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There is an important place and value for self-directed learning by secondary art teachers of ceramics Cook, Lynda Lee 1982

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THERE IS AN IMPORTANT PLACE AND VALUE FOR SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING BY SECONDARY ART TEACHERS OF CERAMICS by . LYNDA LEE COOK B. Ed. (Secondary) University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF ^  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Visual and Performing Arts i n Education) THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1982 © Lynda Lee Cook, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements of an advanced degree at the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v ailable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for sch o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Lynda Lee Cook Department of Visual and Performing Arts i n Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 September, 1982 i i Abstract This study i d e n t i f i e s the current need for teachers to be aware of the p o t e n t i a l demand upon them for job r e t r a i n i n g and o f f e r s one possible approach to the problem of adjustment to new teaching assignments through the use of a s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning (SDL) plan. The study i s based upon the writer's five-year experiences in which she designed and implemented a SDL plan i n ceramics which would enable her to teach ceramics at the secondary l e v e l . The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an SDL plan, the process of gaining s k i l l s and knowledge, and the evolution of the ceramics program are discussed. V i s u a l and verbal examples are included to document important procedures and processes. Conclusions are offered that SDL i s a f e a s i b l e , p r a c t i c a l and f l e x i b l e learning approach that has benefits for both teacher and student l e a r n e r s . Conclusions are that SDL can be adapted to others' needs i n that the plan can be modified to be used in a number of subject areas. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Study 1 Purpose of the Study 3 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 Summary 7 I I . WHY TEACH CERAMICS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL? 9 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of Craft Program Approach 9 Student Attitudes 12 Pervasiveness of Ceramics 15 Co-operative Action 16 Personal Imagery 17 I I I . DEVELOPING A SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PLAN 19 IV. APPLICATION OF SDL : 28 Classroom Organization 28 Tools and Equipment 28 Machinery 29 Clay Recycling 29 Clay Storage 30 Display 30 Supplies 31 F i r i n g 32 Clean-up Routines 32 i v P r a c t i c a l S k i l l s '•• 33 Handbuilding Techniques 34 Wheelwork Techniques 34 Glazing 35 Surface Decoration 36 Factual Knowledge 37 The Nature of Clay 37 Glaze Chemistry and Toxicology 39 Ceramic Art History 40 Program Planning 43 Evaluation 48 V. EVOLUTION OF THE PROGRAM 54 VI. SUMMARY 58 Proposal Application of SDL 60 Classroom Organization 61 P r a c t i c a l S k i l l s 62 Factual Knowledge 62 Program Planning 62 REFERENCES 67 APPENDIX A. Important Equipment for Ceramics Classrooms and Tools for Wheelwork and Handbuilding 90 APPENDIX B. Clay Recycling 92 APPENDIX C. Simple Solutions . 94 APPENDIX D. Kil n s 95 APPENDIX E. Avoiding Throwing Problems 100 APPENDIX F. Ways to Enrich Clay Surfaces 103 APPENDIX G. Glazes 105 APPENDIX H. Health and Safety i n the Ceramics Classroom 110 APPENDIX I. The Clay Process from St a r t to F i n i s h 112 APPENDIX J . Notebook Exercises 113 APPENDIX K. Beginners Basic Course Requirements 114 V APPENDIX L. Intermediate to Advanced Course Requirements 116 APPENDIX M. Student Self Evaluation Form and Descriptive Self Evaluation Form 118 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number Technique T i t l e Page I, 2 Coiled Pot, Student's 71 3 Coiled and Pinched Forms, Writer's 72 4 Human Form Sculpture, Student's 72 5 Textured Slab Pot, Writer's 73 6 Textured Slab Pot, Student's 73 7,8 Linoleum Cut Pressed Plaque, Writer's 74 9,10 I n l a i d Clay T i l e , Writers's 75 II , 12 Impressed Plaque, Writer's 76 13,14,15,16 Low F i r e Glazes, Writer's Use of 77 17,18 Fantasy Shoe Sculpture, Writer's 79 19,20 Pop Art Sculpture, Student's 80 21,22 Wax Resist Decorated Thrown Pot, Writer's 81 23,24 Cut Decorated Thrown Pot, Writer's 82 25,26 Surface Textured Thrown Pot, Writer's 83 27,28 Surface Textured Thrown Pot, Student's ..' 84 29,30 Stained and Textured Thrown Pot, Writer's 85 31 Natural Objects Sheet, Writer's Example of a 86 32 Object Based Pots Sheet, Writer's Example of a ... 87 33 Texture Sheet, Writer's Example of a 88 34 Theme Pots Sheet, Student's Example of a 89 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to record ray appreciation of the help and encouragement I have received from adviser, Dr. James U. Gray. I wish also to acknow-ledge the support of the other members of my the s i s committee, Profes-sors Doris Livingstone and James A.S. MacDonald. 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY For some time urban teachers i n a l l areas of education have occa s i o n a l l y been asked to teach subjects for which they have received l i t t l e or no formal t r a i n i n g . While t h i s demand seemed rare in the past i t appears to be more common i n recent years. Today the main reason behind the need for teachers to teach new areas appears to be connected with the d e c l i n i n g school population at most l e v e l s i n the lower mainland. When fewer students attend schools, fewer teachers are needed to teach in those schools. Also, as a consequence of fewer students, fewer e l e c t i v e classes are offered. Because f i n e a r t s courses are e l e c t i v e in most schools they are very much affected by smaller school e n r o l l m e n t s and reassignment o f t e a c h e r s w i t h i n a system becomes commonplace. Thus, a fin e arts teacher, instead of teaching three painting classes may suddenly have to teach one painting, one ceramics, and one t e x t i l e s c l a s s . The ceramics and t e x t i l e s classes may have been taught in the past by another art s p e c i a l i s t teacher who i s no longer st a f f e d by the school. As well as being asked to teach new and addi-t i o n a l f i n e arts courses, a r t teachers may also be asked to teach English, Mathematics, or any other subject. Good administrators use the human resources a v a i l a b l e to them in the most f l e x i b l e manner possible so that teachers who have t r a i n i n g i n many subjects or who are able to r e t r a i n i f necessary are l i k e l y to be chosen for job p o s i t i o n s over someone l e s s adaptable. 2 The writer's i n t e r e s t i n t h i s topic o f : (a) being adaptable; (b) responding to sudden demands; and (c) assuming new p r o f e s s i o n a l respon-s i b i l i t i e s , stems from a personal experience which occurred in 1976. She was hired by a metropolitan school board to teach general art from grade eight to twelve as well as ceramics for the same grade l e v e l s . Because the writer had no previous experience in ceramics i t was necessary for her to learn the s k i l l s and knowledge needed before teaching could begin. The writer's background in education and teaching up to the time of her appointment included a Bachelor of Education degree at the Elementary l e v e l from The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (U.B.C.) which was granted in 1967. The writer taught art and general grade four curriculum subjects for three years in B r i t i s h Columbia. The writer then moved to Toronto, Ontario where she taught art in a junior secondary school for f i v e years. She then returned to U.B.C. to complete a f i f t h year of Education and was granted a Bachelor of Education degree at the Secondary l e v e l in 1975. The writer taught at K i t s i l a n o Secondary School for the period of the study. Because the job commenced in September and she was hired in August the writer had l i m i t e d time and few options on such short notice i n respect to classes she might take that would help her develop new technical information. The problem of l i m i t e d time and courses could have been solved in a v a r i e t y of ways. The writer chose, however, to deal with the s i t u a t i o n by devising a personal plan and schedule which would enable her through a s e l f - d i s c o v e r y technique to acquire some of the t e c h n i c a l , aesthetic, and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s needed to teach ceramics at the secondary l e v e l . The seemingly simple approach to a 3 complex problem led to solutions or dis c o v e r i e s that other teachers might find useful i n adapting to uncommon challenges. The contention or proposition being presented and explicated i n t h i s report i s that with a new secondary art curriculum about to be put into e f f e c t in B.C.'s secondary schools and with the p o s s i b i l i t y of being assigned new teaching areas today's teachers must be prepared to r e t r a i n . Although there are many solutions to job r e t r a i n i n g , the SDL approach could play a predominant role for many and, as such, t h i s report o f f e r s a model of the SDL approach to which teachers may refer for g u i d e l i n e s , suggestions and procedures. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study i s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to i l l u s t r a t e one way o f dealing with a r e t r a i n i n g problem faced by an art teacher i n a metro-p o l i t a n school system. The study i s further s p e c i a l i z e d i n that the described area of r e t r a i n i n g i s ceramics. However, i t i s probably safe to assume that the dec l i n i n g enrollment s i t u a t i o n i s not unique to one system and could, i n f a c t , occur i n any major c i t y i n North America. The existence of a de c l i n i n g population i s probably going to continue to be a pressing problem for some years and as such w i l l a f f e c t not only teachers of f i n e arts but a l l educators i n the public school system. To the extent that many teachers i n a va r i e t y of geographical l o c a t i o n s may be faced with r e t r a i n i n g , t h i s study could provide some valuable information on one approach to solving the problem of r e t r a i n i n g or adaptation. The solu t i o n of pursuing s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning has been dealt with minimally in art education l i t e r a t u r e and thus t h i s study may 4 have ideas which can be iso l a t e d and applied to other areas of educa-t i o n . In addition to learning personally a new plan of study many teachers may see the value i n encouraging t h e i r own students to be more s e l f - d i r e c t i n g in the i r own studies. The report of t h i s study i s organized into f i v e main chapters. Chapter one deals with the background to the study and the writer's personal i n t e r e s t in the t o p i c . In i t the purpose and organization of the study and the d e f i n i t i o n of operative terms are examined. Chapter two w i l l provide a phi l o s o p h i c a l premise f o r , and an at t i t u d e toward, teaching ceramics at the secondary l e v e l . Chapter three w i l l present the steps involved i n devising a s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning plan. Chapter four w i l l demonstrate how the s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning plan i n ceramics was a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the areas o f classroom o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , f a ctual knowledge and program planning. Chapter f i v e w i l l discuss the evolution of the program. The study w i l l conclude with a review of the find i n g s , some advice to teachers, and photographic and written examples to v a l i d a t e the writer's claims of accomplishment of her o b j e c t i v e s . DEFINITION OF TERMS There are two main terms i n t h i s thesis which require d e f i n i n g : (1) ceramics, and (2) s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning. The f i r s t term, ceramics, i s defined by Robert Fournier (1973) as a word derived from the Greek Keramos which means 'burnt s t u f f or 'earthen v e s s e l ' . Today the term i s applied to any a r t i c l e s made permanent by heat at temperatures hot enough to produce a glassy state or coating. He further defines ceramic sculpture as those items which are not pots but are objects s o l e l y 5 concerned with form, invention and decoration. Fournier (1973) says that pottery i s a more narrow term than ceramics and applies only to hand-made containers. Because the art a c t i v i t y fundamental to t h i s study i s concerned with more than hand-made containers and includes some discus s i o n of glaze making, sculpture, and wheelwork the writer has chosen the term ceramics rather than pottery to define the area of study. The second term, s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning (SDL), r e f e r s to any learning done by an i n d i v i d u a l in which the i n d i v i d u a l has decided what, how, and when something i s to be learned. For various reasons much of what we need to learn at some stage or other cannot be r e a d i l y learned i n formal learning i n s t i t u t i o n s . Some examples of learning which may have to be s e l f - d i r e c t e d include developing a personal teaching s t y l e or acquiring information on the job. Many educators f e e l that SDL i s the best way to learn something because i t makes people l e s s dependent on teachers and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Although teachers and i n s t i t u t i o n s s t i l l play an important role i n guiding students to become more personally involved in and committed to learning. Such ideas have been c l e a r l y dealt with by J.S. Bruner (1961) (Pappas, 1970), who writes about the benefits of se l f - d i s c o v e r y learning. He begins by d e f i n i n g s e l f -discovery learning as being any form of obtaining knowledge for oneself by the use of one's own i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s i n a personally developed learning approach. He further says that discovery learning i s charac-t e r i z e d by having a well prepared mind and the a b i l i t y to rearrange and transform facts in such a manner as to be able to gain new information and insights from knowledge which i s already evident. Bruner sees the learner benefiting from discovery learning i n four main respects. The 6 learner experiences: (1) an increased i n t e l l e c t u a l power, (2) a change from e x t r i n s i c to i n t r i n s i c rewards, (3) the learning of a way or a technique of discovery, and (4) being able to remember more r e a d i l y information which i s discovered by oneself (pp. 90-101). F i r s t l y , the i n c r e a s e d i n t e l l e c t u a l power o c c u r s because the discovery learning process forces the learner to organize the informa-tion he i s unexpectedly meeting i n a regular and related manner and also makes the information more workable in problem solving. Secondly, Bruner (1961) (Pappas, 1970) sees the sel f - d i s c o v e r y learner as b e n e f i t -ing personally by being able to replace the rewards offered by teachers and parents for learning something with learning as i t s own reward. T h i r d l y , he adds that learning the techniques of discovery comes from the experience of trying to learn the process of inquiry. In other words, the more one pra c t i c e s the act of inquiry, the more l i k e l y one i s to encounter a personal s t y l e or pattern of problem solving which can be applied s u c c e s s f u l l y to any learning s i t u a t i o n . F i n a l l y , he says that the a c t i v i t i e s which characterize discovering things for oneself seem to make information learned more e a s i l y accessible i n the learner's memory. Thus the information can be more r e a d i l y r e c a l l e d and used than informa-t i o n gained through other methods. Another strong proponent of s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning, Malcolm Knowles (1975), states that not only do people learn better through SDL, but i t su i t s people's psychological development better than teacher-directed learning. As we mature and develop, our natural i n c l i n a t i o n i s to be more responsible for our l i v e s and therefore more s e l f - d i r e c t i n g in a l l areas. Learning in t h i s s t y l e promotes a sense of self-esteem in that the motivation comes from within the i n d i v i d u a l rather than from 7 external sources. Knowles (1975) states that a further long-term reason for being s k i l l e d in SDL i s that because we l i v e i n a world which changes so r a p i d l y we cannot be content as educators only to transmit knowledge which i s commonly known to our students. We must teach students to develop the s k i l l s of inquiry so that when they leave school they w i l l have not only a bank of knowledge but the a b i l i t y to acquire new knowledge as necessary. Education must be seen as a l i f e l o n g process because schools can no longer provide students with a l l the information they w i l l need for the re s t of t h e i r l i v e s i n t h i s highly technolog i c a l age. Being aware of what SDL meant or implied was the writer's f i r s t step toward devising a successful SDL learning plan. Before beginning a SDL study i n ceramics, however, the writer had to e s t a b l i s h a philosoph-i c a l basis and some attitudes towards the place and value of ceramics i n the art curriculum. Educational j u s t i f i c a t i o n for including ceramics i n the secondary school w i l l be examined i n chapter two. SUMMARY Educators today face the problem of r e t r a i n i n g at some or many stages of their teaching careers. Currently, teachers are involved i n r e t r a i n i n g in the types of subjects they teach because of d e c l i n i n g school populations. Fewer teachers are hired for " s p e c i a l i s t " areas when "generalists" can be assigned to i n s t r u c t i n many subjects. In the future, teaching w i l l change further by the addition of new course material that better r e f l e c t s the needs of contemporary students. For example, just as teachers in the past few decades have had to prepare to teach "new math" courses, teachers i n the future w i l l need to learn more 8 about computers and computer-related material. This writer's aim has been to provide one method for teachers to use in order to f a c i l i t a t e the r e t r a i n i n g process. The s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning approach used in t h i s study was designed to be referred to as a model which could be translated or transferred from the ceramic area to any other. With t h i s study as an example of how to devise a personal s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning plan, interested educators could be successful in dealing with t h e i r r e t r a i n i n g problems. Chapter II 9 WHY TEACH CERAMICS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL? JUSTIFICATION OF CRAFT PROGRAM APPROACH J u s t i f y i n g the i n c l u s i o n of any course i n the school curriculum requires presentation of some c l e a r l y defined reasons and the a b i l i t y to show students' need for knowledge i n the area. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the fine a r t s . For the sake of subject c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and examination, most ceramics programs are generally categorized as " c r a f t " programs. The reason for t h i s l a b e l appears to be that i n a ceramics program c e r t a i n methods, s k i l l s and techniques are taught to ensure that students have some sound knowledge of how to do things. The obvious danger i n c l a s s i f y i n g and e s p e c i a l l y i n p r a c t i s i n g the idea of teaching a " c r a f t " course i s that one w i l l end up teaching or learning s k i l l s simply for their own sake which, i n the end, has very l i t t l e to do with teaching or learning how to respond to a r t . In describing j u s t i f i c a -tions for including any a r t program i n the school curriculum, E l l i o t W. Eisner (1972) says that studying and making a r t i s b e n e f i c i a l to students i n several main ways. He maintains that a r t provides a valuable l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y , allows emotions and f e e l i n g s to be expressed through the making and viewing of v i s u a l forms, develops creative thinking, contributes to a better understanding of academic areas and encourages phy s i c a l co-ordination. Eisner (1972) thinks that a r t ' s primary and most important educational j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s i t s a b i l i t y to enlighten and educate the i n d i v i d u a l to h i s experiences as a human being. He claims that art i s unequalled i n i t s a b i l i t y i n t h i s 10 area. He i l l u s t r a t e s his philosophy c l e a r l y when he says, "Art not only functions as a v e h i c l e for the a r t i c u l a t i o n of sublime v i s i o n s , i t also takes those v i s i o n s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of man, h i s fears, h i s dreams, his r e c o l l e c t i o n s , and provides these too with v i s u a l metaphors" (p. 11). He continues, "Art also provides the bonds that strengthen r i t u a l , i t breeds a f f i l i a t i o n through i t s power to move the emotions and generate cohesiveness among men. It d i s c l o s e s the i n e f f a b l e and enlarges our consciousness" (p. 16). Edmund Burke Feldman (1970) also shows h i s concern with a r t as an expression of the human condition when he says the following, regarding p r i m i t i v e a r t : " P r i m i t i v e art continuously presents us with v i s u a l solutions to human needs, fears, and a s p i r a t i o n s . It helps locate the idea of art at the center of l i f e rather than at i t s periphery" (p. 16). He adds t h i s thought about contemporary a r t : Since art i s everywhere around ^ u s — i n the design of the large-scale and the small-scale environment—teachers should t r y to enlarge their pupils' concept of a r t so that they can help bring about i t s i n t e g r a t i o n — n a t u r a l l y and o f f i c i a l l y — with the rest of our common existence. They must learn to perceive form and meaning not only in pictures but also i n every aspect of personal and s o c i a l l i f e . (p. 21.) Both of these a r t educators convince us that art involves the v i s u a l representation of man's values, f e e l i n g s , dreams, and surrounding conditions (natural, s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and r e l i g i o u s ) and thus an a r t program involving any p a r t i c u l a r medium must enable and encourage students to p a r t i c i p a t e in the making of art rather than a c r a f t object. What i s meant here by c r a f t object i s any product which has a planned outcome and has a predictable end r e s u l t . What i s meant by art i s a piece of work which grows and changes as the process evolves and which also has a reasonably predictable r e s u l t . End r e s u l t s i n art are 11 usually not t o t a l l y preconceived. While the process of developing s k i l l s i s an important part of any ar t program because i t enables one to better express and execute ideas, i t can become the t o t a l focus for many students learning to work on the potter's wheel. From the f i r s t moment of success, many students want to t o t a l l y abandon handbuilding projects or other aspects of the program such as glaze making or ceramic art appreciation i n order to devote a l l their energies to producing twenty-f i v e i d e n t i c a l coffee mugs. While making twenty-five i d e n t i c a l mugs i s quite a challenge for any beginning ceramics student i t , of course, narrows the student's a r t experience considerably i f done to the exclusion of everything else available to him/her. We, as teachers, want students to produce well designed and well executed pieces of work that take time and s k i l l to some degree. We do not, however, want students to produce predictable and meaningless pieces which i n no way r e f l e c t a student's personal involvement with his or her own imagery and i a r t development. Doing the same thing over and over again obviously involves very l i t t l e problem solving. Problem solving requires thinking and experimenting before any s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s appear. Some students can and do assume that the main reason for taking an art course i s to simply "have fun and not work too hard." These students n a t u r a l l y balk at having to do any hard work. It has been the writer's experience, however, to find that most students, when provided with problems suited to their age and a b i l i t y l e v e l (these problems may be teacher and/or student designed), soon respond to the challenge with eagerness and enthusiasm. In spite of how i t can sometimes appear, most students i n secondary classrooms are not apathetic about how they spend th e i r school time and do want a chance at self-expression and an opportunity to grow 12 and develop beyond th e i r current art experience, knowledge and s k i l l . One of the most rewarding aspects of teaching a subject l i k e ceramics i s that i t does allow the student both to have fun and to develop v i s u a l and aesthetic awareness on his/her way to becoming a more a r t i s t i c a l l y educated person. As. long as students and teachers see c r a f t s as a means to a r t , the c r a f t program approach can be s a t i s f a c t o r y and u s e f u l . Having stated i n the preceding paragraphs my b e l i e f , coupled with b e l i e f s of others, that ceramics can be a valuable study area for enabling students to develop s k i l l s which they can use to express t h e i r own a r t ideas, the writer would l i k e to further add some equally important reasons for teaching ceramics at the secondary l e v e l . These reasons w i l l cover four main areas: (a) student at t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s i n a rt during adolescence; (b) the pervasiveness of ceramics; (c) the co-operative action developed among students through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th i s kind of program, and (d) the opportunities provided for developing personal imagery through ceramic a r t . STUDENT ATTITUDES It has been the writer's experience to f i n d that many adolescent students appear to be either bored or frustrated with t r a d i t i o n a l drawing and painting c l a s s e s . There are many possible reasons for t h i s s i t u a t i o n to occur, including being unstimulated by poorly planned and taught c l a s s e s , being unchallenged by doing the same type of drawing a c t i v i t i e s for too many years, being frustrated by a lack of t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y , being unable to develop the personal motivation needed to improve s k i l l s , and being un s a t i s f i e d with making something which many students consider valueless (drawings). The writer makes t h i s statement 13 based on the fac t that so many students do not take drawings home and do not seem to care about what happens to them. Producing expressive images through drawing has great personal value for the student i f he w i l l commit the energy and concentration needed to do creative work. Added to the above i s the problem of l i v i n g i n a society i n which people demand new and d i f f e r e n t entertainment every minute. Art students often want to use.a new and d i f f e r e n t material or t o o l for i t s novelty value rather than deal with an old and usual material i n i t s e n t i r e complex-i t y . The problem, of course, i n t h i s type of s i t u a t i o n i s that the student becomes as quickly bored with the new as he does with the o l d . Drawing, i t seems, f a l l s into the "old" category while ceramics f a l l s into the "new". Although some drawing i s usually done in a ceramics c l a s s , there i s in general l e s s emphasis on i t . Because of the lack of drawing demanded in ceramics many students who f e e l that they are weak or poor i n art because they cannot draw well are attracted to t h i s f i e l d of study. Some of the other a t t r a c t i o n s include a desire to work i n a new area, a need to succeed at something as challenging as mastering the potter's wheel, and a desire to express oneself i n a f a i r l y d i r e c t and e a s i l y manipulated medium. Drawing i s more e a s i l y manipulated than ceramics but many students seem unable to draw what they see in front of them and resort to reproducing symbols for objects which they developed i n e a r l i e r years. Perhaps the i n c l i n a t i o n of most educators to foster a c t i v i t i e s inherent to the l e f t hemisphere of the brain explains why students have d i f f i c u l t i e s drawing what i s in front of them. Betty Edwards (1979) has researched the a c t i v i t i e s of both sides of the brain and states the following: 14 The dominant l e f t verbal hemisphere doesn't want too much information about things i t p e r c e i v e s — j u s t enough to recog-nize and categorize. The l e f t brain, in t h i s sense, learns to take a quick look and says, "Right, that's a chair (or an umbrella, b i r d , tree, dog, etc.) ." Because the brain i s overloaded most of the time with incoming information, i t seems that one of i t s functions i s to screen out a large proportion of incoming perceptions. This i s a necessary process to enable us to focus our thinking and one that works very well for us most of the time. But drawing requires that you look at something for a long time, perceiving l o t s of d e t a i l s , r e g i s t e r i n g as much information as p o s s i b l e — i d e a l l y , everything .... (p. 76.) Many students coming from elementary schools w i l l have had some exposure to clay usually in the form of handbuilding, but in general the i r experiences are often l i m i t e d . If these e a r l y experiences are p o s i t i v e , they w i l l probably serve to motivate a student to want to learn more and in greater depth than was previously possible for them. Clay, i t seems, has an almost universal appeal for people of a l l ages everywhere. Most people f i n d a lump of cl a y i r r e s i s t i b l e to touch and change under one's f i n g e r s . As well as providing an i r r e s i s t i b l e medium with which to work, ceramics provides a chance to work with a machine, the potter's wheel. Adolescents, in general, seem to enjoy working with machines and thus the wheel s a t i s f i e s another natural i n t e r e s t of t h i s age group. Clay can also be in some ways an answer to some of our students' needs for instant r e s u l t s . Clay can be changed and formed so e a s i l y and quickly that many s a t i s f y i n g r e s u l t s can appear i n moments. I am not suggesting, of course, that three second e f f o r t s be the basis of any art program, nor do I condone "The Instant Results" attitu d e so prevalent today. What I am saying i s that f a s t r e s u l t s can be an encouraging way to begin a more in-depth study for many students. In time a l l students w i l l grow into working on longer term assignments and w i l l r e a l i z e that i n many ways ceramics from beginning to end i s one of 15 the longest of art procedures. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true of working on large pieces which often take many days to construct and many more days to dry, f i r e and glaze before an end product appears. Hopefully, students working on large pieces w i l l have adopted a new a t t i t u d e toward their work which w i l l allow them to be patient and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d enough to provide the time and e f f o r t needed to produce and f i n i s h a q u a l i t y piece of work. The attitudes of patience and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e w i l l also be c a r r i e d away with the student long after the ceramic course i s over. Along with p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s , students who take the time to master the s k i l l s needed to succeed in any medium often gain a sense of competency and s a t i s f a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s . These f e e l i n g s not only make students f e e l good about themselves but add to their sustained i n t e r e s t in art a c t i v i t i e s because we a l l enjoy f e e l i n g s of success and self-worth. PERVASIVENESS OF CERAMICS Ceramics i s an ancient art form which has been practised in some form throughout most countries in the world. Ceramics i s also a contemporary art form s t i l l being practised around the world. Because ceramic art i s both old and new i t provides a r i c h area of h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l study. If we, as teachers, are concerned about the teaching of h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l aspects of art then ceramics makes an id e a l area to include in secondary school art curriculurns. Our school populations r e f l e c t the fact that Canada i s a country of many races, n a t i o n a l i t i e s and c u l t u r e s . Most schools have a v a r i e t y of Asian, European, North American Indian, and East Indian students. The common practise of ceramic art among so many countries gives us a mutual 16 area of a r t to compare and contrast. Students can gain a respect for and an understanding of other c u l t u r a l groups through the study of the arts of any p a r t i c u l a r group. A l l of us need as many opportunities as possible to appreciate and l i v e peacefully with our fellow man. The study of ceramic art may be a small way of contributing to better understanding among diverse groups. CO-OPERATIVE ACTION In t h i s age of emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l , students can often end up thinking only in terms of their p a r t i c u l a r and personal art p r o j e c t . While i t i s important to have a serious involvement with one's own work, i t i s also important to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the whole s o c i a l experience of the classroom. A ceramics c l a s s fosters the sharing of ideas, responsi-b i l i t i e s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . A l l three of these areas usually need some guidance from the teacher in that many students are not used to expressing art thoughts v e r b a l l y , are not used to taking a large part i n the smooth running of a studio and are used to s o c i a l i z i n g to the detriment of their work and that of others. In guiding students through these areas, students often develop much neglected c r i t i c a l and analy-t i c a l s k i l l s in a r t . Students are encouraged to use proper vocabulary, terms and language associated with ceramics thus enabling them to say more p r e c i s e l y what they are thinking. There are many ways to teach these s k i l l s including role modelling, v i s u a l aids (vocabulary sheets, proper labels) and group c r i t i q u e s and discussions. Helping students to be more responsible for th e i r own classroom environment can be achieved by allowing them to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l areas of studio organization. 17 This includes clay preparation, rec y c l i n g and storage, glaze prepara-t i o n , k i l n f i r i n g s , care and maintenance of t o o l s and equipment, a r t i s t i c d i s p l a y of finish e d work, keeping track of supplies needed and any other procedures pertinent to the classrooms. To ensure that a l l t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n takes place, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to have some organiza-t i o n a l routines established. Handouts on various processes and demon-str a t i o n s of methods often help. Rotating schedules of some duties such as k i l n loading and glaze making ensure that everyone gets an equal opportunity to be involved. Students should keep t h e i r own personal records of f i r i n g s and classroom routines. PERSONAL IMAGERY Ceramics provides another excellent opportunity for students to develop th e i r own working s t y l e and personal imagery. Personal imagery i s a problem i n i t i a l l y for most students and takes time and hard work to develop. Students often come to class with a mental storehouse of t i r e d and c l i c h e d images copied and borrowed from assorted sources. As teachers we can c e r t a i n l y encourage students to use these ideas as jumping o f f or s t a r t i n g points towards developing a personal bank of images. We can also provide students with stimulation from a myriad of other sources which i n p a r t i c u l a r helps the student who claims he/she cannot think of anything to do that i s o r i g i n a l to him/her. The sources to use include nature, man-made environments, b u i l d i n g s , other a r t i s t s ' work, poetry, l i t e r a t u r e , science, music, s o c i e t i e s , l i f e experiences, e t c . Without having to work i n a vacuum, students f i n d they have a wealth of ideas to choose from. Once students use t h e i r own ideas for 18 their work, they quickly r e a l i z e how much more s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r work becomes and how boring c l i c h e s are. In conclusion, ceramics can provide the secondary student with s k i l l s , possible mastery of a new medium, and an i n t e r e s t i n g area of a r t to study both h i s t o r i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y . Ceramics can promote brotherhood as i t i s a shared art subject by many people around the world. Working in a ceramics room allows p o s i t i v e attitudes to develop. Attitudes about idea sharing, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e are often fostered. Students have the opportunity to be self-expressive while developing a bank of personal images. Students learn new tech-niques and s k i l l s while making ceramic a r t . The making of an object in ceramics demands many decisions and thus fosters independent thinking and evaluation. Finished art products are a way of communicating ideas and fee l i n g s to the rest of the school and community when put on d i s p l a y . A ceramics classroom can be a place where students have good experiences, learn a great deal about the technical and aesthetic aspects of ceramic a r t , and leave f e e l i n g p o s i t i v e l y about themselves. They w i l l leave having had a good educational experience which not only enables v them to be more a r t i s t i c a l l y educated but also to have a continued in t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g . Once the writer was convinced on a p h i l o s o p h i c a l basis that ceramics did have a valuable place in the curriculum and could be an educationally j u s t i f i a b l e v e h i c l e for achieving several of the objec-t i v e s of art education, she devised a s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning plan (SDL) in order to gain the s k i l l s and knowledge needed to teach a ceramics program. The SDL plan w i l l be outlined in the following chapter. 19 Chapter III DEVELOPING A SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PLAN In determining the po t e n t i a l for success or f a i l u r e of an i n d i v i d u -a l about to begin a SDL plan in any subject, two main issues must be considered. The f i r s t deals with the' personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which aid and f a c i l i t a t e the process while the second deals with the order in which steps are taken and the system of proceeding used. The order of events i s important because i t helps to minimize mistakes and time wasting, and to maximize p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s and quick mastery of s k i l l s and knowledge. Everyone has the p o t e n t i a l to be successful in SDL, but c e r t a i n personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are valuable to possess or develop in order to make the whole process e a s i e r . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s include the a b i l i t y to be: (a) self-motivated; (b) s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d ; (c) per-s i s t e n t ; (d) responsible for one's own learning; (e) capable of seeking out materials and resources av a i l a b l e ; (f) able to seek help when needed; (g) s e l f - c r i t i c a l ; (h) able to assess one's own growth and progress; and (i) able to make changes and adjustments when needed. One need not possess a l l of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s equally but should at le a s t be aware of the need for them throughout the SDL process. When the writer was doing the major part of her SDL i n ceramics she was not consciously aware of the order of steps taken i n devising her learning plan. A c l e a r e r picture of what took place emerged after taking time to r e c a l l and r e f l e c t . Knowles' (1975) information and guidelines for learners and teachers also proved invaluable as a source 20 of c l a r i f y i n g the steps involved in SDL. The SDL process i s analyzable according to these f i v e steps. At the onset, an o v e r a l l idea of what needed to be learned was established. What needed to be learned, i n very general terms, was d i c t a t e d by the i n i t i a l problems encountered. Then, more s p e c i f i c goals and learning objectives were i d e n t i f i e d through close examination of the i n i t i a l problems. After e s t a b l i s h i n g some s p e c i f i c goals the writer examined and r e c a l l e d some learning strategies and s t y l e s which had been useful in the past and then is o l a t e d some for future use. A conscious e f f o r t was then made to locate and have access to material and resources which would prove h e l p f u l . F i n a l l y , the writer c o l l e c t e d and t r i e d to v a l i d a t e evidence of the accomplishment of her objectives. The writer w i l l proceed in the following paragraphs to elaborate upon the f i v e steps taken in her SDL process. The four main i n i t i a l problem areas w i l l be examined and then s p e c i f i c goals applied to each area w i l l be o u t l i n e d . Once goals have been established the writer's personal learning strategies and s t y l e s w i l l be examined. Learning sources and resources w i l l be included as well as evidence of the writer's accomplishment of her objectives. The i n i t i a l problems encountered in SDL were c l a s s i f i e d into four main areas: (a) classroom organization; (b) p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s ; (c) f a c t u a l knowledge; and (d) program planning. While a l l four areas needed immediate and serious consideration before the teaching assign-ment could be started, the writer chose to deal with the organizational problems of the physical aspects of the classroom f i r s t as they appeared to be the most obvious. Although classroom organization i s a p r i o r i t y to some extent, i n that a p h y s i c a l l y organized environment makes 21 teaching more e f f e c t i v e , i t does not ne c e s s a r i l y have to come f i r s t i n problem solving. The writer has separated her solutions to the problems into four categories and deals with each i n sequential order for convenience sake. She i s aware that much of the learning overlapped into a l l four areas simultaneously. Problems i n one area c e r t a i n l y affected problems i n other areas at the same time. Exploring the classroom environment proved to be a good mental introduction to the other work required in the p r a c t i c a l , f a c t u a l and planning areas. The knowledge and s k i l l needed i n the fa c t u a l and p r a c t i c a l aspects of ceramics were appropriate secondary areas to investigate as program planning, to a great extent, depended on the writer's a b i l i t i e s i n these two areas. F i n a l l y , with some classroom organization and some basic f a c t u a l and p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s established, the program was developed. The i n i t i a l program was basic in a l l respects and developed as the writer continued the process of discovery learning over the f i v e year study. The s p e c i f i c goals and objectives established i n regard to c l a s s -room organization included: (a) becoming fa m i l i a r with the function of a l l tools and equipment; (b) making c e r t a i n that tools and equipment were in the best p o s i t i o n and condition for e f f e c t i v e use; (c) estab-l i s h i n g a r e l i a b l e c l a y r e c y c l i n g program; (d) ensuring that project storage areas were used e f f i c i e n t l y ; (e) containing poisonous chemicals in locked safety areas; (f) setting up d i s p l a y areas for two and three dimensional work; (g) ordering necessary