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There is an important place and value for self-directed learning by secondary art teachers of ceramics Cook, Lynda Lee 1982

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THERE IS AN IMPORTANT PLACE AND VALUE FOR SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING BY SECONDARY ART TEACHERS OF CERAMICS  by . LYNDA LEE COOK  B. E d . (Secondary) U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF ^ THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f V i s u a l and Performing A r t s  i n Education)  THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1982 © Lynda Lee Cook, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements o f  advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  the  Library  further  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  agree t h a t  permission  o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  available  for reference  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying  I agree  that  and study.  of this  I  thesis for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my department o r by h i s or  her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  this  thesis  I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f  for f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  not be allowed  without my  written  permission.  Lynda Lee Cook  Department o f V i s u a l and Performing A r t s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 September, 1982  i n Education  ii Abstract  This  study i d e n t i f i e s the c u r r e n t  potential  demand  approach  to  through based  the  the use  a  ceramics  the  the  the  are  to  offered  approach  of  in  that  are  SDL  has that  be m o d i f i e d  are  to  new  level.  is  The  skills  a  can  teaching  (SDL)  would  main  and  discussed.  benefits SDL  which  plan.  enable  Visual  and  and  feasible, practical for  both  be  adapted  teacher to  the  verbal  assignments The  study  designed her  to an  SDL  are  Conclusions  flexible  and  student  t o be used i n a number o f s u b j e c t  and  teach  examples  and  needs  is  evolution of  processes.  others'  the  possible  characteristics of  knowledge, and  procedures  aware o f  o f f e r s one  e x p e r i e n c e s i n which she  ceramics  important  t o be  r e t r a i n i n g and  adjustment  five-year  secondary  document  job  for teachers  self-directed learning  plan  program  that  Conclusions p l a n can  SDL  for  process of gaining  ceramics  included  a  writer's  implemented  plan,  them  problem of  upon the  at  upon  need  in  areas.  learning learners. that  the  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v i i  Chapter I. INTRODUCTION  1  Background  1  t o the Study  Purpose o f the Study  3  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  4  Summary  7  I I . WHY TEACH CERAMICS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL?  9  J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f C r a f t Program Approach  9  Student A t t i t u d e s  12  Pervasiveness  15  Co-operative Personal  o f Ceramics Action  16  Imagery  17  I I I . DEVELOPING A SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PLAN IV. APPLICATION OF SDL Classroom O r g a n i z a t i o n  19 :  28 28  T o o l s and Equipment  28  Machinery Clay Recycling C l a y Storage Display Supplies Firing Clean-up Routines  29 29 30 30 31 32 32  iv Practical Skills Handbuilding  '•• Techniques  34  Wheelwork Techniques Glazing Surface Decoration  34 35 36  F a c t u a l Knowledge  37  The Nature o f C l a y Glaze Chemistry and T o x i c o l o g y Ceramic A r t H i s t o r y  37 39 40  Program P l a n n i n g  43  Evaluation  48  V. EVOLUTION OF THE PROGRAM  54  V I . SUMMARY  58  P r o p o s a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f SDL Classroom  60  Organization  61  Practical Skills F a c t u a l Knowledge Program Planning  62 62 62  REFERENCES APPENDIX A.  33  67 Important Equipment f o r Ceramics Classrooms and T o o l s f o r Wheelwork and Handbuilding  90  APPENDIX B.  Clay Recycling  92  APPENDIX C.  Simple  APPENDIX D.  Kilns  APPENDIX E .  A v o i d i n g Throwing Problems  100  APPENDIX F.  Ways t o E n r i c h C l a y S u r f a c e s  103  APPENDIX G.  Glazes  105  APPENDIX H.  H e a l t h and S a f e t y i n t h e Ceramics Classroom  110  APPENDIX I .  The C l a y Process  112  APPENDIX J .  Notebook E x e r c i s e s  113  APPENDIX K.  Beginners  114  Solutions  .  94 95  from S t a r t t o F i n i s h  B a s i c Course Requirements  V  APPENDIX L.  I n t e r m e d i a t e t o Advanced Course Requirements  APPENDIX M.  Student S e l f E v a l u a t i o n Form and D e s c r i p t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Form  116 Self 118  vi LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Number  Technique T i t l e  Page  I, 2  C o i l e d P o t , Student's  71  3  C o i l e d and Pinched  72  4  Human Form S c u l p t u r e , Student's  72  5  Textured  S l a b Pot, W r i t e r ' s  73  6  Textured  S l a b P o t , Student's  73  7,8  Linoleum  Cut Pressed  74  9,10  Inlaid Clay T i l e , Writers's  75  I I , 12  Impressed Plaque, W r i t e r ' s  76  13,14,15,16  Low F i r e G l a z e s , W r i t e r ' s Use o f  77  17,18  Fantasy  79  19,20  Pop A r t S c u l p t u r e , Student's  80  21,22  Wax R e s i s t Decorated  81  23,24  Cut Decorated  25,26  S u r f a c e Textured  27,28  S u r f a c e Textured Thrown P o t , Student's  29,30  S t a i n e d and Textured  31  N a t u r a l O b j e c t s Sheet, W r i t e r ' s Example o f a  32  Object Based Pots Sheet, W r i t e r ' s Example o f a  33  Texture  34  Theme Pots Sheet, Student's  Forms, W r i t e r ' s  Plaque, W r i t e r ' s  Shoe S c u l p t u r e , W r i t e r ' s  Thrown Pot, W r i t e r ' s  Thrown P o t , W r i t e r ' s  82  Thrown Pot, W r i t e r ' s  83 ..'  84  Thrown P o t , W r i t e r ' s  Sheet, W r i t e r ' s Example o f a Example o f a  85 86 ...  87 88 89  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish t o r e c o r d ray a p p r e c i a t i o n have r e c e i v e d  from a d v i s e r ,  o f the h e l p  Dr. James U. Gray.  l e d g e the support o f the other  and encouragement I  I wish a l s o t o acknow-  members o f my t h e s i s committee,  s o r s D o r i s L i v i n g s t o n e and James A.S. MacDonald.  Profes-  1 Chapter  I  INTRODUCTION  BACKGROUND TO THE For  some  occasionally  STUDY  time  urban  been asked  teachers  to  teach  in  a l l areas  of  s u b j e c t s f o r which  education  they  have  have r e c e i v e d  l i t t l e or no formal t r a i n i n g .  While t h i s demand seemed r a r e i n the p a s t  it  i n recent  appears  behind with  the need the  teach  fewer  i n those  taught staffed tional  population  schools.  classes  i n most  c l a s s e s may  a  past  the  fine  fine  by  arts  of  levels  another As  courses,  that teachers  available who  i f necessary  someone l e s s  adaptable.  Because  fine  in  reason  connected the  and  lower  art  courses  smaller system  of  are  school  becomes  teaching  three  ceramics,  t e x t i l e s c l a s s e s may  have been  being  teachers  students,  p a i n t i n g , one  art specialist  w e l l as  by a  instead  have to teach one  fewer  arts  within  teacher,  teacher  asked may  subject.  who  i s no  to teach new  also  be  asked  longer  and  addi-  to  teach  Good a d m i n i s t r a t o r s use  the  t o them i n the most f l e x i b l e manner p o s s i b l e  have t r a i n i n g are  a consequence o f  teachers  The ceramics  school.  human r e s o u r c e s  retrain  most  are v e r y much a f f e c t e d  arts  suddenly  textiles class.  by  they  E n g l i s h , Mathematics, or any other  so  the main  areas appears t o be at  offered.  reassignment  Thus,  i n the  A l s o , as  are  schools  and  commonplace.  and one  school  Today  When fewer s t u d e n t s a t t e n d s c h o o l s , fewer t e a c h e r s are needed  enrollments  painting  years.  f o r t e a c h e r s t o teach new  elective  elective  more common  declining  mainland. to  t o be  likely  to  i n many s u b j e c t s or who be  chosen  for  job  are a b l e  to  p o s i t i o n s over  2 The  writer's  responding  was  grade  stems  hired  eight  Because  from  to  writer  for  the  degree  her  time  of  well  had  no  as  ceramics  the  her  appointment level  granted  responin  1976.  t o teach g e n e r a l a r t from f o r the  and  same grade in  levels.  ceramics  knowledge  from  included a The  i n 1967.  then moved t o Toronto, school  complete  a  for  fifth  E d u c a t i o n degree  five  year  it  needed  Bachelor  of  was  before  Education  University of B r i t i s h  The  writer  taught  years.  of  respect  had  to  Columbia  a r t and  technical  then  and  level  general  she  information.  time  and  might The  i n September few  take  problem  the  would enable  situation her  technical,  ceramics  at  the  by d e v i s i n g  through  aesthetic,  that of  limited  secondary  level.  The  Bachelor  of  such help time  writer  hired  taught  at  technique  her and  develop courses  chose,  new  could  however, t o  schedule  which  to a c q u i r e some o f  abilities  seemingly  i n August  short notice i n  a p e r s o n a l p l a n and  intellectual  to  writer  she was  would  The  a  U.B.C.  study.  o p t i o n s on  a self-discovery and  and  to  granted The  The  art in a junior  returned  i n 1975.  have been s o l v e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. with  was  taught  School f o r the p e r i o d o f the  limited  classes  She  Education  Because the j o b commenced writer  O n t a r i o where she  a t the Secondary  K i t s i l a n o Secondary  the  occurred  (b)  f o u r c u r r i c u l u m s u b j e c t s f o r t h r e e y e a r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  secondary  deal  professional  which  experience  skills  adaptable;  The w r i t e r ' s background i n e d u c a t i o n and t e a c h i n g  a t the Elementary  writer  the  experience  previous  learn  (a) being  (c) assuming new  personal  as  to  (U.B.C.) which was grade  a  twelve  teaching could begin. to  topic of:  by a m e t r o p o l i t a n s c h o o l board  the  necessary  up  in this  to sudden demands; and  sibilities, She  interest  needed  simple  to  approach  teach to  a  3 complex  problem  might f i n d The  l e d to solutions  or d i s c o v e r i e s that  contention  or p r o p o s i t i o n being  r e p o r t i s t h a t with a new secondary  into  effect  i n B.C.'s  assigned  retrain.  report  secondary  new t e a c h i n g  Although  approach  teachers  u s e f u l i n adapting t o uncommon c h a l l e n g e s .  this  being  other  could  offers  areas  presented  a r t c u r r i c u l u m about t o be p u t  schools  and with  today's  a  predominant  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  t e a c h e r s must be prepared t o  t h e r e a r e many s o l u t i o n s  play  and e x p l i c a t e d i n  role  to job retraining,  f o r many  a model o f the SDL approach  t h e SDL  and, as such,  t o which  t e a c h e r s may  this refer  f o r g u i d e l i n e s , s u g g e s t i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s .  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This  study  dealing  with  politan  school  described  i s designed  a retraining system.  problem  The study  area o f r e t r a i n i n g  to assume t h a t the d e c l i n i n g system The be  and c o u l d ,  in fact,  to  illustrate  one  faced by an a r t teacher i s further  i s ceramics. enrollment occur  existence of a declining a p r e s s i n g problem  specifically  specialized  situation  i n that the  i s n o t unique  city  i n North  p o p u l a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y going and as such  t e a c h e r s o f f i n e a r t s but a l l educators  i n a metro-  However, i t i s p r o b a b l y  i n any major  f o r some years  way o f  will  safe  t o one America.  to continue to affect  not o n l y  i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system.  To  the e x t e n t t h a t many t e a c h e r s i n a v a r i e t y o f g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s may be  faced  with  information adaptation.  retraining,  on one approach The s o l u t i o n  this  study  to solving  o f pursuing  could  provide  the problem  self-directed  some  valuable  of retraining learning  or  has been  d e a l t with m i n i m a l l y i n a r t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e and thus t h i s study may  4 have  ideas  tion.  which can be i s o l a t e d and a p p l i e d  In a d d i t i o n  teachers  may see the v a l u e  self-directing The Chapter  with  study  two  will  the background  and the d e f i n i t i o n provide  teaching  will  practical  i n devising  demonstrate  how  specifically  skills,  of operative  examples  into  five  chapters.  and the w r i t e r ' s  Chapter  f o r , and an a t t i t u d e  toward,  Chapter  three  a s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning  the s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g to the areas  of classroom  plan.  present Chapter  i n ceramics  organization, Chapter  five  The study w i l l conclude w i t h  to teachers,  the w r i t e r ' s  will  plan  f a c t u a l knowledge and program p l a n n i n g .  to validate  main  terms are examined.  level.  a review o f the f i n d i n g s , some advice  her  many  t h e i r own s t u d e n t s t o be more  w i l l d i s c u s s the e v o l u t i o n o f the program.  written  o f study  In i t the purpose and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  a t the secondary  involved  applied  plan  t o the study  a p h i l o s o p h i c a l premise  ceramics  steps  a new  i s organized  i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c .  study  was  i n encouraging  of this  one d e a l s  the  four  personally  areas o f educa-  i n t h e i r own s t u d i e s .  report  personal  the  to learning  t o other  claims  and p h o t o g r a p h i c and o f accomplishment o f  objectives.  DEFINITION OF TERMS There  a r e two main  terms  in this  thesis  (1) c e r a m i c s , and (2) s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g . is  defined  by Robert F o u r n i e r  Keramos which means is  applied  'burnt  t o any a r t i c l e s  as those  items  require  The f i r s t  (1973) as a word d e r i v e d  stuff  o r 'earthen v e s s e l ' .  made permanent by heat  enough t o produce a g l a s s y s t a t e or c o a t i n g . sculpture  which  which  defining:  term, c e r a m i c s , from  the Greek  Today the term  a t temperatures h o t  He f u r t h e r d e f i n e s  a r e n o t pots  but are o b j e c t s  ceramic solely  5 concerned that  with  pottery  hand-made study  form,  invention  and d e c o r a t i o n .  i s a more narrow  containers.  term  Because  Fournier  than c e r a m i c s  (1973)  says  and a p p l i e s o n l y t o  the a r t a c t i v i t y  fundamental  to  this  i s concerned with more than hand-made c o n t a i n e r s and i n c l u d e s some  discussion chosen  of glaze  the term  making,  ceramics  sculpture,  rather  than  and  wheelwork  pottery  the w r i t e r  to define  has  the a r e a  of  study. The  second  term,  self-directed  l e a r n i n g done by an i n d i v i d u a l how, and when something what we need in  formal  acquiring best  play  and  an  involved dealt  institutions.  important  role  or other  because  benefits  of  discovery  l e a r n i n g as being  (1961)  a personal  teachers  students  to learning.  self-discovery  any  reasons much o f learned  teaching  feel  may  s t y l e or  t h a t SDL i s t h e  i t makes people l e s s dependent on  Although  by J.S. Bruner  to  cannot be r e a d i l y  Many e d u c a t o r s  i n guiding  i n and committed  with  For v a r i o u s  include developing  something  refers  Some examples o f l e a r n i n g which  i n f o r m a t i o n on the j o b .  way t o l e a r n  teachers  i s t o be l e a r n e d .  institutions.  have t o be s e l f - d i r e c t e d  (SDL),  i n which the i n d i v i d u a l has d e c i d e d what,  t o l e a r n a t some stage  learning  learning  learning.  institutions  t o become more  Such  (Pappas,  and  ideas  have  personally  been  1970), who w r i t e s  He  begins  any form o f o b t a i n i n g  by  still  clearly  about t h e  defining  self-  knowledge f o r o n e s e l f  by the use o f one's own i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s i n a p e r s o n a l l y developed learning  approach.  t e r i z e d by having transform and  says t h a t d i s c o v e r y  a w e l l prepared  knowledge which  b e n e f i t i n g from d i s c o v e r y  learning i s charac-  mind and the a b i l i t y  f a c t s i n such a manner as t o be able  i n s i g h t s from  learner  He f u r t h e r  i s already  t o rearrange  t o g a i n new  evident.  and  information  Bruner  sees the  l e a r n i n g i n four main r e s p e c t s .  The  6 learner from  experiences:  extrinsic  technique  to i n t r i n s i c  of discovery,  information  and  process  able  by o n e s e l f  the i n f o r m a t i o n  Bruner  (1961)  more  parents  Thirdly, the  readily  power o c c u r s to organize  because the the informa-  and r e l a t e d manner and a l s o Secondly,  (Pappas, 1970) sees the s e l f - d i s c o v e r y l e a r n e r  as b e n e f i t -  able  for learning  he adds t h a t  experience  workable  more  solving.  ing p e r s o n a l l y by being and  t o remember  the l e a r n e r  t i o n he i s unexpectedly meeting i n a r e g u l a r makes  o f a way o r a  (pp. 90-101).  intellectual  forces  power, (2) a change  (3) the l e a r n i n g  (4) being  the increased  learning  intellectual  rewards,  which i s d i s c o v e r e d  Firstly, discovery  (1) an i n c r e a s e d  to replace  something  learning  of trying  i n problem  the rewards o f f e r e d by  with  learning  as i t s own  the t e c h n i q u e s o f d i s c o v e r y  to learn  the p r o c e s s  teachers reward.  comes  of inquiry.  from  In o t h e r  words, the more one p r a c t i c e s the a c t o f i n q u i r y , the more l i k e l y one i s to encounter a p e r s o n a l applied the  s t y l e or p a t t e r n o f problem s o l v i n g which can be  s u c c e s s f u l l y t o any l e a r n i n g  situation.  a c t i v i t i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d i s c o v e r i n g  make i n f o r m a t i o n  Finally,  things  f o r oneself  can be more r e a d i l y r e c a l l e d and used than  t i o n gained through other Another strong  learning.  seem t o  informa-  methods.  proponent o f s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g , Malcolm Knowles  (1975), s t a t e s t h a t not o n l y do people l e a r n b e t t e r people's  psychological  As we mature  development  better  and d e v e l o p , our n a t u r a l  through SDL, but i t  than  teacher-directed  inclination  i s t o be  more r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r our l i v e s and t h e r e f o r e more s e l f - d i r e c t i n g  areas.  in this  the  Learning  motivation  that  l e a r n e d more e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e i n the l e a r n e r ' s memory.  Thus the i n f o r m a t i o n  suits  he says  comes  s t y l e promotes a sense o f s e l f - e s t e e m  from  within  the  individual  rather  ina l l i n that  than  from  7 external sources. for  being  Knowles (1975) s t a t e s t h a t a f u r t h e r long-term  skilled  i n SDL  changes so r a p i d l y knowledge  which  i s that  we cannot  because  be c o n t e n t  i s commonly  known  we  live  i n a world  as e d u c a t o r s  t o our  reason  only  students.  which  to transmit  We  must  teach  s t u d e n t s t o develop the s k i l l s o f i n q u i r y so t h a t when they l e a v e s c h o o l they new  will  have not o n l y a bank o f knowledge but the a b i l i t y  knowledge  process  as n e c e s s a r y .  because  information  schools  they w i l l  Education  can no longer  need  must  be  provide  f o r the r e s t  seen  as  students  of their  lives  to acquire a  with  lifelong all  the  in this highly  technolog i c a l age. Being  aware o f what  SDL meant  o r i m p l i e d was the w r i t e r ' s  s t e p toward d e v i s i n g a s u c c e s s f u l SDL l e a r n i n g p l a n . SDL  first  Before b e g i n n i n g a  study i n c e r a m i c s , however, the w r i t e r had t o e s t a b l i s h a p h i l o s o p h -  i c a l b a s i s and some a t t i t u d e s towards the p l a c e and v a l u e o f ceramics i n the a r t c u r r i c u l u m . the secondary  E d u c a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u d i n g ceramics i n  s c h o o l w i l l be examined i n chapter two.  SUMMARY Educators  today  stages o f t h e i r retraining school  face  the problem  teaching c a r e e r s .  i n the types  populations.  teachers  they  teach  are h i r e d  when " g e n e r a l i s t s " can be assigned t o i n s t r u c t future, material  teaching  will  change  that better r e f l e c t s  a t some o r many  C u r r e n t l y , teachers  o f subjects  Fewer  of retraining  further  by  are i n v o l v e d i n  because  of declining  for "specialist"  i n many s u b j e c t s .  the a d d i t i o n  the needs o f contemporary  o f new  areas In the course  students.  For  example, j u s t as t e a c h e r s i n the past few decades have had t o prepare t o t e a c h "new math" c o u r s e s , t e a c h e r s i n the f u t u r e w i l l need t o l e a r n more  8 about been the  computers to  provide  retraining  this  study  and  computer-related  one  method  process.  was  designed  for  The to  be  material.  teachers  self-directed referred  t r a n s l a t e d or t r a n s f e r r e d from the ceramic study  as  an  plan,  interested  retraining  example o f how educators  problems.  to  to  use  as  be  w r i t e r ' s aim  i n order  learning  to  a model  has  facilitate  approach  used  in  which c o u l d  be  a r e a to any o t h e r .  to devise a personal could  This  With  this  self-directed learning  successful in dealing  with  their  9 Chapter I I  WHY TEACH CERAMICS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL?  JUSTIFICATION OF CRAFT PROGRAM APPROACH Justifying  the i n c l u s i o n  o f any course  i n the school  curriculum  r e q u i r e s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f some c l e a r l y d e f i n e d reasons and the a b i l i t y t o show s t u d e n t s ' true  need  o f the f i n e  f o r knowledge  arts.  i n the a r e a .  For the sake  This  o f subject  i s particularly  classification  and  e x a m i n a t i o n , most c e r a m i c s programs a r e g e n e r a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d as " c r a f t " programs.  The reason  for this  label  appears t o be t h a t  program c e r t a i n methods, s k i l l s and techniques students danger a  have  sound  in classifying  "craft"  simply  some  course  a r e taught  i n a ceramics t o ensure t h a t  knowledge o f how t o do t h i n g s .  and e s p e c i a l l y  i s t h a t one w i l l  i n practising  The o b v i o u s  the i d e a o f t e a c h i n g  end up t e a c h i n g  or learning  f o r t h e i r own sake which, i n the end, has v e r y l i t t l e  teaching  o r l e a r n i n g how t o respond  to a r t .  t o do w i t h  In d e s c r i b i n g  t i o n s f o r i n c l u d i n g any a r t program i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , Eisner  (1972)  says  that  students  i n several  valuable  leisure through  creative  thinking,  areas art's  main  time  expressed  studying ways.  activity,  the making  and making He  contributes  to a better  and encourages p h y s i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n . primary  and  most  important  that  emotions  and viewing  and  of visual  Elliot  feelings forms,  Eisner  He c l a i m s  that  a r t i s unequalled  a  t o be  develops  o f academic  (1972) t h i n k s  justification  is  a b i l i t y t o e n l i g h t e n and educate the i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e s human b e i n g .  W. to  a r t provides  understanding  educational  justifica-  art i s beneficial  maintains  allows  skills  in its ability  that its as a  in this  10 area.  He  i l l u s t r a t e s h i s p h i l o s o p h y c l e a r l y when he s a y s , " A r t not o n l y  f u n c t i o n s as a v e h i c l e f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f sublime v i s i o n s , takes his  those  v i s i o n s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f man,  recollections,  11). it  and  provides  these  with  visual  h i s dreams,  metaphors"  He c o n t i n u e s , " A r t a l s o p r o v i d e s the bonds t h a t s t r e n g t h e n breeds  generate  affiliation cohesiveness  through among  e n l a r g e s our c o n s c i o u s n e s s " Edmund Burke Feldman expression of  i t s power  men.  It  move  the  discloses  (1970) a l s o  the  shows h i s concern  the human c o n d i t i o n when he  art:  "Primitive  solutions  to human needs, f e a r s ,  art  says  continuously  i d e a o f a r t a t the c e n t e r o f l i f e adds t h i s thought  to  (p.  ritual,  emotions  and  ineffable  and  (p. 16).  primitive  He  too  his fears,  i t also  and  the  with  an  following, regarding  presents  aspirations.  a r t as  us  with  visual  It helps locate  r a t h e r than a t i t s p e r i p h e r y "  the  (p. 16).  