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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The mediative role of the Labour Relations Board of British Columbia in disputes involving illegal work… Mathes, Raymond Walter 1982

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THE MEDIATIVE ROLE OF THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN DISPUTES INVOLVING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES by RAYMOND WALTER MATHES B.A., San J o s e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 19?^ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1982 <c) Raymond W a l t e r Mathes, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f *NC Ai&AteSS The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT The Labour Code of B.C. embodies a p o l i c y to promote c o l l e c t i v e bargaining by reducing legalism and emphasizing voluntarism and mutual accommodation. The Labour Relations Board's approach to i l l e g a l work stoppages supports t h i s p o l i c y by encouraging settlements with informal mediation rather than proceeding to a formal hearing and adjudication. The Board's approach i s based on understanding labour d i s -putes as symptoms of underlying c o n f l i c t between p a r t i e s i n a c o l l e c t i v e bargaining r e l a t i o n s h i p . This i s a s i g n i f i c a n t departure from the t r a d i t i o n a l remedies used by the courts for enforcing statutory provisions concerning i l l e g a l work stoppages. The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was to assess the Board's performance i n handling i l l e g a l work stoppages. Thirty-one management representatives and twenty-eight union represen-t a t i v e s who experienced the Board's approach were interviewed Their perceptions were used to assess the Board's performance The Board's approach i s a successful a l t e r n a t i v e to the courts and supports the intent of the Labour Code. The majority of management representatives indicated, however, that the Board's approach works to the advantage of. unions because i t attempts to mediate too often rather than issue an order. They f e l t unions sometimes manipulate the Board's procedures to obtain concessions during i l l e g a l work stoppage Therefore, the Board needs to exercise more d i s c r e t i o n as i i i when t o mediate and when t o convene f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . The Board responds s p e e d i l y enough t o c o m p l a i n t s , s u c c e s s -f u l l y d e t e r m i n e s u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s and i t s media-t i v e r o l e i s not impeded by p a r t i s a n s h i p o f Boardmembers. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . 1 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION . 1 C h a p t e r I . PREVIOUS LABOUR LEGISLATION AND COURT INVOLVEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . . . . . 5 I I . PHILOSOPHY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOUR CODE AND THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD 36 I I I . RESEARCH QUESTIONS 6k I V . METHODOLOGY 81 V. MANAGEMENT AND UNION PERCEPTIONS OF THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD'S APPROACH TO ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES . . . . 9k V I . CONCLUSIONS 137 APPENDICES A- SECTIONS OF THE LABOUR CODE PERTAINING TO ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES . . . IkZ B. LABOUR CODE REGULATIONS CONCERNING APPLICATIONS TO THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD FOR A HEARING 1^7 , C CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION . . . . 151 D. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE 156 E. COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE POPULATION AND THE SAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY 165 V LIST OF TABLES 1 . E m p l o y e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n s o f Whether t h e Board. C h a n n e l s D i s p u t e s i n t o A p p r o p r i a t e P r o c e d u r e s by Type o f P r o c e d u r e s i n S p e c i f i c D i s p u t e s D i s c u s s e d i n I n t e r v i e w s 9 ° 2 . E m p l o y e r s * P e r c e p t i o n s o f Whether the Board C h a n n e l s D i s p u t e s i n t o A p p r o p r i a t e P r o c e d u r e s by E m p l o y e r s ' O b j e c t i v e s f o r C o m p l a i n t s i n S p e c i f i c D i s p u t e s . . . . . 9 ° 3 « E m p l o y e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n s o f Whether the Board Channels D i s p u t e s , i n t o A p p r o p r i a t e P r o c e d u r e s by I n d u s t r y . 1 0 ? 4. E m p l o y e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n s o f Whether the Board Responds w i t h Adequate Speed t o C o m p l a i n t s C o n c e r n i n g D i s p u t e s I n v o l v i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages by G e o g r a p h i c L o c a t i o n 5* E m p l o y e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n s o f Whether the Board's Approach Works to t h e Advantage o f Unions by I n d u s t r y 12b 6 . E m p l o y e r s * P e r c e p t i o n s o f Whether the Board's Approach Works t o t h e Advantage o f Unions i n R e l a t i o n t o Number o f C o m p l a i n t s S u b m i t t e d t o the B o a r d C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l S t r i k e s , 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 8 . . 1 2 8 7- F o r m a l A p p l i c a t i o n s C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages made t o t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s Board o f B.C. and Y e a r , 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 8 . . . ! 5 2 8. I n f o r m a l C o m p l a i n t s C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages made t o the Lab o u r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B.C. by I n d u s t r y , and Y e a r , I 9 7 6 - I 9 7 8 . . . . . . 153 9 ' A p p l i c a t i o n s C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages made t o t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s B oard o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by Y e a r and Outcome, 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 8 1 0 . A p p l i c a t i o n s C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages made t o t h e B.C. L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board by L o c a t i o n and Y e a r , 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 8 . ! 5 5 1 1 . E m p l o y e r and U n i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s I n t e r v i e w e d by I n d u s t r y and L o c a t i o n . . . . 1 5 7 1 2 . S p e c i f i c D i s p u t e s D i s c u s s e d D u r i n g I n t e r v i e w s by I n d u s t r y , Y e a r and Type o f C o m p l a i n t ^ 8 1 3 . Number o f C o m p l a i n t s by I n d u s t r y R e g a r d i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages i n w h i c h O r g a n i z a t i o n s R e p r e s e n t e d by Management and Union I n t e r v i e w e e s were I n v o l v e d , 1 9 7 ^ - 1 9 7 8 1 5 9 14. Outcomes, o f S p e c i f i c D i s p u t e s D i s c u s s e d i n I n t e r v i e w s by Y e a r , 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 8 . . . . . 1 6 0 v i 15. Comparison by I n d u s t r y o f A p p l i c a t i o n made t o the LRB C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages and I n t e r v i e w e e s 162 16. Comparison by Outcome and Yea r o f A p p l i c a t i o n s made to the LRB C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages and S p e c i f i c D i s p u t e s D i s c u s s e d i n I n t e r v i e w s 163 17. Comparison by L o c a t i o n o f A p p l i c a t i o n s made to the LRB C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages and I n t e r v i e w e e s 16^ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o thank the members o f my t h e s i s committee, Dr. Mark Thompson, Dr. C h r i s F r a s e r and Mr. D a v i d M a c - P h i l l i p s , f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and guidance d u r i n g my p r o l o n g e d e f f o r t t o pro d u c e t h i s t h e s i s . I owe s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o Dr. N o e l H a l l f o r g e n e r o u s l y a l l o w i n g me t o use h i s o f f i c e and h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f the L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board's d e c i s i o n s . E a r l y d u r i n g my g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , he made an i n v a l u a b l e i m p r e s s i o n on me t h a t n o t a l l answers t o l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s problems a r e f o u n d i n u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s . I am g r a t e f u l t o the Canada Department o f La b o u r -U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h Committee f o r a w a r d i n g me a g r a n t i n s u p p o r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h f o r my t h e s i s . I am i n d e b t e d t o the Labour R e l a t i o n s Board o f B.C. f o r p r o v i d i n g a l i s t o f management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o s e l e c t f o r i n t e r v i e w s . The management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d e s e r v e my utmost a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g the d a t a f o r t h i s t h e s i s and f o r f u r t h e r i n g my e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h numerous p r a c t i c a l i n s i g h t s i n t o l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . I am g r a t e f u l t o Mrs. Rose W y l i e f o r h e r e x c e l l e n t t y p i n g and Mrs. G l o r i a Sparks o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia f o r l e a d i n g me t h r o u g h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "the t h e s i s and o b t a i n i n g my degree. I cannot a d e q u a t e l y e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o M e r i l y n and Joanna, my w i f e and d a u g h t e r , f o r t h e many weekends and n i g h t t h e y u n s e l f i s h l y p e r m i t t e d me t o s l i p away a l o n e and work. I onl; hope t h e y are rewarded by knowing t h a t t h e i r l o v i n g s u p p o r t was my main i n s p i r a t i o n f o r c o m p l e t i n g the t h e s i s . R.M. September, 1982 1 INTRODUCTION The L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1" i s a t the f o r e f r o n t i n a movement o f Canadian l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n towards p r o v i d i n g w i d e r j u r i s d i c t i o n and g r e a t e r r e m e d i a l power t o l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s 2 b o a r d s . An i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f the Code i s the p r o v i s i o n f o r e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s Board o v e r s t r i k e s , l o c k o u t s and p i c k e t i n g . I n e x e r c i s i n g i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n , the Board's approach t o c o m p l a i n t s o f i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s i s to encourage a v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t o f the d i s p u t e r a t h e r t h a n p r o c e e d i n g to a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and a d j u d i c a t i o n . T h i s a p p r o a c h o f t e n p l a c e s the Board i n a m e d i a t i v e r o l e . The Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e i s f a c i l i t a t e d by p r o c e d u r e s d e s i g n e d t o encourage v o l u n t a r y accommodation between the p a r t i e s i n a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . The B o a r d ' s p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i l l e g a l work stop p a g e s a r e based on r e c o g n i z i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages as symptoms o f u n d e r l y i n g c o n f l i c t between the p a r t i e s . T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e f r o m the T r a d i t i o n a l approach by the c o u r t s f o r e n f o r c i n g c o m p l i a n c e w i t h s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i l l e -g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The c o u r t s r e l i e d on r e m e d i e s such as i n j u n c -t i o n s , damages and p r o s e c u t i o n f o r c r i m i n a l contempt w h i c h i g n o r e d the u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s b e h i n d i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e B oard has been o p e r a t i n g f o r more than e i g h t y e a r s , i n f o r m a t i o n about the s u c c e s s o f i t s p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e s i s s c a r c e . The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to a s s e s s the Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The p e r c e p t i o n s o f management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who have e x p e r i e n c e d the Board's e f f o r t s t o medi a t e i n the s e d i s p u t e s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l measure o f the Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e . The p a r t i e s p e r c e p t i o n s are t h e i r assessments o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and u s e f u l n e s s o f the Board's a p p r o a c h . The i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each d i f -f e r e n t b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p make i n d i v i d u a l assessments a p p r o -p r i a t e i n d i c a t o r s o f the Board's p e r f o r m a n c e . S i n c e j u d i c i a l i n -v olvement i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s has been a s o u r c e o f i n t e n s e a n t a -gonism among l a b o u r and management, government and t h e c o u r t s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r y , the p a r t i e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s are v a l u a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g the Board's approach as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the t r a d i t i o n a l remedies used by the c o u r t s . T h e r e f o r e , the r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e f o r t h i s t h e s i s was to c o l l e c t , a n a l y z e and r e p o r t p e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r t i e s who have ex-p e r i e n c e d the Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l ' work s t o p p a g e s . These p e r c e p t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d from p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . The i n t e r v i e w s were g u i d e d by a s e t o f p r e p a r e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Responses were a n a l y z e d and r e c o r d e d imme-d i a t e l y - a f t e r each i n t e r v i e w . The t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x c h a p t e r s . The f i r s t c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a background o f p r e v i o u s l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n and c o u r t i n -volvement i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s i n B.C. T h i s background i s n e c e s s a r y f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r e s e n t Board's a p p r o a c h . The second c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e ' p h i l o s o p h y and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Board w h i c h p r o v i d e d the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the r e s e a r c h ques-t i o n s . The t h i r d c h a p t e r g i v e s t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s w i t h r a t i o n a l and e x p e c t e d i n t e r v i e w r e s p o n s e s . The f o u r t h , f i f t h and s i x t h chap-1 t e r s c o v e r the r e s e a r c h methodology, r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s r e -s p e c t i v e l y . 4-Notes •'•S.B.C 1973 ( 2 d . S e s s . ) . C 122. 2 D.D. C a r t e r , The E x p a n s i o n o f Labour Board Remedies; A  New Approach t o I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C e n t r e , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. -^The L a b o u r Code, P a r t V. CHAPTER I PREVIOUS LABOUR LEGISLATION AND COURT INVOLVEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The p e r c e p t i o n s o f l a b o u r and management towards the p r e s e n t L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board's approach t o i l l e g a l work s t o p -pages must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p r e v i o u s l a b o u r l e g -i s l a t i o n i n B.C. L abour l e g i s l a t i o n and c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s have been s o u r c e s o f d e e p - s e a t e d h o s t i l i t i e s among l a b o u r and management, government and the c o u r t s . 1 " The h o s t i l i t i e s a re r o o t e d i n the e a r l y development o f the p r o v i n c e when the g o a l s o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n an u n s t a b l e f r o n t i e r economy c o n f l i c t e d w i t h m i l i t a n t w o r k e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the m i n i n g i n -2 d u s t r y . A f t e r World War I I , new l e g i s l a t i o n was implemented m B.C. w h i c h was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l L a b o r R e l a t i o n s  (Wagner) Act.-^ The new l e g i s l a t i o n e l e v a t e d the l e g a l s t a t u s o f u n i o n s and c o l l e c t i v e agreements. The c o u r t s became more i n v o l v e d i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s and the f r e q u e n c y o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n c r e a s e d . The p e r c e p t i o n s o f l a b o u r and management towards the Board's approach i n e v i t a b l y r e f l e c t c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n and c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . T h i s c h a p t e r summarizes p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h emphasis on c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t and the use o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n i l l e g a l work stoppages L a b o u r L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia 1907-1946" E a r l y l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n B.C. c o n t r i b u t e d t o h o s t i l -i t i e s i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e m a i n l y because o f compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t h a t de-l a y e d the use o f economic s a n c t i o n s and f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e f o r u n i o n r e c o g n i t i o n . There are many examples o f employers r e s p o n d i n g t o economic s a n c t i o n s w i t h s t r i k e b r e a k e r s w h i c h r e -s u l t e d i n i n t i m i d a t i o n o r v i o l e n c e and subsequent i n v o l v e m e n t 4 o f the m i l i t a r y o r p o l i c e and the c o u r t s . The r e s u l t was l a b o u r c o n c l u d e d t h a t government was c o n t r o l l e d by l a r g e - s c a l e e n t r e p r e n e u r s . - ^ The f e d e r a l I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n ( I D I ) A c t o f 1907 was t h e model f o r l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n B.C. f o r o v e r t h i r t y y e a r s . Woods d e s c r i b e d the approach embodied i n the ID I A c t as " n o r m a t i v e " because i t p r o v i d e d f o r C o n c i l i a t i o n B oards t o make recommendations f o r r e s o l v i n g d i s p u t e s based on norms e s t a b l i s h e d e l s e w h e r e . ^ S e c t i o n 5 o f the IDI A c t p r o -v i d e d t h a t e i t h e r p a r t y i n the d i s p u t e c o u l d a p p l y t o the M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r f o r t h e appointment o f a Board o f C o n c i l i a t i o n . S e c t i o n 63 made i t u n l a w f u l f o r any employer t o d e c l a r e o r cause a l o c k o u t , o r f o r any employee to go on s t r i k e , o v e r a d i s p u t e w h i l e t h a t d i s p u t e was r e f e r r e d under the A c t t o a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . Selekman i n d i c a t e d miners and r a i l r o a d employees were opposed t o the A c t , but t h e " l a b o r movement as a whole seems t o have been d e f i n i t e l y i n f a v o r o f l t . " u C a r r o t h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t u n i o n s c r i t i c i z e d the A c t because i t h i n d e r e d them i n t a k i n g economic s a n c t i o n s a t t h e "most p r o p i t i o u s t i m e " , because em-p l o y e r s were n o t a c c e p t i n g the recommendations o f c o n c i l i a t o r s and because t h e r e was e v i d e n c e o f p a r t i s a n s h i p on t h e c o n c i l i a t i o n b o a r d s . The u n i o n s were a l s o c r i t i c a l t h a t employers extended and e x p l o i t e d the p r o c e d u r a l d e l a y s . w h i c h caused t h e " c o o l i n g o f f " o p e r i o d t o be a " h o t t i n g up" p e r i o d . C a r r o t h e r s s a i d t h e b a s i c weakness i n the A c t was ... i t gave no p r o t e c t i o n t o u n i o n s from a c t i o n s o f employers c a l c u l a t e d t o d i s c o u r a g e employees from o r g a n i z i n g ; n o r d i d i t impose on the employer any o b l i g a t i o n t o r e c o g n i z e , o r b a r g a i n w i t h a u n i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s employees. The A c t ' s impact i n the a r e a o f u n i o n s e c u r i t y on the o u t l o o k o f the l a b o u r movement i s e x p l a i n e d by P h i l l i p s i n r e l a t i o n t o a d i s p u t e o v e r the "open shop" i s s u e i n B - C ' s m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . I n 1907, M a c k e n z i e K i n g , then f e d e r a l Deputy M i n i s t e r o f Labour, a c t e d as c o n c i l i a t o r i n the d i s p u t e and e f f e c t e d a s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h s a t i s f i e d t he e m p l o y e r s ' demands f o r an "open shop" p o l i c y . P h i l l i p s s a i d : . . . the d i s p u t e s t a r t e d the l a s t i n g o p p o s i t i o n o f the w e s t e r n m i n e r s , b o t h c o a l and m e t a l , a g a i n s t t h e I D I A c t . I t d e v e l o p e d i n t o an a n t a g o n i s m t h a t was f r e q u e n t l y r e i n f o r c e d i n subsequent y e a r s be-cause o f t h e ap p a r e n t a n t i - u n i o n b i a s o f the i n v e s -t i g a t i o n chairman a p p o i n t e d under the a c t , and be-cause the d e l a y s p r o v i d e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n a l l o w e d f o r the i m p o r t a t i o n o f s t r i k e b r e a k e r s 12 W h i l e the S n i d e r case e s t a b l i s h e d p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s -d i c t i o n o v e r l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i n 1925. B.C. r e t a i n e d the IDI  A c t though e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n u n t i l 193? when the I n d u s t r i a l 8 C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n A c t was p a s s e d . T h i s s t a t u t e had s i m i l a r i t i e s to' the Wagner A c t and p r o v i d e d f o r c o m p u l s o r y c o l -l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g combined w i t h the c o m p u l s o r y c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s c a r r i e d o v e r f r o m the I D I A c t . The I n d u s t r i a l  C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n A c t o f 1937 d i d n o t make p r o v i s i o n s f o r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a L abour Re-l a t i o n s B o ard. Thus, a l t h o u g h the l a t e r a c t d i d r e p r e s e n t an i m p o r t a n t change i n p o l i c y , i t d i d n o t c o n t a i n f u n d a m e n t a l p r o -v i s i o n s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g the change. A more complete a d o p t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s o f the Wagner A c t appeared i n Canada w i t h t h e wartime l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o -duced by P r i v y C o u n c i l Order 1003 (P.C. 1003) i n 1944. The o r d e r p r o v i d e d the g e n e r a l framework f o r r e g u l a t i o n o f labour-management r e l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r u n i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Wartime Labour R e l a t i o n s B o a r d . A f t e r the war, the p r o v i n c e s resumed t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r i n d u s t r i a l r e -l a t i o n s and most j u r i s d i c t i o n s f o l l o w e d the example o f P.C. 1003 by p a s s i n g s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e l a t e 1940's and e a r l y I950»s. Labour L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1947-1973 B r i t i s h C olumbia was one o f the f i r s t p r o v i n c e s t o l e g i s l a t e Wagner-type l a b o u r p o l i c y w i t h p r o v i s i o n s f o r u n i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n . B.C. r e t a i n e d the emphasis on p r e v e n t i n g work stoppages w i t h s t a t u t o r y d e l a y s , and s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s were p r o h i b i t e d d u r i n g t h e term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement. Union-management r e l a t i o n s became 9 more l e g a l i s t i c . A h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f w i l d c a t s t r i k e s and i n -In-c r e a s e d use o f i n j u n c t i o n s appeared i n the f i f t i e s . Some very-p u n i t i v e . l e g i s l a t i o n was passed w h i c h g e n e r a l l y i n t e n s i f i e d hos-t i l i t i e s i n the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e . I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n A c t , 19 -^7 The I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n (ICA) A c t was passed i n 19^7 and p r o v i d e d p r o t e c t i o n f o r r i g h t s o f w o r k e r s t o o r g a n i z e f r e e from employer i n t e r f e r e n c e and f o r co m p u l s o r y b a r g a i n i n g between employers and c e r t i f i e d u n i o n s . A Labour R e l a t i o n s Board was c r e a t e d t o a d m i n i s t e r the p r o v i s i o n s o f the s t a t u t e c o n c e r n i n g u n i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n , d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b a r -g a i n i n g u n i t s and whether the p a r t i e s had e n t e r e d a c o l l e c t i v e agreement The approach to d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n f o r " i n t e r e s t " 1 " ^ d i s -17 putes under t h e ICA A c t remained n o r m a t i v e and r e l i e d on com-p u l s o r y d e l a y s f o r c o n c i l i a t i o n as compared t o the v o l u n t a r i s t i c , accommodative s t y l e o f American l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . The p r o c e d -u r e s f o r co m p u l s o r y c o n c i l i a t i o n were more i n v o l v e d t h a n under the 1907 I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t . and, i n a d d i t i o n , the ICA A c t p r o v i d e d f o r g o v e r n --1 o ment s u p e r v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e s . The p r o v i s i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t , .if' a c o n c i l i a t o r ' s recommendations were r e j e c t e d , s t r i k e s and l o c k -o u t s were i l l e g a l u n t i l a government s u p e r v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e occurred.. Anton r e p o r t e d t h a t government s u p e r v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e s u nder the ICA A c t were i n re s p o n s e t o "an o u t b r e a k o f s t r i k e s , 10 b o t h l e g a l and i l l e g a l , t h a t f o l l o w e d W o r l d War I I . " ^ These s t r i k e s a l l e g e d l y were caused by Communist-dominated l e a d e r s and u n i o n s . Members of the p u b l i c , members o f the l e g i s l a t u r e and e m p l o y e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s a g i t a t e d f o r changes i n l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h would r e s t r i c t the a c t i v i t i e s o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r . Super-v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e s was one o f s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s , w h i c h a l s o i n c l u d e d p u l s o r y f i l i n g o f f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t by u n i o n s , p e n a l t i e s f o r i l l e g a l s t r i k e s , u n i o n r e g i s t r a t i o n as c o r p o r a t e b o d i e s , p r o -h i b i t i o n o f b o t h compulsory u n i o n membership and check o f f dues 20 t o " r e s t r i c t the monopoly power o f t r a d e u n i o n s . " P r e d i c t a b l y , t r a d e u n i o n s i n B.C. r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y t o the p r o p o s a l s . Anton r e p o r t e d l a b o u r ' s views as f o l l o w s : The t r a d e u n i o n s r e a l i z e d the p r o b a b l e e f f e c t o f t h e proposed changes. I n a c o n s o l i d a t e d b r i e f to the l e g i s l a t u r e t h e y s t a t e d t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s : t h e y p a r t i -c u l a r l y o b j e c t e d to the i m p o s i t i o n o f a s u p e r v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e b e f o r e a s t r i k e c o u l d l e g a l l y be c a l l e d and t o the s e t t i n g o f p e n a l t i e s f o r i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . They t h r e a t e n e d t o i g n o r e the b i l l i t i f became law and a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e A c t would cause the number o f s t r i k e s t o i n c r e a s e . . . the purpose of t h e A c t was t o r e n d e r o r -g a n i z e d l a b o u r p o w e r l e s s . . . the government was b e i n g un-r e a l i s t i c t o e x p e c t t r a d e u n i o n s t o a c c e p t c o m p u l s o r y s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t r i k e v o t e s when such a p r o v i s i o n wag, "the most v i c i o u s system e v e r i n t r o d u c e d i n Canada." S u p e r v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e s d i d become p a r t o f the ICA A c t . The ICA A c t and p o s t - w a r l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r Cana-d i a n j u r i s d i c t i o n s a l s o d i f f e r e d from the American approach w i t h c o m p u l s o r y p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e g u l a t i n g d i s p u t e s o v e r c o n t r a c t i n t e r -11 p r e t a t i o n o r " r i g h t s " d i s p u t e s . The C a n a d i a n emphasis on a v o i d i n g work s t o p p a g e s m a n i f e s t e d i n most p o s t - w a r l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h p r o v i s i o n s p r o h i b i t i n g s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s d u r i n g t h e term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement. I n c o n t r a s t , the Wagner A c t and s u b s equent l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t a i n no such p r o v i s i o n . The g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e i n t h e U.S. has been t h a t the p a r t i e s n e g o t i a t e a n o - s t r i k e c l a u s e . I n exchange f o r g i v i n g up the s t r i k e s a n c t i o n , u n i o n s demanded t h a t r i g h t s d i s p u t e s be s u b m i t t e d to g r i e v a n c e m a c h i n e r y t e r -m i n a t i n g w i t h a r b i t r a t i o n . A r b i t r a t i o n c l a u s e s became the 22 q u i d pro quo f o r n o - s t r i k e c l a u s e s i n c o l l e c t i v e agreements. I n Canada, most s t a t u t e s c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s r e q u i r i n g the p a r t i e s t o use a r b i t r a t i o n f o r d i s p u t e s a r i s i n g d u r i n g the term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement. The ICA A c t s p e c i f i e d t h a t c o l l e c t i v e agreements i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r s e t t l i n g t h e s e d i s p u t e s peace-f u l l y "by a r b i t r a t i o n o r o t h e r w i s e " . ' However, i t was g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t a r b i t r a t i o n was the means c o n t e m p l a t e d by the p r o v i s i o n . 2 - ^ Thus, the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between Ca n a d i a n p o l i c y , r e f l e c t e d i n the ICA A c t , and American p o l i c y f o r s e t t l i n g d i s -p u t e s a r i s i n g - d u r i n g t h e term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement was t h a t C a n a d i a n s t a t u t e s impose s t r i k e p r o h i b i t i o n and a r b i t r a t i o n , and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the p a r t i e s are f r e e t o n e g o t i a t e t h e s e p r o -v i s i o n s i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e agreement. Enforcement o f the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i l l e -g a l work stoppages under the ICA A c t was i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the c o u r t s . The c o u r t s a p p l i e d p u n i t i v e remedies s u c h as f i n e s p r e s c r i b e d by the s t a t u t e , i n j u n c t i o n s and damage awards.' To o u t l i n e the e v o l u t i o n o f the c o u r t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n i l l e g a l work 12 s t o p p a g e s under the ICA A c t and most subsequent l a b o u r l e g i s -l a t i o n i n B.C. u n t i l the p r e s e n t Labour Code, t h r e e m a t t e r s need t o be c o n s i d e r e d : the s t a t u s o f t r a d e u n i o n s as l e g a l e n t i t i e s , work s t o p p a g e s as a b r e a c h o f the s t a t u t e and work stoppages as a b r e a c h o f the c o l l e c t i v e agreement. L e g a l s t a t u s o f t r a d e u n i o n s The l e g a l s t a t u s o f t r a d e u n i o n s was g r e a t l y enhanced by l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r c ompulsory c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g b e t -ween employers and t r a d e u n i o n s w h i c h a r e c e r t i f i e d b a r g a i n i n g 24 a g e n t s . C u r t i s s a i d the f o l l o w i n g : . C a n a d i a n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s t a t u t e s add to t h e s t a t u s o f u n i o n s by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r r i g h t t o a c t as b a r g a i n i n g agents f o r employees, w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o make c o l l e c t i v e agreements on t h e i r b e h a l f . The s t a t u t e s add t o t h e s t a t u s o f u n i o n s when th e y d e f i n e t h e i r d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and make them ans w e r a b l e f o r the o f f e n s e s t h e y commit I t i s c l e a r t h a t the new c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s t a t u t e s have c o n f e r r e d new and i m p o r t a n t r i g h t s and powers on u n i o n s t h a t g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r p r o -grammes and make t h e i r i n f l u e n c e f e l t i n the b u s i n e s s com-m u n i t y . I t i s a s h o r t s t e p from t h a t f i n d i n g t o the con -c l u s i o n t h a t the new i m p o r t a n c e and power o f u n i o n s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e y assume a new and w i d e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t t hey be h e l d l i a b l e f o r t h e i r w r o n g f u l a c t s . 2 5 The i s s u e became whether u n i o n s a r e l e g a l e n t i t i e s w h i c h c o u l d be h e l d l i a b l e i n a c o u r t o f law. P r e v i o u s t o s t a t u t e s m aking c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g c o m p u l s o r y , i t was u n l i k e l y t h a t t r a d e u n i o n s would be h e l d l i a b l e f o r b r e a c h o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement. A f t e r the enactment o f t h e ICA A c t , B.C. C o u r t s s oon p r o v i d e d judgments w h i c h f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d u n i o n s were l e g a l e n t i t i e s and c o u l d be sued. Two o f t h e e a r l i e s t judgments, i n 13 p a r t i c u l a r , became l e a d i n g l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n Canada.^' I n Re P a t t e r s o n and Nanaimo Dry C l e a n i n g and Laundry Workers U n i o n  L o c a l No. 1 i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19^7 t h a t t r a d e u n i o n s a r e l e g a l e n t i t i e s s e p a r a t e from t h e i r members. Then i n Vancouver  M a c h i n e r y Depot L i m i t e d e t a l . v. U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a  e t a l . 2 ^ i n 19^-8 i t was h e l d t h a t the u n i o n was a l e g a l e n t i t y a g a i n s t w h i c h a c t i o n c o u l d be b r o u g h t f o r damages r e s u l t i n g f r om a b r e a c h o f p r o v i s i o n s i n the s t a t u t e c o n c e r n i n g s t r i k e v o t e p r o c e d u r e s . Work s t o p p a g e s as a b r e a c h o f the s t a t u t e The judgment i n t h e Vancouver M a c h i n e r y case s u g g e s t e d t h a t a u n i o n c o u l d be h e l d l i a b l e f o r damages f o r a b r e a c h o f the s t a t u t e . The l i a b i l i t y o f u n i o n s t o pay damages un d e r the law o f t o r t f o r b reaches o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s s t a t u t e s became a c o n t r o v e r s i a l l e g a l i s s u e t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s . The T h i e r e n 30 case-' u n d e r t h e B.C. Trade Unions A c t o f 1959 c o n f i r m e d t h a t u n i o n s c o u l d be sued f o r damages f o r b r e a c h e s o f the s t a t u t e . The t o r t i o u s l i a b i l i t y i s s u e has been a n a l y s e d i n d e p t h 31 32 by A r t h u r s - ' and C h r i s t i e - ' and w i l l be b r i e f l y m entioned a g a i n l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The ICA A c t c o n t a i n e d p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h made employers and u n i o n s l i a b l e f o r f i n e s as p e n a l t i e s f o r c a u s i n g i l l e g a l s t r i k e s 33 o r l o c k o u t s . -' B a s i c a l l y , the A c t p r o v i d e d t h a t an a g g r i e v e d p a r t y c o u l d c o m p l a i n t o the M i n i s t e r o f Labour t o o b t a i n " c o n s e n t 34 t o p r o s e c u t i o n . " ^ Then upon "summary c o n v i c t i o n " a c o u r t would impose a f i n e , i n t h e case o f a t r a d e u n i o n , "not e x c e e d i n g one hundred and twenty-five d o l l a r s f o r each day th a t the s t r i k e e x i s t e d . '"^ Work stoppages as a breach of the c o l l e c t i v e agreement The i n t r o d u c t i o n of compulsory c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s t a t u t e s l i k e the ICA Act a l s o i n c r e a s e d the l e g a l s t a t u s of c o l l e c t i v e agreement. C u r t i s e x p l a i n s : The s t a t u t e s . . . add to the s t a t u s of c o l l e c t i v e agreements when they d e c l a r e them b i n d i n g on a l l con-cerned, on the union, on the employees and on the em-p l o y e r , and when they r e q u i r e that the p a r t i e s to c o l l e c t i v e agreements upon procedures f o r the f i n a l and b i n d i n g settlement of disputes t h a t a r i s e between them i n v o l v i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a p p l i c a t i o n , ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n , or a l l e g e d v i o l a t i o n of t h e i r agree-ments ,. . .3° The l e g a l i s s u e became whether a c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s enforceable i n the courts i n the same manner as a l e g a l c o n t r a c t under common law. As w i t h the s t a t u s of unions as l e g a l e n t i -t i e s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , B.C. courts were at the f o r e f r o n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s which imposed l i a b i l i t y f o r breach of a c o l l e c t i v e agreement. ' The courts were open to unions and employers f o r enforcement of t h e i r agreements. Thus, employers would f o l l o w the well-developed procedures and go to the courts to recover damages as a r e s u l t of a s t r i k e w h i l e an agreement was i n e f f e c t . Indeed, C u r t i s s a i d , "In /B.CjJ 7" the p a r t i e s are much more disposed than i n other provinces to go to the courts w i t h t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . " The ICA Act represented a great s t e p forward to the B.C. labour movement i n regards to union r e c o g n i t i o n . Yet, i n -volvement of the courts i n r e g u l a t i n g s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g under the ICA Act d i d not enhance the• 15 l a b o u r movement's v i e w s o f e i t h e r the c o u r t s o r the government. Labour's p e r c e p t i o n s o f the l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s -p u t e s were d e s c r i b e d by P h i l l i p s as f o l l o w s : Trade u n i o n s f o r purposes o f i m p l e m e n t i n g the ICA  A c t were l e g a l e n t i t i e s . A s e r i e s o f s u i t s f o r damages a g a i n s t u n i o n s f o l l o w e d . T h i s p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f c o u r t a c t i o n s and judgments a g a i n s t t h e u n i o n s f o r i l l e g a l s t r i k e s was a r e v e l a t i o n to l a b o u r w h i c h was n o t used to government i n v o l v e m e n t i n what p r e v i o u s l y had con-c e r n e d t h e . u n i o n s o n l y . The l e g i s l a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n o f s t r i k e s a l s o opened the door t o i n c r e a s e d use o f i n j u n c -t i o n s , w h i c h g r e a t l y compromised th e r i g h t t o p i c k e t and t o s t r i k e . 3 8 The use o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s became a c r i t i c a l i s s u e a f f e c t i n g management-union r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h o u t the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s . C r i t i c i s m s o f i n j u n c t i o n s were an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on the a p p r o a c h t o i l l e g a l work stoppages b u i l t i n t o the L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a i n 1973-C r i t i c i s m s t e n d t o be s i m i l a r w h i c h have e v o l v e d from the use o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n b o t h the C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e and t h e American e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e the N o r r i s L a G u a r d i a A c t , 7 w h i c h banned the l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . F our major c r i t i c i s m s a re r e v i e w e d below: ko 1. Ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s were sometimes g r a n t e d by the  c o u r t s p e r f u n c t o r i l y , w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e and  based on c o m p l a i n a n t s ' a f f i d a v i t s w h i c h were o f t e n  e x a g g e r a t e d and i n a c c u r a t e . To a v o i d " i r r e p a r a b l e harm" to the c o m p l a i n a n t , i n some cas e s t h e r e may have been ur g e n c y i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f n e c e s s a r y documents f o r the i n j u n c t i o n , appearance by c o u n s e l b e f o r e t h e j u d g e , e t c . One c r i t i c i s m was t h a t i n j u n c t i v e o r d e r s were i s s u e d as a m a t t e r o f r o u t i n e i n the same form as a p p l i e d f o r by the e m p l o y e r - c o m p l a i n a n t . 16 C a r r o t h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t f i f t y - o n e out o f s i x t y - t h r e e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a from 1946 t o 1955 were g r a n t e d i n t h e same form t h e y were a p p l i e d f o r , perhaps i m -4 l p l y i n g p e r f u n c t o r y t r e a t m e n t by j u d g e s . However, he a l s o r e p o r t e d i n a s u r v e y o f f o r t y - t w o s o l i c i t o r s , those a c t i n g f o r employers i n d i c a t e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y the v i e w t h a t t h e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s w a r r a n t e d an ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n i n the form i t was ob-t a i n e d , whereas t h e s o l i c i t o r s a c t i n g f o r u n i o n s e x p r e s s e d n e a r l y 42 as s t r o n g a v i e w t o t h e c o n t r a r y . O b v i o u s l y , f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s whether i n j u n c t i o n s were h a n d l e d p e r f u n c t o r i l y o r judges i n v a r i a b l y p e r c e i v e d d i s p u t e s i n management's terms under the law as i t e x i s t e d c o u l d o n l y be o b t a i n e d f rom a case by case a n a l y s i s . I t was a l s o c r i t i c i z e d t h a t ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s were i s s u e d w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e and on a l l e g a t i o n s o f f a c t c o n t a i n e d i n a f f i d a v i t s w h i c h were e x a g g e r a t e d o r i n a c c u r a t e . F r a n k f u r t e r and Greene emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f a c t f i n d i n g i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s as f o l l o w s : J u d i c i a l e r r o r i s t o o c o s t l y t o e i t h e r s i d e o f a l a b o u r , d i s p u t e t o p e r m i t p e r f u n c t o r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the c r u c i a l i s s u e s ; even i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , i t must be s e a r c h i n g . The n e c e s s i t y o f f i n d i n g the f a c t s q u i c k l y f rom s o u r c e s vague, e m b i t t e r e d and p a r t i s a n , c o l o u r e d a t the s t a r t by the p a s s i o n a t e i n t e n s i t i e s o f a l a b o u r c o n t r o v e r s y , c a l l s a t b e s t f o r r a r e j u d i c i a l q u a l i t i e s . I t becomes an i m p o s s i b l e a s s i g n m e n t when judg e s r e l y s o l e l y upon the c o m p l a i n t and t h e a f f i d a v i t s o f i n t e r e s t e d o r p r o f e s s i o n a l w i t -n e s s e s , u n t e s t e d by the s a f e g u a r d s o f common law t r i a l s - -p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e o f w i t n e s s e s , c o n f r o n t a t i o n and c r o s s -e x a m i n a t i on. ~r-5 I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d based on a f f i d a v i t e v i d e n c e on " i n f o r m a t i o n and b e l i e f " ^ t h a t f a v o u r e d the p l a i n -t i f f ' s case w o u l d n o t do much f o r the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the c o u r t s 17 from the p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e n j o i n e d p a r t y . 