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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Caimaw : Portrait of a Canadian union 1981

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CAIMAW - PORTRAIT OF A CANADIAN UNION by PATRICIA GWEN ATHERTON B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION) i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (THE FACULTY OF (MERGE /W BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1981 (6) P a t r i c i a Gwen A t h e r t o n , 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f ^ B > u i - g \ r - , ^ L S . _ S ^ C ! Y V % ^ ^ V T O - V I O ^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 R\R* c i O / -in \ i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y o f CAIMAW's h i s t o r y a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n why some C a n a d i a n s i n r e c e n t t i m e s have abandoned i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s t o f o u n d and d e v e l o p an i n d e p e n d e n t Canad i an u n i o n , t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r such an i n d e p e n d e n t u n i o n i s i d e n t i f i a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r om t h o s e u n i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y o p e r a t i n g i n C a n a d a , and t o i d e n t i f y t h e f a c t o r s t h a t o p e r a t e i n f a v o u r and m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t t h e s u c c e s s o f C a n a d i a n s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e and d e v e l o p such a u n i o n . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e ma jo r f i g u r e s r e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y c o m p r i s e an e s s e n t i a l s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Due t o t h e c o o p e r a t i o n e x t e n d e d by CAIMAW, a s e a r c h o f u n i o n f i l e s was c o n d u c t e d and c o n s t i t u t i o n s , p a m p h l e t s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , newspaper a r t i c l e s , u n i o n p u b l i c a t i o n s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t documents were e x a m i n e d . P u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d s e c o n d a r y i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h i s p a p e r . A s o c i e t a l mood i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s o f l a b o u r m i l i t a n c y , u n c e r t a i n t y a r i s i n g f r o m a d a p t a t i o n t o c h a n g e , a d e s i r e f o r C a n a d i a n s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s e n t m e n t o f A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e i n C a n a d i a n a f f a i r s comb ined t o s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f b reakaway i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n s i n W i n n i p e g and V a n c o u v e r . Lack o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own a f f a i r s and t h e i m p o s i t i o n on t h e membersh ip o f u n p o p u l a r u n i o n d e c i s i o n s by i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s c r e a t e d u n r e s t among t h e s e W i n n i p e g and Vancouve r w o r k e r s , and a demand f o r g r e a t e r membersh ip d e c i s i o n - mak ing . a u t h o r i t y . R e f u s a l by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s i n v o l v e d t o r e s p o n d t o t h i s demand r e s u l t e d i n a c o a l i t i o n o f u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s and i i i n a t i o n a l i s t s i n a common c a u s e , t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s and t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e i r own, i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . The merge r o f t h e W i n n i p e g and Vancouve r breakaway u n i o n s gave r i s e t o a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b a t t l e s e a t e d i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h o v e r t o n e s o f r e g i o n a l i s m . I t was a s t r u g g l e between b u s i n e s s u n i o n i s m and s o c i a l u n i o n i s m , and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t r u g g l e between c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y and l o c a l autonomy. The r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s s t r u g g l e i n t h e r e j e c t i o n o f b u s i n e s s u n i o n i s m and c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f CAIMAW as i t o p e r a t e s t o d a y . These p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s make CAIMAW a u n i o n t h a t i s i d e n t i f i a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s i n t e r m s o f g r e a t e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power f o r t h e rank and f i l e , d i f f e r e n t methods o f b a r g a i n i n g , and a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . These d i f f e r e n c e s do n o t , howeve r , a p p e a r t o have h i n d e r e d CAIMAW's a b i l i t y t o w i n b e n e f i t s f o r i t s membersh ip t h a t a r e a t l e a s t compa rab l e t o t h o s e won by i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . An i n d e p e n d e n t u n i o n such as CAIMAW f a c e s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i t s f o r m a t i o n and deve lopmen t due t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p l a c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s i n C a n a d i a n l a b o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s . Bu t weaknesses w i t h i n t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s such as i n t e r u n i o n and i n t r a u n i o n d i v i s i o n s have a l l o w e d CAIMAW t o s u r v i v e a n d , i n d e e d , g row . CAIMAW can draw s u p p o r t f r o m u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s , n a t i o n a l i s t s and s o c i a l i s t s o f t h e New L e f t , g roups w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l l a b o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada have f a i l e d t o accommodate. To t h e e x t e n t t h a t a s o c i e t y c r e a t e s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s n e e d s , t h e r e e x i s t s an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e f o r CAIMAW i n Canada . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . THE S IXT IES - THE AGE OF ANXIETY 8 A Reassessment o f C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y . 9 A t i m e o f change 9 A t i m e o f awaken ing 10 A t i m e o f c o n t r o v e r s y 12 The R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s L e f t 19 The f o u n d i n g o f t h e NDP 19 The W a f f l e Group 22 The L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Scene 25 I I I . THE WINNIPEG MAVERICKS 31 The B r eak w i t h t h e M o l d e r s 32 Rumb l i ngs o f d i s c o n t e n t 33 The b i d f o r autonomy 37 The b i r t h o f CAIMAW 41 S t r u g g l e s f o r power 42 The Deve lopment o f CAIMAW 47 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s 47 The CLC d e c l a r e s war 50 The b a t t l e f o r B r i s t o l A e r o s p a c e 52 The s t r i k e a t B e l l Foundry 57 CAIMAW and p o l i t i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t 67 CAIMAW and C a n a d a ' s L a b o u r E s t a b l i s h m e n t . 72 The M a n i t o b a L a bo u r Boa rd 72 CAIMAW and t h e CLC 74 V CHAPTER IV. THE VANCOUVER OUTCASTS 88 The L e n k u r t D i s p u t e 89 IBEW and L o c a l 213 89 The L e n k u r t w a l k o u t 91 The L e n k u r t s e l l o u t 94 The a f t e r m a t h 100 The C a n a d i a n E l e c t r i c a l Worke rs Un ion ^ 104 The f o r m a t i o n o f CEW 104 P o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f CEW 108 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s 112 A t t a c k s on CEW c e r t i f i c a t i o n s 124 CEW's P l a c e i n t h e E s t a b l i s h e d S t r u c t u r e 127 CEW and t h e House o f L a bo u r 127 CEW and p r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r b o a r d s 132 CEW and CAIMAW 136 V. THE NEW CAIMAW 150 The Breakaways J o i n F o r c e s 151 A q u e s t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y 151 The merge r 152 The CCU 158 The S t r u g g l e between Compet ing I d e o l o g i e s 161 The 1970 n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n 161 The f i g h t i s on 165 The commies f r o m t h e c o a s t 174 The 1971 c o n v e n t i o n 192 v i CHAPTER V I . CAIMAW IN THE MINING INDUSTRY 209 CAIMAW's M i n i n g C e r t i f i c a t i o n s 210 CAIMAW e n t e r s t h e m ines 210 The mines go CAIMAW 217 F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e t u r n t o CAIMAW 229 CAIMAW's P e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e M ines 238 The CAIMAW M i n i n g C o u n c i l 238 A d i f f e r e n t s t y l e o f b a r g a i n i n g 239 S t r i k e s and b a r g a i n e d s e t t l e m e n t s 243 Wage s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e mines 251 The b a r g a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e i n B. C. mines 259 CAIMAW's P h i l o s o p h y a t Work i n t h e M ines 270 Rank and f i l e c o n t r o l 270 L o c a l autonomy 272 I s s u e s c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t h e mines 274 V I I . CONCLUSIONS 293 BIBLIOGRAPHY 313 v i i L I ST OF TABLES TABLE Page I CAIMAW Membersh ip - 1966-1981 3 I I CAIMAW C e r t i f i c a t i o n s - 1964-1970 49 I I I O p p o s i n g I d e o l o g i e s 153 IV CAIMAW B. C. C e r t i f i c a t i o n s - 1967-1981 211 V R e p r e s e n t a t i o n Vo t e s i n B. C. M ines - 1973-1981 227 VI CAIMAW S t r i k e s and S e t t l e m e n t s i n B. C. M i n e s - 245 1973-1981 V I I Q u a r t e r l y C o m p a r i s o n o f B. C . Open P i t M ines 254 p r o d u c i n g Copper a n d / o r Molybdenum ( Journeymen and Base R a t e s ) V I I I Q u a r t e r l y Compa r i son o f B. C. Unde rg round M ines 255 p r o d u c i n g Copper a n d / o r Molybdenum ( Journeymen and Base R a t e s ) IX R a n k i n g o f B. C. M ines (Coppe r and Molybdenum) 258 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I e x t e n d my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e o f f i c e r s , s t a f f and members o f t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s , whose o u t s t a n d i n g c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e has made t h i s work p o s s i b l e . - 1 - C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n - 2 - T h i s i s a s t u d y o f an i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n , t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d Workers (CAIMAW). I t i s a u n i o n t h a t was f o u n d e d i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s by d i s s i d e n t members o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s i n W i n n i p e g and V a n c o u v e r , d i s s i d e n t s who j o i n e d f o r c e s t o f o r m t h e u n i o n as i t i s known t o d a y . T h i s u n i o n s t a n d s as a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m i n Canada a n d , t h r o u g h r a p i d g r o w t h , has e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f as a v i a b l e l a b o u r ' o r g a n i z a t i o n . The emergence and g rowth o f CAIMAW has been accompan ied by c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y . P r o p o n e n t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m c h a r g e t h a t CAIMAW uses n a t i o n a l i s m , an i r r e l e v a n t i s s u e , as a t o o l t o mount a t t a c k s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s ; t h a t CAIMAW i s r a d i c a l , s t r i k e - p r o n e and uses i t s u n i o n power i n an i r r e s p o n s i b l e manner ; and t h a t CAIMAW r a i d s i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n s r a t h e r t han d i r e c t i n g i t s e f f o r t s t o t h e more p r i n c i p l e d g o a l o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e u n o r g a n i z e d . CAIMAW s u p p o r t e r s f l a t l y deny t h e s e c h a r g e s . They a rgue t h a t CAIMAW i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a p r i n c i p l e d u n i o n i s m t h a t i s f r e e o f t h e f a i l i n g s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s - namely c o n t r o l o f Canad i an u n i o n s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and a l a c k o f d e m o c r a t i c r i g h t s f o r the u n i o n membersh ip . These c h a r g e s and c o u n t e r c h a r g e s 'have been based on t h e e m o t i o n s , p r e j u d i c e s and u n i o n p o l i t i c s o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d , f a c t o r s w h i c h have d i s t o r t e d and c l o u d e d t h e d e b a t e . No documented f a c t s e x i s t t o e n a b l e i m p a r t i a l o b s e r v e r s t o p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t a n d and a s s e s s CAIMAW as a l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n . R a t h e r , t h e y a r e l e f t t o s p e c u l a t e and r e a c h - 3 - T a b l e I CAIMAW MEMBERSHIP 1966 - 1981 B r a n c h e s / P e r c e n t a g e Yea r Membersh ip L o c a l s I n c r e a s e In Membersh ip 1981 7000 20 8% 1980 6500 18 4% 1978 6250 18 0% 1976-77 6250 17 19% 1974-75 5260 13 82% 1973 2889 7 20% 1972 2406 5 15% 1971 2086 4 26% 1970 1648 ' 22 10% 1969 1497 21 31% 1968 1140 17 42% 1966 800 3 S o u r c e : L abou r O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n C a n a d a , 1966-1981 . N o t e : U n t i l 1 9 7 1 , B r a n c h e s / L o c a l s r e p o r t e d r e p r e s e n t e d c e r t i f i e d p l a n t s . - 4 - c o n c l u s i o n s based on u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d and i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y i s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e s e i m p a r t i a l o b s e r v e r s . I t documents t h e b i r t h o f CAIMAW, and CAIMAW's p h i l o s o p h y , p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s as t h e y e x i s t t o d a y . T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f CAIMAW as a C a n a d i a n l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t o r a i s e t h e r e l e v a n t i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e based on f a c t r a t h e r t han e m o t i o n and p r e j u d i c e . Through t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , A m e r i c a n t r a d e u n i o n s e x t e n d e d t h e i r s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e i n t o Canada i n t h e f o r m o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . They b r o u g h t w i t h them t h e p o l i c i e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , an o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h was d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f b u s i n e s s u n i o n i s m , a imed f o r s h o r t t e rm o b j e c t i v e s a c h i e v a b l e t h r o u g h economic a c t i o n , and r e j e c t e d u n i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s . A l t h o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s q u i c k l y became t h e dominan t f o r c e i n Canad i an o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r , movements o f r e s i s t a n c e t o A m e r i c a n u n i o n s and t o t h e p o l i c i e s and p h i l o s o p h y t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d a p p e a r e d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y . Each i n i t s t u r n , t h e N a t i o n a l T r ades and L a b o u r C o n g r e s s , t h e C a n a d i a n F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , One B i g Un ion and t h e A l l C a n a d i a n Cong re s s o f L a bo u r b a t t l e d f o r a s o v e r e i g n C a n a d i a n l a b o u r movement t h a t w o u l d a l l o w f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n by u n i o n s , p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e t o b u s i n e s s u n i o n i s m , and accommodate t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w o r k e r s a l o n g i n d u s t r i a l r a t h e r t h a n c r a f t l i n e s . Not one o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s was a b l e t o b r e a k t h e h o l d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s on C a n a d i a n l a b o u r , o r even m a i n t a i n i t s own e x i s t e n c e . Con tempora r y i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s have removed many s o u r c e s o f c o m p l a i n t by becoming - 5 - p o l i t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n Canada t h r o u g h s u p p o r t o f t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y , and by mov ing f r o m c r a f t u n i o n i s m t o i n d u s t r i a l u n i o n i s m . Y e t r e s i s t a n c e , i n t h e f o rm o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as CAIMAW, c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t . T h i s s t u d y o f CAIMAW 1s h i s t o r y i s u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y and e v a l u a t e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c u r r e n t e x p r e s s i o n o f C a n a d i a n u n i o n i s m . S p e c i f i c a l l y , an a t t e m p t i s made t o i d e n t i f y t h e r e a s o n s why some C a n a d i a n w o r k e r s i n r e c e n t t i m e s have abandoned i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s t o f o u n d and d e v e l o p a new i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n . A l s o , an a n a l y s i s o f CAIMAW's p h i l o s o p h y , p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r s u c h a new, i n d e p e n d e n t u n i o n i s , i n f a c t , i d e n t i f i a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r om t h o s e u n i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y o p e r a t i n g i n Canada . And f i n a l l y , a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e p r e s e n t day i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s f o r c e s t h a t o p e r a t e i n f a v o u r and m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t t h e s u c c e s s o f C a n a d i a n s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e and d e v e l o p an i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n . An i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n i n t h e s t u d y o f CAIMAW i s why t h e d e s i r e f o r i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n i s m s h o u l d have reemerged when i t d i d - d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 1 s . T h e r e f o r e , on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s such as u n i o n s must r e f l e c t t h e f o r c e s t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e s o c i e t y t h a t i t s e r v e s , my t r e a t m e n t o f t h e t o p i c opens w i t h a c h a p t e r o u t l i n i n g i n b r i e f t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s f o r c e s o p e r a t i v e i n Canada d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s . These were t h e f o r c e s - 6 - t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e c o n t e x t and pe rhaps s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e b i r t h o f CAIMAW i n 1 9 6 4 , and f o r i t s s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t . C h a p t e r t h r e e examines t h e b i r t h o f CAIMAW i n W i n n i p e g i n 1 9 6 4 , and i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t as a v i a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r c e f o r w o r k e r s i n e i g h t e e n W i n n i p e g p l a n t s and f a c t o r i e s by 1970 . The s t r u g g l e f o r autonomy by t h e members o f L o c a l 174 o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n o f M o l d e r s and A l l i e d Workers i s d e s c r i b e d , the causes o f t h e f i n a l b r eak w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n a r e d o c u m e n t e d , and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e r e s u l t a n t c r e a t i o n o f CAIMAW a r e e x a m i n e d . C h a p t e r f o u r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g i n Vancouve r between 1966 and 1970 . The L e n k u r t d i s p u t e o f 1966 i s e x a m i n e d , w i t h a t t e n t i o n b e i n g d i r e c t e d t o the c auses and r e s u l t s o f t h e b i t t e r s t r u g g l e t h a t d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f E l e c t r i c a l Workers d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e d i s p u t e . The breakaway movement and t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n E l e c t r i c a l Workers Un ion as a r e s u l t o f t h i s s t r u g g l e i s a n a l y z e d . The c o u r s e o f t h e deve lopmen t o f t h e CEW i s t r a c e d f r om i t s f o r m a t i o n i n 1966 u n t i l i t s 1970 merge r w i t h CAIMAW, f o c u s i n g on t h e g rowth o f t h e CEW, i t s s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l , and i t s c e r t i f i c a t i o n s a t P h i l l i p s C a b l e i n Vancouve r and A l b e r t a . C h a p t e r f i v e d e a l s w i t h t h e 1970 merge r o f t h e CEW w i t h t h e W i n n i p e g u n i o n , CAIMAW, t o p roduce t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d Workers as i t o p e r a t e s t o d a y . The - 7 - r e a s o n s f o r t h e merger a r e e x a m i n e d , and t h e emergence and f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b a t t l e t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e merge r a r e a n a l y z e d . F i n a l l y , s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , s t r u c t u r e and p o l i c i e s o f t h e modern-day CAIMAW t h a t r e s u l t e d a r e d e s c r i b e d . C h a p t e r s i x examines CAIMAW's e n t r y i n t o and p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t a p r o f i l e o f CAIMAW as i t e x i s t s and o p e r a t e s t o d a y . An a t t e m p t i s made t o i d e n t i f y t h e r e a s o n s why B. C. m i n e r s abandoned t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s t o j o i n CAIMAW. CAIMAW's p o l i c i e s , p r a c t i c e s and method o f o p e r a t i o n i n t h e mines a r e e x a m i n e d , and an a n a l y s i s o f CAIMAW's s u c c e s s e s i n b a r g a i n i n g i s u n d e r t a k e n . C h a p t e r seven p r e s e n t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d as a r e s u l t o f t h i s s t u d y . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e ma jo r f i g u r e s r e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y c o m p r i s e an e s s e n t i a l s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Due t o t h e c o o p e r a t i o n e x t e n d e d by CAIMAW, a s e a r c h o f u n i o n f i l e s was c o n d u c t e d and c o n s t i t u t i o n s , p a m p h l e t s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , n e w s p a p e r s , u n i o n p u b l i c a t i o n s and o t h e r documents were e x a m i n e d . P u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d s e c o n d a r y i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h i s p a p e r . - 8 - C h a p t e r I I The S i x t i e s - The Age o f A n x i e t y Not an e a s y t i m e . . . b u t a t i m e t o e x c i t e t h e d a r i n g , t o t e s t t h e s t r o n g , and t o g i v e new p r o m i s e t o t h e t i m i d . L e s t e r P e a r s o n - 9 - A REASSESSMENT OF CANADIAN SOCIETY A TIME OF CHANGE C a n a d i a n s u s h e r e d i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s unde r t h e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e John D i e f e n b a k e r C o n s e r v a t i v e gove rnmen t . They c o u l d l o o k back on t h e p r e v i o u s decade w i t h some s a t i s f a c t i o n . The 1 9 5 0 ' s had p r o d u c e d s u b s t a n t i a l s t a b i l i t y , e conomic g rowth and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s . I t had been t h e "Age o f Happy P r o b l e m s " , i n w h i c h t h e ma jo r t a s k had been t o c o n f o r m t o t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and economic s y s t e m s , s y s t ems w h i c h were g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as s e r v i n g Canada w e l l . O p t i m i s m , comp la cency w i t h t h e s t a t u s quo and w i d e s p r e a d c o n s e r v a t i s m marked t h e psyche o f t h e n a t i o n . * E ven t s o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , howeve r , were t o shake t h e s e a t t i t u d e s t o t h e c o r e . In t h e e l e c t i o n o f A p r i l 8 , 1 9 6 3 , t h e D i e f e n b a k e r government was d e f e a t e d and power was assumed by t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y , l e d by L e s t e r P e a r s o n . P rompted by new-guard l i b e r a l s w i t h i n t h e p a r t y , t h e P e a r s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n l e a s h e d a r a p i d s e r i e s o f f undamen ta l s o c i a l changes i n 2 Canada between t h e y e a r s 1963 and 1967 . These changes i n c l u d e d t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n s t i t u e n c y b o u n d a r i e s by an i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m i s s i o n , t h e l a y i n g o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a b i l i n g u a l f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v i c e , t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m , new r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and b r o a d c a s t i n g , a new L a bo u r C o d e , t h e Canada P e n s i o n P l a n , t h e Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n , a g u a r a n t e e d minimum income p l a n f o r - 10 - o l d - a g e p e n s i o n e r s , m e d i c a r e l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a h e a l t h r e s o u r c e s f u n d , y o u t h a l l o w a n c e s , t h e l i b e r a l i z a t i o n o f d i v o r c e l a w s , 3 c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s and a new n a t i o n a l f l a g . An e a s y a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e s e ma jo r s o c i a l changes by C a n a d i a n s was made d i f f i c u l t by t h e h e s i t a t i n g , h a p h a z a r d way i n w h i c h t h e y were i n t r o d u c e d . . The P e a r s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a i l e d t o g i v e t h e s e changes any appea r ance o f p u r p o s e , d i r e c t i o n o r r a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s . The r e s u l t was a s o c i e t y b e s e t by c o n f u s i o n , a s o c i e t y w h i c h began t o 4 v i e w i t s government as a b u m b l i n g and i n c o m p e t e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Complacency gave way t o u n c e r t a i n t y , a s t r u g g l e t o adap t t o change and t o a r e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . In a way , P ea r son was l i k e a man w a l k i n g t h r o u g h an a p i a r y , p u n c h i n g a s t i c k i n t o b e e h i v e s . He seemed c h a g r i n e d when t h e b e e s , i n s t e a d o f j u s t b u z z i n g a r o u n d him b r i e f l y and s e t t l i n g i n t o new l i f e 5 p a t t e r n s , s t u n g t h e v e r y man who had s e t them f r e e . A TIME OF AWAKENING One o f t h e ma jo r t a r g e t s f o r r e e x a m i n a t i o n d u r i n g the 1 9 6 0 ' s was t h e q u e s t i o n o f C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , a r e e x a m i n a t i o n t h a t was g i v e n impe tus by t h e Pea r son a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P e a r s o n was a c o n t i n e n t a l i s t , who b e l i e v e d t h a t c l o s e r t i e s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o l o o s e n C a n a d a ' s t i e s t o B r i t a i n . D e d i c a t e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n s t a t e t h r o u g h t h e s e v e r i n g o f - 11 - t h e B r i t i s h u m b i l i c a l c o r d , he i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c o u n t r y a C a n a d i a n f l a g i n F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 6 5 . The new f l a g was q u i c k l y a c c e p t e d by t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e , and no doub t made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a g r o w i n g sense o f n a t i o n a l p r i d e . In e x p l a i n i n g t h e q u i c k a c c e p t a n c e and r e a d y s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h w h i c h most C a n a d i a n s r e g a r d e d t h e new f l a g , A . R . M . Lower w r o t e : The p o i n t i s s i m p l y t h a t t h e c o u n t r y i s g r o w i n g u p , coming t o see i t s e l f as an e n t i t y , t a k i n g t h e i n t e r e s t i n i t s e l f t h a t any o r g a n i s m , t o be h e a l t h y , m u s t . Each t i m e , t h a t i s , t h a t t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n l o o k s a t t h e new f l a g , he u n c o n s c i o u s l y says t o h i m s e l f , " T h a t ' s m e ! " 6 The g r o w i n g sense o f n a t i o n a l p r i d e was g i v e n a f u r t h e r b o o s t i n 1 9 6 7 , as C a n a d i a n s c e l e b r a t e d t h e i r h u n d r e d t h b i r t h d a y as a n a t i o n , and p r o u d l y h o s t e d Expo ' 67 i n M o n t r e a l . I t was a y e a r o f n a t i o n a l e u p h o r i a . Songs were sung i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f c o n f e d e r a t i o n , a m a g n i f i c e n t n a t i o n w i d e b i r t h d a y p a r t y e r u p t e d on t h e f i r s t o f J u l y , and Expo ' 67 was p r o u d l y h a i l e d as " t h e g r e a t e s t t h i n g we have e v e r done as a n a t i o n " . ^ T h i r t y f i v e m i l l i o n v i s i t o r s a t t e n d e d E x p o , and C a n a d i a n s were p roud o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f Canada t h a t Expo c r e a t e d . Neve r a g a i n w i l l t h e y need t o t h i n k o f us - o r w i l l we need t o t h i n k o f o u r s e l v e s - as an i m p o t e n t appendage o f e i t h e r B r i t a i n o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s They w i l l know t h a t we a r e a n a t i o n w h i c h has j o i n e d t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y and i s headed f o r Q t h e t w e n t y f i r s t . - 12 - A TIME OF CONTROVERSY The new f l a g , c e n t e n n i a l y e a r and Expo ' 67 were p o s i t i v e , u n i f y i n g f o r c e s i n t h e s e a r c h f o r an i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y , f i l l i n g C a n a d i a n s w i t h a sense o f n a t i o n a l p r i d e . But t h e r e was a much more d i f f i c u l t and d i v i s i v e f o r c e a t work i n t h e r i s e o f C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m - t h e i s s u e o f C a n a d a ' s t i e s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c o r n e r s t o n e o f t h i s i s s u e was t h e r o l e p l a y e d by m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t h e economy o f t h e c o u n t r y , a f a c t o r w h i c h gave C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m a d i s t i n c t l y a n t i - A m e r i c a n f l a v o u r . T h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s and 1 9 6 0 ' s , t h e economy o f Canada was swamped by t h e i n v e s t m e n t o f m a s s i v e U. S. c a p i t a l , and by t h e g r o w i n g o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s by s u b s i d i a r i e s o f A m e r i c a n Q c o r p o r a t i o n s . A m e r i c a n i n v e s t m e n t r e s u l t e d i n t h e deve lopmen t o f o i l and gas r e f i n e r i e s , t h e m i n i n g and s m e l t i n g i n d u s t r i e s and v a r i o u s l i n e s o f s e c o n d a r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g . I t was t h e power t h a t d r o v e t h e economy, and r e s u l t e d i n C a n a d i a n s e n j o y i n g t h e second h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g i n t h e w o r l d . But t h e s c a l e was such t h a t by 1 9 6 0 , some C a n a d i a n s were becoming a l a r m e d . The a l a r m was f i r s t sounded i n a m e a n i n g f u l way i n 1963 by W a l t e r G o r d o n , F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r i n t h e P e a r s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Gordon b e l i e v e d t h a t i f a n a t i o n l o s t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e new t e c h n o l o g y , c o r p o r a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and economic p o w e r , i t w o u l d f o r f e i t i t s n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and even c u l t u r a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . In o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e C a n a d i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e , he wanted t o p i t t h e power o f t h e - 13 - s t a t e a g a i n s t t h e g r o w i n g power o f m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . As s t a t e d by P r o f e s s o r Abraham R o t s t e i n , p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m i s t f r om t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o : The p o l i t i c s o f t h e new t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y i n c r e a s i n g l y t u r n s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f who makes t h e s e c r u c i a l c o r p o r a t e d e c i s i o n s The s u r v i v a l o f i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s i n t h e f a c e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s become a m a t t e r f o r a c t i o n by t h e most p o w e r f u l o f o u r p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e n a t i o n s t a t e . ^ In h i s 1963 b u d g e t , Gordon a t t e m p t e d t o s l o w down t h e f o r e i g n t a k e o v e r o f C a n a d i a n a s s e t s . The budge t p r o v i d e d f o r a t a k e o v e r t a x t o be l e v i e d on s a l e s o f s h a r e s i n l i s t e d C a n a d i a n compan ies t o n o n - C a n a d i a n s , t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e w i t h h o l d i n g t a x on d i v i d e n d s p a i d t o n o n r e s i d e n t s f o r compan ies whose s h a r e s were a t l e a s t 25 p e r c e n t C a n a d i a n owned , and an i n c r e a s e i n t h i s t a x f o r f i r m s w i t h a l o w e r p r o p o r t i o n o f C a n a d i a n o w n e r s h i p . * * G o r d o n ' s budge t i m m e d i a t e l y p r o d u c e d an o u t c r y o f o p p o s i t i o n . The economic b e n e f i t s o f A m e r i c a n i n v e s t m e n t were so g r e a t t h a t any a t t e m p t t o s t o p o r c o n t r o l i t e i t h e r r an a g a i n s t t h e s e l f - i n t e r e s t o f p o w e r f u l g r o u p s , o r was h o n e s t l y f e l t t o be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e p u b l i c g o o d . R u s s e l l I r v i n e , r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r o f t h e C a n a d i a n L a b o u r C o n g r e s s , d e c l a r e d t h a t W a l t e r Gordon was " u n f i t t o manage t h e a f f a i r s o f A n t a r c t i c a , l e t a l o n e C a n a d a " , and E r i c K i e r a n s , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e M o n t r e a l S t o c k E x c h a n g e , saw t h e t a k e o v e r t a x as " an axe t o murder t h e - 14 - r e c o r d o f t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e between Canada and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s " . P r i c e s on t h e T o r o n t o S t o c k Exchange plummeted a n d , f i n a l l y , on June 1 9 , 1 9 6 3 , Gordon was f o r c e d t o announce t o t h e Commons t h a t t h e t a k e o v e r t a x 12 w o u l d be w i t h d r a w n . Bu t a s u b s e q u e n t s e r i e s o f u n i l a t e r i a l a c t i o n s by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t G o r d o n ' s c o n c e r n s f o r C a n a d a ' s e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l s o v e r e i g n t y were w e l l f o u n d e d . F i r s t , A m e r i c a n c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r u n f a v o u r a b l e b a l a n c e o f payment p o s i t i o n and the s a g g i n g A m e r i c a n d o l l a r l e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o imp lement an i n t e r e s t e q u a l i z a t i o n t a x i n 1 9 6 3 . T h i s t a x r a i s e d t h e e f f e c t i v e i n t e r e s t c o s t t o f o r e i g n b o r r o w e r s by 1.25 p e r c e n t . The r e s p o n s e o f t h e b u s i n e s s community i n Canada was d r a m a t i c . Some A m e r i c a n s u b s i d i a r i e s h u r r i e d l y began t o move d i v i d e n d s and c a s h r e s e r v e s o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y , t h e T o r o n t o S t o c k Exchange i n d u s t r i a l i n d e x f e l l a r e c o r d 1 5 . 