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Effects of advance organizers on immediate and delayed recall of oral learning in grades four and seven Fletcher, Marjorie Jane Shortt 1981

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EFFECTS OF ADVANCE ORGANIZERS $|g;i IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED RECALL OF ORAL LEARNING IN GRADES FOUR AND SEVEN by MARJORIE JANE SHORTT FLETCHER B.'A. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Educational Psychology and S p e c i a l Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA $c) June 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Educational Payahology and Opecial Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date .Tnnp 72, .1981 7Q \ ABSTRACT The goal of t h i s study was to explore the use of ad-vance organizers i n an o r a l learning s i t u a t i o n at two elemen-tary school grade l e v e l s . I t had four main purposes: 1) to determine whether or not advance organizers would f a c i l i t a t e retention i n o r a l learning; 2) to determine i f one p a r t i c u l a r type of organizer would f a c i l i t a t e more than another; 3) to discover whether there were grade differences i n retention from an o r a l lesson; and 4) to determine i f there would be differences i n the occasion of r e c a l l (immediate or delayed). Students i n grade four and seven were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: no organizer, outline organizer, prequestion organizer and v i s u a l organi-zer. Each of the treatment groups employing an advance organizer received the same abstract comparative advance organizer followed by an organizer unique to t h e i r treat-ment. The no organizer treatment received an unrelated l i s t e n i n g task i n place of the organizers. After an o r a l learning task of connected discourse, presented on audio tape, a l l subjects received one of two versions of a sentence completion test based on the l i s t e n i n g task. This was the measure of immediate r e c a l l . One week la t e r they were administered the second p a r a l l e l version of the same tes t as the delayed r e c a l l measure. The results indicated no f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s for advance organizers. There were also no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t interactions between the treatment group and grade l e v e l or occasion of r e c a l l . Grade l e v e l and occasion both showed main effects .' r' " * ''>•••:-• jri-l: After reexamining the stimuli and r e c a l l measures u t i l i z e d i n the study, i t was decided that the absence of the expected f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t for advance organizers and of any interactions with them was probably due to poorly constructed stimuli and inappropriate r e c a l l measures com-bined with some administration d i f f i c u l t i e s . The grade l e v e l main e f f e c t was attributed primarily to developmental memory capacities while the main e f f e c t of occasion might be accounted for by depth of processing differences. i v CH7APTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . 4 Advance Organizer Theory and Function 4 Supportive Studies Using Written Advance Organizers 10 Nonsupportive Studies With Written Advance Organizers 13 Other Written Advance Organizers 15 Nonwritten Organizers 19 Listening 21 The Problem 28 Research Hypotheses 30 Rationale 30 Summary 32 II I . METHODOLOGY 33 Design 33 Subjects 33 Stimulus Material (General) . 34 Treatment Stimulus 36 Equipment 38 Recall Measures 38 Scoring 39 P i l o t Testing 39 Procedure 41 V CHAPTER PAGE IV. RESULTS 44 Test of Homogeneity 44 Hypothesis Testing 45 Summary 51 V. DISCUSSION 52 F a c i l i t a t i o n by Advance Organizers 52 Type of Organizer 55 Grade Level and Recall 56 Occasion, Grade and Treatment 57 Limitations of the Study 60 Recommendations for Further Study 62 F i n a l Comment 6 3 REFERENCE NOTE 64 REFERENCES . 64 APPENDICES . . . . . . . ". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 A. Procedure for Adaption of the Listening Task B. Treatment Stimuli C. Recall Measures D. ANOVA Table of Grade X Gender X Treatment with Repeated Measures. v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE I TEST OF HOMOGENEITY 45 II ANOVA GRADE X TREATMENT WITH REPEATED MEASURES 4 7 III MEAN PERFORMANCE SCORES FOR RECALL BY GRADE AND TREATMENT 48 IV ANOVA GRADE X TREATMENT FOR IMMEDIATE RECALL 49 V MEAN PERFORMANCE SCORES FOR IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED RECALL BY GRADE AND TREATMENT 51 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It i s with pleasure that the writer acknowledges her gratitude to those who have contributed i n so many ways to this work: To my faculty advisors for a l l t h e i r encouragement and assistance, but espe c i a l l y for Dr. Stanley Blank's time l i m i t s without which t h i s work would never have been finished; Dr. Stephen Foster's continuous morale boosting and Mr* Bruce White's help i n leading me to l i s t e n i n g . To Carol Osmond for her fa s t , e f f i c i e n t and unpaid typing of the f i r s t d r a f t . To Audrey Vaughan whose friendship extended to becoming a research experimenter. To Linda H i l l and B i l l McKee for the countless d i s -cussions and constructive c r i t i c i s m s in the i n i t i a l stages. To Dr. Walter Boldt for his clear and simple explana-tions when the fine points of research design and s t a t i s t i c s escaped me. To fellow graduate student, Pam Stevenson, for her continuous and invaluable advice and c r i t i c i s m with the analysis and the f i n a l d r a f t and espe c i a l l y for her moral support. F i n a l l y , to my husband, John, for his u n f a i l i n g support and encouragement, for his typing of the f i n a l d r a f t , 'and/ p a r t i c u l a r l y for his a b i l i t y to f i n d the humour i n i t a l l . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 In the course of a school day a c h i l d may f i n d himself i n a variety of educational l i s t e n i n g situations ranging from formal o r a l lessons to video programmes and peer presented reports. An extensive 1949 survey of elementary classrooms reported 57.78 of the student's time was spent i n l i s t e n i n g (Wilt i n Duker 19 71). Twenty f i v e years l a t e r i t was estimated that students s t i l l spent more than half t h e i r time i n l i s t e n i n g (Lundsteen 1976). Considerable research has been undertaken i n the l a s t f i f t y years to i d e n t i f y the s k i l l s involved i n l i s t e n i n g ; to es t a b l i s h t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n with other s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s ; and to develop programs for teaching l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s (D.evine 1978). Unfortunately, there are s t i l l many students who are poor l i s t e n e r s and who miss much of the material presented o r a l l y i n the classroom. Since so much of elementary school teaching i s spent i n the auditory mode, we should look c a r e f u l l y at how we conduct t h i s a c t i v i t y . The o r a l lesson should be structured i n such a way as to a s s i s t the learner i n his attempt to understand and r e t a i n what he hears. One of the primary d e f i c i e n c i e s i n poor l i s t e n e r s i s the i r i n a b i l i t y to focus th e i r attention. An i n s t r u c t i o n a l technique which the educator might use to o f f s e t t h i s deficiency i s that of advance organizers. 2 The term "advance organizer" as coined by Augubel, refers to a conceptual introduction to a learning s i t u a t i o n which provides a framework within which to f i t the new material learned. There i s some controversy concerning what constitutes an advance organizer and whether they are e f f e c t i v e (Barnes & Clawson,, 1975; Hartley & Davis, 1976). There are, however, s u f f i c i e n t supportive studies to lead t h i s researcher to be-li e v e that an advance organizer may a s s i s t the learner and that they may be p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n an o r a l learning s i t u a t i o n . In an o r a l lesson the information i s usually available only once, when i t i s spoken, so that providing the l i s t e n e r with an i n i t i a l framework for learning primes him as to what to l i s t e n for as well as aiding i n acti v a t i n g storage areas. Reception of meaningful i n s t r u c t i o n using an auditory mode commands a number of s k i l l s from the l i s t e n e r : the a b i l i t y to decode the l i n g u i s t i c content.into units of information which can be comprehended and stored; a body of knowledge or experience within which to f i t the o r a l l y acquired information to make i t meaningful and a memory structure i n which to store i t . (Barbara, 1958; Erway, 1972; Fischer, 1978; Lund-steen, 19 79). I t i s suggested that the use of an advance organizer can a s s i s t the young l i s t e n e r i n each of these demands. F i r s t , an organizer can be used to provide the necessary conceptual base within which to i d e n t i f y and f i t the new i n -3 formation by providing new concepts or activating old. ones so that they are receptive to new information. 1 Further, they can provide the l i s t e n e r with a s p e c i f i c structure, or order, on which to focus i n order, to obtain the key elements of the information and store them. F i n a l l y , i t can help i n forming units, or chunks,.of information i n order to avoid overloading short term memory, In order to accomplish a l l t h i s , the organ-i z e r must be at a l e v e l which i s compatible with the child' s experience and c a p a b i l i t i e s . There have been some advance organizer studies con-ducted at the elementary l e v e l , but they are i n the minority. The majority have been at the college or senior high school' l e v e l and have u t i l i z e d written materials both for the organ-i z e r and the learning task. Only one by Alexander, Frankiewicz & Williams (19 79) has been conducted with elementary children i n an o r a l learning s i t u a t i o n and i t found advance organizers f a c i l i t a t i v e at the grades 5, 6 and 7 l e v e l . Since there i s such a dearth of research i n the area of advance organizers i n or a l learning, a decision was made to examine the possible f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t of the organizers. 4 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Advance Organizers, Theory and Function The term "advance organizer" was coined by Ausubel to describe an abstract, but i n c l u s i v e , introduction to a s i t u a t i o n of learning, which provides a framework within which the learner's cognitive structure can organize and integrate the new material (Ausubel, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1968). This view i s based on the assumption that the cognitive structure i s or-ganized h i e r a r c h i c a l l y and that a l l new learning i s incorpor-ated into the structure only insofar as i t can be subsumed into already e x i s t i n g concepts. The use of an advance organ-i z e r ensures that the appropriate concept i s either activated or introduced so that the new material can be integrated into, or assimilated by, the already e x i s t i n g structure .{Ausubel, 1960, 1963, 1968, 1978; Ausubel & F i t z g e r a l d , 1961, 1962; Ausubel & Youssef, 1963). In the r e s u l t i n g process of assimilation, the p r i o r knowledge, or old concept, i s rede-fined to include the new information. In defining advance organizeirs, Ausubel stated that the organizer was to be at a l e v e l of abstraction which matched the cognitive structure of the learner (1968) and although i t was to be i n c l u s i v e , i t was to contain none of the actual material to be learned (1963, 1968, 1978) while s t i l l taking 5 t h i s information into account. Advance organizers w i l l f a c i l i t a t e learning: a) by mobilizing whatever relevant anchoring concepts are already established i n the individual"s cognitive structure; b) by providing optimal anchorage for easy i n i t i a l learning and l a t e r resistance to o b l i t e r a t i v e subsumption through the use of general and i n c l u s i v e ideas of the appropriate d i s c i p l i n e and c) by producing meaningful learning by a c t i v a t i n g or supplying key concepts which w i l l anchor the learning and remove the necessity of rote memorization of unfamiliar or i s o l a t e d ideas (Ausubel, 1978 p. 137 & 148, Lawton & Wanska, 1977). The r o l e of the advance organizer then, i s to bridge the gap between what the i n d i v i d u a l already knows and what he needs to know i n order to understand and r e t a i n the new learning. This conceptualization of the action of advance organ-iz e r s i s based on two assumptions emphasized by Ausubel and his colleagues. F i r s t , cognitive structures are hierarch-i c a l l y organized with progressive d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the knowledge so that new ideas are subsumed into the appropriate l e v e l within the hierarchy and disappear as separate units of knowledge. Second, new learning material i s p o t e n t i a l l y meaningful and takes on meaning only after i t i s incorporated into the learner's e x i s t i n g cognitive structure. That i s to say, when the new learning i s related to some previous know-ledge held by the learner, i t becomes meaningful and more 6 l i k e l y to be retained. The advance organizer merely c a l l s to mind the relevant concepts so that when the material to be learned i s introduced, i t s concepts and d e t a i l s w i l l have an already f a m i l i a r anchor on which to become attached. Once i d e n t i f i e d as' belonging with a s p e c i f i c concept, or anchor,,they no longer are i s o l a t e d d e t a i l s but become meaningful i n l i g h t of the previous know-ledge i n the cognitive structure and are subsumed into the anchoring concept (Ausubel, 1960, 1968). By extension, i f there i s no ex i s t i n g relevant anchor i n the learner's cognitive structure and none supplied, i t i s unlikely that the new lea r n i n g . w i l l become meaningful. Instead,, i t w i l l remain a memorized, and l i t t l e understood, i s o l a t e d f a c t u n t i l the relevant structures are somehow acquired. Ausubel (1968, 1978), suggested two d i f f e r e n t types of advance organizer, expository and comparative, which are said to be equally e f f e c t i v e but are to be used i n d i f f e r e n t circumstances. The expository organizer i s used when material i s t o t a l l y unfamiliar to the learner as determined by a pre-t e s t . I t attempts to provide i n c l u s i v e subsumers, rel a t e d to the e x i s t i n g cognitive structure, and to provide ideational scaffolding- for the new material. Comparative organizers are to be- used when the material i s f a m i l i a r or can be related to established ideas. They perform the same function as expos-i t o r y organizers but also, aid i n increased d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y between the new ideas and those previously learned by pointing 7 out the p r i n c i p l e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . In both cases, the a c t u a l m a t e r i a l to be learned should not be in c l u d e d i n the organizer which i s a b s t r a c t . The p r i n c i p l e d i f f e r e n c e between the two organizers appears t o be that the comparative organizer p o i n t s out the d i f f e r e n c e p r i o r to l e a r n i n g and provides i t s s c a f f o l d i n g through the use of a s p e c i f i c com-parable example whereas the exp o s i t o r y organizer i s purely a b s t r a c t i n i t s ideas. In recent s t u d i e s Mayer has attempted t o develop a c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s an advance org a n i z e r by examining how the org a n i z e r f u n c t i o n s . He has done t h i s by proposing f o u r t h e o r i e s of advance organizers and t e s t i n g the t h e o r i e s e m p i r i c a l l y (1977, 1978, 1979a, 1979b). One theory i s the r e c e p t i o n theory where the r e c a l l performance of subjects i s a f u n c t i o n of what i s presented and r e c e i v e d by the subject.. Such a theory although r e c o g n i z i n g the value of organizers i n general i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y suppor-t i v e of advance organizers since l e a r n i n g depends only on what i s presented and what the l e a r n e r r e c e i v e s . The theory takes no n o t i c e of what the l e a r n e r considers to be important, and t h e r e f o r e memorable, or what past experiences he brings w i t h him, nor does i t mention any process of l e a r n i n g . The r e t r i e v a l theory i s s i m i l a r l y s i m p l i s t i c . Here the organizer acts as a r e