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An analysis of the stable single resource mining community in British Columbia Gunder, Robert John Michael 1981

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ANALYSIS OF THE STABLE SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by ROBERT JOHN MICHAEL GUNDER B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1981 (c)Robert John Michael Gunder In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Graduate Studies, School of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e A p r i l 20.1981 DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines the problems of impermanence, i s o l a t i o n and e x t e r n a l dependency of s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities (SRMCs) i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t poses the q u e s t i o n : can the problems of SRMCs be r e s o l v e d w i t h i n the parameters of our p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g / d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system? A f t e r an o u t l i n e of the h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n and the s p e c i f i c problems of SRMCs i d e n t i f i e d i n the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , d e m o n s t r a t i n g the i n h e r e n t impermanence of t h e s e communities, the study r e v i e w s r e l e v e n t c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e from the f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l economy. The r e viewed l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s o c i a l l y a l l o c a t e d i n d i r e c t wages such as s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of q u a l i t y of l i f e by B r i t i s h Columbians, and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o the problems of i s o l a t i o n and dependency of SRMCs. Three groups of concerned a c t o r s " i n SRMCs a r e i d e n t i f i e d : government, m u l t i n a t i o n a l e x t r a c t i o n companies, and community r e s i d e n t s . These a c t o r s ' g o a l s and r e s u l t a n t r o l e s are d e t e r m i n e d from the l i t e r a t u r e and i n t e r - a c t o r c o n f l i c t and a l l i a n c e s e x p l o r e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v a l u e p o s i t i o n s and i d e o l o g y . L i b e r a l b e l i e f i n the v a l u e of economic growth r e s u l t s i n an a l l i a n c e between government and o r g a n i z e d c a p i t a l . To f a c i l i t a t e p r o v i n c i a l development i n a c o m p e t i t i v e g l o b a l economy, the p r o v i n c i a l government t r i e s t o m i n i m i z e e x t r a c t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the m i n i n g companies, a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o v i d e low aggregate l a b o u r c o s t s w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g a p o l i t i c a l l y s t a b l e environment. T h i s g o v e r n m e n t / c o r p o r a t e a l l i a n c e r e s u l t s i n lower than ( p r o v i n c i a l ) average l e v e l s of i n d i r e c t wages f o r r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs. F u r t h e r m o r e , l o c a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s p u r p o s e l y l i m i t e d . These c o n d i t i o n s c r e a t e many of the t y p i c a l SRMC problems, l e a d i n g t o community d i s s a t i f a c t i o n and h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e s . A case study of the f i v e - v o l u m e p r o v i n c i a l P l a n f o r Tumbler Ridge i s then u n d e r t a k e n . I t was found t h a t the dominant g o a l of the p l a n i s t o c r e a t e a community c a p a b l e of a t t r a c t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a v i a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e a t l o w e s t government and c o r p o r a t e c o s t . Proposed l e v e l s of c o l l e c t i v e consumption a re i n t e n t i o n a l l y lower than i n non-SRMCs and below p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d s . Seventy p e r c e n t of the repayment of the community's d i r e c t c o s t s i s a l l o c a t e d t o Tumbler R i d g e ' s f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s , even though the p o t e n t i a l l i f e span of the community c o u l d be as l i t t l e as f i f t e e n y e a r s . The proposed per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l debt i s over t h r e e t i m e s h i g h e r f o r Tumbler Ridge than the per c a p i t a debt of Vancouver. The p l a n n i n g document proposes s p e c i f i c a l l y l i m i t i n g l o c a l government s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n Tumbler Ridge t o p r o t e c t c o r p o r a t e r a t e p a y e r s , even though the r a t i o of r e s i d e n t a l t o c o r p o r a t e m u n i c i p a l debt i s s i m i l a r t o the r a t i o i n Vancouver. The t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s t h a t a c o n t r a d i c t i o n e x i s t s between the r e q u i r e m e n t s of a s t a b l e community a t the l o c a l l e v e l and thos e f o r a t t r a c t i n g m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e development a t i v the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . As a r e s u l t SRMCs a r e i n h e r e n t l y u n s t a b l e . R e s o l u t i o n of SRMC problems does not appear l i k e l y w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of our p r e s e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system. P l a n n e r s s h o u l d acknowledge t h i s r e a l i t y and attempt t o d e s i g n implementable a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the t r a d i t i o n a l SRMC. One e f f i c e n t o p t i o n may be the modern commuting work camp, a l l o w i n g mine workers t o l i v e i n a s t a b l e community when not a t the work s i t e . V TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Can The Problems Of Single Resource Mining Communities x Be Resolved? 1 The Single Resource Mining Community .' 2 Problems And Costs Of Single Resource Mining Community S t a b i l i t y 4 Government Policy Promoting S t a b i l i t y 6 C o l l e c t i v e Consumption, Uneven Development And The International Economy 8 The Provincial Staple Economy,coal And Northeast Development 12 Thesis Limitations, Objectives And Outline 16 I i . Theories Of Community, S t a b i l i t y , Quality Of L i f e , Ideology, And The Values Of Liberalism 20 The Concept Of Ideology 21 The Dominate Canadian Ideology: Liberalism 24 A Concept Of Quality Of L i f e 27 The Concept Of Community 29 A Concept Of Community S t a b i l i t y And The Role Of Self-determination 33 I i i . An H i s t o r i c a l Sketch Of Single Resource Mining fvu Communities And The Canadian Ideology 38 La i s s e z - f a i r e Prior To World War One 38 The Company Town Period Between The World Wars 41 World War I i And Government Involvement: A Shift Of I d e o l o g y 45 P o s t - w o r l d War I i , The Prominence Of M u l t i n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n s And Government Involvement In S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Community P l a n n i n g 47 I v . E x i s t i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s And Problems Of S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Communities 51 Impermanence And U n c e r t a i n t y 51 I s o l a t i o n 53 Dependency : S i n g l e I n d u s t r y , D i s t o r t e d Demographics And Turnover 55 Proposed A l t e r n a t i v e s To The P r e s e n t Form Of S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Communities 63 V. A c t o r s In S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Communities And The L a t e L i b e r a l I d e o l o g y : A B r i t i s h Columbian P e r s p e c t i v e 68 O r g a n i z e d C a p i t a l 68 The S i t u a t i o n Of Labour 71 The F u n c t i o n Of The S t a t e 74 The Corporate/government A l l i a n c e And L e g i t i m i z i n g I d e o l o g y 76 V i . S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Communities And The S o c i e t a l Framework: The C o n t r a d i c t i o n s Of Community S t a b i l i t y . 84 S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Community P l a n n i n g In B r i t i s h Columbia S i n c e The. 1965 I n s t a n t Town A c t 84 The F a i l u r e Of S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Community S e l f -d e t e r m i n a t i o n In B r i t i s h Columbia • 91 Problems Of C o l l e c t i v e Consumption: Uneven A l l o c a t i o n And I d e o l g i c a l E q u a l i t y 95 The C o n t r a d i c t i o n Of The S t a b l e S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Community And The F u n c t i o n Of The S t a t e 100 V i i The P r o v i n c e Of B r i t i s h Columbia And Tumbler Ridge: A Case Study 103 The P l a n 104 The P l a n : C o l l e c t i v e Consumption And Housing 109 The P l a n And L o c a l S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n 116 The P l a n : I t s E x p l i c i t I d e o l o g y And P o t e n t i a l F a i l u r e To C r e a t e A S t a b l e Community 119 V i i i Beyond The S t a b l e S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Community .124 R e s o l u t i o n Of The Problems Of S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Communities: An I m p o s s i b i l i t y 124 P l a n n i n g For S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Community R e s i d e n t s W i t h Our P r e s e n t D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g Framework 127 Areas Of F u r t h e r Study 136 R e f e r e n c e s C i t e d 139 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e I - Map Of B r i t i s h Columbia 14 F i g u r e I I - Dynamics Of S t a b i l i t y , S a t i s f a c t i o n And A l i e n a t i o n In A S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Community 61 F i g u r e I I I - C o n t r a d i c t i o n Of The S t a b l e S i n g l e Resource M i n i n g Community In B r i t i s h Columbia 99 1 I . CAN THE PROBLEMS OF SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITIES BE RESOLVED? Canadian p l a n n e r s and academics have i d e n t i f i e d and a d d r e s s e d many of the problems of the soci o - e c o n o m i c environment i n the development and e v o l u t i o n of r e s o u r c e based communities ( V i e t 1978). Bradbury (1980 : p.27) s u c c i n c t l y summarizes t h e s e problems as " h i g h l a b o u r t u r n o v e r w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t e d community and i n d u s t r i a l c o s t s : d i s t o r t e d demographic s t r u c t u r e s ; ' p e r s o n a l and p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n ; and the i n s t a b i l i t y and impermanence of a l l r e s o u r c e - b a s e d towns". These problems r e s u l t i n h i g h s o c i a l and economic c o s t s t o bo t h r e s i d e n t s of r e s o u r c e communities and Canadian s o c i e t y as a whole. The Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n i d e n t i f i e s 811 s i n g l e r e s o u r c e based communities a c r o s s Canada of which 99 communities p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, many of them based on m i n i n g (Canada 1977). Though over time p l a n n e r s and academics have attempted t o suggest s o l u t i o n s t o the problems of s i n g l e r e s o u r c e communities, t h e i r problems s t i l l p e r s i s t t o d a y . The B r i t i s h Columbian government i s about t o commence comprehensive development i n N o r t h e a s t B r i t i s h Columbia of a new 10,000 r e s i d e n t s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community, Tumbler Ridge. A minimum of 4.3 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i s b e i n g spent on p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s f o r the new community, y e t the d e s i g n e r s concede Tumbler Ridge may be pla g u e d by many of the t r a d i t i o n a l problems of s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities (Thompson, B e r w i c k , P r a t t 1978a). Over one m i l l i o n Canadians l i v e i n t h e s e r u r a l communities (Lucas 1971). Why a r e many of 2 t h e i r problems not r e s o l v e d ? T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s t h e s e i s s u e s and c o n s i d e r s the q u e s t i o n : Can the problems of s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities be r e s o l v e d w i t h i n our p r e s e n t s o c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system? THE SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITY McCann (1978:p.46) s t a t e s a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community's purpose i s " t o house and s e r v i c e workers engaged i n e x t r a c t i o n " . S i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities must l o c a t e near where the r e s o u r c e i s l o c a t e d , o f t e n t h i s i s i n i s o l a t e d h i n t e r l a n d r e g i o n s . By d e f i n i t i o n a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community (SRMC) has o n l y one dominant type of i n d u s t r y s u p p o r t i n g the community, e x t r a c t i o n of the r e s o u r c e . When t h i s r e s o u r c e i s e i t h e r d e p l e t e d or w o r l d p r i c e s make i t uneconomical t o c o n t i n u e e x t r a c t i o n of t h e r e s o u r c e , t h e r e i s no reason f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n of the the community ( P a r k e r 1 9 6 3 , S k a b u r s k i s 1980). C o r p o r a t e c a p i t a l i s d i s i n c l i n e d t o i n v e s t i n o t h e r than e c o n o m i c a l l y r e l i a b l e s t a p l e e x t r a c t i o n i n "low p r o d u c t i v i t y " r e g i o n s , which i s o f t e n the case of i s o l a t e d SRMCs, when i t has the whole w o r l d t o choose a l o c a t i o n g i v i n g l o w e s t aggregate f a c t o r c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n (Friedmannn and Weaver 1979). C l e g g ' s (1958) t h e s i s c a t o l o g u e s the many ghost towns of S o u t h e a s t B r i t i s h C olumbia, t e s t i f y i n g t o the i n h e r e n t impermanence of h i n t e r l a n d m i n i n g communities. A SRMC can be c r e a t e d two ways, from n o t h i n g , or by co-3 o p t i o n of an e x i s t i n g community i n t o a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community. In the l a t t e r c a s e , w h i l e a community e x i s t e d b e f o r e , a new community i s c r e a t e d i n the same t e r r i t o r i a l space due t o the dominance of the new p r o j e c t changing the economic s t r u c t u r e of the community. Both t y p e s of new m i n i n g communities a r e dependent on the m i n i n g p r o j e c t , or p r o j e c t s , f o r a m a j o r i t y of community employment. In the case of a c o -opted community, Markusen (1978a) s t a t e s t h a t the m i n i n g s e c t o r c a p t u r e s l a b o u r from the t r a d i t i o n a l employment s e c t o r s , perhaps a g r i c u l t u r e or f o r e s t r y , and as a r e s u l t makes the p r e v i o u s independent community, t h r o u g h growth and employment change, a community dependent on the m i n i n g r e s o u r c e . Two p o s s i b l e examples of t h i s a r e B r i t i s h P e t r o l e u m ' s Sukunka p r o p o s a l f o r Chetwynd (Best 1980, Paget and Rabnett 1980) and the e x i s t i n g c i t y of F o r t McMurray, the l a t t e r b e i n g now c o m p l e t e l y dependent on o i l sands f o r c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e i n i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e ( M a t t h i a s s e n 1971). Lucas (1971), i n h i s d e f i n i t i v e s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of s i n g l e i n d u s t r y r e s o u r c e towns, s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r s t a g e s t o a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community's l i f e . The f i r s t s t a g e i s c o n s t r u c t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t , or mine, and t o w n s h i p ; w i t h a r e s u l t a n t boom town atmosphere due t o a l a r g e number of t r a n s i e n t c o n s t u c t i o n w o r k e r s . The second stage of community l i f e i s r e c r u i t m e n t of c i t i z e n s w i t h h i g h r a t e s of community t u r n o v e r . The t h i r d s t age i s t r a n s i t i o n of the community t o non-company c o n t r o l , and the f i n a l s t age i s m a t u r i t y of the community due t o t i m e , 4 w i t h a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of r e t i r e d w o r k e r s . H i m e l f a r b (1977) i d e n t i f i e s a f i f t h s t age of r e s o u r c e town l i f e , d e c l i n e . D u r i n g t h i s s tage the i n d u s t r y or mine c l o s e s l e a v i n g the non-mo b i l e r e s i d e n t s w i t h v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g . There i s l i t t l e market v a l u e f o r r e s i d e n t owned h o u s i n g . The r e m a i n i n g workers have n o t h i n g t o s e l l , not even t h e i r s k i l l s . Lucas s t a t e s communities e v o l v e a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s , w i t h many never e v o l v i n g beyond the second or t h i r d s t a g e . As a r e s u l t of thes e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s and r a t e s of e v o l u t i o n , s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e community's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r y depending on the community's s t a g e of development. Lucas (1971 p.20) w r i t e s , "Canadian communities of s i n g l e i n d u s t r y a r e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p r o d u c t s of an age of i n d u s t r y and t e c h n o l o g y . There a r e few myths of the " o l d days" i n the s e communities. The r e s i d e n t s know t h a t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i s bounded by b u r e a u c r a c y and a p r e c i s e d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r which i n t u r n depends on a complex n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r . They know t h a t t h e i r f u t u r e depends upon i m p e r s o n a l f o r c e s o u t s i d e t h e i r community such as head o f f i c e d e c i s i o n s , government p o l i c i e s , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d i n g agreements". PROBLEMS AND COSTS OF SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITY  STABILITY F o r c e s e (1975:p.31), i n . r e f e r r i n g t o the dependency and p r e c a r i o u s n e s s of SRMCs w r i t e s , " i f a M a r x i s t had wishes t o 5 c r e a t e a p r o t o t y p e of c a p i t a l i s t - worker r e l a t i o n s , he c o u l d have done l i t t l e b e t t e r than t o d e v i s e such communities. They o f f e r a s i t u a t i o n wherein t h e r e i s a v i r t u a l c l a s s p o l a r i z a t i o n i n the sense t h a t t h e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i a l m i d d l e c l a s s of c l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e employees, or even many s m a l l merchants or p r o f e s s i o n a l s " . SRMCs a r e " a r t i f i c i a l communities of persons of s u b o r d i n a n t c l a s s s t a t u s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether or not the r e s i d e n t s a re c o n s c i o u s o f , or f i n d immediate s a l i e n t , t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n " ( i b i d p . 32). A fundamental problem and c o s t f o r the s e communities, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i r s t two sta g e s of Lucas'(1971) c y c l e , i s community and employment t u r n o v e r . High t u r n o v e r r a t e s not o n l y c o s t the e x t r a c t i o n companies l a r g e amounts of money i n r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g , but a l s o i n f e r a s o c i a l c o s t t o the SRMC's r e s i d e n t s . S o c i a l networks a r e r e p e a t e d l y broken', and new r e s i d e n t s and workers a r e c o n s t a n t l y moving i n and out of the community ( R i f f e l 1975). Wichern (1971) and o t h e r s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the h i g h m o b i l i t y and l a c k of m i d d l e c l a s s d e t r a c t s from the a b i l i t y t o form a s t a b l e c o r e p o p u l a t i o n t o c r e a t e a sense of "community". Without the concept of community the SRMC remains p u r e l y a d o r m i t o r y e x t e n s i o n of the work p l a c e , p o t e n t i a l l y p r o d u c i n g f u r t h e r community t u r n o v e r . C o n v e r s l y , when H i m l e f a r b ' s (1977) f i f t h s t a g e of community d e c l i n e i s reached, the company c l o s e s the mine and the m a j o r i t y of the r e s i d e n t s a r e unemployed. U n l i k e a community i n the s t a g e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c r u i t m e n t , a mature community i n d e c l i n e may have many r e t i r e d and s e n i o r 6 workers unable t o a f f o r d t o move out of the d y i n g community and w i t h l i t t l e or no r e m a i n i n g e q u i t y i n t h e i r home, s o c i a l networks and s e r v i c e s a r e l o s t . Both the economic and s o c i a l i n v estment of the SRMC r e s i d e n t i n the community i s f o r f e i t e d as the town e x p i r e s . GOVERNMENT POLICY PROMOTING STABILITY The B r i t i s h Columbian and f e d e r a l governments, r e c o g n i z i n g the economic and s o c i a l c o s t s of h i g h t u r n o v e r i n newly c r e a t e d and c o - o p t e d s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities have att e m p t e d t o r e s o l v e the problem as e x e m p l i f i e d by V i e t ' s (1978) study Labour Turnover and Community S t a b i l i t y :  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r N o r t h e a s t C o a l Development i n B r i t i s h  Columbia conducted j o i n t l y f o r both governments. Bradbury (1980:p.l9) w r i t e s , "Companies and governments hope t h a t new s e t t l e m e n t forms would a t t r a c t a more s t a b l e w o r k f o r c e and thus m i t i g a t e the o l d problem of h i g h t u r n o v e r " . A t t r a c t i o n of m a r r i e d c o u p l e s t o SRMCs and pro m o t i o n of home ownership i n m u n i c i p a l s t a t u s communities was seen as a mechanism t o promote s t a b i l i t y . To t h i s end i n B r i t i s h Columbia changes were made t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t i n 1965 t o promote m u n i c i p a l s t a t u s f o r newly c r e a t e d SRMCs . Bradbury (1980) d e t a i l s the f a i l u r e of t h i s a c t and the f a i l u r e of t h i s approach t o q u i c k l y c r e a t e a s t a b l e community, as t h i s approach f a i l e d t o ad d r e s s the dependent n a t u r e of SRMCs on t h e i r e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s , which compete i n a g l o b a l economy. 7 F e d e r a l government p o l i c y e x i s t s t o d e a l w i t h the f i n a l s t a ge of SRMC development, mine c l o s u r e and community d e c l i n e . The Canadian Government, t h r o u g h the Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n , has d e v e l o p e d a r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y t o t r a n s f e r funds t o support SRMC r e s i d e n t s a f t e r i n d u s t r i a l c l o s u r e (Canada 1977). However t h i s s t r a t e g y appears t o be a s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y of s h o r t term t r a n s f e r s t o m i t i g a t e the impact of i n e v i t a b l e community c l o s u r e . The p o l i c y does not d e a l w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g problems of e x t e r n a l dependency of SRMCs, which i s the u l t i m a t e cause of t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y of c l o s u r e . A c o n t r a d i c t i o n appears t o e x i s t between p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government p o l i c i e s p r o m o t i n g low t u r n o v e r i n SRMCs t o c r e a t e s t a b i l i t y and the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of community c l o s u r e w i t h i t s r e s u l t a n t impacts on immobile r e s i d e n t s , who have t h e i r l i f e s a v i n g s and l i f e s o c i a l commitments i n v e s t e d i n the community. O f t e n SRMCs, depending on the n a t u r e of the e x t r a c t e d r e s o u r c e and p o t e n t i a l demand, have a s h o r t time frame f o r e x i s t e n c e . For example, p o t e n t i a l N o r t h e a s t B r i t i s h Columbian c o a l c o n t r a c t s r e q u i r i n g the c o n t r u c t i o n of the new SRMC of Tumbler Ridge a re o n l y 15 y e a r s l o n g , w i t h known r e s e r v e s of 25 y e a r s (Vancouver Sun Ja n u a r y 26,1981, T a y l o r 1978). The p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r community c l o s u r e i n as l i t t l e as f i f t e e n y e a r s . Yet i n t r i n s i c t o the c o n c e p t u a l p l a n f o r Tumbler Ridge i s promotion of a s t a b l e community w i t h m i n i m a l t u r n o v e r (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978a). T h i s dependency on the e x t e r n a l w o r l d f o r renewal of the c o a l c o n t r a c t s i n 8 f i f t e e n y e a r s i s a f a c t of l i f e f o r f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s o-f Tumbler R i d g e , yet i t i s not a d d r e s s e d by the community p l a n (which i s o n l y concerned w i t h a t e n year time f r a m e ) , nor the p r o v i n c i a l government. 1 T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n of pro m o t i n g s t a b i l i t y f o r an impermanent community when combined w i t h problems of h i n t e r l a n d i s o l a t i o n may l e a d t o f u r t h e r problems i n SRMCs and lower p o t e n t i a l q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r SRMC r e s i d e n t s . COLLECTIVE CONSUMPTION, UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT AND THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY Many r e s e a r c h e r s of SRMCs note the e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s i n t h e s e i s o l a t e d communities (Lucas 1971, B a n c r o f t 1975). T h i s l a c k of s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s l i m i t freedom of c h o i c e f o r SRMC r e s i d e n t s which o f t e n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n s o c i a l problems and h i g h t u r n o v e r (Siemens 1975, V i e t 1978). B a n c r o f t (1975 : p . 3 8 ) w r i t e s t h a t many of the SRMCs he s t u d i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia " p a r t i c u l a r l y the most i s o l a t e d ones, l a c k some s c h o o l , h e a l t h and l e i s u r e / r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , w h i l e most s u f f e r from a l i m i t e d range of shops and h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s " . P r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d i n an urban environment a r e o f t e n l a c k i n g i n SRMCs. M e l l o s (1980) notes t h a t one of the r o l e s of the s t a t e i n contemporary s o c i e t y i s development of the m a t e r i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , such as h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s , h o u s i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , as w e l l as maintenance of the s o c i a l 9 i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , w e l f a r e programmes, unemployment and h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e ; promoting mass l o y a l t y t o the s o c i e t y and expanding the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y of the l a b o u r f o r c e . T h i s p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r members of s o c i e t y i s an i n d i r e c t wage f o r t h e i r a ggregate l a b o u r , not a c c r u i n g t o the i n d i v i d u a l i n the form of s a l a r y , but i n the form of g e n e r a l s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e s ( C a s t e l l s 1978). However, t h i s i n d i r e c t wage i s not e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n s o c i e t y . C a s t e l l s (1978:p.l5) w r i t e s " i t seems t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t y i n terms of income, which i s i n h e r e n t i n c a p i t a l i s m , i s e x p r e s s e d i n new s o c i a l c l e a v a g e s r e l a t e d t o the a c c e s s i b i l i t y and use of c e r t a i n c o l l e c t i v e s e r v i c e s , from h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o working h o u r s , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h the type and l e v e l of h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s " . C a s t e l l s r e f e r s t o t h i s i n e q u i t a b l e i n d i r e c t wage t o the i n d i v i d u a l as c o l l e c t i v e consumption. W h i l e the i n d i r e c t s p o i l s of s o c i e t y ' s p r o d u c t i o n a r e i n e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d between c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s a l s o a n o t h e r cleavage:-between m e t r o p o l e and h i n t e r l a n d . W h i l e C a s t e l l ' s argument of unequal c o l l e c t i v e consumption i s d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o the urban environment, i t i s e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n a h i n t e r l a n d SRMC. The h i n t e r l a n d SRMC i s an e x t e n s i o n of the the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o r e a r e a , t h e y a r e l o c k e d t o g e t h e r c u l t u r a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y , f o r m i n g two s p a t i a l nodes i n the g r e a t e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system. (McCann 1978, C a s t e l l s 1977). Marchak (1975a) d e v e l o p s an argument of metro h i n t e r l a n d d o m i n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. D e c i s i o n making i s done i n the 10 m e t r o p o l e , where s e n i o r government o f f i c e s and c o r p o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s a re l o c a t e d . D e c i s i o n s a re t y p i c a l l y made i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n i n t e r e s t . Shearer (1968) notes the m a j o r i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t s r e s i d e i n the V a n c o u v e r - V i c t o r i a m e t r o p o l e a r e a , where the m e t r o p o l e r e s i d e n t s a r e f a v o u r e d w i t h more d i v e r s i f i e d and s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s . Marchak (1975a p.40) d i s c u s s e s the i n e q u a l i t y of d i s t r i b u t i o n between metropole and h i n t e r l a n d and r e f e r s t o the h i n t e r l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n , which "as a whole e x p e r i e n c e s common c o n d i t i o n s such as l a c k of c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , a t r u n c a t e d economy and a l o p s i d e d o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e v i s - a - v i s the m e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n . " R e s i d e n t s of SRMCs r e c e i v e l e s s i n d i r e c t wages through c o l l e c t i v e consumption because they a r e p a r t of the h i n t e r l a n d , and t h i s i n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s compounded by the p r e d o m i n a n t l y w o r k i n g - c l a s s s t r u c t u r e of the SRMCs (Fo r c e s e 1975). The m e t r o p o l i t a n h i n t e r l a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s argued by many t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r uneven t e r r i t o r i a l development (Frank 1967, Amin 1974, Friedmann and Weaver 1979). Bradbury ( 1 9 7 9 : p . l 4 9 ) , r e f e r r i n g t o Vancouver's d o m i n a t i o n of the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h C olumbia, w r i t e s , "the unevenness r e s u l t i n g from t h i s d o m i n a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c a p i t a l and p r o d u c t i o n elements i n the Canadian Core, and as a consequence d r a i n i n g o f f of c a p i t a l s k i l l s and l a b o u r from the p e r i p h e r a l r e g i o n s " . The m e t r o p o l e e x t r a c t s not o n l y s t a p l e s from the h i n t e r l a n d but the v e r y a b i l i t y of the h i n t e r l a n d t o d e v e l o p i t s e l f as an autonomous 11 economic r e g i o n , and i n r e t u r n compensates the r e g i o n ' s l a b o u r w i t h l i m i t e d a ggregate i n d i r e c t and d i r e c t wages. These problems of uneven development and uneven c o l l e c t i v e consumption o r i g i n a t e from the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n and consumption i n our s o c i e t y , which i n t u r n i s s t r u c t u r e d by the e v o l u t i o n of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l economy ( C a s t e l l s 1978, Friedmann and Weaver 1979). W h i l e a SRMC and Vancouver may be a h i n t e r l a n d and m e t r o p o l e ; B r i t i s h Columbia and Japan may r e p r e s e n t the same r e l a t i o n s h i p a t a l a r g e r g e o g r a p h i c s c a l e ( L a y t o n 1980). Bradbury (1979 p.149) w r i t e s , "the phase of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m of c a p i t a l i n the 1960's and 1970's exposed r e s o u r c e - base economies f o r { s i c } a d i f f e r e n t s e t of c o n d i t i o n s i n which l o c a l r e g i o n s become p a r t of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l economy owned and o p e r a t e d by a hegemonic f r a c t i o n of c a p i t a l under the a u s p i c e s of a m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n " . In the g l o b a l economy and i t s s u p p o r t i v e l a t e c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y the s t a t e a c t s as both the s u p p l i e r of l a b o u r and c o n s t r u c t o r of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as the l e g i m a t o r f o r c o r p o r a t e e x t r a c t i o n ( M e l l o s 1980, Jensen 1980, Bradbury 1977). H o l l a n d (1979:p.205) w r i t e s , " i n a c a p i t a l i s t system both p o l i t i c s and the r o l e of l a b o u r tend t o be m a r g i n a l i z e d r e l a t i v e t o a c l o s e c e n t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a p i t a l and the s t a t e , w i t h an i n t e r m e d i a t e but c e n t r a l r o l e p l a y e d by i d e o l o g y . . . i . e . , the framework of i m p l i c i t a ssumptions v a l u e s , c o n c e p t s , i d e a s and dogmas dominant i n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y " . The s t a t e r e q u i r e s c o r p o r a t e development t o g i v e the 12 appearance of a h e a l t h y economy and, so, s t a y i n power ( B l a c k 1979). Thus the s t a t e s e r v e s t o d e l i v e r i t s own t e r r i t o r i a l economy i n t o a s e r v i l e h i n t e r l a n d m e t r o p o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n the g l o b a l economy. Some c a p t u r e of v a l u e d added does a c c r u e t o the l o c a l m e t r o p o l e i n development of a h i n t e r l a n d a r e a f o r e x p o r t a t i o n s of i t s s t a p l e s i n the g l o b a l economy, but the m a j o r i t y a c c r u e s t o the dominant i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e t r o p o l e . B r i t i s h C olumbia, by e x p o r t i n g c o k i n g c o a l t o the Japanese market, becomes an h i n t e r l a n d t o the Japanese economy, but a t the same time e x p o r t s of c o a l from N o r t h e a s t and S o u t h e a s t B r i t i s h Columbia t o Japan does a l l o w c a p t u r e of l i m i t e d v a lue-added t o the l o c a l m e t r o p o l e of Vancouver (Cuneo 1979a). Japan d e f i n i t e l y g a i n s . Vancouver may p a r t i a l l y g a i n , depending on the p a r t i c u l a r d e a l i n q u e s t i o n . The h i n t e r l a n d r e g i o n s p r o d u c i n g the c o a l r e s o u r c e s , however, r e c e i v e l i t t l e i n r e t u r n from the p r o v i n c i a l m etropole Vancouver, and v i r t u a l l y no r e t u r n from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e t r o p o l e a p a r t from d i r e c t wages. What i n d i r e c t wages or c o l l e c t i v e consumption the h i n t e r l a n d SRMCs do r e c e i v e appears j u s t s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n a f u n c t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l l y s t a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e (Cuneo 1979b). THE PROVINCIAL STAPLE ECONOMY,COAL AND NORTHEAST DEVELOPMENT B r i t i s h Columbia's economy i s based on s t a p l e i n d u s t r i e s , p r i m a r i l y e x p o r t i n g f o r e s t r y and m i n i n g p r o d u c t s t o the w o r l d market ( P h i l l i p s 1978). The p r o v i n c e i s e x t r e m e l y rugged w i t h 13 d i s p e r s e d p o c k e t s of e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e m i n e r a l and f o s s i l f u e l d e p o s i t s . W h i l e the p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 . 