supplies; (h) developing a consistent c l a y f i r i n g schedule; and (i) e s t a b l i s h i n g clean-up routines. The learning objectives in the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s area included: (a) developing handbuilding techniques; (b) mastering the throwing of pots 22 on the potter's wheel; (c) making glazes; and (d) acquiring a v a r i e t y of methods for decorating clay surfaces. More s p e c i f i c goals were needed in the f a c t u a l knowledge area and included: (a) gaining a comprehension of clay's behaviour and l i m i t a -t ions; (b) acquiring an understanding of glaze chemistry and toxicology; and (c) establishing a s o l i d foundation in the h i s t o r y of both ancient and contemporary ceramic a r t . The learning objectives and goals in developing and planning a ceramic program included: (a) e s t a b l i s h i n g a philosophical basis and a t t i t u d e for teaching ceramics i n a secondary school; (b) defining course requirements; and (c) devising methods of evaluation. The learning strategies and s t y l e s which a discovery learner i s o l a t e s for use are highly personal due to the fact that we a l l learn in ways which are best suited to our a b i l i t i e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The writer found information in a v a r i e t y of areas which included both human and mediated resources. The human resources (teachers and others) incorporated both verbal and nonverbal exchanges with a v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s involved in ceramic a r t . What i s meant here by a nonverbal exchange can be exemplified by the type of learning gained from simply watching a ceramic a r t i s t at work on the wheel, decorating, and g l a z i n g . Teachers at a l l l e v e l s of ceramics from elementary schools to univer-s i t i e s had something to o f f e r either in conversations or in observations of them at work. Most educators in public school systems (human resources) were anxious to share any information a v a i l a b l e on teaching techniques and were eager to explore opportunities for dialogue regard-ing their own work. One simply had to ask for consultation time in order to receive some valuable assistance. Night school community teachers, sharing the classroom were also a good source of information. Teachers of private evening classes as well as college professors were contacted for addit i o n a l lessons or discussions. Another important human resource was the studio potter and the p r a c t i s i n g ceramic a r t i s t . Studio v i s i t s with established a r t i s t s offered enlightening and i n s p i r -ing experiences. Most a r t i s t s welcomed an opportunity to share t h e i r a r t i s t i c thoughts and products. Watching a professional a r t i s t at work can teach a student many aspects of the art which he/she may not be able to formulate questions about. The salespeople in most ceramic supply stores were also an appro-pri a t e source of information. Most l o c a l salespeople have a sound knowledge of the uses of the equipment, t o o l s , and materials which they s e l l . Many of them are also involved i n the development of new glaze materials and are aware of any new products on the market. Local school boards often have s p e c i a l l y trained personnel available for consultation in the art areas. The Vancouver School Board, i n p a r t i c u l a r , o f f e r s several after school classes under the d i r e c t i o n of the Professional Development Department for teachers of ceramics. There i s , for example, a special workshop provided on f i r i n g d i f f e r e n t models of k i l n s found i n Vancouver schools. Courses offered i n various post-secondary and private i n s t i t u t i o n s s proved to be a useful source of information for the writer and were attended either i n evening or summer sessions throughout the study. Courses do play an important role i n the complete SDL approach i n that some formal i n s t r u c t i o n i s generally advisable. However, the SDL learner must approach the taking of courses based on: (a) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the course needed, (b) the appropriate timing of the course, and (c) the entry a b i l i t y l e v e l of the course. In other 24 words, an SDL learner can not depend too much on formal course o f f e r i n g s to provide the majority of information needed but should seek out courses whenever possible to complement the other resources being used. F i n a l l y , the writer learned from her students who came to c l a s s with previous knowledge or experience i n ceramics. The mediated sources of information were those which included magazines, books, f i l m s , g a l l e r i e s , museums, and s p e c i f i c t e l e v i s i o n programs. Magazines which dea l t s t r i c t l y with ceramic a r t were i n t e r -esting to read because they arrived on a consistent basis with both t e c h n i c a l , timely, and aesthetic i n s p i r a t i o n and ideas to o f f e r . The va r i e t y of books on the subject of ceramic art was wide and di v e r s e . The writer found any information needed from the most s p e c i f i c to the most general. L i b r a r i e s and book stores provided a r i c h source of ceramic l i t e r a t u r e . There were some films a v a i l a b l e for teacher use from l o c a l c o l l e g e s , school boards, and f i l m l i b r a r i e s which gave information on both technical and c u l t u r a l aspects of ceramic a r t . Museums were ideal places for examining c o l l e c t i o n s of ancient ceramics while g a l l e r i e s were useful for observing new and contemporary works. Occasionally public t e l e v i s i o n programs featured the ceramic a r t of a s p e c i f i c country or a r t i s t . Those shows were generally of a high standard of programming and worth watching. Probably the writer's most widely used learning strategy or s t y l e involved observation and t r i a l and error. A developed sense of v i s u a l awareness i s e s s e n t i a l for successful learning i n the f i n e arts as the amount of q u a l i t y information gained through observation i s often done unconsciously. Observation of students, other teachers, and a r t i s t s at work proved to be invaluable. Focusing v i s u a l attention on objects of 25 ceramic a r t , both old and new, on a d a i l y basis enabled the writer to become familiar with e s s e n t i a l aspects of ceramic art r e a d i l y . T r i a l and error behaviour i s both unavoidable and valuable i n most new learning s i t u a t i o n s . It i s unavoidable because we a l l make mistakes when learning something new and valuable because once we have corrected mistakes we are able to go forward with some important information on which to base future decisions. The writer found t h i s method of learning played a prominent r o l e throughout her f i v e year study but prim a r i l y in the beginning. In t r i a l and error behaviour, what at f i r s t appears to be random and undisciplined action i s in fact an attempt by the learner to put some order into what i s to be learned. J.S. Bruner (1961) (Pappas, 1970) believes we t r y to solve new problems by rearranging the d i f f i -c u l t y into a form which we know how to deal with. In other words, successful problem solving behaviour i s l i k e l y to be planned and based upon techniques and s t y l e s which have worked i n the past with other s i t u a t i o n s . For instance, i f one has s k i l l s i n some forms of a r t i s t i c media i t i s l i k e l y that one w i l l have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y t r a n s f e r r i n g those or similar s k i l l s into a new medium. Also, once one has learned some basic considerations i n program planning i n one area, one can expect to transfer those fundamental ideas to a new program. The writer's past experiences i n teaching other art courses formed a firm foundation for success in teaching a new course i n ceramic a r t . It i s important to emphasize here that a major factor i n the writer's success with SDL stemmed from the fact that she d i d have experience in teaching concepts and s k i l l s , preparing s p e c i f i c lessons, cla s s c o n t r o l , d i s c i p l i n e and motivation, and organizing material into 26 manageable units. A d d i t i o n a l l y , she had a s o l i d foundation i n some t h e o r e t i c a l , a e s t h e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l aspects of f i n e a r t s . I d e a l l y , learning a new area of study as well as dealing with a l l the problems of being a new teacher i s a s i t u a t i o n which would not happen often. If i t did occur, however, the following six suggestions might be useful to teachers with minimal experience and t r a i n i n g : (a) transfer as many applicable s k i l l s as possible from your area of competence to the new area and seek out analogous r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; (b) adhere to a simple program which provides a basic foundation i n concepts and s k i l l s and enrich and embellish only as your own knowledge expands; (c) seek assistance from a l l sources, including colleagues, in-service workshops, school board consultants, evening courses, post-secondary s t a f f and students; (d) emphasize your a b i l i t i e s to motivate, encourage and i n s p i r e students i n t h e i r image development; (e) p r a c t i s e s k i l l s whenever time permits; and (f) allow students to share in your own growth by working on the same projects which you have assigned to them (when time permits). Students react favourably to art teachers who show them their own challenges i n regard to materials and image development. Once general and s p e c i f i c goals had been established and learning s t y l e s and resources had been iso l a t e d and located, the writer t r i e d to c o l l e c t and va l i d a t e evidence of the accomplishment of her o b j e c t i v e s . The evidence included: (a) physical and photographic examples of her work and that of her students; (b) the e f f i c i e n t working of classroom routines and procedures; (c) the in t e r e s t of students i n ceramics; (d) the success of students' projection of ideas through ceramics; (e) the support and approval of the ceramic program by s t a f f , students, and 27 administrators; and (f) the documentation i n t h e s i s form of the work done over the past f i v e years. Having defined a s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning plan, the writer w i l l now present a d e t a i l e d account of how the plan was applied s p e c i f i c a l l y to the areas of classroom organization; p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s ; f a c t u a l know-ledge; and program planning. 28 Chapter IV APPLICATION OF SDL CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION Tools and Equipment Organizing the classroom presented several major areas of concern. The writer w i l l now define these areas and give s p e c i f i c examples of how problems were solved i n learning about tools and equipment, operation of machinery, developing a clay r e c y c l i n g program, organizing storage f a c i l i t i e s , maintaining d i s p l a y areas, ordering supplies, e s t a b l i s h i n g clay f i r i n g schedules, and i n s t i g a t i n g clean-up routines. In her preparation for teaching ceramics the writer began by finding out what t o o l s , machinery and equipment were basic and e s s e n t i a l to a ceramics studio. Checking her classroom for these appropriate pieces was the f i r s t e f f o r t of organization. A l l missing items were replaced or ordered. However, as the classroom had been recently redesigned to function s p e c i f i c a l l y as a ceramics room most of the appropriate materials and machines were located i n proper p o s i t i o n s . There were, for example, suitable sized stools for working at the potter's wheel, damp and dry cupboards, bins for recycled c l a y , sinks with plugs and proper drainage f a c i l i t i e s , canvas covered tables, t r o l l e y s for transporting p r o j e c t s , d i s p l a y areas, and a good v e n t i l a -tion system. (For a complete l i s t see Appendix A.) 29 Machinery Much of the machinery was easy to use, however, for safety reasons the writer did i n v i t e a colleague who had studied ceramics at the Department of Art Education, U.B.C. to demonstrate the proper use of the pugmill and k i l n s . The writer also attended a workshop on k i l n opera-t i o n offered through the Vancouver School Board. As well as workshop attendance the writer took advantage of the information a v a i l a b l e through the k i l n maintenance personnel at the Vancouver School Board to solve various other k i l n and f i r i n g problems. Clay Recycling I n i t i a l l y , the writer t r i e d to do a l l the c l a y r e c y c l i n g unaided and found that not only was i t an impossible task to keep up with, but i t was not b e n e f i c i a l to the students. Students need to p a r t i c i p a t e in t h i s e s s e n t i a l procedure in order to appreciate the f u l l c ycle of a c t i v i t i e s involved in ceramic a r t . The writer worked out a system of group p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n clay r e c y c l i n g (see Appendix B) which enabled everyone to share in the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . At the beginning of every new course each student who had paid his/her fees was given a new box of cla y for his/her personal use. Once the cl a y had been used, i t was up to each student to recycle enough clay for his/her use. Many students enjoyed the process and we often ended up with a surplus of recondi-tioned clay. The writer also took advantage of the clay r e c y c l i n g service offered by the Vancouver School Board. The dried out, properly packaged clay which accumulated at the end of each semester was picked up and recycled free of charge. 30 Clay Storage Because the school was a community one, the classroom storage areas and equipment had to be shared equitably so i t was important to l a b e l and separate day school shelves and cupboards from night school. A lockable storage room was also available for containing poisonous chemicals which eliminated some p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous s i t u a t i o n s i n the classroom. Display There were several b u l l e t i n boards and shelves i n the classroom for display use. The b u l l e t i n boards were used to mount photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s of various pots and sculptures as well as information on procedures and techniques. A large sheet of butcher paper was used as a vocabulary record. When a new term was introduced i t was posted along with i t s d e f i n i t i o n on the sheet as a d a i l y reminder of ceramic l a n -guage. Various books on ceramic art as well as pamphlets and other magazines were available on a d a i l y basis in the classroom. The resource books which proved to be of primary benefit are: The  technique of handbuilt pottery (Winterburn, 1969); Ceramics, a potter's  handbook (Nelson, 1971); Making pottery without a wheel ( B a l l , 1965); P o t t e r y on the wheel (Woody, 1975); F i n d i n g one's way with c l a y (Berensohn, 1972); and Getting into pots (Wettlaufer, 1976). Students were encouraged to read ceramic material during any free time. Students were also encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n putting together pottery displays and designing pertinent b u l l e t i n boards. The b u l l e t i n board d i s p l a y s , for instance, could r e l a t e ceramics to other art forms or could be sources of design i n s p i r a t i o n for pots and sculptures. 31 Supplies Every art teacher i s responsible for ordering supplies i n the f a l l for the next year's classes. This was one of the most d i f f i c u l t problems the writer encountered as she did not know how much c l a y would be used, which supplies would be used more often or which tools would need to be replaced. Some compromises had to be made throughout the beginning year but important missing materials were generally a v a i l a b l e for purchase at any time through the Vancouver School Board or l o c a l pottery s u p p l i e r s . Missing or unavailable materials created a need for f l e x i b l e and imaginative thinking i n problem solving. Groups of students invented new uses for old tools and basic materials. For instance, i f a chemical was missing from a glaze recipe, s a t i s f a c t o r y substitutions were found or new recipes were t r i e d and students made sponges for cleaning out bottoms of t a l l pots by tying small sponges to old paintbrush handles. In f a c t , a complete l i s t of simple solutions for common problems was compiled and added to as new ideas appeared (see Appendix C) . The writer also received help i n ordering supplies from her two art colleagues i n the school although neither was d i r e c t l y involved i n ceramics. Any excess supplies which were ordered by mistake or were inherited from previous teachers were shared with other teachers in the area. Two other good sources of assistance i n ordering supplies were ceramic books and school r e q u i s i t i o n l i s t s from previous years. By examining past l i s t s one can e s t a b l i s h a general knowledge of materials which are frequently used and in what qua n t i t i e s they are ordered. Once the writer had established which cone temperature she would be f i r i n g to i t was easy to fi n d several recipes for glazes at that temperature. The recipes need several basic chemicals and some i n larger q u a n t i t i e s than 32 others. Of course, the budget allotment for each program also played an important part in how many and how expensive materials were able to be purchased. At the end of every semester students made or donated several pieces to the annual school pottery s a l e . The proceeds from the sale were put in the school pottery fund and were used when necessary to buy extra supplies and spe c i a l equipment for the classroom. F i r i n g Setting up a r e l i a b l e f i r i n g schedule depended on the kinds and numbers of k i l n s a v a i l a b l e . The school had one large, one medium, and one small k i l n . The large k i l n was slow f i r i n g and was used for bisequeware. It was a top loading Cress e l e c t r i c k i l n model LT-3K. The medium k i l n f i r e d quickly and was used for gla z i n g . It was a top loading Amaco e l e c t r i c k i l n model LT-2. The small k i l n also f i r e d quickly and was used for glazing test pieces i n p a r t i c u l a r . It was a top loading Amaco e l e c t r i c k i l n model LT-3. Each k i l n was f i r e d c a r e f u l l y and a l l f i r i n g s and glaze r e s u l t s were recorded u n t i l the writer gained a sense of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y regarding k i l n behaviour. As well as reading about k i l n s , the writer learned to f i r e k i l n s properly through the e a r l i e r mentioned k i l n workshop. Once r e a l i s t i c f i r i n g routines and guidelines were established, students were encouraged to pa r t i c i p a t e in t h i s part of the clay process (see Appendix D). Clean-up Routines Esta b l i s h i n g clean-up routines for the ceramics room was based on the writer's knowledge of which methods worked well i n other art cl a s s e s . In general, a l l the rules which apply to any a r t classroom clean-up s i t u a t i o n apply to a ceramics classroom. Once the room was properly organized with l a b e l s on cupboards and s p e c i f i c places a l l o t t e d for p a r t i c u l a r tools i t was up to the writer and her students to maintain the order. The writer t r i e d to set a personal example as well as remind students of t h e i r mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A sense of pride in the class environment plus a respect for the work of others helped to foster p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . In addition to each i n d i v i d u a l cleaning up on a d a i l y basis, the en t i r e group cleaned up on a monthly basis for one c l a s s period. Students were encouraged to take fini s h e d work home to share with their f a m i l i e s and to allow space for new work to be pro-duced . The classroom routines and procedures did not remain f i x e d . If a better, more e f f i c i e n t process was learned the old routine was changed. For example, c e r t a i n projects demanded more space or d i f f e r e n t handling than others. The organization of the room t r i e d to r e f l e c t the l i f e and v i t a l i t y of the ongoing work of i t s students. The organization of the room t r i e d to serve the needs of the students f i r s t . Once the physical aspects of classroom were organized, the writer began to examine the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s which needed to be mastered. The p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s are now presented. PRACTICAL SKILLS The p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s involved four main areas: (a) handbuilding techniques; (b) wheel or throwing techniques; (c) g l a z i n g ; and (d) various methods of enriching or decorating clay surfaces. 