UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Aspects of subordinative composite sentences in the period I oracle bone inscriptions Chow, Kwok-ching 1981

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ASPECTS OF SUBORDINATE COMPOSITE SENTENCES IN THE PERIOD I ORACLE BONE INSCRIPTIONS BY KWOK-CHING|CHOW A.  The C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong K o n g , 1972  Phil.  The C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong K o n g , 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED  I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF  PHILOSOPHY in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A s i a n S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H -COLUMBIA November 1981  (c) KWOK-CHING CHOW  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  the L i b r a r y s h a l l  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n for  University  f o r extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  for  financial  shall  Asian Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 20 75 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date  5 J a n u a r y , 1982  Columbia  my  It is thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department of  thesis  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of this  gain  further  copying of t h i s  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood that  I  make  written  ABSTRACT Three t y p e s o f s u b o r d i n a t i v e composite sentence i.e.,  i n t h e O.B.I.,  'cause and e f f e c t ' , ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' and ' s i m u l t a n e o u s - s u c c e s s i v e ' ,  are i n v e s t i g a t e d . S i n c e t h e r e a r e no f o r m a l c o n n e c t i v e m a r k e r s , t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between two c l a u s e s can o n l y be determined b a s i s o f semantic  on t h e  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the tui-chen p a i r , the p r a c t i c e of  a b b r e v i a t i o n and t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t . A major type o f 'cause and e f f e c t ' sentence the p a t t e r n 'wu + V  pu/fu  i s t h e sentence o f  ...' where t h e second c l a u s e r e p r e s e n t s  some u n d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t o r s i t u a t i o n .  A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the general  p o s i t i v e v e r s u s n e g a t i v e p a t t e r n o f t h e O.B.I, and t h e p r a c t i c e o f a b b r e v i a t i o n has l e d us t o adopt t h e a n a l y s i s 'cause and e f f e c t ' f o r t h i s sentence  type.  We may i n t e r p r e t sentences  i n w h i c h c h ' i appears as c o n d i t i o n a l .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , r a t h e r than a pure s u b o r d i n a t e marker, t h e word c h ' i i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a modal c o n v e y i n g t h e sense o f u n c e r t a i n t y , a usage w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n the c l a s s i c s .  A l s o , t h e t h e o r y t h a t t r e a t s c h ' i as a  marker o f an embedded sentence has been r e f u t e d . The apodoses o f ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' and ' s i m u l t a n e o u s - s u c c e s s i v e ' sentences may r e p r e s e n t an i n t e n d e d r e s u l t o r an u n d e s i r a b l e consequence/situation.  I n most c a s e s , these two types o f apodoses can  be e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d . But i n t h e case o f r a i n i n g , we have t o r e l y on t h e i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s 'y_u vii (wang yu) ' and 'kou yu (pu kou yii) ' i n drawing  the d i s t i n c t i o n .  iii  I n d i v i n i n g about the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of a proposed ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' and purpose.  activity,  the  'cause and e f f e c t ' sentences b o t h s e r v e the same  But an a c t i v i t y whose consequence i s of g r e a t e r g r a v i t y  seems t o m o t i v a t e the employment of the l a t t e r . The r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c i a l  v e r b s can be r o u g h l y d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e -  g o r i e s , type A and type B.  Type A v e r b s r e p r e s e n t major  s a c r i f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g the accompaniment of  ritual-  ritual-  s a c r i f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by type B v e r b s which can be p l a c e d e i t h e r i n f r o n t o f o r a f t e r the type A v e r b s .  The l a t t e r  case  c o n s t i t u t e s a c o n d i t i o n a l or simultaneous-successive sentence, w h i l e the former c o n s t i t u t e s e i t h e r a composite 'to c l a u s e ' o r a s i m u l t a n e o u s - s u c c e s s i v e  sentence i n c o r p o r a t i n g sentence.  a  iv CONTENTS Acknowledgments Abstract L i s t of Figures Symbols, A b b r e v i a t i o n s and G e n e r a l Remarks  CHAPTER ONE  METHODOLOGY OF THE DECIPHERMENT OF O.B.I.  PART ONE I . The G r a p h i c A n a l y s i s I I . The L i m i t a t i o n o f G r a p h i c A n a l y s i s and t h e E x p l o i t a t i o n of Context I I I . The Use o f Sources Other Than t h e A r c h a i c Inscriptions IV. The E x p l o i t a t i o n o f 'Word F a m i l i e s ' and i t s Limitation PART TWO I . A Review o f Two P r e v i o u s Works I I . The A p p l i c a b i l i t y and L i m i t a t i o n o f C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e Syntax i n t h e Grammatical A n a l y s i s o f O.B.I. I I I . The Semantic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s IV. The Assumption o f Sentence P a r a l l e l i s m and t h e E x p l o i t a t i o n o f Ch'eng-T'ao $ (Set) CHAPTER TWO  THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE SENTENCES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE 'CAUSE AND EFFECT' TYPE  I . The C r i t e r i a f o r C l a s s i f y i n g Composite Sentences I I . The P o s i t i o n o f t h e N e g a t i v e Wu tyj i to t h e A n a l y s i s o f Sentences  n  Relation  V  CHAPTER THREE  CONDITIONAL AND SIMULTANEOUS-SUCCESSIVE SENTENCES ( I ) (NON-RITUAL-SACRIFICIAL VERBS)  I . A G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n o f C o n d i t i o n a l and Simultaneous s e n t e n c e s I I . The C o n t r a s t  119  Between an Intended E f f e c t and an  U n c o n t r o l l a b l e Contingency ( ^ I I I . A Pseudo-Marker  $q  127  ifa  )  C h ' i i%  of the C o n d i t i o n a l Clause  142 142  1. The Sense o f U n c e r t a i n t y Conveyed by C h ' i }% 2. An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Theory t h a t C h ' i jfe F u n c t i o n s as a S u b o r d i n a t i o n Marker IV. A H y p o t h e s i s on t h e R a t i o n a l e U n d e r l y i n g between t h e P a t t e r n s 'V -77$' ' *rf] + V .. ., ftl  159  the choice and  1  CHAPTER FOUR  171  THE SUBORDINATIVE COMPOSITE SENTENCES ( I I ) (RITUAL-SACRIFICIAL VERBS)  I . A G e n e r a l D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Type A and Type B Verbs  191  1. The C o n t r a s t between Type A and Type B Verbs  191  2. The R e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Type A and Type B Verbs  212  3. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Some Other Verbs  219  I I . A n a l y s i s of the Structure  '... V  ... + ... V.  I I I . The S i m u l t a n e o u s - S u c c e s s i v e Sentence CONCLUSION  226 248 263  NOTES Chapter One Chapter Two Chapter Three Chapter Four BIBLIOGRAPHY  265 282 297 319 359  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE 1  2  3  4  PiUS. 20  8 7  a  Z l M 22  8 7  b  Ch'ien $ J  237  I / J 5328  277  5  Ning. ' i t 80  2 8 0  6  Tung T s o - p i n 1933:173  7  ^  7.1.1  I  L  8810  324  330  8  Ts'ui  533  334  9  Ts'ui ^  190  334  10  Ts'ui 7 ^  190  335  11  C h i n JiL  12  K^u / j ^  714  339  13  Ch'i t  X5  339  1 4  1 5  711  1  338  340 18  341  vii  ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS AND SOME GENERAL REMARKS  ^-  Zero ( n o n - e x i s t e n c o f an element)  *X  R e c o n s t r u c t e d form o r u n a t t e s t e d u n i t  X*  The p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e o f t h e f i r s t volume o f a book  X  An u n s p e c i f i e d u n i t  A  *B  A<  A may y i e l d B  B  A may be d e r i v e d from B  A  =  B  A i s equal or equivalent to B  A  ^  B  A i s similar to B  A  vs  B  A versus B  B  A versus B  A A / B  A or B  Q  A s i n g l e - g r a p h l a c u n a i n an i n s c r i p t i o n  |2  A. l a c u n a o f more than one graph  {  tui-chen pair  G  Graph  W  Word  S  Subject  P  Predicate  S  Signific  P  Phonetic The c o n t e x t w i l l c l a r i f y t h e p r e c i s e r e f e r e n c e o f the s i g n s S and P.  viii 0  Object  OB  Object-beneficiary  OG  Object-goal  01  Object-instrument  OP  Object-patient  OV  Object-victim  V  Verb  N  Noun  VP  Verb phrase  NP  Noun phrase  R-S O.B.I.  Ritual-sacrifice/ritual-sacrificial Oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n  ix  AM  A s i a Major  AYFC  An Yang Fa Chtleh Pao Kao CYYY  BMFEA  B u l l e t i n o f Museum o f F a r E a s t e r n A n t i q u i t i e s  BSOAS  B u l l e t i n o f t h e S c h o o l of< O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s  CHHP  C h i n g Hua HsUeh Pao  CHWSLTs  Chung Hua Wen S h i h L u n Ts'ung  CKSYC  Chung Kuo S h i h Yen C h i u  CKWT  Chung Kuo Wen Tzu \^  CKYKY  Chung Kuo K'o HsUeh YUan K'ao -Ku Yen C h i u So  CKYW  Chung Kuo Ytl Wen  CKYYY  Chung Kuo K'o Hslieh YUan YU Yen Yen C h i u So  GYYY  Chung Yang Yen C h i u YUan  CYYYChK  Chung Yang Yen C h i u YUan L i S h i h YU Yen Yen C h i u So Chuan K'an  CYYYCK  Chung Yang Yen C h i u YUan L i S h i h YU Yen Yen C h i u So C h i K'an  EC  Early  HKCW  H s i a n g Kang Chung Wen Ta HsUeh Chung Kuo' Wen Hua Yen C h i u So HsUeh Pao  HY  Harvard Yenching  HY  H a r v a r d Yenching I n s t i t u t e  JAOS  J o u r n a l o f t h e American O r i e n t a l ^ S o c i e t y  KK  K'ao Ku  KKHP  K'ao Ku HsUeh Pao -^jj  KWTYC  Ku Wen Tzu Yen C h i u  v|>  "la . P u b l i s h e d by  ^J> $ ^  Nf (jjf)  & ^ f f $L  7  k %•  7 \ X.  jfe  #f ?  J^L  China  Index  ^  ^ - f  MS  Monumenta S e r i c a  Ping or Ping Pien  See Chang Ping-ch'Uan 1957-72  San T a i  San T a i C h i C h i n Wen Ts'un  SHKHCH  She H u i K'o HsUeh Chan H s i e n  Sorui  Inkyo B o k u j i S o r u i  SSCCS  S h i h San Ching Chu Shu  SSTC  Shang Shu T'ung C h i e n  SW/Shuo Wen  ShuoWen C h i e h Tzu Chu  TP  T'oung Pao  WW  Wen Wu  YCHP  Yen Ching Hstleh Pao  YYYC  YU Yen Yen C h i u  ^  t-  ^"^  %%{ 2r i &  ^  fb  ^  "Sr  *^  \ , "^?-f  xi  (.1) The c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g h e a v i l y upon i t s t u i - c h e n Chapter One, p.69).  ^  o f an O.B.I, sentence  structure relies  c o u n t e r p a r t and t h e l a r g e c o n t e x t (see  Thus, t h e P i r i g P i e n (Chang P i n g - c h ' U a n  1957*), a c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g many o f t h e f a i r l y  ^ 7J^_  completely  r e c o n s t r u c t e d p l a s t r o n s has been s e l e c t e d as o u r c o r p u s .  Without s p e c i -  f i c a t i o n , t h e word 'corpus' r e f e r s t o t h e P i n g P i e n and s t a t i s t i c s a r e based on t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d from i t .  A great m a j o r i t y of the Ping Pien  p l a s t r o n s come from P e r i o d I ; t h u s , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s presented  i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e v i r t u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o P e r i o d I O.B.I, o n l y .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s c r i p t i o n s from o t h e r p e r i o d s a r e a l s o adduced t o s e r v e t h e need o f comparison o r t h e need o f i l l u s t r a t i n g c e r t a i n problems. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e S o r u i has been used throughout  the w r i t i n g of t h i s  thesis.  (2) E x c e p t t h o s e c i t e d f r o m o t h e r a r t i c l e s , i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e n o r m a l l y p r o v i d e d w i t h a word f o r word t r a n s l a t i o n (each word s e p a r a t e d by a s l a n t e d l i n e /) and a f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n . c h ' i e n - t z ' u jfj  (ff^ , e.g. ^  /Sf  /<•  I n the f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n , the  , ptfL /=[ , i s n o t t r a n s l a t e d s i n c e  i t i s h i g h l y s t e r e o t y p e d and g e n e r a l l y n o t p r o b l e m a t i c . i n s c r i p t i o n a l sentences, the c o n t e x t s u g g e s t s  I n the o r i g i n a l  t h e s u b j e c t i s normally unexpressed.  Unless  otherwise, the author s u p p l i e s i n the f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n  a s u b j e c t 'we' w h i c h s h o u l d be understood  as a p r o n o m i n a l  t o t h e Shang k i n g and h i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d p e o p l e . numerals a r e n o t r e p r o d u c e d .  term r e f e r r i n g  Hstl-shu  xii  (3) Chou Fa-kao's  ffy 1% fkj p h o n o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r c h a i c  Chinese ( i n Chou's t e r m i n o l o g y , s h a n g - k u - y i n  Y_ Ifr •%  proposing readings f o r the a r c h a i c words(graphs).  ) i s employed i n  The author does n o t  u n d e r t a k e t o contend t h a t Chou's system, r e c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f the S h i h Ching rhymes and h s i e h - s h e n g - t z u  (  ^  phonetic s e r i e s  of g r a p h s ) , i s c o m p l e t e l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e O.B.I, language. t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e temporal  gap between these m a t e r i a l s .  Obviously, Never-  t h e l e s s , a r c h a i c C h i n e s e r e p r e s e n t s t h e e a r l i e s t s t a g e whose phonology can be r e c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h r e l a t i v e c e r t i t u d e .  Thus, we have f o r t h e  p r e s e n t no c h o i c e b u t t o make use o f i t v i g o r o u s l y .  When we s a y , f o r  i n s t a n c e , t h a t two w o r d s ( g r a p h s ) have i d e n t i c a l o r s i m i l a r p r o n u n c i a t i o n s , we a r e , i n e f f e c t , p r o p o s i n g t h a t t h e presumed l a t e r e q u i v a l e n t forms o f t h e s e two w o r d s ( g r a p h s ) share an i d e n t i c a l o r s i m i l a r p r o n u n c i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f a r c h a i c  Chinese.  R o m a n i z a t i o n s i n f r o n t o f a graph r e p r e s e n t t h e r e a d i n g i n Wade-Gile romanization.  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o Chou's system (marked by an  a s t e r i s k * ) came a f t e r t h e graph i n q u e s t i o n . normally not i n d i c a t e d .  The tone o f a word i s  I n cases where t h e r e i s t h e need t o i n d i c a t e  the t o n e , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s i g n s X ( p ' i n g - s h e n g ) , ° X (shang-sheng) and q  X°  (ch'tt-sheng) a r e used.  Such tone marks m e r e l y s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e t h e  tones o f words i n t h e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e p e r i o d (Chieh-y{ln p e r i o d ) .  Whether  t h i s t o n a l c h a r a c t e r e x i s t e d a t a l l (and i n what form d i d i t e x i s t ) i n t h e Shang language o r a r c h a i c Chinese i s an i s s u e beyond t h e scope of the present  thesis.  xiii  (A) The nomenclature expedience.  1  graph(word)/word(graph)' i s used f o r p r a c t i c a l  As a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e , the purpose o f d e c i p h e r i n g a r c h a i c  i n s c r i p t i o n s i s t o u n d e r s t a n d the language i n w h i c h the i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e written.  I n t a l k i n g about language, of c o u r s e , we have 'words' i n mind.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , a t the f i r s t s t a g e o f decipherment, we a r e m e r e l y s t u d y i n g 'graphs' i n s t e a d of words, a l t h o u g h the u l t i m a t e aim i s t o d i s c o v e r what words t h e s e graphs s t a n d f o r . the  I n o t h e r words, we have f i r s t t o study  s t r o k e s and o t h e r components o f a graph i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r what  l a t e r graph i t may be e q u i v a l e n t t o .  Once the graph can be r e l a t e d t o  a l a t e r form, we have a c l u e to i t s p h o n e t i c shape and the graph a c q u i r e s the at  s t a t u s o f a spoken word.  From t h i s p o i n t , we a r e , i n f a c t , l o o k i n g  i t b o t h as a graph and a word.  The i n t e r l o c k e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between  'graphs' and 'words' i s c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e d i n the s t u d y of g r a p h i c variants. graphs.  The v e r y name, ' g r a p h i c v a r i a n t s ' r e f e r s e x c l u s i v e l y to However, i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether two graphs a r e g r a p h i c  v a r i a n t s o r n o t , we must s t u d y t h e l i n g u i s t i c environment where they appear; t o put i t a n o t h e r way, we have to s t u d y them as m e a n i n g f u l words r a t h e r than as mere graphs o t h e r c a s e s , we may for  (see Chapter One, S e c t i o n I I , p. 13).  f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n proposing a hypothetical  In 'meaning'  a graph t h r o u g h the a n a l y s i s o f i t s g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e w h i l e i t s  p r o n u n c i a t i o n may w e l l remain u n r e c o v e r a b l e . F o r example,  the graph  i'^  has been t e n t a t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as 'to d e c a p i t a t e (a c a p t i v e ) ' b u t i t s p r o h u n i c a t i o n i s not c l e a r t o us . (see Chapter One, •p^  fn.8).  Although  d e f i n i t e l y e n t e r s a sentence as a m e a n i n g f u l word r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y  a g r a p h i c s i g n , i t seems somewhat s t r a n g e t o d i s c u s s i t as a 'word'  xiv  s i n c e no p r o n u n c i a t i o n can even be h y p o t h e s i z e d . a u t h o r uses the term ' g r a p h ( w o r d ) of d e c i p h e r m e n t .  1  As a compromise, the  t o r e f e r t o t h e o b j e c t i n the p r o c e s s  The use o f t h i s term i s i n t e n d e d t o show t h a t the  s i g n under s t u d y i s b e i n g r e g a r d e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as a graph and as a word, i n a p r o c e s s t o d i s c o v e r i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n by a n a l y s i n g i t s graphic structure.  The term 'graph(word)/word(graph)' w h i c h may  be u n d e r s t o o d as ' w o r d - c h a r a c t e r , l o g o g r a p h , t z u  also  ' i s h e r e used i n  the sense of 'the word r e p r e s e n t e d by t h i s graph'.  (5)  As r e f l e c t e d i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f the O.B.I., an e x t e n s i v e  and e x p l i c i t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c l a u s e s i s f i r s t advanced by P a u l L-M  Serruys.  The a n a l y s e s such  as ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' proposed by S e r r u y s a i * e adopted throughout the p r e s e n t thesis without further  (6)  acknowledgement.  For t h e sake o f b r e v i t y , a u t h o r i t i e s whose work h e r e i n quoted  are r e f e r r e d  t o s i m p l y by t h e i r names w i t h o u t any  title.'  XV  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I c o u l d not have completed t h i s t h e s i s w i t h o u t generously indebted  g i v e n by many i n d i v i d u a l s and  assistance  institutions.  t o P r o f e s s o r Takashima K e n - i c h i , my  I am  principally  research supervisor.  From him I l e a r n e d the g e n e r a l methodology and the a p p r o p r i a t e approach to the study of O.B.I, grammar. t i g a t i o n , refinement  Throughout the s i x - y e a r p e r i o d of i n v e s -  o f the t o p i c , r e s e a r c h , d r a f t i n g , and r e v i s i o n , h i s  d e t a i l e d and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s were an e s s e n t i a l impetus t o  I was  a l s o g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d by P r o f e s s o r E.G.  P u l l e y b l a n k , who  me much h e l p f u l a d v i c e on the p h o n o l o g i c a l , m o r p h o l o g i c a l , t i c a l a s p e c t s of t h i s t h e s i s .  P r o f e s s o r Shimizu  progress.  gave  and gramma-  S h i g e r u of Kyoto  U n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e d k i n d h e l p d u r i n g my p e r i o d of r e s e a r c h i n Japan. Mr. Wong Yiu-kwan, M i s s Yabuta A t s u k o , Mrs. Winnie L o u i s , and Vanessa Tam  generously  Mrs.  provided t e c h n i c a l assistance i n preparing  the  work f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n .  The  Canadian Commonwealth S c h o l a r s h i p Committee and the Japanese  E d u c a t i o n Department (Mombusho) p r o v i d e d the f i n a n c i a l support lengthy  f o r my  research.  L a s t but not l e a s t , s p e c i a l thanks must be extended t o Mr. H e r f o r t h who  listened, reacted, scrutinized draft after d r a f t ,  f i n a l l y p r o o f r e a d every v e r s i o n from the f i r s t t o the l a s t . a p p r e c i a t e my  I  Derek and deeply  f r u i t f u l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h him and h i s o r i g i n a l comments;  and o f f e r deepest g r a t i t u d e f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g f r i e n d s h i p and  enthusiasm.  CHOW, Kwok c h i n g 5 January  1982  -  1  -  CHAPTER ONE  METHODOLOGY OF THE DECIPHERMENT OF O.B.I.  S i n c e t h e e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s o f t h e O.B.I., Chinese s c h o l a r s have developed t h e i r own r e s e a r c h methods, methods w h i c h have never been made explicit.  Lo Chen-y"u ^  ^  and Wang Kuo-wei . £  jJJJ ^ £ ,  of t h e e a r l i e s t prominent O.B.I, s c h o l a r s , d i d n o t e s t a b l i s h methodology writing  t o mention two a  detailed  though they p o i n e e r e d i n t h e decipherment o f t h i s a r c h a i c  and undoubtedly l a i d a good f o u n d a t i o n . I n t h e p r e f a c e o f Ming  Yuan ^s, &  (The O r i g i n o f G r a p h s ) , Sun Y i - j a n g | £ "ffL  states,  "Now I c o l l e c t t h e b r o n z e i n s c r i p t i o n s , o r a c l e bone : i n s c r i p t i o n s , s t o n e drum i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e Red Rock i n s c r i p t i o n s found i n K u e i Chou t o compare and c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e a n c i e n t graphs i n t h e Shuo Wen. (My purpose i s ) by i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s t o show t h e o r i g i n from w h i c h they were s i m p l i f i e d and changed as w e l l as t o group and c l a s s i f y ( t h e graphs) i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e ku-wen, ' l a r g e s e a l ' and ' s m a l l s e a l ' f o r m s . "  a * * * ^ ^  (1963: v o l . 1 , p.2)  From t h e above q u o t a t i o n , we l e a r n t h a t Sun's emphasis i s on t h e h i s t o r i c a l study of the s c r i p t .  U n d e n i a b l y , g r a p h i c comparison, t a k i n g Shuo Wen  and o t h e r a n c i e n t p h i l o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s as t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e ( t h e b a s i s f o r comparison) i s t h e f i r s t s t e p i n t h e decipherment o f t h e O.B.I.,  -  2  -  b u t l i m i t i n g one's s t u d y t o g r a p h i c comparison w i l l not always y i e l d r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s , s i n c e the meaning o f a graph (word)-! must be d e t e r m i n e d ' a l s o by the c o n t e x t where i t a p p e a r s .  W i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o account the  c o n t e x t , i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e whether two s i m i l a r graphs are  merely f r e e v a r i a n t s o r whether they s t a n d f o r two d i f f e r e n t words.  Furthermore, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the O.B.I, i n v o l v i n g p h o n e t i c - l o a n w h i c h , n e e d l e s s t o say, can c o n t r i b u t e t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i n s c r i p t i o n s are  not hypotheses e s t a b l i s h e d by mere g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s .  These problems  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s .  The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c u s s i o n devoted t o the methodology of O.B.I, decipherment must be a t t r i b u t e d t o T'ang Lan Ku Wen Tzu HsUeh Tao Lun ~&  i~ %  methods: 'the method o f comparison $\  '  _jj§£^H J^J  a n c  1^9  .  I n h i s book  » T'ang s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l ', 'the method of a n a l o g y *yf 'Z-'ty "^^T  * ' c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n  ' etc.  Lung YU-ch'un's  Another i m p o r t a n t work c o n c e r n i n g methodology i s Chung Kuo Wen Tzu HsUeh ^ ? |fSJ <L%  ^  .  The  s e c t i o n s on the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e , the e v o l u t i o n of  graphs and g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l .  I t p r o v i d e s us  w i t h a b a s i c knowledge o f Chinese graphs and many c o n c r e t e examples  illus-  t r a t i n g the methods we s h o u l d employ i n decipherment. W h i l e most o f t h e Chinese s c h o l a r s w o r k i n g oh the O.B.I, a r e a c t i v e l y d e c i p h e r i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s , they have not e l a b o r a t e d on t h e p r o c e d u r e s of  decipherment.  The main t a s k of t h e i r decipherment i s t o f i n d a modern  e q u i v a l e n t , i f one s u r v i v e s , f o r the a r c h a i c graph i n q u e s t i o n .  I n most  c a s e s , when t h e y propose t h a t A (an a r c h a i c graph) i s e q u i v a l e n t t o A^ (a  -  3  -  modern g r a p h ) , they a r e , i n e f f e c t , p r o p o s i n g t h a t A has a meaning, a p r o n u n c i a t i o n and a grammatical  c l a s s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f A^.  Such a con-  c l u s i o n cannot be drawn, even t e n t a t i v e l y , w i t h o u t going through t h e p r o cedures e x p l i c i t l y p u t f o r t h by S e r r u y s i n h i s a r t i c l e " S t u d i e s i n t h e Language o f t h e Shang O r a c l e I n s c r i p t i o n s ' :  1. What does t h e g r a p h i c c o n c r e t e u n i t o f l i n e s o r drawing a c t u a l l y represent? 2. What does t h i s g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t a n d f o r i n terms o f language, i . e . , t h e word, w h i c h by s y n t a c t i c p o s i t i o n i n t h e sentence may f u n c t i o n as noun, v e r b , a d j e c t i v e o r adverb... 3. What does t h i s graph c o r r e s p o n d t o i n s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d s of t h e Chinese w r i t i n g ; does i t c o n t i n u e t o appear i n l a t e r t e x t s , i n b a s i c a l l y unchanged form, l e a v i n g a s i d e d e t a i l s o f e x e c u t i o n and g r a p h i c s t y l e , o r i s t h i s graph r e p l a c e d by a p a r t i a l l y o r c o m p l e t e l y new form ( o b t a i n e d by a d d i t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t elements, e t c . ) ? 4. F i n a l l y , how was i t pronounced o r , a t l e a s t , can we pronounce o r read i t a c c o r d i n g t o i t s modern e q u i v a l e n t , once we have d e c i d e d upon t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n mentioned b e f o r e ? I f we cannot propose any r e a d i n g , then p o s s i b l y , by a p p r o x i m a t i o n , we can f i n d some s o r t of p h o n e t i c h i n t i n t h e s c r i p t , o r some p o s s i b l e cognates i n l a t e r c h a r a c t e r s o f which t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s known. (1974: 19-20)  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t some q u e s t i o n s remain even a f t e r t h e f o u r q u e s t i o n s have been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y answered, n o t a b l y , t h e problem o f p h o n e t i c - l o a n s . Even i f we know t h a t t h e w o r d - c h a r a c t e r e i t h e r a v e r b o r an a d j e c t i v e , corresponds  g r a p h i c a l l y t o the l a t e r form 7)  and p r o b a b l y had a p r o n u n c i a t i o n something l i k e *7"jwaY, t h e meaning o f t h i s word i n t h e O.B.I, has n o t been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e l u c i d a t e d . e x p r e s s i o n s such as next i-mao day'  ty (  Z> $P ) w i t h t h e phras 32  0083  ) do we know  Only by comparing  -  does n o t mean 'wing' b u t 'next'.  4  -  ( I n o t h e r i n s c r i p t i o n s J^? f u n c t i o n s as an  r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b w i t h a s t i l l undetermined meaning.)  The example shows t h a t an a n a l y s i s w h i c h r e v e a l s t h e o r i g i n a l o r p i c t o g r a p h i c meaning o f a graph(word) may s t i l l l e a v e u n d e c i d e d t h e q u e s t i o n of  t h a t graph's meaning i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n .  O.B.I, i s t h e d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n decipherment.  The c o n t e x t o f  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s does n o t  mean t h a t we can d i s p e n s e w i t h g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s i n our d e c i p h e r m e n t s .  A  c o r r e c t g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a base f o r an h y p o t h e s i s o f semantic e x t e n s i o n and more i m p o r t a n t l y , a h y p o t h e s i s o f p h o n e t i c - l o a n . (word) ^  n o t been i d e n t i f i e d as a p i c t o g r a p h o f a wing  Had t h e graph ) w h i c h has  a p r o n u n c i a t i o n something l i k e * r i 9 k , t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i t i s l o a n e d f o r ( * r i e k ) would be d i f f i c u l t  to substantiate.  F o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e s suggested by S e r r u y s and making use o f t h e methods proposed by T'ang Lan and Lung YU-ch'un, t h e a u t h o r o f t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s proposes t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l m e t h o d o l o g y , f o r t h e decipherment o f a r c h a i c C h i n e s e graphs.  -  5  -  PART ONE  I.  THE GRAPHIC ANALYSIS  B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o d e t a i l s , t h e r e i s a p o i n t t h a t s h o u l d be borne i n mind, i . e . , Shuo Wen has p r i m a r y importance  i n graphic analysis.  After  the d i s c o v e r y o f t h e O.B.I, and t h e r e c e n t advances i n t h e s t u d y o f b r o n z e i n s c r i p t i o n s , some s c h o l a r s have come t o b e l i e v e t h a t Shuo Wen can be discarded.  Needless  t o s a y , t h e e a r l i e r a graph i s , t h e more i t r e f l e c t s  t h e o r i g i n a l g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e ( t h e meaning r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e c o n c r e t e  lines)  I n t h i s a s p e c t , t h e d e f i n i t i o n s , e x p l a n a t i o n s o r a n a l y s e s g i v e n i n t h e Shuo Wen have t o be r e e v a l u a t e d and some o f them must be r e j e c t e d . the ' s m a l l s e a l forms' ") * ^ shu  "Iffa  Nevertheless,  , i n comparison t o t h e l i ^ s h u . f f i i ^ *  and k ' a i -  -g* , a r e t h e forms d e r i v e d most c l o s e l y from t h e b r o n z e i n s c r i p t i o n s  and t h e O.B.I. Shuo Wen s e r v e s as t h e s t e p p i n g s t o n e i n p r o c e e d i n g from t h e k ' a i - s h u form t o t h e bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e O.B.I.  Without the help of  the Shuo Wen, many more d i f f i c u l t i e s , p o s s i b l y i n s u r m o u n t a b l e i n t h e p a t h o f decipherment.  T a k i n g some s i m p l e graphs as examples:  the e x p l a n a t i o n and t h e ' s m a l l s e a l form'  ^  without  , t h e r e i s no t e l l i n g how much  time and energy i t would r e q u i r e f o r a s c h o l a r t o determine form  ones, would l i e  t h a t t h e O.B.I,  r e p r e s e n t s a hand and has t h e r e a d i n g i d e n t i c a l o r s i m i l a r t o t h e  word(graph) ^  .  To f i n d o u t t h a t t h e graph  j  (SW form  r e p r e s e n t s t h e word 'man' would a l s o t a k e c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e .  ^  ) but not  ^  And as a m a t t e r  of f a c t , most o f t h e a r c h a i c graphs w h i c h cause c o n t r o v e r s y do so due t o t h e l a c k of correspondent  forms i n t h e Shuo Wen.  There a r e o t h e r a r c h a i c  i n s c r i p t i o n s and w r i t i n g s t h a t s h o u l d a l s o be t a k e n as r e f e r e n c e s , s u c h as  -  |I$L  the Stone Drum I n s c r i p t i o n s -fl  6 -  and t h e bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s b o t h o f  which r e l y f o r t h e i r decipherment on comparison w i t h t h e Shuo Wen. Of c o u r s e , t h e a n a l y s e s g i v e n i n t h e Shuo Wen based on t h e ' s m a l l s e a l form' hundreds o f y e a r s l a t e r than t h e O.B.T. and bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s do n o t always a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e o r i g i n a l g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a r c h a i c graphs. er\  Sun Y i - j a n g and Lo Chen-yU have p o i n t e d out many e r r o r s i n Hstl Shen's interpretations.  F o r example, t h e graph (j^ i s i n t e r p r e t e d as " t h e  bottom f o u n d a t i o n , d e p i c t i n g t h e growing p l a n t s h a v i n g f o u n d a t i o n , so j j ^ i s t a k e n as f o o t " .  But t h e O.B.I, and b r o n z e i n s c r i p t i o n s show t h a t t h e t o p p a r t  o f d i i s o r i g i n a l l y t h e d e p i c t i o n o f a f o o t ( L i H s i a o - t i n g , 1965:449).  The  a b i l i t y t o make use o f t h e Shuo Wen w i t h o u t b e i n g m i s l e d by i t s e r r o r s depends on a c a r e f u l s t u d y o f a r c h a i c graphs t h e m s e l v e s . As f a r as ' s i m p l e graphs J$%£J  J^L ' a r e c o n c e r n e d , g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s  depends m a i n l y on comparison w i t h t h e ' s m a l l s e a l form' r e c o r d e d i n Shuo Wen. Thus JJ\ i s ' g r a i n ' , n o t 'water drop' o r ' b l o o d ' , because t h e r e i s a ' s m a l l seal for.' has graphs  | ,  %  i s ' r i c e - c r o p ' n o t ' t r e e ' , because t h e W l l s e a l for„'  f o r ' r i c e - c r o p ' and  f o r 'tree'.  As f o r t h e problem o f 'combined  ^ j f . 1^- ' , we have t o employ t h e method proposed by T'ang L a n , i . e . ,  the ' a n a l y s i s o f components  'TJ  fttj  graph i n t o d i f f e r e n t components,  ifftf %  '.  F i r s t we s t a r t by a n a l y s i n g a  then we t r y t o r e l a t e t h e s e components t o  l a t e r forms, i . e . , t h e s m a l l s e a l forms.  I n cases where l a t e r forms f o r each  component can be d i s c o v e r e d , we may t e n t a t i v e l y recombine t h e s e components i n t h e i r l a t e r forms and t r y t o l o o k f o r a c o r r e s p o n d i n g graph w i t h components i n t h e Shuo Wen.  identical  I f such a graph c a n be f o u n d , t h e g r a p h i c  a n a l y s i s o f an a r c h a i c graph can be s a i d t o have been completed.  I t goes  -  7  -  w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t such immediate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f an i n s c r i p t i o n a l w i t h a Shuo Wen  graph  graph i s n o t always p o s s i b l e .  I n c a s e s where t h e r e i s no s i m i l a r  form i n t h e Shuo Wen,  t h e hypo-  t h e t i c a l meaning o f a graph can o n l y be deduced from t h e g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e . A f t e r a h y p o t h e s i s i s p r o p o s e d , i t has t o be checked w i t h t h e c o n t e x t (and sometimes w i t h t h e c l a s s i c s ) .  F o r example, t h e r e i s a graph "^-^ w h i c h l a c k s  any p a r a l l e l i n t h e Shuo Wen.  T h i s graph appears i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e :  k i n g / p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say / have / harm / e i g h t / day  ^  1*.  4^  $*.  tt%  keng-hsU / h a v e / approach / c l o u d / from / e a s t /.go  %+.  f  * %* yJ* i t *  (£|f-f through  ifcrV ? f  ^  -•  TJu / a f t e r n o o n / a l s o / have / go out / ^4^c( I from / n o r t h d r i n k I at I r i v e r T'ung  426  The k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t e d and s a i d , " t h e r e w i l l be harm".  At the  e i g h t h day keng-hsU, t h e r e were a p p r o a c h i n g c l o u d s from t h e e a s t , t h e y went t h r o u g h t h e Wu Nu s t a r ; i n the a f t e r n o o n , t h e r e was a l s o an out g o i n g ^"^C The shape o f t h i s graph may  from the n o r t h , ( i t ) drank a t t h e r i v e r . ^  suggest many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i t l o o k s l i k e a  worm, a b r i d g e , a j a d e ornament huang  or a rainbow.  From t h e c o n t e x t ,  we know t h a t t h e c l a u s e ' t h e r e were a p p r o a c h i n g c l o u d s from t h e e a s t rfj 'occurs i n f r o n t o f t h e c l a u s e ' t h e r e was a l s o an o u t g o i n g from t h e n o r t h j j } ' > ^ & 7 ^ & * t f may be a n a t u r a l phenomenon.  ' and t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t ' tfc  '  The i n s c r i p t i o n a l s o r e a d s 'drank a t t h e r i v e r  ' w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t tfC& i s a k i n d o f a n i m a l .  I n the c l a s s i c s ,  -  8  -  we f i n d t h e f o l l o w i n g passages:  "Rainbow .... i s a l s o c a l l e d t i - t u n g , i t i s o f t e n seen a t the e a s t when t h e sun i s a t the west; i t i s because i t s i p s the m o i s t u r e o f t h e e a s t . " . j  «* ....  ,4U*tt a ( S h i h Ming Shu Cheng #f  £i#c|&,p.l5)  "Hung means t i - t u n g ( r a i n b o w ) , i t s shape i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a worm; (the graph) i s d e r i v e d from rj7 (worm) w i t h X- as p h o n e t i c . " (SW, p.680) "At t h a t t i m e , i t was r a i n i n g ; a rainbow descended and, a t t a c h i n g i t s e l f t o t h e p a l a c e , drank t h e water i n t h e well." ^ K f a  , t f l > 1 % %  (Han Shu,  Vol.9,  chdan 63, p.2757) "There a r e rainbows a t i t s n o r t h , each rainbow has two heads." (Shan H a i Ching C h i e n Shu Jl  &  «  $  #  L  Vol.3,  p.2)  From t h e Shuo Wen, we know t h a t a rainbow i s c o n s i d e r e d like  (the r a d i c a l i s ^  t o be worm-  ) ; from t h e Shan H a i C h i n g , we know t h a t t h e worm-  l i k e rainbow i s c o n s i d e r e d  t o have two heads; from t h e Han Shu and S h i h Ming,  we know t h a t t h e a n c i e n t s b e l i e v e d a rainbow d r i n k s w a t e r . l o o k s l i k e a rainbow w i t h two heads; t h e c l a u s e  The shape o f "$C$!  'drank a t t h e r i v e r ' a l s o  f i t s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f $ 3 . (rainbow) i n t h e c l a s s i c s .  C i t i n g t h e above  -  evidence,  9  s c h o l a r s such as YU Hsing-wu  -  ^ 4 *  (1940:15-19) proposed 2 t h a t t h i s graph s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as h u n g ^ J . . Such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n seems t o have answered proposed by S e r r u y s .  t h e f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s  That i s ,  1. The graph " ^ t y d e p i c t s a rainbow w i t h two heads. 2. The word ' ^  f u n c t i o n s as a noun i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  & 'ficft  ^  ( t h e r e was a l s o an o u t g o i n g  rainbow  from t h e n o r t h ) ' . > But can we say t h a t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l s o answers t h e t h i r d and fourth questions?  I n o t h e r words, can we s a y :  3. The graph '^C^  c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e l a t e r graph hung  w h i c h was c r e a t e d by t h e h s i e h - s h e n g method. 4. The graph "i^Cfi i s pronounced  i n approximation  as  *gewng/*kewng/*krewng? Q u e s t i o n s t h r e e and f o u r a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d .  Only a f t e r q u e s t i o n f o u r i s  answered can we say t h i s graph c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e l a t e r form t h i s graph i s concerned, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , q u e s t i o n s answered c o n c l u s i v e l y .  As f a r as  t h r e e and f o u r cannot be  Even i f we c a n a s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e graph  the concept 'rainbow', t h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t *gewng/*kewng/*krewng.  a s  3f  i s pronounced  There may be a synonym o f t h e word hung ^feX-,  a synonym w h i c h i s p h o n e t i c a l l y t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o hung represents  signifies  t h e same concept 'rainbow'.  and y e t  I n t h e Shuo Wen, E r h Ya and S h i h Tsu  (T'-ung, j g ^ ,". p.'. 86b-87), t h e r e a r e f o u r d i f f e r e n t words, some mono-  s y l l a b i c and some b i s y l l a b i c , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e concept rainbow:  *YjwaK7*xjwaY  *teSr-tewng %  *keat-nj i e r  A c c o r d i n g t o Kuo P'u If  f%(ErhYa.pJB)^  r e p r e s e n t i n g female rainbows.  (^  ff  ) and ^ a r e  words  The g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e o f "^p"^ does not show the  sex o f the r a i n b o w , so i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make a c h o i c e among the f o u r words. As a matter  of f a c t , even i f the g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e o f "7jff^ shows the s e x , f o r  i n s t a n c e , male, we s t i l l encounter the problem o f making a c h o i c e among the words ^3-  ,  ^  and ' j ^  .  I n i d e n t i f y i n g the graph (word) T J C ^ w i t h the  word ^X- , we a r e d o i n g no more than f i n d i n g a^" common word w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s the same concept as t h a t of  •  S i n c e the graph ^ I f " ^ does not show a  p h o n e t i c r e c o g n i z a b l e t o u s , t h e r e i s no way was  pronounced l i k e ^ ^  o r l i k e 1^  t o . t e l l whether the graph(word)  or l i k e  •  W i t h the l i m i t e d m a t e r i a l a c c e s s i b l e t o u s , i t seems we have t o be c o n t e n t w i t h the semantic  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "tfcty w i t h $JJ-  word r e p r e s e n t i n g the same concept,  and we  may  .  be p h o n e t i c a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o  , the most common J^^i  s h o u l d keep i n mind t h a t  T h i s s o r t of q u e s t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o the p r a c t i c e o f t r a n s c r i b i n g a r c h a i c graph i n t o a modern form. •yi* ' f o r c r e a t i n g a graph.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e r e a r e ' s i x methods  Although  c e r n i n g the o r i g i n a l meaning o f t h e s e  s c h o l a r s have d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s  con-  ' s i x methods' and some even q u e s t i o n  whether the ' s i x methods' ought not t o be r e e v a l u a t e d , i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  t h a t a word may  d i f f e r e n t methods.  an  be r e p r e s e n t e d by d i f f e r e n t graphs c r e a t e d by  The concept 'spoon' can be r e p r e s e n t e d by e i t h e r  ^  - 1 1 -  Ca p i c t o g r a p h ) o r  ( a h s i e h - s h e n g graph) b o t h o f w h i c h appear i n Shuo Wen.  I n many c a s e s , an a r c h a i c graph d i e s o u t and another graph comes i n t o e x i s t ence t o r e p r e s e n t t h e same word.  F o r example, t h e word 'a p i t ; t o b u r y ( i n  a p i t ) ' i s w r i t t e n as ± ^ ( t / i )  i n t h e SW.  I n t h e O.B.I., t h e r e i s a graph  ( S o r u i 214.3) w h i c h d e p i c t s an ox b u r i e d i n a p i t and i t i s f r e q u e n t l y used as a s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b r e p r e s e n t i n g  the ' s a c r i f i c e of v i c t i m s ' to d e i t i e s .  C i t i n g t h e s a c r i f i c i a l usage o f t h e word k'an ^y? i n t h e c l a s s i c s , e.g. Jjt ^%  t o bury the v i c t i m ) , Ch'iu H s i - k u e i  ^ ? It  proposes t h a t t h e graph  , where t h e component I J ( I I *kjam) appears t o be t h e p h o n e t i c , i s the p r i m i t i v e form o f t h e word fil,  *k'am (1980:162).  (See a l s o Yu Hsing-wu  1979:271.) A l t h o u g h t h e words L-J *kjam ( t ' a n pu 'ft %f  ) and  *k'gm ( c h ' i n pu  ) b e l o n g t o d i f f e r e n t a r c h a i c rhyming c a t e g o r i e s , they s h a r e a c l o s e phonological  relationship.  I n a d d i t i o n t o some cases o f i n t e r r h y m i n g  among  the words o f t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s , i t i s o c c a s i o n a l l y found t h a t words from one s i n g l e h s i e h - s h e n g s e r i e s appear i n b o t h c a t e g o r i e s , f o r example,  *gjam/*giam ^  -fife  *griam  ( t ' a n pu  *kj *k/  #p  *-am)  ( c h ' i n pu ?^,^P  *-gm)  And as C h ' i u ( i b i d . ) has s u g g e s t e d , t h e word jVj? * g r i a m ( t ' a n pu) 'to t r a p , to f a l l i n t o a p i t ' i s o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d t o bury ( i n a p i t ) ' s e m a n t i c a l l y . t o d e f i n e word jfe  *k'am(ch'in pu) 'a p i t , t o  ( C f . t h e SW (p.695) uses t h e word  *griam  *k'am.)  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e two w o r d s ( g r a p h s ) , we may a c c e p t C h ' i u ' s t h e o r y t h a t b o t h t$  and A  represent  -  the  1  2 -  'same' word i n terms of the c o n t e x t u a l and p h o n o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . In t r a n s c r i b i n g  graphs such as  , t h e r e a r e two t r a d i t i o n s :  one  i s m e c h a n i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , t h a t i s , t o a n a l y s e a graph i n t o components and then t o t r a n s c r i b e each of the components i n t o i t s modern form. ^/  would become 5&  •  The o t h e r way may be termed  'semantic  In t h i s case,  transcription',  t h a t i s , t o t r a n s c r i b e a graph i n t o a modern form w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a word assumed t o be i d e n t i c a l i n meaning.  I n t h i s way, ] ^ / becomes  jtfe  .  I f we  c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s to t e l l r e a d e r s what t h e 'meaning' o f a graph(word) priority.  i s , t h e 'semantic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ' s h o u l d have  But t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s drawback t o 'semantic  transcription'.  S c h o l a r s o f t e n d i f f e r i n o p i n i o n on what the meaning of a graph(word) i s . There may be d i f f e r e n t modern forms suggested f o r t r a n s c r i b i n g graph.  T h i s n o t uncommonly produces a c o n f u s i n g p i c t u r e .  an a r c h a i c  I n the present  t h e s i s , however, s i n c e t h e o r i g i n a l form i s g i v e n i n each c a s e , t h e n e c e s s i t y of a m e c h a n i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s n o t u r g e n t and the 'semantic i s employed.  I n some c a s e s , b o t h t r a n s c r i p t i o n s  are provided.  transcription'  -  II.  13  -  THE LIMITATION OF GRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND THE EXPLOITATION OF CONTEXT  G r a p h i c a n a l y s i s i s o n l y t h e f i r s t s t e p i n t h e decipherment o f O.B.I., f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f a g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s must be v e r i f i e d by some o t h e r means. I n t h e e a r l y s t a t e s o f O.B.I, s t u d i e s , t h e graph  was i n t e r p r e t e d as $2-  'to s t a n d ' s i n c e i t g r a p h i c a l l y resembles t h e ' s m a l l s e a l form'  ( JL. ' t o  stand').  of the  From t h e Sung Dynasty u n t i l the l a t e Ch'ing t h e graph ^  c y c l i c a l characters (kan-chih combinations Kuei  -$4:  ^  such as k u e i - t z u ^  \fa f &.) and t i n g - t z u  Sung K u e i  9 ^ ^fify  combinations  ^  ) was a n o t o r i o u s conundrum because  ^  (San T a i  /fa  , chflan 9, p. 14, Ke Po  ^  (San T a i  ^0  » chUan 9, p. 7, S h i h  w h i c h never o c c u r i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s i x t y  a r e sometimes found.  kan-chih  Only a f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e c o n t e x t where these  graphs o c c u r were s c h o l a r s a b l e t o r e j e c t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h r e l i e d s o l e l y . o n g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s and t o r e i n t e r p r e t and  ^  as  f?j ( t h e s i x t h t i - c h i h  graph).  a s  (king)  Not o n l y can a g r a p h i c  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n be v e r i f i e d o r r e f u t e d by means o f c o n t e x t , b u t t h e problem o f g r a p h i c v a r i a n t s can a l s o be s o l v e d by r e f e r e n c e t o c o n t e x t . known t h a t a r c h a i c graphs do n o t have s t a b l e forms.  The g r a p h i c v a r i a t i o n  i n a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s o f t e n causes c o n t r o v e r s y i n decipherment. the most f r e q u e n t l y encountered graphs  ^  f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t forms, e.g.  and  , ^  I t i s widely  One o f  ( pT t o d i v i n e ) i s found i n t h e  G r a p h i c e v o l u t i o n through t h e course o f time c e r t a i n l y has t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n and sometimes v a r i a n t s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t y l e o f an i n d i v i d u a l e n g r a v e r .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e graph  shapes even i n t h e same p e r i o d .  The case o f |)  J|  i s found i n d i f f e r e n t  does n o t cause much t r o u b l e  s i n c e i t h i g h l y f r e q u e n t l y appears i n v e r y l i m i t e d l i n g u i s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s .  -  14  -  But i n the case o f g r a p h i c a l l y s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h appear i n v a r i e d l i n g u i s t i c environments,  t h e p a l e o g r a p h e r must t a k e up the t a s k o f d e t e r -  m i n i n g whether o r not the v a r i a n t s a l l r e p r e s e n t t h e same word. words, the r e l a t i v e weight  In other  t o be p l a c e d on a s i n g l e s t r o k e o r component i s  a problem w h i c h cannot be s o l v e d by g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s a l o n e .  While  graphic  v a r i a n t s a r e v e r y common i n a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , we a l s o know t h a t two c r e t e graphs r e p r e s e n t i n g two s e p a r a t e words may  dis-  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by v e r y  minor g r a p h i c d i f f e r e n c e s . F o l l o w i n g a r e some examples:  1 . The forms ^  , ^  r e p r e s e n t the same word?  , ^  and lj<} o c c u r i n t h e O.B.I.  the c o n t e x t t h a t we can determine  god)  and  ^  ( W f  ^  (  ^  between ^  The  and  I t i s a f t e r c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  t h a t t h e f i r s t f o u r forms s h o u l d be  as g r a p h i c v a r i a n t s w h i l e the form 3 ^ and  as one o f the v a r i a n t s ?  o f an ' i n t e r m e d i a t e ' form ^ £  makes the problem more c o m p l i c a t e d .  ,  they  I f we i n t e r p r e t them as mere g r a p h i c v a r i a n t s o f  one word, then s h o u l d we a l s o v i e w t h e form o c c u r r e n c e i n the bronzes  Do  taken  r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t word.  f r e q u e n t l y appear i n f r o n t o f  ^  ,  ( - j ^ mountain, mountain  r i v e r , r i v e r god) and they can be preceded  by t h e n e g a t i v e  should n o t ) . On t h e o t h e r hand,  and i s n e v e r preceded by  'J  f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s between p e r s o n a l names .  T h e r e f o r e , we can p o s i t w i t h r e l a t i v e  f i d e n c e t h a t the f i r s t f o u r forms r e p r e s e n t t h e same word w h i l e  con-  represents  another word.  2.  I n the Shuo Wen  t h e r e i s a graph  ^  (  t r e e ) w h i c h can be  inter-  p r e t e d g r a p h i c a l l y as the l a t e r c o u n t e r p a r t o f e i t h e r o f the O.B.I, g r a p h s ) ^  -  or ^  .  15  -  S i n c e the g r a p h i c d i f f e r e n c e between  X  and  !^  i s very minor,  one might be i n c l i n e d t o t a k e t h e s e two as g r a p h i c v a r i a n t s .  Moreover,  the graph  and  /  &  has a n o t h e r form  another form ^  and  ^  .  , £  has another from  %  ^}  From the v i e w p o i n t o f g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s , the i d e n t i t y of  seems t o be u n q u e s t i o n a b l e .  However, the l i n g u i s t i c environments  i n w h i c h t h e s e two graphs appear a r e c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t .  The graph  appears e x c l u s i v e l y i n the k a n - c h i h c o m b i n a t i o n s , w h i l e the graph /fC appears i n k a n - c h i h c o m b i n a t i o n s .  and  T h e r e f o r e , we  and  ^  never  may  /j^ a r e d i f f e r e n t g r a p h s ( w o r d s ) .  Now we must d e a l w i t h the q u e s t i o n r a i s e d by Lung Yu-ch'en: are  ^  appears as a p l a c e name, a p e r s o n a l  name and as a v e r b w i t h an y e t undetermined meaning. conclude that  has  interchangeable i n ^  %  ,  ^  and ^  %^  Why  , though k e p t  q u i t e d i s t i n c t when a p p e a r i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y ? There i s a passage i n Lung's book w h i c h i s w o r t h q u o t i n g i n f u l l :  "....a s h a p e ( s t r u c t u r e ) w h i c h appears as a component may change i n t o a n o t h e r s h a p e ( s t r u c t u r e ) . T h e r e f o r e , cases where two graphs a r e k e p t c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t when they appear i n d e p e n d e n t l y , even though t h e y a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e when a p p e a r i n g as components, must be due t o the f a c t t h a t t h e way o f e n g r a v i n g ( a graph) was c o m p a r a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e such t h a t one was m i s i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h e o t h e r . (Such i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y ) s h o u l d n o t be adduced as e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t they a r e i d e n t i c a l graphs. For example, the graphs n and q a r e i d e n t i c a l ( i . e . r e p r e s e n t i n g , the i d e n t i c a l w o r d ) , and ^ | a r e i d e n t i c a l . However, (we) cannot equate t o -fcf- nor -"t^ t o j . I t i s o f t e n the case t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s between two graphs a r e c a r e f u l l y m a i n t a i n e d when t h e s e graphs a r e found i n d e p e n d e n t l y w h i l e they a r e o f t e n c o n f u s e d o r used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y when a p p e a r i n g as components i n o t h e r graphs. P e o p l e of the Han Dynasty w r o t e (the word) as , but (the word) j ^ . i s never w r i t t e n as p e o p l e of the T'ang Dynasty wrote (the word) J|| as (but t h e y n e v e r wrote the graph) t o ( r e p r e s e n t the,word) § .... The graph ^ i s d i f f e r e n t from 7) , the former i s the ' w o r d - c h a r a c t e r ( t o p r a y ) , t h e l a t t e r i s fi_, ( b r o t h e r ) . But a f t e r a d d i n g  -  16  -  the component (Q.B.I, form: "J ) , t h e graph ^ can be i n s c r i b e d as | | S i n c e t h e bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s extend o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f time and a r e s p r e a d over a wide a r e a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , such cases a r e so numerous t h a t they cannot be e x h a u s t i v e l y l i s t e d . For example, i n graphs such as , and , the shape Jc (the d e p i c t i o n o f a l e g and f o o t ) a r e a l l . engraved as (-fcr*woman); may be engraved as , the shape vt b e i n g confused w i t h *f . : . X i s d i f f e r e n t from ^ , b u t % % may be engraved as .'^^ , may be engraved as ffi- , and ^ as j % ." (1968:248-250)  In  s h o r t , we must be e x t r e m e l y c a u t i o u s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g two i n t e r -  changeable forms as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e same word i f such i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y e x i s t s o n l y when t h e y s e r v e as components b u t n o t as independent graphs. The c o n t e x t must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  3. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , most s c h o l a r s , Yeh YU-sen %\\%-%.  and L i H s i a o - t i n g ^7$%.  and  b o t h s t a n d f o r t h e word wu 5f Ch' i e n "jjjHJ  ( C f . t h e graphs  ; they a r e g r a p h i c v a r i a n t s .  |  and  See T ' i e h  1.9.3 and 3.9.1 f o r i n s c r i p t i o n s showing t h e  i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f t h e s e two graphs.)  The f i r s t p e r s o n t o s e r i o u s l y  q u e s t i o n t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was HsU C h i n - h s i u n g are  > Kuo Mo-jo  ( 1 9 6 5 : 5 8 7 - 5 9 2 ) among them, c o n s i d e r  as graphs r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e same word.  76.2;  5* j^o  based on t h e c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h  ^  H i s arguments  and / ^ appear.  A c c o r d i n g t o HsU,  t h e r e a r e t h r e e usages o f t h e graph (1)  a sacrifice  "f-r  to (It  £  M .  Tt  i%  « f >  1  ^  4  8  7  5  / Ancestor Hsin / exorcise / sickness i s ) t o A n c e s t o r H s i n t h a t we s h o u l d e x o r c i s e t h e s i c k n e s s ,  -  (2) an o f f i c i a l  /elk  17  -  title A  I  .  i-mao / c r a c k / T u i /  ..  T'ieh  M  v  183.4  / yU s h i h  1  .... yU s h i h .  (3) a t r i b e name Ku /€• 595 I / s h o u l d n o t / summon / YU Fang I s h o u l d n o t summon YU Fang. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e graph 1^, i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h u n t i n g and m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s , e.g.,  (4) wu-hsU / k i n g / c r a c k / t e s t / hunt / Ch'iang / go / come  have no, / d i s a s t e r / k i n g / p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say  A  t  f t  2  - 35  1  a u s p i c i o u s / t h i s / _y_U / c a p t u r e / game / f o u r  I n h u n t i n g a t C h ' i a n g , t h e r e w i l l n o t be d i s a s t e r i n g o i n g to and f r o .  The k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t e d and s a i d , " i t i s a u s p i c i o u s " .  I n t h i s c h a r i o t i n g , we c a p t u r e d  (The t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e word ^  /  f o u r game.  i n t h e above f o u r i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e  based on HsU's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . See HsU 1 9 6 3 : 4 - 7 . terms J f ^ ^  and Jpp ^  On t h e meaning o f t h e  , see page 2 8 - 3 3 o f t h i s c h a p t e r . )  e v i d e n c e , HsU p o s i t s t h a t  and  Based on t h i s  r e p r e s e n t two d i f f e r e n t words; t h e  18  -  former i s t h e e a r l i e r form o f  %&P £  yU-shih  ) and  I Chou Shu  ^  ^Jf  -  (to e x o r c i s e ) , ( i n the o f f i c i a l  (  i n t  h  e  t r i  t>  e  ) . The l a t t e r graph  name YU  Fang^Jf-^f  title  as found i n t h e $f  /£, i s t h e e a r l i e r form o f  w h i c h Shuo Wen d e f i n e s as 'to d r i v e a h o r s e At. &  H. •'.  HsU' s i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n appears t o be a c c e p t a b l e when t h e c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h they o c c u r a r e examined s u p e r f i c i a l l y , however, a more c a r e f u l s t u d y would show t h a t and  1^, have t h e tendency, though n o t n e c e s s a r i l y , t o appear i n d i f f e r e n t  periods.  A p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n based on Shima K u n i o ' s  Inkyo B o k u j i , S o r u i  f- ^jji ^  early inscriptions while  i l l u s t r a t e s that  . T  ^  , $  ,  , X  . ^  , p r i n c e s ? faf , f  As HsU n o t i c e d , t h e graph  predominates i n  i s more common i n l a t e r p e r i o d s .  