6 m i l l i o n , 65 per c e n t of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s l o c a t e d i n the Lower M a i n l a n d ( P r o v i n c e of B.C. 1980). E x t r a c t i o n of r e s o u r c e s throughout the s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d p r o v i n c e o f t e n r e q u i r e s b u i l d i n g new s e t t l e m e n t s t o house the c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n work f o r c e s . Between 1965 and 1971, B r i t i s h Columbia's l a s t major p e r i o d of m u l t i n a t i o n a l development f o r r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n , e i g h t new s i n g l e -i n d u s t r y r e s o u r c e towns were c r e a t e d : Sparwood, E l k f o r d , Logan Lake, P o r t A l i c e , F r a s e r Lake, G o l d R i v e r , M a c k e n z i e , and T a h s i s ; as w e l l as s i g n i f i c a n t r e s o u r c e - r e l a t e d e x p a n s i o n of f o u r o t h e r s m a l l communities (Pagnet and Rabnett 1980). Two communities i n S o u t h e a s t B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Sparwood and E l k f o r d , where dev e l o p e d t o f a c i l i t a t e c o a l e x t r a c t i o n . C o a l m i n i n g has been a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a p l e i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e the 19th c e n t u r y . In 1914 c o a l m i n i n g was conducted i n t h r e e r e g i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia; the Crowsnest Pass a r e a i n S o u t h e a s t B r i t i s h C o lumbia, near M e r r i t , and on Vancouver I s l a n d near Naniamo ( D i c k 1914). C o a l p r o d u c t i o n i n the Crowsnest a r e a has c o n t i n u e d t o the p r e s e n t . However, l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n from the S o u t h e a s t d i d not occur u n t i l 1970, when annua l p r o d u c t i o n exceeded one m i l l i o n m e t r i c tons f o r the f i r s t t i m e . Two c o r p o r a t i o n s , K a i s e r and F o r d i n g C o a l (Cominco), e x p o r t Southeast c o a l t h r ough the R o b e r t s Bank P o r t F a c i l i t y , p r e d o m i n a t e l y t o Japan. In 1975 the two companies' Southeast mines c o m p r i s e d the m a j o r i t y of 15 B r i t i s h Columbia's c o a l o utput w i t h the e x t r a c t i o n of 5.6 m e t r i c t o n s ( H a l v o r s o n 1980). Major c o a l r e s e r v e s i n N o r t h e a s t B r i t i s h Columbia were r e c o g n i z e d i n the e a r l y 1970s t o be p o t e n t i a l l y e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e f o r e x t r a c t i o n . At p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n s t i g a t i o n the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments e n t e r e d i n t o p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g f o r N o r t h e a s t c o a l development. The N o r t h e a s t c o a l d e p o s i t s a r e s i x hundred r a i l m i l e s from the n e a r e s t d e v e l o p a b l e m a r i t i m e harbour at P r i n c e Rupert (see f i g u r e I ) . W h i l e the q u a l i t y of the c o k i n g c o a l meets h i g h e s t w o r l d s t a n d a r d s , the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e t o e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e e x t r a c t i o n has been the p o t e n t i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . E x i s t i n g r a i l l i n e s w i l l r e q u i r e r e - e n f o r c e m e n t , a 115 k i l o m e t e r spur l i n e must be b u i l t , and new a p p r o p r i a t e r o l l i n g s t o c k m anufactured. A c o a l p o r t i s proposed f o r development a t R i d l e y I s l a n d , near P r i n c e R u p e r t . As w e l l , a new SRMC w i l l have t o be b u i l t near the c o a l f i e l d s , as no communities p r e s e n t l y e x i s t w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e commuting d i s t a n c e f o r the f u t u r e work f o r c e . The proposed community, Tumbler Ridge (see f i g u r e I ) , w i l l i n i t i a l l y s e r v i c e t h r e e mine s i t e s ( H a l v o r s o n 1 9 8 0 ) . For the f i r s t time i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the development approach b e i n g taken t o c o o r d i n a t e and p l a n t h e p r o j e c t i s from a comprehensive p e r s p e c t i v e under p r o v i n c i a l d i r e c t i o n (Paget and Rabnett 1 9 8 0 ) . The c o r p o r a t i o n s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r mine s i t e s ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t and s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a r e the d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s t a t e . 16 N e g o t i a t i o n s of the a c t u a l c o a l c o n t r a c t s were done d i r e c t l y between the e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s and the f o r e i g n c o a l b u y e r s . L i k e Southeast c o a l , Japan appears t o be the prime m e t r o p o l e , h a v i n g t o date (March 1981) s i g n e d the o n l y a c c o r d , a p r e l i m i n a r y f i f t e e n year agreement r a t i f i e d i n J a nuary 1981 (Vancouver Sun , January 26, 1981). At the time of w r i t i n g a c t u a l c o s t s have not been r e l e a s e d f o r the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s of the p r o j e c t . H a l v o r s o n (1980) e s t i m a t e s t o t a l c o s t s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 850 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e e x c l u d i n g Tumbler Ridge and n e c e s s a r y highway c o n s t r u c t i o n . Thompson, B e r w i c k s , P r a t t ' s (1978a) C o n c e p t u a l p l a n e s t i m a t e s an approximate c o s t of 280 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r Tumbler Ridge (based on 1977 p r i c e s ) . The t o t a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s u s i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s and e x c l u d i n g mine and p r o c e s s i n g s i t e c o s t s , d i r e c t l y a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the c o r p o r a t i o n s , appears t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.2 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The p r o v i n c e ' s comprehensive p l a n n i n g appears t o have a l l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e investment t o c o r p o r a t e p r o d u c t i o n , such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o e x p o r t the c o a l , and the remainder t o consumer and c o l l e c t i v e consumption ( h o u s i n g and f a c i l i t i e s ) f o r the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of Tumbler R i d g e . THESIS LIMITATIONS, OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE Due t o l i m i t a t i o n s of time and d a t a the scope of t h i s 17 s t u d y w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o SRMCs i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y Tumbler R i d g e . However, r e l e v e n t l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o the problems of SRMCs o u t s i d e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, b o t h h i s t o r i c and contemporary, w i l l be r e v i e w e d t o f a c i l i t a t e an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the problems of SRMCs. D e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n of the r o l e of n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m , as w e l l as f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l w i l l be e x c l u d e d from the s t u d y . 2 S i m i l a r l y , the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f o r SRMCs w i l l not be e x p l o r e d e i t h e r , e x c ept when n e c e s s a r y f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s t h a t the p h y s i c a l p l a n e x p r e s s e s . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study a r e t h r e e f o l d . One, t o i d e n t i f y and g a i n an i n d e p t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problems of SRMCs. Two, t o d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f a c t o r s c r e a t i n g s p e c i f i c problems i n SRMCs which d e t r a c t from the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r SRMC r e s i d e n t s . And t h r e e , t o de t e r m i n e i f the p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s t o r e c t i f y t h e s e problems w i t h i n the p o t e n t i a l l y p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l / economic environment of B r i t i s h C olumbia. The next c h a p t e r w i l l examine the c o n c e p t s of community and community s t a b i l i t y , q u a l i t y of l i f e , and i d e o l o g y ; and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s e c o n c e p t s t o each o t h e r . Chapter Three w i l l r e v i ew the h i s t o r y of SRMCs i n Canada from a v i e w p o i n t of e v o l v i n g economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e s u l t a n t s h i f t i n g i d e o l o g i e s . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by an o u t l i n e of the problems i d e n t i f i e d f o r SRMCs . i n the l i t e r a t u r e and proposed s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e problems (Chapter F o u r ) . In 18 Chapter F i v e the r o l e s of the e x t r a c t i o n companies, s t a t e and r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs w i l l be p r o f i l e d , a l o n g w i t h the p r e s e n t i d e o l o g i c a l m y t h o l o g i e s l e g i t i m i z i n g t hese r o l e s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l attempt t o t i e the problems of SRMCs t o the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l economy of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t r y i n g t o get beyond the v a l u e s a ssumptions of the dominant i d e o l o g y . T h i s s i x t h c h a p t e r w i l l argue t h a t many, i f not a l l , problems of B r i t i s h Columbia's SRMCs a r e r e l a t e d t o the economic base of the g l o b a l economy. W i t h t h i s view of the r e a s o n s c r e a t i n g and p e r p e t r a t i n g many of the problems of SRMCs, the B r i t i s h Columbian government p l a n f o r Tumbler Ridge w i l l be c r i t i q u e d i n Chapter Seven. The q u e s t i o n of whether the problems of SRMCs can be r e s o l v e d w i l l then be d i s c u s s e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n . 19 Notes 1. In a c t u a l i t y , P r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e p o r t s have d e a l t w i t h s c e n e r i o s of premature mine c l o s u r e . However, t h e s e s c e n a r i o s a r e not i n c l u d e d i n a c t i v e p l a n n i n g f o r Tumbler Ridge. See S k a b u r s k i s (1980), Thompson, B e r w i c k , P r a t t (1977). 2. Both i n t e r n a t i o n a l / n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m and f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l have been i d e n t i f i e d as s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e s i n s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f o r SRMCs. P r i m a r l y due t o time c o n s t r a i n t s these i n f l u e n c e s w i l l not be e x p l o r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . For a s u c c i n c t o v e r v i e w of i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m i n SRMCs see Marchak (1979:.p.183-184) and Bradbury (1978). For e l a b o r a t i o n of the r o l e of f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l i n SRMCs see Bradbury (1979). 20 I I . THEORIES OF COMMUNITY, STABILITY, QUALITY OF L I F E ,  IDEOLOGY, AND THE VALUES OF LIBERALISM Marchak (1975b: p . l ) s u c c i n c t l y d e s c r i b e s i d e o l o g i e s as "s c r e e n s t h r o u g h which we p e r c e i v e the s o l i d w o r l d . T h e i r elements a r e assumptions , b e l i e f s , e x p l a n a t i o n s , v a l u e s and o r i e n t a t i o n s . They a r e seldom taught e x p l i c i t l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . They a r e r a t h e r t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h example, c o n v e r s a t i o n , and c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n " . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s a r e shaped by the dominant i d e o l o g y of one's s o c i e t y . These v a l u e s i n t u r n shape what a person p e r c e i v e s as a d e s i r o u s q u a l i t y of l i f e . For an i n d i v i d u a l t o want t o be a member of a p a r t i c u l a r community, one must p e r c e i v e t h a t the community can s a t i s f y one's d e s i r e d , a t t a i n a b l e , wants and needs t o a l l o w f u l f i l m e n t of a r e a s o n a b l e q u a l i t y of l i f e . I f the i d e o l o g y , or w o r l d v i e w, of an i n d i v i d u a l f o r a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y of l i f e i s c o n t r a r y t o t h a t which a p a r t i c u l a r community can p r o v i d e , the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l p r e f e r not t o l i v e i n t h a t community. I d e o l o g y shapes how Canadians p e r c e i v e t h e i r environment and what s t a n d a r d s of m i l i e u t h a t they w i l l a c c e p t . I f the dominant i d e o l o g y , t h r o u g h e n c o u r a g i n g d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s , c r e a t e s the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities a r e d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s t o l i v e , then the r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs w i l l f e e l they have a s a t i s f a c t o r y q u a l i t y of l i f e . The members of SRMCs w i l l w i s h t o remain i n t h e i r communities and o t h e r non-SRMC r e s i d e n t s may be a t t r a c t e d t o SRMCs. T h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e u n l e s s 21 e x p e r i e n c e d r e a l i t y c o n t r a d i c t s the i d e o l o g y so r e p e a t e d l y t h a t the o r i g i n a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s a r e abandoned. C o n v e r s e l y , i f the dominant i d e o l o g y c r e a t e s a w o r l d v i e w i n which SRMCs a r e not p e r c e i v e d as d e s i r o u s p l a c e s t o l i v e , i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l not want t o be permanent r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs, r e g a r d l e s s of what inducements a r e o f f e r e d . Inducements p e r c e i v e d t o conform t o h i g h l y v a l u e d needs and a s p i r a t i o n s may a t t r a c t s h o r t term r e s i d e n t s t o these towns, but the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l l e a v e , i f the p e r s o n i s a b l e , once the inducements a r e e i t h e r a c h i e v e d or shown t o be u n a t t a i n a b l e . For a SRMC t o be s t a b l e , w i t h low r e s i d e n t t u r n o v e r , i t s members must p e r c e i v e t h a t the community i s c a p a b l e of f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l l y shaped needs and wants, a l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t s t o l i v e a v a l u e d q u a l i t y of l i f e , comparable t o or b e t t e r than o t h e r Canadian communities. THE CONCEPT OF IDEOLOGY Mannheim (1936) d i s c e r n s two c o n c e p t s of i d e o l o g y : p a r t i c u l a r and t o t a l . A p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g y i s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the w o r l d — Marchak's s c r e e n i f you w i l l -- t h a t has i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o b s e r v a b l e by o t h e r members of the person's epoch and/or s o c i a l group. Mannheim's(1936:p.55) concept of t o t a l i d e o l o g y i s "concerned w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o m p o s i t i o n of the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e of the mind of {the} epoch or {the} group". The c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h i s mind, a s o c i e t y ' s dominant i d e o l o g y , 22 a l o n g w i t h the s o c i e t y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l / c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s the u n d e r l y i n g p r o d u c t i v e base of t h a t group or epoch (Grayson 1980). The noted a n t h r o p o l o g i s t M a r v i n H a r r i s (1979), o b s e r v i n g an h i s t o r i c a l epoch or s o c i e t a l group, be i t modern Canadian s o c i e t y or A u s t r a l i a n bushmen, would c a l l the systems m a i n t a i n i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom, i n our case " l a t e l i b e r a l i s m " , an 'emic' s t r u c t u r e . A c t i o n s or d e c i s i o n s made u s i n g an emic p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d appear c o r r e c t and l o g i c a l t o the i n d i v i d u a l a c t i n g w i t h i n the framework of t h e i r dominant i d e o l o g y . For H a r r i s (1979:p.32) emic s t r u c t u r e s and a c t i o n s "have as t h e i r h a l l m a r k the e l e v a t i o n of the n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t t o the s t a t u s of u l t i m a t e judge of the adequacy of the o b s e r v e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s and a n a l y s e s . The t e s t of the adequacy of emic a n a l y s e s i s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o generate s t a t e m e n t s the n a t i v e a c c e p t s as r e a l , m e a n i n g f u l , or a p p r o p r i a t e " . C o n v e r s e l y i f an o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r , or a member of a s o c i e t y , t h r o u g h s c i e n t i f i c methodology observes a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the s o c i e t y ' s emic p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d , t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be ' e t i c ' . "Rather than employ c o n c e p t s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r i l y r e a l , m e a n i n g f u l , and a p p r o p r i a t e from the n a t u r e p o i n t of view, the o b s e r v e r i s f r e e t o use a l i e n c a t e g o r i e s and r u l e s d e r i v e d from the da t a language of s c i e n c e . F r e q u e n t l y , e t i c o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e the measurement and j u x t a p o s i t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and ev e n t s t h a t n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s may f i n d i n a p p r o p r i a t e or m e a n i n g l e s s " ( i b i d ) . 23 The terms emic and e t i c a r e s i m i l a r i n meaning and use t o Friedmann's (1973) c o n c e p t s , based on Mannheim, of p e r s o n a l and p r o c e s s e d knowledge. P e r s o n a l knowledge i s r u l e of thumb, i d e o l o g i c a l - b a s e d knowledge c o n s t r u c t e d from i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e , whereas p r o c e s s e d knowledge i s t e s t a b l e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. Friedmann (1973:p.23), r e f e r r i n g t o Mannheim's (1936) I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a , w r i t e s , "he showed how ways of p e r c e i v i n g and forms of t h i n k i n g d e r i v e from the p o s i t i o n a p e r s o n o c c u p i e s i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e " , the e x p e r i e n c e s an i n d i v i d u a l i s exposed t o shapes h i s / h e r p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d , and, a c c o r d i n g l y , d e c i s i o n s made by the i n d i v i d u a l r e f l e c t s t h i s p e r c e p t i o n . Thus, the dominant, or t o t a l , i d e o l o g y of an epoch r e f l e c t s the i n t e r e s t s of the dominant group c o n t r o l l i n g the p r o d u c t i v e base of the s o c i e t y . I d e o l o g y i s "concerned w i t h the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of an e x i s t i n g s e t of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s " (Friedmann 1973:p.26). Friedmann and Mannheim argued t h a t due t o i d e o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n of a s o c i e t y ' s base and s t r u c t u r e , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of fundamental change t h a t would r e s t r u c t u r e the s o c i e t y ' s base i s not p o s s i b l e u n l e s s the change would b e n e f i t the dominant group i n t h a t s o c i e t y . P e r c e i v e d change t h a t would not b e n e f i t the dominant group was c o n s i d e r e d U t o p i a n 1 , as Utopian change t o r e c t i f y fundamental c o n t r a d i c t i o n s or problems i n a s o c i e t y were not c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e i n the i d e o l o g y f o s t e r e d and b e l i e v e d by the dominant s o c i e t a l groups. The r o l e of i d e o l o g y i s t o obscure c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and problems i n a s o c i e t y , t o " l u b r i c a t e " the 24 e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e . "There i s i m p l i c i t i n the word ' i d e o l o g y ' the i n s i g h t t h a t i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s the c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s of c e r t a i n groups o b s c u r e s the r e a l c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i e t y both t o i t s e l f and t o o t h e r s and t h e r e b y s t a b i l i z e s i t " (Mannheim 1936:p.40). To the members of an epoch or s o c i e t a l group, "The dominant i d e o l o g y - - or c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom -- p r o v i d e s the ready r e f e r e n c e s , the r u l e of thumb, the d i r e c t i o n s t o the eyes and e a r s of i t s members" (Marchak 1 9 7 5 b : p . l ) . To c o n t r a d i c t the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , or p e r s o n a l r e a l i t y , t o f u n d a m e n t a l l y t r a n s c e n d the e x i s t i n g o r d e r r e q u i r e s an emanation of U t o p i a n elements of b e l i e f which w i l l undermine the e x i s t i n g o r d e r and a l l o w a dynamic change of s o c i e t y from t o p i a t o u t o p i a (Mannheim 1936). THE DOMINATE CANADIAN IDEOLOGY: LIBERALISM S o c i e t y i s always d y n a m i c a l l y c h a n g i n g due t o the e v o l u t i o n of the s o c i e t y ' s base, as a r e s u l t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and t e c h n i c a l p e r m u t a t i o n . I d e o l o g y cannot f r e e z e s o c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e s , however i d e o l o g y can a c t as a mechanism t o c o n t i n u e dominant group c o n t r o l as the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the economic base s h i f t . Our p r e s e n t dominant i d e o l o g y , l i b e r a l i s m , e v o l v e d as a r e s u l t of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . F e u d a l s o c i e t y underwent a change of mode of p r o d u c t i o n , s h i f t i n g from a r u r a l l y - o r i e n t e d i d e o l o g y of t r i b u t e t o an urban- o r i e n t e d i d e o l o g y of c a p i t a l i s m (Amin 1980). Marchak (1975b:p.9) w r i t e s , "what o c c u r r e d was the c r e a t i o n of a new 25 p o p u l a t i o n i n the urban c e n t r e s whose s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s were so d i f f e r e n t from those of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n t h a t i t d e v e l o p e d new e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r i t s a c t i o n s , new v a l u e s , and new o r i e n t a t i o n s " . The new urban i d e o l o g y l e g i t i m a t e d the primacy of the c i t y , a l l o w i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n of r u r a l h i n t e r l a n d dependency (Bookchin 1974). The b a s i c l i b e r a l t e n e t espouses the primacy of the i n d i v i d u a l . L i b e r a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s p e r c e i v e t h a t "Man" i s d r i v e n by a d e s i r e f o r p l e a s u r e . He/she t a k e s r a t i o n a l a c t i o n t o a c h i e v e an e v e n t u a l reward. The l i b e r a l w o r l d v i e w does not view the w o r l d o r g a n i c a l l y or h o l i s t i c a l l y , r a t h e r the l i b e r a l p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d i s a t o m i c ; the w o r l d i s broken down i n t o i t s components, i t s i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s . The l i b e r a l p e r c e p t i o n of "Man" i s "a c r e a t u r e w i t h h i s eye c o n s t a n t l y on the main chance. H i s r u l i n g a m b i t i o n i s t o get something f o r n o t h i n g , and the c r e a t i v e l i f e of a community f l o u r i s h e s o n l y i f i t has e v o l v e d r u l e s , arrangements, and i n s t i t u t i o n s which somehow f o i l t h i s a m b i t i o n " ( G e r v e t z 1966:p.27). From the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n u n t i l the p r e s e n t , a s p e c t s of s o c i e t y and i d e o l o g y have s h i f t e d , but the concept of i n d i v i d u a l i s m has been c e n t r a l t o the dominant i d e o l o g y . Marchak (1979:p.267) w r i t e s , "the c e n t r a l f o c u s of l i b e r a l i s m as i d e o l o g y has been the i n d i v i d u a l : i n d i v i d u a l h a p p i n e s s , i n d i v i d u a l consumer c h o i c e , i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y . These have have ' d i s p l a c e d a f o c u s on the growth of c o r p o r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and p l a c e d t h e burden of p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s i n l i f e on the p r i v a t e p e r s o n . Those who e s t a b l i s h e d the. r u l e s 26 were not i d e n t i f i e d as a r u l i n g c l a s s ; t h e i r c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were not p e r c e i v e d as r u l i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . Government was viewed as a me d i a t o r , and s o c i e t y as a p l u r a l i s t arrangement". S o c i e t y , i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , and t e c h n o l o g y have changed i n the l a s t hundred y e a r s , but the v a l u e s of the dominant i d e o l o g y have not changed. "The i d e o l o g i e s a t the p o p u l a r l e v e l a r e v e r y much the same as they were i n t h e s e o t h e r t i m e s . Speeches t o the Chamber of Commerce r e f l e c t the same a b i d i n g f a i t h i n p r o g r e s s , m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y , and g e n e r a l a f f l u e n c e ; the same e v a l u a t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and achievement; the same b e l i e f i n the e x i s t e n c e of e q u a l i t y and o p p o r t u n i t y " (Marchak 1975b:p.9). The most s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n i d e o l o g y t o a f f e c t 1980's Canada c r y s t a l i z e d i n the 1940s. S o c i e t y s h i f t e d from a concept of i n d i v i d u a l independence t o i n d i v i d u a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , l a i s s e z - f a i r e t o w e l f a r e s t a t e ( G e r v e t z 1 9 6 6 ) 2 . Grayson (1980) argues t h i s s h i f t took p l a c e as Canada's and the c a p i t a l i s t economic w o r l d ' s base s h i f t e d from l i b e r a l i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m t o l a t e or monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . Our p r e s e n t dominant i d e o l o g y c r e a t e s a w o r l d v i e w where the government d e a l s w i t h l i b e r a l , c o m p e t i t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e p r o f i t - m a k i n g companies, when i n a c t u a l i t y major c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e m o n o p o l i s t i c , p r i c e s e t t i n g e n t e r p r i s e s of m u l t i n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n s making abnormal p r o f i t s , u n r e s p o n s i v e t o government or t e r r i t o r i a l needs ( H o l l a n d 1979). Under l a t e l i b e r a l i s m "the p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n ceases t o be a merely 27 economic e n t i t y ; i t becomes a p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y as w e l l " ( G e r v e t z 1966:p.278). The predominant i d e o l o g y argues f o r the u n i v e r s a l i n t e r e s t s of a l l members of s o c i e t y . The i d e o l o g y argues t h a t the good of one community s h o u l d not be promoted over a n o t h e r , r a t h e r the good of a l l s h o u l d be promoted ( M e l l o s 1980). A c l a s s l e s s u n i v e r s a l i t y i s p e r c e i v e d t o e x i s t between a l l members of s o c i e t y (Marcuse 1968) . There may be economic d i s p a r i t i e s between r e g i o n s , but the s e can be e q u a l i z e d w i t h t r a n s f e r payments. Thus, q u a l i t y of l i f e , a c c o r d i n g t o the i d e o l o g y , s h o u l d be comparable f o r a l l Canadians. A CONCEPT OF QUALITY OF LIFE The concept of " q u a l i t y of l i f e " , has no f i r m meaning, beyond the vague n o t i o n of the " g e n e r a l w e l f a r e " ( O l s e n and Marwin 1977). Many w r i t e r s of the M a r x i s t s c h o o l q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y of t h e term, a r g u i n g " q u a l i t y of l i f e " i s a l i b e r a l concept e v o l v e d by the i d e o l o g y t o c o n f u s e and c o n c e a l c l a s s c o n f l i c t (Markusen 1978b). However, f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s " q u a l i t y of l i f e " r e f e r s t o the aggr e g a t e m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e . These v a l u e s a re shaped by the dominant i d e o l o g y . C a s t e l l s (1978:p.4) w r i t e s t h a t what i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o p e o p l e i s t h e i r everyday s p a t i a l environment, "when one i s a g i t a t i n g f o r an improvement i n the " q u a l i t y of l i f e " , one i s i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e r e f e r r i n g t o h o u s i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p u b l i c 28 f a c i l i t i e s and open s p a c e s , as w e l l as t o the forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l l means of consumption and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s " . P e r c e p t i o n of " q u a l i t y of l i f e " i n a SRMC i s shaped by the s i t e - s p e c i f i c environment and degree of f u l f i l l m e n t of i d e o l o g i c a l l y produced a s p i r a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , whatever f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o or d e t r a c t from, ag g r e g a t e q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r a group of peopl e c o m p r i s i n g a SRMC a r e u l t i m a t e l y d e t e r m i n e d by the members of the community t h e m s e l v e s . And the r e s i d e n t s ' n o t i o n of " q u a l i t y of l i f e " i s i n h e r e n t l y d e f i n e d by n o r m a t i v e v a l u e s , or s o c i e t a l i d e o l o g y , of what i s good or bad i n l i f e ( L i u 1975). An u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f i n l i b e r a l i s m i s t h e b e l i e f i n freedom of c h o i c e ( G e r v e t z 1966). M i g r a t o r y Canadians have freedom of movement i n Canada and "emic" freedom of c h o i c e of community, the " e t i c " r e a l i t y i s t h a t they must have some means of economic support i n t h e i r chosen community, be i t employment or U.I.C. S i m i l a r l y i f a worker d e s i r e s t o work i n m i n i n g , the i n d i v i d u a l has freedom of c h o i c e of which mine and which SRMC, p r o v i d e d the person can f i n d employment. Once l o c a t e d i n an SRMC the i n d i v i d u a l has freedom of c h o i c e whether t o remain or n o t . A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h i s d e c i s i o n i s p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the SRMC ( M a t t h i a s s o n 1970, 1971, N i c k e l s and Sexton 1976). SRMCs have s i g n i f i c a n t problems i n t h e i r s p a t i a l e nvironment, a v a i l a b i l i t y and c h o i c e of s e r v i c e s , i s o l a t i o n , as w e l l as o f t e n b e i n g n o n - d e m o c r a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d from the o u t s i d e (Bradbury 1980). These problems a r e a l l c o n t r a r y t o 29 the a c c e p t e d l i b e r a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s of u n i v e r s a l e q u a l i t y , and as a r e s u l t d e t r a c t from i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r SRMC r e s i d e n t s . U n l e s s o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n SRMCs, s u f f i c i e n t l y s u p p o r t i v e of a h i g h q u a l i t y of l i f e ( e . g . , h i g h s a l a r i e s or d e s i r a b l e environment) t o overcome the problems d e t r a c t i n g from q u a l i t y of l i f e i n SRMCs, the i n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y t o use one's o p t i o n of freedom of c h o i c e and move t o a community which i s p e r c e i v e d as b e t t e r ( N i c k e l s and Sexton 1976). The d i s i l l u s i o n e d worker w i l l o n l y remain i f some mechanism, such as e d u c a t i o n ( i . e . , the p e r s o n i s o n l y t r a i n e d t o work i n mining) or perhaps economic d e b t , t r a p s the i n d i v i d u a l i n the SRMC. THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY The word community has many d i f f e r e n t meanings f o r d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e ( H i l l e r y 1955). A town i s a p l a c e i n space where p e o p l e l i v e , i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a community. F a m i l i e s l o c a t e i n a space because t h e r e i s a p e r c e i v e d advantage t o do so. T h i s p e r c e i v e d advantage can be co m p r i s e d of a number of f a c t o r s t h a t can be summarized under t h r e e h e a d i n g s , e c o n o m i c / t e c h n o l o g i c a l , s o c i o / p o l i t i c a l , and c u l t u r a l / i d e o l o g i c a l . When t h e s e economic, c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s come t o g e t h e r t o r e i n f o r c e one an o t h e r f o r a group of p e o p l e , an i n t e r r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r e i s c r e a t e d t h a t i s more than the sum of i t s p a r t s (Friedmann and Weaver 1979). When t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s g e l i n t e r r i t o r i a l space a sense of 30 t o g e t h e r n e s s i s c r e a t e d e x p r e s s i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l t o the c o r p o r a t e whole (More 1516, Mumford 1961). For the purposes of t h i s paper, when t h i s s t r u c t u r e e x i s t s i n t e r r i t o r i a l space, and the s p a t i a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e c o g n i z a n t t o i t s members -- Mumford's (1938) c o n s c i o u s l y d e l i m i t e d " t h e a t r e " -- t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s by d e f i n i t i o n a community. In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a community i s both f u n c t i o n a l and t e r r i t o r i a l i n s t r u c t u r e ; the s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l c o n c e p t s and networks e x i s t i n a c o n c r e t e g e o g r a p h i c a l space. A SRMC, due t o i t s s i z e and i s o l a t e d n a t u r e , can g e n e r a l l y have o n l y one c o g n i t i v e " t h e a t r e " , one l e v e l of known t e r r i t o r i a l and f u n c t i o n a l community. Whereas an urban a r e a can have s e v e r a l l e v e l s of community, neighbourhood, c i t y and r e g i o n (Wellman and Crump 1978); the s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e community can g e n e r a l l y o n l y have one, not n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i n e d by the town's l e g a l b o u n d a r i e s , as i t i s surrounded by u n i n h a b i t e d " w i l d e r n e s s " 3 . L a r g e r c o n c e p t s , p r o v i n c e s and c o u n t r i e s , cannot be communities i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , as t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s a r e not c o g n i z a n t of t h e i r " s p a t i a l t h e a t r e " ; r a t h e r t h e s e l a r g e r c o n c e p t s are i d e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s of a r b i t r a r y t e r r i t o r i a l i d e n t i t y . O r i g i n a l l y t h e s e l a r g e r c o n c e p t s were c r e a t e d t o f u l f i l l s t r u c t u r e d s o cio-economic f u n c t i o n s r e q u i r e d a t the time of t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n . However, o r i g i n a l reasons f o r c r e a t i o n may now be h i s t o r i c a l anachronisms and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a l l e g i a n c e t o such l a r g e r c o n c e p t s i s o f t e n f o s t e r e d by dominant s u b - r e g i o n s and c a p i t a l t o f a c i l i t a t e non-dominant-area dependency (Markusen 1978b, 31 Hechter 1975). S m a l l e r c o n c e p t s of human i n t e r a c t i o n or a s s o c i a t i o n , such as the " e t h n i c community" a r e seldom communities i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n e i t h e r , as they a r e o f t e n f u n c t i o n a l but not t e r r i t o r i a l , or t e r r i t o r i a l but not f u n c t i o n a l . Many of t h e s e s m a l l e r f a c t i o n s have a degree of t o g e t h e r n e s s or c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y t h a t make the f a c t i o n s b u i l d i n g b l o c k s t h r o u g h which the community i s formed --More's (1516) neighbourhoods i f you w i l l . However t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s and groups depend on the c o n t i n u i t y of the encompassing community, f o r n o n - f a c t i o n s u p p l i e d n e t w o r k s , e.g., economic, networks of employment, f o r maintenance of s t r u c t u r e s f o r ongoing e x i s t e n c e . A community i s i n t a n g i b l e as i t i s c r e a t e d by the r e l a t i o n s h i p of i t s p a r t s . I f t h e s e p a r t s and networks change s i g n i f i c a n t l y or are d e s t r o y e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p c r e a t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g community w i l l cease t o e x i s t . Once e s t a b l i s h e d , a v i a b l e community i s the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l outcome of i t s members need f o r achievement of i n d i v i d u a l g o a l s and group i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n unique e n v i r o n m e n t a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n s t r a i n t s . I f t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s change or cease t o e x i s t — f o r example, the appearance of a major new employer, a mine i n a newly c o -opted SRMC — i n d i v i d u a l s and groups c o m p r i s i n g the community w i l l attempt t o produce a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , due t o t h e i r needs f o r s u r v i v a l and achievement. T h i s change w i l l be a t t e m p t e d t h r o u g h c l a s s and s e c t o r a l s t r u g g l e , t o g a i n maximum advantage w i t h i n the new c o n s t r a i n t s (Markusen 1978a). 32 T h e r e f o r e , i n t r i n s i c t o the concept of community i s the a b i l i t y of members t o have a degree of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and s e l f - c o n t r o l of t h e i r environment i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the non-s t a t i c e x t e r n a l w o r l d . T h i s c o n t r o l i s i m p o r t a n t t o meet the r e s i d e n t s ' needs, a l l o w i n g a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e i r e n vironment, economic or s o c i a l , t o m a i n t a i n ongoing i n t e r a c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and above a l l , t o c r e a t e communal meaning f o r c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e (Duvegnaud 1970). I f a community i s a f f e c t e d by major change and a new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s not a c h i e v e d , f o r example, when t h e r e i s no economic base on which t o form a new community s t r u c t u r e , when the o n l y mine i n a SRMC has j u s t c l o s e d , the community w i l l e v e n t u a l l y cease t o e x i s t . The t e r r i t o r i a l space w i l l s t i l l e x i s t , t h e r e may be the name of the town on a map, but a community i n t h a t space w i l l no l o n g e r be an a c t u a l i t y , due t o a l a c k of s y s t e m a t i c f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . The breakdown of community may r e s u l t i n m i g r a t i o n of i t s members t o o t h e r communities t o meet t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs, or where m i g r a t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e f o r c u l t u r a l or economic r e a s o n s , such as r e t i r e d homeowners, anomie and a marked d e t e r i o r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t y of l i f e c o u l d o c c u r i n i s o l a t e d communities (Durkheim 1951, H i m e l f a r b 1977). 