t r i e v a l a i d so th a t the learned m a t e r i a l can be cued f o r r e c a l l . Again the l e a r n e r ' s a b i l -i t i e s and experiences have no p a r t i n the l e a r n i n g nor i s the 8 process of storage explained. In t h i s theory advance organ-iz e r s or postorganizers w i l l be equally e f f e c t i v e for learning. An addition encoding theory predicts that an advance organizer, w i l l a s s i s t the learner at the time of encoding because i t activates or provides relevant concepts. In t h i s manner more anchors are available to a s s i s t i n both compre-hension and encoding of the new information so that the learners' knowledge w i l l be increased. The addition encoding theory i s s i m i l a r to Ausubel's theory but, i t does not allow for any integration of the new material. A modification of the addition encoding; theory suggests that the anchors may also be s e l e c t i v e i n the ideas which they w i l l or can accept. The theory to which Mayer seems most attached and which i s the most l i k e Ausubel's i s the assimilative encoding theory. This theory predicts that the advance organizer w i l l aid the learner by providing a conceptual framework within which the new learning materials w i l l be integrated. I t i s unclear exactly how t h i s d i f f e r s from Ausubel's theory of subsumption since both predict that s p e c i f i c learning w i l l d i s -appear into general concepts and w i l l no longer be d i s -tinguishable as separate ideas. Mayer puts a strong emphasis on the encoding aspect of the advance organizer. Ausubel does not s p e c i f i c a l l y state that encoding w i l l be aided however i t i s strongly implied. The two are also i n agreement that advance organizers w i l l not a s s i s t i n every learning s i t u a t i o n . Each says that 9 learning w i l l be enhanced only i f the material i s unfamiliar, and i f the learner does not already have an e f f e c t i v e strategy of integration or an exis t i n g subsumer. In addition they agree that some d e t a i l s w i l l be l o s t i n the assimilation process although concepts w i l l be clearer (Ausubel, 1968, 1978; Mayer, 1979a, 1979b). Mayer and Bromage (1980) further suggest that i f the learning material i s l o g i c a l l y organized with integra-t i o n of ideas already incorporated within the text then advance organizer w i l l not f a c i l i t a t e . Nor w i l l i t a s s i s t i f the advance organizer does not provide information relevant to the understanding of the material or i f i t does not encourage the learner to integrate the information of the advance organizer (Mayer, 19 79a). Mayer's work has done much to c l a r i f y situations i n which advance organizers w i l l not f a c i l i t a t e , learning. In the course of these studies he has also broadened Ausubel's d e f i n i t i o n of an advance organizer s l i g h t l y . Rather than an a b s t r a c t b u t i n c l u s i v e , framework within which the learner can organize and integrate the new material the d e f i n i t i o n becomes: any v i s u a l or verbal information, which contains no s p e c i f i c content from the to-be-learned information,, but, which provides an idea t i o n a l structure within which to l o g i c a l l y organize the new information (Mayer, 1979a).. The description of Ausubel's advance organizers, and the accompanying instructions, on how to construct one, have been severely c r i t i c i z e d by Barnes and Clawson (1975) and 10 Hartley and Davies (1976). I t i s true that the descriptions are primarily conceptual i n nature however, t h i s appears to be because organizers are s p e c i f i c to the p a r t i c u l a r learning s i t u a t i o n and to the learners (Ausubel, 1968, 1978; Lawton & Wanska, 1977). Regardless of the reasons for the lack of s p e c i f i c methods there i s no doubt that t h e i r absence has contributed to confusion and disagreement as to what c o n s t i -tutes an advance organizer and how i t functions. This con-fusion may be responsible for at least some of the non-supportive studies. A closer look at some of the actual studies w i l l help to c l a r i f y the controversy surrounding the use of advance organizers. Supportive Studies Using Written Advance Organizers 'Studies by Ausubel and his colleagues have primarily used what they i d e n t i f i e d as comparative organizers since the learning materials, although unfamiliar to the learners, were e a s i l y r e l a t a b l e to some previously obtained f a m i l i a r knowledge. Ausubel (1960) used a passage on metallurgy which he related to mining i n the advance organizer. Ausubel and Youssef (19 63) compared Buddhism and Zen Buddhism to Christ-, i a n i t y . In both cases an abstract general introduction point-ed out s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between the ex i s t i n g con-cepts (mining and Ch r i s t i a n i t y ) and those to be learned. In each case the advance organizer was found to be f a c i l i t a t i v e . 11 When Ausubel and F i t z g e r a l d (1961) employed both a comparative and an expository advance organizer i n the study of Buddhist ideals they found the comparative organizer more e f f e c t i v e . Another study by them (1962) using only an expository advance organizer i n learning the endocrinology of pubescence u t i l i z e d an abstract passage on primary and second-ary sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as an advance organizer. Again advance organizers were found to be f a c i l i t a t i v e although i n t h i s case primarily for lower a b i l i t y students. In a l l cases the research was conducted with written materials using college students and a multiple choice r e c a l l measure. Mayer's studies also used college students and were primarily concerned with learning computer materials (1975, 1976, 1978). A comparative organizer was used with a diagram and a description of a computer as a f a m i l i a r analogy. Un-l i k e most studies, his r e c a l l measures consisted of questions of varying d i f f i c u l t y . The greatest e f f e c t for the advance organizers was found i n the superiority i n answering questions requiring transfer. Other researchers have also used written advance organizers although the organizers are not always i d e n t i f i a b l e as being of a type recommended by Ausubel.. Results from these studies have been mixed. Grotelueschen-; & Sjogren (1968) conducted two experi-ments with above average adults i n which the subjects, were 12 taught p r i n c i p l e s of mathematics. They employed advance organizers on mathematical p r i n c i p l e s which contained none of the passage material but could be used as transfer material to organize the new learning. They concluded that the advance organizer f a c i l i t a t e d both r e c a l l and the transfer of learning. Mathematical p r i n c i p l e s were also employed i n a study by Lesh (1976) and advance organizers wea?e judged e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c u l a r l y with materials i n which s t r u c t u r a l integration was a problem. Again adults were used while the r e c a l l measure required a simple yes or no. A l l e n (1970) working with grade 9 students used an abstract organizer which was supposedly both comparative and expository. Using a r e c a l l measure with combined multiple-choice and short answer questions, he found no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the use of the advance organizer and a treatment of adjunct questions except i n the case of above average students where the advance organizer was f a c i l i t a t i v e . Another study with elementary students (Proger et a l , 1973) used an advance organizer which incorporated 8 key concepts from the new material, they also found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence among four advance organizers of an abstract paragraph, an outline, a true and f a l s e pre-test and a completion test. However, they did observe that g i r l s prefered covert response organizers (the abstract paragraph and outline) to overt ones. A multiple-choice post-test was employed. 13 The reliance on multiple-choice r e c a l l post tests meant that cues for r e c a l l were present i n many of the studies. Two measures of r e c a l l which could have been u t i l -ized and which would not contain cues are free r e c a l l and sentence-completion. Steinbink (1971) using 5 & 6 grade Black students i n in t a c t s o c i a l studies classes u t i l i z e d conceptual advance organizers and d a i l y organizers. The control group received the organizer at the end of the unit and did not receive the dai l y organizer. S i g n i f i c a n t differences were found supporting the use of advance organizers. However, the use of i n d i v i d u a l rather than class means leaves the r e s u l t open to question. Anderson (1973) compared advance organizers and post-organizers i n college economics: classes. The advance organ-i z e r did s i g n i f i c a n t l y better on a r e c a l l employing matching. Nonsupportive Studies with Written Advance Organizers Clawson and Barnes (1973) used an abstract expository organizer which was introduced into textbook material on anthropology for grades 3-6 children. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference from a multiple choice test when the advance organizer, postorganizer and no organizer treatment groups were compared. Barron (1.9-71) found the same results with grade 6-12 students when he used an expository organizer and a graphic which focused on key words. 14 Jerrolds (1968) used two advance organizers, one which dealt with s p e c i f i c facts and one, termed a modified advance organizer, which i d e n t i f i e d main ideas and concepts. I t i s unclear whether the material i n the organizer was part of the learning passage or not. He found no s i g n i f i c a n t difference when the advance organizer treatments were compared to each other and to a control group of no organizer. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to compare some of the studies with others since they often used d i f f e r e n t subjects from elementary to college and d i f f e r e n t subject matters. The one thing they do have i n common i s the fact that they a l l u t i l i z e d written organizers and passages and that the majority of them used multiple-choice r e c a l l measures. This of course means that the measures were primarily recognition rather than r e c a l l . In most cases there i s also no acknowledgement of the conten-t i o n that advance organizers do not aid a l l subjects, or a l l learning. I t i s l i t t l e wonder that such a mixture of findings has l e f t open the question of the value of advance organizers i n learning. As they stand advance organizers cannot be accepted as f a c i l i t a t i v e but neither can th e i r potential be ignored. Schulz (196 6) working with above average grade s i x Science students i n an extended study (20 weeks) gave the organizer groups two advance organizers at two separate, times. Although no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n favour of the 15 organizers was found he concluded that advance organizers may-f a c i l i t a t e learning but not for high a b i l i t y students. F e l l e r (1974) used randomly assigned i n t a c t classes i n comparing a comparative advance organizer, an h i s t o r i c a l -advance organizer, and two forms of adjunct questions. After the administration of a multiple-choice t e s t he concluded that advance organizers do f a c i l i t a t e comprehension_arid applicat i o n . Many other studies have been car r i e d out which also show no support for the use of advance organizers. Barnes and Clawson (1975) c i t e d 32 studies, 12 of which supported the use of advance organizers and 20 of which did not. Mayer (1979b), on the other hand, c i t e d 27 only 4 of which were non-supportive. I t would not be appropriate here to review a l l the studies, supportive and non-supportive,_which have been carr i e d out on advance organizers since the ones c i t e d above are representative of the types and styles to be found and since few have been done i n the area which concerns t h i s study, that of or a l learning. The review w i l l therefore turn to some of the problems inherent i n dealing with the. c o n f l i c t of views and to other forms of advance organizer. Other Written Advance Organizers There have been other forms of written organizers which were u t i l i z e d previous to in s t r u c t i o n but which do not f i t into 16 the advanced organizer models. Dooling and Lachman (197]) used thematic t i t l e s for; a prose passage with college students. They found that the presence of thematic t i t l e s increased r e c a l l but not s i g n i f i -cantly. Further they found that words and phrases relevant to the theme had superior r e c a l l and retention whether they were i n the passage or not; and that the thematic t i t l e s aided chunked r e c a l l . Kulhavy, Sherman and Schmid (19 78) contrasted thematic t i t l e prompts and a continuation treatment i n ..which students were to continue the passage. They found that the use of the thematic t i t l e resulted i n superior r e c a l l when compared to the continuance group or a control group with instructions to remember the passage. Other researchers have used prequestions as organizers. Although prequestions do not f i t either Ausubel or Mayer's description of an advance organizer they could create a priming e f f e c t for learning,by d i r e c t i n g the students' attention to s p e c i f i c information. The prequestions do not provide new anchors or organize the information i n the cognitive structure, but they do activate already e x i s t i n g subsumers. Peeck (1970) and Berlyne (1966) found prequestions enhanced learning with high school students who were asked to learn quotations and authors, however these were i s o l a t e d statements rather than connected discourse. A number of the studies found that a l -though prequestions enhanced r e c a l l and retention they had a 17 s e l e c t i v e e f f e c t on what was learned. Frase (19 67) working w i t h c o l l e g e students found t h a t although prequestions a s s i s t e d i n t e n t i o n a l l e a r n i n g , there was a depressive e f f e c t on i n -c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g . This may be a r e s u l t of a l e a r n i n g set created by the prequestions so t h a t students know what they must l e a r n ( i n t e n t i o n a l ) and ignored other ( i n c i d e n t a l ) i n f o r -mation. He a l s o found postquestions more e f f e c t i v e than pre-questions. Peeck (1970) used two forms of prequestion, those f o r which students attempted to guess the answer and those they simply read p r i o r t o the reading passage. He compared them to a passage only group and an extended reading time group. Results showed there was an improvement i n r e t e n t i o n of i n f o r -mation. There was no d i f f e r e n c e between the guess and no guess treatments. Sangria and DiVesta (1978) had s i m i l a r r e s u l t s to Frase's, when comparing prequestion, postquestion and no-questions. I n t e n t i o n a l l e a r n i n g was enhanced and i n c i d e n t a l depressed. W r i t t e n o b j e c t i v e s have been used i n some s t u d i e s , g e n e r a l l y w i t h a f a c i l i t a . t i . v e e f f e c t , p o s s i b l e they act i n a s i m i l a r manner t o prequestions w i t h a priming e f f e c t . Kaplan and Rothkopf (1972, 1974) found i n two experiments that ob-j e c t i v e s were b e t t e r than general ones. When the e f f e c t of length of r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n a passage and the d e n s i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n were examined i t was discovered t h a t the length of the sentence, had l i t t l e e f f e c t , however the amount of 18 information i n the passage had a negative r e l a t i o n to the l i k e -lihood of mastery of the objective. Duchastel and Brown (1974) found results, s i m i l a r to those of the prequestion studies i n that i n t e n t i o n a l learning was enhanced by objectives and inc i d e n t a l depressed. Jenkins and Neisworth (1973) provided college students with objectives and a reading passage on teacher effectiveness. The multiple-choice r e c a l l test was geared s p e c i f i c a l l y to the objectives. Although they found that the objectives aided the students on a test they point out that the results make no claims that objectives aid i n concept attainment since conceptual questions were not asked. A few other forms of written organizer have been used. Arkes, Schumacher and Gardner (1976) used what they, c a l l e d orienting tasks which were an outline organizer, instructions to copy important points or sentence sorting. Bayuk, Proger and Mann (1970) used