forms and p e r s o n a l names found by t h e s i d e o f ?  jf^ ^jP |^  . , ?  , 9 W  The g r a p h i c  are frequently • ladies |  , diviners ^  f£,  , ^  ^  , JL. ,  $ and ^  #£. .  i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i c k n e s s and  d i s a s t e r s , s u b j e c t s most common i n d i v i n a t i o n s from t h e e a r l y p e r i o d s . the o t h e r hand, t h e graph  On  f r e q u e n t l y c o - o c c u r s w i t h g r a p h i c forms such , and w i t h common  e x p r e s s i o n s such as ' ^ to  t i it] ( ^2 ^  7 ^ have no d i s a s t e r s i n g o i n g  and f r o ) w h i c h a r e commonly encountered i n l a t e r p e r i o d  And as HsU p o i n t e d o u t ,  I £j i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d t ' i e n - h u n t i n g ( © ) , a t o p i c  not f r e q u e n t l y d i v i n e d about i n e a r l y p e r i o d i n s c r i p t i o n s . graph  Jjpp  inscriptions.  1^, v e r y f r e q u e n t l y c o - o c c u r s w i t h  Moreover, t h e  §i t o form t h e e x p r e s s i o n t z u yU  ( i n t h i s a f f a i r ) w h i c h i s one o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r a s s i g n i n g an i n s c r i p -  t i o n to the f i f t h period.  T h i s tendency towards complementary  distribution  ( i n terms o f p e r i o d ) o f t h e s e two graphs i s i g n o r e d by HsU.  I n f a c t , t h e r e a r e some i n s t a n c e s o f 1^, w h i c h appear i n environments  -  19  v e r y s i m i l a r to those o f the graph  zr  A. .  -  f o r example:  U/  ^,  _, C h ' i e n fl'l 1.35.5  A  i-ch'ou / crack / y u - s a c r i f i c e / exorcise / to  A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng(?) / behead / twenty /  aromatic-wine  thirty  We  s h o u l d p e r f o r m an y u - s a c r i f i c e , (and then) p e r f o r m an  exorcism  t o A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng(?) ( w i t h ) twenty beheaded v i c t i m s and t h i r t y goblets of aromatic wine.  (For t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the graph(word) f o o t n o t e s no.  A  l ' r~i  1 and  -J  .  , see Chapter  Four,  1'4.)  4j  ,  M  -  Ak  Hou  Shang % %  ±-  27.1  t i n g - c h ' o u / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / e x o r c i s e / t o  A n c e s t o r H s i n / t e n / penned-sheep We  s h o u l d p e r f o r m an e x o r c i s m t o A n c e s t o r H s i n ( w i t h ) t e n penned-  sheep .  A2  'M|  11 f *  t e s t / chia-ch'en / y u - s a c r i f i c e / e x o r c i s e  $ H  0 ci.) f  from /  (Shang)Chia  * ^  ft  1-2  -  20  -  On t h e day c h i a - c h ' e n , we s h o u l d p e r f o r m a y u - s a c r i f i c e , (and then) p e r f o r m an e x o r c i s m ( s t a r t i n g ) from  (Shang)Chia.  u  Ch'ien  6.13.1  k u e i - s s u / e x o r c i s e / P r i n c e She On a k u e i - s s u day, we s h o u l d e x o r c i s e P r i n c e She.  B l  'n  .  ting...  exorcise  tiv  K  Ts'un fir 2.224  ^  / c r a c k / Ch'tteh / t e s t / s h o u l d n o t  'T" / P r i n c e H u a i  We s h o u l d h o t e x o r c i s e P r i n c e H u a i .  n i g h t / Fu / t a k e charge o f / a f f a i r s  / r e c e i v e ....  At n i g h t when Fu t a k e s charge o f a f f a i r s ,  (we o r he) w i l l r e c e i v e  (assistance).  C  T'ieh  1  i-mao / c r a c k / T u i I ... I take charge o f / a f f a i r w i l l t a k e charge o f a f f a i r s .  ft  183. <  t  -  21  -  Thus we can see that two of the three usages of the graph mentioned above are shared by graph  I^  .  Now  the picture becomes c l e a r .  The  i s mainly associated with exorcising i l l n e s s , r e p e l l i n g other t r i b e s  and taking charge of a f f a i r s , a l l of which topics appear most frequently i n early period i n s c r i p t i o n s . graph  The graph  i s mainly associated with the  and occurs most frequently i n l a t e r period i n s c r i p t i o n s .  addition to t h i s , i n a much fewer number of cases,  I  In  shares the meaning of  (mostly i n the sense of 'exorcising', there are only two, out of twenty three sentences where (  ,  and  %^  co-occur).  If the 'subject of d i v i n a t i o n '  the seventh c r i t e r i o n i n periodization) can be used as a c r i t e r i o n  to periodize these i n s c r i p t i o n s , the sentences i n which sense of 'exorcising' might be c l a s s i f i e d as belonging Thus we may  hypothesize  i s used i n the to the early periods.  that these two graphs are by and large graphic  variants each representing two words: (1) to exorcise, to repel (both derived from the basic sense go  to  against)  (2) to take charge of ^  predominates i n the early periods while  I ^, occurs i n the early periods  but does not come to predominate u n t i l l a t e r periods. figure describing the way and  The following i s a  i n which the graphic and semantic changes of  l£j might have taken place: i.  to exorcise, to repel  ->  (to exorcise, to repel)  (to take charge of)  •  to take charge of  - 22 -  The term (affair)  can be u n d e r s t o o d l i t e r a l l y as ' i n t h i s t a k i n g charge of ->in t h i s a f f a i r ' w h i c h i s d e r i v e d from the meaning of  (to t a k e charge of a f f a i r s ) .  %^ (Jl)  The p r a c t i c e of u s i n g ^ ^ i n the sense of 'to  e x o r c i s e ' became r a r e i n l a t e r p e r i o d s perhaps due t o a change o f r e l i g i o u s concepts.  The l a t e r k i n g s d i d n o t b e l i e v e i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e x o r c i s m  as much as t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , thus we may than r e l i g i o u s .  suggest t h e y a r e more r a t i o n a l  The f a c t t h a t t h e s a c r i f i c e s t o one's a n c e s t o r s become mere  f o r m a l i t i e s a l s o s u g g e s t s t h i s movement towards r a t i o n a l i t y . A new meaning 'to welcome' appears i n t h e b r o n z e i n s c r i p t i o n s ( i n f a c t , t h e r e a r e some cases i n the O.B.I, where the graph  can a l s o be  i n t e r p r e t e d as 'to welcome', but we l a c k a l a r g e r c o n t e x t t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to choose).  The graph i s sometimes engraved as  The  meaning 'to welcome' i s a l s o d e r i v e d from the b a s i c sense 'to go a g a i n s t , t o go i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n ' . ni  jj^  Some Chinese words, such as y i n g  and  , w h i c h i n modern Chinese have t h e meaning 'to welcome' a l s o  o r i g i n a l l y had the sense 'to go i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n ( t o meet so and so The d e f i n i t i o n 'to c o n t r o l a h o r s e ' w h i c h i s g i v e n i n t h e Shuo Wen graph  ('<{t^) i s g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d b y . ! ^  I n the b r o n z e i n s c r i p t i o n s , 'to t a k e charge o f p r e v a i l i n g usages of. the graph "T^ The problem o f  and  (  f o r the  ) i n the b r o n z e s .  and 'to welcome' a r e the  and j£j .  1^, i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t w h i l e u s i n g t h e c o n t e x t  as a c r i t e r i o n i n decipherment, t h e r e a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t must a l s o be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  -  III.  23  -  THE USE OF SOURCES OTHER THAN THE ARCHAIC INSCRIPTIONS  The decipherment o f t h e graphs  $rf\> % Sj^ and  is  m a i n l y d e t e r m i n e d by means o f t h e O.B.I, c o n t e x t w h i c h may be termed ' i n t e r n a l evidence'.  We may, on t h e o t h e r hand, o b t a i n e v i d e n c e from  l i t e r a r y s o u r c e , e.g. t h e c l a s s i c s , w h i c h can be used as e x t e r n a l e v i d e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g i s an example showing how t h e c o n t e x t o f words o c c u r r i n g i n the  c l a s s i c s can be made use o f i n decipherment: The b r o n z e graph  , w h i c h l o o k s almost i d e n t i c a l t o t h e graph '(j?  ( - j ^ y e l l o w ) i n t h e Shuo Wen, f r e q u e n t l y appears i n t h e terms r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i n g s bestowed t o t h e v a s s a l s from t h e emperor:  San T a i 2_ <f^ , chtlan 9, P.20) ^ , A#  'fv  f  t  f  /|C ^  f # ^ W  < S '** i b i d . , p.38)  H>i  f  (Fan Sheng K u e i - | £ 0£_ i b i d . , p.37) i b i d . , p.37)  / (  Jfe  / h ^ ' /tjr h fJ gf .r ^ ^ g . ^ v  I f t h e graph(word) In the L i C h i  S u n  K  u  e  i  i s t a k e n l i t e r a l l y , i t would n o t make much sense. , a passage o f t h e y d t s a o  states,  "On t h e f i r s t o c c a s i o n , ( t h e emperor) bestows an orange s a c r i f i c i a l knee cap and a b l a c k t o p gem o f t h e g i r d l e pendant; on t h e second o c c a s i o n , (the emperor) bestows a r e d s a c r i f i c i a l knee  - 24 cap and a b l a c k top gem of the g i r d l e pendant; on the t h i r d o c c a s i o n , ( t h e emperor) bestows.a r e d s a c r i f i c i a l knee cap and a green top gem of the g i r d l e pendant".  (SSCCS, chuan 30, The graphs (words) 'knee cap'.  *pjwet and  f j l *p'wat b o t h r e p r e s e n t the same t h i n g  Thus, i n t h e c l a s s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s 3y  and the b r o n z e p h r a s e s a r e almost i d e n t i c a l .  ^  ^  ^  /  ^ j /  ^  M>  ^  , the f i r s t t h r e e words  Most s c h o l a r s i n t e r p r e t the graph(word)  as a p h o n e t i c - l o a n f o r  p.7)  ^3  *gwang  *grang i n t h e c l a s s i c s .  Once t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , we have a c l u e t o i n t e r p r e t the term l& graph  £  ( K ' a i T i n g j|£  ^  .  San T a i  l o o k s v e r y much l i k e the graph 7^  not make sense.  ) has an a l t e r n a t i v e form /\ /  evolution i s  • ^  » hut a term such as  T'ang Lan n o t i c e s t h a t the graph t a i  s m a l l s e a l form:  the case o f  , chtian 4, p.33).  >  f]_j where  (bone form:  i n the Shuo Wen.  /t^ ,  The  , we would e x p e c t t o f i n d a graph something l i k e * /  as  /^v does  Thus T'ang Lan proposes t h a t f\j  graph  I f a s i m i l a r g r a p h i c e v o l u t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e i n  would p r o b a b l y , i n t u r n , e v o l v e i n t o the shape f\ i n t h e Shuo Wen.  The  (  which  ft_> *kang) as r e c o r d e d s h o u l d be  *kang i s a n o t h e r p h o n e t i c - l o a n f o r wj  transcribed  *grang  (1965:21A).  As a m a t t e r of f a c t , the g r a p h i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n proposed by T'ang Lan, though i t sounds r e a s o n a b l e , l a c k s s o l i d e v i d e n c e s i n c e t h e form * i s found nowhere i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s .  B u t , T'ang Lan has p o i n t e d o u t , the  s t r o n g e s t e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s not t h e g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e of ^  b u t the comparison w i t h the p h r a s e $n  $Jln  the c l a s s i c s  (ibid.).  -  The graph  25  -  may s e r v e as a n o t h e r example t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e u s e o f  c l a s s i c a l p a r a l l e l s i n decipherment.  T h i s graph appears i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  clauses:  ^4  1^  >f  /f  ^ th± 1= ' \t  t  h  CK'e T i n g  #  San T a i ==./ft*  l^t^a^L D /  (Mao Rung T i n g  *P  <t  'A jf^  , chUan 4, p.46)  i b i d . , chUan 4, p.40)  (S/ffl  ( C h i n Rung An f i b i d , chUan 18, p. 13)  «1  a  A r g u i n g from c o n t e x t , Wu Ta-ch'eng ifc  n  a  s  %  proposed t h a t t h i s  graph s h o u l d have t h e meaning 'to p u t i n t o o r d e r ' ;^ j ^ , and i n t e r p r e t s i t as t h e o r i g i n a l form o f t h e word n i e h ^^jp- w h i c h HsU Shen d e f i n e s as ' p u n i s h ment  ^  -fc/ ' (1918: V o l . 5 , p.5, Mao Rung T i n g ) .  I f g r a p h i c and s e m a n t i c  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e t a k e n s e p a r a t e l y , Wu's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e . However, t h e graph  r a r e l y appears i n t h e c l a s s i c s .  Shuo Wen's a n a l y s i s ,  According to the  /j? f u n c t i o n s as t h e p h o n e t i c , so i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n s  s h o u l d be something l i k e * s j i a t w h i c h may be r e l a t e d t o t h e word ^ In the c l a s s i c s ,  ^  o f t e n has t h e meaning 'punishment'.  Whether  *ngia_t. and  ^  b o t h o r i g i n a t e d from t h e same word stem, and how t h e meaning o f 'to p u t i n t o o r d e r ' and t h e meaning o f 'punishment' a r e r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r a r e q u e s t i o n s Wu f a i l s t o answer. Ruo-wei •  0  L i u Hsin-yUan  /c," >/j|;(.1902: V o l . 2 , p.33) and Wang  (1968: V o l . 6 , p.261) t a k e a d i f f e r e n t approach i n i n t e r -  p r e t i n g t h i s graph.  They propose a meaning i d e n t i c a l t o Wu's b u t a d i f f e r e n t  p r o n u n c i a t i o n , w h i c h i s based on a comparison w i t h t h e c l a s s i c s :  -  26  -  ffijL  tff  (Mao Rung T i n g  X__  (SSTC 3 6  "... and a i d t h e i r s o v e r e i g n . "  (K'o T i n g  1SL  (SSTC 3 4  X_  )  )  (Legge, p.479)  1£ I? ^. *P 1^  0 2 8 9  '£ $f  fjfay  Q 1 7 1  )  " m a i n t a i n e d and r e g u l a t e d t h e d y n a s t y o f Y i n . " (Legge, p.480)  \%  1^  ft  5C  1-  H  ®  ill  '  ( C h i n Rung An f" £ J  )  ( S h i h C h i n g HY 37/172/5)  "May ye p r e s e r v e and m a i n t a i n your p o s t e r i t y . " (Legge, p.273) Wang s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e graphs: "... t h i s (graph ) i s t h e o r i g i n a l form o f t h e graphs i )C_ and 1 w h i c h appear i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s . I n t h e s h i h ku jffi |£ ( o f E r h Ya §f ) , we f i n d , ' i X_ means t o manage, t o g o v e r n , t o a s s i s t and t o r e a r ' . I n t h e Shuo Wen, ' i _ means t o manage, t o govern; i t d e r i v e s from pi (as t h e s i g n i f i c ) and has i X . as t h e p h o n e t i c ' I n t h e YU shu J% <g ( o f Shang Shu # ), i t says, ' t h e r e a c a p a b l e man, t o whom I can a s s i g n t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f t h i s c a l a m i t y ? ' T h i s shows t h a t t h e graph i ^ X L . a p p e a r i n g i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s i s w r i t t e n i_ ^ i n the k u wen ^ found i n t h e w a l l . The graph 1^ ^ i s probably a d i s t o r t i o n of . Due t o t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s in structure, ^ became ^ at f i r s t . S i n c e i ^ -jf^ and pi a r e d i f f e r e n t i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n , l a t e r p e o p l e add i yL__ ( t o ) as t h e p h o n e t i c '  vtfc m  If  ,% t ,  # f  *  ^  f £  27  £  £  :  X.. £ *i *  %^  -  C l . #f  t,  , ;e )C % M  H A A.  t *  , H  *  X  # ^ /f A. #  * P K. «A ^ 7  t;  .  ;  ft.  »* tym. A ft  If  ^  -  ^  £ ,  4  #  ^  ^  $  £  ** #  if  (1968: V o l . 6 , p.261)  I n v i e w o f t h e c o n t e x t and t h e p o s i t i o n s where t h e graphs ( ^$f' ) and appear, t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e same word.  Without t h e  comparison w i t h t h e c l a s s i c s , even i f we can propose t h e meaning  'to p u t i n t o  o r d e r ' f o r t h e graph(word) pronunciation.  as Wu does, we can h a r d l y d i s c o v e r i t s c o r r e c t  And such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n would be i m p o s s i b l e i f we d i d n o t  disregard the graphic d i f f e r e n c e  between It  X~ ( i t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g  and t h a t .X^ i s g r a p h i c a l l y c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from which i s w r i t t e n  .  Even t h e graph  i n t h e Shuo Wen, i s n o t v e r y s i m i l a r t o % ^  ).  ,  Failure  to i d e n t i f y )>j? w i t h .X^ would make t h e c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e morphol o g i c a l (and s e m a n t i c ) r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e graphs difficult.  , X^. and  ^  The word % ^ b e l o n g s t o t h e a r c h a i c rhyme c a t e g o r y ydeh jcj  d i f f e r i n g s l i g h t l y i n t h e m e d i a l . The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f ^ i s * n g i a t andX* - a t and X^. b e l o n g s t o c h i * - a r ; t h e y b o t h have t h e i n i t i a l *ng- w h i l e i s *ngj a r . Based on t h e common m o r p h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s o + jut  c a l l e d ch'd-sheng -Z-. n f both *ngiat ^  and non-ch'U-sheng words, one may h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t  and * n g i a r X  come from a s i n g l e word stem ( a c c o r d i n g t o  P u l l e y b l a n k (1973: 112-114)., some o f t h e M i d d l e C h i n e s e ch'tl-sheng words come from words w i t h an m o r p h o l o g i c a l marker *-s added.) * N g i a t »Jjt appears n o m i n a l l y and has t h e meaning and has t h e meaning  'punishment' w h i l e * n g i a r  ' t o p u t i n t o o r d e r ' w h i c h may be m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y (and  s e m a n t i c a l l y ) d e r i v e d from t h e word  'punishment'.  found i n t h e b r o n z e s i s a p p a r e n t l y p o l y p h o n i c . h a v i n g t h e meaning  appears v e r b a l l y  Thus, t h e graph(word)  I t i s pronounced * n g i a r when  ' t o p u t i n t o o r d e r ' , b u t i t p r o b a b l y a l s o has t h e pronun-  -  28  -  V  ciation  *ngiat  form  s i n c e i t can f u n c t i o n as t h e phonetic  ) and as t h e p h o n e t i c  t u n a t e l y , whether there *s-  i s any m o r p h o l o g i c a l  Unfor-  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the and ^  since ^  initials appears  a s a s u r n a m e o r t h e name o f a k i n d o f g r a s s .  a mistake f o r  either The  (Shuo Wen  ).  T h e r e i s n o e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t Wang K u o - w e i ' s h y p o t h e s i s is  r  ^  (Shuo Wen f o r m Jf^  of *sjiat  and *ng- i s undeterminable i n t h e case o f ^  only  of *ngiat  ^  (  or^  graph  to put into order,  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from  When c i t i n g there  with  §^  or  (j ? ^ ) .  , which f r e q u e n t l y has t h e meaning  punishment', as t h e s i g n i f i c  graph  inscriptions,  easily  i s engraved as  ) r e c o r d e d i n t h e Shuo Wen may h a v e b e e n n e w l y c r e a t e d  as phonetic  the polyphonic  .I n t h e bronzes, t h e graph  , both s t i l l  ( ^  combining  )  that  i n order  by  'king,  to disambiguate  .  t h e c l a s s i c s as evidence i n d e c i p h e r i n g i s one i m p o r t a n t p o i n t  archaic  t h a t must be b o r n e i n m i n d ;  that  is,  one must n o t o v e r - e m p h a s i z e s u p e r f i c i a l  s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e c l a s s i c s  and  the archaic  take t h e decipherment o f t h e  (  word  HsU  ( \ty  tSL/^  inscriptions. ,  ^  ) as an example:  Chin-hsiung )  a  s  a  n  We may a g a i n  %^ i ^ , ^ p t  official  title  interprets  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n ;yji s h i h  (1963:7).  This  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n n o r i s i t t h e most c o n v i n c i n g The  words  hu  2p  ^  one when a p p l i e d  a r e frequently preceded, d i r e c t l y  ( t o summon, t o c a l l  upon) o r l i n g  i snot the only  / crack  / test  / order  ^  possible  t o a l l cases.  o r i n d i r e c t l y , by t h e verb  (to order).  F o r example,  Cho hsin-ssu  ^  / many o r m a s s e s / _yjl / s h i h  1  -  The  29  -  c o n s t r u c t i o n 'y_U s h i h ' i s open t o two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h e above  sentence:  t h e f i r s t i s , as HsU s u g g e s t e d , an o f f i c i a l  t h i s suggestion,  t h e t r a n s l a t i o n would be ' t o o r d e r  title.  I f we f o l l o w  t h e many y U - s h i h ' .  However, such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n goes c o n t r a r y t o t h e preponderant s y n t a c t i c patterns  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e v e r b s hu  expressed.  ^  and l i n g  when an o b j e c t i s  These two v e r b s a r e g e n e r a l l y used i n t h e f o l l o w i n g two p a t t e r n s :  (1) hu  ^  and l i n g ^  as t h e f i r s t v e r b a l element i n a ' p i v o t a l  c o n s t r u c t i o n ' , i . e . , t h e o b j e c t o f t h e v e r b hu *f  or l i n g ^  i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r b , e.g.,  " M$  f *  $ 4  f '4  t e s t / summon / Lady Ching / m i l l e t / r e c e i v e / h a r v e s t (If)  we summon Lady Ching t o p l a n t m i l l e t , we w i l l  receive  harvest. C h i n <fc 645  k i n g / should not / order  / P i / l e a d / masses / a t t a c k / Hu(?)  t * Statelet Hou The  16.10  k i n g s h o u l d n o t o r d e r P i t o l e a d t h e masses t o a t t a c k t h e  Hu(?)  Statelet.  I n some c a s e s , t h e n o u n ( o b j e c t - s u b j e c t ) e.g.,  Shang %&Jl  between t h e v e r b s i s u n e x p r e s s e d ,  -  ft  30  *  -  ^  £  c h  '  i e n  f'\  ' '  3  29  7  t e s t / summon / m i l l e t / r e c e i v e / h a r v e s t ( I f ) we summon (somebody) t o p l a n t m i l l e t , we w i l l  receive  a (good) h a r v e s t .  (2) Hu ^ M  and l i n g  J  ^  f o l l o w e d by a c l a u s e , e.g.,  t * ^ A '  .-=5  ^  ?  4 *  *  t e s t / next / chia-hsU / River(god) / not / order  -  *  / rain  On t h e n e x t c h i a - h s f l day, t h e R i v e r ( g o d ) w i l l n o t o r d e r ( i t ) to r a i n . I.  ~L>  3121  I n t h e O.B.I, l a n g u a g e , i t i s n o t o f t e n t h a t a p e r s o n a l o b j e c t a l o n e f o l l o w s the verb hu ^  or l i n g ^  .  I n such r a r e c a s e s t h e p a t t e r n i s u s u a l l y as  follows: ' \% I ^ M l  + p e r s o n a l name +  ^  /  t~  /  ( I t i s / i s n o t so and so t h a t we s h o u l d But we do n o t f i n d any cases o f * &  / ^  (*It i s / i s n o t t h e y U - s h i h t h a t we s h o u l d  ^  call  ' upon/order.)  + k\\ %^ +  I ^  '  c a l l upon/sommon.)  Though i t cannot be adduced as an e v i d e n c e t o r e f u t e Hsu's a n a l y s i s , t h e absence o f t h e p a t t e r n ' *  {*jb / ^  &  +  ^  +  I ^  1  doubt on t h e n o m i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  •  o b l i g e d t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e sentence ' ^ as  'we s h o u l d o r d e r t h e masses t o t a k e charge o f a f f a i r s . '  tigate the construction  s t a r t i n g w i t h the bronzes:  cast c e r t a i n  ^  So we a r e Hrf  ^'  Now l e t us i n v e s -  -  I n t h e Ta Yd T i n g  7^  31  -  (San T a i £. /ft' , chuan 4, p . 4 2 ) , we f i n d  the f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e :  'In t a k i n g charge o f a f f a i r s , I n t h e C h ' i Hou Hu ff  ^  v  (you) do n o t dare t o i n d u l g e  i n wine.'  % ( i b i d . , chUan 12, p . 3 3 ) :  ^ 4 « r ?  'Thereby, I t a k e charge o f t h e emperor's  affairs.'  I n t h e O.B.I., t o i n t e r p r e t 'yU s h i h ' as ' t a k i n g charge o f a f f a i r s ' makes b e t t e r sense t h a n t a k i n g i t as an o f f i c i a l t i t l e i n many c a s e s , e.g. CD  H |  7 f  „ $h  t e s t / c a l l upon /  A  K  \  %i  $  ( ? ) / t o go i n t o / t a k e charge o f / a f f a i r H s U # | 5.16.6  '(We s h o u l d ) summon ^£$L(?) t o come i n t o ( t h e c o u r t o r t h e c a p i t a l ) t o t a k e charge o f a f f a i r s . ' The v e r b 'j_u  1  n  a  s  t  w  o  common usages i n t h e O.B.I., namely,  a. /\_ has t h e meaning ' t o go i n t o ' as i n s e n t e n c e s such as A  3- K t h e k i n g goes i n t o ) and  (  5-  A  ( £. \  $1  the k i n g goes i n t o Shang). b.  /v! has t h e meaning 'to b r i n g i n ' as i n s e n t e n c e s such as ^  A  To i n t e r p r e t '  E  (  ' t  ^ K.  5- Ch'Ueh b r o u g h t i n t h r e e ) . ^  %  as ' t o summon  y { l - s h i h ' does n o t make much sense.  ( ? ) t o go i n t o  To i n t e r p r e t i t as 'to c a l l upon  C?) t o b r i n g i n an o f f i c i a l iyti-shih a l s o sounds v e r y odd, s i n c e the o b j e c t s b e i n g b r o u g h t i n a r e g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d as i m p e r s o n a l ,  -  32  -  such as t u r t l e p l a s t r o n s o r s a c r i f i c i a l  victims.  (2) t*.  &  $  %4b  |  C h i h Hsu  19  i n . / h e r e / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / Mountain(god)/  t a k e charge o f / a f f a i r \ We s h o u l d p e r f o r m a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e t o t h e Mountain(god)! and t a k e charge o f a f f a i r s h e r e . The o n l y case i n w h i c h the term y U - s h i h as a n o m i n a l phrase i s C h i a ^  ^  ^  has t o be i n t e r p r e t e d  1636:  perhaps / c a l l upon / n o r t h / y d - s h i h / p r o t e c t We s h o u l d perhaps c a l l upon t h e n o r t h y U - s h i h t o p r o t e c t . .. Even i n t h i s c a s e , t h e term y u - s h i h  ^  would  b e t t e r be a n a l y s e d  as 'the one who t a k e s charge o f . . . ' r a t h e r t h a n . t h e same o f f i c i a l t i t l e as r e c o r d e d i n the Chou L i (HY 5/9a). Ch'U W a n - l i c o n s i d e r s the  term y ! l - s h i h i n t h i s , i n s c r i p t i o n r e f e r t o ' o f f i c i a l s i n g e n e r a l  % . ->1 3 §  %  $L  (1961:216).  Hsu a l s o i n t e r p r e t s t h e term jo  ^  as a t r i b e name (see a l s o Kuo Mo-  1977:270), an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based on t h e comparison w i t h a passage i n t h e  I Chou Shu  vSLlJ] 1g  which s t a t e s , ^  -  33  -  I n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  HsU has n o t t a k e n  into consideration the l i n g u i s t i c behaviour of the construction  *jf and  ^  the words co-occurt-ing-..with' i t . ;  £-rl4hf  1 (.  £  ^'f  ^fttfi  chi-mao / c r a c k / k i n g / o r d e r  Wai ^  / yU f a n g  30  -J7 f r e q u e n t l y takes a noun c l a u s e as an o b j e c t o r  Since the verb l i n g  appears as t h e f i r s t v e r b a l element i n a ' p i v o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ' , t h e t r a n s l a t i o n 'the k i n g w i l l order  (so and s o ) t o r e p e l t h e t r i b e ' i s more a p p r o -  p r i a t e than t h e t r a n s l a t i o n 'the k i n g w i l l  ^  T  *\JL U  ting-ch'ou  o r d e r YU Fang.'  iktrt*  TVui ^  / c r a c k / y_U f a n g  887  I f t h e term yU f a n g i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a t r i b e name, t h e above s e n t e n c e l a c k s a v e r b , a r a t h e r uncommon c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e O.B.I. a r e some a b b r e v i a t e d  rarely  crack'.  there  s e n t e n c e s where t h e v e r b i s u n e x p r e s s e d , b u t most o f  these v e r b l e s s sentences a l s o abbreviate 'ting-ch'ou  (To be s u r e ,  the ch'ien-tz'u  JEf'J ffl^ > e.g.  I n c a s e s where t h e c h ' i e n - t z ' u i s k e p t , t h e v e r b i s  omitted.)  The problems o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s yU s h i h and yU f a n g have i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t i n making use o f t h e c l a s s i c s , one s h o u l d n o t r e l y on s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e c l a s s i c s and the,,0.B.I. w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e O.B.I.  -  IV.  34  -  THE EXPLOITATION OF AND ITS LIMITATION  'WORD FAMILIES'  I n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of the O..B.I. s t u d i e s Chinese s c h o l a r s had a tendency t o put too much emphasis on g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s .  They s i n g l e d out a  graph and t r i e d t o d i s c o v e r what t h e i n d i v i d u a l g r a p h i c elements a c t u a l l y represent.  U n d e n i a b l y , t h i s i s the f i r s t s t e p and an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p r o c e d u r e  i n decipherment.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s i n g l e s t r o k e can r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s o b j e c t s .  The s t r o k e —  can r e p r e s e n t the s u r f a c e o f the e a r t h as i n graphs  f i e f ) and  ^-  (  graph  ( -7v_ man)  ^  J[  (  s o i l , e a r t h ) ; i t can a l s o r e p r e s e n t a h a i r p i n as i n the o r m e r e l y a l i n e showing t h e a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p  between two o b j e c t s as i n graphs  v>  ( __t_ above) and  /  ^  ( f\  below). ja,  r e l a t i o n s h i p between two components of a graph can e i t h e r be h u i - i e.g.  ( d e p i c t i n g an ox i n a r i v e r , g e n e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as ch'en  or hsieh-sheng ^ s i g n i f i c and  "f"  e  (  * 8 - ff"^  The ,  y/jj ) ,  (where w a t e r / r i v e r ( s i g n i f y i n g f l o o d ) i s  ) i s p h o n e t i c , g e n e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as t s a i  ^  ).  Simply l o o k i n g a t a graph may y i e l d v a r i o u s g r a p h i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w h i c h have e i t h e r t o be s u b s t a n t i a t e d or d i s p u t e d . making use o f c o n t e x t , t h e s t u d y of 'word f a m i l i e s ' may  In a d d i t i o n to  corroborate  an  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a i d the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n h i s attempt t o grasp the o r i g i n a l sense o f a graph whose meaning has undergone  subsequent  The decipherment of the v e r b a l meaning of LjJ  t  change.  one o f t h e most  f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d graphs i n the O.B.I., r e l i e s h e a v i l y on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e n o t i o n o f word f a m i l y . d i f f e r e n t environments:  The graph(word)  may  occur i n  -  1. a f t e r the n e g a t i v e wu • j ' C -p  y(l  fy)  35  ( ^  -  ) ; i n f r o n t of the p r e p o s i t i o n  ) ; f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n c e s t r a l names and  a n i m a l names• 2. between numbers ( a f t e r the f i r s t number, t h e r e may be a c o u n t e r , e.g. to  I'A.  ^  ) ; i n t h i s environment, i t i s comparable  the word ju_  X  in classical  texts.  3. i n f r o n t o f a noun; i n t h i s environment, i t i s comparable t o the  word _yu.  cases such as yu Chou  i n  and yu chung "1^ ^  (SSTC 1 0  L  Q 0 8 6  (SSTC  ) in classical  ^^QQ^^  texts.  