UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comprehensive investigation of data dictionaries Diersch, Thomas Karl Julius 1982

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COMPREHENSIVE INVESTIGATION OF DATA DICTIONARIES BY  B.Sc,  THOMAS KARL J U L I U S DIERSCH The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION)  WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD:  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A P R I L 1982 ©Thomas Karl Julius Diersch,  1982  In  presenting  requirements  this for  an  of  British  it  freely available  agree for  that  I  by  understood  that  his  or  be  her or  shall  DE-6  (3/81)  the  be  shall  and  study.  I  copying by  allowed  Columbia  the  Library  publication  not  of  University  the  of  of  make  further this  head  representatives.  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  at  granted  permission.  Department  fulfilment  the  extensive  may  copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  that  reference  for  purposes  or  degree  agree  for  permission  scholarly  in partial  advanced  Columbia,  department  for  thesis  It  this  without  thesis  of  my  is  thesis my  written  ABSTRACT  This  thesis  subject  from  tionaries tion  commercial data  implemented  Data  by a d a t a  each  layer.  entity data  data, and  such  stores  data  tions.  which as  Using  detail, UCC-10,  DATAMANAGER, IDD.  stored  some  reviewed. t o be  the  each  analysts,  available  data  resource  dic-  data  environment  enti-  dictionary  which  as events  and func-  of d i c t i o n a r y  i s exa-  attributes.  groups:  the  the data  database proces-  group.  dictionaries  Dictionary,  In a d d i t i o n ,  stores  entity  programmers,  and the user  four  processing  metadata  class  into  by t h e p r e c e e -  which  e n t i t i e s such  DB/DC D a t a  Third,  are  grouped  processing  i n the following  department,  commercially  and  and  dic-  interac-  as a package  store  the e n t i t i e s and t h e i r  systems  operations  be  dictionary  about  structure,  a r e examined  administrator,  Five  data  conceptual  this  can  relationships,  hardware,  to identify  Users  sing  store  about  examined  d i r e c t o r i e s , which  process-data  tionaries, ties  data  of  and t h e i r  packages  to the information  a r e , the data  contents  the  department.  entities  adding  They  are  approaching  a r e reviewed.  dictionary  processing  the  the users  dictionary  dictionaries  systems,  First,  Second,  data  dictionary  classes,  dictionary  directions..  a r e examined.  Finally,  mined  four  data  and use of the data  popular  ding  reviews  the thesis  a r e examined i n  Data  Catalogue  examines  2,  two d i e -  tionaries ICL  i n overview,  DDS,  and  which  conceptual  the  programmer with  the  The view is  i n a package  data  point  dictionary  when  cessing  three  areas  ability  which  bases,  or d i s t r i b u t e d  Software dictionary and  includes  design  a l l  aid, a  integrated  application  any  application  First  for a  data  the control  the use  of  t h e management  of  system  of  change  to support  conventional  environment is  criteria  with  pro-  structures,  multiple  a  data-  addressed.  a r e examined, which  user-vendor  file  a data  should  such  defining be  as data  relationships  the  investiprocessing  and c o s t  and  proposed,  we  which  system  t h e need  second  f o r environment  and software,  cycle  uses  and u t i l i t i e s  criteria  Finally  a  t o which  dictionary  processing  selection  are  from  and t h i r d ,  or a complex  content,  maintenance  data  system  Identifying  resource,  of the data  database  a  which  systems.  simple  hardware  security  DCS  thinking.  implementation  screen  a r e examined.  methodologies  environment  gated,  containing a  evaluated.  processing  The  both  a n d CINCOM's  the questions  a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  data  advanced  t o model  i s examined  addressing  development  life  and  their  dictionary.  dictionary,  in  the user  of data,  workstation,  subjected  data  allows  views  dictionary  highlighting  propose may  dictionary.  assist  some  events  i n the data  i n the sucessful  Implementation  in  a  processing  implementation  complex  of  environment  iv  where  no  database  other  management  implementation ject,  or  project  as  may  part  of  proposed system  be a  conversion  undertaken data  is critical,  before  processing  may a  or  before  be  warranted.  large  standards  a  systems project.  major Or pro-  V  TABLE OF  CONTENTS PAGE  CHAPTER 1 • INTRODUCTION 1 .1 O b j e c t i v e s 1.2 C h a p t e r S y n o p s e s  1 2 3  CHAPTER 2 « CLASSES OF DATA DICTIONARIES 2.1 D a t a D i c t i o n a r y 2.2 D a t a D i r e c t o r y 2.3 D a t a R e s o u r c e D i c t i o n a r y 2.4 M e t a d a t a D i c t i o n a r y  5 9 21 27 34  CHAPTER 3 • USERS OF THE DATA DICTIONARY 3.1 The D a t a Base A d m i n i s t r a t o r 3.2 The S y s t e m s A n a l y s t 3.3 The Programmer 3.4 The O p e r a t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t 3.5 The U s e r G r o u p  37 38 46 50 52 54  CHAPTER 4 • SURVEY OF COMMERCIAL DATA DICTIONARIES 4 i 1 Datamanager 4.2 DB/DC D a t a D i c t i o n a r y 4.3 D a t a C a t a l o g u e 2 4.4 UCC-1 0 4.5 IDD  57 60 64 68 72 77  CHAPTER 5 • A DATA DICTIONARY ENVIRONMENT 5.1 The Need F o r A D a t a D i c t i o n a r y 5.2 S o f t w a r e S e l e c t i o n 5.3 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n  IN  AN  ENTERPRISE  92 94 112 127  CHAPTER 6 • CONCLUSION  135  BIBLIOGRAPHY •  141  vi  LIST  OF  TABLES PAGE  Table  I  ®  Information  Sources  --  Data  Dictionary  Packages  vii  L I S T OF  FIGURES PAGE  Figure  1 • Data D i c t i o n a r y Model  Figure  2 • Data D i c t i o n a r y F u n c t i o n s  39  Figure  3 • Function  48  Figure  4 • Information  Figure  5 • Data  For  6  Matrix Flow Diagram Analysis  —  49 Stored  By  The  Data  Dictionary  101  Figure  6 • Data D i c t i o n a r y In A C o n v e n t i o n a l  Figure  7 • Data D i c t i o n a r y During  Environment  A DBMS I n s t a l l a t i o n  ...  105 107  vi i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I  would  like  t o r e c o g n i z e t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e  me i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s w o r k . E i l e e n , who  has  supported  and  Foremost., encouraged  I t h a n k my w i f e , me  throughout.  W i t h o u t h e r , t h i s work w o u l d n o t h a v e been c o m p l e t e d . also  like  t o t h a n k my c o m m i t t e e ,  v i s o r , A l b e r t S. assistance  like  D e x t e r , and A l v i n F o w l e r .  I had i n c o m p l e t i n g  t o thank A r t h u r Andersen  Their effort  time t o complete t h i s  thesis.  t h e work. & Co.  I would  G o l d s t e i n , my a d -  a r e v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y  the d i f f i c u l t i e s would  R o b e r t C.  assisted  and  i n l i g h t of Finally,  I  f o r a l l o w i n g me t h e  1  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION The prise  data  to  control  important and  dictionary  to  software  tool  data  i t uses.  The  o r g a n i z a t i o n s which  from  i t s organizational  creating  The  state  into  a  lowed base  of  the  computer by  system  achieving  describe  a l l  data,  storage,  location,  developmental  work  a  available  under  rigid  the  of  to  need  obtain  for  proinfor-  mechanisms.  include data  data  is  large  formal  gathering  structure  of  data  attributes  format,  dictionaries.  without  to  data  sufficiently  mechanisms  source  level  and  in  of  enter-  entry  creation, format  in a  foldata-  (DBMS).  this  metadata  the  the  using  system  data  i n such  at  units  responded  complex  art  i t s storage  management In  more  control  f o r management  information  by  an  easy  i t i s no  O r g a n i z a t i o n s have  by  grown  that  mation  longer  used  have  complex  cedures.  1  the  is a  uses,  the 1  generic  and  management, of  sources,  structure, Several title  of  the  data, has  content  commercial data  the  need such  to as  necessitated and  format  products  of are  dictionaries.  Metadata i s a term used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the data is at a h i g h e r o r meta l e v e l . An o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s d a t a c a n be d e s c r i b e d by i t s m e t a d a t a d e f i n i t i o n . Metadata i s t h e r e f o r e , data about data.  2  1.1  Objectives  This  1.  To  paper  has  the  define  the  scope  content, which  2.  3.  To  benefit  from  summarize  the  have  kages  available.  examine  terprise  4.  5.  of  To  examine  To data  a  data  today's  role  the  when  present  the  major  choosing  those  dictionary  i n terms  individuals  of  data  supporting  data  of  or  its  groups  of p u b l i c a t i o n s  data  the  dictionary  plays  technical  pac-  i n an  en-  complexi-  systems.  criteria  dictionary  i n s t a n c e s when  package  number  dictionary  selection a  a  commercial  information  the  and  findings  evaluated  the  dictionary  i t s existence.  environment,  ty  dered  of  objectives:  functions performed  which  To  following  is likely  the  which  are  consi-  package.  implementation  t o meet  with  of  success.  a  3 1 .2  Chapter  This  1.  Synopses  paper  examines  the  Classifying  the  stored  facilities  late a)  b)  and  the  data  data  data.  The  dictionary  dictionaries  data  elements,  data  directories  based  a v a i l a b l e to  four  data  d i c t i o n a r y from  classes  which  on  views:  information  retrieve  and  manipu-  are:  store  which  four  basic  identify  information  location  about  of  data  stored, c)  data  resource  about  programs,  as d)  data  systems,  elements,  metadata  data  which  files  contain  and  information  databases  as  well  information  about  and  dictionaries  conceptual mented  dictionaries  views  i n computer  or  which  contain  which  may  manual  or  may  not  information  be  imple-  processing  systems.  2.  Examining classes a)  The  users  impact of  database  gement  b)  the  who  the  supply  and  The  transformers  who  the  data  d i c t i o n a r y system  d i c t i o n a r y i n an  administrator  ness  system  of  and  information  enterprise:  data and  one  processing  ensure  mana-  its correct-  completeness  analysts,  translate  of  data  programmers users'  into and  desires  information computer for  (e.g.  operators)  information  into  4  automated c)  The end u s e r s mance  3.  data  of a  Reviewing ware. tems  and  processes  f o r whom d a t a  i s a tool  i n the  perfor-  task.  data  This  manipulation  dictionaries  examination  identify  available  will  their  cover  common  as packaged  t h e most  and  soft-  popular  unique  sys-  characteris-  tics.  4.  Evaluating the data tion  managed  section a)  will  system,  final  cessing  2.  The  This  f o r a data  to select  dictionary  to  support  task,  a  suitable  data  dictionary  for  the  implementation  of  a data  dic-  for  data  i n the data  pro-  system.  Two  place  department.  and  chapter  dictionaries.  applica-  the issues o f :  the need  used  guidelines tionary  1. T h e  with  a s an a d d i t i o n a l  processing  information processing  b) c r i t e r i a  The  the data  deal  identifying the  c)  by  dictionary  will  examine  issues will  of a data  be  future  trends  addressed:  dictionary  system  environment.  impact  velopment  data  management  and use of data  systems  will  dictionary  have  systems.  on  the  de-  5 CHAPTER 2  CLASSES OF  DATA DICTIONARIES  Overview Packages  that  document  data  t h a t d e s c r i b e s s u c h d a t a , use the  reader  proposes  confused four  tions  i n the  This  model  about d a t a , or  naming c o n v e n t i o n s  l i t e r a t u r e and (see F i g u r e  be  which  are  leave paper  descrip-  available.  t h o u g h t of a s a l a y e r e d  cyl-  l a y e r i s a more c o m p l e x , more com-  p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n of e n t e r p r i s e e n t i t i e s .  layers  This  2  to describe software  packages  1) can  i n d e r where e a c h s u c c e s s i v e  l a y e r c o n t a i n s the  which  about the o b j e c t d e s c r i b e d .  classifications  literature  3  Each  i n f o r m a t i o n of t h e p r e c e e d i n g  succeeding  layer.  These  are:  1. A  data d i c t i o n a r y .  of d a t a  entities.  This  l a y e r c o n t a i n s the d e s c r i p t i o n  These d a t a  e n t i t e s are  described  2  P. P. U h r o w c z i k , "Data D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r i e s , " IBM S y s t e m s Journal, 12 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 3 3 2 - 3 5 0 ,-George Martin, "Data Dictionary/Directory S y s t e m , " J o u r n a l o f S y s t e m s Management, 24 (Dec. 1 9 7 3 ) , 12-19; S. J . W a t e r s , "Towards C o m p r e h e n s i v e S p e c i f i c a t i o n s , " Computer J o u r n a l , 22 (Aug. 1 9 7 9 ) , 195-199.  3  An e n t i t y i s a p e r s o n , p l a c e , t h i n g , c o n c e p t o r e v e n t , r e a l o r a b s t r a c t , o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e e n t e r p r i z e . ANSI/SPARC/X3 Study G r o u p on D a t a Base Management S y s t e m s , " I n t e r m R e p o r t , " FDT, 7,No. 2 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 18.  Figure 1 Data D i c t i o n a r y  Model  7 i n terms of i n t r i n s i c and  2. A  attributes  such as  format,  size,  name.  data  directory.  The  data d i r e c t o r y  t i o n a l data e n t i t y a t t r i b u t e s such as structure. entities blishes  * The  data d i r e c t o r y  l o c a t i o n , use,  also describes  s u c h a s p r o g r a m s , m o d u l e s and relationships  contains addi-  b e t w e e n d a t a and  and  process  s y s t e m s and  esta-  processing  enti-  ties.  3. A  data  resource  tionary  dictionary.  c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n not  p r o c e s s i n g e n t i t i e s , but a l s o such  as  hardware  tions, The  only  about  and  about environment e n t i t i e s data  This  level  adds  e n t i t i e s , and  files,  and  information and  func-  their attributes.  e n t i t i e s documented are not n e c e s s a r i l y  i n a computer  5  implemented  system.  * A s t r u c t u r e i s a c o l l e c t i o n of z e r o o r more o b j e c t s by a d i r e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . I b i d . , p.17. 5  data  c o n c e p t u a l e n t i t i e s such as e v e n t s  organizational  dic-  systems.  metadata d i c t i o n a r y .  concerning  data resource  processors, physical  d i s t r i b u t e d database  4. The  The  connected  An a t t r i b u t e i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p r o p e r t y o f an e n t i t y . I b i d . , p.16. I t i s t h e s e t of v a l u e s w h i c h a characteristic o f an e n t i t y may t a k e on.  8  With prise  the exception  could  includes  have  depending  described.  distinct  Entry  i n the data  (which  d i c t i o n a r y and  of f u n c t i o n a l areas  could  A metadata  enter-  dictionaries  an e n t e r p r i s e  each  e n t i r e e n t e r p r i s e , and  exists  consists  have  their  of s e v e r a l  own  data  d i c t i o n a r y , however, may  be  which  although  i t  o r amount  of information  re-  describes  reproduced,  uniquely.  Points  Regardless the  i f  d i c t i o n a r y , an  resource  on t h e number  Thus,  dictionary.  data  contained  functional areas,  source the  one o r more  the information  directory), are  of the metadata  data  of the type  d i c t i o n a r y system,  retrieve  information:  1.  a  Through Such  the  subject-oriented  keywords  browsing. word  three  are defined  The keyword or phrase  by  entry  points  keyword the  stored  are required to  o r keyword  user  and  phrase.  allow  i s an a t t r i b u t e of t h e e n t i t y  used  by  i n inquiry are the values  for and  of the  attribute.  2.  Through  a  user  system  or  unique  should  return  defined  format.  data  name.  assigned. a limited This  Retrieval  amount  access  This  name by  may  this  of information  method  would  be e i t h e r  allow  method  in a  pre-  for re-  9  trieval  of  information  by  programs o r o t h e r  software  systems.  3. By u s i n g v a l u e s o f e n t i t y a t t r i b u t e s o r names o f types. of  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e "name-synonym" a s an a t t r i b u t e  a data e n t i t y ,  "file". ption of  entity  or a  specific  entity  type  such  as  T h i s type of s e a r c h would a l l o w f o r the d e s c r i o f an e n t i t y  the a t t r i b u t e s  such as a program or a f i l e  s t o r e d and  ferences to other e n t i t i e s .  would  identify  i n terms cross-re-  A search statement  such a s :  F I L E = EMPLOYEE... where a l l f i l e s Such  b e g i n n i n g w i t h EMPLOYEE a r e i d e n t i f i e d .  information  w o u l d most l i k e l y  be u s e d by t h e D a t a  B a s e A d m i n i s t r a t o r (DBA) a n d o t h e r d a t a p r o c e s s i n g sonnel  such  interested of  2.1  as system  per-  a n a l y s t s a n d p r o g r a m m e r s who a r e  i n a generic information concerning  the  type  information stored.  Data D i e t i o n a r y Entities  described  by t h e d a t a d i c t i o n a r y a r e c o n c e r n e d  with data or data s t r u c t u r e s .  The a u t h o r  t i n c t data e n t i t i e s .  They a r e e l e m e n t s ,  segments, f i l e s , and  databases.  The  smallest  data d i c t i o n a r y  independent  i s the element,  unit  proposes  five  data groups,  dis-  physical  of data d e s c r i b e d i n a  also called a field  o r an i t e m  10 in  the l i t e r a t u r e .  by  the data  The  next  group  dictionary most  is a  data  of the elements  fully  by  to describe  group  of  group  maintained  unit  data for  i s TODAYS-DATE  and  which  A  combined  YEAR.  The  out of convenience  the a t t r i b u t e s  of data.  group.  elements  MONTH  purely  this  i s the data  of a data DAY,  i s combined  of the a t t r i b u t e s  entity  related  An e x a m p l e  TODAYS-DATE, cribed  a r e used  complex  logically  convenience. consists  The m a j o r i t y  describe  which group,  and i s des-  the data  ele-  ment .  The is  an  data  physical entity  which  on a p h y s i c a l  attributes as  data  files.  In a  attributes need  t o be u s e d  The base  is a  common and  most  which  functional out  a  header,  to identify  complex  data  entity  particular  is a  unit  entity These  as a  record,  of  accessible  has  additional  attributes,  required  one c a n c r e a t e  need  each  member  construct groups,  in a  not  trailer  u s e by one o r more  are described  This  segments  s e t of records,  their  the smallest  segment  a l l members as  retrieved  such  entity  in  hierarchy.  physical  such  as a  to elements.  the physical  file,  known  storage device.  classification  Grouping  also  describes  not a p p l i c a b l e  key, i d e n t i f y  the  segment,  or  therefore  or "multiple  occurring"  of a  file.  or elements  A data-  which  business functional format.  of the e n t e r p r i s e  business function.  sets  alike,  i s the database.  structured  subunit  be  data  Examples  have  in  entities,  The which  business carries  of a business  11  f u n c t i o n are  p a y r o l l c a l c u l a t i o n , and  purchasing  of  raw  ma-  terials.  Data D i e t i o n a r y As  we  have p r o p o s e d , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e d a t a d i c t i o n a r y  documentation the  Contents  i s information  m a j o r i t y of d a t a  ment.  This  butes  and  entity  type.  elements.  e n t i t y a t t r i b u t e s apply  discussion w i l l identify  about data  deal with  only  general  e n t i t i e s can  such,  to the  ele-  entity  those a t t r i b u t e s which are  A t t r i b u t e s of d a t a  As  attri-  specific be  to  grouped  one into  five classes:-  1. Name  information.  identifying  2.  Content  3.  would  include  any a t t r i b u t e  entity.  information.  t i o n and named  the  This  This  includes a  would d i s t i n g u i s h the  entity  textual  descrip-  f r o m any  similarly  entities.  Structure  information.  concerning, the  ordering  T h i s would i n c l u d e or o r g a n i z a t i o n of  information the  element  i n more c o m p l e x s t r u c t u r e s s u c h as g r o u p s , p h y s i c a l ments, and the  files,  sequence.  and This  databases.  Examples are  information  is  g r o u p , segment, f i l e ,  commonly  or database l e v e l ,  key,  seg-  index,  stored  at  through  an  12  a t t r i b u t e o r named r e l a t i o n s h i p " c o n t a i n s " , a  lower  tained.  level  entity  occurrence  However, i t c o u l d  level  (including  " o c c u r s - i n " , which would entity  a s t h e members c o n -  be r e p r e s e n t e d  element)  by  identify  a  identifying  at  named those  relationship higher  information.  This  the element.  picture values,  Such i n f o r m a t i o n  attributes  thorization, usage  description  would i n c l u d e  length,  e d i t r u l e s , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  P r i v a c y and s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n . lude  level  would i n c l u d e a t t r i b u t e s  w h i c h w o u l d be u s e d t o t e s t f o r t h e c o r r e c t  5.  lower  o c c u r r e n c e s where i t w o u l d be a member.  4. I n t e g r i t y  of  the  such  This data  would  inc-  as c r e a t i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n au-  information  dissemination,  and  allowed  w h i c h w o u l d p e r m i t t h e document i o n o f p r i v a c y a n d  security  l e v e l s of data  entities.  Name A t t r i b u t e s Name a t t r i b u t e s a r e i m p o r t a n t rence  of  a  data  entity.  i n i d e n t i f y i n g each  Major a t t r i b u t e s held  occur-  i n the d i c -  tionary are:  1.  Label system  or i d e n t i f i e r identifier  information. which provides  T h i s may be a name  or  a u n i q u e key f o r each  13 entity occurrence.  2. A d e s i g n a t o r , one o r more k e y w o r d s w h i c h a r e u s e d a s search  path  in  identifying a particular  entity  a  occur-  rence  3. Synonyms f o r t h e l a b e l , d e s c r i b i n g commonly u s e d fiers  related  t o systems, programs o r user  4. L a n g u a g e synonyms s u c h a s COBOL o r PL/1 to  identify  t h e commonly  identi-  functions.  names  included  u s e d name w i t h i n a c o m p u t e r  program.  Content  Attributes  Content which  may  information consists be  the e n t i t y  used  of  i n documentation  occurrence.  description  or user understanding of  Common a t t r i b u t e s a r e :  1. The t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e n t i t y is used  a  free  occurrence.  This  f o r m a t a l p h a n u m e r i c d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h may be  i n documentation.  2. S t a t u s the  attributes  information  entity  values are:  which would i d e n t i f y  occurrence  during  i t sl i f e .  the  status  Common  of  status  14 a) p r o p o s e d  - not y e t reviewed  or completely d e f i n e d  b) c o n c u r r e d - t h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e a l l u s e r s affected  persons  had a g r e e d  and  other  to the d e f i n i t i o n  of the  occurrence c) approved val  - t h i s would i d e n t i f y  f o r p l a c i n g the e n t i t y  has  been  given  by  the  stage a l l data necessary  that the proper  occurrence  appro-  into daily  proper a u t h o r i t y .  use  At t h i s  t o define the e n t i t y  occur-  r e n c e h a s been e n t e r e d d) e f f e c t i v e rence  -  this  identifies  that the e n t i t y  occur-  i s presently in effect  e) s u p e r s e d e d  - this  this entity  i d e n t i f i e s a p r e v i o u s occurrence of  type  3. V e r s i o n i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r more t h a n one e f f e c t i v e entity  o c c u r r e n c e w i t h t h e same i d e n t i f i e r  a t one t i m e . test  data  d e s i g n of a  T h i s may be n e c e s s a r y when a l t e r n a t i v e entity  occurences  are  desired,  as i n the  occurrence,  sometimes u s e f u l t o i d e n t i f y a u n i t of measure.  would  indicate,  f o r example,  that  an  sterling.  i t This  e l e m e n t named  TOTAL-EARNINGS h a s a u n i t o f m e a s u r e , d o l l a r s . element  or  database.  