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Verbal rationales and modeling as adjuncts to a parenting technique for child noncompliance Davies, Glen Robert 1982

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VERBAL RATIONALES AND MODELING AS ADJUNCTS TO A PARENTING TECHNIQUE FOR CHILD NONCOMPLIANCE ... . by GLEN ROBERT DAVIES B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1982 ( c ) G l e n R o b e r t D a v i e s , 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of p s y c h o l o g y  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date May 31, 1982 DE-6 (3/81) Verbal Rationales and Modeling As Adjuncts to a Parenting Technique for C h i l d Noncompliance C l i n i c a l c h i l d psychology supposedly bridges the gap between c l i n i c a l and developmental psychology. Nonetheless, there has been a dearth of communication between the two d i s c i p l i n e s . For example, there have been no investigations as to whether various behavioral parenting techniques are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e with ch i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t ages or whether the developmental l i t e r a t u r e on the use of ra t i o n a l e s and modeling with children might be relevant for behavioral parent t r a i n i n g . The purpose of th i s study was to examine whether maternal use of an e x t i n c t i o n (ignoring) procedure was d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e depending upon the age of the c h i l d and whether i t s effectiveness could be enhanced by the use of verbal r a t i o n a l e s and/or modeling procedures. Experimental sessions took place in a laboratory playroom where the mother issued a set of 20 standard commands to the c h i l d . Eighty mother-c h i l d pairs were r e c r u i t e d through advertisement and randomly assigned to one of four conditions: Ignoring (mothers implemented an ignoring procedure contingent upon c h i l d noncompliance), Rationale (in addition to the above, mothers provided the c h i l d r e n with a standardized verbal r a t i o n a l e p r i o r to the session), Modeling (in addition to the ignoring procedure and the r a t i o n a l e , mothers demonstrated the procedure to the c h i l d p r i o r to the session), and Control (no consequences for noncompliance). Children were from one of two age ranges: 3-4% years or 5%-7% years. Observational i i measures of c h i l d behavior included i n i t i a t e d compliance (within 5 seconds), completed compliance (within 1 minute), and inappropriate behavior (whining, crying, etc . ) - Interobserver agreement was at least 8770 for each behavior. A Parental S a t i s f a c t i o n Questionnaire was developed to assess the s o c i a l v a l i d i t y of the various procedures. Data were analyzed by analyses of variance. With respect to both measures of compliance, ch i l d r e n i n the Rationale and Modeling groups were more compliant than ch i l d r e n in the Control or Ignoring groups. Older children were more compliant -than younger ch i l d r e n , regardless of group. With respect to inappropriate behavior, ch i l d r e n i n the Ignoring group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more inappropriate than ch i l d r e n i n the other three groups. There were no systematic e f f e c t s of age. On the Parental S a t i s f a c t i o n Questionnaire, mothers i n the Rationale and Modeling Groups were more s a t i s f i e d with the parenting procedure than mothers in the Ignoring group. These r e s u l t s indicate that having parents provide a verbal r a t i o n a l e and/or model ignoring p r i o r to i t s use enhances c h i l d compliance to maternal commands, reduces the e x t i n c t i o n burst phenomenon associated with ignoring, and enhances parental s a t i s f a c t i o n with the ignoring procedure. The procedures were equally e f f e c t i v e with ch i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t ages. More generally, the r e s u l t s indicate the relevance of empirical research i n developmental v psychology for enhancing the e f f e c t s of c h i l d behavior therapy. Advisor: Robert J. McMahon, Ph.D. i i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCT ION 1 METHOD 18 R E S U L T S . . . . 32 D I S C U S S I O N . 6 1 REFERENCES ' 74 A P P E N D I C E S 87 A P P E N D I X A 88 A P P E N D I X B 90 A P P E N D I X C 99 A P P E N D I X D 1 0 2 A P P E N D I X E 106 A P P E N D I X F 109 i v LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. I n t e r o b s e r v e r R e l i a b i l i t y I n d i c e s 33 2. The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e I n i t i a t e d C o m p liance Data . 35 3. Means o f the I n i t i a t e d C o m pliance Data 36 4. The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e Completed Compliance Data 38 5. Means o f the Completed Compliance Data 39 6. The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the Completed C o m p l i a n c e D u r a t i o n Data , 41 7. Means o f t h e Completed C o m p l i a n c e D u r a t i o n Data . . 42 8. The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e I n a p p r o p r i a t e B e h a v i o r Data 43 9. Means o f the I n a p p r o p r i a t e B e h a v i o r Data 44 10. The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the Ignore F r e q u e n c y Data 46 11. Means o f the Ignore F r e q u e n c y Data 47 12. The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e Average I g n o r e D u r a t i o n Data -•• 48 13. Means o f the Average Ignore D u r a t i o n Data . . . . 49 14. The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the P a r e n t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data 51 15. Means o f the P a r e n t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data 52 16. The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the C h i l d y . y ' Comprehension Data , , .. . 53 17. Means o f the C h i l d Comprehension Data 54 18/ The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the C h i l d S a t i s f a c t i o n Data _ 56 v TABLE PAGE 19. Means of the C h i l d S a t i s f a c t i o n Data 57/ 20. The Analysis of Variance of the C h i l d Attitude Toward Ignoring Data . 58 21. Means of the C h i l d Attitude Toward Ignoring Data 59 v i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE ' PAGE 1. T r i a d i c Model o f B e h a v i o r a l I n t e r v e n t i o n 1 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project i s dedicated to the memory of my father, whose quiet pursuit of excellence became a goal for each of his c h i l d r e n . I would also l i k e to thank the most important ladies i n my l i f e , my mother, L i l l i a n , and my wife, Mary. The hard work and generosity of many people made th i s project possible. I am si n c e r e l y g r a t e f u l to my advisor, Robert McMahon; my committee, Jim Johnson and Merry Bullock; and my research team, Eugene F l e s s a t i , Georgia Tiedemann, Joanne Berube, Wendy Groiss, Cathy Koverola, and Mary Oud. v i i i INTRODUCTION During the l a s t 15 years, there has been a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of w e l l -defined and e f f e c t i v e behavioral interventions for c h i l d behavior problems .(for reviews, see Bijou, 1976; O'Leary & Wilson, 1975; Ross, 1981). Concern about the s i t u a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y of treatment e f f e c t s has led to an emphasis on intervention i n the natural environment and the use of the primary s o c i a l agents in those environments as contingency managers. For home-based problems, there has been an increasing trend to t r a i n parents as therapists for the i r own ch i l d r e n . Reviewers of behavioral parent t r a i n i n g (Berkowitz & Graziano, 1972; Graziano, 1977; Johnson & Katz, 1973; O'Dell, 1974) have c l e a r l y demonstrated the o v e r a l l e f f i c a c y of th i s approach. This t r i a d i c model of behavioral intervention in the natural environment was f i r s t proposed by Tharp and Wetzel (1969). As shown in Figure 1, the model depicts three role s and two exchanges. The consultant r o l e r e f e r s to the i n d i v i d u a l who possesses s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge, the mediator r o l e r e f e r s to the i n d i v i d u a l who has d i r e c t contact with the target and has control of s i g n i f i c a n t r e i n f o r c e r s , and the target r o l e r e f e r s to t h e i l n d i v i d u a l with the behavior problem. With respect to parent t r a i n i n g , the therapist serves as the consultant, Consultant Target Mediator • Figure 1. T r i a d i c model of behavioral intervention. 1 the parent i s the mediator, and the c h i l d i s the target. The intervention i s administered to the target by the mediator with no d i r e c t intervention from the consultant. Instead, the consultant t r a i n s the mediator in the necessary intervention s k i l l s . It i s important to note that successful exchanges between the consultant and mediator and between the mediator and target are both e s s e n t i a l for e f f e c t i v e intervention. These exchanges e n t a i l two components: the s p e c i f i c intervention techniques which are taught and the methods by which the intervention techniques are taught. In the behavioral parent t r a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , a great deal of research has examined the effectiveness of various intervention techniques (for reviews, see Berkowitz & Graziano, 1972; O'Dell, 1974). As a r e s u l t , a large and r e l a t i v e l y stable technology has been developed for producing behavior change with c h i l d r e n (e.g., Mash, Handy & Hamerlynck, 1976). However, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods by which these parenting s k i l l s are taught to thefparent have been investigated only recently (see O'Dell, Note 1, for a review). The i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods employed have been verbal (e.g., written i n s t r u c t i o n s , d i d a c t i c presentation), performance (e.g., modeling, behavioral rehearsal, r o l e p l a y i n g ) , or combinations of verbal and performance methods. The few studies which have investigated the effectiveness of these various i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques have con s i s t e n t l y found improvement with a l l methods; however, the r e l a t i v e e f f i c a c y of these methods has been less c l e a r (e.g., Nay!* 1975; O'Dell, Mahoney, Horton & Turner, 1979). 3 S u r p r i s i n g l y , researchers working in the behavioral parent t r a i n i n g research have f a i l e d to examine various i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods for the exchange between parent and c h i l d . T y p i c a l l y , the parent has applied the newly acquired parenting technique without any p r i o r i n s t r u c t i o n or demonstration to the c h i l d (e.g., Herbert, Pinkston, Hayden, Sajwaj, Pinkston, Cordua & Jackson, 1973). The c h i l d is?:left?to determine the new contingencies by t r i a l and e r r o r . This "naive" procedure has often been e f f e c t i v e , although the e f f i c i e n c y of t h i s approach has been ser i o u s l y questioned (Kaufman, Baron & Kopp, 1966; Moore & Olson, 1969). Some behavioral c l i n i c i a n s have suggested that parents provide verbal i n s t r u c t i o n regarding the new contingencies to f a c i l i t a t e the quickest and least aversive learning experience for the c h i l d and parent (e.g., Becker, 1971). On the other hand, others have recommended against such an approach because the prestatement of contingencies may increase the c h i l d ' s d i scrimination of r e i n f o r c e d from non-reinforced t r i a l s thereby impeding maintenance and generalization (e.g., Resick, Forehand & Peed, 1974). However, most behavioral parent t r a i n e r s have not given s p e c i f i c guidelines to parents regarding the use of either verbal or performance methods to i n s t r u c t their c h i l d r e n in the new contingencies. Implications from developmental psychology The developmental psychology l i t e r a t u r e contains a p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h source of data for designing i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods for the parent-to-child exchange, as well as for c l i n i c a l c h i l d psychology in general. The benefits. 4 t o c l i n i c a l c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y o f c o n s i d e r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s have been a r g u e d c o m p e l l i n g l y by Furman ( 1 9 8 0 ) . He r e v i e w e d a number of f i n d i n g s i n the d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n o f v a r i o u s ages a r e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e s p o n s i v e t o many p r o c e d u r e s employed i n b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . F o r example, d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s has been n o t e d t o s o c i a l p r a i s e ( B e l l e r , A d l e r , Newcomer & Young, 1971; L e w i s , W a l l & A r o n f r e e d , 1963), m a t e r i a l r e wards ( W i t r y o l , 1971), s y m b o l i c rewards ( H a r t e r , 1975), male v e r s u s female p r a i s e ( S t e v e n s o n , 1965), h i g h -v e r s u s l o w - i n c e n t i v e c o n d i t i o n s ( S t e v e n s o n & H o v i n g , 1959; 1964), c r i t i c i s m ( A l l e n , D u b a n o s k i & S t e v e n s o n , 1966), and punishment (Parke & W a l t e r s , 1967). The i m p o r t a n c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s has a l s o been i n d i c a t e d i n the s e l e c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r s t a r g e t e d f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . D e v e l o p m e n t a l r e s e a r c h e r s have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n may be e n t i r e l y n ormal a t one age, and y e t , a t a n o t h e r age, have n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the 1ong t e r n v a d j u s t m e n t o f the c h i l d . Examples of b e h a v i o r s f o r w h i c h t h i s phenomenon has been d e m o n s t r a t e d i n c l u d e c h i l d h o o d f e a r s (Johnson & Melamed, 1979), s o c i a l s k i l l s (Combs & S l a b y , 1977), a g g r e s s i o n (Feshbach, 1970), dependency and t i m i d i t y (Anthony, 1970) and e n u r e s i s (Achenbach,1978; Anthony, 1970). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s have been e s s e n t i a l l y i g n o r e d by c l i n i c a l c h i l d p s y c h o l o g i s t s ' ' ' . For example, f f u r m a n 01980) r e v i e w e d the c o n t e n t s o f two i n f l u e n t i a l j o u r n a l s i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l l i t e r a t u r e , ^ R e c e n t l y s e v e r a l a u t h o r s have lamented t h i s i s o l a t i o n and ha&esargued f o r a rapprochement o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l and c l i n i c a l c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y (Achenbach, 1974; Furman, 1980; S a n t o s t e f a n o , 1980). 5 B e h a v i o r Therapy and t h e J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y s i s , and was u n a b l e t o l o c a t e a s i n g l e s t u d y w h i c h examined the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f b e h a v i o r a l programs w i t h c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t ages. L i k e w i s e , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o c e d u r e used t o s e l e c t a t a r g e t b e h a v i o r has been the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by a p a r e n t or t e a c h e r o f a c h i l d b e h a v i o r w h i c h , by t h e i r s t a n d a r d s , o c c u r s a t an u n d e s i r a b l e r a t e . Only r e c e n t l y have b e h a v i o r a l c l i n i c i a n s begun t o employ more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s such as the n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h (Walker & Hops, 1976), s o c i a l v a l i d i t y ( Wolf, 1978) or the f u t u r e a d j u s t m e n t a p p r o a c h ( K e l l y , Furman & P h i l l i p s , 1979). I n a d d i t i o n t o i n d i c a t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t a r g e t s and m o n i t o r i n g p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t r e a t m e n t f o r c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s , d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have a l s o examined some p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods w i t h c h i l d r e n . R e g a r d i n g b e h a v i o r a l p a r e n t t r a i n i n g , t h e s e methods m i g h t be u s e d by t h e p a r e n t t o f a c i l i t a t e the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , and c o m p l i a n c e t o , the new c o n t i n g e n c i e s t o be i n s t i t u t e d . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , most p a r e n t t r a i n i n g programs have not employed any s y s t e m a t i c method o f i n s t r u c t i o n , so t h a t the c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g i s b a s i c a l l y t r i a l and e r r o r . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g the d e m o n s t r a t e d r o l e o f c o g n i t i v e m e d i a t i o n i n b e h a v i o r a l change ( f o r a r e v i e w , see Bandura, 1969; Mahoney, 1974) and the s t r o n g e x p e r i m e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r the r o l e o f awareness o f c o n t i n g e n c i e s i n b e h a v i o r a l change (Adams, 1957; A y l l o n & A z r i n , 1964; Dulany, 1968; Kaufman, Baron & Kopp, 1966; S p i e l b e r g e r & DeNike, 1966). F o r t u n a t e l y , the 6 d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s s u b s t a n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n on b o t h v e r b a l methods ( e . g . , i n s t r u c t i o n s , r u l e s , r a t i o n a l e s , r e a s o n i n g ) and p e r f o r m a n c e methods ( e . g . , m o d e l i n g , b e h a v i o r a l r e h e a r s a l , r o l e p l a y i n g ) w h i c h may be r e l e v a n t t o b e h a v i o r a l p a r e n t t r a i n i n g . V e r b a l methods: C o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h In the d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e , two d i s t i n c t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a pproaches have been employed t o examine the p a r e n t - c h i l d d i s c i p l i n e exchange: c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h . The f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h e r s who have employed t h e s e two m e t h o d o l o g i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y because t h e y have a p p r o a c h e d t h e exchange from v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . R e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n a l methods have approached the p a r e n t - c h i l d exchange a t a m a c r o - l e v e l l o o k i n g f o r g e n e r a l i z e d and r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p a r e n t i n g s t y l e s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d w i t h e q u a l l y g e n e r a l and s t a b l e s t y l e s o f c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s s i m i l a r t o the t r a i t c o n c e p t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h i t s emphasis on r e l a t i v e l y e n d u r i n g and g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s o f f e r v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g d a t a on t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d exchange, t h e r e a r e many l i m i t a t i o n s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s . As w i t h a l l c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h the d i r e c t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y cannot be d e t e r m i n e d . Due t o t h e g l o b a l n a t u r e o f the p a r e n t i n g s t y l e s , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e i f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l method ( e . g . , r e a s o n i n g ) was b e i n g employed by the " r e a s o n i n g p a r e n t " as an e n t i t y or i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h punishment. S i m i l a r l y , d i m e n s i o n s s u c h as the t i m i n g , i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f the r e a s o n i n g a r e n o t s p e c i f i e d . 