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Painting and politics at the Royal Academy exhibition of 1832 Elliot, Bridget Jane 1982

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PAINTING  AND  POLITICS AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY EXHIBITION OF  by  BRIDGET JANE E L L I O T T B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ,  1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY  OF GRADUATE  (Department  We  accept  this  of F i n e  t h e s i s as  to the r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY  Arts)  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  September,  0  STUDIES  1982  B r i d g e t Jane E l l i o t t ,  1982  OF  1832  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department or by h i s or her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Fine Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date  September 23,  1982  Columbia  written  ii  ABSTRACT  The  R o y a l Academy e x h i b i t i o n of 1832  London i n t h e m i d s t of the G r e a t response  of a p o l i t i c a l  Reform B i l l .  to four  of the  A F a m i l y P o r t r a i t by David W i l k i e , Chiide vides  The  C.R.  Destroying Angel  1  that  tention  caused  critics  in highly  the  and  is  during bias  during  by  by J.M.W. T u r n e r ,  pro-  In an  atmosphere  conflict of and  permeated  increasing street  t h e p i c t u r e s ' q u a l i t y and  rioting, meaning  terms.  reception,  Documentary e v i d e n c e  anonymous r e v i e w s  publication  the  four  i n o r d e r t o p r o b e the  were c o n n e c t e d  the w e e k s . f o l l o w i n g  the  of Knox  and  at that  of the p i c t u r e s  opening  extent  responses  which were  journals  o f the  i s c a r e f u l l y examined  1830's, mos.t p u b l i c a t i o n s  pictures  specific  of viewer  i n ten. major London newspapers and  o f each  exhibition:  Etty,  political  politics  moment.  p r o v i d e d by  published  i n the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o c u s e s upon t h e s e  t o w h i c h a r t and  passage  critical  by W i l l i a m  ongoing  about  politicized  their critical  historical  - Italy  the  Preaching  by p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e a d l o c k  argued  This  The  over  o f the  pictures  Leslie,  Harold s.Pilgrimage evidence  analysis  leading  t h e Academy e x h i b i t i o n .  art  An  crisis  opened i n  show.  The  since,  were h i g h l y  partisan  iii  affairs,  often  interest  groups.  The  receiving d i r e c t subsidies.from  analysis  perspective  on  ambiguities  of B r i t i s h  parties  the  of t h e s e p a i n t i n g s  i n 1832.  points  out  Tories  o v e r the  Wilkie s 1  the  o f the  provides  While  the  short-term issue  an  these  new  shifts,  and  and  reception  of L e s l i e ' s p o r t r a i t  reform,  demonstrates t h a t  g r o u p s were u n i t e d  o f how  class.  Etty's  members o f the  upper  c l a s s r a t i o n a l i z e d r e j e c t i n g the  while  Turner's  class  reformers  landscape  reveals  challenged  assertion  of modernity.  pictures,  one  f i n d s there  political  and  artistic  political  d i v i s i o n s between Whigs  r a d i c a l working example  classes  of p a r l i a m e n t a r y  two  offers a  alignments,  social  history painting  differences, fear  tensions,  particular  how  tradition  By  spheres.  by  a  of their  shared  academic  sketch  conservative of  progressive  e x a m i n i n g the  i s no  that  despite  notion  with  and  reform, middle-  a positive response  clear separation  to  these  between  iv  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF FIGURES  •- v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vi  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter I. II. III.  A FAMILY PICTURE BY C. R. L E S L I E THE PREACHING  U 42  OF KNOX BY DAVID WILKIE . . . .  THE DESTROYING  ANGEL AND  DAEMONS  OF EVIL BY WILLIAM ETTY IV.  . . . . . . .  7  ^  CHILDE HAROLD'S PILGRIMAGE - ITALY BY J . M. W.  TURNER  99  CONCLUSION  127  APPENDIX A  133  APPENDIX B  134  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  135  V  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure 1.  C.R.  2.  Johan  Leslie,  Z o f f a n y , S i r Lawrence Dundas  His  Grandson.  Robert  4.  Edwin L a n d s e e r , - 6th  Seymour, J o h n  39 Bull  William  and  H i s Burdens  Spencer  . . .  David W i l k i e ,  6.  John  7.  Robert  The  41  P r e a c h i n g o f Knox  71  D o y l e , Reform and R e f o r m a t i o n Seymour, The  Reform M i l l  Old C o n s t i t u t i o n  William  Etty,  The  72  for Grinding  Young  73  Destroying Angel  and  Daemons o f E v i l 9.  Raphael,  10.  P.P.  11.  South  12.  William  The  Metope V I I Etty,  Pleasure 13.  J.M.W  94-  E x p u l s i o n of H e l i o d o r u s  Rubens.,. The  Great. L a s t (Elgin  Youth  . . . . .  Judgement  Collection)  on t h e Prow  Claude,  97  Childe Harold's Pilgrimage  Landscape:  and Rebe'kah  96  98  125  - Italy 14.  9$  and  a t the Helm  . Turner,  40  Cavendish,  Duke o f D e v o n s h i r e  5.  8.  and  . .•  3.  the  38  A Family Picture  The  Marriage  of Isaac 126  vi  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish second r e a d e r , helpful of  my  the assistance  o f my  Dr. Serge G u i l b a u t ,  who p r o v i d e d  c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s  at different  many stages  research.  Special Dr.  t o acknowledge  David  enthusiasm  thanks a r e extended  Solkin,  for hisinsights,  for British  art.  t o my a d v i s o r , encouragement, and  1  INTRODUCTION  The judgment f o r m e d upon a h a s t y g l a n c e a t the w a l l s of the Academy on the day o f the p r i v a t e v i e w has s i n c e been c o n f i r m e d by a more c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l works o f w h i c h the e x h i b i t i o n i s composed, a l t h o u g h f o r such i n d u l g e n c e the t u r m o i l of. p o l i t i c s has g i v e n us b u t l i t t l e m e n t a l l e i s u r e . Review of the R o y a l Academy M o r n i n g P o s t (May 29, 1832)  As "the  indicated  turmoil  by  of p o l i t i c s "  May  o f 1832.  the  Great Reform B i l l  assessing  Evidently  British  on  Monday m o r n i n g May  artists  The  was  the  critic  of the  unavoidable  ongoing  which  officially  7th,  held  dominated  the  preeminence 981.of the  and  political  galleries."'"  annual  opened t o the  into  both  by  over  task  of  exhibition "public"  consisted  t h r e e main  virtue  exhibition  of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l  occupying was  categories:  Painting  i n terms o f s h e e r  were p a i n t i n g s , The  crisis  a t S o m e r s e t House  a t the Academy and entries  i n London d u r i n g  archite.ctural design.  exhibition  Post,  1832.  works w h i c h were d i v i d e d sculpture  Morning  ov.ershad.owed the r e v i e w e r ' s  exhibition  painting,  seven  arts  the R o y a l Academy's s i x t y - f o u r t h  of  of 1,229  the  Exhibition,  the  volume  f i v e of  most  -  the  prestigious  2  annual a r t i s t i c two  event  days b e f o r e . t h e  invitation  t o the  i n London.  The  p r i v a t e view, h e l d  " p u b l i c " o p e n i n g was  upper e c h e l o n s  o f the  restricted nobility  *  by  and  wealthy 2  who  were s p e c i a l f r i e n d s and, s u p p o r t e r s  of the  Academy.  In p r a c t i c e , " p u b l i c " entry, was. l i m i t e d to, t h o s e who afford and  the  who  phere  two  felt  shilling  socially  fee  f o r admission  comfortable  o f S o m e r s e t Hous.e.  The  i n the  on  social  exhibited.  According published portant  William  t o the May  and  (fig.8),  The  the  p r i v a t e view and  as  the  an  commented paintings  e x h i b i t i o n r e v i e w s , w h i c h were e a r l y June, f o u r  The  Preaching  Destroying  The  so much a t t e n t i o n , can  o f the  fact be  o f the  a c a d e m i c i a n s , .who  of t h e  paintings  of Knox  A n g e l and  and. J.M.W. T u r n e r ' s  (fig.13).^  journals  in  most  im-  show were C..R..-Leslie ' s A F a m i l y  David.Wilkie's Etty's  atmos-  3  works i n . the  (fig.l),  Italy  during  imposing  and.artistic occasion—reviewers  both those a t t e n d i n g  t h a t were  catalogue,  e x h i b i t i o n was. d i s c u s s e d  many of London's, l e a d i n g newspapers and important  and  could  Daemons o f  that  these  exemplified  portrait,  history painting,  Evil  by  four, . p i c t u r e s bo.th the  p a i n t e d . them, and. the  i n academic  (fig.5),  Ch.ilde; .Harold's P i l g r i m a g e  explained  important  Picture  genres, t h a t were  circles  .(i.e.  the  the  received  leading fact  -  status  that a l l  traditionally  grand, manner  nude, and. c l a s s i c a l  group landscape).  3  All  t e n o f the e x h i b i t i o n r e v i e w e r s  importance  of these p i c t u r e s  them a t c o n s i d e r a b l e actually  liked  seem t o h a v e t a k e n t h e  f o r g r a n t e d , and t h e y d i s c u s s e d  length,(regardless  t h e works o r . f e l t  that  •  o f whether they  t h e y were  well  executed).^  Each ferently, the  one o f t h e p a i n t i n g s , was. r e c e i v e d  revealing  the e x i s t e n c e  of p a r t i s a n  academy p u b l i c : L e s l i e ' s F a m i l y P i c t u r e  between  conservative  of Knox was  interpreted.in contradictory Angel s e r i o u s l y offended  reviewers;  while  text  reveals  Instead  in  factions  created  within  a  split  that  Italy  ways;  progressive  particularly  The s h i f t i n g  Etty's  pattern  i n the h i g h l y  middle-class  upset  of the  uppercritical  charged . p o l i t i c a l  con-  o f 1832, e x h i b i t e d works a t t h e Royal.Academy e x h i b i t i o n  were a n y t h i n g  ical  Turner's  conservatives...  reception  dif-  and l i b e r a l , c r i t i c s . ; . . W i l k i e ' s P r e a c h i n g  Destroying  class  quite  but. t r a n s c e n d e n t  or n e u t r a l , a r t o b j e c t s .  thes.e p i c t u r e s r a i s e d , c o n t e n t i o u s  issues  and  polit-  t h a t were argued, o u t , b y t h e e x h i b i t i o n r e v i e w e r s  an a t m o s p h e r e o f . i n c r e a s i n g  In  social  the a f t e r n o o n  crisis.  o f May'7th, w h i l e p e o p l e  flocking  t o .opening day a t t h e R o y a l Academy,  occurred  i n t h e House  were  an e v e n t  of Lords which r a p i d l y h e i g h t e n e d  A  existing  tensions  surrounding  Reform B i l l - - L o r d duced a motion legislation. sition  Lyndhurst,  the passage  a . l e a d i n g Tory peer,  t h a t attempted  t o sabotage  The Reform B i l l  was b a s i c a l l y  parliamentary  electoral property q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . readings  i n the e l e c t e d  structed  i n the appointed  Lyndhurst  motion f e l l e d  to resign  legislation,  in  while  the Whigs  the Tory  supported  b a c k e d by t h e House the p a r t i c u l a r l y Crisis:  which  I t had passed  unable  i t l a c k e d the necessary stalemate  focused, p u b l i c  q u e s t i o n that.was  group and/or  groups  aristocracy,  class,  middle  support  between  o f Commons and t h e T o r i e s  power  class?  t h e Reform  o p p o s i t i o n was e q u a l l y  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i t i c a l  working  The n o t o r i o u s  i t r e f u s e d t o drop  The t e m p o r a r y  of Lords  the r i s i n g  three  t h e Whig m i n i s t r y was  by t h e House  thorny  middle-class  t h e Whig government, c r e a t i n g a  because  o f Commons.  propo-  s e a t s and r e d u c i n g  House o f L o r d s .  a government b e c a u s e  t h e House  Reform  a Whig  o f Commons o n l y t o be ob-  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , impasse:  compelled  t o form  House  intro-  t h e Reform .  t o e n f r a n c h i s . e c o m m e r c i a l and. i n d u s t r i a l  males by r e d i s t r i b u t i n g  serious  of the Great  a t t e n t i o n on  central should  to the  be a l l o w e d  s t r u c t u r e - - t h e landed and/or,  the i n d u s t r i a l  5  Different  London newspapers, p r e s e n t e d  t h a t were v i g o r o u s l y English  society in  s u p p o r t e d by  competing  answers factions  within  1832:  The P e e r s can. o n l y save us from t o t a l wreck by s t r i k i n g f e a r l e s s l y a t the d e m o c r a t i c c l a u s e s o f the B i l l ; . . . Morning Poat  (May  12,  1832)  The B i l l , the whole B i l l a n d . n o t h i n g B i l l , we r e p e a t t h e c r y . Spectator  .(May  12,  but  the  1832)  The B i l l ; or more t h a n the B i l l , i s now the c r y . . . i n so d e l a y i n g Whig Reform he (Lord G r e y ) has a d v a n c e d ..Radical Reform, t o w h i c h we have i n c o m p a r a b l y a s t r o n g e r preference. Examiner The Reform B i l l  entirely,  landed  of the  Bill  and  while  its.limited  males.. the  In  working  Tories  class.  government  the  Whig, S p e c t a t o r - a p p r o v e d  arguing  the  of  Radical  strenuously  despite  t o the  i n the  the  the  contrast,  Bill,  suppressing  enfranchisement  ( i . e . .male.) s u f f r a g e ,  of b o t h Whigs and t o the  1832)  leaving  interest,  s o u g h t more t h a n versal  6.,  T o r y M o r n i n g Post, a d v o c a t e d  o f the  middle-class  (May  the  principle  hands  propertied Examiner for uni-  solid o f any  opposition concessions  6  The ruling  crisis  elite  actionary  of 1 8 3 2 . s e r i o u s l y threatened the o l d  by d i v i d i n g  Tories,  establishment's  both  i t i n t o r e f o r m i n g Whigs and r e -  of. whom sought  e x i s t i n g hegemony t h r o u g h  short-term . p o l i t i c a l . t a c t i c s . proposed  middle working any  and that, by e x t e n d i n g  class  they  t h a t the  t o prevent, t o t a l  voting rights  t o the  could..f.arm. .an a l l i a n c e , t o c o n t r o l t h e  c l a s s ; - on the. ,other hand,  the T o r i e s argued  that  c o n c e s s i o n s .would,, open t h e f l o o d g a t e s to. u n i v e r s a l  suffrage present  and mob  rule.,,. Both. T o r y  conflicting  formulated excluded  endorsed  strategies  i n response  c l a s s e s , who  •process.  to increasing pressure  demanded-a. l a r g e r  t h e Whig p r o p o s i t i o n  split  f o r reform.  i n t o , t h o s e who  were  t h e two  i n the p o l i t i c a l  pressure  By c o n t r a s t , t h e working....class'  towards u n i v e r s a l . s u f f r a g e ,  that  the B i l l  people.^  that  class, whole-heartedly  supported  would, s i m p l y  role  from  and formed, s p e c i a l  step  to achieve  and Whig p o s i t i o n s r e -  of p o w e r — s t r a t e g i e s  In g e n e r a l , the middle  groups t o lobby was  antithetical  The Whigs b e l i e v e d  c o n c e s s i o n s ...were n e c e s s a r y  revolution,  to p r e s e r v e the  t h e Whig p r o p o s a l as a  and t h o s e  further  who  maintained  empower t h e m i d d l e  i t s . g o a l . o f o p p r e s s i n g .and e x p l o i t i n g  class  working  7  The  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , deadlock  ;Votion: o f  Lyndhurst  disturbances a i d e d by  May  7th u n l e a s h e d  i n London.  leaflets  a.wave o f  class.Radicals,  mass- d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and  from  the  popular  Whig s u p p o r t e r s , • t e m p o r a r i l y  a s e c t o r of working  mobilized  stemming  once  c i r c u l a t e d , angry  s t a r t e d . o r g a n i z i n g a run  on  the  again  political  banks t o  over-  Q  come t h e  Tories'  l a s t . s t a n d . i n t h e House o f  Lords.  Through m o u n t i n g p u b l i c , p r e s s u r e , , t h e Whigs and Radical Lord  Grey and  jority the  allies  of new  a s p i r e d to persuade t h e passage, o f the Whig p e e r s  w h i c h would  efforts initiate  as  remainder  ing  ensued, u l t i m a t e l y  the  final  height  ical  conflict  not  crisis  investigation  assist  appointing a  back, the  reform  Bill  government  political  During manoeuver-  i n May,  d u r i n g the  and  at  the  aftermath  in  t o the. Houses, o f P a r l i a m e n t ,  streets., o f London.  levels  with  1832.  the Reform B i l l  and.-fronts--an  the R o y a l  will  of  as.possible.  on .June 7th.,  ma-  Meanwhile,  Duke  surrounding  the  on'other  to  c u l m i n a t i n g i n a Whig v i c t o r y  restricted  the p u b l i c . a r e n a . o f ing  little  p a s s a g e , o f the  a r t i c l e s .and  conducted  K i n g would  o f the. month, c o m p l i c a t e d  o f the  J u n e , was  Bill.by  to. form, a m i n o r i t y T o r y  the  The  King  t o t h e House o f L.ords.  T o r i e s hoped t h a t the  Wellington's  the  their  I t was  a n a l y z e how  this  also  important  Academy e x h i b i t i o n . conflict  politactively  one  being  The  follow-^  was  waged  8  at  the  their four In  Academy, f o c u s i n g motives,  and  the  upon the  leading  politically  participants,  charged  function  most w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d , and . d e b a t e d . p a i n t i n g s  t h i s study,  politics  appeared  critical  in highly to  critical  discourse  partisan  specific . social  the  fessional  on  probing  the  reception  i n the  extent  of  the  the  show.  to  which  four  cited pictures.  The  within  emphasis.is  permeated.the  previously  catered  the  of  general  surrounding  these  pictures  newspapers, and. j o u r n a l s classes  public.  By  and  the  interest  early  that  groups  1830's,  j o u r n a l i s t s .wer.e i n c r e a s i n g l y r e p l a c i n g  pro-. amateurs  11 in  the  production,  of  these p r o f e s s i o n a l s  appealing largely work and  to  of p u b l i s h e d  reading  work•to h i s / h e r  and  appreciate.  culation  of  as. ..an i n t e r m e d i a r y  readers.in  An  arts  judging,  show, was  of r e v i e w i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s  Whig and science  in  exhibited and  explaining  terms, t h e y would, u n d e r s t a n d  I t should.be. noted t h a t  Academy  careers  reviewer  between  because  indirectly  more numerous and. v a r i e d . a u d i e n c e s who  range  The  some . p u b l i c a t i o n s . .far e x c e e d e d ..the  a t t e n d a n c e , , the the  buyers.  public—describing  the  criticism.  depended upon t h e i r s k i l l  t h e i r papers'  functioned  art  the  cir-  exhibition  presented read^the  (i.e. traditional  to  wide  monthlies,  T o r y n e w s p a p e r s , and r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d a r t s and 12 weeklies). An a n a l y s i s o f the f o r m a t , c o n t e n t ,  9  and  circulation  will the  be  o f the  u s e d ..to answer i m p o r t a n t  c r i t i c a l , commentaries  readers' responses and  to s p e c i f i c  It  readers, and  by  to the  w h i c h the  form  represented  content  the  by  the  exhibition.  nature  The  to a s p e c i f i c  audience  the  lines  e v a l u a t i n g what t h e signify.  o f the  of  towards  Therefore,  of t h e s e  specific  reviews  comments and  an  pictures is  of the  object However,  analysis  historical purpose  i s to  subject  i n 1832,  not  to  i n twentieth-century  o t h e r "words, these, m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  .critics  groups  public.responded.  the p a i n t i n g s ' appearance  read.between for  themselves.  what, t h e p a i n t i n g s ' f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s , and  describe In  in  t.ools o f f o r m a l and. .thematic  controlled  1832,  critics/,  discussed.  i s t o understand, the  framework s u r r o u n d i n g  matter  and  c r i t i c and.his/her  strictly  analyze  end  the  were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d i r e c t e d  of the  art historian's  must be  t h a t as r e v i e w s ,  the . p a i n t i n g s t h e y  i f one  of  show.  formed a f i n a l  reviews  investigation essential  noted  how  their  exhibition  t o b e i n g addressed, t o p a r t i c u l a r  the  limited  questions. concerning  functioned,in guiding  images, i n t h e  must be  addition  reviewing p u b l i c a t i o n s  to., t h e Academy, t h e  commentaries n e v e r In  individual  tools, w i l l to provide silences  of  be  used  a basis the  terms. to  10  The  constellation  o f agreement,  difference,  discord,, s i l e n c e  the  provides  critics  how t h e s e p a i n t i n g s , It  should  be n o t e d  discussion,  and o u t r i g h t  hostility  crucial... i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g operated  f o r various  that, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  groups  on t h e one hand, and .. c l a s s ..and/or . p a r t y  the  other,  visions  i s not confined  s u c h as.May o f .1832. t o t h e surface,,  p l e x i t i e s , of s o c i a l analyze  to periods.of  on b o t h  d i v i s i o n s on  intense  B u t by b r i n g i n g  t h e Reform,. C r i s i s  interaction  i n society.  between works o f  art  conflict  among  easier.to  t h e p o l i t i c a l , and a r t i s t i c  social  these d i -  makes t h e comu n r a v e l and fronts.  11  Footnotes  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by t h e c a t a l o g u e of t h e E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e Royal. Academy. MDCCCXXII The S i x t y fourth. x  2 The p r i v a t e , v i e w t o o k p l a c e on S a t u r d a y , May 5th and was discussed., by the r e v i e w e r s . of the. .Morning. P o s t , t h e M o r n i n g ' C h r o n i c l e and.the. M o r n i n g H e r a l d . 3 The p r i v a t e v i e w o f the R o y a l Academy E x h i b i t i o n f o r m e d an i m p o r t a n t e v e n t i n the e l i t e s o c i a l c a l e n d a r o f t h e London s o c i a l , s e a s o n . . T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d by. L e o n o r e D a v i d o f f , The B e s t Circles.,., S o c i e t y , . . E t i q u e t t e and t h e Season ( L o n d o n : Croom} Helm. L t d . ' / 1973) t P- 28. She" m e n t i o n s how the c l o s e d and e x c l u s i v e atmosphere of t h e p r i v a t e view p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d the t a s t e of the r u l i n g establishment. ^The f u l l t i t l e s and c a t a l o g u e e n t r y f o r e'ach p a i n t i n g a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix. A. C e r t a i n l y by t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a r t ' ' h i s t o r i c a l s t a n d a r d s , t h e r e were o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p a i n t i n g s i n the e x h i b i t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l works by J o h n C o n s t a b l e . . (e . g. W a t e r l o o Bridge,' f r o m W h i t e h a l l S t a i r s , June 18, 18,17), o t h e r works by J.M.W. T u r n e r ( e . g . S t a f f a , F i n g a l ' s Cave) and. e n t r i e s by A.W. Callcott and E. L a n d s e e r t o c i t e o n l y a few. However, t h e s e works r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n than the f o u r works I have s e l e c t e d , b e i n g overlooked.. by many r e v i e w e r s entirely. A l t h o u g h . i n t h i s s t u d y o n l y f o u r o f t h e 981 p a i n t i n g s have been s e l e c t e d f o r d e t a i l e d , a n a l y s i s , t h i s can be j u s t i f i e d by t h e i r s p e c i a l s t a t u s as the s t a r s of the show a c c o r d i n g t o the academy p u b l i c o f 1832.  5 A l l f o u r p a i n t e r s c o n t r i b u t e d more t h a n one work to the e x h i b i t i o n . F o r a. l i s t o f t h e i r o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s c o n s u l t A p p e n d i x B. In the .cas.e.of each p a i n t e r , however, t h e .works d i s c u s s e d i n t h e t e x t a p p e a r t o have been the most " a c a d e m i c " or c o n v e n t i o n a l i n terms o f genre and execution. T h i s w i l l be f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s t u d y o f the i n d i v i d u a l p i c t u r e s . ^The t e n r e v i e w s were p u b l i s h e d i n the Athenaeum, E x a m i n e r , E r a s e r ' s M a g a z i n e , L i b r a r y of t h e F i n e A r t s , L i t e r a r y G a z e t t e , Mornin.g C h r o n i c l e , M o r n i n g H e r a l d , M o r n i n g P o s t , S e e c t a t o r and T i m e s .  ^For a b r i e f and u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e Reform B i l l , see A s a B r i g g s , The Age o f Inrpr.o.vement (London: Longman Group L t d . , 1959) c h a p s . 4-5. These chap.ters a l s o p r o v i d e , f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h e e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f ,the.Reform B i l l C r i s i s , as does R.J.. Morris', C l a s s and Class.. C o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n 1780-1650 (London:. E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y S o c i e t y , 1979). The • c o n n e c t e d emergence, o f r a d i c a l w o r k i n g c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h e Reform B i l l i s dis.cussed by E.P. Thompson, The Making o f t h e E n g l i s h W o r k i n g C l a s s (Harmondsw o r t h : P e n g u i n Books, 1963; rev.is.ed. .ed.., P e l i c a n Books, 1 9 6 8 ) , chap. 16. The d i v i s i o n s , . w i t h i n t h e r a d i c a l w o r k i n g c l a s s are t y p i f i e d by t h e p o s i t i o n s of. F r a n c i s . P l a c e , a London t a i l o r and l e a d i n g l a b o u r o r g a n i z e r who was one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t l e a d e r s o f t h e R a d i c a l Campaign t o s u p p o r t t h e Reform B i l l . d u r i n g the. May c r i s i s , and Henry H e t h e r i n g t o n , E d i t o r o f t h e i l l e g a l .unstamped.Poor Man's G u a r d i a n , a penny p a p e r p u b l i s h e d f o r t h e u r b a n w o r k i n g c l a s s w h i c h c a r r i e d s e v e r a l , a r t i c l e s d e n o u n c i n g t h e sham l e g i s l a t i o n . For i n f o r m a t i o n on the. a c t i v i t i e s o f P l a c e and H e t h e r i n g t o n and t h e two d i v e r g i n g s t r e a m s o f R a d i c a l a c t i v i t y c o n s u l t D.J. Rowe, e d . , London R a d i c a l i s m 1830 - 1843; A S e l e c t i o n from t h e T a p e r s o f F r a n c i s : P l a c e (Chatham:. W. & J . Mackay • & Co. L t d . , 1970). and P a t r i c i a H o l l i s , ed..., The Poor Man's G u a r d i a n 1831 - 1835, .vol.; 1 (London:. M e r l i n P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) ; see b o t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n by H o l l i s . on H e t h e r i n g t o n and the r e p r i n t s o f t h e o r i g i n a l j o u r n a l f o r t h e months o f A p r i l and May o f 1832. 9 F u r t h e r d e t a i l s a r e p r o v i d e d , by Derek F r a s e r , "The A g i t a t i o n f o r . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Reform, !' i n P o p u l a r Movements 1830 - 1850, ed. J . T . Ward. (London:. M a c m i l l a n and Co_. L t d . , 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 31-53. " ^ S e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t s t u d i e s , have d i s c u s s e d t h e r o l e p l a y e d by t h e Lond.on p r e s s d u r i n g the Reform . C r i s i s , a n a l y z i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , o f i n d i v i d u a l , papers, t o s p e c i f i c p a r t i e s - and..social, . o r g a n i z a t i o n s . An i m p o r t a n t n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o u r ce, i s . H . R. Fox. B o u r n e , E n g l i s h N e w s p a p e r s : C h a p t e r s i n t h e H i s t o r y , of. . J o u r n a l i s m , 2 . v o l s . (New Y o r k : R u s s e l l & R . u s s e l l , 18.87; r e p r i n t ed., 1 9 6 6 ) . Modern s t u d i e s - o n t h i s - t o p i c i n c l u d e , : A. A s p i n a l l , . "The C i r c u l a t i o n o f Newspapers i n t h e . E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " Review o f • E n g l i s h S t u d i e s 22. (.January,. 194-6): .29-43; A.. A s p i n a l l ,  13  P o l i t i c s and oho ^ r e s s .17.8 0 - 1850- (London:. Home & Van T h r a l L t d . , 194-9 ), and.. R i c h a r d , A l t i c k , The E n g l i s h . Common R e a d e r : A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f t h e Mass. R e a d i n g P u b l i c J 800 - 19C0 ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of. .Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) . "'""'"The r i s e o f a new p r o f e s s i o n a l , a r t c r i t i c i s m was t y p i f i e d by . w r i t e r s l i k e . A l l a n Cunningham., who i s d i s c u s s e d In L e s l i e Marchand,: The Athenaeum.:,...A M i r r o r o f V i c t o r i a n C u l t u r e ( C h a p e l Ii.i-11.: U n i v e r s i t y of. N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 194.1), p p . 57. and. 1.78-181,; and. I n Henry Ladd... The V i c t o r i a n M o r a l i t y o f A r t (New York:... O c t a g o n ..Books., I n c . , 1932; r e p r i n t ed. , 1968). p p . 39-4-3. 12 C l e a r l y the . d e t a i l e d .descriptions, which p r e f a c e d the r e v i e w e r s ' ..dis.cus.sion.s ...of. i n d i v i d u a l , works were i n t e n d e d to. a c q u a i n t , readers.. w i t h t h e I m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f images t h e y h a d n e v e r s e e n .  CHAPTER I  A Family. P i c t u r e  Few  c r i t i c s .remained  ment o f C.R. family, 1831.  L e s l i e ! s. group  The  painting's.full  portraits  Westminster,  Viscount 'Egerfon  of  ambivalent, i n t h e i r  assess-  Grosvenor  title--A  dressed family  and .Lady, R o b e r t  of  members  and . C o u n t e s s  which.had.been  n a t i o n honours  Leslie  of  Grosvenor,  and  Lady  t h e r a n k s o f the f i f t e e n (including  Grosvenor.).  t o commemorate, t h e M a r q u e s s . o f  title  con-  t h e E a r l ...and . C o u n t e s s .Gro.svenor, t h e E a r l '  Bo I g r a v e , t h e . L a d i e s G r o s v e n p r ,  the E a r l  in  Family P i c t u r e ;  o f .'the. Marques.s. .and. M a r c h i o n e s s  (fig. l ) ,lists  ordered new  Leslie  p o r t r a i t , of the  Countess, of. W i l t o n , . L o r d  ably  C. R.  commis s i o n e d . ..by. t h e M a r q u e s s . o f W e s t m i n s t e r  taining  and  by  the f i v e The  Mary fashion-  daughters  painting  was  Westminster's  conferred, i n William  IV's  coro-  1831.  