1977). The r i s i n g demand f o r an i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n c e i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as a r e s u l t o f a d j u s t m e n t s and accommoda-t i o n s on the p a r t o f r e v i t a l i z e r s t o s h a r p l y e s c a l a t i n g h o u s i n g and energy c o s t s . F a l l i n g r a t e s o f new suburban h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u p l e d w i t h a s t e a d y , i f not r i s i n g demand have l e d t o sharp i n c r e a s e s i n the p r i c e o f new h o u s i n g ( Z e i t z , 1979). As a r e s u l t , p e o p l e have become more aware o f the r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the i n n e r c i t y where t h e p r i c e o f h o u s i n g has been l e s s than the c o s t o f h o u s i n g i n the suburbs. A c c e l e r a t e d by the p r o v i s i o n o f cheaper l a n d a t the f r i n g e (made a c c e s s i b l e by the e x t e n s i v e network o f American f r e e w a y s ) , the uneasy r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b l a c k s and w h i t e s , and the d e s i r e among the r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - t o - d o t o take advantage o f new urban o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the p r o c e s s o f s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n has weakened the c e n t r a l c i t y l a n d and h o u s i n g markets i n the U n i t e d States.- I n c o n t r a s t , C a n a d i a n c e n t r a l c i t y markets have not been weakened by p e r i p h e r a l development t o the same degree as t h e i r A merican c o u n t e r p a r t s . They t y p i c a l l y have had v e r y low vacancy r a t e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s because o f a h i g h l e v e l o f demand and a l a g g i n g net i n c r e a s e i n s u p p l y ( M e r c e r , 1979; G o l d b e r g and Mercer, 1980). T h i s demand f o r c e n t r a l c i t y markets i s r e f l e c t e d by v e r y buoyant house p r i c e s i n many Canadian c i t i e s . Over the l a s t decade h o u s i n g p r i c e s have r i s e n a t d r a m a t i c r a t e s and e q u i v a l e n t p r o p e r t i e s i n ... 16 American c i t i e s a r e now l e s s r a t h e r t h a n more e x p e n s i v e . Moreover, "much o f t h i s i n c r e a s e i s not a t t r i b u t a b l e t o i n c r e a s e d p r i c e s f o r new h o u s i n g but t o m a r k e d - i n c r e a s e s i n the r e s a l e p r i c e o f 'used h o u s i n g ' , much o f i t i n the c e n t r a l c i t y " ( M e r c e r , 1979, 128). A l t h o u g h p r i v a t e -market h o u s i n g r e n o v a t i o n has o c c u r r e d i n the i n n e r c i t i e s o f Canadian urban a r e a s , the e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t the h i g h c o s t o f h o u s i n g has l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n where re n e w a l has t a k e n the form o f redevelopment, i n the form o f h i g h r i s e r e n t a l apartments i n the 1960's and more r e c e n t l y condominiums and townhouses, as compared to r e n o v a t i o n i n urban Canada. A l t h o u g h the q u a l i t y . o f the i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g s t o c k i s o f t e n not as comparable i n q u a l i t y , the p r i c e s have been so low ( a t l e a s t i n the American c o n t e x t ) t h a t w i t h some r e n o v a t i o n and "sweat e q u i t y " , a home o f good q u a l i t y has been p o s s i b l e a t l e s s c o s t ( S e a t t l e O f f i c e o f P o l i c y P l a n n i n g , 1979). These c o s t advantages, however, are u s u a l l y s h o r t l i v e d . Once the renewal p r o c e s s g a i n s momentum and the r e p u t a t i o n o f a neighbourhood changes, economic advantages d e c l i n e and the c o s t o f a l l u n i t s c l i m b s r a p i d l y . F o r d (1979), f o r example, documents the r i s i n g h o u s i n g c o s t s i n German V i l l a g e , a d e s i g n a t e d h i s -t o r i c d i s t r i c t i n Columbus, Ohio. I n 1963, the c o s t o f a t y p i c a l r e s t o r a b l e house was about $5,000. By 1970 the c o s t f o r an average unrenovated house had r i s e n t o $19,000 and by 1977 i t was not uncommon f o r unrenovated houses t o . . .17 s e l l f o r $40,000 w i t h n i c e l y r e n o v a t e d houses e x c e e d i n g $100,000. S i m i l a r l y , i n S o c i e t y H i l l , a g e n t r i f i e d n e i g h -bourhood i n the h e a r t o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , house p r i c e s r o s e from $13,000 i n 1963 t o $87,000 i n 1975 (Ley, 1979). The u n c e r t a i n n a t u r e o f f u t u r e . energy s u p p l i e s has l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n o f r a p i d l y r i s i n g c o s t s . G i v e n the h i g h c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the time and d i s t a n c e o f commuting, peopl e have become more aware o f the r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s . As such, the i n n e r c i t y has become i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e as a p l a c e t o l i v e . 2.2.2. Young P r o f e s s i o n a l s and the A t t r a c t i o n o f I n n e r  C i t y L i v i n g The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y i s not s i m p l y the r e s u l t o f s t r u c t u r a l changes i n s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h a s i n g l e f a m i l y home i n a suburban l o c a t i o n i s s t i l l h i g h l y v a l u e d by many p e o p l e , as r e c e n t i n t r a - m e t r o p o l i t a n m i g r a -t i o n s t a t i s t i c s would s u g g e s t , among a s e l e c t segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e has been a growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u b u r b i a and i t s r e l a t e d images c o u p l e d w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n urban l i v i n g . T h i s has g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movement. U n l i k e many l o n g time r e s i d e n t s o f the i n n e r c i t y , who, because o f economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s , are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f h o u s i n g , the r e c e n t i n t e r e s t i n i n n e r c i t y l i v i n g has been e x p r e s s e d by a f a i r l y a f f l u e n t group o f m i d d l e c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s . P r o f e s s i o n a l and w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k ers between the ages o f 25 and 34 dominate g e n t r i f i e d n e i g h b o u r -hoods. I n d i v i d u a l s employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and w h i t e c o l l a r ... 18 o c c u p a t i o n s account f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n 74 p e r c e n t o f the neighbourhoods s u r v e y e d by C l a y (1979). S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s are r e p o r t e d by Gale (1979) i n h i s s t u d y o f i n n e r c i t y r e n e w a l . Not o n l y a r e many o f the r e s i d e n t s o f renewal neighbourhoods employed i n h i g h s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s , the m a j o r i t y o f them p o s s e s s u n i v e r s i t y degrees and make i n e x c e s s o f $20,000 p e r y e a r . Dual wage e a r n e r s c h a r a c t e r i z e many o f the h o u s e h o l d s . Yet a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n h o useholds i s t h e i r s m a l l h o u s e h o l d s i z e . The most t y p i c a l h o u s e h o l d i s composed o f s i n g l e s o r c h i l d -l e s s c o u p l e s . One o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e s e t t l e r s a re t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c o r i g i n s . C o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r wisdom, i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s h o u l d not be equated w i t h "back t o the c i t y " because t h i s phrase i m p l i e s t h a t w h i t e s a r e r e t u r n i n g from the suburbs i n l a r g e numbers. Both N e l s o n (1978) and Goodman (1978) have documented a c o n t i n u e d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n from c e n t r a l c i t i e s t o suburbs and n o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s and r a t e s o f s u b u r b a n - t o - c i t y movement no g r e a t e r i n the mid-1970's than t h e y were f o r 1965-1970. The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f h o u s e h o l d s have moved i n t o g e n t r i f i e d neighbourhoods from suburban l o c a t i o n s . Data p r e s e n t e d by Gale (1979) f o r the c i t i e s o f A t l a n t a , B o s t o n , Cambridge, and Washington i n d i c a t e t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f r e s e t t l e r s a l r e a d y were seasoned u r b a n i t e s , h a v i n g moved from somewhere w i t h i n the c i t i e s m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s . ...19 S i m i l a r p a t t e r n s have been found by L a s k a and S p a i n (1980) f o r New O r l e a n s . The o n l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e i s from-S t . L o u i s where a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f a l l r e n o v a t o r s were from the suburbs (Hu, 1978). Not o n l y do few r e s e t t l e r s appear t o be exsub-u r b a n i t e s , i t appears t h a t t hey have c o n s c i o u s l y embraced i n n e r c i t y l i v i n g and r e j e c t e d s u b u r b i a when s e a r c h i n g f o r a p l a c e t o l i v e . The r e j e c t i o n o f s u b u r b i a i s c i t e d by a number o f w r i t e r s as an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r which has h e l p e d t o encourage the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y (see f o r example F i c h t e r , 1977 and Z e i t z , 1979). Changing s o c i a l v a l u e s among the baby boom gener-a t i o n b o r n between 1940 and 1960 have made home-centredness, c h i l d - r e a r i n g , and l o c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , the f o c a l p o i n t s o f suburban l i f e , l e s s a p p e a l i n g t o a growing number o f p e o p l e . Many o f the o r i g i n a l m o t i v a t i o n s f o r moving to the suburbs -a h e a l t h y environment f o r one's c h i l d r e n , more f r i e n d l y n e i g h b o u r s , p e o p l e o f s i m i l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c background -are no l o n g e r a p p l i c a b l e ( B e l l , 1958). . Fur t h e r m o r e , the e n n u i , o r p e r c e i v e d ennui o f s u b u r b i a due t o i t s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l homogeniety i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r w hich has l e d t o a mounting d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h suburban l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y among young p e o p l e . Complementing the push o f the suburbs i s the magnetic p u l l o f c i t y l i v i n g . The c i t y i s viewed as an i n t e r e s t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g l i v i n g environment w i t h a h i g h degree o f c o n v e n i e n c e , c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y , and s o c i a l . . .20 i n t e r a c t i o n . B e i n g a f a i r l y w e l l - e d u c a t e d and a f f l u e n t group, r e s e t t l e r s have more time and money to devote t o i n t e r e s t s such as t h e i r c a r e e r s , v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t , and i m p r o v i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . The c e n t r a l c i t y i s much more s u i t a b l e than the suburbs f o r the p u r s u i t o f a d u l t - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s such as t h e a t r e s and r e s t a u r -a n t s t h a t a re c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l i f e s t y l e o f "urban s o p h i s t i c a t i o n " and c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m (Hamnett, 1973). The vi e w o f the c i t y as an e x c i t i n g p l a c e i s i n marked c o n t r a s t to t h a t o f detachment and a l o o f n e s s h e l d by many suburb-a n i t e s ( F a v a , 1975). The i n t e r e s t i n urban l i v i n g stems i n p a r t from the economic, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l h e t e r o g e n i e t y o f the c i t y . Such d i v e r s i t y i s much more a p p e a l i n g t h a n the s t e r i l i t y o f the suburbs f o r tho s e c h o o s i n g t o l i v e i n the i n n e r c i t y . The v a l u e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i v e r s i t y i s c a p t u r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g quote: 'Why d i d n ' t I move to the suburbs' . . . ' I don't know. F o r me, t h e r e i s more freedom i n the v a r i e t y o f the c i t y . I want a r a c i a l l y and s o c i a l l y mixed neighbourhood. I t ' s the way I t h i n k t h i s c o u n t r y has t o go. To put i t a n o t h e r way, I don't want t o l i v e w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n o f peopl e who a r e j u s t l i k e I am p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y . . . ' ( F i c h t e r , 1977, 2) T h i s renewed i n t e r e s t i n the c i t y and a s s o c i a t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h suburban l i v i n g may be a n a l y z e d as a d e c l i n e i n " f a m i l i s m " and i t s r e l a t e d norms o f consumption and an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on " c a r e e r i s m " and "consumership", p r e f e r e n c e p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an urban-oriented.. l i f e s t y l e ( B e l l , 1958). By c a r e e r i s m i s meant the spe n d i n g o f t i m e , money, and energy on one's c a r e e r . Those p e r s o n s who r e p r e s e n t the consumership c h o i c e p a t t e r n expend t h e i r e f f o r t s , t i m e , and money on " h a v i n g a good t i m e " , " l i v i n g i t up", o r " e n j o y i n g l i f e as much as p o s s i b l e " . C a r e e r i s m and consumership a re pursued a t the expense o f f a m i l i s r n . There i s not a h i g h v a l u a t i o n on f a m i l y l i v i n g , m a r r i a g e a t young ages, c h i l d - c e n t r e d n e s s , and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , those a c t i v i t i e s and p o s s e s s i o n s s y m b o l i c o f f a m i l i s r n . The young p r o f e s s i o n a l s who have moved i n t o i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhoods may be thought o f as p u r s u i n g c a r e e r i s m and consumership p a t t e r n s . To t h i s group, "the c i t y i s where the a c t i o n i s " . The growing s o c i e t a l c o n c e r n f o r a e s t h e t i c s and a w a r i n e s s towards massive redevelopment i s a n o t h e r v a l u e -r e l a t e d f a c t o r w hich has s t i m u l a t e d i n n e r c i t y renewal ( F o r d , 1979; F o r d and Fusch, 1976; O ' l o u g h l i n and Munski, 1979). I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been a growing r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t p l a s t i c , modern, s t e r i l e environments c o u p l e d w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the "sense o f h i s t o r y " . B u i l d i n g s and neighbourhoods which were not l o n g ago c o n s i d e r e d o b s o l e t e and v a l u e l e s s have been " r e d i s c o v e r e d " f o r t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l and/or h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . V a r i o u s i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods have been the o b j e c t o f much o f t h i s d i s c o v e r y . I n many c a s e s , c e n t r a l c i t y a r e a s were m i d d l e - o r uppe r - m i d d l e income neighbourhoods when f i r s t b u i l t . Because o f t h i s , and because o f the g e n e r a l p e r i o d i n w hich they were c o n s t r u c t e d , many o f these houses have f e a t u r e s w h i c h cannot be found i n more r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d h o u s i n g . F o r example 79 p e r c e n t o f the neighbourhoods sur v e y e d by C l a y (1979) have d i s t i n c t i v e e i g h t e e n t h o r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r c h i t e c t u r e . I n many i n s t a n c e s , h i s t o r y and p r e s e r v a t i o n have been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d t h r ough the d e s i g n a t i o n o f neighbourhoods as h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s o r the d e s i g n a t i o n o f houses as h e r i t a g e s t r u c t u r e s ( Z e i t z , 1979). T h i s o l d e r h o u s i n g s t o c k has o f f e r e d p e o p l e the c h a l l e n g e o f t r a n s f o r m i n g a d e t e r i o r a t e d d w e l l i n g i n t o a p r e s t i g i o u s house. R e f e r r e d t o as a " f r o n t i e r e t h i c " by R e b i z a n t ( 1 9 7 4 ) , many r e s i d e n t s e n j o y the sense o f adve n t u r e and c r e a t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g an o l d e r , c e n t r a l c i t y home. The g e n e r a l a i r o f r e b i r t h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t u r n a t t r a c t s more peopl e t o a n e i g h -bourhood. .23 2.3 The Geography o f R e v i t a l i z a t i o n The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods i s o c c u r r i n g i n a v e r y s e l e c t i v e manner. The m i d d l e c l a s s have been a t t r a c t e d t o c e n t r a l c i t y neighbourhoods t h a t a r e , i n some r e s p e c t s , u n u s u a l o r s p e c i a l . As C l a y (1979, 15) n o t e s , "The commitment t o c i t y neighbourhoods by the m i d d l e c l a s s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a commitment t o the whole c i t y but r a t h e r t o s e l e c t e d p a r t s o f i t . " Not o n l y has renewal a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d i n p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhoods, i t has o c c u r r e d i n p a r t i c u l a r c i t i e s . I n e f f e c t , t h e r e i s a geography o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n a t b o t h the i n t e r - and i n t r a -c i t y s c a l e s . 4 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s w i t h o u t heavy i n d u s t r y , and w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t commuting d i s t a n c e t o the suburbs from the c o r e are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t s o f c i t i e s which are l i k e l y t o c o n t a i n g e n t r i f i e d neighbourhoods ( L i p t o n , 1977). That renewal i s r e l a t e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e CBD 1s i s not s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n the prominence a t t a c h e d t o downtown o f f i c e space c o n s t r u c t i o n and the mix o f h i g h s t a t u s , w h i t e c o l l a r j o b s as f a c t o r s which have s t i m u l a t e d the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movement. To some w r i t e r s , the f o r t u n e s o f the i n n e r c i t y , i n d e e d , the c e n t r a l c i t y as a whole are i n t r i c a l l y l i n k e d to w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s and the h e a l t h o f the downtown c o r e . As one commentator n o t e s : The g r i m i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s o f y e s t e r y e a r , which have l i t t l e i n the way o f downtown a c t i v i t i e s , l i t t l e i n the way o f l e i s u r e time i n v e s t m e n t .24 have not got much to o f f e r t h i s group. The f u t u r e o f t h e s e c i t i e s i n our p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s v e r y d o u b t f u l ( S t e r n l i e b & F o r d , 1979, 102). I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the d e c l i n e o f the o l d i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s o f the n o r t h - e a s t and the growth e x p e r i e n c e d by the amenity-r i c h l o c a t i o n s o f the west and s o u t h p r o v i d e s good e v i d e n c e o f t h i s ( S t e r n l i e b and Hughes, 1975). Loca-t-ional f e a t u r e s a r e p r o b a b l y the most i m p o r t -ant s e t o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g e n t r i -f i e d n eighbourhoods. P r o x i m i t y t o the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t i s a common f e a t u r e o f such neighbourhoods. G i v e n the p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the emergence o f j o b s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d u l t r e c r e a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t so many o f the r e v i t a l i z e d neighbourhoods are i n the c i t y ' s c o r e . G e n t r i f i e d neighbourhoods a l s o command some o f the c i t y ' s most a t t r a c t i v e t o p o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s . H i g h e l e v a t i o n , p r o x i m i t y t o water, and s c e n i c views a re some o f the s t a t u s f e a t u r e s o f topography s h a r e d by neighbourhoods which have undergone r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . Renewal neighbourhoods o f t e n p o s s e s s a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e h o u s i n g and/or h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The sense o f h i s t o r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e f e a t u r e s i s an a t t r a c t i o n i n i t s own r i g h t . A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e i s the sense o f momentum and change g e n e r a t e d by the enthusiasm o f a group o f homeowners and d e v e l o p e r s d e d i c a t e d t o the improvement o f an a r e a . T h i s u s u a l l y a l s o i n c l u d e s the b e l i e f t h a t o t h e r m i d d l e c l a s s h o u s e h o l d s w i l l move i n t o the a r e a . ... 25 These advantages o f l o c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h the changes i n the s o c i a l , demographic, and economic f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y have h e l p e d t o change the n e g a t i v e image o f s e l e c t i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods. Once f o r m e r l y run-down a r e a s are now viewed as h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s t o l i v e . I n many i n s t a n c e s , the f i r s t newcomers t o a f o r m e r l y r u n -down neighbourhood have c o n s c i o u s l y aimed t o c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e neighbourhood image. The a d o p t i o n o f a n e i g h b o u r -hood name and a c o n s c i o u s attempt by r e s i d e n t s t o l i v e up t o the name p r o v i d e s an example o f i m a g e - c r e a t i o n . T h i s i s n o t e d by Anderson (1977, 85) i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f renewal i n s e v e r a l New York C i t y neighbourhoods. ...What c o n f e r r e d p r e s t i g e upon these neighbourhoods was not j u s t the s t a t e l y brownstones t h a t l i n e d the s t r e e t s o r the p r o s p e r o u s c l a s s t o which most o f the r e s i d e n t s b e l o n g e d but a l s o the f a s h i o n -a b l e names t h a t the neighbourhoods bore. Who wouldn't have wanted t o l i v e i n a neighbourhood w i t h a name l i k e B r o o k l y n H e i g h t s o r C l i n t o n H i l l o r P a r k S l o p e . D u r i n g the e a r l y s t a g e s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , the p o s i t i v e images c o n f e r r e d upon an a r e a by the " p i o n e e r s " , and l a t e r the media, may not be t o t a l l y a c c u r a t e . These images, however, have a way o f becoming s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s i n many i n s t a n c e s . P o s i t i v e t a l k h e l p s i n s t i l l a p o s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n which i n t u r n c r e a t e s a f a v o u r a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i n v e s t m e n t environment ( A h l b r a n d t and Brophy, 1975). What r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e t h e i r neighbourhood i s becoming may be more s i g n i f i c a n t t han what i t a c t u a l l y i s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , these b e l i e f s a f f e c t the images o f . . .26 neighbourhood i d e n t i t i e s h e l d by o t h e r r e s i d e n t s o f the c i t y and by p e o p l e t h i n k i n g about moving i n t o the neighbourhood. I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , where s e v e r a l neighbourhoods are b e i n g r e j u v e n a t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y , each may a c q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t r e p u t a t i o n . These r e p u t a t i o n s are s e l f - f u l -f i l l i n g because newcomers move i n t o neighbourhoods t h a t appear l i k e l y t o be most c o n g e n i a l t o t h e i r l i f e s t y l e . As W i n t e r s (1979) p e r c e p t i v e l y n o t e s : ...The d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n a r e j u v e n a t i n g a r e a i s r a r e l y based on economic f a c t o r s a l o n e . Most s o c i a l l y d i s t i n c t neighbourhoods r e s u l t from p e o p l e ' s need to i d e n t i f y and e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s by t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l c h o i c e , and d u r i n g the 1970*s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s e l f -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n have grown l u x u r i o u s l y . He i n t u r n i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e neighbourhood t y p e s which have emerged d u r i n g the 1970's - i n c l u d i n g s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y heterogeneous, c h i c , gay, a r t i s t s ' , f a m i l y , b l a c k r e v i t a l i z e d , and w o r k i n g c l a s s r e v i t a l i z e d n eighbourhoods. The l i t e r a t u r e on i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , f o r the most p a r t , d e a l s w i t h the e c o n o m i c a l l y and e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n o f the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y heterogeneous neighbourhood and the f a s h i o n a b l e , c h i c neighbourhood o f the new "urban e l i t e " ( F l e e t w o o d , 1979). I n b o t h c a s e s , r e v i t a l i z a t i o n may r e s u l t i n a l o w e r income group and i t s a s s o c i a t e d t a s t e s and v a l u e s b e i n g s u p p l a n t e d by those o f a m i d d l e c l a s s group. T h i s sequence o f events may l e a d t o c o n f l i c t s between the newcomers and neighbourhood incumbents. C y b r i w s k y (1978) i n h i s p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s t u d y o f the Fairmount a r e a o f i n n e r c i t y P h i l a d e l p h i a , f o r example, no t e s the t e n s i o n s between the young p r o f e s s i o n a l new-comers and l o n g time r e s i d e n t s . I r o n i c a l l y , the v e r y d i v e r s i t y and c u l t u r a l h e t e r o g e n e i t y which has a t t r a c t e d many middl e c l a s s r e -s e t t l e r s may be l o s t as more and more middl e c l a s s i n d i v i d -u a l s d i s c o v e r i n n e r c i t y l i v i n g . I n n e r c i t y l i v i n g s i m p l y becomes too e x p e n s i v e f o r most p e o p l e . The chance o f f i n d -i n g a h o u s i n g b a r g a i n d e c r e a s e s r a p i d l y as the p r o c e s s o f r e j u v e n a t i o n g a i n s momentum and neighbourhood r e p u t a t i o n s change. I n e v e r y i n s t a n c e where r e n o v a t i o n has o c c u r r e d , the p r i c e o f h o u s i n g has gone from e x t r e m e l y low l e v e l s to p r i c e s above the average o f i n n e r c i t y d w e l l i n g s , and v e r y o f t e n , above, the average c o s t o f suburban h o u s i n g ( S e a t t l e O f f i c e o f P o l i c y P l a n n i n g , 1979). T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n c o n f l i c t s not o n l y between l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t s and newcomers, but a l s o between " p i o n e e r " newcomers and " l a t e r " newcomers. Whereas the p i o n e e r s may e n j o y the s o c i a l .and economic d i v e r s i t y o f the a r e a , l a t e r newcomers are more co n c e r n e d about t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t and i n e s t a b l i s h i a r e s p e c t a b l e m i d d l e c l a s s neighbourhood. Indeed, i n a r e -c e n t s u r v e y o f two neighbourhoods i n i n n e r c i t y Washington, Gale (1980) found t h a t the i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f the house p u r c h a s e d was the p r i m a r y r e a s o n among r e s e t t l e r s i n c h o o s i n g t o l i v e i n .the i n n e r c i t y . .28 2.4 The P o l i t i c a l - E c o n o m i c S e c t o r and R e v i t a l i z a t i o n The d i s c o v e r y o f the i n n e r c i t y as a h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e l i v i n g environment by a r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t group o f young, m i d d l e c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s has i n t u r n a l t e r e d the p e r c e p t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y by those a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the s u p p l y o f h o u s i n g . The i n n e r c i t y i s no l o n g e r a u t o m a t i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d t o be a h i g h r i s k e n v i r o n -ment by the development i n d u s t r y and the f i n a n c i a l community. R a t h e r , i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e l e c t i v e sense o f opt i m i s m and c o n f i d e n c e . These changes have had i m p o r t a n t conse-quences f o r the pace and d i r e c t i o n o f r e n o v a t i o n and redevelopment i n s e l e c t i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods. I n a d d i t i o n t o changes i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and consumer demand, the p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government have a f f e c t e d the d e c i s i o n s o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . These i n t u r n have had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l renewal o f the i n n e r c i t y . 2.4.1 The Development I n d u s t r y D e v e l o p e r s s e r v e as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s i n h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n . They respond t o the demands o f the m a r k e t p l a c e s u b j e c t t o the r e s t r i c t i o n s and r e g u l a t i o n s imposed on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s by government and by the responses o f c i t i z e n s t o proposed p r o j e c t s ( G o l d b e r g and U l l i n d e r , 1975). One o f the b a s i c e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s t r a t e g i e s o f the development i n d u s t r y i s t o c l e a r l y a s c e r t a i n and reduce the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n v e s t m e n t . A l t h o u g h the w e i g h i n g o f c o s t s i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , a d e v e l o p e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f r i s k i s l a r g e l y based on h i s e s t i m a t e s o f m a r k e t a b i l i t y and consumer p r e f e r e n c e s . D e v e l o p e r s w i l l respond t o the market i f t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r type o f d e v e l o p -ment w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l . Of the p r o p e r t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t i n g m a r k e t a b i l i t y , l o c a t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are the most i m p o r t a n t (Weiss, 1966). L o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e d e r i v e d from the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n o f a s i t e . S i n c e a s i t e i t s e l f i s f i x e d i n space, changes i n l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s depend on s h i f t s i n the s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t e x t o f community a c t i v i t i e s and v a l u e s . S o c i a l p r e s t i g e l e v e l i s the most i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (Weiss e t a l , 1966). I n s t i t u -t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a r e a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o a s i t e , but t h a t are n o t " i n h e r e n t i n the s i t e . Imposed by s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , these i n c l u d e such t h i n g s as l a n d use z o n i n g . D e s p i t e the i m p o r t a n c e o f m a r k e t a b i l i t y , v a r i o u s case s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t s a n a l y s i s by d e v e l o p e r s i s u n s y s t e m a t i c (Bourne, 1976; Weiss and K a i s e r , 1970). F o r the most p a r t , d e v e l o p e r s r e l y on r e a l e s t a t e agents and s p e c u l a t o r s t o c a r r y out the s e a r c h p r o c e s s f o r new s i t e s . By a d v i s i n g c l i e n t s o f t r e n d s and impending neighbourhood change, t h e r e a r e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h r e a l t o r s can a c c e l -e r a t e i f not i n i t i a t e market t r e n d s (Palm, 1976). O c c a s i o n -a l l y , r e a l t o r s t h emselves a r e s p e c u l a t o r s , h o p i n g t h a t t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t w i l l y i e l d s u b s t a n t i a l r e t u r n s f o r t h e i r r i s k s . . . .30 A l t h o u g h d e v e l o p e r s may a c t c o n s e r v a t i v e l y i n t h e i r assessments o f r i s k , m a r k e t a b i l i t y , and consumer p r e f e r e n c e , t h e y a re q u i c k t o ta k e advantage o f s t r o n g market demands. The r o l e o f the development i n d u s t r y i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y p r o v i d e s a good example o f t h i s . As the s o c i a l p r e s t i g e l e v e l o f s e l e c t i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods has improved, the i n i t i a l e f f o r t s o f renewal u n d e r t a k e n by a group o f p i o n e e r s has been speeded up by the a c t i o n s o f d e v e l o p e r s . D e v e l o p e r s p l a y e d a key r o l e a t an e a r l y p o i n t i n the renewal p r o c e s s i n 42 p e r c e n t o f the neighbourhoods s u r v e y e d by C l a y (1979). I n a d d i t i o n t o s h a p i n g the a r c h i t e c t u r a l and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f renewal a r e a s , the development i n d u s t r y , t h r ough a d v e r t i s i n g and m a r k e t i n g , has h e l p e d t o p u b l i c i z e the renewal o f p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhoods to the p u b l i c . I n t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g s t r a t e g i e s d e v e l o p e r s and r e a l t o r s o f t e n make r e f e r e n c e t o the s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e a s p e c t s o f renewal a r e a s as w e l l as more c o n v e n t i o n a l f e a t u r e s such as a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the downtown and topography. R e b i z a n t ( 1 9 7 4 ) , i n a study o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and change i n T o r o n t o , n o t e s how the Don V a l e a r e a i s d e s c r i b e d i n some ads as " f a s h i o n a b l e " , "the i n - p l a c e t o l i v e " , a " f u n " l o c a t i o n and "a l o c a t i o n t h a t i s v e r y much sought a f t e r " . As w e l l as promoting r e n e w a l , the development i n d u s t r y has the p o t e n t i a l t o e x p l o i t the r e i n v e s t m e n t p r o c e s s . The d e s i r e f o r q u i c k p r o f i t s o c c a s s i o n a l l y r e s u l t s i n l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y care- t a k e n by d e v e l o p e r s i n t h e i r r e n o v a t i o n and townhouse p r o j e c t s . I n many-i n s t a n c e s , t h e y have been charged w i t h b e i n g i n s e n s i t i v e t o the adver s e e f f e c t s o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the e f f e c t s on forme r t e n a n t s and t h e i r l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l i n r e n o v a t i o n endeavours. 2.4.2 F i n a n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s A l t h o u g h not p l a y i n g as d i r e c t a r o l e as the development i n d u s t r y , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l s o been i m p o r t a n t i n s h a p i n g the f o r t u n e s o f the i n n e r c i t y . The i n f l u e n c e o f f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s p r i m a r i l y f e l t t h r o u gh the r e a l e s t a t e market as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r l e n d i n g d e c i s i o n s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f i n a n c i n g , as w e l l as i t s terms, p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the a b i l i t y o f p r o s p e c t i v e p u r c h a s e r s t o a f f o r d t o buy a p i e c e o f p r o p e r t y ( A h l b r a n d t and Brophy, 1975). F i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been r e l u c t a n t t o e x t e n d c r e d i t t o tho s e w i s h i n g t o purch a s e i n n e r c i t y p r o p e r t i e s because o f the n e g a t i v e images and low e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s p a r t o f the c i t y . Numerous s t u d i e s have c i t e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s p e o p l e have had i n a c q u i r i n g f i n a n c i n g d u r i n g the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n (Anderson, 1977; B l a c k , 1977; C l a y , 1979; W i l l i a m s , 1976). T h i s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , e x p l a i n s the s i g n i f i c a n t use o f p r i v a t e c a p i t a l and sweat e q u i t y among the e a r l y p i o n e e r s o f many p r e s e n t l y g e n t r i f i e d n e i g h b o u r -hoods. W i t h the growing r e p u t a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y as a p o s i t i v e i n v e s t m e n t environment, mortgage money has become much more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case g i v e n the m i d d l e c l a s s , p r o f e s s i o n a l background o f those p e o p l e w i s h i n g to l i v e i n the i n n e r c i t y . F l e e t w o o d (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t the end o f " r e d l i n i n g " p o l i c i e s by banks i s perhaps the most p o s i t i v e p r o o f o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . 2.4.3 R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and the R o l e o f L o c a l Government The p e r c e p t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y h e l d by. d e v e l o p -e r s and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s may be r e i n f o r c e d and extended by the p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government. Indeed, a number o f w r i t e r s suggest t h a t p u b l i c s e c t o r i n v o l v e m e n t i s a p r e -r e q u i s i t e f o r the s u c c e s s f u l renewal o f an i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhood. . . . I n o r d e r t o stem d e c l i n e , the p s y c h o l o g y o f the i n v e s t o r s (homeowners, l a n d l o r d s , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and o t h e r p r i v a t e s e c t o r organ-i z a t i o n s ) must be a l t e r e d . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the p u b l i c s e c t o r t h r o u g h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n v e s t m e n t and improved s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . . . P u b l i c s e c t o r i n v o l v e m e n t i s a p r e r e q -u i s i t e because w i t h o u t i t , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r w i l l have no v i s i b l e means t h r o u g h which t o r e v i s e i t s u n c e r t a i n t y about the n e i g h b o u r -hood's f u t u r e . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the demand f o r h o u s i n g w i l l s u d d e n l y i n c r e a s e w i t h o u t some o u t s i d e s t i m u l u s . . . ( A h l b r a n d t and Brophy, 1975, 34) Of the l o c a l r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s performed by government, z o n i n g c o n t r o l s are perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t . Zoning p r o v i d e s the most d i r e c t i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanism by w hich the use >of p r i v a t e l a n d i s r e g u l a t e d (Babcock, 1966). Among those a s p e c t s o f development which are a f f e c t e d by z o n i n g are the l o c a t i o n , d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , • ••33 and use o f b u i l d i n g s , the h e i g h t and number o f b u i l d i n g s , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , the v a r i o u s t y p e s o f l a n d uses w h i c h may be p e r m i t t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n ( e . g . r e s i d e n t a l , c o m m e r c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and so o n ) . H i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t d e s i g n a t i o n i s perhaps the most a l l encompassing z o n i n g mechanism through which l o c a l government may i n f l u e n c e the pace and d i r e c t i o n o f r e v i t a l -i z a t i o n ( Z e i t z , 1979). The main f u n c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c d e s i g n a t i o n i s t o p r e s e r v e and m a i n t a i n the unique q u a l i t y and s p e c i a l s t a t u s o f an a r e a t h r o u g h the p r o t e c t i o n , r e s t o r a t i o n , and maintenance o f an a r e a ' s h i s t o r i c a l , a r c h i t e c t u r a l , and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r . Zoning p r o v i d e s a q u a l i t a t i v e measure o f the importance d e v e l o p e r s a t t a c h t o p l a n n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s as w e l l as an o v e r a l l image o f urban s t r u c t u r e t o which they s u b s e q u e n t l y respond (Bourne, 1976). U n c l e a r z o n i n g i m p l i e s a h i g h degree o f r i s k and hence, d e v e l o p e r s t e n d t o shy away from l o c a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by such u n c e r t a i n t y . The p o t e n t i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b y - l a w s , the a c q u i r i n g o f development and b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s , and so on, a f f e c t a d e v e l o p e r ' s e x p e c t e d c o s t s , e x p e c t e d revenues, and the r i s k o f i n v e s t m e n t . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case i f t h e r e are b e t t e r i n v e s t m e n t oppor-t u n i t i e s e l s e w h e r e . D e s i g n c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s are o f t e n used by the p u b l i c s e c t o r t o supplement z o n i n g . These t o o l s g i v e d e v e l o p e r s and o t h e r s g u i d e l i n e s as t o the d e s i r e d shape, . . .34 s i z e , and e x t e r i o r appearance o f b o t h r e n o v a t i o n s and new developments i n neighbourhoods u n d e r g o i n g r e n e w a l . I n a d d i t i o n t o s h a p i n g p r i v a t e development d e c i s i o n s t h r o u g h z o n i n g and o t h e r mechanisms o f l a n d use and d e s i g n c o n t r o l , a number o f o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s have been used by the p u b l i c s e c t o r i n d i r e c t i n g n e i g h -bourhood change and i n s t i l l i n g more c o n f i d e n c e among the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Funds f o r i t e m s such as new s i d e w a l k s , s t r e e t l i g h t s , s t r e e t improvements, and improvements t o p u b l i c a r e a s a re f r e q u e n t l y a l l o c a t e d by l o c a l g o v e r n -ments t o neighbourhoods u n d e r g o i n g r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . A l s o , the p u b l i c s e c t o r has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n neighbourhood m a r k e t i n a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h such means as m u n i c i p a l s u p p o r t f o r house t o u r s , f a i r s , media campaigns and o r g a n i z e d a t t e m p t s t o educate and i n f o r m the p u b l i c o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r prom o t i n g c i t y l i v i n g . 2.5 The P r o c e s s o f I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : The  I n t e r p l a y o f P r i v a t e and P u b l i c The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y i s more than the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f once d e t e r i o r a t e d neighbourhoods. I t i s the i n t e r p l a y between the cha n g i n g r e s i d e n t a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f a s e l e c t group o f i n d i v i d u a l s , the r e a c t i o n o f d e v e l o p e r s and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o these c h a n g i n g p r e f e r e n c e s , and the p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government which may e i t h e r r e i n f o r c e and extend the p r o c e s s s t a b i l i z e i t , o r r e v e r s e i t . T h i s i n t e r p l a y has i n t u r n l e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n c i t y l i v i n g among a . . .35 g r e a t e r number o f peopl e which i n t u r n has s t i m u l a t e d more r e n o v a t i o n and development. I n many i n s t a n c e s , the s u c c e s s f u l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f one i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood has had p o s i t i v e c o n t a g i o n e f f e c t s on o t h e r , nearby n e i g h -bourhoods. These "new" a r e a s i n v a r i a b l y share many o f the f e a t u r e s o f the " i n i t i a l " one. Having w i t n e s s e d the s u c c e s s o f one a r e a , the p o t e n t i a l r i s k o f i n v e s t m e n t i s much lo w e r f o r p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s i n subsequent n e i g h -bourhoods . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the renewal p r o c e s s and the " s n o w - b a l l i n g " n a t u r e o f the phenomenon i s b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i f a s i m p l e d e s c r i p t i v e model o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d . 2.5.1 A Model o f G e n t r i f i c a t i o n 7 A s m a l l group o f r i s k - o b l i v i o u s p e o p l e move i n and r e n o v a t e p r o p e r t i e s f o r t h e i r own use d u r i n g the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . T h i s f i r s t group o f newcomers u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r a r t i s t s who have the s k i l l , t i m e , and a b i l i t y t o under-take e x t e n s i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . These people a re o f t e n n o t e d as b e i n g l i b e r a l i n p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and h a v i n g a sense o f a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h i s t o r y : ...They became known as brownstone r e n o v a t o r s . . . But s i n c e , as educated p e o p l e , they were t a k e n w i t h V i c t o r i a n ambience - c o n s c i o u s o f the r e s i d e n t a l t r a d i t i o n they were a t t e m p t i n g to r e s t o r e - they much p r e f e r r e d the s t y l i s h term " b r o w n s t o n e r s " . I t i m p l i e d t h a t they were not j u s t r e p a i r i n g and l i v i n g i n brown-s t o n e s - i g n o r a n t , l i k e so many o r d i n a r y t e n a n t s o f the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l background o f these o l d d w e l l i n g s - but t h a t they were q u a l i f i e d by i m a g i n a t i o n and t a s t e t o a p p r e c i a t e what they once s t o o d f o r . . . (Anderson, 1977, 90-91) Moreover, t h i s young, l i b e r a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l group i s w i l l i n g t o put up w i t h the more n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f the neighbourhood. A t t h i s s t a g e , neighbourhoods are o f t e n d i r t y , n o i s y and o f t e n a c t u a l l y dangerous. I n f a c t , these p i o n e e r s may even be a t t r a c t e d t o the "gaminess" o f t h e i r new environment. A t t h i s e a r l y s tage t h e r e i s l i t t l e p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e . A l s o , the newcomers u s u a l l y have a d i f f i c u l t time i n a c q u i r i n g mortgage f u n d s , the f i n a n c i a l community b e i n g v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o i n v e s t i n neighbourhoods which have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e c l i n e and bad images f o r many y e a r s . I n the second stage o f r e n e w a l , a few more o f the same type o f p e o p l e move i n and f i x up houses f o r t h e i r own use. They w i l l pay a b i t more f o r t h e i r homes than the i n i t i a l p i o n e e r s . S u b t l e p r o m o t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e begun and a number o f s m a l l - s c a l e s p e c u l a t o r s may r e n o v a t e a few houses f o r r e s a l e o r r e n t a l . Some d i s p l a c e -ment o f neighbourhood incumbents may o c c u r as v a c a n t h o u s i n g becomes s c a r c e . Major media o r o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i s d i r e c t e d t o a neighbourhood i n the t h i r d s tage o f r e n e w a l . I n a d d i t i o n t o p r i v a t e home owners, the r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y and c i v i c p o l i c y makers become i m p o r t a n t agents i n s h a p i n g the . . .37 r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . Banks b e g i n t o " g r e e n l i n e " the a r e a and l o a n s become r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o m i d d l e c l a s s buyers and i n v e s t o r s w i t h i n the a r e a . P h y s i c a l improve-ments become v e r y v i s i b l e because o f t h e i r volume and the g e n e r a l improvement they make t o the neighbourhood. P r i c e s b e g i n t o r i s e v e r y r a p i d l y . I t i s a t t h i s stage t h a t the c r i t i c a l p o i n t o f u p g r a d i n g i s r e a c h e d . The t r e n d i s s e t f o r the k i n d o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and redevelopment a c t i v i t y t h a t w i l l dominate i n the near f u t u r e . The d i s p l a c e m e n t o f former r e s i d e n t s c o n t i n u e s as an i n c r e a s i n g number o f newcomers move i n t o the n e i g h -bourhood. U n l i k e the f i r s t group o f newcomers, the a r r i v a l s i n t h i s s tage i n c l u d e i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f p e o p l e who see h o u s i n g as an i n v e s t m e n t as w e l l as a p l a c e t o l i v e . T h i s " c o n s e r v a t i v e " young, p r o f e s s i o n a l group i s more aware o f the n e g a t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s and the e f f e c t those s u r r o u n d i n g s may have on f u t u r e r e s a l e v a l u e s . I n the f i n a l s t age o f r e n e w a l , a l a r g e r number o f p r o p e r t i e s a r e g e n t r i f i e d as m i d d l e c l a s s i n - m i g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s . As t h i s p r o c e s s p r o c e e d s , the neighbourhood may become i n c r e a s i n g l y homogeneous, perhaps a s m a l l e t h n i c g r o c e r y s t o r e b e i n g the one r e l i c which r e s i d e n t s p o i n t t o when e x t o l l i n g the d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r n eighbourhood. 2.6 Summary The d i s c o v e r y o f urban l i v i n g by a growing ... 38 number o f young, m i d d l e c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s has g i v e n a renewed l i f e t o f o r m e r l y run-down i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods. Changing s o c i a l v a l u e s c o u p l e d w i t h r e c e n t demographic t r e n d s towards s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s , fewer c h i l d r e n , and non-f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , have made the i n n e r c i t y , w i t h i t s p r o x i m i t y t o downtown employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , d i v e r s i t y o f c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and g e n e r a l a i r o f " e x c i t e m e n t " and " a c t i o n " , a much sought a f t e r , h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l environment. Not a l l i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhoods, however, have undergone m i d d l e c l a s s r e s e t t l e m e n t . G e n t r i f i c a t i o n has o c c u r r e d i n a v e r y s e l e c t i v e manner. Unusual o r s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as l o c a t i o n near the downtown, h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e , o r s t a t u s f e a t u r e s o f topography are f e a t u r e s s h a r e d by r e v i t a l i z i n g n e i g h -bourhoods . The c h a n g i n g r e p u t a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y amongst middl e c l a s s h o u s e h o l d e r s has not gone u n n o t i c e d by the development i n d u s t r y and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . P r i v a t e s e c t o r i n v e s t m e n t and development i n f o r m e r l y " r e d l i n e d " a r e a s has r e i n f o r c e d and extended the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f s e l e c t i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods. I n many i n s t a n c e s , the p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s o f l o c a l government have a l s o a f f e c t e d the pace and d i r e c t i o n o f r e n e w a l . I n summary, r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s not s i m p l y the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a run-down neighbourhood i n t o a f a s h i o n -a b l e m i d d l e c l a s s e n c l a v e . I t i s the i n t e r p l a y between the c h a n g i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f a s e l e c t group o f i n d i v i d u a l s , the responses o f d e v e l o p e r s and. f i n a n c i e r s t o these c h a n g i n g p r e f e r e n c e s , and the p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government. F o o t n o t e s These f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t changes i n the Canadian pop-u l a t i o n between 1971 and 1976. They are adopted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, F a m i l i e s . C a t . 93-714, 1971; S t a t i s t i c s Canada* Census o f Canada, F a m i l i e s • Ca t . 93-821, 1976; S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, Households. C a t . 93-703, 1971; and S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, D w e l l i n g s and Households. C a t . 93-806, 1976. o These f i g u r e s a re adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census of Canada, O c c u p a t i o n s , H i s t o r i c a l f o r Canada and P r o v - i n c e s . C a t . 94-716, 1971. 3 I b i d . 4 The l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y was measured by the number o f square f e e t o f o f f i c e space i n the CBD i n 1960 and 1970, the number o f workers i n the CBD as w e l l as the number and p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e i n the c i t y and the SMSA t h a t were engaged i n w h i t e - c o l l a r and e x e c u t i v e employment. E x e c u t i v e employment was d e f i n e d as those i n c l u d e d i n the census c a t e g o r y p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and k i n d r e d w o r k ers and those c a t e g o r i z e d as managers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k f o r c e i n c l u d e d those d e f i n e d as e x e c u t i v e p l u s s a l e s w o r k e r s , c l e r i c a l , and k i n d r e d w o r k e r s . See'S. Gregory L i p t o n . "Evidence o f C e n t r a l C i t y R e v i v a l " , J o u r n a l o f the American I n - s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 43.2 (1977), pp. 136-147. 5 MLS d a t a p r e s e n t e d by G o l d b e r g (1977) f o r Vancouver and S e a t t l e , f o r example, show t h a t Vancouver house p r i c e s r o s e by 160 p e r c e n t s i n c e 1971 whereas they i n c r e a s e d by o n l y 34 p e r c e n t i n S e a t t l e . F o r more d e t a i l see M i c h a e l A. G o l d b e r g . "Housing and Land P r i c e s i n Canada and the U.S.", i n Lawrence B. Smith and M i c h a e l Walker ( e d s . ) , P u b l i c P r o p e r t y ? The H a b i t a t Debate C o n t i n u e d ) The F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e : Vancouver, 1977. 6 On i n n e r c i t y redevelopment i n Canada see f o r example L.S. Bourne, "Market L o c a t z o n and S i t e S e l e c t i o n I n Apartment C o n s t r u c t i o n " , C a n a d i a n Geographer, 12, 4 (1968), pp. 211-266; S.W. H a m i l t o n , Condominiums: A  Decade o f E x p e r i e n c e i n B.C., Vancouver: B r i t i s h C olumbia R e a l E s t a t e A s s o c i a t i o n , 1978; Ann McAfee, " E v o l v i n g I n n e r C i t y R e s i d e n t i a l E n v i ronments: The Case o f Vancouver's West End", i n J . Mi n g h i ( e d . ) , P e o p l e s o f the L i v i n g Land: Geography o f C u l t u r a l  D i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver: T a n t a l u s R e s e a r c h , 1972, pp. 163-182; R.E. Murphy, "Apartment L o c a t i o n : The B a l a n c e Between D e v e l o p e r and Community", i n C.N. Forward ( e d . ) , R e s i d e n t i a l and Neighbourhood  S t u d i e s , Western G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s No. 5, U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a : V i c t o r i a , 1973, pp. 149-177; P.J. Smith and L.D. McCann. "The Sequence o f P h y s i c a l Change i n Apartment Redevelopment A r e a s i n Edmonton", P l a n Canada, 15 (1975), pp. 30-37. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s based on P h i l l i p C l a y ' s a n a l y s i s o f a model o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by Tim P a t t i s o n and a s i m i l a r model p r e s e n t e d by Ro b e r t F i c h t e r ( 1 9 77). .42 C h a p t e r 3 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TOWARDS  GENTRIFICATION 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A r e v i e w o f the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s the use o f f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . U s u a l l y more i m p l i c i t than e x p l i c i t , they emphasize the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : (1) demography, (2) e c o l o g y , (3) c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , (4) p o l i t i c a l economy, and (5) s o c i a l movements. The main purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s to o u t l i n e and a s s e s s b o t h the t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l m e r i t s o f t h e s e v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s . An approach empha-s i z i n g the c o n j u n c t i o n o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l i f e s t y l e v a l u e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s , i t i s s u g g e s t e d , h o l d s the most promise f o r a complete a n a l y s i s o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . A s o c i a l movements approach based on an i d e o l o g y o f a e s t h e t i c i s m and l i v a b i l i t y p r o v i d e s a s t e p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . 3.2 The Demographic Approach G e n t r i f i c a t i o n , from the demographic p e r s p e c -t i v e , i s a form o f m i g r a t i o n t h a t i s b o t h cause and con-sequence o f changes i n p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n . The m a t u r i n g o f the p o s t - W o r l d War I I baby boom g e n e r a t i o n , the growing p e r c e n t a g e o f the p o p u l a t i o n between the ages . . .43 of 25 and 35, d e c l i n i n g f e r t i l i t y r a t e s , the r i s i n g number o f d u a l wage-earner h o u s e h o l d s , i n c r e a s i n g female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and the growing i n s t a b i l i t y o f c o n v e n t i o n a l m a r r i a g e are a l l demographic f a c t o r s which, t a k e n t o g e t h e r , have made urban l i v i n g a t t r a c t i v e t o a growing number o f young, r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t house-h o l d e r s . 3.3 The Human E c o l o g i c a l Approach C e n t r a l t o human e c o l o g y i s the a n a l y s i s o f the p r o c e s s e s and forms o f man's adjustment t o h i s environment. As such, an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e a l l o w s f o r the a n a l y s i s o f b o t h the s t a t i c and dynamic d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i a l o r g a n -i z a t i o n . Dynamic c o n c e p t s are most r e l e v a n t f o r the s t u d y o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e i s the concept o f i n v a s i o n - s u c c e s s i o n . The term s u c c e s s i o n r e f e r s t o the sequence o f changes by which u n i t s o f one l a n d use or p o p u l a t i o n type r e p l a c e those o f an o t h e r i n an a r e a . These changes a re s a i d t o be the outcomes o f a s e r i e s o f i n v a s i o n s . The i n i t i a t i o n o f i n v a s i o n - s u c c e s s i o n , as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n e c o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n neighbourhood d e t e r -i o r a t i o n as h i g h e r s t a t u s groups are r e p l a c e d by lower s t a t u s groups. Hudson (1980), i n l i g h t o f the c u r r e n t changes i n the r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial p a t t e r n s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n n e r c i t y a r e a s , argues t h a t t h i s assumption o f u n i d i r e c t i o n a l i t y imposes u n n e c e s s a r y l i m i t a t i o n s on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the i n v a s i o n - s u c c e s s i o n c o n c e p t . He . . .44 s u g g e s t s t h a t g e n t r i f i c a t i o n i s s i m p l y a r e v e r s a l o f the u s u a l p a t t e r n o f neighbourhood change and as such can be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms of these e c o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s . ; A fundamental i n s i g h t o f e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , one t h a t i s v e r y a p p l i c a b l e i n the c o n t e x t o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n , i s t h a t d i s p l a c e m e n t and c o n f l i c t o f t e n accompany i n v a s i o n s . I n the words o f McKenzie (1967, 7 6 ) : D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f development o f an i n v a s i o n i n t o a new a r e a , e i t h e r o f use o r t y p e , t h e r e t a k e s p l a c e a p r o c e s s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t and s e l e c t i o n d etermined by the c h a r a c t e r o f the i n v a d e r and o f the a r e a i n v a d e d . The e a r l y s t a g e s are u s u a l l y marked by keeness o f c o m p e t i t i o n which f r e q u e n t l y m a n i f e s t s i t -s e l f i n outward c l a s h e s . . . I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , the i n - m i g r a t i o n o f young p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t o i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods o f t e n r e s u l t s i n c l a s h e s between newcomers and l o n g time neighbourhood incumbents (see f o r example C y b r i w s k y , 1978; Levy and C y b r i w s k y , 1980). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f communities t h a t r e a c h the " c l i m a x " s t a g e o f i n v a s i o n are e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o an a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . T h i s s t a g e i n the i n v a s i o n p r o c e s s i s r e a c h e d once a dominant type o f e c o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n emerges which i s a b l e to w i t h s t a n d the i n t r u -s i o n s o f o t h e r forms o f i n v a s i o n . The concept o f "dominance" has much u t i l i t y i n a n a l y z i n g the c l i m a x s t a g e . A c c o r d i n g t o Robert P a r k , "the fundamental f u n c t i o n o f dominance i s t o s t a b i l i z e , t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r and p e r m i t the growth of s t r u c t u r e i n which t h a t o r d e r and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f u n c t i o n are embodied" ( P a r k , 1967, 162). The u p r o o t i n g o f a f o r m e r l y l o w - c l a s s neighbourhood by the v a l u e s and m a t e r i a l symbols o f m i d d l e - and upper-middle c l a s s c h i c can be r e g a r d e d as a form o f dominance. W i t h i t s acknowledgment t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n f r e -q u e n t l y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n outward c l a s h e s and the n o t i o n o f power i m p l i c i t i n the concept o f dominance, human e c o l o g i c a l t h e o r y seems t o h o l d a g r e a t d e a l o f p o t e n t i a l f o r an a n a l y s i s o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . A number o f t h e o r e t i c a l weaknesses, however, s e v e r l y c u r t a i l the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f a human e c o l o g i c a l approach to g e n t r i f i -c a t i o n . T h i s model assumes an open market c o m p e t i t i o n f o r space and o f spontaneous c o m p e t i t i o n and as Z e i t z p o i n t s o u t , "the n a t u r e o f c o m p e t i t i o n i s not the same as t h a t o f c o n f l i c t " ( Z e i t z , 1979, 1 3 ) . Whereas c o n f l i c t i s c o n s c i o u s l y c r e a t e d , as f o r example, when a neighbourhood i s e x p l o i t e d f o r economic g a i n , c o m p e t i t i o n , as p e r c e i v e d by the urban e c o l o g i c a l s c h o o l , i s e s s e n t i a l l y an uncon-s c i o u s p r o c e s s . T h i s i s due t o the f a c t t h a t the c i t y i s viewed i n terms o f p h y s i c a l growth, d e v o i d o f human m o t i -v a t i o n and d e s i r e . Growth o c c u r s through a s e r i e s o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d s t a g e s . There i s no i n t e n t , c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f p r o g r e s s i o n o r c o n f l i c t i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s . O b v i o u s l y , the tr e a t m e n t o f human m o t i v a t i o n s , v a l u e s and i d e a s as u n p r o b l e m a t i c i s a s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g o f e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . The assumption o f an u n c o n t r o l l e d , f r e e c o m p e t i t i v e system l e a d s t o a second weakness o f e c o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . . . .46 There i s no r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t an economic system can be d e l i b e r a t e l y m a n i p u l a t e d t o p r o v i d e p r o f i t f o r some w h i l e permanently d e p r i v i n g o t h e r s . The assump-t i o n i s t h a t a l l are f r e e t o compete under e q u a l c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . W i t h i n such a framework o f a n a l y s i s s o c i a l j u s t i c e and e q u i t y are not i s s u e s . Indeed, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , human e c o l o g y i s : .not c a p a b l e o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t . I n s h o r t , these two sh o r t c o m i n g s s e v e r e l y l i m i t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f urban e c o l o g y t o an a n a l y s i s o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . 3.4 The S o c i o - c u l t u r a l Approach I n c o n t r a s t t o demographic o r e c o l o g i c a l e x p l a n -a t i o n s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o c u s not on aggr e g a t e o r s t r u c t u r e d u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s ( i . e . p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) but on v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , c h o i c e s , and b e l i e f s as f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g human b e h a v i o u r . The l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , i t i s argued, spawned the growth o f a h o s t o f s o c i a l movements t h a t s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s and c a r e e r p a t t e r n s . V a l u e s e m p h a s i z i n g a h i g h r e g a r d f o r community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s h a r e d l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , s e l f - h e l p and c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s , and an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i d e o l o g y t h a t s t r e s s e d p r e s e r v a t i o n a r o s e i n r e a c t i o n t o the l o n g s t a n d i n g d o c t r i n e s o f economic i n d i v i d u a l i s m (London, e t a l , 1980). R e i n f o r c i n g and e x t e n d i n g t h e s e c hanging s o c i a l v a l u e s has been the emergence o f a p r o - u r b a n . . .47 v a l u e system. Among a growing number o f p e o p l e , the image o f the c i t y as an u n n a t u r a l and u n p l e a s a n t environment, i n the words o f Hadden and B a r t o n (1973), "an image t h a t w i l l not d i e " , has g i v e n way t o a view o f the c i t y as an e x c i t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g p l a c e t o l i v e . W r i t e r s e s p o u s i n g a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l approach agree t h a t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these changes i n v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and l i f e s t y l e s i s e s s e n -t i a l f o r a tho r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . I n a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g paper, A l l e n (1980) e x p l o r e s the impact o f v a l u e changes i n some d e t a i l . For him, the middle c l a s s r e s e t t l e m e n t o f the i n n e r c i t y r e p r e s e n t s a change i n American community i d e o l o g y towards the v a l u e o f s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . " S o c i o - c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s a l e i t m o t i f i n the new t a s t e s f o r c e n t r a l c i t y h o u s i n g and neighbourhood" ( A l l e n , 1980, 415). The c o m p l e x i t y o f the s o c i a l environment, A l l e n a r g u e s , p r o v i d e s a sou r c e o f s t i m u l a t i o n and r e n e w a l . I t a f f o r d s i n t e r e s t and an element o f s u r p r i s e b o r d e r i n g on the m a g i c a l arid s u r r e a l . E t h n i c d i v e r s i t y , f o r example, adds l o c a l c o l o u r , a wide v a r i e t y o f e t h n i c r e s t a u r a n t s and f o o d shops, and the g e n e r a l a i r o f a c o s m o p o l i t a n community. The d i v e r s i t y t h a t i s much v a l u e d does n o t , however, i n c l u d e a l l the v a r i e t y o f c i t y l i f e . As W i l s o n (1975) p o i n t s o u t , d i v e r s i t y u s u a l l y means 'safe d i v e r s i t y ' . By t h i s he means a harmless v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s , e s o t e r i c bookshops, e t h n i c r e s t a u r a n t s , and highbrow c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s . The ' e t h n i c i t y ' o f the lower c l a s s e s . . .48 i s not u s u a l l y p a r t o f the d i v e r s i t y sought by the new s e t t l e r s . Moreover, d i v e r s i t y seems t o take on a g r e a t e r v a l u e i f i t i s o u t s i d e r a t h e r t h a n w i t h i n a neighbourhood. Many o f the new u r b a n i t e s p r e f e r t h a t the l e s s d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t s o f d i v e r s i t y be some d i s t a n c e away. I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t A l l e n (1980) speaks o f "the a m b i v a l e n t v a l u e o f p l u r a l i s m " . A v a r i a t i o n o f the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l approach seeks t o emphasize dominant v a l u e s r a t h e r than changing v a l u e s . Fusch (1978), f o r example, s u g g e s t s t h a t the p r e s e r v a t i o n and g e n t r i f i c a t i o n movements are l a t t e r day e x p r e s s i o n s o f such t r a d i t i o n a l American v a l u e s as economic s u c c e s s , i n d i v i d u a l i t y and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n o f an a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t home i n an h i s t o r i c i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood may, i n the words o f Bruce London, "...be a new way t o r e a l i z e the o l d v a l u e s o f the e x p r e s s i o n o f s . e l f - i d e n t i t y and the s y m b o l i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s " XLondon, 1980, 8 5 ) . A number o f o t h e r w r i t e r s , most n o t a b l y C h r i s t o p h e r W i n t e r s (1978; 1979), have a l s o n o t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l c h o i c e . I n e f f e c t , a g e n t r i f i e d neighbourhood a t the h e a r t o f an i n t e r e s t i n g c i t y may be the newest s t a t u s symbol. An a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n based on v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and b e l i e f s i s not i n i t s e l f wrong; i t i s , however, too r e s t r i c t i v e . I n many s i t u a t i o n s , power and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e l e a d t o p r a c t i c e s t h a t o v e r - r i d e human . . .49 w i l l and m o t i v a t i o n . P e o p l e ' s c h o i c e s are c i r c u m s c r i b e d , l i m i t e d , and molded by such f a c t o r s as f i n a n c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s and r u l e s (Duncan and Sa y e r , 1977). To f r e e i t s e l f from the charge o f v o l u n t a r i s m and p s y c h o l o g i s m , a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n must be p l a c e d w i t h i n the w i d e r s o c i a l t o t a l i t y o f the economic and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f e v e r y -day l i f e . 3.5 The P o l i t i c a l - E c o n o m i c Approach A n a l y s e s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n f a l l i n g under the r u b r i c o f p o l i t i c a l economy can be d i v i d e d i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l and M a r x i s t approaches. The former tends t o emphasize c o m p e t i t i o n , s u p p l y and demand, market e f f i c i e n c y , and so on. I n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s seen as a s e r i e s o f ad j u s t m e n t s and accommodations on the p a r t o f m i d d l e c l a s s h o useholds to r i s i n g suburban h o u s i n g c o s t s , the d e c r e a s i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f suburban l a n d , i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s o f energy, and the r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t o f i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g ( a t l e a s t d u r i n g the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f r e n e w a l ) . M a r x i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n , on the o t h e r hand, are more complex because o f the i n h e r e n t l y a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f M a r x i s t w r i t i n g s i n g e n e r a l . As such, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t a somewhat extended d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l approach. 3.5.1 Marxism and G e n t r i f i c a t i o n To w r i t e r s e s p o u s i n g a M a r x i a n framework o f a n a l y s i s , s p a t i a l forms are shaped by the l o g i c o f the u n d e r l y i n g economic system not h i d d e n exogeneous f a c t o r s such as the " i n v i s i b l e hand" o f the market. "The urban q u e s t i o n i s f i r s t and foremost the p r o d u c t o f the c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , which r e q u i r e s a s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which f a c i l i t a t e s the c i r c u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l , commodities, i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . " (Lamarche, 1972, 8 6 ) . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a p i t a l i s m as a mode o f p r o d u c t i o n r e q u i r e s a b r i e f a n a l y s i s o f M a r x i s t economic t h e o r y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the d u a l c o n c e p t s o f s u r p l u s v a l u e and the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l - the two e s s e n t i a l mechanisms o f the c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n (CMP). A fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i s the emergence o f a s e c t o r o f s o c i e t y w hich, through the monopoly p o s s e s s i o n o f the means o f p r o d u c t i o n , i s a b l e t o e x t r a c t the s u r p l u s l a b o u r power o f a l a b o u r i n g c l a s s f o r i t s own b e n e f i t . A c c o r d i n g t o Marx, the p r o -d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r can be d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . A p a r t o f l a b o u r i s used f o r the s u b s i s t e n c e o f the p r o d u c e r s t h e m s e l v e s . A second p a r t o f l a b o u r i s used t o m a i n t a i n a r u l i n g c l a s s . Marx c a l l s the former n e c e s s a r y l a b o u r and- the l a t t e r s u r p l u s l a b o u r . When the p r o d u c e r i s p e r f o r m i n g n e c e s s a r y l a b o u r he i s p r o d u c i n g a n e c e s s a r y p r o d u c t . When he i s p r o d u c i n g s u r p l u s l a b o u r , he i s p r o d u c i n g a s o c i a l s u r p l u s p r o d u c t . S u r p l u s v a l u e ' i s s i m p l y the monetary form o f the s o c i a l s u r p l u s p r o d u c t . " I t i s the monetary form o f t h a t p a r t o f the worker's p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h he s u r r e n d e r s t o the owner o f the means o f p r o d u c t i o n w i t h o u t r e c e i v i n g a n y t h i n g i n r e t u r n " ( M a n d e l l , 1969, 2 4 ) . Not o n l y does s u r p l u s v a l u e con-s t i t u t e the income o f the c a p i t a l i s t , i t p r o v i d e s the " d i r e c t aim and d e t e r m i n i n g i n c e n t i v e o f p r o d u c t i o n " (Sweezy, 1942,. :58). I t f o l l o w s from t h i s t h a t the cap-i t a l i s t w i l l l a y out money f o r l a b o u r power and means o f p r o d u c t i o n o n l y i f he can a c q u i r e a l a r g e r amount o f money a f t e r a p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n has been completed. Marx d e p i c t s the c a p i t a l i s t ' s a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e t h r o u g h h i s M-C-M n o t a t i o n . The c a p i t a l i s t goes to the market w i t h money (M), pu r c h a s e s commodities (C) ( i . e . l a b o u r power and means o f p r o d u c t i o n ) , r e t u r n s to the market w i t h a p r o d u c t which he a g a i n c o n v e r t s i n t o money (M ). G i v e n the c a p i t a l i s t ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e i n v e s t m e n t , the p r o c e s s w i l l not be m e a n i n g f u l 1 u n l e s s M i s l a r g e r than M. The increment o f money, i the d i f f e r e n c e between M and M i s the amount o f s u r p l u s v a l u e a c c r u i n g t o the c a p i t a l i s t . The a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l . A p a r t o f s u r p l u s v a l u e i s withdrawn from the p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n , i t b e i n g u n p r o d u c t i v e l y consumed by the c a p i t a l i s t f o r s u b s i s t e n c e p u r p o s e s . A second p a r t , f r e q u e n t l y the major p o r t i o n , i s accumulated and i s u t i l i z e d by b e i n g t r a n s -formed i n t o c a p i t a l e i t h e r f o r the purposes o f p u r c h a s i n g a d d i t i o n a l q u a n t i t i e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s , machines, b u i l d i n g s o r h i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l w o r k e r s . T h i s augmented c a p i t a l then e n a b l e s the c a p i t a l i s t t o a p p r o p r i a t e s t i l l more s u r p l u s v a l u e , which he i n t u r n c o n v e r t s i n t o a d d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l and so on. T h i s p r o c e s s , r e f e r r e d t o by Marx as the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l , c o n s t i t u t e s the d r i v i n g f o r c e o f c a p i t a l i s t development. The tendency f o r c a p i t a l i s t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s t o c k s o f w e a l t h i s , f o r Marx, s t r u c t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , f o r c a p i t a l i s m as a mode o f p r o d u c t i o n depends on the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l f o r i t s p e r p e t u a t i o n . I n the words o f P a u l Sweezy, c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n ; . . . i s not a t a l l . a q u e s t i o n o f i n n a t e human p r o p e n s i t i e s o r i n s t i n c t s ; the d e s i r e o f the c a p i t a l i s t t o expand the v a l u e under h i s c o n t r o l ( I . e . t o accumulate c a p i t a l ) s p r i n g s from h i s s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n . . . The c a p i t a l i s t i s a c a p i t a l i s t . . . o n l y i n so f a r as he i s the owner and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c a p i t a l . D e p r i v e d o f h i s c a p i t a l , he would be n o t h i n g . . . Success i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t s i n adding t o one's c a p i t a l (Sweezy, 1942, 8 0 ) . The c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f the c a p i t a l i s t economy " i n e v i t -a b l y f o r c e s owners o f c a p i t a l t o p r o t e c t themselves from t h e i r c o m p e t i t o r s by p r o d u c i n g more goods and a c c u m u l a t i n g more and more p r o f i t " (Gordon, 1978, 5 ) . R e i n f o r c i n g and e x t e n d i n g the a c c u m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s are a c o n s t a n t l y changing s e t o f s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . P r o -duced by the v e r y f o r c e s d e f i n i n g and d r i v i n g c a p i t a l i s m , these i n s t i t u t i o n s l a r g e l y d etermine the n a t u r e and and c o n t e n t o f d a i l y l i f e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s , as w e l l as the ways i n which the b a s i c f o r c e s d r i v i n g c a p i t a l -i s t s o c i e t i e s are m a n i f e s t e d . 