7 R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , t h i s r e s e a r c h o f f e r s i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s on v e r b a l methods employed as i n s t r u c t i o n a l a d j u n c t s t o o t h e r forms o f d i s c i p l i n e and as d i s c i p l i n a r y t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e m s e l v e s . In a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s c o r r e l a t i n g p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e t e c h n i q u e s w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s m o r a l development (and l a t e r a l t r u i s t i c b e h a v i o r ) , Hoffman (1960,1963,1970) c o n c l u d e d t h a t : (a) " i n d u c t i v e " d i s c i p l i n e ( i n s t r u c t i o n s , r a t i o n a l e s and r e a s o n i n g w h i c h p o i n t out the consequences o f the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r f o r o t h e r s ) was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a more mature, independent and h i g h - g u i l t m o r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , as w e l l as more a l t r u i s t i c b e h a v i o r ; (b) "power - a s s e r t i v e " d i s c i p l i n e ( p h y s i c a l f o r c e , m a t e r i a l d e p r i v a t i o n , or the t h r e a t o f t h e s e ) was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l e s s m a t ure, e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d ( d e t e c t i o n ) and h i g h f e a r m o r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , w i t h l e s s a l t r u i s t i c b e h a v i o r ; ( c ) " l o v e - w i t h d r a w a l " t e c h n i q u e s ( i g n o r i n g , s t a t i n g d i s a p p r o v a l , i s o l a t i o n , or t h r e a t o f d e s e r t i o n ) were not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r p o l e o f m o r a l o r i e n t a t i o n or a l t r u i s t i c 2 b e h a v i o r . Becker (1964) p r e s e n t e d d a t a i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p o w e r - a s s e r t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a g g r e s s i o n and n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n , w h i l e i n d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a g g r e s s i o n and p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n . S e a r s , Maccoby and L e v i n (1957) r e p o r t e d s u r v e y d a t a i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the use o f moderate punishment accompanied by r e a s o n i n g was more e f f e c t i v e t h a n punishment w i t h o u t r e a s o n i n g , or i n f r e q u e n t use o f punishment w i t h or w i t h o u t r e a s o n i n g . Baumrind (1967, 1971) has based s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s on o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f p a r e n t - c h i l d 2 Note t h a t some d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t e c h n i q u e s (b) and ( c ) can be more e f f e c t i v e when u s e d i n an a f f e c t i o n a t e c o n t e x t (Hoffman, 1970; Parke & W a l t e r s , 1967; Sea r s e t a l . 1957) i n t e r a c t i o n . She i d e n t i f i e d three parenting styles which she labeled permissive, a u t h o r i t a r i a n , and a u t h o r i t a t i v e . The a u t h o r i t a t i v e parenting s t y l e was characterized by extensive use of verbal reasoning to d i s c i p l i n e c h i l d r e n . Lending support for the importance of reasoning with children,,the a u t h o r i t a t i v e parenting s t y l e was associated with the most well-adjusted c h i l d r e n . Verbal methods: Experimental research Experimental research with c h i l d r e n has provided more s p e c i f i c information on the r o l e of verbal adjuncts i n the d i s c i p l i n a r y exchange. The experimental researchers have approached the exchange from a micro-l e v e l , u sually manipulating a single discrete exchange and measuring the c h i l d ' s response. There has been l i t t l e e f f o r t directed at determining c r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l consistency or temporal s t a b i l i t y for either the c h i l d or the parent. In comparison with the", c o r r e l a t i o n a l research whefe."_the> unit of study has been the "person", the unit of study for the experimental research has been the "technique". With few exceptions, the experimental researchers have employed a v a r i a t i o n of the resistance to deviation paradigm which Thorndike used to study the e f f e c t s of punishment with dogs (Thorndike, 1898, 1911). This procedure was modified for use with ch i l d r e n (Aronfreed & Reber, 1965; Walters, Parke & Cane, 1965), and has remained e s s e n t i a l l y the same in numerous studies during the subsequent 15 years. This procedure t y p i c a l l y involved ch i l d r e n of preschool age who were brought i n d i v i d u a l l y to a laboratory playroom by the experimenter. Each c h i l d was seated at a table on which toys were presented in p a i r s . The 9 c h i l d was r e q u i r e d t o s e l e c t one t o y from each p a i r ( u s u a l l y 3-5 p a i r s were p r e s e n t e d ) . When c e r t a i n t o y s were s e l e c t e d the c h i l d r e c e i v e d punishment i n t h e form o f a l o u d b u z z e r o r a i r h o r n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 db.) o r , i n some s t u d i e s , a v e r b a l r e b u k e . When the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s was c o m p l e t e d , the e x p e r i m e n t e r r e a r r a n g e d t h e t o y s so t h a t t h e p u n i s h e d t o y ( s ) were p l a c e d on the t a b l e i n f r o n t o f t h e c h i l d . A t t h i s p o i n t t he e x p e r i m e n t e r p r o v i d e d the c h i l d w i t h a r e a s o n a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t he e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s d e p a r t u r e and l e f t t he c h i l d a l o n e w i t h the p u n i s h e d t o y ( s ) f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e ( u s u a l l y 15 m i n u t e s ) . Hidden o b s e r v e r s i n an a d j o i n i n g room t h e n r e c o r d e d t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t he p u n i s h e d t o y . p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h the t o y c o n s t i t u t e d a " d e v i a t i o n " ; s u c h d e v i a t i o n s were measured by l a t e n c y , f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n o f c o n t a c t . The r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n r e s e a r c h has p a s s e d t h r o u g h two r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t s t a g e s . The f i r s t s t a g e i n v o l v e d the e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e pa r a m e t e r s o f punishment t o d e t e r m i n e whether e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s w i t h lower a n i m a l s would g e n e r a l i z e t o c h i l d r e n . I n the absence o f any v e r b a l a d j u n c t , the u s u a l p a r a m e t e r s o f punishment were found t o g e n e r a l i z e w e l l t o c h i l d r e n . H i g h - i n t e n s i t y , punishment (100 db.) pr o d u c e d more r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n t h a n l o w - i n t e n s i t y ; punishment (70 d b . ) , and e a r l y punishment was more e f f e c t i v e t h a n . I a t e punishment ( A r o n f r e e d & Reber, 1965; Cheyne, 1971; Cheyne & W a l t e r s , 1969; P a r k e , 1969). These r e s u l t s were c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a n i m a l r e s e a r c h and were e x p l a i n e d i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . The p h y s i c a l i n t e n s i t y o f the p u n i s h e r 10 and the timing of the punishment were r e l a t e d to the magnitude of the negative a f f e c t i v e response (e.g., fear) which was, i n turn, r e l a t e d to the resistance to deviation. This r e l a t i o n s h i p between variables was proposed f i r s t by observation of overt fear responses (Cheyne & Walters, 1969) and l a t e r supported by heart-rate data (Cheyne, 1971). The second stage of research involved the i n c l u s i o n of a verbal adjunct in the resistance to deviation paradigm. Before these r e s u l t s are summarized, a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of terms i s required. Unlike other research areas, in the resistance to deviation studies the investigators have been quite s p e c i f i c as to exactly what kind of verbal adjunct was manipulated in the various studies. Cheyne (1972) has c l a s s i f i e d d i s c i p l i n e communication into three l e v e l s . The f i r s t l e v e l i s punishment alone with no verbal adjunct. Cheyne pointed out that although no words are spoken, the punishment i t s e l f may convey a great deal of information to the c h i l d ( c a l l e d cue properties by Walters and Parke, 1968). The studies in the f i r s t stage of the resistance to deviation research provide many examples of this approach (see above). The second l e v e l of d i s c i p l i n e communication i s the e x p l i c i t statement of a r u l e , contingency or s p e c i f i c forbidden response. At t h i s l e v e l the communication i s purely informational. Examples from the resistance to deviation l i t e r a t u r e are: "Do not touch the d o l l " or "That toy i s not to be played with". The f i n a l l e v e l which Cheyne i d e n t i f i e d i s the communication of a general or more abstract rule i n the form of an e t h i c a l or moral precept (e.g., "That belongs to someone else (property rule)V; "It may break, then other kids couldn't play with 11 i t ( a l t r u i s m ) " ) . I n the r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e t h i s l e v e l o f c ommunication has been r e f e r r e d t o as a " r a t i o n a l e " . P r o v i d i n g a r a t i o n a l e i s a n a l o g o u s t o the t e c h n i q u e s o f r e a s o n i n g or i n d u c t i o n as d e f i n e d by c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s . R e s e a r c h e r s i n the r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s , o f t h e s e t h r e e l e v e l s o f d i s c i p l i n e c o m m u nication as we'll as the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f r a t i o n a l e s . A b r i e f r e v i e w o f the e f f e c t s o f i n c l u d i n g a r a t i o n a l e i n the s t a n d a r d r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n p aradigm i n d i c a t e s the d i v e r s e and d r a m a t i c n a t u r e o f t h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n . The i n c l u s i o n o f a r a t i o n a l e w i t h the punishment s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n ( e . g . , A r o n f r e e d , 1968; Cheyne & W a l t e r s , 1970; P a r k e , 1969). Those s t u d i e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d a r a t i o n a l e - a l o n e group d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the r a t i o n a l e - a l o n e was more e f f e c t i v e t h a n the p u n i s h m e n t - a l o n e but l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f r a t i o n a l e and punishment. These r e s u l t s have been found t o h o l d f o r c h i l d r e n o f v a r y i n g ages ( P a r k e , 1969, 1972) and f o r a d o l e s c e n t s ( L a V o i e , 1973a). I n c l u s i o n o f r a t i o n a l e s d e c r e a s e s or e l i m i n a t e s the t i m i n g e f f e c t o f punishment ( A r o n f r e e d , 1968, 1966; Cheyne & W a l t e r s , 1970; P a r k e , 1969). W i t h o u t r a t i o n a l e s , s u b s t a n t i a l decrements o c c u r w i t h i n seconds o f d e l a y (Solomon, T u r n e r & L e s s a c , 1967); however, punishment w i t h a r a t i o n a l e has been shown t o be e f f e c t i v e w i t h d e l a y s o f up t o 4 hours (Andres & W a l t e r s , 1970; V e r n a , 1977). The f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s o f h i g h - i n t e n s i t y punishment a r e a t t e n u a t e d a n d e o f t e n r r r e v e r s e d w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a r a t i o n a l e . Low-I n t e n s i t y punishment w i t h r a t i o n a l e i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n h i g h - i n t e n s i t y 12 punishment w i t h or w i t h o u t a r a t i o n a l e (Cheyne & W a l t e r s , 1969; P a r k e , 1969; Parke & W a l t e r s , 1967). G r e a t e r maintenance o f r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n w i t h a r a t i o n a l e has been d e m o n s t r a t e d w i t h i n p r o l o n g e d s e s s i o n s (Cheyne, 1971; Cheyne & W a l t e r s , 1969; P a r k e , 1969) and d u r i n g a 2-week d e l a y ( L e i z e r &£Rbgers, 1974). G r e a t e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c t r a n s g r e s s i o n , as e v i d e n c e d by the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o v e r b a l i z e the p r o h i b i t e d b e h a v i o r and consequence, has been d e m o n s t r a t e d by Cheyne (1971). V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e k i n d s o f r a t i o n a l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s have a l s o been examined. E x p l i c i t r a t i o n a l e s have been more e f f e c t i v e t h a n l e s s e x p l i c i t r a t i o n a l e s . F o r example, Moore and Ols o n (1969) found g r e a t e r c o m p l i a n c e t o a p r o h i b i t i o n w h i c h s p e c i f i e d t h e p r o h i b i t e d t o y s i n d e t a i l t h a n a p r o h i b i t i o n w h i c h was more g e n e r a l l y s t a t e d . Cheyne (1972) found t h a t h i g h e r l e v e l , more a b s t r a c t e t h i c a l r a t i o n a l e s ( e . g . , "... t h a t b e l o n g s t o someone e l s e " ) were more e f f e c t i v e t h a n r a t i o n a l e s w h i c h were n o t f o c u s e d on e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( e . g . , "... because i t may b r e a k " ) . T h i s e f f e c t a l s o i n t e r a c t e d w i t h age, s i n c e h i g h e r - l e v e l r a t i o n a l e s improved r e s i s t a n c e more f o r o l d e r t h a n f o r younger c h i l d r e n ( L a V o i e , 1974; P a r k e , 1972a). L a V o i e (1974) a l s o found t h a t g i r l s were more r e s p o n s i v e t o h i g h e r - l e v e l r a t i o n a l e s t h a n were boys and t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f m o r a l judgement d e v i a t e d l e s s and re s p o n d e d t o h i g h e r - l e v e l r a t i o n a l e s more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n d i d c h i l d r e n w i t h lower l e v e l s o f m o r a l judgement. U n l i k e punishment, f o r w h i c h t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the punishment i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l e v e l o f a v e r s i v e e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e , r a t i o n a l e s a r e e f f e c t i v e r e g a r d l e s s o f 13 the l e v e l o f e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e (Cheyne, 1972). T h e r e f o r e , b e h a v i o r change can be e f f e c t e d w i t h o u t e l i c i t i n g a v e r s i v e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s i n t h e c h i l d . In a d d i t i o n , c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d a r a t i o n a l e w i t h a punishment showed l e s s a v e r s i v e e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s i v i t y o v e r a l l t h a n c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d j u s t the punishment (Cheyne & W a l t e r s , 1970). Cheyne, Goyeche and W a l t e r s (1969) a l s o p r e s e n t e d d a t a i n d i c a t i n g t h a t more i n t e n s e p unishments may l e a d t o g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s i v i t y w h i c h may i n t e r f e r e w i t h the c o g n i t i v e r e t e n t i o n and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the r a t i o n a l e . I n summary, the r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e has p r o v i d e d an i n d i c a t i o n o f the power and c o m p l e x i t y o f i n c l u d i n g a v e r b a l method i n the d i s c i p l i n a r y exchange e i t h e r as an a d j u n c t o r as an e n t i t y . The r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n r e s e a r c h i s t t i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t i t i s t h e o n l y s y s t e m a t i c , e x p e r i m e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e f f e c t s o f i n c l u d i n g a r a t i o n a l e i n the d i s c i p l i n a r y exchange. However, t h i s r e s e a r c h , w h i c h has r e l i e d on a s i n g l e , v e r y s p e c i f i c p a r a d i g m , has s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s i n terms o f i t s e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . The e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n was h i g h l y a r t i f i c i a l , d i f f e r i n g from the n a t u r a l d i s c i p l i n a r y exchange a l o n g a number o f v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n s . F i r s t , the k i n d o f punishment u s e d ( a i r h o r n or l o u d b u s z e r ) i s c e r t a i n l y a most u n u s u a l form o f punishment f o r a c h i l d t o r e c e i v e . Second, t h e p u n i s h i n g agent has been th e e x p e r i m e n t e r , who i s a s t r a n g e r t o the c h i l d . The s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n was a s t u d y by L a V o i e (1973) i n w h i c h mothers a c t e d as t h e ^ p u n i s h i n g a g e n t . T h i r d , t h i s p aradigm has f o c u s e d s o l e l y on t h e c h i l d ' s r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n w i t h p r o h i b i t e d t o y s . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n r e s e a r c h has p r o v i d e d the 14 •-'only e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f i n c l u d i n g r a t i o n a l e s i n the d i s c i p l i n a r y exchange, much more r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o e x t e n d t h e s e f i n d i n g s beyond the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l paradigm. One o f the purposes o f the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o t e s t the g e n e r a l i t y o f some o f t he r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n f i n d i n g s i n a d i f f e r e n t paradigm. Performance methods A p o s s i b l e s h o r t c o m i n g o f e m p l o y i n g v e r b a l r a t i o n a l e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y v e r y young c h i l d r e n , i s the r e l i a n c e on the c h i l d ' s l i m i t e d language and c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . A good d e a l o f a p a r e n t ' s a t t e m p t s t o " r e a s o n " w i t h the c h i l d may w e l l go beyond the c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( f o r a r e v i e w , see F l a v e l l , 1977). Less v e r b a l l y - m e d i a t e d methods o f c o n v e y i n g an awareness o f the new c o n t i n g e n c i e s t o the c h i l d may h o l d some.