UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ma Shou-chen : Ming Dynasty courtesan/artist 1981

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1981_A8 T79.pdf
UBC_1981_A8 T79.pdf [ 11.19MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0095486.json
JSON-LD: 1.0095486+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0095486.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0095486+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0095486+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0095486+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0095486.ris

Full Text

MA SHOU-CHEN: MING DYNASTY COURTESAN/ARTIST by EILEEN GRACE TRUSCOTT B.I.D., UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA, 1970 DIP.F.A., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine Arts) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER 1981 ^ E i l e e n Grace Truscott, 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . E i l e e n Grace T r u s c o t t Department of FINE ARTS The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date September 3 , 1 9 8 1 m?_ a i o /-7Q ̂ i i ABSTRACT: Ma Shou-chen, poet, calligrapher and painter was a courtesan of the Ming dynasty. By studying the l i f e and works of Ma Shou- chen, who was not a member of either the scholar or the academic/ professional class of artists but who was very desirous of conforming to l i t e r a t i aesthetic tastes in her a r t i s t i c works, new light i s thrown upon the problem of identifying new aspects of Ming dynasty l i t e r a t i aesthetic taste. A study of Ma Shou- chen1 s works illuminates the question of identifying qualities of l i t e r a t i painting and also serves to examine the question of female art i s t s in China. Female artists were known for their weak brush stroke and other negative qualities. Was this true, or was the "conventional wisdom" based on an attitude toward a female's social position rather than her a b i l i t y as an artist? • J Ma Shou-chen provides us with a good example for examining these points. She i s well-known in Chinese art history, yet she i s discussed by Siren largely in sections restricted to female a r t i s t s . In Chinese biographies too, mention of Ma Shou-chen i s included with other female a r t i s t s . The purpose of this thesis i s to discuss a limited, though i t i s f e l t , a represent- ative cross-section of her works with the aim of determining Ma Shou-chenfs place in art history. In Section I, biographical data concerning Ma Shou-chen is discussed. This includes an estimate of her active period (1570-1604). Her relationship with Wang Chih-teng, a leading literatus of the Suchow area, i s examined together with an exploration of the relationship of special courtesans to the i i i l i t e r a t i as a class. What this meant in Chinese society and the repercussions on the a r t i s t i c output of courtesans i s also discussed. Section II includes a discussion of the Chinese historical records which comment on Ma Shou-chen's works. There i s also an exploration of the reason why certain artists and not others were named in records as having an influence on Ma Shou-chen's works. A brief discussion of the history of Chinese flower painting explains the relevance of placing Ma Shou-chen's works within the framework of l i t e r a t i rather than academic ar t i s t s ' works. A discussion of the c r i t i c a l comments regarding Ma Shou- chen's works by Chinese art historians gives rise to the poss- i b i l i t y that c r i t i c a l comments were often based more upon social status than actual works. In Section III an analysis of Ma Shou-chen's a r t i s t i c works, largely concerned with her speciality of orchid paintings, shows an historical process. However, there i s no f i n a l class- i f i c a t i o n of her undated works. In addition ;the typical qualities of her works involves rather sfeable compositions, a propensity for stretching the brush strokes across the surface of the painting, l i t t l e concern with atmospheric qualities or far distance. These facts serve to enhance the two dimensional quality of her paintings. This factor in turn serves to focus the attention of the viewer upon Ma Shou-chen's calligraphy. Section IV discusses the findings of the analysis of Ma Shou-chen's works in relation to Ming dynasty l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s . This thesis concludes with the theory that smaller and more intimate l i t e r a t i works are more representative of the main- i v stream of l i t e r a t i a rtists in the Ming dynasty* The works of Ma Shou-chen, who was trained to respond to l i t e r a t i tastes and was an accomplished artist, show the more relaxed social atmosphere of the Ming dynasty. Two appendices are included. The f i r s t i s a catalogue of the works of Ma Shou-chen discussed in this thesis. The second is a translation of the Chinese literary sources concerning Ma Shou-chen. V Abstract i i Table of Contents v List of Illustrations v i Acknowledgement v i i Introduction 1 Section I - Life and Times 3 Section II - Historical References and Criticisms 12 Section III - Artistic^Works 26 Section IV - Ming Dynasty L i t e r a t i Artists 45 Conclusion 54 Notes: Introduction 56 Notes: Section I 56 Notes: Section II 63 Notes: Section III SB Notes: Section IV 72 Notes: Conclusion 76 Bibliography of Non-English Literary Sources 77 Bibliography 79 Appendix I - Catalogue 83 II - Translations 91 III - Illustrations 108 Notes: Appendix I 121 Notes: Appendix II 123 v i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1. Orchid, Bamboo and Rock Hanging S c r o l l . H. 52.5 cm. W. 29.1 cm. Ink on Paper. Dated 1572. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Loan 19&1.2.12, The Edward E l l i o t t Family Collection. Figure 2. Orchid Hanging S c r o l l . H. 56 cm. W. 33 cm. Ink on Paper. Dated 1603. Dr. James Caswell Collection, Vancouver, B.C. Figure 3 . (A) to (F) Orchids and Bamboo Hand Sc r o l l . Ink and Colour on Paper. Dated 1604. Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, U.S.A. Figure l+. Lotus Plant Hanging Scroll Undated Ostasiatiska Museet, Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden. v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my appreciation to many people: Dr. Edwin G. Pulleyblank, who gave me an excellent start on the long road to understanding classical Chinese; Dr. Jerry D. Schmidt, who took the time to look through some of the translations and explain the significance to me; Professor Chia-ying Chao, who kindly helped explain some of the more obscure references in the translation. My special thanks to these people does not infer any responsibility for any errors in translation in this thesis. I am a beginning student in the intricacies of the classical and the*modern Chinese languages and hope the reader w i l l look with tolerance upon the inevitable errors and omissions. I would also like to thank Dr. James Caswell and Dr. Mary Morehart for their encouragement and help during the writing of this thesis and during the time of my studies in the depart- ment; and Kian Kwok, whose beautiful calligraphy appears in this thesis. Last but not least, I want to thank Mr. Yim Tse, the Librarian of the Asian Library, at the University of British Columbia, and my calligraphy teacher, for his patience, kindness and willingness to share his vast knowledge. - 1- - INTRODUCTION: During the Ming dynasty, the l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s of the Wu school came to be incorporated within the Southern school in the bipolar theory propounded by Tung Ch*i-ch*ang.^ However, the philosophy of Northern and Southern schools developed by Tung Cht*i-ch*ang often expressed more p o l i t i c a l ideas than a history of art. The l i t e r a t i , although often vocal in stating art theories, frequently expressed sentiments that did not correspond with perceived re a l i t y . This has l e f t the modern student of Chinese art history with an unsure understanding of what were the characteristics of the mainstream, or l i t e r a t i , painting during the Ming dynasty. This i s a study of the works of the female a r t i s t , Ma Shou-chen of the Ming dynasty (I368-I644)• By studying the l i f e and works of Ma Shou-chen, who was not a member of/either the scholar or the academic/professional class of ar t i s t s , but who was very desirous of conforming to li t e r a t i aesthetic tastes in her a r t i s t i c works, new light i s thrown upon the problem of identifying these characteristics. Thus, this thesis attempts to explore the link between Ma Shou-chen1s a r t i s t i c endeavors and her social status. To do this, information available in Chinese history records regarding Ma Shou-chen i s discussed and the c r i t i c a l treatment of her work by Chinese scholars (i.e., l i t e r a t i ) i s explored. A discussion of the training and the l i f e style of a courtesan in general and Ma Shou-chen in part- icular demonstrates a definite link between courtesanship and a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s . There i s also a bond between the l i t e r a t i - 2 - and courtesans, as exemplified by Ma Shou-chen and her friend Wang Chih-teng, a leading literatus of the Suchow area. This thesis i s addressed to the existence and the limits of this relationship. An examination of some of Ma Shou-chen's paintings demonstrate her s t y l i s t i c tendencies and her possible position in the very complicated history of Chinese flower painting. A comparison of Ma Shou-chen's work with major l i t e r a t i art- i s t s reveals many common characteristics. Reasons for these similarities are explored in the light of information gleaned from a discussion of the history of Chinese flower painting, l i t e r a t i and courtesans. As courtesans were trained to respond to the wishes of l i t e r a t i , therefore their work i s important as an indication of prevailing taste. A comparison with l i t e r a t i painting also presents the possibility of suggesting a new aspect of Ming dynasty painting which would be the natural result of a more relaxed attitude within certain members of groups (e.g. merchants) in Ming society. - 3 - SECTION I: LIFE and TIMES Ma Shou-chen J | v f̂ ft was called Yiian-erh 7__ .as a ichild. Her hao i s listed as Hsiang-lan a name given to her for her a b i l i t y to paint orchids. Her nickname was Yiieh- chiao A , the name of a person in a southern style opera.^ Relatively l i t t l e i s known about Ma Shou-chen. However, we can estimate her active working period by studying the available histo r i c a l records. We are less confident in identifying her dates of birth and death, as some of the information i s in conflict. Some historic a l records state that Ma Shou-chen was born in 1 5 4 # . 2 Siren gives the dates of her activity as an artist to be 1592-1623 though he does not cite the source of his information. This would make her forty-four when, according to Siren, she became active as a painter and eighty at her terminus date.3 Instead of these dates, I would like to suggest Ma Shou-chenTs active period to be 1570/1572-1604, based on the evidence of her dated paintings. There are two works of Ma Shou-chen in collections that bear the reign year jen-shen <t ̂  As well, both bear signed inscriptions by her friend Wang Chih-teng J. ^-^5 As he died in 1612 this would indicate that the .jen-shen year should be 1572 (rather than the potential alternative, 1 6 3 2 ) . Though there i s a record of a painting by Ma Shou-chen that i s dated 1570^ the two 1572 paintings are among the earliest of her works in collections. One of these paintings the Metropolitan Museum s c r o l l , i s - 4 - described and the inscription i s quoted in a Chinese historical record.^ This same record reports two more paintings by Ma Shou-chen dated to the reign years of keng-niu jfe and wu- yin fy, ^ which would indicate dates of 1570 and 1578 (though they could be interpreted as I63O and 1638). The same source describes a work done in 1596. There i s also a fan painting by Ma Shou-chen that bears an inscription that would date i t 1578.7 Another historical record describes a painting by Ma Shou-chen that bears the signature of the art i s t and her seals as well as having an inscription by Wang Chih-teng. This painting i s dated 1599. Another, also with an inscrip- tion by Wang-Chih-teng, i s dated 1600.^ S t i l l another historical record describes a painting signed by her in 1603."^ This paper w i l l discuss two additional paintings which are dated 1603 and 1604. Thus, a l l of these paintings are dated between 1570 and 1604. The Sung Yuan Ming Ch'ing shu hua chia nien piao cites two sources that give 1604 as the date of Ma Shou-chen's 11 death. This t a l l i e s f a i r l y well with other reports. The Yo hsueh lou shuhualU states Ma Shou-chen died shortly after Wang Chih-teng's sixty-ninth birthday celebration on 1602, 12 when she was f i f t y - s i x . This i s incorrect, according to Goodrich and Fang, who state Wang Chih-teng was sixty-nine in 1 6 0 4 . ^ The Yo hsueh lou shuhua l u also records a I853 colophon which states Ma Shou-chen died three years after the 1602 erroneously dated birthday celebration of Wang Chih-teng (i.e. 1 6 0 5 ) . O t h e r records also l i s t her death as occurring - - 5 - shortly after Wang Chih-teng*s birthday celebration. 15 Perhaps the most complete biography of her l i f e , the Lieh-ch'ao shih- chi hsiao-chuan, 1^ also states that she was f i f t y - s i x years old when she held the birthday party celebration for Wang Chih- teng and then died shortly thereafter.'^ Ma Shou-chen organized this celebration that so amazed the people of Soochow. Indeed the celebration must have been quite a sight for i t i s recorded that she brought a multi- storied boat for the occasion and carried down several young ladies to celebrate the occasion with Wang Chih-teng and his i d friends. The drinking and celebration lasted for several 19 months. Ma Shou-chen apparently had known him years before and had met him again after a long absence. This t a l l i e s with our record of Wang Chih-teng's colophons on her paintings. There are some dated the early 1570's and then there i s a gap of some years until Wang Chih-teng's inscription next appears 20 on a painting dated 1599. However, i t i s known that Wang Chih-teng wrote a preface in 1591 to Ma Shou-chen's two chuan 21 of poetry, now not extant. The birthday celebration thrown by Ma Shou-chen, underlines the special relationship between courtesans and l i t e r a t i . It was at such gatherings that poetry was composed and paintings were made" by the l i t e r a t i a r t i s t and by talented courtesans such as Ma Shou-chen. Such a relationship was not possible between l i t e r a t i and wives or female relatives, as I shall explain below. In fact, a suggestion that an "improper" gathering (such as a friend being introduced to a wife at a - 6 - feast) had taken place, could have disastrous consequences for 22 a l i t e r a t u s ' career. The reverse would be true for a l i t e r a t f r i e n d and a courtesan. The i n s t i t u t i o n of courjesanship and expertise with the brush were not independent a c t i v i t i e s but were directly- r e l a t e d . Thus, the special r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l i t e r a t i and courtesans developed almost independently of sex. But what did the term "courtesan" (chi^fe ) mean at the turn of the seventeenth century? 2^ We have l i t t l e d i r e c t information regarding Ma Shou-chen's background and t r a i n i n g , but enough i s known of the i n s t i t u t i o n of courtesanship to allow us to reach some understanding. Though some sources c a l l Ma Shou-chen a prostitute t h i s i s not e n t i r e l y appropriate. Prostitutes generally were untrained persons. Courtesans were accomplished women who were trained i n such entertainment s k i l l s as singing and the playing of musical instruments. However, only some had a small proficiency with the written language.2^" Ma Shou-chen was accomplished i n the written language—so accomplished that she could compose poetry, tz'u and prose and could write f r e e l y and spontaneously. We do not know i f she was accomplished with musical instruments. We could presume so, however, f o r at her own residence she taught apprentices at the Pear Garden, L i Yuan if] , named af t e r the music school for ladies i n the T'ang dynasty (618-916), and the sounds of musical instruments were heard by feast guests. 2^ There were numerous ways i n which g i r l s would have been - 7 - recruited into the profession of courtesanship. These would include purchase from poor fami l i e s , kidnapping or entering of t h e i r own free w i l l . 2 ^ Other reasons include having been born i n a brothel or being the r e l a t i v e s of criminals, or being women of Mongol descent. The only information we have regarding Ma Shou-chen was that she was the youngest of a 29 family group consisting of three daughters and t h e i r mother. However, t h i s may not have been her natural mother as the same term i s used for the madam of a house of p r o s t i t u t i o n . Ma Shou-chen would have started her t r a i n i n g as a courtesan i n t h i s house at a very early age. During her period of t r a i n i n g her feet would have been bound. She would have been regarded as a valuable investment and therefore care would have been taken to attempt achieving the three-inch Golden Lotus, chin- l i e n y ^ j f _ feet that were so admired.-^0 The Ch fin-huai area of Nanking was the brothel quarters. Its name derives from the canal entering Nanking. During the Ming-Ch'ing dynasties brothels l i n e d both of i t s banks.^ Ma Shou-chen l i v e d there i n a house that has been described as being i n one of the /better locations on the Ch'in-huai c a n a l — t h e implication being that there was a view of the water. The property i s described as having a garden and with so many passages and adjoining rooms that the v i s i t o r became d i s o r i e n t e d . 3 2 Ma Shou-chen would have spent many years of her l i f e looking over the waters of t h i s canal from within her gardens. As orchids grow naturally in t h i s area and the lotus plant i s abundant throughout China, i t i s most l i k e l y that her view included these f l o w e r s . ^ - 8. - The Ch'in-huai d i s t r i c t was conveniently near the H a l l of Tribute, the o f f i c i a l t e s t i n g ground of candidates f o r 34 advancement as o f f i c i a l s i n the Chinese bureacracy. In addition to the celebrations of successful candidates, and the consolation parties of the unsuccessful, the courtesans whiled away the hours with the a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d scholar who, lacking an o f f i c i a l appointment, occupied his time with calligraphy, painting and collections.3 5 The fact that there were many l i t e r a t i not involved i n an o f f i c i a l capacity was not e n t i r e l y due to choice. The l i t e r a r y i n q u i s i t i o n i n the early Ming dynasty had resulted i n a cut- back i n the degrees being g r a n t e d . ^ Also, because of a quota 3 7 system the competition i n the Soochow area was intense. With more time available, the s o c i a l l i f e of the l i t e r a t i and the courtesans became inter-dependent. The most popular p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y group of the late Ming period was the Revival Society. This Society- numbered i n the thousands. This society was also 39 c a l l e d the L i t t l e East Forest Society for i t resembled the l a s t Forest Society (Tung-lin hui .i'k ) both i n i t s ideology and i t s popularity with the l i t e r a t i . ^ This society was most .popular 1604-1625, s l i g h t l y late for Ma Shou-chen to have been present at any of i t s meetings, but i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the prevalence of the mingling of scholars and courtesans throughout the Ming dynasty. The courtesan was a natural partner to a scholar because of Confucian attitudes, attitudes which are at the very heart of Chinese s o c i a l and governmental order. To a Confucianist, - 9 - s t a b i l i t y was the id e a l goal and so s t a b i l i t y within s o c i a l r e lationships was of paramount importance. Consequently, the Confucian c l a s s i c , the L i Chi, focuses upon the proper r e l a t i o n s between a man and his wife and v i r t u a l l y l i m i t s a l l mention of physical contact to the marriage couch.^ 2 There the age-old b e l i e f that a man's yangfr|oessence would be strengthened by replenishment from the female's yin essence during the sexual act was combined with Confucian ideas. The early Chinese believed that a man's semen was the source of hi s l i f e and health and each emission diminished h i s force. Therefore^ although sexual contact was b e n e f i c i a l , ejaculation was to be reserved f o r providing children f o r the f a m i l y . ^ With such a b e l i e f i n the powers of the sexual act, i t i s not surprising that each well-to-do Chinese gentleman required not only an o f f i c i a l wife but also secondary consorts and concubines. The male children of a l l such unions could make s a c r i f i c e s to ancestors. But Confucian ideals r e s t r i c t e d a l l wives and concubines to the women's quarters where the only r e a l contact they had with any male was with t h e i r men, i n bed. It was considered very unseemly for a wife or concubine to associate with her husbands' friends and out of the question f o r a wife or concubine to be present at a s o c i a l gathering, such as a banquet. Thus, a s i t u a t i o n arose where there was such a separation between a man and h i s wives and - concubines that a courtesan became the invaluable partner of a scholar during h i s l e i s u r e time. A courtesan would be able to entertain h i s friends , - 10 - and encourage h i s own enjoyment i n a r t i s t i c pursuits. Sex i n such a s i t u a t i o n was not of primary importance. Indeed, as a Confucian gentleman was required to v i s i t each of hi s wives every f i v e days and bring each complete s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t was probably as a rest from carnal love and obligations that he v i s i t e d courtesans.