2. I n j u n c t i o n s a r o u s e d r e s e n t m e n t and an t a g o n i s m t h a t o f t e n l e a d  t o a c t i v e v i o l e n c e . A common c r i t i c i s m o f i n j u n c t i o n s was t h e y caused r e -sentment and a n t a g o n i s m amongst s t r i k i n g employees. W i t t e a t t r i -b u t e d the r e s e n t m e n t t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t an i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t l a b o u r brands i t , i n t h e eyes o f the p u b l i c , as a wrongdoer. Whether t h e cause f o r r e s e n t m e n t was the s o c i a l s t i g m a o f b e i n g r e s t r a i n e d by a c o u r t o r d e r o r economic r e a l i t i e s and e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y p l u s o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d s p e c i f i c d i s -p u t e s , t h e r e seemed t o be g e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o i l l w i l l i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . However, e v i d e n c e i s n o t c o n c l u s i v e t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s l e d t o v i o l e n c e . C a r r o t h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e v i e w was e x p r e s s e d " o v e r w h e l m i n g l y " i n a s u r -vey o f s o l i c i t o r s t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s d i d n o t have t h e e f f e c t o f 46 a g g r a v a t i n g t h e co m m i s s i o n o f u n l a w f u l a c t s . 3• I n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s have caused the j u d i c i a r y  t o be s u s p e c t i n t h e eyes o f l a b o u r . A l t h o u g h i n most cases judges were p r o b a b l y bound to g r a n t i n j u n c t i o n s by l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s s p e c i f i e d f o r i n j u n c t i o n s , l a b o u r ' s r e s e n t m e n t was "most b i t t e r " a g a i n s t them and th e y were blamed' 47 p e r s o n a l l y " f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . ' One B.C. l a b o u r l e a d e r e x p r e s s e d t h a t ' e v e n i f j u d g e s had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r e a t l a b o u r d i s p u t e s i n a more a p p r o p r i a t e manner, " t h e i r background and l e g a l i s t i c t r a i n i n g makes many o f them i l l - e q u i p p e d t o a d j u d i c a t e l a b o u r -LQ management r e l a t i o n s . " The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t l a b o u r p e r -c e i v e d judges were n o t i m p a r t i a l i n a d j u d i c a t i n g between d i s -p u t a n t s , one f r o m t h e i r own s o c i a l c l a s s and one from a n o t h e r s o c i a l c l a s s . 4. The c h o i c e b e f o r e the c o u r t i n d e c i d i n g t o i s s u e an  i n j u n c t i o n may n o t be between i r r e p a r a b l e damage.to  one s i d e and compensable damage to the o t h e r , because  the harm caused to the u n i o n by the d e p r i v a t i o n o f an  economic weapon may by i t s n a t u r e be i n c a l c u l a b l e i n terms  o f b a r g a i n i n g power. T h i s c r i t i c i s m h i n g e s on r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t d i s p u t e s g i v i n g r i s e t o most l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s were n o t by n a t u r e l e g a l , b u t con-f l i c t s between p a r t i e s i n a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . F r a n k f u r t e r and Greene remarked on t h i s problem w i t h i n j u n c t i o n s as f o l l o w s : Where t h e p l a i n t i f f on the s u r f a c e p r e s e n t s a m e r i t o r i o u s c a s e , he s h o u l d not be exposed t o the p e r i l o f i r r e p a r a b l e damage b e f o r e the c o u r t can make a v a i l a b l e t o i t s s l o w e r , though much more s c r u t i n i z i n g , p r o c e s s e s o f f a c t - f i n d i n g . T h i s form o f r e l i e f p r e s e n t s no d i f f i c u l t y when the temporary s u s p e n s i o n o f d e f e n d a n t ' s a c t i v i t i e s r e s u l t s i n no v e r y g r e a t damage t o him, a t l e a s t no damage t h a t cannot be a d e q u a t e l y compensated by money... I n l a b o u r c a s e s , however, c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r s e n t e r . The i n j u n c t i o n cannot p r e s e r v e t h e s o - c a l l e d s t a t u s quo; the s i t u a t i o n does n o t r e m a i n i n e q u i l i b r i u m a w a i t i n g judgment upon f u l l knowledge. The s u s p e n s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t s o n l y the s t r i k -e r s . . . I m p r o v i d e n t d e n i a l o f the i n j u n c t i o n may be i r r e p a r a b l e to the c o m p l a i n a n t ; i m p r o v i d e n t i s s u e o f the i n j u n c t i o n may be i r r e p a r a b l e t o the d e f e n d -a n t . F o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e o r d i n a r y mechanics o f the p r o v i s i o n a l i n j u n c t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s are p l a i n l y i n a d e q u a t e . 5 0 The above q u o t a t i o n f o c u s e s on a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f the imp a c t o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n a l a b o u r d i s p u t e ; namely, the i m p a c t on the r e l a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g power o f the p a r t i e s . I n C a r r o t h e r ' s s u r v e y , h a l f o f the u n i o n s ' s o l i c i t o r s and about t w o - t h i r d s o f the e m p loyers' s o l i c i t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r e s u l t o f an i n -j u n c t i o n was the s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f the employer's b a r g a i n i n g p o s i -t i o n . 19 The e f f e c t o f an i n j u n c t i o n may have been t o break the s t r i k e by r e s t r a i n i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the u n i o n w h i l e l e a v i n g the e mployer f r e e t o c a r r y on h i s , b u s i n e s s . Thus, an i n j u n c t i o n c u r -t a i l e d the u n i o n ' s o n l y e f f e c t i v e weapon i n economic c o n f l i c t . The c o u r t a c t e d i n a sense as a s t r i k e b r e a k e r by p r e -j u d g i n g t h e d i s p u t e and s u b s e q u e n t l y t e r m i n a t i n g a s t r i k e on terms l e s s f a v o u r a b l e t o the u n i o n t h a n m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be o b t a i n e d . C a r r o t h e r s p o i n t s o u t , however, t h a t t h e c o u r t s were o b l i g e d t o r e n d e r a d e c i s i o n upon r e c e i v i n g p r o p e r a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an i n -52 j u n c t i o n . I f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an i n j u n c t i o n was t o s t o p a work stoppage t h a t was u n l a w f u l , t h e c o u r t was o b l i g e d t o u p h o l d the employer's r i g h t s under l a w . T h i s s u p p o r t s the argument t h a t an employer i s p r o t e c t e d by s t a t u t e w i t h "two y e a r s o f l a b o u r peace" once a c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s c o n c l u d e d . The l a t t e r argument i s d i f f i c u l t t o c h a l l e n g e i n a case where an e m ployer i s w r o n g f u l l y s u b j e c t e d t o a s t r i k e by an i r r e s p o n s i b l e u n i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e law d i d n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e l y f o r a case i n w h i c h an employer w i t h " u n c l e a n hands" o b t a i n e d an i n j u n c t i o n . L a bour R e l a t i o n s A c t , 195^-The ICA A c t was succeeded i n 195^- by the Labour R e l a t i o n s 53 A c t . y The new s t a t u t e r e s e m b l e d the ICA A c t w i t h some i m p o r t a n t changes i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s w h i c h i n c r e a s e d t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f the c o u r t s and t h e m i n i s t e r . B e f o r e d e s c r i b i n g s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s , i t i s u s e f u l t o d e s c r i b e v e r y b r i e f l y the p a s s i n g o f t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t i n a p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . The A c t was t h e f i r s t l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n o f 2 0 the S o c i a l C r e d i t government e l e c t e d i n 1952 and headed by P r e m i e r W.A.C B e n n e t t . The S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y n a r r o w l y d e f e a t e d the C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n (CCF), p r e d e c e s s o r t o the New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y (NDP), and has r emained i n power i n B.C. f o r t w e r i t y -^4 f i v e o f t h e l a s t t w e n t y - n i n e y e a r s . The CCF and t h e l a b o u r movement v i g o r o u s l y opposed the A c t and saw i t "as a d e l i b e r a t e and open a t t e m p t t o undermine u n i o n s t r e n g t h . " ^ M a t k i n , f o r -m e r l y B.C. Deputy M i n i s t e r o f Labour, s a i d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e v o l v e d between the S o c i a l C r e d i t government and l a b o u r "had a p e r n i c i o u s s i d e " and many t r a d e u n i o n i s t s " b e l i e v e d the g o v e r n -ment of B r i t i s h Columbia was the enemy o f l a b o u r . " ^ ^ Thus, the A c t was an example o f l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h a p p e a r e d d u r i n g the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d to i n t e n s e h o s t i l i t i e s between the S o c i a l C r e d i t government and B.C. l a b o u r . The A c t c a r r i e d o v e r the n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h w i t h c o n c i l i -a t i o n o f f i c e r s and c o n c i l i a t i o n b o a r d s . I t i n c l u d e d c o m p u l s o r y d e l a y s on economic s a n c t i o n s d u r i n g c o n c i l i a t i o n and u n t i l s t r i k e v o t e s were c o n d u c t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , a f o r t y - e i g h t hour n o t i c e was r e q u i r e d f o r s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s ^ ' and u n i o n o f f i c e r s were made l i a b l e f o r a s s e n t i n g to o f f e n s e s committed u n d e r the A c t . F i n e s were s p e c i f i e d as p e n a l t i e s f o r o f f e n s e s under the A c t , p l u s some p a r t i c u l a r l y p u n i t i v e measures a g a i n s t u n i o n s were p r o v i d e d f o r i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . The r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s a r e g i v e n below: 5^(3) I n any case where t h e r e i s o r has been a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t , the M i n i s t e r may r e f e r the m a t t e r to a Judge o f t h e Supreme Co u r t f o r an a d j u d i c a t i o n as t o the l e g a l -i t y o r i l l e g a l i t y o f the s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t , and as t o whether an employer or e m p l o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o r was 21 i n v o l v e d i n t h e l o c k o u t , and as t o whether a t r a d e - u n i o n i s o r was i n v o l v e d i n the s t r i k e o r the employees be-l o n g i n g t o o r r e p r e s e n t e d by a t r a d e - u n i o n a r e p a r t i c i -p a t i n g o r have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t r i k e . 55 Where a Judge c e r t i f i e s t o t h e M i n i s t e r t h a t a s t r i k e i s o r was i l l e g a l , and t h a t a t r a d e u n i o n i s o r was i n -v o l v e d i n t h e s t r i k e , o r t h a t employees b e l o n g i n g t o o r r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e t r a d e - u n i o n a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t r i k e , t he Judge may d e c l a r e t h a t : -a) The e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i v e agreement made by the t r a d e - u n i o n s h a l l be n u l l and v o i d ; and b) The w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t o f wages made t o an e m p l o y e r i n f a v o u r o f s u c h t r a d e u n i o n under s e c t i o n 9 s h a l l be n u l l and v o i d ; and -c) The c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f the t r a d e - u n i o n s h a l l be n u l l and v o i d ; o r may make any one o f t h e s a i d d e c l a r a t i o n s . To s a y t h e l e a s t , t h e above p r o v i s i o n s were a n t a g o n i s t i c t o l a b o u r . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r i s w o r t h n o t i n g . He was g i v e n t h e d i s c r e t i o n when o r when n o t t o a c t i -v a t e the p r o v i s i o n s . . N o e l H a l l , who was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d r a f t i n g the p r e s e n t L a b o u r Code, gave t h e f o l l o w i n g remarks c o n c e r n i n g S e c t i o n 5^(3) L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t : There was no m e n t i o n i n the l e g i s l a t i o n as t o what the p a r t i e s were t o do a f t e r s u ch an a d j u d i c a t i o n , but the ,chaos c r e a t e d f o r b o t h l a b o u r and management i n s u c h a c i r c u m s t a n c e i s o b v i o u s . As I r e c a l l , t h a t p r o v i s i o n was o n l y u s e d once - : t h e Judge t o l d the M i n i s t e r o f Labour n o t t o use h i s c o u r t as a v e h i c l e f o r t r y i n g t o p r e s s u r e l a b o u r and management to s e t t l e a w i l d c a t s t r i k e , and the p r o v i s i o n was q u i e t l y dropped from t h e s t a t u t e . The Judge i n t h e above q u o t a t i o n awarded what c o u l d have been b i t t e r t u r m o i l . The f a c t remains t h a t the A c t c o n t a i n e d some e x t r e m e l y p u n i t i v e p r o v i s i o n s and the p r o v i n c i a l government, r e p r e s e n t e d by the M i n i s t e r , was a t t h e helm i n d i r e c t i n g t h e c o u r t s t o g i v e p e n a l t i e s w h i c h were s e r i o u s t h r e a t s t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f u n i o n s . The p u n i t i v e measures f o r i l l e g a l s t r i k e s under t h e Labour 22 R e l a t i o n s A c t were p a r t o f a r e s p o n s e t o the f r e q u e n c y o f w i l d c a t s t r i k e s o c c u r r i n g from 19^9 t o 1959 i n c l u s i v e . ^ 0 Indeed, i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e was a " p r e v a l e n c e " o f i l l e g a l w i l d c a t s t r i k e s i n the v i t a l lumber and c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s . ^ The i n c i d e n c e o f w i l d c a t s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e x t e n -s i v e use o f i n j u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i f t i e s . A l t h o u g h the ma-j o r i t y o f c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s were t o e n j o i n a c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 62 p i c k e t i n g , t h e r e were i m p o r t a n t examples where t h e s e remedies were a p p l i e d i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . One case p a r t i c u l a r l y d emonstrates t h e use o f the i n j u n c t i o n and p o r t r a y s the e f f e c t o f t h i s remedy on l a b o u r r e l a -t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the f i f t i e s . I n Poje v. A . G . - B . C ^ I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f A m e r i c a L o c a l 1-80 c a l l e d a s t r i k e i n v i o l a t i o n o f • . . 64 p r o v i s i o n s f o r government s u p e r v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e s . A p i c k e t l i n e was s e t up b l o c k i n g the l o a d i n g o f the em-p l o y e r ' s lumber onto a s h i p i n Nanaimo h a r b o u r . The employer ob-t a i n e d an ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n w h i c h was d e f i e d w i t h " t h i n l y v e i l e d 65 h o s t i l i t y . " ^ A l t h o u g h the p a r t i e s s e t t l e d t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s the n e x t day, the m a t t e r s came b e f o r e the C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e Supreme C o u r t who e x p r e s s e d the v i e w t h a t "the i n j u n c t i o n i s n o t a mere weapon i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " and t h a t the d e f i a n c e o f the i n -j u n c t i o n "was no l o n g e r a m a t t e r between t h e p a r t i e s . S u b s e -q u e n t l y , P o j e , the u n i o n b u s i n e s s a g e n t , and f o u r t e e n o t h e r s were f o u n d g u i l t y o f g r o s s contempt o f c o u r t / Poje was s e n t e n c e d to s i x months i n p r i s o n and f i n e d $ 3 , 0 0 0 ; the o t h e r s were f i n e d $300 each. The Poje case p r o v i d e d f u e l f o r a c t i v e l o b b y i n g by l a b o u r a g a i n s t i n j u n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the ex p a r t e t y p e . Ex p a r t e i n -j u n c t i o n s had been used i n c r e a s i n g l y s i n c e the war and u n i o n l e a d -e r s wanted a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t b o t h p a r t i e s be p r e s e n t b e f o r e an i n j u n c t i o n was g r a n t e d . ' The l o b b y i s t s were u n s u c c e s s f u l r e -g a r d i n g i n j u n c t i o n s and i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n , a t the same t i m e , to t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t . The common i n t e r e s t c o n c e r n i n g i n j u n c -t i o n s and t h e A c t among d i f f e r e n t l a b o u r f a c t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n u n i -f i c a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r i n the p r o v i n c e a g a i n s t the g o v e r n -• + 68 ment. Trade Unions A c t , 1959 I f B.C. u n i o n s were d i s a d v a n t a g e d by l e g i s l a t i o n i n the e a r l y f i f t i e s , t h e Trade Unions A c t o f 1 9 5 9 ^ must have f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n j u n c t i o n s and the r o l e o f c o u r t s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . C a r r o t h e r s h i g h l i g h t e d the t h r e e main s u b j e c t s o f t h e A c t : p i c k e t i n g and b o y c o t t i n g , l i a b i l i t y i n damages and the ex p a r t e 70 i n j u n c t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , s e c t i o n 3(1) s p e c i f i e d t h a t p i c k e t i n g and b o y c o t t i n g were a c c e p t a b l e o n l y i n s u p p o r t o f s t r i k e s w h i c h were n o t i l l e g a l under the Labour R e l a t i o n s A c t . S e c t i o n 3(2) e f f e c t i v e l y p r o h i b i t e d sympathy s t r i k e s , s e c o n d a r y p i c k e t i n g , " u n f a i r l i s t s " and " i n f o r m a t i o n l i n e s " t o i n f o r m t h o s e who'see p i c k e t s t h a t an employer i s o p e r a t i n g w i t h o u t a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e - ' - 71 ment, and, presumably, w i t h s u b - s t a n d a r d terms o f employment. The r e s t r i c t i v e p r o v i s i o n s 'of t h e A c t c o n c e r n i n g p i c k e t i n g a r e r e p o r t e d t o have been viewed w i t h a n t i p a t h y by the B.C. l a b o u r movement as a n o t h e r example o f S o c i a l C r e d i t l e g i s l a t i o n d i r e c t e d 72 a g a i n s t l a b o u r . The p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t c o n c e r n i n g l i a b i l i t y i n damages 24 emphasized t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f the c o u r t s and p u n i t i v e remedies i n i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . S e c t i o n 4(1) e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t b r e a c h e s o f the L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t and s e c t i o n 3 of the A c t i t s e l f cause employers and u n i o n s t o be " l i a b l e i n damages to anyone i n j u r e d t h e r e b y . " S e c t i o n 7 d e c l a r e d u n i o n s (and employers* o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) t o be l e g a l e n t i t i e s f o r such s u i t s and f o r p r o s e c u t i o n s under the Lab o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t . C a r r o t h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e p r o v i s i o n s i n the A c t c o n c e r n i n g l i a b i l i t y i n damages j u s t made e x p l i c i t what had become the t r e n d i n case l a w . Some o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t c a s e s were mentioned 73 b r i e f l y e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter.'-^ There was a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n o f u n i o n l i a b i l i t y t h a t ap-peared i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the A c t . T h i s d i -mension r e v o l v e d around t h e i s s u e o f whether u n i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g l i a b l e f o r b r e a c h o f a s t a t u t e , c o u l d 74 be sued g e n e r a l l y m c o n t r a c t and t o r t u n d e r common l a w . I n 75 th e T h i e r e n c a s e , v i t was d e c i d e d by t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada i n i 9 6 0 t h a t 'a Vancouver l o c a l o f the Teamsters was l i a b l e t o be sued f o r i l l e g a l i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the r i g h t t o t r a d e . T h i e r e n was the owner o f a s m a l l t r u c k i n g company w h i c h employed s e v e r a l d r i v e r s . H i s d r i v e r s b e l o n g e d t o a b a r g a i n i n g u n i t r e p r e s e n t e d by' the Teamsters on a p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n j o b . The u n i o n de-manded t h a t T h i e r e n , who drove one o f h i s own t r u c k s , a l s o j o i n and, when he r e f u s e d , t h e u n i o n t h r e a t e n e d t o p i c k e t the whole c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t . As a r e s u l t T h i e r e n was n o t g i v e n any more work and he sued f o r damages. The T h i e r e n c a s e i s u s e f u l t o f o c u s on a p a t t e r n i n B.C. 25 o f i n c r e a s i n g c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , however, t h a t the T h i e r e n case was c o n s i d e r e d t h e l e a d i n g C a n a d i a n case on t o r t i o u s l i a b i l i t y i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n v o l v i n g i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s and t r a d e u n i o n s . Y e t C a r r o t h e r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the judgment i n the T h i e r e n case "appears to im-pose a g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on u n i o n s t h a n t h a t d e c l a r e d by s e c t i o n s k and ? o f t h e T r a d e - u n i o n s A c t . " ' S e c t i o n 6 o f t h e A c t r e g u l a t e d g r a n t i n g o f ex p a r t e i n -j u n c t i o n s . The s e c t i o n r e a d as f o l l o w s : 6(1) N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s o r any o t h e r A c t , no i n j u n c t i o n b e f o r e t r i a l s h a l l be g r a n t e d ex p a r t e by a C o u r t t o e n j o i n a t r a d e - u n i o n o r other, p e r s o n i n r e s p e c t t o a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t t h a t i s n o t i l l e g a l under the Labour R e l a t i o n s A c t , e x c e p t (a) t o s a f e g u a r d p u b l i c o r d e r ; o r ' (b) t o p r e v e n t s u b s t a n t i a l o r i r r e p a r a b l e i n j u r y to p r o p e r t y . (2) An i n j u n c t i o n g r a n t e d ex p a r t e under s u b s e c t i o n (1) s h a l l n o t be f o r a p e r i o d l o n g e r t h a n f o u r c l e a r d a y s . S e c t i o n 6 p l a c e d l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e g r a n t i n g o f ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s . C l e a r l y , though, the s e c t i o n l e a v e s open a c c e s s t o t h i s remedy f o r s t r i k e s and o t h e r a c t s w h i c h are o f f e n c e s under the Labour R e l a t i o n s A c t . The l a b o u r movement campaigned a c t i v e l y a g a i n s t i n j u n c t i o n s i n the s i x t i e s and i n 196? the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour h o s t e d a c o n f e r e n c e i n w h i c h l a b o u r and management e x p r e s s e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . R.C. Haynes, th e n s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r o f the F e d e r a t i o n , made t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t a t the c o n f e r e n c e : When the judge i s asked t o make a d e c i s i o n on g r a n t i n g an i n j u n c t i o n , he i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g asked to d e c i d e v i c t o r y o r d e f e a t on i s s u e s o f s o c i a l i m p o r t on the terms o f l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s and o u t d a t e d p r e c e d e n t s . Bear i n mind t h a t , on the p r e s e n t p r o c e d u r e s and 26 a f f e c t i n g the i s s u a n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s , the judge i s asked t o do t h i s w i t h o u t the h e l p o f w i t n e s s e s , p a i n -s t a k i n g e x a m i n a t i o n o f e v i d e n c e and c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , b u t on a f f i d a v i t s o f t e n f o u n d l a t e r t o be f a u l t y and u n r e l i a b l e . ' ' A management p e r s p e c t i v e was g i v e n a t the c o n f e r e n c e by D.A-A. L a n s k a i l from F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , t h e e m p l o y e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n f o r the i m p o r t a n t l o g g i n g and s a w m i l l i n g i n d u s t r i e s . L a n s k a i l s a i d : ... we s h o u l d r e v i e w the a l l too f r e q u e n t case o f i l l e g a l — w i l d c a t - - s t r i k e s d u r i n g the term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement...about the o n l y compensation an employer d e r i v e s from a l a b o u r agreement i s the p r o s p e c t o f s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t i t s term. W i l d -c a t s t r i k e s d u r i n g i t s term i n an i m p r o p e r e f f o r t t o e x t o r t c o n c e s s i o n s t h a t the Union i s n o t e n t i t l e d t o , u t t e r l y d e s t r o y s the s t a b i l i t y i n t e n d e d by a g r e e -ment... the i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s sometimes a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an a g g r i e v e d employer and i t tends t o c o n t a i n o r r e -duce the problem o f w i l d c a t s t r i k e s . ? " L a n s k a i l ' s s t a t e m e n t f o c u s e d on a f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e w i t h i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . Employers had l e g a l r i g h t s t h a t p r o t e c t e d them from l a b o u r i n s t a b i l i t y f o r the term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement. J u s t i c e i s c l e a r i n a case when an i n j u n c t i o n s t o p s a w i l d c a t s t r i k e t h a t a Union i n s t i g a t e d to w i n c o n c e s s i o n s o u t s i d e o f r e g u l a r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . On the o t h e r hand, i t seems u n j u s t when an i n j u n c t i o n d i s a r m s employees who e x p e r i e n c e u n f a i r n e s s from the employer. G r i e v a n c e p r o c e d u r e s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , may n o t always have been a v i a b l e , e x p e d i t i o u s avenue f o r r e s o l v i n g a d i s p u t e . The problem w i t h p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n j u n c t i o n s was t h e y d i d n o t p e r m i t adequate f l e x i b i l i t y t o d e a l j u s t l y i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . M e d i a t i o n Commission Act,. 1968 The M e d i a t i o n Commission Act (MCA) e s t a b l i s h e d the M e d i -27 a t i o n Commission, an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l i n s t i t u t e d " to d i s -pense b i n d i n g d e c i s i o n s i n d i s p u t e s judged by the c a b i n e t t o be c o n t r a r y t o the ' p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' . T h u s , d e s p i t e i t s name, the M e d i a t i o n Commission r e p r e s e n t e d a c o m p u l s o r y , n o r m a t i v e approach t o i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . The MCA empowered a m e d i a t i o n o f f i c e r t o d e c i d e "which p a r t y s h a l l b ear the b u r d e n - o f - p r o o f o f any f a c t o r m a t t e r i n 80 d i s p u t e . " The Commission, a f t e r h e a r i n g a d i s p u t e , would hand down a d e c i s i o n s t a t i n g " f a i r and r e a s o n a b l e " terms w i t h r e a s o n s O-i s u p p o r t i n g the d e c i s i o n . H a l l a n t i c i p a t e d problems w i t h t h e MCA and i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would be s u c c e s s f u l i n p r a c t i c e d e p e n d i n g upon "the wisdom o f the com-8 2 m i s s i o n and the g o o d w i l l o f l a b o u r and management." U n f o r t u -n a t e l y , the Commission d i d n o t become known f o r i t s wisdom and l a b o u r was f a r from b e i n g b e n e v o l e n t towards the Commission o r t h e MCA. Tsong r e p o r t e d l a b o u r and management p e r c e p t i o n s o f the MCA as f o l l o w s : L a bour f o u g h t l o n g and h a r d a g a i n s t B i l l 33 / M e d i a t i o n Commission A c t / - Almost e v e r y m a j o r l a b o u r l e a d e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia spoke out a g a i n s t i t . . . They o r g a n i z e d p r o t e s t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , c r e a t e d a "Beat B i l l 33" f u n d , and engaged i n an a c t i v e campaign a g a i n s t the B i l l . There were a few l a b o u r l e a d e r s who s u p p o r t e d the B i l l , b u t t h e i r v o i c e was the v o i c e o f the m i n o r i t y . T h i s was n o t the f i r s t time t h a t l a b o u r had f o u g h t a g a i n s t new l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . . . L i k e a l l p r e v i o u s l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d by t h e / S o c i a l C r e d i t / government, B i l l 33 was a p a r t i s a n b i l l . The B i l l was by a v o t e o f 22-28, w i t h a l l t h e NDP's and L i b e r a l s o f the o p p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t the p a r t y i n power... Employers were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i n f a v o u r o f the B i l l . Not a s i n g l e employer's v o i c e was r a i s e d a g a i n s t i t . " 3 . The g e n e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f the Commission a l s o must have a c c o u n t e d f o r some o f l a b o u r ' s i l l w i l l towards the MCA. A c c o r d i n g t o M a t k i n : The MCA r e q u i r e d t h a t the p r o c e d u r e s by the new Commission were to be e x e r c i s e d w i t h c o u r t - l i k e f o r -m a l i t y ... That t h e government i n t e n d e d the l a b o u r c o u r t /the Commission/ t o f o l l o w a s t r i c t l y j u d i c i a l p r o -cedure was d e m o n s t r a t e d by i t s f i r s t appointment o f a chairman f o r the Commission. He was a Supreme C o u r t Judge w i t h l i t t l e o r no e x p e r i e n c e as an a r b i -t r a t o r o r as a m e d i a t o r o f l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . What he br o u g h t t o the job was the s t a t u s o f a jud g e , r a t h e r t h a n the s k i l l s o f an e x p e r t i n the f i e l d . The problems e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e M e d i a t i o n Commission h e l p e x p l a i n why i t was succeeded by a board composed o f mem- • b e r s e x p e r i e n c e d i n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and l a b o u r l a w and w h i c h emphasized v o l u n t a r y accommodation f o r d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n . Perhaps due t o t h e Chairman's l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , many o f h i s d e c i s i o n s were seen as u n u s u a l and were e s p e c i a l l y u n p o p u l a r w i t h l a b o u r . These d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t e d the Commission's c r e d -i b i l i t y and, e v e n t u a l l y , caused many un i o n s to b o y c o t t i t s s e r -v i c e s by o p t i n g f o r ad hoc a r b i t r a t i o n . ^ I n t h e a r e a o f s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g , the Commission emphasized c o m p u l s i o n and p u n i t i v e r e m e d i e s . The MCA r e t a i n e d the type o f p u n i t i v e measures a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r from the Labour  R e l a t i o n s A c t f o r work stoppages d u r i n g the term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement and i n v i o l a t i o n o f o t h e r s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s . The major d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t where an o t h e r w i s e l a w f u l work stoppage e v o l v i n g from n e g o t i a t i o n s was d e c l a r e d i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , an o r d e r was i s s u e d c o m p e l l i n g w o r k e r s t o r e t u r n to work. The law r e l i e d on c o u r t p e n a l t i e s , m a i n l y f i n e s , to ensure c o m p l i a n c e I n j u n c t i o n s and contempt o f c o u r t charges c o u l d be imposed f o r d i s o b e y i n g the Commission's o r d e r s . The f a i l u r e o f the MCA c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e f e a t o f the 86 S o c i a l C r e d i t Government a t the p o l l s . The NDP came i n t o power i n 1972 and the MCA A c t was r e p e a l e d soon a f t e r . The c o n d i t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n B.C. i n the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s had r e a c h e d a. s t a t e where s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n p u b l i c p o l i c y were n e c e s s a r y as r e l a t i o n s between l a b o u r and government had d e t e r i o r a t e d b a d l y . D u r i n g the time o f the M e d i a t i o n Commission, H a l l s u g g e s t e d the " c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s /was/ i n a s h o c k i n g s t a t e o f d i s r e p a i r . . . the system can o n l y be p u t i n o r d e r by a w h o l e s a l e r e t h i n k i n g o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d . . . " . ^ The M e d i a t i o n Commission r e p r e s e n t e d the e a r l i e r S o c i a l C r e d i t government's a t t e m p t t o r e o r g a n i z e the system b a s e d on compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n . The Commission's l a c k o f s u c c e s s and the change i n t h e g o v e r n i n g p a r t y t o the New De m o c r a t i c P a r t y made 1973 a l i k e l y time t o reshape p u b l i c p o l i c y f o r i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . G i v e n the a s s o c i a t i o n between the NDP and t h e l a b o u r movement, i t c o u l d be s u r m i s e d t h a t the Labour Code embodies a p a r t i s a n p l a n t o t i p the b a l a n c e o f power i n labour-management r e l a t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f u n i o n s . But when the Code was debated i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , i t was l a b e l l e d "the d u l l e s t b i l l " f o r compared to p r e v i o u s l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n B.C., i t was a c c e p t e d w i t h l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n as "a r e a l h o n e s t a t t e m p t t o s o l v e 0 0 p r o b l e m s . " T h i s c h a p t e r summarized l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n B.C. p r e v i o u s t o the p r e s e n t Labour Code. The p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n was t y p i c a l l y n o r m a t i v e w i t h compulsory d e l a y s on economic s a n c t i o n s . E s p e c i a l l y a f t e r World War I I , l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o i l l e g a l work s t o p -pages was p u n i t i v e and t h e c o u r t s became more i n v o l v e d i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . The l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o h o s t i l i t i e s and p o l a r -i z a t i o n between l a b o u r , management and government.. I t was a p p a r e n t t h a t by 1973 a d r a m a t i c change was needed f o r l a b o u r p o l i c y i n B.C. 31 N o t e s , C h a p t e r I "'"Paul P h i l l i p s , No Power G r e a t e r : A C e n t u r y o f Labour  i n B.C. ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , 196?) P h i l l i p s ' s y m p a t h i e s a r e a d m i t t e d l y w i t h l a b o u r , b u t h i s h i s t o r y o f the B.C. l a b o u r movement i s t h o r o u g h and i n s i g h t f u l . p I b i d . , e s p e c i a l l y pp. 160-165• A l s o , see S t u a r t J a m i e s o n , " R e g i o n a l F a c t o r s i n I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t : The Case o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l  S c i e n c e ( A u g u s t 1962). J a m i e s o n e x p l a i n s f a c t o r s w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r t he h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f w i l d c a t s t r i k e s i n some B.C. i n d u s t r i e s . 3 - ^ N a t i o n a l L a b o r R e l a t i o n s A c t , 1935-4 P h i l l i p s , c h a p s . 1-?. 5 I b i d . ^H.D. Woods, P a t t e r n s o f I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e S e t t l e m e n t  i n F i v e C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r i e s ( M o n t r e a l , M c G i l l I n d u s t r i a l R e l a -t i o n s C e n t r e , 1958) P a r t I . Woods d e s c r i b e s two approaches w h i c h a r e r e f l e c t e d i n C a n a d i a n l a b o u r p o l i c y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h g o v e r n -ment i n t e r v e n t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . The " n o r m a t i v e " a p p r o a c h p l a c e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on a t h i r d p a r t y t o judge the m e r i t s o f the r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s and make a d e c i s i o n , b i n d i n g o r u n b i n d i n g , r e g a r d i n g what t h e y s h o u l d do. The d e c i s i o n i s made based on some s e t o f s t a n d a r d s o r norms, f o r example, wage s e t t l e m e n t s i n r e -l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s , c o s t o f l i v i n g i n c r e a s e s , e t c . The. "accommoda-. t i v e " a p p r o a c h s e e k s t o h e l p the p a r t i e s r e a c h a m u t u a l l y d e t e r -mined agreement. The i n t e r v e n e r a t t e m p t s t o g e t t h e p a r t i e s t o s e t t l e on any terms r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f what i s r i g h t o r f a i r . 7 H.D. Woods, L a b o u r P o l i c y i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, 1973), p. W-8 B e n j a m i n M. Selekman, P o s t p o n i n g S t r i k e s (New Y o r k , R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1927), C h a p t e r 11 . Q A-W.R. C a r r o t h e r s , C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Law i n Canada (-Toronto, B U t t e r w o r t h s , 1965"), p. 3 8 . 10 T, . , I b i d . • ^ P h i l l i p s , p. 4 7 . 12 T o r o n t o E l e c t r i c Commissioners v. S n i d e r (1925) A.C 396. 13 ^Woods, L a b o u r P o l i c y i n Canada, pp. 85-94. • 14 'B.C- M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , Annual R e p o r t I 9 4 9-I959 c i t e d i n J a m i e s o n " R e g i o n a l F a c t o r s " , p. 409. ^ I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n A c t , R.S'B.C 19^7, c. 44, s . 5 8 . •^Woods, P a t t e r n s , pp. 12-21 . Woods c l a s s i f i e s i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n ( i n t e r e s t ) and a p p l i c a t i o n o r a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n ( r i g h t s ) c a t e g o r i e s . "^See f o o t n o t e 6 . 1 8 ICA A c t , s s . 17-25. F o r a n a l y s i s and c r i t i c i s m o f com-p u l s o r y c o n c i l i a t i o n and government s u p e r v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e s see H.D. Woods, " C a n a d i a n C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g and D i s p u t e S e t t l e -ment P o l i c y : An A p p r a i s a l " , C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f Economics and  P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XXI Jk (November, 1955) PP- 463-465 and F•R. Anton, R o l e o f Government i n the S e t t l e m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l D i s - putes (Don M i l l s , CCH Ca n a d i a n , 1962) Chapter X X I I I . A l s o , more r e c e n t l y , J o h n D. M i s i c k , "Compulsory C o n c i l i a t i o n i n Canada: Do We Need I t ? " R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s 33:2 (1978) . 1 9 A n t o n , p. 216. 2 0 I b i d . 2 1 I b i d . , p. 217-. 2 2B-L« A d e l l , The L e g a l S t a t u s o f C o l l e c t i v e Agreements  i n E n g l a n d , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada ( K i n g s t o n : I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C e n t r e , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1970): 96 2-^A.W.R. C a r r o t h e r s , L abour A r b i t r a t i o n i n Canada (T o r o n t o B u t t e r w o r t h s , I 9 6 I ) : 179. A l s o , A d e l l , p. 182. ?4 C u r t i s , p. 84 and A d e l l , p. 170. 2 5 C u r t i s , p. 84. I b i d . , C h a p t e r I I . 2 ' F o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s see H.W. A r t h u r s , " T o r t L i a b i l i t y F o r S t r i k e s i n Canada: Some Problems o f J u d i c i a l Workmanship", C a n a d i a n B a r Review 38 ( i 9 6 0 ) : 35^-7; C a r r o t h e r s , C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Law, pp. 394-395; and A d e l l , pp. 170-171-2 8 / T 9 4 7 7 2 W-W-R. 325. Z9/I9k8/ 1 D.L-R. 114 (B.C.) 30 T h i e r e n v . I n t e r n a t i o n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f Te a m s t e r s , L o c a l 213, /19577 6 D.L.R. (2d) 746; /195&7 13 D-L.R. (2d) 3^?; /1959J 16 D.L.R. (2d) 646; /±96gJ S.CR. 265-^1 •* A r t h u r s , " T o r t L i a b i l i t y " , pp. 354-362, 33 -* 2I.M. C h r i s t i e , The L i a b i l i t y o f S t r i k e r s i n the Law o f T o r t ( K i n g s t o n , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 196?): C h a p t e r s I I I , IV and V. 3 3 I C A A c t , s. 3 5 . ^ I C A A c t , s. 42. 3 5 I b i d . , s. 35-^ 6 C u r t i s , p. 7 9 . - ^ I b i d . , pp. 84 - 8 5 and C a r r o t h e r s , C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Law, pp. 3 3 2 - 3 3 3 . I n Seaboard Owners v. Cross e t a l . /1949/" 3 D.L.R. 7 0 9 , the c o u r t d e s c r i b e d a c o l l e c t i v e agreement as a " l e g a l c o n t r a c t " . I n M a c h i n i s t s e t a l . v. V i c t o r i a M a c h i n e r y Depot  Company e t a l . 119527 3 D.L.R. 414, the c o u r t e n f o r c e d a j u r i s -d i c t i o n a l c l a i m c o n t a i n e d i n a c o l l e c t i v e agreement a g a i n s t an e m p l o y e r and a n o t h e r u n i o n . I n Hume and Lumble L i m i t e d v.  L o c a l 213, I n t e r n a t i o n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f E l e c t r i c a l Workers e t a l . U-95kJ 12 W-W.R. (N.S.) 3 2 1 . A l s o , i n G.H. Wheaton L i m i t e d v.  L o c a l 1 5 9 8 , U n i t e d B r o t h e r h o o d o f C a r p e n t e r s and J o i n e r s and  L o c a l 2 4 1 5 , P i l e D r i v e r s , B r i d g e , Dock and Wharf B u i l d e r s e t a l . , the company succeeded i n o b t a i n i n g damages from the two u n i o n s due t o a w a l k o u t o v e r j u r i s d i c t i o n . 3 8 P h i l l i p s , p. 146. - ^ F o r the American e x p e r i e n c e , t h e c l a s s i c i s by F. F r a n k -f u r t e r and N. Greene, The Labour I n j u n c t i o n (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n Co., I 9 3 0 ) . F o r the Canadian e x p e r i e n c e , see B. L a s k i n , "The L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n Canada: A C a v e a t " Canadian Bar Review 15 ( 1 9 3 7 ) : 270 and A.W.R. C a r r o t h e r s , The Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a (Don M i l l s : CCH Canadian L t d . , 1 9 5 6 ) . 40 "A j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g , o r d e r , i n j u n c t i o n , e t c . , i s s a i d t o be ex p a r t e when i t i s t a k e n o r g r a n t e d a t t h e i n s t a n c e and f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f one p a r t y o n l y , and w i t h o u t n o t i c e t o , o r c o n t e s t a t i o n by, any p e r s o n a d v e r s e l y i n t e r e s t e d . " ( B l a c k ' s Law  D i c t i o n a r y , 5 t u ed. ( S t . P a u l : West P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 9 ) . P- 5 1 7 . 41 Labour I n j u n c t i o n , p. I 9 3 • 4 2 I b i d . , p. 1 9 5 . 43 ^ F r a n k f u r t e r and Greene, p. 2 0 1 . 44 C a r r o t h e r s , Labour I n j u n c t i o n , p. 197* 45 ^E. W i t t e , " S o c i a l Consequences o f I n j u n c t i o n s i n L a bour D i s p u t e s " , I l l i n o i s Law Review 24 ( I 9 3 0 ) : 7 7 2 . 46 L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n , p. 205-^ W i t t e , pp. 772, 783-48 . • Haynes, p. 4 . ^ 9 I b i d . - ^ F r a n k f u r t e r and Greene, pp. 200-201. ' -^Labour I n j u n c t i o n , pp. 206-207. I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o n o t t h a t C a r r o t h e r s a l s o r e p o r t e d h a l f o f the em p l o y e r s ' s o l i c i t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s " r e s t o r e d t he employer t o a b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n o f w h i c h he had been w r o n g f u l l y d e p r i v e d . " 5 2 I b i d . 5 3R.S.B-C. 15^, c. 17--^Canadian P a r l i a m e n t a r y Guide (Ottawa, 1978): 59* •^^James M a t k i n , "Government I n t e r v e n t i o n i n La b o u r D i s p u t e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , i n C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g i n t h e ' E s s e n t i a l and P u b l i c S e r v i c e S e c t o r s , ed. M o r l e y Gunderson ( T o r o n t o : U n i -v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1975) . 5 6 P h i l l i p s , p. 147. ^ S e c t i o n 5 0(b) . ^ S e c t i o n 6 l . ^ 9 N o e l A- H a l l , "The B.C. L a b o u r Code: F i v e Y e a r s Hence", address to the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Management A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver, B.C., 25 O c t o b e r , 1979-^°B.C M i n i s t r y o f Labour, A n n u a l R e p o r t 1949-1959 c i t e d i n J a m i e s o n , " R e g i o n a l F a c t o r s " , p. 4 0 9 . I b i d . A.W.R. C a r r o t h e r s , The Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n B.C. (Don M i l l s : CCH Canadian L i m i t e d , 1956): 203. 63Zl9527 2 D.L.R., 785-64 See C a r r o t h e r s , L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n , . C h a p t e r 2 f o r an a n a l y s i s o f the Poje Case. 6 5 I b i d . 6 6 I b i d . , p. 15-6 ? P h i l l i p s , p. 147. 35 "^See f o o t n o t e 33 68.,., . , I b i d . 6 9 R . S . B - C , 1959. c. 9 0 . ^ 0 , ,The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Trade-Unions A c t , 1 9 5 9 " , Canadian  Bar Review 38 ( i 9 6 0 ) : 2 9 5 - 3 1 7 -" ^ C a r r o t h e r s , "B.C. Trade Unions A c t " , p. 2 9 8 . 7 2 P h i l l i p s , p. 1 5 6 . 7 3 S e e f o o t n o t e 3 3 . ^ S e e A r t h u r s , " T o r t L i a b i l i t y " and C h r i s t i e , The L i a b i l i t y  o f S t r i k e r s , pp. 1 7 0 - 1 7 3 -75 ^ C a r r o t h e r s , "B.C. Trade Unions A c t " , p. 3 2 5 -77 ' "The L a b o u r Movement and t h e I n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Lab o u r I n -j u n c t i o n C o n f e r e n c e , Vancouver, B.C. 7 J a n u a r y , 1967• O Q " I n j u n c t i o n s " i n I b i d . 7 9 M a t k i n , p. 84 ^°Section 1 8 . 