two organizers, one an outline and the other a t e s t - l i k e set of questions which were placed i n either a before or af t e r p o s i t i o n . Both included information from the passage. No s i g n i f i c a n t difference between treatments was found although i t appeared that lower a b i l i t y subjects favoured the outline treatment. In a few studies there was an attempt to examine the schemata which the learner brought to the experience of learn-ing connected discourse. Grabe (1979) presented college 19 students with the same ambiguous story which could be i n t e r -preted from one of two points of view. He found that what was retained from the story r e f l e c t e d the importance of the text information i n terms of the reader's schema of what was happening. Anderson, Reynolds, S c h a l l e r t , and Goetz (19 77) found s i m i l a r results also using an ambiguous material. They presented i t to students from d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s and found that the interpretation depended, at least p a r t i a l l y , on the student's area of expertise. They concluded that what the reader brings to a text creates the structure i n which he views i t . These two studies supply support for Ausubel's con-tention that the advance organizer should activate the already e x i s t i n g cognitive structure of the learner so that the new material may be e f f e c t i v e l y r e l a t e d to what i s already there. Nonwritten Organizers Vi s u a l organizers have been used i n a number of studies, Bransford and Johnson (1972) gave v i s u a l context clues, both complete and p a r t i a l , i n before and after positions for an ambiguous passage. When they were compared to a no cues con-d i t i o n the p a r t i a l cues i n a before p o s i t i o n were found to be most h e l p f u l i n understanding and retention. With grade 3 subjects, Pressley (1975) found t r a i n i n g and instructions to form a mental image aided understanding of 20 a short story provided subjects were not asked to read and image at the same time. Lesgold (1975) found instructions to imagine the pictures i n a story assisted l o w - a b i l i t y grade 3 and 4 with r e c a l l . Dunham and Levin (19 79) dealing with K-l i n an or a l s i t u a t i o n found that r e c a l l benefitted from an externally supplied picture while Guttmann, Levin and Pressley (19 77) also i n an o r a l learning s i t u a t i o n found both external and self-generated images h e l p f u l with grade 3 but only exter-nal pictures assisted K and 2 students. Other forms of organizer which were neither written nor v i s u a l appear i n the form of games . Livingston (1970) used a simulation game to act as an advance organizer for a grade 6-12 lesson i n economic geography. He found no difference between the game advance organized and a control group. Scandura and Wells (1967) on the other hand found a game quite f a c i l i t a t i v e i n a math lesson. One study, by Lucas (1973) used a combination of written and non-written organizers with a reading passage. He compared an o r a l , a v i s u a l and a written organizer which were presumably abstract and found that none of the organizers were p a r t i c u -l a r l y e f f e c t i v e . Nugent, Tipton & Brooks (1980) had a somewhat d i f f e r e n t study where the organizer consisted of a t i t l e or prequestions but the passage was o r a l and v i s u a l . The learning material was a TV program which was to have an a f f e c t i v e r e s u l t . He found 21 that the organizers aided comprehension but i n h i b i t e d the a f f e c t i v e learning. Alexander et a l (1979) are the only researchers to employ both a non-written organizer and a non-written learning s i t u a t i o n . Two abstract, i n c l u s i v e advance organizers, based on Ausubel 1s p r i n c i p l e s were used. One was a set of graphics and pictures on s l i d e f i l m and the other an abstract o r a l presentation followed by discussion questions. Both organizers were presented either o r a l l y or with o r a l accom-paniment and the s o c i a l studies lesson content was also o r a l . When compared to a control group both organizers were found to f a c i l i t a t e learning although there was l i t t l e difference in e f f e c t between the organizers. Listening During the course of a school day students may f i n d themselves i n any of a number of l i s t e n i n g situations ranging from formal lessons by the ins t r u c t o r to a story or lecture on audio tape. An extensive survey of elementary classrooms i n 1949 reported 57.7% of a student's time was spent i n l i s t e n i n g . In the same study, l i s t e n i n g was l i s t e d as the f i r s t most important language s k i l l by 16% of the teachers polled and the second most important by another 42.7% (Wilt i n Duker, 1971). Twenty f i v e years or more l a t e r , estimates of the time 22 spent i n l i s t e n i n g i n the classroom s t i l l ranged above 50% (Lundsteen, 1976; Devine, 1978). Over the course of those years considerable research and theorizing on what constitutes l i s t e n i n g has been undertaken. Although there has been controversy over whether l i s t e n -ing i s a unitary s k i l l or a complex of a c t i v i t i e s (Bakan i n Duker, 1971; Kelly i n Duker, 1971) present researchers tend to view l i s t e n i n g as a process by which spoken language i s given meaning (Lundsteen, 1979; Fischer, 1978; Devine, 1978). It i s a conscious act which requires active p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the part of the l i s t e n e r i n order to i d e n t i f y , recognize and interpret the spoken symbols. Where do the s k i l l s necessary for p r o f i c i e n t l i s t e n i n g come from? Weaver and Rutherford (1974) developed a h i e r -archy of l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s based on theory, l o g i c and a review of the l i t e r a t u r e . The hierarchy was divided into three sections: Environmental s k i l l s - i d e n t i f y i n g and interpreting sounds from the environment; Discrimination S k i l l s — recognizing differences i n sounds and beginning to i d e n t i f y verbal sounds; and Comprehension S k i l l s - where meaning i s attached to the sounds. Examples of a suggested developmental scheme of each of the s k i l l s from infancy to childhood (grade 3 or 4) are given. The 23 implication of course, i s that there i s a gradual build-up of the s k i l l s through experience as well as parental and school guidance. S t i c h t (1974) has also advanced a model of language development which includes l i s t e n i n g . I t i s a four stage model i n which the ground work for language i s l a i d i n early sensory and perceptual development both i n p r e - l i n g u i s t i c and l i n g u i s t i c phases. The actual process of learning to l i s t e n includes: a) focusing on acoustic and phonological attributes for sense and meaning; b) acquiring l i n g u i s t i c competence i n semantics or recognizing that words represent concepts; c) acquiring l i n g u i s t i c competence i n syntax or learning the rules of the game, and d) developing a memory system which includes sensory information storage, short term memory where information i s chunked for further processing and long term memory where the processed information i s stored i n an abbreviated form and related to previous knowledge. S t i c h t also suggests that syntactic and sensory processing becomes a r e l a t i v e l y auto-• matic process which takes place at a preattentive stage. An i n t e g r a l part of Sticht's model i s the a b i l i t y to attend to the message. This f i r s t appears as an awareness of a message being sent and gradually developes into a more se l e c t i v e attention which involves a process of extracting information from the t o t a l message. This can only be done when the l i s t e n e r has some c r i t e r i o n which can be used to weigh 24 which sections of the information w i l l be retained and stored. This s e l e c t i v e attention, along with decoding and the storage of information has been termed auding to d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from hearing without meaning or attention. Fischer's(1978) model, rather than being one of language development deals s p e c i f i c a l l y with the process of l i s t e n i n g . I t i s a three part model which allows for interplay between each of the three phases. The f i r s t phase Speech Perception i s where sense i s made of raw speech. Here the l i s t e n e r r e l i e s heavily upon his knowledge of the language since the acoustics, e s p e c i a l l y i n longer messages, are often obscure. This also: often enables him to l i s t e n to only part of the word and s t i l l be capable of i d e n t i f y i n g i t and making sense of i t . This leads to Speech Comprehension where the information i s analysed. In the comprehension phase the input i s analysed into units of information through the use of a semantic approach which i s then confirmed by syntactic analysis. This approach im-p l i e s a high l e v e l of s e l e c t i v e attention where key words or concepts supply most of the meaning. F i n a l l y , on to the t h i r d phase of Memory or Storage. Here the information, assembled i n the other two stages, i s stored i n a s k e l e t a l form from which i t can be retrieved and added to. A global presentation of the information i s formed through the continual r e t r i e v a l and integration of information. I t i s here that past experience material i s integrated with new information. Needless to say, the process takes place at a very rapid pace but requires concentration to be e f f e c t i v e . Lundsteen (1979) i n dealing with the process of c r i t i -c a l l i s t e n i n g proposed a three stage model which incorporated ten elements. In the f i r s t and largest stage the message i s translated from spoken symbol to recognizable concepts through a process of focusing s e l e c t i v e attention on the material, comparing i t to past experiences, and recoding i t i n t o the individual's i d e n t i f i e d language units. This leads to the next stage of getting meaning and f i n a l l y going beyond the message meaning to further integrations and implications. Looking back over the four t h e o r e t i c a l models d i s -cussed i t i s p l a i n that s e l e c t i v e attention i s one of the important l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t i e s which are central to the processing of speech. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n compre-hending connected discourse which contains varying amounts of pertinent information i n each sentence and groups of sentences, and where the l i s t e n e r cannot hope to remember a l l that has been said. When we approach l i s t e n i n g from a d i f f e r e n t view, that of psychiatry we f i n d that l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y , or f l e x i b i l i t y , i s affected by the l i s t e n e r ' s perception of the purpose of the message and by the a b i l i t y of the speaker and the l i s t e n e r to create a common language between them (Barbara, 19 58)'. I n order for a meaningful communication to take place, Barbara says, the l i s t e n e r must become consciously and ac t i v e l y i n -26 volved i n the l i s t e n i n g process.- An e s s e n t i a l part of such a c t i v i t y i s the a b i l i t y to attend to the message s e l e c t i v e l y so that the e s s e n t i a l rather than extraneous elements are concentrated on and retained. When we look at the l i t e r a t u r e on attention i n l i s t e n i n g we f i n d that the term has a number of meanings which range•from keeping one's physical attention firmly fixed on the speaker to attending to a message i n one ear while a second i s being received simultaneously i n the other ear (Broadbent, 1954; Triesman, 1960). An operational d e f i n i t i o n for s e l e c t i v e attention i n a natural l i s t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n appears to be that of focusing on the central elements of the message (Erway, 1972; Tutolo, 1979; Fessenden et a l . , 1973). According to Patterson (1979) th i s focusing or selec-t i v e attention includes locating the central theme, discrimin-ating between relevant and i r r e l e v a n t d e t a i l s or arguments, and tracking the intended message over and through competing or d i s t r a c t i n g messages. Although storage of the information i s not mentioned as a part of the attending process i t i s implied i n the tracking. Support for the emphasis on s e l e c t i v e attention i n l i s t e n i n g comes from work on dichotic l i s t e n i n g i n which subjects l i s t e n e d to two separate messages simultaneously and were able to focus on the desired one. In Broadbent's (1954) di c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g experiments he found subjects could continue to track one voice even though there was a p o t e n t i a l of interference from another voice. Further, subjects, were able to store information temporarily for l a t e r attention. To account for t h i s s e l e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y he postulated a " f i l t e r " which blocked out a l l but the message and channel required to f u l f i l l the purpose of the l i s t e n e r . Triesman (I960, 19 64) also conducted a number of exper-iments on s e l e c t i v e attention i n dichotic l i s t e n i n g i n an attempt to determine i f messages i n the same voice but, of si m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r l i n g u i s t i c structure or, which were switched from one ear to the other to break the context would have an e f f e c t on what was attended to. She found that there was v i r t u a l l y no break i n attention to the desired message regardless of the i r r e l e v a n t message except for the occasional recognition of "highly probable words" which appeared to f i t the context of the relevant message. From t h i s she suggested that the " f i l t e r " may act as an attenuating factor rather than a blocking mechanism. That i s , i t i s a tr i g g e r which rapid l y accepts or rejects the p r o b a b i l i t y of the relevance of a p a r t i c u l a r word or phrase. This d i f f e r s from Broadbent's f i l t e r which i s conceived as being preprogrammed to recognize and act on certa i n classes of words or phrases so that the rest may be ignored. Triesman suggests that the "attenuation" f i l t e r lowers or raises the threshold of acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of certain words or . 28 phrases r e l a t i v e to others on the basis of a pre-conceived notion of what i s expected and therefore probable. I t was hoped that the use of an advance organizer would serve to prompt the f i l t e r so that the sel e c t i v e attention necessary for e f f e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g would be activated. I f such an action occurred i n an o r a l learning s i t u a t i o n then meaningful learning and therefore r e c a l l would be f a c i l i t a t e d . The Problem This study was designed to examine the use of advance organizers i n an o r a l educational s i t u a t i o n at the elementary l e v e l . I t had four main purposes. 1. To determine i f the use of an advance organizer f a c i l i t a t e d learning and retention i n an or a l lesson. 2. To see i f a p a r t i c u l a r type of organ-i z e r was more, or l e s s , b e n e f i c i a l than other types of advance organizers. 3. To see i f grade l e v e l would have an i n t e r -active e f f e c t with the type of organizer. 4. To look for any pote n t i a l e f f e c t s or interactions between organizer type, grade l e v e l and immediate or delayed r e c a l l . In order to determine these e f f e c t s two types of com-parative organizers, verbal and v i s u a l , were designed along with a tes t to measure immediate and delayed r e c a l l . Each organizer consisted of two parts, a conceptual o r a l statement and a v i s i b l e display accompanied by an or a l explanation. The opening o r a l statement, which was the same for each organizer, was a comparative statement based on Ausubel's 29 p r i n c i p l e s that t h i s advance organizer should be general but abstract and would relate the new learning to previously learned ideas i n order to provide ideational s c a f f o l d i n g as well to increase d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y between old and new ideas. The v i s i b l e display, i n the case of the v i s u a l organizer, was a colored drawing. In the case of the verbal organizer two versions were constructed, one which u t i l i z e d a series of prequestions and one an outline of key concepts. A l l three of the organizers contained the same nine concepts as subsumers. Since the v i s i b l e portion of the organizer, did not f a l l within Ausubel's d e f i n i t i o n , a modified version was employed i n which an advance organizer became v i s u a l or verbal information which contained no s p e c i f i c concept from the to-be-learned information, but, which provided an ideational structure within which to l o g i c a l l y organize the information (mayer, 1979a). A no organizer control group was included i n the study. This group received an extra unrelated l i s t e n i n g exercise i n place of the organizer. The control was included, of course, to provide a source of comparison to determine whether or not the advance organizer f a c i l i t a t e d learning. The l i s t e n i n g task was an o r a l l y presented factual narrative discourse about the l i f e of a female octopus. Male and female students from grades 4 and 7 were u t i l i z e d to determine whether there was a possible grade e f f e c t . 