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Older mobile home parks in the Lower Mainland Hall, William Parker 1981

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OLDER MOBILE HOME PARKS IN THE LOWER MAINLAND by WILLIAM PARKER HALL B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1981 (c) W i l l i a m P a r k e r H a l l , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of School of Community & Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date SJT- 7 'f/ -7Q \ ABSTRACT The m o b i l e home i s one response t o the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i s s u e o f h o u s i n g a f f o r d a b i l i t y . F o r many i n d i v i d u a l s m o b i l e home l i v i n g i n a park environment i s a v i a b l e and a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g . O l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s , the f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s , are an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the w i d e r system o f m o b i l e home env i r o n m e n t s . The o l d e r p a r k s e x i s t i n g today have been s u b j e c t t o many cha n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the s c a l e , r a t e and n a t u r e o f which have been f e l t by a l l those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r k s and park l i v i n g . The r o l e o f o l d e r p a r k s i s u n c l e a r and a s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s w h i c h poses problems f o r some pe o p l e and i s o f no c o n c e r n t o o t h e r s . O l d e r p a r k s a r e c r i t i c i z e d as b e i n g , among o t h e r t h i n g s , u n s i g h t l y , i l l - d e s i g n e d , p o o r l y l o c a t e d and the s o u r c e o f a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r problems. A t l e a s t two r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t something s h o u l d be done t o improve c o n d i t i o n s i n e x i s t i n g p a r k s . To b e g i n t h i s t a s k i t has been n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e c o n d i t i o n s and problems and s u g g e s t a means t o remedy t h e s i t u a t i o n . This- study o f o l d e r p a r k s i s d e s i g n e d t o be used as a framework f o r d e v e l o p i n g a p u b l i c p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the p l a c e o f o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n environment of Greater Vancouver. Moreover, i t i s hoped that the study w i l l provide an example for smaller communities i n t h i s province i n how to deal with mobile home parks. The research process has involved a detailed study of the nature of the mobile home and mobile home park i n terms of general h i s t o r i c a l perspective and the p a r t i c u l a r Canadian experience. A discussion of the state of the mobile home industry i n Canada and background to the slow-down experienced since 19 74 serve to indicate the close t i e s between mobile home and mobile home park. Following a review of the constraints and regulations i n the system of providing for mobile home parks, and variety of types and functions of these parks, the process and economics of park development are described b r i e f l y . The extensive l i t e r a t u r e review portion of thi s thesis i s j u s t i f i e d i n terms of i t s non-existence i n a Canadian academic format and the necessity for a more complete perspective of the a n a l y t i c a l s tudy. Empirical research for the thesis involved the compilation and analysis of ex i s t i n g physical, operational and management c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i r t y older mobile home parks i n Langley, Surrey, Coquitlam and Maple Ridge. Data was obtained by f i r s t hand investigation of conditions i n these parks and interviews with many parties concerned about the provision for mobile home parks. The interviews included some core questions but were largely unstructured due to the nature of the investigation. C o l l e c t i o n of t h i s data was made possible through a summer position i n 19 78 with the former B.C. Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s and Housing. Motivation for research into t h i s topic was based on the hypothesis that older parks are subject to c r i t i c i s m from a stereotyped point of view and often unsubstantiated claims of problems and inadequacies. The study does i d e n t i f y certain problems associated with some older parks, including poor design and location, park redevelopment and combined commercial-residential operations. Other problems however, can be associated with some parks of any age, and these include park entrance fees, regulations, rent control, the landlord-tenant relationship, poor design and the s i g n i f i c a n t shortage of mobile home park spaces. The research has c l e a r l y indicated that there i s no such entity as a t y p i c a l older mobile home park. Thus, the recommendations put forth are meant to account for the extent of variety among parks and to guide p o l i c y decision-making . The most s i g n i f i c a n t conclusions of thi s thesis are: 1. The evaluation of park q u a l i t y i s , l i k e so many < q u a l i t a t i v e judgements i n l i f e , a function of personal and s o c i e t a l values and biases. What i s adequate and functional shelter to one person may be substandard and offensive to another. 2. Some of the readily apparent problems with older parks can be construed more as inst i tut ional in nature rather than as defects that can be corrected by camouflaging o by moving them. 3. Older parks are victims of changing times, escalating land values and urban pressure on the land. I t may be that the market w i l l ultimately determine local government planning objectives with respect to mobile parks. This however, w i l l be an evolutionary process, with parks of various forms and vintages remaining for many years to come. 4. The mobile home park is a unique form of land and dwelling tenure. As such, the relationship between landlord and tenant requires close and judicious scrutiny. 5. O f f i c i a l attitudes toward mobile home parks are only slowly changing. It is c r i t i c a l that local governments become more responsive to the issues at hand i f the pressures on the existing park system are to be reduced The strategies that can be developed to manage the problems must clearly identify the objectives in mind and for whom the problems are the objects of concern. This thesis w i l l outline the concerns that must be examined in v i order to promote a comprehensive planning approach toward the f u t u r e of o l d e r mobile parks i n the lower mainland. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v i i LIST OF TABLES x i LIST OF FIGURES x i i i LIST OF MAPS x i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xv CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 2 Problem Statement 2 Purpose o f t h e Study 3 Methodology 5 a) S e l e c t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f stu d y a r e a . . . . 6 b) So u r c e s o f d a t a 7 TWO THE EVOLUTION AND NATURE OF THE MOBILE HOME AND THE MOBILE HOME PARK. . 9 Ter m i n o l o g y 10 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 17 THREE BACKGROUND TO THE CANADIAN SITUATION 25 H i s t o r y 25 G e o g r a p h i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o b i l e Homes i n Canada - G e n e r a l P e r s p e c t i v e 32 The M o b i l e Home L i f e s t y l e 37 v i i v i i i CHAPTER Page P r e s e n t S t a t e o f the M o b i l e Home I n d u s t r y i n Canada 41 Economic R e c e s s i o n 4 2 The A s s i s t e d Home Ownership P l a n ( A H O P ) . . . 43 F i n a n c i n g 4 7 Land Development 4 9 D e a l e r I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 50 P r o d u c t i o n - S i t e P r o v i s i o n C o - o r d i n a t i o n . . 51 Consumer A t t i t u d e s 51 D e a l e r O r g a n i z a t i o n 52 FOUR THE EXISTING SYSTEM OF PROVIDING FOR MOBILE HOMES AND MOBILE HOME PARKS 54 P a r t One - C o n t e x t 54 C a t e g o r i e s o f M o b i l e Home P a r k s 58 P a r t Two - R e g u l a t i o n o f M o b i l e Homes and Park Development 6 5 Land A v a i l a b i l i t y 65 L e g a l S t a t u s 69 Zoning 7 0 S t a n d a r d s and Codes. 75 Recent L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . 82 P a r t Three - Economic P e r s p e c t i v e s 84 U n i t C o s t s and F i n a n c i n g 84 Park Development C o s t s 88 T a x a t i o n o f M o b i l e Homes 9 0 i x CHAPTER Page FIVE AN ANALYSIS OF OLDER MOBILE HOME PARKS IN THE STUDY AREA 97 Scope o f Ch a p t e r 97 H i s t o r i c a l Legacy 102 L o c a l R e g u l a t i o n s 105 A n a l y s i s o f O l d e r P a r k s 106 L o c a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n 106 Pa r k O p e r a t i o n 120 Park S e r v i c e s and P h y s i c a l F e a t u r e s 130 Q u a l i t y R a t i n g o f O l d e r P a r k s 139 Q u a l i t y R a t i n g C r i t e r i a 140 Summary 141 SIX PROBLEMS RELATED TO OLDER PARKS AND PARKS IN GENERAL 143 Problems - G e n e r a l 143 'Closed' P a r k s 143 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Park O p e r a t o r s and Tenants 146 S e c u r i t y o f Tenure I s s u e 147 The E n t r a n c e Fee . . . 151 Rent C o n t r o l 155 Problems i n O l d e r P a r k s 159 M o t e l - t y p e P a r k s 160 Poor D e s i g n and Maintenance 161 Economic P r e s s u r e 162 Summary 162 X CHAPTER Page SEVEN CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 164 C o n c l u s i o n s 164 Recommendations 16 8 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study 176 FOOTNOTES 179 LITERATURE CITED 185 L I S T OF TABLES TABLE Page I MOBILE HOME MARKET PENETRATION, CANADA 31 I I ESTIMATED NUMBER OF MOBILE HOMES IN PLACE IN CANADA - DECEMBER 31, 1974 33 I I I ESTIMATED NUMBER OF MOBILE HOMES IN PLACE IN CANADA - DECEMBER 31, 1976. 34 IV NUMBER OF MOBILE HOME PARKS AND MOBILE HOMES IN CANADA -1968 35 V COMBINED MANUFACTURERS' STATISTICAL DATA - NOVA SCOTIA 41 VI COMPARISON OF MOBILE HOME SHIPMENTS AND PRIVATE AHOP HOUSING SALES REFLECTING PENETRATION % TRENDS 4 5 V I I CANADIAN MOBILE HOME MANUFACTURING CAPACITY. . . 48 V I I I 1977 COST COMPARISON 86 IX 1977 ESTIMATED SERVICING COSTS 91 X 1977 ESTIMATED SERVICING COSTS, SURREY 92 XI 1973 ESTIMATED ON-SITE SERVICING COSTS, GENERAL 93 X I I NUMBER OF PARKS BY SIZE AND AGE 102 X I I I DISTRIBUTION OF MOBILE HOME PARKS IN THE LOWER MAINLAND 108 XIV OLDER PARKS (12 OR MORE YEARS) IN STUDY AREA . . 110 XV SIZES OF OLDER PARKS IN STUDY AREA 110 XVI NUMBER OF PADS IN OLDER PARKS IN STUDY AREA. . . 113 XVII PAD RENTAL FOR OLDER PARKS IN STUDY AREA . . . . 115 x i x i i TABLE Page X V I I I TYPES OF UNITS IN OLDER PARKS 116 XIX VACANCY RATES IN OLDER PARKS (1978) 120 XX PARK MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS 121 XXI EXPANSION/UPGRADING IN OLDER PARKS ( 1 9 7 8 ) . . . . 125 X X I I OLDER PARKS BY TYPE OF BUSINESSES ON SITE. . . . 127 X X I I I OLDER PARKS SUBJECT TO REDEVELOPMENT 128 XXIV SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS IN OLDER PARKS 13 0 XXV TYPE OF HEATING FUEL IN OLDER PARKS 131 XXVI PLACEMENT OF WIRES AND CABLES IN OLDER PARKS . . 1 3 2 XXVII CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITIES IN OLDER PARKS. . . . 133 X X V I I I CENTRAL LAUNDRY FACILITIES IN OLDER PARKS. . . . 133 XXIX DISTANCES FROM OLDER PARKS TO NEAREST CONVENIENCE STORE 134 XXX AREA SURROUNDING OLDER PARKS 135 XXXI LAYOUT OF OLDER PARKS 138 XXXII EXAMPLE QUALITY RATING FOR OLDER MOBILE HOME PARKS IN MAPLE RIDGE 14 2 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 MOBILE HOMES, TOTAL HOUSING STARTS AND THE GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 42 2 MOBILE HOME SHIPMENTS AND AHOP SALES 4 4 3 INDEX OF CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARD MOBILE HOMES IN CANADA 5 2 4 ASSESSMENT STATUS OF MOBILE HOMES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, ESTIMATED AT DECEMBER 31, 1977 . 96 5 DISTRIBUTION OF MOBILE HOME PARKS BY SIZE AND AGE 99 6 DISTRIBUTION OF PARKS ACCORDING TO MONTHLY RENT AND AGE OF PARK 117 7 DISTRIBUTION OF PARKS ACCORDING TO MONTHLY RENT AND SIZE OF PARK 118 8 SAMPLE MOBILE HOME PARK LAYOUTS 13 6 x i i i L I S T OF MAPS MAP NO. page 1 MOBILE HOME PARKS, VANCOUVER TO KENT 100 1A MOBILE HOME PARKS, VANCOUVER TO KENT 101 2 OLDER MOBILE HOME PARKS IN THE STUDY AREA . . . . 1 1 2 3 SIZE OF OLDER PARKS (NO. OF SPACES) 114 4 TYPE OF OLDER PARK OPERATIONS 126 5 OLDER PARKS SUBJECT TO REDEVELOPMENT 129 6 QUALITY RATING OF OLDER PARKS 14 0 xiv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks t o Dr. Hightower f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m , and t o Dahn f o r her p a t i e n c e . xv The tendency t o judge a l l m o b i l e home pa r k s by the w o r s t o f them has l e d t o the i m p o s i t i o n o f r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o lower t h e g e n e r a l average o f p a r k s s t i l l f u r t h e r . Lack o f c o n t r o l s , i n a d e q u a t e c o n t r o l s , o r r e p r e s s i v e and a n t a g o n i s t i c c o n t r o l s based on f a u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g have l e d t o problems. The problems have grown t o the p o i n t where t h e y can be no l o n g e r i g n o r e d . R. Newcombe, M o b i l e Home P a r k s : P a r t 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION I t was r e p o r t e d i n an a r t i c l e i n Fortune magazine over t h i r t y y e a r s ago t h a t h o m e b u i l d i n g was the one s e c t o r o f modern s o c i e t y t h a t had remained l a r g e l y u n a f f e c t e d by the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution.''" Now i t i s not c e r t a i n whether the m o b i l e home i s a r e v o l u t i o n i n h o u s i n g , b u t as a systems approach t o b u i l d i n g houses, t h e m o b i l e home (or a d e r i v a t i o n t h e r e o f ) i s d e s t i n e d t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n community development. Some i n d i v i d u a l s b e l i e v e t h a t the lo w e r m a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia may n o t be e x a c t l y f e r t i l e ground f o r development o f t h i s k i n d o f l i v i n g , b u t Robert C o l l i e r , West Vancouver's D i r e c t o r o f Development has s t a t e d t h a t , ". . . i f we r e a l l y wanted t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g , 2 we c o u l d do i t w i t h m o b i l e homes." Problem Statement Once the m o b i l e home i s moved from the d e a l e r ' s l o t i t becomes a form o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use, and as such, K n i g h t has suggested p l a n n e r s and l o c a l governments s h o u l d d e v e l o p an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y and 3 i t s p o t e n t i a l impact on urban l i f e . T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f m o b i l e home l a n d use, 2 3 the o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s . That environment i s o f t e n e n v i s i o n e d as a d u s t y , s q u a l i d p l a c e u s u a l l y i n o r near an i n d u s t r i a l a r e a , crowded w i t h t r a i l e r s and t o l e r a t e d o n l y so 4 l o n g as i t i s h i d d e n from the eye o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . These p a r k s a r e the k i n d t h a t come to mind when town c o u n c i l s and p l a n n i n g boards d i s c u s s the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f m i x i n g houses and m o b i l e homes. Aud a i n mentions u n s i g h t l i n e s s and i l l - d e s i g n as two o f the problems i n many o f t h e o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s , and 5 t h a t such problems a r e b e i n g i g n o r e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A t l e a s t two r e c e n t s t u d i e s , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l i n scope, s t a t e t h a t o l d e r p a r k s p r e s e n t a v a r i e t y o f problems. T h i s s t u d y seeks t o d e s c r i b e the a l l e g e d problems i n o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s , i n v e s t i g a t e why they e x i s t , and p r o v i d e recommendations f o r a c t i o n w h i c h may h e l p t o a l l e v i a t e t h e s e problems. Purpose o f t h e Study The o l d e r p a r k s e x i s t i n g today have been s u b j e c t t o many changing c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h have c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n t h a t poses problems f o r some p e o p l e and i s o f no c o n c e r n t o o t h e r s . I t has been s a i d t h a t something s h o u l d be done to improve c o n d i t i o n s i n some e x i s t i n g p a r k s . T h i s i s a complex and h i g h l y c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e . To b e g i n t h i s t a s k i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y a p p a r e n t t h a t one must i d e n t i f y the c o n d i t i o n s and probl ms and t h e n s g g e s t means o remedy t h e s i t u a .4 A r e c e n t r e p o r t i n Nova S c o t i a s u p p o r t s t h e t h r u s t o f i n q u i r y u n d e r t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y : ". . . a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o u p g r a d i n g i s t h e need f o r a p h y s i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and g r a d i n g o f each p a r k . S i m i l a r s i g n i f i c a n t l i s t s o f items s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d i n eve r y p a r k . " T h i s s t u d y o f o l d e r p a r k s i s d e s i g n e d t o be used as a framework f o r d e v e l o p i n g a p u b l i c p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the p l a c e o f o l d e r p a r k s w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n environment o f G r e a t e r Vancouver. Moreover, i t i s one s t e p toward t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p o l i c y t o improve park q u a l i t y and p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s o f p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l r e s i d e n t s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . m o b i l e home pa r k s was based on t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e s e p a r k s a r e s u b j e c t t o unwarranted c r i t i c i s m from a s t e r e o -t y p e d p o i n t o f view and o f t e n u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d c l a i m s o f problems and/or i n a d e q u a c i e s . The st u d y does i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some o l d e r p a r k s , i n c l u d i n g poor l o c a t i o n , p a r k redevelopment, and combined commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l o p e r a t i o n s . Other problems found i n p a r k s o f any age i n c l u d e e n t r a n c e r e s t r i c t i o n s , r e n t c o n t r o l , t h e l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , and poor d e s i g n . I n a r e a s such as t h e lo w e r m a i n l a n d t h e s e o c c u r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s i g n i f i c a n t s h o r t a g e o f m o b i l e home park s p a c e s . The r e s e a r c h has c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s no such e n t i t y as a t y p i c a l o l d e r m o b i l e home park and t h a t vague g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o b o t h i n d i f f e r e n c e M o t i v a t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e t o p i c o f o l d e r and i n t o l e r a n c e . G e n e r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f f e r e d p r o v i d e a framework f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f problems w h i c h can account f o r t h e e x t e n t o f v a r i e t y among p a r k s and can g u i d e p o l i c y -making . Methodology The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s was a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m o b i l e homes and m o b i l e home p a r k s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the Canadian e x p e r i e n c e . A d i s c u s s i o n o f the s t a t e o f the Canadian m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y as a h o u s i n g p r o v i d e r , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e slow-down i n the growth o f t h i s i n d u s t r y s i n c e 19 74, h e l p s c l a r i f y the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o d u c t i o n o f m o b i l e homes and the m o b i l e home park as a ty p e o f l a n d use. T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e stu d y a l s o examines r e g u l a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes and m o b i l e home p a r k s . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s i s the i n n o v a t i v e r o l e p l a y e d by the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n m o b i l e home l e g i s l a t i o n . The e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n t h i s t h e s i s i s j u s t i f i e d by b o t h the l a c k o f Canadian academic l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s s u b j e c t and the n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t background and c o n t e x t f o r the e m p i r i c a l s t u d y . The second s t e p , a major p a r t o f t h e s t u d y , p r e s e n t s e m p i r i c a l d a t a on e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l , o p e r a t i o n a l , and management c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 30 o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s i n L a n g l e y , S u r r e y , C o q u i t l a m and Maple R i d g e . Data was 6 o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h f i r s t - h a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s e p a r k s and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r k managers and o t h e r p a r t i e s concerned about the p r o v i s i o n f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . These d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n n a r r a t i v e and g r a p h i c form. The i n t e r v i e w s i n c l u d e d some f i x e d q u e s t i o n s as t o park age, s i z e , a m e n i t i e s and so on, b u t were u n s t r u c t u r e d f o r the most p a r t due t o the n a t u r e o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e r e a c t i o n s o f many r e s p o n d e n t s . The i n f o r m a t i o n assembled l e a d s one, t o c o n c l u d e t h a t some problems a r e r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t and t h a t some o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s i n the lo w e r m a i n l a n d a r e a problem t o one degree o r a n o t h e r . T h i s d a t a i s n o t i n t e n d e d as d e f i n i t i v e , r a t h e r they s u p p o r t c e r t a i n t h e o r i e s and s e r v e as a means o f comparison among o l d e r p a r k s . a) S e l e c t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f s t u d y a r e a :  The s u b j e c t a r e a f o r t h i s s t u d y i s b a s i c a l l y t h e r u r a l - u r b a n t r a n s i t i o n zone around G r e a t e r Vancouver. T h i s f r i n g e a r e a s e r v e s as an a p t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a r e a s i n w h i c h most o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s i n the r e g i o n a r e l o c a t e d . W i t h i n the f r i n g e a r e a i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h among t h e p a r k s on a s t r i c t l y l o c a t i o n a l b a s i s because o f the uniqueness o f the s u b j e c t a r e a and the d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n s , ages and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 7 m o b i l e home p a r k s . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n q u e s t i o n a r e s e m i - r u r a l b u t r a p i d l y u r b a n i z i n g a r e a s which d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from o l d e r suburbs and towns such as Burnaby and New W e s t m i n s t e r . I n the f r i n g e a r e a t h e r e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been space f o r park development; and l a n d use c o n f l i c t s a r e , i f not a c c e p t e d , t o l e r a t e d as a f a c t o f m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t o r y p r a c t i c e . P o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e placement and o p e r a t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s can and do d i f f e r d r a m a t i c a l l y between t h i s f r i n g e and more u r b a n i z e d a r e a s . F i n a l l y t h e st u d y a r e a i s d e f i n e d by m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s . C r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n were m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n o f m o b i l e home park development, demand f o r m o b i l e home spaces based on a c c e s s t o urban s e r v i c e s , market demand demonstrably e x c e e d i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f space, and e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f m o b i l e home park development. b) Sources o f d a t a : The d a t a was c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y by: 1) Assembly and r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e , s t u d i e s and r e p o r t s d e a l i n g w i t h m o b i l e homes and m o b i l e home p a r k s . 2) E x t e n s i v e v i s i t s i n s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the stud y a r e a t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h f i r s t hand o b s e r v a t i o n and c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s , p l a n n e r s a t 8 a l l l e v e l s o f government i n v o l v e d w i t h the development a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s , p a r k managers, d e a l e r s ' and r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s , and M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and Housing O f f i c i a l s . 3) Review o f p u b l i c c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n M i n i s t r y f i l e s , a d d r e s s e d t o l o c a l newspapers and government o f f i c e s , d e a l i n g w i t h problems e x p e r i e n c e d by m o b i l e home owners. 4) A t t e n d a n c e a t meetings o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y , l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , M i n i s t r y O f f i c i a l s and t e n a n t s through a summer p o s i t i o n i n 1978, w i t h the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . These s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e v a i l i n g l o c a l government a t t i t u d e s toward m o b i l e home p a r k s and o t h e r t y p e s o f m o b i l e home development, e x p e r i m e n t s i n model m o b i l e home development and c u r r e n t and a n t i c i p a t e d problems w i t h m o b i l e home park development. The a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n problems w h i c h a r e common t o many o l d e r p a r k s , and o t h e r s t y p i c a l o f m o b i l e home p a r k s r e g a r d l e s s o f age. The recommenda-t i o n s p r o v i d e a framework f o r r e v i e w i n g e x i s t i n g p o l i c y p e r t a i n i n g t o o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s . Some i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p o s s i b l e a c t i o n , and p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s a r e o u t l i n e d , and s u g g e s t i o n s a r e made f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y o f o l d e r m o b i l e home developments. CHAPTER TWO THE EVOLUTION AND NATURE OF THE MOBILE HOME AND THE MOBILE HOME PARK N o r t h Americans a r e o f t e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r h a v i n g f a i l e d t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own unique and i n d i g e n o u s d o m e s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e . W h i l e i t may not be a r c h i t e c t u r e (and t h i s p o i n t c o u l d be d e b a t e d ) , t h e m o b i l e home i s c e r t a i n l y a t r i e d and t r u e N o r t h American h o u s i n g t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l c l a r i f y t h e meanings o f "mobile home" and "mobile home pa r k . " I n so d o i n g , a v a r i e t y o f l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s become e v i d e n t . A s h o r t h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e development o f m o b i l e homes emphasizes t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t a r r i v a l on t h e h o u s i n g scene and, hence, p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r c o n f u s i o n o v e r t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e ho u s i n g market t o d a y . The m o b i l e home has been r e f e r r e d t o as a "c r a c k e r b o x " p r o d u c t w h i c h few p e o p l e t r u s t . I n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , t h e m o b i l e home park has been d e s c r i b e d as l i t t l e more th a n a p l a c e t o t i e up one's t r a i l e r , a p l a c e where s i x t y d o l l a r s w i l l r e n t c l e a r a n c e f o r beach c h a i r s and a barbecue; and $180.00 a month w i l l y i e l d a few t r e e s , macrame c l a s s e s , and a dog w e i g h t a l l o w a n c e o f 12 pounds 7 pe r space. 9 10 C a r l Edwards has responded t o such c r i t i c i s m i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: " . . . whatever i t s a e s t h e t i c s h o r t -comings, the m o b i l e home has a t l e a s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f a c t o r y approach can a c h i e v e i m p r e s s i v e c o s t and t i m e g s a v i n g s . " However, Edwards adds: I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f a p r o d u c t i s by no means a s s u r e d e i t h e r by a handsome d e s i g n o r by b e i n g e a s i l y produced. Between t h e c o n c e p t and r e a l i t y l i e the many problems o f human v a l u e s , b u i l d i n g codes, z o n i n g , l a b o u r u n i o n s , m a r k e t i n g , a e s t h e t i c s , t r a d i t i o n s , r e a l e s t a t e , f i n a n c e , p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p o l i t i c s , and e n g i n e e r i n g , - t o mention o n l y t h e u n a v o i d a b l e . ^ T e r m i n o l o g y A u d a i n noted a t t h e o u t s e t o f h i s 19 75 s t u d y o f m o b i l e homes i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t n o t h i n g i s more b o r i n g t h a n h a v i n g to f a c e a s e r i e s o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m i n o l o g y . I n t h e case o f the m o b i l e home, however, t h e r e i s c l e a r l y w i d e s p r e a d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the term. Even many l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have f a i l e d t o r e a c h some common ground on t h e n a t u r e and p l a c e o f t h i s t y p e o f d w e l l i n g . I s i t a Winnebago camped i n B a n f f ; i s i t l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g ; a second home; s h o r t - t e r m s h e l t e r ; a means f o r d e v e l o p i n g permanent s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e communities; o r i s i t t h e b u i l d i n g b l o c k f o r new d e s i g n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s . One can see i t i s not r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t what t h e m o b i l e home i s , o r , more a c c u r a t e l y , what i t i s used f o r . The Canadian S t a n d a r d s A s s o c i a t i o n d e f i n e s t h e m o b i l e home as a v e h i c u l a r p o r t a b l e s t r u c t u r e b u i l t on a c h a s s i s , 11 d e s i g n e d t o be used w i t h o r w i t h o u t permanent f o u n d a t i o n as a d w e l l i n g when c o n n e c t e d t o r e q u i r e d u t i l i t i e s . 1 ^ The r e c e n t f e d e r a l J o i n t Study Team on m o b i l e homes i n Canada acknowledges t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n a r r i v i n g a t a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n because d i f f e r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n makes d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s . The r e p o r t d e f i n e s t h e p r o d u c t as: . . . a h o u s i n g u n i t d e s i g n e d , b u i l t and c e r t i f i e d i n a f a c t o r y t o a n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d m o b i l e home s t a n d a r d f o r use as a p r i n c i p a l r e s i d e n c e . I t i s c o n s t r u c t e d complete w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y plumbing, h e a t i n g , and e l e c t r i c a l systems. I t i s d e s i g n e d t o be t r a n s p o r t e d on i t s own u n d e r - c a r r i a g e o r by o t h e r means t o a p r e p a r e d s i t e , and becomes s u i t a b l e f o r permanent occupancy a f t e r p r o p e r i n s t a l l a t i o n on f o u n d a t i o n s u p p o r t s and c o n n e c t i o n t o u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s . ^ Other d e f i n i t i o n s r e f l e c t a l e s s t e c h n i c a l approach to t h e p r o d u c t and an a m b i g u i t y o f s t a t u s not un-c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t y p i c a l r u r a l m u n i c i p a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the m o b i l e home. F o r example, t h e C i t y o f Brandon d e f i n e s the "mobile house" as a v e h i c l e t h a t : i ) i s so c o n s t r u c t e d as t o be c a p a b l e o f b e i n g a t t a c h e d t o , and drawn on highways by a motor v e h i c l e , o r w h i c h can be p r o p e l l e d by a motor v e h i c l e engine i n s t a l l e d t h e r e i n , o r t h e r e o n , and i i ) i s i n t e n d e d t o be used, and i s used by per s o n s f o r l i v i n g , s l e e p i n g , e a t i n g , o r b u s i n e s s p u r p o s e s , o r any one o r more o r a l l o f t h e s e p u r p o s e s . ^ 2 The By-law goes on t o note t h a t a m o b i l e house does not cease t o be such because i t i s a t any time removed from i t s wheels and o t h e r r u n n i n g g e a r , o r has been r a i s e d and p l a c e d on temporary s u p p o r t s . Brandon r e g a r d s an "independent" m o b i l e house as one w h i c h has a f l u s h t o i l e t 13 and a b a t h o r shower. M o b i l i t y appears t o be emphasized i n the m a j o r i t y o f l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the s t a t u s o f a m o b i l e home. The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f C o r n w a l l i s d e f i n e s a "mo b i l e house" as any compact and t r a n s p o r t a b l e d e t a c h e d o n e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , d e s i g n e d w i t h the c a p a b i l i t y o f b e i n g moved many times w i t h i n i t s u s e f u l l i f e a f t e r f a b r i c a t i o n on i t s own whe e l s , 14 o t h e r t r a i l e r s , o r d e t a c h a b l e w h e e l s . R e g u l a t i o n s made i n 19 73 under the Community Planning Act o f New Bru n s w i c k g o v e r n i n g m o b i l e home p a r k s , d e f i n e a m o b i l e home as a t r a i l e r c o n t a i n i n g a wa t e r c l o s e t and a b a t h o r shower. A t r a i l e r i s d e f i n e d as any v e h i c l e used f o r s l e e p i n g o r e a t i n g accommodation . . . and so c o n s t r u c t e d as t o be s u i t a b l e f o r b e i n g a t t a c h e d t o and drawn by a motor v e h i c l e , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t such v e h i c l e i s r a i s e d o r i t s r u n n i n g gear r e m o v e d . ^ I n S u r r e y , B.C., a m o b i l e home means a s t r u c t u r e m a nufactured as a u n i t b u t d e s i g n e d t o be t r a n s p o r t e d (By-law, 1973, No. 4140). The r e g u l a t i o n does, however, c l a r i f y , t h a t a t r a i l e r means any v e h i c l e , coach, h o u s e - c a r , o r conveyance, more commonly known as a camper, e t c . , d e s i g n e d t o t r a v e l on highways, c o n s t r u c t e d o r eq u i p p e d t o be used as temporary l i v i n g o r s l e e p i n g q u a r t e r s by t r a v e l l e r s . C o n f u s i o n a l s o seems t o a r i s e as t o whether t h e m o b i l e home i s i n d u s t r i a l i z e d h o u s i n g . To answer t h i s 13 q u e s t i o n r e q u i r e s a b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z e d h o u s i n g . I t i s b u i l t a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f f s i t e , by r e l a t i v e l y u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r , and s t a n d a r d i z e d t o p e r m i t assembly l i n e p r o d u c t i o n . There a r e e s s e n t i a l l y f o u r k i n d s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z e d h o u s i n g produced t o d a y . These i n c l u d e the s i n g l e and the double-wide m o b i l e homes, modular u n i t s , s i n g l e - f a m i l y s e c t i o n a l , and p r e f a b r i c a t e d houses. A modular u n i t i s a f a c t o r y - f a b r i c a t e d , t r a n s p o r t a b l e b u i l d i n g u n i t d e s i g n e d t o be used by i t s e l f o r t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h s i m i l a r u n i t s a t a b u i l d i n g s i t e i n t o a s t r u c t u r e t o be used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s . The modules a r e o f s t a n d a r d d i m e n s i o n s d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n - l i n e t e c h n i q u e s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h o u t c h a s s i s o v e r e x i s t i n g roads and highways. U n l i k e the m o b i l e home, modular u n i t s a r e p l a c e d on permanent f o u n d a t i o n s a t t h e s i t e and a r e governed by the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code. A s e c t i o n a l home i s a d w e l l i n g made o f two o r more modular u n i t s , f a c t o r y - f a b r i c a t e d and t r a n s p o r t e d t o the home s i t e where they a r e p u t on a f o u n d a t i o n and j o i n e d t o make a s i n g l e house. F u r t h e r m o r e , p r e - f a b r i c a t e d h o u s i n g makes use o f f a c t o r y - m a n u f a c t u r e d p a r t s i n o n - s i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a d w e l l i n g . I t i s u s e f u l t o i n c l u d e i n t h i s s e c t i o n on d e f i n i t i o n s one f u r t h e r term. There a r e s e v e r a l t y p e s o f m o b i l e home developments c u r r e n t l y i n vogue and t h e r e e x i s t a v a r i e t y o f ty p e s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h a b i t f u r t h e r on. As the Canadian S t a n d a r d s A s s o c i a t i o n has d e f i n e d f o r i t s purpose a m o b i l e home, so i t has d e f i n e d (through CSA Z240.7.1. - 1972) a m o b i l e home park as a p a r c e l o f l a n d w i t h l o t s f o r l e a s e o r r e n t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r t h e placement o f m o b i l e homes <= 4 . - 4 . 