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Development and analysis of an index for the measurement of ethnic attitudes towards high school counselling Massey, Donald Sunil 1982

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DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AN INDEX FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF ETHNIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS HIGH SCHOOL COUNSELLING By DONALD SUNIL MASSEY B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In " THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n ( E d u c a t i o n a l Ps-ychology & S p e c i a l Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming To the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1982 ( c)Donald S u n i l Massey, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may. be granted by the head of my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ^ t e / * ^ t / f , /f^3.. DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Perception of Counselling Services Index or PCSI (a 45-item 5-point L i k e r t scale) . T h i s i n s t r.ume n t was designed by Westwood & Massey ( 1 9 8 2 ) to measure ethnic minority attitudes towards school counselling. The Westwood & Massey (1982) study was examined in d e t a i l to trace the development and implementation of the PCSI on a sample ethnic minority group (East Indian Canadian adults and adolescents) and a sample majority group (Anglo-European Canadian adults and adolescents). Based on the r e s u l t s of the above study, the PCSI proved to have s u f f i c i e n t face and content v a l i d i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y of the PCSI was estimated at between 0.91 to 0.93 using Hoyt's analysis of variance procedure (internal-consistency) . Item analysis indicated that approximately half of the PCSI items were psychometrically superior. Analysis of variance r e s u l t s related to t h i s study also indicated that the PCSI could d i f f e r e n t i a t e between c u l t u r a l groups. Results of the o v e r a l l evaluation of t h i s instrument were used to construct a r e v i s i o n of the PCSI known as the "Ethnic  Perception of Counselling Index (EPCI)". The EPCI was presented as a superior instrument for the measurement of ethnic-minority a t t i t u d e s towards school counselling. Several implications for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling as well as d i r e c t i o n s for the future use of the EPCI were described. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES i v LIST OF APPENDICES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i CHAPTER I . . . 1 INTRODUCTION 1 C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g 1 E f f e c t s Of C o u n s e l l o r / C l i e n t C u l t u r a l D i s s i m i l a r i t y ... 3 Assumptions Behind C r o s s - C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s 4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 6 DEFINITION OF TERMS 7 CHAPTER II 11 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 A t t i t u d e Measurement 11 A t t i t u d e S c a l i n g 13 Summative Rating S c a l e s 14 P r o p e r t i e s Of A t t i t u d e R a t i n g Scales 15 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIKERT SCALES 17 RESEARCH ASSESSING ETHNIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS COUNSELLING . 21 SUMMARY 24 CHAPTER III 26 RESEARCH METHOD 26 Subjects 26 Procedure 28 DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENT 29 Instrument Procedure And A n a l y s i s . . .• .. 30 CHAPTER IV .' 33 RESULTS 33 R e l i a b i l i t y 33 V a l i d i t y 33 Item A n a l y s i s 35 RELATED RESULTS 37 CHAPTER V 49 SUMMARY 49 Research O b j e c t i v e s And Methodology 49 DISCUSSION 50 Instrument R e l i a b i l i t y 50 Instrument V a l i d i t y 51 R e l i a b i l i t y And V a l i d i t y 54 Item A n a l y s i s 54 LIMITATIONS OF THE PCSI 55 LIMITATIONS OF THE WESTWOOD & MASSEY (1982) STUDY 57 REVISION OF THE PCSI 59 IMPLICATIONS 60 C o u n s e l l i n g E t h n i c M i n o r i t i e s 60 Future Use Of The EPCI 61 CONCLUSION 62 REFERENCES 65 APPENDIX A 71 APPENDIX B 72 APPENDIX C 73 i v LIST OF TABLES Table ~ Page 1 Item A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s f o r the PCSI: Phase I (East Indian Canadian Sample) 40 2 Item A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s f o r the PCSI: Phase II (Anglo-European Canadian Sample) 42 3 PCSI Subtest R e s u l t s (Best Items): Phase I (East Indian Canadian Sample) 44 4 PCSI Subtest R e s u l t s (Best Items): Phase II (Anglo-European Canadian Sample) 45 5 M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r PCSI Subtests Between the East Indian Canadian (Group I) and the Anglo-European Canadian (Group II) A d u l t s and Ado l e s c e n t s 46 6 M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r PCSI Subtests Between the East Indian Canadians (Group I) A d u l t s and Ado l e s c e n t s 47 7 M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r PCSI Subtests Between the Anglo-European Canadians (Group II) Ad u l t s and Adolescents 48 V LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page A Instrument: P e r c e p t i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s Index (Phase I) 71 B Instrument: P e r c e p t i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s Index (Phase II) 72 C Instrument: E t h n i c P e r c e p t i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g Index 73 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank the members of my committee for t h e i r a d v i c e and encouragement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . In p a r t i c u l a r , I wish to acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n of my committee member, Dr. M. Westwood, who has been e s p e c i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e of a l l my endeavours i n the f i e l d of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . I would a l s o l i k e to o f f e r my g r a t i t u d e to the s t a f f of the Immigrant S e r v i c e s Centre and the South Vancouver Neighbourhood House f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t phase of t h i s study. 1 CHAPTER I_ INTRODUCTION C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g P r o v i d i n g p y s c h o l o g i c a l and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the general p u b l i c has seldom been a d i f f i c u l t task. The average Canadian has been w e l l w i t h i n the reach of a v a r i e t y of these s e r v i c e s . However, p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s appear to be l e s s f r e q u e n t l y used by unique s e c t o r of Canadian s o c i e t y , namely i n d i v i d u a l s belonging to c e r t a i n e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups (Vontress, 1976). Before t h i s r a p i d l y expanding s e c t o r of Canada's p o p u l a t i o n can make f u l l use of the v a r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d to them, ex t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h must be c a r r i e d out i n each area where s e r v i c e s are c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e f o r the p u b l i c . C o u n s e l l i n g psychology i s perhaps one of the most important areas where e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups are given the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r f a c e with s o c i e t y as a whole. I t can be shown that some areas of c o u n s e l l i n g such as immigration, education, mental h e a l t h , or s o c i a l s e r v i c e are experienced at l e a s t i n p a r t by immigrants at some po i n t d u r i n g t h e i r r e s i d e n c y i n Canada. T h e r e f o r e , areas of c u l t u r e contact f o r e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups, such as . c o u n s e l l i n g , should be w e l l o r g a n i z e d and researched. C o u n s e l l i n g members of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s i s fraught with problems which need to be recognized by the 2 c o u n s e l l o r i f he/she i s to meet the p e r s o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l needs of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s becoming more and more evident that the t h e o r i e s and methods of the past are inadequate to meet the needs of the many s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s we f a c e . C o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s tend to come from white m i d d l e - c l a s s frames. As one becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of the s p e c i f i c s of c o u n s e l l i n g and the person-environment t r a n s a c t i o n , one becomes immediately aware that men r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y from women and have d i f f e r e n t needs, that m a j o r i t y , m i n o r i t y , c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c groups may respond d i f f e r e n t l y to the same problem, and that the r i c h and the poor view the world d i f f e r e n t l y . There has not been any d e f i n i t i v e r e s e a r c h i n c o u n s e l l i n g psychology conducted on the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s of male-female, e t h n i c , r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , or s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I t has been suggested by s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s such as Ivey (1980) and Sue & Sue (1977), that a new aspect be given to the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology, that of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l relevance and awareness. In c o n c l u s i o n , Ivey reminds us that ". . . any p o s i t i v e mental h e a l t h e f f o r t must be c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . . ." (Ivey, 1980, p. 5). To reduce the gap between the c o u n s e l l o r and the c l i e n t , p r a c t i t i o n e r s and t h e o r i s t s such as Ivey (1977) advocate t r a i n i n g f o r " c u l t u r a l e x p e r t i s e " as a means of a c q u i r i n g s e n s i t i v i t y f o r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and c o n s t r a i n t s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i m i l a r l y Vontress (1970), 3 u n e q u i v o c a l l y maintains that i t i s necessary f o r c o u n s e l l o r s to l e a r n more about c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l i f e - s t y l e , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of m i n o r i t y groups. In the c o u n s e l l i n g process, both c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t b r i n g in t h e i r background, a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s , a l l of which a f f e c t the c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . Therefore e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l i e n t a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s p r i o r to c o u n s e l l i n g i s c r i t i c a l to the q u a l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p which f o l l o w s . E f f e c t s of C o u n s e l l o r / C I i e n t C u l t u r a l D i s s i m i l a r i t y Most s t u d i e s i n the area of c o u n s e l l i n g expectancies are mostly concerned with t o p i c s such as the expectancy s i m i l a r i t i e s between c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t , the e f f e c t of the expectancies on the c o u n s e l l o r r e l a t i o n s h i p and outcome, student image of a c o u n s e l l o r and expected problems that can be d i s c u s s e d with a c o u n s e l l o r . More recent s t u d i e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g psychology have focused on the e f f e c t s of c u l t u r a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n v o l v i n g a t t i t u d e s . V o n t r e s s (1971), for example, i s concerned with the e f f e c t s that white middle c l a s s North American c o u n s e l l o r models have had upon m i n o r i t y s t a t u s c l i e n t s . Sue & Sue (1972), and Pedersen (1976), examine the degree to which the s i m i l a r i t y of c u l t u r a l background of the c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t determines or i n t e r f e r e s with the general q u a l i t y of c o u n s e l l i n g . H a r r i s o n (1975) 4 i n v e s t i g a t e s the trend towards' using c u l t u r a l l y s i m i l a r c o u n s e l l o r s f o r c l i e n t s . Numerous other s t u d i e s a l s o focus on e x p ectancies and e t h n i c m i n o r i t y a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l o r s and i l l u s t r a t e the need for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l awareness, e x p e r t i s e and t r a i n i n g (Tan, 1967; Johnson, 1977; A t k i n s o n , Maruyama & Matsui, 1978; Fukuhara, 1973; Ivey, 1977; Vontress, 1970; and Bloombaum, Yamamoto, & James, 1968). Some of these c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s have provided c o n v i n c i n g evidence to i n d i c a t e that not a l l groups of the community share the same e x p e c t a t i o n s about c o u n s e l l i n g (Bloombaum, Yamamoto & James, 1968; and Pedersen, 1976). Other s t u d i e s p o i n t out that some e t h n i c groups do not make f u l l use of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons. In these s e t t i n g s , c o u n s e l l o r s appear to l a c k adequate i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups that they may come in contact with (Vontress, 1970). In many cases, c o u n s e l l o r s working with a lack of knowledge concerning c u l t u r a l norms seem to have l i t t l e c hoice but to r e f l e c t the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r a l values i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o u n s e l l i n g models. Sue & Sue (1977) i l l u s t r a t e how t h i s s i t u a t i o n would present some obvious disadvantages f o r the m i n o r i t y s t a t u s c l i e n t and perhaps l e a d to a c e r t a i n d i s t r u s t and avoidance of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s by v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups. Assumptions Behind C r o s s - C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s In a l l of the s t u d i e s mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the r o l e of 5 a t t i t u d e s and expectancies towards c o u n s e l l o r s and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s by c l i e n t s from the e t h n i c community seems paramount. These s t u d i e s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e that e x p e c t a n c i e s , l i k e a t t i t u d e s , are l i n k e d d i r e c t l y to i n d i v i d u a l needs which in turn are met by and imbedded i n the c u l t u r a l group of the i n d i v i d u a l . Therefore e x p ectancies tend to vary as c u l t u r e s vary (Fukuhara, 1973, p. 179). However most, i f not a l l , of the r e s e a r c h i n c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g assumes that c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r c l i e n t s have favourable a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s towards c o u n s e l l i n g . At best, the more recent s t u d i e s conclude that more favourable a t t i t u d e s by c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r c l i e n t s c o u l d be c r e a t e d i f c o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d develop a c e r t a i n amount of c u l t u r a l awareness and e x p e r t i s e . T h i s fundamental assumption of 'favorableness' i s c e n t r a l to the theme of most s t u d i e s i n c r o ' s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . However, l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been conducted to assess the a t t i t u d e s and e x pectancies that e t h n i c community members may have toward c o u n s e l l i n g i n g e n e r a l . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these i s s u e s are important f o r c o u n s e l l o r s working in a s o c i e t y such as ours, where we f i n d the development of s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t e t h n i c communities. I t t h e r e f o r e becomes imperative to determine to what extent c o u n s e l l o r s are meeting the needs of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c l i e n t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , s i n c e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have f a i l e d to develop adequate measures, r e s e a r c h e r s need to develop r e l i a b l e and v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n to q u a n t i f y and summarize the a t t i t u d e s and e x pectancies of these unique groups w i t h i n our community. Information gathered from such instruments would provide 6 v a l u a b l e data towards the development of e f f e c t i v e c r o s s -c u l t u r a l models of c o u n s e l l i n g theory and p r a c t i c e . A review of the r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d i n d i c a t e s l i t t l e , i f any, of t h i s type of in s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Recently, an instrument has been developed, r e v i s e d , and implemented by a resea r c h team at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, (Westwood & Massey, 1982), to assess the a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y members towards c o u n s e l l i n g , r e f e r r e d to as the P e r c e p t i o n of  C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s Index or PCSI . The purpose of t h i s study i s t o : (1) Examine a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h with respect to c o u n s e l l i n g c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e c l i e n t s ; (2) Study the development, r e v i s i o n , and implementation of the PCSI on a sample e t h n i c m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n and a sample m a j o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n ; (3) Evaluate the streng t h s and weaknesses of the PCSI i n terms of i t s psychometric p r o p e r t i e s ; (4) Develop a more p r e c i s e instrument to assess e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s towards a s p e c i f i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e , school c o u n s e l l i n g . I t i s hoped that t h i s a n a l y s i s and r e v i s i o n w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to a b e t t e r understanding of how v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups p e r c e i v e the theory and p r a c t i c e of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology. 