30 S i n c e t h e r e i s s o l i t t l e r e s e a r c h o n o r a l l y p r e s e n t e d a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s , o r a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s w i t h o r a l t a s k s , t h e s t u d y w a s i n t e n d e d t o b e e x p l o r a t o r y h o w e v e r , a n u m b e r o f h y p o t h e s e s , a s o u t l i n e d b e l o w , w e r e t e s t e d . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s : 1. T h a t a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l . 2. T h a t r e c a l l w i l l d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o g r a d e l e v e l . 3. T h a t t h e r e w i l l b e a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i m m e d i a t e a n d d e l a y e d r e c a l l s c o r e s . 4. T h a t d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s w i l l b e m o r e o r l e s s f a c i l i t a t i v e a t d i f f e r e n t g r a d e l e v e l s . 5. T h a t d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s w i l l b e m o r e o r l e s s f a c i l i t a t i v e f o r i m m e d i a t e a n d d e l a y e d r e c a l l . 6. T h a t w h a t i s r e c a l l e d f o r i m m e d i a t e o r d e l a y e d r e c a l l w i l l d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g r a d e l e v e l . R a t i o n a l e B o t h A u s u b e l ' s s u b s u m p t i o n t h e o r y a n d M a y e r ' s a s s i m i -l a t i o n t h e o r y a r g u e t h a t a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s a s s i s t a t t h e e n c o d i n g s t a g e b y p r o v i d i n g a f r a m e w o r k f o r l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h e s u p p l y o r a c t i v a t i o n o f k e y c o n c e p t s . S i n c e o r a l d i s c o u r s e m u s t b e p r o c e s s e d a t t h e t i m e o f r e c e p t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a p r e v i o u s l y a c t i v a t e d c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k w i l l a s s i s t i n t h e 31 processing by shortening the time required for meaningful i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assimilation of ideas, by focusing attention on main ideas and by a s s i s t i n g with chunking of information for storage and l a t e r r e c a l l . I t w i l l also a s s i s t by providing linkages between ostensibly i s o l a t e d ideas within the con-ceptual framework. One of the major stumbling blocks to understanding and retention of facts, and concepts of o r a l l y presented material, i s an i n a b i l i t y to focus attention on central arguments or to track them through competing components of a message. An advance organizer should a s s i s t with focusing on the p r i n c i p l e ideas by introducing them p r i o r to the learning task and be-cause of t h i s , a c t i v a t i n g a form of s e l e c t i v e attention. This r e p e t i t i o n of ideas, i n the organizer and i n the task, even when one i s conceptual rather than s p e c i f i c , should aid i n memory storage as well. For s i m i l a r reasons i t i s expected that delayed r e c a l l w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d by the use of an advance organizer. Advance organizer theory suggests that not only w i l l encoding of information be assisted but, because of the anchoring concepts, learning w i l l be more meaningful to the learner. I t w i l l become part of his cognitive structure and w i l l therefore be retained more e a s i l y . Whether t h i s w i l l happen i n a l i s t e n -ing s i t u a t i o n i s , of course, unknown. However, since there are strong s i m i l a r i t i e s between l i s t e n i n g and reading processes and, since advance organizers have been found to f a c i l i t a t e 32 with written materials, i t i s not unreasonable to expect a si m i l a r r e s u l t with l i s t e n i n g . The grade l e v e l s , 4 and 7, chosen for the study repre-sent two d i f f e r e n t developmental leve l s i n Piagetian stage theory, concrete and formal operations. Since the two stages u t i l i z e d i f f e r e n t cognitive patterns i t was deemed possible that d i f f e r e n t forms of organizer would f a c i l i t a t e at each of the two l e v e l s . I t was further expected that there would be a d i f f e r -e n t i a l e f f e c t between the two groups i n what was r e c a l l e d since memory i s also documented as a developmental s k i l l r elated to maturation ( F l a v e l l , 1977; Paris & Lindauer, 1976; Piaget & Inhelder, 1973). Summary Because of the amount of time spent i n o r a l lessons and a c t i v i t i e s at the elementary l e v e l and because there are varying a b i l i t i e s i n l i s t e n i n g there i s a need to explore methods of enhancing learning from o r a l lessons. Advance organizers, because of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l for assistance at encoding and with s e l e c t i v e attention were selected as a possible method of f a c i l i t a t i n g learning and retention from an o r a l lesson. Grade l e v e l was selected as a blocking variable to examine po t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e cts of the advance organizers because of past research. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Design The design of the research was a 2X4X2 f a c t o r i a l ANOVA with repeated measures. I t consisted of two grade l e v e l s , grade four and seven; and four treatment groups, a v i s u a l organizer (VO), a prequestion organizer (PQ), an outline organizer (OT) and a no organizer (NO) group. Each of the organizer groups, except for NO, received a two part organizer, a practice exercise, a l i s t e n i n g task and a short i r r e l e v a n t task followed by two r e c a l l tasks spaced one week apart. The r e c a l l tasks were the repeated measures. The NO group re-ceived an unrelated l i s t e n i n g task i n place of the organizer i n order to equalize the treatment times. Subjects Subjects were 99 grade four and 108. grade seven students from three schools i n the Lower Fraser Valley. The schools were located i n a semi-rural area, a new subdivision and an established r e s i d e n t i a l area near the town centre. The sample was expected to be representative of the general population for these two grade levels since i t contained a cross-section of a b i l i t i e s (except for those with severe learning disorders) i n each of the classes. 34 Stimulus Material This section w i l l be divided into two parts of 1) tr e a t -ment materials for a l l groups and 2) treatment materials which varied for.each group. Stimulus Material (General) This section w i l l describe materials used with each of the treatment groups. Each treatment group received the same: statement of purpose, 2 minute practice exercise, 9 minute l i s t e n i n g task, 2 minute intervention task and sentence completion r e c a l l t e sts. Copies of each of the materials may be found i n Appendix -B-The statement of purpose was designed to introduce the examiner and to reassure any students who may be experiencing anxiety due to the unfamiliar a c t i v i t y . I t informed the students that they were part of an experiment to determine how well students l i s t e n i n d i f f e r e n t situations and that the r e s u l t s from the experiment were not for use by their teachers or the school. Informing the subjects of the purpose probably created a mental set towards l i s t e n i n g but i t was f e l t that t h i s would only strengthen the comparisons between treatments. A two minute practise l i s t e n i n g exercise on a l l i g a t o r s and crocodiles accompanied by 5 o r a l l y presented questions was u t i l i z e d for three reasons. One, to ensure that the equipment was working and that the children were comfortable with i t ; two, to help the children adjust to an unfamiliar voice im-parting information and, three, to. make them aware of the type of questions they would be asked following the l i s t e n i n g task. A l l i g a t o r s and crocodiles were chosen as a topic of in t e r e s t to the children because of i t s u n f a m i l i a r i t y combined with i t s exotic nature. The general information was taken from a children's book (Zim, 1978). The l i s t e n i n g task began with an introduction of unfam-i l i a r terms which were incorporated into a description of an octopus and presented o r a l l y by the E. Students were then instructed to put on t h e i r headphones and a connected discourse on the l i f e of a female octopus was read by a male voice from a cassette audio tape. The octopus story demonstrated the in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i f e i n the sea. The text was taken from a children's book (Carrick, 1978) with minor adaptions having been made to simplify the vocabulary aft e r p i l o t i n g , (see Appendix A) The topic of octopuses was chosen because advance organizer theory indicated the organizers are most f a c i l i t a t i v e i n science situations (Ausubel 1968; Mayer 1979b) because i t was thought that the topic would be of i n t e r e s t to grades four and seven; and because i t seemed to the experimenter that i t was unlikely that Ss would have much p r i o r knowledge of the subject. An intervention task was deemed necessary to ensure that that long term and not short term memory was being measured. This task consisted of making a finger puppet following o r a l instructions.was,-also chosen for i t s i n t e r e s t . I t had been used with grades 2-7 on previous occasion with considerable success. The task held the children's i n t e r e s t by keeping them guessing as to the end product and provided a pleasant surprise when completed. The a c t i v i t y also gave them a fun product to take away with them as an unanticipated reward for t h e i r cooperation i n the experiment. Treatment Stimulus Except for the NO treatment group a l l treatment groups received a conceptual organizer designed on the basis of Ausubel's description of a comparative organizer. His d e f i n i -t i o n required that i t be abstract but, that i t point out the s p e c i f i c s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between a f a m i l i a r body of knowledge and the unfamiliar one to-be-learned. Care was taken not to include any information from the p a r t i c u l a r learning task. I t was decided to use Man i n a comparison to animals as Man would be the most f a m i l i a r to the children. The organ-i z e r pointed out that Man i s responsive to his physical make-up and his environment, as are other creatures. In addition to the i n i t i a l abstract organizer statement, each treatment group, except for the NO, received a v i s u a l display which pointed out that i n learning about animals there are some common elements. These elements may have i n d i v i d u a l variations but examining them can aid i n understanding the animal's l i f e . The common elements are the physical descrip-t i o n , unusual physical feature, methods movement, basic needs, food habits, habitat or homes, poten t i a l enemies, natural protective features and early l i f e habits or s t y l e s . The s c r i p t for these presentations are available i n Appendix B for each of the treatment groups. Subjects i n the PQ treatment group were given a v i s i b l e stimulus of twelve questions hand-printed i n black f e l t pen on separate 6 X 56 cm. cards of yellow b r i s t o l board. The twelve questions were a l l representative of the aforementioned nine common elements. Children were instructed to imagine a fami l i a r animal and to s i l e n t l y answer the questions about i t . Subjects i n the OT treatment received a v i s i b l e stimulus of the nine common elements expressed i n key words and hand-printed i n black f e l t pen on 8 X 28-1/2 cm. cards of yellow b r i s t o l board. Again the children were instructed to imagine a, f a m i l i a r animal and think about these elements i n i t s l i f e . Subjects i n the VO group viewed a 28 X 35 cm. coloured picture of woodland l i f e (See Reference Note). The nine elements were introduced i n an accompanying o r a l s c r i p t and 38 and examples of the elements either pointed out or e l i c i t e d from the group. Each of the v i s i b l e s t i m u l i was accompanied by an o r a l l y presented explanation which was read by the experi-menter. In the case of PQ and OT treatments, subjects were encouraged to imagine f a m i l i a r animals. VO subjects were provided with v i s i b l e examples. Subjects i n the NO treatment group received a l i s t e n i n g exercise about a volcano eruption with three questions i n l i e u of the organizer. This was to equalize treatment times. Equipment The audio cassette tapes, prepared on a Sanyo M2533 cassette tape recorder, were played back on Ca l i f o n 3 420 tape playback units i n conjunction with Audiotronics D-12 l i s t e n i n g centres. Each center had a maximum of 8 headphones per center so that for some groups two playbacks and two l i s t e n i n g centers were required. Recall Measures The dependent variables of immediate and delayed r e c a l l were one page tests of 32 sentence completions, see Appendix C. The test was based on the material i n the l i s t e n i n g task. Although the answers for the questions came from the 39 s t o r y , t h e y w e r e f o r m u l a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e n i n e e l e m e n t s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e o r g a n i z e r s . I n s o m e c a s e s , t h e a n s w e r s w e r e s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d i n t h e o r a l t a s k w h i l e i n o t h e r s t h e y r e q u i r e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n c i d e n t s o r c l u e s f r o m t h e s t o r y . T w o p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n s o f t h e s a m e t e s t w e r e d e v e l o p e d . S u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d a s t o w h i c h v e r s i o n t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e a s a n i m m e d i a t e r e c a l l . T h e s e c o n d v e r s i o n , w h i c h t h e y h a d n o t r e c e i v e d , w a s u s e d a s t h e i r d e l a y e d r e c a l l m e a s u r e . A n s w e r s w e r e b a s i c a l l y t h e s a m e f o r b o t h f o r m s s o t h a t r e c a l l b y o c c a s i o n : - c o m p a r i s o n s c o u l d b e m a d e . S c o r i n g P a p e r s w e r e s c o r e d b y 2 m a r k e r s i n d e p e n d e n t l y u s i n g a m a s t e r s h e e t o f c o r r e c t a n s w e r s . O n e m a r k w a s g i v e n f o r e a c h c o r r e c t a n s w e r . B o t h m a r k e r s h a d r e a d t h e l i s t e n i n g t a s k a t l e a s t o n c e . A s t h i s w a s a s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t a l l p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s c o u l d n o t b e a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e r e f o r e t h e r e w e r e s o m e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e m a r k i n g . A l l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s c o r e s o n i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s w e r e r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h c o n s u l t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o m a r k e r s a f t e r e a c h o n e h a d m a r k e d t h e t w o t e s t s . P i l o t T e s t i n g M a t e r i a l s w e r e p i l o t e d i n m i d - F e b r u a r y t o d e t e r m i n e 40 vocabulary and i n s t r u c t i o n a l problems. This resulted i n the discarding of some materials and the replacement of others. The advance organizers were retained as designed except for two elements. The p i l o t study had employed a black and white drawing of an octopus to accompany the introduction of unfamiliar terms. This was dropped when i t was discovered that there was t o t a l r e c a l l of the picture but not of the text. Since the study was concerning i t s e l f with o r a l learning the picture