4. between a v e r b and a noun; i n t h i s environment, i t i s i n t e r changeable w i t h t h e graph(word) versus ^  ^  X. (  ) , e.g.  '"^C  .  5. i n f r o n t o f a n o m i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and a p p e a r i n g as the c o u n t e r p a r t of the word wang HC"C Ai^i)  r*f*? v e r s u s to the word ju_ 7^  i n t u i - c h e n "^f  jf)  pairs,  e.g.  ; i n - t h i s environment, i t i s comparable  ( t o have, t h e r e i s ) i n c l a s s i c a l  6. i n f r o n t of a n o m i n a l i z e d v e r b , e.g. *Ji 4"J' »  ^  texts. J i n this  environment, i t i s comparable t o c o n s t r u c t i o n s such as  ^-j  (Tso Chuan HY 4 5 / f e 1 8 / 1 & ) i n the c l a s s i c s . Based on the usage d e f i n e d i n 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, the graph(word) s h o u l d have a p r o n u n c i a t i o n i d e n t i c a l o r v e r y s i m i l a r t o e i t h e r y u *^E) ^  .  Based on t h e e v i d e n c e of 1, ^  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c l o s e t o ju scholars. the  ~fj^ o r _yu_  LjJ ^  a s  a  ^ o r _yu  i s probably a ' s a c r i f i c i a l verb'.  s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b and assignment o f a r e a d i n g  t o i t was an achievement of t h e e a r l y O.B.I,  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they f a i l e d t o suggest a more c o n c r e t e meaning f o r  graph(word)  LjJ ^ o t h e r than t h e vague ' s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b ' .  -  S i n c e the c o n t e x t where  4^i  36  appears does not p r o v i d e any c l u e t o  a more c o n c r e t e meaning o f t h e graph ^ word f a m i l y o f w h i c h  ^  -  i s a member.  » the o n l y method i s t o study Unfortunately,  n e v e r f u n c t i o n s as  a p h o n e t i c i n o t h e r graphs.  Owing to t h e , f a c t t h a t  v e r y c l o s e to yvi  X _ ( t o be more p r e c i s e , . 4^  w i t h y_u  and y_u  ^  has a p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s interchangeable  ) ^ i n many c o n t e x t s ) , we might t e n t a t i v e l y group [il  f a m i l y o f w h i c h y_u  and y_u  A. *°Yjw3Jf  the  i n t o the word  a r e members.  a c o n j u n c t i o n 'and' (-—  '*two t h i n g s h e l d t o g e t h e r '  *°Yjway  t o have, to e x i s t , t o p o s s e s s 4-—  *°yjw3^  friends  j>W  '*to h o l d '  d e f i n e s , 'those who  share  a  common g o a l a r e f r i e n d s ; ( t h e g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e ) i s two hands h o l d i n g each o t h e r ^ *yjw3y°' *Tjway ^f/jj 0  ffi^j  iB  l&f  fej  AJ\  $L,  'two p e o p l e h e l d / l i n k e d t o g e t h e r '  p a r t n e r s <• to protect  'two p e o p l e h e l d / l i n k e d t o g e t h e r '  -f  T h i s word may of h u - i  '*to e m b r a c e ( ? ) ' be r e l a t e d t o  &  *ri£k i n the sense  || ' to p r o t e c t 4  t o c o v e r , t o embrace  a f l e d g e l i n g w i t h wings'. ( C f . S h i h Ching $ | L 1||  ^- *  a b i r d screened  w a s  Pl  a c e <  i  o n  t n e  Ujs.  son." *JjjwaJf° (§f  ±_  %  >7J(,  %  c o l d i c e , And  and supported him w i t h i t s w i n g s . "  (Legge, p.468); a l s o S h i h Ching "  %  (HY 62/245/3)"  || -f~ And  (HY 62/244/8)  s e c u r e comfort  and support t o h i s  (Legge, p.463)  'to l i m i t , t o e n c l o s e ; an a r e a surrounded by w a l l s ' «f  'to h o i d , t o embrace'  V  - 37 -  Cf.  A p a r a l l e l s e m a n t i c - e x t e n s i o n i n t h e Indo-European language: "OHG g a r t o 'garden, e t c . ... a l l as o r i g . ' e n c l o s u r e ' f r . I E *gher- i n Osc. h e r i i a d ' c a p i a t ' , S k t . h y - ' s e i z e , h o l d ' , e t c . " (Buck 1949:490-1) B. *Yjw9y° ^  t o pardon ( t o r e l e a s e ) a v e s s e l f o r p o u r i n g wine  *jJjW£]T j | _  '*to r e l e a s e , to  l e t go' *°xws/  g i f t s , sent-out valuables  T h i s t e n t a t i v e word f a m i l y has been s e t up w i t h w o r d s ( g r a p h s ) s e l e c t e d from t h e h s i e h - s h e n g s e r i e s  C e r t a i n o t h e r words (graphs)  *Yjwajf.  from t h i s s e r i e s have been e x c l u d e d s i n c e t h e y do n o t seem t o s h a r e a common b a s i c sense w i t h t h e w o r d s ( g r a p h s ) l i s t e d above; thus t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r h e s i t a t e s t o t r e a t them as members o f t h e same word f a m i l y . are  There  some o t h e r words w h i c h appear t o b e l o n g t o t h i s word f a m i l y b u t i n c o r -  p o r a t e d i f f e r e n t p h o n e t i c s , e.g. ^ a circumscribed area  * r i a k and p o s s i b l y  * t o h o l d , t o embrace).  ^Jfiwsk  (to l i m i t ,  The r e a s o n f o r s e l e c t i n g  w o r d s ( g r a p h s ) from one s i n g l e h s i e h - s h e n g s e r i e s i s t h a t t h e members o f a s i n g l e s e r i e s a r e 'convenient samples' w h i c h a r e c o n s p i c i o u s , they s h a r e t h e same p h o n e t i c and t h i s f a c t g u a r a n t e e s t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y .  In  any c a s e , t h e n i n e w o r d s ( g r a p h s ) l i s t e d above s u f f i c e f o r our p r e s e n t purpose o f a s s i g n i n g a b a s i c sense t o t h e word(graph)  .  I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o o b s e r v e t h a t t h e word f a m i l y o f j u i s a p p a r e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. two word f a m i l i e s .  )L /  %  We may even choose t o t r e a t them as  The b a s i c sense o f group A i s ' t o h o l d , t o embrace', a  sense w h i c h can be e a s i l y d e r i v e d from t h e meaning w i t h a ( r i g h t ) hand'.  'a r i g h t hand — t o h o l d  The b a s i c sense o f group B i s ' t o r e l e a s e , t o l e t go'.  -  Although  38  -  these two senses a r e o p p o s i t e t o each o t h e r , t h i s i s n o t ,  a l l , a r a r e phenomenon i n Chinese s e m a n t i c s .  after  The s o - c a l l e d fan-hstln  fj/^%' \  a n t i p h r a s t i c words a r e w e l l r e c o g n i z e d . One may s u s p e c t  t h a t t h e r e i s some m o r p h o l o g i c a l  But t h i s i s u n r e c o v e r a b l e  i n the present  o f O l d C h i n e s e phonology.  involved.  f r a g m e n t a r y s t a t e o f o u r knowledge  As f a r back as we can r e c o n s t r u c t them, a l l t h e  words, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f and m e d i a l s  process  *xwa/, have i d e n t i c a l i n i t i a l s ,  final  and i n each group, t h e r e a r e b o t h t h e s o - c a l l e d ch'U-sheng and  non-ch'U-sheng words. I n any c a s e , w i t h t h e s e two b a s i c senses i n mind, we may t e n t a t i v e l y a s s i g n a more s p e c i f i c meaning t o t h e v e r b  4^  •  There a r e two ways o f  doing i t : (1)  ^  as a member o f t h e second group meaning 'to r e l e a s e ' ; so a  s e n t e n c e such as  ^  /y. f  7^ ^ c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d a s ' t o  r e l e a s e a c a p t i v e t o T ' a i C h i a ' , o r more smoothly ' t o o f f e r a captive to T'ai Chia.' (2)  ^  as a member o f t h e f i r s t group meaning ' t o p o s s e s s ' .  Takashima n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s w i t c h i n t h e s e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e word and  ' ^ jfa  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n '  Lfr' ^  /f^j ( t h e r e i s d i s a s t e r ) '  ( t o (cause) t o have c a p t i v e s ) ' .  The former one i s  a s t a t i v e v e r b t h e n e g a t i v e o f w h i c h i s wang -£l ; w h i l e t h e l a t t e r one  i s a c o n t r o l l a b l e , t r a n s i t i v e , action-process verb of which the  n e g a t i v e i s wu ^  .  CThe l o g i c a l s u b j e c t o f ^fc* ^  d i s a s t e r ) i s a b e n e f i c i a r y while the subject of ^  /fyfj ( t o have ^  ^  cause t o have c a p t i v e s ) i s an a g e n t ; t h e b e n e f i c i a r y o f i s t h e s u r f a c e o b j e c t , e.g. T ' a i C h i a . ^  (to  ]  -  39 -  I t i s by t h e s t u d y o f t h e word f a m i l y o f y u ^ii  t h a t we can propose a  r e l a t i v e l y more c o n c r e t e meaning, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e vague i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' y u - s a c r i f i c e ' , f o r t h e word y u  S i n c e i t s o c c u r r e n c e outnumbers o t h e r s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b s , i t would seem n a t u r a l t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t t h e v e r b a l meaning o f ^jj i s s i m p l y ' t o o f f e r , t o p r e s e n t ' , r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c k i n d o f s a c r i f i c e (Yao H s i a o - s u i 1979a:382). I n o t h e r words, t h e concept  o f Lfc/ may be v e r y g e n e r a l and may  have a broad e x t e n s i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e s concepts ' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ' as e x t e n s i o n s . support t h i s hypothesis  such as  'yu-sacrifice',  However, t h e r e i s n o t much e v i d e n c e t o  ( i . e . i n t h e P i n g P i e n , t h e r e i s no s e n t e n c e , n o r  any s e t o f s e n t e n c e s , w h i c h can be i n t e r p r e t e d as ' i n o f f e r i n g (  ) to  so and s o , we w i l l y u - s a c r i f i c e / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e . . . ' o r ' i n p e r f o r m i n g a y u s a c r i f i c e / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e t o so and s o , we w i l l o f f e r . . . ' ) .  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  i t appears t h a t •+/ and o t h e r s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b s a r e o f t h e same ' l e v e l ' , i . e . , t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e concept sacrifice  of  ''^ " o r ' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e  1  r  ft  does n o t i n c l u d e concepts such as 'yu'%! '.  *  F o r example,  %  ^\  X)  kuei-mao / c r a c k / Ch'tteh / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / R i v e r ( g o d )  one / ox / y u - o f f e r / t h r e e / Ch'iang  t h r e e / ox  / dismember-sacrifice  Ping  124 (2)  we s h o u l d b u r n - s a c r i f i c e one ox t o t h e R i v e r ( g o d ) i y u - o f f e r t h r e e Ch'iang-tribesmen  and d i s m e m b e r - s a c r i f i c e t h r e e oxen.  -  40  -  kuei-mao / c r a c k / Ch'ueh / y u - o f f e r I to  -  f  I  t h r e e / Ch'iang  #  «  I  River(god)  =  £  / d i s m e m b e r - s a c r i f i c e / t h r e e / ox  •* t  - - V+  b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / one / ox We  Ping  s h o u l d y u - o f f e r t o the R i v e r ( g o d ) t h r e e C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n ,  ber-sacrif ice  t h r e e oxen and b u r n - s a c r i f i c e one  124 dismem-  ox.  The o r d e r o f t h e s e t h r e e c l a u s e s i s a l t e r e d i n t h i s t u i - c h e n p a i r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t they are i n a c o - o r d i n a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . i.e.,  burn-sacrifice,  ty  d i s m e m b e r - s a c r i f i c e and  ^}  And  its  'realizations'.  thus  each v e r b ,  y u - o f f e r , takes  a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o r a p a r t i c u l a r number o f s a c r i f i c i a l a n i m a l s . not l i k e l y t h a t ^  It is  i s a g e n e r a l term w i t h the s p e c i f i c v e r b s <)j^ and I f one i n s i s t s on i n t e r p r e t i n g  (1)  Ljr' as a g e n e r a l  ^ J > as term,  t h e r e a r i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f why  t h e number and method o f s a c r i f i c i n g oxen  have been made s p e c i f i c , i . e . ^  _  s a c r i f i c i n g the Ch'iang-tribesman  ^  , Cjp  ^  , w h i l e the method of  remains i n e x p l i c i t .  Not o n l y does LjJ appear t o be on t h e same l e v e l as o t h e r  sacrificial  v e r b s i n a sentence  as i l l u s t r a t e d above, on p l a s t r o n s where we have a  l a r g e r c o n t e x t , ^}  o f t e n appears i n a p o s i t i o n ' p a r a l l e l ' to o t h e r  s a c r i f i c i a l verbs.  For example:  i-mao / c r a c k / Ch'ueh / t e s t / come / i - h a i  y u - s a c r i f i c e / H s i a I / t e n / behead / and / f i v e  -  4*?  u  dismember-sacrifice  41  -  %  ty  / t e n / penned-sheep  On the coming i - h a i day, we  s h o u l d y u - s a c r i f i c e f i f t e e n beheaded  v i c t i m s t o H s a i I and d i s m e m b e r - s a c r i f i c e  t e n penned-sheep. Ping  next / i - s s u / y u - o f f e r / Ancestor  I.  Ping  i n s c r i p t i o n s appear on the same p l a s t r o n .  ments.  'to y u - s a c r i f i c e and And  (8)  <±J " t o y u - o f f e r ' appear i n p a r a l l e l  The  two  environ-  t h e r e i s no o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n , e i t h e r from the sentences or from  the l a r g e r context, that the c o n c e p t s o f e.g.,  197  Each sentence  has a d i f f e r e n t v e r b and a d i f f e r e n t i n d i r e c t o b j e c t ( b e n e f i c i a r y ) . verbs  (3)  I  On the n e x t i - s s u day, we s h o u l d y u - o f f e r t o A n c e s t o r  These two  197  P i n g 207  and and 360.  i s a v e r b r e p r e s e n t i n g a concept w h i c h i n c l u d e s ^  .  Examples of t h i s k i n d can be e a s i l y m u l t i p l i e d ,  For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n , see Chapter Four, p.205-  208. W h i l e the usage o f 'word f a m i l i e s ' o f f e r s h e l p s i n p r o p o s i n g a meaning t o the graph i n q u e s t i o n , t h e r e i s one  limitation.  Making use o f word  f a m i l i e s t o d e c i p h e r a graph i s a p r o c e d u r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the o f word f a m i l i e s per se.  Normally,  study  i n the study o f word f a m i l i e s , the meaning  o f each graph i s c l e a r t o the r e s e a r c h e r .  Even though t h e r e a r e graphs w h i c h  have d i f f e r e n t p h o n e t i c s , they can s t i l l be grouped i n a word f a m i l y on  the  b a s i s of semantic s i m i l a r i t y p r o v i d i n g they have c l o s e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s .  On  t h e o t h e r hand, i n d e c i p h e r i n g a graph we a r e h y p o t h e s i z i n g about i t s meaning.  -  42  -  I t i s v e r y dangerous t o a s s i g n t h e graph i n q u e s t i o n t o a word f a m i l y w i t h o t h e r graphs w h i c h m e r e l y have an i d e n t i c a l o r s i m i l a r r e a d i n g .  In fact,  even w i t h i n a s i n g l e h s i e h - s h e n g s e r i e s , we o f t e n f i n d members o f more than one word f a m i l y .  Moreover, t h e r e a r e two s e r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the  s t u d y o f word f a m i l i e s p e r s e .  (1) Word f a m i l i e s a r e s e t up on t h e b a s i s o f s e m a n t i c and  phonetic  s i m i l a r i t i e s , b u t t h e r e a r e no f o r m a l c r i t e r i a t o d e t e r m i n e whether c e r t a i n words a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t o be grouped i n t o a word f a m i l y .  I n t u i t i o n appears t o be t h e o n l y b a s i s f o r  judgement, hence o p i n i o n v a r i e s from one s c h o l a r t o a n o t h e r .  In  t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a f f i r m i n g t h a t two words b e l o n g t o a common word f a m i l y depends l a r g e l y on t h e i m a g i n a t i v e a b i l i t y o f t h e p e r s o n i n question.  The p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e more i m a g i n a t i v e a p e r s o n  i s , t h e l a r g e r word f a m i l y he can s e t up.  On t h e o t h e r hand, i n  the case where one p e r s o n does n o t agree w i t h a s s i g n i n g a word t o a c e r t a i n word f a m i l y , the o n l y c r i t i c i s m he can make i s something l i k e  'too f o r c e d ' o r ' f a r - f e t c h e d ' , a l s o a s u b j e c t i v e  j udgement. (2) The study o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between members o f a  word f a m i l y i s s t i l l i n i t s p r i m i t i v e s t a g e . done i n a p p l y i n g the m o r p h o l o g i c a l suggested by B. K a r l g r e n  L i t t l e has been  p r o c e s s e s such as t h o s e  (1933, 1957), Chou Tsu-mo (1947),  Chou  Fa-kao (1953), G.B. Downer (1959), E.G. P u l l e y b l a n k (1973) and Mei T s u - l i n (1980) t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f how members o f a word  -  43  -  f a m i l y a r e r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r .  Needless to say,  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , e.g.  the  the l a c k of  any c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n r e l a t i n g t o n a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l as e v i d e n c e d by the f a c t t h a t hao ^7" ch'U-sheng  ^  i s a verb  i n the shang-sheng  .t- ^  , when pronounced i n the  'to l i k e ' but an a d j e c t i v e 'good'  w h i l e tu_  , when pronounced i n the  ch'U-sheng i s a noun 'a measure' b u t a verb ju-sheng  changes  a l s o poses a problem.  meanings, p r o n u n c i a t i o n s and g r a m m a t i c a l  'to measure' i n the  Given two words the c l a s s e s of w h i c h a r e  known t o a r e s e a r c h e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p o s i t a m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s between them.  However, w i t h two words of w h i c h the  p r o n u n c i a t i o n s a r e c l e a r to the r e s e a r c h e r , the meaning and grammatical  c l a s s o f one of them cannot be c o n f i d e n t l y deduced  from the meaning and grammatical  c l a s s of the o t h e r by a p p l y i n g  the r u l e s of m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s o n l y .  Moreover, i n d e c i p h e r i n g  an a r c h a i c g r a p h , the e x a c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e graph i n q u e s t i o n , e.g. whether i t has a v o i c e d o r u n v o i c e d unknown.  i n i t i a l , i s always  I n t h i s c a s e , even i f we have a good command o f the  m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , the meaning o f the graph i n q u e s t i o n cannot be thus deduced. The l a c k o f f o r m a l c r i t e r i a makes the s e t t i n g up o f a word f a m i l y highly subjective.  For i n s t a n c e , t h e r e may  be no s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n to the  v i e w t h a t the f o l l o w i n g graphs a l l share the b a s i c sense  ii) *kew/*kjew/*gjew  a hook, t o hook  'crookedness'.  <&J *kew  a b a s k e t t r a p made w i t h crooked bamboo  ^SJ *kjew  a crooked b a c k , a hunchback  *kjew  t h e f o o t c u r l e d up due t o c o l d weather  *kew  t h e ends o f t h e yoke w h i c h p r e s s on t h e s i d e s of t h e a n i m a l s neck 1  'PJIJ *kew  a sickle  But do t h e f o l l o w i n g two alslo b e l o n g t o t h e same word f a m i l y as t h e above graphs? ^  *kew  t h e wizened f a c e o f age  tfpj *gjew  an o l d woman  As an o l d woman o f t e n has a hunchback are  and t h e w r i n k l e s on a wizened f a c e  c r o o k e d , we may p o s i t t h a t they b e l o n g t o t h e word f a m i l y o f t h e graphs  i n t h e group. 'old'.  However, *kew ^  and *gjew "jfc^ a l s o b o t h share t h e sense o f  Can we h y p o t h e s i z e t h e s e two graphs form a s e p a r a t e word f a m i l y ?  There a r e t h r e e o t h e r graphs w h i c h have  'PJ *kew/*kj ew/*gj ew as  the p h o n e t i c : ffij *kjew  a colt  ^aj *kew  a puppy  *gj ew  a k i n d o f mouse s m a l l e r than t h e o r d i n a r y mouse  Do t h e s e t h r e e graphs form a s e p a r a t e word f a m i l y h a v i n g t h e sense o f 'smallness'? the  Or s h o u l d we a c c e p t Todo A k i y a s u ' s ^ j j j ^  3^ / [ ^ o p i n i o n t h a t  sense o f ' s m a l l n e s s ' i s d e r i v e d from t h e sense o f 'crookedness'?  (1965:329) Supposing t h e r e i s a s e m a n t i c a l l y unknown graph h a v i n g *gjew as a p h o n e t i c , what sense s h o u l d we a s s i g n t o i t ? 1  £j *kew/*kjew/  I n addition to the  -  -  45  d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r o u p i n g o r s e p a r a t i n g t h e ' i n t e r m e d i a t e words', i . e . , words w i t h no c l e a r semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s , o f a c e r t a i n word f a m i l y , t h e r e i s another problem, namely, t h a t o f 'graphs c r e a t e d phonetic-loan i|[ ^ The  9rf" Z. ^K^%  ''"-  6  'graphs c r e a t e d through p h o n e t i c - l o a n ' may  making use of 'word f a m i l i e s ' t o d e c i p h e r a graph. when used i n i t s o r i g i n a l meaning, may  be a p i t f a l l when  The p h o n e t i c i t s e l f ,  have a 'sense' c o m p l e t e l y  to the graphs i n w h i c h i t s e r v e s as a p h o n e t i c . |^] *ts'rewng i s the d e p i c t i o n o f a window. series written with  through  unrelated  For example, the graph(word)  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  hsieh-sheng  i s composed o f two word f a m i l i e s w h i c h seem to l a c k  any semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p : A. .  *tsewng /ffi,*tsewng  to b r i n g together t h e m i d d l e o f ( t h e e a s t and west) s t e p s  (The b a s i c sense i s ' v a r i o u s t h i n g s b e i n g combined B.  together'.)  ,r,/g>*ts'ewng  green s i l k  %*ts'  a p r e c i o u s stone o f a g r e e n i s h b l u e c o l o u r  ewng  J^j£l*ts'ewng  a b l a c k (green) and w h i t e h o r s e  (The b a s i c sense i s 'green'.) Suppose t h e r e i s a graph h a v i n g |J) the meaning o f t h i s graph i s unknown; we  *ts'rewng as the p h o n e t i c  then have two  (or even t h r e e i f YF)  i s a l s o i n c l u d e d ) word f a m i l i e s t o w h i c h t h i s graph(word) might be  The semantic c o m p l e x i t y o f a h s i e h - s h e n g  and  assigned.  s e r i e s from w h i c h one  or  more r o o t senses can be i n f e r r e d causes g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e x p l o i t i n g the concept o f word f a m i l y t o a s s i g n a meaning t o an unknown graph(word).  -  46  -  I t i s a p r i n c i p l e t h a t a l l h y p o t h e t i c a l meanings o f words suggested by means o f g r a p h i c  a n a l y s e s o r comparisons w i t h t h e c l a s s i c s must be sub-  s t a n t i a t e d by t h e c o n t e x t .  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n cases where  h y p o t h e t i c a l meanings a r e suggested by t h e study o f word f a m i l i e s . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e graph (word) j(  The word f a m i l y  A.  ( ^-  ( "f" >  The  ) s e r v e s as an good example.  , 7j£. ) has two b a s i c and o p p o s i n g s e n s e s :  Jrt-| *at s ' a / o* t s ' r a /o— * t s ' i a /o * s i a o/ * t s ' r e Y  diverge discrepancy  *dza/*tsja  disease  '/^ *^sa/*tsa.°  cripple  o  a  a—  —  :s'a/*dza  uneven t e e t h  6  •jfij^ *§zra  c u t t r e e * — * t o make something i n c o m p l e t e  *tsa/*tsa°  left  (Cf.  (The b a s i c sense o f t h i s group i s ' d i s c r e p a n c y , and  sinister)  unsatisfactory  to eliminate'.)  to a s s i s t  B$L $.*tsa° m  3l *ts'a/*ts'ra/*ts'ia/*sia/*ts'reV O  &  o  o  t o recover from  \ sickness  "  (The b a s i c sense o f t h i s group i s 'to improve'.)  ( A l l t h e s e words a r e s e l e c t e d from K a r l g r e n ' s and Todo's Kan.1l Gogen J i t e n } J ^  1J ^  ^  Grammata S e r i c a (1940: no.5) (1965: no.153).)  -  47 -  P a r a l l e l t o the word f a m i l y , the word 7j. ( ^  ) i s a l s o used i n  two o p p o s i t e senses i n the c l a s s i c s :  A.  ^  ftz.-,ft£ACTso Chuan HY 2 7 2 / - j [ l 0 /  ftp) Whom the son o f Heaven f a v o r s , my r u l e r a l s o f a v o r s , whom he d i s a p p r o v e s , my r u l e r a l s o d i s a p p r o v e s . " (Legge, p.449) /f> jfr. ~~pL ^  (Tso Chuan HY 365/9^4/ . \ 6£ )  'Is i t not improper...' (Legge, p.599) W, ~h A. -9 -t /fe ^  (Chan Kuo Ts' e: w e i t s ' e W W ^ W ^ ' chuan 23, p.474) u  '(Chang I ) w i l l , f o r s u r e , approach C h ' i n and d e s e r t Wei.'  B  -  f H  *  &  m  i  ( S h i h Ching HY 82/304/7)  '...who gave h i s a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e k i n g Shang.' (Legge, p.643) (Tso Chuan HY 122/f-f23A ^2) ...your l o r d s h i p l a i d y o u r charge on Ch'ung-erh as t o how he s h o u l d a s s i s t the son o f Heaven.' (Leege, p.187) I t i s on t h e two o p p o s i t e senses o f the graph (word) t h a t s c h o l a r l y o p i n i o n has d i v e r g e d .  Ch'en Meng-chia  j(  ( y£ 4^) 5  (1956:569), Chang P i n g -  ch'tian (1957: v o l . 1 , p . 7 2 ) , S e r r u y s (1974:56), K e i g h t l e y (1978:66) and Ch'en Wei-chan li  (1961:304),  (1980:191) i n t e r p r e t  ^  as - v i ( t o a s s i s t ) .  Ch'U Wan-  L i H s i a o - t i n g (1965:951), M i c k e l (.1976:226), Takashima ( i n  -  48  -  a p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a t i o n d a t e d 1978), L i Hstteh-ch'in ^ ^ hsin)  ^. ^ fy^  and p e r v e r t ' . graph.  (.1980:252) c o n s i d e r t h a t  ^  ^  (and Wang Ytt-  has a sense o f ' v i o l a t e , o b s t r u c t  ( I n t h e S o r u i , Shima does n o t g i v e a s e p a r a t e e n t r y t o t h i s  A l l t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s where  j(  w h i c h , i n some c a s e s , i s e q u i v a l e n t t o  appears a r e l i s t e d under  ( j{  ^  )  'to a s s i s t ' . )  S i n c e word f a m i l i e s and t h e c l a s s i c s do n o t o f f e r h e l p i n d e t e r m i n i n g the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e graph  ^  , we have t o r e l y on t h e c o n t e x t i n  w h i c h t h i s graph a p p e a r s :  *t §•%  i s  <u ^* y%  }*  t *  k i n g / behead / many / T'un / n o t / approve / o b s t r u c t / from  l o w e r / upper  P i n g 523 (1)  I f t h e k i n g beheads  8  many T'un-tribesmen,  and o b s t r u c t i o n from t h e l o w e r and upper  9  t h e r e w i l l be d i s a p p r o v a l  spirits.  k i n g / behead / many / T un / n o t / o b s t r u c t / approve / from  lower / upper  P i n g 523 (2)  I f t h e k i n g beheads many T'un-tribesmen, t h e r e w i l l n o t be o b s t r u c t i o n b u t a p p r o v a l from t h e lower and upper  I f t h e graph(word) ~f" structions ^  •j'  and  spirits.  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as ' t o a s s i s t ' , t h e con-  7*^7^, Y be a n a l y s e d as v e r b compounds ( c o o r d i n a t i v e m a  -  49  -  v e r b s ) and be t r a n s l a t e d as ' t o approve and a s s i s t ' , respectively.  The q u e s t i o n a r i s i n g from such an a n a l y s i s i s why t h e o r d e r ~j~  of t h e s e words i s inscription.  'to a s s i s t and approve'  i n t h e f i r s t i n s c r i p t i o n b u t ~f~ ^  Does i t merely r e p r e s e n t a s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n ?  a p o s s i b i l i t y , of course, e x i s t s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to v e r i f y .  i n t h e second Though such I t s h o u l d be  p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s e two i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e engraved i n a p e r f e c t l y symmetrical p o s i t i o n which suggests that they a r e tui-chen p a i r s . interpret  %  'j'  and  To  j~ -fa as v e r b compounds ( c o o r d i n a t i v e v e r b s ) would  y i e l d t h e f o l l o w i n g two t r a n s l a t i o n s : ' I f t h e k i n g beheads many T'un-tribesmen, i t w i l l  neither  be approved n o r a s s i s t e d by t h e l o w e r and upper  spirits.'  ' I f t h e k i n g beheads many T'un-tribesmen, i t w i l l  neither  be a s s i s t e d n o r approved by t h e l o w e r and upper  spirits.'  The p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e p o l a r i t y e x p r e s s e d by most t u i - c h e n p a i r s i s absent h e r e  a v e r y r a r e case i n t h e O.B.I.  On t h e c o n t r a r y , i f  ~f~  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as ' t o o b s t r u c t , t o p e r v e r t ' and a s y n t a c t i c b r e a k i s p u t between  and  y" 1  (and, ~f~ and ^  ) , t h e p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e sense o f a  t u i - c h e n p a i r i s r e t a i n e d as shown i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d on page 48. The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e two words  -fa 7  s e m a n t i c a l l y r e q u i r e d and n o t merely s t y l i s t i c . the i n s c r i p t i o n s c i t e d by M i c k e l (word)  ^  an(  i  /  "56 i s thus  ( P i n g 523 (1) and (.2) a r e  (.1976:226) who contends t h a t t h e graph  conveys a bad sense.)  To i n t e r p r e t  as ' t o o b s t r u c t , t o p e r v e r t ' can a l s o b e t t e r  e x p l a i n why t h e graph(word)  f~  i s o m i t t e d from t h e second  i n s c r i p t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g p a i r :  -  50  -  j e n - t z u / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / we / perhaps / make / s e t t l e m e n t  fr ft  *** A*  ^  U7(1)  t i - g o d / n o t / o b s t r u c t / approve  I f we perhaps make a s e t t l e m e n t , t i - g o d w i l l n o t o b s t r u c t b u t approve ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) .  X * / * i  n  «s  ^  *>.  k u e i - c h ' o u / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / s h o u l d n o t / make  settlement  P i n g 147 (2)  X*  / god / approve  I f we do n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t , t i - g o d w i l l approve ( o r , w i l l be pleased). (The  ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' usage o f t h e n e g a t i v e wu  ^ ) i s proposed by S e r r u y s  (1974:56) and f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d by Takashima (1977:53).  The t r a n s l a t i o n  o f P i n g 147 (2) i s i n accordance w i t h Takashima's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( i b i d . - 5 4 ) . ) If '  %p$p "f"  l i k e '*  f~ i s i n t e r p r e t e d as ' t o a s s i s t ' , t h e p o s i t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t o f (  t n e  8°d w i l l n e i t h e r a s s i s t n o r a p p r o v e ) '  rjjj -j- ^ . ( f t h e god w i l l a s s i s t and a p p r o v e ) .  reads ' explanation. i s s i o n of omiss  7^ (god w i l l a p p r o v e ) ' .  