3.5.2 G e n t r i f i c a t i o n and C a p i t a l A c c u m u l a t i o n E x t e n d i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s t o the framework o f urban development, t h e i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the c i t y may be a n a l y z e d i n terms o f v a r i a t i o n s i n the p a t t e r n and pace o f c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . As D a v i d Harvey w r i t e s , " I f s u r p l u s v a l u e i s r e g a r d e d as a p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s u r p l u s l a b o u r under c a p i t a l i s t c o n d i t i o n s , then i t f o l l o w s t h a t urbanism i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s can be a n a l y z e d i n terms o f the c r e a t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t i o n and c i r -c u l a t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e " (Harvey, 1973, 231). M e d i a t i n g the c i r c u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l w i t h i n the urban sphere are a s e t o f f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The l e n d i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t hese i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s o f d e v e l o p e r s and o t h e r members o f the r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y have, t o a l a r g e measure, shaped the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f the c i t y . These i n t e r m e d i a r y a c t o r s h e l p to s e r v e the l a r g e r needs o f c a p i t a l by m a x i m i z i n g t h e i r own w e a l t h . Marx argues t h a t " b a l a n c e d growth" can n ever be a c h i e v e d under c a p i t a l i s m because o f the s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . T h i s s t r u c t u r e l e a d s i n d i v i d u a l c a p i t a l i s t s t o produce c o l l e c t i v e r e s u l t s w h i c h are c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h e i r own c l a s s i n t e r e s t s , I n d i c a t i v e o f t h i s i s the a l l too o f t e n tendency f o r the ... 54 o v e r p r o d u c t i o n o f c a p i t a l r e l a t i v e to the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o employ t h a t c a p i t a l . T h i s tendency towards o v e r -a c c u m u l a t i o n i s m a n i f e s t i n a v a r i e t y o f g u i s e s : (1) o v e r -p r o d u c t i o n o f commodities (2) f a l l i n g r a t e s o f p r o f i t (3) s u r p l u s c a p i t a l i n the form o f i d l e p r o d u c t i v e cap-a c i t y o r money c a p i t a l l a c k i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o f i t a b l e employment and (4) s u r p l u s l a b o u r and/or the r i s i n g c o s t o f l a b o u r power e x p l o i t a t i o n . C o u n t e r a c t i n g t h i s tendency towards o v e r a c c u m u l a t i o n i s a c o n s t a n t o r d e r i n g and r e -o r d e r i n g o f the c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n system. I m p o r t a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d i s the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f c a p i t a l f l o w s and the s t r u c t u r i n g o f m e d i a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n o r d e r t o open up new c h a n n e l s f o r p r o d u c t i v e i n v e s t -ments (Harvey, 1978). The i n n e r c i t y , w i t h i n such a framework o f a n a l y s i s , p r o v i d e s an example of a "new c h a n n e l f o r p r o d u c t i v e i n v e s t m e n t " . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the o v e r a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i n the suburbs, the s i m u l t a n e o u s d e v a l u a t i o n o f i n n e r c i t y c a p i t a l and the d e v a l u a t i o n o f p r e s e n t l y a c c u m u l a t i n g c a p i t a l (due t o o v e r a c c u m u l a t i o n ) has produced a s i t u a t i o n where the r e r o u t i n g o f c a p i t a l t o the i n n e r c i t y has become a p r o f i t a b l e i n v e s t m e n t . E s s e n t i a l t o t h e s e p r o c e s s e s has been the c a p i t a l m e d i a t i n g r o l e o f f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . F i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a re the l a t e s t i n s t i t u -t i o n a l a d a p t a t i o n t o the d u a l problems of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and s u r p l u s v a l u e e x p a n s i o n . The d i c t a t e s o f p r o f i t have r e g u l a t e d the i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l e n d i n g p r a c t i c e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y , p a t t e r n s o f uneven urban development. B r a d f o r d and R u b i n o w i t z (1975), f o r ' e x a m p l e , note how the i n v e s t m e n t , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , d i s i n v e s t -ment d e c i s i o n s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n v e s t o r s , d e v e l o p e r s , and mortgage bankers have l e d t o the decay o f o l d e r urban neighbourhoods and the e x p a n s i o n o f s u b u r b i a . S i m i l a r l y , Harvey (1977) s u g g e s t s t h a t f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h s e l e c t i v e f i n a n c i n g , have f o r c e d the e x p a n s i o n o f the suburban p e r i p h e r y . Commenting on the B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e , Boddy (1976) p o i n t s t o the tendency o f b u i l d i n g s o c i e t i e s t o f a v o u r suburban a r e a s over the i n n e r c i t y i n t h e i r a l l o c a t i o n o f funds thus e n c o u r a g i n g urban decay and the w r i t i n g - o f f o f e x i s t i n g p r o p e r t y . Much i n the same v e i n , W i l l i a m s (1976) n o t e s the r o l e o f b u i l d i n g s o c i e t i e s and e s t a t e a gents i n s h a p i n g the r a t e o f neighbourhood change i n I s l i n g t o n t h r ough t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s . I n v e s t -ment and d i s i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s o f t h i s s o r t , Smith (1979) argues, have r e s u l t e d i n " r e n t gaps" o f s i g n i f i c a n t w i d t h t o make r e i n v e s t m e n t i n urban neighbourhoods p r o f i t a b l e endeavours. The f l o w o f i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l t o the suburbs a l o n g w i t h the d e v a l u a t i o n and d e p r e c i a t i o n o f i n n e r c i t y c a p i t a l has produced the r e n t gap. T e c h n i c a l l y , the r e n t gap i s the d i f f e r e n c e between the amount o f r e n t t h a t may be c a p i t a l i z e d under the " h i g h e s t and the b e s t use" o f a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e o r neighbourhood ( p o t e n t i a l ground r e n t ) and the a c t u a l q u a n t i t y o f r e n t c l a i m e d by landowners o r u s e r s o f t h e i r l a n d ( c a p i t a l i z e d ground r e n t ) . These r e n t s stem from e i t h e r the s i t u a t i o n a l o r l o c a t i o n a l advantages o f f e r e d by a s i t e o r the advantages c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the p r o p e r t y , advantages which depend p r i m a r i l y o on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o c c u p a n t s . G e n t r i f i c a t i o n o c c u r s when the r e n t gap i s wide enough t h a t a d e v e l o p e r ' s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o s t s are such t h a t he can s e l l the end p r o d u c t f o r a s a l e p r i c e t h a t l e a v e s him a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e t u r n . Once the r e n t gap i s wide enough g e n t r i f i c a t i o n may be i n i t i a t e d i n a g i v e n neighbourhood by s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s i n the l a n d and h o u s i n g market. The s t a t e , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , o r the development i n d u s t r y , s i n g u l a r l y , o r more commonly, th r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n , may r e v e r s e neighbourhood decay by r e d i r e c t i n g c a p i t a l back t o the i n n e r c i t y (see S m i th, 1979b f o r a case s t u d y ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i n d i v i d u a l consumer p r e f e r e n c e i s not g i v e n a preeminent r o l e , a t l e a s t i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f r e n e w a l , i n the M a r x i a n a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . I n the words o f Smith (1979a, 545), " A l l consumer p r e f e r e n c e i n the w o r l d w i l l amount to nought u n l e s s t h i s l o n g absent source o f f u n d i n g r e a p p e a r s ; mortgage c a p i t a l i s a p r e -r e q u i s i t e . " Government i n s t i t u t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e s , ;.as d e f i n e d by the M a r x i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , have a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d the d i s i n v e s t m e n t and subsequent r e i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s o f ... 57 the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Dependent as they are on t a x revenues, c i t y governments have a d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y . T h i s view o f the s t a t e i s based on two assumptions c o n c e r n i n g c a p i t a l i s m and the r o l e o f g o v e r n -ment (Sweezy, 1942, 2 7 ) . F i r s t , the s t a t e power i s i n v o k e d t o s o l v e problems which are posed by the economic d e v e l o p -ment o f the p a r t i c u l a r form o f s o c i e t y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i n t h i s case c a p i t a l i s m . Second, the s t a t e s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s o f the c a p i t a l i s t ( i . e . r u l i n g ) c l a s s s i n c e the s t a t e i s d e d i c a t e d to the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o f c a p i t a l i s m and must t h e r e f o r e be s t a f f e d by those who a c c e p t the p o s t u l a t e s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s form o f s o c i e t y . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , r e f e r e n c e i s o f t e n made t o how the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s o f c i v i c government a r e dominated by i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r e a l t y , d e v e l o p -ment, i n d u s t r y , commerce, and c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t e r e s t s (see f o r example L o r i m e r , 1972 and G u t s t e i n , 1974). M o l o t o c h (1976) c h a r a c t e r i z e s c i t i e s and t h e i r governments as "growth machines" which are d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y t o s e r v e the i n t e r e s t s o f p r i v i l e d g e d groups a t the expense o f w o r k e r s . I n sharp c o n t r a s t t o the M a r x i a n view i s the p l u r a l i s t v i e w o f s o c i e t y ( Guterbock, 1980a; 1980b). The s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s the r e j e c t i o n o f the M a r x i a n a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the s t r u c t u r e o f American s o c i e t y and e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v e the i n t e r e s t s o f the r u l i n g c l a s s . A number o f r e l a t e d assumptions stem from t h i s b a s i c b e l i e f : (1) Government i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v e as an arena f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i v e r s e i n t e r -e s t s and r e s o l u t i o n o f d i s p u t e s among them by means o f compromise. (2) Due t o the fundamental i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f a l l s e c t o r s o f s o c i e t y , the b e n e f i t s o f p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y a r e u s u a l l y w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d . (3) P r o c e s s e s o f change i n urban s t r u c t u r e a r e r e s p o n s i v e t o p r e s s u r e s o f p o p u l a r demand. (4) Urban form i s e f f e c t i v e l y m o d i f i e d by the a c t i o n s o f e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r e s t groups and emerging s o c i a l movements. F o l l o w i n g t h e s e assumptions, urban r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s applauded f o r the p o t e n t i a l r o l e i t may p l a y i n r e v e r s i n g the d e c l i n e o f the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n i n n e r c i t y a r e a s . T h i s v i e w r e p r e s e n t s a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from the M a r x i a n a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n as j u s t one more mechanism f o r the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s by the r i c h and the m i d d l e c l a s s . I n summary, from a M a r x i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , g e n t r i -f i c a t i o n i s a s t r u c t u r a l p r o d u c t o f the l a n d and h o u s i n g markets. P r o p e l l e d by the d r i v i n g f o r c e o f a c c u m u l a t i o n , the movement o f c a p i t a l t o the suburbs a l o n g w i t h the c o n t i n u e d d e p r e c i a t i o n , o f i n n e r c i t y c a p i t a l has produced the o b j e c t i v e economic c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o f i t a b l e i n n e r c i t y r e i n v e s t m e n t . T h i s movement o f c a p i t a l t o once d e t e r i o r a t e d i n n e r c i t y a r e a s has been h a s t e n e d by the end o f l o n g s t a n d i n g r e d - l i n i n g p o l i c i e s by f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . A d d i n g f u r t h e r s t i m u l u s t o the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movement have been the p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e s u g g e s t s t h a t the s t a t e p e r f o r c e s e r v e s the i n t e r e s t s o f p r i v a t e s e c t o r f i n a n c i e r s and d e v e l o p e r s , thus p e r p e t u a t i n g e x i s t i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s and the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f have n o t s . D e s p i t e i t s i n s i g h t i n t o power r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o n f l i c t , a fundamental t h e o r e t i c a l f l a w s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t s the scope o f a M a r x i a n a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . T h i s approach, w i t h i t s emphasis on the p r o d u c t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e and the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l , does not a l l o w a t h e o r e t i c a l l y a c t i v e r o l e f o r man. R a t h e r , man i s d e f i n e d as the embodiment o f an a b s t r a c t q u a l i t y o f which c a p i t a l i s the symbol ( B e r g e r and P u l l b e r g , 1964, 206). W i t h i n t h i s framework o f a n a l y s i s , i n d i v i d u a l s do n o t , i n d e e d , cannot, make c h o i c e s , i n t e r a c t , n e g o t i a t e , o r impose c o n s t r a i n t s on one a n o t h e r . C a u s a l power i s a s c r i b e d t o c a p i t a l . " . . . I t has i t s own i n t e r n a l l a w s, a l i f e o f i t s own. I t has become r e i f i e d and needs men merely t o a c t as i t s p a s s i v e c a r r i e r s , b e a r i n g a burden they cannot r e s i s t " (Ley, 1979a, 7 ) . To the e x t e n t t h a t c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n i s taken t o be the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r b e h i n d g e n t r i f i c a t i o n , many i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s are not a d d r e s s e d o r s i m p l y t r e a t e d as u n p r o b l e m a t i c . i n the M a r x i s t approach. Smith i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n , f o r example, acknow-l e d g e s t h a t g e n t r i f i c a t i o n has become commonplace i n c i t i e s " . . . w i t h i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s and a l a r g e r p r o f e s s i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n " ( S m i t h , 1979b). What would appear t o be a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i s o n l y noted i n p a s s i n g . S i m i l a r l y , he makes r e f e r e n c e t o a " s y m b o l i c move" a f t e r w h i c h S o c i e t y H i l l , a f o r m e r l y rundown neighbourhood i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , " f l o u r i s h e d " ( S m i t h , 1979b, 30 ) . D e s p i t e the importance o f t h i s i d e a i t i s not dev-e l o p e d a t a l l . S m i t h, i n h i s d e s i r e t o remain t h e o r e t -i c a l l y and i d e o l o g i c a l l y f a i t h f u l , does not p r o v i d e an adequate t r e a t m e n t o f v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and human mean-i n g s . As such, h i s r e n t gap t h e o r y o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n i s e x c e s s i v e l y narrow and n a i v e . I n s h o r t , an o rthodox M a r x i s t approach towards g e n t r i f i c a t i o n i s r e j e c t e d due t o the p o s i n g o f a r e i f i e d , t r a n s c e n d e n t a l o b j e c t ( i . e . c a p i t a l ) and the consequent r e d u c t i o n o f man as an a c t i v e agent. T h i s i s not to d i s c l a i m a l l o f M a r x i s t thought. I t s n o t i o n o f power r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i t s c o n f l i c t v i e w o f s o c i e t y p r o v i d e a r e a l i s t i c c o n t e x t u a l environment i n which to c o n s i d e r the phenomenon o f m i d d l e c l a s s r e s e t t l e m e n t . 3.6 The S o c i a l Movements Approach The m u l t i p l e c a u s a t i v e n a t u r e o f the g e n t r i f i -c a t i o n phenomenon su g g e s t s t h a t i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n -a p p r o p r i a t e to a n a l y z e m i d d l e c l a s s r e s e t t l e m e n t from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f one p a r t i c u l a r e x p l a n a t o r y framework. An approach a c k n o w l e d g i n g the d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r p l a y o f the v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s o u t l i n e d above-, would p r o v i d e much more i n s i g h t . I n p a r t i c u l a r , such an approach would emphasize the c o n j u n c t i o n o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l i f e s t y l e v a l u e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s i n i n i t i a t i n g and s h a p i n g the c o u r s e o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . I t would, i n the words o f Ley and Mercer (1980, 9 0 ) , "... admit the r o l e o f s y m b o l i c f a c t o r s a l o n g s i d e economic c a t e g o r i e s , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t consumption l i f e s t y l e s might s t e e r the p a t t e r n o f urban l a n d use down one o f s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e and perhaps competing p a t h s . " A p o i n t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i s o f f e r e d t h rough an a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i -f i c a t i o n as a s o c i a l movement, o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , a " r e s o u r c e - m o b i l i z a t i o n " t h e o r y o f s o c i a l movements (London, 1980). A number o f key i d e a s p r o v i d e the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r an a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l movements and s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e (1) S o c i a l movements are i d e o l o g i c a l l y based (2) They a r e o r i e n t e d towards change o r improvement and (3) They are s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d , o f t e n i n terms o f ' l e a d e r - f o l l o w e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B u i l d i n g upon these i d e a s , the r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n t h e o r y o f s o c i a l movements acknowledges the d i v e r s e and o f t e n com-p e t i n g n a t u r e o f c l a i m s s t a k e d by d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n the urban a r e n a and the v a r y i n g degrees o f s u c c e s s these groups have i n b r i n g i n g about change o r improvement. P a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s are much more s u c c e s s f u l than o t h e r s i n m o b i l i z i n g s u p p o r t e r s and sym-p a t h i z e r s because o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s to r e s o u r c e s (McCarthy and Z a l d , 1977). I n p a r t i c u l a r , such t h i n g s as number o f a d h e r e n t s , degree o f t h e i r commitment, power and p r e s t i g e o f a d h e r e n t s , f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f the movement, s u p p o r t o f v a r i o u s n o n - i n v o l v e d p u b l i c s , i n t e r e s t groups and o t h e r movements, and the a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e key d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s o r media are fundamental f o r an under-s t a n d i n g o f the s u c c e s s ( o r f a i l u r e ) o f a s p e c i f i c move-ment i n t o the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l system, f o r example, i s one form o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a p a r t i c -u l a r s e t o f v a l u e s . I d e o l o g i c a l commitment i s not the o n l y m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e b e h i n d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n t o su p p o r t a s o c i a l movement. As H e b e r l e (1968, 440) p o i n t s o u t , "The m o t i -v a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n j o i n i n g a s o c i a l movement may range from r a t i o n a l b e l i e f i n the [movement's aim ( V a l u e -r a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n ) t o pure o p p o r t u n i s m . " A p a r t i c u l a r movement may f o s t e r the p u r s u i t o f p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s and as such, the d e c i s i o n t o s u p p o r t i t may be p u r e l y p u r p o s i v e -r a t i o n a l . The r o l e o f the development i n d u s t r y i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s may, i n p a r t , be a n a l y z e d as such. These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l frame-work f o r an a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n which i n c o r p o r a t e s many o f the i n s i g h t s o f the v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l approaches o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y . The f i r s t u rban " p i o n e e r s " and the economic and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s who d e c i d e d to end r e d l i n i n g and make i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e may be seen, .as bo t h d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and c u l t u r a l t a s t e - m a k e r s ; on the one hand, c r e a t i n g a h i g h l y p r o f i t a b l e i n v e s t m e n t e n v i r o n -ment and on the o t h e r , a p p l a u d i n g the v i r t u e s o f f a s h i o n a b l e i n n e r c i t y l i v i n g as an a t t r a c t i v e new l i f e s t y l e f o r young, a f f l u e n t h o u s e h o l d s . 3.6.1 S o c i a l Movements, I d e o l o g y , and the R e v i t a l i z a t i o n  o f the I n n e r C i t y The emergence o f a p r o - u r b a n v a l u e system based on c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and p l u r a l i s m has l e d to a r e a s s e s s -ment o f l o n g s t a n d i n g p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s based on economics and the r h e t o r i c o f the e n g i n e e r i n g mind. I n d i c a t i v e o f t h i s has been the r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t p l a s t i c , modern, s t e r i l e e n v i r o n m e n t s , o r i n the l e x i c o n o f p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s , "anti-humane" development. T h i s has l e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n w i t h , among o t h e r t h i n g s , the r e n o v a t i o n and p r e -s e r v a t i o n o f o l d houses. These s h i f t s i n a t t i t u d e s towards urban l i v i n g and development may be viewed as p a r t o f a much b r o a d e r s o c i e t a l change i n the economic, s o c i o -c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l realms o f advanced c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s . W i t h i t s r o o t s i n the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e and s t u d e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n movements of the l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , the s o c i a l and economic c l i m a t e o f the 1970*s gave r i s e t o a l o s s o f f a i t h i n the i d e o l o g y o f growth f o r growth's sake a l o n e . -Well b e i n g i s no l o n g e r measured e x c l u s i v e l y i n economic terms. The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and the q u a n t i t y o f goods has been r e p l a c e d w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n w i t h h e a l t h , a e s t h e t i c s , and the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . A t the f o r e f r o n t o f t h i s movement has been a new e l i t e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k e r s . With a s e c u r e economic base, . . .64 t h i s group i s f r e e d to devote time.and i n t e r e s t t o more a e s t h e t i c and " s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g " elements o f l i f e . " T h e i r l i f e s t y l e i s consumption and s t a t u s - o r i e n t e d i n the p u r s u i t o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n w h i l e t h e i r p r e s t i g e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e and i n many ways they a.re n a t i o n a l o p i n i o n l e a d e r s " (Ley, 1980, 243). D a n i e l B e l l ' s a n a l y s i s o f these c u l t u r a l and s t r u c t u r a l changes as the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y from an i n d u s t r i a l t o p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l age p r o v i d e s an i n s t r u c t i v e c o n c e p t u a l framework i n which t o c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l e thos o f today. S h i f t s i n the economic, s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y have marked the t r a n s i t i o n from an i n d u s t r i a l t o p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l e r a . A t the l e v e l o f economy, the m a j o r i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s no l o n g e r engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g ( i . e . goods p r o d u c i n g a c t i v i t i e s ) but i n s e r v i c e s . Employment i n s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s has accounted f o r o v e r 50 p e r c e n t o f the Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e s i n c e 1961. By 1971, r o u g h l y 58 p e r c e n t o f the l a b o u r f o r c e was employed i n s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ( T a b l e 3.1). T h i s f i g u r e had i n c r e a s e d to 66 p e r c e n t by November 1979 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1979). P a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l c o n t e x t has been the growth i n s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h , educa-t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and government. .65 T a b l e 3.1 O c c u p a t i o n a l Breakdown o f the Canadian Labour F o r c e , 1931-1971 (%) P r i m a r y M a n u f a c t u r i n g and related-*- S e r v i c e 2 1931 • 32.2 21.1 38.5 1941 30. 5 22.8 40.5 1951 19.7 31.3 47.7 1961 12.8 29.0 55.7 1971 7.4 25. 5 57.9 1 I n c l u d e s c r a f t s m e n , p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s , l a b o u r e r s and r e l a t e d . 2 I n c l u d e s m a n a g e r i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l , c l e r i c a l , s a l e s , s e r v i c e and r e c r e a t i o n and t r a n s p o r t and communi-c a t i o n o c c u p a t i o n s . **May not add up to 100% because the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y "not s t a t e d " i s not i n c l u d e d and because o f r o u n d i n g Source: Adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971 Census o f Canada, C a t . 94-716, O c c u p a t i o n s , H i s t o r i c a l  f o r Canada and P r o v i n c e s The changeover to a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s s i g n i f i e d not o n l y by the change i n s e c t o r d i s t r i b u t i o n • but a l s o i n the p a t t e r n o f o c c u p a t i o n s . P o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s * e s s e n t i a l l y a w h i t e c o l l a r s o c i e t y . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s about 5.5 m i l l i o n p e r s o n s ( o r r o u g h l y 18 p e r c e n t o f the l a b o u r f o r c e ) were employed i n w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s i n 1900. By 1968, t h i s f i g u r e had r i s e n t o 35.6 m i l l i o n o r 46.7 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e ( B e l l , 1973, 134). B l u e c o l l a r employment formed 36 p e r c e n t o f the l a b o u r f o r c e i n 1968, r o u g h l y the same l e v e l as i n 1900. 4 I n Canada, w h i l e the n a t i o n a l l a b o u r f o r c e . . .66 grew from 5,276,639 to 3,608,704, an i n c r e a s e o f 63 p e r c e n t , between 1951 and 1971, w h i t e c o l l a r employment i n c r e a s e d by 113 p e r c e n t . W i t h i n t h i s w h i t e c o l l a r s e c t o r , the most r a p i d change has been i n the growth o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s . Employment i n these o c c u p a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d by 180 p e r c e n t between 1951 and 1971 ( T a b l e 3.2). A c o r o l l a r y o f these employment s h i f t s i n the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e i s the i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e p l a c e d on h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . Indeed, between 1971 and 1976, the p e r c e n t a g e o f Canadians h a v i n g some u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n 5 i n c r e a s e d from 10.8 p e r c e n t t o 16.1 p e r c e n t . A t the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l , t h i s emerging c l a s s o f r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t , w e l l - e d u c a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r kers have p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n r e s h a p i n g s o c i e t a l v a l u e s towards the e t h i c s o f growth and e f f i c i e n c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . As B e l l n o t e s , " I f an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s d e f i n e d by the q u a n t i t y o f goods as marking a s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s d e f i n e d by the q u a l i t y o f l i f e as measured by the s e r v i c e s and a m e n i t i e s -h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n and the a r t s - which are now deemed d e s i r a b l e and p o s s i b l e f o r everyone" ( B e l l , 1973, 127) . Two a s p e c t s o f the growth i d e o l o g y o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y - i n B e l l ' s t e r m i n o l o g y , the " e c o n o m i s t i c mode o f t h i n k i n g 1 : 1 - d e t r a c t from the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . F i r s t , e c o n o m i z i n g measures o n l y economic goods; s o c i a l and Table 3.2 O c c u p a t i o n a l S h i f t s i n the Canadian Labour F o r c e , 1951-1971 % Change O c c u p a t i o n 1951 1961 1971 1951-1971 A l l o c c u p a t i o n s 5,276,639 6,458,156 8,608,704 63.0 White C o l l a r W o r k e r s 1 1,669,985 2,409,337 3,555,635 112.9 M a n a g e r i a l 420,181 538,131 679,843 61.8 P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l 384,778 627,624 1,077,475 180.0 C l e r i c a l 578,137 833,173 1,270,594 119.8 S a l e s 286,889 410,409 527,723 83.9 S e r v i c e and R e c r e a t i o n 514,412 794,115 1,000,363 94.5 P r i m a r y 1,042,639 826,072 640,785 -38.5 C r a f t s m e n , p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s and r e l a t e d 2 1,303,359 1,527,129 1,792,603 37.5 L a b o u r e r s 351,208 344,433 407,546 16.0 -'-Following B e l l ' s , 1974 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f wh i t e c o l l a r workers 2 N o t i n c l u s i n g t r a n s p o r t and communication o c c u p a t i o n s Source: Adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971 Census o f Canada, Cat. 94-716, O c c u p a t i o n s , H i s t o r i c a l f o r Canada and P r o v i n c e s . ... 68 a e s t h e t i c c o n c e r n s are o f t e n d i s r e g a r d e d . Second, growth as measured by t r a d i t i o n a l economic a c c o u n t i n g tends to generate more than i t s share o f n e g a t i v e s p i l l o v e r s . These s p i l l o v e r s become c o s t s borne d i r e c t l y by o t h e r p r i v a t e p a r t i e s o r d i s t r i b u t e d among s o c i e t y as a whole. The e c o l o g i s t B a r r y Commoner, f o r example, has ob s e r v e d t h a t f o r e v e r y p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n the g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t , the l e v e l s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u t i o n i n c r e a s e t e n - f o l d (Commoner, 1971). The c h a l l e n g e t o such l o n g - s t a n d i n g v a l u e s as o p t i m i z a t i o n and m a x i m i z a t i o n by t h i s new e l i t e o f w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r s , A l v i n Gouldner (1979) s u g g e s t s , i s l i n k e d t o an emerging New C l a s s i d e o l o g y based on " p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " and the " c u l t u r e o f c r i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e " . The New C l a s s , Gouldner a r g u e s , d e v e l o p s an i d e o l o g y t h a t s t r e s s e s i t s autonomy from e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s o r p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . T h i s autonomy i s s a i d t o be grounded i n the s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge t r a n s m i t t e d by the e d u c a t i o n a l system, a l o n g w i t h the o b l i g a t i o n o f educated p e r s o n s to a t t e n d t o the w e l f a r e , o f the c o l l e c t i v i t y ( G o u l d n e r , 1979, 19). The c u l t u r e o f c r i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e r e q u i r e s t h a t the v a l i d i t y o f c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g any s u b j e c t be j u s t i f i e d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the sp e a k e r ' s s o c i e t a l p o s i t i o n o r a u t h o r i t y . P e o p l e must g i v e r e a s o n s ; they cannot r e l y on t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y o r t h e i r s c i e n c e t o j u s t i f y d e c i s i o n s . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , c i v i c a f f a i r s were f o r many y e a r s based on e x p e r t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and the r u l e s o f e n g i n e e r i n g and economics. The New C l a s s has l e d the c h a l l e n g e t o the s t a t u s quo. I n a d d i t i o n t o the i d e o l o g y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and the c u l t u r e o f c r i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e , a newer form o f New C l a s s i d e o l o g y t h a t i s emerging i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m -e c o l o g y . The r e j e c t i o n o f the i d e a o f the d o m i n a t i o n o f na t u r e goes hand i n hand w i t h , t h e i n t e r e s t i n the q u a l i t y o f l i f e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . T h i s i s not t o i m p l y t h a t the growing c o n c e r n f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m and the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i s s t r i c t l y a New C l a s s phenomenon. Members o f the new e l i t e , however, have p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n communicating th e s e v a l u e s t o the p u b l i c a t - l a r g e because o f t h e i r i n f l u e n t i a l pos-i t i o n s , t h e i r a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o a r t i c u l a t e and communicate i d e a s , and so on. The Clu b o f Rome and i t s v i e w s on growth and the environment, Schumacher and h i s n o t i o n o f " S m a l l i s b e a u t i f u l " , and P i e r r e Trudeau's memorable d e f i n i t i o n o f G.N.P. as " g r o s s n a t i o n a l p o l l u t i o n " p r o v i d e examples o f the r o l e o f the New C l a s s as " t a s t e -rnakers" and o p i n i o n - l e a d e r s i n the d i f f u s i o n o f new i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n . The c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y , B e l l a r g u e s , has l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n where the p r e v a i l i n g ethos has become " s o c i o l o g i z i n g " r a t h e r than " e c o n o m i s t i c " " . . . i n s o f a r as the c r i t e r i a o f i n d i v i d u a l u t i l i t y and p r o f i t m a x i m i z a t i o n become s u b o r d i n a t e d t o br o a d e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e and community i n t e r e s t " ( B e l l , 1973, 481). T h i s . . .70 a n a l y s i s , however, obscur e s the manner i n which the New C l a s s e g o i s t i c a l l y p u rsues i t s own s p e c i a l v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s . The New C l a s s ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s thus not " e c o n o m i s t i c " . I t i s committed t o p r o d u c i n g worthy o b j e c t s and s e r v i c e s and to the dev-elopment o f the s k i l l s r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e s e . . . But i f the New C l a s s i s committed t o i t s work and s k i l l and the p r o d u c t i o n o f q u a l i t y o b j e c t s , i t i s NOT, however, committed t o these w i t h o u t an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r accompanying INCOMES. (G o u l d n e r , 1979, 20 - my emphasis) I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t G o uldner r e f e r s t o the New C l a s s as the "Flawed U n i v e r s a l C l a s s " . P o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , d e s p i t e the f o r e c a s t s o f l i b e r a l t h e o r i s t s , i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y one c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e q u i t y and s o c i a l j u s t i c e . T h i s i d e a w i l l be d e v e l o p e d i n more d e t a i l i n a l a t e r c o n t e x t . A t the l e v e l o f p o l i t i c s , t h i s r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f p u b l i c v a l u e s has meant, i n d e e d demands, t h a t g o v e r n -ment p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and the a l l o -c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . The c l a i m s f o r more s e r v i c e s and the inadequacy o f the market i n meeting p e o p l e ' s needs f o r a decent environment as w e l l as b e t t e r h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n have l e d t o the growth o f the p u b l i c s e c t o r . Moreover, the c l a s h o f i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s , each f o l l o w i n g i t s own g o a l s , l e a d s n e c e s s a r i l y t o a g r e a t e r need f o r c o l l e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , many o f the v a l u e s espoused by the emerging e l i t e have g a i n e d l e g i t i m a c y t h r o u g h the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h i s new e l i t e o f p r o f e s -s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e workers w i t h amenity, a e s t h e t i c s , and the q u a l i t y o f l i f e has l e d t o a r e d e f i n -i t i o n o f the term urban p r o g r e s s . M a t e r i a l symbols o f b u i l d i n g s and free w a y s have, g i v e n way t o concerns f o r peopl e and human-scale a r t i f a c t s . P o s t - i n d u s t r i a l t a s t e r e q u i r e s t h a t urban development be g u i d e d by i d e o l o g i e s o f l i v a b i l i t y and human s e n s i b i l i t y . I n d u s t r i a l l a n d -s c a p e s , as Ley (1980) n o t e s , a re anathema t o the "canons o f good t a s t e " e x h i b i t e d by the p r e s e n t day c o u n t e r p a r t s o f V e b l e n ' s l e i s u r e d c l a s s . T h i s demand f o r a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g , human- • s c a l e development has not gone u n n o t i c e d by d e v e l o p e r s and o t h e r members o f the r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y . A l t h o u g h a t f i r s t s k e p t i c a l o f such development, o v e r the l a t t e r h a l f o f the 1970's d e v e l o p e r s and o t h e r s have been more than w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t i n b o t h " s p e c i a l " neighbourhood l o c a t i o n s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s so as to a p p e a l t o the t a s t e s o f the new e l i t e . I n s h o r t , a g u i d i n g i d e o l o g y based on a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e by a new e l i t e has l e d t o the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s among a l a r g e number o f young, a f f l u e n t h o u s e h o l d s . T h i s demand has, i n p a r t , been s t i m u l a t e d by p r o m i s e s o f s t y l e and grandeur by the r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y ( F i g . 3.1). I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t the s o c i a l movements approach p r o v i d e s an i d e a l framework i n which t o c o n s i d e r the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y . 72 Luxuriously Appointed Homes Two bedroom and two hedroom*-wirh-a-dm r.vanrty With superb feature for a iiw n easy lifestyle. AMANA Touchautk'oucrowdve radar ranRf. AMANA 2BJcu.fi. "ice 'n water' dispenser S-door refrigerator. Self-clean built-in oven. Eight cycle dishwasher. Trash compactor. Log burning fireplac* NLarye patio. Triple pleated TURCAL" drapes. Tnick, plmh, velvety carpet. Quarry tile way. Underground parking. Much, much more to see. Exclusive Address Arbutus at Nanton. The City's prestigious Westside. An mtimatr, adult-community of only 40. homes. Superb Location From $102,000 to $119,000 Fifteen minutes via the easy hridge' routr to down-town. Five minutes dnve to 3 private polf courses. Ten minutes to 3 public golf courses. Fifteen minutes to beaches."Fifteen minutes to the .University; Fifteen minute* to the Airport. Arburas Village Square VUlagr •shopping, restaurants and entertainment. The Arbutus Club the other side of (he road. Individual Expression and deiign team will work with you to personalize your Arbutuj West home. You can reflect your own lifestyle through our unique 'customizing' approjeh to living. We have some beautiful altemarTVes for you! It's easy to make a move to Arbutus West. The nb-Wo) Guaranteed Trade- fci Program removes all the womes of .dispoting of your present home and ensures a smooth move into your new Arbutus West home Furnished Show Home & Information Centre Now Open! Visit Us Today! Weekday* 10 A.M. to 6 P.M. Weekends: Noon to 6 p.m. Norm Allan: Telephone: rhutus Contemporary townhouu: living m Vancouver i prestigious Wntudr Imaginative planning by Nu-Wnt Call ' F i g . 3.1 The R e a l E s t a t e I n d u s t r y and Image-Creation 3.7 Summary An a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n from e i t h e r the demographic, e c o l o g i c a l , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o r p o l i t i c a l -economic approaches i s not n e c e s s a r i l y wrong. I t i s , however, too r e s t r i c t i v e t o e x p l a i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n phenomenon from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f a s i n g l e approach. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a u n i - e x p l a n a t o r y approach does n ot a l l o w f o r a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the i n t e r p l a y between the v a r i o u s economic, demographic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s (and hence, a c t o r s ) which have l e d t o the midd l e c l a s s r e s e t t l e m e n t o f the i n n e r c i t y . A s o c i a l movements e x p l a n a t i o n o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n eschews t h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e o r e t i c a l r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s . I n c o r p o r a t i n g many o f the i n s i g h t s o f the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f gen-t r i f i c a t i o n , the s o c i a l movements approach acknowledges the c o n j u n c t i o n o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l i f e s t y l e v a l u e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s . As such, i t p r o v i d e s a strong' b a s i s f o r a thorough a n a l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s neighbourhood i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y a r e a i n which t o c o n s i d e r the i n t e r p l a y o f s o c i o -c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic f a c t o r s i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f an o l d e r i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood. I n p a r t i c u l a r , the " t o w n h o u s i f i c a t i o n " o f F a i r v i e w p r o v i d e s a lan d s c a p e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the i d e o l o g y o f the l i v a b l e c i t y . Moreover, the emergence o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a f a s h i o n a b l e e n c l a v e o f i n n e r c i t y c h i c i l l u s t r a t e s the l e s s t h a n d e s i r a b l e , o f t e n u n i n t e n d e d consequences o f an a p p a r e n t l y a e s t h e t i c , humane, and s o c i a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e i d e o l o g y . I t i s t o the case s t u d y t h a t I now t u r n . . . .75 F o o t n o t e s 1 For a more comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n on the c o n t r a d i c -t i o n s o f c a p i t a l i s m see D a v i d Harvey, "The Urban P r o c e s s Under C a p i t a l i s m : A Framework f o r A n a l y s i s " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l o f Urban and R e g i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 2 (1978), pp. 101-31. 2 Lamarche (1972), a d o p t i n g Marx's d e f i n i t i o n s f o r a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d , a n a l y z e s t h e s e two forms o f r e n t as D i f f e r e n t i a l Rent 1 and D i f f e r e n t i a l Rent 2. See F r a n c o i s Lamarche, " P r o p e r t y Development and the Economic Foun-d a t i o n s o f the Urban Q u e s t i o n " , i n C.G. P i c k v a n c e ( e d . ) , Urban S o c i o l o g y : C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1977, pp. 85-118. ^ The c o n c e r n f o r a e s t h e t i c s and the r o l e o f the "new e l i t e " as t a s t e - m a k e r s and o p i n i o n - l e a d e r s i s d e v e l o p e d a t l e n g t h i n D a v i d Ley, " L i b e r a l I d e o l o g y and the P o s t -I n d u s t r i a l C i t y " , A n n a l s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American  Geographer, 70 (June, 1980), pp. 238-258. 4 S e r v i c e workers (12.4 p e r c e n t ) and farm workers (46 p e r c e n t ) a c c o u n t f o r the r e m a i n i n g 17 p e r c e n t o f the 1968 American l a b o u r f o r c e . See T a b l e 2.5 D a n i e l B e l l , The  Coming o f P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , New York: B a s i c Books, 1973. These f i g u r e s a r e adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census of Canada, P o p u l a t i o n , S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e and S c h o o l i n g ,  Canada and B.C., C a t . 720, 1971 and S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, P o p u l a t i o n : Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  S c h o o l A t t e n d e n c e and L e v e l o f S c h o o l i n g , Cat. 92-826 ( B u l l e t i n 2.7), 1976. C h a p t e r 4 INNER CITY RENEWAL IN VANCOUVER: THE CASE OF THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , a s i x t e e n square b l o c k a r e a bounded on the n o r t h by 6 t h avenue, on the s o u t h by 8 t h Avenue, on the west by Hemlock and on the e a s t by Ash, has undergone s u b s t a n t i a l renewal and redevelopment o v e r the l a s t f i v e y e a r s (Maps 1 and 2 ) . Contemporary town-house and apartment developements have s u p p l a n t e d the wooden frame houses o f a not too d i s t a n t p a s t . A number o f i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s t o g e t h e r w i t h c hanging p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s towards urban growth and dev-elopment have had s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the pace and d i r e c t i o n o f change i n t h i s i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood. The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n o f the key ev e n t s l e a d i n g t o the " t o w n h o u s i f i c a t i o n " o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . . . . 1 1 Map 1 The Fairview Slopes In Context I N L E T Mount Pleasant Riley Park . . . 78 <D K CO _l I I I I L Ash Heather Willow ^Laurel Oak .Spruce t Alder 0 7 Birch i n n i—i r Hemlock Map 2 Fairview Slopes .79 4.2 L i b e r a l I d e o l o g y and the L i v a b l e C i t y W i th the i n i t i a t i o n o f an a t - l a r g e system o f government and the f o r m a t i o n o f the N o n - P a r t i s a n A s s o c i -a t i o n (.N.P.A.) i n 1935, a n o n - p a r t i s a n / e x p e r t form o f c i v i c government was i n s t i t u t e d i n the c i t y o f Vancouver., The model o f c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o l l o w e d by the N.P.A. was t h a t o f the urban r e f o r m movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Reform i d e o l o g y was based on the o u t l o o k t h a t the c i t y s h o u l d be run i n the manner o f an e f f i c i e n t b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e . The d u a l p r o c e s s e s o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and s y s t e r n a t i z a t i o n governed t h i s model o f c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P o l i c i e s not f o l l o w i n g t h i s p h i l o s o p h y were c r i t i c i z e d by the argument t h a t "no b u s i n e s s c o u l d conduct i t s a f f a i r s t h a t way and remain i n b u s i n e s s " (Hays, 1964). Based on t h i s c o r p o r a t e model, the essence o f c i v i c p o l i c y was the p r o m o t i o n o f economic growth and development. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the most outspoken proponents o f t h i s form o f c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were members o f l e a d i n g b u s i n e s s groups and p r o f e s s i o n a l men c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h them. The ward system o f government c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f preamalgamation Vancouver was a b o l i s h e d so t h a t , p r e -sumably, c o u n c i l members e l e c t e d on an a t - l a r g e b a s i s would g i v e l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o l o c a l and p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c m a t t e r s and more to a f f a i r s o f a c i t y - w i d e n a t u r e . A n o t h e r outgrowth o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements o f the c o r -p o r a t e model was the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f c i v i c g o v e r n -ment. The day t o day a c t i v i t i e s o f the c i t y were s u p e r v i s e d by a two-man board o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . "The s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s drew t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n and v a l u e s about the urban scene from the b u r e a u c r a c y and, when n e c e s s a r y , from e x p e r t s o u t s i d e the system, u s u a l l y e x p e r t s from the e n g i n e e r i n g o r f i n a n c i a l s e c t o r " (Hardwiek and Hardwick, 1974, 9 1 ) . As f o r members o f C o u n c i l , t hey viewed t h e m s e l v e s as t r u s t e e s o f the p u b l i c purse and a c t e d i n what they c o n c e i v e d t o be the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f the community as a whole. More o f t e n than n o t , however, the i n t e r e s t s o f the community were b r o a d l y t r a n s l a t e d as the i n t e r e s t s o f the b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . T h i s system o f government worked r e a s o n a b l y w e l l f o r many y e a r s g i v e n the p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n a t - l a r g e w i t h the m a t e r i a l u p g r a d i n g o f the c i t y and the p r e v a i l i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e t h a t growth was good. As Hardwick (1974, 184) p o i n t s o u t : . . . C o u n c i l was p r o v i d i n g i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms b a s i c c i v i c n e c e s s i t i e s demanded by the p o p u l a t i o n a t - l a r g e . The q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s were l e s s i m p o r t a n t . . . 11 i s f a i r t o say t h a t c i v i c government was i n tune w i t h p u b l i c d e s i r e s o f the 1950's. By the mid-1960's, however, t h i s c o r p o r a t e model o f c i v i c government was b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l the s t r e s s o f c h a n g i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s . P u b l i c o p i n i o n was b e g i n n i n g t o awaken t o c i v i c i s s u e s , i n p a r t due t o the emerging c o n c e r n s about urban problems and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u t i o n and the l e s s than adequate t r e a t m e n t o f the urban e n v i r o n -ment by l o n g time p o l i t i c a l incumbents. The c o r p o r a t e . . .81 model, however, was too i n f l e x i b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e these c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s f o r i t s e t h i c was too b u r e a u c r a t i c . "The n o n - p a r t i s a n , a t - l a r g e system o f government...had no b u i l t i n p r o v i s i o n f o r the i n p u t s o f s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n a t t i t u d e s o f v a r i o u s s u b s e c t i o n s o f the community..." (Hardwick, 1974, 1 8 ) . The l e g i t i m a c y o f the e c o n o m i s t i c i d e o l o g y o f the N.P.A. began t o be c h a l l e n -1 ged by a growing number o f c o ncerned c i t i z e n s . These f e e l i n g s o f p u b l i c d i s c o n t e n t e r u p t e d i n 1967 when c i t y c o u n c i l , on the b a s i s o f economic e f f i c i e n c y models and c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s e s w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r s , p r o posed a freeway t h a t would c u t from the e a s t through Chinatown i n t o the h e a r t o f the downtown c o r e . The Chinese community, under the guidance o f a number o f academics from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , m o b i l i z e d a g r e a t d e a l o f p u b l i c oppo-s i t i o n t o t h i s p r o p o s a l . The p r o p o s a l was e v e n t u a l l y d r o p p e d . 2 The Chinatown freeway c o n t r o v e r s y o f 1967 marks a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i n the h i s t o r y o f c i v i c p o l i t i c s and urban development i n Vancouver. T h i s i s s u e r e p r e s e n -t e d not o n l y a c h a l l e n g e to a s p e c i f i c development p r o p o s a l , but more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t r e p r e s e n t e d a c h a l l e n g e to the c o r p o r a t e model o f c i v i c government w i t h i t s emphasis on economy, e f f i c i e n c y and growth. I n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r Vancouver saw the emergence o f t h r e e new p o l i t i c a l o r g a n -i z a t i o n s - The Committee o f P r o g r e s s i v e E l e c t o r s (C.O.P.E.), a c i v i c arm o f the New Democratic P a r t y , and The E l e c t o r s ' -A c t i o n Movement (T.E.A.M.). Of the s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , T.E.A.M. became the most s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s was due t o the f a c t t h a t T.E.A.M. sought to be a moderate r e f o r m group a p p e a l -i n g t o p e r s o n s o f a l l p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s whereas C.O.P.E. and the N.D.P. sought t o be more r a d i c a l groups a p p e a l i n g t o p e r s o n s on the p o l i t i c a l l e f t . T.E.A.M. emerged as a r e a c t i o n t o the b u s i n e s s -o r i e n t e d p o l i c i e s o f the N.P.A. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e p r e -s e n t e d the cha n g i n g t i d e o f p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s towards c i v i c management and growth. The f o l l o w i n g quote from a con-cerned c i t i z e n i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the s e changing p u b l i c c o n c e r n s . I r e c o g n i z e t h a t t o t a l k about decency i n urban l i f e sounds vague and n a i v e when everyone e l s e i s s h o u t i n g about economic r e a l i t i e s , f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and "bottom l i n e " management. Most p o l i t i -c i a n s are t r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e us t h a t the i s s u e s a re l a n d development, t a x e s , law and o r d e r , more d i s c i p l i n e . . . These are i m p o r t a n t but they o v e r l o o k what i s e s s e n t i a l t o urban l i f e - decency i n the way we t r e a t one a n o t h e r (Van. Sun, 1976, 4 ) . W h a t ' q u a l i t i e s o f a c i t y c o n t r i b u t e t o a decent way o f l i f e ? The c o ncerned c i t i z e n c o n t i n u e s : We need b e t t e r enforcement o f by-laws t o p r o t e c t the p u b l i c , a t t a c k s on n o i s e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u t i o n , improved p a v i n g o f p a r k i n g l a n e s , p e d e s t r i a n s i g n a l s and c r o s s w a l k s , more i n t e r e s t i n bus s e r v i c e s and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , b e t t e r commun-i c a t i o n between c i t i z e n s and c i t y h a l l , more n e i g h b o u r h o o d - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . . . These a r e the s m a l l day-to-day t h i n g s t h a t make l i f e i n the c i t y a l i t t l e b e t t e r , and they are r e a l i s t i c a l l y w i t h -i n the hands o f c i t y governments. ... 83 Such a t t i t u d e s were the r a l l y i n g p o i n t s o f T.E.A.M. By 1970 the "growth i s good" e t h i c h e l d by the N.P.A. was b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d by an i n c r e a s i n g number o f p e o p l e . Tom Ca m p b e l l , a former N.P.A. mayor whose v i s i o n o f Vancouver as the "San F r a n c i s c o o f Canada...the New York" was now seen as u n d e s i r a b l e . T.E.A.M. ad v o c a t e d a more humanized approach t o growth. F o r them the c i t y was t o be a " p e o p l e - p l a c e " . The image o f downtown e n v i s -i o n e d by T.E.A.M., f o r example, was "...a l o t o f pe o p l e d o i n g t h i n g s - d o i n g n a t u r a l l y , normal work o c c u p a t i o n s , but a l s o e n j o y i n g r e s t a u r a n t s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t , l i t t l e b r e a k s o u t s i d e where t h e r e a re p a r k - l i k e s e t t i n g s o r p e d e s t r i a n a r e a s " ( P r o v i n c e , 1973). S e l e c t i v e growth was f a v o u r e d by T.E.A.M. Our g o a l must be t o make, sure t h a t t h i s growth r e s u l t s i n r e a l improvement i n the q u a l i t y o f l i v i n g f o r the p e o p l e o f our community... There can be s u b s t a n t i a l t a n -g i b l e c o s t s when a neighbourhood i s d i s -r u p t e d by a freeway and we are now f i n d i n g t h a t the l o w e s t c o s t s o l u t i o n from an e n g i n e e r i n g s t a n d p o i n t i s o f t e n the most e x p e n s i v e s o l u t i o n when the t o t a l c o s t t o the community i s c o n s i d e r e d (Vancouver Sun, 1971, 3 2 ) . For T.E.A.M., the g r o w t h - o r i e n t e d 'ideology o f the " e n g i n -e e r i n g mind" and the c i t y e f f i c i e n t was r e p l a c e d by the s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c c o n c e r n s o f the l i v a b l e c i t y . The a t t i t u d e s o f the p u b l i c a t - l a r g e echoed t h a t o f T.E.A.M. D u r i n g the S p r i n g and F a l l o f 1972, members o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (G.V.R. D.) P l a n n i n g Committee and S t a f f met w i t h community groups . . .84 throughout G r e a t e r Vancouver t o i d e n t i f y i s s u e s o f impor-tance (G.V.R.D., 1972). The most commonly e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g was t h a t growth i n the r e g i o n s h o u l d be stopped o r s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d . The meetings i n d i c a t e d t h a t many pe o p l e had come t o judge p r o g r e s s by a s k i n g what i t does t o the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r l i v e s . Many f e l t t h a t economic p r o g r e s s by i t s e l f was i n s u f f i c i e n t . P e o p l e saw many t h i n g s which were i m p o r t a n t t o them - n a t u r e , n a t u r a l p l a c e s , w i l d l i f e , c l e a n a i r and w a t e r , low d e n s i t y , e t c . - as b e i n g t h r e a t -ened by growth. The most i n d i c a t i v e measure o f the c h a n g i n g t i d e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n towards the management o f the urban environment was the i n c r e a s i n g e l e c t o r a l s u p p o r t T.E.A.M. r e c e i v e d o v e r the f o u r y e a r p e r i o d between December, 1968 and December, 1972. Having e l e c t e d o n l y two aldermen i n each o f the c i v i c e l e c t i o n s o f 1968 and 1970, T.E.A.M. swept the e l e c t i o n o f 1972, e l e c t i n g the mayor and e i g h t out o f the t e n a l d e r m a n i c s e a t s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , f o u r out o f the e i g h t T.E.A.M. aldermen were u n i v e r s i t y p r o -f e s s o r s . I n s h o r t , c hanging p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s towards u n c o n t r o l l e d urban growth, an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n f o r beauty and a e s t h e t i c s and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f such v a l u e s by T.E.A.M. l e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the c o u r s e o f urban development and p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver o v e r the 1970's. I t i s w i t h i n such a c o n t e x t o f l i v a b i l i t y t h a t the p r o c e s s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n has taken p l a c e i n the . . .85 i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . 4.3 F a l s e Creek and the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s Due t o the f a i l u r e o f the c i t y t o make a f i r m commitment as t o the f u t u r e o f F a l s e Creek, an i n d u s t r i a l zone o u t s i d e the CBD, much o f the a r e a i n 1967 was c h a r -a c t e r i z e d by d e t e r i o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and poor l a n d use p l a n n i n g . Around t h i s time a number o f s u g g e s t i o n s recom-mending a l t e r n a t i v e l a n d u s e s , namely r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e s i d e n t i a l , were b e i n g proposed. Among those a d v o c a t i n g such uses f o r F a l s e Creek were Bob W i l l i a m s , an urban p l a n n e r who i n 1966 was a c i t y alderman, and W a l t e r Hardwick and Edward Highbee o f the Geography Department a t U.B.C. Highbee, a r g u i n g t h a t the l a n d uses i n F a l s e Creek bore l i t t l e resemblance t o the r o l e the a r e a c o u l d p l a y i n r e l a t i o n t o the a d j a c e n t downtown and to the emerging v i s i o n o f Vancouver as an e x e c u t i v e c i t y , p r e s e n t e d a r e p o r t t o C o u n c i l i n November, 1967 s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the p r o p e r development o f F a l s e Creek s h o u l d s t r e s s the c r e a -t i o n o f an environment a t t r a c t i v e t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s and h i g h r i s e apartments ( E l l i g o t , 1977). I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , the Vancouver Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n i n e a r l y 1967 d e c i d e d t o develop l o n g range par k and r e c r e a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o r the a r e a . D e s p i t e these and o t h e r a p p e a l s f o r the d e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f F a l s e Creek, C i t y C o u n c i l , p r e s s u r e d by l e a s e h o l d e r s whose l e a s e s e x p i r e d w i t h i n the nex t few y e a r s , approved a l o n g term i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c y f o r the a r e a i n the F a l l o f ... 86 1967. I n r e t r o s p e c t , as Ruth Rodger p o i n t s o u t , t h i s d e c i s i v e a c t i o n p r o v e d to be the b e g i n n i n g o f the end f o r i n d u s t r y i n much o f the F a l s e Creek b a s i n f o r by then o t h e r o p i n i o n s about the use o f the Creek were emerging and C o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n p r o v i d e d something a g a i n s t w h i c h to r e a c t (Rodger, 1976). D e s p i t e C o u n c i l ' s commitment t o i n d u s t r y i n F a l s e Creek, a g r e a t d e a l o f p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s s i n g on n o n - i n d u s t r i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s took p l a c e o ver the n e x t y e a r . The c i t y p l a n n i n g department, as p a r t o f a compre-h e n s i v e downtown p l a n , produced a r e p o r t i n December, 1968 recommending the d e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f F a l s e Creek. The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e b e h i n d t h i s p l a n was the c r e a t i o n o f a s t r o n g m e t r o p o l i t a n o f f i c e c e n t r e w i t h major c u l t u r a l , t o u r i s t , and economic f a c i l i t i e s i n the downtown. An apartment zone a d j a c e n t to the c o r e f o r downtown o f f i c e w orkers was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s p l a n . I t was r e c o g -n i z e d t h a t F a l s e Creek had the p o t e n t i a l to become such an apartment a r e a . The numerous i d e a s and s u g g e s t i o n s put f o r w a r d by v a r i o u s groups and i n d i v i d u a l s on the f u t u r e o f F a l s e Creek i n response t o the downtown Vancouver s t u d y were a s s e s s e d and p r e s e n t e d as f i v e l o n g range development c o n c e p t s i n November, 1969. Subsequent t o the p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f these development c o n c e p t s , C o u n c i l i n J u l y , 1969 had r e q u e s t e d t h a t the r e z o n i n g o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s from i n d u s t r i a l t o r e s i d e n t i a l be s t u d i e d . S i m i l a r t o the . . .87 c i t y - o w n e d F a l s e Creek l a n d s , the S l o p e s w i t h i t s p r o x -i m i t y to the downtown core were e n v i s i o n e d as a p o t e n t i a l apartment zone. As w i t h F a l s e Creek, the F a i r v e w S l o p e s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g e n e r a l s t a t e o f d i s r e p a i r . O r i g i n a l l y e n v i s i o n e d to be a h i g h s t a t u s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a (as e v i d e n c e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a number o f s t a t e l y mansions s e v e r a l o f which s t a n d t o d a y ) , the i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n o f the F a l s e Creek b a s i n d u r i n g the 1900's saw the development o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a modest r e s i d e n t a l neighbourhood o c c u p i e d by p e o p l e employed i n the m i l l s and i n d u s t r i e s below i t . I n the 1950's, t h i s a r e a was r e z o n e d t o l i g h t i n d u s t r y . D e s p i t e t h i s i n d u s -t r i a l z o n i n g , the predominant l a n d use i n F a i r v i e w remained r e s i d e n t i a l ( T a b l e 4.1). D u r i n g the 1960's the w o r k i n g c l a s s c h a r a c t e r o f F a i r v i e w underwent a r a d i c a l change as groups o f young, c o m m u n a l - l i v i n g e n t h u s i a s t s t r a n s -formed the S l o p e s neighbourhood i n t o a " h i p p i e - e n c l a v e " . Many o f the r e s i d e n c e s o c c u p i e d by t h i s group were c h a r -a c t e r i z e d by p h y s i c a l d i s r e p a i r . A c c o r d i n g t o a s t u d y p u b l i s h e d i n 1969, r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s accounted f o r 95 p e r c e n t o f the d i l a p i d a t e d b u i l d i n g s and 73 p e r c e n t o f the b u i l d i n g s i n need o f s u b s t a n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n (Vancouver Urban Renewal Study, 1969). .88 T a b l e 4.1 .Land Use on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , 1969 TOTAL Land Use No. A c r e s 1. Vacant 18 2.17 2. R e s i d e n t i a l 181 20.85 3. P a r k i n g and B i l l b o a r d s 11 2.97 4. P r i n t i n g 1 2.80 5. M e t a l F a b r i c a t i o n 4 1.65 6. Other m a n u f a c t u r i n g 3 0.40 7. C o n s t r u c t i o n 1 0.07 8. Sto r a g e and T r a n s p o r t 7 0.97 9. Whol e s a l e Trade 15 3.94 10. R e t a i l Trade 12 3.20 11. S e r v i c e 9 1.47 TOTAL 262 40.49 Source: Vancouver Urban Renewal Study, T e c h n i c a l Report #4, I n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s , A ugust, 1969. The f i v e c o n c e p t s r e p r e s e n t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the redevelopment o f the F a l s e Creek a r e a v/ere d e s i g n e d to remedy what the p l a n n i n g department saw as a zone o f b l i g h t . F a l s e Creek l a n d s a re p r e s e n t l y u n d e r - u t i l i z e d ; many uses are o u t d a t e d ; c o n d i t i o n s o f l a n d and b u i l d i n g s i n many i n s t a n c e s have d e t e r i o r a t e d ; p o l l u t i o n o f a i r and water c o n t i n u e s . The e n t i r e a r e a i s an eyesore and d e t r i m e n t t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ( C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., J a n u a r y , 1970). I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the redevelopment o f F a l s e Creek-F a i r v i e w would b o l s t e r i n v e s t m e n t , i n c r e a s e l a n d v a l u e s , enhance s u r r o u n d i n g s , and improve the p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y o f the a r e a . B r i e f l y o u t l i n e d , the f i v e development c o n c e p t s were as f o l l o w s ( C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., March,1970): .89 Concept 1 F u l l I n d u s t r i a l Development Redevelopment o f F a l s e Creek and the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s f o r l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l development. Concept 2 R e s i d e n t i a l and R e c r e a t i o n a l Development A p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a w i t h a f u l l range o f m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g t y p e s and w i t h a l l a n c i l l a r y p u b l i c and commercial f a c i l i t i e s . Concept 3 R e s i d e n t i a l and I n d u s t r i a l Development C o n t i n u e d i n d u s t r i a l usage o f p a r t o f F a l s e Creek; p r o v i s i o n s f o r a d d i t i o n a l " i n n e r c i t y " apartment development ( t h e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s were t o be developed as a h i g h d e n s i t y apartment d i s t r i c t ) ; the d e v e l o p -ment o f p u b l i c and commercial m a r i n a s . Concept 4 A r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a , i n c l u d -i n g o f f i c e , r e t a i l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g a r e a s . Concept 5 R e c r e a t i o n a l , R e s i d e n t i a l and Commercial Development The c r e a t i o n o f a major p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y i n F a l s e Creek. I n a d d i t i o n , r edev-e l o p i n g r e m a i n i n g F a l s e Creek l a n d s and the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s f o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial uses. Those development c o n c e p t s s t r e s s i n g the d e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f F a l s e Creek were r e c e i v e d most f a v o u r a b l y by the p u b l i c . P a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l r e c e i v e d were those c o n c e p t s e m p h a s i z i n g r e c r e a t i o n o r p a r k - t y p e development. Some i n t e r e s t was a l s o e x p r e s s e d f o r r e s i -d e n t i a l and commercial development. M a s s i v e redevelopment, however, was seen as u n d e s i r a b l e . Redevelopment s t r e s s i n g s o c i a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , and a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r s was a d v o c a t e d . The p u b l i c a t - l a r g e d i d not want F a l s e Creek t o become a n o t h e r West End. Among the f a v o u r e d d i r e c t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e o f the a r e a were ( C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., March, 1970): 1. P l a n n i n g o f F a l s e Creek must be based on the needs o f a l l p e o p l e . Redevelopment s h o u l d p r o v i d e accomodation f o r d i f f e r e n t income groups, age l e v e l s and household typ e s. 2. P r o p e r c o n t r o l s must be i n t r o d u c e d so t h a t v i e w s w i l l be p r o t e c t e d . 3. The w a t e r a r e a s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d o r en-l a r g e d and kept c l e a n and f r e e from p o l l u -t i o n . 4. Redevelopment o f F a l s e Creek must not be based p r i m a r i l y on s h o r t range f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , but r a t h e r on the l o n g range e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact upon i t s e l f and the r e g i o n . I n e f f e c t , a v e r y i n n o v a t i v e form o f i n n e r c i t y development based on the i d e o l o g y o f the l i v a b l e c i t y was e n v i s i o n e d f o r F a l s e Creek. I n A p r i l , 1970 C o u n c i l e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d any f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the F a l s e Creek b a s i n by f o r m a l l y r e s o l v i n g t h a t Concepts 1 and 3 would no l o n g e r be c o n s i d e r e d o p t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e o f F a l s e Creek and by r e q u e s t i n g the p l a n n i n g department t o p r e p a r e o v e r - a l l p l a n s f o r Concepts 2, 4 and 5. By August, 1970 c i t y o f f i c i a l s had committed the c i t y t o a s t a r t i n g date o f 1973 on s t a g e one o f the redevelopment o f F a l s e Creek . . .91 w i t h the g e n e r a l t e n o r b e i n g t h a t o f a r e s i d e n t i a l -r e c r e a t i o n a l development. I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o c o n t r a s t t h i s v i s i o n o f F a l s e Creek i n the e a r l y 1970*s t o t h a t e x p r e s s e d by G e r a l d Sutton-Brown, Vancouver's d i r e c t o r o f p l a n n i n g twenty y e a r s e a r l i e r . Sutton-Brown b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o expand the number o f s i t e s a v a i l a b l e f o r s m a l e - s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s because i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n B r i t a i n , s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s begat b i g i n d u s t r i e s and a d d i t i o n a l employment and urban p r o s p e r i t y (Hardwick, 1974, 9 3 ) . The u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g i c a l c u r r e n t o f the " e n g i n e e r i n g mind" of the i n d u s t r i a l age i s i m p l i c i t , i f not e x p l i c i t , i n t h i s v iew o f F a l s e Creek. 