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Sediment movement in a sub-alpine basin in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia Jones, Penelope Sarah Ann 1982

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SEDIMENT MOVEMENT IN A SUB-ALPINE BASIN IN THE COAST MOUNTAINS OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BY PENELOPE SARAH ANN JONES B.A., THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE  1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (GEOGRAPHY)  WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED  STANDARD  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  SEPTEMBER, 1982 © PENELOPE SARAH ANN JONES, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department or by h i s or her  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  c^ ^ &0  CAPVW  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T  1Y3  Date  DE- 6 (3/81)  I  ^  _ ? e V o W * -  \°[HI-  written  ii  ABSTRACT Sediment measured  during  concept the  was  troughs,  the  used  study.  in  summer  were  integration the  budget.  Eolian  during  the  winter  snowpack.  of  mineralogy  bulk  were  sediment  budget  which  sites  guided  using Gerlach  data e s t a b l i s h e d component both  rates  of  direct  the  deposition  stored  soil  source  wind  sediment  i n the  deposition  from  regional  that  of the  mineral material  calculated a  valley  samplers.  included  Measured  suggested  The  a t 20  important  material  rates  1981.  of s i t e  most  alpine  three hypotheses  summer months and  accumulation  small  collected  s p l a s h t r o u g h s and  overall  a  to generate  Data  Spatial was  transfers  matched  profile  for  and  windblown  material. Animals transfer  on  limited, basin  (marmots) talus  they  area.  sediment  sites  are  transfer support  the  sediment  total  field and  season  an  had  on  The employed  this  of is  rainsplash a r e a s of  sediment spatially  t h a n wind o v e r  the  whole  perform  some  fine  contributes  debris.  The  little  to  This ranking i s tentative  snowmelt, e a r l y  random,  study  agents  influence  i c e which  warm, d r y  stratified, in  and  unvegetated  budget.  exceptionally  main  their  important  flow  needle  late  the  but a s  less  Overland  same s i t e s  are  was  fall  snow  as  the  accumulation  August. replicated inefficient  sampling as  many  scheme sites  iii  straddled rather ef f ic  two  than iency.  vegetation  a e r i a l  strata.  photographs  Use  for  a  of  a  base  plane map  table  should  map  improve  iv  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Page Abstract Table  i i  of c o n t e n t s  iv  List  of  tables  ix  List  of  figures  x  Acknowledgements Chapter  xi  1 Introduction  1  1 .1 Objectives  1  1.2  Historical  Perspective  1.3  A c o n c e p t u a l model  1.4  A g e n t s of  sediment  1.4.1  Overland  flow  1.4.2  Impacted  overland  1.4.3  Splash  1.4.4  F r o s t and  1.4.5  Wind e r o s i o n and  1.4.6  Animals  1.4.7  Spatial  1.5  Spatial  transfer  7 7  flow  ;  9  needle  ice  10  deposition  11 12  variability  variability  Slope  1.5.2  Vegetation Temporal  3  9  1.5.1  1.6  2  angle  variability  of  of  soil  soil  loss  loss  13 12 13 14 15  V  1.7  Chapter  Hypothesis  formulation  2 Description  15  of t h e s t u d y a r e a  17  2.1  Regional perspective  17  2.2  Local  17  2.3  Climate  21  2.4 G e o l o g y  21  topography  2.5 Q u a t e r n a r y 2.6  history  22  Soils  23  2.7 V e g e t a t i o n  Chapter  3  analytical  Sampling  25  scheme,  field  techniques  installations  and 28  3.1  Spatial  v a r i a b i l i t y of s o i l  loss  3.2  Sampling  framework  30  3.3  Sampling  design  31  3.4  Field  installations  28  33  3.4.1  Gerlach troughs  33  3.4.2  Splash troughs  34  3.4.3  Bulk  36  3.4.4  Tracer particles  36  3.4.5  Standpipes  37  3.4.6  Meteorological  3.4.7  Snow s a m p l i n g  3.5  collectors  Sampling  instruments  frequency  38 38 39  vi  3.6 S i t e  characteristics  41  3.7 A n a l y s i s o f s e d i m e n t 3.7.1  Field  samples  techniques  3.7*2 L a b o r a t o r y  41 41  techniques  42  3.7.2 S i e v i n g  43  3.7;4 P r e p a r a t i o n f o r XRD  43  Chapter  4 R e s u l t s and e r r o r  4.1 D a t a 4.1.1  from  Gerlach  4.1.2 S p l a s h 4.1.3  individual  Bulk  analysis apparatus  troughs  45 45 45  troughs  49  collectors  49  4.1.4 T r a c e r p a r t i c l e s  51  4.1.5  Standpipes  53  4.1.6  Sediment c o n t a i n e d  4.1.7 O v e r l a n d  i n t h e snowpack  flow data  53 54  4.2 M e t e o r o l o g i c a l summary  54  4.2.1  54  Temperature  4.2.2 Snow  56  4.2.3  57  Chapter  Rainfall  5 Interpretation  5.1 S u r f i c i a l 5.2 O v e r l a n d 5.3 S p l a s h  of the r e s u l t s  movement flow  59 59 67 74  vii  5.4  Frost  5.5  Eolian  and n e e d l e i c e deposition  •5.5.1 P a r t i c l e blown  78  size  79 distribution  and  amount  material P r o v e n a n c e o f windblown  5.5.3  Wind d e p o s i t i o n  5.5.4  Sediment  5.5.5  Summary  Animals  5.7  Spatial  Chapter  wind 79  5.5.2  5.6  of  sediment  82 85  contained  i n t h e snowpack  88 92 93  variation  6 C o n c l u s i o n s and  of s e d i m e n t y i e l d  97  recommendations  6.1  The  6.2  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the f i e l d  6.3  Assessment  of t h e i n i t i a l  hypotheses  6.4  Comparison  of t h e r e s u l t s  with other  6.5  Further  105  sediment budget  research  105 season  108 110  data  ....112 114  viii  Bibliography  116  Appendix  A Slope  angles  Appendix  B Soil  Appendix  C Water  Appendix  D Snow c o v e r  126  organic matter  127  repellency  128  data  129 f  Appendix  E Sediment  collected  i n g e r l a c h troughs  Appendix  F Particle  size  Appendix  G Lognormal  Appendix  H Sediment  Appendix  I Bulk  samplers  Appendix  J Data  from t r a c e r  Appendix  K Snow samples  Appendix  L Overland  Appendix  M Thermohygrograph data  Appendix  N G e r l a c h t r o u g h water  fractions  plots  of g r a i n  collected  134 size  data  i n s p l a s h troughs  138 161 162  particles  163 ..165  flow o b s e r v a t i o n s  •Appendix 0 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  130  166 167  volumes  168  o f XRD t r a c e s  ^169  Appendix  P Rock c o m p o s i t i o n  171  Appendix  Q Cluster  172  Appendix  R Principal  Appendix  S Multiple  analysis components a n a l y s i s regression  173 174  ix  L I S T OF  1. A 2.  revised  Sampling  model of a l p i n e  TABLES  sediment  6  transfers  scheme  25  3. V e g e t a t i o n  26  4. T r a c e r p a r t i c l e s  37  5. T r o u g h c o l l e c t i o n d a t e s  40  6.  48  Loss  of  sample d u r i n g s i e v i n g  7. M e t e o r o l o g i c a l d a t a 8.  Gerlach trough  9.  Organic  55  contributing  content  and  areas  p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of  pits  63 3  soil 86  10.  Site classification  11.  F statistic  12.  The  13.  Estimates  sediment  to t e s t budget  97 stratum of  of s e d i m e n t  the  homogeneity s t u d y area  transfers  101 106 113  X  L I S T OF FIGURES  1. The p l o t 2. Summary 3.  model plot  (Caine  model  (Caine  L o c a t i o n of the study  4. A l l i s o n s 5. A e r i a l  1971)  5  1971)  3  area  18  Bowl  19  photograph of the study  6. S o i l g r a i n  size  7. I n s t a l l a t i o n s  area  20  distribution  24  at s i t e 6  8. S e d i m e n t  collected  9. R a i n f a l l  estimates  34  in Gerlach  troughs  46 58  10.  P a t t e r n o f s e d i m e n t movement — l a r g e s t o n e s  60  11.  P a t t e r n of sediment  61  12.  Schematic  13.  Displacement  of t r a c e r  particles  65  14.  Displacement  of t r a c e r  particles  66  15.  Overland  16.  CRREL snow samples — s e d i m e n t  17.  movement — s m a l l  diagram of c o n t r i b u t i n g  flow  Dendrogram  and v e g e t a t i o n  showing  site  analysis  stones  area  64  type  71  concentrations  classification  90 by  cluster 99  18.  S e d i m e n t movement and s l o p e  103  19.  Alta  109  Lake c l i m a t i c  data  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Financial  support  forthis  graduate  F e l l o w s h i p , an A r c t i c  National  Research C o u n c i l Grant  I would his  like  and  members, D r . M.J. B o v i s  and  I  67—7073.  direction and  Prof  and J.R.  my  other  Mackay  Staehli  am g r a t e f u l  Quality  Laboratory  oxygen  plasma  for useful  generous  in  Tyler,  the  field  hospitality.  t o F. Mah and E . Minchowsky o f t h e Water (Environment  furnace  U.B.C. who e n a b l e d  extended  for  committee  K. L e w i s a n d M.  w o r k e r s and c h e e r f u l c o m p a n i o n s  A l and M a r t i  by a UBC  a n d A l p i n e R e s e a r c h g r a n t and  and a d v i c e . My a s s i s t a n t s ,  were t i r e l e s s  was p r o v i d e d  t o t h a n k my s u p e r v i s o r H.O. S l a y m a k e r  encouragement  criticism  study  Canada)  and t o t h e S o i l  t h e XRD  analysis.  f o r use Science  of  their  department a t  1  CHAPTER I .  1.1  Objectives The  on  aim  the  of  this  study  south—facing  Substantial deposits)  sediment shows  that  of  a  storage  on  the  sediment  i s not  s t r e a m c h a n n e l . -As  analyse  river—transported  McPherson  This an  1977), t h e y do  overland  t r a n s f e r of  study,  entity  contribute  statistical  soil  together  variability. accomodating  The  as  focuses an  a is  design  future  structure  is justified  and  of  This  work and  objectives in  on  the  loess to  the  sediment  yield  (Slaymaker  and  to a of  are  hillslope river  in  the  factors also  spatial  of  be  temporal  exploratory, utilising  a  an  efficient  to evaluate  disparate  formally  1.7  which  variability  i s to expedite  section  More  a  mechanisms and  also  as  makes  a n a l y s i s of to  stated  germane  It  system  channel.  several  movement.  possible  sampling  hypotheses  (as  mechanisms i n v o l v e d  intended  d i f f e r e n t techniques.  falsifiable  alpine  qualitative  number of  The  of  the  influence  assessment  range of  techniques.  watershed.  delivered directly  adjunct  sediment  with  in  hillslope  movement  sediment.  study  a wide  alpine  material  question  i t e x a m i n e s the  preliminary  sediment  small  studies  clastic  not  than  to h i l l s l o p e  loss  most  in contrast,  rather  specifically,  i s to c h a r a c t e r i s e  slope  nearest  the  INTRODUCTION  in  three  a f t e r the t h e o r e t i c a l  practical  constraints  are  stated. The  budgeting  approach,  mass b a l a n c e  studies  (Jordan  theoretical  framework.  used  s u c c e s s f u l l y i n energy  1978), was  Proposed  by  chosen  Jahn  as  (1968),  a  and  powerful  i t provides  a  2  strong  but  flexible  experimental  design.  integration  of  The  Bubnoff  1.2  Historical The  Hutton  (1mm  of  about  geologic  contemporary the age  inductive.  Davis  (1955)  process  simplistic  was  rocks  d o w n h i l l as Since logical  ice  are  the  unit  the  the  earth first  subsequent  and of  morphology.  measurement.  recognised  their  (Popper  geomorphological  process-morphology f r a m e . Most  its  storage,  were  with raised  scale  of  descriptive their  logic  Wooldridge  peneplains,  The  and  slope  c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of  Davis  wrote  (I909p424)  waste c r e e p s  and  and  on  which has  inadvertantly  that the  laws  focused  r e c e n t work  production,  tenet  1972)  linkages  sediment  time  of  wastes  remain."  general  work has  that  scale:  terraces,  1950's g e o m o r p h o l o g y has  testing  the  (1924) and  qualitative:  work  realisation  treatises  features.  the  interpreted  This and  Penck  river  hills  with  with  on .a g r a n d i o s e  carved and  began  processes.  (1909),  l o n g as any  probabilistic  sediment  i s the  Both  unchangeable  positivism  hypothesis  for  r e c o r d c o u l d be  The  described  and  time  of  processes.  morphology  of  (1830).  d e s c r i b i n g landforms  Linton  year)  movement  Lyell  i n the  questions  "no  per  sediment  and  to  was  provides  optimal  Perspectives  reference  essays  also  lowering  (1785)  accumulations  It  w h i c h t o c o n s t r u c t an  d i v e r s e measurements of p r o c e s s  study  sedimentary  s t r u c t u r e with  embraced  knowledge a d v a n c e s deductive  (Mann process  focused  breakdown and  on  formulation  1970).  Recent  (mechanisms)  are measurable  by  i n the  some  transfer.  and human  aspect  of  3  1 .3 A c o n c e p t u a l model o f t h e a l p i n e  The geologic, factors. lead  morphological  system  pedologic,  climatic,  Stress  acting  t o sediment  hillslope  o f an a l p i n e hydrological  on m o r p h o l o g y  movement. F i g 1  (1971) c o n s i d e r e d a t t h e p l o t  1  induces  system  hillslope and  (10m ) s c a l e 2  biological  response  shows t h e s p e c i f i c - also  includes  which  items  some  may  Caine  proposed  F i g 2 Summary p l o t model (Caine 1971)  Boundary conditions  Processes  I  Responses  I • — — —•  linkages  Direct important links, showing direction of influence Feedback effects  (Fig 2 ) . 2  C a i n e (1971) p 321 A c o n c e p t u a l model f o r a l p i n e p r o c e s s s t u d y . Reproduced with permission from A r c t i c and A l p i n e R e s e a r c h 3. C a i n e (1971 ) p 325 1  2  4  The  present  addressed  the  movement.  This  limited  spatial  i t also  variable  of slow  sampling  were  slow  least  locally  significant, There  comparatively  (Benedict  to  morphological  findings important found  by  transfer  slow  the  a  few  time  that  three  only  in a  soil  in  a  single  a t t h e base o f  mass movement  c o u l d be a t  constraint  precluded  measurements w h i c h c a n be u s e d  1970,Price  1972) b u t t h e s e  features, mainly  i s much g r e a t e r t h a n  are  limited  d e b r i s l o b e s , whose  average.  o f t h e snowpack  summer  study  i n mid O c t o b e r role  are  that  measurement.  The  a wide  to obtain a  so  mass movement  suggested  ended  indicated  mass movement  stripes  The  was  wind, was a d d e d : —  stone  2. V a r i a b l e s  sediment  i t provided a  e l i m i n a t e d or i n c l u d e d  season. W h i l s t o b s e r v a t i o n s of r i d g e d  o f movement  and  scheme.  summer  rate  of  modifications,  t o one summer s e a s o n  i s impossible to study  specific  plots  i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d  way and one v a r i a b l e ,  It  few  throughputs;  and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  of  1. V a r i a b l e s  a  variability  As a p r o c e s s — r e s p o n s e model  s t u d y was l i m i t e d  categories  comparable h i l l s l o p e  with  sediment  of background  more e f f i c i e n t  of  model,  suitable.  for tracing  range  utilised  problem  Caine's  particularly basis  study  of snow  period  d i d not b e g i n u n t i l  once t h e w i n t e r  i n moving  sediment  o f Mackay and Matthews agent Caine on New  of  sediment (1969)  Zealand  to  June  snowpack c o v e r e d i s largely  As  s p e c u l a t i v e . The  slush  t h e dominant  and  the b a s i n .  (1974) show snow c r e e p  movement. be  mid  avalanching,  agent  s c r e e s , was n o t o b s e r v e d  i s n o t an  in  of  sediment  the  study  Fig  Boundary conditions I. Geologic-pedologic controls (a) Mantle thickness (b) Surface shear strength (c) Bulk shear strength (d) Infiltration capacity (e) Permeability (f) Slope angle (g) Aspect (h) Slope position II. Climatic controls (a) Temperature variations (b) Rainstorm periodicity (c) Rainfall intensity - (d) Snow cover duration (e) Snow depth-density • (f) Snowdrift factors (g) Snowmelt conditions III. Biologic controls (a) Ground cover (b) Litter cover (c) Phenologic characteristics (d) Root density (e) Root strength (f) Burrowing organisms (g) Surface animal movement  1  The p l o t model (Caine  1971)  Responses  Processes I. Bulk mechanical stresses (a) Tangential stress (b) Particle expansion-contraction (c) Ice crystal growlh II. Surface water stresses (a) Overland (low drag (b) Rill discharge drag (c) Ground freezing III. Soil and groundwater stresses (a) Soil moisture fluctuations (h) Soil moisture gradients (t) Interflow discharge (d) I'oic water pressure (e) Water table fluctuations IV. Meteorological stresses (a) Raindrop kinetic energy (b) Snowpack pressure (c) Avalanche shear stress (d) Stem flow discharge  I. Soil surface set (a) Sheet erosion (b) Gully erosion (c) Surface compaction (d) Talus settling (c) Avalanche erosion deposition (f) Needle ice transport II. Bulk soil set (a) Soil creep (b) Solifluction (c) I.andsliding (d) Groundw;iter solution transport (c) Frost creep 1  III. Rock weathering set (a) Mechanical shattering (b) Solution effects (c) Mechanical corrosion  6  area  i t was  important 3.  initially  component  concluded  of t h e sediment  that  t h e snowpack was n o t an  budget.  Stream e r o s i o n  Drainage snowmelt.  from  The  the slope  streams  banks; o f t e n they  is  which  flow over  mainly  by  layer  and b a n k s . E l s e w h e r e  the  streambed  with  large  cobbles.  Wind  is  except  r u n a t snowmelt do n o t e r o d e  a thick  both  seepage  at  their  of moss w h i c h p r o t e c t s streambed  is  covered  of s t r e s s  because  Wind  the in  soil  i n c l u d e d a s an a d d i t i o n a l  profile  the study These  shows t h a t  windblown m a t e r i a l  four  modifications  i n Table  Table  1 A revised  give  model o f a l p i n e  Parent rock Mantle t h i c k n e s s Slope angle Soil attributes Snow f r e e p e r i o d Vegetation cover S p e c i e s type Water t a b l e p o s i t i o n  Overland flow R a i n d r o p impact Frost loosening Wind d e p o s i t i o n Animal a c t i v i t y  revised  Caine's  a  sediment  PROCESSES  of  accumulating  revised  model w h i c h i s  1.  MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS  transfers,  is  area.  shown  The  agent  transfers RESPONSES  Sediment  model has e l i m i n a t e d a l l b u t s u r f i c i a l  because of the s h o r t d u r a t i o n of the study. model  were t h e c h o s e n  transfer  is  sampling  only v a l i d unit  f o r small  sediment Adoption  (10m ) p l o t s :  and a s t r a t i f i e d  2  these  random d e s i g n was  7  employed  to avoid bias  efficiency. type  The  the  samplers inferred and  from  techniques  data  wind  the  temporal  variability.  Table  of  the  1 i s an  spatial will  now  by  rainsplash  of  The  spatial  temporal  and  A g e n t s of Overland  the  examined  of a n i m a l s activity  was  levels  variability  of  were  collected  the  a t e n t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of  assessment  their  magnitude,  processes in  a  in  the  frequency  listed  order  cursory  of  to  in  the  obtain a  assessment  of  variability.  sediment  transfer  flow  purpose  of  this  s e c t i o n i s to o u t l i n e  laboratory  e x p e r i m e n t s and  field  flow  important  of  i s an  bulk  spatial  briefly  of mechanism and  and  These d i s p a r a t e  makes no  the  troughs  troughs.  enabled  E a c h of  the  production. Meteorological  wind)  factors,  the  all  splash  role  burrowing  sediment  b a s i n and  of  be  ranking  The  dislodged  i n the G e r l a c h  variability.  preliminary  1.4.1  slope,  and  maximum  captured  of  e n u m e r a t i o n and  importance  obtain  width  resulting  east  1.4  troughs  deposition.  rainfall  yet  i n t h e model d e t e r m i n e d  were aimed a t a s s e s s i n g t h e  (temperature,  model  1m  observations  extreme  and  a  recorded  and  relative  listed  proportion  field  selection  used; G e r l a c h  over  measured  sediment  process  t o be  passing  estimated  site  processes  of a p p a r a t u s  material  in  agent  tests  sediment  Logistical  constraints  preclude  measurement  under n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s .  which  show t h a t  production  direct  a few  field  Overland  and  critical overland  transport.  observation flow  is  and  still  8  poorly  understood,  d e b a t e and  the  experiments prepared  present  using  40  level  artificial  nominally  indices  measurements  which  years of  of  soil  of  experimentation  comprehension  rainfall  p l o t s . Measurements of  although spaced  despite  applied  , loss  overland  embrace  is  a  based  on  t o n a t u r a l or  (e.g.  flow,  and  Bovis  entail  number  1978),  temporally  of  undefined  processes. Overland first  type,  storages  flow  i s generated  by  'Horton  type'(Horton  1945)  are  infiltration watershed. below Xc, where  filled  the  'saturation' limited  by  surface.  It  Spatial  where wash e r o s i o n can Horton premise  the  that  flow by  overland plots  found  water  take  must  of  t h a t were  sediment  lies  stream  channels  be  type  is  the  more and  in  ground area  e r o s i o n on  the  t u r b u l e n t to erode. Dunne and  i n the  laminar  investigated.  concentrations  For  of  However,  field  Dietrich(1980)  show  or  2—260 mg/1  a p r e r e q u i s i t e for erosion. impaction,  transition  example,  turbulence  raindrop  only  governs the  of w a t e r s h e d  under c o n d i t i o n s of  without  second  1970)  samples c o l l e c t e d i s not  a  divide  Black  flow  soil of  place  watershed  intersects  overland  water  exceeds  takes  The  The  place.  E m m e t t ( l 9 7 0 ) and flow  the  table  soil  proportion  flow  near  (1945) b a s e d h i s t h e o r y  observations that  found  variability  delivery  high  and  mechanisms.  when  turbulent.  (Dunne  is  ground  a  from  becomes  two  occurs  overland  distance'  or Dunne t y p e '  where the  cover  Horton  flow  spatially.  hollows  i t may  'critical  overland  least  or when p r e c i p i t a t i o n  capacity — Erosion  at  laminar  i s capable  Emmett  range  (1970)  in overland flow,  showing  Sheetflow  on  flow that  alone,  of c o n s i d e r a b l e e r o s i o n  9  on  unvegetated  slopes  steeper  Walker  and Hutka  erosion  on low a n g l e  impacts  not sheetwash.  increase  slopes  at  Often  rainfall  which  cannot  alone.  Brief  least  suspended Walker a  impacts  is  in  on  low  angle  transported  in  of  erosion  1944,  Moss,  demonstrated  mainly  slopes  by  that  raindrop  in  (<1.25°) g r e a t l y  comparison areas  real  with  (Walker  1973)  e t a l 1977).  270  sediment  by o v e r l a n d  rainstorms  from  unimpacted  slopes mobilises  (Farmer  sheetwash  1978). C o n v e r s i o n  measure  in  on low a n g l e  cloudbursts  load  authors  effected  poorly vegetated  impacting be  (Izzard  Flow  the l o a d of s h e e t f l o w  flow  0.005  1979) and t h e l a t t e r  1.4.2 I m p a c t e d O v e r l a n d  Rainfall  than  can  raise  t o 1600 ppm  concentration s t a t i s t i c s  is  possible  with  the  (Moss and  of these not  flow  the  into  available  information. These d a t a and  show t h a t t h e r e  empirical,  sediment 1.4.3  for  production  assuming  sound  basis,  that overland  and t r a n s f e r  at least  flow  theoretical  i s an a g e n t o f  i n unvegetated  areas.  Splash In t h e a b s e n c e o f o v e r l a n d  high  is a  infiltration  mechanism  of  capacity,  erosion.  Two  flow,  f o r example  r a i n s p l a s h alone categories  of  in  areas  of  i s p r o p o s e d as a study  can  be  recognised:— 1.  Those  erosion, under  which mostly  contribute carried  to understanding  o u t on s p e c i a l l y  t h e mechanisms of  prepared  soil  samples  laboratory conditions.  Studies  in.the f i r s t  category  u s u a l l y focus  on some  aspect  10  of movement distance kinetic  energy  may  which  'real'  the  relevant  2.  Field  Morgan  relating  or t e r m i n a l  An e x c e l l e n t and  literature  angle  splash  of  splash,  loss to  rainfall  of detachment laboratory  of the  simulated  u s e d , does n o t have t h e same  i s given  experiments u t i l i s i n g  drop  velocity characteristics  comprehensive  summary  by F r o e l i c h and S l u p i k natural  rainfall  of  (1980).  ( B o l l i n n e 1978,  1978).  1.4.4 F r o s t The  and n e e d l e i c e  hydrometeorological  Columbia  causes  considerable  frequent  moisture.  (Skarzynska  infiltration breaks  Needle  ice  agent  movement  rates  stones  slopes  of  regions  in  i c e forms the  the  (Imeson  by r a i n s p l a s h ,  increasing  soil  c r u s t s and  rendering  overland  flow  several  diameter  and  0.8cm d i a m e t e r  2°—5°  and  Garibaldi  park,  efficient  at  which  moving  on  slopes  sediment  than  that  wind. very  estimates  of  (1968)  painted  displacements  2—8cms of  per  on  1 0 ° . Mackay and  needle  snowcreep,  of  (1957)  year  t e r m measurements on t h e C i n d e r demonstrated  more  and a  thaw c y c l e s . G r a d w e l l  w h i c h moved  15-25cm  (1975) made l o n g  measured  soil and  form o f i c e s e g r e g a t i o n  t r a n s f e r and  of  and  have been made. Soons and Rayner in  presence  p o r e s and  soil  1977),  of B r i t i s h  in soil  1956). I t d e s t r o y s  i n 2 weeks and 11 f r e e z e  painted  Matthews  (Schumm  of sediment  1.25—6 cms  5—63.5cms  frosts  loosening  i s a spectacular  important  in alpine  Segregated  layers  to erosion  regime night  1980)  capacity  armouring  vulnerable  stones  splash,  a l s o be made a l t h o u g h  uniformity  rainfall.  of  of the e f f i c i e n c y  i s frequently  temporal  cracks  direction  energy. Estimates  rainfall,  as  as  of s p l a s h and exponent  kinetic  size,  such  Cone,  i c e was more frost  heave  11  (concrete  freezing)  measurements of and  was  of  soil  estimated  study  of two  erosion  about  i t has  been  movement by  no  needle  of s l o p e from  of  marker  the  transport a two  t o an a r e a l  to needle  reported at l e v e l s that recorded  i c e and  that only  year  estimate  particles)  Bubnoffs.'  attributed  studies  gave  up  to several  f o r e r o s i o n by  explicitly  o v e r l a n d flow  ice transfer  comparing  i n the  is  orders  overland sediment  same a r e a .  Wind e r o s i o n and d e p o s i t i o n Many  alpine  developed and  are  stripes  indicated  be c o n v e r t e d  10,000  2  amount of sediment  There  1.4.5  markers  (by o b s e r v i n g t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t I2kg/m /y or  Stone  movement of c o a r s e m a t e r i a l  3kg/y/m w i d t h  magnitude g r e a t e r than  flow.  wash.  i n mass movement. Mass  t r o u g h s . T h i s can  substantial: of  Subsurface  participated  at  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y The  surface  I5cm/y f o r s u r f i c i a l  35cm/y f o r f i n e s .  t o p 0.5cm of  and  in loess rich  bedrock.  