depicts  the., f a m i l y  g a t h e r e d f o r an  amateur  m u s i c a l -performance . i n O l d G r o s v e n o r House.,.. t h e i r , p r i n c i p a l 2 London r e s i d e n c e . . portance ings.  The  f a m i l y ' s w e a l t h .and  is., e m p h a s i z e d . by  The  their  monumental . s c a l e  costly  social  clothing  and  imsurround-  of. t h e c l a s s i c a l columns  and  15  f r i e z e - , s u g g e s t s , tha.t. t h i s . i s . no o r d i n a r y home — a f a c t is  which  r e i n f o r c e d by. t h e women's . p r o f u s i o n : o f f a s h i o n a b l e and  expensive  satins:.,- lae.es, . j e w e l l e r y and a c c e s s o r i e s .  Sparkling  h i g h l i g h t s . . r e f l e c t , from  silverware,, polished.. furniture., Yet vast  despite  the musical,  c l o t h i n g - and. j e w e l l e r y .  the- imposing, n a t u r e , o f .the. a r c h i t e c t u r e and  array- o f material..posse.ssion.s,. L e s l i e  capture- a - s u r p r i s i n g a i r o f i n f o r m a l i t y . . not  seem t o pose f o r . t h e , v i e w e r ,  occupied  instruments,  h a s managed t o The f a m i l y  does  instead, they are pre-  with, wa.t.ching. t h e two. young..girls, d a n c i n g  i n the  foreground.  The G r o s v e n o r s .were f a m i l i e s .in. E n g l a n d . . Marquess  I n 1819,. L o r d  powerful  Grosvenor  ( l a t e r the  o f W e s t m i n s t e r ) . had. been . c i t e d as one o f t h e  country's  f o u r . r i c h e s t - men w i t h  e x c e e d i n g j=700;,.0Q0..^ from  one o.f t h e most  a...net a n n u a l income f a r  Much, o f the. f a m i l y f o r t u n e  owning and d e v e l o p i n g  derived  large, tracts., o f r e a l , e s t a t e i n  c e n t r a l . L o n d o n . . B e f i t t i n g ; his., s t a t u s ,. the. Marquess h a d amassed huge  an. enormous  private, a r t c o l l e c t i o n ,  including  four  r e l i g i o u s , . c a n v a s e s , by Rubens.,. which . n e . e e s s i t a t e d t h e  b u i l d i n g , o f a new . a r t g a l l e r y , and s p e c i a l . Rubens t h a t were  added, to. O l d G r o s v e n o r House  presented  the f a m i l y  i n the midst  i n 1827.^  of their  Room., Leslie  new g a l l e r y ,  16  surrounded  by  important  s i l v e r w a r . e and the  paintings,,sculptures, pieces  o t h e r . c o l l e c t o r . ' s . items...  M a r c h i o n e s s . hangs. Velasquez,'s,  Don  To  the  left  of of  Baltasar Carlos  on  5 Horseback;, while, t h e Marquess, s i t s , under h i s painting  largest  by Rubens., Abraham..Reced'v.ing 'Bread•-•and .Wine from  Melchizedeck,  which p r o v i d e s  a backdrop  f o r ' the  entire  scene. Since were l i m i t e d Marquess  the p o r t r a i t from, the  outset.  of. W e s t m i n s t e r  appearance  was  The.extent  dictated  i s not. known., . but  responsible  commissioned,. L e s l i e ' s  for selecting  the  to which  the  terms o f the p i c t u r e ' s  in a l l likelihood  the  options  he  was  f a m i l y members .to be  depicted,  the  l o c a t i o n , , and. g e n e r a l . c o n v e r s a t i o n - p i e c e , a r r a n g e m e n t .  The  portrait  century such  r e c a l l s , , the  great  tradition  of  c o n v e r s a t i o n - p i e c e s which had. been e s t a b l i s h e d by  earlier  a r t i s t s , as. W i l l i a m Hogarth., A r t h u r  J o h a n Z.offany..  The. c o n v e r s a t i o n - p i e c e w i t h  on  domestic  informality,  frequently formal worldly  eighteenth  However, in. E n g l a n d missioned  by  which.focused  alternative .on the  c o u r t , army, government o r the  life  ;  or.state portraiture  c o n v e r s a t i o n - p i e c e was  the n o b i l i t y  from, the  onward,/} r e a c h i n g a. h i g h p o i n t w i t h  and  i t s emphasis  furnishings and family  been d i s c u s . s e d as. a b o u r g e o i s  rank. . ( i . e .  Devis  has to  sitter's  church).^ a l s o com-  early eighteenth Johan Z o f f a n y  century  during  17  the  1760s - 1780s..  Zoffany's  Grandson- o f 1770' ( f i g . . 2)  S i r Lawrence Dun das  exemplifies.the  and  his  tradition  upon  Despite  dif-  7 which L e s l i e  drew. over, s i x t y y e a r s  ferences  of f a s h i o n  features  are  seated  and  family  s h a r e d : the  with h i s  and  grandson, and  future  heir  the  in. the  entire  Identifiable paintings cultural  dancing  of. f o r m a l i t y and  structure.of  with, the  parrot,  and  group  i s .balanced..by the. r e l a x e d  Wilton  and  in his  grandson  private  court  of p l a c e gallery.  i n the  a. t a b l e .  t r a c e d , from, the  gathering, imposing  smaller  Egerton  The  i n the.low-key turn  Belgrave  positions  of  formally  o f the  House-  hereditary  Marquess t o . h i s  which.in  discipline  r e s t r a i n t of  uniform, .as. C o m p t r o l l e r  i s presented  family  of  Lady E l i z a b e t h . ; and . L o r d , R o b e r t ,  c a s u a l l y leans, a g a i n s t  o f male d e s c e n t and  pursuits  Lady Mary  and  Lady R o b e r t  f a t h e r ' s , lap.; the  the  her  hold,  art  i n f o r m a l i t y under-  sprawled across  attired  and  L e s l i e ' s p i c t u r e : the  g i r l s , i s c o u n t e r e d , by  children playing  Lord  magnificent  taste. A juxtaposition  o f the  certain essential  a t t e s t to,, the. p a t r o n ' s w e a l t h ,  good  lies  size,  r e l a x e d , f a m i l y p a t r i a r c h i s shown  s u r r o u n d i n g s - of. h i s home. objects  later.  context  line  eldest of  a  s.ee.ms s t r a n g e l y  c l a s s i c a l architecture  of  son  the  out  18  The similarly worldly  Grosvenor's  activities  connote . both . i n f o r m a l  ones.  Although  and. a r t c o l l e c t i o n d o m e s t i c . value.s  the f a m i l y  home, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  that  and  formal  i s . shown r e l a x i n g a t  they are not i d l e .  o f t h e women p r e s e n t . t h e i r  acquired  skills  t h e i r h u s b a n d s and f a t h e r s .  The  f o r the a p p r o v a l , o f  womens' v i r t u o u s . . a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s  affection  among  grandfather's his  wife  even Yet  family  knee,. L o r d  and s u p p o r t i n g  i n private the musical  dignified  viewer  that  These  status  wealth,  and d a n c i n g  and. t h e d e m o n s t r a t e d  m e m b e r s . ( i . e . Hugh Lupus a t h i s Wilton, g a z i n g  affectionately at  h i s young d a u g h t e r ) r e v e a l s  this., i s an, i n d u s t r i o u s  and happy  performance.,, s u r r o u n d i n g  monumental a r c h i t e c t u r e , and  musical  Several  these, a r e p e o p l e  court  immediately  of a superior  symbols.. n o t . o n l y  advertise  family.  art collection,  costly . clothing,  po.s.e.s.of. the. a d u l t s ,  that  uniform,  remind the  social  class.  the f a m i l y ' s  good t a s t e , .and. p o s i t i o n , a t c o u r t ,  they  also  demonstrate, t h e Grosven.or.s' l o y a l t y t o t h e monarchy and social  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for, m a i n t a i n i n g  society's high  level  8 of  culture.  This  a l t e r n a t e • s t r e s s i n g and.downplaying  of t h e f a m i l y ' s.- r a n k , and p r e s t i g e  merits  further  investi-  gation. This may h a v e  p a r t i c u l a r ,blend  stemmed, from  o f f o r m a l i t y and i n f o r m a l i t y  the f a c t , t h a t t h i s  type  of commission  19  was  essentially  a new  s e l e c t i o n -of. L e s l i e considering dotal  venture.for  the  artist..  The  Marquess'  f or<-.-this, p r o j e c t seems, somewhat  unusual  t h a t .Leslie',s. r e p u t a t i o n was, .based, upon  l i t e r a r y and  annec-  h i s t o r i c a l s c e n e s which a p p e a l e d p r i -  9 marily  t o m i d d l e - c l a s s , r e v i e w e r s 'and  Leslie  seldom e x e c u t e d . . . a r i s t o c r a t i c p o r t r a i t s , , and  felt to  somewhat p r e s s u r e d  by  the  buyers..  o f 1831.  fact, evidently  Grosvenor. c o m m i s s i o n ,  a' l e t t e r he. r e c e i v e d from h i s . f r i e n d ,  June  In  After discussing Leslie's  according  John. C o n s t a b l e , progress  on  in  "The  G r o s v e n o r .Gang", C o n s t a b l e r e a s s u r e d him: S t i l l i t i s a bad,.thing t o r e f u s e the "Great". They a r e a l w a y s a n g e r e d - - a n d . t h e i r reasoning powers being, g e n e r a l l y b l i n d e d , by t h e i r r a n k , t h e y have no other, ide.a .of a r e f u s a l t h a n i t i s t e l l i n g them...to., k i s s , y o u r b o t t o m . Although  Constable's  letter  does n o t  shed any  light  Grosvenors' expectations,  i t n e v e r t h e l e s s , conveys  sense o f . t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  Leslie  this  enormously p o w e r f u l  impressed  by, the  recorded,  he  style  audience..  ally  and  Marquess  On  the  a r t i s t could  some m i d d l e - c l a s s  other  deliberately  in preference  was  values  selected. Leslie's  clearly  life-  have.unintentioninto. Old  hand, i t i s a l s o c o n c e i v a b l e  t o the. f o r m a l  some  meticulously  was, more a c c u s t o m e d , t o a m i d d l e - c l a s s  transported  House.  While L e s l i e  s t a t u s w h i c h he  Thus.the  the  e n c o u n t e r e d when p a i n t i n g  family.  Grosvenors'  on  Grosvenor that  more r e l a x e d  s t y l e s , of t r a d i t i o n a l  the  approach  artists  20  s u c h a s - W i l l i a m B e e c h e y and in  George H a y t e r , who  specialized  this  type  o f commission...  There  believe  that  t h e Grosvenors.,  as a l e a d i n g Whig  wanted to. see light, in  fact.that  t h e y were s t i l l  believing  tha.t . p o l i t i c a l  as  from  interested possible.  through  re o r g a n i z a t i o n . o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y r i d i n g s .  Elizabeth  Grosvenor,  the l e f t  a letter  to  family,  r e f o r m was  Marquess n o n e t h e l e s s had.much t o l o s e  pending  in  the  as many, o f t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s  Firmly the  reason  themselves... i n a m.o.dern, s o c i a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e  despite  retaining  is certainly  his. daughter-in-law  in Leslie's  of  picture),  necessary, the  im-  Lady  ( s e a t e d second  described  the  situation  1831:  The b o r o u g h s a r e c o m p l e t e l y k n o c k e d up, w h i c h Lady G r o s v e n o r and . I m a i n t a i n i s a v e r y good thing. As t o L o r d . G r o s v e n o r (soon t o be the Marquess o f W e s t m i n s t e r ) , he t a k e s i t w i t h as much . good, humour, as I f he had. g a i n e d 1=150, 000 i n s t e a d o f l o s i n g i t , which he s a y s t h e r e b y he has. Anybody but. him would. be. v e x e d a t thems e l v e s f o r a l l . t h e a n n o y a n c e and. immense exp e n s e he has. e n t a i l e d .upon h i m s e l f f o r n o t h i n g . However, t h a t , w i l l a l l .be ended and I i m a g i n e t h a t the g r e a t towns w i l l be s o o t h e d . It will be odd. t o hear, o f t h e member f o r M a r y l e b o n e , Holborn etc. T h i s w i l l c l i p the a r i s t o c r a c y , b u t a g o o d . d e a l must.be s a c r i f i c e d t o save the rest.il Responding  to. gr.owing p r e s s u r e f r o m  a r i s t o c r a t i c i d e o l o . g y was of  revision.  temperance,  undergoing  Many b o u r g e o i s v a l u e s domestic  the middle the s l o w  class, process  (i.e. diligence,  harmony, r e s p e c t a b i l i t y )  were  21  gradually  being  a d o p t e d by  the  a r i s t o c r a c y and  used  to  12 justify shift  their  was  an  social  superiority. .  e s s e n t i a l .part.'.of Whig Reform  Lord  Grey  days  of. democracy, and . J a c o b i n i s m ,  real  capacity  could  commented, the  i n the  also lay  sufficiently  an  p o i n t , was  that  ^  n  to  find  aristocracy  that  merits  to weather  p o r t r a i t had  the  would  storms  i t is.ironic, that  Tory  w r i t i n g .for l i m i t e d . c i r c u l a t i o n  cations  1  Morning Post the This  group.of.writers  The  "elegant",  was  L i t e r a r y Gazette  natural  For  social  occupying  their  this  reviewer  order, w i t h  Tory p u b l i the  defended  and. " d i s c r i m i n a t i n g " .  that  proper places; .naturally, t a s t e f u l l y together.""^  were  A r t s ) • who  by  the  furnishings  concluded  to  the  admirers  Fine  impressed  Grosvenors' paintings,  reform.  the . L i t e r a r y G a z e t t e ,  and. the. L i b r a r y , .of the  work as- " t a s t e f u l " ,  o f the  i t s . only  ( i . e . Fr.a.ser s M a g a z i n e ,  of  image o f  aristocracy, critics  be  been i n t e n d e d  u p d a t e d .and. m.ore a c c e p t a b l e ,  as  " i n these  i t is possible  c l a i m ..to .middle.-.class  strengthened  strategy:  to prove  arist.o.cracy."13  However, i f the present  This i d e o l o g i c a l  the  and  and  in  .elegantly  image  the  element^  fashions.  " A l l appear  signified  aristocrats like  traditional place.at  formal  the  top  of  their brought the  Grosvenors the  pyramid.  22  Although  Tories, refused  supremacy in, 1832,, t h e r e to take  to question  were p l e n t y  up. t h e challenge...  was d e s i g n e d . t o p a r t i a l l y  the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s  of other  groups  I n f a c t , t h e Whig R e f o r m redress  the p o l i t i c a l  of power between t h e a r i s t o c r a c y ,and,middle  c l a s s by ex-  v o t i n g - r i g h t s t o the. t e n - p o u n d m i d d l e - c l a s s  holder,  and r e d i s t r i b u t i n g  seats  proposed  house-  i n a move 15  t o w a r d s e q u a l i z i n g t h e .number o f vo.ters i n e a c h The  Bill  imbalance  tending  parliamentary  eager  riding.  e l i m i n a t i o n o f many " r o t t e n . " o r " p o c k e t "  b o r o u g h s g r e a t l y .concerned .a. l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n . o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y who were t h e major, owners, and p u r c h a s e r s in  these  corrupt .ridings.  o f t h e " r o t t e n " borough opposition  As. t h e main b e n e f i c i a r i e s  system,  and p r i n c i p a l  t o t h e R e f o r m , B i l l , i n t h e House  aristocracy  of votes  were.repeatedly portrayed  source  of  of Lords, the  as t h e r e a l  enemies  o f r e f o r m . ( e v e n .though many l e a d i n g Whig p o l i t i c i a n s  were  aristocrats). C o u n t l e ss . v e r b a l . and. v i s u a l , a t t a c k s o n t h e a r i s t o cracy's  monopoly o f p r i v i l e g e  letters,  were m o u n t e d , i n  c a r t o o n s , and c a r i c a t u r e s o f t h e Reform  A typical  example, o f such, an a t t a c k  John B u l l  and .His Burdens,,, p u b l i s h e d  in  articles, 17  London d u r i n g  January.of  i s . the  press.  caricature,  i n the r a d i c a l  1832 ( f i g . 3 ) .  Figaro  An a c c o m p a n y i n g  23  text  explained  the c a r i c a t u r e :  The above c a r i c a t u r e r e p r e s e n t s , t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e of P o o r J o h n B u l l , w h o . r e a l l y must e x c u s e us f o r c o m p a r i n g him. t o an. ass. o v e r b u r d e n e d w i t h the w e i g h t of. a r i s t o c r a c y , w h i c h he has f o r a l o n g time c o n s e n t e d , t o c a r r y . W h i l e the T o r y p e e r s w o u l d . r e n d e r him s t u p i d . b y a s s a i l i n g h i s h e a d , b i s h o p s , , p l a c e m e n , and p e n s i o n e r s combine t o o v e r l o a d , h i s . back, w h i l e Hunt and h i s a d h e r e n t s w o r r y the. p o o r , a n i m a l a t the t a i l . In t h i s  c a r i c a t u r e the  aristocracy of  the  who  and  Tory  s t r o n g .connection  party  the  the  Tory  leader  f a c i n g backwards., l e i s u r e l y  Such w i d e s p r e a d . c r i t i c i s m s , o f the roles  o f the  of the  smoking h i s  s.o.clal. and  a r i s t o c r a c y suggest.that  were.potentially contentious  the R e f o r m  Crisis.  the  Leslie's  palatable  portrait  of the  t o more p r o g r e s s i v e  supported, t h e  Reform  cause..  advice:  The  of l e a d i n g  material  i t i s hardly  G r o s v e n o r s was  during  the  surprising i n no  way  m i d d l e - clas.s c r i t i c s  who  The  Athenaeum w r i t e r  the p i c t u r e .as an. o f f e n s i v e a s s e r t i o n o f prerogative.  government,  pipe.  widespread, o p p o s i t i o n of  a r i s t o c r a c y . t.o,.th.e R e f o r m B i l l , that  presence  political  portraits  aristocrats  Considering  the  i s e s t a b l i s h e d by  Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n ,  sits  between  c r i t i c , mockingly  read  aristocratic  offered Leslie  some  2/  . . . . b u t a s you wish, f o r e i t h e r (money or fame), n e v e r p a i n t a. f a m i l y p i c t u r e o f p e o p l e o f mark and condition again. W.e have h e a r d , o f a nobleman who c l a i m e d , f o r . h i s f a m i l y .that. k i n d , o f f a r d e s c e n d e d g l o r y b o t h i n b e a u t y and. b l o o d :which the A r a b s c l a i m f o r t h e i r h o r s e s ; we know n o t t h a t the M a r q u i s o f W e s t m i n s t e r c a r r i e s h i s n o t i o n s of c a s t e so. far.; b u t o f t h i s we a r e c e r t a i n , t h a t an unwonted, .awe has o p p r e s s e d .the p e n c i l o f the a r t i s t i n t h i s , d o m e s t i c p i c t u r e , and t h a t h i s c o l o u r i n g . i s h e a v y - - h i s d i v e r s i t y of c h a r a c t e r l i t t l e - - a n d . h i s p o s t u r e s g e n e r a l l y made up and affected.!9 Although the  the  critic  was  less, than  Grosvenors.,. h i s /.her  main o b j e c t i o n s  seem t o have been based, on critic  s p e l l e d out,.the  complimentary to  the  stylistic  grounds-.  problem q u i t e  clearly:  towards picture The  Times  The p e r s o n a g e s r e p r e s e n t e d a r e v e r y g e n t e e l , a m i a b l e - l o o k i n g f o l k s , and the young l a d i e s i n t h e i r r e d f r o c k s , v e r y plea.sant and a r i s t o - , c r a . t i c c h i l d r e n , w i t h a..healthy w e l l - b r e d a i r ; - - e v e r y t h i n g , i n s h o r t , t h a t c o u l d be d e s i r e d . The o n l y f a u l t , i s h a v i n g them p a i n t e d i n t h i s style. 2 d  Evidently  the  Whigs.' o b j e c t i o n s were  a r i s t o c r a t i c , subjects per leading H.W.  such as  In f a c t , many p o r t r a i t s  thos.e  by  P i c k e r s g i l l , . and'E .H .. L a n d s e e r  popular portrait a three box  aristocrats  se..  with  o f the.Duke, o f D e v o n s h i r e v i e w o f the  watching a play,  mirable.  In  Thomas  spite  was  o f the  duke  been  Landseer's  ( f i g . U)  sitting  which  in his  presented  theatre  s i n g l e d , out, as. p a r t i c u l a r l y program, b e f o r e  of  Philips,  seems t o have  a.number o f Whig r e v i e w e r s .  quarter  not-to-  him,  and  the  ad-  viewing  glasses i n his.hand,  mistaken looking from  out  location,  thinking  o f a. window.,  Their  beyond  sitter  the  title  simply  confusion possibly  of the p i c t u r e  i d e n t i f i e d . . . the  seem t o have  tha.t the Duke was  the Duke's e x t r e m e l y p l a i n . c l o t h i n g  Nothing the  the  several . c r i t i c s  and and  stemmed  surroundings. the f a c e  s u b j e c t as a p e r s o n  of  of great  wealth  or rank--.no .uniforms, p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s , o r  fellow  family  members.  Landseer's. o n l y  the Duke's c u l t u r a l , p u r s u i t s , t o be  entirely  Tory w r i t e r s it  was  were l e s s  especially  natural levelled "the  o v e r l o o k e d by  as  t h i s was  subtle  s e v e r a l , r e v i e w e r s.  t h a n . e n t h u s i a s t i c about  praised  opposed to the  to  enough While  the  picture,  by.Whig r e v i e w e r s f o r b e i n g charge  a t L e s l i e ' s work...  artist  but  a l l u s i o n was  appears. ..to have  The  o f . " a f f e c t e d " which Spectator concluded  struck.off  the  they that  resemblance 21  at  once,  .so u n c o n s c i o u s . a r e you  In c o n t r a s t ,  the  was  obviously i r r i t a t e d  had  objected to L e s l i e ' s  awe",  while  distaste  of- e f f o r t  same group by L e s l i e ' s  or manner."  of.progressive c r i t i c s style..  "oppressed p e n c i l "  The  Athenaeum  and  "unwonted  the- Times and ..the E x a m i n e r e x p r e s s e d  f o r the  c o n s t r a i n t s , p l a c e d on L e s l i e ' s  a  similar  genius  22 and only  good t a s t e .  A l l t h r e e r e v i e w e r s much p r e f e r r e d h i s  o t h e r work i n the e x h i b i t i o n ,  o f t h e Shrew, w h i c h was  praised  A. Scene  from  f o r i t s dramatic  the  Taming  narrative  26  and  wide r a n g e -of c h a r a c t e r s , and  such l i t e r a r y the  subjects  w h i c h he  R o y a l Academy, the  Leslie  was  critics  emotions.  Best  known f o r  regularly exhibited seemed/to r e a l i z e  e s s e n t i a l l y , experimenting with  the  at  that  large  family  23 portrait  o f the  Whig c r i t i c s genre t h e y artist  d i d not  they u s u a l l y  status  I t was  an  want...repeated. - n o t  d i s l i k e d , , i t wa.s . . c o r r u p t i n g  The of  Grosvenors.  experiment only  the  was  that  i t a  talents  of  an  admired.  E x a m i n e r was  particularly  symbols, c l u . t t e r . i n g the  annoyed by  the  wealth  picture:  I f u n a b l e to. e x e r c i s e . . h i s i n v e n t i o n , f a n c y and good tas.te, he ( L e s l i e ) has c a r e f u l l y r e p r e s e n t e d everything placed before him--ladies, gentlemen, c h i l d r e n , gowns, c o a t s , b o n n e t s , f e a t h e r s , flounces, musical instruments, French c l o c k s — i n a word, a l l . the h o u s e h o l d s t u f f , l i v i n g and dead, u s u a l l y c o l l e c t e d . i n the p r i n c i p a l a p a r t m e n t o f a w e a l t h y nobleman's r e s i d e n c e . The work i s consequently g l i t t e r i n g , trim, polished, and~, unmeaning — a d i s p l a y of. matter., n o t mind, . . . The  charges l e v e l l e d  critic's  impression  paper's views the  of  the  last  Prince  English  summed up  on w e a l t h y noblemen, i n g e n e r a l .  extracts Puckler  sentence  from,' The  the  p a i n t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r and  e a r l y months o f .1832., the  printed  the  i n the  E x a m i n e r had  Tour  the  Throughout  regularly  o f '.a German P r i n c e ,  by  Muskau, a r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d . b o o k . c r i t i c i z i n g  nobility,  exposing  their  enormous w e a l t h  and  27  flashy  but  morally  review  o f the  exploitation  bankrupt  lifestyle.  In  work,,.the E x a m i n e r d w e l l e d of t h e i r  social  a  on  lengthy the  aristocracy's  inferiors:  P h i l a n t h r o p y , i n the v o c a b u l a r y o f our beau monde, means s u b s c r i p t i o n s t o c h a r i t i e s , p e r h a p s the g i v i n g away o f . a s c o r e o f b l a n k e t s and a c a u l d r o n o f c o a l s . a t C h r i s t m a s ; b u t by no means.admits of. s y m p a t h y . w i t h f o l k s o f a n o t h e r class. On the o t h e r hand, no i d e a i s more f a m i l i a r than. that, o f the g r e a t d e s t r o y i n g the r l i t t l e f o r the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r a p p e t i t e s ; . . . ?  The  Examiner s  t o w a r d s the  Leslie's picture.  coloured  This  p r e c i s e wording  probably  highlighting  on. the  the  shiny  others)  also  review.  while  carped  use  out of  by the  to  analyzing term  o f the  women's d r e s s e s ,  work.  a b o u t the  silverware,  "polished." d e s c r i b e d  surfaces, of the  finish  The  response  c l o t h i n g , p i c t u r e frames,  musical, instruments,  glazed  i s . borne  conspicuous  r e f e r r e d to L e s l i e ' s m e t a l l i c  and  satin  the. c r i t i c ' s  conclusion  of the  "glittering"  highly  articulated hostility  a r i s t o c r a c y '.s . showy d i s p l a y s and  consumption, must have  the  frequently  1  This  work's  critic  "heavy" or  and (and  both the several  "gaudy"  26 colouring,  p r i m a r i l y the  predominance  Metallic.highlights, vivid  colour  associated  of  red.  brilliant.satin  surfaces,  schemes seem t o have been d e v i c e s  with  S i r Thomas. L a w r e n c e , and  there  and  closely i s reason  28  to believe in  t h a t Whig c r i t i c s  Leslie's painting  there  was  school  i n t h i s branch  portrait gerous  Several  the  left  seized  to p r e s s  of. a r t . .  In  Morning C h r o n i c l e  p a i n t e r s . should . steer  features  Evidently • circles  a vacuum, i n the  Whig, w r i t e r s  a golden .opportunity  hibition,  these  c o n v i c t i o n , i n academic  L a w r e n c e ' s death., i n .18.30, had  sidered  to  made. t h i s , c o n n e c t i o n .  a. w i d e s p r e a d  portraiture.  objecting  field  what t h e y  f o r an  that  con-  improved  i t s review  of  of  the  new  ex-  di.s.cu.s.se.d,-why upcoming c l e a r . o f Lawrence's  dan-  influence: S i r Thomas Lawrence was. w e l l . i n h i m s e l f - - s u i generis--but.his t h i n milk w i l l not bear r e ducing. The showy, the m e r e t r i c i o u s , and the u n r e a l g e n i u s may d o . i n the hands o f a s i n g l e g e n i u s i n t h i s l i n e , but i t w i l l n o t b e a r i m i t a t i o n , and i s n o t b e a r a b l e c a e t e r i s non paribus. '  In  March o f 1832,  Thomas Lawrence  the  E x a m i n e r had  condemning him  also, a t t a c k e d  a.s a . " c r i n g i n g p e t  a r i s t o c r a c y . . ...painting t h e i r s t u p i d , f a c e s , of a r t which  Sir  t h e y . enco.urage b e c a u s e  the  of  only  i t ministers  the branch  to  their  28 conceits." . as  The  Examiner  objected., to- L a w r e n c e ' s  s o m e t h i n g which, r e i n f o r c e d , the  aristo.cracy' s  servility  inflated  self-image. Both ers  felt  that  of  these  the  criticisms indicate  heyday  t h a t Whig  review-  o f L a w r e n c e ' s showy d i s p l a y s  and  29  Leslie's over.  "glittering"  p o r t r a i t of  Both belonged  Despite Bill,  the  f a c t that  Whig c r i t i c s  antiquated  to  the  the  aristocracy  Grosvenors  objected  t o an  cracy  connoted  opposition  social  offensive tution  that  regarded  read as  image was  of  the  academy e x h i b i t i o n ,  paintings,  they An  e x h i b i t i o n o f 1831  still  incident  which  s u r v i v a l .of an  middle  class.  L i t e r a r y . Beacon f e l t place  in  for  insti-  suspiciously  f a c t that, l a r g e numbers  participants.  the  aristo-  particularly  of  or  In  at  least  snubbed  at  British  included  aristocratic  a review of  the  felt a  some  c o l l e c t i o n o f . Thomas... Hamlet, a, w e a l t h y  demonstrated  an  of a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e .  the  the  as  other  their aspirations  middle, c l a s s  of  Reform  unreformed  the  Institution  his  the  many members o f  spite  era.  In  Royal. Academy, an  reviews  against  to  grandeur.  the  c l a s s , attended., the  the  o f a bygone  of  second-rate  from  image o f  Such, an  context  as.a. b a s t i o n  In middle  mobility.  i n the  was  s u p p o r t e d the  of a r i s t o c r a t i c  words, t h e y  upward  Grosvenors  seem t o have read. L e s . l i e ' s p i c t u r e  assertion  which  the  the  paintings  goldsmith,  prejudice show,  o b l i g e d , t o re.min.d Thomas H a m l e t  the of  society:  By the c a t a l o g u e i t (a p a i n t i n g ) a p p e a r s t o be the p r o p e r t y of "Thomas. Hamlet,: Esq . "--now we would ask any d i s p a s s i o n a t e p e r s o n why t h i s q u a c k e r y i s s u f f e r e d .to e x i s t ? Mr. JUamlet i s of a c l a s s of p e r s o n s h i g h l y r e s p e c t a b l e , but-'  30  why, because, he has been, s u c c e s s f u l i n t r a d e and has. sense enough t o buy good p i c t u r e s and t a c t enough to. s e l l .them a t a good p r i c e , i s he t o be dubbed an. e s q u i r e ? "Mr. H a m l e t " w o u l d read, much be.tter i n the c a t a l o g u e . ' Retaliating stitutions cracy's  against .attitudes.like that  one,  and  cultural,elitism.anonymously  articles  the  30 Athenaeum f r o m : 1830. onwards.  appeared  p u b l i s h e d ..by. such, p a p e r s as, the  were l e v e l l e d  the i n -  f o s t e r e d ..them, c r i t i c i s m s . of. the  and  the  this  at.England's  Royal. Academy, the  three  A  aristo-  in  letters,  Times  s e r i e s of  leading.arts  N a t i o n a l ...Gallery, and  and  charges  institutions--  the  British  31 Institution.  Progressive  critics  wanted a . r e f o r m e d  government  (in  w h i c h the  middle  c l a s s , w o u l d have a v o i c e )  to  oversee  the  operation  of various, a r t s . i n s t i t u t i . o n s , . e l i m i n a t i n g 32  many o f t h e i r  long  standing  discriminatory practices. 33  "Public" as  the  access  ( i . e . . m i d d l e - c l a s s access)  Athenaeum.',s p r e f a c e  exhibition  o f 1831  pointed  to i t s . review  was  o f the  essential, Academy  out:  The Academy i s a c o r p o r a t e and a. c h a r t e r e d body-i t g r u b s on i n the d a r k - - i t t o a d - e a t s the a r i stocracy. Who a r e the men i n v i t e d t o t h e i r a n n u a l f e s t i v a l ? men e m i n e n t i n l i t e r a t u r e - men o f i n f o r m e d minds, the a s s o c i a t e s o f the a c a d e m i c i a n s . i n p r i v a t e . l i f e , the g l o r y a n d . b o a s t of England? No;.