4. I n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e t h e e n t i t y is  i n the system  And  an  TOTAL-EARNINGS-GB h a s a u n i t o f m e a s u r e , p o u n d s  15  Structure  Attributes  Structure  a t t r i b u t e s a r e used  into  those  sical  segments ,  of  lower  fining  of a higher  entities  key which  provide single,  2. T h e This fic  composite,  zation, HISAM,  formats  4. T h e  sort  groups,  the  phy-  membership  Attributes  used  i n de-  or  elements  which  f o r the structure.  in records  Keys  t o be  may  be  in  to allow  files. speci-  reconstructed.  of s t r u c t u r e s . record,  include  or records  information  This file,  values  would  include  or database  such  as  i n -  organi-  hierarchical,  ISAM.  sequence  of the data  same  as the key, o r a d d i t i o n a l  This  attribute could  system  o r show  element  include  on p h y s i c a l  and would and  the  of elements  The o r g a n i z a t i o n formation  into  entities  or a l t e r n a t e .  a t t r i b u t e would record  lower  include:  key sequence  sequence  group  elements  entities.  identifies  a  (e.g.  and databases),  i n higher  the structure  1. A  3.  files  type  to  requirements.  also  occur  entity. sort  This  fields  multiply  may  may be  be t h e used.  depending  on  16 Integrity  Attributes  Integrity checking input.  attributes  allow  for validation  and c o n t e n t  s u b r o u t i n e s t o be u s e d t o e n s u r e d a t a c o r r e c t n e s s These a t t r i b u t e s a p p l y p r i m a r i l y  1. The  character  s e t used.  t o the data  on  element.  T h i s can have v a l u e s such as  a l p h a , numeric, or graphic c h a r a c t e r .  2. The l e n g t h o f t h e e l e m e n t  i n characters, bytes  3. The mode o f th'e e l e m e n t .  That  string,  a  character,  i s , whether  packed  decimal,  or words.  i ti s a b i t o r i n ASCII o r  EBCDIC.  4. The p r e c i s i o n o r number o f s i g n i f i c a n t carried with this  5. The  d i g i t s which  are  element.  justification,  whether  left  or r i g h t ,  of t h i s  ele-  ment.  6. The p i c t u r e o f t h e e l e m e n t . phrase i s used  7. E d i t  rules  (e.g.  a  COBOL  picture  Typical values  for this  S999V99).  which could apply.  a t t r i b u t e a r e whether it  Normally  t h e element  i s required or o p t i o n a l ,  the  i sa constant, usual  value  whether  that  the  17 element  has,  the  range of v a l u e s t h a t  c a r r y , and any e d i t masks t h a t  8. The d e r i v a t i o n a l g o r i t h m  9. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n falls.  This  are  usually  categories  used i n c r e a t i n g  descriptor,  personnel  name,  of v a l u e s that  inventory  t o ensure that  be i d e n t i f i e d .  This  This  includes  codes  which  i s d i f f e r e n t from c o n s t a n t s  the  state  defines  a  t h e e l e m e n t o c c u r r e n c e may  fixed take.  of codes.  attributes identify  sufficient  in-  u n a u t h o r i z e d access t o the e n t i t y can  i f such a r o u t i n e  only  currency.  Attributes  S e c u r i t y and p r i v a c y  that  Categories  are  S e c u r i t y And P r i v a c y  and  alternate  Typical  range of v a l u e s i n t h a t  be p r e v e n t e d  element  enterprise.  A t y p i c a l example i s a l i s t  formation  element.  specific.to a certain  e l e m e n t may h a v e .  number  in providing  f o r users of the d i c t i o n a r y .  10. The s t a t e s o f t h e e l e m e n t .  or  this  or c a t e g o r y under w h i c h t h i s  descriptor, accounting value,  the  may  may be a p p l i c a b l e .  i s sometimes u s e f u l  search c r i t e r i a  the element  i s implemented  t h o s e who a r e a u t h o r i z e d Typical attributes are:  i n the software,  t o use t h e e n t i t y c a n  18 1. P r i v a c y c o n s t r a i n t s the e n t i t y  see, use, or  modify  occurrence.  2. S p e c i f i c a t i o n That  s u c h a s who may  responsibility  i s , the  responsibility  individual  f o r the e n t i t y  occurrence.  or f u n c t i o n a l area which  for creating  the data d i c t i o n a r y  has  defini-  tion.  3. The c o n t e n t  responsibility  responsible entity  4.  for  or the i n d i v i d u a l or f u n c t i o n  providing  the  values  f o r the a c t u a l  occurrence.  S e c u r i t y parameters u s e r s have a c c e s s  necessary  t o ensure  only  authorized  to t h i s e n t i t y occurrence.  Such p a r a -  meters-may i n c l u d e p a s s w o r d s .  5. The  distribution  which  luded  o r o t h e r h a r d copy media  the preceding d e s c r i p t i o n  only a r e s t r i c t e d  i n software which  restricted  subset  tionary.  Utilities  tion,  reports  contain the e n t i t y .  Although includes  of  which  of a  data  dictionary  number o f a t t r i b u t e s commonly  bears  t h e name " d a t a d i c t i o n a r y " ,  o f d a t a c a n be u s e d a s c o u l d be d e s i g n e d ,  a  basic  data  b a s e d on t h i s  w o u l d p r o v i d e a l a r g e amount o f  extremely  incthis dic-  informauseful  informat ion. This  kind  of  system  n e e d n o t r e q u i r e a l a r g e amount o f  19  sophisticated tionary tion  systems  which  data  are  ensures  entities  low  level  of  systems  of  is  by  tion  for each  simple  data  function task,  or  the  use  the  the  DBA  elements  are  first  the  Because manner,  i t i s at  basic fact,  this  the  of  a l l  relatively  with  data  dic-  documenta-  a  a  minimum  gathering task  departments,  identify  can  can  assist  been  be  is  using  level  step  towards  a l l  data  in this  of  and best  guidedefini-  are  requires only  a  attributes.  based  on  Data  groups  creating  for  small  Besides  development  or  programming  sub-routines  or  modules,  a  of  or  i t also  Key  grouped  edit  can  the  through promotes  the  In  or  this  Context  similar  prepared.  which  use  by  model.  in a  be  of  structures  data  amount the  In  Word  documented  information  reducing  effort  Data  corporate  are  input  base  6  categories  categorization.  entities  routines  identified,  recognized.  frequently prepared.  standard  integrity  In user  have  c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s which are  standard  consistent record  most  to  data  entity.  elements  (KWIC),  This  data  provide  some  is achievable  required. in  fact,  Because  record  Only  are  In  complete,  this  personnel  a l l the  They  maintained.  e s t a b l i s h e d by  Once  a  expertise.  carried  maintain.  manual.  detail,  skills  out  to  that  documenting  lines  6  software  includes  of of  system standard  template  ap-  M. A. Huffenberger, "The D e s i g n o f Data Elements: A Data Base P e r s p e c t i v e , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S y m p o s i u m on M a n a g e m e n t of Data Elements in Information Processing TGathersburg, Maryland: n.p., 1.97577 p. 109.  20  proach tems  t o systems  development  development.  i s much  easier  A  formal  methodology  to enforce  f o r sys-  and monitor  in this  environment.  A ting  final  database  terchange readable diverse data data  benefit  of documenting  concepts,  is  particularly  facilitated  and usable functional  data  through  t o have  Through  s t r u c t u r e s which  entities  data  sharing.  This  a common  common  are shared  i s i n promoData  t h e u s e o f common,  definitions.  areas  definition.  data  allows  is  a  easily  users  understanding  definitions, much  i n -  in  of the  the design  more  of  realizable  task.  One from By  of the largest  the p a r o c h i a l a t t i t u d e  identifying  and a s s i g n i n g  tion  to the user,  the  user  have  to " f i d d l i n g  A  so t h a t  level,  some with  key d a t a b a s e  single  applications  provide  this  schemes, the  butes,  of  my  integrity  data"  concept  task.  files  be  for entity  users  into  definibe  at  normally  removed.  of  Key p a r a m e t e r s  labels  and the p h y s i c a l  data.  would  i s the independence  sets,  results  to sharing  are the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  dictionary  the translation  have  data  and c o n t r o l  should  or systems.  values,  users  responsibility  modes, c h a r a c t e r  the data  easier  that  to shared  of the o b j e c t i o n s that  independence  storage  range  Because  much  drawbacks  or  format  data  from  necessary of  to  encoding  identifiers, of the data.  can record  a l l of  these  attri-  a different  s e t of parameters  is a  21 2.2  Data D i r e c t o r y The  ture,  data d i c t i o n a r y  integrity,  and  i s concerned security  w i t h the c o n t e n t ,  a t t r i b u t e s of d a t a  h o w e v e r , d a t a e x i s t s w i t h i n an e n v i r o n m e n t events. mation  The  data d i r e c t o r y  software.  The  process  cess  l a y e r of d a t a  T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s the  e n t i t i e s , and  entities;-  processes  d a t a d i r e c t o r y documents the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d a t a . of  i s the second  of  struc-  and infor-  locational  documentation  r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d a t a and  pro-  entities. E n t i t i e s which  teristics  of d a t a  are used t o  identify  document  locational  t h e a c c e s s o r use  charac-  of d a t a .  7  These  entities include:  1. P r o g r a m s  (computer  m o d u l e s and  2. U s e r s and  3.  p r o g r a m s ) and  s u b s t r u c t u r e s such  subroutines.  of d a t a , i n c l u d i n g  t h o s e who  accumulate  which  i n c l u d e s w r i t t e n and  s p e c i f y i n g p r o s c r i b e d a c t i o n s performed R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d a t a and  7  e n t i t i e s which  Uhrowczik,  manipulate  storei t .  Procedures,  through  as  p.337.  processes  verbal on  procedures  data.  are  documented  are used i n i n f o r m a t i o n communication.  22  These e n t i t i e s a r e r e f e r e d t o as "data  interchange  entities".  These c o n s t r u c t s i n c l u d e :  1. T r a n s a c t i o n s items  2.  relating  Reports tion  which  identify  unique occurrences  to a particular  of data  event.  which i d e n t i f y data gathered  to provide  informa-  t o a user.  3. Documents w h i c h a c t a s t r i g g e r s o r i n i t i a t o r s  for  tran-  s a c t i o n s and e v e n t s . Data  interchange  entities  are  important  i d e n t i f y a unique r e l a t i o n s h i p between d a t a Such  entities  special  could  because  and  the  the active nature  of d a t a  the a b i l i t y  to identify  to  pro-  interchange.  One o f t h e m a j o r b e n e f i t s o f m a i n t a i n i n g p r o c e s s is  users.  be i n c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a d i c t i o n a r y a s a  i n s t a n c e of a g r o u p , however they a l s o r e l a t e  c e s s e s , and i d e n t i f y  they  entities  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r o c e s s e s and  data.  D a t a b a s e management s y s t e m s  of data  entities.  (DBMS) c o n t a i n a s t r u c t u r e the requests  f o r data  f r o m p r o g r a m s w h i c h i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e DBMS, one c o u l d  achieve  similar  documentation  data d i r e c t o r y . the is, tify  I f one c o u l d i d e n t i f y  that  information contained  H o w e v e r , t h e u s e r h a s no  relationships there  to  between  of  querying  p r o g r a m s a n d t h e DBMS d a t a .  i s no s y s t e m f a c i l i t y  the underlying processes  means  i n the  which a l l o w s the user  the programs s i m u l a t e .  That  to idenOn  the  23 other  hand,  the data  their attributes. the  directory  c o n t a i n s d a t a e n t i t i e s and  I t i s the documentation  DBMS, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r d a t a e n t i t i e s  ments) which management single,  implied which  stores  l i m i t e d view.  data e n t i t y  I f one s t o r e s  i n the data  i n t h e program  -  DBMS  docu-  database  data  and  process  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e  interface  a r e not implemented through  The  in  i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e d on a  both  directory,  stored  (transactions,  a r e i n e x i s t e n c e i n an e n t e r p r i s e . system  information  of data  and  relationships  c o m p u t e r s y s t e m s c a n be d o -  c u m e n t e d a n d i n v e s t i g a t e d by u s e r s .  The  D a t a D i r e c t o r y F r o n t E n d To A DBMS I t h a s been s u g g e s t e d  to replace data d e f i n i t i o n management  system.  8  that the data d i r e c t o r y information stored  Since a l l data elements  in a  to  data.  use  t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n t o format  This i sthe f u n c t i o n of  ANSI/SPARC  definition.  9  the data  Proponents  DBMS  Robert Not?" 9  and  struc-  should  be  i t s storage area f o r dictionary  i n the  of t h i s e x t e n s i o n t o t h e  data d i c t i o n a r y c l a i m that the information the  database  and data  t u r e s a r e s t o r e d i n t h e d a t a d i c t i o n a r y , t h e DBMS able  c a n be u s e d  i s duplicated i n  t h e r e f o r e , because t h e data d i c t i o n a r y  i s more  B. C h a m b e r l a i n , "DBMS a n d D a t a D i c t i o n a r y : To Merge o r C o m p u t e r w o r l d , 29 O c t . 1979, p.36, p . 3 8 .  ANSI/X3/SPARC, p . 2 8 .  24  general software the only  suited  f o r t h i s purpose,  i t s h o u l d be  repository.  T h i s format ways:  ideally  o f t h e d a t a d i r e c t o r y c a n be a c h i e v e d  f r e e - s t a n d i n g and coupled.  i n two  A free-standing data  direc-  t o r y u s e d t o f r o n t e n d t h e DBMS i s n o t p a r t o f t h e DBMS kage.  I t can, t h e r e f o r e , s t o r e non-mechanized data  a s w e l l a s t h o s e whose v a l u e s c a n be r e t r i e v e d by Access  to  retrievable can  the data from  document  t h e DBMS.  a  different  t h e DBMS s u p p o r t s . system  t o format  relationships for  directory  t h e DBMS.  In a d d i t i o n , stored data  the data format  F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e DBMS  from uses  DBMS r e t r i e v a l The  directory that a  which  network  and s t o r e d a t a , t h e data d i c t i o n a r y can a l l o w  which  arehierarchical.  An a d d i t i o n a l  software  overhead  argument  i s that access of data i n  t h e DBMS d o e s n o t r e q u i r e p r i o r a c c e s s o f t h e d a t a i s no  entities  d o e s n o t r e q u i r e t h a t d a t a be  the free-standing data d i r e c t o r y  there  pac-  directory,  f o r a DBMS a c c e s s .  As s u c h ,  performance i s not a f f e c t e d .  a l t e r n a t e method o f u t i l i z i n g  a data d i r e c t o r y  as  a  f r o n t e n d t o t h e DBMS i s t o c o u p l e  them.  the  t o i n c l u d e data storage and  data  retrieval facilities  directory  i s extended  T h i s w o u l d mean t h a t  m e c h a n i s m s , o r t h e DBMS i s e x p a n d e d t o  include the  f o r t h e s t o r a g e of d i c t i o n a r y and d i r e c t o r y  attri-  25  butes.  This  1 0  metadata. storing  I t may a l s o a l l o w f o r both  t h e data  entity values. cessary  implementation  to  both  Sharman a n d W i n t e r b o t t o m , dated  at  t h e same t i m e .  a  directory  T h i s would reduce  support  localizes more  t h e storage of the uniform  method  of  e n t i t i e s and t h e database  t h e number o f u t i l i t i e s  ne-  t h e DBMS a n d t h e d a t a d i r e c t o r y .  In  a d a t a d i c t i o n a r y a n d DBMS were F o r example, a data e n t i t y  up-  and i t s  a t t r i b u t e s were a d d e d t o t h e d a t a d i c t i o n a r y , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y values for that entity advantage  t o users  were a d d e d t o t h e DBMS.  mation  primary  i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of data and metadata,  they c l a i m , i s t h a t access entity-type  The  t o t h e DBMS c a n . be  done  with  an  search i n the data d i r e c t o r y , with a l l i t s i n f o r -  about t h e usage and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r o c e s s e s and  d a t a , and then a s e a r c h f o r v a l u e s of t h a t e n t i t y b a s e c o u l d be d o n e .  Other  i n the data-  advantages of i n t e g r a t i n g  the func-  t i o n s of the data d i r e c t o r y w i t h those of the database ment s y s t e m  include:  1. S e c u r i t y a g a i n s t u n a u t h o r i z e d a c c e s s one  manage-  point.  clearance  i s controlled  A l l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t u s e r s who h a v e  f o r data elements  c a n be s t o r e d w i t h o u t  at  valid dupli-  cation .  1 0  G. C. H. Sharman a n d N. W i n t e r b o t t o m , "The D a t a D i c t i o n a r y Facilities o f NDB," P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F o u r t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on V e r y L a r g e D a t a B a s e s ~ T S e p t . 1978), pp. 186197.  26 The  data  titive  d i r e c t o r y can store  DBMS a c c e s s e s .  time  necessary  The  data  access  Data  validation  ctory.  system  This  the database  dered  before  database  stored  various  These  of  could  parameters  be  routines  may  A  factor  be  into  supplied  which  result  the  systems  the  database  could  written  a r e tempered  stored.  by  should  be  i n redundancy  of v a l i d a t i o n c r i t e r i a  validation rules  of  by  by  the  dire-  of data  stored  be  as part  to ensure  can  routines  validation routines  would  amount  in information  needed  rules  stored  f o r repe-  concerning  used  the i n t e g r i t y  i s the decrease  considerations  lication  statistics  i f v a l i d a t i o n i s not necessary.  Alternatively,  programs  the  validation i s included  validation  additional  reduce  integrated  increase  system.  data  system  performance lex  would  logic  applications.  be  using  path  data.  This  new  can  can  store  entities.  in defining  management  in  to retrieve  d i r e c t o r y can  of data  analysts  This  access  consiof  the  retrieval Very  that  comp-  a l l the  accommodated. be  so s i m p l e  into  of data  data  of  entry  validation.  the consistent  and ease  that  app-  modification  27  2.3  Data  Resource D i c t i o n a r y  The  preceding  includes  the  users.  This  tions  of  cribed  resource  ties  i s due  i n Chapter  storage  is a  we  look  can  1.  a  user  The  be  new the  users  processing  its  classifica-  requirements major  (which  named  describing  (which  data  of  and  are  des-  of  the  data  staff,  the  DBA,  the  data  main  may  interfaces  be  information  a  person  from  development  the  or  the  data  identifying  the  dictionary the  data  describes an  (DRD),  resource  the  manner  automated  pro-  interface  tions  systems  a n a l y s t s , programmers,  or  operators  of  entities  The  data  dic-  technical  in-  tionary quiries.  must  data have  The  data  to  questions  or  processes.  support posed  implementation  would  the  have  and  This  encompass that  design  to  enti-  dictionary.  interface.  technical  In  resource  interfaces  these  processing  i n f o r m a t i o n about  enterprise.  of  of  about  source  five  Each  Application  on  the  data  directory  explicitly  users'  however,  metadata  the  1 1  retrieves  may  1  at  not  data  programmers.  attributes  dictionary. which  of  the  emphasis  will  f u n c t i o n of  and  cess)  3,  tremendous  entities  the  software.  a n a l y s t s , and  processing  in  to  dictionary  The  of  d i c t i o n a r y ) has  metadata  more  systems  data  description  are  these often  T h e o d o r e W. Z i e h e , "What M a n a g e m e n t S h o u l d C o m p u t e r w o r l d , 14 ( O c t . 13, 1 9 8 0 ) , I n D e p t h  general  Know A b o u t 11.  ques-  because  IRM,"  28 of  the  need  for a  ly  d e s c r i b i n g the  examined.  Since  requests;,,  and  interface require  the  are  be  interface.  which  will  through  such  entities) user sing  In a  by this  The  likely  data  As  to  that  This  very  basic  complete  interface  specify  both  in which  the  would type  that  a  the  a  i t i s necessary the  user by  i n the  result  data  requires  of  infor-  dialogue  conceptualize data  identify  additional  can  data  present  easily  navigate  data  therefore,  view  of  stored  both  query  i n the  relationships  relationships  between  dictionary.  and,  the  between  pro-  to  relationships  specific  of  and  procesmust  be  entities  and  the  data or  or  The  user  will  dictionary  entities.  data  and  In pro-  important.  information  processing  information  management  with  modifiers, a  format  restricted  i n f l u e n c e the  i s most  entities  interface  stored  simple,  interface  allows  to  in h i s / h e r query  specifying  cesses  the  interface begin  by  (represented  are  relationships. likely  able  user  manner  most  a  be  addition,  models  entities  presented  to  the  which  will  will  honed  complete-  or  i s necessary.  This  allow  the  then  information  presented.  easily. in  of  process,  queries  d e s i r e d and  User  data  such  user  should  cesses  spectrum  data,  dialogue  information mation  wide  processing  r o u t i n e s , and  interface. systems  such  application  This as  interface databases,  programs  to  29  extract a t t r i b u t e values The  method of q u e r y  The  value  4. The  processing.  i s h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and  formalized.  of a t t r i b u t e s i s t h e  This  extracted.  i n t e r f a c e docu-  ments l o c a t i o n a l e n t i t i e s a t a h i g h e r  level  ty  this  i n t e r f a c e the  the  distribution  than  and  the  data  The  directory.  extract information  l o c a t i o n of  devices,  information  w h i c h may  control  be  local  interface.  database a d m i n i s t r a t o r documentation, the and  the  datafiles,  Information using  this  in  data  the  terfaces described concerning  data,  or  and  p h y s i c a l data  storage  i n t e r f a c e i s u s e d by  stored  in  unauthorized by  the  access to database  a l l o w him/her  the  support  the  s e c u r i t y that should  be  DBMS imple-  the  data.  administrator to  make  deci-  information  t o be  stored  dictionary.  information a b o v e , t h e DRD  process,  complexi-  remote.  t h e amount o f  resource  In meeting the  across  This  interface will  concerning  about  of  to record a t t r i b u t e s that  retrieved  sions  In  v a l i d i t y .of d a t a  mented i n p r e v e n t i n g  but  information  d i s t r i b u t e d process i n t e r f a c e .  system w i l l  5.  necessary for t h e i r  and  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the must n o t  information  only  five  s t o r e metadata  interchange  entities  also:  1. L o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n  in-  a t the machine a d d r e s s  level.  30 2. S t a t i s t i c a l  data  c o n c e r n i n g usage f r e q u e n c y , u s a g e s e -  quence, such as a c c e s s p a t h , both a t the p h y s i c a l b a s e l e v e l and  3. D o c u m e n t a t i o n disc  files,  4. R e s o u r c e speed,  at the c l e r k / f i l i n g  of  physical  t a p e d r i v e s , and  chacteristics  r a t e , and  such as  computers,  people.  such as r e t r i e v a l  network  attributes  time,  transfer  non-computerized on-line  such  as p r o t o c o l s ,  line  configuration.  D o c u m e n t a t i o n of a l l DRD  programs,  devices  level.  and c a p a c i t y .  5. T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  t e r i z e d and  cabinet  data-  entites  include  compu-  e n t i t i e s and a l l o w f o r i n p u t  monitors, database  the c a p t u r e of data t h r o u g h  must  directories,  the use of m a n u a l l y  from  as w e l l  prepared  as  data  input. The  u s e r s of t h e d a t a r e s o u r c e d i c t i o n a r y  sing s t a f f ,  f u n c t i o n a l data a n a l y s t s  quirements,  and a u d i t o r s - c a n  a m u l t i t u d e of a p p l i c a t i o n a r e used  1 2  to support  British Computer P a r t y R e p o r t , " Data  utilize  subsystems.  - data  investigating the data 1 2  the i n t e r f a c e s d e s c r i b e d  user  stored  These  procesre-  through  subsystems  earlier.  S o c i e t y , "Data D i c t i o n a r y Systems Working B a s e , 9, No.4 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 2 0 - 2 2 .  