suggest over  soils  Marker  past  beds  h o r i z o n s w i t h i n the  van  Ryswyck  and  primarily  (Junge  1977)  but  refer  to the  in this  total  of  term  'loess'  refers  of m a t e r i a l i n t h e  study  i t is  used  deposition  the  10,000 y e a r s had  erosion  over  the  last  drainage  basin  (1971)  (Green  loess  while buried Pawluk  1971,  little  to  an  or  showed  that  no  eolian range  generally,  amount of wind t r a n s p o r t e d m a t e r i a l . Caine  area  5—50»m s i z e  more  sediments  till  study  windblown  p e r i o d s of  a n a l y s i s of l a k e over  i n the  (Dumanski and  indicate  are  discontinuous ash  more  1979)  composed  Rocky M o u n t a i n s  (Dumanski e t a l 1980)  l o e s s sheet  the  and  volcanic  of 30cm or  Okazaki  Strictly  Coast  overlying  of  10,000 y e a r s  soil  deposition.  the  deposits  gradual accretion  the  deposit  in  From  to an  eolian  been e q u i v a l e n t t o  Lakes,  Colorado)  of  12  approximately  0.004mm/y  communication)  caught  located  within  the  or  4  Bubnoffs.  windblown present  material  study area  (personal  communication)  reported  neoglacial  moraines.  observations  material 1.4.6  is a significant  component  an  (1978)  noted that  aberration  showed t h a t 1000  the  Slaymaker  on  suggest that  of t h e s e d i m e n t  scientists  t o be a v o i d e d i n r e s e a r c h  more  unbroken  sediment  vegetative  smallest  estimated  on  Niwot  in  one  nearby windblown  budget.  comparable  t o the  t o earthworms, prairie  by a r c t i c raised  counting  squirrels.  to the ground  accounted  or  kg/km /y P r i c e  Imeson  s o u r c e of s e d i m e n t Yair  2  (1976)  (1974)  found  porcupine  f o r a l l t h e s e d i m e n t e x p o r t e d by  Coast  Mountains  marmots  (Marmota c a l i q a t a  and may  be an  3,900-5,800  first  order  have  a  measured by  (1881) (1949)  f o u n d moved  1940  m /km /y 3  moles;  2  this  redistribution  and  isopod  fluvial  by  burrows  p r o c e s s e s (up  drainage basin.  large  population  c a s c a d e n s i s ) which d i g  i m p o r t a n t component  figure is  Thorp  (1971)  f o r subsequent  Thorn  by Darwin  i n t h e Luxembourg A r d e n n e s  35 B u b n o f f s ) i n a s m a l l , The  budget.  Bubnoffs  of  considered  t h e number of mounds). T h i s  1950  tundra  areas  traditionally  2  ground  rainsplash.  in  sediment  He  locally,  other  active  2  the  selection.  than  1829-4390 kg/km /y a t t r i b u t e d  and  animals  moved,  t h e 926-9512 kg/km /y e s t i m a t e d by  dogs  a major  the  p o c k e t g o p h e r s move 2-3  (by  2  to  regard  site  ridge year  cover, s i t e s  contributors  that  kg/km /year  to  samplers  and  duststorms  physical  t h e p o c k e t gopher  times  almost  was  bulk  and T e t i  p r o c e s s e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , g o p h e r s were most  for  in  (personal  Animals  Thorn as  These  Gallie  of t h e s e d i m e n t  of hoary  large budget.  burrows  13  1.5  Spatial  variability  Process preceding  (mechanism)  section  variable.  selection  initial Although  has  been  summarily  t o some e x t e n t spatial  made from  scheme was has  controlled  of  the  aerial  dependent  o n l y on  found  t o be  are  variation  l e n g t h , water reviewed  production 1.5.1  and  Slope Soil  loss  1.45  Morgan  undoubtedly are  but  overland  soil  their  likely of  should  design.  important a  t y p e . The  feasibility  process  vegetation  an  is  morphology,  photographs,  is also  increases with  reported:  Horton  As the  strata. variable  major  cause  factors  include  major  factors  effect  on  sediment  measurement.  angle  Bartelli  (1945)  thought  by  measured a t t h e  increasing  which  Farmer and  van  occurs  Haveren  from  2  range  1.4  (Zingg  (d'Souza  l o s s must  plot  maps. S l o p e  its velocity  (and  determining  the  downslope  (100%  1971). I t a l s o  A  and  decrease  theoretical considerations  is easily  i n f l u e n c e s s p l a s h by  transport  soil  flow.  to estimate  1947),  1956), and  turbulent  i s hard  flow  slope angle.  1.35(Musgrave  f o r s l o p e s >20° b e c a u s e  uniform  Slope  assess  t o examine t h e  1976).  preclude  to  (van Doren and  progressively  field  below  and  e r o s i o n r a t e s . Minor  r e p e l l e n c y and  i n the  angle  exponents  1940),  in  by  sampling  1;10,000  been  examined  model m o r p h o l o g y  variability  increase e f f i c i e n c y  vegetation  spatial  slope  It  loss  previous erosion s t u d i e s , slope angle  of  of  is  was  sampling  soil  in a process—response  s t u d i e s of  synthesised to  site  in  but  Process  hence p r e v i o u s be  of  scale  proportion  increases  the  angle i n f l u e n c e s  Reynold's  at  in  37°  number). of  total  according  the  to  downslope  14  transfer  of  material  falling  or  rolling  under  the  influence  of  gravity. 1.5.2  Vegetation  Vegetation responsible C a r s o n and  for  the  soil  a  major  influence  considerable  Kirkby  unvegetated vegetated  is  (1972) s t a t e t h a t  slopes  slopes. chiefly  local  are  been d e m o n s t r a t e d scales.  At  a p l o t s c a l e , Bovis  variance  of  annual  of  %bare  soil  demonstrated incised  badlands  the  in  all  per  unit area  mechanisms  i c e only  splash  and  be  did  of  are  soil  wash a r e  than  protects has  spatial  45—65% of  the  angle.  Slaymaker  (1972)  small  watersheds  without  f o r by  soil  erosion  (1980) f o u n d contributed  r e s t of  contention  the  that  Three  is little  a l s o most e f f i c i e n t  on  impacts. This  f o r by  s t r o n g l y dependent  grows where t h e r e  on  product  basin  loss.  rates.  the  of  the  is  erosion  vegetation  accounted  Campbell  river as  and  greater  raindrop  accounted  r e i n f o r c e the  determinant  needle  known t h a t  load  B r y a n and Deer  wash  times  slope  sediment  Red  strongly  important  erosional  the  of  (1982) showed t h a t  of  entirely  loss  work a t many d i f f e r e n t  l o s s can  sine  a r e a s and  much s e d i m e n t  an  and  c h a n n e l s was  unvegetated  data  soil  that  rates  s h i e l d i n g i t from  e m p i r i c a l l y by  soil  v a r i a t i o n in erosion  1,000—10,000  It i s also well by  on  or  of  that 64  basin. plant the  in those  the  times  is  proposed cover;  vegetation places.  as  These  cover  upon g r o u n d no  from  and  15  1.6  Temporal The  variability  study  snowmelt  and  analysis  of  took the  fall  temporal  representativeness rainfall soil  of  the  Campbell  lesser  storms  erosion.  The  apparent  different  measurement  threshold  rainfall  which  little  short  field  event  capable It  factors  is  same  of  return  not  Hypothesis  load  and  1950) that  events  most with  a  degradation  Pearce  (1976)  achieved the  most  result  period,  implication include  of  a  below  i s that  a  rainfall  work. involves several  r a i n s t o r m s . For  ice occurrence,  upon t h e m o r t a l i t y  cause  on  s t u d i e s pointed to a  variability  winter  the  s p l a s h depend  return  months may  temporal  assess  i s probably  The  needle  to  period  performed.  between  qualitative  surface  specified  i n c i d e n c e of  influence  influence  genre  is  that  the e o l i a n  m o d e l . The  Neal  a  aggradation.  contradiction  of a few  likely  Caine's  and  of d o i n g m e a s u r a b l e g e o m o r p h i c  temperatures  critical  year  so  and  techniques. A l l these  erosion  b e s i d e s the  influence  of one  Wash  y e a r s cause net  season  necessary  demonstrated  two  intensity  season  is  (Brill  cause  that  summer  accumulation,  (1981)  events  one  season.  storms  concluded  1.7  snow  p e r i o d g r e a t e r than  while  over  variability  e v e n t s : a few  loss.  return  place  example,  wind  snowpack d e p t h of b u r r o w i n g  fall  strength may  have  may a  animals  formulation model  in  Figure  model d e r i v e d f o r t h i s but  limited  1 i s a type thesis  of p r o c e s s  (Table  1)  to include only v a r i a b l e s  movement. R e s p o n s e s a r e not  separated e x p l i c i t l y  is of  into  response of  the  surficial different  16  categories:  the p r i n c i p l e  review  the preceding three s e c t i o n s  to  in  be f o r m u l a t e d a b o u t  cascade.  Three  criterion  of e q u i f i n a l i t y  processes  i s a c c e p t e d . The b r i e f enables  which  regulate  hypotheses  are  stated,  of f a l s i f i a b i l i t y .  The  first  some  hypotheses  the  sediment  a l l satisfying hypothesis  ranks  the the  processes:— 1.  Sediment  descending  i s moved by n e e d l e  order of importance)  unpredictable The  with animals  hypothesis  in section  is  angle  include size  and  water  but  drawn  from  the  review  constraining  soil  loss  of  bare  soil  whilst  soil  o r g a n i c matter  that  needle  minor  are  factors  and s o i l  particle  i c e i s t h e major  influence  distribution.  sediment  These premises 3.  percentage  repellency,  Hypothesis upon  possible  1.5:  2. The major m o r p h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s slope  as a  factor.  second  morphology  i c e , wash, s p l a s h and wind, ( i n  Sediment  events.  1 states  production whilst  intensity.  are  secondary.  give the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s : — movement  Smaller  rainstorms  s p l a s h and wash  when  but the  i s g r e a t e s t i n the f a l l significant amount  of  movement movement  during needle i c e occurs  during  d e p e n d s on  rainfall  1 7  CHAPTER 2.  2.1  Regional The  drains and  to  Ryan  120km n o r t h  high  comprises  of  rugged  steep  British  terrain  progress,  1982,  2.2  topography  The  and  latter  5)  (Ryder  area  was  angles  mainland  glacial  coast  west  of  such  of  of  map  watershed  of  Pemberton the  Coast  continuously  British  topography  erosion  Columbia  i s dominated  by  nunataks  and  as  Valleys. the  basin  includes a theoretical  and  an  of  the  weathering  shows slope  marked and  analysis Gallie  were e a s i l y  types  and  and  valley  rock on  s e l e c t e d f o r study  i s 170m  shows the  north  The  form a b e l t  1981). The  a r a n g e of c o v e r  valley  Slope  area  talus  installations the  the  which  small  of  pond  study  the  of  water  sub—basin  (in  Gallie).  study  unvegetated slope  along  sheet.  8km  of a  1800m a s l w i t h  2  92J/7  slope  ( F i g 3). It i s part  ( B a r r e t t 1981)  chemical  0.2km ) a t  i s about  Columbia  work on  hydrophobicity  Local  and  Pleistocene  Previous  and  STUDY AREA  south—facing  1:50,000  of V a n c o u v e r  sided g l a c i a l  budget  the  River  Southern Alaska  f e a t u r e s of  the  (approximately  034832 on  mountains  and  area  watershed  reference  THE  perspective  study  alpine  DESCRIPTION OF  bluffs the  on  the  the  grounds  the  the  study  aerial the  sites  two  with  slope. that  relief  valley are  This field  photograph  ( F i g 4)  an  north—facing  safely accessible. Total  i n s p e c t i o n of  at  on  south—facing  d i f f e r e n c e i n m o r p h o l o g y of measured  asymmetry  of  (Fig  sides. given  in  Figure 3 Location of the Study Area  18  ON  ALLISON'S BOWL Trees Rock and Scree Grass and Moss Heather Contour interval in metres a.s.l. 0  Lower Lake approximate e l e v a t i o n 1800m NI=needle i c e study s i t e OF s i t e s (p 69) l o c a t e d between 2R and 1 LML=luetkea, moss, l i c h e n ! W =whaleback ( ( p 86) T = tree i s l a n d  50  100  21  Appendix  2.3  A.  Climate The  which  Coast  feeds  Mountains  large  a deep w i n t e r  icefields,  heavy  valley  Mountain  76.6cm  water  (1450m) show an  equivalent  latter  station  annual  whereas probably  ( p e r s o n a l communication,  the B r i t i s h  Columbia  maxima  there  in  October  receives  most  who  their  graze  usually winter study  2.4  November.  near  snow  the  free  snowpack d u r i n g  Hence as  study  in  October.  p e r i o d are given  Head  data  the  and  from  snowpack  of  (1420m)  has  the  study  station  summer d r o u g h t  i t s precipitation  cattle  becomes  site  Data  from  i n Pemberton precipitation  study  watershed  snow. Pemberton r e s i d e n t s site  consider  that  it  July^and begins  accumulating  Meteorological  data  in section  a  for  the  igneous  and  4.2.'  Geology The  Coast  metamorphic predate bedrock pendant Group and  of  and  maintains  T. G a l l i e ) .  F o r e s t S e r v i c e weather  i s a pronounced  also  average  reflects 1981,  and  precipitation  Snow c o u r s e  Diamond  conditions  show t h a t  winter  glaciers  snowpack a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s .  Whistler  135.4cm. The  receive  Mountains  core with  some f l a n k i n g  the c r y s t a l l i n e in  the  (McKee  study  1972)  i s extremely  schistose  comprise  rocks  and  Hutchinson  largely  1972).  The  i s mapped as a Gambier G r o u p r o o f  surrounded  by  heterogeneous  t e x t u r e s . There  complex  s e d i m e n t a r i e s which  (Roddick  area  a  quartz d i o r i t e . with  are mafic  The  Gambier  r o c k s of m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e and  basaltic  dykes  and  22  numerous Gallie a  shear  Pond  sub—basin  diorite  geologic  The  survey  till,  eolian  upper  than  Gambier  the lower  unit.  redistribution  of g l a c i a l  postglacial  eolian  neoglacial history  deposits  t h e Lower L a k e . a  communication undisturbed thickest is  overlies  a  postglacial  Coast  (Church  thorough  but  field  i n the south of the portion.  one  or  two  layers  till,  being  of less  horizons are developed i n  events of the  and  have  1972),  study  basin  a core taken  date  date for  took  There  1976, Ryder  place in  have  buried  river  soil  warming a r o u n d  ash  inferred  from  a bog 200m west of 10—11,000BP  deglaciation  horizon  (2,600  been  be  seen.  BP).  which  7-6000 BP ( A l l e y  marks  which  a r e deep and  The  The  from  (personal  lower  i s t h e Mazama a s h (6,600 BP) and t h e upper  the Bridge  in  can  of  c a n be  i s rapid  e t a l 1982). The  Where l o e s s a c c u m u l a t i o n s  two c o a r s e a s h l a y e r s  much  landforms  activity  deglaciation.  seen  that  secondary  paraglacial  This gives a basal  T. G a l l i e ) .  into  (Alley  from  Mountains  and Ryder  sediment  following  minimum  layer  probably  and  the t i l l .  t i m e . Most  millenia  represents  No  basin  an a b l a t i o n  Pedogenic  the  activity  Quaternary  schist  history  'paraglacial'  three  the  Group r o c k s  possibly  d e p o s i t s which o v e r l i e  several  of  the higher northern  unit,  Since d e g l a c i a t i o n  the  r o c k s near t h e  1981 T. G a l l i e ) .  was made o f t h e r e s t  indicate  2.5 Q u a t e r n a r y  early  abundant  of the b a s i n i s c o v e r e d w i t h  the  compact  most  are q u a r t z — a c t i n o l i t e — c h l o r i t e  and q u a r t z d i o r i t e Most  two  ( p e r s o n a l communication,  observations basin  zones.  Mazama  and layer ash  t h e end o f t h e  1976).  Preliminary  23  results  from  pollen  Gallie)  of  the  varied  temporally  production  2.6  as  analysis  lake core  ( p e r s o n a l communication,  show  possibly  that in  nearby v a l l e y  eolian  response  glaciers  T.  1981,  sedimentation  t o c y c l e s of  a d v a n c e d and  has  sediment  retreated.  Soils No  detailed  excavations sediment  field  would  o b s e r v a t i o n s of  have  available  for  artificially wind  erosion  results  in  i n t h e upper p a r t of  developed  soils  Lavkulich, tree  1981  islands  active  that  showed  the  area  soils  surround  site  from  taken  beneath  2  particle  size  shows gravel.  boulders  steep  slopes. Thick  from 2R  each as  site,  the  soils not  without  these  had  from  are  a  B are  sample,  including  gravel.  sieving  i s high  (up t o 30%)  to  A  deep o r g a n i c  summarises o r g a n i c c o n t e n t  at  each  Approximately  in Fig 6  the  >50%  soils  organic  proportion  of  content  i n the v a r i o u s s o i l  9  which and  were f o r  shown i n T a b l e  The  sand  p i t . Organic  figures  on  horizons  organic  i s shown  estimate  however, t h e s e  as  the  develop  organic  the  (L.  under  Regosols  textured with  sizeable  The  well  a very h i g h water c o n t e n t .  coarse  possible digging  low;  those  i n F i g 4 and  from  dug  Brunisols  samples were t a k e n  more  pits  showed  b e n e a t h t h e humus l a y e r .  Appendix  fractions  basin  of  yielding  Soil  Dystric  horizons.  mapped as h e a t h e r  distribution  I t was  the  because  t h e amount  samplers.  mostly  podzolic  horizon  and  that  were  bulk  t h e Lower L a k e . S o i l  the  500g was  the  made  transport,  p e r s o n a l communication) w h i l s t  d e b r i s l o b e s and  underlie  from  were  increased and  unrepresentative previous years  soils  (p  contents the  in  entire  i n the  finer  86)  which  h o r i z o n s . Many of  Fig 6 S o i l grain  size  distribution  24a  F i g 6 S o i l grain  size  distribution  25  the  soils  spatial  i n the study watershed  variability  generate  determine  overland flow.  Appendix  C. T r e e  by h e a t h e r water  may  Water  islands  a r e water  repellent,  their  a r e a s where h y d r o p h o b i c i t y c a n  repellency  have t h e most  and m o s s / g r a s s / s h r u b  so  data  are  repellent  areas. Earthy  shown  soil,  spreads  in  followed are  not  areas  with  repellent.  2.7 V e q e t a t i o n Four little  cover  vegetation,  spaghnum. the  2.  These  resulting  basin  types  were  tree  islands,  were mapped  map  strata  Gallie were  Pond  inferred  preparation).  The  heather  Fig  was  category, that  Table  2 Sampling  table  sedge/grass/ and a l i d a d e and  Proportions  of  are given  map  the  in Table  but v e g e t a t i o n  (T.  Gallie,  of r o c k and s c r e e  in  areas  scheme From  map  %  1 42 20 34 , 4 101  1 26 18 48 6 1 00  appeared  t o be t o o b r o a d  fields,  small  ice  and  not mapped  first  %  no p e d o g e n i c  4.  a more d e t a i l e d  From p h o t o g r a p h Lake Tree Scree Heather Grass  the f i e l d :  vegetation strata  sub—basin from  in  with a plane  incorporated in  o c c u p i e d by d i f f e r e n t  The  mapped  as i t i n c l u d e d  s c r e e and e a r t h y s p r e a d s  d e v e l o p m e n t and s i l t y  activity).  These  soils  disparate  bedrock,  large  boulder  (unvegetated areas associated environments  with are  with  needle a l l  26  characterised shrubs  by l a c k o f v e g e t a t i o n : o n l y  tolerate  sudeticum,  these  habitats  (Luetkea  Sterocaulon  sp) T r e e  islands  mertensiana,  Pinus  albicaulis)  have many krummholz  specimens  Table Site  Large Stone  Litter  1 2 2R 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 10 1 OR 1 1 1 2 1 2R 13 1 3R 1 4 NI  1 3 0 0 0 5 1 5 0 6 0 7 4 2 6 1 3 4 1 4 8 76 31 3  44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39  The  ground  suggesting  is  Phyllodoce  6 1 00 96 39 3 1 5 30 21 8 74 0 0 0 1 4 0 45 0 0 0 1  0 95 30 0 35 3 0 9 0 0 3 0 7 0 0 1 0 0 8 0  carpeted  with  occupies around  and  lasiocarpa).  50 79 92 40 30 7 1 5 1 4 1 7 2 71 100 59 83 1 00 54 1 00 23 43 0  a  thick  20 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 64 0 1 5 10 1 5 100 1 0 20 0 0 0  18 0 21 21 42 10 98 1 0 56 0 0 0 0 52 0 0 0 0 14 47 0  l a y e r o f p i n e n<  i s s l o w . T h e r e a r e some s h r u b s ,  but  no  association  J u n c u s drummondii,  depressions  sites  Tsuga  Shrub T r e e H e a t h e r Canopy  (Phyllodoce empetriformis,  sedge/spaghnum/grass  lasiocarpa,  3 Vegetation Grass  glanulifera)  spectabilis,  (Abies  Abies  Moss  decomposition  huckleberries  (mainly  few  p e c t i n a t a , Rhosomitrium  occupy h i g h d r y rocky  Earth Small Stone 0 5 0 0 18 55 0 70 0 5 65 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 96  0 70 7 71 100 65 57 10 29 0  some mosses and a  Phyllodoce close (Carex  Phyllodoce  and s t r e a m  channels  t h e Lower L a k e . The f o u r t h c a t e g o r y ,  notably  intermedia  cover.  The  nigricus,  Carex  empetriformis) and i s b e s t areas  where  developed heather  27  (Cassiope  mertensia,  intermedia, covered  Phyllodoce  Phyllodoce  a very  qlanulifera)  wide range  of  subdivision  according  species  list  f o r the G a l l i e  (1981)  and  the  areas  mapped h e r e Vegetation  Gerlach into  list  was  trough  100cm  2  as  to  during grass  above  because  the  the  cover  the was  habitats  and  probably  recognises  1m  the  only  'rock  sampling  2  according the  and  total  season stratum  season p r o g r e s s e d .  An  A  given  complete  by  Barrett  statistic  the  average value  grass,  1m  sum  stone. segment  2  had  of  >100%  several  were made t h r e e  seasonal  showed  of a  the  string  large  3 ) . Many s i t e s  surveys  to monitor  above  d i v i d e d with  e a r t h and  was  the  scree'.  percentage  (Table  of  were r e c o g n i s e d :  and  to the  which  required  immediately  quadrat  types  stone  trough  is  plant,  several sub-categories  and  types. Vegetation  field  availability.  sampled a t e a c h s i t e  with a  expressed  individual  predominant  segments. Seven c o v e r  immediately cover  the  Pond s u b b a s i n  'heather'  Phyllodoce  is  moisture  moss,shrub,tree,1itter,small E a c h was  empetriformis,  times  changes. Shrub  substantial is tabulated.  change  and as  28  CHAPTER  3. SAMPLING  SCHEME,  F I E L D INSTALLATIONS AND  ANALYTICAL  TECHNIQUES  3.1 S p a t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y The  objective  information small  the  that  frequently  also  used  cited  because  erosion  from  of p l o t  study  of  several  exist soil  type  nature  Boughton  the e f f e c t  sediment and  yield:  of  on  slope  vegetative  cover  They a r e measuring  (1967) r e c o g n i s e s  of  total  surficial  is  two  types  in  and S l o t b o m only  angle  one  to  Artificial  c o n d i t i o n s as n a t u r a l  i t  rainfall  rainfall.  scale. and  suffers  from  1974). F i r s t ,  characteristic  Second,  not  and  is  A third  soil  other  applied  produce  the  characteristic  plots rarely  and l e n g t h a r e c o r r e l a t e d  rainfall  does  while  1956).  erosion  artificial  characteristics.  although  variable  o f t e n at a watershed  (Riezebos  attributed  one  (van Doren and B a r t e l l i  as s l o p e  and v e g e t a t i o n  collection  employed  difficulty  from e a c h o t h e r  considered.  constrains  physical  of s t u d y  constraints  explicitly  model.  :—  first  in  They have been  the  which e s t i m a t e  differing  loss.  characteristics.  of c e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t s , The  utilised  as c o n t r o l l i n g  are held constant  Those  study  s i n c e t h e 1920's f o r s t u d y i n g  characteristics  larger areas.  1. T h o s e w h i c h a n a l y s e  2.  This  i s t o gather  t o t h e framework o f C a i n e ' s  of s o i l  soil  design  possible.  morphology  length,  are  others  as  sampling  p l o t s have been u s e d  variation  slope  loss  good  2  premise  angle,  a  (10m ) a c c o r d i n g  small  spatial  the  of  as e f f i c i e n t l y  plots  Similar  of s o i l  loss i s  often  f a c t o r s a r e not to  the  concern  with  hasten same  data  erosive  i s the enclosure  29  of  plots.  B e s i d e s the  enclosure  l i m i t s the  flow  interrupting  Since  erosive  overland  Finally,  an  investigated invalidates There  and  Hodges  measureable  results  disproportionate  should active  of  areas  1971)  in  Thorn  a  loss  of  i s probably  used  While  not  cannot  plot  is a  imply  Hayward  studies  acceptable designs,  a  substitute  69  of  link  regression  does and  to  out  a  fact  he which  significant results. of  the  many a r e  short  time  Thorn-1981).  type.  analyses active  active  of  sites  period  However,  statistically s i t e s but  second  process oriented  than  attention.  range of  ( B o v i s and  1970).  length  relationships.  (1976) i n d i c a t e a  by  physical  rather  amount of  a  loss.  (1978) o b s e r v e s t h a t  variability, embrace  and  1977)  Bovis  greatest  four  studies  biased  soil  overland  (Emmett  invariably  Church  the  only  variability.  those  of  fewer  1945),  correlation  statistically  geomorphologically  and  tool,  many s t a t i s t i c a l l y are  flow  indirectly  is  soil  (Mark and  that  of  in  fences,  plots.  and  analytical  used  Horton  boundary  velocity  pattern  analysis  factors  notes  d e p t h and  controlled  1944,  understanding  (1967)  Yair  is  regression  relationship  in i n s t a l l i n g  natural  in enclosed  morphological  for  the  (Izzard  underestimated  causal  b u i l d u p of  power  flow  descriptive,  disturbance  have as  (Bryan, spatial  received  his  sampling  sample most  are  yielding  sites also  valid  All  a  results show  the  scheme  intensively  in  30  3.2  Sampling  framework  Hayward  (1967)  randomisation sampling  emphasises  are  design.  that  prerequisites Replication  of  is  a  variance  when c o m p a r i s o n  made  is  necessary  it  Stratification  into  characteristics several  plot  subsequent before  increases  i s often .soil  and  aerial It  of  to  c a r r i e d out  inaccurate.  characterise  similar  1967,  to a  be  1978)  analysis  identified  have  is  found  necessary  suggests  examination  at  bias.  unfortunately  p r o b l e m a p p e a r s t o be  l o s s c o n t r o l s cannot  being  morphological  but  Bovis  field  is  sampling  i s meaningful. This  prior  The  to  avoid  cluster  variance  valid  efficiency  (Eiselstein by  statistically  between g r o u p s  with  sampling  reclassification  analysis  as  sites  studies  stratification is  also  and  required  within-groups and  replication  one  the  of  that sites  of  scale  s c a l e of  maps  photographs.  is possible  sample w i t h i n  t o compute the  a specified  number of  confidence n =  t s E 2  plots  required  to  limit:—  2  2  where s  2  t i s the  i s the  population  Unfortunately never  required  this  known u n t i l  assumes  that  shows t h a t vegetation  the  skewness  (0.5  and  adequate  with  variance formula  data  gave  are of  and  E  point is  of  the  shows n o r m a l i t y ) . knowledge  of  distribution,  permissible  knowledge of  soil  s  the  loss  1.4,1.4 and  Even w i t h o u t the  t  error. which  2  this  population,  is  statistic  d i s t r i b u t e d . Bovis  v a r i a t i o n of of  the  study. Also,  normally  values  of  the  presupposes  completion  coefficients strata  percentage  from  1.6  three  indicating  second the  (1978)  problem sampling  31  equation  predicts  unfeasible. and  do  However,  3.3  enough  was d e s i g n e d as a p i l o t more  in later  site  possible plots  photographs;  perform  for  5).  tree  The  strata,  (Fig  5) and d i v i d e d  detailed  installations.  deficiencies  strata  islands, —  the  rock  into  a  and  numbers  grid.  A small portion  snow  patches from  when the  2  Plots  t o be  identified scree,  the photograph  areas.  