-promise i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . Performance methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n such as m o d e l i n g , p a r t i c i p a n t m o d e l i n g , b e h a v i o r a l r e h e a r s a l and r o l e p l a y i n g have been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n s t u d i e s t h a t •.were""'"reported?.ini'fetie'?.be ha vior.a 1 l i t e r a t u r e ( e . g . , Bandura, 1969). A p p l i c a t i o n s o f these t e c h n i q u e s w i t h c h i l d r e n have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r u t i l i t y a c r o s s a wide range o f b e h a v i o r s . S i m i l a r t o the c l i n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h a d u l t s , the p r i m a r y focus w i t h c h i l d r e n has been on the a l l e v i a t i o n o f f e a r f u l r e s p o n s e s ( e . g . , Bandura, Grusec & Menlove, 1967; Johnson & Melamed, 1979) or the a c q u i s i t i o n o f v a r i o u s s o c i a l s k i l l s ( e . g . , B o r n s t e i n , B e l l a c k & Hersen, 1977; Combs & S l a b y , 1977; O'Connor, 1969, 1972). A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on t h e s e two a r e a s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f any complex b e h a v i o r t h a t does not r e q u i r e t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s use o f m o d e l i n g , r e h e a r s a l , 15 c o r r e c t i v e feedback, and ins t r u c t i o n s for optimal learning to take place (Rosenthal & Bandura, 1978). Within the behavioral parent t r a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , modeling and behavioral rehearsal have been employed extensively as means of i n s t r u c t i n g parents in the use of various behavioral procedures (*cf .0' D e l l , Note 1); As noted e a r l i e r , there have been no studies conducted to examine modeling or behavioral rehearsal as a means for parents to i n s t r u c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n about the contingencies of the new parenting techniques. Hypotheses The purpose of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to examine the r e l a t i v e e f f i c a c y of three d i f f e r e n t methods for parents to implement new contingencies with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The paradigm was an analogue of parent t r a i n i n g procedures in which the exchange between the consultant and parent was standarized and held constant, while the exchange between parent and c h i l d was systematically manipulated. The analogue procedure resembled actual parent t r a i n i n g procedures on the following dimensions: (a) a d i s c i p l i n a r y procedure which has been widely used - ignoring (Berkowitz & Graziano, 1972); (b) the s o c i a l agent who most commonly administers d i s c i p l i n e techniques - the mother; and (c) a target behavior (noncompliance) which has been i d e n t i f i e d as the most frequent r e f e r r a l problem for ch i l d r e n and which also occurs with high frequency in normal chi l d r e n (Forehand, 1977). Mother-child p a i r s were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. Mothers in the three experimental groups received the same b r i e f t r a i n i n g in the ignoring procedure. In addition, 16 the mothers were t a u g h t one o f t h r e e i n i t i a t i o n methods. These methods were -(a) i g n o r e a l o n e c o n d i t i o n - mothers s i m p l y a p p l i e d the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e ; (b) r a t i o n a l e c o n d i t i o n - mothers i n t r o d u c e d the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e by p r o v i d i n g a v e r b a l r a t i o n a l e ; ( c t)],modeling c o n d i t i o n - i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a r a t i o n a l e , mothers modeled t h e p r o c e d u r e . The c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n f o l l o w e d t h e same e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h o u t e m p l o y i n g the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e or i n i t i a t i o n methods. T r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s r e c o r d e d c h i l d compliance^;" i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r a n d e m a t e r n a l i g n o r i n g . S o c i a l v a l i d i t y measures ( W o l f e , 1978) were o b t a i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether the i n c l u s i o n o f r a t i o n a l e s and r a t i o n a l e s p l u s m o d e l i n g a f f e c t e d the mother's s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r a p e u t i c outcome. I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t p a r e n t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a p r o c e d u r e may f a c i l i t a t e the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the p a r e n t i n g p r o c e d u r e w i l l be u s e d a t home and m a i n t a i n e d o v e r t i m e ( K a z d i n , 1977). C h i l d r e n from two d i f f e r e n t age groups were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o a s s e s s p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes i n r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s . The s p e c i f i c age r a n g e s o f 3 - 4% y e a r s and 5% - 7% y e a r s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t , s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e have d e s c r i b e d a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d between t h e ages o f 5 - 7 y e a r s ( e . g . , White,11965, 1970). A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a d i v e r s i t y o f t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s as t o t h e mechanisms u n d e r l y i n g t h e s e changes ( e . g . , F l a v e l l , 1963; R o h l b e r g , 1963, 1965; L u r i a , 1961; P i a g e t , 1932), i t i s w e l l a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e s e y e a r s 17 i n v o l v e p e r v a s i v e changes i n t h e c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l , c o g n i t i v e , s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l development ( G a r d n e r , 1978). Second, P a r k e (197.2,) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o a b s t r a c t v e r b a l r a t i o n a l e s w h i c h o c c u r s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4% y e a r s o f age. T h i r d , t h e o v e r a l l age range o f 3 - 1\ y e a r s was s e l e c t e d because c h i l d r e n i n t h i s age range appear a t c l i n i c s p r e s e n t i n g s i m i l a r problems and a r e l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t r e a t m e n t (Ross, 1981). In a d d i t i o n t o t h e two major v a r i a b l e s o f age and e x p e r i m e n t a l group, a t h i r d v a r i a b l e o f t r i a l - b l o c k was examined. A l t h o u g h t h i s v a r i a b l e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f se c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e from a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , i t was i n c l u d e d f o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s . I n r e s e a r c h e m p l o y i n g a s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r a d i g m , Forehand and S c a r b o r o (1975) found a c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d f o r g r e a t e r c o m p l i a n c e t o commands i s s u e d e a r l y i n the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n t h a n f o r commands i s s u e d l a t e r i n the s e s s i o n . The a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e d a t r i a l - b l o c k f a c t o r t o p e r m i t the assessment o f t h i s phenomenon. The major h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h i s i l i n v e s t i g a t i o n were: (a) the i n c l u s i o n o f a r a t i o n a l e or r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t w o u l d i n c r e a s e c h i l d c o m p l i a n c e t o m a t e r n a l commands beyond an i g n o r e a l o n e c o n d i t i o n or a c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n ; (b) younger c h i l d r e n w o u l d be more r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e m o d e l i n g p r o c e d u r e t h a n t o the r a t i o n a l e p r o c e d u r e , w h i l e o l d e r c h i l d r e n w o u l d be e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i v e t t o b o t h ; and ( c ) t h a t b o t h r a t i o n a l e and r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t s w o u l d i n c r e a s e m o t h e r s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the t r e a t m e n t p r o c e d u r e s compared t o the i g n o r e - a l o n e c o n d i t i o n . METHOD S u b j e c t s E i g h t y m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r o j e c t . F o r t y c h i l d r e n were between the ages o f 36 months t o 54 months (M = 44 months) and f o r t y c h i l d r e n were between t h e ages o f 66 months t o 90 months (M = 74 months). There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n age among c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e younger age r a n g e , F (3,36) = 1.48, p_ .10, or f o r the o l d e r age r a n g e , F (3,36) = .46, p_ ^> .10. Sex o f the c h i l d was b a l a n c e d a c r o s s t h e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n each age r ange. F o r the younger age range the r a t i o o f males t o females was 5 t o 5 i n a l l c o n d i t i o n s e x c e p t the m o d e l i n g c o n d i t i o n w h i c h was 4 t o 6. For the o l d e r age range the r a t i o o f males t o females was 6 t o 4 f o r a l l c o n d i t i o n s . The s u b j e c t s were r e c r u i t e d t h r o u g h newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and n o t i c e s d i s t r i b u t e d t o l o c a l d a y c a r e f a c i l i t i e s and p r e s c h o o l s (see Appendix A ) . In o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e , the c h i l d r e n had t o be i n one o f the two age r a n g e s , had p r i o r group e x p e r i e n c e ( e . g . , d a y c a r e , p r e s c h o o l , e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ) , and had no h i s t o r y o f r e f e r r a l t o community a g e n c i e s f o r t r e a t m e n t o f b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . E i g h t m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r s who v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y were d i s q u a l i f i e d by t h e s e c r i t e r i a . Each m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r was p a i d $5.00 as c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i r t i m e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expenses. S e t t i n g and a p p a r a t u s A l l s e s s i o n s t o o k p l a c e i n a 10x15 f t . l a b o r a t o r y p l a y r o o m a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The playroom was e q u i p p e d w i t h a one-way 18 19 o b s e r v a t i o n window and w i r e d f o r sound as w e l l as a " b u g - i n - t h e - e a r " a p p a r a t u s ( F a r r a l l I n s t r u m e n t s ) w h i c h a l l o w e d the e x p e r i m e n t e r t o communicate u n o b t r u s i v e l y w i t h the mother from the a d j o i n i n g o b s e r v a t i o n room. F i v e s e t s o f a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e t o y s (wooden b l o c k s , c a r s and t r u c k s , c r a y o n s and c o l o u r i n g books, a p l a s t i c b u i l d i n g s e t (Legos) and d o l l house f u r n i t u r e and dolls).'-Jand t h r e e . . c o n t a i n e r s ( b o x , ..shelf,"and house) ' were p l a c e d i n the p l a y r o o m . A c a s s e t t e a u d i o tape r e c o r d e r was u s e d t o p r o v i d e the e x p e r i m e n t e r and the o b s e r v e r w i t h an a u d i t o r y cue s i g n a l l i n g c o n s e c u t i v e 5-second i n t e r v a l s f o r use i n c o d i n g p a r e n t and c h i l d b e h a v i o r s . The o b s e r v e r s wore s t e r e o headphones w i t h one c h a n n e l t r a n s m i t t i n g the p a r e n t and c h i l d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s from the p l a y r o o m and the o t h e r c h a n n e l t r a n s m i t t i n g a 5-second c o d i n g cue. The headphones a l s o p r e v e n t e d the o b s e r v e r s from h e a r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s comments t o the mother v i a the b u g - i n - t h e - e a r . E x p e r i m e n t e r The a u t h o r s e r v e d as t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r f o r a l l t r a i n i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s . The a u t h o r i s a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s w i t h f o u r y e a r s o f c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n d u c t i n g b e h a v i o r a l p a r e n t t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s and has p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e x p e r i e n c e e m p l o y i n g t h e same e x p e r i m e n t a l a p p a r a t u s w i t h s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s . O b s e r v e r s and t r a i n i n g One o f f i v e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s was p r e s e n t f o r a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s . The ^ p r i m a r y o b s e r v e r was j o i n e d by a c a l i b r a t i n g o b s e r v e r f o r 267 05of":the 20 o b s e r v a t i o n s . The c a l i b r a t i n g o b s e r v e r c o m p l e t e d r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k s on the d a t a g a t h e r e d by the. p r i m a r y o b s e r v e r s . The c a l i b r a t i n g o b s e r v e r s were g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y program a t UBC. The p r i m a r y o b s e r v e r s were k e p t n a i v e as t o the hypotheses of t he p r o j e c t and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d by the c a l i b r a t i n g o b s e r v e r were u s e d o n l y t o c a l c u l a t e measures o f i n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement. P r i o r t o f o r m a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a l l o b s e r v e r s r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t 20 hours o f t r a i n i n g i n the use o f the c o d i n g system. T r a i n i n g c o n s i s t e d o f d i d a c t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the c o d i n g system and p r a c t i c e i n c o d i n g l i v e and v i d e o t a p e d m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . The o b s e r v e r s were r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n a t l e a s t 807» agreement w i t h a p r e s c o r e d 10-minute v i d e o t a p e a n a l o g u e o f a m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n b e f o r e t h e y were a l l o w e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a . T h e r e a f t e r , w e e k l y 1-hour t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h o u t the c o u r s e o f t h e p r o j e c t t o m a i n t a i n h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y and r e d u c e o b s e r v e r d r i f t (Kent & F o s t e r , 1977). C o d i n g system The c o d i n g system (see Appendix B) was based on a system d e v e l o p e d by Forehand, Peed, R o b e r t s , McMahon, G r i e s t and Humphreys (Note 2 ) . T h i s system, w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the home s e t t i n g , was s i m p l i f i e d f o r the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s o f p a r e n t b e h a v i o r were o m i t t e d i f t h e y were i r r e l e v a n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y or c o n t r o l l e d f o r by the e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e . The 30-second 21 i n t e r v a l o f the Forehand e t a l . system was r e d u c e d t o a 5-second i n t e r v a l t o a l l o w more a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e d u r a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r s . The c o d i n g system p r o v i d e d f o r r e c o r d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g b e h a v i o r s : C h i l d : (1) I n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e . P r e s e n c e o f an o b s e r v a b l e cue r e f l e c t i n g the i n i t i a t i o n o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h i n 5 seconds o f t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d m a t e r n a l command. I n i t i a t i o n o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h i n 5 seconds has been shown t o be a v a l i d measure o f o v e r a l l c o m p l i a n t r e s p o n d i n g ( F o r e h a n d , 1977). (2) I n i t i a t e d n o n c o m p l i a n c e . Absence o f an o b s e r v a b l e cue r e f l e c t i n g the i n i t i a t i o n o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h i n 5 seconds o f the t e r m i n a t i o n o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d m a t e r n a l command. (3) Completed c o m p l i a n c e . C o m p l e t i o n o f the command-designated a c t i v i t y w i t h i n 60 sec o n d s . Each command r e q u e s t e d a b r i e f , d i s c r e t e c h i l d b e h a v i o r w h i c h c o u l d e a s i l y be c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n t h i s i n t e r v a l . (4) I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . Whine, c r y , y e l l , •tahtrum, a g g r e s s i o n toward o b j e c t s or p e o p l e ( i n c l u d i n g t h r e a t s ) , or i n a p p r o p r i a t e t a l k ( d i s r e s p e c t f u l s t a t e m e n t s , p r o f a n i t y , t h r e a t e n i n g commands t o the p a r e n t , s t a t e d r e f u s a l t o comply, and r e p e t i t i v e r e q u e s t s ) . Noncompliance was not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . (5) A p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . Absence of. b e h a v i o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r c a t e g o r y . 