81 S e c t i o n 15-82 N.A. H a l l , "Contemporary P u b l i c P o l i c y I s s u e s i n I n d u s -t r i a l R e l a t i o n s " , R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s 24 : 1 ( I 9 6 9 ) :• p.31.1 ^P.Z.W- Tsong, "Compulsory A r b i t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia: B i l l 33 R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s 2 6 : 3 (1971)? 745-84. ^ I b i d . , pp. 8 6 - 9 0 and Tsong, pp. 7 6 O - 7 6 I . M a t k i n , p. 84. 8 6 I b i d . , p. 9 2 . O n '"Contemporary P u b l i c P o l i c y " , p. 19. 88 Hon. L-T. N i m s i c k , M i n i s t e r o f Mines and F e t r o l e u m Re-s o u r c e s (1973) B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly Debates a t 464 q u o t e d i n H-W. A r t h u r s . "The D u l l e s t B i l l " : R e f l e c t i o n s on the L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h Columbia 9 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  C o lumbia Law Review (1975): 280. CHAPTER I I PHILOSOPHY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOUR CODE AND THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD The L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board's a p p r o a c h to i l l e g a l s t r i k e s i s p a r t o f an o v e r a l l scheme f o r l a b o u r p o l i c y e m p h a s i z i n g v o l -u n t a r i s m and m u t u a l accommodation. M a t k i n summed up the d i r e c -t i o n o f t h e L a b o u r Code as f o l l o w s : The b a s i c a p p r o a c h o f the new law was t o reduce l e g a l i s m i n the r e s p o n s e to labour-management c o n t r o v e r s i e s , f o l l o w a p o l i c y o f n o n - c o m p u l s i o n , and t o r e l y on m e d i a t i v e d e v i c e s to p r o t e c t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . 1 F o r i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , the p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d t h e Code m a n i f e s t e d i n a s h i f t from en-f o r c i n g c o m p l i a n c e w i t h p u n i t i v e measures a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e c o u r t s t o an a p p r o a c h s t r e s s i n g v o l u n t a r y m e d i a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d by an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l . The Board's approach i s based on r e c o g n i z i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s as symptoms o f u n d e r l y i n g i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s problems" i n s t e a d o f m e r e l y u n l a w f u l a c t s i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e dynamics i n a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a -2 t i o n s h i p . The new a p p r o a c h r e q u i r e d the Board to be equipped w i t h some i n n o v a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l f e a t u r e s to s u p p o r t and en-courage m e d i a t i o n and t o c o r r e c t f o r s h o r t c o m i n g s o f the c o u r t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . T h i s c h a p t e r has t h r e e p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t w i l l p r e -s e n t b r i e f l y t h e t h r u s t o f the Code as an e x p r e s s i o n o f p u b l i c 37 p o l i c y . ' T h i s w i l l be u s e f u l to p l a c e the Board's a p p r o a c h to i l l e -g a l work stoppages i n c o n t e x t w i t h the g e n e r a l i n t e n t o f the s t a -t u t e . The second p a r t o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the r e a s o n i n g f o r the use o f v o l u n t a r y m e d i a t i o n i n i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The t h i r d p a r t e x p l a i n s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Board's s t r u c -t u r e t h a t f a c i l i t a t e i t s m e d i a t i v e a pproach. The Labour Code The Labour Code i s a r e s p o n s e t o problems w h i c h have e v o l v e d from the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f p r e v i o u s l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n 3 m B.C. The p a t t e r n . o f p r e v i o u s l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n B.C. as d e s c r i b e d - i n C h a p t e r I has been to use l e g a l c o m p u l s i o n s t o reduce the a r e a s o f i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t l e f t t o f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and t o s u b s t i t u t e v a r i o u s a d j u d i c a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e s t r i k e . C r i t i c i s m s of the p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n o f l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n c o l l e c t i v e l y s u g g e s t l e g a l c o m p u l s i o n s encumbered the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g system w i t h u n n e c e s s a r y d e l a y s . A d j u d i c a t i v e o r n o r m a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y r educed the area s l e f t t o the p a r t i e s f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the r u l e s o f t h e work p l a c e , The Code embodies an e f f o r t t o f r e e up and f a c i l i t a t e 38 the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s by i n t e g r a t i n g a l l a r e a s o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s u n d e r a c e n t r a l p o l i c y e m p h a s i z i n g v o l u n t a r y accommodation. The c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s a t t e m p t s by the Board t o m e d i a t e i n ' o c c a s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n d i s p u t e s where an • employer h a s a c t i v e l y r e s i s t e d u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . ^ M u l t i -s t a g e c o m p u l s o r y c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s were abandoned i n f a v o u r o f a o n e - s t a g e v o l u n t a r y m e d i a t i o n s e r v i c e , "although the Code does s e t o u t s t e p s f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . S t r i k e s are not r e s t r i c t e d a f t e r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d p r o v i d e d f o r g m e d i a t i o n . The t r a d i t i o n a l p r o h i b i t i o n on s t r i k e s d u r i n g t h e term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s r e t a i n e d , but t h e p a r t i e s a r e encouraged t o use v a r i o u s p r o v i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g m e d i a t i o n o f g r i e v a n c e d i s p u t e s b y i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r s employed by the M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r . T h i s i s an e f f o r t to a l l e v i a t e p r e s s u r e 9 on t h e f o r m a l g r i e v a n c e a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e s s . F o r work stop p a g e s i n v i o l a t i o n o f t h e s t a t u t e , " ' " 0 the s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e Board a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e t h e d i s p u t e s w i t h i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n p r o c e e d i n g t o a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and a d j u d i -c a t i o n . The above d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Code's p r o v i s i o n s demonstrates the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f the s t a t u t e towards v o l u n -t a r i s m and accommodation. . A c t u a l l y , t h e i n n o v a t i v e t h r u s t o f the p o l i c y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e Code i s composed as much o f changes i n the p r o c e s s o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e p o l i c y as i t i s w i t h s u b s t a n -t i v e changes i n t h e l a w . 1 1 The t h i r d p a r t of. t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l h i g h l i g h t s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Code. I t s h o u l d be c l e a r , though, t h a t the i n t e n t o f t h e Code i s t o 39 remove l e g a l i s m so t h e p a r t i e s can r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t and e s t a b l i s h terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r work i n an atmosphere c o n d u c i v e t o c o l -l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The m e d i a t i v e r o l e o f the Board i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s i s one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l i n t e n t u n d e r l y i n g t h e Code. R e a s o n i n g f o r t h e Board's Approach  t o I l l e g a l Work Stoppages The B o a r d ' s use o f v o l u n t a r y m e d i a t i o n t o r e s o l v e i l l e -g a l work s t o p p a g e s i s p a r t l y founded on u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o l -l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p as an o n g o i n g i n t e r a c t i o n b e t -ween t h e p a r t i e s . A u s e f u l a n a l o g y f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e c o n -t i n u o u s n a t u r e o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t o 12 compare t h e p a r t i e s t o a f a m i l y . The c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s c l e a r l y c o m p a r a b l e t o m a r r i a g e and t h e subsequent day t o day i n t e r c h a n g e s between t h e p a r t i e s make v a r y i n g degrees o f c o n -f l i c t i n e v i t a b l e i n b o t h i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n t h e same way t h a t i t would be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n s i d e r a f a m i l y d i s p u t e s e p a r a t e l y f r o m the p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s b e t -ween the m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s , t h e c o n t i n u o u s n a t u r e o f the c o l l e c -t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e a w i l d c a t s t r i k e o r o t h e r forms o f i l l e g a l j o b a c t i o n s from the dynamics o f r e l a t i o n s between the p a r t i e s and t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g up t o t h e work s t o p p a g e . The l a t t e r p e r -s p e c t i v e i s t h e p r i m a r y d i s t i n c t i o n between the Board's a p p r o a c h and the c o u r t s * i n v o l v e m e n t i n i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . A m a j o r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e c o u r t s was t h a t t h e y were c o n s t r a i n e d t o d e a l -i n g w i t h i l l e g a l s t r i k e s s t r i c t l y a c c o r d i n g t o the " r u l e o f l a w . " J u d g e s were c o m p e l l e d t o make e i t h e r / o r d e c i s i o n s based s o l e l y on w h e t h e r work s t o p p a g e s were. u n l a w f u l . The problem w i t h t h e c o u r t s ' a p p r o a c h was t h a t i t f a i l e d to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t o f t e n i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s are symptoms o f u n d e r -l y i n g t e n s i o n s . b e t w e e n the p a r t i e s and t h a t r a r e l y a r e t h e hands 1? o f e i t h e r s i d e e n t i r e l y c l e a n . J W e i l e r e x p l a i n e d t h i s as f o l l o w s L a b o u r d i s p u t e s w i t h i n an o n g o i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r -g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . . r are r a r e l y b l a c k and w h i t e , w i t h one s i d e t o t a l l y i n . the r i g h t and the o t h e r t o t a l l y i n t h e wrong. To d e a l w i t h a d i s p u t e as though i t were " b l a c k and w h i t e " m i g h t g i v e t h e w i n n e r o f the c a s e a s h o r t - t e r m v i c t o r y , b u t one w h i c h i s r a r e l y h e l p f u l even t o t h a t p a r t y i n t h e l o n g r u n . And t h e f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t a f t e r a w h i l e , even a v i c t o r y i s o n l y a paper v i c t o r y . I t i s v e r y . e a s y . . . t o r e a d t h e s t a t u t e , see t h a t a s t r i k e d u r i n g t h e term o f the c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s i l l e g a l , and t h e n w r i t e an o r d e r s a y i n g t h a t t h e s t r i k e must end i m m e d i a t e l y . I t i s a l o t h a r d e r to - e n f o r c e t h a t o r d e r a g a i n s t an adamant t r a d e u n i o n . l ^ /Emphasis added/ The u n d e r l i n e d s e n t e n c e i n W e i l e r ' s s t a t e m e n t d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n t o a n o t h e r i n h e r e n t d e f i c i e n c y o f c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s w h i c h r e l a t e s back t o t h e n a t u r e o f the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s d e f i c i e n c y i n d i c a t e s t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h an a d j u d i c a t i v e o r d e r . Non-com-p l i a n c e was e v i d e n t f rom th e c o u r t s ' e x p e r i e n c e under the L a b o u r  R e l a t i o n s A c t 1 ^ i n t h e u n f o r t u n a t e e x p e r i e n c e o f the M e d i a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n , 1 ^ and i n t h e d r a m a t i c d e f i a n c e o f the p r e s e n t Board's 1? o r d e r s i n t h e 1976 A l c a n s t r i k e . ' Non-compliance w i t h a l e g a l o r d e r i s an o v e r t s i g n o f s e r i o u s t e n s i o n s between the p a r t i e s o r , p e r h a p s , one p a r t y b e l i e v e s i t i s r i g h t i n t h e d i s p u t e and 41 "the l e g a l order i s wrong. Regardless, i f non-compliance r e s u l t e d , i n c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n , tensions between the p a r t i e s were no doubt i n t e n s i f i e d . As W e i l e r s a i d , " P u t t i n g union l e a d e r s i n j a i l poisons the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the employees and the em-p l o y e r , and o f t e n confirms the a l i e n a t i o n o f the employees from -1 Q the l e g a l system." Defiance of l e g a l orders and c r i m i n a l prosecutions are the extreme cases. P u n i t i v e remedies, such as i n j u n c t i o n s , f i n e s and damages, i n l e s s serious cases probably had a s i m i l a r impact. I f the problem causing a dispute was not s o l v e d , employees who were p e n a l i z e d may 'respond w i t h slow-downs, manipulation of the h i r i n g h a l l , even sabotage of s e n s i t i v e production l i n e s . The p o i n t i s t h a t the c o u r t s ' involvement was a d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e on r e l a t i o n s between the p a r t i e s . The impact of p u n i t i v e remedies a p p l i e d to one area of. c o n f l i c t , i l l e g a l s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g , must have overlapped i n t o other areas of involvement between the p a r t i e s . P l a i n l y , i t would be an impediment to conduct bargaining•under the shadow of smouldering h o s t i l i t i e s caused by court a c t i o n . Thus, t r e a t i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages p u r e l y as l e g a l events ignored the ongoing nature of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . The above d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o u r t s ' shortcomings i n d e a l i n g w i t h i l l e g a l work stoppages helps to focus on the reasoning f o r the Board's'use of v o l u n t a r y mediation. The Board's approach r e v o l v e s l a r g e l y around understanding i n h e r e n t advantages with.mediation as a mode of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . W e i l e r ex-p l a i n e d t h a t mediation i s the best type of government i n t e r -v e n t i o n t o e n c o u rage t h e p a r t i e s t o d e v e l o p a r e l a t i o n s h i p c o n d u c i v e t o f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r own r u l e s f o r r e g u l a t i n g c o n t i n u o u s i n t e r a c t i o n and c o n f l i c t . To quote W e i l e r : /The7" a s s u m p t i o n i s i n a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e -l a t i o n , t h e b e s t means o f s e t t l i n g the i n e v i t a b l e human c o n f l i c t i s t h e g i v e and t a k e o f compromise and accommodation, n o t the i s s u i n g o f l e g a l e d i c t s . The u n i o n and t h e e m p l o y e r who a r e p a r t i e s t o the i mmediate p r o c e e d i n g w i l l have to l i v e t o g e t h e r l o n g , a f t e r / t h e / r c a s e i s o v e r . Our o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r o -v i d e t h e optimum b a s i s f o r s e t t l e m e n t o f the c o n t r o -v e r s y so t h a t i t does n o t c o n t i n u e t o simmer-.gper-haps t o r e c u r i n a d i f f e r e n t g u i s e l a t e r on. The a d v a n t a g e o f m e d i a t i o n i m p l i c i t i n W e i l e r * s s t a t e m e n t i s t h a t the p a r t i e s who a r e m u t u a l l y dependent f i n d i t much e a s i e r to " l i v e t o g e t h e r " under r u l e s t h e y agreed on a f t e r m u t u a l compromise. I t " f o l l o w s t h a t the t a s k f o r t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s to f a c i l i t a t e and encourage th e p a r t i e s t o p e r c e i v e one a n o t h e r i n a l i g h t s u f f i c i e n t l y f a v o u r a b l e f o r making c o n c e s s i o n s l e a d i n g t o a s e t t l e m e n t . The c a p a c i t y t o r e o r i e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f each o t h e r i s what H a r v a r d P r o f e s s o r Lon F u l l e r d e s c r i b e d as "the c o n t r o l q u a l i t y o f m e d i a t i o n . " To quote F u l l e r : ... t h e c e n t r a l q u a l i t y o f m e d i a t i o n /TsJ i t s c a p a c i t y t o r e o r i e n t t h e p a r t i e s toward each o t h e r , not by i m -p o s i n g r u l e s on them, but by h e l p i n g them a c h i e v e a new and s h a r e d p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , a p e r -c e p t i o n t h a t w i l l r e d i r e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and d i s p o s i -t i o n s t o w a r d one a n o t h e r . T h i s q u a l i t y o f m e d i a t i o n becomes most v i s i b l e p r o p e r f u n c t i o n o f t h e m e d i a t o r t u r n s out t o be, n o t t h a t o f i n d u c i n g the p a r t i e s t o a c c e p t f o r m a l r u l e s f o r t h e g o v e r n a n c e o f t h e i r f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s , but t h a t o f h e l p i n g them t o f r e e t h e m s e l v e s from the en-cumbrances o r r u l e s and o f a c c e p t i n g , i n s t e a d , a r e -l a t i o n s h i p o f m u t u a l r e s p e c t , t r u s t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t w i l l e n a b l e them t o meet s h a r e d c o n t i n g e n c i e s w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f f o r m a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s l a i d down i n a d vance. Thus, t h e advantage o f m e d i a t i o n i s t h a t i t a t t e m p t s t o h e l p t h e p a r t i e s f i n d w o r k a b l e s o l u t i o n s t o problems c a u s i n g i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s by r e s t o r i n g communication and b r e a k i n g down hardened p o s i t i o n s . Most d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t s a r e a c h i e v e d when t h e p r o c e s s i n s t i l l s a r a p p o r t between t h e p a r t i e s c o n d u c i v e to p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . I d e a l l y , b o t h p a r t i e s make compromises and each p a r t y comes away w i t h a f e e l i n g o f w i n n i n g . C l e a r l y , i f t h i s a p p r o a c h i s s u c c e s s f u l , the r e s u l t s a r e more c o n s t r u c t i v e t h a n p u n i t i v e r e m e d i e s imposed by t h e c o u r t s . The B o a r d ' s emphasis on i n f o r m a l , m e d i a t i o n does n o t i m p l y t h a t , p o l i c y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Code condones i l l e -g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The s e c t i o n s o f t h e Code a r e q u i t e e x p l i c i t p r o h i b i t i n g s t r i k e s d u r i n g the term o f the c o l l e c t i v e agreement, and b e f o r e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h p r o c e d u r e s f o r s t r i k e v o t e s and no-21 t i c e . M o r e o v e r , t h e B o a r d has more r e m e d i a l powers t o make 22 a d j u d i c a t i v e o r d e r s t h a n any o t h e r l a b o u r b o a r d i n Canada. These r e m e d i a l powers w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The B o a r d ' s m e d i a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s i s based on u n d e r s t a n d i n g the o n g o i n g n a t u r e o f the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , .encouraging m u t u a l accommodation between" the p a r t i e s i n an e f f o r t t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o u n d e r l y i n g problems i n t h e d i s p u t e s i s more c o n s t r u c t i v e t h a n t r e a t i n g them p u r e l y as u n l a w f u l a c t s and e n f o r c i n g the r u l e o f l a w w i t h p u n i t i v e r e m e d i e s . The Board's approach t o i l l e g a l work stop p a g e s s u p p o r t s the g e n e r a l i n t e n t o f t h e Code t o promote and f a c i l i t a t e c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . 44 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the L a b o u r  R e l a t i o n s Board The Code's p e r v a s i v e emphasis on v o l u n t a r y accommodation r e q u i r e d some i n n o v a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements f o r i m p l e -m e n t i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e new p o l i c y . The Labour R e l a t i o n s Board was s t r u c t u r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e v o l u n t a r y m e d i a t i o n " i n a s e t t i n g where t h e p a r t i e s f e e l as c o m f o r t a b l e as t h e i r l a w y e r s i n t r y i n g t o f i n d an o v e r a l l s o l u t i o n w h i c h b o t h s i d e s can l i v e 23 w i t h . " ^ F o r d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a move away f r o m th e f o r m a l and l e g a l i s t i c c o m p l e x i o n of c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s t o a more i n f o r m a l , n o n l e g a l i s t i c p r o c e s s d e s i g n e d t o r e d u c e a d v e r s a r y r o l e s and encourage compromise. The Board's e x p e r i e n c e i s t h a t i t i s a b l e t o a c h i e v e v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t s i n about t w o - t h i r d s o f the c a s e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l 24 work s t o p p a g e s . The Board's s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers e n a b l e i t t o a d j u d i c a t e and make f o r m a l o r d e r s i n c a s e s where a v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t i s n o t a c h i e v a b l e o r a p p r o p r i a t e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Board's s t r u c t u r e are perhaps the m a j o r i n n o v a t i o n s s u p p o r t i n g i t s m e d i a t i v e r o l e i n i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f l e c t the commitment o f the Code t o an o v e r a l l p o l i c y o f v o l u n t a r y accommodation and an e f f o r t t o c o r r e c t t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f the c o u r t s . W e i l e r p r o v i d e d a u s e -f u l framework f o r a n a l y s i s o f the Board's s t r u c t u r e a l o n g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s : j u r i s d i c t i o n , c o m p o s i t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s . J These d i m e n s i o n s w i l l be used t o p r e s e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Board's s t r u c t u r e w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e i t s r o l e i n d e a l i n g w i t h i l l e g a l work stoppage; J u r i s d i c t i o n The B o a r d has e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o h e a r and d e t e r -4 5 mine a p p l i c a t i o n s o r c o m p l a i n t s and to make o r d e r s under the p r o -v i s i o n s o f t h e Code. The Code e x p l i c i t l y p r o v i d e s t h e Board w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g as f o l l o w s : ... t h e b o a r d has and s h a l l e x e r c i s e e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f . . . ( c ) any a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the r e g u l a t i o n , r e s t r a i n t , o r p r o h i b i t i o n o f any p e r s o n o r group o f p e r -sons f r o m i ) c e a s i n g o r r e f u s i n g t o p e r f o r m work o r t o r e m a i n i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f employment; o r i i ) p i c k e t i n g , s t r i k i n g , o r l o c k i n g o u t ; o r i i i ) c o m m u n i c a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o r o p i n i o n i n a l a b o u r d i s p u t e by s p e e c h , w r i t i n g , o r any o t h e r means. 2° The Code a l s o r e s t r i c t s the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the c o u r t s i n l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s m a t t e r s , e x c e p t i n cases where v i o l a t i o n s o f c r i m i n a l o r t o r t l a w have o c c u r r e d c a u s i n g p h y s i c a l damage t o a p e r s o n o r p r o p e r t y . 2 ' ' 7 The B o a r d ' s e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n p l a c e s i t a t t h e f o r e -f r o n t i n a t r e n d a c r o s s Canada o f e x p a n d i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n and reme-28 d i a l powers o f l a b o u r b o a r d s . T h i s t r e n d has been- a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o recommendations made by the Woods Task F o r c e i n t h e 20 l a t e s i x t i e s . However, the c o n c e p t o f l a b o u r boards h a v i n g w i d e r j u r i s d i c t i o n and g r e a t e r r e m e d i a l a u t h o r i t y i s i n c l u d e d i n 30 w r i t i n g s by Logan, C h r i s t i e and i n the Rand R e p o r t . ^ S e v e r a l r e a s o n s a r e p e r s u a s i v e f o r p l a c i n g s t r i k e s and 31 p i c k e t i n g u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Bo a r d . F i r s t , the Board's e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n c e n t r a l i z e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l a -b our p o l i c y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were f r a g m e n t e d w i t h c e r t i f i c a t i o n a l - l o c a t e d t o l a b o u r b o a r d s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement t o a r b i t r a t i o n b o a r d s , and s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g t o t h e c o u r t s . I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s n a t u r e 46 o f the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i t i s d e s i r a b l e to have p o l i c y a d m i n i s t e r e d and d e v e l o p e d i n a more complete manner. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e Board's comprehensive j u r i s d i c t i o n was a d e s i r e f o r more c o h e s i v e , i n t e g r a t e d p o l i c y f o r a r e a s u n d e r the Code, i n c l u d i n g s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g . C l e a r l y , the emphasis on v o l -u n t a r y accommodation i n t e n d e d by the Code would n o t have been p o s s i b l e i f j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s a r e a s had remained f r a g m e n t e d . A s e c o n d r e a s o n f o r i n c l u d i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages under t h e Board's j u r i s d i c t i o n i s the e x p e r i e n c e members o f the Board d e v e l o p i n h a n d l i n g such d i s p u t e s . To quote W e i l e r : I l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s a r e the k i n d o f t e n s e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e a f i n e t o u c h and a d e l i c a t e judgment. I t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t o assume t h a t the members o f t h e Board, who a r e embraced i n t h e s e cases a l l the t i m e , w i l l b e t t e r sense the p r o p e r r e s p o n s e a t t h e p r o p e r moment.32 Not o n l y s h o u l d the B o a r d members a c q u i r e f a m i l i a r i t y i n h a n d l i n g the d i s p u t e s , b u t i t i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h e y become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d , t h u s e n a b l i n g them t o a n t i c i p a t e 33 r e s p o n s e s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f Board members c l e a r l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t o f j u d g e s who h a n d l e d a range of m a t t e r s and perhaps .only d e a l w i t h l a b o u r d i s p u t e s s p o r a d i c a l l y . A n o t h e r r e a s o n i s the Board's g e n e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n p e r m i t s i t to make d e c i s i o n s w h i c h p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f b o t h u n i o n s and management. Whereas p r e v i o u s l y , c o u r t s u s u a l l y i s s u e d ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s on b e h a l f o f e m p l o y e r s , and l a b o u r boards awarded c e r t i f i -c a t i o n t o u n i o n s , t h e Board d e a l s w i t h i l l e g a l work stoppages and c e r t i f i c a t i o n s . T h i s must c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e Board's a u t h o r i t y and the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f i t s p o l i c i e s . As H a l l remarked, "... t h e r e i s no way e i t h e r p a r t y 47 can a v o i d making i t s peace w i t h the Board i n a r e s p o n s i b l e way, 34 a t l e a s t n o t o v e r the l o n g h a u l . " I n B.C., where the law had become a f r a g i l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r c o n t r o l l i n g i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s , < t h i s seems an i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n t o the Board. W i t h e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s m a t t e r s , i t f o l l o w s the Board would be equipped w i t h g r e a t e r r e m e d i a l powers f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . The remedies a v a i l a b l e t o the Board g i v e i t f l e x i b i l i t y f o r m e e t i n g the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f p a r t i c u l a r cases and augment the Board's c a p a b i l i t i e s t o a c h i e v e v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t s . S e c t i o n 28 o f the Code has been d e s c r i b e d as "the b r o a d e s t s t a t e m e n t o f r e m e d i a l a u t h o r i t y / i n Canada/•" The s e c t i o n empowers the Board t o i s s u e cease and d e s i s t o r d e r s a g a i n s t p a r t i e s a c t i n g i n v i o l a t i o n o f a p r o v i s i o n o f the Code. The s e c t i o n a l s o e n a b l e s t h e Board t o make a f f i r m a t i v e o r d e r s d i r e c t i n g a p a r t y t o do a n y - t h i n g f o r the purpose o f c o m p l y i n g w i t h a p r o v i s i o n o f the s t a t u t e . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p r o v i s i o n i n the remedy g i v e s the Board d i s c r e t i o n t o r e f u s e t o i s s u e an o r d e r where i t c o n s i d e r s t h e co n d u c t o f the a p p l i c a n t t o be im-p r o p e r . The e f f e c t o f the remedy on t h e Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e w i l l become more a p p a r e n t i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Board's p r o -cedures l a t e r i n the c h a p t e r . B a s i c a l l y , the r e m e d i a l powers p r o v i d e d by s e c t i o n 28 c r e a t e an element o f u n c e r t a i n t y about the r e s u l t s o f a c o m p l a i n t w h i c h may encourage the p a r t i e s t o make compromises r a t h e r t h a n p u r s u i n g a f o r m a l o r d e r . C o m p o s i t i o n The Board i s based on the t r i p a r t i t e model. P r e s e n t l y , 48 t h e r e a r e a chairman and f i v e v i c e - c h a i r m e n , s i x members r e p r e -37 s e n t i n g employers and s i x members r e p r e s e n t i n g employees. The c o m p o s i t i o n o f the Board h e l p s to f a c i l i t a t e i t s m e d i a t i v e r o l e i n s e v e r a l ways. The r o l e o f the chairman has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n v i e w o f the t r a d i t i o n a l l y poor r e l a -t i o n s between government and l a b o u r i n B«C. Under p r e v i o u s l e g i s -l a t i o n , t h e Chairman was Deputy M i n i s t e r o f Labour and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e o l d L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board was n o t viewed as i n d e p e n d e n t o f government. The r o l e s o f the chairman and the de p u t y m i n i s t e r were d i s t i n c t i n n a t u r e , a major d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g the Chairman's a d j u d i c a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . ^ I n r e g a r d s t o the o l d Board, H a l l s a i d : When you appeared b e f o r e the Board, you had no way o f knowing w h i c h " h a t " the Chairman was w e a r i n g - and i n f a i r n e s s t o the Chairman, he would have to be s c h i z o p h r e n i c t o keep the two r o l e s s e p a r a t e d i n h i s mind.39 The p o s i t i o n o f Chairman o f the p r e s e n t Board has been s e p a r a t e d and made i n d e p e n d e n t . T h i s would seem a n e c e s s a r y s t e p t o b o l s t e r a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the Board's e f f o r t s t o promote v o l u n -t a r y m e d i a t i o n i n a p r o v i n c e where government had not been v i e w e d f a v o u r a b l y by one s i d e o r the o t h e r . S i n c e the members are s e l e c t e d m a i n l y because o f t h e i r e x p e r t i s e and s t a t u r e i n the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s community, an i m p o r t a n t advantage i s t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the m e d i a t i o n p r o -40 c e s s . The i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e t h e y b r i n g to the Boa r d s h o u l d have a v o i d e d t h e c r e d i b i l i t y problems t h a t a f f e c t e d the e a r l i e r M e d i a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n . ^ 1 A n o t h e r advantage i s the p a r t i e s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a r e l a t i v e l y i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g . C o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages are t y p i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h by members and s t a f f who are n o t 42 l a w y e r s . T h i s r e f l e c t s the Board's commitment t o m a i n t a i n a l e s s l e g a l i s t i c i d e n t i t y and moves away from the f o r m a l , j u d i c i a l a u r a o f a c o u r t . I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o n o t e the t r i p a r t i t e model has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r f e a r o f members' p a r t i s a n s h i p a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y o f l a b o u r b o a r d s . The Wood's Task F o r c e a n t i -c i p a t e d t h i s problem p a r t i c u l a r l y where a board i s empowered w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers. J The Task F o r c e recommended a p u b l i c member model s u p p o r t e d by an a d v i s o r y g r o u p composed of-persons w i t h e x p e r t i s e i n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . However, W e i l e r o b s e r v e d a d e f i n i t e l a c k o f " i d e a l i s t i c p o s t u r i n g " among the B.C. Board members. Indeed, he remarked the Board "demonstrated t h a t t e n u r e d judges have no monopoly on i m p a r t i a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f e m o t i o n -44 l a d e n l e g a l d i s p u t e s . " P r o c e d u r e s P r o c e d u r e s f o r h a n d l i n g i n d i v i d u a l c a ses are p r o b a b l y the most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f the Board's s t r u c t u r e f o r h a n d l i n g i l l e -g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The p r o c e d u r e s a r e d e s i g n e d w i t h t h e purpose o f e n c o u r a g i n g v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o r e s o r t t o f o r m a l a d j u d i c a t i o n . The Board's a p p r o a c h f o r d i s p o s i n g o f i n d i -v i d u a l c o m p l a i n t s has removed the main causes o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o u r t p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n j u n c t i o n s . P r e v i o u s l y , a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n j u n c -t i o n s were he a r d by a judge who t y p i c a l l y had no s p e c i a l background o r e x p e r i e n c e i n l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . The a p p l i c a t i o n was made by the c o m p l a i n a n t ' s l a w y e r and t h i s t o g e t h e r w i t h e v i d e n c e g a t h e r e d on s h o r t n o t i c e by the o p p o s i n g c o u n s e l -- u n l e s s the a p p l i c a t i o n was ex p a r t e i n w h i c h case the d e f e n d a n t ' s e v i d e n c e would n o t be h e a r d -- would be the b a s i s f o r the judge t o d e t e r m i n e whether the work stoppage was i n v i o l a t i o n o f the law. He would g r a n t o r w i t h h o l d an o r d e r a c c o r d i n g l y . From the p e r s p e c t i v e o f p o l i c y embodied i n the p r e s e n t Code, the b a s i c f l a w w i t h the c o u r t ' s p r o -cedure was the work stoppage was t r e a t e d s t r i c t l y as a l e g a l e v ent i s o l a t e d from the causes f o r the d i s p u t e . The Board's p r o c e d u r e s h i n g e on a p e r c e p t i o n o f i l l e g a l work stop p a g e s as a symptom o f a i l m e n t s i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h a t the l e g a l s y s t e m as much as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d g r a p p l e w i t h the concerns o f b o t h p a r t i e s i n the i n t e r e s t s o f " c u r i n g " t h o s e a i l m e n t s . From the r e g u l a t i o n s o u t l i n i n g the Board's p r o c e d u r e s , 45 the Board appears t o proceed i n a manner r e s e m b l i n g the c o u r t s . F o r example, i f an employer has a c o m p l a i n t c o n c e r n i n g a s t r i k e w h i l e a c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s i n f o r c e , b e f o r e p r e - s t r i k e v o t i n g o r b e f o r e the 72 h o u r s t r i k e n o t i c e r e q u i r e d under the Code, an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a h e a r i n g i s made to t h e Board w i t h the n a t u r e o f the d i s p u t e i n the form o f a sworn s t a t u t o r y d e c l a r a t i o n . T h i s i s s e r v e d on the d e f e n d a n t s and d e s i g n a t e s a dat e and a time a t w h i c h t h e c o m p l a i n a n t w i l l appear f o r a h e a r i n g . The Board's r e s p o n s e t o the c o m p l a i n t , however, i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t t h a n the c o u r t s . But b e f o r e o u t l i n i n g s p e c i f i c s t a g e s and o p t i o n s i n the Board's p r o c e d u r e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t , but i n d e t e r m i n a t e , number o f c o m p l a i n t s c o n c e r n i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages and o t h e r m a t t e r s a r e made t o the Board w i t h o u t s t r i c t l y f o l l o w i n g the r e g u l a t i o n s . W e i l e r gave the f o l l o w i n g example: I t i s n o t uncommon f o r the Board t o r e c e i v e a phone 5 I c a l l t e l l i n g us about the problem o f a s t r i k e o r a p i c k e t l i n e , and f o r us t o d i s p a t c h an o f f i c e r i m m e d i a t e l y t o the sc e n e , who r e s o l v e s the d i s p u t e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and ends the work s t o p p a g e : l o n g b e f o r e the employer c o u l d c o n s u l t a l a w y e r , a com-p l a i n t be f i l l e d and s e r v e d , and an o r d e r i s s u e d . . . A t e l e p h o n e c a l l c o u l d a l s o r e s u l t i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g a t the Board w i t h o u t f o r m a l p r o c e s s i n g o f a c o m p l a i n t . I f one o f the s p e c i a l i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r s (IRO) a s s i g n e d t o the Board from the Department o f La b o u r has a good r a p p o r t w i t h the p a r t i e s i n a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h p r i o r d e a l i n g s , the Board convenes an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g . I n o t h e r c a s e s , t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s between the p a r t i e s and the Board's r e g -i s t r a r may r e v e a l a s i m p l e s o l u t i o n o r r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t one p a r t y i s c l e a r l y i n the wrong, r e s u l t i n g i n a r e t u r n t o work and w i t h -d r a w a l o f the c o m p l a i n t . The p o i n t i s the Board's e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t s a r e n o t c o n s t r a i n e d by r i g i d , f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s . The Board e x e r c i s e s a l a r g e degree o f c o n t r o l i n chan-n e l l i n g d i s p u t e s i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e d u r e . As soon as a com-p l a i n t i s r e c e i v e d , i t i s r e v i e w e d and e v a l u a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a -t i o n by i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r s o r members o f t h e . B o a r d who may have some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . The p a r t i e s o r t h e i r c o u n s e l may be c o n t a c t e d t o o b t a i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . Depending on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the c o m p l a i n t may proceed to one o f s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s : f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and p o s s i b l e m e d i a t i o n by an i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r ; an i n f o r m a l , m e d i a t i v e h e a r i n g w i t h the r e g i s t r a r (who i s a v i c e - c h a i r m a n ) , a v i c e - c h a i r m a n , a board mem-b e r , a l e g a l a s s i s t a n t , o r most f r e q u e n t l y a s p e c i a l i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r ; o r , a f o r m a l , a d j u d i c a t i v e h e a r i n g b e f o r e a 5 2 p a n e l o f t h e Board.~*' The i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g i s the m a i n s t a y f o r the Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e ; however, a t t e m p t s t o mediate a s e t t l e -ment may c o n t i n u e i n t o t h e f o r m a l h e a r i n g . These s t a g e s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c l u s i v e o r s u c c e s s i v e , but i t i s u s e f u l and g e n e r a l l y a c c u r a t e t o see t h e p r o c e s s b e g i n n i n g w i t h the IRO's i n v e s t i g a -t i o n and e n d i n g w i t h a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . C o m p l a i n t s c o n c e r n i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages a r e 48 r a r e l y m e d i a t e d by a r e g i o n a l IRO d u r i n g an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Y e t , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has some d i r e c t b e n e f i t s t o t h e Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e and o v e r -comes one o f t h e m a j o r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n c o u r t p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n j u n c -t i o n s . A m a j o r b e n e f i t i s t h e speed w h i c h the Board i s a b l e to respond t o a c o m p l a i n t . The n a t u r e o f B.C.'s economy, w i t h r e s o u r c e - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s w i t h o p e r a t i o n s i n r u r a l a r e a s , means t h a t i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s o c c u r away from the Board's o f f i c e s i n V a n c o u v e r . The Board uses the IRO's who can be s e n t i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e scene o f the work stoppage and r e p o r t back by phone g i v i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n the d i s -p u t e , t h u s e n a b l i n g the B o a r d t o make an i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n about how t o p r o c e e d w i t h the c o m p l a i n t . The IRO's i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c l e a r l y an improvement o v e r c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s when a judge made d e c i s i o n s based on i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d on s h o r t n o t i c e 4-Q and m a x n l y from t h e s i d e o f t h e c o m p l a i n a n t . The i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s a l l o w f o r a p r i v a t e a i r i n g o f views by both p a r t i e s w i t h o u t f e a r o f r e p r i s a l by the o p p o s i t i o n , o r one's u n i o n , and w i t h o u t the i n t i m i d a t i o n i n a t y p i c a l l e g a l s e t -t i n g . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f the i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g i s t o en-courage t h e p a r t i e s towards a s e t t l e m e n t of the d i s p u t e , i d e a l l y , so i t does n o t c o n t i n u e t o smoulder and perhaps r e k i n d l e f u t u r e c o n f l i c t . The e n t i r e l a y - o u t o f the Board seems d i r e c t e d a t o p t i m i z i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . The Board i t s e l f i s l o c a t e d i n what c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as a " n e u t r a l " p a r t o f the c i t y , away f r o m t h e b u s i n e s s t o w e r s i n the c i t y c e n t r e and away f r o m any c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f u n i o n h e a d q u a r t e r s . The g e n e r a l s e t t i n g and decorum a t the Board seem s u i t a b l e f o r government o f f i c e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n more t h a n a j u d i c i a l body. D u r i n g t h e h e a r i n g s , t h e p a r t i e s t y p i c a l l y a r e l e d i n t o m e e t i n g rooms d e l i b e r a t e l y l a c k i n g the f o r m a l a u r a o f a c o u r t r o o m o r l e g a l chamber. The l a y - o u t o f t h e Board i s o b v i o u s l y i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a s e t t i n g f o r e n c o u r a g i n g the p a r t i e s t o r e l a x from a d v e r s a r y r o l e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s . I t s h o u l d n o t be c o n s t r u e d f r o m the i n f o r m a l atmosphere t h a t the Board's m e d i a t i v e e f f o r t s r e l y on p a s s i v e p e r s u a s i o n f o r g e t t i n g t h e p a r t i e s t o s o f t e n i n t r a n s i g e n t p o s i t i o n s . At t h i s p o i n t , A r t h u r s ' s t a t e m e n t summing up the p h i l o s o p h y o f the Code i s u s e-f u l f o r i m p l y i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the Board's i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s : ... i t i s e v i d e n t the a r c h i t e c t s o f the Code i n t e n d e d n o t s o much t o p r o v i d e " c u r e s " as t o urge~j c a j o l e , even c o e r c e , t h e p a r t i e s , i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t and i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , t o e x e r c i s e s e l f - r e s t r a i n t and to p r a c t i c e m u t u a l accommodation.