-but my Lord. A and B; and o t h e r nonentities. T h i s i s the i n t e r c h a n g e between  31  c o r p o r a t e a r t and p a t r o n a g e . T h e r e must be more l i f e g o t i n t o , the Academy; as we s a i d once bef o r e , we must r a t t l e i t s o l d hones a b o u t . The p u b l i c must, .somehow, or o t h e r , be a l l o w e d t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n i t s . p r o c e e d i n g s . Had i t n o t been f o r the annual. E x h i b i t i o n and the p u b l i c p r e s s , we should, ha.ve sunk . below the K n e l l e r s and H u d s o n s . o f our f o r e f a t h e r s . - ^ Specifically,  this critic  and  others  d i s l i k e d the  Royal  35 Academy's ingrown,.. s e l f - e l e c t e d - s t r u c t u r e . academicians, e l e c t e d teaching in  the  staff,  annual  prizes  new.members, formed the  j u r i e d , the  exhibition,  t o i t s members.  share  of p r i v a t e  refuse  a public  A final  source  and  voted  Also  on  the  government a u d i t i n g  to  of  works  its  large  academy  to  i t s accounts.  irritation  the. u p p e r e c h e l o n s  of  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  condemned was  of .considerable,  obvious pandering  school's  s e l e c t i o n and. h a n g i n g  f u n d i n g w h i c h enabled, the or  Existing  was  of  the  academy's  society.  Es-  p e c i a l l y g a l l i n g from a. m i d d l e - c l a s s v a n t a g e p o i n t was the p r i v a t e v i e w , an e x h i b i t i o n p r e v i e w t h a t was r e s t r i c t e d by •  invitation tations  37  only..  were the  middle-class While  As. the  Athenaeum had  privilege.of aristocratic birth,  to  fications  invinot  merit. on  one  hand m i d d l e - c l a s s  academy's, o p e n l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g anxious  observed,  display in a bid  practices,  their recently to  secure  the  critics  acquired  attacked  the  t h e y were  also  aesthetic  quali-  aristocracy's  approval.  32  This  ambivalent  characterized position angry  and  response  both their  the.middle  middle  value  class  to e x i s t .  art.criticism  structure..  d i d not  reformist  the  dominated  government,  Royal  society,  to safeguard  encroachment.  concessions  they  aristocracy's  the  d i d not  and  they their  Nevertheless,  traditionally  institutions sought  traditional  aspects  eighteenth-century poly  of power.  an  like  alliance  position  from  In  to gain  Grosvenors  order  per  of L e s l i e ' s . s t y l e  connotations  right  partner-  with  the prepared  resistance. se,. t h e y which  the  working-  demanded, m i d d l e - c l a s s Whigs were  o b j e c t .to the  ari-  basic  a more e q u a l  condemn b l a t a n t forms,, of a r i s t o c r a t i c  they  of the  m a j o r i t y o f the p r o g r e s s i v e  cla.ss t h a t had  Academy . ( ^ / E s s e n t i a l l y ,  aristocracy  class  The  q u e s t i o n the  old, upper  social  w h i c h a l t e r n a t e d between  Instead., t h e y were s e e k i n g  ship with  to  class'  denunciations... and... o b s e q u i o u s . a c c e p t a n c e  stocracy's  the  t o w a r d s the .old e s t a b l i s h m e n t  While  resented  carried  of the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s  mono-  33  F ootnotes  "'"Gervas H u x l e y , Lady E l i z a b e t h .and the G r o s v e n o r s : L i f e i n a "Whig' F a m i l y '1822-1839 (London:. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 28. 2 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r e and r e n o v a t i o n s o f . O l d G r o s v e n o r House c o n s u l t J o h n C o r n f o r t h , " O l d G r o s v e n o r Ho.use," C o u n t r y L i f e 154- (November 15, 1973): 1538-1541. 3 H u x l e y , Lady E l i z a b e t h , p . 2. ^Huxley., L a d y E l i z a b e t h , p . 59 and C o r n f o r t h , C o u n t r y L i f e , p . 1539The four, p a i n t i n g s were G a t h e r i n g the Manna, A P r o c e s s i o n . .of the F o u r L a t i n F a t h e r s o f the C h u r c h , The F o u r ' E v a n g e l i s t s , and .. Abraham ..Receiving B r e a d and Wine f r o m M e l c h i z e d e c k . 5 Twentieth century a r t h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p has r e - a t t r i b u t e d , t h i s work t o Mazo who. i s b e l i e v e d t o have c o p i e d s e v e r a l o r i g i n a l s , by V e l a q u e z , see A u g u s t Mayer, V e l a q u e z : A C a t a l o g u e . R a i s o n n e of. t h e . . P i c t u r e s and Drawings (London: F a b e r and F a b e r , 1936), number 267. However, i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the p a i n t i n g was c o n s i d e r e d t o be the o r i g i n a l by V e l a q u e z . ^Mario Praz, C o n v e r s a t i o n Pieces ( U n i v e r s i t y Park: P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971.), see the i n t r o d u c t i o n "The a r t o f the B o u r g e o i s i e " . 7 Here I am d i s c u s s i n g the g e n e r a l genre' o f c o n v e r s a t i o n p i e c e s , and n o t the p r e c i c e f u n c t i o n o f each p a i n t i n g which.was c e r t a i n l y v e r y d i f f e r e n t . g The G r o s v e n o r C o l l e c t i o n was open t o s e l e c t e d members of. the p u b l i c on. s p e c i a l days.. In h i s l e t t e r s , C o n s t a b l e f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d t r i p s t o t h i s c o l l e c t i o n which seems t o have., .been m a i n l y v i s i t e d by a r t i s t s and o t h e r f r i e n d s o f the academy. The c o l l e c t i o n was p r o b a b l y n e v e r a t t e n d e d by l a r g e s e c t o r s o f the p u b l i c — members o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s and l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s p r o b a b l y b e i n g unaware o f i t s e x i s t e n c e .  3A  L e s l i e ' s m i d d l e c l a s s o r i g i n s and p o p u l a r i t y are d i s c u s s e d t o some e x t e n t i n J e f f r e y Daniels., "C.R. Leslie: A R e d i s c o v e r y , ", .Art and A r t i s t s 11 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 7 ) : 12-15. ~^R.B. B e c k e t t , ed. , J o h n C o n s t a b l e ' s C o r r e s p o n d e n c e V o l . 3 : The Correspondence., w i t h C.R. L e s l i e . R.A~] (Ipswich : S u f f o l k R e c o r d s S o c i e t y , 1965) , V~. 4~1^ In s p i t e o f h i s i r r e v e r e n t comments, a b o u t -the a r i s t o c r a c y , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , C o n s t a b l e , l i k e L e s l i e , was q u i t e c o n s e r v a t i v e and vehem e n t l y opposed to. the R e f o r m B i l l , and i t s s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . • However, t h e . q u o t a t i o n . d o e s . d e m o n s t r a t e the s o c i a l g u l f s e p a r a t i n g the a r t i s t and p a t r o n i n a c o m m i s s i o n of t h i s k i n d . "'""'"Huxley, Lady E l i z a b e t h , p.  98  12 T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d by Mark G i r o u a r d , The V i c t o r i a n C o u n t r y House ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n Press., 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 3. This s h i f t g a t h e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e momentum by. the m i d d l e o f the decade. I t s development, i s d i s c u s s e d by D a v i d o f f , The B e s t C i r c l e s , c h a p s . 1-2; S t e l l a M a r g e t o n , V i c t o r i a n H i g h S o c i e t y (London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1 9 8 0 ) , and..David S p r i n g , "The E n g l i s h Landed, E s t a t e . i n the Age o f C o a l and I r o n : 1830"-" 1880, " J o u r n a l o f : E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y 11 ( W i n t e r 1 9 5 1 ) : 3-23. Spring d i s c u s s e s how economic n e c e s s i t y f o r c e d many a r i s t o c r a t s t o a d o p t a more t e m p e r a t e l i f e s t y l e i n o r d e r t o a f f o r d the upkeep of l a r g e f a m i l y e s t a t e s . 13 Briggs, ^Literary "^Briggs,  Age  o f Improvement, p.  Gazette Age  (May  12,  298  1832), p.  o f Improvement, pp.  298.  263-264-.  " ^ A c c o r d i n g to Lord John R u s s e l l s reform p r o p o s a l the " r o t t e n " b o r o u g h s t o be e l i m i n a t e d , were r i d i n g s o f l e s s t h a n 2, 00.0. v o t e r s . Most o f the v o t e s i n t h e s e s m a l l b o r o u g h s were e i t h e r owned or d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l patron.. The m a j o r i t y of. " r o t t e n " b o r o u g h s , which were l o c a t e d i n the . a g r i c u l t u r a l s o u t h , were t o be r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o the l a r g e r towns o f the i n d u s t r i a l n o r t h . Such was the famous case o f Old.Sarum. w h i c h h a d . s e v e n v o t e s t h a t went t o l o c a l p r o p e r t y owners b e c a u s e nobody, had. l i v e d on the old v i l l a g e site, f o r years. See B r i g g s , Age, of Improvement, p. 102. J o h n C r o k e r , a p r o m i n e n t T o r y , e s t i m a t e d t h a t the T o r i e s h e l d 203 " r o t t e n " b o r o u g h s , w h i l e the. Whigs c o n t r o l l e d 73, see Raymond G. Cowherd,. The P o l i t i c s o f E n g l i s h D i s s e n t (New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y Pre s s , 1956), p! 186, n~. 65. 1  35  17  Many a n t i - a r i s t o c r a t i c c a r t o o n s a r e r e c o r d e d i n M. D o r o t h y George., C a t a l o g u e . o f P o l i t i c a l .and P e r s o n a l S a t i r e s P r e s e r v e d i n the. Department of. P r i n t s and Drawi n g s i n the B r i t i s h Museum, V o l . 11: 18.28'..- 1832 ( L o n d o n : P r i n t e d by O r d e r o f the T r u s t e e s , 1954). Numbers 16673 The D i s s o l u t i o n o f A r i s t o c r a t i c .Tyranny or !Vo'x.'Po'p'ul'i, Vox D e i and 1694-6, The G r e a t Comet, o f 18.32. a r e t y p i c a l examples. . 18 The F i g a r o 1 9  Athenaeum  2 0  Times  (May  i n . London ..(.January 2.8, 1 8 3 2 ) , p. (May 8,  19., 1832), p .  30.  324.  1832).  S p e c t a t o r . (May 26., 1832.), p. 496. The E x a m i n e r f e l t t h a t t h e p o r t r a i t was "marked by t h a t l o o k o f l i f e , n a t u r a l action., a n d . t r u t h o f colour,, which c o n t r i b u t e to make h i s v a r i o u s p e r f o r m a n c e s so g e n e r a l l y a d m i r e d . " E x a m i n e r ( J u l y 1, 1 8 3 2 ) , p . 4-21. I t Is i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t T o r y w r i t e r s seem to. have f o u n d the work t o o p l a i n . N e i t h e r t h e L i b r a r y o f t h e F i n e Arts.,, nor F r a s e r ' s Magazine l i k e d the p i c t u r e . In t h i s c a s e t h e d i v i d e d r e s p o n s e t o the p i c t u r e : seems t o have h a d l i t t l e t o do w i t h t h e Duke's a r i s t o c r a t i c s t a t u s . or.. h i s p e r s o n a l s t a n c e on t h e r e f o r m q u e s t i o n , s i n c e he w a s . w i d e l y known t o have had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n government and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . 2 1  22 A l t h o u g h t h e s e , terms would, have h e l d s p e c i f i c c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r t h e r e v i e w readers., t h e y were a p p l i e d to a wide v a r i e t y o f works.. In t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s were .that .had. L e s l i e been l e f t to. h i s own d e v i c e s , he w o u l d have p a i n t e d , h i s t y p i c a l l i t e r a r y s u b j e c t s . 23 A s i d e from, h i s l a t e r L i b r a r y a t H o l l a n d House of 184-1, t h i s was t h e o n l y c o n v e r s a t i o n p i e c e p o r t r a i t t h a t L e s l i e e v e r e x h i b i t e d at. t h e R o y a l Academy. 24 Examiner  (June 3,  1832), p.  358.  25 "Review o f A Tour o f a G e r m a n . P r i n c e , " E x a m i n e r March 4, 1832)., pp. 147-149. B r i e f extra.cts f r om t h i s book were p r i n t e d i n t h e Examiner.'s " N o t a b i l i a " column d u r i n g F e b r u a r y , March and A p r i l .  36  26 The E x a m i n e r u s e d t h e word, "gaudy".  Leslie's e x t e n s i v e use o f r e d was a l s o , c r i t i c i z e . d by t h e " S p e c t a t o r , t h e Times and the. Athenaeum, a l l o f w h i c h were p a p e r s o f the r e f o r m , p r e ss . T h e i r a t t a c k s . p r o v o k e d • the. c o n s e r v a t i v e M o r n i n g P o s t c r i t i c w r i t i n g • l a t e r . o n June 9 t h , t o d e f e n d Leslie's colouring: I t i s n o t a l w a y s i n t h e power o f an a r t i s t who agrees t o execute a commission of t h i s k i n d t o p r e s c r i b e , to. h i s f a i r s i t t e r s ' t h e c o l o u r s or f a s h i o n s o f t h e i r , g a r m e n t s , and i f he must i n t r o duce a s c a r l e t , f r o c k o r a b r i g h t l i l a c gown, he must n o t l e a v e such c o l o u r s by t h e i r e c l i p s i n g s p l e n d o u r t o a b s o r b e v e r y o t h e r c o l o u r i n the piece. Such c o l o u r s .must be r e p e a t e d , and c a r r i e d i n b i g g e r o r ' l e s s e r p a t c h e s i n t o e v e r y c o r n e r of the c o m p o s i t i o n . 27 Morning  Chroni cle  ' E x a m l h e r '("March A, 2 8  (May  5,  1832)  1 832) , p." U 8 .  . -  ;-  ' ¥ i l l i a m W h i t l e y , A r t i n E n g l a n d 1821 - 1837 ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930) , p~! 21/. 29  30 L a t e r on i n the d e c a d e , as the c h a r g e s accumul a t e d , l e a d i n g Whig and R a d i c a l , p o l i t i c i a n s . ..( i . e . L o r d John R u s s e l l , W i l l i a m E w a r t and. Jos.eph .Hume) t o o k up the cause of c u l t u r a l . r e f o r m . A f f a i r s f i n a l l y c u l m i n a t e d i n the S e l e c t Committee I n q u i r y of. 1835 w h i c h was s e t up t o examine t h e Academy's g e n e r a l .performance, and the s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s o f B.R .X'Haydon., George C l i n t , John M a r t i n , George F o g g i o and. o t h e r s . See Q u e n t i n B e l l , . The S c h o o l s o f De s i g n ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan .Paul,. 1963), chap. 3 "Haydon and t h e R a d i c a l s " and chap.. 5 "The. S e l e c t Committee o f 1835", and S i d n e y Hutchinson,.. The H i s t o r y o f the R o y a l Academy 1786 - 1968.. (London:. Chapman, and H a l l , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 101, W h i t l e y , A r t i n E n g l a n d , pp. 206.-20.7, and 220-222. He c i t e s several., s p e c i f i c a t t a c k s on t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y and t h e B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t i o n . 3 1  T h i s was  p r o p o s e d by. t h e Times  (July  20,  1830).  33 Nobody, e x c e p t the. r a d i c a l E x a m i n e r , even cons i d e r e d t h a t t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n e i t h e r the government or the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Academy.  37  3  ^The  Athenaeum  (May 1/,  1 8 3 1 ) , p . 315.  -^The E x a m i n e r ( J a n u a r y 8, 1832), p . 20. The E x a m i n e r c a l l e d t h e Academy, a " s e l f - e l e c t e d and s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d t r i b u n a l , o f the A r t s " . Examiner  (December  18, 1 8 3 1 ) , p . 804-  37 In 1832 t h e p r i v a t e by the Whig M o r n i n g C h r o n i c l e reviewed.  \  view, was b i t t e r l y a t t a c k e d b e f o r e .the e x h i b i t i o n was  The (from left to right)  Grosvenor  I.or J Robert, iMy Elizabeth, l.a,ly Robert, Marchioness«f  Figure  1.  Family in Grosvenor  Elizabeth,  Proline,  llestmiuster,  Evelyn,  House,  1831  Hugh Lupus, Marquess of llestmiuster,  Lttrd Wilton and .laughter,  Mary,  LaJy  Bel grave,  Eleanor,  Milton  C.R. L e s l i e , A F a m i l y P i c t u r e . 1832 C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e Duke o f W e s t m i n s t e r (Gervas Huxley. Lady E l i z a b e t h and t h e G r o s v e n o r s . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. F r o n t i s p i e c e . )  39  Figure  2.  J o h a n Z o f f a n y , S i r Lawrence Dundas and H i s G r a n d s o n , 1770 C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e Marquess o f Z e t l a n d (Mary W e b s t e r . J o h a n Z o f f a n y 1733 - 1810. London N a t i o n a l P o r t r a i t G a l l e r y , 1976. P l a t e 56.)  40  Figure  3.  R o b e r t Seymour, John B u l l and H i s B u r d e n s , 1832 F i g a r o i n London, ( J a n u a r y 28, 1832), Page 30.  igure  4-.  E . H. L a n d s e e r , W i l l i a m S p e n c e r C a v e n d i s h , 6 t h Duke o f D e v o n s h i r e , 1832 C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e Duke o f D e v o n s h i r e (Anthony B l u n t . T r e a s u r e s from Chatsworth The D e v o n s h i r e I n h e r i t a n c e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n s F o u n d a t i o n , 1979. Page 110.)  42  CHAPTER I I  The  Preaching  Unlike painting,  the  of Kno.x by  sharply  Preaching  work i n the t e r m s as  "lion  of.the  Knox, t h e  ( f i g . 5 ) , the I t was  g a l l e r y " and  which a t t r a c t s a l l . e y e s " . ^ highly  reaction  to L e s l i e ' s  reviewers, considered  entire exhibition.  the  Wilkie  of.. Knox .Before t h e  C o n g r e g a t i o n .1.0th ..June .1559  ches),  divided  v i r t u a l l y , a l l of. the  W i l k i e ' s , The  David  The  L o r d s of most  relatively  small  reformer, d e l i v e r i n g his  sermon i n S t . Andrew's c h u r c h i n F i f e s h i r e . the  threats  (48ix65 i n John historic  Denouncing  followers  of.. a s . s a s s . i n a t i o n , . Knox u r g e d h i s  t o purge the  c h u r c h e s of t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s , levelled  a l l of the  considered  ants'^.: r e s i s t a n c e victory  the  local  town.  crucial turning point  Protest-  priory, This  i n the  which repla.ced 2  religion.  After  Catholic and  sermon,  Protest-  C a t h o l i c , crown, l e d to the  of P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m  Scotland's o f f i c i a l  the  d e s t r o y e d the  m o n a s t e r i e s i n the  to the  and  c h u r c h of i t s p r o f i t e e r s .  K n o x ' s sermon, h i s a d h e r e n t s s t r i p p e d  long  star  C a t h o l i c , g o v e r n m e n t o f S c o t l a n d ' s . Queen R e g e n t ,  defying ant  glowing  "polar  f i n i s h e d h i s t o r i c a l panel portrays  Presbyterian  the  successful  hailed in the  David  final  Catholicism  as  43  Wilkie of  his fiery  his  d e p i c t e d Knox at. the p u l p i t  sermon, w i t h  r i g h t hand  force  g r i p p i n g the  of h i s o r a t o r i c a l  to  f l y out b e h i n d  at  the p u l p i t , form's., the  opponents, and  the  the  While  weight  t o the p r e a c h e r .  i n determination.  causes.his black  who  l e f t , middle  are  important  position  attitudes  reinforce  Knox's dominance.  Protestant as t h e y eners,  who  tecture,  t o the  the  i n the  church,  Congregation  sermon.  seem v i r t u a l l y  and  under a  and  and  In f a c t ,  The  anchored  open space  around  remain  counterstrategicpassive  a l l of and  the  motionless  passivity to. the  the  their  i n c l u d i n g h i s f e l l o w reformers  Lords., of the  listen  Beatoun  ground, p r o v i d e lower  o f Knox  Catholic  situated  However, t h e i r  The  cape  o f S t . Andrews., B i s h o p  less  Knox's a u d i e n c e ,  and  the.elevated figure  Abbot .of Cross. R a g u e l , i n the  midst  outstretched  f o c a l p o i n t , :.his c h i e f  Archbishop  canopy  arm  Bible  gesture  him.  ornate  ally  his left  i n the  of h i s  church  the .figure  list-  archi-  of Knox,  combine  t o make.his a c t i o n s seem even more  impressive.  Several  listeners  the  his  preaching  woman and left  near  (i.e.,  baby, and  foreground).  drawn between the  Knox draw ba.ck. from  the  man. and  boy  a t the  railing,  Lord. James. . S t u a r t a t the A particularly  simple  bla.ck. and  Presbyterian  m i n i s t e r s and  tumes of the  Catholic  the  bishops,  striking white  f o r c e of  table  i n the  contrast i s  robes  of  the  elaborate g l i t t e r i n g while  the  another  more  cos-  direct-  u visual the by the  i n d i c a t i o n of the ensuing r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t i s  presence  o f armed, g u a r d s and t h e many weapons c a r r i e d '  the Lords  of the Congregation..  E a r l o f Morton- c l a s p  ivory-handled Bible  James S t u a r t and  swords, and. a dagger  p i s t o l .lies  on the. t a b l e n e x t  and an t o t h e open  and r e l i g i o u s b o o k s .  Although  t h e . p a i n t i n g was s t a r t e d i n 1822, s e v e r a l  major i n t e r r u p t i o n s d e l a y e d it  Lord  was f i r s t  Wilkie's  publicly exhibited  completion  t o 1826.  victory  a t the Royal  recovery  tour,  t h e T o r y Prime M i n i s t e r In terms  doubt  of. W i l k i e ' s  and a change o f  of England  first  that, t h e p i c t u r e ' s  patron,  Lord  from 1812 there  can be  app.eal f o r L o r d  pool,who w a s . f i r m l y  opposed t o g r a n t i n g  any, r e l i e f  l e g a l . l i m i t a t i o n s placed  worship  by  theme o f a. P r o t e s t a n t  must have h e l d , c o n s i d e r a b l e  from, the  1832 when  Academy.  O r i g i n a l l y , t h e work was c o m m i s s i o n e d  Liverpool,  little  until  o f t h e work was d e l a y e d by a n e r v o u s  breakdown, ' C o n t i n e n t a l patrons.  i t s completion  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c  English  life.  Liver-  Catholics  upon  their  The q u e s t i o n  o f f i c i a l , t o l e r a t i o n f o r C a t h o l i c s was one. o f t h e most ing  issues  death).  press-  f a c i n g t h e T o r y government t h r o u g h o u t t h e  twenties u n t i l passed  of  the C a t h o l i c .Emancipation B i l l  through parliament  i n 1829 ( a f t e r L o r d  T h r o u g h o u t h i s term  o f o f f i c e , -Lord  finally Liverpool's Liverpool  45  remained and  one  o f the  T e s t Acts which  non-Anglicans) all  office  from  After taken  over  tician,  on  pation  effectively civil  to. t h e  rites  f o r the  P e e l who  through  purchasing  was  known t o have  subject represented  national history.  son  England.^"  Ironically,  of S c o t t i s h  He  an  was  important actively  literature.and  a Scottish  t o e x p l a i n the  was  stand  C a t h o l i c EmanciPeel's  working  motives he to  artists.  i n London,  episode  of h i s  own  committed  t o the  re-  worked  towards  history  and  s c h o o l of p a i n t e r s . ^  As  o f a Pres.b.yterian m i n i s t e r , t h i s h i s t o r i c a l  order  i t  W i l k i e ' s work, and  artist  was  poli-  their  of c o n t e m p o r a r y B r i t i s h  have h a d . a f u r t h e r p e r s o n a l In  Lord's  the p i c t u r e remain, u n c l e a r , a l t h o u g h  For W i l k i e , a S c o t t i s h  establishing  requiring  l e a d i n g Tory  f o r c e d the  generally liked  other  i n 1828.,. t h e work  p a r l i a m e n t .in 1829.  have been a major p a t r o n  vival  of  l e d the . T o r i e s t o r e v e r s e and  by  o f the  Church  o f <£l,300.^  Catholic question, Bill  of the  Corporation  offices  sacrament  P e e l , another  l a r g e sum  o f the  C a t h o l i c s (and  and . m i l i t a r y  S i r Robert  for  the  barred  L o r d . L i v e r p o o l ' s ..death  by  Robert the  defenders  h o l d e r s , t o r e c e i v e the  Supper a c c o r d i n g  Sir  staunchest  significance  f o r the  the  devout  event  must  artist.  scene t o h i s . London a u d i e n c e ,  the  4-6  painter  added  an  e x c e r p t from h i s h i s t o r i c a l  Thomas McCr.ie's, L i f e  source,  o f Knox, t o the e x h i b i t i o n  catalogue  7 (see A p p e n d i x A ) . ' The and  text  d i s c u s s e d , how. Knox, had  defied  S t . Andrews' t h r e a t s . . to. have he  dared  catalogue  the  the r e f o r m e r  accurately,  extrapolated  and h i s e f f o r t s  virtually  quite  different  the lengthy-  t o r e p r e s e n t the  a l l o f the e x h i b i t i o n meanings from  the  related  than  I t seems...that  vening  Scottish. Reformation.  time  between  substantially from  the E x a m i n e r  of r e l i g i o u s who  d i s c u s s e d the p i c t u r e  c o n t r o v e r s y , but,  t o convey,  critical  negative  was  review w i l l  The two  basic  totally  o f the p i c t u r e  assessments, o f The  on  meaning.  be  other nine  the and  Only  ironically,  this  had  Crisis  interexhibition  one as  reviewer  a.question  one  writer  originally  opposed, to. W i l k i e ' s v i e w p o i n t i n general.  analyzed, further,,  Preaching  picture--  mainly  seemed, t o u n d e r s t a n d , .what the. a r t i s t  tried and  its. public  reviewers  to. the R e f o r m  the.painting's inception  altered  of  assassinated i f  meanings t h a t were, more c l o s e l y the  figures  church.  despite Wilkie's intentions,  description,  major  the A r c h b i s h o p  t o p r e a c h , i n the b i s h o p ' s Yet  event  identified  This exceptional after  o f Knox have been  the  investigated.  academy r e v i e w e r s a c h i e v e d  grounds f o r championing  positive  concensus  Wilkie's picture:  4-7  first  on t h e b a s i s  s e c o n d as a f i n e  of i t s p a t r i o t i c . B r i t i s h  academic h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g .  were e s p e c i a l l y moved by t h e " n a t i o n a l subject". critic  s u b j e c t , and  Speaking  The  critics  and.spirit-stirring  f o r most o f t h e r e v i e w e r s ,  t h e Times  observed: I t i s a p i c t u r e o f w h i c h t h e a r t i s t may w e l l be p r o u d , a n d . w h i c h , w h i l e i t e x c i t e s t h e warm applause of the s p e c t a t o r s , suggests the f e e l i n g s o f c o n g r a t u l a t i o n t h a t we c a n , as a n a t i o n , g i v e t h e w o r l d as.suran.ce o f a p a i n t e r who may c h a l l e n g e c o m p e t i t i o n , w i t h any l i v i n g , and w i t h t h e works o f t h o s e d e p a r t e d men who have d e v o t e d t h e i r g e n i u s t o t h i s b r a n c h o f Art. 9  Since  Wilkie's  exhibited  an i n c r e a s i n g number  scenes.--in concern  series had  fact  lest  subjects  r e t u r n 'from t h e C o n t i n e n t  so many t h a t  of Spanish  and I t a l i a n  several c r i t i c s  had expressed  he abandon his. f o r m e r i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h  altogether."^  on l i v i n g  typically  ..in 1828 he h a d . .  The W i l k i e  artists,  expressed  episode  published  this  point  of. t h e Athenaeum' s  i n January  o f 1831,  of view:  We l i k e him ( W i l k i e ) , b e c a u s e he i s a t once n a t u r a l and n a t i o n a l . - . . . S c o t l a n d and E n g l a n d s h a r e him. between them, and though I t a l y and S p a i n have had him ..worshipping t h e r e f o r a s e a s o n he has. now r e t u r n e d t o h i s d u t y and a l l e g i a n c e , and i s b u s i e d w i t h h i s m a g n i f i c e n t p i c t u r e o f J o h n Knox s u b d u i n g t h e S c a r l e t Lady. For  this  writer  marked a t i m e l y  and o t h e r s , return  Wilkie's  Preaching  o f Knox  t o t h e n a t i o n a l themes t h e y  preferred.  48  Not  that  these nine  'Continental . tour they old  felt  critics  believed  had. been a waste, o f t i m e .  t h a t h i s t r a v e l s and s t u d i e s  On t h e - c o n t r a r y ,  of the European  masters had greatly, r e f i n e d h i s s t y l e .  ment was claim Like  a crucial  that  element  i n supporting  t h e p i c t u r e was  Leslie,  Wilkie  was p r e s e n t i n g  their  refine-  second,  t h e academy  on h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g ,  s c e n e s o f S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h unkindly  This  a f i n e academic h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g .  w i t h a l e s s e r known s i d e . o f h i s work. was n o t b a s e d  Wilkie's  public  His reputation  but r a t h e r  low l i f e .  remembered,. h i s p r e v i o u s ,  on h i s  As one r e v i e w e r  two, a t t e m p t s  at h i s t o r y  12 p a i n t i n g had f a i l e d  miserably.  and  morally  ing  t o enhance h i s a r t i s t i c  circles other  By t u r n i n g  e l e v a t i n g , h i s t o r i c a l , theme,. W i l k i e status,  since  h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g was. c o n s i d e r e d  genres.  painting  to a  More t h a n any o t h e r  required  the f u l l  p a i n t i n g h a d t o be h i g h l y  range  was  superior  to a l l  category,  history  of academic  skills:  f i n i s h e d , , the s u b j e c t  grouped, and:noble  attempt-  i n academic  i n character.  was- t o be p l a c e d .on i d e a l , forms r a t h e r  than  the  suitably  s t r e s s e d , , and.human, f i g u r e s had, t o be c o r r e c t l y harmoniously  learned  proportioned, Emphasis  specific  details. ...  I n t h e minds..of. t h e e x h i b i t i o n r e v i e w e r s ,  three-year  study  Wilkie ' s  o f the o l d masters had equipped him w i t h the  49  necessary genre  skills  t o make, the  to h i s t o r y p a i n t e r .  important  The  t r a n s i t i o n from  Literary.Gazette  observed:  I t not. i n f r e q u e n t l y happens t h a t our a r t i s t s , i n t h e i r v i s i t s , t o the . c e l e b r a t e d g a l l e r i e s o f the c o n t i n e n t , have c o n t r i v e d t o weaken the powers.-.iwhich t h e y c a r r i e d w i t h them: Mr W i l k i e has not. o n l y s t r e n g t h e n e d h i s , but a p p e a r s t o have awakened t a l e n t s h i t h e r t o dorman,t, of a h i g h e r c h a r a c t e r t h a n the p u b l i c s u p p o s e d him t o p o s s e s s . 1 3  The  w r i t e r was  r e f e r r i n g to  the  evolution  mature  s t y l e w h i c h ..was. c h a r a c t e r i z e d  looser  b r u s h w o r k and  his  Spanish  experience  a f a s t e r , bolder better his  heavier  interest  mentality  which  Wilkie  colouring,  credited  what he  considered  which  scale h i s t o r y painting  more l a b o r i o u s  to  Wilkie's  darker  and.more, e f f e c t i v e s t y l e ,  in artists.like  contributed  glazes.  for developing  suited for larger  earlier  by  of  technique."