17 f o r n o n - t r a n s i e n t use. A g a i n , a more l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the term i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the C i t y o f Brandon, where the by-law does not use the term 'mobile home p a r k 1 . There a r e ' t r a i l e r p a r k s ' i n Brandon's by-law, d e f i n e d as a r e a s i n t e n d e d t o be used, and whi c h a r e used p r i m a r i l y as s i t e s f o r the p l a c i n g o r p a r k i n g o f m o b i l e houses. Dependent m o b i l e houses o r those dependent on u t i l i t y c o n n e c t i o n s can be l o c a t e d i n t r a i l e r p a r k s i n Brandon. An i n t e r e s t i n g p h r a s i n g appears i n t h e Township o f L a n g l e y By-law No. 1505 r e g u l a t i n g m o b i l e homes and p a r k s w h e r e i n i t i s deemed e x p e d i e n t t o c o n t r o l s a i d e n t i t i e s ". . . t o make them f i t f o r human h a b i t a t i o n and t o g e n e r a l l y p r o t e c t t h e h e a l t h o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y . " T h i s p h r a s e does n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e p r o g r e s s i v e manner w i t h w h i c h L a n g l e y i s d e a l i n g w i t h m o b i l e 18 home p a r k s a t t h i s t i m e . Another d e f i n i t i o n s t a t e s t h a t such a p a r k i s a m o b i l e home development, n o t h a v i n g a r e g i s t e r e d sub-d i v i s i o n p l a n o f l o t s , under s i n g l e ownership and managed by a m o b i l e home park o p e r a t o r . L o t s a r e g e n e r a l l y r e n t e d and 19 the e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s s u p p l i e d by management. Beyond d e f i n i t i o n s , t h e a c t u a l t e r m i n o l o g y b e i n g used i s not r e a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the s u b j e c t d e a l t w i t h . Rod Sykes, the former Mayor o f C a l g a r y , has l o n g been an a c t i v e and v o c a l proponent o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f m o b i l e homes. Words c r e a t e images, and Sykes b e l i e v e s t h a t the term "mobile" home c r e a t e s a bad image - t h a t i t does not i m p l y h o u s i n g , o r a t l e a s t , r e s p e c t a b l e h o u s i n g . A t any r a t e , r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e homes a r e not r e a l l y m o b i l e , i n terms o f how many tim e s they a r e moved, and t h a t i t i s becoming more d i f f i c u l t , i n t e c h n i c a l o r p h y s i c a l terms (not to mention the c o s t i n v o l v e d ) , t o move t h e l a r g e r u n i t s b e i n g m a n u f a c t u r e d . One study r e p o r t s t h a t i n t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s , 9 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e m o b i l e homes i n Canada have n o t 20 been moved. A u d a i n uses d a t a i n d i c a t i n g t h a t fewer t h a n 5 p e r c e n t o f the m o b i l e homes on c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d , i n the lo w e r m a i n l a n d , and t h e Okanagan a r e moved d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e y e a r . A h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f m o b i l e s a r e moved i n some r u r a l and n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s , as was i n the case o f the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e D i s t r i c t , where 2 0 p e r c e n t o f the m o b i l e s i n t h e r e g i o n were 21 moved i n 1974. S i n c e c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g can be moved w i t h r e l a t i v e ease by s k i l l e d companies, the term "mobile" i s c o r r e c t o n l y i n the sense t h a t h o u s i n g o f t h i s t y p e i s 16 b u i l t o f f - s i t e and i s t r a n s p o r t e d t o where i t i s g o i n g t o s i t f o r a l o n g t i m e . Other terms t o be re c k o n e d w i t h a r e "mobile home park," " t r a i l e r p a r k , " and " t r a i l e r c o u r t . " Even the term " t o u r i s t c o u r t " appears now and a g a i n . A l l o f t h e s e terms can r e f e r t o t h e same e n t i t y . A t r a v e l t r a i l e r park means a p a r c e l o f l a n d under s i n g l e ownership w h i c h has been p l a n n e d and improved f o r t h e temporary placement o f t r a v e l t r a i l e r s and o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s (motor homes, not mobile homes) f o r t r a n s i e n t use. A t r a v e l t r a i l e r p a r k i s , a c c o r d i n g t o the national Rousing Act, a p a r c e l o f l a n d p r o v i d i n g o v e r n i g h t o r s h o r t - t e r m accommodation f o r t r a v e l t r a i l e r s , r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s , campers, and t e n t t r a i l e r s . I n d i v i d u a l l o t s a r e not n o r m a l l y equipped w i t h s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s . The S u r r e y Zoning By-law s t i p u l a t e s t h a t a t o u r i s t t r a i l e r p a r k i s a p a r c e l o f l a n d w h i c h has been p l a n n e d and improved f o r t h e placement o f t r a v e l t r a i l e r s and o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s f o r transient use. T h i s By-law (No. 4140, 1973) c o n t a i n s a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n r e s e r v e d r e g u l a t i n g t o u r i s t t r a i l e r s , p a r k s , and c a m p - s i t e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s . The modern m o b i l e home park i s u s u a l l y a w e l l -p l a n n e d r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood, b u t t h e term "park" tends t o l e a d t o an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s and t h e l i k e , o r s i m p l y w i t h the i d e a o f p a r k i n g space f o r a m o b i l e home. T r a i l e r c o u r t s s t i l l e x i s t and a r e the f o r e r u n n e r s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . They a r e contemporary r e l i c s and a r e s t i l l n o t d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d i n many p a r t s o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The t r a i l e r c o u r t can v a r y i n q u a l i t y as a m o b i l e home environment, and whether c a l l e d by t h i s name o r some o t h e r , t e n d s t o be t h e w o r s t o f f e n d e r f o r c o n j u r i n g bad images o f m o b i l e homes, p a r k s , and r e s i d e n t s . Sykes b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s can r e p r e s e n t s u b s t a n d a r d l i v i n g , and t h a t t h i s o c c u r s i n many "backward" communities. I n h i s o p i n i o n , a backward community i s one t h a t has t u r n e d i t s back on m o b i l e homes, does n o t h i n g t o d e v e l o p good r e s i d e n t i a l s t a n d a r d s and s e r v i c e s o r zone l a n d f o r them i n good r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , c o m p l a i n s t h a t t h e y don't pay t h e i r f a i r share o f t a x e s , and i n a l l p o s s i b l e ways downgrades them and t h e p e o p l e who l i v e 22 i n them. I n o t h e r words, m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e e x a c t l y what l o c a l government makes them, and s u b s t a n d a r d p a r k s a r e a symbol o f s u b s t a n d a r d m u n i c i p a l government. T h i s argument was heard from many o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e The purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o f a m i l i a r i z e the r e a d e r w i t h t h e developments t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e r e g a r d i n g t h e m o b i l e home. The d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s on t h e m o b i l e as a typ e o f h o u s i n g , but i t does not p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y o f i n n o v a t i o n w i t h i n the m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y . Moreover, most o f the c o n t e n t o f t h i s s e c t i o n draws, o f n e c e s s i t y , on t h e American e x p e r i e n c e , as t h e r e has been l i t t l e d o c umentation o f t h e s u b j e c t i n Canada. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t w h i l e many comparisons i n d i c a t e s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two c o u n t r i e s , i t appears t h a t C a nadian s o c i e t y has been more r e s e r v e d i n i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the m o b i l e home phenomenon. I n l a r g e p a r t , t h i s i s a f u n c t i o n o f the s e v e r e w i n t e r c l i m a t e ; the a t t i t u d e o f C anadian s o c i e t y toward non-permanent, d w e l l i n g s ; and the f a c t t h a t m o b i l e homes c o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n Canada t h a n they do i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The g e n e s i s o f the m o b i l e home l i e s somewhere between what p r i m i t i v e man used t o c a r r y h i s w o r l d l y goods, and t h e American enshrinement o f t h e famed "Conestoga Wagon." The modern m o b i l e home stems from a q u a s i - t e n t t r a i l e r a f f a i r b e i n g c o m m e r c i a l l y produced by the S o r l i e n C e i l i n g Bed Company as e a r l y as 1921. I t was a t t h i s time t h a t a c e r t a i n Mr. M o r r i s o n o f C hicago c o n v i n c e d th e o ccupants o f 22 " o u t f i t s " camped a t Desoto P a r k i n Tampa, F l o r i d a , t h a t t hey s h o u l d o r g a n i z e f o r b e t t e r t r e a t m e n t , b e t t e r highways, and s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n . L a t e r , the T i n Can T o u r i s t C l u b o f A m e r i c a was g r a n t e d a c h a r t e r i n 1920, . . . t o u n i t e f r a t e r n a l l y a l l auto campers, and t o encourage f r i e n d s h i p s among t r a i l e r owners, f o s t e r good r e l a t i o n s w i t h l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , encourage c l e a n and wholesome e n t e r t a i n m e n t i n t r a i l e r camps, f o s t e r c l e a n l i n e s s i n t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , and p u t o u t camp-f i r e s . „ _ 19 I n 19 29, A r t h u r Sherman, a D e t r o i t v a c c i n e m a n u f a c t u r e r , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t l a r g e s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n o f t r a i l e r coaches (note the t e r m i n o l o g y ) . By 1935, Sherman's Covered Wagon Company was so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t i t was o n l y one o f t h r e e hundred t r a i l e r m a n u f a c t u r e r s . C u r i o u s l y , i t appears F o r d and G e n e r a l Motors m i s s e d an i m p o r t a n t market t r e n d around t h i s time when they d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s a l e s p o t e n t i a l f o r m o b i l e s was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y d i v e r s i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . A pre-war i s s u e o f American City magazine took an i n t e r e s t i n g s t a n d and s a i d t h e t r a i l e r was, " . . . e i t h e r t h e coming l i b e r a t o r o f the common man o r t h e most d e v a s t a t i n g , u n s o c i a l , u g l i f y i n g element s i n c e t h e s c u r g e o f 24 b i l l b o a r d s , h ot dog s t a n d s , and t h e g a s o l i n e s t a t i o n . " I f i t was t o be a u s e f u l t o o l o r p i e c e o f equipment, s a i d t h e magazine, t h i s t h r i v i n g i n f a n t i n d u s t r y would have t o be c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d and, i t n o t e d , adequate f a c i l i t i e s p l a n n e d f o r t h e accommodation o f i t s p r o d u c t s were needed, i n c l u d i n g p r o p e r l y p l a n n e d , s u p e r v i s e d , and m a i n t a i n e d t r a i l e r camps, and permanent, a t t r a c t i v e s e t t i n g s i n permanent v i l l a g e s and r o a d s i d e groups. I t was the o p i n i o n o f L e w i s Mumford t h a t t r a i l e r s would never amount t o a n y t h i n g , y e t the American Motor A s s o c i a t i o n e s t i m a t e d t r a i l e r s were h o u s i n g a m i l l i o n p e o p l e 25 i n 1936. T h i s demand f o r m o b i l e h o u s i n g p r i o r t o World War I I stemmed from d e p r e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s , a d e s i r e f o r new 20 forms o f r e t i r e m e n t h o u s i n g , and the minimum i n v e s t m e n t r e q u i r e d . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , some owners r e g a r d e d them as a means t o e l u d e the t a x c o l l e c t o r and t o a v o i d r e n t . T h i s was not an a l t o g e t h e r c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k as o n l y 17 s t a t e s had s t a t u t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e g u l a t i n g t o u r i s t camps i n 1937. A t t h i s time t h e r e began t o appear a dichotomy i n the type and q u a l i t y o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . On one hand, m i g r a t o r y w o r kers l i v e d i n p a r k s i t e s w i t h i n a d e q u a t e s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s and where o v e r - c r o w d i n g , mud, and d u s t were common. E r n e s t B a r t l e y and F r e d e r i c k B a i r , a u t h o r i t i e s on m o b i l e home p a r k s , s t a t e o f p a r k s o f t h i s type w h i c h s t i l l e x i s t : " . . . e n t i r e l y too many m o b i l e home 'parks' 2 6 a r e n ' t worthy o f the name." On the o t h e r hand, W. H. Ludlow o f the T r a i l e r Owners o f A m e r i c a made t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations f o r t r a i l e r p a r k s , based on a model park i n S a r a s o t a , F l o r i d a : p a r k s s h o u l d be c l o s e t o the CBD; some c i t i e s c o u l d f i l l i n marshes o r use o l d f a i r grounds f o r p a r k s ; some c o u l d renew slum a r e a s w i t h t r a i l e r p a r k s ; some might want them on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f town; and some c i t i e s 27 might want t o manage p a r k s d i r e c t l y . The major q u e s t i o n f a c i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was whether t o t a x the t r a i l e r as a home o r an a u t o m o b i l e , w i t h the i n d u s t r y s t r o n g l y a d v o c a t i n g v e h i c l e s t a t u s . A 1938 j o i n t r e p o r t o f t h e American M u n i c i p a l A s s o c i a t i o n and the American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s p o i n t e d t o a number o f a s p e c t s o f t r a i l e r problems, such as t r a f f i c , t a x a b l e p r o p e r t i e s , t r a i l e r camp 2 8 p l a n n i n g l a y o u t , and ow n e r s h i p . As a p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t , Canada a l r e a d y had s a n i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t r a i l e r s i n 1938 ( i n t h e p r o v i n c e s o f Saskatchewan and O n t a r i o ) c o v e r i n g v e n t i l a t i o n , f i x t u r e s , and t h e d i s c h a r g e o f w a s t e s . No such r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t e d s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r u n t i l a few y e a r s l a t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , a marked d i f f e r e n c e from the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n was t h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d a r a s h o f m u n i c i p a l o r d i n a n c e s r e s t r i c t i n g t r a i l e r use - t h a t i s , t o r e s t r i c t , b u t not t o c o m p l e t e l y d i s c o u r a g e t r a i l e r s because o f t h e t a x o r l i c e n s e revenue w h i c h they g e n e r a t e d . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y war y e a r s t h e r e was a c r i t i c a l h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e and f o r a few y e a r s the m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y boomed. However the demand p l a c e d on the i n d u s t r y produced i n f e r i o r c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s and t h e wartime m o b i l e home became a s u b s t a n d a r d d w e l l i n g u n i t . As t h e ho u s i n g s h o r t a g e p a s s e d , the N a t i o n a l Housing Agency moved away from what i t r e g a r d e d as stopgap d w e l l i n g s , and r u l e d t h a t t r a i l e r s were n o t houses. D a v i d s o n n o t e s t h e impo r t a n c e o f t h i s p e r i o d as i t marks the t r a n s i t i o n o f the m o b i l e home from a n o v e l t y t o a n e c e s s i t y , and the n t o a 29 post-war h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e . The demand f o r h o u s i n g a f t e r t he war r e s u l t e d i n a ho u s i n g c r i s i s and the m o b i l e i n d u s t r y reduced the time l a g p r e s e n t i n c o n v e n t i o n a l d w e l l i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . The r a p i d growth o f t r a i l e r p a r k s i n F l o r i d a and C a l i f o r n i a l e d l o c a l p l a n n i n g commissions i n t o t h e f i e l d o f park s t a n d a r d s . One such e a r l y code r e q u i r e d t h a t : a l l p a r k s c o n t a i n l e s s than 1000 square f e e t p e r t r a i l e r and p r e s e n t a p l a n showing the e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f each t r a i l e r and c a r ; roads must be 20 f e e t wide and h a r d - s u r f a c e d ; t r a i l e r - c o a c h e s must be n o t l e s s t h a n 10 f e e t from the r o a d ; each l o t s h o u l d p r o v i d e some method o f s c r e e n i n g so t h a t i t i s an e n t i t y s e p a r a t e from t h e r e s t o f t h e p a r k ; and a t l e a s t one shade t r e e p e r l o t . I n 1952 t h e T r a i l e r Coach M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n formed an a r c h i t e c t u r a l committee t o h e l p o p e r a t o r s p l a n and d e v e l o p p a r k s . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t o d e v e l o p an a t t r a c t i v e p a r k r e q u i r e d $50,000 i n c a p i t a l , a t a c o s t o f $500 t o $700 p e r space. Average r e n t a l i n a t r a i l e r p ark was $25 a month i n c l u d i n g u t i l i t i e s . A park c a l l e d P a r a d i s e on Wheels opened near P h o e n i x , A r i z o n a ; i t was a 160 a c r e p a r c e l w i t h 2200 square f e e t o f s h o p p i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a d e s i g n e d by Frank L l o y d W r i g h t . I n her comprehensive work, Mobile Homes: The Unrecognized Revolution in American Rousing, M a r g a r e t D r u r y i d e n t i f i e s 1955 as a s i g n i f i c a n t y e a r because i t marks the 31 b e g i n n i n g o f t h e m o b i l e home as an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d house. I t was t h e n t h a t the 10 f o o t wide model was i n t r o d u c e d , t h e r e b y r e q u i r i n g movement by t r u c k . I n 19 55 o v e r t h r e e m i l l i o n p e o p l e l i v e d i n m o b i l e homes and t h e s e u n i t s 23 c o m p r i s e d 6 p e r c e n t o f a l l h o u s i n g u n i t s produced. A second development was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f br a n c h p l a n t s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e b y d e c r e a s i n g d e l i v e r y c o s t s . T h i r d l y , the F e d e r a l Housing A u t h o r i t y s t a r t e d t o i n s u r e l o a n s up t o 6 0 p e r c e n t o f v a l u e o f a m o b i l e home park t o f i n a n c e new park c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s a c t i o n changed the s t a t u s o f t r a i l e r park developments from unimproved l a n d t o an a c c e p t e d t y p e o f h o u s i n g . F i n a l l y , t h e M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n c o n t i n u e d i t s e f f o r t s t o upgrade t h e q u a l i t y o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y . A 1958 i s s u e o f House and Home s a i d t h a t m o b i l e homes 32 s o l v e d many h o u s i n g problems. They were f a c t o r y - b u i l t ; had low l a b o u r c o s t s and code exemptions; were b u i l t q u i c k l y ; and had home and f u r n i s h i n g s on one mortgage. The a r t i c l e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t m o b i l e s were s m a l l and t h e p a r k s were b a d l y l o c a t e d , p o o r l y p l a n n e d , and l a c k i n g i n community f a c i l i t i e s and p r i v a c y . The m o b i l e home was r a t h e r s u c c i n c t l y d e f i n e d by Bronson B e r l i n i n t h i s way: ". . . i f i t l o o k s l i k e i t ' s meant t o be l i v e d i n and i t l o o k s l i k e i t r e a l l y i s n ' t meant t o be moved, b u t i t has wheels under i t , 33 i t ' s a m o b i l e home." The American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s r e p o r t e d i n 19 60 t h a t m o b i l e homes must be i n c l u d e d i n c i t y p l a n n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S o c i e t y , o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i n d u s t r y came from t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f poor p a r k s , i n a d e q u a t e t a x la w s , and the prevalence of a single mobile on a single l o t i n a 34 r e s i d e n t i a l area. Robert Katz went further and described the mobile home as just one contributor to the monotonous 35 mediocre qua l i t y of American housing. For the purpose of t h i s study therefore, the mobile home i s designed for permanent r e s i d e n t i a l housing and i s seldom moved once located i n a mobile home park. The design may, to some, be unimaginative and i n numbers, monotonous; but few forms of housing available generate the variety of opinions as to place, function, l i f e s t y l e and v i a b i l i t y . CHAPTER THREE BACKGROUND TO THE CANADIAN SITUATION I t i s now a p p r o p r i a t e t o l o o k a t t h e p l a c e o f t h e m o b i l e home i n t h e Canadian h o u s i n g market and why t h i s form of accommodation and l i f e s t y l e a p p e a l s t o a growing number o f p e o p l e . T h i s c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f the mobile.home i n d u s t r y i n Canada and s u g g e s t s f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i n d u s t r y w h i c h r e f l e c t a g e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward m o b i l e home market e x p a n s i o n . H i s t o r y T h i r t y y e a r s ago we were b e i n g t o l d t h a t h o u s i n g was a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n u n d e r g o i n g r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d 3 6 change. The ty p e o f h o u s i n g t o be b u i l t , f o r whom and by whom i t i s b u i l t , a r e m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g g r e a t c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e r e s t s and s e n t i m e n t s r o o t e d i n t h e economy, s o c i e t y , and c u l t u r e . Housing problems and p o l i c y can be i d e n t i f i e d as a c e n t r a l i s s u e i n day t o day l i f e i n t h i s c o u n t r y . The v a r i e t y o f h o u s i n g p o l i c y d e c i s i o n a r e a s emphasizes t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y t h a t a r e produced by c e r t a i n a c t i o n and n o n - a c t i o n . Some o f the i s s u e s r e l a t e d 25 t o h o u s i n g i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver d i s t r i c t can be d e s c r i b e d a s : a f f o r d a b i l i t y ; q u a l i t y ; s e r v i c e s ; a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; s p e c i a l needs; mix o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; t h e chan g i n g c h a r a c t e r o f t h e f a m i l y ; s k e p t i c i s m o v e r t h e a b i l i t y o f government t o govern; and area-wide co-o r d i n a t i o n . One can see how i t must be a c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k , t o say t h e l e a s t , f o r t h e Housing P l a n n e r i n Vancouver t o f o r m u l a t e a comprehensive h o u s i n g p o l i c y i n the f a c e o f such a m u l t i t u d e o f problems. The h o u s i n g d e l i v e r y system has a wide a r r a y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , from i n d i v i d u a l s , t e n a n t and community groups t o government a g e n c i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l a b o u r . I t i s the i n t e r p l a y among t h e s e a c t o r s w h i c h r e s u l t s i n t h e form and s u p p l y o f h o u s i n g . B u t w h i c h a c t o r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what? Even the " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " i s a d i f f i c u l t c o n c e p t t o r e l a t e t o h o u s i n g . There e x i s t s a g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , a m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ( p o l i t i c s ) , a m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t e r e s t ( t o m i n i m i z e problems), and p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s ( t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o v i d i n g o f s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , e d u c a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c i n g o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) . R o l e s a r e u n c l e a r i n h o u s i n g . To i l l u s t r a t e , m o b i l e homes have been d e a l t w i t h by no l e s s t h a n seven d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s i n O n t a r i o , each h a v i n g i t s own 37 i n t e r e s t . One m i n i s t r y i s co n c e r n e d w i t h whether m o b i l e homes are going to hurt the municipal f i n a n c i a l structure, and another one i s making sure that they are not too big to be c a r r i e d on l o c a l roads. Many of the housing problems i n Canada are related to our general reluctance to accept change and innovation i n th i s f i e l d . The roots of our society are i n the land and i t i s land which i s the integral part of our concept of home. We f i n d i t hard to understand how people can actually choose to l i v e i n mobile home parks, and the idea of renting space seems to reinforce the attitude that mobile homes are l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t than apartments. Drury's opinion applies equally to Canada: . . . the concept of "home" i s sacred to Americans, and there i s expected natural resistance to change in t h i s concept. The idea of making that "home" a consumer product that could have a lim i t e d l i f e rubs against the grain of an American i d e a l . r Why people choose the mobile home l i f e s t y l e w i l l be discussed a b i t further on, but f i r s t i t i s appropriate to see what has happened i n Canada up to thi s time regarding mobile homes. The mobile home industry i n Canada f i r s t appeared i n the la t e nineteen-forties, as a function of the great increase i n population growth. Better s i t e s became available, the quality of construction of the units was improved, and more occupants with r e l a t i v e l y higher incomes seemed to help create an improved image of the mobile home. 28 I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x a c t number o f p l a n t s o r p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n d u s t r y i n t h e l a t e 1940's, bu t as an o f f i c i a l o f t h e Canadian M o b i l e Home A s s o c i a t i o n has s a i d , i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t t h e r e were not many, i f any, as most o f the m o b i l e homes i n Canada a t 39 t h a t t i m e were made i n t h e U.S. The c o m p e t i t i o n among p r o d u c e r s l e d t o e x t e n s i v e s t r e a m l i n i n g o f d e s i g n . T h i s i n t u r n produced t h e infamous t e a r - d r o p shape - v e r t i c a l s i d e s , b u t t h e f r o n t , r o o f , and back f o r m i n g a c o n t i n u o u s a r c . One has o n l y t o t r y t o walk e r e c t i n t h i s t y p e o f u n i t t o a p p r e c i a t e i n n o v a t i o n i n d e s i g n . Many m o b i l e homes o f t h i s d e s i g n can s t i l l be seen t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . By t h e mid 19 50's t h e u n i t s had a g a i n become more v e r t i c a l i n d e s i g n . C u r i o u s l y , when the m o b i l e home s t a r t e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d more a t y p e o f h o u s i n g by b o t h buyers and m a n u f a c t u r e r s , t h e l a t t e r d i d l i t t l e t o make the u n i t appear more l i k e a c o n v e n t i o n a l home because th e b u y e r s p r e f e r r e d aluminum and s t e e l s t r u c t u r e s d e s i g n e d and p a i n t e d t o appear more l i k e a u t o m o t i v e equipment t h a n -t , , . 4 0 c o n v e n t i o n a l d w e l l i n g s . By t h e mid 1950's t h e r e were f o u r m o b i l e home p l a n t s i n Canada, employing from t h r e e t o f o u r hundred p e o p l e . The c o s t o f a u n i t was i n t h e $4 000 range and t h e u n i t was no l a r g e r t h a n e i g h t by t h i r t y - f i v e f e e t . T h i s i s about t h e a r e a o f t h e l i v i n g room i n some modern u n i t s . A t t h i s t i me the number o f u n i t s produced y e a r l y was s t i l l 29 i n s i g n i f i c a n t , e s p e c i a l l y when compared t o t h e 60,000 u n i t s b u i l t i n the U.S. i n 1947. As l a t e as 1963, o n l y 1562 m o b i l e homes were produced i n Canada. No i n d u s t r y r e c o r d s o r s t a t i s t i c s were k e p t u n t i l 19 63, n e a r l y t e n y e a r s l a t e r t h a n i n t h e U.S. From 19 54 t o 19 69 the most p o p u l a r model o f t h e m o b i l e u n i t was t h e 10-wide by 50 (10 f e e t wide by 50 f e e t l o n g ) . By 1969 i t a c c o u n t e d f o r 98 p e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n i n 41 t h e U.S. The 12-wide was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1962. Highway movement r e s t r i c t i o n s d e l a y e d r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h i s model, b u t by the end o f the decade over h a l f o f the u n i t s s h i p p e d were 12 f e e t wide and 60 f e e t l o n g . D u r i n g t h i s t i me the Canadian market c o n t i n u e d t o depend on American models t o meet i t s e v e r i n c r e a s i n g needs. N e v e r t h e l e s s , by 19 69, t h e Canadian m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y was a 75 m i l l i o n d o l l a r e n t e r p r i s e . Twenty m a n u f a c t u r e r s produced a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10,000 u n i t s , and p r i c e s ranged from seven t o n i n e thousand d o l l a r s . D u r i n g the e a r l y 19 70's t h e i n d u s t r y i n t r o d u c e d t h e 14-wide model and the double- w i d e . I n t h e U.S. t h e r e has even been some l i m i t e d p r o d u c t i o n and shipment o f 16-wide m o b i l e homes and " t r i p l e - w i d e s " ( w i t h up t o 2500 square f e e t o f f l o o r s p a c e ) . I n Canada t h e y e a r s 19 70 t h r o u g h 19 73 saw the m o b i l e home phenomenon t a k e o f f . Between 1968 and 1974 the growth r a t e f o r the i n d u s t r y was o v e r 25 p e r c e n t 42 a n n u a l l y . I n 19 74 d o m e s t i c and i m p o r t e d m o b i l e homes 30 a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21 p e r c e n t o f s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g s t a r t s (see T a b l e 1 ) . I n t h a t peak y e a r t h e Canadian i n d u s t r y b u i l t o v e r 28,000 m o b i l e homes and 43 employed more th a n 5000 workers i n 4 3 p l a n t s . The C e n t r e f o r Auto S a f e t y i n t h e U.S. has o u t l i n e d t h e f o r m u l a f o r the s u c c e s s o f the m o b i l e home, and the same f o r m u l a can be a p p l i e d t o Canada. I t i s a r a d i c a l d e v i a t i o n from the b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and f i n a n c i n g and m a r k e t i n g methods o f c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g ; m o b i l e homes a r e produced and s o l d more l i k e a u t o m o b i l e s than houses. The m o b i l e home i s not p u t up by a l o c a l c o n t r a c t o r b u t manufactured by l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s . I t i s b u i l t not on l o c a t i o n b u t on f a c t o r y assembly l i n e s . I t i s s o l d n o t by a d e v e l o p e r o r r e a l t o r b u t by a d e a l e r , and f i n a n c e d ( i n the main) not as a house b u t as a c a r . More-o v e r , e x c e p t f o r z o n i n g , m o b i l e homes have been s u b j e c t e d o n l y m i n i m a l l y t o c o n t r o l s by l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , o r f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s . Most i m p o r t a n t , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , a new m o b i l e home was much cheaper ( a t l e a s t o n e - h a l f t h e c o s t ) t h a n a new c o n v e n t i o n a l home; and t h e growth o f t h i s market has been a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f government s u b s i d i e s by and 44 l a r g e . The r e p o r t o f the J o i n t Study Team i n Canada pu t s i t s u c c i n c t l y : . . . t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s i n g l e - f a m i l y detached h o u s i n g a t a v e r y low s e l l i n g p r i c e t h a t i s i n s t a n t l y a v a i l a b l e and o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t b u t a t t r a c t i v e l i f e s t y l e , has been adequate t o o v e r -come s u b s t a n t i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s _ TABLE I MOBILE HOME MARKET PENETRATION CANADA Mobile Home Single-Family Mobile Homes Shipments Mobile Homes Starts Total As a Dwelling Starts (Including T o t a l As a Percentage Excluding Canadian Percentage of Excluding Mobile Imports) Canadian of Total Mobile Homes S ingle-Family Total Single-Year Homes-CMHC Data (CMHA Data) Housing Canadian Housing (CMHC) Homes Family Starts 1967 164,123 6,646 170,769 4.0% 72,534 79,183 8.4% 1968 196,878 9,150 206,028 4.4% 75,339 84,489 10.8% 1969 210,415 12,753 223,168 5.7% 78,404 91,157 14.0% 1970 190,528 12,272 202,800 6.1% 70,749 " 83,021 14.8% 1971 233,653 18,905 252,558 7.5% 98,056 116,961 16.2% 1972 249,914 25,029 274,943 9.1% 115,570 140,599 17.8% 1973 268,529 29,434 297,963 9.9% 131,552 160,986 18.2% 1974 222,123 33,090 255,213 13.0% 122,143 155,233 21.3% 1975 231,456 24,455 255,911 9.6% 123,929 148,384 16.5% 1976 273,203 21,126 294,329 7.2% 134,313 155,439 13.6% 1977* 241,400 16,598 257,998 6.4% 1st h a l f *Based on seasonally adjusted data through June 30, 1977. Adjustment factors from Woods, Gordon & Co. Imports estimated. 32 G e o g r a p h i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M o b i l e Homes i n Canada - G e n e r a l P e r s p e c t i v e M o b i l e homes can be found i n v i r t u a l l y a l l s e t t l e d r e g i o n s o f t h i s c o u n t r y and i n some l a r g e l y u n s e t t l e d a r e a s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e i n d u s t r y has de v e l o p e d i n two d i s t i n c t g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s , S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o , and t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y A l b e r t a and s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l umbia. The development o f r e s o u r c e - b a s e d communities has been an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e growth o f the i n d u s t r y i n Western Canada. M o b i l e homes a r e n o t found i n downtown T o r o n t o , Vancouver, o r Edmonton, though m o b i l e home pa r k s can be found not f a r from the c e n t r e o f Edmonton, Burnaby, P o r t Moody and C o q u i t l a m . Where t h e m o b i l e i s l o c a t e d i n o r near a major urban a r e a , i t i s u s u a l l y w i t h i n an o r g a n i z e d p a r k , d e s i g n e d f o r such a purpose. I t was s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t Canadians have g e n e r a l l y been more r e l u c t a n t t h a n t h e U.S. to a c c e p t m o b i l e homes as a l e g i t i m a t e form o f h o u s i n g . B r i t i s h Columbia, on t h e o t h e r hand, has been r e f e r r e d t o as t h e "mobile home 4 6 h e a r t l a n d o f Canada." Indeed, t h e r e were 620 m o b i l e home par k s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i n 1974 (see T a b l e I I ) . T a b l e s I I I and IV p r o v i d e a p a t t e r n f o r c o m p a r i s o n . No o t h e r p r o v i n c e approaches the B.C. f i g u r e . F o r co m p a r a t i v e purposes, t h e M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n i n the U.S. e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n excess o f 26,000 m o b i l e home pa r k s were o p e r a t i n g i n 19 68 ( p r o v i d i n g 33 TABLE I I ESTIMATED NUMBER OF MOBILE HOMES IN PLACE IN CANADA -• DECEMBER 31, 19 74 Number of P a r k s Number o f M o b i l e Homes i n P a r k s Number o f ; M o b i l e Homes not i n P a r k s T o t a l Newfoundland 14 650 4,202 4, 852 P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 13 894 894 1, 788 Nova S c o t i a 77 6,153 9, 300 15,453 New B r u n s w i c k 78 3,500 8,193 11,693 Quebec 155 10,500 17,819 28,319 O n t a r i o 134 9,400 21,248 30,648 Man i t o b a 37 2,900 6,740 9, 640 Saskatchewan 167 5, 338 4,700 10,038 A l b e r t a 279 13,600 9, 311 22,911 B r i t i s h Columbia 620 26,700 17,720 44,420 T o t a l 1, 574 79,635 100,127 179,762 Source: M o b i l e Homes, Problems and P r o s p e c t s i n e x c e s s o f 1.5 m i l l i o n s p a c e s ) , w i t h o v e r 1300 new p a r k s b e i n g b u i l t i n the n a t i o n each y e a r . C a l i f o r n i a , F l o r i d a , and A r i z o n a , r e s p e c t i v e l y , l e a d t h a t n a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l number o f m o b i l e homes. A u d a i n was n o t o v e r s t a t i n g t h e case when he r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e i s h a r d l y a town o r v i l l a g e i n B r i t i s h C olumbia t h a t does n o t c o n t a i n one o r more m o b i l e home p a r k s , u s u a l l y l o c a t e d on the o u t s k i r t s o f t h e community. The r e p o r t s t a t e s : TABLE I I I ESTIMATED NUMBER OF MOBILE HOMES IN PLAGE IN CANADA DECEMBER 31, 1976 CMHA STATISTICS M o b i l e s i n P e r c e n t a g e M o b i l e s Not Pe r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e P r o v i n c e P a r k s o "o i n P a r k s o, "5 T o t a l o "o Newfoundland 747 13.4% 4, 832 86.6% 5, 579 100.0% P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 970 50.0% 969 50.0% 1,939 100.0% Nova S c o t i a 6, 840 39.8% 10,339 60.2% 17,179 100.0% New B r u n s w i c k 3,927 29.9% 9,196 70.1% 13,123 100.0% Quebec 13,277 37.1% 22,528 62.9% 35,805 100.0% O n t a r i o 10,872 30.7% 24,571 69 .3% 35,443 100.0% M a n i t o b a 3,442 30.1% 7,999 69.9% 11,441 100.0% Saskatchewan 7,165 53.2% 6, 307 46.8% 13,472 100.0% A l b e r t a 20,079 59.4% 13,739 40.6% 33,818 100.0% B r i t i s h C olumbia 30,736 60.1% 20,399 39 .9% 51,135 100.0% NWT & Yukon - - - - 176* 100.0% 98,055 44 .8% 120,879 55.2% 219,110 100.0% * s i n c e 1974 CMHA e s t i m a t e s o f m o b i l e homes i n and o u t o f p a r k s were used as a b a s i s (December 31, 1974). 35 TABLE IV NUMBER OF MOBILE HOME PARKS AND MOBILE HOMES IN CANADA - 19 68 Number Number o f Number o f M o b i l e M o b i l e o f Homes i n Homes not P r o v i n c e P a r k s P a r k s i n P a r k s T o t a l Newfoundland 8 538 700 1,238 P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 7 357 250 607 Nova S c o t i a 47 1, 599 1,600 3,199 New B r u n s w i c k 31 1, 511 2, 789 4, 300 Quebec 60 2, 500 4, 500 7, 000 O n t a r i o 81 3, 676 8, 324 12,000 Man i t o b a 20 1, 041 3,959 5,000 Saskatchewan 132 3, 000 1, 700 4, 700 A l b e r t a 105 3, 789 4,450 8,239 B r i t i s h Columbia 230 3,950 4, 200 8,150 721 21,961 32,472 54,433 Source: Canadian M o b i l e Home and T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n , Brief to the Federal Task Force on Housing and Urban Development, December, 1968, p. 10. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 0 p e r c e n t o f the m o b i l e homes i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e s i t u a t e d i n s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d m o b i l e home p a r k s , w h i c h range from a t t r a c t i v e , f u l l y s e r v i c e d p a r k s . . . t o r u d i m e n t a r y c o l l e c t i o n s o f rundown u n i t s t h a t would p r o b a b l y even embarrass John S t e i n b e c k ' s "Cannery Row."^ The major c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e s e p a r k s a r e i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d (west from Hope), the Okanagan, e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d , and around P r i n c e George. There a r e hundreds o f m o b i l e homes i n t h e Kootenays b u t most o f t h e s e a r e not l o c a t e d i n p a r k s . 