classification  these  heather  and  in  subsequently section  photograph, with selected  sites  within  covered  was  from  w h i c h were  were  o f t h e b a s i n was  the c o r r e c t  vegetation strata  grid  and l o c a t i n g  surrounding  red  i n more d e t a i l  numbered  survey  it  infra  were  same u n i t s  10m .  field  1:10,000  which e n a b l e d  Four  approximately  random  taken A  by  were each  2.7. mapped square  randomly by t h e numbered late  lying  and v e g e t a t i o n was  greater  problem  was  f o r areas obscured  by t h e  a r e a was made l a t e r  i n the  trees.  plane  t a b l e map  of t h e s t u d y  t o a s s e s s the accuracy  map  a  a s d i s c e r n e d on t h e a e r i a l  representing  A  and any s a m p l i n g  enable  work.  and d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y  shadows of  might  before  shrub/grass/spaghnum  determining  study which  validation.  to  (Fig  The  work  statistical  so  identified  inferred  for  margins  l a y under a d e e p snowpack a l l w i n t e r  were a v a i l a b l e  season  sites  accurate  photographs  drawing  i s economically  design  study  selecting  which  s t u d y and o t h e r s have h k j h e r r o r  this  not  mapped  sites  have  Sampling  was  of  not  be improved  The  number  Hence t h i s  subsequent, could  a  of t h e o r i g i n a l  ( F i g 4) and a s s o c i a t e d  statistics  sampling  show  design.  ( T a b l e 2 pg 25)  32  that  the  area  overestimated by  initially by  assigned  16% w h i l s t  14%. T h i s was p a r t i a l l y  also  to  inclusion  of  to  trees  t h a t of h e a t h e r  due t o t h e  krummholz  tree  in  (42%)  was  underestimated  shadow  the  effect  t r e e stratum.  investigations  showed t h a t t h e r e was a low p e r c e n t a g e  of  covered  litter  and  by  classification  of h e a t h e r  Logistical could  be  areas  with  were  to  i n the  heather  installations  loss  are  were not r e p l i c a t e d  were  during  a brief  whether needle  at  as  place  visit  sampling  were  as low  only  of  soil  v a r i a n c e . Dry t r e e to  show  stratum  greater  and two of  was  selected  i c e had been  t h e p r e v i o u s autumn as i t was scheme  sites  by t h e l a t t e r .  site  needle  which  and  values  expected  additional where  bias in site site  design  observed  not  certain  encompassed any s i t e s  snowpack  became  implemented  showing  melted.  a meltwater  One had t o  channel  was  of be  sites  relocated water  snowpack  u s i n g t r e e s and  installed  the  conducting  snowmelt t o  i n the  photographs  Instrumentation  stratum  before  A s t a k e was p l a c e d  as l o c a t e d w i t h a e r i a l  for identification. the  was  location.  grass/shrub/spaghnum site  a  ice activity.  each  rocks  a  An  t h e random s a m p l i n g  The avoid  at  so  o n l y two  occupied  were l o c a t e d i n e a c h  replicated.  subjectively  ground  i s low i n  stratum,  low w i t h i n s t r a t u m  areas  sites  Field  sites loss  of v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r ,  spaghnum/grass/shrub  a s s o c i a t e d with  so f i v e  of  a maximum of 20. As s o i l  i s l a n d s and s c r e e / r o c k  these  t h e number  d e s p i t e t h e 34% a r e a  These  variance,  specimens  but  was more a c c u r a t e .  a high percentage  in  these  constraints limited  serviced  installed  three  beneath  was  as in  because from  soon the the  higher in  33  the b a s i n t o the replicate site  Lower  Lake.  o f t h e o t h e r one  i s shown  i n F i g 4 and  The  i n the  site  was  relocated  s t r a t u m . The  replicates  location  are denoted  by  as of  a  each  the  letter  to  collect  R.  3.4  Field  3.4.1  installations  Gerlach  These the t o t a l time  troughs  were  amount of  periods  to  a t a l l 20  sediment  determined  were d e s i g n e d splash,  installed  by  collect  wind a c t i o n  and  crossing  B o v i s d 978),  of  sites  s l o p e over  variable  t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f r a i n s t o r m s . They  that  t r o u g h s a r e d e s c r i b e d by G e r l a c h (1967)  1m  sediment  also  sampling  moved  by  displaced  (1967),  C a m p b e l l ( 1 974 ) ,  overland  by a n i m a l s .  Leopold-and  Dingwall  flow, Similar  and  Emmett  (1972) and  many  pipe  and  pipe  to a 2  litre  others. The caps.  troughs  A  7/8"  were c o n s t r u c t e d from (i.d.)  reservoir.  Each  into  ground  the  cement m i x t u r e  vinyl  t r o u g h was  tube  1m  s l o p e s . The  c o n c r e t e formed  over  w h i c h water  was  small  r i m on  around sealed was  the  either  diverted  side  t r o u g h . The  with  caulking  impregnated to  local  small boulders to  steep  with  this  was  other  installations  of  join  stones  from  between  6.  cemented  the  troughs  a smooth, g e n t l y s l o p i n g  compound and  at s i t e  were  to supplement  buttress  the  the apron  erosion.  water  troughs  slope into  prevented  the  t h e upper  flow  Fig 7 illustrates  on  apron  diverging  concrete  edge of t h e  it  the  the t r o u g h . A  t r o u g h s and  ' c o l d c u r e ' epoxy where  prevent  PVC  conducted  l o n g . The  w i t h t h e a i d of  and  3"  met  the  was  apron soil:  the t r o u g h  and  35  The  troughs  because  heather  eroded  but  in  were e a s i l y  problem  were a t t r a c t e d  were  included  season.  troughs  interest  3.4.2  Splash  out  Large  further  a  materials  adherence  of  at  used  and  of  a  at  much  by marmots. They framework  at s i t e s  either  9 and  9R  beginning  end  the animals  were  caught  removed. A  wooden  troughs  and  i n a wooden  of  both  appeared  to  secure!  used  into  the ground  as a c o l l e c t i n g  frame and  Grezs  Chmeilowiesz  or  5,000 B u b n o f f s  concentric  rings to  to  splashed  sediment  v a l u e s of  0.082kg/m /year  was  installed  at the  out  to c a t c h the  study  site  1978)  (1977) t r i e d  blotting  an  the  t r a y s and  improvement  splashed material  high  eaten  rates  l a n d . Morgan area  o b t a i n e d much  by  of  (1978)  contributing  u n f o r t u n a t e l y the was  on  of a f u n n e l sunk  Bubnoffs. This l a t t e r but  and  flannel  for a g r i c u l t u r a l  or <40  included  used  extremely  delineate  are  to i n c r e a s e the  (1971)  consisting  gave  collecting  2  board  They  have  (Gerlach  m a t e r i a l s was  wood o r m e t a l . A p p a r a t u s 1978)  (1945).  Refinements  heights  material.  (Bollinne  Ellison  trough.  None of t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e  usual  by  different  splashed  the  used  placed  installations  collecting  different  2  the other m a t e r i a l  c o n c r e t e moulds a t the  damage  were f i r s t  troughs  I0kg/m  successful  t h e c o n c r e t e . Some lumps  because  boulders  collecting  paper.  least  troughs  with  spanned  than  the  trough d e s t r u c t i o n  of t h e i r  once t h e  Splashboards boards  beneath  i n t h e d e s i g n . The  prevented  lose  was  were  distinguished  to the t r o u g h s  twice p u l l e d  the  heather  t h e y were much l a r g e r  serious  originally  in  grew v i g o r o u s l y  t h e t r o u g h and  more  of  sited  lower  apparatus fabric  marmots.  put  36  The 3"  s p l a s h b o a r d s used  PVC  flush  p i p e and  PVC  sheeting. A  the accumulated  ground  with  surface.  sediment.  partly  for  diameter  tube  wired and  1977)  3.4.4  so was  spell  in  1969)  and  crushed  used  to  sizes to  Public  radioactive  was and  to the  marmots low  the  ground  —  which  quality  of  became b l o c k e d — a  the  larger  better.  by  The  bulk c o l l e c t o r s . f u n n e l was  too h i g h to c o l l e c t and  dry  installed  were  of  but  These  were  p l a c e d 30cms above  splashed material.  fallout.  many  willemite  tagged  100%.  Tracers first  often  they  Mossbags  (Goodman  disintegrated  substances  radioactively  trace  radioactively  of  funnel.  particles  ( B o v i s 1978),  use  by  into  to  The and  during  August.  stones  than  cemented  used  particles  Tracer  less  tubes  sampled  b o t h wet  were a l s o  Tracer  been  was  t o a 9"  funnel c o l l e c t e d  the dry  p i p e was  from  collectors  the ground  Inskip  were  disturbed  would have p e r f o r m e d  Wind d e p o s i t i o n buckets  constructed  diameter  t h e s m a l l q u a n t i t y and  A l s o the d r a i n a g e  Bulk  1/4" They  frequently  results.  3.4.3  s t u d y were  t h e t r o u g h edge as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e  They were  accounts  in this  ore  including  tagged  particles  ( F o w l e r and  Bennett  sediment  movement.  All  particles  are  o p i n i o n and  painted  inadequate  (DePloey 1969)  have  except as  expense m i l i t a t e  the  recovery i s against  the  reasons.  The  substances. placed  to i n v e s t i g a t e the second  in  this  study  f o r two  the movement of p a r t i c l e s  of  different  t o e s t i m a t e the area c o n t r i b u t i n g  the G e r l a c h trough. Stones  from  t h e UBC  campus  were  sediment sieved  37  and  spray  (1978). they  painted with  The s i z e s  and c o l o u r s o f stone  and t h e s i t e s  by B o v i s at  which  were p l a c e d a r e shown i n T a b l e 4.  Table  4 Tracer  Colour  4-8 2-4 1 -2 1-0.5 0.5-0.354 0.354-0.25  Green Yellow Red Green Yellow Red  placed  sizes  at  0.5—0.35,  of  Number  placed  Sites  50 1 07 200 many many many  larger  a l l sites  ALL ALL ALL NI,10,2R,6,9 NI,10,2R,6,9 NI,10,2R,6,9  particles  whilst  (8—4mm  the smaller  4—2mm 2—1mm) were  particles  (0.5—1mm  0.35—0.25mm) were p l a c e d a t a few r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , s i t e s  because  they  count.  They  proportion 3.4.5  particles  Size(mm)  Three  were v e r y were  time  used  were l o s t ,  consuming  t o manufacture,  t o give only q u a l i t a t i v e  probably  through  burial  l o c a t e and  data. A large  and p a i n t  loss.  Standpipes 2"  (5 cm) d i a m e t e r  investigate ground too  f l u o r e s c e n t p a i n t as suggested  bucket  the position  s u r f a c e . At s i t e s  stony  standpipes of  were p l a c e d a t  t h e water  installation  and varied  g r o u n d was t o o s t o n y  sites  relative  to  t o the  7,9,9R,1 OR,13,13R a n d 14 t h e g r o u n d was  for successful installation.  auger  table  13  the standpipe from  18  Holes  pushed  were a u g u r e d w i t h a home.  Depths  of  t o 70 cms a n d i n many p l a c e s t h e  for installation.  38  3.4.6  Meteorological Temperature  and  thermohygrograph a Stevenson  instruments humidity  which  s c r e e n 2m  a  tipping  constructed bucket  kept a c o n t i n u o u s  anemometer and  bucket  by R . L e s l i e  (technician,  time  I5mins but period  because  was  days  under  tip  per  period  time  The  period  3.4.7  Snow  and  I t was  kept i n  windspeed  t o an of  was  monitored  event r e c o r d e r  Geography).  Each  t h e number o f t i p s  in a  i n t e n d e d time p e r i o d the  period  (Barrett  i n s t r u m e n t s were l o c a t e d  Dept  attacked  c o n d i t i o n s . There  Fuess  r a i n s t o r m s were  rain  time  a  Cumulative  r e c o r d e d . The  moisture  altered. field  was  with  record.  raingauge connected  t i p r e p r e s e n t s 0.33mm o f  9.5min  measured  above t h e g r o u n d .  m e a s u r e d by a C a s s e l l a by  were  circuitry  was  checked  i s a basic 1981).  the  over  was time  several  uncertainty  of  1  A l l the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  i n t h e e x t r e m e e a s t of t h e  basin.  sampling  A Mount Rose snow s a m p l e r  was  used  sediment  a n a l y s i s and  sediment  c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h d e p t h . The  to obtain  a CRREL snow s u r v e y  k i t was  latter  snow c o r e s f o r used  to  comprised  sample several  r  500ml from  capacity t h e edge o f  accumulated rough the  tubes  I9.5cms l o n g w h i c h  snowpits.  sediment  were  Some  18x18cm  to take  surface  t y p e of s e d i m e n t  cores  samples  s c r a p e d o f f the s u r f a c e  e s t i m a t e of t h e amount and  snowpack.  were u s e d  to obtain  deposited  of a on  39  3.5  Sampling The  frequency  troughs  However, t h e were  only  were  first  two  recorded  emptied rainfall  in  a  nine events  few  A l l the troughs except  installed  in  took  up  sediment;  this  each  t h e t r o u g h was  time  partially  completed  Hence t h e  two  and  September  on  September  September many  melted  obtain No  The  under  sediment  and the  9R  and  the  on  and  was  only 31.  September  were  emptied.  because  7  emptied Data  from  snow  occupied  i c e i n the b o t t l e s  prevented  were dug layer  to  be  artificial  is available  29. I t  integrated  emptying  the b o t t l e s  o n l y a 5 cm  was  30  not were  the water  were  collected  sites  troughs  NI  r a i n s t o r m of August  summed  25  July)  of J u l y  process  were not  e n t r a i n e d d u r i n g the  problems  o u t of t h e snow  covered emptied  but  the  them.  This  w i t h minimum way  to  r a i n s t o r m o f September  20.  f o r October  trough at s i t e  only  14  because  3 c o u l d not  be  of  located  snow c o v e r . Although  collecting not  the  procedure  r e c o r d f o r 9 and  access  until  large  because  14 a r e  In O c t o b e r  enabled  disturbance.  the  18—19  5 and  event  August  troughs  September  carefully,  On  season.  t h e o t h e r s were  rainstorms  summed. D a t a  the  October  on  and  emptied.  before  but  emptying.  extremely  t h e t r o u g h s and  15 a r e combined 7  rainfall  several  d a t a s e t s are  25 and  sites  complete  meant t h a t  and  those at s i t e s  to r e c o r d the  t o 4 d a y s t o empty  (9—12  t r o u g h s as  installed.  time  times d u r i n g the  t r o u g h s were e m p t i e d  reservoirs  necessarily  needle  ice,  dependent  the  were  result  animals  upon r a i n f a l l  and  after  full,  of  r a i n s t o r m s because  the sediment  r a i n s t o r m s . The  eolian  events.  deposition Hence  a  they caught  three  factors  a r e not  convention  the was of  directly will  be  40  introduced  here that  of  recorded for a p a r t i c u l a r  sediment  period given  since  the  in Table  5.  i s used  trough  Table  i n the r e s t  was  5 Trough  Per i o d  disturbed.  B u l k s a m p l e r s were e m p t i e d  September  15,  shown  and  As  September  stretched baseline. could  25. The  time  information i s  dates  21, 3.4.2  twice,  of s i t e  site  many were on  1  was  and  severely  September  9 which  d a t e a t which each  September  1  and  emptied a  each apparatus  became  snow  was  free  is  a t the  end  D. of t r a c e r s  i n O c t o b e r by  between  two  T h e r e a r e no  not be  section  the date a t which  i n Appendix  the season  in  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  Displacement of  noted  on J u l y  15.  installed  t o . the  14 J u l 19 J u l 4 Aug 29 Aug 1 Sep 7 Sept 1 5 Sep 25 Sep 14 Oct  t r o u g h s were e m p t i e d  t i m e on  Amounts  emptied  September  third  relate  e m p t i e d . The  collection  Date  9-14 J u l 14- 19 J u l 19 J u l - 4 Aug 4 Aug-29 Aug 29 Aug-1 Sep 1-7 Sep 7-15 Sep 15- 25 Sep 25 Sep-14 Oct  Splash  last  day  of t h e t h e s i s .  relocated.  was  measured o n l y  finding  nails figures  d i s p l a c e m e n t from  which for  once,  had p r e v i o u s l y  sites  3,10R,12R  a  string  a c t e d as a and  which  41  3.6  Site  characteristics  Morphological initial  characteristics  classification.  characteristics  have a l l been  work. T h e s e t h r e e repellency,  factor  in generating  A n a l y s i s of The  Gerlach 3.7.1  Water  samples,  and  much  were f i l t e r e d  out  larger  water and  filtered  through  paper  using  pump  to  samples  in  previous  a  fourth,  and  is potentially  a major  flow.  were  applied  to  snow and  whether  derived  sediment bulk  splash troughs, organic  using  a  than  1mm  all  caught  in  samplers.  separate passing  0.45><m  took  3 hours  waxy and  resinous  plastic  bags  and  to  filter  organic taken  due  some  Large from  stones  the  through  very  to the  mineral of  which  the  apparatus  debris  retained  and  finer  Sartorius cellulose  a vacuum. T h i s was  samplers,  larger pieces  apertures  diameter.  kept  snow, b u l k  contained,  m a t t e r . The  funnel with  sediment a  from  S a r t o r i u s SM16510 f i l t r a t i o n  create  analysis.  important  soil  samples  were r e t a i n e d but  The  this  and  the  techniques  or  material  cover  were measured  as  splash troughs,  troughs  material  matter  overland  same t e c h n i q u e s  Field  shown t o be  added  sediment  troughs,  Gerlach  was  measured t o c h e c k  vegetation  characteristics  water  3.7  Slope,  were  organic  fraction.  funnel nitrate and  were filter  a  t i m e c o n s u m i n g as many clogging  of  filters  compounds. A l l samples were p l a c e d back  to  the  hand  by in  laboratory for further  42  3.7.2  Laboratory techniques The  larger  furnace for  a t 550°C  escaped  mineral 2.  for 2 hours. This  The  weight  better  3.  was  ashed  in  t e c h n i q u e was  a  muffle  unsatisfactory  some  ionised  filter  whether  some  this  from t h e c r u c i b l e s ,  using  if  used  i n the M u f f l e large  determined of  the r e s i d u e  caused  n o t be  samples  weighed.  (IPC) oxygen  were  necessary  procedure  particles  upon c o o l i n g . An  system  papers ashed destroyed. organic The  matter  a  and  the  accelerated  t o break  oxidised  Other  apart  crust  formed  alterations.  K  and  the  (Gleitt  technique  so  Plasma utilises  the f i l t e r  were  withdrawn  tests  on  papers  were  all  paper.  The  from  the  12 b l a n k  and H o l l a n d  unit.  oxidised  and  Duplicate  filter  completely  1962)  confirmed  completely oxidised.  takes place is  bonds and  oxygen  literature  International  frequency generating  sample  showed t h a t  m a t t e r was  this  the  pump.  overnight  an  furnace. This  organic  excess  vacuum  reaction  and  in  in  by a r a d i o  attacked  p r o d u c t s and by  plasma  energised  oxygen  organic  reaction  1970)  small  emptied  p a p e r s were a s h e d  oxygen  ionised  that  could  then  t h e f u r n a c e and  Corporation  the  was  w e a t h e r i n g and  known  particles.  The  The  was  temperatures  in  several  t o wash out  sediment  mechanical  i t i s not  lost.  As  sediment  water  High  and  of t h e c e r a m i c c r u c i b l e s  the  dried  both  were a l s o  then ±0.0006g.  distilled oven  from c r u c i b l e s  particles  magnitude,  on  of t h e s e d i m e n t  three reasons:—  1. Ash  to  portion  valuable Mg  at about in  80°C  (Walsh  avoiding  saturated  slides  any  and  Fascing  mineralogical of  kaolinite,  43  vermiculite, in the  montmorillonite  thefurnace.  Subsequent  and c h l o r i t e  comparison  same b a t c h c o n f i r m e d t h a t  after  exposure Small  i n t h e oxygen  glass  p a p e r s . These  petri  with untreated  dishes  were change  to hold  after  against  Weighing  of these  t o a s h samples  furnace i s  than the m u f f l e and o f f e r s  lack  these advantages  required 3.7.3  and  f o r 20 m i n s .  of m i n e r a l o g i c a l must  be  the f i l t e r i n the  was a c c u r a t e t o ± O.OOOlg. Hence t h e oxygen  cleanliness  difference  exposure  samples  of  a i r cooling  used  furnace  more r e l i a b l e  from  furnace.  oxygen  considerably  treated  slides  t h e r e was no d e t e c t a b l e  showed no w e i g h t and  s t a n d a r d s were  advantages  alteration.  s e t the long  and t h e requirement t h a t  However,  time  samples  period be <1g.  Sieving After  combined sieved  treatment  fractions  f o r t h e removal of o r g a n i c s  from m u f f l e a n d  t h r o u g h 7.5cm d i a m e t e r  oxygen  sieves  into  t h e samples,  furnaces,  were  wet  0.063mm, 0.063—0.25mm,  0.25—0.5mm, 0.5—1mm, 1—2mm, 2-4mm a n d 4-8mm f r a c t i o n s . E s t i m a t e s of  the d i a m e t e r s of l a r g e r  individual  stones.  The  particles samples  were made by measurement o f  were  oven  dried  a t 105°C a n d  weighed. 3.7.4  Preparation  f o r X Ray D i f f r a c t i o n (XRD)  E a c h o f t h e samples samplers  and  investigate  also  two  collected snow  the m i n e r a l o g i c a l  on 1 September  samples  <63>im  oriented  fraction  c o m p o s i t i o n . One f i l t e r  slides  by  from each ashed K  and  Mg  bulk  were p r e p a r e d f o r XRD t o  e a c h o f t h e b u l k s a m p l e r s was p a s t e d o n t o a s l i d e The  from the  sample  saturation  paper  from  and a n a l y s e d .  was t h e n p r e p a r e d on i n accordance  with  44  procedures As  the  outlined  <63»m  concentrations required  many  thick  enough  dust  also  XRD p e a k s .  i n t h e UBC S o i l  fraction  was  i n the prepared applications  very  and t h i s  small  Laboratory  (see  Manual.  Appendix  I)  s o l u t i o n s were low and t h e s l i d e s of  the  t o g i v e m e a n i n g f u l XRD settled  Science  raised  solution  peaks.  to obtain a  Unfortunately  the l e v e l  of 'noise'  film some  i n the  45  CHAPTER 4. RESULTS AND The the  purpose  field  and  assessment given  4.1  was  of  from  the  i t s precision.  amount  laboratory  and  Interpretation  to  is  shown  Appendix  indicate  caught  i n each  i n Appendix  a r e shown  t r o u g h s . The d a t a  of the r e s u l t s i s  E and summary  i n F i g 8.  single  large  Bracketed  stones  shown a r e t h e sum o f  furnace  trough each  values  which  c o u l d not  where  a large  f i l t e r " papers,  of  t h e column  different  is left  emptied  a l l dates  and n o t t h e d a t e  Each  tabulated  uncertainty  plus  from  trough to  was c a u g h t  trough  in Table  a t which the  i n Appendix  plus other  At on  because  5 will  apparatus  as be is  processed  ±0.000lg  E has t h e same d e g r e e o f  factors  f u r n a c e were b o t h  subject to  in  reading. Contamination  balance  estimated.  the  of the r a i n s t o r m s .  value  ±0.0002g  suggested  to the date  t o e v a l u a t e . Sample f r a c t i o n s  the  because  t i m e s a t w h i c h t h e t r o u g h s were i n s t a l l e d  refer  in  blank.  i n A p p e n d i x D. The c o n v e n t i o n  adopted:  be  p r o p o r t i o n of o r g a n i c m a t t e r  l e n g t h of r e c o r d v a r i e s  the  shown  papers  the  f u r n a c e and t h e r e i s  proportion  on f i l t e r  it  i n t o the  processed  of o r g a n i c matter  caught  in  fell  fractions  and t h e oxygen plasma  time  statistics for  some u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e w e i g h t  The  an  apparatus  of sediment  season  sites  make  5.  t h e whole  Muffle  i s to present data c o l l e c t e d in  troughs  emptied  the  in  individual  Gerlach The  chapter  processed  i n chapter  Data  4.1.1  of t h i s  ERROR ANALYSIS  in  error  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e muffle  and  oxygen  due t o u n c e r t a i n t i e s  of f i l t e r e d  samples  was  <t  F i g 8 Sediment c o l l e c t e d  i n G e r l a c h troughs  A break i n the graph r e p r e s e n t s a weight too l a r g e to be p l o t t e d . The a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c i s g i v e n .  S i t e number  47  checked  by  content which  filtering  of  0.0001—0.0003g  is attributed  sediment  in  high  error. both  but  they  and  There  lumps and  material.  No  error  sites was  are  oxygen  chapter  of  proportion loss  due  due  minerals  than  the  balance  collected  to  two  cement  with  at  each  erosion,  3. However, t h e cement e r o d e d  was  thought  reliably  from  t o be  other  in  captured  marmot damage  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  doubtful quantities  furnaces after  examined  in Table  processing  are  6.  and  catch,  were o m i t t e d  6.  the  was  The  be and  from  as from  The  weight  compared oxygen  samples  from  troughs. A l l  amounts i n e a c h  size  and  as  sieving soil  the  furnace —  seen  terms  plots and  this  i s shown  with  in  size  and  F  of  the  the m u f f l e  incurred during  biggest errors  largest  drawn  fractions  i n Appendix  original  can  i n the m u f f l e  with  be  i n the G e r l a c h  together.  shown  The  This  column of T a b l e for  soil  Some e r r o r  column.  trapped  processed  sieving  G.  inferences w i l l  material  f o r oven d r i e d  Appendix  found  15S,  next  distribution  first  The  (see  statistics.  In t h e  class  K.  sediment  distinguished  erosion  the  on  and  easily  at  6  meltwater  p l a c e d upon t h e s e  greater  amounts of  6  be  site  t o be  problems  where cement c o u l d not  data  in  (±0.0002g) i s s m a l l when compared  some  Cement  sediment  s u b j e c t t o weight  v a l u e s c o u l d be  individual  at  was  a  of w a t e r , a c o n c e n t r a t i o n  sediment  furnace  were t h o u g h t  were  particularly  summary  litre  gave  o x i d a t i v e r e a c t i o n s of c o n s t i t u e n t  assessed  total  large  and  temperatures.  The  site.  per  suspended  the M u f f l e  to d e f l a g r a t i o n  factors  to  samples. These  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ) t a b u l a t e d i n Appendix  processed  at  meltwater  of  —9,9R,10,11.  after second  weight At  is  i n the  weight i n the  in  site  are 9R  48  T a b l e 6 L o s s o f sample d u r i n g All  weights  sievinc  i n grams  Site  Total  Total  Di f ference  1 2 2R 3 • 4 5 6 7 8 6 9R 10 1 OR 1 1 1 2 1 2R 1 3 1 3R 1 4 NI  3.9846 0.2779 0.1037 0.0851 0.0393 1.5455 0.2741 1.0127 0.2071 54.8954 22.6321 6.4045 0.4862 7.4232 0.2780 1.4017 0.2574 0.2361 0.5110 3.3084  4.2365 0.3594 0.1373 0.0565 0.0440 1.6102 0.2104 1.0691 0.2104 55.9416 25.0723* 6.9683 0.4426 8.0181 0.2230 1.3645 0.2563 0.3641 0.5371 3.5460  0.2519 0.0815 0.0336 0.0286 0.0047 0.0647 -0.0409 0.0564 -0.0033 1.0452 1.0452 0.5638 -0.0436 0.5949 -0.0557 -0.0372 -0.0011 0.1280 0.0261 0.2376  discrepancy • 1 .5g processing. approximately sediment  due  2g was l o s t  was  spilt  (1—0.5g) a t t h e o t h e r to  wash  sediment  relatively  high  unfortunately air.  The  sieves  Totals  errors  pre—processing  of  from t h e September  1  sites  are probably  also  6 23 24 50 1 1 4 18 5 2 2 2 9 1 0 7 25 3 0 85 5 7  part  j e t of  had  a  sample  d i s h . The l a r g e s t  the sieves  some l o s s e s  because  because  discrepancies  it  was  harder  when t h e sample was l a r g e . A  water  had  to  by p r o j e c t i n g tendency  be  used  sediment  to overflow  which  i n t o the  when  large  processed.  ranged  of s i e v e d  of  the  off  caused  loss  from  pressure  samples were b e i n g The  to  %  from  material  50% f o r s i t e were b o t h  t o t a l s i n d i c a t i n g that  3 to zero  for site  l a r g e r and s m a l l e r material  was b o t h  13.  