4.4 A New D i r e c t i o n f o r F a i r v i e w By 1970 the i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s was b e i n g s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d . As o u t l i n e d above, r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial uses were p e r c e i v e d by C o u n c i l t o be much more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the S l o p e s . I n response t o C o u n c i l ' s r e q u e s t t h a t z o n i n g p e r m i t t i n g the d e v e l o p -ment o f r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial uses on the S l o p e s be adopted, the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board recommended the c r e a t i o n o f a CRM-1 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e . The o b j e c t i v e s b e h i n d t h i s p r o p o s e d z o n i n g s c h e d u l e were f i v e - f o l d ( C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., O c t o b e r , 1970): 1. To s t o p i n d u s t r i a l development and e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i e s . 2. To a l l o w new development which p e r m i t s commercial use p l u s a d i v e r s i t y o f h o u s i n g t y p e s . 3. (a) To p r o t e c t a view o f downtown and the N o r t h Shore mountains .• from the d w e l l i n g s o f an optimum number o f the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s o f the a r e a . (b) To p r o t e c t t h i s same v i e w from s e l e c t e d vantage p o i n t s a l o n g Broadway. (c) To c r e a t e a "near v i e w " or e n v i r o n -ment a t ground l e v e l w hich w i l l p r o v i d e v a r i e t y and human i n t e r e s t . 4. To e n s u r e . t h a t adequate community f a c i l -i t i e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e and t h a t t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n be developed hand-in-hand w i t h the r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial uses. 5. To f a c i l i t a t e a form o f development commensurate w i t h the p o t e n t i a l o f the a r e a i n terms o f b o t h improved e n v i r o n -ment and economic v i a b i l i t y . I n terms o f urban d e s i g n , these o b j e c t i v e s were t o be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f townhouses w i t h p r i m a r i l y n o n - f a m i l y and low amenity need f a m i l y r e s i d e n -t i a l u n i t s . The major o b j e c t i v e a f f e c t i n g p h y s i c a l d e s i g n r e g u l a t i o n s o f the CRM-1 s c h e d u l e was t o take f u l l advan-tage o f the a r e a ' s view p o t e n t i a l . View enhancement was t o be based on ' s e e i n g between' b u i l d i n g s o f r e s t r i c t e d l e n g t h r a t h e r than ' s e e i n g o v e r ' b u i l d i n g s o f d i f f e r i n g h e i g h t s . Some t h i r t e e n d e l e g a t i o n s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r v i e w s on t h i s proposed CRM-1 s c h e d u l e a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n March, 1971. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , r e a l e s t a t e and d e v e l o p -ment i n t e r e s t s were v e r y r e c e p t i v e t o t h i s proposed z o n i n g s c h e d u l e . As n o t e d i n a b r i e f p r e s e n t e d by the R e a l E s t a t e Board o f G r e a t e r Vancouver (1971), "the new .93 z o n i n g w i l l a t t r a c t i n v e s t m e n t and the proposed r e g u l a t i o n s are d e s i g n e d to encourage major development c a p i t a l i z i n g on the s t e e p grades o f the S l o p e s w i t h m a x i m i z a t i o n o f view p o t e n t i a l . " I n a d d i t i o n t o the R e a l E s t a t e Board, the l o c a l r a t e p a y e r s ' group f a v o u r e d the new p r o p o s a l s . Many o t h e r s , however, f a v o u r e d l o w e r h e i g h t l i m i t s and more d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f h o u s i n g and p o p u l a t i o n t y p e s . Henry Hawthorne, a l o c a l a r c h i t e c t , was among the more v o c a l and i n f l u e n t i a l o f t h i s group. I n response t o the CRM-1 s c h e d u l e , Hawthorne s u b m i t t e d an a l t e r n a t i v e z o n i n g scheme f o r the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . As w i t h the CRM-1 p r o -p o s a l , Hawthorne's a l t e r n a t i v e concept was d e s i g n e d to s t o p i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g and t o a l l o w a b a l a n c e d m i x t u r e o f r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial u s e s . More s i g n i f i c a n t , how-ev e r , was the way Hawthorne sought t o a c h i e v e these g o a l s . Of the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g h i s p r o p o s a l , the most n o t a b l e were (Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1971): 1. To p r o v i d e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t type o f r e s i d e n t i a l environment t o those now e x i s t i n g i n the c i t y , i n o r d e r to expand the range o f h o u s i n g c h o i c e . T h i s s h o u l d be i n t e n s e l y urban h o u s i n g w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on f a m i l y h o u s i n g and w i t h u s a b l e open space i n p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l i v i n g u n i t s . 2. To r a i s e the number o f p e o p l e l i v i n g on the S l o p e s i n o r d e r t o make the c h o i c e a v a i l a b l e t o a l a r g e r number and t o i n -c r e a s e the c i t y ' s revenue. 3. To encourage s m a l l - s c a l e developments i n p r e f e r e n c e t o l a r g e ones i n o r d e r to produce a more v a r i e d environment a t a more human s c a l e . To encourage l o c a l owners t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t r a n s f o r -m a t i o n o f the a r e a . 4. To p r e s e r v e f o r everyone a f u l l pano-ramic v i e w ; i n c l u d i n g those p e o p l e l i v i n g f u r t h e r s o u t h o f the d e v e l o p -ment a r e a . 5. To encourage a form o f development which can accommodate the presence o f e x i s t i n g houses and o f f i c e s g r a c e f u l l y . The s p e c i f i c z o n i n g p r o p o s a l s s u b m i t t e d by Hawthorne were c o n s i d e r e d t o be unworkable by the p l a n n i n g department. The concept o f i n t e n s e l y urban, low r i s e development, however, was viewed as an i n t e r e s t i n g and a t t r a c t i v e h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e . By t h i s time (Autumn, 1971), the f i r s t p o l i c i e s f o r F a l s e Creek were b e i n g p r e s e n t e d t o C o u n c i l . I n November, 1970 the C i t y had a p p o i n t e d Thompson, B e r w i c k -P r a t t , a l o c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e and p l a n n i n g f i r m , t o p r e p a r e a development p l a n f o r F a l s e Creek. The c o n s u l t a n t ' s F a l s e Creek R e p o r t #3 was completed a y e a r l a t e r . The b a s i c theme a r i s i n g from t h i s r e p o r t was the c r e a t i o n o f an i n n e r c i t y community t h a t would p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e to b o t h h i g h r i s e c e n t r a l c i t y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and t o s p r a w l i n g s u b u r b i a . The F a l s e Creek b a s i n i s c l e a r l y i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n e v e r y sense. I t i s Vancouver's l a s t chance to encourage a development o f h e a l t h y urban l i f e i n the c e n t r e o f the c i t y . I t i s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o r d e r growth and t o c r e a t e a show p l a c e b o t h f o r the C i t y and the n a t i o n ( F a l s e Creek Study Group, 1971, 17). F a l s e Creek was t o be the embodiment of the l i v a b l e c i t y . To the c o n s u l t a n t s l i v a b i l i t y meant s m a l l s c a l e d e v e l o p -ment and the a p p r o p r i a t n e s s o f the p h y s i c a l environment " c l o s e a t hand"; an environment where "...the q u a l i t i e s o f the n a t u r a l and man-made environment be so shaped and m a i n t a i n e d t h a t b eauty, l e i s u r e and r e l i e f , and a c e r t a i n sense o f w e l l b e i n g are a v a i l a b l e . . . " ( F a l s e Creek Study Group, 1972, 7 9 ) . The s u g g e s t e d CRM-1 s c h e d u l e f o r F a i r v i e w d i d not conform t o the proposed development o f F a l s e Creek. As made c l e a r t o the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g i n a l e t t e r from the c o n s u l t a n t s i n June, 1971, "...we are c o n v i n c e d t h a t p r o g r e s s towards i n n o v a t i o n s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g i n the F a l s e Creek b a s i n c u r r e n t l y under way by the F a l s e Creek Study group w i l l be impeded by the upzoning o f the ii 4 F a i r v i e w Slopes-. The p l a n n i n g department a f t e r c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s i n g the Hawthorne a l t e r n a t i v e and the p r o p o s a l p o l i c i e s f o r F a l s e Creek, w i t h d r e w i t s o r i g i n a l CRM-1 p r o p o s a l . I n i t s p l a c e , a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f Hawthorne's " l o w - r i s e module" ( d e s i g n a t e d CRM-2) i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a m o d i f i e d CRM-1 z o n i n g ( d e s i g n a t e d CRM-3) around i t s p e r i p h e r y was proposed. Development o f the low p r o f i l e CRM-2 was t o have a h e i g h t l i m i t o f 35 f e e t and t h a t o f the CRM-3 120 f e e t as com-pared t o the 260 f e e t h e i g h t l i m i t a t i o n proposed i n the CRM-1 s c h e d u l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e s i d e n t i a l development, a l i m i t e d amount o f commercial use was t o be p e r m i t t e d i n bo t h the CRM-2 and CRM-3 a r e a s . T h i s approach was b a s i c -a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t recommended by the Urban D e s i g n P l a n o f San F r a n c i s c o i n which t a l l e r b u i l d i n g s a re l o c a t e d on the h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s where they emphasize the n a t u r a l l a n d f o r m s and do not o b s t r u c t v i e w s . As w e l l as b e i n g c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the wide 'see thr o u g h c o n c e p t ' f a v o u r e d by C o u n c i l , the b a s i c m e r i t s o f low p r o f i l e b u i l d i n g s on the S l o p e s , as p e r c e i v e d by the p l a n n i n g department, was i t s c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h the form o f development a n t i c i p a t e d t o be proposed f o r the c i t y - o w n e d l a n d s o f F a l s e Creek. The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s were o f f i c i a l l y r ezoned from M-l i n d u s t r i a l t o CRM-2/CRM-3 mixed commercial r e s i d e n t i a l i n May, 1972. 4.5 F a i r v i e w S l o p e s : P r e c u r s o r t o Change L i t t l e i f any redevelopment o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f the r e z o n i n g t o CRM-2 and CRM-3. I n f a c t , o n l y two new developments were approved and con-s t r u c t e d between 1972 and 1974 (F.R.A.C.A.S., 1974). T h i s was due to the l a c k o f p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f the f u t u r e development o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s and the u n c e r t a i n t y as t o the f u t u r e o f the C i t y ' s F a l s e Creek l a n d s . The CRM-2 sch e d u l e a l l o w e d f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s -c r e t i o n t o be e x e r c i s e d by C o u n c i l i n the a p p r o v a l o f i n n o v a t i v e b u i l d i n g d e s i g n s . The purpose o f t h i s d i s -c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y was t o b u i l d i n a f l e x i b i l i t y w h i c h would p e r m i t e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s s u i t a b l e t o the topo-graphy and l o c a t i o n o f the a r e a w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t poor d e s i g n (Dept. o f P l a n n i n g and C i v i c Development, 1972). There were, however, no s p e c i f i c ... 97 g u i d e l i n e s on which t o base t h i s d i s c r e t i o n . The CRM-3 sc h e d u l e p l a c e d heavy emphasis on a bonus system. By p r o v i d i n g a l a r g e s i t e s i z e and low s i t e coverage d e v e l o p e r s were p e r m i t t e d up t o an a d d i t i o n a l 0.95 to the maximum f l o o r space r a t i o o f 0.75. Assembly o f l a n d to take advantage o f t h i s bonus system pro v e d t o be an e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t 5 t a s k f o r d e v e l o p e r s . The r e t e n t i o n o f the r e m a i n i n g house s t o c k was a n o t h e r e x t r e m e l y c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e . Many o f the houses on the S l o p e s were deemed to have some h e r i t a g e v a l u e , and i t was g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t a l l o f them added t o the p h y s i c a l d i v e r s i t y o f the a r e a . A l t h o u g h the r e h a b i l i t a t -i o n o f t h e s e houses was seen as a ' d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e , the C i t y d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t e n f o r c e d h i s t o r i c a l d e s i g -n a t i o n was a p p r o p r i a t e . R a t h e r i t was f e l t t h a t i n c e n t i v e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s p u rpose. A l t h o u g h the C i t y had made a f i r m commitment to r e d e v e l o p F a l s e Creek, a c t u a l development had y e t t o be u n d e r t a k e n . W i t h o u t some c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e as t o the r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f u t u r e o f F a l s e Creek, p r i v a t e 6 d e v e l o p e r s were r e l u c t a n t t o b u i l d i n F a i r v i e w . Land s p e c u l a t o r s , p e r c e i v i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r redevelopment a t h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s and revenues d e r i v i n g p a r t l y from the l a c k o f f i r m p l a n n i n g g u i d l i n e s f o r the S l o p e s and F a l s e Creek, began p u r c h a s i n g p r o p e r t y i n F a i r v i e w . ' T h i s i n t u r n r e s u l t e d i n r a p i d l y e s c a l a t i n g l a n d v a l u e s . A 50 by 120 f o o t l o t on the 1300 b l o c k West . . .98 7 t h Avenue, f o r example, was bought i n 1969 f o r $14,000. I n November, 1971 i t was s o l d f o r $28,500. I n May, 1972 the p r o p e r t y was r e s o l d f o r $55,000. S u b s e q u e n t l y , i t was s o l d a g a i n i n December, 1973 f o r $75,000. Between 1969 and 1973 the v a l u e o f t h i s p r o p e r t y i n c r e a s e d by $61,000 o r an i n c r e d i b l e 478 p e r c e n t (F.R.A.C.A.S., 1974). H i g h p r i c e s , i n t u r n , encouraged o w n e r - o c c u p i e r s t o s e l l a t h i g h p r o f i t s w i t h a r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e i n absentee owners. The u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f many o f these absentee l a n d l o r d s t o spend money on h o u s i n g r e p a i r s l e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g number o f d e t e r i o r i a t e d houses and i l l - k e p t v a c a n t l o t s i n the a r e a . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d e m o l i t i o n and commercial c o n v e r -s i o n o f the e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k hastened the d e t e r i o r -a t i o n o f the neighbourhood. Of the 170 r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s on the S l o p e s , 12 were l o s t between 1973 and 1974, a l o s s o f o v e r 7.1 p e r c e n t i n l e s s than a y e a r (F.R.A.C.A.S., 1974). The s p e c u l a t i v e n a t u r e o f F a i r v i e w l e d t o the l o s s o f much needed accommodation, l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n r e n t , and the d i s r u p t i o n o f the " n e i g h b o u r l y " q u a l i t y o f the 7 a r e a . Amidst t h i s atmosphere o f p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i n s t a b i l i t y , the F a i r v i e w R e s i d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n and Community A c t i o n S o c i e t y (F.R.A.C.A.S.) i n J a n u a r y , 1974 s u b m i t t e d a b r i e f t o C i t y C o u n c i l which o u t l i n e d i n d e t a i l an approach w h i c h c o u l d be t a k e n towards the f u t u r e o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . T h i s b r i e f was v e r y c r i t i c a l o f the d e m o l i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g houses and d i s p l a c e m e n t o f p r e s e n t t e n a n t s and the p o t e n t i a l f o r new development t o be a r c h -i t e c t u r a l l y and s o c i a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . A l t h o u g h they wanted the r e t e n t i o n o f as many houses as p o s s i b l e , F.R.A.C.A.S. a l s o r e a l i z e d t h a t the redevelopment o f o l d e r , more d i l a p i d a t e d h o u s i n g would improve the p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y o f F a i r v i e w . New development, however, was to be c o m p a t i b l e i n c h a r a c t e r and s c a l e w i t h the e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g . The F.R.A.C.A.S. b r i e f " was v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h a t s e v e r a l o f i t s recommendations were endorsed by the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g . These i n c l u d e d : 1. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g committee. 2. A s t u d y on the s o c i a l and economic f e a s -i b i l i t y o f a p o l i c y o f c o n s e r v a t i o n . 3. The i n s t i t u t i o n o f I n t e r i m Development C o n t r o l G u i d e l i n e s . On F e b r u a r y 8, 1974, C o u n c i l endorsed the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the F a i r v i e w L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g Program, a u t h o r i z e d the h i r i n g o f a p l a n n e r , the i n i t i a t i o n o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g committee and approved a c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s r e g a r d i n g the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w community's e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f a b r i c . The Sussex Group was r e t a i n e d by the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g i n A p r i l , 1974 t o u n d e r t a k e the recommended f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y . The b a s i c recommendation stemming from t h i s s t u d y was t h a t a neighbourhood-wide program o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and i n f i l l t h r o u g h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n be i n i t i a t e d (Sussex Group, 1974). A l t h o u g h t h i s b a s i c recommendation was r e j e c t e d Q f o r a number o f r e a s o n s , the G i t y endorsed the i d e a o f p r e s e r v i n g the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f the r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d -i n g s on the S l o p e s . T h i s was t o be a c h i e v e d through a program o f i n c e n t i v e s and compensation to p r o p e r t y owners f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s t o r a t i o n and through amendment to the g u i d e l i n e s a p p l y i n g to c o n d i t i o n a l uses i n the CRM zones to s i m p l i f y p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l homeowners t o p r e -s e r v e . b u i l d i n g s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r h i s t o r i c m e r i t . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n o f the Sussex Group r e p o r t p e r t a i n e d to the p r o v i s i o n o f low c o s t h o u s i n g on the S l o p e s . The c o n s u l t a n t s c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f the f u t u r e o f the a r e a was l e f t t o the c o n v e n t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l f a b r i c o f the a r e a would not remain i n t a c t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f lower income r e s i d e n t s were t o be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o remain i n F a i r v i e w , some form o f s u b s i d y o r n o n - p r o f i t o p e r a t i o n would be n e c e s s a r y . I n response t o t h i s con-c l u s i o n C o u n c i l a c c e p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e the recommendation o f the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g t h a t c i t y - o w n e d l a n d i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s be c o n s i d e r e d f o r use as lower and m i d d l e q income h o u s i n g s i t e s . ' The F a i r v i e w P l a n n i n g Committee, composed o f t h r e e r e s i d e n t p r o p e r t y owners, t h r e e t e n a n t s , t h r e e b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s , and one n o n - r e s i d e n t p r o p e r t y owner, was o f f i c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d by C o u n c i l on A p r i l 8, 1975. I r o n i c a l l y , the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n t a k e n by t h i s committee o c c u r r e d on the day o f i t s o f f i c i a l appointment. . . . 101 To combat the d e m o l i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g houses on the S l o p e s , an u n o f f i c i a l f r e e z e on development was adopted i n March, 1974 t h r o u g h the i n s t a t e m e n t o f I n t e r i m Development Gu i d e -l i n e s . The o b j e c t i v e o f these g u i d e l i n e s was to not approve development which would i n v o l v e d e m o l i t i o n , c o n v e r s i o n t o commercial use o r d i s p l a c e m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s o c c u p i e d on March 15, 1974 and to r e q u i r e t h a t new developments be g e n e r a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h nearby r e s i d e n t i a l development. The S t a n d i n g Committee on P l a n -n i n g and Development upon r e a s s e s s i n g t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s i n March o f the f o l l o w i n g y e a r recommended t h a t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s o f h i s t o r i c o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l m e r i t ( i n e f f e c t , o n l y f i v e b u i l d i n g s ) , the g u i d e l i n e s be amended i n t h a t they were p e r c e i v e d t o be h i n d e r i n g redevelopment. Dan C o r n e j o , the F a i r v i e w l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r took e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s recommendation. S i n c e he knew who would be a p p o i n t e d t o the l o c a l p l a n n i n g committee b e f o r e h a n d , C o r n e j o i n f o r m e d them o f the i n t e n t i o n s o f the p l a n n i n g and development committee. C o u n c i l , upon emerging from i t s A p r i l 8 t h meeting, was c o n f r o n t e d by the j u s t a p p o i n t e d committee on i t s d e c i s i o n t o amend the development c o n t r o l g u i d e l i n e s . By a s i x t o f i v e v o t e , C o u n c i l r e v e r s e d the d e c i s i o n o f the s t a n d i n g committee. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the d e c i d i n g v o t e was c a s t by A r t P h i l l i p s , the T.E.A.M. mayor. T h i s was a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t event i n t h a t i t a l l o w e d f o r the d r a f t i n g o f a development p l a n f o r F a i r v i e w r a t h e r than a s e r i e s o f d e m o l i t i o n s and c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . .102 The Committee h e l d weekly meetings o v e r the Summer and F a l l o f 1975. A number o f l a r g e p u b l i c meetings were h e l d a t a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t s i n the program t o i n f o r m the l a r g e r community o f the Committee's work and to s o l i c i t response and o p i n i o n s on f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s were agreed upon by the p l a n n i n g committee and the l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r (Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., 1977): 1. P r e s e r v e and s t r e n g t h e n the s m a l l s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , w h i l e a l l o w i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o mmercial development. 2. Encourage the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a m i x t u r e o f new and o l d b u i l d i n g s . 3. Encourage the r e t e n t i o n o f e x i s t i n g p l a n t s and t r e e s and promote h i g h q u a l i t y l a n d -scape development as p a r t o f a l l d e v e l o p -ment, whether new o r r e n o v a t i o n . 4. Reduce the impact o f C e n t r a l Broadway development. 5. M a i n t a i n v iew c o r r i d o r s down e x i s t i n g s t r e e t s and avenues, and g e n e r a l l y have v i e w s from the s t r e e t i n t o , and where p o s s i b l e , through new development. 6. O p t i m i z e v i e w p o t e n t i a l f o r e x i s t i n g u n i t s and f o r those i n new developments. 7. Ensure t h a t p h y s i c a l improvements are u n d e r t a k e n v e r y soon, as f o r example, a p p r o p r i a t e l i g h t i n g , p a v i n g , c u r b s , l a n e s , s i d e w a l k s , and underground w i r i n g . 8. Reduce the impact o f v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c and n o n - r e s i d e n t p a r k i n g w i t h i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . 9. Promote the development o f f u n c t i o n a l p a r k s and open spaces t o s e r v i c e the needs o f c u r r e n t and f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s . . .103 10. Set i n motion the p r o c e d u r e s n e c e s s a r y . to ensure t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e number o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l developments ar e c o n s t r u c t e d i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s o v e r the next f i v e y e a r s t o h e l p r e -p l a c e l o w - c o s t u n i t s l o s t t h r o u g h redevelopment. 11. Ensure t h a t F a i r v i e w S l o p e s r e s i d e n t s , p r o p e r t y owners, and b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s have a c o n t i n u i n g f o r m a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e l a t i n g t o p l a n n i n g and development i s s u e s i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . These o b j e c t i v e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s P o l i c y P l a n . O f f i c i a l l y adopted by C o u n c i l on June 1, 1976, the most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s p l a n was the c r e a t i o n o f a new FM-1 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e . As o u t -l i n e d i n the p o l i c y p l a n : The i n t e n t o f t h i s zone i s to enhance the s m a l l - s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s Neighbourhood by encourag-i n g r e t e n t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g houses and p e r m i t t i n g new low p r o f i l e r e s i d e n t i a l development which may i n c l u d e some com-p a t i b l e commercial and a n c i l l a r y u s e s , d e s i g n e d t o o p t i m i z e the a m e n i t i e s i n h e r - • e n t i n the topography and l o c a t i o n o f t h i s i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood. I n r e t r o s p e c t , the a d o p t i o n o f t h i s p l a n has p r e c i p i t a t e d the d e m o l i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g houses and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i n t o an e x c l u s i v e i n n e r c i t y n e i g h -bourhood o f e x p e n s i v e townhouse p r o j e c t s . 4.6 The I n t e r a c t i o n o f P u b l i c and P r i v a t e : The Ro l e o f  Development I n d u s t r y i n the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the  F a i r v i e w S l o p e s The pace and d i r e c t i o n o f change on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s has, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , been g u i d e d by the a c t i v e ... .104 p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the development and r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y . To g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r o l e o f p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s i n the renewal o f the S l o p e s , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h s e v e r a l a r c h i t e c t s , d e v e l o p e r s , and r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s . " ^ As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g some i n t e r e s t i n g e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the i n t e r v i e w d a t a have some im-p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e o r y . The development p o t e n t i a l o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s was f i r s t r e c o g n i z e d i n the e a r l y 1970's. Three o f the f o u r a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y f i r s t e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t t o b u i l d and d e s i g n a p r o j e c t on the Slo p e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1974-1975. Rhone and I r e d a l e , the d e s i g n e r o f one o f the f i r s t townhouse p r o j e c t s on the S l o p e s ( F a i r v i e w 1 ) , r e c o g n i z e d the p o t e n t i a l o f the a r e a r o u g h l y f i f t e e n y e a r s e a r l i e r . T h i s f i r m l o c a t e d i t s o f f i c e s on the S l o p e s i n 1961. W i t h l i t t l e o r no redevelopment o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n here p r i o r t o 1976, the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s p r e s e n t e d a v e r y r i s k y i n v e s t m e n t e n v i r -onment. When asked t o comment on the degree o f r i s k i n v o l v e d a t the time o f t h e i r f i r s t p r o j e c t on the S l o p e s , t h r e e o f the f o u r respondents r e p l i e d e x t r e m e l y r i s k y . The f o u r t h respondent saw h i s i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n as b e i n g somewhat r i s k y . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 1, one o f the b a s i c e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s t r a t e g i e s o f the development i n d u s t r y i s the a s c e r t a i n m e n t and r e d u c t i o n o f r i s k s . A d e c i s i o n on the p a r t o f a d e v e l o p e r to i n v e s t i n an a r e a such as . . .105 F a i r v i e w c i r c a 1974 seems t o run c o u n t e r to such a s t r a -t e g y . A h i g h r i s k i n v e s t m e n t , however, may r e s u l t i n a p o t e n t i a l l y h i g h e r r e t u r n . T h i s p r o s p e c t appears t o be e s p e c i a l l y a p p e a l i n g t o s m a l l as compared t o medium o r l a r g e - s i z e d firms.- As r e v e a l e d t o t h i s w r i t e r t h r o u g h the c o u r s e o f i n t e r v i e w s , s m a l l e r d e v e l o p e r s a re more w i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s than l a r g e r ones. Tending t o shy away from a r e a s where l a r g e development companies are f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , s m a l l d e v e l o p e r s t e n d t o s e a r c h f o r more m a r g i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s where a p o t e n t i a l demand may e x i s t . I n the words o f one o f the r e s p o n d e n t s , the i n v e s t -ment d e c i s i o n i s based on more o f "a gut f e e l i n g " . S i m i l a r l y , a n o t h e r a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r n o t e d how major d e v e l o p e r s were r e l u c t a n t t o b u i l d on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s because o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e n a t u r e o f the c u r r e n t FM-1 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e . A c c o r d i n g t o him, the degree o f r i s k and d i s c r e t i o n i n v o l v e d i n the c i v i c a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s i s s i m p l y too h i g h f o r a l a r g e f i r m . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case when t h e r e a re market-proven i n v e s t m e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s e l s e w h e r e . Indeed, l a r g e development f i r m s such' as Daon have not e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t (as f a r as t h i s w r i t e r i s aware) i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . R a t h e r , l o c a l l y - b a s e d , s m a l l - s i z e d f i r m s have g u i d e d the pace and d i r e c t i o n o f change on the S l o p e s . A number o f f a c t o r s l e d these d e v e l o p e r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n - c i t y townhouse accommodation would be ma r k e t a b l e on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . The t r e n d o f i n n e r . 106 c i t y renewal and redevelopment e v i d e n t i n many o t h e r l a r g e urban c e n t r e s was mentioned by two o f the respond-e n t s as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . C i t e d as examples i n t h i s r e g a r d were the r e n o v a t i o n o f V i c t o r i a n wood frames i n San F r a n c i s c o and the row houses o f London. The view p o t e n t i a l a f f o r e d by steep topography o f the S l o p e s was a l s o mentioned by two o f the r e s p o n d e n t s as c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t townhouses would be ma r k e t a b l e t h e r e . Other f a c t o r s c i t e d by the re s p o n d e n t s as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a r k e t a b i l i t y were the c e n t r a l l o c a -t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , the amenity p o t e n t i a l o f the a r e a w i t h the impending redevelopment o f F a l s e Creek and G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d , and more g e n e r a l l y , the growing demand f o r i n n e r c i t y accommodation e x p r e s s e d by a f a i r l y a f f l u e n t , s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and c o s m o p o l i t a n market. Taken t o g e t h e r , these f a c t o r s l e d t o the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a p o t e n t i a l l y d e s i r a b l e i n v e s t m e n t environment: With a C i t y o f Vancouver p r o j e c t underway on the f l a t l a n d d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t to the wa t e r ' s edge and due f o r c o m p l e t i o n i n 1976 the p o t e n t i a l o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a h i g h amenity a r e a w i t h s p e c t a c u l a r v iews w i l l come i n t o i t s own...the C i t y i s now p r e p a r e d to a l l o w a number o f p r o j e c t s on the S l o p e s to p r o c e e d and r e c o g n i z e s the f a c t t h a t t h i s a r e a has an u n u s u a l p o t e n t i a l f o r development i n t o a f a s c i n a t i n g mixed-use type o f a r e a . . . I n o t h e r words, the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s have the p o t e n t i a l o f becoming one o f the unique and i n n o v a t i v e h o u s i n g a r e a s i n N o r t h 11 A m e r i c a . A l t h o u g h a l l the re s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t a market demand f o r i n - c i t y townhouse accomodation on the ...107 F a i r v i e w S l o p e s e x i s t e d , they were not i n agreement as t o the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s market. I n i t i a l market a n a l y s i s on the p a r t o f the development i n d u s t r y showed the e x i s -t ence o f t h r e e p o t e n t i a l m a rkets. These i n c l u d e d young s i n g l e s , young p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u p l e s w i t h one o r two c h i l d r e n , and o l d e r c o u p l e s . The a c t u a l market i s c o m p r ised o f two d i f f e r e n t groups. The f i r s t group i s composed o f young, c h i l d l e s s , p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u p l e s . W i t h the p r i c e o f a t y p i c a l townhouse u n i t i n the $150,000 range as o f S p r i n g 1980, h o u s e h o l d s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two wage e a r n e r s are not uncommon i n t h i s group. Terms such as " a c t i v e " and " p i o n e e r i n g " a r e used by r e a l t o r s i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s group. One a r c h i t e c t d e s c r i b e d t h i s group as " s i x months i n M a z a t l a n crowd". F a i r l y a f f l u e n t , o l d e r c o u p l e s whose c h i l d r e n have l e f t home comprise the o t h e r major market. T h i s group, however, i s not as l a r g e as the young p r o f e s -s i o n a l one. I t i s o n l y v / i t h i n the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s t h a t the market f o r S l o p e s townhouses has become w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . A l t h o u g h o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o be s t r a t a t i t l e , many o f the u n i t s b u i l t between 1976 and 1978 went r e n t a l due t o a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t market. A d e p r e s s e d h o u s i n g market i n g e n e r a l , the n o n - c o m m i t t a l p o s i t i o n o f the C i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o such t h i n g s as s t r e e t improvements and p a r k space and the s p o r a d i c n a t u r e o f development on the S l o p e s are c i t e d by r e a l t o r s as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . To g a i n more i n s i g h t i n t o the a c t u a l development ...108 d e c i s i o n , the a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r s were asked t o note the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o d e s i g n and b u i l d a p r o j e c t on.the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . The p r o x i m i t y o f the s t u d y a r e a t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the s p e c t a c u l a r v iew o f the downtown and N o r t h Shore mountains are men-t i o n e d by a m a j o r i t y o f the r e s p o n d e n t s as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d on the S l o p e s . The e s t a b l i s h -ment o f the FM-1 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e i n 1976 i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . Mentioned by two o f the f o u r r e s p o n d e n t s , the FM-1 s c h e d u l e has p r o v i d e d a w e l l - d e f i n e d c o u r s e o f development thus r e d u c i n g much o f the u n c e r t a i n t y c h a r a c t -e r i s t i c o f the p r e v i o u s CRM s c h e d u l e s . Two o t h e r f a c t o r s which have s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d development d e c i s i o n s are the t r e n d o f i n n e r c i t y redevelopment s e t by the West End and K i t s i l a n o , two o t h e r i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods i n Vancouver, and the development o f o t h e r p r o j e c t s i n and around the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s - F a l s e Creek a r e a . Complete w i t h bubble windows, s k y l i g h t s , and r o o f gardens, the townhouse p r o j e c t s on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s r e f l e c t the l a t e s t i n m u l t i - u n i t l i v i n g ( F i g . 4.1). D e s p i t e t h e i r unique d e s i g n and i n n o v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r , the a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s study unanimously agree t h a t townhouses o f t h i s s o r t would o n l y be m a r k e t a b l e i n a r e a s which p o s s e s s a t e r r a i n and o u t l o o k s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f F a i r v i e w . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h a t the v i e w a f f o r d e d by the st e e p n e s s o f the l o c a l topography i s the most m a r k e t a b l e f e a t u r e o f the S l o p e s . .109 F i g . 4.1 U l t r a - m o d e r n townhouses on the S l o p e s I n o r d e r t o maximize t h i s l a n d s c a p e amenity, a l l o f the new developments have been d e s i g n e d so as t o b r i n g , " ...the most d r a m a t i c c i t y s c a p e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i n t o l i v i n g a r e a s " a c i t y s c a p e which b r i n g s "...you f a c e - t o - f a c e w i t h the beauty o f Vancouver, w i t h F a l s e Creek below, the c i t y b e h i n d and the mountains beyond" ( F i g . 4.2). As w e l l as t o p o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , the r e s p o n d e n t s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , unanimously agree t h a t h o u s i n g o f t h i s s o r t would not be m a r k e t a b l e i n suburban l o c a t i o n s . As n oted by one a r c h i t e c t , " S u b u r b i a i s s u b u r b i a ( a n d ) . . . I n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the i n n e r c i t y " . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t when asked t o name suburban a r e a s where h o u s i n g o f the s o r t l o c a t e d on the . . .110 oA distinctive area foralivinginvestment MARIS A PLACE is located in Fairview, an exceptional area, only minutes from downUnvn and with spectacular views of the mountains, city and water. MARINA PLACE has superb, elegant townhouses that incorporate an almost endless list of features. There are cedar ceilings, spacious balconies and roofdecks. kitchens with Italian ceramic tilt floors, fireplaces and double glazed windows throughout. • Each lownhouse has been designed to create a living environment that's vibrant with the interplay of light andspace and unobstructed views. Quulity and excellence are everywhere to complement your exclusive and individual lifestyle. Luxury with a view starts at $96,000. nna Opta DaBy IIjOO * 7:00 %2a^fe:N''SiM t * m A m Office and information Anon* oxMty Mvwoprwi By Canadome F i g . 4.2 The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as S t y l e and Grandeur .... I l l S l o p e s might be m a r k e t a b l e , the one respondent mentioned l o w e r L o n s d a l e i n N o r t h Vancouver and p a r t s o f West Van-couver. These a r e a s t e n d t o be more "urban" than "subur-ban" w i t h r e s p e c t t o h o u s i n g forms ( i . e . apartments and townhouses) and l i f e s t y l e ( s i n g l e s and c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s ) . Over the l a s t few y e a r s c e r t a i n d e v e l o p e r s and a r c h i t e c t s have made the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s t h e i r a r e a o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . A f t e r d o i n g a few p r o j e c t s they have become more aware o f the type o f d e s i g n s t h a t the C i t y i s l i k e l y t o approve o r d i s a p p r o v e . When asked i f the C i t y i s more s t r i c t i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p o l i c y p l a n s and urban d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s today as compared t o t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s ago, the m a j o r i t y o f the responde n t s ( t h r e e out of f o u r ) r e p l i e d no. I n f a c t , two o f the a r c h i t e c t -d e v e l o p e r s f e l t t h a t the C i t y had become l e s s s t r i c t o v e r the l a s t few y e a r s . I n summary, the development i n d u s t r y has p l a y e d a key r o l e i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . I n a s s e s s i n g the a r e a f o r i t s h i g h e s t and b e s t use, dev-e l o p e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t a market demand e x i s t e d f o r i n n o v a t -i v e l y d e s i g n e d townhouses. A l t h o u g h i t may have been a l i t t l e premature i n i t s i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r has been b a s i c a l l y c o r r e c t i n i t s assessment o f the market. As o f S p r i n g , 1980, the demand f o r i n - c i t y townhouse accommodation on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s exceeded s u p p l y . J u d g i n g by the number o f new developments c u r r e n t l y b e i n g b u i l t h e r e , the market i s s t i l l v e r y s o l i d . Indeed, the l i t t e r and d e b r i s , muddy s i d e w a l k s , and o t h e r annoy-ances r e l a t e d t o the pace and volume o f c o n s t r u c t i o n has prompted one w r i t e r t o r e f e r t o the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a "war zone" ( F o r d , 1980). R e i n f o r c i n g market demands have been the f a v o u r a b l e p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the FM-1 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d the development i n d u s t r y ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the S l o p e s . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o surmise t h a t development would not have o c c u r r e d as r a p i d l y as i t has had i t not been f o r t h i s change i n z o n i n g . The b e h a v i o u r o f those d e v e l o p e r s i n v o l v e d i n the " t o w n h o u s i f i c a t i o n " o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s r a i s e s some s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s as t o the s u p p l y s i d e argument o f h o u s i n g posed i n p o l i t i c a l economic approaches t o the l a n d and h o u s i n g m arkets. There i s no doubt t h a t the a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s o f p r o p e r t y d e v e l o p e r s a f f e c t the shape o f the urban s t r u c t u r e . T h e i r a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s , however, are i n f l u e n c e d by consumer p r e f e r e n c e s and the p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government. The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s case s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t d e v e l o p e r s do not shape the demands o f the m a r k e t p l a c e . R a t h e r , they respond to them. 4.7 Market P l a c e Demands and the Redevelopment o f F a i r v i e w A g r e a t d e a l o f development a c t i v i t y has t a k e n p l a c e on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s s i n c e the a d o p t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s P o l i c y P l a n and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the ...113 FM-1 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e . A l a n d use s u r v e y u n d e r t a k e n i n 1975 i n d i c a t e d . t h a t the S l o p e s c o n t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 350 d w e l l i n g u n i t s o f 75 s i n g l e f a m i l y .and 2 7 5 . m u l t i p l e c o n v e r s i o n u n i t s r e n t e d t o low and modest income f a m i l i e s -(Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., 1978, 2 2 ) . S i n c e 1975 t h e r e has been a 30 p e r c e n t d e crease i n the number o f these u n i t s accompanied by a 300 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n the number o f l a r g e s c a l e townhouse and apartment developments. As o f June, 1978, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 270 new townhouse and apartment u n i t s had been c o n s t r u c t e d on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . These changes i n l a n d use are shown i n Table 4.2. I n t e r s p e r s e d among the new townhouse developments are a number o f i m m a c u l a t e l y r e s t o r e d homes ( F i g . 4.3), s e v e r a l commercial and l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t i e s , the r e m a i n i n g frame houses o f a n o t ^ t o o d i s t a n t p a s t i n F a i r -v i e w ( F i g . 4.4), and the c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s o f soon to be completed tov/nhouses and o f f i c e developments. The d e m o l i t i o n o f some o f the more d i l a p i d a t e d h o u s i n g and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f many e x c e l l e n t p r o j e c t s has improved the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . Market f o r c e s and the c o n v e n t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , however, have u s u r p e d some o f the a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l g o a l s o u t l i n e d f o r the a r e a i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s P o l i c y P l a n . Many o f the o l d houses which might have been saved, f o r example, have f a l l e n v i c t i m t o the d e v e l o p e r ' s axe. The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f r e n o v a t i o n i n 13 c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code , i n e f f i c i e n t .114 Table 4.2 Land Use Changes on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , 1974-1978 December 1974 SINGLE FAMILY &.CONVERSIONS 29% TOWNHOUSES & APARTMENTS 9% OFFICES & COMMERCIAL 5% INDUSTRIAL 36% PARKING 3% VACANT 18% COMMUNITY 100% The p r e c e d i n g l a n d use p e r c e n t a g e s are based on the approx-imate square f o o t a g e s f o r each use. Assumptions: S i n g l e - F a m i l y - 1200 square f e e t . C o n v e r s i o n s - 3000 square f e e t . F i g u r e s f o r 1978 - I n d u s t r i a l and O f f i c e / C o m m e r c i a l uses were t a k e n from an o f f i c i a l s u r v e y . F i g u r e s f o r 1974, 1975, and 1976 I n d u s t r i a l and O f f i c e / Commercial uses a re based on i n c r e a s e s o r dec r e a s e s o f the 1978 square f o o t a g e s as a f u n c t i o n o f the number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . Source: Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Study o f the R e t e n t i o n o f Houses i n F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , D r a f t , O c t o b e r , 1978. December December June 1975 1976 1978 27% 23% 19% 12% /o 12 /o 27% 5% 33% 3% 20% 100% 5% 24% 12% 24% 100% 6% 27% 18% 2% 1% 100% 14 u t i l i z a t i o n o f space , and l a c k o f economic v i a b i l i t y have d i s c o u r a g e d the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f o l d houses. W i t h r e n o -v a t i o n c o s t s o f up t o $50 p e r square f o o t and l a n d c o s t s in. e xcess o f $55 p e r square f o o t , t h e r e i s not much i n c e n -t i v e f o r homeowners not to s e l l t o d e v e l o p e r s . E c o n o m i c a l l y i t i s much more e x p e n s i v e t o r e n o v a t e than t o d e m o l i s h an e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e and put up a new m u l t i - r e s i d e n t i a l development. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case when a s i x u n i t townhouse can be b u i l t on a f i f t y f o o t f r o n t a g e l o t f o r -m e r ly o c c u p i e d by one s i n g l e f a m i l y house. I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e homeowners w i t h more i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e , the p l a n n i n g department i s c u r r e n t l y a s s e s s i n g the m e r i t s o f a l l o w i n g 100 p e r c e n t commercial c o n v e r s i o n o f houses r a t h e r than the p r e s e n t maximum o f 50 p e r c e n t . D e v e l o p e r s , i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o maximize the development p o t e n t i a l o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , have c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n d e t r i m e n t a l t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f v i e w s . The d e n s i t y o f development i s f o r m i n g a " w a l l - l i k e " appearance on the s t r e e t s c a p e thus l e a d i n g t o a l o s s o f view c o r r i d o r s on some e n t i r e b l o c k s . As w e l l as i t s v a l u e as an amenity, v i e w c o r r i d o r s c r e a t e a sense o f openness and r e l i e f i n an a r e a t h a t l a c k s open space. The redevelopment o f the S l o p e s has a l s o r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s o f many low c o s t h o u s i n g u n i t s . High l a n d and b u i l d i n g c o s t s have not made i t e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e f o r the C i t y t o u t i l i z e i t s l a n d on the S l o p e s f o r non-market ...117 h o u s i n g as proposed i n the 1976 P o l i c y P l a n . Only one s o c i a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t c o n s i s t i n g o f 45 u n i t s ( l o c a t e d a t 7t h and L a u r e l ) has been b u i l t . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one p a r c e l , the r e m a i n i n g l o t s owned by the C i t y i n 1976 have been e i t h e r s o l d , l e a s e d , o r t r a d e d f o r p r o p e r t y l o c a t e d 15 elsewhere i n Vancouver. A l t h o u g h u n i n t e n d e d , the demands o f the market p l a c e have l e d t o the emergence o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as an e x c l u s i v e i n n e r c i t y e n c l a v e o f h i g h - c o s t , u l t r a - m o d e r n townhouse and apartment developments. 4.8 Summary A complex i n t e r a c t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l f a c t o r s have l e d t o the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . E s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the t r a n s f o r -mation o f t h i s i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood has been the p o l i t i c s o f p l a n n i n g and the c r e a t i o n o f i n v e s t m e n t environments. Due t o the u n c e r t a i n n a t u r e o f the CRM-2 and CRM-3 s c h e d u l e s , l i t t l e o r no renewal a c t i v i t y took p l a c e on the S l o p e s d u r i n g the e a r l y 1970*s. I n c o n t r a s t , the a d o p t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s P o l i c y P l a n and the i n s t a t e m e n t o f the FM-1 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e i n 1976 s p a r k e d a g r e a t d e a l o f in v e s t m e n t a c t i v i t y on the p a r t o f the development i n d u s t r y . The emergence o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a f a s h i o n a b l e i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhood o f u l t r a - m o d e r n townhouse p r o j e c t s i s now f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d . These developments have g r e a t l y improved the o v e r a l l p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y o f the S l o p e s . Economics and the demands o f the m a r k e t p l a c e , however, have usurped some o f the a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s o r i g i n a l l y adopted f o r F a i r v i e w . .119 F o o t n o t e s An i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n on p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s and p o l -i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y i s found i n D a v i d Ley and John Me r c e r , " L o c a t i o n a l C o n f l i c t and the P o l i t i c s o f Consumption", Economic Geography, 56.2 ( A p r i l , 1980), pp. 89-109. o For a comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n on the Chinatown Freeway c o n t r o v e r s y see V.S. Pendakeer, C i t i e s , C i t i z e n s and  Freeways, Vancouver: V.S. Pendakeer, 1972. Esp. Chap. 5. A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y conducted i n 1969, n e a r l y s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f T.E.A.M.*s l e a d e r s were p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h i l e a l i t t l e o v e r twenty p e r c e n t were businessmen. I n c o n t r a s t , a lmost t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the l e a d e r s o f the N.P.A. were businessmen. The t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and upper l e v e l w h i t e c o l l a r workers as t a s t e - m a k e r s and o p i n i o n l e a d e r s i s i m p l i c i t i n these f i g u r e s . See Robert E a s t o n and P a u l Tennant, "Vancouver C i v i c P a r t y L e a d e r s h i p : Background, A t t i t u d e s , and N o n - c i v i c P a r t y A f f i l i a t i o n s " , B.C. S t u d i e s , 2 (Summer, 1969), p.p. 19-29. ^ L e t t e r from Thompson, Be r w i c k and P r a t t , F a l s e Creek C o n s u l t a n t s t o W. Graham, D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , June 16, 1974. 5 As o u t l i n e d i n the CRM-3 s c h e d u l e i n Vancouver's Zoning and Development Bylaw, the maximum f . s . r . o f 0.75 may be i n c r e a s e d : 1. Where the s i t e c o v erage i s reduced below 25 p e r c e n t an amount e q u a l t o 0.35 may be added f o r each one p e r c e n t o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f by wh i c h such coverage i s reduced, but i n no case s h a l l t h i s amount exceed 0.35. 2. Where the a r e a o f a s i t e exceeds 20,000 square f e e t an amount may be added e q u a l to 0.02 m u l t i p l i e d by each 1,000 square f e e t o f s i t e i n e x c e s s o f 20,000 square f e e t , but i n no case s h a l l the amount exceed 0.60. 6 Much o f the l i t e r a t u r e on the urban l a n d market and the development i n d u s t r y s u g g e s t s t h a t d e v e l o p e r s are v e r y c a u t i o u s i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s , c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s i n g market demands b e f o r e v e n t u r i n g i n t o any forms o f development, e s p e c i a l l y i n n o v a t i v e development o f the s o r t e n v i s i o n e d f o r the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . On t h i s g e n e r a l theme see L a r r y S. Bourne, "Urban S t r u c t u r e and Land Use Decisions';', A n n a l s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, 66, 4 (1976), pp. 531-547; M i c h a e l A. G o l d b e r g and D a n i e l D. U l l i n d e r , " R e s i d e n t a l D e v e l o p e r B e h a v i o u r : 1975", i n Housing: I t ' s Your Move, V o l . 11, T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t s , A . . . 120 Report P u b l i s h e d by a Study Team i n the Urban Land Economics D i v i s i o n , F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U.B.C., August, 1976; Edward J . K a i s e r and S h i r l e y F. Weiss, " P u b l i c P o l i c y and the R e s i d e n t i a l Development P r o c e s s " , J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e  o f P l a n n e r s , 36, 1 (1970), pp. 30-37.. A c c o r d i n g t o a su r v e y u n d e r t a k e n by the F a i r v i e w R e s i d e n t ' s A s s o c i a t i o n and Community A c t i o n S o c i e t y (F.R.A.C.A.S.) d u r i n g the Summer o f 1973, the most l i k e d q u a l i t y o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s was the n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s o f the a r e a . See F.R.A.C.A.S. B r i e f from L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g Committee, J a n u a r y , 0L974. C o u n c i l d i d not endorse the recommendations o f the Sussex Group f o r a number o f r e a s o n s : 1. The Sussex Group Study p o i n t e d out t h a t the prime p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r neighbourhood r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f owners must have a s t r o n g d e s i r e and commitment to p r e s e r v e the e x i s t i n g neighbourhood. The s t u d y goes on t o note t h a t such a d e s i r e o r commitment i s not e v i d e n t i n the a r e a . 2. R e l a t e d t o 1, the Sussex Group s t a t e d t h a t i t i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e r e be a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f o w n e r - o c c u p i e r s i n the proposed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a . However, i t goes on to say t h a t o n l y 36 p e r c e n t o f the owners i n F a i r v i e w a re r e s i d e n t s . 3. A n o t h e r p r e r e q u i s i t e i s t h a t l a n d and h o u s i n g must be a v a i l a b l e a t r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t s . Such was not the case i n F a i r v i e w - l a n d c o s t s ranged between $15 -$17 p e r square f o o t i n 1974. 4. A b r i e f p r e s e n t e d by the F a i r v i e w R e s i d e n t Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t "the c h i e f argument f o r p r e s e r v i n g many o f the o l d e r houses i s not t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l beauty o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , but t h a t they add v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y . " ''This statement i s f o l l o w e d up by a c a u t i o n t h a t the u l t i m a t e r i g h t t o r e n o v a t e , r e c o n s t r u c t i n p a r t , o r t o t a l l y d e m o l i s h and r e b u i l d s h o u l d r e s t w i t h the r e s i d e n t owner s i n c e d i v e r s i t y can a l s o , be a c h i e v e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s m a l l s c a l e new c o n s t r u c t i o n . The C i t y owned a number o f l o t s on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . These i n c l u d e d L o t s 7-14 i n c l u s i v e o f B l o c k 296 and L o t 13 o f B l o c k 298 { L o t 7, B l o c k 292j L o t 3, B l o c k 294j and Lo t 1, B l o c k 320. 1 0 Among the a r c h i t e c t - d e v e l o p e r s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s study were Henry Hawthorne, Roger Hughes, B i l l Rhone, and Mr. Ramses o f Ramses, Kwan and A s s o c i a t e s . Among the r e a l t o r s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y were M a r i l y n C u r r i e o f Hersog R e a l t y , and J u l i e G i l a n d e r o f F u l l e r E l l i s R e a l t y . 9 . 121 Noted i n a p r o p o s a l by J.G. M o r r i s R e a l t y L t d . f o r a s t r a t a t i t l e townhouse on the n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f 7 t h Avenue and Oak S t r e e t , June, 1975. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h r e e o f the f o u r a r c h i t e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d have t h e i r o f f i c e s l o c a t e d on o r near the S l o p e s . The o f f i c e s o f Rhone and I r e d a l e and Ramses, Kwan and A s s o c i a t e s are l o c a t e d i n h e r i t a g e d e s i g n a t e d houses on the S l o p e s . Roger Hughes' o f f i c e i s on G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d . A l t h o u g h h i s o f f i c e i s not l o c a t e d on the S l o p e s , Henry Hawthorne l i v e s h e r e . A c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s d e v e l o p e r s and a r c h i t e c t s , the age o f the houses on the S l o p e s makes r e n o v a t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t . The maximum f l o o r space r a t i o o f 1.5 cannot be u t i l i z e d t hrough r e n o v a t i o n . C u r r e n t l y , a new l e a s e i s b e i n g developed f o r a " h a n d i -capped" p r o j e c t on 745 W. 7 t h Avenue. . 122 Cha p t e r 5 THE FAIRVIEW SLOPES RESIDENT  SURVEY 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i n t o an i n t e n s e l y urban, .inner c i t y neighbourhood o f modern townhouse and apartment developments i s now f i r m l y e n t r e n -ched. Over a p e r i o d o f o n l y f i v e y e a r s the S l o p e s have gone from an a r e a o f medium d e n s i t y , low l a n d v a l u e s , and low c o s t accommodation into*,one o f h i g h d e n s i t y , h i g h l a n d v a l u e s , and e x p e n s i v e accommodation. The h i g h c o s t o f accommodation i n F a i r v i e w , however, has not d e t r a c t e d from i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as a r e s i d e n t i a l environment. Over the l a s t two y e a r s the demand f o r accommodation on the Slopes, has been growing s t e a d i l y . Indeed, d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s r e a l e s t a t e agents i n d i c a t e t h a t the demand f o r f a s h i o n a b l e , i n - c i t y townhouse l i v i n g i n amenity l o c a t i o n s i s g r e a t e r than the c u r r e n t s u p p l y . I n o r d e r t o g e t more i n s i g h t i n t o the emergence o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood, a r e s i d e n t s u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g A p r i l - M a y , 1980. The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i v e r e v i e w o f the survey r e s u l t s . I n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , some o f the more t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these r e s u l t s w i l l , be c o n s i d e r e d through an assessment o f the. i d e o l o g y o f l i v a b i l i t y developed. 123 i n C h a p t e r s 2- and 3 and the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y i n g e n e r a l . 5.2 Methods and Data I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a sample s i z e o f r o u g h l y s i x t y - f i v e , a random sample o f some n i n e t y F a i r v i e w S l o p e s r e s i d e n t s was drawn from the 1979 f e d e r a l v o t e r ' s l i s t f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e p o l l i n g d i s t r i c t s . I n i t i a l l y , a l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n a s k i n g f o r r e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s e a r c h s t u d y on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s was sent t o each o f the sam-p l e d r e s i d e n t s (Appendix 1 ) . T h i s was f o l l o w e d up by a p e r s o n a l v i s i t i n which those r e s i d e n t s a g r e e i n g t o take p a r t i n the stu d y were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix 2 ) . I n the i n t e r e s t o f t i m e , the r e s p o n d e n t s were g i v e n the o p t i o n o f d o i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t the time o f the i n i t i a l v i s i t o r t a k i n g a few days a f t e r which I would r e t u r n t o p i c k up the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e . For the most p a r t , t h e r e were no d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h i s method g i v e n the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n a t u r e o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n o n l y .a few i n s t a n c e s was i t n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o c l a r i f y a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n . O v e r a l l , I was p l e a s a n t l y s u r p r i s e d by the r e c e p t i v e n e s s o f the r e s i d e n t s t o the s u r v e y . O c c a s s i o n a l l y , I had the p l e a s u r e o f s h a r i n g an impromptu d i s c u s s i o n w i t h an i n t e r e s t e d r e s i d e n t on the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the S l o p e s and my reasons f o r s t u d y i n g the a r e a . A f t e r s e v e r a l days o f f i e l d work I r e a l i z e d t h a t I had not drawn enough names to a c h i e v e my d e s i r e d sample s i z e o f s i x t y - f i v e . I n many i n s t a n c e s , i n i t i a l ...124 c o n t a c t was not made due t o the absence o f the homeowner o r t e n a n t . I f a f t e r two subsequent v i s i t s c o n t a c t was s t i l l not made, the r e s i d e n t i n q u e s t i o n was dropped from the sample. I n o t h e r c a s e s , the homes o f those I had chosen t o sample had been e i t h e r d e m o l i s h e d , v a c a t e d , o r c o n v e r t e d t o commercial use. Roughly twenty o f the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t l e t t e r s I had s e n t were r e t u r n e d t o me because the addressee had moved out o r the address no l o n g e r e x i s t e d . Due t o these u n f o r s e e n problems, an a d d i t i o n a l f o r t y - f i v e names were.drawn from the v o t e r ' s l i s t . I n c o n t r a s t t o the f i r s t round, the sample was drawn on a s t r a t i f i e d random b a s i s . To a v o i d drawing n o n - e x i s t e n t a d d r e s s e s , the s a m p l i n g u n i v e r s e was l i m i t e d t o those r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g i n the r e s i d e n t i a l c o r e o f the S l o p e s ( F i g . 5.1). D e s p i t e t h i s p r o c e d u r e , t h e r e were q u i t e a few i n s t a n c e s o f n o n - c o n t a c t . A t h i r d and f i n a l round o f s t r a t i f i e d random s a m p l i n g added an a d d i t i o n a l e l e v e n s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . A f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y tv/o months o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , I had a t o t a l o f seventy-one completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Of t h e s e , s e v e n t y - •-one r e t u r n s , t e n were d i s c a r d e d f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s l e a v i n g a f i n a l sample s i z e o f s i x t y - o n e r e s p o n d e n t s . Four g e n e r a l a r e a s were e x p l o r e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e : (1) h o u s i n g and neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s (2) the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f Vancouver as a p l a c e to l i v e (3) urban l a n d use and development p r i o r -i t i e s and (4) the s o c i a l and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 125 «D K CO —I I I I I L 0 7 Ash Heather Willow Laurel Oak Spruce Alder Birch i n n i—i r Hemlock F i g . 5.1 The R e s i d e n t i a l Core o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s o f the s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . P a r t s 1 and 4 are the f o c u s o f t h i s c h a p t e r . The r e s u l t s o f p a r t s 2 and 3 are d i s -c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 6. 5.3 S o c i a l and Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2, the term "young p r o f e s s i o n a l " i s o f t e n used t o d e s c r i b e the r e s i d e n t s o f r e v i t a l i z e d i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods. An a n a l y s i s o f the s o c i a l and demographic background o f the s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s r e v e a l s the a p t n e s s o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , 64 p e r c e n t o f the sample are u n i v e r s i t y - e d u c a t e d ; 52 p e r c e n t a r e employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and/or m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s ; and 51 p e r c e n t e a r n t o t a l h o u s e h o l d incomes i n e x c e s s o f $32,000 p e r y e a r ( T a b l e 5.1). G i v e n t h i s h i g h income l e v e l , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t two-income h o u s e h o l d s comprise 40 p e r c e n t o f the s u r v e y sample. As these f i g u r e s would suggest, the r e s i -d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i s q u i t e an unique one. Indeed, i n 1976 o n l y 14 p e r c e n t o f V a n c o u v e r i t e s 2 as a whole had t h r e e o r more y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y and o n l y t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t were employed i n m a n a g e r i a l and p r o -3 f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o age, the 25-34 c a t e g o r y i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d - 42 p e r c e n t o f the sample households f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y (as compared t o 17 p e r c e n t f o r Vancouver as a whole) ( T a b l e 5.1). Only 2 Table 5.1 S o c i a l and Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Survey Respondents % Survey Respondents E d u c a t i o n Some H i g h S c h o o l 4.9 High S c h o o l Graduate 6.6 V o c a t i o n a l / T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l 6.6 Community C o l l e g e 4.9 Some U n i v e r s i t y 11.5 U n i v e r s i t y Degree 63.9 O c c u p a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l 44.3 M a n a g e r i a l 8.2 T e c h n i c a l 4.9 C l e r i c a l 11.5 S a l e s 4.9 S e r v i c e 6.6 P r o c e s s and m a n u f a c t u r i n g 1.6 Other* 13.1 Annual Household Income Under $8,000 9.8 $8,000-$16,000 8.2 $16,000-$24.000 8.2 $24,000-$32,000 11.5 Over $32,000 50.8 ** Age 0-14 11.8 15-19 2.2 20-24 14.7 25-34 41.9 35-44 19.1 45-54 6.6 55-64 2.2 Over 65 0 * I n c l u d e s . h o u s e w i v e s , r e t i r e e s , and s t u d e n t s **% h o u s e h o l d members ...128 p e r c e n t o f the h o u s e h o l d members, however, are over f i f t y -f i v e y e a r s o f age. S i m i l a r l y , c h i l d r e n under f o u r t e e n comprise o n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be note d , however, t h a t the number o f c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver as a whole has been d e c l i n i n g o v e r the l a s t few y e a r s . A c c o r d i n g t o the 1976 Census, c h i l d r e n under f o u r t e e n accounted f o r o n l y 16 p e r c e n t o f the c i t y ' s t o t a l popu-l a t i o n as compared to 21 p e r c e n t i n 1971. L i v i n g i n an i n t e n s e , h i g h l y urban environment i s not a new e x p e r i e n c e t o many o f the s u r v e y respondents. P r i o r t o moving t o the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , 33 p e r c e n t o f the sample had l i v e d i n e i t h e r K i t s i l a n o (18 p e r c e n t ) o r the West End (15 p e r c e n t ) , two i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods i n Vancouver which have undergone a g r e a t d e a l o f redevelopj-ment and r e n e w a l . As w e l l as K i t s i l a n o and the West End, an a d d i t i o n a l 5 p e r c e n t had p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d i n the i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods o f Grandview-Woodlands and Mount P l e a s a n t ( T a b l e 5.2). I n sharp c o n t r a s t , o n l y 13 p e r c e n t of the sample had l i v e d i n a suburban l o c a t i o n p r i o r t o moving t o the S l o p e s . T h i s d a t a adds f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t o the m i s l e a d i n g use o f the phrase " b a c k - t o - t h e - c i t y " t o d e s c r i b e the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n phenomenon. Table 5.2 R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n o f Respondents P r i o r  t o Moving t o the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s % Respondents I n n e r C i t y Vancouver 37.7 Other Vancouver 19.7 Vancouver U n s p e c i f i e d 9.8 Suburban Vancouver 13.1 O u t s i d e P r o v i n c e 19.7 ^ I n c l u d e s the neighbourhoods o f Grandview Woodlands, K i t s i l a n o , Mount P l e a s a n t and the West End As d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s from an unkempt neighbourhood- o f o l d houses t o t h a t o f contemporary townhouses and r e n o v a t i o n s has o n l y o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the l a s t few y e a r s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l e n g t h o f time the s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s have l i v e d on the S l o p e s . The m a j o r i t y (56 p e r c e n t ) have l i v e d here f o r l e s s than two y e a r s ( T a b l e 5.2). Only 5 p e r c e n t o f the sample have l i v e d i n the s t u d y a r e a f o r o v e r t e n y e a r s . Due p r i m a r i l y to the d e m o l i t i o n o f the o l d houses and the h i g h c o s t o f contemporary townhouse l i v i n g , s o c i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t has accompanied the p h y s i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . Table 5.3 Length o f Residence on the S l o p e s % Respondents L e s s t h a n 1 y e a r 23.0 1 to 2 y e a r s 42.6 3 t o 5 y e a r s 21.3 6 to 10 y e a r s 8.2 Over 10 y e a r s 4.9 . 130 5.4 The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a P l a c e t o L i v e I n o r d e r t o probe deeper i n t o the r e s i d e n t i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , the su r v e y r e s p o n -dents were q u e s t i o n e d as t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n the stud y a r e a . The most o f t e n mentioned r e a s o n f o r l i v i n g here i s the s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w o f the downtown and N o r t h Shore mountains a f f o r d e d by the s t e e p n e s s o f the l o c a l topography ( F i g . 5.2) 71 p e r c e n t o f the sample c i t e d t h i s f e a t u r e as s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s -i o n t o l i v e on the S l o p e s . Only 57 p e r c e n t o f re s p o n d e n t s w i t h o u t a u n i v e r s i t y degree mentioned-the v i e w as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t . I n c o n t r a s t , 77 p e r c e n t o f those w i t h an u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and e a r n i n g i n exce s s o f $32,000 p e r y e a r mentioned t h i s f a c t o r . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the o r i g i n o f the name F a i r v i e w stems from the vi e w i t s e l f . As h i s t o r y has i t , L.A. H a m i l t o n , a C.P.R. l a n d commissioner, named F a i r v i e w as such because he was so ta k e n by the v i e w . The most sought a f t e r u n i t s on the S l o p e s a re s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d so as t o maximize the view p o t e n t i a l . Such u n i t s demand e x t r e m e l y h i g h premiums. Indeed, r e a l -t o r s e s t i m a t e the vi e w a l o n e t o be worth up t o twenty-f i v e p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l c o s t o f some u n i t s . The c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i s an o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t s d e s i r a b i l i t y as a r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood. 61 p e r c e n t and 43 p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y mentioned p r o x i m i t y t o . . .131 . . .132 p l a c e o f work and p r o x i m i t y t o c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e on the S l o p e s . E s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s the p r o x i m i t y o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s t o the downtown c o r e . As one o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s o f Western Canada, a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w h i t e c o l l a r employment i s found i n the h e a r t o f Vancouver's c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . The importance o f such a c t i v i t i e s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the growth o f downtown o f f i c e space over the l a s t decade. Between 1971 and 1980, the amount o f o f f i c e space l o c a t e d i n the downtown p e n i n s u l a i n c r e a s e d some e i g h t - e i g h t p e r c e n t from 7,935,000 square fe e t , t o 4 r o u g h l y 15,000,000 square f e e t . Moreover, t h i s expan-s i o n i n o f f i c e space has brought w i t h i t an e x p a n s i o n o f s e r v i c e and r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s l e a d i n g t o the c r e a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o the downtown p e n i n s u l a , the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s neighbourhood i s l o c a t e d a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from the Broadway commercial c o r e . Next t o the downtown c o r e , Broadway has the h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w h i t e 5 c o l l a r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the c i t y . The r e -l a t i o n s h i p between o f f i c e space and w h i t e c o l l a r employ-ment i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n F a i r v i e w because o f i t s h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and m a n a g e r i a l w o r k e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the many t h e a t r e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , and n i g h t s p o t s make the downtown c o r e the r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l h e a r t o f the . . . 