34 Handbuilding Techniques The handbuilding techniques to be learned involved a v a r i e t y of methods including: (a) pinch, (b) c o i l , (c) slab, (d) patch, (e) molds, and (f) combinations of a l l the techniques. The writer had previously experienced working with most of the methods needed for handbuilding and therefore needed only to r e f i n e the s k i l l s already acquired. The refinement was based mainly on p r a c t i s i n g building pots, sculptures, and other functional objects using a l l or some of the basic techniques. The writer set s p e c i f i c problems for herself to solve such as buil d i n g a combination patch and c o i l pot of a s p e c i f i c height and width. Many of the techniques were found well i l l u s t r a t e d i n a v a r i e t y of pottery books. The writer also attended a summer course in handwork at the Emily Carr School of Art which enabled her to share her working ideas and a b i l i t i e s with other students and afforded her the opportunity of watching other a r t i s t s at work on handbuilt p r o j e c t s . College and uni v e r s i t y campuses were also v i s i t e d during winter sessions i n order for the writer to see work being done by art teachers and a r t i s t s i n t r a i n i n g . Another important source of i n s p i r a t i o n and example were the va r i e t y of pots i n l o c a l pottery shops. The writer was able to examine and handle many pieces of work which were offered for sale by current ceramic a r t i s t s . This type of cl o s e , firsthand inspection enabled the writer to learn by example. Wheelwork Techniques The s k i l l s needed to master the potter's wheel involved: (a) cla y preparation; (b) centering; (c) p u l l i n g a c y l i n d e r ; (d) shaping; (e) trimming; and (f) adding l i d s , spouts and handles. In order to learn 35 the basic throwing techniques the writer enrolled i n private classes i n the evening through a l o c a l pottery studio. The s k i l l s learned in the classes were then practised on a d a i l y basis during lunch hours and after school u n t i l the techniques were perfected. The consistency and frequency of practise proved to be e s s e n t i a l to progress i n t h i s area. After completing a basic course, the writer continued with her study i n a course designed for intermediates. One must be able to develop a rhythm or flow of energy when learning to throw pots. As well as working in practise sessions, the writer also watched experts i n the f i e l d . She invited other inst r u c t o r s and students of ceramic art to v i s i t the classroom to demonstrate i n d i v i d u a l throwing s t y l e s and methods. Student teachers i n art t r a i n i n g at U.B.C., for instance, worked i n the ceramics room during practicums and offered many useful suggestions on mastering the potter's wheel. Although throwing s t y l e s are very personal the writer found some rules applied to gaining success in t h i s area. Those rules include having properly conditioned c l a y , being comfortable at the wheel and developing a unity with the c l a y . (For a complete l i s t of rules see Appendix E.) Glazing The art of glazing was also based on experimentation and im i t a t i o n . The writer learned the basics of dipping, painting, and spraying glazes in the private studio classes she attended. She kept records of glazes e f f e c t s and re s u l t s for every experiment t r i e d . Some r e s u l t s , of course, were t o t a l l y unpredicted and only served to i l l u s t r a t e how exciting and spontaneous the work in ceramics can be. 36 Surface Decoration Learning to enrich or decorate cl a y surfaces involved t r i a l and error and observation for the writer. Many books i l l u s t r a t e d various methods and techniques for a l t e r i n g and embellishing pots or sculptures. The monthly art and ceramic magazines, in p a r t i c u l a r , featured new and d i f f e r e n t methods of c l a y surface treatment. The kind of serious playing that surrounded learning to decorate clay was one of the most in t e r e s t i n g parts of the writer's SDL i n ceramics. (For a complete l i s t of methods t r i e d see Appendix F.) The p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s learned developed slowly over the f i v e year study. With experience and new knowledge the writer was able to be more cr e a t i v e and f l e x i b l e with techniques and thus more competent to give assistance to students struggling to solve the technical aspects of problems in ceramics. Like a l l p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , the more often they were used the more polished and refined they became. Once the methods i n v o l v e d i n h a n d b u i l d i n g , wheelwork, g l a z i n g , and d e c o r a t i n g were learned, practise appeared to be the most important aspect of gaining expertise in each area. As students i n any a r t f i e l d we learn the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s best by doing them. One other aid in learning prac-t i c a l s k i l l s was the constructive c r i t i c i s m of experts. Often a s k i l l can be improved by a very simple a l t e r a t i o n of approach or technique which i s offered by an observer. Starting from the simple and gradually working toward the complex was also b e n e f i c i a l . As each technique was attempted and perfected, the writer t r i e d to impose a personal s t y l e of working which was comfortable and rewarding to her. Although developing a personal s t y l e was important, the writer also remained motivated and inspired by the examples of work done by outstanding a r t i s t s . Trying to 37 imitate the shapes or surface enrichments of other a r t i s t s provided a worthwhile learning challenge. Even after the writer f e l t confident in her a b i l i t i e s to execute c e r t a i n techniques, she remained aware of the need to adapt, adjust, modify, and a l t e r when necessary. Although the writer in t h i s study has separated the p r a c t i c a l and f a c t u a l knowledge gained into separate stages of learning, much of the factual knowledge was learned simultaneously with the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s . The writer w i l l now examine the areas of f a c t u a l knowledge. FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE In gaining competence in f a c t u a l knowledge concerning ceramics, the writer focused her learning on these three areas: (a) the nature of c l a y , (b) glaze chemistry and toxicology, and (c) the h i s t o r y of ancient and contemporary ceramic a r t . The Nature of Clay Gaining an understanding of clay's behaviour and l i m i t a t i o n s was achieved in three main ways. The f i r s t was simply to play with the c l a y in an explorative manner to f i n d out how i t reacted to c e r t a i n manipula-tions such as stretching, r o l l i n g , p atting, pinching, imprinting, and bending. As there are many d i f f e r e n t kinds of c l a y including earthen-ware, stoneware, and porcelain each one was explored for i t s own i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Some of these clays which were compatible were also used j o i n t l y for some projects. Various clays were also altered in colour by the addition of stains and oxides to provide more v a r i e t y . The second source of information was teachers who gave demonstrations on how to prepare c l a y for use. The preparation of c l a y 38 from the dry powder to the moist state i s usually not done in secondary schools but i s important information for teachers to have. The prepara-t i o n of moist clay for projects, however, i s a s k i l l used by a l l potters. This preparation involves a wedging and kneading of the cla y to render i t smoothly consistent and free of a i r bubbles. Although many textbooks i l l u s t r a t e these techniques, they are ones which are better learned by observing someone. Once the writer t r i e d wedging and kneading, i t was hel p f u l to have a teacher to give advice on simple corrections to make in hand and body p o s i t i o n s for better r e s u l t s . Watching a teacher throw pots on the wheel while d e l i b e r a t e l y abusing the c l a y was also valuable in that i t gave some general expectations of how clay would behave i f treated i n a c e r t a i n manner. For example, overwet clay w i l l slump and become soggy while underwet cl a y w i l l drag and s t i c k to the hand. Teachers often showed, by example of c o l l e c t e d pieces, such c l a y aspects as over or under f i r e d c l a y , glaze defects such as b l i s t e r s and pinholes, and various states such as greenware and bisqueware. Learning, for instance, that c l a y handles snap o f f e a s i l y in the greenware state and that bowls chip r e a d i l y in the bisqueware state saved a number of small pieces from d i s a s t e r . In addition to teachers, l o c a l salespeople proved knowledgeable i n cl a y behaviour and on many occasions gave advice on the kind of c l a y best suited to c e r t a i n projects, or the best clay to buy for v e r s a t i l -i t y . The t h i r d source of information was books and magazines. Although t h i s source was rather l i m i t e d i t was important at times. For example, monthly ceramic magazines have columns on te c h n i c a l advice regarding clay and glazing which often solved a classroom clay problem. 3 9 Glaze Chemistry and Toxicology Learning the fact s regarding glaze chemistry and toxicology was and continues to be one of the writer's most challenging problems. Much of the information was gained through the various learning s t r a t e g i e s used throughout the whole study. These involved talking to people, reading books, and trying by t r i a l and er r o r . The writer was aware of a course offered i n learning the basics of glaze making but was unable to attend i t . The intermediate l e v e l course in t h i s area was to be considered for a future time. Many teachers are w i l l i n g to lend recipes or formulae for glazes which had been successful for them but a true understanding of what glazes were, how the chemicals interacted, and how formulae could be adjusted was e s s e n t i a l to have. This information was r e a d i l y available i n a number of books and required some concentrated reading. Simplifying the knowledge into basic terms for beginning students to understand helped to c l a r i f y the facts for the w r i t e r . (See Appendix G.) Test t i l e s were made and small batches of glazes were tested under various conditions. The re s u l t s were recorded and c o l l e c t e d for future reference. Teaching students how to use a gram scale, measure chemicals accurately, and mix glazes properly and safe l y also c l a r i f i e d methods for the writer. Very l i t t l e appeared i n the usual textbooks regarding the p o t e n t i a l toxic changes of many chemicals used i n gla z i n g , so the writer researched t h i s topic in l i b r a r i e s . Some a r t i c l e s were found which proved to be useful in that many chemicals were l i s t e d s t a t i n g t h e i r p o t e n t i a l harmful e f f e c t s over periods of time. This information was important to have i n order to ensure that the students worked in the safest environment possible. (For a guide to Health and Safety see Appendix H.) The chemicals which appeared so harmless could, i n f a c t , 40 be dangerous i f used c a r e l e s s l y . Many a r t i s t s spend en t i r e l i f e t i m e s studying glazing. Such study does, i n f a c t , require constant considera-tion from the writer even after f i v e years of work in ceramics. Ceramic Art History The largest area of knowledge missing for the beginning ceramics teacher was that of ceramic art hi s t o r y and contemporary ceramic a r t . As i n the glazing process, t h i s was not an area to be covered i n a few years of study. It s t i l l continues to be an ongoing part of the writer's SDL i n ceramics. The writer approached t h i s part of her study by separating her learning, into two areas. The f i r s t area was the h i s t o r y of ceramic a r t . The resources which proved to be the most he l p f u l in studying past ceramic art included books, f i l m s , and v i s i t s to museums. Books were the most complete and accurate source and were e a s i l y borrowed from both public and u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s . Although fi l m s dealing with art h i s t o r y do not usually i s o l a t e ceramic a r t for consideration, many include important ceramic s t y l e s or pieces pertinent to c e r t a i n periods i n the evolution of f i n e a r t . Museums and g a l l e r i e s often contain permanent pieces of ceramic art representative of p a r t i c u -l a r cultures and times but do have v i s i t i n g shows as well. There have been, for example, v i s i t i n g shows which featured snuff b o t t l e s , soup tureens, and tea pots. The writer also gained some valuable knowledge regarding ceramic art from various fine arts courses which she attended during her undergraduate years. The courses which were of p a r t i c u l a r value included the hist o r y of renaissance a r t , a study of South American art and the h i s t o r y of modern a r t . A l l courses included some important information concerning sculpture and ceramic pots. Not only were the 41 techniques and methods of a r t i s t s emphasized, but the importance and value of the pieces for the a r t i s t s was examined. A r t i s t s from the beginning of recorded h i s t o r y have found ceramic art an e s s e n t i a l medium for expressing ideas r e l a t i n g to r e l i g i o n and d a i l y r i t u a l s . People of a l l races, c u l t u r e s , and times have used ceramic symbols to give r e a l i t y to ideas and fee l i n g s and much of our knowledge of past c i v i l i z a t i o n s i s av a i l a b l e mainly through the preservation of ceramic dishes and a r t i -f a c t s . Another way i n which the writer was able to study ancient ceramic art was provided by v i s i t s to private c o l l e c t o r s . One c o l l e c -t o r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , had some outstanding work from China gathered over many years. It i s often d i f f i c u l t to know who the private c o l l e c t o r s are but many ceramic a r t i s t s and teachers have access to these c o l l e c -tors through personal frie n d s h i p s . A further important way to l e a r n about ceramic art was to t r a v e l to other countries. Most countries c o l l e c t and preserve examples of t h e i r c u l t u r a l heritage and i n many countries ceramic a r t i s t s s t i l l p r a c tise i n the same ways as t h e i r ancestors d i d . The writer had an opportunity to v i s i t a small pottery i n Mexico during her f i v e year study and was amazed to see the b e a u t i f u l r e s u l t s of very old pottery making techniques. Having students become interested in p a r t i c u l a r ceramic s t y l e s was also used as a means of study for the writer. Research papers were shared with the classes and i l l u s t r a t i o n s were displayed for discussion. To learn about contemporary ceramic art the writer r e l i e d on books, magazines, l o c a l pottery stores, g a l l e r i e s , and c o l l e g e s . Books and magazines provided an excellent, regular format for study as each was concerned with the most recent developments in ceramic technique and s t y l e . Local pottery stores and g a l l e r i e s were also v i s i t e d on a 42 regular basis i n order for the writer to be exposed to the most current work a v a i l a b l e . Colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s were i n t e r e s t i n g to v i s i t because the writer was able to see work in progress as well as the fi n i s h e d pieces done by students in th e i r graduating shows. Some of the students agreed to v i s i t the school to give demonstrations on techniques and discussions on th e i r work. One show of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was given by a student involved i n making ceramic buildings which were r e p l i c a s of famous cathedrals and other temples of worship. A l l of the teachers in t r a i n i n g i n ceramics also brought examples of th e i r work from the Art Education Department at U.B.C. during th e i r p r a c t i c a . There were annual i n v i t a t i o n a l pottery shows sponsored by various a r t i s t s from B r i t i s h Columbia which provided another i n t e r e s t i n g source for study. The writer did not enter any pieces of her own work in these annual shows but did t r y an experiment in producing and s e l l i n g her work during one summer of the f i v e year study. The reason for having t h i s experience was based on a c u r i o s i t y about how marketing in ceramics i s done. Some students i n secondary schools today are concerned with future employment and are anxious to know about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of being employed in the ceramic art f i e l d . To gain some knowledge firsthand the writer made some pieces of pop a r t ceramic jewellery and proceeded to market the pieces in l o c a l stores. The study involved examining the cost of materials, the time and labour involved in producing and s e l l i n g , and the p r o f i t s made. It was a rewarding a c t i v i t y i n that there i s a s a t i s f a c t i o n i n seeing one's own work appreciated by others, and i t was a substantial introduction to market-ing. The writer found the scheme needed to be refined and streamlined considerably before any p r o f i t a b l e employment for students could be 43 found i n t h i s area. Working on a small scale as an i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t proved to be d i f f i c u l t i n terms of monetary success. Some graduating students, however, were anxious to t r y t h i s adventure for themselves and planned to t r y a similar project at a later' time. Acquiring f a c t u a l knowledge i n ceramic art i s one of the most rewarding aspects of an in d i v i d u a l ' s involvement i n the f i e l d . Because there i s so much to learn from the past and because many new ideas are s t i l l being presented ceramics i s a source of continuing stimulation, both mentally and p h y s i c a l l y . The writer planned much of the f i r s t c l a y program based on her own s k i l l s and knowledge at the time. The main reasons for success of the beginning program were based on the writer's past experience with a r t program planning and teaching. Although the information and s k i l l s she had were i n i t i a l l y very basic, they were adequate to provide the ess e n t i a l s of a good program. The methods of program planning which were used are now presented. PROGRAM PLANNING The problems involved in planning a ceramics program are sim i l a r to those i n planning any other art program. The teacher, once having established a philosophical basis for teaching the course i n the f i r s t place, must then address the following issues: (a) what information i s important to lear n , (b) what assignments are appropriate for the inter e s t and s k i l l l e v e l of each cla s s and in d i v i d u a l s i n the c l a s s , (c) what i s the most b e n e f i c i a l order or sequence of learning, (d) what value can the student receive in terms of enjoyment, developing personal imagery and knowledge from each lesson, and (e) what terms of evaluation 44 are most appropriate and b e n e f i c i a l to both student, parent, and teacher? In deciding what information was important to them the writer made the assumption that most students would know very l i t t l e about cl a y and would therefore need to f i r s t understand i t s composition, preparation and processes. (For a complete l i s t of the clay process from s t a r t to f i n i s h , see Appendix I.) Students then learned the basic s k i l l s involved in handbuilding, including pinch, c o i l , mold, slab, and patch techniques. With a good foundation in cla y behaviour learned through handbuilding students proceeded to learn wheelwork s k i l l s including centering, p u l l i n g a c y l i n d e r , shaping, trimming, and f i n i s h i n g pots. The decorating and enriching s k i l l s were learned simultaneously as the need to a l t e r clay surfaces arose. The use of to o l s and equipment was also taught as the need for them appeared necessary. Ceramic art hi s t o r y and appreciation was taught i n d i r e c t l y for the majority of the time as part of introductions to or motivations for s p e c i f i c lessons. Intermediate l e v e l students were, however, expected to present a written research paper on some aspect of ceramic art as well as a written review of a personal v i s i t to a g a l l e r y e x h i b i t i n g ceramic a r t . Establishing what kinds of assignments would teach the s k i l l s and attit u d e s desired, plus be of in t e r e s t to students, was based on the writer's past experiences i n lesson planning for other kinds of f i n e a r t s programs and on t r i a l and error behaviour. In general, once the handbuilding s k i l l to be taught was is o l a t e d the writer t r i e d to f i n d the most stimulating and rewarding presentation of the idea to challenge and motivate her students. For example, pinching pots i n cla y i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c i t i n g for many grade nine students as they seem to f e e l the end re s u l t s are not worth the e f f o r t . Discussing Japanese tea bowls and pinching pots for t h i s purpose seemed to help. Also, in l a y i n g other coloured clays to change the surface pattern proved to be of i n t e r e s t . Once two i d e n t i c a l pinch pots were made and joined, the use of pinch pots was expanded. Making a bi r d whistle from the joined pinch pots was another lesson which elevated the pinch pot in the estimation of beginning students. Each student was encouraged to make h i s or her a whistle as unique and int e r e s t i n g in shape and design as possi b l e . The si z e of the bi r d body and the number of holes c o n t r o l l e d the tones made. Several students made more than one size of bird and experimented l a t e r i n small groups with playing simple tunes. Students were inspired to t r y to make other kinds of simple musical instruments from c l a y , including f l u t e s , oricanas, and drums. Small miniature thrown b o t t l e s were also altered into simple whistles. Some discussion arose of countries, such as Mexico and Peru, which h i s t o r i c a l l y have used cl a y to make small whistle toys. Students were encouraged to pursue further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of ceramic objects indigenous to South American countries. The writer t r i e d to incorporate the natural i n t e r e s t s and concerns of students at p a r t i c u l a r age l e v e l s into the clay problems presented. For instance, an intense concern for r e l a t i o n s h i p s , physical appearance and s o c i a l concerns were the basis for some lessons. Students might be asked to do a sculpture i l l u s t r a t i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p such as mother and c h i l d , the fri e n d s , or the quarrel. Pieces of work involving athletes, dancers, or acrobats demonstrated an i n t e r e s t i n the human form. L i f e - s i z e d bodies or r e a l i s t i c s e l f - p o r t r a i t s were c o n s t r u c t e d to explore the human form on a d i f f e r e n t scale. S o c i a l concerns such as i s o l a t i o n , ecology, world hunger, poverty, endangered species, threat of war, ageing, and dying were also expressed through c l a y pieces. The int e r e s t i n puzzles or in t e r l o c k i n g patterns was explored through making o r i g i n a l cartoon figures in c l a y and then cutting the figu r e into pieces of a jigsaw. One assignment required a sculpture co n s i s t i n g of