7 DEFINITION OF TERMS Before proceeding f u r t h e r , d e f i n i t i o n s of c e r t a i n terms used in t h i s study need to be c l a r i f i e d . A t t itude The concept of ' a t t i t u d e ' i s h i g h l y complex and has been d e f i n e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways over the y e a r s . Since the h i s t o r y of these d i f f e r e n t meanings has been t r a c e d thoroughly elsewhere (Fleming & B a i l y n , 1967). An o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a t t i t u d e f o l l o w s : P s y c h o l o g i s t s g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e an a t t i t u d e as an ". . . enduring e v a l u a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n toward some obj e c t or c l a s s of o b j e c t s . . . " and o f t e n say that " . . . a t t i t u d e s are comprised of c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l components [which are] c o n s i s t e n t with each other . . ." (Krech & C r u t c h f i e l d , 1948, p. 20). Broadly s t a t e d , ' a t t i t u d e ' may a l s o be d e f i n e d as ". . . the sum t o t a l of a man's i n c l i n a t i o n s and f e e l i n g s , p r e j u d i c e s or b i a s , preconceived n o t i o n s , ideas, f e a r s , t h r e a t s , and c o n v i c t i o n s about any s p e c i f i c t o p i c . . ." (Thurstone & Chave, 1979, pp. 6-7).. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , ' a t t i t u d e ' r e f e r s to a tendency ". . . to favor or r e j e c t p a r t i c u l a r groups of i n d i v i d u a l s , sets of ideas or s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . . ." (Thorndike & Hagen, 1979, p. 382). 8 Expectance i e s Expectancies are d e f i n e d as a 'set' or 'readiness' of an i n d i v i d u a l towards l e a r n i n g new events or behaving i n a p a r t i c u l a r way i n a given s i t u a t i o n . Thus expectancies have been \ recognized as an important f a c t o r i n p e r c e p t i o n , l e a r n i n g , per sonehl-Lt-y^ emotion, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g and psychotherapy (Gibson, 1941; Fukuhara, 1973). E t h n i c i t y To many people, the term e t h n i c i t y denotes m i n o r i t y s t a t u s , lower c l a s s , or migrancy. T h i s i s why sooner or l a t e r we s h a l l have to d i s c a r d i t or f i n d a more n e u t r a l d e s c r i p t o r . For the pur-pose of d i s c u s s i o n , ' e t h n i c i t y ' i s e s s e n t i a l l y ". . . a form of i n t e r a c t i o n between c u l t u r e groups o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n common s o c i a l c o n t e x t s " (Cohen, 1974, p. 11). With respect to t h i s study, however, the term ' e t h n i c i t y ' i s more c o r r e c t l y d e f i n e d i n terms of an e t h n i c group. E t h n i c Group " An e t h n i c group can be o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as ". . . a c o l l e c t i v i t y of people who share some p a t t e r n s of normative behavior, and form a pa r t of a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i n g with people from other c o l l e c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the framework of a s o c i a l system" (Cohen, 1974, p. 9). By 'patterns of normative behavior', Cohen r e f e r s to ". . . symbolic formations and a c t i v i t i e s found i n such contexts as k i n s h i p , marriage, 9 f r i e n d s h i p , r i t u a l , and other types of ceremonial" (Cohen, 1974, p. 10). The above d e f i n i t i o n f o l l o w s an o b j e c t i v e approach f o c u s i n g on shared c u l t u r e or a t t r i b u t e s . The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a more s u b j e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n f o c u s i n g on p s y c h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y which a l s o embraces the second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n s . Glazer & Moynihan s t a t e : C o n c r e t e l y , persons t h i n k of themselves as members of that group, with that name; they are thought of by others as members of that group, with that name; and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , they are l i n k e d to other members of the group by new a t t r i b u t e s that the o r i g i n a l immigrants would never have recognized as i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r group, but which n e v e r t h e l e s s serve to mark them o f f , by more than simply name and a s s o c i a t i o n i n the t h i r d generation and even beyond. (Glazer & Moynihan, 1975, p. 6). For the purposes of t h i s study, an e t h n i c group may be d e f i n e d as " . . . an i n v o l u n t a r y group of people who share the same c u l t u r e or to descendants of such people who i d e n t i f y themselves and/or are i d e n t i f i e d by others as belonging to the same i n v o l u n t a r y group . . ." ( I s a j i w , 1974, p. 122). The advantage of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s that i t makes p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n r a t h e r than mere d e s c r i p t i o n of the concrete group processes i n Canada. C u l t u r a l D i s s i m i l a r i t y C u l t u r a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y may be d e f i n e d as e x i s t i n g when s o c i o - c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i s based upon a n c e s t r a l h e r i t a g e , r e l i g i o n or language of the homeland. T h i s i s not to be confused with ' r a c i a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y ' being d e f i n e d as a c t u a l or assumed p h y s i o l o g i c a l or g e n e t i c d i f f e r e n c e s (Hughes & K a l l e n , 1 0 1974). M i n o r i t y Group In t h i s paper, a 'minority group' i s d e f i n e d as a segment in the p o p u l a t i o n of persons who d i f f e r with respect to c e r t a i n i d e n t i f i a b l e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or who have chosen to d i f f e r i n c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l modes of behaviour. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e both s p e c i f i c , r e f e r r i n g to c e r t a i n ' v i s i b l e ' m i n o r i t i e s , as w e l l as g e n e r a l , r e f e r r i n g to ' n o n - v i s i b l e ' m i n o r i t i e s who remain p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from the m a j o r i t y s t a t u s p o p u l a t i o n (Ujimoto et a l . , 1980; D'Oyley, 1982). In t h i s study, E a s t - I n d i a n Canadians are i d e n t i f i e d as the 'minority group'. M a j o r i t y Group 'Ma j o r i t y group' r e f e r s to those i n d i v i d u a l s who represent the m a j o r i t y s t a t u s p o p u l a t i o n . In t h i s study, Anglo-European Canadians are i d e n t i f i e d as the 'majority group'. 11 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Th i s chapter i s devoted to a general d e s c r i p t i o n of a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h and measurement as w e l l as a review of the l i t e r a t u r e concerning e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l i n g . A t t i t u d e Measurement An a t t i t u d e cannot be observed d i r e c t l y . I t denotes a v a r i a b l e 'within' the i n d i v i d u a l that a f f e c t s h i s / h e r behavior i n a given s i t u a t i o n together with other motives o p e r a t i v e at the time and the p r o p e r t i e s of the s i t u a t i o n i t s e l f . A t t i t u d e s are i n f e r r e d from an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behavior toward o b j e c t s or c l a s s e s of o b j e c t s ( S h e r i f , S h e r i f & N e b e r g a l l , 1965). On the other hand, not a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behavior i n d i c a t e s an a t t i t u d e . For example, the f a c t that one c u s t o m a r i l y walks down a f l i g h t of s t a i r s i n s t e a d of tumbling down does not r e q u i r e e x p l a n a t i o n i n terms of an a t t i t u d e , nor does the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c response of e a t i n g when a hungry person i s o f f e r e d food. The behaviors from which a t t i t u d e s are i n f e r r e d are e v a l u a t i v e , i n the sense of f a v o r i n g or d i s a p p r o v i n g , agreeing or o b j e c t i n g , e t c . Thus, a hungry i n d i v i d u a l eats i n response to hunger and food, but as a r e s u l t of h i s / h e r a t t i t u d e s towards foods, s e l e c t s one kind of food and avoids another. What i s a c t u a l l y e v a l u a t e d and how i t i s acted 12 upon v a r i e s g r e a t l y from one c u l t u r e to another and between i n d i v i d u a l s in the same c u l t u r e . Keeping the e a r l i e r d e f i n i t i o n of ' a t t i t u d e ' i n mind, adequate techniques f o r a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s would i n v o l v e the f o l l o w i n g minimum requirements: (1) I n d i c a t i o n s of the range of p o s i t i o n s toward the obj e c t of the a t t i t u d e that i s encompassed by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e v a l u a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s (acceptable or o b j e c t i o n a b l e , i n some degree); (2) I n d i c a t o r s of the degree of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l commitment to h i s / h e r own stand toward the o b j e c t ; and (3) Ways and means to ensure that the i n d i v i d u a l responds i n terms of h i s / h e r a t t i t u d e toward the o b j e c t r a t h e r than with what he/she t h i n k s the i n v e s t i g a t o r or other persons • conceive as a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e response ( S h e r i f , S h e r i f & N e b e r g a l l , 1965, p. 20). H i s t o r i c a l l y , e a r l y techniques of a t t i t u d e measurement lack e d most i f not a l l of the above i n d i c a t o r s . Most a t t i t u d e t e s t s were developed with the aim of ranking the i n d i v i d u a l ' s stand on an issue r e l a t i v e to those of others or of comparing the a t t i t u d e s t y p i c a l i n one group with those i n another. Most of them t h e r e f o r e y i e l d a s i n g l e score, u s u a l l y an average of summated r a t i n g s or s c a l e v a l u e s assigned to the items with which an i n d i v i d u a l agrees. S e v e r a l of the e x i s t i n g techniques are u s e f u l f o r l o c a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s who take a stand on one or the other si d e of a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . They t e l l us l i t t l e about the person who adopts a n e u t r a l or moderate p o s i t i o n . 1 3 A t t i t u d e s are t r a d i t i o n a l l y measured through two b a s i c techniques (although there e x i s t s e v e r a l o t h e r s ) , d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n or s u b j e c t s ' s e l f - r e p o r t s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods r e l a t e more c l o s e l y to the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t i t u d e . However, they have many disadvantages. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of f i n d i n g q u a l i f i e d observers along with s u f f i c i e n t r e l e v a n t i n c i d e n c e s f o r b e h a v i o r a l i n f e r e n c e , make t h i s technique u n a t t r a c t i v e to r e s e a r c h e r s . Since i t i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y simple, a b e t t e r way i s to ask the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f to report what he b e l i e v e s . Measurements of a t t i t u d e s are t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y based on the s e l f - r e p o r t method ( E b e l , 1972) . S e l f - r e p o r t measures of a t t i t u d e s are l i m i t e d to what the i n d i v i d u a l knows about h i s / h e r a t t i t u d e s and i s w i l l i n g to r e l a t e . S e l f - r e p o r t measures u s u a l l y concern items that r e l a t e to d i r e c t f e e l i n g s about o b j e c t s or people. Frankness of response by s u b j e c t s on s e l f - r e p o r t measures i s f r e q u e n t l y lessened by v a r i o u s s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . However, i f anonymity of responses can be assured, then s e l f - r e p o r t measures of a t t i t u d e s l o g i c a l l y should not be i n f l u e n c e d g r e a t l y by lack of frankness on the part of s u b j e c t s . I t i s a l s o important to note that the v a l i d i t y of any given s e l f - r e p o r t measure depends mainly upon the way r e s u l t s are i n t e r p r e t e d . A t t i t u d e S e a l i n g A t t i t u d e s c a l i n g i s a s p e c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the general process of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c a l i n g which i s concerned with 14 d e v e l o p i n g s c a l e s of measurement for a b s t r a c t e d p r o p e r t i e s of human experience. Every s c a l i n g e f f o r t i n v o l v e s the f o l l o w i n g three s e t s of v a r i a b l e s : (1) s t i m u l i -- a set of o b j e c t s chosen to be used; (2) s u b j e c t s — to whom the o b j e c t s are presented; and, (3) responses — which are r e q u i r e d by the experimental s i t u a t i o n (Garner & Creelman, 1967). The u s e f u l n e s s of an a t t i t u d e s c a l e or instrument depends upon i t s p r o p e r t i e s . Minimum requirements are that a s c a l e be r e l i a b l e ( y i e l d c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s ) and v a l i d (measure what i t i s p u rported to measure). Summat ive Rat ing S c a l e s As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , summative r a t i n g s c a l e s are g e n e r a l l y most u s e f u l i n the s c a l i n g of people with respect to p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s . Summative r a t i n g s c a l e s assume only that i n d i v i d u a l items are mono t o n i c a l l y r e l a t e d to u n d e r l y i n g t r a i t s and that a summation of items scores i s approximately l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d to the t r a i t . Summative s c a l e s have a number of a t t r a c t i v e advantages over a l l other methods of s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h a t : (1) they f o l l o w from an ap p e a l i n g model; (2) they are rather easy to c o n s t r u c t ; (3) they are u s u a l l y h i g h l y r e l i a b l e ; (4) they can be adapted to the measurement of many d i f f e r e n t kinds of a t t i t u d e s ; and, -(5) they have produced meaningful r e s u l t s in many s t u d i e s to 15 date (Nunnally, 1970). Although r e l i a b i l i t y i s not a s e r i o u s problem i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of summative a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , a s c a l e c o n t a i n i n g few items w i l l tend to have low r e l i a b i l i t y . G e n e r a l l y speaking, summative a t t i t u d e s c a l e s tend to be h i g h l y r e l i a b l e due to high i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s between items s i n c e they are o b v i o u s l y designed to measure s i m i l a r t r a i t s . High i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s between items produces high i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y estimates of r e l i a b i l i t y , which in turn i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be a good estimate of the a l t e r n a t e - f o r m r e l i a b i l i t y measured over short p e r i o d s of time. T h e r e f o r e , r e l i a b i l i t y estimates i n the .80's are not unusual i n s t u d i e s using summative r a t i n g s c a l e s . P r o p e r t i e s of A t t i t u d e Ratinq S c a l e s One of the l e a s t important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r a t i n g s c a l e s i s t h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance. In terms of p l a c i n g the s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l l y or v e r t i c a l l y on the page, v e r t i c a l placement i s more commonly used, as i t i s e a s i e r to read. Whether the s c a l i n g steps are connected or separated i s another c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The argument in favor of separate steps i s that i t lowers the p r o b a b i l i t y of marking between numbers, as on a connected or continuous s c a l e . 'Boxed' or 'open' steps ([ ] or ), are based more on a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s and make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the important psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of r a t i n g s . 1 6 In terms of psychometric theory, there i s always an advantage i n using more ra t h e r than fewer steps. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that the r e l i a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s c a l e s i s a mon o t o n i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of the number of steps ( G u i l f o r d , 1954). For example, as the number of s c a l e steps i n c r e a s e s from 2 up to 20, r e l i a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s very r a p i d l y at f i r s t , then tends to l e v e l o f f at about step 7, and a f t e r about eleven steps, l i t t l e gain i n r e l i a b i l i t y can be seen from i n c r e a s i n g the number of steps (Nunnally, 1970). The argument i n favor of using an odd r a t h e r than an even number of steps i s that i t permits the use of a middle step meaning ' n e u t r a l ' , ' n e i t h e r agree nor d i s a g r e e ' , or ' u n c e r t a i n ' . T h i s i s thought to make s u b j e c t s more comfortable in making r a t i n g s , and i t can a l s o be argued that s u b j e c t s f r e q u e n t l y have n e u t r a l r e a c t i o n s which should be measured. The d e f i n i t i o n s of s c a l e steps are r e f e r r e d to as anchors. V a r i o u s types i n c l u d e numerical anchors, percentages, a d j e c t i v e s , b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , product s c a l e s and agreement s c a l e s (Nunnally, 1970). The instrument being examined i n t h i s paper ( PCSI ), i s based on an agreement s c a l e and i t s main concern i s with degrees of agreement or disagreement with statements r e l a t i n g to c o u n s e l l o r s . The main advantages of using agreement s c a l e s i n a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h i s that they are easy to work with, e a s i l y understood by s u b j e c t s ( i n c l u d i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t s ) , and that r e s u l t s obtained from them are a l s o e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s . 1 7 A t t i t u d e r a t i n g s are i n f l u e n c e d by two important f a c t o r s ; knowledge the observer (or r a t e r ) has of the ra t e e , and the r a t e r ' s tendency to be ' l e n i e n t ' or 'severe' i n r a t i n g other people i n g e n e r a l . Numerous other a r t i f a c t s such as response s e t s , have been shown to i n f l u e n c e r a t i n g s ( G u i l f o r d , 1954). In a t t i t u d e s c a l e s using agreement/disagreement r a t i n g s , l e n i e n c y would be present only to the extent that s u b j e c t s appeared to have e i t h e r f a v o r a b l e or unfavorable a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d l e s s of what s o c i a l o b j e c t was being c o n s i d e r e d . I f l e n i e n c y d i d occur, however, i t would represent e i t h e r genuine i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s of agreement or disagreement, or i t would represent s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . Regarding the s u b j e c t ' s i n f o r m a t i o n about a t t i t u d i n a l o b j e c t s , the c a l i b e r of h i s / h e r i n f o r m a t i o n might help to e x p l a i n why he/she has developed the p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e , but i t would not i n f l u e n c e the v a l i d i t y of measurements of h i s / h e r a t t i t u d e s at one po i n t i n time. In other words, a person can hold genuinely p o s i t i v e or negative a t t i t u d e s toward c o u n s e l l o r s f o r example, while having e i t h e r very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n or much mi s i n f o r m a t i o n . CHARACTERISTICS OF LIKERT SCALES Among the many e l a b o r a t e techniques of s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d i n g scalogram a n a l y s i s (Guttman, 1950), u n f o l d i n g (Coombs, 18 1964), l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e a n a l y s i s ( L a z a r f e l d , 1959), and methods i n v o l v i n g s c a l e d statements (Thurstone, 1929), L i k e r t ' s method of s c a l e d statements i s c o n s i d e r e d to be perhaps the most widely used ( L i k e r t , 1932). L i k e r t ' s primary concern was with u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , making . sure that a l l the items would measure the same t h i n g . He a l s o wanted to e l i m i n a t e the need f o r judges (as used i n the Thurstone method), by g e t t i n g the s u b j e c t s being sampledto plac e themseles on an a t t i t u d e continuum fo r each statement -- ranging from ' s t r o n g l y agree' to 'agree', ' u n c e r t a i n ' , 'disagree', and ' s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ' . These f i v e p o s i t i o n s were given simple weights f o r each of the t e s t items i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: Numerical Weights Favorable Unfavorable S t r o n g l y agree 5 1 Agree 4 2 U n c e r t a i n 3 3 Disagree 2 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 1 5 An i n d i v i d u a l ' s score on each item depended, as i n d i c a t e d above, on the extent to which he/she agreed with statements f a v o r i n g the a t t i t u d e and d i s a g r e e d with statements opposing i t . L i k e r t s c a l e s tend to be very r e l i a b l e . The s c a l e makes no pretence at equal-appearing i n t e r v a l s , but as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , by u s i n g an i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y method of item s e l e c t i o n , i t approaches u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n many cases. The most s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m l e v e l e d a g a i n s t t h i s type -of 19 s c a l e i s i t s lack of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y ( i n a t e c h n i c a l sense). The same t o t a l score may be obtained in many d i f f e r e n t ways. T h i s being so, i t has been argued that such a score has l i t t l e meaning or e l s e that two or more i d e n t i c a l 'scores may have t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t meanings. Another c r i t i c i s m has been that the s c a l e o f f e r s no metric or i n t e r v a l measures, and i t l a c k s a n e u t r a l p o i n t , so that one does not know where scores in the middle ranges change from m i l d l y p o s i t i v e to m i l d l y n e g a t i v e . With regard to the n e u t r a l p o i n t on the s c a l e , one must agree that t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the midpoint between the two extreme s c a l e scores; moreover, scores in the middle region c o u l d be due t o a lukewarm response, lack of knowledge, or l a c k of a t t i t u d e i n the respondent ( l e a d i n g to many 'u n c e r t a i n ' responses), or to the presence of both s t r o n g l y p o s i t i v e and s t r o n g l y negative responses, which would more or l e s s balance each other, suggesting that the s c a l e i s not u n i d i m e n s i o n a l . C l e a r l y , with d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s , the n e u t r a l p o i n t would be d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e and even more d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t . O b v i o u s l y , few v a r i a b l e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s can be measured on an i n t e r v a l s c a l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the more powerful a given t o o l i s f o r making i n f e r e n c e s (even in the pure s c i e n c e s ) , the more d i f f i c u l t the assumptions are to meet. Much of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h has demonstrated that the r e s u l t s obtained from assuming i n t e r v a l data have been f r u i t f u l . Making t h i s assumption allows one to estimate the degree of a s s o c i a t i o n 20 between v a r i a b l e s r a t h e r than having to be content with merely e s t i m a t i n g whether or not some a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s . By assuming i n t e r v a l measurement where only o r d i n a l measurement e x i s t s , some measurement e r r o r s w i l l occur. The r e s u l t of e r r o r s g e n e r a l l y i s the a t t e n u a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s . In other words, one's apparent r e s u l t s w i l l be more attenuated than they are i n r e a l i t y . Thus, i t i s u n l i k e l y that the d e c i s i o n to assume i n t e r v a l measurement when i t does not e x i s t w i l l l e a d to the spurious o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of r e s u l t s . In p r a c t i c e , i f we remember that equal score i n t e r v a l s do not permit us to make a s s e r t i o n s about the e q u a l i t y "of u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s and that i d e n t i c a l scores may have very d i f f e r e n t meanings, the L i k e r t s c a l e s tend to perform very w e l l when i t comes to a r e l i a b l e , rough o r d e r i n g of people with respect to a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e . There are, conversely," many advantages to using L i k e r t s c a l e s . They are q u i t e easy to c o n s t r u c t . They provide more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n about the respondent's degree of agreement or disagreement. And f i n a l l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n c l u d e items whose manifest content i s not o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d to the a t t i t u d e in q u e s t i o n , so that the more s u b t l e and deep r a m i f i c a t i o n s of an a t t i t u d e can be e x p l o r e d . These 'long shot' q u e s t i o n s , f o r example, enable one to make use of the l i n k s that an a t t i t u d e may have with neighboring areas and to uncover the strands and i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s of i t s v a r i o u s components. As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I , t h i s study assessed 21 the PCSI , an instrument based on L i k e r t ' s 5-point s c a l e . RESEARCH ASSESSING ETHNIC  ATTITUDES TOWARDS COUNSELLING Ex t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s d e s c r i b i n g the a t t i t u d e s that people ho l d toward c o u n s e l l o r s and the s e r v i c e s they p r o v i d e . An area that has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n has been that of i d e n t i f y i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s of c l i e n t s r e g a r d i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behavior of c o u n s e l l o r s . Rosen (1967), f o r example, notes that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , sex and behavior i n c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s may i n f l u e n c e the c o u n s e l l i n g process and outcome. Dreman (1977) found that both c l i e n t s and n o n c l i e n t s p r e f e r r e d a more a c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r who promoted c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l change and e x p e l l e d symptoms. Strong, Hendel & Br a t t o n (1971) found that students viewed the r o l e of the c o u n s e l l o r as that of an a d v i s o r . G e t s i n g e r & G a r f i e l d (1976) found that students seeking h e l p p r e f e r r e d c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s rather than c o u n s e l l o r s . Contrary to the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned study, Snyder, H i l l & Derksen (1972) re p o r t e d that i n d i v i d u a l s from t h e i r sample tended to seek h e l p concerning t h e i r p e r s o n a l problems from persons other than c o u n s e l l o r s (e.g., f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s ) . In terms of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , Warman (1960) suggested that students would f i n d i t e a s i e r to v i s i t a c o u n s e l l o r with t h e i r emotional problems when a c o u n s e l l i n g system was organized and w e l l informed. 22 In r e l a t i o n to e x p e c t a n c i e s , O v e r a l l & Aronson (1963) d i s c o v e r e d that c l i e n t s whose e x p e c t a t i o n s were i n a c c u r a t e were l e s s l i k e l y to r e t u r n f o r treatment. S i m i l a r l y , C o l i n , Yamamoto & Silverman (1965) found that a p a t i e n t was helped more when he/she r e c e i v e d therapy which was c o n s i s t e n t with h i s / h e r expectat i o n s . Rosen (1967) conducted a b r i e f but comprehensive review of the l i t e r a t u r e on p r e f e r e n c e s of c l i e n t s and p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s r e g a r d i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and procedures of c o u n s e l l o r s and p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s . However, he found l i t t l e r e s e a r c h concerning c o u n s e l l i n g expectancies r e l a t e d to c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and suggested that s t u d i e s of t h i s nature be undertaken. Since expectancies are l e a r n e d and m o d i f i e d through the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s / h e r environment, i t i s c e r t a i n that s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l backgrounds w i l l i n f l u e n c e them. Thus a c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with a c l i e n t from a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e with which the c o u n s e l l o r i s not f a m i l i a r may a f f e c t the v i t a l communication in the t o t a l p r o c e s s . Smith (1974) p o i n t s out that students in general p r e f e r a c o u n s e l l o r ' s age, socioeconomic background, r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f , and sex to be s i m i l a r to t h e i r own and that m i n o r i t i e s p r e f e r c o u n s e l l o r s of t h e i r own race. A r k o f f , Thaver & E l k i n d (1966) found that Asians, more than Americans, thought of c o u n s e l l i n g or psychotherapy as a r e l a t i v e l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n p r o c e s s . S i m e r v i l l e (1961) noted that some m i n o r i t y students viewed the c o u n s e l l o r as a symbol of a f f e c t i o n . Bryson & Bardo (1975), and 23 S a t t l e r (1970) concluded that r a c i a l s i m i l a r i t y was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s which y i e l d e d more p o s i t i v e outcomes i n t h e i r s t u d i e s . Sue (1973), and Fukuhara (1973) a l s o found that A s i a n Americans would respond more f a v o r a b l y to l o g i c a l , r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d approches to c o u n s e l l i n g rather than towards a f f e c t i v e , r e f l e c t i v e or non-d i r e c t i v e approaches. In terms of usage of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , L e a v i t t , Cary & Swartz (1971) noted that low-income f a m i l i e s and f o r e i g n f a m i l i e s viewed p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y as shameful and t h r e a t e n i n g . S i m i l a r l y , Sue & Sue (1972) i n d i c a t e d that most s e l f - r e f e r r a l among Asians was i n h i b i t e d by c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s . Furthermore, Sue & K i r k (1975), studying Asian American u t i l i z a t i o n of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , found v a r i a t i o n s between groups a c c o r d i n g to sex and c u l t u r e . In other words, Chinese American females u t i l i z e d mental h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r e q u e n t l y than d i d Japanese American students as a whole. It seems c l e a r that the e x i s t i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research which assesses the a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of m i n o r i t y groups towards c o u n s e l l o r s , has p r i m a r i l y centered on s t u d i e s sampling Blacks and on a few oc c a s i o n s , Chinese and Japanese groups w i t h i n the United S t a t e s . The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these r e s u l t s for other e t h n i c groups i s t h e r e f o r e open to q u e s t i o n . Furthermore, s t u d i e s of a s i m i l a r nature among Canada's v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups i s extremely r a r e . However, a recent study sampling from among Vancouver's 24 East Indian p o p u l a t i o n , uncovered some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s (Westwood & Massey, 1982). T h i s study was of a comparative nature and assessed the a t t i t u d e s that a m i n o r i t y and a m a j o r i t y sample had towards c o u n s e l l i n g . Using a L i k e r t - t y p e instrument, the study surveyed the a t t i t u d e s that a sample m i n o r i t y group of East Indian a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s , had towards c o u n s e l l i n g and compared t h e i r views to a sample m a j o r i t y group of Anglo-European a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that a d u l t s a c r o s s the two ' c u l t u r a l ' groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y in t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s towards c o u n s e l l i n g . However, ado l e s c e n t s a c r o s s the two c u l t u r a l groups d i d d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l i n g . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , East Indian a d u l t s and ado l e s c e n t s h e l d s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s towards c o u n s e l l i n g , whereas Anglo-European a d u l t s and ad o l e s c e n t s seemed to d i f f e r i n t h e i r views towards c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s study a l s o provided other v a l u a b l e comparisons as w e l l as attempted to c o n s t r u c t and v a l i d a t e a new instrument. SUMMARY Thi s chapter views a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h from many p e r s p e c t i v e s . A review of the t h e o r e t i c a l concepts i n v o l v e d i n a t t i t u d e measurement and s c a l i n g , along with v a r i o u s s c a l i n g techniques have been examined. A l i t e r a t u r e review concerning a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l o r s and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n gene r a l has been d e s c r i b e d . V a r i o u s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to e t h n i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l o r s 25 has a l s o been documented. I t was concluded that very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been conducted to assess a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h i n the Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e . The n e c e s s i t y f o r an a c t u a l assessment of where i n d i v i d u a l s from e t h n i c backgrounds go f o r he l p has r e c e n t l y become a very c r i t i c a l t o p i c . The trend i n the 1980's i n terms of f i n a n c i a l support of human resources, school d i s t r i c t s and h e a l t h s e r v i c e programs i n d i c a t e i n c r e a s i n g cutbacks. T h i s , combined with i n c r e a s i n g requests f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r both resources and manpower, make t h i s aspect of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the utmost importance i f one i s to gain a f u l l understanding of the help-^seeking behaviors of Canada's v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups. L o g i c a l l y , i t f o l l o w s that before any re s e a r c h of t h i s nature i s undertaken, r e l i a b l e and v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n needs to be developed and implemented. Since there i s a d e f i n i t e l a c k of in s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n t h i s area of i n q u i r y , the chapters that f o l l o w w i l l d i s c u s s the instrument used i n the Westwood & Massey (1982) study i n grea t e r d e t a i l . T h i s instrument w i l l be evaluated i n terms of i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y and a r e v i s i o n w i l l be presented based on d e t a i l e d item a n a l y s i s . 