^ He would have no sexual obligations to her and either one could break o f f the rel a t i o n s h i p at w i l l . For her part, the courtesan would also hot be so l i k e l y to promote an active interest i n a sexual relationship:,for simple economic re a s o n s . ^ A courtesan brought i n large amounts of money when she was deflowered (after having achieved renown fo r her s k i l l s i n entertaining) and at the time she was per- manently bought out of a brothel. The remaining time a courtesan acquired money through the feasts at the brothel, where the establishment provided wine and food. Only a small f r a c t i o n of a brothel's income represented money gained from patrons sleeping with the g i r l s . Also, as intercourse i n - 47 creased the r i s k of disease as well as pregnancy i t thus was naturally not encouraged. A woman's reputation for being able to entertain her guests would vastly improve her worth.^ She was encouraged to learn poetry because poetry could be used i n a game involving wine drinking, and wine drinking increased the money earned by a 49 brothel. In addition, i t was the dream of each courtesan to be bought out, with her name being dropped from the re g i s t e r s , by a well-known s c h o l a r . ^ Consequently, a courtesan's s k i l l s were considered the most important factor i n her position, - 1.1 - ce r t a i n l y more important than physical appearance,^ 1 and: i t was to her own as well as the brothel's interest that she be accomplished i n the arts and able to entertain a scholar. Therefore, the a b i l i t y to paint and write to the taste of the scholar class advanced her own and the brothel's i n t e r e s t s . Thus, i t became f i a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e to invest the quantities of time and money necessary f o r such t r a i n i n g . Ma Shou-chen f a l l s i n very well into t h i s general descrip- t i o n of courtesans. Our records mention her pure complexion 52 and charm without r e a l l y mentioning her beauty. Her a b i l i t y to entertain and charm people i s mentioned as long l a s t i n g , 53 at least into her f i f t i e s . Also, Ma Shou-chen longed, unsuccessfully as i t turned out, to be married to Wang Chih- teng (1535-1612), a poet, calligrapher and leading l i t e r a t u s of the Soochow area. Much of the information we have from Chinese h i s t o r i a n s concerning her i s i n regard to her r e l a t i o n - ship with Wang C h i h - t e n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a study of Ma Shou- chen's l i f e , works and re l a t i o n s h i p with Wang Chih-teng helps us to understand her not only as a eourtesah but as a painter as well . Her a r t i s t i c endeavors developed from and affected her personal i n d i v i d u a l experience. 1 - 1.2 - SECTION I I : HISTORICAL REFERENCES and CRITICISM H i s t o r i c a l records of Ma Shou-chen's works show frequent references to certain Chinese a r t i s t s whose works had i n - fluenced her own. An exploration of why these a r t i s t s , and not others, were named i n these records advances further evidence of the close r e l a t i o n s h i p between Ma Shou-chen, a courtesan, and l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s . A b r i e f discussion of the history of flower painting i n China helps place Ma Shou-chen's works within the l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n of flower painting, a t r a d i t i o n going back to the tenth century which was founded on the paint- ings of Hsu Esi^- f& rather than on the professional/ academic paintings of Huang Ch'uan %y%r • A discussion of the c r i t i c a l comments by Chinese historians of Ma Shou-chen's works suggests that her s o c i a l status more than her a r t i s t i c endeavors influenced these comments. Chinese h i s t o r i c a l records note Ma Shou-chen's paintings and the paintings discussed i n t h i s paper have flowers, or plants, or rocks as t h e i r subject matter and a l l apparently u t i l i z e near or middle, but never f a r , distance. The Mustard Seed Manual, the Tfu t ' a i hua shih and the f i e v > Chung-kuo hua chia .jen ming t a tz'u a l l note that Ma Shou-chen excelled i n painting orchids i n the double outline technique (shuang-kou ̂  ) i n the manner of Chao Meng-chien J&_ (1199 - 1 2 6 7 ? ) . They add- that her bamb 0 0 was known to be i n the manner of Chao Meng-fu's J ^ J I ^ wife, Kuan T a o - S h e n g ^ ^ ^ ( I 2 6 3 - I 3 1 9 ) . 1 - 13 - In order to understand the relevance of these statements and to f i t Ma Shou-chen's paintings within the larger frame- work of Chinese art history, and not just the smaller frame- work of paintings by women, i t i s necessary to give a b r i e f h i s t o r y of flower painting i n China. Flower painting has a d i f f e r e n t significance i n Chinese art than i t has i n Western a r t . This fact i s underlined by the willingness of Chinese to have t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d with certain flowers. It i s hard to imagine, for example, a Western philosopher being referred to by a painting of a flowei?. In Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n , flowers have long been closely a s s o c i - ated with the ar t s and therefore are woven into the f a b r i c of Chinese c u l t u r e . 2 For example, the lotus and the orchid, indigenous to China, through repeated use gradually acquired a r i c h symbolic meaning while t h e i r constant presence i n gardens would permit s u b t l e t i e s to be appreciated. To the Chinese, a flower's presence r e c a l l s i t s fragrance which r e c a l l s a memory. The memory can re l a t e to a person a place or an emotion. This value f i t s i n well with the l i t e r a r y a r t s of China. An example of the union of l i t e r a t u r e , painting and such a symbolic r e f - erence i s the painting of the poet and sometime official,;-T*ao Yuan-ming (365-427), whose face i s shown i n p o r t r a i t s as buried i n h i s fa v o r i t e flower, the chrysanthemum.3 China had an e l i t e class of o f f i c i a l scholars with the education and l e i s u r e to develop strong a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s . Generally, the l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s preferred a more spontaneously - -14 - rendered representation than the more s p e c i f i c a l l y rendered professional/academic a r t i s t . The Confucian scholar pre- ferred not to delineate images because, when putting down the s p e c i f i c , the general might be forgotten. This most important factor was the Harmonizing movement of l i f e breath, ch'i yiin shen tung Jf^ ^ A The a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s of the l i t e r a t i were naturally based upon the interest of the creators. S k i l l with the brush and learning based upon a Confucian education are at the foundation of Chinese art t r a d i t i o n s . Flower painting i s no exception to t h i s . But, as C a h i l l notes^, the fundamental difference between l i t e r a t i and n o n - l i t e r a t i painting was the l i t e r a t i insistence that painting revealed the nature of man and h i s mood and f e e l i n g at that moment. The quality of the personality of the a r t i s t became more important than the subject. The schism between l i t e r a t i and n o n - l i t e r a t i paintings was defined during the time of Su Shih jgfc. jjr£ (1063=1101), but differences were observed before t h i s date. Bird and flower painting has often been described by the Chinese as having two d i s t i n c t schools. Although there had been a r t i s t s s p e c i a l i z i n g i n b i r d and flower painting before the Five Dynasties period, two schools are said to have emerged during t h i s period.^ The originator of one school, Huang Ch'uan (d .965) was a Szechuan painter known f o r h i s realism, d e t a i l and r i c h use of colour. The second school's founder was Hsii Hsi a Nanking a r t i s t who f i r s t used a sketch technique - 15 - of broad strokes of ink and then followed with a colour wash. The difference was that Hsu Hsi did not have Huang Ch'uan's interest i n an exact representation of form; Hsu Hsi attemped to capture the e s s e n t i a l essence of a p a r t i c u l a r flower, i t s l i f e - b r e a t h . 7 The f i r s t school started by Huang Ch'uan, quickly became a f a v o r i t e i n the court c i r c l e s due to i t s a r t i s t s ' a b i l i t y to provide a c o l o u r f u l and t e c h n i c a l l y perfect painting. This precise, r e a l i s t i c and c o l o u r f u l painting s t y l e was the paint- ing style practised at the Emperor Hui-tsung's painting academy of the N Qrthern Sung ( 96O - I I 35 ) . There, the p r i n c i p l e s °f Hsieh-sheng || ^_ or drawing from l i f e were perfected. The r e s u l t s corresponded to the Emperor iHui-tsung's, and the court's aethetic taste. Succeeding Emperors and courts naturally wanted to followuthis t r a d i t i o n . Painters following Hsu Hsi?s painting technique responded to Taoist and Buddhist b e l i e f s that inanimate objects were an important part of the balance of the universe. Man must be i n unity with a l l things. Indeed, flowers were believed to express t h e i r own needs and emotions, though s i l e n t l y , through t h e i r perfume and t h e i r graceful shapes. It was f e l t that Huang Ch'uan captured t h e i r outer appearance but Hsu Hsi was able to express t h e i r inner essence. Perhaps t h i s i s more e a s i l y understood when i t i s compared to poetry. There i s a b e l i e f that poetry naturally lends i t s e l f to the expression of an inanimate object. Chinese poetry i s p a r t i c u l a r l y able to express these thoughts because the structure of the language - L6 - lends i t s e l f to concise but i n d e f i n i t e expressions. This i s because a character can represent not just words but symbols . ' of ideas.^ The same desire to capture mood and f e e l i n g through concise phrases led the l i t e r a t i painters, whom Su Shih defined as poets who painted,9 to use a technique of painting whereby r e l a t i v e l y simple brush strokes and a simple composition were believed to be more able to capture the s p i r i t or the essence of the subject. In f a c t , the Hsuan-ho hua-p'u, a twelfth century text exhibiting some l i t e r a t i biaslO, stated that the i n t e l l e c t u a l significance of paintings of flowers i s the same as poems. Therefore, Hsu H s i i s school of painting became known for i t s hsieh-yi ^ ^ff, or idea/concept painting and the concept of hsieh-sheng ^ ^_ or drawing from l i f e with i t s emphasis on form-likeness was relegated to a position of secondary import- ance. The new aim of expressing the a r t i s t ' s inner f e e l i n g s f i t s i n well with l i t e r a t u s Su Shih's idea that painting existed not to depict things but to express one's own f e e l i n g and give lodging for the moment to these feelings.-'- 2 In the Yuan dynasty the p r e d i l e c t i o n for l i t e r a t i to paint flowers i n the manner of Hsii Hsi was reinforced. Chao Meng- chien,jj^ J ^ ^ ' , the a r t i s t previously mentioned as influencing Ma Shou-chen, was a r e l a t i v e of the Imperial Sung family and managed to survive i n Chekiang Province a f t e r the f a l l of the Northern Sung. He specialized i n the kou-le %f) or outline method of painting n a r c i s s i , plum-blossoms;, epidendrum and bamboo. H i s s c r o x i N a r c i s s i i s almost a botanical drawing of a s p e c i f i c plant i n d i f f e r e n t states of maturity and within - 17 - a palpable atmosphere. Ghao Meng-chien was able to involve the viewer i n the graceful play of the leaves. The viewer can f e e l the movement of the blades i n the breeze. As you draw closer your memory r e c a l l s the s l i g h t but pervasive perfume that i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s flower. The secret perfume, i s interpreted by the Chinese as an expression or pe r s o n i f i c a t i o n of intimate friendship and l o v e . 1 ^ Chao Meng-chien apologized f o r h i s forms by saying t h e i r appearance was due to h i s f a i l i n g sight or lack of p r a c t i s e . ^ But Chao Meng-fu, h i s cousin, praised his painting saying i t demonstrated proper o r d e r . ^ In other words, Chao Meng-chien's compositional elements and painting technique were right i n themselves and not dependent on nature. Huang Ch'uan's emphasis on resemblance'to nature had been relegated to non-importance. The d i v i s i o n between academic and l i t e r a t i painting started i n the Northern Sung and was exemplified i n the Southern Sung by Chao Meng-chien. He, as a member of the Sung Imperial clan and a prefect of Yen-chou, was well away from the academic painting c i r c l e s i n the c a p i t a l . 1 7 It has been suggested by Bush that perhaps Chao Meng-chien and others of the Southern Sung l i t e r a t i c i r c l e chose non-academic themes such as flowers, instead of the popular academic landscape theme, to purposely separate themselves from academic p a i n t e r s . 1 ^ The argument that l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s of the Southern Sung deliberately chose styl e s and themes to separate t h e i r painting from those of academic a r t i s t s i s reinforced by the fact that Chao Meng-chien's - 18 - outline painting s t y l e supposedly followed the style of Yang Pu-chih A%] (active 12th c ) . It has been suggested that Yang Pu-chih's works gained t h e i r popularity from the fact that he refused to serve Ch'in Kuei who intrigued with the T a r t a r s . 1 ^ For t h i s act Yang ,Pu-chih became a hero to the Chinese, and hi s painting s t y l e became associated with h i s p o l i t i c a l actions. When Chao Meng-chien preferred to disassociate himself from the contemporary government and t r a v e l the r i v e r s while painting orchids and n a r c i s s i , i t was s i g n i f i c a n t that' he chose the re b e l l i o u s hero's, Yang Pu-chih, st y l e of painting. Chao Meng-chien's paintings were viewed as representing the i n t e g r i t y of a worthy man because they personified a Confucian statement about a worthy man. Confucius said " t h i s orchid's fragrance should be for a king; now i t blooms i n solitude, with common grasses f o r c o m p a n i o n s ; T h i s i s just l i k e the worthy man ( chun -tzu - j - ) who i n an i n - opportune time must associate with the common herd (chung^ ).2® Also, the Chinese c l a s s i c , the Tso Chuan, also r e f e r s to the unique fragrance of an orchid, giving the fragrance i t s association with a worthy man. 2 1 Although Chao Meng-chien's paintings were viewed as representing the i n t e g r i t y of a worthy man, there i s no text with h i s paintings to substantiate t h i s b e l i e f . A more d i r e c t l y stated message i n orchid painting i s the painting by Cheng Su-hsiao }| , a contemporary of Chao Meng-chien, who i s quoted as saying h i s orchids have no s o i l because "the earth has been taken away by ba r b a r i a n s " . 2 2 - 19 - Later Yuan dynasty a r t i s t s such as Chang Chung ><r (mid 14th) continued t h i s l i t e r a t i s tyle of painting that i s characterized by the use of outline with expressive yet minimal use of brush strokes and diminished use of colour. We see t h i s s t y l e of painting i n Wu Chen's / ^ J l , paintings of bamboo. According to Wu Chen, "ink play"(mo h s i % ^ ) i s the scholars' painting. 23 This statement included the outline pai-miao 4> s t y l e n a r c i s s i that were o r i g i n a l l y painted by Yang Pu-chih. 2^ Several f a c t o r s came to characterize the l i t e r a t i painting at t h i s time. The paintings were non-imitiative, demonstrating a d i s i n t e r e s t i n form likeness. The expressive quality of the brush stroke increased i n importance. 25 Also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l i t e r a t i paintings i n the Yuan dynasty was the increased use of colophons on the painting. The word of the a r t i s t and h i s image became interdependent while colour was omitted or at least greatly reduced. When colour was used, f o r example i n Chao Meng-fu's painting Autumn Colors on the Ch'iao and Hua Mountains 2^, i t was used to r e f e r back to a happier time i n Chinese history, the T'ang dynasty (618-917). This b r i e f outline of the h i s t o r y of flower painting bring us to the Ming dynasty. It i s important to note that a l i t e r a t u s during the Yuan dynasty should not have served as an o f f i c a l i n what was regarded as a barbarian government. 2? But i t could generally be said that p o l i t i c s prevented a v l i t e r a t u s from serving and denied him the opportunity to demonstrate - -20 - hi,-?: learning i n the o f f i c a l examinations. This changed i n the Ming dynasty. A l i t e r a t i scholar at the time of the Ming dynasty was not necessarily an o f f i c i a l , f o r many Ming scholars chose not to serve i n public o f f i c e . 2 ^ Therefore, the term l i t e r a t i i s hereafter used to denote education rather than o f f i c i a l recogni- t i o n . A l i t e r a t u s may or may not have served as an o f f i c i a l but would have been p r o f i c i e n t i n calligraphy, painting and poetry. The l i t e r a t i painters of the Ming dynasty belonged mainly to the Wu school. This geographically-derived term r e f e r s to the Soochow area i n Ktangsu Province, east of T*ai-hu, an area that contained much of the wealth of China. 29 There was a r i v a l r y between the Wu school and the Che school with each side having i t s supporters,Wang Shih-chen j£ _.rifi^ (1526—1540) promoted calligraphy of the Wu school a r t i s t s and i t s p r i n c i p a l member, Wen Cheng-ming '"IjjL ^ , but preferred the Che school painters.30 Wang Chih-teng, Ma Shou-chen*s f r i e n d , only considered the painters of the Wu school i n h i s t r e a t i s e Wu-chun tan-ch*ing chih Wang Chih-teng did not mention Ma Shou-chen i n t h i s t r e a t i s e . But there are c r i t i c a l comments of Ma Shou-chen*s works at the time of Wang Chih-teng as well as at a l a t e r date. Unfortu- nately, due to the habit of Chinese scholars of c a r e f u l l y recording information but not noting sources, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain the dates of c r i t i c a l comments. - -21 - Most Chinese his t o r i a n s used the word "accomplished", shaniil- , when r e f e r r i n g to Ma Shou-chen's paintings, p a r t i c - u l a r l y her orchid paintings.32 Others are rather non- committal, reporting merely that her paintings were i n accord with the s p i r i t of the Hsiang River maidens. This reference w i l l be dealt with extensively below during the discussion of Ma Shou-chen ?s works. Others report that her paintings were elegant and refined, even of f i n a n c i a l value. These same writers noted that o f f i c i a l s purchased her paintings and she was known as f a r as Thailand.34 The praise, however, of Ma Shou-chen 1s painting i s generally rather luke-warm, i f respectable. The Shih ku t'ang shu hua l u k'ao was c r i t i c a l of her paintings, saying they demonstrated a weak brush stroke and were not successful.35 Another writer says that, on the contrary, her brushstroke was elegant and powerful with an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e . 3 ^ But more praise i s shown Ma Shou-chen for. her poetry and calligraphy. Historians note that her poetry demonstrated a s p i r i t e d rhythnand was extremely excellent. Her f r i e n d Wang Chih-teng, t o t a l l y non-committal as to her paintings, stated that her poetry was so popular that she caused the price of paper to r i s e . 3 ^ Wang Chih-teng was much more .interested i n impressing the reader with Ma Shou-chen's credentials as to her character than as to her a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y . Much of h i s writing about her concerned her credentials as a courtesan. He wanted to l i n k her with the famous courtesans of the past. He f e l t that she was as good as, or better than, they were. According to Wang Chih-teng, Ma Shou-chen could wear ornate female clothing and also have the heart of a warrior. In addition, she could write poetry.39 The elevation of status of an i n d i v i d u a l by accomplishment i n the l i t e r a r y arts i s a t r a d i t i o n a l device i n Chinese h i s t o r y . As previously noted, Su Shih defined a l i t e r a t u s as one who wrote poetry. Wang Chih-teng assured us that Ma Shou-chen expressed h e r s e l f through her w r i t i n g . ^ Moreover, he said she did not take money very seriously. This was a further comment on her noble character, for d i s i n t e r e s t i n f i n a n c i a l matters was recognized quite early as being a desirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a worthy person (chun tzu) the goal of a l i t e r a t u s . ^ 1 Ma Shou-chen's calligraphy was infrequently mentioned, and one exuberant report stated that her calligraphy achieved the depth of the Duke of Wu Hsing (Chao Meng-fu) and i n fact was so s i m i l a r that some people were confused.42 But, i n spite of these comments, Chinese h i s t o r i a n s generally placed her biography with other female a r t i s t s and not with l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s . 4 3 This was considered to be her category. She was primarily a female. This hesitancy to accept Ma Shou-chen's paintings and calligraphy and a willingness to accept her poetry may be due to t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese prejudices towards women a r t i s t s . There i s a t r a d i t i o n of female poets i n China so i t was not too unusual and therefore more a c c e p t a b l e B u t a painter, poet and calligrapher such as Ma Shou-chen would come up against many prejudices. Lady Pan Chao, (d 1125 A.D.) - .23 - the author of Nu Chieh (Women's Precepts), stated that the virt u e s of women were not b r i l l i a n t t a l e n t , d i s t i n c t i o n or elegance.