was removed as a contaminating influence. In the o r i g i n a l p i l o t study embedded figures from a children's magazine were used for the intervening task and a series of p e n c i l and paper mazes were used i n place of the organizer for NO treatment. Both of these tasks were discarded because they were p o t e n t i a l l y f r u s t r a t i n g for the subjects. They were replaced by simpler tasks related to or a l i n s t r u c t i o n . Only an immediate r e c a l l measure was used for the p i l o t study but i t was employed i n two d i f f e r e n t forms. One form, a free r e c a l l , although a powerful and stringent measure of r e c a l l was judged to be too d i f f i c u l t . The d i f f i c u l t y arose from s p e l l i n g and sentence construction problems, which appeared to frustrate and l i m i t the grade fours i n p a r t i c u l a r . This occurred i n spite of the fact that the subjects were t o l d that point form could be used and that s p e l l i n g did not count. The second measure, a multiple choice test, although e f f e c t i v e and 41 easy to administer, was judged to measure recognition and not r e c a l l (Salso, 1979). The sentence completion test was sub-s t i t u t e d as a more powerful measure of what had been learned. Assistance was given with s p e l l i n g throughout the te s t i f students appeared to require i t . Procedure Subjects were randomly assigned to d i f f e r e n t treatment groups within grades and within schools by the simple device of drawing names from a box. Every attempt was made to equal-ize c e l l sizes within the grades; however, th i s was not t o t a l l y possible. To o f f s e t the anticipated minimally unequal c e l l sizes two subjects from each treatment group were randomly chosen for pote n t i a l discard. The subjects received the tr e a t -ment but were slated for discard i f i t became necessary to equalize the c e l l s i z e s . This was done as suggested for ANOVAs in Glass and Stanley, (1970). Because of the large number of absentees for some groups on the days of the experiment, t h i s method of equalizing Ns was subsequently abandoned as inade-quate. Treatments were administered by one of two female Es, both of whom were q u a l i f i e d teachers with an average of 10 years experience. The researcher was one of the Es. In order to control for teacher variables i n the treatments, each E was rotated between treatment groups at each grade l e v e l and at each school. This meant that a l l treatments at both grade 42 level s were administered at least once by either of the Es. The experiment was conducted on three consecutive days: Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, i n early A p r i l , at the three schools. Teachers were supplied with a class l i s t of students with a designation of which area i n the school to send the group and at which time. Two groups from the same grade were treated simultaneously i n two separate areas of the school. This pattern was.considered to be best both for the teacher and the E. The teacher had half the class at any one time and there was no overlap between halves, so that the same lesson could be used. The E found that i t was easier to control for possible contamination, as contact between the groups was thus minimized and hopefully eliminated. Grade sevens were treated before recess and grade four following the recess break. Neither grade was aware that the other was receiving the same experiment and, i n general, played on d i f f e r e n t areas of the playground. Ss received an introductory statement of purpose which introduced the E and assured Ss that they were not being tested. The introduction was followed by the appropriate treatment, a practice exercise and a l i s t e n i n g task. There was a 2 minute break with an i r r e l e v a n t intervening task before the measure of immediate r e c a l l . At the end of the r e c a l l t e s t Ss were instructed to return to t h e i r classroom and asked not to discuss the procedures or task with the res t of the class as th i s would give them an unfair advantage and s p o i l the experiment. 43 One week l a t e r one E returned to the school to admin-i s t e r the delayed r e c a l l t e s t . This was done with i n t a c t classes i n the classroom, where s p l i t grade 1 classes had been used the test was s t i l l given i n the classroom, but only to the appropriate students.. Non-participating students were asked to work quietly on classroom assignments or read a book for the time required for the test. Answers to any questions were supplied, i f requested, after the tests had been c o l l e c t e d . 44 CHAPTER IV RESULTS The study was designed to have equal c e l l sizes within grades however, because of absenteeism on the days of treat-ment 8 Ss were l o s t from grade four and 4 from grade seven. A further 8 grade four, and 13 grade seven Ss did not receive the second r e c a l l measure, the delayed r e c a l l (DR). Because c e l l sizes had been created through random assignment and since they were reduced by circumstances unrelated to the experimental treatments, i t was decided to follow Winer's suggestion (19 71, p. 210) and leave the ns unequal rather than discard data. Since a repeated measures design assumes homogeneity of variance (Ferguson, 1976, p. 306) and i s less robust with respect to v i o l a t i o n of t h i s assumption when there are unequal c e l l s i z es, a check for homogeneity was required. Hartley's te s t of homogeneity (Winer, 1971, pp. 206-207) was therefore c a r r i e d out. Test of Homogeneity The te s t was conducted using the formula F _ s^ largest  m a x s^ smallest The degrees of freedom were determined by using the largest c e l l size since ns were unequal (Winer, 1971) . Results are reported i n Table I. 45 TABLE I Test of Homogeneity 2 2 s largest s smallest df F max max.99 grade 4 grade 7 35.473 34.871 2 3.665 19.704 21 1.50 4.3 26 .05 3.3 Since the observe values of F are smaller than max F Q Q i n each case the assumption of homogeneity of variance was upheld. Hypothesis Testing The research hypotheses i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter II were reworded into n u l l and alternate hypotheses so that they could be tested s t a t i s t i c a l l y . A l l p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s were set at alpha .05. Hypothesis One: H H, Hypothe s i s Two: H There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between treatment means. There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between treatment means. There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between r e c a l l scores of the two grades. There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t difference between r e c a l l scores of the two grades. 46 Hypothesis Three: H There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y ° s i g n i f i c a n t difference between immediate and delayed r e c a l l scores. H„ There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between immediate and delayed r e c a l l scores. Hypothesis Four:' H There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y ° s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment and grade. H 2 There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant: Jint'era'c tl'ona between Hypothesis Five: Hypothesis Six: treatment, and grade. H There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment and occasion of r e c a l l . H 2 There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment and occasion of r e c a l l . H There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y 0 s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between grade l e v e l and occasion of r e c a l l . H 2 There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between grade l e v e l and occasion of r e c a l l . The data was entered into the computer and a 2X4X(£) ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted using BMDP Program P:2V (Dixon & Brown, 1979, pp. 252-254). This program was chosen as i t allowed for both repeated measures and unequal c e l l s i z e s . Results of the ANOVA are reported i n Table I I . I t can c l e a r l y be seen that only grade l e v e l F ( l , 166) = 43.94, p < .0000 and occasion of r e c a l l F ( l , 166) = 12.00, £ < .0007 had a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t effect.. No i n t e r -actions were observed between any of the experimental factors. TABLE II ANOVA Grade X Treatment with Repeated Measures N = 174 SS df MS F • Mean 625393.698 1 625393.698 1269.02 0.0000 Grade 2167.190 1 216'7.189 43.94 0.0000* Treat a 38.083 3 12.694 0.26 0.85 60 GT 55.0154 3 18.338 0.37 0.7735 Error 8187.862 166 49.324 B b 48.795 1 48.795 12.00 0.0007* BG 10.617 1 10.617 2.61 0.1080 BT 9.585 3 3.195 0.79 0.5033 BGT 7.864 3 2. 621 0.64 0.5873 Error 674.829 166 4.065 *p </ .01 a n = 22, 19, 20, 22, 22, 20, 27, 22 D = repeated r e c a l l measures B Hypothesis 1 expected that treatment groups would d i f f e r i n th e i r r e c a l l r e s u l t s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to the NO treatment group which received no advance organizer. As can be seen from the ANOVA resu l t s i n Table II there was no main e f f e c t of treatment. The n u l l hypothesis was there-fore accepted. 48 Hypothesis 2 predicted that there would be a difference i n scores between the grade l e v e l s . A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -icant difference was observed between grades on r e c a l l scores with F ( l , 166) = 43.94, p < .01 as reported i n Table I I . The n u l l hypothesis was therefore rejected and the alternate hypo-thesis of a difference between scores accepted. When the mean scores are examined i n Table I I I , i t can be seen that grade seven r e c a l l was superior to grade four r e c a l l over a l l the treatments. TABLE III Mean Performance Scores for Recall by Grade and Treatment N = T74 I ; : : : ; : : : : - : ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Treatment . Grade NO . . VO ... OT ....... 4 a 10.386 10.895 11.100 11.500 7 b ... 16.568 15.825 . . . 15.0 74 , . . 16.477 ; . . a = 22, 19, 20, 22 n b = 22, 20, 27, 22 n A further 2X4 ANOVA was run using only immediate r e c a l l (IR). Since mortality rate within the measures was large (21 Ss), i t was thought that an ANOVA including them might pro-vide a more powerful test of the main variables of in t e r e s t than the repeated measures (RM). 49 TABLE IV ANOVA Grade X Treatment for Immediate^ Recall i£'= 195 V . SS df MS '• F ~p Mean 33593.139 1 33593.139 1281.70 0.0000 Grade 1365.339 1 1365.339 52.09 0.0000* a Treat ^ 57.869 3 19.290 0.74 0.5320 GT 30.293 3 10.098 0.39 0.7637 Error 4901.232 187 26.210 *p < .01 a n = 24, 23, 20, 24, 27, 24, 28, 25 Again only grade l e v e l had a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t and no .interaction between treatment factors was observed. Occasion was, of course, not considered since there was only one occasion, the IR. Hypothesis 3 expected a difference between the occasion of r e c a l l . As observed i n Table II there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between IR and DR scores, with F ( l , 166) - 12.00, £.-.<.0007. The n u l l hypothesis was rejected i n favour of the alternate hypothesis. Hypotheses 4, 5, and 6 were designed to determine whether the components of the experiment had an e f f e c t on one another. In each, as recorded i n Table I I , no interaction was found between any of the factors either together or i n 50 combination at the alpha .05 l e v e l . As a consequence none of the three hypotheses were considered to be viable and a l l three n u l l hypotheses were accepted. In examining the means of the r e c a l l scores i n Table V, i t was observed that DR scores were generally larger. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n grade four where DR scores were consistently higher although not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so. I t i s inte r e s t i n g , but not significant,, that the NO treatment had the smallest increase. Grade seven scores were less consistent i n t h e i r superiority with the DR score for the VO treatment decreasing rather than increasing. As noted, none of these re s u l t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the alpha .05 l e v e l . In an attempt to address the matter of the large error terms i n the ANOVAs, a t h i r d ANOVA was run using gender as a blocking variable. Gender was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t factor but, i t did l i t t l e to reduce the error term. Results of t h i s ANOVA are reported i n Appendix D. 51 TABLE V Mean Performance Scores for Immediate and Delayed Recall by Grade & Treatment . N. = . 174. Treatment Grade Recall NO VO PQ OT IR 10.045 10.474 10.200 10.955 CL 4 DR 10.727 11.316 12.000 12.045 b IR 16.090 16.000 14.778 16.273 7 DR 17.045 15.650 15.370 16.682 _ 5  a n = 22, 19, 20, 22 n = 22, 20, 27, 22 Summary Both grade and r e c a l l occasion had s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s at p < .05 with grade seven > grade four and DR > IR. None of the treatments were found to d i f f e r s i g n i f i -cantly and there was no inte r a c t i o n between treatments at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . 52 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The study was designed to determine: 1) whether the use of an o r a l advance organizer would f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l i n or a l lessons; 2) i f one p a r t i c u l a r type of organizer would be more b e n e f i c i a l than another type; 3) whether r e c a l l from an o r a l lesson would be influenced by grade l e v e l and 4) i f there would be any difference r e s u l t i n g from the occasion, of r e c a l l , either immediate or delayed, and i f t h i s occasion would i n t e r a c t with grade or treatment conditions. The following discussion w i l l address these issues i n terms of the resu l t s of the study. F a c i l i t a t i o n by Advance Organizer It was found i n the study that the use of an advance organizer did not f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l , either immediate or de-layed. This was not the r e s u l t expected since f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s had been found with written advance organizers and i n one study where or a l organizers and tasks were employed. There are a number of possible explanations for the c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s . F i r s t , the majority of research on advance organizers which produced f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s has -, used a multiple 53 choice, or recognition, test as the i r measure of r e c a l l . This study chose to use a sentence completion r e c a l l test as a more stringent measure of r e c a l l than that of recognition. I t may be that such a t e s t was too d i f f i c u l t for the grade levels chosen or that advance organizers do not f a c i l i t a t e for t h i s form of r e c a l l . A second reason l i e s i n Ausubel*s and Mayer's con-tention that although learning i s enhanced by the use of advance organizers, s p e c i f i c facts and d e t a i l s may be l o s t i n the subsumption process. Only conceptual learning w i l l be assisted. When the current study's r e c a l l test i s re-examined i n l i g h t of t h i s contention i t can be seen that many facts and d e t a i l s were required f o r the answers. The organizers were therefore possibly n o n - f a c i l i t a t i v e for the learner i n acquiring the knowledge which was being tested. This could account for the lack of difference between the NO and advance organizer treatments. In Mayer's If;f)79) summary of situations i n advance organizers which do not a i d learning, he mentions situations i n which an assimilative context may be present, however, the learner i s not encouraged to integrate the information. Such a s i t u a t i o n may e x i s t i n the present study i n that S_s • -were encouraged to imagine situations which would f i t the organizer c r i t e r i a but, there was no opportunity for Ss to demonstrate that they had succeeded i n doing so. The lack of th i s opportunity may have signalled to the Ss that the 54 a c t i v i t y was unimportant and therefore not meaningful. A f i n a l reason for the lack of difference i n the t r e a t -ment results which i s related to advance organizer theory l i e s i n Ausubel 1s insistence that the organizer be compatible with the Ss'-..cognitive,' l e v e l . No pre-assessment of cognitive l e v e l was undertaken. I t may be that the comparison between Man and other creatures which was to be transferred to a s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t animal, an octopus, was too abstract for these grade l e v e l s . A further possible explanation for a lack of treatment e f f e c t may have comefrom the physical conditions under