But t h e i n s c r i p t i o n  S t y l i s t i c p r a c t i c e seems t o be t h e o n l y  Whereas i f we i n t e r p r e t i n the clause ^  s h o u l d be something  a s 'to o b s t r u c t , t o p e r v e r t ' , t h e  i s e a s i l y understandable,  7^ (the god w i l l o b s t r u c t and a p p r o v e ) '  s i n c e '*  does n o t make any sense.  PART TWO  THE APPROACH OF GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS  I.  A REVIEW OF TWO PREVIOUS WORKS  The s t u d y o f O.B.I, has been g o i n g on f o r almost e i g h t y y e a r s . W h i l e much concern has been l a v i s h e d on t h e g r a p h i c decipherment o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Shang p e r i o d , t h e g r a m m a t i c a l a s p e c t o f O.B.I, language has n o t been c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . wei  ^  ^  i  n h i s book C h i a Ku Wen L i >f ^  Hu Kuang-  £ fa\ p u b l i s h e d i n 1928,  was t h e f i r s t t o t o u c h upon t h e g r a m m a t i c a l problems o f O.B.I, language. However, t h i s book w h i c h c o n t a i n s many g r a p h i c m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s a v e r y s u p e r f i c i a l s t u d y , t h e major p o r t i o n o f w h i c h does n o t d e a l w i t h t h e O.B.I, grammar. 1. Kuan Hsieh-ch'u's  ^  T i YU Fa Yen C h i u M  $71 Y i n HsU C h i a Ku K'o Tz'u f  f  £'J  #  ft  tfj  %  I n 1953, Kuan H s i e h - c h ' u p u b l i s h e d t h e above book w h i c h we may speak o f as t h e f i r s t work f o c u s i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e grammar o f O.B.I, language.  I t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t a t t h e time when Kuan w r o t e t h i s book,  the decipherment o f graphs(words) which, i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f grammatic a l a n a l y s i s was n o t as advanced as a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . of graphs(words) and thus }  unavoidable.  Misinterpretations  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e , were  Kuan s h o u l d n o t be h e l d f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n c o r r e c t  52  analyses  -  o f g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a r e based on i n c o r r e c t decipherment.  Nevertheless,  Kuan i s n o t w i t h o u t f a u l t f o r t h e s e r i o u s w e a k p o i n t s i n h i s  approach, t h a t i s , he based h i s g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s e s  on c e r t a i n unsound  hypotheses f o r w h i c h he gave no documentation o r p r o o f and, f u r t h e r m o r e , he i g n o r e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s a n a l y s e s i n general.  f o r c l a s s i c a l Chinese syntax  F o r example, Kuan c i t e s - t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n t o show t h a t  the s u b j e c t can be p l a c e d a f t e r t h e v e r b :  it  ft  Y \> \£±  M(  t i f ?  c h i - s s u / c r a c k / Ch'u / t e s t / e x o r c i s e / k i n g I to I -—  0(JD  (Shang)Chai  T s ' u i $ p 100  t w e l v e month  (Kuan, 1953:16)  (Kuan's t h e o r y  i s adopted by Ch'en Wei-chan (1980:188).)  I f we f o l l o w Kuan's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e above sentence would b e , ' . . . w i l l t h e k i n g e x o r c i s e t o Shang C h i a . . . ' w i t h an inverted subject  ' k i n g ^J, '.  I n p r o v i d i n g such an a n a l y s i s , Kuan g i v e s no  r e a s o n f o r n o t i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e word ' k i n g ' as t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t o f t h e verb 'exorcise'.  Bearing  Chinese syntax,  i n mind t h a t word o r d e r has p a r t i c u l a r importance i n  t o i n t e r p r e t t h e word ' k i n g ' as t h e s u b j e c t would r e q u i r e  very strong evidence.  The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n must be answered b e f o r e one  can a c c e p t t h e a n a l y s i s t h a t t h e word ' k i n g ' i s t h e s u b j e c t i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n - * ' *ff 5> f 5  :  X- f ' :  I n t h e O.B.I., t h e r e a r e numerous i n s c r i p t i o n s h a v i n g t h e p a t t e r n : ' e x o r c i s e + p e r s o n a l name + ( t o ) + a n c e s t r a l name', f o r i n s t a n c e ,  e x o r c i s e / Lady Hao I to  I Father I  (We s h o u l d ) e x o r c i s e Lady Hao t o F a t h e r I .  f  -  53  -  I n t h e p a t t e r n ' e x o r c i s e + p e r s o n a l name + ( t o ) + a n c e s t r a l name, ' i s i t always t h e c a s e t h a t t h e ' p e r s o n a l name' f u n c t i o n s a s t h e s u b j e c t o f the-verb  'exorcise'?  (1) I f t h e answer i s a f f i r m a t i v e , then a problem a r i s e s ,  namely,  when t h e p e r s o n a l name i s 'Lady so and s o ' , t h e r e i s no case where t h i s p e r s o n a l name precedes t h e v e r b ' e x o r c i s e ' ( c f . t h e p a t t e r n s and '2f-p  £  ' jf,  ...'  ...* b o t h can be found i n t h e O.B.I.); i n o t h e r words, t h e  p a t t e r n i s always ' e x o r c i s e + Lady so and so + ( t o ) + a n c e s t r a l name' as i n Ch i e n  ^jj  1.38.2. Why must t h e o r d e r o f t h e s u b j e c t and v e r b be i n v e r t e d  i n t h e case where t h e s u b j e c t and v e r b a r e 'Lady so and so' and ' e x o r c i s e ' respectively?  (2) I f t h e answer i s n e g a t i v e , then one may a s k what c r i t e r i a a r e used i n d e t e r m i n i n g  w h i c h p e r s o n a l names o c c u r r i n g i n t h e p a t t e r n ' e x o r c i s e +  p e r s o n a l name + ( t o ) + a n c e s t r a l name' a r e s u b j e c t s and w h i c h 'lady'  ') a r e n o t .  (presumably  I s t h e r e a s e m a n t i c r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t t h e word ' k i n g '  cannot be t h e o b j e c t o f t h e v e r b  'exorcise'?  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , we cannot even s p e c u l a t e on how Kuan would answer these questions  s i n c e h i s r a t i o n a l e i n a n a l y s i n g t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n has n o t  been made e x p l i c i t .  Another i n s c r i p t i o n Kuan c i t e s as an example o f i n v e r t e d word o r d e r  xs:  —"f t h i s / go o u t / Ch'iang / have n o t / m i s f o r t u n e  1 3 0 0  (Kuan, 1953:16)  -  54  -  Kuan proposes t h a t t h e word ' C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n ' i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b 'go o u t ' ( t h e presumed t r a n s l a t i o n would be 'today t h e C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n go o u t , w i l l t h e r e be m i s f o r t u n e ( t o u s ) ) .  Kuan does n o t e x p l a i n why t h e  s y n t a c t i c b r e a k cannot be p l a c e d between 'go o u t ' and ' C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n ' , i.e.,  ' i n today's g o i n g b u t , w i l l t h e C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n n o t have m i s f o r t u n e ' ,  nor does Kuan e x p l a i n why t h e word 'go o u t ' cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as a d j e c t i v a l , i . e . , ' w i l l today's o u t - g o i n g C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n n o t have m i s fortune'.  I t may be because Kuan does n o t b e l i e v e t h e Shang p e o p l e would  d i v i n e about t h e f o r t u n e s o f C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n  ( t h e i r enemies) t h a t he has  n o t adopted e i t h e r o f t h e a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s suggested h e r e . Kuan's c o n s i d e r a t i o n does n o t seem t o have much m e r i t .  But  A l t h o u g h t h e Ch'iang  t r i b e was an enemy o f t h e Shang p e o p l e f o r a l o n g p e r i o d , t h i s does n o t e x c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g was o f c o n c e r n t o t h e Shang. There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t many C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n were members o f t h e Shang labour force.  F o r example,  t«r  Up  Hi  hs in-mao 7 c r a c k / g v  It  f f  ( ? ) / t e s t / c a l l upon / many / C h ' i a n g (JI) I c a p t u r e  t r i b e s m a n / chase /  HsU ifif  4.29.2  ( I f ) we c a l l upon many C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n t o chase  (?)»  we w i l l c a p t u r e them.  . . * ? * •  n  & k  t*  I f  eng-hsU / c r a c k / t e s t / I / o r d e r /  ?fc  fBffl  fit  ft«  (?) / f o l l o w  ft  m  C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m a n / hunt / have no / m i s f o r t u n e  I_ Z-> 4692  -  ( I f ) I order ^  55  -  ( ? ) t o f o l l o w t h e Ch' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n t o h u n t ,  t h e r e w i l l be no m i s f o r t u n e .  A l t h o u g h we cannot determine whether t h e s e C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n were e n s l a v e d (Yang H s i a n g - k ' u e i 1962:21; Yao H s i a o - s u i 1979a:382-384) , o r whether they formed a semi-independent  group o f Ch'iang f r i e n d l y t o t h e Shang, we  may r e a s o n a b l y h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t any m i s f o r t u n e which b e f e l l t h e s e t r i b e s m e n was c o n s i d e r e d d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s  by t h e Shang p e o p l e .  the f o r t u n e s o f the Ch'iang-tribesmen d i v i n i n g about t h e h a r v e s t .  Thus, d i v i n i n g about  ( e n s l a v e d ones) may be v e r y s i m i l a r t o  I n any c a s e , Kuan s h o u l d n o t p o s i t a s o l u t i o n  which d r a s t i c a l l y v i o l a t e s t h e common s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n o f t h e O.B.I, language and c l a s s i c a l Chinese w i t h o u t g i v i n g r e a s o n s .  Kuan commits another o b v i o u s e r r o r when he n e g l e c t s c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e O.B.I, and proposes a t h e o r y w h i c h i s e x t r e m e l y a l i e n t o t h e Chinese language throughout i t s development.  Kuan s t a t e s ,  " i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s , t h e r e a r e some a n i m a l nouns which have markers o f gender. F o r example, i - w e i / c r a c k / e x o r c i s e / t o / A n c e s t r a l Mother H s i n  i «t  ** ^**•,#* Tih  17j 5328  0  A n c e s t r a l Mother K e u i / h u i / male p i g / h u i / sheep keng-yin / crack / a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e / c h i - s a c r i f i c e /\  X,  1  Z,  5  3  2  1  female p i g / A n c e s t r a l F a t h e r Keng I n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s , t h e ( s i g n ) _L found by t h e s i d e o f an a n i m a l ' noun i s t h e gender marker o f male, ^ i s t h e gender marker o f female. , ^JL and a r e b u l l , male sheep and boar r e s p e c t i v e l y ; ^ , ^ and ^ a r e f e m a L j p ox, female sheep and sow r e s p e c t i v e l y . In a p a i r of tui-chen s e n t e n c e s , t h e r e a r e a l s o some (graphs) a b b r e v i a t e d t o }) and "]" as found i n example no.8: ' I s i t a  -  female?  I s i t a male?  56  -  W i l l we y u - s a c r i f i c e ? ' Mr. Kuo Mo-jo s t a t e s ,  "What a r e _L and I) ? J - and h a r e t h e a b b r e v i a t e d forms o f ' a n c e s t o r ' and ' a n c e s t r a l mother'... i s i n f a c t , the p i c t o g r a p h o f p h a l l u s , so i t can be a b b r e v i a t e d i n t o _L ; tl> i s t h e ( s e m a n t i c ) e x t e n s i o n o f t h e graph (word) 'spoon' ^ ( j p P r o b a b l y t h e female s e x organ l o o k s l i k e a spoon, so £ i s used ( t o r e p r e s e n t ) ' a n c e s t r a l mother' and 'female'." I t i s s t i l l q u e s t i o n a b l e whether graphs such as andfy^C*a r e m o n o s y l l a b i c . By a n a l o g y w i t h graphs such as §\ ( ) ' A n c e s t r a l F a t h e r I ' and 1(\ (Jttt % ) ' A n c e s t r a l Mother H s i n ' , tyi, and tyL, may be h o - t ' i - t z u •"  *  **"  T  Kuan has n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d t h e term h o - t ' i - t z u .  (1953:30) I t i s g e n e r a l l y understood  t h a t h o - t ' i - t z u a r e t h o s e graphs w h i c h a r e formed from two independent graphs and engraved as one s i n g l e graph.  They d i f f e r from h s i e h - s h e n g graphs i n  t h a t t h e former cannot be a n a l y z e d as t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f two component g r a p h s , one f u n c t i o n i n g as s i g n i f i c and t h e o t h e r as p h o n e t i c .  They d i f f e r  from h u i - i graphs i n t h a t , i n l a t e r t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s , each o f t h e i r c o m p o n e n t i a l graphs i s r e p r e s e n t e d by an independent g r a p h , e.g. t h e h o - t ' i tzu  £J (  2  +  ) i s w r i t t e n as Pao I % j j [ Z J i n t h e S h i h C h i  j  Whether t h e s e graphs a r e m o n o s y l l a b i c o r n o t i s n o t clear.'''''' as  ( y  +  _L ) and ^  ( ^  +  4  |£, .  I f graphs such  ) are b i s y l l a b i c , i . e . ,  is  pronounced ^ d z i a V - ^ g j w a / , S j ^ i s pronounced * b j i e r / * b j i e n - * n g j w a / , t h e n j L ( d r ) * d z i a ^ and  I)  ( ^  They s h o u l d n o t be termed  ) * b j i e r / * b j i e n a r e independent graphs (words). 'gender markers'.  The p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n i n d i s t i n -  g u i s h i n g a 'marker' from a word i s t h a t a marker cannot appear by i t s e l f , i . e . , i t must be a bound morpheme. which both  1  (  -t  ) and  j  But Kuan has c i t e d an i n s c r i p t i o n i n  ( \^ ) appear by t h e m s e l v e s :  c h i a - s h e n / t e s t / H s i a o I / c h i - s a c r i f i c e / have no / harrir"  h u i / female / h u i / male / s h o u l d n o t / y u - o f f e r / t h i s / employ 12 Ning  *jp 88  (Kuan, 1953:31) I t appears t h a t Kuan has c o n f u s e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r y and l e x i c a l c a t e g o r y .  The Chinese language, as f a r i t i s t r a c e a b l e ,  expresses sexual p o l a r i t y l e x i c a l l y but not grammatcially.  2. Ch'en Meng-chia's ^ % ^ ^ \ Y i n HsU Pu Tz'u Tsung Shu  « £ h %\ tltii As a s p e c i a l i s t i n the O.B.I., Ch'en a v o i d s many o f t h e e r r o r s i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g i n d i v i d u a l graphs.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s grammatical  a n a l y s i s o f t h e O.B.I, l e a v e s something t o be d e s i r e d .  The most s e r i o u s  drawback i s t h a t Ch'en c o n f u s e s semantic a n a l y s i s w i t h s y n t a c t i c thus l e a v i n g a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u n t e s t e d .  analysis,  F o r example, he a n a l y s e s  the i n s c r i p t i o n below i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way:  a  al-fc  9  «  sun / have / e c l i p s e / perhaps  i  fi-  ^s:  Dj  / announce / t o / F a t h e r T i n g T s ' u i "4^ 55 (Ch'en,  O (S-V-O)-V-P-O 1  P 0^ 0^ V  2  preposition direct object indirect object verb  1956:99)  -  58  -  A l t h o u g h i t i s u n d e n i a b l e , from t h e c o n t e x t , t h a t 'the sun was  eclipsed' i s  the c o n t e n t o f the announcement (the f a c t b e i n g announced), t o a n a l y s e t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n as one s i n g l e sentence i n s t e a d o f two sentences o r two c l a u s e s r e q u i r e s more e v i d e n c e .  Ch'en has p r o v i d e d none.  the i n s c r i p t i o n T s ' u i  IIS  55 i n the same way  as the f o l l o w i n g  T l t f l D f ^ T  t h r e e hundred / Ch'iang  I t appears t h a t he  / use / t o / T i n g  ( I t i s ) t h r e e hundred C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n  treats  one:  M.0  2.1..3  (Ch'en, 1956:101)  ( t h a t we s h o u l d )  use  ( s a c r i f i c e ) t o Tirtg. I t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n s such as ' t h r e e hundred t r i b e s m e n ' can r a r e l y appear as an independent e c l i p s e d ' can.  , t h e r e i s no o b v i o u s r e a s o n why  as t h e o b j e c t . 'Cause and  sentence w h i l e 'the sun  the i n i t i a l l y p l a c e d p a r t i c l e h u i  'the sun was  e c l i p s e d ' has t o be  Ch'en has n o t c o n s i d e r e d o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s such a s :  effect':  ' S i n c e t h e sun was  e c l i p s e d , we s h o u l d announce ( t h i s f a c t ) t o  Father Ting.' 'Cumulative': 'The  was  Moreover, s i n c e the common environment where one f i n d s an  a n t i p o s i t e d o b j e c t does n o t appear, e.g. jij^  Ch'iang-  sun h a v i n g been e c l i p s e d , we w i l l announce ( t h i s f a c t ) t o  Father Ting.' 'Conditional': ' I f t h e sun i s e c l i p s e d , we w i l l announce ( t h i s f a c t ) t o Father Ting.'  taken  -  59  -  I n Ch'en's book, grammar t a k e s up one out o f twenty c h a p t e r s . I t i s p r o b a b l y f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t Ch'en can o n l y d e s c r i b e i n o u t l i n e what he b e l i e v e s t o be t h e g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e O.B.I, w i t h o u t going i n t o d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s .  II.  THE APPLICABILITY AND LIMITATION OF CLASSICAL CHINESE SYNTAX IN THE GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS OF O.B.I.  The f o r m u l a t i o n o f a grammar depends upon t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between words, w h i c h i n t u r n depends upon t h e c o r r e c t decipherment o f i n d i v i d u a l g r a p h s ( w o r d s ) .  However, as has been shown i n  p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , t h e decipherment o f i n d i v i d u a l graphs r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r , w h i c h i n t u r n depends upon a c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e O.B.I, s y n t a x . a c i r c u l a r method o f r e s e a r c h .  Theoretically, this constitutes  I n o t h e r words, i t appears t h a t whether we  are d e c i p h e r i n g a graph o r p o s t u l a t i n g a grammar o f t h e O.B.I., we a r e f o r c e d t o make assumptions about t h e o t h e r .  Unsound though t h i s method may  appear t o be, O.B.I, s c h o l a r s have been u s i n g i t i n t h e i r s t u d y and have made s i g n i f i c a n t accomplishments.  R a t h e r than s t a r t i n g from a s o l i d , proven  b a s i s , t h e s e s c h o l a r s work from c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s , namely, t h a t t h e O.B.I, i s i n t h e same l i n e a g e as t h e b r o n z e i n s c r i p t i o n s and Shuo Wen form g r a p h s , and t h a t t h e O.B.I, s y n t a x i s b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e . These assumptions have never been, nor a r e they e v e r l i k e l y t o be, s e r i o u s l y  -  challenged.  60  -  S i n c e the end o f l a s t c e n t u r y , i n the c o u r s e o f r e s e a r c h on the  O.B.I., no e v i d e n c e has been uncovered w h i c h would l e a d t o the d i s c a r d i n g of  t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , though s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s and r e c t i f i c a t i o n s have  been made from time t o t i m e . Thus, assuming t h a t the O.B.I, s y n t a x i s b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e , e.g. t h a t the g e n e r a l word o r d e r i s SVO;  and m o d i f i e r s  precede t h e m o d i f i e d , an i n s c r i p t i o n such as i s i n t e r p r e t e d as 'we w i l l r e c e i v e a m i l l e t h a r v e s t ' . Of c o u r s e ,  i n the p r o c e s s of decipherment, one cannot expect a  language s e v e r a l hundred y e a r s e a r l i e r t h a n c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e t o be comp l e t e l y i d e n t i c a l t o c l a s s i c a l Chinese (see K e i g h t l e y 1978:66). the  Even w i t h i n  scope o f c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e , t h e r e a r e p e c u l a r i t i e s among d i f f e r e n t  texts.  I n t h e O.B.I., a h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d language d e a l i n g m a i n l y w i t h d i v i n a t i o n , i t would n o t be u n r e a s o n a b l e t o expect t o encounter some p a r t i c u l a r n o t s h a r e d by c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e .  features  For example, s t a r t i n g from the Lun YU  and Tso Chuan / j : f ^ - , s e n t e n c e f i n a l p a r t i c l e s such as yeh become almost i n d i s p e n s i b l e i n the c l a s s i c a l Chinese system.  bf>£_, Shang Shu  and i  Nevertheless,  we do n o t encounter such p a r t i c l e s i n t h e O.B.I, ( n e i t h e r do we them i n l a r g e numbers i n the S h i h Ching %^  %^  encounter  fcj  and I Ching  W i t h the knowledge t h a t sentence f i n a l p a r t i c l e s do n o t , as a l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e , e x i s t i n t h e O.B.I., to i n t e r p r e t hu *f 1  ft' 4( A  iff  ^  i n the i n s c r i p t i o n  (*Should we s a c r i f i c e t o H s i e n Wu and HsUeh Wu?)  as an  14 interrogative p a r t i c l e i s very questionable. an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f a i l s t o e x p l a i n why  As S e r r u y s p o i n t s o u t , such  t h e r e i s i n t h i s enormous number o f  ^  -  61  -  supposed i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences o n l y one case o f hu ( f o r both.Kuan H s i e t r c h - u and Ch'en Meng-chia, a l l m i n g - t z ' u ( S e r r u y s , 1974:23).  are i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences).  S i n c e hu -f" can be used as a v e r b ' t o summon, t o c a l l  upon' i n sentences such a s :  t e s t / c a l l upon / Lady C h i n g / m i l l e t / r e c e i v e / h a r v e s t Chin  645  ( I f ) we c a l l upon Lady Ching t o p l a n t m i l l e t , we w i l l r e c e i v e a (good) h a r v e s t .  ,  We might i n t e r p r e t t h e i n s c r i p t i o n ' l£l jjj^  l\ fejfi ^ ' as 'we s h a l l make  a s a c r i f i c e t o H s i e n Wu; HsUeh Wu ( i . e . Teacher Wu) w i l l c a l l o u t ( t h e o r d e r ) (or:  w i l l be c a l l e d o u t t o ) ' ( S e r r u y s 1974:23).*"'  p a i r c l e a r l y shows t h a t even when t h e word hu ^  The f o l l o w i n g t u i - c h e n  appears i n sentence f i n a l  p o s i t i o n , i t may a l s o f u n c t i o n as t h e v e r b ' t o summon, t o c a l l upon'.  V  a  hui  v  XL  in  Ping 3(4)  / P r i n c e Pu / c a l l upon / t r a p  I t s h o u l d be P r i n c e P u . t h a t we c a l l upon t o t r a p ( a n i m a l s ) .  A  <S_  n  o  ni  Ping 3(5)  s h o u l d n o t / w e i / P r i n c e Pu / c a l l upon .... I t s h o u l d n o t be P r i n c e Pu.that.we c a l l upon .... P u t t i n g t o o much emphasis on a l i g n i n g O.B.I, s y n t a x w i t h c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g t h e i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e o f t h e O.B.I, w i l l produce i n c o r r e c t interpretations.  -  62  -  The p a t t e r n 'non-nominal-negative + noun' may be used t o i l l u s t r a t e the f a c t t h a t i n comparing t h e O.B.I, and c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e , s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s s h o u l d n o t be used.  I n c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e , n o m i n a l e x p r e s s i o n s can o n l y be negated by t h e nominal n e g a t i v e f e i  o r pu-wei j\\  .  I n cases where a 'noun' ( d e f i n e d  by t h e semantic n a t u r e o r q u a l i t y o f a word, n o t by i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n ) ^ i s preceded by a non-nominal n e g a t i v e such as p_u verbalized.  , t h e 'noun' w i l l become  I n t h e Lun Ytl ^flj? | ^ , t h e r e a r e sentences such a s :  &  * *  (Lun YU HY 23/12/11)  '...the p r i n c e be n o t p r i n c e , t h e m i n i s t e r n o t m i n i s t e r , t h e f a t h e r n o t f a t h e r , and t h e son n o t s o n . ' (Legge, p.256) The second  'noun' o f each c l a u s e i s v e r b a l i z e d .  have sentences such as 'noun' a f t e r t h e n e g a t i v e wu  I n t h e case o f O.B.I., we  ) 'should not/one/ox'.  The  ^ ) i s n o t v e r b a l i z e d , i . e . , t h e sentence cannot  be i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r as " s h o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r i t an o x  1  o r 'should n o t make  i t i n t o an ox', s i n c e v e r b a l i z i n g t h e 'noun' does n o t make sense i n t h e context.  I n f a c t , t h e p a t t e r n 'non-nominal n e g a t i v e + noun' i n t h e O.B.I,  i s d i f f e r e n t , i n t h e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e , from t h a t o f t h e c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e . From t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t , we can always s u p p l y a d e l e t e d v e r b between t h e nonn o m i n a l n e g a t i v e and t h e 'noun', f o r example,  P i n g 52 (8) y u - o f f e r / f a t h e r / one / ox We s h o u l d y u - o f f e r t o f a t h e r one ox.  -  __  63 -  m  Pin£ 52 (9)  s h o u l d n o t / one / ox We s h o u l d n o t ( y u - o f f e r t o f a t h e r ) one ox.  ,,j  P i n g 52 (10)  ~ - r *f  two / ox (We s h o u l d y u - o f f e r t o f a t h e r ) two oxen.  P i n g 52 (11) s h o u l d n o t / two / ox We s h o u l d n o t ( y u - o f f e r t o f a t h e r ) two oxen. F o l l o w i n g t h e assumption o f sentence p a r a l l e l i s m (see p.69) i n t u i - c h e n ^ p a i r s , t h e s i m p l e s t s o l u t i o n i s t o t a k e t h e sentence the  verb d e l e t e d . *  1  ~~ f /:  B  ' as h a v i n g  7  The d e l e t i o n o f a v e r b t o g i v e emphasis t o o t h e r elements i n t h e sentence i s a p r a c t i c e w e l l a t t e s t e d i n Chinese.  #  -f %  ±. m  m &.  F o r example,  osse***  -  3 7 / 5 A / 7 )  " I am one o f Heaven's p e o p l e who have f i r s t apprehended; I w i l l t a k e t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s and i n s t r u c t t h i s p e o p l e i n them. I f I do n o t i n s t r u c t them, who w i l l do_ s o ? " (Legge, p.363)  -  /f t  64  -  <^ * W * tl  ±  % & „  (Ibid.) " I have h e a r d t h a t I Y i n sought an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o T'ang by t h e d o c t r i n e s o f Yao and Shun. I have n o t h e a r d t h a t he d i d so by h i s knowledge of c o o k e r y . " (Legge, (Underlining the author's.  The u n d e r l i n e d words i n t r a n s l a t i o n s show t h e  o m i t t e d v e r b s i n the o r i g i n a l s . p.460) and Ch'en Wei-chan  p.364)  See a l s o Chang Ping-ch'Uan  j^. ^  (1965: V o l . 2 . 1 ,  (1980:196) f o r d i s c u s s i o n s on the  p r a c t i c e o f a b b r e v i a t i o n i n t h e O.B.I.) I n modern C h i n e s e , a s i m i l a r phenomenon i s o b s e r v e d . the s u g g e s t i o n ' j a n g t*a ch' i h t i e n f a n pa  |^  some r i c e ' may be 'pu yao f a n , mien t ' i a o pa ( g i v e ) him r i c e ,  (give) him some n o o d l e s ' .  ^  A response t o  |fe /gfo / > g _ , l e t him e a t  - J j ^f^,  /(\^  don't  -  III.  -THE  65  -  SEMANTIC CONSIDERATIONS  The O.B.I, language i s v e r y t e r s e .  We have not as y e t d i s c o v e r e d  ,any sentence f i n a l p a r t i c l e s o r c o n n e c t i v e s .  I t remains  undertermined  whether t h i s r e p r e s e n t s the t r u e n a t u r e of the Shang language o r i s due to e l l i p s i s i n the n o t a t i o n of d i v i n a t o r y s e n t e n c e s , o f f i c i a l short-hand.  I n c o n t r a s t to i t s t e r s e n e s s , the O.B.I, language  shows g r e a t v a r i e t y i n terms o f sentence s t r u c t u r e . jj^  verb, l i a o  i . e . , a k i n d of  To t a k e a ' t h r e e - p l a c e '  ( b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ) as an example, i t can appear i n the  following positions:  Ch'i t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / to / T i n g / f i v e / ox , We  s h o u l d b u r n - s a c r i f i c e f i v e oxen to T i n g .  k u e i - h a i / c r a c k / Ch'ueh / t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e /  (Shang)Chia  t h r e e / ox / y u - o f f e r / behead / t e n / Ch'iang / t e n / boar We 'should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e t h r e e oxen t o (Shang) C h i a , y u - o f f e r beheaded v i c t i m , t e n  Ch' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n  and t e n b o a r s . Ho^-  to  / (Shang)Chia  162  / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / t h r e e / s m a l l / penned-sheep  dismember-sacrifice (It  one  / three  i s ) to (Shang) C h i a  ( t h a t we  75 should) b u r n - s a c r i f i c e t h r e e s m a l l  penned-sheep and d i s m e m b e r - s a c r i f i c e  three...  -  one  66  -  / sheep / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e  I  L  7061  ( I t i s ) one sheep ( t h a t we s h o u l d ) b u r n - s a c r i f i c e .  The v e r b  sometimes precedes t h e i n d i r e c t o b j e c t ( b e n e f i c i a r y ) and  liao  sometimes i s preceded by i t .  I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n d i r e c t  ( b e n e f i c i a r y ) may o r may n o t be i n d i c a t e d by t h e p r e p o s i t i o n yll  object  'f'  . (Cf.  Ch'en Wei-chan l i s t s many examples showing t h e o p t i o n a l i t y o f v_U (1980:177-  r a t h e r than 'one sheep w i l l b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ' i s o b v i o u s l y based on t h e s e m a n t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t a sheep cannot be t h e agent o f a s a c r i f i c e . 'burn-sacrifice  the same t o k e n ,  By  three  oxen t o Shang C h i a ' b u t n o t ' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e Shang C h i a and t h r e e oxen', s i n c e the a n c e s t o r  Shang C h i a , a c c o r d i n g  can be used as a s a c r i f i c i a l i t e m .  t o our knowledge, i s n o t something t h a t Semantic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e above  type l e a d us t o i n t e r p r e t t h e f o l l o w i n g two i n s c r i p t i o n s as s e m a n t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t , i . e . , verb + i n d i r e c t o b j e c t ( b e n e f i c i a r y ) :  P i n g 50 (3) We s h o u l d e x o r c i s e t o F a t h e r I .  Ho  179  We s h o u l d e x o r c i s e ( t o ) F a t h e r I .  