2 9 p o i n t s , and C a n a d a ' s f o r e i g n exchange r e s e r v e s were d e p l e t e d by $110 m i l l i o n , w i t h a b i g g e r o u t f l o w p r e d i c t e d . The c o u n t r y 13 f a c e d t h e v e r y r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f n a t i o n a l b a n k r u p t c y . W a l t e r Gordon made an emergency t r i p t o Wash ing ton i n an a t t e m p t t o r e s c u e Canada f r o m t h i s f a t e . A m e r i c a n o f f i c i a l s , a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e y had " n o t been f u l l y aware o f how c l o s e l y t h e two c a p i t a l m a r k e t s had become i n t e g r a t e d " , g r a n t e d Canada e x e m p t i o n f r o m t h e t a x . In r e t u r n , howeve r , Canada had t o a g r e e t o r e s t r i c t i t s exchange r e s e r v e s , and t h e e x e m p t i o n was l i m i t e d t o an amount t h a t was s u b j e c t t o t h e p r e s i d e n t ' s d i s c r e t i o n . The f i s c a l c r i s i s i n Canada was o v e r , b u t - 15 - t h e c o n d i t i o n s p l a c e d on C a n a d a ' s r e s c u e were seen as a r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s f i s c a l f l e x i b i l i t y , and t h e r e f o r e i t s a b i l i t y t o pu r sue an i n d e p e n d e n t mone ta r y p o l i c y . John D i e f e n b a k e r t o l d t h e Commons t h a t t h e agreement was " n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h i s n a t i o n " , and S c o t t G o r d o n , head o f t h e C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Economics D e p a r t m e n t , s t a t e d t h a t " w i t h one a c t we have pu t i n t o t h e hands o f t h e U. S. P r e s i d e n t more c o n t r o l o f o u r economy t h a n t h e p a s t 20 y e a r s o f g rowth 14 o f A m e r i c a n i n v e s t m e n t i n Canada r e p r e s e n t . " N e x t , t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l s o v e r e i g n t y t o A m e r i c a n p o l i c y was b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e when , i n an a t t e m p t t o improve i t s s t i l l a i l i n g b a l a n c e o f payment p o s i t i o n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t r o d u c e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f U. S. i n v e s t m e n t a b r o a d . A l t h o u g h i n i t i a l l y e x e m p t , t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s were a p p l i e d t o Canada i n December , 1 9 6 5 . They r e q u i r e d A m e r i c a n c o r p o r a t i o n s t o l i m i t new f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t , t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e t u r n f l o w o f e a r n i n g s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t o buy A m e r i c a n . To t h e a l a r m o f many C a n a d i a n s , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e t h e T r e a s u r y Henry F o w l e r e x p l a i n e d t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s t o t h e U. S. C o u n c i l o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Chamber o f Commerce by s t a t i n g : We must a l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and t h o s e o f m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l t o a f u t u r e w i t h f r eedom T h e r e f o r e , t h e y have no t o n l y a commerc i a l i m p o r t a n c e bu t a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , r o l e 15 i n a U. S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y . - 16 - The e conomi c i m p a c t o f t h e g u i d e l i n e s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s must now s e r v e t h e a ims o f U. S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y , p r o v e d t o be t o o much even f o r E r i c K i e r a n s , an o u t s p o k e n c r i t i c o f G o r d o n ' s C a n a d i a n i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n 1963 . He now j o i n e d G o r d o n ' s camp i n condemning the t h r e a t posed by t h e g u i d e l i n e s t o C a n a d i a n economic and p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , s t a t i n g " t h e g u i d e l i n e s r e p r e s e n t , i n my o p i n i o n , a t i g h t e n i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n g r i p on o u r economy t h a t t h r e a t e n s t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f o u r economic o b j e c t i v e s and a r e an i n f r i n g e m e n t on o u r p o l i t i c a l s o v e r e i g n t y " . I t became i n c r e a s i n g l y o b v i o u s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i x t i e s t h a t m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s i m p o r t e d i n t o Canada b o t h U. S. l aw and U. S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y , t h e r e b y t h r e a t e n i n g Canad i an economic and p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . The U. S. a n t i - t r u s t l aws c o u l d p r e v e n t merge rs o f C a n a d i a n s u b s i d i a r i e s , even i f such agreements were i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n economy. The A m e r i c a n T r a d i n g w i t h t h e Enemy A c t c o u l d p r e v e n t C a n a d i a n s u b s i d i a r i e s o f A m e r i c a n f i r m s f r o m s e l l i n g goods and s e r v i c e s t o any n a t i o n t h a t t h e S t a t e Depar tment d e c l a r e d an enemy, and t h u s p r e v e n t C a n a d i a n e x p o r t s a l e s t o c o u n t r i e s such as N o r t h K o r e a , Cuba and M a i n l a n d C h i n a . ^ By t h e m i d - s i x t i e s , even c o n c e r n f o r Canad i an c u l t u r e was b r o u g h t t o p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n by t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e C a n a d i a n government t o r e g u l a t e Time and Readers D i g e s t , b o t h A m e r i c a n p u b l i c a t i o n s . In h i s 1965 b u d g e t , Gordon i n t r o d u c e d l e g i s l a t i o n t o d i s a l l o w a d v e r t i s i n g i n f o r e i g n owned p u b l i c a t i o n s as a t a x d e d u c t i o n . The U. S. S t a t e Depa r tmen t t h r e a t e n e d t h a t u n l e s s T ime and Reade r s D i g e s t were g r a n t e d - 17 - e x e m p t i o n , C a n a d a ' s q u o t a s on o i l e x p o r t s t o t h e U. S. w o u l d be r e v i e w e d , and c o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o v a l o f t h e a u t o p a c t w i t h Canada m i g h t no t be f o r t h c o m i n g . The Pea r son government c a p i t u l a t e d and exempted t h e o n l y two p u b l i c a t i o n s i t s l e g i s l a t i o n m i g h t have a f f e c t e d , due t o f e a r 1 p o f A m e r i c a n r e t a l i a t i o n . G r a t t o n O ' L e a r y summed up t h e m o u n t i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e i ndependence o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e t h a t t h e e p i s o d e c r e a t e d when he t o l d t h e S e n a t e : I f t h i s House v o t e s f o r t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n ^ e x c l u s i o ^ i t w i l l be v o t i n g the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t Wash ing ton has a r i g h t t o i n t e r f e r e i n a m a t t e r o f p u r e l y C a n a d i a n c o n c e r n and v o t i n g a p r o b a b l e d e a t h s e n t e n c e on C a n a d i a n p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s w i t h a l l t h a t t h i s can e n t a i l f o r o u r f u t u r e voyage t h r o u g h 19 h i s t o r y . In r e s p o n s e t o s o c i e t y ' s g r o w i n g c o n c e r n f o r C a n a d i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e and t o p r e s s u r e f r o m W a l t e r G o r d o n , t h e Pea r son a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a Task Fo r ce on t h e S t r u c t u r e o f C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r y , headed by a l e a d i n g C a n a d i a n e c o n o m i s t , Mel W a t k i n s . The unanimous c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e Task F o r c e c o n c u r r e d w i t h G o r d o n ' s v i e w t h a t f o r e i g n c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r y posed a t h r e a t t o n a t i o n a l i ndependence by s h i f t i n g d e c i s i o n mak ing o u t s i d e t h e c o u n t r y , and warned t h a t s u b s i d i a r y compan ies c o u l d be used by f o r e i g n gove rnments as i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e i r f o r e i g n p o l i c y . I t s t a t e d : F o r e i g n c o n t r o l means t h e p o t e n t i a l s h i f t o u t s i d e t h e c o u n t r y o f t h e l o c u s o f some t y p e s o f d e c i s i o n - 18 - m a k i n g . To the e x t e n t d e c i s i o n mak ing i s e r o d e d , n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e b e i n g i n t h e b r o a d s e n s e , t h e a b i l i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i s r e d u c e d The C a n a d i a n based s u b s i d i a r y i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h two peaks o f s o v e r e i g n t y ; i t must choose and m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o d e f e r t o the h i g h e r peak . In t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a s e , t h e h i g h e r peak 20 w i l l t y p i c a l l y be t h e home c o u n t r y . However , t he W a t k i n s ' R e p o r t was s h e l v e d by t h e L i b e r a l c a u c u s , a caucus w h i c h was dom ina t ed by c o n t i n e n t a l i s t s who b e l i e v e d t h a t c l o s e r t i e s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o l o o s e n C a n a d a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s t o B r i t a i n . The r e p o r t was d i s m i s s e d by t h e L i b e r a l government as " n o t h i n g bu t t h e o p i n i o n o f a few u n i v e r s i t y 21 t e a c h e r s " . The C a n a d i a n government h a d , t h r o u g h W a l t e r Gordon and t h e W a t k i n s ' R e p o r t , s e t i n m o t i o n a c r i t i c a l r e a s s e s s m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s l i n k s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Y e t i t d i d l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o a c t on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e W a t k i n s ' R e p o r t , o r t o ease t h e moun t i ng c o n c e r n f o r C a n a d i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e . The r e s u l t was a s ense o f a n g e r and f r u s t r a t i o n among t h e g r o w i n g number o f n a t i o n a l i s t s i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s were g i v e n a f u r t h e r push t o w a r d s m i l i t a n c y i n 1971 when the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t r o d u c e d r e s t r i c t i v e t r a d e p o l i c i e s . In a n n o u n c i n g t h e s e p o l i c i e s , R i c h a r d N i x o n i g n o r e d t h e i m p a c t t h e y w o u l d have on C a n a d a , and i d e n t i f i e d Japan as t h e ma jo r t r a d i n g p a r t n e r o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A g a i n Canada was g o i n g t o be - 19 - a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by U. S. u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n , imposed i n a manner t h a t r e f l e c t e d e i t h e r i g n o r a n c e o f o r i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s on Canada . P e t e r Newman, e d i t o r o f MacLeans m a g a z i n e , summed up t h e g r o w i n g r e s e n t m e n t o f many i n Canad i an s o c i e t y by 1971 when he e x p l a i n e d h i s own a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I. r e a l l y r e s p e c t e d A m e r i c a n s f o r t h e i r s t r e n g t h s , s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h them i n - t h e i r woes and w i s h e d them w e l l - though I hoped t h e y w o u l d no t o v e r r u n my c o u n t r y c o m p l e t e l y . But i n t h e months s i n c e R i c h a r d N i x o n ' s t r a d e o f f e n s i v e came i n t o b e i n g , t h i s a t t i t u d e o f p o l i t e m o d e r a t i o n has been i n c r e a s i n g l y ha rd t o m a i n t a i n In 1 9 7 0 , U n i t e d S t a t e s - C a n a d i a n t r a d e exceeded t h e v a l u e o f U n i t e d S t a t e s - J a p a n e s e t r a d e by some t e n b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . How c o u l d N i x o n no t know t h a t ? And t h e answer t h a t keeps coming back f r o m t h e v o i d i s : Because he does no t know we e x i s t . In a n o t h e r t i m e we w o u l d have sh rugged o f f N i x o n ' s h o w l e r . But C a n a d i a n s t o d a y a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a mood o f s u r g i n g s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and t h e i d e a t h a t t o t h e A m e r i c a n p r e s i d e n t we a r e a 22 n o n c o u n t r y makes us b l o o d y mad. THE REORGANIZATION OF CANADA'S LEFT THE FOUNDING OF THE NDP As Canada was p r e p a r i n g t o e n t e r t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s and f a c e t h e ma jo r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic changes t h a t t h e decade wou ld b r i n g , i m p o r t a n t changes were o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s s o c i a l i s t - 20 - movement, as the l e f t w i n g f a c t i o n s o u g h t new ways t o r e l a t e and t o f i t i n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . In 1 9 3 3 , the C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n o f Canada (CCF) had been founded as t h e p a r t y o f t he l e f t . The 1933 R e g i n a M a n i f e s t o e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p a r t y ' s p o l i c i e s as c a l l i n g f o r e conomic p l a n n i n g , s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f b a n k i n g and i n s u r a n c e , p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p o f u t i l i t i e s and s o c i a l i z e d h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s . The f o u n d i n g members e n v i s a g e d t h a t t h e CCF w o u l d c o n s i s t o f a u n i o n between a p o l i t i c a l s o c i a l i s t movement, o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r and f a r m e r ' s g r o u p s . But t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement r e f u s e d t o become i n v o l v e d i n any m e a n i n g f u l way. T h i s was p a r t l y because t h e o f f i c i a l House o f L a b o u r , The T r a d e s and L a b o u r Cong re s s ( T L C ) , f o l l o w e d t h e A m e r i c a n l a b o u r t r a d i t i o n o f a v o i d i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p , and p a r t l y because t h e r i v a l C a n a d i a n Cong re s s o f L a b o u r (CCL) o p t e d f o r a p o l i c y o f CCF s u p p o r t a t i t s 1943 c o n v e n t i o n , mak ing t h e TLC s u s p i c i o u s t h a t t h e CCF s u p p o r t e d d u a l 23 u n i o n i s m and opposed i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . In 1 9 5 6 , t h e TLC and t h e CCL merged t o f o r m t h e C a n a d i a n L abou r Cong re s s ( C L C ) . S p u r r e d on by t h e CCL u n i o n s , t h e CLC e l e c t e d t o 24 f o l l o w a c o u r s e o f p o l i t i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t . The 1958 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a l a n d s l i d e v i c t o r y f o r John D i e f e n b a k e r and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . Members o f t h e CCF , who had been c o n f i d e n t t h a t a L i b e r a l d e c l i n e wou ld mean an a s c e n d e n c y o f s o c i a l i s m , were b i t t e r l y d i s a p p o i n t e d . CCF r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n p a r l i a m e n t - 21 - had been s e v e r e l y damaged, mak ing a p p a r e n t t h e need f o r a r e e x a m i n a t i o n 25 o f t h e p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p a r t y . In A p r i l 1 9 5 8 , t h e CLC c o n v e n t i o n p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e l y new s o c i a l i s t p a r t y . The d e c l a r a t i o n commended t h e CCF f o r t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n i t had made t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , b u t s t r e s s e d t h e need f o r a " b r o a d l y based p e o p l e ' s p o l i t i c a l movement w h i c h embraces t h e CCF , t h e l a b o u r movement, f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e and o t h e r l i b e r a l l y minded p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s i c s o c i a l r e f o r m " . The CCF a g r e e d t o t h i s p r o p o s a l and i n 1 9 6 1 , 1801 d e l e g a t e s g a t h e r e d t o f o u n d t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y (NDP) and t o d i s s o l v e t h e CCF. T h i r t y seven p e r c e n t o f t h e s e d e l e g a t e s were f r o m t h e 27 r a n k s o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r . The f o u n d i n g c o n v e n t i o n was o p t i m i s t i c t h a t t h i s new p a r t y o f t h e l e f t w o u l d be f r e e o f c e r t a i n n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s i n t h e image o f t h e CCF w h i c h , i t was f e l t , had r e s t r i c t e d the p a r t y ' s e l e c t o r a l s u p p o r t . These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d t h e image o f what was now c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e s t a l e d o c t r i n a i r e s o c i a l i s m o f t h e Reg ina M a n i f e s t o , t he image o f a p a r t y w h i c h , a l t h o u g h f r i e n d l y t o l a b o u r , had no t accommodated f u l l /•labour p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e image o f h o s t i l i t y t o TLC u n i o n s t h r o u g h 28 a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e CCL. T h e r e f o r e , t he NDP c o u l d , i t was h o p e d , e n j o y a b r o a d e r base o f b o t h l a b o u r and p o p u l a r s u p p o r t , t h e r e b y a c h i e v i n g what had a lways e l u d e d t h e CCF - e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s . - 22 - THE WAFFLE GROUP The a c t i v i s t s w i t h i n t h e NDP d u r i n g i t s e a r l y y e a r s were drawn l a r g e l y f r om t h e f o r m e r CCF p a r t y and f r o m t h e CCL u n i o n s . In a d v o c a t i n g mode ra t e s o c i a l r e f o r m and i n a v o i d i n g d o c t r i n a i r e s o c i a l i s t p l a t f o r m s , t h e y made a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o move t h e p a r t y t o t h e 29 r i g h t . But i n 1 9 6 5 , a new a c t i v i s t f a c t i o n emerged w i t h i n t h e p a r t y , a g roup t h a t became known as t h e Young T u r k s . S e l f - p r o c l a m e d " r a d i c a l p r a g m a t i s t s " , t h e i r c e n t r a l goa l was t o a c h i e v e e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s f o r t h e p a r t y . T h e i r p o l i c i e s were d e c i d e d l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c , and t h e y p r o p o s e d a p rogram d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e economic i ndependence f r o m t h e 30 U n i t e d S t a t e s . However t h e n a t i o n a l i s t i c , a n t i - A m e r i c a n f e a t u r e s o f t h e Young T u r k s ' p rogram were d i v i s i v e , b o t h f o r t h e t r a d e u n i o n s and t h e NDP. I n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s were e m b a r r a s s e d t o f i n d young s t a f f members r a l l y i n g t o t h e new group w h i c h p r e a c h e d C a n a d i a n i ndependence f r om A m e r i c a n d o m i n a t i o n . The NDP was f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o s p e c t o f r e c o n c i l i n g i t s s u p p o r t f o r and by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Young T u r k s . "How c o u l d t h e p a r t y d e c r y C a n a d i a n e conomic dependence on t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y 31 j u s t i f y i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m ? " Due t o t h e s e i n t e r n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , t h e NDP f a c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n accommodat ing t h e n a t i o n a l i s m and d e s i r e f o r economic i ndependence t h a t was g r o w i n g i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . - 2 3 - The f o r c e s o f n a t i o n a l i s m c o n t i n u e d t o b u i l d w i t h i n t h e NDP p a r t y , spea rheaded by a f a c t i o n o f young members who c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s t h e W a f f l e G roup . T h i s g r o u p d i f f e r e d f r om the Young T u r k s i n t h a t i t s p h i l o s o p h y was based on a r e t u r n t o t r u e s o c i a l i s m r a t h e r t han 32 p r o g m a t i s m . In t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 6 9 , t h e y p roduced a " M a n i f e s t o f o r an I ndependen t S o c i a l i s t C a n a d a " . The document r e j e c t e d t h e NDP 1 s t e n d e n c y t o w a t e r down s o c i a l i s t t h o u g h t i n o r d e r t o w i n mass e l e c t o r a t e s u p p o r t , s t a t i n g t h a t " i f i t w a f f l e d , i t w o u l d w a f f l e t o t h e l e f t " . 3 3 To t h e W a f f l e r s , s o c i a l i s m c o u l d be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h n a t i o n a l i s m and n a t i o n a l i s m c o u l d be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h s o c i a l i s m . As s t a t e d by Mel W a t k i n s , a u t h o r o f t h e W a t k i n s ' s r e p o r t and l e a d e r o f t h e g r o u p : On t h e r oad t o s o c i a l i s m , a s p i r a t i o n s f o r i ndependence o r f e e l i n g s o f n a t i o n a l i s m and p a r t i c u l a r l y a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m , s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e i r own r i g h t . F o r t o p u r s u e i ndependence i n a s e r i o u s way i n Canada i s t o make v i s i b l e t h e n e c e s s i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f 34 s o c i a l i s m . The W a f f l e Group a d v o c a t e d t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y b r a n d o f s o c i a l i s m as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e New L e f t , a s o c i a l i s m w h i c h r e j e c t e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f R u s s i a , d i s t r u s t e d b u r e a u c r a t i z e d fo rms o f p o w e r , and 35 f a v o u r e d p a r t i c i p a t o r y democ racy . I t c a l l e d no t o n l y f o r t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f " k e y i n d u s t r i e s s t r a t e g i c t o p l a n n i n g o u r economy" b u t a l s o f o r " w i d e s p r e a d d e m o c r a t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e w o r k p l a c e " . - 24 - The W a f f l e saw t h e e s t a b l i s h e d l a b o u r movement as an i m p o r t a n t a l l y i n i t s s t r u g g l e f o r an i n d e p e n d e n t s o c i a l i s t Canada . I t b e l i e v e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t f i r s t i t w o u l d have t o be ' " r e v i t a l i z e d and e x t e n d e d ' t h r o u g h b o t h a ' m a j o r t a k e o v e r by u n i o n s o f management ' s p r e s e n t p r e r o g a t i v e s ' and a ' m a j o r t a k e o v e r by r a n k - a n d - f i l e w o r k e r s o f t h e 37 l a b o u r b u r e a u c r a c y ' s p r e s e n t p r e r o g a t i v e s ' " . Bu t t h e W a f f l e f o u n d t h a t t h e ma jo r s o u r c e o f o p p o s i t i o n t o i t s s o c i a l i s t p l a t f o r m a r o s e f r om 38 t h e r a n k s o f t h e NDP - a f f i l i a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e u n i o n s . I t began t h e r e f o r e t o a t t a c k i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n l e a d e r s as r e a c t i o n a r y , and c a l l e d f o r " c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n s as a l o n g t e r m g o a l " . 3 9 Under p r e s s u r e f r o m i t s t r a d e u n i o n a f f i l i a t e s , t h e NDP o r d e r e d t h e W a f f l e Group t o d i s b a n d i n O n t a r i o . A y e a r l a t e r , t h e W a f f l e v o l u n t a r i l y w i t h d r e w f r om t h e NDP i n S a s k a t c h e w a n . But t o i t s s u p p o r t e r s , i t had become a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e NDP was no t o n l y u n a b l e t o p u r s u e n a t i o n a l i s t p o l i c i e s , bu t a l s o was u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e an e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e l e f t w ing s t r e a m o f p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t i n t h e s o c i a l i s t movement. They p l a c e d t h e b lame f o r b o t h t h e s e f a i l u r e s on t h e dominance o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s i n Canada and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n t h e p a r t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e u n i o n movement became seen as a ma jo r r o a d b l o c k t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f s o c i a l i s m i n C a n a d a , c r e a t i n g a r i f t between some members o f t he l e f t and i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s , and r e s u l t i n g i n a c r i t i c a l r e a s s e s s m e n t by some C a n a d i a n s o c i a l i s t s o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e on C a n a d i a n i k 40 l a b o u r . - 25 - THE LABOUR RELATIONS SCENE D u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , t h e work f o r c e unde rwen t a r a p i d change i n i t s c o m p o s i t i o n , as t h e baby boom e n t e r e d the l a b o u r m a r k e t . The re was a r a p i d i n f l u x o f y o u n g e r w o r k e r s i n t h e i r l a t e t e e n s and e a r l y t w e n t i e s , t h e age g roup t h a t was most s t r o n g l y a t t r a c t e d t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e Young T u r k s and t h e W a f f l e . They were w o r k e r s who e x h i b i t e d a t e n d e n c y t owa rds m i l i t a n c y . The y o u t h o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s have 41 been d e s c r i b e d as t h e " E x p l o s i v e G e n e r a t i o n " , a g e n e r a t i o n w i t h no memor ies o f d e p r e s s i o n o r w a r , a g e n e r a t i o n t h a t e n j o y e d a h i g h e r l e v e l and q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h e i r e l d e r s , and a g e n e r a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d , due t o improved c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , by " t h e v i o l e n t 42 c o n f r o n t a t i o n s o f y o u t h w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t e l s e w h e r e " . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many o f t h e young w o r k e r s e n t e r i n g t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s were w o r k e r s t h a t were most l i k e l y t o be drawn t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Young T u r k s and t h e W a f f l e , more i n c l i n e d t o q u e s t i o n t h e s t a t u s q u o , and l e s s w i l l i n g t o s u b m i t t o t h e a u t h o r i t y imposed by t h e 43 d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e modern i n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m . T h i s change i n a t t i t u d e w i t h i n t h e w o r k f o r c e was a f a c t o r t h a t no doubt c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e 44 t u r b u l e n c e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , an u n u s u a l l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f c o n t r a c t s n e g o t i a t e d by u n i o n o f f i c e r s were r e f u s e d r a t i f i c a t i o n by the 45 membersh ip . C r i s p o and A r t h u r s n o t e d " s u c h r e f u s a l s a r e e v i d e n c e o f t h e w a n i n g power o f t h e u n i o n h i e r a r c h y whose p r e s t i g e and a u t h o r i t y a r e unde rm ined by r e p u d i a t i o n o f t h e i r n e g o t i a t i n g ' s u c c e s s e s ' " . ^ 6 W i d e s p r e a d v i o l e n c e and i l l e g a l i t y a c compan i ed many d i s p u t e s d u r i n g t h e - 26 - d e c a d e . Numerous i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r e d o f v i o l e n c e and p r o p e r t y damage, 47 mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h t h e p o l i c e , i n d i c a t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m i l i t a n t u n r e s t among C a n a d a ' s u n i o n i z e d l a b o u r f o r c e . In some w a y s , t h e u n r e s t e x h i b i t e d by t h e work f o r c e can be seen as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e u n r e s t g r o w i n g i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e . C a n a d i a n s , p rodded i n t o a q u e s t i o n i n g o f e s t a b l i s h e d v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s by a d a p t a t i o n t o s o c i a l change and u n c e r t a i n t y , e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a s o c i e t y t h a t was u n f e t t e r e d by i n f l u e n c e s e x e r t e d by e i t h e r B r i t a i n o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t o c a r v e o u t f o r t h e m s e l v e s a p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d t h a t was u n i q u e l y C a n a d i a n . U n f o r t u n a t e u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n s by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e decade b r o u g h t i n t o s h a r p f o c u s t h e impac t on Canada o f A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e . Y e t t h e government i n Canada d i d l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o a l l e v i a t e t h i s s o u r c e o f f r u s t r a t i o n , o r t o t a k e p o s i t i v e s t e p s t owa rds t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e g o a l o f n a t i o n a l C a n a d i a n s e l f - a s s e r t i o n . T h i s s o c i a l f e r m e n t c o u l d be r e a d i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s s y s t e m . One o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s y s t e m , m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , were unde r a t t a c k f r o m W a l t e r G o r d o n , who c h a r g e d t h a t t h e y posed a t h r e a t t o C a n a d i a n e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l i ndependence by c a u s i n g d e c i s i o n mak ing t o be e x p o r t e d ou t o f t h e c o u n t r y . To many i n Canad i an s o c i e t y i t was becoming o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s c r i t i c i s m c o u l d be as e a s i l y a p p l i e d t o t h e o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e s y s t e m , i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . H e a d q u a r t e r e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and d e v e l o p i n g p o l i c i e s g e a r e d t o t h e A m e r i c a n w o r k e r s who made up by f a r t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p , were n o t - 27 - t h e d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t e d C a n a d i a n w o r k e r s a l s o e x p o r t e d o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y ? To a work f o r c e w i t h a g r o w i n g d e s i r e f o r C a n a d i a n s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y towards m i l i t a n c y , and an i n c r e a s i n g l y s c e p t i c a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e s t a t u s q u o , t h e e x i s t i n g l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s s y s t em was no l o n g e r l i k e l y t o be a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . G o r d o n , p o s s i b l y f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s , d i d no t a t t a c k i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m i n h i s f i g h t f o r C a n a d i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e , b u t l i m i t e d h i s b a t t l e t o t h e r e p a t r i a t i o n o f the C a n a d i a n economy f r o m m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . The t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f w o r k e r s ' i n t e r e s t s i n Canada a r e t h e l a b o u r movement and t h e NDP. However t h e o f f i c i a l t r a d e u n i o n movement was made up p r i m a r i l y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s , u n i o n s w h i c h c o u l d h a r d l y c a r r y t h e banne r o f r e p a t r i a t i n g t h e d e c i s i o n mak ing t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e C a n a d i a n w o r k e r . By t h e same t o k e n , t h e NDP, because o f i t s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e l a b o u r movement, c o u l d n o t r a l l y t o such a c a u s e e i t h e r . To do so w o u l d i m p l y an a t t a c k on t h e o f f i c i a l t r a d e u n i o n movement i t s e l f . There w a s , t h e r e f o r e , no e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t c o u l d g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e s u r g i n g f o r c e s o f n a t i o n a l i s m on b e h a l f o f t h e C a n a d i a n w o r k e r . The l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s s y s t e m o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s c o u l d no t accommodate t h e g r o w i n g d e s i r e f o r C a n a d i a n s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , t h e r i s i n g n a t i o n a l i s m and t h e moun t i ng a n t i - A m e r i c a n i s m t h a t were becoming s t r o n g l y f e l t t h r o u g h o u t Canad i an s o c i e t y . I t i s no t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t new i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d do so s h o u l d a r i s e , namely i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . - 28 - FOOTNOTES 1. S. J a m i e s o n , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s i n C a n a d a , 2nd e d . , T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n o f Canada L t d . , 1 9 7 3 , p p . 9 2 - 9 3 . 2 . P. C. Newman, The D i s t e m p e r o f Our T i m e s , T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t L t d . , 1 9 6 8 , p . 4 5 . 3 . I b i d . 4 . I b i d . , p . 4 4 . 5 . I b i d . , p . 4 5 . 6 . A . R . M . L o w e r , Q u e e n ' s Q u a r t e r l y , Summer 1 9 6 7 , as q u o t e d i n Newman, i b i d . , p . 2 6 3 . 7. P. C. Newman, Home C o u n t r y , T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t L t d . , 1 9 7 3 , p . 2 3 2 . 8 . I b i d . , p p . 2 3 2 - 2 3 3 . 9 . G. V. H a y t h o r n e , " C a n a d a : P o s t w a r Changes and C u r r e n t F e r m e n t " , Worker M i l i t a n c y and i t s C o n s e q u e n c e s , S. B a r k i n , e d . , New Y o r k , P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 5 , p . 3 2 1 . 10 . A . R o t s t e i n , Tamarack R e v i e w , F a l l 1 9 6 6 , as q u o t e d i n Newman, The D i s t e m p e r o f Our T i m e s , o p . c i t . , p . 2 2 0 . 1 1 . Newman, The D i s t e m p e r o f Our T i m e s , o p . c i t . , p . 1 8 . 1 2 . I b i d . , p p . 2 0 - 2 1 . 1 3 . I b i d . , p p . 2 7 - 2 8 . 1 4 . I b i d . , p p . 2 9 - 3 0 . 1 5 . D. G o d f r e y , Gordon t o W a t k i n s t o Y o u , T o r o n t o , New P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 , p . 4 7 . 1 6 . I b i d . , p . 5 1 . 1 7 . Newman, The D i s t e m p e r o f Our T i m e s , o p . c i t . , p p . 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 . 1 8 . I b i d . , p p . 2 2 4 - 2 2 6 . 1 9 . I b i d . , p . 2 2 6 . 2 0 . M. W a t k i n s , R e p o r t o f t h e Task F o r c e on t h e S t r u c t u r e o f C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r y , J a n . 1 2 , 1 9 6 8 , as q u o t e d i n Newman, The D i s t e m p e r o f Our T i m e s , i b i d . , p . 2 2 2 . - 29 - 2 1 . G o d f r e y , o p . c i t . , p . 2 3 . 2 2 . Newman, Home C o u n t r y , o p . c i t . , p p . 2 2 9 - 2 3 0 . 2 3 . R. U. M i l l e r , " O r g a n i z e d L a b o u r and P o l i t i c s i n C a n a d a " , C a n a d i a n L a b o u r i n T r a n s i t i o n , R. U. M i l l e r and F. I s b e s t e r , e d s . , T o r o n t o , P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada L t d . , 1 9 7 1 , p p . 2 0 8 - 2 0 9 . 2 4 . I b i d . , p . 2 1 2 . 2 5 . G. H o r o w i t z , C a n a d i a n L abou r i n P o l i t i c s , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 , p . 2 1 0 . 2 6 . M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , p . 2 1 3 . 2 7 . H o r o w i t z , o p . c i t . , p . 2 2 6 . 2 8 . I b i d . , p . 2 0 4 . 2 9 . M i l l e r , o p . c i t , p . 2 2 7 . 3 0 . I b i d . , p . 2 2 7 . 3 1 . I b i d . , p . 2 2 8 . 3 2 . I b i d . 3 3 . D. M o r t o n , 1 9 7 4 , p . 9 2 . 3 4 . I b i d . , p .93 3 5 . R. H a c k e t t , v o l . 1 5 , no. 3 6 . I b i d . , p . 7 . 3 7 . I b i d . , p . 8 . 3 8 . I b i d . , p . 4 1 . 3 9 . I b i d . , p . 5 4 . 4 0 . I n f o r m a t i o n 4 1 . 4 2 . 4 3 . . . w * v m I \_ «; \_ \^ I U U U I J ~ I I L . U I V_ i 9 C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. J a m i e s o n , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 . I b i d . , p . 1 1 2 . I b i d . - 30 - 4 4 . I b i d . , p p . 1 1 0 - 1 1 2 . 4 5 . I b i d . , p . 9 7 . 4 6 . J . H. C r i s p o and H. W. A r t h u r s , " I n d u s t r i a l U n r e s t i n Canada : A D i a g n o s i s o f Recen t E x p e r i e n c e " , Pape r p r e s e n t e d t o j o i n t m e e t i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n and C a n a d i a n Law T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , O t t a w a , June 8 , 1 9 6 7 , as q u o t e d i n J a m i e s o n , i b i d . 4 7 . J a m i e s o n , o p . c i t , p . 9 8 . - 31 - C h a p t e r I I I The W i n n i p e g M a v e r i c k s I t i s t h e r i g h t o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o b e l o n g t o t h e u n i o n o f t h e i r c h o i c e i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . Pa t McEvoy - 32 - THE BREAK WITH THE MOLDERS RUMBLINGS OF DISCONTENT The u n r e s t , c r i t i c a l r e e x a m i n a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and l a b o u r m i l i t a n c y t h a t was o c c u r r i n g i n Canada d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n W i n n i p e g i n 1 9 6 4 , when some w o r k e r s t o o k t h e r a t h e r d r a s t i c s t e p o f b r e a k i n g w i t h t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n t o f o r m a new, i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n t o be known as t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s . These w o r k e r s were members o f L o c a l 174 o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o l d e r s U n i o n . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o l d e r s U n i o n , h e a d q u a r t e r e d i n C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o , had been o r g a n i z e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1 8 5 9 . A l t h o u g h t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f i t s membersh ip was A m e r i c a n , by 1960 i t s C a n a d i a n members numbered 7 , 5 0 0 . I n c l u d e d among i t s C a n a d i a n c e r t i f i c a t i o n s was L o c a l 174 i n W i n n i p e g , made up o f s i x t e e n p l a n t s and c o m p r i s e d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 560 u n i o n members.' ' ' The u n r e s t i n L o c a l 174 c e n t e r e d a round t h r e e b a s i c i s s u e s . The f i r s t c o m p l a i n t i n v o l v e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f u n d s c o l l e c t e d by t h e l o c a l u n i o n . Each member o f t h e l o c a l p a i d $ 5 . 0 0 p e r month i n u n i o n d u e s , and o u t o f t h i s amount , $ 3 . 7 5 had t o be s e n t t o C i n c i n n a t i . T h i s p e r c a p i t a t a x was l a i d down i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n and had t o be p a i d by a l l c h a r t e r e d l o c a l s . But L o c a l 174 f e l t - 33 - t h a t t h e y were r e c e i v i n g v e r y l i t t l e i n r e t u r n . Many ma jo r f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e l o c a l had t o be met ou t o f t h e $ 1 . 2 5 p e r member t h a t r e m a i n e d , i n c l u d i n g a l l a r b i t r a t i o n e x p e n s e s . "They w e r e " , s a i d A l P i t t , a member o f L o c a l 174 a t t h e t i m e , " b l e e d i n g us w h i t e " . The s e cond s o u r c e o f u n r e s t stemmed f r o m t h e s e r v i c i n g p r o v i d e d by t h e M o l d e r s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , M i c h a e l C a p r i , s e r v i c e d a huge a r e a s t r e t c h i n g f r om Thunder Bay t o V a n c o u v e r . The t i m e and a t t e n t i o n t h a t he c o u l d g i v e t o L o c a l 174 w a s , t h e r e f o r e , v e r y l i m i t e d . To make m a t t e r s w o r s e , he was a p p o i n t e d t o h i s p o s i t i o n by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e , and he d i d no t e n j o y t h e f u l l c o n f i d e n c e o r s u p p o r t o f t h e membersh ip . He was d e s c r i b e d by. Pa t McEvoy , t hen p r e s i d e n t o f L o c a l 1 7 4 , as " c o m p l e t e l y i n e f f e c t i v e - r a r e l y i n town and a lways o f t h e s i d e o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l " . In an a t t e m p t t o improve s e r v i c i n g , t h e l o c a l d e c i d e d i n 1959 t o h i r e an a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and e l e c t e d John Gugu l yn t o t h e p o s t . R e p o r t i n g t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , he worked p a r t - t i m e f o r t h e l o c a l and p a r t - t i m e f o r t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l . The c o s t o f h i s s a l a r y was s h a r e d by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l and t h e l o c a l u n i o n , t h e l o c a l ' s s h a r e coming ou t o f t h e s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f membersh ip dues t h a t t h e y were a l l o w e d t o k e e p . However , Gugu l yn d i d e n j o y the c o n f i d e n c e and 4 s u p p o r t o f t h e membersh ip . The t h i r d i s s u e o f c o n c e r n c e n t e r e d a round t h e q u e s t i o n o f autonomy i n b a r g a i n i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e l o c a l e l e c t e d i t s own b a r g a i n i n g c o m m i t t e e , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was a lways p r e s e n t d u r i n g c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s . P r o g r e s s r e p o r t s on n e g o t i a t i o n s had t o be o.. - 34 - f o r w a r d e d t o C i n c i n n a t i , and " i t was C i n c i n n a t i t h a t a l w a y s had t h e f i n a l s a y " . To t h e l o c a l m e m b e r s h i p , i t seemed t h a t t h i s f i n a l say was t o o o f t e n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a c c e p t i n g an i n a d e q u a t e s e t t l e m e n t . Worse y e t , n e g o t i a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s o p e r a t e d u n d e r t h e f e a r t h a t i f C i n c i n n a t i ' s r ecommenda t ions were no t a c c e p t e d by t h e l o c a l , s t r i k e f u n d s wou ld no t be f o r t h c o m i n g . T h i s f e a r became r e a l i n 1963 when s t r i k e f u n d s were w i t h h e l d f r om w o r k e r s a t Canada M e t a l f o r f o u r w e e k s , and became a v a i l a b l e o n l y when t h e l o c a l membersh ip e x e r t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e on M i c h a e l C a p r i . ^ The methods used by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t o impose a s e t t l e m e n t a r e now s u s p e c t e d t o have gone as f a r as i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h b a l l o t boxes on c o n t r a c t r a t i f i c a t i o n v o t e s . "We o f t e n wondered why we n e v e r had a s t r i k e when i t seemed t o us t h e membersh ip was r eady t o t a k e a s t a n d , " s a i d Pa t McEvoy . " B u t a l o n g t i m e a f t e r w a r d s , a guy a d m i t t e d t o c h a n g i n g t h e b o x e s . The s o u r c e s o f u n r e s t i n L o c a l 174 were no t u n i q u e . In t h e wake o f g r o w i n g n a t i o n a l i s m i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , c r i t i c s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s have i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a r g e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s d r a i n l a r g e sums o f money f r o m C a n a d a , t h a t A m e r i c a n u n i o n l e a d e r s v i o l a t e C a n a d i a n s o v e r e i g n t y by i n t e r f e r i n g i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , and t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r b i t r a r i l y h i r e and f i r e C a n a d i a n u n i o n o f f i c i a l s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e w i s h e s o f t h e l o c a l membersh ip . Such c h a r g e s a r e no doub t g u i l t y o f o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , s i n c e , as J a m i e s o n p o i n t s o u t , " t h e a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f C a n a d i a n u n i o n s t o t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t e s a r e e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d f r o m one i n d u s t r y o r t r a d e g t o a n o t h e r and h i g h l y c o m p l e x " . - 35 - C r i s p o n o t e s t h a t due t o t h e l a c k o f r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e , " one i s bound t o f e e l i l l a t ease when g e n e r a l i z i n g abou t t h e new f l o w o f f u n d s and b e n e f i t s between Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s " . * ^ F o r t u n a t e l y , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , such g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e no t n e c e s s a r y . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s t a t e t h a t t h e membersh ip o f L o c a l 174 d i d no t p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e y were g e t t i n g v a l u e f o r t h e i r money. The c h a r g e t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s t end t o f i l l t h e i r c o f f e r s on C a n a d i a n dues d o l l a r s w a s , t h e r e f o r e , l i k e l y t o f i n d f e r t i l e g round among t h e s e W i n n i p e g w o r k e r s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s e r v i c e t h a t t h e y were p a y i n g f o r was no t f o r t h c o m i n g i n an adequa t e manner . C r i s p o n o t e s t h a t t h e r e have been many i n s t a n c e s i n Canada where t h e s e r v i c i n g p r o v i d e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s has been i n a d e q u a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e P r a i r i e s and t h e M a r i t i m e s where s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s and l a r g e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e s make s e r v i c i n g e x p e n s i v e . " I t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g " he n o t e s , " t h a t t h o s e i n v o l v e d s h o u l d q u e s t i o n t h e v a l u e o f b e l o n g i n g t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n . " ' ' ' * S i m i l a r l y , i n g e n e r a l i z i n g abou t t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , i t has been a rgued t h a t a l t h o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e s t y p i c a l l y have the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power t o e x e r t c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l o v e r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n Canada ( e . g . by v e t o i n g l o c a l s t r i k e v o t e s and w i t h h o l d i n g s t r i k e b e n e f i t s ) , i n 12 p r a c t i c e , " t h i s power i s r a r e l y i n v o k e d " . But t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o l d e r s U n i o n d i d i n t e r f e r e i n L o c a l 1 7 4 ' s b a r g a i n i n g . J a m i e s o n n o t e s t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e by i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s t ends t o " c a u s e a g r e a t d e a l 13 o f h o s t i l i t y " w i t h i n t h e i r C a n a d i a n l o c a l s , an o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be a p p l i e d t o L o c a l 1 7 4 . - 36 - F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h v a r i a t i o n may e x i s t w i t h i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s i n r e g a r d t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f o f f i c i a l s , J am i e son p o i n t s o u t t h a t c r a f t u n i o n s f o r m a l l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n o f L abo u r t y p i c a l l y a p p o i n t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a s s i g n e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s i n C a n a d a , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who a r e s u b j e c t t o 14 remova l by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s i d e n t . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o l d e r s U n i o n , an o l d c r a f t u n i o n , p u r s u e d t h i s p o l i c y . As a r e s u l t , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t M i c h a e l C a p r i s h o u l d v i e w t h e C i n c i n n a t i o f f i c e r s as h i s h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y , r a t h e r t han the membersh ip o f L o c a l 174 . Worse y e t , t h e membersh ip d i d n o t c o n c u r w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e made by t h e C i n c i n n a t i o f f i c e r s . A l t h o u g h d i s s e n t w i t h i n L o c a l 174 was s p a r k e d by t h e i s s u e o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a t a t i m e o f r i s i n g n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and c r i t i c a l r e e x a m i n a t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s , t h i s d i s s e n t c o u l d q u i c k l y be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a n a t i o n a l i s t i c a rgumen t . As Adams p o i n t s o u t , "Some c o n t i n e n t a l i s t s h o l d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f C a n a d i a n v e r s u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m i s i r r e l e v a n t . I f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l does a good j o b on b e h a l f o f i t s members and i t s members b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a r e b e s t 15 s e r v e d by an i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n , t h e n t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s have no c a s e . " But c o n v e r s e l y , i n c a s e s where an i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s c l e a r l y g u i l t y o f many o f t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s t h a t n a t i o n a l i s t s have i d e n t i f i e d , t h e n a demand by C a n a d i a n s f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own a f f a i r s w i l l l i k e l y a r i s e - i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t o improve t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e d . - 37 - THE BID FOR AUTONOMY In 1 9 6 0 , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n was h e l d i n C i n c i n n a t i . L o c a l 174 was r e p r e s e n t e d a t t he c o n v e n t i o n by t h e i r e l e c t e d d e l e g a t i o n . The m i s s i o n o f t h e d e l e g a t i o n was t o make c l e a r t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n t h e s o u r c e s o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e l o c a l , t o r e q u e s t a g r e a t e r deg ree o f C a n a d i a n au tonomy , and t o demand more f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r l o c a l members . ' ' ' 6 L o c a l 1 7 4 ' s o b j e c t i v e went down t o d i s m a l d e f e a t . T h e i r d e l e g a t e s ' r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r a g r e a t e r deg ree o f C a n a d i a n autonomy was r e j e c t e d by t h e r e s o l u t i o n s c o m m i t t e e , and was no t a l l o w e d t o r e a c h t h e c o n v e n t i o n f l o o r . A l a s t d i t c h a t t e m p t by the d e l e g a t i o n t o r a i s e t h e i s s u e on t h e c o n v e n t i o n f l o o r s i m p l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e m i c r o p h o n e s b e i n g s h u t o f f f r o m t h e head t a b l e . The d e l e g a t i o n f r om L o c a l 174 n e i t h e r e x p e c t e d n o r were p r e p a r e d f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n r e c e i v e d . A r e s o l u t i o n t h a t t o them was o f p r ime i m p o r t a n c e had been b r u s h e d a s i d e i n an o f f h a n d , d i c t a t o r i a l manner . Worse y e t , t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e " A m e r i c a n d e l e g a t e s ' knowledge o f C a n a d i a n l a b o u r h i s t o r y and Canad i an u n i o n i s m was so p o o r 18 t h e y c o u l d n ' t even e f f e c t i v e l y deba t e t h e i s s u e o f C a n a d i a n a u t o n o m y " . As f o r any awareness o f t h e p rob l ems o f L o c a l 174 i t s e l f , t h e d e l e g a t i o n was a s k e d , "Where i s W i n n i p e g ? " I t was a b i t t e r r e v e l a t i o n t o t h e W i n n i p e g d e l e g a t i o n t h a t t h e c e n t r e o f d e c i s i o n mak ing power i n t h e i r u n i o n showed l i t t l e knowledge o f o r i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r p r o b l e m s . "We were r e a l l y s h a t t e r e d " s a i d Pa t McEvoy . "We c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e t h e - 38 - a r r o g a n c e and t h e t r e a t m e n t we had r e c e i v e d f r o m o u r own u n i o n . " i y The d e l e g a t i o n r e t u r n e d t o W i n n i p e g f e e l i n g a n g r y , f r u s t r a t e d , and no doub t i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e c e n t r e o f u n i o n d e c i s i o n mak ing power . In f a c t , t h e d e l e g a t i o n ' s chances f o r a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r C a n a d i a n autonomy w i t h i n t h e u n i o n were p r o b a b l y p o o r f r om t h e b e g i n n i n g . F i r s t , i t has been f o u n d t h a t a p p e a l s f o r C a n a d i a n autonomy a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o s u c c e e d when t h e y a r e r a i s e d by Canad i an d e l e g a t e s on t h e c o n v e n t i o n f l o o r t han when t h e y a r e r a i s e d by the u n i o n ' s E x e c u t i v e 20 B o a r d . The d e l e g a t i o n f r o m L o c a l 174 d i d no t e n j o y t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e Boa rd and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r e f f o r t s were p r o b a b l y doomed t o d e f e a t . S e c o n d l y , i n o l d c r a f t u n i o n s such as t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n , t h e r e t e n d s t o be " c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r C a n a d i a n 21 s u b s i d i a r i e s t han o c c u r s i n f o r m e r CIO u n i o n s . T h i s f a c t , combined w i t h t h e f e a r o f s e t t i n g a " d a n g e r o u s p r e c e d e n t " f o r t h e A m e r i c a n segments o f t h e u n i o n , has r e s u l t e d i n o l d c r a f t u n i o n s such as t h e 22 M o l d e r s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s i s t a n t t o p l e a s f o r C a n a d i a n autonomy. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n 1 9 6 2 , L o c a l 174 a t t e m p t e d once more t o b r i n g t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n by s p o n s o r i n g a s p e c i a l t r i p by d e l e g a t e s t o C i n c i n n a t i . The d e l e g a t e s ' m i s s i o n was t o p r e s e n t a b r i e f t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e B o a r d , p l e a d i n g f o r b e t t e r s e r v i c e , more money and a g r e a t e r deg r ee o f autonomy i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . I n s t e a d o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g any sympathy o r s e n s i t i v i t y t o what L o c a l 174 f e l t were l e g i t i m a t e g r i e v a n c e s , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s i d e n t , W i l l i a m L a z z e r i n i , made i t c l e a r t h a t he was - 39 - " o p p o s e d t o C a n a d i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e " and r eminded t h e d e l e g a t i o n t h a t " t h e 23 t a i l does no t wag t h e d o g " . T h i s t i m e , t h e d e l e g a t i o n was no t s u r p r i s e d by t h e r e c e p t i o n t h a t t h e i r r e q u e s t r e c e i v e d . They h i n t e d a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b r e a k i n g w i t h t h e M o l d e r s Un ion i f some r e s p o n s e t o t h e i r c o n c e r n s was no t f o r t h c o m i n g . However , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n 24 d i d no t t a k e t h e s e t h r e a t s s e r i o u s l y and i g n o r e d L o c a l 1 7 4 ' s demands. In 1 9 6 3 , L o c a l 174 s e n t one more s p e c i a l d e l e g a t i o n t o C i n c i n n a t i t o p l e a d b e f o r e the E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . I t w o u l d be t h e l a s t . The t r i p was a l a s t d i t c h e f f o r t t o g e t some r e d r e s s t o t h e i r c o n c e r n s f r o m w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m . But t h e o n l y r e s p o n s e f o r t h c o m i n g f r o m the E x e c u t i v e Boa rd was t o g i v e the l o c a l an e s t i m a t e o f e i g h t weeks s u r v i v a l i f i t s t r u c k ou t on i t s own. "You w i l l r e g r e t i t " , t h e y t o l d 25 t h e W i n n i p e g d e l e g a t i o n . " I n e i g h t weeks you w i l l be f i n i s h e d . " C l e a r l y , C i n c i n n a t i s t i l l d i d no t t a k e t h e u n r e s t i n L o c a l 174 s e r i o u s l y . T h i s was a ma jo r m i s c a l c u l a t i o n on the p a r t o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n , be cause t h e r e were f a c t o r s o p e r a t i v e w i t h i n L o c a l 174 t h a t c o u l d overcome the g e n e r a l a p a t h y t h a t has been f o u n d t o e x i s t among C a n a d i a n s t o w a r d s t h e i s s u e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . F i r s t , i n a d e q u a t e s e r v i c i n g , a p e r c e i v e d d r a i n o f dues money f r o m t h e l o c a l and unwelcome i n t e r f e r e n c e i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g had g i v e n r i s e t o u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s w i t h i n t h e l o c a l . A t t e m p t s t o g a i n r e d r e s s t o t h e i r c o n c e r n s had been t o t a l l y r e b u f f e d by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n , l e a d i n g t o a b e l i e f by t h e d i s s i d e n t s t h a t i t was f u t i l e t o a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e change f r o m w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m . F u r t h e r , t h e a r r o g a n t and - 40 - d i c t a t o r i a l r e s p o n s e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n a t a t i m e o f a g r o w i n g d e s i r e f o r C a n a d i a n s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and r e s e n t m e n t o f A m e r i c a n c o n t r o l o v e r C a n a d i a n a f f a i r s meant t h a t t h e u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s c o u l d q u i c k l y and e a s i l y j o i n f o r c e s w i t h t h e g r o w i n g number o f n a t i o n a l i s t s t o mount a d e t e r m i n e d c h a l l e n g e t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l . In k e e p i n g w i t h t h e l a b o u r m i l i t a n c y and u n r e s t o c c u r r i n g i n C a n a d a , t h i s c h a l l e n g e c o u l d q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l y t a k e the r a t h e r d r a s t i c f o rm o f b r e a k i n g w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n . M o r e o v e r , L o c a l 174 c o u l d be seen' as a p a r t o f t h e w e s t e r n l a b o u r t r a d i t i o n t h a t h a d , s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s , c h a l l e n g e d t h e p o l i c i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n C a n a d a , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w o r k e r s a l o n g c r a f t r a t h e r t h a n i n d u s t r i a l l i n e s , t h e p e r c e i v e d c o n s e r v a t i s m o f t h e u n i o n s a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , and t h e p o l i c y o f p o l i t i c a l n e u t r a l i t y by t h e 27 l a b o u r movement. In f a c t , L o c a l 174 had t i e s t o One B i g U n i o n , one such w e s t e r n l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n bo rn i n 1919 t h a t had r e p r e s e n t e d " a w e s t e r n a s s a u l t upon t h e p o l i c i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m i n 28 C a n a d a " , and had a d v o c a t e d r a d i c a l u n i o n i s m , s o c i a l i s m , s y n d i c a l i s m 29 and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w o r k e r s i n t o one l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l u n i o n . I t was an o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h had b r o k e n w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m i n o r d e r t o p u r s u e i t s i n d e p e n d e n t p o l i c i e s . L o c a l 174 had w i t h i n i t s r a n k s t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r I d e a l B r a s s L i m i t e d , a c e r t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h , u n t i l t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , had been h e l d by One B i g U n i o n . A l s o , L o c a l 1 7 4 1 s p r e s i d e n t , Pa t McEvoy , was a f r i e n d o f one o f t h e l e a d e r s o f One B i g U n i o n , R. B. R u s s e l l . The two men had s p e n t many hours d i s c u s s i n g t h e - 41 - p h i l o s o p h y o f u n i o n i s m , and McEvoy had been " g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d " by R u s s e l l . 