36 Most of the mobile home parks can be found some distance away from c i t y services and they must therefore provide t h e i r own, to one degree or another. These services are often not up to health, f i r e or density standards, with the s i t u a t i o n tolerated due to a lack of regulations or the enforcement of them. However, i t i s precisely this process which has permitted s i t e s to be developed without the costs or red tape which plague conventional housing development. Forty percent of the mobile homes i n thi s province are not located i n parks, and those s t a t i s t i c s that do exist appear to indicate that more mobile homes i n Canada are located on private l o t s than i n parks. Wells and septic tanks are the order of the day and the si t e s are often substandard, based on l o c a l by-laws and the National Building Code. Nevertheless, these s i t e s are serving a purpose, and as one recent report has said: . . . the costs of development, operation, and taxes tend to be lower than those provided for s i t e b u i l t housing, (and) owners of mobile homes express general s a t i s f a c t i o n with th e i r l i f e s t y l e . In a l a t e r section dealing with alternative forms of land development for mobile homes i t w i l l be seen that there i s a trend toward locating these units i n subdivisions i n some mun i c i p a l i t i e s . The M o b i l e Home L i f e s t y l e J u s t as p e o p l e who l i v e i n apartments, townhouses, and s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s have a s t y l e o f l i v i n g somewhat p e c u l i a r t o t h e type o f d w e l l i n g , so too t h e m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t has devel o p e d a l i f e s t y l e . Why have th e s e owners o r r e n t e r s chosen t h i s way o f l i f e ? A t one time i t was a common b e l i e f t h a t o n l y m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s , vagabonds, and g y p s i e s i n h a b i t e d "house t r a i l e r s . " Today t h e r e a r e e i g h t m i l l i o n Americans and s e v e r a l hundred thousand Canadians l i v i n g i n m o b i l e homes. Who they a r e and why they do so has been the s u b j e c t o f many s t u d i e s . I f one goes by the r e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l s u r v e y s i n Canada and the U.S., one c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t d i v e r s i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n , income, and age group a r e the p a t t e r n o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s . They a r e , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t e a c h e r s , bus d r i v e r s , f a r m e r s , r e t i r e d c o u p l e s , and young m a r r i e d s . B u t what seems t o be d i v e r s i t y can be m i s l e a d i n g a c c o r d i n g t o d a t a on two m i l l i o n m o b i l e home owners i n the U.S. i n the 49 197 0 c e n s u s . Only 2 p e r c e n t o f the m o b i l e home households were headed by b l a c k s ; the average income f o r a m o b i l e home f a m i l y i n 1970 was 7000 d o l l a r s (the n a t i o n a l median was 9 59 0 d o l l a r s t h a t y e a r ) ; o n l y 6 o f eve r y 100 m o b i l e home owners earned more than 15,000 d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y (compared w i t h 17 o f eve r y 100 persons i n the w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n as a w h o l e ) ; 83 p e r c e n t o f the owners o f m o b i l e homes a r e m a r r i e d 38 couples; and 60 percent of the owners are bl u e - c o l l a r workers (where only one t h i r d of the American work-force i s so classed). Moore's 1962 study i n the U.S. attempted to derive some more s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of mobile home owners. ^ He interviewed 167 families, representing each major stage of the family l i f e cycle, i n various regions of the country. Better parks were chosen since the aim of the study was to observe optimal mobile home l i v i n g . Young married people gave the following reasons for l i v i n g i n mobile homes: 1) to b u i l d up equity 2) the economy of purchase ( t y p i c a l l y compared to apartment l i v i n g ) 3) the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of adequate alternatives 4) the possible temporary nature of employment Analysts suspect the l a s t reason stated may represent a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n for what the respondents at a more basic l e v e l think i s cheaper, more sensible l i v i n g for them. A l l the surveys of mobile home owners i n Canada have indicated that the cost factor was the major reason for 51 buying a mobile home. Other reasons include the ease of maintenance; ease of mobility (this appeared to have more to do with the r e l a t i v e ease of buying and disposing of the unit ) ; an alternative to rental accommodation (for young 39 f a m i l i e s ) ; and the source of friends and mutual support provided by mobile home parks. Studies i n Nova Scotia reveal that mobile home owners come from every walk of l i f e and that incomes vary considerably. One report states: . . . Certainly, i t can be said that those l i v i n g i n mobile home parks have a much broader cross-section of income than i s found i n conventional subdivisions or c i t y blocks or developments. While there are some r e l a t i v e l y low-income persons l i v i n g i n the units, many with substantial incomes have selected the mobile home simply because of the lack of accommodation. c„ One of the most int e r e s t i n g things to emerge from studies of mobile home residents i s the importance of the mobile home environment. This i s the basis of many community-oriented studies, whether they are oriented toward physical, s o c i a l , or i n s t i t u t i o n a l factors. The community aspect i s c r i t i c a l for Bartley and Bair, who believe that, generally speaking, and c e r t a i n l y i n urban and urbanizing 53 areas, the mobile home belongs i n a good mobile home park. And this i s what Richard Duke suggested i n 19 53: . . . Since ' t r a i l e r i t e s 1 form a community, perhaps i t i s best to f i r s t study the occupants of t r a i l e r s , j u s t as you study a permanent community. . . . Before we can determine how to improve the ^ situ a t i o n , we must decide th e i r needs. . . . Community studies indicate v i t a l i t y and neighbour-li n e s s i n mobile parks. Contractor observed t h i s process i n 55 her thesis several years ago. A sense of community s p i r i t i s perhaps one of the main elements i n the a t t r a c t i o n of the mobile l i f e s t y l e ; owners are frequently ardent advocates 40 (and o f t e n d e f e n d e r s ) o f t h e i r p r e f e r r e d h o u s i n g c h o i c e . One can a l s o s p e c u l a t e t h a t m o b i l e homes o f f e r a sense o f i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y . W h i l e c r i t i c s speak o f "mobile monotony" ( m o b i l e homes l o o k l i k e m o b i l e homes), and p a r k s t h a t resemble f i e l d s o f d e n s e l y packed c o f f i n s , t h e r e i s an i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n t h i s mass produced p r o d u c t , somewhat a k i n t o t h a t w h i c h a t t r a c t s us t o t h e a u t o m o b i l e . A t any r a t e , how d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a r e c o n v e n t i o n a l homes w h i c h w i n d t h e i r way around j i g - s a w c r e s c e n t s i n suburban t r a c t s ? A t h i r d element w h i c h seems b a s i c to t h e m o b i l e l i f e s t y l e i s t h a t many owners f e e l a sense o f f i n a n c i a l freedom. The s h o r t e r f i n a n c i a l commitments and e a s i e r , cheaper maintenance seem t o be t h e i n g r e d i e n t s f o r a f o r m u l a w h i c h saves money y e t p e r m i t s home o w n e r s h i p . The m o b i l e p a r k l i f e s t y l e p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e n t a homesite w i t h o u t l o s i n g the "homeowner" i d e n t i t y . The J o i n t Study Team makes some comments r e g a r d i n g l i f e s t y l e w h i c h are a p p r o p r i a t e : . . . W h i l e many r e s t r i c t i o n s may be p l a c e d on the (mobile) home's a c c e s s i b i l i t y by way o f f i n a n c i n g , p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s , and p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s , i t i s t h e m o b i l e home owner and h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f the m o b i l e home environment t h a t c o u n t s . r r 56 and w i t h r e g a r d t o the economic sense o f the m o b i l e l i f e -s t y l e : . . . V i e w i n g a house as a dynamic i n v e s t m e n t w i t h as much c h a r a c t e r as a p o t a t o f u t u r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t phenomenon. S e c u r i t y i n a home used t o mean a r e f u g e where one's f a m i l y l i f e was u n c h a l l e n g e d and t h e s t r u c t u r e would w i t h s t a n d t h e e l e m e n t s . Today s e c u r i t y i s d e f i n e d by e q u i t y ( o r i t s p o t e n t i a l ) , g r o s s debt s e r v i c e r a t i o s and the a b i l i t y t o horse t r a d e h o u s i n g " u n i t s . " 5 7 P r e s e n t S t a t e o f the M o b i l e Home  I n d u s t r y i n Canada R e f e r e n c e has been made t o 19 74 as t h e peak y e a r where m o b i l e homes a c c o u n t e d f o r 13 p e r c e n t o f a l l new hou s i n g u n i t s i n Canada. From t h a t y e a r , however, t h e growth r a t e o f the i n d u s t r y r e v e r s e d , and by 1976 m o b i l e homes a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 7 p e r c e n t o f the new h o u s i n g market. T h i s downward t r e n d i s s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g and t h e r e a r e some b a s i c r e a s o n s . T a b l e V below shows the c o l l a p s e o f the market i n Nova S c o t i a , t h e major market f o r m o b i l e homes 5 8 i n t h e M a r i t i m e s . TABLE V COMBINED MANUFACTURERS' STATISTICAL DATA -NOVA SCOTIA T o t a l Shipments i n Year M a n u f a c t u r e d Nova S c o t i a 1972 736 309 1973 1,042 338 1974 839 300 1975 959 447 1976 550 269 T o t a l 4,126 1,663 1977 (Jan.-June) 49 25 The f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the slowdown o f the m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y a r e d i s c u s s e d n e x t . Economic R e c e s s i o n The n a t i o n a l economy e n t e r e d a p e r i o d o f r e c e s s i o n i n l a t e 1974, and many p r o s p e c t i v e home b u y e r s i n Canada postponed t h e purchase o f a new home. F o r many o f t h e s e p e o p l e i t i s s t i l l n o t p o s s i b l e t o e n t e r t h e h o u s i n g market. F i g u r e 1 below shows t h e r e c e n t h i s t o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n between m o b i l e homes, c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g , and Canada's g r o s s 59 n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t . FIGURE 1 MOBILE HOMES, TOTAL HOUSING STARTS AND THE GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 === Change (%) i n Mobile Home Shipments, Over Previous Year (CMHA) Change (%) i n Total Housing Starts, Over Previous Year (CMHA) Change (%) i n GNP Per Person Employed, Over Previous Year (STATS-CANADA) — — Mobile Home shipments that should have been anticipated The A s s i s t e d Home Ownership P l a n (AHOP) T h i s f e d e r a l h o u s i n g program, begun i n 1974, i n i t i a l l y i n v o l v e d b o t h n o n - r e p a y a b l e s u b s i d i e s and i n t e r e s t - r e d u c t i o n l o a n s . To some e x t e n t AHOP was s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o v i d i n g a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g . The program reduced i n i t i a l mortgage payments, t h e r e b y a t t r a c t i n g b u y e r s who might have e l e c t e d t o pu r c h a s e a m o b i l e home w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s needs t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d , b u t F i g u r e 2 shows t h a t t h e t i m i n g o f AHOP c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e d e c l i n e o f m o b i l e home p u r c h a s e s . T a b l e VI a l s o p r o v i d e s d a t a r e f l e c t i n g t h e p r e s s u r e w h i c h AHOP has p l a c e d on t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y a c r o s s C a n a d a . 6 0 M o b i l e home m a n u f a c t u r e r s a r e f r e e e n t e r p r i s e r s y e t the y b e l i e v e t h a t government h o u s i n g a s s i s t a n c e programs s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d f o r m o b i l e s t o a l l o w c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l b u i l d e r s . The m a n u f a c t u r e r s would l i k e t o see t h i s a s s i s t a n c e made a v a i l a b l e t o m o b i l e home buyers and l a n d d e v e l o p e r s . T h i s must go a g a i n s t t h e g r a i n o f t h e i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l s i n c e the absence o f government c o n t r o l s has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g m o b i l e homes as low c o s t h o u s i n g . Pu t b r i e f l y , governments a t v i r t u a l l y e v e r y l e v e l have n o t t a k e n t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n g i v i n g t h e m o b i l e home adequate r e c o g n i t i o n and t h e f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l home owner. 44 FIGURE 2 MOBILE HOME SHIPMENTS AND AHOP SALES CANADA 1974 1975 1976 1977 1st half io.ep< 7.2% 1 7 * T o t a l S t a r t s If. 6 0/' AHOP Sales b.&*~ Mobile Home Shipments BRITISH COLUMBIA (Including N.W.T. & Yukon) 1974 1975 1976 1977 1st Half ALBERTA 1111 1U1 j. a% ToS. IA.S. 1.1 v° M.H.S, 1974 1975 1976 1977 1st Half b Mid 22.V' 1=1.2*= T.S. 1.3" A.S. 13.7 % M.H.S. Note: In Alberta the AHOP program has not developed s ign i f i cant ly . The province has i t s own provincial equivalent program. TABLE VI COMPARISON OF MOBILE HOME SHIPMENTS AND PRIVATE AHOP HOUSING SALES REFLECTING PENETRATION % TRENDS Six Months Average Unsold Est. Future Ended Monthly Designated Months Sales 1974 1975 1976 June 30, 1977 AHOP Sales Inventory :  UNITS % UNITS % UNITS % UNITS % Dec/June 1977 June 30, 1977 In Inventory MARITIMES: AHOP S a l e s 605 11 1,074 26 1,251 51 790 76 131 1,044 7, .9 M.H. Shipments 4,959 89 3,024 74 1,191 49 244 24 TOTAL 5.564 100 4.098 100 2.442 100 1.034 100 QUEBEC: AHOP S a l e s 3,055 35 5,155 51 6,783 59 4,585 71 764 5,031 6. .5 M.H. Shipments 5,719 65 4,955 49 4,712 41 1,844 29 TOTAL 8,774 100 10.110 100 11.495 100 6.429 100 ONTARIO: AHOP S a l e s 660 12 3,521 47 7,731 72 5,800 86 966 17,136 17. .7 M.H. Shipments 5,048 88 4,016 53 3,045 28 911 14 TOTAL 5.708 100 7.537 100 10.776 100 6.711 100 MANITOBA: AHOP S a l e s 101 5 357 22 348 21 406 53 67 448 6. .6 M.H. Shipments 1,790 95 1,298 78 1,302 79 355 47 TOTAL 1.891 100 1.655 100 1.650 100 761 100 SASKATCHEWAN: AHOP S a l e s 663 26 622 23 404 17 807 62 134 564 4. .2 M.H. Shipments 1,838 74 2,107 77 1,997 83 497 38 TOTAL 2,501 100 2.729 100 2.401 100 1.304 100 TABLE VI, CONTINUED Six Months Average Unsold Est. Future Ended Monthly Designated Months Sales 1974 1975 1976 June 30, 1977 AHOP Sales Inventory UNITS % UNITS % UNITS % UNITS % Dec/June 1977 June 30, 1977 In Inventory ALBERTA: AHOP Sales M.H. Shipments TOTAL 552 6,111 6.663 8 92 100 682 4,987 5.669 12 88 100 463 6,003 6.466 7 93 100 181 1,979 2.160 8 92 100 30 761 25.3 BRITISH COLUMBIA: AHOP Sales M.H. Shipments TOTAL 460 7,576 8.036 6 94 100 1,220 4,200 5.420 20 78 100 2,646 2,877 5.523 48 52 100 2,949 1,362 4.311 68 32 100 491 4,231 8.6 TOTAL CANADA: AHOP Sales M.H. Shipments TOTAL 6,096 33,041 39.137 16 84 100 12,631 24,587 37.218 34 66 100 19,626 21,127 40.753 48 52 100 15,518 7,192 22.710 68 32 100 2,586 29,218 11.3 Source: CMHC, CMHA 47 F i n a n c i n g M o b i l e homes a r e u s u a l l y p u r c h a s e d t h r o u g h consumer l o a n s o r c h a t t e l mortgages. L e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s have now extended terms up t o 15 y e a r s , t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g t h e m o b i l e home t o remain a f f o r d a b l e i n the f a c e o f i n c r e a s i n g s i z e and c o s t s . I n s p i t e o f p r i c e i n c r e a s e s l e n d e r s r e f u s e to e x t e n d the a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d ( a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s such as some p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s ) . Consumer f i n a n c i n g a g e n c i e s do n o t w i s h t o make m o b i l e homes a s p e c i a l case f o r f i n a n c i n g , y e t mortgage departments a r e h e s i t a n t t o c o n s i d e r l o a n s on m o b i l e s because o f t h e i r supposed " m o b i l i t y " , assumed d e p r e c i a t i o n r a t e s , and v a r i a t i o n from the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code. The i n d u s t r y has been u p g r a d i n g s t a n d a r d s o f m o b i l e homes s i n c e the e a r l y 197 0's, b u t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f these c o s t s and tho s e o f the l a r g e r u n i t s has removed t h e i n d u s t r y ' s c o s t advantage i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The market p r e s s u r e f o r l a r g e r m o b i l e homes has o c c u r r e d a t a time when c o s t p r e s s u r e has f o r c e d down the s i z e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l houses. The h i g h demand p l a c e d on t h e i n d u s t r y i n t h e e a r l y 1970's a l s o l e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f low q u a l i t y u n i t s , j u s t as had happened i n the U.S. a f t e r t h e war. When the demand dropped i n the mid 1970's most m a n u f a c t u r e r s were i n a s t a t e o f o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n . As a r e s u l t numerous p l a n t s have c l o s e d and hundreds o f employees have been l a i d o f f . 4 8 I n 1976 t h e r e were 130 m o b i l e home d e a l e r s i n B.C., 118 i n 1977, and c u r r e n t l y t h e r e a r e 90 d e a l e r s i n the p r o v i n c e . " ^ I n 197 7 the i n d u s t r y n a t i o n w i d e was o n l y o p e r a t i n g a t 4 0 p e r c e n t o f i t s p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y (see T a b l e V I I b e l o w ) . The h i g h f i x e d overhead c o s t s f o r t h e s e m a n u f a c t u r e r s a c c o u n t f o r 15 p e r c e n t o f the c o s t o f a new u n i t , and t h i s i s f e l t i n the i n c r e a s e d p r i c e o f m o b i l e homes. TABLE V I I CANADIAN MOBILE HOME MANUFACTURING CAPACITY Dec/75 June/76 Oct /76 E s t . June/77 E s t . Po t e n t i a l No. o f p l a n t s o p e r a t i n g 43 41 36 33 46 Approx. no. d i r e c t l a b o u r employment per p l a n t 109 103 78 103 183 T o t a l d i r e c t l a b o u r 4, 695 4,238 2, 816 3,388 3,412 E s t . employment i n c l . r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s 14,085 12,714 8,448 10,164 25,236 Approx. average d a i l y p r o d u c t i o n r a t e 107 97 64 77 191 Approx. a n n u a l i z e d p r o d u c t i o n r a t e 25,755 23,237 15,447 18,586 45,840 % o f c a p a c i t y 56% 51% 34% 41% 100% Source: E s t i m a t e s from Canadian M o b i l e Home A s s o c i a t i o n 49 Land Development The q u e s t i o n o f l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r m o b i l e homes w i l l be a d d r e s s e d i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s . S u f f i c e i t t o say here t h a t t h e r e seems t o be a h i g h degree o f m u n i c i p a l r e s i s t a n c e t o such developments, e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s but a l s o i n s m a l l e r c i t i e s and towns a c r o s s Canada. Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h Columbia a r e showing s i g n s o f r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e needs o f m o b i l e home owners, and Nova S c o t i a w i l l l i k e l y f o l l o w t h e i r l e a d . L e g i s l a t i o n a t e v e r y l e v e l o f government has been e i t h e r outmoded o r has f a i l e d t o keep up w i t h t h e r a p i d development o f t h e m o b i l e home, and t h e r e have been few g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n o f p a r k s . Many communities have f a i l e d t o acknowledge t h e r o l e o f m o b i l e home p a r k s ( C a l g a r y , Red Deer, and R e g i n a a r e among the few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s ) , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , i t has been l e f t t o t h e o f t e n i l l - p r e p a r e d park owners t o meet t h e demand f o r s u i t a b l e space. O b v i o u s l y l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y has been an i s s u e f o r q u i t e some t i m e . I t i s an i s s u e w h i c h grows out o f t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward h o u s i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y . A r e c e n t (1976) study o f m u n i c i p a l government a t t i t u d e s toward m o b i l e homes i n O n t a r i o found t h a t most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have e i t h e r n e g a t i v e o r non-6 2 e x i s t e n t p o l i c i e s on m o b i l e homes. I n t h i s sample o f 194 O n t a r i o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 50 - 11.9% had an o f f i c i a l p l a n t h a t r e c o g n i z e d m o b i l e homes - 34.5% d i d not r e c o g n i z e m o b i l e homes - 53.6% d i d n o t have an approved o f f i c i a l p l a n - 18% d e f i n e d a m o b i l e home f o r z o n i n g purposes - 81% had no s p e c i f i c z o n i n g c a t e g o r y f o r m o b i l e homes - 8 6.1% had no l a n d zoned f o r m o b i l e homes. The J o i n t Study Team f e e l s t h a t such n e g a t i v i s m and apathy toward m o b i l e homes a r e a r e s u l t o f , . . . m i s c o n c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e assessment revenue from m o b i l e home p a r k s , t h e poor image t h e s e developments b r i n g t o mind i n t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , the unawareness o f good m o b i l e home developments, and t h e absence o f r e c o g n i z e d g u i d e l i n e s t o a s s i s t i n p l a n n i n g . ^ The A u d a i n I n q u i r y found community a t t i t u d e s toward m o b i l e home p a r k s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n k e e p i n g s e r v i c e d l a n d f o r m o b i l e s a t a premium. Some r e a s o n s f o r m u n i c i p a l r e l u c t a n c e were f i n a n c i a l , some were a e s t h e t i c , and o t h e r s were s o c i a l . B u t t h e c r u c i a l f a c t o r , a c c o r d i n g t o A u d a i n , t h a t produces n e g a t i v e o p i n i o n s about m o b i l e home p a r k s a t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l i s ". . . t h e image c i v i c o f f i c i a l s and o t h e r s form from b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y exposed t o o l d e r p a r k s t h a t a r e p o o r l y p l a n n e d , g r o s s l y overcrowded, and i l l -• 4- • A " 6 4 m a i n t a i n e d . D e a l e r I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y M o b i l e home d e a l e r s a r e o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g s i t e s f o r t h e u n i t s . The un p o p u l a r image o f m o b i l e s i s 51 p a r t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the d e a l e r s t h e m s e l v e s . As s a l e s were the main c r i t e r i o n , l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o l o c a t i o n . T h i s l e f t many m o b i l e homes i n spaces w i t h few a m e n i t i e s and l i t t l e o r no p l a n n i n g o f s e r v i c e s , l a n d s c a p i n g , and so on. Au d a i n ' s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e a l e r s o f t e n reneged on commitments t o s u p p l y adequate s i t i n g and s e r v i c i n g , and w a r r a n t i e s were f r e q u e n t l y not honoured. The l i t e r a t u r e on c o m p l a i n t s , problems, and consumer a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s and park r e g u l a t i o n s i s e x t e n s i v e . Indeed, most o f t h e c o m p l a i n t s v o i c e d a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s d u r i n g A u d a i n ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c oncerned w a r r a n t y s e r v i c i n g on s p e c i f i c m a l f u n c t i o n o f p a r t s o f t h e m o b i l e home. P r o d u c t i o n - S i t e P r o v i s i o n C o - o r d i n a t i o n A l l t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use r e q u i r e s p l a n n i n g w e l l i n advance o f h o u s i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y . As m o b i l e home m a n u f a c t u r e r s use f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r them to gear p r o d u c t i o n t o t h e development a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . D e l a y s i n t h i s p r o c e s s t e n d t o i n h i b i t e f f i c i e n t m a r k e t i n g o f t h e m o b i l e homes. Consumer A t t i t u d e s S u r v e y s show t h a t consumer c o n f i d e n c e i n m o b i l e homes has been d e c l i n i n g s i n c e 1972. The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s t h a t m o b i l e homes a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be a sound i n v e s t m e n t o r e q u i t y - b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e ; t h i s m a t t e r i s f a r from c e r t a i n , as w i l l be shown l a t e r . FIGURE 3 INDEX OF CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARD MOBILE HOMES IN CANADA R a t i o S c a l e 1961 =.100 80 H 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 4 1966 1 9 6 8 1 9 7 0 1972 1974 1976 h 130 L 120 h 110 h 100 h 90 80 Sour c e : Woods Gordon D e a l e r O r g a n i z a t i o n A l a c k o f " p o t e n t i a l and demo n s t r a t e d p r o f i t s " has hampered t h e development o f new and e x i s t i n g m o b i l e home d e a l e r s h i p s . The v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f s m a l l e r d e a l e r s and 53 m a n u f a c t u r e r s t o p r e s e n t market c o n d i t i o n s i s shown i n the b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e o f a t l e a s t two e n t e r p r i s e s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C olumbia; and i n t h e M a r i t i m e s f i v e o u t o f s i x p l a n t s were c l o s e d i n 1977, and one was p r o d u c i n g a s i n g l e 65 u n i t p e r day. D u r i n g the 1974 peak o f t h e i n d u s t r y t h e r e were 4 3 p l a n t s i n Canada - today t h e r e a r e 3 8 i n c l u d i n g 6 m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n B.C. Gi v e n the p r e c e d i n g background i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s now a p p r o p r i a t e t o examine t h e e x i s t i n g system o f p r o v i d i n g f o r m o b i l e homes and m o b i l e home p a r k s . A l t h o u g h the l a t t e r i s o f d i r e c t c o n c e r n t o t h i s s t u d y i t w i l l be o b v i o u s t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n o f one element n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r . T h i s l e a d s t o what a r e p r o b a b l y the o n l y two g e n e r a l s t atements t h a t can be made up t o t h i s time r e g a r d i n g the t o p i c i n q u e s t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e the m o b i l e home park has become a unique and r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e form o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use. S e c o n d l y , i t i s not u n r e a s o n a b l e t o assume by now t h a t t h e m o b i l e home park r e f l e c t s t h e " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i d i o s y n c r a s i e s " o f t h e pre-assembled m o b i l e home u n i t t o a g r e a t e r degree than does i t s c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l home and s u b d i v i s i o n . ^ CHAPTER FOUR THE EXISTING SYSTEM OF PROVIDING FOR MOBILE HOMES AND MOBILE HOME PARKS Cha p t e r Four c o m p l e t e s t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w p o r t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f those a s p e c t s w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e g u l a t e t h e development o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s f i r s t p l a c e d i n c o n t e x t and v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p a r k s a r e then d e s c r i b e d i n o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e l a n d use i s s u e as i t r e l a t e s t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l frame-work t o which p a r k s must conform draws on z o n i n g , s t a n d a r d s and codes, s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n (the B.C. e x p e r i e n c e ) , and b a s i c economies o f m o b i l e home own e r s h i p and park development. P a r t One - C o n t e x t Where t o put m o b i l e homes? T h i s has been a problem s i n c e the "Okie" m i g r a t i o n d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n . Much o f the l i t e r a t u r e i m p l i e s t h a t p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c would l i k e t o see as few u n i t s as p o s s i b l e p l a c e d on i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s whether owned o r r e n t e d by t h e o c c u p a n t s . B a r t l e y and B a i r r e p r e s e n t t h e t y p i c a l o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e i n the e a r l y 1960's toward m o b i l e homes when t h e y 54 say t h a t t h e m o b i l e i s o u t o f p l a c e when i t i s on i t s own o r when i t i s a "back-yard p a r a s i t e " t o c o n v e n t i o n a l d w e l l i n g s . A t t h i s time t h e s e a u t h o r s saw a m o b i l e home as a good l i v i n g u n i t o n l y i f i t was l o c a t e d i n a good m o b i l e home park. O n l y i n t h i s l o c a t i o n c o u l d t h e m o b i l e home be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e comprehensive p l a n . They acknowledge t h a t i t has problems and c r e a t e s problems, no d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r l a n d uses, and t h a t ". . . t h e m o b i l e home park has j u s t as r e a l a p l a c e as the d u p l e x o r t h e 6 7 apartment house." I t was mentioned e a r l i e r t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s a t e v e r y l e v e l o f government have f a i l e d t o keep pace w i t h t h e development o f the m o b i l e home and p a r k . Those r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e e a r l y 1950's, and whi c h a r e s t i l l i n e f f e c t t o d a y i n many l o c a l i t i e s , were n o t d e s i g n e d f o r t h e modern m o b i l e home o r i t s l o c a t i o n . A u d a i n a s s i g n s much o f th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r u n p l e a s a n t m o b i l e home p a r k s t o t h e inadequacy and l a c k o f enforcement o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s . ^ R e g u l a t i o n s were o f t e n a p p l i e d t o v e h i c l e s a u x i l i a r y t o c a r s and t r u c k s t h a t r e q u i r e d a c c e s s t o com-munal f a c i l i t i e s , and l i m i t e d occupancy o f t r a i l e r s t o t h o s e w i t h i n r e a c h o f such f a c i l i t i e s . Many r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l i e d o n l y l o c a l l y , but t h e p r o c e d u r e s used, a l b e i t t h e y employed low s t a n d a r d s , d i d s e t p r e c e d e n t s f o r t r a i l e r s i n s i t u . S t a n d a r d s were s e t i n some c a s e s , as i n B r i t i s h Columbia, by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Health Act and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Land Services Act, and t h e y were, and s t i l l a r e p r i m a r i l y e n f o r c e d by l o c a l b o d i e s . Many r e g u l a t i o n s adhered t o today a r e no l o n g e r a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n , and many problems w h i c h f r u s t r a t e m o b i l e home owners, park owners and d e v e l o p e r s , l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , and t h e p u b l i c a r e the r e s u l t . Newcomb s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g as examples o f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y o r 1 4 - - 69 i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e g u l a t i o n s : 1) R e s t r i c t i n g m o b i l e homes t o p a r k s o r t o u r i s t camps. I n g e n e r a l , communities o n l y a l l o w m o b i l e homes i n l i c e n s e d p a r k s . T h i s makes i t more c o n v e n i e n t t o e n f o r c e r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g h e a l t h and s a f e t y . 2) Keeping m o b i l e homes o u t o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , t h r o u g h z o n i n g . M o b i l e homes t e n d t o be found l i t e r a l l y anywhere o t h e r t h a n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r r e s t r i c t i n g them t o commercial d i s t r i c t s i s t h a t because u n i t s a r e o f t e n s o l d a t p a r k s , a park o p e r a t i o n i s a commercial e n t e r p r i s e , o r t h a t m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e an i n t e r i m l a n d use. B a r t l e y and B a i r b e l i e v e t h a t t h e m o b i l e home park can be m a n i p u l a t e d as a b u f f e r between commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . T h i s i s t h e i d e a o f i n t e r i m l a n d use, i n terms o f space and t i m e - w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e park i s a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , w i t h needs s i m i l a r 57 t o o t h e r t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Of c o u r s e t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s from t h i s i s , . . . s h o u l d m o b i l e homes be s i n g l e d o u t f o r s p e c i a l n o t i c e i n z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s o r s h o u l d t h e y be a c c e p t e d as r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s , a l l o w a b l e i n " r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s on an e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s b u t r e q u i r e d t o meet o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e method o f d e l i v e r y t o t h e s i t e ? 7 Q Other t e c h n i q u e s a r e used t o e f f e c t t h e same r e s u l t as banning m o b i l e homes. I n some p a r t s o f t h e U.S. l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have t h e power t o r e g u l a t e the d u r a t i o n o f s t a y o f a m o b i l e home i n one p l a c e o r i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . E s s e n t i a l l y t h i s i s s i m i l a r t o g i v i n g t h e p a r k s c o n d i t i o n a l use p e r m i t s , whereby z o n i n g boards can zone l a n d f o r o t h e r purposes when a term i s e x p i r e d . A n o t h e r t a c t i c i s t o g i v e p a r k s i n a p p r o p r i a t e z o n i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h a r e always a d i s a d v a n t a g e f o r t h e p a r k . F i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e communities surveyed by t h e American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y a l l o w m o b i l e homes o n l y i n 71 a r e a s zoned f o r commercial o r i n d u s t r i a l use. An o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n w h i c h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e Canadian e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e use o f h o u s i n g and b u i l d i n g codes and t h e power t o c o n t r o l and abate p u b l i c n u i s a n c e s . By u s i n g b u i l d i n g codes as a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r l o n g - t e r m m o r t g a g i n g , government and p r i v a t e l e n d e r s can c o n t r o l o r e l i m i n a t e the m o b i l e home as a p o t e n t i a l l y v i a b l e i n v e s t m e n t i n h o u s i n g . 58 C a t e g o r i e s o f M o b i l e Home P a r k s As a g e n e r a l r u l e t h e m o b i l e home park s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d , Newcomb sa y s , ". . . as a l a r g e s c a l e , medium d e n s i t y , m u l t i p l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l use. L o c a t i o n and d e s i g n o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r k s w i l l depend on t h e purpose o r 72 c o m b i n a t i o n o f purposes t o be s e r v e d . " M o b i l e home p a r k s have been c l a s s i f i e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways depending upon t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p a r k . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , t h e l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e t y p e s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s , a l l o f whi c h r e n t o r l e a s e t h e i r s p a c e s . The "housing park" i s t h a t t y p e w h i c h p r o v i d e s c o n v e n i e n t , e c o n o m i c a l h o u s i n g f o r employed c o u p l e s and young f a m i l i e s who p r e f e r m o b i l e home l i v i n g because i t g i v e s p r o x i m i t y t o shopping, s c h o o l s , and p l a c e s o f employment. H o u s i n g - o r i e n t e d p a r k s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e good underground u t i l i t i e s and adequate l a n d s c a p i n g . Tenants i n ho u s i n g p a r k s r e q u i r e l i m i t e d o n - s i t e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s as they spend much o f t h e i r t i m e o u t s i d e t h e pa r k . They d e s i r e a l o c a t i o n f o r c o n v e n i e n c e t o everyday l i f e and w h i c h w i l l a l l o w i n f o r m a l l i v i n g w i t h a r e s i d e n t i a l atmosphere. Housing p a r k s t e n d t o be o l d e r , c h a rge l o w e r r e n t a l s , and p r o v i d e s m a l l e r s p a c e s . They a r e u s u a l l y l o c a t e d i n h i g h employment a r e a s . The " s e r v i c e park" d i f f e r s from t h e h o u s i n g o r i e n t e d i n t h a t i t has d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s w i t h i n t h e park 59 and a p r e f e r r e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . The park emphasizes r e c r e a t i o n and o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A more e l a b o r a t e t y p e o f park, i t a t t r a c t s t h e r e t i r e d and semi-r e t i r e d . A s e r v i c e park can be d i v i d e d i n t o a r e a s w i t h c h i l d r e n and t h o s e w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n . Many o f t h e r e s i d e n t s own t r a v e l t r a i l e r s o r motor homes. To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h e r e s i d e n t s depend on t h e o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l a c t i v i t y o f f e r e d by the management; group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s go hand i n hand. B e s i d e s the " o r g a n i z a t i o n " a v a i l a b l e , perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t element i n t h e s e r v i c e park i s t h e c o n v e n i e n t and a t t r a c t i v e environment. S e r v i c e p a r k s must be a b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e more permanent, l a r g e r s i n g l e and double-wide m o b i l e homes, though t h e y o f t e n i n c l u d e an a r e a . r e s e r v e d f o r c l i m a t e -o r i e n t e d t r a n s i e n t s (hence t h e nomenclature - " M o b i l e home and T o u r i s t P a r k " ) . These p a r k s a r e u s u a l l y found i n s m a l l e r communities o r t h e suburbs ( p e r i p h e r y ) o f c i t i e s and l a r g e r towns. G e n e r a l l y , t h e p a r k s l o c a t e d i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e o f the h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e v a r i e t i e s . A t h i r d t y p e o f m o b i l e home park i s t h a t w h i c h i s r e s o r t - o r i e n t e d . These p a r k s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f C a l i f o r n i a , F l o r i d a , A r i z o n a , and Nevada, a r e a s r e c o g n i z e d as s e a s o n a l r e s o r t s o r h e a l t h s p a s . They o f f e r a r a t h e r l u x u r i o u s environment w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h e r r e n t a l s . R e s i d e n t s u s u a l l y b u i l d on t o t h e i r own homes t o p r o v i d e even more l i v i n g space t h a n l a r g e d o u ble-wides now o f f e r . I t i s not uncommon t o f i n d e l d e r l y c o u p l e s l i v i n g i n t h e s e homes and occupancy i s m o s t l y on a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s . V e r y few p a r k s i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as r e s o r t p a r k s . B a r t l e y and B a i r have d i s c u s s e d m o b i l e home p a r k s 73 i n terms o f what k i n d , f o r whom, and where? They b e l i e v e t h a t b o t h t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r and t h e p l a n n e r s h o u l d b e g i n by s u r v e y i n g l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . They emphasize t h a t t h e problem i s n o t what k i n d o f a m o b i l e home park i s c a l l e d f o r by n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s , but how many o f which k i n d s o f p a r k s a r e i n d i c a t e d by p r e s e n t and p r o b a b l e f u t u r e l o c a l needs. The f o l l o w i n g c h e c k l i s t o f t y p e s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i s o f f e r e d : 1. F o r permanent r e s i d e n t s (occupancy f o r more th a n one year) a. Young peop l e w i t h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . b. M i d d l e - a g e d p e o p l e ; o n l y a few c h i l d r e n . c. R e t i r e e s ; few o r no c h i l d r e n . 