33 A CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY STABILITY AND THE ROLE OF SELF- DETERMINATION Community s t a b i l i t y i s an o f t e n used term i n the l i t e r a t u r e but i s seldom d e f i n e d . U s i n g the d e f i n i t i o n of community dev e l o p e d above, a s t a b l e community c o u l d be s t a t e d as a community w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b o t h c a p a b l e of s u b s t a i n i n g networks r e q u i r e d f o r ongoing e x i s t e n c e and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s f o r m i n g i t s members co n c e p t s of a community t h a t p r o v i d e s a good q u a l i t y of l i f e . I n t r i n s i c i n these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s a degree of i n t e r n a l s e l f - c o n t r o l of the community by i t s members, an i n t e r n a l r e s i l i e n c e t o p e r c e i v e d d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s change, and an i n t e r n a l a d a p t a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e d advantageous change i n i t s e c o n o m i c / t e c h n i c a l , s o c i o / p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g i c a l networks. The members of a s t a b l e community have a degree of e f f e c t i v e s e l f - c o n t r o l t h a t can r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f as a concept of c o r p o r a t e t o g e t h e r n e s s t o the e x t e r n a l w o r l d (More 1516, Mumford 1961). A s t a b l e community i s r e s i l i e n t t o a d e c l i n e of p e r c e i v e d a g g r e g a t e q u a l i t y of l i f e of i t s r e s i d e n t s , as w e l l as c a p a b l e of s e l f - p r o m o t i o n of a h i g h e r q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r i t s r e s i d e n t s . A community w i t h low p o p u l a t i o n t u r n o v e r i s not n e c e s s a r i l y s t a b l e , r a t h e r , most s t a b l e communities encourage, low p o p u l a t i o n t u r n o v e r , except i f h i g h t u r n o v e r i s advantageous t o h i g h q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r i t s permanent dominant c o r e members; as s t a b l e communities can g e n e r a l l y meet t h e i r r e s i d e n t s ' needs through s e l f - p r o m o t e d community change and c o n t r o l of the i n t e r n a l community environment. 34 V i e t (1978), i n her s t u d y , Labour Turnover and Community  S t a b i l i t y noted the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from the l i b e r a l l i t e r a t u r e r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e a s t a b l e community i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia: (1) a sense of i n d i v i d u a l b e l o n g i n g , a sense of community ( R i f f e l 1975); (2) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h p l a c e (Burdge 1972); (3) a p e r c e i v e d c o n f i d e n c e i n a s t a b l e economy, i n the case of a SRMC p e r c e i v e d f u t u r e employment f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s a t the mine; (4) common norms; (5) s e r v i c e s t o meet p e r c e i v e d b a s i c needs; (6) v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Baur 1975), and (7) a s t a b l e c o r e group of permanent r e s i d e n t s . A s t a b l e c o r e p o p u l a t i o n i s an i n t r i n s i c r e quirement f o r community, as w e l l , a s t a b l e c o r e p o p u l a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n community s o c i a l networks (Lucas 1971). M a t t h i a s s o n (1971) o b s e r v e s t h a t p e o p l e s t a y i n a community as a r e s u l t of t h e i r p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the community. I n d i v i d u a l i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of q u a l i t y of l i f e depend on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p e c i f i c l i f e s t y l e , one's p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g y , e.g., r u r a l l y o r i e n t a t e d , and one's p e r c e i v e d needs f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e , e.g., needing a house t o r a i s e the k i d s . Though a community o r i g i n a l l y a t t r a c t s members f o r employment reasons ( M a t t h i a s s o n 1971, J a c k s o n 1971, N i c k e l s et a_l 1976), a s t a b l e community c o r e p o p u l a t i o n can o n l y be r e t a i n e d when the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of l i f e of both the community and employment i s s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h i s c o r e group. An i n h e r e n t problem i n SRMCs, as SRMCs have l i t t l e c h o i c e of employment and l i t t l e c h o i c e of p u b l i c l y a l l o t t e d s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . 35 Wichern (1971,1972) d i s c u s s e s a p o s i t i v e feedback mechanism i n s i n g l e r e s o u r c e communities, where, t h r o u g h t i m e , a s t a b l e c o r e community may grow. T h i s c o r e p o p u l a t i o n p e r c e i v e s a l o n g - t e r m f u t u r e e x i s t e n c e i n the community r e s u l t i n g i n a d e s i r e t o c o n t r o l t h e i r d e s t i n y and improve t h e i r everyday q u a l i t y of l i f e . Wichern argues t h i s p e r c e p t i o n r e s u l t s i n the r i s e of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n g i n the r i s e of c i t i z e n c o n t r o l l e d r a t h e r than company c o n t r o l l e d l o c a l government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Wichern (1972) s t a t e s non-community d e c i s i o n makers, e i t h e r p r o v i n c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or "company men", a r e v e r y competent at m a i n t a i n i n g s e r v i c e s i n s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities, y e t they seldom a r e c a p a b l e of r e s p o n d i n g and a d a p t i n g t o change i n the needs of c o l l e c t i v e consumption of community r e s i d e n t s . Wichern argues the r i s e of c i t i z e n -c o n t r o l l e d l o c a l government a l l o w s e f f e c t i v e response t o the c i t i z e n s ' p e r c e i v e d needs, i m p r o v i n g i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t y of l i f e . K e r r i ' s (1971) r e s e a r c h on v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t F o r t McMurray i s s u p p o r t i v e of t h i s argument. Goudy (1977), i n h i s study of r u r a l American communities, found d i s t r i b u t i o n of power, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and commitment t o the community more e f f e c t i v e p r e d i c t o r s of community s a t i s f a c t i o n than were p e r c e p t i o n s of s e r v i c e adequacy. Goudy's r e s u l t s s u g g ested t h a t r e s i d e n t s found most s a t i s f y i n g those communities i n which the r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e they had s t r o n g p r i m a r y group r e l a t i o n s h i p s , where l o c a l p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e d and took p r i d e i n c i v i c a f f a i r s , where 36 d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was s h a r e d , where r e s i d e n t s were heterogeneous and where people were committed t o the community and i t s upkeep. Thus i n t r i n s i c t o a s t a b l e community i s the a b i l i t y f o r r e s i d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n and t o c o n t r o l l o c a l d e c i s i o n -making, t o a l l o w the community t o meet i t s p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l and c o l l e c t i v e consumption needs. S t e l t e r and A r t i b i s e (1978) note the s t r u c t u r e of p a r t i c u l a r SRMCs r e f l e c t s the i d e o l o g y of the time the communities were b u i l t . The p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e , i d e o l o g y , and economic base, t h a t produces problems i n newly b u i l t SRMCs, has e v o l v e d h i s t o r i c a l l y . The next c h a p t e r t r a c e s t h i s h i s t o r i c a l economic and i d e o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n of SRMCs i n Canada, t o p o i n t up the h i s t o r i c a l causes of contempory SRMC problems. 37 Notes 1. Manneheim (1936:p.l93) a c c e p t s Landauer's concept of Utopia, where Landauer c a l l s "every a c t u a l e x i s t i n g and ongoing s o c i a l o r d e r a ' t o p i a ' , then these wish-images which t a k e on a r e v o l u t i o n a r y f u n c t i o n w i l l become U t o p i a s " . " I t i s c l e a r t h a t those s o c i a l s t r a t a which r e p r e s e n t the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l o r d e r w i l l e x p e r i e n c e as r e a l i t y t h a t s t r u c t u r e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s of which they are b e a r e r s , w h i l e the group d r i v e n i n t o o p p o s i t i o n t o the p r e s e n t o r d e r w i l l be o r i e n t e d towards the f i r s t s t i r r i n g s of the s o c i a l o r d e r f o r which they are s t i v i n g and which i s b e i n g r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h them. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a g i v e n o r d e r w i l l l a b e l as Utopian a l l c o n c e p t s of e x i s t e n c e which from t h e i r p o i n t of  view can i n p r i n c i p l e never be r e a l i z e d " ( i b i d : p.196). 2. T h i s s h i f t w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter Three. 3. A good example of t h i s type of community i s p r e s e n t e d by the S l o c a n V a l l e y . See Marchak (1979) and S l o c a n V a l l e y F o r e s t  Management Report (1974). 38 I I I . AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITIES AND THE CANADIAN IDEOLOGY LAISSEZ-FAIRE PRIOR TO WORLD WAR ONE In the l a t t e r h a l f of the 1 9 t h c e n t u r y and the b e g i n n i n g of the 20th c e n t u r y Canada was dominated- by a l i b e r a l f r o n t i e r i d e o l o g y i n the realm of p o l i t i c s , economics and e t h i c s (Guest 1980). N e l l e s (1974) documents the impact of the American f r o n t i e r mythology on government l e g i s a t i o n and p r i v a t e e x p l o r a t i o n of m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s on the Canadian S h i e l d . D i s c o v e r i e s of m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s i n N o r t h e r n and Western Canada c r e a t e d many i n s t a n t communities. These m i n i n g communities v a r i e d i n s i z e from camps of a few i n d i v i d u a l , m i ners t o c i t i e s , such as Dawson w i t h a 1901 p o p u l a t i o n of 27,000 p e o p l e ( I n n i s 1936). Many of the boomtowns were not dominated by any one m i n i n g company, r a t h e r many s i t e s , such as Dawson or C o b a l t , had s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l c l a i m s , or s h a f t s owned by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s or companies ( I n n i s 1936, B a l d w i n 1978, Rea 1976). D i c k (1917: p.258) wrote, r e f e r r i n g t o the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n ' s (1911) mine a c c i d e n t r e p o r t , t h a t "the d e a t h r a t e among miners i n Canada i s g r e a t e r than i n any o t h e r c i v i l i z e d c o u n t r y " . M i n i n g communities of the e r a m i r r o r e d the d i v e r s i f i e d and c h a o t i c n a t u r e of the e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s , the communities r e f l e c t e d t h e l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e of the l i b e r a l f r o n t i e r ( S t e t l e r and A r t i b i s e 1978). 39 Adams (1917: p.17) no t e d , "a few y e a r s p r i o r t o 1901 the c o n t r o l of the p l a n n i n g and development of t h e s e towns was v e s t e d i n r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s " . Yet m u n i c i p a l governments of t h i s e r a were o f t e n impotent due t o l a c k of f i n a n c i n g and e x t r a c t i o n company dominance ( I n n i s 1936). There was l i t t l e or no p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l government involvement i n community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e or s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s , f o r e i t h e r the community i t s e l f or the work environment, beyond b a s i c s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s and l a b o u r r e g u l a t i o n s (Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n 1911). B r i t i s h Columbia had many s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities, both i n c o r p o r a t e d and u n i n c o r p o r a t e d , a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y ( C l e g g 1958, I n n i s 1936). Lozovsky (1970) notes the p r o v i n c i a l government p o s i t i o n on both i n c o r p o r a t e d and u n i n c o r p o r a t e d r e s o u r c e towns was b a s i c a l l y u n d e f i n e d p r i o r t o the end of World War One. In p a r t i c u l a r , the q u e s t i o n of u n i n c o r p o r a t e d community e x i s t e n c e was p u r e l y a m a t t e r of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e and the i n i t i a t i v e of i n d i v i d u a l s . "Whatever the consequences, they must be borne by the i n d i v i d u a l " (Lozovsky 1970: p . 9 ) . In O n t a r i o , B a l d w i n (1978:p.28), r e f e r r i n g t o the "many-company" town of C o b a l t , w r i t e s , "any coh e r e n t development and p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y would have had t o o r i g i n a t e e i t h e r from the p r o v i n c i a l or m u n i c i p a l governments. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n e i t h e r took much i n t e r e s t i n the l o n g range f u t u r e of C o b a l t " . Government p o l i c y , by the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , was m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h b o o s t i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the peace and m a i n t a i n i n g g e n e r a l s t a b i l i t y t o a l l o w c o l l e c t i o n of 40 economic r e n t on m i n e r a l e x t r a c t i o n ( I n n i s 1936, N e l l e s 1974, Rea 1968, 1976). I n n i s (1936) wrote Dawson was founded by two s e r v i c e companies t o s u p p l y goods t o K l o n d i k e m i n e r s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , w i t h the e v e n t u a l e x c e p t i o n of one road t o W h i t e h o r s e , was p r i v a t e l y owned. The e a r l y community had many h e a l t h problems due t o poor s a n i t a t i o n , s t a r v a t i o n r a t i o n s due t o l a c k of f o o d s t u f f s , and poor s e l f - b u i l t a c comodations; s c u r v y , d y s e n t r y and t y p h o i d were common. Dawson's h o s p i t a l was b u i l t by a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l , o n l y as a l a s t r e s o r t would the m u n i c i p a l government f i n a n c e i t s o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , though people were d y i n g on the s t r e e t s . F i r e was a major menance. However, w i t h i n a few y e a r s Dawson had graded and d r a i n e d s t r e e t s , c l e a n water, a f i r e b r i g a d e and e l e c t r i c a l s t r e e t l i g h t i n g . These s e r v i c e s were f i n a n c e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y by the m u n i c i p a l government th r o u g h l o c a l t a x a t i o n of b o t h commercial e n t e r p r i s e s and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y by t h i s time Dawson was p a s t the i n i t i a l m i n i n g boom and the p o p u l a t i o n was d e c l i n i n g , p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e d u c i n g the t a x base. S i m i l a r l y , C o b a l t was founded by a p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n company, the r a i l w a y ( B a l d w i n 1978). O r i g i n a l l y development was c h a o t i c , the Canadian M i n i n g Review (1906:p.72) wro t e , " i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s p r i n c i p a l l y i n the west end of town, p e o p l e who have n o t h i n g e l s e t o go by but t h e i r own c o n v e n i e n c e , a r e b u i l d i n g on the s t r e e t and o f f i t , and l a t e r on t h e r e w i l l be e n d l e s s c o n f u s i o n and l i t i g a t i o n " . L i k e Dawson, C o b a l t was t r o u b l e d w i t h poor s a n i t a t i o n and water s u p p l y , r e s u l t i n g i n 41 t y p h o i d o u t b r e a k s , u n t i l the water works c o n t r a c t was l e t by the m u n i c i p a l government t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t o r s . F i n a n c i n g f o r l o c a l government was c o n t i n u a l l y a problem, w i t h i n f r a s t r u c t u r e l a g g i n g f a r b e h i n d boomtown demand, w i t h l i t t l e or no h e l p from the e x t r a c t i o n companies ( I n n i s 1936). The e x t r a c t i o n companies had mini m a l i n t e r e s t i n i t s w o r k e r s , Guest (1980:p.23) w r i t e s t h a t i n an 1880s R o y a l Commission R e p o r t , "A Nova S c o t i a miner was asked: In the case of s i c k n e s s or i n the case of the d e a t h of a c u t t e r or a l a b o r e r , would any a s s i s t a n c e be rendered by the m i n i n g company except the d o c t o r ' s a t t e n d a n c e ? A. Not as I know o f , they a r e not i n the h a b i t of d o i n g a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t " . Adams (1917:p.l28) wrote, "We see on the one hand, b a l a n c e s h e e t s of min i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s t h a t b u l g e w i t h b i g d i v i d e n d s , and on the ot h e r hand, the d r e a r y , d i s o r d e r l y and u n h e a l t h y shack towns i n which miners a r e f o r c e d t o l i v e , unredeemed by any p u b l i c -s p i r i t e d e f f o r t t o improve them by those who conduct the o p e r a t i o n s . " THE COMPANY TOWN PERIOD BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS By the F i r s t World War the b a s i c f r o n t i e r of European e x p l o r a t i o n and e x p a n s i o n i n Canada was almost c o m p l e t e . I t became p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t f o r the l o n e p r o s p e c t o r t o s t r i k e i t r i c h . In a r e a s such as the K l o n d i k e and R o s s l a n d -T r a i l , the i n d i v i d u a l , or s m a l l m i n i n g companies were absorbed by p r o g r e s s i v e l y i a r g e r companies u n t i l one dominant company 42 emerged. In the K l o n d i k e , c a p i t a l i n vestment r e p l a c e d l a b o u r . I n n i s (1936) noted t h a t hand l a b o u r c o s t $1.66 per c u b i c y a r d of g r a v e l t o e x t r a c t and s l u i c e f o r g o l d , w i t h c a p i t a l equipment the per y a r d c o s t dropped t o 13 c e n t s . In one i n s t a n c e one dredge run by t h r e e men r e p l a c e d 156 men on the same company c l a i m . As a r e s u l t of c a p i t a l investment over t i m e , b o t h wages and p o p u l a t i o n dropped. I n n i s (1936:p.267-268) w r o t e , "The problems of the Yukon a r e the problems of a l l m i n i n g camps but f o c u s s e d i n a c l e a r e r l i g h t . The problem of overhead charges of a l a r g e town borne by a d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s e v i d e n t i n the m u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s . The age group of the p o p u l a t i o n t e n d t o show l a r g e numbers at l a t e r ages, w i t h the younger p o p u l a t i o n s t e a d i l y m i g r a t i n g t o the o u t s i d e . S c h o o l s become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n . Churches f i n d t h e i r s u pport g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n i n g . Government departments are f a c e d w i t h a s t e a d i l y d e c l i n i n g b u s i n e s s . " In the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l a r e a of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1921 c o r p o r a t e m o n o p o l i z a t i o n was c r e a t e d by the major C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and S m e l t i n g Company at T r a i l , when the company r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t l e a d and z i n c o r e s from independent mines, r e s u l t i n g i n the independent mines c l o s i n g or b e i n g taken over by the s m e l t i n g company ( I n n i s 1936). T h i s monopoly c o n c e n t r a t i o n was encouraged by government l e g i s l a t i o n as i t a l l o w e d b e t t e r c a p t u r e of economic r e n t by the s t a t e f o r the e x t r a c t e d m i n e r a l s ( I n n i s 1936, Rea 1976). By the 1920s l a r g e n a t i o n a l l y - b a s e d Canadian and American m i n i n g companies dominated e x t r a c t i o n a c r o s s Canada (Rea 43 1968). W i t h the f a l l of the 1929 market and the 1930's d e p r e s s i o n o n l y the s t r o n g companies s u r v i v e d . Government c o n t i n u e d t o p r o v i d e l i t t l e or no s e r v i c i n g t o t h e s e c o r p o r a t i o n s and t h e i r ' d o r m i t o r y towns'. In O n t a r i o , "the p r o v i n c e merely d i s p o s e d of i t s m i n e r a l domain t o p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s i n as o r d e r l y a manner as p o s s i b l e , m a i n t a i n e d some b a s i c promotion and i n s p e c t i o n s e r v i c e s , i t s 3 p e r c e n t t i t h e s -from p r o f i t a b l e v e n t u r e s " ( N e l l e s 1974:p.431). The i d e o l o g y of the day was t o appear t o s t a y away from the domain of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r (McCann 1978). However I n n i s (1936:p.404) no t e d , " E x p l o i t a t i o n of v i r g i n r e s o u r c e s i n m i n i n g , as i n l u m b e r i n g , tends t o i n v o l v e p o l i t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n . " Rea (1976:p.86) noted t h a t government p o l i c y towards m i n i n g was " s u p p o r t i v e : the apparent o b j e c t i v e was t o r a i s e revenue w i t h o u t d i c o u r a g i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . " The o n l y c a s e s of d i r e c t government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n r e s o u r c e communities, d u r i n g t h i s time p e r i o d , were some p r o v i n c i a l i n p u t i n t o h o l i s t i c community d e s i g n s f o r s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e communities at the e x p l i c i t r e q u e s t of the i n v o l v e d companies (McCann 1978, S a a r i n e n 1979). D u r i n g t h i s time p e r i o d government was not a d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d a c t o r i n r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n , r a t h e r government s e r v e d t o m a i n t a i n the peace and p r o p e r t y r i g h t s of the e x t r a c t i o n companies i n r e t u r n f o r a share of the economic r e n t . N e l l e s (1974:p.432) s u c c i n c t l y summerizes the w o r l d view of the m i n i n g companies d u r i n g the 1920s and 1930s towards government and s o c i e t y as a whole: 44 "An a r d e n t i n d i v i d u a l i s m p r o v i d e d i n t e l l e c t u a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r the i n d u s t r y ' s economic resentment of government i n t e r v e n t i o n . The i n d u s t r i a l symbol was the s o l i t a r y p r o s p e c t o r who made h i s way upward i n the w o r l d through sheer w i t and p l u c k w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e from any q u a r t e r . That the symbol d i d not c o r r e s p o n d t o a r e a l i t y of f i n a n c i a l i n t r i q u e and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n t r i c a c y a t t e s t e d not so much t o i t s i r r a t i o n a l i t y as t o i t s s t r e n g t h and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l need i t f u l f i l l e d . E v e n t s i n an enormous game of i n t e r n a t i o n a l Monopoly had made these men suddenly r i c h beyond o r d i n a r y comprehension. For some, an extreme i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i d e o l o g y performed the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of l e g i t i m i z i n g w i n d f a l l s or f o r t u n e s g u l l e d from t h e i r f o l l o w men. Whatever the hidden p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s , i t seems c l e a r t h a t much of the d o c t r i n a i r e l a i s s e z - f a i r e o u t l o o k of the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y was grounded i n the s t r i d e n t s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and i n d i v i d u a l i s m t h a t u n i v e r s a l l y accompanied the growth of the i n d u s t r y . " While an a r d e n t i n d i v i d u a l i s m e x i s t e d i n the company head o f f i c e , a p a t e r n a l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between the l o c a l company management and the workers i n the company town (Queen's 1953). The companies' i n t e r e s t s where m a i n l y t o m a i n t a i n and reproduce a s t a b l e s k i l l e d work f o r c e a t minimum c o s t . In the company town the c o r p o r a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d h o u s i n g , r e t a i l i n g , community s e r v i c e s and town a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h the degree of d o m i n a t i o n v a r i e d from one community t o the next (Queen's 1953, McCann 1978). W h i l e the c o r p o r a t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m a j o r i t y of the c o l l e c t i v e consumption of t h e i r w o r k e r s , the companies were seldom concerned w i t h p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l b e n e f i t s f o r t h e i r t o w n s h i p r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d of g e n e r a l f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t of the 1930s (McCann 1978). D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d B r i t i s h Columbia was a t y p i c a l among the p r o v i n c e s of Canada i n e n a c t i n g The Company Town 45 R e g u l a t i o n Act of 1919. T h i s a c t was p r i m a r i l y e n a c t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e p u b l i c a c c e s s t o company towns and a l l o w g e n e r a l use of t h e i r r o a d s . Lozovsky (1970) s t a t e s i t s major c l a u s e s a d d r e s s e d problems and s t a n d a r d s of water s u p p l y , sewerage, p u b l i c h e a l t h , roads, l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n , l a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n and t a x a t i o n . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r o l e of government f o r i t s day, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a c t was g i v e n t o the M i n i s t r y of Lands and F o r e s t s , r a t h e r than t o the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Both Lozovsky (1970) and Queen's (1953) p o i n t e d out t h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i d e o l o g y of the importance of e x t r a c t i o n development, r a t h e r than development of SRMCs as d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s t o l i v e . "The mine, m i l l , or p l a n t has p r i o r i t y and the community i s a n e c e s s a r y though secondary v e n t u r e t h a t grows up i n the v i c i n i t y of the works o p e r a t i o n " (Queen's 1953:p.57). WORLD WAR I_I AND GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT: A SHIFT OF IDEOLOGY With the Second World War and the c o u n t r y a t t e m p t i n g t o s t r u c t u r e p r o d u c t i o n as a n a t i o n a l , c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t came a change of o r i e n t a t i o n f o r government and n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y . Concepts of government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s o c i e t y changed. The concept of s o c i a l w e l f a r e was r e a l i z e d t o be no l o n g e r a l u x u r y — c o n t r a r y t o arquments of o r g a n i z e d c a p i t a l — but a n e c e s s i t y f o r a smooth r u n n i n g economy, as w e l l as a s t a b i l i z i n g mechanism f o r c o n t r o l l i n g l a b o u r and the populace i n g e n e r a l i n times of d e p r e s s i o n or c r i s i s (Cuneo 1979b). As 46 a r e s u l t government i n t r o d u c e d s o c i a l p o l i c i e s such as f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e and unemployment i n s u r a n c e . The ' s t i g m a ' a t t a c h e d t o s o c i a l s e r v i c e s produced by the 19th c e n t u r y l a i s s e z - f a i r e i d e o l o g y of i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s h i f t e d from 'embarrassment' and ' f a i l u r e ' t o become a ' r i g h t ' (Guest 1980). Government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the d a i l y l i f e of i n d i v i d u a l s , s t a b i l i z i n g s o c i e t y and g i v i n g the appearance of a c t i v e l y p r omoting minimum s t a n d a r d s of ' q u a l i t y of l i f e ' , g r a d u a l l y became the new e x p e c t e d norm. S i m i l a r l y , a new m o b i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n came about t o a s s i s t the war e f f o r t . Government s t a r t e d t o a c t i v e l y a s s i s t the e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s i n p r o j e c t s t h a t the companies were not a b l e t o c a p i t a l i z e t h e m s e l v e s . S t e e p Rock i s a good example. The government d i v e r t e d a r i v e r , l o s t a hydro-dam and d r a i n e d a l a k e , b u i l t a 201 k i l o m e t e r power l i n e , b u i l t a spur r a i l w a y and ore d o c k s , a l l t o a l l o w p r i v a t e e x t r a c t i o n of i r o n ore (Rea 1976). D u r i n g the war, f o r the f i r s t t i m e , major e x t r a c t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s such as r a i l w a y s and community c o n s t r u c t i o n were born by the s t a t e d i r e c t l y f o r s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n companies, as were s o c i a l w e l f a r e c o s t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . 47 POST-WORLD WAR I I , THE PROMINENCE OF MULTINATIONAL  CORPORATIONS AND GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN SINGLE RESOURCE  MINING COMMUNITY PLANNING In Canada, d u r i n g and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the war the r o l e of the s t a t e changed. K e y n e s i a n economics and c o n c e p t s of government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n r e g u l a t i n g s o c i e t y came i n t o vogue ( G i r v e t z 1966, Guest 1980, Cuneo 1979b). The d e s p o t i s m of company towns was h e l d i n d i s r e s p e c t (Queen's 1953). SRMCs b u i l t soon a f t e r , the war were c o n c e i v e d under a f e e l i n g of needing t o s t a r t anew " t o b u i l d a b e t t e r w o r l d " ( S t e l t e r and A r t i b i s e 1 9 7 8 : p . l 3 ) . There was a g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n f o r government involvement i n the d e s i g n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of SRMCs t o e r a d i c a t e , the problems of p r i o r company towns and p r o v i d e an e q u a l p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r e x t r a c t i o n workers as e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t by the r e s t of Canada ( i b i d , Robinson 1962). With the r i s e of s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the SRMC came a d e c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e i v e d p a t e r n a l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a b o u r and the l o c a l c o r p o r a t e management. The s t a t e became a new independent a c t o r which both l a b o u r and c a p i t a l c o u l d r e l y on; or so became the a c c e p t e d mythology (Bradbury 1980). S i m i l a r l y , w i t h t h i s post-war s h i f t i n government economic and s o c i a l p o l i c i e s t h e r e came a g e n e r a l change of c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic r e l a t i o n s . The emerging monopoly c o r p o r a t i o n s of the 1930s made l a r g e f o r t u n e s on defense, c o n t r a c t s d u r i n g the war. Marchak (1979:p.l32) s t a t e s , "The companies emerged from the second 48 war w i t h expanded c a p a c i t i e s f o r p r o d u c t i o n on a more i n t e g r a t e d b a s i s than they had h i t h e r t o e n j o y e d , and w i t h t h i s some d i s c o v e r e d the m e r i t s of ' e f f i c e n c y ' " . These r e v i t a l i z e d , v e r t i c a l l y i n t e r g r a t e d , e f f i c e n t m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s e v o l v e d w i t h the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the western economic system d u r i n g the 1950s i n t o p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s i n a new mode of p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s m , e x e m p l i f i e d by the p o s t -war d o m i n a t i o n of the U.S. d o l l a r , G.A.T.T. and the I.M.F. (Su n k e l 1973, B l a k e and W a l t e r s 1976, Friedmann and Weaver 1979) . In 1946 38 p e r c e n t of Canadian m i n i n g and s m e l t i n g was f o r e i g n c o n t r o l l e d ; by 1957 t h i s p e r c e n t a g e had r i s e n t o 70 p e r c e n t (Clement 1979). W i l k i n s (1974:p.308), r e f e r r i n g t o post-war American m u l t i n a t i o n a l s , w r o t e , "Americans u n q u e s t i o n a b l y took the l e a d i n the growth of m i n i n g and m i n e r a l p r o c e s s i n g t h a t o c c u r r e d i n Canada." W h i l e f o r e i g n companies have always o p e r a t e d a c t i v e l y i n Canada, from the 1850s t o the e a r l y 1950s, the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y was p r e d o m i n a n t l y Canadian c o n t r o l l e d , a r g u a b l y o p e r a t i n g i n Canadian i n t e r e s t s or a t l e a s t the i n t e r e s t s of the dominant groups i n Canadian s o c i e t y , w i t h the C e n t r a l Canadian owners e x p l o i t i n g the r e s t of Canada f o r t h e i r own g o a l s . However, from the 1950s on t h e r e would be l i t t l e argument i n most q u a r t e r s t h a t , due t o predominant f o r e i g n c o n t r o l , m i n e r a l e x t r a c t i o n i n Canada was no l o n g e r i n Canada's i n t e r e s t , but r a t h e r f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t , p r e d o m i n a n t l y American ( L e v i t t 1970). By the end of the 1950s the r o l e s and i n t e r e s t s of both 49 government and c o r p o r a t i o n s had changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t of the 1930s, w h i l e the r o l e of l a b o u r remained e s s e n t i a l l y the same. Under the new s t a t e i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n d i v i d u a l w e l f a r e , p o l i c i e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the problems of SRMCs and t h e i r r e s i d e n t s , the e x t r a c t i o n w o r k e r s , changed a c c o r d i n g l y , w i t h r e s u l t a n t new norms and e x p e c t a t i o n s on the p a r t of the r e s i d e n t s . In B r i t i s h Columbia the 1919 Company Towns Act was no l o n g e r b e i n g a c t i v e l y a p p l i e d (Queen's 1953). I n s t e a d , o l d e r company towns and newly c r e a t e d towns were b e i n g a c t i v e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d (Lozovsky 1970). Robinson (1962:p.5) wr o t e , " a l t h o u g h Canada's Company Towns have m a n i f e s t e d fewer e x c e s s e s than p r e v a l e n t among t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s e l s e w a r e , such towns n e v e r t h e l e s s a r e not p o p u l a r . The workers p r e f e r a f r e e r environment. The i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r e n e u r d i s l i k e s the d i v e r s i o n of c a p i t a l and e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o b u i l d a new town and r e c o g n i z e s t h a t b e i n g the t r i u m v i r a t e of s o l e employer, l a n d l o r d , and town c o u n c i l r e s u l t s i n poor l a b o r - and r e s i d e n t - r e l a t i o n s . P r o v i n c i a l governments r e g a r d such towns w i t h s u s p i c i o n as b e i n g a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y beyond the scope of o r d i n a r y m u n i c i p a l l a w s . As a consequence, t h e r e i s a f a i r l y w i d e s p r e a d f e e l i n g today t h a t no more company towns s h o u l d be b u i l t . " I n s t e a d , i n the p l a c e of company towns t h e r e were e r e c t e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y p l a n n e d , i n c o r p o r a t e d communities w i t h p r i v a t e home ownership, a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e an e x t e n t i o n of the urban suburb i n the h i n t e r l a n d w i l d e r n e s s , or a t l e a s t t h i s was the p e r c e i v e d i n t e n t ( S t e l t e r and A r t i b i s e 1978, Bradbury 1 9 8 0 ) . In B r i t i s h Columbia, Robinson (1962) d e t a i l e d the p l a n n i n g and development of the s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y town of K i t i m a t i n the 1950s. The community was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a m u n i c i p a l i t y by a s p e c i a l a c t of the l e g i s a t u r e w h i l e the t o w n s i t e was s t i l l 50 under c o n s t r u c t i o n . Robinson d e s c r i b e d how the c o r p o r a t i o n , M e a n , and the P r o v i n c i a l Government worked t o g e t h e r t o a l l o w A l c a n t o b u i l d a 'model community', w h i l e a l l o w i n g 'independent' c o n t r o l of the community through l o c a l government ( A l c a n p a i d 85 p e r c e n t of the m u n i c i p a l t a x e s ) . D u r i n g the 1950s and 1960s many s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e communities were b u i l t a c r o s s Canada w i t h b oth c o r p o r a t e and government i n t e r a c t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , r e s u l t i n g i n l o c a l l y governed communities; examples i n c l u d e E l l i o t Lake, S c h e f f e r v i l l e and Uranium C i t y (Bradbury 1979, Robinson 1962, S t e t l e r and A r t i b i s e 1978). In B r i t i s h Columbia the p r o v i n c i a l government r e c o g n i z e d i t s r o l e i n the c r e a t i o n of the s e new communities and i n 1965 amended the M u n i c i p a l A c t t o f a c i l i t a t e c r e a t i o n of r e s o u r c e communities (Lozovsky 1970, Bradbury 1980). The p h y s i c a l appearance and p e r c e p t i o n of the SRMC had changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the randomly p l a n n e d f r o n t i e r community of the K l o n d i k e t o the s t a t e and c o r p o r a t e d e s i g n e d suburban p l a n n e d SRMC of the 1960s. For SRMCs, the r o l e of the s t a t e , w i t h i t s i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l w e l f a r e , as w e l l as the s o c i e t y ' s i d e o l o g y , once f r o n t i e r o r i e n t a t e d , now urban o r i e n t a t e d , had changed markedly. In l a t e r c h a p t e r s the r o l e of the s t a t e and the Canadian i d e o l o g y w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n i t s 1980s c o n t e x t . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r r e v i e w s the p r e s e n t problems of SRMCs i d e n t i f i e d i n the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e and the proposed remedies. 51 IV. EXISTING CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITIES IMPERMANENCE AND UNCERTAINTY A l l s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities — i f they remain SRMCs -- a r e i n h e r e n t l y impermanent; i t i s j u s t a q u e s t i o n of when they w i l l cease to e x i s t , as i s t e s t i f i e d t o by the number of ghost towns s c a t t e r e d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada ( C l e g g 1958, Robinson 1962). SRMCs a r e abandoned f o r f o u r p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s , p h y s i c a l d e p l e t i o n of the r e s o u r c e ( P a r k e r 1963), d e p r e s s e d w o r l d p r i c e s making e x t r a c t i o n uneconomical ( S k a b u r s k i s 1980), t e c h n i c a l change r e s u l t i n g i n o b s o l e s c e n c e of the r e s o u r c e , and new, more c o m p e t i t i v e d i s c o v e r i e s (Markusen 1978a). As SRMCs a r e impermanent, u n c e r t a i n t y of c o n t i n u e d e x i s t a n c e can become a c e n t r a l i s s u e a f f e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r SRMC r e s i d e n t s . I d e a l l y , the answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n of l o n g e v i t y i s known, u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s i s seldom the c a s e . Mack (1971) w r i t e s t h a t i f knowledge was complete , d e c i s i o n s c o u l d and s h o u l d be p e r f e c t , however, w i t h u n c e r t a i n t y , which i s a l a c k of knowledge, comes d e t e r i o r a t e d c h o i c e and r e s u l t a n t c o s t s . U n c e r t a i n t y i n v o l v e s e v e n t u a l s o c i a l c o s t s f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : (1) a chance of h a v i n g t o abandon a community i s l e s s t r a u m a t i c than the abandonment i t s e l f ; (2) p e o p l e ' s b e h a v i o u r i s c o n f u s e d by u n c e r t a i n t y and may d e t e r i o r a t e , as p o i n t e d out 52 by Lucas (1971) f o r i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n r e s o u r c e communities w i t h an i n d e f i n i t e f u t u r e , and (3) m i s c o n c e p t i o n s of s e v e r i t y of d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s e x t e r n a l i t i e s - one i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be concerned w i t h the u n c e r t a i n t y of d u r a t i o n of a community when the p a r t i c u l a r impacts of community c l o s u r e a r e not known (Mack 1971). Rabnett and A s s o c i a t e s (1978) note i n a b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e economic r i s k r e s u l t s i n r e s i d e n t s and s m a l l e n t r e p r e n e u r s not i n v e s t i n g i n the community. They l a c k the i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e v e l o p a r e a l i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n of an a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d t o base c o m m u n i t y - l e v e l economic m a r k e t i n g systems on. The d i f f i c u l t y of b o r r o w i n g mortgage money f o r a SRMC i n the h i n t e r l a n d and the i n h e r e n t r i s k of impermanence d i s c o u r a g e p r i v a t e - s e c t o r h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ( B a n c r o f t 1975). As a r e s u l t h o u s i n g i s o f t e n b u i l t and/or s u b s i d i z e d by the e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t h e s e communities f o r t h e i r employers ( P a r k i n s o n and DeTomasi 1980, Deprey 1973). Thus p r i v a t e h o u s i n g markets do not e v o l v e f o r s e r v i c e - s e c t o r employees and m u l t i - u n i t r e n t a l accommodations are not d e v e l o p e d ; s m a l l b u s i n e s s growth i s slow, w i t h h i g h p r i c i n g and-high c l o s u r e r a t e s (Lucas 1 9 7 1 , P a r k i n s o n and DeTomasi 1980). These f a c t o r s o f t e n c o n t r i b u t e t o s l o w e r than p l a n n e d community growth and r e g i o n a l development, o f t e n f o s t e r e d by both the e x t r a c t i o n company ( S u l l u m et a l 1978) and the p r o v i n c i a l government ( H a l v e r s o n 1980), r e s u l t i n g i n lower than e x p e c t e d q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r community r e s i d e n t s . T h i s i s due t o a l a c k of h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e c h o i c e , as w e l l as over 53 c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e r v i c i n g , r e s u l t i n g ' i n e x c e s s i v e community p r o p e r t y t a x r a t e s (Rabnett and A s s o c i a t e s 1978). C o n v e r s e l y , SRMC f i n a n c i n g r e q u i r e d t o meet i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needs f o r r e a s o n a b l e q u a l i t y of l i f e i s o f t e n not a v a i l a b l e w i t h o u t h i g h e r government g u a r a n t e e s . Markusen and G l a s m e i e r (1980: p.29) w r i t e w i t h "a d e p l e t e d r e s o u r c e .... The p r o b a b i l i t y of a s t a b l e , l o n g run p r o d u c t i o n p a t t e r n { e x t r a c t i o n } t h a t w i l l s u s t a i n a community t h a t w i l l i n t u r n demand f u l l c a p a c i t y u t i l i z a t i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and pay t a x e s t o cover debt may be low or a t l e a s t d i f f i c u l t t o de t e r m i n e " . ISOLATION I s o l a t i o n i s a f a c t of l i f e and a problem f o r many h i n t e r l a n d communities ( R i f f e l 1975). I s o l a t i o n i s caused by g e o g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n from o t h e r communities and l a r g e c i t i e s , as SRMCs a r e r e q u i r e d t o l o c a t e a t or near the m i n e r a l d e p o s i t t o be e x t r a c t e d . However, i s o l a t i o n has o t h e r parameters a p a r t from s p a t i a l d i s p e r s i o n . Lucas (1971) s t a t e s i s o l a t i o n i s a l s o c r e a t e d by l a c k of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r community r e s i d e n t s . For. many SRMCs t h e r e a r e no o t h e r communities w i t h i n a d a i l y d r i v i n g d i s t a n c e . O f t e n t h e r e may o n l y be one d o c t o r or d e n t i s t i n the community, i f the r e s i d e n t s do not l i k e him/her t h e r e i s no o t h e r c h o i c e . S i m i l a r l y , i n many SRMCs t h e r e may o n l y be one movie t h e a t r e or r e s t a u r a n t , i f any a t a l l . Community s i z e r e s t r i c t s the 54 numbers and t y p e s of SRMC s e r v i c e and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . B a n c r o f t (1975:p.20) notes i n h i s i n v e n t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbian SRMCs t h a t " o v e r a l l , the r e s i d e n t s of study communities have a c c e s s t o o n l y a r e s t r i c t e d range of p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s and r e t a i l shops. Even l e s s f r e q u e n t l y have they a CHOICE between two or more s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s of one t y p e . . . . S e l e c t i o n of goods was l i m i t e d and p r i c e s were a t f u l l l i s t " . Both B a r c l a y et a l (1974) and M a t t h i a s s e n (1970) as w e l l as B a n c r o f t (1975) i n d i c a t e i s o l a t i o n and r e s u l t a n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and l a c k of c h o i c e c o n t r i b u t e s t o a h i g h c o s t f o r the a v a i l a b l e goods, l e a d i n g t o a h i g h c o s t of l i v i n g i n SRMCs. Po r t e o u s (1975a) w r i t e s " r e s t r i c t e d c h o i c e of a l t e r n a t i v e s i n s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e communities mean { s i c . } t h e s e communities cannot be urban, because the essence of u r b a n i t y i s c h o i c e " . Mainstream N o r t h American s o c i e t y i s i n h e r e n t l y urban o r i e n t a t e d . Bookchin (1974:p.5) s t a t e s , " c i t i e s p l a y an i n d i s p u t a b l y dominant r o l e i n modern l i f e . They v i s i b l y d e c i d e the development of modern s o c i e t y . " Indeed, M e r r i n g t o n (1975:p.72) r e f e r s t o the urban environment as "the dynamic p r i n c i p l e of p r o g r e s s " , a fundamental u n d e r p i n n i n g of the p r e v a i l i n g i d e o l o g y l e g i t i m i z i n g our fr e e m a r k e t system. Yet r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs a r e e f f e c t i v e l y a l i e n a t e d from t h i s urban environment, they a r e a l i e n a t e d from mainstream s o c i e t y . R e s i d e n t s of SRMCs are d e p r i v e d of the urban o p p o r t u n i t i e s the s o c i e t y , and the Canadian i d e o l o g y as a whole, t a k e f o r g r a n t e d . 55 Perhaps because of t h i s Siemens (1975) notes i s o l a t i o n can have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on mental h e a l t h , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o " c a b i n f e v e r " and a l c o h o l i s m i n SRMCs. For Siemens, community i s o l a t i o n i s more p s y c h o l o g i c a l than p h y s i c a l , and i s p a r t i a l l y caused by l a c k of freedom of c h o i c e f o r f u l f i l l i n g g e n e r a l needs, as w e l l as the s p e c i f i c need f o r p e r s o n a l p r i v a c y . For Lucas (1971) the i s o l a t e d n a t u r e and g e n e r a l l y s m a l l s i z e of r e s o u r c e communities r e s u l t i n r e s i d e n t s h a v i n g knowledge of everyone e l s e i n the community. T h i s r e s u l t s i n r i g i d s o c i a l c o n t r o l and m o n i t o r i n g of i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r by the community. B a n c r o f t (1975), as w e l l as M a t t h i a s s e n (1970), argues the need f o r r e s i d e n t s on the " f r o n t i e r " t o have a c c e s s t o l a r g e s o u t h e r n communities s e v e r a l t i m e s a year t o m i t i g a t e t h e s e problems of i s o l a t i o n . Yet V i e t (1978) n o t e s t h a t such a c c e s s i s s t i l l seldom a v a i l a b l e more than once a year f o r most SRMC r e s i d e n t s , due t o l i m i t e d h o l i d a y p e r i o d s f o r mine workers and h i g h c o s t s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; as w e l l , any s u b s i d i z e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s t a x e d as p e r s o n a l income. DEPENDENCY _•_ SINGLE INDUSTRY, DISTORTED DEMOGRAPHICS AND  TURNOVER A d e t e r m i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of SRMCs i s t h a t they a r e dominated by and dependent upon e x t e r n a l commodity markets and o t h e r e x t e r n a l i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , SRMCs are dominated by one or more l a r g e , e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d c o r p o r a t i o n s f o r employment and c o n t i n u e d SRMC e x i s t e n c e . These communities a r e 56 branch p l a n t s , d e c i s i o n s c r i t i c a l t o community l i f e a r e made i n d i s t a n t , o f t e n f o r e i g n c i t i e s ( H i m e l f a r b 1977). Jackson. (1971) d e f i n e s the g o a l of t h e s e companies as an attempt over time t o e x t r a c t p r o f i t from t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of t h e i r c o r p o r a t e g o a l the companies want a s t a b l e , i n e x p e n s i v e w o r k f o r c e t o maximize p r o d u c t i v i t y a t m i n i m a l c o s t (Bradbury 1980). The l i t e r a t u r e acknowledges t h i s d o m i n a t i o n , where i t i s t o the companies' advantage t o take a p a t e r n a l i n t e r e s t i n the community t o promote s t a b i l i t y , i f a s t a b l e community w i l l t r y t o m i n i m i z e l a b o u r t u r n o v e r (Wichern 1972, Lucas 1971). I t can c o s t the company up t o $10, 000 t o l o c a t e and t r a i n a mine worker replacement ( U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan 1979). V i e t (1978) s t a t e s the problem of h i g h l a b o u r t u r n o v e r i s o f t e n synonymous w i t h community t u r n o v e r . U n l i k e an urban environment, the r e s o u r c e companies are o f t e n the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t employers i n SRMCs. Loss of employment f o r any reason o f t e n means l e a v i n g the community t o seek work, and o f t e n even t o f i n d h o u s i n g . Community t u r n o v e r i s d i s r u p t i v e t o s o c i a l networks and l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , d e t r a c t i n g from community s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n (Wichern 1971, M a t t h i a s s o n 1971). Lucas (1971) n o t e s r e t i r e m e n t due t o age or i n j u r y i n SRMCs w i t h company c o n t r o l l e d h o u s i n g o f t e n means l e a v i n g the community. V i e t (1978) o b s e r v e s t h a t i n the company owned town of Fermont, Quebec h o u s i n g i s s o l d t o the company's employees. However, i f the husband works f o r the mine and the w i f e does n o t , t i t l e of the house i s i n the man's name o n l y . As a 57 r e s u l t , f o r the women, d i v o r c e means l o s s of community, as t h e r e i s no non-company accommodation i n Fermont. V i e t notes t h i s i s c l e a r company p o l i c y t o m i n i m i z e r e q u i r e d h o u s i n g s t o c k by e x p e l l i n g n o n - p r o d u c t i v e members of the community. The demographics of many SRMCs a r e a t y p i c a l of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. The purpose of the SRMC i s t o ac t as a d o r m i t o r y f o r the mine w o r k e r s , and most of the mine workers a re young through middle-aged males ( V i e t 1976). There are few women i n the l a b o u r f o r c e i n SRMCs. As a r e s u l t t h e r e are d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h r a t i o s of males t o females i n SRMCs and the v a s t m a j o r i t y of females a r e t y p i c a l l y m a r r i e d . M a c M i l l a n (1977) s t a t e s i t i s company p o l i c y t o have m a r r i e d males, where p o s s i b l e , as they a r e the most s t a b l e and l e a s t l i k e l y t o q u i t t h e i r j o b . As mentioned e a r l i e r , accommodation f o r s i n g l e s i n SRMCs i s o f t e n l a c k i n g (Rabnett 1978). V i e t (1978) s u g g e s t s one way t o m i n i m i z e t h i s imbalance and p o t e n t i a l l y d e c r ease t u r n o v e r i n SRMCs i s t o p r o v i d e q u a l i t y accommodation f o r both s i n g l e males and f e m a l e s , as w e l l as e n c o u r a g i n g female h i r i n g f o r mine w o r k e r s . Another demographic f a c t o r of SRMCs noted by Lucas (1971) i s the age c y c l e of the community. When a new SRMC i s r e c r u i t i n g , many f a m i l i e s l o c a t i n g i n the community a r e i n t h e i r t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s . For those t h a t s t a y , the average age of the community r e s i d e n t s i n c r e a s e s t h r o u g h time as most n o n - t e d i o u s j o b p o s i t i o n s a r e f i l l e d and r e t a i n e d i n the f i r s t few y e a r s of the new community. As a r e s u l t the p a r t i c u l a r SRMC tends t o r e f l e c t the i n t e r e s t s of the m a j o r i t y age group. 58 I f a r e s i d e n t i s younger or o l d e r than the community norm, community s e r v i c e s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be geared t o p r o v i d e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , as i n SRMCs t h e r e i s o f t e n a l a c k of s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s , due t o the communities' s m a l l s i z e ( B a n c r o f t 1975). M a t t h i a s s o n (1970, 1971) i d e n t i f i e s employment as the major f a c t o r f o r r e s i d e n t s i n i t i a l l y coming t o a SRMC. H o u r l y wages ar e h i g h i n the m i n i n g communities t o o f f s e t p e r c e i v e d d i s a d v a n t a g e s of i s o l a t i o n and impermanence of j o b t e n u r e and t o a t t r a c t s k i l l e d urban workers ( M a c M i l l a n 1977). In Canada, o n l y the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s tend t o pay h i g h e r h o u r l y wages ( i b i d ) . Markusen (1978a) i d e n t i f i e s a number of e f f e c t s t h a t h i g h wages and r e s u l t a n t i n - m i g r a t i o n of b oth mines and c o n s t r u c t i o n workers can have on the e x i s t i n g communities i n the r e g i o n of .a new m i n i n g p r o j e c t . Community s e r v i c e s a r e overwhelmed, the poor a r e d i s p l a c e d as p r i c e s r i s e (Dixon 1978). Due t o h i g h wages, workers a r e a t t r a c t e d from o t h e r employment s e c t o r s i n the r e g i o n t o work i n b oth c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n the mine. The l a t e n t r e g i o n a l l a b o u r f o r c e i s o f t e n a t t r a c t e d i n t o the newly c r e a t e d s e c t o r by h i g h pay. N a t i v e and h o u s e h o l d p r o d u c t i o n f o r use v a l u e i s r e p l a c e d w i t h -wage l a b o u r f o r exchange v a l u e (Markusen and Schoenberger 1979, Weaver 1981). Dixon (1978) i d e n t i f i e s p r o f o u n d community s t r e s s , as a r e s u l t of p a r e n t s becoming d u a l members of the l a b o u r f o r c e , r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d j u v e n i l e problems, a l c o h o l i s m , m a r i t a l breakdown and rampant consumerism. Land use p a t t e r n s can be p r o f o u n d l y s h i f t e d i n the r e g i o n by 59 demands on l a n d both f o r m i n i n g and n e c e s s a r y i n p u t s , such as water or power, f o r the mine p r o j e c t (Markusen 1978a). In 1977 i n F o r t McMurray, 15,000 t r a n s i e n t s passed t h r o u g h the community d u r i n g a c o n s t r u c t i o n boom p e r i o d , s t r a i n i n g the s u p p o s e d l y a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ( P a r k i n s o n and DeTomasi 1980). Once c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c r u i t m e n t p e r i o d s of a m i n i n g p r o j e c t a r e o v e r , the s i n g l e r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r y markedly s t r a t i f i e s the community. Lucas (1971) i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e t y p e s of m o b i l i t y i n these communities: l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y by s e n i o r i t y f o r w o r k e r s , l a t e r a l m a n a g e r i a l m o b i l i t y t o o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s , and o u t - m i g r a t i o n by young a d u l t s , a f t e r growing up i n the community and f i n d i n g no employment p r o s p e c t s . There i s o n l y one i n d u s t r y i n t h e s e communities, as a r e s u l t the i n d u s t r i a l h i e r a r c h y forms the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y of the community ( R i f f e l 1975). Because of the l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s s t r u c t u r e , and i t s e f f e c t s on everyday l i f e , s e v e r a l a u t h o r s see a r e l a t i o n s h i p between community t u r n o v e r and l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y ( M a t t h i a s s o n 1971, J a c k s o n 1971, Rabnett 1978, B a n c r o f t 1975 ). N i c k e l s e t a l (1976) found the l e a s t l i k e l y w orkers t o l e a v e a community were those of low i n t e l l i g e n c e and low a s p i r a t i o n s , h a v i n g o f t e n grown up i n a community of s i m i l a r s i z e and o p p o r t u n i t i e s as t h e i r p r e s e n t community. Indeed Peach (1970) s t a t e s t h a t youths of h i g h a b i l i t y and/or a s p i r a t i o n s have l i t t l e c h o i c e but t o r e l o c a t e i n urban a r e a s f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and employment. • Cram (1971) i n d i c a t e s i n d i v i d u a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h 60 j o b - r e l a t e d s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n m i n i n g communities i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l a b o u r t u r n o v e r . For Marx (Seeman 1969) t h i s p o w e r l e s s n e s s t o c o n t r o l one's own d e s t i n y and have p r i d e i n one's work produces a s t a t e of a l i e n a t i o n . W h i l e the M a r x i a n view argues t h a t a l i e n a t i o n i s i n h e r e n t i n a l l wage l a b o u r under a c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n , the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l i e n a t i o n b o t h i n the M a r x i a n and l i b e r a l senses i s g r e a t e r i n a r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n community. C o n t r o l comes from o u t s i d e the community and the broader economy d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s h a r e s the s p o i l s of the community's l a b o u r t h r o u g h the town's t y p i c a l l y l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s -- C a s t e l l ' s (1978) uneven i n d i r e c t wage of c o l l e c t i v e consumption. A good example of t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s the SRMC of Tungsten N.W.T., as r e p o r t e d i n the Vancouver Sun (March 25, 1980). The 400 r e s i d e n t s pay t h r e e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a year i n p e r s o n a l income t a x and r e c e i v e i n r e t u r n , i n s i t e s p e c i f i c b e n e f i t s , one R.C.M.P., t h r e e t e a c h e r s and a s m a l l s c h o o l . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Bradbury (1980:p.30) s t a t e s " a l i e n a t e d workers tend t o use the towns as p l a c e s i n which t o work f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s t o g a i n money b e f o r e moving on t o new j o b s " . Lucas (1971) n o t e s , m i n i n g or non-mining, s i n g l e i n d u s t r y d o m i n a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o r e s o u r c e community r e s i d e n t s a c q u i r i n g a f a t a l i s t i c o u t l o o k on the w o r l d , an anomic p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l has no c o n t r o l over h i s / h e r own d e s t i n y ; h i s / h e r d e s t i n y i s c o n t r o l l e d by f o r c e s o u t s i d e the community. Durkheim (1951) t h e o r i z e d t h a t an abr u p t and unfulfilled aspirations unknown future (lack of control) unfilfilled needs MINE (work environment) DEPENDENCE (on outside world) COMMUNITY (non-work environment) self-determination] in job — -> perceived needs met ONLY if consistent with EXTERNAL GOALS satisfaction self- determination through local government F i g u r e I I Dynamics of s t a b i l i t y , s a t i s f a c t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n i n a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community. 62 u n f o r e s e e n growth or d i m i n u a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s power and w e a l t h t e n d t o produce anomie, a c o n d i t i o n of n o r m l e s s n e s s , and t h a t due t o the b u s i n e s s c y c l e i t i s a r e g u l a r , t h e r e f o r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y normal, f a c t o r of e x i s t e n c e i n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . L i k e a l i e n a t i o n , i n a s m a l l h i n t e r l a n d community of s i n g l e i n d u s t r y , anomie may be f e l t more s t r o n g l y than i n Canadian s o c i e t y as a whole. T h i s anomie and a l i e n a t i o n feeds back on the community, p o t e n t i a l l y d e t r a c t i n g from i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t y o f l i f e . P o r t e o u s (1975b) found o n l y 44 per cent of r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d i n G r a n i s l e , a B r i t i s h Columbian copper m i n i n g community, b e l i e v i n g the company would not one day l e a v e the workers s t r a n d e d . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Lucas' (1971) f i n d i n g s t h a t community r e s i d e n t s do not know how l o n g the b a s i c r e s o u r c e of the town w i l l l a s t , "the community i s always on the verge of c l o s i n g , but never a c t u a l l y c l o s i n g " ( i b i d : p . 9 8 ) , " t h e ' c i t i z e n of a s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y community has the f e e l i n g t h a t he has no c o n t r o l over h i s d e s t i n y " ( i b i d : p . 3 3 9 ) . In c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s s e c t i o n F i g u r e I I a t t e m p t s t o g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t the dynamics of e x t e r n a l dependency, s a t i s f a c t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n i n a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community. E x t e r n a l c o n t r o l over both the mine and community by g l o b a l markets and e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n makers r e s u l t s i n d i r e c t a l i e n a t i o n , anomie and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n b oth the work environment and non-work environment. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a l s o comes about through u n f u l f i l l e d a s p i r a t i o n s and needs t h a t the e x t e r n a l w o r l d , i s o l a t e d SRMC, l o c a l mine and s t r a t i f i e d 63 o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e cannot meet. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n l e a d s t o employment and community t u r n o v e r , f e e d i n g back on i t s e l f , and p o t e n t i a l l y weakening s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n as a r e s u l t of broken s o c i a l networks and p e r c e i v e d impotence. O c c u p a t i o n a l and community s a t i s f a c t i o n , p r o m o t i n g s t a b i l i t y , comes about t h r o u g h b o t h l o c a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a g a i n p r o d u c i n g a p o s i t i v e feedback l o o p , and a l s o e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n s . However, e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n s w i l l o n l y promote s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r the mine workers and o t h e r SRMC r e s i d e n t s i f t hese d e c i s i o n s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e x t e r n a l g o a l s . I t i s no wonder t h a t h i g h r a t e s of t u r n o v e r e x i s t i n SRMCs. PROPOSED ALTERNATIVES TO THE PRESENT FORM OF SINGLE RESOURCE  MINING COMMUNITIES The l i t e r a t u r e has s u g g ested a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t forms t h a t may m i t i g a t e many of the p r e s e n t problems of SRMCs. Robinson (1962) proposed p l a n n i n g on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , r e s u l t i n g i n a c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d community w i t h more than a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e economic base. Robinson t h e o r i z e d t h a t i f s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e s i t e s can be s e r v i c e d from a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n t h i s c e n t r a l community would be l e s s l i k e l y t o be impermanent. As a r e s u l t , e n t r e p e n e u r s would p e r c e i v e l e s s r i s k and e v o l u t i o n of a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r i v a t e h o u s i n g market would be more l i k e l y t o o c c u r . The community would be l a r g e r than a s i n g l e SRMC. and have more a l t e r n a t i v e s t o choose between. As the c e n t r a l community would be more l i k e l y t o 64 conform t o e x p e c t e d i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s of u r b a n i t y , i s o l a t i o n would be l e s s of a problem. Because the c e n t r a l community would not be dependent on a s i n g l e i n d u s t r y , e x t e r n a l dependency would e x e r t l e s s c o n t r o l over community d e c i s i o n -making. The l a r g e r c o r e p o p u l a t i o n would be more l i k e l y t o promote s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n de c r e a s e d a l i e n a t i o n and a more s a t i s f a c t o r y community. P a r k e r (1963) proposed a permanent nomadic township t h a t would move from s i t e t o s i t e as a p a r t i c u l a r o re body e x p i r e d . Thus a c o r e p o p u l a t i o n would be m a i n t a i n e d over t i m e , m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l networks. T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e of movable t o w n s i t e s r e s o l v e s the problem of impermanence a f t e r a f a s h i o n , though does not r e s o l v e the problems of i s o l a t i o n and dependency. A nomadic town would s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r a s t w i t h the dominant v a l u e s of Canadian u r b a n i t y , perhaps l i m i t i n g r e s i d e n t c o l l e c t i v e consumption more so than the t r a d i t i o n a l SRMC. I d e n t i t y w i t h p l a c e , r e q u i r e d f o r community, would be l i m i t e d . A l i e n a t i o n may be g r e a t e r i n t h i s mode of s e t t l e m e n t than the c o n v e n t i o n a l SRMC. In S i b e r i a , S o v i e t p l a n n e r s have e v o l v e d a group system of s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s system i n c l u d e s one c e n t r a l permanent community w i t h s e v e r a l r o a d - l i n k e d , non-permanent, e x t r a c t i o n t o w n s i t e s w i t h i n two hours t r a v e l of the c e n t r a l community ( S l i p c h e n k o 1979). T h i s system would seem t o combine the bes t of both Robinson's and P a r k e r ' s p r o p o s a l s . Another a l t e r n a t i v e i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g used a t R a b b i t Lake, which i s a d o r m i t o r y town where workers a r e fl o w n i n and 65 out of the mine s i t e on a weekly s h i f t b a s i s ( U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan 1979). There a r e about one hundred workers i n v o l v e d a t the mine s i t e a t any one time , t h i s compares t o a p o p u l a t i o n of 900 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l SRMC o r i g i n a l l y p r o p osed f o r the p r o j e c t . The mine s i t e d o r m i t o r y town i s not the workers' community as d e f i n e d by t h i s t h e s i s , r a t h e r the worker's community i s where they l i v e w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n the o u t s i d e w o r l d . R a b b i t Lake has one of the l o w e s t l a b o u r t u r n o v e r r a t e s i n the Canadian m i n i n g i n d u s t r y ( i b i d ) . The mine s i t e d o r m i t o r y town i s impermanent, i s o l a t e d and c o m p l e t e l y run by the company, however t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e a l l o w s the workers t o l i v e i n a permanent, n o n - i s o l a t e d , urban community, of t h e i r c h o i c e , w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s when th e y a r e not w o r k i n g . T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e n t i o n a l l y e l i m i n a t e s t h e p o t e n t i a l of a f u t u r e ghost town by d e a l i n g w i t h the c e r t a i n t y of abandonment when the ore body e x p i r e s . As w e l l , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e c o n f r o n t s the problems of i s o l a t i p n and dependency by n e i t h e r a t t e m p t i n g t o d e a l w i t h them a t the s i t e , nor by a t t e m p t i n g t o obscure them. Y e t , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e manages t o c a p t u r e a s t a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e who r e c e i v e a p e r c e i v e d h i g h q u a l i t y of - l i f e as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e i r low t u r n o v e r of l e s s than 23 per cen t per year (Nogas 1976). Another a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o modify the c o n v e n t i o n a l SRMC. T r a d i t o n a l l y the c o n s t r u c t i o n and 'permanent' p r o j e c t workers ar e p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n p l a n n i n g f o r new m i n i n g communities. Robinson (1962) suggested r a t h e r than h a v i n g a s h o r t term shanty town f o r the l a r g e number of c o n s t r u c t i o n 66 workers { o f t e n s e v e r a l t i m e s the number of 'permanent' workers (Best 1980)}, p l a n n i n g s h o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e b oth s e t s of workers i n t o the l o n g range p l a n s of a new community. Rather than b e i n g c o m p r i s e d of two waves of p o p u l a t i o n the new community can be p l a n n e d , b u i l t and run by one p o p u l a t i o n , p e r h a p s i n c r e a s i n g the l e n g t h of e x i s t e n c e of the SRMC and i n d u c i n g a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , s e l f - d e t e r m i n i n g c o r e p o p u l a t i o n from the b e g i n n i n g of the community. We w i l l r e t u r n t o thes e p o l i c y i s s u e s i n the l a s t two c h a p t e r s . W h i l e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has been done on the problem of SRMCs and p r e s c r i p t i v e remedies proposed, few s t u d i e s have s p e c i f i c a l l y examined the r o l e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s of the concerned a c t o r s which c r e a t e the s t r u c t u r a l s e t t i n g f o r t h e s e problems i n SRMCs 1. The next c h a p t e r proposes t o r e d r e s s t h i s o v e r s i g h t by examining the r o l e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s of a c t o r s i n SRMCs from a B r i t i s h Columbian p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s w i l l p r o v i d e a more a n a l y t i c p e r s p e c t i v e from which t o e v a l u a t e the p r o b a b l e s u c c e s s of v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g s o l u t i o n s i n coming t o g r i p s w i t h the the SRMC p r o b l e m a t i q u e . 67 Notes 1. Bradbury (1979) a d d r e s s e d the r o l e s of c o r p o r a t e c a p i t a l , f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l , l a b o u r and the s t a t e i n a case study of S c h e f f e r v i l i e . 68 V. ACTORS IN SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITIES AND THE LATE  LIBERAL IDEOLOGY: A BRITISH COLUMBIAN PERSPECTIVE Markusen (1978a) i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e major g r o u p i n g s of a c t o r s i n SRMCs: the s t a t e , o r g a n i z e d c a p i t a l , and l a b o u r . These a g g r e g a t e s of a c t o r s may be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o many s e c t o r a l subgroups, i n the case of l a b o u r , examples would be s k i l l e d or u n s k i l l e d mineworkers, l o c a l management, or s e r v i c e worker; i n the case of the d i f f e r e n t t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l s of government, d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s , each w i t h t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r mandate. These a c t o r s and t h e i r s e c t o r a l sub-groups a l l have d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and o b j e c t i v e s , y e t the d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s i n t e r a c t i n t e r r i t o r i a l space t o attempt t o meet t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l g o a l s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n a l l i a n c e s and c o n f l i c t s w i t h s p e c i f i c outcomes of v a r i o u s degrees of g o a l a t t a i n m e n t . As g o a l s are o f t e n a t odds between the d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s , e q u a l s u c c e s s can seldom be met by a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . To a s s i s t the i n t e r a c t i o n s of l e s s s u c c e s s f u l a c t o r s i n the system, m i t i g a t i n g p r o c e s s e s , i . e . , b e l i e f s of f u t u r e improvements and/or i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s such as unemployment i n s u r a n c e , are o f t e n d e v e l o p e d t o m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the l e s s s u c c e s s f u l sub-groups (Cuneo 1979b). ORGANI ZED CAPITAL The B r i t i s h Columbian m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i s dominated by a s m a l l number of l a r g e m u l t i n a t i o n a l companies, p r e d o m i n a t e l y 69 American and Japanese c o n t r o l l e d (Payne 1980). These c o r p o r a t i o n s are run from e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e s i n c o r p o r a t e c e n t r e s such as New York or Toyko. Such t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s o p e r a t e t h rough c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r e s t s i n s u b s i d i a r y companies i n secondary m e t r o p o l e s such as Vancouver (Bradbury 1979). I n d i g e n o u s companies a r e e i t h e r 'squeezed out' of e x i s t e n c e , or t a k e n over by the m u l t i n a t i o n a l s u b s i d i a r i e s ( H o l l a n d 1979). "The d e c i s i v e d i f f e r e n c e between the two i s t h a t the { m u l t i n a t i o n a l } c o r p o r a t i o n s have c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l over t h e i r own s u p p l i e s , f i n a n c e s and markets such t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n and r i s k s a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced or e l i m i n a t e d " (Marchak 1975b:p.36). T r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n a r e t h e r e f o r one r e a s o n : as much p r o f i t a c c u m u l a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . T h i s p r o f i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y measurable w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of p r o v i n c i a l or n a t i o n a l a c c o u n t s , r a t h e r i t i s a g g r e g a t e d w i t h i n the i n t e g r a t e d c o r p o r a t i o n s own g l o b a l a c c o u n t s . B a r net and M u l l e r ( 1 9 7 4 : p . l 8 6 ) , d e s c r i b i n g t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , s t a t e , "The s u b s i d i a r y manager u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t the i n t e r e s t of the company i n w o r ldwide p r o f i t m a x i m i z a t i o n may r e q u i r e m i n i m i z a t i o n of { t a x a b l e } p r o f i t s i n h i s c o u n t r y , and t h a t w h i l e the company w i l l b e n e f i t from the ' e f f i c i e n t ' a l l o c a t i o n of p r o f i t s , the c o u n t r y w i l l n o t " . Thus the s i t e s p e c i f i c r o l e of t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s a t a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community i s e x t r a c t i o n of the r e s o u r c e a t minimum c o s t t o the c o r p o r a t i o n . I f a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o s t of 70 e x t r a c t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e a t a p a r t i c u l a r SRMC l o c a t i o n , the t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n w i l l c l o s e t h a t s i t e and move t o another SRMC, p o s s i b l y i n another c o u n t r y , where s a t i s f a c t o r y c o s t s can be a c h i e v e d ( B l a k e and W a l t e r s 1976). Gunton (1980) documents the p r o f i t f l o w s of K a i s e r R e s o u r c e s , u n t i l r e c e n t l y a t r a n s n a t i o n a l - o w n e d e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n , p r e s e n t l y p r o d u c i n g t w o - t h i r d s of B.C.'s c o a l e x p o r t s 1 . D u r i n g Gunton's study p e r i o d r e t u r n on investment was over 35 per cent per y e a r , w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 84 per cent of K a i s e r ' s c a s h f l o w l e f t the B r i t i s h Columbian economy. In another i n s t a n c e , Payne (1980) d e t a i l s how Bethlehem Copper's book p r o f i t b e f o r e t a x e s between 1964 and 1975 was 49 per cent of i t s p r o d u c t i o n revenue, G r a n i s l e ' s was 42 per c e n t , and Craigmont mines' were 47 per c e n t . Payne argues t h a t these huge p r o f i t s a l l o w r a p i d payouts of d e b t , a l l o w i n g c o r p o r a t e a c c u m u l a t i o n of l a r g e amounts of r e t a i n e d e a r n i n g s . T h i s i n c r e a s e d net worth r e f l e c t s i n the v a l u e of the c o r p o r a t i o n ' s i s s u e d s h a r e d c a p i t a l , a l l o w i n g huge c a p i t a l g a i n s f o r the f o r e i g n owners, as w e l l as c o l l e c t e d " d i v i d e n d s which o f t e n f a r s u r p a s s e d the v a l u e of t h e i r i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t " ( i b i d t p . 