f i v e or more pieces based on a family of shapes which could be separated into i n d i v i d u a l forms or could be interlocked into one form. Art h i s t o r y and appreciation was also included in assignments through various means. One assignment challenged the students to learn through the imi t a t i o n of a s t y l e or type of work from a past c u l t u r e . Surrealism and an in t e r e s t in the absurd appealed to most secondary students. Making an everyday object in either minimum or maximum size proved to be of great i n t e r e s t . Making a sculpture which put two u n l i k e l y elements together, such as a nonfood item on a dinner p l a t e , was one student's example of the absurd. Making fantasy shoes such as a pyramid, or a cat shape, was also a popular s u r r e a l i s t i c assignment. Pop ar t and i t s humourous implications was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y explored i n sculpture forms. Another lesson which emphasized humour or wit was to make a soup tureen which was unusual.. Students made a great v a r i e t y including a queen tureen, a whale of a tureen, a garbage can tureen, and a turnip tureen. Students were also interested i n generally pleasing design forms. One assignment was to b u i l d a pot based on an organic shape or form such as a s h e l l , stone, or vegetable. The form was to be simple, elegant and re f i n e d . As well as sculptures which expressed emotions and personal philosophies, students were challenged to make well constructed and designed hand made func-t i o n a l objects such as mirror frames, t r i v e t s , wall plaques, and containers. Some assignments were based on notebook exercises. (See Appendix J.) Many lessons were based on what students said they were 47 interested in learning. A l l lessons were subject to modification, adaptation, a l t e r a t i o n , and elimination, depending on how they were received by students and how much students learned from doing them. The lessons were designed as much as possible so that the l e s s able student could handle the problem while the more able student would not be bored by i t . The order of learning was based e s s e n t i a l l y on s t a r t i n g with the most simple and basic s k i l l s and gradually adding the more complicated and complex s k i l l s . For example, most students spent some time i n handbuilding and exploring clay's l i m i t a t i o n s before s t a r t i n g to work on the potter's wheel. Once a sense of c l a y behaviour was established, students worked a l t e r n a t e l y one week on handwork and the other on wheelwork. Teaching how to throw on the potter's wheel was based mainly on how the writer learned to throw, although there are many throwing s t y l e s available to emulate. The writer learned to throw by taking a beginner's pottery course at a private studio. The course consisted of ten basic lessons on kneading, centering, throwing a c y l i n d e r , a l t e r i n g c y l i n d e r s , trimming, and g l a z i n g . The writer also used books with i l l u s t r a t i o n s on throwing and practised d i f f e r e n t techniques d a i l y for the f i r s t year of teaching ceramics. A valuable source of information on throwing was provided by the night school i n s t r u c t o r . He offered c r i t i c i s m and advice on the technical aspects of throwing as well as demonstrating e f f e c t i v e ways of throwing. After the f i r s t two years of teaching ceramics the writer enrolled i n an intermediate l e v e l throwing course offered by the same private studio. She also benefited from a ceramics summer school course offered by the Emily Carr School of Art, which included throwing and 48 handbuilding methods. While lessons helped, the most consistent method for learning was d a i l y p r a c t i s e . The writer challenged he r s e l f to making a v a r i e t y of shapes and sizes of pots u n t i l she could make most shapes e a s i l y and predictably. The writer i s o l a t e d some basic rules for throwing which seemed to help beginning potters. Once the students had mastered cylinders they were able to a l t e r pot shapes enough to make other forms including bowls, plates and tea pots. Both the handbuilding and wheelwork course requirements were divided into two separate areas which included one for basic beginners and one for intermediate to advanced students (see Appendices K and L) . At times, unavoidably, there are both beginning and experienced students i n the same c l a s s so course requirements are d i f f e r e n t for various students i n the same room. Evaluation Deciding the value of each lesson i n terms of student s k i l l and knowledge, image development and enjoyment was handled by the writer i n consultation with her students i n most cases. The manners i n which these issues were explored depended upon d i f f e r e n t forms of evaluation. Before beginning a d e s c r i p t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t forms o f e v a l u a t i o n , however, the writer w i l l characterize the nature of evaluation. Evaluating children's art involves making some judgements about a c h i l d ' s growth or progress based on some planned goals or aims. Because of the nature of a r t , a r t processes and outcomes, and chi l d r e n evalua-ti o n provides the art teacher with some d i f f i c u l t i e s . E.W. Eisner (1966) writes that a r t , unlike most subject areas, does not have as uniquely stable, consistent or predictable objectives upon which to base judgements regarding educational behaviour as do other subjects. For example, mathematics or science courses have c l e a r l y defined t o o l s such as tests which are designed to measure knowledge of s p e c i f i c f a c t s , procedures, formulae, or problem solutions. It i s important to note here that although Eisner was speaking about c h i l d r e n , i t i s reasonable to apply h i s ideas to the problems of evaluation at the secondary or adolescent l e v e l . Eisner (1966) believes that i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to cont r o l the type of learning which may develop during the a r t process. He does agree, however, that art teachers must be clear about t h e i r purposes for teaching any art lesson (pp. 384-388). Kenneth M. Lansing (1976) has i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r concerns regarding art evaluation. He believes that teachers must f i r s t e s t a b l i s h some standards or expecta-tions of a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y l e v e l s for the majority of c h i l d r e n at p a r t i c u l a r grades. He further suggests that the areas of s k i l l s , a ttitudes and knowledge be of prime consideration when es t a b l i s h i n g goals in art education. Lansing (1976) points out some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n evaluating children's art growth even after goals are developed when he says that children may not make equal progress i n each area simultan-eously. For instance, a student may be very knowledgeable about a r t hi s t o r y but very poor i n technical s k i l l s (pp. 532-544). Both Lansing (1976) and Eisner (1966) are concerned with evaluating children's a r t on the basis of p a r t i c u l a r educational objectives. Eisner (1966), however, applies a further condition to evaluation when he suggests that l e s s emphasis be put upon one c h i l d ' s a r t processes and products i n compari-son to another's. He sympathizes with the fact that students and t h e i r parents want to know how they stand i n comparison to the i r age group, but maintains that the only meaningful assessment of a r t i s t i c growth comes from comparing one's own past a b i l i t i e s with one's present a b i l i t i e s . Once teachers are aware of some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n planning what chi l d r e n w i l l learn from a s p e c i f i c lesson, they also become aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n evaluating art growth. Art teachers must, to some extent, be prepared to evaluate educational behaviour based upon unique and p a r t i c u l a r circumstances for each student. At the same time, however, each teacher generally has an o v e r a l l point of view on evaluation and a series of s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a which can be applied to most lessons. The writer believes that evaluation of students' progress and growth i n any a r t c l a s s i s best handled i n a v a r i e t y of ways. Ideally the procedure should involve exchanges between student and teacher during the en t i r e working process and not only at the end of an assigned project. The terms of evaluation should be c l e a r l y explained to and understood by students at the onset of any lesson. The teacher and student should, however, maintain a c e r t a i n sense of f l e x i b i l i t y i n regard to evaluation, as what i s learned by a student may not always turn out to be what the teacher and/or student planned for the student to l e a r n . Teachers must be prepared to give c r e d i t for new and o r i g i n a l outcomes of s p e c i f i c lessons. Students deserve and need to know the c r i t e r i a which w i l l be used i n evaluating their work, and also how much emphasis w i l l be placed on each area. For example, some lessons may stress technical a b i l i t y over c r e a t i v e problem solving such as when one t r i e s to master throwing a cylinder on the wheel. Most lessons w i l l i d e a l l y involve a v a r i e t y of areas of teacher concern such as student i n t e r e s t , e f f o r t , expressiveness, o r i g i n a l i t y , s k i l l l e v e l , knowledge of a r t , a b i l i t y to solve v i s u a l problems, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l a s s routines 51 and discussions, receptiveness to c r i t i c i s m , respect for others' work and environment, and co-operation. More s p e c i f i c .influences on evalua-t i o n may involve such issues as punctuality, completion of work, extended e f f o r t and i n t e r e s t , conscientious a t t i t u d e , and the a b i l i t y to think independently. The process i s a complex and often complicated one which involves much communication between teacher and student. Many students can become overly concerned with the mark they are going to receive on any given project. It i s important to arr i v e at some kind of balance of importance in t h i s area as we do want students to be as concerned about their art processes as they are about their art pro-ducts. It i s our r o l e as teachers to help students to appreciate the c u l t u r a l and humanistic enrichment of t h e i r l i v e s which i s often gained through the study and making of a r t . This appreciation can often help in keeping marks and grades in some reasonable perspective. Up to t h i s point, many of the comments made have been oriented toward teacher based evaluation. We a l l want to know when we have succeeded in the estimation of our teachers, but we should also want to know when we have succeeded i n our own estimation. To be able to judge one's own progress and growth i s more d i f f i c u l t than to be evaluated by someone e l s e . Many of us do not have the natural or learned s k i l l s to be able to accurately assess ourselves. To encourage students to be able to make self-evaluations and therefore be more responsible for t h e i r own learning, several ideas can be t r i e d . One idea that students seem to l i k e and are able to handle without too much d i f f i c u l t y i s the completing of a s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n form for each project which i s completed (see Appendix M) . Not only do students benefit by taking some part i n t h e i r own grading but they also tend to have a clearer p icture of what c r i t e r i a evaluations are often based on. Their p a r t i c i p a t i o n helps them to understand that evaluation i s concerned with the success or f a i l u r e of the work and i s not only concerned with the p e r s o n a l i t y of the student. The writer i s aware that a l l art forms are concerned with the personality of the student. However, some students are concerned that marks teachers give have something to do with how much the teacher l i k e s or d i s l i k e s the student. With s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n included as part of the f i n a l mark given, these misconceptions can often be cleared up. / A n o t h e r source of evaluation can be found in the classroom c r i t i q u e session where a l l students p a r t i c i p a t e i n a viewing and discussion of one another's work. Unless students are practised in or i n i t i a l l y guided through t h i s kind of group dialogue, many c r i t i q u e s can be unsuccessful. Even though the c r i t i q u e process gives students an opportunity to express v e r b a l l y some ideas about what they see, many have d i s t i n c t d i f f i c u l t i e s saying exactly what they mean. This i s possibly due to the fact that many of them have not been required to do t h i s kind of c r i t i c i s m or analyzing before. These s k i l l s can, however, be taught and developed over a period of time and experience. It seems to be a worthwhile type of a c t i v i t y to pursue from the point of view that we a l l want to f e e l some respect and admiration for our work from our peer group. High school students w i l l generally not t a l k too much about t h e i r own successes v o l u n t a r i l y for fear of being l a b e l l e d conceited or immodest, so i t i s important to have a legitimate arena for t h i s kind of s e l f - o r i e n t e d d i s c u s s i o n . During any evaluation, whichever form i t takes, i t i s important to remember that the main objective should be to fin d ways to help the student to improve and excel rather than to point out f a i l u r e s . It i s also e s s e n t i a l to help the student to maintain the motivation and self-confidence needed to continue on to the next area of study and to help to prepare him/her to meet the challenge of solving a new set of problems. To e s t a b l i s h a f a i r and complete method of student evaluation i t i s important to have both student and teacher involved j o i n t l y throughout the en t i r e marking period. The evaluations can and should take several forms, including discussions and written techniques including t e s t s and research papers. A l l a r t programs, l i k e evaluations, are somewhat unique i n that they are based to a great extent upon the teacher's experience, t r a i n -ing, preconceptions, and philosophies. The B.C. curriculum guide, for example, i s c u r r e n t l y being revised and in i t s newer form could o f f e r a more comprehensive source of guidance than was a v a i l a b l e in the recent past. Teachers w i l l no doubt al t e r and improve current programs based on their a c q u i s i t i o n of information on new School Board p o l i c i e s and on t h e i r own improved strengths and a b i l i t i e s . The writer's f i r s t program in ceramics changed considerably over the f i v e year study mainly due to her new a b i l i t i e s and i t continues to change annually. The type of program changes which occurred are now examined. 54 Chapter V EVOLUTION OF THE PROGRAM The program changed quickly and dramatically i n some ways at a very e a r l y stage, and changed slowly and subtly i n other ways at l a t e r stages in the f i v e year study. As the writer gained more s k i l l s and knowledge she was able to change the lessons from basic to more complex, and was able to add more s p e c i f i c s to the general information she had learned. For example, many of the f i r s t lessons planned r e l i e d heavily on handbuilding as the writer's throwing s k i l l s and knowledge were weak. However, once she had mastered throwing on the wheel she was able to add t h i s dimension to the program. The f i r s t lessons were also p r e s c r i p t i v e i n nature and became more open-ended as the writer's confidence grew. Knowledge allowed the writer to be more f l e x i b l e in lesson planning and to encourage exploration and experimentation. More teacher confidence allowed for a better acceptance of the v a l i d i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e of students' ideas. The e a r l y lessons were replaced by ones which allowed for more consideration of students' i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , needs, and i n t e r e s t s . The beginning lessons often did not challenge a l l l e v e l s of students i n that many times the lessons were too d i f f i c u l t for the l e s s able students and too easy for the more able ones. With time the program became l e s s r e l i a n t upon teacher-directed projects and more open to student input. Projects or end r e s u l t s eventually became a more balanced part of the program in that ideas rather than s k i l l s and techniques were emphasized. The writer was able to help students develop a sense of personal imagery i n cla y once her own concerns regarding technique were a l l e v i a t e d . In other words, what students wanted to say in clay became more important than how they would say i t . The more knowledge the writer gained in techniques involving b u i l d i n g , throwing, and glazing the more able she was to provide a v a r i e t y of sources and resources for her students. The f i r s t programs were very l i m i t e d i n the glazes, t o o l s , and materials which can enrich a ceramics art experience. Although many outstanding r e s u l t s can be achieved through meagre equipment, having the appropriate tools often makes the working process more enjoyable and rewarding. With more s k i l l s and knowledge the writer offered a more professional program which encour-aged students to not only use appropriate techniques but also to apply pertinent terms and vocabulary. As the writer's a b i l i t i e s grew she became more personally interested in and committed to the study of ceramic a r t . This in t e r e s t was r e f l e c t e d i n a greater'enthusiasm for teaching the subject and a desire to personally learn more about the area. Teacher enthusiasm can often play a major role i n motivating the secondary student. with a s o l i d background in ceramic fa c t s and information the writer was able to better guide students toward discus-sions of ceramic art hi s t o r y and appreciation during c l a s s working sessions. Usually students w i l l focus the major part of t h e i r classroom conversations on personal s o c i a l concerns but with some i n t e r e s t i n g s t i m u l i such as f i l m s , papers, or photographs to discuss the s i t u a t i o n can be turned into a forum for an exchange of ideas about a r t . In the beginning programs students were required to do very l i t t l e research or writing about ceramic art as the emphasis was on processes. This changed as research into ceramic art hi s t o r y became part of the course requirements. The early programs also used very few v i s u a l aids, but 56 the writer gradually acquired a valuable c o l l e c t i o n of photographs, a r t i c l e s , and films which could be r e c a l l e d and produced quickly to i l l u s t r a t e ideas or techniques. The v i s u a l aids often helped to solve problems more quickly, e a s i l y and p o s i t i v e l y . As well as being able to plan a better, more f l e x i b l e program the writer eventually was more able to evaluate the r e s u l t s of the learning. Experience allowed the writer to recognize and appreciate a piece of work which was novel, o r i g i n a l and unexpected. She was better at understanding student f r u s t r a t i o n s and problems and was thus more appreciative of e f f o r t s rather than end products and the e f f o r t s were more r e a l i s t i c a l l y evaluated, based on a knowledge of what a b i l i t i e s were appropriate for c e r t a i n age l e v e l s . The evaluations of student work were more student and teacher based rather than j u s t teacher based. The writer became more capable of d i r e c t i n g c l a s s c r i t i q u e s and more able to help students with concept formation, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s t y l e s , and stating reasons for prefer-ences. S k i l l s i n analyzing, comparing, and generalizing became easier to teach as the program developed. As the writer became more expert i n the areas of s k i l l s and knowledge, her attitude and a b i l i t y toward program planning improved. The lessons became more su i t a b l e to the age and i n t e r e s t of the students as well as more direc t e d toward image development rather than just s k i l l development. For example, i n early projects students were often required to c o i l pots i n a p a r t i c u l a r technique rather than allowing for combination or inventive techniques. The writer was aware that one c o i l i n g method worked and wanted students to be guaranteed a successful end product rather than encouraging them to find out for themselves about other ways of approaching the problem. Later projects were based more on i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and students were 57 encouraged to bring in their own ideas for work they wanted to do. For instance, themes involving humour, surrealism, fantasy, science f i c t i o n , and mystery were introduced by students more often than by the writer. The writer's early program slant tended more toward a design and c r a f t o r i e n t a t i o n rather than an expressive one. This continues to be an area of ongoing concern i n her present program plans and changes. The lessons also became more int e r e s t i n g because of a l l the techniques available and because of more student input i n a l l areas. Both the writer and her students were better able to evaluate the program and their p a r t i c i p a t i o n in i t with time and experience. In the preceding chapters the writer has attempted to define a SDL plan for ceramics and i l l u s t r a t e how i t was applied to the i n i t i a l problem areas of c l a s s organization, p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , f a c t u a l s k i l l s , and program planning. As programs change and grow from year to year, some of the main changes have also been included. The writer would l i k e to now conclude in the f i n a l chapter with a summary of her findings as well as suggestions and advice for other teachers. 