26 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD A major focus of t h i s paper i s to e v a l u a t e the PCSI , an instrument used i n a study conducted by Westwood & Massey (1982). A d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s e a r c h method which f o l l o w s i s t h e r e f o r e an o u t l i n e of the method followed by these r e s e a r c h e r s fo r t h e i r (1982) study. Subjects The t o t a l sample c o n s i s t e d of 323 randomly s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. Group I c o n s i s t e d of 168 East Indian Canadians d i v i d e d i n t o 7 9 a d u l t s (40 males, 39 females) and 89 a d o l e s c e n t s (38 males, 51 females). A l l s u b j e c t s i n Group I were randomly s e l e c t e d from a v o t i n g l i s t c o n t a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s belonging to the Punjabi-speaking (Sikh) community of Vancouver. Since i t was f e l t that l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y i n Canada may a f f e c t a t t i t u d e s , s u b j e c t s in Group I were a l s o s e l e c t e d as having emigrated to Canada between the p e r i o d 1968-1978 (peak immigration p e r i o d to Canada). Group II contained 155 Anglo-European Canadians d i v i d e d i n t o 74 a d u l t s (21 males, 53 females) and 8 1 a d o l e s c e n t s (33 males, 48 females). A l l s u b j e c t s i n Group II were randomly s e l e c t e d from the enrollment l i s t s of v a r i o u s schools in the 27 same geographic locaiton as Group I . Subjects in Group II therefore l i v e d in the same urban area as Group I. A l l subjects in Group II described themselves as being from an Anglo-European background and were either f i r s t or second generation Canadians. Group I therefore constituted a representative minority sample of East-Indian Canadians in Vancouver since most of th i s c i t y ' s East Indian population consists mainly of those individuals whose native language is Punjabi and who belong almost exclusively to the r e l i g i o n of Sikhism. Group II constituted a representative majority sample of Anglo-European Canadians. These subjects were selected primarily as a comparative group who l i v e d in the same geographic locations as subjects in Group I. Thus i t can be assumed that most adolescents in both groups were probably attending the same high schools. The geographic location of both samples was a very large area known as South Vancouver. North-south boundaries would extend from approximately 12th Avenue to South West Marine Drive, and east-west from Oak Street to approximately V i c t o r i a Drive. 28 Procedure T h i s r e s e a r c h was based on a d e s c r i p t i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e design that followed two phases. Phase I sampled responses from Group I (East Indian Canadians) while Phase II surveyed Group II (Anglo-European Canadians) and summarized a l l data c o l l e c t e d from both groups along with a l l r e l e v a n t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons. During Phase I, a l l s u b j e c t s i n Group I were in t e r v i e w e d i n t h e i r homes by an i n t e r v i e w e r belonging to that e t h n i c group. General demographic data were c o l l e c t e d f o r each su b j e c t preceding t h e i r r e q u i r e d completion of the Percept ion of  C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s Index or PCSI q u e s t i o n n a i r e . For those s u b j e c t s who c o u l d n e i t h e r read nor write E n g l i s h or Punjabi, a s t a n d a r d i z e d tape p r e s e n t a t i o n of the PCSI was a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h or Pu n j a b i . During Phase I I , a l l s u b j e c t s in Group II were interviewed in t h e i r homes by i n t e r v i e w e r s belonging to that ' e t h n i c ' group. Subjects i n Group II were surveyed i n a s i m i l a r manner as Group I, however only the E n g l i s h form of the PCSI was used f o r obvious reasons. F o l l o w i n g completion of a l l i n t e r v i e w s f o r both groups, data gathered from the PCSI were scored and coded f o r computer a n a l y s i s . 29 DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENT A t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s towards c o u n s e l l i n g were measured by a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Percept ion of C o u n s e l l i n g  S e r v i c e s Index or PCSI . T h i s instrument has been m o d i f i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from an e x i s t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e known as the C o u n s e l l i n g Index developed o r i g i n a l l y by Dr. R. Thompson. Permission to use t h i s instrument was granted by Dr. B. Tolsma, Dept. of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, U.B.C., on behalf of the author. The instrument used in t h i s study was by d e f i n i t i o n a new instrument. I t was t h e r e f o r e necessary to f o l l o w t r a d i t i i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s of t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n p r i o r to i t s implementation in Phase I. T h i s t o p i c i s d e a l t with i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter IV with respect to r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . The PCSI q u e s t i o n n a i r e used in t h i s study employs, the 5-p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e where the s u b j e c t ' s response may range from ' s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ' to ' s t r o n g l y agree'. A copy of the PCSI used in Phases I and II i s found in Appendix A. Each of the 45 items c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s instrument d e s c r i b e a r o l e aspect of the c o u n s e l l o r and can be grouped a c c o r d i n g to f i v e s u b t e s t s as f o l l o w s : (1) C a r e e r / V o c a t i o n a l : Item numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 35, 36, 37, 38, and 39. The items of t h i s s u b j e c t i n c l u d e those which d e s c r i b e the c o u n s e l l o r as being i n v o l v e d i n v o c a t i o n a l assessment, ca r e e r p l a n n i n g , or job i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 30 a c t i v i t i e s . (2) P e r s o n a l / S o c i a l ; Item numbers 2, 16, 17, 18, 30, 34, and 41. The items i n t h i s subtest i n c l u d e those which d e s c r i b e the c o u n s e l l o r as being i n v o l v e d i n a s s i s t i n g students to solve problems c e n t e r i n g around s e l f - c o n c e p t , s o c i a l concerns, ' i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , and em o t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d problems. (3) Family and/or Parent Involvement: Item numbers 6, 29, and 40. T h i s subtest i n c l u d e s those items which d e s c r i b e the c o u n s e l l o r as being i n v o l v e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with parents and/or b r o t h e r s , s i s t e r s , c o u s i n s , e t c . , and g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d i n g the f a m i l y i n the problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . (4) C o unsellor/Teacher Dual Role; Item numbers 15, 32, 33, and 45. T h i s subtest, i n c l u d e s those items which d e s c r i b e the c o u n s e l l o r as c a r r y i n g out teacher • f u n c t i o n s along with the usual c o u n s e l l o r r o l e s . (5) C u l t u r a l Awareness: Item numbers 13, 14, 27, 31, 42, 43, and 44. The items of t h i s subtest i n c l u d e those a c t i v i t i e s of the c o u n s e l l o r which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y attend to i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g awareness of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , s e n s i t i v i t y to c u l t u r a l needs, d i r e c t involvement in the e t h n i c community, and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t s i m i l a r i t y . Instrument Procedure and A n a l y s i s In order to b u i l d rapport and to i n c r e a s e the v a l i d i t y of t h i s . measure, a l l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n e i t h e r Punjabi or 31 E n g l i s h i n the homes of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , by q u a l i f i e d i n t e r v i e w e r s belonging to the same ' c u l t u r a l group'. These i n t e r v i e w e r s were graduate students in the departments of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology and e d u c a t i o n a l psychology and s p e c i a l educat i o n . R e l i a b i l i t y of the PCSI was assessed using a s t a t i s t i c a l package LERTAP (Laboratory of E d u c a t i o n a l Research Test A n a l y s i s Package). Thi~s program uses an i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y method based on Hoyt's (1941) procedure. I n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y i s an estimate of the extent to which each t e s t . i t e m taps whatever the t e s t item i s measuring. One might c o n s i d e r each t e s t item as a sample t e s t from the t o t a l domain; then the i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y i s roughly e q u i v a l e n t to the average c o r r e l a t i o n between a l l p a i r s of items. There are s e v e r a l i n t e r n a l ~ c o n s i s t e n c y estimates, the Kuder-Richardson (or KR) formalas, Cronbach's c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a , and Hoyt's anova. I t has been shown that KR-20, Cronbach's alpha, and the Hoyt anova procedures are a l g e b r a i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t . However, Hoyt's anova approach allows f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a l weighting of t e s t items and hence has some advantage over the others (Hoyt, 1941). The argument for not using a s p l i t - h a l f procedure i s that there can be a m u l t i t u d e of d i f f e r e n t ways that a t e s t can be s u b d i v i d e d to y i e l d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . Methods based on item c o r r e l a t i o n s , however, are s u p e r i o r s i n c e they estimate the average r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s that would be obtained from a l l 32 p o s s i b l e ways of s u b d i v i d i n g the items on a t e s t (Nunnally, 1970) . V a l i d i t y of the PCSI was assessed without the use of formal s t a t i s t i c a l procedures. A r a t i o n a l e f o r the s e l e c t i o n and use of content v a l i d i t y to assess instrument v a l i d i t y i s presented in Chapter V: Instrument V a l i d i t y . Item a n a l y s i s procedures i n c o r p o r a t e d data gathered from the LERTAP program. I n d i v i d u a l i t e m - t o - t o t a l t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s , standard d e v i a t i o n s , and the percentage of response to s c a l e d statements were used as the main c r i t e r i a f o r item a n a l y s i s . These procedures are d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter IV: Item A n a l y s i s . Using the r e s u l t s of these v a r i o u s procedures,, a new instrument was c o n s t r u c t e d based on the s u p e r i o r items of the PCSI . 33 CHAPTER IV RESULTS R e l i a b i l i t y There i s no way to determine the exact r e l i a b i l i t y of an instrument. One can only o b t a i n estimates and these are only adequate to the degree that adequate samples are used and to the degree that the u n d e r l y i n g assumptions of a p a r t i c u l a r e s t i m a t i o n technique are met. As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , the s t a t i s t i c a l computer package used ( LERTAP ) was the most a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y t i c technique f o r L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s . The r e s u l t i n g i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y estimate based on Hoyt's procedure p r o v i d e s an adequate r e l i a b i l i t y estimate of L i k e r t -type s c a l e s (Hoyt, 1941). R e l i a b i l i t y of the PCSI administered i n Phase I (East Indian Canadian sample) of t h i s study was estimated at r=0.93 using Hoyt's a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e procedure. R e l i a b i l i t y of the PCSI administered dur i n g Phase II (Anglo-European Canadian sample) of t h i s study was estimated at r=0.91 using Hoyt's a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e procedure. V a l i d i t y Content v a l i d i t y i s o f t e n the main concern i n a t t i t u d e measurement. Content v a l i d i t y r e f e r s to the degree that the score or s c a l e used r e p r e s e n t s the concept about which 34 g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are to be made. Although content v a l i d i t y with a s i n g l e c o e f f i c i e n t cannot be demonstrated, s t a t i s t i c a l and l o g i c a l procedures can be a p p l i e d to h e l p ensure that items are content v a l i d . A r a t i o n a l e f o r s e l e c t i n g content v a l i d i t y to assess instrument adequacy i s presented i n Chapter V: Instrument V a l i d i t y . One's measuring instruments show content v a l i d i t y to the degree that sampling from the domain of content i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l s t r a t a and to the degree that items c o n s t r u c t e d tap the s u b t l e t i e s of meaning w i t h i n each of these s t r a t a . There i s no s i n g l e s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i o n which can be used to determine whether or not one has p r o p e r l y sampled from the domain of content. However, the re s e a r c h e r can take s e v e r a l p r e c a u t i o n s to help insure the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s shades of meaning from w i t h i n the domain. The PCSI was c o n s t r u c t e d with content v a l i d i t y procedure i n mind as f o l l o w s : (1) The domain of content was i d e n t i f i e d (e.g., r o l e a s p e c t s of c o u n s e l l o r s ) and s t r a t i f i e d i n t o i t s major components. During t h i s stage, the most important and obvious meanings or f a c e t s of c o u n s e l l i n g were i d e n t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to s t r a t a and s u b s t r a t a ; (2) S e v e r a l items were w r i t t e n and r e - w r i t t e n ( i n c l u d i n g a d a p t a t i o n s from e x i s t i n g s c a l e s ) to capture the shades of meaning a s s o c i a t e d with each stratum and substratum; (3) The PCSI was then designed, c r i t i c a l l y analyzed, and m o d i f i e d with respect to format, content, and vocabulary, 35 by the r e s e a r c h team, community members, and c o u n s e l l i n g agencies (keeping the g u i d e l i n e s f o r t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n mind as o u t l i n e d in Chapter I I ) ; and f i n a l l y , (4) The Punjabi v e r s i o n of the PCSI was c a r e f u l l y t r a n s l a t e d and b a c k - t r a n s l a t e d f o l l o w i n g B r i s l i n ' s (1973) methodology of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n . V a l i d i t y of the PCSI was f u r t h e r assessed using an i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y approach i n v o l v i n g item a n a l y s i s . I n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y i s b a s i c a l l y concerned with the v a r i a n c e of a p a r t i c u l a r s c a l i n g procedure, or with the v a r i a n c e of the assumption that a p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e can be s c a l e d with the s p e c i f i e d s c a l e p r o p e r t i e s . If a s c a l e has the assumed p r o p e r t i e s , and i f the p a r t i c u l a r s c a l i n g technique i s v a l i d f o r determining these p r o p e r t i e s , then the experimental r e s u l t s should show c e r t a i n i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s which are c o n s i s t e n t with the assumed p r o p e r t i e s . High i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y between items on the PCSI appear to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s aspect of v a l i d i t y . I tern A n a l y s i s Much of what i s s a i d about r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y on summated a t t i t u d e s c a l e s l i k e the PCSI , becomes item a n a l y s i s . Item a n a l y s i s i s the s e l e c t i o n of an item f o r i n c l u s i o n i n one's s c a l e based on the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the item. Many d i f f e r e n t processes of item a n a l y s i s and item q u a l i t y have been developed (Davis, 1952); however, these are too numerous to mention for the purposes