than the l o s t and  49  gained were  from t h e s i e v e s . Not a l l s a m p l e s sieved  values.  While  considered the  the  the  comparison  errors  t o be s m a l l  are  sites  13  i s made by o m i t t i n g regrettably  enough t o a l l o w  and  13R  incomplete  large,  they  were  q u a l i t a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n of  results.  4.1.2  Splash The  in  so  from  troughs  amount  of m a t e r i a l  c o l l e c t e d in splash  troughs  A p p e n d i x H. None of t h e c o l l e c t i o n s was c o m p l e t e  were made w i t h o u t inevitably bottom  rather  became that  left  before  with  splash  July  disturbance,  the t r o u g h out  some m a t e r i a l  than b e i n g  clogged  most  lifting  so t h e s e  ground.  i n the trough which  large p a r t i c l e s .  when  the  because a l l  settled  washed o u t a s t h e o u t l e t t u b e  troughs  21  of  were  It should  severely  stones  were  figures  should  be  by  to prevent  regarded  This t o the  gradually  a l s o be  disturbed  placed  i s shown  as  stressed marmots further minimum  values. It without  was  impossible  destroying  suggested  that  been d o u b l e  it  4.1.3  but  the true  the recorded  would have been b i a s e d particles  to assess  t h e p r e c i s i o n of t h e a p p a r a t u s  visual amount  value.  toward  inspection  of splashed Moreover,  the f i n e r  of  the  material  troughs  could  have  the c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l  fraction  were l e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y e v a c u a t e d w i t h  as t h e wash  coarser  water.  Bulk c o l l e c t o r s  These during emptied  were  the season  established with  for a third  collected  the  on  2nd  exception  August of  and e m p t i e d  site  9,  t i m e on 25 September. The amount  a t each s i t e  during  the season  i s shown  which  twice was  of s e d i m e n t  i n Appendix I  50  together site.  with the s i z e  efficiency trapping hairy  soil  particles  because into  slide  bulk  Appendix are  was u s e d  estimate  filter  diameter  greatly one  had  I adjusted  subjectively for  site  filter possible of  i t s sticky,  wash  would  at  processed  for processing be made  and  appeared  to  for analysis.  washed  was p r o b a b l y  e x c l u s i v e l y on  sample  error  collected  i n t h e oxygen  carried the  to on 1  furnace  by  indicate  carry  Also,  6  each  processed  corresponding value in  the  number o f 4 f i l t e r  were n o t l a r g e  be  processing  the adjustment  arid  was most  f o r t h e amount o f s e d i m e n t i t  of s e d i m e n t  9  most  was p a s t e d o n t o a m i c r o s c o p e  upwards. A s t e r i s k s  site  at high  out  the atmosphere  from e a c h  that  e f f i c i e n t at  particles.  paper  to  13 w i t h a t o t a l  errors  with  the funnel  were  calculated  which  chosen  papers  with  t o e s t a b l i s h the  which  decreased the  It i s likely  papers  from  f o r XRD. As t h i s  was  affected.  consistent  these undersampled  rainstorms,  collectors  However,  paper  each  t h e r e s e r v o i r . Hence u n d e r s a m p l i n g  c a r r i e d . .The mean w e i g h t filter  likely  entering  i t was n o t a v a i l a b l e  an  catch at  were p r o b a b l y l e s s  1975)  sediment  papers which  September  is  during  for larger  the  ±0.000lg.  it  <30Mm(Se'infield  serious  filter  and  Deposition  immediately  All  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e  than the s u r r o u n d i n g v e g e t a t i o n  surfaces  efficient  error,  o f t h e s a m p l e r s . They  windspeeds.  so  of the t o t a l  A l t h o u g h t h e measurements were i n t e r n a l l y  a minimal p r o c e s s i n g  most  distributions  the t o t a l s was  most  low  because  sediment  error  is  which  were  greatest  p a p e r s compared  to 9  a t t h e o t h e r two s i t e s . The  enough t o a f f e c t  13,2 and 6, 9 i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f s e d i m e n t  the s i t e catch.  ranking  51  4.1.4  Tracer  particles  Coloured their  s t o n e s were p l a c e d a t a l l s i t e s  total  on O c t o b e r between  displacement  12—16. The  two  long  a t t h e end  baseline  nails.  Only  analysed q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  and  significant  moved.  distance  distance  but  was  the b a s e l i n e  necessary  on  the  (1968).  is  due  axes  the  t o a few  two  former.  particles  shows t h a t  and  and 29%  smallest lowest  of  of  settled  showed  be  arithmetic  than  latter,  J.  from in  their  Plots  the  data  from  Caine  arithmetic  mean i s  difference  between  i s whether movement o r whether  i t i s due  Similar  differing  ratios  are  values  values  d i d not move were not  means and  large  away  that  predicted  moving a s h o r t d i s t a n c e .  that  minimum  irregularities  skew, t h a t  the  were  v e g e t a t i o n . The d i s t a n c e s  moving a l o n g way  stones  the  shown, i n A p p e n d i x  rather  indicate  rates  the average the  and  are  sizes  the  counted.  also  given  J.  Recovery  82%  each  means  and  in Appendix  because  measured  regrettably  many s t o n e s  appended)  the degree  In b o t h c a s e s  Geometric  (not  a  and  stretched  largest as  5  was  string  taken  was  s t o n e s and  geometric  indicates  the  This  sizes  by  f o r a n a l y s i n g d i s p l a c e m e n t s . The  t o many p a r t i c l e s of  was  because  by  three larger  Thus  two  cm  August  season  three  t o l o g n o r m a l i t y as would  appropriate the  caused  probability  approximate  2  marked the  during positioning  microtopography moved by  was  of t h e  on  lowest  of  tracers  recovery rate 68%.  f o r y e l l o w 38%  stones  the  of l a r g e  Corresponding and  19%.  However, y e l l o w  green  figures  T h i s was  ( r e d 1—2mm d i a m e t e r )  recovery rates.  vary g r e a t l y .  stones  f o r red are  unexpected  were e x p e c t e d stones  Appendix  as  t o show  (2—4mm) were  J  was 55% the the hard  52  to  distinguish  sites 2).  from  w i t h a l a r g e amount  As r e c o v e r y  tempered  by  collectively 1. C o a t i n g soil  v e g e t a t i o n and t h e p o o r e s t  a realisation  with  by l i t t e r  and  i s most  by o t h e r  that  seen  a t 9R, was  or o t h e r  s e r i o u s beneath  sixth  five  because  position  travelled.  statistics  particles  o n l y where  bare  at s i t e s  12  to  the  lead  (0.25-1mm)  analysis  the t r a c e r s .  9 and 1 2 ) .  a l lstones baseline.  unless  However,  the  their sixth  should  be  i s 100% r e c o v e r y .  The  the  here  more  reliable  the  interpretation.  analysis  was  but f i e l d  i n s p e c t i o n showed  exacerbated was  of  the  of t h e mean d i s t a n c e  shown  there  percentage,  s e r i o u s than  irrespective  to underestimation  recovery  quantitative  than  2 and 10).  were assumed t o be l e s s  and hence t h e i r  quantitative  or  trees.  at s i t e s  larger  at s i t e s  affected  p r o b l e m s were g r e a t l y  rates.  large  Hence a l l d i s t a n c e s t a t i s t i c s  the  be  so f a r d o w n s l o p e t h a t d e t e c t i o n was  as minimum e s t i m a t e s  greater  No  they  would  effective  (especially  travelled  factors  relative  possibility  regarded  growth  (probably a factor  first  must  stones.  down c r e v i c e s of s i z e  The  2R and  individually  dead v e g e t a t i o n , seen  5. D r o p p i n g  unlikely  from  and so b i a s e d t h e r e s u l t s :  by new  Some p a r t i c l e s  (sites  results  several factors  4. C o v e r i n g  6.  the  came  f o r raindrops to churn.  2. C o v e r i n g  3. B u r i a l  <100%,  the stones  soil,  is available  8. T h i s  of dead g r a s s and s h r u b  a t a l l p l o t s was  obscured  results  attempted  in  impossible  these  for  the  finer  that a l l f i v e  small  sizes  b e c a u s e of low  and  recovery  53  4.1.5  Standpipes These  were  groundwater  installed  table  whether o v e r l a n d  to  relative  indicate  to the ground  f l o w was Dunne o r H o r t o n  were t h e o n l y ones t o show a g r o u n d water throughout  the  season  a r e m u l t i p l e water August  and B a r r e t t  tables in  this  at s i t e s  2 and 2R,  table  s a t u r a t e d once a y e a r  4.1.6  Sediment  contained  The  days  in  Appendix  scheme,  NI on J u l y with  site,  over no  were m e l t e d  together  pits  were  kept  distribution  with  with  was  with the  t o t a k i n g snow  on J u l y by  is  given  1 and s i t e s  7 and  taking  south,  four  with  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of s e d i m e n t . A l l f o u r  cores  2  depth  except  only  at s i t e  b e c a u s e of t h e i r  and using  4  to  from  photograph  places  seperate  taken  cores  e a s t and west of  t h e a i d of t h e a e r i a l  and f i l t e r e d  were dug a t s i t e s  as t h e r e  i n t h e snowpack  a t 5m n o r t h ,  s u r f a c e . Snow was  surface  cores  collected  1—6 were sampled  as i d e n t i f i e d  obvious  table  observations.  Rose s a m p l e r  t h e snowpack  of  that the other  to proceed  were d e v o t e d  2. The samples were o b t a i n e d  t h e Mount  each  3  of s e d i m e n t  K. S i t e s  there  storm  i n t h e water  d e s i g n . However,  planned  weight  the s u r f a c e  i n t h e snowpack were n o t  of t h e s e a s o n  The  2R  a t snowmelt, i f a t a l l .  contained  experimental  s a m p l e s and making f i e l d  2 and  large  be c o n c l u d e d  t o o much snow a t t h e b e g i n n i n g sampling  showed  i n t h e snowpack  Measurements of s e d i m e n t of t h e o r i g i n a l  near  the  (1981) has shown t h a t  so i t must  are only  of  types. Sites  zone.  sites  level  surface. This  31 d i d n o t c a u s e any p e r c e p t i b l e r i s e  except  part  the  NI  where  inhomogeneity.  investigate  the Snow  the  sediment  t h e CRREL snow s a m p l i n g  k i t . The  54  weight  of  sediment,  concentrations figure  for  i s thought was  between  the f i g u r e s  are  processed  samplers.  x  ruled  10" out  8  the  and  calculated  are given  on f i l t e r  shown  because  papers. There  i n Appendix  sediment  i n Appendix  f o r t h e CRREL  than s i t e  cause  of  the  4  was  sampled  2. T h i s  first,  suggests that  discrepancy.  Two  and  samples  and  8  site  whole  Rose  h i g h e r (250 - 2700 x I 0 " g / c c CRREL  because  Each  i s a discrepancy  K f o r t h e Mount  concentrations  K.  the  Mount R o s e ) . C o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t h e CRREL  concentrations not  sample  Sediment  considerably  420  each  volume  t o be a c c u r a t e t o ±0.000lg  sample  CRREL  water  90  samples  giving  dirty  was  lower  t u b e s were  explanations  are  possible:— 1. P i t samples particular  from u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Site  2 in  samples  are too small  t o be  representative.  O v e r l a n d flow data Depth  edges  and  velocity  readings  o f d e l i m i t e d " p l o t s a r e shown  measured w i t h a m i l l i m e t r e  4.2 M e t e o r o l o g i c a l 4.2.1  scale  t a k e n a t t h e t o p and in  Appendix  and v e l o c i t y  L.  bottom  Depth  by dye  was  traces.  summary  Temperature  Summary August, Measured (1980) over  sites.  i s exceptional.  2. The CRREL 4.1.7  were t a k e n  data  September  from  the  and p a r t  Fuess  of October  t e m p e r a t u r e s were c a l i b r a t e d who  checked  t h e range  of  thermohygrograph are  given  with charts  t h e i n s t r u m e n t w i t h an Assman  interest.  in  for July, Table  made by  7.  Braun  psychrometer  55  The  temperature  data  Table  are  useful  7 Meteorological Temperature  until  plentiful near  1 1 8.7 1 .25 5 2 2.25  of  needle  temperatures  water  supply  soil  data  temperatures observed  on  ground.  The  period  M)  low  Needle  1970).  and  it  also  so t h a t  conductivity  in  measurements itself  was  thermohygrograph  20—30 o f t h e month had  enough t o a l l o w i c e s e g r e g a t i o n . N e e d l e  minimum ice  was  patches  of  snow p r o v i d e d p l e n t i f u l  moisture.  The  also  probably  24,25  20-23 and  grow a  the ground  September  not  requires  A l l temperature  The  only  intensity  i c e does  optimal hydraulic  at n i g h t .  surrounding  allow needle  reach —2°C  show t h a t  September  September  events.  and"  30min  3 1 .2 1 1 .2 0.6 2.66  above t h e g r o u n d  cooler  (Appendix  ice  (Outcault  t a k e n a t 2m  substantially  not  23 5 2 1 .2 7  surface  were  D u r a t i o n ( h r s ) Max  6  ground  data  Total(mm)  (1) (2)  observations  data  Min 6°C 1 2°C 2°C 0°C  Rainfall (mm) 31 Aug 3 Sep 9 Sep 18 Sep 20 Sept 20 Sept  supplementing  data  Max 1 2°C 17°C 1 0°C 1 2°C  July August September October  for  i c e growth  and  26  on  the 27th  because  c o n t i n u o u s b l a n k e t o f snow s h i e l d i n g  snowfree  onwards  the ground  was  i t from d i u r n a l  did  c o v e r e d by a temperature  56  variations. snow f r e e  4.2.2  Some n e e d l e  field  site  at  99%  was and  o u t c r o p s . The  snow was  estimate  snow  Gallie  of  Pond and  outcrops, cover  was  melted  out  12R)  lower  probed  near  2  90% 1 and  15  in a  few  Sites  those  became snow f r e e  day  by  the  were t h e n e x t  2R)  of  underlain  by  decreased  the p o t e n t i a l of a t o t a l  August,  Snow f e l l  on  growing  September  2.6m  near  the  By  of  20.  7,5  o b s e r v a t i o n s and  melt  the  great  first a depth  70cms f e l l  due  island  out  sun  12  i n the  July  10:  f o r much of  covered  snow  the e a r t h y  sites  finally,  earthy  lying  spreads patches  spreads,  by  September  24  weeks.  7-lOcms r e m a i n e d  (see  f o r 10 d a y s of c l e a r  (1,11,12  and  NI,  cover,  Sites  around  the  and  on  sloping  sites  early.  to the extremely  10 d a y s of O c t o b e r  steeply  s c r e e or r o c k  out. Late  season  rock Snow  (3,4,13,13R,14)  sites  1 many  were snow f r e e .  a d i s c o n t i n u o u s c o v e r i n g . Between September  approximately  July  s l o p e . Heather  melted  season  between  p r o t e c t e d from facing  sandy m a t e r i a l ,  an  on  melted  rocky  make  with  Tree  were a few  was  to  relatively  t o become snow f r e e  beginning  4 weeks out  10R).  (2 and  steep north  islands  Snow c o v e r  rod  D).  14.  also  the  15.  dowel  field  (9,9R,10 and  b o t t o m was  a  from  first  i n the v a l l e y  June  (Appendix  slopes, especially  snow  on  ranged  some t r e e  at  p a r t of t h e v a l l e y  the  with  which  site  between J u l y  facing  visited  t h e o n l y snow f r e e a r e a s  depths  estimated  south  and  1m  first  some s c r e e and  accelerated  in  on O c t o b e r  patches.  estimated  in  observed  Snow The  at  i c e was  Table  skies  to  on  26 high  7). melt.  and  October  11  precipitation This  was  too  57  4.2.3  Ra i n f a11 Data  7.  from  the t i p p i n g  Unfortunately  malfunctioned rainfall  at  data  reasonable  gave an  indication events  useful  in  generated (Fig July  9)  9—12,  (August the  is  at A l t a  gave  record  August.  the  capacity.  higher  the  September  However, t h e s e of  19-23 volumes  rainstorms  with A l t a  23-29 but  also  U n f o r t u n a t e l y the  Lake  that  precipitation  on  which  precipitation  r e c e i v e d comparable  sufficient  i n t h e whole s e a s o n 24  hour  amounts  18-19  than  (personal  years  However, rain  a return  period  occurred  on  total  communication, f o r the  measured  both and  to conclude  precipitation  measurements  snow or mixed  o r d e r i n g of  reservoirs  1,  magnitude  August  recorded  correct. i n the t r o u g h  study a r e a  were  i n both  magnitude.  rank  Lake  on  July i t  the  5mm  Lake.  Gallie  precipitation  had  as the  both  with A l t a  instrument  September  the  29 and  data  event  and  —  reservoir  significantly  rainfall a  31  indicating  July  These'  event  18  the  in Table  recorder  of the t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  shows t h a t  recorded  as  that  trough d a t a . A comparison  received  1979  shows  31 — September  event  shown  times. A comparison  amounts of p r e c i p i t a t i o n  onwards) e x c e e d e d are  9)  gauge a r e  and  r u n o f f amounts c o l l e c t e d  largest  rain  raingauge  different  (Figure  e v e n t s August The  the  bucket  or  occurred later  2  of more t h a n  one  August for Alta  fall  storms  i n the  snow. T h i s s u g g e s t s  the  1981)  summer and  1  that  year.  31.  It  Lake i n provided  of of  season  that  largest  the  1978  and  similar and  fell  rainfall  00  Figure 9 Rainfall E s t i m a t e s Trough waier ] Alta Study  collection  Lake CAES) Area (Irom t i p p i n g  bucket)  A break i n d i c a t e s t h a t the trough o v e r f l o w e d o r that the r a i n f a l l r e c o r d e d exceeded the amounts i n d i c a t e d on the s c a l e .  59  CHAPTER 5. In  section  hypothesis upon  ranked  sediment  concerned  data  whilst  11)  are  not  of  tracer  As  in  description  quadrat.  impact were  chapter light  of  scheme i s  type  constrained  by  the  particles  large  to  stones  and  of  slope  while  frequency.  In  Appendix  significant  distance i s l i s t e d .  (9,9R,11) w h i c h c o l l e c t e d  J  the  most  as  sites to  in  show  t h e amount,  supplemented  of t r a c e r  by  particles  s k e t c h e s made w i t h took  the an  or  (Figs  two  defined  depressions  bushes.  At  channels  of movement  finer number  most  particles of  sites  had  tracers  showed  most  per  higher  moving  In g e n e r a l t h e more a c t i v e material  10  t h e a i d of  place along well  heather  the  reflect  was  microtopographic  showed one  metre w i d t h  not  between  of t r a c e r s  are  figures,  of movement.  field  Most movement  do  patterns  J  representing  J . Those  they  movement as w e l l  from  corresponding  as  tracer  of a l l s i z e s  illustrated  particles,  the purpose  the  channels  larger  i n the  sampling  i n Appendix  Appendix  of  displacement  a sampling  in  surficial  statistics  was  the  first  third  In t h i s  i s examined  Also,  their  and  variability.  accurate,  differences  pattern  The  second  of  The  suggested.  of  environments.  at—a—site  forward.  movement  precise  summary  4.  movement, i s documented  different  and  chapter  displacement  qualitative  the  in  RESULTS  in order  the  temporal  improvements  Surficial  surficial  processes while  and  THE  were put  of a l l t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s  and  The  various  spatial  presented  appraised  three hypotheses  production  with  the v a l i d i t y  5.1  1.7  INTERPRETATION OF  a  sites  tracers  60  P a t t e r n s of S e d i m e n t M o v e m e n t  Figure 10  Large Stones  8  \ /  Heather Litter  3  Heather  and  Figure 11 Small Stones  Needle  ice  Site  • 0.5 - K g r e e n ) *  0.25-0.5[yellow  teSK---  fe>.;;.; 10  20  30  4 0 . 5 0  Oms  go  7 0 8 0  a  Stone  90  Site  X •  • •  6  «t. .It .  » -» • *>  Site  10  Site  2R  n  6  '  e  d  '  62  moving and  as  well  geometric  those  sites  pattern  means. T h i s shows s t a t i s t i c a l l y i s concentrated  sites  between  3  floored  negligible  whilst  the  further most  which  than  than  spreads  Tracers  of  the area  Mean  and  tracer  (large  sizes  non—participatory solution of  a  This  (im/number  potentially  was  the l a r g e s t  (1—2mm).  t o make an e s t i m a t e  to the Gerlach  were c a l c u l a t e d  troughs.  f o r each c o l o u r  (Table 8 ) . Unfortunately t h i s those  by a s s i g n i n g  of recovered  islands  while  the smaller  ignored  moving <2cms. A s a t i s f a c t o r y t r a c e r s was t h e  area, f o r e a c h s t o n e  moved. Summation o f a l l which  than  t o the problem of i n a c t i v e  was a c h i e v e d  flow  o f movement -  of tree  were a l s o a n a l y s e d  particles,  contributing  diameter  showed movement a l o n g p r e f e r r e d l i n e s  distances only)  1mm  d i s t a n c e w h i l s t none moved  which c o n t r i b u t e d sediment l o g mean  along  5 by t h e l a r g e number o f  i n the l i t t e r  moved f a r t h e r  Tracer displacements  further  along  type  u n i f o r m l y a c r o s s t h e whole c o n t o u r  (4—8mm) p a r t i c l e s  in  (grass/spaghnum)  moved  showed a s h e e t  moved a s i g n i f i c a n t  25cms. Movement  moved  some movement  2 a n d 2R  11),  (Fig  look a t  depressions  f o r a l l s i z e s above  sizes  at  results.  with  registered  movement  A closer  1—2mm d i a m e t e r  i n Appendix J f o r s i t e  anomalous.  rather  movement  Earthy  c a n be seen  particles  bushes  In c o n t r a s t s i t e s  smaller  concentrations.  (heather  but a l l s i z e s  channels.  showed  this  6  some i n t e r e s t i n g  w i t h moss), t r a c e r s  4—8mm  those  preferred  and  that  i n a few c h a n n e l s .  and v e g e t a t i o n y i e l d s  At  than  a s t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s between a r i t h m e t i c  each  colour  stone  a  calculation  f o r each width  trough.  of  slope  stones)  a n d m u l t i p l y i n g by t h e d i s t a n c e  stones  gave  delivered  sediment  a  hypothetical  envelope  t o t h e t r o u g h . The p r o c e s s  63  Table Site  8 Gerlach trough c o n t r i b u t i n g  Tracer (mm)  Contributing Area(cm ) 2  Sediment Catch(g)  areas  Estimated Erosion (g/m ) 2  1 2 2R 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  4.0-8.0 0.5-0.25 0.5-0.25 0.5-0.25 not measured 0.5-1.0 0.5-0.25 0.5-1.0 0.5-0.25 4.0-8.0  -359 60 32 1 10  9R  0.5-0.25  1300(13001 500) 400  10 1 OR 1 1 1 2 1 2R 1 3 1 3R 14 NI  4.2365 0.3594 0.1373 0.0565  •350 1.6102 75(110-60) 0.2332 600(400-600) 1.0691 27(20-30) 0.2104 330(400-330)55.7416  A range o f v a l u e s r e s u l t s from F i g s 13 and 14.  from  is  in  schematically  contributing  area  Differing different with  sites  heavy  in Table  litter  (approximately  350cm  and  very  small contributing  clearcut  94. 1  0.4546  56.8(227.3-50.8)  0.5273 3.5460  179(268.6-179) 1 18.2(236.4-118.2)  Figure  of  12  the  both  and  various  have s i m i l a r 50cm  the  calculated  size  classes  areas  2  for red).  (30 and 60cm  which  and  Grass  from  12  areas  (2  and  Earthy  and  partial  the  spreads  i n F i g 14) have  could result  at  relationship;  f o r 1—2mm)  2  r e c o r d e d by s m a l l t r a c e r s . (shown  1  contributing  show a d i f f e r e n t  t r e n d . "Mixed" s i t e s  relationships  ?  the u n c e r t a i n t y i n e x t r a p o l a t i o n  (3 and 6) s i t e s  displacements  show a s i m i l a r  8.0181 0.2223  f o r green,  2R)  largest  heather  174.2  i n F i g u r e s 13 and 14. S i t e s  cover 2  6.9683  8.  behaviour i s shown  46.0 31 . 1 ( 2 1 . 1-38.5) 17.5(17.5-20.7) 77.9(70.1-105.2) 1695.2 (1398.5-1700) 192.8(134.2-250.7)  25.0723  4.0-8 . 0 not measured 0.5-1.0 852 0.5-1.0 not measured 0.5-0.25 80(20-50) not measured 0.5-0.25 30(20-30) 0.5-0.25  shown  123.2 599.0 42.9 5.1  less litter  64  Figure 12 Schematic diagram of contributing area  Contributing Area  Average tracer displacement  mmmm Gerlach trough  cover.  Two  factors  areas. F i r s t , errors; 100cm  the  lead 2cm  would  not  be  moved o n l y  recorded  particles  w h i c h have t r a v e l l e d  movement  along  only  in  the  Table 4-8mm  8 d50  at  tracers.  quantitatively,  with sites As an  and  contributing  introduces  a contributing  second,  large area  non—recovery  However, t h e  means t h a t t h e  contributing  by m a t c h i n g d50, trough,  1 cm  of  of of  p a t t e r n of  errors  occur  for  tracers.  representative  selected  minimum  farthest.  preferred lines  a s m a l l number of A  underestimation  measurement  i f each p a r t i c l e  2  to  the  for  t h e median d i a m e t e r tracer  1 and the  area  10  in size.  is closest  small  estimate  closest  was  size made by  of  to  the  each  site  sediment For  was  caught  example,  size  t r a c e r s were not  of  in the  analysed  e x t r a p o l a t i n g the  lines  Figure 13 Displacement  of T r a c e r  Particles Small  Litter •400-,  Stones  400  — 5 .... 7 300  300  2 0 0-^  200  I  I  ,  00  ,  G  Green(G)Yellow(Y)Hed(R)  Grass  Heather 6oH  20H  V  Figure 14  Moderate Sediment Yield  High Sediment Yield  9R  2000 H  67  in  Figs  range  13 and  of  14 but  figures  Values  of  where t h e r e was  soil  movement c a l c u l a t e d  ( T a b l e 8)  2R,3,5,6  7  50-1OOg or  are  25-50  Bubnoffs  and  NI.  the e s t i m a t e s  from  sites  3 and  NI  are  greater an  plots than  result  the  discussed  in section  margins  of  islands  near  low  and  when take  11  plots  on  were  a  at  from sites  2,13  and  Bubnoffs  underrepresented, too  large,  those  in i t s high rate i n motion  i s o n l y about  such as  11 at  f o r 1,5,7,9,9R,10,11  sediment  and  at  >50  14 a r e  basis  rates  or  2  i s unique  wind  areal  2 and  deposition different  of  on  other  four  times  2R.  is  and  This  taken  was  ' into  interpretation  as  5.4.  of o v e r l a n d  sites from  in  1 and  in  the  in  Fig  Three  The  aim  sites,  overland  to determine  the  snow p a t c h e s  o v e r l a n d flow  of t h e  f l o w were made a t lower  further  rocky  tree  and  the  shallow  upslope. island  i n t h e a r e a marked OF 1,2  snowmelt a t  p a r t of  2 dammed s e v e r a l  considerable  L was  9  9R,10  snowpatches  points  4.  a  flow  meltwater  over  Site  an  Bubnoffs,  >l00g/m  'inactive'  figures  Observations  by  and  2,2R,8,13 and  as  on  account,  Overland  relationship  movement <25  t h e amount of  such  that  unexpected  5.2  or  2  on  a l l small areas  reliable.  movement but  'active'  As  that  6 s u s p e c t , whereas s t a t i s t i c s more  sediment  show  <50g/m  1,9,9R,10,14  for  clear  i s given.  t h e d a t a above and  no  3 near  ponds  the  f l o w was  laminar  filled  They d i s c h a r g e d ridge  1 were  f l o w measurements p r e s e n t e d  whether  b a s i n . Tree  causing  ' moss and  site  the  in  grass '  examined. Appendix  o r t u r b u l e n t and  68  also not  the  resistance  confuse  the  Horton  to  results  f l o w . At  by  snowmelt  creating  additional  (1939) a p p l i e d t h e M a n n i n g  open c h a n n e l  flow,  to overland  r a i n d r o p impacts  flow  did  turbulence.  equation,  designed  for  under t u r b u l e n t c o n d i t i o n s :  v=r / s V n 2  All  units  are  turbulent, data  3  metric.  2  This  equation  a very q u e s t i o n a b l e assumption  presented  below.  