3 0 The u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s and n a t i o n a l i s t s w i t h i n L o c a l 1 7 4 , t h e r e f o r e , had an example t o f o l l o w i n t h e i r q u a r r e l w i t h t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o l d e r s U n i o n . B e t t e r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and C a n a d i a n c o n t r o l o v e r C a n a d i a n u n i o n a f f a i r s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by b r e a k i n g w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m and f o r m i n g t h e i r own l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , as One B i g Un ion had done b e f o r e them. A t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t a k i n g t h i s 31 a c t i o n , "many t h o u g h t t h e y c o u l d see One B i g U n i o n a l l o v e r a g a i n " . L o c a l 1 7 4 ' s f i n a l p l e a b e f o r e the I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e B o a r d , t h e r e f o r e , was no t an i d l e t h r e a t , and t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n t o t h e p rob l ems p l a g u e i n g t h e l o c a l was t o t a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e . "The p o s s i b i l i t y o f b r e a k i n g away was a lways t h e r e " s a i d P a t McEvoy . " B u t i t t o o k t h e a r r o g a n c e we e n c o u n t e r e d i n C i n c i n n a t i t o 32 f i n a l l y make us do i t . The re was no o t h e r way o u t . " THE BIRTH OF CAIMAW I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f a i l u r e o f t he 1963 d e l e g a t i o n t o a c h i e v e any r e s p o n s e t o i t s demands, t h e e x e c u t i v e o f L o c a l 174 began c a l l i n g m e e t i n g s o f t h e w o r k e r s a t t h e l o c a l ' s i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s . A t t h e s e m e e t i n g s , t h e y p r e s s e d f o r a b r eak w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n , a p p e a l e d t o t h e membersh ip t o be " m a s t e r s i n t h e i r own house " and u r g e d 33 t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a " t r u l y d e m o c r a t i c u n i o n " . Due t o t h e f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , t h e y r e c e i v e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t f r o m t h e membersh ip . A l l - 42 - t h a t r ema ined was t o w a i t f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e open season t o come up a t 34 each p l a n t , and t o s i g n t h e w o r k e r s up i n t o t h e new u n i o n . The f i r s t p l a n t t o become l e g a l l y e l i g i b l e f o r a change i n u n i o n s happened t o be G r i f f i n S t e e l F o u n d r i e s . On June 1 4 , 1 9 6 4 , a m e e t i n g o f G r i f f i n S t e e l employees was h e l d i n t h e o l d W i n n i p e g L abou r T e m p l e , and a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e new u n i o n , t o be known as t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d Worke r s (CAIMAW), was a d o p t e d . On June 2 1 , 1 9 6 4 , CAIMAW a p p l i e d t o t h e M a n i t o b a L a b o u r Board f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n a t t h e G r i f f i n F o u n d r y . A c e r t i f i c a t i o n v o t e c o n d u c t e d i n S e p t e m b e r , 1964 r e s u l t e d i n an o v e r w h e l m i n g v i c t o r y f o r t h e new u n i o n . S u b o r d i n a t e U n i t 1 , CAIMAW, r e p l a c e d t h e M o l d e r s as t h e b a r g a i n i n g agen t f o r t h e employees a t G r i f f i n S t e e l . One by o n e , t h e p l a n t s t h a t made up L o c a l 174 o f t h e M o l d e r s came i n t o open s e a s o n and began t o use t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a v e t h e M o l d e r s Un ion and j o i n CAIMAW. Pa t McEvoy r e t a i n e d t h e p r e s i d e n c y o f t h e M o l d e r ' s l o c a l , u s i n g h i s p o s i t i o n t o e n g i n e e r and o r g a n i z e t h e e x o d u s . F i n a l l y , i n 1 9 6 5 , a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a n g i n g t h e a l l e g i a n c e o f s i x o f t h e l o c a l ' s s i x t e e n p l a n t s , he knew he had e x h a u s t e d h i s s u p p o r t , 35 r e s i g n e d f r o m h i s p o s i t i o n and j o i n e d CAIMAW h i m s e l f . By t h i s t i m e , CAIMAW had been s u c c e s s f u l l y l a u n c h e d . STRUGGLES FOR POWER W h i l e w a i t i n g f o r t h e l e g a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r eak w i t h t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n , t h e e x e c u t i v e o f L o c a l 174 d e c i d e d t o u n i l a t e r a l l y s o l v e - 43 - t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e d r a i n on t h e l o c a l ' s f i n a n c e s . T h i s t h e y were a b l e t o do by f i n d i n g and e x p l o i t i n g a l o o p h o l e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n . Under t h e t e rms o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n , each l o c a l was p e r m i t t e d t o s e t t h e membersh ip i n i t i a t i o n f e e a t any amount between $10 and $ 1 0 0 . A f t e r t h e i n i t i a t i o n f e e was p a i d , t h e employee became a member i n good s t a n d i n g o f t h e u n i o n and began p a y i n g membersh ip d u e s . The l o c a l was r e q u i r e d t o r e m i t t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n $ 8 . 7 5 o f each i n i t i a t i o n f e e , and $ 3 . 7 5 o f t h e $5 m o n t h l y dues t h e r e a f t e r . In December , 1 9 6 3 , L o c a l 174 i n c r e a s e d t h e membersh ip i n i t i a t i o n f e e f r o m $10 t o $ 1 0 0 , t h e maximum a l l o w e d unde r the c o n s t i t u t i o n . P r o s p e c t i v e members were a l l o w e d t o pay o f f t h i s i n i t i a t i o n f e e i n twen t y m o n t h l y i n s t a l l m e n t s o f $5 e a c h . They d i d n o t become members i n good s t a n d i n g u n t i l t h e i n i t i a t i o n f e e was f u l l y p a i d , and t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l was no t e n t i t l e d t o i t s p e r c a p i t a t a x u n t i l t h a t t i m e . The n e t e f f e c t o f t h e s e changes was t h a t a l t h o u g h new r e c r u i t s p a i d $5 p e r month t o t h e l o c a l i n t h e u s u a l manne r , C i n c i n n a t i r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g on t h e i r b e h a l f f o r t h e twen t y months r e q u i r e d t o pay o f f t h e i n i t i a t i o n f e e . L o c a l 174 kep t 3 f i t h e e n t i r e amount . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e B o a r d , u n r e s p o n s i v e t o . t h e p rob l ems o f L o c a l 174 up u n t i l now, r e a c t e d v i g o r o u s l y t o t h i s o u t r i g h t r e b e l l i o n . A f t e r o r d e r s t o r e m i t dues f o r t h e new r e c r u i t s were i g n o r e d , M r . L a z z a r i n i c h a r g e d f i v e o f f i c e r s o f t h e l o c a l w i t h v i o l a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , suspended them f r om o f f i c e and o r d e r e d them t o s t a n d t r i a l . The f i v e o f f i c e r s named were " P . J . McEvoy , P r e s i d e n t ; S. B o y c h u k , V i c e P r e s i d e n t ; John T h i e s s e n , C o r r e s p o n d i n g S e c r e t a r y ; 37 Ha rvey S i n g b e l l , T r e a s u r e r ; and J a c k K u h t n e y , R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y . " - 44 - In s h o r t , t h e i j r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l encompassed t h e e n t i r e e x e c u t i v e o f L o c a l 174 . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l t hen p l a c e d L o c a l 174 unde r t r u s t e e s h i p , w i t h none o t h e r t h a n t h e u n p o p u l a r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a f f 38 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , M i c h a e l C a p r i , a p p o i n t e d as a d m i n i s t r a t o r . Such a c t i o n s o n l y i n c r e a s e d t h e u n r e s t w i t h i n L o c a l 1 7 4 , and p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r impe tus t o t h e b r eak w i t h t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n . The e x e c u t i v e o f L o c a l 174 d e c i d e d t o f i g h t t h e s u s p e n s i o n s and t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f the t r u s t e e s h i p i n t h e M a n i t o b a C o u r t o f Queens B e n c h . Naming M r . L a z z a r i n i and Mr . C a p r i as d e f e n d a n t s , and c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e y were " a c t i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e more t han 500 39 members o f t h e l o c a l " , t h e e x e c u t i v e a r g u e d t h a t " t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n t o p r e v e n t i t t a k i n g t h e i n i t i a t i o n f e e i n easy s t a g e s and t h a t t h e $100 f e e was p a s s e d December 17 a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e l o c a l 40 m e m b e r s h i p " . F i n a l l y , a f t e r l e n g t h y c o u r t b a t t l e s , on May 1 1 , 1964 t h e M a n i t o b a C o u r t o f Appea l l i f t e d t h e s u s p e n s i o n s and t h e c o n t r o l p l a c e d on t h e l o c a l by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n . L o c a l 174 w o u l d keep i t s r e b e l l i o u s e x e c u t i v e . As t h e exodus o f L o c a l 1 7 4 ' s p l a n t s g o t unde rway , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n c r e a s e d i t s e f f o r t s t o r e g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a l . Unab l e t o d i s l o d g e t h e e x e c u t i v e , M r . L a z z a r i n i t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o John G u g u l y n , t h e l o c a l ' s e l e c t e d b u s i n e s s agen t who was a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e b r e a k w i t h t h e M o l d e r s . On November 3 0 , 1 9 6 4 , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e Boa rd suspended him f r om h o l d i n g o f f i c e i n t h e 41 l o c a l f o r f i v e y e a r s , and o r d e r e d him f i r e d f r om h i s p o s i t i o n . The l o c a l r e s p o n d e d by u n a n i m o u s l y r e e l e c t i n g him t o h i s j o b f o r a n o t h e r - 45 - t h r e e y e a r t e r m . ^ But a g a i n , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l chose t o i g n o r e t h e m e m b e r s h i p ' s w i s h e s . On J a n u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 6 5 , W i l l i a m L a z z e r i n i w r o t e t o Pa t McEvoy demanding t h e immed ia t e d i s m i s s a l o f John G u g u l y n . I w o u l d r em ind you t h a t as an o f f i c e r o f L o c a l 1 7 4 , you have p e r s o n a l l y assumed c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s . Among t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s i s t h e h a n d l i n g o f f u n d s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s u n i o n ( A r t X V I , P a r t 4 6 ) . You a r e unde r bond t o s e c u r e c o m p l i a n c e t h e r e w i t h and w i l l be h e l d p e r s o n a l l y l i a b l e f o r any o f L o c a l 1 7 4 ' s f u n d s t h a t 43 a r e p a i d t o J . G u g u l y n . L o c a l 174 r e t u r n e d t o t h e c o u r t s , w h i c h u p h e l d t h e r i g h t o f t h e l o c a l ' s b u s i n e s s agen t t o keep h i s j o b . I n s t e a d o f o p p o s i n g t h e c o u r t d e c i s i o n , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e Board pas sed a new r u l i n g a g a i n s t G u g u l y n , b a r r i n g him f r om membersh ip i n t h e M o l d e r s Un ion on t h e g rounds t h a t he was " u n w o r t h y t o be p a r t o f a C a n a d i a n l a b o u r 44 o r g a n i z a t i o n " . T h i s s t a t e m e n t must have seemed i r o n i c t o t h o s e w i t h i n t h e l o c a l who were w o r k i n g t o r e p l a c e t h e M o l d e r s w i t h an i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n , because t h e r e was l i t t l e doubt t h a t what had made h im " u n w o r t h y " was h i s s u s p e c t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e b reakaways a l r e a d y 45 o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e l o c a l . As L o c a l 1 7 4 1 s p l a n t s moved ou t o f t h e M o l d e r s Un ion and j o i n e d CAIMAW, t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n became i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d . M i c h a e l C a p r i went d o o r t o d o o r , t r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e t h e membersh ip t o - 46 - r e m a i n w i t h t h e M o l d e r s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t e d pamph l e t s i n g r e a t numbers , and t h r e a t e n e d t h a t membersh ip i n t h e u n i o n w o u l d be 46 suspended i f s u p p o r t was g i v e n t o CAIMAW. In 1 9 6 5 , t o p l e v e l m e e t i n g s were h e l d between o f f i c i a l s o f t h e CLC and t h e M o l d e r s Un ion i n O t t a w a , and o t h e r m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n W i n n i p e g between t h e CLC , C L C - a f f i l i a t e d u n i o n s and t h e M o l d e r s t o d i s c u s s t h e M o l d e r s p r o b l e m s . 4 ^ The CLC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e W i n n i p e g a r e a embarked on a campa ign o f t a l k i n g t o w o r k e r s on t h e shop f l o o r , and t h e CLC and t h e M a n i t o b a F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r (MFL) began d i s t r i b u t i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n an a t t e m p t t o d i s s u a d e 48 w o r k e r s f r o m j o i n i n g CAIMAW. Many e m p l o y e r s j o i n e d t h e M o l d e r s Un ion i n c a m p a i g n i n g a g a i n s t the t u r n t o CAIMAW. They a l s o pu t ou t l i t e r a t u r e , t r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e t h e emp loyees t h a t t h e y were " l u c k y t o have s u c h a good u n i o n as t h e 49 M o l d e r s . Employees were suspended f o r s i g n i n g o t h e r s i n t o CAIMAW on t h e shop f l o o r . Emp loye r s a l s o i n t e r v e n e d i n t h e new a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , c l a i m i n g t h a t CAIMAW d i d no t r e p r e s e n t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e employees and t h a t t h e g r a n t i n g o f such a c e r t i f i c a t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o a n a r c h y and chaos on t h e shop f l o o r . " A f t e r a l l " , t h e y a rgued b e f o r e 50 t h e M a n i t o b a L a b o u r B o a r d , "who i s g o i n g t o c o n t r o l t h e s e p e o p l e ? " By mid 1 9 6 6 , CAIMAW had e x h a u s t e d i t s s u p p o r t f r om w i t h i n t h e m u l t i p l a n t l o c a l . "By t h e n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s campaign was h a v i n g an 51 e f f e c t . " Seven p l a n t s h a d , by t h i s t i m e , abandoned t h e M o l d e r s Un ion and j o i n e d CAIMAW, p l a n t s t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e emp loyees r e p r e s e n t e d by L o c a l 174 . But CAIMAW's g rowth f r o m t h e n on w o u l d have t o come f r om o t h e r s o u r c e s . - 47 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAIMAW ORGANIZATION EFFORTS The new u n i o n , CAIMAW, was t o be " c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e 52 rank and f i l e " . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y was no doubt a t t r a c t i v e t o u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s who r e s e n t e d t h e degree o f c o n t r o l e x e r t e d by t h e M o l d e r s o f f i c e r s , t o t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s who saw i t as a method o f p l a c i n g c o n t r o l o f u n i o n a f f a i r s i n t h e hands o f C a n a d i a n s , and t o t h o s e who s h a r e d t h e s y n d i c a l i s t v i e w s o f One B i g Un ion i n t h a t i t gave t h e w o r k e r s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n , i f no t t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n . There were t o be no f u l l - t i m e a p p o i n t e d o f f i c e r s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n p o s i t i o n s o f c o n t r o l i n t h e new u n i o n . In 1 9 6 5 , J ohn G u g u l y n was h i r e d by CAIMAW as a f u l l - t i m e b u s i n e s s a g e n t , bu t h i s p o s i t i o n b r o u g h t w i t h i t no v o t i n g power . O n l y o f f i c e r s e l e c t e d by t h e rank and f i l e had v o t i n g powe r , and 53 hence c o n t r o l o v e r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . Each p l a n t was r e p r e s e n t e d by h a v i n g t h e r i g h t t o e l e c t one member each t o t h e E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . The u n i o n a p p e a l e d t o p r o s p e c t i v e members on t h e g r o u n d s o f d e m o c r a c y , g r a s s 54 r o o t s r ank and f i l e c o n t r o l , and autonomy i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t o b j e c t i v e s o f t he new u n i o n , l a i d down a t i t s f i r s t f o r m a l m e e t i n g i n J u l y , 1 9 6 4 , was t o " e x p a n d t o a l a r g e r 55 N a t i o n a l b o d y " . W i t h t h i s a im i n m i n d , an o r g a n i z i n g commi t t ee was fo rmed i n May , 1 9 6 5 , c h a r g e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f o r g a n i z i n g new shops and 56 p r o m o t i n g t h e g rowth o f CAIMAW. A l t h o u g h o b t a i n i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n f r o m o t h e r u n i o n s was by no means r u l e d o u t , t he s p e c i f i c t a r g e t f o r t h e o r g a n i z i n g commi t t ee was t o be u n o r g a n i z e d s h o p s , w h i c h were t o be - 48 - " h a n d b i l l e d a t t h e r a t e o f abou t one a w e e k " . 0 7 By J u n e , 1 9 6 6 , t h e u n i o n was s u f f i c i e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d t o h i r e a f u l l - t i m e o r g a n i z e r t o assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s i m p o r t a n t t a s k . The f i r s t c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e u n i o n e l e c t e d Pa t McEvoy t o t h e p o s i t i o n . The u n i o n grew r a p i d l y . In t h e y e a r s between 1964 and 1 9 7 0 , CAIMAW won c e r t i f i c a t i o n s f r om t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n , t h e R e t a i l C l e r k s Un ion and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f M a c h i n i s t s and A e r o s p a c e Workers ( IAM) ( s ee T a b l e I I ) . T y p i c a l c o m p l a i n t s abou t t h e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s i n c l u d e d poo r s e r v i c e , h i g h p e r c a p i t a dues and 58 i n a d e q u a t e s t r i k e a s s i s t a n c e . The m a j o r i t y o f CAIMAW's new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s , howeve r , were f o r r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , p r e v i o u s l y u n o r g a n i z e d s h o p s , p l a c e s t h a t have pe rhaps p r o v e d t h e m s e l v e s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o o r g a n i z e and t o s e r v i c e ( s e e T a b l e I I ) . Of p a r t i c u l a r p r i d e t o t h e CAIMAW o r g a n i z i n g commi t t ee were t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s won f o r A s b e s t o n o s C o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c e s t a f f and t h e C o l d s t r e a m P r o d u c t s s e r v i c e e m p l o y e e s . These two g roups were t h e f i r s t o f t h e i r k i n d t o e v e r 59 u n i o n i z e i n t h e a r e a . I t i s pe rhaps s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t b o t h g roups chose t o o r g a n i z e a f t e r CAIMAW had won t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l l y u n i o n i z e d employees a t t h e i r p l a n t s . - 49 - T a b l e I I CAIMAW C e r t i f i c a t i o n s 1964 - 1970 DATE EMPLOYER PREVIOUS CERTIFICATION NO. OF EMPLOYEES Sep 1964 G r i f f i n S t e e l I n t . M o l d e r s 174 60 Dec 1964 W i n n i p e g M o t o r s I n t . M o l d e r s 174 100 Mar 1965 Canada I r o n I n t . M o l d e r s 174 70 Mar 1965 I d e a l B r a s s I n t . M o l d e r s 174 150 Mar 1965 B u l l o c k s L t d I n t . M o l d e r s 174 60 Mar 1965 Canada M e t a l I n t . M o l d e r s 174 30 Sep 1965 F r e u h a u f T r a i l e r U n c e r t i f i e d 30 A p r 1966 A s b e s t o n o s I n t . M o l d e r s 174 20 A p r 1966 E l e c t r o l 1 i e r U n c e r t i f i e d 80 A p r 1966 A u t o m a t i c M e t a l P r e s s U n c e r t i f i e d 20 A p r 1967 C o l d s t r e a m U n c e r t i f i e d 125 A p r 1967 A s b e s t o n o s O f f i c e S t a f f U n c e r t i f i e d 5 May 1967 S i l v e r l i n e Abandoned M o l d e r s 40 Jan 1967 Acme Chrome U n c e r t i f i e d 80 J im 1967 C o l d s t r e a m S e r v i c e Employees U n c e r t i f i e d 140 May 1968 Kwo lson R e f r i g e r a t i o n U n c e r t i f i e d 12 Jun 1968 H a r t l i n e F u r n i t u r e U n c e r t i f i e d 25 Jun 1968 Rodway R e f r i d g . U n c e r t i f i e d 5 Jun 1968 Commerc ia l A i r Cond . U n c e r t i f i e d 5 Sep 1968 F lemming & P e d d l a r U n c e r t i f i e d 20 Mar 1969 Wes te rn F l y e r U n c e r t i f i e d 300 Mar 1969 D i c k s C o n t a i n e r s U n c e r t i f i e d 80 A p r 1969 N a t i o n a l Drugs R e t a i l C l e r k s Un ion 50 A p r 1969 B e l l Foundry U n c e r t i f i e d 70 Mar 1970 B r i s t o l A e r o s p a c e I . A . M . 600 S o u r c e : V a r i o u s i s s u e s o f t h e B u l l e t i n , t h e Rev iew and t h e CAIMAW R e v i e w , 1964-1970 - 50 - THE CLC DECLARES WAR In e a r l y 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW, now a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h o u s a n d members s t r o n g , had two i m p o r t a n t c e r t i f i c a t i o n s p e n d i n g b e f o r e t h e M a n i t o b a L a b o u r B o a r d . The f i r s t was f o r t h e r i g h t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e t h r e e hundred employees a t Wes te rn F l y e r C o a c h , employees who, i n 1 9 6 8 , had d e c e r t i f i e d t h e IAM on t h e g rounds t h a t t h e y were " d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n ' s s e r v i c i n g " T h e second a p p l i c a t i o n was f o r t h e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s f o r B r i s t o l A e r o s p a c e ' s s i x hundred w o r k e r s , a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d by IAM. B r i s t o l w o r k e r s were d i s s a t i s f i e d no t o n l y w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n ' s s e r v i c i n g , bu t a l s o " w i t h t h e pay r a t e s s e t t l e d f o r a f t e r a s t r i k e l a s t y e a r and w i t h t h e s t r i k e pay t h e y had r e c e i v e d " . 6 * I f CAIMAW were s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e s e two a p p l i c a t i o n s , i t wou ld mean a b o o s t o f a l m o s t 100 p e r c e n t i n i t s membersh ip and w o u l d r e p r e s e n t heavy l o s s e s f o r t h e IAM. The M a c h i n i s t s were c o n c e r n e d and s e n t some o f t h e i r t o p N a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s t o W i n n i p e g . H a r o l d T h a y e r , d i r e c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e M a c h i n i s t s Un ion and M i k e R y g u s , t h e C a n a d i a n head o f t h e u n i o n , b o t h a r r i v e d i n W i n n i p e g i n J a n u a r y t o " c o n f e r w i t h u n i o n and management abou t t h e CAIMAW membersh ip d r i v e " . By F e b r u a r y , t h e W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s was r e p o r t i n g " i t i s an open s e c r e t i n t h e Un ion C e n t r e , t h e home o f many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s , t h a t t h e M a c h i n i s t s U n i o n has t r o u b l e on i t s h a n d s " . 6 3 - 51 - Up u n t i l t h i s t i m e , t h e Canad i an L a bo u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t had t r i e d t o i g n o r e t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e b reakaway u n i o n on t h e l a b o u r s c e n e . But t h e membersh ip d r i v e now underway was t o o much. A p o l i c y f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n s o f CLC a f f i l i a t e s wou ld have t o be f o r m u l a t e d . In a c l o s e d m e e t i n g , o f f i c i a l s o f t h e C L C , MFL and t h e W i n n i p e g and D i s t r i c t L abou r C o u n c i l (WDLC) d e c i d e d t o l a u n c h a campa ign t o w i p e o u t t h e C a n a d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n . John F. S i m o n d s , A s s i s t a n t N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f t h e CLC a c t e d as spokesman i n a n n o u n c i n g t o the p r e s s : A campa ign has been l a u n c h e d t o b r i n g t h e membersh ip o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d Workers back i n t o t h e r a n k s o f t h e l e g i t i m a t e t r a d e u n i o n movement. The t i m e has come t o pu t an end t o t h i s i n d e p e n d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h has been woo ing l o c a l t r a d e u n i o n i s t s w i t h r a s h p r o m i s e s and f a l s e and m a l i c i o u s a c c u s a t i o n s and we must n o t a l l o w t h e s e w o r k e r s t o be seduced i n t o r emov ing t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r c o u n c i l , t h e F e d e r a t i o n o r 64 t h e C a n a d i a n L abou r C o n g r e s s . J u s t how t h e C a n a d i a n u n i o n was t o be d e s t r o y e d was l e f t u n e x p l a i n e d , 65 bu t Mr . S imonds p r o m i s e d t h a t t h e campa ign wou ld be " f u l l s c a l e " . To many o b s e r v e r s , t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n o f war by t h e CLC s p e l l e d doom f o r CAIMAW. L abou r r e p o r t e r Dud l e y Magnus w a r n e d , "They w o n ' t l a s t l o n g i f t h e \\ m i l l i o n members o f t h e CLC has i t s way , and t h e CLC has t h e money and t i m e t o f i g h t . In f a c t , i t i s i n d e e d backs t o t h e w a l l , - 52 - men, y o u ' v e had i t " . 0 0 But CAIMAW o f f i c i a l s were no t g o i n g t o c a p i t u l a t e . "We have been r eady s i n c e 1966 when we p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t we wou ld use a l l o u r r e s o u r c e s and manpower t o t h w a r t any move by A m e r i c a n d o m i n a t e d u n i o n s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o d e f e a t t h e deve lopmen t o f a t r u l y i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n movement" s a i d G u g u l y n . The CLC announcement r e s u l t e d i n a s t r o n g r e a c t i o n f r o m t h e w o r k e r s a t B r i s t o l A e r o s p a c e . M a c h i n i s t s f r om t h e p l a n t descended on t h e Un ion C e n t r e , p a r a d i n g a C a n a d i a n f l a g and a l i f e - s i z e e f f i g y o f a M a c h i n i s t u n i o n o f f i c i a l i n f r o n t o f t h e b u i l d i n g . The e f f i g y was d r agged and k i c k e d , and t h e p i c k e t e r s d i s p l a y e d s i g n s a n n o u n c i n g " B r i s t o l Employees P r o t e s t I n t e r f e r e n c e o f MFL and WDLC" and " B r i s t o l Employees w i l l F i g h t f o r t h e R i g h t t o Choose a C a n a d i a n U n i o n " . "The c o m p l a i n t i s t h a t t h e y want t o j o i n CAIMAW bu t a r e b e i n g p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g so by t h e a t t e m p t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s t o d e s t r o y the C a n a d i a n .,68 u n i o n . THE BATTLE FOR BRISTOL AEROSPACE The CAIMAW c e r t i f i c a t i o n campa ign c aused a ma jo r upheava l w i t h i n t h e B r i s t o l p l a n t l o c a l - Lodge 7 4 1 . M i k e Rygus was booed a t a u n i o n m e e t i n g f o r e v a s i v e answers t o members ' q u e s t i o n s , and t h e l o d g e ' s p r e s i d e n t , s e v e r a l members o f t h e e x e c u t i v e commi t t ee and more t h a n a dozen shop s t e w a r d s r e s i g n e d f r om t h e i r p o s t s . C o m p l a i n t s i n c l u d e d " h a r r a s s m e n t t a c t i c s and h a l f t r u t h s used by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s 69 i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m e m b e r s h i p " , l a c k o f s e r v i c e , and i n a d e q u a t e - 53 - a s s i s t a n c e i n u n i o n b u s i n e s s . A r e s i g n e d e x e c u t i v e commi t t ee member announced "Members a r e j u s t d i s g u s t e d " . ^ 0 The r e s u l t s o f a c e r t i f i c a t i o n v o t e h e l d i n March 1969 were 280 i n f a v o u r o f CAIMAW and 251 i n f a v o u r o f IAM. However , unde r t h e M a n i t o b a l a b o u r law o f t h e d a y , a m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e e l i g i b l e t o v o t e was r e q u i r e d b e f o r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d be g r a n t e d . S i n c e many e l i g i b l e v o t e r s had no t c a s t b a l l o t s , CAIMAW had no t won a m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s e l i g i b l e t o v o t e , and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n was d e n i e d . The i n t e r u n i o n s t r u g g l e a t B r i s t o l d i d no t end w i t h t h i s d e c i s i o n by t h e M a n i t o b a L a b o u r B o a r d . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e o f t h e M a c h i n i s t s Un ion o r d e r e d t h a t t h r e e members o f Lodge 741 s t a n d t r i a l on c h a r g e s o f " p r o m o t i n g dua l u n i o n i s m " , and i t was rumoured t h a t a n o t h e r n i n e men wou ld be c h a r g e d a t a f u t u r e d a t e . The t h r e e men c h a r g e d , B i l l Behma, B e r t C h a t f i e l d and Wayne Nowazek f a c e d s u s p e n s i o n o f membersh ip and p o s s i b l e f i n e s i f f o u n d g u i l t y o f t h e c h a r g e s . ^ * However , Lodge 741 was s t i l l i n a s t a t e o f r e v o l t . A t a m e e t i n g o f t h e membersh ip h e l d on May 2 6 , 1 9 6 9 , t h e l o d g e v o t e d t o d rop 72 t h e t r i a l p r o c e e d i n g s and d i s m i s s t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h e " a c c u s e d " . The membersh ip a l s o demanded t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e e x p l a i n t h e d e t a i l s o f an e x p e n d i t u r e o f $ 5 , 0 0 0 f r o m t h e l o d g e ' s f u n d s t h a t had been s p e n t i n t h e campa ign t o d e f e a t t h e C a n a d i a n u n i o n . A t t h e end o f t h e m e e t i n g , w i t h o n l y one d i s s e n t i n g v o t e , t h e membersh ip u r g e d t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f 7 3 t h e e x e c u t i v e because " i t had l o s t t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e members " . - 54 - I n s t e a d o f p r o v i d i n g an a c c o u n t i n g o f t h e f u n d s s p e n t i n t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n b a t t l e w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e m e m b e r s h i p , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p l a c e d Lodge 741 unde r t r u s t e e s h i p , w i t h S t a n l e y C a r t e r , i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e u n i o n i n W i n n i p e g , p l a c e d i n c h a r g e o f t h e l o d g e and i t s b u s i n e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , d e s p i t e t h e l o d g e ' s e x p r e s s e d v i e w s on t h e s u b j e c t , t h e t h r e e c h a r g e d men w o u l d s t a n d t r i a l 74 as o r d e r e d . Those B r i s t o l w o r k e r s who were f i g h t i n g t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n were q u i c k t o p o i n t t o t h e s e a c t i o n s as " e x a m p l e s o f i n t e r f e r e n c e 75 f r om W a s h i n g t o n " . M r . G o o d i s o n , o f f i c i a l Grand Lodge r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r IAM i n T o r o n t o , r e t o r t e d t h a t what had been imposed on Lodge 741 was no t a t r u s t e e s h i p bu t " s u p e r v i s i o n " . W h i l e a t r u s t e e t a k e s c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f a u n i o n , he a r g u e d , a s u p e r v i s o r i s a t h i r d p a r t y t o s i g n i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s , a l o n g w i t h t h e t r e a s u r e r and v i c e - p r e s i d e n t . However a 7fi s u p e r v i s o r d i d , he a d m i t t e d , " have t h e power o f v e t o " . To B r i s t o l w o r k e r s who were a n x i o u s t o a c h i e v e a g r e a t e r deg ree o f autonomy i n t h e i r own a f f a i r s , i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n wou ld have seemed t o o c l e a r . The c e n t r a l i s s u e r a i s e d i n t h e b a t t l e was one o f autonomy. "The men want t h e i r own C a n a d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n t o run t h e i r own a f f a i r s " s a i d Pa t McEvoy . " T h e r e i s no l o c a l autonomy. A l l t h e d i r e c t i o n comes f r o m t h e U. S . " J i m G o o d i s o n f l a t l y d e n i e d t h i s c h a r g e . " A l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f u n i o n s a r e C a n a d i a n i n Canada" he s t a t e d . "We have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s b a r g a i n i n g t h a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The re i s no i n t e r f e r e n c e by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " ^ But many o f t h e rank and f i l e a t B r i s t o l d i d no t a g r e e . M i ke K o s t a n s k i , f o r m e r c h i e f shop s t e w a r d and then s t i l l a member o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p o r t e d - 55 - "We ' r e t r e a t e d l i k e a bunch o f k i d s . . . b i g b r o t h e r i n t h e S t a t e s i s 78 supposed t o know b e s t . " C e r t a i n l y , i n v i e w o f t h e o v e r r u l i n g o f t h e l o d g e ' s w i s h e s r e g a r d i n g t h e " a c c u s e d " , and i n v i e w o f t h e " s u p e r v i s i o n " imposed on t h e l o d g e by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l , i t wou ld seem t h a t t h i s a s s e s s m e n t had a g r e a t d e a l o f m e r i t . A g a i n , t he cause o f u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s was a l m o s t i n s e p a r a b l y l i n k e d t o t h e cause o f Canad i an n a t i o n a l i s t s . The i n s i s t e n c e o f t h e M a c h i n i s t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e t r i a l s o f t h e t h r e e men c h a r g e d w i t h p r o m o t i n g d u a l u n i o n i s m r e s u l t e d i n u n e x p e c t e d r e a c t i o n s f r o m w i t h i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e r e c o g n i z e d l a b o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n W i n n i p e g . In an u n p r e c e d e n t e d move, t h e M a n i t o b a d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l o f t h e n a t i o n a l i s t i c C a n a d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d o f R a i l w a y T r a n s p o r t and G e n e r a l Workers (CBRT) v o t e d t o s u p p o r t t h e r e b e l members o f a n o t h e r C L C - a f f i 1 i a t e d u n i o n , and oppose t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e M a c h i n i s t s . In e x p l a i n i n g t h e s t a n d t a k e n by t h e C a n a d i a n r a i l w a y u n i o n , M r . H a r r y H a p i n , s e c r e t a r y f o r t h e c o u n c i l s t a t e d , "What has t h i s c o u n t r y (Canada) come t o when t h r e e men c a n ' t s t a n d up and say what t h e y want w i t h o u t b e i n g t r i e d by Wash ing ton - what dep ths o f d e s p a i r have we d ropped t o ? " 7 9 The t r i a l s were c o n d u c t e d i n J u l y , 1969 . But t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e l o d g e were o n l y f a n n i n g t h e f l a m e o f n a t i o n a l i s t i c r e s e n t m e n t . A p p r o x i m a t e l y one hund red p e o p l e pa r aded o u t s i d e t h e H o t e l F o r t Gary where t h e t r i a l s were b e i n g h e l d , " d e m o n s t r a t i n g C a n a d i a n s o l i d a r i t y a g a i n s t t h e c o n t r o l 80 e x e r c i s e d i n Canada by U n i t e d S t a t e s o f f i c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . " - 56 - H a n d b i l l s were g i v e n ou t t o t h e p i c k e t e r s by t h e M a n i t o b a A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t u d e n t s , s t a t i n g t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e p a r a d e . The d e m o n s t r a t i o n had been o r g a n i z e d by t h e CBRT, p r o t e s t i n g t h e f a c t t h a t a " t r i a l o f 81 C a n a d i a n s was t a k i n g p l a c e on a U n i t e d S t a t e s based u n i o n ' s o r d e r s . " However , t h e r a i l w a y b r o t h e r h o o d ' s i n s i g n i a was no t d i s p l a y e d on t h e g rounds t h a t members were d e m o n s t r a t i n g as i n d i v i d u a l s , no t as a u n i o n . The r e a s o n g i v e n f o r mak ing t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was " i t i s n ' t c u s t o m a r y f o r an a f f i l i a t e o f t h e CLC t o d e m o n s t r a t e p u b l i c l y c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n t e r n a l 82 a f f a i r s o f a n o t h e r CLC a f f i l i a t e . " In s p i t e o f t h e s e p r o t e s t s , a l l t h r e e men were f o u n d g u i l t y o f t h e c h a r g e s , and were suspended f r om membersh ip i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i n d e f i n i t e l y . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a t t h e n e x t l e g a l o p p o r t u n i t y , CAIMAW a p p l i e d a g a i n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n a t B r i s t o l A e r o s p a c e . T h i s t i m e , 312 v o t e d i n f a v o u r o f CAIMAW and 251 v o t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n . The M a n i t o b a L abou r Boa rd g r a n t e d CAIMAW t h e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s f o r t h e p l a n t . John Gugu l yn announced t o t h e p r e s s t h a t " t h e f o r m e r t r u s t e e s h i p o f t h e l o c a l . . . i s no l o n g e r i n e f f e c t " and p r o m i s e d t h a t t h e g roup w o u l d now " e n j o y c o m p l e t e autonomy and t h e f r eedom t o d e c i d e on 84 how t h e i r l o c a l u n i t w i l l o p e r a t e . " To t h e u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s a t t h e B r i s t o l p l a n t , t h i s p r o m i s e no doubt meant t h a t t h e y w o u l d a c h i e v e b e t t e r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . To t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s , i t p r o b a b l y meant C a n a d i a n c o n t r o l o v e r C a n a d i a n a f f a i r s . To t h o s e who s h a r e d b o t h t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s , b o t h a d v a n t a g e s w o u l d be f o r t h c o m i n g , because t h e two i s s u e s c o u l d be seen as i n s e p a r a b l y l i n k e d . - 57 - THE STRIKE AT BELL FOUNDRY In September o f 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW f a c e d i t s most c r u c i a l t e s t t o d a t e as a u n i o n - i t s f i r s t s t r i k e . The s e v e n t y newly o r g a n i z e d w o r k e r s a t B e l l Foundry v o t e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y t o s t r i k e f o r t h e i r f i r s t c o n t r a c t . I t was a d i f f i c u l t s t r i k e f r om t h e b e g i n n i n g . A c c u s a t i o n s o f v i o l e n c e by b o t h s i d e s were a c compan i ed by c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s r e s t r a i n i n g emp loyees f r o m p i c k e t i n g , o u t r i g h t r e f u s a l on t h e p a r t o f t h e e m p l o y e r t o n e g o t i a t e , and c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i o n w i t h t h e use o f n o n - u n i o n 85 l a b o u r . A l t h o u g h t h e i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t p i c k e t i n g was soon l i f t e d , t h e company r e f u s e d t o g i v e a s s u r a n c e s t h a t " o u t - o f - t o w n s t r i k e 86 b r e a k e r s " w o u l d no t be b r o u g h t i n . The u n i o n r e s p o n d e d by s t a t i n g t h a t i t w o u l d " a s k t h e p r o v i n c i a l government t o a s s i s t by p r e v e n t i n g s t r i k e b r e a k e r s f r o m o p e r a t i n g and i t hopes o t h e r u n i o n s w i l l h e l p the 87 s t r i k e r s . " I t was t o be s o r e l y d i s a p p o i n t e d on b o t h c o u n t s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e p r e s i d e n t o f MFL , Mr . H. L. S t e v e n s , seemed s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e CAIMAW s t r i k e r s . He t o l d t h e W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , " I ' m s u r e t h a t i f t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d Workers was t o ask t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n t o s t o p t h e s t r i k e b r e a k i n g t a c t i c s o f B e l l F o u n d r y , t he e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l w o u l d 88 g i v e i t f u l l , u n b i a s e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " The W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s s p e c u l a t e d , - 58 - I f t h e F e d e r a t i o n c o u n c i l d e c i d e s t o a s s i s t t h e s t r i k e r s on mora l g r o u n d s , such a d e c i s i o n w o u l d c o n s i d e r a b l y s t r e n g t h e n t h e m o r a l e o f t h e s t r i k e r s . . . T h e move wou ld a l s o cause c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n w i t h t o p CLC o f f i c i a l s i n O t t a w a , as i t w o u l d c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p o l i c y l a i d down by t h e CLC t o d e s t r o y t h e u n i o n and b r i n g t h e members i n t o t h e 89 " l e g i t i m a t e t r a d e u n i o n movement " . CAIMAW o f f i c i a l s , r e s p o n d i n g t o M r . S t e v e n ' s p u b l i s h e d s t a t e m e n t , sough t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n w i t h t h e hope t h a t s u p p o r t on t h e p i c k e t l i n e w o u l d be f o r t h c o m i n g . Bu t t h e F e d e r a t i o n s e n t a t e r s e r e p l y , r e f u s i n g h e l p on t h e g rounds t h a t CAIMAW "was no t an a f f i l i a t e and was u s i n g methods o f o p e r a t i o n i n o p p o s i t i o n t o F e d e r a t i o n 90 p r i n c i p l e s " . The C L C ' s p o l i c y o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f CAIMAW w o u l d be f o l l o w e d a f t e r a l l . " I t i s b e l i e v e d he [Len S t evens^was p r e s s u r e d i n t o t h e t e r s e r e f u s a l by s e v e r a l MFL members who have no l o v e f o r t h e 91 C a n a d i a n u n i o n " r e p o r t e d t h e W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s . Howeve r , many C a n a d i a n a f f i l i a t e s o f t h e MFL d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a n d t a k e n by t h e F e d e r a t i o n , and r e f u s e d t o adhe re t o i t . The f o u r hundred M a n i t o b a members o f t h e L e t t e r C a r r i e r s U n i o n o f Canada v o t e d t o p r o v i d e f o o d , f i n a n c i a l and mora l s u p p o r t f o r t h e CAIMAW s t r i k e r s . T h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e condemned t h e s t a n d t a k e n by t h e MFL s a y i n g , - 59 - I t i s t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f l a b o u r movements t o s u p p o r t a l l w o r k e r s i n s t r i f e w i t h e m p l o y e r s . When I r e a d t h i s r e p o r t t h a t t h e F e d e r a t i o n s t a n d was a g a i n s t t h i s l a b o u r g roup (CAIMAW) t h a t i s f i g h t i n g f o r g e n u i n e r i g h t s as a cknow ledged by t h e M a n i t o b a L a b o u r B o a r d , I b e l i e v e t h a t c e r t a i n p e o p l e i n t h e M a n i t o b a F e d e r a t i o n o f L a bo u r have been m a n a g e r i a l l y o r i e n t e d T h i s i s j u s t p r o v i d i n g ammun i t i on f o r t h e e m p l o y e r I d o n ' t g i v e a hoo t abou t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e MFL and t h e C a n a d i a n u n i o n . 92 I t s t h e men on t h e p i c k e t l i n e I 'm w o r r i e d a b o u t . The C a n a d i a n Un ion o f P o s t a l Workers (CUPW) j o i n e d t h e L e t t e r C a r r i e r s i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g CAIMAW. T o g e t h e r , t h e two C a n a d i a n u n i o n s demanded a t a c l o s e d m e e t i n g o f MFL and WDLC t h a t CAIMAW's s t r i k e a t B e l l Foundry " a g a i n s t t e r r i b l e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s " be s u p p o r t e d . Abou t 80 d e l e g a t e s a t t h e r e g u l a r m e e t i n g o f t h e c o u n c i l i n t h e Un ion C e n t r e v o t e d , w i t h o n l y a few d i s s e n t e r s , t o c l o s e t h e m e e t i n g t o t h e p r e s s , v i s i t o r s and o t h e r u n a u t h o r i z e d p e r s o n s . D e l e g a t e s were aware t h a t some h o t d e b a t e w o u l d come when t h e p r e s e n c e o f t o p p o s t a l u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was e v i d e n t and t h a t a p l e a f r om them t o s u p p o r t t h e 93 B e l l s t r i k e r s w o u l d be made. The m e e t i n g was d e s c r i b e d as " s t o r m y " . The MFL r e f u s e d t o . change i t s s t a n d on t h e B e l l s t r i k e and as a r e s u l t , CUPW w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e F e d e r a t i o n . The L e t t e r C a r r i e r s , no t members o f t h e MFL , a c t e d by - 60 - w i t h d r a w i n g f r o m t h e WDLC. A l t h o u g h i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t " b o t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t he p o s t a l u n i o n s say t h e y w i l l r e t u r n t o the MFL f o l d i f t h e F e d e r a t i o n t e n d e r s ' a t l e a s t mora l s u p p o r t f o r t h e s t r i k i n g 94 w o r k e r s , " 1 t h e u n i o n s t o t h i s day r ema in u n a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e 95 F e d e r a t i o n . T h e i r a c t i o n s d u r i n g t h e B e l l Foundry d i s p u t e d i d , howeve r , e s t a b l i s h c l o s e t i e s between t h e p o s t a l u n i o n s and CAIMAW t h a t have e n d u r e d t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . A n o t h e r s o u r c e o f d i s c o m f o r t f o r the e s t a b l i s h e d l a b o u r movement because o f i t s p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g CAIMAW was an i n c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g on O c t o b e r 3 , when h i g h r a n k i n g N a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s o f t h e C a n a d i a n U n i o n o f P u b l i c Employees (CUPE) j o i n e d t h e B e l l w o r k e r s on t h e p i c k e t l i n e s . James D o w e l l , d i r e c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n , John M c M i l l a n , d i r e c t o r o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and G i l b e r t L e v i n e , r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r , happened t o be i n W i n n i p e g a n d , h e a r i n g o f t h e s t r i k e , appea red on the p i c k e t l i n e s c a r r y i n g s i g n s t o show s u p p o r t f o r t h e s t r i k e r s . By t h i s a c t , t h e t h r e e o f f i c e r s o f t h e second l a r g e s t u n i o n i n Canada had a c t e d i n sympathy w i t h a u n i o n t h a t t h e CLC had vowed t o d e s t r o y . R e p o r t e d t h e W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s : T h e i r p i c k e t i n g has c aused more t h a n an o r d i n a r y s t i r b e h i n d t h e s cenes o f t h e Canad i an L a bo u r Cong re s s J u s t when m o r a l e was a t i t s l o w e s t i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t u n i o n ' s r a n k s because o f an i n j u n c t i o n and company m i l i t a n c y , t h e t h r e e members o f a u n i o n a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e CLC a c t e d i n s y m p a t h y . 9 6 - 61 - Dona ld M a c D o n a l d , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e CLC r e f u s e d o u t r i g h t t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r . But S t a n l e y L i t t l e , g e n e r a l v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e CLC and p r e s i d e n t o f CUPE, s a i d he had f a i t h t h a t h i s o f f i c e r s knew what t h e y were d o i n g . He d i d n o t , howeve r , "seem t h e h a p p i e s t man when he d i s c u s s e d t h e s u b j e c t o f h i s n a t i o n a l s t a f f e r s p a r a d i n g w i t h a p l a c a r d on the p i c k e t l i n e o f a u n i o n t h a t i s supposed t o be o u t l a w e d by t h e 97 C a n a d i a n L abou r C o n g r e s s " . On November 2 0 , the MFL and CLC were f a c e d w i t h t h e most s e r i o u s d e f i a n c e o f t h e i r e d i c t when twen t y l o c a l s o f t h e C a n a d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d o f R a i l w a y , T r a n s p o r t and G e n e r a l Workers gave t h e i r " m o r a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t " t o t h e B e l l s t r i k e r s . In a l e t t e r t o t h e s t r i k i n g u n i o n , H a r r y H a p l i n w r o t e , "We d e p l o r e and p r o t e s t t h e s cab s t r i k e b r e a k i n g t a c t i c s used a t B e l l Foundry We have a u t h o r i z e d o u r 98 members no t t o c r o s s t h e p i c k e t l i n e . " L o c a l 107 o f t h e C a n a d i a n R a i l w a y U n i o n t h e n d e l i v e r e d an u l t i m a t u m t o MFL. E i t h e r t h e F e d e r a t i o n a n n o u n c e , i n p u b l i c , s u p p o r t f o r t h e B e l l S t r i k e r s , o r t h e l o c a l w o u l d w i t h d r a w f r o m b o t h t h e MFL and t h e WDLC and w o u l d u rge a l l o t h e r l o c a l s o f CBRT, r e p r e s e n t i n g 3 ,500 w o r k e r s i n M a n i t o b a , t o do t h e same. Mr . Hogan , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l o c a l , s a i d t h a t the l o c a l wanted " a c l e a r - c u t s t a t e m e n t , made p u b l i c l y by t h e c o u n c i l , t h a t i t s p e c i f i c a l l y 99 backs t h e B e l l s t r i k e r s , a c t u a l l y naming, where t h e y a r e on s t r i k e " . He added "We s h a l l a t t e n d the n e x t c o u n c i l m e e t i n g (December 16) as a d e l e g a t i o n and demand t h e s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h e c o u n c i l o r w i t h d r a w and c e a s e t o pay p e r c a p i t a t a x " . * ^ - 62 - The u l t i m a t u m caused " t u r m o i l b e h i n d t h e s cenes i n t h e c o u n c i l h i e r a r c h y " . 1 0 1 On t h e one h a n d , t h e c o u n c i l was a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e CLC , and was t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w a p o l i c y o f b a c k i n g CLC d i r e c t i v e s - i n t h i s c a s e , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f CAIMAW. B e s i d e s , i f t h e c o u n c i l b a c k e d t h e m a v e r i c k u n i o n , i t w o u l d i n e f f e c t be b r e a k i n g f a i t h w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s , a l s o p a y i n g p e r c a p i t a t a x . I f i t d i d s o , a w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s was no t f e l t t o be u n l i k e l y , an e v e n t w h i c h w o u l d b r eak up t h e c o u n c i l . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , C a n a d i a n u n i o n s , a l s o a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e c o u n c i l , had shown t h e m s e l v e s t o be o p e n l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o CAIMAW, and many had a l r e a d y g i v e n f i n a n c i a l and mora l s u p p o r t t o t h e u n i o n and i t s s t r i k e r s i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e c o u n c i l ' s p o l i c i e s . The two p o s t a l u n i o n s had gone so f a r as t o b r eak w i t h t h e F e d e r a t i o n , and now t h e 3 ,500 s t r o n g Canad i an R a i l w a y Un ion was t h r e a t e n i n g t o do t h e same. I t was p e r h a p s an u n d e r s t a t e m e n t when o f f i c i a l s t o l d t h e p r e s s t h a t " t h e y e x p e c t e d t h e December 16 m e e t i n g t o k T i II 102 be a n v e l y one . On December 7 , WDLC S e c r e t a r y A l b W a l k e r i s s u e d a p r e s s r e l e a s e w h i c h was a model o f c o m p r o m i s e . On t h e one h a n d , he i n d i c a t e d t h e c o u n c i l ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h e B e l l s t r i k e r s and condemned t h e e m p l o y e r a g a i n s t whom t h e y were s t r i k i n g . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , he made c l e a r t h e c o u n c i l ' s s t r o n g d i s a p p r o v a l o f CAIMAW as a u n i o n . H i s s t a t e m e n t r e a d : The l a b o u r c o u n c i l has a lways g i v e n f u l l s u p p o r t b o t h s y m p a t h e t i c and m o r a l , t o a l l bona f i d e s t r i k i n g w o r k e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e c u r r e n t l y on t h e p i c k e t l i n e a t B e l l Foundry The l a b o u r c o u n c i l w i l l n o t and c a n n o t s u p p o r t any u n i o n t h a t - 63 - c o n s t a n t l y r a i d s and unde rm ines u n i o n s a f f i l i a t e d t o r e c o g n i z e d l a b o u r b o d i e s i n Canada and t h i s i n c l u d e s t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d Workers We do no t condone t h e u n e t h i c a l p r a c t i c e s o f any e m p l o y e r , i n c l u d i n g B e l l F o u n d r y , who chooses t o use the ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n and o t h e r means , r a t h e r t h a n b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . 1 0 3 T h i s s t a t e m e n t s a t i s f i e d t h e C a n a d i a n R a i l w a y u n i o n . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f L o c a l 107 and f i v e o t h e r CBRT L o c a l s who had a l r e a d y drawn up l e t t e r s o f d i s a f f i l i a t i o n f r o m MFL and WDLC t o l d r e p o r t e r s , " I n v i e w o f t h e l a b o u r c o u n c i l ' s p r e s s r e l e a s e t h e a c t i o n we were c o n t e m p l a t i n g ( w i t h d r a w a l f r om t h e l a b o u r c o u n c i l ) w i l l be c a n c e l l e d . " 1 0 4 The M F L ' s p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e B e l l d i s p u t e no t o n l y a r o u s e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f some o f i t s C a n a d i a n a f f i l i a t e s , bu t a l s o b r o u g h t CAIMAW t h e s u p p o r t and sympathy o f some members o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c who were " d i s g u s t e d by t h e t r e a t m e n t a Canad i an u n i o n i s r e c e i v i n g a t t h e hands o f t h e s o - c a l l e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r A m e r i c a n u n i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n 105 t h i s c o u n t r y " . The F e d e r a t i o n a l s o f o u n d i t s e l f unde r a t t a c k f r o m 1 r\c t h e p r e s s . Wrote Dud l ey Magnus o f t h e W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , The o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r movement i s h a v i n g an u n d e r s t a n d a b l y d i f f i c u l t t i m e e x p l a i n i n g i t s r e f u s a l t o h e l p a c e r t a i n u n i o n on s t r i k e a t a l o c a l f o u n d r y . The u n i o n and t h e s t r i k e a r e l e g a l . I t i s o v e r wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . I t f i t s p r o p e r l y - 64 - i n t o l a b o u r ' s l o n g s t r u g g l e on b e h a l f o f t h e w o r k i n g man. What makes t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t r i k e so d i f f e r e n t t h a t i t d o e s n ' t even m e r i t t h e mora l s u p p o r t , no t t o m e n t i o n f i n a n c i a l h e l p , o f t h e C a n a d i a n Cong re s s o f l a b o u r and i t s W i n n i p e g a f f i l i a t e s ? The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t emp loyees a t B e l l Foundry b r o k e away f r o m t h e CLC £ s i c j a n d j o i n e d an i n d e p e n d e n t u n i o n w h i c h t h e CLC has o u t l a w e d . Why s h o u l d t h e CLC h e l p w o r k e r s who q u i t t o j o i n a n o t h e r u n i o n and t h e r e b y condone what i s c a l l e d " r a i d i n g " i n t h e l a b o u r movement? The CLC may be a b l e t o j u s t i f y i t s p o s i t i o n t o i t s own and i t s members s a t i s f a c t i o n . But i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement ' s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n f o r a l l w o r k e r s , o r g a n i z e d o r u n o r g a n i z e d , t h e CLC has a l o t o f e x p l a i n i n g t o do b e f o r e t h e a v e r a g e man w i l l u n d e r s t a n d what i s g o i n g on and why a t B e l l F o u n d r y . 1 0 7 In f a c t , t h e B e l l d i s p u t e had p l a c e d CLC a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o b a l a n c e s e c t a r i a n i n t e r e s t s , no d o u b t based on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p r o t e c t i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n , a g a i n s t t h e t r a d e u n i o n p r i n c i p l e o f s u p p o r t f o r w o r k e r s engaged i n a l e g i t i m a t e s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r . By c h o o s i n g t o p l a c e s e c t a r i a n i n t e r e s t s b e f o r e t r a d e u n i o n p r i n c i p l e s , t h e MFL b r o u g h t down on i t s head t h e a n g r y o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , t he p r e s s and s e v e r a l C a n a d i a n a f f i l i a t e s . Due t o B e l l F o u n d r y ' s r e f u s a l t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h CAIMAW and t o i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o c o n t i n u e p r o d u c t i o n w i t h t h e use o f n o n - u n i o n l a b o u r , CAIMAW o f f i c i a l s a l s o hoped t o e l i c i t t h e a i d o f M a n i t o b a ' s NDP - 65 - government i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o o b t a i n a c o l l e c t i v e ag r eemen t . The g o v e r n m e n t , howeve r , d i d n o t h i n g t o h e l p r e s o l v e t h e d i s p u t e . A l t h o u g h L a b o u r M i n i s t e r Russ Pau l l e y s t a t e d t h a t he was " s t r o n g l y opposed t o t h e use o f t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n by t h e e m p l o y e r " , h i s o n l y p r o m i s e o f a c t i o n was a s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e " M a n i t o b a government i s c o n s i d e r i n g p r o p o s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t o s c r a p t h e p r o v i n c i a l law t h a t p e r m i t s t h e use I no o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p i c k e t l i n e s " . T h i s p r o m i s e f o r t h e d i s t a n t f u t u r e w a s , o f c o u r s e , o f l i t t l e h e l p t o t h e B e l l s t r i k e r s . The l a b o u r m i n i s t e r a l s o t o l d t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t h a t h i s d e p a r t m e n t w o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e the u n i o n c h a r g e s t h a t s t r i k e b r e a k e r s were 109 b e i n g b r o u g h t i n t o r e p l a c e t h e s t r i k i n g w o r k e r s a t t he f o u n d r y . I f such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n was e v e r c o n d u c t e d , howeve r , i t s r e s u l t s were n e v e r a n n o u n c e d , and i t p r o d u c e d no a c t i o n f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t . A l s o , a r e q u e s t by t h e u n i o n f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n d u s t r i a l i n q u i r y c o m m i s s i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d i s p u t e was d e n i e d . M r . P a u l l e y e x p l a i n e d t h i s r e f u s a l by t e l l i n g t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t h a t "he d i d no t f e e l t h i s t y p e o f i n q u i r y s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d a t t he p r e s e n t t i m e t h e l aw d i d n o t a l l o w him t o impose c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n on t h e p a r t i e s " . 1 1 0 The r e f u s a l o f t h e government t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e d i s p u t e b r o u g h t i t unde r a t t a c k f r om t h e L e t t e r C a r r i e r s U n i o n . M r . Mowatt p o i n t e d ou t t h a t t h e d i s p u t e was f o r a f i r s t t i m e c o n t r a c t a t t h e p l a n t , and n o t e d t h a t t h e government had o f t e n b r o u g h t o p p o s i n g p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r unde r t h e M a n i t o b a L abou r R e l a t i o n s A c t i n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s . He c i t e d t h e d i s p u t e s o f t h e b r i c k l a y e r s , t h e a b a t t o i r w o r k e r s and t h e Teams te r d r i v e r s f o r c r i p p l e d c h i l d r e n as examples o f government i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a f i r s t t i m e c o n t r a c t . " L a b o u r - 66 - M i n i s t e r P a u l l e y has f a i l e d i n h i s d u t i e s " r e g a r d i n g t h e s t r i k e a t B e l l F o u n d r y , s a i d Mr . Mowa t t . He even a c c u s e d M r . P a u l l e y o f now " d e n y i n g r e c e i p t " o f t h e t e l e g r a m f r o m t h e u n i o n r e q u e s t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n . ' ' ' 1 1 The W i n n i p e g newspapers t h a t were c o v e r i n g t h e d i s p u t e a g r e e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e government c o u l d p r o v e u s e f u l i n b r i n g i n g t h e p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r , and c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d why 112 Mr . P a u l l e y was r e f u s i n g t o a c t . But M a n i t o b a had an NDP government t h a t r e f l e c t e d the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t e d between t h e NDP and i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s . The c a b i n e t c o n t a i n e d many m i n i s t e r s who had t i e s t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s - u n i o n s w h i c h had p l e d g e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f CAIMAW. The l a b o u r m i n i s t e r h i m s e l f had come f r o m the r a n k s o f a CLC a f f i l i a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y u n i o n . M r . S i d G r e e n , M i n i s t e r o f M ines and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , had been t h e l e g a l a d v i s o r f o r t h e M o l d e r s Un ion d u r i n g t h e c o u r t b a t t l e s t h a t had a ccompan i ed t h e b r e a k u p o f L o c a l 1 7 4 . He h a d , a p p a r e n t l y , d e v e l o p e d a t t h a t t i m e a " p a s s i o n a t e h a t r e d f o r 113 CAIMAW 1" The re was no p a r t i c u l a r l o v e f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n w i t h i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e S c h r e y e r g o v e r n m e n t , a f a c t w h i c h , t o CAIMAW o f f i c i a l s , e x p l a i n e d the g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e Be l 1 d i s p u t e . F i n a l l y , f o u r t e e n months a f t e r t h e s t r i k e b e g a n , t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n s i g n e d up t h e n o n - u n i o n emp loyees w o r k i n g b e h i n d t h e p i c k e t l i n e , and were g r a n t e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n a t t h e p l a n t . The e m p l o y e r t h e n s i g n e d a c o l l e c t i v e ag reement w i t h t h e M o l d e r s " q u i e t l y and w i t h o u t any 114 r e s i s t a n c e " . CAIMAW's f i r s t s t r i k e had been e f f e c t i v e l y b r o k e n . - 67 - CLC a f f i l i a t e s i n M a n i t o b a o f t e n p r o v e d t h e m s e l v e s t o have " a n 115 i n a d e q u a t e r e s p e c t f o r each o t h e r s p i c k e t l i n e s , " a f a c t w h i c h no doubt p r o v e d d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f any s t r i k e . In v i e w o f t h e s t a n d t a k e n by MFL i n r e f u s i n g mora l and f i n a n c i a l a i d t o CAIMAW s t r i k e s , CAIMAW was pe rhaps p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e use o f s t r i k e b r e a k i n g t a c t i c s by e m p l o y e r s . Due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s w i t h i n t h e NDP, CAIMAW was no t l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e w h o l e h e a r t e d a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e NDP government i n such a s i t u a t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , howeve r , t h e M F L ' s p o l i c y o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t e s a t t h e expense o f t r a d e u n i o n p r i n c i p l e s e a r n e d CAIMAW t h e sympathy and s u p p o r t o f some members o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , t h e p r e s s and pe rhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , C a n a d i a n a f f i l i a t e s o f t h e CLC. Due t o t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e s t r i k e a t B e l l Foundry was b r o k e n - b u t CAIMAW as a u n i o n was n o t . CAIMAW AND POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT The w o r k e r s who b r o k e away f r o m t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n had been used t o t h e c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n i n v o l v e m e n t by u n i o n s . The M o l d e r s Un ion had s u p p o r t e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e NDP i n 1960, and L o c a l 174 was i t s e l f a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e NDP i n M a n i t o b a . As soon as CAIMAW was e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e r e f o r e , i t s members a d d r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s t h a t t h e new breakaway u n i o n i I . . 116 w o u l d a d o p t . - 68 - I n i t i a l l y , t o many members , s u p p o r t f o r t h e NDP seemed a l o g i c a l d i r e c t i o n t o t a k e . A f t e r a l l , t h e i r b r eak w i t h t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n had been due t o a p e r c e i v e d d r a i n o f f u n d s , l a c k o f s e r v i c e , d i c t a t o r i a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e and l a c k o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e r i g h t s o f Canad i an w o r k e r s . They had no q u a r r e l w i t h t h e M o l d e r ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h e NDP. B e s i d e s , t h e NDP was t h e o n l y e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n Canada t h a t c o u l d be v i e w e d as t h e p o l i t i c a l arm o f l a b o u r . However , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e NDP w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s p r o v e d t o be a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n p r e v e n t i n g t h e u n i o n f r om a d o p t i n g t h i s p o l i c y . F i r s t , some o f t h e membersh ip i n CAIMAW d i d no t f e e l t h a t t h e NDP was g o i n g f a r enough i n t h e p u r s u i t o f s o c i a l i s t g o a l s . To t h e m , t h e NDP seemed "no d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e r e s t " . ' ' ' 1 7 P e rhaps t h e y c o n c l u d e d , as t h e W a f f l e g roup came t o c o n c l u d e , t h a t i t was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a c o n s e r v a t i v e A m e r i c a n l a b o u r movement t h a t p r e v e n t e d t h e NDP f rom p r o m o t i n g t r u e s o c i a l i s t i d e a l s , a b e l i e f t h a t wou ld p r o v i d e t h i s g roup w i t h a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r o p p o s i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m . C e r t a i n l y , i t was a f a c t o r w h i c h l e d t h i s g roup t o oppose CAIMAW s u p p o r t f o r t h e NDP, and i n s t e a d t o " l o o k f o r . the f o r m a t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e l y new p o l i t i c a l p a r t y " t h a t w o u l d more a c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e needs o f C a n a d i a n l a b o u r . 