^ Lady Pan Chao's teachings encouraged the education of females, but only i n order to teach women t h e i r i n f e r i o r i t y to men and stress the importance of t h e i r obedience. This book became the basis for other similar t r e a t i s e s and enjoyed great popularity, e s p e c i a l l y during the Ch'ing dynasty.^ From the teachings, a Chinese proverb was formulated that stated "a chen was not a virtuous woman i . e . a wife or concubine so she was able to develop her ta l e n t s , but she s t i l l may not have been able to overcome prejudices and be judged on her own merit. Kuan Tao-sheng was a virtuous women who at f i r s t glance appears to repudiate the theory that i t was generally only courtesans who received the^benefit of a scholarly education and that a female a r t i s t was not .given due credit f o r her work but c r i t i c a l l y judged on the basis of her status as a female. ' Kuan Tao-sheng was the only c h i l d of a father that doted on her a b i l i t y to paint bamboo. While she i s famous for her talen t , the Chinese give her spe c i a l note as the partner i n a "perfect marriage". This i s i n spite of the fact that one of her best known poems i s a rather sad one lamenting her husband's choice of a new concubine.^ When art h i s t o r i a n s mention Kuan Tao- sheng i t i s usually i n a section devoted to talented female artists, with a reference to her famous husband. For example, i n spite of her supposed a b i l i t y to paint bamboo, when Siren virtuous woman has no t a l e n t s " Ma Shou- - 2k - mentions the famous masters of the Yuan dynasty who served as guides to l a t e r generations of bamboo painters, he does not mention her name.^ Thus Kuan Tao-sheng received her education as the exception to a rule, and i s better known as the wife of a famous man than f o r her own t a l e n t . A hint that Ma Shou-chen's works were judged on other than t h e i r own merit i s found i n the opera P a i - l i e n ch'un.5® This Ming dynasty opera (no longer extant) was very popular i n i t s time. Within the opera, Ma Shou-chen was openly r i d i c u l e d . The commentary on t h i s opera states that the purpose was that, by s a t i r i z i n g Ma Shou-chen, r i d i c u l e would reach Wang Chih-teng.51 Censors repressed t h i s opera but i t l e f t i t s mark i n history and may account f o r the comment found i n Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u on her "chicken skin" (chi p ' i , not a compliment to any woman, even as a joke.5 2 As noted above, physical beauty of a courtesan was unimportant when compared to her talent and charm. Why i n spite of t h i s were personal comments regarding her appearance regarded as suitable material f o r i n s c r i p t i o n s on her paintings? Possibly, such c r i t i c i s m of Ma Shou-chen was used to r i d i c u l e Wang Chih-teng, the champion of the Wu school, i n the r i v a l r y between the Wu and the Che schools. It i s very unusual f o r a mere courtesan to be singled out f o r such treatment. Comments i n Chinese h i s t o r i c a l reports about Ma Shou-chen's work, though in t e r e s t i n g , are not very i l l u m i n a t i n g as to her work, as they seem to be involved with her s o c i a l status more than her creations. It i s necessary to now look at her paintings, poetry and calligraphy i n understand Ma Shou-chen's - 25 - order to objectively be able place i n Chinese art h i s t o r y . - 26 - SECTION II I : ARTISTIC WORKS The Metropolitan Museum hanging s c r o l l , Orchid, Bamboo and Rock, by Ma Shou-chen (see fig u r e 1 and Appendix Part 1, Catalogue item I ) , i s dated 1572, which would make i t one of the e a r l i e s t of her works. The compositional elements of the painting are massed at the bottom of the s c r o l l , very s l i g h t l y off center. An orchid plant ( i n t h i s case the grass orchid, of a rather large and rounded stone. Bamboo reaches out from behind the stone at the r i g h t . The s l i g h t i n c l i n e of the ground has been rendered with a rather dry and fibrous brush stroke. Some deli c a t e grass plants with a few leaves are sprinkled on the ground. The rock has been rendered with a l i g h t outline and various tones of .ink. The texture strokes begin with dark ink and then diminish i n size and become l i g h t e r i n tone as they are drawn across the paper. The bamboo provides a compositional balance as well as contrasting sharp d e t a i l and dark tones with the rest of the composition. The orchid plant has been executed i n single brush strokes of varying tones. The long, sinuous strokes flow, giving the viewer a sense of f r a g i l i t y and grace. The blossoms accentuate t h i s sense of delicacy and add an element of actual weight and presence. In t h i s painting the viewer i s struck with an impression of a miniature setting; elements of nature seen as a microcosm' and with the attempt by the a r t i s t to represent a r e a l orchid i n a r e a l but miniature s e t t i n g . A l l the elements have been with i t s flowering spike i s rooted i n front - 27 - ca r e f u l l y combined to create a rather stable q u a l i t y . The l i g h t blossoms of the orchid appear poised and motionless, waiting f o r a l i g h t breeze to bring them into motion. They wait i n vain, f o r there i s no motion i n the long blades of the orchid plant. The rock texture strokes have been rendered i n the fei-po ^ or " f l y i n g white" brush stroke manner that we can see i n the works of P'u-ming, a fourteenth century a r t i s t . 1 The 2 orchid plant has also been executed i n the P'u-ming t r a d i t i o n and not the outline style made popular by Chao Meng-chien. This i s rather surprising as Ma Shou-chen was known fo r her outline s t y l e i n the Chao Meng-chien manner. Perhaps t h i s painting i s representative of her e a r l i e r and more experimental period. The painting composition would be a complete entity with- out the three colophons at the top of the s c r o l l . However, assuming Ma Shou-chen's i n s c r i p t i o n was added at the time the painting was done, t h i s would create an imbalance. With her i n s c r i p t i o n added, there would be an unbalanced composition without the Wang Chih-teng i n s c r i p t i o n of the f a r l e f t . The compositional balance require either the two i n s c r i p t i o n s or none at a l l . The Wang Chih-teng i n s c r i p t i o n , with i t s very dark and strong ink calligraphy, not only balances the compo- s i t i o n of the painting and poetry but also serves to emphasize the dark tone of the brush strokes used to depict the orchid blossoms. It seems therefore safe to assume that Wang Chih- teng' s i n s c r i p t i o n was written the same time that Ma Shou-chen's painting and calligraphy was executed. Therefore, the painting, - 2.8 - Ma Shou-chen's i n s c r i p t i o n , Wang Chih-teng's i n s c r i p t i o n and 3 perhaps Hsueh Ming-i's i n s c r i p t i o n were a l l executed i n 1572. Thus, t h i s painting would be a testimonial to the early f r i e n d - ship between Ma Shou-chen and Wang Chih-teng. The poetry written by Ma Shou-chen helps explain the meaning of t h i s painting. Her i n s c r i p t i o n reads: Green shadows spread over the Hsiang River, Clear fen incense flows down to the hidden v a l l e y . Written on the fourth month of 1572 i n the l i t t l e p a v i l i o n of Ch*in Huai. Wang Chih-teng's colophon reads: The fragrant land i s submerged, Three months of spring have watered The secret orchids of the nine f i e l d s . In the Green H i l l s Study People s i t with wine i n front of them and read the L i These two poems contain s i m i l a r imagery to the Caswell C o l l e c t i o n painting and poem written by Ma Shou-chen that we w i l l discuss l a t e r i n t h i s paper. The Hsiang River and the "nine f i e l d s " of orchids we understand to be a reference to Ch'u Yiian's L i sao.^ The fragrance that i s mentioned i s a further a l l u s i o n to the orchids, for they are associated with t h e i r d e l i c a t e yet pervasive fragrance. It i s the l e i s u r e l y , elegant yet long l a s t i n g quality of permeating the atmosphere that cause the orchid fragrance to be linked with a true 5 f r i e n d or a perfect man. Another fa c t o r that i s brought out by Wang Chih-teng's poem i s the l i n k of wine, fr i e n d s h i p and scholarly a c t i v i t i e s — such as painting, calligraphy and reading—while i n the company of courtesans.^ As previously discussed, courtesans often participated i n writing poetry while drinking games were i n - 29 - progress. Thus. Wang Chih-teng*s poem emphasizes the l i n k that courtesans shared with l i t e r a t i endeavors. Ma Shou-chen's poetry ref e r s to China's legendary past. Her i n d i v i d u a l painting style l i n k s her to well known t r a d i t i o n a l flower painting brush techniques. The Caswell c o l l e c t i o n orchid painting by Ma Shou-chen, (see figure 2 and Catalogue item I I ) , shows the leaves, flowers and buds of the orchid cymbidium ensifolium, or Fukien (Min) l_an &*_ §?! . This plant's eight or more flowered spike blooms i n the early summer with a less strong fragrance than the spring flowering Ch'un jj^ orchid.^ The painting's composition i s composed of a single broad c l u s t e r of the orchid plant, grouped i n the lower l e f t hand corner of the s c r o l l with a few long, yet sturdy, blades reaching across to the right border of the painting and also reaching up to gesture to the colpphon in the upper right corner. The leaves and stems are indicated as suddenly appearing. That i s , they f l o a t i n mid-air. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n of ground, nor of water, nor. of roots. The painting has been executed i n the shuang kou (outline) s t y l e that Ma Shou-chen has been described as using. The spikes with blossoms are s i m i l a r to the ones i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Mustard Seed Manual. Different tones of ink have been used throughout the painting. There are d i f f e r e n t tones used to depict the blades, with the more distant blades rendered i n a paler tone. The petals on the blossoms are also painted i n a l i g h t e r tone with - 30 - even paler texture strokes on each petal's body. The t i p s of the petals have a dark stroke added that give a l i v e l y contrast that focuses the eye on the heart of the flowers. The dark tonal wash on each blossom's heart i s even further augmented by dark texture dots. Each blossom's heart appears palpably vulnerable yet ^protected by the sheath of petals. The e r o t i c associations that could be drawn from t h i s description are quite obvious and probably i n t e n t i o n a l . The long brush strokes depicting the blades are impress- i v e l y firm yet d e l i c a t e . Sl i g h t increases of pressure on the hairs of the brush have changed the character of each l i n e along the blade. Yet no extenuated and graceful l i n e i s marred by a moment's hes i t a t i o n i n the drawing process. The calligraphy has been drawn i n the "Regular s c r i p t " (k'ai shu % ) s t y l e . The hand i s quite firm and sure yet each character i s regular and even. There i s no evidence of e c c e n t r i c i t y i n the a r t i s t , no example of a whim that has been spontaneously carried out. Instead there i s evidence of a talented and well-practised a r t i s t who confidently, yet cautiously c a r r i e s out her work. The e f f e c t induced intthe observer i s one of admiration f o r the graceful c a l l i g r a p h i c l i n e s of the leaves, the delicate intertwining of the blades that wind through each other without being l o s t i n confusion. But there i s no r e a l sensation of movement with no suggestion of a i r or cloud; the effect i s of elegance and the d i s t i l l a t i o n of a mood. The sturdy blades and the blossoms appear suspended i n a state of dynamic equilibrium. This effect of suspended motion i s increased by the a r t i s t ' s - 31 - di s i n t e r e s t i n depicting; ground. However, the lack of motion and the a i r l e s s quality do not i n f e r a sense of l i f e l e s s n e s s . Instead, the massed compositional elements contain a sense of v i t a l i t y that i s conveyed by the animated faces of each blossom's heart, peering out from behind i t s petals and twisting around the blades. These are the same worthy gentlemen blooming i n solitude that Confucius noted. The painting could not have been an accident of design.*, The multitude of strokes needed to depict the orchid plant necessitates a careful study to have been pre- viously made by the a r t i s t , i n order to avoid the painting's elements being l o s t i n a confusion. There i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y that t h i s painting would be the resu l t of numerous previous studies and perhaps a preliminary background charcoal sketch. The composition of the painting would be complete without the calligraphy. However, the calligraphy has been written i n the same firm, regular and controlled brush s t y l e of the painting. Indeed, the calligraphy and the painting elements could both have been drawn with the same brush. This factor, with the fact that the orchid blades gesture toward, and almost enclose, the poem, cause the viewer to consider the painting and the colophon as a symbiotic e n t i t y . It i s obvious that t h i s painting i s derived from the Chinese t r a d i t i o n of orchid painting. Not only i s there a s i m i l a r i t y with drawing i n the Mustard Seed Manual (which although printed a f t e r t h i s a r t i s t ' s death, was derived from pre-existing works in the Nanking area), but there are also strong s i m i l a r i t i e s with works of a r t i s t s that Ma was known to have been influenced by. When we examine the works of Chao Meng-chien, f o r example the N a r c i s s i s c r o l l , we can < see the double outline technique and agree with Chinese hi s t o r i a n s ' statements l i n k i n g her sty l e with h i s . Ma Shou-chen's poem, which as already been noted as an in t e g r a l part of the composition, conveys, some of the s i g n i - ficance of the painting. It reads: In the \air there i s a fragrance of nine f i e l d s of orchids The dew sparkles i n the cool weather; Three Hsiang River moons shed t h e i r tears, Only traces of the dried tears remain; The autumn sky i s clear, Yet so vast and broad i t appears l i m i t l e s s . Who w i l l t r a v e l once more To ising of the marsh border scenes? Painted and composed i n the Ch'in-huai Water Pavilion At the request of f i f t h elder s i s t e r Su Ching. In 1603 at the time of hoar f r o s t descending. This poem i l l u s t r a t e s some of the symbolism mentioned previously. The term nine f i e l d s r e f e r s to the poem "Encountering 10 Sorrow", by Ch'u Yuan. We are sure the poem refer s to the L i sao and not to any other e v e n t . ^ The reference to the LI sao i s made clear by the word c h ' u ^ which can mean c l e a r / d i s t i n c t as well as ref e r to the State of Ch'u, where Ch'u Yuan came from. The three Hsiang River moons refer to Hsiang Chun and Hsiang Fu-jen, who were o r i g i n a l l y d i v i n i t i e s presiding over the Hsiang River, and l a t e r looked on as the daughters of the 12 Emperor Yao. Ma Shou-chen includes herself as the t h i r d of the Hsiang River moons as she i s also known as Hsiang-lan and Yueh (moon)-chiao. Yueh-chiao could be translated as the Beauty of the Moon. - 33 - Thus, the poem l i n k s the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the blooming orchids to the past, to the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s of pre- Taoist legends and also l i n k s the author's i d e n t i t y to these t r a d i t i o n s . There i s also a suggestion that Ma Shou-chen i s using the a l l u s i o n to orchids i n order to equate her stature as a courtesan to that of a noble man i n adverse circumstances. The Indianapolis Museum hahdscroll(see figure 3 and Catai logue item III) by Ma Shou-chen, i s one of the largest of her works. This long s c r o l l , e n t i t l e d Orchids and Bamboo, i s signed and dated the f a l l of 1604 and does not bear a poem by the a r t i s t . It was drawn i n the outline s t y l e with shading added l a t e r . It i s almost a botanical t r e a t i s e with various marsh grasses, water plants and moss executed i n exacting d e t a i l . Many of these blossoms and plants are recognizable as v i s u a l l y s i m i l a r to the blossoms and plants i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Mustard 13 Seed Manual. The a r t i s t has displayed an accomplished technical v i r t u o s i t y i n her handling of the various tones of ink i n the painting. The small orchid at the base of the water and at the base of the rock formation i l l u s t r a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n g contrast between the l i g h t e r tone of the water and the dark strokes used to convey the graceful twists of the le a f blades. In turn, t h i s treatment provides a r i c h contrast with the short fine l i n e s of the marsh grass and the fibrous brush strokes used to depict the fock formation. The a r t i s t has used the a r t i s t i c device of employing the long, supple blades of the orchid to gesture to the next p i c t o r i a l element. Long graceful c a l l i g r a p h i c l i n e s point to - '34 - the soft rounded shapes of the rocks and the de l i c a t e texture of vegetation. At the same time we note these l i n e s have a broad, stretched-out quality that emphasizes the surface of the horizontal s c r o l l . Light tonal washes are anchored by dark and heavy clumps of rocks. But despite the grace and technical v i r t u o s i t y there i s a certain fragmental and compartmentalized effect that has not been overcome.by the a r t i s t i c devices. The viewer i s struck by the r e a l i s t i c quality of the various plants and impressed with the a r t i s t ' s technical v i r t u o s i t y . However, the composi- t i o n a l elements have been arranged along the lower edge of the s c r o l l i n such a way as to provide a v i s u a l b a r r i e r . The near bank, at the water, has become a blockade and the f a r bank, a barely suggested shape that i s depicted without an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to water or to distance. No breeze can be f e l t to s t i r the fragrance of these flowers. There i s the same sense of suspended animation nsted i n Orchids of the Caswell c o l l e c t i o n and Orchid, Bamboo and Rock of the Metropolitan Museum c o l l e c t i o n . This i s very d i f f e r e n t to Hsueh Wu's s c r o l l i n the Honolulu Academy of A r t s . l i f Hsueh Wujpf (d. I637) , a contemporary of Ma Shou-chen and a courtesan of Nanking, was also known f o r her orchid paintings. Hsueh Wu's painting i n Honolulu i s a s c r o l l with every element r e l a t i n g to each other i n such a way as to create a bold rhythm throughout, with no fragmented e f f e c t . Nearby orchids gesture over and across the water to close islands of s t i l l more orchids. Hsueh Wu also has a f a r distant bank we can f a i n t l y see on the f a r shore. Thus, the reader can penetrate the surface quality created by the sinuous shape of orchid blades stretched across the surface i n Hsueh Wu's painting;to become aware of the f a r shore. This introduction of f a r distance does not appear i n Ma Shou-chen's work. Hstieh Wu was a courtesan, calligrapher, poet and painter of Nanking (although a generation older according to my calculations) and would therefore have had much i n common with Ma Shou-chen. However, there were substantial differences i n personality. Tseng^describes Hstieh Wu as a person who l i k e d to r i d e horseback and shoot b a l l s from her maid's head, and c a l l e d h e r s e l f " F i f t h Boy". Ma Shou-chen was also noted 16 f o r her boldness and non-conformity, but Hsueh Wu carried t h i s several steps further. Hsueh Wu's propensity f o r archery and horseback r i d i n g , t r a d i t i o n a l l y male a c t i v i t i e s , indicate a female who did not accept her position i n l i f e and longed f o r the freedom enjoyed by males. It i s f i t t i n g that we can see the f a r distance, the f a r side of the bank, i n her paintings. This i s i n contrast to Ma Shou-chen who seemed less of a rebel and more w i l l i n g to accept her position i n society. The fact that Ma Shou-chen had a devoted scholar f r i e n d and Hsueh Wu did not may have helped cause t h i s difference. In Orchids and Bamboo, the viewer does not obtain so much a f e e l i n g f o r a close and intense fragment of nature as the s c r o l l i s unrolled, but instead has a f e e l i n g of being restrained with the v i s i o n blocked. Perhaps t h i s i s the r e s u l t of the ~ 36 - psychological viewpoint of Ma Shou-chen when she looked from her garden across the Ch'in-huai canal. Although Ma Shou-chen i s best known for her orchid paintings, she painted other subjects. The Lotus Plant by Ma Shou-chen (see figure U and Catalogue item IV), i s a t a l l , slender hanging s c r o l l painting that demonstrates again Ma Shou-chen's very r e a l talent f o r using the tones of ink i n her paintings. The dark tones are contrasted with the l i g h t tones, while the f i n e l i n e s at f i r s t glance appear to be so casual and unlaboured that a very spontaneous effect i s captured. Th^e l i n e s suggest stems and lotus blossoms that have been so cursively drawn that each l i n e hints of a shape without confusing the composition nor taking away from the painting's s i m p l i c i t y . The composition i s very simple and f i t s i n well with the slender hanging s c r o l l shape. The narrow sides of the painting contain and support the weight of the lotus blossoms on t h e i r delicate s t a l k s . Siren has translated the undated colophon the upper l e f t of the s c r o l l to read: I passed my childhood at the r i v e r banks, not knowing any sorrows, but now the storms and rains have brought the autumn c h i l l to Ch'in-huai. I dare not turn my head again to the roads of old along the dykes. The trees are t h i n , the sun i s low, and I am i n a public house.17 The lotus ( h o ^ or l i e n j ^ ) i s a popular motif i n Chinese painting and, l i k e the orchid, has several layers of symbolic meaning. It i s rather i n t e r e s t i n g to note i t s selection as the subject matter to accompany Ma Shou-chen's poem. Although the lotus i s often associated with Buddhist teachings i t was known i n China from ancient times. In fact s p e c i a l ideographs were used i n ancient times to deSBote a l l the d i f f e r e n t parts of 18 the lotus plant. No doubt a specialized vocabulary developed for t h i s plant because, l i k e the bamboo, a l l parts'.