which the treatments were conducted. Two physical areas were required i n each school. In one of the schools t h i s consisted of the s t a f f room and a small kitchen area adjoining the gym. Although teachers had been asked to r e f r a i n from using the gym on the treatment morning two groups were interrupted by classes i n t h i s area. One group i n the s t a f f room was also interrupted by the secretary at one point. In a second school the o r i g i n a l plan was to use the medical room and a p a r t i t i o n e d classroom. When the areas were examined on the day of treat-ment the medical room was found to be crowded with equipment. I t was s t i l l possible to use the area although i t was cramped. In addition a gym accident required supplies from the area which resulted i n frequent interruptions. Authorization for the use of the partitioned classroom was withdrawn 10 minutes before treatment was to begin because of i n s t r u c t i o n a l re-55 quirements and a narrow storage space was substituted. Seat-ing and writing space i n both areas was cramped, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the grade sevens, and the atmosphere was not conducive to learning. A l l of the reasons mentioned may have contributed to the lack of difference between treatments however, i t i s t h i s researcher's opinion that the choice and design of the r e c a l l measure was the prime factor. The use of t h i s t e s t was a major weakness of the study. Type of Organizer Since advance organizers were not found to be bene-f i c i a l and treatment means were so close together, i t was impossible to determine i f one organizer could have been more b e n e f i c i a l than the other. On the surface they were not. Reasons for the lack of difference i n the means were discussed i n the previous sections however, there i s one reason related s p e c i f i c a l l y to the organizer format which was not mentioned. In order to allow for comparisons between them, the organizers used exactly the same abstract introduction as well as the same conceptual elements to the point of u t i l i z i n g the same vocabulary. This may have placed the organizers so close together i n t h e i r key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that they were b a s i c a l l y a l l the same organizer. This may account for the lack of variance between them however, i t does not account for the lack of difference between them and the NO treatment condition. The only difference between the advance organizer treatment groups and the NO treatment group was the use of a l i s t e n i n g task about volcanoes for NO. Since t h i s was read to them by the E they had the benefit of non-verbal clues with a practice i n l i s t e n i n g to connected discourse. The text of the task was ex c i t i n g and in t e r e s t i n g . I t may be that a strong l i s t e n i n g set was introduced because of the content of the volcano passage which combined with the practice i n l i s t e n i n g assisted the NO group by motivating them to l i s t e n c l o s e l y . Grade Level and Recall As was expected grade l e v e l did have an e f f e c t on what was r e c a l l e d . A large part of the variance can be accounted for i n the progressive development of memory however, the magnitude of the difference displayed i n t h i s study requires some further explanation. Since the r e c a l l measures were i n written format and required that the c h i l d supply the appropriate word(s) to complete the sentence two factors other than memory enter the picture. The f i r s t factor i s the reading a b i l i t y of the c h i l d . Although an e f f o r t was made to keep the reading l e v e l compat-i b l e with the lower grade (4) the older students would have had an advantage because of t h e i r greater a b i l i t y and exper-ience i n reading. A second factor would l i e with Ss'language a b i l i t y . The grade sevens would have a larger vocabulary from which to choose the appropriate missing word(s) and a greater a b i l i t y to decode and recode s y n t a c t i c a l structure. Similar arguments applied to the l i s t e n i n g task i t s e l f would f i n d the grade sevens enjoying the advantage. Since a post-test was not u t i l i z e d because i t was f e l t that i t would act as a form of rehearsal, i t i s impossible to know i f grade sevens also had an already superior knowledge concerning octopuses, which would have accounted for part of the large variance. Occasion, Grade and Treatment Although occasion of r e c a l l , immediate vs delayed, did r e s u l t i n a main e f f e c t , i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to either grade or treatment i n an i n t e r a c t i o n . There i s a need, then, to explain the larger scores for DR. As for other findings i n t h i s study, a number of reasons are possible. One possible explanation for the e f f e c t comes from information processing theory. In t h i s theory retention i s a function of the depth of processing and t h i s depth depends on the method of processing. Deeper processing often takes longer and i s most successful when achieved through elaborative or semantic encoding (Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Craik & Tulving, 1975). The time lag of one week between IR and DR tests could have allowed time for rehearsal which served the function of 58 elaboration. In addition the IR test required that Ss com-plete an e x i s t i n g sentence so that semantic processing was demanded. Two of Craik and Lockhart's deep processing l e v e l demands, elaborative and semantic, were therefore met. Such actions would enhance l a t e r r e c a l l . A second memory theory which may explain the larger DR scores i s that of spontaneous r e c a l l . Such a recovery of memory usually occurs as a r e s u l t of the removal of an i n t e r -ference or as the r e s u l t of being provided with d i f f e r e n t cues. In t h i s study, i t i s possible that interference did e x i s t for the IR measure. The intervening task between the l i s t e n i n g task and the IR tes t was one of making a finger puppet. Ss were extremely interested i n the f i n a l products. This interest may have produced proactive interference as some Ss may have found the puppet d i s t r a c t i n g and concentrated on i t rather than the . t e s t . Another possible reason l i e s i n the use of p a r a l l e l forms of the r e c a l l t e s t . The f i r s t administration, the IR measure, would serve both as an encoding and as a practice device for DR since they were e s s e n t i a l l y the same te s t . Recall of an answer during the IR tes t would r e s u l t i n a re p e t i t i o n for encoding both when r e c a l l i n g the content and when selecting the appropriate sentence completion words from those available to the S. Less t h e o r e t i c a l explanations are also possible. An introduction to the world of octopuses may have sparked an . 59 i n t e r e s t i n the topic so that Ss gathered information about the creatures on t h e i r own. They may also have discussed the topic among themselves or even discussed i n d i v i d u a l questions to compare answers. These l a t t e r a c t i v i t i e s would have viol a t e d the assumption of independence i n an ANOVA however, thi s i s a continuing problem i n educational research where in t a c t classes and delayed measures are used. A f i n a l reason may rest with the administration of the DR t e s t . The t e s t was given i n the classroom with Ss i n t h e i r normal seating p o s i t i o n . The f a m i l i a r surroundings may have served to lessen any anxiety which Ss may have experienced and hence produced better scores. As i n other cases any or a l l of these explanations may have accounted for superiority of DR over IR. I t i s t h i s researcher's opinion however that the rehearsal inherent i n the IR produced a greater depth of processing and hence greater delayed r e c a l l . Although no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was established between grade l e v e l and occasion the r e s u l t s (MS = 10.617, F ( l , 166) = 2.61, p < 0.108.0 suggest that with stronger treatments and tighter controls a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n might be found. An explanation for the lack of i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment and occasion can l i k e l y be found i n arguments similar to those presented for the lack of treatment e f f e c t . 60 Limitations of the Study As has been noted previously one major l i m i t a t i o n l i e s i n the design of the r e c a l l measure u t i l i z e d i n this study. Although the sentence completion measure i s cognitively demanding, i t i s r e s t r i c t i v e i n what i t measures. F i r s t , the quantity of questions which can be e f f e c t i v e l y used i s limited by the p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of administrations such as space and time. This means that learning which may have taken place may not be recognized. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, the tests probably did not measure the learning most f a c i l i t a t e d by the use of an advance organizer so that the re s u l t s may be mis-leading. The variety, of advance organizers used constituted another l i m i t a t i o n . Each of the organizers were remarkable sim i l a r i n t h e i r content so that i n an unsuccessful attempt to ensure viable comparisons of format there may have been l i t t l e l e f t to compare. Other methods of presenting advance organizers are available which are equally or even more com-pat i b l e with the cognitive styles of elementary students than the ones used. Some examples of these organizers are s l i d e s or motion picture f i l m , cartoons and even written verbal organizers. A further l i m i t a t i o n l i e s i n the r e l a t i v e l y small amount of time used for the experiment. The treatment plus IR measure took approximately 75 minutes. There was a great 61 deal of information presented i n t h i s time; information which ranged from man to a l l i g a t o r s and puppets to octopuses. Such an abundance of information could have been confusing to the elementary student and may have had a detrimental influence on the r e s u l t s . In addition to the short time allowed for a great deal of information, the material was transmitted using an un-fa m i l i a r voice without the help of the non-verbal cues normally present i n a teacher presented o r a l lesson. The short prac-t i c e exercise may not have been a s u f f i c i e n t time to allow students to acclimatize themselves to the new voice so that p o t e n t i a l information was l o s t before f a m i l i a r i t y was achieved. Presentation by the experimenter, although creating a s i t u a t i o n i n which variables would be more d i f f i c u l t to control, would have been closer to the normal classroom s i t u a t i o n and would have aided i n a more rapid f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n to a new. voice. The lack of a pre-test was another l i m i t a t i o n . A l -though the decision not to employ such a test was based on the p o s s i b i l i t y that the pre-test would act as a rehearsal agent i t meant that there would be no i n d i c a t i o n of the students.' p r i o r knowledge of the tape and therefore, no clear measure of what was actually learned. I t i s l i k e l y that the pre-test could have been designed so that i t did not act as a preview agent and one should have been used. A further l i m i t a t i o n lay i n the size of the groups. Because of the close quarters required by the available physical areas not already i n use i n the average elementary school, smaller group sizes would have been more e f f e c t i v e . This would also have a l l e v i a t e d some of the crowding at the l i s t e n i n g centers. F i n a l l y , the study employed a story format for i t s l i s t e n i n g task. This may have influenced the re s u l t s since elementary school students are probably more accustomed to r e c a l l i n g p l o t l i n e s rather than concepts and facts from s t o r i e s . Recommendations for Further Study Several areas which require further research were evident i n the discussion and l i m i t a t i o n s . The use of a varie t y of c a r e f u l l y constructed advance organizers including v i s u a l and verbal, o r a l and written formats needs to be systematically explored. The s u i t a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t types of advance organizer at various grade levels requires further exploration. This i s true also of preferences for organizer types at these grade l e v e l s . The exploration of the possible i n t e r a c t i o n of gender and/or grade and advance organizers could also y i e l d important r e s u l t s as can be seen i n Appendix D. The p o s s i b i l i t y that a sentence completion r e c a l l measure may have contributed to the lack of a main e f f e c t for advance organizers i n the present study suggests that d i f f e r e n t formats for r e c a l l measures should be examined i n o r a l lessons using advance organizers. 63 Although t h i s study did not d i r e c t l y address the question, l i t e r a t u r e i n both advance organizer theory and l i s t e n i n g studies indicate that an examination of a p o t e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y , verbal a b i l i t y or academic a b i l i t y and advance organizers i n o r a l learning possibly might be sought. F i n a l Comment Although the present study did not f i n d f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s for the use of advance organizers, i t i s possible that t h i s lack was due, i n large part, to the instruments em-ployed i n the study and not to a weakness i n the arguments which lead to the study. 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Review off Educational Research, 1976, 46, 239-265 Jenkins, J. R., & Neisworth, J. T. The f a c i l i t a t i v e influence of i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives. Journal off Educational  Research, 1973, _66_,- 254-256 Jerrolds, B. W. The effects of advance organizers i n reading for the retention of s p e c i f i c f a c t s . Dissertation Abstracts  International, 1968, 28_, 4532A Kaplan, R., & Rothkopf, E. Z. An explanation of the e f f e c t of density and s p e c i f i c i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives on learning from text. Journal off Educational Psychology, 19 72, 63_, 295-302 : • ; : : Instructional objectives as directions to learners. Journal off Educational Psychology, 1974, 66, 448-456 Mayer, R. E. Some conditions of meaningful learning of computer programming: Advance organizers and subject control of frame dequencing. Journal of Educational  Psychology, 1976, 6_8, ] 43-] 50 68 Mayer, R. E. Twenty years of research on advance organizers; Assimilation theory i s s t i l l the best predictor of r e s u l t s . Instructional Science, 1979b, 8_, 133-167 • • The sequencing of i n s t r u c t i o n and the concept of assimilation-to- schema. XnstructiOhal Science, 1977, 6, 369-388 Mayer, R. E., & Bromage, B. K. Different r e c a l l protocols for technical texts due to advance organizers. Journal of  Educational Psychology, 1980, 72, 209-225 Nugent, G. C., Tipton, T. J. & Brooks, D. W. Use of Intro ductory organizers i n t e l e v i s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n . Journal of  Educational Psychology, 1980, 72, 445-451 Patterson, A. Listening as a learning s k i l l . Media and  Methods, 1979, 15_, 18-20, 80 Paris , S. G., & Lindauer, B. K. Constructive aspects of children's comprehension and memory i n Perspectives; ; o n the  development of memory and cognition. K a i l , R. V. & Hagen, J. W. (Eds.) H i l l s d a l e N. J . : Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1977 p 35-60 Peeck, J. E f f e c t of prequestions on delayed retention of prose materials, Journal 1 of Educational Psychology, 19 70, 61, 241-246 Piaget, J . & Inhelder, B. T. Memory and 'Intelligence.' New York: Basic Books, 19 73 Pressley, G. M. Mental imagery helps eight year olds remember what they read. Journal ;of Educational Psychology, 1975, 68, 355-359 Proger, B. B., Carter, C. E., Mann, L., Taylor, R. G., Bayuk, R. J . , Morris, V. R., & Reckless, p. E. Advance and con-current organizers for detailed verbal passages used with elementary school pupils. Journal of Educational Research, 1973, 66, 451-456 Sangria, S. D., & DiVesta, F. J. Learner expectations i n -duced by adjunct questions and the r e t r i e v a l of i n t e n t i o n a l and i n c i d e n t a l learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1978, 70_, 280-288 69 Scandura, J. M., & Wells, J. N. Advance organizers i n learning abstract mathematics. American1 Educational  Re se arch Journal', 1967, 4_, 295-301 Schulz, R. W. The ro l e of cognitive organizers i n the f a c i l i t a t i o n of concept learning i n elementary school science. Di s ser tat ion Abstracts , 1967, 27, 295-301-Solso, R. L. Cognitive psychology, New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1979 Steinbink, J. E. The ef f e c t s of advance organizers for teaching geography to disadvantaged black students. Dissertations Abstract International, 19 71, 31, 59 49A St i c h t , T. G. and others Auding and Reading. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, 19 ED 097 641, 19 74 Triesman, A. Contextual cues i n se l e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g . Quarterly Journal of Experimental 1 Psychology, 1960, 12, 242-248 • • Monitoring and storage of i r r e l e v a n t messages in s e l e c t i v e attention. Journal of Verbal Learning- and  Behavior, 19 64, 3_, 449-459 Tutolo, D. Attention: Necessary aspect of l i s t e n i n g . Language j£rts, 1979, 56, 134-137 Weaver, S. W. & Rutherford, W. L. A hierarchy of l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . Elementary 'English,' 1974, 51, 1146-1150 Winer, B. J . S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n experimental design (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 19 71 Wyler, R., & Ames, G. Inside the earth. New York: Golden Press, 1968 Zim, S. A l l i g a t o r s and crocodiles. New York: William Morrow, 19 78 70 APPENDICES APPENDIX A PROCEDURE FOR ADAPTION OF THE LISTENING TASK 72 PROCEDURE FOR ADAPTION OF THE LISTENING TASK The text of the book Octopus was typed and submitted to a grade f i v e and a grade four student at separate times. The students were instructed to read i t and underline any word they did not understand. The text was then read aloud to them and they were asked to s i g n i f y with a raised hand any word they did not understand.' Each of the underlined or indicated words were then altered, i n consultation with the c h i l d , to a word which was understood. The grade f i v e student was used f i r s t , then the grade four. APPENDIX B TREATMENT STIMULI STATEMENT OF PURPOSE 74 TREATMENTS No Organizer .75 Abstract Organizer .81 Prequestion Organizer 82 Vis u a l Organizer 84 Outline Organizer 86 PRACTICE EXERCISE 8 8 LISTENING TASK. 91 INTERVENING TASK 99 74 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE Hello, I'm • I'm going to ask you to do some exercises for me today. The reason I'm asking you to do them i s because I want to f i n d out how well grade _ _ _ _ s l i s t e n i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . This means that each group I see w i l l have a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t set of inst r u c t i o n s . This i s not a test and w i l l not be used by your teacher for marks, or any other reason, but please do the best you can. 75 NO ORGANIZER TREATMENT You w i l l be hearing three l i s t e n i n g exercises of d i f f e r e n t lengths today. We w i l l s t a r t with one on volcanoes. Before we begin, what volcano near us erupted l a s t year? (Mount St. Helens) Pelee, the volcano you are going to hear about i s on an isl a n d i n the South A t l a n t i c . MOUNTAIN THAT EXPLODED In the year 19 02 an old, quiet volcano on the is l a n d of Martinique, i n the West Indies, came to l i f e i n a t e r r i b e l way. The people of Martinque can never forget how i t des-troyed t h e i r c i t y , Saint P i e r r e , and i n one dreadful minute k i l l e d the 2 8,000 inhabitants. Saint Pierre was abusy seaport. Offshore, ships could always be seen loading sugar and rum. The can from which these products were made grew on plantations spreading over the slopes and valleys behind the c i t y . Five miles to the north rose a mountain named Pelee. The islanders knew i t was an old volcano. I t had fumed a l i t t l e f i f t y years e a r l i e r , but since then had been quiet and harmless. Pelee was not shaped l i k e a regular cone. Before h i s t o r i c times i t s top had caved i n , leaving a hollow about 76 half a mile across. Water had once f i l l e d the hollow, but i t was dry now, so people c a l l e d i t the Dry Pond. THE AWAKENING One day toward the end of A p r i l , 1902, a plume of vapor rose from Pelee, and some l i g h t dust f e l l on v i l l a g e s nearby. Once i n a while the ground trembled as a low rumbling came from the mountain. This caused no alarm. The same things had happened f i f t y years e a r l i e r and nothing worse had followed. Students and teachers at the l o c a l high school discussed the mountain's behavior. They compared Pelee to Vesuvius, the volcano that destroyed the ancient c i t y of Pompeii. Boys and g i r l s joined parties of sightseers and climbed to the top of Pelee. The Dry Pond had f i l l e d with water. Trees growing there were nearly submerged, with only t h e i r tops showing. In the middle of the pond rose a cone made of lava fragments. Jets of water spurted from i t , along with puffs of dusty vapor. Gradually the mountain became more v i o l e n t . One night there were several explosions. The wall of the Dry Pond collapsed, leaving a V-shaped gap. Water rushed through the gap, forming a deluge of mud that poured down the v a l l e y and swept houses and people into the sea. 77 Repeated flows of mud buried v i l l a g e s near the moun-ta i n . People f l e d to Saint Pierre for safety. Everywhere, a l i g h t gray dust f e l l l i k e snow, covering the gournd and weighing down the branches of trees. At night, clouds gleaming with an orange l i g h t r o l l e d down from the summit. Glowing blocks of lava burst out of the mountain and hurtled down i t s slopes. Then came the eighth of May and the eruption that brought death to Saint Pierre. DAY OF DESTRUCTION Afterward, a man who l i v e d a mile from the c i t y t o l d what he saw that morning. At f i r s t there was only the usual vapor r i s i n g over the mountain. Then something spurted from the summit—a j e t of dark f l u i d lava. The j e t raced downslope. Behind i t rose a wall of cloud. In a minute and a half the cloud r o l l e d to Saint Pierre and covered the c i t y . Meanwhile the watcher f e l t a b l a s t of wind from the cloud. This wind saved the lives: of some s a i l o r s aboard ships at anchor. I t threw them into the sea before the cloud reached them. When the cloud came, i t scalded them about the head and shoulders, but the parts of t h e i r bodies under water were unharmed. In Saint Pierre the sudden b l a s t of wind tumbled houses 78 and buried t h e i r occupants i n the ruins. Stoves and lamps set the wreckage ablaze. The whole c i t y became a furnace. A RESCUE During the following week, rescue parties searched the ruins. Under the dust and rubble they found a sheet of paper with a student's notes about Vesuvius and the destruc-ti o n of Pompeii. One man, a shoemaker, was found a l i v e . I t seemed that not another soul had survived. But on the fourth day the searchers heard c r i e s coming from the dungeon of the c i t y * prison. When they broke through the door a young prisoner was there, waiting. Louis Cyparis had been sentenced to a month i n j a i l for getting into a f i g h t . Near the end of the month he was l e t out to do a day's work, but instead of coming back i n the evening he stayed out a l l night.. When he returned the next morning the warden shut him up i n the dungeon. To this punishment, Louis Cyparis owed his l i f e . T e l l i n g his story afterward, Louis said that on the morning of the disaster he suddenly heard people scream and cry out that they were burning. Then there was silence. "A vapor rushed i n through the l i t t l e window over my door," Louis said. " I t burned so much that I jumped around everywhere tryi n g to get away from i t . " 79 ..' Louis had burns on his back and other parts of his body, but his clothing was unharmed. The vapor had no odor, he said. The s a i l o r s agreed about t h i s . They compared th e i r burns to scalds from steam, and thought the vapor of the cloud must have been steam or something l i k e i t . WHY SO EXPLOSIVE? Aft e r May 8 there were many similar eruptions of Pelee, which were observed by the French s c i e n t i s t Alexandre Lacroix. Each time, lava spurted through the heap of material at the summit. As the lava j e t raced downward, vapor billowing from i t formed a dark wall of cloud. C l e a r l y , the j e t was highly charged with gases. In-side the volcano, the gases were held i n the lava, under pres-sure, as gas i s held i n soda-water when the bottle i s capped. But once the s t u f f was outside, the gases bubbled out v i o l e n t -l y . B o i l i n g against the ground, they formed a vapor cushion on which the mixture floated downslope. Gobs of lava were ca r r i e d up i n the cloud. Foaming and freezing at once, they turned into a glassy froth, c a l l e d pumice. M i l l i o n s of frozen bubbles burst i n the a i r , and the i r fragments d r i f t e d down as dust. Pelee's explosiveness was due largely to the s t i f f -ness of the lava. Most of i t emerged as nearly s o l i d chunks that clogged the volcano's mouth. Deeper down, more lava was 80 accumulating. When the pressure of i t s bottled-up gases reached a certa i n point, the mixture blasted out through a weak part of the summit. * ********* 1. How was the eruption similar to.Mount St. Helen's? (sudden, side of mountain collapsed, l i g h t gray dust, survivors) 2. How was i t di f f e r e n t ? (lava, vapor, large scale death, lumps of pumice) The next l i s t e n i n g exercise i s on tape so put on your headphones. Story taken from Wyler, R. & Ames., G. Inside the earth New York: Golden Press, 1968 81 ABSTRACT ORGANIZER We know that, i n order to survive, people have certai n basic needs. We require food, a source of warmth, protection from the weather, clean a i r and many other things. Nature helps us with these needs not only by providing things l i k e food and trees or materials for buildings but also by designing us i n cer t a i n ways. We are one of the few creatures with hands which have fingers so that we can hold things. We are the only creatures to stand upright when we walk. Like us, animals are also affected by the i r needs which may be the same as ours i n some ways and d i f f e r e n t i n others. The way they are made w i l l help to decide how they w i l l go about f u l f i l l i n g these needs. 82 PREQUESTION ORGANIZER TREATMENT (As you read the question mount i t . ) When we are studying about animals, we can learn about them not only by looking at the i r appearance but also by looking at t h e i r needs and how they go about meeting them. Some of the questions we might ask about them are: 1. What does an animal look lik e ? 2. Is there anything unusual about the animal? 3. Does t h i s animal need anything sp e c i a l i n order to survive? 4. What does the animal eat? 5. Where does the animal get i t s food? 6. How does th i s animal move? 7. Why does the animal move thi s way? 8. Where does the animal l i v e ? 9. What was the animal l i k e as a baby? 10. What was t h i s animal l i k e when young? 11. Does the animal have any enemies? 12. How does the animal defend i t s e l f against these enemies? A l l of these are important questions to ask when you are learning about animals and how they l i v e i n t h e i r world. 83 Think of an animal you know w e l l and t r y to imagine how you would answer these questions about i t . (Repeat questions w i t h 5 second pause between each. Touch each question as you read i t . ) Let's have a l i t t l e p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e to see i f you can f i n d the answers to these questions. Put on your headphones. 84 VISUAL ORGANIZER TREATMENT (As you mention the animal touch i t on the p i c t u r e ) . When we are s t u d y i n g about animals, we can l e a r n about them by l o o k i n g a t t h e i r appearance but a l s o by l o o k i n g a t t h e i r needs and how they go about meeting them. One of the t h i n g s we might look a t i s how the way an animal looks and a c t s helps i t . For i n s t a n c e the owl has sharp claws t o c a t c h i t s food, the f i e l d mouse, who has b i g ears t o l e t i t hear i t s enemies, the owl and the fox, so i t can run i n t o i t s home. Other animals i n the p i c t u r e have other ways of c a t c h i n g t h e i r food o r of escaping from becoming food. See i f you can see some of these ways. N o t i c e the beaver's unusual f e a t u r e s of sharp t e e t h , f o r c u t t i n g wood t o b u i l d i t s home, and a broad t a i l ! used as a warning f o r other beavers t o help p r o t e c t them. See i f you can see some other animals w i t h unusual f e a t u r e s . Some of the f e a t u r e s w i l l be u s e f u l w h i l e others w i l l j u s t make the animal look d i f f e r e n t . The f o r g i s hard t o see because of i t s c o l o r . I t i s soon going t o g e t some food, a d r a g o n f l y , . i f the i n s e c t doesn f l y away. N o t i c e i n the p i c t u r e a l l the d i f f e r e n t ways the v a r i o u s animals can.move. The f r o g has long l e g s f o r jumping 85 the b u t t e r f l y has wings for f l y i n g and the deer long legs for running. Look for other ways of getting around. Notice how close the frog l i v e s from the water i n which i t grew up as a tadpole. The s q u i r r e l i s probably also close to i t s home i n one of the trees because of i t s babies. Look for some other homes. A l l of the things you have looked for are important things to learn about when you are learning about animals and how they l i v e i n t h e i r world. Let's see i f you can f i n d them when you l i s t e n not look. 86 OUTLINE ORGANIZER TREATMENT (Mount word as you say i t . ) When we are studying about animals, we can learn about them not only by looking at their appearance but also by looking at the i r needs and how they go about meeting them. Some of the things we might look at are: Its DESCRIPTION or what i t looks l i k e If i t has any UNUSUAL FEATURES, that i s , i f there i s anything unusual or d i f f e r e n t about i t If i t has any sp e c i a l NEEDS that i t must f u l f i l l i n order to survive We can look at i t s FOOD HABITS or what i t eats and where the food comes from How i t gets around, that i s i t s MOVEMENT Where i t l i v e s or i t s HOME What i t was l i k e as a baby or i t s EARLY LIFE I f i t has any ENEMIES If i t has any way to protect i t s e l f from these enemies If i t has any PROTECTION from these enemies^ either protection i t makes i t s e l f , .or what nature has given-87 A l l of these things help us learn about animals and how they l i v e i n t h e i r world. (Give a 5 second pause between each point and touch the keyword.) Think of an animal you know well and try to imagine how you would describe i t ; i t s unusual features; i t i t has any sp e c i a l needs; i t s food habits; how i t moves around; where i t l i v e s ; how i t spent i t s early l i f e ; i f i t has any enemies; and how i t protects i t s e l f from them. 8 8 P R A C T I C E E X E R C I S E C r o c o d i l e s l i v e i n w a r m a r e a s a n d i n d a m p e r h a b i t a t s t h a n m o s t r e p t i l e s . T h e y n e v e r g o f a r f r o m t h e w a t e r , u s u a l l y s t a y i n g i n s w a m p s , m a r s h e s , l a g o o n s , l a k e s a n d r i v e r s . S o m e l i k e t h e b r a c k i s h w a t e r a t a r i v e r ' s m o u t h . O t h e r s l i k e t h e s a l t w a t e r o f q u i e t b a y s a n d m a y e v e n g o o u t t o s e a . T h e l o n g h e a d s o f c r o c o d i l e s s h o w t h e w a y n a t u r e h a s f i t t e d t h e m f o r l i f e i n t h e w a t e r . A f l a p o f s k i n a t t h e b a c k o f t h e m o u t h a c t s a s a v a l v e o r d o o r w a y o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g t h e p a s s a g e t o t h e t h r o a t . T h e n o s t r i l s , n e a r t h e t i p o f t h e s n o u t , j o i n u p b y w a y o f a l o n g b o n y p a s s a g e t o t h e t h r o a t b e h i n d t h e f l a p . A c r o c o d i l e c a n b r e a t h e w i t h o n l y t h e t i p o f i t s s n o u t a b o v e t h e w a t e r . S i m i l a r f l a p s k e e p w a t e r o u t o f i t s n o s e a n d e a r s . H i d d e n i n t h e w a t e r w e e d s , a c r o c o d i l e w i l l w a i t m o t i o n l e s s u n t i l a d u c k , f i s h o r o t h e r s m a l l a n i m a l c o m e s c l o s e . W i t h a s u d d e n p l u n g e a n d a s n a p t h e c r o c g r a b s i t s d i n n e r . I f t h e r e i s a s t r u g g l e , t h e c r o c c a n h o l d i t s v i c t i m u n d e r w a t e r t o d r o w n . T h e c r o c c a n b r e a t h e w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y b e c a u s e o f i t s . s p e c i a l a i r p a s s a g e . O n l a n d c r o c o d i l e s l o o k s l u g g i s h a n d l a z y . T h e y l i e q u i e t l y w i t h t h e i r b e l l i e s i n t h e s a n d o r g r a s s . B u t , i f t h e y 89 are s t a r t l e d or frightened they r i s e up on short legs and can move very r a p i d l y . Their front feet have f i v e claws, t h e i r back feet only four. A l l are webbed. With these webbed feet and a broad t a i l , crocodiles are at home i n the water. A crocodile uses i t s feet for slow paddling and to keep i t s balance i n the water. But, i f i t i s chasing a vict i m i n the water, i t swings i t s t a i l from side to side l i k e a f i s h and can swim faster than a man can paddle. Practice exercise taken from A l l i g a t o r s and Crocodiles by S. Zim, New York,. William Morrow, 1978. Practice Exercise Questions 1. Where do crocodiles make the i r homes? 