of t h i s paper. St a t e d more simply, items are chosen which c o r r e l a t e most .highly with other items on 36 the s c a l e . Obviously, the items which c o r r e l a t e h ighest with each other w i l l c o r r e l a t e h i g h e s t with a t o t a l s c a l e score based on the summation of these same items. Perhaps the most s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d item a n a l y s i s procedure i s the i t e m - t o - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n technique. One simply s e l e c t s the items which have the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s with the t o t a l s c o r e . If one has a l a r g e item p o o l , the items with the best item-to-t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r h i s / h e r s c a l e should be s e l e c t e d . For the purposes of t h i s study, the s t a t i s t i c a l program LERTAP , c a l c u l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l item c o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's) with the t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . Item c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.30 to 0.50 with t o t a l t e s t scores are c o n s i d e r e d good, while c o e f f i c i e n t s g r e a t e r than 0.50 i n d i c a t e s u p e r i o r items. Another c r i t e r i a f o r item s e l e c t i o n can be the s i z e of the standard d e v i a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d f o r each item. T h e r e f o r e , a standard d e v i a t i o n of 0.80 to 1.00 would be c o n s i d e r e d good f o r a 5-point s c a l e (such as the PCSI ) while a standard d e v i a t i o n g r e a t e r than 1.00 would i n d i c a t e s u p e r i o r items. In other words, the degree of response to these items would be d i s p e r s e d by at l e a s t one s c a l e s t e p on a 5-point s c a l e . F i n a l l y , another common technique i s used f o r item a n a l y s i s and s e l e c t i o n , although i t i n v o l v e s a g r e a t e r degree of judgement on the part of the r e s e a r c h e r . S i m i l a r to the e a r l i e r technique using standard d e v i a t i o n v a l u e s , items are f u r t h e r s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g to s u b j e c t s ' c h o i c e s f o r each of the s c a l e d steps of the i n d i v i d u a l items. For example, i f a g r e a t e r 37 percentage of s u b j e c t s tended to choose steps 4 or 5 ('agree' or ' s t r o n g l y a g r e e ' ) , while very few s u b j e c t s chose steps 1 or 2 ('strongly d i s a g r e e ' or ' d i s a g r e e ' ) , t h i s item c o u l d prove to be i n f e r i o r due to i t s p o s i t i v e response b i a s . On the other hand, i f s u b j e c t s were more broadly d i s p e r s e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of steps 1 , 2, 3, 4, or 5, or that each s c a l e step had an approximately equal number of responses, t h i s would i n d i c a t e a s u p e r i o r item with s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s b i a s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n . With these procedures i n mind, item a n a l y s i s was conducted i n the PCSI f o r each phase of t h i s study. The summary of r e s u l t s f o r Phase I (East Indian Canadian sample) i s presented in Table I. The summary of r e s u l t s f o r Phase II (Anglo-European Canadian sample) i s presented i n Table I I . Item a n a l y s i s of the PCSI s u b t e s t s were a l s o conducted to assess the q u a l i t y of subtest groupings with r e s p e c t to the r e t e n t i o n of s u p e r i o r items. PCSI subtest item a n a l y s i s f o r Phase I and Phase II are found i n Table III and Table IV r e s p e c t i v e l y . Based on the item a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s f o r both Phase I and Phase I I , the f o l l o w i n g 20 items of the PCSI appear to be the best o v e r a l l i n terms of any proposed r e v i s i o n of t h i s instrument. Item Numbers: 3 , 5,6,7,8,9,11,12,13,15,27,28,29,31,41,42,43,44,& 45. RELATED RESULTS 38 The study conducted by Westwood & Massey, 1982, presented some i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s which may serve to f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the u s e f u l n e s s of the PCSI . Since t h i s was p r i m a r i l y a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study, comparisons were made between Groups I (East Indian Canadian) and II (Anglo-European Canadian) with respect to age ( a d u l t s vs. a d o l e s c e n t s ) using a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e approach. A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e w i t h i n each group f o r age ( a d u l t s vs. a d o l e s c e n t s ) was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d . And f i n a l l y , m u l t i p l e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the PCSI s u b t e s t s both a c r o s s and w i t h i n Groups I and II f o r age ( a d u l t s vs. a d o l e s c e n t s ) . The r e s u l t s of a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r the PCSI i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o v e r a l l between the a d u l t s i n Group I (East Indian Canadians) and the a d u l t s i n Group II (Anglo-European Canadians), F, (1,151)=3.48, P<.05. An o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r the PCSI was found between the a d o l e s c e n t s i n Group I and the a d o l e s c e n t s in Group I I , F (1 , 168)=7.77, P<.01. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n Group I, F, (1,166)=1.11, P<.05. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n Group I I , F (1,153)=4.06, P<.05. M u l t i p l e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r the PCSI subt e s t s f o r the a d u l t s and ad o l e s c e n t s between Groups I and II appear i n Table 39 V. M u l t i p l e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r the PCSI s u b t e s t s w i t h i n Group I f o r a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s appear i n Table VI. M u l t i p l e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r the PCSI s u b t e s t s w i t h i n Group II f o r a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s appear i n Table V I I . 40 Table I_ Item A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s for the PCSI: Phase I (East Indian Canadian sample) PCSI Percentage of Subject Response To Item Scaled Scores ( T o t a l Sample=l68) Standard T o t a l Test Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 N.R. D e v i a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n 1 1 .8 3.0 6.5 51 .2 37.2 1 .2 0.83 0.31 2 3.0 3.0 3.6 38. 1 52.4 - 0.91 0.35 3* 0.0 9.5 11.3 52.4 25.6 1 .2 0.87 0.43 4 0.6 1 .2 2.4 45.2 48.2 2.4 0.69 0.36 5** 7.1 17.9 12.5 41.7 19.0 1 .8 1.19 0.37 6* 3.0 7.1 10.7 44.0 34.5 0.6 1 .01 0.36 7** 2.4 10.7 12.5 52.4 21 .4 0.6 0.98 0.38 8* 1 .8 11.3 11.3 38.7 36.9 - 1 .05 0.52 g** 1 .2 12.5 13.1 48.8 24.4 - 0.99 0.53 1 0* 0.6 6.0 10.7 46. 4 34.5 1 .8 0.87 0.42 1 1 ** 1 .8 12.5 14.9 42.3 27.4 1 .2 1 .03 0.46 1 2** 4.8 17.9 16.7 43.5 16.7 0.6 1.11 0.45 1 3** 2.4 12.5 24.4 32.7 27.4 0.6 1 .08 0.64 1 4** 5.4 19.6 26.2 26.8 20.8 1 .2 1.17 0.47 1 5** 11.3 24.4 17.9 30.4 16.1 - 1 .28 0.30 16 1 .2 3.0 8.9 52.4 33.9 0.6 0.80 0.52 1 7 0.6 3.0 7.1 51 .8 37.5 - 0.76 0.53 18 0.0 1 .2 3.6 42.3 52.4 0.6 0. 64 0.45 19 0.0- 4.2 • 10.7 45.2 39.9 - 0.80 0.44 20* 0.6 8.9 16.1 l49. 4 23.8 1 .2 0.90 0.43 21 0.0 2.4 8.9 43.5 44.6 0.6 0.74 0.54 22 0.0 4.8 10.1 45.8 39.3 - 0.81 0.46 23 0.0 6.0 2.4 52.4 38. 1 1 .2 0.78 0.56 24 0.0 4.2 12.5 47.0 35. 1 1 .2 0.80 0.60 25 0.0 3.6 3.6 38.7 54.2 - 0.73 0.40 26 0.6 3.0 12.5 56.5 26.8 0.6 0.76 0.45 27* 2.4 5.4 11.3 46.4 33.3 1 .2 0.94 0.48 28* 0.6 11.3 16. 1 49.4 22.6 - 0.93 0.62 29** 10.7 16. 1 20.2 35.7 16.7 0.6 1 .23 0.41 30* 1 .2 6.5 13.1 42.9 36.3 - 0.93 0.48 3 1 ** 1 .2 10.1 16.7 38. 1 33.3 0.6 1.01 0.59 32 1 .2 5.4 12.5 52.4 38.0 0.6 0.86 0.55 33 1 .8 3.0 6.0 42.9 45.2 1 .2 0.86 0.39 34 1 .2 4.2 8.3 51 .2 31.5 3.6 0.84 0.41 35 0.0 3.6 7.1 51.2 37.5 0.6 0.74 0.60 36 0.0 2.4 6.0 48.2 41 .7 1 .8 0.71 0.57 37 0.0 3.6 11.9 53.6 30.4 0.6 0.75 0.49 38 0.6 2.4 4.2 49.4 42.9 0.6 0.73 0.43 39 0.0 5.4 6.5 54.8 32. 1 1 .2 0.77 0.50 40* 1 .2 4.2 10.1 44.6 . 39.3 0.6 0.87 0.49 41** 4.8 13.7 19.0 36.3 25.0 1 .2 1.14 0.52 42** 1 .2 8.9 16.7 42.9 29.8 0.6 0.97 0.54 43* 1 .2 4.8 13.7 39.3 39.3 1 .8 0.92 0.59 4 4 * * 6.5 19.6 20.8 23.8 28.6 0.6 1 .27 0.57 4 5 * * 8.3 22.0 20.2 28.0 19.0 2.4 1 .24 0.35 41 TABLE I_ INDEX Rat ing Scale Scores: 1=Strongly Disagree; 2=Disagree; 3=Uncertain 4=Agree; 5=Strongly Agree; N.R.=No Response C r i t e r i a : * = Good I terns ( T o t a l Test c o r r e l a t i o n s of 0.30 to 0.50, Standard D e v i a t i o n s of 0.80 to 1.00, d i s p e r s a l in percentage of response to each s c a l e s c o r e ) . ** = Superior I terns ( T o t a l Test c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than 0.50, Standard D e v i a t i o n s > 1.00, g r e a t e r d i s p e r s a l in percentage of response to each s c a l e s c o r e ) . 42 Table l_I Item A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s f o r the PCSI: Phase II (Anglo-European Canadian sample) PCSI Percentage of Subject Response To Item Scaled Scores ( T o t a l Sample=155) Standard T o t a l Test Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 N.R. D e v i a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n 0T3I 0.31 0.48 0.46 0.33 0.38 0.41 0.37 0.40 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.43 0.28 0.03 0.46 0.40 0.41 0.46 0.27 0.37 0.49 0.53. 0.44 0.50 0.54 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.46 0.51 0.37 0.55 0.48 0.42 0.50 0.49 0.52 0.52 0.45 0.38 0.35 0.47 0.32 0.18 1 0.0 6.5 6.5 57.4 29.7 - 0.78 2 1 . 3 3.2 4.5 45.2 45.8 - 0.81 3* 0.6 7.7 30.3 49.0 12.3 - 0.82 4 0.0 2.6 9.0 44.5 43.9 - 0.74 5** 6.5 14.2 11.0 40.0 27.7 0.6 1.21 6** 5.8 9.7 16.1 33.5 34.8 - 1.18 7** 1 .3 18.7 17.4 50.3 12.3 - 0.98 8* 1 .9 9.0 14.8 51 .0 23.2 - 0.95 9* 2.6 9.7 18.7 56. 1 12.9 - 0.91 10 0.6 5.2 14.2 55.5 23.2 1 .3 0.81 1 1 * * 1 .9 12.3 12.1 47. 1 15.5 - 0.96 1 2** 5.8 24. 5 29.0 34.2 5.2 1 .3 1.01 1 3** 4.5 13.5 38.7 39.4 3.9 - 0.90 1 4** 8.4 30.3 36. 1 20.6 4.5 - 1 .00 1 5** 14.8 42.6 17.4 20.0 4.5 0.6 1.11 1 6 0.0 5.2 11.6 50.3 32.9 - 0.80 1 7 0.6 3.9 4.5 40.6 50.3 - 0.80 18 0.6 1 .3 3.2 41.9 52.9 - 0.69 19 0.6 1 .9 6.5 56. 1 34.8 - • 0.71 20 2.6 5.8 18.7 56. 1 16.8 0.88 21 0.6 3.2 7.7 53.5 34.8 - 0.76 22 1 .3 5.2 9.7 56. 1 27. 1 0.6 0.84 23 0.0 2.6 3.9 58.7 34.8 - 0.65 24* 0.6 8.4 19.4 55.5 16.1 - 0.84 25 0.0 1 .3 3.9 51.6 43.2 - 0.62 26* 0.6 9.0 20.0 53.5 16.8 - 0.86 27** 1 .9 7.7 25.2 51 .0 13.5 0.6 0.88 28** 3.2 13.5 23.2 51 .6 8.4 - 0.94 29** 5.8 20. 1 26.5 35.5 12.3 - 1.10 30 0.0 1.9 11.6 46.5 40.0 - 0.73 3 1 ** 2.6 12.9 31 .6 42.6 10.3 - 0.93 32 0.0 6.5 16.8 49.7 25.8 1 .3 0.84 33 0.6 3.9 11.0 36. 1 48.4 - 0.86 34** 3.9 10.3 8.4 42.6 34.8 - 1 .09 35 0.0 3.2 14.8 54.8 26.5 0.6 0.74 36 0.0 3.9 11.0 54.2 31.0 - 0.75 37 0.6 6.5 12.3 54.2 26.5 - 0.84 38 0.6 3.9 3.2 54.2 38. 1 - 0.75 39 0.0 3.2 13.5 56. 1 26.5 0.6 0.73 40 1 .9 5.2 8.4 50.3 33.5 0.6 0.90 41 ** 6.5 23.9 20.6 29.7 19.4 - 1 .22 42** 5.2 7.7 36. 1 40.0 11.0 - 0.97 43* 1 .9 3.2 36.8 47. 1 10.3 0.6 0.79 44** 3.9 17.4 40.6 32.9 4.5 0.6 0.90 45** 9.7 32.3 23.9 22.6 11.6 - 1.19 43 TABLE INDEX Rat ing S c a l e Scores: 1=Strongly Disagree; 2=Disagree; 3=Uncertain 4=Agree; 5=Strongly Agree; N.R.=No Response C r i t e r i a : * = Good Items ( T o t a l Test c o r r e l a t i o n s of 0.30 to 0.50, Standard D e v i a t i o n s of 0.80 to 1.00, d i s p e r s a l i n percentage of response to each s c a l e s c o r e ) . ** = Super i o r I terns ( T o t a l Test c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than 0.50, Standard D e v i a t i o n s > 1.00, g r e a t e r d i s p e r s a l i n percentage of response to each s c a l e s c o r e ) . 44 Table III PCSI Subtest R e s u l t s (Best I terns):  Phase I (East" Indian Canadian Sample) PCSI Subtests Item Numbers Proport ion of T o t a l Items C a r e e r / V o c a t i o n a l Personal/Soc i a l Family Involvement Role (Counsellor/Teacher) C u l t u r a l Awareness 3 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10, n_,J_2,20 3 0 , £ 1 6 , 2 9 , 4 0 1 5 , 4 5 1 3 ; 1 4 , 2 7 , 3 1 , 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 9 /23 2 /7 A l l 2/4 A l l x = Superior Items 45 Table IV PCSI Subtest Results (Best Items);  Phase 11 (Anglo-European Canadian Sample) PCSI Subtests Item Numbers Proport ion of Total Items Career/Vocat ional Personal/Soc i a l Family Involvement Role (Counsellor/Teacher) Cultural Awareness 3 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , J_L, J _ 2 , 2 4 , 2 6 , 2 8 1 0 / 2 3 34,41 2 / 7 6 , 2 9 2 / 3 15 ,45 2 / 4 1 3 , 1 4 , 2 7 , 3 1 , 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 A l l x = Superior Items 46 Table V M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r PCSI Subtests Between the East Indian Canadian (Group I) and the Anglo-European Canadian (Group II) Ad u l t s and Adolescents PCSI Subtests Adult Means F Adolescent Means F Group I Group II Group I Group II Career/ V o c a t i o n a l 4.0 3.9 1 .55 4.0 3.8 5.09* Personal/Soc i a l 4. 1 4. 1 0.04 4.0 4. 1 0.01 Family 4.66* Involvement 3.9 4.0 1 .00 3.7 3.5 Role ( C o u n s e l l o r / Teacher) 3.8 3.4 8.78** 3.6 3.4 3.76a C u l t u r a l Awareness 3.9 3.5 13.96** 3.6 3.2 17.59* *P < .05 **P < .01 a P = 0.054 47 Table VI M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e f o r PCSI Subtests Between the East Indian Canadian (Group I) Ad u l t s and Adolescents Adult Adolescent PCSI Subtests Means Means F Career/Vocat i o n a l 3.8 3.8 0.20 P e r s o n a l / S o c i a l 4.1 4.0 0.85 Family Involvement 3.9 3.7 2.22 Role (Counsellor/Teacher) 3.7 3.6 2.60 C u l t u r a l Awareness 3.9 3.6 4.91* *P < .05 48 Table VII M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e f o r PCSI Subtests Between the Anglo-European Canadian ("Group II) A d u l t s and Adolescents A d u l t Adolescent PCSI Subtests Means Means F Career/Vocat i o n a l 3.5 3.5 1.14 Personal/Soc i a l 4. 1 4.0 0.34 Family Involvement 4.0 3.5 20.30** Role (Counsellor/Teacher) 3.4 3.4 0.04 C u l t u r a l Awareness 2.9 2.7 9.13** *P < .01 49 CHAPTER V SUMMARY Research O b j e c t i v e s and Methodology T h i s paper i s w r i t t e n with s e v e r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n mind. F i r s t l y , an examination of a t t i t u d e research and measurement has been undertaken along with a review of the l i t e r a t u r e concerning e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l i n g . Secondly, a major focus of t h i s paper has been an a n a l y s i s of the development and implementation of the Percept ion of C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s Index or PCSI , an instrument used i n a study conducted by Westwood & Massey (1982). T h i r d l y , the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the PCSI were assessed i n r e l a t i o n to the e a r l i e r mentioned study. F i n a l l y , a r e - e v a l u a t i o n and r e v i s i o n of the PCSI was conducted with an aim towards, c o n s t r u c t i n g a more p r e c i s e instrument f o r the measurement of e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l i n g i n s c h o o l s . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the Westwood & Massey (1982) study was undertaken i n order to assess the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the PCSI as a p o t e n t i a l l y good instrument f o r the measurement of e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l i n g . i 50 DISCUSSION Instrument R e l i a b i 1 i t y The a n a l y s i s of the PCSI presented i n t h i s paper i n d i c a t e s t h at t h i s i s a good instrument with respect to o v e r a l l r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . The assumption u n d e r l y i n g the use of t h i s instrument i s that there e x i s t s such a t h i n g as a 'true' a t t i t u d e towards s p e c i f i c a spects of c o u n s e l l i n g , j u s t as i n the case of f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s where there are 'true' f a c t s or events. Due to the complex nature of a t t i t u d e s as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n Chapter I I , i t i s u n l i k e l y that s i n g l e q u e s t i o n s would r e f l e c t these a t t i t u d e s adequately. By using sets of q u e s t i o n s , provided they a l l ' r e l a t e to the same a t t i t u d e , one i s able to maximize the more s t a b l e components of a t t i t u d e s while reducing the i n s t a b i l i t y due to p a r t i c u l a r items, emphasis, mood changes, and so on. Th e r e f o r e , the PCSI s u b t e s t s were used to uncover a t t i t u d e s towards s p e c i f i c r o l e aspects of c o u n s e l l o r s . Most of these items i n c o r p o r a t e d in the su b t e s t s appear to be good and i n some cases, as seen on the C u l t u r a l Awareness s u b t e s t , a l l items responded w e l l and d i s c r i m i n a t e d a t t i t u d e s a c r o s s both ' c u l t u r a l ' Groups I and I I . If a set of data are not i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , one i s not always sure why. I t may be that the assumption of the e x i s t e n c e of a s c a l e with the s p e c i f i e d p r o p e r t i e s i s i n e r r o r . Or i t may simply be that the experimental technique used i s inadequate f o r 51 determining the s c a l e . T h i s i s not the case f o r the PCSI I n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y estimates of r e l i a b i l i t y have been q u i t e high f o r both Groups I and I I . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that most items i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o r r e l a t e with each other very h i g h l y . In other words, t h i s instrument i s very r e l i a b l e i n terms of c o n s i s t e n c y over time and a c r o s s two ' c u l t u r a l ' groups due to the f a c t that most items r e l i a b l y r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r responses.. Due to the high i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y of the PCSI , subtest a n a l y s i s would almost always y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s concluded that s t r e s s should not be placed on the s u b t e s t s of the PCSI but r a t h e r on the instrument as a whole in terms of a general index of a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l i n g . Since t h i s instrument was found to be r e l i a b l e across both c r o s s - c u l t u r a l groups, i t s use as an i n d i c a t o r of a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l i n g need not l i m i t i t s e l f to e t h n i c m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s but rese a r c h e r s may f i n d i t very u s e f u l f o r the general p u b l i c as w e l l . Instrument V a 1 i d i t y The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e s s i n g the v a l i d i t y of a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n s i s the lack of c r i t e r i a . What i s needed i d e a l l y are groups of people with known a t t i t u d e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( c r i t e r i o n groups), so that one co u l d see whether or not one's ques t i o n s can d i s c r i m i n a t e between them. Construct v a l i d i t y of a t t i t u d e measures i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s . U n l i k e many c o n s t r u c t s i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , few 52 in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s are e a s i l y o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . Thus g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about c o n s t r u c t s such as ' a t t i t u d e ' are d i f f i c u l t to make s i n c e t h i s i s r e a l l y not a s i n g l e c o n s t r u c t but r a t h e r a multitude of c o n s t r u c t s . In terms of c l a s s i c d e f i n i t i o n s of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , i t i s r a r e l y the case that one can c o r r e l a t e a measure such as a t t i t u d e with some r e a l c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e to assess i t s v a l i d i t y . Instead more i n d i r e c t v a l i d a t i o n procedures are necessary. Since the v a l i d i t y of the PCSI cannot be assessed by c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y or c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y procedures, content v a l i d i t y i s the main concern. Content v a l i d i t y has been c r i t i c i z e d by some t h e o r i s t s such as Loevinger (1965), who agree with the concept of sampling from w i t h i n a p o p u l a t i o n of persons but argue that sampling from a domain of content i s an i l l e g i t i m a t e e xtension of the model. Although these views are sound i n some co n t e x t s , they appear to be very g e n e r a l . The very model of sampling from a uni v e r s e r e q u i r e s some defense. A c l e a r argument f o r Loevinger's comment i s that persons are d i s c r e t e elements and a p o p u l a t i o n i s in p r i n c i p l e countable, whereas content i s sometimes an undef i n a b l e mass (Cronbach, 1971). Moreover, while there may be a d e f i n e a b l e domain of content there i s not e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s e of items. The only items a v a i l a b l e are those that c o n s t i t u t e the s o - c a l l e d sample. Content v a l i d i t y i s a l s o l i m i t e d by the adequacy of the uni v e r s e s p e c i f i c a t i o n , which i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d i n imprecise 53 terms and thus can r a r e l y mention every p e r t i n e n t aspect of the ta s k . The requirement, t h e r e f o r e , i s that the u n i v e r s e boundaries be w e l l d e f i n e d . Judgement i s then r e q u i r e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the accuracy of items as w e l l as t h e i r relevance to the u n i v e r s e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s (Cronbach, 1971).. As d i s c u s s e d in Chapter IV, the PCSI was designed with face and content v a l i d i t y procedures i n mind. Although content v a l i d i t y i s c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g achievement and p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t s , i t has u s u a l l y been ignored i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . Many r e s e a r c h e r s i n the area of a t t i t u d e measurement have been s a t i s f i e d to d e v i s e a number of items on an ad-hoc b a s i s which they b e l i e v e w i l l measure what they want measured. The c o r r e c t method, however, i s f o r r e s e a r c h e r s to search the l i t e r a t u r e c a r e f u l l y to determine how v a r i o u s authors have used the concept ' a t t i t u d e ' . Moreover, they should r e l y on t h e i r own o b s e r v a t i o n s and experiences and ask whether they y i e l d any new f a c e t s to the concept under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The PCSI appears, to have both face and content v a l i d i t y . The instrument was c o n s t r u c t e d with t e s t development procedures in mind. Items were w r i t t e n to capture the v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s of meanings a s s o c i a t e d with s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g . These items were then w r i t t e n and r e - w r i t t e n to conform to the demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . And f i n a l l y , these items presented some v a l i d d i s t i n c t i o n s between the a t t i t u d e s of a sample m i n o r i t y and m a j o r i t y group. 54 Summary: R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Although v e r b a l d e f i n i t i o n s of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y make q u i t e c l e a r the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two concepts, there are cases when t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y b l u r r e d . T h i s b l u r r i n g occurs e s p e c i a l l y when i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the estimated r e l i a b i l i t y . I t i s c l e a r that i f one has "n" p a r a l l e l items a d m i n i s t e r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , they pr o v i d e s e v e r a l i n s t a n t t e s t - r e t e s t s . Another aspect, however, i s that a l l the c o r r e l a t i o n s among these manifest v a r i a b l e s are due to the c o r r e l a t i o n s between each of the manifest v a r i a b l e s and some u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t , t r a i t , or f a c t o r . These l a t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s would i n d i c a t e the v a l i d i t y of each item s i n c e they i n d i c a t e the degree to which each item c o r r e l a t e s with that which one wants to measure -- the u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two p e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , h i n t s at the e x i s t e n c e of a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . I tern A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s of the item a n a l y s i s conducted on the PCSI i n d i c a t e d that 24 of the 45 items appeared to be the best items for Phase I, while 23 out of 45 responded w e l l i n Phase II of the Westwood & Massey (1982) study. As Table I and Table II p o i n t out, a composite of 20 items can be judged as s u p e r i o r a c r o s s both Phases I and I I . These are i d e n t i f i e d as item numbers 3,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,13,14,15,27,28,29,31,41,42,43,44 and 45. T h e r e f o r e , one c o u l d conclude that not only should these 55 items be r e t a i n e d i n f u t u r e r e v i s i o n s of the PCSI , but that they can a l s o be used to assess the a t t i t u d e s of non-minority s u b j e c t s as w e l l . The PCSI subtest a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that most items making up each subtest appear to be good for the most p a r t . Tables I I I , IV, V, VI, and VII p o i n t out that a l l the items i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the C u l t u r a l Awareness subtest responded w e l l a c r o s s ' c u l t u r a l ' groups, while other subtest items appeared to be g e n e r a l l y adequate. However, as mentioned e a r l i e r , due to the high i n t e r n a l -c o n s i s t e n c y of the PCSI in both Phases I and I I , i t i s not recommended that t h i s instrument be d i v i d e d i n t o s u b t e s t s , but r a t h e r a l l the items should be used as a s i n g l e measure of a t t i t u d e s towards c o u n s e l l o r s . Subtest d i v i s i o n , on'the other hand, may be h e l p f u l i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s . G e n e r a l l y speaking, the PCSI appears to be a good instrument. However, i t has some l i m i t a t i o n s which need to be r e c o g n i z e d i f a r e v i s i o n of t h i s instrument i s forthcoming. T h i s instrument appears to c o n t a i n a p o s i t i v e response b i a s . In other words, s u b j e c t s tended to agree with most of the items and only on the b e t t e r items d i d they have more d i v e r s e responses. On the one hand, these responses may be r e f l e c t i n g genuine a t t i t u d e s of agreement. However, t h i s may not be the LIMITATIONS OF THE PCSI 56 case s i n c e the instrument i s v o i d of negative statements (scored using r e v e r s e d weights)'! There were few items which evoked disagreement. T h e r e f o r e , a r e v i s i o n of t h i s instrument should i n c l u d e at l e a s t a few items which are moderately negative i n t h e i r wording. The PCSI a l s o c o n t a i n s too many items. As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , approximately h a l f of these items appear to respond w e l l under item a n a l y s i s . T h e r e f o r e , the r e v i s e d PCSI should c o n t a i n approximately 30 items i n c l u d i n g a few new items with negative statements chosen from the p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d domain of c ontent. One area of psychometric a n a l y s i s that has not been undertaken i s the t r a n s l a t e d (Punjabi) form of the PCSI used i n Phase I of the Westwood and Massey study. Although approximately only 15 t r a n s l a t e d forms were used, the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y in terms of a l t e r n a t e forms i s open to q u e s t i o n ( t h i s would apply only to 15 a d u l t responses i n Group I ) . The PCSI used i n Phase I d i d not c o n t a i n a b s o l u t e l y i d e n t i c a l items with the PCSI used i n Phase II of t h i s study. T h i s s l i g h t change only a f f e c t e d a few items on the C u l t u r a l  Awareness s u b t e s t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the wording on items #31 and #44 had to be changed from t h e i r p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n to s p e c i f i c e t h n i c groups to more general statements r e q u i r e d i n Phase II of t h i s study. T h i s change d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the instrument's psychometric p r o p e r t i e s , i n f a c t the a l t e r e d 57 items used in Phase II appeared to be more general and thus gave more c r e d i b i l i t y to the PCSI as an instrument to gather data on non-minority p o p u l a t i o n s as w e l l . LIMITATIONS OF THE WESTWOOD 6 MASSEY (1982) STUDY The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggested that between the two c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r groups there was more agreement on the e x p e c t a t i o n s that each group h e l d toward c o u n s e l l i n g than the r e s e a r c h e r s had hypothesized. D i f f e r e n c e s d i d occur, however, between the two groups when comparisons were made on s p e c i f i c s u b t e s t s of the instrument. Often, the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t groups were a l s o not in the d i r e c t i o n s a n t i c i p a t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r s . In a d d i t i o n , there emerged some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between the a d u l t s and the a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n each of the East Indian and Anglo-European samples. I t was expected that the a d u l t s of the m i n o r i t y group would have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s about what a c o u n s e l l o r should do based upon t h e i r own c u l t u r a l view of the helper i n s o c i e t y . I t was a l s o assumed that the East Indian a d u l t s would have had c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s c o n t a c t . with a c o u n s e l l o r or c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s than would the a d u l t s of the comparison group. T h i s b r i n g s out perhaps one of the s t r o n g e s t l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study. As mentioned in Chapter I I , lack of knowledge or i n f o r m a t i o n about c o u n s e l l o r s i n general may a f f e c t r a t i n g s on a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s such as the PCSI . These r e s u l t s 58 t h e r e f o r e p o i n t out that e i t h e r a 'true' or ' r e a l ' s i m i l a r i t y between the a d u l t s in Group I and II e x i s t s , f o r example, or that perhaps both groups of a d u l t s had a s i m i l a r lack of knowledge concerning c o u n s e l l i n g i n s c h o o l s . T h i s l a t t e r view appears to be supported by the f a c t t h a t , u n l i k e the a d u l t s , the a d o l e s c e n t s a c r o s s both Groups I and II d i d d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (and to a g r e a t e r degree) i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e r a t i n g s . They in f a c t would have had c o n s i d e r a b l y more knowledge about c o u n s e l l i n g based on t h e i r f i r s t - h a n d experience in s c h o o l . In terms of the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the PCSI , t h i s l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n might h e l p to e x p l a i n why these s u b j e c t s developed p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e s at one p o i n t i n time. In other words, r e g a r d l e s s of the nature of one's a t t i t u d e s or the degree of knowledge concerning the a t t i t u d i n a l o b j e c t , i n d i v i d u a l s can h o l d genuinely p o s i t i v e or negative a t t i t u d e s toward c o u n s e l l o r s . A major l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study, which prevents e x t e n s i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s in terms of i t s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l emphasis, i s the f a c t that t h e r e s u l t s r e f l e c t the e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s of a p a r t i c u l a r subgroup w i t h i n the East Indian community of Vancouver. Although as i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter I I I , t h i s was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the East Indian community in Vancouver, one c o u l d assume that perhaps other subgroups of the same community may have d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s . Furthermore, although both the Group I and II samples were 59 drawn from the same geographic area, and that the a d u l t s across both groups were from s i m i l a r socio-economic backgrounds, the East Indian sample of a d u l t s had a higher l e v e l of education o v e r a l l than d i d the a d u l t s i n the Anglo-European sample. The degree to which t h i s may have a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s i s open to q u e s t i o n . I t was a l s o noted that the m a j o r i t y of the Anglo-European sample was composed of female s u b j e c t s , and t h e r e f o r e t h i s may have introduced an unknown amount of sex b i a s i n the o v e r a l l r a t i n g s for Group I I . F i n a l l y , t h i s study was one of e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s , not one of d e s c r i p t i o n of how the two groups made contact with c o u n s e l l o r s . The study d i d not c o n t r o l f o r amount and type of contact members had with c o u n s e l l o r s p r e v i o u s to the survey. I t can only be assumed that at l e a s t among the a d o l e s c e n t s of both groups, the amount of c o n t a c t with c o u n s e l l o r s was more s i m i l a r than between the a d u l t s of the two groups. REVISION OF THE PCSI Based on the content and r e s u l t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper, I propose a r e v i s i o n of the e x i s t i n g PCSI . T h i s r e v i s i o n w i l l f o r m a l l y be known as the E t h n i c P e r c e p t i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g Index or EPCI . T h i s r e v i s i o n i n c l u d e s the 20 items from the previous PCSI which were i d e n t i f i e d as s u p e r i o r o v e r a l l (both groups) as w e l l as 10 new items c o n t a i n i n g negative statements randomly d i s t r i b u t e d i n the body of t h i s r e v i s e d 30-item q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 60 A copy of t h i s new instrument appears i n Appendix C. The E t h n i c P e r c e p t i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g Index i s presented as a general index f o r the measurement of e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s towards school c o u n s e l l i n g . However, i t s use need not be r e s t r i c t e d to these s p e c i a l e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s . The EPCI w i l l be most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s u b j e c t s aged 18 years and above and c e r t a i n l y v a l i d f o r surveying East Indian s u b j e c t s . I t i s a l s o recognized that t h i s instrument may be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the a p p r o p r i a t e language of study provided that proper methods of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h