about contemporary a r t :  S i n c e a r t i s everywhere around ^ u s — i n the d e s i g n o f the l a r g e - s c a l e and the s m a l l - s c a l e e n v i r o n m e n t — t e a c h e r s should t r y t o e n l a r g e t h e i r p u p i l s ' concept o f a r t so t h a t they can h e l p b r i n g about i t s i n t e g r a t i o n — n a t u r a l l y and o f f i c i a l l y — w i t h the r e s t o f our common e x i s t e n c e . They must l e a r n t o p e r c e i v e form and meaning not o n l y i n p i c t u r e s but a l s o i n e v e r y aspect o f p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l l i f e . (p. 21.) Both  of  these  art  educators  convince  us  that  art  involves  v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f man's v a l u e s , f e e l i n g s , dreams, and conditions program  (natural,  involving  social,  any  s t u d e n t s to p a r t i c i p a t e What  i s meant here  outcome  and  has  a  particular  has  a  by c r a f t  religious)  medium  must  o b j e c t i s any  p r e d i c t a b l e end  reasonably  and  and  enable  surrounding thus  and  an  art  encourage  i n the making o f a r t r a t h e r than a c r a f t o b j e c t .  p i e c e o f work which grows and also  cultural,  the  product  result.  changes as  What  which  has  a  i s meant by  planned art i s a  the p r o c e s s e v o l v e s and  predictable result.  End  results  in  which  art  are  11 usually skills  not t o t a l l y  preconceived.  While  students l e a r n i n g  i d e a s , i t can become the t o t a l  t o work on the p o t t e r ' s wheel.  of  s u c c e s s , many students want t o t o t a l l y  or  other  aspects  appreciation  o f the program  i n order  identical  quite  the  exclusion  t o devote  c o f f e e mugs.  a challenge  narrows  such  a l l their  While  else  take  students  time  and s k i l l  making  moment  or ceramic a r t  e n e r g i e s t o producing  ceramics  a r t experience  o f everything  From t h e f i r s t  twenty-  making t w e n t y - f i v e i d e n t i c a l mugs i s  f o r any beginning  student's  f o c u s f o r many  abandon h a n d b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s  as g l a z e  available  want s t u d e n t s t o produce w e l l designed that  o f developing  i s an important p a r t o f any a r t program because i t e n a b l e s one t o  b e t t e r express and execute  five  the p r o c e s s  student  i t , of  considerably  i f done  t o him/her.  We,  and w e l l executed  t o some degree.  We  t o produce p r e d i c t a b l e and meaningless  r e f l e c t a s t u d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l involvement  course, t o the  as t e a c h e r s ,  p i e c e s o f work  do n o t , however, p i e c e s which  want  i n no way  with h i s or her own imagery and  i  art  development.  Doing  the same t h i n g over  i n v o l v e s v e r y l i t t l e problem s o l v i n g . experimenting  can  and do assume t h a t the main reason  b e f o r e any s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s appear.  s i m p l y "have fun and not work t o o hard." having  t o do any hard  however, t o f i n d to  their  student  designed),  secondary time  work.  obviously  Some s t u d e n t s  f o r t a k i n g an a r t c o u r s e  soon  level  I t has been  respond  (these  i s to  These s t u d e n t s n a t u r a l l y  balk  the w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e ,  t h a t most s t u d e n t s , when p r o v i d e d w i t h problems  age and a b i l i t y  enthusiasm.  again  Problem s o l v i n g r e q u i r e s t h i n k i n g  and  at  and over  problems may be teacher  t o the c h a l l e n g e  with  suited and/or  eagerness  and  In s p i t e o f how i t can sometimes appear, most s t u d e n t s i n  classrooms  a r e not a p a t h e t i c about how t h e y spend t h e i r  school  and do want a chance a t s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o grow  12 and  develop  beyond  their  current a r t experience,  One o f the most rewarding that and  i t does  allow  aesthetic  educated  knowledge  skill.  aspects o f teaching a subject l i k e ceramics i s  the student  both  t o have fun and t o d e v e l o p  awareness on h i s / h e r way t o becoming  person.  and  a more  visual  artistically  As. long as s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s see c r a f t s as a means  to a r t , t h e c r a f t program approach can be s a t i s f a c t o r y and u s e f u l . Having beliefs  of others,  enabling own  s t a t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g  a r t ideas,  the writer  reasons  a r t during  co-operative  can be  action  valuable  coupled  study  would  like  to  further  a t the secondary  some  their  equally  level.  These  (a) student a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s  (b) the p e r v a s i v e n e s s  developed  add  with  area f o r  which they can use t o express  four main a r e a s :  adolescence;  a  my b e l i e f ,  skills  f o r t e a c h i n g ceramics  reasons w i l l cover  this  ceramics  students t o develop  important  in  that  paragraphs  among  students  o f ceramics;  through  (c) the  participation in  kind o f program, and (d) the o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d  f o r developing  p e r s o n a l imagery through ceramic a r t .  STUDENT ATTITUDES It  has been  students  appear  the w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e t o be  either  bored  or  to find  t h a t many  frustrated  with  adolescent traditional  drawing and p a i n t i n g  classes.  There are many p o s s i b l e reasons  situation  including  being  taught  to occur,  classes,  activities  being  unstimulated  unchallenged  by doing  f o r too many y e a r s , being  ability,  being  improve  skills,  unable  to develop  and being  by p o o r l y planned  the same type  frustrated  s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r v a l u e l e s s (drawings).  and  o f drawing  by a l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l  the p e r s o n a l  unsatisfied  for this  with making  motivation something  The w r i t e r makes t h i s  needed  to  which many statement  13 based on the f a c t t h a t so many s t u d e n t s do n o t take drawings not  seem  t o care  about  images through drawing will  commit  what  happens  t o them.  has g r e a t p e r s o n a l v a l u e  the energy  and c o n c e n t r a t i o n needed  Added t o the above i s the problem  of living  Producing  i f he  t o do c r e a t i v e  work.  i n a s o c i e t y i n which people  want t o use.a new and d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l o r t o o l  ity.  than d e a l with an o l d and u s u a l m a t e r i a l The problem,  student  becomes as q u i c k l y  Drawing, into  o f course,  i t seems, f a l l s  t h e "new".  i n this  bored into  Although  expressive  f o r the student  demand new and d i f f e r e n t entertainment e v e r y minute.  rather  home and do  type  A r t students o f t e n  f o r i t s novelty value i n i t s entire  of situation  complex-  i s t h a t the  with the new as he does with the o l d .  the " o l d " c a t e g o r y w h i l e c e r a m i c s  some drawing  i s usually  done  falls  i n a ceramics  c l a s s , t h e r e i s i n g e n e r a l l e s s emphasis on i t . Because o f t h e l a c k o f drawing  demanded  or poor  i n a r t because  of  study.  i n c e r a m i c s many s t u d e n t s who f e e l  Some o f the other a t t r a c t i o n s  easily  wheel,  and a d e s i r e  manipulated  they are weak  they cannot draw w e l l a r e a t t r a c t e d t o t h i s  new a r e a , a need t o succeed a t something potter's  that  medium.  include a desire as c h a l l e n g i n g  field  t o work i n a  as m a s t e r i n g the  t o express o n e s e l f i n a f a i r l y d i r e c t and Drawing  i s more  easily  manipulated  than  c e r a m i c s but many s t u d e n t s seem unable t o draw what they see i n f r o n t o f them and r e s o r t in  earlier  activities students  t o r e p r o d u c i n g symbols f o r o b j e c t s which they  years.  Perhaps  the i n c l i n a t i o n o f most e d u c a t o r s t o f o s t e r  i n h e r e n t t o the l e f t  have  difficulties  developed  hemisphere  drawing  what  o f the b r a i n  i s i n front  e x p l a i n s why  o f them.  Betty  Edwards (1979) has r e s e a r c h e d the a c t i v i t i e s o f both s i d e s o f the b r a i n and  s t a t e s the f o l l o w i n g :  14 The dominant l e f t v e r b a l hemisphere doesn't want too much i n f o r m a t i o n about t h i n g s i t p e r c e i v e s — j u s t enough t o recogn i z e and c a t e g o r i z e . The l e f t b r a i n , i n t h i s sense, l e a r n s t o take a q u i c k l o o k and s a y s , " R i g h t , t h a t ' s a c h a i r (or an u m b r e l l a , b i r d , t r e e , dog, e t c . ) ." Because the b r a i n i s o v e r l o a d e d most o f the time with incoming information, i t seems t h a t one o f i t s f u n c t i o n s i s t o screen out a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f incoming perceptions. This i s a necessary p r o c e s s t o enable us to focus our t h i n k i n g and one t h a t works v e r y w e l l f o r us most o f the time. But drawing r e q u i r e s t h a t you look a t something f o r a long time, p e r c e i v i n g l o t s o f d e t a i l s , r e g i s t e r i n g as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e — i d e a l l y , e v e r y t h i n g .... (p. 76.) Many exposure their  students to  clay  coming usually  experiences  positive,  they  l e a r n more and Clay,  are  will  elementary  i n the  limited.  probably  serve  an  almost  Most people  find  change under one's f i n g e r s .  to  than  can  also  be  in  of  any  a r t program, nor today.  encouraging  way  another  student  f o r people  What t o begin  do I  realize  are  want  of  to  a l l ages  t o touch  and  a machine,  t h a t t h r e e second  saying  a more  answer  r e s u l t s can  I condone "The am  natural interest to  t h a t i n many ways ceramics  of  with this  some o f formed  study  fast  from  e f f o r t s be  results  so  the b a s i s  can  be  f o r many s t u d e n t s .  beginning  our  i n moments.  Instant Results" a t t i t u d e  i s that  in-depth  appear  time a l l s t u d e n t s w i l l grow i n t o working on l o n g e r term will  to  C l a y can be changed and  t h a t many s a t i s f y i n g  suggesting, of course,  prevalent  experiences  irresistible  some ways an  s t u d e n t s ' needs f o r i n s t a n t r e s u l t s .  not  a  some  A d o l e s c e n t s , i n g e n e r a l , seem to enjoy working  Clay  I am  early  had  in general  p r o v i d e s a chance t o work w i t h  age  quickly  appeal  a lump o f c l a y  the wheel s a t i s f i e s  and  have  p r e v i o u s l y p o s s i b l e f o r them.  universal  thus  easily  these  motivate  was  will  h a n d b u i l d i n g , but  If  machines and group.  of  schools  As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g an i r r e s i s t i b l e medium  with which t o work, c e r a m i c s the p o t t e r ' s wheel.  form  often  i n g r e a t e r depth  i t seems, has  everywhere.  from  assignments t o end  i s one  so an In and of  15 the  longest of  a r t procedures.  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  true of  working  on  l a r g e p i e c e s which o f t e n take many days t o c o n s t r u c t and many more days to  dry,  fire  and  glaze  before  an  end  product  appears.  s t u d e n t s working on l a r g e p i e c e s w i l l have adopted a new their  work  which  will  enough t o p r o v i d e quality  piece of  the  over.  Along  time  work.  w i l l a l s o be c a r r i e d is  allow  them  and  The  to  effort  f e e l i n g s not their  positive  satisfaction  sustained i n t e r e s t  form  most  a r t i s both  cultural  teaching an  of  patience  and  and  finish  who  a  self-discipline  long a f t e r the ceramic take  the  course time  to  i n any medium o f t e n g a i n a sense o f  regarding feel  their  good  capabilities.  about  These  themselves but  i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s because we  ancient  contemporary a r t form  and  produce  a l l enjoy  add  to  feelings  CERAMICS  i s an  throughout  ceramic  self-disciplined  self-worth.  PERVASIVENESS OF Ceramics  to  a t t i t u d e toward  and  a t t i t u d e s , students  o n l y make s t u d e n t s  o f success and  needed  away with the student  with  and  patient  attitudes of  master the s k i l l s needed to succeed competency  be  Hopefully,  a r t form  countries still  in  being  o l d and  new  which the  has  been  world.  Ceramics  p r a c t i s e d around i t provides  study.  If  we,  as  historical  and  cultural  teachers, aspects  the  a rich are of  p r a c t i s e d i n some  world.  area o f  concerned  a r t then  is  also  a  Because historical about  ceramics  the  makes  i d e a l area to i n c l u d e i n secondary s c h o o l a r t c u r r i c u l u r n s . Our  school populations r e f l e c t  many r a c e s , n a t i o n a l i t i e s and Asian,  cultures.  European, North American  common p r a c t i s e o f ceramic  the f a c t t h a t Canada i s a c o u n t r y  Indian,  Most s c h o o l s have a v a r i e t y and  East  Indian  students.  of of The  a r t among so many c o u n t r i e s g i v e s us a mutual  16 a r e a o f a r t to compare and and  an  understanding  study  to  of  group.  a p p r e c i a t e and  ceramic  understanding  Students  of other c u l t u r a l  a r t s o f any p a r t i c u l a r possible  contrast.  a r t may  be  with  small  of  way  a respect for  the  study o f  the  as many o p p o r t u n i t i e s as  peacefully  a  gain  groups through  A l l o f us need  live  can  our  f e l l o w man.  contributing  to  The better  among d i v e r s e groups.  CO-OPERATIVE ACTION In  t h i s age  o f emphasis on  the  up t h i n k i n g o n l y i n terms o f t h e i r While it  particular  s t u d e n t s can o f t e n end  and  personal art p r o j e c t .  i t i s important t o have a s e r i o u s involvement with one's own  i s also  important  the c l a s s r o o m . bilities  and  expressing  to  participate  i n the  whole  social  experience  from  interactions. the  teacher  running  of  a  d e t r i m e n t o f t h e i r work and  A l l t h r e e o f these areas u s u a l l y need i n t h a t many s t u d e n t s  are  studio  and  are  used  that of o t h e r s .  to  tical  skills  in art.  language  precisely skills  Students  are encouraged  a s s o c i a t e d with  what  they  including  are  ceramics  thinking.  to use proper thus  There  role modelling, v i s u a l  be more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r allowing  them  to  own  participate  to  to  enabling  aids  and  of  analy-  vocabulary, them  to  say  teach  (vocabulary sheets, Helping s t u d e n t s t o  classroom environment i n a l l areas  the  through  are many ways t o  proper l a b e l s ) and group c r i t i q u e s and d i s c u s s i o n s .  by  used  In g u i d i n g s t u d e n t s  a r e a s , s t u d e n t s o f t e n d e v e l o p much n e g l e c t e d c r i t i c a l  these  not  socializing  these  more  of  a r t thoughts v e r b a l l y , are not used t o t a k i n g a l a r g e p a r t i n  smooth  terms and  work,  A c e r a m i c s c l a s s f o s t e r s the s h a r i n g o f i d e a s , r e s p o n s i -  social  some guidance  the  individual,  can be  achieved  studio organization.  17 This  includes clay  tion,  kiln  preparation, recycling  firings,  care  and  a r t i s t i c display of finished any  other  this  procedures  participation  tional  maintenance  work, keeping  takes  loading  opportunity  and  equipment,  To ensure  involved.  that a l l  t o have some o r g a n i z a -  Handouts on v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s  and demon-  R o t a t i n g schedules o f some d u t i e s such  and g l a z e making  t o be  tools  prepara-  t r a c k o f s u p p l i e s needed and  place, i t i s essential  routines established.  kiln  of  p e r t i n e n t t o the c l a s s r o o m s .  s t r a t i o n s o f methods o f t e n h e l p . as  and s t o r a g e , g l a z e  ensure  Students  that  should  everyone keep  gets  their  an  own  equal  personal  r e c o r d s o f f i r i n g s and c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s .  PERSONAL  IMAGERY  Ceramics develop  provides  t h e i r own working  i s a problem i n i t i a l l y develop. and  teachers jumping images.  cannot  excellent  style  opportunity  and p e r s o n a l  we  images  copied  and  can c e r t a i n l y  o f f or s t a r t i n g  sources  which  borrowed  encourage  from  students  assorted  imagery  students with  in particular  helps  sources.  t o use these  p o i n t s towards d e v e l o p i n g  We can a l s o p r o v i d e  Without  literature,  s t i m u l a t i o n from  the student  having  s c i e n c e , music,  t o work  o f i d e a s t o choose  from.  students  Once students  As as  bank o f  a myriad o f  who c l a i m s  he/she  The s o u r c e s  b u i l d i n g s , other  societies,  i n a vacuum,  ideas  a personal  t h i n k o f anything t o do t h a t i s o r i g i n a l t o him/her.  work, p o e t r y ,  wealth  Personal  to  f o r most s t u d e n t s and takes time and hard work t o  to use i n c l u d e n a t u r e , man-made environments,  etc.  imagery.  f o r students  Students o f t e n come t o c l a s s with a mental storehouse o f t i r e d  cliched  other  another  artists'  life  experiences,  find  they  use t h e i r  have a  own ideas f o r  18 their  work,  becomes and In  they how  quickly  realize  c o n c l u s i o n , ceramics  study  both  brotherhood world.  can  historically  as  i t is a  Working  Attitudes  idea  Students  while  developing  a bank o f  and  display.  to  v  them  Once  to  interest the did  educationally  student  with  area o f a r t can  many people  the  and  opportunity  promote  around  the  personal  images. art. thus  the  classroom a  great  a r t , and  be  had  more  be  deal  self-expressive  Students  l e a r n new  tech-  The making o f an o b j e c t i n  fosters  school  can  be  are  and  independent  thinking  o f communicating community  when  ideas  put  on  a p l a c e where s t u d e n t s have good  about  the  leave f e e l i n g  technical  positively  about  a good e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e artistically  educated  but  and  aesthetic themselves.  which not o n l y  also  to  have  a  in learning.  writer have  of  self-discipline  to  was  convinced  a valuable  justifiable  place  vehicle  on i n the  for  a  philosophical c u r r i c u l u m and  achieving  order  to g a i n  the  skills  and  program.  The SDL  p l a n w i l l be o u t l i n e d  basis  knowledge needed  learning to  teach  that  c o u l d be  several of  t i v e s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , she d e v i s e d a s e l f - d i r e c t e d in  work  Ceramics  a r t s u b j e c t by  have  rest  l e a v e having  continued  ceramics  the  learn  a s p e c t s o f ceramic They w i l l  their  an i n t e r e s t i n g  F i n i s h e d a r t p r o d u c t s are a way  A ceramics  experiences,  secondary  culturally.  demands many d e c i s i o n s and  evaluation.  enables  medium, and  s k i l l s w h i l e making ceramic  feelings  the  sharing, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  fostered.  and  provide  and  shared  often  ceramics  satisfying  i n a ceramics room a l l o w s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o d e v e l o p .  about  n i q u e s and  much more  boring c l i c h e s are.  s k i l l s , p o s s i b l e mastery o f a new to  how  the plan a  an  objec(SDL)  ceramics  i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  19 Chapter  III  DEVELOPING A SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PLAN  In determining al  about  to begin  considered. and  facilitate  which  is  wasting,  a SDL  the  process  taken  important  and  plan  and  s u b j e c t , two  make  the  ability  has  whole to  sistent;  the  the  the  second  deals  system o f proceeding i t helps  positive  potential  i s s u e s must  to  with used.  minimize  results  and  the  be  order  in  order  of  The  mistakes  and  q u i c k mastery o f  be  easier.  p r o g r e s s ; and  and  s u c c e s s f u l i n SDL,  These  self-motivated;  (d) r e s p o n s i b l e f o r one's own  (g)  not  (a)  to  resources  self-critical;  time skills  able  (f)  to  a l l of  these  assess  not  c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f  learning taking  doing  plan.  time  to  A  clearer  recall  and  g u i d e l i n e s f o r l e a r n e r s and  to  seek  one's  adjustments  l e a s t be aware o f the need f o r them throughout When the w r i t e r was  own  order o f  picture reflect.  of  s t e p s taken  what  took  Knowles'  t e a c h e r s a l s o proved  (c)  per-  seeking  help  when  when needed.  One  should  at  process. i n ceramics  she  i n d e v i s i n g her  place  (1975)  the  and  e q u a l l y but  the SDL  to  growth  the major p a r t o f her SDL the  include  (e) c a p a b l e o f  able  characteristics  certain  i n order  self-disciplined;  learning;  available; (h)  characteristics  (b)  ( i ) able t o make changes and  possess  but  are v a l u a b l e to possess or develop  process  be:  materials  needed;  was  main  knowledge.  personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  need  while  because  t o maximize  Everyone  out  i n any  individu-  f i r s t d e a l s with the' p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a i d  steps are  events  and  The  the p o t e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f an  emerged  after  information  i n v a l u a b l e as a  and  source  20 of c l a r i f y i n g  the  steps  according  to  these  needed  be  learned  very  to  terms,  more  specific  through some  close  isolated locate  and  some and  helpful. o f the  for  have  the  and the  which  the  to  writer  the  five  will steps  writer  will  be  personal sources  and  taken  i n her  main  initial  areas:  factual needed  immediate  ment c o u l d  be  and  and  will  be  classroom  knowledge;  and  and  useful  in  to  the  some  extent,  in  learning and  then  which  then  made  would  to v a l i d a t e  The  specific  four  to  prove  evidence  goals  styles  will  included  as  be  elaborate  applied the  as  to  each  writer's  examined.  well  initial  Learning  evidence  of  the  into  four  skills;  (c)  objectives. i n SDL  were c l a s s i f i e d (b)  practical  planning.  consideration  Although a  to main  have been e s t a b l i s h e d  While  before  w r i t e r chose t o d e a l  that  identified  past  paragraphs  process.  then  program  serious  most o b v i o u s .  in  encountered.  some  was  the  classroom  physically  a l l four teaching  with the  problems o f the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f the c l a s s r o o m f i r s t to be  learned,  were  the  effort  tried  what  After establishing  resources  organization;  (d)  s t a r t e d , the  be  recalled  following  problems encountered  (a)  and  idea of  problems  problems.  and  SDL  Once g o a l s  w r i t e r ' s accomplishment o f her The  to  objectives  conscious  i n the  strategies  resources  overall  analyzable  objectives.  examined  outlined.  learning  A  an  initial  c o l l e c t e d and  proceed  be  been  material  accomplishment o f her  The  the  examined  use.  process i s  What needed  initial  had  SDL  onset,  learning  writer  future  Finally,  the  d i c t a t e d by  goals  access  At  The  established.  was  styles  problem areas w i l l area  was  goals  i n SDL.  steps.  examination o f  specific  strategies  upon  five  general  Then,  involved  assign-  organizational  as they appeared  organization  organized  areas  is a  priority  environment  makes  21 t e a c h i n g more e f f e c t i v e , problem s o l v i n g . into  four  into  sake.  a l l four  affected  and  deals  with  She i s aware  areas  problems  classroom other  The w r i t e r has separated  categories  convenience  i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y have t o come f i r s t i n  environment  areas  proved  and  ceramics  were  skill  needed  appropriate  i n sequential  Problems  order  t o be a good  mental  factual  i n the f a c t u a l secondary  time.  areas  certainly  Exploring the  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the  and p l a n n i n g  areas.  and p r a c t i c a l to  areas.  factual The  Finally,  and p r a c t i c a l  initial  writer  with  program  continued  some classroom  skills was  i n v e s t i g a t e as  the p r o c e s s  of  program i n these  o r g a n i z a t i o n and some b a s i c  e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e program  basic  The  aspects  p l a n n i n g , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , depended on the w r i t e r ' s a b i l i t i e s two  for  overlapped  i n one a r e a  a t the same  work r e q u i r e d i n the p r a c t i c a l ,  knowledge  each  t h a t much o f the l e a r n i n g  simultaneously.  i n other  her s o l u t i o n s t o the problems  i n a l l respects  was  developed.  and developed  o f d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g over  as the  the f i v e  year  study. The  specific  g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n regard  room o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e d : all were  tools  and equipment;  i n the best  a reliable  storage  areas  clay  work;  The  recycling  (f) s e t t i n g  (g) o r d e r i n g  consistent clay f i r i n g  familiar  certain  that  with the f u n c t i o n o f tools  and c o n d i t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e program;  were used e f f i c i e n t l y ;  in locked safety areas; dimensional  (b) making  position  lishing  (a) becoming  to c l a s s -  and equipment  use; (c) e s t a b -  (d) e n s u r i n g  that  (e) c o n t a i n i n g poisonous up d i s p l a y areas  necessary  supplies;  project  chemicals  f o r two and t h r e e (h) d e v e l o p i n g  schedule; and (i) e s t a b l i s h i n g clean-up r o u t i n e s .  