^  Rubens and  Velasquez  detected  than  Wilkie's  the. u n p r e c e d e n t e d . dynamism and the. S p e c t a t o r '  was  i n the  new  must have mo.nupicture:  We f e e l a l i t t l e p e r s o n a l , e x u l t a t i o n a t W i l k i e ' s s u c c e s s i n a : . p i c t u r e o f t h i s c l a s s ; b e c a u s e , when we saw h i s s k e t c h e s o f S p a n i s h s u b j e c t s . . . w h e r e i n he gave the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n s of t h a t power and g r a n d e u r o f .which, c h a r a c t e r i z e the present p i c t u r e , we....hailed them as manifestations o f a s o a r i n g g e n i u s a n d , a n t i c i p a t e d f o r him the fame o f an h i s t o r i c a l p a i n t e r . 15 However,, d e s p i t e historical  p i c t u r e s , by  the 1832  critics' they  enthusiasm  for  seem t o h a v e been a  dying  50  breed  i n academy e x h i b i t i o n s . .  the m a j o r i t y o f c r i t i c s ,  like  Herald,  their  who. .commented, on  This fact.evidently the w r i t e r , f o r t h e  worried  Morning:  disappearance:  I t i s g r e a t l y t o be r e g r e t t e d t h a t i n t h i s l a n d o f w e a l t h and . l u x u r y t h e r e i s f o u n d so l i t t l e r i g h t f e e l i n g or encouragement f o r h i s t o r i c a l p a i n t i n g , t h a t men of h i g h and o r i g i n a l genius, a r e o b l i g e d t o abandon t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l , w a l k o f a r t t o l i v e by painting portraits. The p i c t u r e b e f o r e us i s a n o t h e r p r o o f o f what our n a t i v e s c h o o l can.. a c h i e v e i n the h i g h e r g r a d e s o f this interesting profession. ° Actually,  with, the  t h e r e was  only a h a n d f u l of other q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l  in  e x c e p t i o n of. The  t h e whole e x h i b i t i o n .  dismissed another  Preaching  However, t h e s e were  as. s e r i o u s c o n t e n d e r s :  two.being  more o f a m a r i n e p a i n t i n g ,  and  o f Knox, subjects  variously  only  a third  sketches, entirely  17 lacking  h e r o i c sentiments..  essentially  competing  in a class  Spectator pointed.out, nay  almost  the  T h i s meant t h a t W i l k i e by h i m s e l f , as  "Wilkie's picture  only.real historical  i s the  picture  was  the finest,  i n the  Ex-  hibition" . Under t h e s e ical painting  was., d e f e n d e d  of i t s a p p a r e n t for  Tory  and  circumstan.ces,  demise.  Whig p a p e r s  ing Wilkie's picture..  one  wonders why  and • even. p r o m o t e d  histor-  In the  face  I t seems t h a t  critics  writing  had . d i f f e r e n t  motives  for  Tory  critics  used  Wilkie's  applaudsuccess  51  as  a co.unter-offensive  against Old  manoeuvre t o d e f e n d  m o u n t i n g Whig and R a d i c a l  standards  to p r o t e c t  like  that  t h e academy f r o m new  existing  produced  challenges.  the continuing  The  While  Whig  they  revived success  viability  academic . s t r u c t u r e - - a f t e r a l l ,  the f i n e s t  sentiments,  demands f o r i t s r e f o r m .  o f h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g were  of t h e p i c t u r e d e m o n s t r a t e d the  t h e academy  of  i t still  examples.of B r i t i s h a r t .  critics  shared  seem t o have h e l d  view of the s i t u a t i o n .  the T o r i e s '  patriotic  a slightly  different  They d w e l l e d  on W i l k i e ' s  achieve-  ments as an o u t s t a n d i n g . e x c e p t i o n  t o the academy's  dismal  rule  f o r s e v e r a l Whig  writers  of m e d i o c r i t y .  Wilkie  Furthermore,  seems t o have r e p r e s e n t e d  the c l a s s i c  success  story.  The A t h e n a e u m s a r t i c l e  focused  on h i s humble S c o t t i s h o r i g i n s ,  "he  was  d i s c i p l i n e d , i n no s c h o o l  The  article  had  won  and  natural ability.  1  continued  middle-class  on W i l k i e h a d emphasizing  and t r a i n e d i n no  .to o u t l i n e how. W i l k i e ,  academic, s t a t u s  level,  academy"  an o u t s i d e r ,  through a combination  On t h i s  that  Wilkie.'s  of hard  work  accomplish-  ment was.an i n s p i r a t i o n , f o r a l l s o c i a l l y  a s p i r i n g members  of t h e m i d d l e  an  position  c l a s . s . - - i f he c o u l d  a t t h e .Royal • Acade.my,  Academy,, f a s h i o n a b l e  acquire then  so. c o u l d  influential they  i n the  s o c i e t y , and even i n p a r l i a m e n t .  52  The picture  were a l s o  critics' papers  connotations  assessment, o f t h e image.  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , p r a i s e d Knox's, r o l e  Catholic  Three  an. event, which, c o r r e c t e d many a b u s e s  Knox as a. dynamic, a g e n t  Whig  i n t h e Re-  administration.. . Discussion focused  Spe c f a t or  of W i l k i e ' s  an e s s e n t i a l , i n g r e d i e n t i n t h e Whig  pos-itive  formation,  of  progressive p o l i t i c a l  i n the  old  on t h e f i g u r e  o f reform, and p r o g r e s s ,  as t h e  recorded.:  Knox. .. appears., l i k e a g r e a t b l a c k e a g l e a b o u t to swoop down, on t h e p r i e s t l y band b e f o r e him; he l e a n s .over t h e p u l p i t , from w h i c h he i s l a u n c h i n g f o r t h . h i s d e n u n c i a t i o n s , h i s eyes f l a s h i n g f i r e , and h i s hands c l e n c h e d as i f he w o u l d s e i z e upon, t h e i r g i l d e d m i t r e s i n h i s f a n a t i c rage. N o t h i n g can be f i n e r on c o n c e p t i o n , or be.tter e x p r e s s e d t h a n t h i s f i g u r e ; i t i s a t once c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e man and his sect.^Q The  words  "characteristic  particularly a renewed Anglican  revealing.  outbreak  of. t h e man and h i s s e c t " a r e The R e f o r m  of r e l i g i o u s  Crisis  conflict  had  provoked  between t h e o f f i c i a l  church, on the. one hand and. Roman C a t h o l i c s and  the p r e - 1 8 2 8 d i s s e n t i n g , s.ects. ( i n c l u d i n g  Presbyterians i n  rn - l l\ + i „ 21. The A n g l i c a n c h u r c h s t r o n g l y England.} on t h e o t h e r . B  supported  the Tory  Catholics  and.dissenters united.behind  a powerful., r e f o r m  party's  lobby.  the A n g l i c a n . church  endorsed  opposition, to reform,  t h e Whigs t o form  As t h e R e f o r m C r i s i s  s a t i n t h e House, o f L o r d s  the Lyndhurst  J  while  intensified,  became- i n c r e a s i n g l y u n p o p u l a r  many A n g l i c a n bishop.s ively  &  since  and a c t -  m o t i o n t o d e l a y t h e Reform  Bill.  53  A cartoon  entitled  Reform  John D o y l e , p u b l i s h e d  and R e f o r m a t i o n  by M c L e a n . i n November  r i d i c u l e d , the Anglicans', u n p o p u l a r i t y . angry an  crowd  Anglican  bishop  of reformers bishop's  i n s i d e who  ( f i g . 6) by o f 1831,  Doyle  a t t a c k i n g , what t h e y  coach, but i n s t e a d . i t  was...able to. claim,. " I am  depicted  an  believed  was  was  a Catholic  the  reform  22 bishop  not the P r o t e s t a n t  bishop".  most o r t h o d o x . C a t h o l i c s . w e r e than  the A n g l i c a n  reform in  carried  1832, s i n c e a f t e r  active as  similarly  church..  more  In 1832 even t h e socially  The s u b j e c t  outspoken; r e f o r m  of P r e s b y t e r i a n  strong pro-reform  a l l . Presbyterians 23 lobby.  progressive  connotations  were p a r t  By p r a i s i n g Knox's  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .of, h i s sect., t h e S p e c t a t o r ,  papers  i n this  byterian  group i m p l i e d , a p p r o v a l  activities .both.historically However,  Whig audience.. also  quite  terian  and t h e  of p r o g r e s s i v e 2/ and i n 1832.  Critics  w r i t i n g f o r Tory  misgivings:  other Pres-  with, i t s p r o - R e f o r m  p u b l i c a t i o n s were  the.subject Bill  of Presby-  connotations  have r e q u i r e d a. c e r t a i n amo.un.t o f r a t i o n a l i z i n g reviewers.  reform  t h e p i c t u r e ' s . a p p e a l was. n o t l i m i t e d . t o a  e n t h u s i a s t i c , although  reform  of t h i s  The, L i t e r a r y  Gazette  nervously  must  from  voiced  Tory  some  5U  I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to contemplate .this p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d of a n . h i s t o r i c a l f a c t w i t h o u t b e i n g awfully, sensible, o f . t h e p o w e r f u l e f f e c t s which h a v e , i n f o r m e r times., r e s u l t e d from the o r a t o r y of the p u l p i t . 2 5 Expressing  a similar  a n x i e t y , the F r a s e r ' s c r i t i c  called  26 Knox an less,  " a p o s t l e , .of denunciation., and  these  reactions  audience.  The  t h a t W i l k i e had by  c o n n o t a t i o n s .by f o c u s i n g upon  of. Kno.x.'.s g e n t e e l , , l a r g e l y  critics  writing  successfully  the  claimed  m o d e r a t e d . Knox' s vehemence  abs o r b e d ..his .energy  (i.e.,  baby who  a l m o s t . t i m i d l y draw., away, from  Countess  of A r g y l l . a n d her  As  the  aristocratic  f o r Tory papers  s u r r o u n d i n g the p r e a c h e r .with q u i e t ,  f i g u r e s who  Neverthe-  c o n s e r v a t i v e , c r i t i c s , managed, t o n e u t r a l i z e  painting's pro-reform passive  terrors".  gentle,, female the  two  women  the  speaker,  female, a t t e n d a n t i n the  and and  the  centre).  the, Morning. Post, w r i t e r n o t e d : The f i g u r e and. a c t i o n of. t h e p r e a c h e r a r e wrought to. the h i g h e s t p i t c h o f p i c t o r i a l e n e r g y , w h i c h i s s k i l f u l l y d i f f u s e d i n the l e s s e n i n g c h a r a c t e r s t h r o u g h o u t • t h e crowded c o n g r e g a t i o n . , u n t i l I t i s . at. l e n g t h e n t i r e l y l o s t i n the repose.- of. the u n c o n s c i o u s babe i n i t s mother's arms.^V  By  confining  the a c t i v i t y  t o Knox and  the r e f i n e d  quality  effectively  d i s m a n t l e d the p o t e n t i a l l y  tations  o f the  o f the a u d i e n c e ,  subject.  the T o r y  emphasizing critics  dangerous  A r e s p e c t a b l e group  of  connoaristocrats  55  and  e c c l e s i a s t i . e s . c o u l d . h a r d l y be  equated  l u t i o n a r y , r a b b l e , and.furthermore, have been very, d a n g e r o u s . w i t h attendance. lieved  no.ble l a d i e s , and  the T o r y w r i t e r s  were f i r m l y  forming  the  angry  revo-  situation  c o u l d not  children  seem t o have  t h a t Knox's- w e l l - d r e s s e d , p o l i t e l y  listeners of  In f a c t ,  the  with  rooted., to. t h e i r  s e a t s and  incapable  churches  accuracy  o f t h i s . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . (Knox's sermon d i d  followers  illusion to  a structure  structure  which  concepts  comforting  enabled  them  of o r d e r .  i n 1832...  key  In the  of  directed  society;  middle  i t s l e a d e r and,.the, upper  a movement which, bore  the R e f o r m C r i s i s and  by  words  eyes  critic  of  from  these  movement  echelons  resemblance  w i t h i t s mass a g i t a t i o n  the  to lower  classes.  A l t h o u g h W i l k i e '.s p i c t u r e Whigs and  little  of  These  r e v i e w e r s , W i l k i e had . d e p i c t e d , a . . r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m carefully  the  s t r e s s e d . t h e importance  i n . T o r y i d e o l o g y and  anti-reform, r h e t o r i c  incite  o f v a l u e s from  r e s p e c t and. the m a i n t e n a n c e  were i m p o r t a n t Tory  critics'  and . g e n t i l i t y  extrapolate a.different  authority,  D e s p i t e the i n -  t o s.uch. acts.).,, t h e T o r y  o f calm,, s t a b i l i t y  painting;  in  sermon.  of  Catholic  his  the  be-  attentive  mob; w h i c h . a t t a c k e d , a number  after  in  Tories.,  i t held  o f the r a d i c a l  was  praised  by  both  c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s , a p p e a l f o r the  Examiner.  The  first  sentence  of  the  56  Examiner's review.condemned for  being  " s e c t a r i a n and  the  subject  of W i l k i e ' s  e x c l u s i v e . . . . and  picture  therefore  not  so  28 well  c a l c u l a t e d ,to- g r a t i f y  trast  to I t s frequently  vative  language  the  general  negative, i m p l i c a t i o n s  to.mean, the  debased t a s t e  common denominator., i n this., i n s t a n c e connoted Instead the  the of  positive qualities  n a t i o n , , the  Examiner p o i n t e d  p a i n t i n g had. a l i m i t e d and  certain  exclusive  have been u n a b l e  t o ..appreciate  the  classes.  out  represented  that  appeal.  r e l i g i o u s .groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y  lowest  taste"  o f Knox  seems t o .have been r e f e r r i n g t o the  Catholics, In  point  was  the  type  art  i t championed  the  reach...of the. w o r k i n g The  (i.e.,  o f the  to-Whig w r i t e r s  Examiner  critic  and  the  painting)  of of  high  were beyond  d i s a p p r o v e d , o f the  f o r whom the of  found.it  of C a t h o l i c s - - a n  "sect-  reasons.  concept  the. P r e s b y t e r i a n  In  carried reform  carried retrogressive  . c i a t i o n s of r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y repression  view,  masses.  subject, f o r s p e c i f i c  progressive, connotations the  Wilkie's  Examiner r e v i e w e r  a r i a n " nature contrast  both. the.academy  would  addition,  even more. imp or.tant fr.om t h i s w r i t e r ' s that  the  that  and  fact  the  Here  fact  image.  con-  conser-  o f the  of a l l . s o c i a l  The.. P r e a c h i n g  In in  "general  claiming,, t h a t  British  critic  taste".  i s s u e .about w h i c h  the  lobby, asso-  the paper  57  was  most  eration  sensitive..  discussed earlier,  f o r C a t h o l i c s had., been .a b u r n i n g  throughout crusade  As  the  late  t w e n t i e s . . . The  Examiner  old-fashioned statement. felt  i t necessary  intolerance was  the  was  with  measure.  excusable  i n the  an  pro-Protestant  Wilkie's picture,  to e x p l a i n t h a t although  unfortunate . that  l e d the  c r i t i c , r e a d W i l k i e ' s p i c t u r e as  and.dangerously.narrow-minded  Confronte.d  issue  v i g o r o u s l y denouncing  the A n g l i c a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t , f o r r e s i s t i n g the  tol-  political  Examiner had  f o r C a t h o l i c Emancipation,  Evidently  official  the  critic  Knox's  religious  sixteenth century, i t  s.uch. v i e w s p e r s i s t e d , i n t h e  183"0s.  i n t o l e r a n c e and o p p o s i t i o n was h i m s e l f o c c a s i o n a l l y b o t h i n t o l e r a n t , .and. o p p r e s s i v e , i t must be r e membered, t h a t j u s t i c e i n m a t t e r s o f r e l i g i o n was a . v i r t u e unknown t o h i s age, and i s one. w h i c h has h a r d l y t a k e n r o o t , i n the p r e s e n t . v  By the  supporting  Examiner  ical  reform.  Test  Acts  to  Figaro  cause, o f r e l i g i o u s  i n d i c a t e d h i s / h e r support  I n 1832  the  r e p e a l o f the  and. C a t h o l i c , E m a n c i p a t i o n  political  securing  critic  the  reform,  a new  being  The  polit-  Corporation  major.steps  radical  i n London p u b l i s h e d .a c a r t o o n  for  were, d i r e c t l y  considered  constitution.  toleration,  and  linked towards  unstamped  on. June  l6th,  1832  58  entitled,  The.Reform M i l l  Young, w h i c h  illustrated  rungs  reform  Acts old  on  the  the  Old.Constitution  t h i s , conne.ction  ladder  l e a d to a .mill.  An  labelled  Emancipation  by  the  o f Sarum. and. G r a t t o n . f a l l s . i n t o the  Whig l e a d e r s ,  L o r d s G r e y and  approval.  ly  progress, t h a t  depicted.  notion.of  However, the p a p e r  such p r o g r e s s i v e  sentiments  unhesitatingly  and  pointed  The  Test  corrupt  mill  where of  John  this  the  Bull  Examiner  detected.no  certain-  cartoon  evidence  i n Wilkie's Preaching  In a d d i t i o n to. c r i t i c i z i n g l i m i t e d , appeal  and  the power  Brougham,, w h i l e  w a t c h e s the. p r o c e d u r e w i t h s u p p o r t e d , the  The  " r o t t e n " borough  i s t r a n s f o r m e d , .into, a young l a d y by  its  ( f i g . 7).  old., hag. p e r s o n i f y i n g the  s y s t e m which, is., s u p p o r t e d  crutches she  Grinding  of o f Knox.  Wilkie' s picture for  i n t o l e r a n t , .subject, out. a . number  the  of formal  Examiner flaws:  Had the l i g h t been more c o n c e n t r a t e d , the f i g u r e s , l e s s crowded., some v a c a n t s p a c e l e f t t o r e l i e v e the .eye and show o f f t o a d v a n t a g e the d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s - had the. g a l l e r y n o t come s o . f o r w a r d , i n the p i c t u r e , the e f f e c t w o u l d have been i m p r o v e d . 3 0 Although  the  reviewer  praised Wilkie  historical picture, clearly very  successful.  Examiner, f e l t  Unlike  the  for attempting  she/he d i d n o t other  nine  critics,  W i l k i e ' s t a l e n t s were b e t t e r  p a i n t i n g popular  genre  subjects:  think  it the  employed  an was  59  I t (The P r e a c h i n g of, Knox) i s by an a r t i s t who h a s o b t a i n e d , a name by works o f a v e r y d i f f e r e n t c l a s s , , and t o w h i c h , we s u s p e c t , he w i l l i n t h e end be m a i n l y i n d e b t e d f o r -his deservedly high reputation.31  The be  largely  England's  deviant nature explained.by  le.gall.y p u b l i s h e d n e w s p a p e r .  utilitarians.,  i tallied, i t s e l f  c l a s s ..on many i s s u e s ,  f o r which one  t h a t i t appeared i n  t h e E x a m i n e r was produced, and r e a d  middle-class working  1  the f a c t  most r a d i c a l  Although  o f . t h e E x a m i n e r s r e v i e w can  including  m a i n l y by with the  universal suffrage,  i t was o f t e n p r a i s e d by t h e Poor.Man's  o f the l a r g e s t ,  Guardian,  most o u t s p o k e n and i n f l u e n t i a l un32  stamped n e w s p a p e r s . suffrage this  .The E x a m i n e r ' s  a n d . t h e unstamped p r e s s  paper  from  support  significantly  t h e more moderate Whig and. T o r y  of t h e o t h e r n i n e p u b l i c a t i o n s r e v i e w i n g Support  f o rWilkie's picture  academy, e x h i b i t i o n of t h e p r e s s - - t h e monthly was  paid  legal  journals..  the . l e g a l  t h e f o u r penny  radical  separated positions  the e x h i b i t i o n .  and i n t e r e s t  i n the  i n g e n e r a l , came. from, a p a r t i c u l a r  sector  stamped newspapers- and p r e s i t g i o u s  In the e a r l y  d i v i d e d . i n t o ..two  gories:  for universal  distinct  1830s.the E n g l i s h p r e s s  and m u t u a l l y  stamped .press  hostile  cate-  of. t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  t a x on e a c h p a p e r  sold  which  and t h e i l l e g a l  unstamped, p r e s s , w h i c h was. v i g o r o u s l y p r o s e c u t e d by  60  the  government, on  the  government's r e a l r e a s o n  n e w s p a p e r s was through  the  grounds., o f . t a x  evasion.^"  f o r suppressing  t h e . t h r e a t they  However,  5  unstamped  posed to p u b l i c  t h e i r p e r s i s t e n t . a.tta.c.ks on p r o p e r t y  order  and  privilege,  demands f o r , u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e and  cheap knowledge,  enthusiastic  and.radical  support  organizations. newspaper  for socialist  . During  the R e f o r m . C r i s i s ,  sales skyrocketed,  far surpassing  and  labour  unstamped those  of  the  35 stamped press... that  covered  P r e d i c t a b l y i t . was  events  at. the  of the  unstamped penny p r e s s ,  working  c l a s s . and. l o w e r m i d d l e - c l a s s i n an  beyond, t h e i r  exhibition  means.  property in the  the  of  by  only  R a d i c a l s , had  literature  society's e l i t e .  and  An  as t h e  and  the  i n October  socially  contaminated  of 1831,  uh.s tamped. c u l t u r a l  fine  urban  little  and  advertisement,  s t a t i n g , t h a t . . t h i s p a p e r was  literature  members o f the  unstamped, press, g e n e r a l l y seems  Poor Man's G u a r d i a n  first  Test,  and  press  Academy.  t h a t was. f i n a n c i a l l y  The  t o have r e g a r d e d . a r t  stamped  fashionable Royal  Readers  interest  the  published promoted  review,  the  designed  to  a r t s . w i t h improved  Literary judge  independent 37  standards As  the  advertisement  warranted spoke o n l y was  to:  .that .would be  since  the  f o r . the  r e l e v a n t to a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s .  pointed, out, existing upper  their  reviews  classe.s.  new  i n the  The  approach  was  stamped  press  purpose, o f t h e  journal  61  ...expose t h e c r u e l . a n d o p p r e s s i v e f a l l a c i e s w h i c h s u p p o r t t h e p r e s e n t o u t r a g e o u s system of i n e q u a l i t y , and. w h i c h i t i s the aim o f a l m o s t a l l th.e p a s t , and . p r e s e n t l i t e r a t u r e t o e s t a b l i s h u p t o the p r e s e n t time, both a u t h o r s and r e v i e w e r s have . i n v a r i a b l y b e l o n g e d t o t h e upper c l a s s e s , o.f s o c i e t y , to. whose v i e w s and. i n t e r e s t s t h e y have, n a t u r a l l y c o n f o r m e d t h e m s e l v e s , not only from i n c l i n a t i o n , but a l s o f o r t h e sake o f p a t r o n a g e on w h i c h t h e y have been so .dependent... b u t t h e i r dependence i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o t h e most a b j e c t s l a v e r y ; and t h e y a r e . c o n t e n t t o become t h e h i r e l i n g s c r i b e s o f i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s... 38  Even press neither the in  though  r e a d e r s and w r i t e r s  a t t e n d e d .nor.  nine establishment  unstamped  reviewed, the academy  critics  r e s p o n s e t o the t h r e a t  of the  exhibition,  defended. W i l k i e ' s  they b e l i e v e d  this  picture  group  posed.  T h e i r p a r a n o i a was ..based, on t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a t m o s p h e r e of  political  crisis.  Radical  groups  and working, c l a s s e s were m a r c h i n g demanding t h e r i g h t  i n the lower middle  out i n the  to. v o t e , and p a r t i c i p a t e  streets i n a govern-  ment t h a t had . t r a d i t i o n a l l y  g o v e r n e d them--a f a c t  terrified  rejected  Even  T o r i e s who  moderate  mounting  firmly  universal  which  suffrage.  Whigs were g r o w i n g more a n x i o u s a b o u t  expressions  of R a d i c a l  discontent  the  d u r i n g May  of  39 1832. the if  For respectable.academy viewers of both  demand.s . o f the R a d i c a l s , .had f r i g h t e n i n g g r a n t e d p o l i t i c a l , power,  surely  t h e s e new  parties,  implications-groups  demand a share, i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s p r o p e r t y  and  would positions.  62  In  t e r m s o f . t h e academy, t h e y w o u l d a l s o  aesthetic form  expect  judgements which.would.undermine  of high, c u l t u r e .  The  Magazine v o i c e d t h e s e  to e x e r c i s e  the  existing  conservative c r i t i c  of F r a s e r s 1  fears:  Our modern r e f o r m e r s on t h e c o n t r a r y o f a l l c l a s s e s , . r e v e r e n c e . n o t h i n g - n o t even t h e m s e l v e s . No sympathy have t h e y w i t h , aught t h a t i s g e n e r o u s i n f e e l i n g . o r d i g n i f i e d i n s e n t i m e n t ; and w h a t e v e r i s not d e c i d e d l y i n unison with t h e i r sympathies, t h a t do t h e y s u l l e n l y h a t e . Of our p r e s e n t i l l u m i n a t i , n e w s p a p e r s and c a r i c a t u r e s c o n s t i t u t e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t h e i r whole o f l i t e r a t u r e and o f a r t ; and t h e s e , a g a i n , a r e p o p u l a r i n p r o p o r t i o n as t h e y a r e /brutal, and f e r o c i o u s . Unless something occurs t o i n t e r p o s e a t i m e l y check to our p r e s e n t u n n a t u r a l , po.si.tion, the m i l l i o n w i l l , ere l o n g , be t h e p r i n c i p a l i f n o t s o l e a r b i t e r s • i n a l l matters of t a s t e . . . 4 U  The  F r a s e r ' s r e v i e w e r .demonstrates.a  defence  me o n a n i s m . o f t e n  l i s h m e n t ' s hegemony. forms  of  praised  presenting  the  In the  same r e v i e w ,  entire  British  nation..  clearly  i d e o l o g i c a l , because, i n r a l i t y  equally  one-sided  t h a t was  embodying  increasingly  the b a l a n c e  The  the  biased academy  interests Such  and  re-  c l a i m s were  academic a r t  the. i n t e r e s t s  t h r e a t e n e d by  estab-  popular a r t  e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s a r t a t the  for. transcending s p e c i f i c the  cultural  employed t o s a f e g u a r d  ( c a r i c a t u r e s ) were a t t a c k e d f o r t h e i r  position,, while was  type  o f an  impending  was  elite  changes i n  o f power.  o n l y paper  t o p o i n t out  the p a r t i s a n  nature  63  o f a c a d e m i c . a r t was.-the. E x a m i n e r w h i c h was both W i l k i e ' s  a r t , and. the  readers•sought'  more t h a n  aca.de.my i n g e n e r a l . . simply  their  the  s i x months p r e ceding,. the  had  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y attacked.the  the  middle  of  The E x a m i n e r ' s  own a c c e s s  House o f Commons and. t h e R o y a l . Academy.  t o the  In f a c t ,  during  e x h i b i t i o n , , the Examiner Academy, n o t f o r e x c l u d i n g  c l a s s f r o m i t s . .previews and. d i n n e r s ,  as p a r t  of. a . l a r g e r o p p r e s s i v e  article  t h e .Academy had. be.en. s a r c a s t i c a l l y  the  critical  power, s t r u c t u r e .  but r a t h e r In one  compared t o  House o f L o r d s : . . . t h e R o y a l Academy makes .the p a i n t e r , and n o t t h e p a i n t e r t h e t i t l e . ; j u s t as p a t e n t s f o r p e e r a g e make . f i t n e s s for. l e g i s l a t i o n , and n o t f i t n e s s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n p e e r s . 4-1  Both i n s t i t u t i o n s them p u b l i c l y the p r o p e r t y  r.equired  a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l members of. a. s e l e c t  was n e i t h e r , i m p e r a t i v e protect for  limited  The  Aside  to  For. t h e E x a m i n e r  a new l e v e l  critic i t  to. promote . W i l k i e ' s p i c t u r e , n o r t o  appeal  response  from d i r e c t  objected  few..  o f s o c i e t y and n o t  t h e Academy, i n s t e a d both, were s h a r p l y  their  strates  s w e e p i n g a l t e r a t i o n s t o make  and. a n t i q u a t e d  to Wilkie's of c o n f l i c t  criticized  values.  Preaching  o f Knox  demon-  a t t h e .Royal Academy.  c r i t i c i s m , by t h e E x a m i n e r r e v i e w e r  t o t h e Academy i n g e n e r a l ,  a more a c a d e m i c . g e n r e  and.style  and t o W i l k i e ' s  who shift  i n p a r t i c u l a r , the  64  painting  appeared  to  characterized  the  Certainly  nine  shared lower this ard  the  by  responses, to L e s l i e ' s p i c t u r e . from  s o u g h t .to p r o t e c t  rallying  to  meanings f r o m  the  defend, the  .two the  status  groups, o f image..  quo,  For  while  critics Tories,  f o r Whigs,  Exposure  dictory  the  motives  Furthermore,  the  shatters  differences  indicate, that.even  f a r from  homogeneous.  of  the  against  old, a c a d e m i c  the  the  stand-  united  agitation  s.olutions  to  the  of  this  to e x t r a p o l a t e  opposite  painting  justi-  i t represented  of.the  illusionary  critic's  their  contra-  concensus.  between Whig and the  press  Academy  However, d e s p i t e  aspirations. for reform.  was  stamped  radicalism  class., t h e i r c o n f l i c t i n g  l e d the  positions  the  o f Whigs and. T o r i e s . a g a i n s t  working  the  the. partisan., d i v i s i o n s w h i c h  the. i n c r e a s i n g  o f h i s t o r y painting...  threat  fied  reviewers to  c l a s s e s , and  opposition the  reviewers'  an . a v e r s i o n  threat  transcend  progressive  Radical middle  class  65  Footnote s  "'"The f i r s t comment a p p e a r e d i n the Times (May 8, 1832) and t h e s e c o n d i n . the. S p e c t a t o r (.May. 12, 1832), p. 449 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , W i l k i e ' s e x t e n s i v e use of b i t u m e n g l a z e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d has..caused, e x t e n s i v e damage t o the p a i n t e d s u r f a c e , p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f c r a c k i n g , f l a k i n g , and d a r k e n i n g which, have almost, d e s t r o y e d some p a r t s o f the p i c t u r e e n t i r e l y . For a d i s c u s s i o n of W i l k i e ' s l a t e r d i s a s t r o u s < technique., see L o r d . R o n a l d . S u t h e r l a n d Gower, S i r D a v i d W i l k i e (London:.George B e l l and Sons, 1 9 0 2 ) , • pp. 88-88, and D a v i d ..and . Francina...Irwin, S c o t t i s h P a i n t e r s a t Home and A b r o a d 17.00. - . 1900, (London.: F a b e r and F a b e r , 1975), p. 183. Whitley.,' A r t i n E n g l a n d , pp. 233-234 i n c l u d e s an a c c o u n t from. a. c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t n e s s , Salomon H a r t , who commented.on the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the Knox p a n e l between the t i m e he. saw i t on W i l k i e ' s e a s e l and when i t was l a t e r p u r c h a s e d f o r the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y i n 1871: The c o l o u r i n g was b r i l l i a n t a n d . r i c h , and the shadows, even i n t h e . e x t r e m e d e p t h s , p u r e and transparent. Now a l a s ! How changed, and how p a i n f u l i s the memory o f t h a t . c h a n g e ! I t can h a r d l y be r e a l i z e d , save by one who saw i t on t h e easel. The c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e d r a w i n g , the c h a r a c t e r , o f c o u r s e r e m a i n , b u t the tone has become b l a c k and the " k e e p i n g " d e s t r o y e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n the f o r e g r o u n d a r e a . o n e can s t i l l see the p a i n s W i l k i e .took...to r e n d e r a c c u r a t e l y - the s u r f a c e s and t e x t u r e s o f the garments., f u r n i s h i n g s , and a r c h i tectural details.  