For  fully  flow q=Kd . K i s  determined  theory  it  to  3  is  flow  determining and  flow  clipped 5/3  on  K  i s problematic  plot  experiments  suggesting  10.2  presumably of  due  In number  depth  in  fluid  .times  to flow  the  participate  on  turbulent  merely  by  Hence  in and  practice  slope,  roughness  that  varied  between  between  clipped  grass  in  In  found  the  the  and  5 3  in  and  laminar  and  plots  Poiseille stems—  his 3  found formula  in  d e t e n t i o n s t o r a g e and  to d e s c r i b e flow. For  (Dunne  viscosity), Low flow  r a t h e r than  retardation was  with  transitional  mechanics a d i m e n s i o n l e s s  appropriate  velocity).  exponent  turf  in  effect did  not  flow.  i s used  kinematic  depth  t h a t p r e d i c t e d by  Rn= is  i t varies  fully  laminar  exponent.  (1970)  was  is  shown  between  Emrnett  the flow  Experiments  depth  most  that  the depth as  is  experimentally.  distinguish  t h e b a s i s of  regime. Moreover,  turbulent. the  possible  as  flow  t u r b u l e n t flow q = R d  laminar  turbulent  assumes  Rn with  q/n and  d  is  -  present  the  Reynold's  purposes  dv/n  Dietrich flow  characterises transition  number,  flow  '1980)  depth  and  laminar between.  (where v  n  is  f l o w and Surface  the  high  i s the flow values  roughness  69  affects  the  transition  been o b s e r v e d  from  between Rn  Morgali  1970,  reported  fully  values  Woolhiser turbulent  Resistance Darcy—Weisbach  to  et  flow  friction  the  Rn  by  laminar  Ff  plotting  undipped  and  surface  a  storm  state  (k=  of q  500)  2.5 was  only  that  detention  time. can  d e p t h and  act  as  a  1/6  seen  velocity.  Dunne and  measured  was  Dietrich  k=13,250 the  an  for  the  the  ( F o s t e r and  indication  77%  cover  rising  a  state.  discharge  aids  on  and  Ff  flow  required  the  by  of  steady  hillslope increasing  r e q u i r e measurement  artificial  depth,  Meyer  vegetated  a smooth  infiltration  b o t h Rn  In  wend  amount  hydrograph which  steady  the  to  1975,  the  on  clipped  flow  Meyer  of  of  (1980) showed  enabling  Ideally discharge  have measured  by  same p l o t s and  clumped,  a c h e c k . Some s t u d i e s on 1970)  authors  plots.  (1970) n o t e s t h a t a d e n s e l y  of  that  these  f a c t o r (Ff) i s r e l a t e d to  for  slowly  vegetation  be  flow  Emmett  had  1970,  e m p i r i c a l l y determined constant  k=1,680  Emmett  has  (Ff)  that  hours to reach  implying  It  Rn)  1965), k a l s o g i v e s  hillslope  usually  which  (Emmett  None of  is  i n pseudo c h a n n e l s  detention.  3,000  1970).  friction  Where v e g e t a t i o n  plants  Monke  and  and  field  vegetation.  Ff a g a i n s t  plots  vegetation. around  and  400  flow  2gds  where k i s an  microtopography (by  =  to turbulent  from  factor  range t h e  = k Rn  of al  flow  Ff In  laminar  measurements plots  discharge  should  (Izzard and  of  1944,  velocity  di r e c t l y . The in  App  L.  Rn  and  A plot  F f were c a l c u l a t e d a t OF1,2 (not  appended) of  Rn  and  against  3 from t h e Ff  to  data  find  k  70  yielded be  so  much s c a t t e r  made. The  3 to  the  It  is  laminar  agrees  area  not  produce  field  made a t  and  i n the  sketch  site  observing  quadrant. while  The has  the  Flow  bottom  flow less  quite than  OF2  new  flow  are  r e s i s t a n c e to bent  fed  intense  overland  and  Turner  by  ponded  to  storm  in a heavily  flow  a sampling type  channels  achieve  a  discharge vegetated  turbulence  and  patterns  quadrat  over  flowpaths  flow  and  encouraged  a s e e p emerged  floored than  with  humic  —  this  in F i g the  slow  mossy a r e a s .  each bushes  seepage.  from a moss  The  grass  15  plot  in  s l i m e which  downslope, p r o v i d i n g l e s s  overland  flow  was  direct  observations  season.  However, t h e r e a r e  first  This  patch.  probably was  all  r e s i s t a n c e to  flow  growth.  Whilst  suggest  3  range.  f o l l o w e d t h e m a r g i n s of h e a t h e r  hand c o r n e r  channels  dead and  the  placing  clearly  left  and  section. of  by  and  vegetation.  were  flow  1  range  Langford  create additional  vegetation  moss i n h i b i t e d  the  next  could  turbulent  rainstorm  most  OF1  transition  of  1970,  a  sites  i n the  plots  for  at  2 i n the  (Emmett  turbulent overland impacts  flow  effect  flow  determination  105—304 f o r s i t e s  lies  retarding  impossible  raindrop  considered  site  flow  d i s c h a r g e . Hence t h e  unless  The  no  overland  is  from  This places  flow at  the  meaningful  range  analyses  the  it  comparable could  other  all  meltwater,  OF2.  that  b e c a u s e of  with  1972). As  In  t h e Rn  range and  significant  presumably  was  of  167-1467 f o r s i t e  in  is  values  t h a t no  that  i s the  were not  overland water  two  observed  and  made d u r i n g types  flow  takes  repellency  data  of  measured a t  snowmelt,  the  the  rest  indirect  place during seen  in  of  evidence  field which  rainstorms.  Appendix  C;  The the  Figure 15 O v e r l a n d f l o w a n d v e g e t a t i o n t y p e  ^ III  Earth Heather  Grass/shrub Moss 0 Cms  10  72  second  and  stronger  displacement table flow  levels  the^  tracer  l a r g e storm  which o c c u r r e d  was  not  as  over after  repellency If  most of the  generated  overland  the d a t a  water  repellent  which  have  sites  waxes  to the  generate  most  repellent  s u r f a c e . However,  indicate  that  have  well  fingering through litter  layer  permeate the  either  leaching  Ae  saturated that  Bfh  correlate  through  as  water  the  trees  i s pronounced  horizons  with  indicates  water  repellent  test  i t hydrophobic.  fingers  most  (12,12R,10R)  The  water can  the  beneath  WDP  more  all  marked  infiltration  shows t h a t  and  that  the  the  waxes  Hence t h e r e  pass through  or  (litter)  should  there  Bh  This  needles  most  tree islands  sites  or  the  1975).  layer.  which  water  (Gieseking  have  horizons place  and  repellent  by  not  then,  pine  resins  repellent  h o r i z o n making  locally  i s no litter  generally  as  a  agent.  Moderately heather  takes  is continuously  mechanism  was  any  grass/moss  erosion should  they  tree root channels.  water  Ae  as  soil  most water  developed  the  obvious  leaching  along  soil  and  flow  water  flow.  water d r o p p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t overland  of  showed t h a t  i n the  subsoil  are a s s o c i a t e d with  According  The  31  of  i n A p p e n d i x C w h i c h shows t h a t  hydrophobic  horizonation.  overland  pattern  Observations  except  the  occurred  recorded  the  ended. I t i s l i k e l y ,  Horton  flow  basin  in  of A u g u s t  Dunne t y p e  the  rain  found  particles.  the  immediately  layer  is  after  stratum,  with  of  evidence  with  association.  water  mossy  repellent  depressions  Mossy d e p r e s s i o n s  between h e a t h e r  b u s h e s as  shown  sites and  the  indicate i n the  are  characterised  grass/spaghnum/shrub  where f l o w  field  by  sketch  is chanelled of  site  0F2  73  (Fig in  1 5 ) . However, WDP t e s t s  water  dry  infiltration observation overland  repellent  (eg s i t e  flow  volumes overland  flow.  the events  27 — O c t o b e r  10. D a t a  size  generate  flow  especially  effect  of  This  generating  reservoirs  were t o o s m a l l  31, September  15—18, A u g u s t  any c l e a r  overland  more  4, September  p a t t e r n of v a r i a t i o n to f i l l  account  to  25 a n d September  surface  7 and  between  detention  flow. D i f f e r e n c e s i n trough  apron  f o r t h e volume  convincing  i n the pattern channels  at sites flow  spread  of  is a factor  in  movement. A l l s i t e s discrepancy  was  seen  of  of o v e r l a n d  for  tracer  in Figures  should  discharges  sediment  travel  10 a n d  flow  (Fig  because  and they  s u b j e c t t o bouyancy  although  the p r e c i s e  3 and 6  4—8mm w h i l s t t h e s m a l l e r  except  entrainment  farthest  and a r e  depends upon v e g e t a t i o n ; a t s i t e s than  evidence  displacement  channels  i s seen a t most s i t e s  much f a r t h e r  of  3 and 6.  smaller p a r t i c l e s  This  type  o f movement  t o microtopographic  be e n t r a i n e d a t lower  effects.  move  lies  overland  transport, may  flow.  trough  bottles  were t o o s m a l l  and  Distinct  correspond  If  Gerlach  2 litre  variability  second  particles.  15)  overland  rapid  i n A p p e n d i x N.  The  11  in  from J u l y  events  and r a i n f a l l  overland  prevent  enable  the f e a s i b i l i t y  o f August  15 do n o t y i e l d  but these  recorded  upon  caught  accommodate  and  and  which  dry out as  by water r e p e l l e n c y .  underestimate  September  but has c r a c k s  14)  throws doubt  Water  stores  scale differences  r e p e l l e n c y a r e marked when mossy d e p r e s s i o n s  moss i s water  sites  show t h a t s m a l l  1—2mm sizes  size  tracers show more  1 a n d 12 showed t h i s p a t t e r n a n d t h e  tentatively  attributed  to  smaller  tracers  74  adhering burial  to resinous pine  of f i n e  In the  particles  lower  evidence  displacements  tracer  Evidence  f o r the l a t t e r  capacity  and WDP  movement  flow  eroded  erosion,  susceptible  sediment  catches  The  sites  section i t will  flow  caused  probably  r a t h e r than  t o erode  should  occurred  be a r g u e d  e r o s i o n and/or  it  is  upon  The  certain  although  certainly  able to  were  experience  capable  their  event  (September 1 ) .  s p l a s h , r a t h e r than  t r a n s p o r t at these  of  largest  were 5,9R and NI and  that  tracer  observation.  flow  rainfall  elsewhere  i s u n e q u i v o c a l but  i s much l e s s  that  the l a r g e s t  the  a t snowmelt i n  occurs  direct  overland  sites  where t h i s  next  i n the overland  sites.  Splash Data  from  (section  4.1.2)  marmots.  After  end  and  occurs  f o r the former  material. If  after  reflect  fell.  definitely  demonstrates  transport  also  i s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l , depending  tests  of o v e r l a n d  only  flow  p o r t i o n of the b a s i n  rainstorms.  i t could  as l i t t e r  summary, o v e r l a n d  during  5.3  needles;  the  because August  by b o u l d e r s , Splash  (Eckern  splash troughs  4 the troughs  is  which  in  collected  rainfall  value  f o r September  for-July  21  is  with  rainfall drop  the s p l a s h  on September  Appendix  knocked  over  by  were w e i g h e d down a t e i t h e r  reflects  important,  sediment  of the season.  as mean v a l u e s higher  most  turn  were  further disturbance.  correlated  1961,1963). I f s p l a s h were have  troughs  which p r e v e n t e d  erosion  1950)  many  are subject to large errors  size troughs  1 after  H shows t h a t t h i s  15 and September undoubtedly  due  intensity (Hudson would  the heaviest d i d not occur  1 a r e s i m i l a r . The to  disturbance.  75  Hence s p l a s h i s u n i m p o r t a n t The  size  was  plotted  in  the  sites  as  that  soil,  10R  i t was  that  plot  together with  (Appendix that  than  slope width the  caught  not  soil  data  (Appendix  J)  moving  of  Five sediment  tracers sites  that  catches NI,  in their  especially 5,7  had  and  NI  little  conjunction  12 and  i n the  ground  influence  in  performing  movement  is  evidence  microchannels Meyer and Grain pattern.  12R,  NI)  w h i c h was  erosion.  finer  plots  splashed material erosion  E)  ""and  on  was  of  the  Absolute units  of  f o r most a  large  significant  September  1.  Sites  of a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e (Appendix  v e g e t a t i o n cover probably inferred similar  of  J).  As  and  site  acting  in  as  type  continuous  s i m u l a t e d under  finer  material  registered  was  the  at  same c a l i b r e m a t e r i a l  class  A  but  13R.  splash,  flow,  for  splashed  or  to comparable  and  percentage  overland  coarser  (Appendix  size  cover,  the  smaller p a r t i c l e s .  Gerlach troughs  a low  captured  s p l a s h c o u l d account  and  1-2mm  13R  splash  showed d i s p l a c e m e n t  had  with  the  13  10R,  (3,5,6,9R  each  the  when c o n v e r t e d  moved a t  sites  and  the  in a l l cases  show t h a t  moved a t  site  13R. troughs  i n the G e r l a c h t r o u g h  sample. Hence  splash  splash  sediment  significantly  s p l a s h was  graphs,  the  sediment  proportion  G ) . At  i n t o t h e G e r l a c h t r o u g h . As  these  of  2,9,10,12,12R,13 and  of t h e m a t e r i a l from  i f i t occurs, only a f f e c t s  amounts  9R  than  washed on  trough  finer  and  much f i n e r  5,9R  a lognormal  suggests  higher  of  on  was  12R  which  distribution  Gerlach  sediment  at s i t e s  a  major  of  sheet  migration  of  l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s by  Monke(l965). size Visual  plots  for sites  inspection  of  5,7  and  NI  5,7  and  NI  show  a  (Appendix  distinctive G)  reveal  a  76  concave not  upwards shape  seen  marked  i n the s o i l .  f o r t h e samples  example, (soil)  d84-dl6 2.6  material coarse  —  surface  layer  1  gravel. —  was  washing  where  a  was  Kirkby  soil.  agent  Rainfall  of  7 and 29  maximum r a i n f a l l  During  was  the  5 and  stone on  -  dl6  7 show  that  in fine  and  material.  A  by winnowing of t h e  also  surface  by p r e v i o u s s t o r m s  deficient  of  and  in material  over  moves  material  1978). At  and  site  : the  sand  9  sites was  (1974) a t t r i b u t e  and  <2mm  5,7  the  and only  ground  'creeping'  by o v e r l a n d  infiltration  splash  is  rates  flow  i n the  identified  to  f l o w . As  the e a r t h y spreads o v e r l a n d  of h i g h  has an e f f e c t  sites,  September and  parent  rainsplash  and K i r k b y  intensity  September  and  d84  as  no is  sandy,  t h e most  erosion.  s p l a s h . At  August  from  and  NI f o r  number of s t o n e s o v e r 2cms i n d i a m e t e r  Hence  e r o d e d by  August  to  collected  large  absent because  important  results  out o f f i n e s  that  between  non—cohesive  0.26mm  t o have an a r m o u r i n g c r u s t  s t o n e s were c a u g h t  probably  -  ( G a b r i e l s and M o l d e n h a u e r  sediment  lubrication  on  Similar  Eroded m a t e r i a l  collected.  large  1.2  is  i s most  29Aug + 1 S e p t . A t s i t e  compared  showing  large  location  when  appeared  2mm  no  spans  which  tendency  from t h e e a r t h y s p r e a d s i s d e f i c i e n t  or  preferentially NI  as  of f i n e s c a n be e x p l a i n e d  wind  fine  plotted  (sample)  material  the  samples  In a l l t h r e e c a s e s t h i s  0.063mm.  eroded  deficiency by  f o r most o f t h e s e d i m e n t  5,7  intensities;  1.2mm/30min  f o r 3rd  the r a i n s t o r m  and NI,  15 combined  September  on  the c a l i b r e  of  the m a t e r i a l  was  finer  1 combined,  which  material  eroded  than that  eroded  correlates  3mm/30mins f o r t h e s t o r m  on  with  on  30th  a small  scale  September.  of A u g u s t  31  site  9R had  77  mudflow  f e a t u r e . T h i s can  the  largest  31st  August. Appendix G  of  the  during  amount  eroded any  other  scale  features  They  form  soil  soil  be  of  was  seen  was  caught  after  the  shows t h a t  the  grain  size  distribution  c l o s e r to the  porewater  pressures  water  i s d e l i v e r e d to r i l l s .  feature  i s an  a d d i t i o n a l mechanism  f l o w . No  Sites  3  similar  and  6,  moss was there  The  is  no  depressions inference, at  only  which  two  1 and  litter  may  storey  of  i s b a s e d on  or  existence by  small  a g e n t moving sizes  resin  surface of  this  splash  and  other  sites. also  September  are  grass  sediment data  because  i n the  mossy  impacts. samples are  prevented  This  collected  required.  which  from  although enables  1 the  4—8mm t r a c e r s i n l i t t e r  entrapment,  i s aware of  August  raindrop  the  writer  i n the  and  shrub  mitigate  small  29  during  be  the  sands.  spell  may  or  in noncohesive  have s u f f e r e d some e r o s i o n as  further confirmatory  burial  small  mossy d e p r e s s i o n s  August  so  The  similar  develop  with  of  eroded  erosion  sites  12.  literature  on  a long dry  might  however,  Splash sites  upper  for  storm  soil  Hence t h e  heather  catch  depressions  d e s i c c a t e d by  than  f e a t u r e s were seen a t any  both  showed maximum s e d i m e n t combined.  soil  (1971) d e s c r i b e s  as  overland  plot  l a b o r a t o r y experiments  when h i g h  E w h i c h shows t h a t  sediment  storm. DePloey  from  i n Appendix  moving  there  at by  is  no  assessment  of  s u c h a mechanism. In of  summary  erosion  render  i n the  overland  distribution to  i t is inferred  and  individual  earthy flow the  that  spreads unlikely.  amount of  rainstorms.  as  splash high  dominant  agent  infiltration capacities  Furthermore,  sediment  Tracer  i s the  captured  displacements  the can  grain be  strongly  size  related suggest  78  erosion  by  (Moss and seen. less  rainsplash Walker  The  1978)  influence  e q u i v o c a l and  troughs 12,  suggests  12R,13 and  those  probably with  from  the  that  13R  the  as  the both  of  s p l a s h on  size  as  earthy  available  erosion.  where f i n e  depressions tentative  of  splash  in  as  Another loosening  5.4  The 1.4.4  This  and  does  occurred  cover.  October  at  sites than  spreads of  are  material  i n a r e a s of  and  in  mossy  these c o n c l u s i o n s  In g e n e r a l , t h e  role  i t s importance  i s indisputable. not  by  be  needle  investigated,  i c e . T h i s may  was  prepare  erosion.  ice  3kg  Matthews  (1974) r e v i e w e d  i c e as a major a g e n t per year  of  show  such  not  i c e was  After  Gerlach  14 d i d not  earthy  i s doubtful whilst  show  sediment  observed  the thermohygrograph  earlier.  Gerlach  a r e much f i n e r  resin  is available.  for rainsplash  needle  i c e . Needle  September and  snow  Needle  the  important  by  are  however, i s  important  bushes a l t h o u g h  surface s o i l  fall  of moving  study  needle  the  work of Mackay and  showed  capable  data  in  calibre  be  are covered  heather  little  the  may  mechanism, w h i c h c o u l d  i n the  Frost  particles  earthy spreads  of  i s not  the  flow  s h e e t movement  trapped  As  reflect  in vegetated areas  unvegetated  material  spreads.  Splash  overland  vegetated s i t e s ,  of m a t e r i a l  also  between  are  and  the c a p t u r e d p a r t i c l e s  could  litter  finger  splash transport  armoured, t h i s for  some i m p a c t e d  September trough  sediment  across  1m  transfer  of  slope. by  on  25  only 3 nights, (Appendix  needle  collections  maximum  section  l a r g e amounts b e i n g moved  minima 26  of  in  sediment  i c e was on  23  M)  show none  precluded  September  weights  —  from  25  by and  sites  79  5,7,NI  and  calibre  material  combined may  be  at  due  needle  9R  where  collected  5,7  and  9R,  to needle  ice  can  predominantly  needle  September  material  material  e x p l a n a t i o n of  and  20  i s more r e a s o n a b l e .  s p l a s h e r o s i o n by  than  Most  three  Turf  that  needle  Heine  1977).  field  site  i c e i s unimportant  during  w i t h a l o n g snow f r e e p e r i o d  spreads  is  active  site  NI  and  may  earthy  (Gradwell  1960,  is clear  help maintain  attributed the  i n the  soil  1967,  basal  t o snow f a l l i n g  loose granular  ice  evidence  Brink et a l  showed much s e d i m e n t  needles  18  would  around e a r t h y  snowpack. T h i s was  5.5  September  exfoliation ice  so  expected  t o 6 weeks of n e e d l e  the  the  the  on  be  would have up  of  of  rainfall  size,  October  Snow c o r e s a t cms  gravel  that  snowpack  year  cycles.  particles,  the  a different  and  fine  (1970) o b s e r v e d to  14  October  cycles before  the  September  and  different  frost needle  in  25  The  necessarily  years  so a l t h o u g h  season,  up  would not  began a c c u m u l a t i n g study  observed.  i c e . However, O u t c a u l t  an  more  was  m a t e r i a l enriched with  and  experience  on  transport  fine  ice  on  5 ice  structure  spreads.  Eolian deposition  5.5.1  Particle  size  distribution  and  amount of  windblown  mater i a l  The  alpine soil  Okazaki  1979)  evidence, erosion erosion  shows  together in  and  the  record a with  Swiss  (Bouma e t a l 1969,  loess the Alps  capping author's (Tyler  d e p o s i t i o n d u r i n g the  Ryswyck  overlying  till.  observations  1979)  summer  van  suggested  months  had  and This  of  wind  that  wind  deposited  80  the  loessy  soil  capping.  windblown m a t e r i a l more g e n e r a l l y Appendix times  as  recorded  the  coarsest  finest. grain  shows t h a t sediment  as  those  the h i g h e s t  whilst  site  total  distributions.  Siddoway  1965) and t h e o r e t i c a l  coarse  (Appendix  favour  c a r r i e d to the This  (1941)  height  A)  material  may  can i n c r e a s e  B).  site 2  9  caught  and 6 w h i l e  catch,  totals  four  site  (Appendix  the lowest  G)  show caught  a n d had s i m i l a r  at  and  empirical  erosion site  it 9  of an  area  low  soil  (Woodruff and  1951)  so  blown  show  that  is likely  came  from  that local  i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e l a r g e amount o f which of t h i s  large  travel  3)  (Chepil  was  collected.  size  moves by s a l t a t i o n  i t s source area. help  (Table  13  caught the  at the centre  Both  work  sampler  (1—2mm)  c a n n o t move f a r from (Appendix  at  cover  soil  conclusion  material  Bagnold  at  Site 9 lies  content  sources.  material.  comparable  organic  conditions  i t i s used  Hence t h e l a r g e r s a m p l e s o f wind  were a l s o c o a r s e r .  material  1977) h e r e  r e f e r s to  amount o f l o e s s , a l s o  13, w i t h  a low p e r c e n t a g e v e g e t a t i o n  these  strictly  Lognormal p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s  9, w i t h  size  (Junge  t h e sampler  S i t e s 2 and 6 r e c o r d e d  material with  I  least.  site  10-50Mm d i a m e t e r  loess  t o r e f e r t o a l l windblown  much  that  Although  Location  particles  distance  According  and so  on a s t e e p  disperse  (Chamberlain  to  slope  as  launching  and  Chadwick  1977). As  sites  2,6 and 13 a r e v e g e t a t e d  have t r a v e l l e d 9 with smaller  some d i s t a n c e .  a higher total  sedimentation  proportion amount  velocity  It i s finer  of p a r t i c l e s  (Appendix which  windblown m a t e r i a l  G).  governs  than t h a t  <0.5mm This the  must  c o l l e c t e d at  diameter  and  a  i s a r e f l e c t i o n of time  particles  in  81  suspension 1957)  and  Site  13  finer  to s e t t l e  hence t h e i r  out  under g r a v i t y  potential  from  any  areas bare  catch are e x p l i c a b l e  by  sites — Site  the d i f f e r e n t i a l This  suggests  near  that  their  larger  whilst  size  caught  from  site  through  and  6 t o 0.1154 a t 9. As  410cm  these  2  2.8g/m  per  2  problem short a  figures year  or <1.5  inherent  sampling  snow f r e e  season  (August  of mid  a r e minima. However, t h e y sediment direct  caught  eolian  cement a p r o n giving  a  deposition 0.06g at  site  direct catch.  an  at s i t e  and  4 —September  July  out  1520  -  an 1—3  area d u r i n g the season  13,  t o 0.09-0.23g a t s i t e s  under  accounting  gravity  The  sampler  total ranged  was  0.44,0.69,0.84  and  also  25)  be  times  undersampling because  these  of  the  2 and  f o r 25 —  proportion  760cm  -  and  2  the area  0.3m ). Wind 2  from  6 and  100%  of  f o r by  the t r o u g h  ranges  with  estimates  accounted  (0.15  2  2  funnel  2,2R,3,4,6,8,12,13,13R and  deposition  greater.  0.0344g a t s i t e s  a r e a of  3040cm  this  and  whilst  samplers  a significant  A t r o u g h has  and  1 i n comparison  t o September  show t h a t  a r e a of  9. Hence s i t e s wind  sampler  a r e a of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  combined on  i n p u t of  i n t h e G e r l a c h t r o u g h s may  deposition.  much  B u b n o f f s . B e c a u s e of t h e  i n the e o l i a n  season  the o t h e r s  bulk  0.0284 and  4)  discussed.  dispersed.  i n the  t o an  yet  is  t h e a r e a of t h e b u l k  translate  (Fig  1969).  comparable at a l l  settle  are  Woodruff  i t s smaller  not  classes  fines  sediment 13,  6  t w i c e as much as  e s t i m a t e d mass of at  and  <63»im i s q u i t e  the c o a r s e p a r t i c l e s  source  O.CH82g  2  supply areas  9 collects  i n the  than  and  (Syers et a l  o f v e g e t a t i o n , so  a b s o l u t e amount o f m a t e r i a l  four  (Chepil  for travel  i s at a higher elevation  further  The  take  14  0.12  —  0.38-0.76g may  have  of t h e i r  total  82  A comparison material  and  of  the  sediment  some s e d i m e n t c a u g h t Examples 19,  can  August  and  be  4,  weight  seen 29  and  10  (July  combined, August  29  and  14  the  soil:  were v e r y weight  small  loss  or  difecussed  deposition flow for  and the  and  so  gain  to  in section  13 and  latter  as  the  12  13R.  suggests  captured  A l l the  14, (July  19  and  October  14  and 25  site  October  sediment  coarser  finer  samples  susceptible  Still, than  f o r m e r has  the  that  to  than  the  listed  here  significant  evidence  for erosion  flow  and  sieving  for by  been measured w h i l s t  i s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . Overland  1  and  i n d i v i d u a l f r a c t i o n s during  4.1.1.  July  10R  combined) September  that  windblown.  (July  25  considerably  probably the  1  windblown  been  1 combined,  sites  but  i s more c o n v i n c i n g  splash  for s i t e  combined,  other  windblown m a t e r i a l sites  G  have  14),8,6(September  15  of  troughs a l s o  September  September  f o r example  i n the  September  c o m b i n e d ) . A number of  than  as  7 and  distribution  i n Appendix  4),  (September  size  i n some t r o u g h s may  August  August  grain  wind  overland evidence  splash  could  rework windblown d e p o s i t s . . 5.5.2  P r o v e n a n c e of Loess  (Smalley washed  provenance  1968) out  volumes  are  loess deposits  et  dependent al  enable  their  loessy  component  1937)  sources  sediment  often  braided  material  have d i s t a n c e (Krumbein  is  which c r u s h e s onto  of  regional  windblown  a t t r i b u t e d to g l a c i a l  rock  to  of a l p i n e  flour.  When  b a r e outwash p l a i n s , huge  available  for  and  parameters  t o be  s i z e rock  r i v e r s and  (Rieger  and  silt  erosion  Juve  such  thickness  traced. soils  as  This  wind 1961,  as  erosion.  