31  Subsystems design, tems  which  development,  support  data  implementation,  processing  staff  and maintenance  i n the  of  sys-  include:  1. I m p a c t - o f - c h a n g e lyst  to  identify  or the data  fication.  The  the high  2. A  long  payoff  program  level  of programmers  This  would  retain  grades,  with  reasonable  test  test  to  This  more  be  would  Program  code  tabase  call  standard.  makes  systo  this  a  changes  to  software  of a p p l y i n g  t o be  software  moup-  effort.  This  allow  utility based  systems  allows  consistent  on d a t a  definitions  development  and p r o v i d e  staff  a base  to  test for  staff.  generator.  Many  statements, statements, With  t o document  packaged  comprehensively  maintenance  control  to develop  and a n a l y s t s  generated  program  job  modi-  of d o c u m e n t a t i o n compared  the a b i l i t y  generation.  data  stored.  i n data  by a p r o g r a m  necessary  system  allow  yet  data  the ana-  utility.  dified  3. T e s t  allows  by a change  affected  time  version control  programs.  affected  files  lead  a n d the. a v e r a g e turnover  r o u t i n e s which  programs  structure,  tems  4.  analysis  the  database d e f i n i t i o n s ,  data and  system  communications validation and  routines,  routines  hardware  da-  are  information  32  stored be  i n the  generated  the  Other  control  ment  access  level,  data DRD,  Execution gram use  and  time  an  interface  to  data  control  control formats  as  to  be  which  well  as  calls,  to  similar  resource  information  completing  presented  in  a  and  Because  the  resource  o n l i n e and database  as  the  batch,  at  the  ele-  implemented  for  both  At  could  ensure  used  allow  not  be  the  subsystem  batch by  management  because  interface  hoc  pro-  on-line  system  data  would  means  between  systems  compiled.  permit  access  program  access.  contain  user  detail  systems, requests,  precompiled,  (DBMS).  use  access.  of  software  and  defined  program  they  and  time,  proper  This  programs  management  both  would  f o r ad  hoc  are  that  accomplished  ad  compile  and  traditional  database  concerning  be  data data  programs  gathered.  be  utilize include:  programs  were  could  dictionary  and  dictionaries,  function  various  could  resource  could  would  the  could  both  code  for  be  useful,  execution.  would  Implementation  could  could  information concerning  unauthorized  data  be  data  definitions  statistics  Data  would  c o m p i l a t i o n and  because the  such  parameters  code  mechanisms.  has  in  the  i n the  dictionary  program  2.  of  which  contained  Access  dictionary,  manner.  subsystems  information  resource  a u t o m a t i c a l l y , or  development  useable  1.  data  Because  and the  3 3  DBMS d a t a  definitions are stored  programs  could c a l l  turn, c a l l lete  the  3.  t o t h e DRD w h i c h w o u l d , i n  e a c h o f t h e n e c e s s a r y DBMS s y s t e m s  the r e t r i e v a l .  tionary  f o r data  i n the data d i c t i o n a r y ,  In a d d i t i o n , the data  could contain  sufficient  comp-  resource  information  dic-  to control  r e s t r u c t u r e a n d r e l o a d o f DBMS d a t a .  Finally,  the data  reporting limited  of  resource  the stored  t o simple  entities  lists  d i c t i o n a r y should information.  or  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s but should  auditor  quired c a l l s  t o e x t r a c t s e l e c t e d data  statistics,  useage  statistics.  ultimately  environments and o p t i m i z e  of a t t r i b u t e s , include  structure  r e p o r t s which would present from  and p h y s i c a l resource  Armed w i t h t h i s t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , could  develop  i s not  f o r t h e systems a r -  chitecture,  usage  allow f o r  Reporting  catalogues  diagrams f o r programs, flow c h a r t s  staff  to  the r e -  files,  data  a l l o c a t i o n and  the data  processing  routines t o simulate  system  t h e performance o f both hardware and  software. The s t o r a g e or  and c o n t r o l of database metadata would  reduce  remove t h e p r o b l e m s o f c o n t r o l l i n g d a t a b a s e s w h i c h r e l y  specific bility  computer hardware, and would a l l o w i n using  application  flexi-  t h e c o r r e c t d a t a b a s e s t r u c t u r e , b a s e d on t h e  requirement, while  a v a i l a b l e t o other  for greater  on  still  making  a p p l i c a t i o n s running  that  on o t h e r  information hardware.  34 2.4 M e t a d a t a D i e t i o n a r y The f i n a l tionary.  l a y e r of metadata s o f t w a r e  The  preceding  l a y e r s have m o d e l l e d  c e s s e s , and t h e systems environment the f i n a l  (hardware  previous  tionary data  programs, d a t a b a s e s ) .  a l l data  i s used,  the  i s described.  Data which  pro-  con-  That i s ,  metadata  an e n t e r p r i s e u s e s , a n d ways i n w h i c h  desdicthat  i s not p r e s e n t l y used,  b u t may be u s e d i n f u t u r e , o r d a t a w h i c h can  This layer  i n the e n t i t i e s  In  dic-  software),  are abstract.  d e s c r i p t i o n s have been c o n c r e t e  (files,  the data, and  l a y e r models the e n t e r p r i s e i t s e l f .  t a i n s d e s c r i p t i o n s of data types which  cribed  i s the metadata  was u s e d i n t h e  past  a l s o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e r e a l m o f d a t a d e s c r i b e d . The i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n t h e m e t a d a t a d i c t i o n a r y  ceptual.  A  c o n c e p t u a l view  implementation  of data  i s con-  o f d a t a may n o t be l i n k e d t o any  s t r u c t u r e s or p r o c e s s e s .  This  concep-  t u a l v i e w p o i n t p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r systems d e s i g n and o r g a n i zation  review.  In a d d i t i o n ,  i t p r o v i d e s a model f o r d e f i n i n g  the scope of t h e d e s i g n , a l l o w i n g f o r b e t t e r c o n t r o l over lementation of a p p l i c a t i o n in view  a  data  d e p a r t m e n t o r company.  1 3  A d d i t i o n a l data  resource d i c t i o n a r y , which  includes the a b i l i t y  attributes  systems.  1 3  such as t h e d a t a used,  required  supports the conceptual  to record e n t i t i e s These  imp-  entities  such as employee,  are  described  tasks performed,  by  and o u t p u t  R i c h a r d G. C a n n i n g , e d . , " I n s t a l l i n g a D a t a D i c t i o n a r y , " EDP A n a l y z e r , 16, No. 1 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 6.  35 generated. terms  of  fied,  and  are  Relationships  source documents, task output f i l e d  linked  porate  control  operations).  Several rect.  each l e v e l ,  origin,  For  be  is  the  enterprise  business  merger w i t h a n o t h e r e n t e r p r i s e w i l l t i o n s at those times,  ceptual  data  within  schema l i n k e d t o an described  the  operational  1 4  6.  to  the  (BCS).  the  data  "  ANSI  v i e w of t h e  in  terms  be  corover  i n time  reorganizatakeover  or  instant.  and  of  supported  dictionary  identified  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n v i e w of  database  ANSI/X3/SPARC, pp. 19.  1  a  affected.  point  S t a n d a r d s I n s t i t u t e (ANSI) and  Society  to  changes  due  c o r r e c t at that  w h i c h have d i s c u s s e d  models  or  require d i f f e r e n t descrip-  organizations  American N a t i o n a l Computer  e a c h one  or  cor-  documented i n  m o d e l may  d e s c r i p t i o n a t one  objectives,  of  related  description  organization  per-  supervision,  entities  conceptual  veri-  entities  levels  Events are and  in  which are  responsibility  of t h e  c o r r e c t , changes i n the  Two  In a d d i t i o n ,  various  responsibility  the c o n c e p t u a l  t i o n , changes i n  at  identified.  e x a m p l e , an  Where  be  defined  c o m p l e t e d , a p p r o v e d or  administration,  v i e w s or v e r s i o n s  time. may  At  can  (e.g.  classification of  are  to f u n c t i o n s , e v e n t s or o p e r a t i o n s  These o p e r a t i o n s  terms  entities  or d i s t r i b u t e d .  formed.  job  between  are  the a  database, which i d e n t i f i e d  the  British  conceptual  the database,  applications,  con-  and the  2 0 - 2 3 ; B r i t i s h Computer S o c i e t y , pp.  which the physi-  16-  36  cal  storage  schema  data  described  structure The  of  since  conceptual  once.  data  focus  did  the  not  tional  views  but  and  functions  data  at  the  the  BCS  ver  i t gave  would  other  events, dwell  in  a  ANSI  defined  mappings to  manner  a  broader  view.  a  i t  difficult of  the  occur  to  more  model  functions. or  corporate allow was to  place  an  than  which This opera-  entities of  precise,  implement; and  and  analysis  less  a  system.  implementation  implementation  would  Because  more  statement  to  i t required  conceptual  describe  which  enterprise level. be  to  conceptual  database  could  relationships  only  would  a  model  hand,  ANSI  however  within  mapped  on  The  level,  be  and  sought  definition  conceptual  meta  i n the  views.  data,  a  schema  operational  described  at  system.  contained  schema  on  the  i t was  Each  BCS,  within  howe-  f u n c t i o n of  a  37  3  CHAPTER  USERS  The  data  OF T H E D A T A  dictionary  system  DICTIONARY  supports  three  main  c l a s s e s of  users:  1.  Those For  who these  pulated  2.  tion  who  are charged  processing  of data  lysts,  programmers,  Those  result.  or  objective.  which  They  a r e engaged  i s mani-  include  the  i n i t s day t o  the  seek  Administrator  providing data  users  provide  data  more  easily  and c o l l e c t i n g  data  and  desig-  systems  which They  i s  a  to control  data  reduce  include  and data  subject  i n aggregate  and Data  informa-  data  operators,  data  who  and  making  manipulation.  and i s used  that  goal  i s an o b j e c t  are individuals  summarizing  effort  them,  with  to  and implementing  itself  3.  These  services  retrievable,  For  a desired  some  dealings.  to users.  ning  data  o f a n e n t e r p r i s e who  business  Those  to accomplish  individuals,  to achieve  employees day  use data  the c l e r i c a l systems  entry  ana-  personnel.  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n  in  or conceptual  form  only.  such  Data  Base  as  the  P r o c e s s i n g Management.  38  Figure  2  d e t a i l s the interaction  1 5  t i o n s w i t h the data mechanical  dictionary.  of d i f f e r e n t  The m a t r i x  interfaces, with compilers  also includes  and d a t a  functwo  b a s e management  systems. We  will  d e a l w i t h each of these  mine, i n d e t a i l ,  their  interaction  groups i n t u r n and e x a -  with  the  data  dictionary  (DBA) i s t h e p r i m e u s e r  of the data  an e n t e r p r i s e ' s d a t a ,  the database  system.  3.1 The D a t a Base The  Administrator  database a d m i n i s t r a t o r  dictionary.  In  managing  a d m i n i s t r a t o r must " b u i l d a d a t a and  defines  well  as  the things that a r e important  who  uses  them,  used, the standards accuracy  dictionary  that apply,  and time l i m i t s " .  administrator are:  where t h e y  1 6  and  U h r o w c z i k , p.  correlates  t o an e n t e r p r i s e , a s  a r e u s e d , when t h e y a r e the  responsibility  Major f u n c t i o n s of  a  for  database  1 7  1. D a t a d e f i n i t i o n d o c u m e n t a t i o n .  1 5  that  To p r o v i d e  an  accurate  338.  1 6  John K. Lyon, The D a t a b a s e A d m i n i s t r a t o r W i l e y & Sons, 1976), p.5.  (New Y o r k : J o h n  1 7  Richard D. Secrest, "The Data Administrator," The I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s Handbook, e d . , F. W. M c F a r l a n and R. L. N o w l a n (Homewood, I l l i n o i s : Dow J o n e s - I r w i n , 1975) pp. 6 5 1 - 3 .  3 9  DATA ADMINISTRATION  y y y y y y y y y  y  y  y y  y  y  DOCUMENTATION OF E N T I T I E S DATA - P R O C E S S RELATIONSHIPS  y y  y y y y y / y y y y y y y y / y y y y y y y y y  y  y y  y y y  y  CONCEPTUAL IMPLEMENTATION MAPPING INCONSISTENCY CHECKS VERSION PLANNING  CONTROL INQUIRY  DATA D I V I S I O N SOURCE GENERATION D A T A B A S E SCHEMA GENERATION  y y  V A L I D A T I O N MODULE SOURCE GENERATION  y  A U D I T I N G QUERY GENERATION  y  y y  / y y y  M U L T I P L E DBMS INTERFACE DATA FLOW DESIGN AID  Figure Data D i c t i o n a r y  2 Functions  40 and c o m p l e t e d e f i n i t i o n  of each e n t i t y  used  by  an  or-  ganization .  2. The  selection  and  procurement  o f d a t a b a s e management  systems.  3. The a n a l y s i s o f d a t a and p r o c e s s i n g d e s i g n of the database  4. The  r e q u i r e m e n t s and  i n an o p t i m a l  p l a n n i n g , s u p e r v i s i o n , and  5. The d e v e l o p m e n t and e n f o r c e m e n t  manner.  review  l o a d i n g of t h e DBMS w i t h o p e r a t i o n a l  the  of  the  initial  data.  of d a t a b a s e s e c u r i t y  and  integrity standards.  6. D e f i n i t i o n  and d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s and s t a n d a r d s  for database  maintenance.  7. E v a l u a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g of d a t a b a s e  8. E n f o r c e m e n t  of database s t a n d a r d s c o m p l i a n c e .  9. T r a i n i n g and l i a i s o n In  will  with  users.  p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e f u n c t i o n s t h e DBA  hensive system.  performance.  r e q u i r e s a compre-  A properly developed data resource d i c t i o n a r y  s u p p o r t each of t h e s e  functions.  41  1.  Entity  documentation.  entity  definitions.  tionary to  by  the  maintain  into  metadata  to  The  of  changes  formalization  can  be  of  characterizing Volume,  access  dered.  The  The  3.  of  Once  work  restructuring  ensure  Users  central  necessary has  by  been  that once  can  definition.  the  applying docu-  distribute a l l  there  review  ensures  of  written  a d m i n i s t r a t o r can and  dic-  manipulation done  data  data  metadata  be  definitions  data  Database  a  database data  paths,  users  is  and  In  censug-  addition,  that  and  of  a  dictionary  design.  of  to  In  these  make  must  standards  the  designing  the  a l l  the  is  in  DBMS.  be  consi-  assist  system,  DBA  selection  in  i n the  in  identi-  requirements.  definitions  assist  task  system  performance data  major  parameters  management  satisfy  which  A  stored  structure  contains  attributes, necessary  be  database  that  systems. management  to  identification  candidates  data  management  the  selection  formance the  clerical  i s defined only  the  database  selection  fying  automated  can  than  contains  maintained.  Selection  the  the  definitions. to  an  questions  data  the  the  of  system,  database  Because  dictionary  automated  information  control  gest  use  reduces  routines rather  agree.  2.  an  gathered  tral  DBA  answer  mentation. the  The  data  data, d e f i n i t i o n s .  entered  systems  The  by  and  per-  formatting  decision.  database  structure  42  the  DBA  types  must  versus  the  DBA  tive  use  of  evaluate  the  performance  the  data.  typical  database  design.  data  resource  luate  alternative  By  redundancy In  statistics  show  He/she access  of  considerations.  r e q u i r e s usage of  level  can  then  speed  using  dictionary  perform  in arriving  information the  designs  which  DBA  should  in arriving  at  in  data  doing  this  the  rela-  an  analysis  a  realistic  at  stored  in  the  be  to  eva-  able  his/her  conclu-  sion.  Database by  loading.  users,  lected  and  signed, in  the  a  Once  definitions  database  installed,  management  and  i t i s necessary database.  The  the  data  in his/her  the  origin  data,  correctness,  and  data.  These  quests,  and  on  a  the  batch  source  ensure  that  before  he/she  Database  a  processes  update allows  the  complete  and  contains  to  definition the  security  and  de-  stored  the  data-  defining  data  use,  for i t s  access hoc  e x t r a c t data This  the  user to  data  central  is  re-  print  administrator of  se-  or  responsibility  database  integrity  been  assists  will  to  been  loaded  database.  load  has  i n c l u d e ad  which  the  by  which  could  programs  attempts  security  dictionary  ultimate  processes  r e p o r t , or  formation  the  task  agreed  has  t o ,be  dictionary  administrator  been  systems  database  for data  base  of  have  into  present  database.  standards. integrity  The  data  parameters.  43  Depending and a  on  the c l a s s  utilities  reference  tion  of  which  by  may  be  t h e DBA,  execution  or  time  for  database  t o be  processed  program  which  would  the  data  from  access  parameters tion  data  the  level  Database ware,  of  assist  by  would  be  a  or  standards  definition  the database  definition  able  modify  i t according  wing  the documentation  base DBA  to  tive  as  seded. in  identify  This  to  the  execu-  stored  of  with  in  the  database defining  evolution  of  other  static.  users'  one  would  by of  to  are or  be The  allodata-  allow  important  the database  is  needs.  are proposed, i s an  and  this  which  softIt  version  control  definitions  versions  any  in doing  than  those which  Documentation  security  system  definition  to the  version  those data  opposed  controlling  o f more  not  the  s u p p o r t s t h e DBA  definition.  paramedatabase  the  Like  is  n e c e s s a r y t o document  dictionary  the  validation  explicitly  maintenance.  data  updating  automated  by  pro-  enforced.  therefore to  time  through  security  as  implementa-  validation  enhance data  used  at compile or  less  would of  data  controlled  for integrity  control  i n the  Similarly,  verified  even  be  centralized  standard  be  i t may  require a  implemented  Execution  dictionary.  dictionary  administrator's  may  extract  However,  parameters  available,  would  could  which  time.  only  example,  security  software  procedures.  cedures,  ters  6 .  of metadata  the  effecsupertool  system,  as  44  it  p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and c o n t i n u i t y .  7. D a t a b a s e p e r f o r m a n c e . a  database  tics  management s y s t e m ,  that identify  data  In o p t i m i z i n g the performance  resource  t h e DBA r e q u i r e s  the u t i l i z a t i o n  dictionary,  of  the  assisted  management  system,  8. E n f o r c i n g  data and lize be  performance s t a t i s t i c s  compliance  the  of  database assist  standards.  the  DBA  in  the d e f i n i t i o n s assisted  definitions  s t o r e d i n t h e DRD.  by t h e u s e o f a u t i l i t y statements  The d a t a enforcing  s t o r e d i n t h e DRD.  centralized  sures that users w i l l  be e a g e r  and  liaison.  uti-  T h i s e f f o r t can  which  compares t h e with  the  Any d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e By u s i n g  documentation  stored i n the data  training  which  i n source programs  i n an e x c e p t i o n r e p o r t .  finitions  appro-  definitions  program data d e f i n i t i o n s u s i n g r o u t i n e s  sible,  for a l -  by e n s u r i n g t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t m e t h o d o l o g i e s f o r  data d e f i n i t i o n  9. U s e r  by  use i n c l u d e t h e g e n e r a t i o n of database  ported  the  and s t o r e d .  resource d i c t i o n a r y can standards  Because  s t o r e d on a d a t a -  t e r n a t e d a t a s t r u c t u r e s c a n be c a p t u r e d priate u t i l i t i e s  The  by u t i l i t i e s , c a n  i s not l i m i t e d t o c o n t r o l l i n g data  base  statis-  DBMS.  c a p t u r e and s t o r e p e r f o r m a n c e s t a t i s t i c s . DRD  of  a  vehicle,  highly v i t h e DBA e n -  t o m a i n t a i n and  use  de-  dictionary.  Because t h e d a t a  resource  45  dictionary  i s a centralized,  finition  tool,  the  o b j e c t of user gram  has  DBA h a s a p r o d u c t  established,  DRD  interface  the  Once d i f f i c u l t i e s  definitions  dictionary,  t h e DBA c a n a s s i s t  design.  In a d d i t i o n ,  after  in testing  The  trol  production  and  for inclusion  into  by new  of data them  This r e l i e v e s the  data d e f i n i t i o n s  for  t h a t maintenance of s y s data  versions,  until  i s complete. resource  dic-  i n much t h e same way a s a b u y e r u s e s an i n v e n t o r y  con-  system,  telligent cost.  not a f f e c t  database  over  analyst  new p r o g r a m s , k e e p i n g  systems and e n s u r e s  testing  i n computer  t h e DBA c a n t a k e c o n t r o l  a n a l y s t of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y over  tems w i l l  data  definition  systems  from p r o d u c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s .  production  of  By m a i n t a i n i n g a d a t a  the  p r o v i d i n g a c c u r a t e copy l i b r a r i e s  distinct  f u n c t i o n s a s an  of data  the database  requirements  used  pro-  i n o b t a i n i n g agreement  processing  definitions  training  h a v e been r e s o l v e d , i t i s much e a s i e r  f o r an a n a l y s t t o c o m p l e t e  programs.  de-  c a n be t h e  between u s e r views  the data processing a p p l i c a t i o n  data  which  Once a  been  systems.  tionary  f o r m a l i z e d data  training courses.  e a s i l y understood and  highly  administrator  uses the data  to provide the information necessary  decisions  which-  t o make i n -  o p t i m i z e p e r f o r m a n c e and m i n i m i z e  46  3.2  The  Systems  The first  Analyst  systems  is  the  analyst  development  ponsible  for identifying  user  and  translating  into  an  operational  The  performs  second  of  two  new  systems.  functional  that  main  and  functional  and  function  is modification  based  on  changing  user  business  environment,  an  increase  i n the  errors  more  i n the  In  sophisticated original  developing  metadata  terfaces. entities in  the  local the  1 8  A  such  local  occur  British  new  has  Computer  maintenance  needs,  due  system's  by  or  to  a  programming  of  of  the  the  procedures,  which  the  of  scope  i s subset  of to  system  files, the  and  of  design.  of  the the  its inutilizes  and  reports  enterprise.  the the  new  resul-  utilize  enterprise  description  identified  can  or  c o n c e p t u a l view  scope  an  correction  the  the  of a  scope  documenting  level  be  or  analyst  new  system,  global  view  a of  developed.  conceptual  i n the  res-  specification  the  model  can  data  system,  individuals,  high  analyst  enterprise,  which  as  is  requirements of  processing,  caused  c o n c e p t u a l view  conceptual  This  by  user  system  identifying  completing a  Once  a  dictionary  organization,  analyst  The  system.  system  from  An  data  existing  ting  functions.  desired  Society,  model system,  p.  10,  will the  p.  identify entities  17.  the  events  (individuals.,  47 data, procedures) volved.  These  entities.  which  a r e a f f e c t e d , and  processes  Definition  will  map  should  relationships  general  terms.  The  F i g u r e 3 ) , and  identifying put.  i n f o r m a t i o n flow diagrams  system  a n a l y s t to estimate the implementation  t o p r e p a r e an e s t i m a t e of c o s t s and  tem.  Supported  a n a l y s t can  to  which  functions  (see F i g u r e 4 ) ,  by a h i g h l e v e l  out-  translates  effort required  of d o c u m e n t a t i o n , for  the  conceptual  the d e t a i l e d data the f u n c t i o n s .  identifying lumes and  the  the  syssystem  implementation  w i t h user p e r s o n n e l .  table f o r implementation.  support  allow  b e n e f i t s f o r the  then review the j u s t i f i c a t i o n  the system  will  U s i n g t h i s l o c a l c o n c e p t u a l model as a b a s i s ,  1 9  metadata  1 9  system  fies  between  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d a t a , f u n c t i o n s , and  A f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the  and  in-  be a b l e t o p r o d u c e f u n c t i o n m a t r i c e s  the p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e  (see  of  processes  of the l o c a l c o n c e p t u a l model a l l o w s f o r  a n a l y s t - u s e r dialogue i n broad dictionary  specify  the  d e s i g n i n t o a systems design In doing t h i s the  i t e m s and The  the a n a l y s t  analyst  sui-  identi-  data s t r u c t u r e s necessary  a n a l y s t completes  the  to  design  by  u s e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and work s t a t i o n s , d a t a  vo-  p r o c e s s i n g f r e q u e n c i e s , s e c u r i t y and p r i v a c y  Kathleen S. Mendes, "Structured Systems Analysis: A Technique t o D e f i n e B u s i n e s s R e q u i r e m e n t s , " S l o a n Management R e v i e w , 2 1 , No. 4 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 55,56.  