-of the plant 19 were considered u s e f u l . Lotus seed became symbolic of longevity as seeds that are hundreds of years old have been 20 known to germinate. Legends have immortals clothed i n f i b r e s from the tubers of t h i s plant.2-'- Because these f i b r e s are e l a s t i c , a saying developed that states "though the lotus tuber 22 i s broken the s i l k s are s t i l l connected." This s i g n i f i e s an a f f a i r that i s fated to continue. More recent symbolism associates the lotus with eleventh-century Confucianism (no doubt via Buddhism). Chou Tun-i 'D 1$L*fL (1 0 1 7 - 1 1 7 3) 2 3 loved the lotus plant, s i n g l i n g i t out for i t s purity and t r a n q u i l i t y . He described the lotus i n these words: It emerges from muddy d i r t but i s not contaminated; i t reposes nobly above the clear water; hollow inside and straight outside, i t s stems do not straggle or branch. Its subtle perfume pervades the a i r f a r and wide...the lotus i s the flower of purity and i n t e g r i t y . 24 It i s possibly the reference to Chou Tun-i Ts symbolism of the lotus plant that inspired Ma Shou-chen to choose the lotus as the subject of a painting to accompany her poetry. We have noted the possible a l l u s i o n s to her own l i f e and the mixture of poetic and subjective a l l u s i o n s i n the Caswell c o l l e c t i o n painting as well as t h i s one. We have also noted that i t i s -Ma Shou-chen's poetry and calligraphy, more than her painting that has captured the praise of Chinese his t o r i a n s ( a l l Confucian scholars). There i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y that the poem was created before the painting. In t h i s painting Ma Shou-chen has chosen the seemingly f r a i l but r e s i l i e n t , single stemmed flower to suggest her solitude. The disappointments that she res o l u t e l y faced i n her l i f e were endured with what can only be described as a very r e s i l i e n t strength. This work i s a perfect blend of poetry and painting or respectively, suggested imagery and p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s . Another in t e r p r e t a t i o n could be that Ma Shou-chen, i n painting the lotus, referred to a love a f f a i r , perhaps to her a f f a i r with Wang Chih-teng. Siren quotes a note added to the i n s c r i p t i o n on Lotus Plant that expressed Ma Shou-chen's disappointment over the fact that a f r i e n d of hers had taken 25 a new concubine. The Lotus Plant could have been painted during the many years that Wang Chih-teng and Ma Shou-chen were separated. It i s un l i k e l y that a courtesan such as Ma Shou-chen, having had an a f f a i r with such a well known scholar as Wang Chih-teng, would not want to continue. Perhaps the sadness expressed i s i n response to thoughts of Wang Chih-teng. It i s a well known convention f o r an a r t i s t to address the subject matter, such as a flower, coincidentally speaking to a lover. The word lotus, l i e n , i s often used i n poetry because of i t s phonetic s i m i l a r i t y to the word beloved, l i e n . There are precedents to suggest Ma Shou-chen addressed a lover and the subject of her painting at the same time. In Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u there i s a report of a painting by Ma Shou-chen with a - 39 - stone added by Wang Chih-teng. Ma Shou-chen addresses the painting i n an i n s c r i p t i o n by saying "I love your tender leaves.. There are other paintings attributed to Ma Shou-chen. It i s not the purpose of t h i s thesis to discuss her complete works, but some of her paintings are reporoduced i n accessible publications. Among these i s the orchid fan painting i l l u s t r a t e d i n Ku-kung Chou-K'an, see Catalogue- item V, This fan painting i s signed, bears an i n s c r i p t i o n by the a r t i s t , and i s dated 1 5 7 8 . The subject matter primarily involves orchids but there i s also some bamboo. The i l l u s t r a t i o n of bamboo i s too small to be able to understand why Chinese his t o r i a n s stated that Ma Shou-chen's painting style for bamboo was i n the manner of Kuan Tao-shen ( 1 2 6 2 - I 3 2 5 ) , Chao Meng-fu's wife, and not any 28 other well known bamboo painter. The l i n k i n g of Ma Shou- chen and Kuan Tao-sheng may have had more to do with t h e i r sex than t h e i r painting s t y l e s (see Section I I ) . The orchids i n t h i s fan painting are drawn i n the outline s t y l e of Chao Meng-chien. Although bamboo, and not orchid blossoms are used as te x t u r a l and tonal contrasts to punctuate the interweaving c a l l i g r a p h i c l i n e s of the blades of orchids, t h i s painting i s very s i m i l a r i n composition to the horizontal s c r o l l by Ma Shou-chen i l l u s t r a t e d i n Shina Meiga Hokan (Catalogue item VI)J It also has the same quality of being stretched across the surface of the painting with l i t t l e i nterest i n depicting depth. Another fan painting of Ma Shou-chen i n Ku-kung Chou-k'an - 40 - (Catalogue item VII) bears the CK'ien lung Imperial seal and a signed i n s c r i p t i o n by Wang Chih-teng as well as by Ma Shou- chen. This painting has no pretensions of being a un i f i e d and comprehensive composition. Instead, i t i s simply a charming and decorative painting of various f l o r a l motifs with b u t t e r f l i e s . This small fan painting, signed but undated, i s a study of nature, lacking i n the planned compositional quality of Ma Shou-chen's other works. As a botanical study i t i s sim i l a r to the study of the s c r o l l i n the Indianapolis Museum and to the study of orchid blossoms i n the National Palace Museum (see Catalogue item V I I I ) . The painting i n the National Palace Museum i s signed with a seal and shows the orchid blossom painted i n both outline and wash technique. The spikes of the blossoms are shown i n i s o l a t i o n , not i n any imagined s e t t i n g . Another painting by Ma Shou-chen i n the National Palace Museum i s a small signed landscape (see Catalogue item IX). In t h i s painting orchids executed i n a wash technique grow out of the bank of a stream. The rocks have been painted with the 29 texture strokes s i m i l a r to those of P'u Ming. The spikey brambles that off-set the languid appearance of the orchid can 30 - be found i n other P'u Ming paintings. Again the viewer has the impression of seeing nature i n miniature. In t h i s painting, the dark diagonal l i n e , used to demarcate the near ground from the blank void beyond, gives the composition an eff e c t of being stretched across the picture plane with no r e a l depth. The conscious use of many brush techniques and tonal e f f e c t s i n such a small composition also give the effect of t h i s being a - 41 - study more than a fin i s h e d painting. In a d i f f e r e n t category i s the painting Epidendrums (see Catalogue item X), by Ma Shou-chen i n the Soyeshima c o l l e c t i o n . This small album l e a f shows a t a l l , elongated rock with a single spike of orchid blossoms and a few blades of orchid leaves. This composition i s s i m i l a r to the painting by Ma Shou-chen i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chung-kuo(Ming hua chi (see Catalogue item XI). In t h i s painting, Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo, a convoluted rock has an orchid plant growing at i t s base and a bamboo plant stretching above the rock. Both Epidendrums and Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo have a si m i l a r composition and motifs. Also, both paintings share the elongated v e r t i c a l shape with a diagonal composition held i n balance by a prominent v e r t i c a l element. In the Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo painting t h i s v e r t i c a l element i s a branch of bamboo while i n the Epidendrums, the v e r t i c a l element i s a spike of orchid blossoms. The Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo painting bears a seal and signed i n s c r i p t i o n by Wang Chih-teng and a signed i n s c r i p t i o n with two seals by Ma Shou-chen, dated 1 5 7 2 . Neither i n s c r i p t i o n i s a v i s u a l necessity to the balance of the composition of the painting. Additional i n s c r i p t i o n s are above. Unusual rock shapes are a popular element i n Chinese paintinj But the s i m i l a r i t y i n the two paintings by Ma Shou-chen would suggest that one painting was a study f o r a l a t e r work. It i s possible that the album l e a f i s the e a r l i e r work, as album leaves c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y lend themselves to a more experimental 32 approach. However, the undated Soyeshima album le a f may be - 42 - a s i m p l i f i e d version of e a r l i e r studies and l i k e the undated Stockholm lotus painting, an i n d i c a t i o n that Ma Shou-chen's works became simpler i n composition as she grew older. Both the painting Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo and the album l e a f i n the Soyeshima c o l l e c t i o n have orchids done i n the outline technique. But the manner used to paint the rock i s d i f f e r e n t i n each case. The rock painted i n Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo demonstrates the fibrous brush stroke I 33 or fei-po technique made famous by ChaoMeng-fu. In the fei-po technique, many parts of the ground are l e f t untouched by the separating hairs of the brush. This i s very d i f f e r e n t to the rock i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Soyeshima c o l l e c t i o n , which i s more s i m i l a r to the works of Ma L i n . Both the Petrucci and the Sze t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Mustard Seed Manual have i l l u s t r a t i o n s 35 of orchids painted i n the s t y l e of Ma L i n and Ma Hsiang-lan. In both cases the i l l u s t r a t i o n s appear to be switched. This may be because both use reproductions of l a t e r editions rather than the o r i g i n a l woodcut i l l u s t r a t i o n s , or i t may be because there i s a genuine confusion due to a si m i l a r painting s t y l e sometimes used by Ma Shou-chen. From t h i s v i s u a l analysis of a few of Ma Shou-chen's works, we can see a pattern emerge. According to Chinese hi s t o r i a n s , she was famous f o r her outline technique of painting orchids i n the manner of Chao Meng-chien, and famous for her technique of painting bamboo i n the manner of Kuan Tao-sheng. But Ma Shou- chen was accomplished i n painting with other techniques as w e l l . She was able to paint with si m i l a r techniques used by such - _43 - a r t i s t s as P'u Ming and Ma L i n . Her painting compositions tend to be stable, i n facfe rather more s t a t i c than the compositions of Chao Meng-chien or Hsueh Wu. Ma Shou-chen had a propensity for stretching her brush strokes across the surface of the painting, not being overly concerned with atmospheric q u a l i t i e s or f a r distance. This may be deliberate as the sense of suspended animation noted above and the emphasis on the brush strokes stretched across the paintings both serve to enhance the two-dimensional quality of her paintings. This factor i n turn serves to focus the attention of the viewer upon the c a l l i g - raphy which i s often present on Ma Shou-chen's paintings. The same s k i l l and care that i s shown i n Ma Shou-chen's painting i s present i n her calligraphy. Though there i s mention of Ma Shou-chen's "Running s t y l e " (hsing-shu-^ ) calligraphy, the examples we have seen reveal a preference of a;style that i s rather conservative i n i t s t r a d i t i o n . ^ we can see an example of her "Running s t y l e " s c r i p t on the Orchid and Bamboo fan (see Catalogue item V). There, the "Running s t y l e " flowing l i n e s f i t i n well with the orchids' very long blades. However, a l l other examples of Ma Shou-chen's calligraphy (see Catalogue items I-XI) are of the "Regular s c r i p t " . Chao Meng-fu was also noted for calligraphy that seldom deviated'fram the t r a d i t i o n a l 37 accepted standards. It may be t h i s factor that led one Chinese h i s t o r i a n to state Ma Shou-chen's calligraphy was si m i l a r 38 to Chao Meng-fu's. The imagery present i n Ma Shou-chen's poetry l i n k s past t r a d i t i o n s to the subject matter and the author. The sad, world-weary note present i n these images, such as the Stockholm painting and i n s c r i p t i o n , may be more a convention than an actual r e a l i t y . Men o r i g i n a l l y wrote love poems from a female viewpoint, ascribing emotions that they f e l t were 3 9 appropriate, and t h i s l a t e r became a convention. Ma Shou-chen's most inspired and creative works are i n paintings with simple compositions and few elements. In fact, i n her larger works, such as the Indianapolis s c r o l l there i s a tendency to treat the whole composition by separating various components. Simple compositional elements complement her poetry. The rather straight-forward a l l u s i o n s i n the poetry, upon examination, give up layer upon layer of possible symbolic meaning, conveyed with a dire c t and intense f e e l i n g . Ma Shou-chen's simple compositions enforce t h i s and lead the viewer to contemplate the possible symbolism. Both poetry and painting can be appreciated on several l e v e l s of understanding. However, the viewer i s directed back to the poetry and, indeed, the poetry seems to have been foremost i n Ma Shou-chen's mind. i - 45 - SECTION IV: MING DYNASTY LITERATI ARTISTS If :Ma Shou-chen's work i s representative of a painting s t y l e handed down by the t r a d i t i o n s of centuries past, how can we compare her style of painting to the painting s t y l e of her contemporaries i n the established mainstream of Chinese painting, that i s to say the l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s ? Through her s o c i a l contacts with Wang Chih-teng, i t i s l i k e l y that Ma Shou-chen knew many l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s of the Suchow area. Ch'en Shun 1 ^ ^ ( 1 4 8 3 - 1 5 8 4 ) was greatly admired by Wang Chih-teng, who gave him a prominent spot i n h i s history of painting.'*" Thus, although Ma Shou-chen would not have known him personally, she would have been aware of Ch'en Shun's work. As Ch'en Shun was a f r i e n d of Shen Chou ^ (1427-1509) and a pupil of Wen Cheng-ming (1470-1567) , w e begin to see how e n t i r e l y f e a s i b l e i t would be that Ma Shou-chen was i n turn f a m i l i a r with these a r t i s t s ' works. Hsiang Yiian-pien ̂  X J ~/\ (I525-I59O) was a fr i e n d of the Wen family, i n p a r t i c u l a r Wen Chia jiC^Jfa ( I 5 O I - I 5 8 3 ) . Also, there i s a record of an i n s c r i p t i o n and seal of Wen Chao-chih jl^ %~ J\-jk. , Wen Cheng- 2 ming's grandson, on a painting by Ma Shou-chen. Hsiang Yuan- pien was also close to Tung Ch'i-ch'ung ^ %2 ( I 5 5 5 - I 6 3 6 ) , who served the Hsiang family as a tutor. Hsiang Yiian-pien was also an i n f l u e n t i a l c o l l e c t o r who was an i n t r i n s i c part 3 of the l i t e r a t i Wu school painters. In fac t , Hsiang Yiian-pien was said to have operated a pawn shop where painting s c r o l l s 5 4 were a part of h i s inventory. Ma Shou-chen i s recorded as having often v i s i t e d pawn shops and may have been h i s customer. - 46 - In t h i s closely connected society, i t i s quite l i k e l y that Ma Shou-chen would have been f a m i l i a r with the works of Ch fen Shun, Shen Chou, Wen Cheng-ming and Hsiang Ytian-pien. Her own studies of t h e i r works would have been used to refi n e her a r t i s t i c techniques. Within the Wu school of the Ming dynasty, flower painting continued to be a popular theme. Shen Chou and Wen Cheng- ming, the acknowledged leaders of the Wu school a r t i s t s , were both known for t h e i r flower painting, although these paintings 6 were minor works supposedly done only as amusement. When we examine these works we see d e f i n i t e correlations between t h e i r works (and t h e i r students' works), and the paintings of Ma Shou-chen. 7 Shen Chou's Duck i n a Lotus Pond i l l u s t r a t e s the accomplished tonal variations that we have also come to recognize as character- • i s t i c of Ma Shou-chen's work. However, h i s compositional arrangement i s only reminiscent of Ma Shou-chen's composition i n the Stockholm painting. The two compositions are only generally s i m i l a r , i n t h e i r v e r t i c a l shape, theme and painting technique with the brush. Also, Shen Chou's painting i s d i s s i m i l a r i n i t s very tangible treatment of atmosphere. Another painting, by Ch'en Shun, Shen Chou's fri e n d and Wen Cheng-ming's 8 pupil, the Lotus and Duck, perhaps provides us with the l i n k between the l i t e r a t i painting and the Stockholm painting by Ma Shou-chen. In h i s painting, Ch'en Shun shows l i t t l e interest i n r etaining Shen Chou's atmospheric quality but retains interest i n tonal variations and gives the long stems the - 47 - -calligraphic quality so strongly present i n Ma Shou-chen's painting. Chen Shun's painting has sim i l a r composition, shape, theme and brush technique to Ma Shou-chen's painting. Another painting by Ch'en Shun, Studies from L i f e , ^ i s a study of flowers done i n the outline s t y l e used by Ma Shou- chen. Shen Chou's Fungus, Orchid and Magnolia1*"* has a composi- t i o n a l arrangement that i s quite reminiscent of Ma Shou-chen's painting Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo. In both paintings we see the diagonal composition held i n balance by the same v e r t i c a l element reaching up and beyond the twisted rock shape. Both rocks have been rendered with s i m i l a r fei-po brush strokes. The ground i s sloping i n both paintings giving a t i l t e d effect and establishing a rather "uncertain equilibrium" that we l a t e r recognize as t y p i c a l i n Tung Ch'i-ch'ang's works. 1 1 This i s not to say that Ma Shou-chen copied Shen Chou's painting. There are numerous paintings that have t h i s same compositional arrangement. In fact t a l l , narrow compositions 12 are rather t y p i c a l of the Wu school. An example of another painting l i k e t h i s would be Hsiang Yuan-pien's painting, 13 Longevity Wishes. There we see a sim i l a r rock, with the bamboo beyond, on a sparsely rendered and slanted ground. Hsiang Yuan-pien's s t y l i s t i c technique i s sim i l a r to Shen Chou's but also reminiscent of Ni Tsan, whom he also admired. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that such a painting, with so few compositional elements, can bring to mind the work of such d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s as Shen Chou and Ni Tsan. This emphasizes how varied a "copy" r.can be and how i t i s possible to have the Chinese method of "copying" or " i n the manner of" without ^ s t i f l i n g the a r t i s t i c - 48 - expression of i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s . Wen Cheng-ming has been ca l l e d the greatest orchid painter since the Yuan dynasty. 1^" When we look at an example 15 of one of these paintings, such as Orchid and Bamboo. we see the same asymmetrical one corner compositional arrangement, the tonal v a r i a t i o n between various elements, and the fei-po brush strokes i n h i s painting that i s also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of P'u-ming, the "fourteenth century Ch'an a r t i s t . 