methodology are fol l o w e d ( B r i s l i n , 1973). IMPLICATIONS C o u n s e l l i n g E t h n i c M i n o r i t i e s In the process of c o u n s e l l i n g , both c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t b r i n g i n t h e i r background, a t t i t u d e s , values, and e x p e c t a t i o n s , a l l of which a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of c o u n s e l l i n g i n g e n e r a l . As mentioned i n Chapter I I , e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l i e n t a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s p r i o r to c o u n s e l l i n g i s c r i t i c a l to the q u a l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p which f o l l o w s . In terms of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a t t i t u d e s that c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c l i e n t s may have toward c o u n s e l l i n g , O v e r a l l & Aaronson (1963) and Sue & Sue (1972) have concluded that i f m i n o r i t y 61 group e x p e c t a t i o n s about c o u n s e l l i n g are not met by experience and c u l t u r a l e x p e r t i s e of the c o u n s e l l o r , the r e s u l t i s that these c l i e n t s are much l e s s l i k e l y to r e t u r n to c o u n s e l l i n g . T h e r e f o r e , the c o u n s e l l o r must be made aware of these e x p e c t a t i o n s i n order to meet the needs of c l i e n t s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r c u l t u r a l context. Canada's r a p i d l y expanding e t h n i c communities present a c h a l l e n g e to c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s . If t h i s c h a l l e n g e i s going to be met e f f e c t i v e l y , the v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and needs of m i n o r i t y - s t a t u s c l i e n t s w i l l have to be r e c o g n i z e d . Although some recent s t u d i e s such as Westwood & Massey (1982), d i s c u s s e d in depth in t h i s paper, have focused on the c o l l e c t i o n of data concerning e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s toward c o u n s e l l i n g , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area needs to be conducted. The future development of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g t r a i n i n g models r e l i e s very h e a v i l y on t h i s type of r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , with respect to the purpose of t h i s paper, s t u d i e s e v a l u a t i n g the adequacy of instruments such as the PCSI , are t h e r e f o r e at the very g r a s s r o o t s of f u t u r e trends i n c r o s s -c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . Future Use of the EPCI Although t h i s instrument was c a r e f u l l y developed f o l l o w i n g e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s from pr e v i o u s s t u d i e s , i t needs to be t e s t e d in a c t u a l experimental c o n d i t i o n s to determine i t s .psychometric 62 p r o p e r t i e s . As an important t o o l f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , t h i s instrument c o u l d be used i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. S e v e r a l e t h n i c groups c o u l d be s e l e c t e d and surveyed i n a s i m i l a r manner to the Westwood & Massey (1982) study. C a r e f u l l y t r a n s l a t e d forms i n v a r i o u s languages c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d and e v a l u a t e d . In f a c t , 'ethnic norms' c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d using t h i s instrument as a h e l p f u l index f o r p r a c t i c i n g c o u n s e l l o r s working with e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s . I t i s the author's o p i n i o n that t h i s instrument c o u l d a l s o be used by p r a c t i c i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s on p o t e n t i a l c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c l i e n t s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the EPCI p r i o r to c o u n s e l l i n g may provide the school c o u n s e l l o r with a g r e a t e r knowledge base concerning c u l t u r a l norms, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e s of h i s / h e r p r o s p e c t i v e c l i e n t s and t h e r e f o r e c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to h i s / h e r c u l t u r a l e x p e r t i s e . F i n a l l y , i t i s hoped that t h i s new instrument w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to a b e t t e r understanding of e t h n i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s towards an important p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e -- high school c o u n s e l l i n g . CONCLUSION A q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s not j u s t a l i s t of q u e s t i o n s or a form to be f i l l e d out. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s c i e n t i f i c instrument f o r measurement and f o r c o l l e c t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r kinds of data. L i k e a l l such instruments, i t has been designed a c c o r d i n g to p a r t i c u l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s and with s p e c i f i c aims i n mind, and-the 63 data i t y i e l d s are subject to e r r o r . Attempts at c o n t r o l l i n g v a r i a b l e s i n resea r c h have l e f t a host of p o s s i b l e sources of e r r o r unaccounted f o r . These i n c l u d e sampling e r r o r s , e r r o r s due to non-response, f a u l t s i n the design of the survey, t r a n s l a t i o n e r r o r s , u n r e l i a b i l i t y or lack of v a l i d i t y of instruments, i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s , e r r o r s i n coding responses p r o c e s s i n g , or s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and f i n a l l y , f a u l t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . A l l of these p o s s i b l e sources of e r r o r may have s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the r e s u l t s of one's r e s e a r c h . The goal of science i s to e x p l a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s . The implementation of t h i s goal i s h e a v i l y dependent upon the a b i l i t y of the resear c h e r to measure h i s / h e r v a r i a b l e s with as l i t t l e e r r o r as p o s s i b l e . As was i n d i c a t e d , e r r o r s i n measurement tend to d i s t o r t r e l a t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the researcher needs to be concerned that h i s / h e r measures are v a l i d , measuring what they purport to measure. If hypothesized r e l a t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s are to be measured, r e s e a r c h e r s need to be c e r t a i n that t h e i r measures of the v a r i a b l e s are r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . F i n a l l y , with respect to the general purpose of t h i s paper, when c o n s t r u c t i n g or e v a l u a t i n g instruments, the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s must be kept in mind. Only the i n s i g h t f u l r e s e a r c h e r can b u i l d items which are both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d , and u s u a l l y none of us can be t r u l y s a t i s f i e d with our f i r s t attempts at s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Apparently, however, many re s e a r c h e r s are 64 s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r o r i g i n a l instruments because many a t t i t u d e s c a l e s are developed and used on a s i n g l e sample. The c a r e f u l r e s e a r c h e r , however, assesses the v i a b i l i t y of the item by sampling and resampling w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n of respondents, r e p l a c i n g items i n some cases and r e v i s i n g them i n others u n t i l he/she i s reasonably s a t i s f i e d with the v i a b i l i t y of the s c a l e . These c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n procedures can mean that years are spent in d e v e l o p i n g adequate measures. But adequate measures are a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the demonstration of the u t i l i t y of a t t i t u d e measurement. 65 REFERENCES A r k o f f , A., Thaver, F., & E l k i n d , L. Mental h e a l t h and c o u n s e l i n g ideas of Asian and American students. 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The method of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r s e l e c t i n g t e s t items. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1934, 2b_, 345-356. APPENDIX A Instrument: P e r c e p t i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s Index (Phase I) - 7 1 a -PERCEPTION OF COUNSELLING SERVICES INDEX This questionnaire contains several statements about the school counsellor and the counselling services i n your area. Your answers w i l l be helpful in finding out the types of guidance which w i l l be offered in the future and your help in f i l l i n g out this questionnaire w i l l be appreciated. Feel free to give your honest opinion no matter what others might feel about the statements in this questionnaire. Your answers are confidential. Please do not place your name on the questionnaire. Please f i l l i t out carefully and honestly. THANK YOU. Please check the spaces below or f i l l in the blanks. 1 . Are you: Male . Female . 2. Province of Origin in India . 3 . Describe the highest level of education of the father 4. Describe the highest level of education of the mother 5. Father's occupation Employed: Yes No. 6. Mother's occupation Employed: Yes No. 7. Who has influenced you the most in finding out what you want to do in the future(ie. Job, School, College, etc): Mother . Father Brother Sister Cousin Best Friend Temple Counsellor Teacher . Other? (Please give t i t l e ) . - ? l b -DIRECTIONS This questionnaire contains hej statements about the counselling service in schools. Please indicate your feeling or opinions about each of these statements from the following choices. Please indicate your choice in the column beside each statement as shown in the example below. CHOICESi I f you Strongly Disagree with the statement, check that space in the column to the right of the question. I f you Hi sarxee with the.statement, check that space in the column to the right of the question.. If you are Uncertain about the statement, check that space in the column to the right of the question. I f you Agree with the statement, chock that space i n the column to the right of the question. I f you Strongly Agree with the statement, check that space in the column to the right of the question. EXAMPLEJ "A counsellor should help student:-, find Jobs after they graduate from school". If you Agree with the statement, you would check that space in the column beside the question as shown in the example. Please give only ONE choice for each statement. THANK YOU. r-i 0) ft) H 0 flj rd 0) O 0 0) uv) v> o u U u • ^ . H . -H r, U) +»u} toQ n r> < i/>< 1 ] n n i/ n ? l c -A counsellor should find out what each student wants to do a f t e r they f i n i s h high school. The counsellor should f i n d out which ch i l d r e n are unhappy i n school and try to help them.---Counsellors should help students form interest groups according to what they would l i k e to do a f t e r they f i n i s h high school. Counsellors should give information and materials to students to help them choose what they would l i k e to do a f t e r f i n i s h i n g high school. r H 0) 0) CO r H t < f l k U H-» Ul i'.U) w at Ca> onj ni <i> 0) o m u w w o u u u -p .H . H C tu) +»U) o n n ^ -t m< L 3 [ ] [ ] [ ] U [] [] [] [] [] • [ J [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] L ] The counsellor should t e l l the student i f he or she has the a b i l i t y to po on to st riy at college or u n i v e r s i t y . When a student i s having trouble in school, the counsellor should arrange a meeting with the parents to discuss what should be done. ?he counsellor should help the student, decide what to do a f t e r f i n i s h i n g high school. "ho counsellor should help the student find out. i{- any money i s available to help pay for studio: at college, vocational school, or u n i v e r s i t y . "'he counsellor should help the student decide which college or univ e r s i t y he or- she should go to. ,T,he counsellor should give the proper r e s u l t s of those tests which help the student to decide on the r i g h t type of job for them. Counsellors should help students find j o b s o r further studies which would help them to work well in t h i s Canadian society. Counsellors should help students choose a job that would help and benefit Canadian society a; a whole. Counsellors should try hard to contact the ethnic: communities whose children are in t h e schools. Counsellors should belong to t h e ethnic a s s o c i a t -i o n s that are represented in tho s c h o o l : ; . L ] L ] I ] L3 [ 3 Tn o r d e r t o do a good j o b , the c o u n s e l l o r - s h o u l d a l s o be a p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l . 1 L ] L3 L3 L3 L J 0 1) 2 ) 3) * 0 13 I J L 3 C3 L 3 15) i 13 [ 3 [ ] L3 L3 ( 6 : 13 [ J [ 3 [ ] L3 (7 13 L3 13 • 13 (8 [ J [ 3 f ] C3 [ 3 ( 9 L J 13 L J L 3 [ 3 ( l L 3 L3 [ 3 L 3 C J ( l L3 L 3 L3 L3 [ ] ( l L 3 13 L ] [ 3 C3 ( l ( l 71d -The c o u n s e l l o r should h e l p the student who i s having any p e r s o n a l problems. '..hen a student has any persona) problems, ho or she should f e e l f r e e to t a l k about then with a c o u n s e l l o r . : t should be easy to arrange- a m o o t. i r i g wi th the c o u n s e l l o r when one i s needed. Chore should be enough time i n the high school schedule to a l l o w f o r group guidance elasr.es t h a t would h e l p students decide what to do a f t e r they f i n i s h high s c h o o l . C fiO tn ( 4 u Cm o nj ci 0) 0) O OJ t i W w o *4 k t. i n n 3 < ro<t L J U 13 L J L J I ] [ J 13 I ] U 13 I J I ] L J [ 3 I J [ ] [ ] [ ] [] (19 The teachers should take enough cJar.s time to talk about jobs that may be r e l a t e d to the s u b j e c t s they teach. Che high s c h o o l should make arrangements f o r students to v i s i t v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s The c o u n s e l l o r should h e l p the student to f i n d people o u t s i d e the school who could . • • i v e e x t r a i n f o r m a t i o n about d i f f e r e n t types of j o b s . "ho c o u n s e l l o r should h e l p the student, f i n d out. more about the c o r r e c t l e v e l of education that, i s needed f o r the job that, the student, nay want to do. : lie c c o u n s e l l o r should know enough about, jobs to be able to h e l p the student f i n d the right, type of work. ".'he c o u n s e l l o r should help the student Lo pl a n the r i g h t type o f courser, i n high school in order to enter the c o l l e g e , v o c a t i o n a l school or u n i v e r s i t y that he or she may choose. The c o u n s e l l o r should h e l p the student, look f o r job o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t may be o f f e r e d now and i n the f u t u r e . C o u n s e l l o r s should t r y to see things from an e t h n i c person's viewpoint when g i v i n g advi e and hoi p to students from e t h n i c backgrounds.. " M K ' c o u n s e l l o r should help the student, d"o i de on the r i g h t typo o f job to take a l t e r f i ni shi r i g nigh s c h o o l s t u d i e s . C o u n s e l l o r s should g i v e advie«> :>»• r s o n a l and f a m i l y matters. - • s ! !. 1 fi'•• 11 ts on 13 [ ] L ] [ ] [ ] (20 [ ] [ ] L3 [ ] [ 3 (21 I ] I J 13 [ ] i J (2? [ J [ ] 13 [ 3 13 (23 1 J 13 [ J L3 [ ] ' (24 13 13 13 [ 3 13 (25 13 1.3 • • 13 izc 13 [ 3 I ] U L3 (2' [ ] I J L 3 13 L 3 (P i I ] I J i 1 13 13 ( ? ' - 7 1 e -C o u n s e l l o r s should be ready to talk to student:: at. anytime i n case of any personal c r i s i s , o r emergency. ^  C o u n s e l l o r s should become f a m i l i a r with the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and h i s t o r y o l ' my e t h n i c group.-C o u n s e l l o r s should make r e g u l a r cheeks on s t u d e n t s progress i n s c h o o l s . C o u n s e l l o r s are as important t o s c h o o l s .as are t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s . ro rH +-> W) I. CU c <I> Q> O 0) O C ; > •X The c o u n s e l l o r should t r e a t the student d i f f e r e n t l y or be more p e r s o n a l with the student than the teacher should. The high s c h o o l should g i v e enough o p p o r t u n i t y to students to v i s i t b usinesses and i n d u s t r i e s . ' The high s c h o o l should'students the o p p o r t u n i t y to v i s i t c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . •••r: r -n n ti ti [] u i] LJ LJ LJ LJ LJ LJ LJ LJ 30) 3 D 32) The student should t a l k about h i s or her v o c a t i o n -a l plans with a c o u n s e l l o r . The c o u n s e l l o r ' s o f f i c e should have l o t s of i n f o r -mation about many d i f f e r e n t types of jobs o f f e r e d i n Canada. The c o u n s e l l o r should g i v e the student l o t s of h e l p i n l e a r n i n g about d i f f e r e n t jobs and the types of s k i l l s needed f o r each job. r a r e n t s should t a l k to counsellors, when t h e i r c h i l d r e n are having any t r o u b l e at school.. A l l p e r s o n a l problems of students such as prob-lems with other s t u d e n t s , problems i n the f a m i l y , problems with the law, e t c , should be d i s c u s s e d with the s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . C o u n s e l l o r s should teach the other teachers and s c h o o l s t a f f about the important i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n w o r k i n g with c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s from e t h n i c backgrounds. . o u n s e l l o r s should know wore a b o u t t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s which are d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r - own. C o u n s e l l o r s should be chosen f r o m • y e t h n i c group .i f o o s s i b l e . •- — L J L J L J t J L J J 3 3 ) U L J L J L J L J ( 3 M L J L J L J L J L J (35) L J L J L J L J L J ( 3 6 ! t i J L J L J L J L J ( 3 7 ! [ J L J i J L J L J ( 3 8 ( J L J I J L1 L J ( 3 9 L J L J L J L J L J (UO i L J L J L J L J L J ( M i i L J L J L J L J L J [42 [ ) L J L J L J t l (^ 3 I J L J L J L J L J Any s t u d e n t p r o b l e m s s h o u l d be t h e r e s : " nr.i b i ! t.y of t h e c o u n s e l l o r r a t h e r t h a n t h e to.u o r r r i n c i n a l . -- II M L 1 L J 1 J UK 72 APPENDIX B Instrument: P e r c e p t i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s Index (Phase II) PERCEPTION OF COUNSELLING SERVICES INDEX T h i s questionnaire contains several statements about the school c o u n s e l l o r and the co u n s e l l i n g services i n your area. Your answers w i l l be h e l p f u l i n f i n d i n g out the types of guidance which w i l l be offered i n the future and your help i n f i l l i n g out t h i s questionnaire w i l l be appreciated. Feel free to give your honest opinion no matter what others might f e e l about the statements i n t h i s questionnaire. Your answers are c o n f i d e n t i a l . Please do. not place your name on the questionnaire. Please f i l l i t out c a r e f u l l y and honestly. THANK YOU. Please check the spaces below or f i l l i n the blanks. 