133 c i t y . The p r o x i m i t y o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s t o such a c t i v i t i e s adds t o i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as a r e s i d e n t i a l n eighbourhood. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r those who are employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s (53 p e r c e n t ) . I n . c o n t r a s t , r e s p o n d e n t s l a c k i n g a u n i v e r -s i t y e d u c a t i o n seem t o take l e s s i n t e r e s t i n t h i s q u a l i t y o f the S l o p e s than the sample as a whole. Only 29 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s mentioned p r o x i m i t y to c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . S i m i l a r l y , whereas 65 p e r c e n t o f those owning t h e i r p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e c i t e d t h i s f a c t o r , o n l y 30 p e r c e n t o f those l i v i n g i n r e n t a l accommodation mentioned p r o x i m i t y to c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o such c o n c r e t e f e a t u r e s as the v i e w o r the c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , the f o u r t h r e a s o n c i t e d by the s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s as c o n t r i -b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e on the S l o p e s i s one o f an amorphous n a t u r e . Mentioned by 34 p e r c e n t o f the sample, t h i s i s the " s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r " o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . When asked t o e l a b o r a t e on what they meant by " s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r " , the r e s p o n d e n t s r e f e r r e d t o such t h i n g s as the c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f the neighbourhood -"A d e v e l o p i n g neighbourhood where improvements c h a r a c t e r -i z e the b u i l d i n g s r a t h e r than d e p r e c i a t i o n " ; the l i f e -s t y l e a f f o r d e d by i n - c i t y townhouse l i v i n g - "The l i f e -s t y l e l e n d s i t s e l f more t o p r o f e s s i o n a l r a t h e r than ... 134 f a m i l y l i f e " ; and the emerging " s n o b - a p p e a l " o f the S l o p e s - "The s o r t o f upv/ard m o b i l i t y q u a l i t y o f the p l a c e , between m i d d l e - and u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s " . As w e l l , r e f e r e n c e s are made to the s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w s and the p r o x i m i t y o f the S l o p e s t o such p l a c e s as the downtown, F a l s e Creek, and G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d . The f i n a l r e a s o n , c i t e d by 31 p e r c e n t o f the sample as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a p l a c e t o l i v e , i s the i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f the neighbourhood. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r those owning t h e i r own accommodation (61 p e r c e n t ) , t h o s e e a r n i n g more th a n $32,000 p e r y e a r (42 p e r c e n t ) , and those w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y degree (39 p e r c e n t ) . I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y 13 p e r c e n t o f r e n t e r s and 19 p e r c e n t o f those w i t h o u t a u n i v e r s i t y degree mentioned the i n v e s t -ment p o t e n t i a l o f the neighbourhood. As w i t h the Van-couver r e a l e s t a t e market as a whole, the v a l u e o f the u n i t s on the S l o p e s has s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d . T h i s f a c t o r , t o g e t h e r w i t h the e x c e l l e n t r e s a l e p o t e n t i a l o f the u n i t s makes the p u r c h a s e o f a F a i r v i e w S l o p e s townhouse a v e r y a t t r a c t i v e i n v e s t m e n t . A number o f o t h e r r e a s o n s are a l s o c i t e d by the s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . These f a c t o r s are not as i m p o r t a n t as those o u t l i n e d above. There i s , however, one e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s . A l t h o u g h o n l y 23 p e r c e n t o f the sample as a whole mention the c o s t o f h o u s i n g , 44 p e r c e n t o f those .....135 e a r n i n g l e s s than $32,000 p e r y e a r c i t e h o u s i n g c o s t as b e i n g an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . A l t h o u g h e x p e n s i v e townhouses dominate the r e s i d e n t i a l f a b r i c o f the S l o p e s , a number o f r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e r e n t a l u n i t s , b o t h s i n g l e f a m i l y houses and a p a r t m e n t s , s t i l l r emain. Most o f these u n i t s , however, are a w a i t i n g redevelopment as e v i d e n c e d by the presence o f development p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s redevelopment may not cause a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s p l a c e -ment, the f a c t remains t h a t p e o p l e w i l l be f o r c e d out o f t h e i r homes. Tab l e 5.4 p r e s e n t s a summary o f the v a r i o u s reasons c i t e d by the sample as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . On the o t h e r s i d e o f the c o i n , t h e r e are a number o f t h i n g s about the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s which- the s u r v e y sample e x p r e s s l y d i s l i k e . Mentioned by 67 p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s , the unkempt c o n d i t i o n o f the s t r e e t s and s i d e w a l k s and the rundown n a t u r e o f many o f the r e m a i n i n g o l d houses are the most d i s l i k e d f e a t u r e s o f the S l o p e s . P o t - h o l e d roads and muddy, c u r b l e s s s t r e e t s are h i g h l y anomalous i n an a r e a where $200,000 townhouses are commonplace ( F i g . 5.3). T h i s i s due to the t r a n s i t o r y n a t u r e o f the neighbourhood. I t has not been p o s s i b l e f o r the c i t y t o keep up w i t h the change wh i c h has t a k e n p l a c e on the S l o p e s over the l a s t few y e a r s . -These con-d i t i o n s are e s p e c i a l l y troublesome i n t h i s neighbourhood because o f the r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t n a t u r e o f the l o c a l Table 5.4 D e s i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s 10 Respondents View o f the downtown and N o r t h Shore mountains 70.5 P r o x i m i t y t o work 60.7 P r o x i m i t y o f c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s 42.6 S p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the neighbourhood 34.4 Investment p o t e n t i a l o f the n e i g h b o u r -hood 31.1 R e l a t i v e c o s t o f h o u s i n g as compared t o o t h e r a r e a s i n the c i t y 23.0 P r o x i m i t y t o the F a l s e Creek r e d e v e l o p -ment 23.0 W e l l m a i n t a i n e d neighbourhood d w e l l i n g s 18.0 L e v e l o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a 13.1 F i g . 5.3 C o n s t r u c t i o n Annoyances and Poor S t r e e t C o n d i t i o n s F i g . 5.4 O n - s t r e e t P a r k i n g on the S l o p e s " ...138 p o p u l a t i o n and the e x p e c t a t i o n s t h e y have as to the emergence o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as a f a s h i o n a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e . Over the l a s t y e a r o r two, the l o c a l community has been f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n l o b b y i n g the c i t y p l a n n i n g and e n g i n e e r i n g departments to improve the s t r e e t appear-ance. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a Seventh Avenue s t r e e t s c a p e improvement p r o j e c t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o be implemented i n the S p r i n g o f 1981. The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p a r k i n g and through t r a f f i c poses a n o t h e r i s s u e o f c o n c e r n on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s ( F i g . 5.4). 48 p e r c e n t o f the sample c i t e p a r k i n g and t r a f f i c as s e r i o u s problems. Broadway and 6 t h Avenue are b o t h h e a v i l y used e a s t - w e s t t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s . 8 t h Avenue i s used f o r c i r c u l a t i o n by B r o a d w a y - o r i e n t e d t r a f f i c , and much o f t h i s t r a f f i c uses n o r t h - s o u t h s t r e e t s t o r e a c h 6 t h Avenue. N o r t h - s o u t h t r a f f i c i s p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy on Oak S t r e e t . T h i s t r a f f i c problem i s compounded by the f a c t t h a t F a i r v i e w has a l i m i t e d l a n e system and v e r y steep grades.-About 75 p e r c e n t o f the daytime p a r k i n g i n F a i r v i e w i s n o n - r e s i d e n t . T h i s i s due t o the p r o x i m i t y o f the S l o p e s t o the C e n t r a l Broadway commercial c o r e and the Vancouver G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l . Commercial development w i t h i n the S l o p e s i t s e l f a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the l o c a l p a r k i n g problem. I f the p l a n o f a l l o w i n g 100 p e r c e n t commercial c o n v e r s i o n o f e x i s t i n g houses i s implemented, • • • " ••. . .139 p a r k i n g v / i l l become even more o f a problem. Overdevelopment and the mix o f r e s i d e n t i a l -commercial l a n d uses are two o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the F a i r -v i e w S l o p e s which the su r v e y sample f i n d bothersome. 36 p e r c e n t o f the re s p o n d e n t s d i s l i k e the p r o s p e c t o f new c o n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h c o u l d o b s t r u c t the v i e w o f the down-town and N o r t h Shore mountains. A l t h o u g h z o n i n g r e g u — 6 l a t i o n s c a l l f o r a f l o o r space r a t i o ( f . s . r . ) o f 0.6, •the d i s c r e t i o n a r y n a t u r e o f the FM-1 s c h e d u l e a l l o w s a d e v e l o p e r a f . s . r . o f up to 1.5. T h i s means the a r e a o f the b u i l d i n g s may be up t o 1.5 t i m e s the a r e a o f the p r o p e r t y . To e a r n the maximum f . s . r . a d e v e l o p e r must take i n t o account the n a t u r e and s i z e o f the s i t e , the adequacy o f open space, o v e r a l l d e s i g n and the p r o v i s i o n o f a m e n i t i e s which c o u l d r e s u l t i n community b e n e f i t s . J u d g i n g by- the n a t u r e o f r e c e n t development, i t appears as i f the h i g h e r d e n s i t y has become the norm r a t h e r than the e x c e p t i o n . T h i s has l e d t o the c o m p l a i n t t h a t p l a n n e r s have s i m p l y rubber-stamped e v e r y t h i n g w i t h o u t w o r r y i n g about whether a p r o j e c t enhances the neighbourhood o r n o t . Even w i t h c a r e f u l s i t e p l a n n i n g , the o b s t r u c t i o n o f vie w s i s i n e v i t a b l e g i v e n the d e n s i t y o f development. As w i t h overdevelopment and vi e w l o s s , 36 p e r -c e n t o f the sample d i s l i k e the mixed r e s i d e n t i a l - c o m m e r -c i a l l a n d use on the S l o p e s . Many b u i l d i n g s and l a n d uses which v/ere approved under the p r e v i o u s l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . A .,..140 m a n u f a c t u r e r o f ' f a s t - f o o d s ' , an auto body shop, and a g r a p h i c s shop a r e among the most n o t a b l e o f t h e s e l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . I n t e r s p e r s e d among the l u x u r y town-house developments, t h e s e uses are anomalous. The c o n -v e r s i o n o f o l d houses i n t o o f f i c e s , however, i s not p e r c e i v e d t o be t h a t much o f a problem. W i t h t h e s e f o u r e x c e p t i o n s , no o t h e r a s p e c t o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i s d i s l i k e d by more than f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f the sample ( T a b l e 5.5). To g a i n f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the d e s i r a b l e and not so d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , the r e s p o n d e n t s were asked how they would d e s c r i b e t h e i r n eighbourhood t o a f r i e n d . A number o f g e n e r a l themes are i m p l i c i t , i f not e x p l i c i t , i n t h e s e r e s p o n s e s . Many r e f e r e n c e s , b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , are made t o the changing n a t u r e o f the S l o p e s . Some o f the more i n t e r -e s t i n g r e s p o n s e s i n c l u d e , "...under redevelopment w i t h p r o s p e c t o f becoming e x p e n s i v e , e x c l u s i v e , f a s h i o n a b l e and d e s i r a b l e i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l e n c l a v e " ; "A l o o k o f newness i s t a k i n g p l a c e o f the o l d " ; "The degenerate h i p p y - k e p t b u i l d i n g s w i l l be t o r n down and ( I ) hope town houses w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d " . R e f e r e n c e s t o the view p o t e n t i a l o f the S l o p e s and the c e n t r a l i t y o f i t s l o c a t i o n are a l s o v e r y common. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , these q u a l i t i e s o f the S l o p e s are seen as v e r y d e s i r a b l e . Table 5.5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s which Survey Respondents D i s l i k e % Respondents S t r e e t c o n d i t i o n s and run-down b u i l d i n g s 67.2 P a r k i n g and t r a f f i c 47. 5 Overdevelopment and v i e w l o s s 36.1 Mixed l a n d uses 36.1 E x c e s s i v e n o i s e 14.8 Lack o f c o n v e n i e n c e shopping 13.1 Lack o f neighbourhood f e e l i n g 9.8 D e m o l i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s .8.2 Neighbours 4.9 Houses too c l o s e t o g e t h e r 3.3 .... 142 Responses r e l a t e d t o the atmosphere and s t y l e o f l i v i n g i n F a i r v i e w l a y the b a s i s f o r a f o u r t h theme. The S l o p e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as " e x c i t i n g " ; " a l i v e " ; " s t y l i s h " ; " l i k e b e i n g i n the c o u n t r y and c i t y a t the same t i m e " ; "a v e r y e x c l u s i v e slum". One r e s p o n d e n t , v e r y c r i t i c a l o f the change w h i c h has t a k e n p l a c e on the S l o p e s , des-c r i b e s the a r e a a s , " R a p i d l y d e g e n e r a t i n g i n t o a r i c h man's p a r a d i s e " . F i n a l l y , a number o f r e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o the c o s t o f h o u s i n g i n F a i r v i e w . Responses range from, "One o f the b e s t d e a l s i n q u a l i t y h o u s i n g i n Vancouver" to " G e t t i n g v e r y e x p e n s i v e " . I n s h o r t , i f one i s f a i r l y a f f l u e n t and w i l l i n g t o b ear the growing p a i n s o f a d e v e l o p i n g a r e a , the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , w i t h i t s s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w s and c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n , can be a v e r y a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e t o l i v e . 5.5 The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s and the F u t u r e o f Development A g r e a t d e a l o f change has t a k e n p l a c e on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s o v e r the l a s t few y e a r s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f modern townhouses and the r e n o v a t i o n o f o l d houses have improved the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the neighbourhood. Over the l a s t number o f y e a r s , l o c a l r e s i d e n t s have come to q u e s t i o n the q u a l i t y o f some o f the more r e c e n t d e v e l o p -ment. As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , they argue t h a t p l a n n e r s s i m p l y r u b b e r stamp e v e r y t h i n g w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o con-s i d e r a t i o n the impact o f new p r o j e c t s on the neighbourhood. • • • 143 Indeed, n e x t t o the c o s t o f h o u s i n g , the p h y s i c a l change t h a t i s t a k i n g p l a c e on the S l o p e s i s the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned a s p e c t o f F a i r v i e w w h i c h c o u l d cause someone t o l e a v e ( T a b l e 5.6). T h i s r a i s e s a number o f q u e s t i o n s as t o the f u t u r e o f development on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . To g a i n f u r t h e r i n s i g h t on t h i s m a t t e r , the r e s p o n d e n t s were su r v e y e d as t o t h e i r o p i n i o n s on the d i r e c t i o n o f change i n F a i r v i e w . A r e s o u n d i n g m a j o r i t y (84 p e r c e n t ) o f the s u r v e y sample f a v o u r more h o u s i n g development on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . The r e n o v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new townhouse p r o j e c t s a r e viewed as p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r a b l e ( T a b l e 5.7). T h i s development, however, must be d e s i g n e d so as not t o o b s t r u c t v i e w s o r hamper the s m a l l s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the n e i g h -bourhood. 95 and 89 p e r c e n t o f the sample r e s p e c t i v e l y f a v o u r c o n t i n u e d v i e w p r e s e r v a t i o n ' and the p r e s e r v a t i o n and s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f the s m a l l s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r as key p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r the S l o p e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o r e n o v a t i o n s and townhouses, the development o f low r i s e apartments and g o v e r n m e n t - a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and l o w e r income f a m i l i e s i s viewed as h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e . Only 39 p e r c e n t o f the sample would l i k e t o see the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l h o u s i n g . H o u s i n g o f t h i s s o r t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s l i k e d by those r e s p o n d e n t s making i n e x c e s s o f $32,000 p e r y e a r . Only 23 p e r c e n t o f t h i s group as compared t o 65 p e r c e n t o f . 144 Table 5.6 A s p e c t s o f F a i r v i e w Which C o u l d Cause R e s i d e n t s to Move % Respondents Cost o f h o u s i n g i s too e x p e n s i v e 29.5 P h y s i c a l change 26.2 Job change 24.6 I n c r e a s i n g s i z e o f f a m i l y 18.0 Don't l i k e the p e o p l e 13.1 Change i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s 13.1 Expect to be e v i c t e d from p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g 13.1 Table 5.7 Types o f Development Favoured f o r the F u t u r e o f the S l o p e s 0/ Respondents R e n o v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s 68.9 Townhouses 67.2 S i n g l e f a m i l y homes and du p l e x e s 49.2 G o v e r n m e n t - a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g 39.3 Low r i s e apartments 34.4 .145 those e a r n i n g l e s s than $32,000 f a v o u r the development o f g o v e r n m e n t - a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g . The ambiguous n a t u r e o f o p i n i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e d by the f a c t t h a t 38 p e r c e n t o f the sample f a v o u r such c o n s t r u c t i o n but 41 p e r c e n t oppose i t . I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , o n l y 30 p e r c e n t o f those s u r v e y e d a r e f a v o u r a b l e t o the development o f lov; r i s e a partments. Not h a v i n g made as c o n s i d e r a b l e an i n v e s t -ment as those v/ho own u n i t s , r e n t e r s are p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g no s i g n i f i c a n t t i e s w i t h the l o c a l neighbourhood. T h i s i n p a r t may e x p l a i n the d i s l i k e o f low r i s e a p a r t -ments . The p r o s p e c t o f development o t h e r than r e s i -d e n t i a l i s viewed v e r y u n f a v o u r a b l y by the su r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . Under the p r e s e n t z o n i n g , " a p p r o p r i a t e 1 1 commercial development i s a l l o w a b l e on the S l o p e s . The m a j o r i t y o f the sample (56 p e r c e n t ) f i n d t h i s a n n o y i n g . Only t w e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t f a v o u r the encouragement o f a mix o f commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use. C e n t r a l t o the c o n t i n u e d development o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i s l o c a l r e s i d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n and i n v o l v e -ment i n the f u t u r e p l a n n i n g development o f the n e i g h b o u r -hood. 85 p e r c e n t o f the sample f e e l t h a t t h i s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o them t h a t p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s not be made u n i l a t e r a l l y by the c i v i c b u r e a c -r a c y . . 146 5.6 Summary Contemporary i n n e r c i t y townhouse l i v i n g i n a c e n t r a l , h i g h amenity l o c a t i o n has a t t r a c t e d a f a i r l y a f f l u e n t , w e l l - e d u c a t e d group o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . The s t i l l t r a n s i t i o n a l n a t u r e o f the neighbourhood, however, g i v e s r i s e t o some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . E s p e c i a l l y d i s l i k e d are the s t r e e t c o n d i t i o n s on the S l o p e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o the f u t u r e , c o n t i n u e d development, as l o n g as i t i s compat-i b l e w i t h the emerging image o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s as an a t t r a c t i v e and even p r e s t i g i o u s p l a c e t o l i v e , i s seen as h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e . F o o t n o t e s The F a i r v i e w S l o p e s i s i n c l u d e d i n p o l l i n g d i s t r i c t s 144, 145 and 146. 2 T h i s f i g u r e v/as adopted from Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver L o c a l A r e a s , A p r i l , 1979. 3 T h i s f i g u r e was adopted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Labour  Forc e I n f o r m a t i o n , C a t . 71-001P, Dec. 9, 1980. 4 These f i g u r e s a r e d e r i v e d from v a r i o u s i s s u e s o f the annual R e a l E s t a t e Board o f G r e a t e r Vancouver p u b l i c a -t i o n , R e a l E s t a t e Trends i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. 5 As o f May, 1980, some 2,864,000 square f e e t o f o f f i c e space had been c o n s t r u c t e d on Broadway. 6 The f l o o r space r a t i o ( f . s . r . ) i s the f i g u r e o b t a i n e d when the a r e a o f the f l o o r s o f b u i l d i n g ( s ) on a s i t e i s d i v i d e d by the a r e a o f the s i t e . 7 The f a c t t h a t the p l a n n i n g department i s c u r r e n t l y r e v i e w i n g the whole s i t u a t i o n on the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s tends to bear out t h i s charge o f overdevelopment. .148 C h a p t e r 6 CONCLUDING REMARKS 6.1 The I n n e r C i t y and Theory Major changes i n the economic and s o c i a l f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r with, .an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the c e n t r a l c i t y as an e x c i t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g p l a c e have l e d t o the m i d d l e c l a s s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y . S t r e n g t h e n i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g the renewal p r o c e s s has been the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the development i n d u s t r y and f i n a n c i a l community and the f a v o u r a b l e p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l government. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s from a r e l a t i v e l y unkempt neighbourhood o f o l d , sometimes run-down houses i n t o one o f contemporary townhouse d e v e l -opments and immaculate r e n o v a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e s the complex i n t e r p l a y o f c u l t u r a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n the renewal o f an o l d e r , i n n e r c i t y a r e a . T h e o r e t i c a l approaches which, do not acknowledge t h i s c o n j u n c t i o n o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l i f e s t y l e v a l u e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l and econoriomic f a c t o r s a re too narrow i n scope t o p r o v i d e a complete ana-l y s i s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n e m p h a s i z i n g s o c i a l movements a v o i d s t h i s c r i t i q u e o f the t h e o r e t i c a l narrowness. As d i s c u s s e d i n Ch a p t e r 3, a number o f key p o i n t s p r o v i d e the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r an a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l movements and s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e (1) S o c i a l movements are i d e o l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d (2) They are o r i e n t e d towards change o r improvement and (3) They a r e s o c i a l l y - o r g a n i z e d , o f t e n i n terms o f l e a d e r - , f o l l o w e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C o n t r o l o v e r the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i s o f t e n the s p e c i f i c type o f change sought by a movement. Due t o the d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re much more s u c c e s s f u l i n m o b i l i z i n g s u p p o r t e r s and s y m p a t h i z e r s than o t h e r s . The l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f a movement through p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s perhaps the h a l l m a r k o f s u c c e s s . I n the case o f i n n e r c i t y r e n e w a l , i n n e r c i t y space i s the c o n t e s t e d r e s o u r c e and the m i d d l e c l a s s newcomers and the o f t e n p o o r , incumbent r e s i d e n t s a re the competing groups. The r e s e t t l e r s may be encouraged i n t h e i r e f f o r t s by a v a r i e t y o f l e a d e r s . The f i r s t u rban " p i o n e e r s " and the p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c e l i t e s who d e c i d e d t o end r e d l i n i n g and make i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e may be viewed as assuming a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . I n the c i t y o f Vancouver, the c o u r s e o f development and p l a n n i n g o v e r the 1970's has been g r e a t l y shaped by the i d e o l o g y o f l i v a b i l i t y f i r s t i n t r o -duced by The E l e c t o r s ' A c t i o n Movement, an urban r e f o r m p a r t y , a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the decade. I t i s w i t h i n such a c o n t e x t o f l i v a b i l i t y t h a t the " t o w n h o u s i f i c a t i o n " o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s has t a k e n p l a c e . .150 6.2 P l a n n i n g and P o l i t i c s i n Vancouver: Theory and  R e a l i t y I n c o n t r a s t t o the g r o w t h - o r i e n t e d i d e o l o g y o f the N o n - P a r t i s a n A s s o c i a t i o n , T.E.A.M. s t r e s s e d the importance o f a e s t h e t i c s and. s t y l e i n the p l a n n i n g o f the urban environment. Landscapes l a c k i n g the s e n s o r y a p p e a l demanded by p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l a e s t h e t i c t a s t e were anathema t o T.E.A.M. s u p p o r t e r s . The h i s t o r i c d e s i g n a -t i o n and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the Gastown and Chinatown d i s t r i c t s , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t p e d e s t r i a n m a l l , v a r i o u s downzonings throughout the c i t y , and the redevelopment o f F a l s e Creek a r e a l l i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the "canons o f good t a s t e " . S i m i l a r l y , the Vancouver H e r i t a g e A d v i s o r y Committee and the Urban D e s i g n Group p r o v i d e examples o f i n s t i t u t i o n s e x p l i c i t l y c r e a t e d f o r the p r o m o t i o n o f a q u a l i t y urban environment. These concerns f o r a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h the m a g n i f i c e n t p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g o f the c i t y , have made Vancouver a v e r y l i v a b l e c i t y . A d e p r e s s e d n a t i o n a l economy c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s p i r a l l i n g i n f l a t i o n , h i g h unemployment and v o l a t i l e i n t e r e s t and'mortgage r a t e s have prompted a swing back t o more c o n s e r v a t i v e , t i g h t - f i s t e d government o v e r the l a s t few y e a r s . F i s c a l c o n s e r v a t i v i s m , however, has not dampened the enth u s i a s m o f the p u b l i c f o r urban e n v i r o n -ments which r e s p e c t human s e n s i b i l i t y and the q u a l i t y o f the p h y s i c a l environment. One o f the more i m p o r t a n t . . . 151 consequences o f a s o c i a l movement, as M o r r i s o n e t a l (1972) n o t e , i s t o provoke a more " l i b e r a l " response from e s t a b l i s h e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " T h e r e f o r e , the o u t -come o f movement o r g a n i z a t i o n e f f o r t s i s not v i s i b l e s i m p l y i n t h e i r own accomplishments, but a l s o i n the resp o n s e s they b r i n g about from o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s " ( M o r r i s o n e t a l , 1972, 269). Many o f the " r a d i c a l " r eforms made by T.E.A.M. d u r i n g the e a r l y 1970's p r o v i d e the s t a n d a r d s a g a i n s t which p l a n n i n g and development i s s u e s are e v a l u a t e d today. D u r i n g the co u r s e o f the y e a r 1979, the Vancou-v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, a group o f v o l u n t a r y c i t i z e n s who a d v i s e c i t y c o u n c i l on p l a n n i n g and development m a t t e r s , had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g a g o a l - s e t t i n g program f o r the c i t y o f Vancouver. Two b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s were b e h i n d t h i s program. F i r s t , the g o a l s were t o a c t as lo n g - t e r m t a r g e t s f o r the c i t y t o s t r i v e towards and second, t h e y were t o a c t as r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s t o e v a l u a t e i s s u e s , .and p r o p o s a l s t h a t may a r i s e i n the f u t u r e . I n essence, t h i s program p r o v i d e d a mechanism whereby c i t i z e n s c o u l d p r o v i d e some in p u t , as t o the f u t u r e development o f t h e i r c i t y . As a v e h i c l e f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the Goal s f o r Vancouver Program was an outgrowth o f the con-s u l t a t i v e model o f c i v i c government s u b s c r i b e d t o by T.E.A.M. I n the su r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s were asked what they f e l t t o be the most i m p o r t a n t elements o f the c u r r e n t c h a r a c t e r o f Vancouver. The theme o f the l i v a b l e c i t y i s • " 152 v e r y e v i d e n t ; q u a l i t i e s such as "the good p a r k s " and the " n a t u r a l environment and b e a u t y " are p e r c e i v e d to. be v e r y i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f the c i t y ( T a b l e 6 . 1 ) . 2 A n o t h e r s e c t i o n o f the s u r v e y asked r e s p o n -dents t o i n d i c a t e how i m p o r t a n t c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s were f o r Vancouver's f u t u r e . The f i v e most i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e s were: (1) Views o f the mountains and water p r o t e c t e d (2) C i t y w i t h an a t t r a c t i v e appearance (3) R e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n government (4) A s s i s t e l d e r l y t o r e s i d e i n the c i t y (5) P u b l i c t r a n s i t be a v a i l a b l e to s e r v e a l l p a r t s o f the c i t y I m p l i c i t i n t h e s e responses are the s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c c o n c e r n s which.T.E.A.M. as a c i v i c p a r t y brought t o the f o r e . I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s s u r v e y sample were q u e s t i o n e d as t o what they b e l i e v e t o be (1) the t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s about Vancouver t h a t s h o u l d not change and (2) the t h r e e a s p e c t s o f Vancouver t h a t s h o u l d change o r improve. Mentioned by 64 p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s , Vancouver's green a r e a s and p a r k s are judged t o be the most i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f the c i t y . These f e a t u r e s are e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o those employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s (77 p e r c e n t ) and p o s s e s s i n g a u n i v e r s i t y degree (72 p e r c e n t ) . W i t h t h i s one e x c e p t i o n , no o t h e r a s p e c t o f the c i t y i s mentioned by a m a j o r i t y o f the sample ( T a b l e 6.2). I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t whereas o n l y 38 p e r c e n t o f the sample as a whole c i t e l i v a b l e c i t y p l a n n i n g as b e i n g an a s p e c t o f Vancouver t h a t s h o u l d not change, 50 p e r c e n t o f Table 6.1 The G o a l s f o r Vancouver Program: I m p o r t a n t T h i n g s about Vancouver t h a t s h o u l d not Change F i r s t t e n r e s p o n s e s Frequency The good p a r k s 338 N a t u r a l environment and beauty 231 Greenery, l a n d s c a p i n g and t r e e s 152 Beaches and w a t e r a c t i v i t i e s 137 P r o t e c t e d v i e w s 119 S t a n l e y P a r k 91 C l e a n l i n e s s 75 P o p u l a t i o n s i z e 60 H e r i t a g e and h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s 57 C u l t u r a l and e t h n i c mix 57 Source: "Goals f o r Vancouver Program", Q u a r t e r l y Review, 6, 4 (October^ 1 1979) . ••• ...154 the p r o f e s s i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l group mention t h i s f a c t o r . S i m i l a r l y , o n l y one a s p e c t o f Vancouver i s mentioned by a m a j o r i t y o f the s u r v e y respondents as i n need o f change o r improvement ( T a b l e 6.3). Mentioned by 59 p e r c e n t o f the sample, t h i s i s the poor q u a l i t y o f p u b l i c t r a n s i t i n the c i t y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r o u b l e -some f o r r e s p o n d e n t s e a r n i n g l e s s than $32,000 p e r y e a r (70 p e r c e n t ) . I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y 45 p e r c e n t o f those e a r n i n g more than $32,000 p e r y e a r v i e w p u b l i c t r a n s i t as an a s p e c t o f Vancouver which needs improvement. I n o r d e r to probe more d e e p l y i n t o the m a t t e r o f p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s and urban development, the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s sample was asked t o s t a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n s on a s e r i e s o f p r i o r i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d by the Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n as i m p o r t a n t i n i t i a t i v e s f o r the f u t u r e o f Canadian c i t i e s . An a n a l y s i s o f these o p i n i o n s r e v e a l s the d e s i r e f o r h i g h l y l i v a b l e , s o c i a l l y e q u i t a b l e urban e n v i r o n m e n t s . Over 90 p e r c e n t o f the sample agree t h a t the p r o t e c t i o n o f p a r k s and open space (97 p e r c e n t ) , the r e d u c t i o n o f a i r p o l l u t i o n (97 p e r c e n t ) , the a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t (95 p e r c e n t ) are i m p o r t a n t p r i o r i t i e s f o r the f u t u r e o f urban Canada. Indeed, w i t h 4 two e x c e p t i o n s , a l l the p r i o r i t i e s w hich can be c l a s s -i f i e d under the g e n e r a l r u b r i c o f l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y have more th a n 50 p e r c e n t respondent agreement as i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s ( T able 6.4). C o n v e r s l y , p r i o r i t i e s such as the b u i l d i n g o f more freeways (39 p e r c e n t ) and Table 6.2 A s p e c t s o f Vancouver t h a t s h o u l d not Change (Top 5 re s p o n s e s ) % Respondents Green a r e a s and p a r k s 63.9 L i v a b l e c i t y p l a n n i n g 37.7 N a t u r a l beauty 32.8 C i t y h e r i t a g e 26.2 C o s m o p o l i t a n n a t u r e o f c i t y 24.6 Table 6.3 A s p e c t s o f Vancouver t h a t s h o u l d Change  o r Improve (Top 5 r e s p o n s e s ) % Respondents P u b l i c t r a n s i t 59.0 S t r e e t s & t r a f f i c 29.5 More l i v a b l e development 26.3 P a r k s 23.0 C i t y s o c i a l s e r v i c e s 18.0 ; . . 156 Table 6.4 P r i o r i t i e s f o r F u t u r e Urban P l a n n i n g % Respondents A g r e e i n g P r e s e r v i n g p a r k s and open space 96. 7 Reducing a i r p o l l u t i o n 96. 7 A v a i l a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c t r a n s i t 95. 1 Reducing energy consumption 95. 1 P r o t e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c and h e r i t a g e 88. 5 A s s i s t i n g e l d e r l y 88 . 5 I n v o l v i n g p e o p l e i n govn't d e c i s i o n s 86. 9 Housing w i t h a wide range o f r e n t s 83. 6 P r o t e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from urban development 82. 0 Improving downtown 78. 7 Improving daycare 73. 8 C u l t u r a l v a r i e t y 73. 8 A t t r a c t i n g new i n d u s t r y 49. 2 Easy t o d r i v e around c i t y 49. 2 B u i l d i n g more freeways 39. 3 S t o p p i n g growth o f the c i t y 36. 1 More h i g h r i s e development 31. 