22 P a r e n t : (1) I g n o r e . Absence o f p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d v e r b a l or p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p a r e n t ' s f a c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n a t l e a s t 90° away from the c h i l d . The b e h a v i o r must be s u s t a i n e d f o r a t l e a s t 2 seconds and must f o l l o w an i n c i d e n t o f c h i l d n o n c o m p l i a n c e . I g n o r i n g i n c i d e n t s w h i c h c o u l d o c c u r a t t i m e s o t h e r t h a n f o l l o w i n g c h i l d n o n c o m p l i a n c e were a v o i d e d by ground r u l e s g i v e n t o the mother p r i o r t o the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n .. and prompts v i a t h e b u g - i n - t h e - e a r . Outcome measures Outcome measures were d e r i v e d from o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a and s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a . O b s e r v a t i o n d a t a . The f o l l o w i n g measures were d e r i v e d from t h e c h i l d b e h a v i o r s s c o r e d i n the c o d i n g system: (1) I n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e . The f r e q u e n c y o f i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n t r e s p o n s e s was summed f o r each t r i a l - b l o c k . T r i a l - b l o c k s 1 t h r o u g h 4 c o n s i s t e d o f commands 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and 16-20, r e s p e c t i v e l y . (2) Completed c o m p l i a n c e . The f r e q u e n c y o f c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n t r e s p o n s e s was summed f o r e a c h t r i a l - b l o c k . (3) Completed c o m p l i a n c e d u r a t i o n . The b r i e f 5-second i n t e r v a l a l l o w e d an e s t i m a t e o f t h e time e l a p s e d from when a command was i s s u e d t o the c o m p l e t i o n o f the r e q u e s t . The number o f e l a p s e d i n t e r v a l s was summed 23 f o r e ach s u b j e c t and then d i v i d e d by the number o f c o m p l e t e d commands t o y i e l d a mean d u r a t i o n e s t i m a t e f o r each s u b j e c t . (4) I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . The f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g w h i c h a t l e a s t one i n c i d e n t o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r o c c u r r e d was summed f o r each t r i a l - b l o c k . The f o l l o w i n g measures were d e r i v e d from the p a r e n t b e h a v i o r s c o r e d i n the c o d i n g system: (1) Ignore f r e q u e n c y . The f r e q u e n c y o f commands d u r i n g w h i c h the mother i g n o r e d her c h i l d f o r a t l e a s t one 5-second i n t e r v a l . T h i s f r e q u e n c y was summed f o r each t r i a l - b l o c k . (2) Average i g n o r e d u r a t i o n . The number o f 5-second i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g w h i c h the mother i g n o r e d her c h i l d was summed and then d i v i d e d by the i g n o r e f r e q u e n c y t o y i e l d a mean d u r a t i o n e s t i m a t e f o r f t e a c h s u b j e c t . S e l f - r e p o r t d a t a . (1) P a r e n t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A P a r e n t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PSQ) (Appendix C) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a s s e s s t h e mothers' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d , and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h , the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e and t h e method o f i n t r o d u c i n g the p r o c e d u r e t o the c h i l d (no i n t r o d u c t i o n , r a t i o n a l e , r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g ) . (2) C h i l d comprehension and s a t i s f a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A C h i l d Compre-h e n s i o n and S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (CCSQ) (Appendix D) was a d m i n i s t e r e d v e r b a l l y t o the c h i l d . T h i s measure a s s e s s e d t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s : 24 ( a ) t h e c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e new c o n t i n g e n c i e s ^((bs) t h e c h i l d ' s g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o c e d u r e , and (c) the c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d b e i n g i g n o r e d . P r o c e d u r e The f o r t y m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r s i n each age range were randomly a s s i g n e d t o one o f f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s : i g n o r e p r o c e d u r e a l o n e ( I G ) , i g n o r e p l u s r a t i o n a l e (RA), i g n o r e p l u s r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g (MO) or c o n t r o l (CO). Thus, t h e r e were e i g h t groups o f 10 m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r s . W i t h i n the f o u r groups i n each age r a n g e , c o n d i t i o n s were b a l a n c e d f o r the sex and age o f the c h i l d . E ach m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n one 60 t o 80-minute s e s s i o n d u r i n g w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e d a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n , a p a r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d , an o b s e r v a t i o n , and a c o n c l u d i n g p e r i o d . A l l m a t e r n a l b e h a v i o r s d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n were r e h e a r s e d p r i o r t o the s e s s i o n by the e x p e r i m e n t e r and mother i n the absence o f t h e c h i l d . D u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r d i r e c t e d the mother's b e h a v i o r w i t h prompts and feedback v i a the b u g - i n - t h e - e a r . A s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r a d i g m has been employed i n o t h e r l a b o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e ( c f . R o b e r t s , McMahon, Forehand & Humphreys, 1978; R o b e r t s , H a t z e n b e u h l e r & Bean, 1981). I n t r o d u c t i o n When the mother and c h i l d a r r i v e d , the e x p e r i m e n t e r met w i t h the mother w h i l e an a s s i s t a n t t o o k the c h i l d t o a s e p a r a t e p l a y r o o m . The purpose o f the s t u d y was e x p l a i n e d t o the mother u s i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d format (Appendix E ) . I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t the b e h a v i o r o f i n t e r e s t was the c h i l d ' s r e a c t i o n t o a s t a n d a r d i z e d sequence o f m a t e r n a l b e h a v i o r . The r o l e o f the mother i n the s t u d y was d e s c r i b e d as a c o l l a b o r a t o r , and the need f o r c l o s e adherence t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s d i r e c t i o n s was s t r e s s e d . An o p p o r t u n i t y f o r each mother t o a s k q u e s t i o n s was p r o v i d e d . I f the mother chose t o p a r t i c i p a t e , w h i c h a l l o f them d i d , t h e n the e x p e r i m e n t e r c o l l e c t e d demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , o b t a i n e d s i g n e d c o n s e n t and p a i d the $5.00 s t i p e n d . P a r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d The p a r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s : (1) Command p r o c e d u r e . The mother was i n s t r u c t e d t o i s s u e 20 s t a n d a r d i z e d commands w h i c h were r e l a y e d t o her by way o f the b u g - i n - t h e - e a r . The commands were randomly s e l e c t e d from a l i s t o f 30 p o s s i b l e commands. In s i t u a t i o n s where the command was i m p o s s i b l e ( e . g . , the mother a l r e a d y had the t o y she was t o r e q u e s t ) , t h e command r e q u i r e d the c h i l d t o t e r m i n a t e o ngoing p l a y ( e . g . , the c h i l d b e i n g r e q u e s t e d t o put the c r a y o n s ,away'while he or she was c o l o u r i n g ) , or t h e command was e x t r e m e l y a r t i f i c i a l ( e . g . , t h e mother r e q u e s t i n g a t o y i m m e d i a t e l y i n f r o n t o f her when the c h i l d was a c r o s s the room from t h e t o y ) , the command was o m i t t e d and the next 26 command g i v e n i n i t s p l a c e . A l l commands were d i s c r e t e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the form o f " (Name), p l e a s e put t h e ( t o y ) i n / o n the ( c o n t a i n e r ) " or "(Name); p l e a s e . g i v e me t h e ( t o y ) " . Each mother was i n s t r u c t e d t o r e p e a t t h e commands e x a c t l y as r e l a y e d t o her but i n h e r own tone o f v o i c e . A s i m i l a r s t a n d a r d i z e d commands p r o c e d u r e has been u s e d by R o b e r t s e t a l . (1981). M a t e r n a l command b e h a v i o r was c o n t r o l l e d because p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s had d e m o n s t r a t e d the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e o f command b e h a v i o r i n e l i c i t i n g c o m p l i a n c e (Green, Forehand & McMahon, 1979; R o b e r t s e t a l . , 1978). ..' Igno r e p r o c e d u r e . Each mother was i n s t r u c t e d t o o b s e r v e her c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r f o r 5 seconds a f t e r she had i s s u e d a command. I f t h e c h i l d had i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e t o the command, t h e n the mother was i n s t r u c t e d t o say "Thankyou" and i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e c h i l d i n her u s u a l manner. The mother was encouraged t o p l a y w i t h her c h i l d , i f she was c o m f o r t a b l e d o i n g so. In a d d i t i o n , t h e mother was enc o u r a g e d t o t a l k f r e e l y w i t h her c h i l d w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f g i v i n g f u r t h e r commands. Each mother was . i n s t r u c f e ' d / to emphasize her a t t e n t i o n by m a i n t a i n i n g e y e - c o n t a c t w i t h her c h i l d and/or t h e t o y t h e c h i l d was p l a y i n g w i t h ; m a i n t a i n i n g p r o x i m i t y , i n c l u d i n g s i t t i n g or k n e e l i n g on the f l o o r ; and a v o i d i n g e x p r e s s i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h her c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r e i t h e r v e r b a l l y ( e . g . , c r i t i c i s m ) or n o n v e r b a l l y ( e . g . , t h r e a t e n i n g g e s t u r e s ) . An a t t e m p t was made t o c o n t r o l 27 f o r t h e " a t t e n t i v e n e s s " o f t h e mother f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i g n o r i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between " i g n o r i n g " and "not i g n o r i n g " s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t t o a l l o w the c h i l d t o make t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n e a s i l y . Second, i n r e s e a r c h by McMahon and D a v i e s (Note 3 ) , t h e y found the the between-command b e h a v i o r o f the mother t o be h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . T h e r e f o r e t o e n s u r e t h a t each mother would be a t t e n t i v e , t h i s b e h a v i o r was i n s t r u c t e d , d e m o n s t r a t e d and r o l e p l a y e d w i t h the mother p r i o r t o the o b s e r v a t i o n . A f t e r 5 seconds i f the c h i l d d i d not i n i t i a t e c o m p l i a n c e , each mother i n the t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s was i n s t r u c t e d t o use the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e . Each mother i n the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n was i n s t r u c t e d t o resume her a t t e n t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h her c h i l d as i f the c h i l d had c o m p l i e d t o the command. A l l mothers i n t h e t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s r e c e i v e d t h e same i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e . The i g n o r e p r o c e d u r e summary i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix F. E a c h mother was t a u g h t t o t e r m i n a t e a l l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h her c h i l d c o n t i n g e n t on c h i l d n o n c o m p l i a n c e . T h i s i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e a t t e m p t e d t o e x t i n g u i s h c h i l d n o n c o m p l i a n t r e s p o n d i n g . E a c h mother was t a u g h t t o i g n o r e her c h i l d as d e f i n e d i n the c o d i n g system from the onset o f no n c o m p l i a n c e t o i t s t e r m i n a t i o n . The onset and t e r m i n a t i o n o f i g n o r i n g were cued v i a the b u g - i n - t h e -e a r . For t h e p u r p o s e s o o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , each e p i s o d e o f 28 i g n o r i n g was l i m i t e d t o a maximum o f 1 m i n u t e . - T e a c h i n g the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e was c o n d u c t e d u s i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m a t : d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s k i l l and a r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s u s e , demon-s t r a t i o n o f the s k i l l by the t h e r a p i s t , and r o l e p l a y i n g - f i r s t w i t h the t h e r a p i s t as the i g n o r i n g p a r e n t and the mother as the c h i l d and t h e n w i t h r o l e s r e v e r s e d . (3) I n i t i a t i o n method. Once the mother had d e m o n s t r a t e d competence i n a p p l y i n g the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e , she was i n s t r u c t e d i n one o f the f o l l o w i n g methods t o i n t r o d u c e the new c o n t i n g e n c i e s t o her c h i l d : ( a ) Ignore a l o n e c o n d i t i o n . Each mother was i n s t r u c t e d s i m p l y t o a p p l y t h e i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e t o h e r c h i l d w i t h o u t any i n s t r u c t i o n or d e m o n s t r a t i o n . To a v o i d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d u r a t i o n o f the c o n d i t i o n s , t h e mother engaged her c h i l d i n an innocuous c o n v e r s a t i o n about what the c h i l d had done i n the o t h e r p l a y r o o m f o r about 1 m i n u t e p r i o r t o i s s u i n g the f i r s t command. ( b ) R a t i o n a l e c o n d i t i o n . Each mother i n the r a t i o n a l e c o n d i t i o n was i n s t r u c t e d t o p r o v i d e her c h i l d w i t h a s i n g l e v e r b a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n . The mother was i n s t r u c t e d t o s a y : "(Name), I'm g o i n g t o a s k you t o do some t h i n g s f o r me w h i l e we p l a y . I t ' s v e r y 3 i m p o r t a n t t o me ( I I I ) t h a t you do what I a s k you t o do ( I I ) . 3 From Cheyne's (1972) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l e v e l s o f d i s c i p l i n e c o m m u n i c a t i o n : L e v e l I I - i n f o r m a t i o n a l ; e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s o f a r u l e , c o n t i n g e n c y or f o r b i d d e n r e s p o n s e . L e v e l I I I -e t h i c a l / m o r a l ; r e f e r e n c e t o an e t h i c a l or m o r a l p r e c e p t u s u a l l y r e g a r d i n g the consequences o f the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r on o t h e r s ( e . g . , the m o t h e r ) . 29 I f you do what I ask you t o do ( I I ) , t h e n I w i l l be v e r y happy ( I I I ) . I f you don't do what I as k you t o do ( I I ) , t h e n I w i l l be v e r y unhappy ( I I I ) and I ' l l i g n o r e you ( I I ) . That means I ' l l t u r n away and not l o o k a t you or t a l k t o you ( I I ) . When you do what I've a s k e d you t o do, t h e n I ' l l s t a r t p l a y i n g w i t h you a g a i n ( I I ) . O.K.?" Communication of the r a t i o n a l e was d e m o n s t r a t e d and r e h e a r s e d i n the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n as w e l l as prompted v i a the b u g - i n - t h e - e a r d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n . M o d e l i n g c o n d i t i o n . E a c h mother i n the m o d e l i n g c o n d i t i o n was i n s t r u c t e d t o p r o v i d e her c h i l d w i t h t h e same r a t i o n a l e as i n the RA c o n d i t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the mother d e m o n s t r a t e d the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e t o her c h i l d as f o l l o w s : i ) M o t h e r : "To make su r e you u n d e r s t a n d , I ' l l show you what I mean by i g n o r i n g . " i i ) " P r e t e n d you a r e p l a y i n g w i t h the ( t o y ) and I a s k you t o put i t i n the box. Now, p r e t e n d you don't put the ( t o y ) i n the box, so t h e n I ' l l do t h i s . . . " i i ) Mother t h e n d e m o n s t r a t e d the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e t o the c h i l d . A f t e r about 10 seconds o f i g n o r i n g , the mother s a i d t o the c h i l d : "The o n l y way t o get me t o s t o p i g n o r i n g you i s t o do what I t o l d you t o do. Now, p r e t e n d t o put the ( t o y ) i n the box." 30 i v ) When the c h i l d c o m p l e t e d p u t t i n g the ( t o y ) i n the box the mother Cterminated'ignoring and s t a t e d : . "That's i t , you r e a l l y know what i g n o r i n g i s . " Each mother i n t h e m o d e l i n g c o n d i t i o n was t r a i n e d and prompted i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e o f the r a t i o n a l e and m o d e l i n g sequence i n t h e same manner as the RA c o n d i t i o n . (d) C o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . Each mother i n t h e c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n u s e d the same i n t r o d u c t i o n as mothers i n the i g n o r e a l o n e c o n d i t i o n . The mother engaged her c h i l d i n an innocuous c o n v e r s a t i o n about what the c h i l d had done i n t h e o t h e r p l a y r o o m f o r 1 m i n u t e p r i o r to i s s u i n g the f i r s t command. U n l i k e mothers i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , the mother i n t h e c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n d i d n o t employ th e i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e i f her c h i l d n o n c o m p l i e d . R a t h e r , the mother resumed her a t t e n t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n as i f the c h i l d had c o m p l i e d . In o r d e r f o r t h e p a r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d to be of e q u a l d u r a t i o n i n t h e c o n t r o l group as compared to the e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , the e x p e r i m e n t e r i n t e r v i e w e d the mother about d e v e l o p m e n t a l m i l e s t o n e s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 m i n u t e s . O b s e r v a t i o n A f t e r the mother c o m p l e t e d the p a r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d , t h e b u g - i n -t h e - e a r was i n s t a l l e d and t e s t e d . The e x p e r i m e n t e r brought the c h i l d to the o b s e r v a t i o n p l a y r o o m and s e a t e d him or her on a c h a i r f a c i n g the mother. The e x p e r i m e n t e r t o l d t h e c h i l d t he f o l l o w i n g : "(Name), we have a l l t h e s e t o y s f o r you t o p l a y w i t h but b e f o r e you s t a r t p l a y i n g , your mother has something i m p o r t a n t t o t e l l you. I have some work t o do i n the o t h e r room but I ' l l be back l a t e r . " The e x p e r i m e n t e r t h e n went t o the o b s e r v a t i o n room and prompted the mother t o say the i n i t i a t i o n method. Once t h i s was c o m p l e t e d , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r i n s t r u c t e d the mother t o i s s u e t h e f i r s t o f 20 commands. When the mother had c o m p l e t e d g i v i n g the command, the e x p e r i m e n t e r s t a r t e d t he tape r e c o r d e r t o p r o v i d e the 5-second c o d i n g c u e s . A f t e r 1 m i n u t e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r rewound the tape and i n s t r u c t e d the mother t o resume p l a y i n g w i t h her c h i l d , i f she was i g n o r i n g . The next command was t h e n r e l a y e d t o the mother. Throughout the o b s e r v a t i o n , the e x p e r i m e n t e r prompted t h e mother v i a t h e b u g - i n - t h e - e a r i n her a p p l i c a t i o n o f t he i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e , a t t e n t i v e b e h a v i o r and commands. C o n c l u d i n g p e r i o d F o l l o w i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n , the e x p e r i m e n t e r r e t u r n e d t o the p l a y r o o m and gave the mother the P a r e n t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o c o m p l e t e . The e x p e r i m e n t e r t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d the C h i l d Comprehension and S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s i n g a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t . When t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o m p l e t e d the mother and c h i l d were g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s k q u e s t i o n s and t h e c h i l d was shown t h e b u g - i n - t h e - e a r d e v i c e and one-way m i r r o r . I n t e r e s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l r e c e i v e a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n upon i t s c o m p l e t i o n . RESULTS I n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y Two i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s coded t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n ? f o r 21 o f the 80 s u b j e c t s (26.257o). R e l i a b i l i t y checks were d i s t r i b u t e d e v e n l y a c r o s s