1 1 8 S e c o n d l y , many CAIMAW members who d i d s u p p o r t t h e NDP changed t h e i r a t t i t u d e when , as members o f an i n d e p e n d e n t breakaway g roup o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e t h e r a n k s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l a b o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t , 119 t h e y f o u n d t h e i r o f f e r s o f campa ign a s s i s t a n c e p o l i t e l y r e f u s e d . To - 69 - a c c e p t s u p p o r t f r o m members o f t h e m a v e r i c k g roup w o u l d l e a v e t h e NDP open t o t h e same a c c u s a t i o n s o f s u p p o r t o f d u a l u n i o n i s m t h a t had p l a g u e d t h e CCF when i t a c c e p t e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e CCL . T h i s , t h e NDP was no doub t a n x i o u s t o a v o i d . But CAIMAW members f e l t shunned by t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h e y s u p p o r t e d . The NDP ' s p o l i c i e s t o w a r d s them l e f t them b i t t e r and " s o u r e d a l o t o f p e o p l e " t owa rds t h e c o n c e p t o f CAIMAW 120 s u p p o r t f o r a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . F o r b o t h t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e new u n i o n p r o h i b i t e d a f f i l i a t i o n and d o n a t i o n s t o 121 " any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y " . T h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n was no t l i k e l y t o undergo any change b e c a u s e , as CAIMAW d e v e l o p e d , i t s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e NDP i n c r e a s e d . In 1 9 6 9 , M r . L. O r l i k o w , NDP Member o f P a r l i a m e n t , c a l l e d upon B r i s t o l employees t o c a s t t h e i r b a l l o t s i n f a v o u r o f t h e IAM d u r i n g CAIMAW's c e r t i f i c a t i o n campa ign a t t h e i r p l a n t . He j u s t i f i e d h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n on t h e g rounds t h a t t h e w o r k e r s " need p o w e r f u l a s s i s t a n c e 122 i n t h e e v e n t o f a s t r i k e " . What M r . O r l i k o w a p p e a r s t o have o v e r l o o k e d i s t h a t p a r t o f t h e d i s c o n t e n t o f t h e B r i s t o l w o r k e r s stemmed f r o m what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n a d e q u a t e a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n d u r i n g a s t r i k e t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . C e r t a i n l y , h i s comments c o u l d n o t have done much t o e n d e a r t h e NDP t o CAIMAW. The i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e NDP 's p o s i t i o n i n s u p p o r t i n g bo th n a t i o n a l i s m and i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s was b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e when Mr . E. B. O s i e r , L i b e r a l Member o f P a r l i a m e n t f o r W i n n i p e g Sou th C e n t r e , c r i t i c i z e d Mr . O r l i k o w i n t h e House o f Commons f o r " h a v i n g t a k e n i t upon h i m s e l f t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e f r e e e l e c t i o n o f w o r k e r s a t B r i s t o l A e r o s p a c e i n t h e 123 c o n s t i t u e n c y I r e p r e s e n t " . He p o i n t e d ou t t h a t M r . O r l i k o w w a s , i n - 70 - e f f e c t , u r g i n g u n i o n i s t s t o r e l y on t h e power o f f o r e i g n u n i o n s . " T h i s f r om a member o f a p a r t y t h a t d e c r i e s a l l A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e i n o u r C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , t h i s i s s t r a n g e t a l k i n d e e d " he s a i d . In t h e House o f Commons, M r . O s i e r a s k e d members o f t h e NDP what t h e y t h o u g h t o f t h i s c o n d u c t by one o f t h e i r p a r t y . "I r e c e i v e d " he r e p o r t e d , " no 124 u n d e r s t a n d a b l e r e p l y " . M o r e o v e r , t h e M a n i t o b a NDP government p r o v i d e d , i f a n y t h i n g , a h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e deve lopment o f t h e breakaway u n i o n . As d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , i t was a government t h a t a p p e a r e d t o have no sympathy f o r CAIMAW. The g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e f u s a l t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e B e l l Foundry d i s p u t e c o u l d o n l y be e x p e c t e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e s o l v e o f CAIMAW t o r e f r a i n f r o m NDP s u p p o r t . D u r i n g t h e S c h r e y e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h i s s i t u a t i o n d i d no t c h a n g e . In t h e m i d s t o f a CAIMAW s t r i k e i n 1974 a t t h e government run F l y e r I n d u s t r i e s , S i d Green announced t h a t management had t h e r i g h t t o h i r e n o n - u n i o n l a b o u r , and t h a t he wou ld h i r e n o n - u n i o n l a b o u r i n t h e F l y e r I n d u s t r i e s s t r i k e i f n e c e s s a r y . M i n i s t e r o f L abou r Russ P a u l l e y s t a t e d t h a t "he w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o open t h e p l a n t i f enough p e o p l e were p r e p a r e d t o r e t u r n t o w o r k " . When a s k e d i f t h a t meant t h e government was p r e p a r e d t o h i r e s t r i k e b r e a k e r s , P a u l l e y answered " T h a t d o e s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y mean the goon t y p e s t r i k e b r e a k i n g . " "He o b v i o u s l y meant he w o u l d h i r e t h e non-goon k i n d , " r e t o r t e d M c E v o y . 1 2 6 - 71 - CAIMAW and t h e S c h r e y e r government c l a s h e d a g a i n d u r i n g t h e 1976 s t r i k e a t G r i f f i n S t e e l . A u n i o n r e q u e s t f o r a c o n c i l i a t i o n boa rd and a c o m m i s s i o n was f l a t l y d e n i e d by Pau l l e y , as was a r e q u e s t t o r e g u l a t e c o m p u l s o r y o v e r t i m e , t h e m a j o r i s s u e i n t h e d i s p u t e . In e v a l u a t i n g t h e government r e s p o n s e t o t h e s t r i k e , McEvoy c o m p l a i n e d : They s u r e d i d n ' t do a n y t h i n g t o h e l p u s . A l l t h e y d i d was f i d d l e a round w i t h t i m e and t h r e e - q u a r t e r l e g i s l a t i o n when what we r e a l l y needed was l e g i s l a t i o n r e g u l a t i n g c o m p u l s o r y o v e r t i m e The NDP i s g o i n g t o have t o make up i t s mind w h e t h e r i t 127 i s a p a r t y o f t h e w o r k e r s o r i t i s n ' t ! T o d a y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between CAIMAW and t h e NDP i s m i x e d . On one h a n d , some NDP p o l i t i c i a n s have been s u p p o r t i v e o f CAIMAW, and CAIMAW r e c o g n i z e s t h e NDP p a r t y as t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n Canada most 128 l i k e l y t o be f a v o u r a b l e t o l a b o u r . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , CAIMAW's e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the S c h r e y e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have l e f t a l e g a c y o f b i t t e r n e s s t owa rds t h e NDP w i t h i n CAIMAW's r a n k s , and an a t t i t u d e t h a t "some p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s a r e b e t t e r t han o t h e r s , bu t none o f them can be 129 c o m p l e t e l y t r u s t e d " . A l s o , CAIMAW a d h e r e s t o t h e v i e w t h a t p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s a r e t h e p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n o f i n d i v i d u a l members , and n o t a s u b j e c t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a u n i o n as an o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , CAIMAW s t i l l f o l l o w s t h e p o l i c y o f r e f r a i n i n g f r o m a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , " p r e f e r r i n g t o l e a v e such c h o i c e t o t h e member on an 130 i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s " . A p o l i c y r e s o l u t i o n pu t f o r w a r d a t t he 1979 N a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n t h a t w o u l d a l l o w t h e N a t i o n a l u n i o n o r t h e l o c a l u n i o n s t o " s u p p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t y i n a p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e " , - 72 - i n c l u d i n g p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l d o n a t i o n s , was d e f e a t e d . 1 ^ 1 " A f t e r what t h e y d i d t o u s ? " a s k e d some c o n v e n t i o n d e l e g a t e s . "Remember G r i f f i n 132 S t e e l ! " The N a t i o n a l u n i o n d o e s , howeve r , have t h e r i g h t t o a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t p r o - l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n and oppose a n t i - l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . I t can and does p u r s u e a p o l i c y o f p o l i t i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t , c o n c e r n i n g i t s e l f w i t h s u c h i s s u e s as Workmans 1 Compensa t i on l e g i s l a t i o n and m i n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . I t s u p p o r t s o r condemns p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s , i n c l u d i n g 133 t h o s e o f t h e NDP, bu t r ema ins a l o o f f r om p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . CAIMAW AND CANADA'S LABOUR ESTABLISHMENT THE MANITOBA LABOUR BOARD The C L C ' s d e c l a r a t i o n o f war on CAIMAW caused p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o t h e new u n i o n r e g a r d i n g c a s e s i t p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e t h e M a n i t o b a L abou r B o a r d . Cases pu t b e f o r e t h e b o a r d were hea rd by a t h r e e man p a n e l , c o n s i s t i n g o f a c h a i r m a n , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m management and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m l a b o u r . Bu t l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s we re t y p i c a l l y drawn f r o m the r a n k s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s , due t o t h e i r f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d p o s i t i o n i n C a n a d a ' s r e c o g n i z e d l a b o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . S i n c e t h e s e u n i o n s were bound t o t h e C L C ' s p u b l i c l y d e c l a r e d p o l i c y o f d e s t r o y i n g CAIMAW, CAIMAW o f f i c e r s doub ted w h e t h e r t h e i r c a s e s w o u l d r e c e i v e an i m p a r t i a l h e a r i n g , and c a l l e d upon t h e L abou r M i n i s t e r t o " d i s q u a l i f y t h e p r e s e n t l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . . . f r o m a d j u d i c a t i n g any - 73 - m a t t e r i n v o l v i n g t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n " . 1 J £ f They a r g u e d , " I t wou ld be l i k e a s k i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s enemies f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n m a t t e r s i f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n were t o a p p e a r b e f o r e a b o a r d on w h i c h t h e 1 o r p r e s e n t l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s i t . " Such d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were no t f o r t h c o m i n g , l e a v i n g CAIMAW w i t h l i t t l e c h o i c e bu t t o t a k e i t s chances w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e L a b o u r B o a r d . Bu t o f f i c e r s o f t h e new u n i o n r ema ined c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h i s was a f a c t o r t h a t was d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . Such b e l i e f s were s t r e n g t h e n e d when t h e M a n i t o b a L abou r Board made r u l i n g s on CAIMAW c e r t i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h , t o CAIMAW o f f i c e r s , seemed u n f a i r . One example o f such a r u l i n g o c c u r r e d i n December , 1965 when CAIMAW a p p l i e d f o r t h e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s a t Community Chev M o t o r s , an u n o r g a n i z e d p l a n t . The u n i o n had s i g n e d up a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a i n t e r s , au to-body mechan i c s and mechan i c s w o r k i n g a t t h e p l a n t . But t h e b o a r d r u l e d t h a t t h e s e emp loyees d i d no t r e p r e s e n t a u n i t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b a r g a i n i n g , t h a t o f f i c e employees must be i n c l u d e d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n and d e n i e d a c e r t i f i c a t i o n v o t e on t h e g rounds t h a t CAIMAW d i d no t have as members a 136 m a j o r i t y o f t h i s l a r g e r u n i t . A n o t h e r example o f what appea red t o CAIMAW o f f i c e r s t o be an u n j u s t r u l i n g o c c u r r e d i n 1968 d u r i n g a CAIMAW c e r t i f i c a t i o n a t t e m p t a t T a n t a l u m M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , an u n c e r t i f i e d u n d e r g r o u n d m i n e . CAIMAW began i t s o r g a n i z i n g d r i v e a t t h e mine i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f F e b r u a r y , 1968 and on A p r i l 1 0 , 1 9 6 8 , f i l e d a c e r t i f i c a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e employees as members. But on A p r i l 4 , 1 9 6 8 , t h e U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a f i l e d an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , c l a i m i n g t o have a m a j o r i t y o f t h e emp loyees as members o f t h e i r u n i o n . CAIMAW p o i n t e d ou t t o t h e b o a r d - 74 - t h a t unde r t h e M a n i t o b a L abou r R e l a t i o n s A c t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f u n o r g a n i z e d w o r k e r s c o u l d be made a t any t i m e , and u r g e d t h e b o a r d t o h o l d a c e r t i f i c a t i o n v o t e . But t h e b o a r d d e n i e d CAIMAW t h e v o t e , and c e r t i f i e d t h e U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a as t h e 137 b a r g a i n i n g agen t f o r the m i n e . Such r u l i n g s m e r e l y r e i n f o r c e d t h e v i e w o f CAIMAW o f f i c e r s t h a t , due t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e b o a r d , " any t e c h n i c a l i t y a t a l l w o u l d r e s u l t i n o u r a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n I 00 b e i n g d i s m i s s e d " . CAIMAW AND THE CLC In t h e e a r l y days o f i t s e x i s t e n c e , CAIMAW d i d no t a d o p t a h o s t i l e s t a n c e t owa rds t h e CLC . As s t a t e d i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e new u n i o n ' s n e w s p a p e r , "The A s s o c i a t i o n has n o t had any q u a r r e l w i t h t h e 139 C a n a d i a n L abou r Cong re s s o r o t h e r a f f i l i a t e d u n i o n s " . In f a c t , t h e q u e s t i o n o f CAIMAW's a f f i l i a t i o n t o t h e CLC was r a i s e d a t t h e new 140 u n i o n ' s f i r s t c o n v e n t i o n i n O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 5 . A l t h o u g h t h e m o t i o n f o r CLC a f f i l i a t i o n was d e f e a t e d on t h e c o n v e n t i o n f l o o r , t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t t h e i s s u e was r a i s e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n i t i a l l y a t l e a s t , h o s t i l i t y t owa rds t h e CLC was no t a p l a n k i n CAIMAW's p l a t f o r m . I t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r t h e CLC c o u l d have a c c e p t e d CAIMAW as an a f f i l i a t e , even i f such an a p p l i c a t i o n had been made. F i r s t , t h e CLC a d h e r e s t o a p r i n c i p l e o f t h e e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f i t s 141 a f f i l i a t e s . A l t h o u g h j u r i s d i c t i o n s do o v e r l a p t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , CAIMAW was o r g a n i z i n g i n f i e l d s a l r e a d y a l l o c a t e d t o t h e M a c h i n i s t s , t h e M o l d e r s and t h e S t e e l w o r k e r s . CAIMAW's j u r i s d i c t i o n w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , - 75 - have been u n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e CLC . S e c o n d l y , t h e change i n u n i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t s mak ing up L o c a l 174 o f t h e M o l d e r s was r e g a r d e d as the r a i d i n g o f a CLC a f f i l i a t e , an a c t e x p r e s s l y f o r b i d d e n 142 by t h e CLC . In f a c t , t h e C L C ' s p o l i c i e s o f r a i d i n g o p e r a t e d t o p r e v e n t t h e d i s s i d e n t M o l d e r s f r om r e p l a c i n g t h e i r u n i o n w i t h a n o t h e r CLC a f f i l i a t e , and f o r c e d them t o s t a y on t h e p a t h o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own i n d e p e n d e n t u n i o n . John G u g u l y n , i n h i s c a p a c i t y as one o f t h e l e a d e r s o f CAIMAW, a p p r o a c h e d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i n 1964 w i t h a v i e w t o CAIMAW j o i n i n g them. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l , howeve r , was u n a b l e t o a c c e p t t h e g roup f o r f e a r o f l e a v i n g i t s e l f open t o c h a r g e s o f r a i d i n g a n o t h e r CLC a f f i l i a t e . 1 4 3 The f a c t t h a t G u g u l y n c o n s i d e r e d t h e merge r o f CAIMAW w i t h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s m o t i v e i n s u p p o r t i n g the f o r m a t i o n o f CAIMAW was no t n a t i o n a l i s m p e r s e , bu t t h e d e s i r e t o a c h i e v e b e t t e r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t han t h a t p r o v i d e d by t h e M o l d e r s . He and h i s s u p p o r t e r s were u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s r a t h e r t han n a t i o n a l i s t s , and as s u c h , a n o t h e r u n i o n t h a t c o u l d p r o v i d e good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e - even an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o n e . Whether t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e CAIMAW membersh ip w o u l d have s u p p o r t e d such a move i f a n y t h i n g had r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e t a l k s w i t h t h e unnamed i n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l have t o r ema in s p e c u l a t i o n . But p r e s u m a b l y , such a p r o p o s a l w o u l d have caused t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s w i t h i n CAIMAW's r a n k s , a n x i o u s t o a c h i e v e C a n a d i a n - 76 - c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own a f f a i r s , t o p a r t company w i t h the u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s on t h e i s s u e . Because o f t h e C L C ' s p o l i c i e s on r a i d i n g , such an e v e n t d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e . The u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s and t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s c o n t i n u e d t o s h a r e a common c a u s e . The d i s s i d e n t members o f M o l d e r s L o c a l 174 h a d , t h e r e f o r e , because o f r e s t r a i n t s i n h e r e n t i n t h e s y s t e m , embarked on a p a t h t h a t was t o keep them o u t s i d e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l a b o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t when t h e y b r o k e w i t h t h e M o l d e r s U n i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e y were f r e e t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own i n d e p e n d e n t p o l i c i e s , w h i c h became i n c r e a s i n g l y c r i t i c a l o f 144 A m e r i c a n d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e Canad i an l a b o u r movement. In t h e s u r g e o f C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t was sweep ing t h e c o u n t r y , t h e s e p o l i c i e s had a p p e a l f o r many C a n a d i a n s , and were t h e cause o f some d i s c o m f o r t f o r t h e CLC. By t h e t i m e t h e CLC had p u b l i c l y vowed t o d e s t r o y CAIMAW, t h e new u n i o n had d e v e l o p e d enough f a i t h and c o n f i d e n c e i n i t s e l f and i t s p o l i c i e s t h a t i t was d e t e r m i n e d t o f i g h t f o r t h e r i g h t t o f o l l o w an i n d e p e n d e n t c o u r s e . To r e p o r t e r Dud l ey Magnus , t h e f a u l t f o r t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s l a y w i t h t h e CLC , and i t s i n a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l w i t h s i t u a t i o n s where w o r k e r s were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r i ncumbent u n i o n . He w r o t e : The CLC was a t f a u l t i n no t p r o v i d i n g some means t o a l l o w a change f o r members t h a t f i n d t h e y want a n o t h e r l e a d e r s h i p . The CLC p o l i c y has been s i n c e i t s 1956 merger c o n v e n t i o n , t h a t r a i d i n g i s f o r b i d d e n , p e r i o d . Thus CAIMAW men, r e j e c t e d by t h e s o - c a l l e d r e c o g n i z e d l a b o u r movement because o f t e c h n i c a l i t i e s o f t h e CLC c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h b o r d e r - 77 - on t h e a r r o g a n t , were c o m p e l l e d t o go i t on t h e i r own. As t i m e p a s s e d , t h e d i s s i d e n t s grew i n p h y s i c a l and menta l s t r e n g t h . They now b e l i e v e i n t h e m s e l v e s and w i t h no h o l d s b a r r e d w i l l f i g h t t o 145 m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s q u o . As CAIMAW e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f and c o n s o l i d a t e d i t s p o s i t i o n o u t s i d e t h e r a n k s o f " l e g i t m a t e l a b o u r " , t h e CLC " l e t t h e l o n e W i n n i p e g 146 u n i o n run o n , t r y i n g t o f o r g e t i t e x i s t e d " . But CAIMAW's 1969 a p p l i c t i o n s f o r F l y e r Coach I n d u s t r i e s and B r i s t o l A e r o s p a c e r e s u l t e d i n a d r a m a t i c change i n t h a t p o l i c y . S p e c u l a t e d Magnus: I t became c l e a r t o t h e CLC t h a t s o m e t h i n g had t o be done t o p l a c a t e t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l U. S. head o f f i c e o f t h e M a c h i n i s t s "What n e x t " c o u l d be pe rhaps t h e m a c h i n i s t s o f t h e same i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n employed a t t h e W i n n i p e g I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t by A i r Canada . "When w i l l t h i s m a v e r i c k u n i o n s t o p r a i d i n g ? " t he CLC m u t t e r e d a n g r i l y unde r i t s b r e a t h . 1 4 7 The p o l i c y o f t h e C L C , t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d now be t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f CAIMAW and t h e r e t u r n o f i t s members t o t h e CLC f o l d . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n g i v e n f o r t h i s p o l i c y was t h e " u n p r i n c i p l e d " a c t i o n s o f CAIMAW i n r a i d i n g CLC a f f i l i a t e s . In f a c t , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s c r i t i c i s m was u n f a i r . CAIMAW's o b j e c t i v e s i n t e rms o f g rowth were d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s p r e v i o u s l y u n o r g a n i z e d p l a n t s a n d , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , i t s e x p a n s i o n was i n p l a n t s where no u n i o n had p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d ( see T a b l e I I ) . The CLC c o u l d h a r d l y j u s t i f y i t s o b j e c t i v e o f r e t u r n i n g - 78 - t h e s e CAIMAW members t o t h e CLC f o l d when t h e y had n e v e r been i n t h e f o l d i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . Those a t t a c k s on t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s o f o t h e r u n i o n s t h a t were made o c c u r r e d o n l y when w o r k e r s i n t h e s e p l a n t s , d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r i ncumbent u n i o n , a p p r o a c h e d CAIMAW s e e k i n g c h a n g e . CAIMAW's a t t i t u d e t o such r e q u e s t s was t h a t " i n d i v i d u a l s have t h e r i g h t t o b e l o n g t o t h e u n i o n o f t h e i r c h o i c e i n a d e m o c r a t i c 148 s o c i e t y " . A l t h o u g h t h i s a rgument d i d no t i m p r e s s t h e CLC , i t f o u n d s u p p o r t i n t h e p r e s s . ' Why d o e s n ' t t h e c o n g r e s s a d m i t i t was a t f a u l t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i n no t h a v i n g adequa t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r d i s s i d e n t s ? In a democracy t h e r e a r e a lways d i s s i d e n t s . Why w o n ' t t h e c o n g r e s s r e c o g n i z e t h a t i f a g roup wants t o be a l l C a n a d i a n , t h a t ' s t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e w o r k e r s t h e m s e l v e s B e s i d e s , u n i o n s t h a t have rump movements i n them have g e n e r a l l y a s k e d f o r r e b e l l i o n , i n t h e same sense t h a t e m p l o y e r s w o u l d n ' t have u n i o n s u n l e s s t h e y 149 d e s e r v e d them. The campa ign l a u n c h e d by t h e CLC i n 1969 d i d no t s u c c e e d i n d e s t r o y i n g CAIMAW. D e f i a n c e o f t h e CLC p o l i c y by s e v e r a l C a n a d i a n a f f i l i a t e s w a s , no d o u b t , an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t s f a i l u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , d u r i n g t h e d i s p u t e a t B e l l F o u n d r y , t h e p o l i c y b r o u g h t down on t h e heads o f t h e C L C , t h e M a n i t o b a F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r and t h e W i n n i p e g and D i s t r i c t L a bo u r C o u n c i l t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e p u b l i c , t h e p r e s s and many C a n a d i a n a f f i l i a t e s . As s u c h , i t p e rhaps i n f l i c t e d more damage t o t h e " l e g i t i m a t e " r a n k s o f l a b o u r t h a n i t d i d t o i t s t a r g e t - CAIMAW. A t a t i m e when C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m was on t h e - 79 - r i s e , t h e p o l i c y o f p r o t e c t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s by d e s t r o y i n g a C a n a d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n c a u s e d embar rasment f o r t h e CLC and g a i n e d f o r CAIMAW t h e s y m p a t h e t i c s u p p o r t o f many C a n a d i a n s . They were c e r t i f i e d by t h e M a n i t o b a L a bo u r Boa rd and t h e y became a l e g i t i m a t e member u n i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n t r a d e u n i o n movement. The " c r i m e " t h e y had c o m m i t t e d was t o b r e a k away , w h i c h i s n ' t a l l o w e d by t h e b i g u n i o n s o f t h e CLC They a r e " u n p r i n c i p l e d " o n l y because t h e y commi t t ed t h e " c r i m e " o f d a r i n g t o s t a r t ou t on t h e i r own as a C a n a d i a n g r o u p . P e r s o n a l l y , I t h i n k t h e y s h o u l d be i n t h e " h o u s e o f l a b o u r " as M r . S t e v e n s c a l l s i t . Bu t I a l s o t h i n k t h e y a r e e n t i t l e d t o choose w h a t e v e r u n i o n t h e y want - even t h e i r own i f t h e y can a f f o r d t o s t a r t o n e , 150 w h i c h i s what t h e y d i d . The emergence o f CAIMAW on t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s s cene i l l u m i n a t e d weaknesses t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t i t s e l f . F i r s t , t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t he NDP 's p o s i t i o n i n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s u p p o r t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n i s m and C a n a d i a n i ndependence was made c l e a r when NDP members chose t o e x p r e s s an o p i n i o n d u r i n g CAIMAW c e r t i f i c a t i o n c a m p a i g n s . No doubt f o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e NDP t e n d e d t o r ema in c a r e f u l l y a l o o f f r om such c o n t e s t s . And t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f M a n i t o b a ' s NDP government i n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d e p i c t i n g i t s e l f as a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y s y m p a t h e t i c t o C a n a d i a n l a b o u r and a t t h e same t i m e r e f u s i n g t o a s s i s t CAIMAW, a l e g i t i m a t e t r a d e u n i o n c e r t i f i e d by t h e M a n i t o b a L a b o u r B o a r d , b r o u g h t i t unde r a t t a c k f r om some C a n a d i a n CLC a f f i l i a t e s . - 80 - S e c o n d l y , t h e C L C ' s p o l i c y o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f CAIMAW l e d t o t h e r e f u s a l o f t h e MFL and t h e WDLC t o p r o v i d e mora l and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o CAIMAW members on s t r i k e a t B e l l F o u n d r y . T h i s p o l i c y i l l u m i n a t e d an i n t e r u n i o n s p l i t w i t h i n t h e Cong re s s and t h e F e d e r a t i o n , a s p l i t between i n t e r n a t i o n a l and C a n a d i a n a f f i l i a t e s . The f a i l u r e o f t h e CLC t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f CAIMAW was no doubt l a r g e l y due t o t h e r e f u s a l o f C a n a d i a n a f f i l i a t e s t o adhe re t o t h e p o l i c y . M o r e o v e r , t h e C L C ' s p o l i c y e a r n e d f o r CAIMAW t h e sympathy and s u p p o r t o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c p u b l i c and p r e s s . These weaknesses w i t h i n t h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s t e n d e d t o o f f s e t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s CAIMAW f a c e d due t o t h e f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d p o s i t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s i n Canada . CAIMAW, t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d no t o n l y s u r v i v e - i t w o u l d grow. - 81 - FOOTNOTES 1. I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om Mr . A . P i t t , P r e s i d e n t , Canad i an A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s , 1 9 8 0 , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 2 . I b i d . 3 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m M r . P. McEvoy , R e g i o n a l V i c e P r e s i d e n t , C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 4 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om Mr . A . P i t t , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 5. I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om M r . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 6 . I b i d . 7 . I b i d . 8 . S. J a m i e s o n , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s i n Canada , 2nd e d . , T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a , 1 9 7 5 , p p . 4 6 - 4 7 . 9 . I b i d . , p . 4 7 . 10 . J . C r i s p o , I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n i s m , T o r o n t o , M c G r a w - H i l l Co . o f Canada L t d . , 1 9 6 7 , p . 2 7 7 . 1 1 . I b i d . , p . 8 2 . 1 2 . I b i d . , p . 1 8 1 . 1 3 . J a m i e s o n , o p . c i t . , p p . 5 7 - 5 8 . 1 4 . I b i d . , p . 5 6 . 1 5 . R. Adams, "Canada-U . S. L a b o r L i n k Under S t r e s s " , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , v o l . 1 5 , n o . 3 , O c t . 1 9 7 6 , p . 3 0 3 . 1 6 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om M r . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 1 7 . I b i d . 1 8 . I b i d . 1 9 . I b i d . - 82 - 2 0 . M. Thompson, "The E v o l v i n g R o l e o f C a n a d i a n s i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n s " , p ape r p r e s e n t e d t o t h e 17 th Annua l C o n f e r e n c e , C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n , June 1-3 , 1980 . 2 1 . J a m i e s o n , o p . c i t . , p . 4 6 . 2 2 . Thompson, o p . c i t . 2 3 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om Mr . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 2 4 . I b i d . 2 5 . I b i d . 2 6 . C r i s p o , o p . c i t . , p . 3 2 1 . 2 7 . J a m i e s o n , o p . c i t . , p . 2 0 . 