-50 A r t h u r s ' summary e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i e s i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s where the Board c a n be a s s e r t i v e w i t h i t s a u t h o r i t y i n p r o m p t i n g the p a r t i e s t o w a r d s compromises. I n t h e case o f an i l l e g a l s t r i k e , the u n i o n may be goaded by s u g g e s t i n g the i s s u a n c e o f a cease and 5k d e s i s t o r d e r . W i t h an e m p l o y e r - c o m p l a i n a n t , a v i t a l f a c e t en-c o u r a g i n g compromise i s the work stoppage may c o n t i n u e d u r i n g the m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s . The Board has d i s c r e t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e i f and when to assemble a p a n e l and s c h e d u l e a f o r m a l , a d j u d i c a t i v e h e a r i n g . Thus, the employer may be e x p e r i e n c i n g the economic impact o f the work stoppage w h i l e t h e Board i s a t t e m p t i n g t o mediate a s e t t l e m e n t . D e l a y i n g a f o r m a l h e a r i n g w h i l e a t t e m p t s a re made t o mediate a s e t t l e m e n t i s a p o s s i b l e f l a w w i t h t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t an employer may n o t be eager t o p a r t i c i p a t e d u r i n g the Board's a t t e m p t s t o medi a t e w h i l e h i s o p e r a t i o n s a r e s h u t down due t o an i l l e g a l s t r i k e . I n a s e n s e , the employer's l e g a l r i g h t s a r e n o t b e i n g s t r i c t l y u p h e l d . He f i n d s h i m s e l f c o e r c e d i n t o a t t e n d i n g i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s because the Board w i l l n o t i m m e d i a t e l y convene a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and i s s u e an o r d e r a g a i n s t the work s t o p p a g e . Meanwhile, economic p r e s s u r e s from t h e work stoppage may cause him t o make con -c e s s i o n s he would n o t have made o t h e r w i s e . I n a d i s p u t e where the employer has " c l e a n hands", the i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s can p r o v i d e an u n f a i r advantage t o the u n i o n . C l e a r l y , the onus i s on the Board to use maximum d i s -c r e t i o n i n c h a n n e l l i n g d i s p u t e s i n t o d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e s . The Board has a d e l i c a t e r o l e t o u p h o l d t h e s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s a g a i n s t i l l e g a l s t r i k e s and, c o n c u r r e n t l y , a d m i n i s t e r l a b o u r p o l i c y t h a t emphasizes i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n even d u r i n g i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . The Board's s u c c e s s depends on how w e l l i t h a n d l e s t h i s somewhat p a r a d o x i c a l r o l e i n the eyes o f employers and u n i o n s . 55 When a v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t i s n o t a c h i e v a b l e o r a p p r o -p r i a t e , d i s p u t e s proceed to a f o r m a l h e a r i n g by a p a n e l o f the Board. These h e a r i n g s a re q u a s i - j u d i c i a l i n n a t u r e i n t h a t e v i d e n c e i s g i v e n under o a t h and i s s u b j e c t to cross-exam-i n a t i o n , argument from c o u n s e l and the i s s u i n g o f a b i n d i n g d e c i s i o n supplemented w i t h w r i t t e n r e a s o n s . I f e i t h e r p a r t y w i s h e s r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the d e c i s i o n by a d i f f e r e n t p a n e l o f t h e Boa r d , they must a p p l y w i t h i n f i f t e e n d ays. The Board has d i s c r e t i o n t o convene f o r m a l h e a r i n g s on s h o r t n o t i c e . The f o r m a l h e a r i n g s a r e a d j u d i c a t i v e , but i n s e v e r a l ways t h e y a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Board's m e d i a t i v e a p p r o a c h . One way i s the Board's p r a c t i c e t o c o n t i n u e e f f o r t s t o medi a t e a s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . A n o t h e r way i s the Board's a d j u d i c a t i v e powers may p r o v i d e an i n c e n t i v e f o r the p a r t i e s t o compromise because o f a p p r e h e n s i o n o v e r a d e c i s i o n made by a t h i r d p a r t y . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d w i t h the v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s , o r " l e g a l r e s o u r c e s " as W e i l e r c a l l e d them,^ 1 a v a i l a b l e t o the Board f o r a p p l y i n g d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f o r d e r s . The a l t e r n a t i v e s produce u n c e r t a i n t y about e x a c t l y what t h e Board w i l l do, t h u s e n h a n c i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t . Some o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s are as f o l l o w s : (1) F o r an i l l e g a l and c l e a r l y u n w a r r a n t e d s t r i k e , a cease and d e s i s t o r o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e o r d e r under s e c t i o n 28 w o u l d be i s s u e d . (2) F o r a work stoppage e v o l v i n g from employee d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h an i n e f f e c t i v e and b a c k l o g g e d g r i e v a n c e p r o c e d u r e , the Board can make d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s under s e c t i o n 97, i n -c l u d i n g immediate s u b m i t t a n c e o f a g r i e v a n c e t o a s p e c i f i e d s t a g e i n the g r i e v a n c e p r o c e d u r e . 56 (3) I n g r a n t i n g an o r d e r , the Board may impose c e r t a i n con-d i t i o n s b i n d i n g on e i t h e r o f t h e p a r t i e s u nder s e c t i o n 29 . (4) The Board may recommend t o the M i n i s t e r t h e appointment o f a s p e c i a l o f f i c e r w i t h unique a u t h o r i t y under p a r t V I I o f t h e Code. The above p r o v i s i o n s a r e a c l e a r move away from the p u n i -t i v e measures u s e d by t h e c o u r t s . Even i n the i s s u a n c e o f f o r m a l o r d e r s , the B o a r d i s a f f o r d e d measures w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o a l l e -v i a t e t e n s i o n s i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p as opposed t o the a n t a g o n i s t i c e f f e c t o f c o u r t r e m e d i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e Board i s a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o g i v e c o n s e n t t o sue f o r monetary damages as a consequence o f an 52 i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e o r p i c k e t . The c o u r t s r e t a i n j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r a w a r d i n g a n d f i x i n g t h e amount o f damages. The Board's e f f o r t s t o mediate s e t t l e m e n t s and the d i f -f e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e f o r making o r d e r s p o s s i b l y a l l e v i a t e the n e g a t i v e i m p a c t o f cease and d e s i s t o r d e r s i n d i s p u t e s where the s e o r d e r s a r e n e c e s s a r y . W e i l e r e x p l a i n e d the e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o r d e r s i s s u e d u n d e r t h e Board's f o r m a t i s t h e y "are obeyed i n s p i r i t as w e l l as t h e i r l e t t e r . " - ^ A s t r i k e a g a i n s t A l c a n i n K i t i m a t i n 1976 was an i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n , s i n c e employees d i d n o t comply w i t h the Board's o r d e r s t o cease and d e s i s t f r o m c o n d u c t i n g an i l l e g a l s t r i k e . A l c a n approached t h e Board on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s s e e k i n g a d e c i s i o n w h i c h would p e r m i t d i s c i p l i n e o f the employees i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t r i k e . The f a c t s o f c a s e a r e complex, b u t t h e b a s i c problem w h i c h con-f r o n t e d t h e B o a r d was t o m a i n t a i n the c r e d i b i l i t y o f i t s o r d e r s and, a t t h e same t i m e , t o a v o i d i m p o s i n g p u n i t i v e remedies w h i c h were n e i t h e r c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r i m p r o v i n g employer-employee r e l a t i o n s 57 a t A l c a n , n o r " j u d i c i o u s " i n l i g h t o f a l l the f a c t s i n the c a s e . The Board's d e c i s i o n was t o r e q u i r e u n i o n l e a d e r s each to make payments o f $500 to the company o v e r an extended p e r i o d , o f t i m e . T h i s was i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e as a " r e m i n d e r " t h a t the Board's o r d e r s cannot be o p e n l y f l o u t e d . The payments may seem to c o n t r a d i c t -a p r e v i o u s s t a t e m e n t about the Board's l a c k o f a u t h o r i t y t o award f o r damages. One Board member, i n f a c t , d i s s e n t e d f rom the d e c i s i o n on the b a s i s t h a t the Board exceeded i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n as d e f i n e d i n the Code. The A l c a n case i s a r e f e r e n c e f o r some i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s on the Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e . F i r s t , the Board i s no panacea f o r the problem o f i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . A l l d i s -p u t e s cannot be s e t t l e d w i t h m e d i a t i o n , and b i n d i n g o r d e r s do n o t g u a r a n t e e c o m p l i a n c e . The second p o i n t , on the o t h e r hand, i s t h a t the g e n e r a l r e m e d i e s , a f f o r d e d t o the Board l a r g e l y by s e c t i o n 28 ( a l t h o u g h t h e A l c a n d e c i s i o n was based on s e c t i o n 2 7 ) , are s u f f i c i e n t so d e f i a n c e o f the Board's o r d e r s i s n o t a f r i v o l o u s a c t i o n . T h i s s u p p o r t s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the Board's r e m e d i a l power p r o v i d e s an i n c e n t i v e t o make accommodations d u r i n g the m e d i a t i o n s t a g e o f the c o m p l a i n t p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , the A l c a n d e c i s i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t even when f a c t s i n a d i s p u t e c a l l f o r a d j u d i c a t i v e o r d e r s and p u n i t i v e r e m e d i e s , the Board proceeds w i t h i n the same g e n e r a l framework o f p o l i c y as i n cases r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l , v o l u n t a r y m e d i a t i o n . T h i s framework r e v o l v e s around a p p l y i n g the most e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r m e e t i n g the c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n the d i s p u t e and, i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the p u b l i c and the p a r t i e s , p r o m o t i n g c o n d i t i o n s between the p a r t i e s con-d u c i v e f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . O b v i o u s l y , a s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n l i k e t he A l c a n s t r i k e w i l l l e a v e some p e r m e a t i n g h o s t i l i t i e s b e t -ween t h e p a r t i e s . But t h e Board's s o l u t i o n seems more c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r t h e l o n g t e r m b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a n the i m p o s i t i o n o f g r a v e r p e n a l t i e s imposed by t h e C o u r t s . The Board's e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n c e n t r a l i z e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l a b o u r p o l i c y r e s u l t i n g i n a more c o h e s i v e and i n t e g r a t e d e f f o r t t o h a n d l e a r e a s under the Code, i n c l u d i n g s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Board forms a h y b r i d o f l e g a l and i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s e x p e r t i s e b r i n g i n g c r e d i b i l i t y , f a m i l i a r i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y t o t h e media-t i v e p r o c e s s . The Board's p r o c e d u r e s overcome i n h e r e n t d e f i c i e n c e s i n t h e j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s f o r h a n d l i n g i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s and f a c i l -i t a t e m e d i a t i o n by e m p h a s i z i n g i n f o r m a l i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y and i n v e s -t i g a t i o n . The p r o c e d u r e s are r e i n f o r c e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t a d j u -d i c a t i v e and r e m e d i a l powers. C h a p t e r Summary The Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s i s p a r t o f a g e n e r a l p l a n t o promote f r e e c o l l e c -t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by r e d u c i n g t h e e x t e n t o f co m p u l s o r y , n o r m a t i v e o r a d j u d i c a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n and e n c o u r a g i n g v o l u n t a r y m e d i a t i o n f o r d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n . The p l a n i s based on s e e i n g accommodative p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as t h e b e s t means f o r r e s o l v i n g i n d u s t r i a l d i s -p u t e s , l a r g e l y due t o t h e o n g o i n g n a t u r e o f the c o l l e c t i v e b a r -g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c o u r t s i g n o r e d t h e n a t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s between management and l a b o u r by t r e a t i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages as l e g a l e v e n t s i s o l a t e d from causes b e h i n d t h e d i s p u t e s . P u n i -t i v e r e m e d i e s were a n t a g o n i s t i c and perhaps were c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e t o the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . The Board's approach ad-d r e s s e s i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f u n d e r l y i n g t e n s i o n s between t h e b a r g a i n i n g p a r t i e s . The Board i s s t r u c t u r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e m e d i a t i o n w i t h ex-c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n and broad d i s c r e t i o n a r y and r e m e d i a l powers The Board's c o m p o s i t i o n combines l e g a l and i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s e x p e r t i s e t o e s t a b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the medi a t i v e p r o c e s s . The Board's p r o c e d u r e s a r e f l e x i b l e and i n f o r m a l t o a v o i d t h e j u d i c i a l atmosphere o f t h e c o u r t s , and t o encourage r e l a x i n g o f hardened p o s i t i o n s and compromise. N o t e s ; C h a p t e r I I """James M a t k i n , "Government I n t e r v e n t i o n i n Labour D i s -p u t e s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia" i n C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g i n the  E s s e n t i a l and P u b l i c S e r v i c e S e c t o r s , ed. M o r l e y Gunderson ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toro n t o P r e s s , 1975), P- 9 2 . 2 I b i d . , p. 9 3 . ^The Code i s seen as an a t t e m p t t o e f f e c t c e r t a i n r e c -ommendations f o r l a b o u r p o l i c y c o n t a i n e d , f o r example, i n the Rep o r t o f R o y a l Commission I n q u i r y I n t o Labour D i s p u t e s ( t h e "Rand Report")(I965) and Canadian I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s : The  Re p o r t o f t h e F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on Lab o u r R e l a t i o n s (the "Woods R e p o r t " ) ( P r i v y C o u n c i l O f f i c e , 1969). T h i s i s n o t e d i n H.W. A r t h u r s , "The D u l l e s t B i l l " : " R e f l e c t i o n s on the Labour. Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 9 (1975): 280. H-D. Woods, "Canadian C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g and D i s p u t e S e t t l e m e n t P o l i c y : An A p p r a i s a l , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics  and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XXI (Nov. 19537": 451 . ^See g e n e r a l l y , H.A. Logan, S t a t e I n t e r v e n t i o n and As- s i s t a n c e i n C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g : The Canadian E x p e r i e n c e 1943- 1954 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 195677 S. J a m i e s o n , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, 1973) : 125-l4~2l H-D. Woods, Labour P o l i c y i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, 1973) Chaps. V, IX; Woods, H.D., "A C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l o f Compulsory C o n c i l i a t i o n i n Canada" i n I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t and D i s p u t e s S e t t l e m e n t , ed. H.D. Woods ( M o n t r e a l : Q u a l i t y P r e s s , 1955); W.B. Cunningham, " C o n c i l i a t i o n : The End o f Compulsory Boards," paper p r e s e n t e d a t the 6th Annual M e e t i n g o f the Canadian I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , M o n t r e a l , 18 June I 9 6 9 ; John D. M i s i c k , "Compulsory C o n c i l i a t i o n i n Canada: Do We Need I t ? " , R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e - l i e s 33:2 (1978); F.R. A n t o n , The Rol e o f Government i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l  D i s p u t e s i n Canada (Don M i l l s : CCH Canada L t d . , 1962); P a u l C. W e i l e r , "Labour A r b i t r a t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l Change," Task F o r c e on L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s , P r i v y C o u n c i l O f f i c e (Ottawa, 1969) . ^ M e d i a t i o n i n the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s n o t e v i d e n t i n p r o v i s i o n s f o r employee r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Code ( P a r t I ) . A c c o r d i n g t o P a u l W e i l e r , i n h i s a d dress to the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a -t i o n s Management A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C., H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s , B.C., 27th F e b r u a r y 1975, .the p r o p o r t i o n o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n cases i n v o l -v i n g e m p l o y e e • i n t e r f e r e n c e i s l e s s t h a n f i f t e e n p e r c e n t . I n th e s e c a s e s , t he Board w i l l "make a d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t t o se c u r e v o l u n -t a r y s e t t l e m e n t o f such d i s p u t e s . " ?The Code, s e c t i o n s 69, 80, 81. See A r t h u r s , "The D u l l e s t 61 B i l l , " pp- 291-294 f o r an a n a l y s i s o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o v i -- s i o n s i n t h e Code. g The Code, s e c t i o n 6 9 ( 3 ) . Q ^Labour R e l a t i o n s Board o f B.C. "Statement o f P o l i c y , S e c t i o n 96 o f t h e L a b o u r Code", Canadian Labour R e l a t i o n s Board Report 17 (1976) ; P a u l C. W e i l e r , " A v o i d i n g the A r b i t r a t o r : Some New A l t e r n a t i v e s t o the C o n v e n t i o n a l G r i e v a n c e P r o c e d u r e " , A r b i - t r a t i o n - 1977 P r o c e e d i n g s o f the T h i r t i e t h A n n u a l M e e t i n g N a t i o n - a l Academy o f A r b i t r a t o r s eds. B.D. Dennis and G.G. Somers (Wash-i n g t o n , D-C, Bur e a u o f N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1978) . "^See A p p e n d i x A f o r the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f the Code. " ^ A r t h u r s makes t h i s p o i n t i n "The D u l l e s t B i l l " , see p. 281. 12 P a u l C W e i l e r , "The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l : A View from the I n s i d e , " U n i v e r s i t y o f To r o n t o Law J o u r n a l .26 (1976)s 193* 1 3 T h i s p o i n t i s t a k e n m a i n l y from and a d d r e s s by P a u l W e i l e r t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Management A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s , B.C., 27 F e b r u a r y 1975* 14 - ^ I b i d . ^ C a r r o t h e r s , L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n , Chap. I I . l 6 M a t k i n , p. 80 - 9 2 . 17 A l c a n S m e l t e r s and Ch e m i c a l s L t d . and Canadian A s s o - c i a t i o n o f S m e l t e r and A l l i e d Workers, L o c a l No. 1, B.C. 44/76. 1 R P a u l C. W e i l e r , "The V i r t u e s o f F e d e r a l i s m i n Canadian Labour Lav/" M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y T w e n t y - F i f t h A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , I n - d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C e n t r e , 1977 ( M o n t r e a l , Quebec: 1977)» p. 70. " ^ W e i l e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " , p. 202. 20 Lon F u l l e r , " M e d i a t i o n : I t s Forms and F u n c t i o n s " , S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a Law Review 44 (1971) : 325-2 1 See A p p e n d i x A. 2 2 S e c t i o n 28. See D.D. C a r t e r , The E x p a n s i o n o f Labour  Board Remedies: A New Approach t o C o n f l i c t ( K i n g s t o n , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C e n t r e , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1976) . 2 % e i l e r , " V i r t u e s o f F e d e r a l i s m , " p. 67 . 24 , L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B.C., Annual R e p o r t s , 1974-1978. 26 •^W e i l e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " . 2 6 S e c t i o n 3 1 . 2 ^ S e c t i o n 31 . W e i l e r b r i e f l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s the c o u r t s * j u r i s d i c t i o n i n l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s m a t t e r s i n an a d d r e s s t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Management A s s o c i a t i o n . See note 14. 28„ . C a r t e r . 2 9Woods R e p o r t , p. 207. 3°Logan, pp. 103-104. C h r i s t i e , pp. 193-195; the Rand R e p o r t , pp. 104-108. 31 J These r e a s o n s are m a i n l y d e r i v e d from W e i l e r ' s a r t i c l " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " . 32 J W e i l e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " , p. 198. 3 3 I b i d . - ^ H a l l , "Labour Code", p. 10. 35 - ^ C a r t e r , p. 2. 3 6 See Appendix A. -^The Code, s e c t i o n 12. o Q W e i l e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " , p. I96• 39 L a b our Code , p. 7* 4o W e i l e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " , p. 200. ^ M a t k i n , p. 86-90 and Tsong, pp. 7 6 O - 7 6 I . 42 W e i l e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " , p. 199• 4 3 -'Woods R e p o r t , pp. 207-208. 44 W e i l e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " , p. 200. 45 L abour Code o f B r i t i s h Columbia R e g u l a t i o n s , B.C. Reg 522/73, O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 4267, s e c t i o n s 35-44. 46 W e i l e r , " V i r t u e s o f F e d e r a l i s m " , p. 6 8 . 47 S e c t i o n 13 o f the Code d e f i n e s a p a n e l as f o l l o w s : "(a) the chairman o r a v i c e - c h a i r m a n ; o r (b) the chairman and two o r more v i c e - c h a i r m a n ; o r (c) t h e c h a i r m a n , o r a v i c e - c h a i r m a n , and members, and one member r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f e m p l o y e r s ; o r (d) the c h a i r m a n , o r a v i c e - c h a i r m a n , and members, e q u a l i n number, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f employers and employees r e s p e c t i v e l y . " W e i l e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l " , p. 204. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the IRO's w o r k i n g i n r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s have r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s encompassing the e n t i r e range o f e m p l o y m e n t - r e l a t e d mat-t e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , e.g. minimum wage s t a n d a r d s , human r i g h t s , e t c . T h e i r r o l e i s more v a r i e d t h a n t h a t o f t h e s p e c i a l o f f i c e r s a s s i g n e d t o the Board i n Vancouver who d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h m a t t e r s under the Labour Code. 49 I b i d p. 11. " D u l l e s t B i l l it p. 34o. 51 See n o t e 19. 52 S e c t i o n 3 2 . " V i r t u e s o f F e d e r a l i s m " , p. 69 . 64 CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH QUESTIONS T h i s c h a p t e r d e v e l o p s f i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s about a s p e c t s o f the La b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board's approach t o d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e the s t r u c t u r e t o examine the p a r t i e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s toward the Board, i n h a n d l i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . Each q u e s t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by r a t i o n a l e drawn from the background i n the p r e c e d i n g two c h a p t e r s w h i c h c o v e r e d p r e v i o u s l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n , and u n d e r -l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Board. The Board's s u c c e s s r e l i e s g r e a t l y on r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the a p p r o a c h embodies a f a i r and e x p e d i t i o u s method f o r h a n d l i n g d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages.. I f the Board's approach i s n o t p e r c e i v e d as f a i r and e x p e d i t i o u s , t h e n i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the p a r t i e s t o undermine the Board by b o y c o t t i n g o r w i t h h o l d i n g s e r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y , i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n . The dynamic n a t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s make p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s a p p r o p r i a t e measures of the Board's p e r f o r m a n c e . . A l s o , B.C.'s h i s t o r y o f antagonism between l a b o u r and management and government o v e r c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s make the p a r t i e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s v a l u a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e Board's approach as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l r emedies used by the c o u r t s . 65 1. Does the Board Channel D i s p u t e s I n v o l v i n g I l l e g a l  Work Stoppages i n t o A p p r o p r i a t e P r o c e d u r e s ? An i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f the Board's approach i s f l e x i -b i l i t y i n h a n d l i n g c o m p l a i n t s . A f t e r an i n i t i a l e v a l u a t i o n o f a c o m p l a i n t by Board members o r s t a f f who might be f a m i l i a r w i t h the s i t u a t i o n , an i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r may be a s s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e and p o s s i b l y mediate a s e t t l e m e n t , an i n f o r m a l , m e d i a t i o n h e a r i n g c o u l d be convened; o r t h e c o m p l a i n t c o u l d ad-vance to a f o r m a l , a d j u d i c a t i v e h e a r i n g . A l t h o u g h the p r o c e s s tends t o s t a r t w i t h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n and c o n c l u d e w i t h a f o r m a l h e a r i n g , the sequence i s f l e x i b l e . The Board has t o e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n i n c h a n n e l l i n g d i s -p u t e s t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . F o r the Code t o a c h i e v e t h e i n t e n t o f those who d r a f t e d i t , the p a r t i e s must p e r c e i v e t h a t c o m p l a i n t s are h a n d l e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r d i s p u t e s . I t must be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t the p a r t i e s ' r e -s p e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e s may c o n f l i c t w i t h the Board's o b j e c t i v e s f o r s e l e c t i n g c e r t a i n p r o c e d u r e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g a c o m p l a i n t . F o r example, an employer may a p p l y t o the Board f o r a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r a g a i n s t an i l l e g a l j o b a c t i o n w i t h o u t e v e r i n t e n d i n g t o make compromises i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g . As a n o t h e r example, a u n i o n m i g h t appear a t the Board, as a r e s u l t o f an i l l e g a l s t r i k e , w i t h i n t e n t i o n s o f g a i n i n g c o n c e s s i o n s f rom an employer i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g i t c o u l d n o t g a i n any o t h e r way. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the Board's p r o c e d u r e s a r e g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d as f a i r and a p p r o p r i a t e , d e s p i t e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s one p a r t y may have i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i s p u t e . 66 Employers - A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the Board's P r o c e d u r e s Compared to p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h i t s ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s , employers c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o p e r c e i v e t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n as i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . They would te n d t o see a d e l a y t o a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r , w h i l e the Board conducts an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g , as a d e n i a l o f t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s and an u n f a i r advan-tage t o the u n i o n . The employers may be u n d e r g o i n g s i g n i f i c a n t economic p r e s s u r e from th e work stoppage, w h i l e i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d by the Board. They f i n d t h e m s e l v e s encouraged o r even c o e r c e d by d e l a y o f a f o r m a l o r d e r i n t o making c o n c e s s i o n s and no p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c e i v i n g compensation f o r t h e i r l o s s e s . They might a l s o r e t a i n i d e a s about " i r r e p a r a b l e harm" and com-pe n s a b l e damages from the e a r l i e r p a t t e r n o f c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s and q u e s t i o n why t h e i r r i g h t s under lav/ a r e n o t e n f o r c e d . A n o t h e r r e a s o n why employers c o u l d p e r c e i v e the Board's p r o c e d u r e s as i n a p p r o p r i a t e i s t h e y b e l i e v e t h e y ..are r i g h t i n t h e d i s p u t e and have been i n j u r e d by t h e work s t o p p a g e . The Board may a t t e m p t t o mediate i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g where the e m p l o y e r b e l i e v e s t h e r e are no s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s t o r e -s o l v e , b u t t h a t t h e u n i o n i s m a n i p u l a t i n g the Board. T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o u l d p o s s i b l y r e s u l t f r om the Board h a v i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge about a d i s p u t e . O t h e r employers might p e r c e i v e the Board's p r o c e d u r e s as a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i s p u t e s where i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a 67 s e t t l e m e n t and t h e i r c o s t s from the work stoppage and c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e u n i o n a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i v e t o t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on s e t t l i n g a d i s p u t e w i t h o u t a f o r m a l , l e g a l o r d e r . These employers may o r may n o t have a p p l i e d t o t h e Board f o r the o n l y purpose o f o b t a i n i n g an o r d e r . F o r example, t h e y may have a p p l i e d o r r e -q u e s t e d the Board's i n v o l v e m e n t as a f a c e s a v i n g d e v i c e o r t o use the Board as a m e d i a t o r i n a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e between two o u n i o n s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n an i l l e g a l s t r i k e . They may a l s o p e r -c e i v e i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n as a b e t t e r method o f d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n t h a n a f o r m a l o r d e r f rom the p e r s p e c t i v e o f l o n g term r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r employees. E m p l o y e r s would l i k e l y p e r c e i v e t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s a re a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c o m p l a i n t s t h a t p r o c e e d t o a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . I f an employer p r e f e r s t o s e t t l e the d i s p u t e i n f o r m a l l y , the Board i s u n l i k e l y t o convene a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . T h i s would g e n e r a l l y be c o n t r a r y t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g the Code. So i t i s i m p r o b a b l e t h a t an employer would f i n d h i m s e l f i n a f o r m a l h e a r i n g t h a t he t h i n k s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Unions - A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the Board's P r o c e d u r e s R e g a r d l e s s o f what p r o c e d u r e o r p a t t e r n o f p r o c e d u r e s the Board s e l e c t s , u n i o n s are i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n under the Board's a p p r o a c h t h a n when i l l e g a l work stop p a g e s were under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s . The Board's p r o c e d u r e s c o n t a i n means t o c o r r e c t t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e c o u r t s ' p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h a t t r a c t e d c r i t i c i s m s from l a b o u r : the Board i n v e s t i g a t e s the u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s ; o r d e r s a r e n e v e r i s s u e s on ex p a r t e a l l e g a t i o n s o f f a c t s ; and, u n i o n s and employees are n o t 68 s u b j e c t e d t o p u n i t i v e common law r e m e d i e s . Unions c o u l d be ex-p e c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o p e r c e i v e the Board's p r o c e d u r e s as a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . Unions might have a p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . Ob-v i o u s l y , u n i o n s s t a n d t o g a i n more i n c o n c e s s i o n s from an employer w h i l e a s t r i k e i s i n p r o g r e s s . . When a f o r m a l h e a r i n g i s convened, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y i s c l o s e r t h a t a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r w i l l be i s s u e d a g a i n s t the s t r i k e . 2. Does the Board Respond With Adequate Speed to Co m p l a i n t s C o n c e r n i n g D i s p u t e s I n v o l v i n g I l l e g a l  Work Stoppages? I l l e g a l work stoppages t e n d t o be i n t e n s e s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e speedy mechanisms f o r d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n . Employers want immediate r e l i e f from economic p r e s s u r e s r e s u l t i n g from the jo b a c t i o n and the u n i o n o r employees a r e u s u a l l y s e e k i n g some c o n c e s s i o n f r o m the employer to s o l v e a problem which t h e y p e r c e i v e i s a f f e c t i n g t h e w o r k p l a c e . The Board's speed i n r e s p o n d i n g t o c o m p l a i n t s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t due t o the n a t u r e o f major i n d u s t r i e s i n B.C. w i t h o p e r a t i o n s i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s . F o r t h e Board's approach t o be s u c c e s s f u l , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the p a r t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y e m p l o y e r - c o m p l a i n a n t s , p e r c e i v e i t as an e x p e d i t i o u s means t o r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s . S e c t i o n s 79 - 81 o f the Labour Code^" c l e a r l y d e f i n e work stoppages t h a t a r e i l l e g a l and c o m p l a i n a n t s w i l l pursue enforcement o f the law w i t h f o r m a l o r d e r s u n l e s s the a l t e r n a t i v e method of i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d as f a s t and e f f e c t i v e . 69 Employers - Speed o f the Board's Response t o C o m p l a i n t s The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f IRO's, the f l e x i b i l i t y and i n f o r m a l i t y i n the Board's p r o c e d u r e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g c o m p l a i n t s , and the a p p a r e n t r e a d i n e s s o f Board members to go t o the l o c a t i o n o f a d i s p u t e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the Board i s equ i p p e d to r e s p o n d t o c o m p l a i n t s f a s t enough t o s a t i s f y e m p l o y e r s . T h e r e f o r e , employers s h o u l d r e g a r d t h e Board's speed as adequate i n r e s p o n d i n g t o com-p l a i n t s about d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . On the o t h e r hand, employers might see the Board as speedy w i t h i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n b u t n o t f a s t enough i n c o n v e n i n g a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and i s s u i n g an o r d e r i n cases where i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n i s u n s u c c e s s f u l . The Board a t t e m p t s to mediate a s o l u t i o n i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f cases i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages and may c o n t i n u e to m e d i a t e , a l t h o u g h the employer i s s t e a d f a s t i n h i s p o s i t i o n . Thus, a f o r m a l h e a r i n g i s d e l a y e d and the l e n g t h o f the work s t o p -page i s ex t e n d e d . Of c o u r s e , the Board's o b j e c t i v e i s u s u a l l y to mediate a s e t t l e m e n t and the economic p r e s s u r e o f the work stoppage encourages an employer to make c o n c e s s i o n s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t employers would f e e l the Board i s too f a s t w i t h a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . I t i s to an employer's advantage f o r the Board t o convene a f o r m a l h e a r i n g as soon as p o s s i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e work stoppage i s c a u s i n g s i g n i f i c a n t economic, p r e s s u r e . Unions - Speed of the Board's Response t o C o m p l a i n t s Unions c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o v i e w the Board's speed as adequate i n r e s p o n d i n g to employers• c o m p l a i n t s about i l l e g a l work 70 s t o p p a g e s . The e x p l a n a t i o n i s the same f o r u n i o n s as i t i s f o r employers t h a t the Board i s s t r u c t u r e d t o respond q u i c k l y t o c o m p l a i n t s . Under some c i r c u m s t a n c e s , u n i o n s might f a v o u r a prompt at t e m p t a t i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n by the Board. T h i s would happen i n cases where the employer i s d e t e r m i n e d t o w i t h s t a n d a work stoppage u n t i l t he Board i s s u e s a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r . A u n i o n may be l o s i n g s u p p o r t because members are e x p e r i e n c i n g f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e o r because the he a t o f the moment i n a spontaneous w i l d c a t has pa s s e d . I n o t h e r c a s e s , u n i o n s might v i e w the Board as b e i n g too f a s t i n r e s p o n d i n g to c o m p l a i n t s . The l o n g e r t h e Board t a k e s to re s p o n d t o a c o m p l a i n t , the g r e a t e r the i m p a c t o f the work stoppage on the employer. A u n i o n ' s l e v e r a g e i s l i m i t e d because the work stoppage i s i l l e g a l , b ut even a one day d e l a y c o u l d p l a c e s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s s u r e on some emp l o y e r s . Thus, u n i o n s c o u l d v i e w t h e Board's speed i n r e s p o n d i n g t o c o m p l a i n t s as e i t h e r adequate o r too r a p i d . 3• i s the Board S u c c e s s f u l i n D e t e r m i n i n g the U n d e r l y i n g Causes i n D i s p u t e s I n v o l v i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages? A fu n d a m e n t a l p a r t of the Board's approach i s the c a p a -b i l i t y t o i n v e s t i g a t e and i n q u i r e about t h e causes u n d e r l y i n g a d i s p u t e . A m a j o r c r i t i c i s m o f the c o u r t s was t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s were i s s u e d based on e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by the p l a i n t i f f t h a t had no b e a r i n g on the causes f o r the d i s p u t e . The t y p i c a l r e s u l t was the j o b a c t i o n t e r m i n a t e d , but t h e causes f o r the d i s p u t e were not r e s o l v e d and l a b o u r p e r c e i v e d t h a t the c o u r t s worked to the advantage o f e m p l o y e r s . 71 The Board must be a b l e to d e t e r m i n e the cause o f a d i s p u t e f o r e f f e c t i v e m e d i a t i o n and, i f m e d i a t i o n i s u n s u c c e s s f u l , t o d i s -pose o f c o m p l a i n t s a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . S e c t i o n 28 p r o v i d e s t h e Board w i t h b r o a d d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers t o i s s u e o r d e r s a g a i n s t c o n t r a v e n t i o n s o f the Labour Code c r to r e f u s e o r d e r s i f the c o m p l a i n a n t ' s c onduct was i m p r o p e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the d i s p u t e . The c r e d i b i l i t y o f the Board depends on j u d i c i o u s e x e r c i s e o f i t s powers. The u n f o r t u n a t e e x p e r i e n c e o f the M e d i a t i o n Commission i s an example of the consequences o f a government body c h a r g e d w i t h r e g u l a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t i s p e r c e i v e d as t r e a t i n g d i s p u t e s u n f a i r l y because o f i n a d e q u a t e knowledge o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f a c t s a f f e c t i n g l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . Employers and Unions - D e t e r m i n i n g t h e U n d e r l y i n g I s s u e s i n D i s p u t e s I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o u r t s , w h i c h were c o n s t r a i n e d w i t h l e g a l 'procedures and l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s , the Board's p r o c e d u r e s and c o m p o s i t i o n are d e s i g n e d t o f i n d the causes o f a d i s p u t e . B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e IRO's i n v e s t i g a t i o n , c o n t i n u i n g i n s e p a r a t e and j o i n t i n f o r m a l meetings w i t h t h e p a r t i e s and r i g h t t h r o u g h the f o r m a l h e a r i n g s , the Board has adequate o p p o r t u n i t y to d e t e r m i n e t h e causes f o r a d i s p u t e . The p a r t i e s u n d o u b t e d l y p r e s e n t f a c t s i n a l i g h t f a v o u r a b l e to t h e i r own c a s e . The e x p e r t i s e o f the members and s t a f f a t t h e Board arid f a m i l i a r i t y t h a t comes w i t h h a n d l i n g a l a r g e c a s e l o a d s h o u l d enable the Board t o p u t t o g e t h e r an o b j e c t i v e v i e w o f u n d e r l y i n g problems a f f e c t i n g a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t l e d to an i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e . Employers and u n i o n s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o 72 p e r c e i v e t h a t the Board e f f e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e s the u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . On the o t h e r hand, employers and u n i o n s c o u l d v i e w t h a t the Board i s n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s . T h i s c o u l d r e s u l t from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s . Q u i t e p o s s i b l y the Board does n o t always a p p r e c i a t e a l l s a l i e n t f a c t o r s i n a d i s p u t e . I t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r a Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n v o l v e d f o r the f i r s t t i me w i t h p a r t i e s who have a l o n g and com-p l e x b a r g a i n i n g h i s t o r y t o g r a s p f u l l y a l l t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s and nuances t h a t o c c u r d u r i n g h e a r i n g s . P e r s o n a l i t i e s a re a l s o an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t h a t may n o t be e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d . Thus, t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l p o t e n t i a l f o r the Board to make e r r o r s i n h a n d l i n g d i s p u t e s . The Board needs t o c o n t a i n e r r o r s t o a l e v e l t h a t i s t o l e r a b l e t o the p a r t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , e m p l o y e r s ' and u n i o n s ' views about w h e t h e r the Board i s s u c c e s s f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g causes c o u l d be b i m o d a l . I t s h o u l d be added t h a t employers c o u l d r e s e n t the en-t i r e c o n c e p t o f the Board s t r i v i n g to d e t e r m i n e the u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s t h a t i n v o l v e d i l l e g a l v/ork s t o p p a g e s . The Labour Code p r o t e c t s employers a g a i n s t u n l a w f u l j o b a c t i o n s . T h i s p r o t e c t i o n e x i s t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f the causes f o r a d i s p u t e . Employers c o u l d p e r c e i v e t h a t the Board's e f f o r t s t o a s s i s t the p a r t i e s f i n d s o l u t i o n s to u n d e r l y i n g causes a c t u a l l y undermines t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s p r o v i d e d by the L a b o u r Code. The l a t t e r p e r c e p t i o n c o u l d p a r t i a l l y be a c a r r y o v e r from when i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s were h a n d l e d by t h e c o u r t s . The c o u r t s were c o m p e l l e d to i s s u e an i n j u n c t i o n i f a work stoppage was i l l e g a l w i t h o u t any c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r 73 u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s . 