1. Are you: Male . Female . Age : . 2. Place of b i r t h ' . 3. Describe the highest l e v e l of education of the father * h. Describe the highest l e v e l of education of the mother 5 . Father's occupation Employed: Yes No 6. Mother's occupation . Employed: Yes No. 7. Who has influenced you the most i n f i n d i n g out what you want to do i n *he f u t u r e ( i e . Job, School, College, e t c ) j Mother Father Brother S i s t e r Cousin Best Friend Church Counsellor Teacher _. Other? (Please give t i t l e ) - ?2b -This questionnaire contains 45 statements nbout the counselling service i n schools. Please i n d i c a t e ; your feeling or opinions about each of these statements from the following choices. Please indicate your choice in the colmnn beside each statement as shown in the example below. CHOICESt I f you Strongly Disagree with the statement, check that space i n the column to the rlffjit of the question. I f you Di sagree with the statement, check that space i n the column to the right of the question. If you are Uncertain nbout the statement, check that space in the column to the right of the question. I f you Agree with the statement, check that space in the column to the right of the question. If you Strongly Agree- with the .statement, check that space i n the column to tho right of the question. EXAMPLE i "A counsellor should help student;; find Jobs after they graduate from school". If you Agree with the statement, you would check that space in the column beside the question as shown in the example. Please give only ONE choice for each statement. THANK YOU. o C?o> c H ci 0) cd UOU U +> nho ho OlD ftj 0> ft> O ft) uw w o u uu • J - H . - H C hO 4* hO COQ n » < c/>< ' n n n n 1. 2. 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 -1 0 . 11. 1 2 . 13-Ik. 15. - 7 2 o A counsellor should find out what each student wants to do after they f i n i s h high school. H O ) Q) cwi 5b Od rd t in to • P - H . H .COP Q +> 0> o c s -a: co< 0) CO) The counsellor should find out which children are unhappy i n school and try to help them. Counsellors should help students form interest groups according to what they would like to do after they f i n i s h high school. Counsellors should give information and materials to students to help them choose what they would like to do after finishing high school. The counsellor should t e l l the student i f he or she has the a b i l i t y to go on to study at college or university. When a' student i s having trouble in school, the counsellor should arrange a meeting with the parents to discuss what should be done. The counsellor should help the student decide what to do after finishing high school. The counsellor should help the student find out i any money is available to help pay for_studies at college, vocational school, or university, The counsellor should help the student decide which college or university he or she should go to. The counsellor should give the proper results of those tests which help the student to decide on the right type of job for them. Counsellors should help students find jobs or further studies which would help them to work well in this Canadian society. Counsellors should help students choose a job that would help and benefit Canadian society as a whole. Counsellors should try hard to contact the ethnic communities whose children are in the schools. Counsellors should belong to the ethnic associat-ions that are represented in the schools. In order to do a good job, the counsellor should also be a part-time teacher in the school. U C3 • U [3 C3 [ ] C3 C3 C3 \2) [ 3 C3 C3 C3 CD 3) [ ] C3 • C3 C3 M) [ ] [ ] C J [ ] • [ ] \5) L3 [ ] C3 [3 C3 [6) [ 3 C3 L3 C3 13 17) [ 3 [3 C3 [ 3 13 t8) [ 3 [ 3 C3 [ 3 C3 t9) [ 3 L3 [ ] C3 C3 U c [3 [ ] [ 3 C3 [ 3 d i C3 L3 [3 C3 C3 ti2 L 3 [ ] C3 U [ ] ( i ; i C3 [3 C3 C3 [3 [il t [ 3 C3 C3 L3 [3 ( U 7 2d The counsellor should help the student who i s having any personal problems. When a student has any personal problems, he or she should feel free to talk about them with a counsellor. rH CU 0) H u +> W) CM (4 a> C a> om rt o» a> 0 CU u w to u u - P - H • H C S> 4* ttD WQ Q » < [] [] C3 It should be easy to arrange a meeting with the counsellor when one i s needed. There should be enough time in the high school schedule to allow for group guidance classes that would help students decide what to do after they f i n i s h high school. • The teachers should take enough class time to talk about jobs that may be related to the subjects they teach. The high school should make arrangements for students to v i s i t vocational and technical schools The counsellor should help the student to find people^outside the school who could give extra information about different types of jobs. The counsellor should help the student find out more about the correct level of education that is needed for the job that the student may want to do. The counsellor should know enough about jobs to be able to help the student find the right type of work. The counsellor should help the student to plan the right type of courses in high school in order to enter the college, vocational school or university that he or she may choose. The counsellor should help the student look for job opportunities that may be offered now and in the future. Counsellors should try to see things from an ethnic person's viewpoint when giving adviOe and help to students from ethnic backgrounds. [ ] C3 [ ] CD C3 [ ] C3 [ ] [] [] • [] [] • [] [ ] CD C I CD C3 [ ] The counsellor should help the student decide on the right type of job to take after finishing high school studies. Counsellors should give advice to students on personal and family matters. [ ] [ 3 [ ] CD [ ] [ ] L 3 C3 C3 L3 C3 [ ] [ 3 C3 C3 [ 3 • [ 3 C3 L 3 [ ] [ 3 L3 L 3 C3 [ 3 L3 C3 L3 13 C3 [ 3 [ 3 [ ] [ 3 [ 3 C3 [ 3 [ 3 [ ] 7?e 3 0 . 3 1 . 3 2 . 3 3 -3 4 . 35. 36. 3?. 38. 39-40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. r-»0> O GhD hO oat at Ufa ro WQ Q at U 0) o c cH hO Q> CO) a> oa> hD 4* hO Counsellors should be ready to talk to students at anytime i n case of any personal c r i s i s or | emergency* r LJ LJ LJ LJ LJ Counsellors should become familiar with the cultural heritage and history of my ethnic group.-Counsellors should make regular checks on students pregress in schools. Counsellors are as important to schools as are teachers and principals. The counsellor should treat the student differently) or be more personal with the student than the teacher should.-The high school should give enough opportunity to students to v i s i t businesses and industries. The high school should*students the opportunity to v i s i t colleges and universities. The student should talk about his or her vocation-al plans with a counsellor. • The counsellor's office should have lots of infor-mation about many different types of jobs offered in Canada. The counsellor should give the student lots of help in learning about different jobs and the types of s k i l l s needed for each job. Parents should talk to counsellors when their children are having any trouble at school. A l l personal problems of students, such as prob-lems with other students, problems in the family, problems with the law, etc, should be discussed with the school counsellor. Counsellors .should teach the other teachers and school staff about the important issues involved in working with children and families from ethnic backgrounds. Counsellors should know more about the cultural values which are different from their own. Counsellors should be chosen from my ethnic group i f possible. Any student problems should be the responsibility of the counsellor rather than the teacher or principal. APPENDIX C Instrument: E t h n i c P e r c e p t i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g Index - 73a -ETHNIC PERCEPTION OF COUNSELLING INDEX T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r and t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n y o u r a r e a . Y o u r a n s w e r s w i l l be h e l p f u l i n f i n d i n g ou t t h e t y p e s o f g u i d a n c e w h i c h w i l l be o f f e r e d i n t h e f u t u r e and y o u r h e l p i n f i l l i n g o u t t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d . F e e l f r e e t o g i v e y o u r h o n e s t o p i n i o n no m a t t e f what o t h e r s m i g h t f e e l a b o u t t h e s t a t e m e n t s i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Y o u r a n s w e r s a r e c o n f i d e n t i a l . P l e a s e do. n o t p l a c e y o u r name on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P l e a s e f i l l i t o u t c a r e f u l l y and h o n e s t l y . THANK YOU. P l e a s e c h e c k t h e s p a c e s b e l o w o r f i l l i n t h e b l a n k s . 1. A r e you« M a l e . Fema le . Age . 2 . P l a c e o f b i r t h : _ . 3 . D e s c r i b e t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e f a t h e r _ k. D e s c r i b e t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e m o t h e r 5. F a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n E m p l o y e d ! Yes No, 6 . M o t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n E m p l o y e d ! Yes No, 7 . Who has i n f l u e n c e d you t h e most i n f i n d i n g o u t what you want t o do i n * h e f u t u r e ( i e . J o b , S c h o o l , C o l l e g e , e t c ) t M o t h e r F a t h e r B r o t h e r S i s t e r C o u s i n B e s t F r i e n d Church C o u n s e l l o r T e a c h e r . O t h e r ? ( P l e a s e g i v e t i t l e ) - 73b -DIRECTIONS This questionnaire contains 30 statements nbout the counselling service i n schools. Please indicate your feeling or opinions about each of these statements from the following choices. Please indicate your choice in the column beside each statement as shown in the example below. CHOICESt I f you Strongly Disagree with the statement, check that space in the column to the right o f the question. If you Di sarree with the statement, check that space in the column to the right of the question. If you are Uncertain about the statement, check that space i n the column to the right o f the question. I f you Agree with the statement, check that f3pace i n the column to the right of the question. I f you Strongly Agree with the statement, check that space i n the column to the right o f the question. EXAMPLE» "A counsellor should help students find jobs after they graduate from cchool" . If y ° u Agree with the statement, you would check that space in the column beside the question as shown in the example. Please give only ONE choice for ei'.ch statement. >»<D O (0 u w COD Cl 0) to w • H n c • H at 4* U 0) o o o ti <c c i n n 0 >» H cPo O ft> 4* id / n THANK YOU. - 73c - c hb G) ^ 41 c v o rd cd cu CD o o> $.» w w o I. k t( 4J -H .H c W5 +-» bfl "ho c o u n s e l l o r r.hould h e l p the student dee ido which w ° n ^ *** 0 7 c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y he or she should go to. L J L J L J L J L J A l l p e r s o n a l problems o f student:;, such a:: problem.'; with o t h e r s t u d e n t s , problems i n the family,problems with the law, e t c , should be d i s c u s s e d with the school c o u n s e l l o r . [ J [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] C o u n s e l l o r s should t r y to see t h i n g s from an e t h n i c person's viewpoint when g i v i n g advice and h e l p to students from e t h n i c backgrounds. [ J [ J [ J [ ] [ J C o u n s e l l o r s are too busy t r y i n g to be your " f r i e n d " so when you need r e a l h e l p , they can't give i t to you. [ j [ ] L J [ ] [ ] C o u n s e l l o r s should g i v e a d v i c e to student:; on p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y matters. [ j [] [ ] [ ] [ ] i f e e l that I cannot t r u s t a c o u n s e l l o r with every problem t h a t I may have. L J I ] L ] [ ] [ ] C o u n s e l l o r s should h e l p students choose a job that would h e l p and b e n e f i t Canadian s o c i e t y as a whole. [ ] L J [ ] [ ] C ] ..hen a student i s h a v i n g t r o u b l e i n s c h o o l , the c o u n s e l l o r should arrange a meeting with the parents to d i s c u s s what should be done. L ] L J L ] L ] L J C o u n s e l l o r s should be ready to t a l k to students a t any time i n case o f any p e r s o n a l c r i s i s or emergency.- l j l"J L 1 L J I ] C o u n s e l l o r s should become f a m i l i a r with the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and h i s t o r y o f the e t h n i c groups, which are represented i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . L J L J L J [ J L J F a m i l i e s don't need t o know everything, that students do i n s c h o o l . L J L J L J L J L J In order to do a good job, the c o u n s e l l o r r.hould a l s o be a part-time t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l . L J L J 13 L J L J C o u n s e l l o r s should h e l p students form i n t e r e s t groups a c c o r d i n g to what they would l i k e to do a f t e r they f i n i s h high s c h o o l . L J L J L J L J L J C o u n s e l l o r s should teach o t h e r teachers and s c h o o l s t a f f about the important i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n working, with c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s from e t h n i c backgrounds. l j L J L J L J 1 J ,,'hc a d v i c e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s give i s o f t e n not very h e l p f u l or p r a c t i c a l . i. J L J L J L J L J "he c o u n s e l l o r should h e l p the student f i n d out i f any ii.oney i s a v a i l a b l e to h e l p pay f o r s t u d i o s at c o l Lege, v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l , or u n i v e r s i t y . [ J L J 13 13 [ J - 73d - c t o t o f c o e o O f<l CO 0> ft) o 0) W W o k k k co n n n> <t: to < C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d t r y h a r d to c o n t a c t the e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s whose c h i l d r e n a r e i n the s c h o o l s . [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d n o t d i s c u s s s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s w i t h t h e f a m i l y . [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d be c h o s e n f r o m o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t e d i n s c h o o l s i f p o s s i b l e . L J L ] [ ] L ] L ] 'he c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d t e l l t h e s t u d e n t i f he or- she h a s t h e a b i l i t y t o go o n t o s t u d y a t c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y . L ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] A c o u n s e l l o r who i s a l s o a t e a c h e r h a l f - t i m e , i s n o t a s g o o d a s a f u l l - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r . L ] I] [] C] L J C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d h e l p s t u d e n t s f i n d j o b s o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s w h i c h w o u l d h e l p them t o work w e l l i n t h i s C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d know more a b o u t the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s w h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i r o w n . L J I ] [ ] [ ] [ ] C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d b e l o n g t o t h e e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s that a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . . [ J L ] I ] U L J 1 f e e l t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s a r e u n a b l e t o s o l v e m o s t p r o b l e m s . [ j L J L ] L ] L ] .'he c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d h e l p t h e s t u d e n t d e c i d e what t o do a f t e r f i n i s h i n g h i g h s c h o o l . L ] I ] L ] I ] I ] C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d n o t be c o n c e r n e d w i t h e t h n i c i s s u e s when g i v i n g a d v i c e o r h e l p t o s t u d e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d s . L J [ ] L J [ ] L ] Come c o u n s e l l o r s a r e n o t c o n f i d e n t i a l a b o u t p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s . I ] [ ] [ J L ] [ ] my s t u d e n t p r o b l e m s s h o u l d be the r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y o f ,iCi „ a n n r . r s + ^ r than tho teacher or p r i n c i p a l . - - LJ LJ L J LJ LJ u [j ii u n the c o u n s e l l o r a t h e r e cher e  C o u n s e l l o r s should not come from other- e t h n i c or m i n o r i t y groups.' . 'hose i t e m s a r e new t o t h i s s c a l e and a r e n e g a t i v e i n t h e i r w o r d i n g , t h e r e f o r e , s c a l e d s c o r e s on t h e s e items, must be r e v e r s e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f s c o r i n g . 

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