2 8 . D. B e r c u s o n , F o o l s and Wise Men , T o r o n t o , M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n L t d . , 1 9 7 8 , p . 6 9 . 2 9 . I b i d . , p . 3 3 . 3 0 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om Mr . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 3 1 . I b i d . 3 2 . I b i d . 3 3 . I b i d . 3 4 . The t e r m "open s e a s o n " r e f e r s t o t h a t p e r i o d o f t i m e d u r i n g t h e l i f e o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement when a p p l i c a t i o n may be made t o t h e L abou r Boa rd f o r a change i n b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t . 3 5 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m Mr . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 3 6 . W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , c . F eb . 1 0 , 1 9 6 5 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 3 7 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o l d e r s and A l l i e d Workers U n i o n , " S t a t e m e n t o f C h a r g e s " , A p r i l 8 , 1 9 6 4 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 3 8 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o l d e r s and A l l i e d Workers U n i o n , " N o t i c e o f S u s p e n s i o n " , A p r i l 8 , 1 9 6 4 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 3 9 . W i n n i p e g F r ee P r e s s , c . A p r i l 3 0 , 1 9 6 4 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 4 0 . ' W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . May 2 5 , 1 9 6 4 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 4 1 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . F eb . 1 , 1 9 6 5 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . - 83 - 4 2 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . F eb . 3 , 1 9 6 5 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 4 3 . I n f o r m a t i o n i n a l e t t e r f r o m W. A . L a z z e r i n i t o P. McEvoy , J a n . 1 1 , 1 9 6 5 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 4 4 . W i n n i p e g F r ee P r e s s , c . F eb . 1 , 1 9 6 5 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 4 5 . I b i d . 4 6 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om Mr . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 4 7 . B u l l e t i n , v o l . 1, n o . 1, S e p t . 1 9 6 5 , p. 3 . 4 8 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m Mr . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 4 9 . I b i d . 5 0 . I b i d . 5 1 . I b i d . 5 2 . I b i d . 5 3 . I b i d . 5 4 . I b i d . 5 5 . C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l , M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s , " M i n u t e s o f G e n e r a l E x e c u t i v e Boa rd M e e t i n g s " , June 1 4 , 1 9 6 4 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 5 6 . I b i d . , May 2 9 , 1 9 6 5 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 5 7 . I b i d . , A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 6 6 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 5 8 . W i n n i p e g F r ee P r e s s , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 5 9 . R e v i e w , v o l . 3 , n o . 3 , June 1 9 6 7 , p . 4 . 6 0 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . Dec . 1 6 , 1 9 6 8 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 6 1 . I b i d . , c . F eb . 1 6 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 6 2 . W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e , c . J a n . 1 1 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 6 3 . W i n n i p e g F r ee P r e s s , c . Feb . 1 5 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 6 4 . I b i d . , c . F eb . 2 8 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 6 5 . I b i d . - 84 - 6 6 . I b i d . , c . May 1 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 6 7 . I b i d . , c . F eb . 2 8 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 6 8 . I b i d . , c . March 1 5 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 6 9 . I b i d . , c . F eb . 2 3 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 7 0 . I b i d . 7 1 . I b i d . , c . May 6 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 7 2 . I b i d . , c . May 2 6 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 7 3 . I b i d . 7 4 . I b i d . , c . June 1 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 7 5 . W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e , c . J u l y 1 7 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 7 6 . I b i d . 7 7 . I b i d . 7 8 . I b i d . 7 9 . W i n n i p e g F r ee P r e s s , c . June 2 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 8 0 . I b i d . , c . J u l y 7 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 8 1 . I b i d . 8 2 . W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e , c . J u l y 9 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 8 3 . I b i d . , c . O c t . 1 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 8 4 . W i n n i p e g F r ee P r e s s , c . March 1 , 1 9 7 0 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 8 5 . I b i d . , c . O c t . 1 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 8 6 . I b i d . , c . S ep t 2 5 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 8 7 . I b i d . 8 8 . I b i d . , c . O c t . 1 4 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 8 9 . I b i d . 9 0 . I b i d . , c . O c t . 3 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 9 1 . I b i d . - 85 - 9 2 . I b i d . , c . Nov. 1 4 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s ; i b i d . , c . O c t . 3 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 9 3 . I b i d . , c . O c t . 1 5 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 9 4 . W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e , c . O c t . 1 6 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 9 5 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m M r . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 9 6 . W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , c . O c t . 1 6 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 9 7 . I b i d . , c . O c t . 1 2 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 9 8 . W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e , c . Nov. 2 9 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 9 9 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . Dec . 5 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 1 0 0 . I b i d . 1 0 1 . I b i d . 1 0 2 . I b i d . 1 0 3 . W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e , c . Dec . 8 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 104 . I b i d . 1 0 5 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . Nov. 1 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 106. W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e , c . Nov. 2 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s , 1 0 7 . I b i d . , c . Nov. 1 1 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . B e l l Foundry was an u n o r g a n i z e d p l a n t b e f o r e c e r t i f y i n g CAIMAW. 108 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . O c t . 1 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 1 0 9 . I b i d . 110 . I b i d . , c . O c t . 2 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 1 1 1 . I b i d . , c . Nov. 2 1 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 1 1 2 . I b i d . , c . Nov. 1 1 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 1 1 3 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m M r . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 114 . I b i d . 1 1 5 . I b i d . 116 . I b i d . - 86 - 1 1 7 . I b i d . 1 1 8 . I b i d . 1 1 9 . I b i d . 1 2 0 . I b i d . 1 2 1 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . Nov . 1 9 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 1 2 2 . I b i d . , c . May 2 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 1 2 3 . I b i d . 124 . I b i d . 1 2 5 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 7 8 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 1 2 6 . I b i d . 1 2 7 . I b i d . 1 2 8 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om M r . J . S u c c a m o r e , S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r , C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 1 2 9 . I b i d . 130 . C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l , M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s , C o n s t i t u t i o n , 1 9 7 8 , S t a n d i n g R e s o l u t i o n No. 1. 1 3 1 . C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l , M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d W o r k e r s , "1979 N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n K i t " , P o l i c y R e s o l u t i o n No. 3 3 , CAIMAW N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , 1 9 7 9 , W i n n i p e g , M a n i t o b a , May 2 4 - 2 7 , 1979 . 1 3 2 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m CAIMAW member, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 1 3 3 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m M r . J e s s Succamore , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 134 . W i n n i p e g F r ee P r e s s , c . March 1 4 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 1 3 5 . I b i d . 136 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r om Mr . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 137 . I b i d . 138 . I b i d . 1 3 9 . The B u l l e t i n , v o l . 1 , n o . 1 , S e p t . 1 9 6 5 , p . 4 . - 87 - 1 4 0 . I b i d . , v o l . 1 , n o . 2 , A p r i l , 1 9 6 6 , p . 2 . 1 4 1 . C a n a d i a n C o n g r e s s o f L a b o u r , C o n s t i t u t i o n , 1 9 7 8 , A r t i c l e 2 ( a ) . 1 4 2 . I b i d , A r t i c l e I V ( 3 ) . 1 4 3 . W i n n i p e g F ree P r e s s , c . May 1 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW Un ion F i l e s . 1 4 4 . I b i d . 1 4 5 . I b i d . 146 . I b i d . 1 4 7 . I b i d . 1 4 8 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m M r . P. McEvoy , o p . c i t . , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 1 4 9 . W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , c . May 1 0 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . 1 5 0 . I b i d . , c . Nov . 1 1 , 1 9 6 9 , CAIMAW U n i o n F i l e s . - 88 - C h a p t e r IV The Vancouve r O u t c a s t s . . . t o advance t h e m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g and p r o s p e r i t y o f C a n a d i a n w o r k e r s , and t o b u i l d a C a n a d i a n u n i o n w h i c h w i l l r e t u r n t o t h e i d e a l s o f democracy and l i b e r t y upon w h i c h the l a b o u r movement was b u i l t . George Brown - 89 - THE LENKURT DISPUTE IBEW AND LOCAL 213 W h i l e t h e M o l d e r s Un ion was f a c i n g o u t r i g h t r e v o l t i n W i n n i p e g , t r o u b l e was b r e w i n g i n Vancouve r f o r a n o t h e r A m e r i c a n based c r a f t u n i o n , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f E l e c t r i c a l Workers ( IBEW). The s o u r c e o f t h a t t r o u b l e was IBEW L o c a l 2 1 3 , a l a r g e m u l t i p l a n t l o c a l w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d l i n e m e n , w i r e m e n , e l e c t r i c i a n s and f a c t o r y w o r k e r s i n s u c h d i v e r s i f i e d o p e r a t i o n s as B. C. Hydro and e l e c t r o n i c m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o m p a n i e s . 1 L o c a l 213 had a lways been known f o r i t s m i l i t a n c y , and a c c o r d i n g t o some o f i t s m e m b e r s h i p , " t h e f i g h t i n g t r a d i t i o n o f L o c a l 2 1 3 , IBEW, s i n c e i t s f o r m a t i o n i n 1901 was a m a t t e r o f p r i d e t o 2 a l l members . L o c a l 213 a l s o c o n t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t Communist p a r t y 3 c a u c u s , and t h e r e f o r e had a s t r o n g l e f t w i n g t r a d i t i o n . R e l a t i o n s between t h e l o c a l u n i o n and t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l had been s t r a i n e d f o r y e a r s . In 1 9 5 5 , B u s i n e s s Manager George Gee had been e x p e l l e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s i n W a s h i n g t o n , and 23 l e a d i n g members o f t h e l o c a l were suspended f o r up t o f i f t e e n y e a r s , a l l on c h a r g e s o f communism. In t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d , f o u r members were suspended by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r o p p o s i n g t h e u n i o n ' s dues s t r u c t u r e . The l o c a l was p l a c e d unde r t r u s t e e s h i p and d e n i e d membersh ip m e e t i n g s f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x y e a r s , and f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s by t h e l o c a l f o r t h e remova l o f t h e a p p o i n t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , J a ck R o s s , had been d e n i e d . Ross was u n p o p u l a r w i t h t h e membersh ip . They b e l i e v e d he had been i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h and u n d e r m i n i n g c o n t r a c t - 90 - n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r y e a r s , and mak ing " d e a l s " b e h i n d t h e backs o f t h e member sh ip . Ross d i d , howeve r , e n j o y t h e f u l l c o n f i d e n c e and s u p p o r t o f 5 W i l l i a m Ladyman, t h e T o r o n t o - b a s e d C a n a d i a n v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f IBEW. L o c a l 2 1 3 ' s c o m p l a i n t s , t h e r e f o r e , f e l l on d e a f e a r s . In F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 6 , f r i c t i o n between t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n and L o c a l 213 was a g a i n b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e when t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s f i r e d t h e l o c a l ' s a s s i s t a n t b u s i n e s s a g e n t , J ohn M o r r i s o n . M o r r i s o n had been a p p o i n t e d t o h i s p o s i t i o n by t h e l o c a l ' s e l e c t e d b u s i n e s s a g e n t , A r t O ' K e e f f e . He had n e v e r been a f a v o u r i t e w i t h t h e m e m b e r s h i p , bu t h i s d i s m i s s a l by Wash ing ton h e a d q u a r t e r s was p e r c e i v e d as u n w a r r a n t e d i n t e r f e r e n c e by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n , and c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e n t m e n t w i t h i n t h e l o c a l . 6 Worse y e t , t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e d i s m i s s a l were r e g a r d e d as " k a n g a r o o c o u r t t a c t i c s " and as a " f l a g r a n t f l o u n t i n g o f j u s t i c e " . A r t O ' K e e f f e , who a c t e d as c o u n s e l f o r M o r r i s o n a t t h e h e a r i n g s , p r o t e s t e d t o Ladyman t h a t t h e t r i a l had been c o n d u c t e d i n a b s t e n t i a , t h a t v a l u a b l e e v i d e n c e had been d e n i e d a d m i t t a n c e , and t h a t t h e p r o c e e d i n g s had no t r e s u l t e d i n a f a i r h e a r i n g . 7 U n r e s t was becoming p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t among t h e l o c a l ' s members employed a t L e n k u r t E l e c t r i c , a m a n u f a c t u r e r o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s equ ipment e m p l o y i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 350 u n i o n i z e d w o r k e r s . L e n k u r t w o r k e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r e l e c t e d shop s t e w a r d c o m m i t t e e had f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e adequa t e l e a d e r s h i p , had f a i l e d t o p r o c e s s g r i e v a n c e s t o t h e m e m b e r s h i p ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and t h a t the c h i e f shop s t e w a r d had no t a t t e n d e d a u n i o n m e e t i n g i n two y e a r s . - 91 - C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n e a r l y 1 9 6 6 , a c o m p l e t e l y new g r o u p o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were e l e c t e d t o t h e shop s t e w a r d c o m m i t t e e , i n c l u d i n g a new c h i e f shop s t e w a r d , George B rown . I t was a more m i l i t a n t g r o u p , who i m m e d i a t e l y "began t o d e a l w i t h t h e b a c k l o g o f g r i e v a n c e s " . THE LENKURT WALKOUT The c o l l e c t i v e agreement between L e n k u r t E l e c t r i c and IBEW e x p i r e d on March 1, 1966 . N e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a new c o n t r a c t began i n J a n u a r y 1 9 6 6 , b u t q u i c k l y r e a c h e d an i m p a s s e . The company was w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e employees i n t h e M e t a l Shop w i t h a s m a l l wage i n c r e a s e , bu t i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e r e s t o f t he c o n t r a c t be e x t e n d e d , u n c h a n g e d , f o r a n o t h e r y e a r . The company a r r i v e d a t n e g o t i a t i o n m e e t i n g s u n p r e p a r e d , u n w i l l i n g t o make any c o n c e s s i o n s i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n , and began g s t o c k p i l i n g , p r o b a b l y i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a s t r i k e . The employees w o r k i n g a t t h e p l a n t were m o s t l y women. T h e i r wages were as low as $ 1 . 5 1 p e r h o u r , mak ing u n a c c e p t a b l e t h e company ' s p o s i t i o n o f e x t e n d i n g t h e c o n t r a c t unchanged . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e membersh ip was w e l l aware t h a t the company ' s s t o c k p i l i n g w o u l d unde rmine t h e i r p o s i t i o n i f n e g o t i a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n an impasse and a s t r i k e . T h e r e f o r e , i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 6 , a u n i o n m e e t i n g a t t e n d e d by two hundred L e n k u r t w o r k e r s v o t e d i n f a v o u r o f a ban on a l l o v e r t i m e - a t y p i c a l u n i o n r e s p o n s e t o such a s i t u a t i o n . But O ' K e e f f e e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n abou t t h e m i l i t a n c y o f t h e L e n k u r t women, t e l l i n g t h e m e e t i n g t h a t he w o u l d "know what t o do i f o n l y I had two hundred h a i r y c h e s t e d l i n e m e n " . ' ' ' 0 Even women who had n e v e r b e f o r e spoken a t a u n i o n m e e t i n g - 92 - l e a p t t o t h e i r f e e t t o r ebuke him f o r such an a t t i t u d e . D e s p i t e O ' K e e f f e ' s f e a r s , t h e L e n k u r t women made i t c l e a r t h a t t h e y were p r e p a r e d t o f i g h t f o r an improved c o n t r a c t . The company r e s p o n d e d t o t h e o v e r t i m e ban by p r e s s u r i n g t h e e m p l o y e e s , i n t e r r o g a t i n g them as t o t h e i r r e f u s a l t o work o v e r t i m e , and r e c o r d i n g such r e f u s a l s as i n s t a n c e s o f a b s e n t e e i s m i n t h e i r f i l e s . 1 1 12 "Many o f t h e women were r e d u c e d t o t e a r s o v e r i t " . A t a depa r tmen t m e e t i n g , employees were t o l d t h a t i f t h e y a g r e e d t o work o v e r t i m e t h e y w o u l d be p l a c e d on a p r e f e r r e d o v e r t i m e l i s t , t h a t anyone c a u g h t t a l k i n g u n i o n on c o f f e e o r l u n c h b r e a k s w o u l d be f i r e d on t h e s p o t , and t h a t no 13 one needed t o b e l o n g t o t h e u n i o n t o work a t L e n k u r t . The s i t u a t i o n became so t e n s e t h a t u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s 14 George Brown and Tom C o n s t a b l e (who had r e p l a c e d John M o r r i s o n ) met w i t h t h e company on A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 6 6 , t o demand t h a t a s t o p be pu t t o t h e company ' s p r e s s u r e t a c t i c s . They managed t o e x t r a c t a p r o m i s e f r o m L e n k u r t ' s V i c e - P r e s i d e n t Mark S w a i l s t h a t t h e employees w o u l d no t be a s k e d t o work o v e r t i m e u n t i l a new c o n t r a c t was s i g n e d . When news o f t h e p r o m i s e h i t t h e shop f l o o r , t h e employees f e l t t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e had 15 been l i f t e d and t h e t e n s i o n was g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e p r o m i s e had been made w i t h o u t t h e knowledge o r c o n s e n t o f t h e company p r e s i d e n t , C h a r l e s H u n t e r , who was a t t e n d i n g a c o n f e r e n c e when t h e agreement was made. When H u n t e r r e t u r n e d t o the p l a n t on Monday , A p r i l 2 5 , he i m m e d i a t e l y r e i n s t a t e d t h e o v e r t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t . S i f t i n g down t o t h e w o r k e r s , ' t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c r e a t e d c o n f u s i o n and c h a o s . To - 93 - many, i t r e p r e s e n t e d an o u t r i g h t b r e a c h o f f a i t h t h a t was t h e " l a s t s t r a w " . 1 6 To add t o the c o n f u s i o n , t h e IBEW l e a d e r s h i p were a l l i n W i n n i p e g a t t e n d i n g a CLC c o n v e n t i o n , and were no t t h e r e f o r e on hand t o p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e . The u n i o n was n o t i n a l e g a l s t r i k e p o s i t i o n a t t h e t i m e . A l t h o u g h t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement had e x p i r e d on March 1, unde r t h e B. C. L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t i t was s t i l l a l e g a l c o n t r a c t u n t i l c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s had been e x h a u s t e d . T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t had no t been m e t , bu t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e company ' s l a t e s t p o s i t i o n on o v e r t i m e , t h e w o r k e r s w a l k e d o f f t h e j o b a t 1 0 : 0 0 o ' c l o c k on A p r i l 2 7 . The company r e s p o n d e d by i m m e d i a t e l y f i r i n g f i v e e m p l o y e e s , a p p a r e n t l y chosen a t random f r o m among t h e s t r i k i n g w o r k e r s . 1 ^ C h a r l e s H u n t e r t h e n s e n t t e l e g r a m s t o a l l t h e e m p l o y e e s ' homes, t e l l i n g them t o r e p o r t t o work on t h e i r n e x t d e s i g n a t e d s h i f t o r be f i r e d . The f i v e p e o p l e a l r e a d y f i r e d w o u l d no t be r e i n s t a t e d . T h e r e f o r e , 257 employees i g n o r e d t h e o r d e r , and were d i s m i s s e d by t h e company. The company t h e n a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d i n j u n c t i o n s r e s t r a i n i n g p i c k e t i n g , and 18 a d v e r t i s e d i n t h e pape r t o f i l l t h e v a c a n c i e s l e f t by t h e d i s m i s s a l s . T h i s was t h e s i t u a t i o n t o w h i c h V a n c o u v e r ' s l a b o u r l e a d e r s r e t u r n e d f r o m t h e CLC c o n v e n t i o n , a c o n v e n t i o n w h i c h had pas sed a r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r a l l a f f i l i a t e s t o f i g h t c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s , even 19 i f c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e was n e c e s s a r y . - 94 - THE LENKURT SELLOUT On May 3 , L e n k u r t spokesman Ben M e t c a l f e announced t h a t t h e f i r m had r e c e i v e d more t h a n 1 ,300 j o b a p p l i c a t i o n s s i n c e a d v e r t i s i n g f o r w o r k e r s t o r e p l a c e t h e 257 t h a t had r ema ined o f f t h e j o b . "We have a l r e a d y h i r e d s e v e n t y f i v e new employees and i n t e r v i e w s w i l l c o n t i n u e u n t i l M a y . 2 6 " he s a i d . M e a n w h i l e , t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L a bo u r and t h e V a n c o u v e r and D i s t r i c t L a b o u r C o u n c i l (VDLC) p l e d g e d f u l l f i n a n c i a l and mora l s u p p o r t f o r t h e f i r e d e m p l o y e e s , and O ' K e e f f e announced t h a t he and o t h e r u n i o n o f f i c i a l s were m e e t i n g w i t h t h e company i n an e f f o r t 20 t o g e t t h e employees r e i n s t a t e d . Un ion o f f i c i a l s d i d meet w i t h the company on May 9 , b u t u n e x p e c t e d l y , O ' K e e f f e was no t i n v i t e d t o the m e e t i n g . The two u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p r e s e n t , J a c k Ross and Angus M a c D o n a l d , p r e s i d e n t o f 21 L o c a l 2 1 3 , s i g n e d an agreement w i t h t h e company whereby a l l f i r e d employees c o u l d a p p l y f o r t h e i r f o r m e r j o b s , and t h e r e wou ld be no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h o s e r e h i r e d because o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e w a l k o u t . However , a l l s e n i o r i t y w o u l d be l o s t , and i t was l e f t u n s p e c i f i e d e x a c t l y how many o f t h e 257 emp loyees w o u l d be r e h i r e d . The membersh ip o f L o c a l 213 a n g r i l y r e p u d i a t e d t h e agreement w h i c h MacDona ld had s i g n e d , and t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n r e f u s e d t o e n d o r s e t h e 22 s e t t l e m e n t . I n s t e a d , on May 1 1 , 1 9 6 6 , a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o r g a n i z e d j o i n t l y by t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n , t h e VDLC and L o c a l 2 1 3 , IBEW, was h e l d o u t s i d e t h e L e n k u r t p l a n t i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g p i c k e t i n g . - 95 - The s u p p o r t g i v e n t o t h i s d e m o n s t r a t i o n by V a n c o u v e r ' s l a b o u r l e a d e r s was no doub t i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r e c e n t CLC r e s o l u t i o n t o f i g h t such i n j u n c t i o n s . Two hundred d e m o n s t r a t o r s and seven c a r l o a d s o f RCMP o f f i c e r s descended on t h e p l a n t . A l t h o u g h a S h e r i f f a t t e m p t e d t o r e a d a l o u d t h e c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n , a mass c o u g h i n g f i t overcame t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s , p r e v e n t i n g h i s words f r o m b e i n g h e a r d . Paddy N e a l e , s e c r e t a r y o f t h e Vancouve r and D i s t r i c t L a bo u r C o u n c i l , t o l d t h e p r e s s "Ou r i n t e n t i o n i s t o s h u t down t h e p l a n t - t hen maybe t h e y ' l l t a l k t o u s . I f n e c e s s a r y w e ' l l have a n o t h e r p i c k e t l i n e he re tomorrow - a „23 b i g g e r o n e . The n e x t d a y , a t l e a s t t h r e e hundred p i c k e t s a p p e a r e d o u t s i d e t h e L e n k u r t p l a n t . The RCMP t o o k a t ough s t a n d , and d e m o n s t r a t o r s and p o l i c e c l a s h e d i n a s cene t h a t was d e s c r i b e d as " t h e w o r s t i n V a n c o u v e r a r e a p i c k e t l i n e s i n s e v e r a l y e a r s " . P u s h i n g , k i c k i n g and s h o v i n g e r u p t e d i n t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n . A u n i o n o f f i c i a l c h a r g e d p o l i c e w i t h b r u t a l i t y and i n t i m i d a t i o n , and p o l i c e a r r e s t e d s i x p i c k e t e r s and two 24 u n i o n l e a d e r s , c h a r g i n g them w i t h con tempt o f c o u r t . V i o l e n c e b r o k e o u t a g a i n t h a t n i g h t a t a L o c a l 213 m e e t i n g i n t h e IBEW u n i o n h a l l . An e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g was h e l d p r i o r t o a g e n e r a l L e n k u r t membersh ip m e e t i n g , a t w h i c h MacDona ld p r e s e n t e d t h e e x e c u t i v e w i t h a t e l e g r a m f r o m Ladyman w h i c h o r d e r e d t h e s u s p e n s i o n and d i s m i s s a l o f A r t O ' K e e f f e . O ' K e e f f e had been c h a r g e d w i t h a b r e a c h o f t h e u n i o n ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r f a i l i n g t o honour t h e May 9 agreement s i g n e d by M a c D o n a l d , and Ladyman t o o k t h e a c t i o n " u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y g i v e n him by 25 t h e IBEW's i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e i n W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . " " I n f a c t , Ross - 96 - and MacDona ld had s e t O ' K e e f f e up f r om t h e b e g i n n i n g , " s a i d J e s s Succamore . " Ross and O ' K e e f f e d i d no t g e t a l o n g , and Ross used L e n k u r t t o g e t r i d o f O ' K e e f f e . " Paddy Nea l e a g r e e d w i t h t h i s a s s e s s m e n t , 27 a d d i n g "MacDona ld was a f t e r O ' K e e f f e ' s j o b " . But a g roup o f a c t i v i s t s i n the s t r i k e had hea rd o f Ladyman 's o r d e r , and r e a c t e d a n g r i l y and v i o l e n t l y t o O ' K e e f f e ' s d i s m i s s a l . They b u r s t i n t o t h e room t o b r e a k up t h e e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g , c h a r g e d MacDona ld w i t h b e t r a y a l o f t h e L e n k u r t e m p l o y e e s , and b lamed him f o r t h e s u s p e n s i o n o f O ' K e e f f e . They punched and c u r s e d M a c D o n a l d , b o d i l y 28 e j e c t e d h im f r o m t h e h a l l , and p o s t e d g u a r d s t o p r e v e n t h i s r e t u r n . M e a n w h i l e , t h e g e n e r a l m e e t i n g o f L e n k u r t employees was c o n v e n i n g i n t h e h a l l . H e a r i n g o f t h e s e e v e n t s , t h e y p a s s e d r e s o l u t i o n s condemning MacDona ld and d e c l a r i n g n o n - c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s l e a d e r s h i p . MacDona ld was f o r b i d d e n t o a t t e n d any f u r t h e r m e e t i n g s o f t h e l o c a l , and f u l l s u p p o r t was p l e d g e d f o r O ' K e e f f e . F i n a l l y , a r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d i n s t r u c t i n g MacDona ld t o s i g n s t r i k e b e n e f i t cheques f o r t h e s t r i k e r s . The s t r i k e r s had n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , r e c e i v e d any s t r i k e pay f r o m t h e l o c a l u n i o n ' s $ 4 0 , 0 0 0 s t r i k e f u n d because MacDona ld r e f u s e d t o s i g n t h e c h e q u e s . P r e v i o u s l y t h e l o c a l had p r o v i d e d s t r i k e b e n e f i t s i n c a s e s o f 29 i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . I t a p p e a r e d t o the m e m b e r s h i p , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e 30 was no e x c u s e f o r M a c D o n a l d ' s a c t i o n s . As t h e m e e t i n g e n d e d , v o l u n t e e r s g o t s l e e p i n g bags so t h a t t h e y c o u l d occupy and g u a r d t h e h a l l a l l n i g h t . "We want t o make s u r e t h a t MacDona ld d o e s n ' t sneak back and p a d l o c k t h e p l a c e . T h i s i s o u r h a l l " s a i d one o f t h e u n i o n m e m b e r s . 