consult versity  ^ F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e . o f t h i s sermon, J a s p e r R i d l e y , John Knox (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i P r e s s , 1968.), pp. 324-327. 3  C a t h o l i c . E m a n c i p a t i o n meant t h a t . the. Roman C a t h o l i c s e r v i c e was n o . l o n g e r i l l e g a l and t h a t . C a t h o l i c s c o u l d now l e g a l l y i n h e r i t property, give t h e i r c h i l d r e n a C a t h o l i c e d u c a t i o n , hold...of f i c e , i n i t i a t e l e g a l , a c t i o n , l i v e i n London, and n o t be b a n i s h e d , f o r t h e i r r e l i g i o u s f a i t h . F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , . . c o n s u l t Cowherd,. P o l i t i c s , o f E n g l i s h D i s s e n t , chap.2 "The Growth o f R e l i g i o u s L i b e r t y " .  66  I t was. m a i n l y on account, o f L o r d L i v e r p o o l ' s s t r e n u o u s o b j e c t i o n s .thai.. C a n n i n g ' s C a t h o l i c R e l i e f B i l l f a i l e d t o p a s s p a r l i a m e n t in. 1822. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s and o t h e r o f L o r d L i v e r p o o l ' s a c t s o p p o s i n g C a t h o l i c t o l e r a t i o n , . c o n s u l t The D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y under R o b e r t Banks. J e n k i n s o n , S e c o n d . E a r l , o f L i v e r p o o l (1770 - 1828)', p p . 748-752.. A c c o r d i n g t o the. Irwins.., S c o t t i s h P a i n t e r s , p. 176., W i l k i e f i r s t t r i e d t o . i n t e r e s t .King George IV i n the Knox s u b j e c t , b u t t h e K i n g a p p a r e n t l y d i s l i k e d t h e s u b j e c t , e x p r e s s i n g a...strong p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o m e t h i n g humorous. Gower m e n t i o n s j£l,30.0. a s .the p r i c e P e e l p a i d f o r t h e c o m m i s s i o n , see Gower, W i l k i e , p. 75. :  ^ W i l k i e ' s n a t i o n a l i s m i s d i s c u s s e d by t h e I r w i n s , S c o t t i s h P a i n t e r s , chap. 10. Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e I r w i n s m e n t i o n Wilkie.'s: membership i n v a r i o u s S c o t t i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . . ( i . e. The H i g h l a n d S o c i e t y ) , and c i t e h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o h e l p young S c o t t i s h a r t i s t s s e c u r e p a t r o n s , admission..to famous c o l l e c t i o n s and good l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r p i c t u r e s i n t h e R o y a l Academy e x h i bition. I n 1827 a t a . d i n n e r , g i v e n i n h i s h o n o u r i n Rome, W i l k i e gave a s p e e c h a b o u t . t h e common p u r p o s e and i d e n t i t y of S c o t t i s h p a i n t e r s . 7 The L i f e o f J o h n Knox by Thomas M c G r i e was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1814-.. By 1831, a. f i f t h e d i t i o n o f t h i s b i o g r a p h y h a d been r e l e a s e d . . A c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s book r e v i e w s ' o f t h e f i f t h e d i t i o n , t h i s seems, t o have been c o n s i d e r e d t h e most, a c c u r a t e and. i n f o r m a t i v e b i o g r a p h y on Knox, by b o t h Whig and T o r y reviewers. Spec t a t or  8  9  Times  (May .12,. 1 8 3 2 ) , p . AA9 •  (May 8, 1 8 3 2 ) .  ~ ^ 0 f t h e f o u r t e e n p i c t u r e s , t h a t W i l k i e h a d exh i b i t e d a t the. R o y a l Acade.m.y s i n c e h i s r e t u r n from S p a i n i n 1828, n i n e were S p a n i s h .and I t a l i a n s u b j e c t s . ( . A l l a n Cunningham), "The L i v i n g A r t i s t s No. I V : D a v i d W i l k i e , . " Athenaeum. ( J a n u a r y 1, 1831), p . 11. 1 1  67  S p e c t a t o r .(May; 12, 1832)., p . 4-4-9- c i t e d h i s p i c t u r e s o f A l f r e d and .The V i s i t , of. George ..the... F o u r t h t o H o l y r o o d as evidence of h i s p r e v i o u s . f a i l u r e s . The f o r m e r was n o t e x h i b i t e d a t .the ..Royal. Academy., w h i l e the. l a t t e r met w i t h w i d e s p r e a d . c r i t i c i s m .at t h e R o y a l Academy e x h i b i t i o n o f 1830. 1 3  Literary  G a z e t t e , (May 12, .1832), p . 298  "^Gower," W i l k i e , p p . 64-65 1 5  Spectator  l 6  Morning  .(May. 12, 1832), p . 449  Herald  (May. 7, 1 8 3 2 ) .  17 The f i r s t s k e t c h .was W... E t t y ' s D e s t r o y i n g A n g e l w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . Although the c r i t i c s f e l t t h e work was - v e r y . important., t h e y t r e a t e d i t as a r e l i g i o u s or m y t h o l o g i c a l v i s i o n , r a t h e r t h a n as a h i s t o r i c a l subject. In addition.,, i t s . " u n f i n i s h e d " q u a l i t i e s r u l e d i t out from b e i n g ; a s e r i o u s c o n t e n d e r t o W i l k i e ' s painting. The o t h e r sketch, .was C. A r n a l d ' s B a t t l e o f Na_s_eby (ho. 3 7 ) , and t h e h i s t o r y .- marine p a i n t i n g was J.M.W. Turner's' The.' P r i n c e o f .Orange,, a f t e r w a r d s W i l l i a m I I I , l a n d i n g a t T o r b a y , November 5th,' 1688. (no. 369) w h i c h was d i s c u s s e d .with T u r n e r ' s t h r e e o t h e r marine p a i n t i n g s S t a f f a,. Van Tromp.' s S h a l l o p and H e l v o e t s l u y s as a s e a p i e c e . Constable.'s ..Waterloo B r i d g e f r o m W h i t e h a l l S t a i r s (no. 2 7 9 ) , commemorating the o p e n i n g o f t h e b r i d g e , was h a r d l y an eleva.ted. h i s t o r i c a l theme., and George Jone's' Death o f S i r J o h n Mo.ore (no. 7) seems t o have been r e j e c t e d f o r i t s l a c k , o f h e r oic, s e n t i m e n t s. I t was o n l y summarily m e n t i o n e d by a c o u p l e o f c r i t i c s . 1  Spectator.  (May 12, 1 8 3 2 ) , p . 450.  ~*" Athenaeurn (.January . 1, 1831), p . 10. 9  2  Spectator,  (May .12,. 1832), p. 449.  Under t h e A c t o f U n i o n (1707), E n g l a n d and S c o t l a n d had r e t a i n e d t h e i r d i f f e r e n t . o f f i c i a l . r e l i g i o n s , - - A n g l i c a n i s m i n E n g l a n d and P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m . i n S c o t l a n d . Presbyterians were c o n s i d e r e d d i s s e n t e r s i n .England u n t i l 1828.  68  22 D o y l e  drew t h e idea, f o r t h e c a r t o o n f r o m an i n c i d e n t w h i c h i s b e l i e v e d . t o . have t a k e n . p l a c e n e a r B a t h when a mob a t t a c k e d t h e coach o f . t h e C a t h o l i c B i s h o p o f C o r k , m i s t a k i n g h i m f o r an A n g l i c a n b i s h o p . See G.M. T r e v e l y a n , ed. , The Seven' Years., o f W i l l i a m . .IV : A R.eign C a r t o o n e d by J o h n D o y l e ( L o n d o n : A v a l o n . P r e s s and W i l l i a m Heinemann Ltd., 1952)., no. XXV. 23 A l t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t , of. t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Reformation simultaneously c a r r i e d connotations of C a t h o l i c r e p r e s s i o n , o n l y t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e M o r n i n g H e r a l d (May 7, 1832) u s e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to. c r i t i c i z e t h e " p r i e s t l y t y r a n n y and u s u r p a t i o n " . . I n s t e a d Whig, p a p e r s d w e l l e d on t h e Reform theme. 2/ F o r a d i s c u s s i o n . of. t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f t h e d i s s e n t i n g s e c t s i n a g i t a t i n g f o r t h e Reform B i l l , see Cowherd,. P o l i t i c s , chap.. 5 "The Reform B i l l o f 1832". 2 5  Literary  Gazette  (May 12, 1832), p . 298.  26 Fraser's 2 7  Morning  2 8  Examiner Ibid.  2 9  Magazine.(July, Post. (May. 5,  1832), p . 717  1832).  (June 3,. 1832), p . 357.  30 , . , Ibid. T  E x a m i n e r (May 27, 1832)., p.. 340... The f a c t t h a t the' E x a m i n e r c r i t i c accepted., t h e h i g h s t a t u s o f h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , and admired. W i l k i e ' s. genre subj.ec.ts, w h i c h p r e s e n t e d a f a i r l y p a t r o n i z i n g view o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s , seems a t odds w i t h t h e p a p e r ' s s u p p o r t . f o r t h e R a d i c a l c a u s e . To some e x t e n t , t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n . c a n .be e x p l a i n e d by t h e p a p e r ' s p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n , as. a r e s p e c t a b l e . m i d d l e - c l a s s stamped newspaper, w h i c h s u p p o r t e d equality"f/or-~ t h e w o r k i n g " class. 3 1  69  32 The  Examiner's support f o r u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e was c i t e d i n an. ar.ti.cle by H e n r y H e t h e r i n g t o n e n t i t l e d "Mr. C a r p e n t e r and. t h e Reform B i l l , " The Poor Man' s G u a r d i a n (November 19, 1 8 3 1 ) . 33 The i l l e g a l i t y o f t h e u n s t a m p e d . p r e s s stemmed from t h e S i x A c t s o f December 1819 w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h e confrontation at Peterloo. The. S i x A c t s t i g h t e n e d up the d e f i n i t i o n o f a newspaper, and r e q u i r e d a l l p a p e r s t o pay a f o u r penny t a x . . The . laws.were . p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s s u p p r e s s i n g , cheap r a d i c a l ..working c l a s s t r a c t s and n e w s p a p e r s . U s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e unstamped p r e s s can be f o u n d i n J . H o l l a n d . Rose,. "The .Unstamped, Press__1815_1836," E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review 12 .'(October, 1 8 9 7 ) : 711-726, and i n P a t r i c i a H o l l i s , . The: Pauper. P r e s s : A S t u d y i n W o r k i n g - C l a s s ' R a d i c a l i s m o f . t h e 1830s ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press,. 1970). 35 S a l e s f i g u r e s f o r Henry H e t h e r i n g t o n V s Poor Man's G u a r d i a n , t h e l e a d i n g • u n s t a m p e d newspaper d u r i n g 1832 - 33 r a n g e d f r o m 12, 00.0. - 15,000 c o p i e s p e r i s s u e , w h i l e f i g u r e s f o r t h e stamped p r e s s ..are e s t i m a t e d as. f o l l o w s : t h e Times was a p p r o x i m a t e l y . 10, 000. . c o p i e s t h e M o r n i n g H e r a l d was 7,000 copies, and b.o.th t h e M o r n i n g Po.s.t. and M o r n i n g C h r o n i c l e h o v e r e d a r o u n d t h e 5,000 copy mark, see, H o l l i s , Pauper P r e s s , p. 123. R o s e , E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l , p. 721 e s t i m a t e s the P o o r Man's Guardian'.s c i r c u l a t i o n to,.he 16, 000 c o p i e s i n 1833. Of c o u r s e , t h e number o f r e a d e r s was. much h i g h e r t h a n the s a l e s f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e . Stamped n e w s p a p e r s c i r c u l a t e d i n r e a d i n g - r o o m s , c o f f e e a n d . p u b l i c h o u s e s and p r i v a t e c l u b s , w h i l e unstamped .newspapers were e x c h a n g e d a t w o r k i n g - c l a s s c o f f e e h o u s e s e a s t - e n d p u b l i c h o u s e s , and r e a d t o g r o u p s .at work. . I t . i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e unstamped newspapers were r e a d twenty t i m e s f o r each, p a p e r s o l d . The f i g u r e f o r stamped,. newspapers . would, have . been c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s s i n c e more stamped . r e a d e r s could., a f f o r d t h e i r own copy. The e d i t o r o f t h e P o o r Man's G u a r d i a n , James O ' B r i e n , e s t i m a t e d t h a t a b o u t 3, 0.00.. o f "the • p a p e r s 12, 000 15, 000 b u y e r s b e l o n g e d .to t h e m i d d l e c l a s s . See H o l l i s , P a u p e r P r e s s , p . 123' 1  -  70  37  The L i t e r a r y Test., o n l y p u t out f o u r i s s u e s i n the month o f J a n u a r y o f 1832 .and t h e n c e a s e d p u b l i c a t i o n , w h i c h suggests, t h a t . l i t e r a t u r e and., t h e a r t s were n o t t o p p r i o r i t y i s s u e s f o r penny p r e s s r e a d e r s i n 1832, see H o l l i s , . P a u p e r / P r e s s , p . 322. - Poor 38  Man'.s Guardian... ( O c t o b e r  8, 1831)  39 The Whigs' m o u n t i n g . a n x i e t y d u r i n g t h e "days o f May" i s discus.s.ed. .by Derek F r a s e r , "The A g i t a t i o n f o r P a r l i a m e n t a r y R e f o r m , " i n . P o p u l a r .Movements .1830 - 1850, ed. J . T . Ward ( L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n .and .Co.. L t d . , 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 4-6-4-7. The f i r s t , two. weeks o f May saw an u n p r e c e d e n t e d number o f p o p u l a r . d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , r a l l i e s and p r o t e s t m e e t i n g s s u p p o r t i n g , t h e B i l l , w h i c h a t t r a c t e d enormous crowds. F r a s e r e s t i m a t e s , t h a t i n o n l y one week f i v e h u n d r e d m e e t i n g s were h e l d and n e a r l y one t h o u s a n d p e t i t i o n s were p r o d u c e d . AO.  Fraser's  Magazine  (July,  1832), p. 711,  Examiner  (January  8, 1 8 3 2 ) , p . 20.  Figure  5.  David W i l k i e , Tate G a l l e r y  The  Preaching  o f Knox,  1832  Figure  6.  John D o y l e , R e f o r m and R e f o r m a t i o n , November 18, 1831 (G. M. T r e v e l y a n , ed. The Seven Y e a r s o f W i l l i a m IV: A R e i g n C a r t o o n e d by J o h n D o y l e . L o n d o n : A v a l o n P r e s s and W i l l i a m H e i n i m a n n L t d . , 1952. Plate 25.)  73  T H E  Figure  7.  XvZXXiX, F O R COnSTIXTJTION  B.EFORJVX  G-IVIiaZDIIJG T B S  OZiB  TOUKG.  R o b e r t Seymour, The Reform M i l l f o r G r i n d i n g the O l d C o n s t i t u t i o n Youn^, 1832 F i g a r o i n London (June 16, 1832), Page 115.  74-  CHAPTER  The  Destroying  Angel, a n d  Further gressive  III  Daemons.of E v i l  divisions, within  middle  E.tty's t h r e e  R o y a l Academy, e x h i b i t i o n , t h e The  Pes t r o y i n g . A n g e l .and  the  Orgies  sketch  " V i s i o n s " not (fig.  8).  having  x 4-6 i n c h e s ) , .and  and  details.  Leicester, paid the  I t had  freedom..to  to a l a t e r Carey  canvas  been  (under  picture,  the  of  the  the being  "A  finished  by  the  i n h i s t o r y or "sketch"  was  Romans  poetry.""'"  quite  large colouring  c o m m i s s i o n e d by H e n r y Payne  s e l e c t both  review  to  f i n i s h e d , i n terms of  about., whom l i t t l e  £ l 3 0 . f o r the  Intemperate.  origin  highly  pro-  Interrupting  compositions, c a l l e d  their  Etty  discussion  contributions  Daemons., o f E v i l  T h i s , paper. . on  (36  the  the  most c o n t r o v e r s i a l  the .Vicious, and  of that, c l a s s , of  William  ranks, of  class... s u r f a c e d . . d u r i n g  surrounding William  of  the  by  2  i s known o t h e r  than t h a t  and  gave  the  apparently  the  critic,  pen-name R i d o l f i ) p u b l i s h e d  in  he  Etty  s u b j e c t , and...style,  p a i n t i n g , by  of  according William the  3 Yorkshire christ,  Gazette  Etty,'s f i r s t  sketch, of. the version  i n November  o f 1832.  biographer,  sub j e c.t. .dated, from  was . n o t  started until  Alexander  noted..that a 1822,  1831.^  Gil-  preliminary  although  the  final  75  The  s k e t c h d e p i c t s , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f a crowd  engaged-in. the " v i c i o u s " sexual  activities.of  indulgence,,.in a .Roman temple  g a m b l i n g and  of pleasure--or  5 vice on  as E t t y d e s c r i b e d . i t . . .  t h e temple. s t r i k i n g  lightning, and  w h i l e . the  The d e s t r o y i n g a n g e l  down. i t s . . w a l l s w i t h demons, o f e v i l  c h a i n i n g v a r i o u s , .men and. women.  descends  b o l t s of  a s . s i s t by  seizing  Et.ty c a p t u r e d t h e  moment- o f g r e a t e s t , i n t e n s i t y - - t h e b u i l d i n g i s c o l l a p s i n g , the  demons a r e f o r c i b l y , a b d u c t i n g  o t h e r humans... f l e e  i n fear.  confusion  i s heightened  draperies  and f l a i l i n g  gestures.  c a r e f u l l y . constructed,.according  to  the g r e a t  tradition  to the r u l e s of grand  which means t h a t E t t y p a i d homage of the o l d masters.  curved  shape,  composition,  r e c a l l Raphael's Expulsion  sketch.  Etty's  scale execution, i t s  and. s t r u c t u r e , o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d  The t h r e e  large arches  from p i e r s and .engaged, C o r i n t h i a n columns  same y e a r  Although  n e v e r t h e l e s s .echo that,.of R a p h a e l ' s  f r e s c o e s , i n the. V a t i c a n .  9).  swirling  The c o m p o s i t i o n i s  was, never, i n t e n d e d , f o r l a r g e  (fig.  while  p a n i c and  o f smoke,  sketch  architecture,  victims,  The p r e v a i l i n g  by. c l o u d s  manner a c a d e m i c . p a i n t i n g  their  frescoes  t h e Temple i n 1822, t h e  t h a i he s t a r t e d , . t h e . p r e l i m i n a r y , s t u d y E t t y ' s ..figures , l i k e  those  springing  particularly  of Hellodorus.from  E t t y h a d seen t h e S t a n z e  Stanze  for his  of h i s Renaissance  76  p r e d e c e s s o r , were c a r e f u l l y stage-like scene. ^  architectural  the d e s t r o y i n g  appreciation.of  i n the  spa.ce and. c o n t a i n , t h e d r a m a t i c  The muscular, p r o p o r t i o n s  especially Etty's  a r r a n g e d to. both, f i l l  o f the male  angel possibly  figures,  derived  Michelangelo's Sistine  from  Ceiling  7 which  he had. a l s o  Beyond models,  admired  i n 1822.  t h e obvious, i m p o r t a n c e  of. s u c h  E t t y . a l s o. .seems to. have, drawn i n s p i r a t i o n  seventeenth-century Flemish p a i n t i n g . lapping  g e s t u r e s resemble  (fig.  temporary varied  Antiquity. sculpture nized..  Etty which  practice  some of. t h e e x h i b i t i o n  recalls  and c o p y i n g from  left  classical  reviewers recogwas. m o d e l l e d on  t h e B e l v e d e r e t o r s o , and  the E l g i n  t o have, been  Marbles, p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f f with, a f a i n t i n g Q  belonged  t h e s e a t e d male i n t h e c e n t r e t u r n e d away  by metopes from  shoulder.  clearly  of l i f e - d r a w i n g  o t h e r f i g u r e s , were b e l i e v e d  striding  t h a t the  i n c l u d e d , several..quotations, from  the s p e c t a t o r  several  figures  The male. head, i n t h e l o w e r  the Laocoon,  alter-  was drawn by c o n -  one s h o u l d n o t e  types, and poses, o f E t t y ' s  to the academic  from  Finally  which  over-  the d i a g o n a l l i n e s  Ruben's' s L a s t Judgement  10)--a..comparison  reviewers.  from  The crowded,  arrangement . of the f i g u r e s . a n d  of t h e i r pieces  Renaissance  woman thrown  inspired t h e demon  over h i s  77  Etty's interest  apocalyptic vision  i n such, themes d u r i n g  and  engravings  by J o h n M a r t i n ,  and  sermons by, Henry  the  world  was p a r t  o f <a w i d e s p r e a d s  t h e e a r l y 1830s. essays  by Thomas C a r l y l e  I r v i n g which prophesied*  a t t r a c t e d , huge , f o l l o . w i n g s .  surrounding. C a t h o l i c Emancipation,  Revolution  i n Fran.ee and., t h e G r e a t  on  the brink  Although  feel  o f a new s o c i a l  Etty's  sketch  connotations,  whom l i k e d  they  order — f o r b e t t e r  made were  standing  or w o r s e .  generally projected, a timely carried  fordifferent  rather  theme  more  groups, n o t a l l o f  t h e image.  Conservative vision  end o f  the J u l y  Reform B i l l  as though  o f chaos and . d e s t r u c t i o n , i t a l s o specific  - the  The g r e a t c o n -  troversies  Whigs, T o r i e s , and. R a d i c a l s  Paintings  critics  heartily  o f super-human v e n g e a n c e .  i l l u s t r a t e d . the.ir  approved  of E t t y ' s  F o r them i t a p t l y  own gloomy b e l i e f  that England,  E t t y ' s Roman s c e n e , wa.s doomed ..to r u i n .  This  like  theme o f  n a t i o n a l , d e c l i n e wa.s. d i s c u s s e d . a t . g r e a t ..length i n an anonymous. T o r y which The  article  appeared  on t h e s u b v e r s i o n  governments  i n t h e . Q u a r t e r l y Review i n J u l y  article, basically  liberties  of a n c i e n t  a r g u e d . t h a t . "... the  o f 1831.  fatal  blow- t o t h e  o f b o t h A t h e n s and. Rome was. d e a l t t h r o u g h t h e 11  violated  r i g h t s of.the  privileged  orders."  Only  divine  78  intervention  c o u l d t u r n back t h e a d v a n c i n g  o f democracy t h a t 1831,  another  lated  these  Tory  tidal  t h r e a t e n e d .to.. e n g u l f them. article  wave  I n June o f  i n Blackwood s Magazine  articu-  1  concerns:  ...By w h a t e v e r means.the i n f e c t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i c a l f r e n z y h a d .been, communicated,., we c e r t a i n l y have caught, i t : . - t h e p o i s o n rushes, t h r o u g h t h e v e i n s of the country p r o d u c i n g l i k e e f f e c t s o f v a s t and i n t e m p e r a t e . . f o l l y ; and i t . i s o n l y i n t h e p r o v i d e n c e o f God t o - s a y where i t s h a l l have an end, .and wha.t. s h a l l b r i n g back t h e h e a r t s and minds, o f t h i s .people, t.o" a h e a l t h f u l s t a t e , i f i n d e e d , t h a t can be hoped a t . a l l , w i t h o u t a f e a r f u l i n t e r v a l o f s c o u r g i n g and s u f f e r i n g . The  writer  d i s c u s s e d the impending  c a t a s t r o p h e w h i c h was  beyond human. c o n t r o l ,  capable  "providence  She/he e v i d e n t l y  "vast  o f God".  and i n t e m p e r a t e "  invoke  divine  The underlying the  folly  o n l y by t h e  believed  of the reformers  that the  might  well  retribution.  punishment  o f such  intemperance  the T o r i e s '  support  for Etty's.picture.  early nineteenth century  believed  of r e s o l u t i o n  t o be b o t h  Many w r i t e r s d w e l t  was a k e y f a c t o r During  s e x u a l m o r a l i t y was w i d e l y  a, .cause. and .a . c o n s e q u e n c e . o f upon t h e s e x u a l and, s o c i a l  the F r e n c h . Re v o l u t i o n , . w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d  revolution.  excesses of inextricably  13 connected. this  idea,  During  the Reform  Crisis,  the T o r i e s e x p l o i t e d  c h a r g i n g t h e Whigs, and o t h e r r e f o r m e r s  with  79  immorality. "natural"  By t a m p e r i n g w i t h s o c i a l .order,  they  t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n and  claimed, t h e Whigs were  endangering the already .precarious  All  of the Tory  critics  servatism—pointing and  Whiggism  Gazette s 1  out t h a t  review  Is here  word  within  opened w i t h  destroying  a Biblical against  society.  Controversy — i n f a c t ,  worried.Tory, a letter his  English  The L i t e r a r y  quotation  itself  cannot  from stand.'  The s e l e c t i o n o f  v e i l e d comment on t h e  Durin.g t h i s  p e r i o d , the  associated  so much  so, t h a t  with the  Etty, a  r e f u s e d . t o .use t h e word, e x p l a i n i n g  t o a. f r i e n d . dated.. August. 16,  travels, Etty  con-  h i s own. work; an o p e r a t i o n i n  " d i v i d e d " was.almost I n v a r i a b l y  Reform  their  t h e roads, .of. v i c e , . i n t e m p e r a n c e ,  quota.tion . seems, .to be a t h i n l y  crisis  f o r teaching  vindicated  w h i c h we h e a r t i l y i ^ i s h him success..""'"^ this  Etty  i n e v i t a b l y l e d to destruction.  Mark 3:25. "'A h o u s e , d i v i d e d Satan  moral . f a b r i c , of s o c i e t y .  priased  a f i n e m o r a l l e s s o n . . The p i c t u r e  further  1831.  why i n  Discussing  wrote:  ..By which, means,, as. I was, l a s t week a t B r i g h t o n , a t one e x t r e m i t y o f our d e a r I s l a n d , I s h a l l c u t t h r o u g h i t - though not. d i v i d e i t , - f r o m one end t o t h e o t h e r . I t i s i n f a c t . d i v i d e d enough. I am l i k e y o u r s e l f , s i c k o f t h e h a c k n e y e d p h r a s e REFORM.; f e a r i t w i l l , l i k e t h e Whigs, n e v e r do much good f o r us.15  80  Etty's may  own  well  Tory  c o n s e r v a t i s m . f u r t h e r - sugge s t s .. t h a t  have  critics  The the  Tory  been read  form  particularly  varied  i n the  academic .exercise  vigorous  poses, o f  Post  considered  Etty  age"  and  approved  highly  function  way  that  appealed  as.much as .his m o r a l message.  admired h i s  and  to  sketch  it."^  of E t t y ' s  critics  colouring  designed  his  "the  the  best of  drawing,  the  They  harmonious  figures..  pictorial  to  The  Morning  anatomist  f a c t . t h a t he  of  the  "v...drawn  had 17  largely  upon the  Literary Carey at  Gazette  discussed  They a l s o  quotations  greatly  that  their "flesh  19 of p e n c i l " . charms of. the pearly was  shoulder ious  of  and  of  critics  William -  figures  the  Academy  appreciated  traditional  composition.  sensual, d e p i c t i o n s  L i t e r a r y Gazette with  of  happily  a fulness  and  the  observed  luxuriance  W i l l i a m Carey l i n g e r e d over the s p e c i a l women's " r o u n d v o l u p t u o u s . f o r m s and t e n d e r 20  the  of her  of  For  passive,  him  the  the  most a p p e a l i n g  f a i n t i n g female  aggressive  sexual .pleasures  moral, meaning  the  for Etty's  supporters  and  i s painted  colouring".  that  The  mind;"  Michelangelo,  thes.e  relished his  nude female, v i c t i m s .  of h i s  sources  As  techniques,  classical  to  clas.sical 18  length.  i t s teaching  Etty's  stores  compared, him the  considerable  and  classical  abductor.  were, s t i l l work.  flung  over  Evidently  possible  fiigure  within  the  such  vicar-  the  larger  81  The these  c r i t i c s - can  ethical While  apparent  be. e x p l a i n e d  code, of. the  the  critics  punishment it  contradiction  posed  private  by  t h e i r adherence  gratification  of  d i d not  one's d e s i r e s . -  and  crucial  to  a r i s t o c r a c y . ' s . standard, of  haviour  i n . the  objected  the  to  s e x u a l .codes, was  acceptable  moral  class  who  middle  t o what, t h e y p e r c e i v e d  as .the  open m o r a l  as. the  bestial, sexuality  aristocracy  of. the  on  working  be-  for  i n the  the  the  especially  p r i m a r i l y .originated  of  the  threat  object  e a r l y . 1830s... M o u n t i n g p r e s s u r e  and. degenerate, b e h a v i o r and  wrote.  This d i s t i n c t i o n  between p u b l i c  r e f o r m had  private  and  of  the  theme o f  immorality  they  to  they  f i r m l y approved.of Etty's  the . . s o c i a l . o r d e r ,  the  moral stance  l e i s u r e c l a s s .for. w h i c h  of widespread, p u b l i c  to  i n the  laxity  one  hand,  class  on  the  21 other.  While  most m i d d l e - c l a s s  directed.against  the  exerted  aristocracy  public  upon, t h e behaviour  "smut" o f  and. s e t  morality  movements were  t h e . p o o r , p r e s s u r e was  urging  them to. c l e a n  a. .good . example f o r  also  up  their  their social  22 inferiors.. greater  As  the  e c o n o m i c and  became i n c r e a s i n g l y stringent  middle  political w i l l i n g to  power, the conform  m i d d l e - c l a s s . s e x u a l , codes .  1830s, t h i s , . c o n f o r m i t y was ficial  class, progressively  stage...  The  still  moral, l a x i t y  aristocracy  outwardly  the  to  However,, i n  at.an e a r l y , of  secured  more the  fairly  Regency e r a  was  supernot  82  yet  f o r g o t t e n , and. the . p r o p r i e t y o f the V i c t o r i a n  court  23 not  yet established..  Tory  reviewers  During  this  writing for elite  p e r i o d of  papers, d i d n o t  c o n t r a d i c t i o n , between e n j o y i n g E t t y ' s . e r o t i c approving While  transition,  and  politically  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , r e c e i v e d more e m p h a s i s ,  of  arousing  i m a g e r y was. s o m e t h i n g t h a t  picture  Etty's exhibition  entries  a middle-cla.ss r e a d e r s h i p  and  moral.reformers,  these  of a r i s t o c r a t i c  assuring,  on  and  offensive.  radical a l l three Writing  t h a t i n c l u d e d many d i s s e n t e r s were q u i c k  and. naked) f l e s h ,  decadence.  to  condemn  which i n  carried  Instead  s t r u c t u r e o f the  ( f i g . 12)  a  Academy .and. i t s t e a c h i n g  concluding  rescandal-  c r i t i c s ' .doubts a b o u t  S p e c t a t o r , d i r e c t e d . , much', o f i t s h o s t i l i t y the .Prow  conno-  of being  E t t y ' s h i g h l y a c a d e m i c approach, to,.such  scene, mu.s.t: have m a g n i f i e d , t h e  existing  of E t t y ' s  They f o u n d  con.tex.t o f the R o y a l Academy, must, have  tations  The  morally  critics  E t t y ' s p u b l i c d i s p l a y , of l u s t  ous  content  c r i t i c s , .could...not t o l e r a t e .  for  the  erotic  presence  appreciate.  was . p r e c i s e l y what the. Whig, Sp.e e t a t o r  Examiner of  explicit  the  conservative,  p r o - a r i s t o c r a t i c r e a d e r s .could, s t i l l , o p e n l y However, the  and  indulgence.  charged such  a  figures  o f h i s m o r a l condemnation, o.f s e x u a l  the . p u b l i c , . , m o r a l l y . c o n f o r m i s t  see  that,  methods.  towards  Youth  "It is physical  24. voluptuousness,  of.not  the.most f a s c i n a t i n g  kind."  the  This  83  verdict  was e x t e n d e d . .to The De.stroy.ing A n g e l  same c r i t i c  dismissed'with  which the  the. comment.', '". . . as a whole we 25  cannot  appreciate i t highly"..  