2. F o r semi-permanent r e s i d e n t s (occupancy f o r l e s s t h a n a year) a. M i l i t a r y b. S t u d e n t s c. C o n s t r u c t i o n workers d. Other 61 3. For transients (short period occupancy); primarily for vacations a. "En route" parks - for overnight stops by t r a v e l t r a i l e r s , mobile homes. Most users stop only one day, few l o c a l a t t r a c t i o n s . b. "Stopover" parks - serving as route parks, but with s u f f i c i e n t nearby attractions so that most users stay several days. c. "Destination" parks - serving as route parks or stopover parks, but with s u f f i c i e n t nearby attractions so that most users stay from a week to a month. The above c h e c k l i s t i s useful for obtaining some idea of who i s " l i v i n g " i n a mobile home park, and therefore what function the park i s serving. Clearly many of the parks w i l l serve several functions, just one or two of which w i l l give the park i t s character. Each park w i l l have peculiar c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f a c i l i t y requirements. Keeping l o c a l needs i n mind i t also becomes evident that i f there i s r e l a t i v e d i v e r s i t y i n the occupants of mobile home parks i n general, as has been suggested by many surveys, then there must be a type of park which resembles or displays requirements similar to those of the r e s i d e n t i a l subdivision; i n other words, "general occupancy" parks. Newcomb describes the general occupancy park as being dependent on the economic base and demographic c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f an a r e a . He goes on t o say t h a t t h e s i z e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an a r e a may be such as t o c r e a t e a good market f o r p a r k s , but t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . A n i c e view, t r e e s , and a few a m e n i t i e s must be complemented by p r o x i m i t y t o economic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s - shopping, p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s c h o o l s , c h u r c h e s , and r e c r e a t i o n and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . Moreover, l i k e any good r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , t h e park s h o u l d be f r e e from o f f e n s i v e s o u r c e s o f p o l l u t i o n . T y p i c a l s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h park s t a n d a r d s and s i t e p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s . There i s a n o t h e r method o f c l a s s i f y i n g m o b i l e home p a r k s , one which uses as c r i t e r i a t h e age o f t h e p a r k . A "permanent occupancy" park i s one where t h e l o c a t i o n i s not l i k e l y t o be o v e r r u n by growth l e a d i n g t o a change t o some o t h e r use. T h i s i s t h e park w h i c h i s i n demand and which, f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d p r e s e n t l y , i s i n s h o r t s u p p l y . I t i s a r e s i d e n t i a l use and s h o u l d be l o c a t e d where t h e r e i s c o n v e n t i o n a l m u l t i p l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g o r on t h e urban f r i n g e . S u r p r i s i n g l y , H a r t l e y and B a i r suggest t h a t a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t d e s i r a b l e t o l o c a t e a park i n e s t a b l i s h e d s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , i t can be f i t t e d i n w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s c r e e n i n g ; ". . . such p a r k s may w e l l b e n e f i t e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s by p r o v i d i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s i t i o n a l use. between commercial o r h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s and s i n g l e -75 f a m i l y homes." " T r a n s i e n t occupancy" p a r k s a r e i n a l o c a t i o n w h i c h i s good now and f o r some y e a r s ahead, but i t i s l i k e l y t o be 7 6 d e s i r a b l e o r n e c e s s a r y f o r o t h e r purposes l a t e r . They a r e d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e t h e needs o f m o b i l e homes on t h e move. T h i s t y p e o f park i s not common but when i t does e x i s t i t has no p l a c e i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . What one f i n d s more o f t e n i s t h e t y p e o f park w h i c h c a t e r s t o b o t h permanent and t r a n s i e n t u s e r s . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e p a r k s a r e l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e K i n g George Highway i n S u r r e y , B r i t i s h Columbia, where th e y a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s u s u a l p r a c t i c e t o s i t u a t e t h e s e p a r k s a d j a c e n t t o a major t r a f f i c a r t e r y f o r re a s o n s o f a c c e s s . " T r a n s i t i o n a l " and "temporary" p a r k s a r e t h o s e where t h e l o c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l a t t h e t i m e f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n h o u s i n g o r o t h e r s h o r t term purpose, but c o n v e r s i o n t o 77 a n o t h e r use i n t h e near f u t u r e i s p r o b a b l e . I n t h e urban o r p r e - u r b a n c o n t e x t t h i s park i s a temporary urban use whic h i s o f t e n t r a n s i t i o n a l t o a n o t h e r t y p e o f use. Temporary p a r k s need t o be r e g u l a t e d c a r e f u l l y and i n a manner whi c h r e c o g n i z e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p a r k . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e p a r k s a r e u s u a l l y found o u t s i d e the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f not o n l y community p l a n n i n g , but z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l as w e l l . The temporary n a t u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y used as an excuse f o r t h e l a c k o f 64 p l a n n i n g and l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n t h e s e p a r k s . A good example o f how such a s i t u a t i o n can produce a s e r i o u s problem and community l i a b i l i t y i s t h e m o b i l e home dilemma a t F t . McMurray, A l b e r t a . The f o l l o w i n g comment i s r e l e v a n t : . . . I t i s w e l l t o remember t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t h e owners and b u i l d e r s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g do not d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e " c r a s h " m o b i l e home park and t h e park t h e y e n v i s i o n l a t e r i n t h e i r minds eye as t h e y d r i v e down a road a d j a c e n t t o a s i t e where a permanent m o b i l e home park i s proposed. So t h o r o u g h l y c o n d i t i o n e d has t h e average p e r s o n become t h a t , w h i l e c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e under c r a s h c o n d i t i o n s i s o f t e n o f an e x t r e m e l y s u b s t a n d a r d c a l i b r e , somehow he can make f u t u r e d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e semi-permanent and permanent i n c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g but w i l l seldom make such d i s t i n c t i o n s f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . A temporary park can be t r a n s i t i o n a l t o a v a r i e t y o f urban l a n d u s e s . I n t h e U.S., m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e s e r v i n g an i n t e r i m use between what were d r i v e - i n t h e a t r e s and what may e v e n t u a l l y be shopping c e n t r e s o r i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s . A park has been proposed f o r an ar e a near S i d n e y , B r i t i s h C olumbia, on l a n d r e c e n t l y removed from t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e . One i s l e f t t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e u l t i m a t e m o t i v e s o f d e v e l o p e r s i n such i n s t a n c e s . The advantages o f j u d i c i o u s p l a n n i n g o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and u t i l i t i e s and t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y t o a n o t h e r form o f development have n o t been i g n o r e d i n t h e p a s t . 65 P a r t Two - R e g u l a t i o n o f M o b i l e Homes and  Park Development The remainder o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework t h a t r e g u l a t e s t h e p l a n n i n g , development and o p e r a t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s e r v e s t o i n t r o d u c e t h a t system, once w r y l y r e f e r r e d t o as " c o l l e c t i o n a c t i o n i n c o n t r o l o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n " : M o b i l e homes a r e s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g , b a d l y c o n s t r u c t e d . They don't meet our b u i l d i n g codes. We c a n ' t i n s p e c t them because t h e y a r r i v e r e a d y b u i l t . A new m o b i l e home robs a l o c a l c o n t r a c t o r and workers o f a chance t o make a d e a l . T r a i l e r camps l o o k a w f u l . I f t h e s e s o - c a l l e d 'mobile home p a r k s ' a r e a l l o w e d a t a l l , keep them i n commercial o r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a l o n g major highways o r down by the r a i l r o a d t r a c k s — p r e f e r a b l y i n swamps o r abandoned g r a v e l p i t s o r as b u f f e r s between junk y a r d s and gas s t a t i o n s . _ q Land A v a i l a b i l i t y The i s s u e o f l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s can be approached from s e v e r a l a n g l e s , a l l o f w h i c h a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . One c o u l d t a l k about a t t i t u d e s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e , z o n i n g , s t a n d a r d s , o r t h e demand f o r m o b i l e homes, and t h e q u e s t i o n o f where t o put t h e home would be o f c o n c e r n t o each t o p i c . A u d a i n makes t h e p o i n t by s a y i n g , " . . . c e r t a i n l y , t h e l a c k o f s e r v i c e d l a n d f o r m o b i l e homes c o n s t i t u t e s the g r e a t e s t c o n s t r a i n t t o t h e 8 0 growth o f t h i s form o f accommodation." The problem o f s u b s t a n d a r d m o b i l e home p a r k s r e l a t e s t o the same i s s u e s t h a t hamper t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r s u i t a b l e s i t e s f o r p a r k s . The problem i s a c i r c u l a r one. The p r o c e s s b e g i n s w i t h m o b i l e homes b e i n g r e l e g a t e d t o a r e a s i n a d e q u a t e f o r medium d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l development. T h i s r e s u l t s i n l i t t l e o r no p l a n n i n g , and t h e p a r k s w h i c h a r e d e v e l o p e d r e f l e c t t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on d e v e l o p e r s . The c i r c l e becomes more " v i c i o u s " when l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , o f f e n d e d by u n a t t r a c t i v e p a r k s , and t o one degree o r a n o t h e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them, r e f u s e t o zone more and b e t t e r q u a l i t y l a n d f o r new m o b i l e home developments. As one comment goes, ". . . t h e z o n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s on m o b i l e homes demonstrate a town's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t t h e r e be m e t a p h o r i c a l t r a c k s f o r a 81 m o b i l e home p a r k t o be on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f . " R e f e r e n c e was made e a r l i e r t o t h e c o n s e r v a t i s m o f Canadian s o c i e t y i n i t s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e m o b i l e home. T h i s t r a i t a p p l i e s not o n l y t o consumers b u t t o l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s , and even t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y i t s e l f . A p a r t i c u l a r l y l u c i d quote i s a p t here: L a c k i n g t h e o p i n i o n - m o u l d i n g f a c i l i t y o f the a u t o m o b i l e i n d u s t r y , and c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a v a s t l y more d e l i c a t e market, t h e (mobile) home ma n u f a c t u r e r has been f o r c e d t o t r e a d the l i n e o f c o n s e r v a t i s m . Q _ o A Whether o r not t h i s e x p l a i n s t h e r e l a t i v e l y u n a t t r a c t i v e p r o d u c t o f t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s remains t o be seen. L a t e r c h a p t e r s w i l l d e a l w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y , i n terms o f b o t h p a s t and p r e s e n t t r e n d s , o f m o b i l e home s i t e s i n t he g e n e r a l s t u d y a r e a ( t h a t i s , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r ) . The purpose here i s t o o u t l i n e l i k e l y causes o f t h e s c a r c i t y o f m o b i l e home space i n t h e n a t i o n as a whole. These f a c t o r s a r e based on c e r t a i n assumptions p u t f o r w a r d by the J o i n t 8 3 Study Team on M o b i l e Homes. 1) There i s s t r o n g p u b l i c and m u n i c i p a l r e s i s t a n c e (one i s u s u a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e o t h e r ) towards m o b i l e home developments on t h e assu m p t i o n t h a t : a) M o b i l e home developments a r e b u i l t t o poor s i t e s t a n d a r d s , downgrading t h e o v e r a l l appearance o f t h e whole m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s i s an i s s u e w h i c h i n v o l v e s v a l u e judgements as t o what c o n s t i t u t e s a " q u a l i t y environment," n ot t o mention the a r b i t r a r y i m p o s i t i o n o f the s e v a l u e s i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . b) M o b i l e home developments do not pay t h e i r f a i r share o f m u n i c i p a l revenue. T h i s problem w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under t a x a t i o n , l i c e n s i n g , and assessment. I t i s a l s o a problem t h a t a p p l i e s t o many forms o f l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g development. 2) I t appears t h a t new B.C. P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n ( A g r i -c u l t u r a l Land Reserve) and r e g u l a t i o n o f r u r a l d e v e l o p e r s , based on e c o l o g i c a l / c o n s e r v a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n h i b i t s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m o b i l e home developments. 68 3) Are mobile homes low-cost, low-density, single-family housing? The balance i s changing between land development costs and manufacturing costs. The increasing costs of servicing land for low density r e s i d e n t i a l developments has inspired the growth of condominiums and townhouses i n the conventional housing market. Mobile home developers have not been able to come up with a marketable option for providing medium-high density "attached" mobile dwellings. 4) Mobile home developments are accused of depreciating adjoining properties, being unattractive, and deteriorating more quickly than s i t e - b u i l t houses. Public housing and low-cost housing could just as e a s i l y be the subject of discussion here. 5) Older parks have a reputation for being unsightly and temporary. One study of town planners' attitudes toward mobile homes indicates that residents of 8 0 percent of a l l the communities surveyed wanted to exclude mobile homes; t h i s negative attitude undoubtedly c a r r i e s much 84 weight with zoning boards. Curiously, another study in the U.S. shows an apparent disfavour with mobile subdivisions; more than half the communities surveyed i n an ASPO study did not allow mobile home subdivisions but only o n e - f i f t h of the communities banned mobile home , 85 parks. 69 6) The fragmented n a t u r e o f t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y can be p a r t l y blamed f o r the bad image. a) M a n u f a c t u r e r s have o n l y p l a y e d a minor r o l e i n l a n d development. b) Warranty r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s u n c l e a r . c) A d v e r t i s i n g and d i s p l a y methods a r e p r i m i t i v e ( t h a t i s , u n i t s a r e o f t e n u n s k i r t e d and u n l e v e l e d on d e a l e r s ' l o t s ) . d) M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the p u b l i c a r e unaware o f the c u r r e n t q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s o f m o b i l e homes. L e g a l S t a t u s The l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l p r o p e r t y i s based on l a n d and s t r u c t u r e s p e rmanently f i x e d t o t h e l a n d . I f such i s n o t t h e c a s e , t h e n the p r o p e r t y i s c l a s s e d as p e r s o n a l . The m o b i l e home may be c a p a b l e o f b e i n g moved b u t i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y immobile once p l a c e d on a s i t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p o t e n t i a l t o be moved makes t h e m o b i l e home p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y . T h i s l e g a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can u l t i m a t e l y d e t e r m i n e the n a t u r e o f r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t c o n t r o l t h e m o b i l e . Immunity t o r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l y i n g t o c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g i s o f t e n argued as t h e prime r e a s o n f o r t h e growth o f t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y and t h e p r o p o r t e d advantages o v e r c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g and forms o f i n d u s t r i a l i z e d h o u s i n g . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r m o b i l e s can be seen as t h e r e a s o n 70 f o r t h e r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e o f the i n d u s t r y i n r e c e n t y e a r s and the upper hand w h i c h l o w - c o s t and government a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g has a t t h i s t i m e . Zoning The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d m o b i l e home park z o n i n g can e x h i b i t p r e j u d i c e , i g n o r a n c e , apathy, o r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e p l a c e o f m o b i l e homes i n a community. The i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f such z o n i n g does n o t appear t o be e v i d e n t t o t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t a k i n g a c t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d below: . . . O l d t r a i l e r camps, o f f e n s i v e t o c i t y p l a n n e r s , e x i s t because new p a r k s , w h i c h would push them o u t of b u s i n e s s , a r e not a l l o w e d t o be b u i l t ; new p a r k s a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o be b u i l t because c i t y p l a n n e r s R g ar e c o n c e r n e d about them becoming o l d t r a i l e r camps. and t h e f o l l o w i n g : . . . There has de v e l o p e d among many p l a n n e r s , c i t i z e n s , and governmental a u t h o r i t i e s a s t r a n g e and almo s t p a r a d o x i c a l p a t t e r n o f r e a s o n i n g . The z o n i n g power t h a t i s used today on t h e one hand t o p r o t e c t c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y i s used on t h e o t h e r hand t o shunt o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y , t h e m o b i l e home park, o f f i n t o t h e v e r y commercial o r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t whose encroachments on c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y a r e so much d e p l o r e d . o / I n g e n e r a l , and c e r t a i n l y u n t i l r e c e n t l y , m o b i l e home p a r k s have been k e p t o u t o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . To r e c a p i t u l a t e , m o b i l e homes a r e s o l d o f f o f l o t s , and t h i s form o f m e r c h a n d i s i n g does n ot s i t w e l l when i t comes time to d e s i g n a t e z o n i n g f o r t h e u n i t s . Some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a pproach t h i s problem by s e p a r a t i n g l a n d uses - commercial f o r s a l e s a c t i v i t i e s , and c e r t a i n t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l f o r 71 m o b i l e home p a r k s . The S u r r e y By-law No. 414 0, 19 73 c l a r i f i e s t h e l o c a l p o s i t i o n i n i t s d e f i n i t i o n o f a m o b i l e home park as a p a r c e l o f l a n d w h i c h , among o t h e r t h i n g s , s h a l l not i n c l u d e v e h i c l e s a l e s o r o t h e r l a n d s on w h i c h m o b i l e homes a r e manufactured o r p l a c e d s o l e l y f o r the purposes o f s t o r a g e o r i n s p e c t i o n and s a l e . The r e l e v a n t L a n g l e y By-law (No. 1505) c o n t a i n s a s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e S u r r e y and L a n g l e y examples, m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e o f t e n d e f i n e d as "commercial" i n z o n i n g b y - l a w s . One r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n used t o s u p p o r t non-r e s i d e n t i a l z o n i n g f o r m o b i l e home parks i s t h a t the p a r k s o f t e n i n c l u d e under s i n g l e o w n e r ship and management a m o b i l e home s a l e s o p e r a t i o n , c o n v e n i e n c e s t o r e o r c o i n l a u n d r y . A d i f f e r e n t r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s based on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e spaces i n a m o b i l e home park a r e o f t e n r e n t e d t o r e s i d e n t s who own the m o b i l e home d w e l l i n g but not i t s s i t e , and t h e r e n t a l o f spaces i s o b v i o u s l y a commercial e n t e r p r i s e . B o t h o f t h e s e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s do i n f a c t t r e a t m o b i l e homes d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n o t h e r t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s . Zoning f o r l o c a l commercial uses i n c o n v e n t i o n a l n e i g h b o r -hoods does d i s t i n g u i s h uses independent o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p . Apartments and c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e - f a m i l y homes a r e c l a s s e d as r e s i d e n t i a l uses r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e y a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l e o r r e n t t o t h e i r o c c u p a n t s . J u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s and l e g a l o p i n i o n i n the U.S. a r e d i v i d e d on t h e p r o p r i e t y o f e x c l u d i n g m o b i l e home p a r k s 72 from r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The more common r u l e a l l o w s e x c l u s i o n . Examples o f l i t i g a t i o n i n t h e U.S. a r e g i v e n below: . . . There i s ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c o n f i n i n g t r a i l e r s and m o b i l e u n i t s t o a r e a s where they w i l l n o t i n j u r e the i n v e s t m e n t i n c o n v e n t i o n a l houses o f o t h e r owners, h u r t t a x a b l e v a l u e s , and impede town development.gg A m i n o r i t y o f c o u r t s have h e l d a d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t : . . . m o b i l e home owners a r e e n t i t l e d t o have deve l o p e d f o r t h e i r use a s m a l l acreage where th e y can park t h e i r t r a i l e r s and r e a r t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n decency and r e l a t i v e c o m f o r t , t h a t t h e h e a l t h , m o r a l s , and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e o f t h e community would be promoted by p r o v i d i n g a h o u s i n g s i t e . 8 9 I n t h e i r comprehensive work on t h e law o f m o b i l e homes i n th e U.S., Hodes and Roberson s t a t e : . . . Zoning e x i s t s because o f t h e r e c o g n i z e d need f o r a f f o r d i n g p e o p l e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e i n s e c t i o n s a p a r t from t h o s e d e v o t e d t o commerce, t r a d e , and i n d u s t r y . . . . F o r c i n g i n h a b i t a n t s o f m o b i l e homes i n t o u n s u i t a b l e neighbourhoods by c o m p e l l i n g them t o l i v e ( i n such a r e a s ) can o n l y r e s u l t i n i n f e r i o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . . . . o n Architectural Forum, t h e b a s t i o n o f non-commitment t o i n t o l e r a n c e o r t o l e r a n c e o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n t h e U.S., emphasizes the need f o r " . . . d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c y . . . n e i t h e r t o e x c l u d e nor t o i g n o r e t h e t r a i l e r p a r k b u t t o zone and r e g u l a t e i t . . . so t h a t i t may be a more p l e a s i n g 91 p a r t o f t h e community. . . . P r e v i o u s e x t r a c t comments, may have l e f t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t new p a r k s a r e not b e i n g b u i l t . T h i s i s n o t the c a s e . P a r k s have been b u i l t i n . u n p r e c e d e n t e d numbers s i n c e 1970 i n Canada and t h e U.S. But whether t h i s has been s u f f i c i e n t t o s a t i s f y t h e demand f o r m o b i l e home space i s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n , and one w h i c h i s c o m p l i c a t e d by f a c t o r s t o be d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f t h e problems o f p a r k s . D r u r y f e e l s t h a t t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t development s i n c e 1955 has been the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f more and b e t t e r -92 q u a l i t y p a r k s f o r m o b i l e homes. She r e f e r s t o a 1961 r e p o r t o f ASPO as one o f t h e f i r s t b r e a k t h r o u g h s i n c r e a t i n g a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f p l a n n e r s toward m o b i l e homes. I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , D a v i d s o n sees t h e main f a c t o r i n t h e growth o f 9 3 m o b i l e home p a r k s as the changes m l o c a l z o n i n g . How a r e m o b i l e home p a r k s zoned? The American e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e most common t e c h n i q u e s a r e t o d e s i g n a t e a park as a p e r m i t t e d use i n s p e c i f i c r e s i d e n t i a l zones; as a s p e c i a l e x c e p t i o n i n s p e c i f i c zones; o r t o l i m i t p a r k s t o a s p e c i a l m o b i l e home zone. I n modern z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s p e r m i t t e d uses a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s c h e d u l e o f d i s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n s . P a r k s must be mentioned i n t h i s s c h e d u l e t o be a l l o w e d , a l o n g w i t h any c o n d i t i o n s o f use. B a r t l e y and B a i r do n o t s u p p o r t a s e p a r a t e m u n i c i p a l m o b i l e home o r d i n a n c e as they assume comprehensive c o n d i t i o n s w i l l be t r e a t e d by o t h e r o r d i n a n c e s . A s p e c i a l e x c e p t i o n , o r s p e c i a l use p e r m i t , i s d e f i n e d as a l a n d use, . . . a l l o w a b l e where t h e f a c t s and c o n d i t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d and d e t a i l e d i n t h e o r d i n a n c e as t h o s e upon w h i c h a s p e c i a l e x c e p t i o n may be g r a n t e d a r e de t e r m i n e d t o e x i s t by an a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s i g n a t e d governmental a u t h o r i t y . g ^  B a r t l e y and B a i r r e g a r d t h i s as a good means f o r t h e z o n i n g c o n t r o l o f p a r k s , e x c e p t t h a t too o f t e n a s p e c i a l e x c e p t i o n and a v a r i a n c e a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . A v a r i a n c e i s g r a n t e d because o f un n e c e s s a r y h a r d s h i p o r p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y ; a s p e c i a l e x c e p t i o n can be g r a n t e d s i m p l y by meeting o r d i n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . The a u t h o r s f e e l t h a t use v a r i a n c e s , w h i c h p e r m i t i n a z o n i n g d i s t r i c t a use o t h e r w i s e p r o h i b i t e d , a r e r e a l l y amendments to t h e z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e , and hence, a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s 9 6 o f a p p r o v i n g park development p r o p o s a l s . A q u a l i f i c a t i o n t o t h e a p p a r e n t advantage o f the s p e c i a l e x c e p t i o n i s the need t o r e c o g n i z e the a n t i p a t h y o f a l o c a l government toward m o b i l e homes and, g i v e n t h i s , t h e need t o have z o n i n g boards a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the unique a s p e c t s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . A n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e i s t o c r e a t e a m o b i l e home park d i s t r i c t , whereby a d i s t r i c t l i n e i s drawn around a m o b i l e home park o r p a r k s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s i n e f f e c t , s p o t z o n i n g , and i s c r i t i c i z e d as making l i t t l e sense i n d e s i g n a t i n g l a r g e a r e a s f o r one purpose c o n s i d e r i n g the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f market t r e n d s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e C i t y o f Red Deer has a g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f making p r o v i s i o n w i t h i n i t s z o n i n g and development p l a n and i n r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , f o r a r e a s zoned and de v e l o p e d f o r m o b i l e homes and l o w - c o s t 75 h o u s i n g . These developments a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h o t h e r forms o f ho u s i n g t o a c h i e v e a v a r i e t y o f income r a n g e s . W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f communities i n t h e lo w e r m a i n l a n d t h e most common z o n i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e thos e o f the m o b i l e home park zone, the t o u r i s t - c o m m e r c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n , and the non-conforming use i n a commercial o r r e s i d e n t i a l zone. I t i s g e n e r a l l y conceded t h a t no z o n i n g p l a n i s p e r f e c t and t h a t i t must be f l e x i b l e t o comply w i t h c h a n g i n g t r e n d s and i d e a s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r m o b i l e homes and p a r k s . I t i s the t a s k o f p l a n n i n g and z o n i n g boards t o c o n t r o l o r l i m i t changes so t h a t t h e i n t e n t o f t h e zo n i n g p l a n i s p r e s e r v e d . I n t h i s r e g i o n i t has been n e c e s s a r y f o r a d e v e l o p e r t o o b t a i n a s p e c i a l p e r m i t o r a z o n i n g change t h a t w i l l a l l o w f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a mo b i l e home p a r k . T h i s p r o c e d u r e v a r i e s w i t h the community but the o f f i c i a l s who judge p r o p o s a l s f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e concerned w i t h such a s p e c t s as l o c a t i o n , s i t e p l a n s , p o t e n t i a l t a x revenue, t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n the park, and the impact o f the park on the neighbourhood. S t a n d a r d s and Codes I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d s f o r b o t h m o b i l e homes and p a r k s because they a r e a c o n s t r a i n t on f i n a n c i n g and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a n d . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f workmanship and t e c h n i c a l problems however, i s o u t s i d e the scope o f t h i s s t u d y . 76 I n 197 3, t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y adopted t h e Canadian S t a n d a r d s A s s o c i a t i o n (CSA) Z240 s t a n d a r d f o r m o b i l e homes. I t i s a performance s t a n d a r d . M o b i l e home m a n u f a c t u r e r s pay f o r CSA c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o d u c t ' s c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e CSA Z24.0. s t a n d a r d . CSA does n o t approve q u a l i t y c o n t r o l p r o c e d u r e s i n the c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f m o b i l e home p l a n t s , and t h e p r o c e s s i s the same used by CSA f o r most o t h e r mass produced i t e m s i n Canada. The CSA Committee on M o b i l e Homes and T r a v e l T r a i l e r s i s p r i m a r i l y an i n d u s t r y - o r i e n t e d group. The g o a l o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n i s , as t h e name i m p l i e s , to p r o v i d e n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and c o n s i s t e n c y . A l l new m o b i l e homes s o l d i n A l b e r t a , B.C., M a n i t o ba, Saskatchewan, New B r u n s w i c k , P . E . I , and Newfoundland must meet CSA s t a n d a r d s f o r s t r u c t u r a l , e l e c t r i c a l , plumbing, and o i l h e a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . I n B.C., Z24 0 has been approved by t h e Electrical Energy Inspection Act and by R e g u l a t i o n 39 6-73 o f the Municipal Act, w h i c h exempts m o b i l e homes . . . w i t h CSA c e r t i f i c a t i o n under Z24 0 from b u i l d i n g p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s and t h u s from t h e 97 p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code. The Motor V e h i c l e B r a n c h a l s o r e f e r s t o Z24 0 i n r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g v e h i c l e s a l l o w e d on p u b l i c highways. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e Z240 s t a n d a r d has g e n e r a l l y improved t h e q u a l i t y o f m o b i l e homes i n Canada. N o n e t h e l e s s , A u d a i n b e l i e v e s t h a t the Z240 s t a n d a r d i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive and that i t should be broadened by CSA. One suggestion i s for CSA to incorporate s p e c i f i c a t i o n s set out in CMHC's Canadian Code of Residential Construction. There i s considerable controversy over the fact that two building codes e x i s t - one for mobile homes and one for conventional homes. The mobile industry favours separate but equal standards and believes the standards set by CMHC and other l e v e l s of government are inappropriate for regulating mobile homes. The CSA has developed an Kill standard (more or les s equivalent to the National Building Code) for manufactured homes. This standard i s available for mobile homes and i n 1976, mobile home manufacturers produced 799 CSA A277 units, about 4% of t o t a l mobile home 98 production. The A277 standard provides f o r regional variations and heavier s p e c i f i c a t i o n s (e .g., snow load, insulation, e t c . ) . In 1974 these s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and related factors increased the price of a $25,000 double-wide u n i t by 99 $1000. Why has the industry not adopted the K i l l standard for double-wides, which most c l o s e l y resemble conventional bungalows, hoping for better municipal acceptance than i s the case for Z240 single-wides? The industry reacts by stating that building standards vary across Canada. This d i v e r s i t y of standards i s a major problem for producers of f a c t o r y - b u i l t housing, since i t i s d i f f i c u l t to design to a single standard that can be expected to meet a l l l o c a l requirements within a factory's marketing a r e a . 1 n n 78 So t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y has chosen t o d e v e l o p the Z24 0 as a s i n g l e n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d . T h i s p r e f e r e n c e i s based on c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e - i n n o v a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n o f the i n d u s t r y and t h e unique n a t u r e o f t h e p r o d u c t . House c o n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia f a l l s w i t h i n t h e scope o f P a r t 9 o f t h e N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code o f Canada 197 5. T h i s Code i s meant t o p r o v i d e a minimum s t a n d a r d f o r a l l l o w - r i s e , y e a r - r o u n d h o u s i n g i n c l u d i n g t h a t f i n a n c e d under t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t . The NBC c o v e r s most a s p e c t s o f house c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g minimum space r e q u i r e m e n t s , and r e f e r s t o e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d s f o r m a t e r i a l s . The o v e r a l l purpose o f the NBC, whose c o n t e n t s a r e under c o n t i n u a l r e v i e w , i s t o a s s i s t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n a d o p t i n g b u i l d i n g by-laws t o g u i d e new c o n s t r u c t i o n under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . CSA Z24 0 and t h e NBC P a r t 9 d i f f e r i n t h r e e main ways. The Z24 0 s t a n d a r d c o v e r s o n l y one t y p e o f permanent s h e l t e r , t h e m o b i l e home, and v a r i a t i o n s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e m i n i m a l compared t o t h e wide range o f c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g d e a l t w i t h by t h e NBC. CSA Z24 0 g e n e r a l l y assumes c o n s t a n t c o n d i t i o n s , though t h e r e a r e some p r o v i s i o n s f o r c l i m a t i c extremes, w h i l e t h e NBC t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . C o n c e r n i n g l e g a l s t a t u s , t h e NBC forms the b a s i s o f l o c a l b u i l d i n g by-laws b u t adherence t o t h e CSA Z240 s t a n d a r d i s on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , many 79 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h i s P r o v i n c e now c i t e t h e Z240 s t a n d a r d i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g b y - l a w s . F i n a l l y , Z240 i s v e r y g e n e r a l i n scope and i t s r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e l e s s s t r i n g e n t t h a n t h e NBC. D e t a i l e d d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e s e t s o f r e g u l a t i o n s a r e n o t r e l e v a n t t o t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y . Moreover, proposed changes t o e x i s t i n g codes w i l l l i k e l y make d r a m a t i c m o d i f i c a t i o n s . F o r example, s i n c e May 1, 1979, a l l m o b i l e homes manu f a c t u r e d i n Canada a r e r e q u i r e d t o comply w i t h s t a n d a r d s o f m o b i l e home c o n s t r u c t i o n as p r e s c r i b e d by Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code a t t h a t date. 1" 0 1' A n o t h e r CSA S t a n d a r d , t h e Z240.7.1-1972, has been f o r m u l a t e d as a g u i d e t o good p r a c t i c e i n s e t t i n g up and a d m i n i s t e r i n g m o b i l e home p a r k s , but i t i s not i n t e n d e d t o be t h e b a s i s o f a c e r t i f i c a t i o n programme. T h i s t w e n t y - s i x page b o o k l e t c o n t a i n s o n l y g e n e r a l d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as t h e f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e f o r s i t e p l a n n i n g : . . . Park p l a n n i n g s h o u l d adapt t o i n d i v i d u a l s i t e c o n d i t i o n s , type o f market t o be s e r v e d , r e f l e c t advances i n s i t e p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , and be a d a p t a b l e t o t h e t r e n d s i n d e s i g n o f t h e m o b i l e home i t s e l f . . . S e v e r a l a p p e n d i c e s d e a l w i t h f i r e s a f e t y recommendations, recommended p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n s p e c t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s , and suggested r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and conduct o f m o b i l e home park t e n a n t s and l a n d l o r d s . Park r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n t h e next c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s , as t h e y appear t o be t h e o b j e c t o f 80 c o n c e r n t o some i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s f e l t t h a t many p a r k s a r e too t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d and t h a t t e n a n t conduct i s o f t e n r e q u i r e d t o be a f u n c t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r park o p e r a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . Even t h i s CSA S t a n d a r d s u g g e s t s t h a t , f o r example, ". . . Drunkenness o r any a c t s o f immoral conduct 103 w i l l n o t be p e r m i t t e d . . . . " " . . . C h i l d r e n and p e t s w i l l n o t be a l l o w e d t o t r e s p a s s on o t h e r m o b i l e home l o t s , 10^ s a l e s l o t s , l a u n d r y rooms, o r c l o t h e s d r y i n g y a r d s . . . ." Park r e g u l a t i o n s a r e an e x c e l l e n t example o f j u s t how unique a r e s i d e n t i a l environment i s t h e m o b i l e home p a r k . Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n p u b l i s h e s a handbook supplement t o t h e i r s i t e p l a n n i n g manual w h i c h d e a l s w i t h s i t e p l a n n i n g f o r m o b i l e homes. The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s book i s t o p r o v i d e c r i t e r i a f o r the a c c e p t a n c e o f m o b i l e home p a r k s o r s u b d i v i s i o n s where m o b i l e homes f i n a n c e d under t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t may be l o c a t e d . The handbook c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y o f mandatory and sug g e s t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r o j e c t d e s i g n , community p l a n n i n g , d r i v e w a y s and walkways, open space, and so on, g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w i n g t h e same sequence as t h e S i t e P l a n n i n g Handbook. The CMHC handbook i s t o o g e n e r a l i n scope t o be r e l e v a n t t o t h e needs o f modern m o b i l e home p a r k s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d l i t t l e g u i d a n c e on what t o ex p e c t from a m o b i l e home park by sta t e m e n t s l i k e , ". . . I t i s hoped t h a t i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l d r a f t occupancy and maintenance by-laws t o ensure t h a t developments a r e kep t 81 105 i n a good s t a t e o f r e p a i r . " o r ". . . The maximum d e n s i t y o f m o b i l e home developments w i l l be governed by s i d e y a r d r e q u i r e m e n t s and l o t areas. n^®^ What i s needed i s a s e t o f model park p l a n s , recommended o r d i n a n c e s , and d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g broad r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r t h e needs o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p a r k s i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f the c o u n t r y . L o c a l g u i d e l i n e s have been p r e p a r e d by most p r o v i n c i a l governments, such as B r i t i s h Columbia's Model R e s i d e n t i a l M o b i l e Home P a r k s By-law. These a r e v a l u a b l e i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , e x t e n s i o n , d e s i g n , and s e r v i c i n g o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . A n o t h e r u s e f u l example o f an o r d i n a n c e g o v e r n i n g p a r k s i s t h a t p r e p a r e d by B. D. Towers, a c o n s u l t a n t p l a n n e r who was i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e " L i f e s t y l e f o r Tomorrow" seminar and workshop h e l d i n Toronto i n 1974. T h i s i s an o r d i n a n c e e n f o r c i n g minimum s t a n d a r d s f o r p a r k s and e s t a b l i s h i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e i r 107 d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n , and maintenance. O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 3130 under t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Health Act (1967) has u n t i l r e c e n t l y been the p r i n c i p a l s e t o f r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g m o b i l e home park development i n B.C. These s t a n d a r d s were i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y t o e s t a b l i s h minimum p u b l i c h e a l t h r e q u i r e m e n t s i n u n o r g a n i z e d a r e a s o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v i n g no p a r k development b y - l a w s . Many e x i s t i n g p a r k s were d e v e l o p e d t o t h i s minimum l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s t a n d a r d s , w i t h l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f environment c r e a t e d . Good q u a l i t y , w e l l d e s i g n e d p a r k s 82 cannot be l e g i s l a t e d j u s t as good q u a l i t y townhouse o r row ho u s i n g developments cannot be l e g i s l a t e d . Recent L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  B r i t i s h Columbia has t a k e n a l e a d i n Canada w i t h r e s p e c t t o government response t o the needs o f t h o s e c o n n e c t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes and park l i v i n g . A p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f the former M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and Housing was t o ensure t h a t a network o f l e g a l , f i n a n c i a l , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s was r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g i n g s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . To t h i s end, B i l l 34, t h e Mobile Home Act was p r o c l a i m e d on A p r i l 1, 1978 . The Act, w h i c h p r o v i d e s l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y f o r a M o b i l e Home R e g i s t r y , i s t h e f i r s t i n Canada. An aim o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o ensure a h i g h s t a n d a r d m o b i l e home park and, t h u s , encourage more l o c a l governments ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Lower Mainland) to p e r m i t t h e use o f l a n d f o r such p u r p o s e s . The R e g i s t r y f u n c t i o n s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o the Land R e g i s t r y i n p r o t e c t i n g the bu y e r s and s e l l e r s o f houses and l a n d . I t keeps a r e c o r d o f a l l c l a i m s a g a i n s t a l l m o b i l e homes (mortgages, t a x e s , l i e n s , e t c . ) . T h i s means t h a t one can s e a r c h t h e r e g i s t e r and o b t a i n a l l p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n when b u y i n g a m o b i l e home. The R e g i s t r y aims a t p r o v i d i n g l e n d e r s w i t h b e t t e r s e c u r i t y w h i c h may i n t u r n r e s u l t i n b e t t e r terms f o r m o b i l e home 83 p u r c h a s e r s . A s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p t i o n t o t h e R e g i s t r y a r e those m o b i l e homes l o c a t e d on l a n d owned by the oc c u p a n t o r on l a n d h e l d under a r e g i s t e r e d l e a s e w i t h a term o f not l e s s than t h r e e y e a r s . The home can o n l y be r e g i s t e r e d i f the owner w i s h e s t o r e l o c a t e o r s e l l t h e m o b i l e home, o r a s e c u r i t y i n s t r u m e n t such as a c o n d i t i o n a l s a l e s c o n t r a c t i s to be r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n s t i t . The Mobile Home Act a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s changes t o t h e new Residential Tenancy Act ( e f f e c t i v e 1 November, 1977) , w h i c h i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the O f f i c e o f t h e Rentalsman. M o b i l e home owners r e s i d i n g i n m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e now p r o t e c t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o law, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. A l a n d l o r d (mobile home park o p e r a t o r ) cannot charge an "e n t r a n c e f e e " o f more t h a n h a l f o f one month's r e n t ; 2. A l a n d l o r d cannot u n r e a s o n a b l y w i t h h o l d c o n s e n t t o an assignment o f a l e a s e by a m o b i l e home owner even i f t h e l e a s e i s o n l y on a month-to-month bases; 3. A l a n d l o r d cannot charge a f e e f o r c o n s e n t i n g t o t h e s u b l e t t i n g o r assignment o f a l e a s e i n h i s m o b i l e home park. The Mobile Home Act a l s o p r o v i d e s a means whereby m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e w i l l be a b l e t o c o l l e c t f u l l p r o p e r t y t a x e s t h r o u g h c o n t r o l o f r e l o c a t i o n . There a r e a l s o p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h amend t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act by r e s t r i c t i n g the amount o f a l i c e n s e f e e t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y can charge f o r a m o b i l e home p a r k . Where a 84 m o b i l e home i s moved from one m u n i c i p a l i t y t o a n o t h e r , t h e t a x e s w i l l be a p p o r t i o n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l e n g t h o f time i t was l o c a t e d i n each o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A r e l o c a t i o n p e r m i t i s now r e q u i r e d b e f o r e such a home i s moved. T e c h n i c a l amendments were a l s o made t o ensure t h a t m o b i l e homes c o n t i n u e d t o be e l i g i b l e f o r M u n i c i p a l I n c e n t i v e G r a n t s on t h e same b a s i s as o t h e r h o u s i n g when t h e Revenue Snaring Act became o p e r a t i o n a l A p r i l 1, 1978. These g r a n t s a r e d e s i g n e d t o encourage m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o promote house c o n s t r u c t i o n on a l r e a d y - s e r v i c e d l a n d , t o d e v e l o p more l a n d f o r "medium d e n s i t y , modest s i z e , a f f o r d a b l e " h o u s i n g , and t o speed up the h o u s i n g a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . G r a n t s o f $2,000 per u n i t a r e made t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , h a l f from p r o v i n c i a l funds and h a l f from CMHC. L o c a l governments c a n c l a i m g r a n t s f o r m o b i l e homes t h a t c a r r y t h e minimum CSA Z240 c e r t i f i c a t i o n , a r e i n t e n d e d f o r permanent occupancy, a r e c o n n e c t e d t o an approved w a t e r and s e w a g e - d i s p o s a l system, and t h a t a r e p a r t o f a p r o j e c t w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a t l e a s t 25 u n i t s per h e c t a r e . P a r t Three - Economic P e r s p e c t i v e s  U n i t C o s t s and F i n a n c i n g D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n , d u r a b i l i t y , maintenance, and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g a r e not w i t h i n the p u r v i e w o f t h i s s t u d y . Moreover c o s t comparisons between m o b i l e homes and o t h e r forms o f h o u s i n g a r e d i f f i c u l t t o make because m o b i l e s a r e d i f f e r e n t from 85 s i t e b u i l t h o u s i n g i n p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y d e t a i l . Never-t h e l e s s , an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o p r o v i d e a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f c o s t and how i t r e l a t e s t o o t h e r c o m p e t i t i v e t y p e s o f h o u s i n g . The m o b i l e home o v e r a l l p r i c e i n d i c a t e d i n Ta b l e V I I I i n c l u d e s r e t a i l p urchase p r i c e , r e t a i l s a l e s t a x and c o s t s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s e t - u p , s t e p s and s k i r t i n g . The r e t a i l p u r c h a s e p r i c e u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s f u r n i t u r e (though t h i s i s l e s s p o p u l a r l a t e l y ) , range, r e f r i g e r a t o r , d r a p e s , and f l o o r c o v e r i n g s ; b u t i f t h e s e items a r e not r e q u i r e d t h e r e i s a r e d u c t i o n a l l o w e d . The range o f r e t a i l p r i c e s f o r m o b i l e homes extends from $17,000 t o over $40,000 i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r i c e s v a r y depending on such t h i n g s as q u a l i t y o f m a t e r i a l s , i n t e r i o r f i n i s h , s i z e o f the u n i t , d e l i v e r y d e s t i n a t i o n , and whether o r not t h e d e a l e r i s i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g a space i n a p a r k f o r t h e m o b i l e home. The f o u n d a t i o n , b l o c k i n g , f r e i g h t , u t i l i t y hook-up, i n t e r i m f i n a n c e , w a r r a n t y , s a l e s t a x , r e t a i l o verhead, and r e t a i l p r o f i t a r e p a r t o f the d e a l e r ' s markup. Markup v a r i e s g r e a t l y and can range from 25 t o 40 p e r c e n t markup on c o s t . Set-up o r s i t i n g c o s t s i n c l u d e c o n n e c t i o n o f s e r v i c e s c o n s i s t i n g o f e l e c t r i c a l power, w a t e r , sewage, and f u e l o i l . The average c o s t i n Canada o f a t y p i c a l 14' x 68' model m o b i l e home as e s t i m a t e d by C.M.H.C. i n 1977 i s as f o l l o w s : TABLE VIII - COST COMPARISON Unit De s c r i p t i o n Single-Wide Mobile Home in Park AHOP Single-Family Dwelling NHA Single-Family Dwelling Single-Wide Mobile Home on a Lot Square Feet of L i v i n g Area 896 982 1,065 896 Construction Cost $ 14,244 $ 27,575 $ 31,734 $ 14,244 S i t e Amenities 819 - - 819 Dealer Markup 3,766 - - 3,766 Land - 10,075 7,042 R e t a i l S e l l i n g P r i c e $ 18,829 $ 34,617 $ 41,809 $ 25,871 Down Payment: Percent 15% 5% 5% 15% Amount $ 2,824 $ 1,731 $ 2,090 $ 3,881 Mortgage Fee - 329 397 -Term of Loan: Years 15 25 25 15 Interest Rate 13.5% 8.0%* 10.25% 13.5% Balance (including fee) 16,005 33,215 40,116 21,990 Monthly Costs: Loan Payment $ 204 $ 253* $ 366 $ 280 Park Rent (Monthly) 80 - - -Property Tax 26 48* 59 39 Net Direct Cost Per Month $ 310 $ 301* $ 425 $ 319 Monthly Cost Per Square Foot .35 .31* .40 .39 Family Annual Income to Qualify @ 30% 12,400 12,040 17,000 12,760 * F i r s t Year Source: C.M.H.C. (1977) oo ON 87 M o b i l e Home $ 17,805 A m e n i t i e s 1,024 R e t a i l S e l l i n g P r i c e W i t h o u t F u r n i t u r e $ 18,829 F u r n i t u r e and A p p l i a n c e s 2,934 R e t a i l S e l l i n g P r i c e $ 21,763 T a b l e V I I I i s based on d a t a d e r i v e d by C.M.H.C. and r e f l e c t s 1976 c o s t s . The purpose here i s t o compare the c o s t s o f m o b i l e homes i n p a r k s w i t h the c o s t s o f t h e i r major c o m p e t i t o r s i n c e 1974 - t h e A.H.O.P. s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g . The o n l y f i g u r e w h i c h c o u l d be debated i s t h a t o f park r e n t w h i c h , i n the case o f a new park i n the Vancouver a r e a , a v e r a g e s 150 d o l l a r s per month. In the F a l l o f 1978 t h e Bank o f Nova S c o t i a r e q u i r e d 2 5 p e r c e n t down over 15 y e a r s a t 13.5 p e r c e n t and the C anadian I m p e r i a l Bank o f Commerce r e q u i r e d 15 p e r c e n t down over 10 y e a r s a t 12.5 p e r c e n t . M o b i l e homes l o c a t e d on r e n t e d l a n d i n p a r k s , s u p p o r t e d on p i e r s o r b l o c k s a r e f i n a n c e d as p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y . B r i t i s h Columbia has made h o u s i n g f i n a n c i n g a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e t o m o b i l e home owners r e s i d i n g i n p a r k s t h r o u g h t h e Borne Purchase Assistance Act (H.P.A.A.). A $1000 Grant i s a v a i l a b l e on a new m o b i l e home where the a p p l i c a n t i s the f i r s t o c c u p a n t . A $2500 Grant i s a v a i l a b l e i n the form o f t h e F a m i l y F i r s t Home Programme f o r f a m i l i e s w i s h i n g to purchase t h e i r f i r s t home; t h e m o b i l e home i n t h i s c a s e does n o t have to be new. 88 The $5 000 B.C. Second Mortgage Loan i s now a v a i l a b l e on new o r used m o b i l e homes l o c a t e d i n m o b i l e home p a r k s through an amendment to t h e H.P.A.A. A p p l i c a n t s must r e t a i n a minimum e q u i t y i n t h e m o b i l e home o f a t l e a s t 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t o r purchase p r i c e . A l s o , i f t h e r e i s a c h a t t e l mortgage o r c o n d i t i o n a l s a l e s c o n t r a c t r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n s t t h e m o b i l e home, t h e Second Mortgage cannot exceed t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e v a l u e o f t h e m o b i l e home i t s e l f and t h e amount r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n s t i t . The i n t e r e s t r a t e i s the r a t e r e q u i r e d f o r i n s u r e d l o a n s under t h e N.H.A., and f o r b o t h forms o f a s s i s t a n c e , t h e m o b i l e home must be s u b j e c t t o assessment. One f u r t h e r g r a n t i s the t a x r e b a t e programme, t h e P r o v i n c i a l Home-Owner Gra n t , f o r p r o p e r t y t a x e s and i s a v a i l a b l e t o m o b i l e home owners l i v i n g i n p a r k s or on t h e i r own l a n d . I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o note t h a t A l b e r t a i s t a k i n g an openminded view i n t r e a t i n g m o b i l e homes as a h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e . Through the D i r e c t L e n d i n g and S t a r t e r Home Ownership Programmes, l o a n s up to $46,000 a r e a v a i l a b l e w i t h 40-year a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d s , f o r b o t h c o n v e n t i o n a l m o b i l e homes and homes on permanent f o u n d a t i o n s . Park Development C o s t s The c o s t s o f d e v e l o p i n g a new m o b i l e home p a r k p a r t l y e x p l a i n t h e low vacancy r a t e and low t u r n o v e r i n v i r t u a l l y a l l p a r k s i n the Vancouver a r e a . W i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , new p a r k s a r e de v e l o p e d by well-managed and 89 w e l l - c a p i t a l i z e d c o r p o r a t i o n s w h i c h s e c u r e c a p i t a l from c o n v e n t i o n a l l e n d e r s . The s c a l e a t w h i c h t h e s e d e v e l o p e r s t y p i c a l l y work i s e x e m p l i f i e d by a p r o j e c t i n S u r r e y where a c o n s o r t i u m o f f i v e d e a l e r / d e v e l o p e r s a r e i n v o l v e d i n a combined s t r a t a and l e a s e p r o j e c t f o r 150 m o b i l e homes. C.M.H.C. have shown c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n m o b i l e home p a r k s . Through p u b l i c i n i t i a t i v e t h e development o f p a r k s may be f i n a n c e d under S e c t i o n 40 o f t h e N a t i o n a l H ousing A c t , o r under S e c t i o n 42 p r o v i s i o n s whereby l a n d assembly l o a n s may be made t o a p r o v i n c e o r m u n i c i p a l i t y . Under e i t h e r p r o v i s i o n what i s p r e f e r r e d i s t h e conveyance o f a r e g i s t e r e d f r e e h o l d i n t e r e s t o r a r e g i s t e r e d l o n g - t e r m l e a s e h o l d i n t e r e s t . C.M.H.C. i s i n v o l v e d w i t h a development s o u t h o f B a r r i e , O n t a r i o t h a t has been f i n a n c e d t h r o u g h t h e R o y a l Bank f o r more t h a n $5.5 m i l l i o n i n N.H.A. mortgage 115 l o a n s . The s u c c e s s o f l a r g e p a r k s has won the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f major l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , banks, and even m o b i l e home m a n u f a c t u r e r s . G e n e r a l l y t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s s t i p u l a t e t h e minimum s i z e o f p a r k f o r economic i n v e s t m e n t a t 150 u n i t s and a d e n s i t y o f 7 t o 7.5 u n i t s p e r a c r e , and p r e f e r up t o 300 u n i t s a t a d e n s i t y o f l e s s than 8 u n i t s per a c r e . Mortgage l o a n s can be o b t a i n e d f o r up t o 7 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a l u e o f the park upon c o m p l e t i o n ; and t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f completed v a l u e tends t o v a r y from 5 t o 7 ti m e s a n n u a l g r o s s income. 90 Once a g a i n A l b e r t a appears t o be a s t e p o r two ahead o f o t h e r p r o v i n c e s w i t h i t s M o b i l e Home Park Programme. I n t h i s c a s e l o a n s o f up t o 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e development c o s t s a re a v a i l a b l e w i t h a 25-year a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d and i n t e r e s t r a t e s a t the A l b e r t a Home Mortgage C o r p o r a t i o n commercial r a t e . I n 1976 t h r e e p a r k s w i t h 469 l o t s were f i n a n c e d by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n . Summaries o f e s t i m a t e d c o s t s o f d e v e l o p i n g m o b i l e home spaces appear on t h e f o l l o w i n g pages. T a b l e IX i s an e s t i m a t e o f c o s t s c a l c u l a t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and Housing i n 1977. T a b l e X i s an e s t i m a t e c a l c u l a t e d by o f f i c i a l s o f t h e former Housing C o r p o r a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a proposed development i n S u r r e y , B.C. Both o f t h e s e e s t i m a t e s a r e based on p r i c e s i n e f f e c t a t V i c t o r i a and S u r r e y i n March 1977. T a b l e XI i l l u s t r a t e s c o s t i n c r e a s e s o c c u r r i n g s i n c e 1972-73, when t h i s e s t i m a t e o f c o s t s o f improvements f o r a t y p i c a l m o b i l e home community was p r e p a r e d . T a x a t i o n o f M o b i l e Homes The assessment s t a t u s o f a m o b i l e home v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t e n u r e o f t h e l a n d on w h i c h t h e home i s l o c a t e d . I n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e Mobile Rome Park Fee Act came i n t o e f f e c t May 1, 1971, p r e s c r i b i n g monthly f e e s depending on t h e s i z e o f t h e home, p a y a b l e by o p e r a t o r s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The m a j o r i t y o f m o b i l e home 91 TABLE IX 1977 ESTIMATED SERVICING COSTS (PER MOBILE HOME SPACE) Item o f Work M i n i m a l Deluxe C l e a r i n g $ 187 $ 187 S i t e I n f o r m a t i o n 100 100 S e r v i c i n g - S a n i t a r y 579 579 Water 593 593 S u r f a c e D r a i n a g e 229 -Underground D r a i n a g e - 866 Road 963 963 U t i l i t i e s 0/H 256 -U t i l i t i e s U/G - 1, 804 L e g a l Survey 62 62 Support Pad 120 573 Driveway 120 328 E n g i n e e r i n g 800 1, 000 L a n d s c a p i n g - 500 SUBTOTAL $ 4, 009 $ 7, 555 C o n t i n g e n c y 791 1, 511 TOTAL $ 4, 800 $ 9, 066 "''Based on p r i c e s i n e f f e c t a t V i c t o r i a i n March, 1977, f o r a l a r g e development o f m o b i l e home spaces 4 5 1 wide on e a s i l y d e v e l o p a b l e s i t e s . 2 Deluxe means development i n c l u d i n g a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : c u r b s , g u t t e r s , underground storm d r a i n a g e , underground w i r i n g w i t h o r n a m e n t a l s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , c o n c r e t e s u p p o r t pad and d r i v e w a y , and e x t e n s i v e l a n d s c a p i n g . M i n i m a l development e l i m i n a t e s t h e s e f e a t u r e s o r uses lower c o s t a l t e r n a t i v e s . 92 TABLE X 1977 ESTIMATED SERVICING COSTS - SURREY T o t a l A r e a - 18.36 a c r e s Y i e l d - 183 pads (10 pads per ac r e ) 1. Land C o s t s I n t e r e s t a t 9.75% (prime p l u s 1% o u t s t a n d i n g 1 f u l l year) 2. Development C o s t s ( S u r r e y e s t i m a t e s ) a. O f f s i t e C o s t s - C r a n l e y D r i v e b. S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n c. O n s i t e S e r v i c e s (10, 000 per pad i n c l u d e s l a n d s c a p i n g , 4% i n s p e c t i o n , and 5% e n g i n e e r i n g design) d. M u n i c i p a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i ) Impost (1460/pad) i i ) 4% I n s p e c t i o n on o f f s i t e c o s t s i i i ) 3. I n t e r i m F i n a n c i n g on Development C o s t s 1 y e a r @ 9.75% x .5 y e a r x 2,437,000 $ 699,000 68,000 $ 767,000 $ 767,000 $ 285,000 20,000 1,830,000 267,000 11,000 24,000 $ 2,437,000 $ 2,437,000 $ 119,000 S e c u r i t y D e p o s i t s (1%) 4. Management Fee 3.5% o f l a n d & development c o s t s $ 112,000 5. M a r k e t i n g 2.5% o f s a l e s $ 86,000 T o t a l A n t i c i p a t e d E x p e n d i t u r e s $ 3,521,000 93 TABLE XI 1973 ESTIMATED ONSITE SERVICING COSTS - GENERAL Improvement C o s t p e r Space S a n i t a r y $ 341 Water D i s t r i b u t i o n System 200 S e r v i c e C o n n e c t i o n s 590 S i t e G r a d i n g 161 P a v i n g i n c l u d i n g t h e pad 665 Underground E l e c t r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n System and E l e c t r i c a l S e r v i c e Equipment 272 S t r e e t L i g h t i n g 93 L a n d s c a p i n g 230 M i s c e l l a n e o u s S t r u c t u r e s i n c l u d i n g S e r v i c e B u i l d i n g 177 R e c r e a t i o n Equipment 74 Park A c c e s s o r i e s 40 S i d e w a l k s and G r a v e l Pads 25 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 41 P l a n n i n g E n g i n e e r i n g and S i t e S u p e r v i s i o n 235 T o t a l C o s t o f Improvements p e r Space $ 3, 144 L e s s G r a d i n g 161 To compare w i t h T a b l e X $ 2, 983 Note: The c o s t o f l a n d i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e above f i g u r e s 94 owners p a i d 6 0 d o l l a r s p e r y e a r , and t h e Act a p p l i e d t o a l l l a n d o c c u p i e d by two o r more m o b i l e homes. The Mobile Home Tax Act o f 19 73 superceded the 1971 a c t . A c c o r d i n g l y , a m o b i l e home s i t u a t e d w i t h i n a m o b i l e home park i s deemed an improvement f o r t h e purpose o f r e a l p r o p e r t y assessment and t a x a t i o n . P a r k s are d e f i n e d here as a l o c a t i o n where one o r more m o b i l e homes a r e s i t u a t e d on l a n d w h i c h i s r e n t e d o r l e a s e d by the owners o f the m o b i l e homes. Each m o b i l e u n i t i s a s s e s s e d i n t h e name o f t h e owner o f t h e m o b i l e home, w h i l e the owner o f t h e park i s a s s e s s e d on t h e v a l u e o f t h e l a n d w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s the pa r k . T h i s scheme l e d t o m o b i l e homes b e i n g a s s e s s e d f o r m u n i c i p a l t a x e s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1974. There i s g e n e r a l d i s a g r e e m e n t as t o whether l i c e n s i n g o r assessment y i e l d s t h e b e s t revenue r e t u r n f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The c u r r e n t t r e n d i s toward assessment p a r t l y because p r o v i n c i a l t a x e s a r e u s u a l l y l e s s t h a n t h e Home-Owner G r a n t . I n O n t a r i o , however, t h e r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n e x c l u d e s from r e a l p r o p e r t y assessment many m o b i l e homes found i n p a r k s today because t h e homes a r e not " a f f i x e d t o l a n d . " I n t h i s P r o v i n c e m o b i l e homes o u t s i d e o f p a r k s come under p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Assessment Act. Homes on a permanent f o u n d a t i o n a r e a s s e s s e d i n t h e name o f the landowner, w h i l e homes n o t permanently a f f i x e d may o r may not be a s s e s s e d depending upon t h e a r e a i n t h e P r o v i n c e where t h e y are s i t u a t e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m o b i l e homes i n B r i t i s h C olumbia by assessment s t a t u s i s e s t i m a t e d i n F i g u r e 4. 96 FIGURE 4: ASSESSMENT STATUS OF MOBILE HOMES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (Estimated at December 31, 1977) LOCATION -> NUMBER -> ASSESSMENT -* STATUS + B.C. 55,000 A N.A. 2,300 -«-• NOTE: A = Assessed; NA = Not Assessed IN PARKS 32,000 •<- 2 or more mobile homes on rented land NOT IN PARKS 23,000 A E l i g i b l e for Homeowner Grants since 1973 NA Single mobile homes 2,300 • OWNED LAND LEASED LAND 9,000 14,000 A NA A NA 900 1,400 Home not " f i x e d 1 to the land SUBDIVISIONS 1,500 NA One mobile home on a sin g l e l o t 5,500 NA One mobile home and a house on one l o t 2,000 NA 150 550 200 Note: A 10% figure was used to estimate the number of mobile homes outside mobile home parks that are not assessed. Source: M i n i s t r y of Municipal A f f a i r s and Housing, Research Section, 1978. CHAPTER FIVE AN ANALYSIS OF OLDER MOBILE HOME PARKS IN THE STUDY AREA Scope o f Ch a p t e r The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s (as d e f i n e d below) i n s e v e r a l lower m a i n l a n d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . T h i s i s based i n p a r t on i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a sample o f 30 pa r k o p e r a t o r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f C o q u i t l a m , L a n g l e y , Maple R i d g e and S u r r e y . Other d a t a i s based on f i r s t - h a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s i n each o f t h e stu d y p a r k s . The i n t e r v i e w s and f i e l d s t u d i e s were un d e r t a k e n d u r i n g t h e l a t e Summer and F a l l o f 1978. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on b a s i c f a c t o r s such as p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and o p e r a t i o n a l and management c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s . The su r v e y r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a s e r i e s o f t a b l e s and a r e accompanied by q u a l i f y i n g and d e s c r i p t i v e remarks p e r t a i n i n g t o v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h o s e m o b i l e home p a r k s s t u d i e d . T h i s d a t a i s f i r s t p r e s e n t e d by m u n i c i p a l i t y t o show t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , s i z e , and number o f o l d e r p a r k s w i t h i n the t o t a l s t u d y a r e a . Summary d a t a r e f l e c t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n a l l o f t h e study p a r k s i s i n t h e second p a r t o f t h e a n a l y s i s . 98 I n t h i s s t u d y t h e term " o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k " has been d e f i n e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y t o i n c l u d e p a r k s e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1966 and h a v i n g a t l e a s t t e n spaces f o r m o b i l e homes. I n c l u d e d were p a r k s t h a t a r e e x c l u s i v e l y f o r permanent r e s i d e n t s o f m o b i l e homes, and o t h e r s w h i c h may combine t e n o r more m o b i l e home spaces w i t h spaces f o r t r a v e l t r a i l e r s , o r m o t e l o r o t h e r t o u r i s t accommodations. V e r y few p a r k s i n th e lower m a i n l a n d c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n t e n spaces, so t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s a r b i t r a r y l i m i t a t i o n i s t o e x c l u d e some an o m a l i e s t h a t a r e n o t " p a r k s " i n the u s u a l sense. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n used here i s not t h e same as t h a t used by the B.C. Government f o r mortgage f i n a n c i n g and m o b i l e home r e g i s t r y p u r p o s e s . The age and s i z e o f a l l m o b i l e home p a r k s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t u d i e d i s shown i n the b i v a r i a t e graph ( F i g u r e 5) on t h e f o l l o w i n g page. Of the 35 p a r k s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e i n 1978, o n l y n i n e were l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s o l d and s i x o f t h e s e n i n e were no more th a n t h r e e y e a r s o l d . Twelve were from t e n t o t w e l v e y e a r s o l d , h a v i n g been opened i n the mid 1960's, and a l l b u t one o f the r e m a i n i n g f o u r t e e n d a t e d from a f o u r y e a r p e r i o d i n the mid 1950's. As T a b l e X I I shows, the new p a r k s t e n d t o be l a r g e r t h a n t h e o l d e r ones. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o l d e r s t u d y p a r k s as compared t o a l l m o b i l e home p a r k s i n the s t u d y a r e a and i n the lower m a i n l a n d i s i l l u s t r a t e d on Maps 1 and 1A. 99 FIGURE 5: DISTRIBUTION OF MOBILE HOME PARKS BY SIZE AND AGE (IN 1978) 100-w CJ < Cfl o « ta ca s z ; l ! : i ! : 1 : 1 1 < ! ! i * 1 ' 1 | | i 1 1 I 1 : 1 1 • M i l M M 1 1 1 1 M M ! ! ! : 1 1 1 j M M ! ! ! • M l i I i t i M i M M 1 i ! i • M i l M M 1 1 i i i 1 1 i i i M M : ! ! i 1 i i ! I _., 1 t 1 I 1 | i i i 1 .1 i I I i i j i i ; i M i i * 1 1 i ' • I i ' • , ! 1 i ! • i 1 i i i i ! . ? i i M i 1 ! i i i ! | i 1 : ! i M .| I -, | ! i ! 1 I i t i : 1 M I 1 I i 1 I 1 i ': : M i 1 1 1 t 1 | : i ! • M i 1 ' ! ! 1 1 ! i ! i 1 M M i i 1 ! ! I I 1 I ! t 1 1 1 1 1 i ! M M ' ' i I 1 1 i 1 M • 1 i — 1 ! i i ! i ! M i i !: I i ! 1 . i l l : 1 ! • i. I ! ! I . 1__ e ! i j ! | i i — 1 ; 1 • ! ; | — — 1 .1.1 - — — _ 1 10 15 AGE OF PARK 20 25 30 Source: Compiled by a u t h o r from f i e l d s u r v e y . MAP 1 MAP lA 102 TABLE X I I NUMBER OF PARKS BY SIZE AND AGE Age S i z e <10 >10 T o t a l >90 4 3 7 <90 5 23 28 9 28 35 H i s t o r i c a l Legacy The s u b j e c t o f t r a i l e r c o u r t s and/or m o b i l e home par k s has been a s o u r c e o f c o n t i n u i n g debate i n most o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e lower m a i n l a n d f o r a number o f y e a r s . S t u d i e s range from t h o s e s k e t c h y a p p r a i s a l s p r i o r t o l o c a l a u t o - c o u r t by-laws ( c i r c a . 1955), o f what t r a i l e r l i f e was l i k e , t o development p l a n s f o r 300 u n i t " t o t a l environment" p a r k s . L o c a l a t t i t u d e s twenty y e a r s ago a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s : " L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o housekeeping and y a r d maintenance i s r e q u i r e d by t r a i l e r o c c u p a n t s , t h u s p r o m o t i n g a minimum o f r e s p o n s i b l e home l i f e . " and . . . arguments a g a i n s t t h e growing tendency o f t r a i l e r s t o be used f o r y e a r - r o u n d urban l i v i n g a l l o w o f no c o n c l u s i o n o t h e r t h a n t h e abandonment o f t r a i l e r c o u r t s i n f a v o u r o f normal t y p e s o f h o u s i n g . 1 Q 8 M o b i l e homes d i d n ot b e g i n t o appear i n s i g n i f i c a n t numbers i n t h e lo w e r m a i n l a n d u n t i l about t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ago, when t h e s t a n d a r d was the e i g h t by t h i r t y f o o t u n i t . P e o p l e 103 were u s i n g t h i s form o f h o u s i n g i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c t i v i t i e s l i k e t h e l o g g i n g and s a w m i l l i n d u s t r i e s a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s a l o n g t h e p e r i m e t e r s o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y . There were a l s o r e c e n t l y r e t i r e d p e o p l e and t h o s e i n s e a r c h o f a more h o s p i t a b l e w i n t e r c l i m a t e among thos e who op t e d f o r t r a i l e r c o u r t l i f e f o r some o f t h e r e a s o n s o u t l i n e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . Whatever t h e f a c t s may have been, however, i t was t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s where p e r c e i v e d by o t h e r s as t r a n s i e n t s , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r e p u t a t i o n o f u n d e s i r a b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o m o b i l e home s. N e v e r t h e l e s s , many u n i t s came t o r e s t i n what were o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d and i n t e n d e d as o v e r n i g h t camp s p o t s . Some l a n d was de v e l o p e d as p a r k s , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g a b u s i n e s s and l i v i n g f o r s m a l l o p e r a t o r s w h i l e a few i n d i v i d u a l s o r companies g r a d u a l l y g o t i n v o l v e d i n developments on a l a r g e r s c a l e . Many o f t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e auto and t r a i l e r c o u r t s r e s u l t e d from o u t d a t e d a u t o c o u r t b y - l a w s . Most lower m a i n l a n d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have shared common e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s u b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n . These i n c l u d e t h e m i x t u r e o f t o u r i s t t r a i l e r s and m o b i l e homes, o v e r c r o w d i n g , and poor s i t e development i n terms o f d e s i g n , s e r v i c e s , l a n d s c a p i n g , a m e n i t i e s , and l o c a t i o n . Such problems were a l s o a p r o d u c t o f greed, t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f making q u i c k and easy money, t h e f a i l u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h 104 between permanent and t r a n s i t o r y f a c i l i t i e s , and n e g l e c t e d and i n a d e q u a t e l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s . I n most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e r e has been l i t t l e o r no a t t e m p t t o approach m o b i l e home par k s i n a comprehensive and open-minded manner. The u s u a l way o f d e a l i n g w i t h them has been on an i n c r e m e n t a l b a s i s , as s p e c i f i c problems a r i s e , w i t h a n e v e r - e n d i n g s e r i e s o f amendments to l o c a l z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . The s u i t a b i l i t y o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n a r a p i d l y u r b a n i z i n g a r e a l i k e t he lower m a i n l a n d has been q u e s t i o n e d f o r a l m o s t as l o n g as t h e p a r k s have e x i s t e d . L o c a l o f f i c i a l s have v o i c e d c o n c e r n o v e r the p r e e m p t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped b u t p o t e n t i a l l y urban l a n d by m o b i l e homes and t h e p o s s i b l e c r e a t i o n o f b a r r i e r s t o t h e p l a n n e d growth o f t h e community. T h i s c o n c e r n i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l a c k o f a r e a s zoned f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s i n Vancouver, and th e a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (Burnaby, New Westm i n s t e r , D e l t a , Richmond, and t h e N o r t h Shore m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) . On the o t h e r hand, among t h e more r u r a l and l e s s u r b a n i z e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s removed from the i n n e r r i n g o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a , t h e r e a r e t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h i n the st u d y a r e a w h i c h do p r o v i d e f o r m o b i l e home developments. P a r k s have emerged i n t h e s e a r e a s because o f reduced p r e s s u r e f o r l a n d and a more w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d p o p u l a t i o n . Of c o u r s e t h e problem now i s t h a t t h e p a r k s have been viewed, a t l e a s t c o v e r t l y , as h a v i n g no p o t e n t i a l f o r 105 a l t e r n a t i v e t y p e s o f development- Development p r e s s u r e has now changed t h i s v i e w . L o c a l R e g u l a t i o n s S e c t i o n 702-b o f t h e B.C. Municipal Act p e r m i t s l o c a l c o u n c i l s , t h r o u g h z o n i n g b y - l a w s , t o d i v i d e a m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t o d e f i n e d zones and t o r e g u l a t e the use o f l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , and s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n such zones. S e c t i o n 7 1 4 - i o f t h e Act a u t h o r i z e s a l o c a l c o u n c i l t o r e g u l a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and l a y o u t o f t r a i l e r c o u r t s , m o b i l e home p a r k s , and camping grounds, and r e q u i r e s t h a t such c o u r t s , p a r k s , and grounds p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s s p e c i f i e d i n t h e by-law. As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s o f z o n i n g by-laws w h i c h r e g u l a t e p a r k s i n t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the stu d y a r e a . Many o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s e x i s t i n g i n t h e s e a r e a s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o o p e r a t e t h r o u g h t h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n as a non-conforming use. S e c t i o n 7 05-2 o f t h e Municipal Act s t a t e s : "A l a w f u l use o f p r e m i s e s e x i s t i n g a t t h e time o f a d o p t i o n o f a z o n i n g by-law, a l t h o u g h such use does not conform t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e by-law, may be c o n t i n u e d . . . . 