6 ) . The i d e o l o g y of l a t e l i b e r a l i s m a l l o w s c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s t o c a p t u r e t h e s e l a r g e p r o f i t s t h r o u g h the mythology t h a t "the p r e s e r v a t i o n of freedom i s t i e d t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c a p i t a l , the former j u s t i f y i n g the l a t t e r " ( M e l l o s 1 9 8 0 : p . l 2 0 ) . The c o r p o r a t i o n s f o s t e r t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f w i t h s e l f - f i n a n c e d a d v e r t i s i n g compaigns as w e l l as 71 s y m p a t h e t i c c o r p o r a t e media s u p p o r t (Payne 1980, Weaver 1980). K a i s e r and o t h e r c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e a l l o w e d by s o c i e t y t o ' d i v e r s i f y ' t h e i r l a r g e p r o f i t s o u t s i d e the r e g i o n from which i t i s produced (such as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) , due t o the l e g i t i m i z i n g e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t i t a l l o w s the c o r p o r a t i o n s t o be more s t a b l e t o handle c r i s i s — such as p e r i o d s of low w o r l d p r i c e s . One example of t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n used t o j u s t i f y h i g h l y e c o n o m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , d i v e r s i f i e d , c o r p o r a t i o n s was g i v e n by the Chairman of the Hudson Bay M i n i n g Company: "One of the reasons why even m a r g i n a l copper mines ar e seldom c l o s e d by low p r i c e s i s t h a t they are i n c r e a s i n g l y o p e r a t e d by l a r g e companies or groups w i t h f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y t o weather p e r i o d s of low p r i c e s " ( F r a s e r , 1975). Thus the r o l e of g l o b a l c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o f i t m a x i m i z a t i o n by m i n i m i z i n g p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s , and the l a t e l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y l e g i t i m i z e s t h i s r o l e by making i t synonymous w i t h freedom and s t a b i l i t y . THE SITUATION OF LABOUR Marx (1887) argued t h a t a l l exchange v a l u e i s based on l a b o u r . Whether l a b o u r p r o d u c t i o n c r e a t e s v a l u e i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i s a p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n ( R o b i n s o n , 1979). However, v a l u e of the e x t r a c t e d r e s o u r c e can o n l y be r e a l i z e d by the c o r p o r a t i o n through the use of l a b o u r t h a t e x t r a c t s the m i n e r a l s / h y d r o c a r b o n s . Working i n a mine i s not a d e s i r a b l e o c c u p a t i o n and l a b o u r r e c r u i t m e n t , not t o mention t u r n o v e r , has been a major problem f o r the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y ( M a c M i l l a n et 72 a l , 1977). S k i l l e d mine workers have o f t e n had t o be r e c r u i t e d from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , f o r example, Koreans f o r the c o a l mines of A l b e r t a ( V i e t 1978). As a r e s u l t the i n d u s t r y has t r a d i t o n a l l y o f f e r e d h i g h wages and induced Canadian u r b a n i t e s i n t o r e l o c a t i n g i n SRMCs w i t h p r o m i s e s of company f i n a n c e d home ownership i n " i d e a l " p l a n n e d t o w n s h i p s ( M a c M i l l a n et a l 1977, V i e t 1978, Bradbury 1980). E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have shown t h a t the main reason workers l o c a t e i n SRMCs i n Canada i s t o make money ( M a t t h i a s s o n 1971, N i c k e l s et a l 1976). The wor k e r s ' g e n e r a l g o a l i s t o make as much money as they can i n the SRMC, as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e (Bradbury 1980). The workers compete f o r as much of the v a l u e added c r e a t e d by t h e i r l a b o u r as t h e i r u n i o n s can s e c u r e i n d i r e c t wages. Many of the workers a re s u c c e s s f u l l y r e c r u i t e d from an urban environment and i n t e n d r e t u r n i n g t o the c i t y a f t e r "making t h e i r s t a k e " (Bradbury 1980). A common b e l i e f of th e s e workers i s t h a t they l e a v e the urban environment of " c l a s s l e s s u n i v e r s a l i t y " (Marcuse 1968), go t o the i s o l a t e d SRMC t o make a l o t of money q u i c k l y as wo r k e r s , and then r e t u r n t o the urban environment t o enjoy t h e i r a c c u mulated reward. The r e a l i t y , however, i s t h a t " t h e s t a k e " i s seldom made i n the SRMC, as d i r e c t wages a r e o n l y s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h e r t o o f f s e t c o s t s of l i v i n g ( B a r c l a y e t a l 1974). I n d i r e c t wages, C a s t e l l s ' c o l l e c t i v e consumption, a r e i n f a c t lower i n SRMCs, due t o the uneven a l l o c a t i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e s between met r o p o l e and h i n t e r l a n d (Marchak 1975a). As w e l l , c l e a r c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , 73 h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e s e x i s t i n SRMCs between management, s k i l l e d r e q u i r e d l a b o u r and g e n e r a l l a b o u r (Lucas 1971). The d i s i l l u s i o n e d worker may move t o another SRMC t o t r y h i s / h e r l u c k a g a i n ( N i c k e l s e t a l 1976), or r e t u r n s t o the c i t y p r o v i d e d he/she i s not t r a p p e d by home ownership or o t h e r d e b t s making m i g r a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . "The emphasis on a t t r a c t i n g f a m i l i e s and promoting homeownership meant t h a t many f a m i l i e s become l o c k e d i n t o such communities by mortgages, h i g h t a x e s , and h i g h c o s t of l i v i n g " (Bradbury 1980:p.34). E x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s u n s t a b l e p o p u l a t i o n a r e g e n e r a l l y immigrants and i n d i v i d u a l s who grew up i n comparable communities, w i t h o u t l i v i n g extended p e r i o d s i n urban e n v i r o n m e n t s . As documented by N i c k e l s et a l (1976) r u r a l - b o r n Canadians a r e the most l i k e l y t o l o o k on SRMCs as a permanent home. These Canadians have been s o c i a l i z e d t o a c c e p t the l e v e l of i n d i r e c t wages or c o l l e c t i v e consumption a v a i l a b l e i n SRMCs 2. V i e t (1978) documents t h a t immigrants a r e o f t e n a p a r t from the r e s t of Canadian s o c i e t y , due many ti m e s t o language problems and, as such, a r e a l s o l i k e l y t o be more s t a b l e than u r b a n i z e d Canadians. The worker's r o l e i n SRMCs i s t o s e l l t h e i r l a b o u r , f o r as much as p o s s i b l e . Common b e l i e f s encourages the i d e a t h a t a SRMC i s a p l a c e t o make money q u i c k l y . I t i s on the " f r o n t i e r " , a modern day K l o n d i k e ( M a t t h i a s s o n 1970). The r e a l i t y appears t o be, however, t h a t permanent r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs a r e most l i k e l y t o be anomie-trapped u r b a n i t e s , non-Canadian immigrants and r u r a l l y s o c i a l i z e d C a n a d i a n s . Combined 74 d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t wages may be lower f o r t h e s e h i n t e r l a n d r e s i d e n t s than the metr o p o l e a v e r a g e . THE FUNCTION OF THE STATE The f u n c t i o n of the s t a t e i n SRMCs i s not s i m p l e or u n i d i m e n s i o n a l . Under S e c t i o n s 109 and 117 of The B r i t i s h N o r t h American A c t , the p r o v i n c e i s the s e c t o r of government dominant i n the c o n t r o l of SRMCs. The u l t i m a t e g o a l of any government or s t a t e i s t o remain i n "power". The government of B r i t i s h Columbia , be . i t S o c i a l C r e d i t , or New Democratic P a r t y , i s no e x c e p t i o n ( B l a c k 1979). The p o l i c y t h a t B r i t i s h Columbian governments have h i s t o r i c a l l y chosen f o r a c t u a l i z i n g t h e i r c o n t i n u a t i o n i n power i s t o appear t o work f o r the immediate m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s of the e l e c t o r a t e ( H a l v e r s e n 1980). Kraushaar and G a r d e l s (1981) argue t h a t the a c t i o n s of the s t a t e i s c o n s t r a i n e d by the economic base of s o c i e t y , c a p i t a l i s m , and the s t a t e ' s o v e r r i d i n g c oncern i s economic growth t h r o u g h f a c i l i t a t i n g c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . Economic growth o f t e n f a c i l i t a t e s c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n i n the hands of a few members of s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t i n g a c o n t r a d i c t i o n f o r the s t a t e . The c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e has two c o n f l i c t i n g needs. On the one hand the u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e r n of government i s e f f i c i e n c y i n i n c r e a s i n g g r o s s r e g i o n a l p r o d u c t , and the a c c u m u l a t i o n of c a p i t a l . On the o t h e r hand the s t a t e has a need f o r l e g i t i m a c y as a p p e a l i n g t o a l l i n t e r e s t s , t o a l l o w r e - e l e c t i o n . In l a t e l i b e r a l i s m the s t a t e a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n 75 t h r o u g h a minimum l e v e l of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s o c i e t y t o a l l e v i a t e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r a p i d c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . T h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by s t a t e a l l o c a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n of goods and s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as d i r e c t t r a n s f e r payments, 'the p r o v i n c e w o r k i n g f o r the immediate m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s of the e l e c t o r a t e ' . "The f i r s t and most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n of the s t a t e i s t o enable the development of c a p i t a l i s m ; the second i s t o make a c c e p t a b l e t h a t development" ( D a v i e s 1974;p. 5 ) . A b a s i c t e n e t of l a t e l i b e r a l w e l f a r e s t a t e d o c t r i n e i s the "concept of c o n t i n u o u s economic growth t h a t would s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e per c a p i t a income" (Krauchaar and G a r d e l s 1981:p.2). M i l l e r (1978:p. 6) argues t h i s "growth motive s u b s t i t u t e s f o r an a u t h e n t i c a l l y moral b a s i s f o r c a p i t a l i s m " . I t i s no wonder t h a t government development c r i t e r i a f o r SRMCs r e f l e c t t h i s p r i n c i p l e of e f f i c i e n c y f o r economic growth. Paget and Rabnett (1980:p.5) s t a t e "the key q u e s t i o n i s the e f f i c i e n c y of the r i s k i n v e s t m e n t ; how t o get the b i g g e s t ( p o t e n t i a l ) bang f o r the buck". As government must a p p e a l t o the i n t e r e s t s of the m a j o r i t y of the e l e c t o r a t e t o g a i n r e - e l e c t i o n , i n h i n t e r l a n d r e g i o n s an im p o r t a n t i d e o l o g i c a l component of s t a t e a c t i v i t i e s i s t o c r e a t e employment and d i s t r i b u t e economic development ( D a v i e s 1974). The proposed development of N o r t h e a s t C o a l i s a good example of the B r i t i s h Columbian government f o s t e r i n g c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n w h i l e r e p r e s e n t i n g i t t o the e l e c t o r a t e as i n c r e a s e d employment and r e g i o n a l development. The P r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t r o l e i n N o r t h e a s t C o a l development 76 has r e s u l t e d i n pl a n n e d p r o d u c t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o both . e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s and f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of the development. However the m a j o r i t y of the a l l o c a t i o n s a r e g o i n g t o the e x t r a c t i o n companies t o meet t r a n s p o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s ( H a l v e r s e n 1980). D a v i e s (1974) c i t e s s e v e r a l e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s showing t h a t f r e e e n t e r p r i s e s t a t e a l l o c a t i o n f o r c o l l e c t i v e consumption has l a g g e d f a r b e h i n d s t a t e a l l o c a t i o n f o r c o r p o r a t e p r o d u c t i o n . The p o l i c y and v a l u e s of the p r o v i n c i a l s t a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia appears c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t of o t h e r governments i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . The p r o v i n c e f a c i l i t a t e s development of SRMCs t o a s s i s t c o r p o r a t i o n s i n development of new m i n i n g e n t e r p r i s e s , i n c r e a s i n g economic growth and the government's o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e - e l e c t i o n . However above a l l , t h i s development r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s e d c o r p o r a t e c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . THE CORPORATE/GOVERNMENT ALLIANCE AND LEGITIMIZING IDEOLOGY In B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h the s h o r t time h o r i z o n of an e l e c t o r a l p e r i o d , a t most, f i v e y e a r s l o n g , "the r o l e of the e x p e r t s i n the a d m i n s t r a t i o n i s degraded". "The major r e s o u r c e - u s i n g p r e s s u r e groups v i e f o r i n f l u e n c e i n s t e a d " ( H a l v e r s e n 1 9 8 0 : p . l 6 ) . The most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e - u s i n g p r e s s u r e groups a r e , of c o u r s e , o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s , and t o a l e s s e r degree o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r . Gunton (1980:p.l0) s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i n f l u e n c e , " p r o v i d e s e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d f i r m s w i t h s u f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l power t o f o r c e p r o v i n c i a l governments t o 77 implement p o l i c i e s such as s e l l i n g p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s below market v a l u e and p r o v i d i n g i n d i r e c t s u b s i d i e s t h r o u g h the p r o v i s i o n of cheap energy or i n f r a s t r u c t u r e " . As a r e s u l t of the need t o m a i n t a i n power and the e f f e c t of p r e s s u r e group i n f l u e n c e , c a b i n e t p o l i c y development i s l i k e l y t o a r i s e i n t h r e e a r e a s o n l y : (1) p o l i c i e s t h a t r e s u l t i n p r o d u c t i o n of s t a r t l i n g economic g a i n s ; (2) t h o s e t h a t may produce b e n e f i t s f o r the " l i t t l e p e o p l e " or the e l e c t o r a t e as a whole; and (3) "those t h a t must be changed t o m a i n t a i n or improve B r i t i s h Columbia's p o s i t i o n on w o r l d markets" ( H a l v e r s e n 1 9 8 0 : p . l 6 , q u o t i n g B l a c k 1979). For a p o l i c y t o a c c o m p l i s h any of the above t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s when the government i s i n f l u e n c e d by d i s t i n c t p r e s s u r e - g r o u p s of o r g a n i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s , the p r o v i n c e must c o n t i n u a l l y c r e a t e a s t a b l e environment i n which i n d i v i d u a l c o r p o r a t i o n s can maximize p r o f i t s . The p r o v i n c i a l government can seldom c o n t r o l c o r p o r a t e development i n a p o s i t i v e f a s h i o n , i t can o n l y attempt t o d i r e c t c o r p o r a t e investment by the use of i n c e n t i v e s and r e g u l a t i o n s a c c e p t a b l e t o the c o r p o r a t e s e c t o r ( H o l l a n d 1979). The s t a t e can i n f r e q u e n t l y be a n e u t r a l s t r u c t u r e , as i t s v e r y c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e depends on a s s i s t i n g c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s t o m a i n t a i n ongoing c o n d i t i o n s t o p e r p e t u a t e p r o f i t making and g i v e the appearance of i n c r e a s e d t e r r i t o r i a l w e a l t h ( D a v i e s 1974, Kraushaar and G a r d e l s 1981). I f the p r o v i n c e does not m a i n t a i n these c o n d i t i o n s the s h o r t term r e a l i t y may be a l a c k of m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e i n v e s t m e n t r e s u l t i n g i n : (1) major 78 s h o r t term economic l o s s , (2) b e n e f i t s t o the e l e c t o r a t e as a whole d e c r e a s i n g i n the s h o r t term, and (3) B r i t i s h Columbia's p o s i t i o n on w o r l d markets d e c r e a s i n g as t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s would be d i s i n c l i n e d t o i n v e s t i n an " u n s t a b l e " a r e a . T h i s would p r o b a b l y r e s u l t i n a l o s s of power f o r the government ( D a r n e t t e and Poncet 1980). In the r e s u l t a n t c o r p o r a t e / s t a t e a l l i a n c e the s t a t e a c t s "as a c r e a t o r of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and a l e g i t i m a t o r of c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t y . L e g i t i m a t i o n c o n s i s t s of the p r o v i s i o n of the laws and s o c i a l and economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which f a c i l i t a t e c o r p o r a t e growth, e s p e c i a l l y i n those s e c t o r s of the economy which depend upon l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s as the means or mechanism of economic growth" (Bradbury 1 9 7 9 : p . l 4 9 ) . I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s r e l a t e t o the p r o v i n c i a l government as an i n s t i t u t i o n t o be m a n i p u l a t e d i n o r d e r t o maximize p r o f i t . "In g e n e r a l terms, t h e s e companies have had two b a s i c aims i n t h e i r ongoing r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h government, t o p r e s e r v e f o r t hemselves the maximum p o s s i b l e degree of autonomy w i t h i n which t o pursue t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and t o o b t a i n the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t from the s t a t e t h rough e i t h e r p r e f e r e n t i a l tax t r e a t m e n t or s u b s i d i e s " (Payne 1980:p.41). Jensen (1980) i d e n t i f i e s s i x f u n c t i o n s t h a t the s t a t e i s o f t e n f o r c e d t o f u l f i l l due t o the p r e s s u r e of the a g g r e g a t e i n f l u e n c e s of o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s . One, the s t a t e i s bound t o m a i n t a i n and assume f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , such, as r a i l w a y s , used p o t e n t i a l l y by more than one c o r p o r a t i o n . Two, 79 the s t a t e i s o b l i g e d t o m a i n t a i n r e g u l a t i o n of the e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , so t h a t a) e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage a r i s i n g from one c o r p o r a t e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e r cannot a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of o t h e r c o r p o r a t i o n s ; b) the s t a t e f u r t h e r s the i n t e r e s t s of c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s i n g e n e r a l by r e g u l a t i n g p r o f i t a b l e a c c e s s t o e x p l o i t a t i o n of raw m a t e r i a l . Three, the s t a t e i s o f t e n r e q u i r e d t o ens'ure the e x i s t e n c e of s u f f i c i e n t and a p p r o p r i a t e l y t r a i n e d l a b o u r power i n the r e q u i r e d s e c t o r s and t e r r i t o r i a l space. F o u r , the s t a t e i s bound t o p r o t e c t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y and a l l o w p r o f i t a b l e p r o d u c t i o n . F i v e , the s t a t e o f t e n has no c h o i c e but t o pursue an e x t r a - p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y which f u r t h e r s the i n t e r e s t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , e.g., A l b e r t a ' s or B r i t i s h Columbia's c o r p o r a t e energy p o l i c y v e r s u s E a s t e r n Canadian m a n u f a c t u r i n g p o l i c y . And s i x , the s t a t e i s o f t e n c o m p e l l e d t o i n t e r v e n e when c r i s i s t h r e a t e n s the c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e and thus i t attem p t s t o implement economic s t a b i l i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s . These s i x f u n c t i o n s of the s t a t e under t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e i n f l u e n c e have a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on government p o l i c y f o r SRMCs. The p r o v i n c i a l government i s o f t e n f o r c e d i n t o a c l e a r a l l i a n c e w i t h m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . Yet the a l l i a n c e i s not w i t h any one s p e c i f i c c o r p o r a t i o n a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , r a t h e r t h i s a l l i a n c e i s a t t h e aggregate t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l ( L i p i e t z 1980). The u l t i m a t e g o a l of the s t a t e i s i t s own c o n t i n u i t y i n power: the r e s u l t a n t p o l i c i e s 80 the s t a t e must pursue f o r SRMCs i n c l u d e c r e a t i n g a town c o n t a i n i n g s t a b l e , i n e x p e n s i v e l a b o u r f o r the e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the appearance of c o n s t r u c t i n g the town t o meet the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the town's f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s . T h i s encourages maximum v o t e s f o r the government at the p r o v i n c e - w i d e l e v e l -- as l o n g as the mythology t h a t p r o v i n c i a l economic "growth" i s synonymous w i t h i n d i v i d u a l economic i n c r e a s e , p r e d o m i n a t e s . T h i s n o t i o n of the "common good" i s used t o l e g i t i m i z e the s t a t e / c o r p o r a t e a l l i a n c e . Gone a r e the c l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l d o c t r i n e s of pure i n d i v i d u a l i s m , l e g i t i m i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , the r i g h t t o be a G e t t y or a R o c k e f e l l e r . W h i l e the c u r r e n t i d e o l o g y m i s r e p r e s e n t s the w o r k i n g s of the market -- t o g i v e an appearance of c o m p e t i t i v e p r o f i t making companies b a t t l i n g f o r t h e i r share of the market ( H o l l a n d 1979) -- i t a l s o l e g i t i m i z e s "the c o n c e p t s of demand management, s t a t e s u b s i d i e s and l i m i t e d government ownership" (Weaver 1 9 8 0 : p . l 7 ) . W i t h an economic base of t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e a c c u m u l a t i o n , the l a t e l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y s u p p o r t s c o l l e c t i v i s m and c o - o p e r a t i o n . " T h i s i s so because c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l assumes a s o c i e t a l or g l o b a l c h a r a c t e r encompassing both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s and p romoting them as u n i v e r s a l i n t e r e s t s " ( M e l l o s 1 9 8 0 : p . l l 2 ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n between the c o r p o r a t e and s t a t e spheres — "the economic i n t e r e s t of the p r i v a t e a p p r o p r i a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l and the p u b l i c i n t e r s t of community w e l l b e i n g " — no l o n g e r e x i s t ( i b i d ) . The i l l u s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y g i v e n t h a t the p u b l i c 81 i n t e r e s t has taken over the p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t f o r the common g o o d 3 . The c o s t s of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n v e s t m e n t s f o r r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n a r e i n i t i a l l y borne by the p r o v i n c e , w o r k i n g i n the name of the common i n t e r e s t s of the e l e c t o r a t e . These c o s t s a r e p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t by t a x a t i o n of the e x t r a c t i o n company and the r e s t made up by the t a x a t i o n of l a b o u r ( S k a b u r s k i s 1980). However, the n a t u r e of the a l l i a n c e between the s t a t e and c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l share of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i nvestment f o r p u b l i c w e l l - b e i n g (Carney 1980). "The s t a t e appears a l s o t o spend the minimum of s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e d t o a c t u a l l y r e t a i n the l a b o u r f o r c e , t o reproduce and keep i t q u i e t " ( D a v i e s 1974:p.9). The s t a t e a t t e m p t s t o f i n d the e q u a t i o n g i v i n g maximum s t a b i l i t y of l a b o u r a t lowe s t s t a t e c o s t , so as to ensure minimum t a x e s and r e s u l t a n t m i n i m a l i n d i r e c t l a b o u r c o s t s t o the company. " R e g i o n a l p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s must be such t h a t they do not c o n t r a d i c t the r e q u i r e m e n t s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . . . The burden of t a x a t i o n must not be i n c r e a s e d t o the p o i n t a t which i t t h r e a t e n s p r o f i t a b i l i t y of p r i v a t e c a p i t a l " (Jenson 1 9 8 0 : p . l 0 ) . Thus the c o r p o r a t e / s t a t e a l l i a n c e , e v o l v e d over t i m e , l o c k s p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y making, i n t o a s i t u a t i o n where p o l i c y must g e n e r a l l y a s s i s t f o r e i g n c o r p o r a t i o n s ' e x p l o i t a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y must r e p e a t e d l y m i n i m i z e l a b o u r c o s t s , d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , f o r th e s e companies at the expense of the m a j o r i t y of the 82 r e s i d e n t s of B r i t i s h C olumbia. F u r t h e r m o r e , p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y commonly has t o attempt t o c o n c e a l t h i s i n h e r e n t l y u n s e t t l i n g s i t u a t i o n . To do o t h e r w i s e would r e s u l t i n a l o s s of e l e c t o r a l power f o r the government. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y i s shaped and i n t e r - l o c k e d j u s t as i t s i d e o l o g y i s shaped and i n t e r - l o c k e d , by the economic base of t r a n s n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s m . 83 Notes 1. K a i s e r R e sources, the l a r g e s t c o a l e x p o r t e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia, i s p r e s e n t l y c o n t r o l l e d by the B r i t i s h Columbian Resource Investment C o r p o r a t i o n (BCRIC), a Crown C o r p o r a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l government. However d a i l y management of t h e company i s under a company c o n t r o l l e d by K a i s e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l . O r i g i n a l l y , c o a l r i g h t s on K a i s e r ' s p r o p e r t i e s were g i v e n t o Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s g r a t i s by the p r o v i n c i a l government. K a i s e r a c q u i r e d t h e s e r i g h t s i n the l a t e 1960's. In 1980 BCRIC r e a c q u i r e d these p r o p e r t i e s by p u r c h a s i n g K a i s e r f o r the sum of a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e hundred m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 2. C o n c e i v a b l y t h i s group of r u r a l l y s o c i a l i z e d Canadians i s d e c r e a s i n g w i t h the impact of mass media, t e l e s t a r , and the l i k e , i n r u r a l c ommunities. Markusen (1978b) r a i s e d t h i s i s s u e i n the U.S. 3. Among the b e t t e r examples of concealment of such by the emerging l a t e l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y -- p r i v a t e p l a n n i n g by t r a n s n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l r e p r e s e n t e d under the mantle of u n i v e r s a l i n t e r e s t s -- a r e the C l u b of Rome r e p o r t s (Meadows e t a l 1972, M e s a r o v i c and P e s t e l 1974, Tanberger 1976). T h e i r d o c t r i n e of g e n e r a l s a c r i f i c e and g l o b a l p l a n n i n g f o r the  u n i v e r s a l good was p o i n t e d out by Friedmann and Weaver (1979) t o be u n d e r w r i t t e n by t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s t o f u r t h e r t h e i r c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s . 84 V I . SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITIES AND THE SOCIETAL FRAMEWORK: THE CONTRADICTIONS OF COMMUNITY STABILITY SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITY PLANNING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  SINCE THE 1965 INSTANT TOWN ACT In B r i t i s h Columbia the p r o v i n c i a l government i s h a b i t u a l l y l o c k e d i n t o i t s a l l i a n c e w i t h m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities. The p r o v i n c e has f i l l e d the ' w e l f a r e -s t a t e ' r o l e and has become r e s p o n s i b l e f o r development of community w e l l b e i n g i n SRMCs. T h i s p r o v i n c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t r e s o l v e s the b l a t a n t p a t e r n a l i s t i c problems of d i r e c t c o r p o r a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n . company towns, promoting d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and h i g h t u r n o v e r which r e s u l t i n h i g h p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s f o r c a p i t a l (Queen's 1953, Bradbury 1980). In f i l l i n g the s t a t e p o l i c y of a s s i s t i n g c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n , the p r o v i n c e e n a c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n e n a b l i n g SRMCs t o f u n c t i o n from t h e i r e a r l i e s t s t a g e s as "autonomous" m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . As b r i e f l y mentioned e a r l i e r , t he I n s t a n t Town Act (1965) f a c i l i t a t e d i n c o r p o r a t i o n of new SRMCs and a l l o w e d e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t of the SRMCs' r e s i d e n t s . L o c a l r e s i d e n t s became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r much of t h e i r own c o l l e c t i v e c onsumption, such as i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e government became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the r e s i d e n t s , r a t h e r than t h a t of the e x t r a c t i o n companies, a t l e a s t t h i s was. the message the 85 a c t conveyed. P o r t (1972) and o t h e r s , however, have documented the r e a l i t y of c o n t i n u i n g c o r p o r a t e d o m i n a t i o n of l o c a l government i n both new and mature B r i t i s h Columbian s i n g l e r e s o u r c e communities. There i s no s p e c i f i c New Towns L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. The 1965 I n s t a n t Town Act amended the then e x i s t i n g M u n i c i p a l A c t t o . a l l o w t h e c r e a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n . The r e l e v e n t s e c t i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l A c t ( B r i t i s h Columbia 1979) a r e as f o l l o w s : I n c o r p o r a t i o n : n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e development 9. (1) N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g s e c t i o n s 6 and 7, where, i n the o p i n i o n of the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l , i t i s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t o e s t a b l i s h a m u n i c i p a l i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the development of a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e , the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l may, by l e t t e r s p a t e n t , i n c o r p o r a t e the r e s i d e n t s of a r u r a l a r e a i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y on .the r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n from a t l e a s t 5 r e s i d e n t s i n the a r e a of the proposed m u n i c i p a l i t y . (2) U n t i l the f i r s t c o u n c i l i s e l e c t e d or 5 y e a r s from the date of i n c o r p o r a t i o n , whichever i s l a t e r , a m u n i c i p a l i t y i n c o r p o r a t e d under t h i s s e c t i o n i s deemed t o be a v i l l a g e f o r the purposes of s e c t i o n s 306 (2) and 307. (3) The C o u n c i l of a m u n i c i p a l i t y i n c o r p o r a t e d under t h i s s e c t i o n may p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r employees of the m u n i c i p a l i t y and may i n c u r l i a b i l i t i e s f o r i t on terms and c o n d i t i o n s approved by the i n s p e c t o r , but no o b l i g a t i o n i n c u r r e d f o r t h i s purpose s h a l l exceed a term of 5 y e a r s . (4) When a m u n i c i p a l i t y i s , or has been, e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s s e c t i o n , the Sur v e y o r G e n e r a l s h a l l , as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e , e s t a b l i s h s u f f i c e n t c o - o r d i n a t e c o n t r o l monuments t o enable the a r e a , or p o r t i o n of i t , t o be c o n s t i t u t e d an i n t e g r a t e d s u r v ey a r e a under P a r t 3 of the Land Survey A c t , and, on c o m p l e t i o n of t h e r e q u i r e d s u r v e y , he s h a l l so c o n s t i t u t e the a r e a or p o r t i o n . T h e r e a f t e r the m u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and maintenance of the c o - o r d i n a t e c o n t r o l monuments. L e t t e r s p a t e n t 13. (1) L e t t e r s p a t e n t i n c o r p o r a t i n g a m u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l s p e c i f y the (a) m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s name, b o u n d a r i e s , a r e a and c l a s s ; (b) q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r membership on the f i r s t c o u n c i l and f o r the v o t e r s a t the f i r s t e l e c t i o n ; (c) t ime and manner of e l e c t i n g t h e f i r s t c o u n c i l ; (d) terms of o f f i c e f o r f i r s t c o u n c i l members; (e) r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r , or p r o v i s i o n t o a p p o i n t him, at t h e f i r s t e l e c t i o n . (2) The l e t t e r s p a t e n t may s p e c i f y (a) p o l l i n g p l a c e s a t the f i r s t e l e c t i o n ; (b) t h a t the r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r s h a l l determine the day, time and p l a c e of the c o u n c i l ' s f i r s t m e e t i n g ; (c) the sum of money which may be borrowed f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s c u r r e n t e x p e n d i t u r e i n the f i r s t y e a r , and f o r the next y e a r , i f deemed e x p e d i e n t ; (d) d a t e s which may be obser v e d i n i t i a l l y , and once o n l y , i n p l a c e of s t a t u t o r y d a t e s ; (e) o t h e r m a t t e r s and c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the appointment of an i n t e r i m c o u n c i l , deemed p r o p e r o r n e c e s s a r y by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l . ( f ) p r o v i s i o n f o r the t r a n s f e r t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y of any a s s e t , r i g h t , c l a i m , o b l i g a t i o n or l i a b i l i t y of a m u n i c i p a l i t y d i s s o l v e d on i n c o r p o r a t i o n . (3) The l e t t e r s p a t e n t under s e c t i o n 9 or 10 may (a) i n c l u d e e x c e p t i o n s from s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s ; (b) s p e c i f y the e f f e c t i v e p e r i o d o r time f o r an except i o n ; (c) p r o v i d e f o r r e s t r i c t i o n , m o d i f i c a t i o n or annulment by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l of an e x c e p t i o n or i t s e f f e c t i v e p e r i o d . (4) Where a m u n i c i p a l i t y has been i n c o r p o r a t e d under s e c t i o n 9, the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l , on the recommendation of the m i n i s t e r , may by supplementary l e t t e r s p a t e n t p r o v i d e f o r f u r t h e r e x c e p t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s . E f f e c t i v e date of bylaw 306. (1) A bylaw adopted by the c o u n c i l