58 Chapter VI SUMMARY The writer's aim in t h i s study was to bring attention to the emerging problem of r e t r a i n i n g faced by many teachers throughout t h e i r careers and to o f f e r ideas based on one possible s o l u t i o n to the s i t u a t i o n . The need to r e t r a i n often arises because of the introduction of new course material into the curriculum. Currently, an a d d i t i o n a l cause i s the d e c l i n i n g school population i n many major c i t i e s i n Canada and the United States. The predictions seem to indicate a continuing trend toward smaller school enrollments and, as a consequence, such teachers' r e t r a i n i n g needs w i l l p e r s i s t for some time. A d d i t i o n a l l y , teachers w i l l be required to teach new and more relevant materials i n order to prepare tomorrow's students for q u a l i t y l i v e s i n the coming years. For example, courses which s p e c i f i c a l l y deal with consumer oriented or computer-related data w i l l probably be in great demand. It i s highly l i k e l y that a l l teachers everywhere to some extent w i l l experience changes in the courses which they are required to teach. In an attempt to o f f e r some sol u t i o n to t h i s problem, the writer has presented a personal case h i s t o r y or her own r e t r a i n i n g problem and has i l l u s t r a t e d how a s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning (SDL) plan was devised and applied to the area of ceramics. SDL i s , of course, only one approach. Another so l u t i o n might be developed through obtaining an educational leave or study. Study leaves, however, must be planned and often do not f i t into the time a l l o t t e d for the r e t r a i n i n g to take place. SDL i s a 59 continuing process and i s influenced by, and can be adapted to, the in d i v i d u a l teacher's time, energy and needs. The writer i s aware that SDL as a solution to r e t r a i n i n g i s not e n t i r e l y i d e a l , as students have to put up with the teacher's gradual growth. For example, during the writer's f i r s t year of teaching the ceramics program, one student, in p a r t i c u l a r , had advanced s k i l l s and knowledge in the area. This student provided the writer with much needed information. The writer challenged t h i s student to grow i n other areas such as leadership (assisting new students), image development, and aesthetic awareness. This student graduated from the school the following year and obtained employment i n a pottery studio where she was responsible for f i r i n g k i l n s , preparing glazes, and teaching basic s k i l l s . The writer f e e l s that t h i s student was able to handle such a job because of her exposure to similar r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s during the year she studied with the writer. The writer's advice to teachers attempting to learn through an SDL method i s to be concerned with at t i t u d e s and planning. Attitudes are important because they determine to a great extent how successful the SDL learner w i l l be. To see the r e t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n as a challenge rather than a problem i s a good example of the p o s i t i v e , f l e x i b l e thinking needed. To be resourceful enough to apply past a b i l i t i e s , knowledge and experiences appropriately to present s i t u a t i o n s i s also b e n e f i c i a l . Planning i s fundamental to successful SDL learning. SDL plans should be conducted i n much the same manner as a s c i e n t i f i c inquiry i s . Teachers who pay attention to atti t u d e s and planning w i l l have few problems devising a personal SDL plan. 60 PROPOSAL APPLICATION OF SDL Although the s p e c i f i c area of consideration in t h i s study has been ceramics, the writer would now l i k e to i l l u s t r a t e i n two steps how t h i s model of a SDL plan could be applied and adapted to the needs of others. For example, how could t h i s approach be used by an art teacher who had no experience in photography but must teach a photography course at the secondary l e v e l ? F i r s t , a review of the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the SDL plan w i l l be presented. Second, the SDL plan w i l l be s p e c i f i c a l l y applied to the learning of photography aimed at preparing the in e x p e r i -enced teacher to becoming competent in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area. I n i t i a l l y , the following f i v e questions must be addressed by the SDL learner: (a) what s k i l l s , knowledge ( h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and a e s t h e t i c ) , and other information are needed both i n general and s p e c i f i c terms, (b) how w i l l t h i s information be learned, or which learning s t y l e s w i l l be used, (c) how w i l l the content or material to be learned be organized into l o g i c a l , sequential patterns, (d) which sources and resources can be used, and (e) how w i l l the learner evaluate his/her growth and v a l i d a t e the accomplishment of objectives? Ideally, the inexperienced teacher would undertake to use the f i v e SDL questions in sequential order to f a c i l i t a t e the learning process. Assuming that the f i r s t question would be dealt with f i r s t , the teacher could refer to books and speak to colleagues teaching photography or professionals in the f i e l d i n order to e s t a b l i s h in general, and l a t e r i n s p e c i f i c terms, what material would be fundamental to l e a r n . The general areas of consideration would appear to f a l l into the following four categories: (a) classroom organization, (b) p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , (c) fa c t u a l knowledge, and (d) program planning. Once general goals are 61 established more s p e c i f i c goals for each area are required. To ascer-t a i n which s p e c i f i c goals are needed in each of the four main categories the teacher must refer i n a d e t a i l e d manner to books, colleagues, post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s , or any other source of information a v a i l -able. I n i t i a l l y , some s p e c i f i c goals may be overlooked but as the SDL learner becomes more knowledgeable in the area of study, other important previously overlooked goals w i l l become evident. To i l l u s t r a t e the point that s p e c i f i c information must be understood in each of the general areas of classroom organization, p r a c t i c a l ' s k i l l s , f a c t u a l knowledge, and program planning, the writer w i l l now o u t l i n e important issues of concern for photography beginning with classroom organization. Classroom Organization The teacher must have knowledge of the following: (a) t o o l s (cameras, lenses, t r i p o d s ) , (b) machines and equipment (copy stand, l i g h t i n g k i t , quartz l i g h t s , back-drop system), (c) materials ( f i l m s , chemicals), (d) darkroom physical requirements (small, l i g h t - f r e e room, hot and cold water, sink l i k e table, non-vibrating table, e l e c t r i c i t y ) , (e) darkroom operation equipment ( s a f e l i g h t , timer, enlarger, f i l m cassette opener, s c i s s o r s , f i l m developing tank with spools, funnels, tongs, thermometer, dust brushes, trays, c l i p s and drying l i n e , paper storage box), (f) d i s p l a y (matte board, X-acto knives, spray adhesive, matte c u t t e r , dry mount press, paper c u t t e r , d i s p l a y boards), (g) ordering supplies (school board r e q u i s i t i o n , p r i v a t e s u p p l i e r ) , (h) storing chemicals ( p l a s t i c jugs, safety metal cabinets), and (i) room maintenance (a system of o r d e r l y procedures and routines must be established) . 62 P r a c t i c a l S k i l l s After ascertaining what equipment and supplies are needed to operate a photography classroom, the SDL learner must have knowledge of the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s involved. The following are e s s e n t i a l : (a) use of cameras ( o p t i c a l theory, lens function, shutter operation, aperture, s h u t t e r speed, v a r i a t i o n s of u s e ) , (b) f i l m d e v e l o p i n g (chemical reactions, f i l m emulsions, temperature and timing, a g i t a t i o n , d r y i n g ) , (c) s p e c i a l e f f e c t s on f i l m (posterization, contrast, g r a i n , r e t i c u l a -t i o n , sandwiching), and (d) s p e c i a l e f f e c t s in p r i n t i n g (burning, dodging, s o l a r i z a t i o n , p o s t e r i z a t i o n , contrast, g r a i n , paper types, cut and paste, t i n t i n g ) . Factual Knowledge The SDL learner must have f a c t u a l as well as p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n photography. The f a c t u a l areas of concern include the following: (a) h i s t o r i c aspects (development of the camera, developments i n photo-graphic use from po r t r a i t u r e to advertising, photography and a r t ) , (b) c u l t u r a l aspects (comparative attitudes toward photography through time, documentation o f domestic and f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s , photography as a twentieth century a r t form), and (c) aesthetic aspects (fundamental composition, design p r i n c i p l e s , control of f i l m and camera for desired e f f e c t s , manipulation of subject m a t e r i a l ) . Program Planning Once a degree of understanding and a b i l i t y has been established the SDL learner can begin to plan a program in photography. The program would be basic to begin with and become more complete and complex as the 63 teacher's competency grew. Beginning course requirements might include the following: (a) successful manipulation of the camera, (b) success-f u l development of a black and white f i l m , (c) successful demonstration of some p r i n t i n g techniques, (d) a photographic study based oh a theme, and (e) a written review of a g a l l e r y show or a famous photographer's s t y l e . The beginning teacher might r e l y heavily upon c r i t i c a l d i s c us-sions of photographs, f i l m presentations, s l i d e presentations, guest a r t i s t s and speakers, g a l l e r y v i s i t s , books and magazines, and other media in order to accommodate his or her own learning simultaneously with that of the students in c l a s s . Finding out what the s p e c i f i c goals are for each general area from classroom organization to program planning i s the major planning e f f o r t involved in SDL. To know what one must learn has to come before any learning; can begin. The writer has included t h i s detailed, plan of an approach to learning photography as an example of how she approached the s p e c i f i c goals she needed to learn in ceramics in the same manner. After establishing s p e c i f i c goals, the SDL learner w i l l then have to decide how the various s k i l l s and facts w i l l be learned. To a great extent, the kinds of learning s t y l e s which a person i s successful with depend upon past experiences both in educational i n s t i t u t i o n s or on one's own. For example, we generally have four choices of learning: (a) by l e c t u r e , (b) by demonstration, (c) by a c t u a l l y doing something p h y s i c a l l y , and (d) by reading. Most people have a method or a combina-t i o n of methods by which they personally learn best. The writer's advice to SDL learners i s to be aware of one's own s t y l e and use i t most often whenever possible. However, some aspects of the learning of photography demand ce r t a i n kinds of learning. For instance, i t would be 64 d i f f i c u l t to t o t a l l y understand the working of the camera and what e f f e c t s one can achieve without a c t u a l l y using one. On the other hand, one could probably gain an aesthetic appreciation for photography i n a number of ways, including looking at the work of others, reading s p e c i a l t y camera art magazines or attending g a l l e r y shows. As i n most learning, which involves a d i v e r s i f i e d content of m a t e r i a l , the learning of photography would demand the use of many learning s t y l e s . Organizing the material to be learned into l o g i c a l patterns i s often determined by what has to be learned. Also, much learning overlaps from one area into another. It would seem l o g i c a l , however, to begin by organizing the physical environment which would help the learner to f a m i l i a r i z e him/herself with the materials he or she w i l l have to work with. A natural progression from taking photographs and experimenting with the camera i s to develop the • f i l m , enlarge the p r i n t s , correct the flaws, and d i s p l a y the f i n i s h e d work for v i s u a l sharing and constructive c r i t i c i s m . In other words, much of the order of the learning i s designed for the learner by the nature of the m a t e r i a l . In addition, an inexperienced person usually begins with simple concepts and operations before advancing to more sophisticated thinking and complex techniques. Est a b l i s h i n g which sources and resources to use depends upon which people, places and materials are available to the learner. In i d e a l s i t u a t i o n s , the SDL learner could contact another secondary l e v e l teacher of photography, professionals in the f i e l d or post-secondary i n s t r u c t o r s . A photography club might provide some valuable discussion from other amateurs interested i n learning more about photography. Lessons or classes are usually a v a i l a b l e from vocational, f i n e a r t or 65 other post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . Private studio or community night s c h o o l c l a s s e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . L o c a l l i b r a r i e s , museums and g a l l e r i e s provide examples of the work of established and new photo-graphers as well as information on a l l the various aspects of photo-graphy required by the student of photography. There i s also a wide s e l e c t i o n of magazines and s e l f - h e l p books available on t h i s subject. As in the case of learning s t y l e s , the resources an SDL learner uses are highly personal and best suited to his or her i n d i v i d u a l requirements. Once the s p e c i f i c information needed has been established, the i learning s t y l e s have been selected, the order of learning has been planned, and the resources have been i s o l a t e d , then the SDL learner must begin to master the s k i l l s needed i n order to teach. This mastery w i l l take time and p r a c t i s e . As the SDL learner progresses, some changes i n his or her a b i l i t i e s w i l l be obvious but the SDL learner has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of consciously evaluating his or her growth on a con-s i s t e n t and r e l i a b l e basis. If one i s entrusted to teach a q u a l i t y program to secondary students, then one must be accountable for the nature and standards of the program being taught. Therefore, the SDL learner as teacher must devise tests to va l i d a t e the accomplishment of his or her objectives. These te s t s might include a v a r i e t y of types. The SDL learner could maintain a photographic record of beginning work to compare with most recent work. Constructive c r i t i c i s m and discus-sions with colleagues and administrators could provide an appropriate evaluation of the program. Student i n t e r e s t s and growing a b i l i t i e s could indicate the successful a p p l i c a t i o n of the program. The most accurate assessment of growth and progress would be based on a combina-t i o n of methods. 66 The writer's conclusions or findings from having been engaged in a f i v e year SDL study concern attitudes toward learning as i t applies to hers e l f and to her students. The writer found that SDL was personally very s a t i s f y i n g and w i l l be used again for future learning s i t u a t i o n s . The writer f e e l s fortun-ate that her past educational experiences prepared her so well for SDL. Because teachers are role models for students, and because adolescents are constantly experimenting with various imitations of adult behaviour, the writer has also r e a l i z e d how many of her SDL techniques and a t t i -tudes can be absorbed by secondary students. Teachers involved i n SDL i l l u s t r a t e to students that education should be a l i f e l o n g process for everyone and should not end because one has fi n i s h e d a p a r t i c u l a r course of study or has graduated from an educational i n s t i t u t i o n . Good teachers give students a l l the facts and information needed. Exce l l e n t teachers give f a c t s , information and the desire to learn more on one's own. The writer's experiences with SDL w i l l continue to influence the kind of program planned and the type of learning i n which her students are engaged. . Program planning w i l l be based more upon students p a r t i c i -pating i n the process and students w i l l be encouraged to be more s e l f - d i r e c t i n g in a l l areas of the i r education. 67 References Anderson, D.M. Elements of design. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1961. B a l l , F.C. Making pottery without a wheel. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1965. B a l l , F.C. Syllabus for advanced ceramics. Bassett, C a l i f . : Keramos Books, 1972. B a l l i n g e r , L.B., & Vioman, T.F. Design sources and resources. New York: Reinhold. Publishing Corp., 1965. Bates, K.F. Basic design p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e . New York: The World Publishing Co., 1960. B e i t l e r , E.J., & Lockhart, B.C. Design for you. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1961. Berensohn, P. Finding one's way with c l a y . New York: Simon and Shuster, 1972. B i l l i n g t o n , D.M. The technique of pottery. London: William CLowes and Sons Ltd., 1962. N Bruner, J.S. The act of discovery. In G. Pappas (Ed.), Concepts and  theories of art education. Toronto, Ontario: Collier-Macmillan Canada Ltd., 1970. Cameron, E., & Lewis, P. Potters on pottery. New York: St. Martins' Press, 1976. Campbell, A. Using the potter's wheel. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1978. Casson, M. The c r a f t of the potter. London: Garnett P r i n t , 1977. Chaney, C., & Skee, S. Plaster mold and model making. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1973. Chappell, J . The potter's complete book of cla y and glazes. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1977. Chroman, E. The potter's primer. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1974. Clark, K. Pottery throwing for beginners. New York: Watson-Guptill Public a t i o n s , 1970. Clark, K. P r a c t i c a l pottery and ceramics. New York: The Viking Press, 1964. 68 Colbeck, J . Pottery, the technique of throwing. New York: Watson-G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1969. C o l l i e r , G. Form, space and v i s i o n . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-H a l l , Inc., 1963. Conrad, J.W. Ceramic formulas: The complete compendium. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1973. Counts, C. Pottery workshop. New York: Macmillon, 1973. Coyne, J . (Ed.). Penland school of c r a f t s book of pottery. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975. Cushion, J.P. Animals i n pottery and porcelain. New York: Crown Publishers, 1974. Dodd, A.F. Dictionary of ceramics. Great B r i t a i n : L i t t l e f i e l d , Adams and Co., 1967. Edwards, B. Drawing on the r i g h t side of the brain. Los Angeles: J.P. Marcher, Inc., 1979. Eisner, E.W. Educating a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . New York: The Macmillan Company, 1972. Eisner, E.W. Evaluating children's a r t . In Eisner, E.W., & Ecker, D.W. Readings i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . Waltham, Massachusetts: B l a i s d e l l Publishing Company, 1966. Ford, B.D. Ceramic sculpture. New York: Reinhold Book Corp., 1964. Fournier, R. I l l u s t r a t e d d i c t i o n a r y of p r a c t i c a l pottery. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1973. Gerard, C. P r a c t i c a l guide to pottery. William Luscombe Publisher Ltd., 1977. Green, D. Experimenting with pottery. London: Faber and Faber Ltd., 1971. Hofsted, J . Step-by-step ceramics. New York: Western Publishing Co., Inc., 1^967. Howell, F., Woodward, C , & Woodward, R. The c r a f t of pottery. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, Inc., 1975. I t t e n , J . Design and form. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1964. J o l l y , T. Introducing handbuilt-pottery. New York: Watson-Guptill Pub l i c a t i o n s , 1974. Kenny, J.B. Ceramic design. Radnar, Pa.: C h i l t o n Book Company, 1963. 69 Knowles, M. S e l f d i r e c t e d learning; A guide for learners and teachers. New York: Associated Press, 1975. Kriwanek, F.F. Keramos. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1970. L a n s i n g , K.M. A r t , a r t i s t s , and a r t e d u c a t i o n . Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1976. Linderman, E.W. Teaching secondary school a r t . Dubuque, Iowa: ' Wm. C. Brown Company, 1971. Murray, R., & Dexter, W. The art of earth. V i c t o r i a , B.C., Canada: Sono Nis Press, 1979. Nelson, G.C. Ceramics. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1971. Norton, F.H. Ceramics for the a r t i s t potter. Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1956. Rhodes, D. Clay and glazes for the potter. Philadelphia: C h i l t o n Book Company, 1967. Rhodes, D. Pottery form. Radnar, Pa.: C h i l t o n Book Company, 1976. Rhodes, D. Stoneware and porcelain. Philadelphia: C h i l t o n Book Company, 1959. Riegger, H. Primitive pottery. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1972. Ruscoe, W. Glazes for the potter. New York: St. Martins' Press, Inc., 1974. Schaffer, T. Pottery decoration. New York: Watson-Guptill Publica-t i o n s , 1976. Thomas, G. Step"by step guide to pottery. London: The Hamlyn Publish-ing Group Ltd., 1973. Wettlaufer, G. , & Wettlaufer, N. Getting into pots. New Jersey: Pr e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1976. Wildenhain, M. Pottery: Form and expresion. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1959. Willcox, D.J. New design i n ceramics. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1970. Winterburn, M. The technique of handbuilt pottery. New York: Watson-G u p t i l l P ublications, 1966. 70 Woody, E.S. Handbuilding ceramic forms. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1975. Woody, E.S. Pottery on the wheel. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1975. FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 72 FIGURE 4 73 FIGURE 6 74 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 1 6 79 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 82 FIGURE 24 83 FIGURE 26 84 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 85 86 FIGURE 32 38 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 90 Appendix A IMPORTANT EQUIPMENT FOR CERAMICS CLASSROOMS 1. E l e c t r i c wheels or kick wheels 2. Pugmill 3. B a l l m i l l 4. Grinder 5. Large p l a s t i c garbage cans with l i d s 6. Plaster bat or table top 7. Storage cupboards with doors to store damp work 8. P l a s t i c bags for storage and slow drying of c l a y 9. Sinks which can be plugged to stop cl a y residue from going down the dra i n 10. E l e c t r i c k i l n s and equipment for f i r i n g ( f i r i n g cones, shelves, f u r n i t u r e , k i l n wash, etc.) 11. Gram scales and equipment for glazing (chemicals, buckets, rubber gloves, sieves, etc.) 12. Canvas covered tables for wedging 13. V e n t i l a t i o n fan for removing fumes and dust 14. Separate locked storage area for poisonous chemicals 15. Vacuum cleaner ( i n d u s t r i a l , i f possible, for cleaning k i l n s and dust) TOOLS FOR WHEELWORK AND HANDBUILDING 1. Cutting s t r i n g (linen f i s h i n g l i n e , t h i n twisted wire) 2. Pin to o l s (bamboo skewers or needle at the end of a cork) 3. Sponges (man-made and.or natural sea sponges) 4. P l a s t i c bowls for water 5. Trimming tools (wooden and wire) 6. Ribs (wooden, rubber and metal) 7. Bats (wooden and wire) 8. R o l l e r s (dowelling of various widths) 9. Guide s t i c k s for slabs ( s t r i p s of 1/4" wood) 10. Sponges on s t i c k s for deep pots (sponge t i e d on old paintbrushes) 11. Chamois for smoothing rims (wet paper towel works also) 12. Texturing t o o l s (kitchen u t e n s i l s such as forks, spoons, graters; household items such as clothespins, n a i l s , brushes) 92 Appendix B CLAY RECYCLING A l l c l a y which has hot been bisque f i r e d , glaze f i r e d , or contamin-ated with plaster can be reclaimed and used over again. This i s a p r a c t i c a l and economic procedure in which everyone must p a r t i c i p a t e . We receive our cl a y i n 50 pound boxes in the moist state. The c l a y i s commercially manufactured, aged and ready to use except for some i n i t i a l wedging and kneading. Once something i s made from the moist c l a y , i t i s set aside and allowed to dry slowly i n a damp cupboard. After the piece becomes leatherhard, i t may be placed in the greenware cart to become bone dry before bisque f i r i n g . If you decide to recycle your work at the leatherhard stage you must l e t i t dry out completely before adding i t to a wet bucket as leatherhard cl a y does not absorb water r e a d i l y and w i l l remain quite hard rather than breaking down. There w i l l be buckets l a b e l l e d for leatherhard c l a y . Bone dry cl a y may have water poured-over i t immediately. Within a few hours i t w i l l have absorbed a l l the water and w i l l be very sloppy, muddy-looking clay again. This c l a y must be drie d out somewhat before i t i s back to i t s o r i g i n a l consistency. Plaster drying bats may be used to dry out cl a y i f handled with some care. It i s important to avoid getting any plaster chips in the cl a y as even the smallest pieces can cause dents and holes in a piece of c l a y 1 s surface during f i r i n g . Use the wooden table with the plaster top as a drying area for sloppy c l a y . Once the c l a y i s dried out i t may be wedged and kneaded into shape for use again. Use the canvas covered tables for wedging and kneading. If you have to scrape c l a y o f f the canvas tables use a f l a t wooden to o l to avoid tearing the canvas. Tables should be sponged down and l e f t clean after use. Put any useable clay scraps in a rec y c l i n g bucket or through the pugmill. The pugmill i s designed to help with the c l a y r e c y c l i n g process. Its blades cut through the cl a y making a smooth and consistent texture. It also takes much of the a i r out of the c l a y , producing a more workable cl a y . The clay which i s put through the pugmill must be of the proper consistency. If the clay i s too hard, i t w i l l have trouble being pushed through and w i l l put a s t r a i n on the motor. If the cl a y i s too s o f t , i t w i l l also have trouble being pushed through and w i l l tend to churn around on the blades. You w i l l be able to recognize the proper con-sistency with time and experience. The pugmill must be handled with care and respect as i t can be dangerous to the untrained user. Always seek i n s t r u c t i o n s before attempting to operate any classroom machinery. The scraps of clay l e f t over from the work on the potter's wheel, as well as the creamy s l i p produced, are usually too soft to go through the pugmill and as such should be either dried out on the plaster table or put in the very sloppy wet buckets by the sink. Do not pour these wheel scraps into the sink as they are valuable to use for other p r o j e c t s . The c l a y which s e t t l e s at the bottom of the c l a y sink i s often of very l i t t l e use because i t i s not good enough to be recycled. For t h i s reason i t i s important to pour as l i t t l e good cla y as possible into the cla y sink. The clay sink has a trap to stop clay from going down the sink and plugging up the plumbing. The simple p l a s t i c tube which can be screwed on or o f f works very e f f e c t i v e l y to stop clay from going down the dr a i n . The water in the sink should be l e t out p e r i o d i c a l l y and the 93 sediment at the bottom should be cleaned out and disposed of. It i s our mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to see that the clay r e c y c l i n g program works smoothly and c o n s i s t e n t l y . Make sure that you store c l a y i n the proper places. 94 Appendix C SIMPLE SOLUTIONS 1. Vinegar mixed with s l i p i s an excellent mending glue for r e p a i r i n g cracked greenware. 2. Wet paper towel makes a good inexpensive rim smoother for pots. 3. An old hairdryer i s a convenient quick pot dryer. 4. Empty spray pump bo t t l e s work well to keep greenware evenly damp. 5. Bamboo skewers or needles in corks make acceptable pin t o o l s . 6. Children's p r i n t i n g l e t t e r sets make good stampers for making words on greenware. Alphabet macaroni also works for smaller p r i n t i n g . It can be l e f t in the cl a y to burn out during f i r i n g . Toothpicks can be used in the same manner for making small weed pot holes. 7. Cookie cutters can produce a seri e s of s i m i l a r shapes which can then be altered or modified to use on pots or in sculptures. 8. Chalk works well for drawing patterns on greenware or bisqueware. 9. Thick foam rubber sponges can be altered into decorative stamps by burning them with a wood burning tool k i t . 10. A metal of wooden spoon w i l l burnish a trimmed foot rim into a smooth, scratch-free surface. 11. Dowelling makes good slab r o l l i n g pins. 12. Fishing l i n e (linen .or nylon) makes a strong, inexpensive cutting wire. 13. Kitchen sieves make h a i r - l i k e strands when so f t c l a y i s pushed through them. 14. A looped wire makes a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o i l handle maker. To make a handle the looped wire i s dragged evenly over a s o l i d clay block. 15. Toothbrushes or hacksaw blades make a good scoring or scratching to o l for preparing two surfaces which w i l l be joined together. 16. V a r y i n g s i z e s of Chinese ink brushes make i n t e r e s t i n g g l a z e brushes. 17. Patterns cut into r o l l i n g pins provide i n t e r e s t i n g slab r e s u l t s when r o l l e d over f l a t clay surfaces. 18. Cutting s t i f f p l a s t i c l i d s from containers in h a l f makes good f l e x i b l e potter's shaping r i b s . 95 Appendix D ( E l e c t r i c ) KILNS Most schools have e l e c t r i c k i l n s . They are a l o g i c a l and p r a c t i c a l choice for schools as they are r e l a t i v e l y easy to f i r e and maintain. They are quite safe when used properly and produce r e l i a b l e , consistent, and sometimes even i n s p i r i n g glaze r e s u l t s . K i l n s come in various s i z e s and may be either top or front loading. E l e c t r i c k i l n s are b u i l t with-a s e r i e s of on/off switches which are used to c o n t r o l the heating up of the k i l n . Those k i l n s with f i n i t e temperature c o n t r o l (those which can be heated very gradually and slowly) are best for doing bisque f i r i n g s in as c a r e f u l control of the speed of f i r i n g i s e s s e n t i a l to avoid cracking and explosions. If a k i l n heats very q u i c k l y , i t may be necessary to turn i t o f f and on to control the f i r i n g speed. Once a piece i s bisque f i r e d and glaze has been applied i n preparation for the second f i r i n g , the speed of heating up the k i l n i s not so c r u c i a l . Most school k i l n s have pyrometers i n s t a l l e d which are designed to t e l l the inner temperature of the k i l n . Pyrometers, along with the use of pyrometric cones which are placed in the cone s i t t e r , enable k i l n s to have a f a i r l y accurate automatic shut-off system. The system works i n the following manner: once the inside of the k i l n has reached the maturing or melting temperature of the s p e c i f i c cone, causing i t to bend in the middle, a l a t c h at the outside front of the k i l n f l a p s down which breaks the e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t and stops any further f i r i n g . It i s important, however, not to r e l y e n t i r e l y on t h i s system as i t has been known to f a i l for various reasons. For instance, i f a piece of equip-ment was pushed in front of the k i l n , i t may block the l a t c h and prevent i t from f a l l i n g down completely enough to cut o f f the e l e c t r i c i t y . This kind of s i t u a t i o n would cause the k i l n to o v e r f i r e and no doubt cause extensive damage to the k i l n as well as to anything being f i r e d . It i s very important for the instructor to be on the premises close to the time the k i l n i s scheduled to f i n i s h f i r i n g i n order to avoid any o v e r f i r i n g s . It i s also important to f i r e only up to the recommended cone or temperature l e v e l as correct f i r i n g avoids stress on the elements. The recommended l i m i t for most school k i l n s i s cone 6, or 2246 degrees F. The wire elements or heating c o i l s are probably one of the few problems to deal with in e l e c t r i c k i l n s as they do tend to become fatigued and weak from constant use and may have to be p a r t i a l l y or completely replaced p e r i o d i c a l l y . One should not attempt to do the element replacement on one's own as q u a l i f i e d personnel are required for t h i s kind of job. The Vancouver School Board provides a very f i n e repair service which i s available on short notice. Instructors can, however, insure the long l i f e of elements by being c a r e f u l not to get k i l n wash or wet glaze on these wires as they both cause eventual breaks. Also, any chips of clay should be vacuumed re g u l a r l y out of the c o i l s . Kilns should be constantly maintained for maximum e f f i c i e n c y . The k i l n should i d e a l l y be positioned in a separate room from the working classroom and c e r t a i n l y not be placed against walls or wooden cupboards. If the k i l n i s not in a separate room there should be adequate v e n t i l a t i o n i n the working classroom. A v e n t i l a t i o n fan designed to carry fumes and dust p a r t i c l e s to the outside of the room 96 should be i n s t a l l e d . There should also be windows that allow fresh a i r to c i r c u l a t e in the room. The time i t takes to do a f i r i n g r e a l l y depends on the type and q u a l i t y of k i l n one has. Most e l e c t r i c k i l n s have a ten hour time which can be set and re-set i f more time i s needed. Some k i l n s have twenty hour timers which are even better for fin e control of f i r i n g time. An average f i r i n g , however, probably takes about ten hours. Only q u a l i f i e d and trained persons should attempt to f i r e k i l n s . If one i s i n doubt about the procedures involved one should arrange for professional i n s t r u c t i o n before proceeding. The Vancouver School Board o f f e r s workshops in k i l n operation as a professional development service to teachers. Students should be involved in the f i r i n g processes as part of a t o t a l understanding of ceramics but should be monitored and supervised by the classroom teacher in order to ensure safe and accurate r e s u l t s . K i l n s are considered by many to be as i n d i v i d u a l l y tempered as people and are often given affectionate nicknames by various classes of students. As with many a r t i s t i c processes the success of the end r e s u l t s i n ceramics often depends to some extent on the materials and extra equipment a v a i l a b l e for smooth k i l n operation. The following l i s t o f f e r s some suggestions for equipment to ensure proper f i r i n g s : (a) k i l n shelves of various s i z e s to f i t s p e c i f i c k i l n (b) k i l n f u r n i t u r e of various heights and widths (c) pyrometric cones of various temperatures corresponding to the type of clay being used (d) k i l n wash for painting k i l n shelves (bought commercially or made from combining 50% s i l i c a plus 50% kaolin plus water into a t h i n , creamlike consistency) (e) asbestos gloves 97 FIRING THE BISQUE KILN Cone 06 or 1873 degrees F. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Check that a l l switches are in the o f f p o s i t i o n . Check that no pieces of c l a y are nestling in the elements. Clean or vacuum them out i f you see any. Set proper cone in k i l n s i t t e r . Check shelves for glaze drips and loose k i l n wash chips. Clean shelves c a r e f u l l y before using them. Wear goggles and gloves. Check greenware c a r e f u l l y : (a) f i r e only pieces which are bone dry (b) f i r e only pieces which are c l e a r l y l a b e l l e d with students' names and classes (c) f i r e only pieces i n good condition ( i . e . , no cracks or broken parts) Stacking the k i l n : (a) handle a l l greenware c a r e f u l l y as i t i s extremely f r a g i l e (b) load the large and heavy pieces on the bottom shelves (c) load small pieces inside large pieces (d) do not stack pots inside other pots which are s i m i l a r in si z e as when they shrink they may lock together (f) do not allow pieces to touch k i l n walls or elements as t h i s could cause an explosion (g) make sure that k i l n shelves are securely balanced on k i l n posts before loading pieces (h) t r y to f i t as many pieces i n a f i r i n g as w i l l comfortably f i t , as good k i l n packing conserves energy. (e) stack cups and bowls in t h i s manner: 7. If you have any questions or concerns consult the teacher. 98 8. Allow adequate time for cooling before opening k i l n — o p e n i n g too quickly can cause breakage. 99 FIRING THE GLAZE KILN Cone 6 or 2246 degrees F. 1. Check that a l l switches are in o f f p o s i t i o n . 2. Check that no pieces of c l a y are n e s t l i n g in the elements. Clean or vacuum them out i f you see any. 3. Set proper cone in the k i l n s i t t e r . 4. Check shelves for glaze drips and loose k i l n wash chips. Clean shelves c a r e f u l l y before using them. 5. Check bisqueware c a r e f u l l y : (a) f i r e only pieces which have clean glaze-free foot rims or bases (b) f i r e only pieces which are in good condition (c) examine l i d s and their pot rims to ensure that both are glaze-free where they touch each other. 6. Stacking the k i l n : (a) handle a l l glazed bisqueware c a r e f u l l y so the glaze i s not brushed or chipped o f f (b) glaze pieces must not touch each other so leave at l e a s t one ha l f inch between pieces (c) do not l e t pieces hang over the edge of shelves as t h i s could cause warping or slumping (d) leave the t a l l e s t pieces for the top shelves (e) avoid putting pieces too close to the k i l n sides as t h i s could cause warpage (f) pack as economically as p o s s i b l e — t h i s may take some c a r e f u l preplanning. 7. If you have any questions or concerns consult the teacher. 8. Allow adequate time for cooling before opening k i l n — a t l e a s t as many hours of cooling as of f i r i n g would be a good r u l e of thumb. 100 Appendix E AVOIDING THROWING PROBLEMS 1. Start with an appropriate size of c l a y ( f i s t size for beginners). Graduate to larger s i z e s . 2. Have cla y properly wedged and kneaded so there i s no a i r inside the mound. 3. Have cla y the proper consistency (not too wet nor too dry) and the proper shape of f l a t on bottom and rounded on top. 4. Have wheelhead dry so c l a y w i l l s t i c k and not come f l y i n g o f f during centering. 5. Have a l l tools needed in bowl of water before beginning: 6. Use water sparingly to prevent clay cracking and slumping. 7. Work as quickly and e f f i c i e n t l y as possible as overworked cla y slumps from fatigue. 8. Use proper and comfortable body posi t i o n s for various phases of throwing: (a) The centering process can be approached in many ways but here are some general rules regarding wheel and body p o s i t i o n s : - Wheel should be going counter-clockwise. - Arms should be locked in at sides or resting on thighs so they won't move about. - Pressure from l e f t hand at base of cl a y mound should provide a counter to the c e n t r i f u g a l force of the wheel, spinning counter-clockwise. The r i g h t hand provides pressure on top of c l a y mound to prevent i t from coning upwards. - Wheel speed should be f a i r l y f a s t for centering ease. 101 (b) The opening process has some general r u l e s : - Using thumbs as a d r i l l , push a steady even hole in the center of the c l a y mound, being c a r e f u l not to go to the bottom. Use a pin tool to measure cla y l e f t and leave at l e a s t 1/2 inch. - Once the cl a y i s opened, the bottom or f l o o r of the pot must be flattened and compressed. This process can be done by pressing with the t i p s of the fingers from the center of the pot floo r to the outer edge and v i c e versa. This i s an extremely important step as compressing the f l o o r reduces the l i k e l i h o o d of cracks appearing during the drying process. The walls and f l o o r should also be perpendicular to each other at t h i s stage. - The top rim of the c l a y can be altered into a cone shape at t h i s stage by applying pressure gradually from the bottom of the pot to the top, bending clay inward as hands move xup to the rim. This shape counters the tendency for pots to f l a r e out at the rim. (c) The l i f t i n g process has some general r u l e s : - L i f t with both hands working in unison. The l e f t hand should be inside the pot and the r i g h t hand should be outside. Steady even pressure should be applied to the c l a y as i t i s being slowly l i f t e d up. This pressure thins the walls and helps to bring the c l a y upward. This process i s somewhat l i k e patting one's head and rubbing one's stomach at the same time. Try to judge the clay's e l a s t i c i t y so as not to leave the walls too thick or too t h i n . Repeat t h i s process u n t i l desired height i s achieved. (For c y l i n d e r s only.) '(d) The shaping process has some general r u l e s : - To make a pot rounded out more pressure i s applied on the inside that the outside. - To make a pot f l a r e d out more pressure i s applied on the outside than the i n s i d e . (e) The removing the pot from the wheel process has some general r u l e s : - The pot must be sponged dry, e s p e c i a l l y on the inside bottom of the form. - The wheelhead should be clean and free of excess c l a y . - The bottom outside rim of the pot should be trimmed as much as possible and dry before removal i s attempted. 102 - Clean water should be sponged onto wheelhead surrounding pot. - A t a u t l y held cutting s t r i n g should be pulled f l a t under the pot, p u l l i n g the water under the pot. - The pot should then be s l i d o f f the wheel (using dry hands) onto a wet wooden bat. 103 Appendix F WAYS TO ENRICH CLAY SURFACES 1. Drape a s t r i n g dipped i n oxides or s l i p over a pot or sculpture. Follow the shape of the form or allow s t r i n g to f a l l randomly. 2. Draw on a clay surface with oxides, s t a i n s , or engobes. Draw over or under glazes. 3. Rub oxides into impressed clay areas. Wash c l a y surface with water to bring out pattern. Leave p l a i n or glaze over. 4. Put various thicknesses of rubber bands around pot for a r e s i s t design. Paint over bands with oxides, s l i p , or glaze. Remove bands before f i r i n g . 5. Use melted wax or ceramic wax to paint, s p l a t t e r , or d i p a r e s i s t design on bisque. Glaze after waxing. 6. Draw on cla y surface with underglaze p e n c i l s . Do a black and white l i n e drawing or a shaded form. Coloured pencils could also be used for more realism. 7. Cut paper s t e n c i l s to apply to cla y surfaces. Paint oxides, s l i p or glazes over s t e n c i l s . Remove s t e n c i l s when dry or burn o f f paper in f i r i n g . Grasses, twigs', flowers could be used. 8. Use a comb or forked t o o l to create ridges of l i n e s in soft c l a y . Lines may be s t r a i g h t or wavy. 9. Paddle cl a y surfaces with textured or smooth wooden tools to a l t e r c l a y shape and pattern. 10. Imprint into c l a y surface by pressing an assortment of to o l s into form. 11. Applique separate piece of c l a y onto clay surface. Use d i f f e r e n t colours of c l a y . 12. Mold a s p e c i f i c shape out of cla y and apply to c l a y surface. Use more than one sprig mold for unity and r e p e t i t i o n of theme. 13. Scratch ( s c r a f f i t o ) into' s l i p covered clay surface to reveal clay body colour. Scratches may be abstract or c o n t r o l l e d . 14. Use a feather dipped in s l i p to t r a i n patterns on c l a y surfaces. 15. Use ju s t the shape of the brush hairs on various kinds of paint brushes to p r i n t patterns on cla y surfaces. 16. Dab a sea sponge dipped i n oxide over c l a y surface for a r i c h texture. 104 17. Melt glass chips or enamel lumps onto glazed clay surfaces for added colour and crackled texture. Use these chips i n a c l a y cloisonne. 