1 0 9 From 1974 t o 1979 t h e common method o f p a r k development was t h e l a n d use c o n t r a c t i n a d e s i g n a t e d development a r e a . These c o n t r a c t s c o n t a i n t h e . c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e use and development o f the l a n d . Two p a r k s were 106 d e v e l o p e d i n L a n g l e y and S u r r e y under l a n d use c o n t r a c t s . Under t h e 1979 Municvpal Amendment Aet, l a n d use c o n t r a c t s were r e p l a c e d by a f o r m u l a f o r im p o s i n g development c o n d i t i o n s and m u n i c i p a l development c h a r g e s . A b r i e f r e v i e w o f z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s and development p r a c t i c e s f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s i n the f o u r s t u d y a r e a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s n e c e s s a r y as c o n t e x t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n s o f o l d e r p a r k s i n t h e s e j u r i s d i c t i o n s . L a n g l e y and Maple Ridge do n o t p r o v i d e f o r p a r k s i n t h e i r z o n i n g b y - l a w s , though i n b o t h c a s e s they c o u l d be a l l o w e d under l a n d use c o n t r a c t s . C o q u i t l a m a l l o w s m o b i l e home p a r k s i n t h e i r RMH-1 d i s t r i c t , and S u r r e y has t h r e e z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s i n w h i c h p a r k s a r e p e r m i t t e d u s e s . I n a l l f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s most o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s a r e non-conforming uses under t h e c u r r e n t z o n i n g . A l l f o u r have by-laws s e p a r a t e from t h e i r z o n i n g by-laws w h i c h r e g u l a t e a l l m o b i l e home developments, whether non-conforming, a l l o w e d by l a n d use c o n t r a c t o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s . A n a l y s i s o f O l d e r P a r k s  L o c a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n The o l d e r p a r k s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a and t h r o u g h o u t t h e lower m a i n l a n d a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a system o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n t h e same a r e a . T h e i r l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y r e f l e c t s q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y t h e f a c t t h a t p a r k s t e n d t o be s i t u a t e d a l o n g major t r a f f i c 107 a r t e r i e s and i n p r o x i m i t y t o commercial a r e a s . T a b l e X I I I p r o v i d e s a breakdown by m u n i c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a l l t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s between Vancouver and Hope. I n the F a l l o f 1978 t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4,500 m o b i l e home u n i t s l o c a t e d i n t h e s e p a r k s . As can be seen from Maps 1 and 1A, most o f t h e m o b i l e home pa r k s i n the lower m a i n l a n d a r e l o c a t e d on e a s t -west and n o r t h - s o u t h a x e s . N o r t h o f the F r a s e r R i v e r p a r k s a r e l o c a t e d a l o n g o r near t h e Lougheed and B a r n e t Highways, w h i l e s o u t h o f t h e R i v e r t h e p a r k s a r e strung, o u t a l o n g t h e K i n g George Highway and the F r a s e r Highway. I n the Township o f C h i l l i w a c k p a r k s t e n d t o be grouped a l o n g o r near Vedder Road, w i t h f o u r l a r g e p a r k s s i t u a t e d r e m o t e l y a l o n g C h i l l i w a c k Lake Road and nea r C u l t u s Lake. T h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o t h e " i n n e r c o r e " o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a i s a major r e a s o n f o r f i n d i n g many p a r k s i n L a n g l e y , S u r r e y and C o q u i t l a m . A n e g l i g i b l e r a t e o f park development e a s t o f C o q u i t l a m i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e t r a f f i c b o t t l e n e c k caused by a now i n a d e q u a t e Lougheed Highway. Only i n P i t t Meadows i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s has a m o b i l e home development been i n i t i a t e d ; and t h i s i s under co-o p e r a t i v e t e n u r e on l a n d made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h P r o v i n c i a l Government p a r t i c i p a t i o n . South o f the F r a s e r R i v e r , t h e r e i s a marked c u t o f f i n t h e number o f p a r k s once p a s t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f Highways 1 and 11 i n A b b o t s f o r d . Reasons f o r t h i s i n c l u d e 108 TABLE X I I I DISTRIBUTION OF MOBILE HOME PARKS IN THE LOWER MAINLAND J u r i s d i c t i o n Number o f P a r k s P e r c e n t a g e of T o t a l A b b o t s f o r d D.M.* 1 .86 Burnaby D.M. 0 0 C h i l l i w a c k C i t y 2 1.72 C h i l l i w h a c k D.M. 10 8.62 C o q u i t l a m D.M. 9 7.76 D e l t a D.M. 0 0 Dewdney-Alouette R.D. ( E l e c t o r a l Areas) 5 4.3 Fraser-Cheam R.D. ( E l e c t o r a l Areas) 24 20.69 G r e a t e r Vancouver R.D. ( E l e c t o r a l Areas) 2 1.72 Kent D.M. 2 1.72 L a n g l e y C i t y 1 .86 L a n g l e y D.M. 12 10.34 Maple Ridge D.M. 6 5 .17 M a t s q u i D.M. 6 5.17 M i s s i o n D.M. 4 3.45 New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y 0 0 N o r t h Vancouver C i t y 0 0 N o r t h Vancouver D.M. 0 0 P i t t Meadows D.M. 1 .86 P o r t C o q u i t l a m C i t y 1 .86 P o r t Moody C i t y 2 1.72 Richmond D.M. 0 0 S u r r e y D.M. 24 20.69 Vancouver C i t y 3 2.59 West Vancouver D i s t r i c t 1 .86 TOTAL 116 100.00 * D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y 109 t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on development a d j a c e n t t o a c o n t r o l l e d a c c e s s highway, t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s posed by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve, and t h e f e e l i n g t h a t commuting time i s too g r e a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e when p a r k s a r e l o c a t e d e a s t o f t h e C l e a r b r o o k a r e a . Perhaps t h e most c u r i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r k s i s t h a t s i t u a t e d on H a t z i c I s l a n d , e a s t o f M i s s i o n . Four s m a l l p a r k s and two m o d i f i e d s t r a t a -t y p e p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g m o b i l e , p r e - f a b r i c a t e d , and modular u n i t s a r e l o c a t e d here a l o n g Shook Road. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o l d e r p a r k s (as d e f i n e d ) by m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the study a r e a i s shown i n T a b l e XIV, and t h e i r a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d on Map 2. The T a b l e a l s o g i v e s t h e average age o f t h e s e p a r k s by m u n i c i p a l i t y . I n C o q u i t l a m and Maple Ridge a l l o f t h e p a r k s i n b o t h a r e a s f i t i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f " o l d e r p a r k s . " C o n v e n i e n t l y , f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s i n the s t u d y a r e a a r e l o c a t e d n o r t h o f the F r a s e r R i v e r , w i t h the r e m a i n i n g f i f t y p e r c e n t i m m e d i a t e l y s o u t h . S u r r e y c o n t a i n s t h e l i o n ' s s h are o f p a r k s i n t h e Vancouver a r e a and o v e r 2 0 p e r c e n t o f a l l the p a r k s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d . N e a r l y h a l f o f t h e p a r k s i n S u r r e y f i t i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f o l d e r p a r k s . The minimum, maximum and average s i z e i n a c r e s o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e XV. On t h e whole, t h e s e p a r k s average around 5 a c r e s , y i e l d i n g d e n s i t i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than t h o s e recommended by t h e Model 110 TABLE XIV OLDER PARKS (12 OR MORE YEARS) IN STUDY AREA Number o f % o f M u n i c i p a l i t y O l d e r P a r k s Average Age M u n i c i p a l T o t a l C o q u i t l a m 9 18.44 y e a r s 100 La n g l e y 5 16.4 y e a r s 41.66 Maple Ridge 6 14.83 y e a r s 100 S u r r e y 10 19.3 y e a r s 41.66 TABLE XV SIZES OF OLDER PARKS IN STUDY AREA (ACRES) M u n i c i p a l i t y C o q u i t l a m L a n g l e y Maple Ridge S u r r e y Minimum Maximum Average 2.3 30.59 7.78 5 27.5 12.27 2.1 8.13 4.23 1.1 10.0 4.81 M o b i l e Home Park By-Law and t h e most r e c e n t z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n each o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . W h i l e modern by-laws s t i p u l a t e d e n s i t i e s of between 7 and 9 u n i t s p e r a c r e many o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s have d e n s i t i e s o f 10 t o 15 u n i t s p e r a c r e . The f i g u r e s f o r C o q u i t l a m and L a n g l e y a r e somewhat d i s t o r t e d by t h r e e o l d e r p a r k s i n each a r e a w h i c h have l a r g e r s i z e s and lower d e n s i t i e s r o u g h l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h modern r e g u l a t i o n s . Most o f t h e newer p a r k s t h a t have been de v e l o p e d a r e w e l l o v e r 10 a c r e s i n s i z e and have d e n s i t i e s MAP 2 112 a v e r a g i n g 6 t o 7 u n i t s p e r a c r e . The h i g h d e n s i t i e s i n t h e o l d e r p a r k s cause poor p h y s i c a l appearance and f i r e department a c c e s s . What they have i s t h e minimum a r e a needed f o r t h e u n i t and a u t o a c c e s s t o i t . But t h e f a c t remains t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s i n d i c a t e v e r y few o f t h e p a r k s e n c o u n t e r e d had a h i s t o r y o f f i r e damage nor d i d the p a r k o p e r a t o r s acknowledge t h a t a t h r e a t o f p o t e n t i a l f i r e h a z a r d e x i s t e d . The r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s e p a r k s do n o t seem t o mind l i v i n g c l o s e t o one a n o t h e r and they r e i n f o r c e t h e i r o p i n i o n s by o f f e r i n g t h e example o f h i g h d e n s i t y l i v i n g i n Vancouver's West End. As mentioned e a r l i e r most o f the o l d e r p a r k s c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n 75 spaces and t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e XVI a l o n g w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e f i g u r e s f o r a l l t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s i n each o f the f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Once a g a i n t h e t h r e e p a r k s r e f e r r e d t o d i s t o r t t h e average s i z e i n park s p a c e s . Twenty o f t h e s e o l d e r p a r k s c o n t a i n between 3 0 and 99 s p a c e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o l d e r p a r k s a c c o r d i n g t o the number o f spaces i n each park i s g i v e n on Map 3. The l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a r p a r k s i n t h e lower m a i n l a n d i s l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e K i n g George Highway i n S u r r e y . Breakaway Bays M o b i l e Home Park c o n t a i n s 2 57 m o b i l e u n i t s , w i t h a 64 space e x p a n s i o n phase c u r r e n t l y underway. A l l o f the study p a r k s r e n t spaces on a month-to-month b a s i s , as opposed t o a f i x e d - t e r m l e a s e arrangement. T h i s p r a c t i c e appears t o be one o f the drawbacks of p a r k s i n 113 TABLE XVI NUMBER OF PADS IN OLDER PARKS IN STUDY AREA (BY MUNICIPALITY) Munic i p a l i t y P ark Spaces (pads) O l d e r P a r k s A l l P a r k s i n Study A r e a O l d e r P a r k s As P e r c e n t a g e o f A l l P a r k s C o q u i t l a m L a n g l e y Maple Ridge S u r r e y 1 - 9 0 0 0.0 10 - 29 1 1 11.1 30 - 49 3 3 33.3 50 - 99 3 3 33.3 100 - 149 0 0 0.0 150 o r more 2 2 22.2 1 — 9 0 0 0.0 10 - 29 2 2 16.66 30 - 49 2 2 16 .66 50 - 99 2 8 16.66 100 - 149 0 0 0.0 150 o r more 0 0 0.0 1 _ 9 1 1 16.66 10 - 29 1 1 16.66 30 - 49 3 3 50.0 50 - 99 1 1 16.66 100 - 149 0 0 0.0 150 o r more 0 0 0.0 1 - 9 0 0 0.0 10 - 29 3 6 12.5 30 - 49 3 6 12.5 50 - 99 4 6 16.66 100 - 149 0 4 0.0 150 o r more 0 2 0.0 MAP 3 terms o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f mortgage f i n a n c i n g from c o n v e n t i o n a l l e n d e r s . A number o f park o p e r a t o r s e x p r e s s e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o o f f e r a l e a s e / r e n t a l agreement to t h e i r t e n a n t s b u t i t seems t h a t park r e s i d e n t s p r e f e r t h e monthly r e n t a l c h a r g e , even when a 3 0-day c a n c e l l a t i o n p r o v i s i o n c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a l e a s e . T a b l e X V I I shows t h a t monthly r e n t s i n C o q u i t l a m and S u r r e y , t h e more c e n t r a l o f the f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , c o n t a i n more p a r k s w i t h r a t e s o f 100 t o 124 d o l l a r s p e r month. T h i s c o u l d a l s o be a r e f l e c t i o n o f l o c a l demand f o r m o b i l e home spaces and t h e r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e t o commercial and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . TABLE X V I I PAD RENTAL FOR OLDER PARKS IN STUDY AREA M u n i c i p a l i t y M o n t h l y Rent ( S i n g l e Wide)* O l d e r P a r k s C o q u i t l a m $ 60 - 99 100 - 124 125 - 150 4 4 1 L a n g l e y $ 60 - 99 100 - 124 125 - 150 4 1 0 Maple Ridge $ 60 - 99 100 - 124 125 - 150 4 2 0 S u r r e y $ 60 - 99 100 - 124 125 - 150 4 5 1 *The r e n t may i n c l u d e some s e r v i c e s and/or u t i l i t i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o l a n d r e n t . 116 C o r r e l a t i o n s between monthly r e n t and p a r k s i z e (number o f spaces) and park age were at t e m p t e d i n F i g u r e s 6 and 7. The d i s t r i b u t i o n s show t h a t r e n t s a r e lower i n s m a l l e r p a r k s and, w i t h some e x c e p t i o n s , a r e g e n e r a l l y l o w e r i n the o l d e r p a r k s . These c o n c l u s i o n s a l s o s e r v e d as a n o t h e r i n d i c a t o r i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o use as study p a r k s t h o s e w h i c h were a t l e a s t 12 y e a r s o l d . The r a t e s i n d i c a t e d a p p l y t o s i n g l e - w i d e m o b i l e homes (12 wides o r l e s s ) , and u s u a l l y i n c l u d e the charge f o r water, sewage, and garbage. Rates f o r do u b l e - w i d e s average 10 t o 2 5 d o l l a r s p e r month more. A s i d e from two p a r k s i n C o q u i t l a m where doub l e wides a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l number o f homes, t h e s e l a r g e r u n i t s a r e not common i n t h e o l d e r p a r k s . T a b l e X V I I I i n d i c a t e s what t y p e s o f u n i t s and how many o f each a r e i n the o l d e r p a r k s . TABLE X V I I I TYPES OF UNITS IN OLDER PARKS M o t e l O l d e r S i n g l e - Double- U n i t s M u n i c i p a l i t y P a r k s Wides Wides P r e s e n t C o q u i t l a m 9 568 191 L a n g l e y 5 230 21 Maple Ridge 6 190 14 S u r r e y 10 395 34 yes yes yes yes FIGURE 6: DISTRIBUTION OF PARKS ACCORDING TO MONTHLY RENT AND AGE OF PARK* AGE OF PARK *Source : Compi l ed by author from f i e l d d a t a . FIGURE 7: DISTRIBUTION OF PARKS ACCORDING - TO MONTHLY RENT AND: AGE OF PARK* 200-r 150-w a W z os o z OS >< X Eh O s i I t ! 1 . I ' ! • - i i | i i M i ' i 1 • I i ' 1 1 i ! 1 1 I i i 1 ! i i i 1 1 . 1 1 1 ! 1 1 L . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! I ; 1 . 1 1 1 i I i 1 1 i 1 ' ! 1 1 I 1 J I ! ! 1 I 1 ! i ; i ! 1 ! 1 | ! ! 1 i i I 1 1 1 i i i i i ! i 1 1 ! 1 | 1 i m 1 1 ; | i 1 1 i i • 1 | M M 1 ! i 1 i I I i 1 ! "i i 1 ' i l l 1 i 1 1 ( • 1 1 I I 1 i i 1 . ! i I I I ! 1 \ ' i t i 1 I > • 1 1 I 1 ! i 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 • i 1 ! ! ! ! i i 1 1 1 1 1 -*— i ! I i i 1 < i ! i 1 l ! 1 i 1 I i i • ! ! i i 1 i ! 1 I , J i j i • i ! ! ' i 1 1 1 ! 1 < 1 j i -! 1 ; i ! i ! 1 i i I 1. ! ! ; ! 1 i • ! • ; — i i ! j • » _ — - i..A. ! 1 1 — — — — . . . 100-4-50- 50 Ido 150 NUMBER OF PADS ?,00 3<50 *Source: Compiled by a u t h o r from f i e l d d a t a , 119 There were u n i t s f o r s a l e i n e v e r y one o f t h e s t u d y p a r k s , from a minimum o f one t o a maximum o f 27 u n i t s on t h e market a t a g i v e n t i m e . The homes were f o r s a l e t h r o u g h d e a l e r s , r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s , and p r i v a t e l y t h r o u g h t h e owners. I n some i n s t a n c e s park o p e r a t o r s noted t h a t some homes had "For S a l e " s i g n s i n t h e i r windows a t a l l t i m e s ; i n t h e s e c a s e s t h e owners were s p e c u l a t i n g by a s k i n g what was thought t o be an ou t r a g e o u s p r i c e based on t h e v a l u e o f t h e park space. S h o u l d t h e owner be o f f e r e d what he i s a s k i n g , he i s more than w i l l i n g t o s e l l , and then move on t o t r y a s i m i l a r s a l e i n an o t h e r p a r k . They a r e a b l e t o do t h i s because they have t h e c a p i t a l t o buy and s e l l where t h e y want. W h i l e t h e vacancy r a t e i n apartments has v a r i e d from zero t o 5 p e r c e n t f o r t h e l a s t few y e a r s t h e pad vacancy r a t e i n e s t a b l i s h e d p a r k s has c o n s i s t e n t l y been v i r t u a l l y z e r o . The t u r n o v e r o f f a m i l i e s can v a r y from n i l t o t e n o r f i f t e e n p e r c e n t p e r y e a r but t h e number o f v a c a n t spaces i n o l d e r p a r k s i s r a r e l y g r e a t e r t h a n one o r two spaces f o r a l l the o l d e r p a r k s t o g e t h e r . Moreover, what t u r n o v e r t h e r e i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s j u s t o c c u p a n t s , s i n c e the m o b i l e homes a r e more m a r k e t a b l e and w o r t h f a r more when the y remain i n a p a r k . The vacancy r a t e , as o f September 30, 1978, f o r o l d e r p a r k s i n the st u d y a r e a i s p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e XIX. 120 TABLE XIX VACANCY RATES IN OLDER PARKS (1978) Municipality Total Parks Total Pads Older Parks Pads in Older Parks Occupied Pads in Older Parks Percent Occupancy Coquitlam 9 760 9 760 760 100.0 Langley 12 753 5 251 251 100.0 Maple Ridge 6 200 6 200 198 99.0 Surrey 24 1652 10 439 438 99.8 Park O p e r a t i o n Over h a l f o f the o l d e r parks are owned and managed by the same p e r s o n . Owner management i s thought by some to have a d i r e c t and i m p o r t a n t , i f i n t a n g i b l e , e f f e c t upon the q u a l i t y o f the park i t s e l f . T h i s s tudy d i d not at tempt to q u a n t i f y t h i s a s p e c t but a number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s can be r e p o r t e d . In some o f the employee managed parks the q u a l i t y o f the park was h i g h but r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was not a f r i e n d l y p l a c e i n which to l i v e , o f t e n because o f the l a r g e r s i z e . S m a l l e r , owner-managed p a r k s are g e n e r a l l y c o n g e n i a l , n e i g h b o u r l y communi t i e s . They tend to be t i d y and e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n s where r e s i d e n t s a r e p r o t e c t i v e and take p r i d e i n t h e i r homes. A few i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s i n d i c a t e d most park t e n a n t s p r e f e r s m a l l e r p a r k s , l e s s than 50 u n i t s , as opposed to what they f e l t were l a r g e - s c a l e , "compulsory s o c i a l i z i n g " m o b i l e home p a r k s . 121 R e s t r i c t i o n s o f one k i n d o r a n o t h e r were found i n v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the o l d e r p a r k s . T a b l e XX shows t h a t more t h a n t w o - t h i r d s o f the p a r k s e x c l u d e f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , and su g g e s t s park o p e r a t o r s much p r e f e r o l d e r , r e t i r e d c o u p l e s . No p a r k s s u r v e y e d c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as " f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d . " TABLE XX PARK MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS N = 30 Owner-managed 18 (60%) C h i l d r e n p e r m i t t e d 9 (30%) S u b l e t t i n g p e r m i t t e d 16 (53%) O r i e n t e d toward s e n i o r s 19 (63%) W r i t t e n r e g u l a t i o n s on r e s i d e n t ' s b e h a v i o r 27 (90%) R e s t r i c t i o n s on M o b i l e Home U n i t s : L i m i t e d t o u n i t s s o l d by c e r t a i n d e a l e r s 6 (20%) L i m i t s on s i z e o r age o f u n i t s 25 (83%) "Good c o n d i t i o n " 25 (83%) Park o p e r a t o r s can a f f o r d t o be t h i s s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f t e n a n t s because t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t demand by o l d e r c o u p l e s . W i t h h i g h demand and low vacancy r a t e s i t i s a park o p e r a t o r ' s market. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d e s i g n and l o c a t i o n o f t h e p a r k s a r e n o t s u i t e d t o c h i l d r e n . Even among t h e p a r k s where c h i l d r e n a r e p e r m i t t e d , few have p l a y 122 areas of any merit. Access to schools and playgrounds i s also poor. A frequent response by operators when questioned as to why children were discouraged from t h e i r parks was a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n involving the fi x e d capacity of septic sewer systems. Another r e s t r i c t i o n relates to whether or not a mobile home that i s owned by someone not residing i n the park can be sublet. Recent l e g i s l a t i o n does not allow a park operator to unreasonably withhold permission to assign a sublease. However, nearly 50 percent of the operators contacted were not in favour of renting spaces to people who did not own t h e i r mobile home. Over 8 0 percent of the parks would not or could not accommodate mobile homes of a cert a i n age or s i z e . This r e s t r i c t i o n implies that only new or nearly new homes would be accepted i n the event of a space vacancy. . Some operators reported that they would accept used Z24 0 c e r t i f i e d mobile homes but they must be i n very good condition. But i n many cases Z240 14-wides could not f i t i n these parks because they were designed for 10- and 12-wides. Very few of the older parks (Table XX) displayed t i e s to one or more mobile home dealers. The older parks do not appear to be sales tools for the marketing of mobile units. Though there are degrees of being "open" or "closed" to c e r t a i n models and ages of homes, the extremely low vacancy rates i n parks would seem to reduce the e f f e c t of 123 t h i s a s p e c t o f park o p e r a t i o n on t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . Three o f t h e l a r g e r p a r k s a r e e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s e d and a l l o w i n j u s t t h o s e m o b i l e s marketed by t h e d e a l e r who d e v e l o p e d and owns t h e p a r k . Three o t h e r p a r k o p e r a t o r s a l l o w e d d e a l e r s t o pay the r e n t s on any v a c a n t spaces t h e r e b y g u a r a n t e e i n g s a l e s t o t h o s e d e a l e r s . N i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s have a s e t o f r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h t e n a n t s must a c c e p t (Table X X ) . These r e g u l a t i o n s v a r y from o r d i n a r y r u l e s l i k e "no t o l e r a t i o n o f f a s t d r i v i n g " t o t h o s e f o r w h i c h the j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s hard t o u n d e r s t a n d . F o l l o w i n g a r e some e x c e r p t s from park r e g u l a t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e study: - No a d d i t i o n a l p e o p l e t o s t a y i n t r a i l e r s w i t h o u t Manager's c o n s e n t . - The Manager's d e c i s i o n w i l l be f i n a l where no w r i t t e n r u l e i s c o n c e r n e d . - The Management r e s e r v e s t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e any r e q u e s t . - V i s i t i n g p e t s a r e not a l l o w e d i n t h i s p a r k . - No c a r s o r any o t h e r v e h i c l e s s h a l l be r e p a i r e d i n o r on t h e p r e m i s e s . - P a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e not t o t a k e s h o r t - c u t s t h r o u g h o t h e r t e n a n t s ' l o t s r e g a r d l e s s o f p e r m i s s i o n o f t h a t t e n a n t . - Any c o m p l a i n t s a r e welcome but o f f i c i a l c o m p l a i n t s must be i n w r i t i n g . 124 - I n the ev e n t o f a m o b i l e home owner w i s h i n g t o s e l l t h e m o b i l e home, t h e Management must be n o t i f i e d and p e r m i s s i o n o b t a i n e d p r i o r t o the m o b i l e home b e i n g l i s t e d o r s o l d . - Any m o b i l e home s o l d must be moved o f f t h e pad, u n l e s s w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n i s o b t a i n e d from t h e Management. O b v i o u s l y , t h e r e i s a need f o r some r e s t r i c t i o n s i n p a r k s o r , as A u d a i n remarked, "Indeed, f i r m r e g u l a t i o n s j u d i c i o u s l y e n f o r c e d a r e l i k e l y t o be one o f the h a l l m a r k s 118 o f an a t t r a c t i v e and w e l l - r u n m o b i l e home park." Park r e g u l a t i o n s a r e f a i r l y s i m i l a r from one park t o a n o t h e r , w i t h extremes b e i n g the e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r u l e . I n f a c t i n many o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s v i s i t e d , o p e r a t o r s and t e n a n t s acknowledged t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r e g u l a t i o n s b u t t h e absence o f any j u s t i f i a b l e r e a s o n t o even d i s c u s s them. A c t u a l park e x p a n s i o n and/or u p g r a d i n g o r t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r so d o i n g i s a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f a n a l y s i s . P o p u l a t i o n growth p r e s s u r e and low vacancy r a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t e x p a n s i o n o f some p a r k s c o u l d a l l e v i a t e p a r t o f the problem. Y e t o n l y seven p a r k s i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x p a n s i o n had r e c e n t l y o c c u r r e d o r t h a t i t was p r o b a b l e i n t h e nea r f u t u r e (Table X X I ) ; f o u r t e e n p a r k o p e r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t park e x p a n s i o n was i m p o s s i b l e due t o l o c a l c o n t r o l s , the tremendous c o s t s o f e x p a n s i o n o r l a c k o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p . S e v e r a l p a r k o p e r a t o r s r e p o r t e d r e c e n t u p g r a d i n g work, an on-going program o f u p g r a d i n g , o r t h e planne d u p g r a d i n g o f 125 TABLE XXI EXPANSION/UPGRADING IN OLDER PARKS A c t i o n O l d e r P a r k s R e c e n t / p r o b a b l e e x p a n s i o n 7 R e c e n t / p r o b a b l e u p g r a d i n g o f f a c i l i t i e s 13 E x p a n s i o n i m p o s s i b l e 14 park s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . Such a program i n c l u d e d p a v i n g , l a n d s c a p i n g , new l i g h t i n g , new w i r i n g , hook-up to m u n i c i p a l sewer s e r v i c e s o r o t h e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . On-g o i n g programs o f u p g r a d i n g o c c u r i n many p a r k s where the owner manages t h e park. In d e f i n i n g a m o b i l e home park f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i t was s t a t e d t h a t a park c o u l d i n c l u d e a m o t e l -t y p e , monthly r e n t a l o p e r a t i o n o f s t i c k - b u i l t u n i t s as w e l l as m o b i l e homes. I n a sense such an o p e r a t i o n i s not s t r i c t l y a park but i t does remain t h a t t h e s e a r e a r e a s o f r e s i d e n t i a l d w e l l i n g s , o f t e n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h i r t y o r more m o b i l e u n i t s ( o n e - h a l f the s i z e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n ) . Some o f the r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s e m o t e l - p a r k s have l i v e d i n them f o r y e a r s and have no need o r d e s i r e t o l i v e e l s e w h e r e . Map 4 and Ta b l e X X I I show t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o l d e r park o p e r a t i o n s by t y p e t h r o u g h o u t t h e st u d y a r e a . Twenty p e r c e n t o f t h e s e p a r k s a r e combined m o t e l and m o b i l e u n i t s , w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same amount b e i n g combined camp s p o t s MAP 4 127 TABLE X X I I OLDER PARKS BY TYPES OF BUSINESSES ON SITE M o b i l e s M o b i l e s / M o b i l e s / M o b i l e s / M u n i c i p a l i t y Only M o t e l Campers D e a l e r s h i p C o q u i t l a m 6 1 2 -L a n g l e y 2 - 3 -Maple Ridge 3 3 - -S u r r e y 5 2 1 2 16 6 6 2 and m o b i l e u n i t s . F i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r k s i n Maple Ridge are m o t e l / m o b i l e c o u r t s , none o f w h i c h are good examples o f e i t h e r t y p e o f o p e r a t i o n . I t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s e two uses i s i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f a l l concerned, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t r e p r e s e n t s a combined z o n i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l . O n l y two p a r k s s t u d i e d a r e f r o n t e d by m o b i l e home d e a l e r s owning t h e p a r k s , and i n b o t h c a s e s t h e p a r k s a r e r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y as low q u a l i t y ( t o be d e f i n e d l a t e r ) w i t h one o f t h e s e two p a r k s e x p e c t e d t o be r e d e v e l o p e d f o r a shopping c e n t r e w i t h i n a y e a r . Park redevelopment i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t t o the i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s . T a b l e X X I I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t redevelopment t o a n o t h e r l a n d use has been approved f o r two p a r k s . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h e p a r k owners a r e s e l l i n g t he l a n d t o commercial i n t e r e s t s , r e s u l t i n g i n the 128 TABLE X X I I I OLDER PARKS SUBJECT TO REDEVELOPMENT Redevelopment Redevelopment Red evelo pmen t Redevelopment Approval Approval Not Municipality Approved Pending Probable* Planned C o q u i t l a m 1 2 2 4 L a n g l e y - 1 - 4 Maple Ridge - . 2 2 2 S u r r e y 1 1 3 5 i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from i n t e r v i e w s . d i s p l a c e m e n t o f a lmost f i f t y m o b i l e home owners . Under the e x i s t i n g vacancy s i t u a t i o n t h e s e m o b i l e u n i t s w i l l l i k e l y have to compete f o r a h a n d f u l o f spaces i n those parks t h a t w i l l a c c e p t o l d e r u n i t s i f and when a vacancy e x i s t s . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t s i x more p a r k s w i l l be r e d e v e l o p e d f o r o t h e r uses i n the no t too d i s t a n t f u t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , based on e x i s t i n g t r e n d s i n the Vancouver a r e a and e l sewhere , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to assume from l o c a l o p i n i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a t l e a s t seven more p a r k s w i l l be t h r e a t e n e d by redeve lopment . Map 5 p o i n t s out those parks s u b j e c t to redeve lopment . As can be seen from the map those p a r k s f a c i n g the most s e r i o u s t h r e a t a r e l o c a t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f the C o q u i t l a m Town C e n t r e . MAP 5 130 Park S e r v i c e s and P h y s i c a l F e a t u r e s The c o n d i t i o n s a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y d e s c r i b e s e l e c t e d s e r v i c e s and f e a t u r e s o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s . Some o f t h e t a b l e s p r e s e n t e d a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y w h i l e o t h e r s r e q u i r e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n . More th a n h a l f o f t h e sample p a r k s a r e c o n n e c t e d t o a m u n i c i p a l sewer system (Table X X I V ) . Most o f t h e s e p a r k s are l o c a t e d i n t h e more h i g h l y u r b a n i z e d a r e a s o f C o q u i t l a m and S u r r e y , r e f l e c t i n g a r e l a t i v e c o n c u r r e n c e o f p a r k development w i t h p r o v i s i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . A number o f pa r k o p e r a t o r s mentioned t h a t t h e i r p a r k s would be c o n n e c t e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l s u p p l y i n t h e near f u t u r e . The f o r t y p e r c e n t o f p a r k s u s i n g some k i n d o f s e p t i c system a r e l o c a t e d m a i n l y i n more r u r a l a r e a s , w i t h f i v e m o b i l e u n i t s p e r t a n k a p p e a r i n g t o be t h e a v e r a g e . TABLE XXIV SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM IN OLDER PARKS Type o f System O l d e r P a r k s S e p t i c Tank 12 (40%) M u n i c i p a l System 17 (56%) Treatment P l a n t 1 (4%) Although most operators expressed l i t t l e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the septic system they did prefer an eventual hook-up with l o c a l services, presumably fo r reasons of reduced 131 maintenance and g r e a t e r p a r k p r e s t i g e . The one p a r k o p e r a t o r m a i n t a i n i n g h i s own sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t o f f e r e d t h e comment about i t t h a t "you'd have t o be c r a z y t o o p e r a t e one o f t h e s e t h i n g s . " The most common ty p e o f h e a t i n g found i n t h e p a r k s was a c o m b i n a t i o n o f o i l and propane (Table XXV). Other p a r k s used a c o m b i n a t i o n o f o i l , propane and n a t u r a l gas and a few p a r k s c o n t a i n e d one o r two a l l e l e c t r i c m o b i l e homes. In t h e two p a r k s u s i n g s o l e l y propane gas, t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t o r a g e t a n k s were q u i t e prominent, w i t h l i t t l e done t o c o n c e a l o r d i s g u i s e t h e t a n k s from v i e w . TABLE XXV TYPE OF HEATING FUEL IN OLDER PARKS Type o f F u e l O l d e r P a r k s O i l 10 (33.3%) Propane 2 (6.6%) E l e c t r i c i t y N a t u r a l Gas C o m b i n a t i o n o f any o f above 18 (60.0%) I n v e r y few o l d e r p a r k s a r e t e l e p h o n e and hydro c a b l e s l o c a t e d underground ( T a b l e XXVI).. Of c o u r s e t h i s i s not too s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e some o l d e r c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s s t i l l have overhead w i r i n g , b u t t h e t r e n d i s t o g r a d u a l l y i n s t a l l a l l such s e r v i c e s underground. The same 132 t r e n d i s n o t o c c u r r i n g i n t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s . Whereas a t one t i m e , overhead s e r v i c e s were a p p r o p r i a t e i n v i e w o f the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m o b i l e u n i t s moving i n and o u t o f p a r k s , t h e u n i t s a r e more o r l e s s "permanent" now w i t h u n s i g h t l y power p o l e s and w i r e s i n t e r m i n g l i n g w i t h homes. The c o s t s o f p u t t i n g t h i s s e r v i c e underground a r e p r o h i b i t i v e i n many p a r k s s i n c e t h e c h a r g e s would have t o be passed on t o the t e n a n t s . TABLE XXVI PLACEMENT OF WIRES AND CABLES IN OLDER PARKS Placement O l d e r P a r k s Overhead 26 (86.6%) Underground 4 (13.4%) C o m b i n a t i o n 0 (0%) S t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s f o r b u l k y i t e m s a r e r e q u i r e d by park t e n a n t s j u s t as they a r e r e q u i r e d by apartment t e n a n t s . T a b l e XXVII i n d i c a t e s t h a t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r k s do p r o v i d e such f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e s t o r a g e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s , y a r d maintenance equipment and t h e l i k e . I n some o f t h o s e p a r k s c o n t a i n i n g no c e n t r a l s t o r a g e i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t most r e s i d e n t s owned s m a l l m e t a l s t o r a g e sheds l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o the m o b i l e u n i t s . 133 TABLE XXVII CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITIES IN OLDER PARKS A v a i l a b i l i t y No . o f O l d e r P a r k s C e n t r a l S t o r a g e 15 (50%) No C e n t r a l S t o r a g e 15 (50%) N e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the sample p a r k s p r o v i d e c e n t r a l l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s ( T a b le X X V I I I ) . I n most o f t h e s e p a r k s t h e w a t e r systems were not d e s i g n e d t o accommodate c l o t h e s washers and d r y e r s a t every m o b i l e u n i t and, moreover, many o l d e r m o b i l e homes were not d e s i g n e d w i t h t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s i n mind. Today, compact washers and d r y e r s , have become s t a n d a r d equipment i n t h e newer u n i t s , o r space f o r them i s p r o v i d e d . TABLE X X V I I I CENTRAL LAUNDRY FACILITIES IN OLDER PARKS A v a i l a b i l i t y No. o f O l d e r P a r k s C e n t r a l Laundry F a c i l i t i e s 21 (70%) No C e n t r a l Laundry F a c i l i t i e s 9 (30%) S u r p r i s i n g l y , more th a n h a l f o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s were found t o be s i t u a t e d w i t h i n one m i l e o f some s o r t o f c o n v e n i e n c e s t o r e o r o t h e r t y p e o f commercial f a c i l i t y . O n ly one park c o n t a c t e d a c t u a l l y had a g r o c e r y s t o r e as p a r t o f t he o p e r a t i o n and t h i s s t o r e d i d a l o t o f b u s i n e s s w i t h non-park r e s i d e n t s due t o i t s p r o x i m i t y t o a secondary highway, b u t s t i l l p a r t o f t h e p a r k p r o p e r t y (Table X X I X ) . TABLE XXIX DISTANCES FROM OLDER PARKS TO NEAREST CONVENIENCE STORE A v a i l a b i l i t y No. o f O l d e r P a r k s Commercial f a c i l i t i e s i n park 1 (4%) Commercial f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n one m i l e o f park 17 (56%) No commercial f a c i l i t i e s nearby p a r k 12 (40%) A l t h o u g h a commonly h e l d s t e r e o t y p e d image o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s i s one o f d u s t , nearby t r u c k s and f a c t o r i e s , t h i s s t u d y shows t h a t no sample p a r k s a r e l o c a t e d i n an i n d u s t r i a l a r e a . T a b l e XXX i n d i c a t e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r k s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d use. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f l a n d uses w h i c h appears most o f t e n i s r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial s t r i p development. Another c o m b i n a t i o n a p p e a r i n g o f t e n i s r u r a l - r e s i d e n t i a l , i n c l u d i n g a c r e a g e s and s m a l l s u b d i v i s i o n s , and s m a l l - s c a l e commercial and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i s common i n L a n g l e y and Maple R i d g e . Land use a d j a c e n t t o . o l d e r p a r k s i s one o f the c r i t e r i a used l a t e r i n a q u a l i t y r a t i n g f o r p a r k s . 135 TABLE XXX AREA SURROUNDING OLDER PARKS Land Use O l d e r P a r k s R e s i d e n t i a l 6 (20%) Commercial 8 (26.6%) I n d u s t r i a l R u r a l / R e s i d e n t i a l 7 (23.3%) C o m b i n a t i o n o f any o f above 9 (30%) O n e - t h i r d o f t h e s t u d y p a r k s adhere r i g i d l y t o t h e s t e r e o t y p e " h e r r i n g - b o n e " p a t t e r n o f m o b i l e home l a y o u t w i t h i n t h e p a r k s (Table X X X I ) . Here, the homes a r e s i t u a t e d -a t r i g h t a n g l e s (or a t a s l i g h t a n g l e ) t o a road w h i c h runs s t r a i g h t u n t i l t h e park b o u n d a r i e s a r e r e a c h e d . The v i e w i s monotonous and l i t t l e i s done t o c o u n t e r a c t the s i m i l a r i t y i n shape o f i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s . A c o n v e n t i o n a l g r i d p a t t e r n was found i n a number o f p a r k s , t h e r e b y y i e l d i n g a degree o f d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f u n i t s ; i n f a c t , when t h i s p a t t e r n was combined w i t h a v a r y i n g topography (two d i s t i n c t l e v e l s , f o r example), t h e e f f e c t was r a t h e r c r e a t i v e . O n l y i n one m o t e l - p a r k o p e r a t i o n was t h e r e no e f f o r t t o s i t u a t e the homes i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n , but because o f t h e s m a l l number o f u n i t s i n v o l v e d t h i s cannot be c o n s t r u e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t problem. Some sample park l a y o u t s a re i n c l u d e d i n F i g u r e 8 i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h a b a s i s o f comparison where park l a y o u t s a r e co n c e r n e d . FIGURE 8 SAMPLE MOBILE HOME PARK LAYOUTS Sour c e : Newcombe P a r t I V a r i e t y i n S e t b a c k Use i s made o f v a r y i n g b o t h the s e t b a c k and t h e m o b i l e home s t a n d . D i a g o n a l G r o u p i n g The d i a g o n a l g r o u p i n g p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g c e n t r a l c o u r t s y s t e m . C i r c u l a r Cul-de-sac The conventional cul-de-sac can be a t t r a c t i v e l y modified f o r mobile home parks. Semi-circle Where space i s r e s t r i c t e d f the sem i - c i r c l e grouping can be used as e f f i c i e n t a l t e r n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l frontage on s t r e e t s . 