of a c i t y , town or d i s t r i c t i s i n f o r c e from the d a t e of the a d o p t i o n or from a subsequent date f i x e d by the bylaw. (2) A bylaw adopted by the c o u n c i l of a v i l l a g e i s i n f o r c e from the date of i t s r e g i s t r a t i o n w i t h the i n s p e c t o r or from a subsequent date f i x e d by the bylaw. R e g i s t r a t i o n of v i l l a g e bylaws 87 307. A t r u e copy of a bylaw adopted by the c o u n c i l of a v i l l a g e s i g n e d by the mayor or member p r e s i d i n g a t the meeting at which the bylaw was a dopted, and by the c l e r k , s e a l e d w i t h the s e a l of the v i l l a g e and c e r t i f i e d t o be a t r u e copy by the c l e r k , s h a l l be d e p o s i t e d f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n w i t h the i n s p e c t o r , who may r e g i s t e r or r e f u s e t o r e g i s t e r the bylaw, or t a k e any o t h e r a c t i o n he c o n s i d e r s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . W i t h t h i s l e g i s l a t e d a u t h o r i t y the p r o v i n c i a l government has complete freedom as t o development s t a n d a r d s and d e s i g n f o r new SRMCs. U n t i l f i v e y e a r s from the date of i n c o r p o r a t i o n or a d u l y e l e c t e d c o u n c i l i s i n p l a c e , a new s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community i s c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government. In the i n c o r p o r a t i n g l e t t e r s p a t e n t the p r o v i n c e has the r i g h t t o change s t a t u t a r y p r o v i s i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l  Act a t i n c o r p o r a t i o n or a t any o t h e r time i n the l i f e of the community, ad i n f i n i t u m . In B r i t i s h Columbia SRMCs ar e no l o n g e r company towns, they have the p o t e n t i a l t o be f i e f s of the p r o v i n c i a l government, a c t i n g i n the i n t e r e s t s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s , r e s t r i c t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by more s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n than o t h e r t y p e s of i n c o r p o r a t e d c o mmunities, a l l o w i n g d i r e c t p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l , a t the whim  of the C a b i n e t . W i t h the change t o d i r e c t p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n came the need f o r p r o v i n c i a l l y sponsored p l a n n i n g . P l a n n i n g i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s r e f l e c t i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s of f o r c e s i n s o c i e t y . For C a s t e l l s (1978) p l a n n i n g s e r v e s two f u n c t i o n s : (1) n e g o t i a t i n g p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t between dominant groups; and ( 2 ) , l e g i t i m i z a t i o n of the a c c e p t e d p o l i t i c a l outcome of the n e g o t i a t i o n s . In a f r e e e n t e r p r i s e economy p l a n n i n g o f t e n 88 f a c i l i t a t e s a c c u m u l a t i o n b oth i d e o l o g i c a l l y and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y : "at the i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l i n terms of the r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n - l e g i t i m i z a t i o n of s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r ough p l a n n i n g documents; a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , as a p r i v e l e g e d i n s t r u m e n t of n e g o t i a t i o n and m e d i a t i o n which a l l groups p r e s e n t {dominant a c t o r s — s t a t e and c a p i t a l } attempt t o a p p r o p r i a t e i n o r d e r t o v e s t themselves w i t h a s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l n e u t r a l i t y " ( C a s t e l l s 1978:p.86). S t a t e p l a n n i n g a s s i s t s h i n t e r l a n d development t o a l l o w c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n i n p e r i p h e r a l r e g i o n s , a t the same time masking i n e q u a l i t i e s c r e a t e d i n t h e s e r e g i o n s by development (Davies 1974). The l e g i t i m i z i n g b e l i e f "of the p l a n n e r s , and a l l o t h e r s who manufacture i t -- p o l i t i c i a n s , t r a d e u n i o n i s t s , and the companies themselves — i s t h a t r e c e i v i n g a r e a s w i l l be saved from d e c l i n e or from underdevelopment", even though t h i s b e l i e f l a c k s c l e a r s c i e n t i f i c s u p port ( i b i d : p . l 4 ) . For p e r i p h e r a l r e g i o n s "the s t a t e ' s r o l e as i d e o l o g y c r e a t o r , and as a d i s g u i s h e r of b oth the r e a l i t y of i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n as an e n a b l e r and of t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r y , i s most f u l l y worked out t h r o u g h the a g e n c i e s concerned w i t h s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g " ( i b i d : p . l 5 ) . In B r i t i s h Columbia the major agency i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r SRMCs i s the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Paget and Rabnett (1 9 8 0 : p . l ) w r i t e , "The P r o v i n c e and the M i n i s t r y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e t t l e m e n t p l a n n i n g -- M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s — have t o be i n v o l v e d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n r e s o u r c e development communities than i t would i n d e a l i n g w i t h normal communities". S u l l a m e t a_l (1978) i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e t y p e s of p l a n n i n g 89 p r o c e s s e s f o r new and e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e communities. The f i r s t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g and the p r o c e s s p r a c t i s e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government up u n t i l the e a r l y 1970s, i s r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g . T h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s attempted t o a c h i e v e r e g u l a t i o n of SRMCs by the p r o v i n c i a l government th r o u g h the d e s i g n of the i n c o r p o r a t i n g l e t t e r s of p a t e n t of a new community, c o u p l e d w i t h an i n c r e m e n t a l response t o l a t e r impacts (Paget and Rabnett 1980). S u l l a m e t a l (1978) arque t h a t t h i s form of p l a n n i n g b a s i c a l l y s e r v e s the e x t r a c t i o n companies a t the expense of p r e s e n t and f u t u r e SRMC r e s i d e n t s . T h i s p r o c e s s o n l y becomes aware of a problem, such as a l a c k of h o u s i n g f o r the s e r v i c e s e c t o r , a f t e r i t s impact has c r e a t e d measurable damage. R e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g , b e i n g a form of i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g , tends t o be n e a r s i g h t e d . At E l l i o t Lake r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g f a i l e d t o even c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t ore c o n t r a c t s might not be renewed. T h i s l a c k of f o r e - s i g h t r e s u l t e d i n thousands of r e s i d e n t s l o s i n g t h e i r l i f e t i m e i n v e s t m e n t s (Robinson 1962). Pag/iet and Rabnett (1980), w r i t i n g f o r M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , acknowledge the f a i l u r e of t h i s type of p l a n n i n g , n o t i n g i t f a i l e d t o a l l e v i a t e the "company town sydrome". The second s t y l e of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d by S u l l a m et a l (1978) and i m p l i c i t l y by C a s t e l l s (1978) and D a v i e s (1974), i s compensating p l a n n i n g . T h i s i s the p r o c e s s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g p r a c t i c e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government, f a c i l i t e d by the M u n i c i p a l Act , and i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the p l a n n i n g documents p r e p a r e d f o r Tumbler R i d g e . T h i s form of 90 p l a n n i n g p e r c e i v e s the problem of r e s o u r c e community d e s i g n and growth as one of r i s k and adv o c a t e s a d j u s t m e n t s t o growth by p r o v i d i n g i n s u r a n c e through pre-growth n e g o t i a t i o n s Fundamental t o t h i s p r o c e s s i s the b e l i e f on the p a r t of the s t a t e , t h a t l o c a l and f u t u r e community r e s i d e n t s do not have the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n or r e s o u r c e s t o n e g o t i a t e f a i r l y w i t h the r e s o u r c e company; they may not even be aware of the new r e s o u r c e community i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s t a g e . T h e r e f o r e the s t a t e must r e p r e s e n t SRMC r e s i d e n t s i n development n e g o t i a t i o n s . Bradbury (1980) notes t h a t l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s by r e s o u r c e companies, except when i t p r o f i t s the company. E n v i r o m e n t a l , economic and s o c i a l impact assessments a re the l e g i t i m i z i n g t o o l s of the t r a d e f o r compensating p l a n n i n g . In t h e o r y the s t a t e r e p r e s e n t s i t s own i n t e r e s t s , as w e l l as the i n t e r e s t s of the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e SRMC r e s i d e n t s . In a c t u a l i t y the p r o v i n c i a l government may o n l y l o o k s a f t e r t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s a t the p r o v i n c i a l macro-l e v e l of a g g r e g a t i o n , t h r o u g h p r o v i d i n g i d e o l o g i c a l l y v a l u e d "growth", a t the expense of the i n t e r e s t s of the popu l a c e of a d i s a g g r e g a t e d m i c r o - a r e a of the impacted r e g i o n the p r o v i n c e i s s u pposedly r e p r e s e n t i n g i n n e g o t i a t i o n s (Markusen 1978a, S a l i s b u r y 1974). The t h i r d type of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s p o s s i b l e f o r SRMCs i s t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g ( S u l l a m e t a l 1978). T h i s p r o c e s s d r a m a t i c a l l y changes the p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t . ' T e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g i s based on the l o c a l community and i s not imposed by the s t a t e t o serv e the s t a t e ' s a g g r e g a t e i n t e r e s t s ; r a t h e r , 91 t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g s e r v e s the lo n g - r a n g e i n t e r e s t s of the community's members. T h i s t ype of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s not p r a c t i s e d i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. T e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g i s concerned w i t h the o r i g i n a l and f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of a SRMC, t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g y , economic l i n k a g e s , l i f e s t y l e and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s . T h i s form of p l a n n i n g t a k e s a l o n g e r range view, comparing p o t e n t i a l development approaches, w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g s o c i o -economic framework t o a c h i e v e the most d e s i r a b l e g l o b a l outcome f o r a community's r e s i d e n t s ( H i l h o r s t 1979). As such i t i n h e r e n t l y c o n t a i n s Utopian c o n c e p t s u n e x c e p t a b l e t o the dominant groups i n our s o c i e t y . However, i t i s e x p l i c i t l y c o g n i t i v e of the s i t e s p e c i f i c q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the community (Weaver 1980), and thus i s ' i n h e r e n t l y more e f f e c t i v e f o r i m p r o v i n g SRMC l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h l o c a l i z e d s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n -- t y p i c a l l y a t the expense of ef f i c e n t c o r p o r a t e c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . THE FAILURE OF SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITY SELF- DETERMINATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Two, community s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s a key c r i t e r i a f o r community s t a b i l i t y . For community r e s i d e n t s t o engage i n l o c a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n a number of c o n d i t i o n s must g e n e r a l l y be p r e s e n t (Wichern e t a_l 1971). One, a s t a b l e c o r e p o p u l a t i o n must e x i s t i n the SRMC. Bradbury (.1980) argues t h i s development of a c o r e p o p u l a t i o n i s a b a s i c 92 p l a n n i n g g o a l f o r SRMC development i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, and was a b a s i c i n t e n t of the 1965 amendments t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t , meant t o promote home ownership. Two, t h i s c o r e group must have a c c e s s t o l o c a l government. The 1965 amendments f a c i l i t a t e f o r m a t i o n of l o c a l government t h r o u g h i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the SRMC. Three, the co r e group of community r e s i d e n t s must p e r c e i v e a lon g - t e r m f u t u r e i n the SRMC. And f o u r , l o c a l government must be p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t powers of c o n t r o l f o r the community. The f i r s t two c o n d i t i o n s a r e f a c i l i t a t e d by p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements i n B r i t i s h Columbia. However the l a t t e r two c o n d i t i o n s a r e u n l i k e l y t o be met s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a SRMC. Wi t h an i n d u c e d , s t a b l e c o r e , v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s e v o l v e and an i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l c o n t r o l may come about (Wichern e t a_l 1971). But what of the c r i t e r i a of "a p e r c e i v e d l o n g term f u t u r e " , i n a community where t h e r e i s o n l y one major i n d u s t r y based on an e x h a u s t a b l e  r e s o u r c e , s o l d i n a c y c l i c g l o b a l economy? L o c a l s e l f - c o n t r o l t hrough l o c a l government i s impotent t o d e a l w i t h exogenous i n f l u e n c e s on the community, such as t h e w o r l d b u s i n e s s c y c l e , or t e c h n i c a l change d e s t r o y i n g the economic v a l u e of the community's s i n g l e r e s o u r c e . I g n o r i n g a l l . o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t o attempt t o induce a s t a b l e c o r e p o p u l a t i o n , c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l o c a l government — t o c r e a t e a s t a b l e community — may be i n e f f e c t i v e i n a SRMC w i t h a p e r c e i v e d s h o r t - t e r m l e a s e on l i f e , i . e . , the mine may c l o s e i n a few y e a r s . 93 Without l o c a l c o n t r o l of employment, promoting a d i v e r s i f i e d , s t a b l e economic base (a "growth c e n t r e " , or " h i n t e r - p o l i t a n " r e g i o n p e r h a p s ) , s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g towns w i t h f i n i t e employment h o r i z o n s may never be s t a b l e communities. Under the p r e s e n t g l o b a l economic system, where f o o t l o o s e c o r p o r a t i o n s l o c a t e f o r maximum p r o f i t , a d i v e r s i f i e d economic base i s a l l but i m p o s s i b l e i n i s o l a t e d s i n g l e - s t a p l e communities under our p r e s e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements. In t h i s environment h i g h community and employment t u r n o v e r , i n v o l v i n g non-trapped u r b a n i z e d r e s i d e n t s , i s a r e s u l t of more or l e s s r a t i o n a l r e sponses by i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e both a h i g h e r and more s t a b l e q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . A b e l i e f system f o s t e r i n g p e r c e i v e d l o c a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i l l o n l y promote s t a b i l i t y i n communities c o n f i d e n t of l o n g term employment s e c u r i t y , a l l o w i n g the community t o remain as "home" f o r i t s r e s i d e n t s f o r the f o r s e e a b l e f u t u r e . Few SRMCs i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e l i k e l y t o promote t h i s c o n f i d e n c e , as t e s t i f i e d by t h e i r h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e s ( B a n c r o f t 1975). The p r o v i n c i a l government's p o l i c y r e i n f o r c e s the b e l i e f t h a t d e m o c r a t i c c o - o p e r a t i o n of SRMC r e s i d e n t s can r e s u l t i n m i t i g a t i o n of many of ) t h e problems i n SRMCs, i n c l u d i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n s t a b i l i t y . Yet the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s a r e c l e a r l y impotent t o d e a l w i t h mine c l o s u r e and l o s s of employment due t o chan g i n g w o r l d markets or i n t e r n a t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l d e c i s i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , SRMC governments a r e r e s t r i c t e d by the M u n i c i p a l A c t t o l e s s s e l f -94 d e t e r m i n a t i o n than o t h e r B r i t i s h Columbian communities. Indeed the economic and i n s t i t u t i o n a l environments of a SRMC have a l r e a d y been n e g o t i a t e d by the p r o v i n c e t h r o u g h a compensating p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t community c o n c e p t i o n . The l e t t e r s of p a t e n t i n c o r p o r a t i n g a SRMC a r e d e f i n e d e x t e r n a l l y t o the community and can be changed a t the whim of the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e n t , more e a s i l y than o t h e r non-resource communities. L o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n r e s o u r c e towns i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e c e i v i n g e x t e r n a l f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l f o r p u b l i c works (Bradbury 1979, 1980). In t h i s environment u n f u l f i l l e d . r e s i d e n t a s p i r a t i o n s and demands, i n t e n s i f i e d by exposure t o v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( K e r r i 1971) and an i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e of d e m o c r a t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , may l e a d t o a l i e n a t i o n and apathy. A s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community can seldom be a s t a b l e community a c c o r d i n g t o the d e f i n i t i o n d e f i n e d by t h i s t h e s i s , as SRMCs are c r i t i c a l l y dependent on o u t s i d e c o n t r o l s . SRMCs a r e not r e s i l e n t t o e x t e r n a l changes i n demand f o r t h e i r s t a p l e p r o d u c t , or t o new c o r p o r a t e or h i g h e r government p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . Nor a r e SRMCs a d a p t i v e (due t o t h e i r dominant r a i s o n d' e t r e — t o h o u s i n g mine workers) t o p e r c e i v e d advantageous change. As a r e s u l t , s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e s e communities a r e seldom l o c a l l y i n i t i a t e d . L i m i t e d l o c a l government, due t o community a p a t h y , i s r o u t i n e l y run i n d i r e c t l y i n the i n t e r e s t of the e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n ; which i s a l s o u s u a l l y the major r a t e payer ( P o r t 1972, Lucas 1971). L u c a s ' s (1971) t h i r d s t age of. community 95 e v o l u t i o n , s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i s not a p o i n t a t which s t a b i l i t y i s reached f o r the s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g community; t r u e , the community may have l o c a l government, but t h i s government i s dominated by p r e - n e g o t i a t e d c o n s t r a i n t s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r a c t s and l e t t e r s of i n c o r p o r a t i o n and o f t e n e c o n o m i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by o u t s i d e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . PROBLEMS OF COLLECTIVE CONSUMPTION: UNEVEN ALLOCATION AND  IDEOLGICAL EQUALITY As a r e s u l t of i n e f f e c t i v e l o c a l government and a p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e system o f t e n u n r e s p o n s i v e t o the demands of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s " s i t t i n g on the back-benches", SRMCs a r e u n c o m p e t i t i v e i n f i g h t i n g f o r the i n d i r e c t wages of c o l l e c t i v e consumption due t h e i r p r e d o m i n a t e l y w o r k i n g - c l a s s r e s i d e n t s ( B l a c k 1979). P e r i p h e r a l r e g i o n s , such as a r e a s o c c u p i e d by SRMCs, l a c k p o l i t i c a l c l o u t t o compete w i t h l a r g e urban a r e a s f o r p u b l i c goods and s e r v i c e s ( D a v i e s 1974). C a s t e l l s (1978:p.l69) argues t h a t the i n d i r e c t wage of c o l l e c t i v e consumption i s a r e s u l t of p o l i t i c a l and t r a d e u nion s t r u g g l e , as l a b o u r " a c q u i r e d s t r e n g t h and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n advanced c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , the d i r e c t wage r e c e i v e d by employees has i n c r e a s i n g l y been supplemented by an i n d i r e c t wage, s o c i a l l y l e v i e d , and by c o l l e c t i v e goods and s e r v i c e s which o f t e n become more i m p o r t a n t f o r the p o p u l a r l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s than the nominal amount of d i r e c t wages." Due t o s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s of p r e d o m i n a t e l y w o r k i n g c l a s s SRMCs 96 and t e r r i t o r i a l under-development i n the h i n t e r l a n d , t h e s e communities a re l e a s t c a p a b l e of competing f o r t h i s c o l l e c t i v e consumption i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s i n e q u a l i t y of i n d i r e c t wages i s compounded by the c o r p o r a t e i n f l u e n c e on government a t t e m p t i n g t o m i n i m i z e t a x a t i o n c o s t s f o r e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s , where i t i s o f t e n i n the company's i n t e r e s t as a major r a t e payer t o m i n i m i z e s o c i a l s e r v i c e c o s t s , as w e l l as the f r e q u e n t c o r p o r a t e d o m i n a t i n g of l o c a l government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . Many problems i n SRMCs a r e problems of uneven c o l l e c t i v e c onsumption. By d e f i n i t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e consumption as an i n d i r e c t wage, r e s o l u t i o n of h o u s i n g , f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e problems i n SRMCs cannot o c c u r w i t h o u t e v e n t u a l i n c r e a s e d c o r p o r a t e c o s t s . These c o s t s , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , would d e t r a c t from c o r p o r a t e p r o f i t s . Problems of t u r n o v e r i n SRMCs c o u l d be d e c r e a s e d by i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of c o l l e c t i v e c o nsumption, i m p r o v i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement i n the work f o r c e , and e n c o u r a g i n g more c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n l o c a l government. However, the s e recommendations would i n c u r c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s c o s t s e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y t h r ough reduced p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s . On a p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l the B r i t i s h Columbian Government i s a t t e m p t i n g t o a t t r a c t and m a i n t a i n f o o t l o o s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e i n v e s t m e n t . The s o c i e t a l framework i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia, w i t h i t s e s t a b l i s h e d c o r p o r a t e / government a l l i a n c e , has e v o l v e d an e q u a t i o n b a l a n c i n g (1) SRMC wo r k e r s ' s t a b i l i t y a g a i n s t (2) m i n i m i z i n g p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s , and (3) a l l o w i n g 97 m a x i m i z a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's p o t e n t i a l t o a t t r a c t t r a n s n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n t h r o u g h a p o l i t i c a l l y s t a b l e e nvironment. Payne (1979) documents the f a i l u r e of the l a t e N.D.P. government's attempt t o s l i g h t l y s h i f t t h i s e q u a t i o n i n f a v o u r of the r e s i d e n t s of B r i t i s h C o lumbia. To s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve the problems of i n e q u i t a b l e c o l l e c t i v e consumption i n SRMCs would a g a i n upset the b a l a n c e of t h i s e q u a t i o n , as i t would p r o b a b l y i n c u r g r e a t e r economic c o s t f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s than the p o s s i b l e economic c o s t s i t might save by l o w e r i n g employment t u r n o v e r ; i . e . , i t would lower economic e f f i c e n c y . B e n e f i t s of t h i s improvement would go t o the SRMCs' r e s i d e n t s , not t o government, which was the i n t e n t of the f a i l e d N.D.P. m i n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n (Payne 1979, 1980), or the c o r p o r a t i o n s . T h i s r e a l l o c a t i o n would not be i n the dominant a c t o r s ' i n t e r e s t s . There would be r i s k t h a t the e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s would i n v e s t e l s e w h e r e where c o s t s a r e l o w e r , r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d p o t e n t i a l f o r e v e n t u a l p r o v i n c i a l government d e f e a t a t the p o l l s . An i n t r i n s i c r e q u i r e m e n t of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e , i n advanced " i n d u s t r i a l " c o u n t r i e s such as Canada, i s the c r e a t i o n of b e l i e f s , o f t e n t h r o u g h the media, t o encourage a h i g h consumption of goods and s e r v i c e s i n o r d e r t o f u e l t he economy. "One of the most e s s e n t i a l problems of advanced c a p i t a l i s m i s t h a t of f i n d i n g new markets a b l e t o keep up w i t h t h e mass of c a p i t a l which must be made p r o d u c t i v e and p r o f i t a b l e " ( C a s t e l l s 1 9 7 8 : p . l 6 9 ) . G i r v e t z (1966) argues mass 98 consumerism by a l l c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y i s r e q u i r e d t o p r e v e n t c h r o n i c s t a g n a t i o n — Marx's i n t e r n a l c o l o n i z a t i o n ( F e r r a r o t t i 1979) . T h i s demand f o r consumption i s e x p r e s s e d i n both consumer consumption, goods brought d i r e c t l y w i t h wages and c r e d i t , and c o l l e c t i v e c onsumption, goods and s e r v i c e s a l l o c a t e d by the i n d i r e c t . wages of s t a t e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e s ( C a s t e l l s .1978). For C a s t e l l s (1977) the s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n i s one of the many mechanisms t h a t s t i m u l a t e commodity consumption. P r i v a t e "suburban" h o u s i n g and the consumption b e h a v i o u r t h i s environment c r e a t e s has been made p o s s i b l e by i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s f o s t e r e d and r e i n f o r c e d by s t a t e p o l i c y (Harvey 1978). SRMCs are no e x c e p t i o n , w i t h t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o " s u b u r b a n - l i k e " s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g (Bradbury 1980). A c e n t r a l v a l u e of our p r e s e n t dominant i d e o l o g y and r e i n f o r c e d by the " s o v e r e i g n t y of the consumer" myth, i s i n d i v i d u a l freedom of c h o i c e (see Chapter I I , G i r v e t z 1966). However, t h i s freedom of c h o i c e i s g e n e r a l l y not a v a i l a b l e i n SRMCs, as i t i s seldom s i t e - s p e c i f i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t from a c o r p o r a t e or s t a t e p e r s p e c t i v e . Another common v a l u e of l a t e l i b e r a l i s m i s b e l i e f i n the u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g , i n c l u d i n g e q u a l " r i g h t s " t o m u l t i p l e consumer c h o i c e ( M e l l o s 1980) . E x i s t e n c e i n a SRMC c o n t r a d i c t s t h i s b e l i e f , and as a r e s u l t p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r the SRMCs r e s i d e n t s i s lowered. T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t by the l i b e r a l b e l i e f i n growth ( G i r v e t z 1966); one day the SRMC w i l l grow t o a s i z e a t w h i c h c o l l e c t i v e consumption and consumer c h o i c e i s FIGURE 3 CONTRADICTION OF THE STABLE SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 100 comparable t o l a r g e r urban e n v i r o n m e n t s . However, i n a community based on a f i n i t e r e s o u r c e , e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , t h i s mythology i s u n l i k e l y t o f u l l y o b s c u r e t h e r e a l i t y of l i m i t e d c h o i c e of consumption. For r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e the " u n i v e r s a l r i g h t " of consumer e q u a l i t y can o n l y l e a d t o f u r t h e r a l i e n a t i o n . THE CONTRADICTION OF THE STABLE SINGLE RESOURCE MINING  COMMUNITY AND THE FUNCTION OF THE STATE A c o n t r a d i c t i o n e x i s t s f o r Canadian SRMCs p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p r e s e n t g l o b a l economy (see F i g u r e I I I ) . V a l u e s c r e a t e d by the dominant Canadian i d e o l o g y — urban o r i e n t e d c h o i c e , s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l a s p i r a t i o n s f o r u n i v e r s a l consumerism -- shape the p e r c e p t i o n of a " d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t y of l i f e " f o r r e s i d e n t s of B r i t i s h C o lumbia. T h i s concept of d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t y of l i f e i n t u r n shapes the concept of a d e s i r a b l e community. A d e s i r a b l e SRMC, w i t h the p o t e n t i a l f o r s t a b i l i t y , i s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a h i g h s t a n d a r d of consumer and c o l l e c t i v e consumption f o r i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . The h i s t o r i c a l l y e v o l v e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements of government i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, m a i n t a i n s the concept of an e l e c t o r a l system i n which government i s chosen e v e r y few y e a r s . A prime i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f i s t h a t economic growth i n c r e a s e s the share of a l l B r i t i s h Columbian's w e a l t h . To r e i n f o r c e t h i s v a l u e and remain i n power, government i s c o m p e l l e d t o f a c i l i t a t e c o r p o r a t e development t o a s s i s t c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and 101 i n c r e a s e economic growth; the s t a t e / c o r p o r a t e a l l i a n c e . As a r e s u l t , the s t a t e g e n e r a l l y has l i t t l e c h o i c e but t o m i n i m i z e c o s t s t o the e x t r a c t i o n ' c o r p o r a t i o n s . In SRMCs t h i s means a t t e m p t i n g t o m i n i m i z e demand and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c o l l e c t i v e consumption t o maximize economic e f f i c i e n c y of the e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s . Thus a c o n t r a d i c t i o n appears between s t a t e promotion of s t a b l e s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities, on the one hand, and the f a c t t h a t s t a b l e SRMCs r e q u i r e a r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l of c o l l e c t i v e consumption. The s t a t e , based on p r e s e n t d e c i s i o n -making c r i t e r i a , i s o b l i g a t e d t o attempt t o m i n i m i z e c o l l e c t i v e consumption t o f a c i l i t a t e c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and a t t r a c t f u r t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l development. The s t a t e can o n l y " e f f i c i e n t l y " p r o v i d e the minimum c o l l e c t i v e consumption s u f f i c i e n t t o a t t r a c t and m a i n t a i n a l a b o u r f o r c e . I f t h i s l a b o u r f o r c e has h i g h t u r n o v e r , the s t a t e can merely attempt t o l i m i t t u r n o v e r t o m i n i m i z e a g g r e g a t e e x t r a c t i o n c o s t s . I f the most c o s t e f f e c t i v e t u r n o v e r r a t e i s 90 p e r c e n t of the work f o r c e per y e a r , t h i s i s the s t a n d a r d of community the s t a t e i s c o m p e l l e d t o p r o v i d e . The s t a t e cannot r e s o l v e the u n d e r l y i n g reasons b e h i n d t h i s h i g h t u r n o v e r ; v i z . poor q u a l i t y of l i f e i n SRMCs. I t i s o b l i g a t e d t o m i n i m i z e c o s t , such as l i m i t i n g l o c a l c i t i z e n s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o p r e v e n t d e v e l o p of l o c a l l y d e s i r e d s e r v i c e s and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , t o m a i n t a i n minimum c o l l e c t i v e consumption. As a r e s u l t , i n s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities t h e r e i s b o t h c l a s s and t e r r i t o r i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n a l i e n a t i o n . 102 H i g h t u r n o v e r and i n s t a b i l i t y i s the outcome of t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n . 103 V I I THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND TUMBLER RIDGE: A CASE STUDY Two i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s of the s t a t e , as noted by Jensen (1980), a r e t o p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e l a b o u r , and r e p r o d u c t i v e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r t h i s l a b o u r , t o f a c i l i t a t e c o r p o r a t e development. As a r e s u l t , the P r o v i n c e - of B r i t i s h Columbia must attempt t o d e s i g n and b u i l d s i n g l e r e s o u r c e m i n i n g communities t h a t m i n i m i z e both problems and c o s t s , so as t o be a b l e t o a t t r a c t and m a i n t a i n l a b o u r , y e t a c h i e v e a h i g h l e v e l economic e f f i c i e n c y t o a l l o w m a x i m i z a t i o n of c o r p o r a t e p r o f i t s t h r o ugh low t a x a t i o n and low overhead e x p e n d i t u r e s . The P r o v i n c i a l P l a n f o r Tumbler Ridge i s the l a t e s t and most comprehencive p l a n t o attempt t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e g o a l s (Thompson, B e r w i c k , P r a t t 1978 a, b, c, d, e, ). While the 1978 p l a n , i t s e l f , i s now out of date f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h o u t major change (among o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t i s based on a 10.25 per cent mortgage r a t e ) , the document r e p r e s e n t s p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y and o r i e n t a t i o n (Paget and Rabnett 1980). O f f i c i a l p l a n n i n g documents t y p i c a l l y s e r v e the purpose of r a t i o n a l i z i n g and l e g i t i m i z i n g dominant s o c i a l group i n t e r e s t s , they r e p r e s e n t the documented outcome of p r e d e t e r m i n e d c l a s s m e d i a t i o n , c o n t r o l l e d and n e g o t i a t e d by p l a n n e r s on b e h a l f of the i n t e r e s t s of the s t a t e ( C a s t e l l s 1978). S i m i l a r l y , t h e s e documents o f t e n i n c l u d e m y s t i f y i n g i d e o l o g y t o h i d e and c o n f u s e the u n d e r l y n g economic r e a l i t i e s of s o c i e t y ( D a v i e s 1974, G o l d s t e i n 1975). The 1978 p l a n may never be implemented, but i t r e f l e c t s the i n s t i t u t i o n a l and 104 i d e o l o g i c a l p o l i c y o f - t h e s t a t e i n r e g i o n a l development. THE PLAN The 1978 p l a n p r e s e n t s Tumbler Ridge as a SRMC competing w i t h o t h e r SRMCs t o a t t r a c t and r e t a i n a s t a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e . "The community s p i r i t of r e s i d e n t s , whether homeowners or r e n t e r s , g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e the l a b o u r a v a i l a b i l i t y and a t t i t u d e i n the a r e a . E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p and r i v a l r y between the new community, o t h e r nearby towns of s i m i l a r p u r p o s e , and the i n t e r f a c e w i t h more remote r e g i o n s of i n d u s t r y or commerce. The p r o p o s a l s f o r Tumbler Ridge e n v i s a g e a good s i z e town, s e l f - s u p p o r t i v e i n major commercial a s p e c t s and demanding a h i g h c a l i b r e of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 b : p . l l 6 ) . The 1978 p l a n acknowledges Tumbler Ridge as a d o r m i t o r y community f o r c o a l e x t r a c t i o n s . " I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the p r i m a r y reason f o r c r e a t i n g a new town i s g e n e r a l l y economic. The new town i s n e c e s s a r y t o house the a n t i c i p a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e f o r a proposed new development" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978c:p.7). In the p l a n the community i s b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o accommodate 10,000 f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s . Tumbler Ridge w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y m i l e s from Chetwynd and Dawson Creek v i a a proposed highway. The s i t e of the new -community i s p r e s e n t l y undeveloped, w i t h o n l y a few t r a p p e r s r e s i d i n g i n the a r e a . The environment i s mountainous, w i t h a c l i m a t e i n which snow can be e x p e c t e d between September and May. The 1978 p l a n proposes two a l t e r n a t i v e p h y s i c a l l a y o u t s f o r the community. One l a y o u t i s more d i s p e r s e d w i t h a h i g h e r r a t i o of s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g . T h i s p r o p o s a l i s more r u r a l l y - and c h i l d r e n -105 o r i e n t e d than the second d e n s e r , urban o r i e n t e d p r o p o s a l . C o s t s f o r the l a t t e r are about 5 per c e n t l o w e r , though s u r v e y s of o t h e r comparable communities have shown a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the more d i s p e r s e d l a y o u t . The 1978 p l a n , as w i t h most p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g i n the 1970s, acknowledges the f a i l u r e of the market t o e f f e c t i v e l y c r e a t e an e f f i c i e n t community f o r SRMCs, and t h e r e f o r e proposes comprehensive, p r e - n e g o t i a t i v e p l a n n i n g f o r Tumbler Ridge, w i t h p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t e d by government. "The s o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s n e g o t i a t i n g a complete  g e n e r a l development agreement between a l l development p a r t i c i p a n t s o u t l i n i n g the o b j e c t i v e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s p e c i f y i n g d e s i r e d s e r v i c e l e v e l s and d e l i v e r y systems i n c l u d i n g q u e s t i o n s of t i m i n g and f i n a n c i n g " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978e:p.53). S i n c e f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s and l o c a l government f o r Tumbler Ridge w i l l not be a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s n e g o t i a t i o n s t a g e , the p l a n p roposes government r e p r e s e n t t h e s e a c t o r s . " I t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t the P r o v i n c e would e x e r c i s e a proxy f o r the l o c a l government and f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s t a g e . T h i s i s f u l l y d e f e n s i b l e because of the P r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the a r e a of m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978e:p. 53). To c o - o r d i n a t e t h i s compensating p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s the p l a n c a l l s f o r a s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t o a d m i n i s t e r and implement the n e g o t i a t e d programmes and p o l i c i e s . C a s t e l l s (1978) and D a v i e s (1974) would agree t h a t t h i s p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n would s e r v e t o b u f f e r the government from c r i t i c i s m and b a c k l a s h from c o n t r a d i c t i o n s c r e a t e d by the s t a t e / c o r p o r a t e a l l i a n c e . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n 106 would l e g i t i m i z e the p r e - n e g o t i a t e d p l a n as " p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g " f o r a d e s i r a b l e community, r a t h e r than p l a n n i n g f o r minimum aggregate p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s . The 1978 p l a n has a time h o r i z o n of t e n y e a r s , though the p l a n assumes Tumbler Ridge w i l l have a l i f e span of over twenty y e a r s due t o development of o t h e r u n d e f i n e d i n d u s t r i e s , as w e l l as c o a l m i n i n g . The p l a n does not a d d r e s s the p o t e n t i a l of mine c l o s u r e and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s t h i s p o t e n t i a l may have on f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s . Nor does the p l a n d e a l w i t h the e f f e c t s of t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y on p o t e n t i a l p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s e c t o r development, even though t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y of c l o s u r e and r e s u l t a n t problems caused by i t i s e x p r e s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e ( R i f f e l 1975, Lucas 1971). The p l a n i t s e l f f o l l o w s a l i n e a r sequence of development i n the growth of the community, but admits t o some degree of p o t e n t i a l i n a c c u r a c y due t o a l a c k of e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n i n p u t i n t o the p l a n . The impact of Tumbler Ridge on the r e g i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d o u t s i d e of the scope of the 1978 p l a n and i s not e v a l u a t e d , even though as e a r l y as Robinson (1962) r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of SRMC p l a n n i n g . The 1978 p l a n p r o f e s s e s t o b u i l d from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the i n d i v i d u a l , r a t h e r than from the p e r s p e c t i v e of c r e a t i n g a sense of community. W i t h i n the p r i n c i p l e s used f o r development of Tumbler Ridge i n the p l a n , the i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n s i d e r e d s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , so as t o reduce r e s i d e n t dependence on both employer- and g o v e r n m e n t - s u p p l i e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . " I t {the Plan} must ensure i n the end t h a t c u r r e n t l y 107 n o n - e x i s t e n t r e s i d e n t s would be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r community i n terms of h o u s i n g q u a l i t y and c o s t , m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , and t a x e s , but i t must do so w i t h o u t s h i f t i n g a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of c o s t s onto n o n - r e s i d e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d by the s e n i o r governments and the r e s o u r c e companies" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 a : p . l l ) . The 1978 p l a n does not d e f i n e what a " d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of c o s t s " i s , though the r e s i d e n t s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y pay the m a j o r i t y of the c o s t of the community. However, the p l a n does acknowledge t h a t the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of t h i s c o l l e c t i v e consumption w i l l be i n f e r i o r t o s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. " I t i s not e f f i c i e n t i n terms of human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r Tumbler Ridge t o attempt t o p r o v i d e a l l t h i n g s f o r a l l p e o p l e , perhaps i n a way t h a t s o u t h e r n communities can a f f o r d t o do. T h e r e f o r e , i n or d e r too promote " e f f i c i e n c y " the range of o p t i o n s f o r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s must be c o n s t r a i n e d . However, e f f i c i e n c y must not compromise r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n . In f a c t , i f Tumbler Ridge i s t o be c o m p e t i t i v e i n a t t r a c t i n g a w o r k f o r c e from the l i m i t e d l a b o u r s u p p l y , then the needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of the i n h a b i t a n t s must be b e t t e r s a t i s f i e d i n Tumbler Ridge than i n o t h e r r e s o u r c e towns" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 c : p . l 0 ) . Indeed, as we w i l l see below, the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of c o l l e c t i v e consumption w i l l be j u s t s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w Tumbler Ridge t o compete w i t h o t h e r SRMCs f o r the n e c e s s a r y m i n i n g w o r k f o r c e . C l e a r l y t h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h m i n i m i z i n g a g gregate p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s f o r the c o a l e x t r a c t i o n . The p l a n proposes d e s i g n i n g the community f o r a s p e c i f i c group of r e s i d e n t s w i t h s i m i l a r a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l s and s i m i l a r ways of s a t i s f y i n g these a s p i r a t i o n s . T h i s i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h the c o r p o r a t e need of u n i v e r s a l consumers w i t h the same wants and d e s i r e s , a l l o w i n g p r o d u c t i o n of the town a t m i n i m a l c o s t . 108 "The d e s i r e d i n h a b i t a n t s would have s i m i l a r a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l s and s i m i l a r ways of s a t i s f y i n g them" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 c : p . l l ) . "The r e s i d e n t s must p e r c e i v e t h e i r needs t o be w e l l s a t i s f i e d by the c o n s t r a i n e d range of o p t i o n s o f f e r e d " ( i b i d ) . To a t t r a c t s i m i l a r r e s i d e n t s the 1978 p l a n c a l l s f o r a theme f o r the community. Three b a s i c c r i t e r i a a r e proposed f o r the type of f u t u r e r e s i d e n t t o be a t t r a c t e d t o Tumbler Ridge t o maximize s t a b i l i t y and m i n i m i z e c o s t : 1) p e o p l e who do not want m a t e r i a l goods or s e r v i c e s ; 2) s o c i a b l e p e o p l e t h a t can p r o v i d e t h e i r own e n t e r t a i n m e n t ; and 3) g e n e r a l i s t s t h a t do not r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 a : p . l l ) . S i m i l a r l y the p l a n c a l l s f o r the r e c r u i t m e n t of m a r r i e d f a m i l i e s r a t h e r than s i n g l e s t o m i n i m i z e t u r n o v e r and i n c r e a s e s t a b i l i t y . " In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e community s t a b i l i t y as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e d e l i b e r a t e and e a r l y p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be implemented t o a t t r a c t and keep f a m i l i e s i n the community" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978b:p.549). To maximize s t a b i l i t y and m i n i m i z e c o s t f o r Tumbler Ridge the p r o v i n c e ' s comprehensive p l a n n i n g approach c a l l s f o r d i r e c t government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the normal market economy of the community. The p l a n as w e l l as d e s i g n i n g g e n e r a l community l a y o u t and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , such as sewerage and r o a d s , t a k e s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n d e s i g n i n g the h o u s i n g mix and town b u s i n e s s c o r e . The p l a n e s t i m a t e s a b i l i t y t o pay f o r h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e s , d e t e r m i n e s a l l o c a t i o n , and i n c o r p o r a t e s t h i s among i t s p l a n n i n g c r i t e r i a . As such, t r a d i t i o n a l consumer consumption such as h o u s i n g c h o i c e and 109 b u s i n e s s c h o i c e a re p u b l i c l y d e f i n e d . THE PLAN: COLLECTIVE CONSUMPTION AND HOUSING As an i m p l i c i t g o a l of the p l a n appears t o be m i n i m i z a t i o n of c o s t s t o both government and the e x t r a c t i o n companies, t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s t a n d a r d s , a l l o c a t i o n and cha r g e s f o r c o l l e c t i v e consumption i n the community. S e r v i c e l e v e l s i n the p l a n were d e t e r m i n e d as per the p r o v i n c e ' s (1976) G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o a l Development . The p l a n n e r s c o n s i d e r e d the p r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s t a n d a r d s as a b a s e l i n e f o r "base l e v e l and t i m i n g of s e r v i c e s f o r the new town", as w e l l as l o o k i n g a t the a c t u a l s t a n d a r d s of s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g SRMCs to a r r i v e a t c o m p e t i t i v e s t a n d a r d s . "The e x i s t i n g l e v e l of s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y was de v e l o p e d by examing B.C. Government s e r v i c e s t a n d a r d s , programs, and p o l i c i e s ; a p r o j e c t e d base l e v e l and t i m i n g of s e r v i c e s f o r the new town: and the l e v e l of s e r v i c e s one c o u l d expect t o f i n d i n an e s t a b l i s h e d Canadian r e s o u r c e town. A l e v e l of s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y d e s i r e d by r e s o u r c e town r e s i d e n t s f o r a new town was then e s t a b l i s h e d " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978c:p.40). " S i n c e Tumbler Ridge must be e f f i c i e n t and compete f o r i t s p o p u l a t i o n ; the p r i n c i p l e of urban s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d i n i t i a l l y . The o p t i o n s f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t a n d a r d s when the community s t a b i l i z e s s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978b: p.546). " I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the q u a l i t y of l i f e and thus morale of the r e s i d e n t s and t u r n o v e r i n the w o r k f o r c e can be r e l a t e d t o l e v e l of s e r v i c e s . In t h i s r e g a r d , s i n c e too h i g h a l e v e l c o u l d cause comment from o t h e r r e s o u r c e communities, t h i s r e p o r t proposes a s t a n d a r d of s e r v i c e s t h a t would be i n keeping w i t h the l e v e l e x p e c t e d i n a modern Canadian community" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978b:p.190). 110 The 1978 p l a n does not attempt t o c r e a t e a community w i t h b e t t e r q u a l i t y of l i f e than o t h e r SRMCs, r a t h e r the p l a n a t t e m p t s t o s e t s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t a n d a r d s t h a t a r e most c o s t e f f e c t i v e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , y e t s t i l l a r e c a p a b l e of a t t r a c t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a l a b o u r f o r c e . P o l i c y f o r Tumbler Ridge i s t o determine the e q u a t i o n g i v i n g maximum s t a b i l i t y f o r l o w e s t investment ' f o r l o w e s t c o s t t o the e x t r a c t i o n companies. The p l a n j u s t i f i e s lower than average s e r v i c e s t a n d a r d s by c l a i m i n g the need f o r r e s i d e n t i n p u t i n t o d e s i r e d s e r v i c e s . E s s e n t i a l l y the p l a n i n c o r p o r a t e s l i m i t e d f u t u r e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o lower i n i t i a l c o s t s and t o d e s i g n " e f f i c i e n t l y " , as u n d e r - v a l u e d , though perhaps i m p o r t a n t s e r v i c e s , would not be b u i l t . "A reduced l e v e l of s e r v i c e s or d e l a y e d f a c i l i t i e s b o t h can be changed by the r e s i d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s at such time when they f e e l the l e v e l of s e r v i c e s as o r i g i n a l l y s uggested can be a f f o r d e d " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978d:p.132). The document proposes o f f e r i n g l e s s s e r v i c e s a t lower c o s t than r e q u i r e d by p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d s . However the p l a n hopes t o s a t i s f y f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s by r e s t r i c t i n g the type of r e s i d e n t r e c r u i t e d i n t o the community, so t h a t the r e s i d e n t s of Tumbler Ridge w i l l not demand a l e v e l of c o l l e c t i v e consumption comparable t o s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p l a n hopes t o lower c o s t s f u r t h e r by i n t e g r a t i n g d i v e r s e s e r v i c e s t o g e t h e r and u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o serve m u n t i p l e s e r v i c e s (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 : p . l l 2 ) . S i m i l a r l y , t o reduce demand on s e r v i c e s i n the community and lower c o s t s the p l a n I l l c a l l s f o r e f f i c i e n t use of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o o t h e r communities. "While i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o e xpect t o f i n d as complete a range of goods and s e r v i c e s as i n a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s w i l l g r e a t l y reduce the p e r c e i v e d need f o r such goods and s e r v i c e s as w e l l as p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l of a c c e s s " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978b:p.176). To lower demands on s e r v i c e s such as h e a l t h c a r e , the p l a n d e s i g n a t e s the use of e d u c a t i o n a l programs t o t r a i n the r e s i d e n t s t o both pr e v e n t problems from a r i s i n g and a l l o w the r e s i d e n t s t o d e a l w i t h s i m p l e problems when they do a r i s e (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978c:p.110-111). S i m i l a r l y , the p l a n c a l l s f o r a comprehensive v o l u n t e e r program t o a s s i s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the community and lower the number r e q u i r e d ( i b i d : p , 1 1 8 ) . The r e s i d e n t s of Tumbler R i d g e , u n l i k e r e s i d e n t s of the Vancouver m e t r o p o l e , can p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r own c o l l e c t i v e consumption i n t h e i r spare time! In the same v a i n , the document c a l l s f o r the s u b s t i t u t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the N o r t h w i t h p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l s . " I n c r e a s i n g the number of p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l s w o r k i n g i n the N o r t h . T h i s would d e c r e a s e the demand and c o n s e q u e n t l y the need, f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f and h e l p reduce the c o s t s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y " ( i b i d ) . The 1978 p l a n c o n s i d e r s c r e a t i o n and maintenance of a s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g s u p p l y i m p e r a t i v e t o c r e a t e a . " s t a b l e community". The p l a n s t a t e s t h a t the P r o v i n c e must p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n d e s i g n i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g Tumbler R i d g e ' s h o u s i n g market. From a study of the communities of Grande Cache and Sparwood, the p l a n n e r s c o n c l u d e d a s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e 112 among SRMC r e s i d e n t s f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g . Both p h y s i c a l l a y o u t s of the community r e f l e c t t h i s p r e f e r e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , home ownership was found t o be s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h community s a t i s f a c t i o n . Four major c r i t e r i a f o r h o u s i n g were e v o l v e d f o r the p l a n : 1) a f f o r d a b i 1 i t y , t o a l l o w a t t r a c t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n : 2) c h o i c e , f o r both mine and s e r v i c e w o r k e r s ; 3) promotion of community s t a b i l i t y , p r i v a t e o wnership w i t h c h o i c e c r e a t e s s t a b i l i t y ; and 4) i n n o v a t i v e h o u s i n g t o meet a s p i r a t i o n s as w e l l as climate(Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978b :p.352-3). The p l a n ' s p o l i c y i s t o i n t e g r a t e both mine worker and s e r v i c e worker h o u s i n g and f i n a n c i n g under government d i r e c t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e low community t u r n o v e r (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978b:p.473). To promote a s t a b l e s e r v i c e s e c t o r w i t h e q u a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of h o u s i n g the p l a n d i s c o u r a g e s the t r a d i t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e h o u s i n g s u b s i d i a r y (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978d:p.120). T h i s a l s o has the advantage of l o w e r i n g c o r p o r a t e c o s t s and f u r t h e r s h i f t s community c o s t s onto the r e s i d e n t s . The document c a l l s f o r p r e d o m i n a t e l y s e l f - o w n e d h o u s i n g i n Tumbler R i d g e , w i t h the pl a n n e d h o u s i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y a t t e m p t i n g t o make s e l f - o w n e d and s e l f - f i n a n c e d h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e t o a l l r e s i d e n t s (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 d : p . l 3 4 ) . Though the p l a n i s now out of d a t e , as i t based a l l h o u s i n g mortgages on an i n t e r e s t r a t e of 10.25 per c e n t , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t proposed mortgages be based on a ten per c e n t down payment over a t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r p e r i o d . Yet the c o a l mines may not l a s t t h a t l o n g ( p r e s e n t l y proposed c o a l 113 c o n t r a c t s a r e f o r o n l y f i f t e e n y e a r s ) , l e a v i n g r e s i d e n t s of Tumbler Ridge w i t h o u t s t a n d i n g mortgage payments on h o u s i n g w i t h no market v a l u e (Best 1980). The p l a n c a l c u l a t e d r e s i d e n t a b i l i t y t o pay f o r h o u s i n g and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e as 30 per cen t of the g r o s s main f a m i l y s a l a r y and s i x t y - s e v e n per cen t of any secondary income (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 d : p . l 0 ) . I n i t i a l l y , over h a l f of a f a m i l y ' s net income w i l l go t o pay f o r h o u s i n g which may not have any i n t r i n s i c v a l u e even b e f o r e the mortgage i s p a i d o u t . S e l f - o w n e r s h i p of h o u s i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n the document, however h o u s i n g and s e r v i c i n g c o s t s a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r i n Tumbler Ridge than s o u t h e r n communities such as Vancouver. " Housing a f f o r d a b i l i t y i s c r i t i c a l t o the s u c c e s s of the town" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978a: p.162). " S h e l t e r w i l l c o s t 70% t o 80% more i n Tumbler Ridge due t o l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l premiums and t o h i g h e r demands on h o u s i n g performances" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978a:p.62). To f a c i l i t a t e home ownership the p l a n proposes t o a r t i f i c i a l l y m a n i p u l a t e h o u s i n g s t o c k p r i c e s t o f i t the a b i l i t y t o pay (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 d : p . l 3 4 ) . A l s o , the document proposes o f f s e t t i n g the c o s t s of s e r v i c i n g l o t s from the i n i t i a l purchase p r i c e , r a t h e r r e c o o p i n g s e r v i c i n g c o s t s i n h i g h e r m u n i c i p a l r a t e s (Thompson Be r w i c k P r a t t 1978a:p.9a). T h i s p r o p o s a l w i l l m i n i m i z e the need of c o r p o r a t e s u b s i d i e s f o r h o u s i n g , r e s u l t i n g i n workers p a y i n g h i g h e r r a t e s i n s t e a d of r e c e i v i n g t r a d i t i o n a l SRMC h o u s i n g s u b s i d i e s . As w e l l , t h i s o f f s e t l o t c o s t w i l l lower the p e r c e i v e d c o s t of h o u s i n g f o r 114 new Tumbler Ridge r e s i d e n t s , i n c r e a s i n g the p r o p e n s i t y f o r home ownership. T h i s home ownership w i l l " t r a p " community r e s i d e n t s i n t o s t a b i l i t y i n Tumbler R i d g e , and t h i s s t a b i l i t y w i l l be f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by h i g h m u n i c i p a l r a t e s i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e s i d e n t d e b t ; t h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B radbury's (1980) argument f o r G o l d R i v e r . As noted above, a b a s i c t e n e t of the document i s t h a t the community w i l l be s e l f f i n a n c e d and i t w i l l not be a p r o v i n c i a l economic l i a b i l i t y -- i t w i l l pay f o r i t s e l f . "While we must a d d r e s s the s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s the town w i l l f a c e , and w h i l e we seek t o i n t r o d u c e i n n o v a t i o n s which w i l l enhance the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the town, we r e a l i z e t h a t the town w i l l one day st a n d on i t s own and be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y . The town, t h e r e f o r e must be de s i g n e d t o be f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e " (Thompson Be r w i c k P r a t t 1978c:p.13-14). C o s t s f o r h o u s i n g , f a c i l i t i e s , and s e r v i c e s w i l l be h i g h e r i n Tumbler Ridge than Vancouver, due t o the i s o l a t e d n a t u r e of the community (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978a:p.114). The t o t a l c o s t f o r the community i n 1977 d o l l a r s was e s t i m a t e d i n the p l a n t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 286 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r , r e s i d e n t s and companies w i l l d i r e c t l y a bsorb 82 p e r c e n t of t h i s c o s t , and an o t h e r 7 p e r c e n t i n d i r e c t l y i n s c h o o l and m u n i c i p a l t a x e s . The p r o v i n c e and f e d e r a l governments w i l l pay f o r the remainder (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978d:p.6). R e s i d e n t s of the community w i l l d i r e c t l y pay 192 m i l l i o n f o r h o u s i n g and on s i t e p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s , 67 pe r c e n t of the t o t a l c o s t of the community. The p l a n proposes the m i n i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s pay 55 p e r c e n t of the m u n i c i p a l r a t e s , 115 as a r e s u l t , r e s i d e n t s w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r repayment of 45 p e r c e n t of the m u n i c i p a l debt (Thompson Berwick Pra.tt 1978d: p.143). T h i s r e s i d e n t m u n i c i p a l debt w i l l be over 9 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , or t h r e e p e r c e n t of the t o t a l community c o s t . R e s i d e n t s i n Tumbler Ridge w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l debt of 860 d o l l a r s . In the metr o p o l e of Vancouver, the r e s i d e n t i a l s h are of the m u n i c i p a l t a x burden i s 250 d o l l a r s per person (based on f i g u r e s i n Vancouver 1980, and a p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Pat W o l f e , C i t y of V a n c o u v e r ) . In Tumbler R i d g e , aggregate r e s i d e n t i a l debt ( h o u s i n g and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s ) w i l l be 70 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l , 201 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The p l a n e s t i m a t e s 3,827 f a m i l i e s , or " s o c i a l u n i t s " , i n Tumbler Ridge when the community i s f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . Average a g g r e g a t e f a m i l y d e b t , both h o u s i n g and m u n i c i p a l , i n Tumbler Ridge w i l l be 53,000 d o l l a r s ( i n 1977 f i g u r e s ) . The e s t i m a t e d a n n u a l average f a m i l y g r o s s income w i l l be 20,140 d o l l a r s ( e v o l v e d from t a b l e 9 ( 5 . 6 ) , Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978d: p.105). Thus the average f a m i l y debt f o r l a b o u r r e c r u i t e d f o r Tumbler Ridge w i l l be e q u i v a l e n t t o over 2.6 y e a r s g r o s s f a m i l y income. Tumbler Ridge w i l l be a f a r c r y from the t r a d i t i o n a l company-owned town of the e a r l y 1950s, where r e s i d e n t s payed a nom i n a l r e n t f o r accomodation, on average " o n e - t h i r d of the r e n t they would pay f o r e q u i v a l e n t accomodation i n the n e a r e s t o r d i n a r y community" (Queen's 1953:p.97). I f Tumbler Ridge p r o s p e r s the r e s i d e n t s w i l l have t h e i r " i n v e s t m e n t " r e t u r n e d i n f u t u r e e q u i t y , however, i f the mines s h o u l d c l o s e , as i_s 116 the i n e v i t a b i 1 i t y of a l l mines , and the community becomes a "ghost town", the e v e n t u a l i t y of many SRMCs, t h i s e q u i t y w i l l be l o s t t o t h e community r e s i d e n t s . T h i s p l a n and the p r e s e n t M u n i c i p a l A c t f o r c e s r e s i d e n t s of new SRMCs t o pay f o r the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r own c o l l e c t i v e consumption. In a new h i n t e r l a n d community r e s i d e n t s cannot share i n t h e a c c r u e d c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s of h i s t o r i c a l community development, such as r e s i d e n t s of Vancouver can, they must c r e a t e and pay f o r t h i s i n vestment t h e m s e l v e s . S o c i e t a l w e a l t h and c o l l e c t i v e consumption a r e unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d between m e t r o p o l e and r e s o u r c e town. Due t o the p r e c a r i o u s n e s s of s i n g l e r e s o u r c e s t a p l e e x t r a c t i o n , the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of Tumbler Ridge may not even be a b l e t o recoup t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t . The 1978 p l a n , w i t h i t s ten year time frame, does not so much as a d d r e s s t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y ! THE PLAN AND LOCAL SELF-DETERMINATION The 1978 p l a n , perhaps t a k i n g i n t o account the a l i e n a t i n g q u a l i t i e s of f r u s t r a t e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c a l l s f o r l i t t l e c i t i z e n i n p u t or s e l f - c o n t r o l , of the town d u r i n g the i n i t i a l b u i l d i n g and r e c r u i t m e n t s t a g e s , y e t t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t f o r the c r e a t i o n of a sense of community f o r the f u t u r e new r e s i d e n t s . The document recommends the f o r m a t i o n of a S o c i a l Development Board, p r e f e r a b l y w i t h a p a r t i a l l y e l e c t e d membership. However, the m a j o r i t y of the s e a t s a r e t o be d e t e r m i n e d by the 117 p r o v i n c e and the c o r p o r a t i o n s , as the p l a n n e r s c o n s i d e r a f u l l y e l e c t e d board i n e f f e c t i v e . "While t h i s method maximizes r e s i d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i t would be l e s s e f f e c t i v e a d m i n s t r a t i v e l y " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 c : p . l l 4 ) . The p l a n proposes e v e n t u a l l o c a l government as per the i n t e n t of the Munic i p a l Act . However, the 1978 p l a n argues f o r the need of a s p e c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , above the l o c a l government, t o s u c c e s s f u l l y implement the P r o v i n c e ' s comprehensive p l a n n i n g (Thompson Be r w i c k P r a t t 1978e:p.30). " T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be l e g a l , n o n - p o l i t i c a l , have c o n t r o l of f i n a n c i n g , have d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power, have d i r e c t a c c e s s t o P r e m i e r and/or C a b i n e t , and c o n s i s t of s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s who then a c t as a "development team"" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978e:p.37). The i n t e n t of the p l a n i s f o r t h i s development o r g a n i z a t i o n t o have e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the community u n t i l r e c r u i t m e n t has been completed. T h i s means a n o n - p o l i t i c a l , n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group of p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o n t r o l l i n g the community w i t h s t r o n g e r powers than l o c a l government f o r a t l e a s t t en y e a r s (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978c:p.A19). "The c u r r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t u c t u r e f o r the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s tends t o be f o r m u l a t e d on a l a r g e l y l a i s s e z - f a i r e p r i n c i p l e . The major impetus f o r s o c i a l programs comes from w i t h i n the community g e n e r a l l y c h a n n e l l e d t h r o u g h the l o c a l government. The l o c a l government then a c t s as the major f o c a l p o i n t f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978 e:p.29) "The c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e does not ensure t h a t any p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be f o s t e r e d and c e r t a i n l y does not guarantee a comprehensive approach t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n cerns of the community" ( i b i d : p.30) 118 T h i s proposed p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h powers g r e a t e r t han l o c a l government, i s perhaps an e x c e l l e n t i d e a f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n stage of Tumbler R i d g e , but i t i s c e r t a i n l y q u e s t i o n a b l e f o r a community of s e v e r a l thousand p e o p l e . P e r c e i v e d l a c k of l o c a l c o n t r o l by t h e f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of Tumbler Ridge w i l l p o t e n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e r e s i d e n t a l i e n a t i o n , perhaps i n d u c i n g h i g h e r community t u r n o v e r . T h i s recommendation f o r a dominant t e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of a d m i n s t r a t o r s i s c l e a r l y c o n t r a r y t o Wichern's (1972) and Wichern's et ajL (1971) f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the need f o r r e s p o n s i b l e l o c a l , government t o promote s t a b l e SRMCs. T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i v e t o the s t a t e , w i t h i t s c o r p o r a t e a l l i a n c e , r a t h e r than l o c a l Tumbler Ridge r e s i d e n t s . Indeed, the 1978 p l a n makes c l e a r , p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y t o p r o t e c t the e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s from e x p e n d i t u r e s , p o t e n t i a l l y imposable by l o c a l government d e m o c r a t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . "When the Company's p r o p e r t y i s p l a c e d on the t a x r o l l and i s t a x e d a t an average c o m m e r c i a l m i l l r a t e , then the Company's annua l c o n t r i b u t i o n may c o n s t i t u t e 50% - 60% of the town's revenues. As a r e s u l t the r e s i d e n t s can expand t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s and pay o n l y a f r a c t i o n of t h e i r c o s t s . U n l e s s c o n t r o l s a r e p l a c e d on the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s t a x i n g c a p a c i t y , then the Company can be unduly burdened" (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978e:p,18) The argument would be u n a c c e p t a b l e i n s o u t h e r n urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s where p e r c e n t a g e of c o r p o r a t e r a t e s a r e comparable t o Tumbler R i d g e . In Vancouver, commercial owners pay 48 per c e n t of the m u n i c i p a l r a t e s , and t h i s p e r c e n t a g e e x c l u d e s Vancouver b u s i n e s s t a x e s ( p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n Pat W o l f e , C i t y of V a n c o u v e r ) . P l a i n l y the 1978 document i s a c t i n g 119 on behalf of corporate in t e r e s t s . ' THE PLAN: ITS EXPLICIT IDEOLOGY AND POTENTIAL FAILURE TO CREATE A STABLE COMMUNITY The 1978 document i s consistently written from an emic ideological perspective, incorporating l i b e r a l values and b e l i e f s into the proposed community, while the above documented e t i c " r e a l i t y " is one of f a c i l i t a t i n g c a p i t a l accumulation. There are three 'themes' proposed for Tumbler Ridge: 1) community s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y ; 2) learning community; and 3), experimental research community (Thompson Berwick Pratt 1978a:p.l6). Regardless of which theme might have been chosen, a l l three themes reinforce the l i b e r a l worldview and at the same time p o t e n t i a l l y lower state/corporate costs for the community. The f i r s t theme legitimizes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Tumbler Ridge's residents for their own c o l l e c t i v e consumption. The second theme proposes l o c a l t r a i n i n g of community residents to increase work s k i l l s and be their own professionals. The t h i r d theme legitimizes the potential for planning mistakes and future problems in the community. Indeed, s p e c i f i c value orientations permeate the 1978 plan, attempting to lay an ideological foundation to create a b e l i e f that Tumbler Ridge i s a desirable community regardless, of-the problems created by ' e f f i c i e n t ' design. "A change in attitude towards resource towns should be encouraged to focus on the positive and not the negative aspects of resource town l i v i n g . Each 120 p a r t i c i p a n t has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f o s t e r a new way of t h i n k i n g which emphasizes the ' c h a l l e n g e and a p p e a l s t o the f r o n t i e r or p i o n e e r s p i r i t " (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1 9 7 8 c : p . l 3 ) . "The Company, the media, e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c l u b s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f o s t e r a new way of t h i n k i n g which emphasizes the c h a l l e n g e and a p p e a l s t o the p i o n e e r s p i r i t " ( i b i d : p , 1 0 8 ) . The 1978 p l a n r e p r e s e n t s Tumbler R i d g e ' s l a c k of c o l l e c t i v e consumption and user-pays p h i l o s o p h y as an advantage. The r e a l i t y of poor s e r v i c e s , e x p e n s i v e h o u s i n g and a l i m i t e d f u t u r e i s d i s g u i s e d by the i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s of the f r o n t i e r community. The document t h i s c h a p t e r has c r i t i q u e d p r o v i d e s s u b s t a n c i a l support f o r the argument t h a t a s t a t e / c o r p o r a t e a l l i a n c e has e v o l v e d under t r a n s n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s m , i n which the p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n of the s t a t e i s t o f a c i l i t a t e c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . The 1978 p l a n f o r Tumbler Ridge a t t e m p t s t o f u r t h e r dominant group i n t e r e s t s i n m i n i m i z i n g the c o s t of a s t a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e . And f u r t h e r m o r e , the s t a t e ' s r o l e as i d e o l o g y c r e a t o r has been u n d e r s c o r e d , as p l a n n e r s working through a p r o v i n c i a l agency -- M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s -- have been documented i n the a c t of m y s t i f i n g the r e a l i t y of t h i s r o l e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s p l a n n i n g document s u p p o r t s the arguement of the i n a b i l i t y of p l a n n i n g , i n our p r e s e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system, t o r e s o l v e many of the problems of SRMCs. The p l a n r e p e a t e d s t r e s s e d the need t o r e c r u i t s p e c i f i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t y p e s of i n d i v i d u a l s t o become f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of Tumbler R i d g e . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used, appears 121 unable t o s t r u c t u r a l l y r e s o l v e many of the t r a d i t i o n a l problems of SRMCs: i s o l a t i o n , impermanence and dependency. I n s t e a d the p l a n attempted t o obscure t h e s e problems by p r o p o s i n g r e c r u i t m e n t of f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s t h a t a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be s e n s i t i v e t o them. M a c M i l l a n et a l (1977) documents the i n a b i l i t y of the Canadian l a b o u r s u p p l y t o meet the p r e s e n t l a b o u r demands f o r the Canadian m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . R e c r u i t m e n t s u c c e s s , of f u t u r e mine workers f o r Tumbler R i d g e , i s u n l i k e l y t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than e x p e r i e n c e d f o r o t h e r m i n i n g p r o j e c t s . Turnover i s l i k e l y t o remain near B a n c r o f t ' s (1975) c a l c u l a t e d B r i t i s h Columbian average of n i n e t y p e r c e n t . Urban-o r i e n t e d mine workers w i l l p r o b a b l y be r e c r u i t e d f o r Tumbler Ridge as a r e s u l t . In Tumbler R i d g e , p o t e n t i a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r u r b a n - o r i e n t e d workers may be h i g h e r than i n o t h e r SRMCs, due t o the 1978 p l a n ' s o b j e c t i v e t o d e s i g n the community f o r e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d homogenous r e s i d e n t s . The Tumbler Ridge p l a n r e s t r i c t s the p o t e n t i a l f o r development of a s t a b l e community (as d e f i n e d i n Chapter Two). The document does not ad d r e s s the need f o r maintenance of the s o c i a l and economic networks r e q u i r e d f o r community. The p l a n f a i l s t o a d d r e s s means of d e a l i n g w i t h damaged f r i e n d s h i p and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l networks c r e a t e d by p o t e n t i a l community t u r n o v e r . Nor does the p l a n a d d r e s s c r e a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e economic networks f o r employment i f the mines r e q u i r e fewer workers over t i m e , due t o i n c r e a s e d c a p i t a l i z a t i o n or reduced w o r l d demand. S i m i l a r l y the p l a n does not e x p l i c i t l y a d d r e s s the Canadian i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s r e q u i r e d f o r an a c c e p t a b l e 122 q u a l i t y of l i f e , p r o moting s t a b i l i t y (see Chapter F o u r ) . As a r e s u l t of r e l i a n c e on e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s , the p l a n does not handle problems of SRMCs, s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t l y than they have been h a n d l e d i n the p a s t f o r o t h e r , now u n s t a b l e , SRMCs. Tumbler Ridge w i l l e x p l i c i t l y have l i m i t e d c h o i c e of goods and s e r v i c e s . P o t e n t i a l mine c l o s u r e i s i g n o r e d . The s o c i a l h i e r a c h y i n Tumbler Ridge w i l l be formed by the i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a c h y , w i t h l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l f o r fewer r e s u l t a n t s o c i a l problems, caused by t h i s h i e r a c h y , than those noted by Lucas (1971). The community w i l l l a c k a d a p t i b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h change, as i t i s d e s i g n e d i n the p l a n t o e x i s t , e s s e n t i a l l y , o n l y f o r c o a l p r o d u c t i o n . Loss of employment w i l l g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t i n community t u r n o v e r d e s t r o y i n g s o c i a l n etworks. The 1978 p l a n compounds t h i s l a t t e r problem, due t o h i g h p r o p e r t y t a x e s and mortgage payments, r e q u i r e d f o r m a n d i t o r y h o u s i n g . F o r c e d p r i v a t e home ownership and r e s u l t a n t h i g h monthly payments w i l l s e r v e as a mechanism t o e x p e l n o n - p r o d u c t i v e members from the community, as no low income h o u s i n g i s proposed f o r Tumbler Ridge (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978b). The p l a n ' s proposed c r e a t i o n of a p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h e x p l i c i t v e t o power over l o c a l government w i l l f u r t h e r weaken a sense of community i n Tumbler R i d g e , as w e l l as d e t r a c t i n g from the towns p o t e n t i a l f o r s t a b i l i t y . T h i s proposed o r g a n i z a t i o n , when combined w i t h o t h e r u n r e s o l v e d problems of e x t e r n a l dependency, w i l l p r o b a b l y r e s u l t i n a g r e a t e r degree of a l i e n a t i o n f o r the town's r e s i d e n t s , t h a n , 123 t h a t , found i n many o t h e r SRMCs w i t h p e r c e i v e d more s a t i s f a c t o r y l o c a l government (see f i g u r e I I p.61). The 1978 p l a n d e a l s w i t h the the p h y s i c a l environment and the s o c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of the t o w n s i t e , but does not s u c c e s s f u l l y d e a l w i t h the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s ' needs r e q u i r e d t o c r e a t e t h e i r own s a t i s f a c t o r y environment and d e v e l o p a sense of i d e n t i t y w i t h p l a c e , r e q u i r e d t o produce a sense of community. R e s u l t a n t a l i e n a t i o n and p o t e n t i a l h i g h t u r n o v e r may p r e v e n t a t r u e sense of community from s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d e v e l o p i n g i n Tumbler R i d g e , a t l e a s t i f the town i s c r e a t e d as proposed i n t h i s p l a n n i n g document. 0 124 V I I I BEYOND THE STABLE SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITY RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEMS OF SINGLE RESOURCE MINING  COMMUNITIES: AN IMPOSSIBILITY Tumbler Ridge e x e m p l i f i e s the r o l e , of the s t a t e f a c i l i t a t i n g t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e development a t the d i r e c t expense of the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of Tumbler Ridge and, i n d i r e c t l y , i n the l o n g r u n , the r e s i d e n t s of the r e s t of the p r o v i n c e . P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y , w h i l e g i v i n g the appearance of promoting a d e s i r a b l e community, i s i n r e a l i t y a t t e m p t i n g t o m i n i m i z e c o s t s f o r m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s . The p r e s e n t e l e c t o r a l system, f o o t l o o s e n a t u r e of t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s of "growth" on t h e p a r t of the e l e c t o r a t e -- p e r p e t u a t e d by the dominant i d e o l o g y of l a t e l i b e r a l i s m — make t h i s t ype of p o l i c y r o l e f o r the s t a t e i n e v i t a b l e . A "compensating" p l a n n i n g approach, as a p p l i e d t o SRMCs, cannot d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the r e a l problems of i s o l a t i o n , impermanence and dependency. T h i s type of p l a n n i n g a pproach, n e g o t i a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s between the v a r i o u s a c t o r s , can o n l y f a v o u r the dominant o r d e r . The p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must h i d e , not r e s o l v e , the problems c r e a t e d f o r t h e non-dominant a c t o r s , r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs; f o r the g o a l of t h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s not r e s o l u t i o n of SRMC problems, but r e s o l u t i o n of problems d e t r a c t i n g from c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . For s t a p l e 125 e x t r a c t i o n t h e s e problems a r e l a c k of economic e f f i c e n c y , i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s and p o t e n t i a l l a c k of s o c i e t a l s t a b i l i t y c h a n g i n g the s t a t u s quo (D a v i e s 1974, G o l d s t e i n 1975). T h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i n a c h i e v i n g i t s r e a l g o a l s , cannot h e l p but c r e a t e problems f o r non-dominant a c t o r s , due t o i t s " e f f i c i e n t " a l l o c a t i o n of the f i n i t e economic r e n t from s t a p l e r e s o u r c e s between the competing groups (Markusen 1978a). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s compensating p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the s t a t e and c o r p o r a t e f a c t i o n s , w i l l e v e n t u a l l y c r e a t e f u r t h e r l o n g - t e r m r e g i o n a l or t e r r i t o r i a l problems when the r e s o u r c e i s e i t h e r d e p l e t e d or no l o n g e r of v a l u e t o the e x t r a c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n s ( H o l l a n d 1979). A prime o b j e c t i v e of the Tumbler Ridge P l a n (Thompson B e r w i c k P r a t t 1978a-e) i s s u p p l y i n g s t a b l e e x t r a c t i o n l a b o u r at minimum c o s t over a ten year p e r i o d . What w i l l happen when c o a l demand cea s e s or the r e s e r v e s run out? The t r a n s n a t i o n a l e x t r a c t i o n companies w i l l have a c h i e v e d t h e i r g o a l , as they a m o r t i z e t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s over a seven year p e r i o d (Best 1980). The im p l e m e t i n g government, due t o f a c i l i t a t i n g the p e r c e p t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l growth, w i l l have a c h i e v e d t h e i r g o a l of i n c r e a s e d s h o r t - t e r m v o t e s ( B l a c k 1979). However, the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r N o r t h e a s t c o a l i s a m o r t i z e d over twenty y e a r s , h o u s i n g over t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ( S k a b u r s k i s 1980). W i l l t h e s e t e r r i t o r i a l l y f i x e d and f i n a n c e d s t r u c t u r e s have t h e i r investment recouped? I f n o t , i t w i l l be t o the d e t r i m e n t of the r e s i d e n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia and i n p a r t i c u l a r the r e s i d e n t s of the SRMC. 1.26 Even more i m p o r t a n t from a h u m a n i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l be e v e n t u a l l o s s of Tumbler Ridge's major employers. I f the community of Tumbler Ridge i s c o n s t r u c t e d , i t s 10,000 r e s i d e n t s may e v e n t u a l l y be l e f t w i t h l i t t l e or no reason f o r e x i s t e n c e when the c o a l mines e v e n t u a l l y c l o s e . Even p a r t i a l c l o s u r e , or i n c r e a s e d c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the i n d u s t r y , w i l l r e s u l t i n many Tumbler Ridge r e s i d e n t s l o o s i n g employment. A reduced p o p u l a t i o n i n Tumbler Ridge would d e s t r o y the a r t i f i c i a l h o u s i n g market, r e s u l t i n g i n a l o s s of ho u s i n g e q u i t y f o r a l l r e m a i n i n g r e s i d e n t s . In e i t h e r e v e n t u a l i t y , r e m a i n i n g unemployed r e s i d e n t s w i l l be a c l a s s i c a l "mobile s u r p l u s l a b o u r army". In the worst c a s e , r e s i d e n t s ' s u b s t a n t i a l p e r s o n a l investment i n Tumbler Ridge may be w o r t h l e s s . Yet i t appears p o l i c y f o r new SRMCs, l i k e Tumbler Ri d g e , does not d e a l w i t h t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y , i t i s i r r e l e v a n t t o the g o a l s of a t t r a c t i n g c o r p o r a t e development and m a x i m i z a t i o n of the development's economic s u c c e s s f o r i n d u s t r y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y i s beyond the p o l i t i c a l " c o s t / b e n e f i t " time h o r i z o n of the e l e c t o r a l system. For t h e s e r e a s o n s , the problems of SRMCs and uneven h i n t e r l a n d development cannot be r e s o l v e d under our p r e s e n t s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g framework. The p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, w h i l e g i v i n g the appearance of a t t e m p t i n g t o r e s o l v e these p roblems, i s r e a l l y a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e o t h e r g o a l s , f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s of the 127 dominant a c t o r s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g framework. The l a t e l i b e r a l Canadian i d e o l o g y , i f p r o p e r l y s o l d , may s o f t e n and h i d e t h e r e a l i t y of SRMCs, but t h i s i d e o l o g y does not have the power t o r e s o l v e t h i s r e a l i t y . PLANNING FOR SINGLE RESOURCE MINING COMMUNITY RESIDENTS WITH  OUR PRESENT DECISION-MAKING FRAMEWORK P r e s e n t compensating p l a n n i n g f a i l s t o d i r e c t l y a d d ress the problems of SRMCs. Due t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework of B r i t i s h C olumbia, perhaps no p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n i t i a t e d by the s t a t e can a d d r e s s th e s e fundamental problems. A t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s p o t e n t i a l l y has t h i s a b i l i t y , but i t i s c l e a r l y i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s of top-down d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A p p l y i n g a t e r r i t o r i a l approach t o SRMCs, one must query the l o n g - t e r m outcome of development on p r e s e n t and f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of the community and r e g i o n i n q u e s t i o n . T h i s i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h ' e f f i c i e n t ' g o a l achievement of the dominant a c t o r s , however, who a r e concerned w i t h f u n c t i o n a l l y based g o a l s , or t e r r i t o r i a l based g o a l s a t the a g g r e g a t e l e v e l . The l o n g - t e r m t e r r i t o r i a l outcome of SRMCs and f i n i t e s t a p l e r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n i s q u i t e c l e a r . The r e s o u r c e w i l l be d e p l e t e d and e x t r a c t i o n w i l l no l o n g e r be p o s s i b l e . At t h i s p o i n t , t h e r e w i l l no l o n g e r be a need or f u n c t i o n a l purpose f o r the SRMCs, except f o r the few SRMCs t h a t e v o l v e i n t o r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e c e n t r e s ( S t e l t e r and A r t i b i s e 1978). Be i n g 128 c o g n i z a n t of t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y , a t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must ask i f t h e r e can be a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n s f o r the SRMCs. once m i n e r a l / hydrocarbon e x t r a c t i o n i s completed. In the i s o l a t e d , r e l a t i v e l y u n p o p u l a t e d a r e a s of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, away from the p r o v i n c i a l m e t r o p o l e , t h e r e a r e few f u n c t i o n s t o be s e r v e d by a SRMC a p a r t from the f u n c t i o n as a r e s o u r c e d i s p e r s i n g c e n t r e and a d o r m i t o r y f o r the mines. These communities, u n l e s s they have another m a r k e t a b l e r e s o u r c e , have no p o t e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r p r i m a r y , secondary or t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s , under p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n our e x i s t i n g g l o b a l economy. I n d u s t r i e s developed i n these communities a r e i n h e r e n t l y handicapped by d i s e c o n o m i e s of d i s t a n c e and l a c k of urban economies of s c a l e , u n l e s s they have s p e c i a l a t t r i b u t e s making them s u i t a b l e f o r t o u r i s m . Labour i n these communities i s s k i l l e d p r e d o m i n e n t l y o n l y i n m i n i n g , s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r secondary i n d u s t r i e s would have t o d i s p l a c e mine w o r k e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , as a l r e a d y n o t e d , c o r p o r a t i o n s l o c a t e i n space t o maximize p r o f i t by m i n i m i z i n g p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s . An i s o l a t e d SRMC, perhaps hundreds of m i l e s from the n e a r e s t h a r b o u r , or s i g n i f i c a n t market, h a r d l y o p t i m i z e s the m i n i m i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s f o r secondary i n d u s t r y i n the eyes of a t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n . I f SRMCs a r e i n h e r e n t l y impermanent, what a r e t h e i r o p t i o n s -- the Tumbler R i d g e - t y p e scheme d i s c u s s e d i n the l a s t c h a p t e r ? Chapter Four notes t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the t r a d i t i o n a l SRMC: m i g r a t o r y communities of "mobile homes"; the impermanent work camp; and the concept of the r e g i o n a l 129 c e n t r e w i t h s a t e l l i t e r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i n g camps or l i m i t e d s e r v i c e d towns. The l a s t a l t e r n a t i v e i n a r e g i o n of f i n i t e m i n e r a l r e s e r v e s f a c e s the same e v e n t u a l i t y as the t r a d i t i o n a l SRMC, i n our p r e s e n t g l o b a l economy, a l b e i t w i t h i n a l o n g e r time frame. When the m i n e r a l / h y drocarbon r e s o u r c e s a re d e p l e t e d , t h i s r e g i o n a l c e n t r e may no l o n g e r have a f u n c t i o n a l reason f o r e x i s t e n c e . In N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia the l a n d i s rugged, the ar e a i s g r e a t , and v i a b l e m i n e r a l /hydrocarbon d e p o s i t s a r e w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d ; e f f i c i e n t development of t h e r e g i o n a l c e n t r e concept i s u n l i k e l y t o be e f f e c t i v e . Moreover, one must q u e s t i o n the q u a l i t y of l i f e of r e s i d e n t s of these r e g i o n s i f they have t o d r i v e f o r two hours t h e r e and back t o go t o the d o c t o r o r , c o n v e r s e l y , t o go t o work. Indeed, t h i s form of s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n i s not u n l i k e the p r e s e n t SRMC r e a l i t y . I m plementation of a p o l i c y p r o m o t i n g development of a r e g i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e , under our p r e s e n t s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n -making system, would o n l y f u r t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e the p r e s e n t u n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e consumption i n B r i t i s h Columbia's h i n t e r l a n d . P a r k e r ' s (1963) concept of the "mobile home community", w h i l e perhaps e f f i c e n t f o r the p r e s e n t dominant a c t o r s i n p r o v i n c i a l development, c e r t a i n l y a l s o l i m i t s t he q u a l i t y of l i f e of the community's r e s i d e n t s . A l l s t r u c t u r e s , f a c i l i t i e s and houses, would have t o be c o n s t r u c t e d t o be mo b i l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia's rugged i n t e r i o r . C e r t a i n l y the a e t h e t i c s of t h i s m o b i l e community would l e a v e something t o be d e s i r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e does not d e a l w i t h the problems 130 of i s o l a t i o n and e x t e r n a l dependency of SRMCs. The l e v e l of c o l l e c t i v e consumption i n t h e s e communities would be no h i g h e r , a t b e s t , than p r e s e n t l y proposed SRMCs. The t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e i s the workcamp. A workcamp i s not a community i n the d e f i n i t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . In a workcamp t h e r e a r e few s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l or p o l i t i c a l networks beyond the networks d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the economic work environment. C o l l e c t i v e consumption i n a workcamp i s m i n i m a l , j u s t s u f f i c e n t t o m a i n t a i n a r e a s o n a b l e , e f f i c e n t , l e v e l of l a b o u r t u r n o v e r . However, perhaps t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s the b e s t r e s o l u t i o n of the problems of SRMCs, under our p r e s e n t s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g framework. T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e c o u l d be c o u p l e d t o the use of a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o a l l o w the use of commuting between the workcamp and a permanent l a r g e urban community of h i g h c o l l e c t i v e consumption. R a b b i t Lake, a workcamp u s i n g t h i s a i r commute, has an annual t u r n o v e r r a t e of 23 p e r c e n t (Nogas 1976). T h i s compares t o the B r i t i s h Columbia average f o r SRMCs of over 90 p e r c e n t ( B a n c r o f t 1975). The workers a t R a b b i t Lake appear s a t i s f i e d , they work a week and then have a week o f f i n an urban community. When the mine c l o s e s they s t i l l have e q u i t y i n t h e i r homes, community membership and i n t a c t s o c i a l n e tworks. T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o l v e s the problems of SRMCs, by_ not c r e a t i n g them . Above a l l , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s e f f i c e n t f o r the e x t r a c t i o n company (Nogas 1976). N i c k e l s e t a l (1976) and M a t t h i a s s o n (1970,1971) s t a t e some p e o p l e , p r i m a r i l y from r u r a l backgrounds, e n j o y and 131 d e s i r e t o l i v e i n t r a d i t i o n a l SRMCs. However, M a c M i l l a n (1977) notes t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s not n e a r l y enough t o f i l l demand f o r l a b o u r r e c r u i t m e n t f o r m i n i n g communities, r e q u i r i n g e n l i s t m e n t of u r b a n - o r i e n t e d workers and i m m i g r a n t s . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s workcamp o p t i o n i n f u t u r e m i n i n g developments, w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g e x i s t i n g SRMCs w h i l e r e s o u r c e s l a s t , e c o n o m i c a l l y r e s o l v e s the needs of both the r u r a l - and u r b a n - o r i e n t a t e d workers r e q u i r e d by the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . A workcamp o p t i o n was d i s c u s s e d and d i s m i s s e d f o r Tumbler Ridge by the p r o v i n c i a l government, a p p a r e n t l y f o r p o l i t i c a l , more so, than t e c h n i c a l reasons ( P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia 1977). A s i g n i f i c a n t reason f o r d i s m i s s a l was the p o t e n t i a l s i z e of the camps, l a r g e r than some i n c o r p o r a t e d communities. Another s t a t e d reason was the p r e f e r e n c e of the e x t r a c t i o n companies t o have government a d m i n i s t e r t o the mine workers' h o u s i n g and w e l l b e i n g , r a t h e r than the c o r p o r a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . Even w i t h t h e s e r e s e r v a t i o n s , the workcamp a l t e r n a t i v e r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n by government, and was b e l i e v e d implementable. The p l a n f o r Tumbler Ridge (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978a-e 1978) p r o j e c t e d a mine w o r k f o r c e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3,000 peo p l e f o r the f o u r p o t e n t i a l c o a l mines a t f u l l p r o d u c t i o n . Assuming an a d d i t i o n a l 25 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e f o r s e r v i c e workers (c o o k s , c l e a n e r s , e t c . ) , i f f o u r workcamps were b u i l t i n p l a c e of Tumbler R i d g e , the average s i z e of each workcamp would be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000. T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r than workcamps s u c c e s s f u l l y b u i l t and m a i n t a i n e d f o r major l o n g 132 term c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , such as James Bay ( B o u r r a s s a 1973). One advantage f o r the workcamp o p t i o n , i n p l a c e of the Tumbler Ridge t o w n s i t e , i s t h a t f i x e d investment i s m i n i m i z e d . As the mines s u r r o u n d i n g Tumbler Ridge are d e p l e t e d over t i m e , o t h e r p r o s p e c t i v e mine s i t e s t o the south of Tumbler Ridge c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978a), and the workcamp s t r u c t u r e s and workers r e l o c a t e d . Tumbler Ridge has s u f f i c e n t l y m i l d weather t o a l l o w dependable year round a i r s e r v i c e and i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty minutes by a i r from P r i n c e George, a c i t y of 70,000 (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978a-e). A f l y i n , l a r g e s c a l e commute o p t i o n might have been implemented i n p l a c e of the Tumbler Ridge t o w n s i t e o p t i o n f o r the N o r t h e a s t C o a l Development. The p e r i o d of the 1950s t h r o u g h the mid-1970s has been argued t o be an unique epoch, where Ke y n e s i a n economics was c o u p l e d t o B e v e r i d g e ' s v i s i o n of economic j u s t i c e ( M i l l e r 1978). M i l l e r and o t h e r s argue t h a t t h i s p e r i o d , w i t h the s t a t e g i v i n g the i d e o l o g i c a l v i s i o n of maintenance of the s o c i a l minimum th r o u g h a l l o c a t i o n of e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g c o l l e c t i v e consumption i s a t an end. The l i b e r a l economic p i e i s no l o n g e r growing, r a t h e r i t i s d e c r e a s i n g i n s i z e . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the workcamp o p t i o n , i n p l a c e of the p o s t -1965 I n s t a n t Town Act s i n g l e r e s o u r c e community, i s perhaps now e x p e d i e n t under our p r e s e n t s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system. The i d e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a workcamp environment l e a v e s something t o be d e s i r e d . i n our l i b e r a l v a l u e framework. Yet the r e a l i t y b e h i n d t h i s commuting workcamp a l t e r n a t i v e may 133 a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r many f u t u r e mine wo r k e r s . At l e a s t t h e s e workers w i l l have a permanent community t o c a l l home. I d e a l i s t i c a l l y , a fundamental s o c i e t a l change may a l l o w the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of community a l t e r n a t i v e s , which c o u l d r e s u l t i n r e s o l u t i o n of the problems of SRMCs. To be s u c c e s s f u l , a l t e r n a t i v e s would have t o s h i f t the f o c u s of dominant a c t o r s t o i n c l u d e r e s i d e n t s of SRMCs, and perhaps as Schumacher (1973) proposes q u e s t i o n the concept of economic e f f i c e n c y and the l i b e r a l and s t a t e c a p i t a l i s t c oncept of growth. Perhaps, i f arguements of a s h r i n k i n g economy a r e s u p p o r t e d by e v i d e n c e of a l o n g term t r e n d , r e s u l t a n t l o s s of a c c e p t e d norms of growth may a l l o w a s h i f t i n s o c i e t a l v a l u e s p r o d u c i n g i n c r e a s e d community d e t e r m i n a t i o n ( M i l l e r 1979). In t h i s environment t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g may be i m p l e m e n t a b l e . One t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g answer t o the problems of SRMCs would be t o not d e v e l o p s t a p l e e x t r a c t i o n i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s a t a l l . Yet i f an e x i s t i n g community d e s i r e d s t a p l e e x t r a c t i o n development, or i f a group d e s i r e d t o c r e a t e a community f o r s t a p l e p r o d u c t i o n , a t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e , b e i n g l e s s e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , c o u l d q u e s t i o n l o n g term community development o p t i o n s , u n l i k e the p l a n f o r Tumbler R i d g e , and c o n s i d e r the q u e s t i o n of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n -- f o r whom. A common r e s u l t of p r e s e n t economic development i s c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n a c c r u i n g t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , who g l o b a l l y d i v e r s i f y the t e r r i t o r i a l l y produced w e a l t h . A t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g approach c o u l d attempt t o c a p t u r e the 134 m a j o r i t y of the produced economic r e n t f o r the p r o d u c i n g community. T h i s approach c o u l d r e s u l t i n s u f f i c i e n t t e r r i t o r i a l w e a l t h t o overcome many of the t r a d i t i o n a l problems of impermanence, i s o l a t i o n and dependency i n SRMCs, a l l o w i n g the c r e a t i o n of a s t r o n g sense of community and s t a b i l i t y . In the 1978. p l a n f o r Tumbler Ridge (Thompson Berwick P r a t t 1978a-e), over sev e n t y p e r c e n t of t h e community c o s t i s be i n g payed f o r by the r e s i d e n t s . The m a j o r i t y of the o v e r a l l development c o s t s a r e b e i n g f i n a n c e d by the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ( H a l v o r s o n 1980). The c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e o n l y e s s e n t i a l l y p a y i n g f o r , and b e a r i n g the r i s k o f , the a c t u a l e x t r a c t i o n p l a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s ( i b i d ) . The c o r p o r a t i o n s w i l l have made, as a minimum, a f a i r r a t e of p r o f i t over t h e i r a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d of seven y e a r s (Best 1980). A f t e r seven y e a r s t h e s e c o r p o r a t i o n s w i l l make s u p e r p r o f i t s , i f p a s t t r a c k r e c o r d s a r e a n y t h i n g t o go on (Payne 1979, 1980, Gunton 1980). These p r o f i t s w i l l c e r t a i n l y l e a v e the a r e a , i f not the c o u n t r y . I f the mines, as w e l l as the community, were dev e l o p e d by the r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a (perhaps w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the p r o v i n c i a l government), r a t h e r than by i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , t h e s e super p r o f i t s c o u l d s t a y i n the p r o d u c i n g a r e a . Investment of t h e s e p r o f i t s i n l o c a l p o s t - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y and improved community q u a l i t y c o u l d r e s u l t i n both a more s a t i s f a c t o r y community f o r Tumbler R i d g e ' s r e s i d e n t s and a community w i t h an " u n l i m i t e d f u t u r e " . 135 In t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e environment, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l w e l l b e i n g , a p a r t from, perhaps, a s s i s t a n c e i n i n i t i a l f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l , would not r e s i d e w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l government, but on the s h o u l d e r s of the community r e s i d e n t s employed i n the m i n i n g v e n t u r e . The p r o v i n c e c o u l d r e c e i v e comparable or h i g h e r revenue from t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e , than i t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y expect under the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , y e t i t s l o n g - t e r m r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would be l o w e r e d . S h o r t term r i s k might remain the same, or s l i g h t l y h i g h e r , f o r both the community and the p r o v i n c e , but l o n g - t e r m l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l t e r r i t o r i a l r e t u r n might be much h i g h e r . Many of the problems of SRMCs ar e c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t of l i m i t e d l o c a l c o n t r o l and the f i n i t e time h o r i z o n of the r e s o u r c e . With t e r r i t o r i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d l o c a l i n v e s t m e n t , i n i t i a l l y from mine p r o f i t s and l a t e r from o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l v e n t u r e s , i n b a l a n c e w i t h l o c a l a r e a r e q u i r e m e n t s of the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment, community networks c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d or c o n t i n u a l l y m o d i f i e d t o be r e s i s t e n t t o mine c l o s u r e and p e r c e i v e d e x t e r n a l impacts d e t r a c t i n g from a s t a b l e community. I f N o r t h e a s t C o a l Development where t o be p l a n n e d from t h i s , a d m i t t e d l y U t o p i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , the r e s u l t a n t community would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s a t i s f a c t o r y , than t h a t p r e s e n t l y proposed by the 1978 Tumbler Ridge p l a n . P erhaps, i n a r e a s were a more d i v e r s i f i e d economic base e x i s t s , t h i s t e r r i t o r i a l a l t e r n a t i v e c o u l d be taken one s t e p f u r t h e r and c o u p l e d t o Robinson's (1962) r e g i o n a l c e n t r e 136 concept t o produce a " h i n t e r - p o l i t a n " r e g i o n . T h i s t e r r i t o r i a l , s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d , r e g i o n would a l l i e v i a t e many of the problems p r e v i o u s l y d i c u s s e d w i t h t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d a l t e r n a t i v e , such as the need t o a t t r a c t c o r p o r a t e i n v e s t m e n t . In many ways t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e , w i t h a t e r r i t o r i a l , r a t h e r than f u n c t i o n a l , o r i e n t a t i o n , would be s i m i l a r t o Friedmann's and Weaver's (1979) " a g r i p o l i t a n " development. Only t h i s p r o p o s a l would be based on an i n i t i a l l y s t a p l e s e x t r a c t i o n r e g i o n , r a t h e r than an a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d . E s s e n t i a l l y , a d o p t i o n of a t e r r i t o r i a l a l t e r n a t i v e , i n p l a c e of t r a d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n , would r e q u i r e l o c a l o w nership of the s t a p l e s r e s o u r c e and the means of e x t r a c t i o n . In many ways t h i s concept i s not u n l i k e the p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l l y implemented B r i t i s h Columbia Investment C o r p o r a t i o n (BCRIC), except communal ownership would be a t the l o c a l r e g i o n a l l e v e l , r a t h e r than a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . U n l i k e BCRIC, r e s t r i c t i o n s would be r e q u i r e d t o be p l a c e d on p r o f i t s , r e q u i r i n g r e i n v e s t m e n t i n the r e g i o n . W h i l e perhaps, not implementable under our p r e s e n t s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system, t h i s t e r r i t o r i a l o p t i o n h o l d s some hope f o r f u t u r e r e s o l u t i o n of the s t a b l e SRMC problem. AREAS OF FURTHER STUDY Over the l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s a g r e a t d e a l of study has been conducted on the problems of r e s o u r c e communities i n 137 Canada. The m a j o r i t y of t h e s e s t u d i e s have been conducted from a l i b e r a l i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . With the e x c e p t i o n of Bradbury (1978, 1979, 1980), few s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and p l a n n e r s have conducted r e s e a r c h o u t s i d e of t h i s l i b e r a l v a l u e framework; c l e a r l y t h e r e i s a need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on SRMCs drawing on the v a l u a b l e a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s of c r i t i c a l p o l i t i c a l economy. As w e l l , development of U t o p i a n p r e s c r i p t i o n s a d d r e s s i n g the problems of h i n t e r l a n d development i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e c a l l e d f o r , even i f they may be unimplementable a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . I f t he p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e f u t u r e f o r im p l e m e n t a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s based on a t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e r e a r e many a r e a s r e q u i r i n g s t u d y . R e s e a r c h i n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l base a r e r e q u i r e d t o det e r m i n e which type of s t r u c t u r e would produce e q u i t a b l e but e f f i c e n t management of t e r r i t o r i a l development. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x i s t i n g t e r r i t o r i a l governments and p o s s i b l e r e g i o n a l " h i n t e r - p o l i t a n " a r e a s r e q u i r e s e x p l o r a t i o n . E q u i t a b l e ' a l l o c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l e a r n i n g s t o the i n d i v i d u a l must be d e t e r m i n e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p .of the t e r r i t o r i a l r e g i o n t o the g l o b a l economy must be e x p l o r e d . More f u n d a m e n t a l l y , r e s e a r c h i n t o o p t i m a l a l t e r n a t i v e i n d u s t r i a l development f o r i s o l a t e d h i n t e r l a n d a r e a s must be e x p l o r e d . Q u e s t i o n s of s c a l e -- what i s the o p t i m a l s i z e of a r e g i o n f o r t e r r i t o r i a l development r e q u i r e i n q u i r y . On a more immediate l e v e l , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n modern 138 workcamp/ commuting a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r SRMCs i s r e q u i r e d . W h i l e many documents acknowledge t h i s o p t i o n , no l i t e r a t u r e e m p i r i c a l l y e x p l o r e s the d e t a i l s of the workcamp/ commuting o p t i o n , even though t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e appears s u c c e s s f u l a t R a b b i t Lake (Nogas 1976). Q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r i n g e x p l o r a t i o n i n c l u d e ; how do s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s e m p i r i c a l l y compare between a commuting workcamp and a t r a d i o n a l SRMC, what would be the c o m p o s i t i o n of a s t a b l e w o r k f o r c e i n t h i s t ype of environment, what t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p t i o n s would be most e f f i c e n t , as w e l l , how do the l o n g term c o s t s compare? F i n a l l y , f u r t h e r s t u d y o'f the r o l e of p l a n n e r s i n our p r e s e n t s o c i e t a l framework i s r e q u i r e d . 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