The. E x a m i n e r was more  explicit: I t i s c a l l e d a. " v i s . i o n " , . and I s s u g g e s t e d , we suppose by Rubens's " F a l l , o f t h e Damned", o r one of B r e u g h e l l ' s f r i g h t f u l f a n c i e s . Such s u b j e c t s are n o t i n accordance with the f e e l i n g s o f the p r e s e n t a g e . Mr. E t t y s h o u l d . n o t . t r e a t t h e f a i r sex i n t h i s harsh, and. wanton m a n n e r . " 2  Evidently forms  these  c r i t i c s . found  so i n d e c e n t .that t h e y  possibility meaning.  T h i s .is. s i g n i f i c a n t  ideological.construct  to  support  their  voluptuous  d i d n o t even c o n s i d e r t h e  that. the. s k e t c h als.o . c a r r i e d  an  the  the., women ' s. r o u n d  because  employed  a larger  the f a l l  by b o t h  o f Rome was  T o r i e s and Whigs  p o s i t i o n .on t h e r e f o r m q u e s t i o n .  T o r i e s a s c r i b e d .Rome',s f a l l  moral  t o the v i o l a t e d  While  r i g h t s of  the p a t r i c i a n s ,  t h e Whigs reversed., t h e . argument, c l a i m i n g  that  oppression o f the p l e b e i a n s had l e d t o  the u n f a i r  27 numerous.uprisings in  this  forms  instability.  s p e c i f i c . i n s t a n c e , E.tty's h i g h l y  However,  a c a d e m i c and e r o t i c  seem t o have prevented., t h e . E x a m i n e r and Spe c t a t o r  c r i t i c s , from which  and i n t e r n a l  imposing  c o u l d have  just  punishment, of. T o r y rejected  a.Whi.g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . on t h e p i c t u r e as. l o g i c a l l y  excesses..  been r e a d , as t h e d i v i n e  I n s t e a d Whig  critics  flatly  i t as. t h e c o r r u p t , p r o p e r t y o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y .  84  The revealed  d i s p l e a s u r e . o f the Examiner  by t h e w r i t e r ' s c l a i m , t h a t E t t y ' s  been drawn from Ruben's the  suggestion  colouring, figures the  critic  "Fall  was q u i t e  violent  was a l s o  " v i s i o n " had  o f t h e Damned".  Although  credible since Etty's  activity  and. h e a v i l y  proportioned  and demons, d o . r e s e m b l e Rubens's L a s t  c o m p a r i s o n was p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d  Throughout  the twenties  Judgments  t o be i n s u l t i n g .  and. t h . i r t i e s, Rubens ' s d e p i c t i o n s  o f women seem t o have been c o n s i d e r e d range o f c r i t i c s .  rich  On one o c c a s i o n  vulgar  a Tory  by a wide  critic  Blackwood ' s Magazine h a d f o u n d . Rubens.'s women  from typically  28 fat  and o v e r f e d ,  had  detected  while  other  a consistent  articles 29 coarseness.  i n the Examiner  T h e r e a l s o , seems t o have been a g e n e r a l  critical  c o n c e n s u s t h a t t h e . f i g u r e s o f c l a s s i c a l , and R e n a i s s a n c e artists  were s u i t a b l y  chaste.  Therefore,  E t t y ' s p i c t u r e , the disagreement figures over  sources:  the Examiner  had u s e d i m m o r a l . n o r t h e r n  emphasized types.  the m o r a l i t y  of h i s  a p p e a r s t o have been t r a n s l a t e d . i n t o an argument  stylistic  artist  over  i n t h e case o f  claimed  models, w h i l e  t h a t he h a d s e l e c t e d r e s p e c t a b l e  In t h i s  instance, a l l of the c r i t i c s  E x a m i n e r w r i t e r ) seem t o have a g r e e d . o n . t h e of a s s e s s m e n t w h i c h r e v e a l s . a n  t h a t the  underlying  the T o r i e s  Italian  proto-  ( i n c l u d i n g the basic  standards  thread of  85  c o n t i n u i t y , among c r i t i c s However, t h e y tisan  clearly  writing  applied  f o r the  these  standards  i n a par-  way.  F u r t h e r p r o o f o f t h i s . l i e s , i n the moderate u p p e r - m i d d l e and  stamped p r e s s .  the Times who  c l a s s Whig c r i t i c s  s t r a d d l e d .the T o r y and  Whig p o s i t i o n s . . F u l l y p r e p a r e d . t o p r a i s e  judgement o f the more  o f the  Athenaeum  extreme  Etty's  grand  manner, a c a d e m i c s t y l e , w h i c h . t h e y p r o u d l y r e c o g n i z e d , t h e s e critics  were  clearly  content which, they fused  w i t h the  discu.s.s.ed. i n a vague and  f a s h i o n . . . The  attempting  uncomfortable  two  critics  realized  rather  that  t o i l l u s t r a t e . w h a t , the Athenaeum  m o r a l l e s s o n " , 'but. t h e y  picture's con-  Etty  called  c l a i m e d h i s message was  was "a g r e a t  incompre-  30 hensible.  The  Athenaeum d i d n o t  understand  demons of e v i l - w e r e p u n i s h i n g the v i c i o u s instead  of encouraging  by E t t y ' s Although  term  them, w h i l e  ."vision!  1  and  and.his. "wild  the  intemperate  the Times was  confused  unmeaning s u b j e c t " .  t h e i r f i n a l , v e r d i c t , was. • g l o s s e d .over w i t h  ments on E t t y ' s .drawing s k i l l s . , b o t h w r i t e r s the p i c t u r e  would not  a p p e a l .to. t h e i r reviewer  about  d i s c u s s e d the.presence  the p i c t u r e  nor  c o n t e n t i o u s .sensual..nudes . merit further  compli-  concluded  readers.  nificant., that neither  discourse  why  It is  that sig-  e x p l a i n e d . what ..was. u n a p p e a l i n g  These  constraints  investigation.  of on  Etty's their  86  Throughout in  Etty ' s painting  the  twenties, and . t h i r t i e s  reviewers.  Were  on  for  Etty's  Papers h a d . g r e a t , d i f f i c u l t y e s t a b l i s h i n g  c o n s i s t e n t - g u i d e l i n e s , . a s , demonstrated,by Youth  nudity  p o s e d .a, r e c u r r i n g . m o r a l . dilemma  many o f h i s u p p e r middle.-class. works d e c e n t ?  the  the 'Prow, p u b l i s h e d  Times commented  on  two  by .the. Times..  reviews  In  1822  of  the  a s k e t c h . of. the. work e x h i b i t e d , a t  the  British Institution: We t a k e . t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y o f a d v i s i n g Mr E t t y . . . n o t to. be. ..seduced ..into, a, s t y l e w h i c h can g r a t i f y o n l y the m o s t v i c i o u s , , t a s t e . . Nakedj f i g u r e s when p a i n t e d w i t h t h e p u r i t y o f . R a p h a e l may be end u r e d ; b.ut n a k e d n e s s ..without- p u r i t y i s o f f e n s i v e and i n d e c e n t , and i n Mr. E t t y ' s c a n v a s i s mere dirty flesh.31 Yet  by  1832  when the  R o y a l Academy,  the  vaguely p r a i s e d although  again  hensible. hood  In  finished painting  critic.found.the  t h i s i n s t a n c e , the  offensive  "graceful  subject  ten—year  Throughout, t h i s , p e r i o d  were f r e q u e n t l y review  of  the  the  interval.and  In  for  p r a i s e d , i n the  condemned., i n the. more d e t a i l e d r e v i e w  likelithe  papers  f a c t , i n the  R o y a l Academy, e x h i b i t i o n of 1830,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s - .were h i g h l y  and  fancy",  Times, a n d / o t h e r  c h a n g i n g -their minds.  at  incompre-  of d i f f e r e n t c r i t i c s , do, not. t o t a l l y , a c c o u n t  shift.  but  exhibited  Times d e t e c t e d . n o t h i n g  i t s " r i c h , b e a u t y " and the  was  May of  Etty's  preview July:  Times four  notice  87  We. have o f t e n bestowed, the most u n q u a l i f i e d p r a i s e upon: Mr. E t t y ; i n d e e d , we admire h i s d e v o t i o n t o a r t , and. h i s a t t a i n m e n t s i n c o l o u r and e x e c u t i o n ; b u t he must pay more a t t e n t i o n t o d e s i g n , and p u r i f y h i s f e e l i n g s f o r t h e n a k e d form,...32  Apparently to  have been t o r n  their  rigid  ically  many u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s by  the  conflicting  writing  in July  involved  desire  moral, standards, w i t h o u t  i l l - i n f o r m e d .or gauche. o f 1832,  The  Etty's  to  appearing Fraser s  p o i n t e d out  in criticizing  critics  1  the  seem  defend aesthet-  critic,  difficulties  work:  E t t y has the a r t of i n s i n u a t i n g the l o o s e s t i d e a s w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y a l a r m i n g modesty, of b e i n g impure w i t h o u t b e i n g g r o s s , - nay; w i t h o u t l a y i n g h i m s e l f open t o the c h a r g e o f i n d e l i c a c y , , - d e x t e r o u s l y managing so as t o keep i n r e s e r v e a r e t o r t of "prudery", "squeamishn e s s " a g a i n s t h i s c e n s o r s . 33  The  charges  deterred issues, Etty's  the  "prudery"  Times and  and  "squeamishness"  the Athenaeum from  however u n c o m f o r t a b l e images.  treatment naked  of  of the  t h e y might have been  s u b j e c t suggest Any  attempts  discussion  Unlike their l e t alone  Tory  to avoid  Etty's  moral  with confused the  upper-middle-class  c o u n t e r p a r t s they  enjoy  and  any  of E t t y ' s nudes would  have been h o p e l e s s l y awkward,for t h e s e  even m e n t i o n ,  raising  T h e i r nebulous., terms o f p r a i s e  sexual facts.  critics.  seem t o have  d i d not  nude women.  On  one  88  hand,  the  readers  more s t r i n g e n t m i d d l e - c l a s s . m o r a l i t y  made., i t i m p o s s i b l e  figures,  and.yet,  aspirations dominated  t o be  to  other  accepted,by  hand,, t h e i r the  of  their such  readers'  aristocratic  the  the  values  of, t h e i r  social  c r i t i c s .,of,. the:,. Times and,,, the  commit  It  to  de-  Athenaeum  refused  remained  silent.  i s worth n o t i n g  Whig c r i t i c s  that  superiors.  t h e m s e l v e s t o e i t h e r , p o s i t i o n and  uncomfortably  keen  elite  the. Academy, made, i t e q u a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e  nounce d i r e c t l y Hence  on. the  t o .approve o p e n l y  of  that.the  wrote.for.papers  echelons  o f the. m i d d l e  moderate  than., the  two  which  c l a s s and  most  catered  evasive t o the  were p o l i t i c a l l y  upper more  o.ther Whig p u b l i c a t i o n s r e v i e w i n g  the  3L  exhibition.  Vigorously  middle-class like  the  Times  to and  be  government and  Academy, t h i s  upper  sector  greater  institutions o f the  on. issues,-, that, d i d ..not . d i r e c t l y  After  criticizing  seems to, have  more r e s p e c t a b l e , . continued  reforms f o r  middle  .nevertheless.. ..more I n c l i n e d t o compromise  s t a t u s --quo  ambitions. the  access.to,the  the.Royal  c l a s s was  supporting  Since  to question  largely  political  Bill,  the  party  i n 1834-.  their  E t t y ' s . l a c k of, p u r i t y i n  1830,  c o n s i s t e n t l y found h i s other.more p r o g r e s s i v e  by  conservatism.  Times. s h i f t e d 35  thwart  Etty's morality,  explained  the  with  this  paintings papers  shift  seems  Times' growing a e s t h e t i c  A f t e r the p a s s a g e  o f the  i t s , a l l e g l a n c e back t o t h e  Reform  Tory  89  The  emerging d i v i s i o n s  w i t h i n the r a n k s  middle  class-over Etty's pictures  within  t h e Academy  the  simple  Whig v e r s u s . T o r y  o f t h e Grosvenors., pretations height  was more  r e v e a l s , that, t h e c o n f l i c t  complicated split  over  than  their  o f Knox..  o f t h e R e f orm . C r i s i s , . a g r o w i n g  M o u n t i n g Radical., . w o r k i n g - c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . together,. whether  inter-  Even d u r i n g t h e rapprochement v a l u e s was  pressure  was  or. n o t t h e two  i t .  adopting  v a r i o u s ..middle - cla.s s . v a l u e s t o r e i n f o r c e  ruling  political  elite  t o adapt, to. t h e a e s t h e t i c  i n order  to prove  and.social.promotion.  Whigs and R a d i c a l s . , from ..the l o w e r c l a s s were  clearly  less  their  ranks  were their  were  codes o f  suitability for  However, more  conciliatory.  driving  the G r o s v e n o r s  s o c i a l ..p o s l t i o n , . moderate Whig c r i t i c s  i n c r e a s i n g l y prepared the  like  occur-  groups  realized  threatened  aristocrats  by  portrait  and t h e c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i t i c a l  o f W i l k i e ' s. p i c t u r e  While  indicated  Leslie's  between a r i s t o c r a t i c . a n d . h a u t e b o u r g e o i s ring.  o f the  of the  extreme middle  90  Footnotes  E t t y ' s two o t h e r p a i n t i n g s i n the e x h i b i t i o n were no. 196 'Youth on 'the' Prow and 'Pleasure a t t h e Helm and no. 360 P h a e d r i a and .'CymochlesVo'n. the I d l e L a k e , see A p p e n d i x B. 2 Between.the F e b r u a r i e s of. 1832.and 1833, three l e t t e r s were e x c h a n g e d between Payne a n d . E t t y concerning the payment, s h i p m e n t , and, f r a m i n g , .of. the p i c t u r e w h i c h was i n t e n d e d f o r Payne'.s drawing-room.. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the l e t t e r s shed l i t t l e l i g h t on the r e a s o n s m o t i v a t i n g Payne's p u r c h a s e . These l e t t e r s a r e i n the N o r t h Y o r k s h i r e County L i b r a r y . T h e i r exact, d a t e s a r e F e b r u a r y 16, 1832, A u g u s t 4, 1832,.. a n d , F e b r u a r y 8, 1833. They a r e c i t e d by Dennis- Farr.,' W i l l i a m E.tty (London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1958'), p. 132.  3 W i l l i a m C a r e y , a . C o n s e r v a t i v e a r t c r i t i c who w r o t e f o r v a r i o u s j o u r n a l s ( i . e . the L i t e r a r y G a z e t t e and the New M o n t h l y Magazine,), p e r s o n a l l y championed the g e n i u s of W i l l i a m E t t y , c l a i m i n g , that, he had been t h e f i r s t to r e c o g n i z e the a r t i s t . . R e s p o n d i n g . t o what he c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r c r i t i c i s m s . , o f t h i s p i c t u r e , i n the. e x h i b i t i o n r e v i e w s he w r o t e t h r e e . l e t t e r s , t o the. e d i t o r .of t h e Y o r k s h i r e G a z e t t e i n November o.f 18.32.. d e f e n d i n g the p a i n t i n g under the pen name R i d o l f i . "^Alexander G i l c h r i s . t , L i f e of W i l l i a m E t t y ( L o n d o n : D a v i d . Bogue,. 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 34-5.  R.A.  5 A c c o r d i n g t.o Farr., E t t y , p. 132., E t t y had c a l l e d the p i c t u r e The D e s t r u c t i o n o f the. Temple o f V i c e , a l t h o u g h i t was not, l i s t e d , by t h i s , t i t l e i n the R o y a l Academy catalogue. ^Note;-the, r e p o u s s o i r f u n c t i o n s o f the demon s e i z i n g a woman i n the l o w e r r i g h t and the. f a l l e n c o u p l e i n the l e f t , and the p l a c e m e n t o f v a r i o u s f i g u r e s f a c i n g i n w a r d s i n c l u d i n g a demon and t h r e e r a i s e d s t a t u e s .  91  7  T h i s was E t t y ' s f i r s t t r i p t o Rome and he was e s p e c i a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t the work of R a p h a e l and M i c h e l a n g e l o which,he p r a i s e d , I n a l e t t e r t o h i s brother. A l t h o u g h . the .sketch was n o t ..completed u n t i l 1832, i t seems t o r e t a i n E t t y ' s e n t h u s i a s m f o r the works o f t h e s e p a i n t e r s . , see F a r r , E t t y , p. 36. Examiner  (June 10,.. 1832), p.  373.  o Note the s i m i l a r i t i e s between E t t y ' s demon and S o u t h Metope V I I , o f . the . E l g i n . C o l l e c t i o n ( f i g . 1 1 ) . W i l l i a m C a r e y was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d .in i d e n t i f y i n g the c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s , f o r E t t y ' s f i g u r e s . " ^ F o r a. di.scus.s.ion .of t h e s e a p o c a l y p t i c themes see P a t r i c k B r a n t l i n g e r . , ; T h e . S p i r i t o f Reform (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard.University P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , chap. 1 "The L i t e r a t u r e o f the 1830s". "'""'"Anon., " O u t l i n e s o f H i s t o r y : S u b v e r s i o n o f A n c i e n t Governments", Q u a r t e r l y Review 4-5 ( J u l y 1831), p. 469. 12 Anon., " L e t t e r f r o m the W h i g - H a t e r on the E l e c t i o n s , " Blackwood's. Magazine.29 (June :183l), p.  Late 1012.  13 Edward Bri.s.to.w, V i c e , and V i g i l a n c e . : P u r i t y Movements i n . B r i t a i n S i n c e 1700. (London.: G i l l and M a c m i l l a n L t d . , 1977), p.. 4-0. B r i s t o w has s t u d i e d the d e v e l o p m e n t of a c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g y among the f o u n d e r s of the V i c e S o c i e t y (,i..e. W i l l i a m , W i l b e r f or ce,. the B o w d l e r s , Hannah More and . Za.ch.ary M a c a u l a y ) , an . o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h p e r s e c u t e d , a l l f o r m s . o f i m m o r a l i t y from pornography to p r o s t i t u t i o n t h r o u g h o u t , the t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s . A l t h o u g h much o f the i m p e t u s f o r m o r a l , r e f o r m came from m i d d l e - c l a s s Whigs and d i s s e n t e r s , the m a j o r i t y o f m o r a l i t y g r o u p s were n o t d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l party. "^Literary  Gazette  (May  19,  1832), p.  314-.  The i t a l i c s and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n are_ p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r of w h i c h an e x c e r p t i s p u b l i s h e d i n G i l c h r i s t , E t t y , p. 325.  92  ^ F a r r , E t t y , pp. 59-6.0,. d i s c u s s e s E t t y ' s conservative s o c i a l stance. 1 7  Morning  P o s t . (June  9,  1832).  L I t e r a r y G a z e t t e (May, 19, 1932)", p. 314, and ( W i l l i a m , Carey)', . " F i n e A r t s . ' L e t t e r .3," Y o r k s h i r e (November 17,. 1832.  1 8  Ridolfl Gazette  1 9  L i t e r a r y .Gazette  2 0  Ridolfi Gazette  Yorkshire  (May  19,  1832), p.  314.  (William. Carey), "Fine A r t s L e t t e r (November 10, 1 8 3 2 ) .  2,"  21 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n .of t h e m i d d l e c l a s s ' o b j e c t i o n t o t h e s e x u a l .codes .of b o t h , the a r i s t o c r a c y and the working c l a s s , c o n s u l t R o n a l d P e a r s a l l , ...The Worm.:.in t h e Bud: The W o r l d o f V i c t o r l a n ..Sexuality,, (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1969)., pp. x i - x v i i and chaps. 1-2. 22 The p r e c e d e n t s , f o r t h i s t y p e o f p r e s s u r e were the w r i t i n g s o f Hannah. More,.. Thoughts, on t h e I m p o r t a n c e of the Manners o f the. G r e a t t o .General S o c i e t y (17881 and ^Estimate', o f t h e R e l i g i o n o f the F a s h i o n a b l e W o r l d (1791) w h i c h c o n t i n u e d , t o , b e . v e r y p o p u l a r i n m o r a l i s t i c c i r c l e s throughout, the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 23 E r i c T r u d g i l l , Madonnas., and •'Ma.gdalens : The O r i g i n s and Development' O f . V i c t o r i a n S.ex.ual. A t t i t u d e s (London: W i l l i a m .Heinemann. Ltd.., 1976), pp. 168-179. He d i s c u s s e s t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l . p e r i o d , .and. t h e p l a y of v a l u e s between the i n c r e a s i n g l y p o w e r f u l middle, c l a s s and the old a r i s t o c r a c y . ^Spectator 2 5  2 6  (May  12,  1832), p.  450.  (June. 10.,  1832), p.  373.  Ibid. Examiner  27 The Whig i n t e r p r e t a . t i o n of t h i s e v e n t p l a y e d an I m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the a s s e s s m e n t o f J.M.W. T u r n e r ' s C h l l d e Harold'.'s .,Pilgrimage . - I t a l y w h i c h . w i l l . b e d i s c u s s e d later.  93  28  "Ignoramus, on the F i n e A r t s , " B l a c k w o o d s Magazine (.March, 1831),. p. 521. D e s p i t e the t i t l e , the a r t i c l e was intended., t o be s e r i o u s . 1  29 "Review o f Rubens', Chapeau 1 8 3 2 ) , p . 186.  (March 16,  de. P a i l l e , "  Examiner  30 I t i s a l s o , quite, l i k e l y t h a t t h e y d i d n o t want to u n d e r s t a n d E t t y ' s p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e statement. 31 "Review o f t h e B r i t i s h 29, 1 8 2 2 ) .  (January 3 2  Times  (May  3 3  Fraser's  I n s t i t u t i o n , " Times  1, May  U, and ..July 12,  1830).  Magazine  ( J u l y 1832), p.  719.  The M o r n i n g C h r o n i c l e . , S p e c t a t o r and E x a m i n e r were a l l e d i t e d , by B e n t h a m i t e u t i l i . t a r i a n s who were more p r o g r e s s i v e than, t h e .Whigs. However, The E x a m i n e r was by f a r t h e most r a d i c a l . . See B o u r n e , E n g l I s h Newspapers, 2, pp. 38-51. 3 5  Ibid.,  pp.  79-81.  William Etty, The D e s t r o y i n g A n g e l and Daemons o f E v i l , 1832 Manchester C i t y A r t G a l l e r y (Dennis F a r r , W i l l i a m E t t y . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l L i m i t e d , 1958. Plate U . )  Figure  9.  R a p h a e l , The E x p u l s i o n o f H e l i o d o r u s , c.1511-1514 V a t i c a n , Stanza d ' E l i o d o r o (Luitpold Pussier. Raphael. London: Phaidon P r e s s  L t d . , 1971. P l a t e  135.)  96  Figure  10.  P. P. R u b e n s , The G r e a t L a s t Judgment, 1615-1616 Munich, A l t e Pinakoehtk (P. P. R u b e n s ; des M e i s t e r s Gemalde. S t u t t g a r t : Deutsche V e r l a g s - A n s t a l t , n.d. Page 118.)  97  Pig. 1.  .-if.  Figure  11.  2.  South Metope VTI ( E l g i n  " C a r r e y ' s " Drawing Metope V I I .  Collection).  o f South  S o u t h Metope V I I E l g i n C o l l e c t i o n , B r i t i s h Museum ( J a c o b R o t h e n b u r g . "Descensus Ad T e r r a m " : The A c q u i s i t i o n and R e c e p t i o n o f the E l g i n Marbles. New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 1977. P l a t e 10. )  98  Figure  12.  W i l l i a m E t t y , Youth a t t h e Helm, 1832 Tate  Gallery  on t h e Prow and  Pleasure  99  CHAPTER IV  Childe  H a r o l d 's .Pilgrimage'.'- I t a l y  The Leslie  Whigs' answer t o t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e images by-  and E t t y  grimage  was . J..M.W. . T u r n e r ' s  C h i l d e .Harold's  - Italy, ( f i g . 13), a landscape,  almost  as much a t t e n t i o n as D a v i d  Knox.  The S p e c t a t o r  exhibition in  by J.M.W. T u r n e r  cautioned  which  attracted  W i l k i e ' s Preaching of  i t s readers  when i t opened, at, e i g h t o ' c l o c k  o r d e r . t o a v o i d t h e huge crowds w h i c h  these  two p a i n t i n g s between t h e h o u r s  Italy  was T u r n e r ' s  largest  Pil-  t o v i s i t the i n the morning,  gathered  of eleven  (56 x 9 7 i i n c h e s )  around and five."""  and most  2 pr.pminently title  displayed, .exhibition  referred  entry.  The p a i n t i n g ' s  t o B y r o n ' s p.oe.m,. C h i l d e . H a r o l d s P i l g r i m a g e 1  of 1818, i n w h i c h t h e p o e t m e d i t a t e d . u p o n . t h e b e a u t i e s o f the I t a l i a n c o u n t r y s i d e . . T u r n e r a l s o added.an e x c e r p t from  the twenty-sixth  stanza  o f Canto .IV t o t h e e x h i b i t i o n  catalogue: and now, f a i r I t a l y ! Thou a r t the. g a r d e n . o f t h e w o r l d . Even i n t h e y d e s e r t what, i s l i k e t o t h e e ? Thy v e r y weeds . a r e . b e a u t i f u l , t h y waste More r i c h t h a n o t h e r c l i m e s ' f e r t i l i t y : Thy wreck a g l o r y , and t h y r u i n g r a c e d ^ W i t h an i m m a c u l a t e charm w h i c h c a n n o t be d e f a c e d .  According  t o some l a t e r  was b a s e d . o n T u r n e r ' s  notes  recollections  by R u s k i n ,  the p a i n t i n g  of the r u i n s near  Narni.^  100  However, i f t h i s the  site  was.the  case,.Turner  d i d not  f o r his- v i e w e r s . e i t h e r through  the  depiction  o f s p e c i f i c . l a n d m a r k s . . I n s t e a d he  idealized  v a r i a t i o n , of a - l a n d s c a p e . b a s e d  Claudean  the as  title  or  presented  an  upon.a w e l l - k n o w n  theme.  P a i n t i n g s , by grand  identify  tourists  and  eighteenth ideal  Claude  had. been p r i z e d  art collectors  century.  His  English  s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g  compositions  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the  by  o r d e r and  of  were v a l u e d stability  under-  5 lying  the  imposed (i.e.  seemingly  on n a t u r e  framing  c h a o t i c f o r c e s of n a t u r e .  through  of a r t i s t i c  was  devices  measurable  d i s t a n c e s , harmonious  colouring).  Time was. s u s p e n d e d  in a tranquil arcadia  where p e o p l e  l e d simple p a s t o r a l  of f i g u r e s ruins lation The  from . a n c i e n t h i s t o r y  of s p e c i f i c f o r the  lives.  opposed  t o the  Dutch s c h o o l . ^  introduction  monuments p r o v i d e d i n t e l l e c t u a l  c o n n o i s s e u r who  landscape  The  or m y t h o l o g y and  could i d e n t i f y  Royal. Academy had. l o n g u p h e l d  ianate as  trees,  a series  Order  as  this  the h i g h e s t . f o r m  more r e a l i s t i c  type  the stimu-  them.  of i d e a l  of landscape  Ital-  painting,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  the  101  Turner  r e c o r d e d h i s own  admiration  f o r Claude  in  his. l e c t u r e s . as. P r o f e s s o r o f P e r s p e c t i v e , and. even more importantly  through  a number  o f can.va.ses  i n which  he 7  deliberately  s e t out  His p a i n t i n g  of I t a l y  with  can  the  be  I t a l i a n , o l d master.  compared, t o C l a u d e ' s  Despite  probably  similarities  arrangement  o f the  food, jugs  onlookers 8  leisurely  dancing  into  three  C e r t a i n l y .Turner  i t was  landscape A broad  and  undulating  extends- from  A calm'i c u r v i n g r i v e r hilly  left  viewer's  attention  groups  and  that  of  the  musical  enterwould  by  Claude  the  a. low  which 9 i n 1824-.  o r g a n i z a t i o n of basic.Claudean  foreground  to a f a r d i s t a n t  with  bank u n i f i e s  seated  and  Angerstein Collection  to u t i l i z e  middleground  couples  h i s academy p u b l i c  a more g e n e r a l le-vel,, the  vista  are  this particular painting  p a r t o f the  continues  foreground.  there  indicate  been p u r c h a s e d ...for t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y On  from  In b o t h p a i n t i n g s b a s k e t s  enjoying a.picnic  have- been f a m i l i a r , w i t h since  i n ' the  Turner,  and, m u s i c a l . i n s t r u m e n t s  are  tainment.  by  between the  standing figures.  figures  figures  some minor . a l t e r a t i o n s  striking  two  derived, the  Landscape  ( f i g . 14-)  t h e Marriage, o f .Isaac, and. Rebekah  w h i c h he  and  to r i v a l  Turner's  structure.  across  mountain  had  an range.  v a u l t e d Roman r u i n s a l o n g i t s  the  l a n d s c a p e , by  back towards, t h e  drawing  glowing  the  horizon.  The  102  receding tied  frames, o f l a n d s c a p e  t o g e t h e r by  In the l o w e r vegetation of l i f e  the l a r g e p i n e  left  the  captured  used  the  golden l i g h t  and  by  Claude.  tranquil  and  Claudean  convention., o f o v e r l a p p i n g s e c t i o n s  his  shadows a r e more r e a l i s t i c ,  clearly  Although  s.tability.  panorama.unfolds.before  tensive r e d s and  use  has  connois-  are  significant  of b r i g h t  of l i g h t  blur  equally  retains and by  shade, stray  s u r f a c e s and  r e c e d i n g frames  c h a l l e n g e the  In T u r n e r ' s the  Turner  be.ing f r a g m e n t e d  articulated  of framing t r e e s  Another  Turner  similarities,  o f . s u n l i g h t w h i c h break, down and  of o r d e r and  a device  tradition  the  t h e absence  presence  o f the most i m p o r t a n t . d i f f e r e n c e s i s  h a n d l i n g of l i g h t .  Less  the  a s s o c i a t e d .with t h e Roman p a i n t e r . ^ ®  diffused  outlines..  ground  other. E n g l i s h  his  shafts  bridge.  of A n t i q u i t y ,  of these unmistakable  One  medieval  e v e n i n g a t m o s p h e r e and p e r v a s i v e  d e p a r t u r e s from.the  significant.  further  emphasize  Furthermore,  o f s u n s e t w h i c h he  In .spite  are  d e t a i l e d . . t r e a t m e n t o f the  decaying ruins  seurs p a r t i c u l a r l y  Turner's  tree  and ..toppled, c l a s s . i . c a l . v a s e  among, the  frequently  and, a r c h i t e c t u r e  Claudean  landscape  a  and sense  boundless  viewer.  alteration  i s Turner's  colours—particularly  y e l l o w s i n the l a n d s c a p e . .  the  ex-  glowing  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  that  103  this the  vivid  c o l o u r scheme was. even more c o n s p i c u o u s  t h i r t i e s than  cool  i t i s a t present."'""'"  c o l o u r s a r e p l a y e d , o f f a g a i n s t one  shifting  r e l a t i o n s h i p - - a s . one  recedes. further  In I t a l y  warm  another  in a  comes f o r w a r d ,  T h i s p e r p e t u a l movement, o f t e n on upsets  Claude's  clearly  the the  to i n d i c a t e  foreground Turner's the  t o a. g r e e n  bright  takes  colours also  than  indicator  figures,  while  buildings ruins  on  the  up  tically  can  be  i n the  a brown  from fact,  Italy  century  visible  o f the  foreground  white-washed  peek out b e h i n d  the  bank.  critical  r e c e p t i o n of Turner's  point: in this  hailed  most  d i s t a n c e , the  village  the p a t t e r n of academy  to t h i s  found  left  tran-  In  that  i n the n i n e t e e n t h The  per-  i n a blue h o r i z o n ) .  t o emphasize  modern c l o t h i n g  of a c o n t e m p o r a r y  The turned  situated  further  colour  of o l d master p a i n t i n g s .  i s the  of  ( i . e . from  ending  in a timeless arcadia.  temporal  same p l a n e ,  underline h i s departure  considerable pains  a modern . p a i n t i n g  rather  distance  middleground  subdued t o n a l i t i e s  Turner is  increasing  and  other  d e l i n e a t e d system  s p e c t i v e w h i c h r e l i e d upon g r a d u a l l y c o o l i n g sitions  in  t h a t has  i n s t a n c e Whig r e v i e w e r s  the p i c t u r e ,  much t o c r i t i c i z e .  