3 1 - 97 - D e s p i t e t h e r e s o l u t i o n s pa s sed by t h e m e m b e r s h i p , Ladyman i n s i s t e d t h a t " O ' K e e f f e was s t i l l suspended and has no s t a t u s i n t h e 32 u n i o n " . O ' K e e f f e , howeve r , c o n t i n u e d t o r e p o r t t o h i s o f f i c e and c a r r y o u t h i s u n i o n d u t i e s . " I ' v e been s u s p e n d e d , " he s a i d , " b u t t h e 33 members d o n ' t seem t o c a r e a b o u t i t , so I 'm n o t w o r r i e d e i t h e r . " A t a membersh ip m e e t i n g on May 1 5 , one t h o u s a n d members r e a f f i r m e d t h e i r s u p p o r t o f O ' K e e f f e . When t h e l o c a l ' s v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , F r ed A l l i s o n , r u l e d t h a t O ' K e e f f e c o u l d no t a d d r e s s t h e m e e t i n g because he had been s u s p e n d e d , t h e membersh ip r o a r e d i t s d i s a p p r o v a l and f o r c i b l y t o o k t h e m i c r o p h o n e away f r o m h i m . A l l i s o n a d j o u r n e d t h e m e e t i n g and w a l k e d o u t , a c compan i ed by a n o t h e r e x e c u t i v e member, F rank Hogan and t e n rank and f i l e members. The membersh ip c o n t i n u e d t h e m e e t i n g unde r a new c h a i r m a n , p a s s e d a v o t e o f c o n f i d e n c e i n b o t h O ' K e e f f e and M o r r i s o n and 34 c a l l e d f o r t h e d i s m i s s a l o f J a c k R o s s . On May 1 6 , a m e e t i n g was h e l d between t h e company and a j o i n t B. C. F e d e r a t i o n , VDLC and IBEW commi t t e e i n an a t t e m p t t o r e a c h a s e t t l e m e n t o v e r t h e i s s u e o f t h e d i s m i s s e d w o r k e r s . The l a b o u r commi t t ee c o n s i s t e d o f Syd Thompson o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers A s s o c i a t i o n ( IWA) , J a ck M o o r e , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n , J a c k Ross and John H i e b e r t , an e x e c u t i v e member o f L o c a l 213 who s u p p o r t e d M a c D o n a l d . The d i s c u s s i o n w i t h L e n k u r t , howeve r , p r o v e d f u t i l e . Syd Thompson r e p o r t e d : The company i s a h a r d - n o s e d o u t f i t . We ( t h e c o m m i t t e e ) r e c o g n i z e d t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and we j u s t abou t b e n t o v e r backwards t o - 98 - f i n d a s o l u t i o n , bu t t h e company w o u l d n ' t g i v e an i n c h . The company r e f u s e d p o i n t b l a n k t o compromise on i t s o f f e r o f May 9 t o t h e s t r i k e r s . We p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e l a b o u r movement w o u l d n e v e r t o l e r a t e t h e s e te rms bu t we go t nowhere . The company ' s o u t 35 t o f i g h t us on t h e p i c k e t l i n e s and i n t h e c o u r t s . In f a c t , t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e Vancouve r l a b o u r o f f i c i a l s t o a c h i e v e a s e t t l e m e n t w i t h t h e company were f u t i l e f r om t h e b e g i n n i n g b e c a u s e , b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s , t h e company was b e i n g s u p p o r t e d i n i t s s t a n d by IBEW o f f i c i a l s . "The i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p s , R o s s , Ladyman and M a c D o n a l d , were mak ing back d o o r d e a l s w i t h H u n t e r " s a i d Paddy N e a l e . " T h a t i s why we w e r e n ' t g e t t i n g anywhere w i t h h i m . " A c c o r d i n g t o Donna Pooghkay , a L e n k u r t s t r i k e r , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e a l l y had l i t t l e c h o i c e . "They were u n d e r o r d e r s f r o m W a s h i n g t o n t o 37 g e t us back t o work o r e l s e . " But i t appea r s t h a t t h e IBEW o f f i c e r s were a l s o m o t i v a t e d by t h e i r own h i e r a r c h i a l a t t i t u d e s and a m b i t i o n s . " Ross announced t h a t maybe t h e company ' s p o s i t i o n was no t such a bad t h i n g , because i t gave t h e company an o p p o r t u n i t y t o ge t r i d o f t r o u b l e m a k e r s , and t h e u n i o n wou ld be a b l e t o g e t r i d o f p e o p l e i t d i d n ' t wan t " s a i d Paddy N e a l e . As f o r M a c D o n a l d , "he was i n c a h o o t s 38 because he wan ted O ' K e e f f e ' s j o b " . The e f f o r t s o f t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n and VDLC t o w in a b e t t e r s e t t l e m e n t f o r t h e f i r e d L e n k u r t w o r k e r s b r o u g h t them a s h a r p rebuke f r o m W i l l i a m Ladyman i n T o r o n t o . "The F e d e r a t i o n has had a h a b i t i n r e c e n t y e a r s o f g e t t i n g i n t o t h i n g s " he s a i d . "The i n t e r n a t i o n a l has n o t a s k e d f o r h e l p f r om t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n . We a r e q u i t e b i g enough - 99 - t o s e t t l e t h i s o u r s e l v e s . " He s a i d he u n d e r s t o o d t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s main c o n c e r n was t o a v o i d e n t a n g l e m e n t s i n t h e IBEW's i n t e r n a l p r o b l e m s , w h i l e g e t t i n g t h e 257 d i s m i s s e d L e n k u r t employee back t o w o r k . " B u t we 39 a r e a b l e t o do i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e y a r e " he s a i d . Paddy N e a l e , s e c r e t a r y o f VDLC r e p l i e d "I w i s h Mr . Ladyman r e a l i z e d how d i f f i c u l t t h e s i t u a t i o n i s o u t he r e - I w i s h he was i n t e r e s t e d enough t o come o u t and 40 l o o k a t t h e s i t u a t i o n . " M e a n w h i l e , t h e E x e c u t i v e Board o f L o c a l 213 a s k e d t h e B. C. Supreme C o u r t f o r an i n j u n c t i o n g i v i n g i t p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e u n i o n h a l l , and f o r a r e s t r a i n i n g o r d e r p r e v e n t i n g O ' K e e f f e , C o n s t a b l e and o t h e r s 41 f r om t a k i n g p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e l o c a l ' s r e c o r d s and a s s e t s . Bo th o r d e r s were e v e n t u a l l y i s s u e d . "We a lways t h o u g h t i t was o u r h a l l " s a i d Donna Pooghkay . " B u t t h e c o u r t s r u l e d t h a t i t b e l o n g e d t o t h e 42 i n t e r n a t i o n a l . " F i n a l l y , on May 2 8 , a mass u n i o n m e e t i n g was h e l d a t w h i c h t h e L e n k u r t S t r i k e Commit tee p r e s e n t e d two m o t i o n s t o the membersh ip . The f i r s t m o t i o n was f o r t h e r e p u d i a t i o n o f t h e t e rms o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t as a s e l l o u t . The second m o t i o n was a r e l u c t a n t recommendat ion t o r e t u r n t o w o r k . A spokesman f o r the commi t t ee t h e n t o l d t h e e x e c u t i v e , "You a r e t h e J udas E s c a r i o t s o f t h e l a b o u r movement, and someday, you w i l l be 43 c l e a n s e d f r om i t . " W i th t h a t , t h e commi t t ee w a l k e d ou t o f t h e m e e t i n g . Knowing t h a t t h e y c o u l d no t e x p e c t t o w in any c o n c e s s i o n s f r o m t h e company, t h e w o r k e r s v o t e d t o r e t u r n t o w o r k . "The i n e v i t a b l e - 100 - r e s u l t s o f b e t r a y a l and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n had been a c c e p t e d by t h e 44 s t r i k e r s . " Bu t t h e y a l s o u n a n i m o u s l y r e p u d i a t e d t h e t e rms o f the s e t t l e m e n t . The B. C. F e d e r a t i o n and t h e VDLC were no t e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e agreement e i t h e r . " I ' m d i s a p p o i n t e d " s a i d Paddy N e a l e . "They ( t h e s t r i k e r s ) a r e g o i n g back f o r t h e same o f f e r t h e y r e j e c t e d some t i m e 45 a g o . " Angus M a c D o n a l d ' s a t t i t u d e , howeve r , was t h a t " i f t h e w o r k e r s had no t been m i s l e a d , t h e y w o u l d have been back a t work a l o n g t i m e a g o . " 4 6 THE AFTERMATH In f a c t , a t l e a s t 76 o f t h e 257 s t r i k i n g employees were 47 r e j e c t e d f o r reemployment by t h e company. Those who were r e h i r e d r e t u r n e d t o work w i t h a l o s s o f a l l s e n i o r i t y r i g h t s . I t was a c r u s h i n g d e f e a t f o r t h e membersh ip o f L o c a l 2 1 3 , who had been f i g h t i n g t h e combined f o r c e s o f t h e c o u r t s , t h e company and t h e i r own u n i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e n t i r e new ly e l e c t e d L e n k u r t shop s t e w a r d commi t t ee were r e f u s e d reemployment by t h e company , as was any L e n k u r t w o r k e r who was i n a p o s i t i o n t o c h a l l e n g e t h e u n i o n l e a d e r s h i p o f M a c D o n a l d . Un ion m i l i t a n c y w i t h i n t h e p l a n t had been e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d . In a l e t t e r t o Doug C o l l i n s o f t h e CBC, a L e n k u r t w o r k e r s t a t e d : Most o f t h e u n i o n ( t h e IBEW) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e L e n k u r t w o r k e r s have been w o r k i n g hand i n g l o v e w i t h t h e company management and a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h o s e t h e y a r e p a i d t o r e p r e s e n t f o r some t i m e I t seems e v i d e n t t h e r e was d e l i b e r a t e p r o v o c a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f management t o f o r c e a w a l k o u t so t h e y - 101 - c o u l d use the s i t u a t i o n as an e x c u s e t o g e t r i d o f t h e g e n u i n e shop s t e w a r d s t h e y now had t o d e a l w i t h MacDona ld has shown h i m s e l f t o be n o t h i n g bu t an agen t o f t h e L e n k u r t management and t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n e x e c u t i v e who a r e o u t r i g h t g a n g s t e r s and d i c t a t o r s . E ve r y s i n g l e shop s t e w a r d b u t one was r e j e c t e d , i n c l u d i n g the c h i e f s t e w a r d . (The one e x c e p t i o n happened t o be on s i c k l e a v e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t r i k e . ) I t s u r p r i s e s no one t h a t t h e ex c h i e f shop s t e w a r d has been g i v e n h i s j o b b a c k . The w o r k e r s now employed a r e even more u n d e r 48 t h e c o n t r o l o f a company u n i o n . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n then b r o u g h t i t s own b rand o f d i s c i p l i n e t o b e a r on the r e b e l l i o u s members o f L o c a l 2 1 3 , l a y i n g c h a r g e s and i m p o s i n g s u s p e n s i o n s r a n g i n g f r om one t o t h i r t y y e a r s . The B. C. F e d e r a t i o n and VDLC a s k e d IBEW t o d e l a y t h e s e a c t i o n s u n t i l a f t e r t h e c o u r t s had c o m p l e t e d t h e i r s e n t e n c i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h a r g e d f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e May 11 and May 12 d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , f e a r i n g t h a t t h e IBEW p r o c e e d i n g s c o u l d be used by t h e c o u r t s . IBEW r e f u s e d t h i s r e q u e s t . They d i d , howeve r , p o s t p o n e the impend ing e l e c t i o n s i n L o c a l 213 u n t i l a f t e r t h e s u s p e n s i o n s had been i m p o s e d . The r e s u l t was t h a t none o f t h o s e who had opposed t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d u r i n g t h e L e n k u r t d i s p u t e w o u l d be e l i g i b l e t o run i n t h e l o c a l ' s e l e c t i o n s . A r t O ' K e e f f e , n o m i n a t e d f o r r e e l e c t i o n as b u s i n e s s manage r , was g i v e n a f i f t e e n y e a r s u s p e n s i o n , and John K a p a l k a , p r e s i d e n t i a l h o p e f u l , r e c e i v e d a one y e a r s u s p e n s i o n . Les M c D o n a l d , nom ina t ed t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f v i c e p r e s i d e n t , was suspended f o r t h i r t y y e a r s , and George B rown , who had a l r e a d y been e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r om t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g - 102 - s e c t i o n by a c c l a m a t i o n , r e c e i v e d a f i f t e e n y e a r s u s p e n s i o n . Tom C o n s t a b l e was removed f r o m h i s p o s i t i o n as a s s i s t a n t b u s i n e s s manager 49 and suspended f o r t h r e e y e a r s . O p p o s i t i o n t o W i l l i a m Ladyman and t h e l o c a l E x e c u t i v e Boa rd h a d , t h e r e f o r e , been e f f e c t i v e l y r emoved . The L e n k u r t s t r i k e r s and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s were a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e c o u r t s f o r t h e two days o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e d i s p u t e . P r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l R o b e r t Bonner l a i d c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h i r t y p e o p l e f o r con tempt o f c o u r t , and the c o u r t s d e a l t w i t h them h a r s h l y . In p a r t i c u l a r , f o u r l a b o u r l e a d e r s , Tom C l a r k , Paddy N e a l e , J e f f Power and A r t O ' K e e f f e were s e n t e n c e d t o j a i l f o r te rms o f f o u r t o s i x mon ths . The government and t h e c o u r t s made i t c l e a r t h a t d e f i a n c e o f c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s and m i l i t a n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s 50 w o u l d n o t be t o l e r a t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L a b o u r ' s c h a r g e s o f p o l i c e b r u t a l i t y and p r o v o c a t i o n , howeve r , were i g n o r e d . Pe rhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f t h e L e n k u r t s t r i k e was t h a t i t had b r o u g h t i n t o s h a r p f o c u s t h e a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y i n Canada t o o v e r r u l e t h e w i s h e s o f t h e membersh ip by i m p o s i n g an i n a d e q u a t e s e t t l e m e n t , a f a c t w h i c h c r e a t e d r e s e n t m e n t among t h e l o c a l ' s members. A l t h o u g h t h e o v e r t s t r u g g l e had t a k e n p l a c e between t h e l o c a l ' s membersh ip and t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s C a n a d i a n o f f i c e r s , some members f e l t t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n o f f i c e r s w e r e , i n f a c t , i m p o s i n g t h e d i c t a t e s o r t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e A m e r i c a n u n i o n l e a d e r s i n W a s h i n g t o n . Ladyman, Ross and MacDona ld were seen as " s t o o g e s " and " p u p p e t s " o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s A m e r i c a n l e a d e r s on whom t h e y were dependen t f o r t h e f u r t h e r a n c e o f t h e i r h i e r a r c h i a l a m b i t i o n s . - 103 - "Ladyman w o u l d n e v e r have d a r e d do what he d i d u n l e s s he knew he had t h e 51 a p p r o v a l o f t he o f f i c e r s i n W a s h i n g t o n " , s a i d J e s s Succamore . The L e n k u r t d i s p u t e , t h e r e f o r e , had g i v e n r i s e t o b o t h u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s w i t h i n t h e l o c a l , and t o a n a t i o n a l i s t i c r e s e n t m e n t o f A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e i n t h e u n i o n , an i n f l u e n c e t h a t was seen as even c o - o p t i n g C a n a d i a n o f f i c e r s . The L e n k u r t s t r i k e , w h i c h began as a s i m p l e d i s p u t e o v e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , has become s o m e t h i n g much b r o a d e r and more v i t a l - an e v e n t o f c o n c e r n t o t h e e n t i r e w o r k i n g c l a s s and t h e n a t i o n . The c r i s i s r e s u l t s f r o m t h e f a c t o f U. S. d o m i n a t i o n o v e r C a n a d i a n a f f a i r s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y o v e r t h e o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r movement w h i c h i s e f f e c t e d w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f Canad i an l a b o u r b u r e a u c r a t s who o b t a i n o f f i c e f r o m t h e U. S. o f f i c i a l s and depend on them f o r s u p p o r t . The p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n w i l l be changed o n l y i f we change t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o i t - by b r e a k i n g t h e h o l d o f U. S. d o m i n a t i o n and r e t u r n i n g c o n t r o l o f u n i o n a f f a i r s t o t h o s e who i t r i g h t f u l l y b e l o n g s - t h e C a n a d i a n w o r k i n g p e o p l e The L e n k u r t s t r i k e has b r o u g h t i n t o s h a r p f o c u s t h e i s s u e o f U. S. d o m i n a t i o n , and any s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h s t o p s s h o r t o f p u t t i n g an end t o A m e r i c a n c o n t r o l and r e t u r n i n g t h e u n i o n t o i t s members w i l l no t end t h e c r i s i s bu t m e r e l y p o s t p o n e t h e d e c i s i o n The L o c a l E x e c u t i v e MUST c o n d u c t t h e u n i o n ' s b u s i n e s s a c c o r d i n g t o membersh ip i n s t r u c t i o n s as d e c i d e d a t r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s . O r d e r s f r om t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s h o u l d NEVER t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r membersh ip d e c i s i o n s The f i g h t o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l w o r k e r s i s one w h i c h c o n c e r n s and a f f e c t s a l l l a b o u r . I t i s bu t a p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l f i g h t - 104 - f o r an i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n t r a d e u n i o n movement and t h e i ndependence o f t h e n a t i o n . THE CANADIAN ELECTRICAL WORKERS UNION THE FORMATION OF CEW The L e n k u r t s t r i k e r s had been d e f e a t e d on a l l f r o n t s . They had l o s t t h e i r b a t t l e i n t h e c o u r t s , t h e y had l o s t t h e i r b a t t l e w i t h t h e company , and t h e y had l o s t t h e i r b a t t l e w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n . Blame f o r t h e s e d e f e a t s was p l a c e d on t h e u n i o n h i e r a r c h y , and b i t t e r n e s s was w i d e s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t L o c a l 2 1 3 . Many o f the L e n k u r t members were d i s i l l u s i o n e d , f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y j u s t c o u l d no t w i n a g a i n s t t h e p o w e r f u l u n i o n h i e r a r c h y w h i c h , combined w i t h t h e f o r c e s o f management and t h e c o u r t s , had p r o v e d i t c o u l d impose i t s d i c t a t e s a g a i n s t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e membersh ip . O t h e r s , howeve r , emerged f r om t h e d i s p u t e a n g e r e d by a sense o f i n j u s t i c e and more d e t e r m i n e d t h a n e v e r t o 53 c o n t i n u e t h e f i g h t . Among t h o s e L e n k u r t w o r k e r s d e t e r m i n e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e f i g h t were George B r o w n , c h i e f shop s t e w a r d a t L e n k u r t and J e s s S u c c a m o r e , a u n i o n a c t i v i s t a t t h e p l a n t . Bo th men were g i v e n f i n e s o f one hundred d o l l a r s by t h e c o u r t s f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e L e n k u r t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and b o t h were r e f u s e d reemployment by t h e company. In t r i a l s t h a t were c o n d u c t e d i n a b s t e n t i a , George Brown was suspended f r om membersh ip i n t h e IBEW f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s , and J e s s Succamore was g i v e n a t w e n t y f i v e y e a r s u s p e n s i o n . F e e l i n g t h a t t h e s u s p e n s i o n s were u n j u s t , - 105 - howeve r , t h e y were no t g o i n g t o a c c e p t t h e m ' m e e k l y . When F r ed A l l i s o n announced t h e s u s p e n s i o n s a t a membersh ip m e e t i n g and a s k e d J e s s Succamore t o l e a v e because he was no l o n g e r a member i n good s t a n d i n g , Succamore r o s e t o h i s f e e t and t o l d h im "You a r e g o i n g t o have t o pu t me 54 o u t , and I d o n ' t t h i n k you a r e man enough t o do i t . " The membersh ip r o a r e d i t s a p p r o v a l and t h e m e e t i n g ended i n d i s a r r a y . The i n i t i a l i n t e n t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was t o a c h i e v e change f r o m w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m . A m e e t i n g o f t h e suspended IBEW members and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s was h e l d t h e f o l l o w i n g week i n t h e B o i l e r m a k e r s H a l l . The s i x t y p e o p l e i n a t t e n d a n c e were a d d r e s s e d by Ray H a y n e s , a c t i n g p r e s i d e n t o f t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n and two o t h e r F e d e r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Len Guy and C h a r l i e S t e w a r t . They e x p r e s s e d t h e i r sympathy f o r t h e L e n k u r t w o r k e r s , t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e j u s t i c e o f t h e i r c a u s e , and t h e i r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t 55 t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t have done more t o h e l p . The p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g t h e m e e t i n g were t o u c h e d by t h e s i n c e r e s t a t e m e n t s o f sympathy f r om t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . So much so t h a t a f t e r Haynes and h i s group l e f t , Les M c D o n a l d , s e n t e n c e d t o a t h i r t y y e a r s u s p e n s i o n by t h e IBEW, l e a p t t o h i s f e e t and t o l d t h e a u d i e n c e "What we need i s a new 56 C a n a d i a n E l e c t r i c a l Workers U n i o n " . He t h e n gave a r o u s i n g speech i n w h i c h he c a l l e d f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a t r u l y Canad i an u n i o n run by and f o r C a n a d i a n s , a u n i o n based on d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s and f r e e o f t h e d i c t a t o r i a l h i e r a r c h i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e IBEW. The m e e t i n g e r u p t e d w i t h e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e i d e a . Tom C o n s t a b l e t o l d t h o s e i n a t t e n d a n c e t h a t he was s u r e he c o u l d g e t f i v e hundred gas w o r k e r s t o j o i n , and George Brown a g r e e d t h a t pe rhaps t h e t i m e was r i p e f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f such a u n i o n . " L e s McDona ld d i d n ' t r e a l l y mean i t " s a i d J e s s Succamore . "He was j u s t - 106 - c a r r i e d away w i t h t h e e m o t i o n s o f t h e m o m e n t . , , t 3 / N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s speech s e t i n t o m o t i o n a t r a i n o f t h o u g h t t h a t c o u l d no t be s t o p p e d . A t a m e e t i n g h e l d a few days l a t e r t o d i s c u s s t h e i d e a o f a new u n i o n , Les McDona ld announced t h a t he had changed h i s m i n d . He now f e l t t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n was t o s t a y i n t h e IBEW t o t r y t o e f f e c t change f r o m w i t h i n . The f o r m a t i o n o f a new u n i o n w o u l d s i m p l y be " i d e a l i s t i c " c o he t o l d t h e m e e t i n g . But s e v e r a l p e o p l e a t t h e m e e t i n g , i n c l u d i n g George Brown and J e s s S u c c a m o r e , had r e e v a l u a t e d t h e i r i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n t o t r y t o change t h e IBEW f r o m w i t h i n . T h i s r e e v a l u a t i o n was based on two p r i n c i p l e s . F i r s t , t h e y had been suspended f r o m t h e IBEW, and t h e r e f o r e were no t i n any p o s i t i o n 59 t o f i g h t f o r change f r o m w i t h i n . S e c o n d l y , t h e p r a c t i c e s and p o l i c i e s o f t h e IBEW were such t h a t i t was f e l t t h a t i t was a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r anyone t o s u c c e e d i n c h a l l e n g i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h e d h i e r a r c h y , even i f t h e y were i n good s t a n d i n g w i t h t h e u n i o n . " A t u n i o n m e e t i n g s , q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p d o e s n ' t want t o answer a r e j u s t r u l e d ou t o f o r d e r . O r , l o o k i n g a t t h e c l o c k , t h e y w i l l use d e l a y i n g t a c t i c s u n t i l t h e y can a d j o u r n t h e m e e t i n g because t i m e has run o u t . They can and do change t h e r u l e s as t h e y go a l o n g so t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e 60 membersh ip t o g e t anywhere i n o p p o s i n g t h e m . " These c o n c e r n s a p p e a r t o have been j u s t i f i e d , f o r t h e C a n a d i a n Autonomy C o u n c i l , a g roup o f IBEW members i n E a s t e r n Canada who were - 107 - a l s o a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e change f r o m w i t h i n t h e IBEW, had come t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n . In a l e t t e r t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t Freeman t h e y c o m p l a i n e d : We have been t o l d t h a t t h e IBEW i s d e m o c r a t i c and t h a t no d i c t a t o r s h i p w i l l be t o l e r a t e d . Ye t we a r e made aware o f d i c t a t o r s h i p a t e v e r y m e e t i n g . A p r e s i d e n t and a b u s i n e s s agen t s t i f l e d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e i s t he s l i p p i n g o f b i l l s q u i c k l y t h r o u g h a m e e t i n g b e f o r e members u n d e r s t a n d o r q u e s t i o n them. S t a t e m e n t s made w h i c h may be p r e d j u d i c i a l o r may compromise a b u s i n e s s manager a r e l e f t o u t o f t h e m i n u t e s o r mumbled ou t w i t h o n l y t h e odd a u d i b l e word b e i n g p a s s e d . A l l t h e s e t h i n g s we know o f . We have l o s t f a i t h i n you and what you c a l l democ racy . Agreements have been s i g n e d w i t h o u t b e i n g b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e membersh ip . We have been s a d d l e d w i t h d e b t s , b i l l a f t e r b i l l and a l l o p p o s i t i o n t o them i s s u p p r e s s e d i n a most a r r o g a n t m a n n e r . 6 1 Fo r J e s s S u c c a m o r e , t h e f i n a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e f u t i l i t y o f a c h i e v i n g change f r om w i t h i n t h e IBEW came when t h e l o c a l ' s E x e c u t i v e Board r e d u c e d h i s s u s p e n s i o n f r o m t w e n t y f i v e y e a r s t o f i v e y e a r s , o n l y t o have t h e i r d e c i s i o n o v e r r u l e d by W i l l i a m Ladyman and t h e twen t y f i v e y e a r s u s p e n s i o n r e i m p o s e d . "By t h e t i m e we f i n i s h e d f i g h t i n g t h e m , we knew t h e r e was n o t h i n g we c o u l d do i n t h a t u n i o n " s a i d Donna Pooghkay . ft 7 " T h e r e s t i l l i s n o t h i n g you can do i n t h a t u n i o n . " Some o f t h e a c t i v i s t s i n t h e L e n k u r t d i s p u t e , t h e r e f o r e , now b e l i e v e d t h a t change was i m p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e f r om w i t h i n t h e IBEW, - 108 - b o t h because t h o s e who were p r e p a r e d t o f i g h t f o r change had been e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e s y s t e m , and because o f t h e p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e IBEW i n s u p r e s s i n g o p p o s i t i o n . To t h e m , t h e answer now seemed t o l i e i n Les M c D o n a l d ' s o r i g i n a l i d e a - t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a new C a n a d i a n u n i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , on November 6 , 1 9 6 6 , s e v e n t e e n p e o p l e g a t h e r e d t o f o u n d t h e new u n i o n , and t o e l e c t i t s f i r s t o f f i c e r s . The u n i o n was t o be known as t h e C a n a d i a n E l e c t r i c a l Workers Un ion (CEW). George Angus was e l e c t e d as t h e u n i o n ' s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , George Brown s e r v e d as v i c e p r e s i d e n t , Donna Pooghkay became t h e s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r and J e s s ft 3 Succamore was e l e c t e d t o t h e E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . POLICIES AND PRACTICES OF CEW The CEW was f o u n d e d t o p r o v i d e a u n i o n c o n t r o l l e d by t h e r a n k and f i l e . A l l o f f i c e r s were t o be e l e c t e d , f r om t h e shop s t e w a r d s t o t h e p r e s i d e n t . The re were t o be no a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l s . The membersh ip c o n t r o l l e d t h e use o f t h e l o c a l f u n d s and e n j o y e d t h e r i g h t t o r e c a l l o f f i c e r s . No agreement c o u l d be s i g n e d w i t h o u t membersh ip a p p r o v a l , and no member c o u l d be d i s c i p l i n e d u n l e s s t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e l o c a l members so d e c i d e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e u n i o n ' s o f f i c i a l s d i d no t l o s e t o u c h w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e rank and f i l e , t h e h i g h e s t pay f o r any f u l l - t i m e o f f i c e r c o u l d n o t e x c e e d t h e t o p j o b r a t e e a r n e d 6 4 by t h e member sh ip . The CEW, t h e r e f o r e , a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f u n i o n d i s s i d e n t s who r e s e n t e d b o t h t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d i c t a t e s o f a u n i o n h i e r a r c h y o v e r t h e w i s h e s o f t h e m e m b e r s h i p , such as had o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e L e n k u r t d i s p u t e , and t h e s u p r e s s i o n o f t h e - 109 - m e m b e r s h i p ' s a t t e m p t s t o a c h i e v e change w i t h i n a u n i o n , such as had o o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e IBEW. I t was a l s o t o be a u n i o n w h i c h a d v o c a t e d t h e deve lopmen t o f a t r u l y i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n u n i o n movement and w h i c h , f r om i t s f o r m a t i o n , had t h e g o a l o f C a n a d i a n s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r C a n a d i a n l a b o u r . The CEW was t o be a C a n a d i a n u n i o n t h a t was f r e e o f f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n . I t s c o n s t i t u t i o n was "made i n Canada by C a n a d i a n s and o n l y C a n a d i a n w o r k e r s can change i t The CEW i s no t a n t i - A m e r i c a n b u t , we do oppose t h e A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r movement. We a r e ma tu re enough 65 t o run o u r own u n i o n s w i t h o u t f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e " . No doub t i n f l u e n c e d by b o t h s o c i e t y ' s g r o w i n g r e s e n t m e n t o f A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e i n C a n a d a , and a l s o by t h e wave o f n a t i o n a l i s t i c r e s e n t m e n t s p a r k e d by t h e L e n k u r t d i s p u t e , t h e CEW was f ounded on a d e c i d e d l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c p l a t f o r m . I t t h e r e f o r e a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s who had as t h e i r g o a l t h e c o n t r o l o f C a n a d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s by C a n a d i a n s . The CEW s h a r e d W a l t e r G o r d o n ' s f e a r s t h a t t h e g r o w i n g A m e r i c a n o w n e r s h i p o f C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s posed a t h r e a t t o C a n a d i a n economic and p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . However , i t a l s o saw t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s as a f a c t o r t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s p r o b l e m t h r o u g h t h e payment o f C a n a d i a n u n i o n dues t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e s t h a t e x e r t e d undue c o n t r o l o v e r u n i o n s i n C a n a d a . 6 6 - 110 - The CEW a l s o saw f r eedom f r o m f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n as a l e g i t i m a t e goa l i n i t s own r i g h t , based on t h e s i m p l e p r i n c i p l e o f n a t i o n a l s e l f r e s p e c t . "We were aware t h a t t r u e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i s based on a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n s , " s a i d J e s s S u c c a m o r e . 6 7 I n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s d i d no t r e p r e s e n t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between equa l p a r t n e r s . R a t h e r , t h e y were seen t o r e p r e s e n t A m e r i c a n d o m i n a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n l a b o u r . We have i n t h i s p r o v i n c e o f B. C , l e a d e r s o f A m e r i c a n c o n t r o l l e d u n i o n s who r e f e r t o w o r k e r s i n C a n a d i a n u n i o n s o r t h o s e t h a t w i s h t o be i n C a n a d i a n u n i o n s as b e i n g "wrapped i n t h e f l a g " . We w o u l d l i k e t o say t h a t i t i s t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f e v e r y C a n a d i a n w o r k e r t o f i g h t f o r Canad i an u n i o n s , and t h e use o f A m e r i c a n f l a g s on I n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n s and i n u n i o n h a l l s i s c e r t a i n l y n o t h i n g t o be p roud o f i n Canada t o d a y . So we s a y , why s h o u l d n ' t Canad i an w o r k e r s want t h e i r own f l a g ? I t i s common knowledge t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n t r a d e u n i o n i s t i s t h e o n l y w o r k e r i n t h e w o r l d who i s c o n t r o l l e d by a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y . C a n a d i a n s want C a n a d i a n u n i o n s and t h i n g s Canad i an j u s t as any o t h e r f o r e i g n c o n t r o l l e d p e o p l e w o u l d , and t h e y w i l l no t l o n g t o l e r a t e c e r t a i n l e a d e r s i n A m e r i c a n u n i o n s . c o v e r i n g t h e i r own s h o r t c o m i n g s by s a y i n g n o t h i n g can be done as t h e i r head o f f i c e and t h e i r 68 c o n s t i t u t i o n does no t a l l o w i t . The re w e r e , t h e n , two ma jo r p l a n k s i n t h e p l a t f o r m o f CEW's p o l i c i e s . One was t o p r o v i d e a t y p e o f u n i o n i s m t h a t was based on democracy and g r a s s r o o t s r ank and f i l e c o n t r o l . The o t h e r was t o - I l l - p r o v i d e a v e h i c l e f o r C a n a d i a n s t o p r a c t i c e u n i o n i s m i n d e p e n d e n t o f any i n f l u e n c e o r d o m i n a t i o n f r om t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Democracy and n a t i o n a l i s m were t h e two p i l l a r s upon w h i c h the CEW was b u i l t . The f o u n d i n g o f f i c e r s o f t h e CEW had c o n s i d e r e d j o i n i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t U n i t e d E l e c t r i c a l Workers Un ion (UE) as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own u n i o n . But t h e UE was an i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n . A l t h o u g h i t p r o v i d e d f o r C a n a d i a n au tonomy , t h e f o u n d e r s o f t h e CEW f e l t 69 t h a t "what had been g i v e n as a f a v o u r c o