Many  Foss e t ' a l  1978)  median  (Frazee i s not  et  al  grain 1970)  possible  wind d e p o s i t i o n  for  size which the  depends upon  83  local  topography  within  5km  is  of  likely  material  and  the  that  study  there  relatively  The  between  to  see  local  the  <63nm  similar.  A  Appendix  0.  It  relative  two  valley glaciers  numerous s n o w p a t c h e s  to  from  wind  slides  samples  it  transportable  p e a k s and  sites  could  l o e s s . The (Appendix  be  most 0)  was made  useful  prepared  sites  2,6,9  and  the  XRD  data  i s given  a  high  four  from  of  conduct  all  distinction  s o u r c e s of  analysis  abundances  Muscovite  are  s o u r c e s of  any  from o r i e n t e d  small  Plagioclase  as  samples  f r a c t i o n and  mineral  there  plentiful  of  detailed  with  well  as  regional  i s impossible  traces  site  whether  and  d a t a were o b t a i n e d  As  close.  mineralogy  investigated  from  are  winds.  quantitative  noise  13  were in  analysis  on  levels. Tentatively  the  are:—  felspar  .. ( l a r g e s t  component)  mica  Kaolinite Amphibole V e r m i c u l i te Chlorite Orthoclase Quartz This  rank  smallest raw  run  (smallest  ordering fraction  filter  and  the  up  some  traces  differences  obtained  between  from a n a l y s i s  of  the the  papers.  The  total  on  the  technique  shows  component)  XRD  had  sample c o l l e c t e d on apparatus. Noise the  advantage  of  the  filter  papers  were  l e v e l s were v e r y h i g h including  larger  but  also this  windblown  84  material. be  seen  has  sites  a  large  the  13,  i n the c o a r s e  crystal in  At  of  peak  fraction at  plagioclase.  larger  sizes  Comparison  of  9(25/9) and  3.18A  (Appendix  and  m i c a and  rock m i n e r a l  s e v e r a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s . The  basin  are quartz  The  percentage  determined  diorite  and  from  thin  the  h e t e r o g e n o u s Gambier G r o u p  is  i n Appendix  a major component,  The not  geological  (30% and  40%  present  as  t h e amount  The  major  of  to a large  by  sample  rock  rock  abundances  types  in  chlorite  and  a  habit  communication)  r o o f pendant  1972), of w h i c h t h e  the  area  the  schist.  grain  personal  comprises  (McKee  the  also  a r e more a b u n d a n t  actinolite  each  valley  surrounded  history  although for  regional  quartz  i s complex  amount  is  to  found  grains  as  on  0.05  —  enough t o be  and  i n the  as  and  of  schist  diorite.  to date  small quartz  in  the  the d i o r i t e  larger  than  which  from  In  The  has  because  indicating  t h e Gambier  only  although quartz  of  quartz  small  which the  are  distorted  i s found  in  (50 im) i s s m a l l r  i t i s a more a larger  Group.  is  schist  63>/m e x c l u s i o n  that  types  breakdown. A  smallest size  suggests  rock  fraction  (<0.0lmm)  c l o s e to the  sizes  major  the  resist  grains. Dioritic  0.5mm d i a m e t e r . but  fine  sizes.  weathering  p r e p a r a t i o n . T h i s study  component  i n the  larger  both  respectively)  microcrystals  chemical  windblown,  of  schist  percentage  stringers  present  susceptible shell  low  i s greater  chiefly  a major component  diorite  a very  occurs  from  P.  (25/9)  can  been s t u d i e d . Quartz,  XRD  two  sections (Gallie  shown  peaks  kaolinite.  of  are  9  attributed  plagioclase  quartz  composition  be  a b u n d a n c e s and  reveal  quartz  0). Site  w h i c h can  Quartz  than  6 definite  of  the  important  contribution  85  Plagioclase This is  must  i s t h e s i n g l e most  reflect  t h e 30% p r o p o r t i o n  a m i n o r component  the  diorite  grains  as  grains  cleavage)  amenable  alteration  product  fine  o f t h e Gambier  must be b r o k e n  Hornblende grained  windblown  0.2  down to  —  i s present  schist  is  material  i n diameter,  erosion.  units  mineral.  diorite  g r o u p . However,  smaller  ( D i x o n and Weed  windblown  i n the quartz  1mm  into  wind  and f i b r o u s  actinolite  abundant  as i t  i t occurs i n so i n d i v i d u a l (possibly  by  K a o l i n i t e i s p r o b a b l y an  1977).  a s f i n e c r y s t a l s i n t h e s c h i s t and a s (0.1mm) u n i t s  30%  suggests  i n the  hornblende, that  diorite.  the  diorite  As  the  low p r o p o r t i o n i n  is  the  major  loess  are  many  minor  chlorite  is  source. The  schist  lithologies major  t h e 20%  rather  local  major  vermiculite  in  concentrations nature  enables 5.5.3  it  Wind  deposition  chlorite  material  occupies  group  incongruity the in  the  the  i s the great in  parent  of t h e s e m i n e r a l s  a  and i s w e l l  schist.  Hence  a regional  regional  not  the  source f o r  quartz  diorite  rocks.  samples  the  in  a t any s i t e  a l l corroborates  as i t r e f l e c t s Gambier  as  G r o u p . However,  them t o be t r a n s p o r t e d  The  three  in  windblown  evidence  material  than  One  of  which  mineralogical windblown  rich  i n t h e Gambier  component  below  platy  is  contrast  rock.  This  (Brindley long  abundance to  probably  and Brown  distances  o f m i c a and their  low  r e f l e c t s the 1980)  which  by t h e w i n d .  deposition soil  record  since  d e g l a c i a t i o n . Samples  sites  at  i n the G a l l i e  the  pond  study  site from  sub—basin  shows soil  a r e shown  continuous horizons i n Table  at 9.  86  All in  s a m p l e s were k i n d l y p r o v i d e d previous  with  Table  by T. G a l l i e  from  y e a r s . A l l t h r e e pedons show a b u r i e d  organic  content  9 Organic  content  as  high  or  and p a r t i c l e  higher  size  than  soil  p i t s dug  soil  horizon  contemporary A  distribution  of 3 s o i l  pits Tree  IslandP i t  S i t e Depth Ae Omb Bf BC  G r a v e l1 -2mm0.5-0.25mm 0. 25-0 .125mm <0.0063mm Org % 1 -0.5mm 0. 125-0.0063mm 0-5 1 6 23 7.3 7.3 8. 4 7.9 28.1 40.9 5-1 1 32 28 11.4 12.2 19. 9 9.4 25 22.7 1 1-27 25 40 19.3 19.3 20. 9 7.7 18.1 15 27-38 1 1 60 29.3 24.1 17. 2 10.3 8.6 10.3  Whaleback Topographic  depression  Ah 0-10 Bm 10-14 Omb 14-25 Bmb125-37 Bmb237-40 Bmb340-49  42 7 36 30 1 2 27  1 1 26 2 64 62  2 .8 22 .7 7 .9 0 .8 22 .4 1 1.9  3.5 15.1 7.3 3.8 14.8 10.2  14 .2 1 4.6 1 9.9 1 2.2 1 3.2 1 1.9  9. 2 1 1 .6 9. 3 10. 7 1 1 10. 9  35. 10. 19. 1 3 10. 1 1  0. 8 0. 6 0. 6 6. 6 25. 6 24  0. 8 0. 4 1 .7 5. 8 20. 3 25. 9  5. 7 1 .7 7. 3 18. 2 14. 6 17. 6  7 2. 6 17. 2 19. 8 9. 8 8. 8  38.5 48.2 37.2 58. 25.3 46 1 9 30.6 10.5 19.2 8.8 14.9  the  buried  3 3 3 7  35. 25. 30 59. 28 43.  7 6 6 2  L u e t k e a / m o s s / 1 i c h e n (LML) Gently sloping Ah 0-3 Bm 3-3.5 Bmb13.5-6 Omb 6-10 Bmb2l0-18 BC 18-60  25 1 4 1 2 34 1 2 5  2 0 0 28 56 63  horizons.  Beneath  developed  in  sites  gravelly  till  show 2 l a y e r s o f t e p h r a  organic  horizon  (60% g r a v e l ) . juxtaposed  l i e horizons  The LML and w h a l e b a c k  at  the  LML  site  and  87  separated ash  by an o r g a n i c  i s probably  (2,600BP) is  source T.  a t the whaleback  (6,600BP) and t h e u p p e r  1980). The w h a l e b a c k  which  is  Gallie),  the  the  time  and  present  soil  followed  of  t h e Mazama a s h f a l l .  wind d e p o s i t i o n  'whaleback' accounts  for  sediment  latter  this  site.  is  site to  (1972)  vegetation efficient  than  particle of p r e s e n t  with  or  at  followed  but not  sites  as  warm  shows  tephra.  which  detention  The  whether  i n of  fines.  was o b s e r v e d a t on  f o r the c a p a c i t y  the a t t r a c t i o n  of  probably  It i s uncertain  material.  that  proportion  reworked  deposition  (1974)  the  distribution  day Ae and  representative  ending  cool period  depression  windblown  windblown m a t e r i a l  size  6,600BP  o r by t h e w a s h i n g  evidence  Clough  after  the  exposed  of v e g e t a t i o n  Chamberlain  o f h a i r y and  shows  that  moss  in  Appendix  and  sticky  is  more  shows  that  grass.  comparison  contemporary  pure  amount o f  trap  from a c l o s e r  cool conditions  considerable  as s u r f a c e  demonstrate  whilst  A  by d u s t f a l l  is  ash  1981,  warmer  accumulation.  suspected  litter)  Chadwick  A  deep  River  communication,  Another  sheltered  A significant  island  (and/or  the  the Bridge  depth a t the t h r e e  actually  i s in a  accumulates  The  tree  site  are  lower  6,000BP.  i s not uniform.  deposits  The  shows t h e upper  around  day c o n d i t i o n s a r e a l i t t l e  difference in soil  'loess'  suggest  by a warm p e r i o d  site.  i'ts o r i g i n  (personal  profiles  t h e optimum a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y The  site  c o n s i s t e n t with  t h a n t h e Mazama. O v e r a l l ,  deglaciation  as  Mazama  (Clague  coarser  horizon  of  Ah  the  data i s of  approximately  t o account horizons  Gallie  Pond  I  f o r the s i z e  if  site  subbasin  13  the  right  distribution is  taken  because  as  of i t s  88  similar  topographic  required  in  quantitative 5.5.4  the  source  because  of  (Spalding  of  showing  sediment.  There  late  lying  snowpack and  content  season  of  the  there  was  the m i n e r a l  taken  site  are  with  are  g r e a t e r than to  debris As surface  deposited  source  role  of  the  in  the  evidence  (Thorn  because into  but  the  would  no  at  studies  snow s u r f a c e  be  In t h i s  winter  sediment  found without  K.  study  f u t u r e work  a  few  should  in collecting  and  months  in  showed t h a t  the  snowpack. a t the  NI  it  was  loose m a t e r i a l frozen  into  elsewhere  snowpack. Two they  during  negligible  Concentrations  snow f r o z e o n t o  the  for  1979)  o r g a n i c and  snowpack  Appendix  those  sediment  i t contains a  is  whether  the  of  were abandoned b e c a u s e  spread  that  on  areas.  investigate  obtain a core  incorporated site  more  snow l a y e r s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s  contribution  amount  given  base, p r o b a b l y  were  is  a  a  t h e Mount Rose snow s a m p l e r  a significant  impossible the  to  at the  taken  Statistics  make  as  u n d e r l y i n g rock  upper  material  proposed  snowpatches  wind blown m a t e r i a l d u r i n g  Cores  to  show t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l i s 90%  were  storing  sampler  snowpack  literature  of  the  l o o k more c l o s e l y  ice  i n the  snow b l a n k e t s a l l p o t e n t i a l  samples  sub—basin  i s no  windblown 1979)  the w i n t e r as  there  sediment  summer  bulk  initially  e r o s i o n by  interface the  Pond  a  not  amount  considerable  of  contained  snowpack was  significant  the  Gallie  However,  assessment.  Sediment The  location.  because  ice needles cores  from  and the  i n c l u d e d sediment  they needle  from  the  i n the  snow  beneath. snowpack m e l t s  particularly  on  channels  steep  ( r u n n e l s ) form  slopes.  They  are  stained  by  89  sediment taken and  deposited  t o compare t h e s e d i m e n t  between t h e r u n n e l s .  runnel  sides  showed  approximately a  on t h e snow s u r f a c e . A few snow s a m p l e s  site  of  5.57  in  the  x I0" g/cc, snowpack  one  but  than  concentrations  50  higher  than  the  was  concentrations  the  base  the s u r f a c e  obtained  parallel  than  the  runnel  in runnels  These across  are three  surface  (although  these  surface  All  times greater  value  values.  laterally  of t h e snowpack  gave  concentration  than  the average  2 and 4 were dug t o i n v e s t i g a t e with near  depth  moved  (Figure  the s u r f a c e  (19.5 — 39cm). Dye  16). S i t e  (117  —  to  the  to a layer  30cm  g r o u n d . No dye was o b s e r v e d  relatively  high  concentration  corresponded with  site  snowpack  the  discoloured  dye  still  concentration  was  a t the base. T h i s  concentration  frozen  Two.  and  also  throughout  is clearly  dye  placed  from  the  ice layer  layers  of  of  sediment  and a p p e a r e d  site  and  snowpack.  the r e s u l t  ( F i g 1 6 ) . The s n o w p i t  4 had t h e  i n the b a s a l  hard.  i c e l a y e r s i n the  ripe  clastic  136.5cm)  t r a c e s showed t h a t  down v e r t i c a l l y  20cm where t h e snowpack was  sediment  from  gave a  of t h e snowpack, t h e n down t o t h e t o p of t h e b a s a l  2  — a l l  was o b v i o u s - t h i s  of s e d i m e n t  more  different  concentrations  s e d i m e n t moves  processing).  or  at s i t e s  greatest  and  from  within  i n t h e snowpack.  concentration  top  lower  survived  sediment  at  taken  i n between t h e r u n n e l s  i n the r e s t  are  Snow p i t s  near  concentration  Concentrations  sample  entrained  sediment  f i n d i n g s show t h a t  times greater  samples  substantially  5  of t h e snow s u r f a c e  g / c c . A maximum v a l u e  5  g / c c . The s u r f a c e  5  snowpack.  only  similar  17 x 1 0 "  preliminary the  Three  where t h e s e d i m e n t  159 x 1 0 "  content  were  At  t o be  increased  evolved  into a  Figure 16 C R R E L Snow S a m p l e s  Snowpit  Sediment  Concentrations  2  Sod  Cone  ( g x 10  / c c )  91  rapidly the  f l o w i n g stream  Lower  seepage  Lake.  weeks l a t e r  It i s l i k e l y  that  snowpack  by  results  way  of  Sediment  i s deposited in preferred  as water  filters  determined probably snowpack  by  also  by  feeds  observations  (1978)  through. the  grain  sediment  i n the  However,  that  size  by a  shows t h a t  dustfall  but  Depostion important  in  the  heavy  but  this  a tentative  needs  sediment  in  sediment —  these  channels  is  i n the  snowpack  and  1978).  erode  beneath  from y e a r G)  suggest  material  is  nearby  further  that  during  the  up  snow—free  investigation. the  due  The  may  be  figures  contribution K shows  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e  snowpack  i n the  is  the  total  equivalent.  collected  are 4m).  Appendix  water  over  to  to  budget.  5  Hence  areas  (often  of  G)  probably  sources are  the  obtained  similar.  source  snowpack  These  small size  (Appendix  was  the  to year.  were not  of t h e v e r y  snowpack  in  (Jordan  the m i n e r a l o g y  sediment  1OOOgx10" /cc  July  vary  e s t i m a t e t o be made of  snowpack t o t h e t o t a l  i s 100  of  windblown  when l o c a l  in  snowpack  data  winter  a finding  w i t h i n the  does not  from  through  channels  (Appendix  the  contributions  i n the s p r i n g  average  than  —  C o n s i d e r a b l e seepage  may  the a v a i l a b l e  seeps  (1971).  snowpack b e c a u s e  accumulation  summer  caused  Slaymaker  channels  data  is finer  water  ice layers  meltwater  situation  sediment  by  of  preferred  summer a l t h o u g h XRD  the  to  and  location  these  Reliable  precluded  The  topography.  snowpack m a t e r i a l  the  meltwater was  pathways  Woo  ground  snowpack a l t h o u g h t h e  samples.  and  position  suggest  that  preferred  with Jordan  enable  the s t a i n i n g  suggest  agreement  from  conducting  channel.  These t e n t a t i v e the  two  Assuming  of that  early the  t h e whole snow  92  season  and  the  amount  of  snow  equivalent,  t h e snowpack d e l i v e r s  of  sediment  clastic  figures  surface  of  the  mechanism  for  topographic  snowpack.  the  8  2  into  account  the  laterally  i n r u n n e l s over the  type  transfer  accumulation  of  of  loessy  i s another  materials  in  lows.  deposition  i s confirmed  t h e amount o f sediment  caught  from  t h e snowpack. D i r e c t  100%  of s e d i m e n t  summer  caught  season. to  spreads  a r e sediment  import  into  plains  and  sediment  receives sites  high:  variable a major  from  sediment  and r e q u i r e sediment  investigated  nearby  and f u r t h e r  deposition.  a  s o u r c e by  and e x t r a c t e d  account  sites  f o r 25 —.  during  amount o f d e p o s i t i o n Within  the  Neoglacial  dustfall.  travelled the concept  entrained  earthy  there  moraines,  The g r a i n from  size  any  material  i s net outwash  data  source  than  of s e t t i n g  can be  basin  that  the  show area,  do t h e o t h e r  velocity.  The  i n t h e snowpack i s s u r p r i s i n g l y  larger  sediment  source  than  summer  However, t h e snowpack samples a r e e x t r e m e l y verification  s o u r c e , movement  more c l o s e l y  redistribution  active  o f t h e b a s i n , remote  t h e snowpack i s  eolian  the  may  s o u r c e s but i t i s l i k e l y  general, r e g i o n a l  finer  of  in  less  sediment  samplers  deposition  availability.  as i s p r e d i c t e d  amount  a t the  t h e b a s i n from  the n o r t h part  as a major  i n the bulk  eolian  Variation  related  of  I0" g/m  o r <2 B u b n o f f s . The  2  This  water  x40 x 1000 x  (0.4-4g/m )  w h i c h has moved  40cm  Summary  Wind  that  100 X100  is  a r e c o n s e r v a t i v e a s t h e y do n o t t a k e  amount o f s e d i m e n t  5.5.5  to the s o i l  remaining  than  as t h i s  by r e p l i c a t i o n . through may  the  I f t h e snow i s  pack  should  be a more e f f e c t i v e  o v e r l a n d flow a c t i n g  upon e o l i a n  be  agent  sediment  93  in  the  5.6  summer months.  Animals T h e r e a r e number of a n o m a l i e s  They a r e too  greatest at  l a r g e t o be  caught  in  buried  moved by  the  indicating  complete  near  the b e g i n n i n g  g r o w i n g on  Other  anomalies  August  4,  July  19  July  20,  season  September  15,  w h i c h c o u l d not  be  flow, large  circumstantial responsible. field  splash,  4,  observations  an  habits  (Svendson  free  f o r burrowing,  1 female  330m  The  total  Marmot d e n s i t i e s  area  and  puts are  hoary  frequency.  sunning.  outcrops The  study  have  only  i n most c a s e s t o be  agreed  of  rocky  ranges  area  probably  1973)  burrowing  of  forward  Barash  were o b s e r v e d  on  caliqata  creatures  although  14  study  (Marmota  of t r e e s w i t h  2  on  mechanisms  similar  l o o k o u t s and  1 on  11  site  habitat. Population densities  a d u l t per the  4 and  marmots  h a b i t a t s and  open a r e a s  ideal  1974,  side  site  site  discussion  of  at  4,  activity.  that  one  August.  the  marmots  on  half  during  catches  by  frost  hoary  was  occurred  on A u g u s t  explained  showing  reported  s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of  contiguous.  12R  following  which can.be used  a  site  one  movement  8 on A u g u s t  and  Marmots f a v o u r  measured as  site  of  evidence  sites  were  oxidised crust  decreased  population  The  provides  both  and  wind or  the  an  E),  wind,  oxidised crust  l a r g e sediment  marmot p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s ,  area  an  the  and  had  volumes.  (Appendix  or  t o movement and  o t h e r . At  August  splash  Two  the  were s i n g l e on  flow,  shown by  2R  cascadensis)  with  of  prior  site  overland a  burial  sediment  10 where 3 s t o n e s  troughs.  b e f o r e movement as  moss  9 and  overland  Gerlach  and  has  sites  in recorded  occupy  are  highest  been  on  not the  94  t a l u s and  rock  areas  w h i c h commanded a good  Burrows a r e dug diameter with  or  in areas  where . t h e  of c o a r s e  s m a l l e r r o c k s w h i c h a c t as  have  many  found  t h a t they  field  burrows.  of  steep  slopes  i n one  'auxiliary  this  reason  Only  available:  one  by  burrow'  with  type  excavated from  are  the  of  from  tunnels  the  burrow e n t r a n c e  Sites  9 and  both  on  10 a r e  steep  command a good view of  their  stones  and  stones.  slopes  (32°  soil  relatively  (site few  too  while  the  much  momentum  irregularities.  A similar  scale,  i s seen  Dried ( B e l t z and in  June  on  grass Booth and  talus  July.  and  the  only  120  pushed  was away  They  because  A c a t c h of l a r g e to  pushing  v e g e t a t i o n and an  initial  by m i n o r  effect,  —  and  Soil  drainage  attributed  stopped  sorting  mainly  one  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) which  have good  once g i v e n  be  in  on  a  of  large  impetus,  topographic much  larger  the  burrows  slopes.  and 1952)  to  digging  for burrowing.  28°  surrounding  large stones,  360°  chest.  9 in p a r t i c u l a r ) .  the  burrow  and  and  l o c a t e d on  enlarged.  legs  and  is  —  t h r e e or more e n t r a n c e s  locations  and  fines by  340  4 b u r r o w s dug  f o r e p a w s and  ideal  F i n e s are caught  boulders, have  rocky  a  of  frequently  both  (see F i g 9)  i n 0.85ha  T h e s e were  the h i n d  the  sites  1 or 2 e n t r a n c e s  were  by  Optimal  b u r r o w s were u s u a l l y observation  in 1973)  r e c o r d s 78  8 females.  burrow w i t h  >40cms  (Armitage  supports.  Svendson o b s e r v e d  range o c c u p i e d  labyrinth  are  porous s o i l  (1974)  I80cms l o n g . S l e e p i n g b u r r o w s , w i t h a  rocks  were l o c a t e d where l o o k o u t s had  (21—45°).  is  and  burrow  Svendson  view. For  frequency year  in areas  view.  shoots  are c o l l e c t e d  when f e m a l e s As  the a r e a  are  to l i n e  p a r o u s and  carries  takes  a snowpack u n t i l  place early  95  A u g u s t , compared w i t h J u l y gathering study  area.  several have seal  would This  sites  been the  made  be  expected  timing  the  loosened  trough  were l u s h . The  erosion  implying that  the  surrounding  bedding  same e f f e c t  not  seen  there  remained  luxuriant  throughout  percentage  o r g a n i c matter  collected  on  average  12R,  8%  the  grass  that  sites  when  at  for  14)  the  site  (23% a t  these  site  1,  i m p l y i n g t h a t some m i n e r a l  gathering process. Grain 1,11  and  high yields  14 have  size  anomalous  were r e c o r d e d  maxima  at  to  which  site  2 because  the  season.  The  dates  i s lower  than  14%  at  site  8,  soil  was  data  (Appendix  8 and  may  surrounding  2R  1% a t  loosened  coarse—grained  whilst  for  epoxy u s e d  m a t e r i a l when t h e was  i n the  vegetation  vegetation  the  grass  some s o i l  g a t h e r i n g p r o c e s s . The  killed  as d r y  with  14)  studies,  p l a c e a month l a t e r  coincides  i n the  apron  referenced  to take  (1,2R,8,11,12R and  i t attractive  shrubs  in  do  not  F)  in show  sediment show  this  relationship. Auxiliary quickly are  burrows are  i f a predator  travelled  so  and  could  appears.  was  have l o o s e n e d of  worn a c c r o s s  activity  Marmots c a n n o t  temperatures  exceed  in  sediment  the  can  are devoid  the  be  by  paths  which  of v e g e t a t i o n .  scree around  hopping  reached  along  sites these  9  and  paths  sediment.  temperatures.  show t h a t a v e r a g e  one  They a r e c o n n e c t e d  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t marmots  Cessation  those  so t h a t  f r e q u e n t l y t h a t they  A network of p a t h s 9R  spaced  20°C.  d u r i n g August function  p r o d u c t i o n was  above  Thermohygrograph  maximum t e m p e r a t u r e  valley  on  were u n d o u b t e d l y noted  i s e x p l a i n e d by  at  site  the  ground data ridge  higher. A  high  once  air  (Appendix  M)  as  so  17°C  slight  9 i n September.  rise  This  in was  96  probably  a  result  of  marmot  optimal  hibernation sites  eating  late  reserves  to l a s t  Field these  in  the  observations  areas  were  at  were f u l l y  populated.  times their all at  this  75  and  10  The  upslope  i s impossible  high  locations.  year.  areal  T h i s g i v e s an  i s added by  amount 0.3  Bubnoffs  the  food  would put  rocky  areas  visited yield from  near  during July  was  two  in the only  to  three  a t a l l l o c a t i o n s where  They were o b s e r v e d  and  site  9  on  August  and  o b v i o u s l y d e r i v e d from a  the  trough  can  of  is  pocket  the  1 burrow dug  be  i s small 2  reliably  after  the  estimate  of  sediment  it  was  rationalised  by  marmots  yield of  is  holes  at  163kg/y/km  2  territory i f each  per  burrow  0.4x0.2x1.2m . In a d d i t i o n some 3  of e x i s t i n g  estimate  i n comparison the  of  b a s i s i s made u s i n g  2 females  made f o r s e d i m e n t  for  effect  excavation  per  re—excavation  -5,800kg/km /y  discrepancy habits:  babies  populations  p o p u l a t i o n would be  i s s m a l l e r . Hence an  burrows. T h i s 3,900  marmot  a t e n t a t i v e estimate  assumed t o have d i m e n s i o n s of  this  the  I n t e g r a t i o n on .an a r e a l of  sediment  and  t o have s u f f i c i e n t  Undoubtedly  because  Svendson's e s t i m a t e  or  that  to estimate  transfer.  discontinuously  is  was  seeking  *•  sediment  discrete  trough  2m  to animals  winter.  total  l a r g e sediment  about  installed. It  the  the  dug  order  female a d u l t s assuming  i n f l u e n c e i s suspected.  site  on  show  in  f i g u r e . Marmots were o b s e r v e d  occasions  hole  the  high  population  due  as w e l l as p a r o u s females  season  through  activity  about  the  gopher.  difference  year  although  300kg/km /y 2  production  with Thorn's  pocket  g o p h e r s burrow e v e r y  of  burrows  from marmot  estimates  of  However,  the  in  w h i l s t marmots  burrowing reoccupy  97  the  same b u r r o w s  indefinitely  or  d i g a few s m a l l a u x i l i a r y  to  estimate  realistic  stratum (Table in  variation  initial was  better  of sediment  sampling  was  than  that  both  compare  using  the plane  Table  10 S i t e  I t was n o t p o s s i b l e  trough  data  and  inadequate heather  photograph.  whether from  with  site  the a e r i a l at—a—site  t a b l e map  because  was  The p l a n e  a  interspersed sediment and  14)  earthy  using  t h e map i s  also  how  Reclassification i n Table  This  near  of s i t e s  10. The main  Classification  with  whilst  vegetation. they  they  of  large  boulders  and  As  these  are  active  were mapped a s  photograph.  not  heather  were i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  on t h e a e r i a l  field  1 ,10,1 OR,11,12,12R 2,2R 3,4,6,8,13,13R,13 5,7,9,9R,NI  reclassification  production  spreads  prepared  sampling.  p h o t o g r a p h and data.  the t r e e  t a b l e map  recognition  ( F i g 4) i s shown  Tree 1,8,10,1 OR,11 ,12,12R Grass 2,2R Heather3,4,6 Rock 5,7,9,9R,13,13R,14,NI  is  a  underrepresented  Initial classification Subsequent (from a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h ) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  change  because  estimated.  i n t e n d e d as a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e  analyses  burrows  yield  scheme was  overrepresented  the f i e l d  from  a r e a c o u l d n o t be  2) on t h e a e r i a l  section  ones e a c h y e a r .  