4. Does the Board's Approach Work to t h e Advantage o f  One o r the O t h e r P a r t y i n the C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g  R e l a t i o n s h i p ? • Over the l o n g term, n e i t h e r p a r t y s h o u l d p e r c e i v e t h a t the Board's approach works t o the advantage o f the o t h e r p a r t y . The Board's approach i s p a r t o f a g e n e r a l l a b o u r p o l i c y t o s u p p o r t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by e m p h a s i z i n g v o l u n t a r i s m and m utual accommodation. The s u c c e s s o f t h i s l a b o u r p o l i c y must c e r t a i n l y depend on i t b e i n g p e r c e i v e d as o f f e r i n g a f a i r way to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n B r i t i s h C olumbia i n d i c a t e d the s e r i o u s i m p a ct on t h e p r o v i n c e ' s i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e t h a t l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n can have w h i c h i s v i e w e d by one o f the p a r t i e s as u p s e t t i n g the b a l a n c e o f power n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g system. The p a r t i e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f w h e t h e r the Board's approach t o i l l e g a l work stop p a g e s i s advantageous to one p a r t y o v e r a n o t h e r must be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y . C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , by n a t u r e , works u n d e r the p r e s s u r e o f economic power the p a r t i e s can e x e r t o v e r each o t h e r . The p a r t i e s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y . b e i n c l i n e d t o g i v e i m p r e s s i o n s w h i c h maximize s e l f - i n t e r e s t i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Thus, t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s must be i n t e r p r e t e d beyond how the Board's i n v o l v e m e n t a f f e c t e d the outcome o f s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s to how t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s c o l l e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e a r e a d i n g on the s u c c e s s o f the Board's approach as an e q u i t a b l e means f o r r e g u l a t i n g c o n f l i c t o v e r t h e l o n g term. 74-Employers - Board's Approach Work t o the Advantage o f One P a r t y Over t h e Other Employers would p r o b a b l y m a i n t a i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t an employer "buys peace" f o r the term o f the c o l l e c t i v e agreement w i t h c o n c e s s i o n s made i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r -g a i n i n g and t h e y s h o u l d n o t be o b l i g e d t o make a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e s s i o n s under the p r e s s u r e o f a work stoppage t h a t i s i l l e g a l . Thus, em-p l o y e r s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o v i e w t h a t t h e Board's approach works t o t he advantage o f u n i o n s . B r i t i s h Columbia's l o n g h i s t o r y o f l e g a l i s m and p u n i t i v e r emedies i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s u n d o u b t e d l y e s t a b l i s h e d e x p e c t a -t i o n s among employers f o r immediate r e l i e f f r o m an i l l e g a l work stoppage t h r o u g h the c o u r t s . The p e r c e p t i o n s o f these employers towards t h e Board's approach w i l l r e f l e c t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r an o r d e r a g a i n s t the j o b a c t i o n . They would p e r c e i v e t h e Board's e f f o r t s to mediate as an u n j u s t d e l a y b e f o r e an o r d e r i s i s s u e d . On the o t h e r hand, employers might p e r c e i v e t h a t the Board's approach does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f a v o u r one s i d e o v e r the o t h e r . They might compare the l o n g • a n d s h o r t term c o s t s i n c u r r e d when the C o u r t s h a n d l e d i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s and d e c i d e the Board's approach i s b e t t e r f o r l o n g term r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r employees. They would f o c u s l e s s on the economic impact o f the work stoppage and i t s i l l e g a l i t y and p l a c e more emphasis on the Board's approach as an e f f e c t i v e means t o r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s f o r l o n g term r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r employees. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t employers would f e e l the Board's approach works t o t h e i r advantage. Most employers c o u l d be e x p e c t e d 75 t o f o c u s on the s h o r t term economic impact o f an i l l e g a l work stoppage r a t h e r than any b e n e f i t from a m e d i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t t o l o n g term r e l a t i o n s w i t h a u n i o n and employees. From the l a t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e , i t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r employers to have the view-t h a t t h e Board's e f f o r t s t o mediate work t o t h e i r a dvantage. Unions - Board's Approach Work to the Advantage o f One P a r t y o r the Other U n i o n s ' c r i t i c i s m s o f the c o u r t s were m a i n l y based on the f a c t t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s d e p r i v e d them o f t h e i r o n l y s o u r c e o f l e v e r -age a g a i n s t e m p l o y e r s . The c o u r t s were o b l i g e d to i s s u e i n j u n c -t i o n s on the b a s i s o f whether a work stoppage was u n l a w f u l w i t h o u t a t t e n t i o n to the r e a s o n s f o r c o n f l i c t between t h e p a r t i e s t h a t l e d to t h e s t r i k e . Thus, employers c o u l d o b t a i n immediate r e l i e f from an economic s a n c t i o n w i t h o u t a d d r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o i s s u e s b r o u g h t f o r t h by u n i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to a work s t o p p a g e . By d e l a y i n g a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r a g a i n s t an i l l e g a l work stoppage u n t i l h e a r i n g each p a r t y ' s c a s e , t h e Board e s t a b l i s h e s a s e t t i n g f o r t h e p a r t i e s t o d e a l w i t h the i s s u e s r e s u l t i n g i n a work s t o p p a g e . I n some cases an o r d e r must be i s s u e d p r o m p t l y , when the Board's e x e r c i s e s i t s d i s c r e t i o n and d e t e r m i n e s a u n i o n ' s conduct i s i m p r o p e r . Under most c i r c u m s t a n c e s though, employers must d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e s o r e x p e r i e n c e the s h o r t term economic impact o f t h e work stoppage u n t i l the Board convenes a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and i s s u e s an o r d e r . From t h e u n i o n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , the Board's a p p r o a c h i s an immense improvement o v e r the t r e a t m e n t o f i l l e g a l work stop p a g e s i n the 76 c o u r t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t ' s most l i k e l y u n i o n s would p e r c e i v e t h a t the Board's approach does n o t work to the advantage o f one p a r t y or t h e . o t h e r . R a t h e r u n i o n s are e x p e c t e d t o see the Board's approach as e s t a b l i s h i n g a n e c e s s a r y b a l a n c e o f power between the p a r t i e s i n a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . Unions m i g h t , however, c o n c l u d e t h a t the Board's approach f a v o u r s them more th a n e m p l o y e r s . The time p r o v i d e d i n the Board's p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n would be advantageous t o a u n i o n d e a l i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e employer. The Board has ample d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers, o f c o u r s e , to d e a l w i t h any p a r t y t h a t i s a b u s i n g i t s p r o c e d u r e s . Never-t h e l e s s , i t ' s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a u n i o n c o u l d d e r i v e advantages from the Board's p r o c e d u r e s . Unions, t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d p e r c e i v e t h a t the Board's approach doesn't work t o the advantage o f e i t h e r p a r t y o r t h a t i t works more to t h e i r advantage t h a n e m p l o y e r s . I t i s l e s s l i k e l y t h a t u n i o n s would p e r c e i v e the Board's a p p r o a c h works t o the advantage o f e m p l o y e r s . From a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f p r e v i o u s l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n and i n v i e w o f p r o -v i s i o n s a g a i n s t i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s i n the p r e s e n t Labour Code, the Board's approach a l l o w s a more b a l a n c e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between u n i o n s and e m p l o y e r s . As l o n g as v/ork stoppages are i l l e g a l d u r i n g the term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, u n i o n s cannot e n j o y the same power r e l a t i v e t o employers as they would d u r i n g l e g a l s t r i k e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Board's approach e l e v a t e s a u n i o n ' s p o s i t i o n d u r i n g an i l l e g a l j o b a c t i o n j u s t by p r o v i d i n g a l i m i t e d oppor-t u n i t y f o r , n e g o t i a t i o n s d u r i n g i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . 77 5. Does the T r i p a r t i t e C o m p o s i t i o n o f the Board  I n h i b i t t h e M e d i a t i v e P r o c e s s Because o f the  P a r t i s a n s h i p o f the Board Members? F o r t h e Board to be s u c c e s s f u l w i t h v o l u n t a r y m e d i a t i o n , the p a r t i e s must t r u s t t h e Board members o r s t a f f and be c o n f i d e n t t h a t p a r t i s a n s h i p i s n o t i n f l u e n c i n g the Board's e f f o r t s i n p e r -s u a d i n g t h e p a r t i e s towards compromise. C l e a r l y , i f m e d i a t i o n i s g o i n g t o a c h i e v e a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the p a r t i e s towards one a n o t h e r t h a t i s conducive- t o accommodation, the m e d i a t o r ' s n e u t r a l i t y has t o be above s u s p i c i o n . I m p a r t i a l i t y . o f the Board i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t from a h i s t o r i -c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Government i n t e r v e n t i o n and c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work stoppage have c o n t r i b u t e d to a p o l a r i z a t i o n between the l a b o u r movement, government and the l e g a l s y stem. The p r e s e n t Board has the d e l i c a t e t a s k o f c h a n g i n g the h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n i n B.C. by b u i l d i n g an image of i m p a r t i a l i t y . Both u n i o n s and employers must p e r c e i v e t h a t p a r t i s a n s h i p does n o t a f f e c t the Board's m e d i a t i o n p r o c e s s . Employers and Unions -Board's C o m p o s i t i o n I n h i b i t M e d i a t i v e P r o c e s s Because o f P a r t i s a n s h i p N e i t h e r employers n o r u n i o n s would l i k e l y p e r c e i v e t h a t the m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s i s i n h i b i t e d by p a r t i s a n s h i p o f . t h e members. The v o l u n t a r i s m i n h e r e n t i n t h e Board's approach a l l o w s the p a r t i e s to w i t h d r a w s e r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m e d i a t i o n i f they sense a l a c k o f i m p a r t i a l i t y on the p a r t o f the Board's m e d i a t o r . T h i s s h o u l d c o n t r o l t h e i m p u l s e s o f Board members w i t h e i t h e r management or u n i o n backgrounds. The s u c c e s s o f the Board's a p p r o a c h , o v e r the ?8 l o n g term, r e l i e s on c r e d i b i l i t y and j u d i c i o u s d i s c r e t i o n e x e r c i s e d by t h e members, e s p e c i a l l y the v i c e - c h a i r m e n and the chairman. The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Board i t s e l f i s a n o t h e r check on p a r t i s a n s h i p t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t the m e d i a t i o n p r o c e s s . S i n c e the f a c t t h a t the Board i s composed o f management and u n i o n r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s , . i t must e s t a b l i s h a b a l a n c e between members w i t h d i f f e r e n t b a c kgrounds. C e r t a i n l y i f a Board member w i t h a t r a d e . u n i o n back-ground came t o be p e r c e i v e d by employers a s ' a l l o w i n g p e r s o n a l b i a s to a f f e c t h i s r o l e as a m e d i a t o r i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , the management members o f the Board c o u l d e x e r t p r e s s u r e s w i t h i n the Board i t s e l f t o c o r r e c t an i m b a l a n c e . A l t h o u g h the p a r t i e s would l i k e l y n o t v i e w the m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s g e n e r a l l y t o be a f f e c t e d by p a r t i s a n s h i p , t h e r e may be i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s i n w h i c h one o f the p a r t i e s f e l t t h a t a r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Board a l l o w e d b i a s e s t o i n t e r f e r e i n a d i s p u t e . T h i s c o u l d r e s u l t from a r e l a t i o n s h i p between one o f t h e p a r t i e s and a Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h a t e x i s t e d b e f o r e the d i s p u t e . I t c o u l d r e s u l t f r o m p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h e s o r o t h e r f a c t o r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h dynamics i n a d i s p u t e . The members o f Board are s e l e c t e d because o f t h e i r e x p e r -t i s e and s t a t u r e i n the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s community. P r o v i d i n g the members are committed t o the Board's a p p r o a c h , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e y would a l l o w p a r t i s a n s h i p t o i n t e r f e r e i n i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n . The Board members a r e , i n most c a s e s , a c t i v e i n l e a d i n g r o l e s i n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e Board. They ar e the b e s t c r i t i c s o f the Board's approach and i f t h e members the m s e l v e s f i n d s e r i o u s f a u l t s , e.g. p a r t i s a n s h i p i n m e d i a t i o n , t h e y would be most i n f l u e n t i a l i n c a u s i n g a d j u s t m e n t s t o the Board c o m p o s i t i o n o r any o t h e r a s p e c t a f f e c t i n g the approach to i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . C h a p t e r Summary. T h i s c h a p t e r d e v e l o p s p r o p o s i t i o n s about what the p e r -c e p t i o n s o f employers and un i o n s are l i k e l y to h o l d r e g a r d i n g the Board's approach t o d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s p e r c e p t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o f i v e a s p e c t s o f the Board's a p p r o a c h : 1) a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f p r o c e d u r e s ; 2) speed i n r e s p o n d i n g t o c o m p l a i n t s ; 3) d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s ; 4) advantage t o one p a r t y o r the o t h e r and 5) whether the Board's c o m p o s i t i o n i n h i b i t s m e d i a t i o n because o f p a r t i s a n s h i p These f i v e a s p e c t s were e x p r e s s e d i n q u e s t i o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e the s t r u c t u r e f o r g a t h e r i n g d a t a to r e p o r t the p a r t i e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Board's approach i n t h i s t h e s i s . 81 CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the methodology used t o c o l l e c t , a n a l y z e and r e p o r t p e r c e p t i o n s o f management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who have f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e o f the Labour R e l a t i o n s Board o f B . C ' s approach t o d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The methodology i s p r e s e n t e d i n f o u r p a r t s : p o p u l a t i o n , sample, d a t a a n a l y s i s and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n A l i s t p r o v i d e d by the Board i n d i c a t e d t h a t 282"*" a p p l i -c a t i o n s f o r a Board h e a r i n g o r o r d e r c o n c e r n i n g d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages were s u b m i t t e d from August, 19?^- t o December, 1978. The a p p l i c a t i o n s p e r t a i n e d t o v i o l a t i o n s under the Labour Code o f B.C. f o r s t r i k e s o r l o c k o u t s d u r i n g the term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, or s t r i k e s o r l o c k o u t s w i t h o u t r e q u i r e d s t r i k e v o t i n g 2 and n o t i c e . Two hundred-two o f the a p p l i c a t i o n s on the Board's l i s t 3 were f o r m a l . Formal a p p l i c a t i o n s are s u b m i t t e d i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r d o c u m e n t a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s s e t out i n the Labour Code of B.C. R e g u l a t i o n s . E i g h t y a p p l i c a t i o n s were i n f o r m a l . ^ I n f o r m a l a p p l i -c a t i o n s p e r t a i n t o d i s p u t e s i n w h i c h the Board was i n v o l v e d w i t h o u t r e c e i v i n g d ocumentation and g o i n g t h r o u g h p r o c e d u r e s s p e c i f i e d i n the R e g u l a t i o n s . The Board a t t e m p t s t o t r e a t d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages as e x p e d i t i o u s l y as p o s s i b l e and o f t e n h a n d l e s c o m p l a i n t s o v e r the t e l e p h o n e o r b r i n g s t h e p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r i n f o r m a l l y t o d i s c u s s and m e d i a t e a d i s p u t e . The Board d i d n o t r e c o r d i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s u n t i l 1976. Even though r e c o r d s have been k e p t a f t e r t h a t t i m e , the number o f c a s e s -r e c o r d e d i s p r o b a b l y n o t a c c u r a t e f o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s . Ob-v i o u s l y , d i s p u t e s h a n d l e d o v e r the t e l e p h o n e a re n o t always r e c o r d e d . I t was i n d i c a t e d when the l i s t o f a p p l i c a t i o n s was p r o v i d e d by the Board t h a t o f f i c e r s , members and s t a f f d i d n o t r e p o r t e v e r y d i s p u t e i n w h i c h t h e y were i n v o l v e d , e s p e c i a l l y i f the d i s p u t e was s e t t l e d i n f o r m a l l y . The number o f i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s r e c o r d e d i s , t h e r e f o r e , a c o n s e r v a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n o f the number o f d i s p u t e s the Board d e a l t w i t h i n f o r m a l l y . Sample The l i s t o f 282 a p p l i c a t i o n s s u p p l i e d by the Board was i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . I n i t i a l l y , t h i r t y c a ses were s e l e c t e d by t a k i n g e v e r y n i n t h a p p l i c a t i o n i n sequence t o p r o v i d e t h i r t y management and t h i r t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r i n t e r v i e w s . However, some ad j u s t m e n t to t h i s sample became n e c e s s a r y . S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i d e n t i f y i n g p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n many i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s was n o t a v a i l a b l e o r a d e q u a t e . One management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e f u s e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h o u t o f f e r i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n . A u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n v o l v e d i n a d i f f e r e n t d i s p u t e r e f u s e d an i n t e r v i e w because h i s u n i o n has a p o l i c y a g a i n s t i n t e r v i e w s f o r academic p r o j e c t s . A l s o , i t was n o t always p o s s i b l e t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e a u t h o r ' s t r i p s t o d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the p r o v i n c e w i t h some o f the p a r t i e s ' s c h e d u l e s . As a r e s u l t , 83 p a r t i e s were s e l e c t e d from the Board's l i s t to " f i l l i n " w h e r e v e r n e c e s s a r y . S e l e c t i o n s were made w i t h a t t e n t i o n t o m a i n t a i n i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f p a r t i e s from d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s , d i f -f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i m p o r t a n t t o the d a t a a n a l y s i s . ^ T h i r t y - f i v e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and 28 u n i o n r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e s were i n t e r v i e w e d . The management i n t e r v i e w e e s r e p r e s e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s which were i n v o l v e d i n 35 p e r c e n t o f th e d i s p u t e s b e h i n d a l l f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages s u b m i t t e d t o the Board from 1974 t o 1978. The u n i o n i n t e r v i e w e e s r e p r e s e n t e d l o c a l , r e g i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t were i n v o l v e d i n 55 p e r c e n t o f the d i s p u t e s b e h i n d a l l f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s r e -g a r d i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages s u b m i t t e d t o the Board from 197^ 1 9 7 8 . 9 T h i r t y - s e v e n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s were d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . I n t e r v i e w s f o c u s e d on the d i s p u t e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s s e l e c t e d from t h e Board's l i s t . T h i r t y o f the s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s i n v o l v e d f o r m a l a p p l i -c a t i o n s and 7 of the d i s p u t e s i n v o l v e d i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . " ^ Data A n a l y s i s The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o p r o v i d e a measure o f the Board's performance i n h a n d l i n g d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages based on the p e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r t i e s who have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e Board's approach. The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e d a s t r u c t u r e t o r e p o r t the p a r t i e s ' v i e w s o f t h e Board's approach. Two s e t s o f d a t a were c o l -84 l e c t e d i n r e l a t i o n to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . One s e t are yes/no r e s p o n s e s from the p a r t i e s r e g a r d i n g the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The p a r t i e s * r e s p o n s e s are grouped i n t o management and u n i o n c a t e -g o r i e s . The s e t are d e s c r i p t i v e c a t e g o r i e s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g and r e p o r t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n s i n the p a r t i e s ' r e s p o n s e s to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . These c a t e g o r i e s were d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y from s p e c u l a t i o n about p a t t e r n s t h a t might be e v i d e n t i n the p a r t i e s * r e s p o n s e s t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g s i x d e s c r i p t i v e c a t e g o r i e s were chosen: ( 1 ) I n d u s t r y The i n d u s t r y c a t e g o r y c o u l d demonstrate i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n s . C a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e v e r s u s l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s may be the b a s i s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s about t h e Board's p e r f o r m a n c e . An employer whose b u s i n e s s r e q u i r e s heavy i n v e s t m e n t s f o r a p l a n t and m a c h i n e r y would l i k e l y be more v u l n e r a b l e to economic p r e s s u r e from a work stoppage w h i l e t h e Board a t t e m p t s t o mediate a d i s p u t e . Thus, he m i g h t be l e s s f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o d e l a y s r e s u l t i n g f r o m the Board's a p p r o a c h . As a n o t h e r example, i n an i n d u s t r y where l o n g and complex b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s are the norm, u n i o n o r management may f e e l t h a t the B eard d i d n o t s u c c e s s f u l l y d e t e r m i n e the u n d e r l y i n g causes i n a d i s p u t e i n v o l v i n g a l o n g s t a n d i n g n e g o t i a t i n g i s s u e . The d e f i n i t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i e s used i n t h i s t h e s i s were d e v e l o p e d by the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department o f L a b o u r . 1 1 The i n d u s t r i e s a r e s e p a r a t e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , t r a d e and s e r v i c e , and o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s . Manu-f a c t u r i n g has f i v e s u b c a t e g o r i e s : f o o d and b e v e r a g e , f o r e s t 85 p r o d u c t s , m e t a l s ( r e f i n i n g and f a b r i c a t i o n ) , m a c h i n e r y , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s . Trade and s e r v i c e has f o u r s u b c a t e g o r i e s : t r a d e , e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h , m u n i c i p a l , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s . Other i n -d u s t r i e s has t h r e e s u b c a t e g o r i e s : m i n i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and communication and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s . (2) G e o g r a p h i c L o c a t i o n B . C ' s major i n d u s t r i e s t e n d t o have o p e r a t i o n s i n r u r a l o r s e m i - r u r a l l o c a t i o n s away from Vancouver. An o b v i o u s p a t t e r n w h i c h c o u l d d e v e l o p i s t h a t p a r t i e s i n l e s s a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e Board does n o t respond q u i c k l y enough to c o m p l a i n t s . The p r o v i n c e was segmented i n t o f i v e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s t o c a t e g o r i z e i n t e r v i e w e e s : l o w e r m a i n l a n d , e a s t , c o a s t / m a i n l a n d , i s l a n d and n o r t h . Lower m a i n l a n d i n c l u d e s the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , the F r a s e r V a l l e y as f a r e a s t as Hope and s o u t h t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r . E a s t i n c l u d e s the a r e a e a s t o f Hope t o the A l b e r t a b o r d e r , n o r t h t o W i l l i a m s Lake and s o u t h t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r . C o a s t / m a i n l a n d i n c l u d e s the c o a s t n o r t h o f Horseshoe Bay up t o and i n c l u d i n g P o w e l l R i v e r . I s l a n d r e f e r s t o Vancouver I s l a n d . N o r t h i n c l u d e s a l l o f B.C. n o r t h o f W i l l i a m s L a k e . (3) F r e q u e n c y o f I n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the LRB C o n c e r n i n g I l l e g a l Work Stoppages The c a t e g o r y i s the f r e q u e n c y w h i c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e -s e n t e d by management and u n i o n i n t e r v i e w e e s appeared on the l i s t s u p p l i e d by the Labour R e l a t i o n s Board o f a p p l i c a t i o n s o r com-p l a i n t s c o n c e r n i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . I t would be e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o d i s c o v e r a r e l a t i o n -86 s h i p between the p a r t i e s ' views on w h e t h e r the Board's approach works t o the advantage o f one o r the o t h e r p a r t y and f r e q u e n c y o f i n v o l v e m e n t . The Board's emphasis on i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n i s based on r e c o g n i z i n g the o n going n a t u r e o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p em-p l o y e r s and u n i o n s i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I f the Board's approach s e r v e s to a l l e v i a t e t e n s i o n s o v e r t h e l o n g term i n a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e n i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t the more f r e q u e n t a p a r t y i s i n v o l v e d w i t h the B oard the more f a v o r a b l y the p a r t y w i l l p e r c e i v e t h e Board's approach. (4) The Labour R e l a t i o n s Board's P r o c e d u r e s i n S p e c i f i c D i s p u t e s The Board o f t e n c h a n n e l s a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t o p r o c e d u r e s f o r e i t h e r a t t e m p t i n g t o mediate a s e t t l e m e n t o r a d j u d i c a t i n g a dispute-. One o f the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s whether the Board c h a n n e l s d i s p u t e s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . The p a r t i e s ' o p i n i o n s o f the Board's p r o c e d u r e s i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s may v a r y d e p ending on whether the d i s p u t e was h a n d l e d i n an i n f o r m a l or f o r m a l h e a r i n g o r a c o m b i n a t i o n . F o r example, an employer who was i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t h a t o n l y went t o an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g might have a l e s s f a v o u r a b l e v i e w t h a n an employer i n a d i s p u t e t h a t proceeded t o a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . The former employer may f e e l t h a t h i s r i g h t t o a f o r m a l h e a r i n g was n o t f u l f i l l e d . P r o c e d u r e s f o r s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r -v i e w s were s e p a r a t e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s , (a) I n f o r m a l H e a r i n g Only The Board r e c e i v e s a f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n and t h e p a r t i e s a re b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r . The c h a i r m a n , a v i c e - c h a i r m a n , a member, a s p e c i a l i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r a s s i g n e d to the Board from the Department o f Labour, or a member of t h e Board's l e g a l s t a f f w i l l meet w i t h t h e p a r t i e s and mediate a s e t t l e m e n t . Under some c i r c u m s t a n c e s , two Board members, one w i t h a management background and one w i t h a u n i o n background, w i l l meet w i t h t h e p a r t i e s . I n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s may o c c u r a t t h e Board o r a t some o t h e r n e u t r a l l o c a t i o n t h a t i s c o n v e n i e n t . Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t e n c o n d u c t h e a r i n g s a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f a d i s p u t e i n an o u t l y i n g a r e a . I n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o r c o m p l a i n t s h a n d l e d o v e r the t e l e p h o n e by the Board are c a t e g o r i z e d as i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . The outcome o f an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g w i l l be e i t h e r a s e t - t i e -men t of the d i s p u t e , a w i t h d r a w a l o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o r the a p p l i -c a t i o n w i l l p roceed t o a f o r m a l h e a r i n g , (b) I n f o r m a l and F o r m a l H e a r i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s p r o ceed from i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s t o f o r m a l h e a r i n g s when the Board i s u n a b l e o r deems i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o m e d i a t e . F o r m a l h e a r i n g s r e q u i r e f o r m a l a p p l i -12 c a t i o n s as s p e c i f i e d i n the R e g u l a t i o n s and a p a n e l o f the 13 Board as s p e c i f i e d i n the Labour Code. ^ A p a n e l has t h e power and t h e a u t h o r i t y o f the Board. The outcome o f a f o r m a l h e a r i n g can be a s e t t l e m e n t o f the d i s p u t e , w i t h d r a w a l o f the a p p l i c a t i o n , a Board o r d e r o r r e j e c t i o n o f an a p p l i c a t i o n . (5) E m p l o y e r s ' O b j e c t i v e s f o r A p p l i c a t i o n t o the Board E m p l o y e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e Board's approach c o u l d be I 8 8 a f f e c t e d by t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s by s u b m i t t i n g c o m p l a i n t s i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s . F o r example, an employer may have s u b m i t t e d a c o m p l a i n t o n l y t o o b t a i n an o r d e r w i t h no i n t e n t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n m e d i a t i o n h e a r i n g s . O b v i o u s l y , i f the Board d o e s n ' t make an o r d e r , the o u t -come o f a c o m p l a i n t c o u l d be c o n t r a r y t o the employer's o b j e c t i v e and he may p e r c e i v e the Board d i d n ' t h a n d l e the d i s p u t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y o r the Board's p r o c e d u r e s work to the advantage o f the o t h e r p a r t y . Employer's o b j e c t i v e s f o r a p p l y i n g t o t h e Board i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s were s e p a r a t e d i n t o two c a t e -g o r i e s : 1) t o o b t a i n a Board o r d e r and 2) t o o b t a i n m e d i a t i o n . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y r e f e r s t o cases i n which t h e employer a p p l i e d t o the Board s o l e l y f o r the purpose o f o b t a i n i n g a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r a g a i n s t an i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e . The second c a t e -g o r y r e f e r s t o c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e em p l o y e r a p p l i e d t o seek the Board's a s s i s t a n c e i n r e s o l v i n g a d i s p u t e . (6) Outcomes o f S p e c i f i c D i s p u t e s P a r t i e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s would l i k e l y be a f f e c t e d by t h e o u t -comes i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s i n w h i c h t h e y were i n v o l v e d . Employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who e x p e c t e d the Board to i s s u e an o r d e r a g a i n s t a work stoppage might have u n f a v o u r a b l e f e e l i n g s o f the Board's approach i f t h e y ended up making a s e t t l e m e n t . Union r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s who e x p e c t e d the Board t o encourage a s e t t l e m e n t might have u n f a v o u r a b l e p e r c e p t i o n s i f an o r d e r was i s s u e d . Outcomes o f a p p l i c a t i o n s were grouped i n t o the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 1) o r d e r i s s u e d , 2) s e t t l e d 3) r e j e c t e d . "Order I s s u e d " r e f e r s t o a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n a d j u d i c a t i o n and an o r d e r made by the Board under some p r o v i s i o n o f the. Labour Code. " S e t t l e d " 89 r e f e r s to a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n a s e t t l e m e n t , r e f e r r a l o f the d i s p u t e back t o t h e p a r t i e s f o r f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n o r a r b i t r a t i o n ( b u t n o t o r d e r e d ) , w i t h d r a w a l o f the a p p l i c a t i o n , o r the d i s p u t e ended a f t e r a d e c l a r a t o r y o p i n i o n was e x p r e s s e d by t h e Board. " P L e j e c t e d " r e f e r s t o a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t were r e j e c t e d " ^ by the Board because the c o m p l a i n t was w i t h o u t m e r i t . Data C o l l e c t i o n Open-ended i n t e r v i e w s were used to c o l l e c t t h e d a t a . P e r c e p t i o n s o f the p a r t i e s are by n a t u r e somewhat s u b j e c t i v e making a f a c e - t o - f a c e o p p o r t u n i t y d e s i r a b l e f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the p a r t i e s r e s p o n s e s to q u e s t i o n s . A l s o , the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f i l l e g a l work stoppages i s s e n s i t i v e and the p a r t i e s would l i k e l y be un-w i l l i n g to commit t h e m s e l v e s w i t h w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s . Thus, a ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e would have been l e s s e f f e c t i v e . The major r e a s o n s f o r u s i n g open-ended i n t e r v i e w s are t h e i r l a t i t u d e and f l e x i b i l i t y . L abour d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work stop p a g e s tend to be i n t e n s e . An open d i s c u s s i o n a l l o w s the i n t e r v i e w e e s t o r e f e r f r e e l y t o the i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t o c c u r r e d between the p a r t i e s and the Board, thus a l l o w i n g them to r e c a l l b e t t e r the c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Board's r o l e . A n o t h e r advantage from th e l a t i t u d e and f l e x i b i l i t y o f open-ended i n t e r v i e w s i s t h a t r e s p o n s e s t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be e l i c i t e d i n d i r e c t l y . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s w o u l d be u n s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were put f o r t h d i r e c t l y t o the p a r t i e s . I f q u e s t i o n s were a d d r e s s e d e x p l i c i t l y t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s , t h e r e s p o n s e s might e l i c i t b i a s i n s u p p o r t o f th e i n t e r v i e w e e ' s p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . Indeed, one r e s e a r c h e r d o i n g a s t u d y on the e a r l i e r M e d i a t i o n Commission A c t a v o i d e d p e r -s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s because he a n t i c i p a t e d t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s ' r e s p o n s e w o u l d be b i a s e d by p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e s . ^ However, r e s p o n s e s t o r e -s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o r t h i s t h e s i s were o b t a i n e d i n d i r e c t l y d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f d i s c u s s i o n s about t h e Board's " r o l e i n s p e c i f i c d i s -p u t e s . T h i s was i n t e n d e d t o a v o i d p o l i t i c k i n g d u r i n g t h e i n t e r -v i e w s . One i m p o r t a n t d i s a d v a n t a g e of open-ended i n t e r v i e w s i s 17 what i s known as the " r e a c t i v e . e f f e c t . " ' I n t e r v i e w e e s may res p o n d w i t h answers a f f e c t e d by the r o l e t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e i s e x p e c t e d from t h e m s e l v e s by the i n t e r v i e w e r , o r by some o t h e r r e a c t i o n t o the i n t e r v i e w e r o r t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g f o r the i n t e r v i e w . I n t e r v i e w e e s were f i r s t c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e . L e t t e r s were then s e n t t h a t e x p l a i n e d the s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r the i n t e r -v i e w , and t h e purpose as r e s e a r c h f o r a m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s . Con-f i d e n t i a l i t y was g u a r a n t e e d and i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o p i e s o f the t h e s i s would be made a v a i l a b l e f o r c o s t s o f d u p l i c a t i n g . Whenever a v a i l a b l e , d e c i s i o n s p u b l i s h e d by the Board r e -g a r d i n g d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s t h a t p e r t a i n e d t o t h e p a r t i e s were r e a d p r i o r t o i n t e r v i e w s . I n t e r v i e w s began w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n o f how names were o b t a i n e d . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was r e a s s u r e d . I n i t i a l q u e s t i o n s were 18 u s u a l l y "open" t o encourage t h e i n t e r v i e w e e t o d i s c u s s f u l l y t h e f a c t s about a d i s p u t e . Responses were r e c o r d e d longhand 91 d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n the summer and f a l l o f 1979* Chapter Summary The Board p r o v i d e d a l i s t o f 282 f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l a p p l i -c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages w h i c h were s u b m i t t e d from 197^ "to 1978. A sample was s e l e c t e d from the Board's l i s t . T h i r t y - o n e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and 28 u n i o n r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s were i n t e r v i e w e d . There are tv/o c a t e g o r i e s of. i n t e r v i e w d a t a . One c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f yes/no r e s p o n s e s by t h e p a r t i e s to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The o t h e r c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g and r e p o r t i n g the p a r t i e s ' r e s p o n s e s . Open-ended i n t e r v i e w s were used to c o l l e c t the d a t a . 9 2 N o t e s , C h a p t e r IV "'"The Labour R e l a t i o n s Board o f B.C. Annual R e p o r t s 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 8 i n d i c a t e t h a t 2 7 4 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a Board 'order o r o p i n i o n p e r t a i n i n g to a l l e g e d i l l e g a l s t r i k e s o r l o c k o u t s were d i s p o s e d o f from 1 9 7 4 to 1 9 7 8 . The l i s t p r o v i d e d by the Board f o r t h i s t h e s i s c o n t a i n e d 8 a d d i t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o r com-p l a i n t s . The d i f f e r e n c e may be due t o c e r t a i n a p p l i c a t i o n s b e i n g counted f o r the Board's r e p o r t s under a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o t h e r t h a n a l l e g e d i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e because many a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e s u b m i t t e d p e r t a i n i n g t o v i o -l a t i o n s under more than one s e c t i o n o f the Labour Code. Code. 2 See Appendix A f o r the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f the Labour ^ T a b l e 7 i n Appendix shows f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s con-c e r n i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 8 , by year, and i n d u s t r y . 4 Labour Code of B r i t i s h C olumbia R e g u l a t i o n s , B.C. Reg. 5 2 2 / 7 3 , O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 4267, s e c t i o n s 3 5 - 4 4 . See Appendix B. -'Table 8 i n Appendix C shows i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s con-c e r n i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , I 9 7 6 - I 9 7 8 , by y e a r and i n d u s t r y . ^ T a b l e s 7 - 1 0 i n Appendix C group p o p u l a t i o n d a t a i n c a t e -g o r i e s used f o r d a t a a n a l y s e s and T a b l e s 11-14 i n Appendix D group sample d a t a i n the same c a t e g o r i e s . The c a t e g o r i e s are d e f i n e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . T a b l e s 1 5 - 1 7 i n Appendix E p r o v i d e com-p a r i s o n s between the p o p u l a t i o n and t h e sample. 7 'Table 1 1 m Appendix D. o Table 13 i n Appendix D. 9 I b i d . 1 0 T a b l e 1 2 i n Appendix D. 1 1 B . C . Labour D i r e c t o r y 1 9 7 5 ( P l a n n i n g and R e s e a r c h Branch, Department o f Labour, B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1 9 7 5 ) , P- H « 12 See Appendix B. 13 -'Section 13 o f the Labour Code . 14 S e c t i o n 90 o f the Labour Code. " ^ S e c t i o n 28 ( 4 ) o f the Labour Code. P e t e r Z.W. Tsong, "Compulsory A r b i t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : B i l l 3 3 " , R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s , 2 6 : 3 , ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p. ? 4 4 . ^ S t u a r t J a m i e s o n , " R e g i o n a l F a c t o r s i n I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t : The Case of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , Canadian J o u r n a l o f  Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e (August, 1962). 1 o Stephen R i c h a r d s o n , I n t e r v i e w i n g , I t s Forms and  F u n c t i o n s (New Y o r k , B a s i c Books, 1965)• i 94 CHAPTER V MANAGEMENT AND UNION PERCEPTIONS OF THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD'S APPROACH TO DISPUTES INVOLVING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES • T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h i r t y - o n e employer o r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s towards the Board's approach to i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The p a r t i e s * . p e r c e p t i o n s a re r e p o r t e d as r e s p o n s e s to the f i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . The p a r -t i e s * r e s p o n s e s t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e f o l l o w e d by a n a l y s i s o f the reas o n s f o r t h e i r v iews g i v e n d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . 1. Does the Board Channel D i s p u t e s I n v o l v i n g I l l e g a l  Work Stoppages i n t o A p p r o p r i a t e P r o c e d u r e s ? Yes No Employers 12 19 Unions 2? 1 Employers - A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the Board's P r o c e d u r e s L e ss t h a n h a l f o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s (38.?