1 ^ This paintings composition and theme i s repeated, though i n a 17 much simpler composition, by Hsiang Yuan-pien i n Ink Orchids. Here we see the same technique and composition that we noted i n Ma Shou-chen's painting Orchid, Bamboo and Rock (Catalogue item I ) , as well as her small study i n the National Palace Museum (see Catalogue item VIII). Wen Cheng-ming also did 18 orchids i n the outline technique used by Ma Shou-chen. Thus, Ma Shou-chen f i t s i n well with contemporary l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s . That i s to say, her works are comparable i n theme, composition, t e c h n i c a l execution of the brush and ink tones to the major l i t e r a t i painters of her time. Also, the majority of her paintings bear the prominent i n s c r i p t i o n s that are also present i n the majority of the works by Shen Chou, Wen Cheng- 19 ming, Ch'en Shun and Hsiang Yuan-pien. This i s not to say that Ma Shou-chen's work was of the same scope. For the samples given of Shen Chou, Wen Cheng- ming, Ch'en Shun and Hsiang Yuan-pien are but a small selected sampling of t h e i r many diverse works. Ma Shou-chen was known only f o r her paintings of flowers. But within her chosen sphere - 49 - her works were of a s t y l e and quality that reached the standards of Ch'en Shun or Hsiang Yiian-pien. C a h i l l i n Parting at the Shore, notes a correspondence between an a r t i s t ' s position i n society and h i s style of 20 painting. This observation i s quite applicable to Ma Shou- chen. Ma Shou-chen, educated, talented and obviously cognitive of t r a d i t i o n s of flower painting, was a courtesan and would be trained and anxious to please the l i t e r a t i - her patrons. This desire to please the l i t e r a t i would most l i k e l y have been shared by Hsiang Yuan-pien. Because hi s fortune was based on pawnshops, Hsiang Yiian-pien would have been a member of the 21 merchant c l a s s . This class was not one of the four classes recognized by Confucius. Thus, merchants t h e o r e t i c a l l y were not to mix with l i t e r a t i . However, i n Nanking and Suchow there was an intermingling of merchants and l i t e r a t i during the Ming 22 dynasty. This was a new phenomenon. However, neither Hsiang Yuan-pien nor Ma Shou-chen, nor anyone i n a s i m i l a r position, could be expected to stray f a r beyond the borders of the accepted taste of t h e i r desired peer group. Voyages into non-conformity would be l e f t for i n d i v i d u a l s who genuinely did not care about s o c i a l acceptance or else were so fi r m l y entrenched s o c i a l l y that they had no fear of being rejected. Shen Chou.:could be considered an example of t h i s . But while Ma Shou-chen and Hsiang Yiian-pien did not go beyond any established l i t e r a t i taste i n t h e i r paintings, we can appreciate t h e i r works fo r t h e i r own genuine merit and i n f a c t , use Ma Shou-chen's works as a window to the understanding - 50 - of the l i t e r a t i at the end of the Ming dynasty, a time of s h i f t i n g values. As a courtesan, Ma Shou-chen was trained to respond to the wishes of the l i t e r a t i ; therefore her work i s important as an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r taste. Her close association with them can show them i n a new l i g h t . As to Ma Shou-chen's and other female a r t i s t s ' p r e d i l e c t i o n for painting flowers, i t i s unfair to denigrate t h e i r a c t i v i t y 23 as merely a suitable feminine i n t e r e s t . Ma Shou-chen referred to the L i sao i n her poetry and used orchids as i t s allegory i n her paintings. The L i sao i s a major work i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . This poem i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noted f o r i t s mystery and magic, i t s hint of eroticism and i t s s i n c e r i t y of purpose i n one person's journey of passionate i n t e g r i t y . To achieve t h i s , the poem suggests multiple a l l e g o r i e s of fragrant plants. When Ma Shou-chen painted a reference to the L i sao and empha- sized t h i s with her own poetic references, she linked h e r s e l f to t h i s image of mystery, sexuality and magic. Ma Shou-chen used the flowers as an a r t i s t i c convention. This i s an inescapable factor i n a l l Chinese art forms. Every scholar i s trained to know the past and to use i t s t r a d i t i o n s to express himself, whether i n essay writing, poetry, calligraphy or painting. Ma Shou-chen did not t r y to excape t h i s t r a d i t i o n but used the e x i s t i n g framework to express her own f e e l i n g s . Her poetry and paintings both referred to something without o t i g h t l y defining i t . This leaves tHe viewer, assumed to be educated and s e n s i t i v e , able to transmit h i s or her own senses and interpret the artist's exact sentiments as he f e e l s f i t . - 5 1 - The transmission of an a l l e g o r i c a l a l l u s i o n requires the involvement of the imagination of the viewer. An evocative, but not t o t a l l y representational image i s more successful i n t h i s process because a s p e c i f i c and detailed work would not stimulate the imagination. How Ma Shou-chen f e l t about the interpretations of t r a g i c 2L a l l u s i o n s to her own l i f e i s impossible to say. We cannot be sure that she regretted the circumstances of her l i f e as much as her Chinese biographers and Siren ( a l l male) think. But t h i s i s unimportant — just as i t i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant to decide i f a l l the a r t i s t s who painted scenes of Taoist fishermen r e a l l y wanted to l i v e a l i f e of s i m p l i c i t y . Contag speaks of the adoration of the eternal i n Chinese 2 5 a r t . It i s t h i s desire to abstract the general f e e l i n g and yet remain detached from anything s p e c i f i c that we can see i n Ma Shou-chen's painting. Ma Shou-chen was able to transmit a f e e l i n g to the viewer but we are unable to t i g h t l y define i t . We do not know i f the orchids r e f e r to her own despair i n undesirable circumstances or are the symbol of a carefree s p i r i t . Hers was a s p i r i t that had matured, uncultivated i n a secluded v a l l e y , where the wind traces i t s path across the f i e l d of orchids and c a r r i e s a pervasive perfume. Ma Shou-chen expressed so much i n both her poetry and her painting with just the --• i ; suggestion of a brush stroke and the a l l u s i o n to a h i s t o r i c a l reference. Wang Chih-teng praised Ma Shou-chen's poetry and calligraphy because a b i l i t y i n calligraphy and poetry are the c r i t e r i a of a - 52 - noble person. She would have to be accepted as a poet before there could be any acceptance of her painting. As noted by Su Shih, an a r t i s t i s f i r s t a poet. But the conventions against such acceptance are very strong i n Chinese society. The fact that Ma Shou-chen was a woman would always be considered f i r s t i n Confucian China. This would be one of the reasons why Ma Shou-chen's paintings were not given very much attention by Chinese art h i s t o r i a n s . It appears that sometimes, when a woman's paintings were found to show some talent, i t was suggested that they must be the work of another. Thus, i n Ma Shou-chen's case i t was suggested that her paintings could 27 have been done by Wang Chih-teng. Ma Shou-chen's painting demonstrated a continuing t r a d i t i o n of flower painting based on an ancestry of Hsu Hsi's painting technique. Hsu Hsi's method of painting flowers f i r s t was used because i t was f e l t i t lent i t s e l f better to what the l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s wanted to express. In the Yuan dynasty t h i s desire to paint i n a non-academic s t y l e was reinforced by the previous association of academic st y l e painting with the court a r t i s t s of the Southern Sung dynasty. Academic/court a r t i s t s became associated with the downfall of a Chinese dynasty and the domination by foreign barbarians i n the succeeding dynasty. Thus, a painting s t y l e was also a badge of membership within a group. The l i t e r a t i (Wu school) and the n o n - l i t e r a t i (Che school) painting s t y l e s were less strongly defined i n the Ming dynasty, but i t s t i l l i s a fact that a painting s t y l e can sign a l acceptance or non-acceptance within a group. While i t - 53 - may seem that r e s t r i c t i o n s on permitted painting st y l e s of an a r t i s t would be damaging to c r e a t i v i t y , what happened was that the a r t i s t learned to express himself or h e r s e l f within the established conventions. Ma Shou-chen was able to express her s e l f within t h i s system. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that she chose to become known for a painting style strongly associated with the l i t e r a t i of the Ming dynasty. -54 - CONCLUSION: In t h i s t h e s i s I have discussed the l i f e and a r t i s t i c works of the Ming dynasty courtesan, Ma Shou-chen. Ma Shou-chen's works were created with r e a l talent and a desire to please one of the most discerning of Chinese art his t o r i a n s - Wang Chih-teng. We could generalize Ma Shou-chen's works as being rather small and intimate with a decorative q u a l i t y i n t h e i r interest i n rhythmic c a l l i g r a p h i c brush strokes that sweep across the painting surface and emphasize the picture plane. There i s l i t t l e i nterest i n atmosphere or depth. The composition i s fo.cussed upon depicting a segment of nature and thus can appear to be h a s t i l y done. But examination reveals the composition, l i k e the brush work and ink tones, were c a r e f u l l y and s k i l l f u l l y done to incorporate the poetry and i n s c r i p t i o n s that are frequently present. The t o t a l e ffect i s l y r i c a l and evocative with a sense of unobtrusive?, quiet. I f t h i s could be said about Ma Shou-chen's works, the same could be said about many of Shen Chou's works. Yet Siren, for example, has stated that Shen Chou's fame "was based rather on his.; personality • as^a?:whole: than J s ;as.- a painter l"^"while Edwards o stressed Shen Chou's non-conformity, and Wang Chih-teng 3 stated that Shen Chou was i n the divine class of painting. The opinions of Shen Chou's works by Siren, Edwards and Wang Chih-teng are a l l based upon the personal q u a l i t i e s of the a r t i s t . In spite of the fact that t h e i r opinions of the a r t i s t are based upon h i s personal q u a l i t i e s ( q u a l i t i e s that - 55 - are more often expressed i n small and intimate works), Shen Chou's major works are not l i k e l y to be represented by, f o r example, his small album leaves. Historians have often f a l l e n into the trap of looking f o r the grand moment i n each period by examining the major (large) works of the most important a r t i s t s . Perhaps t h i s i s not the case i n the Ming dynasty. After examining Ma Shou-chen's works i t i s possible f o r us to appreciate the more informal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Ming dynasty society and the changing role of the l i t e r a t i a r t i s t . The l i t e r a t i a r t i s t s enjoyed t h e i r l e i s u r e hours, often without the r e s t r a i n t s of o f f i c i a l appointments, i n a mixed company that often included merchants and courtesans. The focus of t h e i r l i v e s was no longer upon public service but on private pleasures and expressions. There would be no better person to express the new aesthetics of the Ming dynasty l i t e r a t i than the courtesan who was trained to respond to t h e i r desires. - 56 - -INTRODUCTION NOTES 1-. Susan Bush, Chinese L i t e r a t i , page 175• SECTION I NOTES 1. Non-English language l i t e r a r y sources have been translated for t h i s thesis (see Appendix 2 ) . Most sources state that Ma Shou-chen was ca l l e d Yuan-erh as a c h i l d but Chung-kuo ,jen ming t a tzu t i e n , by Li-ho Tsang states she was call e d Yueh-chiao as a c h i l d . T Ta Sun i n Chung-kuo hua chia• jen ming t a tz'u t i e n states she was given the name Yueh-chiao a f t e r a person i n a southern st y l e opera. 2 . Wei-ch fu Kuo, Sung Yuan Ming Ch'ing shu hua chia nien piao, pages 160,183 ,186,189. 3 . Osvald Siren, Chinese Painting, Vol.7 page 218. 4 . Orchid, Bamboo and Rock (see Appendix 1, Catalogue item I) and Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo (see Catalogue item XI) bear an i n s c r i p t i o n dating them 1572 . 5 . E L i i n Yu t 'ai shu shih records a painting dated keng-niu or 1570. 6. E L i i n Yu t ' a i shu shih and Sou-yu T'ang i n Yu t ' a i hua shih. 7 . See Catalogue item V, Appendix 1. 8. Kuang-t'ao K'ung i n Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u . SECTION I NOTES (cont'd) 9. Yuan-chi P'ang i n Hsu chai ming hua l u . 10. Shang-jen K'ung i n Hsiang chin pu. 11. Wei-ch'u Kuo i n Sung Yuan Ming Ch'ing shu hua chia nien piao c i t e s two sources for giving 1604 as the date of Ma Shou-chen's death. These are and j& % Jft^ % fa . 12. Kuang-t'ao K'ung i n Yo hsueh lou shu hua lu'; The Chinese method of dating would c a l l t h i s his seventieth birthday. A l l ages given i n the body of t h i s thesis are stated according to the Western method. However, i n an attempt'-to give a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n , the ages are stated according to the Chinese method i n Appendix 2. 1 3 . Good*and Fang, Dictionary of Ming Biography, Vol. 2, page 1362. 14. Kuang-t'ao K'ung i n Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u . 15. Li-ho Tsang i n Chung-kuo jen ming t a tz'u t i e n . 1 6 . Ch'ien-i Ch'ien i n Lieh ch'ao shih chi hsiao chuan. 17. Ibid. However, Fan-t'ing Wang i n Chung hua l i t a i fu nu disagrees st a t i n g she l i v e d u n t i l she was sixty-nine years 18. Kuang-t'ao K'ung i n Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u gives an in t e r e s t i n g account of t h i s event. - 58 - SECTION I NOTES (cont'd) 19. Ch'ien - i Ch'ien i n Lieh ch'ao shih and I-tsun Chu i n Mine; shih tsung and Li-ho Tsang i n Chung-kuo jen ming. 2 0 . Kuang-t'ao K'ung i n Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u describes a painting by Ma Shou-chen that bears a signature dating i t 1599 and also has an i n s c r i p t i o n by Wang Chih-teng. 2 1 . Ch'ien-i Ch'ien i n Lieh Ch'ao shih and I-tsun Chu i n Ming shih tsung. 2 2 . Such a situ a t i o n occurred i n the late sixteenth century to T'u Lung who was introduced to a close friend's wife only to be accused by h i s enemies of attending an improper gathering. Goodrich and Fang, Vol. 2, p . 1 3 2 5 . 2 3 . E L i i n Yu t ' a i shu shih and Ch'ien-i Ch'ien i n Lieh ch'ao shih c a l l Ma Shou-chen chi Chi was the roy a l surname of the r u l i n g family of the Chou dynasty (1027-256 B.C.). Thus, chi i s an ho n o r i f i c term. However, Kuang-t'ao K'ung i n Yo hsueh lou shu, I-tsun Chu and Ch'ang Wang i n Ming tz'u tsung, I-tsun Chu i n Ming shih tsung and Li-ho Tsang i n Chung-kuo ,jen ming c a l l Ma Shou-chen, chi~£$L . This chi means prostitute or sing- song g i r l . 2 4 . Howard Levy i n A Feast of Mist p. 9 l i s t s the s k i l l s of courtesans. 2 5 . Fan-t'ing Wang i n Chung hua l i t a i f u nu. 2 6 . Ch'ien-i Ch'ien i n Lieh ch'ao shih. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that according to C a h i l l i n Parting, p. 198, the p\'i-p'a - 59 - SECTION I NOTES (cont'd) was associated with women entertainers while the ch'in was associated with scholarly a c t i v i t i e s . Levy i n Feast of Mist, p. 1 4 1 , states that mention of the deerskin drums allude to the drum favored by the T'ang Emperor Hsuan-tsung. A l l of these instruments were referred to i n reports of Ma Shou-chen's residence. 2 7 . Van Gulik, Sexual L i f e i n China, p. 171 . 2 8 . Levy, A Feast of Mist, p . 1 8 . This may explain why Ma Shou-chen and her family were involved i n p r o s t i t u t i o n . Ma i s a well known Moslem name. 2 9 . Fan-t'ing Wang i n Chung hua l i t a i fu nu. 3 0 . Van Gulik, p. 265 mentions the frequency of foot- binding during the Ming dynasty. However, fo r a more complete description of t h i s phenomenon see Levy, Chinese Footbinding. 3 1 . Van Gulik, p. 3O8 and Levy, A Feast of Mist, p. 9 . 3 2 . Ch'ien-i Ch'ien i n Lieh ch'ao shih. 3 3 . H.L. L i , Garden Flowers of China, p. 73 describes orchids growing wild and p. 64 describes lotus plants growing throughout China. 3 4 . Levy, A Feast of Mist p. 25 states the H a l l of Tribute, where examinations were held every three years, had 2 0 , 6 4 4 t i n y rooms for the examinees. - 60 - SECTION I NOTES (cont'd) 3 5 . According to Levy, A:Feast of Mist, pg . 1 7 , the concept of the a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d scholar developed with Yang Wei- chen (Yuan/Ming dynasty poet), who showed no interest i n becoming an o f f i c i a l . 3 6 . According to Bush, p . 1 5 1 , only one-half the chin-shih degrees granted during the Sung dynasty were granted at the time of the Ming dynasty. The chu-.j en degree became more important and harder to achieve i n a quota system. 3 7 . Ibid . 3 8 . Levy, A Feast of Mist, p. 2 6 . 3 9 . Ibid, p. 2 7 . 4 0 . Ibid, p. 2 7 . 4 1 . Ibid, p. 2 6 . 4 2 . Van Gulik, p. 59» explains that the paucity of contact between couples did not imply a b e l i e f that the sexual act was a s i n , instead a desire to regulate the family l i f e and procreation. In Yuan dynasty time, the Neo-Confucian Chu Hsi took t h i s one step further, stressing the i n f e r i o r i t y of women while l i m i t i n g sexual contact to the wedding couch. Van Gulik, p. 2 2 3 , states that i t was Chu Hsi who l a i d the foundations of Neo-Confucianism as the only State r e l i g i o n . 4 3 . According to Van Gulik, p. 4 7 , the Chinese believed 61 _ -SECTION I NOTES (cont'd) a man's essence could be strengthened by acquiring y i n essence x from a woman who has reached orgasm. 4 4 . See note 2 2 , t h i s section. 4 5 . Van Gulik, p. 60 quotes from the L i Chi f o r t h i s regulation. 4 6 . Van Gulik, p. 1 8 2 . 4 7 . Syphill-sswas not introduced to China u n t i l the beginning of the sixteenth century, according to Van Gulik, p.311. 4 8 . Shang-ren K'ung, Peach Blossom Fan, p. 43 describes a game where a courtesan encouraged guests to drink wine by suggesting games involved with poetry. Each participant would r e c i t e h i s own poetry a f t e r every cup of wine. 4 9 . Levy, A Feast of Mist, p. 9 & 74 and Van Gulik, p. 1 7 8 . Courtesans were praised when they could hold a large volume of liquor and s t i l l record the number of drinks consumed at a feast. Another story praises a g i r l who could encourage others to drink. 5 0 . Levy, A Feast of Mist, p. 4 2 , states that the Bureau of Rites Preservation could eliminate a g i r l ' s name from the r e g i s t e r . Van Gulik, p. 171 discusses the cases of courtesans being bought out by distinguished guests. 5 1 . Van Gulik, p. 1 8 1 , stresses that s k i l l s were more important than beauty to a courtesan. SECTION I NOTES (cont'd) 52. Ch'ien-i Ch'ien i n Lieh ch'ao shih. 5 3 . Fan-t'ing Wang i n Chung hua l i t a i fu nu. Li-ho Tsang i n Chung-kuo .jen ming t a tz'u t i e n states that she was not only charming but also good at guessing people's intentions (a very valuable talent f o r a courtesan). 5 4 . Goodrich and Fang, V o l . 2, p . 1 3 6 1 - 1 3 6 3 . SECTION II NOTES 1. There are numerous references to t h i s i n Chinese l i t e r a r y sources. See Sou-yu T'ang, Yu t ' a i hua shih, T'a sun, Chung-kuo hua chia and tra n s l a t i o n s of the Mustard Seed Manual. 2 . H. L i , Garden Flowers, p. 8 , discusses Emperor Wu T i of the Han dynasty who had a well known garden of exotic flowers. 3 . C a h i l l , Chinese Painting, p. 157, i l l u s t r a t e s an example of t h i s . 4 . Contag, "Unique Characteristics", p. 5 7 . 5 . C a h i l l , "Confucian Elements", p.129. 6 . Chu-tsing L i , A Thousand Peaks, p. 263 and 264 discusses the two schools of flower painting. 7 . Ledderose, Mi Fu, p. 3 0 , explains that the interest i n expressing subjective q u a l i t i e s i n painting i s a development of the b e l i e f i n the subjective q u a l i t i e s of calligraphy. As early as the fourth century i t was believed a brush stroke could reveal the character of the calligrapher. A desire to express character increased a spontaneous use of the brush. 8. Hummel, Autobiography of a Chinese Historian, p.XL, quotes Arthur Legge's explanation of t h i s . 9 . Bush, p. 29 quotes Su A iShih stating that an a r t i s t i s a poet not a painter. SECTION II NOTES (cont'd) 1 0 . The Hsuan-ho hua-p'u was the catalogue of the Emperor Hui-tsung's painting c o l l e c t i o n . It was compiled a f t e r the f a l l of the N. Sung dynasty by l i t e r a t i and reveals i t s l i t e r a t i bias i n such ways as quoting the Confucian Analects i n the preface - according to C a h i l l , "Confucian Elements", p.139. 1 1 . Siren, Chinese Painting, V o l . 1 1 , p . 6 l . 1 2 . Michael S u l l i v a n , Symbols of Eternity, p. 80. 1 3 . For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of an example of t h i s see Wen Fong, Sung and Yuan Paintings, plate no. 1 2 . 1 4 . Siren, Chinese Painting, V o l . IV, p. 73• 1 5 . Bush, p. 1 2 3 . 1 6 . Ibid. 1 7 . Ibid. 1 8 . Ibid. 1 9 . Siren, Chinese Painting, V o l . I I , p . 1 5 8 . 2 0 . Chu-tsing L i , "Freer Sheep and Goat", p. 321 quotes t h i s poem by Confucius. He includes the sentence " t h i s i s just l i k e the worthy man who i n an inopportune time must associate with the common herd" as among the words of Confucius. In two Chinese l i t e r a r y sources, I could not see t h i s sentence included with the words of Confucius. Perhaps the quotation marks were SECTION II NOTES (cont'd) inserted wrongly i n L i ' s a r t i c l e . 2 1 . Chu4tsing L i , "Freer Sheep and Goat", p. 3 2 1 . 2 2 . Chu-tsing L i , "Oberlin Orchid", p. 5 2 . 2 3 . Bush, p. 1 3 1 . 2 4 . Ibid. 2 5 . Bush, p. 139, quotes Chao Meng-fu as saying that when sketching bamboo, eight strokes of calligraphy are used. It i s statements l i k e t h i s that stress the l i n k between calligraphy and painting. 2 6 . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of an example of t h i s can be seen i n C a h i l l , Chinese Painting, p. 1 0 3 . 2 7 . Chao Meng-fu i s the exception to t h i s rule and the c r i t i c a l comments of h i s work often r e f l e c t the sentiment that he was a t r a i t o r to the Chinese people. See L i , "Freer Goat". 28. Bush, p. 151. 2 9 . C a h i l l , Parting, p. 5 9 . 3 0 . Goodrich and Fang, Vo l . 2 , p.1402, states that the most prominent member of the c l a s s i c i s t school during the Ming dynasty was Wang Shih-chen ( 1 5 2 6 - 1 5 9 0 ) . 3 1 . Goodrich and Fang. V o l . 2 , p . 1 3 6 2 , states that t h i s - 66 _ -SECTION II NOTES (cont'd) t r e a t i s e concerned the painters of the Soochow area while Ma Shou-chen l i v e d i n Nanking. However, i t i s quite l i k e l y he would not have included her i n any case. 3 2 . Kuang-t'ao K'ung. Yo hsueh lou shu and T'a Sun, Chung- kuo hua chia. 3 4 . Sou-yu T'ang, Yu t ' a i hua shih. 3 5 . Ibid. 3 6 . Shang-jen K'ung, Hsiang chin pu. 3 7 . E L i , Yu t ' a i shu shih. 3 8 . Ch'ien-i Ch'ien, Lieh ch'ao shih. 3 9 . Ibid. 4 0 . I b i d . Wang Chih-teng uses the same terms as Su Shih when speaking of Ma Shou-chen's wr i t i n g . According to Bush, p. 3 5 , Su/Shih said that writing i s l i k e a flow of water as a force of nature. Wang Chih-teng described Ma Shou-chen's writ i n g i n these same words. 