l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s area i n c l u d e d :  developing  handbuilding  a  techniques;  (b) mastering  the throwing  (a)  o f pots  22 on the p o t t e r ' s wheel;  (c) making g l a z e s ; and  (d) a c q u i r i n g a v a r i e t y o f  methods f o r d e c o r a t i n g c l a y s u r f a c e s . More s p e c i f i c included: tions;  g o a l s were needed  (a) g a i n i n g  a comprehension o f  (b) a c q u i r i n g an understanding  and  (c) e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o l i d  and  contemporary ceramic The  ceramic  learning program  attitude course  for  isolates  teaching  f o r use  and  (a)  goals  in  a  and  s u i t e d to our  both  verbal  human  and  nonverbal  the  be  e x e m p l i f i e d by  watching a ceramic  artist  a l l levels  at  work.  Most  techniques  and  order  to  planning  (b)  to the  a  a and  defining  discovery  fact and  t h a t we  learner a l l learn  personalities.  own  resources  (teachers  exchanges  with  and a  What i s meant here by  type  ceramics  from  something to o f f e r e i t h e r  were anxious  their  ancient  The  of  l e a r n i n g gained  others)  variety a  nonverbal  from  educators  t o share  any  elementary  schools  i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s or in  public  school  information  to  receive  One  some  simply  simply  valuable  had  to  ask  assistance.  for  univer-  in observations systems  a v a i l a b l e on  (human teaching  were eager to e x p l o r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i a l o g u e work.  of  at work on the wheel, d e c o r a t i n g , and g l a z i n g .  of  resources)  ing  and  school;  which  abilities  The  exchange can  them  toxicology;  philosophical basis  secondary  styles  art.  of  and  limita-  h i s t o r y o f both  developing  establishing a  i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n ceramic  s i t i e s had  in  h i g h l y p e r s o n a l due  resources.  incorporated  at  i n the  and  i n f o r m a t i o n i n a v a r i e t y o f areas which i n c l u d e d both human  mediated  Teachers  c l a y ' s behaviour  and  (c) d e v i s i n g methods o f e v a l u a t i o n .  strategies  i n ways which are best found  and  ceramics  and  are  knowledge area  art.  included:  learning  factual  of glaze chemistry  foundation  objectives  requirements;  The  writer  i n the  regard-  c o n s u l t a t i o n time  Night  school  in  community  teachers,  sharing  the classroom  Teachers o f p r i v a t e evening contacted  ing  visits  with  o f information.  as c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s  or d i s c u s s i o n s .  was the s t u d i o p o t t e r  experiences.  artistic can  c l a s s e s as w e l l  f o r a d d i t i o n a l lessons  human resource Studio  were a l s o a good source  Another  and the p r a c t i s i n g  Most  artists  thoughts and p r o d u c t s .  welcomed  important  ceramic  established a r t i s t s offered enlightening an o p p o r t u n i t y  artist.  and i n s p i r -  t o share  Watching a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t  their  a t work  teach a student many a s p e c t s o f the a r t which he/she may n o t be a b l e  to formulate The priate  questions  salespeople source  of  about. i n most ceramic  information.  supply  Most  s t o r e s were a l s o an appro-  local  salespeople  have  a  sound  knowledge o f the uses o f the equipment, t o o l s , and m a t e r i a l s which sell.  Many o f them are a l s o  involved  i n t h e development o f new  m a t e r i a l s and are aware o f any new p r o d u c t s  on the market.  boards o f t e n have s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l in  the a r t a r e a s .  several  after  The Vancouver  school  classes  School  under  a s p e c i a l workshop p r o v i d e d Vancouver private  schools.  institutionss  writer  and  were  Board,  in particular,  the d i r e c t i o n  school  offers  o f the P r o f e s s i o n a l  on f i r i n g d i f f e r e n t models o f k i l n s found i n  Courses proved  offered  i n various  t o be a u s e f u l  attended  either  source  i n evening  Courses do p l a y an important  SDL  some formal  i n that  glaze  There i s , f o r example,  throughout the study. approach  Local  they  available for consultation  Development Department f o r t e a c h e r s o f c e r a m i c s .  the  were  instruction  post-secondary  and  o f information f o r or  summer  sessions  r o l e i n t h e complete  i s generally  advisable.  However, the SDL l e a r n e r must approach the t a k i n g o f c o u r s e s  based o n :  (a) the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the course  timing o f  the  course,  and (c) the e n t r y  needed, (b) the a p p r o p r i a t e  ability  level  o f the c o u r s e .  In o t h e r  24 words, an SDL l e a r n e r can not depend t o o much on formal c o u r s e  offerings  to  seek o u t  provide  courses  the m a j o r i t y  of  information  whenever p o s s i b l e t o complement the other  Finally,  the w r i t e r l e a r n e d  from  p r e v i o u s knowledge or e x p e r i e n c e The  mediated  sources  information  books,  programs.  Magazines which d e a l t  t o read  technical, variety The  because  from  they  museums,  strictly  arrived  literature.  local  information  colleges, on  both  were  galleries  some  school  boards,  technical  and  Occasionally specific  were u s e f u l  public  country  or  artist.  Those  involved  awareness i s e s s e n t i a l amount o f q u a l i t y unconsciously. work proved  the most  provided  and  film  cultural  a r t were  inter-  t o the  f o r teacher which  gave  ceramics  and contemporary  were  use  o f ceramic a r t .  f e a t u r e d the ceramic  shows  The  source o f  c o l l e c t i o n s o f ancient new  both  and d i v e r s e .  specific  libraries  aspects  works.  art of a  generally of  a  high  watching.  and e r r o r .  learning  i n f o r m a t i o n gained  through  style  sense o f v i s u a l  i n the f i n e  a r t s as t h e  o b s e r v a t i o n i s o f t e n done  O b s e r v a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s , other Focusing  strategy or  A developed  for successful learning  t o be i n v a l u a b l e .  included television  a rich  available  the w r i t e r ' s most w i d e l y used  o b s e r v a t i o n and t r i a l  which  a r t was wide  films  programs  standard o f programming and worth Probably  with  and i d e a s t o o f f e r .  from  f o r observing  television  those  with ceramic  stores  Museums were i d e a l p l a c e s f o r examining while  came t o c l a s s  and s p e c i f i c  inspiration  and book  There  used.  on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s with  any i n f o r m a t i o n needed Libraries  r e s o u r c e s being  who  were  o f books on the s u b j e c t o f ceramic  general.  ceramic  galleries,  t i m e l y , and a e s t h e t i c  w r i t e r found  most  films,  of  her s t u d e n t s  but should  i n ceramics.  magazines,  esting  needed  visual  t e a c h e r s , and a r t i s t s a t a t t e n t i o n on o b j e c t s o f  25 ceramic  a r t , both  o l d and new, on a d a i l y  basis  enabled  the w r i t e r t o  become f a m i l i a r with e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f ceramic a r t r e a d i l y . Trial  and e r r o r behaviour  new l e a r n i n g  situations.  when l e a r n i n g mistakes which  something  we are a b l e  t o base  learning  and v a l u a b l e i n most  I t i s unavoidable because  we a l l make m i s t a k e s  new and v a l u a b l e because  t o go forward  future  played  i s both unavoidable  with  decisions.  a prominent  The  role  some  once we have c o r r e c t e d  important  writer  throughout  found  i n f o r m a t i o n on this  her f i v e  method  year  of  study but  p r i m a r i l y i n the b e g i n n i n g . In and  t r i a l and e r r o r  undisciplined  some o r d e r  into  1970)  believes  culty  into  successful upon  expect  to  writer's  an attempt  i s t o be l e a r n e d .  which  we  solving  know how  behaviour  and s t y l e s  appears  t o be random  by the l e a r n e r  J . S . Bruner  which  to deal  that  have  skills  one w i l l into  (1961)  to put (Pappas,  those  past experiences  fundamental  i n the p a s t  difficulty  and based with  other  transferring  A l s o , once one has l e a r n e d  planning ideas  i n t e a c h i n g other  words,  i n some forms o f a r t i s t i c  little  a new medium.  In o t h e r  t o be planned  worked  have  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n program transfer  with.  i s likely  For i n s t a n c e , i f one has s k i l l s  i t i s likely  basic  i s in fact  at f i r s t  t r y t o s o l v e new problems by r e a r r a n g i n g the d i f f i -  a form  those or s i m i l a r some  what  problem  situations. media  action  we  techniques  b e h a v i o u r , what  i n one  to a  new  a r t courses  area,  one can  program. formed  The a  firm  f o u n d a t i o n f o r success i n t e a c h i n g a new course i n ceramic a r t . It writer's  i s important success  experience class  with  t o emphasize SDL  stemmed  here  that  a  major  from  the f a c t  that  factor  i n the  she d i d have  i n t e a c h i n g concepts and s k i l l s , p r e p a r i n g s p e c i f i c l e s s o n s ,  control,  discipline  and m o t i v a t i o n , and o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l  into  26 manageable  units.  theoretical, learning  Additionally,  aesthetical  occur,  teachers  with  and  program enrich  foundation  aspects o f f i n e  i n some  arts.  Ideally,  i s a s i t u a t i o n which would n o t happen o f t e n .  however,  applicable area  and p r a c t i c a l  solid  a new area o f study as w e l l as d e a l i n g with a l l the problems o f  being a new teacher did  she had a  minimal  skills seek  which and  the f o l l o w i n g s i x s u g g e s t i o n s experience  and t r a i n i n g :  as p o s s i b l e from  out  analogous  provides  embellish  as  foundation your  be u s e f u l t o  (a) t r a n s f e r  area o f competence  relationships;  a basic only  your  might  own  (b) adhere  i n concepts knowledge  If i t  as many  t o the new  to  a  simple  and s k i l l s  expands;  and  (c) seek  a s s i s t a n c e from a l l s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g c o l l e a g u e s , i n - s e r v i c e workshops, school  board  students;  consultants,  (d)  emphasize  inspire  students  whenever  time  evening your  i n their  permits;  and  courses,  abilities  to  post-secondary motivate,  image d e v e l o p m e n t ; (f) a l l o w  students  staff  and  encourage  and  (e) p r a c t i s e t o share  i n your  growth by working on the same p r o j e c t s which you have a s s i g n e d (when time p e r m i t s ) .  Students  skills own  t o them  r e a c t f a v o u r a b l y t o a r t t e a c h e r s who show  them t h e i r own c h a l l e n g e s i n regard t o m a t e r i a l s and image development. Once g e n e r a l  and s p e c i f i c  g o a l s had been e s t a b l i s h e d and l e a r n i n g  s t y l e s and r e s o u r c e s had been i s o l a t e d collect The  and v a l i d a t e  evidence  evidence  included:  o f the accomplishment o f her o b j e c t i v e s .  (a) p h y s i c a l  work and t h a t o f her s t u d e n t s ; routines the  and procedures;  and l o c a t e d , t h e w r i t e r t r i e d t o  and p h o t o g r a p h i c  (b) the e f f i c i e n t  (c) the i n t e r e s t  working o f c l a s s r o o m  o f students  success o f s t u d e n t s ' p r o j e c t i o n o f i d e a s through  support  and a p p r o v a l  o f the ceramic  program  examples o f her  i n ceramics; ceramics;  by s t a f f ,  (d)  (e) t h e  s t u d e n t s , and  27 administrators;  and  done over the past Having d e f i n e d present the  (f) five  the  l e d g e ; and  of  a self-directed  classroom  program  in thesis  form  of  the  work  years.  a d e t a i l e d account o f  areas  documentation  how  learning plan, the  organization;  planning.  plan  was  practical  the  writer  applied skills;  will  specifically factual  now to  know-  28 Chapter IV  APPLICATION OF SDL  CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION  Tools  and Equipment Organizing  The  writer  the c l a s s r o o m presented  w i l l now d e f i n e  problems were solved  s e v e r a l major areas o f c o n c e r n .  these areas and g i v e  i n learning clay  about t o o l s and equipment, o p e r a t i o n o f  machinery,  developing  facilities,  maintaining  clay f i r i n g  s c h e d u l e s , and i n s t i g a t i n g clean-up  In  a  recycling  display  her p r e p a r a t i o n  s p e c i f i c examples o f how  program,  areas, ordering  f o r teaching  organizing  supplies,  a ceramics  pieces  was  replaced  the f i r s t  or  redesigned  were,  potter's with  effort  ordered.  materials  ceramics  the w r i t e r  and  as  specifically and machines suitable  as  a  were  ceramics  located  sized  stools  proper  drainage  facilities,  projects, display  (For a complete l i s t  items  been  room  o f the  positions.  f o r working  f o r recycled  were  recently  most  i n proper  canvas  by  appropriate  A l l missing had  began  and e s s e n t i a l  f o r these  the c l a s s r o o m  and d r y cupboards, b i n s  for transporting  t i o n system.  her c l a s s r o o m  of organization.  However,  f o r example,  wheel, damp  plugs  trolleys  Checking  to function  appropriate There  studio.  establishing  routines.  f i n d i n g out what t o o l s , machinery and equipment were b a s i c to  storage  a t the  clay,  sinks  covered  tables,  a r e a s , and a good  ventila-  see Appendix A.)  29 Machinery  the  Much o f the machinery  was  writer  c o l l e a g u e who  did  invite  a  easy t o use, however, f o r s a f e t y had  studied  Department o f A r t E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C. t o demonstrate pugmill tion  and  kilns.  offered  attendance  The  through the  writer  also  the Vancouver  writer  took  ceramics  School Board. of  As  the  well  kiln as  the  p e r s o n n e l at the Vancouver  s o l v e v a r i o u s other k i l n  firing  opera-  workshop  information  through the k i l n maintenance and  at  the proper use o f the  attended a workshop on  advantage  reasons  available  S c h o o l Board  to  problems.  Clay Recycling Initially, and  found  that  the w r i t e r not o n l y was  i t was not b e n e f i c i a l this  essential  activities group  course clay  involved  i t an  in  i n ceramic a r t . in clay  Students need  to  appreciate  The  recycling  writer  each  student who  had  paid  student t o r e c y c l e  enjoyed  the  p r o c e s s and  clay.  The  service offered clay  writer  also  accumulated  f r e e o f charge.  took  full  B)  cycle  a system  which  had  been used,  up  with  advantage  School Board. a t the end  a of  use.  The d r i e d  o f each  of  new  box  of  i t was  up  Many s t u d e n t s  surplus of the  of  enabled  g i v e n a new  for his/her  ended  to p a r t i c i p a t e in  worked out  f e e s was  Once the c l a y  often  unaided  At the b e g i n n i n g o f e v e r y  his/her  enough c l a y  by the Vancouver  which  up and r e c y c l e d  we  recycling  the  (see Appendix  to share i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  to each  packaged  a l l the c l a y  i m p o s s i b l e task t o keep up w i t h , but  order  f o r h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l use.  tioned  t o do  to the s t u d e n t s .  procedure  participation  everyone  tried  clay  recondirecycling  out, properly  semester  was  picked  30 Clay  Storage Because the s c h o o l was  and  equipment  and  separate  lockable  had day  t o be  shared  school  storage  room  a community one, e q u i t a b l y so  shelves was  the classroom  and  also  i t was  cupboards  available  important  from  for  storage  night  areas  to  label  school.  containing  A  poisonous  c h e m i c a l s which e l i m i n a t e d some p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous s i t u a t i o n s  i n the  classroom.  Display There were s e v e r a l b u l l e t i n boards and display  use.  The  bulletin  boards  i l l u s t r a t i o n s of various pots procedures  and  techniques.  vocabulary record. with  Various  on  books  the  on  used  t o mount  term  sheet  ceramic  was  as  a daily  art  as  r e s o u r c e books which proved  technique o f h a n d b u i l t p o t t e r y handbook Pottery  (Nelson, on  (Berensohn,  the wheel  well  as  displays,  were a l s o encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e  for instance, could relate  or c o u l d be sources o f d e s i g n i n s p i r a t i o n  other  (Ball,  1965);  with  any  clay  free  i n p u t t i n g together  boards.  ceramics  The  a potter's  m a t e r i a l during  p o t t e r y d i s p l a y s and d e s i g n i n g p e r t i n e n t b u l l e t i n board  a wheel  ( W e t t l a u f e r , 1976).  Students  and  benefit are:  1972); and G e t t i n g i n t o pots  t o read ceramic  lan-  classroom.  F i n d i n g o n e ' s way  were encouraged  along  ceramic  1969); Ceramics,  Making p o t t e r y without  (Woody,  of  pamphlets  t o be o f primary  (Winterburn,  used as a  posted  1975);  Students time.  1971);  i t was  reminder  and  i n f o r m a t i o n on  paper was  introduced  magazines were a v a i l a b l e on a d a i l y b a s i s i n the The  photographs  s c u l p t u r e s as w e l l as  A l a r g e sheet o f butcher  When a new  i t s definition  guage.  and  were  s h e l v e s i n the classroom f o r  The  to other  bulletin a r t forms  f o r pots and s c u l p t u r e s .  31 Supplies E v e r y a r t teacher for  t h e next  year's  problems the w r i t e r be  used, which  need  classes.  encountered  supplies  t o be r e p l a c e d .  beginning for  i s responsible  flexible  and  students  invented  imaginative new  were  sponges f o r c l e a n i n g  materials  difficult  School  i n problem  for old tools from  out bottoms o f t a l l  a need f o r  solving.  a glaze  Groups  materials.  recipe,  tried  or l o c a l  and s t u d e n t s  made  sponges t o  paintbrush  for  common problems was compiled and added t o as new i d e a s appeared (see C) .  her  a r t colleagues  two  The w r i t e r  involved i n ceramics.  also  i n the s c h o o l  the a r e a .  Two other  help  o f simple  i n ordering  although  neither  teachers  was  good sources o f a s s i s t a n c e  l i s t s one can e s t a b l i s h a g e n e r a l  from  directly  by m i s t a k e  were shared with other i n ordering  were ceramic books and s c h o o l r e q u i s i t i o n l i s t s from p r e v i o u s examining past  solutions  supplies  Any excess s u p p l i e s which were ordered  or were i n h e r i t e d from p r e v i o u s in  received  list  For  satisfactory  pots by t y i n g s m a l l  a complete  of  old  Appendix  In f a c t ,  Board  created  and b a s i c  were  throughout t h e  were g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e  or u n a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s  o r new r e c i p e s  handles.  had t o be made  the Vancouver  was m i s s i n g  found  one o f t h e most  be used more o f t e n or which t o o l s would  thinking  uses  s u p p l i e s i n the f a l l  as she d i d n o t know how much c l a y would  through  Missing  i f a chemical  substitutions  was  Some compromises  a t any time  suppliers.  instance,  This  year but important m i s s i n g  purchase  pottery  would  f o r ordering  teachers supplies  years.  By  knowledge o f m a t e r i a l s  which a r e f r e q u e n t l y used and i n what q u a n t i t i e s they a r e o r d e r e d .  Once  the w r i t e r had e s t a b l i s h e d which cone temperature she would be f i r i n g t o i t was easy t o f i n d  s e v e r a l r e c i p e s f o r g l a z e s a t t h a t temperature.  The  r e c i p e s need s e v e r a l b a s i c c h e m i c a l s and some i n l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s than  32 others.  Of c o u r s e , the budget a l l o t m e n t  important p a r t purchased.  f o r each program a l s o played an  i n how many and how expensive m a t e r i a l s  At  the end o f every  semester  students  s e v e r a l p i e c e s t o the annual s c h o o l p o t t e r y s a l e . s a l e were put i n the s c h o o l buy  pottery  were a b l e made  or  t o be  donated  The proceeds from the  fund and were used when n e c e s s a r y t o  e x t r a s u p p l i e s and s p e c i a l equipment f o r the c l a s s r o o m .  Firing Setting  up a r e l i a b l e  numbers o f k i l n s one  small  medium  available.  kiln.  bisequeware. kiln  fired  quickly  quickly  and was used  carefully writer well  electric  Amaco  routines  model  for glazing electric  slow  firing  LT-2.  model  and g l a z e  about  the e a r l i e r  kilns,  mentioned  and g u i d e l i n e s  were  kiln  and  kiln  Each  were  regarding learned  workshop.  p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p a r t o f the c l a y p r o c e s s  I t was  kiln  to f i r e Once  students  fired  I t was a was  recorded kiln  The  a top  also  in particular.  LT-3.  established,  used f o r  k i l n model LT-3K.  The s m a l l  results  the w r i t e r  and was  for glazing.  test pieces  kiln  on the kinds  had one l a r g e , one medium, and  used  a sense o f p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  as reading  through  was  and was  kiln  and a l l f i r i n g s  gained  kiln  depended  I t was a t o p l o a d i n g Cress e l e c t r i c  Amaco  loading  schedule  The s c h o o l  The l a r g e  loading  top  firing  fired  until  the  behaviour.  As  kilns  realistic  properly firing  were encouraged t o  (see Appendix D ) .  Clean-up Routines Establishing the  writer's  classes.  clean-up r o u t i n e s  knowledge  In g e n e r a l ,  of  which  f o r the c e r a m i c s room was based on methods  a l l the r u l e s which  worked apply  well  i n other  art  t o any a r t c l a s s r o o m  clean-up  situation  apply  to  a  ceramics  classroom.  p r o p e r l y o r g a n i z e d with l a b e l s on cupboards and for  particular  maintain  the o r d e r .  as remind in  tools  i t was The  up  to  writer tried  students o f t h e i r  mutual  the  Once  the  s p e c i f i c places  writer  and  her  room  was  allotted  students  to  to s e t a p e r s o n a l example as w e l l  responsibilities.  A sense  of pride  the c l a s s environment p l u s a r e s p e c t f o r the work o f o t h e r s helped  foster positive  results.  a daily  the  basis,  class  period.  share  with  e n t i r e group cleaned  Students  their  In a d d i t i o n t o each i n d i v i d u a l c l e a n i n g up  were encouraged  families  and  to  allow  up on to  a monthly b a s i s f o r  take  space  finished  f o r new  to on one  work home t o  work t o be  pro-  duced . The  classroom  r o u t i n e s and  b e t t e r , more e f f i c i e n t  procedures  remain  fixed.  If a  l e a r n e d the o l d r o u t i n e was  changed.  For example, c e r t a i n p r o j e c t s demanded more space or d i f f e r e n t  handling  than o t h e r s . vitality  p r o c e s s was  d i d not  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the room t r i e d  o f the ongoing  room t r i e d  work o f  to serve the needs o f the students  Once the p h y s i c a l  aspects of classroom  began t o examine the p r a c t i c a l practical  i t s students.  s k i l l s are now  skills  to r e f l e c t The  the l i f e  and  organization of  the  first. were o r g a n i z e d ,  the w r i t e r  which needed t o be mastered.  The  presented.  PRACTICAL SKILLS The  practical  techniques;  (b)  skills  wheel  or  i n v o l v e d four main throwing  areas:  techniques;  (c)  (a)  handbuilding  glazing;  v a r i o u s methods o f e n r i c h i n g or d e c o r a t i n g c l a y s u r f a c e s .  and  (d)  34 Handbuilding The  Techniques  handbuilding  methods i n c l u d i n g : and  techniques  t o be l e a r n e d  (a) p i n c h , (b) c o i l ,  (f) combinations  involved  (c) s l a b ,  o f a l l the t e c h n i q u e s .  a variety of  (d) p a t c h ,  (e) molds,  The w r i t e r had p r e v i o u s l y  experienced working with most o f the methods needed f o r h a n d b u i l d i n g and therefore  needed  only  to refine  the s k i l l s  refinement  was based mainly on p r a c t i s i n g  already  acquired.  The  b u i l d i n g p o t s , s c u l p t u r e s , and  other f u n c t i o n a l o b j e c t s using a l l or some o f the b a s i c t e c h n i q u e s . writer  set s p e c i f i c  combination the  Emily and  were  The w r i t e r Carr  School  abilities  watching  illustrated  attended  a summer  o f A r t which other  artists  enabled  students a t work  campuses were a l s o  Another  important  v a r i e t y o f pots i n l o c a l handle  ceramic  as b u i l d i n g  h e i g h t and width. in a  variety  course  Many o f  of pottery  i n handwork  her t o share  a  a t the  her working  ideas  and a f f o r d e d her the o p p o r t u n i t y o f  on  handbuilt  visited  during  projects. winter  source o f i n s p i r a t i o n  p o t t e r y shops.  T h i s type o f c l o s e ,  C o l l e g e and  sessions  done by a r t t e a c h e r s  many p i e c e s o f work which  artists.  t o s o l v e such  well  the w r i t e r t o see work being  training.  and  for herself  pot o f a s p e c i f i c  found also  with  other  university for  patch and c o i l  techniques  books.  problems  The  i n order  and a r t i s t s i n  and example were the  The w r i t e r was able t o examine  were o f f e r e d firsthand  for sale  by c u r r e n t  i n s p e c t i o n enabled the  w r i t e r t o l e a r n by example.  Wheelwork The  Techniques s k i l l s needed t o master the p o t t e r ' s wheel i n v o l v e d :  preparation; trimming;  (b) c e n t e r i n g ;  and (f) adding  (c) p u l l i n g  lids,  spouts  a cylinder;  and h a n d l e s .  (a) c l a y  (d) shaping; In o r d e r  (e)  to learn  35 the b a s i c throwing the evening classes after  techniques  through  were  then  a local practised  school u n t i l  a  completing  course  rhythm  flow  on a d a i l y  proved  were p e r f e c t e d .  t o be e s s e n t i a l  f o r intermediates.  o f energy  when  learning  sessions, the writer  field.  She i n v i t e d  other  the classroom  worked  Student  to  instructors demonstrate  teachers  i n the ceramics  suggestions  this  room d u r i n g  on mastering  being (For  area.  lunch  hours and  The c o n s i s t e n c y and in this  Those  comfortable  also  area.  pots.  watched  a  As w e l l as i n the  and s t u d e n t s o f ceramic  art to  individual  throwing  a t U.B.C.,  practicums  styles  and  for instance, many  useful  throwing  styles  some r u l e s a p p l i e d t o g a i n i n g  success  i n c l u d e having  a t the wheel  t o develop  experts  the p o t t e r ' s wheel.  rules  be a b l e  t o throw  in art training  are v e r y p e r s o n a l the w r i t e r found in  learned i n the  to progress  One must  in practise  methods.  The s k i l l s  basis during  working  visit  i n private classes i n  a b a s i c c o u r s e , the w r i t e r c o n t i n u e d w i t h her study i n  designed  or  pottery studio.  the techniques  frequency o f p r a c t i s e After  the w r i t e r e n r o l l e d  and o f f e r e d Although  properly conditioned  and d e v e l o p i n g  a u n i t y with  clay,  the c l a y .  a complete l i s t o f r u l e s see Appendix E.)  Glazing The The in  a r t o f g l a z i n g was a l s o based  on e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and i m i t a t i o n .  w r i t e r l e a r n e d the b a s i c s o f d i p p i n g , p a i n t i n g , and s p r a y i n g g l a z e s the p r i v a t e  s t u d i o c l a s s e s she attended.  results  effects  and  course,  were  exciting  and spontaneous the work i n ceramics can be.  totally  f o r every  experiment  She kept r e c o r d s o f g l a z e s  unpredicted  and  only  tried. served  Some to  results,  illustrate  of how  36 Surface Decoration Learning error  and  to  enrich  or  decorate  o b s e r v a t i o n f o r the  writer.  methods and  techniques f o r a l t e r i n g  The  a r t and  monthly  different playing  methods  that  clay  clay  surrounded  methods t r i e d The  study.  see Appendix  practical  skills  and  assistance  flexible  to decorate  to  students  problems i n c e r a m i c s .  clay  techniques  struggling  and  to  solve  practical  skills  tical can  skills  be  was  improved  best  by  and  As  doing  toward  attempted working  and  them.  a very  simple  the complex was  which was  a personal s t y l e  in  any  One  Starting  list  five  of  year  able t o be more to give  aspects  of  they  Once the methods d e c o r a t i n g were aspect o f g a i n i n g  field  we  learn  aid in learning  of experts.  also b e n e f i c i a l . tried  the  approach  Often or  a  the  pracskill  technique  from the simple and g r a d u a l l y As  each  technique  was  to impose a p e r s o n a l s t y l e o f  c o m f o r t a b l e and rewarding was  art  other  alteration  p e r f e c t e d , the w r i t e r  and  important  the c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m by  the most  the more o f t e n  they became.  the most  students  which i s o f f e r e d by an o b s e r v e r . working  refined  t o be  area.  serious  of  technical  skills,  i n h a n d b u i l d i n g , wheelwork, g l a z i n g ,  i n each  one  and  (For a complete  the  involved  expertise  of  thus more competent  Like a l l p r a c t i c a l  appeared  was  knowledge the w r i t e r was  the more p o l i s h e d  practise  kind  s l o w l y over  were used  learned,  various  f e a t u r e d new  The  i n ceramics.  l e a r n e d developed  with  and  F.)  With e x p e r i e n c e and new  creative  illustrated  in particular,  treatment.  i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t s o f the w r i t e r ' s SDL of  trial  and e m b e l l i s h i n g pots or s c u l p t u r e s .  surface  learning  involved  Many books  ceramic magazines, of  surfaces  important, the w r i t e r  to h e r . also  Although d e v e l o p i n g  remained  motivated  i n s p i r e d by the examples o f work done by o u t s t a n d i n g a r t i s t s .  and  Trying to  37 imitate  the  shapes or  surface  enrichments o f  worthwhile l e a r n i n g c h a l l e n g e . her  abilities  to execute  Even a f t e r  certain  Although  the w r i t e r  factual  knowledge gained  factual  knowledge was  The  w r i t e r w i l l now  in this into  artists  the w r i t e r f e l t  techniques,  need to adapt, a d j u s t , modify, and  other  she  provided  a  confident in  remained  aware o f  the  practical  and  s t a g e s o f l e a r n i n g , much o f  the  a l t e r when n e c e s s a r y . study  has  separate  separated  learned simultaneously  with  examine the areas o f f a c t u a l  the  the p r a c t i c a l  skills.  knowledge.  FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE In g a i n i n g competence i n f a c t u a l knowledge c o n c e r n i n g writer clay,  focused  her  l e a r n i n g on  (b) g l a z e c h e m i s t r y and  and contemporary ceramic  these  three  areas:  t o x i c o l o g y , and  (a)  ceramics, the  the  nature  of  (c) the h i s t o r y o f a n c i e n t  art.  The Nature of C l a y Gaining achieved in  an  understanding  of  i n three main ways.  c l a y ' s behaviour  The  f i r s t was  an e x p l o r a t i v e manner to f i n d out how  tions  such  bending. ware,  as As  stretching,  rolling,  and  porcelain  each  kinds o f c l a y one  characteristics.  Some o f these  were  used  some  altered variety.  jointly  i n c o l o u r by the The  demonstrations  second on how  for  source t o prepare  of  was  stains  including  explored  Various and  information  clay  imprinting,  for  c l a y s which were  projects.  addition of  was clay  i t r e a c t e d to c e r t a i n manipula-  individual also  limitations  simply to p l a y with the  patting, pinching,  t h e r e are many d i f f e r e n t  stoneware,  and  f o r use.  oxides was The  clays  and  earthenits  own  compatible were  also  t o p r o v i d e more  teachers  who  preparation of  gave clay  38 from the d r y powder t o the moist s c h o o l s but i s important tion  o f moist  clay  s t a t e i s u s u a l l y n o t done i n secondary  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s t o have.  for projects,  however,  is a  potters.  This preparation  t o render  i t smoothly c o n s i s t e n t and f r e e o f a i r b u b b l e s .  textbooks  illustrate  learned  by  kneading,  observing  t o make  a teacher  throw pots  clay  would  behave  overwet c l a y w i l l and  stick  pieces,  bisqueware.  slump and become soggy w h i l e  Learning,  o r under  state  clay  behaviour  best  suited to certain  source  monthly  and t h a t  bowls  simple  f o r better  results.  deliberately  abusing  expectations o f  manner.  For example,  underwet c l a y w i l l  fired  chip  c l a y , glaze  readily  drag  defects  i n the bisqueware  disaster.  salespeople  and on many o c c a s i o n s  gave  proved  advice  p r o j e c t s , or the b e s t  knowledgeable i n  on the kind  magazines  have  i t was important columns  at times.  Although  For example,  on t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e  c l a y and g l a z i n g which o f t e n s o l v e d a classroom  of clay  c l a y t o buy f o r v e r s a t i l -  source o f i n f o r m a t i o n was books and magazines.  was r a t h e r l i m i t e d  ceramic  on  and  f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t c l a y h a n d l e s snap o f f e a s i l y  In a d d i t i o n t o t e a c h e r s , l o c a l  this  wedging  showed, by example o f c o l l e c t e d  s t a t e saved a number o f s m a l l p i e c e s from  The t h i r d  many  and p i n h o l e s , and v a r i o u s s t a t e s such as greenware and  the greenware  ity.  while  in a certain  as over  a l l  are better  advice  i n t h a t i t gave some g e n e r a l  i f treated  such c l a y a s p e c t s  tried  to give  positions  on the wheel  by  Although  are ones which  the w r i t e r  and body  used  and kneading o f the c l a y  a teacher  t o the hand. Teachers o f t e n  such as b l i s t e r s  in  they  Once  t o have  i n hand  the c l a y was a l s o v a l u a b l e how  techniques,  someone.  i t was h e l p f u l  corrections Watching  these  i n v o l v e s a wedging  skill  The p r e p a r a -  c l a y problem.  regarding  39  G l a z e Chemistry Learning continues the  and T o x i c o l o g y  the f a c t s r e g a r d i n g g l a z e c h e m i s t r y  t o be one o f the w r i t e r ' s most c h a l l e n g i n g problems.  i n f o r m a t i o n was gained  throughout  it. a  These  involved talking  and e r r o r .  to people,  The i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l course  The w r i t e r was aware o f a course  Many t e a c h e r s  i n t h i s a r e a was t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r  are w i l l i n g  t o lend  r e c i p e s or formulae  f o r g l a z e s which had been s u c c e s s f u l f o r them but a t r u e what  could  glazes  were,  be adjusted  available  how  the c h e m i c a l s  was e s s e n t i a l  understand  the knowledge helped  into  t o have.  to c l a r i f y  basic  This  terms  the f a c t s  understanding  i n t e r a c t e d , and how  i n a number o f books and r e q u i r e d  Simplifying  G.)  reading  i n l e a r n i n g the b a s i c s o f g l a z e making but was unable t o a t t e n d  f u t u r e time.  of  Much o f  through the v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s used  the whole study.  books, and t r y i n g by t r i a l offered  and t o x i c o l o g y was and  formulae  i n f o r m a t i o n was r e a d i l y  some c o n c e n t r a t e d f o r beginning  f o r the w r i t e r .  reading.  students  to  (See Appendix  T e s t t i l e s were made and s m a l l batches o f g l a z e s were t e s t e d under  various conditions.  The r e s u l t s were recorded  reference.  Teaching  students how t o use a gram s c a l e , measure  accurately,  and mix g l a z e s  for  the w r i t e r .  the  potential  writer  Very l i t t l e  toxic  researched  this  proved  their  p o t e n t i a l harmful  safest  Appendix H.)  appeared  topic  t o be u s e f u l  possible.  The chemicals  textbooks  used Some  i n t h a t many c h e m i c a l s  e f f e c t s over  for future  also c l a r i f i e d  i n the u s u a l  in libraries.  t o have i n order  environment  and s a f e l y  changes o f many c h e m i c a l s  which  was important  properly  and c o l l e c t e d  chemicals methods regarding  i n g l a z i n g , so t h e articles  were  were l i s t e d  p e r i o d s o f time.  This  found  stating  information  t o ensure t h a t the students worked i n t h e (For a g u i d e  which appeared  to Health  and S a f e t y see  so harmless c o u l d , i n f a c t ,  40 be  dangerous  i f used  studying g l a z i n g . tion  carelessly.  Many a r t i s t s  spend  entire  lifetimes  Such study does, i n f a c t , r e q u i r e c o n s t a n t c o n s i d e r a -  from the w r i t e r  even a f t e r  f i v e y e a r s o f work i n c e r a m i c s .  Ceramic A r t H i s t o r y The teacher As  largest was t h a t  i n the g l a z i n g  years  of  area o f knowledge m i s s i n g o f ceramic  study.  It s t i l l  continues  The w r i t e r  s e p a r a t i n g her l e a r n i n g , i n t o  history  o f ceramic  helpful  i n s t u d y i n g p a s t ceramic  to museums. easily  and contemporary  art.  t o be  two  areas.  The r e s o u r c e s  films dealing  from  both  public  with a r t h i s t o r y  The  a r t included  part  i n a few o f the  t h i s p a r t o f her study  which  Books were the most complete  borrowed  an ongoing  approached  ceramics  ceramic a r t .  p r o c e s s , t h i s was not an a r e a t o be covered  w r i t e r ' s SDL i n c e r a m i c s . by  art history  f o r the b e g i n n i n g  first  proved  area  was the  t o be the most  books, f i l m s ,  and v i s i t s  and a c c u r a t e source and were  and u n i v e r s i t y  do n o t u s u a l l y  libraries.  isolate  Although  ceramic  art for  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , many i n c l u d e important ceramic s t y l e s or p i e c e s p e r t i n e n t to c e r t a i n p e r i o d s i n the e v o l u t i o n o f f i n e a r t .  Museums and g a l l e r i e s  o f t e n c o n t a i n permanent p i e c e s o f ceramic a r t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p a r t i c u lar  c u l t u r e s and times but do have v i s i t i n g  been,  f o r example,  visiting  t u r e e n s , and t e a p o t s . r e g a r d i n g ceramic during  shows which  The w r i t e r  years.  featured snuff  a l s o gained  a r t from v a r i o u s f i n e  her undergraduate  shows as w e l l .  There  have  bottles,  soup  some v a l u a b l e knowledge  a r t s c o u r s e s which she attended  The c o u r s e s which  were o f p a r t i c u l a r  v a l u e i n c l u d e d the h i s t o r y o f r e n a i s s a n c e a r t , a study o f South a r t and the h i s t o r y o f modern a r t . information  concerning  sculpture  A l l courses included  and ceramic  pots.  American  some important  Not o n l y were the  41 techniques value  of  and the  methods  of  pieces for  artists  the  emphasized,  artists  was  but  the  examined.  importance  Artists  and  from  the  beginning o f recorded h i s t o r y have found ceramic a r t an e s s e n t i a l medium f o r e x p r e s s i n g ideas r e l a t i n g all  to r e l i g i o n  and d a i l y  rituals.  People o f  r a c e s , c u l t u r e s , and times have used ceramic symbols t o g i v e r e a l i t y  to i d e a s and available facts.  mainly Another  ceramic tor,  f e e l i n g s and much o f our  a r t was  through  the  way  which  in  many y e a r s .  had  through  about  collect  and  countries  a r t was  preserve  ceramic  ancestors d i d .  was  and  t o know who  A  to  other  travel  examples  to  of  still  writer  had  further  their  arti-  study  ancient  One  collec-  in particular  the p r i v a t e  important  countries.  cultural  practise  in  the  ceramic  Research  way  collec-  to  learn  Most c o u n t r i e s  same  ways  i n many as  their  a small p o t t e r y  amazed t o see the b e a u t i f u l  techniques. styles  over  collectors  h e r i t a g e and  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o v i s i t  r e s u l t s o f v e r y o l d p o t t e r y making  study f o r the w r i t e r .  to  t e a c h e r s have a c c e s s t o these  i n Mexico d u r i n g her f i v e year study and was  interested  able  d i s h e s and  to p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s .  friendships.  artists  The  writer  difficult  artists  personal  ceramic  the  ceramic  some o u t s t a n d i n g work from C h i n a gathered  It i s o f t e n  are but many ceramic tors  preservation of  p r o v i d e d by v i s i t s  in particular,  knowledge o f p a s t c i v i l i z a t i o n s i s  was  Having  also  s t u d e n t s become  used  as  a means  papers were shared with the c l a s s e s  of and  i l l u s t r a t i o n s were d i s p l a y e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n . To l e a r n about contemporary magazines,  local  pottery stores,  magazines p r o v i d e d an concerned style.  with Local  ceramic a r t the w r i t e r r e l i e d on books,  the  excellent,  most  pottery  galleries, regular  format  r e c e n t developments stores  and  and  galleries  colleges.  Books  and  each  was  technique  and  f o r study  i n ceramic were  also  as  visited  on  a  42 regular basis work  i n order f o r the w r i t e r  available.  because  the  C o l l e g e s and  writer  was  able  t o be exposed  universities to  see  work  were  to the most c u r r e n t  interesting  i n p r o g r e s s as  well  f i n i s h e d p i e c e s done by s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r g r a d u a t i n g shows. s t u d e n t s agreed t o v i s i t and  discussions  given  by  a  on  visit as  the  Some o f the  the s c h o o l t o g i v e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s on t e c h n i q u e s  their  student  to  work.  involved  One  show o f  i n making  particular  ceramic  interest  buildings  which  was were  r e p l i c a s o f famous c a t h e d r a l s and other temples o f worship.  A l l o f the  teachers  their  from  the  There  Art  were  artists for  in training  Education  annual  also  Department  invitational  from B r i t i s h  study.  i n ceramics  Columbia  at  which  summer o f  e x p e r i e n c e was  future being  Some  based  the f i v e on  students  employment employed  shows  and  in  year  study.  a curiosity in  secondary  are  anxious  the  ceramic  about  The how  schools to  art  field.  proceeded  t o market  the  examining  the  cost  of  producing  and  selling,  in  that  and  there  is a  a p p r e c i a t e d by o t h e r s , and The  writer  considerably  found  before  in local  materials, the  the  in  t o be  employment  her work  concerned  some  The  with  jewellery study  It  a  one's  and  involved  involved  was  of  knowledge  labour  seeing  this  possibilities  gain  and  made.  a substantial  profitable  work i n these  a r t ceramic  time  profits  the scheme needed  any  To  the  source  i n ceramics i s  are  stores.  satisfaction  i t was  today  various  f o r having  marketing  know about  made some p i e c e s o f pop pieces  by  interesting  reason  work  practica.  i n p r o d u c i n g and s e l l i n g  the w r i t e r  ing.  their  sponsored  p r o v i d e d another  firsthand  activity  during  of  The w r i t e r d i d not enter any p i e c e s o f her own  one  done.  examples  U.B.C.  pottery  annual shows but d i d t r y an experiment during  brought  in  rewarding own  work  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o marketrefined for  and s t r e a m l i n e d  students  could  be  43 found  in this  proved  area.  Working on a s m a l l s c a l e  t o be d i f f i c u l t  i n terms o f monetary s u c c e s s .  s t u d e n t s , however, were anxious planned  as an i n d i v i d u a l  t o t r y t h i s adventure  Some  artist  graduating  f o r themselves and  t o t r y a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t a t a l a t e r ' time.  Acquiring rewarding  factual  knowledge  i n ceramic  aspects o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  there  i s so much t o l e a r n  still  being  presented  from  a r t i s one o f t h e most  involvement  i n the f i e l d .  Because  the past and because many new i d e a s a r e  ceramics  i s a source  o f continuing  stimulation,  both m e n t a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y . The skills  w r i t e r planned  much o f the f i r s t  and knowledge a t the time.  beginning  program  were based  were  initially  essentials were used  very  o f a good  The main reasons  on the w r i t e r ' s p a s t  program p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g . had  c l a y program based  Although  basic,  program.  they  on her own  f o r success o f the experience  with a r t  the i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s she were  adequate  The methods o f program  t o provide planning  the which  are now p r e s e n t e d .  PROGRAM PLANNING The those  problems i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g a c e r a m i c s program are s i m i l a r t o  i n planning  established  a philosophical  p l a c e , must then important  any other  to  address  learn,  a r t program.  The t e a c h e r ,  b a s i s f o r t e a c h i n g the course  the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s :  (b)  what  assignments  once  having  i n the f i r s t  (a) what i n f o r m a t i o n i s are appropriate  f o r the  i n t e r e s t and s k i l l l e v e l o f each c l a s s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e c l a s s , (c) what  i s the most  beneficial  order  or sequence  of learning,  (d) what  v a l u e can the student r e c e i v e i n terms o f enjoyment, d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l imagery and knowledge from each l e s s o n , and (e) what terms o f e v a l u a t i o n  44 are  most  appropriate  and  beneficial  to  both  student,  parent,  and  teacher? In d e c i d i n g what i n f o r m a t i o n was important  t o them the w r i t e r made  the assumption t h a t most s t u d e n t s would know v e r y l i t t l e would and  t h e r e f o r e need  processes.  finish, involved  see Appendix  With  handbuilding  students  a good  pulling  decorating  need t o a l t e r also  I.)  i n handbuilding,  centering,  taught  understand  (For a complete l i s t  techniques.  The  to f i r s t  foundation  proceeded  a cylinder,  in clay  f o r them  trimming,  a personal v i s i t Establishing  attitudes writer's  what  motivate  including pots. as t h e  and equipment was Ceramic a r t  for specific  lessons.  to present a w r i t t e n  a r t as w e l l as a w r i t t e n  be o f i n t e r e s t i n lesson  t o be taught  the most s t i m u l a t i n g and rewarding and  through  f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the  kinds o f assignments would  experiences  skill  skills  necessary.  her s t u d e n t s .  particularly exciting  teach  to students,  planning  review  was i s o l a t e d  the s k i l l s and  was based  f o r other  a r t s programs and on t r i a l and e r r o r b e h a v i o u r . handbuilding  learned  t o a g a l l e r y e x h i b i t i n g ceramic a r t .  desired, plus past  and p a t c h  simultaneously  l e v e l s t u d e n t s were, however, expected  r e s e a r c h paper on some aspect o f ceramic  skills  and f i n i s h i n g  were l e a r n e d  as p a r t o f i n t r o d u c t i o n s t o or m o t i v a t i o n s  Intermediate  of  wheelwork  indirectly  from s t a r t t o  the b a s i c  behaviour  appeared  preparation  mold, s l a b ,  The use o f t o o l s  h i s t o r y and a p p r e c i a t i o n was taught time  learned  pinch, c o i l ,  shaping,  c l a y surfaces arose. the need  then  to learn  and e n r i c h i n g s k i l l s  as  i t s composition,  o f the c l a y p r o c e s s  Students including  about c l a y and  kinds  on the of  fine  In g e n e r a l , once the  the w r i t e r t r i e d  to find  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the i d e a t o c h a l l e n g e  For example, p i n c h i n g  f o r many grade nine  students  pots  i n clay  i s not  as they seem t o f e e l  the end r e s u l t s a r e not worth the e f f o r t . and p i n c h i n g pots f o r t h i s purpose coloured  D i s c u s s i n g Japanese t e a bowls  seemed t o h e l p .  A l s o , i n l a y i n g other  c l a y s t o change the s u r f a c e p a t t e r n proved  Once two i d e n t i c a l  pinch  p o t s was expanded.  Making a b i r d w h i s t l e from the j o i n e d p i n c h p o t s was  another  lesson  beginning  which  students.  pots  t o be o f i n t e r e s t .  were made and j o i n e d ,  elevated Each  the p i n c h  student  pot  the use o f p i n c h  i n the e s t i m a t i o n o f  was encouraged  t o make  h i s o r her  a  w h i s t l e as unique  and i n t e r e s t i n g  i n shape and d e s i g n as p o s s i b l e .  s i z e o f the b i r d body and the number o f h o l e s c o n t r o l l e d S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s made more than one s i z e o f b i r d in  s m a l l groups with  try  t o make  including were  other  playing kinds  simple  of  tunes.  simple  musical  f l u t e s , o r i c a n a s , and drums.  also  altered  into  simple  the tones made.  and experimented  Students  were  instruments  Some  later  inspired to from  Small m i n i a t u r e thrown  whistles.  The  discussion  clay, bottles  arose  of  c o u n t r i e s , such as Mexico and Peru, which h i s t o r i c a l l y have used c l a y t o make  small  whistle toys.  Students  were  encouraged  t o pursue  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f ceramic o b j e c t s indigenous t o South American The of  writer  tried  t o i n c o r p o r a t e the n a t u r a l  students at p a r t i c u l a r  age l e v e l s  into  the c l a y  problems  presented.  for relationships, physical  appearance  i n s t a n c e , an i n t e n s e concern  and  s o c i a l concerns were the b a s i s f o r some l e s s o n s . t o do a s c u l p t u r e i l l u s t r a t i n g  a relationship  Students might be such  as mother and  c h i l d , the f r i e n d s , or the q u a r r e l .  P i e c e s o f work i n v o l v i n g  dancers,  an  or  Life-sized explore  acrobats bodies  the human  demonstrated  or r e a l i s t i c form  countries.  i n t e r e s t s and concerns  For  asked  further  interest  self-portraits  on a d i f f e r e n t  scale.  athletes,  i n the human  form.  were c o n s t r u c t e d t o  Social  concerns  such as  i s o l a t i o n , e c o l o g y , world hunger, p o v e r t y , endangered s p e c i e s , t h r e a t o f  war,  ageing,  interest  and dying  were  a l s o expressed  through  clay  of a jigsaw.  the f i g u r e i n t o p i e c e s  One assignment r e q u i r e d a s c u l p t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f f i v e o r  more p i e c e s based on a f a m i l y o f shapes which c o u l d  be separated  i n d i v i d u a l forms or c o u l d be i n t e r l o c k e d i n t o one form. appreciation  was a l s o  included  i n assignments  the absurd  object  appealed  t o most secondary  through  various  means.  the i m i t a t i o n o f  S u r r e a l i s m and an i n t e r e s t  students.  