1 ....,157-the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i g h - r i s e developments (31 p e r c e n t ) are viewed as r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s e a r n i n g i n e x c e s s o f $32,000 per y e a r have more o f a c o n c e r n f o r economic growth and development than the sample as a whole. S e v e r a l examples may be c i t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d . F i r s t , t h i s group i s more amenable t o the a t t r a c t i o n o f new i n d u s t r y (61 p e r c e n t ) than those making l e s s t h a n $32,000 (35 p e r c e n t ) . Second, whereas o n l y 19 p e r c e n t o f those making o v e r $32,000 want to s t o p c i t y growth, 52 p e r c e n t o f the lower income group want t o see growth stopped. T h i r d , 35 p e r c e n t o f the l e s s than $32,000 group d i s a g r e e t h a t government s h o u l d r e g u l a t e p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s . I n c o n t r a s t , 84 p e r c e n t o f the upper income group d i s a g r e e w i t h government r e g u l a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , however, the t e n o r o f o p i n i o n i s f a i r l y l i b e r a l . The renewal and redevelopment o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s p r o v i d e s a d r a m a t i c l a n d s c a p e metaphor of l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y . There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t the d e m o l i t i o n o f some o f the o l d e r h o u s i n g and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f modern townhouses has improved the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the S l o p e s . I n n o v a t i v e urban d e s i g n c o u p l e d w i t h a s p e c t a c u l a r pan-oramic view and c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n have made F a i r v i e w an a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g , h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood. The growing demand f o r i n - c i t y townhouse accommodation has not gone u n n o t i c e d by the r e a l e s t a t e • -...158 i n d u s t r y . M o t i v a t e d by the d e s i r e f o r p r o f i t s , p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s have h a s t e n e d the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the S l o p e s . Without the a c t i v e and w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the dev-elopment i n d u s t r y , as. e v i d e n c e d by the s t a g n a n t n a t u r e o f the S l o p e s d u r i n g the e a r l y t o mid-1970's, the c o u r s e o f renewal would l i k e l y have t a k e n much l o n g e r . P r o f i t a b i l i t y , however, has l e d t o the c r e a t i o n o f a v e r y e x c l u s i v e neighbourhood. I n the words o f Ley, "...an a c t i o n stem-ming from l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y has d i s f a v o u r e d a v u l n e r a b l e income group and f a v o u r e d the more p r i v i l e g e d " (Ley, 1980, 256). Coopted by market p l a c e demands, an a p p a r e n t l y a e s t h e t i c , humane, and s o c i a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e i d e o l o g y has spawned a number o f l e s s than d e s i r a b l e , o f t e n u n i n t e n d e d consequences. T h i s quandary r a i s e s s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s as t o D a n i e l B e l l ' s a n a l y s i s o f the p r e v a i l i n g e thos o f p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y as " s o c i o l o g i z i n g " r a t h e r than 5 " e c o n o m i s t i c " . I n d i v i d u a l u t i l i t y and p r o f i t maximiz-a t i o n have not n e c e s s a r i l y become s u b o r d i n a t e d t o b r o a d e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e and community i n t e r e s t . I l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h i s i s the ambiguous n a t u r e o f s u r v e y o p i n i o n s w i t h ' r e s p e c t t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f low c o s t h o u s i n g developments, i n F a i r v i e w t o h e l p r e p l a c e u n i t s l o s t t h r o u g h redevelopment. As d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , 38 p e r c e n t o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s s u r v e y sample f a v o u r such c o n s t r u c t i o n but a t the same time 41 p e r c e n t oppose i t . S i m i l a r l y , a l t h o u g h a r e s o u n d i n g m a j o r i t y o f the sample (84 p e r c e n t ) want t o see more h o u s i n g development on the S l o p e s , o n l y 39 p e r c e n t f a v o u r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t - a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and lov/er income f a m i l i e s . 6.3 Young P r o f e s s i o n a l s and the P u r s u i t o f S e l f - i n t e r e s t s The composite p i c t u r e o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n house-h o l d s as young (25 t o 3 5 ) , w e l l - e d u c a t e d , r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t , and employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and/or o t h e r h i g h s t a t u s w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s i s s u g g e s t i v e o f a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s f r e e d t o devote i n t e r e s t t o more a e s t h e t i c , elements o f human e x i s t e n c e because they have l a r g e l y s o l v e d b a s i c m a t e r i a l problems. Because o f the a f f l u e n t c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s , c r i t i c s o f t e n p o i n t t o the e l i t i s t n a t u r e o f l i b e r a l movements. A r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i o n , amenity p r e s e r v a t i o n , and the p r e v e n t i o n o f n o x i o u s development are not v e r y r e l e v a n t t o those l i v i n g i n degraded environments and l a c k i n g a c c e s s t o b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s . Opponents o f h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n , f o r example, charge t h a t i t i s j u s t a n o t h e r form o f "poor removal" and t h a t p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s are l o o k e d upon by i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s as j u s t as t h r e a t e n i n g as urban renewal ( F o r d and Fusch, 1975). I t i s o f t e n a l l e g e d t h a t t h e s e more p r i v i l e g e d groups, d e s p i t e t h e i r s o - c a l l e d l i b e r a l i n t e n t i o n s , u t i l i z e t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o e x p l i c i t l y enhance t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s . Gregory (1976) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f amenity movements, f o r example, s u g g e s t s t h a t most l o c a l amenity b o d i e s are concerned t o p r o t e c t not the environment but the e n v i r -onment o f t h e i r own members and s u p p o r t e r s . S i m i l a r l y , one s e vere c r i t i c o f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement argues t h a t "...much o f what poses f o r an i n t e r e s t i n e n v i r o n -mental p r o t e c t i o n i s no more th a n a d e s i r e on the p a r t o f the r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - t o - d o t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r own advan t a g e s , i f n e c e s s a r y by ' k i c k i n g down' the l a d d e r b e h i n d them" ( C r o s l a n d , 1971). I t i s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the new m i d d l e c l a s s which has prompted A l v i n G o u l d n e r ' s r e f e r e n c e t o the " f l a w e d u n i v e r s a l c l a s s " . As he w r i t e s The paradox o f the New C l a s s i s t h a t i t i s b o t h e m a n c i p a t o r y and e l i t i s t . . . T h e new d i s c o u r s e i s the g r o u n d i n g f o r a c r i t i q u e o f e s t a b l i s h e d forms o f d o m i n a t i o n and p r o v i d e s an escape from t r a d i t i o n , but i t a l s o b e a r s the seeds o f a new domin-a t i o n . . . E v e n as i t s u b v e r t s o l d i n e q u a l -i t i e s , the NEW CLASS SILENTLY INAUGERATES A NEW HIERARCHY OF THE KNOWING, THE KNOW-LEDGEABLE, THE REFLEXIVE AND INSIGHTFUL (Go u l d n e r , 1979, 84-85) (My e m p h s i s ) . These a l l e g a t i o n s r a i s e s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s as to the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u i t y o f a m e n i t i e s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s between d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f s o c -i e t y . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e c h a r g e s o f e l i t i s m , many a p p a r e n t l y humane and s o c i a l l y e q u i t a b l e s t r a t e g i e s d i s f a v o u r i n g l o w e r income groups have been u n d e r t a k e n . The " g e n t r y " , because o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background, p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and o f t e n w e l l - c o n n e c t e d memberships,have been ' • • • 1 6 1 a b l e t o sway p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n t h e i r f a v o u r . C h e r n o f f (1980), f o r example, i n a st u d y on the changing f a c e o f a commercial d i s t r i c t i n a r e n o v a t i n g neighbourhood i n A t l a n t a , n o t e s the d i s a d v a n t a g e o f o l d e r b u s i n e s s e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the government because, u n l i k e the new b u s i n e s s p e o p l e , they were not f a m i l i a r w i t h the t a c t i c s r e q u i r e d t o manage an i s s u e . L i k e w i s e , e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by Ley and Mercer (1980), i n t h e i r s t u d y o f l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s i n Vancouver, s u p p o r t s the e x i s t e n c e o f an a r t i c u l a t e and p o l i t i c i z e d c i t i z e n r y who can engage i s s u e s and e n l i s t the i n v o l v e m e n t o f c i t y c o u n c i l . T h i s d a t a shows t h a t community i n t e r e s t s , c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and c i t y c o u n c i l were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s c e n t r e d i n downtown and h i g h e r income, w h i t e c o l l a r w e s t s i d e d i s t r i c t s . I n c o n t r a s t , a l l these p a r t i e s were more p a s s i v e i n e a s t s i d e d i s p u t e s . H a i l e d as m a x i m i z i n g the economic e f f i c i e n c y o f the urban system, m i d d l e c l a s s r e s e t t l e m e n t has spawned a renewed sense o f optimism among p l a n n e r s , c i v i c admin-i s t r a t o r s , and p o l i t i c i a n s f o r the f u t u r e o f our i n n e r c i t i e s . Many f o r m e r l y d e c a y i n g and o b s o l e s c e n t n e i g h -bourhoods have undergone an e x t e n s i v e f a c e - l i f t i n g o v e r the l a s t t e n y e a r s . The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y , however, has had l e s s t h a n d e s i r a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r low and modest income h o u s e h o l d s . L e t us b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r some o f the s e i m p l i c a t i o n s . . . 162 6.4 S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f I n n e r C i t y Renewal S e v e r a l consequences o f the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movement open i t t o the charge o f - e l i t i s m . Sparked by r a p i d l y r i s i n g l a n d and h o u s i n g c o s t s , t h e s e i n c l u d e the l o s s o f neighbourhood d i v e r s i t y and the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f l o n g time neighbourhood r e s i d e n t s . The e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y o f the i n n e r c i t y i s o f t e n c i t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o middl e c l a s s r e n e w a l . The c o m p l e x i t y o f the s o c i a l environment, A l l e n (1980) a r g u e s , p r o v i d e s a sou r c e o f s t i m u l a t i o n and renewal Economic r e a l i t i e s and m a r k e t p l a c e demands, however, have l e d t o the l o s s o f much o f t h i s d i v e r s i t y . S p e c u l a t i v e i n v e s t m e n t b o o s t e d by m a g n i f i e d neighbourhood p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s have g i v e n r i s e t o i n f l a t i o n a r y i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g m a r k e t s . I n ev e r y i n s t a n c e where r e v i t a l i z a t i o n has o c c u r r e d , the c o s t o f h o u s i n g has d r a m a t i c a l l y r i s e n e f f e c t i v e l y r e s t r i c t i n g the a c c e s s o f such neighbourhoods to upper income h o u s e h o l d s . I r o n i c a l l y , some i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods a r e becoming as s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y homo-geneous as most suburban ones. A t t i t u d i n a l d a t a on i n n e r c i t y "newcomers" s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l homogeneity i s a d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case w i t h those r e s i d e n t s who move i n t o a neighbourhood d u r i n g the l a t e r s t a g e s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . U n l i k e the " p i o n e e r s " who ten d t o be r i s k - o b l i v i o u s , the r i s k - a v e r s e " l a t e r " newcomers e x p l i c i t l y seek f a s h i o n a b l e neighbourhoods . 163 i n h a b i t e d by l i k e - m i n d e d t y p e s . D i v e r s i t y a t a m e t r o p o l i t a n s c a l e might i n d e e d be o c c u r r i n g . That i s , m i d d l e c l a s s A mericans a re moving back t o the i n n e r c i t y , d e c r e a s i n g the s p a t i a l d i v e r s i t y between m i d d l e c l a s s suburb and low-income i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . However, on a neighbourhood-by-neighbourhood b a s i s . . . s o c i o - e c o n o m i c homogeneity i s s t r o n g l y d e s i r e d , and the f o r c e s o f b o t h the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r a c t t o m a i n t a i n t h a t c o n d i t i o n ( F u s c h , 1980, 170). The d i s d a i n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s s u r v e y sample towards the development o f g o v e r n m e n t - a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g i l l u s t r a t e s the d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l homogeneity .among r e s e t t l e r s . As w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s i n socio-economic back-grounds, c o n f l i c t i n g t a s t e s and v a l u e s between nev/comers and l o n g t i m e r e s i d e n t s o f t e n g i v e s r i s e t o neighbourhood t e n s i o n s (see f o r example Levy and C y b r i w s k y , 1980). The d e s i r e among a group o f young, upwardly m o b i l e i n d i v i d u a l s t o change the c h a r a c t e r o f a neighbourhood which l o n g t i m e incumbents f i n d p l e a s a n t and c o m f o r t a b l e o f t e n l e a d s t o f e e l i n g s o f h o s t i l i t y between the two groups. Perhaps the most s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n o f i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f l o n g t i m e n e i g h -bourhood r e s i d e n t s . Due t o r a p i d l y r i s i n g h o u s i n g c o s t s , many t e n a n t s , r e s t r i c t e d by l i m i t e d f i n a n c e s , have been f o r c e d t o seek a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation. More o f t e n than n o t , d i s p l a c e d households have found such accommoda-t i o n t o be l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y than t h e i r former r e s i d e n c e s . I n a s t u d y o f p r i v a t e redevelopment and d i s p l a c e m e n t i n ... 164 the Vancouver i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood o f K i t s i l a n o , S t o b i e (1979) found t h a t , e i g h t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f h i s sample (N=36) would not have w i l l i n g l y moved from t h e i r former r e s i d e n c e , and t h a t they p r e f e r r e d i t to t h e i r c u r r e n t accommodation. T h e i r r e a s o n s i n c l u d e d p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and f e a t u r e o f the u n i t s , the c o s t o f those u n i t s , and more f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . Compounding the problem o f d i s p l a c e m e n t i s the growing s h o r t a g e o f h o u s i n g f o r low- and moderate-income h o u s e h o l d s . I n Vancouver, the d e m o l i t i o n o f the i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g s t o c k , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the West End, K i t s i l a n o , and Grandview-Woodlands, has l e d t o the l o s s o f much l o w e r -p r i c e d r e n t a l accommodation ( T a b l e 6.5). While some o f t h i s d e m o l i t i o n has been the r e s u l t o f s t o c k d e t e r i o r -a t i o n beyond the p o i n t o f r e p a i r , the m a j o r i t y o f demo-l i t i o n s have been o f s t r u c t u r a l l y sound s t o c k on s i t e s where the owner e x p e c t s g r e a t e r r e t u r n s through changed l a n d use. The c o n v e r s i o n o f r e n t a l apartments t o condo-minium t e n u r e has. f u r t h e r reduced the s u p p l y o f m o d e r a t e l y p r i c e d , h o u s i n g . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 1,000 u n i t s a n n u a l l y are l o s t from Vancouver's l o w e r c o s t r e n t a l s t o c k (McAfee, 1977) . The s h o r t a g e o f a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g i s h i g h -l i g h t e d by the f a c t t h a t i n the l a t e 1970's r o u g h l y 52,400 o r 33 p e r c e n t o f Vancouver ho u s e h o l d s spent more than the d e s i r a b l e maximum o f 25 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s income on h o u s i n g . An overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f those w i t h Table 6.5 D e m o l i t i o n by D w e l l i n g Type, C i t y o f Vancouver, 1973 to 1977 D w e l l i n g Type S i n g l e - d e t a c h e d Duplex M u l t i p l e C o n v e r s i o n s J a n u a r y 1, 1973-August 15, 1975 1,312 132 1,659 August 16, 1975-Fe b r u a r y 1, 1977 768 74 547 Tota-1 D e m o l i t i o n s 2,080 46. ouzo 206 4.59 2i, 206 49.11 T o t a l 3,103 1,389 4,492 100% Source: C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, U n d e r s t a n d i n g Vancouver's Housing: P a r t  I I I Vancouver's Housing: (b) Stock. 1979 • • ... 16 6 a f f o r d a b i l i t y problems earn l e s s t h a n $12,000 a y e a r ; i n c o n t r a s t , l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f households w i t h i n -comes i n e x c e s s o f $12,000 pay e x c e s s i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r incomes on h o u s i n g . P a r t i c u l a r l y h a r d h i t a re the e l d e r l y and s i n g l e p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s . 6.5 I n n e r C i t y R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : Some F i n a l Thoughts The o v e r a l l impact o f m i d d l e c l a s s renewal i s a v e r y p o s i t i v e one. F o r m e r l y run-down and f o r g o t t e n i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods have undergone much-needed u p g r a d i n g and improvement. I n Vancouver, the cha n g i n g t i d e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o growth and develop-ment and the a d o p t i o n o f l i v a b l e - c i t y p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s have l e d to the emergence o f an urban landscape c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by a h i g h degree o f human s e n s i b i l i t y . T h i s concern, f o r a e s t h e t i c s and s t y l e has g u i d e d the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . I t s c e n t r a l i t y o f l o c a t i o n , con-temporary urban d e s i g n , and s p e c t a c u l a r views t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s emergence as a f a s h i o n a b l e " i n " p l a c e t o l i v e , have made the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s a h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n -t i a l n eighbourhood. Economics and the demands o f the m a r k e t p l a c e , however, have usurped many o f the a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r the S l o p e s . A l t h o u g h b a s i c a l l y u n i n t e n d e d , low and moderate income households have had to bear the economic and s o c i a l c o s t s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . D e s p i t e i t s apparent c o n c e r n f o r humanity and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s , l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y i s not n e c e s s a r i l y synonymous w i t h s o c i a l j u s t i c e and e q u i t y . . 167 F o o t n o t e s 1 For more d e t a i l s on the G o a l s f o r Vancouver Program see Dan J a n c e w s k i , "Goals f o r Vancouver Program", Q u a r t e r l y Review ( J a n u a r y , 1979). These r e s u l t s a re from an in-home survey o f 1,000 c i t y - v / i d e r e s i d e n t s . A t the same time as the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f the 1,000 hou s e h o l d s v/as b e i n g completed, the s u r v e y r e c e i v e d g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t h r o ugh l i b r a r i e s , community c e n t r e s , supermarkets, and o t h e r p l a c e s . About 4,500 c i t y r e s i d e n t s corn-completed the s u r v e y . The most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s -i o n from the g e n e r a l l y - d i s t r i b u t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h a t the 4,500 r e s i d e n t s who responded t o i t f e l t a lmost i d e n t i c a l l y about the f u t u r e o f Vancouver as the 1,000 hou s e h o l d s i n t e r v i e w e d a t home. Moreover, no c o n s i s t e n t v a r i a t i o n c o u l d be found between d i f f e r -ent p a r t s o f the C i t y as t o the importance o f v a r i o u s g o a l s . P r i o r t o i t s demise i n March, 1979, the M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s undertook a s t u d y o f p e o p l e ' s assessments o f s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r communities. The s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on urban a t t i t u d e s i s based on t h i s s t u d y . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n see CMHC, P u b l i c P r i o r i t i e s i n Urban Canada: A Survey o f  Community Concerns (1979). As o u t l i n e d i n Ch a p t e r 3, S e c t i o n 3.6.1, B e l l argues t h a t the p r e v a i l i n g ethos has become s o c i o l o g i z i n g r a t h e r than e c o n o m i s t i c " . . . i n s o f a r as the c r i t e r i a o f i n d i v i d u a l u t i l i t y and p r o f i t m a x i m i z a t i o n have become s u b o r d i n a t e d t o b r o a d e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e and community i n t e r e s t " . These f i g u r e s are adapted, from C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, U n d e r s t a n d i n g V a n c o u v e r 1 s ' H o u s i n g ; P a r t IV (c) A f f o r d a b l e Housing: What Chance i n Vancouver (1979). . 168 BIBLIOGRAPHY A h l b r a n d t , Roger S. and Brophy, P a u l C. Neighbourhood  R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i c e . L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: L e x i n g t o n Books, 1975. A l c a l y , R. and M e r m e l s t e i n , D. ( e d s . ) . 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"On C o n t i n e n t a l i s m , D i s t i n c t i v e n e s s and Comparative Urban Geography: Canadian and American C i t i e s " , The Canadian Geographer^ 23, 2 (Summer, 1979), pp. 119-139. M o l o t o c h , Harvey. "The C i t y as a Growth Machine: Towards a P o l i t i c a l Economy o f P l a c e " , American J o u r n a l o f  S o c i o l o g y , 82 (September, 1976), pp. 309-332. M o r r i s o n , Denton E. "The E n v i r o n m e n t a l Movement: Some P r e l i m i n a r y O b s e r v a t i o n s and P r e d i c t i o n s " , S o c i a l  B e h a v i o u r , N a t u r a l Resources and the Environment. E d i t e d by W i l l i a m R. Burch e t a l , New York: H a r p e r and Row, 1972. N e l s o n , K.P. " B l a c k Suburbs and V/hite C i t i e s ? 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S t e r n l i e b , George and Fo r d , K r i s t i n a . "The F u t u r e o f the R e t u r n - t o - t h e - C i t y Movement", R e v i t a l i z i n g C i t i e s . E d i t e d by H e r r i n g t o n J . B r y c e . L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: L e x i n g t o n Books, 1.979. S t e r n l i e b , George and Hughes, James W. ( e d s . ) . P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l A m e r i c a : M e t r o p o l i t a n D e c l i n e and I n t e r - R e g i o n a l Job S h i f t s . New B r u n s w i c k , N.J.: C e n t r e f o r Urban P o l i c y R e s e a r ch, 1975. S t o b i e , P e t e r . P r i v a t e I n n e r C i t y Redevelopment i n Vancouver: A Case Study o f K i t s i l a n o . Vancouver: M.A. T h e s i s , Department o f Geography, U.B.C., 1979. . 176 Sweezy, P a u l . "The R a d i c a l Theory o f the S t a t e " , r e p r i n t e d i n Problems i n P o l i t i c a l Economy: An Urban P e r s p e c t i v e . E d i t e d by D a v i d M. Gordon. L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: D.C. Heath & Co., 1977. Sweezy, P a u l . The Theory o f C a p i t a l i s t Development. New York: Monthly Review P r e s s , 1942. "The Decent C i t y " , Vancouver Sun, November 15, 1976. "The Mayor l o o k s a t h i s C i t y " , Vancouver P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 3, 1973. The Sussex Group. Economic F e a s i b i l i t y o f P r e s e r v i n g the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . August, 1974. Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. F a i r v i e w S l o p e s D e v e l - opment. P l a n . D r a f t , November 1978. Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. F a i r v i e w S l o p e s P o l i c y  P l a n . J a n u a r y , 1977. Vancouver Urban Renewal Study. T e c h n i c a l Report #4,  I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s . August, 1969. Weiss, S h i r l e y F., Smith, John E., K a i s e r , Edward J . and Kenny, Kenneth B. R e s i d e n t i a l D e v e l o p e r D e c i s i o n s . A Focused View o f the Urban Growth P r o c e s s . U n i v e r -s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a a t Chapel H i l l : C e n t r e f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1966. W i l l i a m s , P.R. "The R o l e o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n the I n n e r London H o u s i n g Market: The Case o f I s l i n g t o n " , T r a n s a c t i o n s , I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h Geographers, N.S., 1 (1976), pp. 72-81. W i l s o n , J.Q. T h i n k i n g About Crime. New York: B a s i c Books, 1975. W i n t e r s , C h r i s t o p h e r . "The S o c i a l I d e n t i t y o f E v o l v i n g Neighbourhoods", Landscape, 23, 1 (1979), pp. 8-14. W i n t e r s , C h r i s t o p h e r . " R e j u v e n a t i o n w i t h C h a r a c t e r " , Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers Annual M e e t i n g , New O r l e a n s , 1978. W i n t e r s , C h r i s t o p h e r . "The Geography o f R e j u v e n a t i o n i n an I n n e r C i t y Neighbourhood: The Upper West S i d e o f Manhattan, 1950-77", Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the A s s o c i -a t i o n o f American Geographers Annual M e e t i n g , S a l t Lake C i t y , 1977. Z e i t z , E i l e e n . P r i v a t e Urban Renewal. L e x i n t o n , Mass. L e x i n g t o n Books, 1979. APPENDIX I COVERING LETTER THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 Westbrook M a l l VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY A p r i l , 1980 Dear A r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s c u r r e n t l y underway a t the Geog-raphy department a t U.B.C. c o n c e r n i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s neighbourhood o f Vancouver as a p l a c e t o l i v e . A v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e c t c o n s i s t s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a sample o f r o u g h l y s i x t y - f i v e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s over the next month. The purpose o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s to g a t h e r i n f o r -m ation on: (1) what r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e t o be the p r o s and cons o f l i v i n g i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s and (2) the a t t i t u d e s o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o the v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s Canadian c i t i e s may take i n the next tv/enty y e a r s . C o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r p a r t s , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t a k e s approx-i m a t e l y t h i r t y minutes t o complete. I t w i l l not c o v e r i s s u e s o f a p e r s o n a l o r s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e . I would be ex t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n i n the comple-t i o n o f t h i s s u r v e y . The i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l remain c o m p l e t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and i s anonymous. A l l r e p l i e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as a group and not i n d i v i d u a l l y . I w i l l c o n t a c t you w i t h i n the nex t week to arrange a m u t u a l l y s u i t a b l e meeting date. I f you have any q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s work, p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c o n t a c t P r o -f e s s o r James Duncan a t U.B.C. I n c l o s i n g , l e t me thank you i n advance f o r your c o o p e r -a t i o n and I l o o k f o r w a r d t o meeting w i t h you i n the near f u t u r e . Yours t r u l y George F u j i i Graduate Student Dept. o f Geography U.B.C. APPENDIX I I RESIDENT QUESTIONNAIRE I n n e r C i t y L i v i n g Study Survey o f s e l e c t e d r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s neighbourhood o f Vancouver George F u j i i Department o f Geography U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1980 182 FAIRVIEW SLOPES RESIDENT QUESTIONNAIRE P a r t 1 Housing and Neighbourhood C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1. How l o n g have you l i v e d i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s neigh-bourhood ( i . e . the a r e a bounded on the n o r t h by 6 t h Avenue, on the s o u t h by 8 t h Avenue, on the west by Hemlock and. on the e a s t by As h ) ? a. L e s s than 1 y e a r [ | b. 1 t o 2 y e a r s | f c . 3 to 5 y e a r s | P~" d. 6 t o 10 y e a r s | ) e. Over 10 y e a r s | | How d i d you f i n d out about the type o f h o u s i n g on F a i r v i e w S l o p e s ? a. the newspaper | ] b. a r e a l e s t a t e agency \ | c. f r i e n d s | ] d. d r i v i n g by 1 | e. Other | 1 S p e c i f y _ Where d i d you l i v e i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e moving t o F a i r -v i e w S l o p e s ? a. Always l i v e d i n F a i r v i e w b. In'Vancouver c i t y p r o p e r (neighbourhood) I n suburban Vancouver ( M u n i c i p a l i t y ) d. Other c i t y / t o w n i n Canada | | e. O t h e r c i t y / t o w n i n B.C. | | ( S p e c i f y ) f . O u t s i d e Canada | j ( S p e c i f y ) What k i n d o f d w e l l i n g d i d you l i v e i n p r i o r t o moving here? a. S i n g l e f a m i l y house . 183 b. Duplex (two u n i t s ) c. C o n v e r s i o n ( s u i t e i n a l a r g e house) d. Low r i s e apartment (up t o 4 s t o r e y s ) H i g h r i s e apartment (more than 4 s t o r y s ) | 1 Townhouse Other S p e c i f y What type o f d w e l l i n g i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s do you l i v e i n ? a. S i n g l e f a m i l y house b. Duplex (two u n i t s ) c. C o n v e r s i o n ( s u i t e i n a l a r g e house) d. e, Low r i s e apartment 1 I Townhouse 1 1 f . O t her I 1 S p e c i f y , 6. Have you l i v e d i n more than one p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s ? a. Yes b. No 7. Do you a. r e n t | 1 o r b. Own | | your d w e l l i n g ? 8. Do you a n t i c i p a t e moving from F a i r v i e w i n the ne x t 5 y e a r s ? a. Yes | j b. No 1 | c. Don't know j | 9. From the l i s t below c o u l d you p l e a s e i n d i c a t e up t o 4 reas o n s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o y o u r d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s neighbourhood. a. S p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the neighbourhood | | b. W e l l m a i n t a i n e d neighbourhood d w e l l i n g s [ | . 184 c. P r o x i m i t y to p l a c e o f work d. The p r o x i m i t y o f c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e. P r o x i m i t y to the F a l s e Creek redevelopment f . A v i e w o f the downtown and N o r t h Shore mountains g. The i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f the neighbourhood h. The r e l a t i v e c o s t o f h o u s i n g as compared t o o t h e r a r e a s i n the c i t y i . The l e v e l o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s i n the l o c a l a r e a (eg. bus s e r v i c e , day c a r e c e n t r e s , s c h o o l s ) j . S u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t s o f s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l , background k. C l o s e to f r i e n d s 1. The d i v e r s i t y o f the a r e a m. Other S p e c i f y I f (a) above ( s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the neighbourhood) was a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r c o u l d you p l e a s e answer q u e s t i o n . 10. I f n o t , p l e a s e p r o c e e d to q u e s t i o n 11. What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s makes i t a " s p e c i a l a r e a " f o r you? From the l i s t below c o u l d you p l e a s e i n d i c a t e up t o 3 r easons c o n t r i b u t i n g to y o u r c h o i c e o f r e s i d e n c e i n the S l o p e s . a. Unique d e s i g n f e a t u r e s [ | b. S u p e r i o r a p p l i a n c e s | | c. L a r g e r than a v e r a g e - s i z e d rooms 1 | . 185 d. R e s t o r a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f d w e l l i n g e. Large p a t i o o r b a l c o n y f . S c e n i c view g. Freedom from maintenance arTd upkeep h. C o s t i . O t h er S p e c i f y 12. F a i r v i e w S l o p e s has undergone much change over the l a s t few y e a r s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e a re v a r i e d development p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the f u t u r e . What are your v i e w s on the f o l l o w i n g ' p l a n n i n g / d e v e l o p m e n t o p t i o n s f o r the S l o p e s ? a. Encourage the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a m i x t u r e o f o l d and new b u i l d i n g s . S t r o n g l y Favour Favour I n d i f f e r e n t Opposed L L S t r o n g l y Opposed • P r e s e r v e and s t r e n g t h e n the s m a l l s c a l e r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the S l o p e s . Encourage a mix o f commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u s e s . 1 2 3 4 5 d. M a i n t a i n views f o r r e s i d e n t s o f e x i s t i n g developments and f o r those i n new develop-ments t h a t may be b u i l t i n the f u t u r e . 1 2 3 4 5 Make p r o v i s i o n s t o ensure t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e number o f l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g developments are c o n s t r u c t e d i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s o v e r the next few y e a r s t o h e l p r e p l a c e u n i t s l o s t t h r o u g h redevelopment. . . .186 f . Ensure t h a t r e s i d e n t s o f F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , p r o p e r t y -owners and b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s have a c o n t i n u i n g f o r m a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e l a t i n g t o p l a n n i n g and development i s s u e s i n the l o c a l a r e a . 1 2 3 4 5 • • • 13. a) Do you f a v o u r more h o u s i n g development i n the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s ? a. Yes b. No 1 f b) I f y e s , what ty p e s o f development would you f a v o u r ? a. Yes b. No a. S i n g l e f a m i l y homes and d u p l e s e s | 1 I | b. R e n o v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s 1 j I I c Townhouses I ] 1 1 d. Low r i s e apartments e. Government a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and l o w e r income f a m i l i e s 14. V/hich ( i f any) o f the f o l l o w i n g reasons might cause you to l e a v e F a i r v i e w ? a. C o s t o f h o u s i n g ( r e n t a l o r owning) i s too e x p e n s i v e here [ 1 b. Don't l i k e the p e o p l e 1 1 c. E x p e c t t o be e v i c t e d from p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g I j d. Don't l i k e the p h y s i c a l change t h a t i s o c c u r r i n g 1 j e. I n c r e a s i n g s i z e o f f a m i l y 1 I f . Job change 1 1 g. Change i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s 1 I h. Other i \ S p e c i f y No i n t e n t i o n o f l e a v i n g I . 187 15. How would you d e s c r i b e F a i r v i e w S l o p e s t o a f r i e n d ? 16. L i s t the t h r e e t h i n g s you d i s l i k e most about the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s . a. b. c. 17. L o o k i n g back o v e r S l o p e s , would you a r e a has l i v e d up P l e a s e e l a b o r a t e . the time you have l i v e d i n the say t h a t the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n the t o y o u r o r i g i n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ? P a r t 2 Vancouver 18. I n y o u r o p i n i o n , what are the t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s about Vancouver t h a t s h o u l d not change? a. b. c. 19. I f you were a b l e t o change o r improve any a s p e c t s o f Vancouver, what t h r e e t h i n g s would you do? a. b. . 188 P a r t 3 Urban Concerns 20. The f o l l o w i n g p r i o r i t i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t i n i t i a t i v e s f o r the f u t u r e o f Canadian c i t i e s P l e a s e e x p r e s s your o p i n i o n on these v a r i o u s p r i o r i t i e s a. That p u b l i c t r a n s i t be a v a i l a b l e and s e r v e a l l p a r t s o f the c i t y . S t r o n g l y Agree • S t r o n g l y Agree I n d i f f e r e n t D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e • • 1 b . ' B u i l d i n g more freeways 1 2 3 • • • • 6. That i t be easy to d r i v e around the c i t y by c a r . 1 2 3 4 5 • d. P r o t e c t i n g p a r k s and open space i n the c i t y 1 2 3 4 5 • • 1 e. P r o t e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from urban development 1 2 ' 3 4 5 • • • f . Reducing a i r p o l l u t i o n 1 2 3 • • • • g. Reducing energy consumption 1 2 3 4 • • h. A t t r a c t i n g new i n d u s t r y to the c i t y 1 2 3 4 • • • • i . S t o p p i n g the growth o f the c i t y 1 2 3 4 . 189 j . I m p r o v i n g downtown 1 2 3 k. P r o t e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c and h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s 1 2 3 4 5 • • • • • 1. More h i g h - r i s e / h i g h d e n s i t y developments i n our c i t y 1 2 3 4 5 m. Government r e g u l a t i o n o f p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s 1 2 3 4 5 • • • c n. I n v o l v i n g people i n government d e c i s i o n s 1 2 3 4 . 5 o. Housing w i t h a wide range o f r e n t s and c o s t s be a v a i l a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 • • • n rzj p. A s s i s t i n g e l d e r l y i n e f f o r t s to r e s i d e i n the c i t y = 1 2 3, 4 5 ] • q. Improving daycare c e n t r e s 1 2 3 o n • • 1 c r . Many t y p e s o f d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e from v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l , e t h n i c , age and s o c i a l backgrounds l i v e i n the c i t y 1 2 3 4 5 . 190 P a r t 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Data 21. M a r i t a l s t a t u s ? a. S i n g l e b. M a r r i e d c. Shared accommodation d. Widow/Widower e. D i v o r c e d 22, 23, 24, How many p e o p l e i n your h o u s e h o l d are i n the f o l l o w i n g age groups? Age 0-14 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and o v e r Number Do you b e l o n g t o any neighpod o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? a- Y e s ZZ1 S p e c i f y b. No What i s the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g you have e v e r a t t e n d e d ? 25, a. Some h i g h s c h o o l b. H i g h s c h o o l graduate c. V o c a t i o n a l / t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g d. Community c o l l e g e e. Some u n i v e r s i t y f . U n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e ( s ) What i s y o u r o c c u p a t i o n ? I | Y r s , • I | Y r s . • 26. a. ( I f a p p l i c a b l e ) Does your spouse work? a. Yes I I b. No 1 b. What s o r t o f work does he o r she do? What i s y o u r t o t a l h o u s e h o l d income? a. Under $8,000 b. $8,000 - $16,000 c. $16,000 - $24,000 | ~ d. $24,000 - $32,000 [ e. Over $32,000 | | 

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