4 1 . C a h i l l , Parting, p. 216 addresses himself to t h i s problem. Apparently the l i t e r a t i , such as Wen Cheng-ming, solved the problem of money by accepting services i n exchange f o r t h e i r paintings. - 67 - SECTION II NOTES (cont'd) 4 2 . Fan-t'ing Wang, Chung hua l i t a i f u nu. 4 3 . Ch'ien-i Ch'ien i n Lieh ch'ao shih l i s t s Ma Shou-chen with other female a r t i s t s . The Yu t ' a i shu shih by E L i i s a separate volume of a se r i e s . It i s a compilation of female a r t i s t s . Chinese editors t r a d i t i o n a l l y separate people according to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( e . g . l i t e r a t i , T a o i s t ) . 4 4 . Lucy Ho, L i f e and Works of L i Ch'ing-chao discusses the works of possibly China's most famous female poet. 4 5 . F.Ayscough, Chinese Women, p. 2 3 7 - 2 4 9 . 4 6 . Van Gulik, p. 9 8 . 4 7 . Ibid, p. 2 5 7 . 4 8 . Ibid. 4 9 . Siren, Chinese Painting, V o l . V, p. 74« 5 0 . Hsi-hua Fu, Ming t a i chuan c h ' i ch'uan ch'ieh. 5 1 . Ibid. 5 2 . Kuang-t'ao K'ung, Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u . - 68 " SECTION III NOTES 1. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s painting, see Sherman Lee, Colours of Ink, p. 4 7 . 2 . Chu-tsing L i , "Oberlin Orchid", p. 5 0 . 3 . See Section I f o r a discussion of t h i s . 4 . Ch'u Yuan was a statesman of Ch'u i n Chou dynasty times. He was banished to the region of the Yangtze R i v e r ( i n p a r t i c u l a r to the Yuan, Hsiang and Mi-lo t r i b u t a r i e s ) , where he eventually committed suicide i n despair that h i s king had rejected h i s counsel. Today, the Dragon Boat F e s t i v a l commemorates t h i s event on the f i f t h day of the f i f t h month. The "orchids of the nine f i e l d s " , i n Wang Chih-teng's poem, r e f e r to Ch'u Yiian's l i n e i n the L i sao that reads,"I have tended many an acre (nine, f i e l d s of orchids". For a t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s poem see David Hawkes, Ch'u Tz'u, p. 2 3 . 5 . See Section II 6 . Van Gulik, p. 178 , gives an example of t h i s . He mentions L i Po and Confucian scholars i n countless poems with such t i t l e s as "composed on an excursion to x, taking courtesans with us". 7 . H. L i , Garden Flowers, p. 7 7 . 8 . Mai-mai Sze, The Tao of Painting, Vol 2, p.356. 9 . For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s painting see Wen Fong, Sung and Yuan Painting, plate no. 1 2 . - 6 9 ' - SECTION II I NOTES (cont'd) 1 0 . See note 4 , Section I I I . 1 1 . Chu-tsing L i i n "Oberlin Orchid" discusses another poem that used the image of "nine f i e l d s of orchids" to c r i t i c i z e those who served the Yuan dynasty foreigners and i n doin so ^ betrayed the Chinese. 1 2 . Hummel, Autobiography, p.121. 1 3 . For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of various plants see the Mai-mai Sze, The Tao of Painting, Vol. I I , p . 6 5 , 6 6 , & 6 7 . 1 4 . Yu-ho Tseng, "Hsueh Wu and Her Orchids", Arts Asiatiques T_T__ No. 3 ( 1 9 5 5 ) : 1 9 7 - 2 0 8 . 1 5 . Ibid. 1 6 . Ch'ien-i Ch>';ien, Lieh ch'ao shih. 17 . Siren, Chinese Painting, Vol. V, p.72. 1 8 . H. L i , Garden Flowers, p.6 5 - 6 9 . 1 9 . Ibid. For example, underground stems and seeds are edible and leaves are used f o r wrapping. 20. Ibid. 2 1 . Ibid. 2 2 . Ibid. 2 3 . Chou Tun-i, the pioneer of Neo-Confucionism, assimilated 70 SECTION III NOTES (cont'd) the Taoist element of non-being into Confucian thought. Wing- t s i t Chan, Source Book i n Chinese Philosophy, p, 4 6 0 . 2 4 . H. L i , Garden Flowers, p. 6 6 . 2 5 . Siren, History of Later Chinese Painting, Vol*?,p.54. 2 6 . Burton, Chinese Lyricism, p. 54. 2 7 . Kuang-t'ao K'ung, Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u . 28. T'a Sun, Chung-kuo hua and Sou-yu T'ang, Yu t ' a i hua shih. 2 9 . For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s see Lee, Colours, i l l u s t r a t i o n number 1 6 . 3 0 . Chu-tsing L i , "Oberlin Orchid", p. 50 discusses other P'u Ming Paintings. 3 1 . Alfreda Murck and Wen Fong, "Astor Court: Chinese Garden Court", Metropolitan Museum of Art B u l l e t i n (1980/81), p. 51-57, "Rocks and Plantings". 3 2 . C a h i l l i n Parting, p. 92 suggests that the album paintings done i n the Ming dynasty encouraged experimentation, intimacy and immediacy. 3 3 . There are several Chinese terms that describe the f i b r e s of a brush separating — ma p ' i ts'un J^j^. ̂  , p ' i ma ts'un ^ j L j^fofc & fei-po ^ ^ . A l l these terms *71 " SECTION III NOTES (cont'd) describe a separation of the f i b r e s of the brush, (see March, Some Technical Terms of Chinese Painting;, nos. 209, 210 and 117). The brushstroke used to paint the rock i n Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo, by Ma Shou-chen i s sim i l a r to the brushstroke used by Chao Meng-fu i n Rock, Bamboo and Old Tree (see C a h i l l , H i l l s , plate 80). Perhaps Ma Shou-chen was adapting a brush stroke she used f o r her calligraphy as did Chao Meng-fu (see C a h i l l , H i l l s , p. 162). 3 4 . For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of Ma Lin's work see Wen Fong, Sung and Yuan Painting, plate 1 1 . 3 5 . Raphael Petrucci, Kiai-Tseu-Yuan Houa Tchouan (tr a n s l a t i o n of the Mustard Seed Manual), p. 2 5 5 . 3 6 . Kuang-t'ao K'ung, Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u mentions "Running s t y l e " s c r i p t used by Ma Shou-chen. 3 7 . Richard Barnhart, "Chinese Calligraphy", p. 2 3 7 . 3 8 . Fan-t'ing Wang, Chung hua I i t a i f u nu. 3 9 . Van Gulik, p. 172 discusses the doubted authenticity of various courtesan poems and notes the d i s t r e s s i n g uniformity. - 72 SECTION IV NOTES (cont'd) 1. Siren, .'Chinese Paint ing, Vol. IV, p.219 quotes what Wang Chih-teng said about Ch'en Shun: "he possessed a be a u t i f u l talent by nature and hi s brushwork was highly o r i g i n a l . . . h i s paintings were done i n such a free and spontaneous fashion that they seemed l i k e l i v i n g things before the eye". 2. In Hsu chai ming hua l u by Yuan-chi P'ang, Wen Chao-chih i s referred to as being from the d i s t r i c t of Heng. According to Goodrich and Fang, Dictionary of Ming Biography Vol.11 p.1471, Wen Cheng-ming's Kao i s Heng-shan^"J ^ because he traced h i s ancestry back to that d i s t r i c t where an ancestor defended the Sung dynasty. Therefore, the Wen Chao-chih referred to must be the grandson of Wen Cheng-ming. However, Wen Chao-chih, according to the Dictionary of Ming Biography, Vol.1 p.405, died i n 1587 and Ma Shou-chen's painting i s dated by an i n s c r i p t i o n to 1600. I would l i k e to point out at t h i s time that the rel a t i o n s h i p between Wang Chih-teng and Wen Cheng-ming was further cemented by the marriage of Wang Chih-teng's daughter to Wen Cheng-ming's grandson and Wen Chia's son (Dictionary of Ming Biography, Vol.11 p. 1362). 3. Chu-tsing L i , A Thousand Peaks, p. 267. 4 . Wai-kam Ho, Col l e c t i o n of the Nelson Gallery, Kansas City and the Cleveland Museum of A r t t p. xxxvi. 5. Kuang-t'ao K'ung, Yo hsiieh lou shu hua l u . SECTION IV NOTES (cont'd) 6 . Siren,,History of Later Chinese Painting V o l . 1, p. 148. 7. Duck i n a Lotus Pond can be seen i l l u s t r a t e d i n Paintings by Ming and Ch'ing Masters, plate no. 14. 8. Lotus and Duck i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Siren, History of Later Chinese Painting, plate no. 108. 9 . Studies From L i f e , National Palace Museum archive no.6l44. 10. Fungus, Orchid and Magnolia, National Palace Museum archive number 5498. 11. C a h i l l , Chinese Painting, p.153 speaks of Tung Ch'i- ch'ang's "uncertain equilibrium". 12. C a h i l l , Parting, p. 8 5 . 13. Longevity Wishes, National Palace Museum archive no. 5567. 14. Chu-tsing L i , "Oberlin Orchid", p.6 2 . 15. Orchid and Bamboo, National Palace Museum archive number 8 8 4 . 16. Chu-tsing L i , "Oberlin Orbhid", p. 5 9 . 17. Ink Orchids, National Palace Museum archive number 2007. " 7 V SECTION IV NOTES (cont'd) IB. Flowers, National Palace Museum archive number 1517 . 1 9 . Flowers by Wen Cheng-ming, Ink Orchids by Hsiang Yiian- pien, Orchids and Bamboo by Wen Cheng-ming, Longevity Wishes by Hsiang Yiian-pien, Fungus, Orchid and Magnolia by Shen Chou, Studies from L i f e by Ch'en Shun, Duck i n a Lotus Pond by Shen Chou — a l l bear long and v i s u a l l y dominating i n s c r i p t i o n s by the a r t i s t s . 2 0 . C a h i l l , Parting, p. 1 6 3 . 2 1 . S u l l i v a n , Symbols of Et e r n i t y , p. 1 0 9 . 2 2 . C a h i l l , Parting, p. 9 7 . 2 3 . Flower paining, as a suitable female i n t e r e s t , i s mentioned i n Petrucci's (page 2 3 5 , 2 3 6 ) t r a n s l a t i o n of the Mustard Seed Manual. There i t i s explained that courtesans who painted orchids hoped to allude to themselves and thereby r e l a t e themselves and orchids to the daughters of the Emperor Yao. 2 4 . We have c o n f l i c t i n g information because several sources speak of her fondness of giving young men g i f t s . She did t h i s so often she was a frequent v i s i t o r at pawnshops. Fan-t'ing Wang i n Chung hua l i t a i fu nu says Ma Shou-chen turned down a r i c h merchant's offe r of marriage saying that although she was old, there was plenty of time to get married. - 7 5 " SECTION IV NOTES (cont'd) 2 5 . Contag, "Unique Characteristics", p. 6 2 . 2 6 . Kuang-t'ao K'ung, Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u . The only- words that Confucius spoke on the subject of h i s attitude to women were that "women and small minded people are l i k e t h i s , i f you are f a r away they are re s e n t f u l and i f you are close they are insubordinate". -f X tffr. / J ' X % %*i 2 7 . YU-ho'Tseng, "Hsueh Wu", p. 199- 76 - CONCLUSION NOTES 1. Siren, History of Later Chinese Painting,Vol."1. p.73. 2. Richard Edwards, The F i e l d of Stones: A Study of the Art of Shen Chou. 3. Bush, p.153. - 77 - BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NON-ENGLISH LITERARY SOURCES Ch'ien, C h ' i e n - i ^ §#K ed. Lieh ch'ao shih chi hsiao chuan 9'J Pi i% % 'if 1 Shanghai _t : K u T i e n wen hsueh ch'u pan she % sjfc ^ # Ĥ jfi. » 1957. Chu, I-tsun^Ljfe & . Ming shih tsung gfl t£ • V o 1 * 30. Ch'ing k'ang h s i k• o ben -ft ifo & i | V ( e d i t i o n ) . No publisher, 1705. * ^ Chu, I-tsun^M^Jt- i and Wang Ch'ang 3t jfcl , ed. Ming tz'u tsung M *f\ . Vo l . 1 & 2: Ssu pu pei yao $0 fyM- . Shanghai ; J; : Chung-hua shu chu ̂  ^ ^. ̂  ^ Chung-kuo ming hua chi . Vo l . 15: Shanghai : Yu Cheng Book Co., 1920/23. Fu, Hsi-hua $ ed. Ming t a i chuan c h ' i ch'uan ch'ieh ^ ^ % J$ £ . Peking >b ̂ s : Jen rain wen hstieh ch'u pan she, 1959. l i , C h ' i n ^ X j ' , ed. Ming hua l u ^^MJL. V o l . 27: Mei shu ts'ung shu Taipei: Kuan wen Hsu. shu chu, 1963". ed. jiu Kung wen shu chu, 1963. Huang, Pin-chiang $t % %u and Teng, S h i h % X Mei shu ts'ung shu |• '/f\ j f c % Vol. 1-iO. Taipei; Ku kung chou k'an jjj V$\ 4>\ Vol. 1-15. Peking: Palace Museum, 1930/3$• K'ung, Kuang-t'aCv-IU^> ^) , ed. Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u & ^ f f l r % f L / & L V o l . 5~ Yang cheng (Canton): Wan chuan t'ang , 1889. K'ung, Shang-jen %\j $y # , ed. Hsiang chin pu . Vol 7: Mei shu ts'ung shu * * £ . Taipei? Kuang wen shu chu, 1963. J Kuo, Wei-ch'u '•If' !̂-_JJs- , ed. Sung Yuan Ming Ch'ing shu hua chia nien piao j£,-7U gfl %J%%^ ~ ~ Pekxng: Chung-^kuo ku t i e n i shu chu pan she, 1958. L i , E | ] f | , ed. Yii t ' a i shu shih 3 , *§r % J . Vol. 33: Mei shu ts'ung shu . Taip e i : Kuang wen shu chu, 1963. P'ang, Yuan-chi M^TO , ed. Hsu chai ming hua l u Vol. 8. Shanghai: Ma chUng p*ang'sKiff, 1909. - 7 8 ' - BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NON-ENGLISH LITERARY SOURCES (cont'd) Shang, Ch'eng-tso and Huang, Hua f ^ , ed. Chung-kuo l i t a i shu hua suan k'e chia tzu hao so y i n Vol* 1 &2. Peking: Ren min mei shu chu pan she, I960. Shina Meiga Hokan j l tft fa % l d A | L . Tokyo: Otsuka- Kogeisha, 1 9 3 6 . " ^ Ssu pu pei yao %f $fy$r- . Shanghai: Chung hua shu chu, 1936. bun, T'a4 > e d . Chung-kuo hua chia jen ming t a tz'u t i e n * «SI I ?L_A & • Tapiei: T'ai wan tung fang shu t i e n , 1959* T'ang, Sou-yu m ifr&^X- , ed. Yii t ' a i hua shih jt»xf_4̂ j£__ . V ol. 33: Mei shu ts'ung shu jfe- tyfr Taipei: Kung wen shu chu, 1963. ^ ^ Tsang, Li-ho ^ f t W - ^ - , ed. Chung-kuo iIn ming t a tz'u t i e n <f i | A 4 • Shanghai: Commercial Wang, Fan-t'ing _t ̂  . Chung hua l i t a i f u n'u ^$M~*K -J^-lj- • Tai p e i : Commercial Press, i960. Yin t& pien tsuan chu 5l .^^jftu , ed. Pa shih chiu chung Ming t a i chiian chi tsung ho y i n te y V 4 A _ i f j _ Peking: Chung hua shu chu, 1959. - 79 " BIBLIOGRAPHY Acker, William, annotated t r a n s l a t i o n . Some T'ang and Pre- T'ang Texts on Chinese F a i n t i n g . Vol. 1. Leiden: E. J . B r i l l , 1957. Ayscough, Florence. Chinese Women Yesterday and Today. London: Jonathan Cape Ltd., 1938. Barnhart, Richard. "Chinese Calligraphy: The Inner World of the Brush." B u l l e t i n of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Apr./May (197271 230-241. " Bush, Susan. The Chinese L i t e r a t i on Painting. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1971. C a h i l l , James. "Confucian Elements i n the Theory of Painting". In Confucian Persuasion, pp.115-140. Edited by Arthur F. Wright. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, I960. C a h i l l , James. H i l l s Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368. New York: John Weatherhill Inc., 1976. C a h i l l , James. Parting at the Shore: Chinese Painting of the Early and Middle Ming Dynasty." New York: John Weatherhill inc., 1978. C a h i l l , James, ed., Restless Landscape: Chinese Painting of the Late Ming Period. Berkeley: Univ. Art Museum, 1971. C a h i l l , James. "Style as an Idea i n Ming-Ch'ing Painting." In Mozart Historian: Essays on the Works of Joseph R. LevensonT Edited by Maurice Meisner and Rhoads Murphey. Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f . Press, 1976. Chan, Wing-tsit. Source Book i n Chinese Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969. Ch'en, Shou-yi. Chinese Literature: A H i s t o r i c a l Introduction. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1961. Contag, V i c t o r i a . "Unique Charac t e r i s t i c s of Chinese Landscape Pictures." Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America. (1952): 45-53": : Contag, V i c t o r i a and Wang, C.C. Seals of Chinese Painters and Collectors of the Ming and Cn^ing Periods. Hong Kong: Univ. Press, 1966. Edwards, Richard. The F i e l d of Stones: A Study of the Art of Shen Chou. Washington, D.C: Freer Gallery of Art, 1962. - 80 - BIBLIOGRAPHY (cont'd) Fairbank, John, K., ed. Chinese Thougrt and I n s t i t u t i o n s . Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1957. Fong, Wen and Fu, Marilyn. Sung and Yuan Paintings. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. Goodrich, L. Carrington and Fang, Chaoying, ed. Dictionary of Ming Biography. V o l . 1 & 2. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1976. Hawkes, David. Ch'u Tz'u: The Songs of the South. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959• Ho, Lucy Chao. L i f e and Works of L i Ch'ing-ohao: More Graceful Than the Yellow Flower. Hong Kong: Mayfair Press, 1968. Ho, Wai-kam; Lee, Sherman;^Sickman, Lawrence and Wilson, Marc. The C o l l e c t i o n of the Nelson Gallery - Atkins Museum, Kansas City, and the Cleveland Museum of Art." Kansas: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1980. Hummel, P.W.,. annotated t r a n s l a t i o n . Autobiography of a Chinese Hi s t o r i a n . Leyden: E.J. B r i l l , Ltd., 1931. Hummel, Arthur W., ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington, D.C: U.S. Gov't Pri n t i n g O f f i c e , 1943. K'ung, Shang-ren. Peach Blossom Fan. Translated by Chen Shih- hsiang and Harold Acton. Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f . Press, 1976. Ledderose, Lothar. Mi Fu and the C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n of Chinese Calligraphy. Princeton: Univ. Press, Princeton, 1979. Lee, Sherman E. Chine se Landscape Paint ing. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1962. Lee, Sherman E. Colours of Ink. New York: Asia House Gallery, 1974. Levy, Howard S. Chinese Footbinding: The History of a Curious E r o t i c Custom. New York: Walton Rawls Pub., 1966. Levy, Howard S, annotated t r a n s l a t i o n . A Feast of Mist and Flowers: The Gay Quarters of Nanking at the End of the Ming. By Yu Huai. Yokohama, Japan: private publication, 19bo. L i , Chu-tsing. "Freer Sheep and Goat and Chao Meng-fu's Horse Paintings." Artibus Asiae (Vol. 30): 279-3-6. - 81 - BIBLIOGRAPHY (cont'd) L i , Chu-tsing. "Oberlin Orchid and the Problem of P'u-ming." Archives: of the Chinese Art Society of America (1962): 49-73. : L i , Chu-tsing. A Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines. V o l . 1 & 2. Ascona, Switzerland: Artibus Asiae Pub. 1974. L i , H.L. Garden Flowers of China. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1 9 5 9 — - L i n , Yutang, annotated t r a n s l a t i o n . Chinese Theory of Art. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1967. Loehr, Max. Great Painters of China. New York: Harper & Row, 1980. : Loehr, Max. "The Question of Individualism i n Chinese Art." Journal of the History of Ideas Vol. 22 (Apr.June 196l): 147-159. ' March, Benjamin. Some Technical Terms of Chinese Painting. Baltimore: Waverly Press, Inc., 1935. Murck, Alfreda and Fong, Wen. "Astor Court: Chinese Garden Court." Metropolitan Museum of Art B u l l e t i n (winter 1980/ 1981); ' Ma, Y.W and Lau, Joseph S.M., ed. T r a d i t i o n a l Chinese Stories: Themes and Variations. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, vm~.  : Petrucci, Raphael. Kiai-Tseu-Yuan Houa Tchouan, Les Enseigne- de l a Peinture du Jardin Grand comme un Grain de Moutarde. Paris: L i b r a i r i e Renouard, 1918. Rexroth, Kenneth and Chung, Ling. The Orchid Boat. New York: Seabury Press, 1972. Siren, Osvald. Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and P r i n c i p l e s . V o l . 1-7. London: Lund, Humphries and Co., 1956. Siren, Osvald. History of Later Chinese Painting. V o l . 1&2. New York: Hacker Art Books, 1978. Siren, Osvald. "Shih-t'ao, Painter, Poet and Theoretician." Museum of Far Eastern A n t i q u i t i e s B u l l e t i n No. 21 (1949): 31-62. S u l l i v a n , Michael. Arts of China. Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f . Press, 1977. - 82 - BIBLIOGRAPHY (cont'd) S u l l i v a n , Michael. Symbols of Et e r n i t y . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979. Sze, Mai-mai. The Tao of Painting: A Study of the R i t u a l Disposition of Chinese Painting. V o l . 1&2. New York: Pantheon Books Inc., 1956. Tai p e i , Taiwan. National Palace Museum and National Central Museum. Signatures and Seals on Painting and Calligraphy. Vol. 1-4, Supp. 5&6. Kowloon, Hong Kong: Cafa Co. Ltd., 1964. Tseng, Yu-ho. "Hsueh Wu and Her Orchids." Arts Asiatiques II No. 3 (1955): 197-208. Van Gulik, R.H. Sexual L i f e i n Ancient China. Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1961. Watson, Burton. Chinese Lyricism. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1971. Watson, Burton. Chinese Rhyme-Prose. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1971. Watson, Burton. Early Chinese L i t e r a t u r e . New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1962. Watson, William. Style i n the Arts of China. Middlesex: Penquin Books Ltd., 1974. Wolf, Margery et a l . Women i n Chinese Society. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1975. Yang, Hsien-yi and Yang, Gladys, annotated t r a n s l a t i o n . The Courtesan's Jewel Box: Chinese Stories of the Xth - XVIIth CenturiesT Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1957. = _3 " APPENDIX I - CATALOGUE Notes to the reader: This catalogue of Ma Shou-chen's works i s not e n t i r e l y chronological. The Chinese painting t i t l e s may be the one inscribed on the painting or recorded i n l i t e r a t u r e or assigned by myself i n the interest of i d e n t i f y i n g the work by a d i s t i n c t i v e feature. Inscriptions r e f e r to calligraphy written on the painting surface while colophons r e f e r to calligraphy on component parts added to the painting surface. I. Orchid, Bamboo and Rock (see figure 1) Metropolitan Museum C o l l e c t i o n . Dated 1572. J Hanging s c r o l l . Paper, ink. Height 52.5 cm., width 29.1 cm. Inscriptions: Ma Shou-chen f Green shadows spread over the Hsiang River, Clear fen incense flows down to the hidden v a l l e y . Written on the fourth month of 1572 i n the l i t t l e p a v i l i o n of Ch'in-huai. Ma Shou-chen. Hsueh M i n g - i 1 - The empty val l e y ' s hidden orchids f l o u r i s h , No one follows the fragrance,, Or goes to see the l e i s u r e l y , Yet elegant and col o u r f u l moist dew Send out a clear fragrance. Hsueh Ming-i. Wang Chih-teng - The fragrant land i s submerged, Three months of spring have watered The secret orchids of the nine f i e l d s . In the Green H i l l s Study People s i t with wine i n front of them And read the L i sao. Wang Chih-teng. - $ 4 " Colophon: 2 Sung Ch'uang - Faint fragrance and t h i n shadows are lodged on the s i l k , The red of the small seal i d e n t i f i e s Yueh-chiao, The charm of the old gathering place has dispersed. The old scholar and the old cypress mourn the w i l l i n g dynasty, Now I recall- the curtain and the old smile that welcomed me. The profusion of orchids diminish l i k e the people i n the s c r o l l , But the sound of shattering jade bring back to me The southern court and r e c a l l s spring. Written on the sixteenth day of the twelfth month of yi-mao ( 1 6 3 9 ) , i n front of the lamp. Sung Ch'uang. Seals: ~ Ma Shou-chen, two seals.^ Hsueh Ming-i, one seal. 4 Wang Chih-teng, one seal.- > Two uni d e n t i f i e d seals at the lower l e f t of the s c r o l l . Remarks: ' Previously in the C.C. NWang-.Collection,. N.Y. . . .• -It i s presently i n the Metropolitan Museum of Art," Loan 1 9 8 1 . 2 . 