i n e i t h e r minimum or maximum s i z e proved  Making a s c u l p t u r e which put two u n l i k e l y  into  A r t h i s t o r y and  assignment c h a l l e n g e d the s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n through  a s t y l e or type o f work from a p a s t c u l t u r e . in  The  i n p u z z l e s or i n t e r l o c k i n g p a t t e r n s was e x p l o r e d through making  o r i g i n a l c a r t o o n f i g u r e s i n c l a y and then c u t t i n g  One  pieces.  Making an  t o be o f g r e a t  everyday interest.  elements t o g e t h e r ,  such  as a  nonfood item on a d i n n e r p l a t e , was one student's example o f the absurd. Making popular was  fantasy  shoes  surrealistic  such  a s a pyramid,  assignment.  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y explored  emphasized Students  o r a c a t shape, was a l s o a  Pop a r t and i t s humourous i m p l i c a t i o n s  i n s c u l p t u r e forms.  Another l e s s o n which  humour o r w i t was t o make a soup t u r e e n  made  a great  variety  including  a queen  tureen,  t u r e e n , a garbage can t u r e e n , and a t u r n i p t u r e e n . interested  i n g e n e r a l l y pleasing design  forms.  which was  unusual..  a whale o f a  Students  were a l s o  One assignment  was t o  b u i l d a pot based on an o r g a n i c shape or form such as a s h e l l , s t o n e , o r vegetable.  The form was t o be simple, e l e g a n t and r e f i n e d .  s c u l p t u r e s which expressed  emotions and p e r s o n a l  were c h a l l e n g e d  t o make w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d  tional  such  objects  containers. Appendix J.)  as  mirror  frames,  Some assignments were based Many l e s s o n s were based  p h i l o s o p h i e s , students  and designed trivets,  hand made  wall  on notebook  on what  As w e l l as  plaques,  exercises.  students  said  they  funcand (See were  47 interested  in  adaptation,  learning.  alteration,  A l l lessons and  were  elimination,  r e c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s and how  subject  depending  to on  modification, how  they  were  much s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d from doing them.  l e s s o n s were designed as much as p o s s i b l e  so t h a t  The  the l e s s able s t u d e n t  c o u l d handle the problem w h i l e the more a b l e student would not be  bored  by i t . The  order  most simple and  and  complex  skills For  wheel.  worked  Once  Teaching how  on  writer  the  based  and  essentially  gradually  example,  a  sense  alternately  wheelwork. how  was  most  on  adding  starting  with  the  the more c o m p l i c a t e d  students  spent  some  time  in  and e x p l o r i n g c l a y ' s l i m i t a t i o n s b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t o work on  potter's  students  basic  skills.  handbuilding the  of l e a r n i n g  one  of  clay  week  on  behaviour handwork  was  established,  and  the  t o throw on the p o t t e r ' s wheel was  learned to  throw,  although  there  other  based  are many  on  mainly  throwing  s t y l e s a v a i l a b l e to emulate. The at  a  writer  private  l e a r n e d t o throw by t a k i n g  studio.  The  course  kneading, c e n t e r i n g , throwing and g l a z i n g .  The  and  different  practised  ceramics. the  writer  a b e g i n n e r ' s p o t t e r y course  consisted  a cylinder,  ten  altering  basic  lessons  cylinders,  techniques d a i l y  f o r the f i r s t  instructor.  He  offered  throwing  year o f t e a c h i n g  throwing  criticism  on  trimming,  a l s o used books with i l l u s t r a t i o n s on  A v a l u a b l e source o f i n f o r m a t i o n on  night school  of  was  and  p r o v i d e d by  a d v i c e on  the  t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f throwing as w e l l as demonstrating e f f e c t i v e ways o f throwing. enrolled  After i n an  private studio. offered  by  the  the  first  two  years  intermediate l e v e l She Emily  also benefited Carr  School  of  teaching ceramics  throwing  course  offered  the by  writer  the  same  from a c e r a m i c s summer s c h o o l course of  A r t , which  included  throwing  and  48 h a n d b u i l d i n g methods. for  learning  making  was  While  daily  l e s s o n s h e l p e d , the most c o n s i s t e n t method  practise.  The  writer  challenged  a v a r i e t y o f shapes and s i z e s o f pots u n t i l  shapes e a s i l y and p r e d i c t a b l y .  The w r i t e r  which seemed t o h e l p b e g i n n i n g p o t t e r s .  mastered  cylinders  other and  they  were a b l e  to alter  which  i n c l u d e d one  advanced there  students  requirements for basic  pot shapes  were d i v i d e d  beginners  (see Appendices  are both b e g i n n i n g  course requirements  K  into  and L) .  enough  t o make  Both the h a n d b u i l d i n g  and one  and experienced  are d i f f e r e n t  some b a s i c r u l e s f o r Once the s t u d e n t s had  forms i n c l u d i n g bowls, p l a t e s and t e a p o t s .  wheelwork course  to  she c o u l d make most  isolated  throwing  herself  areas  for intermediate to  At  students  two separate  times,  unavoidably,  i n the same c l a s s so  f o r v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s i n the same room.  Evaluation Deciding  the v a l u e o f each  lesson  i n terms o f student  knowledge, image development and enjoyment was handled consultation these  with  her s t u d e n t s  i n most  cases.  beginning  a description  of different  and  by the w r i t e r i n  The manners  i s s u e s were e x p l o r e d depended upon d i f f e r e n t  Before  skill  i n which  forms o f e v a l u a t i o n .  forms  of evaluation,  however, the w r i t e r w i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e the nature o f e v a l u a t i o n . Evaluating  children's  a r t i n v o l v e s making  some judgements about  a  c h i l d ' s growth or p r o g r e s s based on some planned g o a l s or aims.  Because  of  evalua-  the nature o f a r t , a r t p r o c e s s e s and outcomes, and c h i l d r e n  tion  provides  (1966) w r i t e s  the a r t teacher  with  some  that  most  subject  a r t , unlike  difficulties. areas,  E.W.  does  Eisner  n o t have as  u n i q u e l y s t a b l e , c o n s i s t e n t or p r e d i c t a b l e o b j e c t i v e s upon which t o base judgements r e g a r d i n g  e d u c a t i o n a l behaviour  as do o t h e r  subjects.  For  example, mathematics o r s c i e n c e c o u r s e s have c l e a r l y d e f i n e d t o o l s as  tests  which  procedures, here to  that  are designed  formulae,  t o measure  or problem  knowledge  solutions.  although E i s n e r was speaking  about  of specific  I t i s important children,  such  facts, t o note  i t i s reasonable  apply h i s i d e a s t o the problems o f e v a l u a t i o n a t the secondary or  adolescent control  level.  Eisner  (1966) b e l i e v e s t h a t  the type o f l e a r n i n g  which may d e v e l o p d u r i n g the a r t p r o c e s s .  He does  agree,  purposes  f o r t e a c h i n g any a r t l e s s o n (pp. 384-388).  (1976)  has i d e n t i f i e d  believes tions  however,  i t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o  that  of  particular attitudes  similar  t e a c h e r s must  artistic  ability  grades. and  that  He  knowledge  goals i n a r t education.  a r t t e a c h e r s must  concerns  regarding  f i r s t establish levels  further  suggests  about  a r t evaluation.  some standards  that  that  eously.  of  children  the areas  of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n when  For i n s t a n c e , a student  may  i n technical  applies  a further  progress be v e r y  skills  (1976) and E i s n e r (1966) a r e concerned the b a s i s o f p a r t i c u l a r  i n each  skills,  establishing  when he  area  simultan-  knowledgeable  about a r t  (pp. 532-544).  Both  Lansing  w i t h e v a l u a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t on  educational objectives.  condition  at  (1976) p o i n t s o u t some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  c h i l d r e n may not make equal  h i s t o r y but v e r y poor  He  o r expecta-  e v a l u a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t growth even a f t e r g o a l s a r e developed says  their  Kenneth M. Lansing  for the m a j o r i t y  be o f prime Lansing  be c l e a r  E i s n e r (1966), however,  t o e v a l u a t i o n when he suggests  that  less  emphasis be put upon one c h i l d ' s a r t p r o c e s s e s and p r o d u c t s i n comparison t o a n o t h e r ' s .  He sympathizes  p a r e n t s want t o know how they but  maintains  that  with the f a c t  stand  that  i n comparison  the o n l y meaningful  assessment  s t u d e n t s and t h e i r  to their  age group,  of artistic  growth  comes  from  comparing  one's  own  past  abilities  with  one's  present  abilities. Once  teachers  a r e aware o f some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s  what c h i l d r e n w i l l of  learn  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  must,  t o some  based  upon unique  from  a specific  inherent  extent,  be  l e s s o n , they a l s o become aware  i n e v a l u a t i n g a r t growth.  prepared  to evaluate  and p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s  A r t teachers  educational  most l e s s o n s . and  growth  Ideally  behaviour  f o r each s t u d e n t .  same time, however, each teacher g e n e r a l l y has an o v e r a l l on e v a l u a t i o n and a s e r i e s o f s p e c i f i c  i n planning  criteria  p o i n t o f view  which can be a p p l i e d t o  The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s '  i n any a r t c l a s s  the procedure  i s best  should  handled  involve  At the  in a variety  exchanges  between  progress o f ways.  student  and  t e a c h e r d u r i n g the e n t i r e working p r o c e s s and not o n l y a t the end o f an assigned to  project.  and understood  and  student  regard  The terms o f e v a l u a t i o n should be c l e a r l y by s t u d e n t s a t the onset  s h o u l d , however, m a i n t a i n  t o e v a l u a t i o n , as what  to  learn.  c r i t e r i a which w i l l emphasis  will  lessons.  be used  be p l a c e d  stress technical  ability  tries  throwing  t o master  ideally  and/or  Teachers must be prepared  outcomes o f s p e c i f i c  sense o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n  by a student  student planned  deserve  i n evaluating their  over  ability  area.  n o t always  f o r the student  t o know t h e  work, and a l s o how much  For example,  some l e s s o n s may  c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g  such as when one  a cylinder o f areas  to solve v i s u a l  may  and need  on the wheel. o f teacher  Most  concern  i n t e r e s t , e f f o r t , expressiveness, o r i g i n a l i t y , s k i l l art,  The teacher  t o g i v e c r e d i t f o r new and o r i g i n a l  Students  on each  involve a variety  a certain  i s learned  t u r n o u t t o be what the teacher  o f any l e s s o n .  explained  problems, p a r t i c i p a t i o n  lessons  such  level,  will  as student  knowledge o f  in class  routines  51 and  d i s c u s s i o n s , receptiveness to  and  environment, and  tion  may  involve  extended  co-operation.  such  e f f o r t and  The  i n v o l v e s much  students  can  issues  of  concerned ducts.  through  and  to  their role  humanistic  this  teacher  succeeded  one's own  a r t processes  as  they  enrichment  of their  able to  to  t h e i r own  seem t o l i k e completing  and  own  the  are  about  lives  work, to one Many  going  to  to  their  to  be  art  as  pro-  appreciate  the  which i s o f t e n g a i n e d  made  a l l want  us do  to  t e a c h e r s , but we  often help  estimation.  have  been o r i e n t e d  know when  we  should a l s o want t o To be able t o  judge by  not have the n a t u r a l or l e a r n e d s k i l l s  to  ourselves.  be  and  To  o n l y do  than  have  t o be e v a l u a t e d  able t o handle  Not  are  students  students  encourage  t h e r e f o r e be  s e v e r a l i d e a s can be t r i e d .  are  they  want  comments We  o f a s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n form  (see Appendix M) .  of  student.  T h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n can  i n our own  self-evaluations  learning,  evalua-  i n some reasonable p e r s p e c t i v e .  a c c u r a t e l y assess  make  work  t o a r r i v e a t some kind o f  growth i s more d i f f i c u l t  Many o f  and  mark  do  as t e a c h e r s t o h e l p  evaluation.  p r o g r e s s and  the  we  have succeeded  someone e l s e .  their  with  as  p o i n t , many o f based  teacher  area  i n the e s t i m a t i o n o f our  know when we  able  between  the study and making of a r t .  Up  be  p u n c t u a l i t y , completion  I t i s important  in this  i n keeping marks and grades  toward  as  communication  importance  I t i s our  cultural  More s p e c i f i c . i n f l u e n c e s on  become o v e r l y concerned  about  for others'  p r o c e s s i s a complex and o f t e n c o m p l i c a t e d  r e c e i v e on any g i v e n p r o j e c t . balance  respect  i n t e r e s t , c o n s c i e n t i o u s a t t i t u d e , and the a b i l i t y  think independently. which  criticism,  without  more One  to  responsible for  idea that  students  too much d i f f i c u l t y  f o r each p r o j e c t which i s  students b e n e f i t by  g r a d i n g but they a l s o tend  students  i s the  completed  t a k i n g some p a r t i n  t o have a c l e a r e r  p i c t u r e o f what  criteria  evaluations  to  understand  of  the  that  work  student.  and  The  is  the  marks t e a c h e r s  where  of  not  i s concerned  only  concerned  with the  with  the  student.  student.  the  work.  However, some s t u d e n t s are  though  With  can  much the  s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n included  be  found  participate  Unless  express  the  in  in  students  difficulties fact  critique  verbally  that  some  saying  many  a  are  the  over  a  process  ideas  them  c r i t i c i s m or a n a l y z i n g developed  the  viewing  and  practised  as  about  gives what  they  have  before.  period  of  not  been  see,  and  of  required  unsuccessful.  opportunity  many  to  have  do  It  to  distinct to  the  kind  of  taught  and  this  however, be  experience.  one  guided  T h i s i s p o s s i b l y due  These s k i l l s can, time  session  initially  an  the  /Another  discussion  students  likes  part of  critique  i n or  the that  teacher  c l e a r e d up.  classroom  e x a c t l y what they mean.  of  of  concerned  through t h i s kind o f group d i a l o g u e , many c r i t i q u e s can be Even  failure  personality  these m i s c o n c e p t i o n s can o f t e n be  a l l students  s u c c e s s or  them  i s aware t h a t a l l a r t forms are concerned with  evaluation  another's  Their p a r t i c i p a t i o n helps  g i v e have something t o do with how  f i n a l mark g i v e n , source  evaluation  writer  personality of  or d i s l i k e s  are o f t e n based on.  seems  to  be  a  worthwhile type o f a c t i v i t y t o pursue from the p o i n t o f view t h a t we a l l want  to  group.  feel  some r e s p e c t  High  school  t h e i r own  students  self-oriented During  student to  for  generally  our not  f o r f e a r o f being  work talk  from too  labelled  our  much  peer about  conceited  or  i t i s important t o have a l e g i t i m a t e arena f o r t h i s kind  of  discussion.  any  that  admiration will  successes v o l u n t a r i l y  immodest, so  remember  and  e v a l u a t i o n , whichever the  main  improve and  objective excel  rather  form i t t a k e s ,  should than  be  to  find  to p o i n t  out  i t i s important ways to  help  failures.  to the  It i s  also  essential  to  self-confidence  help  needed  h e l p t o prepare  the  student  to  t o c o n t i n u e on  him/her  maintain  the  t o the next  t o meet the c h a l l e n g e o f  motivation  and  area o f study and solving  a new  to  set of  problems. To e s t a b l i s h a f a i r important  and complete method o f student e v a l u a t i o n i t i s  t o have both  student  the e n t i r e marking p e r i o d . forms,  including  research All they  and  The  e v a l u a t i o n s can  d i s c u s s i o n s and  a r t programs, l i k e  and  upon the  philosophies.  example, i s c u r r e n t l y being r e v i s e d more comprehensive Teachers  t h e i r own  new  and  source o f guidance  will  no  doubt  The  should  throughout  take s e v e r a l  including  alter  improved  s t r e n g t h s and  than and  tests  abilities  and  i t continues  program changes which o c c u r r e d are now  in  teacher's experience, B.C.  and  was  train-  change  examined.  for  form c o u l d o f f e r  available  School Board The  that  curriculum guide,  i n the  based  The  on  program  study m a i n l y due  annually.  a  recent  p o l i c i e s and  writer's f i r s t  the f i v e year to  unique  improve c u r r e n t programs  abilities.  changed c o n s i d e r a b l y over  somewhat  i n i t s newer  a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on new  i n ceramics her  and  w r i t t e n techniques  e v a l u a t i o n s , are  t o a g r e a t extent  ing, preconceptions,  on t h e i r  involved j o i n t l y  papers.  are based  past.  teacher  type  to of  54 Chapter V  EVOLUTION OF THE PROGRAM  The  program changed q u i c k l y and d r a m a t i c a l l y i n some ways a t a v e r y  e a r l y s t a g e , and changed s l o w l y and s u b t l y i n other i n the f i v e year she  was able  study.  As the w r i t e r gained  t o change the l e s s o n s  a b l e t o add more s p e c i f i c s For  example,  handbuilding  many  of  first  lessons  as the w r i t e r ' s throwing  in  nature  to  encourage  allowed students' for  acceptance  able  i n t h a t many times  student  balanced  and  input.  part  too easy  of  on  weak.  More teacher  individual  f o r the more  grew.  i n l e s s o n p l a n n i n g and  and  confidence  significance  of  allowed  d i f f e r e n c e s , needs, and a l l levels of  the l e s s o n s were too d i f f i c u l t able  ones.  f o r the l e s s  With  time the  upon t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d p r o j e c t s and more open  Projects t h e program  techniques  were  emphasized.  develop  sense  of personal  a  were  as the w r i t e r ' s c o n f i d e n c e  l e s s o n s o f t e n d i d not c h a l l e n g e  program became l e s s r e l i a n t to  heavily  The e a r l y l e s s o n s were r e p l a c e d by ones which  The beginning  students  relied  on the wheel she was able t o add  o f the v a l i d i t y  more c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s '  students  she had l e a r n e d .  and knowledge  e x p l o r a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .  ideas.  interests.  planned  the w r i t e r t o be more f l e x i b l e  for a better  and knowledge  The f i r s t l e s s o n s were a l s o p r e s c r i p t i v e  and became more open-ended  Knowledge allowed  information  skills  However, once she had mastered throwing t h i s dimension t o the program.  more s k i l l s  stages  from b a s i c t o more complex, and was  t o the g e n e r a l  the  ways a t l a t e r  or  end r e s u l t s  i n that The  ideas  writer  imagery  eventually rather  became  than  was  able  to  in clay  once  her  a more  skills  and  help  students  own  concerns  regarding  technique  were  alleviated.  In other  wanted t o say i n c l a y became more important The  more  knowledge the w r i t e r gained  throwing,  and g l a z i n g  the more  words,  she was  involving  to provide  a variety of  and r e s o u r c e s  limited  i n the g l a z e s , t o o l s , and m a t e r i a l s which can e n r i c h a ceramics  experience.  Although  many  through  meagre equipment, having  working  process  knowledge  more  enjoyable  the w r i t e r o f f e r e d  The f i r s t  building,  sources  art  f o r her s t u d e n t s .  students  than how they would say i t .  i n techniques  able  what  outstanding  programs were v e r y  results  became  terms  more  and  rewarding.  With  a more p r o f e s s i o n a l  ceramic  art.  teaching area.  and v o c a b u l a r y .  personally This  As  interested  interest  was  secondary  enthusiasm  student.  a  i n and  reflected  solid  o f ceramic  sessions.  can  such  on  writing  personal  as f i l m s ,  be turned  beginning  and  U s u a l l y students w i l l  conversations stimuli  art history  but a l s o  committed  background  more  a r t as  The e a r l y  grew she of  about the  i n ceramic  facts  s t u d e n t s toward d i s c u s -  appreciation during  concerns  and  class  but with  some  working classroom  interesting  or photographs t o d i s c u s s the s i t u a t i o n  the emphasis  changed as r e s e a r c h i n t o ceramic requirements.  t o apply  i n motivating the  i n t o a forum f o r an exchange o f i d e a s about  ceramic  encour-  i n a greater'enthusiasm f o r  programs students were r e q u i r e d t o do v e r y l i t t l e about  and  t o the study  focus the major p a r t o f t h e i r  social  papers,  skills  program which  can o f t e n p l a y a major r o l e  with  achieved  the w r i t e r ' s a b i l i t i e s  i n f o r m a t i o n the w r i t e r was able t o b e t t e r guide sions  more  the s u b j e c t and a d e s i r e t o p e r s o n a l l y l e a r n  Teacher  be  the a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l s o f t e n makes t h e  aged s t u d e n t s t o not o n l y use a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s pertinent  can  art history  programs a l s o  used  was  on  art.  In the  research or  processes.  This  became p a r t o f the c o u r s e very  few v i s u a l  a i d s , but  56 the  writer  articles,  gradually  and  illustrate  films  acquired which  a valuable  could  i d e a s or t e c h n i q u e s .  problems more q u i c k l y , e a s i l y  be  collection  recalled  The v i s u a l  and  of  photographs,  produced  quickly  a i d s o f t e n helped  and p o s i t i v e l y .  to  to solve  As w e l l as being able t o  p l a n a b e t t e r , more f l e x i b l e program the w r i t e r e v e n t u a l l y was more a b l e to e v a l u a t e the r e s u l t s o f the l e a r n i n g .  Experience  to r e c o g n i z e and a p p r e c i a t e a p i e c e o f work which unexpected.  and  problems and was thus more a p p r e c i a t i v e o f e f f o r t s and the e f f o r t s  knowledge The  o f what  abilities  evaluations of  rather  than  directing  class  formation, ences.  just  student  teacher  critiques  identification  Skills  were work  areas  of  interest  and more  skills  of  and  e v a l u a t e d , based  student  and  became  to help  and  improved.  the s t u d e n t s  often  were  r a t h e r than  more  with  reasons  of  concept  for preferbecame  easier  As t h e w r i t e r became more e x p e r t i n her  attitude  as w e l l  skill  as more  development.  required  to c o i l  a l l o w i n g f o r combination  a s u c c e s s f u l end product  to f i n d out f o r themselves  based  capable  and  ability  directed  toward  toward  about other  pots  in a  particular  or i n v e n t i v e t e c h n i q u e s .  r a t h e r than  students  encouraging  ways o f approaching  L a t e r p r o j e c t s were based more on i n d i v i d u a l  image  For example, i n e a r l y  w r i t e r was aware t h a t one c o i l i n g method worked and wanted  t o be guaranteed  levels.  teacher  students  stating  age  on a  The l e s s o n s became more s u i t a b l e t o the age  projects  students  frustrations  for certain  writer  able  knowledge,  just  The  The  of styles,  development r a t h e r than  technique  were more  original  r a t h e r than end  i n a n a l y z i n g , comparing, and g e n e r a l i z i n g  program p l a n n i n g and  appropriate  based.  to teach as the program developed. the  student  were more r e a l i s t i c a l l y  the w r i t e r  was n o v e l ,  and  products  She was b e t t e r a t understanding  allowed  them  the problem.  i n t e r e s t s and s t u d e n t s were  57 encouraged t o b r i n g i n t h e i r  own  i d e a s f o r work they wanted t o do.  For  i n s t a n c e , themes i n v o l v i n g humour, s u r r e a l i s m , f a n t a s y , s c i e n c e f i c t i o n , and  mystery were i n t r o d u c e d by s t u d e n t s more o f t e n than  The  writer's early  program  slant  tended  more toward  o r i e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than an e x p r e s s i v e one. of  ongoing  lessons  also  available writer  concern became  plans  because  student  were b e t t e r  T h i s c o n t i n u e s t o be an area  program  interesting  input  able  a d e s i g n and c r a f t  of  and  techniques  i n a l l areas.  Both t h e  to evaluate  the program  and  planning.  now conclude  and  illustrate  how  i t was  organization, practical  t o d e f i n e a SDL  applied  t o the  initial  skills,  factual  skills,  As programs change and grow from  year  to year,  some o f the main changes have a l s o been i n c l u d e d . The w r i t e r would to  The  i n i t with time and e x p e r i e n c e .  areas o f c l a s s  program  changes.  a l l the  the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s the w r i t e r has attempted  f o r ceramics  problem  present  o f more  and her s t u d e n t s  In  and  more  and because  their participation  plan  i n her  by the w r i t e r .  i n the f i n a l  chapter  like  with a summary o f her f i n d i n g s as  w e l l as s u g g e s t i o n s and advice f o r other t e a c h e r s .  