transfers  contributing  5.7 S p a t i a l The  sediment  and o n l y e n l a r g e e x i s t i n g  from  A cluster  (sites  rock in  13,13R  r o c k , s c r e e and analysis  was  98  run  to  plane The  test  the  t a b l e map  approach  given  heather,  that  is similar  Variables percentage  homogeneity  used  small  stones  of  samples a t group  the  subjects  and  Soil  grain size  The  of  (sites)  characteristic  equal this  weight. limits  slope angle  the v a l i d i t y  Optimum g r o u p i n g s single  group  then  of  are  the  that  variance within clusters  17)  shows t h a t t h e r e  15 and  16 and  exist.  Sites  distinct scree),  16 and 2 and  stratum, sites  dry  heather  heather three 13)  with  sites but  17  2R,  areas  3,6,8 with  compares  with  between so  that  to  their routine  0  and  they  have e q u a l  and out  1,  have  weight  and  and 13  as  as  two  as  i n such  a  a way  (Fig  i n e r r o r between  steps  NI  5  natural  moss, s t a n d as a n o t h e r trees,  groups out  as  (rock  whilst  subgroups  Table  11  t a b l e map  a  and  sites  representing  (1,4,1 OR,13R,14) and  the plane  six  site  dendrogram  and  (3,6,8). on  The  4 or  grass  some l i t t e r  were m i s c l a s s i f i e d  in  %CGROUP  into clusters  that  5,7,9,9R  stand  comparable  analysis is  d e f i n i n g each  increase  designated  mossy d e p r e s s i o n s  this  UBC  i s minimised.  suggesting  sites  and  similarities  not  by  groups  i s a great  10,11,12,12R  1,4,1 OR,13R,14 and  used  results.  obtained  combining  percentage  p a r a m e t e r s were not  score  do  angle,  water  a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  A l l characteristics  slope  m a t t e r and  e t c ) . The a  the  subjective.  moss,  organic  to  to  on  (1978).  of a c l u s t e r  according  converts  scaling  Bovis  was  o b t a i n i n g uniform  intention  (sine  effectively  identification  percentage  characteristics each  recognised  earth, percentage  difficulty  each s i t e .  strata  t h e a n a l y s i s were s i n e of  litter,  drop p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t . because  field  the  t o t h a t u s e d by  in  percentage  of  shows  that  (1,10R  (1,8,1 OR,13,13R,14)  damp  in  and the  99  Figure 17 D e n d r o g r a m s h o w i n g site classification by cluster  ITEMS  analysis  GROUPED  STEP  10R 13R 3 6 2R 1 14 4 6 2  ERROR  1 0  1  2  3  0  2 3 -  13  19  0  e  20 14  1  1  1411695  e  12 16  1 7  1  2202520 4495328  6  13  18  7  6 1  10 13  15 1 4  16 5 9  12  6  8  1 3  12  15 7  e  9 10  11 14  4  15  16 17 1 S  1 9  6 »  1 1 1  1  1 6.8 7 6 2 3 0  2  1 IC135 1 2 . 4460430 6527042 3 5943394  2.  4 .0 8 8 3 5 7 0 4 7 7  1 18 4  11  2 1 2  2 3 2 5  6  3560423 4337426  30  2e 4 0 5 0 - 0 6335545 8942480 3588648  3  644098  12 5 3 6 6 2 5 12 2  623662  1  II  5 9 9R 12 13 N» 7 1  *  R  100  classification  made  classification  from t h e map  p h o t o g r a p h but t h e r e  from  the  aerial  i s better  is still  a  photograph.  than  that  significant  from  Hence  the a e r i a l  number  of  sites  1 and 10R b e l o n g e d  to the  which a r e m i s c l a s s i f i e d . Of 'dry as  the three  heather'  'tree'.  heather  sites misclassified,  group with  The  intimate  some l i t t e r , mixture  of  i s n o t amenable t o l a r g e  to  stratum  enable  i s not o b v i o u s .  successful the  a quick  at  aerial The  The  plane  and  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Instead,  c o v e r may  be a p p l i e d  table  map  was  ' r o c k and s c r e e  in  the  correct  much  ' sites  more  than  was  photograph. analysis  also  shows  (2,2R,9,9R,10,1 OR,12,12R,13,13R) similarity.  For  categories  example,  10  and d i d n o t j o i n similar,  joining  demonstrates  a  suggests  a smaller  that  efficient. replicate  boulders  s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n where t h e  differentiating  cluster  were v e r y  13 was c l a s s i f i e d  krummholz,  scale  some c r i t e r i o n , s u c h a s 55% l i t t e r field  whilst  great  Also sites  that  variedand  10R  replicate  in  their  fell  into  degree  deal  the of  sampling  there  should  t o ensure  that  first  grouping  variability unit  then  be a mechanism they  do not  2  2 arid 2R  step.  within 10m  of  different  u n t i l t h e 18th s t e p w h i l s t  in  sites  This  s i t e s and  may  be  more  for scrutinising  straddle  vegetation  boundaries. A shows 'rock  comparison that  s i t e s with  and  group. marmots.  of s e d i m e n t  scree'  This An  is F  yields  the h i g h e s t  yields  s t r a t u m but t h a t probably  statistic  because was  f o r the d i f f e r e n t are  not  a l l in  some a r e i n t h e t r e e dry  tree  calculated  islands  to test  clusters the  island attract  whether t h e  101  groups  recognised  different  means.  significantly  Table  in  11  the  Table  T R E E  Stratum R 0 C K  1 0 1 1 1 2 1 2R 1 3  Total Mean  shows  that  3 6 8  0 .3594 0 . 1 373  17.0278 3.4056  stratum H1 E A T H E R  2 2R  1 ..6102 3 .5460 55 .9416 1 .0691 25 .0723  CATEGORY MEANS 4 WITHIN 15  to test G R A S S  5 NI 9 7 9R  D.F  justifies  11  analysis  that  statistic  87 .2392 1 7.4478  the  strongest  4.2365 0.0440 0.4426 0.5371 0.4664  0.4967 0.2454  SUM OF SQUARES  0.5061 0.1847  MEAN SQUARES  Grand  VALUE 5.32  in future  sampling  designs.  was r u n on t h e same d a t a t o factors  successful.  correlations  5.7266 1 . 1453 F  823 1 55  between d i f f e r e n t  artificially  This  homogeneity  0. 0565 0. 2104 0. 2332  A p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s  grouping  t h e 95% v a l u e .  vary  4 1 1 OR 1 4 1 3R  3292 2321  correlations  significantly  H2 E A T H E R  use of t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  identify  had  some s t r a t a means  as t h e i r F r a t i o i s more t h a n  F statistic  6.9653 8.0151 0.2223 1.3645 0.4546  cluster  occur  w h i c h made t h e  Appendix  Q  between p e r c e n t a g e  shows moss  102  and  sine  of  slope  repellency  and  correlations  angle, moss  were  repellency  are  total  i n the  error  between still  was  correlated  table but  that  heather  to  will there  be  Replicate  sites  vegetation  strata.  Many s t u d i e s important  demonstrates is  the  a  lot  individually. regressed the  on  e f f e c t of  performed  from  degree the  independent  very  valid. and soil  and  However,  a R  the  moss  and  shows of  than  from  application not  useful  show t h a t factors  total  bare  of  bare  sediment  S)  multiple  variable  soil  litter  two  the  the  two  soil  and  sine  on  (Appendix total the  equation 1954)  between  and  and was  the  highly  plane  photograph the  field  estimate.  intimately  angle loss. on  E)  to  d e g r e e of  are  soil  the 18  loss.  are  taken  slope  were  investigate caught  was  statistical indicating  estimated  observed value  0.6374. The  mixed  Figure  factors of  two  quick  cover  sediment  the  are soil  the  aerial  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , R,  (Ostle  is  from  factors  when  jump  angle.  slope soil  low  total  it  useful  and  investigate  linear association  regression  55%  caught  factors to  the  b e c a u s e of  these  scatter  t h e s e two  a  A  influencing  influence of  of  water  clusters  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between islands.  the  error  test  slope  more a c c u r a t e  are  the  that  selection  tree  All  and  the  so  second  sine  water  cause a r t i f i c i a l l y  large  In  App  that  may  slope,  %litter.  site  Percentage  The of  was  and  seems and  and  that  (Appendix  explanation. the  be  and  would be  There  17  i s a problem  strata  It  indices  a l l suggest  criterion  most  and  with %bare  map  soil  cluster analysis.  included  These data  repellency  %bare  inverse.  16  considered  erosion  and  similar  steps  water  value of  the  c o e f f i c i e n t of  Fig  18 The r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  sediment movement,  s l o p e and v e g e t a t i o n 0.7  0.6'J  0.5  0.4  • IOR  •8  ,l?R.  . rvi  .10  .5 • ? •I2.R  0.3^  CD  c •H  tn  0.2 0  0.5  1 5 10 Sediment movement (grams)  50  • NX  100-1  80J IK  60 •5  •H  O CO  40  0)  20'J  UK.  0.2  0.5  J  10'II  10 Sediment movement  (grams)  50  1 04  determination the and  total  ( R ) was 2  sum  0.4063. R  2  indicates  of squares e x p l a i n e d  level. the bare  5.8166, R  2  is significant  ground  and  for  table  a  a p p r o a c h were  map  level. slope  an  a t t h e 5% l e v e l  F  test.  angle  detailed  would  adopted.  would  design  supply  field  of  but  provide one  is valid  F  at  of p e r c e n t a g e  an  alternative  which  examination.  the necessary  The  b u t n o t a t t h e 1%  Hence a r e a l measurement  sampling  implemented without plane  with  and i t s a s s o c i a t e d d e g r e e of e x p l a n a t i o n ,  95% c o n f i d e n c e  approach  proportion  by t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n  c a n be t e s t e d f o r a Type I e r r o r  value,  the  cannot  However,  information  be the  i f this  105  CHAPTER 6.  6.1  The  sediment  In wind,  sediment  season of  wind and Table  of  show t h a t  needle  whole  estimates  apart  only  gravity indeed  b u r r o w s a r e dug study  which  stones  up  capable  to  200g' a r e  in stony, well watershed  inferred  particles  a t most and  Lower L a k e .  may  the  season  erosion  is  probably  this  5.5  so  As  frequency the  sites, over  based  on  only  agent  sediment  >2cm  regularly  outlet  t h e p a t t e r n of  turbulent sediment  moved  displaced  flow  attributed  transported  yields  stream  accumulation  overland  mass b a l a n c e and  sediment  within  as  except  a t snowmelt. O v e r l a n d  f o r sediment  dustfall  shows t h a t  assertion.  from  demonstrate  0.15B  of moving  does not have an  account  However, no  during  Section  sites  in  drained areas.  when t h e Lower Lake o v e r f l o w s b r i e f l y is  given  o r 0.015B a l t h o u g h  burrowing  is  one  production  r e p o r t s a r e u n r e l i a b l e . Marmots a r e  —  The  per year  from  rock/scree  sediment  2  the  splash/wash,  measurements  of t h e  of  important  are  2  0.3g/m and  most  300kg/km /y or  of b a s i n ) a v e r a g e is  the  statistics  occupancy  splash,  components  f o l l o w e d by  field  of moving  of p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y  from  diameter  10%  basin  literature  sites  integrated  full  as  Preliminary results  i c e . Summary e r o s i o n  Assuming  overland flow,  are l o c a l l y  individual  marmots a r e c a p a b l e  (approximately  agents,  alpine.  animals  Spatially  ranges.  five  were c o n s i d e r e d  the  erosion at  12.  their  the  animals  budget  agents  that  and  RECOMMENDATIONS  budget  the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r  frost  field  CONCLUSIONS AND  by  grain  are  tracer  around  was  to  flow  the  observed  o v e r l a n d flow overland  size  data  generally  a  flow. support little  1 06  coarser  than  vegetation. bare of  dustfall  the  finest  Rainsplash i s l o c a l l y  soil  upon  randomly  selected,  spreads  occupy a p p r o x i m a t e l y  spatially  rainfall  integrated  subjectively  chosen  a much h i g h e r the  to  Overland  flow  displaced  tracer  Table  of  the  study  However,  distribution  maximum s i z e and  site  so the of  a t most  7,  area,  which  which  were  As  earthy  this  gives a  NI,  which  was  showed  not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e tabulated figure  rainsplash  sites  by  spreads  ice a c t i v i t y ,  i t was  evaluation  inferred  from  is  erosion.  t h e p a t t e r n of  particles.  12 The  sediment  budget  kg/km" /year 2  or  of t h e  study  2g/m /year  Wind a c c u m u l a t i o n  4B  sediment  to t r a n s f e r  from  bulk  samplers  a r e added e a c h average  as  (from  because  i t i s not  0.44  summer t o t h e  the h i g h e r  -  soil.  figure  rock  soil)  concerned  only  b a s i n : i t has  the  across drainage  show t h a t  a  '  w i t h i n the d r a i n a g e  sediment  area  assuming  2  0.015-0.15B 0.4B 0.2-2B 0.16-0.46B  of  earthy  0.16-0.46B. S i t e  'ideal'  trapped  respectively.  example of n e e d l e  fair  capability  reasonable  B  be  size  5  Animals Wind(summer) Snowpack Splash  transfer  sediment  2%  d e p o s i t i o n i s unique  the  Sites  23  of  yield. an  a  was  1 Bubnoff=2,000 d e n s i t y of 2.  Wind  as an  but  be  8 and  figure  sediment  stratum  considered  the g r a i n  intensity.  yield  may  on  w h i c h shows a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  depends  with  important  of v e g e t a t i o n . T h i s i s shown by  splashed  of  particles  divides.  2.8g/m  2  0.75g/m  Results  (0.4-1.4B) of 2  i s for a s i t e  (0.4B) i s a located  in  107  the middle the  of a source  snowpack;  These  this  The  i n p u t o f 1—5g/m  soil  accumulation reasonable  profiles  of e o l i a n soil  fraction  described  m a t e r i a l over  profile  depth,  and b o u l d e r s  be  ascribed  (T.  Gallie  there  an  slightly  2  calculated  10,000  from  been  accumulation  than  of  i fpre—existing  bulk  about  8g/year  current accumulation  10—40cms A  pits, i s  i s a s h and 25—30%  an a c c u m u l a t i o n -  a  years.  7 soil  30% o f t h e ' l o e s s '  since deglaciation  annual  higher  has  giving  show  of  gravel i s  capping  can  d e n s i t y i s 1.1  p e r s o n a l communication) because of the  1.1x7xl00xl00g/m gives  9  the past  t o wind d e p o s i t i o n . An a v e r a g e  so  (0.2—2B).  section)  Table  33% o f t h i s  30% o n l y about  by  (0.5—2.5B).  in  <2mm i s o r g a n i c . Hence,  10%  content,  per year  stored  per year  2  ( s e e next  2  cms. However, a p p r o x i m a t e l y  the  material i s  c o n t r i b u t e s 0.4 — 4g/m  f i g u r e s a r e low e s t i m a t e s  minimum e o l i a n  20  a r e a . In a d d i t i o n  high  organic  of approximately 77,000g/m . 2  (or  This  4B)  which i s  rates i f the  snowpack  measurements a r e v a l i d . These results  disparate  when v i e w e d  deposition,  which  estimates  is  at 1 — 6  sediment  budget  influence  but a l i m i t e d  the  snow d a t a )  activity).  assumed  g/m /y 2  than  based  process  give  a s components o f t h e s e d i m e n t  watershed  preliminary,  of  do  animals of  contributes  activity.  more  r a t h e r than  The samples  field  Wind  t h e whole t o the  w h i c h have a d r a m a t i c  on a few and u n r e l i a b l e  and l i t e r a t u r e  budget.  t o a c t u n i f o r m l y over  (0.5—3B)  sphere  interesting  results  local are  (especially  survey  (animal  108  6.2  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of t h e f i e l d As  to  this  study l a s t e d  only  one  a s s e s s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s  conclusions  from  recorded during Pemberton used.  so  t h e summer  I t i s 25km from  calculated  from  The  the maximum  thereafter.  record  ranging  is  of  the  1982  season  at  the at A l t a  drawing  d a t a were not  BCFS  station  Lake  at  (660m) were  site. and  minimum  temperatures  summary d a t a up t o 1970  Three  when  Climatic  station  qualifications  different  moved  i n 1976.  length  There  was  o f 200m i n d i s t a n c e . The  d a t a were u n a f f e c t e d  by  3. Data  f o r 1976  Average  v a l u e s a r e shown  the  AES  kindly  1981  data  from  totals  of  i t i s important  and  from  were annual  are necessary:—  for  different  months,  26 — 29 y e a r s .  site  and a s h i f t  of  the study  from t h e AES  statistics 1. The  from  f i e l d season  measurements.  r e c o r d s from t h e  Averages  2.  field  season  are  this  an e l e v a t i o n  AES  change o f  recommend  that  9m  their  move.  are m i s s i n g . i n F i g 18 t o g e t h e r w i t h  provided before publication.  t h e mean  shown  values  are  also  1981  data  Deviations  tabulated.  i n F i g 19 f o r t h e e n t i r e  record  which of  the  Rainfall  averaged f o r  1981. The that  temperature  1981  value,  a  had  a cool  warm  and  O c t o b e r . August single ever  storm  which  is  not  rainfall  June  statistics  with p r e c i p i t a t i o n  dry August  received  recorded at A l t a It  and  2/3  of  and  a cool  lake  possible  double  and  its rainfall  gave t h e h i g h e s t  t a k e n t o g e t h e r show  August  the  average  exceptionally  on  the  24hr  31st  in  wet a  precipitation  i n August. to  extrapolate  precipitation  and  109  f i g u r e 19 Alta  Lake Climatic  Data  Temperature  Rainfall 250  200  June  July  Aug  Sept  1981  J  Mean  Oc'i  1  June  July  A  u  g  S  e  p  t  0  c  t  110  temperature watershed.  data  reliably  However,  i t i s useful  o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g Coast Mountain fairly  high  damp June the until  Alta  Lake  t o combine  the f i e l d  temperatures  at  (Snow S u r v e y  resulted  high  mid — J u l y .  in relatively  elevations  August  report). little  so t h e g r o u n d  and J u l y  20.  A l l subsequent  precipitation  and  exceptionally  high  melt  under  stated  resulted 12 days  that  of c l e a r  September  fell  20  However,  ablation  31  and  cool, during  from  September  temperatures  September  70cms snow a c c u m u l a t i o n w h i c h sky c o n d i t i o n s . is  of  was n o t u n c o v e r e d  a s snow. Low  precipitation  in  o f a month  were b o t h m a i n l y d r y and warm.  r a i n s t o r m s were r e c o r d e d between August  10  seasonal trends with  because  Five  October  t o the study area  s e a s o n . A t t h e end o f May t h e  snowpack was below a v e r a g e  weather  month  from  Pemberton  exceptionally  early  25  to  d i d not  residents f o r winter  snowpack a c c u m u l a t i o n t o s t a r t . The 1.  probable e f f e c t  Overestimate  because  of d r y d u s t y  2. U n d e r e s t i m a t e during  wind  September  of t h e s e a s o n erosion  and  on my r e s u l t s deposition  i sto:—  during  August  conditions.  splash  erosion  because  and e r o s i o n  of the s m a l l  due t o o v e r l a n d f l o w  number and m a g n i t u d e o f  rainstorms. 3. U n d e r e s t i m a t e September  needle  iceactivity  onwards p r o t e c t e d  because  the ground  from  snow c o v e r frost.  from  20  111  6.3  Assessment  The  data  falsification In in  of t h e  the  that  of  the  first  budget.  reviewed  in  This  rather  is  tephra be  deposited  unreliable  inferred  splash  windblown m a t e r i a l The of  dominant spatial  earthy agent  Animals,  basis,  less  either  wind or  hypothesis is  splash/wash, The  at  important  sediment  the  by  of  at  of  to t h i s  falsified.  A  animals,  are,  ice,  more  needle  hypothesis  12  on  the  soil  deposits  by  calibre  of  of  splash  inference largely  the  is  the  that  the  than  a spatially sediment  are  flow  shows  from  reworked  analysis  (0.16—0.46B) i s l e s s  components of  needle  be  of  effect  by  (Table  accumulation  burial  splash/overland  0.015—0.15B  ranking  net  and  The  least  budget  wind  amount  S p l a s h may  where  splash  the  troughs.  s p l a s h / o v e r l a n d flow  second  s i n g l e most  s e d i m e n t movement. T a b l e  significance  wind.  order  of  from  only exception  spread  13.  important  the  Reworking  data.  literature  tabulated in Table  i s undergoing  areas,  trough  from  the  is  i n the G e r l a c h  in vegetated  wind,  different  confirmed  layers.  1.7).  movement shows v e r y  integrated  finding  or  as components of  inferred  values are  basin  (section  i c e , wash, s p l a s h and  was  surficial  confirmation  hypotheses  were c i t e d  deposition  erosion, a  negligible  areas  and  spatially  f l o w can  material  of  enable  needle  ranking 1  Wind  and  overland  The  i m p l i e s t h a t the  than  horizons  initial  importance,  review  of t h e  above  hypothesis  chapter  relationships.  12).  three  of  sediment  However, t h i s  hypotheses  presented  order  component  initial  t h a t of  integrated  budget  than  ( 0 . 1 6 — 0 . 4 6 ) . Hence t h e  first  wash/splash  accurate  and  wind  in that  ranking  is  wind,  ice. is  confirmed  as  slope angle  and  %  1 12  bare The is  soil degree  peak not  was  in  initially fall  s e e n a t any sediment  to  t h e s e two  Sediment  of sediment  by  affected  production  September.  slows d u r i n g  was  t h e domitiant a t — a — s i t e p r o c e s s e s .  6.4  Comparison  of t h e r e s u l t s  estimates 1967)  t o 90 -  estimates streams load). which Hence  of  only  5  is site  that  alpine  areas  large  volumes  of  sediment.  from  —  40 — 200  l960)(Table  from measurements near export  production  falsified  notes  (Fournier  21  high  sediment  from t h e a l p i n e This  zone  drains yields but  have  Bubnoff  Regional (Strakhoff  However,  local  the study s i t e  show t h a t  alpine  B  (both suspended  (Slaymaker in glaciated  internal  b a s i n s a r e e x t r e m e l y low and  that  been  13).  from v a l l e y  s t u d y shows t h a t  as  specific  and  dissolved  T h i s compares w i t h 487B f o r t h e l o w l a n d L i l l o o e t the study s i t e  in  with other data  d e n u d a t i o n range 2000  was  probably a response to  d e p e n d s on  as y i e l d i n g  spells  showed a c o n t i n u o u s  and  characterised  was  These  and  temporal v a r i a b i l i t y  (1977)  would  August  the  Slaymaker  2  This pattern  hypothesis i s also  of sediment  (r )  peaks  However, many s i t e s  Thus t h e t h i r d  factors  on u n v e g e t a t e d s i t e s  movement w h i c h  loss.  by marmots showed two  as a c t i v i t y  production  soil  level.  sediment  in July/early  rainfall.  deposition.  loss  to needle i c e a c t i v i t y .  Sites  production  influencing  that  t o marmot m e t a b o l i s m  background wind  due  factors  a t t h e 95%  proposed  site.  warm w e a t h e r .  response  of s o i l  is significant  the  correspond of  as major  of e x p l a n a t i o n  41% w h i c h It  of  are i d e n t i f i e d  and  river  McPherson  a r e a s may  to  1977).  not  originate  transfers  in alpine  erosion. sediment  eolian  deposition  over  the  Table (All  13 E s t i m a t e s  i n Bubnoffs  Regional  2  river)  rivers)  scale(fractional  7-21  plots)  Badlands Sandstone (Campbell)Shale Subsurface pipes Shale(steep) S i d e r i t e capped A l l u v i a l fans  17,300 540 540 2,835 182 3,196  (Pearce)  Process  2  40->200 184-770 90-2,000 1,000 487  Coast mountains(Slaymaker) - s u b a l p i n e system Small  transfers  1 Bubnof f = 2 , OOOkg/kirr / y o r 2g/m )  (from r i v e r s ) Strakhov Corbel Fournier Young Slaymaker ( L i l l o o e t  Local(from  of sediment  0.6-1.4  Alpine (Bovis)  T u n d r a meadow Dry a l p i n e tundra Average  (Thorn) (Jones)  Snowpatch A l p i n e tundra  ) )  7-80 40 4,600 0.2-4  estimates  N e e d l e i c e ( M a c k a y and Matthews) Wind d e p o s i t i o n ( C a i n e ) Animals - pocket gophers(Thorn) earthworms p r a i r i e dogs ground s q u i r r e l s moles  whole  basin  i s more  fluxes  recorded  than  sufficient  i n the Gerlach  erosion  is  taking  transfer  registered  troughs.  p l a c e . The slow i n areas  3,400 4 2-3 1-2 0.5-1 1 1  t o account Net  f o r sediment  accumulation,  r a t e s of downslope  of spaghnum/grass/shrub  not  sediment  vegetation  11 4  indicate at of  a  t h a t sediment  decreasing  slowing  r a t e as  transfers  appropriate  the  with  other  sediment  order  of  Overall,  —  effect  of n e e d l e  6.4  are  those areas  exporting  plots  area  from  13)  are  low  Individual  lower  than  those  ice in this  area  was  study  watershed  12  and  by  Front  an  Range.  of  sediment  are  given in  and  by the  previously reported.  B are  for  be  show t h a t  estimates  negligible  0.015—0.15  not  lower  rates  process  pattern  (Tables  the C o l o r a d o  show  The  sediment.  (Table  mountains  travels  may  f o r temperate badlands  13).  at  floor. floor  fluxes in this  with Thorn's e s t i m a t e s  Further  The  estimates  very c o n s e r v a t i v e in  pocket  gophers  i s comparable with  (2-3B). Caine's  research  original  appropriate indicating  areas as  indicates  an  loss.  o b j e c t i v e of  sampling  snowpack  a  of  sediment  study  for  which  source  The  five  clusters  highest  sediment y i e l d and  which  could for  in section  sampling  should  a l s o had  highest  tree islands  was  to  further  appropriate research design  within  areas  this  design  interest  strata  rock  valley  sides  (4B).  The  soil  also  e r o s i o n , i n the  figure  the  the Coast  rates  erosion,  comparison  the v a l l e y  fractional  alpine  (1974) ( T a b l e  marmot  from  than  maximum  area  Wind  sediment  data  from  study  of  of  f l u x e s from  data  Campbell  towards  magnitude  movement  i t nears  the v a l l e y  f o r watersheds with a stream  A comparison 13)  t r a n s p o r t e d over  be  indicate  study. explored  example —  the  for further 5.6  comprise  take  s h o u l d have most  Besides —  the  study  also  studies  sites  of  homogeneous  p l a c e . Those  variations.  an  with  Scree in order  and to  115  make  an  estimate  desirable the  to  of  the  variance.  b u i l d i n t o the  l a r g e marmot p o p u l a t i o n  site  design  employed  Instead,  (quadrats  smaller  selected  only  replicates  sampling within  Eolian  deposition  spatially  integrated  unexpected  and  conclusion. deserves  The  reflects  Gambier  snowpack Neoglacial  of  formulation  of  that  budget  initial  the  at  not  the  useful.  duplicates  should  prevent  component  This  in  quartz  the  conclusion  was  confirm  nearby  sediment  of  the  load  is  unknown:  with  framework p r o v e d  at its  rather  outwash  sediment  the  storing  diorite-  together  hypotheses which  of  to  sediment  only  that  strata.  snowpack  This,  sampling  that  and  This  required  eolian  not  used  redistribution  rocks.  moraines are sediment  is  for  were  important  regional  suggests  be  budget.  the  does  the  group  load,  The  as  Provenance  mineralogy  most  research of  shows  strata.  vegetation  sediment  role  attention  snowmelt.  local  more  should  vegetation  i s the  study  extremely  (1978) w r i t e s  duplicates  2  be  some p r o v i s i o n  This  10m ) units  s t r a d d l i n g two  would  adequately. Bovis  replication is a necessity.  scale  It  than  the  large  plains  and  source.  valuable.  directed  It  the  enabled sampling  scheme. I t a l s o e n a b l e d a r e a l l y a v e r a g e d e s t i m a t e s of p r o c e s s be  compared.  sediment needle eolian  Inclusion  a v a r i e t y of  movement which might ice  and  overland  processes.  objective transfer, studies.  of  sampling a  design,  perspective  showed  o t h e r w i s e have been a t t r i b u t e d  flow,  Hence the  processes  was  budget also  a t t r i b u t e d to structure,  besides  gave a h o l i s t i c  lacking  rainsplash aiding  view of  to  that to and an  sediment  i n many s i n g l e p r o c e s s  biased  11 6  Bibliography (AES)Atmospheric Environment Monthly r e c o r d . M e t e o r o l o g i c a l  Service (Environment o b s e r v a t i o n s i n Western  Canada) Canada.  