Function Matrix Warehousing  Responsibility  Function Warehousing  X  Determine Inventory Requirements  X  / / / p ' / / / * / / / / /  Predict Demand Monitor Stock Levels Verify Inventory Acquire Parts Accept Shipment Examine Contents Store Parts Record Parts Arrival  X X X X X  X  X  Dispatch Orders  X X  Assemble Orders Pack Orders Ship Orders Record Shipment  X  Figure Function  3 Matrix  X  X X  Information Flow Diagram Dispatch Orders  Stock Clerk  Customers O <-! 3  Packing Slips, Containers  0) rt  O I— O <  1  w• ID C •-t ft  Order Assembly File  D  Shipping Dock  Completed Order File  Purchase Orders Stock & Nonstock Parts  DJ OJ 3  Assembly Desk  Key: — ^  —Information or material flows  (^)  —Business functions  Accounts Receivable  — Information stores  ] ]  — Sources or destinations of information or material outside of the business operation — Sources or destinations of information outside of the network but inside the business operation  Inventory Kardex  50  constraints mentation the  programming  and  the  easily with  In viewing  the  impact  can  installation  can  until  a  identify  optimal  systems, which  resource of  the  the  or  to  data. effort  the  which is  analyst  can  be  By  for  or  a  identify  program the  the  is  on  analyst  ensure  change  re-  reviewing  a n a l y s t can  documentation,  that  can  complete.  is responsible  the  and  discussed  make m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o  enterprise conceptual  the  consistent  view.  Programmer  The  programmer  finitions  necessary  interested or  can  in  model  cross-references  structure  this  used  conceptual  in production.  output,  imple-  required to  with  files  analyst  With  system,  The  design  data  existing  3.3  and  a  the  shown,  design  this  system.  Using  is already  dictionary  change  the  the  of  documentation  both  those  v e r s i o n s of  result  the  store  to  processes  the  of  output  similar  The  systems  design.  system  data  detailed  database  modifying a  processes.  implementation  user  the  other  and  produce  the  and  i s the  metadata  graphical  0  data  design  The  2  on  i n the  database  Uhrowczik,  p.  uses to  data  the  prepare  directory  programs.  entities  structures,  332.  data  and  such  as  2  0  by The  extracting programmer  elements,  programming  entities  deis  records, such  as  51 modules, terested  programs  and  systems.  i n the physical  cteristics grammer  data d i r e c t o r y  In using a data d i r e c t o r y ,  output  tions,  system  has a compiler  which  independently  as  validation  data d i r e c t o r y  pro-  I f the  t h e programmer  of t h e program  i s used d u r i n g c o m p i l a t i o n .  to  Data  pro-  defini-  definitions,  r o u t i n e s , a r e l i n k e d t o t h e source code a  programmer h a s w r i t t e n . the  interface,  i n t h e form o f copy l i b r a r i e s and program  such  the  a t c o m p i l a t i o n or execution time.  uses t h e data d i r e c t o r y duce  are also i n -  l o c a t i o n of data and o p e r a t i n g c h a r a -  of programs.  interfaces  Programmers  In a d d i t i o n ,  t o generate  t h e programmer  can use  t a b l e s i n storage which  a pro-  gram c a n r e f e r e n c e . A data d i r e c t o r y database  used a t e x e c u t i o n time  i n t h a t t h e program c a l l s  t r a c t data d e f i n i t i o n s  the data d i r e c t o r y  ( f o r example, t o  teria  stored  cesses  ( f o r example t h e d a t a d i r e c t o r y ,  location  f o r data  elements),  information, could c a l l  retrieving  data).  i ssimilar  use  or t o control  generate stored  programmer data  DBMS  system  pro-  systems  in  The u s e o f t h e d a t a d i r e c t o r y a s an i n t e r -  can  for testing.  also  use  systems  is a  interface. the data  By u t i l i z i n g  directory  the data  i n t h e data d i c t i o n a r y and a u t i l i t y  to  definitions  which  c o n s i s t e n t t e s t d a t a b a s e d on t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s , mer  cri-  because i t s t o r e s data  additional  s o p h i s t i c a t e d e x e c u t i o n time  The  t o ex-  validation  m e d i a r y b e t w e e n t h e p r o g r a m s a n d m u l t i p l e DBMS highly  to a  the  generates program-  i s r e l i e v e d of t h e burden of c r e a t i n g a t e s t model.  The  52 d a t a r e s o u r c e d i c t i o n a r y can a l s o g e n e r a t e guage by  utilizing  The  emphasis  tionary ten.  Standard  in  the  p r o g r a m m e r ' s use  tionary  d e f i n i t i o n s and  calls,  special calculation  The  Operations  data resource d i c t i o n a r y  department  act  writdefini-  report headings,  routines  could  file  be  dic-  the  opera-  i n c o n t r o l l i n g p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m s by  provi-  as a l i b r a r i a n  operator  in  recovery/restart  users  tained.  and  Through  control.  programs  d a t a , and  resource  the  DRD  assist  Documentation  can  also  be m a i n t a i n e d .  of r e p o r t s c a n  d i c t i o n a r y , a i d e d by u t i l i t i e s ,  2 1  bet-  be  a  the of  r e c o r d s the mapping  reports, distribution  machine p r o d u c t i v i t y  British  utilities  By d o c u m e n t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l c o m p o n e n t s o f  data  In  can a s s i s t  f o r p r o g r a m s and  version for  system  Because the data r e s o u r c e d i c t i o n a r y  the  code  Department  ding standardized documentation.  ween  dic-  generated.  The  can  of the d a t a  program code such as e d i t modules, d a t a  d e f i n i t i o n s , and  lan-  the systems d e f i n i t i o n s s t o r e d .  database  tions  control  i s i n a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e amount of s o u r c e  tions,  3.4  job  mainsystem,  can  store  data.  providing this  information, three a d d i t i o n a l  Computer S o c i e t y , p.  22; ANSI/X3/SPARC, p.  types  27.  of  53 metadata a r e necessary:  1. S y s t e m s will  control  2 2  data.  a l l o w an o p e r a t o r  c u r i t y , and a c c e s s .  a) a c c e s s  rights  T h i s i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n which t o make d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  Information  to  data  p r o c e s s o r s ) , and output b) d i s t r i b u t i o n c)  se-  stored should include:  (databases),  devices  (word  (reports)  of r e p o r t s t o users  identification  of a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n of  jobs.  2. J o b management d a t a . t e s t and p r o d u c t i o n tion  concerning  In  supporting  jobs, the operator  device  to  restart processing,  action the  to allow recovery  necessary  execution  requires  requirements,  input during procesing t o c o n t r o l instructions  the  of  informa-  p a r a m e t e r s t o be  job control  language,  from system f a i l u r e s and  instructions  detail  the  when e r r o r m e s s a g e s a r e r e t u r n e d  from  s y s t e m p r o c e s s , and f i l e  and  which  program  version  con-  trol .  3. R e s o u r c e can  2 2  assist  management d a t a .  The d a t a  resource  dictionary  o p e r a t i o n s i n c o n t r o l l i n g and o p t i m i z i n g  ANSI/X3/SPARC, p.  27,8.  the  54  use  of  physical  identifies  system  levels  utilization  of  of  and  lization  Some  of  used  however,  the  to  this by  dictionary  provides  requirements  with  the  The  The  ment, the  data  effect of  are  must  for The  each  c r e a t i n g an  able  their  load  or  which  configuration,  demands,  failure  the  assignment  unavailability  charge  is held  back  of  in various  personnel. i n any  Much  of  of  place.  opportunity  oc-  device  uti-  to  and  utility  the  The  information,  data  formalize  to  sys-  resource  the  integrate  informa-  this  data  operations.  group  plan  systems,  essentially  be  view  individuals  Employees not  information  Group  resource.  of  and  and  operations  remaining  who  cessing  an  of  conceptual  User  tionary  information  documented  tion  3.5  when  storing  user.  operations  i s not  "and  accounting  the  by  devices  alternate devices  curs,  tems  devices  to  who  relate  are  the  can end  make  users  continuing  proliferation  using  their  own  functional  becoming their  to  of  data and  a  data  base,  data  and  dic-  manage-  development  specialized  of  data  pro-  had  the  has  i s composed  of  a  number  entities.  functionally  tasks  use  of  use  of  e n t e r p r i s e which  independent  are  that  the  specialized  overall  and  may  operation  of  55  the  business  more are  difficult  the  no  data  of  globally new  and  dictionary each  employee,  that can  can  is  can  the  for a  i n one  new  a model can  of  storage  of  functional  a  can  "  t o be  be  metadaboth  for  the  the  data  performed  and.  The  of  the  problems  The  metadata  conceptual  area  these  within  between  information.  at  functions,  stored  The  meet  exacerbated  perspective  i s shared  at  can  information.  2  functions,  them.  which  employee  input  of  business  a c c e s s i b l e source  stored  the of,  functions are those  been  employees.  matrices  to complete that  of  some  provide  an  employees  sharing  of  coordination  If  has  entry  resolves  of  which  output  central,  the  data  dictionary  functions data  analyzed  and  dictionary  information level.  about  Changes to  by  in  identify  areas.  planners  information  2  the  affected As  2 3  the  other  t o , and  which  identify  that  process  makes  a l l functions  used.  allow  Responsibility  organization  procedures other  provide  know  is  This  which  information  document  allows  can  necessary  identify  made  training  locally,  employee.  be  dictionary  i n the  dictionary  which  the access  metadata  in turn,  individuals  business.  systems  reducing  assisting  ta  fewer  This,  3  the data  the  capture  The  2  guarantee can  needs  source,  by  as  p e r f o r m e d and  leaves,  by  enterprise.  of  systems,  information management  B r i t i s h Computer S o c i e t y , p.  usage  can  use  and  the  the  development  same  of  conceptual  9.  " L a w r e n c e W. K r e i t z e r , "Data D i c t i o n a r i e s -IRM," I n f o s y s t e m s , 28, No.2 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 6 4 , 6 .  The  Heart  of  56 metadata  d i c t i o n a r y to  serve  needs  the  efficient gement,  it  2  The  5  i s used.  data  to  flow  of  those  The  quo  of  external The  should to  2 5  respond  third  to  the  does  not  for  more  between  mana-  system  ensure  and  that,  an  In  essence  control  change a  maintained, needs  and  how of this  organization.  to  the at  neces-  dissemination  i t .  of  are  is stored,  ability  system  be  data  require  i s the  can  things  controlled  who  provide  necessary  organization  focus  to  on  the  data the  to  over  data  centralize  Computer  is a  optimally  controls  British  allows  planning  three  where  information  factor  system  and  for  information  usage  This  model  minimum, and  based  in  on  the  the  de-  usage a  of  status  organiza-  changes  in i t s  environment.  i n an  mation  know  information  information can  resource,  control will  data  users.  requirement  the  This  tion  data  of  and  i s to  allows  i s the  the  information  individuals  second  velopment  of  data  first  This  data  data.  the  where  organization.  processing,  managing  sary.  the  communication  data  In  of  identify  for  plan meet  for user  a p p l i c a t i o n of users.  These  collection, the  p.  the  data plans  8.  over  change  management in  the  requirements.  ordering,  authority  Society,  successful  will  be  storage data.  infor-  This  processing able and  of  plan  resources to  impose use  of  57  CHAPTER  SURVEY  OF  COMMERCIAL  4  DATA  DICTIONARIES  Introduct ion  This currently the  major  from  four  chapter available  each  1.  Table  was  data  dictionary  mately  2.  one h a l f  also  The  four  Systems, This  of  C.  the d e f i n i t i o n ,  study  of by was  products.  information  most  Seven Belkis  to date.  It  features  of  s i x major  spends  approxi-  the data  descrip-  and  attributes.  Data  Element  Leong-Hong  published  This  comprehen-  and then e v a l u a t e s  describing  for  were:  Lefkovits.  and  the author  obtained  f o r a l l packages  systems  use  packages represent  publications  dictionary  f o r the e n t i t i e s  Directory  obtained  i n 1977, a n d i s t h e  of the text  Profile  packages  commercial  by H e n r y  systems,  Technical  dictionary  f o r t h e r e v i e w was  In t h e e v a l u a t i o n ,  language  Marron.  These  the source  of data  describes  systems.  was  Systems  published  data  evaluated  reviewed.  discussion  briefly  five  Data  1 summarizes  Dictionary  sive  tion  which  literature  of the systems  book  i n use.  publications  Data  examine  commercially.  systems  Manufacturers reviewed.  will  i n 1977.  Dictionary/  and  Beatrice  \  \  \ \ \ \ \  00  P P  1 PM W  DCS -  DDS  CINCOM  EH  EH  s  -  ««; o  «»;  ICI  W  00 P 00  DAW  P  IBM-DB/DC  M EH O M  w o «*; z  DICTIONARY  K z o  CULLINANE - IDD  CC  M  UNIVERSITY COMPUTING UCC-10  w w  SYNERGETICS DATA CATALOGUE 2  \»  Table I Information  Sources —  Data D i c t i o n a r y  Packages  59  Three  quarters  tionaries,  of  defined  the the  the  feature  list  used  The  profile  consists  publication  described  survey methodology, to evaluate  of  52  the  features  data  and  described  seven  presented  dic-  systems. in  tabular  form.  Data  Dictionary  published in  the  in  1977,  United the  and  with  data  dictionary  sion  extensive.  A  Survey  E.  Martin  1981, tionary  of  Data  unlike  a  systems  which  each  system,  entities,  focusing  inputs,  and  The  40%  by  look at run  on  24  interfaces.  of  of  the  Robert  the  M.  of  data  discus-  in  within  one the  and  March  nine popular data  360/370,  a  used  Curtice  published  IBM  book  input  where  was  available  questions is  authors allocated dataflow  book  implementation  examination  article,  would  on  and  This  systems  in Lefkovits,  brief  computers.  eight  s e t of  No  This  presented  30XX  A  Dictionaries  Diekmann.  and  uses  packages.  i s done,  Lomax.  Approximately  system.  language  J.D.  reviewed  definition,  e v a l u a t e the  was  by  Kingdom.  deals  to  Systems  dic-  43XX, page  to  system,  60  The  author's  analysis  of  each  package  will  focus  on  four  characteristics:  1.  The  entity  types  2.  The  methods  supported  by  each  available  to  input  produced  by  the  system.  data  into  the  dictionary  system.  3.  The  output  libraries,  4.  4.1  Security  database  (e.g.  reports,  copy  definitions).  features available  i n each  system.  Datamanager  Datamanager and  i s reported  IBM  port  on  IMS, IBM  i s marketed to  Assembler  operate  the  system  1.  of  installations.  the  IBM  360/370  and  It  is  It will  Datamanager  DBMS s y s t e m s  which  are  England,  written  environment.  mainframes.  other  London,  will  in also sup-  supported  on  hardware.  Datamanager defined  Inc.  500  compatible  DL/1,  MSP,  have  for  any  by  syntax.  ITEM. language  The  supports  seven  The  entities  main  lowest  alias,  level  main  of  description,  entities  as  well  as  user  are:  data  with  input  and  attributes output  such  as  formats,  61 name,  length,  GROUP.  A group  unlimited  FILE,  picture,  Attributes describe  is  include  CONTENT,  which  IMS-DATABASE SEARCH-KEY,  MODULE.  with  have  CALLS,  attributes rather  SYSTEM. processing  The  using  SIZE.  attributes  For  example,  as  SEGMENT,  LOGICAL-PARENT a n d LOGICALf o r each  of program  action.  of  and  which  language  The a t t r i b u t e s  the  state-  o f MODULE  UPDATES.  of modules.  CALLing  hierarchy,  ORGANIZATION  DEVICE and  such  are provided  a s MODULES,  SYSTEM,  which  Datamanager.  i s a group  than  as  attributes  INPUTS, OUTPUTS,  which  as w e l l  database.  is a collection an  a n d GROUPS.  a n d FORMAT,  the database that  attribues  performing  MODULES  to  s u p p o r t e d by  This  PROGRAM,  or groups,  ITEMS  SORT p a r a m e t e r s ,  PHYSICAL-PARENT,  Special  databases  ments  will  of  ALIGNMENT,  defines  are particular  CHILD.  of items  collection  sequential),  DATABASE,  same  a  t h e I T E M S a n d GROUPS,  (indexed,  are  is a collection  range.  nesting.  which  which  and v a l u e  except  PROGRAMS that  have t h e  they  CONTAIN  them.  i s the highest  i s composed  level  o f PROGRAMS,  or  i n the other  62  SYSTEMS  to  subsystems  are both  Datamanager ties. and  This  also  is  CATALOG  example,  an u n l i m i t e d l e v e l  allows  done  ITEMS.  PROCESS  SYSTEM  entities  butes.  Conceptual  Datamanager  entities  designs  questions  identify  ment.  GROUP  entity.  of user  Datamanager  enti-  entities  relationships.  For  a r e d e f i n e d a s GROUPS c o n t a i n i n g  are a  and have  entities.  the basic  establish  entities  special  case  of  Datamanager  DATAFLOW  a s INPUT a n d OUTPUT  can  documented  Using  be search  commands,  using  attriregular  a n d t h e CATALOG  such a s :  WHAT FORMS could  to  Systems and  by t h e SYSTEM  f o r the d e f i n i t i o n  by u s i n g  attributes  DATAFLOW  attributes,  represented  of n e s t i n g .  'DATAFLOW'  the dataflows entities  used  'ACCOUNTING' by  the  accounting  i n the accounting  depart-  department would  be  coded: CATALOG  'DATAFLOW' 'ACCOUNTING'  Input Utilities COBOL  are provided  and  ADABAS, tions  t o Datamanager  PL/1  data  c a n be done  for extracting divisions,  a n d S/2000 d a t a b a s e  them  into  the data  DBA  to identify  data  i s entered  dictionary.  inconsistencies into  by  or i n batch  mode.  data  definitions  from  and from  management  c a n be s t o r e d a n d m o d i f i e d  online  systems.  the  DBA  T h e CONVERT w h i c h must  the dictionary.  IMS,  IDMS, These  before  command  TOTAL, definiloading  allows the  be r e s o l v e d  before  63  Datamanager stored also  in  the  produces  REPORT  currence  in  for  system,  listing  a l l attributes.  reference  which  list  PROGRAMS) a r e a v a i l a b l e  control  have  Datamanager, divisions  for  through  as Data  Definition  IMS,  D L / 1 - D 0 S - V S , MARK  assigns  priority vided  security  than  GROUPS  online which  the  a FILE oc-  and  ITEMS. o r ITEMS  mode.  allow  These  the user  to  statements  f o r three  T h e CONTROLLER  and  levels  the user  level  required.  levels  access  assigned  permits  of  generates  and p r i o r i t y  are  their  level  prepares  data  IV programs,  f o r ADABAS,  as  IDMS,  IV, S/2000, a n d TOTAL.  allows  level  that  using the  lower  P L / 1 , B A L a n d MARK  USERS a r e g i v e n  CONTROLLER  i s done  t h e PRODUCE command,  Language  passwords  2. U S E R S .  and  parameters  and  well  1. C O N T R O L L E R .  Datamanager  of information d i s p l a y e d .  COBOL  Datamanager  to  entities  a s ITEMS i n F I L E S ,  i n batch  selectivity  t h e amount  (such  the  EMPLOYEE-FILE,  a l l references usage  This  of  references  F o r example,  identifying  commands  each  reports.  traces a l l  occurrence. will  Commands  reports  cross  command,  specified  produces  security:  the dictionary to users.  to the dictionary a  priority to perform  i s equal  and  by t h e  level.  The  commands  pro-  to or higher  than  the  64  3.  OWNERS.  OWNERS  occurrences access  and  to their  This and,  allows  further,  entity  c a n have  1. A c c e s s  2. A l t e r  3.  security  batch  from  priority  entity  levelsf o r  USERS.  from  o f commands  individual  issued  users  by USERS.  An  levels:  controls  commands  used  to  output  the dictionary.  which  controls  addition  and m o d i f i c a t i o n  i n the dictionary.  security,  which  controls  the deletion  of data  Dictionary  primarily  Dictionary  IBM  or  i s IBM's d i c t i o n a r y  f o rthe support  6 DL/1 d a t a b a s e s  region  o f IMS a n d DL/1  and w i l l  plug-compatible  o f 560K o f v i r t u a l  DB/DC D a t a categories  which  dictionary  define  t o be p r o t e c t e d  three  DB/DC D a t a  on  t o other  of  the dictionary.  utilizes  DL/1,  i n turn,  groups  security,  4.2 DB/DC D a t a  It  ownership  from  occurrences  from  tended  data  security,  Remove  The  may,  data  information  of  a r e given  Dictionary  (entities).  to  15  allows  i n -  databases.  only  mainframes.  storage  supports  It also  support  system  IMS  and  I t requires  a  run.  pre-defined  subject  f o r u p t o 200 u s e r - d e -  65  fined  categories  broken  1.  2.  down  Data  into  a)  ELEMENT  b)  SEGMENT  c)  PCB  d)  DATABASE  SYSTEM  b)  JOB  c)  PROGRAM  d)  MODULE  Data  Interface  a)  TRANSACTION  b)  PSB  c)  SYSDEF  d)  DDUSER  or  included  can  be u s e d  to  PCB which  entities  c a n be  groups.  entities:  c a n be u s e d  a group,  are  The  supplied  entities:  a)  ELEMENT data  three  T h e IBM  entities:  Process  3.  (entities).  through  f o r COBOL f o r both  entity  an  t h e CONTAINS  o r PL/1  IMS  i s used  a program  to identify  specific  segment  attribute.  unit  the c o l l e c t i o n  Attributes  of  Attributes  definitions.  and conventional  to describe  has access.  indivisible  SEGMENT  record use. o f ELEMENTS  o f t h e PCB  identify  66  whether or  a  used  i t is associated teleprocessing  to  describe  with  a  database,  transaction.  both  DL/1  The  databases  a  conventional  DATABASE  and  file  entity  non-DL/l  can  files  be  (data  sets).  Processing as  entities  Name, D e s c r i p t i o n  Process  entities  and  and  data  command.  attributes  such  as  (PGMTYPE),  whose  (database),  and  allowable  entities the  tionary  and  (DDUSER),  user  programs  and  transactions  information  and  document  IMS/VS  to  document  particular  User tional  the  the  CATEGORY,  system  i n an  the  for  set  up  have  T  such  between  using  the  additional program  type  (teleprocessing),  the  PROGRAMMERS  D  can  be  specification  system  the  and  (PSB),  and  DDUSER  the the  program  SYSDEF  are  dic-  database  contains  information;  which  data  of  and  security i s used  PSB  is  available  to  used to  a  environment.  are  CATEGORY user or  the  a l l users.  segments IMS  for  between  definition  entities  example,  ALIASes  allow  (TRANSACTION).  database  defined  DOCUMENTS,  are  database  passwords  program  For  be  (PGMLNG) a n d  relationship  "meta-entities".  entity.  attributes  BATCH.  describing  the  can  entities  language values  by  relationships  entities  entities  on-line  Simple  PROGRAM  program  interface  (SYSDEF),  a l l described  User.  ADD-RELATIONSHIP  Data  are  may  defined  identifies want  to  DEPARTMENTS.  recorded,  by  a  using  three  addi-  the  user-defined  store  a t t r i b u t e s of  In  DESCRIPTION  defining can  be  the main-  67  tained, user  and syntax  to define  for  named  entities  attributes  relationships and system,  Input  forms,  batch  input  captured  f o r the  or other  include  stream,  f o r bulk  from  COBOL  Data  description  ATTRTYPE  category.  user-defined  entities.  explanation  source  entry.  frames, Data  statements  definitions  or  can also  (DBD) a n d p r o g r a m  allows  user-defined  D i c t i o n a r y i s through  data  allows the  RELTYPE  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n  which  declarations. base  c a n be d e f i n e d .  t o t h e DB/DC D a t a  play  be  rules  online  dis-  or through  a  d e f i n i t i o n s can PL/1  structure  be c r e a t e d  from  data-  specification  block  (PSB)  i n c l u d e s both  r e p o r t s and  libraries.  Output generated reports  1.  from  source  through  REPORT. All  the data  statements.  DB/DC D a t a  This  command  and d e f i n i t i o n s  generated this  Dictionary  produces  two c o m m a n d s :  o r some a t t r i b u t e s  names  2.  