criticism  Italy  An  while  their  especially  Tory  been t r a c e d enthusias-  counterparts  revealing  drawn between t h e . r e s p o n s e s t o T u r n e r ' s  over-  contrast  Italy  and t o  104  Etty's  D e s t r o y i n g Angel,,both  o f which  dealt with  Rome, b u t w h i c h were championed by o p p o s i n g As  political  discussed i n connection with Etty's p i c t u r e ,  truction  o f empires  by b o t h p a r t i e s picture  factors.  the des-  theme was a n . I d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t u s e d  d u r i n g t h e Reform  Crisis.  While  Etty's  seems t o have h e l d c o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  T u r n e r ' s work a p p e a r s ically  the f a l l of  and p o l i t i c a l l y  It  seems t h a t  even p o w e r f u l  t o have  carried  a.number  of aesthet-  progressive connotations.  t h e s e p r o g r e s s i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s were  enough t o o v e r r i d e t h e Whig  critics'  strong  12 distaste  f o r Turner's p e r s o n a l i t y .  jections  were d i r e c t e d . t o w a r d s . h i s  they  T h e i r c h i e f obexcessive prices  c o u l d n o t a f f o r d . ) and h i s c o m p l e t e  graces Morning flated  (which  offended, t h e i r  Chronicle believed prices  acute  that  lack  sense  (which  of s o c i a l  o f decorum).  The  "great patronage".and i n -  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o r r u p t i n g T u r n e r ' s  talent: He ( T u r n e r ) i s a tubby l i t t l e man, and h a s e v e r y mark o f f e e d i n g w e l l , and " s l e e p s o ' n i g h t s " . Like Vandyke, t h e p r o g r e s s o f h i s e a r l i e r s t a g e s was w o n d e r f u l b u t p e c u n i a r y r e w a r d s made him wanton and c a r e l e s s . . . . G r e a t p a t r o n a g e n e v e r i m p r o v e d a painter. The  c r i t i c resented the f a c t  wealthy class)  patrons had l i t t l e taste..  Yet although  t h a t both  Turner  regard f o rpublic Turner  and h i s ( i . e middle-  was c r i t i c i z e d f o r  105  painting  f o r the  a r i s t o c r a c y and. the  ance and  behaviour  Turner's  working-class  .were c o n s i d e r e d  artist  embarrassingly  appearplebeian.  London b a c k g r o u n d . j a r r e d w i t h  m i d d l e - c l a s s ..perception, o f h i g h the  wealthy, h i s  published., i n A p r i l  the  art.  In an  article  on  o f 1831,  the  Athenaeum  complained: ...we n e v e r h e a r d . o n e . ( T u r n e r ) who f l o u n d e r e d so s a d l y i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . . He i s a l t o g e t h e r def i c i e n t i n c o u r t e s y o f a d d r e s s ; and t h e l i t t l e he v e n t u r e s t o do or say i n t h e c o u n c i l s of t h e R o y a l Academy, i s recommended by no g r a c e e i t h e r n a t u r a l or a c q u i r e d . ^ However, i n t h i s to  Turner's  their  and  middle.class'  basic objection  p e r s o n a l i t y does.-not seem t o have  enthusiasm  The  i n s t a n c e , the  Whig  dampened  for his picture.  critics  .of .the Athenaeum., M o r n i n g  Spectator.were p a r t i c u l a r l y  Chronicle  e n t h u s i a s t i c about  the  work's n a t u r a l c o l o u r i n g , expan.sive  view and  qualities.  i n s t r u c t e d i t s readers  how  The  t o v i e w the  poetic  Spectator  care.fully  canvas, i n o r d e r  to. e x p e r i e n c e  poetic  the  maximum  effect: Let the r e a d e r , f i r s t go.-close up t o the I t a l y of Turner., and. l o o k a t . the way i n w h i c h i t i s p a i n t e d ; .and t h e n , t u r n i n g h i s back (as one does sometimes t o the sun.) t i l l , he r e a c h e s t h e m i d d l e of the room, l o o k r o u n d a t the stre.aky, s c r a m b l e d , u n i n t e l l i g i b l e chaos of c o l o u r , and. see what a scene has been c o n j u r e d up b e f o r e him.as i f by m a g i c . Let him d w e l l upon i t t i l l the r u d d y hues b e g i n t o  106  b u r n and .become b r i l l i a n t . w i t h l i g h t , and t h e r e t i r i n g p a r t s o f t h e p i c t u r e a p p e a r t o come f o r w a r d , .so t h a t the p e r f e c t k e e p i n g o f the whole has mellowed i t . s . . r e f u l g e n t tone i n t o one r i c h h a r m o n i o u s whole...He w i l i ' f e e l t h a t i t i s the p o e t r y of. a r t and n a t u r e combined - t h a t i t b e a r s the. same r e l a t i o n , t o the r e a l scene as does B y r o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . ^ 5 The  Spe c t a t o r  colouring that  critic  and  h a n d l i n g of. l i g h t  admirably  writer,  the  background Turner's  c l e a r l y . felt. Turner's i n n o v a t i v e  c a p t u r e d Byron's, d e s c r i p t i o n .  shifting and  were p a r t i c u l a r  tones, p o e t i c a l l y  o f colour." i n t o ,a . b e a u t i f u l  Like nature, Turner's  t r a n s i t o r y , scene  state  Spe c t a t o r  way  o f motion..  the  singling  out  the  The  The  sunlight  was  especially  reflecting  over t h e  landscape. in a perpetual admired  century.  that  The truth  the  effects,  the b u i l d i n g s  Whig r e v i e w e r s a p p r e c i a t e d the. f a c t  of Turner's  sensibility  from  and  and  mountain-tops.  depiction'>of n a t u r e . b e l o n g e d nineteenth  this  transformed  a r t i s t , had. cap.tured n a t u r e ' s f l e e t i n g  the m i s t h o v e r i n g  ciation  For  r e l a t i o n s h i p . between f o r e g r o u n d  warm . and., c o o l  "chaos  strengths  that  t o t h e modern w o r l d  Spe c t a t o r  stated  and. b e a u t y  called.for  Beethoven's P a s t o r a l  Haydn's C r e a t i o n . (1801) r e q u i r e d  that  from  Symphony their  of  an  Turner's the  appre-  the  same  (1809) and  listeners.  107  The  Morning  astounded  C h r o n i c l e compared.Turner, t o P a g a n i n i  London a u d i e n c e s  his, f l a s h y violin and  d u r i n g the  technical virtuosity  performances.-  performs  "He  early  1830s w i t h  and" i n c r e d i b l y  ( T u r n e r ) i s a. s o r t  wonders .on a. s i n g l e  who  string—is  emotional  of P a g a n i n i , as  astonishing  w i t h h i s chrome, as P a g a n i n i i s with, h i s c h r o m a t i c s . """"^ These and  comparisons.to .leading  contemporary  p e r f o r m e r s , were used. to. . a s s e r t b a t h T u r n e r ' s  and  composers genius  modernity.  Certainly  one. o f the most i m p o r t a n t  the n o t i o n o f m o d e r n i t y Byron. the  The  eyes  was. T u r n e r ' s  f a c t . that. Turner,'s  o f C h i l d e H a r o l d was  P i l g r i m a g e .was  one  poet  through  factor  image.  sentiments  challenging  governments excerpted  the  o f Europe..  the  lines  i n the  Childe Harold's  most i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l freedom.  d e s c r i b e d . the j o u r n e y  had, abandoned, . t h i s  of  directly.  During  r u s e and this  made h i s w e l l - k n o w n defence. .of .Napoleon saw  of  disguised,Byronic surrogate,  t h e t h i r d .canto, Byron  c o r d e d h i s own  was. seen  i n s o c i a l .and p o l i t i c a l  t h e f i r s t , two. c a n t e s  C h i l d e H a r o l d , a..thinly  Byron  o f the  of the p o e t ' s  statements, of h i s b e l i e f Although  Italy  aspects  connection with  a crucial  Whigs' f a v o u r a b l e , .assessment  by  musical  old ruling The  fourth  for his picture,  from  contained  canto,  whom the  d y n a s t i e s and canto,  re-  oppressive  which  Turner  reflections  108  on  the r u i n e d , empires  Italy's  of Venice  g l o r i o u s pas.t, B y r o n  of  empires  was i n e v i t a b l y  of  freedom:  and Rome.  Recalling  p o i n t e d out t h a t , the  connected  decay  to a.corresponding  loss  T h e r e i s t h e . m o r a l o f a l l human t a l e s ; ' T i s b u t t h e .same r e h e r s a l o f t h e p a s t , F i r s t Freedom., and. t h e n G l o r y - when t h a t f a i l s , Wealth, vice,, c o r r u p t i o n , - barbarism a t l a s t . 1 7  Sentiments popular Tories  like  i n E n g l i s h . Whig admired  t h e form  these  made B y r o n ' s  circles.  Although  of h i s p o e t r y , they  poetry many  very  leading  invariably  18 found with  i t s content.disturbing. the e l i t e  Whig l e a d e r s h i p  assumed, h i s s e a t .in t h e House Whig  opposition  i n . 180.9.  cated p o l i t i c i a n ,  sals  Catholic  who was  o f Lords, as p a r t  a range  Emancipation 19  f o r parliamentary reform. .  circle,  of the  he was n e v e r  supported  a dedi-  of p r o g r e s s i v e  and e a r l y  A f t e r .leaving  propo-  England,  Byron's  involvement  first  Italian  nationalist  movement. f o r a. united., i n d e p e n d e n t  and  finally  Turks,  in  1824-.  t h e C a r b o n a r i , a' m i l i t a n t  h i s . s u p p o r t f o r t h e Greek r e s i s t a n c e  solidified  steadily  with  connected  o f t h e H o l l a n d House  Although  he f i r m l y  measures i n c l u d i n g  Byron,  his radical.reputation.  This  Italy,  to the reputation  g r e w , a f t e r h i s death, i n Greece, a t M i s s o l o n g h i During  the. n e x t  decade, m o u n t i n g p u b l i c  interest i n  the poet, s t i m u l a t e d numerous b i o g r a p h i e s , and c o l l e c t e d an20 t h o l o g i e s o f h i s work.  109-  Turner such his  '  provided landscape  illustrations  f o r three  editions  of B y r o n ' s works,  the  seventeen  v i g n e t t e s f o r the  f o u r t e e n volume  Thomas Moore e n t i t l e d .The Letter  and  J o u r n a l s , . . and  most i m p o r t a n t  being  series  Works., of Lord. Byron:' w i t h his Life  w h i c h was  by  his  published  by  21 Murray from  1832  t h i s work was Turner's fact  Nor  t h a t he  familiarity  Harold's  with  library.  of  However,  Byron's p o e t r y ,  and  the  e x h i b i t e d s e v e r a l l a r g e o i l p a i n t i n g s on  themes s u g g e s t s . t h a t  more t h a n  s u r p r i s i n g l y a copy 22  i n c l u d e d . i n Turner's  apparent  Byronic  oil  - 1843«  the p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r e s t  t h a t of a. p r o f e s s i o n . a l i l l u s t r a t o r . Pilgrimage  - Italy  wa.s. the  second  was  Childe  of T u r n e r ' s  six  p a i n t i n g s , from  t h i s peom shown a t the R o y a l Academy 23 between 1818 and 184.4-. T h e r e can be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t T u r n e r had a. f r e e hand. in. . e x e c u t i n g I t a l y .which was n e i t h e r 2/ commissioned.nor  ever  sold.  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e  s t r a i g h t f orward.. i l l u s t r a t i o n s views,  Turner's  more complex The  The  the  fact  themselves creation.of  were c l e a r l y  t h a t Turner  s t r o n g Whig  context  picture  of . s p e c i f i c , t o p o g r a p h i c a l intended  to  convey  meanings.  subject with in  large oils  fairly  of the  greatly as  chose  to e x h i b i t  connotations  becomes  surrounding p o l i t i c a l  appealed  the p r o p o n e n t s  a s t r o n g and  free  to. Whig  Byronic  significant  debate  s u p p o r t e r s who  of l i b e r t y , middle  a  arguing  c l a s s would  in  1832.  saw  that  the  safeguard  110  the  interests  cratic  of the B r i t i s h . E m p i r e .  t y r a n n y , Whig p o l i t i c i a n s . u r g e d  to  consider.the  In  a speech  historic  threatening  aristo-  the Tory  opposition  c o n s e q u e n c e s . of r e f u s i n g  i n t h e Hous.e o f Commons, on March  Thomas M a e a u l a y by  Opposing  defended, t h e p r i n c i p l e s  reform.  2, 1831,  o f t h e Reform  t h e T o r i e s w i t h the. l e s s o n  Bill  o f Rome:  A l l h i s t o r y .is f u l l o f r e v o l u t i o n s p r o d u c e d by c a u s e s s i m i l a r t o those, w h i c h a r e . now o p e r a t i n g i n England. A p o r t i o n , of. t h e community w h i c h has. been o f n o a c c o u n t expands and becomes s t r o n g . . I t demands, a p l a c e i n t h e system,, s u i t e d , , not. t o i t s . f o r m e r weakness, b u t t o i t s p r e s e n t power. I f t h i s be g r a n t e d , a l l i s well. I f t h i s i s r e f u s e d , t h e n comes t h e s t r u g g l e between the. .Plebeians and. t h e P a t r i c i a n s o f Rome. 25 Essentially  Maeaulay  was d r a w i n g  between t y r a n n y and ..the. d e c l i n e had p o e t i c a l l y  discussed  t h e same c o n n e c t i o n o f empires  i n Canto.IV  that  Byron  of Childe Harold's  Pilgrimage.  Beyond Byron  these r a t h e r  general . associations  and. t h e Whigs, more s p e c i f i c . c o n n o t a t i o n s  Turner's l i n k i n g  o f B y r o n and I t a l y .  1834-, t h e p o l i t i c a l  situation  i n the I t a l i a n  I n 1815 t h e C o n g r e s s  redivided  Italy  and  into  duchies.- o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h  concessions  accompanied  Between 1830 and  extremely v o l a t i l e . Napoleon's  between  s t a t e s was  of Vienna had  the t e n former  century.  kingdoms  A l l constitutional  o f t h e N a p o l e o n i c . p e r i o d were r e v o k e d  l u t e - m o n a r c h i e s - were' imposed  on t h e I t a l i a n  andcabso-  states  by A u s t r i a n  Ill  military led of  power.  The C a r b o n a r i  and. Young  Italy  p e r i o d i c , u p r i s i n g s a g a i n s t the oppressive various  States)  s t a t e s , ( i . e . Piedmont, Moderna  i n a. b i d t o s e c u r e 2  ical  and t h e P a p a l  reforms  and t h e u n i -  In E n g l a n d , ' t h r o u g h o u t  the e a r l y  t h e I t a l i a n , s i t u a t i o n was. a c o n t e n t i o u s  football..  support  On one hand,  t h e Whigs  felt  t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s . . a r g u i n g t h a t i t was  t h e r e a c t i o n a r y government, o f A u s t r i a t o  the  Italian  democratic  Tories the  s t a t e s , whi.ch. h a d e x p e r i e n c e d self-rule,  firmly  servatives  suppress  a long  i n t e r v e n t i o n and  b e l i e v e d t h a t , t h e weak d e m o c r a t i c Italian  inevitable.  I n an a r t i c l e  history  condemned Con-  structure- of  s t a t e s , h a d .made f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n entitled  L i b e r t y " p u b l i s h e d i n the October  English  intolerable  a c t i v i t i e s , of the " r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . "  the h i s t o r i c  Magazine  should  while') on.. t h e o t h e r hand, t h e  opposed.English  subversive  polit-  England  for  of  governments  6  f i c a t i o n . of. I t a l y . thirties,  liberal  societies  " S i s m o n d i and. I t a l i a n  issue of Blackwood s  i n 1832, an.anonymous T o r y  1  writer  cautioned  r e f o r m e r s t o l e a r n . f r o m the I t a l i a n example: S h a l l we, need, we, d a r e we., a p p l y t h e l e s s o n ? E n g l a n d h a s f o r c e n t u r i e s been t h e f r e e s t , h a p p i e s t , and w e a l t h i e s t c o u n t r y i n t h e w o r l d . She h a s l a t t e r l y grown d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h e r p r o s p e r o u s condition. A c r a v i n g f o r power - an u n n a t u r a l and m o r b i d a p p e t i t e . - p r o d u c e d by unwholesome s t i m u l a n d s . - h a s s e i z e d , upon some o f h e r c h i l d r e n , who a r e by e d u c a t i o n and . o c c u p a t i o n , l e a s t q u a l i f i e d t o e x e r c i s e i t . A g r e a t , an enormous c o n c e s s i o n  112  h a s been made to. them ( t h e Reform B i l l ) ; and as we f o r e t o l d , t h e y a r e as r a v e n o u s , as d i s s a t i s f i e d , as b e f o r e . Must'we p r o c e e d ? Civil war we d o u b t , c a n n o t . b u t be the r e s u l t . But t o what. w i l l , t h a t . f e a r f u l r e s u l t l e a d ? Be i t our. d a i l y p r a y e r t o Heaven, t h a t for. once c i v i l war and n o t i n d e s p o t i s m ! 2 ?  However, the Whigs r e f u s e d they e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y political  activities  r e c a l l e d . Byron's in Italy,  C a r b o n a r i and p a r t i c i p a t e d . i n of  1822.  securing  t o take, h e e d .  B y r o n .had even  Instead  inspirational  where he had  joined  the  the N e o p o l i t a n U p r i s i n g  t a k e n the a d d i t i o n a l r i s k  arms f o r t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s , and  of  establishing  a  28 clandestine, arsenal article  i n h i s home.  A typical  i n the E d i n b u r g h .Review i n J u l y  "The P o l i t i c a l C o n d i t i o n their position:  o f the I t a l i a n  Whig  o f 1832  entitled  States"  articulated  A u s t r i a i s to. ..Italy what. T u r k e y was t o G r e e c e . The I t a l i a n s , f e e l i t t o be so.. So does t h e r e s t of Europe. We see no d i s t i n c t i o n . Lord B y r o n saw none.,, and would, have shed h i s b l o o d as g l a d l y i n one cause a s . i n the o t h e r . Until A u s t r i a r e t u r n s , w i t h i n h e r own b o u n d a r i e s , and u n t i l h e r system. o f . domination, over I t a l y i s r e n o u n c e d , A u s t r i a must make, up h e r mind t o be d e t e s t e d as an o p p r e s s o r 2 9 S e v e r a l pages, o f the. a r t i c l e Byron's  d i s c u s s e d .the i m p o r t a n c e  Italian, observations.and p o l i t i c a l  Advancing  the,, same argument t h a t was  of  convictions.  made.'in Canto  C h i l d e H a r o l d Is .Pilgrimage.,, t h e E d i n b u r g h w r i t e r  IV  of  stated  113  that  Italy's  ization  previous, c o n t r i b u t i o n s to European  made.her p r e s e n t  situation  civil-  deplorable:  I f t h e r e i s a time f o r a l l t h i n g s , t h a n k God, ours b i d s f a i r . , to. .be the time, f o r freedom.. In t h i s case shame w i l l n o t , p e r m i t Europe, much l o n g e r t o abandon the b a r b a r i a n i n s o l e n c e and o p p r e s s i o n t h a t I t a l y by w h i c h our q u a r t e r of t h e globe.was s t a r t e d i n i t s career or.glory. To h e r we owe b o t h t h e s c i e n c e a n d . p r a c t i c a l example of e v e r y a r t i n t e l l i g e n t a g r i c u l t u r e , l i b e r a l commerce, the r e v i v a l o f a n c i e n t l e a r n i n g - the c r e a t i o n of modern l i t e r a t u r e . - the f i r s t s c h o o l s o f m e d i c i n e , t h e o l o g y , and j u r i s p r u d e n c e - a r t i s t , poet's, and p h i l o s o p h e r s , ... 30 T h i s ' time : t h e . w r i t e r " drew p o s i t i v e liberty  for Italy  E n g l a n d had  and. r e f o r m  achieved  parallels  i n England,  liberal  reforms,  between  stating  i t . was  that  since  essential  to  31 help  the  Italians  do l i k e w i s e .  Considering Italy,  the  i t is difficult  been unaware  controversy  to b e l i e v e t h a t Turner  of t h e ' l i b e r a l  been, suggested,, t h a t , t h r e e  in  exhibition  Although side,  there  i f any,  Byron  of h i s f i v e  Italy.  other  paintings 32  were a l s o . i l l u s t r a t i o n s . o f r e f o r m  i s no Turner  specific supported  e v i d e n t l y Whig c r i t i c s  evidence during  themes.  .demonstrating the R e f o r m  interpreted his Italy  and  c o u l d have  i m p l i c a t i o n s , of h i s  I t has the  surrounding  as  which  Crisis, a.progressive  33 statement.  They a d m i r e d h i s theme of B y r o n  w h i c h w a s . v i s u a l l y r e i n f o r c e d . by handling  of f o r m .  and  the p a i n t e r ' s  C o n t r a s t s , between a n c i e n t  and  liberty  innovative modern  1U  objects, and  warm and  foreground  changing. which  cool, t o n a l i t i e s ,  and. .background  The  play  c h a l l e n g e d , the  Claudean  frame/work.  light  spaces  dark  areas,  were p e r p e t u a l l y  of o p p o s i t e s became, a- p o s i t i v e carefully  c o n t a i n e d and  Arcadia., was  the. c h i e f  value  value  ordered  transformed  n i n e t e e n t h ~ c e n t u r y world, where a new F o r Whig c r i t i c s ,  and  into  o r d e r was  of' T u r n e r ' s  a  possible. new  order  seems t o have been i t s n e g a t i v e q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e status--: quo,  r a t h e r than  value  structure.  through paving  an  Claude past,  By  assertion  the way  picture  it.s p o s i t i v e  respectfully, was  c h a l l e n g i n g the o f h i s own  simply  Turner  wa.s  licence. not  "no  By  totally  l i m i t e d .appeal.  was the  handling  rejecting  the  Bull  also- defended.. T u r n e r  Whig  critics  The  Morning  canvas., w o u l d be  lacked, i m a g i n a t i o n ,  s m a l l number i n the  critic  Turner However,  most e n t h u s i a s t i c  Chronicle, p r e d i c t e d that Turner's who  tradition  reforming i t .  were aware o f the p i c t u r e ' s  viewers  Claudean  originality,  freedom., n o t  However, even the  with  o f a modern  for future experimentation.  represented  he  definition  family".  or i n o t h e r The  a  failure  words--  Spectator  against anticipated  attacks:  115  An Examiner  unexpec.te.d  critic  source  of c r i t i c i s m  came from  who , d i s m i s s e d t h e p i c t u r e  with  two  the short  sentences : Mr T u r n e r ' s I t a l y , no. 70, h a s . l i t t l e t o recommend i t as a c o m p o s i t i o n . I t s c o l o u r i n g i s gorgeous, b u t monotonous.  36  The  critic  made no  associations experience  effort  p r a i s e d . b y t h e Whigs.  the  the p a i n t i n g  sideration.  Yet  Tories'annoyance.with  modern c o l o u r scheme. sidered  to.extrapolate.the progressive she/he d i d n o t  the p i c t u r e ' s  Instead, the w r i t e r dull  and. u n w o r t h y  D i s c r e d i t i n g . w o r k s by  simply  seems to. have been a p o p u l a r p a s t i m e  con-  of p r o l o n g e d  leading with  bright  con-  academicians this  critic.  As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , , the E x a m i n e r r e v i e w e r had  been  critical  o f the .works.by L e s l i e ,  The  reviewer  g e n e r a l l y seems t o have p r o m o t e d p i c t u r e s  lesser did to the  W i l k i e and  Etty.  known a s s o c i a t e s o f the Academy, or by  not  belong  suggest  that  institution  pictures  by  at a l l .  On.this  basis,  made, i t s r e v i e w e r  artists  i t seems  the .Examiner's p a r t i c u l a r  to  who  reasonable  hostility  unwilling  by  towards  compliment  its. leading painters.  Certainly  the p i c t u r e  aroused, c o n s i d e r a b l e h o s t i l -  ity  from  " u n i m a g i n a t i v e " T o r y w r i t e r s who  too  e l a b o r a t e and..Turner's, s t y l e  found  exceedingly  the  theme  artificial.  116  Uncomfortable and  with  the p r o g r e s s i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s  h i s p o e t r y , these w r i t e r s  criticism  t o w a r d s .Turner, r a t h e r  more famous p o e t . literary  circles  his poetry, of Byron  excesses•and  material found  furthermore  Herald  Morning  of committing is essentially  factors  were  Turner's  would have, been i n a p p r o p r i a t e Nevertheless these  countered, the.Whigs'  poem.  bright  such  ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r  of Byron's  Turner's  i n the  conservative critiques  accompanying  for.an. academy.review.  the p a i n t i n g  which  the  made, i t awkward t o condemn  However,  t o the l i n e s  dismissing  Turner  attacking  their  pos t-iiiumdus p r e e m i n e n c e  thirties  immorality.  and  The  directed  Byron  different., t a c t i c s , , r e p u d i a t i n g h i s p e r s o n a l  indirect  Morning  of, the  relevant  painting,  Byron's  than  so i n s t e a d , c o n t e m p o r a r y  used  scarcely  carefully  of  for lacking  disapproval..  enthusiasm the  grace  Pos.t took, a d i f f e r e n t a. " c a p i t a l  3 7  colouring, e s p e c i a l l y  c v  by and  The  simply dignity  t a c k and  misdemeanor  imitative".  critics  accused  i n an a r t  ^^-  c  offensive  found when  38 measured, a g a i n s t the. " t r u t h "  of  Claude:  F o r t u n a t e l y we have a few Claudes, i n the G a l l e r i e s o f t h i s c o u n t r y t o i n s t r u c t our u n t r a v e l l e d - e y e s i n the t r u e f e a t u r e s .and hues o f t h e c l a s s i c l a n d , or we might be bourne down by t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e . a s s e r t i o n , of. c e r t a i n p i l g r i m s o f a r t , who w o u l d p e r s u a d e u.s t h a t t h e r e a r e no c o l o u r s beyond the A l p s b u t t h e c o l o u r s o f the r a i n b o w .  117  Mr T u r n e r makes, an u n u s u a l a t t e m p t t o impose t h i s b e l i e f upon h i s E n g l i s h a d m i r e r s by the p a r r o t plumage i n which, he d r e s s e s o u t h i s I t a l i a n . - s c e n e r y . ; b u t f o r our p a r t s we a r e determined., o b s t i n a t e l y t o p e r s e v e r e i n r e j e c t i n g , h i s s e d u c t i v e e f f o r t s as u n h o l y and defamatory l i b e l s . 3 9 It  appears  that..the. M o r n i n g  T u r n e r had. b r o k e n was By  the r u l e s  d e p a r t i n g from... t h e  Turner's  landscape  truth  Of Claude  conventions  was  contrived  than  those  This v i s i o n  nature, from  but  i n 1832, and  the  expressing  ordered t r a n q u i l l i t y  paper,--a  that.was.highly interested  small  Yet. i r o n i c a l l y ,  the  of  force  the of  the r e c o g n i z a b l y  Claudean.. framework o f I t a l y was. p r e c i s e l y what made the image  so d i s t u r b i n g  f o r these  of  sector  in defending  old., master, p a i n t i n g s and  in general.^  of  c a t e r e d t o the v i e w s  Tory, r e a d e r s h i p of. t h i s  of t h e i r  tradition  the  of Turner,  P o s t w r i t e r was. a d h e r i n g t o t r a d i t i o n  of s o c i e t y  as  the i d e a l , l a n d s c a p e s  C l a u d e .as a s t a n d a r d . o f t r u t h  imaginary past.  values  who  o n l y a shadow, t w i c e removed  course, i n r e a l i t y  were. no. l e s s  the e l i t e  nature.  o f t h i s .medium best, i m i t a t e d  a c o n s e r v a t i v e p r e f e r e n c e f o r the an  a r t which  of i m i t a t i n g of Claude,  because  of n a t u r e .  by p r o m o t i n g Morning  upset  of i d e a l , l a n d s c a p e  c o n s i d e r e d t h e ..most .noble form  acknowledged, g e n i u s  the  P o s t w r i t e r was  conservative viewers.  It  118  was  a Claudean  than  ordering a superficially  nature of  composition, turned, upside  p l a y e d havoc with  undermined  The  the. c o n t r o l l i n g  taste  was  critic  concepts  Essentially  the  about  despite had  their  brought  in  1832.  the with  o f the  Turner's  t h a t , had, t o be  of  and  and. democracy who  rejected  A parallel  to Turner's gulf  By  the  raising states,  argument  to r e j e c t  looked., t h e y  accepted  change.  spreading  firmly  writers  the  a g a i n s t the  modernity  artist  Morning  aesthetic  f o r .the I t a l i a n , n a t i o n a l i s t s — no  response  a picture  respect-  Italy,  of t r a d i t i o n  a c c u s e d , the  tremendous  Italian  force  by T o r y p o l i t i c a l  r u i n . to.. t h o s e  the  rejecting  of o r i g i n a l i t y ,  critic  liberty  The lines  language  s e d u c t i v e appearance.  support  tempting  hostile  the  Italy — lies  been u s e d  Whigs'  By  defending  threatening  lies  Instead  values, Turner  s u g g e s t s .more than, t h e q u e s t i o n o f  at stake.  was  devices.  them.  inordinately  Post w r i t e r  Rather  c h a o t i c w o r l d , .'the f o r c e s o f  supporting t r a d i t i o n a l . a e s t h e t i c  fully  down.  their  painting  that  matter  ultimately  principles.  once a g a i n  s e p a r a t i n g Whig and.. T o r y  presented  the academy  t h a t was. hard, f o r most c r i t i c s  under-  supporters  c o n t e n t i o u s issue.s o f Byron  Turner  how  and  public  to ignore.  \l9  His h i g h l y innovati.ve h a n d l i n g Claudean picture  formula,led as  political  the.majority  a. p r o g r e s s i v e  cause f o r the  of. the  conventional  of c r i t i c s  statement,  fuelling  m o d e r n i z a t i o n .of e x i s t i n g  structures.  to read the  aesthetic  the  Whigs' and  120  Footnotes  "Spectator  (May,12, 1832), p . 450.  2 Turner's, other f i v e e n t r i e s are l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x B. F o r d e t a i l s . c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e p a i n t i n g s , c o n s u l t Martin.. B u t l i n and E v e l y n J o l l , The P a i n t i n g s o f J.'M.W.' T u r n e r (New. Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977). C h i l d e H a r o l d ' s P i l g r i m a g e - I t a l y was.the f i r s t and most p r o m i n e n t l y hung of. T u r n e r ' s p a i n t i n g s i n t h e G r e a t Room w h i c h was t h e most p r e s t i g i o u s ape«t o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n .  3 Byron,  The c a t a l o g u e , e x c e r p t . c o n d e n s e d t h e s e l i n e s o m i t t i n g one l i n e . The o r i g i n a l r e a d s : Thou a r t t h e g a r d e n .of t h e w o r l d , t h e home Of a l l A r t y i e l d s , , and N a t u r e can d e c r e e ; Even i n t h e y d e s e r t , . . .  from  ^John Ruskin,. N o t e s on the. T u r n e r G a l l e r y a t 'Marlborough House 1856-7 (London:. Smith, E l d e r & Co. , 1 8 5 7 ) , p . 49. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f how i d e a l l a n d s c a p e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o f u n c t i o n , ; c o n s u l t J . B a r r e l l , The I d e a o f L a n d s c a p e and t h e Sense of. P l a c e . (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press,. 1972),, chap. I;. als.o.M. K i t s o n , The A r t of C l a u d e L o r r a i n (London:. A r t s C o u n c i l , 1969), pp. 5-8. ^In h i s t h i r t e e n t h d i s c o u r s e (December 1786), Joshua Reynolds h a d . d i s c u s s e d the superior q u a l i t i e s o f the i d e a l landscape. Consult S i r Joshua Reynolds, D i s c b u r s e s on A r t , ed. S t e p h e n 0. M i t c h e l l (New York:. B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, I n c . , 1965)',. p p . 