58 Chapter  VI  SUMMARY  The  writer's  emerging  problem  careers  and  to  situation. of  new  The  aim of  in  this  retraining  offer  ideas  trend  material  United  toward  teachers' teachers order  States. smaller  retraining will  to  be  i n t o the  For  The  highly  an  presented  example,  that  to  offer  a personal  illustrated  to  how  a  i n t o the  new  students  courses  which  data w i l l  a l l teachers  some  attention  to  throughout  possible  solution  for  the their  to  the  for  developed  a  allotted  f o r the  continuing  consequence,  some time.  such  Additionally,  quality lives  be  everywhere are  this own  deal  to  with  some  plan  i s , o f course,  retraining  consumer  extent  the  will In has  problem and  has  devised  o n l y one  to take  It  writer  was  obtaining  in  coming  required to teach.  retraining  through  the  i n g r e a t demand.  problem,  (SDL)  in  an  Study l e a v e s , however, must be planned and  time  i n Canada  indicate a  as  probably  learning SDL  to  specifically  to  an a d d i t i o n a l  more r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s  which they  solution  self-directed  be  Currently,  and,  and  case h i s t o r y or her  s o l u t i o n might  l e a v e or study. fit  persist  teach  a p p l i e d to the area o f c e r a m i c s . Another  bring  i n many major c i t i e s  enrollments  changes i n the c o u r s e s  attempt  one  p r e d i c t i o n s seem  tomorrow's  likely  experience  on  curriculum.  needs w i l l  o r i e n t e d or computer-related is  to  by many t e a c h e r s  population  school  required  prepare  years.  was  need t o r e t r a i n o f t e n a r i s e s because o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n  course  the  faced based  cause i s the d e c l i n i n g s c h o o l and  study  and  approach.  educational o f t e n do  place.  SDL  not is a  59 continuing  process  and i s i n f l u e n c e d by, and can be adapted  i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s time, energy The  writer  i s aware  entirely  ideal,  as s t u d e n t s  growth.  For example, d u r i n g  ceramics  program, one s t u d e n t ,  knowledge  needed i n f o r m a t i o n . areas and  such  following  year  responsible skills. job  have  in particular, student  (assisting  awareness.  the t e a c h e r ' s  gradual  year  o f teaching the  had advanced  provided  s k i l l s and  the w r i t e r  with  much  This  new  student  s t u d e n t s ) , image development, graduated  from  the s c h o o l the  and o b t a i n e d employment i n a p o t t e r y s t u d i o where she was  for firing  The w r i t e r  kilns,  feels  preparing  that t h i s  through  glazes,  student  because o f her exposure t o s i m i l a r  learn  i s not  The w r i t e r c h a l l e n g e d t h i s s t u d e n t t o grow i n o t h e r  she s t u d i e d with the w r i t e r . to  t o put up w i t h  to retraining  the w r i t e r ' s f i r s t  This  as l e a d e r s h i p  aesthetic  and needs.  t h a t SDL as a s o l u t i o n  i n the a r e a .  t o , the  and  teaching  was able t o handle  such  a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d u r i n g the year  The w r i t e r ' s advice t o t e a c h e r s  an SDL method  basic  i s t o be concerned  with  attempting  a t t i t u d e s and  planning. Attitudes  a r e important  because  they determine  how s u c c e s s f u l t h e SDL l e a r n e r w i l l be. as a c h a l l e n g e r a t h e r than flexible  thinking  abilities, is  also  needed.  To  be  To see t h e r e t r a i n i n g  extent  situation  i s a good example o f t h e p o s i t i v e , r e s o u r c e f u l enough  to apply  knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o p r e s e n t  past  situations  beneficial.  Planning  i s fundamental  should be conducted Teachers  a problem  to a great  who  t o s u c c e s s f u l SDL  learning.  i n much the same manner as a s c i e n t i f i c  pay a t t e n t i o n  to attitudes  problems d e v i s i n g a p e r s o n a l SDL p l a n .  and p l a n n i n g  SDL  plans  inquiry i s .  will  have  few  60 PROPOSAL APPLICATION OF Although ceramics,  the  SDL  specific  area o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s study has  the w r i t e r would now  like  to i l l u s t r a t e  i n two  been  s t e p s how  this  model o f a SDL p l a n c o u l d be a p p l i e d and  adapted to the needs o f o t h e r s .  For  used by an  example, how  no e x p e r i e n c e secondary plan  this  approach be  a r t teacher  be  the  F i r s t , a review o f the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  SDL  presented.  Second,  the  SDL  plan  will  be  the  learner:  aesthetic), specific  specifically  t o the l e a r n i n g o f photography aimed at p r e p a r i n g  Initially,  following  (a) and  what  (b)  five  skills,  other  terms,  had  at  enced teacher to becoming competent i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  SDL  who  i n photography but must teach a photography c o u r s e  level?  will  applied  could  questions  knowledge  information  how  will  are  this  learning  s t y l e s w i l l be  used, (c) how  learned  be  into  sources  and  organized  r e s o u r c e s can be  must  the  area.  be  addressed  (historical,  needed  both  information  be  inexperi-  by  the  cultural,  and  general  and  in  learned,  or  which  w i l l the content or m a t e r i a l t o be  logical,  sequential  used, and  (e) how  patterns,  will  (d)  which  the l e a r n e r e v a l u a t e  h i s / h e r growth and v a l i d a t e the accomplishment o f o b j e c t i v e s ? Ideally, SDL  the  questions  i n s e q u e n t i a l order  Assuming t h a t the could  refer  professionals in  specific  general  to  first  books  i n the  to  and field  speak  to  i n order  (a) classroom and  facilitate  (d)  colleagues  the  be  appear  first,  the  fall  planning.  teacher  photography  to  into  or  later  learn.  The  the f o l l o w i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n , (b) p r a c t i c a l  program  five  process.  i n g e n e r a l , and  fundamental to  the  learning  teaching  to e s t a b l i s h  would  areas o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n would  knowledge,  would undertake to use  q u e s t i o n would be d e a l t with  terms, what m a t e r i a l  four c a t e g o r i e s : factual  i n e x p e r i e n c e d teacher  Once g e n e r a l  skills,  (c)  goals  are  61 e s t a b l i s h e d more s p e c i f i c  goals  f o r each area  are  required.  t a i n which s p e c i f i c g o a l s are needed i n each o f the the  teacher  must  post-secondary able.  refer  in  instructors,  Initially,  a  detailed  or  any  some s p e c i f i c  manner  other  g o a l s may  be  books,  of  colleagues,  information  overlooked  but  point  overlooked  that  general  goals  specific  areas  of  knowledge, and  will  become  information  classroom  must  evident.  be  organization,  program p l a n n i n g ,  the  Classroom The  teacher  (e)  and  (d)  (b)  lights,  operation  now  outline  with classroom  of  the the  factual important  organization.  dry  supplies chemicals  maintenance established) .  (a  the  following:  machines  and  equipment  back-drop  system),  mount  (c)  film  (safelight,  developing  press,  trays, clips  paper  table,  with and  spools,  drying  knives,  cutter,  spray  display  paper  adhesive, (g)  supplier),  (h)  (plastic  jugs,  s a f e t y metal  c a b i n e t s ) , and and  film  boards),  private  procedures  room,  funnels,  line,  requisition,  orderly  (films,  enlarger,  board  of  stand,  electricity),  (school  system  tools  (copy  materials  timer,  tank  (matte board, X-acto  (a)  (small, l i g h t - f r e e  table, non-vibrating  brushes,  (f) d i s p l a y  cutter,  of  equipment  opener, s c i s s o r s ,  box),  ordering  each  practical' s k i l l s ,  darkroom p h y s i c a l requirements  thermometer, dust  storage  storing  knowledge  c o l d water, s i n k l i k e  cassette  matte  have  tripods),  k i t , quartz  darkroom  tongs,  must  lenses,  chemicals), hot  important  illustrate in  SDL  Organization  (cameras, lighting  understood  writer w i l l  i s s u e s o f concern f o r photography beginning  To  avail-  as the  l e a r n e r becomes more knowledgeable i n the area o f study, o t h e r previously  ascer-  four main c a t e g o r i e s  to  source  To  routines  ( i ) room must  be  62  Practical  Skills  After  ascertaining  what  equipment  o p e r a t e a photography c l a s s r o o m , the the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s cameras  (optical  shutter  speed,  reactions, (c)  involved.  theory,  emulsions,  s p e c i a l e f f e c t s on  tion,  lens  variations  film  sandwiching),  SDL  following  use),  temperature  supplies  special  needed  are e s s e n t i a l :  shutter  (a)  operation,  (b)  film  and  timing,  effects  agitation,  in  paste,  use  of  (chemical drying),  grain,  reticula-  printing  (burning,  dodging, s o l a r i z a t i o n , p o s t e r i z a t i o n , c o n t r a s t , g r a i n , paper and  to  aperture,  developing  (posterization, contrast,  (d)  are  l e a r n e r must have knowledge o f  function,  of  film  and  The  and  types,  cut  tinting).  F a c t u a l Knowledge The  SDL  l e a r n e r must have f a c t u a l as w e l l as p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n  photography. historic graphic cultural  The  aspects use  (development  of  from p o r t r a i t u r e t o  concern the  include  camera,  the  following:  developments  in  a d v e r t i s i n g , photography and  (a)  photo-  art),  (b)  a s p e c t s (comparative a t t i t u d e s toward photography through time,  documentation twentieth  f a c t u a l areas o f  of  century  composition,  design  domestic art  and  form),  foreign  and  (c)  cultures,  aesthetic  p r i n c i p l e s , control of  e f f e c t s , manipulation of subject  film  photography  aspects and  camera  as  a  (fundamental for  desired  material).  Program P l a n n i n g Once a degree o f understanding and SDL  learner  can  begin  to  plan  would be b a s i c to begin with and  a  a b i l i t y has  program  been e s t a b l i s h e d  i n photography.  become more complete and  The  the  program  complex as  the  63 t e a c h e r ' s competency grew. the  following:  Beginning  some p r i n t i n g  and  (e)  sions  The of  artists media  techniques,  white  film,  beginning  t e a c h e r might  photographs, and  film  speakers,  i n order  to  for  each  visits,  accommodate  h i s or  area  has  from  t o come b e f o r e  any  include success-  famous  oh  a theme,  photographer's  h e a v i l y upon c r i t i c a l d i s c u s -  books her  and  own  presentations,  guest  magazines,  other  learning  and  simultaneously  F i n d i n g out what the s p e c i f i c g o a l s classroom  p l a n n i n g i s the major p l a n n i n g e f f o r t must l e a r n  a  presentations, s l i d e  gallery  general  study based  show o r  rely  with t h a t o f the s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s . are  might  (c) s u c c e s s f u l demonstration  (d) a photographic  a w r i t t e n review o f a g a l l e r y  style.  requirements  (a) s u c c e s s f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the camera, (b)  f u l development o f a b l a c k and of  course  organization  i n v o l v e d i n SDL.  l e a r n i n g ; can  to  program  To know what  begin.  The  one  writer  has  i n c l u d e d t h i s d e t a i l e d , p l a n o f an approach t o l e a r n i n g photography as example o f how ceramics  establishing  t o d e c i d e how e x t e n t , the upon  by  past For  lecture,  of  methods  a d v i c e t o SDL often  specific  the v a r i o u s s k i l l s  p h y s i c a l l y , and tion  the s p e c i f i c g o a l s she  kinds o f l e a r n i n g  one's own. (a)  approached  needed t o l e a r n i n  i n the same manner.  After  depend  she  an  (b)  by  both  in  demonstration,  which  learner w i l l  f a c t s w i l l be  they  (c) by  four  possible.  have  To a g r e a t  i s s u c c e s s f u l with institutions  choices of  actually  doing  or  on  learning: something  Most people have a method or a combinapersonally learn  l e a r n e r s i s t o be aware o f one's own  whenever  then  learned.  educational  g e n e r a l l y have  (d) by r e a d i n g . by  and  SDL  s t y l e s which a person  experiences example, we  g o a l s , the  However,  some  aspects  photography demand c e r t a i n kinds o f l e a r n i n g .  For  best.  The  s t y l e and of  the  use  writer's i t most  learning  i n s t a n c e , i t would  of be  64  difficult  to  e f f e c t s one one  could  number  totally  can  understand  working  of  achieve without a c t u a l l y using  probably gain  of  the  ways,  an  aesthetic  including  one.  appreciation  looking  s p e c i a l t y camera a r t magazines or  the  at  the  On  and  what  the other  hand,  f o r photography i n a  work  attending  camera  of  others,  g a l l e r y shows.  As  l e a r n i n g , which i n v o l v e s a d i v e r s i f i e d c o n t e n t o f m a t e r i a l , o f photography would demand the Organizing often  the  determined  overlaps begin learner  by  from one  by  material  correct  sharing  and  of  learning In  and  and  situations, of  Lessons or  materials  SDL  patterns  much  the  materials  from  taking  develop  display  the  is  learning  the  help  he  she  or  by  person  advancing  will  for  usually  the  visual  the  nature  more  and  enlarge  work  the  to  the  photographs  words, much o f  learner  inexperienced  would  the • f i l m ,  finished  In other  before  which  order  of  begins  the with  sophisticated  are  learner  r e s o u r c e s to use available  could  to  contact  professionals  in  the  the  depends upon which learner.  another field  amateurs  interested  are  usually  in  learning  available  from  more  In  secondary or  ideal level  post-secondary  A photography c l u b might p r o v i d e some v a l u a b l e  classes  learning  techniques.  photography,  instructors.  to  which s o u r c e s and  and  the  an  operations  complex  with  for  logical Also,  environment  criticism.  designed  the  It would seem l o g i c a l , however, t o  is  and  into  learned.  progression  camera  addition,  places  learned be  physical  flaws,  is  concepts  other  the  the  Establishing  from  to  natural  constructive  material.  teacher  A  with  prints,  people,  be  f a m i l i a r i z e him/herself  experimenting  thinking  has  the  have to work w i t h .  simple  to  i n most  o f many l e a r n i n g s t y l e s .  area i n t o another.  organizing to  the  what  use  reading  about  vocational,  discussion  photography. fine  art  or  65 other  post-secondary  school  classes could  galleries graphers graphy  provide  required  P r i v a t e s t u d i o o r community  be c o n s i d e r e d .  examples  as w e l l  selection As  institutions.  Local  libraries,  museums and  o f the work o f e s t a b l i s h e d and new  as i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s by the student  o f magazines  o f photography.  and s e l f - h e l p  books  There  available  night  photo-  o f photo-  i s also on t h i s  a wide  subject.  i n the case o f l e a r n i n g s t y l e s , the r e s o u r c e s an SDL l e a r n e r uses a r e  h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and best s u i t e d t o h i s or her i n d i v i d u a l Once  the s p e c i f i c  information  needed  has been  requirements.  e s t a b l i s h e d , the  i  learning planned, begin  styles  have  been  t o master the s k i l l s  or  her  needed  will  be  and r e l i a b l e  basis.  program  t o secondary  students,  and standards as teacher  must d e v i s e  The  SDL l e a r n e r c o u l d m a i n t a i n  sions  with  evaluation could  obvious  with  most  colleagues  These  recent  T h i s mastery  but the SDL  one must being  tests  be  taught.  to validate  t e s t s might  will  a  accountable Therefore,  quality f o r the the SDL  the accomplishment o f  record o f beginning  interests  the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n  on a con-  t o teach  Constructive c r i t i c i s m  Student  has t h e  include a v a r i e t y o f types.  a photographic  work.  learner  h i s o r her growth  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o u l d  o f the program.  indicate  then  o f the program  or her o b j e c t i v e s .  compare  to teach.  I f one i s e n t r u s t e d  his  to  i n order  o f consciously evaluating  sistent  learner  has been  As the SDL l e a r n e r p r o g r e s s e s , some changes i n  abilities  responsibility  nature  of learning  and the r e s o u r c e s have been i s o l a t e d , then the SDL l e a r n e r must  take time and p r a c t i s e . his  s e l e c t e d , the order  provide  work  and d i s c u s -  an a p p r o p r i a t e  and growing  o f the program.  abilities The most  a c c u r a t e assessment o f growth and p r o g r e s s would be based on a combinat i o n o f methods.  66 The  w r i t e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s or f i n d i n g s  f i v e year  SDL study concern  attitudes  from having  toward  been engaged  learning  in a  as i t a p p l i e s t o  h e r s e l f and t o her s t u d e n t s . The be  used  ate  writer  found  that  SDL was p e r s o n a l l y v e r y  again f o r f u t u r e l e a r n i n g  The w r i t e r  t h a t her past e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s prepared  Because  teachers  writer  has a l s o  tudes can be absorbed illustrate  realized  her so w e l l  education  Teachers  fortunf o r SDL.  behaviour,  how many o f her SDL t e c h n i q u e s students.  and  study  or  has  graduated  from  an  should be a l i f e l o n g  educational  process f o r  institution.  t e a c h e r s g i v e s t u d e n t s a l l the f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n needed. teachers give f a c t s , own.  i n f o r m a t i o n and the d e s i r e  The w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s with  kind o f program planned  SDL w i l l  i n the  self-directing  process  continue  and the type o f l e a r n i n g  and  students  i n a l l areas o f t h e i r  will  be  education.  course Good  Excellent  t o l e a r n more on one's t o i n f l u e n c e the  i n which her s t u d e n t s  are engaged. . Program p l a n n i n g w i l l be based more upon s t u d e n t s pating  atti-  i n v o l v e d i n SDL  everyone and should not end because one has f i n i s h e d a p a r t i c u l a r of  will  adolescents  with v a r i o u s i m i t a t i o n s o f a d u l t  by secondary  to students that  and  feels  are r o l e models f o r s t u d e n t s , and because  are c o n s t a n t l y experimenting the  situations.  satisfying  encouraged  partici-  t o be  more  67 References Anderson, D.M. Elements o f d e s i g n . Winston, Inc., 1961.  New  York:  B a l l , F.C. Making p o t t e r y without a wheel. R e i n h o l d Co., 1965.  Holt,  New  B a l l , F.C. S y l l a b u s f o r advanced c e r a m i c s . Books, 1972.  Rinehart  York:  Bassett,  Van  Nostrand  Calif.:  Keramos  B a l l i n g e r , L.B., & Vioman, T.F. Design s o u r c e s and r e s o u r c e s . York: Reinhold. P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1965. B a t e s , K.F. B a s i c d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e . P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1960. B e i t l e r , E . J . , & L o c k h a r t , B.C. and Sons, Inc., 1961.  Design f o r you.  Berensohn, P. F i n d i n g one's way w i t h c l a y . S h u s t e r , 1972. B i l l i n g t o n , D.M. The t e c h n i q u e o f p o t t e r y . Sons L t d . , 1962.  New  New  New  York:  York:  New  The World  John W i l e y  York:  London:  and  Simon  and  W i l l i a m CLowes and  N  Bruner, J.S. The a c t o f d i s c o v e r y . In G. Pappas theories of a r t education. Toronto, Ontario: Canada L t d . , 1970. Cameron, E., & Lewis, P. P r e s s , 1976.  P o t t e r s on p o t t e r y .  Campbell, A. Using the p o t t e r ' s wheel. R e i n h o l d Co., 1978. Casson, M.  The c r a f t o f the p o t t e r .  New  New  London:  ( E d . ) , Concepts and Collier-Macmillan  York:  York:  St. Martins'  Van  Garnett P r i n t ,  Chaney, C., & Skee, S. P l a s t e r mold and model making. Nostrand R e i n h o l d Co., 1973.  New  Nostrand  1977. York:  Chappell, J . The p o t t e r ' s complete book o f c l a y and g l a z e s . W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1977.  New  Chroman, E.  1974.  The p o t t e r ' s p r i m e r .  New  York:  C l a r k , K. P o t t e r y throwing f o r b e g i n n e r s . P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970. C l a r k , K. 1964.  P r a c t i c a l p o t t e r y and c e r a m i c s .  Hawthorn Books, New  New  York:  York:  Van  York:  Watson-Guptill  The V i k i n g  Press,  68 Colbeck, J . P o t t e r y , the t e c h n i q u e o f throwing. G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1969. Collier, Hall,  G. Form, space and v i s i o n . Inc., 1963.  New  York:  Watson-  Englewood C l i f f s ,  N.J.:  Prentice-  Conrad, J.W. Ceramic formulas: The complete compendium. M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1973. Counts, C.  P o t t e r y workshop.  Coyne, J . (Ed.). Bobbs-Merrill, C u s h i o n , J.P. Publishers, Dodd, A.F. and Co.,  New  York:  Macmillon,  New  1973.  Penland s c h o o l o f c r a f t s book o f p o t t e r y . 1975.  Animals i n p o t t e r y and p o r c e l a i n . 1974.  Dictionary of ceramics. 1967.  New  Great B r i t a i n :  Edwards, B. Drawing on the r i g h t s i d e o f the b r a i n . Marcher, Inc., 1979. E i s n e r , E.W. Educating a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . Company, 1972.  New  York:  New  York:  Crown  Littlefield,  Los A n g e l e s :  York:  The  York:  Adams  J.P.  Macmillan  E i s n e r , E.W. E v a l u a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t . In E i s n e r , E.W., & E c k e r , D.W. Readings i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . Waltham, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Blaisdell P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1966. F o r d , B.D.  Ceramic s c u l p t u r e .  New  York:  R e i n h o l d Book Corp.,  F o u r n i e r , R. I l l u s t r a t e d d i c t i o n a r y of p r a c t i c a l pottery. Van Nostrand R e i n h o l d Co., 1973. Gerard, C. 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Kendall/Hunt  Ceramics.  The  New  a r t of earth.  York:  Radnar, Pa.:  Rhodes, D. Company,  Stoneware and p o r c e l a i n . 1959.  R i e g g e r , H. Company,  Primitive pottery. 1972.  Ruscoe, W. 1974. Schaffer, tions,  Glazes  f o r the p o t t e r .  T. Pottery decoration. 1976.  Thomas, G. Step"by s t e p guide ing Group L t d . , 1973. W e t t l a u f e r , G. , & W e t t l a u f e r , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1976. Wildenhain, M. Pottery: P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1959.  Victoria,  W i l l c o x , D.J. Co., 1970.  New  B.C.,  New  New  Philadelphia:  York:  York:  N.  Van  Canada:  C h i l t o n Book  Watson-Guptill  expresion.  New  1976.  Chilton  Nostrand  The  Getting into pots.  design i n ceramics.  1971.  York:  New  Van  Winterburn, M. The technique o f h a n d b u i l t p o t t e r y . G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1966.  Inc.,  Publica-  Hamlyn P u b l i s h -  New  York:  Nostrand  New  Book  Reinhold  St. Martins' Press,  London:  C.  Addison-Wesley  Philadelphia:  York:  New  Mass.:  C h i l t o n Book Company,  to pottery.  Form and  Iowa:  H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston,  Rhodes, D. C l a y and g l a z e s f o r the p o t t e r . Company, 1967. P o t t e r y form.  Dubuque,  Co.,  Dubuque, Iowa: ' Wm.  Norton, F.H. Ceramics f o r the a r t i s t p o t t e r . P u b l i s h i n g Co., Inc., 1956.  Rhodes, D.  teachers.  Publishing  A r t , a r t i s t s , and a r t e d u c a t i o n . P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1976.  Linderman, E.W. Teaching Brown Company, 1971.  Nelson,  f o r l e a r n e r s and  York:  Jersey:  Reinhold  Reinhold  Watson-  70 Woody, E.S. H a n d b u i l d i n g ceramic G i r o u x , 1975. Woody, E.S. 1975.  P o t t e r y on the wheel.  forms.  