%) p e r c e i v e ; the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s . Most of those who p e r c e i v e d the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o -p r i a t e were s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e i r d i s p u t e s were s e t t l e d and saw v a l u e i n a v o i d i n g a l e g a l o r d e r imposed on t h e i r employees. These management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s tended n o t t o emphasize economic c o s t s 95 from the work s t o p p a g e s . Over h a l f o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Most o f them f e l t t h a t i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s d e l a y e d t h e i r r i g h t t o a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r . They emphasized economic c o s t s from the work stoppages and c r i t i c i z e d the Board f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e s e t t l e m e n t s a t any c o s t . Some f e l t t h e u n i o n s s h o u l d have f i n a n -c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i l l e g a l j o b a c t i o n s . Twelve (39%) o f t h e employers o r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e Board c h a n n e l s d i s p u t e s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . T a b l e 1 on page 96 shows e m p l o y e r s ' p e r -c e p t i o n s of whether the Board c h a n n e l s d i s p u t e s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s by type o f pr o c e d u r e s i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s . Nine o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who thought o the Board c h a n n e l s d i s p u t e s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s were i n -v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t h a t were s e t t l e d i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . These n i n e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e a s o n s t h a t were s u g g e s t e d i n Ch a p t e r I I I . Namely, an i n f o r m a l s e t t l e m e n t was p r e f e r a b l e from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r u n i o n s and employees com-pared t o o b t a i n i n g a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r i n a f o r m a l h e a r i n g w i t h t h e Board. C l e a r l y , the c o s t s o f compromises t h a t were made i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s were l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e s e employers t h a n c o s t s from l o s t p r o d u c t i o n w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r a f o r m a l h e a r i n g , o r c o s t s i n terms o f p o o r e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h u n i o n s and employees t h a t c o u l d have r e s u l t e d ' from an o r d e r back to work w i t h o u t a d d r e s s i n g TABLE 1 EMPLOYERS* PERCEPTIONS OF WHETHER THE BOARD CHANNELS DISPUTES INTO . APPROPRIATE PROCEDURES BY TYPE OF PROCEDURES IN SPECIFIC DISPUTES DISCUSSED IN INTERVIEWS Yes No I n f o r m a l H e a r i n g 9 12 • Only I n f o r m a l and f o r m a l H e a r i n g 3 7 TABLE 2 EMPLOYERS* PERCEPTIONS OF WHETHER THE BOARD CHANNELS DISPUTES INTO APPROPRIATE PROCEDURES BY EMPLOYERS* OBJECTIVES FOR COMPLAINTS IN SPECIFIC DISPUTES O b j e c t i v e : Yes No To O b t a i n M e d i a t i o n 3 -To O b t a i n Order 9 19 causes f o r the d i s p u t e . A u s e f u l i n s i g h t f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the p a r t i e s * p e r c e p t i o n o f the Board's p r o c e d u r e s i s whether a c o m p l a i n a n t ' s o b j e c t i v e f o a p p l y i n g to the Board was t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e i n r e s o l v i n g a d i s pute o r t o o b t a i n an o r d e r . O b v i o u s l y , i n the former s i t u a t i o n the c o m p l a i n a n t would p e r c e i v e an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g as a p p r o p r i a t e I n the l a t t e r c a s e , t h e • c o m p l a i n a n t would be l e s s l i k e l y to see 97 an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g as a p p r o p r i a t e u n l e s s t h e r e were d e f i n i t e advantages f o r s e t t l i n g r a t h e r than o b t a i n i n g an o r d e r . Table 2 on page 96 shows e m p l o y e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f w h e t h e r the Board c h a n n e l s d i s p u t e s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s by t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s f o r s u b m i t t i n g c o m p l a i n t s i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Three o f the n i n e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who p e r c e i v e d t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e had been i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s where i n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s were s u b m i t t e d to the Board w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f o b t a i n i n g t h e Board's i n t e r v e n t i o n as a m e d i a t o r . One o f t h e s e employers was- a m a n u f a c t u r e r i n the f o o d and beverage i n d u s t r y who e x p l a i n e d the u n i o n was b i t t e r a f t e r a l e n g t h y l e g a l s t r i k e and was r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t a b a c k l o g o f g r i e v a n c e s . The employer was n o t m a k i n g headway r e s o l v i n g t h e g r i e v a n c e s "due t o t h e u n i o n ' s h a t r e d f o r the company". The employer wanted t o a v o i d i n t e n s i -f y i n g t h e u n i o n ' s a n i m o s i t y w i t h a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r . The p a r t i e s met i n f o r m a l l y w i t h a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the Board and w i t h i n 48 hours most o f t h e g r i e v a n c e s were e i t h e r r e s o l v e d o r r e f e r r e d t o a r b i t r a t i o n . The employer s a i d t h e Board's i n t e r -v e n t i o n worked as a f a c e s a v e r f o r b o t h p a r t i e s to make c o n c e s s i o n s and t h a t n e i t h e r p a r t y came out f e e l i n g as though t h e y l o s t . The o t h e r two management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a p p l i e d t o the Board t o o b t a i n m e d i a t i o n because o f i l l e g a l walk o u t s o v e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s between c o n s t r u c t i o n u n i o n s . One r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x p l a i n e d : I t ' s much e a s i e r t o work i n t h a t atmosphere... a l l o w s you t o b u i l d up c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h the u n i o n s . The u n i o n s a l m o s t always s e t t l e q u i c k l y . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t the same i n t e r v i e w e e from th e 98 c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f the Board's i n f o r m a l a p p r o a c h would be d i f f e r e n t i n a g r i e v a n c e o r r i g h t s d i s p u t e . There were s i x management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who made f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the Board w i t h the o b j e c t i v e o f o b t a i n i n g an o r d e r , b u t were s a t i s f i e d w i t h a s e t t l e m e n t r e a c h e d i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g . Two o f the d i s p u t e s i n t h i s group o c c u r r e d i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s where m e d i a t i n g teams from t h e Board c o n s i s t i n g o f a v i c e - c h a i r m a n and one o r two members a s s i s t e d the p a r t i e s in. r e a c h i n g an agreement and l e f t an u n s i g n e d o r d e r i n case t h e u n i o n ' s members d i d n o t r e t u r n t o work. An u n s i g n e d o r d e r appeases the employer and can s e r v e as a f a c e s a v i n g d e v i c e f o r u n i o n l e a d e r s t o t a k e back to t h e i r membership. I t a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s the f l e x i b i l i t y i n the Board's p r o c e d u r e s f o r h a n d l i n g d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . One o f t h e s e d i s p u t e s was a t an i n t e r i o r s a w m i l l and t h e o t h e r was a l a r g e mine. The i n t e r v i e w e e from th e s a w m i l l i n d i c a t e d the f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n was a s i g n a l t o a m i l i t a n t main-tenance crew t h a t the company wo u l d n o t make c o n c e s s i o n s under p r e s s u r e from an i l l e g a l s t r i k e . A l t h o u g h the u n i o n produced a " l a u n d r y l i s t " d u r i n g t h e i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g and the company d i d make a few c o n c e s s i o n s o v e r s a f e t y i s s u e s , he s a i d the u n s i g n e d o r d e r a c h i e v e d the o b j e c t i v e o f p r o v i d i n g a s i g n a l t o the main-tenance crew. The o t h e r f o u r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s whose o b j e c t i v e s were t o o b t a i n o r d e r s from the Board i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was p r e -f e r a b l e t o end the d i s p u t e by r e a c h i n g a s e t t l e m e n t . An i n t e r e s t i n g 99 case i n v o l v e d an employer w i t h about twenty employees who a p p l i e d f o r an order, a g a i n s t an i l l e g a l s t r i k e v o t e . A f t e r a f l a r e up w i t h the employer, a u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e took a v o t e w i t h a show o f hands. The Board t e l e p h o n e d t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and t h e r e s u l t was t h e employees agreed t o r e t u r n t o work u n t i l a p r o p e r s - t r i k e v o t e was c o n d u c t e d . The employer a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e was a p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t between h i m s e l f and t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and he s a i d he was g l a d t h a t a l e g a l o r d e r a g a i n s t h i s employees was a v o i d e d . Two o f the o t h e r d i s p u t e s p r o v i d e good examples o f manage-ment r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who thought the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e . I n one d i s p u t e a f o u n d r y o p e r a t o r sought an o r d e r because h i s f o u n d r y w o r k e r s walked o u t o v e r g r i e v a n c e s c o n c e r n i n g s e n i o r i t y and j o b p o s t i n g s . The employer a d m i t t e d t h a t the problems had been b u i l d i n g ever s i n c e t h e r e had been a company merger. He s a i d , " I f we had g o t an o r d e r , i t p r o b a b l y would n o t have been obeyed. The d i s p u t e was h a n d l e d p r o m p t l y , t h a t i s t h e main t h i n g . " The p a r t i e s a g r e e d i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g to r e f e r the g r i e v a n c e s t o e x p e d i t e d a r b i t r a t i o n . The o t h e r d i s p u t e was a t a l a r g e con-s t r u c t i o n s i t e where a group o f w o r k e r s w a l k e d o ut demanding r e m o v a l of a r e l i e f foreman. The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d i t was known the r e l i e f foreman had problems g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h the crew. An a p p l i c a t i o n was made to the Board and t h e p a r t i e s s e t t l e d w i t h the r e l i e f foreman b e i n g r e p l a c e d and s e n t cn v a c a -t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w e e s a i d he d i d n ' t care i f he had to a c q u i e s c e . He s a i d , "Everyone knew the foreman was h a v i n g p r o b l e m s . I t t u r n e d out b e t t e r f o r the man and f o r the w o r k e r s t o g e t him o u t o f t h a t s i t u a t i o n . " 100 There were t h r e e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who p e r c e i v e d the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i s p u t e s t h a t were d i s p o s e d of w i t h an o r d e r o r r u l i n g by the Board. The Board i s s u e d cease and d e s i s t o r d e r s i n two o f t h e s e d i s p u t e s . I n b o t h c a s e s , the i n t e r v i e w e e s , who r e p r e s e n t e d employers i n the m i n i n g and wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r i e s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t e a r l i e r a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e the d i s p u t e s w i t h the Board's h e l p r e s u l t e d i n employees r e t u r n i n g t o work f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s and t h e n w a l k i n g o f f the j o b a g a i n . When th e work stop p a g e s r e c u r r e d t h e Board p r o m p t l y c o n -vened f o r m a l h e a r i n g s and o r d e r s were i s s u e d . The t h i r d d i s p u t e was s e t t l e d a f t e r a f o r m a l h e a r i n g when t h e Board i s s u e d a dec-l a r a t o r y o p i n i o n . N i n e t e e n (6l%) employers o r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e Board d i d n o t c h a n n e l d i s p u t e s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . T a b l e 1 on page 96 shows t h a t tv/elve o f t h e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s d i s -c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s t h a t were s e t t l e d i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . T a b l e 2 shows t h a t a l l o f th e s e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s appeared t o the Board w i t h the o b j e c t i v e o f o b t a i n i n g an o r d e r . The p e r -c e p t i o n s c o l l e c t e d from these i n t e r v i e w e e s a re f a i r l y u n i f o r m and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t were i n C h a p t e r I I I . They p e r c e i v e d t h a t the Board's a t t e m p t s t o mediate a s e t t l e m e n t as " r u b b e r h o s i n g " o r "arm t w i s t i n g " t o c o e r c e them i n t o making c o n c e s s i o n s w h i l e t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g economic p r e s s u r e f rom the work s t o p p a g e . They f e l t the Board's a t t e m p t s t o med i a t e i n c a s e s where i t ' s " c l e a r -c u t " t h a t the employer i s " r i g h t " a re i n a p p r o p r i a t e and u n i o n s .101 should, be made a c c o u n t a b l e f o r f i n a n c i a l l o s s e s i n c u r r e d d u r i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . A d i s p u t e t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e s an a p p r o p r i a t e example. The maintenance crew i n a l a r g e m i l l w a l k e d out because a member o f the u n i o n e x e c u t i v e was suspended. The employer a p p l i e d f o r a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r and the Board b r o u g h t the p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g . The i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d t h a t the Board w i t h h e l d a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and t h e p a r t i e s s e t t l e d by a r r a n g i n g f o r t h e employee's g r i e v a n c e a g a i n s t the s u s p e n s i o n t o go t o e x p e d i t e d a r b i t r a t i o n . The Board d i d i n f o r m the u n i o n t h a t an o r d e r would be f o r t h c o m i n g i f i t s members d i d n o t r e t u r n t o work. The p l a n t l o s t one day's p r o d u c t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w e e made the f o l l o w i n g comments: I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t t h e Board's p o l i c y t o t r y t o mediate a l l d i s p u t e s . We were i n the r i g h t , c l e a r l y s o . Why s h o u l d we have to s i t t h e r e ? A f t e r t h a t c a s e , u n l e s s we can o b t a i n an o r d e r we don't go t o the Board. I n t o t a l , t h r e e o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group s t a t e d p l a i n l y t h a t t h e i r employers would n o t p a r t i c i p a t e a g a i n i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . However, o n l y one i n d i c a t e d t h a t he wou l d l i k e t o see the c o u r t s resume j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r i l l e g a l work s t o p -pages and r e t u r n o f t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n . T h i s group's d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s was because t h e y p e r -c e i v e d the Board t r i e d t o a c h i e v e s e t t l e m e n t s a t any c o s t , r a t h e r t h a n t o t a l condemnation o f the Board's a p p r o a c h . From t h i s p e r -s p e c t i v e , t h e problem i s w i t h the Board's d i s c r e t i o n i n c h a n n e l l i n g d i s p u t e s w i t h c e r t a i n p r o c e d u r e s . A s e n i o r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t he wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y e x p l a i n e d as f e l l o w s : 1U£ The Board has t o be a b l e t o t e l l one o r the o t h e r p a r t y t h a t he i s j u s t p l a i n wrong. I f we're r i g h t i n the d i s p u t e and we go t o the Board, we want a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r . The Board's d i s c r e t i o n a r y power t a k e s g r e a t m a t u r i t y t o a d m i n i s t e r e f f e c t i v e l y . R i g h t now the i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s p r o v i d e a g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the u nions t o see what t h e y can g e t . What do t h e y have t o l o s e ? The t r a d e u n i o n s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e do not have f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . W i l d c a t s • c o s t them n o t h i n g . By and l a r g e , t h e i n f o r m a l s are good t h i n g s . P u r e l y comparing w i t h the o l d way, the p r e s e n t system i s b e t t e r . I t a v o i d s r u l i n g by l e g a l o r d e r . S e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e management r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s are r e f l e c t e d i n the above q u o t a t i o n . F i r s t , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i t was n o t b e i n g s u g g e s t e d t h a t the Board abandon i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . The message from management i s t h a t the Board must d i s c e r n b e t t e r when i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s are a p p r o p r i a t e . Second, one must wonder e x a c t l y what i s meant by b e i n g " r i g h t " . R i g h t i n a t e c h n i c a l sense t h a t t h e u n i o n i s a c t i n g u n l a w f u l l y r e c a l l s the same sense o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n the days o f i n j u n c t i o n s . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s the l a t t e r p a r t o f the q u o t a t i o n t h a t s u g g e s t s the Board's approach i s an improvement o v e r the " o l d way". I t appears t h a t the i n t e r v i e w e e meant the employer i s " r i g h t " i n d i s p u t e s where t h e u n i o n i s t a k i n g advantage of t h e Board's approach t o g a i n con-c e s s i o n s . T h i r d , the r e f e r e n c e t o " f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " r e f l e c t s a p e r c e i v e d need f o r p u n i t i v e measures t o be a v a i l a b l e i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . Four o t h e r manage-ment r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s . There were seven out o f t h e n i n e t e e n management r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s who thought th e Board's p r o c e d u r e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e 1 0 3 and who were i n v o l v e d i n disputes which proceeded to formal hearings. A l l of these employers submitted a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of o b t a i n i n g an order. Only one of these disputes a c t u a l l y . r e s u l t e d i n an order being i s s u e d . In t h a t case the Board i s s u e d orders to both the union and the employer. The dispute was over an a r b i t r a t i o n award that the employer was appealing and had not implemented. Employees walked o f f the job because t h e i r employer had not implemented the award. A f t e r i n f o r m a l and formal hearings which happened w i t h i n two days, the Board ordered the employees back-to-work and ordered the employer to implement the award pending the outcome of the appeal. The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s case perceived t h a t the Board's procedures were i n a p p r o p r i a t e because the Board d i d not j u s t i s s u e an order on the basi s t h a t the job a c t i o n was i l l e g a l . He thought i t was i n c o r r e c t t h a t the Board ordered implementation of the a r b i t r a t i o n award. He added, however, th a t the employees may not have complied w i t h a cease and d e s i s t order unless the award was implemented. Out of the s i x remaining management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group, two were i n v o l v e d i n disputes where the employers 1 a p p l i c a t i o n s were r e j e c t e d and f o u r were s e t t l e d . One of the l a t t e r r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l a r a t o r y o p i n i o n by the Board. The perceptions of these s i x management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those who were i n v o l v e d i n disputes that were s e t t l e d i n i n f o r m a l hearings. They f e l t that the Board should not have delayed formal hearings w i t h attempts to mediate i n i n f o r m a l hearings. A management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from one of t h e l a r g e s t employers i n B r i t i s h C olumbia s t a t e d , " I f we're g o i n g t o make c o n c e s s i o n s , we'd do i t w i t h o u t the Board." Three o f t h e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group s a i d t h e i r employers would n ot p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s a t the Bo a r d . One o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w e e s who was p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l o f i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s s a i d : The i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s are a t u r k e y dance we go t h r o u g h , because we have t o g e t t o a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . A n o t h e r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from a l a r g e employer e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t ' s b e t t e r t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h the Board o v e r the l o n g term. An i n t e r v i e w e e who owned and managed a s m a l l manu-f a c t u r i n g company w i t h about t w e n t y - f i v e employees ended up r e a c h i n g a s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . He a d m i t t e d d o u r l y : I had t o judge economic c o s t s o f h o l d i n g o u t . I f I c o u l d have a f f o r d e d the c o s t s , I would n o t have g i v e n i n . H i s employees w a l k e d o f f t h e j o b as p a r t o f an o r g a n i z i n g campaign a t a s e p a r a t e o p e r a t i o n where the employer owned a m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t . He a p p l i e d w i t h h i s l a w y e r f o r a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r . The p a r t i e s met i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g ; however, the employer s a i d he was u n w i l l i n g t o make compromises. The Board convened a f o r m a l h e a r i n g about a week l a t e r . The employer s a i d , "The p r e s s u r e was on us t o bend. -We c o u l d ' t a f f o r d t o be s h u t down." He i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e Board's e f f o r t s t o mediate d e n i e d him h i s r i g h t s s i n c e he had a c o n t r a c t w i t h the u n i o n and the w a l k - o u t was i l l e g a l . Economic c o s t s s t a n d out as a common den o m i n a t o r between t h p e r c e p t i o n s o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who tho u g h t the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e and the p e r c e p t i o n s o f those who t h o u g h t the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s s u p p o r t s C hamberlain's w e l l - k n o w n theory"'" about c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g t h a t an employer whose c o s t s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t , i . e . c o s t s o f b e a r i n g out a s t r i k e , a r e g r e a t e r t h a n c o s t s o f agreement, i . e . c o s t s o f making c o n c e s s i o n s , would be more l i k e l y to p e r c e i v e the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e . There a r e too many v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g e m p l o y e r s ' c o s t s to c o n c l u d e from t h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t e m p l o y e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Board's p r o c e d u r e s depend on c o s t s i n c u r r e d d u r i n g a work s t o p -page. An i n d i c a t i o n , however, i s the employer's type o f i n d u s t r y . One would e x p e c t c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e , c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a t i o n i n d u s -t r i e s would s u f f e r g r e a t e r economic p r e s s u r e from a work s t o p -page t h a n a more l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y . Table 3 shows the e m p l o y e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Board's p r o c e d u r e s by i n d u s t r y . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t f i v e out o f s i x management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y who t h o u g h t t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e were e i t h e r w o r k i n g .ex-c l u s i v e l y i n t h e p u l p and paper segment o f the i n d u s t r y o r t h e y h e l d c o r p o r a t e p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a l l segments-A l l f o u r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the f o o d and beverage m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y were i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t h a t s h u t down l a r g e p l a n t s , two o f w h i c h o p e r a t e c o n t i n u o u s l y . T h r e e ' thought the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . On 106 the o t h e r hand, t h r e e out of f o u r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y t h o u g h t the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e . The l a t t e r i n d u s t r y t e n d s t o be l e s s c a p i t a l i n -t e n s i v e and employers r a r e l y e s t a b l i s h l o n g term r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r employees. Numerous v a r i a b l e s o t h e r than i n d u s t r y group need t o be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. B a r g a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e , p r o d u c t market, c o n t r a c t commitments are j u s t a few t h a t a f f e c t an employer's c o s t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t employers who s u f f e r g r e a t e r economic damage from an i l l e g a l work stoppage would l i k e l y p e r c e i v e the Board's emphasis on i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s as l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e . Unions - A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e Board's P r o c e d u r e s Twenty-seven out o f the t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h a t were i n t e r v i e w e d p e r c e i v e d the Board c h a n n e l s d i s p u t e s i n -v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . Twenty-two o f these u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t h a t were s e t t l e d i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . S i x were i n v o l v e d i n d i s -p u t e s d i s p o s e d o f i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . Two o f the d i s p u t e s t h a t went t o f o r m a l s r e s u l t e d w i t h o r d e r s b e i n g i s s u e d , two r e s u l t e d w i t h e m p l o y e r s ' a p p l i c a t i o n s b e i n g r e j e c t e d and two were s e t t l e d d u r i n g a f o r m a l h e a r i n g , one o f which r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l a r a t o r y o p i n i o n by the Board. The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who t h o u g h t the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e g e n e r a l l y e x p r e s s e d p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t were a n t i -c i p a t e d i n Chapter I I I . R e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e i r d i s p u t e s were s e t t l e d i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g o r proceeded to a f o r m a l h e a r i n g , T U T TABLE 3 EMPLOYERS' PERCEPTIONS OF WHETHER THE BOARD CHANNELS DISPUTES INTO APPROPRIATE PROCEDURES BY INDUSTRY Yes No M a n u f a c t u r i n g Food & Beverage 1 o Wood P r o d u c t s 2 6 M e t a l s 1 M a c h i n e r y 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 2 C o n s t r u c t i o n 3 1 Trade and S e r v i c e Trade 1 1 E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h 1 1 M u n i c i p a l 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 1 Other I n d u s t r i e s M i n i n g 2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1 Communication and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s 2 the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s emphasized t h a t the Board's p r o c e d u r e s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r each p a r t y t o t e l l h i s s i d e o f the d i s p u t e and, t h u s , expose the u n d e r l y i n g causes f o r the work s t o p -page. One u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e thought the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n a d i s p u t e t h a t e r u p t e d a f t e r a b u i l d - u p o f h o s t i l i t i e s between the employer and the chairman o f the u n i o n 108 p l a n t committee. He e x p l a i n e d t h a t the company and t h e u n i o n were " a t each o t h e r ' s t h r o a t s . " He s a i d t h e r e was a young crew a t the p l a n t and members of the u n i o n p l a n committee were "too e n t h u s i -a s t i c . " A b s e n t e e i s m was a problem and the company was a t t e m p t i n g t o r e s o l v e t h e problem w i t h s u s p e n s i o n s and o t h e r "heavy d i s c i p l i n e . " The p l a n t c h a i r m a n had been d i s c h a r g e d and h i s case went t o a r b i -t r a t i o n . The p a r t i e s s e t t l e d d u r i n g the a r b i t r a t i o n h e a r i n g and p a r t o f the s e t t l e m e n t was the p l a n t chairman's r e i n s t a t e m e n t . S e v e r a l months l a t e r t h e p l a n t c h a i r m a n was d i s c h a r g e d a g a i n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a w a l k - o u t o v e r s h i f t manning. The company made a f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Board f o r a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r a g a i n s t the w a l k - o u t . The u n i o n r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s a i d the employees would n o t r e t u r n t o work u n t i l t h e p l a n t c hairman was r e i n s t a t e d . The company r e f u s e d t o r e i n s t a t e him and demanded an o r d e r from t h e Board. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the Board met i n f o r m a l l y w i t h t h e p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r and t h e n s e p a r a t e l y . The u n i o n c o n v i n c e d the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h a t a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r was n o t j u s t i -f i e d because o f the problems t h a t had been r e c u r r i n g between the p a r t i e s . The u n i o n a l s o s a i d t h a t i t was u n c e r t a i n whether th e employees would obey an o r d e r t o r e t u r n t o work. The p a r t i e s a c c e p t e d a recommendation from the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h a t t h e p l a n t c h a i r m a n be r e i n s t a t e d , b u t t h a t he w ould f o r f e i t h i s u n i o n p o s i t i o n . They a l s o agreed t h a t a s p e c i a l j o i n t committee would a d d r e s s a b a c k l o g o f problems. The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h a t was i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t t h i s was a f a i r s o l u t i o n and t h a t an o r d e r w o u l d n ' t have s o l v e d a n y t h i n g . 109 The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s i n the above case were t y p i c a l o f o t h e r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who were i n v o l v e d i n c a s e s t h a t were s e t t l e d i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . B a s i c a l l y , t h e y were o f the o p i n i o n the i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p a r t i e s t o d e a l w i t h problems t h a t l e a d t o i l l e g a l work s t o p -pages. They i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s g i v e the u n i o n s b a r g a i n i n g l e v e r a g e i n the s h o r t term, but the t h r e a t o f a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r keeps t h e i r p o s i t i o n f l e x i b l e and t h u s encourages compromises. The two u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who were i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t h a t proceeded t o f o r m a l h e a r i n g s and r e s u l t e d i n o r d e r s b e i n g i s s u e d e x p r e s s e d p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e who were i n v o l v e d i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . They b o t h f e l t the Board's p r o -c e d u r e s were a p p r o p r i a t e even though o r d e r s were i s s u e d . I n one case,, the Board i s s u e d a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r t o the employees and an o r d e r t o implement c o n d i t i o n s imposed by an a r b i t r a t i o n award t o t h e employer. The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s was p r o b a b l y the " b e s t way t o go under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " The o t h e r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d he d i s a g r e e d w i t h the Board's d e c i s i o n t o i s s u e an o r d e r , b u t t h a t . " e v e r y o n e knew where t h e y s t o o d " a f t e r t h e h e a r i n g s . The s u b j e c t o f the employees' u n l a w f u l p o s i t i o n d u r i n g the Board's p r o c e e d i n g s e v o l v e d n a t u r a l l y d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Board's p r o -c e d u r e s are d e s i g n e d f o r s o l v i n g problems r a t h e r t h a n c r e a t i n g them. T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e was i m p l i c i t i n c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e c o u r t s * i n v o l v e m e n t i n i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s d i d n o t a d d r e s s u n d e r l y i n g causes b e h i n d l a b o u r d i s p u t e s and t h e y removed the o n l y s o u r c e o f l e v e r a g e t h a t l a b o u r has a g a i n s t e m p l o y e r s , i . e . the s t r i k e . The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s do f a c i l i t a t e g e t t i n g causes f o r t h e d i s p u t e out i n the open t o h e l p r e s o l v e the d i s p u t e and the f a c t t h a t t h e work stoppage i s i l l e g a l i s s e c o n d a r y t o l o n g - t e r m r e l a t i o n s be-tween the p a r t i e s . Three u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s emphasized t h a t t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s expose employers w i t h " u n c l e a n hands" who want the law t o end a work stoppage w h i c h t h e y provoked t h e m s e l v e s . One l a b o u r l e a d e r s t a t e d s u c c i n c t l y , "The Board p r o t e c t s bad employers' a g a i n s t t h e m s e l v e s . " The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the l e s s l e g a l -i s t i c n a t u r e of the Board's p r o c e d u r e s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d i s -p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . I n a d i s p u t e o v e r an i l l e g a l s t r i k e v o t e t h a t was c o n d u c t e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y a f t e r a f l a r e - u p between the employer and a l o c a l u n i o n l e a d e r , the Board a c h i e v e d a s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g a t e l e p h o n e c a l l . The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who was i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d the Board's a p p r o a c h was the b e s t way t o h a n d l e the d i s p u t e . He s a i d i f the Board had w a i t e d f o r a f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n and b r o u g h t the p a r t i e s t o Vancouver, e t c . " A l l t h a t p a p e r - p u s h i n g and l e t t e r w r i t i n g would have made a moun-t a i n o ut o f a m o l e h i l l . " I t became o b v i o u s d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s t h a t the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p r e f e r r e d i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . Once the d i s p u t e proceeded t o a f o r m a l h e a r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f an o r d e r i n c r e a s e d and employers were l e s s l i k e l y t o make c o n c e s s i o n s t o r e a c h a s e t t l e m e n t . Indeed, one u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a d m i t t e d h i s l a w y e r I l l a d v i s e d him to "push f o r an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g " a f t e r the employer a p p l i e d f o r a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r . The advantages to u n i o n s from i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . One u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e out o f the t w e n t y - e i g h t t h a t were i n t e r v i e v / e d s a i d the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The p a r t i c u l a r d i s p u t e o c c u r r e d i n an i s o l a t e d m i n i n g community o v e r d i s c h a r g e o f an employee f o r h o r s e p l a y ; The employee had been d i s c i p l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y f o r f a l l i n g a s l e e p w h i l e o p e r a t i n g a l a r g e t r u c k . He was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n an i n c i d e n t t h a t r e s u l t e d i n a s u p e r v i s o r b e i n g r e p r i m a n d e d f o r d i r e c t i n g a l a r g e t r u c k i n t o ' a c o l l i s i o n w i t h a s m a l l e r t r u c k . The u n i o n f e l t h i s d i s -charge o c c u r r e d i n p a r t because the s u p e r v i s o r wanted v i n d i c a t i o n f o r h i s r e p r i m a n d . The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f e l t the d i s -charge was too s e v e r e because the employee l i v e d i n a company house and he would have been f o r c e d t o move h i s f a m i l y t o a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n . An i l l e g a l s t r i k e r e s u l t e d t h a t s h u t down the mine. The employer a p p l i e d t o the Board and a Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e h e l d h e a r i n g s a t the mine town. A cease and d e s i s t o r d e r was i s s u e d a g a i n s t the work s t o p p a g e , but the employer a l s o agreed to reduce the employee's d i s c i p l i n e to a s u s p e n s i o n . The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f e l t t h e o r d e r was u n n e c e s s a r y and t h a t the d i s p u t e c o u l d have been s e t t l e d . i n f o r m a l l y . He d i d n o t , however, seem t o be condemning the Board's a p p r o a c h , r a t h e r he was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h p r o c e d u r e s i n the p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . I n summary, a l l b u t one of the t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i o n r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e Board c h a n n e l s d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . These u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s emphasized t h a t t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s a d d r e s s causes b e h i n d d i s p u t e s and the Board's move away from l e g a l i s m i n i t s p r o c e e d i n g s i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e s o l v i n g problems between the p a r t i e s . 2. Does the Board Respond With Adequate Speed t o C o m p l a i n t s C o n c e r n i n g D i s p u t e s I n v o l v i n g I l l e g a l  Work Stoppages? Yes No Employers 28 3 Unions 2? 1 Employers - Speed o f the Board's Response t o C o m p l a i n t s T w e n t y - e i g h t o f the t h i r t y - o n e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the Board responds w i t h adequate speed. G e n e r a l l y , t h e y f e l t t he Board a c t s p r o m p t l y a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a c o m p l a i n t o r an a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e time t h a t e i t h e r a Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r r i v e s a t the l o c a t i o n o f a work stoppage, o r u n t i l an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g i s co n c e r n e d i f the p a r t i e s meet a t t h e Board. F o r d i s p u t e s t h a t o c c u r . i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s , a Board r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e i s t y p i c a l l y a t the l o c a t i o n i n l e s s t h a n t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s . T a b l e 4 shows t h e employers* p e r c e p t i o n s o f whether the Board responds w i t h adequate speed by g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . S e v e r a l examples a r e h e l p f u l t o d e s c r i b e the p a r t i e s * p e r c e p t i o n s . A management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y i n e a s t e r n B.C. was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s e d by the Board's promptness. He d e s c r i b e d a case i n w h i c h a maintenance crew w a l k e d out e a r l y one a f t e r n o o n and the m i l l s h u t down the n e x t day due t o equipment f a i l u r e . The employer a p p l i e d t o the Board f o r a 113 cease and d e s i s t o r d e r and a Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f l e w i n from Vancouver the same day. I n f o r m a l and f o r m a l h e a r i n g s were con-d u c t e d u n t i l l a t e the same e v e n i n g when the d i s p u t e was r e s o l v e d . TABLE 4 EMPLQYERS' PERCEPTIONS OF WHETHER THE BOARD RESPONDS WITH ADEQUATE SPEED TO COMPLAINTS CONCERNING DISPUTES INVOLVING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES BY GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION Yes No Lower M a i n l a n d 1? 