200-201. 7 T u r n e r acknowledged, t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f C l a u d e i n the l a s t l e c t u r e of. a. s e r i e s on p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h he gave a t t h e R o y a l Academy from,1811-1816. The t e x t o f t h i s l e c t u r e appears. i n . J e r r o l d Zif.f, "'Backgrounds, I n t r o d u c t i o n of A r c h i t e c t u r e and L a n d s c a p e ' A L e c t u r e by '-J.M.W. T u r n e r , " J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg and. ..Courtauld. I n s t i t u t e s 26 ( 1 9 6 3 ) : 124-147. T u r n e r ' s s e n s e o f r i v a l r y w i t h C l a u d e h a s been w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d , . see' i n p a r t i c u l a r two r e c e n t a r t i c l e s by  121  P h i l l i p F e h l " T u r n e r ' s C l a s s i c i s m and the P r o b l e m o f P e r i o d i z a t i o n . i n the H i s t o r y , of A r t , " C r i t i c a l E n q u i r y 3 (Autumn, 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 119-120, and K a t h l e e n Nicholson, "Turner's ' A p p u l i a i n S e a r c h o f A p u l u s ' and the d i a l e c t i c s o f the L a n d s c a p e T r a d i t i o n , " B u r l i n g t o n Magazine 122 ( O c t o b e r , 1980j : 6.79-68.6.. Some o f T u r n e r ' s most d i r e c t l y Claudean compositions i n c l u d e . : . C r o s s i n g the B r o o k ( 1 8 1 5 ) , A p p u l i a i n S e a r c h of,.Apulus (1814..)., D i d o B u i l d i n g " C a r t h a g e (1815) and The D e c l i n e , of ~h.e C a r t h a g i n i a n E m p i r e (1817)  T u r n e r reduced, the t o t a l number o f f i g u r e s , and made more of them f e m a l e . He also, r e v e r s e d the l o c a t i o n o f the d a n c i n g c o u p l e and.. s t a n d i n g v i e w e r s , and made some v a r i a t i o n s i n the pos.es and, .gestures o f . v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s . Q  The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y was f i r s t l o c a t e d i n A n g e r s t e i n ' s house...in P a l l M a l l . I t opened i t s door i n May of 1824, and. w i t h i n the f i r s t s i x months some 24, 000 p e o p l e had v i s i t e d i t s . c o l l e c t i o n . For f u r t h e r information c o n s u l t G r e g o r y M a r t i n "The F o u n d i n g of the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y P a r t 3." C o n n o i s s e u r 186.. (.May 1 9 7 4 ) : 124-128. "'"'"'in h i s " B a c k g r o u n d s " l e c t u r e , T u r n e r p r a i s e d " g o l d e n . o r i e n t or the a m b e r - c o l o u r e d , e t h e r " o f C l a u d e L o r r a i n , see Z i f f , ! J o u r n a l o f the Warburg and C o u r t a l d I n s t i t u t e s , p. 144-  the  "'""'"John R u s k i n commented a t l e n g t h on the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the p i c t u r e ' s . , s u r f a c e w h i c h began t o d e t e r i o r a t e two d e c a d e s a f t e r , i t s c o m p l e t i o n . . See h i s N o t e s on the T u r n e r G a l l e r y , pp. 46.-49. He m e n t i o n e d t h a t the- upper c o l o u r s had. .sunk i n t o , the. ground., and. t h a t e x t e n s i v e c r a c k i n g and f l a k i n g . had,, taken, place... B u t l i n and J o l l c i t e the m i s s i n g span, o f . t h e b r i d g e as f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of s e r i o u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n . See B u t l i n and J o l l , J.M.W. T u r n e r , p. 176. 12 T u r n e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . d i d n o t seem o f f e n s i v e t o the T o r y c r i t i c s . w h o o n l y r e f e r r e d t o him as a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d a c a d e m i c i a n . o r as the P r o f e s s o r - of P e r s p e c t i v e . 1 3  Morning  Chronicle  (May  7,  1832).  122  Anonymous. "The L i v i n g A r t i s t s . : No. V T u r n e r , " Athenaeum ( A p r i l 23, 1831), p. 266. The a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n by A l l a n Cunningham. •  Syectator.(May  12,.1832),  15  Morning  Chronicle  (May  7,  p.  450.  1832)  17 B y r o n , C h i l d e . H a r o l d ' s P i l g r i m a g e and Roman t i c Poems, J o h n D. Jump (London.: J.M. Dent Sons L t d . , 1975), p. 119 Canto C V I I I . 1 8  Ibid.,  p.  Other and  184.  19 A n t h o n y B u r t o n .and. J o h n and A l b e r t Museum .May 30 - A u g u s t  1974), pp. 3 8 - 4 1 .  Murdoch, B y r o n , V i c t o r i a 25, 1974 ( L o n d o n : HMSO,  20 Between 1828 and 1832. s e v e r a l major e d i t i o n s on B y r o n a p p e a r e d w h i c h were, w i d e l y r e v i e w e d i n t h e p r e s s . The most n o t a b l e , o f t h e s e i n c l u d e d : L e i g h Hunt, L o r d B y r o n and Some o f H i s C o n t e m p o r a r i e s .(.London: H e n r y C o l b u r n , 1828), J o h n G a i t , The L i f e o f Lord. B y r o n .(London:. H e n r y C o l b u r n and R i c h a r d Ben t i c y., 1 830).,. E. Bagn.ell, L o r d B y r o n w i t h Remarks on His. G e n i u s and . C h a r a c t e r ( O x f o r d : T a l b o y s , 1831), and t h e w e l l known m u l t i - v o l u m e s e r i e s on B y r o n by Thomas Moore, The Works., of., L o r d . B y r o n w i t h H i s L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , and H i s . L i f e 14. v o l s . (London : Murray, 1832-34) • For some idea. of... t h e o u t p o u r i n g o f work on B y r o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , c o n s u l t , t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y of Samuel C. Chew, B y r o n i n E n g l a n d . (.New Y o r k : R u s s e l l &. R u s s e l l , 1965 r e p r i n t o f 1924)• G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e more s y m p a t h e t i c b i o g r a p h i e s . w e r e w r i t t e n by B y r o n ' s Whig and R a d i c a l a s s o c i a t e s ( i . e . Thomas.Moore), w h i l e the more c r i t i c a l ones were p r i m a r i l y by c o n s e r v a t i v e a u t h o r s . T h e r e were i n d i v i d u a l e x c e p t i o n s ( i . e . L e i g h Hunt's b i t t e r p e r s o n a l a t t a c k on Byron;., b u t a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n , i s d i s c e r n a b l e . 21 The o t h e r two B y r o n e d i t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g T u r n e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s were L o r d B y r o n ' s Works 11 vols.. (London: M u r r a y , 1 8 2 5 ) , and F i n d e n ' s L a n d s c a p e and P o r t r a i t I l l u s t r a t i o n s , t o .the L i f e and Works, o f B y r o n 3 v o l s . (London: Murray and T i l l , 1833-34), w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e s e v e n i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f 1825 with, two a d d i t i o n a l new p l a t e s . ' F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n s u l t Morde.cai Omer, T u r n e r and t h e P o e t s , G r e a t e r London . A r t s . C o u n c i l , . A p r i l 12 - June 1, 1976 ( L o n d o n : G r e a t e r .London.Arts C o u n c i l , 1 9 7 6 ) .  123  F o r a., l i s t o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f T u r n e r ' s l i b r a r y , see B e r n a r d F a l k , T u r n e r t h e , P a i n t e r : , . H i s H i d d e n L i f e (London: H u t c h i n s o n S Co. L t d . , 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 258. T h e s e p a i n t i n g s were T h e F i e l d o f W a t e r l o o (1818 l i n e s from C a n t o . I l l 2 8 t h .verse,), The B r i g h t S t o n e ~ o f Honour ( E h r e n b r e i t s t e i n ) 1835 - l i n e s , from. Canto I I I 56th v e r s e ) , Modern Rome - Campo V a c c i n o (1839 - l i n e s f r o m Canto IV 27th v e r s e ) , V e n i c e t h e B r i d g e o f S i g h s (1840 - l i n e s from Canot IV 1 s t v e r s e ) , and A p p r o a c h t o V e n i c e (184-4 l i n e s from C a n t o IV 2.7th v e r s e ) . 2 3  2  painting  ^ B u t l i n and J o l l , J..M.W. T u r n e r , p . 176. formed p a r t , o f t h e T u r n e r B e q u e s t .  The  2 5  Thomas M a c a u l a y , e x c e r p t from a s p e e c h i n t h e House o f Commons.,. March, 2, 1831 q u o t e d i n Sydney W. J a c k man, e d . , The E n g l i s h ..Re. form T r a d i t i o n .1790 - 1910 (Englewood C l i f f s - : Pren.tice H a l l , . I n c . , 1965), p p . 58-59.  26 F o r a d i s . c u s s i o n o f the I t a l i a n , s i t u a t i o n , c o n s u l t G.F.H. B e r k e l e y , I t a l y i n the. Making 1815 - 1846 ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press., 1932)., c h a p s . 1-2. The t e n r e - e s t a b l i s h e d I t a l i a n , .states were t h e Kingdom o f LombardoV e n e t i a , t h e Grand,Duchy o f T u s c a n y , the- D u c h i e s o f Moderna, Parma, Massa, L u c c a and. C a r r a r a , the. P a p a l S t a t e s , and the Kingdoms, of. S a r d i n i a , ( o r P i e d m o n t ) and, t h e Two S i c i l i e s . A u s t r i a n H a p s b u r g . r u l e r s c o n t r o l Led. L o m b a r d o - V e n e t i a , T u s c a n y , Moderna,.. Parma, and Massa. 27 Anon., " S i s m o n d i and I t a l i a n L i b e r t y , " Magazine ( O c t o b e r 1832), p . 524. 28 B u r t o n and. Murdo.ch, B y r o n , pp. 101-2.  Blackwood's  2 9  Anon., "The P o l i t i c a l . C o n d i t i o n , o f t h e I t a l i a n E d i n b u r g h Review. ( J u l y , 1832), p . 367.  States," 3  °Ibid.,  p . 396  31 The a r t i c l e ' s f i n a l p a r a g r a p h s drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t that. I t a l i a n s , i n P e r u g i a and Umbria h a d p u b l i c l y c e l e b r a t e d when L o r d G r e y was r e c a l l e d , t o o f f i c e t o r e i n t r o d u c e t h e R e f orm . B i l l . . . T h i s i n c i d e n t was u s e d t o demons t r a t e how much the. I t a l i a n , p o p u l a t i o n l o v e d l i b e r t y , w h i c h f u r t h e r emphasized, how o p p r e s s e d t h e y were u n d e r A u s t r i a n domination.  124  32  T h i s s u g g e s t i o n has been- made by Jack. L i n d s a y , The S u n s e t S h i p : The Poems.of J.M.W.' T u r n e r ( L o n d o n : E v e l y n Adams- & Mackay Ltd.., 1966), p p . 61-63.. T h e p a i n t i n g s are:' 'The' P r i n c e ' o f O r a n g e W i l l i a m I I I , who. Is. shown l a n d i n g a t T o r b a y w h i c h marked, the b e g i n n i n g o f .the G l o r i o u s Rev o l u t i o n of. .1688,...an e v e n t Whigs, o f t e n c i t e d , as a p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e Reform . B i l l ; S t a f f a., an image o.f a modern steams h i p d e f i a n t l y , w e a t h e r i n g a s t o r m a t s e a ; , and Nebuchadn e z z a r , w h i c h showed, t h r e e f a i t h f u l Jews r e s i s t i n g tyrannical rule. > :  A . J . F i n b e r g , The L i f e o f J.M.W. T u r n e r , R.A. ed. , (Oxford:, C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1961), ~p~. 353. 3 3  2nd  - ^ M o r n i n g C h r o n i c l e .(May  7, 1832).  - ^ S p e c t a t o r . (May. 12, .1832), p . 3 6  Examiner  3 7  Morning  (July Post  15,  (May  1832), p . 27,  450. 453.  1832).  o o  T u r n e r ' s h e a v y use. o f r e d and y e l l o w o f f e n d e d a l l o f the T o r y r e v i e w e r s . The L i b r a r y o f the F i n e A r t s f e l t t h a t the warm t o n e s i n the l a n d s c a p e d i d n o t h a r m o n i z e w i t h the c o o l b l u e o f the sky, w h i l e the M o r n i n g H e r a l d f o u n d the r e c u r r i n g r e d l a k y glow f a t i g u i n g . 3 9  Morning  Post  (May 27,  1832).  ^The M o r n i n g P o s t was . e s t i m a t e d t o have a c i r c u l a t i o n w e l l u n d e r . 5» 000,, .see..Hollis , Pauper P r e s s , p . 123. W r i t i n g some f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r , H.R. Fox. Bourne c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Post, o f the t h i r t i e s as a . " d i s p e n s e r o f ' f a s h i o n a b l e i n t e l l i g e n c e ' , and a r i s t o c r a t i c t i t t l e - t a t t l e " . I t was w e l l known f o r i t s e x t r e m e l y r e a c t i o n a r y s t a n c e , s e e Bourne Engl.ish' Newspapers, 2, p . 19.  326. (Cat. 342) Childe Harold's  Figure  13.  Pilgrimage—Italy,  exh. 1832; T a t e G a l l e r y  J . M. W. T u r n e r , C h i l d e H a r o l d ' s P i l g r i m a g e - I t a l y , 1832 Tate G a l l e r y ( M a r t i n B u t l i n and E v e l y n J o l l . The P a i n t i n g s of J . M. W. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. P l a t e 326.)  Turner. ~  Figure  11+.  C l a u d e , L a n d s c a p e : The M a r r i a g e o f I s a a c London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y (Pierre Courthion. C l a u d e G e l l e e d i t Le L i b r a i r i e F l o u r y , 1932. P l a t e 27. )  and  Rebekah,  Lorrain.  I 6 4 . 8  Paris:  t  127  CONCLUSION The  analysis  critical  reception  hibition  p r o v i d e d an  integrally We  have  critics of  and  crucial  be  close  interest  f o r the  critical writing  groups  artists  for. openly  flicting  was  way,  division  .the s p l i t  by  both  o f the Academy.  the  was  pictures reading works  arguments  t o emerge from  was  over  reform.  often  the  critics publications. open t o  sides,, a s s e s s m e n t s  were more l i m i t e d .  j u d g e m e n t s were c l o s e l y  perceptions  individual  the p i c t u r e s p r o v i d e d  between t h e  c o n t e n t of the p i c t u r e s interpretations  beliefs.  v i e w i n g and  committed. Whig and. T o r y  formal q u a l i t i e s  stylistic  between  e x t e n s i o n of contemporary  striking  advancing  intended their  of. p a r l i a m e n t a r y and. s o c i a l most  for  ex-  f o r which they wrote  s e c t o r s . o f . the. the  their  and, p o l i t i c a l  f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g how  or n o t  response  the  forum  relationship  interpreted, i n a partisan  The  their  the  for specific  issues  While  the  Whether  vehicles the  that  and  the R o y a l Academy  important p u b l i c  importance  functioned  to  indicates.that  c o n n e c t e d . a e s t h e t i c , moral  seen  public.  o f the p r e c e d i n g p i c t u r e s  conof  In g e n e r a l ,  l i n k e d , t o the  critics'  Conservative reviewers,  who  128  s u p p o r t e d .the  i n s t i t u t i o n ' s- - e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e ,  p r e f e r r e d .the  conventional.style  o f E t t y who  academic, t r a i n i n g t o p e r p e t u a t e , the the  o l d masters..  a reformed admired  and  In  contrast,  clearly  used  forms- and  his  genres  Whig r e v i e w e r s , who  of  wanted  more., a c c e s s i b l e , academy, p a r t i c u l a r l y  Turner's  f o r m a l . i n n o v a t i o n s ...which., c h a l l e n g e d  the  statuscquo without, e n t i r e l y d e v a l u i n g i t .  Although was  highly  social role  conflict  publicized.during  alignments  i n shaping  factor  the  i n the  the  critical  opinion.  The  an  divided  a p r e d o m i n a n t l y Whig m a j o r i t y a Radical, minority  who  who  fully  the  other  important  most s i g n i f i c a n t  minds o f Academy r e v i e w e r s was which  Tories  Reform C r i s i s ,  and . . d i v i s i o n s p l a y e d  of u n i v e r s a l , s u f f r a g e  and  between Whigs and  the  middle  class  f i r m l y opposed supported.it.  bitter  the  m i d d l e . classe.s were drawn t o g e t h e r  frightening prospect  arguments,. T o r i e s  of  and  p o l i t i c a l .equality.-  the  conservative'  ticipation  After  working  class  Whigs  gaining  Many Whigs s h a r e d  Fraser' s reviewer  i n high  deterioration  the  and  culture  that  the  would i n i t i a t e  o f e x i s t i n g . l i t e r a r y and  a l l working-clas.s p o l i t i c a l  the  into  the In  of f r e q u e n t l y u p p e r and  threat  notion,  spite  from by  the  social  fear  masses*  of par-  a drastic  aesthetic  caricatures  and  standards. academic  129  oil of  p a i n t i n g s remained.poles apart  a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y . . ( A . s c a l e whose b i a s e s  twentieth-century  growing  signs  exhibition,  the h e i g h t  o f compromise  the peerage  such  appeared.within  t h e . i n c r e a s i n g alignment  t o .preserve  on the . o t h e r  transformation peerage  many a r i s t o c r a t i c  considerably:  spirit  limited reprivileges,  the a r i s t o c r a c y d i r e c t l y ,  o f compromise  within.the  their  values  ruling  facilitated  elite  from  actually a peaceful  the o l d  of reformed  ari-  c l a s s . . . By t h e 1830s, t h e  a n d , l i f e s t y l e s had n a r r o w e d  t h e a r i s t o c r a c y had. l o n g been i n v o l v e d i n  commerce and. t h e m i d d l e  c l a s s : e q u a l l y . i n t e r e s t e d i n the  acquisition, of property.  to  interests  upward . s o c i a l , m o b i l i t y was  and t h e u p p e r m i d d l e  g u l f between  denied  A t t h e Academy  of these  t o a new h y b r i d , e s t a b l i s h m e n t  stocracy  i n May,  hand,, the. u n w i l l i n g n e s s , o f many u p p e r  e x c e p t , where t h e i r This  Crisis  c o n c i l i a t o r y p o s i t i o n s o f Whig  middle - class- writers, t o c h a l l e n g e  blocked.  permeate  the ranks  as t h e . G r o s v e n o r s , who a c c e p t e d  forms i n o r d e r and  o f t h e Reform  and.upper m i d d l e - c l a s s .  e x p l a i n s , on one h a n d , . t h e peers,  still  scale  arthistory.)  Even d u r i n g  of  on the c r i t i c s '  While  certain  rights  t o the upper middle . c l a s s , . p a r t i c u l a r l y  p a r l i a m e n t , and f u l l  acceptance  by h i g h  were  still  equal  society,  access  they  130  preferred at  to. throw i n t h e i r  the r i s k  concessions clearly  second-rate., p a r t n e r s  c o u l d .be. won.  more a p p e a l i n g  property below. able  of being  Upward  than  social  w h i c h was  artists  of whether  an  elitist  writer's paintings  the Examiner ,  o f t h e Academy  access  of c r e d i t i n g both  which p a t r o n i z e d i t .  Regardless  t o the  insti-  fostered patrons, ;  n.egat.ive comments appealed  The f a c t , t h a t  on t h e  t o Whig  t h e s e works were  leading painters  t o have made t h e E x a m i n e r r e l u c t a n t t o p r a i s e fear  and  T y p i c a l of the Examiner n  and T u r n e r w h i c h  by two o f t h e Academy's  desir-  of the r a d i c a l  among i t s members and  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d ..art.  of W i l k i e  more  that, t h e Academy  a l i e n a t i o n .was h i s / h e r  hordes  publications.  c l a s s had. f u l l  r e f o r m e r s .as p r o g r e s s i v e . executed  critical  the Examiner b e l i e v e d  their  democracy.  than, any o f t h e o t h e r  unpleasant.exclusivity  and  the hungry  were r e p r e s e n t e d . b y  the middle  further  sharing  infinitely  the views  c o n s i s t e n t l y more  even  a l l i a n c e was  the p r o s p e c t . o f  m o b i l i t y was  contras.t,  middle-class.minority  tution,  than  t h e d e s c e n t .to s o c i a l  sharp  until  An a r i s t o c r a t i c  and. a c c u m u l a t e d , c a p i t a l . w i t h  In  its  l o t . w i t h the a r i s t o c r a c y ,  the.Academy and t h e  seems  them, f o r  establishment  131  A l t h o u g h , the. s o c i a l surrounding on  the. R e f o r m C r i s i s  the R o y a l  have had  mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , headline  stories.,  small p r i n t influence  was  and. the. k i n g ' s  i n s i d e pages.  a demonstration  o f p r o t e s t s and  street  t r a n q u i l . . Here l i v e l y  pictures and  middle  arguing access  and  and  countering  On  one  elite's  level,  supreme  v i e w i n the  the u p p e r  strata  image t o t h e i r  ultimately  who  the  of  hostile  atmosphere  d i s c u s s i o n s and  i n response  heated  t o the  four  F a c t i o n s w i t h i n the  different  strategies  p a i n t e d , good, p i c t u r e s ,  Academy, who  of each  position  especially  c l a s s e s ad.opted  to. the  in  exhibition's  a t S o m e r s e t House,  investigation.  over, who  culture, vision  out,  under  the  However, i n the p a g e s o f the p r e s s ' t h a t  was  broke  the  of  manoeuvres,  appeared  ruling  riots,  the. e x h i b i t i o n  debates  reviews  their private  reviewed less  resolution  negligible..  an. i m p e r t u r b a b l e  inferiors.  the  seems t o  a c t i o n s t h a t made  of the  Attending  society presented  on  Yet  subtle, r a t h e r than  self-confidence...  social  exhibition  impact  exhibition  I t . was. p a r l i a m e n t a r y  while  on. the  show was  midst  the  a .much les.s d r a m a t i c , e f f e c t crisis..  divisions  had. a s i g n i f i c a n t  Academy.exhibition,  the p o l i t i c a l  the  and . p o l i t i c a l  should should  who  s e t the govern  group was. c o n d i t i o n e d by  political  p e r s p e c t i v e , but  the p i c t u r e s  and.. d i s c u s s i o n  upper  of power  should  have  standards  of  England.  The  their  social  the p r o c e s s surrounding  of  en-  them,  132  was  also  lines to  a formative  experience.  separating art, daily  blur  and  b r e a k down.  life,  I t i s here and  that  the  even p o l i t i c s  begin  . 133 APPENDIX A E n t r i e s from the C a t a l o g u e o f the R o y a l Academy E x h i b i t i o n o f 1832  70 Childe Harold's pilgrimage—Italy "  .  /.  M .  W .  T u r n e r ,  R.A.  and now, fair Italy ! Thou art the garden of the world. Even in thy desert what is like to thee ? Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste More rich than other climes' fertility : Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced."  Lord Byron, Canto 4. '  121 A family picture, containing portraits of the Marquis and Marchioness of Westminster, the Earl and Countess Grosvenor, the Earl and Countess of Wilton, Lord and Lady Robert Grosvenor, Viscount Belgraye, the Ladies Grosvenor, and Lady Mary Egerton . C.R. Leslie, 134 The preaching of Knox before the Lords of the Congrega tion, 10thJune, 1559. . 1 ) . J V i l  R.A. k i e , K k ,  In Dr. M'Crie's Life of this extraordinary person is described the event this picture is intended to represent, which took place during the regency of Mary of Guise, in the parish church of St. Andrews in Fifeshire, where John Knox, having just arrived from Geneva after an exile of thirteen years, in defiance of a threat of assassination, and while an army in the field was watching the proceeding's of his party, appeared in the pulpi and discoursed to a numerous assembly, including many of the clergy when "such was the influence of his doctrine, that the provost, bailies, and inhabitants harmoniously agreed to set up the reformed worship in the town. The church was stripped of all images and pictures, and the monasteries were pulled down." Close to the pulpit on the right of Knox are Richard Ballenden, his amanuensis, with Christopher Goodman, his colleague ; and, in black, the Maltese Knight, Sir James Sandilands, in whose house at Calder the first Protestant sacrament was received. Beyond the latter, in the scholar's cap and gown, is that accomplished student of St. Andrews, the Admirable Crichton. Under the pulpit is Thomas Wood, the precentor, with his* hour-glass; the school-boy below is John Napier, Baron of Merchiston, inventor of the logarithms; and further to the right is a child which has been brought to be baptized when the discourse is over. On the other side of the picture, in red, is the Lord James Stuart", afterwards Regent Murray; beyond, is the Earl of Glencairne; and in front, resting on his sword, is the Earl of Morton ; behind whom is the Earl of Argyll, whose Countess, the half-sister of Queen Mary, and the lady in attendance upon her, make up the chief light of the picture. Above this group isJohr. ilarnilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, supported bvihe Bishop Beatoun, of Glasgow, with Quinten Kennedy, the Abbot of Cross Raguel, who maintained against Knox a public disputation. In the gallery is Sir Fatrick Learmonlh, Provost of St. Andrews and Laird of Dairsie, and with him two of the bailies. The boy on their lest is Andrew Melville, successor of Knox; and beyond him, with other P r o fessors of the University of St. Andrews, is the learned Buchanan; at ilie back of the gallery is a crucifix, attracting the regard of Catholic penitems; and in the obscurity above is an escutcheon to the memory of Cardinal Beaton.  *  215 The destroying angel and daemons of evil, interrupting the orgies of the vicious and intemperate. A finished sketch of that class of compositions called by the Romans " Visions," not having their origin in history or poetrv.  IV. Etly, R.A.  134  APPENDIX B  Other  Works E x h i b i t e d , at. the R.A.' Turner  William  M.  W.  and Wilkie"'"  Y o u t h on t h e Prow and P l e a s u r e a t the Helm The D e s t r o y i n g A n g e l s and.Daemons o f E v i l Phaedra..and, Cymochle's, or the I d l e Lake  A Family Picture A Scene, from t h e Taming  of the  Shrew  Turner 70 153 206. 284 355 453  David  Leslie,  Leslie 121. I4.O .  J.  "by E t t y ,  Etty 196 215 360  C. R.  o f 1832  Childe Harold's Pilgrimage - I t a l y The P r i n c e o f Orange, ..William I I I Van T r o m p ' s . S h a l l o p a t the E n t r a n c e o f the S c h e l d t H e l v o e t s l u y s - T h e . C i t y o f U t r e c h t , 64, G o i n g t o Sea Then N e b u c h a d n e z z a r Came Near t o the Mouth o f the B u r n i n g F i e r y F u r n a c e 'Staffa,. F i n g a l ' s Cave  Wilkie 71 134  the R o y a l  His Majesty King W i l l i a m The P r e a c h i n g of Knox  I n f o r m a t i o n was .compiled from Academy E x h i b i t i o n o f 1832.  IV  the  catalogue  of  135  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books 1.  Economic, P o l i t i c a l , a n d . S o c i a l H i s t o r y A l t l c k , Richard. The E n g l i s h Common R e a d e r : A S o c i a l . H i s t o r y o f t h e Mass R e a d l n g P u b l i c 1800. - 190Q. ..- C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1957.. A s p i n a l l , . A.. . P o l i t i c s .and ..the . P r e s s 1780 - 1850. London: Home 6 Van T h a i L t d . , 194-9. , ed.. .Three E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h D i a r i e s . London: W i l l i a m N o r g a t e  Century L t d . , 1952.  B e r k e l e y , G. F . H. I t a l y i n t h e Making 1815 - 184-6. Cambridge,: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932. B o u r n e , H.,R....Fox. E n g l i s h Newsp.apers: C h a p t e r s i n the H i s t o r y of.Journalism. 2 vols. New York.: R u s s . e l l & R u s s e l l , 1887; r e p r i n t ed., 1966. B r i g g s , A s a . The Age o f Improvement 1783 - 1867. London: Longman Group L t d . , 1959. _______ "The Language o f C l a s s i n E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h Century England.". In Essays i n Labour H i s t o r y , pp. 43 T.. 73. E d i t e d by A s a B r i g g s and John Saville. London: .Macmillan & Co. L t d . , I960; r e v i s e d ed., 1967. B r i s t o w , Edward J . V i c e and V i g i l a n c e : P u r i t y Movements i n B r i t a i n S i n c e . 1700.. London: G i l l and. M a c m i l l a n . L t d . , 1977. Cole,  G. D..H. S t u d i e s i n C l a s s S t r u c t u r e . London: R o u t l e d g e and.Kegan P a u l , L t d . , 1955.  Cowherd,.Raymond .G. 'The P o l i t i c s o f E n g l i s h D i s s e n t New York:.New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. Dase-nt, A r t h u r I r w i n . A H i s t o r y of. G r o s v e n o r Square L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n and. Co. L i m i t e d , 1935. D a v i d o f f , L e o n o r e . . The B e s t C i r c l e s , S o c i e t y E t i q u e t t e and t h e S e a s o n . 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ReBurns  Maehl, W i l l i a m H e n r y , J r . , ed.. The Reform B i l l o f 1832. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n I n c . , 1967.  137  Margetson, S t e l l a . :.Victorian/High B. T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1980.  Society.  London:  M o r r i s , R. J . C h o l e r a 1832:.. The S o c i a l Response t o an E p i d e m i c . London: Croom Helm, 1976. ______  'Class . and . Class' C o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l . R e v o l u t i o n 1780 - 1850. London: Economic. H i s t o r y S o c i e t y , 1979.  P e a r s a l l , Ronald.. The Worm i n t h e Bud: The W o r l d of V i c t o r i a n S e x u a l i t y . London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1969. Ridley, Jasper. University  J o h n Knox. New Y o r k : O x f o r d P r e s s , 1968.  Rowe, D. J . e d . London R a d i c a l i s m 1830 - 18/3: A S e l e c t i o n from the Papers o f F r a n c i s P l a c e Chatham:. W. & J . Mackay &. Co. L t d . , 1970. Thompson, E . P. The Making o f t h e E n g l i s h W o r k i n g C l a s s , Harmon.dsw.orth : P e n g u i n Books, 1963 ; Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n Books, 1963; r e v i s e d ed., P e l i c a n Books, 1968. Trudgill, Eric. Madonnas and. .Magdalens: The O r i g i n s and Development o f V i c t o r i a n . S e x u a l A t t i t u d e s . London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1976. Webb, R. K. , 184-8.  The B r i t i s h W o r k i n g C l a s s R e a d e r 1790 London: George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1955  Williams.,. J u d i t h . Blow.. A G u i d e t o t h e P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s , f o r E n g l i s h S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y 1750 - 1850. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926. Cultural  History.  B e c k e t t , R. B., ed. J o h n C o n s t a b l e ' s C o r r e s p o n d e n c e Vol.. 3: The C o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h C. R. L e s l i e R.A. I p s w i c h : S u f f o l k R e c o r d s S o c i e t y , 1965. Bell,  Quentin. 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