New  New York:  York:  Farrar,  Straus,  Farrar,  Straus, Giroux,  FIGURE 1  FIGURE 2  72  FIGURE 4  73  FIGURE 6  74  FIGURE 8  FIGURE 9  FIGURE 10  FIGURE 12  FIGURE 14  FIGURE  1  6  79  FIGURE 18  FIGURE 19  FIGURE 20  82  FIGURE 24  83  FIGURE 26  84  FIGURE 27  FIGURE 28  85  86  FIGURE 32  38  FIGURE 33  FIGURE 34  90 Appendix A IMPORTANT EQUIPMENT FOR CERAMICS CLASSROOMS 1. E l e c t r i c wheels or k i c k wheels 2. P u g m i l l 3. B a l l  mill  4. G r i n d e r 5. Large p l a s t i c garbage cans with l i d s 6. P l a s t e r b a t or t a b l e t o p 7. Storage cupboards with doors t o s t o r e damp work 8. P l a s t i c bags f o r s t o r a g e and slow d r y i n g o f c l a y 9. S i n k s which can be plugged drain  t o stop c l a y r e s i d u e from going down t h e  10. E l e c t r i c k i l n s and equipment f u r n i t u r e , k i l n wash, e t c . ) 11. Gram s c a l e s and equipment gloves, sieves, etc.)  for firing  for glazing  (firing  cones,  shelves,  (chemicals, buckets,  rubber  12. Canvas covered t a b l e s f o r wedging 13. V e n t i l a t i o n f a n f o r removing fumes and d u s t 14. Separate  l o c k e d s t o r a g e area f o r poisonous  15. Vacuum c l e a n e r dust)  (industrial,  i f possible,  chemicals for cleaning  kilns  and  TOOLS FOR WHEELWORK AND HANDBUILDING 1. C u t t i n g  string  (linen fishing  l i n e , t h i n twisted  wire)  2. P i n t o o l s (bamboo skewers or needle a t the end o f a cork) 3. Sponges (man-made and.or  n a t u r a l sea sponges)  4. P l a s t i c bowls f o r water 5. Trimming  t o o l s (wooden and wire)  6. R i b s (wooden, rubber and metal) 7. B a t s  (wooden and wire)  8. R o l l e r s (dowelling 9. Guide  of various  s t i c k s f o r slabs  widths)  ( s t r i p s o f 1/4" wood)  10. Sponges on s t i c k s f o r deep p o t s (sponge 11. Chamois f o r smoothing 12. T e x t u r i n g household  rims (wet paper  t i e d on o l d p a i n t b r u s h e s )  towel works a l s o )  t o o l s ( k i t c h e n u t e n s i l s such as f o r k s , spoons, items such as c l o t h e s p i n s , n a i l s , brushes)  graters;  92 Appendix B CLAY RECYCLING A l l c l a y which has hot been bisque f i r e d , g l a z e f i r e d , or contaminated with p l a s t e r can be r e c l a i m e d and used over a g a i n . This i s a p r a c t i c a l and economic procedure i n which everyone must p a r t i c i p a t e . We r e c e i v e our c l a y i n 50 pound boxes i n the moist s t a t e . The c l a y i s c o m m e r c i a l l y manufactured, aged and ready t o use except f o r some i n i t i a l wedging and kneading. Once something i s made from the m o i s t c l a y , i t i s s e t a s i d e and allowed to d r y s l o w l y i n a damp cupboard. A f t e r the p i e c e becomes l e a t h e r h a r d , i t may be p l a c e d i n the greenware c a r t t o become bone d r y b e f o r e bisque f i r i n g . I f you d e c i d e t o r e c y c l e your work a t the l e a t h e r h a r d stage you must l e t i t d r y out c o m p l e t e l y b e f o r e adding i t t o a wet bucket as l e a t h e r h a r d c l a y does not absorb water r e a d i l y and w i l l remain q u i t e hard r a t h e r than b r e a k i n g down. There w i l l be buckets l a b e l l e d for leatherhard c l a y . Bone d r y c l a y may have water poured-over i t immediately. W i t h i n a few hours i t w i l l have absorbed a l l the water and w i l l be v e r y s l o p p y , muddy-looking c l a y a g a i n . T h i s c l a y must be d r i e d out somewhat b e f o r e i t i s back t o i t s o r i g i n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . P l a s t e r d r y i n g b a t s may be used t o d r y out c l a y i f handled with some care. I t i s important t o a v o i d g e t t i n g any p l a s t e r c h i p s i n the c l a y as even the s m a l l e s t p i e c e s can cause dents and h o l e s i n a p i e c e o f c l a y s surface during f i r i n g . Use the wooden t a b l e with the p l a s t e r top as a d r y i n g area f o r sloppy c l a y . Once the c l a y i s d r i e d out i t may be wedged and kneaded i n t o shape f o r use a g a i n . Use the canvas covered t a b l e s f o r wedging and kneading. I f you have t o scrape c l a y o f f the canvas t a b l e s use a f l a t wooden t o o l t o a v o i d t e a r i n g the canvas. T a b l e s should be sponged down and l e f t c l e a n a f t e r use. Put any useable c l a y s c r a p s i n a r e c y c l i n g bucket or through the p u g m i l l . 1  The p u g m i l l i s designed to h e l p with the c l a y r e c y c l i n g p r o c e s s . I t s b l a d e s c u t through the c l a y making a smooth and c o n s i s t e n t t e x t u r e . I t a l s o takes much o f the a i r out o f the c l a y , producing a more workable clay. The c l a y which i s put through the p u g m i l l must be o f the proper consistency. I f the c l a y i s too hard, i t w i l l have t r o u b l e being pushed through and w i l l put a s t r a i n on the motor. If the c l a y i s too s o f t , i t w i l l a l s o have t r o u b l e being pushed through and w i l l tend t o churn around on the b l a d e s . You w i l l be able t o r e c o g n i z e the proper cons i s t e n c y with time and e x p e r i e n c e . The p u g m i l l must be handled w i t h c a r e and r e s p e c t as i t can be dangerous t o the u n t r a i n e d u s e r . Always seek i n s t r u c t i o n s b e f o r e attempting t o o p e r a t e any c l a s s r o o m machinery. The s c r a p s o f c l a y l e f t over from the work on the p o t t e r ' s wheel, as w e l l as the creamy s l i p produced, are u s u a l l y too s o f t t o go through the p u g m i l l and as such should be e i t h e r d r i e d out on the p l a s t e r t a b l e or put i n the v e r y s l o p p y wet buckets by the s i n k . Do not pour these wheel s c r a p s i n t o the s i n k as they are v a l u a b l e t o use f o r other p r o j e c t s . The c l a y which s e t t l e s a t the bottom o f the c l a y s i n k i s o f t e n o f v e r y l i t t l e use because i t i s not good enough t o be r e c y c l e d . For t h i s reason i t i s important to pour as l i t t l e good c l a y as p o s s i b l e i n t o the clay sink. The c l a y s i n k has a t r a p t o s t o p c l a y from going down the s i n k and p l u g g i n g up the plumbing. The simple p l a s t i c tube which can be screwed on or o f f works v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y t o stop c l a y from going down the d r a i n . The water i n the s i n k should be l e t out p e r i o d i c a l l y and the  93 sediment a t the bottom should be c l e a n e d out and d i s p o s e d o f . I t i s our mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o see t h a t the c l a y r e c y c l i n g program works smoothly and c o n s i s t e n t l y . Make sure t h a t you s t o r e c l a y i n the proper places.  94 Appendix C SIMPLE SOLUTIONS 1. Vinegar mixed with s l i p c r a c k e d greenware. 2. Wet  i s an e x c e l l e n t mending g l u e  for repairing  paper towel makes a good i n e x p e n s i v e rim smoother f o r p o t s .  3. An o l d h a i r d r y e r i s a convenient  quick pot d r y e r .  4. Empty spray pump b o t t l e s work w e l l to keep greenware e v e n l y damp. 5. Bamboo skewers or needles  i n c o r k s make a c c e p t a b l e p i n t o o l s .  6. C h i l d r e n ' s p r i n t i n g l e t t e r s e t s make good stampers f o r making words on greenware. Alphabet macaroni a l s o works f o r s m a l l e r p r i n t i n g . It can be l e f t i n the c l a y t o burn out d u r i n g f i r i n g . Toothpicks can be used i n the same manner f o r making s m a l l weed pot h o l e s . 7. Cookie c u t t e r s can produce a s e r i e s o f s i m i l a r shapes which then be a l t e r e d or m o d i f i e d to use on pots or i n s c u l p t u r e s .  can  8. Chalk works w e l l f o r drawing p a t t e r n s on greenware or bisqueware. 9. T h i c k foam rubber sponges can be a l t e r e d i n t o d e c o r a t i v e stamps burning them with a wood burning t o o l k i t . 10. A metal o f wooden spoon w i l l smooth, s c r a t c h - f r e e s u r f a c e .  burnish  11. Dowelling makes good s l a b r o l l i n g 12. F i s h i n g wire.  line  ( l i n e n .or nylon)  13. K i t c h e n s i e v e s make through them.  a  trimmed  foot  rim  a  pins.  makes a s t r o n g , i n e x p e n s i v e  hair-like  into  by  strands  when  soft  clay  is  cutting  pushed  14. A looped wire makes a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o i l handle maker. To make a handle the looped wire i s dragged e v e n l y over a s o l i d c l a y b l o c k . 15. Toothbrushes or hacksaw b l a d e s make a good s c o r i n g or s c r a t c h i n g t o o l f o r p r e p a r i n g two s u r f a c e s which w i l l be j o i n e d t o g e t h e r . 16. V a r y i n g brushes.  sizes  of  Chinese  ink  brushes  17. P a t t e r n s c u t i n t o r o l l i n g p i n s p r o v i d e when r o l l e d over f l a t c l a y s u r f a c e s . 18. C u t t i n g s t i f f p l a s t i c l i d s from f l e x i b l e p o t t e r ' s shaping r i b s .  make  interesting  interesting  containers  in  half  slab  glaze  results  makes  good  95 Appendix D ( E l e c t r i c ) KILNS Most s c h o o l s have e l e c t r i c k i l n s . They are a l o g i c a l and p r a c t i c a l c h o i c e f o r s c h o o l s as they are r e l a t i v e l y easy t o f i r e and m a i n t a i n . They are q u i t e safe when used p r o p e r l y and produce r e l i a b l e , c o n s i s t e n t , and sometimes even i n s p i r i n g g l a z e r e s u l t s . K i l n s come i n v a r i o u s s i z e s and may be e i t h e r top or f r o n t l o a d i n g . E l e c t r i c k i l n s are b u i l t with-a s e r i e s o f o n / o f f switches which are used to c o n t r o l the h e a t i n g up o f the k i l n . Those k i l n s with f i n i t e temperature c o n t r o l (those which can be heated v e r y g r a d u a l l y and slowly) are b e s t f o r doing bisque f i r i n g s i n as c a r e f u l c o n t r o l o f the speed o f f i r i n g i s e s s e n t i a l t o a v o i d c r a c k i n g and e x p l o s i o n s . I f a k i l n heats v e r y q u i c k l y , i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o t u r n i t o f f and on t o c o n t r o l the f i r i n g speed. Once a p i e c e i s bisque f i r e d and g l a z e has been a p p l i e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the second f i r i n g , the speed o f h e a t i n g up the k i l n i s not so c r u c i a l . Most s c h o o l k i l n s have pyrometers i n s t a l l e d which are designed t o t e l l the inner temperature o f the k i l n . Pyrometers, along with the use o f p y r o m e t r i c cones which are p l a c e d i n the cone s i t t e r , e n a b l e k i l n s t o have a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e automatic s h u t - o f f system. The system works i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: once the i n s i d e o f the k i l n has reached the maturing or m e l t i n g temperature o f the s p e c i f i c cone, c a u s i n g i t t o bend i n the m i d d l e , a l a t c h a t the o u t s i d e f r o n t o f the k i l n f l a p s down which breaks the e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t and stops any f u r t h e r f i r i n g . It i s important, however, not to r e l y e n t i r e l y on t h i s system as i t has been known t o f a i l f o r v a r i o u s reasons. For i n s t a n c e , i f a p i e c e o f e q u i p ment was pushed i n f r o n t o f the k i l n , i t may b l o c k the l a t c h and prevent i t from f a l l i n g down c o m p l e t e l y enough t o c u t o f f the e l e c t r i c i t y . This kind o f s i t u a t i o n would cause the k i l n t o o v e r f i r e and no doubt cause e x t e n s i v e damage t o the k i l n as w e l l as t o anything being f i r e d . It i s v e r y important f o r the i n s t r u c t o r to be on the premises c l o s e t o the time the k i l n i s scheduled t o f i n i s h f i r i n g i n order t o a v o i d any overfirings. I t i s a l s o important t o f i r e o n l y up t o the recommended cone or temperature l e v e l as c o r r e c t firing a v o i d s s t r e s s on the elements. The recommended l i m i t f o r most s c h o o l k i l n s i s cone 6, o r 2246 degrees F. The wire elements or h e a t i n g c o i l s are p r o b a b l y one o f the few problems t o d e a l with i n e l e c t r i c k i l n s as they do tend t o become f a t i g u e d and weak from c o n s t a n t use and may have t o be p a r t i a l l y or c o m p l e t e l y r e p l a c e d p e r i o d i c a l l y . One s h o u l d not attempt t o do the element replacement on one's own as q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l are r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s kind o f j o b . The Vancouver School Board p r o v i d e s a v e r y f i n e r e p a i r s e r v i c e which i s a v a i l a b l e on s h o r t n o t i c e . I n s t r u c t o r s can, however, i n s u r e the long l i f e o f elements by being c a r e f u l not to g e t k i l n wash or wet g l a z e on these wires as they both cause e v e n t u a l breaks. A l s o , any c h i p s o f c l a y should be vacuumed r e g u l a r l y out o f the coils. K i l n s should be c o n s t a n t l y maintained f o r maximum e f f i c i e n c y . The k i l n should i d e a l l y be p o s i t i o n e d i n a s e p a r a t e room from the working classroom and c e r t a i n l y not be p l a c e d a g a i n s t w a l l s or wooden cupboards. I f the k i l n i s not i n a s e p a r a t e room t h e r e should be adequate v e n t i l a t i o n i n the working c l a s s r o o m . A ventilation fan designed to c a r r y fumes and dust p a r t i c l e s t o the o u t s i d e o f the room  96 should be i n s t a l l e d . There should a l s o be windows t h a t a l l o w f r e s h a i r to c i r c u l a t e i n the room. The time i t takes t o do a f i r i n g r e a l l y depends on the type and q u a l i t y o f k i l n one has. Most e l e c t r i c k i l n s have a ten hour time which can be s e t and r e - s e t i f more time i s needed. Some k i l n s have twenty hour t i m e r s which are even b e t t e r f o r f i n e c o n t r o l o f f i r i n g time. An average f i r i n g , however, p r o b a b l y takes about t e n hours. Only q u a l i f i e d and t r a i n e d persons should attempt t o f i r e k i l n s . I f one i s i n doubt about the procedures i n v o l v e d one should arrange for professional instruction before proceeding. The Vancouver School Board offers workshops i n k i l n o p e r a t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n a l development s e r v i c e t o teachers. Students should be i n v o l v e d i n the f i r i n g p r o c e s s e s as p a r t of a total understanding o f ceramics but should be monitored and s u p e r v i s e d by the classroom teacher i n order t o ensure s a f e and a c c u r a t e results. K i l n s are c o n s i d e r e d by many t o be as i n d i v i d u a l l y tempered as people and are o f t e n g i v e n a f f e c t i o n a t e nicknames by v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f students. As with many a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s e s the success o f the end r e s u l t s i n ceramics o f t e n depends t o some e x t e n t on the m a t e r i a l s and extra equipment a v a i l a b l e f o r smooth k i l n o p e r a t i o n . The following l i s t o f f e r s some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r equipment t o ensure proper f i r i n g s : (a) (b) (c) (d)  (e)  k i l n shelves of various s i z e s to f i t s p e c i f i c k i l n k i l n f u r n i t u r e o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s and widths p y r o m e t r i c cones o f v a r i o u s temperatures c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the type o f c l a y being used k i l n wash f o r p a i n t i n g k i l n s h e l v e s (bought c o m m e r c i a l l y or made from combining 50% s i l i c a p l u s 50% k a o l i n p l u s water i n t o a t h i n , creamlike consistency) asbestos gloves  97 FIRING THE  BISQUE KILN  Cone 06 or 1873  degrees F.  1.  Check t h a t a l l switches  2.  Check t h a t no p i e c e s o f c l a y are n e s t l i n g or vacuum them out i f you see any.  3.  Set proper  4.  Check s h e l v e s f o r g l a z e d r i p s and l o o s e k i l n wash c h i p s . Clean s h e l v e s c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e using them. Wear goggles and g l o v e s .  5.  Check greenware c a r e f u l l y :  cone i n k i l n  are i n the o f f p o s i t i o n . i n the  elements.  Clean  sitter.  (a) f i r e o n l y p i e c e s which are bone d r y (b) f i r e o n l y p i e c e s names and c l a s s e s  which  (c) f i r e o n l y p i e c e s parts)  i n good  Stacking  the  are  clearly  condition  labelled  (i.e.,  no  with  students'  cracks or  broken  kiln:  (a) handle a l l greenware c a r e f u l l y as i t i s extremely (b) l o a d the l a r g e and  heavy p i e c e s on the bottom  fragile  shelves  (c) l o a d s m a l l p i e c e s i n s i d e l a r g e p i e c e s (d) do not stack pots i n s i d e other pots which are as when they s h r i n k they may l o c k t o g e t h e r (e) stack cups and  (f)  similar  bowls i n t h i s manner:  do not a l l o w p i e c e s t o touch c o u l d cause an e x p l o s i o n  kiln  walls  or  elements  (g) make sure t h a t k i l n s h e l v e s are s e c u r e l y balanced before loading pieces (h) t r y to f i t as many p i e c e s i n a f i r i n g as w i l l as good k i l n packing conserves energy. 7.  in size  If you have any q u e s t i o n s or concerns c o n s u l t the  as  on k i l n  this  posts  comfortably f i t ,  teacher.  98 8.  A l l o w adequate time f o r c o o l i n g q u i c k l y can cause breakage.  before  opening  kiln—opening  too  99 FIRING THE  GLAZE KILN  Cone 6 or 2246 degrees F. 1.  Check t h a t a l l switches  2.  Check t h a t no p i e c e s o f c l a y are n e s t l i n g i n the or vacuum them out i f you see any.  3.  Set proper  4.  Check s h e l v e s f o r g l a z e d r i p s and l o o s e s h e l v e s c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e using them.  5.  Check bisqueware c a r e f u l l y :  cone i n the  are i n o f f p o s i t i o n .  kiln  elements.  Clean  wash c h i p s .  Clean  sitter. kiln  (a) f i r e o n l y p i e c e s which have c l e a n g l a z e - f r e e f o o t rims or bases (b) f i r e o n l y p i e c e s which are  i n good c o n d i t i o n  (c) examine l i d s and their pot rims t o g l a z e - f r e e where they touch each o t h e r . 6.  Stacking  the  ensure  that  both  are  kiln:  (a) handle a l l g l a z e d bisqueware brushed or chipped o f f  carefully  (b) g l a z e p i e c e s must not touch h a l f i n c h between p i e c e s  each other  (c) do not l e t p i e c e s hang over cause warping or slumping  the  (d) l e a v e the t a l l e s t  edge o f  p i e c e s f o r the top  (e) avoid p u t t i n g p i e c e s too c l o s e to the cause warpage  so  the  so  leave  shelves  glaze  at  as  is  not  least  one  this  could  shelves kiln  s i d e s as t h i s c o u l d  (f) pack as e c o n o m i c a l l y preplanning.  as  7.  If you  or concerns c o n s u l t the  8.  Allow adequate time f o r c o o l i n g b e f o r e opening k i l n — a t l e a s t as many hours o f c o o l i n g as o f f i r i n g would be a good r u l e o f thumb.  have any q u e s t i o n s  p o s s i b l e — t h i s may  take  some  careful  teacher.  100 Appendix E AVOIDING THROWING PROBLEMS 1.  S t a r t with an a p p r o p r i a t e Graduate t o l a r g e r s i z e s .  2.  Have c l a y p r o p e r l y wedged and mound.  3.  Have c l a y the proper c o n s i s t e n c y (not too wet nor too dry) proper shape o f f l a t on bottom and rounded on t o p .  4.  Have wheelhead d r y during centering.  5.  Have a l l t o o l s needed i n bowl o f water b e f o r e  6.  Use  7.  Work as q u i c k l y and slumps from f a t i g u e .  8.  Use proper throwing:  so  size  clay  will  size  stick  and  not  for beginners).  come  body  as  the  and  the  flying  off  beginning:  c l a y c r a c k i n g and  efficiently  comfortable  (fist  kneaded so t h e r e i s no a i r i n s i d e  water s p a r i n g l y to prevent  and  of clay  possible  positions for  slumping. as  overworked  various  clay  phases  of  (a) The c e n t e r i n g p r o c e s s can be approached i n many ways but here are some g e n e r a l r u l e s r e g a r d i n g wheel and body p o s i t i o n s : - Wheel should be going - Arms should be l o c k e d they won't move about.  counter-clockwise. i n at  s i d e s or  resting  on  thighs  so  - P r e s s u r e from l e f t hand a t base o f c l a y mound should p r o v i d e a counter t o the c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e o f the wheel, s p i n n i n g counter-clockwise. The r i g h t hand p r o v i d e s p r e s s u r e on top o f c l a y mound to prevent i t from coning upwards. - Wheel speed should be f a i r l y f a s t  for centering  ease.  101 (b) The  opening  p r o c e s s has  some g e n e r a l  rules:  - Using thumbs as a d r i l l , push a steady even hole i n the c e n t e r o f the c l a y mound, being c a r e f u l not to go to the bottom. Use a p i n t o o l t o measure c l a y l e f t and l e a v e a t l e a s t 1/2 i n c h . - Once the c l a y i s opened, the bottom or f l o o r o f the pot must be f l a t t e n e d and compressed. T h i s p r o c e s s can be done by p r e s s i n g with the t i p s o f the f i n g e r s from the c e n t e r o f the pot f l o o r to the outer edge and v i c e v e r s a . T h i s i s an extremely important s t e p as compressing the f l o o r reduces the l i k e l i h o o d o f c r a c k s appearing d u r i n g the d r y i n g p r o c e s s . The w a l l s and f l o o r should a l s o be p e r p e n d i c u l a r to each other a t t h i s s t a g e . - The this the the out (c) The  top rim o f the c l a y can be a l t e r e d i n t o a cone shape a t stage by a p p l y i n g p r e s s u r e g r a d u a l l y from the bottom o f pot to the t o p , bending c l a y inward as hands move up t o rim. T h i s shape c o u n t e r s the tendency f o r pots to f l a r e a t the r i m . x  l i f t i n g p r o c e s s has  some g e n e r a l  rules:  - L i f t with both hands working i n u n i s o n . The l e f t hand should be i n s i d e the pot and the r i g h t hand should be o u t s i d e . Steady even p r e s s u r e should be a p p l i e d to the c l a y as i t i s being s l o w l y l i f t e d up. T h i s p r e s s u r e t h i n s the w a l l s and h e l p s t o b r i n g the c l a y upward. T h i s p r o c e s s i s somewhat l i k e p a t t i n g one's head and rubbing one's stomach a t the same time. Try t o judge the c l a y ' s e l a s t i c i t y so as not t o l e a v e the w a l l s too t h i c k or too t h i n . Repeat t h i s p r o c e s s u n t i l desired height i s achieved. (For c y l i n d e r s o n l y . ) '(d) The  shaping p r o c e s s has  some g e n e r a l  - To make a pot rounded out i n s i d e t h a t the o u t s i d e . - To make a pot f l a r e d out o u t s i d e than the i n s i d e .  more  more  rules: pressure  pressure  (e) The removing the pot from the wheel p r o c e s s rules: - The pot must be o f the form. - The  sponged d r y , e s p e c i a l l y on  wheelhead should be c l e a n and  i s a p p l i e d on  the  i s applied  the  has  the  f r e e o f excess  some  on  general  i n s i d e bottom  clay.  - The bottom o u t s i d e rim o f the pot should be trimmed as much as p o s s i b l e and d r y b e f o r e removal i s attempted.  102 - C l e a n water should be sponged onto wheelhead surrounding p o t . - A t a u t l y h e l d c u t t i n g s t r i n g should be p u l l e d p o t , p u l l i n g the water under the p o t . - The pot should then be onto a wet wooden b a t .  slid  o f f the wheel  flat  under the  (using d r y hands)  103 Appendix F WAYS TO ENRICH CLAY SURFACES 1.  Drape a s t r i n g dipped i n o x i d e s or s l i p over a pot or s c u l p t u r e . F o l l o w the shape o f t h e form or a l l o w s t r i n g t o f a l l randomly.  2.  Draw on a c l a y s u r f a c e or under g l a z e s .  3.  Rub o x i d e s i n t o impressed c l a y a r e a s . Wash c l a y s u r f a c e with t o b r i n g out p a t t e r n . Leave p l a i n o r g l a z e o v e r .  4.  Put v a r i o u s t h i c k n e s s e s o f rubber bands design. P a i n t over bands with o x i d e s , bands b e f o r e f i r i n g .  5.  Use melted wax or ceramic wax t o p a i n t , s p l a t t e r , o r d i p a r e s i s t d e s i g n on b i s q u e . Glaze a f t e r waxing.  6.  Draw on c l a y s u r f a c e with underglaze p e n c i l s . Do a b l a c k and white l i n e drawing or a shaded form. Coloured p e n c i l s c o u l d a l s o be used f o r more r e a l i s m .  7.  Cut paper s t e n c i l s t o apply t o c l a y s u r f a c e s . Paint oxides, s l i p or g l a z e s over s t e n c i l s . Remove s t e n c i l s when d r y o r burn o f f paper i n f i r i n g . G r a s s e s , twigs', f l o w e r s c o u l d be used.  8.  Use a comb or forked t o o l t o c r e a t e L i n e s may be s t r a i g h t or wavy.  9.  Paddle c l a y s u r f a c e s with c l a y shape and p a t t e r n .  textured  10.  Imprint form.  by p r e s s i n g  11.  Applique separate colours of clay.  12.  Mold a s p e c i f i c shape out o f c l a y and apply t o c l a y s u r f a c e . more than one s p r i g mold f o r u n i t y and r e p e t i t i o n o f theme.  Use  13.  S c r a t c h ( s c r a f f i t o ) i n t o ' s l i p covered c l a y s u r f a c e t o r e v e a l body c o l o u r . S c r a t c h e s may be a b s t r a c t o r c o n t r o l l e d .  clay  14.  Use a f e a t h e r dipped  15.  Use j u s t the shape o f t h e brush h a i r s on v a r i o u s brushes t o p r i n t p a t t e r n s on c l a y s u r f a c e s .  16.  Dab a sea sponge texture.  with  into c l a y surface  oxides,  s t a i n s , or engobes.  Draw over  water  around p o t f o r a r e s i s t s l i p , or g l a z e . Remove  ridges of l i n e s  in soft  clay.  o r smooth wooden t o o l s t o a l t e r  an assortment o f t o o l s i n t o  p i e c e o f c l a y onto c l a y s u r f a c e .  Use d i f f e r e n t  i n s l i p t o t r a i n p a t t e r n s on c l a y s u r f a c e s .  dipped  i n oxide  over  clay  kinds  surface  of paint  for a  rich  104 17.  M e l t g l a s s c h i p s or enamel lumps onto g l a z e d c l a y s u r f a c e s f o r added c o l o u r and c r a c k l e d texture. Use these c h i p s i n a c l a y cloisonne.  18.  Try to abstract nottslip tracer.  20.  Double d i p a pot i n two g l a z e s . Try to control a f t e r some random d e s i g n s have been made.  21.  Cut i n t o a c l a y s u r f a c e with v a r i o u s t y p e s o f t o o l s i n c l u d i n g p i n t o o l s and t u r n i n g t o o l s t o c r e a t e l i n e s o f d i f f e r e n t t h i c k n e s s e s .  22.  Draw a d e s i g n on a c l a y s u r f a c e . Cut away the background surrounding the d e s i g n t o producm a r a i s e d s u r f a c e .  23.  R o l l a c l a y s l a b over an o l d l i n o c u t (use s e v e r a l l i n o c u t s ) t o produce a r a i s e d c l a y d e s i g n . Add t o the d e s i g n or a l t e r i t i n some way t o c r e a t e an o r i g i n a l image.  r e a l i t y and s i m p l i f y l i n e s Compare r e s u l t s on each l e a f .  i n designs.  