the two age ranges (young = 10, o l d = 11) and a minimum o f f o u r checks were o b t a i n e d per e x p e r i m e n t a l group. T a b l e 1 d i s p l a y s t h e two i n d i c e s o f o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y . E ach post-command time b l o c k was d i v i d e d i n t o t w e l v e 5-second i n t e r v a l s . S i n c e the w i t h i n - i n t e r v a l d u r a t i o n o f 5-seconds i s r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , c o n f i d e n c e i s g a i n e d i n the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t an agreement a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s an o b s e r v a t i o n o f the same phenomena, as opposed t o c o d i n g two i n c i d e n c e s o f the same r e s p o n s e a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , i n t e r v a l - b y - i n t e r v a l c o m p a r i s o n s were made f o r each o f the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of b e h a v i o r o b s e r v e d : i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e , c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e , i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r and m a t e r n a l i g n o r i n g . S i n c e the a c t u a l number o f s c o r e d i n t e r v a l s was s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o the t o t a l number o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r v a l s ( r a n g e : 4.6% t o 15.4%), i t was d e c i d e d t o c a l c u l a t e p e r c e n t a g e agreement f o r o c c u r r e n c e o n l y . T h i s measure i s more c o n s e r v a t i v e t h a n the v a r i o u s e f f e c t i v e p e r c e n t a g e agreement f o r m u l a e w h i c h employ a w e i g h t e d sum o f agreements f o r o c c u r r e n c e and n o n - o c c u r r e n c e . The p e r c e n t a g e agreement r a t i o s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r e ach o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y o f each s u b j e c t by d i v i d i n g the number o f agreements f o r o c c u r r e n c e by the 1 number o f agreements and d i s a g r e e m e n t s 32 33 T a b l e 1 I n t e r o b s e r v e r R e l i a b i l i t y I n d i c e s C a t e g o r y Mean Range P e r c e n t a g e - Agreement f o r Occurrence I n i t i a t e d C ompliance 97.7 84, .2 - 100 Completed Compliance 87.3 72 .7 - 100 I n a p p r o p r i a t e 86.9 50 - 100 Ignore 98.0 91, .3 - 100 O v e r a l l 92.7 85 .4 - 100 P h i C o r r e l a t i o n f o r O c c u r r e n c e andoNonoccurrence O v e r a l l .959 .916 - 1.000 34 f o r o c c u r r e n c e . Mean p e r c e n t a g e agreement f o r the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s r a n g e d from 86.9 f o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r t o 98.0 f o r i g n o r e . These f i g u r e s a r e w e l l above the minimum r e q u i r e m e n t o f 80% agreement f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l systems o f t h i s t y p e (Kent & F o s t e r , 1977). In a d d i t i o n , f o r each s u b j e c t a p h i c o r r e l a t i o n ( G e l f a n d & Hartmann, 1975) was c a l c u l a t e d c o l l a p s i n g a c r o s s o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . O b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a I n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e . The i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e d a t a were a n a l y z e d by a three-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO v s . CO) and one w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r ( B l o c k s : 1 t h r o u g h 4 ) . T a b l e 2 p r e s e n t s the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s the means o f the i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e d a t a . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Group was o b t a i n e d , F (3,72) = 4.78, JJ .01. No s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between Group and any o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were o b t a i n e d . A p l a n n e d o r t h o g o n a l c o m p a r i s o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the MO and RA groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o m p l i a n t t h a n c h i l d r e n i n the IG or CO g r o u p s , F (1,72) = 13.24, p_ <C .01. A second p l a n n e d o r t h o g o n a l c o m p a r i s o n f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t younger c h i l d r e n would b e n e f i t more from the m o d e l i n g p r o c e d u r e t h a n the r a t i o n a l e p r o c e d u r e , but o l d e r c h i l d r e n w o u l d b e n e f i t e q u a l l y from b o t h , F (1,72) = .09, p_ ^> .10. S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r Age, F (1,72) = 8.98, £ <^ .01, and B l o c k s , F (3,216) = 11.87, p ^ .01, were o b t a i n e d but t h e s e were q u a l i f i e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between Age and B l o c k s , F (3,216) = 3.36, £ -05. An a n a l y s i s o f s i m p l e main e f f e c t s o f B l o c k s a t Age 35 T a b l e 2 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the I n i t i a t e d C o mpliance Data Source d f MS F Between 79 Age 1 22.05 8.98"" Group 3 11.75 4.78 '" Age x Group 3 1.30 0.53 E r r o r Between 72 2.46 W i t h i n 240 B l o c k s 3 9.04 •-We-l l . 8 7 B l o c k s x Age 3 2.56 3.36" B l o c k s x Group 9 1.28 1.68 B l o c k s x Age x Group 9 0.42 0.55 E r r o r W i t h i n 216 0.76 £_ <. .05 "'2 < -01 36 T a b l e 3 Means o f the I n i t i a t e d C o mpliance Data I . Means f o r Age and Group Group Age IG RA MO CO M a r g i n a l Young 12.9 15.3 15.9 14.6 14.68 Old 15.0 18.4 18.4 15.3 16.78 M a r g i n a l 13.95 16.85 17.15 14.95 15.73 Note. Maximum s c o r e = 20. I I . Means f o r Age and B l o c k B l o c k s Age B l B2 B3 B4 M a r g i n a l Young 4.15 3.93 3.60 3.0 3.67 Old 4.48 4.20 4.05 4.05 4.19 M a r g i n a l 4.31 4.06 3.83 3.53 3.93 Note. Maximum s c o r e = 5. 37 r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t s i m p l e main e f f e c t f o r B l o c k s i n the younger group, F (3,216) = 13.125, p_ ^ .01, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t younger c h i l d r e n become l e s s c o m p l i a n t w i t h s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l - b l o c k s . A Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n t e s t i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e i n t he l a s t t r i a l - b l o c k compared t o the p r e c e e d i n g t h r e e t r i a l - b l o c k s . No s i g n i f i c a n t s i m p l e main e f f e c t f o r B l o c k s was o b t a i n e d i n the o l d e r g r oup, F (3,216) = 2.11, £ ^ .10. An a n a l y s i s o f s i m p l e main e f f e c t s o f Age a t v a r i o u s B l o c k s o b t a i n e d one s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t , F (1,288) = 18.61, £ .01, f o r t h e l a s t t r i a l - b l o c k i n d i c a t i n g t h a t younger c h i l d r e n were l e s s c o m p l i a n t t h a n o l d e r c h i l d r e n . Completed c o m p l i a n c e v ' The c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e d a t a were a n a l y z e d by a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO v s . CO). F o r t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e t r i a l - b l o c k f a c t o r was dropped because o f a v i o l a t i o n o f the a s s u m p t i o n o f homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e . T a b l e s 4 and 5 p r e s e n t the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and the c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Age was o b t a i n e d , F (1,72) = 10.39, j> ^ . i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n younger c h i l d r e n . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Group was a l s o o b t a i n e d , F (3,72) = 12.38, £ ^ .01. A p l a n n e d o r t h o g o n a l c o m p a r i s o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the RA and M0 groups c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n c h i l d r e n i n t h e IG or CO g r o u p s , F (1,72) = 36.71, £ ^ .01. No s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between Age and Group was o b t a i n e d , F (3,72) = .58, £ ^ .10. T a b l e 4 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the Completed C o m p l i a n c e Data Source d f MS Between 79 Age 1 35.16 10.39** Group 3 41.91 12.38*" Age x Group 3 1.97 .58 E r r o r Between 72 £ <C -05o ' W £ <. -01 T a b l e 5 Means o f the Completed Compliance Data Gr oup Age IG RA MO CO M a r g i n a l Young 14.3 17.8 18.6 13.7 16.10 O l d 16.7 19.5 19.3 16.4 17.98 M a r g i n a l 15.50 18.65 18.95 15.05 17.04 Note. Maximum s c o r e = 20. 40 A p l a n n e d o r t h o g o n a l c o m p a r i s o n f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t younger c h i l d r e n w o u l d b e n e f i t more from the m o d e l i n g p r o c e d u r e t h a n t h e r a t i o n a l e p r o c e d u r e , w h i l e o l d e r c h i l d r e n would b e n e f i t e q u a l l y from b o t h p r o c e d u r e s , F (1,72) = .37, p_ > .10. Completed c o m p l i a n c e d u r a t i o n . The c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e d u r a t i o n d a t a were a n a l y z e d by a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO vs. CO). T a b l e s 6 and 7 p r e s e n t the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Age, F (1,72) = 7.88, £ ^ .01, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o l d e r . c h i l d r e n c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e t o the commands i n fewer 5-second i n t e r v a l s t h a n d i d t h e younger c h i l d r e n . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r Group or the Age by Group i n t e r a c t i o n . I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . The i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r d a t a were a n a l y z e d -by a three-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO v s . CO) and one w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r ( B l o c k s : 1 t h r o u g h 4 ) . T a b l e s 8 and 9 p r e s e n t the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and t h e means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Group was o b t a i n e d , F (1,72) = 5.21, £ ^ .01. A Newman-Keuls t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the IG group engaged i n more i n t e r v a l s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r than c h i l d r e n i n the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e g r o u p s . No s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were found f o r Age or the Age by Group i n t e r a c t i o n . The w i t h i n - s u b j e c t a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r B l o c k s , F (3,216) = 4.97, £ ^ .01. A Newman-Keuls t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r v a l s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o m r i n B l o c k 4 th a n i n the p r e c e e d i n g t h r e e b l o c k s . None o f the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t i n t e r a c t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . T a b l e 6 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the Completed Compliance D u r a t i o n Data Source d f MS Between Age Group Age x Group E r r o r Between 79 1 3 3 72 2.81 .20 .90 .36 7.88 .55 2.53 *£ ;C .05 " p < .01 42 T a b l e 7 Means o f the Completed Compliance D u r a t i o n Data Group Age IG RA MO CO M a r g i n a l Young 2.79 3.00 2.84 2.43 2.77 Old 2.63 2.15 2.25 2.52 2.39 M a r g i n a l 2.71 2.58 2.55 2.48 22.58 43 T a b l e 8 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the I n a p p r o p r i a t e B e h a v i o r s D a t a Source d f MS F Between 79 Age 1 8.13 .76 Group 3 55.96 ** 5.21 Age x Group 3 .34 .03 E r r o r Between 72 10.74 W i t h i n 240 B l o c k s 3 16.08 - l -.A, 4.97"" B l o c k s x Age 3 3.62 1.12 B l o c k s x Group 9 3.41 1.05 B l o c k s x Age x Group 9 2.67 .83 E r r o r W i t h i n 216 3.24 *E < -05 " p < .01 44 T a b l e 9 Means o f the I n a p p r o p r i a t e B e h a v i o u r Data Group B l o c k IG RA MO CO M a r g i n a l B l 1.35 .45 .15 .25 .55 B2 1.85 .70 .75 .85 1.04 B3 . 2.60 .60 .35 1.20 1.19 B4 3.50 .60 .90 1.55 1.64 M a r g i n a l 2.33 .59 .54 .96 1.10 Note. F i g u r e s s i n d i c a t e the mean number o f i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g w h i c h a t l e a s t one i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d . 45 Ignore f r e q u e n c y . The i g n o r e f r e q u e n c y d a t a were a n a l y z e d by a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group:: IG v s . KA v s . MO). For t h i s a n a l y s i s the t r i a l - b l o c k f a c t o r was dropped because o f a v i o l a t i o n o f the a s s u m p t i o n of homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e . T a b l e s 10 and 11 p r e s e n t t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and the means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Age was o b t a i n e d , F (1,54) = 5.38, _p_ -05, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n were i g n o r e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n younger c h i l d r e n . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Group was o b t a i n e d , F (2,54) = 22.35, p .01. A Newman-K e u l s t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the RA and MO groups were i g n o r e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n c h i l d r e n i n the IG group. The i n t e r a c t i o n between Age and Group was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . Average i g n o r e d u r a t i o n . The a v e r a g e i g n o r e d u r a t i o n d a t a were a n a l y z e d by a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO). T a b l e s 12 and 13 p r e s e n t the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Only t h o s e c h i l d r e n who were i g n o r e d d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n (n = 33) were i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . For each o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n an a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f i g n o r i n g was computed and r e s u l t s a n a l y z e d . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s or i n t e r a c t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t when the c h i l d r e n were i g n o r e d t h e y were i g n o r e d f o r e q u a l l e n g t h s o f t i m e , r e g a r d l e s s of age or g r o u p s . 46 T a b l e 10 The A n a l y s i s I gnore o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e F r e q u e n c y Data Source d f MS F Between 59 Age 1 12.68 * 5.38 Group 2 52.63 22.35"" Age x Group 2 .70 .30 E r r o r Between 54 2.35 47 T a b l e 11 Means o f the Ignore F r e q u e n c y Data Group Age IG RA MO M a r g i n a l Young 5.8 2.0 1.1 2.97 Old 4 i l .5 .4 1.67 M a r g i n a l 4.95 1.25 .75 2.32 Note. Maximum s c o r e = 20. T a b l e 12 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the Average I g n o r e D u r a t i o n Data Source d f MS F Between 32 Age 1 .36 .11 Group 2 9.65 2.82 Age x Group 2 3.60 1.05 E r r o r Between 27 3.42 *£ < -05 2 < -01 49 T a b l e 13 Means o f the Average Ignore D u r a t i o n Data Group Age IG RA MO M a r g i n a l Young 8.83 ( 1 0 ) a 7.92 (6) 8.«1>8 (3) 8.44 (19) Old 8.83 (9) 6.11 (3) 9.25 (2) 8.31 (14) M a r g i n a l 8.83 (19) 17.31 (9) 8.61 (5) 8.38 (33) Numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n d i c a t e the number o f c h i l d r e n who were i g n o r e d . 50 S e l f - r e p o r t d a t a P a r e n t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The CPSQ items were s c o r e d on _ • a 1-7 s c a l e w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g h i g h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l i t e m s c o r e s were summed t o o b t a i n a s i n g l e t o t a l s c o r e f o r each s u b j e c t . A two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . Old; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO) was employed. T a b l e s 14 and 15 p r e s e n t the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Group, F (2,54) = 11.96, p_ .01. A p l a n n e d o r t h o g o n a l c o m p a r i s o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t mothers i n b o t h the RA and MO groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he p a r e n t i n g t e c h n i q u e than were mothers i n the IG group, F (1,54) = 21.73, _p_ .01. A Newman-Keuls t e s t a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i g h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n was e x p r e s s e d by mothers i n the RA and MO groups than by mothers i n the IG g r o u p s . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s a t i s f a c t i o n between mothers i n the RA and MO gr o u p s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Age and the i n t e r a c t i o n between Age and Group was a l s o n ot s i g n i f i c a n t . C h i l d c omprehension and s a t i s f a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The CCSQ ite m s were c a t e g o r i z e d a p r i o r i i n t o t h r e e s u b s e c t i o n s : (1) C h i l d c omprehension. The f i v e C h i l d Comprehension it e m s ( s c o r e d : +1 f o r c o r r e c t , 0 f o r i n c o r r e c t or no answer) were summed f o r each s u b j e c t . T a b l e s 16 and 17 p r e s e n t the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO) o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r T a b l e 14 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the P a r e n t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data Source d f MS Between Age Gr oup Age x Group E r r o r Between 59 1 2 2 54 2.82 70S'. 07 16.27 58.94 .05 11196' .28 <C .05 T a b l e 15 Means o f the P a r e n t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data Group Age IG RA MO M a r g i n a l Young 54.9 67.5 62.1 61.5 Old 54.6 65.2 63.4 61.1 M a r g i n a l 54.8 66.35 62.75 61.3 Note. Maximum s c o r e = 77. Minimum f c o r e = 11. H i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . 53 T a b l e 16 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e C h i l d ComprehenslojnfeData Source _df MS F Between 59 Age 1 36.82 • A . - A . 46.78 Gr oup 2 33.17 ** 42.08 Age x Group 2 3.72 4.72* E r r o r Between 54 .78 ' £ ^ -05 £ ^ -01 T a b l e 17 Means o f the C h i l d Comprehension Data Group Age IG RA MO M a r g i n a l Young .1 1.4 2.1 1.2 O l d .9 3.9 3.5 2.77 M a r g i n a l .5 2.65 2.80 1.99 Note. Maximum s c o r e = 5. H i g h s c o r e = h i g h c o mprehension. Age, F (1,54) = 46.78, p_ <^ .01, and f o r Group, F (2,54) = 42.08, p ^ .01. However\ t h e s e e f f e c t s were q u a l i f i e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between Age and Group F (2,54) = 4.72, p ^ .05. A n a l y s e s o f s i m p l e main e f f e c t s o f Group a t Age y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t Group e f f e c t a t b o t h Ages (Young: F (2,54) = 13.09, p < , -01; O l d : F (2,54) = 33.71, p <1 .01. Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r b o t h Ages, c h i l d r e n i n the RA and MO groups had b e t t e r comprehension t h a n c h i l d r e n i n the IG group. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n comprehension were o b t a i n e d between c h i l d r e n i n the RA and MO g r o u p s . A n a l y s e s o f s i m p l e main e f f e c t s o f Age a t Group o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t Age e f f e c t s f o r a l l t h r e e Groups (F ( 1 , 5 4 ) : IG = 4.07, p <£ .05; RA = 39.71, p -01; MO = 12.45, p <C .01) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n comprehended more than younger c h i l d r e n r e g a r d l e s s o f Gr oup. C h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n . The t h r e e C h i l d S a t i s f a c t i o n i t e m s , s c o r e d from 1 t o 5, were summed f o r each s u b j e c t w i t h low s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n . A two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO) o b t a i n e d no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s or i n t e r a c t i o n s . T a b l e s 18 and 19 p r e s e n t the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and the means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . C h i l d a t t i t u d e toward i g n o r i n g . The two ite m s r e f l e c t i n g t he c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward i g n o r i n g were s c o r e d from 1 t o 5 and summed f o r each s u b j e c t . T a b l e s 20 and 21 p r e s e n t the a n a l y s i s T a b l e 18 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e ( o f _ t h e C h i l d S a t i s f a c t i o n Data Source d f MS F Between 59 Age 1 1.35 .69 Group 2 4.20 2.14 Age x Group 2 .60 .31 E r r o r Between 54 1.96 P < C -01 T a b l e 19 Means o f the C h i l d S a t i s f a c t i o n Data Group Age IG RA MO M a r g i n a l Young 4.7 4.1 4.4 4.4 Old 5.4 4.2 4.5 4.7 M a r g i n a l 5.05 4.15 4.45 44.55 Note. Maximum s c o r e = 15. Minimum s c o r e = 3. Lower s c o r e s i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . T a b l e 20 The A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the C h i l d A t t i t u d e Toward I g n o r i n g Data Source d f MS Between Age Group Age x Group E r r o r Between 59 1 2 2 54 19.27 .60 4.87 3.91 4.93 .15 1.24 *p_ ,/ .05 **£ < .01 T a b l e 21 Means o f the C h i l d A t t i t u d e Toward I g n o r i n g Data Group Age IG RA MO M a r g i n a l Young 6.1 6.3 7.2 6.53 Old 7.7 3.1 7.2 7.67 M a r g i n a l ,• " 6.90 7.20 7.20 7.10 Note. Maximum s c o r e = 10. Minimum s c o r e = 2. H i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e a more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e . 60 o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e and the means, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s (Age: Young v s . O l d ; Group: IG v s . RA v s . MO) o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Age, F (1,54) = 4.93, p_ ^ .05, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s e d more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward i g n o r i n g t h a n d i d the younger c h i l d r e n . N e i t h e r the main e f f e c t f o r Group nor the i n t e r a c t i o n between Age and Group was s i g n i f i c a n t . DISCUSSION The major purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o examine the e f f e c t s o f s u p p l e m e n t i n g a p a r e n t a l i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e w i t h a r a t i o n a l e or a r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t . A second purpose o f the s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether o l d e r c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d from younger c h i l d r e n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the v a r i o u s outcome measures. I n a d d i t i o n , whether o l d e r c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d from younger c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o the r a t i o n a l e or r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t s was a s s e s s e d . The t h i r d , and l e a s t c e n t r a l purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o a s s e s s the c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f r e s p o n d i n g a c r o s s the t r i a l - b l o c k s w i t h i n the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n c l u s i o n o f e i t h e r the r a t i o n a l e or the r a t i o n a l e , p l u s m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t f a c i l i t a t e d the c h i l d r e n ' s c o m p l i a n c e t o m a t e r n a l commands, d e c r e a s e d the l e v e l o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r and r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r m a t e r n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o c e d u r e s . Older c h i l d r e n were more c o m p l i a n t t o m a t e r n a l commands r e g a r d l e s s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n , were i g n o r e d l e s s o f t e n , d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t e r comprehension o f the c o n t i n g e n c i e s and e x p r e s s e d more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward b e i n g i g n o r e d . However, o l d e r and younger c h i l d r e n d i d not d i f f e r i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o the r a t i o n a l e or r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t s . The t r i a l - b l o c k a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d a t e n d e n c y f o r c h i l d r e n t o be l e s s c o m p l i a n t and more i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n the l a s t t r i a l - b l o c k as compared t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e t r i a l - b l o c k s . S u p p l e m e n t i n g a p a r e n t a l i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e w i t h a r a t i o n a l e a d j u n c t 61 62 (RA), or a r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t (MO), r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t improvements on a number o f the dependent measures. W i t h r e s p e c t t o c o m p l i a n c e , c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d the RA or MO a d j u n c t s were more c o m p l i a n t t o t h e i r mother's r e q u e s t s t h a n c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e a l o n e (IG) or c h i l d r e n i n a n o - t r e a t m e n t c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n (CO). T h i s f i n d i n g h e l d t r u e f o r c o m p l i a n c e i n i t i a t e d w i t h i n 5 seconds o f a m a t e r n a l command and f o r c o m p l i a n c e c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n 1 m i n u t e . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on any o f the c o m p l i a n c e measures between c h i l d r e n i n the RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s . The mean number o f i n t e r v a l s t o complete c o m p l i a n c e d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y among any o f the c o n d i t i o n s . The f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e RA and MO a d j u n c t s were a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t he ' i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r d a t a . C h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g the RA or MO c o n d i t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer i n t e r v a l s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r than c h i l d r e n i n the IG c o n d i t i o n . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the RA, MO, or CO c o n d i t i o n s f o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . The f r e q u e n c y o f i g n o r i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n t h e RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s t h a n i n the IG c o n d i t i o n . No d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the i g n o r i n g f r e q u e n c y d a t a a r e a r e c i p r o c a l o f t h e c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e d a t a , s i n c e the e x p e r i m e n t e r prompted t h e mother t o i g n o r e u n t i l the c h i l d c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among any o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r the mean d u r a t i o n o f i g n o r i n g . 63 The s o c i a l v a l i d a t i o n measures (PSQ,CCSQ) a l s o p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r the-*use<2of the RA and MO a d j u n c t s . Mothers i n t h e RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s e x p r e s s e d g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o c e d u r e s than d i d mothers i n the IG c o n d i t i o n . C h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g the RA and MO a d j u n c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t e r c o mprehension o f the c o n t i n g e n c i e s t h a n d i d c h i l d r e n i n the IG c o n d i t i o n . No d i f f e r e n c e s were found between RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s f o r e i t h e r o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . There were no d i f f e r e n c e s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o c o n d i t i o n s on the measures o f c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n or the c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e toward i g n o r i n g . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age were found w i t h s e v e r a l dependent measures. The o l d e r c h i l d r e n were more c o m p l i a n t t h a n the younger c h i l d r e n b o t h i n i n i t i a t i n g c o m p l i a n c e and c o m p l e t i n g the r e q u e s t . O l d e r c h i l d r e n a l s o c o m p l e t e d t h e r e q u e s t s i n fewer 5-second i n t e r v a l s t h a n d i d younger c h i l d r e n . There were no d i f f e r e n c e s between o l d e r and-younger c h i l d r e n i n the f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r v a l s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . O l d e r c h i l d r e n were i g n o r e d by t h e i r mothers l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n younger c h i l d r e n . However, i f t h e c h i l d was i g n o r e d , the mean number o f i . i n t e r v a l s i n the i g n o r i n g sequence was the same f o r o l d e r and younger c h i l d r e n . There were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e s e x p r e s s e d by mothers o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n compared t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by mothers o f younger c h i l d r e n . O l d e r c h i l d r e n d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t e r comprehension o f the c o n t i n g e n c i e s i n a l l t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . No d i f f e r e n c e s between o l d e r and younger c h i l d r e n were o b t a i n e d on the measure o f c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n . However, o l d e r c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s e d a more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t oward b e i n g i g n o r e d t h a n d i d the younger c h i l d r e n . There were no dependent 64 measures on w h i c h o l d e r c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d from younger c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o the RA or MO a d j u n c t s . There was a tend e n c y f o r c h i l d r e n t o become l e s s c o m p l i a n t and more i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e l a s t t r i a l - b l o c k as compared t o the f i r s t t h r e e t r i a l - b l o c k s . Younger c h i l d r e n i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e l e s s o f t e n i n t h e l a s t t r i a l - b l o c k t h a n t h e y d i d i n the p r e d e e d i n g t h r e e t r i a l - b l o c k s . There were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m p l i a n c e among the f o u r t r i a l - b l o c k s f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n . W i t h r e s p e c t t o i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r , b o t h o l d e r and younger c h i l d r e n d e m o n s t r a t e d more i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i n the l a s t t r i a l - b l o c k as compared t o t h e y p r e c e e d i n g t h r e e t r i a l - b l o c k s . The major hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s o f s u p p l e m e n t i n g a p a r e n t a l i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e w i t h RA or MO a d j u n c t s were s u p p o r t e d by the outcome d a t a . T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e d a c l e a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the e f f i c a c y o f the RA and MO a d j u n c t s i n f a c i l i t a t i n g c h i l d c o m p l i a n c e t o m a t e r n a l commands. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e a d j u n c t s r e s u l t e d i n t h e b e n e f i c i a l s i d e - e f f e c t s o f d e c r e a s e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r and i n c r e a s e d m a t e r n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o c e d u r e s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c h i l d c o m p l i a n c e would be g r e a t e r i n the RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s t h a n i n the IG and CO c o n d i t i o n s was s u p p o r t e d . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e r e p o r t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s who have employed a r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n p aradigm. These r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t the i n c l u s i o n o f a r a t i o n a l e w i t h a punishment s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e punishment ( e . g . , A r o n f r e e d , 1968; Cheyne & W a l t e r s , 1970; P a r k e , 1969). 65 In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m o d e l i n g component o f the r a t i o n a l e -m o d e l i n g c o n d i t i o n d i d not improve c o m p l i a n c e .beyond the improvement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r a t i o n a l e a l o n e . However, the l a c k o f a d d i t i o n a l improvement i n the c o m p l i a n c e o f c h i l d r e n i n the MO c o n d i t i o n may have been due t o a c e i l i n g e f f e c t . C h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d the RA a d j u n c t i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e w i t h i n 5 seconds f o r 84% o f t h e commands and c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e w i t h i n 1 min u t e f o r 937o o f the commands. The h i g h l e v e l o f c o m p l i a n c e i n the RA c o n d i t i o n may have p r e v e n t e d f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n c o m p l i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m o d e l i n g component. No d i f f e r e n c e s i n any c o m p l i a n c e measures were found between the IG and CO c o n d i t i o n s . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e d i d not improve c o m p l i a n c e beyond the l e v e l o f c o m p l i a n c e found i n the no-t r e a t m e n t c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s e a r c h on c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d , c h i l d r e n . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have found i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e i n t r e a t i n g n o n c o m p l i a n c e ( e . g . , Wahler, 1969). Perhaps one o f the r e a s o n s f o r the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i g n o r i n g i n t h i s a n a l o g u e s i t u a t i o n , as w e l l as i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , i s t h a t c h i l d n o n c o m p l i a n c e i s p r o b a b l y not m a i n t a i n e d p r i m a r i l y by the mother's c o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n . F o r an e x t i n c t i o n p r o c e d u r e t o be e f f e c t i v e the r e i n f o r c e r ( e . g . , mother's a t t e n t i o n ) must be_the p r i m a r y , i f not e x c l u s i v e , m a i n t a i n i n g f a c t o r f o r the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r ( e . g . , n o n c o m p l i a n c e ) ( G e l f a n d & Hartmann, 1975). However, i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y n o n c o m p l i a n c e was p r o b a b l y 66 m a i n t a i n e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s such as the competing a c t i v i t y o f p l a y i n g w i t h a t t r a c t i v e t o y s . The i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r d a t a a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h e u t i l i t y o f i n c l u d i n g RA or MO a d j u n c t s w i t h the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e . A common n e g a t i v e s i d e -e f f e c t o f e x t i n c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i s a temporary a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the u n d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r ( s ) when the p r e v i o u s l y m a i n t a i n i n g r e i n f o r c e r i s t e r m i n a t e d . T h i s " e x t i n c t i o n b u r s t " phenomenon has been found w i t h a n i m a l s ( e . g . , F e r s t e r & S k i n n e r , 1957) and w i t h c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , G e l f a n d & Hartmann, 1975- H e r b e r t e t a l . , 1973). In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , an e x t i n c t i o n b u r s t may have been e v i d e n c e d by an i n c r e a s e i n n o n c o m p l i a n c e or an i n c r e a s e i n the g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . The l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m p l i a n c e between the IG and CO c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i r s t form o f e x t i n c t i o n b u r s t d i d not o c c u r . However, the s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i n the IG c o n d i t i o n as compared t o the CO c o n d i t i o n may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a form o f e x t i n c t i o n b u r s t . I n t u r n , the f i n d i n g t h a t RA and MO a d j u n c t s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e a d j u n c t s may have o b v i a t e d the e x t i n c t i o n b u r s t phenomena. The e f f i c a c y o f the a d j u n c t s was a l s o s u p p o r t e d by the mothers' h i g h e r r a t i n g s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . Mothers" i i i the RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s r a t e d . t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e and manner o f i n t r o -d u c t i o n more f a v o u r a b l y t h a n d i d mothers i n the IG c o n d i t i o n . I t i s u n c l e a r w hether t h e more f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g s by mothers i n t h e RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s were due t o t h e i r g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d the p r o c e d u r e or the g r e a t e r s u c c e s s t h e y a c h i e v e d w i t h i t . R e g a r d l e s s , s a t i s f a c t i o n per se i s an i m p o r t a n t 67 v a r i a b l e s i n c e i t may p l a y a r o l e i n whether the p r o c e d u r e i s u s e d a t home and m a i n t a i n e d over time ( K a z d i n , 1977). The measure o f c h i l d comprehension i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the RA and MO c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r s t o o d the c o n t i n g e n c i e s b e t t e r than c h i l d r e n i n the IG c o n d i t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t showed t h a t the c h i l d r e n had r e c e i v e d the a d j u n c t m a n i p u l a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , f u r t h e r s u p p o r t was o b t a i n e d f o r the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the RA and MO a d j u n c t s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the b e h a v i o r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two c o n d i t i o n s as compared t o t h e IG and CO c o n d i t i o n s . The mean l e v e l o f comprehension i n the IG c o n d i t i o n was e x t r e m e l y low (M = 0.5, range = 0 - 5 ) . A f t e r 20 commands, c h i l d r e n i n t h e IG c o n d i t i o n s t i l l d i d not u n d e r s t a n d what a s p e c t s o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r r e s u l t e d i n b e i n g i g n o r e d by t h e i r m o t h e r s . These c h i l