138 TABLE XXXI LAYOUT OF OLDER PARKS Layout P a t t e r n O l d e r P a r k s G r i d p a t t e r n 12 (40%) H e r r i n g - b o n e 10 (33.3%) M o d i f i e d c u l - d e - s a c 7 (23.3%) I n f o r m a l Grouping 1 (3.3%) V i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e i n t e r i o r r o a d s o f t h e p a r k s ar e a s p h a l t paved and i n good c o n d i t i o n . Widths v a r y from f i f t e e n t o f o r t y f e e t wide, and t h e l a t t e r have an appearance o f "pavement l a n d s c a p i n g . " Curbs o r some o t h e r means o f e d g i n g a r e not common and speed l i m i t s , w h i l e s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d by p a r k management, a r e f u r t h e r c o n t r o l l e d p h y s i c a l l y by "speed bumps." P a r k i n g i s u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r two v e h i c l e s a t each m o b i l e home and more o f t e n t h a n not a t l e a s t one v e h i c l e i s p a r k e d on t h e s i d e o f t h e roadway. I t i s a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d r e g u l a t i o n t h a t a l l m o b i l e homes i n p a r k s s h o u l d be s k i r t e d t o c o n c e a l t h e c h a s s i s and t h e o l d e r p a r k s a r e no e x c e p t i o n . Any new u n i t t h a t comes i n t o a park must be s k i r t e d w i t h i n 30 days. The q u a l i t y o f s k i r t i n g , b o t h i n m a t e r i a l s and workmanship, l e f t something t o be d e s i r e d i n many i n s t a n c e s , and t h e r e i s a l o t o f room f o r improvement o f t h e p h y s i c a l appearance o f a m o b i l e home w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e use o f a t t r a c t i v e s k i r t i n g . 139 Those p a r k s c o n t a c t e d appear t o c o n t a i n m o b i l e homes o f v a r i o u s v i n t a g e s . The one statement t h a t can be made here i s t h a t j u s t because a park i s t w e l v e o r more y e a r s o l d does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h a t a l l t h e m o b i l e u n i t s i n t h e park a r e a l s o t h a t o l d . Most o f t h e homes ranged i n age from m i d - n i n e t e e n s i x t i e s models t o t h o s e j u s t a few y e a r s o l d . Some homes were o f such unique d e s i g n t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e an age f o r t h e u n i t . Many homes were t e n and e i g h t - w i d e models and showed o b v i o u s s i g n s o f wear and d e t e r i o r a t i o n . A few u n i t s appeared s u b s t a n d a r d i n terms o f s i z e , p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and appearance, and h e a l t h and s a f e t y f e a t u r e s . A few u n i t s i n t h e o l d e r p a r k s were i n f a c t m o d i f i e d house o r t r a v e l -t r a i l e r s , a l t e r e d t o appear a t f i r s t g l a n c e t o be m o b i l e homes. Q u a l i t y R a t i n g o f O l d e r P a r k s One o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e v a l u a t e the q u a l i t y o f o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . An e x h a u s t i v e s t u d y would compare s i m i l a r L i s t s o f it e m s f o r each park and t h e l i s t s would l i k e l y i n c l u d e more i t e m s than t h o s e w h i c h were examined h e r e . I t was not t h e purpose i n t h i s c a s e t o measure a l l a s p e c t s o f park q u a l i t y i n a s t a t i s t i c a l f a s h i o n . What has been done i s a s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g o f park q u a l i t y i n terms o f t h e p h y s i c a l environment. Map 6 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o l d e r p a r k s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y a r e a , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s u b j e c t i v e q u a l i t y r a t i n g . 141 T a b l e XXXII p r o v i d e s as an example a breakdown o f t h i s r a t i n g by i n d i v i d u a l park f o r an i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t y -t h a t o f Maple R i d g e . The c r i t e r i a used t o e v a l u a t e t h e p h y s i c a l environment o f t h e o l d e r p a r k s a r e the f o l l o w i n g : Q u a l i t y R a t i n g C r i t e r i a (1) L o c a t i o n : a c c e s s ; s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d use. (2) P h y s i c a l l a y o u t : d e s i g n ; o r i e n t a t i o n o f homes; park t r a f f i c c i r c u l a t i o n ; d e n s i t y , l o t s i z e ; and p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . (3) U n i t and space appearance: p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f u n i t s ( i n c l u d i n g s k i r t i n g and a d d i t i o n s ) ; d e f i n i t i o n o f l o t s ; and l o t maintenance. (4) L a n d s c a p i n g and maintenance o f p a r k : p r e s e n c e o f t r e e s , s h rubs, g r a s s , e t c . ; and amount o f paved ground s u r f a c e . (5) N o i s e s o u r c e s : p r e s e n c e o f n o i s e from t r a f f i c ; r a i l r o a d t r a c k s ; i n d u s t r y o r commerce; commercial p a r k i n g ; and major o r secondary highways. Summary A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a and s u p p o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w s have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t problems e x i s t i n s o f a r as o l d e r p a r k s i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e concerned. The s t u d y o f a number o f s p e c i f i c p a r k s has e n a b l e d an assessment o f why c e r t a i n problems a r e common, and t h i s a s p e c t i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . MAP 6 TABLE XXXII EXAMPLE QUALITY RATING FOR OLDER MOBILE HOME PARKS IN MAPLE RIDGE Name of Park L o c a t i o n : A c c e s s and S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use P h y s i c a l L a y o u t U n i t and Space Appearance L a n d s c a p i n g Maintenance N o i s e Sources O v e r a l l R a t i n g A l o u e t t e 4 4 5 5 5 5 C e n t e n n i a l 1 1 1 1 1 1 G a r i b a l d i 4 4 4 4 5 4 J a c o b s 1 2 3 3 1 2 Maple Ridge 1 2 1 2 1 1 V a l M a r i a 3 4 5 5 3 4 S c a l e R a t i n g : 5 - E x c e l l e n t 4 - Very Good 3 - Good 2 - Below Average 1 - Poor Source: E s t i m a t e d by a u t h o r from f i e l d d a t a . CHAPTER SIX PROBLEMS RELATED TO OLDER PARKS AND PARKS IN GENERAL There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y has s u f f e r e d i t s f u l l s h a re o f growing p a i n s o v e r t h e p a s t decade. Many changes have o c c u r r e d t h a t have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l m o b i l e home park o p e r a t i o n s . These changes have been f e l t t o some degree by a l l t h o s e c o n n e c t e d w i t h p a r k s and park l i v i n g . The e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f t h i r t y o l d e r p a r k s i n t h e low e r m a i n l a n d has i n d i c a t e d t h a t a number o f problems, c o n c e r n s and i s s u e s e x i s t t h a t p e r t a i n d i r e c t l y t o a p o r t i o n o f the o l d e r p a r k s i n q u e s t i o n . These problems do not a p p l y t o a l l o l d e r p a r k s and, a t t h e same t i m e , do a p p l y t o some o f t h e newer p a r k s i n t h i s r e g i o n . The i s s u e s a r e now e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l as t h e y r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o t h e o l d e r s t u d y p a r k s and t o p a r k s i n g e n e r a l . Problems - G e n e r a l ' C l o s e d ' P a r k s As i n d i c a t e d from t h e p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s o f p a r k s , some d e a l e r s and park owners s u p p o r t t h e c o n c e p t o f ' c l o s e d p a r k s ' , t h a t i s m o b i l e home p a r k s i n w h i c h i t i s o n l y 143 144 p o s s i b l e t o r e n t a space i f one ag r e e s t o buy a m o b i l e home from a c e r t a i n d e a l e r , u s u a l l y a company a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e park o p e r a t o r . Many d e a l e r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l p u r c h a s e r ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l o c a t i n g an a v a i l a b l e space w i l l impede s a l e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , i f a d e a l e r owns h i s own park i t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a c o m p e t i t i v e advantage by o p e r a t i n g a c l o s e d p a r k . The e x t r a c t below i l l u s t r a t e s a t y p i c a l p r e d i c a m e n t . T r y i n g t o p l a c e a m o b i l e home i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d p r e s e n t s a c e r t a i n number o f problems, t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h i s f i n d i n g a pad on w h i c h t o put i t . A t p r e s e n t I l i v e i n Kamloops but r e c e n t l y was t r a n s f e r r e d t o a new j o b i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . The problem i s t h a t w h i l e I w i l l work i n New We s t m i n s t e r I would l i k e a c h o i c e o f p l a c e s i n whi c h t o l i v e . That i s n ' t easy. I have spoken t o a number o f d e a l e r s and pad owners but i t seems t h a t u n l e s s I buy a new t r a i l e r no one i s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e n t i n g a pad t o me. The problem i s t he monopoly mobile-home s e l l e r s have on t h e pads. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g you can do? (A. S t a n d a l , Kamloops) There a r e two p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e problem, i n the s h o r t and l o n g terms. Housing M i n i s t e r Hugh C u r t i s had h i s Lower M a i n l a n d o f f i c e l o c a t e f o u r mobile-home p a r k s w i t h v a c a n c i e s w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e d i s t a n c e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r . T h i s was done t h r o u g h t h e m o b i l e home r e g i s t r y , a new l i s t i n g o f pads a v a i l a b l e t o mobile-home owners. That's t h e s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n . B u t i n t h e l o n g term the o n l y r e a l s o l u t i o n i s e i t h e r t o n o t a l l o w d e a l e r s and pad o p e r a t o r s t o make agreements on pad r e n t a l s -o r t o p r o v i d e more pads. S o u r c e : The P r o v i n c e , A p r i l '78. E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r k o p e r a t o r s i n t e r v i e w e d r e j e c t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e i r park was c l o s e d under any 145 c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and zer o vacancy r a t e s f o r u n i t s would seem t o make such a c t i o n unwarranted. However, i n t h o s e p a r k s where t i e - i n s a l e s e x i s t t h e o p e r a t o r s s t r e s s e d t h a t s a l e s o f t h e m o b i l e homes depend on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f spaces and t h a t c l o s e d p a r k s a re t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o keep the m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y v i a b l e . One park owner and d e v e l o p e r argued t h a t a c l o s e d p a r k p r a c t i c e enhances t h e s t a n d a r d t h a t can be m a i n t a i n e d i n the m o b i l e home park and t h a t i t p r o b a b l y r e s u l t s i n a b e t t e r appearance o f t h e pa r k . Another newspaper l e t t e r from a concerned m o b i l e home owner i n Courtenay s e r v e s t o i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p among such problems as low vacancy r a t e s , agreements between park owners and d e a l e r s , and t h e l o c a t i o n o f the few v a c a n t spaces i n the lo w e r m a i n l a n d . My husband and I a r e owners o f a t w o - y e a r - o l d , t h r e e bedroom, m o b i l e home and we want t o move. Now t h a t m i g h t seem a s i m p l e t a s k t o a house owner o r an apartment d w e l l e r , b u t i t i s n ' t an easy m a t t e r f o r any m o b i l e home owner. Because o f my husband's j o b , we have t o move t o the Lower M a i n l a n d , where we cannot f i n d a p l a c e . To g e t one you have t o buy a bra n d new t r a i l e r . D e a l e r s seem to have an e a s i e r chance o f o b t a i n i n g space t h a n i n d i v i d u a l owners. Some p r i v a t e l y owned p a r k owners have agreements w i t h the t r a i l e r s a l e s p e o p l e and a u t o m a t i c a l l y t u r n o v e r t h e i r v a c a n c i e s t o ensure monthly r e n t a l s . That m i g h t be f i n e f o r salesmen who have an edge i n s e l l i n g a new home, o r f o r t h e park owner, b u t i t i s n ' t v e r y p r a c t i c a l f o r a m o b i l e home owner l i k e m y s e l f . Can you he l p ? The c l o s e s t space we c o u l d f i n d was i n C u l t u s Lake and t h a t ' s too f a r away. (Gla d y s K a a r t i n e n . Courtenay) Source: The P r o v i n c e , June '78. 146 The l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e m o b i l e home space i n t h i s r e g i o n has some s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r t h o s e p e o p l e l i v i n g e l s e w h e r e i n t h e p r o v i n c e and who s t i l l c o n s i d e r t h e i r m o b i l e homes j u s t t h a t - m o b i l e . Perhaps t h e n a t u r e of a j o b r e q u i r e s f r e q u e n t moves, b u t i f t h a t move i s to the low e r m a i n l a n d , t h e c l o s e s t one can r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t t o o b t a i n a r e n t a l space f o r a used m o b i l e home i s C h i l l i w a c k o r K ent. The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Park O p e r a t o r s and Tenants The m o b i l e home produces a v e r y s p e c i a l form o f l a n d use and l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The arrangement under d i s c u s s i o n h e r e i s f o r t h e owner-tenant t o r e n t t h e pad (space) monthly, t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g e i t h e r a p e r i o d i c t enancy o r a tenancy a t w i l l . The r e n t a l agreement s e t s o u t the power o f t h e park o p e r a t o r t o t e r m i n a t e t h e tenancy, t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f the t e n a n t , and t h e park r e g u l a t i o n s . There a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between apartment t e n a n c i e s and p a r k t e n a n c i e s . Apartment d w e l l e r s purchase the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o use a p a r t o f a b u i l d i n g f o r a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . M o b i l e home p a r k t e n a n t s p u r c h a s e the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o use a p a r c e l o f l a n d ( t h a t o f t h e park o p e r a t o r ) f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , and t h e i n t e r e s t i n t h e mo b i l e home i s c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e from the i n t e r e s t i n t h e space i t o c c u p i e s . T h i s b a s i c a s p e c t o f p a r k tenancy i s emphasized t h r o u g h the s t r o n g r e l u c t a n c e o f v i r t u a l l y a l l 147 park managers interviewed to intrude into the personal and private space (the mobile home) of park tenants. Consequently, the services required of the park landlord d i f f e r from those of the apartment landlord. In the l a t t e r case the landlord i s responsible for such services as water, heat, e l e c t r i c i t y , and health and safety laws that a f f e c t unit h a b i t a b i l i t y . On the other hand the mobile home owner i s completely responsible for the operation of his home, except for those services generally provided by the park. Security of Tenure Issue One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t differences between apartments and parks i n tenancy arrangements concerns the implications of tenant e v i c t i o n . The process of ev i c t i o n can cause many problems and woes for tenants i n general, but for the tenant who owns a mobile home the consequences are usually more serious. The mobile home owner must remove himself and his home. The extract below indicates the scale at which mobile home owner e v i c t i o n i s occurring and that the process i s often associated with park redevelopment. Mobile home owners under pressure of e v i c t i o n from c i t y t r a i l e r parks are considering setting up a co-operative mobile home park. Andrew Carlson, president of the Mobilehome Owners Association (MOA), says reduced rental i s one goal but security of tenure i s the major aim. 148 Three c i t y p a r k s i n v o l v i n g n e a r l y 200 m o b i l e homes have i s s u e d c l o s u r e n o t i c e s and w i t h l a n d p r i c e s c l i m b i n g o u t o f s i g h t , more p a r k c l o s u r e s a r e l i k e l y . Mr. C a r l s o n l i v e s a t T e r r a c e d H e i g h t s T r a i l e r P a r k , 4 5 t h Avenue and 104th S t r e e t , where t e n a n t s have u n t i l March 31 t o l e a v e . The 132 t e n a n t s o f A l l e n d a l e T r a i l e r P a rk, 5130 103A S t . , have been handed n o t i c e s t o be gone by O c t . 31, 1978. And a t l e a s t p a r t o f Grove M o t e l and T r a i l e r P a r k , 2220 C a l g a r y T r a i l , w i l l be c l o s e d t o f a c i l i t a t e w i d e n i n g o f Highway 2. Land a t T e r r a c e d H e i g h t s p a r k r e p o r t e d l y s o l d f o r $500,000 an a c r e . W i t h p r e s s u r e l i k e t h a t on p a r k owners, t h e t e m p t a t i o n to s e l l may be i r r e s i s t i b l e , says Mr. C a r l s o n . About 6 0 p e o p l e have p a i d t h e $10 0 f e e f o r t h e membership i n t h e park development group. Funds a r e h e l d i n t r u s t f o r development p u r p o s e s . A l t h o u g h the p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d t h r o u g h the MOA, a p r o v i n c e - w i d e group w i t h about 850 members, most o f t h o s e s i g n e d up f o r the p r o j e c t a r e r e s i d e n t s o f t h r e a t e n e d p a r k s h e r e . Source: The Edmonton J o u r n a l , Oct. '77. O f f i c i a l s i n b o t h Edmonton and Vancouver a r e r e c e i v i n g an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number o f c o m p l a i n t s from p a r k t e n a n t s concerned about the d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they w i l l have a home w i t h nowhere t o l i v e . The o p t i o n s f a c e d a r e t o abandon th e home, a t t e m p t t o s e l l i t , o r t o s t o r e i t some-where. O b v i o u s l y , the s e c u r i t y o f t h e home-owner's e q u i t y i n h i s u n i t i s p l a c e d i n j e o p a r d y . S e v e r a l s t o r i e s h e a r d d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s tudy c o n f i r m the d i f f i c u l t y o f s e l l i n g a m o b i l e home i n a p a r k d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e d e v e l o p -ment. Thousands o f d o l l a r s have been l o s t by homeowners when a buyer, w i t h a c o n n e c t i o n i n a n o t h e r park, has ta k e n advantage o f t h e s i t u a t i o n ; o r when an unknowing buyer has bought a home i n such a park where the park owner has d i s c r e e t l y a v o i d e d m e n t i o n i n g t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p a r k . The concept o f ' s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e ' i s a most complex a s p e c t o f the l a n d l o r d / t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s t a t u t o r y g u a r a n t e e t h a t a m o b i l e home owner cannot be e v i c t e d from h i s r e n t e d p r e m i s e s w i t h o u t due cause i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . The r i g h t o f a park owner t o s e l l o r r e d e v e l o p h i s own p r o p e r t y would seem due cause. The problem i s t h a t i f t h e r e a r e no a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s f o r t h e m o b i l e home, i t s owner has a w o r t h l e s s a s s e t i f tenancy i n a park i s t e r m i n a t e d . I n a growing m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a t h i s i s more than a h y p o t h e t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y when m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by some t o be mer e l y an i n t e r i m l a n d use. I t i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e here t o examine such c o n c e p t s as 'freedom o f c o n t r a c t ' and ' m u t u a l i t y o f t e r m i n a t i o n r i g h t s ' ; they c o u l d w e l l be the s u b j e c t o f a n o t h e r t h e s i s d e a l i n g w i t h tenancy problems i n m o b i l e home p a r k s . However, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e Law Reform Commission o f B r i t i s h Columbia s u g g e s t s t h a t such c o n c e p t s i g n o r e modern r e a l i t i e s o f t e n a n c i e s . 1 1 " 0 These r e a l i t i e s , as a p p l i e d t o p a r k s , i n c l u d e the s c a r c i t y o f a v a i l a b l e l a n d and spaces, l a c k o f d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t i n c r e a t i n g new p a r k s , and low o r zer o vacancy r a t e s i n e x i s t i n g p a r k s . These 150 i m p l y l i t t l e p r o s p e c t o f f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation and hence s o c i a l and economic h a r d s h i p r e s u l t i n g from e v i c t i o n . We need t o be reminded o f ' i r r a t i o n a l ' a t t i t u d e s and at t a c h m e n t s t o p r e m i s e s , r e n t e d o r owned. Such a t t i t u d e s toward m o b i l e home ownership appear t o be d i f f i c u l t f o r many r e g u l a t o r y o f f i c i a l s t o comprehend. The n o t i o n o f d e f e n d i n g one's p r o p e r t y to t h e u l t i m a t e end i s d i s c u s s e d by N e v i t t i n , The Nature of Rent Controlling Legislation in the U.K. I n a modern s o c i e t y t h e t r i a l o f s t r e n g t h i s conducted t h r o u g h t h e p r i c i n g mechanism and t h e r i c h b i d away p r o p e r t y from the poor. We have no r e a s o n t o t h i n k t h a t the d e f e a t e d and d i s p o s s e s s e d f e e l t h a t h i s form o f c o n t e s t i s any f a i r e r t h a n a s h o o t i n g match. I n s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e s h o u l d be o f c o n c e r n t o park o p e r a t o r s . Tenants i n s e v e r a l o f t h e st u d y p a r k s e v i d e n c e d , and spoke o f h a v i n g l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e t o improve o r t a k e p r i d e i n t h e i r accommodation when they know t h a t e v i c t i o n can be a r b i t r a r y and s w i f t . I n the f a c e o f t h i s l a c k o f s e c u r i t y , h o s t i l i t y and a l i e n a t i o n toward a p a r k o p e r a t o r and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l was o b s e r v e d i n some p a r k s . S e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e i s o f c o n c e r n a t a time when vacancy r a t e s a r e so low, b u t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a t w o - s i d e d i s s u e . B e n e f i t s a c c r u e t o b o t h p a r t i e s when t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u i n g harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t may be t h a t , i n t h e o r y , r e a s o n a b l e b e h a v i o r w i l l p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e i n t h e 151 absence o f l e g i s l a t i v e s a n c t i o n s , b u t i n r e a l i t y i t t a k e s f o r m a l s a n c t i o n t o r e g u l a t e the q u i r k s i n human n a t u r e o f t e n e x h i b i t e d i n a tenancy r e l a t i o n s h i p . The E n t r a n c e Fee The l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h e n a c t e d many o f t h e Law Reform Commission's recommendations p r o v i d e d f o r a system o f s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e l i n k e d t o t h e r e n t c o n t r o l scheme. The s i t u a t i o n i n m o b i l e home p a r k s was changed t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t many park o p e r a t o r s f e e l t h a t government i n t e r f e r e n c e has been o f l i t t l e a i d t o them and has a c t u a l l y imposed new r e s t r a i n t s on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . P a r t IV, S e c t i o n 30, o f t h e Residential Tenancy Act o f B r i t i s h Columbia s t a t e s : Where a te n a n c y agreement r e l a t e s t o r e s i d e n t i a l p r e m i s e s t h a t i s l a n d r e n t e d as space f o r and on w h i c h a t e n a n t i s e n t i t l e d t o b r i n g a m o b i l e home, the t e n a n t may a s s i g n o r s u b l e t w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e l a n d l o r d , but t h e c o n s e n t s h a l l n o t be a r b i t r a r i l y o r u n r e a s o n a b l y w i t h h e l d . T h i s p r o v i s i o n was mentioned by s e v e r a l o f t h e o p e r a t o r s o f the s t u d y p a r k s , who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t o p e r a t o r s s h o u l d have the d e c i d i n g word on t e n a n t s and s u b - l e s s e e s . They f e l t t h a t t h e Act p r e v e n t s o p e r a t o r s from m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own s t a n d a r d s as f a r as park c l i e n t e l e a r e c o n c e r n e d . The problem i s not w i d e s p r e a d i n t h e o l d e r p a r k s , however, as t h e t e n a n t s a r e u s u a l l y l o n g - t e r m and t h e vacancy r a t e i s c l o s e t o z e r o . 152 I n some m o b i l e home p a r k s t h e o p e r a t o r s demand a fee f o r p r o v i d i n g a space f o r a m o b i l e home. A l t h o u g h now i l l e g a l , t h e s e f e e s (key money e x t o r t i o n by an o t h e r name) can range up t o $3,000. I n e f f e c t t h e f e e i s a means whereby a l a n d l o r d m i t i g a t e s t h e e f f e c t o f p r o v i n c i a l l y r e g u l a t e d r e n t i n c r e a s e s . These u n d e r - t h e - t a b l e d e a l s have been g o i n g on f o r y e a r s and i n most, c a s e s no s e r v i c e i s r e n d e r e d f o r t h e money. I n some i n s t a n c e s i t i s a l l e g e d t h a t t h e money i s used t o d e f r a y c o s t s o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n or u t i l i t y hook-up. T h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s h o r t a g e o f m o b i l e home s i t e s and h i g h demand. I n some c a s e s i t appears t h a t park managements have manufactured p r e t e x t s t o e v i c t one t e n a n t p r e c i s e l y i n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t 'the f e e ' from a new t e n a n t . The game o f r e v o l v i n g t e n a n t s r e q u i r e s an o p e r a t o r t o make l i f e s u f f i c i e n t l y u n p l e a s a n t f o r h i s t e n a n t s t o b r i n g about a h i g h t u r n o v e r i n t h e pa r k . Some park o p e r a t o r s comment t h a t new r e g u l a t i o n s making e n t r a n c e f e e s i l l e g a l impose a s t r a i t - j a c k e t on o p e r a t o r s w i t h o u t i m p r o v i n g t h e l o t o f t h e m o b i l e home owner. I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e where the t r u t h l i e s , as t h e f e e may s t i l l be p a i d t o t h e park o p e r a t o r by a d e a l e r who s e l l s t h e m o b i l e home t o t h e owner and added by the d e a l e r t o t h e s a l e p r i c e o f t h e m o b i l e home. I n f a c t t h e p r i c e o f i d e n t i c a l m o b i l e homes i n t h e st u d y a r e a v a r i e d 153 up to $5,000 on a $20,000 unit, depending on the dealer and his t i e s . One can readily see how d i f f i c u l t prosecution for such alleged offences can be, p a r t i c u l a r l y since evidence from the complainant would l i k e l y prove detrimental to himself. For example, a dealer who pays the fee w i l l not ta l k openly because the fee i s often the only sure guarantee that he can provide his customer with a pad and therefore make a sale; and an owner, who probably stands the cost of the fee, w i l l not tal k i f he i s a f r a i d to jeopardize his position now that he has a space for his home. With regard to the so-called r e s t r a i n t s placed on the operation of mobile home parks, several other problems appeared repeatedly i n discussions with park operators. At the present time a park operator has l i t t l e control (in theory) over the quality of units i n his park, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t i s an older park where the older units are usually to be found. Where formerly a tenant wishing to move was required to remove his unit from the park, a tenant may now s e l l his home in the park. Operators say t h i s makes a process of continuous upgrading impossible since older and substandard homes are thereby permitted to stay i n the park. Of course under present market circumstances, should a tenant be required to dispose of his home outside the park, the chances of being able to s e l l that home would be v i r t u a l l y non-existent. The marketability of used mobile 154 homes today i s d i r e c t l y t i e d t o t h e l a n d on w h i c h t h e y a r e s i t u a t e d . E x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n does n o t p o s s e s s t h e f l e x i b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s o f m o b i l e homes. The f a c t t h a t r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s , as opposed t o park o p e r a t o r s , may now handle t h e s a l e o f a m o b i l e home where i t i s s i t u a t e d i n a p r i v a t e park produces a near v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n from some park o p e r a t o r s . However, some o p e r a t o r s c o n t i n u e to p l a c e r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e s a l e o f m o b i l e homes i n t h e i r p a r k s . Such r e s t r i c t i o n s may t a k e s e v e r a l forms: o u t r i g h t p r o h i b i t i o n o f s a l e s by r e q u i r i n g removal o f t h e u n i t when a homeowner l e a v e s t h e pa r k , a c l a u s e i n t h e tenancy agreement whereby t h e owner must s e l l t h r o u g h t h e park o p e r a t o r a c t i n g as agent (and i n t h i s c a s e the o p e r a t o r o f t e n d e t e r m i n e s t h e l i s t i n g and s e l l i n g p r i c e ) , o r a f e e p a y a b l e to t h e o p e r a t o r f o r a c c e p t i n g and i n v e s t i g a t i n g a new t e n a n t (an e x i t f e e ) . A p l a u s i b l e argument was made j u s t i f y i n g t h e f e e on the b a s i s t h a t a park owner i s e n t i t l e d t o a share o f t h e p r o f i t t h a t i s made on t h e s a l e o f t h e m o b i l e home because the p r o f i t i s p a r t l y due t o t h e m o b i l e home's l o c a t i o n i n the p a r k . The o t h e r s i d e o f the c o i n i s t h a t t h e t e n a n t s h o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o a share o f t h e p r o f i t i f t h e park i s s o l d f o r redevelopment. Another problem w h i c h o p e r a t o r s d e s c r i b e d i s t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o o b t a i n compensation f o r a l t e r a t i o n s w h i c h a 155 t e n a n t may make t o t h e r e n t e d space where h i s m o b i l e home s i t s . Most o p e r a t o r s l i k e t o see a h i g h degree o f c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e i r own i d e a o f p r o p e r l a n d s c a p i n g f o r t h e p ark, w h i c h does n o t i n c l u d e s m a l l v e g e t a b l e gardens o r p r o l i f i c s h r u b b e r y . E x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s v iew e x i s t , i n d e e d one o l d e r p a r k v i s i t e d r e s e m b l e d a garden e s t a t e , c omplete w i t h c e n t r a l park a r e a and o r n a m e n t a l hedgerows. A g a i n , t h i s problem appears t o be more common w i t h newer p a r k s due, i n l a r g e p a r t , t o t h e g r e a t e r number o f homes i n v o l v e d i n each park, and t h e need t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r maintenance c o s t s . Rent C o n t r o l Rent c o n t r o l i s a system o f r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h r e s t r i c t the amount o f r e n t o r r e n t i n c r e a s e s a l a n d l o r d may c h a r ge f o r accommodation. The prime purpose i s t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r t e n a n t s t o f i n d and keep d e c e n t r e n t a l accommodation a t r e a s o n a b l e r e n t s . I n B r i t i s h Columbia r e n t c o n t r o l p r o v i d e s f o r a r e n t i n c r e a s e o n l y once i n a one y e a r p e r i o d , and t h i s i s t i e d t o t h e r e n t a l u n i t , and t h e r e i s p r o v i s i o n f o r a f i x e d maximum p e r c e n t a g e a n n u a l r e n t i n c r e a s e . These p r o v i s i o n s a r e l a i d down i n P a r t IV o f the Landlord and Tenant Act, S e c t i o n s 24-29 (h) . A s e p a r a t e p r o v i s i o n f o r owners of a m o b i l e home park, S u b s e c t i o n 2 9 ( g ) ( 4 ) , p r o v i d e s t h a t upon a p p l i c a t i o n o f an owner o f a m o b i l e home park a r a t e o f r e n t i n c r e a s e may be s e t w h i c h i s 156 g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t s p e c i f i e d i n s e c t i o n 27(2) i n r e s p e c t o f t h a t park upon such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as may be s p e c i f i e d by a Rent Review Commission. The t o p i c o f r e n t c o n t r o l produced some he a t e d d i s c u s s i o n w i t h park managers and a number o f v a l i d arguments a g a i n s t t h i s system were put f o r t h . I n a l l i n s t a n c e s where t h e s u b j e c t was r a i s e d i t was s t r e s s e d t h a t r e n t c o n t r o l has l e d t o a s h o r t a g e o f m o b i l e home pads. I n comparing park r e n t a l r a t e s , o l d and new, and from c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h o p e r a t o r s , i t i s ap p a r e n t t h a t many park o p e r a t o r s were caught w i t h low r e n t s a t t h e time c o n t r o l s were i n s t i t u t e d and have been u n a b l e t o r e c e i v e an adequate r e t u r n on t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t . These were g e n e r a l l y t h e o l d e r , s m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s where t h e b u s i n e s s t oday c o u l d o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d as m a r g i n a l . Low r e t u r n i s t h o u g h t by some o p e r a t o r s t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l o w e r s t a n d a r d o f park maintenance, s i n c e t h e money f o r r e p a i r s and improvements i s n o t t h e r e , and t o th e f a c t t h a t some park o p e r a t o r s work a t l e a s t p a r t - t i m e a t a n o t h e r j o b . Rent c o n t r o l s were blamed as t h e cause o f a d e c r e a s i n g l y v i a b l e b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n , an i n a b i l i t y t o expand t h e park o p e r a t i o n , and, i n a t l e a s t t h r e e c a s e s , f o r g e t t i n g o u t o f t h e m o b i l e home park b u s i n e s s c o m p l e t e l y . Not a l l o f t h e park o p e r a t o r s c o n t a c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y conveyed t h e message t h a t t h e y were d i s c o u r a g e d w i t h t h e c u r r e n t economic p i c t u r e f o r p a r k s . Most o f t h e l a r g e r 157 p a r k s appear t o be d o i n g q u i t e w e l l , a l t h o u g h t i e - i n s a l e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s . Moreover, s e v e r a l o p e r a t o r s o f s m a l l p a r k s r e g a r d the b u s i n e s s as a low p r e s s u r e , e n j o y a b l e way o f making a l i v i n g and t h e park i s seen as more o f a neighbourhood t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l t r a c t h o u s i n g . C e r t a i n l y t h e i d e a o f c l o s i n g down t h e park g i v e n t h e e x i s t i n g r e n t a l s i t u a t i o n was f a r from the minds o f t h e s e p a r k owners. Rent c o n t r o l s a r e seen as a cause o f t h e s h o r t a g e of m o b i l e home pads and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e cause o f w a i t i n g l i s t s f o r a d m i s s i o n t o many p a r k s . W a i t i n g l i s t s a r e thought t o be one cause o f t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f some bu y e r s t o a c c e p t i n f l a t e d r e t a i l c o s t s f o r new and used m o b i l e homes t i e d t o a space. T h i s a s p e c t goes a l o n g way i n d i s p r o v i n g t h e commonly a c c e p t e d t h e o r y t h a t m o b i l e homes d e p r e c i a t e a t a r a t e not much s l o w e r t h a n a u t o m o b i l e d e p r e c i a t i o n . F o r example, i n one park a n i n e y e a r o l d u n i t was s e l l i n g f o r the same p r i c e as some brand new and near new u n i t s i n t h e par k . M a i n t a i n i n g w a i t i n g l i s t s was q u e s t i o n e d by one park owner who had never k e p t such a r e c o r d o f i n q u i r i e s . The l i s t s were seen as j u s t a n o t h e r p l o y f o r g e n e r a t i n g f a l s e hope among e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l m o b i l e home owners. Why, i n d e e d , keep w a i t i n g l i s t s when t h e vacancy r a t e i n p a r k s i s so low t h a t an a p p l i c a n t c o u l d remain on 'the l i s t 1 f o r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s ? 158 I t was i n d i c a t e d by some park o p e r a t o r s t h a t due t o th e d e c r e a s i n g r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t , t h e y have been i n c l i n e d t o withdraw t h e i r p r o p e r t y from t h e r e n t a l market and c o n v e r t i t i n t o e i t h e r s t r a t a t i t l e r e s i d e n t i a l developments o r to s e l l t he park f o r redevelopment t o a n o t h e r l a n d use. T h i s has caused a l a r m among some e l d e r l y t e n a n t s who i n d i c a t e d t h e y f e e l u n a b l e t o purchase a s t r a t a t i t l e pad, who a r e c o n t e n t w i t h s t a b l e and f a m i l i a r park management, and who a r e unable t o f i n d a n o t h e r park t o move i n t o . The s i t u a t i o n i s d e s p e r a t e f o r some o f t h e s e t e n a n t s f o r a v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and i s somewhat s i m i l a r t o c o n v e r s i o n o f r e n t a l apartments i n t o i n d i v i d u a l l y owned s u i t e s . The problem f o r t h e m o b i l e home owner, whether he be i n t h e lo w e r m a i n l a n d o r Vancouver I s l a n d , i s t h a t no s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o be found i n t h e s e a r e a s w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a b l y more p e r s o n a l s a c r i f i c e , f i n a n c i a l o r o t h e r -w i s e , t h a n t h a t w h i c h f a c e s t h e apartment d w e l l e r , as the f a c t remains t h a t t h e m o b i l e home park t e n a n t i s l e f t w i t h a home and nowhere t o put i t . I f one a c c e p t s t h e pre m i s e t h a t r e n t c o n t r o l c r e a t e s an a r t i f i c i a l r e n t a l market, a c a s e can be made f o r th o s e park o p e r a t o r s who a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e y a r e s u b s i d i z i n g t h e i r t e n a n t s . The comment was made: "why s h o u l d the law r e q u i r e p a r k o p e r a t o r s t o p r o v i d e a s u b s i d y f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , many o f whom l i v e i n m o b i l e home p a r k s and who r e c e i v e o t h e r forms o f government s h e l t e r 159 allowance?" Judging by the comments of several score of park tentants contacted during the survey as to the f i n a n c i a l p o sition they enjoy, compared to l i v i n g i n conventional housing, and the indicated low vacancy rates, i t i s evident that park tenants who are l i v i n g i n a rent controlled tenancy are less w i l l i n g to move. It i s possible therefore that rent control has contributed to the reduced mobility of mobile home owners i n the housing sector i n general. F i n a l l y , i t i s commonly held that rent control w i l l generally tend to favour the established i n s i t u tenant rather than newcomers. The following statement a t t r i b u t e d to one park owner aptly describes the study parks: "Controls tend to benefit the o l d rather than the young, and c h i l d l e s s middle-aged people rather than young families, who move more often." Problems i n Older Parks It w i l l be apparent by now that there i s no entity that could be considered a t y p i c a l mobile home park. Si m i l a r l y , there i s no such thing as a t y p i c a l older mobile home park. A portion of the older study parks do, however, present problems, beyond those already discussed, that are not found i n other older parks. 