1 E a s t 7 2 C o a s t / M a i n l a n d 2 I s l a n d 1 -N o r t h 1 -I n a n o t h e r d i s p u t e o ver a demotion t h a t o c c u r r e d a t a remote mine, about h a l f the w o r k f o r c e w a l k e d out a t 12:00 noon on a F r i d a y . The employer a p p l i e d t o the Board t h a t F r i d a y a f t e r -noon and S a t u r d a y morning a p a n e l from the Board c o n s i s t i n g o f a v i c e - c h a i r m a n and two Board members met w i t h the p a r t i e s a t a n e a r b y town. The h e a r i n g s r e s u l t e d i n a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r a g a i n s t the work s t o p p a g e . I n a l o w e r m a i n l a n d d i s p u t e , an employer a p p l i e d t o the Board on the morning of a w a l k - o u t . I n f o r m a l ' h e a r i n g s were h e l d a t 11:00 A.M. and 1:00 P.M. A f o r m a l h e a r i n g was convened a t 5:00 P.M. and r e s u l t e d i n Board o r d e r s to b o t h p a r t i e s . Three o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h o u g h t the Board does n o t r e s p o n d w i t h adequate speed. One o f the s e was a l o w e r m a i n l a n d d i s p u t e "over a c l a s s i c g r i e v a n c e c o n c e r n i n g s e n i o r i t y , " a c c o r d i n g 114 to t he management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The employer s u b m i t t e d a f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Board b e f o r e noon on the day o f the w a l k - o u t . They were' i n f o r m e d by the Board t h a t no one was a v a i l a b l e f o r a h e a r i n g t h a t day. The Board c a l l e d the n e x t day and i n v i t e d t he p a r t i e s t o an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g where the d i s p u t e was s e t t l e d . The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d the d i s p u t e . u l t i m a t e l y went t o a r b i t r a t i o n and the u n i o n l o s t . I n a n o t h e r c a s e , an employer i n the wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s -t r y a p p l i e d f o r an o r d e r a g a i n s t an o v e r t i m e ban. The employer's a p p l i c a t i o n was made on a S a t u r d a y r o u g h l y the same time t h a t an i n d u s t r y - w i d e v o t e was to be t a k e n on a b a r g a i n i n g p r o p o s a l made by the i n d u s t r y e m p l o y e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n . The p a r t i e s met the n e x t Monday i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g a t the Board. I t was c l e a r f r o m c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between the Board and the p a r t i e s t h a t ' t h e Board was r e l u c t a n t t o impede the p r o g r e s s o f i n d u s t r y b a r g a i n i n g by p l a c i n g t h e p a r t i e s i n a l e g a l atmosphere, even though the Board r e c o g n i z e d the o v e r t i m e ban was an i l l e g a l j o b a c t i o n . A n o t h e r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f rom the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y a p p l i e d to the Board f o r an o r d e r a g a i n s t h i s employees who r e f u s e d t o c r o s s a p i c k e t l i n e s e t up by employees on l e g a l s t r i k e a g a i n s t a n o t h e r employer. The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d h i s company a p p l i e d t o the Board and w a i t e d about a' week f o r an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g . He s a i d the Board was " d r a g g i n ' i t s h e e l s " to g i v e time f o r the o t h e r employer and u n i o n t o r e a c h an agreement. Some comments seem n e c e s s a r y r e g a r d i n g the t h r e e cases i n w h i c h the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t the Board d i d n o t 115 r e s p o n d w i t h adequate speed. I n the f i r s t example, the Board d e l a y e d an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g f o r a day, presumably because o f a f u l l s c h e d u l e . I t was n o t d e t e r m i n e d from the i n t e r v i e w s whether o t h e r f a c t o r s a f f e c t e d the d e l a y . The o t h e r two examples b o t h i n d i c a t e the Board was s l o w i n r e s p o n d i n g because o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a c t i v i t y r e -l a t e d t o the i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , n o t because o f c o n s t r a i n t s due t o s c h e d u l i n g , e t c . I n o t h e r words, the Board chose t o be slow p r o -c e s s i n g a c o m p l a i n t to a v o i d i n t e r f e r i n g and p o s s i b l y i m p e d i n g i n a b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The p a r t i e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n c o n t e x t w i t h the Board's r o l e t o c a r r y out the i n t e n t o f the Labour  Code. The g e n e r a l p o l i c y u n d e r l y i n g the Code i s to promote c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by e n c o u r a g i n g compromise and r e d u c i n g l e g a l i s m t h a t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the Board's approach i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Code t o use i t s d i s c r e t i o n i n h a n d l i n g c o m p l a i n t s and p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . Under some c i r c u m -s t a n c e s , the Board may be more co n c e r n e d w i t h f a c i l i t a t i n g b a r g a i n i n g t h a n s t r i c t l y s a t i s f y i n g a c o m p l a i n a n t ' s r i g h t f o r a h e a r i n g . T h i s may be u n s e t t l i n g from a l e g a l p e r s p e c t i v e , b u t i t r e f l e c t s the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Labour Code. I t was s u g g e s t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I t h a t some employers would see the Board as speedy i n r e s p o n d i n g w i t h i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s , but n o t f a s t enough i n c o n v e n i n g a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and i s s u i n g an o r d e r when i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n i s u n s u c c e s s f u l . Out o f the t e n management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who were i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t h a t proceeded t o f o r m a l h e a r i n g s , f o u r s a i d a f o r m a l h e a r i n g was n o t convened s p e e d i l y enough. S i x were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the Board's speed i n c o n v e n i n g a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s v a r i e d a c c o r d -116 i n g t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n d i f f e r e n t d i s p u t e s . The f o u r who f e l t f o r m a l h e a r i n g s weren't convened f a s t enough were a l l i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e -t h a t ended i n a s e t t l e m e n t . Three s a i d t h a t the Board a l s o d i d n o t respond f a s t enough w i t h i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . Out o f the s i x who p e r c e i v e d f o r m a l h e a r i n g s were h e l d q u i c k l y enough, two ended i n the e m p l o y e r s ' a p p l i c a t i o n s b e i n g r e j e c t e d ; t h r e e ended i n o r d e r s b e i n g i s s u e d ; one ended i n a s e t t l e m e n t . Only one management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f e l t the f o r m a l h e a r i n g was f a s t enough, and the i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g wasn't. The o t h e r f i v e f e l t the Board responded f a s t enough w i t h both i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l hearings._ Unions - Speed of the Board's Response to C o m p l a i n t s Twenty-seven o f the t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the Board responded w i t h adequate speed t o em- * p l o y e r s ' a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the Board. I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t u n i o n s would p e r c e i v e the Board's speed as adequate s i n c e the s l o w e r the Board responded the g r e a t e r the i m p a c t of t h e work stoppage on the employer. However, none o f the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y would have p r e f e r r e d t h a t the Board responded more s l o w l y . I t became e v i d e n t t h a t the u n i o n s tended t o want the Board's i n t e r v e n t i o n as r a p i d l y as the e m p l o y e r s . Once the Board was i n v o l v e d , the u n i o n s c o u l d u s u a l l y e x p e c t t o be i n a n e g o t i a t i n g p o s i t i o n i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g . The advantage t o the u n i o n s comes a f t e r the Board i s a t t e m p t i n g t o m e d i a t e a s e t t l e m e n t and a f o r m a l h e a r i n g i s b e i n g d e l a y e d . The one u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who t h o u g h t the Board d i d n o t respond f a s t enough e x p r e s s e d p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t were c o n s i s t e n t 117 w i t h the o t h e r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The d i s p u t e i n v o l v e d a s m a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t o r o p e r a t i n g i n a remote p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e . He had s i g n e d a l e t t e r o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h the u n i o n . The u n i o n a l l e g e d he was n o t c o m p l y i n g w i t h c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the agreement c o n c e r n i n g payment o f wages. The w o r k e r s w a l k e d - o f f the j o b and the employer a p p l i e d t o the B o a r d . A c c o r d i n g t o the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h e c o n t r a c t o r was n o t i n a h u r r y t o com-p l e t e the j o b because th e p a r t y f o r whom the work was b e i n g done had n o t been p a y i n g the c o n t r a c t o r f o r work as s c h e d u l e d . The p a r t i e s d i d n o t meet i n an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g u n t i l s e v e n t e e n days a f t e r the employer a p p l i e d f o r an o r d e r . The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o u l d n o t s a y why i t took so l o n g , b u t he f e l t the Board s h o u l d have convened a h e a r i n g s o o n e r . The w o r k e r s d i d n o t r e c e i v e wages owing t o them from the time o f the w a l k - o u t u n t i l s h o r t l y a f t e r an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g was h e l d and a s e t t l e m e n t was r e a c h e d . The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d the w o r k e r s would p r o b a b l y n o t have had t o w a i t f o r t h e i r wages i f a h e a r i n g had been h e l d s o o n e r . Seven o f the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e x p r e s s e d n o t e w o r t h y p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t were n o t e x p e c t e d . T hese-union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s emphasized t h a t the Board i s u s u a l l y prompt i n r e s p o n d i n g t o e m p l o y e r s ' c o m p l a i n t s about i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , b u t tends t o be v e r y s l o w i n r e s p o n d i n g to u n i o n s ' c o m p l a i n t s about em-p l o y e r s * u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s d u r i n g o r g a n i z i n g campaigns. One u n i o n o r g a n i z e r s a i d the Board may t a k e t h r e e to f o u r months to r e spond t o a u n i o n ' s c o m p l a i n t . N e a r l y a l l o f the management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h a t were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e g i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s 1 1 8 o f f i c e r s (IRO's) from the Department o f Labour have an i n s i g n i -f i c a n t p a r t i n d e a l i n g w i t h d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p -pages. Only two management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , one from Vancouver I s l a n d and one from s o u t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o c a l IRO's d i d i n i t i a l f a c t f i n d i n g and r e p o r t e d back t o the Board i n d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s . Thus, the r e g i o n a l IRO's a p p a r e n t l y have n o t been an i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e i n a s s i s t i n g the Board t o re s p o n d s p e e d i l y t o d i s p u t e s i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s . 3• I s the Board S u c c e s s f u l i n D e t e r m i n i n g the U n d e r l y i n g  Causes i n D i s p u t e s I n v o l v i n g I l l e g a l V/ork Stoppages? Yes No Employers 2 9 2 Unions 2 8 -Employers - D e t e r m i n i n g the U n d e r l y i n g Causes i n D i s p u t e s Twenty-nine out o f the t h i r t y - o n e management r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the Board was s u c c e s s f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s were f a i r l y u n i f o r m i n em-p h a s i z i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s f o r g i v i n g Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n v e s t i g a t e c a u s e s . They a l s o emphasized t h e v a l u e o f the e x p e r i e n c e and f a m i l i a r i t y t h a t most Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have i n d e a l i n g w i t h d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . One Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h a t r a d e u n i o n background who h a n d l e d d i s p u t e s i n a p r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r y i n the p r o v i n c e was com-mended by two d i f f e r e n t management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and one u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The p a r t i e s f e l t the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was a b l e t o a s s i s t the p a r t i e s i n r e s o l v i n g d i s p u t e s because o f h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n d u s t r y and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the p a r t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . I t was e v i d e n t from the p a r t i e s 1 p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t .. the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e has b u i l t up c r e d i b i l i t y and t r u s t w i t h the p a r t i e s t h a t a s s i s t e d him to g e t a t u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s -p utes . An o t h e r team o f two Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , one from man-agement and one from l a b o u r , were a l s o p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s c o v e r i n g causes f o r d i s p u t e s i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . The Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h a management background would meet w i t h t h e company and h i s c o u n t e r p a r t from l a b o u r would meet w i t h the u n i o n . A management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e s c r i b e d the team as " v e r y e f f e c t i v e " a t i d e n t i f y i n g p r oblems. F i v e o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s a i d t h a t the Board a d e p t l y i d e n t i f i e d causes b e h i n d d i s p u t e s , b u t , r e g a r d l e s s o f who was r i g h t o r wrong t r i e d t o a c h i e v e s e t t l e m e n t s a t ,any c o s t t o the employer. A management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y s t a t e d , "The Board wants t o g e t a t u n d e r l y i n g causes too much. Some cases are c l e a r - c u t . " A n o t h e r s a i d , "The Board d o e s n ' t know when t o s t o p l o o k i n g f o r i s s u e s . " F o u r o f the s e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t h a t were s e t t l e d i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s and one was i n v o l v e d i n a d i s p u t e where the em-p l o y e r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n was r e j e c t e d . I t i s c o n s i s t e n t t h a t f o u r o f th e s e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e Board's p r o c e d u r e s , i . e . i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s , were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Two management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t the Board was n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s . One management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was i n v o l v e d i n a g r i e v a n c e d i s p u t e o v e r s e n i o r i t y 120 t h a t e v e n t u a l l y went t o a r b i t r a t i o n and the u n i o n l o s t . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f e l t the Board d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d the s i t u a t i o n and s a i d the Board's e f f o r t s t o mediate were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t e d the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n v o l v e d was l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d t h a n most o t h e r people from t h e Board and he was n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h the i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g the d i s p u t e . The Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was " h e l p f u l " , however, and the p a r t i e s r e a c h e d an agreement. Both o f the employers who p e r c e i v e d the Board was n o t s u c c e s s f u l were i n v o l v e d i n l o w e r m a i n l a n d d i s p u t e s . The s p e c i f i c d i s -p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h b o t h t h e s e employers were s e t t l e d i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . There was no c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e from inter\>iew d a t a , however, t h a t g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o r outcome of a s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e were s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s c onnected w i t h e m p l o y e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s whether the Board i s s u c c e s s f u l i n d e t e r -m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g causes. Unions - D e t e r m i n i n g the U n d e r l y i n g Causes i n D i s p u t e s A l l t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who were i n t e r -viewed agreed t h a t the Board as s u c c e s s f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . Comments from u n i o n r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y were q u i t e s a t i s f i e d n ot o n l y w i t h the Board's c a p a b i l i t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s , but w i t h t h e e f f e c t on r e s o l v i n g a d i s p u t e t h a t i s a c h i e v e d by the Board's e f f o r t s to g e t u n d e r l y i n g causes out i n the open. I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t none o f the employer o r the u n i o n i n t e r v i e w e e s emphasized r e g i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r s 121 as h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g causes i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s . G e n e r a l l y , B oard r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i d f a c t f i n d i n g d u r i n g i n f o r m a l s t a g e s o f p r o -c e s s i n g a c o m p l a i n t . 4• Does the Board's Approach Work t o the Advantage o f  One o r the O t h e r P a r t y i n the C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p ? Yes No Employers 24 7 Unions 4 24 Employers - Board's Approach Work t o the Advantage o f One P a r t y Over the Other T w e n t y - f o u r out o f the t h i r t y - o n e . management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d the Board's approach works to t h e advantage o f u n i o n s . .. S i x o f t h e s e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s made s p e c i f i c comments t h a t were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e x p e c t e d employer p e r c e p t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n Ch a p t e r I I I . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s r e f l e c t e d e a r l i e r l a b o u r p o l i c y when i l l e g a l work stoppages were h a n d l e d by c o u r t s and employers c o u l d o b t a i n immediate r e l i e f from an i l l e g a l work stoppage w i t h i n j u n c t i o n s . They s a i d u n i o n s are r e q u i r e d by l a w to obey s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s a g a i n s t i l l e g a l s t r i k e s and employers are e n t i t l e d t o have t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s e n f o r c e d . They f e l t the Board's approach i n f r i n g e s on t h e i r r i g h t s by d e l a y i n g an o r d e r . One management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t e d s u c c i n c t l y : A l l employers g e t out o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s a c o n t r a c t f o r two y e a r s o f peace. Why s h o u l d n ' t u n i o n s be p e n a l i z e d f o r v i o l a t i n g the s a n c t i t y o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement? Three o t h e r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e same group s t a t e d t h a t employers s h o u l d be compensated f o r damages i n c u r r e d from an i l l e g a l s t r i k e . They s a i d the Board s h o u l d be more w i l l i n g t o g i v e an employer c o n s e n t to sue f o r damages a f t e r an o r d e r i s I s s u e d a g a i n s t a u n i o n . A management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who spoke vehemently a g a i n s t the Board's approach remarked, "Even i n c a s e s where we were r i g h t and the Board i s s u e d an o r d e r , we're out o f p o c k e t and the u n i o n has l o s t n o t h i n g . The u n i o n has t o be made f i n a n c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e . " There were e i g h t e e n o t h e r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who p e r c e i v e d the Board's approach works to the advantage o f u n i o n s . The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group d i d n o t s t r e s s l e g a l r i g h t s or damages i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense o f c o u r t i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . They were more c o n c e r n e d t h a t the Board p l a c e d too much emphasis on a t t e m p t i n g t o mediate a s e t t l e m e n t i n d i s p u t e s where m e d i a t i o n wasn't a p p r o p r i a t e . They f e l t u n i o n s were u s i n g i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s t o w i n c o n c e s s i o n s o u t s i d e o f r e g u l a r nego-t i a t i o n s . A d i s p u t e i n v o l v i n g a l a r g e employer i n the f o o d and b e v e r -age i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l example. The d i s p u t e was o v e r a l o n g s t a n d i n g i s s u e i n the i n d u s t r y about w h i c h w o r k e r s i n the same u n i o n would r e c e i v e a h i g h e r wage.rate f o r c e r t a i n work. The work was h i s t o r i c a l l y performed by workers i n two j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n s e p a r a t e l i n e s o f p r o g r e s s i o n . The employer s u g g e s t e d t o the u n i o n t h a t the i s s u e be r e f e r r e d t o a r b i t r a t i o n . An i l l e g a l work stoppage e r u p t e d a t one o f the employer's p l a n t s and soon s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t h i s o p e r a t i o n s i n B.C. An a p p l i c a t i o n was made t o the Bbard f o r a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r and an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g was con-vened a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y . The employer f e l t s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t making any c o n c e s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i s s u e , e s p e c i a l l y when the u n i o n was c o n d u c t i n g an i l l e g a l work stoppage. However, a v a l u a b l e shipment 123 o f h i g h l y p e r i s h a b l e goods was due the day o f the i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g . The Board was aware o f the shipment b u t d i d n o t convene a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . The employer s a i d he c o u l d n o t a f f o r d to l o s e the shipment and he c a p i t u l a t e d to the u n i o n ' s p o s i t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the d i s p u t e d work to g e t employees back on the j o b . . C e r t a i n l y the q u e s t i o n s arose as t o what s p a r k e d the j o b a c t i o n and whether the shipment was t r u l y as c r i t i c a l as the em-p l o y e r s a i d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the employer was c o n v i n c e d t h a t the u n i o n used the Board to w i n c o n c e s s i o n s . He made the f o l l o w i n g comments c o n c e r n i n g the Board's r o l e : We w i l l n o t go to an i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g w i t h t h a t u n i o n a g a i n . I f we had gone t o a r b i t r a t i o n and l o s t , okay, we t o o k our lumps. But we s h o u l d n ' t have l o s t the way we d i d w i t h a gun t o o u r head...The Board wants a s e t t l e m e n t a t any c o s t . The u n i o n used the Board t o g e t c o n c e s s i o n s and got o f f s c o t - f r e e . A n o t h e r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the same group as the one q u o t e d above s a i d , " I f e e l u n e q u i v i c a l l y t h a t u n i o n s know the Board's p r o c e d u r e s and use them to the f u l l e s t e x t e n t . Any u n i o n knows t h e y can s h u t us down f o r as l o n g as the i n f o r m a l p r o c e s s t a k e s , one and a h a l f days t o a week." Three o t h e r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e same group s p e c i f i c a l l y m entioned p e r i o d s o f one to t h r e e days t h a t an i l l e g a l work stoppage c o u l d c o n t i n u e w h i l e the Board a t t e m p t s t o mediate a s e t t l e m e n t . Management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group were r e s e n t f u l o f some o f the Board's t a c t i c s i n i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n . They d e s c r i b e d the Board's t a c t i c s as backroom "rubber h o s i n g " and "arm t w i s t i n g " . They spoke m o s t l y about the Board d e l a y i n g f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . However, one i n t e r v i e w e e c o m p l a i n e d t h a t a Board r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e t o l d him he " r e a l l y needed t o s e t t l e t h i s one". The Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d f u r t h e r , "You have t o appear b e f o r e us a g a i n . You c o o p e r a t e w i t h us and we w i l l c o o p e r a t e w i t h y o u . " F o u r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s u g g e s t e d the Board at t e m p t s t o mediate a t any c o s t because i t f e a r s t h a t i t s o r d e r s would n o t . be obeyed. One i n t e r v i e w e e c l a i m e d t h e Board asked the u n i o n i n a d i s p u t e whether w o r k e r s would obey an o r d e r . The u n i o n r e p l i e d no and the Board d i d n o t i s s u e an o r d e r . D e s p i t e the somewhat n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s r e p o r t e d from t h e e i g h t e e n management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the above group, t h e y d i d . n o t seem opposed i n g e n e r a l t o the Board's a p p r o a c h . R a t h e r t h e y p e r c e i v e d the Board's approach worked to the advantage o f u n i o n s because t h e Board t r i e d t o mediate i n n e a r l y e v e r y d i s p u t e . Em-p l o y e r s were p r e s s u r e d i n t o making c o n c e s s i o n s i n d i s p u t e s i n w h i c h t h e y f e l t t h e y were r i g h t . They p e r c e i v e d u n i o n s have n o t h i n g t o l o s e f rom c a r r y i n g on an i l l e g a l work stoppage w h i l e the Board a t t e m p t s t o m e d i a t e . From t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e , the Board needs to be more p r e p a r e d t o i s s u e o r d e r s and l e s s d e t e r m i n e d t o a c h i e v e s e t t l e -ments i n e v e r y c a s e . Seven out o f the t h i r t y - o n e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d the Board's approach does n o t work t o the advantage o f e i t h e r p a r t y . The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group em-p h a s i z e d the Board's approach p r o v i d e s a c o n s t r u c t i v e way t o r e -s o l v e d i s p u t e s . A s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y s a i d the Board has been e x c e p t i o n a l l y b e n e f i c i a l t o h i s i n d u s t r y . He s a i d , " I t ' s much e a s i e r t o work i n t h a t atmosphere. I t a l l o w s you to b u i l d up c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h u n i o n s . " A management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t a l a r g e mine e x p l a i n e d t h a t h i s company always p r e f e r s to s e t t l e a d i s p u t e i n f o r m a l l y " w i t h o u t u s i n g the law as a c l u b . " He s a i d the Board's approach h e l p s t o r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s w i t h o u t i n t e n s i f y i n g h o s t i l i t i e s w h i c h i s b e t t e r o v er the l o n g term f o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e u n i o n and employees. An o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e from t h i s group was i n v o l v e d i n a d i s p u t e w i t h i n e x p e r i e n c e d u n i o n l e a d e r s who "hated and t o t a l l y m i s t r u s t e d " the company. A Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e managed t o e s t a b l i s h a r a p p o r t w i t h b o t h p a r t i e s and he h e l p e d them r e s o l v e a number o f g r i e v a n c e s t h a t had caused c o n f l i c t f o r some t i m e . The i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d t h a t the Board e d u c a t e d the u n i o n l e a d e r s d u r i n g the m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s about b a s i c c o n t r a c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Compromises were made on b o t h s i d e s t h a t would n o t have o c c u r r e d b e f o r e and b o t h s i d e s came away f e e l i n g as though t h e y had won. The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group d i d n o t s t r e s s economic c o s t s from i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , n o r d i d t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t u n i o n s are u s i n g the Board's approach t o o b t a i n c o n c e s s i o n s o u t s i d e o f r e g u l a r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Two out o f the seven i n t e r v i e w e e s i n the group s p e c i f i c a l l y s a i d the Board's approach does n o t f a v o u r u n i o n s , because employers have the o p t i o n t o h o l d out f o r a f o r m a l h e a r i n g when the Board i s a t t e m p t i n g i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n . • I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have n o t e x p e r i e n c e d d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g t h e Board i n w h i c h economic p r e s s u r e s were too g r e a t t o b e a r even f o r one o r two days. Thus, t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s m i g h t be based on c o m p a r a t i v e l y i d e a l c i r c u m -s t a n c e s when i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s d i d n o t c r e a t e economic p r e s s u r e s . Type of i n d u s t r y i s a p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t o r o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between economic c o s t s o f i l l e g a l work stoppages and the p e r c e p t i o n s o f management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s towards the Board's approach. An 1 TABLE 5 EMPLOYERS' PERCEPTIONS OF WHETHER THE BOARD'S APPROACH WORKS TO THE ADVANTAGE OF UNIONS BY INDUSTRY Yes No Manufac t u r i n g Food & Beverage 3 1 Wood P r o d u c t s 7 1 M e t a l s 1 M a c h i n e r y 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 2 C o n s t r u c t i o n 2 2 Trade and S e r v i c e Trade 2 E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h 2 M u n i c i p a l 1 . M i s c e l l a n e o u s 1 O t h e r I n d u s t r i e s M i n i n g 1 1 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1 Communication and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s 2 employer i n a c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e o r c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s I n d u s t r y w o u ld, presumably, s u f f e r g r e a t e r economic damage from an i l l e g a l work stoppage than an employer i n an i n d u s t r y w h i c h r e q u i r e s l e s s i n v e s t m e n t i n a p l a n t and/or equipment. T a b l e 5 above shows t h e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f whether the Board's approach works to t h e advantage o f u n i o n s by i n d u s t r y . The p e r -c e p t i o n s o f management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y 12? b e s t s u p p o r t the n o t i o n t h a t employers i n c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e i n -d u s t r i e s would be more l i k e l y t o p e r c e i v e t h e Board's approach works t o t h e advantage o f u n i o n s . Four o f the 8 management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s i n d u s t r y were i n v o l v e d i n the c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e p u l p and p a p e r s e c t o r . They were d e f i n i t e i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t the Board's approach works t o the advantage o f u n i o n s . One o f the o t h e r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who p e r -c e i v e d the Board's approach works t o t h e advantage o f u n i o n s was a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n l o g g i n g , s a w m i l l s , and p u l p and paper. The r e m a i n i n g management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h t h e same p e r c e p t i o n was a t an i n t e r i o r s a w m i l l . The s i n g l e r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e from the wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y who p e r c e i v e d the Board's approach does n o t work to the advantage o f u n i o n s was a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r w i t h l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a l l s e c t i o n s o f the i n d u s t r y . The p e r c e p t i o n s o f management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r om o t h e r i n d u s t r y c a t e g o r i e s are n o t c o n c l u s i v e t h a t employers i n c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s are more l i k e l y t o v i e w t h e Board's approach as w o r k i n g to the advantage o f u n i o n s . I n the f o o d and beverage i n d u s t r y , f o r example, a p e r s o n n e l manager a t a brewery f e l t the Board's approach does n o t work to the advantage o f u n i o n s . How-e v e r , t h e r e weren't enough i n t e r v i e w e e s i n each i n d u s t r y f o r an adequate s a m p l i n g . A l s o , many d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s might a f f e c t e m p l o y e r s ' damages from an i l l e g a l work stoppage o t h e r t h a n c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p l a n t and equipment. Customer d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , l o s s . o f market s h a r e and s p o i l e d goods are j u s t a few. An o t h e r v a r i a b l e t h a t might have s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on em p l o y e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f whether the Board's approach work's to the 128 advantage of u n i o n s i s the number o f t i m e s an employer has ex-p e r i e n c e d the Board's a p p r o a c h . T a b l e 6 below shows e m p l o y e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o number o f c o m p l a i n t s s u b m i t t e d t o the Board c o n c e r n i n g i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . TABLE 6 EMPLOYERS' PERCEPTIONS OF WHETHER THE BOARD'S APPROACH WORKS TO THE ADVANTAGE OF UNIONS IN RELATION TO NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS SUBMITTED TO THE BOARD CONCERNING ILLEGAL STRIKES, 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 8 Yes No 0 - 5 22 5 6 - 1 0 1 1 11+ 1 1 The d a t a i n Table 6 are not c o n c l u s i v e because few o f the employers have s u b m i t t e d more t h a n f i v e c o m p l a i n t s . There were few comments d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s from w h i c h i t c o u l d be con-s t r u e d t h a t employers f i n d the Board's approach more o r l e s s a p p e a l i n g a f t e r more f r e q u e n t i n v o l v e m e n t . Unions - Board's Approach Work t o the Advantage o f One P a r t y Over the Other T w e n t y - f o u r out o f t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r -c e i v e d the Board's approach doesn't work to the advantage o f e i t h e r p a r t y . They emphasized t h a t the Board's approach m a i n t a i n s a b a l a n c e , because employers cannot o b t a i n an o r d e r a g a i n s t an i l l e g a l s t r i k e u n t i l the u n i o n has had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make i t s s i d e known d u r i n g the i n f o r m a l p r o c e s s . Most o f the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group made comments about advantages from the Board's approach f o r l o n g term r e l a t i o n s 129 between management and u n i o n s . They emphasized t h a t i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n a l l o w s i s s u e s behind, a d i s p u t e t o s u r f a c e and a v o i d s b i t t e r n e s s c r e a t e d by l e g a l o r d e r s . .A p r o v i n c i a l u n i o n o f f i c e r gave a good example o f a d i s p u t e i n the m e t a l i n d u s t r y . Two o p e r a t i o n s merged and t h e r e was a b a c k l o g o f g r i e v a n c e s o v e r s e n i o r i t y and j o b p o s t i n g s . The u n i o n c l a i m e d the employer was t r y i n g t o p i c k and choose peo p l e who b i d on p o s t e d j o b s on the b a s i s o f s k i l l and a b i l i t y , and he was i g n o r i n g s e n i o r i t y p r o v i s i o n s i n the c o l l e c t i v e agreement. A w i l d c a t s t r i k e o c c u r r e d and the employer a p p l i e d to the Board f o r a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r . The Board d e l a y e d the o r d e r and conducted i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n changes t o the p r o v i s i o n s f o r s e n i o r i t y i n t h e c o n t r a c t . The u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d an i n j u n c t i o n would have been a " s u p e r f i c i a l s o l u t i o n " and " p r o b a b l y would n o t have been obeyed". He a l s o a d m i t t e d t h a t the u n i o n " i n a sense used" t h e Board's p r o -c e d u r e s , but he f e l t the outcome worked o ut f o r the b e s t f o r both_s_ides. Seven o f the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a d m i t t e d t h a t i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s do p r o v i d e a c c e s s to n e g o t i a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e term o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement. One u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d he un d e r s t a n d s how some employers f e e l the Board's approach f a v o u r s u n i o n s , but he s a i d , "You have t o l o o k a t i t o v e r the l o n g t e r m . " One o f the i n t e r v i e w e e s i n t h i s group was an i n - h o u s e l a w y e r f o r a l a r g e u n i o n . He c a n d i d l y e x p l a i n e d t h a t he "pushes f o r an i n f o r m a l " i n d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . F o u r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t e d the Board's a p p r o a c h f a v o u r s u n i o n s . A s e n i o r u n i o n o f f i c e r i n a c o n s t r u c t i o n u n i o n s a i d i t ' s u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e t o s h u t down an employer f o r one day f o r an i n f o r m a l and up t o t h r e e days i f you " p l a y y o u r ca r d s r i g h t " . A l a w y e r who r e p r e s e n t e d a d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n u n i o n i n a d i s -pute o v e r i r r e g u l a r pay p r a c t i c e s e x p l a i n e d t h a t u n i o n s " a r e n ' t i g n o r a n t " o f how t o take advantage o f the Board's p r o c e d u r e s . I n the d i s p u t e o v er pay p r a c t i c e s , i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s l a s t e d about a week and a h a l f . He s a i d the Board's approach worked to t h e u n i o n ' s advantage; however, he added t h a t t h e r e was no way the w o r k e r s i n the d i s p u t e were g o i n g to r e t u r n to work u n t i l t he m a t t e r was r e s o l v e d . The s h o r t term n a t u r e o f employer-employee r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t he c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y c o u l d a f f e c t the p e r c e p t i o n s from the two i n t e r v i e w e e s j u s t mentioned above. One o f the o t h e r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group was a l s o i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y . 5• Does the T r i p a r t i t e C o m p o s i t i o n o f the Board I n h i b i t  the M e d i a t i v e P r o c e s s Because o f P a r t i s a n s h i p o f t h e .Board Members? Yes No Employers 2? Unions 0 28 Employers - Board's C o m p o s i t i o n I n h i b i t M e d i a t i v e P r o c e s s Because o f P a r t i s a n s h i p Twenty-seven out o f the t h i r t y - o n e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t p a r t i s a n s h i p does n o t i n h i b i t t h e Board's m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s . The p e r c e p t i o n s o f management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s group g e n e r a l l y came a c r o s s v e r y c l e a r l y i n i n t e r v i e w s . They f e l t the members o f t h e Board from both management and u n i o n backgrounds were knowledgeable and p r o f e s s i o n a l . These q u a l i t i e s overshadowed any t e n d e n c i e s o f the Board members t o l e t p a r t i s a n s h i p a f f e c t t h e i r r o l e s i n h a n d l i n g d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . 131 . I n a d i s p u t e m e n t i o n e d • b e f o r e a t a l a r g e mine i n the e a s t e r n p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e , w o r k e r s w a l k e d o f f the j o b o v e r a d i s c h a r g e . A team o f two Board members a r r i v e d from Vancouver t h e n e x t morning. One o f t h e Board members came from a management background and the o t h e r came from a u n i o n background. The Board members met s e p a -r a t e l y w i t h the p a r t i e s and h e l d m e e t i n g s w i t h the p a r t i e s t o -g e t h e r . The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d the Board members were a b l e t o o b t a i n the p a r t i e s ' c o n f i d e n c e because i t was ob-v i o u s t h e y were knowledgeable and because t h e y seemed to work so w e l l t o g e t h e r . The d i s p u t e r e s u l t e d i n a s e t t l e m e n t . Three management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a major B.C. i n -d u s t r y i n d e p e n d e n t l y p r a i s e d a Board member f r o m a u n i o n back-ground. The Board member became e x t r e m e l y k n o w l e d g e a b l e about l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i n the i n d u s t r y . The management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e s p e c t e d the Board member because he would g i v e h i s o p i n i o n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y t o e i t h e r p a r t y i f he tho u g h t the p a r t y was wrong i n a d i s p u t e . A v e r y s e n i o r management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the i n d u s t r y a c t u a l l y wrote a commendation about the Board member t o the Chairman o f the Board. A management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e h e a l t h i n d u s t r y made a somewhat p a r a d o x i c a l s t a t e m e n t about p a r t i s a n s h i p on the p a r t o f Board members. He s a i d i t ' s n a i v e t o t h i n k t h e r e w o u l d n ' t be any p a r t i s a n s h i p , b u t t h a t most o f the Board members a r e t o o p r o f e s s i o n a l t o l e t i t i n t e r f e r e w h i l e t h e y are h a n d l i n g d i s p u t e s . He a l s o s a i d t h a t he t h i n k s i t ' s u n l i k e l y any Board members would do a n y t h i n g t h a t would undermine the Board's a p p r o a c h . Four o ut o f the t w e n t y - s e v e n management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t p a r t i s a n s h i p on the p a r t o f some Board members from 132 u n i o n s does i n h i b i t the m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s were based mainly, on r e l a t i o n s w i t h c e r t a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t t h e Board. One o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w e e s was an owner/manager o f a manu-f a c t u r i n g b u s i n e s s w i t h about t h i r t y employees. He was p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l t h a t he was c o m p e l l e d t o make a s e t t l e m e n t i n a d i s p u t e i n v o l v i n g an i l l e g a l work stoppage because o f economic p r e s s u r e he e x p e r i e n c e d w h i l e the Board d e l a y e d a f o r m a l o r d e r . He knew the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who h a n d l e d the case from the Board r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e ' s e a r l i e r a c t i v i t i e s i n the u n i o n . He s a i d as soon as he r e a l i z e d who was h a n d l i n g the d i s p u t e he f e l t he w o u l d n ' t g e t f a i r t r e a t m e n t and he r e q u e s t e d t h a t a d i f f e r e n t Board r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e t a k e o v e r the c a s e . A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e i n the group e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r p e r -c e p t i o n s as t h e management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e above example. T h i s i n t e r v i e w e e was a l s o an owner/manager w i t h a m a n u f a c t u r i n g b u s i n e s s . He s u b m i t t e d a c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t an i l l e g a l work s t o p -page. A p a r t - t i m e Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who was i n i t i a l l y i n -v o l v e d i n the d i s p u t e was a p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l o f f i c e r i n a u n i o n t h a t conducted a r a i d a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e e ' s o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t the u n i o n t h a t was c o n d u c t i n g t h e i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e . The employer f e l t s t r o n g l y t h a t the u n i o n o f f i c e r w ould be b i a s e d i n the d i s p u t e and a v i c e - c h a i r m a n e v e n t u a l l y took o v e r the c a s e . I t ' s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t i n both o f the above c a s e s , the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t p a r t i s a n s h i p was a problem w i t h c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s t h e y knew from e x p e r i e n c e s n o t conn e c t e d w i t h the Board. I n both c a s e s , the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who ended up a c t u a l l y h a n d l i n g the c a s e s came from u n i o n back-grounds, b u t n e i t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e p e r c e i v e d any problems w i t h p a r -t i s a n s h i p . Thus, s e l e c t i o n o f Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i s p u t e s seems t o be more o f a problem than p a r t i s a n s h i p . The o t h e r tv/o management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the group f e l t t h a t p a r t i s a n s h i p on the p a r t o f Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i t h u n i o n backgrounds was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n why a cease and d e s i s t orde] was d e l a y e d w h i l e i n f o r m a l , m e d i a t i v e h e a r i n g s were c o n d u c t e d . One management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d , "The Board saw t h e u n i o n s i d e much more r e a d i l y t h a n o u r s . To us, the case was c l e a r c u t and we s h o u l d have g o t an o r d e r . " Unions - Board's C o m p o s i t i o n I n h i b i t M e d i a t i v e P r o c e s s Because o f P a r t i s a n s h i p None o f the t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i o n o f f i c i a l s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e i s i n h i b i t e d because o f p a r t i s a n s h i p o f i t s members. L i k e the m a j o r i t y o f management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' r e s p o n s e s i n i n t e r -v iews p e r t a i n i n g t o p a r t i s a n s h i p v/ere q u i t e c l e a r and c e r t a i n . G e n e r a l l y , they p e r c e i v e d t h a t management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s h a n d l e d i s p u t e s o b j e c t i v e l y and a r e a b l e t o r e l a t e t o b o t h s i d e s . One u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a i d "the b e h i n d t h e scenes s t u f f i s most i m p o r t a n t " f o r the Board's a p p r o a c h . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t Board members, management o r u n i o n , have t o o b t a i n t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f both p a r t i e s i n a d i s p u t e . A s e n i o r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y com-mended a Board member who was a l a b o u r l a w y e r f o r em-p l o y e r s . There was a d i s p u t e o v e r d i s c h a r g e o f a u n i o n p l a n t c h a i r man. The r e s p o n d e n t s a i d t h e r e was a l o n g b u i l d up o f 134 f r u s t r a t i o n s between management and the u n i o n . The p l a n t c h a i r -man was d i s c h a r g e d a f t e r ' a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h a foreman. D u r i n g meetings w i t h the Board member, some i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s were a p p a r e n t i n t e s t i m o n y by management. A l s o , the u n i o n a l l e g e d t h e foreman had manhandled some employees. The Board member r e c o g n i z e d t h a t perhaps the employer's hands were n o t c l e a n i n the d i s p u t e . The d i s p u t e was s e t t l e d and the p l a n t c hairman was r e i n s t a t e d . A n o t h e r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was i n v o l v e d i n a d i s p u t e h a n d l e d by a team o f two Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , one from manage-ment and one from a u n i o n background. He f e l t the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was "always b i a s e d " a g a i n s t the u n i o n . However, he s a i d t h i s d i d n ' t i n h i b i t the team's e f f o r t s t o m e d i a t e . He e x p l a i n e d the two Board members had a v e r y good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p and t h e i r b i a s e s " j u s t w eren't a problem". One u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i d n o t p e r c e i v e t h a t the Board's m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s was i n h i b i t e d by management p a r t i s a n s h i p , but he f e l t " s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t " h a v i n g a c e r t a i n u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as a Board member. The i n t e r v i e w e e and the u n i o n Board member were o f f i c e r s i n two u n i o n s t h a t were f r e q u e n t l y r a i d i n g a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r . The i n t e r v i e w e e emphasized t h a t the Board member had a c c e s s t o I n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h put h i s u n i o n a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e . He s a i d he had c o m p l a i n e d t o the Board about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r member. Chapter Summary T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d management and u n i o n p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Board's approach to d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p -pages. Most management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t t h a t the Board does n o t c h a n n e l d i s p u t e s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . . The m a j o r i t y o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who s a i d the Board's p r o c e d u r e s were n o t a p p r o p r i a t e were i n v o l v e d i n s p e c i f i c d i s p u t e s t h a t were s e t t l e d i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . A l l o f t h e s e management 'repre-s e n t a t i v e s s a i d an a p p l i c a t i o n was made t o the Board t o o b t a i n a cease and d e s i s t o r d e r , n o t t o o b t a i n m e d i a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f the u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s thought t h e Board does c h a n n e l d i s -p utes i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . V i r t u a l l y a l l o f the management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s a i d the Board responds t o c o m p l a i n t s w i t h adequate speed and s u c c e s s f u l l y d e t e r m i n e s u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s . P a r t i e s l o c a t e d i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s o f the p r o v i n c e v/ere s a t i s f i e d w i t h the Board's speed. Most management ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t the Board's a p p r o a c h works to the advantage o f u n i o n s . The i n d u s t r y may be a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . Employers i n c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e o r c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s i n d u s t r i e s seem to v i e w the Board's approach l e s s f a v o u r a b l y t h a n employers i n l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s . A l a r g e r sample, however, would be n e c e s s a r y to o b t a i n c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e . Most u n i o n r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d the Board's approach doesn't work t o t h e advantage o f e i t h e r p a r t y . The m a j o r i t y o f management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t the Board's m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s i s n o t i n h i b i t e d by p a r t i s a n -s h i p o f Board members. 