dictionary  i s used  t o do e n t i t y  of a given of e n t i t y  programming  code  entity types,  can  also  reporting.  occurrence, or  reports  be p r i n t e d  the of  using  command.  SCAN.  This  cified  character  tion entity  field type.  command  of  allows  string an  the user  i n t h e NAME,  entity  type  to search  for a  or e n t i t y  or a s p e c i f i e d  spe-  descriprelated  68 Generated definitions data  source  statements  (DBD-OUT),  structures  program  in  (STRUCTURE-OUT).  c a n be c r e a t e d  status  COBOL,  Users  can  PL/1  with  the data  dictionary  command.  These  programs  c a n be u s e d  provide customized  interface tionary is  is  databases  possible  error  through  No  through  the data  language  utilities using  to produce  which  t h e EXECUTE  custom  on-line  and does  update  and f o r  Assembler  database  the D i c t i o n a r y  database  (PSB-OUT)  other  messages t o  directly.  except  or  implement  interact  or  blocks  for  reports  users.  The  not access  of the d i c t i o n a r y  dictionary  dicdata  validation  rou-  tines.  Security ject  category.  status the  i s  codes  DB/DC D a t a  Attributes can  communication  allow  f o r read,  4.3  Data  in  ANSI  machines a  large  Corp.  COBOL  t h e u s e o f t h e DDUSER  as  User  level  and update  ID,  Signon or  level.  sub-  password  and  c a n be c o n t r o l l e d the  IMS/VS  The  security  access  to  a  or  at  CICS  features  pre-specified  (entities).  2  2  is  a  of Bedford, a n d c a n be  and t h e i r number  menu  interface  Catalogue  Synergetics  such  categories  Catalogue  through  specified.  or read  of subject  Data  be  Dictionary  data  number  provided  plug  dictionary  Massachusetts.  implemented  compatible  o f DBMS  package  on  IBM,  It  and  is  UNIVAC  counterparts.  interfaces  marketed  It  i s designed  by  written and  CDC  features for large  69  organizations.  Over  o f whom a r e non-DBMS Data and  150 i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d , one users.  Catalogue  2 supports  user-defined entity  types.  a l a r g e number o f p r e - d e f i n e d The b a s i c  entities  are:  1. D a t a e n t i t i e s a)  such a s :  ELEMENT  b) GROUP c ) RECORD d)  FILE  e)  DATABASE  2. P r o c e s s  entities  such a s :  a) MODULE b) PROGRAM c ) SYSTEM  3. C o n c e p t u a l  entities  such a s :  a) EXTERNAL b) TASK c ) USER  4.  Information a)  REPORT  b) FORM  half  interchange  entities  such a s :  supported  70  5.  Database a)  SEGMENT  b)  SSA  c)  PSB  The for  user  these  The an  specific  can a l s o  entities  external  RESPONSIBILITY, MODULES,  REPORTS (IBM's  or  TASKS, data  methodology. DATAFLOW  Catalogue  through  fixed  format  specified torial  batch  prompted  which  a l l o w s an  stored  Input  Processing  2 supports both  input  entry  from  t o be  Catalogue  or  include  be  referenced  may  reference  2 supports  HIPO  documentation  such  on-line  on p o s i t i o n a l  and  language.  A  as  PROCESS,  extracts  users. data  feature  batch  data  facility  for  parameters  On-line entry  occurrence  describe  the vendor.  for inexperienced  entity  Data  entities  based  An a d d i t i o n a l  may  Output)  input  which  to  EXTERNAL  Catalogue  by  attributes  entities.  and  based  environment.  i n the d i c t i o n a r y  Output  f o r using  are proposed  by a u t i l i t y  programs.  USERS  Data  keyword  i n a CICS  facilitated COBOL  a  for Forms  entities.  a n d DATASTORE  Data input  a n d LOCATION.  Techniques  types,  as a mini-computer,  provided  and  IMS):  c a n be u s e d  r e s o u r c e such  SYSTEMS,  Hierarchical  (for  to other  EXTERNAL,  Attributes NAME,  as  other entity  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  processing  guide.  such  specify  conceptual entity,  procedural  by  entities  features Data  to  tu-  input i s  definitions  i s t h e RENAME  similar  c a n be  from command  one  already  both  on-line  generated.  2 c a n be p r o d u c e d  71  and  i n batch,  through  1. O n - l i n e three  a)  or  five  batch  basic  output  ad  hoc  queries.  These  a  t h e number  of  occurrences  of  occurrences.  LIST  - which  returns  t h e names  c)  SHOW - w h i c h  returns  the a t t r i b u t e s of  query  language  sophisticated  2. R e p o r t s .  a)  reports  for  specific  c)  USAGE  which  a number  occurrences.  of modifiers  to allow  a  requests.  which  types  return  entity  of  reports:  a l l attributes  occurrence  stored  or f o r the e n t i r e  type  HIERARCHY entity  has  are four  CATALOG  entity  b)  search  There  a  use  query.  b)  The  queries  commands:  COUNT - t o i d e n t i f y satisfy  interfaces:  reports  which  show  a l l components  of  an  occurrence  reports  which  identify  the references  t o an  item  d)  RELATIONAL between  reports  which  a l l entities.  produce The  a  resulting  cross-reference report  can use  72  one  o f a number  o f names  or a l i a s e s  stored  for  each  entity.  3.  Data  definition  generated  f o r a number  including IDMS,  IMS,  DMS1100,  4. P r o g r a m  language  data  of  and program database  DL/1-D0S/VS,  control  blocks are  management  TOTAL,  systems  ADABAS,  MARK I V ,  f o r COBOL,  PL/1 a n d  during  execution  validation  for users,  and S/2000.  divisions  are generated  Assembler.  5.  Programs time  can c a l l  to extract  Security and  level  Users  4.4  is  the data  data.  provided  of a u t h o r i t y  c a n be a s s i g n e d  dictionary  by p a s s w o r d  f o r command ownership  execution  to specific  and data  access.  entries.  UCC-10  UCC-10 Dallas,  i s marketed  Texas.  installations (90%)  cesses.  using  IBM's  IMS  as a  Computing supporting  or DL/1.  Company tool  It i s written  to  of  those  i n COBOL  language.  has e i g h t  There  University  I t i s intended  and Assembler  UCC-10  by  basic  are also  entities  13 a d d i t i o n a l  to describe entities  data  used  and  pro-  i n an  IMS  73 data  communications  environment  terminal  entities.  tionships  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d  processing generate tities  entities  IMS/DC  used  and  systems  UCC-10  data.  between are  A  uses  field  field  and  CBLN  (COBOL  and  program  (which  in  and  utilities  The e i g h t  to  basic  en-  the i n d i v i s i b l e  unit  name).  uses  p i c t u r e ) , JUST Relationships  this  as FLN  (justification),  t o segments  attribute to identify Attributes  are maintained  The segment  or as a record  Attributes the  include  segment  a variable  butes.  by a t t r i b u t e s s u c h  (SGN),  secondary  of l i s t s  a r e LIST  with  segments  list).  (SGN)  and  a s a n IMS  seg-  (FLD).  Segment.  Some  segment  ments  UCC-10  rela-  data,  i s t h e name) a n d T T L ( a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  fields  the  code.  t o denote  the database.  Relationships  is  allow  and  (PGN) a r e m a i n t a i n e d .  UCC-10  indexes  of  by  i s described  PIC (COBOL-type  ment  entities  communications,  used  operations  (name),  2. L i s t .  3.  communications  communications  b y UCC-10 a r e :  1. F i e l d . of  The  to describe  e n t i t y c a n be u s e d  in a conventional SGN  (segment  in bytes),  length  record),  of these  within  MINB  file  name),  and  and d e f i n e  length  size  IMS-related  attributes define  parents  (the  ( t h e minimum  t h e IMS h i e r a r c h y .  c a n be l o g i c a l  MAXB  environment.  i f  i t  attri-  the p o s i t i o n of  F o r example, logical  seg-  children  74  (LCN)  and the database  parents  Data a  This  s e t group  conventional lude  which  they  are  logical  (LDB).  S e t Group.  data  within  name  BLK2),  i s used  by UCC-10 t o d e f i n e  i n t h e IMS e n v i r o n m e n t  data  (DSN),  device  entity  storage  input type  or a f i l e  environment.  or  output  (DEV),  in  Attributes  blocksize  the  inc-  (BLK1 o r  a n d o t h e r OS o r IMS  attri-  butes .  Database. as  well  (which  as  entity  OS  i t  identifies  HDAM d a t a b a s e ) ,  generation to  programs  gical  identify  a  DL/1  and data  There  and data  Module.  The module  ty.  Attributes  LANG  (the source  sets  such  of a randomizing additional  position  databases a s DL/1  and  routine f o r  parameters The  this  RMOD  for  the  relationships  entity  as a l o -  a r e no r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between  sets.  i s the lowest  o f t h e module language  or analyst  level  a r e MDN  of process  ( t h e module  of the module),  responsible  30 c h a r a c t e r d e s c r i p t i o n ) .  programs.  IMS  database),  o f a DL/1 o r IMS d a t a b a s e .  programs  (a  as  to define  I t s attributes,  t h e name  connection.  grammer  i s used  files.  identifies  (which a  This  PGMR  f o rthe module), Modules  entiname),  (the proand TTL  c a n be l i n k e d t o  75  7.  Transaction.  This  conversation  input  handling the  of  transaction  ction  record.  region  will  to identify  Attributes  class;  modify  pad area  deal  IMS  time  or  CLAS,  not  the  SPAL, t h e  whether  the transa-  and g e n e r a t e s  Transactions  IMS/DC  include  database;  and TYPE,  in real  response.  They  an o n - l i n e  with  IQRY, w h e t h e r  an  location;  i s processed  diate  i s used  the transaction input.  IMS m e s s a g e  scratch  entity  an  c a n be l i n k e d  imme-  to a  pro-  gram.  8. P r o g r a m .  UCC-10  butes  such  source  language),  four  a s PGN  types: an  process  messages  Segments  Input  where  On-line processed 10 from  to  has  data  UCC-10  entry  utilities  which a DL/1  data  c a n be d o n e  a r e used  batch to  update allow  IMS o r DL/1  program  with  be  one  of  messages i n does not  and  a  UCC-10  such  as  prostores FIELD,  entity.  i n o n - l i n e or batch and f i x e d the  format data  include queries  or executed  database  attri-  LANG ( t h e  which  DL/1.  entities,  to identify  data  can  run i n batch,  of free  transactions  with  can process  i n t h e PROGRAM  are a mixture  through  existing  to other  keywords  A program  not i n t e r f a c e  and Databases  statements  ments,  mode,  entities  of the program),  and can o n l y  does  relationships  ( t h e name  program  on-line  which  program  and TYPE.  a DL/1  batch,  gram  Input  supports  mode. stateinput.  a n d c a n be  immediately.  definitions  UCC-  t o be e x t r a c t e d  definitions,  as  well  as  76 from  and PL/1  COBOL  UCC-10 ported. cify and  Parameters  criptions  are  (called  stored  in  (which  UCC-10  f o r words name  has u t i l i t i e s  generation,  (SSA)  and t o support  IMS.  UCC-10  areas,  and Terminal  UCC-10  As would  environment.  nated  as read  I/O data  the  for  program  PL/1  COBOL,  from  and the  (HFR) o r r e a d  rela-  general  des-  occur-  reports  (KWIC)  name,  title,  text.  f o r data-  database  calls of  and Assembler  I/O  transactions.  the entity  i n a n OS  types,  o r DOS  this  data  i n a non-IMS o r non-DL/1  a r e implemented  codes.  un-  facilities  IMS o r D L / 1  as well  spe-  attributes  statements  communications  features  security  IMS  to  selected  element  maintenance  not function  only  of  sup-  or contains  i n context  areas,  to support  i s obvious  terminal  the type  in UCC-10),  to generate  Security  Security  the user  or i n the d e s c r i p t i o n  generates  i s designed  environment.  o f IMS  also  in  entity  r e p o r t s output  Keyword  program the  allow  attribute  stored  fields  f o r each  be w h e r e - u s e d  Glossary  i n t h e TEXT  base  use  may  the dictionary.  or PL/1  dictionary  occurrence,  CONNECTIONS  t o be o u t p u t .  provided  COBOL,  i n t h e REP command  structure  tionships)  s e t of r e p o r t s  of the entity  relationships  derlying  areas.  has a complete  t h e name  rences  I/O  Terminals  and w r i t e  can  (HFD).  through be  the  desig-  77  4.5  IDD  IDD  i s  Systems, IDMS  a  data  as a  (which  mation. define  dictionary  front  end t o t h e i r  i s a CODASYL  IDMS  developed  the database  IDMS d a t a b a s e .  format  automatically  database)  updates  schema.  by C u l l i n a n e IDD  to store  the dictionary  Database utilizes  its when  IDD i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e  inforusers  over  200  installations.  Entity basic  data  support  processing  1.  SYSTEM  2.  PROGRAM  3.  MODULE  4.  ENTRY P O I N T  5.  FILE  6.  RECORD  7.  ELEMENT  8.  USER  There  are  documentation used  i n IDMS  also  extensive.  There  are  eight  entities  which  allow  entities:  nine  of on-line  i f IDMS-DC  i s  teleprocessing  systems.  is installed.  These  A s many  entities  may  only  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  be  78  and  attribute  compilers.  values  These  1.  PANEL  2.  MAP  3.  LINE  4.  PHYSICAL  5.  LOGICAL  are automatically generated  by  IDMS-DC  entities are:  TERMINAL TERMINAL  6. D E S T I N A T I O N 7.  QUEUE  8.  TASK  9.  MESSAGE  Finally, users  IDD a l l o w s  to define  attributes.  f o r two  attributes  "meta-entities"  of e n t i t i e s  which  allow  and c l a s s e s or types  of  They a r e :  1. C L A S S 2. A T T R I B U T E  All  standard  relationships example, ELEMENTS grams,  can  with be  and so on.  subprograms  entities entities related This  except  for entry  o f t h e same to other  allows  type.  SYSTEMS,  point  can have  SYSTEMS,  ELEMENTS  f o r s t r u c t u r e s such  o r s y s t e m s a n d s u b s y s t e m s t o be  for  to other as  pro-  recorded.  79  In  addition,  relationships  IDD p r o v i d e s  between  entities.  SYSTEM  OF  SYSTEM  USER  RESPONSIBLE  PROGRAM  USER  PREPARED, R E S P O N S I B L E  PROGRAM  SYSTEM  WITHIN  SYSTEM  PROGRAM  MODULE  MODULE  USED  PROGRAM  RECORD  RECORD C O P I E S  FILE  USER  PREPARED, U S E R - I S  RECORD  USER  PREPARED, U S E R - I S  RECORD  FILE  WITHIN  be  Key  and  are provided  elements allows  a Record.  ELEMENT other wever, user  RELATIONSHIP ATTRIBUTE  USER  may  to  be r e d e f i n e d ,  will  to define  FILE,  by  b y t h e RECORD  ELEMENT  users  between  records  t o be  related  allows  the  I N D E X KEY a n d  definition,  IDD a l s o  relationships  the  substatement  also  VALUE,  T h e ELEMENT  KEY  through  ELEMENT  substatement  i n the d i c t i o n a r y .  ELEMENT-RECORD  includes  of elements  i . e . PICTURE,  c a n be c h a n g e d .  not change  SYSTEM  Relationships  or structures  T h e RECORD  attributes  defined  IS" statment.  elements  identify  Examples a r e :  TARGET ENTITY  "Relational  to  which  SOURCE ENTITY  Relationships  which  forattributes  ho-  allows the  by u s i n g  a  COBOL-  80 type  substatement.  used  to  ELEMENT be  set  set  up  of  COBOL  RECORD-ELEMENT  is  not  on  does  not  through  the  existence  of  or  to  SYSTEMS  The within  IDD  the  ty  code  to  relationships.  PANELS  be Any  will  MAPS,  and  can  be  MAPS a n d  from  MAPS  also  The  can  be  messages  error  RECORDS compiler  records from  text,  to  the  PROGRAMS  be  messages,  entities  IDMS-DC u s e s  between  PANELS.  for  MESSAGE  Message  only  the  Language  IDMS-DC m a p p i n g IDD  to  for  MAPs a n d  relationships  allows  Messages  stored.  the  allow  Definition  between  statement.  entity  messages.  by  MAP,  relationships  Dictionary  done  and  and  and  relationships  RECORDS  messages.  error  cution  syntax  dictionary  PANEL  screens Data  is  system.  control are  build  MESSAGE  the  DC  The  This  USING  entities,  on-line  screens.  ELEMENTS.  MESSAGE  or  supported  destination,  stored  by  and  entities  operaIDMS-  severiat  exe-  time.  The  remaining  TERMINAL, to  LOGICAL  document  TASKS  are  grams WITHIN a  which  regular  ;  and  compiler  used  and  teleprocessing  systems  tor  to  allows  up.  documentation  and  RECORDS  referred  The  or  This  TASK  teleprocessing  TERMINAL, an  on-line  DESTINATION,  PRIORITY.  TASKS  QUEUE  LINE, and  PHYSICAL TASK  are  INVOKE  pro-  environment.  teleprocessing  systems.  entities,  can  work  units.  be  assigned  Tasks a  SECURITY  CLASS  81 QUEUES cessing number TASK)  This  (THRESHOLD)  to  i s invoked  DESTINATION  Relationships terminals  A  tem,  and  to  a  SYSTEM  device  The  use  LINE  which  LINE  entity  ships  (WITHIN  purposes.  can  the  system  a  telepro-  to  task  allow  a  (THRESHOLD  t e r m i n a l s or  operator, users  users,  would  be  sent.  (USER  IS)  and  maintained.  establishes  create  access  the  of  SYSTEM),  are  or  a  relationship  devices.  links  between  between  The  logical  ter-  more  than  one  sys-  LINE  each  terminal.  TERMINAL  has  in a the  entity  the  documents  terminal.  It  the  also  establishes  and  exists.  be  defines data  the  type  of  communications  ability  to  document  telecommunication environment.  LINE-SYSTEM  The  relation-  SYSTEM).  ATTRIBUTE  First  with  then  or  TERMINALS  entity  exist  CLASSES  added  before  by  type.  lines  already  to  IDMS-DC  cluster  (WITHIN  physical  PHYSICAL  a  systems  TERMINAL)  can  the  handled  SYSTEM.  TERMINAL  unique  tasks  reached  documents  PHYSICAL  will  be  systems  relationship  of  instructs  from  (LOGICAL  The  the  to  LOGICAL  SYSTEMS  group  within a  whom m e s s a g e s ,  minal  a  system.  A to  documents  to For  in  more  a  "Accounting,  further  can  completely  example,  ATTRIBUTES used  entities  CLASS  be  used  d e f i n e an  the  two  main  entity  which  "Department"  Marketing,  defining  for  Payroll".  entity  USER.  can  be  These Second,  82  the ties. That  CLASS  and  This  ATTRIBUTE  i spossible  i s , ATTRIBUTES  ATTRIBUTES.  c a n be u s e d  because can  F o r example  NAME  be  which  NAME  I S CORPORATION A R E AUTOMATIC  ADMINISTRATION WITHIN  ADD A T T R I B U T E  CUSTOMER  ADD A T T R I B U T E  BELL  DEPARTMENT  RECORDS  NORTHERN  WITHIN  I S RESEARCH  DEPARTMENT  IS ADMINISTRATION  BELL  CANADA  IS BELL  WITHIN  DEPARTMENT  DIVISION  CORPORATION  NORTHERN  DEPARTMENT  I S HEAD  DEPARTMENT  I S CUSTOMER  the  DEPARTMENT  WITHIN  DEPARTMENT  defines  have  A R E AUTOMATIC  ADD A T T R I B U T E  structure  also  ARE AUTOMATIC  RESEARCH WITHIN  DIVISION  nested.  structure:  ADD A T T R I B U T E  ADD A T T R I B U T E  enti-  IS DIVISION  ATTRIBUTES  This  this  other  I S DEPARTMENT  ATTRIBUTES  ADD C L A S S  can  classes  we c a n d e f i n e  ATTRIBUTES  ADD C L A S S  ATTRIBUTES  contain  ADD C L A S S NAME  t o simulate  OFFICE RECORDS  hypothetical  organizational  83  hierarchy  of  corporation research  and  and  by  (IDMS mas  keying  IDD  to  in batch  PL/1,  RPG  only)  to  added  dictionary  report  user-written  data  List  2.  List,  BAC  a  DML  (data  through  In  to  can  addition,  through  or  regular  There  names  i s the  and case  OLQ  summary,  66  of  schemas  and  stored  usage subsche-  the  data  i n the  data  occurrences  language)  to  when  interface.  Line  which  Query),  use or  the  through  the  IDMS b a s e d  IDD  data  access  routines.  The  DDR  report  parameters  standard  each  a l l  database  reports  (On  database  are  interfaces  the D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y  accessing  CULPRIT  language,  a u t o m a t i c a l l y update  user-defined  a l l attributes  in  be  programs  predefined  a  AUTOMATIC  user  has  allow  manipulation  language  through  ARE  This  dictionary  utilities  which  IDD  is  departments,  comprehensive  data  IDMS d a t a b a s e  report  dictionary.  1.  The  captured.  from  CULPRIT  of  definition.  dictionary  the  two  attribute  automatically create by  dictionary  new  is a  (which  ATTRIBUTES  identify  i s through  and  Northern  Canada  OFFICE.  mode.  be  to  Bell  contains  The  in during  HEAD  Bell  definitions  (DDR),  set  user  example,  use  Reporter  a  division  Programs  Output  is  This  -to t h e  dictionary.  processed  division,  them  Input  this  one  the  IS  COBOL,  In  ADMINISTRATION.  DEPARTMENT  only  Canada.  has  allows  values with  who arm).  RESEARCH phrase  Bell  reports  standard  occurrences  stored  the  which:  entity  in  in  the  type.  entity  type  84  3.  (name  of e n t i t y ,  Lists  a l l attributes  have  been  usually  4. R e p o r t  cross  file  " k e y 'name'" of the e n t i t y  Key  type.  names a n d s c h e m a s  element  names a n d e l e m e n t  element  designator  and  areas  and  and  and  elements  and element  names  programs  and  programs.  onto  cards  32 r e p o r t s  reports  logical  classes  programs  are also  1 . T h e IDMS/DC  descriptions  programs  s o u r c e code  These  and groups  programs  sets  records  There  statement.  records  - synonyms  Output  which  between:  element  IDMS  and  t o t h e name  occurrences  names a n d s y n o n y m s  files  IDMS/DC.  by a  references  and  record  5.  f o r those entity  requested  refers  files  description).  which  or into  a disk  are available  file.  to users of  describe:  network  which  terminals.  consists  Three  of l i n e s  reports  and  physical  are provided:  85  2.  a)  Network  Description  by  Line  b)  Network  Description  by  Physical  c )• N e t w o r k  Description  by  Logical  The  programs,  systems  within  Messages  and  4.  Screens  (called  which  appear  generate  meters  In  are  on  occurrences  quence,  or  user  add  can  dictionary  also is  dictionary's can  be  used  This COBOL,  by  same  PL/1,  the  write  schema  is  CULPRIT  schema  FORTRAN  to  IDMS,  any  purpose.  to  MAPS,  the  user  to  can and  which  and  are  relationships  RECORDS  or  CULPRIT  ELEMENTS  user  can  modify  the  the  he/she  desires,  modify  or  own  CULPRIT  stored  extract  used  Assembler  to  reports.  therefore  within  the  data  input para-  data  dic-  extraction  attributes  database,  extract  in  these  restrict  entities  be  parameter  can  his/her  IDMS  system.  MODULE o c c u r r e n c e s  those  an  terfaces, other  as  additional  and  system.  pre-defined  reports,  to  users,  PANELS.  uses  way,  IDMS/DC  systems,  stored  entity  the  PANELS),  the  DDR  this  in  Terminal.  destinations,  operational  and  standard  which  tionary.  the  queues,  devices  PANELS  Because  The  an  3.  between  to  tasks,  Terminal  a  sort  a  of se-  report. The  the  data data  dictionary  and  information.  to  allow  programs  languages,  dictionary  data  which for  written have  reporting  in inor  86  Security  i n IDD  i s provided  1.  The  specification  of  USERS  2.  The  specification  of  a USER  3.  turn  the  The  specification  rence.  a)  global  The  who  alternatives  entity  occurrence  RESPONSIBLE to  without  used  by  specification  IS  IDMS/DC),  if  schemas  IDMS  cessing  but  of  some  which  a  or  power  to  OFF.  code  user  f o r the  named  parameters,  and  number have  CREATION,  IDMS a n d / o r  which  entities  are  the  occur-  are:  permits  subschemas,  i f DC  of  been  UPDATE  are available  is specified,  There  the  any  codes,  IDD,  The  delete  ON  passwords.  to modify  which  will  or  de-  DEFINITION.  responsibility  not  i s given  RESPONSIBLE  delete  the  assigned  attribute  allows  Other  ding  possible  a  are  - This  fault  4.  of  who  DEFINITION  b)  are  SECURITY  by:  and is  other  or  modify  DELETION,  for documentation.  DC  the  and  authority user  other or  (AUTHORITY  to modify IDMS  delete  and/or  functions  the  telepro-  specified.  systems  recently  on  the market  introduced.  inclu-  Documentation,  87 beyond  promotional  systems. tems,  However,  CINCOM's  their  literature, the author  Data  directly  CINCOM  from  DATA  This  CONTROL  The System  3.  The Programmer  which  may  line. tions  from  language".  the  need  because are  of  taken  literature.  and  4  sub-systems:  Station.  allows data  of data  also  to data  input  from  on-line  dictionary  definitions  allows  screens  immediately  can also  for extraction  or  be d o n e o n -  of data  defini-  databases.  on-line  query  results  divisions  automatically  only  sys-  System.  On-line query  dictionary,  DDS  reported  and  batch  be c a t a l o g u e d a n d a r e e x p r e s s e d  Changes  programs  Features  into  to the  i s through  may  and ICL's  two  Dictionary.  dictionary  programs  Output  ter.  Security  system  t o mention  Facility.  Work  Maintenance The  Queries  Data  Design  be a p p l i e d  batched.  design.  i s divided  2.  data  like  f o r these  SYSTEM  1. T h e I n t e r a c t i v e  4. T h e D a t a  not a v a i l a b l e  System  the manufacturer's  system  The  would  Control  state-of-the-art  was  modify  be r e c o m p i l e d  in a  c a n be r o u t e d of programs copy  reporting. "relational  to  which  the  are held  libraries  to execute.  