d r e n a l s o d i d not u n d e r s t a n d what i g n o r i n g e n t a i l e d or how t o s t o p the mother's i g n o r i n g once i t began. T e a c h i n g the c h i l d r e n about the new c o n t i n g e n c i e s by t r i a l and e r r o r p r o v e d t o be a v e r y i n e f f i c i e n t p r o c e d u r e . There were no d i f f e r e n c e s among the r a t i n g s ^ o f c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n and c h i l d a t t i t u d e toward i g n o r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n i n the v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . C h i l d r e n i n a l l t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s tended t o r a t e the p r o c e d u r e v e r y f a v o u r a b l y . T h i s f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g o c c u r r e d r e g a r d l e s s o f how d i s t r e s s e d t h e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d d u r i n g t h e p r e c e e d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n . Demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i n t e r v i e w and the r e s p o n s e s e t t o p o i n t t o the " h a p p i e s t f a c e " may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the u n i f o r m l y p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e i s p l a c e d i n t h e s e d a t a . R e p o r t s 68 o f s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g r e l i a b l e and v a l i d s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a w i t h c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e ages a r e e n c o u n t e r e d f r e q u e n t l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e ( e . g . , G o r s u c h , Henighan; & B a r n a r d , 1972; Mash & T e r d a l , 1981). D i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age were o b t a i n e d on s e v e r a l dependent measures. B e f o r e b r i e f l y d i s c u s s i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s , a word of c a u t i o n i s w a r r a n t e d . Many d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have a r g u e d a g a i n s t c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g age as an independent v a r i a b l e ( e . g . , K e s s e n , 1960; W o h l w i l l , 1973). The major o b j e c t i o n o f t h e s e a u t h o r s i s t h a t s t a t e m e n t s r e l a t i n g b e h a v i o r t o age a r e v o i d o f c a u s a l meaning. D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f a l a w f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b e h a v i o r and age does not i d e n t i f y t he s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s d e t e r m i n i n g the age d i f f e r e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , the d i s c u s s i o n o f age d i f f e r e n c e s produces the d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n o f r e q u i r i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f " o t h e r v a r i a b l e s " t o e x p l a i n t h e age changes. The age v a r i a b l e was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n an e x p l o r a t o r y manner t o answer some v e r y g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s ' .-c h i l d r e n were more or l e s s c o m p l i a n t t o m a t e r n a l commands, whether t h e y were more o r l e s s i n a p p r o p r i a t e when i g n o r e d , and whether t h e y showed more or l e s s comprehension o f the c o n t i n g e n c i e s . These q u e s t i o n s were not f o r m u l a t e d as hypotheses from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f a s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t a l model and w i l l t h e r e f o r e not be e x p l a i n e d i n l i g h t o f t h e s e models. R a t h e r , some o f the more i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s t e n t a t i v e l y p r o p o s e d . The d i f f i c u l t y o f e x p l a i n i n g t h e s e changes i n l i g h t o f " o t h e r v a r i a b l e s " i s f u l l y acknowledged. 69 Data from the compliance measures indicated that older c h i l d r e n were more compliant than younger c h i l d r e n . This greater compliance for older c h i l d r e n may have been due to a general improvement i n responsiveness to maternal ins t r u c t i o n s associated with age. The completed compliance duration data were also found to have age differences. The older c h i l d r e n completed the requests more quickly than the younger c h i l d r e n . However, i t i s unclear whether t h i s difference may be best explained as the r e s u l t of ani.improved l e v e l of responsiveness, or perhaps due to an extraneous factor such as increased physical dexterity. There were no differences between older and younger c h i l d r e n in the frequency of i n t e r v a l s of inappropriate behavior. However, although the data indicated no difference i n frequency, i t appeared that c h i l d r e n i n the two age ranges, d i f f e r e d in the kind of inappropriate behavior they emitted during the observation. Younger children appeared to whine and state blunt r e f u s a l s to the requests (e.g., "NQ!") more frequently than the older children.«y©The older c h i l d r e n were more l i k e l y than the younger chil d r e n to challenge how reasonable the request was (e.g., 1 "I'm busy. Why don't you do i t ? You're c l o s e r . " ) . No differences were found i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n expressed by mothers df older c h i l d r e n compared to the s a t i s f a c t i o n expressed by mothers of younger c h i l d r e n . This r e s u l t was obtained even though older c h i l d r e n were more compliant than younger c h i l d r e n . Evidently the mothers believed the procedure was equally appropriate for c h i l d r e n i n both age ranges. There were also no differences i n the general s a t i s f a c t i o n expressed by older c h i l d r e n compared to that expressed by younger c h i l d r e n . On the other hand, older c h i l d r e n expressed 70 a more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward i g n o r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y . I t i s u n c l e a r whether t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may have e x i s t e d p r i o r t o the e x p e r i m e n t ( e . g . , v o c a b u l a r y ) or d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t as a r e s u l t o f b e i n g i g n o r e d or r e c e i v i n g the r a t i o n a l e or r a t i o n a l e p l u s m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t . The a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t o f b e i n g i g n o r e d i s somewhat u n l i k e l y s i n c e s u b s t a n t i a l l y fewer o l d e r c h i l d r e n t h a n younger c h i l d r e n were i g n o r e d . An i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g was t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n showed g r e a t e r comprehension o f the c o n t i n g e n c i e s t h a n d i d the younger c h i l d r e n . T h i s s u p e r i o r comprehension o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n o c c u r r e d i n a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e s e two age groups g i v e n the p r o g r e s s i n g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e development and memory development w h i c h o c c u r s between 3 y e a r s and 7% y e a r s ( F l a v e l l , 1977). The one s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h i n v o l v e d the age v a r i a b l e was not s u p p o r t e d by the d a t a . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t younger c h i l d r e n would be more r e s p o n s i v e t o the MO c o n d i t i o n t h a n the RA c o n d i t i o n , w h i l e o l d e r c h i l d r e n would be e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i v e t o b o t h c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was based on r e s e a r c h by P a r k e (1972) i n w h i c h he s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n p a s s e d t h r o u g h a marked s h i f t i n r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o a b s t r a c t v e r b a l r a t i o n a l e s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4% y e a r s of age. The r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t younger c h i l d r e n were e q u a l l y c o m p l i a n t i n the RA c o n d i t i o n as i n the MO c o n d i t i o n . T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h may have been due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s p e c i f i c r a t i o n a l e s employed or the e x p e r i m e n t a l paradigm. The r a t i o n a l e i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y was s e v e r a l 71 s e n t e n c e s i n l e n g t h compared t o the r a t i o n a l e s u s e d i n the r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n r e s e a r c h w h i c h t e n d e d t o be a s i n g l e p h r a s e ( e . g . , "because i t b e l o n g s t o someone e l s e " ) . In a d d i t i o n , the r a t i o n a l e i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y was l e s s a b s t r a c t . U n l i k e r a t i o n a l e s from e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h , t h i s r a t i o n a l e i n c l u d e d c o n c r e t e s t a t e m e n t s about the c o n t i n g e n c i e s as w e l l as a b s t r a c t e t h i c a l s t a t e m e n t s . There a r e s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s f o r c l i n i c a l c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y . A l t h o u g h t h e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g age was not s u p p o r t e d , a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t age t r e n d s i n the d a t a were o b t a i n e d . O l d e r c h i l d r e n were more c o m p l i a n t , were q u i c k e r t o comply, d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t e r comprehension o f c o n t i n g e n c i e s , and e x p r e s s e d more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward i g n o r i n g . I t would be i m p o r t a n t f o r a c l i n i c a l c h i l d p s y c h o l o g i s t t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e s i g n i n g i i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n o f v a r y i n g ages. S i n c e the h y p o t h e s i s o f d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o the a d j u n c t s depending on age was not s u p p o r t e d by the d a t a , b o t h RA and MO a d j u n c t s can be c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c h i l d r e n 3 - 7 % y e a r s . However, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c e i l i n g e f f e c t s p r e v e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s from b e i n g o b t a i n e d s h o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d . The f i n d i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n were l e s s c o m p l i a n t and more i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n the l a s t t r i a l - b l o c k t h a n i n the p r e c e e d i n g t h r e e t r i a l - b l o c k s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n become l e s s c o o p e r a t i v e w i t h e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f commanding by t h e i r mothers (Forehand & S c a r b o r o , 1975). However, the r a t e o f commands i n t h i s p r e s e n t 72 s t u d y f a r exceeded the l i k e l y r a t e o f commands i s s u e d i n the n a t u r a l environment,"so the p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s f i n d i n g a r e l i m i t e d . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e d a t a p e r t a i n more t o a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e . In t he two measures w h i c h i n c l u d e d a t r i a l - b l o c k a n a l y s i s , a s e n s i t i z a t i o n e f f e c t o c c u r r e d . T h i s s e n s i t i z a t i o n e f f e c t would i n d i c a t e t h a t w i t h i n -s u b j e c t r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s w h i c h employ a s i m i l a r methodology may have s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s . For example, a d e s i g n w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d the t r e a t m e n t m a n i p u l a t i o n a f t e r 10 commands, and c o n d u c t e d a p r e - t r e a t m e n t v e r s u s p o s t -t r e a t m e n t c o m p a r i s o n , w o u l d u n d e r e s t i m a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the t r e a t m e n t i f " e q u i v a l e n c e between t r i a l - b l o c k s was assumed. The p r i m a r y weakness w i t h the p r e s e n t s t u d y r e l a t e d t o i t s e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y or the degree t o w h i c h the r e s u l t s can be g e n e r a l i z e d t o m o t h e r s , c h i l d r e n and s i t u a t i o n s beyond th o s e t h a t were employed i n t h i s paradigm. A l t h o u g h a more n a t u r a l i s t i c paradigm was employed i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a n t h o s e employed i n the r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v i a t i o n r e s e a r c h , i t s t i l l r e m a i n s an analogue o f a c t u a l p a r e n t t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s . I t was an ana l o g u e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h d i f f e r e d from p a r e n t t r a i n i n g on a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n s . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e d u s i n g normal c h i l d r e n , a r e l a t i v e l y a r t i f i c i a l t a s k , a narrow s e t o f b e h a v i o r s and a l a b o r a t o r y p l a y r o o m . . Whether g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n t o more n a t u r a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be o b t a i n e d i s , as K a z d i n (1980) has a r g u e d , an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . The most i m p o r t a n t t a s k s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a w i l l be t o t e s t the g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e s e r e s u l t s w i t h c l i n i c a l l y d e v i a n t c h i l d r e n , w i t h 73 a v a r i e t y o f p a r e n t t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s and w i t h a b r o a d e r range o f p r o b l e m s . G i v e n t h a t r a t i o n a l e s and m o d e l i n g a d j u n c t s a r e a b l e t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o m p l i a n t r e s p o n d i n g , a r e a s o n a b l e q u e s t i o n w o u l d be whether t h e s e a d j u n c t s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e m a i n t e n a n c e . The p r e s e n t s t u d y l e f t s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s unanswered due o f the c o m b i n a t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d be d i r e c t e d towards i s o l a t i n g t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f the i g n o r i n g p r o c e d u r e v e r s u s t h e r a t i o n a l e a l o n e v e r s u s the m o d e l i n g a l o n e . T h i s i s o l a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e components c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by i n c l u d i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h each p r o c e d u r e i s an e n t i t y . F i n a l l y , the r a t i o n a l e employed i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y was m u l t i f a c e t e d . A component a n a l y s i s might be p e r f o r m e d t o i d e n t i f y w h i c h i t e m s or c o m b i n a t i o n o f i t e m s a r e e f f e c t i v e , and whether the components a r e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e w i t h c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s . REFERENCES 74 75 REFERENCE NOTES 1. 0 1 De 11, S. A comparison and evaluation of methods for producing  behavior change i n parents. Paper presented at the annual conven-ti o n of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, 1978. 2. Forehand, R., Peed, S., Roberts, M., McMahon, R.J., Gries t , D., & Humphreys, L. Coding manual for scoring mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n (3rd ed.). Unpublished manuscript, 1978. 3. McMahon, R.J., & Davies, G.R. The r e l a t i v e e f f i c a c y of attending, ignoring, and d i f f e r e n t i a l a ttention i n f a c i l i t a t i n g c h i l d compli-ance to maternal commands. Unpublished manuscript, 1980. 76 REFERENCES Achenbach, T.M. 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S p i e l b e r g e r , C . D . , & D e N i k e , L . D . D e s c r i p t i v e b e h a v i o r i s m v e r s u s c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y i n v e r b a l o p e r a n t c o n d i t i o n i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1 9 6 6 , 7 3 , 3 0 6 - 3 2 6 . S t e v e n s o n , H.W. S o c i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . I n L . P . L i p s e t t & C . C . S p i k e r ( E d s . ) , A d v a n c e s i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d b e h a v i o r ( V o l . 2 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c , 1 9 6 5 . S t e v e n s o n , H.W., & H o v i n g , K . L . P r o b a b i l i t y l e a r n i n g a s a f u n c t i o n o f a g e a n d i n c e n t i v e . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 4 1 , 6 4 - 7 0 . S t e v e n s o n , H.W., & W e i r , M.W. V a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n a p r o b a b i l i t y l e a r n i n g t a s k . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1959,, 5 7 , 4 0 3 - 4 1 2 . T h a r p , R . G . , & W e t z e l , R . J . B e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . T h o r n d i k e , E . L . A n i m a l i n t e l l i g e n c e : A n e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y o f t h e a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n a n i m a l s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1 8 9 8 , 2, N o . 8 . T h o r n d i k e , E . L . A n i m a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 1 1 . V e r n a , G . B . T h e e f f e c t s o f f o u r - h o u r d e l a y o f p u n i s h m e n t u n d e r t w o c o n d i t i o n s o f v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 7 7 , 4 8 , 6 2 1 - 6 2 4 . W a h l e r , R . G . O p p o s i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n : A q u e s t f o r p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l . ) J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y s i s , 1 9 6 9 , 2, 1 5 9 - 1 7 0 . W a l k e r , H . M . , & H o p s , H. U s e o f n o r m a t i v e p e e r d a t a a s a s t a n d a r d f o r e v a l u a t i n g c l a s s r o o m t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y s i s , 1 9 7 6 , 9 , 1 5 9 - 1 6 8 . W a l t e r s , R . H . „ & P a r k e , R . D . T h e i n f l u e n c e o f p u n i s h m e n t a n d r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n a r y t e c h n i q u e s on t h e * s o c i a l b e h a v i o r o f c h i l d r e n : T h e o r y a n d e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s . I n B . S . M a h e r ( E d . ) , P r o g r e s s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h ( V o l . 3 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . W a l t e r s , R . H . , P a r k e , R . D . , & C a n e , V . A . T i m i n g o f p u n i s h m e n t a n d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f c o n s e q u e n c e s t o o t h e r s a s d e t e r m i n a n t s o f r e s p o n s e i n h i b i t i o n . 1 J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 5 , 2, 1 0 - 3 0 . W h i t e , S . H . E v i d e n c e f o r a h i e r a r c h i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s . I n L . P . L i p s i t t a n d C . C . S p i k e r ( E d s . ) , A d v a n c e s i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d b e h a v i o r , , ' ; " ( V o l . 