1 2 - , The Edward E l l i o t t Family C o l l e c t i o n . Orchid (see figure 2) Dr. James Caswell C o l l e c t i o n . Dated 1 6 0 3 . Hanging s c r o l l . Paper, ink. Height 56 cm., width 33 cm. Insc r i p t i o n : Ma Shou-chen - In the a i r there i s a fragrance of nine f i e l d s of orchids, The dew sparkles i n the cool weather; Three Hsiang River moons shed t h e i r tears, Only traces of the dried tears remain; The autumn sky i s clear, Yet so vast and broad i t appears l i m i t l e s s . Who w i l l t r a v e l once more To sing of the marsh border scenes? - 8 5 - " Painted and composed i n the Ch'in-huai Water Pavilion At the request of f i f t h elder s i s t e r Su Ching In 1603 at the time of hoar f r o s t descending. Hsiang-lan, Ma Shou-chen. Seals: 5 Ma Shou-chen, two_seals. Ku Yun, one seal, on the lower right of the s c r o l l . One unidentified on the 1lower right of the s c r o l l . Two unidentified on the lower l e f t of the s c r o l l . Remarks: The painting has been drawn with ink l i n e on a paper that has turned putty colour with age. The putty colour quite a t t r a c t i v e l y rests on the p l a i n cream coloured background of the hanging s c r o l l . There i s one damaged spot on the central flowered spike i n the painting. This spot has been repaired from the back but hasenbt been touched up on the front. There i s a horizontal crease towards the bottom of the s c r o l l that has obliterated any traces of ink on that crease. This has also not been touched up. There are some damaged spots at the top and at the bottom of the painting that would have occurred before the present mounting. But i n spite of t h i s moderate damage the painting remains i n quite remarkable shape considering i t s age. I I I . Orchids and Bamboo (see figure 3(A) to (F)) Indianapolis Museum of Art. Dated 1 6 0 4 . Handscroll. Paper, ink colour. Dimensions unknown. Inscription: Ma Shou-chen - The f a l l month of 1604, seated i n the Ch'in- huai Water P a v i l i o n . Lady Hsiang-lan, Ma Shou-chen. Seals: g Ma Shou-ehen, two seals. One unidentified seal at the end of the s c r o l l . Three uni d e n t i f i e d seals at the beginning of the s c r o l l . Remarks: This painting was formerly i n the E. L i l l y C o l l e c t i o n . It i s presently i n the Indianapolis Museum of Art, accession number 6 0 . 2 5 . The gold f l e c k s on the paper were present before the painting was executed. The t i t l e on the outside r o l l i s unsigned but could be translated as "Lady Hsiang-lan's Coloured Orchids and Bamboo". The mounting consists of three colours of s i l k , cut i n a manner that the s i l k designs are - 86 - continuous. For t h i s information and f o r h i s assistance I would l i k e to thank James Robinson, Assistant Curator of Oriental Art, Indianapolis Museum of Art. IV. Lotus Plant (see figure 4) National Museum, Stockholm C o l l e c t i o n . Undated. Hanging s c r o l l . Materials and dimensions unknown. Insc r i p t i o n : Ma Shou-chen - I passed my childhood at the r i v e r banks, not knowing any sorrows, but now the storms and rains have brought the autumn c h i l l to Ch'in- huai. I dare not turn my head again to the roads.of old along the dykes. The trees are th i n , the sun i s low, and I am i n a public house.° Siren quotes a note added to the i n s c r i p t i o n that expressed Ma Shou-chen's disappointment over the fact that a f r i e n d of hers had taken a new concubine.10 Seals: Ma Shou-chen, one sea l . One unid e n t i f i e d seal on the upper r i g h t . Four uni d e n t i f i e d seals on the lower l e f t . V. Orchid and Bamboo Fan Co l l e c t i o n unknown. Dated the ninth month of 1578. Folding fan. Paper, ink, colour (?). Dimensions unknown. Inscr i p t i o n : Ma Shou-chen - A trace of the spring wind's fragrance comes from afar Through the h a l f opened window The misty, unshrouded image of the moon Begins to cast i t s beams. Ninth month of 1578, drawn by Ma Hsiang-lan. Seals: -^2 Ma Shou-chen, one s e a l . One uni d e n t i f i e d seal on the upper r i g h t . Remarks: This fan i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Ku kung chou k'an,Vol. 4, page 759- Orchids C o l l e c t i o n unknown. Remarks: This painting i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Shina Meiga Hokan, page 6 4 6 . Nothing i s known of t h i s seldom reproduced painting by Ma Shou-chen and unfortunately the reproduction i s of such poor qua l i t y that i t i s impossible to decipher the three small seals at the middle of the s c r o l l . It i s not known i f t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n shows the complete handscroll or merely a section of i t . Flowers.and B u t t e r f l y Fan Col l e c t i o n unknown. Undated. Folding fan. Gold-flecked paper, ink with colour. Total height 1 ch' i h 4 fen 8 l i , fan face width 1 ch'ih 6 ts'un, fan face height 3 ts'un 3 fen 6 l i . I n s criptions: Ma Shou-chen - Creation of Nanking Lady Ma Shou-chen. Wang Chih-teng — A va r i e t y of flowers; two or three crowded together, Planted to contend with each others' seductive and bewitching beauty. In response, b u t t e r f l i e s f l y toward them Dipping and hovering, They could not endurecleaving. Wang Chih-teng of T'ai Yuan. Seals: -jo Ma Shou-chen, one se a l . Wang Chih-teng, one se a l . ^ Ch'ien lung Emperor, one se a l . Remarks: This fan i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Ku kung chou k'an, Vol. 5, page 1504. The outside r i b s of the fan are of Hunan bamboo, the inside r i b s are of ordinary bamboo. There are sixteen r i b s i n t o t a l . - 88 - VIII.Orchid Blossom Study National Palace Museum, Taiwan C o l l e c t i o n . Undated. Materials and dimensions unknown. Inscription: Ma Shou-chen - Hsiang-lan tzu, drawn by Ma Shou-chen. Seals: Ma Shou-chen, one s e a l . One unid e n t i f i e d seal on the lower l e f t . Remarks: National Palace Museum accession number 588O. IX. Landscape Study National Palace Museum, Taiwan C o l l e c t i o n . Undated. Materials and dimensions unknown. Inscriptions: Ma Shou-chen - Yueh-chiao, Ma Shou-chen. Seals: Ma Shou-chen, one s e a l . Remarks: National Palace Museum accession number 588O. X. Epidendrums Soyeshima C o l l e c t i o n . Undated. Album l e a f . Materials and dimensions unknown. Inscriptions: none Seals: One unide n t i f i e d seal on lower l e f t of album l e a f . Remarks: This album l e a f i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Siren, History of Later Chinese Painting, plate I63B. XI. Slender Rock, Orchids and Bamboo Col l e c t i o n unknown. Dated 1572. -89 ~ Hanging s c r o l l . Materials and dimensions unknown. Inscriptions: Ma Shou-chen - Two days before the second month of jen-shen ( (1572), i n Ch'in-huai Water Pa v i l i o n . Hsiang-lan, Ma Shou-chen. Wang Chih-teng - Leaves clothe the early morning fog The green of Lu-ho 1' i s i n the distance. Flowers savour the spring fog -. * There i s the purple of the Wei-jui A b e a u t i f u l lady i s separated From me by the waters of the Hsiang River. Who am I going to send the fragrance to? In s c r i p t i o n by Wang Chih-teng. 19 Hsueh Ming-i - There i s a fragrance fcpm the islands of abundant plants and the Tu Jo. ^ The Yuan River of Hunan i n the spring flows dry When the r i v e r becomes small and i n d i s t i n c t The ingenious young bamboo departs And we hear no more of i t . But there i s an i r r e g u l a r band of i t s clothing Left along the bank. Hsiieh Ming-i. 21 Wen Ts'ung-kuang Beau t i f u l ladies love to paint the garments of the Hsiang River's Imperial doncubines. After one thousand years the painting's fragrance i s s t i l l concentrated. Last night the spring wind penetrated the secluded v a l l e y . Dwelling high on a c l i f f the idea elegantly grows. Wen Ts'ung-kuang. Tu Ta-shou 2 2- The beginning fragrance was the peach and plum of the abundant spring. Their brightness does not entertain the roadsides of the coming autumn How could i t compare with the abundance of the i s l e t s of the Hsiang River? On a pure wind there i s never a day without the breath of fragrance. - 9 0 - Tu Ta-shou. 23 Wen Ch'ong-kuang In the empty courtyard the birds announce the r i s i n g sun of a new day The wind sends a fragrance which brushes against the hempen robe. I a r i s e from sleep-and peer through the l i t t l e window There are no worldly worries The bamboo bed supports the pillows and I read The L i sao. Wen Ch'ong-kuang. Seals: Ma Shou-chen, one s e a l . Wang Chih-teng, one seal,7 ^ Hsueh Ming-i, two s e a l s . 2 " Wen Ts'ung-kuang, two s e a l s . 2 ' Tu Ta-shou, one s e a l . 2 8 ? Q Wen Ch*ong-kuang, one s e a l . " Vara Remarks: This painting i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chung-kuo ming hua c h i , Vol. 15, page 8. --91 - APPENDIX II -TRANSLATIONS Notes: Although I do not have a spe c i a l profieiency with the c l a s s i c a l Chinese language, I have included these t r a n s l a t i o n s i n the hope that they w i l l be of some help to the reader. There has been every attempt to keep the t r a n s l a t i o n as l i t e r a l -\ as possible with explanations of l i t e r a r y references kept separate i n the notes. Where some passages have been para- phrased they are noted by being enclosed i n brackets. The more romantic and evocative descriptions are, by nature, the most d i f f i c u l t to tr a n s l a t e . Though I included my trans- l a t i o n s of these passages, i t i s with a note of caution to the reader. The translations were made to provide raw data for my th e s i s . Therefore, the sense of these works was used with the f u l l knowledge that i t i s beyond my present c a p a b i l i t i e s to achieve a t r a n s l a t i o n that i s correct and as evocative as the o r i g i n a l . Where possible, I have included dates of the authors or compilers i n order to give some idea of the dates of the sources. Ch'ien-i Ch'ien, Lieh ch'ao shih chi hsiao, Vol. 2 , page 7 6 5 . Ch'ien-i Chtien I 5 8 2 - I 6 6 4 . Ma Hsiang-lan: Concubine Ma named Shou-chen, was also .V c a l l e d Hsuan-erh and Ylieh-chiao. Because of her accomplished orchid paintings, she became known by the name of Hsiang-lan. Her f a c i a l appearance was l i k e that of an ordinary person. Her s p i r i t and feel i n g s were open and pure. She glistened 92 - l i k e the spring willow and early o r i o l e . " She could s p i t out words and l e t f l y anger. She was a clever observer of people's intentions. No one who saw her did not loose himself. She dwelt at a superior place at Ch'in-huai. There, the waters and dwellings were f i n e and not crowded. The flowers and stones (of a garden) were secluded and pure. Curving passages and convenient rooms (were so numerous that the v i s i t o r ) became confused and he could not get out. She taught small slaves and apprentices at the Pear 2 Garden. Daily, she provided feast" f o r guests. The sounds of the deer skin drum and pipa mingled with the sounds of the 3 hong-ya and chin- l u . By nature she delighted in l i g h t and bold themes. Sometimes she squandered money i n order to present ( g i f t s ) to youths. Her head-dress and bracelet were always at the pawnbroker but she did not look back. She was often distressed by Mo-tz'u.^" Mister Wang, Bo-gu, f l e d from her. She proposed to Wang but Wang couldn't accept. In the f a l l of the wan-li reign era, the year of chia-chen (1604), Bo-gu turned seventy years o l d . Hsiang- lan came from Nanking and set wine ( i n front of him to celebrate his) longevity. They ate and drank f o r several months; singing and dancing u n t i l morning. This was counted as an expensive a f f a i r by the people of Chin-ch'ang f o r several years. She returned home and not long afterwards f e l l i l l . She l i t a lamp and paid respects to Buddha. §he took a bath and changed her clothes, sat up properly and passed away. It was her f i f t y - s e v e n t h year. There were two chuan of poetry. In the wan-li era of hsing-mao (1591), Bo-gu wrote a preface, saying: Mo-ling i s a place of excellence and beauty; a house of courtesans amidst debauchery. The peach trees annotate love and the willow strands draw out „ resentment. Confused heaven and confused Emperor ' Teng-t'u 8, i f here, would have worn out h i s eyes. Because clouds make r a i n and because of Sung-yu,9 the heart i s i n turmoil. This i s the rare realm of q u a l i t i e s of warmth and softness. There i s a beautiful person (here). The most charming of an era. I f you would l i k e to know her surname then i t i s the steedlO of a thousand pieces of gold from the town of Yan. Her name i s the herb that grows i n the area of the Hsiang River. She takes money as l i g h t l y as earth. Surprisingly, she has kingfishers* green sleeves with the s p i r i t . , ' of the Chu family.l-^ This i s as weighty i n importance as a mountain — to not regard oneself (worthy of) the joyous decorations of Chi-pu.^ 2 As f o r the jade ornament, i t i s not f o r Chiao-fu to decline separation.13 As f o r the weaver's shuttle i t i s not tenderly given when i t i s thrown. Culture i s shamed by Ma. The Lu and the Ch'in are chosen and not thrown away. The a b i l i t y to greet the music teacher and women's handicrafts disappoint her quiet and comfort. She i s the refined s p i r i t of s ix ages; the s p i r i t u a l power and grace of San- shanl4, combined together, to express her beauty. Your holding i n the hand a glazed pipe (part of a musical instrument), each word i s l i k e the wind and clouds. Letters of pieces of jade with each speech are l i k e dew under the moon. "Small as f l y heads characters" describe her resentments. This heart i s t i e d . F i s h stomach1-* seals shut emotions and anyone who l i s t e n s to her s p i r i t w i l l f l y away. She entrusts t r a n q u i l l i t y and happiness to f i v e character poems. The sound resembles the early morning o r i o l e ' s singing melodiously i n the v a l l e y . She expresses her inner f e e l i n g s i n four l i n e s . The f e e l i n g i s akin to the spring silkworms regurgitating s i l k . - 94 - She i s i n accord with the new sound of the tz'u and y_i poems. She innovates the old songs of the courtyard flowers. 1" In the flow beneath the t i l e d o f f i c i a l p a v i l i o n , I want to cross over but the song i s broken o f f . At the tree i n front of the pa v i l i o n , happiness i s not seen and the song breaks o f f . I would l i k e to ride the fog with the beauty of the Lo River nymph. 1 7 (By) avoiding troubles of the Empress Chao, (she) instead i s able to write poems about the bright moon. Don't c a l l i t weak or gross, (her)tz'u poetry combines the white snow. Surely you can speak of an a t t r a c t i v e and charming lady... She i s capable and able, l i k e a green s u i t c a s e . 1 8 (She caused the price of paper to ri s e ) Thus the flowing Chiang-su i s deeply d i s s a t i s f i e d . The night moon covers i t and spies on men. In front of the jade mirror tower, she r e c i t e s (poems) and the early mist enshrouds trees. How i s i t that there i s only Chin-chiang's Yiieh- t'ao 20 who was put down i n the catalogues? How i s i t that they stop at (the trouble) of Soochow's Du-wei? 2 1 Hsiang-lan died, Bo-gu wrote a biography and a funerary poem. New when poets pass through o f f i c i a l places they compose poetry to mourn her. I-tsun Chu, Ming shih tsung, V o l . 30, chuan 98, le a f 3. I-tsun Chu ' i i ju I-tsun Chu 1629-1709. Ma Shou-chen: Shou-chen, tzu Hsiang-lan was c a l l e d Hsuan-erh and Yueh-chiao. She was a Nanking prost i t u t e . The Tz'u hua ( c r i t i c i s m of poetry) said her appearance was only average. She was boastful and talented i n l e t t e r s but unconventional i n l i f e s t y l e . She was good at observing people's intentions. By nature, she was repeatedly out- standing and bold. She always squandered money by presenting ( g i f t s ) to young men. She assisted Wang Bo-gu of Wu i n his - 95 - d i f f i c u l t y . She proposed to Bo-gu but he could not (accept). In the wan-li reign era, the f a l l of 1604, Bo-gu turned seventy years old and Hsiang-lan bought a multi-storied boat to carry f i f t e e n small slaves to the Willow C a t l i n Garden. She set up the wine to celebrate Wang's longevity. Morning and evening, they sang and danced; enjoying themselves for several months. This became a famous event. Bo-gu prefaced her poems by saying: Note: This source then quotes the preface reported by Ch'ien- i Ch'ien i n Lieh ch'ao shih chi hsiao chuan. See above t r a n s l a t i o n . This source ends with a shih (poem) by Ma Shou-chen. It has not been translated f o r t h i s t h e s i s . I-tsun Chii and Ch'ang Wang, Ming tz'u tsung, V o l . 2, chuan 12, page 3. I-tsun Chu 1629-1709 and Ch'ang Wang 1725-1807. Ma Shou-chen, tzu Yiieh-chiao, hao Hsiang-lan; Nanking p r o s t i t u t e . Note: This source quotes a tz'u by Ma Shou-chen that was sent to Chen Hu-shan ( u n i d e n t i f i e d ) . This has not been translated f o r t h i s t h e s i s . Hsi-hua Fu, Ming t a i chuan ch'i ch'uan ch'ieh, pages 1 2 4 - 1 2 5 . Hsi-hua Fu i s a contemporary author and editor. According to the Lu t ' i e n ch'eng ch'u l u , which comments on t h i s drama; when Cheng (Cheng Chih-wen) was a h s i a o - l i e n degree, he was romantic but not vulgar, and casual and elegant. When he was i n Ch'in-huai, he made a s a t i r e of an old p r o s t i t u t e , r i d i c u l i n g her i n the Pai l i e n ch'un. This was - 96 - c r i t i c i z e d by an o f f i c i a l , Ta Chung, and consequently ( t h i s 23 opera was)not d i s t r i b u t e d . The songs were not of a proper pattern but they were humorous and f u l l of flavour. According to the Yuan shan t'ang ch'u l u ; Pao-hsien (Cheng Chih-wen), when he was a hsiao l i e n degree, wandered around Ch'in-huai. Many operas were written at t h i s time. He wrote i n great richness about a famous^sing song g i r l . He gave himself a role i n t h i s drama. Moreover, by s a t i r i z i n g the courtesan Ma Hsiang-lan, simultaneously r i d i c u l e reached Wang Bo-gu. At that time a grand censor scolded and one half the e d i t i o n was printed before i t was stopped. Also, the Ku ch'u tsa yen says that at the time, the price of paper was high (because of such great demand). The next year, l i Chiu-wo was appointed (as administrator).--He sought out the bookstores and print shops, destroying the pr i n t i n g blocks, so the opera could not be transmitted. He did not pay any attention to what was already i n c i r c u l a t i o n . Ch'in Hsu, Ming hua l u , Section 3, Part 7, page 135. Prostitutes/sing song g i r l s : Ma Shou-chen, hao Hsiang-lan of Nanking was well known f o r her poetry and painting. She had an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e f o r painting ink orchids unperturbed and elegant. She was extremely charming. Kuang-t'ao K'ung, Yo hsueh lou shu hua l u , V o l . 5, chuan 5, double l e a f 17. Kuang-t'ao K'ung i s a nineteenth century author. Ming dynasty Ma Hsiang-lan's narcissus. Wang Bo-gu added a stone to t h i s long s c r o l l . The height of the paper 97 - i s one ch'ih two ts'un four fen. The length of the s c r o l l i s ten chang four c h l i h nine ts'un f i v e fen. It i s a f l a x paper s c r o l l of four sections, no colour was used. There are two seals: one with the character "Ta" 2^, one with the characters "chiang shang ta shih t'u shu y i n " . I love your tender leaves. Lush flowers blossom often to be frozen. (Yet) the fragrance f l o u r i s h e s . Now i f you had ;been together with an orchid then c e r t a i n l y i t would have been l i k e the sentences of the poet Ch'u. 2? Created i n the t h i r d month of 1599 f o r Bo-gu, elder brother. Written by Hsiang-lan, Ma Shou-chen. Two seals: one with the characters "Yiieh-chiao", another with the characters "Shou-chen, Yuan-tzu". . Six lines,;-of "Running s t y l e " s c r i p t , on the upper part at the end of the s c r o l l . The robe of spring i s t h i n an bland. With l i g h t make-up and elegance she stands, swaying. There i s a countryside of water and clouds. Her green s k i r t shakes and drags. Her waist and limbs are s o f t . Her powdered neck and hands (bend and bow) low. The make-up on her brow i s fragrant. The wind penetrates the l i t t l e window. She i s not polluted by dust. The moon's p r o f i l e i s jade. The Nymph of the Lo River's refined form i s overwhelmingly the same. 2 8 Would she be w i l l i n g to compete with the ordinary blossom's beauty and fragrance. Wang Chih-teng supplied the stone and also added t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n . Two seals: one seal with the characters "ching yang chun, another with the characters"Wang yin Chih-teng". Four l i n e s of "Running s t y l e " s c r i p t at the end of the s c r o l l . Ma Shou-chen, a famous p r o s i t i t u t e (chi~^_) of Ch'in- huai. Due to her accomplished paintings of orchids her hao was Hsiang-lan. She was an outstanding and bold person whose co l o u r f u l s k i l l poured out. At - 9a - one time Mister Bo-gu had already escaped from Hsiang-lan. During the wan-li era's t h i r t y years of trouble, i n the f a l l of 1602, Mister (Wang) was seventy years old. Hsiang-lan bought a multi- st o r i e d boat to carry several tens of young maids to the Willow C a t l i n Garden to set up wine"(and celebrate). Amongst the people of Wu t h i s became a famous a f f a i r . At t h i s time Hsiang-lan was f i f t y - seven years old. Her youthful beauty was decreased but she had the same st y l e as before. Mister Wang jokingly spoke to her, saying:"(you are a) country- bumpkin, a r e a l chicken skin 3(hsiang chen chi p ' i 4>$f t ^krS---. ) • Three p i t i e s f o r the shen kung wu presented to Wang, who added a stone and an i n s c r i p t i o n i n a winter month of 1599* It was presented to him three years previous to (her) death. Huang Fu- weng's^O poetry says that when the waves advance a f a i r y i s born. With dust bearing socks, she steps on the l i g h t l y r e f l e c t e d moon on the water. Her s t y l e i s l i k e an immortal^s./i I s n ' t i t h i s l i k e a s e l f - p o r t r a i t of Hsiang-lan?" 31 Colophon by Kuang-t'ao, on a spring day of I 8 5 3 . Shang-jen K'ung, Hsiang chin pu, Part 7, pages 221 and 222. Shang-jen K'ung was born 1648. Nanking professional singer/dancer, Ma Hsiang-lan painted an orchid painting with double outline s t y l e of orchid l e a f . Her brushstroke i s elegant and powerful. In the background are bamboo and stones. A l l (elements) have a d i s t i n c t s t y l e . Her own i n s c r i p t i o n says: Distant, desolate and orderly. (These q u a l i t i e s ) are not worthy of the valuable nine f i e l d s of orchids of the high land- along the" Hsiang' Riverv 3 ? M .