18. Try to abstract r e a l i t y and sim p l i f y l i n e s i n designs. Try n o t t s l i p t r a c e r . Compare re s u l t s on each l e a f . 20. Double dip a pot in two glazes. Try to control the shapes produced after some random designs have been made. 21. Cut into a c l a y surface with various types of to o l s including pin tools and turning tools to create l i n e s of d i f f e r e n t thicknesses. 22. Draw a design on a clay surface. Cut away the background cla y surrounding the design to producm a raised surface. 23. R o l l a c l a y slab over an old li n o c u t (use several linocuts) to produce a raised clay design. Add to the design or alt e r i t i n some way to create an o r i g i n a l image. 105 Appendix G GLAZES What i s a glaze? A glaze i s a glassy coating or f i n i s h used on ceramic ware to enrich the clay surface and to render i t waterproof. Glazes are composed of three main ingredients: s i l i c a , alumina and f l u x . S i l i c a and alumina are two ingredients found in c l a y and, in f a c t , c l a y could be used as a glaze i t s e l f .except that to melt c l a y into a glass form would require extremely high f i r i n g temperatures. To lower melting temperatures of glaze ingredients a flux i s added. (So glazes contain a l l three elements.) Glaze ingredients Each of the three main ingredients i n a glaze has i t s own function. SILICA i s the glass-making ingredient, and i t i s found i n nature in the form of sand. It comes to the potter for glaze-making in the form of f l i n t , a fine white powder. S i l i c a , or f l i n t , has an extremely high melting point, however, and in order to make i t form a glaze at a lower temperature an ingredient c a l l e d f l u x must be added. FLUX i s the second ingredient of a glaze, and because there are many d i f f e r e n t kinds, each producing a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c type, glazes are usually classed by the type of flux used. For example: lead glazes are those that use white lead (in the form of a fine white power) as a f l u x . Feldspathic glazes are high f i r e glazes using feldspar as a f l u x . Alkaline glazes are those that contain borax or soda as a f l u x . ALUMINA i s the t h i r d ingredient of a glaze. It controls the v i s c o s i t y of a glaze and keeps i t from running o f f the c l a y during the f i r i n g . Alumina i s found in c l a y , and potters use those such as china clay, kaolin, b a l l clay or ordinary pottery clay, which come in the form of fin e powders. What kinds of glazes can be used? 1. Clear Transparent Glaze - This glaze i s extremely shiny and w i l l allow the colour of the clay to shine through. It i s much l i k e putting varnish on wood. To produce colour with a clear glaze a' piece can be decorated f i r s t with a s l i p , s t a i n , oxide or engobe. If you wanted to make a basic -clear glaze l e s s shiny or matt you could add 20% zinc oxide to the formula. To obtain a very d u l l glaze with no sheen at a l l you would add 30% zinc oxide. 2. Coloured Transparent Glaze - This glaze i s the same as the clear glaze above but has had some oxides added to produce a clea r coloured shiny glaze. It would look much l i k e a transparent coloured wash on a watercolour painting. Oxides, s l i p s , s t a i n s of d i f f e r e n t colours can also be used under coloured transparent glazes. Some of the common colorants used to produce coloured clear glazes are: 106 (a) Cobalt oxide - (toxic) very intense, expensive and produces l i g h t blue to almost black. (Use 1% or less.) (b) Copper oxide (toxic) - produces various shades of green; causes glaze to flow because of i t s fluxing action; can make glazes appear m e t a l l i c . (Use l e s s than 6%.) (c) Red iron oxide - produces warm red-brown tones. (Use 5% - 10%.) (d) Titanium - also known as r u t i l e . Produces tan colours and can make int e r e s t i n g c r y s t a l - l i k e e f f e c t s . 3, Opaque Glaze - This glaze i s d u l l shiny and covers the colour of the c l a y body. The f i n a l piece w i l l appear to be the colour of the glaze rather than clay coloured as i n a transparent glazed piece. To make an opaque glaze add 10% t i n oxide or 20% zircopax. The main opaque glaze body w i l l be white coloured. To make a coloured glaze you must add oxides or stains as i n making a coloured transparent glaze. The f i n a l coloured opaque glaze w i l l o f f e r a p a s t e l shade. How to make a glaze Glazes are made by following formulae much the same way recipes are used i n cooking. Ingredients ( i . e . , chemicals) and equipment should be assembled before beginning. Each glaze w i l l specify c e r t a i n chemicals in p a r t i c u l a r proportions to produce a given tested r e s u l t . Glazes are measured out in any form f i r s t and then have water added to form a l i q u i d suspension. You can also experiment with making glazes by beginning with 100 grams of dry form clear transparent glaze and trying to make i t coloured and/or opaque, etc. This i s the equipment needed for making a l l glazes: 1. The gram scale - A demonstration of i t s use w i l l be one of the lessons in the course. Measures dry ingredients accurately. 2. Clean paper to weigh and measure on - T h i s can be thrown away at the end of the process and saves spreading dust and general messiness. Wipe counters also when glaze i s complete. 3. A clean container to put glaze i n (with a l i d ) - Label the glaze and attach a t e s t cookie to each bucket when glaze has been f i r e d to show what one can expect to see. 4. Clean implements for measuring. 5. Glaze formulae - Check o f f each chemical after i t i s added. It i s easy to forget as many chemicals a l l look l i k e white powder. 6. Rubber gloves - Protect skin with cuts from glaze exposure. 7. Mask for mouth - E s p e c i a l l y important i f using anything t o x i c . Most glazes we use are nontoxic. 107 8. Sieve - Once water i s added to dry glaze ingredients the mixture .should be sieved to ensure even chemical d i s t r i b u t i o n . For students wishing to experiment with small t e s t glazes the following information i s important: Measuring Glazes PERCENTAGES We begin with 100 grams dry because: (a) 100 grams i s easiest to figure percentages of (b) we don't have to consider the weight of the water added to make a glaze wet. PERCENT MEANS "OF ONE HUNDRED" Think of one d o l l a r . There are 100 cents i n a d o l l a r . 1 percent means 1 of one hundred. 1 percent of one hundred cents i s one cent. You can do i t e a s i l y with decimal points. To get 1 % of any number just put in two decimal points s t a r t i n g from the r i g h t . That i s the same as d i v i d i n g a number into a hundred parts, so 1% of 100 i s 1.00 or 1. What would 5% be? Just 5 x 1 % . Right? So 5% of 100 i s : 1% = 1.00 x 5 or 5 1 108 St a r t out by c a l c u l a t i n g 1% and multiply that times the per cent you want So: 7% of 968235 i s j u s t : 1% = 9682.35 7% = 9682.35 x 7 If you want to make, say, a glaze which i s not shiny, but has a l i t t l e shine, and i s medium blue, you would: (a) Measure 100 grams of shiny transparent dry (b) To get r i d of most of the shine Add 20% zinc oxide 20% of 100g. i s 1% of 100 x 20 i s 1 x 20 i s 20 grams zinc oxide (c) To make i t opaque (that i s , not transparent) Add 10% t i n oxide or 20% zircopax 10% of 100g. i s 1% of 100 x 10 i s 1 x 10 i s 10 grams t i n oxide OR do i t for zircopax = 20 grams zircopax (d) To make i t a medium blue Add l e s s than 1% cobalt oxide 1% of 100g. i s 1g. You want l e s s than, because your notes say that 1% would give you a strong blue. So take a guess, but measure and record what you measure. Mixing Glazes Once your dry ingredients are measured for either a small t e s t batch of glaze or a larger tested glaze you need to add enough water (a l i t t l e at a time) to make glaze the consistency of coffee cream. Glazes 109 which are too watery w i l l look washed out and b r i t t l e and w i l l not cover the clay surface properly. Glazes which are too thick w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to apply and w i l l end up looking l i k e cupcake i c i n g when f i r e d . The three methods we can use for mixing glazes once the water i s added are: (a) Put a small batch i n a jar with a l i d and shake vigorously to mix. (b) Put a large batch with a strong colorant or speckling agent in the b a l l m i l l (a demonstration of i t s use w i l l be taught as a lesson) to ensure very smooth mixing. (c) S t r a i n the glaze through a f i n e mesh screen. Use a rubber scraper to push mixture through to avoid damaging the screen. Sieve a l l glazes. Label and l i d a l l buckets when f i n i s h e d . Applying Glazes F i r s t check the glaze consistency. Make sure the glaze i s properly s t i r r e d as water tends to r i s e to the top of an unused glaze. If the glaze has drie d out or thickened add a l i t t l e water gradually to achieve the proper thickness. The two main methods we use to apply glaze are pouring and dipping or brushing. Do not contaminate glazes with careless glazing methods. Rinse brushes and materials before putting into new glaze buckets. Remember to leave the bottom and at l e a s t 1/2 inch up the side cl e a r of glaze. ) 110 Appendix H HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE CERAMICS CLASSROOM One of the important roles of the teacher in the ceramics classroom i s to be a provider of information regarding health and safety. The teacher should also act as a role model and personally maintain high standards of procedures in these areas. There are many p o t e n t i a l l y hazardous s i t u a t i o n s in a ceramic studio which can be s a f e l y avoided or dea l t with i f students are properly instructed in and are encouraged to m a i n t a i n good housekeeping s t a n d a r d s . The most p r e v a l e n t h e a l t h concerns are probably those associated with the dust condition. Small p a r t i c l e s of dust i n v i s i b l e to the naked eye are forever present in the a i r . Constant inhalation of these p a r t i c l e s over an extended period of time can cause serious lung and r e s p i r a t o r y problems such as s i l i c o s i s . In order to deal with the dust s i t u a t i o n i n the best manner possib l e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to have a good v e n t i l a t i o n system i n s t a l l e d . The system should consist of an exhaust fan capable of transporting dust and fumes to the outside of the classroom. It i s also important to have windows which can be opened to allow fresh a i r to c i r c u l a t e p e r i o d i c a l l y . A l l dust covered surfaces such as shelves, cupboards, and table tops should be washed down on a d a i l y b a s i s . I d e a l l y , a ceramics classroom should be designed in such a way as to be able to be hosed down and also be provided with drainage s l o t s i n the f l o o r , to carry excess water away. However, as most are not designed t h i s way, damp mopping i s the only a l t e r n a t i v e method of c o n t r o l l i n g f l o o r dust. A good i n d u s t r i a l shop vacuum cleaner i s also an asset in dust control as well as in k i l n maintenance. One of the other main areas of health concerns involves the s t o r i n g , mixing and use of glaze chemicals and ingredients. The chemicals used to make glazes are often toxic to a greater or lesser degree and as such should be stored i n either p l a s t i c buckets with well f i t t i n g l i d s , or in glass lidded j a r s . It i s important not to store these chemicals in paper or p l a s t i c bags (as they often come in from the suppliers) as these bags tend to deteriorate and are not safe from leaks and s p i l l s . Each bucket must be accurately l a b e l l e d as to content and t o x i c i t y of content. If possi b l e , a l l chemicals not in immediate use should be stored in a separate area from the working classroom. It also makes good sense to set aside one area of the working classroom or even a separate room, i f possible, for storing buckets of made up glaze and for doing the actual glazing procedure. This area should have a plastic-covered or arborite surface to f a c i l i t a t e the wiping up of glaze s p i l l s . The brushes, bowls and other tools used in glazing should be removed from the buckets and washed immediately after use. The l i d s should be secured properly on the glazing buckets. Gloves should be worn to prevent glaze contact with the skin and these gloves can be e a s i l y supplied. Students should be c a r e f u l l y instructed in the proper and safe procedure for mixing glazes. There should be no food or drink in the ceramic classroom at any time, but e s p e c i a l l y during glaze making and a p p l i c a t i o n . Students must be c a r e f u l to wash their hands after working with glazes. Smocks and cover-ups should be Washed re g u l a r l y as well as 111 ordinary clothes worn in the classroom. Once glaze chemicals are ready to be weighed and measured, protective face masks can be worn to prevent any inh a l a t i o n from dust from chemicals. The f i r i n g of k i l n s also presents a health concern as gaseous fumes are given o f f during the procedure. If possible, i t should be arranged, so that f i r i n g takes place as l i t t l e as possible during the school day. If a school i s a community one which o f f e r s night classes i n ceramics by a q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r , a s a t i s f y i n g mutual exchange of help with f i r i n g s can often be worked out. It i s not a good idea to r e l y on pyrometric cones to turn the k i l n o f f as they have been known to f a i l . A q u a l i f i e d instructor should always be on the premises when a k i l n i s scheduled to stop f i r i n g . i K i l n s produce heat and as such present possible f i r e hazards. Students must be aware of when k i l n s are f i r i n g and/or cooling down so that they are never opened mistakenly. Any flammable objects must be stored away from k i l n areas and, of course, never placed on top of f i r i n g k i l n s . A f i r e extinguisher should be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e for any emergency. Asbestos gloves should be used during k i l n unloadings and any warm pieces of work should be stored in flame r e s i s t a n t surfaces. K i l n shelves can also present problems i f small pieces of glaze are stuck to their surface. These small glaze chips are as sharp as razor blades and can produce very deep and p a i n f u l cuts i f handled c a r e l e s s l y . The pieces should be chipped o f f outside the room using a f i l e and wearing eye p r o t e c t i o n . Any other machinery in the classroom such as pugmill, grinder, and b a l l m i l l a l l require adequate i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r proper and safe operation before students are allowed to use them. 112 Appendix I THE CLAY PROCESS FROM START TO FINISH 1. Soft c l a y (can be e a s i l y wedged, kneaded, and formed by hand or wheel) 2. Soft leather hard (can be a l t e r e d by p a d d l i n g , i m p r i n t s and appliques) 3. Leather hard (can be altered by t r imming,. decorating with carved textures, adding handles, d r i l l i n g holes) 4. Bone dry (clay i s c a l l e d greenware and appears l i g h t e r in colour and weight; clay i s very f r a g i l e and chips e a s i l y ; clay i s ready for the f i r s t f i r i n g ; c l a y can s t i l l be recycled at t h i s stage by adding water to i t ) 5. Bisqueware (clay has been f i r e d once and chemically altered; c l a y appears d i f f e r e n t i n colour and i s hard to the touch l i k e stone; c l a y cannot be recycled at t h i s stage; c l a y may be decorated by st a i n i n g , waxing and glazing; clay i s ready for f i n a l f i r i n g ) 6. Glazeware (clay has been f i r e d for the f i n a l time, and w i l l have teached the maturing temperature to render i t extremely hard to the touch with a g l a s s - l i k e covering) 113 Appendix J NOTEBOOK EXERCISES FOR CERAMICS 1. Draw a cylinder shape. Change the cylinder shape to new shapes in a ser i e s of progressive drawings. Choose some pleasing ones to t r y to reproduce on the wheel. 2. Draw t i n y things from nature (bugs, stones, rocks, leaves, crys-t a l s , and seed pods). Try to separate e s s e n t i a l forms from accidental ones. 3. Draw any objects you l i k e — a l t e r them into pot shapes. How would they appear as pots or sculptures? What would you change, a l t e r , modify, adjust, and adapt? 4. Choose a theme—draw a s e r i e s of pots or sculptures based on'your theme—choose one or several to translate into claywork. 5. Study a s t y l e or type of pottery (country, period in h i s t o r y ) . Sketch main ideas representative of s t y l e or period chosen. Do a piece of claywork i n t h i s s t y l e . 6. Do a photographic study of cl a y forms and/or sculptures, mosaics, architecture. 7. C o l l e c t examples of forms, textures, patterns, e t c . , which appeal to you as f i n e l y designed and i n t e r e s t i n g . Think of how these pieces could influence your own work. 8. Draw everything which i n t e r e s t s you. A l l drawing work done can play some part in your ceramic a r t . 114 Appendix K BEGINNERS BASIC COURSE REQUIREMENTS POTTERY 9/10 1. Time: 2. Fee: 3. Materials required: a. notebook (for handouts and recording other classroom informa-tion) b. smock or cover-up (old s h i r t s or c o v e r a l l s are good) c. toolbox or strong container including the following items: - pin t o o l (needle in a cork or bamboo skewers) - wooden trimming t o o l (pieces of carved driftwood) - cutting wire or s t r i n g (nylon or l i n e n f i s h i n g line) - sponges - shaping r i b (end of p l a s t i c spatula) Tools w i l l be provided for shared use but i f you prefer to have your own personal ones, the above l i s t o f f e r s some r e a d i l y obtainable and inexpensive suggestions. 4. Course requirements: s p e c i f i c assignments w i l l be given in each area. a. Clay preparation - wedging - kneading (rams head/spiral) - r e c y c l i n g (use of pugmill) b. Handbuilt claywork - pinch - c o i l - slab - molds - combination techniques c. Wheelwork - centering - opening - compressing base - p u l l i n g form - shaping - trimming 1 15 Assignments w i l l include making basic shapes such as c y l i n d e r s , bowls, pitchers with pulled handles. d. Surface enrichment and decoration techniques - s c r a f f i t o - i n c i s i n g - wax r e s i s t - impressing - oxide staining Glazing - basic techniques (brushing, d i p p l i n g , spraying) - basic understanding of simple glaze formulae f . K i l n loading and f i r i n g - bisque k i l n - glaze k i l n 9• Understanding and u s i n g d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s and elements i n  claywork - l i n e - texture - pattern - shape - colour - rhythm - harmony - balance - unity - contrast - emphasis - movement h. Teacher and student evaluation of student's progress 116 Appendix L INTERMEDIATE TO ADVANCED COURSE REQUIREMENTS POTTERY 11/12 1. Time: 2. Fee: 3. Materials required: a. notebook (for handouts and other classroom information, idea source) b. smock or cover-up (old s h i r t s or c o v e r a l l s are good) c. toolbox or strong container including the following items: - pin tool - wooden trimming tools - cut t i n g wire or s t r i n g - sponges - shaping r i b Tools w i l l be provided for communal use but i f you prefer your own personal ones the above l i s t provides the basic t o o l s needed. 4. Course requirements: s p e c i f i c assignments w i l l be given in each area. a. Review of cl a y preparation, clay r e c y c l i n g , studio procedures. b. Handbuilt claywork - complex forms - use of a l l techniques (pinch, c o i l , slab, molds) learned in basic course in various combinations. - sculpture - add i t i v e / s u b t r a c t i v e , mixed media - combination handbuilt and thrown pieces c. Wheelwork - s p e c i a l i z e d techniques and forms - big bowls - pla t e s - lidded forms - teapots - goblets - miniature pots - thin-necked b o t t l e s - sectioned throwing - throwing o f f the hump - c o i l throwing d. Knowledge of d i f f e r e n t types of cl a y - earthenware - stoneware - porcelain 1 17 e. Glazing - mixing glazes from formulae - knowledge of glaze defects and how to correct them f . Surface decoration techniques - feather combing - clay cloisonne - s l i p t r a i l i n g • - s t e n c i l s - p i e r c i n g - sprig moulding - underglaze p e n c i l drawing - cl a y applique g. Ceramic Art Study - written assignment with photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n - h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l review - ceramics from a s p e c i f i c country - ceramics by an i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t from either the past or the present - ceramic s t y l e such as purely f u n c t i o n a l , pop or large g a l l e r y pieces h. Emphasis on working to promote personal imagery and s t y l e - developing themes - enlarging sources and resources of imagery - expanding v i s u a l language i . Ceramic Appreciation - f i l m s - f i e l d t r i p s - discussion groups - v i s i t i n g a r t i s t speakers j • Student and teacher evaluation of student's art growth 1 18 Appendix M STUDENT SELF-EVALUATION FORM NAME: DATE: PROJECT TITLE: RATE YOUR PROGRESS BY ANSWERING, AS OBJECTIVELY AS POSSIBLE, THE FOLLOWING: POOR FAIR GOOD 1. I handled the materials I used w e l l . 2. I handled the tools c o r r e c t l y . 3. My fin i s h e d work shows technical a b i l i t y . 4. I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c l a s s discussion. 5. My work shows uniqueness of ideas. 6. My work approach was o r i g i n a l . 7. My work i s completed in a l l aspects. 8. My work represents my best e f f o r t . 9. My work corresponds to the given problem or assignment. I followed i n s t r u c t i o n s . 10. I have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n clean-up a c t i v i t i e s and have contributed p o s i t i v e l y to the classroom environment. 11. I have learned some new s k i l l s and/or ideas from working on t h i s p r o ject. 12. I enjoyed my working process and my end product. 13. My o v e r a l l grade for t h i s project i s : 14. Please add any further comments i n the space provided below: 11 9 STUDENT DESCRIPTIVE EVALUATION FORM NAME: PROJECT TITLE: Describe your finis h e d work as accurately as possi b l e . Use proper terminology and t r y to convey what you were trying to do in your work: 

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