160 M o t e l - t y p e P a r k s I t was i n d i c a t e d i n Ch a p t e r F i v e t h a t 2 0 p e r c e n t o f the s t u d y p a r k s were combined m o t e l and t r a i l e r c o u r t o p e r a t i o n s . Two o f t h e s e developments a r e l o c a t e d i n White Rock and a r e r e s o r t - o r i e n t e d on a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s . N e i t h e r park c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as o f f e n s i v e i n terms o f appearance, l o c a t i o n , e t c . , and one a c t u a l l y resembles a s m a l l e r e d i t i o n o f t h o s e p a r k s d e p i c t e d i n p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e s f o r m o b i l e home l i v i n g i n t h e A r i z o n a d e s e r t . The r e m a i n i n g m o t e l - t y p e p a r k s a r e , t o p u t i t m i l d l y , poor examples o f r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . The l i s t o f f a u l t s i n t h e s e p a r k s i s l o n g — t h e v e r y a n t i t h e s i s o f e s s e n t i a l s i t e p l a n n i n g . H i g h d e n s i t y , m i n i m a l grounds and u n i t upkeep, pavement l a n d s c a p i n g , and commercial l o c a t i o n a r e among the r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e d e f i c i e n c i e s . Y e t t h e s e p a r k s a r e among t h e o l d e s t e x i s t i n g i n t h e lo w e r m a i n l a n d , and many t e n a n t s have r e s i d e d i n them f o r y e a r s . As l e g a l non-conforming uses under z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , changes i n some a s p e c t s o f t h e l a n d use might t h r e a t e n c o n t i n u a t i o n o f o t h e r non-conforming e l e m e n t s . T h i s i s i n p a r t a l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l problem, l e g a l i n terms o f t h e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s o f z o n i n g and p o l i t i c a l a t l e a s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on r e z o n i n g and subsequent m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s . A second r e a s o n r e l a t e d t o t h e f i r s t i s t h a t t h e management o f t h e s e p a r k s tends to be l e s s than p r o f e s s i o n a l , and a v o i d s e f f o r t and r i s k - t a k i n g t h a t would be u n d e r t a k e n by a w e l l -i n f o r m e d , p r o f i t - m a x i m i z i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r . These two re a s o n s combine i n an appearance o f i n e r t i a w h i c h h e l p s e x p l a i n the poor e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s and no doubt i m p l i e s v e r y l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o c a p i t a l f o r improvements. The t h i r d r e a s o n i s t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t o f th e z o n i n g and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a s p e c t s c u r r e n t l y e x i s t i n g . The m o b i l e home u n i t s i n mo t e l and t o u r i s t c o u r t s were o r i g i n a l l y t r a n s i e n t s and as some became i n f a c t permanent were t r a d i t i o n a l l y n o t t h e p r i m a r y o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n . T h i s seems to remain i n t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e o p e r a t o r s , even though t h e s e o p e r a t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t m o b i l e homes c o n s t i t u t e t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i r revenues o r a t l e a s t p i c k up t h e s l a c k d u r i n g t h e o f f season f o r t o u r i s t s . A p o s s i b l e f o u r t h r e a s o n f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a combined t o u r i s t and m o b i l e home park o p e r a t i o n has t o do w i t h t h e r e n t c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s . I t may be t h a t t h e exemption from r e n t c o n t r o l s a c c o r d e d h o t e l s and o t h e r t r a n s i e n t accommodations would be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e n t i r e o p e r a t i o n . Poor D e s i g n and Maintenance The most n o t a b l e example o f j u s t how bad a park can be, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n an urban s e t t i n g , i s l o c a t e d i n S u r r e y near t h e P a t u l l o B r i d g e . The park i s a v i s u a l b l i g h t i n an a l r e a d y low q u a l i t y s t r i p c o mmercial development a t t h e n o r t h e r n end o f t h e K i n g George Highway. Overhead w i r i n g seems to be everywhere i n t h i s park; there i s no order i n the placement of mobile units; some units are t i l t e d , others s t i l l have their wheels and chassis v i s i b l e , and many have poor s k i r t i n g or none at a l l . The units i n t h i s park are not a l l o l d and substandard models, and i n another park setting could appear quite respectable. In th i s park the problem i s simply lack of good design and of adequate maintenance. Economic Pressure The r e a l i t y of economic pressure for redevelopment poses another problem for operators of older parks. Aware that some older parks, because of t h e i r l o c a t i o n along commercial corridors and near commercial centres, are increasingly becoming uneconomic land uses, park operators are placed i n a precarious p o s i t i o n . The more the value of commercial land r i s e s , the less viable such a park becomes. Financial pressure i s placed on park owners and transferred to tenants, who can only afford so much. Summary The case study of park conditions and characteris-t i c s provided in Chapter Five and subsequent determination and discussion of problems related to these parks outlined i n t h i s chapter would indicate that some form of remedial action i s required. Such action should begin by addressing the more pressing issues facing the park system i n the lower 163 mainland. The preceding a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e s some of these issues as: the l a c k of a v a i l a b l e and a f f o r d a b l e park space; the need f o r park upgrading i n some instances; the need to expand e x i s t i n g parks, where f e a s i b l e ; the need to i d e n t i f y more s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r parks; and the need to examine p i t f a l l s i n park tenancy arrangements. The b a s i s of a p o l i c y framework to account f o r p a r t i c u l a r park requirements i s presented next. CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY C o n c l u s i o n s Perhaps the most a p p r o p r i a t e method f o r c o n c l u d i n g a s t u d y such as t h i s i s t o f i r s t comment on t h e i m p r e s s i o n s one i s l e f t w i t h r e g a r d i n g the s t e r e o t y p e d o l d e r p a r k , t h a t much m a l i g n e d c o r n e r o f t h e h o u s i n g market. The ' o l d e r ' p a r k has been t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s and what i s p r o v i d e d here i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based on r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s o f box-shaped houses one passes a l o n g the r o a d seem w i t h o u t c h a r a c t e r , p r i d e o r permanence, i t has been a p e r s o n a l l e s s o n t h a t t h e s e a r e a r e a s where o r d i n a r y p e o p l e l i v e . W h i l e they may be o n l y a temporary home f o r some, t h e y have been t h e p r e f e r r e d and permanent homes o f many p e o p l e f o r y e a r s . Some l i v e t h e r e by c h o i c e and some by need, but whatever t h e r e a s o n , t h e u n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t t o l i v e t h e r e can never be i g n o r e d . To t a l k about e r a d i c a t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i s i r r e s p o n s i b l e and an i n f r i n g e m e n t o f a b a s i c r i g h t t o s h e l t e r . 164 165 I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t one o r two o f t h e s t u d y p a r k s resemble l i t t l e more t h a n m o b i l e c o n s t r u c t i o n camps. There i s a slum a i r about t h e s e p a r k s b u t t h e term 'slum' i s not r e a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h e s e a r e a s because they v a r y so f a r from the norm i n park d e s i g n and purpose. Other p a r k s a r e s u p e r l a t i v e examples o f p l e a s a n t and w e l l - p l a n n e d r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . The d e c i s i o n as to park q u a l i t y i s , t h e n , l i k e so many q u a l i t a t i v e judgments i n l i f e , a f u n c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s and b i a s e s . What i s adequate and f u n c t i o n a l s h e l t e r t o one p e r s o n can be s u b s t a n d a r d and o f f e n s i v e to a n o t h e r . I f i t i s t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f o l d e r p a r k s t h a t i s o f c o n c e r n t o some p e o p l e , i t may be t h a t t h e r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t problems i n o l d e r p a r k s can be c o n s t r u e d more as i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n n a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n as d e f e c t s t h a t can be c o r r e c t e d by c a m o u f l a g i n g o r by removing them. I n h e r e n t d e f e c t s i n park d e s i g n a r e an a s p e c t o f our r e s i d e n t i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s t h a t we may have to t o l e r a t e j u s t as we do i n t h e c a s e o f p o o r l y d e s i g n e d row h o u s i n g , p u b l i c h o u s i n g , and so on. A r e t h e o l d e r p a r k s a problem? To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n one must i n q u i r e f u r t h e r by a s k i n g , " f o r whom a r e t h e s e p a r k s a problem — t h e r e s i d e n t s , t h e p a r k owner o r o p e r a t o r , the p u b l i c , o r l o c a l government?" I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e problem, i f and where i t e x i s t s , d i f f e r s i n each c a s e . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o v i d e d 166 here i s t h a t c e r t a i n i s s u e s need to be r e s o l v e d but t h a t v e r y few o l d e r p a r k s i n the l o w e r m a i n l a n d c o u l d be c a t e g o r i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as a problem. I f i t i s p h y s i c a l d e s i g n and s t a n d a r d s t h a t a r e a problem, i t remains f o r t h a t c o n c e r n t o be s t r o n g l y v o c a l i z e d by p a r k r e s i d e n t s . T h i s seems t o be an i s s u e f o r anybody but t h e a c t u a l r e s i d e n t s . The r e s i d e n t s a r e , by and l a r g e , c o n t e n t w i t h t h e i r s t y l e o f l i v i n g . O l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e not t h e same as h o u s i n g s u b d i v i s i o n s ; t h i s i s o b v i o u s , y e t d i f f i c u l t f o r some t o a c c e p t . The o l d e r p a r k s , w i t h o n l y a few e x c e p t i o n s , a r e o f t e n a v i s u a l p l e a s u r e i n the f a c e o f monotonous and c o n v e n t i o n a l u n i f o r m i t y i n h o u s i n g . They a r e a u n i q u e way o f l i v i n g and because t h e y r e p r e s e n t d i v e r s i t y , o r a d e p a r t u r e from th e c o n v e n t i o n a l , they are s u s p e c t . The s t a r e s , t h e frowns, and t h e o f f i c i a l f r u s t r a t i o n s a r e an e x p r e s s i o n o f b e w i l d e r m e n t . M o b i l e home p a r k s , n o t a b l y t h e s m a l l e r and o l d e r ones, a r e v i c t i m s o f c h a n g i n g t i m e s . J u s t as t h e c o r n e r g r o c e r y i s s u f f e r i n g t h e r a v a g e s o f economies of s c a l e , so t h e s m a l l p a r k i s o f t e n o n l y c l i n g i n g t o c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n by the sheer d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f owners and t e n a n t s . S t u b b o r n l y r e s i s t i n g market f o r c e s such as e s c a l a t i n g l a n d v a l u e , many p a r k s i n the l o w e r m a i n l a n d may have a p r e -d e t e r m i n e d d e s t i n y . 1 6 7 Of c o u r s e t h e r e a r e degrees o f u p g r a d i n g and improvement t h a t c o u l d and s h o u l d o c c u r i n a p o r t i o n o f o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k s ; a t l e a s t t h a t i s the p e r s p e c t i v e from t h i s a n a l y s i s . However, t h e d e c i s i o n t h a t something s h o u l d be done and t h e d e c i s i o n s o f what t o do and how t o do i t s h o u l d be l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e w i s h e s o f t h o s e most d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d . Most p a r k s remain f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g . C e r t a i n l y where r e n t a l accommodation i s a t a premium, a l o n g w i t h a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g , p a r k s a re t o l e r a t e d and sometimes defended f o r t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o absorb t h e demand f o r home o w n e r s h i p . I n the l o w e r m a i n l a n d i t may be t h a t u l t i m a t e l y a p o i n t w i l l be reac h e d where the economic r e n t l e v e l s i n p a r k s exceed t h e c a p a c i t y and/or w i l l i n g n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o pay f o r a space t o p a r k t h e i r m o b i l e homes. I n o t h e r words, t h e market may de t e r m i n e l o c a l government p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . T h i s w i l l c e r t a i n l y be an e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s , w i t h p a r k s o f a l l forms and v i n t a g e s r e m a i n i n g f o r many y e a r s t o come. M o b i l e home p a r k s , o l d and new, r e p r e s e n t a unique form o f l a n d and d w e l l i n g t e n u r e . The problems a r i s i n g from t h i s arrangement a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y c l o s e and j u d i c i o u s s c r u t i n y o f t h e l a n d l o r d and t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t many o f t h e s e problems stem from the s h o r t a g e o f a f f o r d a b l e p a r k spaces i n t h e lo w e r m a i n l a n d . 168 Indeed t h i s a s p e c t o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e l o n g - t e r m v i a b i l i t y o f t h i s t y p e o f r e s i d e n t i a l development. F i n a l l y , one can c o n c l u d e t h a t o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o ward m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e o n l y s l o w l y c h a n g i n g and t h e a t t i t u d e d i s p l a y e d toward t h e o l d e r p a r k s can g e n e r a l l y be d e s c r i b e d as n e g a t i v e . They a r e perhaps t o l e r a t e d as an i n t e r i m measure i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c h i e v i n g a s t a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l community. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t l o c a l governments become more r e s p o n s i v e to t h e i s s u e s a t hand i f th e p r e s s u r e s on the e x i s t i n g p a r k system a r e t o be r e l i e v e d . Recommendations The recommendations suggested here r e f l e c t such p r i o r i t i e s as the need to p r o v i d e more m o b i l e home spaces, t o upgrade some e x i s t i n g o l d e r p a r k s , t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e o f t e n a n t d i s p l a c e m e n t and r e l a t e d tenancy problems i n m o b i l e home p a r k s , and t o at t e m p t a more comprehensive approach by a l l s e c t o r s o f t h e community concerned w i t h t h e p l a c e o f m o b i l e home p a r k s i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. These s u g g e s t i o n s a r e based on t h e as s u m p t i o n t h a t m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e g o i n g t o be a permanent p a r t o f t h e h o u s i n g s u p p l y i n t h e lower m a i n l a n d . They a r e meant t o be r a t i o n a l and to s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n and sound p o l i c y a c t i o n t h a t w i l l e n a b l e m o b i l e homes t o e f f e c t a more v i a b l e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e l a n d must be made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e development o f new m o b i l e home p a r k s and t h e e x p a n s i o n 169 of existing parks. The process w i l l draw on municipal land assembly and pr o v i n c i a l involvement v i a the use of Crown land. It should be made easier to expand existing parks where expansion i s possible, f e a s i b l e and desired by park owners and tenants. Permission to expand could require reducing densities where appropriate. Any changes along t h i s l i n e w i l l mean a study of the regulations and attitude biases encountered by park owners. P r o v i n c i a l and federal housing o f f i c i a l s could promote seminars and workshops for l o c a l and regional government to help determine the r o l e of older parks i n a p a r t i c u l a r community's housing supply. A major thrust of thi s e f f o r t should be the discouragement of ideas r e l a t i n g to parks being an interim land use. Audiovisual techniques could be employed that show exactly what the subject i s , what i t can be, and the variety of parks within municipalities i n B.C. Park upgrading involves an attempt to resolve some existing problems in older parks. This of course w i l l be d i f f i c u l t and there i s much controversy as to whether or not municipalities have the authority to require mobile home owners and park operators to upgrade parks and units on a retroactive basis. The problem requires the attention of both p r o v i n c i a l and municipal a u t h o r i t i e s . A recent report states, "In the f i n a l analysis, governments can best upgrade existing mobile home parks by 170 making l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r new developments under new 113 r e g u l a t e d s t a n d a r d s . " T h i s comment evades t h e i s s u e a t hand. Amendments t o t h e Municipal Act s h o u l d be e n a c t e d t o r e q u i r e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o use s t r i n g e n t p a r k i n s p e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . M o d i f i e d occupancy and maintenance s t a n d a r d s c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o o l d e r p a r k s , k e e p i n g i n mind t h a t t h e s e a r e a s were d e v e l o p e d p r i o r t o e x i s t i n g model p a r k b y - l a w s . I n t h e i r own way t h e o l d e r p a r k s can be compared t o o l d e r c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods d i s p l a y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s n o t found i n modern s u b d i v i s i o n s . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , because t h e p a r k s were d e v e l o p e d a t a n o t h e r t i m e and under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e need f o r r e n o v a t i o n and improvement. A c t i o n c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d by r e q u i r i n g u n i t s o f a c o n d i t i o n d e t e r m i n e d t o be s u b s t a n d a r d t o be phased o u t o f p a r k s i n s t a g e s , and by p r e v e n t i n g the s a l e o f s u b s t a n d a r d u n i t s , t h o s e below minimum maintenance s t a n d a r d s . The c o n d i t i o n o f some o l d e r m o b i l e u n i t s i n terms o f poor plumbing, e l e c t r i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l components, i s such t h a t t hey a r e r e a l l y o n l y m a r k e t a b l e commodities when s i t u a t e d i n a p a r k . Some o f t h e c o s t s of u p g r a d i n g w i l l have t o be sha r e d among t h e concerned p a r t i e s . F o r example, t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e d u c i n g p a r k d e n s i t y means a l s o r e d u c i n g a park o p e r a t o r ' s income. To e n f o r c e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s d e s i g n e d f o r new p a r k s i s not r e a l i s t i c b ut a t the same time 171 changes must be made whi c h s h o u l d not be s o l e l y a t the expense o f a park owner. R e s i d e n t s whose homes a r e s u b s t a n d a r d s h o u l d be compensated a t a de t e r m i n e d r a t e and a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n t o f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation. Every e f f o r t must be made t o a l l o w r e s i d e n t s t o remain i n a park i f t h e y w i s h . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c c e s s t o g o o d - q u a l i t y pre-owned m o b i l e homes s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . A n o t h e r method o f park u p g r a d i n g , i n terms o f t h e c o n d i t i o n o f the m o b i l e homes, c o u l d i n v o l v e an a d a p t a t i o n of t h e f e d e r a l R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program. The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s program i s to a s s i s t i n the r e p a i r and improvement o f e x i s t i n g s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g and t o promote i t s subsequent maintenance. Beyond i m p r o v i n g poor h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s and the need t o p r e s e r v e o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , b o t h o f w h i c h a p p l y t o some o l d e r p a r k s , t h e program i s a means to f a c i l i t a t e the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f o u r e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k and t h e mas s i v e i n v e s t m e n t i t r e p r e s e n t s . A s s i s t a n c e i s p r o v i d e d i n the form o f l o a n s up t o $10,000 per u n i t , p a r t o f w h i c h i s f o r g i v e a b l e depending upon l e v e l o f f a m i l y income. Upgrading o f some o l d e r p a r k s i s a complex i s s u e and r e q u i r e s j u d i c i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r e s t s and r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . I t i s agreed by a l l o f t h o s e concerned w i t h t h i s i s s u e t h a t v a r y i n g degrees o f u p g r a d i n g a r e e s s e n t i a l t o an improved image f o r t h i s segment o f t h e m o b i l e home park p o p u l a t i o n , as t h e s e p a r k s 172 are often the most v i s i b l e to the most people. Government at a l l levels can play a leading and b e n e f i c i a l role i n thi s process. One of the most p r a c t i c a l ways of enhancing o r i g i n a l l y unimaginative park design and easing the harsh-ness of mobile home l i n e s i s to use suitably scaled landscaping. Some of the older parks studied are well endowed with natural vegetation and landscaping and t h i s feature makes a world of difference i n the appearance of the park. Creative landscaping should be considered a necessity in any program of upgrading. With regard to the location of mobile home parks i t has been found that the major drawback i s t h e i r location along major t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s , with the potential for commercial and small-scale i n d u s t r i a l development. This aspect supports the idea of parks as interim land use and contributes to poor physical maintenance, especially during the period p r i o r to redevelopment. Therefore, i t i s recommended that l o c a l municipal by-laws incorporate regulations which locate future park development not on, but in proximity to major a r t e r i e s and essential services. An of f - a r t e r y location would promote a sense of permanency for parks. The location should be within an urban framework, not a r u r a l subdivision-type park removed from the services network and the r e s i d e n t i a l focus of a community. If mobile 173 homes are to be recognized as an acceptable form of housing and r e s i d e n t i a l development, they must be located, wherever possible, away from commercial and i n d u s t r i a l areas and freeways. Although t h i s action w i l l not help parks now located i n poor areas, i t i s a c r i t e r i a to be considered should a major e f f o r t at redevelopment occur. In locating mobile home parks the needs of future residents should be kept i n mind. For example, the orie n t a t i o n of many parks toward senior c i t i z e n s implies that such parks should be in proximity to the types of f a c i l i t i e s required by t h i s segment of the population. I t i s a common argument that the t r a f f i c generated by parks requires that they be located along high capacity roadways. More often than not the older residents of parks are not as mobile as residents of conventional subdivisions, thereby r e s u l t i n g i n less concentrated t r a f f i c . In fact many park residents are not even i n the park for a portion of the year, due to a growing tendency to l i v e i n a sim i l a r environment in the southern United States. Operators contacted during the survey indicated that i t . was not unusual for many residents to winter i n F l o r i d a , Arizona or C a l i f o r n i a . Parks should be located and designed i n a fashion which improves the surrounding area. Clustering of parks should be avoided since mobile home park " s t r i p development" produces negative reactions from present and potential 174 r e s i d e n t s o f a d j a c e n t a r e a s . P a r k s a r e o f t e n found i n groups due t o l o c a l z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and h i s t o r i c a l development. A f i n a l recommendation i n v o l v e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between park o p e r a t o r s and r e s i d e n t s . To b e g i n w i t h , t h i s u n ique l a n d l o r d / t e n a n t arrangement s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y -examined i n l i g h t o f the s p e c i a l t y p e s o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i n v o l v e d - the m o b i l e home and t h e p a r k . E n t r a n c e f e e s w h i c h e x i s t i n some p a r k s a r e a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s c a r c i t y o f m o b i l e home s i t e s i n the lower m a i n l a n d . T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t l e g a l i s s u e w i t h w h i c h to d e a l and i t would r e q u i r e l e n g t h y i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e f a c t s i n c o u r t . I t would be p o s s i b l e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n to i n t r o d u c e mandatory l e a s e arrangements i n p a r k s where e n t r a n c e f e e s a r e c h a r g e d and, i n so d o i n g , r e d uce o r e l i m i n a t e t h e t h r e a t o f e v i c t i o n . T h i s a c t i o n would a v o i d t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e o f th e u n r e a s o n a b l e c o s t s borne by some m o b i l e home owners upon e n t e r i n g a p a r k . However, a r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e would be t o p e r m i t such a f e e as i t p e r t a i n s t o o n l y t h o s e s p e c i f i c c o s t s o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e park o p e r a t o r . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f c l o s e d p a r k s i t has been found t h a t most o f the o l d e r p a r k s have managed t o c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i o n w i t h o u t t h i s t y p e o f r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e e n t r a n c e o f m o b i l e homes i n t o t h e p a r k . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the problem does e x i s t i n some i n s t a n c e s and i s common among 175 newer p a r k s . To d e a l w i t h t h i s problem e f f e c t i v e l y i t c o u l d be made an o f f e n c e t o o p e r a t e a c l o s e d p a r k , and t h e r e b y b r e a k d e a l e r c o n t r o l o f park s p a c e s . The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f L a n g l e y now r e q u i r e s t h a t any f u t u r e park development i n t h e a r e a must be s u b j e c t t o a m u n i c i p a l park p o l i c y p r e v e n t i n g c l o s e d p a r k s from b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s a c t i o n might have t h e e f f e c t o f d i s c o u r a g i n g any p r i v a t e p a r k development i n t e r e s t s due t o t h e l a c k o f p r i v a t e c o n t r o l o v e r o p e r a t i o n . A more r a t i o n a l approach would be t o r e q u i r e p a r k o p e r a t o r s to s e t a s i d e a f i x e d p e r c e n t a g e o f p a r k space f o r home owners who purchased t h e i r m o b i l e u n i t somewhere e l s e . The Residential Tenancy Act s h o u l d be examined t o d i s c e r n how much a u t h o r i t y a park o p e r a t o r s h o u l d have i n p r e v e n t i n g the s a l e o f s u b s t a n d a r d u n i t s w i t h i n a pa r k . Some o p e r a t o r s c o n t a c t e d d u r i n g t h e study r e p o r t e d no c o n t r o l o v e r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u p g r a d i n g t h e i r p a r k s when r e s i d e n t s were a l l o w e d t o s e l l a t w i l l a m o b i l e home i n any c o n d i t i o n . Moreover i t c o u l d be argued t h a t a p a r k o p e r a t o r i s e n t i t l e d t o a share o f t h e p r o f i t made t h r o u g h t h e s a l e o f a home w h i c h may be a d v a n t a g e o u s l y s i t u a t e d i n h i s p a r k . r F i n a l l y , t h e system o f r e n t a l r a t e s f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d t o dete r m i n e when t h o s e p a r k s p r o v i d i n g a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f s e r v i c e a r e n o t b e i n g p e r m i t t e d to c harge a r e a l i s t i c r a t e o r one which p e r m i t s an adequate r e t u r n on t h e i n v e s t m e n t . 176 Any l e g i s l a t i o n p ut f o r w a r d t o d e a l w i t h t h e unique problems o f m o b i l e home p a r k s , b o t h o l d and new, must keep i n mind t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f p a r k s f u n c t i o n i n a f a i r and e f f i c i e n t manner. L e g i s l a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t t e n a n t s may have t h e r e s u l t o f making t h i s form o f accommodation l e s s a v a i l a b l e t h a n i t i s now. The remedies d e s i g n e d f o r t h e t e n a n t s o r t h e park o p e r a t o r s must meet t h e s p e c i f i c needs p e c u l i a r t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has d i s c u s s e d t h e f o r c e s a t work i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . The r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s and t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d have been p r o d u c t i v e , and i t i s tho u g h t t h a t t h e problems i d e n t i f i e d w i l l h e l p t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e what i s a much more complex i s s u e than f i r s t meets t h e eye. I f implemented, t h e recommenda-t i o n s suggested c o u l d do much t o r e d i r e c t e f f o r t s t o a l l e v i a t e t h e problems s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s c u r i o u s e n t i t y — th e o l d e r m o b i l e home p a r k . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study The p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o r e l a t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e m o b i l e home park i s s u e a r e e x t e n s i v e i n d e e d . The need f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h has been a l l u d e d t o p r e v i o u s l y i n v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . There i s a need t o examine i n d e t a i l t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between l a n d l o r d and t e n a n t i n m o b i l e home p a r k s . Such a s t u d y c o u l d e l a b o r a t e on t h e l e g a l and p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n and i t c o u l d a l s o p l a c e the 177 h i s t o r i c a l development o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n p e r s p e c t i v e . G i v e n t h a t some p a r k s e x i s t where p h y s i c a l u p g r a d i n g i s r e q u i r e d , i t w i l l be p r e r e q u i s i t e t o e x p l o r e t h e ways i n whi c h such a c t i o n s h o u l d and c o u l d be t a k e n . On what b a s i s can a d e c i s i o n t o r e q u i r e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h i s t y p e o f r e g u l a t i o n be made? To what s t a n d a r d must t h e s e p a r k s be improved? Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s i s t i n g i n t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f d i s p l a c e d park t e n a n t s ? Moreover, what a r e th e p r o j e c t e d i m p l i c a t i o n s i n s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l terms o f park upgrading? What does the f u t u r e h o l d f o r t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y and park development? Trends need t o be r e s e a r c h e d i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a sound b a s i s f o r making p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s around p a r k development and redevelopment. The h y p o t h e s i s one c o u l d b e g i n w i t h might c o n c e r n t h e l o n g and s h o r t range v a l i d i t y o f i n t e r i m l a n d use f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . What a r e t h e economic i m p l i c a t i o n s o f m o b i l e home ownership and p a r k l i v i n g , and does an economic t h r e s h o l d e x i s t beyond w h i c h t h i s t y p e o f h o u s i n g becomes u n f e a s i b l e ? R e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n method, degree, and s u c c e s s o f f i n a n c i n g c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . F i n a l l y , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o s t u d y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r u r a l and s m a l l town o r i e n t e d m o b i l e home p a r k . Do s i m i l a r problems e x i s t and i s i t s i m p l y a m a t t e r 178 of scale, or are there other processes at work i n these parks? What i s the impact of mobile home park l i v i n g on r u r a l or small-scale urban housing markets? FOOTNOTES "'"L. A. Mayer, " M o b i l e Homes Move I n t o t h e B r e a c h , " Fortune Magazine, March 1970, p. 127. 2 The Vancouver Sun, November 15, 1977. 3 R. L. K n i g h t , " P l a n n e r s and M o b i l e Home Res e a r c h , " Socio-Eoonomio Planning, June 1971, p. 213. Loo. cit. 5 M. A u d a i n , Mobile Homes - Problems and Prospects, V i c t o r i a , 1975, p. 45. ^Nova S c o t i a , Department o f Consumer A f f a i r s , The Mobile Home And The Way It Can Be, H a l i f a x , 1977, p. 86. 7 E. K e n d a l l , "The I n v i s i b l e Suburb," Horrzon, 1971, p. 18 6. g H. D a v i d s o n , Housing Demand: Mobile, Modular, or Conventional? Van N o s t r a n d , 1973, p. 27. 9 Ibid., p. 28 . "^Canadian S t a n d a r d s A s s o c i a t i o n , Mobile Home Parks - C.S.A. Standard Z240.7.1-1972, C.S.A. , 1972, p. 5. "'""'"Joint Study Team On M o b i l e Homes, Mobile Homes - Recommendations For Alternate Federal Government Actions, Ottawa, 1977, p. 2. 12 Nova S c o t i a , Department o f Consumer A f f a i r s , op. cit., p. 236. 13 r hoc. cvt. 14 Nova S c o t i a , op. c%t.,^.. 244. 15 New B r u n s w i c k , Community Planning Act N.B. Regulation 73-44, F r e d e r i c t o n , 1973, p. 1. ^ ^ C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y , Surrey Zoning By-law No. 2265, S u r r e y , 1964 . 17 C.S.A., op. cut., p. 7. 179 180 18 C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e Township o f L a n g l e y , Mobile Park Regulation and Control By-law No. 1505, L a n g l e y , 1975, p. 1. ^Ibid., p. 2. 20 A u d a i n , op. cit., p. 12. ^Ibid. , p . 13 . 22 R. Sykes, " M o b i l e Homes i n C a l g a r y , " Lifestyle For Tomorrow, CMHTTA, 1974, p. 5. 23 Mike Moose, ed., The Immobile Home Syndrome, A r k a n s a s U n i v e r s i t y , Department o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1973, p. 18. 24 Ibid. , p . 22 . 25 Ibid. , p . 27 . 2 6 E. B a r t l e y and F. B a i r , Mobile Home Parks and Comprehensive Community Planning, U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , 19 60, p. 15. 27 Moose, op. art., p. 30. 28 American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , Regulation of Modular Housing, With Special Emphasis on Mobile Homes, ASPO P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e , 1971, p. 30. 29 Dav i d s o n , op. cit., p. 32. Moose, op. cit., p. 38. 31 M. D r u r y , Mobile Homes: The Unrecognized Revolution in American Housing, P r a e g e r , 1972, p. 14. 32 K e n d a l l , op. ext., p. 187. 33 D a v i d s o n , op. ext., p. 38. 34 American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , op. cit., p. 34. 35 D a v i d s o n , op. cit., p. 40. 3 6 F i a n i k Young, "The S t i c k - B u i l t Syndrome: F i g h t i n g t h e P r e j u d i c e , " Housing: Policies and Programs, P. Homemuck, ed., York U n i v e r s i t y , 1974, p. 68. 37 Ibid., p. 70. 3 8 D r u r y , op. cit., p. 20. 181 o q Nova S c o t i a , Department o f Consumer A f f a i r s , op. cit., p. 21. ^ D a v i d s o n , op. cit. , p. 20. 41Ibid., p. 22. 4 2 J o i n t Study Team, op', cit., p. 3. 4 3r ., hoc. cit. 4 4 C e n t e r F o r Auto S a f e t y , Mobile Homes, The Low-Cost Housing Hoax, Grossman, 1975, p. 1. 4 5 J o i n t Study Team, op. cit. , p. 25. 4 6 A u d a i n , op. cit. , p. 8. 4 7r Loc. c%t. 48 r Loc. cit. 4 9 . J o i n t Study Team, op. cit., p. 27. ^°Center F o r Auto S a f e t y , op. cit., p. 15. 51 1 A u d a i n , op. cit., p. 8. 5 2 Nova S c o t i a , Department o f Consumer A f f a i r s , op. cit., p. 6. 53 B a r t l e y and B a i r , op. cit., p. 12. 54 D r u r y , op. cit., p. 59. Roda C o n t r a c t o r , " A t t i t u d e s o f M o b i l e Home Owners Toward M o b i l e Home P a r k s , " M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972, p. 40. ^ ^ J o i n t Study Team, op. cit., p. 101. 57 r ., Loc. cit. C O Nova S c o t i a , Department o f Consumer A f f a i r s , op. cit., p. 26. 59 J o i n t Study Team, op. cit., p. 31. 60Ibid., p. 40. 61Ibid., p. 34. 6 ^Ibid., p. 3 5. 182 ^Ibid., p. 36. 64 A u d a i n , op. c%t. , p. 40. ^ N o v a S c o t i a , Department o f Consumer A f f a i r s , op. eit., p . 23. 6 6 M. Wehrly, Mob-Lie Home Parks: Part 2, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1972, p. 11. 6 7 B a r t l e y and' B a i r , op. ait., p. 14. 6 8 A u d a i n , op. cit., p. 43. 69 R. Newcomb, Mobile Home Parks: Part 1, Washington, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1971, p. 38. ~^®Ibid., P- 39. ^^Ibid., P- 40. ^^Ibid., P- 40. 7 3 B a r t l e y and B a i r , op: cit., p. 47. ^^Newcomb, op. cit., p. 44. B a r t l e y and B a i r , op. cit., p. 38. 16Ibid., p. 40. 1 1 Ibid., p. 38. 78 r hoc. c%t., 19Ibid., p. 46. O Q A u d a i n , op. cit., p. 39. P i C e n t e r F o r Auto S a f e t y , op. cit., p. 56. 8 2 Dru r y , op. cit., p. 121. 8 3 J o i n t Study Team, op. cit., p. 12. p A C e n t e r F o r Auto S a f e t y , op. cit., p. 54. 8^Ibid., p. 57. 8 6 D a v i d s o n , op. cit., p. 143. 183 87 B a r t l e y and B a i r , op. cit.', p. 75. 8 8 D r u r y , op. cit., p. 135. 8 9r .. Loc. cit. , 90 B a r t l e y and B a i r , op. ext., p. 77. ^^Ibid. , p . 78 . 92 D r u r y , op. cit., p. 111. 93 Da v i d s o n , op. ext., p. 143. 94 B a r t l e y and B a i r , op. ext., p. 82. 95Ibid. , p. 89. 96 Ibid. , p . 91. 97 B r i t i s h Columbia, Municipal Act, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1977, p. 109. 98 J o i n t Study Team, op. ext., p. 80. 99 A u d a i n , op. ext., p. 21. 1 0 0 J o i n t Study Team, op. cit., p. 81. 1 0 ' ' " N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada, National Building Code of Canada 1970, Ottawa, 197 0. 102 Ca n a d i a n S t a n d a r d s A s s o c i a t i o n , op. ext., p. 18. ^^Ibid., p. 23. 104 r ., Loc. ext. 105 Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , Sxte Plannxng For Mobile Homes, CMHC, 1972, p. 6. 106 T, _ Ibxd., p. 7 . 107 R. 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