136 Notes, Chapter V N e i l W. C h a m b e r l a i n , (New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1951). C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , 1st ed. 137 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION T h i s c h a p t e r o f f e r s c o n c l u s i o n s from management and u n i o n p e r c e p t i o n s about th e Labour R e l a t i o n s Board's approach t o d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . The c h a p t e r a l s o c o n t a i n s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The L a b o r Code embodies an e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y f o r i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s . I n e x e r c i s i n g i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r i l l e g a l s t r i k e s , the Board appears to be a c h i e v i n g the i n t e n t o f the Code t o promote c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by r e d u c i n g l e g a l i s m and e n c o u r a g i n g mutual accommodation. The Board i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n r e s p o n d i n g t o c o m p l a i n t s w i t h adequate speed, d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s and w i t h l a c k o f p a r t i s a n s h i p w h i c h might i n h i b i t m e d i a t i o n . The' Board's speed i n r e s p o n d i n g t o . c o m p l a i n t s r e f l e c t s f l e x i b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s o f people w o r k i n g a t the Board t o d e p a r t on s h o r t n o t i c e t o the l o c a t i o n o f a d i s p u t e . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t because o f the n a t u r e o f d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g w i l d c a t s t r i k e s . E mployers may be i n c u r r i n g s u b s t a n t i a l p r o d u c t i o n l o s s e s w h i l e workers may be r e a c t i n g to an i s s u e a g g r a v a t i n g them i n the w o r k p l a c e . The Board's s u c c e s s a t d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g causes i s a t t r i b u t e d t o i n f o r m a l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y o f i t s p r o c e d u r e s and t o the Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who h a n d le d i s p u t e s . T h e i r s k i l l 138 and c r e d i b i l i t y are v i t a l t o the Board's a p p r o a c h . I t ' s n o t e -w o r t h y t h a t r e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s O f f i c e r s w o r k i n g f o r o the Department of Labour do n o t have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e a l i n g w i t h d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s - The r e g i o n a l IRO's do n o t have the s t a t u r e and c r e d i b i l i t y needed f o r a s i g n i -f i c a n t p a r t i n d i s p u t e s t h a t are o f t e n h i g h p r o f i l e and e x t r e m e l y i n t e n s e . The Board's s u c c e s s a t d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r l y i n g causes i n d i s p u t e s i s an i m p o r t a n t improvement o v e r the c o u r t s where d i s -p u t e s were h a n d l e d on t h e b a s i s o f o n l y t h e c o m p l a i n a n t ' s e v i d e n c e . A l s o , s i n c e the Board i s a b l e t o determine u n d e r l y i n g causes s u c c e s s f u l l y , t h e n i t s h o u l d be equipped t o use a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i s p u t e s . The t r i p a r t i t e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Board does n o t i n h i b i t t he m e d i a t i v e p r o c e s s because o f p a r t i s a n s h i p . Indeed, the e x p e r t i s e o f Board members are major a s s e t s t o the Board's a p p r o a c h . Management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Board's c o m p o s i t i o n a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t f r o m a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . O r g a n i z e d l a b o u r i n B r i t i s h Columbia has t r a d i t i o n a l l y seen the c o u r t s and government as f a v o u r i n g e m p l o y e r s . D e s p i t e a few c r i t i c i s m s o f i n d i v i d u a l Board members, the members and s t a f f o f the p r e s e n t Labour R e l a t i o n s Board have an a u r a o f i m p a r t i a l i t y . A l t h o u g h the r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s a p p l i e d p r i m a r i l y t o the Board's i n v o l v e m e n t i n i l l e g a l work s t o p p a g e s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to e x p e c t the Board's i m p a r t i a l image extends to o t h e r a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y . • • The Board i s l e s s s u c c e s s f u l a t c h a n n e l i n g d i s p u t e s i n t o 139 a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . M e d i a t i o n i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s i s used too much, to the e x t e n t u n i o n s can "take advantage and u n f a i r l y o b t a i n c o n c e s s i o n s by e x e r t i n g economic p r e s s u r e on em-p l o y e r s w i t h i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . Unions can count on time s p e n t i n i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n b e f o r e the Board w i l l convene a f o r m a l h e a r i n g and the r i s k o f an o r d e r i n c r e a s e s . An i l l e g a l s t r i k e f o r a day o r two can p u t enough p r e s s u r e on some employers so t h e y must c a p i t u l a t e i n a d i s p u t e . From a p u b l i c p o l i c y v i e w p o i n t , t h e s h o r t term c o s t s to employers from i l l e g a l work stoppages may be a n e c e s s a r y consequence from the emphasis on accommodation w h i c h u n d e r l i e s the Board's approach. Employers w i l l p r o b a b l y always c o m p l a i n about c o s t s more th a n l a b o u r . Few o f the management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who were i n t e r -v i e w e d , however, s a i d t h e c o u r t s ' methods were b e t t e r . They g e n e r a l l y v i e w e d the Board's a p p r o a c h as an improvement, but t h e y t h i n k the Board s h o u l d use more d i s c r e t i o n about when to pursue i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n and when t o i s s u e o r d e r s . I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t on j - n e b a s i s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a d j u s t m e n t i s needed i n the Board's p r o c e d u r e s , n o t changes i n the Code o r i n the Board's j u r i s d i c t i o n . Members, p a n e l s and o f f i c e r s o f t h e Board must e x e r c i s e utmost d i s c r e t i o n t o know when t o attempt t o mediate a d i s p u t e , o r convene a f o r m a l h e a r i n g . The c h a l l e n g e f o r the Board i s t o d e t e r m i n e when a p a r t y i s m a n i p u l a t i n g i t s p r o c e d u r e s t o g a i n an advantage f o r b a r g a i n i n g and t o be p r e p a r e d t o d e a l w i t h t h a t p a r t y a p p r o p r i a t e l y . The 140 number o f cases i n w h i c h m a n i p u l a t i o n i s a t t e m p t e d i s p r o b a b l y a m i n o r i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o the Board's e n t i r e c a s e l o a d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Board cannot a f f o r d i t s p r o c e d u r e s g i v i n g a b a r g a i n i n g advantage to e i t h e r employers o r u n i o n s . Unions g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Board's approach d o e s n ' t work to the advantage o f e i t h e r p a r t y . They f e l t t h e Board's a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s a f a i r means f o r r e s o l v i n g problems w h i c h i s b e t t e r f o r l o n g term r e l a t i o n s w i t h e m p l o y e r s . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e B.C. • l a b o u r movement has always v i e w e d government and the c o u r t s w i t h antagonism i n r e l a t i o n t o p o l i c y f o r i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . At l e a s t from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the l a b o u r movement, the Board's approach has the p o t e n t i a l t o a l l e v i a t e antagonism t h a t has always been c h a r c t e r i s t i c o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i n B.C. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Board must pay a t t e n t i o n t o management p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . The Board's a p p r o a c h cannot be seen as c o n s i s t e n t l y u n f a i r w i t h o u t r i s k i n g t h a t employers w i l l w i t h d r a w s e r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Indeed, a m i n o r i t y o f e m p l o y e r s , some i n major i n d u s t r i e s , a l r e a d y have p o l i c i e s a g a i n s t m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n when the Board a t t e m p t s t o mediate i n i n f o r m a l h e a r i n g s . The p a r t i e s i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h were i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t h a t happened d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f the Board's e x i s t e n c e . Thus, perhaps the Board was e x p e r i m e n t i n g and l e a r n i n g w h i l e h a n d l i n g d i s p u t e s t h a t were d i s c u s s e d i n i n t e r v i e w s . A s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n i s whether the Board has l e a r n e d from e x p e r i e n c e and has a d j u s t e d t o any i m b a l a n c e s t h a t appeared d u r i n g i t s f i r s t few y e a r s . The Board has the c a p a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t i t s e l f s i n c e 141 i t is'composed o f members from the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s community who would h e a r about d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . S p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t w a r r a n t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h are whether employers s t i l l f e e l the Board a t t e m p t s t o mediate too o f t e n and whether t h e y f e e l the Board's approach s t i l l works t o the advantage of u n i o n s . A t r u e measure, however, o f the Board's m e d i a t i v e r o l e i n h a n d l i n g i l l e g a l work stoppages w i l l t a k e a l o n g time to o b t a i n . The i n t e n t of t h e Board's approach as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f c u r r e n t l a b o u r p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s t o f a c i l i t a t e f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by r e d u c i n g l e g a l i s m and e n c o u r a g i n g accommodation. G i v e n the h i s t o r y o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e , I t would be unwise to e x p e c t any government agency o r i n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d a c h i e v e t h i s i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . APPENDIX A SECTIONS OF THE LABOUR CODE CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES SECTIONS OF THE LABOUR CODE CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES H e a r i n g of C o m p l a i n t 28. (1) Where, upon the a p p l i c a t i o n o r c o m p l a i n t o f any-i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n under s e c t i o n 8, 96, t h i s s e c t i o n , o r any o t h e r p r o v i s i o n o f t h i s A c t o r t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , o r on i t s own m o t i o n , the board i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t an employer, t r a d e - u n i o n , o r any o t h e r person has c o n t r a v e n e d a p r o v i s i o n o f t h i s A c t , a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, o r the r e g u l a t i o n s , the board may, i n i t s d i s c r e t i o n , (a) make an o r d e r d i r e c t i n g an employer, t r a d e - u n i o n , o r any o t h e r p e r s o n t o do any t h i n g f o r the purpose of c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h i s A c t , a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, o r the r e g u l a t i o n s , o r t o r e f r a i n from d o i n g any a c t , t h i n g , o r o m i s s i o n i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h i s A c t , a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, o r the r e g u l a t i o n s ; o r (b) make an o r d e r d i r e c t i n g an employer, t r a d e - u n i o n , o r any o t h e r p e r s o n t o r e c t i f y any c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h i s A c t o r the r e g u l a t i o n s ; o r (c) r e f u s e t o make an o r d e r , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h i s A c t , a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, o r the r e g u l a t i o n s , where the board i s of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s j u s t and e q u i t a b l e t o do s o , i n v i e w o f the impr o p e r conduct o f the employer, t r a d e - u n i o n , o r o t h e r p e r s o n making the a p p l i c a t i o n o r c o m p l a i n t ; o r (d) e x c e p t i n r e l a t i o n t o conduct r e g u l a t e d by P a r t V, make an o r d e r d e t e r m i n i n g and f i x i n g t h e monetary v a l u e o f any i n j u r y o r l o s s e s s u f f e r e d by an employer, t r a d e - u n i o n , o r any o t h e r p e r s o n as a r e s u l t of a c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h i s A c t , a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, o r t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , and d i r e c t i n g an employer, t r a d e - u n i o n , o r any o t h e r person t o pay to t h a t employer, t r a d e - u n i o n , o r o t h e r p e r s o n the amount o f the monetary v a l u e f i x e d and d e t e r m i n e d by the b o a r d ; o r (e) make an o r d e r d i r e c t i n g an employer t o r e i n s t a t e an employee d i s c h a r g e d under c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o n s t i t u t i n g a c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h i s A c t , a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, o r the r e g u l a t i o n s ; o r ( f ) make such o t h e r o r d e r o r proceed i n such o t h e r manner under t h i s A c t , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s e c t i o n 2 7 , as the board c o n s i d e r s a p p r o p r i a t e i n a l l the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . (2) Where a r e q u e s t i s made to t h e board t o e x e r c i s e i t s d i s c r e t i o n under s e c t i o n 85 , 86, o r any o t h e r p r o v i s i o n c o n f e r r i n g upon t h e board a d i s c r e t i o n t o p r o h i b i t , r e s t r i c t , c o n f i n e , r e g u -l a t e , c o n t r o l , d i r e c t , o r r e q u i r e the performance o f any a c t o r t h i n g , the board may e x e r c i s e i t s d i s c r e t i o n and make such o r d e r , impose such c o n d i t i o n s , o r proceed i n such o t h e r manner as i t c o n s i d e r s t o be i n f u r t h e r a n c e o f the purposes and o b j e c t s s e t f o r t h i n s e c t i o n 27. (3) Where, a t any time b e f o r e o r d u r i n g a p r o c e e d i n g , the b o a r d o r a p e r s o n a p p o i n t e d by the board i s a b l e to e f f e c t a s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l o r p a r t o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p a r t i e s t o the p r o c e e d i n g on terms n o t c o n t r a r y t o t h i s A c t , a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, o r the r e g u l a t i o n s , the board may i s s u e a conse n t o r d e r s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e terms o f s e t t l e m e n t agreed t o by t h e p a r t i e s , and t h a t c o n s e n t o r d e r s h a l l have the same f o r c e and e f f e c t as an o r d e r under s u b s e c t i o n ( 1 ) . (4) Where, i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e b o a r d , an a p p l i c a t i o n o r c o m p l a i n t i s w i t h o u t m e r i t , i t may r e j e c t the a p p l i c a t i o n o r c o m p l a i n t a t any t i m e . S t r i k e s , L o c k o u t s , and P i c k e t i n g 79- (1) No employee bound by a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, whether e n t e r e d i n t o b e f o r e or a f t e r the coming i n t o f o r c e o f t h i s A c t , s h a l l s t r i k e d u r i n g the term of the c o l l e c t i v e agreement, and no p e r s o n s h a l l d e c l a r e o r p u r p o r t t o a u t h o r i z e a s t r i k e o f those employees d u r i n g t h a t t e r m . (2) No employer bound by a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, whether e n t e r e d i n t o b e f o r e or a f t e r the coming i n t o f o r c e o f t h i s A c t , s h a l l , d u r i n g the term o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement, l o c k out any employee bound by the c o l l e c t i v e agreement. 80. A t r a d e - u n i o n s h a l l n o t d e c l a r e o r a u t h o r i z e a s t r i k e and no employee s h a l l s t r i k e , and the employer s h a l l n o t d e c l a r e o r cause a l o c k o u t , u n t i l (a) the t r a d e - u n i o n and the employer, o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a u t h o r i z e by them i n t h a t b e h a l f , have- b a r g a i n e d c o l l e c t i v e l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the d i s p u t e w h i c h i s the cause o r o c c a s i o n o f the s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t and f a i l e d to c o n c l u d e a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e -ment ; and (b) i n the case of a t r a d e - u n i o n , o r an employee i n the u n i t a f f e c t e d , e i t h e r ( i ) the p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n 81 have been c o m p i l e d w i t h ; o r ( i i ) the employer has g i v e n n o t i c e , p u r s u a n t t o c l a u s e (b) o f s e c t i o n 82, t h a t he i s g o i n g to l o c k out h i s em-p l o y e e s ; o r ( c ) i n the case o f an employer, e i t h e r (1) the p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n 82 has been c o m p l i e d w i t h ; o r ( i i ) the t r a d e - u n i o n has g i v e n n o t i c e , ' p u r s u a n t t o c l a u s e (b) o f s u b s e c t i o n (2) o f s e c t i o n 81, t h a t the employees are g o i n g to s t r i k e , and, u n l e s s the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s s e c t i o n are s a t i s f i e d , the s t r i k e o r the l o c k o u t , as the case may be, i s i l l e g a l . 81. (1) No p e r s o n s h a l l d e c l a r e o r a u t h o r i z e a s t r i k e , and no employee s h a l l s t r i k e , u n t i l a f t e r a v o t e has been t a k e n by s e c r e t b a l l o t and i n a ccordance w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s , o f the employees i n the u n i t a f f e c t e d as to whether t o s t r i k e o r n o t t o s t r i k e , and the m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e employees who v o t e have v o t e d i n f a v o u r o f a s t r i k e (2) Where, upon the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p e r s o n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by a s t r i k e v o t e o r an i mpending s t r i k e , o r on i t s own b e h a l f , t h e b o ard i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t a v o t e has n o t been h e l d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s u b s e c t i o n (1) o r the r e g u l a t i o n s , the board may make an o r d e r d e c l a r i n g t h a t the v o t e i s o f no f o r c e o r e f f e c t and d i r e c t i n g t h a t , i f a n o t h e r v o t e i s c o n d u c t e d , i t s h a l l be t a k e n upon such terms as i t c o n s i d e r s n e c e s s a r y o r a d v i s a b l e . (3) E x c e p t as o t h e r w i s e a g r e e d i n w r i t i n g between the employer o r e m p l o y e r s 1 o r g a n i z a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d by the employer and the t r a d e -146 u n i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e u n i t a f f e c t e d , where the v o t e i s i n f a v o u r o f a s t r i k e , (a) no pers o n s h a l l d e c l a r e o r a u t h o r i z e a s t r i k e , and no employee s h a l l s t r i k e , e x c e p t d u r i n g t h e t h r e e months i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the date on whi c h t h e v o t e was t a k e n ; and (b) no employee s h a l l s t r i k e u n t i l t he employer has been g i v e n w r i t t e n n o t i c e by the t r a d e - u n i o n t h a t the employees are g o i n g t o s t r i k e and sev e n t y - t w o h o u r s , o r such l o n g e r p e r i o d as may be d i r e c t e d under s e c t i o n 82A, have e l a p s e d from the time such n o t i c e was g i v e n and, where a m e d i a t i o n o f f i c e r has been a p p o i n t e d under s e c t i o n 69, u n t i l t he t r a d e - u n i o n has been a d v i s e d by the m i n i s t e r t h a t the m e d i a t i o n o f f i c e r has made h i s r e p o r t t o the m i n i s t e r . ' 82. (1) Where more t h a n one employer i s engaged i n t h e same d i s -pute w i t h t h e i r employees, no pe r s o n s h a l l d e c l a r e o r a u t h o r i z e a l o c k o u t , and no employer s h a l l l o c k out h i s employees, u n t i l a f t e r a v o t e has been t a k e n by s e c r e t b a l l o t and i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s , o f a l l employers as t o whether t o l o c k out o r n o t t o l o c k out and a m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e employers who v o t e have v o t e d i n f a v o u r o f a l o c k o u t . (2) Where, upon the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a pe r s o n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by a l o c k o u t v o t e o r an impending l o c k o u t , o r on i t s own b e h a l f , the boa r d i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t a v o t e has n o t been h e l d i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h s u b s e c t i o n (1) o r the r e g u l a t i o n s , t h e b o a r d may make an o r d e r d e c l a r i n g t h a t the v o t e i s o f no f o r c e o r e f f e c t and d i r e c t i n g t h a t , i f a n o t h e r v o t e i s con d u c t e d , i t s h a l l be t a k e n upon such terms as the bo a r d c o n s i d e r s n e c e s s a r y o r a d v i s a b l e . (3) E x c e p t as o t h e r w i s e agreed i n w r i t i n g betv/een the employer o r e m p l o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d by t h e employer and the t r a d e -u n i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g " t h e u n i t a f f e c t e d , (a) where a v o t e i s t a k e n under s u b s e c t i o n (1) and the v o t e i s i n f a v o u r o f a l o c k o u t , no pers o n s h a l l d e c l a r e o r a u t h o r i z e a -l o c k o u t and no employer s h a l l l o c k out h i s employees e x c e p t d u r i n g the 3 months i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the date on w h i c h the v o t e was t a k e n ; and (b) no employer s h a l l l o c k out h i s employees u n t i l the t r a d e -u n i o n has been g i v e n w r i t t e n n o t i c e by the employer t h a t the employer i s g o i n g t o l o c k out h i s employees and s e v e n t y -two h o u r s , o r such l o n g e r p e r i o d as may be d i r e c t e d under s e c t i o n 82A, have e l a p s e d from t h e time such n o t i c e was g i v e n and, where a m e d i a t i o n o f f i c e r has been a p p o i n t e d under s e c t i o n 69, u n t i l the employer has been a d v i s e d by the m i n i s t e r t h a t the m e d i a t i o n o f f i c e r has made h i s r e p o r t t o the m i n i s t e r . APPENDIX B LABOUR CODE REGULATIONS CONCERNING APPLICATIONS TO THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD FOR A HEARING LABOUR CODE REGULATIONS CONCERNING APPLICATIONS TO THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD FOR A. HEARING Co m p l a i n t s R e s p e c t i n g V i o l a t i o n o f t h e Code and R e g u l a t i o n s (Sec. 28) 3 5 ' A c o m p l a i n t l a i d under s e c t i o n 28 o f the Code s h a l l be i n w r i t i n g and s h a l l s e t out t h e r e i n t h e o r d e r w h i c h i s sought from the Board and an o u t l i n e o f what i s i n t e n d e d t o be pr o v e n . 36. w i t h i n f i v e days o f r e c e i p t o f a copy o f the c o m p l a i n t under r e g u l a t i o n s 3^ and 35» any p a r t y o t h e r t h a n the p a r t y a g a i n s t whom the c o m p l a i n t i s made, i f he w i s h e s t o i n t e r v e n e , s h a l l f i l e a n o t i c e o f h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n which s h a l l i n c l u d e a s t a t e m e n t o f h i s i n t e r e s t i n the m a t t e r and any f a c t s on which he i n t e n d s t o r e l y . 371 (1) A c o m p l a i n t under s e c t i o n 28 o f t h e Code t h a t a p r o v i s i o n o f P a r t V o r s e c t i o n 4 (2) o f the Code has been c o n t r a v e n e d s h a l l (a) s t a t e the name o f the c o m p l a i n a n t , the p a r t y ( o r p a r t i e s ) who i t i s a l l e g e d has c o n t r a v e n e d s e c t i o n 4 (2) o r P a r t V of the Code, and any o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y , and, where known, t h e i r a d d r e s s e s and t e l e p h o n e numbers; (b) i n c l u d e a s t a t u t o r y d e c l a r a t i o n o f the c o m p l a i n a n t , o r an o f f i c e r , o f f i c i a l o r agent t h e r e o f , d e t a i l i n g the m a t e r i a l f a c t s upon which the c o m p l a i n a n t r e l i e s ; (c) s t a t e the s p e c i f i c o r d e r the c o m p l a i n a n t r e q u e s t s and the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Code o r o t h e r law upon w h i c h the com-p l a i n a n t bases i t s c o m p l a i n t ; -(d) s t a t e the dat e and t i m e , a t l e a s t one c l e a r day a f t e r the copy o f t h e c o m p l a i n t has been d e l i v e r e d t o t h e p a r t y o r p a r t i e s a g a i n s t whom the c o m p l a i n t i s made and any o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y , a t w h i c h the c o m p l a i n a n t w i s h e s t o appear b e f o r e the Board t o a p p l y f o r t h e o r d e r i t s e e k s ; and "• (e) where a h e a r i n g i s r e q u e s t e d e a r l i e r t h a n i s p r o v i d e d i n ( d ) , s t a t e t h a t an e x p e d i t e d h e a r i n g o f t h e c o m p l a i n t i s r e q u e s t e d and the r e a s o n s i t i s r e q u e s t e d , which s h a l l s p e c i f y t h e n a t u r e o f any harm a n t i c i p a t e d o r r e s u l t i n g from the v i o l a t i o n s c o m plained o f . (2) Where s e v e r a l persons are i n d i v i d u a l l y p a r t i e s t o a com-p l a i n t and t h e y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e as a group w i t h common i n t e r e s t s , t h e y may be named as a group and the group w i l l be one p a r t y t o the c o m p l a i n t . I f a i l o r some of the per s o n s i n the group are r e p r e s e n t e by a t r a d e u n i o n , an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t r a d e u n i o n s , o r an em p l o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n , the t r a d e u n i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t r a d e u n i o n s , o r em-p l o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n may be ..named i n t h e c o m p l a i n t as the agent f o r those persons i t r e p r e s e n t s . I f a l l o r some o f the persons i n the group a r e not r e p r e s e n t e d by a t r a d e u n i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t r a d e u n i o n s , o r an em p l o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h r e e o f the persons n ot r e p r e s e n t e d by a t r a d e u n i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t r a d e u n i o n s , o r employers' o r g a n i z a t i o n may be named i n t h e c o m p l a i n t as r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s of t h e s e p e r s o n s . (3) On or b e f o r e the day b e f o r e the h e a r i n g , the c o m p l a i n a n t s h a l l v e r i f y t o the Board t h a t a copy o f the c o m p l a i n t and any accompanying document has been d e l i v e r e d t o the p a r t y o r p a r t i e s a g a i n s t whom the c o m p l a i n t i s made and any o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y . 38. (1) A h e a r i n g o f the c o m p l a i n t and a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an o r d e r s h a l l be h e l d a t the Board's Vancouver o f f i c e s and a t the date and time a t whi c h the c o m p l a i n a n t gave n o t i c e under R e g u l a t i o n 37(1). (d) u n l e s s , upon the r e q u e s t o f any p a r t y o r upon the Board's own mo t i o n , the Board d e s i g n a t e s a n o t h e r d a t e , t i m e , o r l o c a t i o n o r the Board n o t i f i e s the p a r t i e s t h a t f o r m a l h e a r i n g o f the c o m p l a i n t and a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be postponed p e n d i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n o r attemp t e d r e s o l u t i o n o f the d i s p u t e by the Board. (2) When the Board d e s i g n a t e s a d a t e , t i m e , o r l o c a t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h e t i m e , d a t e , and l o c a t i o n o f w h i c h the c o m p l a i n a n t has given-n o t i c e , the Board s h a l l n o t i f y a l l p a r t i e s . The n o t i c e s h a l l be i n • w r i t i n g when c o n v e n i e n t but the Board may n o t i f y any p a r t y by t e l e -phone, t e l e g r a p h , o r any o t h e r means o f communication. F o r purposes of n o t i c e under t h i s s u b s e c t i o n , n o t i c e t o a t r a d e u n i o n o r emp l o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n i s deemed t o be n o t i c e t o i t s members and the persons f o r whom i t has a u t h o r i t y t o a c t as b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t . 39- (1) Any p a r t y p r o p o s i n g t o c o n t e s t a c o m p l a i n t under s e c t i o n 28 o f the Code t h a t a p r o v i s i o n o f P a r t V o r s e c t i o n 4 (2) o f the Code has been c o n t r a v e n e d s h a l l , b e f o r e t h e day o f any h e a r i n g i n t o the c o m p l a i n t , d e l i v e r i t s r e p l y t o the o f f i c e o f the Board and a copy t o the c o m p l a i n a n t and any o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y . (2) A r e p l y s h a l l s t a t e the n a t u r e of a c o n t e s t i n g p a r t y ' s c a s e , the m a t e r i a l f a c t s upon which i t r e l i e s , and the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Code o r o t h e r law upon wh i c h i t bases i t s r e p l y . 40. (1) To s a t i s f y the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r d e l i v e r y under R e g u l a t i o n s 37 and 39» the Board and the p a r t y o r p a r t i e s o r t h e i r a g ents must be i n a c t u a l p o s s e s s i o n of a copy o f the c o m p l a i n t o r a r e p l y t h e r e t o . Compliance w i t h R e g u l a t i o n 17 (1) (b) o r f i l i n g by m a i l under Regu-l a t i o n 17 (2) does n o t s a t i s f y d e l i v e r y f o r the purposes o f Regu-l a t i o n s 37 and 39 . (2) F o r the purposes o f d e l i v e r y under R e g u l a t i o n s . 37 and 39 > g i v i n g a copy o f a c o m p l a i n t o r r e p l y t o an o f f i c i a l o f a t r a d e u n i o n or i t s c h a r t e r i n g o r r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t r a d e u n i o n s of which i t i s a member s h a l l be d e l i v e r y t o the t r a d e u n i o n . S i m i l a r l y g i v i n g a copy o f a c o m p l a i n t o r r e p l y t o an o f f i c i a l o f an empl o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l be d e l i v e r y t o the employers' o r g a n i -z a t i o n . F o r the purposes o f e f f e c t i n g d e l i v e r y under R e g u l a t i o n s 3? and 39» a t r a d e u n i o n o r emp l o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an agent o f i t s members and- the persons f o r whom I t has a u t h o r i t y to, a c t as b a r g a i n -i n g agent. (3) Where a c o m p l a i n t o r r e p l y i s r e q u i r e d t o be d e l i v e r e d under R e g u l a t i o n s 3? and 39» and a p a r t y s a t i s f i e s the Board t h a t i t i s unable t o comply w i t h s u b s e c t i o n (1) o f t h i s r e g u l a t i o n , o r t h a t compliance w i t h s u b s e c t i o n (1) o f t h i s r e g u l a t i o n causes the p a r t y an undue h a r d s h i p , t h e Board may d i r e c t t h a t d e l i v e r y may be made i n a n o t h e r manner. 41. U n l e s s the Board, upon a p p l i c a t i o n , d i r e c t s other-wise, the person who has made a s t a t u t o r y d e c l a r a t i o n w h i c h c o n t a i n s the ±5U m a t e r i a l f a c t s upon which a p a r t y r e l i e s s h a l l be p r e s e n t t o t e s t i f y a t the h e a r i n g of t h e c o m p l a i n t . 4 2 . A f t e r c o n d u c t i n g a h e a r i n g , on a c o m p l a i n t under s e c t i o n 28 o f the Code a l l e g i n g a c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f a p r o v i s i o n of P a r t V o r s e c t i o n 4 (2) o f the Code, the Board may (1) d i s m i s s the c o m p l a i n t ; (2) make a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e r e has been a v i o l a t i o n o f s e c t i o n 4 (2) or any o f the p r o v i s i o n s o f P a r t V o f the Code j (3) f i n d a v i o l a t i o n o f s e c t i o n 4 (2). o r any o f the p r o v i s i o n s o f P a r t V o f the Code and o r d e r any p a r t y t o do a n y t h i n g f o r the purposes o f c o m p l y i n g w i t h the Code o r r e f r a i n from d o i n g a n y t h i n g i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f the Code; (4) make an o r d e r b i n d i n g on the p a r t i e s named i n the o r d e r u n t i l s uch time as the Board makes f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the c o m p l a i n t o r h o l d s f u r t h e r h e a r i n g s and d e c i d e s whether, and upon what c o n d i t i o n s and u n d e r t a k i n g s , i f any, i t w i l l make a permanent order; (5) upon the w r i t t e n r e q u e s t o f any p a r t y , i n the a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , p r o ceed under e i t h e r s e c t i o n 96 o r s e c t i o n 97 o f the Code; (6) make a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e r e has been a v i o l a t i o n o f s e c t i o n 4 (2) o r any o f the p r o v i s i o n s o f P a r t V o f t h e Code and submit a statement o f the m a t t e r t o the M i n i s t e r r e q u e s t i n g t h a t he a p p o i n t a s p e c i a l o f f i c e r under s e c t i o n 113 of the Code; (7) postpone making an o r d e r u n t i l t he p a r t i e s , i n accordance w i t h a procedure agreed t o by the p a r t i e s and s a n c t i o n e d by the Board, have endeavoured t o s e t t l e the m a t t e r w h i c h caused the complained c o n t r a v e n t i o n ; o r (8) make such o t h e r o r d e r o r proceed i n such o t h e r manner a s , i n a l l the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the c a s e , i t deems a p p r o p r i a t e . 4 3 . The Board may, w i t h o u t h o l d i n g a h e a r i n g , e x e r c i s e the powers s e t out i n R e g u l a t i o n 42 ( 1 ) , ( 7 ) , and ( 8 ) . 44. Where an a p p l i c a t i o n i s made p u r s u a n t t o s e c t i o n 112 o f the Code such a p p l i c a t i o n s h a l l be made i n the f o l l o w i n g form: I 5 / APPENDIX C CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION TABLE ? FORMAL APPLICATIONS CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES MADE TO THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD OF B.C. AND YEAR, 1974-1978 1974 1975 1976 1977 19?8 T o t a l M a n u f a c t u r i n g Food & beverage 1 8 1 n _L 7 18 Wood•Products 2 6 7 10 19 44 M e t a l s 1 - - 2 1 4 Machinery- - - 1 - 3 4 M i s c e l l a n e o u s - 8 4 - 3 15 C o n s t r u c t i o n 1 5 7 11 19 Trade and S e r v i c e Trade 1 4 2 3 2 12 E d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h _ _ 1 _ 2 3 M u n i c i p a l - 2 1 1 4 8 M i s c e l l a n e o u s - 2 1 2 1 6 Other M i n i n g - 1 6 3 4 14 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2 2 5 9 5 23 Communication a n d - o t h e r u t i l i t i e s — 2 2 _ 4 8 T o t a l 8 40 38 42 7^ 202 S o u r c e : L i s t o f c o m p l a i n a n t s under S e c t i o n s 79, 80 and 81 o f the Labour Code o f B.C. p r o v i d e d by t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s Board. TABLE 8 INFORMAL COMPLAINTS CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES MADE TO THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD OF B.C. BY INDUSTRY AND YEAR, 1976-1978 1976 1977 1978 T o t a l M a n u f a c t u r i n g Food & beverage 2 3 1 6 Wood p r o d u c t s 5 1 10 M e t a l s - 3 - 3 M a c h i n e r y - - 1 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 1 1 2 C o n s t r u c t i o n 8' 15 2? Trade and Service Trade 1 1 - 2 E d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h 1 3 — M u n i c i p a l - -M i s c e l l a n e o u s 1 2 3 6 Other M i n i n g 1 3 1 5 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2 2 1 5 Communication and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s 3 _ _ 3 T o t a l 20 35 25 80 S o u r c e : L i s t o f c o m p l a i n a n t s under S e c t i o n s 79, 80 and 81 of the Labour Code o f B.C. p r o v i d e d by the Labour R e l a t i o n s B o a r d . The d a t a i n T a b l e 2 a r e n o t complete. D u r i n g the p e r i o d 1976-19?8 an unknown number o f i n f o r m a l c o m p l a i n t s were n o t r e c o r d e d i n cases t h a t the Board i n f l u -enced a s e t t l e m e n t q u i c k l y and i n f o r m a l l y o v er the t e l e p h o n e o r o t h e r w i s e . TABLE 9 APPLICATIONS CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES MADE TO THE LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY YEAR AND OUTCOME, 19?4-1978 19?4 1975 1976 1977 1978 T o t a l S e t t l e d 6 22 42 59 72 201 Order I s s u e d 2 10 12 13 21 58 A p p l i c a t i o n R e j e c t e d - 8 4 5 6 23 T o t a l 8 40 58 77 99 282 S o u r c e : L i s t o f a p p l i c a t i o n s under S e c t i o n s 79, 80 and 81 o f the Labour Code o f B.C. p r o v i d e d by the Labour R e l a t i o n s B o a r d . Note : I n f o r m a l c o m p l a i n t s were n o t r e c o r d e d i n 1974 and 1975 and, t h e r e f o r e , , a re n o t r e f l e c t e d f o r tho s e two y e a r s i n the above d a t a . TABLE 10 APPLICATIONS CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES MADE TO THE B.C. LABOUR RELATIONS BOARD BY LOCATION AND YEAR, 19?4-1978 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 T o t a l Lower M a i n l a n d 5 30 30 39 61 165 E a s t - 5 9 16 18 48 C o a s t / M a i n l a n d - 1 5 3 4 13 I s l a n d 1 1 5 13 3 23 N o r t h 2 3 9 6 13 • 33 T o t a l 8 40 58 77 99 282 S o u r c e : L i s t s p r o v i d e d by the Labour R e l a t i o n s Board o f c o m p l a i n a n t s who a p p l i e d t o the Board under S e c t i o n s 79, 80 and 81 o f t h e Labour Code. Note : I n f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s were n ot r e c o r d e d i n 197 -^and 1975 and, t h e r e f o r e , a re n o t r e f l e c t e d i n the above d a t a . APPENDIX D CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE TABLE 11 EMPLOYER AND UNION REPRESENTATIVES ' INTERVIEWED BY INDUSTRY AND LOCATION Lower M a i n l a n d E a s t C o a s t / M a i n l a n d I s l a n d N o r t h T o t a l Emp ' r Union Emp'r Union Emp'r Union Emp' r Union Emp'r Union Emp'r Union Manuf a c t u r i n g Food & beverage J - - - - - - - - k 3 Wood p r o d u c t s - - 2 1 1 - 1 1 8 6 M e t a l s 1 1 - - - - - - - - 1 1 M a c h i n e r y 1 1 - - - - - - - - 1 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 2 2 - - - - - - - - 2 2 C o n s t r u c t i o n 3 3 1 - - - - 1 - - k k Trade and S e r v i c e Trade 2 1 - - - - • - 1 - - 2 E d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h 2 2 - - — — — - _ _ 2 2 M u n i c i p a l 1 1 - - - - - - - - 1 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s - - 1 1 - - - - - - 1 1 Other M i n i n g - - 2 2 - - - - - - 2 2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1 2 1 - - - - - - - 2 2 Communication and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s 1 1 _ 1 1 T o t a l 18 18 9 6 2 1 1 2 1 1 31 28 TABLE 12 SPECIFIC DISPUTES DISCUSSED DURING INTERVIEWS BY INDUSTRY, YEAR AND TYPE OF COMPLAINT 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 T o t a l Type o f C o m p l a i n t ' Formal I n f ' 1 Formal I n f »1 F o r m a l I n f ' 1 Formal I n f ' 1 Formal I n f • 1 F o r m a l I n f ' 1 M a n u f a c t u r i n g Food & beverage - - 1 -• - 1 - 1 2 - 3 2 V/ood p r o d u c t s - - - - 1 - 2 1 6 - 9 1 M e t a l s - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 -M a c h i n e r y - - - - 1 - - - - - ~i X -M i s c e l l a n e o u s - - 1 - - - - - 1 - 2 -C o n s t r u c t i o n - - - - - - 1 1 1 2 2 J Trade and S e r v i c e Trade - - - - 1 - 1 - 1 - 3 0 E d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h - - - - - - - 1 1 _ 1 1 M u n i c i p a l - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 -M i s c e l l a n e o u s - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 -Other M i n i n g - - 1 - - - - - 1 - 2 -T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - - - - 2 - - - 1 - 3 -Communication and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s — — _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 _ 1 T o t a l - - 3 - 5 1 6 4 16 2 30 7 TABLE 13 NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS BY INDUSTRY REGARDING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES IN WHICH ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTED BY MANAGEMENT AND UNION INTERVIEWEES WERE INVOLVED, 1974-1978 Employer Union M a n u f a c t u r i n g F o r m a l I n f o r m a l F ormal I n f o r m a l Food & beverage 9 2 17 8 Wood p r o d u c t s 19 5 22 3 M e t a l s 1 - 6 3 M a c h i n e r y 1 1 1 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 2 - 5 -C o n s t r u c t i o n 11 14 16 12 Trade and S e r v i c e • Trade 3 0 18 6 E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h 1 2 2 1 M u n i c i p a l 1 0 0 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 0 1 6 1 Other M i n i n g 3 1 5 2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 19 3 5 2 Communication and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s 7 3 T o t a l 70 30 i l l 4 3 S o u r c e : L i s t o f c o m p l a i n t s 1974-1978 under S e c t i o n s 79, 80,81 o f the Labour Code o f B.C. p r o v i d e d by the Labour R e l a t i o n s Board. *The employer i n t e r v i e w e e i n t h i s i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t e d a f i r m o p e r a t i n g i n more than one i n d u s t r y . R a t h e r than d o u b l e count t h i s employer was o m i t t e d i n t h e communication i n d u s t r y . TABLE 14 OUTCCMES OF SPECIFIC DISPUTES DISCUSSED IN INTERVIEWS BY YEAR, 19?4-19?8 S e t t l e d Order I s s u e d Re j e c t e d 197^ - - -1975 1 1 1 1976 4 2 -1977 9 - - 1 1978 16 2 -T o t a l 30 5 2 N ote: Seven of t h e d i s p u t e s w h i c h were s e t t l e d were s u b m i t t e d as i n f o r m a l c o m p l a i n t s t o the LRB. By y e a r t h e s e are as f o l l o w s : 197^ 0 1975 0 1976 1 1977 4 1978 2 2 S o u r c e : L i s t o f c o m p l a i n t s I 9 7 4 - I 9 7 8 under S e c t i o n s ?9 , 8 0 , 81 o f the Labour Code o f B.C. p r o v i d e d by t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s Board. APPENDIX E COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE POPULATION AND THE SAMPLE TABLE 15 COMPARISON BY INDUSTRY OF APPLICATION MADE TO THE LRB CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES-AND INTERVIEWEES Formal and I n f o r m a l P e r c e n t o f I n t e r v i e w e e s P e r c e n t o f A p p l i c a t i o n s , 1974-1978 P o p u l a t i o n Emp Jr Union Sample M a n u f a c t u r i n g Food & beverage 24 8 . 5 4 3 11 . 9 Wood P r o d u c t s 5k 19-1 8 6 23-7 M e t a l s 7 2.5 1 1 3.4 M a c h i n e r y 5 1.8 1 1 3-4 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 19 6-7 2 2 6.8 C o n s t r u e t i on 70 24.8 4 4 13 - 5 Trade and S e r v i c e Trade 14 5-0 2 2 6.8 E d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h 7 2 . 5 2 2 6.8 M u n i c i p a l 12 4 . 3 1 1 3.4 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 12 4 . 3 1 1 3-k ' Other M i n i n g 19 6.7 2 2 13-5 T r a n s p o r t a t i on 28 9.9 2 2 13.5 Communi c a t i on and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s 11 3.9 1 1 3 .4 T o t a l 282 - 31 28 -163 TABLE 16 COMPARISON BY OUTCOME AND YEAR OF APPLICATIONS MADE TO THE LRB CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES AND SPECIFIC DISPUTES DISCUSSED IN INTERVIEWS S e t t l e d Order I s s u e d A p p l i c a t i o n Re j e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n Sample P o p u l a t i on Sample P o p u l a t i o n Sample 1974 6 - 2 - - -1975 22 1 10 1 8 1 1976 42 4 12 2 4 -1977 59 9 13 - 5 1 1978 72 16 21 2 6 -T o t a l 201 30 58 5 23 2 P e r c e n t o f t o t a l P o p u l a t i o n o r Sample 71.2 81 . 1 20 .6 13-5 8 . 2 5 . ^ TABLE 17 COMPARISON BY LOCATION OF APPLICATIONS MADE TO THE LRB CONCERNING ILLEGAL WORK STOPPAGES AND INTERVIEWEES Forma l and I n f o r m a l A p p l i c a t i o n s , 1974-1978 P e r c e n t o f P o p u l a t i o n I n t e r v i e w e e s P e r c e n t o f Sample Emp'r Union Lower M a i n l a n d 165 58.5 18 18 61.0 E a s t 48 17-0 9 6 25.4 C o a s t / M a i n l a n d 13 4 . 6 2 1 5-0 I s l a n d 23 8 .2 1 2 5-0 N o r t h 33 11.7 1 1 T o t a l 282 - 31 28 -165 BIBLIOGRAPHY A» Books ADELL,- B.L- The L e g a l S t a t u s o f C o l l e c t i v e Agreements i n E n g l a n d , . 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