N e e d l e s s t o say, t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s e two i n s c r i p t i o n s as e q u i v a l e n t on s e m a n t i c grounds s h o u l d be s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r arguments:  -  67  -  1. There a r e o b v i o u s reasons t o b e l i e v e t h e p r e p o s i t i o n _y_U  ^ is  o m i t t e d i n t h e second i n s c r i p t i o n s i n c e t h e p r a c t i c e o f e l l i p s i s i s v e r y common on t h e O.B.I.  The f o l l o w i n g f o u r i n s c r i p t i o n s found on t h e same  plastron i l l u s t r a t e this practice:  ^ ff come / c h i a - s h e n / y u - o f f e r / t o / T ' a i C h i a  P i n g 197 (5)  I n t h e coming c h i a - s h e n day, we s h o u l d y u - o f f e r t o T ' a i C h a i .  next / t i n g - y u / y u - o f f e r / t o / Ancestor Ting On t h e n e x t t i n g - y u day, we s h o u l d y u - o f f e r t o A n c e s t o r Ting.  n e x t / h s i n - c h ' o u / y u - o f f e r / A n c e s t o r HsinOn t h e n e x t h s i n - c h ' o u day, we s h o u l d y u - o f f e r ( t o ) A n c e s t o r Hsin. .  next / i - s s u / y u - o f f e r / Ancestor I . On t h e n e x t i - s s u day, we s h o u l d y u - o f f e r ( t o ) A n c e s t o r I. On t h e e n t i r e p l a s t r o n , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e A n c e s t o r s i n t h e former two i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e b e n e f i c i a r i e s w h i l e t h e a n c e s t o r s i n the l a t t e r two sentences a r e p a t i e n t s .  -  68  -  2. I n t h e sentences where t h e p a t t e r n ' s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b + a n c e s t r a l name' i s i n c o r p o r a t e d , one never e n c o u n t e r s a second p e r s o n a l f i g u r e w h i c h can be s y n t a c t i c a l l y  ( e . g . s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b + a n c e s t r a l name + y_U + p e r s o n a l  name) o r s e m a n t i c a l l y ( e . g . t h e p e r s o n a l name r e f e r s t o a god o r d e i t y ) i n t e r p r e t e d as a b e n e f i c i a r y who might r e c e i v e an a n c e s t o r  as a s a c r i f i c e .  S i n c e sentences where t h e p a t t e r n ' s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b + a n i m a l  noun(patient)'  i s i n c o r p o r a t e d o f t e n e x p r e s s an b e n e f i c i a r y ( e . g . ' i j ? god,*,<?) r i v e r god and  ^jj). a n c e s t o r w h i c h may be i n t r o d u c e d by t h e p r e p o s i t i o n v j l ^  ) , one  i s o b l i g e d t o e x p l a i n why, i f an a n c e s t r a l name i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a p a t i e n t , t h e r e i s n e v e r a b e n e f i c i a r y e x p r e s s e d i n sentences where t h e p a t t e r n ' s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b + a n c e s t r a l name' i s i n c o r p o r a t e d .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , what c o n d i t i o n s t h e employment o f y_U ^ problematic.  is still  Chou Fa-kao has observed t h a t i n t h e c l a s s i c s , i n d i r e c t  objects  r e f e r r i n g t o p e o p l e o f h i g h s t a t u s a r e o f t e n i n t r o d u c e d by t h e p r e p o s i t i o n ytl  (1975:308).  T h i s p r i n c i p l e i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e O.B.I, s i n c e a l l  the d i e t i e s o r a n c e s t o r s presumably possess h i g h s t a t u s .  And as i n s c r i p t i o n s  P i n g 47 and Ho 179 show, even i f t h e b e n e f i c i a r i e s a r e i d e n t i c a l , t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f y_U - j " * i s n o t p r e d i c t a b l e .  -  IV.  69  -  THE ASSUMPTION OF SENTENCE PARALLELISM AND THE EXPLOITATION OF CH'ENG T'AO CSET)  1. The Assumption o f Sentence P a r a l l e l i s m I t i s w e l l known t h a t t h e O.B.I, d i v i n a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r i n pairs.  To d i v i n e about whether ' i t w i l l r a i n o r n o t ' n o r m a l l y t a k e s t h e  f o l l o w i n g pattern ' i t w i l l r a i n ' versus t e n c e s thus form a t u i - c h e n p a i r . grammatical  ' i t w i l l n o t r a i n ' and t h e s e  sen-  I t i s assumed t h a t , i n most c a s e s , t h e  s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e two sentences  of a tui-chen pair are i d e n t i c a l .  The n o t i o n o f 'sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' was i n i t i a t e d by Takashima (1973:288-305). In  the a r t i c l e  'Subordinate  P a r t i c u l a r Reference  S t r u c t u r e i n O r a c l e Bone I n s c r i p t i o n s w i t h  to the P a r t i c l e c h ' i  ^  ', Takashima has i l l u s t r a t e d ,  w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g t u i - c h e n p a i r , how t h e n o t i o n o f 'sentence can be a p p l i e d i n grammatical  y*  parallelism'  analysis:  **.  ts I *  P i n g 94 (1)  t e s t / t h e r e i s / come / s t a r t from / west  t h e r e i s n o t / p e r h a p s ( l e s s d e s i r a b l e ) / come / fit  west  &  Takashima s t a t e s ,  ti a s t a r t from P i n g 94 (2)  " I f we were p r o v i d e d w i t h o n l y (.1), as i s o f t e n t h e case i n o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n s , an unwary r e a d e r might analysis t h e sentence as h a v i n g a s y n t a c t i c b r e a k a f t e r l a i % ^ and i n t e r p r e t e d i t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: " I f t h e r e i s an o c c a s i o n (.for someone) t o come, he w i l l s t a r t from t h e w e s t . " T h i s makes p e r f e c t sense and i s i n accordance w i t h t h e g e n e r a l s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of t h e bone language and o f c l a s s i c a l Chinese. However, i f we a p p l y t h e same a n a l y s i s t o ( 2 ) , we would expect t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " i f t h e r e i s perhaps ( i . e . , we do n o t r e a l l y w i s h i t ) no o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) t o come, he w i l l s t a r t from t h e w e s t . " T h i s , o f  -  70 -  c o u r s e makes no sense a t a l l and y e t i t does n o t v i o l a t e the g e n e r a l s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e bone l a n g u a g e . " (.1977:40-41)  In o t h e r words, sentence (!) has two s y n t a c t i c a l l y and s e m a n t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i . e . , Ca) ' I f t h e r e i s an o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) to come, he w i l l s t a r t from t h e west' and (b) 'There i s an o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) t o come from t h e west'. t i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g interpretat ion, to come from t h e west'.  But s e n t e n c e (2) o n l y a l l o w s one semani . e . , 'There i s no o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone)  I t i s on t h e assumption t h a t t h e g r a m m a t i c a l  s t r u c t u r e s o f a t u i - c h e n p a i r a r e i d e n t i c a l t h a t we d i s c a r d (a)  interpretation  o f sentence ( 1 ) . One may a s k , i s i t p o s s i b l e t o r e j e c t t h e assumption o f 'sentence  parallelism'?  That i s , t o adopt i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (a) ' I f t h e r e i s an  o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) t o come, he w i l l s t a r t from t h e w e s t ' f o r sentence (1), and adopt t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 'There i s no o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) t o come from t h e west' f o r sentence ( 2 ) .  While p o s s i b l e , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y .  S i n c e t h e f o c u s o f s e n t e n c e (a) i s 'from w h i c h d i r e c t i o n ' t h e p e r s o n w i l l a r r i v e , w h i l e t h e f o c u s o f s e n t e n c e (2) i s 'whether someone w i l l a r r i v e from the  west' as a whole, i f we adopt t h e s e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , we must p r o v i d e  e v i d e n c e t o e x p l a i n why t h e r e i s a ' s h i f t o f f o c a l p o i n t ' i n t h e s e two sentences w h i c h b e l o n g t o one s i n g l e d i v i n a t o r y  issue.  I t i s because o f 'sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g t u i - c h e n p a i r i s t o be a n a l y s e d as 'main c l a u s e + s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e ' a l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t one, on p u r e l y s y n t a c t i c a l and semantic grounds, c o u l d be a n a l y s e d as ' s u b o r d i n a t e ( c o n d i t i o n a l ) c l a u s e + main c l a u s e ' :  ±t  1)«  ft*  ftf?*  k i n g / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / make p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n  H s i a Wei / r e c e i v e / abundant / a s s i s t a n c e The k i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o make a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . (But n o t ' I f t h e k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng t o make a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t H s i a Wei, he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . ) k i n g / s h o u l d n o t / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / make p u n i t i v e -V f/t esjjt f ig_ ') ^ _ e x p e d i t i o n / H s i a Wei / n o t / perhaps / r e c e i v e / a s s i s t a n c e P i n g 22 (2) The k i n g s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o make a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l n o t r e c e i v e a s s i t a n c e .  2. The E x p l o i t a t i o n o f Ch'eng T'ab &  -§\ (  S e t  )  The n o t i o n and t h e importance o f Ch'eng T'ao was f i r s t and e l a b o r a t e d  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y by Chang Ping-ch'Uan  T'ao i n s c r i p t i o n s r e f e r t o those p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e d i v i n e d on t h e same day, c o n c e r n i n g  introduced  T|t-(I960).  Ch'eng  sentences w h i c h a r e  t h e same i s s u e , h a v i n g s i m i l a r meaning  and h a v i n g numerals (Jn.sU. shuffi« ^  ) i n sequence.  The n o t i o n o f Ch'eng T'ao  i s o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g e l l i p t i c a l sentences and thus may i n f l u e n c e the analyses  or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of these sentences.  i n t h e P i n g P i e n 34, t h e r e i s a p a i r o f t u i - c h e n s e n t e n c e s :  F o r example,  >  J  h  r  1^  ^  i  i  l  i  l  i  i-mao / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / p r e s i d e / m i l l e t first _ 34 (5) t e s t / k i n g / s h o u l d n o t / p r e s i d e / mmiilllleett  first 34 (6)  At f i r s t s i g h t , one would be t o i n t e r p r e t them as 'The k i n g s h o u l d  preside  over t h e p l a n t i n g o f m i l l e t ' and 'The k i n g s h o u l d n o t p r e s i d e over t h e p l a n t i n g o f m i l l e t ' r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, on P i n g P i e n 35, we f i n d t h e following pair:  i-mao / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / p r e s i d e / m i l l e t  A, 3 approve  second  35 (5)  t e s t / k i n g / should not / p r e s i d e / m i l l e t (The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f jL-  second  35 (6)  ( t o p r e s i d e o v e r ) i s proposed by  Serruys  1974:92). Judging  from t h e p o s i t i o n i n g on t h e p l a s t r o n s o f these  inscriptions  and j u d g i n g from o t h e r i n s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h concur i n t h i s placement as w e l l as t h e h i g h l y s i m i l a r w o r d i n g and i d e n t i c a l d a t e , t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t these two p a i r s b e l o n g t o t h e same s e t .  One may r e a s o n a b l y  hypothesize  t h a t t h e s e two p a i r s , i n t h e u n d e r l y i n g l e v e l , a r e i d e n t i c a l and i t i s o n l y because t h e word ^  'approve' i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i t i s o m i t t e d .  I f the  p a i r on P i n g P i e n 35 can be i n t e r p r e t e d as 'The k i n g s h o u l d p r e s i d e over the p l a n t i n g o f m i l l e t ,  ( f o r ) he w i l l be approved' and 'The k i n g s h o u l d n o t  p r e s i d e oyer t h e p l a n t i n g o f m i l l e t ,  ( f o r he w i l l n o t be a p p r o v e d ) '  r e s p e c t i v e l y , then t h e p a i r s on P i n g P i e n 34 s h o u l d a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e same way, i . e . , n o t as s i m p l e s e n t e n c e s as suggested above b u t as complex  sentences.  -  73  CHAPTER  -  TWO  THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE SENTENCES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE 'CAUSE AND EFFECT' TYPE  As mentioned  i n Chapter One,  the s t u d y of O.B.I, grammar has drawn  v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from s c h o l a r s .  I n p a r t i c u l a r , the problem of composite  s e n t e n c e seems t o have been i g n o r e d .  Kuan's book l i s t s s i x examples under  the h e a d i n g 'composite s e n t e n c e ' ~%%^ ^Qn *Q  w i t h o u t any f u r t h e r s u b - c a t e g o r -  i z a t i o n , and the ' d i s c u s s i o n ' of t h e s e sentences o c c u p i e s o n l y two Ch'en Meng-chia d e a l s w i t h the problem o f ' s e n t e n c e - p a t t e r n s ' j^)  lines. i n three  pages w i t h o u t s i n g l i n g out the composite sentence f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n of any kind.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , a more a c c u r a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e O.B.I, language  cannot be o b t a i n e d i f the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c l a u s e s of composite sentences i s not touched upon.  Though t h e r e a r e v e r y few f o r m a l c o n n e c t i v e s ,  i f any, i n the O.B.I., t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e r e a r e composite s e n t e n c e s . And as a m a t t e r o f f a c t t h e p a u c i t y o f c o n n e c t i v e s i n composite s e n t e n c e i s one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Chinese language.  I n the M e n c i u s ,  we  f i n d sentences such as the f o l l o w i n g :  1 / 1 A  /3)  I f the seasons of husbandry be not i n t e r f e r r e d w i t h , the g r a i n w i l l be more t h a n can be e a t e n . (Legge, p.130) A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no  ' v i s i b l e ' marker, t h i s s t r i n g can o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d  as a 'composite' s e n t e n c e once the c o n t e x t i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . s e n s e , no m a t t e r how  In. a s t r i c t  c l o s e l y two c l a u s e s a r e r e l a t e d i n meaning, they cannot  -  74  -  be termed as c l a u s e s of a 'composite' sentence i f t h e r e i s no marker. marker may  e i t h e r be s e g m e n t a l , e.g.  and/or p i t c h .  ^ 'if'»  A  o r s u p r a s e g m e n t a l , e.g. pause  A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , i t i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r  whether t h e r e were any suprasegmental markers imposed on s e n t e n c e s such as the  one c i t e d above.  We can o n l y assume t h a t t h e r e were suprasegmental  markers n o t r e c o r d e d i n the w r i t t e n language and i n t e r p r e t such sentences as parataxis.  I n i n s t e a d of f o r m a l m a r k e r s , i t i s the c o n t e x t u a l meaning which  d e t e r m i n e s l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between two p a r t i c u l a r c l a u s e s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of composite s e n t e n c e s v a r i e s from one s c h o l a r t o another.  For example, Wang L i l i s t s t w e l v e s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s under the  h e a d i n g 'composite s e n t e n c e ' (1946:116-117); &  t?  (4)  #)  io  (6)  * tf &  (1)  i  Chou Fa-kao g i v e s s i x (1961:198).  (condition) (concession) (cause and e f f e c t ) ( s i m u l t a n e o u s and s u c c e s s i v e ) (adversative) (cumulative)  (2)  A l t h o u g h the number o f s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s d i f f e r s from s c h o l a r to s c h o l a r , d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the a c t u a l a n a l y s i s of composite sentences do not often occur. for  I n t h i s s t u d y , Chou Fa-kao's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been adopted  i t s simplicity.  Cases r e q u i r i n g a s u b t l e r a n a l y s i s w i l l be d i s c c u s e d  i n d i v i d u a l l y as they o c c u r . The term ' s u b o r d i n a t e composite s e n t e n c e s ' r e f e r s t o t h e f i r s t k i n d s of sentence d e s c r i b e d above.  five  However, due p r o b a b l y t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r  c h a r a c t e r of the Shang d i v i n a t i o n s , ' c o n c e s s i v e ' sentences ( i . e . , sentences showing a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p marked by c o n n e c t i v e s such as s u i ^ f ^ ' e v e n ' i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese) and  ' a d v e r s a t i v e ' sentences ( i . e . , s e n t e n c e s showing  - 75 -  the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h i s marked by c o n n e c t i v e s \5y  such as ( j a r i ) e r h (^f>.^  'however' i n c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e ) do n o t seem t o e x i s t as major c a t e g o r i e s  i n t h e O.B.I.  There a r e some s e n t e n c e s , w h i c h , when c o n s i d e r e d  a r e open e i t h e r t o t h e ' c o n c e s s i v e '  separately,  or 'adversative' a n a l y s i s .  F o r example,  king / yu-offer / captive p a i r / not / favorable Even i f t h e k i n g y u - o f f e r s a p a i r o f c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l n o t be favorable.  , £ £ «i hi  _ P  k i n g / perhaps / go / chase /  ft  -game(?) I at  4A  I Kuei^-  P i n g 216 (6) not / perhaps / c a p t u r e The k i n g w i l l perhaps go t o chase ^ he w i l l perhaps n o t c a p t u r e  -game(?) a t K u e i , however,  (them).  Or: The k i n g w i l l perhaps go t o chase ^ ? -game(?) and kuei-game ( ? ) , however, he w i l l perhaps n o t c a p t u r e  them.  (For t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e words ' ^  ', see Chapter Three,  footnote  no. 14.) . S y n t a c t i c a l l y and c o n t e x t u a l l y , t h e above a n a l y s e s Nevertheless, counterparts  such a n a l y s e s  cannot be a p p l i e d t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i v e  o f t h e s e two s e n t e n c e s :  kuei-wei  are, p o s s i b l e .  / c r a c k / HsUan / t e s t / k i n g  yu-offer / captive pair / favorable  -  76  -  Even i f t h e k i n g y u - o f f e r s a p a i r o f c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l be f a v o r a b l e ,  k i n g / perhaps / go / chase / ^  -game(?) / a t  k u e i / capture The k i n g w i l l perhaps go t o chase ^ he w i l l perhaps c a p t u r e  (them).  Or: The k i n g w i l l perhaps go t o chase however, he w i l l perhaps c a p t u r e  Obviously,  -game(?) a t K u e i , however,  -game(?) and k u e i - g a m e ( ? ) , (them).  t h e l a s t two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s do n o t make much sense.  If  we adopt t h e n o t i o n o f sentence p a r a l l e l i s m i n our a n a l y s e s , t h e ' c o n c e s s i v e ' or ' a d v e r s a t i v e ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e n e g a t i v e rejected.  c o u n t e r p a r t s must a l s o be  We may, on t h e o t h e r hand, i n t e r p r e t a l l f o u r o f t h e s e i n s c r i p t i o n s  as c o n d i t i o n a l s e n t e n c e s . P i n g 53 (2)  ' I f the king yu-offers a p a i r of c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l not be  53  (1)  favorable.  ' I f the k i n g y u - o f f e r s a p a i r of c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l be  P i n g 216 (.6)  That i s ,  favorable.  ' I f t h e k i n g perhaps goes t o chase ffi -game(?) a t K u e i , he w i l l perhaps n o t c a p t u r e  (them).  O r : ' I f t h e k i n g perhaps goes t o chase ^ game(?), he w i l l perhaps n o t c a p t u r e  216  (5)  ' I f t h e k i n g perhaps goes t o chase ^ he w i l l perhaps c a p t u r e  -game(?) and k u e i (them).  -game(?) a t K u e i ,  (them).  O r : ' I f t h e k i n g perhaps goes t o chase ffi -game(?) and k u e i game(?), he w i l l perhaps c a p t u r e  (them).  I n s c r i p t i o n s P i n g 139 (.1) ( 2 ) , 1-57 .'CD C 2 ) , 159 (.8) (.9) and 189  (9) (.10) a r e a l s o s u b j e c t t o t h e above a n a l y s e s .  I.  THE CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFYING COMPOSITE SENTENCES  S i n c e t h e r e a r e no f o r m a l markers ( c o n n e c t i v e s ) i n t h e O.B.I. and t h e presumed pause, p i t c h o r i n t o n a t i o n i s n o t shown i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l composite sentences Concerning  i s highly problematic.  t h e o m i s s i o n o f c o n n e c t i v e s i n C h i n e s e , Wang L i s t a t e s ,  "The f i x e d p o s i t i o n ( o f t h e two c l a u s e s i n ) the • ' s u b o r d i n a t e + main' sentence i s t h e major r e a s o n why c o n n e c t i v e s may not be employed. ... I n Chinese when two sentence-forms a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e no c o n n e c t i v e s , we a r e s t i l l a b l e t o t e l l t h a t t h e former one i n c o r p o r a t e s a meaning such as ' a l t h o u g h ' , 'even i f , ' i f , ' i f , 'if» ' s i n c e ' o r 'because o f , t h i s i s because t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e must be p l a c e d i n i t i a l l y . "  i.\t q < ft w @ .... $%&t® ®*!* ^'#?it^it i - € /  *« * % k  *  f mlS  %  K (.1946:125)  I t i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o understand Wang's argument.  >  The f i x e d  -  78  p o s i t i o n of c l a u s e s can o n l y a s s i s t us i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h c l a u s e i s subordinate  and w h i c h i s main.  c l a u s e s (e.g.  'conditional')  The  p r e c i s e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between  i s not  shown by t h i s p o s i t i o n i n g .  I t appears  t h a t the o n l y c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h i s l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s contextual  meaning.  I n c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e , not  of the l a n g u a g e , a l a r g e r c o n t e x t r e l e v a n t frequently troversy  a v a i l a b l e , and  thus  to the sentence i n q u e s t i o n i s  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between two  always c l e a r and  the  t o mention more modern forms  t h e r e a r e not many cases of p o s s i b l e  the O.B.I., however, the c o n t e x t u a l  the  con-  clauses.  In  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n t e n c e s i s not  ' l a r g e r c o n t e x t ' i s only, a vague term r e f e r r i n g t o  sentences a p p e a r i n g on the same p l a s t r o n or on the r e l a t e d  plastrons  ). I n some c a s e s , the c o n t e x t u a l o b v i o u s t h a t we may  c o n s i d e r them a d i v i n a t o r y  (Ch 'tteh) w i l l c a p t u r e the  Ch'ueh w i l l not  Our  Our  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n t e n c e s i s so  Ping 1  (9)  Ping 1  (14)  Fou-(tribesmen).  c a p t u r e the  envoy w i l l harm  group.  Fou-(tribesmen).  Fou.  envoy w i l l not perhaps harm  Fou.  -  79  -  A l t h o u g h t h e dates o f d i v i n a t i o n and t h e d i v i n e r s mentioned i n t h e above two p a i r s o f sentences related  a r e d i f f e r e n t , we c a n s t i l l  c o n s i d e r each p a i r t o be  c o n t e x t u a l l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i d e n t i c a l o b j e c t  by t h e v e r b  ^  ' c a p t u r e ' and  ID  Fou  'harm' b o t h seem t o be r e l a t e d  a c t i v i t i e s on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a s t r o n .  preceded  to m i l i t a r y  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e above p a i r s , t h e r e  a r e some i n s c r i p t i o n s whose i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s v e r y o b s c u r e , though they  appear on t h e same p l a s t r o n :  : h i - w e i / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / Wang H a i chd P i n g 3 (1)  harm / we \ Wang H a i w i l l harm us.  P i n g 3 (2)  t e s t / Wang H a i / n o t / we / harm ^Wang H a i w i l l n o t harm u s .  t e s t / we / perhaps / have / d i s a s t e r We w i l l perhaps have  P i n g 3 (11)  disaster.  P i n g 3 (12)  t e s t / we / have no / d i s a s t e r ^We w i l l have no d i s a s t e r .  c h i - w e i / c r a c k / Ch ueh / t e s t / we / a t  <  P i n g 3 (19)  Chih / enter / s t a t i o n We s h o u l d e n t e r a t C h i h and s t a t i o n  (there)  t e s t / should not / a t / Chih / s t a t i o n We s h o u l d n o t s t a t i o n a t C h i h .  P i n g 3 (20)  -  80  -  Whether t h e d i v i n a t i o n s about ' a c t i o n ' -j-" £^f,  Jj,  u n c e r t a i n whether ' "£ ^  %  1$, ' a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e  ' i s something we cannot be s u r e o f . ^  ' i s t h e cause o f ' ^  rf%$aj  s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s sometimes t h e o n l y means l e f t the c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n t e n c e s .  Undeniably,)  t o us i n p o s i t i n g  Nevertheless,  f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no o t h e r way, we must e x p l o i t t h i s  Likewise, i t i s  i n view of the  ' l a r g e r c o n t e x t ' as  f u l l y as p o s s i b l e on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s e n t e n c e s a p p e a r i n g on t h e same p l a s t r o n a r e r e l a t e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r . of i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g that concerning composite s e n t e n c e , cannot be  Without t h i s assumption, a l o t  the determination  o f the type of  recovered.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e meaning and c o n t e x t , t h e ' g e n e r a l p a t t e r n ' j j £ o f O.B.I, and t h e p r a c t i c e o f e l l i p s i s also.  have t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n  Instead of going i n t o t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , the author  presents  the f o l l o w i n g example t o i l l u s t r a t e a n a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p o i n t s ment i o n e d above i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f composite s e n t e n c e s .  hsin-yu  / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / t h i s / season  ±* ))u \* f ji*; ft*  k i n g / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / a t t a c k / H s i a Wei  r e c e i v e / abundant / a s s i s t a n c e  P i n g 20 (1)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A:  T h i s season t h e k i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n B:  I f , t h i s season t h e k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k H s i a Wei, he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e .  -  81  -  h s i n - y u / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / t h i s / season k i n g / s h o u l d n o t / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / a t t a c k H s i a Wei / n o t / perhaps / r e c e i v e / abundant / a s s i s t a n c e P i n g 20 (2) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A:  T h i s season t h e k i n g s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l n o t perhaps r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n B:  I f t h e k i n g does n o t  Concerning  , he w i l l n o t  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between two c l a u s e s such as those o f  P i n g 20 ( 2 ) , d i f f e r e n t a n a l y s e s have been proposed. 1. Chou Hung-hsiang J^} > tfj fyjinterprets t h e two n e g a t:ives i as f  f o r m i n g a 'double n e g a t i v e ' c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e n e g a t i v e s c a n c e l l i n g each o t h e r o u t ; t h u s , sentence (2) has t h e same c o g n i t i v e meaning as sentence ( 1 ) , i . e . , b o t h sentences a r e p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than p o s i t i v e v e r s u s  negative. (1969:77)  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Chou has n o t e x p l i c a t e d what he means by 'double negative'  ^  tf\  ^- Q %_  .  I t seems t h a t he t r e a t s t h e two n e g a t i v e s wu  and f u $p i n P i n g 20 (.2) i n t h e same way as he t r e a t s t h e 'double n e g a t i v e s ' wang ~{Z- and p_u ^- i n s e n t e n c e s such as ' J_ £. rf\ % k i n g has no u n e a s i n e s s ) .  (the  However, t h e n e g a t i v e s wu 'fl] and f u $p i n  sentence P i n g 20 (2) occur i n d i f f e r e n t c l a u s e s w h i l e wang not.  1  and pu rf- do  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between wang JZ- and pu rf> cannot be t h e same  as t h a t between wu fyj] and f u d i f f i c u l t to accept.  .  Thus, Chou's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s  -  82  -  2. S e r r u y s a n a l y s e s such s e n t e n c e s as 'main c l a u s e + s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e ' and s u p p l i e s a p a r a p h r a s e w h i c h has a ' s u b o r d i n a t e ( c o n d i t i o n a l ) + main'  structure.  "Test ( t h e p r o p o s i t i o n ) : we ought n o t a t t a c k t h e Hu ( c o u n t r y ) .... ( f o r ) God might n o t g i v e us ( l i t . make r e c e i v e ) h i s assistance." ( i . e . , " I f we do n o t God w i l l n o t ....) (1974:44)  Do n o t b u r n (any v i c t i m a t t h e s t a k e ) , then we w i l l n o t have e n s u i n g r a i n . Burn ( v i c t i m s a t t h e s t a k e ) , then we w i l l have e n s u i n g r a i n . " The p r o h i b i t i v e "don't" and i t s c o u n t e r p a r t "do b u r n " a r e o f t e n used i n t h e f u n c t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n a l : " I f we do n o t b u r n " and " i f we b u r n " This i s comparable t o s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e s i n o t h e r language, e.g. c l a s s i c a l Greek usage o f n e g a t i v e me ( c f . Hansjakob S e i l e r , " A b s t r a c t S t r u c t u r e s f o r moods i n Greek" Language, J o u r n a l of t h e L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a , V o l . 47, 1. 1971, p . 