Try  the shapes produced  clay  105 Appendix G GLAZES What i s a g l a z e ? A g l a z e i s a g l a s s y c o a t i n g or f i n i s h used on ceramic ware t o e n r i c h the c l a y s u r f a c e and to render i t waterproof. Glazes are composed o f t h r e e main i n g r e d i e n t s : s i l i c a , alumina and f l u x . Silica and alumina are two i n g r e d i e n t s found i n c l a y and, i n f a c t , c l a y c o u l d be used as a g l a z e i t s e l f .except t h a t to melt c l a y i n t o a g l a s s form would r e q u i r e extremely high f i r i n g temperatures. To lower m e l t i n g temperatures o f g l a z e i n g r e d i e n t s a f l u x i s added. (So g l a z e s c o n t a i n a l l t h r e e elements.) Glaze  ingredients  Each o f the three main i n g r e d i e n t s i n a g l a z e has i t s own f u n c t i o n . SILICA i s the glass-making i n g r e d i e n t , and i t i s found i n nature i n the form o f sand. I t comes to the p o t t e r f o r glaze-making i n the form o f f l i n t , a f i n e white powder. S i l i c a , or f l i n t , has an extremely h i g h m e l t i n g p o i n t , however, and i n order to make i t form a g l a z e at a lower temperature an i n g r e d i e n t c a l l e d f l u x must be added. FLUX i s the second i n g r e d i e n t o f a g l a z e , and because t h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s , each producing a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p e , g l a z e s are u s u a l l y c l a s s e d by the type o f f l u x used. For example: l e a d g l a z e s are those t h a t use white l e a d ( i n the form o f a f i n e white power) as a f l u x . F e l d s p a t h i c g l a z e s are h i g h f i r e g l a z e s using f e l d s p a r as a f l u x . A l k a l i n e g l a z e s are those t h a t c o n t a i n borax or soda as a f l u x . ALUMINA i s the t h i r d ingredient of a glaze. I t c o n t r o l s the v i s c o s i t y o f a g l a z e and keeps i t from running o f f the c l a y d u r i n g the firing. Alumina i s found i n c l a y , and p o t t e r s use those such as c h i n a c l a y , k a o l i n , b a l l c l a y or o r d i n a r y p o t t e r y c l a y , which come i n the form o f f i n e powders. What kinds of g l a z e s can be  used?  1.  C l e a r Transparent G l a z e - T h i s g l a z e i s e x t r e m e l y s h i n y and will a l l o w the c o l o u r o f the c l a y to shine through. I t i s much l i k e p u t t i n g v a r n i s h on wood. To produce c o l o u r with a c l e a r g l a z e a' p i e c e can be d e c o r a t e d f i r s t with a s l i p , s t a i n , o x i d e or engobe. If you wanted to make a b a s i c -clear g l a z e l e s s s h i n y or matt you c o u l d add 20% z i n c oxide to the formula. To o b t a i n a v e r y d u l l g l a z e with no sheen at a l l you would add 30% z i n c o x i d e .  2.  C o l o u r e d T r a n s p a r e n t G l a z e - T h i s g l a z e i s the same as the c l e a r g l a z e above but has had some o x i d e s added to produce a c l e a r coloured shiny g l a z e . I t would look much l i k e a transparent c o l o u r e d wash on a watercolour p a i n t i n g . O x i d e s , s l i p s , s t a i n s o f d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s can a l s o be used under c o l o u r e d transparent glazes. Some o f the common c o l o r a n t s used t o produce c o l o u r e d clear glazes are:  106 (a) C o b a l t o x i d e - ( t o x i c ) v e r y i n t e n s e , expensive l i g h t b l u e to almost b l a c k . (Use 1% or l e s s . )  and  produces  (b) Copper o x i d e ( t o x i c ) - produces v a r i o u s shades o f green; causes g l a z e to flow because o f i t s f l u x i n g a c t i o n ; can make g l a z e s appear m e t a l l i c . (Use l e s s than 6%.) (c) Red  i r o n o x i d e - produces warm red-brown t o n e s .  (Use 5% -  10%.)  (d) T i t a n i u m - a l s o known as r u t i l e . Produces tan c o l o u r s and make i n t e r e s t i n g c r y s t a l - l i k e e f f e c t s . 3,  How  can  Opaque G l a z e - T h i s g l a z e i s d u l l s h i n y and c o v e r s the c o l o u r o f the c l a y body. The f i n a l p i e c e w i l l appear to be the c o l o u r o f the g l a z e r a t h e r than c l a y c o l o u r e d as i n a t r a n s p a r e n t g l a z e d p i e c e . To make an opaque g l a z e add 10% t i n o x i d e or 20% z i r c o p a x . The main opaque g l a z e body w i l l be white c o l o u r e d . To make a c o l o u r e d g l a z e you must add o x i d e s or s t a i n s as i n making a c o l o u r e d transparent glaze. The f i n a l c o l o u r e d opaque g l a z e w i l l o f f e r a p a s t e l shade. t o make a g l a z e  G l a z e s are made by f o l l o w i n g formulae much the same way r e c i p e s are used i n c o o k i n g . I n g r e d i e n t s ( i . e . , chemicals) and equipment should be assembled b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g . Each g l a z e w i l l s p e c i f y c e r t a i n c h e m i c a l s i n p a r t i c u l a r p r o p o r t i o n s t o produce a g i v e n t e s t e d r e s u l t . G l a z e s are measured out i n any form f i r s t and then have water added to form a liquid suspension. You can a l s o experiment with making g l a z e s by beginning with 100 grams o f d r y form c l e a r t r a n s p a r e n t g l a z e and t r y i n g to make i t c o l o u r e d and/or opaque, e t c . T h i s i s the equipment needed f o r making a l l g l a z e s : 1.  The gram s c a l e - A demonstration o f i t s use w i l l be one o f l e s s o n s i n the c o u r s e . Measures d r y i n g r e d i e n t s a c c u r a t e l y .  2.  C l e a n paper t o weigh and measure on - T h i s can be thrown the end o f the p r o c e s s and saves s p r e a d i n g dust and m e s s i n e s s . Wipe c o u n t e r s a l s o when g l a z e i s complete.  3.  A c l e a n c o n t a i n e r t o put g l a z e i n (with a l i d ) - L a b e l and a t t a c h a t e s t c o o k i e t o each bucket when g l a z e has to show what one can expect to see.  4.  Clean  5.  Glaze formulae - Check o f f each c h e m i c a l a f t e r i t i s added. easy to f o r g e t as many c h e m i c a l s a l l look l i k e white powder.  6.  Rubber g l o v e s - P r o t e c t s k i n with c u t s from g l a z e exposure.  7.  Mask f o r mouth - E s p e c i a l l y important Most g l a z e s we use are n o n t o x i c .  the  away a t general  the g l a z e been f i r e d  implements f o r measuring.  if  using  anything  It i s  toxic.  107 8.  Sieve - Once water i s added t o d r y g l a z e i n g r e d i e n t s t h e m i x t u r e .should be s i e v e d t o ensure even c h e m i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n .  For s t u d e n t s wishing t o experiment f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s important: Measuring  with  small  test  glazes the  Glazes  PERCENTAGES We b e g i n with 100 grams d r y because: (a)  100 grams i s e a s i e s t t o f i g u r e  (b) we don't g l a z e wet.  percentages o f  have t o c o n s i d e r t h e weight o f t h e water  added t o make a  PERCENT MEANS "OF ONE HUNDRED" Think o f one d o l l a r . 1 o f one hundred.  There a r e 100 c e n t s i n a d o l l a r .  1 p e r c e n t means  1 p e r c e n t o f one hundred c e n t s i s one c e n t . You can do i t e a s i l y with d e c i m a l p o i n t s . To g e t 1 % o f any number j u s t put i n two d e c i m a l p o i n t s s t a r t i n g right. That i s the same as d i v i d i n g i s 1.00 o r 1.  a number i n t o a hundred p a r t s , so 1% o f 100  What would 5% be? Just 5 x 1 % .  Right?  So 5% o f 100 i s :  from the  1% =  1.00 x  5  or 5  1  108 Start want  is  o u t by c a l c u l a t i n g So:  1% and m u l t i p l y t h a t  just:  times  7% o f  968235  1% =  9682.35  7% =  9682.35 x 7  the per c e n t you  If you want t o make, say, a g l a z e which i s not s h i n y , but has a s h i n e , and i s medium b l u e , you would: (a)  Measure 100 grams o f s h i n y t r a n s p a r e n t d r y  (b)  To g e t r i d o f most o f the shine Add  20% z i n c  oxide  20% o f 100g.  i s 1% o f 100 x 20 is  1 x 20  i s 20 grams z i n c (c)  oxide  To make i t opaque (that i s , not t r a n s p a r e n t ) Add  10% t i n o x i d e  or  20% z i r c o p a x 10% o f 100g.  OR do i t f o r z i r c o p a x = 20 grams (d)  little  i s 1% o f 100 x 10 is  1  x 10  is  10 grams t i n o x i d e  zircopax  To make i t a medium blue Add  l e s s than 1% c o b a l t  oxide  1% o f 100g. i s 1g. You want l e s s than, because your notes say t h a t 1% would g i v e you a strong b l u e . So take a guess, but measure and r e c o r d what you measure. Mixing  Glazes  Once your d r y i n g r e d i e n t s a r e measured f o r e i t h e r a s m a l l t e s t batch o f g l a z e or a l a r g e r t e s t e d g l a z e you need t o add enough water (a l i t t l e a t a time) t o make g l a z e the c o n s i s t e n c y o f c o f f e e cream. Glazes  109 which a r e too watery w i l l look washed out and b r i t t l e and w i l l not cover the c l a y s u r f a c e p r o p e r l y . Glazes which are too t h i c k w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to apply and w i l l end up l o o k i n g l i k e cupcake i c i n g when f i r e d . The t h r e e methods we can use f o r mixing g l a z e s once the water i s added a r e : (a)  Put a s m a l l batch  (b)  Put a l a r g e batch with a strong c o l o r a n t or s p e c k l i n g agent i n the b a l l m i l l (a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f i t s use w i l l be taught as a lesson) to ensure v e r y smooth m i x i n g .  (c)  S t r a i n the g l a z e through a f i n e mesh s c r e e n . Use a rubber s c r a p e r to push mixture through t o a v o i d damaging the s c r e e n . Sieve a l l g l a z e s . L a b e l and l i d a l l buckets when f i n i s h e d .  Applying  i n a j a r with a l i d and shake v i g o r o u s l y t o mix.  Glazes  F i r s t check the g l a z e c o n s i s t e n c y . Make sure the g l a z e i s p r o p e r l y s t i r r e d as water tends t o r i s e t o the t o p o f an unused g l a z e . I f the g l a z e has d r i e d o u t o r t h i c k e n e d add a l i t t l e water g r a d u a l l y t o achieve the proper t h i c k n e s s . The two main methods we use t o apply g l a z e a r e pouring and d i p p i n g or b r u s h i n g . Do not contaminate g l a z e s with c a r e l e s s g l a z i n g methods. Rinse brushes and m a t e r i a l s b e f o r e p u t t i n g i n t o new g l a z e buckets. Remember t o l e a v e the bottom and a t l e a s t 1/2 i n c h up the s i d e c l e a r o f glaze.  )  110 Appendix H HEALTH AND  SAFETY IN THE  CERAMICS CLASSROOM  One o f the important r o l e s o f the teacher i n the c e r a m i c s c l a s s r o o m i s t o be a p r o v i d e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g h e a l t h and s a f e t y . The teacher should a l s o a c t as a r o l e model and p e r s o n a l l y m a i n t a i n h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f procedures i n these a r e a s . There are many p o t e n t i a l l y hazardous s i t u a t i o n s i n a ceramic s t u d i o which can be s a f e l y avoided or d e a l t with i f students are p r o p e r l y i n s t r u c t e d i n and are encouraged t o m a i n t a i n good h o u s e k e e p i n g standards. The most p r e v a l e n t h e a l t h concerns are p r o b a b l y those a s s o c i a t e d with the dust c o n d i t i o n . Small p a r t i c l e s o f d u s t i n v i s i b l e to the naked eye are f o r e v e r p r e s e n t i n the air. Constant i n h a l a t i o n o f these p a r t i c l e s over an extended p e r i o d o f time can cause s e r i o u s lung and r e s p i r a t o r y problems such as s i l i c o s i s . In order to d e a l with the dust s i t u a t i o n i n the b e s t manner p o s s i b l e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o have a good v e n t i l a t i o n system i n s t a l l e d . The system should c o n s i s t o f an exhaust fan c a p a b l e o f t r a n s p o r t i n g dust and fumes to the o u t s i d e o f the c l a s s r o o m . I t i s a l s o important t o have windows which can be opened t o a l l o w f r e s h a i r t o c i r c u l a t e p e r i o d i c a l l y . A l l d u s t covered s u r f a c e s such as s h e l v e s , cupboards, and t a b l e tops s h o u l d be washed down on a d a i l y b a s i s . I d e a l l y , a c e r a m i c s c l a s s r o o m should be designed i n such a way as t o be able t o be hosed down and a l s o be p r o v i d e d with d r a i n a g e s l o t s i n the f l o o r , t o c a r r y excess water away. However, as most are not designed t h i s way, damp mopping i s the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e method o f c o n t r o l l i n g f l o o r d u s t . A good i n d u s t r i a l shop vacuum c l e a n e r i s a l s o an a s s e t i n d u s t c o n t r o l as w e l l as i n k i l n maintenance. One o f the o t h e r main areas o f h e a l t h concerns i n v o l v e s the s t o r i n g , mixing and use o f g l a z e c h e m i c a l s and ingredients. The c h e m i c a l s used t o make g l a z e s are o f t e n t o x i c t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree and as such should be s t o r e d i n e i t h e r p l a s t i c buckets with w e l l f i t t i n g l i d s , or i n g l a s s l i d d e d j a r s . I t i s important not to s t o r e these c h e m i c a l s i n paper or p l a s t i c bags (as they o f t e n come i n from the s u p p l i e r s ) as these bags tend t o d e t e r i o r a t e and are not s a f e from l e a k s and s p i l l s . Each bucket must be a c c u r a t e l y l a b e l l e d as t o c o n t e n t and t o x i c i t y of content. I f p o s s i b l e , a l l c h e m i c a l s not i n immediate use should be s t o r e d i n a separate area from the working c l a s s r o o m . It also makes good sense to s e t a s i d e one area o f the working classroom or even a separate room, i f p o s s i b l e , f o r s t o r i n g buckets o f made up g l a z e and f o r doing the a c t u a l g l a z i n g p r o c e d u r e . T h i s a r e a s h o u l d have a p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d or a r b o r i t e s u r f a c e t o f a c i l i t a t e the wiping up o f g l a z e spills. The brushes, bowls and other t o o l s used i n g l a z i n g should be removed from the buckets and washed immediately a f t e r use. The l i d s should be secured p r o p e r l y on the g l a z i n g buckets. Gloves should be worn t o prevent g l a z e c o n t a c t w i t h the s k i n and t h e s e g l o v e s can be easily supplied. Students should be c a r e f u l l y i n s t r u c t e d i n the proper and s a f e procedure f o r mixing g l a z e s . There should be no food or d r i n k i n the ceramic c l a s s r o o m a t any t i m e , but e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g g l a z e making and application. Students must be c a r e f u l t o wash t h e i r hands a f t e r working with g l a z e s . Smocks and cover-ups should be Washed r e g u l a r l y as w e l l as  111 o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s worn i n the c l a s s r o o m . Once g l a z e c h e m i c a l s are ready to be weighed and measured, p r o t e c t i v e f a c e masks can be worn to prevent any i n h a l a t i o n from dust from c h e m i c a l s . The f i r i n g of k i l n s a l s o p r e s e n t s a h e a l t h concern as gaseous fumes are g i v e n o f f d u r i n g the procedure. I f p o s s i b l e , i t should be arranged, so t h a t f i r i n g takes p l a c e as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e d u r i n g the s c h o o l day. If a s c h o o l i s a community one which o f f e r s n i g h t c l a s s e s i n c e r a m i c s by a qualified i n s t r u c t o r , a s a t i s f y i n g mutual exchange o f h e l p with f i r i n g s can o f t e n be worked o u t . I t i s not a good i d e a t o r e l y on p y r o m e t r i c cones t o t u r n the k i l n o f f as they have been known to f a i l . A q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r should always be on the premises when a k i l n i s scheduled to stop f i r i n g . i  K i l n s produce heat and as such p r e s e n t p o s s i b l e f i r e hazards. Students must be aware o f when k i l n s are f i r i n g and/or c o o l i n g down so t h a t they are never opened m i s t a k e n l y . Any flammable o b j e c t s must be s t o r e d away from k i l n areas and, o f c o u r s e , never p l a c e d on top o f firing kilns. A f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r should be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r any emergency. Asbestos g l o v e s should be used d u r i n g k i l n unloadings and any warm p i e c e s o f work s h o u l d be s t o r e d i n flame r e s i s t a n t s u r f a c e s . K i l n s h e l v e s can a l s o p r e s e n t problems i f s m a l l p i e c e s o f g l a z e are s t u c k t o t h e i r s u r f a c e . These s m a l l g l a z e c h i p s are as sharp as r a z o r b l a d e s and can produce v e r y deep and p a i n f u l c u t s i f handled c a r e l e s s l y . The p i e c e s should be chipped o f f o u t s i d e the room u s i n g a f i l e and wearing eye p r o t e c t i o n . Any other machinery i n the classroom such as p u g m i l l , g r i n d e r , and b a l l m i l l a l l r e q u i r e adequate i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r proper and s a f e o p e r a t i o n b e f o r e s t u d e n t s are allowed t o use them.  112 Appendix I THE CLAY PROCESS FROM START TO FINISH 1.  Soft clay wheel)  (can be e a s i l y  2.  S o f t l e a t h e r hard appliques)  3.  Leather hard (can be a l t e r e d by t r imming,. d e c o r a t i n g t e x t u r e s , adding h a n d l e s , d r i l l i n g holes)  4.  Bone d r y ( c l a y i s c a l l e d greenware and appears l i g h t e r i n c o l o u r and weight; c l a y i s v e r y f r a g i l e and c h i p s e a s i l y ; c l a y i s ready f o r the f i r s t f i r i n g ; c l a y can s t i l l be r e c y c l e d a t t h i s stage by adding water t o i t )  5.  Bisqueware ( c l a y has been f i r e d once and c h e m i c a l l y a l t e r e d ; c l a y appears d i f f e r e n t i n c o l o u r and i s hard t o the touch l i k e s t o n e ; c l a y cannot be r e c y c l e d a t t h i s stage; c l a y may be d e c o r a t e d by s t a i n i n g , waxing and g l a z i n g ; c l a y i s ready f o r f i n a l f i r i n g )  6.  Glazeware ( c l a y has been f i r e d f o r the f i n a l time, and w i l l have teached t h e maturing temperature t o render i t extremely hard t o t h e touch with a g l a s s - l i k e c o v e r i n g )  ( c a n be  wedged,  kneaded,  altered  by  and  formed  paddling,  by hand  imprints  with  or  and  carved  113 Appendix J NOTEBOOK EXERCISES FOR  CERAMICS  1.  Draw a c y l i n d e r shape. Change the c y l i n d e r shape to new shapes i n a s e r i e s o f p r o g r e s s i v e drawings. Choose some p l e a s i n g ones to t r y to reproduce on the wheel.  2.  Draw t i n y t h i n g s from nature (bugs, s t o n e s , r o c k s , l e a v e s , c r y s t a l s , and seed p o d s ) . Try t o separate e s s e n t i a l forms from a c c i d e n t a l ones.  3.  Draw any o b j e c t s you l i k e — a l t e r them i n t o pot shapes. How would they appear as pots or s c u l p t u r e s ? What would you change, a l t e r , modify, a d j u s t , and adapt?  4.  Choose a theme—draw a s e r i e s o f p o t s or s c u l p t u r e s based t h e m e — c h o o s e one or s e v e r a l t o t r a n s l a t e i n t o c l a y w o r k .  5.  Study a s t y l e or type o f p o t t e r y ( c o u n t r y , p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y ) . Sketch main ideas r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s t y l e or p e r i o d chosen. Do a p i e c e o f claywork i n t h i s s t y l e .  6.  Do a p h o t o g r a p h i c study o f c l a y forms architecture.  7.  C o l l e c t examples o f forms, t e x t u r e s , p a t t e r n s , e t c . , which appeal t o you as f i n e l y d e s i g n e d and i n t e r e s t i n g . Think o f how t h e s e p i e c e s c o u l d i n f l u e n c e your own work.  8.  Draw e v e r y t h i n g which i n t e r e s t s you. p l a y some p a r t i n your ceramic a r t .  and/or  sculptures,  A l l drawing  on'your  mosaics,  work done  can  114 Appendix K BEGINNERS BASIC COURSE REQUIREMENTS POTTERY  9/10  1.  Time:  2.  Fee:  3.  Materials required: a.  notebook tion)  b.  smock or cover-up ( o l d s h i r t s or c o v e r a l l s are good)  c.  toolbox or strong c o n t a i n e r i n c l u d i n g -  ( f o r handouts  and  r e c o r d i n g other  classroom  informa-  the f o l l o w i n g items:  p i n t o o l (needle i n a c o r k or bamboo skewers) wooden trimming t o o l ( p i e c e s o f carved d r i f t w o o d ) c u t t i n g wire or s t r i n g (nylon or l i n e n f i s h i n g l i n e ) sponges shaping r i b (end o f p l a s t i c spatula)  Tools w i l l be p r o v i d e d f o r shared use but i f you p r e f e r to have your own p e r s o n a l ones, the above l i s t o f f e r s some r e a d i l y o b t a i n a b l e and i n e x p e n s i v e s u g g e s t i o n s . 4.  Course area. a.  requirements:  specific  assignments  Clay preparation - wedging - kneading (rams h e a d / s p i r a l ) - r e c y c l i n g (use o f p u g m i l l )  b.  Handbuilt -  c.  claywork  pinch coil slab molds combination  techniques  Wheelwork - centering - opening - compressing base - p u l l i n g form - shaping - trimming  will  be  given  in  each  1 15 Assignments w i l l i n c l u d e making b a s i c shapes such as c y l i n d e r s , bowls, p i t c h e r s with p u l l e d h a n d l e s . d.  S u r f a c e enrichment  and d e c o r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s  - scraffito - incising - wax r e s i s t - impressing - oxide s t a i n i n g Glazing - b a s i c techniques (brushing, d i p p l i n g , spraying) - b a s i c understanding o f simple g l a z e formulae f.  Kiln  l o a d i n g and f i r i n g  - bisque k i l n - glaze k i l n 9•  Understanding claywork -  h.  line texture pattern shape colour rhythm  Teacher  and  using design p r i n c i p l e s  -  and  elements  harmony balance unity contrast emphasis movement  and student e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s  in  116 Appendix L INTERMEDIATE TO ADVANCED COURSE REQUIREMENTS POTTERY  11/12  1.  Time:  2.  Fee:  3.  Materials  required:  a.  notebook source)  b.  smock or cover-up  c.  toolbox or s t r o n g c o n t a i n e r i n c l u d i n g -  ( f o r handouts  pin tool wooden trimming c u t t i n g w i r e or sponges shaping r i b  and  other  classroom  information, idea  ( o l d s h i r t s o r c o v e r a l l s are good) the f o l l o w i n g  items:  tools string  T o o l s w i l l be p r o v i d e d f o r communal use but i f you p r e f e r your own p e r s o n a l ones the above l i s t p r o v i d e s the b a s i c tools needed. 4.  Course area.  requirements:  specific  assignments  will  be  given  in  each  a.  Review o f c l a y p r e p a r a t i o n , c l a y r e c y c l i n g , s t u d i o p r o c e d u r e s .  b.  H a n d b u i l t claywork - complex forms - use o f a l l t e c h n i q u e s ( p i n c h , c o i l , s l a b , molds) b a s i c course i n v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s . - s c u l p t u r e - a d d i t i v e / s u b t r a c t i v e , mixed media - combination h a n d b u i l t and thrown p i e c e s  c.  Wheelwork - s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i q u e s and -  d.  b i g bowls l i d d e d forms goblets thin-necked b o t t l e s throwing o f f the hump  Knowledge o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c l a y - earthenware - stoneware - porcelain  -  learned i n  forms plates teapots miniature pots s e c t i o n e d throwing c o i l throwing  1 17 e.  Glazing - mixing g l a z e s from formulae - knowledge o f g l a z e d e f e c t s and how  f.  them  Surface decoration techniques - f e a t h e r combing  g.  to c o r r e c t  - slip trailing - piercing - u n d e r g l a z e p e n c i l drawing Ceramic A r t Study - w r i t t e n illustration  - clay  cloisonne  • - stencils - s p r i g moulding - clay applique assignment with photographs  and  - h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l review - c e r a m i c s from a s p e c i f i c c o u n t r y - c e r a m i c s by an i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t from e i t h e r the p a s t or the present - ceramic s t y l e such as p u r e l y f u n c t i o n a l , pop or l a r g e g a l l e r y pieces h.  Emphasis on working t o promote p e r s o n a l imagery and  style  - d e v e l o p i n g themes - e n l a r g i n g sources and r e s o u r c e s o f imagery - expanding v i s u a l language i.  Ceramic A p p r e c i a t i o n - films - field trips - d i s c u s s i o n groups - v i s i t i n g a r t i s t speakers  j•  Student and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t ' s a r t growth  1 18 Appendix M STUDENT SELF-EVALUATION FORM NAME:  DATE:  PROJECT T I T L E : RATE YOUR FOLLOWING:  PROGRESS BY  ANSWERING,  AS  OBJECTIVELY  AS  POOR 1. I handled t h e m a t e r i a l s I used 2. I handled the t o o l s  FAIR  well.  correctly.  3. My f i n i s h e d work shows t e c h n i c a l 4. I p a r t i c i p a t e d  POSSIBLE, THE  ability.  i n the c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n .  5. My work shows uniqueness o f i d e a s . 6. My work approach was o r i g i n a l . 7. My work i s completed  i n a l l aspects.  8. My work r e p r e s e n t s my b e s t  effort.  9. My work corresponds t o the g i v e n problem or assignment. I followed i n s t r u c t i o n s . 10. I have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c l e a n - u p a c t i v i t i e s and have c o n t r i b u t e d p o s i t i v e l y t o the c l a s s r o o m environment. 11. I have l e a r n e d some new s k i l l s and/or from working on t h i s p r o j e c t .  ideas  12. I enjoyed my working p r o c e s s and my end p r o d u c t . 13. My o v e r a l l grade f o r t h i s p r o j e c t i s : 14. P l e a s e add any f u r t h e r comments i n t h e space p r o v i d e d below:  GOOD  11 9 STUDENT DESCRIPTIVE EVALUATION  FORM  NAME: PROJECT TITLE: D e s c r i b e your f i n i s h e d work as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . Use proper t e r m i n o l o g y and t r y t o convey what you were t r y i n g t o do i n your work:  

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