2 ) , .New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 . W h i t e , S . H . Some g e n e r a l ^ o u t l i n e s o f t h e m a t r i x o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s b e t w e e n f i v e a n d s e v e n y e a r s . B u l l e t i n o f t h e Q r t o n S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 0 , 2 0 , 4 1 - 5 7 . W i t r y o l , S . L . I n c e n t i v e s a n d l e a r n i n g i n c h i l d r e n . I n H.W. R e e s e ( E d . ) , A d v a n c e s i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d b e h a v i o r ( V o l ^ 6 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c , 1 9 7 1 . W o h l w i l l , J . F . T h e s t u d y o f b e h a v i o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 . 86 Wo l f , M. S o c i a l c v a l i d i t y : The case f o r s u b j e c t i v e measurement or how a p p l i e d b e h a v i o r a n a l y s i s i s f i n d i n g i t s h e a r t . J o u r n a l o f  A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y s i s , 1978, 11, 203-214. APPENDICES 87 APPENDIX A 88 89 Mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n (3 - 7% y e a r s ) a r e r e q u i r e d f o r a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s p r o j e c t i s a s t u d y o f p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n and r e q u i r e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 hour o f mother and c h i l d ' s t i m e . A $5.00 s t i p e n d w i l l be p a i d . I f i n t e r e s t e d , c o n t a c t Mr. G l e n D a v i e s , C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 90 A P P E N D I X B 91 CODING MANUAL FOR SCOR ING MOTHER -CH I LD I N T E R A C T I O N GLEN R. D A V I E S ROBERT J . MCMAHON U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMB IA 1 981 I . THE SCORE SHEET Example: Compliance I n a p p r o p r i a t e I g n o r e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Each s c o r e sheet c o n t a i n s t e n r e c t a n g u l a r b l o c k s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e rows and t w e l v e columns. Each r e c t a n g l e r e p r e s e n t s 60-seconds o o b s e r v a t i o n time and each column r e p r e s e n t s a 5-second b l o c k . Numbers below the bottom row i d e n t i f y t he 5-second b l o c k s . The t h r e e rows r e p r e s e n t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r : c h i l d c o m p l i a n c e ( i n i t i a t e d and c o mpleted) i n row 1, c h i l d i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i n row 2, and p a r e n t i g n o r i n g b e h a v i o r i n row 3. The b e h a v i o r s r e c o r d e d i n a s i n g l e column i n d i c a t e s i m u l t a n e o u s o c c u r r e n c e o f those b e h a v i o r s w i t h i n the 5-second i n t e r v a l . The c u t - o f f f o r i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e i n column 1 (5-seconds) i s h i g h l i g h t e d by a doub l e l i n e . 93 I I - THE CATEGORIES, DEFINITIONS, SYMBOLS AND RULES FOR SCORING Row 1 - C h i l d c o m p l i a n c e (a) I n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e . (1) D e f i n i t i o n : P r e s e n c e o f an o b s e r v a b l e cue r e f l e c t i n g t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h i n 5-seconds o f the t e r m i n a t i o n o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d m a t e r n a l command. ) o l : LZ] ( (2) Symbo  VL I i n row 1, column 1) (3) R u l e s f o r s c o r i n g : I n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e can be s c o r e d o n l y f o r the f i r s t column ( 5 - s e c o n d s ) . I f the c h i l d e i t h e r i n i t i a t e s movement towards the s p e c i f i e d g o a l o b j e c t or i n i t i a t e s t h e s p e c i f i e d t a s k i t s e l f w i t h i n 5-seconds th e n a 1^  I i s p l a c e d i n t h i s column. Absence o f a ^ i n d i c a t e s t he absence o f i n i t i a t e d c o m p l i a n c e . Example: Mother: "(Name), put the b l o c k i n the box." C h i l d : Looks up and r e a c h e s toward b l o c k ( w i t h i n 5-seconds). (b) Completed c o m p l i a n c e . (1) D e f i n i t i o n : C o m p l e t i o n o f the command d e s i g n a t e d a c t i v i t y w i t h i n 60-seconds o f the t e r m i n a t i o n o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d m a t e r n a l command. (2) Symbol: IcJ ( i n row 1) 94 (3) R u l e s f o r s c o r i n g : c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e can be s c o r e d i n any column ( i n c l u d i n g column 1 ) . Completed c o m p l i a n c e i s s c o r e d a t any ti m e d u r i n g the 60-second post-command i n t e r v a l by p l a c i n g a | C | i n the 5-second i n t e r v a l d u r i n g w h i c h the command d e s i g n a t e d t a s k i s c o m p l e t e d . Note t h a t c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e can be s c o r e d o n l y once per t r i a l . A S c o r i n g o f c o m p l e t e d c o m p l i a n c e i s g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d by t h e d i s c r e t e and o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r s w h i c h a r e r e q u e s t e d by the s t a n d a r d i z e d commands. Example: Mother: " P l e a s e put the c a r on the s h e l f . " C h i l d : C o n t i n u e s c o l o u r i n g , s l o w l y p i c k s the c a r up, w a l k s t o the s h e l f and when i t touches | C | i s s c o r e d . Row 2 - I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r (1) D e f i n i t i o n : Whine, c r y , y e l l , t a n t r u m , a g g r e s s i o n toward o b j e c t s or p e o p l e ( i n c l u d i n g t h r e a t s ) , or i n a p p r o p r i a t e t a l k ( d i s r e s p e c t f u l s t a t e m e n t s , p r o f a n i t y , t h r e a t e n i n g commands t o the p a r e n t , s t a t e d r e f u s a l t o comply, and r e p e t i t i v e r e q u e s t s ) . Note: n o n c o m p l i a n c e i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . (2) Symbol ( i n row 2) i'(3) R u l e s f o r s c o r i n g : I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i s s c o r e d i n any of the 5-second i n t e r v a l s when the c h i l d e m i t s any o f the above forms o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i s s c o r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t he o c c u r r e n c e o f one o f t h e s e b e h a v i o r s 95 and p l a c e d i n the r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r v a l . T h i s c a t e g o r y can be s c o r e d as f r e q u e n t l y as the i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r o c c u r s t h r o u g h o u t the 60-second post-command i n t e r v a l . F u r t h e r a c t s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r w i t h i n the same 5-second i n t e r v a l a r e d i s r e g a r d e d . A l t h o u g h i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e among the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s may be h e l p f u l . C a t e g o r i e s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d b e h a v i o r : a. W h i n e - C r y - Y e l l - T a n t r u m Cry and y e l l a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . W h i n i n g i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s : (a) whines over minor i n j u r i e s o r t h r e a t s ; (b) nags the p a r e n t i n o r d e r t o get something done; (c) s e e k i n g a t t e n t i o n by w h i n i n g . Tantrums a r e any c o m b i n a t i o n o f w h i n i n g , y e l l i n g , c r y i n g , h i t t i n g and k i c k i n g . A l l o f t h e s e a r e t o be s c o r e d as i n a p p r o p r i a t e , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e l i c i t i n g s i t u a t i o n . b. A g g r e s s i o n T h i s i n c l u d e s b e h a v i o r s i n w h i c h the c h i l d damages or d e s t r o y s an o b j e c t or a t t e m p t s or t h r e a t e n s t o damage an o b j e c t or i n j u r e a p e r s o n . The p o t e n t i a l f o r damage t o o b j e c t s or i n j u r y t o p e r s o n s i s the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n s c o r i n g , not the a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e . I t i s u s u a l l y not s c o r e d as d e v i a n t i f i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the p l a y s i t u a t i o n ( e . g . , 96 ramming c a r s i n a c a r c r a s h ) . Examples o f a g g r e s s i o n t o w a r d p e r s o n s i n c l u d e b i t i n g , k i c k i n g , s l a p p i n g , h i t t i n g , or g r a b b i n g an o b j e c t r o u g h l y away from a n o t h e r p e r s o n , or t h r e a t e n i n g t o do any o f the p r e c e d i n g . c. D e v i a n t t a l k T h i s encompasses a l l i n a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d v e r b a l b e h a v i o r i n c l u d i n g r e p e t i t i v e r e q u e s t s f o r a t t e n t i o n ( a t l e a s t t h r e e r e q u e s t s o c c u r r i n g one r i g h t a f t e r t he o t h e r ) ; s t a t e d r e f u s a l s t o comply (not the a c t o f n o n c o m p l i a n c e ) ; d i s r e s p e c t f u l ("smart") s t a t e m e n t s ; p r o f a n i t y , and commands t o p a r e n t s w h i c h t h r e a t e n a v e r s i v e consequences. Examples o f r e p e t i t i v e r e q u e s t s : A: C h i l d : "Can we go now? Can we? Huh, Mommy, huh?" B: C h i l d : "Look a t me Mommy! Mommy! Look, Mommy!" . Examples o f s t a t e d r e f u s a l s t o comply: A: C h i l d : " I won't put the t r u c k on the s h e l f . " B: C h i l d : " I don't want t o and you c a n ' t make me." C: C h i l d : "No, I ' l l p ut i t t h e r e when I'm f i n i s h e d , not when you s a y . " Examples o f "sma r t " s t a t e m e n t s : A: C h i l d : "You're j u s t an o l d f a t s o ! " B: C h i l d : "You're mean t o me and I don't l i k e you anymore." 97 Examples o f p r o f a n i t y : A: C h i l d : " I don't g i v e a damn about t h i s game." B: C h i l d : "Oh, h e l l ! " Examples o f t h r e a t e n i n g commands: A: C h i l d : "You l e a v e me a l o n e or I ' l l scream." B: C h i l d : "I'm g o i n g t o get mad a t you, Mommy, i f you t e l l me t o do one more t h i n g . " A p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d b e h a v i o r A p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d b e h a v i o r i s d e f i n e d as t h e absence o f a l l i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r s l i s t e d above. Note t h a t s i n c e a n ; ; i n t e r v a l s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e i s used f o r t h i s c a t e g o r y , b e h a v i o r must be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the e n t i r e i n t e r v a l f o r a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r t o be r e c o r d e d . Row 3 - Ignore (1) D e f i n i t i o n : Absence o f p a r e n t - i n i t i a t e d v e r b a l or p h y s i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n , w i t h p a r e n t s ' f a c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n a t l e a s t 90° away from t h e c h i l d . The b e h a v i o r must be s u s t a i n e d f o r a t l e a s t 2 seconds and must f o l l o w an i n c i d e n t o f c h i l d noncom-p l i a n c e . (2) Symbol: ( i n row 3) (3) R u l e s f o r s c o r i n g : I g n o r i n g can be s c o r e d i n any o f t h e 5-second i n t e r v a l s ( e x c e p t 1) d u r i n g w h i c h the p a r e n t m a i n t a i n s the r e q u i r e d b e h a v i o r f o r a t l e a s t 2 seconds. I f the mother 98 Example: Mother C h i l d : Mother C h i l d : Mother: b e g i n s an i g n o r i n g sequence near the end o f an i n t e r v a l ( l e s t h a n 2 seconds) the i g n o r i n g i s d i s r e g a r d e d . S i m i l a r l y i f a mother i n t e r r u p t s her i g n o r i n g w i t h o u t m a i n t a i n i n g i t f o r 2 seconds the i n c i d e n t o f i g n o r i n g i s d i s r e g a r d e d . "Put t he d o l l i n the d o l l house". Noneomplies Stops p l a y i n g , t a l k i n g and r o t a t e s body 90° away from the c h i l d . S t a r t s t o t u g on mother's s l e e v e and whine: "Mommy, Mommy Does not r e s p o n d , keeps l o o k i n g away and does not t a l k t o the c h i l d . 99 A P P E N D I X C 100 PARENTAL SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE Parent's Name Date Please circle the response to each question which best expresses how you honestly feel. 1. In general, I feel this approach to dealing with my child's behavior i s : very appropriate slightly neutral slightly inappropriate very appropriate appropriate inappropriate inappropriate 2. With respect to this parenting technique, what type of recommendation would you give to a friend? strongly positive slightly neutral slightly negative strongly positive positive negative negative 3. Would you like to learn more about this parenting technique? not at very somewhat neutral more much very much a l l l i t t l e more more more 4. To what degree do you think this parenting technique influenced your child's behavior in the observation session? strong negative slightly not slightly positive strong negative negative at a l l positive positive change change 5. To what degree do you think this parenting technique would change your child's behavior i f used consistently and over a long time at home? strong positive slightly not slightly negative strong positive positive at a l l negative negative change change 6. To what degree would you want to use this parenting technique consistently and over a long time at home? strong negative slightly neutral slightly positive strong negative negative positive positive desire _ desire 101 7. To what degree did you f e e l comfortable applying t h i s parenting technique to your child? very comfortable s l i g h t l y neutral s l i g h t l y uncomfortable very comfortable comfortable uncomfortable uncomfortable 8. How comfortable did you f e e l with the manner i n which you introduced the new consequences to your child? very uncomfortable s l i g h t l y neutral s l i g h t l y comfortable very uncomfortable uncomfortable comfortable comfortable 9. In the future when you introduce a new rule and/or consequence at home, how l i k e l y would i t be that you would use a s i m i l a r introduction to one you used p r i o r to the observation session? very u n l i k e l y s l i g h t l y neutral s l i g h t l y l i k e l y very u n l i k e l y u n l i k e l y l i k e l y l i k e l y 10. How important do you think i t i s that a c h i l d understand why and how a parent supplies consequences for his/her behavior? very important s l i g h t l y neutral probably not d e f i n i t e l y important important not important not important important 11. To what degree do you think your c h i l d understood the consequences of -disobeyingty.our reqaest. (your: use of the parenting s k i l l ) ? perfect good f a i r neutral s l i g h t much complete understand- understand- understand- misunder- misunder- misunder-ing ing ing standing standing standing 102 APPENDIX D 103 Name Date CHILD COMPREHENSION SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE I g n o r e d Check: Not Comprehension: I g n o r e d . 1. I f you d i d n ' t do what your mom a s k e d you t o do, what d i d she do? 2. I f your mom was i g n o r i n g you, t h a t meant she would s t o p d o i n g some t h i n g s w i t h you. What were t h o s e t h i n g s ? a) b) c ) ( I p t . each) 3. I f you wanted your mom t o p l a y and t a l k w i t h you a g a i n a f t e r she s t a r t e d i g n o r i n g s y o u , what d i d you have t o do? 104 SCORING K E Y - COMPREHENS ION 1. any r e f e r e n c e t o i g n o r i n g or d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e a c c e p t e d 2. a) p l a y b) t a l k c ) l o o k a t me 3. any r e f e r e n c e t o d o i n g as t o l d , c o m p l y i n g , e t c . Examples o f c o m p l i a n c e w i l l a l s o be a c c e p t e d , e.g., "Put the t r u c k on the shelf'.'. 105 S a t i s f a c t i o n : 1. How d i d you l i k e p l a y i n g i n t h i s room? Show me, d i d you . a l o t a l i t t l e so so not much r e a l l y n ot 2. Would you l i k e t o come back here some time and do the same t h i n g s ? Show me... 3. When you go home a r e you g o i n g t o t e l l your mom t h a t you... 5. Do you t h i n k i t was f a i r f o r y o u r mom t o i g n o r e you? 106 A P P E N D I X E 107 INTRODUCTION WITH MOTHERS: KEY POINTS As m e n t i o n e d : a s t u d y o f m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n . Not a f r e e - f l o w i n g i n t e r a c t i o n but a v e r y s p e c i f i c k i n d o f i n t e r a c t i o n . In f a c t , t o some e x t e n t , o n l y the c h i l d w i l l be the s u b j e c t i n the s t u d y . The mother's b e h a v i o r w i l l be c o n t r o l l e d so t h a t t h e r e a r e no d i f f e r e n c e s from mother t o mother. When the mother's b e h a v i o r i s k e p t the same the n we can compare the b e h a v i o r o f the c h i l d r e n from c h i l d t o c h i l d and a c r o s s age gro u p s . I f b o t h mother and c h i l d b e h a v i o r were f r e e to'.vary, i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e whose b e h a v i o r r e s u l t e d i n the d i f f e r e n c e s - the mother's b e h a v i o r or the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r . T h e r e f o r e , the mother^s r o l e i n t h i s s t u d y i s a c o l l a b o r a t o r and c l o s e adherence t o the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s d i r e c t i o n s i s r e q u e s t e d . I l w i l l be t r a i n i n g the mothers t o behave the same d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e by: (a) p r o v i d i n g some ground r u l e s (b) h a v i n g you p r a c t i c e , w i t h feedback (c) p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t i o n w h i l e you're i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h your c h i l d u s i n g t h i s d e v i c e (show "bug") T h i s i s c a l l e d a " b u g - i n - t h e - e a r " . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s a h e a r i n g a i d w i t h a r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r . I t w i l l a l l o w me t o communicate t o you w h i l e you i n t e r a c t w i t h y o u r ; c h i l d w i t h o u t your c h i l d h e a r i n g what I'm s a y i n g . 108 B r i e f l y , the agenda f o r t o d a y w i l l i n v o l v e 4 s t e p s : (a) G e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n - (10 min.) - t o g i v e you an o v e r v i e w o f what we w i l l do t o d a y . A f t e r the o v e r v i e w I w i l l c o l l e c t background i i n f o r m a t i o n and g i v e you the $5.00 s t i p e n d i f you choose t o p a r t i c i p a t e . (b) P a r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d - (15 min.) - t o t e a c h you the p r o c e d u r e t o f o l l o w i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n (1) Command p r o c e d u r e (2) Ignore p r o c e d u r e (3) I n i t i a t i o n method (c) O b s e r v a t i o n - when you and your c h i l d w i l l i n t e r a c t and we w i l l o b s e r v e . (d) C o n c l u d i n g p e r i o d - t o get your feedback on the p r o c e d u r e s , t o i n t e r v i e w c h i l d and t o answer any q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s ? Consent form S t i p e n d Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n 109 APPENDIX F 110 IGNORE PROCEDURE SUMMARY S t e p 4 . S a y " T h a n k y o u " S t e p 5 . Re sume p l a y i n g S t e p 4 . S t a r t i g n o r i n g ( a ) n o t a l k i n g ( b ) n o p l a y i n g (c.) h e a d 9 0 away S t e p 5 . C o n t i n u e i g n o r i n g u n t i l p r o m p t e d b y " b u g " t o s t o p S t e p 6 . Stop i g n o r i n g and resume p l a y i n g 

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