2. How does a crocodile keep water out of i t s ears? 3. How does a crocodile get around? 4. What does i t l i k e for dinner? 5. What i s unusual about i t s feet? Answers 1. Crocodiles make the i r homes i n warm, damp areas beside r i v e r s , lakes, swamps, lagoons, marshes or on seashores. I t has a f l a p of skin to keep the water out. A crocodile swims, paddles or runs. A crocodile l i k e s small animals for food. Its front feet have f i v e claws and i t s back feet four, or i t s feet are webbed. 91 LISTENING TASK Introduction of Terms Before we l i s t e n to a story about octopuses there are a few words you should know. The body of an octopus i s covered with a mantle. This mantle i s a loose bag of skin which surrounds the body. Within the lower part of the mantle i s a water f i l l e d space with a round tube-like opening into the sea water c a l l e d a siphon. The space contains the g i l l s . Water enters through the siphon and flows over the g i l l s , where i t gives oxygen to the octopus and removes carbon dioxide. Most of the time the water i s pumped out of the mantle through the siphon quite slowly. The head i s quite roundish and i s found between the body and the arms. Underneath the head i s the mouth with a sharp beak inside. The arms surround the mouth. Each of the arms has a double row of discs or suckers on i t s underside.' The suckers are c i r c u l a r i n shape. Remember the mantle i s the skin around the body; the siphon i s a tube for sucking i n and blowing out water. The beak i s just inside the mouth and suckers are round discs on the bottom of the arms. Please put on your headphones. 92 LISTENING TASK There are about 150 d i f f e r e n t kinds of octopuses l i v i n g i n the seas of the world, mostly i n t r o p i c a l or sub-t r o p i c a l areas, although a few have also been found i n the A r c t i c . Some octopuses are only a few inches across when they are f u l l y grown. The giant octopus of the P a c i f i c Ocean can weigh over 100 pounds and measure 30 feet across from t i p to t i p with the arms stretched out. Octopus vu l g a r i s , the one we know best, reaches about 10 feet across and weighs about 55 pounds. Usually, however, i t i s some-what smaller. The story you are about to hear i s about an Octopus v u l g a r i s . OCTOPUS by Carol Carrick The octopus' eyes rose on l i t t l e knobs. She stretched forward. She was watching a lobster pick i t s way cautiously through the plumes of seaweed that clung to the rocks. The octopus shot a j e t of water from the siphon tube, that stuck out from the loose bag of skin covering her body. Like a rocket, she launched herself from the ocean bottom. 9 3 The empty space under the mantle f i l l e d again with water. She forced out another spurt and soared higher. Spreading wide her eight webbed arms, the octopus floated down over the lobster l i k e a parachute and covered him. The lobster hald i t s claws high i n defense. With his pinching claw he managed to seize one of the octopus'' writhing arms, which were two feet long and armed with double rows of powerful suction discs. But as he t r i e d to p u l l his great crushing claw from the octopus' grip, he only pulled the rubbery noose of her arm t i g h t e r . Then the octopus 1 victim saw the black beak hidden between the c i r c l e of her arms. She drew the struggling lobster close. With a b i t e from the powerful beak, her poison was injected into the lobster. He shuddered, relaxed his gri p , and was paralyzed i n seconds. The octopus curled s l e e p i l y i n front of her home, flushing a purple brown color. Orange bumps of happiness rose over her eyes and on her mantle. She spent the morning eating her lobster dinner. During the next few weeks the octopus gradually moved inshore. When the few shelters she came upon were already i n use, she slept half-buried i n the holes that she blew i n the sand with her siphon. Except for the steady r i s e and f a l l of her mantle to wash oxygen over her g i l l s , her pale, pebbly 94 body could hardly be seen on the f l o o r of the sea. Occassionally, a dark shape scuttled across the sand. A crab! And where there was one crab, there would be more. The octopus waited p a t i e n t l y , her arms, c o i l e d and ready. When another crab appeared, her arm flashed' out and f l i c k e d at i t . Instantly the suction cups on her arm attached them-selves to the crab's s h e l l and he was drawn toward her. Slowly the octopus took the crab apart. The delicate t i p s of her arms extended to the very points of his legs and claws to remove the t i n i e s t piece of meat. A strong f e e l i n g was now driv i n g the octopus. I t was time to f i n d a safe den. A l e r t t o the smells of danger that she could sense through her skin, she pulled herself slowly over the bottom of the sea. As the sunrise f i l t e r e d down through the water, throwing shadows that might mean hunting sharks or dolphin, her panic grew. She began to pick up speed, reaching out her forward arms, fastening her suckers to objects and p u l l i n g her body along. In t h i s fashion, she flowed sideways u n t i l the sea ended i n a towering wall of rock. With the t i p of her arms she poked into every crack i n the wall, no matter how narrow. Her exploring arms could be stretched to paper thinness, and although her boneless body was as large as a grapefruit, she could squeeze through an opening less than an inch across. 95 Reaching into a small hole her sensi t i v e suckers tasted and touched a creature that made her arm withdraw i n t e r r o r . The octopus turned pale. Shooting a powerful squirt of water out through her siphon, she jetted backwards, but rows of needle sharp teeth had already fastened on her arm. S p i l l i n g out of the small hole came yards of the octopus" deadliest enemy, a moray e e l . The octopus wrapped her free arms around the head of the e e l and t r i e d to reach him with her sharp parrot l i k e beak. The e e l formed a loop with his t a i l . P u l l i n g h is head backward through the loop, he s l i d the octopus from his slippery body. Then the eel straightened. With the octopus' arm s t i l l gripped i n his teeth, he began to spin l i k e a top u n t i l the arm was twisted from her body. Then the eel straightened. With the octopus' arm s t i l l gripped i n his teeth, he began to spin l i k e a top u n t i l the arm was twisted from her body. The octopus had only one chance to save herself. During the b r i e f time i t took the eel to gulp down her arm, she jetted away. At the same time to avoid capture, she darkened her skin and then squirted a cloud of black ink behind her. The thick ink spread i n the shape of a f l e e i n g octopus. Changing her d i r e c t i o n and color, the r e a l octopus hurried away unnoticed. 96 The e e l snapped at the false ink-octopus. He was further confused as the ink began to s p o i l his sense of smell. Without the use of his most important hunting t o o l , his nose, the near-sighted eel had l i t t l e chance of finding his victim. Because the octopus' blood vessels had closed t i g h t , there was no bleeding where her arm had been torn away. When she was t i n y , a clam had snapped shut on her arm. She had only been able to free herself by p u l l i n g o f f her arm. I t had grown back i n six weeks. In a few weeks the arm would begin to grow back again, but much more slowly t h i s time. Now her body was preparing for something more important. The octopus discovered a small hole i n the foot of the rock wall. She enlarged i t by blowing away some of the d r i f t e d sand. Then she c o l l e c t e d stones that had f a l l e n away from the wall and p i l e d them across the doorway. Soon a f t e r she slipped through the narrow opening her eggs began to come...little pearly eggs, l i k e grains of r i c e . She twisted the thread attached to each egg to a stem of threads she had fastened to the c e i l i n g of the cave. As each l i n e of eggs was lengthened to several inches, she would s t a r t another. At the end of two weeks, almost 50,000 eggs hung i n the cave l i k e a miniature bunch of grapes. For a month the octopus cared for nothing but her eggs. She cradled them gently, vacuuming them with her suckers, and blowing fresh water over them. 97 L i t t l e f i s h gathered outside, hoping for a chance to get at the eggs or some newly-hatched babies. But the octopus never l e f t the eggs to feed herself, and she showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the crabs that glided within her reach. She was slowly starving to death. A large f i s h with a huge mouth peered at the entrance to the tiny cave. The side of the octopus facing the f i s h turned pale as she was torn between fear -and l o y a l t y to her eggs. She withdrew deeper into the cave, her arms s t i l l en-c i r c l i n g the egg c l u s t e r s , but when another octopus appeared she turned red with anger. The other octopus quickly moved o f f . After a few weeks, a l i t t l e pair of eyes could be seen through the thin clear outer coat of each egg. Occasionally one of the unborn octopuses flushed pink or orange when i t s egg was jarred. One morning as the mother octopus was blowing away a b i t of sand and seaweed that had d r i f t e d i n during a storm, some of the egg cases burst and the babies wriggled free. During the next week, thousands of octopuses no larger than f l e a s hatched and floated to the upper ocean layers. Their heads were crowned with budding arms and covered with tiny hairs that would help them d r i f t i n the currents. In the crowded world of minature f l o a t i n g plants and animals c a l l e d plankton, most of the young octopuses would 98 lose t h e i r l i v e s as other creatures ate them. This way they formed part of the ocean's food chain. A month l a t e r the survivors would develope from help-less d r i f t e r s to bottom crawlers l i k e t h e i r mother. As they crept along the shallow t i d a l pools, some of those l e f t would be discovered by shrimp, crabs, and. shore birds. Perhaps i n the end only two or three would grow up to be full-grown octopuses. Two years before, t h e i r mother had burst from an egg herself. She had held out against a l l dangers of the ocean and so would a few of them. Now the ocean rocked her gently. A quietness slowly crept through her u n t i l she was as empty of l i f e as the egg cases she s t i l l held i n her arms. Like a flower that withers so that i t s seed can be carried on the wind, the octopus had blown her children into the world and died. Story i s taken from Octopus by Carol Carrick, New York, Seabury Press, 1978. Some portions have been l e f t out and some words changed i n order to keep i t within a grade 4 vocabulary. 99 INTERVENING TASK That was a long time to l i s t e n . Let's try some l i s t e n i n g just for fun. Take a sheet of paper. Fold i t i n h a l f . Open up the f o l d and f o l d the r i g h t edge to the centre so that you have 2 long narrow pieces and one wide piece. Do the same with the l e f t edge so that you have 4 long narrow pieces. Fold the centre f o l d again on the o r i g i n a l folds Now take the top of the long narrow s t r i p that you have and f o l d i t down to the bottom. Fold the bottom edge of the top layer up. Turn the paper over and again f o l d the bottom edge of the top layer up. Take a crayon and draw i n l i p s , eyes and a nose. Put your name on the face. (Collect the f a c e s — t h e y w i l l be returned to the classroom). 100 APPENDIX C RECALL MEASURES INSTRUCTION FOR RECALL TEST ......... FORM X FORM Y . . 101 INSTRUCTIONS FOR RECALL TEST The questions on the sheet can be answered from the information i n the story "Octopus". Some are one word answers while others w i l l require a few words. The length of the l i n e has nothing to do with the length of the answer. If you get stuck on a question leave i t and go on to the others. You can always go back to the missed question when you have finished the others. 102 FORM X A..:'B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Name F i l l i n the blanks using the information from the story  "Octopus". 1. An octopus' eyes are set on Showing below i t s mantle i s a • : • : ; : ; ; : ; : — I t has ' : : : : : : • • : • • arms. On the bottom of the arms are \ • rows of Between the arms there i s •  2. Octopuses are a f r a i d of and ' I : : : : : ; : : - ; ; - ; : 3. An octopus eats k • - : : . and 4. An octopus shoots water through a siphon tube i n order to 5. An octopus shows i t i s happy when i t 6. In order to move around an octopus w i l l or 7. An octopus squirts ink when i t wants to _ 8. Two reasons an octopus changes color are and ; • ; : ' : : : 9. The octopus uses i t s beak to 103 10. Octopuses can be found i n 11. When her babies are gone, the mother octopus 12. Unlike most creatures, the octopus can arm. 13. An octopus w i l l defend i t s e l f by trying to or by : : : : : : : ' :: : : : : : : : : : • ' ' ' ' 14. There are large numbers of octopus eggs because 15. Because the octopus has a boneless body, i t can 16. When tiny, baby octopuses l i v e i n ' " :: : : ; : : : • • • _ _ 17. To stay a l i v e , an octopus needs ' :: : : : • • and ___— ;  18. Octopuses are important to l i f e i n the ocean because 19. An octopus w i l l make a home for i t s e l f by or by finding a : ' :; : : : : : : ; : ; : : : 20. Newly hatched octopuses are helpless i n the ocean cur-rents because • : __ 104 FORM Y A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U . V W X Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Name : • ; • • • : • :: : • • F i l l i n the blanks u s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n from the s t o r y  "Octopus". 1. An octopus has ' ' • ; : : : : : • arms w i t h : • : : - rows of ' number • • • • ' • • on the underside. The arms are j o i n e d by ' ' • • • I t S eyes are On S t i c k i n g out of the loose bag of s k i n c o v e r i n g i t s body i s a 2. Enemies of the octopus are ' ' : ; ; ; ; ; • • and ' : : : : : ; ; : • • 3. When hungry, an octopus w i l l look f o r ' ' ; : : : : : ; : : : ; : : : : Or • 4. An octopus shoots water through i t s siphon tube when i t Wants. tO • : : : ; • 5. When an octopus i s happy, i t w i l l ' ; ; ; : : : : • : : • ; : ; : : : ; : 6. Octopuses can move around by : : ; ; ; ; : : ' : : : : : ; : ; ; ; : : ; : : or by • • 7. An octopus w i l l squeeze out some i n k i n order t o : : : : 8. Octopuses change c o l o r because they want t o 105 9. The octopus uses to • i t s beak for a special purpose which i s 10. Octopuses l i v e i n the 11. A f t e r the babies leave, the mother octopus 12. When an octopus loses i t s arm, i t can 13. When attacked an octopus w i l l try to : : : : o r to • • ' • :: : : : ; : ; : : : : : : : : : ' :; ; : : : : ' 14. An octopus lays many eggs because : ; ; : : : : • : • 15. Having a boneless body helps the octopus by allowing i t to 16. Unlike t h e i r mother, baby octopuses l i v e 17. In order to survive an octopus needs • : and ' • ;:18. Octopuses are an important part of ocean l i f e because they 19. When looking for a home, an octopus w i l l either make one by • • or f i n d a 20. When tiny, baby octopuses must d r i f t i n the ocean cur-rents because ; : — ; — APPENDIX D ANOVA TABLE OF GRADE GENDER TREATMENT WITH REPEATED MEASURES 107 ANOVA Grade X Gender X Treatment with Repeated Measures N = 17 4 SS . df , MS P Mean 61107.751 1 61107.7*51 1310.32 0.0000 Grade 2197.514 1 2197.514 47.12 0.0000* Treat 51.399 3 17.131 0.37 0.7770 Gender a 540.507 1 540.507 11.59 0.0008* GT 75.864 3 25.288 0.54 0.6540 GS b 200.520 1 200.520 4.30 0.0400* TS 37.993 3 12.664 0.27 0.8460 GTS 56.782 3 18.927 0.41 0.7490 Error 7368.456 158 B C 45.987 1 45.987 11.15 0.0000* BG 11.710 1 10.710 2.60 0.1091 BT 9.233 3 3.078 0.75 0.5260 BS 0.295 1 0.295 0.07 0.7900 BGT 5.760 3 1.920 0.47 0.7060 BGS 13.843 1 13.843 3.36 0.0690 BTS 2.948 3 0.983 0.24 0.8700 BGTS 5.314 3 1.771 0.45 0.7320 Error 651.631 158 : ; : ; ; 4.124 , . a = 11, 11, 10, n *p ^ ;05 bS 10, 11, 8, 10, = Gender 12, 9, 7, 15, 10, 13, CB = Repeated Recall 13, 12,12 Measures 

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