8 1 ) : " I f one l o o k s a t -a.number of c o n d i t i o n a l s e n t e n c e s i t seems odd t h a t t h e p r o t a s i s s h o u l d i n v a r i a b l y be negated by means o f t h e p r o h i b i t i v e n e g a t i o n . " (1974:27) As shown i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e s e n t e n c e ' ^ ^ ) ^ £  <5  ', S e r r u y s u n d e r s t a n d s t h e s t r u c t u r e ' i f ... then  ' as e q u i v a l e n t t o 'should  , for  '.  P r e c i s e l y as Takashima has p o i n t e d o u t , t h e s e two s t r u c t u r e s cannot be equated: I t seems t o me t h a t "we ought n o t proceed t o h u n t , f o r i t w i l l n o t be c a u g h t " i s n o t a t a l l e q u i v a l e n t t o " i f we do not p r o c e e d , i t w i l l n o t be c a u g h t . " That i s , t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f t h e former seems t o suggest " s o , don't proceed t o h u n t , " whereas t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f t h e l a t t e r s u g g e s t , " s o , do proceed t o h u n t . " (1977:53)  -  83 -  In any case, the translations provided i n parentheses by Serruys r e f l e c t a s t r u c t u r a l analysis i d e n t i c a l to Takashima's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A which the author considers a-correct reading. This problem i s dealt with i n the following sections.  3. Takashima has proposed two interpretations for sentences of this type: A. main + subordinate(causal) e.g.  $• * i  to AK  &  %  *  *  'The king must not follow Wang Ch'eng to attack Hsia Wei this spring, (for) (he) w i l l not perhaps receive abundant assistance'. (1973:292) B. subordinate(conditional) + main  e. . 8  'If the king does not follow Wang Ch'eng to attack Hsia Wei this spring, he w i l l not perhaps (less desirable) receive abundant assistance. (1977:44) Interpretation A i s a simple and natural analysis based on the context.  The word wu ^ ) , frequently functions as a p r o h i b i t i v e negative  both i n the O.B.I, and i n the c l a s s i c s , so i t i s reasonable clause »  to interpret the  f ^ « as 'the king should not follow Wang Ch'eng  to attack Hsia Wei';  and since the clause '  ( w i l l not perhaps  receive abundant assistance) represents an undesirable s i t u a t i o n , i t i s also reasonable  to interpret i t as the cause for p r o h i b i t i n g the king from  following Wang Ch'eng to attack Hsia Wei. On the other hand, the above analysis which places a subordinate clause after a main clause i s somewhat unusual i n terms of the predominant  -  s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e .  84  -  Takashima p o i n t s out t h a t 'from the s t a n d -  p o i n t o f t h e g e n e r a l s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of C h i n e s e , the a p o d o s i s u s u a l l y f o l l o w s the p r o t a s i s '  (1977:54).  Thus, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B i s proposed  another p o s s i b i l i t y .  I n a d d i t i o n t o the example i n c l a s s i c a l Greek,  e v i d e n c e i s c i t e d from E n g l i s h and Japanese t o demonstrate i m p e r a t i v e / p r o h i b i t i v e sentence-form may c o n d i t i o n a l (1977:51-52).  From t h e s e examples,  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may  s e n t e n c e s as w e l l .  t h a t an  f u n c t i o n as t h e p r o t a s i s of a t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t i n  many l a n g u a g e s , i m p e r a t i v e / p r o h i b i t i v e sentence-forms may function.  as  a t times have t h i s  be a p p l i e d t o c e r t a i n c l a s s i c a l  Chinese  F o r example,  (Mencius HY 1/1A/3) 'Let t h e r e not be t a k e n away the time t h a t i s p r o p e r f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e farm w i t h i t s hundred mau, and the f a m i l y o f s e v e r a l mouths t h a t i s s u p p o r t e d by i t s h a l l not s u f f e r from hunger.' (Legge, p.131) I n t h i s j u n c t u r e , i t appears t h a t each i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , A and B, i t s m e r i t s and can be s u p p o r t e d on d i f f e r e n t grounds.  has  However, the f a c t t h a t  b o t h o f t h e s e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e does n o t mean t h a t t h e s e two l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n one s i n g l e sent e n c e ( t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of t h e s e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e o p p o s i t e t o each o t h e r , as Takashima has p o i n t e d o u t ) .  There can be o n l y one  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two c l a u s e s of the sentences i n q u e s t i o n .  logical The  t a s k b e f o r e us i s t o t e s t which of t h e s e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s more appropriate.  The p r e s e n t a u t h o r h o l d s t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A  i s more l i k e l y t o be the c o r r e c t one f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s :  - 85 -  ( 1 ) The Symmetry o f Tul-Chen P a i r s I t i s a well-known f a c t t h a t members o f most o f t h e t u i - c h e n p a i r s have a sense o p p o s i t e t o have ( ^  vs  n o t t o have (  )  vs  i t i s not (  (uncontrollable verb)  vs  w i l l not u n c o n t r o l l a b l e verb)  vs  n o t t o do ( ^ + controll a b l e verb)  i t i s ( J^i will  )  t o each o t h e r , i . e . ,  t o do ( c o n t r o l l a b l e verb)  )  ^ ]i )  I n o t h e r words, each member o f a t u i - c h e n p a i r s t a t e s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f w h i c h the o t h e r member i s t h e n e g a t i v e logical possibilities.  counterpart  and each p a i r c o v e r s a l l t h e  I f we adopt i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B, t h a t i s :  " i f t h e k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k H s i a Wei t h i s s p r i n g , he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . "  " i f t h e k i n g does n o t f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k H s i a Wei t h i s s p r i n g , , he w i l l n o t perhaps (=less d e s i r a b l e ) r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . " The i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f t h e s e two s e n t e n c e s t u r n s o u t t o be t h e same the k i n g s h o u l d  f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k H s i a Wei t h i s season.  I t goes  without saying that t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n v i o l a t e s the general dualism  which  c h a r a c t e r i z e s O.B.I, d i v i n a t i o n s ; i n o t h e r words, t h i s p a i r o f t u i - c h e n c o v e r s o n l y one p o s s i b i l i t y by means o f two e q u i v a l e n t  expressions.  One may argue t h a t t h i s t u i - c h e n p a i r should n o t be t r e a t e d i n d e p e n dently.  I t has t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r t u i - c h e n p a i r s  a p p e a r i n g on t h e same p l a s t r o n :  -  hsin-yu  86  -  / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / h u i  Chia / f o l l o w J  P i n g 20 (5)  I t s h o u l d be C h i a  hsin-yu  wei  ( r a t h e r t h a n anybody e l s e ) t h a t t h e k i n g f o l l o w s .  / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / s h o u l d n o t  / Chia / f o l l o w  P i n g 20 (6)  I t s h o u l d n o t be C h i a t h a t t h e k i n g f o l l o w s .  I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e main c o n c e r n o f t h i s d i v i n a t o r y group ( P i n g 20 (1) (2) (5) (6)) i s 'whom t h e k i n g s h o u l d  f o l l o w , Wang Ch'eng o r  (Chih) C h i a ' , so t h e d i v i n a t i o n was made t o determine t h e c h o i c e between t h e s e two g e n e r a l s . i. ii. iii. iv.  ( T h e o r e t i c a l l y , there are four  possibilities:  t o f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng; t o f o l l o w Chih Chia; n o t t o f o l l o w e i t h e r o f them; t o f o l l o w b o t h o f them a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . )  Even i f we a c c e p t t h e above e x p l a n a t i o n , t o i n t e r p r e t P i n g 20 (1) (2) as h a v i n g t h e same i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e r e q u i r e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e Shang k i n g has a l r e a d y made up h i s mind o r , a t l e a s t , has a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n t o f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng r a t h e r t h a n C h i h C h i a . We must admit t h a t such a p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s i f we adopt K e i g h t l e y ' s h y p o t h e s i s cases,  s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d as a p r a y e r  (1972) t h a t a m i n g - t z ' u , i n some  or incantation.  However, as  i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e s , P i n g 21 (1) and (2) would b e t t e r be u n d e r s t o o d as d i v i n a t i o n s s o l i c i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s from a s u p e r n a t u r a l t o d e t e r m i n e whom t h e k i n g s h o u l d  f o l l o w , r a t h e r than p r a y e r s  power  or incantations  made t o seek c o n f i r m a t i o n o f a p r i o r i d e c i s i o n on t h e p r o p e r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n  - 87 -  to f o l l o w .  I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, we l o o k a t t h e t h r e e p a i r s o f t u i - c h e n  as a u n i t , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B d e s t r o y s t h e symmetry o f t h e whole.  The  See F i g u r e I .  i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f s e n t e n c e s (3) and ( 4 ) , (5) and (6)  a r e c o n t r a r y t o each o t h e r . illocutionary force.  I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t (1) and (2) have s i m i l a r  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t these t h r e e p a i r s o f t u i - c h e n  s e n t e n c e s a r e s y m m e t r i c a l l y p o s i t i o n e d on t h e p l a s t r o n .  One more example,  P i n g 22, may f u r t h e r demonstrate t h e s t r a n g e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d when one a n a l y s e s sentences o f t h e  1  ^7  ,  &I  ^  1  type as c o n d i t i o n a l . See  Figure I I .  I f we were t o say t h a t sentences P i n g 22 (1) and (2) have s i m i l a r i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e , based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e k i n g has formed a prejudgement o r i s i n c l i n e d t o f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng, i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o account f o r sentences (3) and (4) w h i c h have i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e c o n t r a r y t o each o t h e r .  I n terms o f placement, meaning and i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e , sentences  (3) and ( 4 ) , (11) and ( 1 2 ) , (13) and (14) a r e o p p o s i t e .  I t would be h i g h l y  u n l i k e l y f o r sentences (1) and ( 2 ) , w h i c h a r e o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e p a i r s , t o have i d e n t i c a l i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e w h i l e r e t a i n i n g o p p o s i n g placement on t h e p l a s t r o n .  . I n g e n e r a l terms, d i v i n a t i o n i s u s u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d as a means o f f o r e t e l l i n g f u t u r e events o r o f r e q u i r i n g s u p e r - n a t u r a l guidance f o r one's a c t i o n s ; i n e i t h e r c a s e , i t i s g e n e r a l l y presupposed t h a t the p e r s o n i n i t i a t i n g the d i v i n a t i o n has no knowledge o f what w i l l happen and i s ingenuous i n h i s seeking of the o r a c l e ' s guidance.  To i n t e r p r e t t h e 'ID  ^  /  ......' type s e n t e n c e as a p r o h i b i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g as c o n d i t i o n a l w h i c h c a r r i e s a s t r o n g i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e and w h i c h a t t h e same t i m e t u r n s out t o  -  I f t h e k i n g does n o t f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k H s i a Wei t h i s ^ season, he w i l l no perhaps r e c e i v e . abundant a s s i s t a n t  87 a -  \ 3iv=> -a. lC->  I f the king follows JVang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k H s i a Wei Nth i s s e a s o n , he T i \ w i l l receive q: \ abundant j3f \ a s s i s t a n c e . AA.  iff *i AA  t3  2-  4  AA  The k i n g s h o u l d not f o l l o w C h i h Chia.  6 AA  Jjfc  I t s h o u l d n o t be C h i h Chia that the king follows.  FIGURE I ( P i n g 20)  I t s h o u l d be Chih Chia that the k i n g f o l l o w s .  -87 b -  I f t h e k i n g does not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o attack Hsia Wei, he w i l l / jjp not r e c e i v e AAassistance  If the king follows Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k s i a Wei, he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant assistance.  AT" ufj  AA  R'1  13  A/.  ±AA  4,  The k i n g s h o u l d not f o l l o w xn jj] Wang Ch'eng. ^£ -  The k i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng.  7  I t s h o u l d n o t be Chia that the king follows.  I t s h o u l d be Chia (that the king) follows.  /3 AA  ^7/ AA  The k i n g s h o u l d not f o l l o w C h i h Chia t o attack Pa.  FIGURE I I ( P i n g 22)  ft,  -r  I t s h o u l d be Chih Chia that the k i n g f o l l o w s to a t t a c k (Pa).  -  88  -  have an i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e s i m i l a r t o i t s p o s i t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t ^  %- $t. ^  K  T JZJ » ^k. 'i?  ( I t appears d i f f i c u l t  f o r c e i n t h e p a i r ' ;£ AA }Jz J^' counterbalance  t o d i s c o v e r an i l l o c u t i o n a r y 'f/J M  and '  1  t h i s r e a d i n g o f o u r example.)  >>t  ' s t r o n g enough t o  More i m p o r t a n t l y , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  B seems c o n t r a r y t o o u r b a s i c assumption about d i v i n a t i o n . the Shang k i n g had a l r e a d y d e c i d e d was  %  ' would o v e r l o a d t h i s t u i - c h e n p a i r w i t h  v  illocutionary force.  '  One may argue t h a t  t o f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng b e f o r e t h e d i v i n a t i o n  performed, so t h a t what was needed was m e r e l y c o n f i r m a t i o n from t h e  supernatural world.  I f t h i s were t h e c a s e , why d i d t h e d i v i n e r proceed t o  d i v i n e about whether t h e k i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w g e n e r a l C h i h C h i a o r not? c o n c u r r e n c e o f d i v i n a t i o n s about f o l l o w i n g Wang Ch'eng w i t h t h a t  The  concerning  Chih C h i a shows t h a t t h e purpose o f these d i v i n a t i o n s i s t o choose between these two g e n e r a l s r a t h e r than t o seek c o n f i r m a t i o n f o r f o l l o w i n g Wang Ch'eng.  (2) The E l l i p t i c a l  Sentences  As mentioned i n Chapter One, t h e p r a c t i c e o f e l l i p s i s sty  common i n t h e O.B.I. ^f  7  h f^K. |(  ^  s n  o  W h i l e t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e ch i e n ^ t z u t  a t  a  ±  1  r  i s very .  ff<J  , e.g.,  a r e , t h e r e a r e a l s o cases where an e n t i r e  c l a u s e i s a b b r e v i a t e d , f o r example:  ( •  T  f t »  U  W*  %f  7  e&ffl  f  t i n g - y u / c r a c k / Ch'eng / t e s t / c a l l upon / Pu n i - r i c e / a t / Tzu / r e c e i v e / abundant /  grain  I f we c a l l upon Pu t o ( p l a n t ) t h e n i - r i c e a t Tzu, we w i l l | r e c e i v e abundant g  r  a  i  n  .  1  .  T  J  3212  -  \>31$* u  89  -  H I  H$  y  A  tt ii nn gg -- yy uu / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / n o t / perhaps  r e c e i v e / abundant /  I "Z^ 3212  grain  We w i l l n o t perhaps r e c e i v e abundant g r a i n . ' The c o n d i t i o n a l c l a u s e o f t h e n e g a t i v e  counterpart  has been  abbreviated.  There a r e even some i n s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f e l l i p s i s in  stages:  rffik  k^ &k:>?' kl&>%' :  H*.  jivi  t e s t / k i n g / h u i / C h i h C h i a / f o l l o w / a t t a c k / Pa  I  s t a t e l e t / t i - g o d / g i v e / we / a s s i s t a n c e  L> 3787  I t s h o u l d be C h i h C h i a t h a t t h e k i n g f o l l o w s t o a t t a c k the Pa s t a t e l e t ,  ( f o r ) t i - g o d w i l l g i v e us a s s i s t a n c e .  <  fi " M *  k i n g / should not / w e i / Chih Chia / f o l l o w / a t t a c k  J i  &a  \  y  «Mt)  Pa / s t a t e l e t / t i - g o d / n o t / we / perhaps / g i v e / a s s i s t a n c e I t s h o u l d n o t be C h i h C h i a t h a t t h e k i n g f o l l o w s t o a t t a c k the Pa s t a t e l e t ,  ( f o r ) t i - g o d w i l l n o t g i v e us a s s i s t a n c e . I  &  3787  t e s t / k i n g / f o l l o w / C h i a / a t t a c k / Pa / t i - g o d f i t  *l  give / assistance The k i n g s h o u l d (for)  P i n g 25 (1)  f o l l o w (Chih) C h i a t o a t t a c k t h e Pa s t a t e l e t ,  t i - g o d w i l l g i v e us a s s i s t a n c e .  t e s t / k i n g / s h o u l d n o t / f o l l o w / C h i a / a t t a c k / Pa P i n g 25 (2) ^ The k i n g s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w (Chih) C h i a t o a t t a c k t h e Pa s t a t e l e t ,  -  (for  -  90  t i - g o d w i l l not g i v e us a s s i s t a n c e ) ,  t e s t / k i n g / f o l l o w / C h i h C h i a / a t t a c k / Pa  P i n g 26 /CD  The k i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w Chih C h i a t o a t t a c k the Pa (for  statelet,  t i - g o d w i l l g i v e us a s s i s t a n c e ) .  £  tl  W  HO  A<  ^  &4 \  It  rt &  k i n g / s h o u l d not / f o l l o w / Chih C h i a / a t t a c k / Pa  P i n g 26  (2)  The k i n g s h o u l d not f o l l o w C h i h C h i a t o a t t a c k the Pa  statelet,  V ( f o r t i - g o d w i l l not g i v e us a s s i s t a n c e ) . From the f u l l v e r s i o n :  * to £ & £ " 4 $  *fb*'5L^  we proceed t o a p a r t i a l l y a b b r e v i a t e d  £  ^ ^  pair:  «fr i£ *  and e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h the most a b b r e v i a t e d \  $  form:  -;Jt %  kk  £  to  Here the p r o c e s s  £>  of p r o g r e s s i v e a b b r e v i a t i o n i s v e r y  With t h i s p r a c t i c e i n mind, we may, c o n t e x t , i n t e r p r e t P i n g 22  (2) ' £  AA  ^  on the b a s i s of the l a r g e r  (3) (4) (See F i g u r e I I ) ' :£ A A  * >L'  r e s  P  , '1 e c t  ively.  *  ' and  *•  and  • £  ^  ^  ^  as a ' s u b o r d i n a t e + main' s t r u c t u r e becomes c l e a r . clause i s '  ^)  ^  $  ^>  ^  (1)  f  I f t h i s i s j u s t i f i e d , the r e a s o n m i l i t a t i n g  a g a i n s t i n t e r p r e t i n g the sentence ' ^  the r e m a i n i n g  ^  as the u n d e r s t o o d , a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n s o f P i n g 22  4 ^  clear.  J^l.  ^  7?j  •^  — «t^  I n the a b b r e v i a t e d  ». i f we t r e a t t h i s as a  Xj, form,  subordinate  -  91  -  ( c o n d i t i o n a l ) c l a u s e and t r a n s l a t e i t as ' i f t h e k i n g does n o t f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' w i t h p o s i t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t  ' i f t h e k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng', i t does  not c o n s t i t u t e a m e a n i n g f u l c h a r g i n g  statement.  main c l a u s e s , w i t h t h e u n d e r s t o o d s u b o r d i n a t e i.e.,  (causal) clause  abbreviated,  'the k i n g s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' and 'the k i n g s h o u l d  Wang Ch'eng' ( c l a u s e s 'for  However, when a n a l y s e d as  ' f o r he w i l l n o t r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e ' and  he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e ' a b b r e v i a t e d ) ,  meaningful charging  follow  they do c o n s t i t u t e  statements.  I n s u p p o r t o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B, t h e a u t h o r once p o s t u l a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g argument: Although the clauses  '  %  and ' £ 77/ XA  A A *jjf  *§_ jfcl  f u n c t i o n as ' c o n d i t i o n a l s ' , i f we t a k e them a t f a c e v a l u e , they d i s p l a y t h e structure of prohibitions. ^  Thus t h e s e n t e n c e s ' J AA  ' and ' £ 'fJT AA % | t  <£  t r a n s l a t e d as ' K i n g !  f  /%  ,  %  ft-J »  $t ^\  % ^ '  s h o u l d be  Do f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k H s i a Wei (and) you w i l l  r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e ' and 'King!  Don't f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k 3  H s i a Wei (and) you w i l l n o t r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e ' r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t h i s case, t h e a b b r e v i a t e d ^  1  sentences '  can be t r a n s l a t e d as 'King!  AA ^  '  ANC  * ' £• ^  ^A  Do f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' and K i n g !  Don't f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' r e s p e c t i v e l y and thus do c o n s t i t u t e m e a n i n g f u l charging  statements.  However, i n a d o p t i n g  such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y  o f t h e s e n t e n c e ' £ jjj AA to t h a t o f ' 3E. ^  AA  4Ji ' * t  ie  f°  /t> » ^ r m e r  u r  J%  ^  ^  '  ± s  force  °PP°site  g e s the king to follow  Wang Ch'eng (an a n a l y s i s o f i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B) w h i l e t h e l a t t e r u r g e s t h e k i n g n o t t o f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng.  U n l e s s we a r e  -  92  -  w i l l i n g t o deny the o b v i o u s f a c t t h a t the sentence a b b r e v i a t e d form of ' % 'ij] AA  %  $ L 4$  T  1  3-  /£, , 4  ^  %L %  Iff X -  is'.the 1  , such a  change of i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e i s u n l i k e l y .  (3) The A n a l y s i s 'Main + S u b o r d i n a t e ' M o t i v a t e d by Semantic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the O.B.I. W h i l e i t i s a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f c l a s s i c a l Chinese t h a t apodoses f o l l o w p r o t a s e s , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e showing t h a t t h e o p p o s i t e case i s a l s o p o s s i b l e i n the O.B.I.  The f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s e x e m p l i f y t h e s t r u c t u r e  o f main c l a u s e s p r e c e d i n g s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s :  i *  W^'rn)  fflffl  Ux  h s i n / k i n g / s h o u l d n o t / hunt / perhaps / r a i n On the h s i n day,  the k i n g s h o u l d not h u n t ,  perhaps r a i n . jen  (for) i t w i l l  T s ' u i ffi 1008 '  -" .- '  / k i n g / s h o u l d n o t / hunt / perhaps / r a i n  On the j e n day,  the k i n g s h o u l d not h u n t ,  'vperhaps r a i n .  (for) i t w i l l  Ts'ui  1008  As mentioned above, t h e r e a r e no segmental markers ( i . e . c o n n e c t i v e s ) between c l a u s e s i n t h e O.B.I., thus the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c l a u s e s can o n l y be deduced from t h e c o n t e x t . The author has t r i e d to a n a l y s e these sentences i.  i n o t h e r ways, f o r example,  'On the h s i n / j e n day, i f t h e k i n g does n o t h u n t , i t w i l l perhaps r a i n . '  -  93  -  ii.  'On t h e h s i n / j e n day, t h e k i n g s h o u l d n o t hunt and i t w i l l perhaps r a i n . '  iii.  'On the h s i n / j e n day, a l t h o u g h t h e k i n g s h o u l d n o t h u n t , i t w i l l perhaps r a i n . '  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ( i ) and ( i i ) r e q u i r e the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t whether one hunts or n o t has an e f f e c t on t h e f a l l i n g o f r a i n , o b v i o u s l y a v e r y remote p o s s i bility.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( i i i ) does n o t make any sense i n terms o f our under-  s t a n d i n g of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h u n t i n g and r a i n .  I t appears t h a t t h e  most a p p r o p r i a t e , i f n o t t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s '... t h e k i n g s h o u l d n o t h u n t , ( f o r ) i t w i l l perhaps r a i n ' . also favor  Two o t h e r t u i - c h e n p a i r s  t h e 'cause and e f f e c t ' a n a l y s i s .  s h o u l d n o t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / have no / r a i n We s h o u l d n o t p e r f o r m a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e , ( f o r ) t h e r e w i l l be no r a i n ,  ^ *  $  1  ft  r  tr  %  *fcTTaf  1 8 9  perhaps / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / a t / Hslleh / h a v e / b i g / r a i n We s h o u l d perhaps p e r f o r m a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e a t Hstleh ( o r , t o the god o f snow), ( f o r ) t h e r e w i l l be heavy r a i n .  h hui  f t  &*  fa  ?  / Sang / f i e l d / i n s p e c t / n o t / r a i n  m  Menzies  1900  I t i s t h e Sang f i e l d s w h i c h we o r t h e k i n g s h o u l d i n s p e c t , (for)  i t w i l l n o t r a i n (over t h e r e ) .  s h o u l d n o t / i n s p e c t / Sang / f i e l d / perhaps / r a i n We o r t h e k i n g s h o u l d n o t i n s p e c t t h e Sang f i e l d s , ( f o r ) i t w i l l perhaps r a i n  (over t h e r e ) .  (Examples o f t h i s t y p e , though n o t i n t h e t u i - c h e n f o r m a t , can be found on the S o r u i , p.293.3.)  -  94  -  There i s a d i f f e r e n c e o f degree i n terms of the c o m p e l l i n g f o r c e e x p r e s s e d i n the c l a u s a l causes.  F o r i n s t a n c e , i n the  sentence  ', t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c l a u s e s e x p r e s s e s a c o n d i t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n an e x p l i c i t r e a s o n f o r t h e k i n g t o i n s p e c t the Sang f i e l d s . hand, the n e g a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t  1  jfy  ^/L.XiO ,  1  On the o t h e r  seems t o e x p r e s s a  c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n (see Chapter Three, p.183- 1 8 6 ) , i f n o t one so s t r o n g as i n t h e sentence  '/Cs|  £  U  ^  ?  &  >$  a l l c a s e s , however, t h e r e i s a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p  J;  £  ^  £  ''  I n  'cause and e f f e c t ' ( i n  t h e l i n g u i s t i c sense) i n a l l t h e s e s e n t e n c e s .  A l l s i x of t h e s e examples a r e l a t e p e r i o d i n s c r i p t i o n s tion  '^fau^  jfefylfe, %^%^^K_  X  (the i n s c r i p -  i s a f i r s t p e r i o d one) .  I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t , i n the development of the Chinese language, the s t r u c t u r e 'main + s u b o r d i n a t e ' unknown i n t h e f i r s t p e r i o d , would appear i n the l a t e r p e r i o d s and t h e n d i s a p p e a r a g a i n by t h e c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d .  Instead, i t i s  more r e a s o n a b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t the s t r u c t u r e 'main + s u b o r d i n a t e ' e x i s t e d i n t h e O.B.I, p e r i o d , but g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d o r took a n o t h e r  form  4  i n the c o u r s e o f the h i s t o r i c a l development of Chinese. To r e c a p i t u l a t e , i t i s f o r the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t the a u t h o r chooses not t o i n t e r p r e t sentences h a v i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e ' ^ ' as c o n d i t i o n a l s e n t e n c e s : (1) Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n v i o l a t e s t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of p o s i t i v e versus negative i n the ming-tz'u. (2) From t h e s t a n d p o i n t of t h e p r a c t i c e of e l l i p s i s , c l a u s e s w i t h wu  ^ } are. u s u a l l y r e t a i n e d i n t h e a b b r e v i a t e d forms.  It  would sound v e r y odd i f t h e s e were i n t e r p r e t e d as p r o t a s e s ,  ...,  -  e.g.,  ^  95  -  Ml * ^ ^ ' * i f the k i n g does n o t f o l l o w Wang Cheng'.  (3) The c o n t e x t o f c e r t a i n i n s c r i p t i o n s shows t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e of 'main + s u b o r d i n a t e '  e x i s t s i n t h e O.B.I.  T a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l t h e p o i n t s d i s c u s s e d above, t h e a u t h o r proposes t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A i s p r e f e r a b l e t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B.  The  former f i t s t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f O.B.I, t u i - c h e n p a i r s and a v o i d s t h e p r o blem a r i s i n g from t h e l a t t e r .  I n a d d i t i o n , the  i s s u p p o r t e d by s e n t e n c e s such as ' ^  ^  analysis'main+subordinate'  (j^k) )^3?  ,  life) ' o f w h i c h  s e m a n t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n makes t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 'we s h o u l d n o t ..., ( f o r ) . ..' the most a p p r o p r i a t e . K e i g h t l e y also analyses  t h i s type o f sentences as 'main +'subordinate'  i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s (1978:78; see a l s o p.66,  fn.44).  T h i s season, t h e k i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k the H s i a Wei, ( f o r i f he does, we) w i l l r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s case.  T h i s s e a s o n , t h e k i n g s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng t o a t t a c k the H s i a Wei, ( f o r i f he does, we) w i l l n o t perhaps r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s case. The  c o g n i t i v e meaning o f K e i g h t l e y ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s i s v e r y  t o t h a t o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A.  similar  And y e t , as Takashima has p o i n t e d o u t i n  p r i v a t e communication t o D a v i d N i v i s o n , t h e r e i s no b a s i s t o s u p p l y a c l a u s e 'for  i f he does' t o t h e o r i g i n a l s e n t e n c e .  