prin-  so  by  that  88  Data  Control  environment bases,  System  entities  files,  such  elements,  supports as systems,  source  reports,  users,  departments,  The  System  Design  dictionary cal  data  base  modules,  terminal  user data-  screens,  allows  to create  the analyst  t o use  data-flow  diagrams  them  a  into  and  physical  data logidata-  design.  full  Programmer  screen  PANVALET tionary  line  DCS both  screened  results  capability,  the  file  by p a s s w o r d profile  dictionary  an  division  routed  formats  execute  element  interrogation matches  marketed  by CINCOM,  view  of data  or a  on-  printer.  to  performed.  checking  o f DCS a r e  ensure DCS  espouses  processing,  management.  executed  A l lusers  which  dic-  code f o r  security  at signon,  the tasks  to the data  and  with  libraries,  and generate  time  level.  programmers (DCS  interface  c a n be c o m p i l e d  provides  and communications  access  to the terminal  and  based  provides  library and  Programs  Data.Security  the TIS system  gement  Station  LIBRARIAN),  access.  user's  tent,  Work  to extract data  with  the  edit  and  database  of  programs,  and  divisions.  s t r u c t u r e s and t r a n s l a t e  The  at  processing  documents,  and  Facility  information  data  that  i s part  a consis-  database  mana-  89  ICL  DDS  The tion  I C L DDS  o f a model  cesses ships  as  via  input  as l o g i c a l  and  along  promise  a complete  DDS  the  with  because  of the formaliza-  physical  data  and p r o c e s s e s , and  are on-line  DDL  selection and simple  a r e broken  COMPUTER  and  pro-  relation-  into  has as  or i n batch.  commands s u c h DISPLAY,  statements t o use  system.  4 main  types:  i s  a s INSERT a n d  SELECT, FOR,  Input  LIST  WITH  and  and ALL  DATA:  a)  V.FILE  b)  FILE  c)  RECORD  d)  GROUP  e)  ITEM  f)  AREA  g)  SCHEMA  h)  SUBSCHEMA  i)  SET  uses  both  data  commands s u c h  PRINT,  1.  includes  and output  output  Entities  i s important  them.  keywords  REPLACE,  which  well  between  Data  system  t h e IDMS d a t a b a s e  which  i s a CODASYL s y s t e m .  This  90  accounts  2.  for entities  COMPUTER  3.  PROCESSES:  a)  SYSTEM  b)  PROGRAM  c)  MODULE  R E A L WORLD  DATA:  a)  ATTRIBUTE  b)  ENTITY  c)  RELATIONSHIP  4. R E A L WORLD PROCESS  a)  EVENT  b)  OPERATION.  Special types.  entities  These  explicit  f through i .  allow  entities,  mapping  MODEL:  for  links  DPROC, DMAP,  of conceptual  between  these  PMAP, D U S E ,  entities  allow  entity for  t o implementation  the  en-  tities. DPROC maps data  entities  UPDATES,  which  between using describe  conceptual attributes the effects  processes such  as  and  conceptual  CREATES, DELETES,  o f OPERATIONS  on E N T I T I E S .  91 DUSE  maps  processes.  between  implementation  Attributes  READS a n d U P D A T E S  data.  maps  this  RELATIONSHIP-ITEM CONCEPTUAL-DATA example,  an  EMPLOYEE AGE  CREATES,  among  others.  data  and  ENTITY-FILE,  c a n b e made.  such  as  DELETES, PROGRAM-  implementation  ENTITY-GROUP  Attributes  EMPLOYEE  r e c o r d o r t h e AGE a t t r i b u t e  implementation  PROGRAM-FILE,  IMPLEMENTATION-DATA.  entity  This to  used  include  allows,  be l i n k e d  t o be l i n k e d  and  for  tothe  to the  EMP-  item.  Finally, linking lement and  PMAP  business them.  maps  o p e r a t i o n s t o programs  f u n c t i o n s t o systems  Attributes  maintained  and programs  include  and  systems,  which  imp-  CONCEPTUAL-PROCESS  IMPLEMENTATION-PROCESS.  The other  need tool  author  similar  address  of  links  and  for  conceptual  entity,  and  PROCESS,  relationships,  between  Through  as  a r e documented  RECORD a n d S Y S T E M - F I L E  DMAP  such  data  both  believes systems  data  the data  a l l users  dictionary  the direction  i n implementing  the conceptual  to integrate for  that  view  dictionary  of data,  systems.  of data  data  taken  by t h e s e a n d  dictionaries  and processes into  i s an i n d i c a t i o n  a  that  and t h e  comprehensive of the maturing  92  CHAPTER  A  DATA  DICTIONARY  IN  AN  5  ENTERPRISE  ENVIRONMENT  Overview  The from  a  previous  chapters  structural  looking  at  data  perspective. dictionaries  this  classification,  data  descriptions.  tained data  in  and  the  of  Data  data  resource  about  data  ta  of  the  data  Data  examined We  which  element  relationships  enterprise.  location  between  The  i s that This  which  level  we  model  for  contents.  In  contains  documents  data the  elements  physical  are  final  a  information  also  execution,  dictionary.  the  itself  information,  program  processes  classify  which  dictionaries  identified  dictionary  directory,  and  have  data  concerns have  of  process and  pro-  in  the  information  the  called  con-  attributes  contained level  is  only  conceptual the  metada-  dictionary. In  tware, who  and  a  processing  storage  data  view  data  provides  cesses.  have  addition  to  developing  we  have  identified  would  most  likely  functions  performed  a  those  utilize which  structure for dictionary individuals  the would  data  i n an  organization  dictionary,  utilize  the  sof-  and  the  metadata  dic-  tionary.  In  examining  software  packages  which  are  offered  by  93  various which The  vendors,  we  have  are commercially  majority  tadata  of data  available  i s available  availability  of interfaces  grams,  database  functions  This most  performed  chapter  certainly  mentation some  will  1.  focus  Why  What  data  when  dictionary location  i n commercial data  sytems  resource  p a c k a g e s . j.-The  represent  some  of the  dictionaries.  topics  This  which  chapter  an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l  to those  me-  d i c t i o n a r i e s , . pro-  on management  dictionary.  packages.  a n d some  an o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i d e r s  questions  answers  questions.  the will  have  In  will implereview  and  particular  will we  on t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :  does  an e n t e r p r i s e r e q u i r e a d a t a  a r e reasons  are  choosing  4. What  focus  of a metadata  some  2 . What  3.  arise  of the major  provide  management  will  data  between  by t h e d a t a  f u n c t i o n s and f e a t u r e s  i n data  descriptions,  information  and  identified  some  a data  factors  f o r not implementing  of the c r i t e r i a  a data  one s h o u l d  dictionary?  consider  when  dictionary?  should  dictionary?  dictionary?  be c o n s i d e r e d  when  implementing  a  94  5.1  The  Need  In cerning needs  Data  answering  the  that  use  and  uses  allow  data  data  there  adopt  for  a  is a  or  develop  them  which  database in  Systems years. and  systems  once  Today  2  the  will  proper  First,  6  i s shared  complex  the  may  have  focus  on  allocation  there to  is a  ensure  conthree  of  need  that  systems  data  re-  to  con-  i t is  which  cor-  identify  cost  of  Advances payback a  cost  hardware  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements  needs  of  the  real  a  be  true or  a  period  system  British Computer S o c i e t y , p. 8; C a n n i n g , p . Adam, "Data Dictionaries: For That Mature M a n a g e m e n t , 17, No. 10 ( O c t . 1979), 46.  for  to sys-  utilize and  is decreasing  obsolete  simple  functional  relatively  benefit  time  necessary  i n hardware to  to  considerably  time  time  small the  are  is especially in  a  longer but  organiza-  development  within  no  complex,  entry  on  systems  systems,  This  system  processing  systems are  more  system.  evaluated  for  entire  longer.  the  the  within  receivable  on-line data  require  were  of  become  becomes  management  staff  in  methodology  addressing  use  have  developed  accounts  As  d i c t i o n a r y , we  need  formal  payroll  area.  organization  is available for  development  complex,  an  sharing.  Applications  tems  data  which  period.  more  2 6  data  that  of  to  a  question  processing.  of  Second, tions  for  Dietionary  organizations  in data  the  rect, new  A  i t s need  sources trol  For  so in  a  turnover short. of  five  quickly, such  a  4; R o b e r t G. Look," Data  95 s m a l l t i m e p e r i o d , t h a t p a y b a c k s a r e now c a l c u l a t e d on a b a s i s of  one o r two y e a r s . Third,  t h e r e i s a need t o c o n t r o l  process t o ensure  an o p t i m a l a l l o c a t i o n  the l a r g e o u t l a y f o r computer r e s o u r c e s the  large  the system  development  of funds.  Because  of  (such as hardware) and  e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r maintenance of c u r r e n t systems,  s m a l l budget i s a v a i l a b l e  f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new  a  systems.  E v o l u t i o n Of D a t a Use Traditionally, loped methodologies 2 7  t o handle  These m e t h o d o l o g i e s  tion  t h a t the user  The  user  tain  these systems.  a  b e f o r e s y s t e m s were a u t o m a t e d , u s e r s d e v e -  verbal  day-to-day  were l o c a l  identified  business  i n nature u t i l i z i n g  as necessary  to  do  prepared, t h e r e p o r t s and d a t a f i l e s  or  When d a t a was s h a r e d ,  written  communication  which  on  the  With  2 7  the  the  task.  needed t o main-  identified  of  to both  i t went  to.  n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a , c o r r e c t n e s s was e i t h e r  assumed o r p r o c e d u r e s c o u l d be m a n u a l l y  informa-  i t was by means  i n d i v i d u a l s where t h e d a t a came f r o m and where Depending  problems.  were s e t up t o e n s u r e  that  correctness  verified.  advent  of  e a r l y computer systems,  this  local  R i c h a r d L. N o l a n , "Computer D a t a B a s e s : The F u t u r e I s Now," H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w , 5 1 , No. 5 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 104-5.  96  development  and  files  for a  single  When  data  was  likely  manually  data,  among  data  be  which  would  counts  the of  other  was  However, of  data,  the  the  by  earlier  or  report.  soon  dictated  identified  many  grew  since  each  for  also  of  and  pass  an  of  user  sharing became  systems  to  became  i n s t a n c e s when  tem.  One  to  h i s month  to  end,  had  agree  aware  data  speak  to  realized  more  and  the  data.  passing  two  passed  from  files. users one  multiple  e l i m i n a t e d much  to  to  sources the  con-  unwieldy.  of  the  dupli-  transaction  accustomed  ac-  receivable  i n f o r m a t i o n ) , and  standards  systems  between  (e.g.  more  a  files.  unique  view  system  identified  for data  definition,  criteria.  of  was  of  transaction  was  management  edit  availability  increasingly  been  on  was  accounts  multiple  database  standard  only  complex  rare. data  system  data  local  was  f o r computer  billing to  in  that  that  intermediate  more  files  a  those  had  of  particular  users and  a  sharing  systems  management  use  (e.g.  held  data,  The  w r i t t e n communication  in  accesiblity,  Users  a  was  sharing  accounting  was  means  Data  data  information  data,  the  need  do  data  m u l t i p l e data  of  on  need  Systems  Database cation  a  of  done  input,  of  as  factors,  and  verbal  other.  trol  such  and  a u t o m a t i c a l l y summarize  mimicked  data  continued.  summarized  receivable  a  data  application  sharing  package),  where  of  shared,  passed,  This  This  use  the  not the that  intrinsic  available  from  controller the  value  data  another  who,  accounts  of  in  sys-  when  trying  payable,  system  97  had  n o t y e t been  realize  the value  tines  became  particular  realized  one  user,  necessary  that  Elaborate  as data  area  data  the system  overall were  The  areas  the  possession  forced  storage  of  use  to  and  the  I t was of  any  by a l l .  make  format  rou-  for  as w e l l .  t o be s h a r e d  were  and  ease  and recovery  con-  so t h a t  accessibility  met.  Corporate  Data  was  T h e DBA  mechanism  required  trolled.  a passing  were  (DBMS)  The second  was a s y s t e m  the  interest  maintaining  position  for  The f i r s t  would which  ( D B A ) was  definition  mediating  the d e f i n i t i o n  the user  or  of  i n the data i t -  with  a  this  was  the  of the dafeedback  was e n f o r c e d  In performing  systems. which  new  use of data  appropriate.  two s o f t w a r e  system  optimal  and  administrator  placed  and d i c t a t i n g  that  a  and c o n t r o l l i n g  function provided  to ensure  standards  management  The d a t a b a s e  had only  of users  resource,  t o by u s e r s ,  f u n c t i o n was p e r f e c t l y  requirements tabase.  agreed  of c a p t u r i n g  A s t h e DBA this  corporate  created.  i n charge  self,  this  definitions  function  data.  Resource  managing  standard  that  description  errors to  required not only  resource  users  objectives concerning  In  put  data  backup  was n o l o n g e r  b u t was a c o r p o r a t e  in  was  had run with  but i n other  the c r e a t i o n of databases,  cessions  DBA  of data.  functional  soon  In  run or that  and  task, the  the database  store  the  would  allow  data  con-  t h e DBA t o  98  store  and  centrally control  identified.  This  The  data  ver  i t contained  System  system  dictionary  System  of  was  information  single  analyst-programmer this  were  of  tomer  statements.  of  reports  necessary  files  storage  to was  source  a l l the  was  ready  and  system.  report  Although  documented, by  identified tinued.  a  in  produce  "data  data  items  dictionary".  automated  howe-  description.  Once  or  data  data to  the  the  input  chart  such was  output  had  had  may  the  as  not  methodoidentifior  cus-  and  its  identified  the  load  been  of  specification defined  the  done,  necessary  to  have  files.  the  ana-  update,  ex-  complete  the  been  methodology  Intermediate and  the  v a l i d a t i o n , and  were  a  identification  usually to  The  invoices  been  necessary  i t was  as  and  analyst  that  involved  initial  the  reports  methodology  fact,  usually  the  the  information  development.  this  the  parallel  earliest  and  wanted,  the  programs this  The  identification  flow  closely  included  those  analyst.  after  data  their  Following  nevertheless,  the  of  driven  user  identified,  documents  tract,  data  that  used.  Once lyst  vely  be  to  the  necessarily  systems.  i n d i v i d u a l used  cation  data  the  methodologies  developed  that  called  for  Methodologies  systems  logy  standards  not  elements  development  development  have  system  basic  Development  we  the  used  formally intuiti-  files  and  reports  were  programming  the  system  con-  99  This number to  methodology,which  of  s e r i o u s problems  review  been  and  accept  completed.  particularly users ly  elements must  acute  and  are  of  data  data  storage  of  programmers  relation  tion base  of  be  base  optimal  and  the  is  detailed  suggests  developed,  number  of  the  system  storage one  or  data  system is  i s used  to  format,  the  more  the  of  specific  analysis  that  where  larger  for-  functions.  of  alternate  is critical  Therefore,  between  analysts within an  analyst the easy  of  between  because  there  will  and  user,  project  complex  groups  analysts  and  sufficient-  for other  Communication  definition  several  methodology  require a  designs  is  that  and  design.  task.  serve  become  necessary.  model are  may  has  The  database  a  programming  the  management  to  user  system  functions  the  of  methodology  when  optimized,  data  than  problems  between  must  of  d e c i s i o n s the  i n the  of  munication  less  systems  involved  the  case  database  the  the  be  i s the  design  strategies  Finally, processing  a  use  these  when  prone the  must  interrelated.  the  making  data  and  In  In  design  complex  data.  creating  the  the  store  mat,  this  is  inability  and  when  which  as  the  before  output and  used,  extreme  strained  functions  with  formats,  also  organization  design  the  complex,  becomes  perform  when  still  including  Problems  in different  large  the  is  will  accessible  of  not but  data  people  will  these  groups  the  inter-  only  be  com-  communica-  require a store  or  of  common  informa-  tion .  As  systems  have  become  more  complex,  the  methodologies  100 used  to  more  design  refined.  cepts.  and  Many  The  This  proceeds  tion  i s decomposed simple  sis  ensures  The  second  the  data  the to  that  top  down  manner  until  the  entities  and  data  ment  the  by  are  the  user  user  design  5  Figure must  (labeled  be  to  provides of  data  an  i s an  and  is a  tool  by  View),  terms  an and  of  model  and  ensure  to  support is  able  functions  are  systems  can  bet-  easily develop-  if i t is record  done  and  ana-  in translating  the  design.  of  analyst the  analy-  In  the  and  unwieldy  which  terms  involves  analyst  system;  d e c i s i o n s made  illustration  This  information  the  becomes  in  actions.  model  e x e r c i s e the of  func-  relationships  data  documentation  models  individual  function.  each  i n user  implementation  collected  Conceptual  design  This  i s needed  each  and  documented.  building.  enough  this  events  user's  the  con-  functional  the  and  review  described  user.  model  perform  can  end  requirements, into  of  each  become  two  where and.  i n the  model  entities  conceptual  What  lyze  and  the  f u n c t i o n s and  manually.  which  At  models  reviewed  data  analyst  function. complete  i s that  used  i t i s complete  will  also  understood,usually  involvement  system  of  analysis  where  be  have  emphasize  identified  i t can  User  concept  the  functional are  in a  systems  methodologies  area  actions.  building, that  is a  those  user  identification  ween  modern  first  f u n c t i o n s , of. e a c h  of  implement  the  different  during  his  information  information user  necessary  design to  101  A B O U T THE USE OF DATA  A B O U T TYPES OF DATA  DESIGN REQUIREMENTS  ENTITIES RELATIONSHIPS ATTRIBUTES  ACCESS "REQUIREMENTS  DESIGN PROCESS  MAPPING  DESIGN DECISIONS  EVENTS FUNCTIONS  RECORDS DATA ITEMS DATA ITEM GROUPS SETS AREAS FILES DEVICES DATA BASES SCHEMAS, ETC.  ACCESS 'REQUIREMENTS  SYSTEMS PROGRAMS TRANSACTIONS MODULES COMPUTER PROCESSES  Figure 5 D a t a F o r A n a l y s i s - - S t o r e d by t h e D a t a  Dictionary  102 install 2  In  8  the  the  such  relationships,  into as  an  data  Using  of  data  ment  and  dictionary, functions  dictionary  data  trolling  velopment  can  and  approach  i s often  addressed  first,  Computer  British  2  9  Ibid.,  ensure  an  These  include be  includes  trans-  data  types  processes,  systems.  analyst  analyst  can  can  method  document  reports  for  determine  completeness  completed  must  databases,  produce  provides a  the  p.  8.  can  which be  growth  n o r m a l l y not  8  and  and  the  dictionary  changes  changes  2  and  identified  which  files,  View).  of  of  each  of  review. the  impact  documentation.  monitoring develop-  system.  Change  The  is  and  types  view  programs,  a data  Implementation  attributes.  modules,  documents  Managing  data  implementation  a d e s i g n change  These  and  cross-references,  The  the  records,  entities  Using  (labeled  elements,  transactions,  these  system  c o n c e p t u a l view,  entities, lated  automated  occur  due of  to a  Society,  i n an  system  by  p.  may  the other  5.  management  information  reasons. cause  implemented  where  followed  assist  three  completely used,  also  most  at  First, a  critical  functions  as  con-  system. normal  change.  one  in  time.  2  9  de-  A  system  A  phased  functions necessary.  are As  1 03 new  phases  tured  are automated,  which  will  require  additional  information  the modification  of data  may  be  cap-  storage,  and  programs.  Second, zation, modify and  an e n t e r p r i s e  merger, regulations  reported,  quiring  computer  is  To allow  new  cation  analysis  of the change,  of the change.  interfaces  missing  a n d c a n be  organizational  in costing  need  is  systems  t o be  a baseline  by  software  the  which  records  some  indiA  data  detailed  system  identify  dictionary  will  t o make t h e  t o do a  I t can  by  location  i s moving.  a proposed  identifying  becomes  which  and g i v e s  necessary  new  implemented.  necessary  to review the system  t h e change  of  i s withdrawn  identify  the system  The d a t a  i t smarket r e -  necessary  definitions  information.  used  structure.  may  I t can model  may  stored  As hardware  powerful  provides  information  t o be  to the a c q u i s i t i o n  and e a s i l y  i n which  reorgani-  information.  and t h e e f f o r t  systems  to  Government  f o r o l d systems  a tool  dictionary  can p r o v i d e  to identify  assist  change  due  change  software.  software  to quickly  and past  due  a n d more  support  may  o f new  systems  of the d i r e c t i o n  dictionary  used  this  The d a t a  present  or  occur  applications  the analyst  extent  may  change  the information  enterprise  and storage  and/or  may  i n management.  dictate  expensive,  control  change. the  less  change  the  change  available,  vendors,  and  or  hardware  and  a  which  the capture  Finally,  faster  or  itself  i n the  a n d be system overall  system can  t h e impact  of  also mo-  1 04  edifications, interfaces  Data  the sequence  which  Processing  In  might  vironment  which o r may  support  the  of  change.  t h e need  opponents  tionary,  require  a n d t h e number  Environment  identifying  ganization,  of m o d i f i c a t i o n s ,  may  exists  argue  may  not even  f o r a data that  activities  the data  n o t be a b l e  require of  dictionary  one.  processing  to support A data  a variety  of data  i n an o r en-  a data  dic-  dictionary  can  processing  en-  sequential,  or  vironments :  1. T h e c o n v e n t i o n a l index 2. An  3. One 4. A  sequential,  environment  ment  environment data  which  which  uses  files.  i s converting  t o a database  manage-  system. that  has a s i n g l e  complex  management units,  a  database  environment systems,  utilizing  one  distributed  management  or  o n e o r more  more  database,  system.  central  database  processing  or d i s t r i b u t e d  proces-  sing.  In programs this  a conventional are designed  environment  files. extract  The data  environment  (see Figure  to access a distinct  the data  utilities to support  dictionary  which data  support  is a  6), application  set of  files.  free-standing  In  s e t of  i t r u n i n b a t c h mode a n d  validation  and b a s i c  data  105  Figure Data  6  Dictionary i n a Conventional  Environment  106 definitions ty  which  of the data  provide tions, The  an  dictionaries  job library  can also  cross-references  During data  In  assist Data the  then  system  dictionary lication  be a n  t o be  searched  i n the data  system.  crepancy  report  which  The  second  conversion  to  interface  done step. gram  using  with  data  task  are manually  definition  and  exist  or the  identified  a new  source  suffi-  prepared. designed, managedata  to allow  app-  data  definitions  database  manage-  would  be a  dis-  phase.  existing system.  programs This  in the  o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y made  t o produce  generate  loading of  i n the second  management  can  groups.  been  to allow  the  Figure  dictionary  the database  i s t o modify  report  in  or output  an a n a l y s i s  be u s e d  the database  the discrepancy  Changes  of such  could  system  f o r program  dictionary  The o u t p u t  system,  automatically  should  using  volumes.  the data  between  utility  layouts  already  dictionary  A  defini-  c a n be m a n u a l l y  has  interface  device  elements  management  They  relationships.  (identified  either  majori-  file  management  data  t h e schema  A  type.  through  and t h e i r  tasks  system  definitions.  contained  ment  two  this  and task  definition,  and the data  programs  files  can then  management  should  file  the necessary  i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t  there  ment  task,  output  of data  t o a database  f o r the database  a database  not  first  in locating  schema  data  libraries. of  in preparing  can perform  dictionary  cient If  the  view  assist  between  system  i n use a r e  through  a conversion  dictionary  7).  