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S m a l l e y , I . , 1966, The p r o p e r t i e s o f g l a c i a l l o e s s and f o r m a t i o n of l o e s s d e p o s i t s : J o f Sed P e t , 36, pp669-676. Snow Survey Environment, Soons, growth  Bulletin BC  (British  Columbia)  J.M. and G r e e n l a n d , D.E., o f n e e d l e i c e : Water R e s o u r c e s  Ministry  of  the  1970, O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e Res, 6, pp579—623.  Soons, J.M. and Rayner, J.N., 1968, M i c r o climate and erosion processes i n the Southern Alps, New Z e a l a n d : Geog Ann, 50A, pp1-15. S p a l d i n g , J . B . , 1979, The e o l i a n e c o l o g y of White M o u n t a i n Peak, C a l i f o r n i a : windblown i n s e c t f a u n a : A r c t i c a n d A l p i n e Res, 11,  1 24  pp83-94. Strakhoff, b u r e a u , New  N.M., York.  1967,  Principles  of l i t h o g e n e s i s ,  Consultants  S v e n d s o n , G.E., 1974, B e h a v i o u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l factors in the spatial distribution and p o p u l a t i o n dynamics of a y e l l o w — b e l l i e d marmot: p o p u l a t i o n . J E c o l o g y , 55, pp760-771. Syers, J . , Jackson, M.L. and B e r k h e i s e r , V.E, 1969, Eolian sediment influence on p e d o g e n e s i s d u r i n g the Q u a t e r n a r y : S o i 1 S c i e n c e , 107, pp42l-429. T h o r n , C.E., 1976, Q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of nivation in C o l o r a d o F r o n t Range: G e o l Soc Am B u l l , 87, p p l 1 6 9 - 1 1 7 8 .  the  Thorn, C.E., 1978, A p r e l i m i n a r y assessment of the geomorphic r o l e of p o c k e t g o p h e r s i n t h e a l p i n e zone o f t h e C o l o r a d o Front Range: Geog Ann, 60A, pp181—187. Thorn, C.E., 1979, Ground t e m p e r a t u r e s i n c o l l u v i u m d u r i n g snowpatch meltout: A r c t i c and A l p i n e Res, 11, pp41—52. Thorp, J . , 1949, E f f e c t s of c e r t a i n S c i . M o n t h l y , 68, p p l 8 0 - l 9 l .  and s u r f i c i a l t r a n s p o r t Colorado Front Range:  animals  that  live  in  soils:  Tyler, P.S.A., 1979, S l o p e d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e m o r a i n e s of t h e F i n d e l e n g l a c i e r , Z e r m a t t , S w i t z e r l a n d , BA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Cambridge. van Doren, C.A. and Bartelli, L.J., 1956, f o r e c a s t i n g s o i l l o s s : A g r i c Enq, 37, pp335—341.  A  method  of  van Ryswyck, A.L. and Okazaki, R., 1979, Genesis and classification of modal s u b a l p i n e and a l p i n e s o i l pedons of s o u t h c e n t r a l BC Canada: A r c t i c and A l p i n e , 11, pp53—67. Walsh P.R. and F a s c h i n g , J . L . 1976, L o s s e s of a r s e n i c d u r i n g the low t e m p e r a t u r e a s h i n g of a t m o s p h e r i c p a r t i c u l a t e s a m p l e s : Anal Chem, 48, pp1012—1014. Woo, M.K. and S l a y m a k e r , H.O., 1975, A l p i n e s t r e a m f l o w r e s p o n s e to variable snowpack t h i c k n e s s and extent: Geog Ann, 3, pp20l-212. Woodruff, equation:  N.P. and Siddoway, F.H., 1965, P r o c S o i l S c i Soc Am, 29, pp602-608.  W o o l d r i d g e , S.W. and L i n t o n , D.L. d r a i n a g e i n S o u t h E a s t E n g l a n d , G.  A  wind  erosion  1955, Structure, surface P h i l i p , L o n d o n . I76p.  and  Woolhiser, D.A., Hanson, C.L. and Kuhlman, A.R., 1970, O v e r l a n d flow on rangeland watersheds: J H y d r o l o g y (New Z e a l a n d ) , 9, pp336-356.  125  Yair, A., 1974, S o u r c e s of r u n o f f and s e d i m e n t s u p p l i e d by t h e s l o p e s of a 1st o r d e r d r a i n a g e basin i n an arid environment (Northern Negev, Israel: G e o m o r p h o l o g i s c h e p r o z e s s e und prozesscombinationen i n d e r qeqenwart u n t e r v e r s c i e d e n Rlimabeqingungen, I.G.U. Commission report on present day p r o c e s s e s ed H. P o s e r . Yoon, Y.N. and W e n z e l , H.G., 1971, M e c h a n i c s of s h e e t f l o w simulated rainfall: P r o c Am Soc C i v Eng J Hydr D i v , ppl367-1386. Z i n g g , H.W., 1940, Degree and l e n g t h of l a n d s l o p e as s o i l l o s s i n r u n o f f : Aq Eng, 21, pp59—64.  under 9,  i t affects  Appendix  A  Slope  angles  Site  Slope  Sin  1 2 2R 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 10 1 OR 1 1 1 2 1 2R 1 3 1 3R 1 4 NI  16° 15° 17° 13° 29° 20° 12° 18° 27° 32° 39° 28° 29° 37° 30° 17° 21 ° 24° 27° 23°  0.27 0.25 0.29 0.22 0.48 0.34 0.21 0.31 0.45 0.53 0.63 0.47 0.48 0.61 0.50 0.29 0.36 0.41 0.45 0.39  6  127  Appendix  B  Soil  organic  matter  500g (approx) s o i l samples from e a c h s i t e were t a k e n from the A h o r i z o n . % o r g a n i c matter by weight was determined by a s h i n g i n a m u f f l e f u r n a c e a t 500°C f o r 2 h o u r s . Site 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 1 0 1 1 12 1 3 1 3R 14 NI  mi s s i n g 16 missing 1 7 10 3 3 missing 5 5 1 1 7 1 1 13 7 10 9  128  Appendix  C  Water  Repellency  Undisturbed samples from the s u r f a c e l a y e r were-taken a t e a c h s a m p l i n g s i t e and a i r d r i e d . T h i s was easily achieved at sites with a t u r f y s u r f a c e , d i f f i c u l t where t h e r e was a l i t t e r c o v e r and a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e where t h e g r o u n d was b a r e . The q u i c k e s t and s i m p l e s t t e s t f o r water r e p e l l e n c y i s t h e water drop penetration test (WDPT) w h i c h e n t a i l s t i m i n g t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n o f s m a l l water d r o p s . Debano (1981) suggests that soils be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o L e t e y e t a l ( l 9 7 5 ) s u c h t h a t a v a l u e o f >10mins i n d i c a t e s a h i g h l y water repellent soil, a value of 1—lOmins moderate water r e p e l l e n c y , 0.1—1 s l i g h t water r e p e l l e n c y and s o i l <0.1 mins i s w e t t a b l e .  Site  Av o f 5 d r o p s (mins)  Individual v a l u e s (mins)  1 2 a n d 2R 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 1 0 1 OR 1 1 1 2 1 2R 1 3 1 3R 1 4 NI  2.4 4 5.3 2.6 0 3 3.3 10 + 1 .9 10 + 1 .7 0.4 3. 1 10 + 10 + 10 + 1 1 0  0,1,3,2,3,3. 2,3,4.5,6,6.5,7,8. 0,0,0,0,0. 0.25,0.3,0.25,0.15,0.25 1 .33, 1 .75,0.5,10,3. 4,8,8,10+,10+. 0.5,1,2,2,4. 10+,10+,10+,10+,10+. 3,1.5,1.5,1.25,0.25,2.5. 0.25,0.3,0.5,0.7,0.15. 1 •5j2«5jr3^4'j4»5»  10+,10+,10+,10+,10+. 5,5,6,10+,10+. 1,2,3,10+,10+. 2.5,1.05,0.7,0.75,0. 1 . 0.1,0.7,1,1,2. 0,0,0,0,0.  Appendix Site 1 2 3 4 5  6  7 8 9 9R 10 1 OR 1 1 12 1 2R 1 3 1 3R 1 4 NI  2 4 5 6 1 4 NI  D  Snow c o v e r Date s i t e s snowfree 1 10 24 16 28 1 7 2 14 5  6  5 5 5 6 6 12 12 15 • 1  July July July July July July August July July July July July July July July July July July August  Snowdepth 17 June (metres) 1 .0 1 .75 1 .75 1 .6 2. 0 2. 6  data Date t r o u g h installed 1 17 3 17 3 22 2 15 5 6 5 5 5  6 6  14 14 16 3  July July August July August July August July July July July July July July July July July July August  1 30  Appendix  E  Sediment  collected  in Gerlach  troughs  The p r o p o r t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r c a u g h t on filter papers could not be e s t i m a t e d . At s i t e s 2 and 2R v e r y l i t t l e o r g a n i c m a t t e r was c o l l e c t e d a n d i t was mostly processed on filter papers. Hence no meaningful d e t e r m i n a t i o n of o r g a n i c c o n t e n t c o u l d be made f o r samples c o l l e c t e d a t t h e s e two s i t e s . D a t a f o r s i t e 4 were s c a n t y b e c a u s e o f r e p e a t e d marmot attacks to the t r o u g h d u r i n g t h e s e a s o n . The f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s a r e u s e d : 14J = 14 J u l y 19J = 19 J u l y 4A = 4 August 29A = 29 A u g u s t 1 September IS = 7S = 7 September 15S = 15 September 25S = 25 September 140 = 1 4 O c t o b e r • marmot d i s t u r b a n c e All  weights  Site 1 DATE 19J 4A 29A+1S 7S+15S 25S 140 Total Site 19J 4A  are given ORGANIC 0.03967 3.1490 0.6866 0.3577 0.0060 4.3017 8.8977  i n grams MINERAL 0.1106 3.8924 0.0894 0.0940 0.0092 0.0409 4.2365  2 0.0041 0.0171  7S 15S  0.0088 0.0527  140 Total  0.2767 0.3594  S i t e 2R 19J 4A IS7S Total  0.0016 0.1071 0.0266 0.0020 0.1373  Site 3 IS 7S 15S Total  1.8868 0.0696 1.9564  0.0469 0.0069 0.0027 0.0565  ORGANIC(%) 78 45 88 80 61 99 68  131  Site 4 1 5S 150 Total  0.1170  0.0055 0.0385 0.0440  Site 5 1S 7S+15S 1 50 Total  0. 1834 0.0090 0.0464 0.2388  0.9860 0.3113 0.3127 1.6102  16 3 1 3 13  Site 6 2 9A 1S 7S 1 5S 1 40 Total  0.0800 0.3573 30.0028 0.0034 0.6457 1.0864  0.0371 0.1634  68 69  0.1388* 0.0299 0.2332  2 96 82  Site 7 29A+1S 1 6S 1 50 Total  0.0242 0.0540 0.0431 0.1213  0.3435 0.5592 0.1674 1.0691  7 8 20 1 0  0. 1876 0.3391 0.9354 0.5664  0.0379 0.0961  39 78  0.0131 0.0114 0.0071 0.0448 0.2104  99  Site 8 1 9J 4A 29A 1S . 7S 1 5S 1 40 Total Site 1 9J 4A 29A  93 57 92  9 0.5203 0.6191 2.3925  1S 7S 1 5S 25S Total Site 1 5J 1 9J 4A 29A 1S 7S 1 5S 25S  0.2621 0.0590 2.3496  0.9266 0.7927 0.7939 26.0451  11.0000 14.3285 5.3778 (+126.5639) 3.4938 0.2221 20.4705 1.0489 55.9416 (+126.5639)  5 4 31 21 4 43 1 0  9R  1.1896 0.8653 2.5104 0.0054 1.0823 0.5710  0.2224 0.1627 3.8197 1.4656 16.6485 0.0399 1.7687 0.9448  24 37 13 1 2 38 38  132  Total Site HJ  6.2240  25.0723  20  10  19J 4A 29A  1.0080 0.2223 0.2425  1S 7S 1 5S 1 50 Total  0.0629  S i t e 10R 19J 4A 29A 1S 7S 1 5S 25S 1 50 Total S i t e -1 1 1 4J 1 9J 4A 2 9A 1S 7S 1 5S 25S 1 50 Total S i t e 12 1 4J 1 9J 4A 1S 7S 1 5S 1 40 Total S i t e 12R 20J 4A 1S 7S 140 Total  0.0213 2.5535  0.1000 1 .2635 0.3116 1 .2034 0.0415 0.9365 3.8556 0.1745 4.0954 0.6568 0.6927 0.595 4.5352 10.2141 1 .2001 9.1901 0.9049 4.8469 12.0177 9.7955 36.9553  0.7459 3.4465 missing 0.3892 1.9249 6.5065  0.0634* (+171.682) 1.9812 2.0901 0.0324 (+300.09) 0.0103 0.0521 0.0281 2.3300 6.9683 (+471.772)  4 33 10 88 86 1 27  0.0677 0.0140 0.0536 0.0810 0.0023 0.0828 0.0669 0.0743 0.4426  60  0. 1736 3.6434 0.6339 0.2047 0.306 2.5367 2.5267 0.0030 0.3327 8.0181  50 53 51 58  0.0090 0.0431 0.0202 0.0044 0.0087 0.0569 0.0800 0.2223  99 99 98 1 00  0.2236 0.7429  77 82  0.1148 0.2832 1.3645  77 87 83  96 79 94 38 93 90  93 56  99 99 99  S i t e 13 20J 4A 1S 7S 1 40 Total  1.0392 0.2965 0.4918 0.3331 0.2720 2.4326  0.0684 0.1299 0.1299 0.1834 0.0288 0.4546  93 79 79 65 90 84  1.2427 0.2769 missing  0.2042 0.0950  86 74  1.5787 3.0983  0.0649 0.1023 0.4664  94 87  S i t e 14 20J 4A 1S 7S+15S 1 40 Total  0.7804 0.3501 0.2736 0.0416 0.3931 1.8388  0.3489 0.0608 0.0273 0.0147 0.0854 0.5371  69 85 91 74 82 77  S i t e NI IS 1 5S 1 50 Total  0.5512 0.0038 0.0070 0.5620  3.0937 0.1017 0.3506 3.5460  23 4 2 1 3  S i t e 13R 20J 4A 1S 7S+15S 1 40 Total  Appendix F Grain size d i s t r i b u t i o n of samples caught i n the  Date  Site  Gerlach troughs ( a l l measurements i n millimetres and grams) P a r t i c l e sizes (mm) 0.063 0.063-0. 25 0.25-0 .5 0.5-1 1-2 2-4 4-8 8-16 16+  14 July 9 10 11 12  0.0022 0.0142 0.0328 0.0078  0.0063 0.0096 0.0186 0.0036  0.0015 0.0057 0.0109 0.0022  0.0387 0.0026  0.0524  8 9 9R 10 10R 11 12 12R 13R  0.0057 0.0828 0.1851 0.0084 0.0156 0.2860 0.0176 0.0342 0.0075  0.0036 0.0381 0.0673 0.0058 0.0091 0.2209 0.0063 0.0321 0.0150  0.0024 0.0321 0.0401 0.0047 0.0122 0.3984 0.0055 0.0210 0.0139  0.0650 0.0365 0.0218 0.0123 0.5425 0.0028 0.0721 0.0483  0.0729 0.0057 0.0183  1. 2047  1.6571  7 .3692  0. 0130  0.9148  0 .9741  0.4254  0. 4265  0.0000  1.1894  0.1293 0.0200 0.0034 0.0153 0.0086 0.1848 0.0043 0.0048 0.0351 0.0058 0.0109 0.0047 0.0144  0.1144 0.0010 0.0122 0.2177 0.0082 0.1656 0.0039 0.0033 0.0192 0.0063 0.0136 0.0041 0.0028  0.0440 0.0107 0.0176 0.0046 0.0039 0.1538 0.0101 0.0053 0.0697 0.0019 0.0139 0.0021 0.0053  0.0630  0.1005  0. 1264  1.1344  2 .0928  0.0476 0.0090 0.0152 0.4012 0.0142  0.0261 0.0311 0.4799 0.0130  0. 5368 0. 6336 0. 0140  2.2223 0.1925 0.0000  11 .4744 1 .2329 1 .9699  0.1152  0. 1792  0.0115 0.0229  0. 0410  19 July  4 August  u.2 2R 8 9 9R 10 10R 11 12 12R 13 13R  0.0962 0.0031 0.0135 0.0029 0.0517  0.6434  Date  Site  0.063  0.063-0.25 0.25-0.5 0.5-1  29 August 6 7 8 9 9R 10 10R  0.0035 0.0018 0.0073 0.0018 0.3170 0.0065 0.0030  0.0068 0.0004 0.0055 0.0029 0.2467 0.0043 0.0024  0.0050 0.0013 0.0023 0.0030 0.1068 0.0060 0.0113  1 September 1 2R 3 5 6 9 9R 10 10R 11 12 13R  0.0030 0.0023 0.0097 0.0632 0.0473 0.0843 3.6781 0.0002 0.0160 0.0418 0.0067 0.0052  0.0053 0.0026 0.0061 0.1238 0.0076 0.0336 3.5216 0.0011 0.0140 0.0396 0.0004 0.0028  0.0034 0.0091 0.0054 0.1157 0.0095 0.0186 1.7709 0.0004 0.0038 0.0377 0.0010 0.0060  7 September 1 2 2R 3 6 7 8 9 9R 10 10R 11 12 12R 13  0. 0009 0. 0017 0. 0018 0.0022 0. 0026 0. 0055 0. 0051 0. 0203 0. 0012 0. 0104 0. 0011 0. 0039 0. 0012 0. 0016 0. 0012  0. 0011 0. 0017 0. 0011 0. 0059 0. 0022 0. 0042 0. 0053 0. 0315 0. 0018 0. 0109 0. 0013 0. 0048 0. 0049 0. 0011 0. 0008  0. 0021 0. 0041  0.0202 0.0221 0.0061 0.0052 0.1871  1-2  2-4  8-16  0. 0077 0. 0126 0. 0819  0.3196 0.1673  2. 1990 0. 1478  0.0300  0. 0194 0. 0215 0. 2917 0. 0176 0. 0373 2. 6004 0. 0005 0. 0055 0. 0752 0. 0023 0. 0129  0.0102 0.2902  0. 0379  0.0769 2.4449  0. 4392 1. 0665  0.0452  0. 1025  0.0195  0. 0022 0. 0040 0. 0139 0. 0249 0. 0013 0. 0044 0. 0013 0. 0179 0. 0080 0. 0017  4-8  0.0511 0.0088 0.0045  0.0382 0.0107  0.0342  0.0473  0.0231  0.0378  0.4090 0.0737  2.2541  Date Site 15 September 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 10 10R 11 12 12R 13 14  0.063  0^063-0.25 0.25-0.5 0.5-1  0.0212 0.0057 0.0018 0.0011 0.0158 0.0067 0.0009 0.0034 0.0231 0.0000 0.0028 0.0032 0.0665 0.0012 0.0088 0.0258 0.0055  0.0244 0.0058 0.0017 0.0014 0.0498 0.0026 0.0020 0.0009 0.0192 0.0000 0.0117 0.0023 0.2225 0.0023 0.0041 0.0139 0.6033  0.0086 0.0161 0.0020 0.0018 0.0831 0.0161 0.0029 0.0000 0.1246 0.0000 0.0137 0.0031 0.1477 0.0014 0.0024 0.0123 0.0042  September 1 7 9 .9R 10 10R 11 12  0.0084 0.0020 0.0449 0.3219 0.0124 0.0067 0.0025 0.0026  0.0005 0.0011 0.430 0.1460 0.0100 0.0108 0.0011 0.0017  0.0010 0.0013 0.0223 0.0805 0.0031 0.0140 0.0021 0.0029  October 1 2 2R 4 5 6 7 8 10  0.0059 0.0154 0.0330 0.0031 0.0172 0.0070 0.0271 0.0064 0.0104  0.0057 0.0213 0.0454 0.0039 0.0326 0.0051 0.0192 0.0087 0.0203  0.0051 0.0381 0.0191 0.0140 0.0277 0.0025 0.0087 0.0106 0.0?"^  1-2  2-4  4-8  8-16  0.0360 0.0014 0.0016 0.1474 0.0931 0.0158 0.0030 0.0797 0.0000 0.0499 0.0092 0.1977 0.0008 0.0252 0.0170 0.0084  0 .0252 0 .0323 0 .1099 0..0321 0..0075 0 .2996 0,.0145 0,.0523 0,.2870 0..1177 0..0865 0..0140 0..0100  0.0189  0.5593 0.1140  0.2440 0.6683  0.3664  1.0064  0.0521 0.0171  0.0041 0.0256 0.1494 0.0024 0.0155  0.0143 0.0903 0.0211 0.0020 0.0052 0.0163 0.0103 0.0613  0. 0093 0. 0184 0. 0042  0. 0443  0.0833  0.7914  8.7150 0.8890  ro  Date  Site  10R 11 12 12R 13 13R 14 NI  0.063 0.0067 0.0598 0.0119 0.0054 0.0084 0.0059 0.0160 0.0337  0.063-0. 25 0.25-0. 5 0.5-1 0.0068 0.0227 0.0063 0.0593 0.0438 0.0487 0.0056 0.0122 0.0298 0.0053 0.0035 0.0091 0.0097 0.0083 0.0360 0.0006 0.0010 0.0218 0.0121 0.0091 0.0110 0.0445 0.0253 0.0424  1-2 0.,0360 0..0413  2-4 0.1389 0.0666  0..0164  0.0982  0..0472  0.1455  4-8 2.1118  8-16  16+  1 38  Appendix Grain The 14J  G size  distribution  of  individual  samples  a t each  site  f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s are used: = 14 J u l y 19J = 19 J u l y 1A = 1 August 4A = 4 August 16A = 16 A u g u s t 29A = 29 A u g u s t 1 September 1S = 7 September 7S = 15S = 15 September 25S = 25 September 140 = 14 O c t o b e r NI = N e e d l e i c e s i t e BS = B u l k s a m p l e r SU = s p l a s h up SD = s p l a s h down RH = r u n n e l hump ss = snow sample RS = r u n n e l s i d e RA = r e d a l g a e 1,5,7 e t c r e f e r t o s i t e s 29A+1Setc = .combined d a t a f o r t h e s e two d a t e s . Soil = grain size distribution of soil from beneath the uppermost o r g a n i c o r g a n i c h o r i z o n o r from the ground surface where a t u r f o r l i t t e r l a y e r i s a b s e n t .  BULK SRHPLERS  T 0.063  1 0.25  1  1 1  1  1  1  r  4  S I Z E OF PARTICLES  (mm)  140  (mm)  141  142  143  i 0.250  i  i 1  1  SIZE  —i  1 4  OF  1 '6  P A R T I C L E S  (mm)  144  ~1 0.063  1  1 0.250  1  1—•  r ~  1  'i 4  S I Z E  OF  (mm)  ~ ~ i  1 16  P A R T I C L E S  145  0.063  I  I  0.260  1  1  1  1  *  1  ; — ;  16  S I Z E OF PARTICLES  (mm)  1 4 6  ^ 0.063  i  i  0.250  i  1 1  1  1  1  4  SJZE 0  , II  F  PARTICLES  (mm)  9B%  1 0.063  i  1 0.250  1  1 1  1  1 4  1  r 16  S I Z E OF PARTICLES (mm)  98* -i  98*-j  (mm]  153  B4!sH  i 0.250  i  1 1  r-  1 4  1  r !6  S I Z E OF P A R T I C L E S (mm)  98X-J  r  0.063  I  —  I  0.250  1  1  1  r-  1  4  1  1  ft  SIZE OF PARTICLES (mm)  98*'  98%  98%  159  Appendix H All  Sediment c o l l e c t e d  in splash  w e i g h t s a r e i n grams  21st  July  9su 9sd  lORsd 13su 13sd Mean  0.0010 0.0178 0.0010 0.0006 0.1181 0.0011 0.0233  1st September 2su 2sd 10SU 10sd 1ORsu lORsd 12su I2sd 12Rsu l2Rsd 13su 13sd' 13Rsu l3Rsd Mean  0.0246 0.0039 0.0183 0.0018 0.0276 0.0021 0.0678 0.0035 0.0181 0.0048 0.0211 0.0027 0.0238 0.0011 0.0158  10RSU  15th September 2su 0.0071 2sd 0.0039 10SU 0.0619 10sd 0.0017 1ORsu 0.0170 lORsd 0.0139 12su 0.0383 12sd 0.0150 12Rsu 0.0475 12Rsd 0.0230 13Rsu 0.0040 13Rsd missing Mean 0.0159  0.0777 p e r m  * 0.0327 p e r m  0.0053 p e r m  troughs  1 62  Appendix I BULK SAMPLERS A l l w e i g h t s a r e i n grams Site 2 1 September 1 5 September Total  0.0259* 0.0025 0.0284  Site 6 1 September 15 September Total  0.0283' 0.0061 0.0344  Site 9 1 September 15 September 25 September Total  0.083H 0.0268 0.0055< 0.1154  S i t e 13 1 September 15 September Total  0.01 02< 0.0080 0.0182  One f i l t e r  used  f o r XRD  Size d i s t r i b u t i o n Site 2 6 9 1 3  <63>*m 0.0048 0.0065 0.0134 0.0069  63-250»im 0.0025 0.0025 0.0119 0.0018 0-0111  .25—.5mm 0.0012 0033 0.0146 0.0024  2 6 9 1 3  36 35 18 62  1 1 1 1  9 18 19 22  9 3 6 6  after  .5— 1 mm 0. 0001 0. 001 6 0. 01 49  As % 1 9 20  sievinq 1—2mm 0.0046 0.0049 0.0213  Total 0.0132 0.0188 0.0761  35 26 28  1 00 100 100 1 00  163  Appendix All  J  Data  from t r a c e r  particles  measurements a r e i n cms  Green T r a c e r s Site 1 2 2R 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 NI  Recov--Recove r y # e r y % down 33 66 22 39 78 0 44 1 88 47 94 4 40 80 1 46 92 5 49 98 3 34 68 30 33 66 2 37 74 28 37 74 28 39 78 9 49 98 28 47 94 28 40 80 1 4 42 84 2 42 84 1 2  Movement up 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  Yellow Site 1 2 2R 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 NI  Recov- -Recove r y # e r y % down 37 40 1 0 34 35 1 21 20 0 48 49 3 50 47 1 34 32 8 51 1 48 62 58 30 36 34 1 20 1 9 1 7 33 31 27 21 20 3 38 36 13 46 43 18 44 41 8 48 1 45 58 54 5  (4-8mm)  %  76 0 2 9 3 1 1 6 88 6 100 76 23 57 60 35 5 29  Geom mean 4.4 —  Arith mean 3.0  Ratio  3.6 2.3 4. 1  1 .2 1 1 .2  6. 1 23.9 15.2 8.1 5.3 6.9  2.1 1 .8 1. 1 1 .7 1 .2 1. 1  2.2  1  Geom mean 1. 3 —  Arith mean 1 .5  Rat i o  8 — 4 — 4.5 — 4.3 30.8 1 3 12.3 5 3.3 — 3.4  5.2  1 .5  3.3  1 .2  3.9  1 .2  3.8 23.7 7. 1 8 4. 1 3.4  1. 1 1 .3 1 .8 1 .5 1 .2 1  3.2  1. 1  — 4.2 2.3 4.8 — 13.1 42.8 17.2 13.6 6. 1 7.6 — 2.3  1 .5  T r a c e r s; (2--4mm)  Movement up 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1  %  40 3 0 9 2 24 2 49 3 85 82 1 4 34 39 18 2 9  0.9  1 64  Site 1 2 2R 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 NI  Red T r a c e r s Recov--RecovMovement e r y # e r y % down up % 1 24 62 20 3 19 1 24 62 2 0 2 1 26 63 4 0 3 184 92 7 0 4 98 49 5 0 5 90 45 63 0 70 101 51 4 2 4 106 53 1 06 0 100 58 2 29 1 3 73 1 7 36 1 23 90 45 71 0 79 11 6 58 1 26 22 1 32 66 45 0 34 67 33 3 0 4 1 06 27 53 0 25 121 60 8 0 7 1 62 81 21 0 1 3  Geom mean 3.6 3.5 — 58. 1 4.2 3.3 9.6 5.3 — 76.6 20.7 11.5 25. 1 2.7 7.2 3.6 5.8  Arith mean 3.2 3.5 — 5.9 3.9 2.3 6.7 4.3 — 4.4 13.3 9.6 12.2 2.6 5.6 3.5 5. 1  Ratio 1 .1 1 1 .4 1. 1 1 .4 1 .4 1 .2 — 1 .5 1 .6 1 .2 2.1 1 1 .3 1 1. 1  Appendix  K Sediment  Site  Sediment (grams)  Mount 1  0. 0093 0. 0093 0. 01 46 0. 0054 0. 0052 0. 0029 0. 0051 0. 0084 0. 0111  Sed cone (gxlO / c c )  Depth (cms)  1 440 3220 3454 3893 3540 3208 1855 1087 964  28 420 140 150 90 270 770 1150  0.0064  115  5570  0.2146  135  159,000  0.0231  131  17,600  0.0168 0.0198 0.0035  95 123 160  17,700 16,100 220  152 197 196 158 230 68  460 300 770 4620 2700 2650  86.5-115 69.0-88.5 49.5-69.0  200 197 240 202 223 234 255 275  700 2480 790 540 360 430 1180 250  136.5-156 117.0-136.5 97.5-119 78.0-97.5 58.5-78.0 39.0-58.5 19.5-39.0 0-19.5  surface  Between runnels Runnel hump Runnel side Red  Water volume (cc)  i n t h e snowpack  Rose  2 3 4 5 6 7 NI ( 1 ) NI (2) Snow  entrained  algae  CRREL  snow  Snowpit  Snowpit  sampler  2 0.0007 0.0006 0. 001 5 0.0073 0.0062 0.0018  10.5-30 0-10.5  4 0.0014 0.0067 0.0019 0.001 1 0.0008 0.0010 0.0030 0.0007  Appendix  Site 0F1  L  Overland  d(mm) 4 4 4 4  flow  velocity (cm/sec) 4 4 4 4  observations  Reynolds number 126 126 . 126 126  Friction factor 0.833 0.833 0.833 0.833  7 18 1 7 7 9 1 2 1 2 1 7 5 10 10 1 1 1 0 1 4 1 2  5.7 5.7 7. 1 20.0 15.3 25.0 15.3 9.1 5.7 5.7 7. 1 20.0 20.0 25.0 15.3 22.0  234 602 608 821 808 1 760 1 077 53 234 1 64 417 1 173 1 290 1 467 1 256 641  16.9 43.4 26.4 1 .3 3.0 1 .5 4.0 0.95 16.9 12.1 15.6 19.6 2. 1 1 .25 4.7 11.3  5 5 3 9 7 7 2 5 2 6 2 7 7 2 2  10.5 3.6 16.7 9. 1 6.3 7.4 10.5 9.1 5.6 16.7 9. 1 7.4 10.5 10.5 9.1  308 1 05 294 481 257 304 1 23 481 1 7 588 1 07 304 431 1 23 1 07  3.6 0.3 0.84 8.5 13.8 10.0 1 .4 8.5 5.0 1 .7 0.02 10.0 5.0 1.4 0.02  Appendix M Date  °C Max Min  July 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 1 9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31  Thermohygroqraph Data  °C Max  Date Min  Aug 9 1 4 1 2 1 4 9 6 6 9 6 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 7 1 6 — — — — 1 6 1 6 1 5 1 6 22 1 9 1 4 5 1 4 1 2 1 6  — 6 6 6 6 0 2 2 4 3 6 5 6 5 9 1 2 1 2 — — — 7 8 9 7 8 1 2 11 6 6 6 5  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31  °C Max  data  Date Min  Sept 19 — 1 6 1 6 19 23 24 26 26 26 24 24 24 24 22 1 4 21 20 21 1 2 1 4 1 7 22 1 2 6 1 1 8 9 1 1 1 1 8  1 2 1 5 6 6 6 7 1 7 18 18 19 20 1 7 1 7 19 1 4 1 6 1 4 1 4 1 2 ? 6 7 1 2 6 4 4 5 5 6 4 6  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 22 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31  °C Max  Min  Oct 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 6 7 22 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 6 22 1 6 23 1 4 6 4 — — — 2 0 0 0 1 2 1  6 6 3 6 4 4 7 5 5 6 8 6 6 7 1 4 16 1 4 1 2 2 1 1 — — 0 -3 -3 -3 1 1 1  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 7 1 7  — — —  1 1 1 6 2 2 4 4  1 6 12 8 3 7 •  -3 0 —1 1 1 1 1 1 2 — — -5 -2 4 6 4  168  Appendix All site  1 2 2R 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9R 1 0 836 1 OR 1 1 1 2 1 2R 1 31 3R 1 4 NI  N  volumes 14 July  206 28 1417 697 1 322 519  Gerlach  t r o u g h water  volumes  in millilitres 19 July  4 Aug  445 626 785  203 210 220  1 200 1 500 1 726  204 200 200  250 2001 961 1000 1 250 1310 1310 1216  1 233 272 241 80 189 215 31 1 1 50  29 Aug  1 700 885 830 21 50 1 650 1810 1880 1 260  1 Sept  7 Sept  15 Sept  25 Sept  1 720  90 180  1 1 20  1 650 31 50  480 530 600 500  1950 1 270 1880 1 900 2100 2050  490 910 550 480 770 910  660 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1 700 21 50  1 70 930 640 780 540 520 560 640  1 90 1 70 160 270 1 20 1 40 170 170 1710 250 1 30 80 1 00 300 1 60 635  1 325  14 Oct  1360 1 320 1910 271 0 1 960 1 490 2300  21 70 2220 2330 1 751 910 880  2200 890 1 1 70 1 990 21 60 2920 2290 3640  169  Appendix  0  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f XRD  traces  Kaolinite was present i n a p p r e c i a b l e q u a n t i t y i n a l l the s a m p l e s , shown by c o l l a p s e o f t h e 7A peak on h e a t i n g to 550°C. Sites 2 and 9 b o t h showed a r e s i d u a l peak a f t e r h e a t i n g e i t h e r b e c a u s e t h e k a o l i n i t e was n o t c o m p l e t e l y b r o k e n down o r because chlorite was p r e s e n t . No enhancement o f t h e 14.2A peak was seen on h e a t i n g t o 550°C so chlorite, i f present, was a small component of t h e s y s t e m . All sites show felspar. T h i s was shown by s e v e r a l s h a r p s t r o n g r e f l e c t i o n s a t 3.18 — 3.25A, a s t r o n g reflection around 4.03A and weak r e f l e c t i o n s i n some samples a t 6.4 — 6.5A. The p r e c i s e peak p o s i t i o n s p l a c e the f e l s p a r s as plagioclase — including some Ca rich f e l s p a r s s i g n i f i e d by a peak a t 3.13. T h e r e may be some K f e l s p a r but t h e two major reflections at 3.31 and 4.2A a r e masked by q u a r t z . S i t e s 13 and 6 a l l s u g g e s t the p r e s e n c e of K f e l s p a r because the characteristically sharp q u a r t z peak a t 3.34 i s b r o a d e n e d t o w a r d s t h e 3.31A o f K f e l s p a r . Also there a r e peaks above t h e 3.22 upper r a n g e o f p l a g i o c l a s e felspar. A m p h i b o l e i s i n d i c a t e d by a peak at about 8.4 on a l l traces. In no case is this peak large and lower order r e f l e c t i o n s i n t e r f e r e w i t h f e l s p a r and c a n n o t be d i s c r i m i n a t e d . Quartz i s present in very small amounts; i t i s commonly u s e d i n q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . However, i t seems t o be a b s e n t a t 9 and only just d e t e c t a b l e a t s i t e 2. Even s i t e s 6,13 and RS have o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e .  Trace from site 9 - all sizes  Trace from site 13CK saturated <0.0063 fraction)  171  Appendix P Rock ( c o u r t e s y T. G a l l i e ) Quartz, a c t i n o l i t e c h l o r i t e Quartz A c t i n o l i t e (horneblende) Chlorite Epidote Diopside Sphene Biotite Plagioclase Comments  composition schist 30% 30% 20% 5% 2% 2% 1% trace  C h l o r i t e — very f i n e grained, f i b r o u s and interlacing grains, interlayered with coarser grained actinolite and granular epidote. A c t i n o l i t e — elongate bladed crystals, form discrete meshed layers. Wrapped a r o u n d s m a l l masses o f m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z and e p i d o t e . Q u a r t z — some f i n e g r a i n s , m a i n l y as s t r i n g e r s .  Quartz d i o r i t e Quartz Plagioclase Horneblende Epidote K—spar Sericite Opaques C h l o r i t e , muscovite,  30% 30% 15% 10% 5% 3% 2% c1inopyroxene  5%  Comments Quartz — fine t o medium grained (0.05—0.5mm), strongly r e c r y s t a l l i s e d , s e r i c i t e grain boundaries. P l a g i o c l a s e and K — s p a r — medium t o c o a r s e g r a i n e d , g r a n u l a r t e x t u r e (0.2—1mm). I n d e f i n i t e g r a i n b o u n d a r i e s , s e r i c i t e a l t e r a t i o n , some m a f i c a l t e r a t i o n . Horneblende — fine t o medium grained. Elongate lathe—shaped c r y s t a l s w h i c h form f i b r o u s masses i n t e r s t i t i a l to quart< and f e l s p a r . P r i m a r y g r a i n s have r e c r y s t a l l i s e d . Epidote — g e n e r a l l y f i n e grained, a l s o developed along f r a c t u r e s in m i c r o — v e i n l e t s .  »  

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