--(when the orchid)enters a room, i t i s able to forget odours and aromas. I,begin*to understand that the empty val l e y has superior people. Written on the fourth day of the fourth month of 1603, by Hsiang-lan, Ma Shou-chen. There are two seals, one "Hsiang-lan, and one "Shou-chen, Yiian-yuantzu. They were obtained at the Yellow Sunflower P a v i l i o n . drawn (by her and 99 - E L i , Yu t f a i shu shih,Vol, 8, ch'uan 8, double l e a f 71. E L i , 1692-1752. Ma Hsiang-lan: courtesan Ma Shou-chen as a c h i l d was c a l l e d Yuan-erh. Her hao was Yiieh-chiao. Because of her accomplished orchid paintings she was c a l l e d Hsiang-lan. She l i v e d i n a better section of Ch'in-huai. (Lieh ch'ao shih c h i ) . There i s a v e r t i c a l hanging s c r o l l with double outline ink orchids. It i s composed of clos e l y grown and slender bamboo, narrow stone and has a s p i r i t e d rhythm that i s extremely excellent. The i n s c r i p t i o n says: Green shadows spread over the Hsiang River, clear fen incense flows down to the hidden v a l l e y . Written on the fourth month of 1572, i n Ch'in-huai*s l i t t l e p a v i l i o n . Hsiang-lan tzu, Ma Shou-chen.33 Another small s c r o l l also has double outline ink orchids. an i n s c r i p t i o n says: Mysterious orchid i s born i n the vast v a l l e y . No one follows to savour the fragrance. I want to express whole- heartedly and leave the long and vast r i v e r road. Written by Hsiang-lan, Shou-chen tzu on a spring day of 1596. These two s c r o l l s are now stored at my f r i e n d Ma Pan- 34 cha's Kuang l i n g studio. Ylian-chi P'ang, Hsu chai ming hua l u , Vol 8 , chuan 8 , double l e a f Ming dynasty Ma Hsiang-lan's orchid, bamboo and stone s c r o l l . On paper with ink, double outline technique of painting orchids. The background uses bamboo, stones and — 100 - 36 a withered branch. Height i s two ch'ih s i x ts'un seven fen and the width i s seven ts'un six fen. The bottom half i s painted while the upper half bears an i n s c r i p t i o n dating i t a f a l l day i n 1600 and signed Hsiang-lan, Ma Shou-chen. Two seals are shown: one i n red characters "Shou-chen, Hslian-erh-tzu" and one with while characters "Hsiang-lan". When you describe bamboo and arrange orchids, you r e l y on Juan-lang .35 Traces of powder (pollen?) and subtle (yet) glossy ink traces and fragrance r e l y on the rare flowers of the daughters of heaven. The profusion r e a d i l y drives out the spring winds. On a.stone bed, Wang Chih-teng. Three seals: one with red c h a r a c t e r ^ c h i h " , one with red character "teng", and one with white characters "Wang shih bo-gu". New snow accumulates. Lush growth, stones, Hao-lan and a^practised blossom. A beautiful lady blends the Lu-ch'i (musical instrument) with abstruse thoughts i n Fan's t'ien-kuei . 3 7 One seal: white characters "chu chih fan". The empty v a l l e y gives b i r t h to the secluded orchid. No one follows to savour the fragrance. I want to r e l y upon the c h i l d that has the same mind. The r i v e r i s f a r away and long. Ta Chung.38 Two seals: one with red characters "Tu ta chung" another 39 with red characters "k*ang-tzu". I have heard of the princesses of the Hsiang River. This painting i s t r u l y l i k e the place of nine f i e l d s of orchids. OhJ Surely a beautiful man i s i n accord with a woman? Ju Chin.4° One seal: red characters "Ju Chin".^ 1 (If) leaves scatter, why not the flower's many fragrances? Certainly, i n spring the c h i l l y d i s p o s i t i o n of the Hsiang River's highlands and the appropriate deepness of the water permit us to see the (delicacy) of the image of the branch. Yet - 101 - the same elegant and graceful heart i s not c o l l e c t - i v e l y stored and indulged. It i s destroyed by f r o s t . The withdrawal of spring should change the endless nine f i e l d s of orchids of a poet. A vagrant woman resents the three Hsiang orchids. The lady i s sweet and alone. It i s not for her that the fragrant empty valley i s s i l e n t . There i s no one who i s secluded and fragrant at any place. Spring arr i v e s at the countryside of Ch'in-huai. The soul disperses and the Ch'u River women**-2 s p i l l out to gather the spring winds. Flowers are threaded to make spring c l o t h i n g . Green leaves are worn. Chien lang kan's purple heart cuts the t u r t l e hawksbill.^3 Nanking, at the same time, the frosted grass i s not w i l l i n g to f l a t t e r spring. (But here) sunshine and jade (coloured) legions of trees f l o a t . This i s so and the ones who rule are fragrant. For instance, the flowers abundantly clothe that peach tree and that plum tree. Clearly and single mindedly I s n i f f the r e a l water and speak. The o r i g i n a l plan of both you and me was to (include) the Lu-ch'in (musical instrument), to exercise and to open up the green f i e l d s of orchids. This world's f l a t highland along a r i v e r i s endless. It jealously k i l l s passers-by along the Hsiang River. The orchid tower i s bare. A game of "go" and Kuei Garden both hasten to contain i t s b r i l l i a n t (yet) subtle colours. The court i s f i l l e d with rooms. The clear and fragrant night i n h e r i t s i t s clothing. Written on the sixteenth day of the eleventh month of 1600 by Wen Ohao-chih of the d i s t r i c t of Heng, in Ch'in-huai's Accumulated Brocade Studio. Four seals: one with white characters "Wen Chao-chih yin", one with red character "yiieh hsing t' i e n chih feng yueh", another with white characters " t ' i n g l i kuan chu jen" and another with red characters " t ' a i p'ei chih chia chen tsang. T'a Sun, Chung-kuo hua chia jen ming ta tz'u t i e n , page 340. Ming dynasty Ma Shou-chen was a woman of Nanking. According to the Lieh ch'ao shih chi hsiao chuan; she became Ma Hsiang-lan because she was said to be an accomplished painter. Therefore she was named Hsiang-lan. Ming hua l u l i s t s her hao as Hsiang-lan. As a c h i l d she was c a l l e d 102 - Yuan-erh and her name Yueh-chiao came from the name of a person i n a southern s t y l e opera. She l i v e d i n a better section of Ch'in-huai. She was a great f r i e n d of Wang Bo-gu, and f o r a while wrote poetry with him. Misty flowers ! (prostitution) was not her intention. Some say her orchids imitated Chao Tzu-gu (Chao Meng-chien) while her bamboos followed the method of Kuan Chung-chi (Kuan Tao-sheng). Her manner was casual and elegant, sedate and refined. Others say she spoke with abundant charm. (Ming hua l u ; Wu sheng shih shih; T'u hui•pao chien hsu tsuan; and Lieh ch'ao shih chi hsiao chuan). Sou-yu T'ang, Yu t ' a i hua shih, Section 4, Part 3, page 219, 220 According to the Lieh ch'ao shih chi hsiao chuan: Courtesan Ma Shou-chen (as a c h i l d was c a l l e d Yuan-erh), was also named Yueh-chiao. Because of her accomplished paintings of orchids she was c a l l e d Hsiang-lan. She l i v e d i n a better section of Ch'in-huai. She was j o y f u l , light-hearted and bold. Sometimes she squandered money i n order to present ( g i f t s ) to youths. Her head-dress and bracelets were l e f t at the pawnbroker's, but she never looked back. Wang Bo-gu prefaced her poetry saying: She regards money l i g h t l y . This i s as (importantgas) an earthquake. . IShe has) green sleeves and the Chu family ( h e a r t ) T o regard as important a promise i s l i k e Mount Ch'iu's red decorated seasonal c l o t h . 50 According to the Shih ku t'ang shu hua l u k'ao: Ma Hsiang- lan 's orchid flower s c r o l l i s of gold sprinkled paper with applied colour. There i s one flower with numerous leaves. - 103 - {It demonstrates) a weak brushstroke and i s not successful. The signature indicates a summer day of 1570. It i s signed by Hsiang-lan, who composed t h i s "ink play" for Lung-chih, elder brother.^ 1 On the right of the painting i s a seal with 52 red characters "hsien t ' i n g " . Also, there i s Lady Ma Hsiang-lan's flower and stone painting on p l a i n white s i l k with no colour. The i n s c r i p t i o n dates the painting to a dark day of chrysanthemum month, i n 53 1578. The i n s c r i p t i o n i s signed Hsuan-tzu f o r Wen Mao-hsieh. According to the Wu sheng shih shih: Hsiang-lan's (style) of orchids followed (the s t y l e of) Chao Tzu-ku (Chao Meng- chien). Her technique of bamboo painting (followed) the method of Lady Kuan (Kuan Tao-sheng). In both cases she i s able to u t i l i z e the surplus from l i t e r a t u r e and apply i t to her painting. Her drawings were not only elegant and refined, but also were of (f i n a n c i a l ) value. Moreover, her name i s heard beyond the seas to Thailand. O f f i c i a l s also know to purchase her paintings and fans and to store them. According to the Y'u t ' a i shu shih: Ma Hsiang-lan's double outline ink (painting). At the side she painted s l i p s of bamboo and a narrow stone. The s p i r i t e d rhythm i s extremely f i n e . The i n s c r i p t i o n says: Green shadows spread over the Hsiang River, clear fen incense flows down to the hidden v a l l e y . Written on the fourth month of 1572 i n the l i t t l e p a v i l i o n of Ch'in-huai. Hsiang-lan tzu, Ma Shou-chen. There i s also a small s c r o l l with double outline ink orchids. The i n s c r i p t i o n says: 104 - The mysterious orchid i s born i n the vast v a l l e y . No one follows to savour the fragrance. I want to be at one (with the idea of t r a v e l l i n g ) along a long r i v e r road). Written by Hsiang-lan, Shou-chen tzu on a spring day of 1596. Today these two s c r o l l s are stored at Kuang-ling, the 55 studio of Ma Pan-cha. Li-ho Tsang, Chung-kuo jen ming ta tz'u t i e n , page 868 Li-ho Tsang i s a contemporary author. Ma Hsiang-lan was a Ming dynasty prost i t u t e i n Nanking. She was c a l l e d Shou-chen and Yiian-erh. As a c h i l d she was ca l l e d Yueh-chiao. She composed poetry and was an accomplished orchid painter. She l i v e d i n the better section of Ch'in-huai. She was talented i n l e t t e r s , unconventional i n l i f e s t y l e and boastful. She was good at observing people's intentions. She proposed to Wang Chih-teng but Chfli-teng could not (accept). During the Wan-li reign era, Chih-teng was seventy years old. Hsiang-lan went to set up the wine to celebrate (his) longevity. They ate and drank for several months. This became a renowned a f f a i r i n Chiang-su. After returning home she f e l l i l l . She paid her respects to Buddha, sat up properly and passed away. There were two chuan of poems. Chih-teng wrote the preface for her. Fan-t'ing Wang, Chung hua l i t a i fu nu, p a g e s 429, 430 Fan-t'ing Wang i s a contemporary author. Ma Ma Hsiang-lan was named Shou-chen. She was also call e d Yiieh-chiao. (At t h i s time) during the Ming Dynasty,' the -105 country was at peace. The dynasty was w i l d l y prosperous. Nanking flourished with i t s center on the l e f t bank. On the Ch-Jin-huai riverbank, at the entrance to Ping k fang lane (jbhere was a person) distinguished i n l e t t e r s but unconvention- a l i n l i f e s t y l e . (She) was i n accord with the prosperous times. At that time, there was a new building; a lovely, splendid house with twelve women. Hsiang-lan was the chief person i n a group of mothers and daughters that numbered four. She was the youngest. (Ma Shou-chen composed) various rhythms of high s p i r i t . Glowing l i k e a young willow she.(could) spi t out words l i k e a golden o r i o l e (or a) swallow. She looked a f t e r the grain harvest and the water. She s k i l f u l l y and e x c e l l e n t l y could take care of men. The. sound of flowers f i l l e d the southern part of the Yangtze. Those up to the rank of kung , noble men, and those below (including) peddlers and s o l d i e r s could not (help but) know of her fame. A l l looked f o r the fragrant, noble guest. In her youth, when she t r a v e l l e d to Ma Chang t ' a i , a l l took not knowing her as a shame. Where she l i v e d ; the courtyard, pond and h a l l were clear and spacious. Flowers and stones were deep and clean. There were curved rooms and deeply arched doors. The ( v i s i t o r ) became so confused he could not get out. By nature, she was an outstanding and bold person of good actions. Passers-by (could) h i r e a harlot (ch'an t'ou ) f o r 1000 pieces of gold. Without hesitation, she squandered (money), exhausting each day's (supply). Although the day often (brought) an - 106 - accumulation of jade and f u l l beds, poverty was extreme. (Her) l i f e for several decades was co l o u r f u l and famous throughout Kiangsu and Anhwei. In her l a t e r years, when she was past f i f t y , she was as charming as before. Anyone who saw her said she was as great as Hsia dynasty courtesans. There was a wealthy person who t r a v e l l e d to Nanking. (When) he saw her he was amazed and extravagantly spent 10,000 pieces of gold to buy a mansion at Ch'in-huai. He wanted to marry her. Hsiang-lan said: I am old and the t r a f f i c has lessened; soon to become sparse. Even i f I marry t h i s merchant, I couldn't tolerate (the s i t u a t i o n ) . I would rather have f i f t y men from the brothels. I s t i l l can grasp the dust pan and broom and become a new wife ( l a t e r ) . She laughed and refused him. Hsiang-lan understood poetry and prose. She (could write a l e t t e r i n reply with flowing words). She f i l l e d i n l i n e s of poetry with a clear and elegant meaning. People spoke of her poetry saying: It i s l i k e the spotted clothing of shadows of flowers and d r i f t i n g smoke method of writing. She excelled i n painting orchids, achieving the depth of the w r i t i n g method of Wu Hsing-chao, Tzu-ang (Chao Meng-fu). Several people were confused. In her sixty-ninth year, she became i l l i n Nanking. Several tz'u were gathered and recorded. Note: This source then quotes three tz'u not translated i n - 107 - t h i s t h e s i s . The selection ends with a l e t t e r from Ma Shou- chen to Wang Bo-gu. It i s an evocative, poetic passage that states how she misses him and how often she thinks of him. This passage has also not been translated i n t h i s t h e s i s . - 108 - APPENDIX I I I - ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE I Orchid, Bamboo and Rock Hanging S c r o l l H. 52.5 cm. W. 29.1 cm. Ink on Paper Dated 1 5 7 2 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Loan 1 9 8 1 . 2 . 1 2 , The Edward E l l i o t t Family C o l l e c t i o n .  - 110 - FIGURE 2 Orchid Hanging S c r o l l H. 56 cm. W. 33 cm. Ink on paper. Dated 1603 Dr. James Caswell C o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver, B.C. - I l l - FIGURE 2 - 112 - FIGURE 3(A) to (F) Orchids and Bamboo Handscroll. Ink and Colour on paper. Dated 1604 Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis',' U.S.A. FIGURE 3(A) F I G U R E 3 ( B ) FIGURE 3(C) FIGURE 3(D) - 117 - - 118 - - 1 1 9 - FIGURE 4 Lotus Plant Hanging S c r o l l Undated Ostasiatiska Museet, Museum of Far Eastern A n t i q u i t i e s , Stockholm, Sweden.  - 1 2 1 - APPENDIX I - CATALOGUE NOTES 1. According to Taipei, Taiwan, National Palace Museum and National Central Museum, Signature and Seals, Vol. 4 , p. 3^8", Hsueh Ming-i, Ming dynasty, a l i a s Yu-ch'ing. His calligraphy* of formal s c r i p t was the best a f t e r Wen-Cheng-ming. 2 . Unidentified. 3 . Unidentified. 4 . Unidentified. 5 . T a i p e i , National Palace Museum, Signature and Seals, Vol.2'•i.page 52 bottom row second from l e f t . 6 . Both u n i d e n t i f i e d . 7 . Ku Yun ( 1 8 3 5 - 1 8 9 6 ) • 8 . Bottom seal unidentified. Top seal, according to Tai p e i , National Palace Museum, Signature and Seals,Vol. II, page 2 0 7 , l e f t s e a l . 9 . Siren, Chinese Painting, V o l . V, page 7 2 . 1 0 . Ibid. 1 1 . Unidentified. 1 2 . T a i p e i , National Palace Museum, Signature and Seals, Vol. V, page 2 7 8 , l e f t s e a l . 1 3 . .^Unidentified. - - 1 2 2 - APPENDIX I - CATALOGUE NOTES (cont'd) 1 4 . Unidentified. 15. T a i p e i , National Palace Museum, Signature and Seals, V o l . 2, page 207, l e f t s e a l . 1 6 . Ibid. 17. Lu-ho i s a county of Chiangsu. 18. Wei-jui i s a plant (poly gonatum vulgare), or a description of a maiden of tender years. 19. See note 1, t h i s section. 20. Tu Jo i s a plant ( p o l l i a .japonica) . 21. Unidentified. 221., According to Taipe i , National Palace Museum, Signature and Seals, V o l . 4 , page 329 Tu Ta-shou, a l i a s Tzu-yu was a native of Wu-hsien of Kiangsu Province. He was excellent i n calligraphy and landscape painting. His seal i s the same as shown i n Vol . 2 page 7 7 9 . Ming dynasty. 2 3 . Unidentified. 2 4 . T a i p e i , National Palace Museum, Signature and Seals, V o l . V. 2 7 8 , middle s e a l . 2 5 . T a i p e i , National Palace Museu, Signature and Seals, V o l . I I , page 5 2 , bottom l e f t s e a l . - 123 - -APPENDIX I - CATALOGUE NOTES (cont'd) 2 6 . T a i p e i , National Palace Museum, Signature and Seals, V o l . 2 , page 36O, seal number 1 2 1 0 . 2 7 . Unidentified. 2 8 . See note 2 2 , t h i s section. 2 9 . Unidentified. - 124 - APPENDIX II - TRANSLATIONS-NOTES 1. This r e f e r s to her nice complexion. 2 . This refers to the music school f o r ladies during the T'ang dynasty. 3 . See note 2 6 , Section I 4 . Possibly someone at the Gay Quarters. 5 . Seventy years by Chinese count, sixty-nine years by Western count. Dates i n t h i s appendix have been l e f t i n the Chinese system. 6 . Soochow. 7. This i s a quote from the Shih ching, from a passage that describes b e a u t i f u l women. 8. A Han dynasty person associated with debauchery. 9 . An ancient poet of the Chou dynasty. 1 0 . A pun on the name Ma (horse). 1 1 . The Chu family was famous f o r sword f i g h t i n g . Therefore, he i s saying that she wears female clothing but has the heart of a woman warrior. 1 2 . A woman famous fo r her word. 13« This i s a reference to a goddess who gave a jade ornament to Chiao-fu. 125 - APPENDIX II - TRANSLATION NOTES (cont'd) 14. The legendary s p i r i t u a l mountains of China. 1 5 . A f i s h stomach was often used to transmit secret l e t t e r s . 1 6 . Women's poems. 1 7 . According to Hummel, Autobiography, page 1 3 8 , the Numph of the Lo River was the daughter of the legendary Emperor Fu Hsi, who became the s p i r i t of the River Lo afte r drowning h e r s e l f . This goddess was the subject of a miraculous v i s i o n that inspired the poem by Ts'ao Chih ( 192-232 A.D.). However, some say the poem involves an a l l e g o r i c a l i nterpretation of l o y a l t y or youth. For the purposes of t h i s t h esis, i t i s * s u f f i c i e n t to note that many of the images and evocative passages found i n t h i s poem are repeated i n the l i t e r a r y works concerning Ma Shou-chen. A t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s poem i s available,(Watson, Chinese Rhyme-Prose)pages 5 5 - 6 0 . 1 8 . This i s a metaphor for a son who follows h i s father's scholarship. 19. People were i n such a hurry to get copies of her poems they tore down forests to make the p r i n t s . 2 0 . Yiieh-t'ao was a T'ang dynasty courtesan from a good family of scholars. 2 1 . Du-wei was a courtesan who was deceived by a lover and drowned her s e l f a f t e r throwing her fortune i n jewels into the r i v e r . See Yang, The Courtesan's Jewel Box. 126 - -APPENDIX II - TRANSLATION NOTES (cont»d) 2 2 . According to Goodrich and Fang, Dictionary of Ming Biography, page 1 3 6 2 , Cheng Chih-wen was the author of the opera Pai l i e n ch Tun. 2 3 . Ta Chung i s unidentified but his signature and seal have been recorded as being on a painting by Ma Shou-chen. See note 38 t h i s section. 2 4 . Unidentified. 2 5 . I b i d . 2 6 . I b i d . v ; • ? r : - 2 7 . . Reference to Ch fu Yuan. See note 4 , Section I I I . 2 8 . See note 17, t h i s section. 2 9 . It has been suggested that t h i s r e f e r s to a passage i n the Tso chuan. 3 0 . Unidentified. 31. Contag, Seals of Chinese Painters, page 5 3 0 , l i s t s the signature and seals of t h i s 1 9 t h century scholar. Note that Kuang-t'ao Kuang i s also the editor of t h i s s e l e c t i o n . 3 2 . See note 4 , Section I I I . 33• This i s the same i n s c r i p t i o n and probably the same painting now i n the Metropolitan Museum. See Catalogue item I. Also note that t h i s painting has not been executed i n the double outline technique. 3 4 . Unidentified. - 1 2 7 - APPENDIX II - TRANSLATION NOTES (cont'd.) 35. The i d e a l of a handsome man. 3 6 . Perhaps the name of a s p e c i f i c type of orchid. 3 7 a Unidentified. 3 8 . Ibid. 3 9 . Ibid. 40. Unidentified. 41. I b i d . 4 2 . See note 4 , Section I I I . 4 3 . Unidentified. 4 4 . Wen Cheng-ming's grandson. See note 2 , Section IV. 4 5 . Ibid. 4 6 . Unidentified. 4 7 . Unidentified. 4 8 . Contag, Seals of Chinese Painters, page 6 2 7 , states T'ai P'ei-chih was a 1 9 t h century c o l l e c t o r . 4 9 . See note 11 , t h i s section. 50. Meaning of t h i s passage i s unclear. Perhaps t h i s i s the f a l l season. 5 1 . Unidentified. 5 2 . Ibid. 5 3 . Ibid. 5 4 . See note 33> t h i s section. 5 5 . Unidentified.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Germany 47 29
China 24 0
United States 7 0
Brazil 6 0
Taiwan 2 0
Slovak Republic 2 0
Indonesia 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 47 24
Beijing 24 0
Campinas 6 0
Heidelberg 5 5
Washington 2 0
Jakarta 1 0
Northampton 1 0
Shepherdsville 1 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items