into  implementation  and a  system  are placed  is  definition to the pro-  program  which i s  PROGRAM SOURCE  DDS ANALYSIS/ EDIT  1  f  REPORT ON DISCREPAN CIES  MANUAL OR • AUTOMATED REEDIT  '  DBMS INSTALLATION  NEW SOURCE  Definition Update  Figure Data D i c t i o n a r y  During  7 a DBMS  Installation  108  consistent system. that  within  dictionary which  gement  data  management  t o document t h e p r o c e s s e s  can  identify  database  the  management  free-standing  on a d a t a b a s e  o r i t c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d  as part  necessary  system, t h e  software  management using  can either  would  use data  pac-  system f o r  a database  i tallows the user  order  to identify  In  management  be implemented  dictionary  Although  lex,  3  of a database  o r i t c a n be i n t e g r a t e d .  t o t h e DBMS.  quires.  0  database  t h e DBMS.  be a  not rely  dictionary  dictionary  mana-  this  information  implementation  the  a  separate  An i n t e g r a t e d  to.access a single  and e x t r a c t  as  system,  DBMS-data  as the d i r e c i s more  software  information  comp-  system i n  that  he  re-  0  a complex  central  buted.  i t  the single  implemented  application  more  the  system.  When  3  from  can either  does  operation,  tory  data  of  dictionary  a program,  supporting  kage,  the  the data  to retrieve  In data  the requirements  Using  occur  calls  its  with  processing  Database  files  a r e used,  from  the  more  CPUs.  environment  management  the organization  units  systems  and a p p l i c a t i o n  databases,  or  Sharman a n d W i n t e r b o t t o m ,  located  centrally,  and s e q u e n t i a l  systems  conventional  p.187.  may h a v e  extract files  or  one o r distri-  and indexed information  accessing  one o r  109  In staff is  this  maintaining  a major  number own one  environment,  of  task.  of  different  the  becomes  aims  a  systems  database  of  the  the  design  in preparing  system  A  an  interface  between  storage  structures.  In  addition,  the  process  data  different  The database  machines  fact or  distributed all the  same  other  and  data  data  in different  data  machine,  definitions  sistent The  that  r e q u e s t s even  may  raises  are  held  extreme  there  3  2  centrally Although  will  i s t o have  be  though  they  databases.  a  of  and this  redundant  definitions  again again  data  file can  multiple  receive  may  more  having  a  data  every  one  i s the data  is  and  reside  on  3 1  over  central  which  once  and  can  a  with i t s  dictionary  database  problem In  and  data  with  once  are  systems  distributed  the  dictionary.  dictionary.  design,  be  each  system,  methodology  definitions.  processes  storage,  analysts  providing  retrieval  and  systems,  physical  and  processing  interface  management  storage  data data  to  management from  by  over  have  Programmers  to consider  by  may  database  problem.  spent  control  Independence  forced  help  time  operational New  protocols.  the  than  one  central  or  dictionary, must  the  most  access con-  communications.  distributed  to  each  3 1  F a b i o A. Model of B a s e , 11,  3  R. A. D a v e n p o r t , " D e s i g n of D i s t r i b u t e d Data Base Systems," Computer J o u r n a l , 24, No. 1 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 31-41; G e r a l d L. Power, "Developing your D i s t r i b u t e d Data Base," Computerworld, 15 (Jan. 12, 1 9 8 1 ) , I n D e p t h 33-8.  2  S c r e i b e r a n d G. Martella, "Creating a Conceptual a Data D i c t i o n a r y f o r D i s t r i b u t e d Data Bases," Data No. 1 (1979), 12-8.  1 10 of  the  remote  munications  processing  are necessary  data  dictionaries  cated  in a  the  only held  remote  proper  design  the  analysis  programs  store  individual systems  In often  routines  raised. in  identifying  One terms  that  data  dictionaries  tion, tions. quire  there  t o complete  a data  Although  programs  i t is a  format  optimal held  definitions  be  a  necessary.  between  The d a t a  in this applica-  dictionary  t o database  other  because  can  manage-  accrue  difficult  out of i t .  are available  (through  generation) of such  tangible  i s  arguments a r e to  of the d i f f i c u l t y  t h e ammount  the c a l c u l a t i o n  effort,  The  dictionary  dictionary  which  reduce  routine  execute  information,  would  dictionary,  of expenditure  to  of  l o -  files.  data  i s that  will  definitions  a data  for interfacing  are u t i l i t i e s  validation  some  a  is  task.  resource.  tangible benefits that  shown  necessary  interface  or c o n v e n t i o n a l  installing  justify  of using  the  a n d some  requests  in this  and the data  site  update  data.  some  the location  of r e t r i e v a l  i s the standard  tion  two:  com-  I f data  dictionary that  no d a t a  and  of the l o c a t i o n s .  dictionary  can a s s i s t  case  extract  to retrieve  of the advantages  environment  to  of these  data  In t h i s  the data  In d e c i d i n g  dictionary  One  ment  location,  local  centrally.  data  each  be a h y b r i d  statistical A  except  instructions  may at  in  centres.  with  have modern  o f programmer  data  division  and data time  benifit.  We  base  saved  in  time  generadefini-  would  re-  111 Another information gather,  is  standardize  finitions, was  utilities  or  data  base  load  time. the as  will  collection  process  and data  discuss  later,  quently risk  instances  of f a i l u r e  ( a s when  tem)  because  the  among  t h e team  members  Still  another  tions  i s not within  tion,  but that  of  the  his  are of  local.  own  This  found  capturing a l l locally  cise  control  is  should  parameters  argument  when  resources. which d i d programs  users  attempt  entities  data  a t one  i s best  large  can reduce  application  bounded  and  should  identify  we  the sys-  remain  the  t h e name,  The u s e r  defini-  corporate  of the d e f i n i t i o n  i s also  n o t what  fre-  communication  might  data  partially  true.  definitions  consider  a wise  func-  property validation  as argue  i t rethat  for standardizing definitions  used  done  opportunities are  of a centralized  environment.  c a n be  of  enhanced.  definition  The u s e r  lates  better  de-  from  dictionary a  entity  a r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s where  These data  data  the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of data  the realm  and other  justification  c a n be  i s that  standards, to  is  true  interchange  installing  task  the data  user.  the  on  packages  dictionary  seen.  where  amount  gather  identify,  users  definitions  there  of data  the benefits are easily  from  dictionary  It i s also  to  i s , to  conceptual  a vast  to extract data  and input  that  and  of data  necessary  consensus  consumes  directories.  a l l data, A s we  that  f o r users  have  obtain  definitions,  i s a task true  of e f f o r t  dictionary;  and  process  not  to  the l e v e l  f o r the data  definitions,  This  that  The  simply  no  which effort  to  exer-  use of the data  11 2  dictionary sharing user  system.  of  data  to argue  shared. insist  that  entered cost  i s enhanced.  that  It  velopment  Standardization  is  there a  question  into  an  dictionary,  claim  data  that  database  to  feel  verted payback  dictionary when  the  the pressure.  t o those  systems  i n terms  otherwise  being  T h e DBA  should  i n the  the e f f o r t  utilities  de-  should  be  cannot  be  can d e l i v e r  and programming  quantified, the  bottom  5.2  Software  Once a data  and  time,  These  may  be t h e  resources  We  will  t o show  or t a n g i b l e  balances.  sources  dictionary  likely  i t i s easy  reduction  Many  the data  processing  i n which  receivables  communication.  a r e made  item.  functions will  Data  of s t a f f  dictionary design  cuts  administrator  or  must  ever  the d e f i n i t i o n s  i s an overhead  budget  inventory  of  local  a r e t o be u s e d  then  the  f o r the  of the data  priorities.  definitions  when  justified.  The  lyst  of  application,  a data  justified  It is difficult  i s no c h a n c e  i f the data of  i s  have  a  and first  be d i -  positive  reduction seen  that  in data  benefits i n the reduction  and t h e enhancement  are tangible benefits,  be o v e r l o o k e d  when  of  of  user-ana-  not  easily  evaluating effects  on  line.  Select ion  management  h a s made  dictionary,  be p r e p a r e d .  Two  a commitment  the implementation key q u e t i o n s  which  to the  plan will  for  installation the  system  be a s k e d a r e :  113  1. S h o u l d or  a  the data  should  dictionary  system  a commercially  be d e v e l o p e d  available  in-house  package  be  pur-  chased?  2.  What  types  of features  should  the data  dictionary  con-  or custom  pro-  tain?  In-house  In  Development  deciding  whether  gram  the  other  application  is  guided  tain  system  desired manpower  dictionary,  lities,  lean  software  package.  good  internally,  software  features  of software  heavily  It is unlikely,  packages  available,  to  implement  a standard  package  to  fulfill  the unique  needs  quirements,  rather  system  first  from  than  the  i n favour  the  i t would  entire  con-  The c o s t most  of  basic  and  number  be m o r e  and add s p e c i a l i z e d  the  decision  uti-  of purchasing  considering that  t o any  which  interfaces  of a p a r t i c u l a r  writing  principles.  cost.  of even  a l l of i t sattendant  The  packages  at a reasonable  decision  i s similar  evaluation.  and the c o m p l e x i t y  with  the  a package  the a n a l y s i s  development  by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  the  computing data  system  to purchase  of  costly  interfaces  enterprise's data  a  re-  dictionary  11 4  Select ion  In  Criteria  selecting  teria  is  This  ranking  and we  required  those have  a  can  which  have  suitable  on  which  be  divided  candidate into  are  desirable.  broken  evaluation  1.  Dictionary  contents.  2.  Dictionary  utilities.  3.  Dictionary  environment.  Dietionary  The down  contents  into  four  of  a  to  other  data,  dictionary with  ponsible also  record  Second,  where  should  also  entity  features  For  the  a  set  can  be  which  are  purposes  criteria  First, and  dates  of  the  data  For  data  precision,  value,  i t would  how  into  of  three  of  cri-  ranked. necessary discussion categories:  key  have  input  update and  word  entities range,  include  track  should  language,  the  usage.  would  backup  be  to  broken  data  such  The  record  basic  comments  individuals The  of  system  i t s last  record  resshould  change.  technical  include  in-  their  length,  For  process  special  calcu-  routines.  processor,  as  relationships  designators.  and  and  this  and  entity  facilities  keep  dictionary  basic  can  i t i s used,  derivation,  i t s input,  formation.  entities  systems  dictionarysystem  l a b e l s , and  the  for  data  categories.  name, d e f i n i t i o n ,  dealing  package,  Contents  its  data  software  11 5 lations, should units  run time,  be m a i n t a i n e d and storage  The is  third  means  ments for  of r e l a t i n g  to database  quences  of  entities, within  data  programs  and programs  ties,  f o r example,  to relate  data  dictionary.  ticular  processing  IMS  structures  data  tem.  I n a CODASYL  schema should  elements, as  system ties ports,  should (run  data  Some  to support  an  IMS  records,  about  and b a s i c  modules,  control  language),  basic  should  supported to a to  to  dictionary  data  entities  operating  transactions,  store  which  store  such  as  such  dictionary  system  data  sys-  system  entities  The d a t a  by par-  management  be n e c e s s a r y  entities  enti-  t o programs.  processing  about  and non-standard  Links  database  The d a t a  se-  modules  as the a b i l i t y  and systems.  information  and  identify  be s p e c i f i c  i t would  information.  store  documents,  such  facility  for processing  of e n t i t i e s  may  be ele-  and p r o c e s s i n g  elements  entities  environment,  transactions,  entities  or data be a  systems.  i s the realm  information  files,  data  lower  should  records  Similarly,  within  environment  o r sub-schema record  files.  dictionary  there  also  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  between  the  processing  between  files,  within  be  catagory  t o data  of elements  within  should  links  should  be m a i n t a i n e d  fourth  as  by a d a t a  There  also  The  such  F o r example,  elements  structures.  sequence  stored  including  structures.  records  there  entities  of information  level  identifying  Similar attributes  devices.  type  and high  routines.  f o r equipment  relationship information,  level a  and recovery  enti-  groups, r e are  related  11 6 to  the  entity  conceptual  types  flow,  such  and data  system  definition.  as process,  DATAMANAGER  sub-process,  s t r u c t u r e which  assist  data  allows  store,  in supporting  data  structured  analysis.  Dietionary  The prise  Utilities  data  dictionary  i f i t i s supported  utilities.  The b a s i c  utilities data  t o produce  dictionary,  system  only  benefit  the enter-  by a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  set of  easy-to-use  set should  will  include data  r e p o r t s which  and  utilities  document which  input  utilities,  the state  support  of  the  programming  tasks.  the  Input  utilities  data  dictionary,  finitions data  input  quires valid  data  to  i s accepted.  program  entities).  allowing  the user  user  dictionary.  There  both  system should  ways  On-line  so t h a t  are served.  bulk  (e.g.  both  The d a t a to  entity  de-  on-line  that  only  t o automa-  different  entities,  identify  programs  to  should  be  i n completing  The d a t a  into  dictionary re-  be f a c i l i t i e s  t h e needs  data  or  ensure  and elements  input help  data  databases,  between  entities,  to request  be o r g a n i z e d  confident  existing  relationships  references  to load  for extracting  validation  l o o k i n g a t element  should  and  the data  generate  including  and a i d s  programs  an e x t e n s i v e  tically  when  from  i n c l u d e programs  when  looking at  user-friendly, a l l input.  of the  dictionary  casual should  It and  allow  1 17 more  than  one s t a t u s o f e n t r y  recorded. for  A comprehensive  the  logging,  level  of  so t h a t  incomplete  backup/restore  o n - l i n e data  or checkpointing,  facility,  entry,  should  be  input  including  can  be  sufficient transaction  supplied with  the  online  interface.  Reporting should to  utilities  include  select  lists  values.  exits  modify  that  indexes  cture to  diagrams  generate  would  necessary  allow to  mundane  for  and should There  the user  document  system  with  should  provided.  for  data  dictionary the a b i l i t y  or s p e c i f i c  reports  be  the  of e n t i t y ,  reports  documentation  ports  many  should  by  on k e y w o r d s  of e n t i t i e s .  This  type  Standard  on k e y w o r d s  list.  way  based  standard  Cross-references KWIC  f o r each  the output  attribute  supported  systems  should  be  based  to identify  documentation  f o r user  supply  to construct  also  of  requirements.  Systems  should  a program  allow  user  be a b l e  ranges  a  stru-  facility  on a  standard  the types  of  re-  system.  In  this  could  be  au-  two t y p e s .  The  or a tasks  tomated .  Program first  utilities  a n d most  generate  useful  program  data  dictionary.  sions  into  copying  t o be  that  the  a r e those based  For  source  of  into  information  which  libraries  In s p e c i f y i n g  the data the copy  dictionary, library  automatically  contained  the generation  copy  programs.  included using definition  on  down  utilities  example,  system-maintained  into  sary  code  c a n be b r o k e n  in  of data  for  the divi-  subsequent  the data  neces-  one c a n  ensure  will  be c o n s i s t e n t  118 with  other  definitions  programmer  and  definitions that  they  code  to  are  may  messages  The  second  program  no  information  transactions  type the  are  library  system, program  the  data  of  Other dictionary  to  i s one  retrieve  in-  error  that  the  interface the  to  are  data  dictionary.  If  data the  the  read  definitions  proper  input  dictionary. LIBRARIAN  dictionary  their  that  inter-  the  data  synchronize  which  utilities  dictionary,  update  system  program  standard  These  i n the  data  ensures  definitions  category.  verify  allows  data  contents data  have  consistent  which  can  For  program and  the  without  dictionary  and  views  of  the  are  the  definition.  job  utilities  control  of  when  an  This  program  generation systems  library  management  Other output  which  updating*  library  program  has  to  to  the  that  generate  with  dictionary.  i n the  file  database  utility  stored  relieves  ensuring  which  errors  this  and  generated  DATAMANAGER  clerical  data  is stored  a  program  information  example,  source  of  of  different  call  under  This  task  utilities  input-output  definitions  with  data.  the  data,  fall  with  data  consistent  input  also  progams  from  Other  handle  would  same  c o n s i s t e n t i n the  appear.  or  the  analyst  validate  formation,  faces  the  of  language  routines  they  the  systems  automatic  implemented operation,  and  the  r e c o v e r y / r e s t a r t of  fail.  utilities system  for  for  be  which  should  include a  be  query  supported language,  by  which  the allows  data on-  119 line  query  on a n a t t r i b u t e ,  keyword. allow may  The q u e r y  f o r hard be  supported  interface ding  copy  with  defined  by a d a t a  language  Likewise,  an  loaded system  into  fields  In is to  are  also  exist,  using  The d a t a updates  be  to  inclu-  logical  design  generation the  to read  of  database.  the  database  definitions  could  be  the database  management  should  allow  for  d o n e a u t o m a t i c a l l y when  data  dictionary  to  which  systems, a  load  so t h a t from  should  Utilities  and the  the a b i l i t y  dictionary  a  system  i t i s necessary  The d a t a  possible  access  be a b l e  the  system  also  to enquire  transactions i t  analyse  the r i s k  levels  to  into  ensure  a  against  should user  be a  i t .  setting  use and  of s e c u r i t y  It  a user  has  responsibility  audit  f o r the database  access  have.  that  definitions.  In  security  classifica-  should  h i s f u n c t i o n as  fraudulent data the l e v e l  that  document t h e  f o r example,  related  be n e c e s s a r y of  should  a u t o m a t i c a l l y produce  processed  will  the access  bearing  to ensure  There  to specify,  t o items  should  dictionary  of ways.  identifying  be  and  vels,  t o use and  by  include the a b i l i t y  automatically with  in a variety  scheme  update  system,  or  maintained.  such  itself  should  may  directory.  provided.  tion  to  the data  cross-reference  entity,  management  definitions  dictionary  interface  system  be e a s y  dictionary  database  of database  control  should  and  r e p o r t i n g of the output.  i n the data  management  language  one o r more  production  relationship  In  addition,  trails  f o ra l l  security  l e -  administrator to to  set  security  d e s i r e d c a n be  main-  1 20  tained.  Data  Dietionary  Environment  Environment include  programming  supported  an  3  environment system.  for  one o r more  of  system  lar  DBMS.  10  which  only  This  An e x a m p l e  single the  DBMS  extra  tionary  formats.  3  3  high  software  used,  hardware  systems  i s meant  complexity  offers  however, involved  system  there  utilities  to support a  will  type  particu-  dictionary  more  manage-  The second  the enterprise  management  dictionary  interface  of data  exis-  to function i n  a database  systems.  designed  type  Unless  environment,  may h a v e  in  i s  UCC-  can ensure  that  be  used,  flexibility.  i s no n e e d  to  i n a free-standing  the In a  support  data  dic-  system.  The  a  has been  IMS.  data  which  management  of t h i s  database  free-standing  structures  dictionary  of system  database  i s one w h i c h  a single  evaluating  may o r may n o t i n c l u d e  type  supports  file  of data  i s a system  which  ment  in  support.  a r e two t y p e s The f i r s t  3  considered  language,  and vendor  There tence.  criteria  data  First,  level  British  dictionary i n basic  language  Computer  system  such  Society,  c a n be w r i t t e n  assembler  language  a s P L / 1 o r COBOL,  pp.  11-4.  i n one o f t h r e e  (BAL),  second, i n  and t h i r d  as  an  121  application  using  implementation as to  execute  more  data  tionary  the  built  on-line ports, and  into  database  and update,  hardware  requirement  system, the  the data  manufacturer base  the data  t o purchase  management dictionary will  management  which  DBMS  are a l -  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  the  data  of re-  dictionary  management  as well  This  be l e s s  por-  one  would  re-  operates),  database  management  i n the maintenance  as the data of a  interfaces  i s true  dic-  system  by a v e n d o r  not offer  the data  will  i s made,  a particular  i s offered  systems.  dictionary  of expertise  system  likely  implementing  change  the database  and t h e development  database  the  o f p r o d u c i n g a d hoc  couple  against  i f a hardware  where  that  dic-  systems.  i n DBMS a r e t h a t  quire  and con  of the data  processing  t h e ease  to closely  pro  of design  i n random  o f t h e arguments  (such that  i s f a i r l y low.  o n a DBMS h a s b o t h  t h e DBMS a c c e s s m e t h o d s ,  management  table  the  based  such  BAL c a n be o p t i m i z e d  favour of implementation  and the a b i l i t y  tionary  Although  on c r i t e r i a  i t s maintainability  efficiencies  enquiry  Some  "  In  evaluated  i n a DBMS a r e t h e f l e x i b i l i t y  allows, ready  i s usually  quickly,  *  3  As f o r any s o f t w a r e packages, t h e  and speed.  dictionary  arguments.  3  language  maintainability  A  If  a DBMS.  of  dictionary. DBMS,  t o other  f o r a l l systems  we  the datahave  George. Schussel, "The Role of t h e Data Dictionary," D a t a m a t i o n , 23, No. 6 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 1 2 9 - 4 2 ; J a c k E . E w e r s , "How t o Evaluate a Data Dictionary," Computerworld, 2 5 , No. 10 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , I n D e p t h 1-12.  1 22 reviewed.  If guage, of  the system  investigations  the programs  should  i s well  ease  of program  code  availability  i s also  and  correction  tion.  This  may  The allows less  software  t o b e made  ting  system.  ments  should  tion  hardware ware In  major on w h i c h  executes  evaluating  speak  to users  guration system allows  Ewers,  this  similar not  only  for discussion  In Depth  should  p.  dictionary  agreements.  files,  This and i s  to the opera-  language  loading  be c o n s i d e r e d  executes.  and  stateproduc-  hardware  proposed. on t h i s  using This type  concerning  First,  i t i s advised  to identify  5.  could  structures.  job control  or proposed  executes  execu-  modifications  by m o d i f i c a t i o n s  are presently  to that  during  maintenance  initial  Source  f o r the diag-  a r e found  file  design  dictionary.  criteria,  that  i n the code.  or void  f o r both  the package  on c u r r e n t  that  the  lan-  indicate the  user  standard  factors  will  as i t allows  of the data  of the data  that  i n that  obsolete  be i n c l u d e d  This  5  use standard  Finally,  execution  Two  difficult,  programming  t o ensure 3  important  access  level  due t o e r r o r s  of errors  should  f o r program  likely  b e made  be a d r a w b a c k  update  in a high  structured.  correction  nosis  make v e n d o r  3 5  i s written  that  the  the sytem  purchaser  on a  ensure  of system,  any problems  the s o f t -  configurations.  that  will  the  confi-  that  the  but i t a l s o  or s p e c i a l  mo-  123  edifications should  be  done  tions.  The  special ty,  necessary  discussion  as  operate  microcode  u s e r s have  posed  system,  in  a  specific  The  second  s o f t w a r e package  of  efficient  adds,  size  ly.  3  7  riding  7  Adam, Ewers,  uses  I t may  be  factor.  pp. In  the  the  pp.  system  operating  of  densi-  must  also  systems.  system  conversion  i s the  include  overhead,  to  aids  which  If  the  pro-  or  have  could  be  data  core the  and  other  more  or  size  the  3  aid  of  amount  important  dictionary of  software, which  package the  on-line  system  standard system  and  on-line  the of  which  Factors  6  transactions  less  in  uti1ization,  department,  the q u a l i t y  5-6.  efficiency  resources.  maintenance  and  46-51. Depth  The  hardware  processing  that  Clean  investigation  conversion  criteria  system  data  of  configura-  information  present  i n the  program,  deletions  the  the  developed  use  s u p p o r t may  support  memory.  or  This  effort.  executive  of  hardware  include  proposed  problems  to execute  Vendor  which  have  necessary, system  changes,  the  and  in production.  f o r speed  cache  hardware  and  system  proposed  used  hardware  the  necessary  3  t h e y may  successful  monitor  and  c o n v e r t e d from  more  storage  or  present  other  the  should also  features  under  identified  3 6  for current  hardware  such  t o use  time  such  as  commands.  depending the  i s done  software  is structured  extent  on to  internal-  i s an and  overwell  124  documented, ment  to  system  may  where  majority  sive  the product. for  the  extensive  purchaser  a l l of the  hot  line  (problem  This  indicates  that  purchaser  the  i s looking  minimum  should  l i n e ) which  a n d some  level  include  depart-  dictionary  modification.  f o r a good  not plan  a high  data  functions,  functions  support  processing  internal  required  maintenance,  Vendor  data  The p u r c h a s e d  a t t r a c t i v e , and does  inhouse  necessary.  that  sophisticated  of the d e s i r a b l e  deems  The  a  be a b a s i s  satisfies  he/she  allow  support  However, which  will  possesses  of the  to  local  exten-  support i s  support,  24 h o u r s  or  a  a day.  basic  support  is  should  examine  the documentation  to  i s present.  would  documentation  a  functions  provide  of vendor  i s available  f i t ; one  present.  This  ensure inc-  lude :  1. O v e r v i e w  of system  of  system  lar  graphic  functions.  operation exhibits  A high  and s t r u c t u r e documenting  level  charts  flow  chart  or other  the processing  simi-  of  the  system.  2. D e s c r i p t i o n including  Description access  the  technical  documentation  procedures  3.  of  which  any  structures,  and any s p e c i a l  of the system,  specialized  are incorporated  of f i l e  methods,  of  features  into  technical  the programs.  comprising  file  data-related  layouts,  topics  such  1 25 as l o g g i n g of t r a n s a c t i o n s , backup  4. A  summary  of  each  program  or recovery.  i n the system,  identifying  i n p u t s , o u t p u t s , a n a r r a t i v e o f p r o c e s s i n g , any t i n e s used, and a f u n c t i o n c h a r t  identifying  subrou-  the flow of  processing.  5. D a t a  input  instructions.  descriptions  of  input  s c r e e n s used, examples  T h i s w o u l d embrace  data,  documentation  d e s c r i p t i o n of r e p o r t s .  of  of  input  of forms n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t t h e  system, and e r r o r messages and t h e i r  6. A  detailed  resolution.  This should include  a l l r e p o r t s which i d e n t i f y  their  function  examples and  con-  t e n t s , a n d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e r e p o r t h a s been p r o duced. The  best  way  to verify  vendor  support i s to discuss i t  w i t h some o f t h e u s e r s o f t h e s o f t w a r e . w h i c h s h o u l d be c o v e r e d  1. The r e l i a b i l i t y system. for  each  Some o f t h e t o p i c s  include:  and ease o f i n s t a l l a t i o n  of f i x e s t o the  A s y s t e m w h i c h h a s t o be u n l o a d e d and  reloaded  f i x t o be i n s t a l l e d , a n d w h i c h d o e s n o t come  with sufficient  Ewers,  3 8  I n Depth pp.  s o f t w a r e t o do s u c h an o p e r a t i o n , c a n be  5-6; Adam, p.  51.  126  cumbersome  2.  The f r e q u e n c y going  user the  3.  I f these  requests, vendor  enhancements  then  indicate  vendor  and the u s e r s .  best  able  hired,  should  been  good  training  the i n s t a l l a t i o n  i n evaluating software  require  a specific  fees review  and  should  penalties  Adam,  maintenance  p.  be made  which  51.  could  contracts  the  of  group the  Users  concerning training  enhancements  be  desirable.  the  software, be  with  between  after also  on  personnel are  scheme.  should  of the p o s s i b i l i t y be i n c u r r e d .  a s new  packages  o f payment  purchase  user-  training.  Training  Finally,  p o s s i b l e t o - l e a s e or  of a  Extensive  would  software  based  and bad p o i n t s  and beyond,  to the software  type  done  on-  relationships  of  program.  an  the  communications  good  be a v a i l a b l e .  made  been  good  and e x t e n s i v e n e s s  during  have  have  The e x i s t e n c e  to identify  vendor's  indicates  t o upgrade  continued  are implied.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  This  the;-- v e n d o r  also  the  3 9  by  would  are  be  of enhancements.  interest  package.  may  to maintain.  3  9  purchaser I t should maintenance  inspected, cancellation  and a and  1 27  5.3  Implementation  The  possibility  of  increased  by c h o o s i n g  immediate  b e n e f i t s of a data  four can  instances provide  1. When  when  such  the  jects  implementation  p e r i o d which  dictionary  a data  system.  dictionary  processing  proposed  proposed  2. B e f o r e  s u c c e s s f u l implementation  "  system  0  c a n be  will  show  There  are  implementation  benefits:  the data  and  an  a  application  a r e not  a major  operation  has  become  systems  complex,  development  pro-  critical.  database  management  system  conversion  effort.  3. B e f o r e  undertaking  4. A s p a r t  In tenance  activity  data may  cessing  staff  may  benefits.  this  type  "°  Canning,  4 1  Nolan,  p.  "  data  processing  occupy  time,  of ongoing  p.  large  o f an o n g o i n g  a mature  have  a  more  systems  processing  There  than  a r e two  101; C a n n i n g  In Depth p.  9.  p.  project.  project.  where t h e main-  50 p e r c e n t  of data  of a data  pro-  dictionary  objectives in undertaking  project:  11; E w e r s ,  standards  environment,  the implementation 1  development  4.  1 28  1.  To  clean  up  the  2.  To  a i d users  confusion  in  in  the  identifying  data.  enhancements  and  systems  problems.  In tems  a  have  tions,  mature been  the  separate tape  implemented  environment  application  files,  systems  methodology The  management  system  and  Once of  pursued,  that  order  up  manner  in  and  types  the  likely  has  been  the  of  data  are  func-  number  of  disc  and  comprehensive and  acquired may  sys-  use  a  a  data  database  DBMS a s  in  poor  an  data  data.  second  be  where  between  specification  o b j e c t i v e can  aid  cited  definitions  accessed,  relationships  a  result  the  can  a  planning  dictionary  which  data  of  e s t a b l i s h e d in the  entities,  benefit  they  used  have  inevitably  business  numerous  systems  also  oriented  consist  using  inconsistent  approved  which  standard to  each  included  will  i s , that The  look  support  some a p p l i c a t i o n s  processing  information. to  and  operations  o r g a n i z a t i o n has  which  This  some and  lity  the  redundant,  data  is  where  o r g a n i z a t i o n may  system.  sharing,  to  packages  unless  modelling.  access  environment,  users  this  i s the  abi-  and  identify  the  they  are  data  here  of  be  and  accessed, processing  entities.  In should readily  pursuing promote and  the  this  benefit,  d e s i r e to  selectively  the  create  retrievable  database  administrator  descriptions through  the  which use  of  are data  129  descriptors features  the data  controls limit  to  i s that  significant  and  function,  be u s e l e s s " .  major  of  of  management  a database  necessary identify to  t o perform their  explore  optimal  In would  which  tionary  should  of data,  this  one  system  tionary  i n t e g r i t y and t o  dictionary  maintenance  and s t a f f i n g of a  database  has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the an o u t - o f - d a t e  data  data  dic-  c a n be u s e d  dictionary system.  system  Before  promote  the  i s the installation  this  analysis  i s done,  of data  In a d d i t i o n ,  database  to  i t i s  e n t i t i e s and  t h e DBA w i l l  structures  need  i n developing  an  format.  supporting require  data  a thorough  alternative  privacy  users.  which  relationships.  database  management  tion  a data  and  these  2  event  installation  security  dictionary's  "Clearly, 4  In providing  require  creation  which  tionary  second  data  the  i s paramount.  will  will  ongoing  dictionary,  The  4 2  the  reports.  to authorized  key p o i n t  administrator  reference  dictionary  ensure  the access  A is  and cross-  or  type more  has already  supports  that  be a m e t a d a t a processes  of a n a l y s i s , database been DBMS  the data  links.  I f the database  identified, i s necessary.  dictionary  to allow  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  dictionary  a  data  The data the  at a high  dicdic-  defini-  l e v e l , and  J o h n J . C a h i l l , "A D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y Method f o r B u i l d i n g A Common MIS Data B a s e , " J o u r n a l o f S y s t e m s M a n a g e m e n t , 21 (Nov. 1970), 29.  1 30 have  facilities  DBMS  definition.  The  problems  to  allow  of  control  large  systems  tunity  f o r the  use  of  system  can  reduce  tionary  identifying for  the  can  decisions, base  design.  formation be  data  to  data  as  the  The  the  system  design at  system's  alternate  in  performance  on  the  third The  providing  or  data  A  by  data  dic-  implementation  supply  data  dic-  effort  implementation  also  of  oppor-  documentation  stage.  resolving  can  designs  the  system.  early  scope  dictionary  of  development  and  an  designers  data  allow  monitoring  dictionary  models  the  generation  projects provide  conceptual  assist  such  a  automatic  and  development  f u n c t i o n s and  tionary  f o r the  and  data-  support  in-  programs  to  generated.  Once provides this the  the a  design  baseline  way,  development  implementation  amount  by  of  has  which can  design  additional  been  be can  completed,  completion  can  contained be  the be  in that  analyzed  programming  or  data  in  dictionary  measured.  In  any  to  changes  terms  database  of  the  definition  work  necessary.  The  data  gramming contain  effort data  programs. dard  dictionary  code  can  necessary  definitions  by  significant  can  be  p o r t i o n of  reduce  data  included the  the  supplying  for databases  I n . a d d i t i o n , the which  also  copy  and  documentation  of  pro-  libraries  which  data  dictionary  in edit  amount  can  modules  divisions provide and  necessary  stan-  provide for a  of  a  comp-  131  lete  system.  Finally, assisting large  the  an o n g o i n g  dards  These  standards data  A data  officer.  dictionary  1.  An  auto  tion and  load  tion  necessary  changes  forms  tions face  to supply a copy  systems  bridges,  being  data  systems.  the  and  informa-  file  handlers,  bridge  between  Exception be  data  This  differences  should  be  standards  do-  actual  implementa-  r e p o r t s and  suggested  generated.  definitions  libraries,  or  t o programmers i n  direct  definitions  time.  database book  management  libarary  management  the standards  developed  officer,  dictionary  programs,  can supply  to the database  these  the standards  to allow  should  books,  tool  bridges:  programs.  through  c a n be o n e  dictionary  at execution  utility  stan-  by t h e  t o programs  provided  explicit  a  used  i n the data  of copy  t o have  In  dictionary  In s u p p o r t i n g  which  program.  in  stan-  identifying  2. A u t i l i t y  as a t o o l  by a  management  within  used  a r e d e f i n e d and m a i n t a i n e d  facility  database  c a n be  development  t o be e x t r a c t e d f r o m  cumented  With  is  requires three  complete,  3. A  i t  standards  function.  dictionary  standards  organization,  dards.  the  data  and  those  or a  system  real  defini-  time  inter-  system.  officer already  can ensure in  that  operation  1 32  conform  to  In  standards  order  to  implementation the  of  ensure a  o b j e c t i v e s of  concerning ction,  1.  other  there  five  of  dictionary which  will  increase  reduce  systems. assured system  new  must  have  the  4  a  a  a successful  only and  viable  achieves  information  long  term  fun-  3  commitment In  the  to  long  establishing  term,  the  data  information  for utility  programs  development  time  systems,  between  effort  necessary of  This  f o r new  organizational  these  implementation  is successful.  not  definitions  entities.  the  which  is also  achievement  if  e n t e r p r i s e has  data  but  sharing the  The  an  dictionary,  provide  reduce  data  the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  requirements:  data can  by  that  entities,  management  control  and  data  loading  are  Senior  defined  to  entities,  maintain  b e n e f i t s can of  the  requires a  existing only  be  data  dictionary  senior  management  commi t m e n t .  2.  The  setup  of  identify lity  for  tabase one the  4  3  Adam,  p.  an  and the  active  enforce  database standards,  integrity  administrator  or  more  first  47.  of  is a  individuals. application  the  administrator and  data  to  take  data  for  The  is staffed  dictionary  responsibility  to  responsibi-  dictionary.  f u n c t i o n which  The  role  should  the  daby be  database  1 33  administrator.  3.  An  honest  done. data  e v a l u a t i o n of  In  this  i s an  responsibility.  the  a  DBA  centre, growth  with  For  example,  system  Successful  data  data  user  at  definition  of  necessary  to  differences  Finally, term  should  i s both  to  100  tions  are  standards  a  more  The  defining  of  entities.  User  naming,  data  is  percent  which  a  data  a  result  as  a  payout.  of  of  in  cost  However,  the  is  in  database  requires in a  non  responsibility  to  and  data  maintaining  involvement format  whole of  tedious  constantly being  main-  will  and  the be  definition  shared.  task  complete  and  dictionary  the  reconcile  and  and  users  least,  long  management  straightforward task.  have  The  of  implementation  o r g a n i z a t i o n as  tionary  data  environment  commitment.  be  be  which  the  installation  dictionary  data  of  the  the  that  certainly  direct  the  involvement.  dictionary  themselves  once  noted  dictionary,  of  be  be  developing most  data  chance  easier  management  strong  5.  be  level  in  will  the  little  should  place.  4.  dictionary  b e n e f i t s should  i t should  effort  f u n c t i o n and  and  additional  The  data  cost  evaluation  dictionary  taining  the  as  requires  installing and  new  can data  developed.  dictionary  In  a  a data  dic-  be  said  never and  new  defini-  addition,  imposes  are  long  the  restric-  134 tive.  Management  assignments and  ensure  will  within that  probably  the database  tedious  tasks  want  to  rotate  administration  are shared  by a l l .  staff  function  1 35  CHAPTER  6  CONCLUSION  This number  thesis  of  we  two  tionary why  from  2.  have  five  Finally,  the pragmatic i t ? , how  where  we  systems;  examined  we  have  d o we  choose  a  proposed  of the system;  packages  have  from  a  organizationally,  in  approached  viewpoint, answering  a l l of the benefits  acceptance  i s f a r from  identify  some  Installation  is  data  are entered.  Poor  data  tional sive 3.  we  dictionary  and  detail  the d i c -  the questions:  i t ? , a n d how  d o we  suces-  install i t ?  terature,  1.  data  the u s e r s and uses  overview.  need  With their  the  dictionary  reviewed  where  in  d o we  sfully  of data  have  commercialy, and  examined  viewpoints: structurally,  classification where  has  No  entry  tangible  Cincom Systems, 1981), n.pag.  universal.  possible  an o d i o u s  facilities,  parameters,  tabular  of the data  CINCOM,  reasons:  task,  "  which  system,  in their l i -  4  where  usually  and output  dictionary  large  batch,  amounts of  with  i s presented  posii n mas-  reports. benefit  Data  t o end  Control  users.  System,  ([United  States]:  n.p.,  1 36  We  can add to these  1. A  lack  effort  of  no D a t a  leaving 3. An  cially  those  year,  show  Following 5, a to  great  an  associated  existing  of data  is  at  guidelines  presented  one w h i c h  (such  which  assists  a t once,  will  a s a DBMS  allow  to load a l l  i n Chapter  to these  input,  up,  once.  and updated  we  set  unclear.  often  i n responding  also  t o o much  plan,  reviewed  modified  project  programs  t o do  data  espe-  i n the  last  criticisms. in  show  Chapter benefits  installation), to  in solving without  4,  be  i s  extracted  the problems of  a clearly  perceived  it.  Several friendly free  been  The u t i l i t i e s  attempting benef  systems  advances  scope  function  f o r the dictionary  definitions  the i n s t a l l a t i o n  suggested. from  have  i n reducing the  implementation.  implementation  dictionary  which  reduced  and  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  data  are useful  Administrator  the enterprise's  The  which  design,  Base  over-ambitious  of  following:  utilities  of systems  2. O f t e n  the  packages  menues,  form,  relying  now  support  prompting on  keywords  online  data  and t u t o r i a l rather  than  entry  with  features.  user-  Input i s  positional  parame-  ters.  Benefits development completely  t o end u s e r s and  c a n be  maintenance  d e f i n e d system  will  found  time, result  i n reduced  and assurance from  application that  the design  a more  effort.  1 37  These  benefits  query  languages which  tual  design,  to  maintenance  of  and  Data ferent ties  lications. What  be  5  generators  A  have  good  Packages i s the  the  concep-  and  generators, also  recently  assist  begun  well  of  documented  available  today  source  data  code and  use  maps  i n system  deve-  development  of  dictionary  four  main  Data  Base  systems  software  of  the  i n ANSI  facilities  Systems 4  5  DMS  of  and  that  difenti-  BCS  pub-  design.  t o use  this  (DMS)  (not  to  are  the  Systems"  Management tomorrow.  types  in a  (DBMS)), are  composed  in-  of  systems:  1. A  simplified  2.  A  screen  3.  A  d a t a b a s e management  4.  A  simplified  data  dictionary.  design a i d .  program  system. language.  developed to a s s i s t  Richard G. EDP A n a l y z e r ,  to evolve  reflect  c o m p l e t e l y . " D a t a Management  confused with  were  on-line  i n the development  appreciation  s u p p o r t e d was  data  DMS  "  database  questions,  data  as  t o examine  programmer  Test  such  maintenance.  remains  formation  utilities  the analyst  the  dictionaries  be  by  unanswered  programs.  direction. to  allow  assist  automated  lopment  supported  identifying  generation  and  are  Canning, 19, No.  end  e d . , "A New 7 (1981).  users  View  in developing  of  Data  systems,  Dictionaries,"  1 38 u s u a l l y on m i n i o r m i c r o c o m p u t e r s . contain  little  e l s e except  Their  screen design a i d allows the developer  and  i t s l o c a t i o n on t h e s c r e e n . input,  tenance  modify,  again  specifying  dictionary.  Additional  statistical  format.  to specify  the data  The p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e  delete logic  t o support  of data, a simple r e p o r t generator t o l i s t  data,  form  and  dictionaries  name, p i c t u r e a n d o u t p u t  The  basic  data  has  the main-  and  select  t h e names o f d a t a s t o r e d i n t h e d a t a f e a t u r e s , t o s u b t o t a l and perhaps  f u n c t i o n s , may a l s o be a v a i l a b l e .  f i c a t i o n s are often translated  The  perspeci-  i n t o a p r o c e d u r a l language  a s COBOL, s o t h a t more c o m p l e x  procedures  can  be  such  added  if  needed. We  believe  participate Additional system  that  in this utilities  which  the data d i c t i o n a r y of the f u t u r e w i l l  type of o r g a n i z e d data p r o c e s s i n g and f e a t u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y  addressses  each  h a v e been d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r s  u s e r ' s needs.  management  First,  of  ment work.  4 6  tradeoffs  a  These f u n c t i o n s  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  an i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e c a n be r e a l i z e d .  an i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m  than t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y  provide  3 a n d 5.  Through t h e use of a d a t a d i c t i o n a r y , of  to  system.  "  6  c a n be o p p o r u t u n i t y d r i v e n r a t h e r  or f u n c t i o n a l l y d r i v e n  c a n be a n a l y z e d  because  develop-  i n the conceptual data  I n t h i s way i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y w i l l  J o s e p h F e r r e i r a , "IRM: An E v o l u t i o n a r y M o s a i c , " 26, No. 10 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 86.  be  framedeli-  Infosystems,  1 39 vered  before  that  Secondly, rather  than  which  the  i s easy  information  analyst f o r the  conceptual  s t r u c t u r e and  analaysts  developing prepare  the  the  Third, tured.  trieve  and  quires, data  and  database in  dynamically  independence an  interface  the  for  of  the  data  actual  requirements  cause  that  of  provided and  or  functions to  using  differing  by  struc-  the  data  database re-  views.  reSome  management  However,  program  and  a  data  several  file  stuctures,  administratively  constrained  requires.  limited.  By  identifying  e n t e r p r i s e , systems need  which  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance.  to  program  database  single  in  selectively  the  conventional  be  which  systems  a  cooperate  the  subschemas.  program  can  an  with  require.  rigidly  and can  the  necessary  by  which  information  they  then  achieved programs  data  dominated  analyzing  than  dictionary  between  a  rather  format  technologically  contrast of  of  schemas  system  than  marked  use  systems,  rather  those  data  d u t i e s by  structures  be  between  i n the  interface  management  Fourth,  can  is already  use  can  The data  allow  p r o v i d i n g the  identify  be  user  identify  a n a l y s t s can  implementation  can  be  information  data  provide  dictionary  accessing  can  can  their  required.  independence  sytems  of  technical  system.  and  Users  information  as  management  and proper  Data  dictionary  completion  develop.  resource  dominated.  necessary  User  to  support.  are  Good  planners This  implemented  examples  of  is  merely  this  type  the can in beof  1 40 system  are on-line  banking systems  which  shown  that  have  benefit  savings  they  and provide  than  i s necessary.  prise  i n developing  process  oriented.  processing in  entities,  identifying  viding  that  those  by  attempting  to solve  little  information The d a t a  at a  much  By  identifying  the data areas  that  i n terms more  which  which  are  functions crisis.  the  which  rate enter-  data  and and  management  information,  allowing  labour  result  and documenting  require than  of  timely  d i c t i o n a r y can a s s i s t  rather  identifying  traditionally  d i c t i o n a r y can a s s i s t  a p p l i c a t i o n sytems  information,  developed  very  have  systems  and to  are in crisis  probe and  141 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Adam, R o b e r t G. 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