K e i g h t l e y ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s , though  they read more s m o o t h l y , may b l u r t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between d i f f e r e n t types of sentence.  -  96  -  I I . THE POSITION OF THE NEGATIVE WU pj IN RELATION TO THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES  I t has been i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter One t h a t t h e assumption o f 'sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' has g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e c o r r e c t of sentence s t r u c t u r e (Chapter I , p . 6 9 ) .  understanding  Positive/negative alternation i s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a p a r a l l e l t u i - c h e n p a i r and t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e f r e q u e n t l y f u n c t i o n s as a 'mark' o f a major s y n t a c t i c u n i t .  Again  we use the example c i t e d by Takashima (1977:44) t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s phenomenon:  $k  4  A  Q  ^  9 4  ( 1 )  ' t h e r e i s an o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) t o come from t h e west'  -t  Jt  ^  tJ  *b  Ping. 94 (2)  ' t h e r e i s no o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) t o come from t h e w e s t ' The r e a s o n we cannot i n t e r p r e t  as ' i f t h e r e i s an  o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) t o come, he w i l l s t a r t from t h e west' i s because t h e i n i t i a l l y p l a c e d wang i n t h e n e g a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t makes nonsense o f a p a r a l l e l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  {$&, i . e . , ' i f t h e r e i s n o t an  o c c a s i o n ( f o r someone) t o come, he w i l l s t a r t from t h e w e s t ' . While t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n o f negative p a r t i c l e s i s v a l i d i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e a r e some e x c e p t i o n s . a r e due t o t h e p e c u l i a r l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r o c c u r s most f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e O.B.I. p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f wu ^ O.B.I,  sentences.  o f wu  These e x c e p t i o n s  4 ^ , the negative which  I n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , the  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f  -  As mentioned i n Chapter wu  97  -  One, p.62-64, i n t h e c l a s s i c s , t h e n e g a t i v e  ^£7 has t o be p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f a v e r b and t h i s i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  f e a t u r e , among o t h e r s , w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s  i t from t h e n o m i n a l n e g a t i v e f e i  I n t h e O.B.I., however, t h e p o s i t i o n o f wu ^ can be p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f a noun.  i s more f l e x i b l e ; i t  F o r more examples:  I to  I Wang H a i / t e n / ox  We should' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e  t e n oxen t o Wang H a i .  test / burn-sacrifice ^  P i n g 112 (8)  ft* u y *  k  t e s t / s h o u l d n o t / t e n / ox  We s h o u l d n o t ( b u r n - s a c r i f i c e )  t e n oxen. P i n g 112 (9)  f t e s t / c a l l upon / Ch'Ueh / y u - s a c r i f i c e / t o if)  i 3t  R i v e r ( g o d ) / f i f t y / ox We s h o u l d c a l l upon Ch'Ueh t o y u - s a c r i f i c e t o t h e R i v e r ( g o d ) f i f t y oxen. P i n g 117 (5) 1  <  s h o u l d n o t / f i f t y / ox / y u - s a c r i f i c e / t o / R i v e r (god) V We s h o u l d n o t ( c a l l f i f t y oxen.  upon Ch'Ueh) t o y u - s a c r i f i c e t h e R i v e r ( g o d ) P i n g 117 (6)  A l t h o u g h , i n t h e above examples, t h e n e g a t i v e wu precedes nouns p h r a s e s , i t has n o t been i n t e r p r e t e d We r a t h e r d e s c r i b e these n e g a t i v e sentences  as a nominal  Such an e l i s i o n o r s h i f t i n g  i s a mechanism t r i g g e r e d by t h e i n t e n t i o n o f emphasizing victims).  negative.  as h a v i n g v e r b s w h i c h have been  e l i d e d o r s h i f t e d as shown i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s .  (sacrificial  immediately  the d i r e c t objects  -  In h i s a r t i c l e L. Yen  98  -  'On N e g a t i o n w i t h F e i i n C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e ' ,  Sian  states, '"John d i d n ' t buy the book." I f the s t r e s s f a l l s on J o h n , i t means t h a t , though John d i d n o t buy the book, someone e l s e d i d . I n o t h e r words, what i s s p e c i f i c a l l y negated i s John On t h e o t h e r hand, i f the s t r e s s f a l l s on t h e word book, i t i m p l i e s t h a t John a c t u a l l y bought something a l t h o u g h what he bought was n o t the book i n q u e s t i o n . '  (1971:409) whether t h e r e was  s t r e s s i n the O.B.I, language cannot now  be  determined.  What i s c l e a r from t h e m a t e r i a l a c c e s s i b l e t o us i s t h a t the p o s i t i o n of t h e n e g a t i v e wu negation.  s e r v e s the f u n c t i o n o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the f o c u s o f  S i m i l a r to the examples g i v e n by Yen, a sentence  i s open t o two  '*  '  interpretations:  a. I t i s not a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e t h a t we the t e n oxen ( i . e . i t i s some o t h e r b. I t i s not t e n oxen t h a t we burn-sacrifice  should perform i n p r e s e n t i n g rite).  should present i n performing  the  ( i . e . i t i s some o t h e r a n i m a l o r a d i f f e r e n t  number o f a n i m a l s ) . In  t h e O.B.I, language,  w h i c h a l l o w s the n e g a t i v e wu  ^  the d e l e t i o n o r the s h i f t i n g o f the v e r b , t o appear i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e the noun, has  the f u n c t i o n o f d i s a m b i g u a t i n g the f o c u s o f a d i v i n a t i o n . ' ^H) ~f" ^ that  ' i s thus open t o one '.  '  ty)  -j  /  sentence  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n l y : ' I t i s not t e n oxen  The l a r g e r c o n t e x t i n w h i c h the sentence  s u p p o r t s our t h e o r y .  The  Together w i t h the sentences  '  -J* ^  ' j^f,-J* J ^  *f  ' appears ty  ' and  '» t h e f o l l o w i n g t u i - c h e n p a i r appears on the same p l a s t r o n :  -  99  -  P i n g 112 (11)  t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / t e n / ox We s h o u l d b u r n - s a c r i f i c e t e n oxen.  t e s t / s h o u l d n o t / s p e c i f i c a l l y / t h r e e / ox ^ We s h o u l d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y  P i n g 112 (10)  ( b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ) t h r e e oxen.  O b v i o u s l y t h e f o c u s o f t h i s group o f d i v i n a t i o n s l i e s on t h e number of s a c r i f i c i a l a n i m a l s .  5  S i m i l a r l y , on P i n g 117 where t h e sentences "j"  1  fy^.  ' appear, we f i n d :  y u - s a c r i t i c e / R i v e r (god) / t h ii rr ttyy / ox / b r i n g  7  P i n g 117 (8)  Wo / woman We s h o u l d y u - s a c r i f i c e t o R i v e r ( g o d ) t h i r t y oxen and b r i n g (as s a c r i f i c e ) a woman o f t h e Wo t r i b e .  W i t h t h e s e examples i n mind, we can proceed t o a n a l y s e t h e f o l l o w i n g sentence:  t e s t / Yung 7 c u t g r a s s V  at / Ch'iu  P i n g 141 (13)  Yung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t C h ' i u .  t e s t / Yung / c u t g r a s s / s h o u l d n o t / a t / C h ' i u  P i n g 141 (14)  ^Yung s h o u l d n o t c u t g r a s s a t C h ' i u .  Yung / c u t g r a s s / a t / Ku  P i n g 396 (6)  Yung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t Ku.  >. s h o u l d n o t / a t / K u  1  (Yung)should n o t ( c u t g r a s s ) a t Ku.  P i n g 396 (7)  -  I  -  t e s t / Kung / c u t g r a s s ? / s h o u l d n o t / a t / % a?  (?)  P i n g 413 (21)  Kung s h o u l d n o t c u t g r a s s a t $ ( ? ) .  r  i.  NM?  %$  i - s s u / c r a c k / Chung /  cut grass / a t / ^  100  test  / Kung  (?)  P i n g 413 (22)  Kung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t •^§ ( ? ) . r  As r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s , t h e above sentences a n a l y s e d as s i m p l e s e n t e n c e s .  are best  Such an a n a l y s i s , i n f a c t , goes c o n t r a r y t o  the g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e n e g a t i v e marks a major s y n t a c t i c One n a t u r a l l y wonders why t h e s e s e n t e n c e s e.g.,  cannot be a n a l y s e d as  ' i f Yung c u t s g r a s s , he s h o u l d / s h o u l d n o t go t o C h ' i u ' .  a n a l y s i s , however, r e q u i r e s t h a t ytt ^  break. composite, This l a t t e r  be t r e a t e d as a f u l l v e r b meaning'go'.  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was, i n f a c t , f o r m e r l y adopted by t h e a u t h o r , b u t has been d i s c a r d e d .  The main r e a s o n f o r d i s c a r d i n g such an a n a l y s i s . i s t h a t yU  ~f i s n o t a f u l l  verb.  S i n c e t h e meaning and t h e f u n c t i o n o f yU  are c r u c i a l to the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a n a l y s i s o f t h i s t y p e o f s e n t e n c e , they deserve study.  The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s an e x c u r s i o n on t h e presumed f u l l  usage of yjU -jp  i n f i v e k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l s where yjl  meticulous verb  f r e q u e n t l y appears:  namely, t h e O.B.I., t h e bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s , t h e Shang Shu, t h e S h i h Ching and t h e Tso Chuan.  The g l o s s i n g o f yU  ^  'fy  ^  as ' ^ { f a  t o go' i s found i n t h e Mao  (SSCCS, S h i h C h i n g , Chuan 1.2, p. 15) and Cheng C h i e n l f j * \ -  ChUan 4.2, p . 9 ) .  That y_U  J'  Chuan  (ibid.,  has a v e r b a l sense i s r e c o g n i z e d by many  -  101  -  s c h o l a r s ; among them, K a r l g r e n i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f S h i h C h i n g 'The  Book of  Odes' (1950:3), Takashima i n the N e g a t i v e s i n the K i n g Wu-ting Bone Inscriptions  (.1973:156), Yang Shu-ta  C h i a Wen  Shuo (1974:12) and Han  Pu Tz'u  Chung YU Tzu Yung Fa T'an Thus,  ^  %  f $  1^  Cheng I  Yao-lung | |  Chti  ?f i n h i s a r t i c l e  'Chia  Ku  Chiu  i s g l o s s e d as ' %  (SSCCS, Chuan 1.2,  "The  h i s C h i Wei  l n  %  &  dji  ' i n the Mao  Shih  p.2).  y e l l o w b i r d s go f l y i n g . "  ( K a r l g r e n 1950:3)  However, as Chou Fa-kao p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e a r e cases where the interpretation  'fjL "The  ^  9  i s not a p p l i c a b l e (1962:251).  QlL  For example,  ( S h i h Ching  morning b e i n g good f o r the e x c u r s i o n . "  "An  a u s p i c i o u s morning they p r o c e e d . "  £  (The Mao  t o go'  ^  "The  k i n g s e n t out a war  Chuan and  (Legge, p.207)  (Shih Ching  k i n g had  o r d e r e d the e x p e d i t i o n . "  HY  38/177/1,2)  (Legge, p.281)  expedition."  Cheng C h i e n do not g l o s s '  28/137/3)  ( K a r l g r e n 1950:88)  *+  "The  HY  ( K a r l g r e n 1950:120) ^  ' as  '  ' i n these  two  l i n e s .• )x 7 1 •  Ch'U as t s a i  fa  Wan-li $  %) %  , yU f e i -J- ^  r e n d e r s the word y j l 5" means t s a i f e i rfj- jfjg  i n the l i n e  (1967:3).  tj J  Chtt's r e n d i t i o n  does not f i t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i n e v e r y w e l l , s i n c e the f o l l o w i n g l i n e reads ' tsai  -f  '. ^  Nevertheless,  t o i n t e r p r e t y j l ~f  ( t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the f u l l v e r b t s a i  and modern C h i n e s e ) w h i c h has  as the modern co-verb ^  ^  i n both  classical  the f u n c t i o n o f showing an a c t i o n i n p r o c e s s  -  102  can be defended i n o t h e r c a s e s , (e.g. '  ,J- f  /fj  1  i n the I-Ching.  See  below.) % £/\ Z— s i m p l y uses t h e words ( p a r t i c l e s ) yU  Wang Y i n - c h i  , ,  t o r e n d e r t h e word yU -+~ w i t h o u t e l a b o r a t i n g on i t s f u n c t i o n  y{leh 0  (1974:13). No m a t t e r how s c h o l a r s i n t e r p r e t t h e word yU "ft  f  ^  » i t  n  a  s  o  n  i n s e n t e n c e s such as  i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t we must n o t l o s e s i g h t  e  9 of,  t h a t i s , i t never f u n c t i o n s as a main v e r b i n t h e S h i h C h i n g .  sentence s u c h as '* In  ( t h e k i n g goes) ' i s u n a t t e s t e d i n t h e S h i h C h i n g .  t h e cases where a l o c a t i v e term f o l l o w s t h e word yU  a v e r b a l element, e.g., jjj^ ^ '-/^ ^\ . %j f  such as ^  A  When yU  ff*, sentences t o w h i c h t h e g l o s s  a p p l i e d , t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g yU The g e n e r a l r u l e t h a t yU  -j~ , t h e r e i s always  appears i n s e n t e n c e s j " , ^5  i s frequently  i s invariably verbal.*^  does n o t f u n c t i o n as a main verb can  a l s o be a p p l i e d t o t h e Ch'un C h ' i u  jfti^ and i t s t h r e e commentaries.  A  p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n made w i t h HY Index has f a i l e d t o r e v e a l any case where yU In are  - j ~ has t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u l l verb.*''' t h e Kung Yang Chuan ^  sentences such as  f  1  ,  ^ f l j ^ and Ku L i a n g Chuan £3 ', b u t yU -p  |^ ^ ^  there  i s not a f u l l verb  here s i n c e t h i s i s a commentary on t h e Ch'un C h ' i u s e n t e n c e :  #  £ */£  f% f ^  '(SL 4 7 / & 1/4 £1,4 £ )  'a r e c e p t i o n house was b u i l t f o r t h e K i n g ' s daughter o u t s i d e (the yjl either.  city wall).'  (Legge, p.72)  i s n o t found as a f u l l v e r b i n t h e Shang Shu, I Ching o r b r o n z e s As i n t h e S h i h C h i n g examples c i t e d above, y j l  i s o c c a s i o n a l l y found  ^  -  preceding v e r b a l expressions.  103  -  In the chapter  'Ta Kao'  o f the Shang  Shu  o a , we f i n d :  ' . . . . t o go f o r w a r d t o r e s t o r e t r a n q u i l l i t y and t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e p l a n s of my f a t h e r . ' (Legge, p.366-67) ' . . . . t o a c h i e v e t h e s e r e n e (dead) Wu's  "if  f  ">  %  &  ?f  f'ty  H  planned work. ( K a r l g r e n , 1950a:37)  S  (SSTC  27  0 1 9 9  )  'I w i l l now go f o r w a r d w i t h you from a l l the s t a t e s , and p u n i s h t h o s e vagabond and t r a n s p o r t e d m i n i s t e r s of Y i n . ' (Legge, p.367) 'I s h a l l w i t h you v a r i o u s s t a t e s , go and a t t a c k the f u g i t i v e and thrown-out ( k i n g ' s s e r v a n t = ) grandee o f t h e Y i n (house).' ( K a r l g r e n , 1950a:37)  (These two  examples a r e c i t e d by K a r l g r e n as e v i d e n c e  ^£j<£, ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  (1942:100).  Notice i n their translations,  Legge and K a r l g r e n i n t e r p r e t v j l as a f u l l v e r b . renders  ^  as  'to go'  i n f a v o r of the  In  Ch'U W a n - l i / ^ , ^ ' ^  (1972:72).)  s h o u l d I ( f i r s t ) e x p l o r e t o t h e utmost t h e o r a c l e , t h e n d a r e n o t go and f o l l o w i t ? ' - ' ( K a r l g r e n , 1950a:39)  t h e I - C h i n g , we  2  find: (HY  ' D a r k e n i n g o f the l i g h t d u r i n g He l o w e r s h i s wings.'  23/36/^)  flight (Baynes 1950:  ,  both  'How s h o u l d I be a l l f o r the o r a c l e o f d i v i n a t i o n and presume n o t t o f o l l o w y o u r a d v i c e ? ' (Legge, p.374) 'How and  '  Vol.1, P.151)  also  -  9 4j, > ®  104  -  frfc  (HI 23/36/  )  The s u p e r i o r man does n o t e a t f o r t h r e e days on h i s wanderings. Ytl  (Baynes  1950: V61.I-, p.151)  i s found i n t h e b r o n z e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f s e n t e n c e s .  fit  ff  rf*i\H&m  i  w e i / k i n g / yU / a t t a c k / Ch'u / e a r l / b e i n g a t / Yen W h i l e t h e k i n g was on t h e e x p e d i t i o n t o a t t a c k t h e E a r l o f Ch'u, he s t a t i o n e d ( l i t . b e i n g a t ) Yen.... (San T a i > IK. , ChUan 9, p.26, L i n g K u e i / C ^ f f i '  k i n g / o r d e r / Y i Tzu / a r r i v e / west / d i r e c t i o n  ?»  '  yU / i n s p e c t  •  (San T a i • >' v\i , ChUan 4, p.7, Fa Chiao T i n g flfc ft] ifjft The k i n g o r d e r e d Y i Tzu t o a r r i v e a t t h e west t o i n s p e c t . f  1  l^f&  i - s s u / p r i n c e / o r d e r / H s i a o Tzu 2  h  VA  ^  A  f i t .|  l e a d / p e o p l e / yU / C h i n  . . f t , /go  13 ,f  On i - s s u day, t h e p r i n c e o r d e r e d H s i a o Tzu to l e a d t h e p e o p l e (army) t o C h i n .  K  |§[ (?) t o go ahead (San T a i Z- k\, , ChUan 13, p.42, 'I' Mu H s i n Yao '| ^  (The r e a s o n f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g h s i e n  as 'go ahead' i s d i s c u s s e d  on p.108). B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r o f y_U ~f i n t h e O.B.I., we may b r i e f l y make a c o n c l u s i o n on t h e presumed v e r b a l f u n c t i o n of y_U  .  YU never f u n c t i o n s as a f u l l v e r b i n t h e e a r l y corpus  -  we have i n v e s t i g a t e d above.  105  -  The o n l y v e r b a l f u n c t i o n y j l h a s , i f we a r e  j u s t i f i e d i n t e r m i n g i t ' v e r b a l ' , i s t h a t i t can precede t h e v e r b ( o r a v e r b a l i z e d noun) t o show t h a t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e v e r b i s i n p r o c e s s o r For example, y_U "T i n ' J\%  i s t h e main p o i n t o f an e n t i r e movement.  ' shows t h a t t h e m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n i s i n p r o c e s s ; y U i n ' 'f$. —  ^ i  ' shows t h a t  'to p r o c e e d ' i s t h e main p o i n t o f an e n t i r e movement.  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f y U throws l i g h t on t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r Mao's and  Cheng's l | p g l o s s i n g o f y U  i s t i c s o f t h e word wang in a series.  as wang  One o f t h e c h a r a c t e r -  i s t h a t i t f r e q u e n t l y appears as t h e f i r s t  verb  And, i n t h e c l a s s i c s , o n l y e x t r e m e l y r a r e l y does i t t a k e a 14  l o c a t i v e complement a l t h o u g h  i t sometimes f u n c t i o n s as a f u l l  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e word wang first as v  ^ ^ ^  ( I n t h e O.B.I., b o t h ' £ j>% <®  occur q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y ) . k i n g should  A s e n t e n c e such  ' ( t h e k i n g goes h u n t i n g ) i s c o g n i t i v e l y e q u i v a l e n t t o ' £  -j> ' ( t h e k i n g h u n t s ) .  (to  , when f u n c t i o n i n g as t h e  v e r b i n a s e r i e s , has a v e r y l i g h t i n f o r m a t i o n l o a d .  ' J  verb.  ' and ' ^  There a r e even s e n t e n c e s such as  go t o go o u t ' (ch'u  t a k e t h e f i e l d ) , e.g., I  ^  ^  J  \J?  {£/ 'the  i s used i n t h e sense o f ch'u tung  1887, I  Z i 6530).  '  %%t}  The f a c t t h a t wang ^JL ,  i n t h e above s t r u c t u r e , ceases t o be a v e r b c a r r y i n g a f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n makes i t f u n c t i o n a l l y s i m i l a r t o y j l -f and  Cheng jjjip  glossed y U  are probably  *Yjwang  f l e x i o n C j ^ I^j^^ff^ 1  as wang  ~^  .  I t may be i n t h i s sense t h a t Mao .  ( A l s o ^p  etymologically related.  ^'  *VjwaY  ^  They s h a r e a  and ^ " J final  f a c t was drawn t o t h e a u t h o r ' s a t t e n t i o n  by Takashima i n h i s comments t o a d r a f t v e r s i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t  thesis.)  Our i n v e s t i g a t i o n has i n f a c t shown t h a t i t i s o n l y i n t h i s sense t h a t such a g l o s s i s l e g i t i m a t e . ' '  5  load,  -  I t may  106  -  seem t h a t we have gone too f a r i n t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e  presumed f u l l v e r b usage of y j l i n the c l a s s i c s and bronze  inscriptions.  But s i n c e a l l t h e s e m a t e r i a l s and the O.B.I, a r e i n the same l i n e a g e , t h e usage o f yjl the O.B.I. yd of  i n t h e s e m a t e r i a l s may  throw some l i g h t on i t s f u n c t i o n i n  I n any c a s e , the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  i n s e n t e n c e s such as ' ^,|t ^ y j l i n the O.B.I,  ^fij ~f ^|^>'  i s the l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r  itself.  To the b e s t o f the a u t h o r ' s knowledge, the f i r s t s c h o l a r to i n t e r p r e t yu  ^  as a f u l l verb 'to go' i n the O.B.I, was Yang Shu-ta ~%t) 1ii  He c i t e s t h r e e i n s c r i p t i o n s as examples where yjl wang  fa  J  .  can be i n t e r p r e t e d as  (1974:12).  I f the o f f i c i a l s 'go' to p e r f o r m a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e t o t h e n o r t h t a b l e t ( s p i r i t ) , (they o r we) w i l l not encounter heavy r a i n .  I f t h e k i n g w a l k s from J^'j no d i s a s t e r .  oifU We s h o u l d  (?) t o Ku, he w i l l have  £ -5- a  o r d e r Ch'ueh t o go f i r s t t o  3(0  (Yang*4^) p r o b a b l y i n t e r p r e t s h s i e n as the main v e r b , i . e . , ' f i r s t go t o ' . h s i e n £^ 'to  But t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e showing  that  , i n t h e O.B.I., can f u n c t i o n as a main v e r b h a v i n g t h e meaning  go ahead'. In  as an adverb, and y j l  See page  108.)  t h e f i r s t example, v j l ^  i n the c l a s s i c s and b r o n z e s .  precedes a v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e as i t does  I n t h e second example, t h e word yU  appears  -  i n a 'V +  B  -  ' p a t t e r n i n which b o t h c h i |f  *f  a r e coverbs  107  (preposition-verb).  and y U -f  I n t h e t h i r d example, a l t h o u g h i t i s  p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r p r e t y U - j - as t h e main v e r b , another a n a l y s i s which hsien ^  as t h e main v e r b seems more p l a u s i b l e .  takes  We w i l l r e t u r n t o t h i s  point l a t e r . ^j-  Han Yao-lung  Yung Fa T'an C h i u ' ^  ft^. iff  i n t h e a r t i c l e " C h i a Ku Pu Tz'u Chung Yd Tzu  f |^  ^  f  %  c i t e s twelve i n s c r i p -  t i o n s i n s u p p o r t of the t h e o r y t h a t y U - j " can f u n c t i o n as a v e r b 'to go' (1973:11).  However, among h i s t w e l v e examples, t h e r e i s n o t a s i n g l e one  where y j l has t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a main v e r b .  I-**? •  ? t  *  f  ^ &  T~V m  (1) I f t h e o f f i c i a l s go t o p e r f o r m a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to t h e n o r t h t a b l e t ( s p i r i t ) , (they or we) w i l l n o t heavy r a i n .  P  t  S f  4 £  f  encounter  P  (2) We s h o u l d o r d e r C h ' U e h t o go ahead t o  f  4( A* 'h  f  (3) We s h o u l d c a l l upon our p e o p l e t o go ahead t o  (4) We s h o u l d n o t c a l l upon our people t o go ahead t o  (?)  °& (?)  (5) We shouij.g n o t c a l l upon Lady Hao t o go ahead t o P'ang t o o f f e r people.  (.6) We s h o u l d c a l l upon Lady Hao t o go ahead t o o f f e r p e o p l e a t P'ang.  Zi  I  f f t H  f f  i  K ^ t'  (7) We s h o u l d n o t c a l l upon Lady Hao t o go ahead t o o f f e r p e o p l e a t P'ang.  -  I  f  108  -  /fi e  f  (8) I (the k i n g ) s h o u l d s t a t i o n a t P'ang. (9) *The k i n g ( s h o u l d ) go t o Shang. c e r t a i n t h i n g ) a t Shang.  I ^ it L f m (10) We s h o u l d not send p e o p l e t o  £ it  f  A.  -it.  Or:  The k i n g ( s h o u l d do a  Ch'a.  ^  (11) I f the k i n g sends p e o p l e t o C h i h , t h e r e w i l l be a p p r o v a l .  A.  i (12) We In B  f  f  s h o u l d send p e o p l e t o  Hua.  i n s c r i p t i o n s no. 8, 10, 11 and 12, t h e r e a r e o t h e r f u l l v e r b s , i . e . ,  'to s t a t i o n ' and  'f-^L'to  d i s p a t c h , to send', which can be i n t e r p r e t e d as  t h e main v e r b s w i t h v j l j " as a p r e p o s i t i o n . i n t e r p r e t v j l - j ~ as t h e main v e r b .  Thus, t h e r e i s no need t o  From examples no. 2 t o no. 7, the word v j l  ~f i s i n v a r i a b l y preceded by t h e word h s i e n %j  (Han seems to i n t e r p r e t h s i e n  7u as an adverb o f the presumed v e r b v j l • j " ) .  One  /  the presumed v e r b y j l -f  The f a c t s t h a t h s i e n ^_ l  J  precede wang  why  c o - o c c u r s w i t h the presumed adverb h s i e n 'fcj so  f r e q u e n t l y ( w h i l e the v e r b wang \ j - I O.B.I.).  cannot but wonder  s  never preceded by h s i e n ^  f r e q u e n t l y precedes yU and t h a t i t does n o t  l e a d the author to s u s p e c t t h a t h s i e n ^  h a v i n g a meaning 'to go ahead'.  i n the  is a full  verb,  Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not w i t h o u t s u p p o r t .  t i n g - y u / c r a c k / Ma / perhaps / go ahead / not / u n l u c k y I f our h o r s e s  (a m i l i t a r y u n i t ) go ahead, ( t h e y ) w i l l not be Nan Ming  i-ssu / test 7 hui /p I t i s 77 y In  (% eft 682 '  (?) / go ahead / ss ttaatteelleett  who w i l l go ahead t o the s t a t e l e t .  the above i n s c r i p t i o n s , h s i e n -J-  unlucky.  „ ... Nan Ming ffi 9f\  %_ i s o b v i o u s l y a f u l l v e r b .  /  J  n  „ 453  / r  Thus,  the s t r u c t u r e h s i e n y U  ^  can be a n a l y s e d as 'V + p r e p o s i t i o n ' r a t h e r  than 'adverb + v e r b ' .  I n s c r i p t i o n s no. 5, 6 and 7 are, i n f a c t , c o u n t e r -  -109  e v i d e n c e o f Han's t h e o r y .  -  I n no. 5, t h e s t r u c t u r e i s '...  w h i l e i n no. 6 and 7, t h e s t r u c t u r e i s '... 'fijffi the s t r u c t u r e ' ~f shows t h a t ' "X  /ffff,  /v f  $ff, '•  ' can be p l a c e d e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r  ~f /^jf"  X^,'  The f a c t t h a t ' 'f^ X^'  ' would b e t t e r be a n a l y s e d as ' p r e p o s i t i o n + l o c a t i v e  complement'. The o n l y i n s c r i p t i o n n o t y e t d i s c u s s e d i s no. 9: ' ;t f  f^f '. I f  we assume t h a t t h i s i s a complete s e n t e n c e and t a k e t h e s u r f a c e v a l u e o f i t , yu  - j " has t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u l l v e r b .  Nevertheless, i f the p r a c t i c e  of d e l e t i o n i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e v a l i d i t y o f i n t e r p r e t i n g y j l as t h e f u l l v e r b would become q u e s t i o n a b l e .  ^~  L e t us l o o k a t some i n s c r i p t i o n s  c i t e d from t h e P i n g P i e n :  keng-tzu  / c r a c k / N e i / s h o u l d n o t / y U / Tzu  P i n g 122 (2)  I f we assume t h a t any c h a r g i n g statement has a verb and t h i s verb must be e x p r e s s e d , yd - j ~ ought t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a v e r b i n t h e above i n s c r i p t i o n . However, t h e t u i - c h e n c o u n t e r p a r t o f P i n g 122 (2) r e a d s ,  t e s t / perhaps / r e s t / yU / Tzu We s h o u l d perhaps r e s t a t Tzu. I t shows t h a t t h e verb i n P i n g 112 (2) i s n o t 'to  r e s t ' which i s d e l e t e d .  multiplied:  P i n g 122 (1) yU,  instead i t i s  ejfc-  Examples o f t h e above type can e a s i l y be  v  it  'ft  yU / Shu At' • Shu  P i n g 324 (4)  t e s t / yyU tt / Chia P i n / capture  P i n g 324 (3)  We w i l l c a p t u r e  (deer) a t C h i a P i n .  -  110  -  (.On t h e same p l a s t r o n , t h e r e a r e d i v i n a t i o n s about whether t h e r e a r e deer ( l%y ) o r n o t .  |t(=4i)  Presumably 'deer' i s t h e unexpressed  object of the verb  'capture'.)  t e s t / s h o u l d n o t / yU I Y i n g / Tz'u (The k i n g ) s h o u l d n o t (go i n t o ) Y i n g and Tz'u.  P i n g 521 (14)  £4 t e s t / k i n g / e n t e r / a t / Y i n g 7 Tz'u The k i n g s h o u l d go i n t o Y i n g and T z ' u . (For t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e graph (word) Keeping  P i n g 521 (13)  1 7  , see YU Hsing-wu 1979:174-175.)  t h e p r a c t i c e o f a b b r e v i a t i o n i n mind, whether y j l  i n s c r i p t i o n ' £. 'f  1  functionsyas a verb i s d i s p u t a b l e .  i n the  Unfortunately,  as t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n appears on a v e r y s m a l l p i e c e o f p l a s t r o n ( o r b o n e ) , t h e t u i - c h e n c o u n t e r p a r t and t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t a r e n o t a c c e s s i b l e t o u s . Inscriptions similar to '  X-  T ffl ' can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n a s i m i l a r  way: chia-wu / c r a c k / Cheng / yU / R i v e r  P i n g 203 (16)  chia-wu / c r a c k / Cheng / s h o u l d n o t / yU / R i v e r  P i n g 203 (17)  F i r s t o f a l l , we must r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e word does n o t o n l y r e p r e s e n t a s p a t i a l b e i n g , i . e . , t h e R i v e r god.  (physical) e n t i t y but a l s o a supernatural  (See C h i a P ' i n g  number o f cases i n w h i c h ho  ^ -°f .' 1980:210.)  I n f a c t , the  r e p r e s e n t s a s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g i s much  g r e a t e r than those i n w h i c h i t r e p r e s e n t s a s p a t i a l Thus, t h e i n s c r i p t i o n ' f  )&[ ' R i v e r '  '  entity.  -  an a b b r e v i a t e d form o f * -p  ( t o p e r f o r m an y u - o f f e r i n g  t h e R i v e r g o d ) . To assume t h a t ho '  r e p r e s e n t s t h e R i v e r god r a t h e r  i s probably to  Ill -  than a s p a t i a l - e n t i t y i s n o t mere c o n j e c t u r e .  On t h e same p l a s t r o n , we  find  the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s .  j e n - y i n / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / R i v e r ( g o d ) / harm / k i n g The R i v e r ( g o d ) w i l l harm t h e k i n g . P i n g 203 (20)  j e n - y i n / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / R i v e r ( g o d ) / n o t / harm / k i n g The River(god) w i l l n o t harm t h e k i n g . P i n g 203 (21) Thus, i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s  T ^"J and  &  "f  , t h e word yU  -J" i s p r o b a b l y  18 a p r e p o s i t i o n rather a f u l l verb. Takashima a l s o l i s t s some i n s c r i p t i o n s i n w h i c h yjl i s i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r as a v e r b o r a p a r t i c l e (1973:156), b u t he has n o t e l a b o r a t e d on t h e distinction.  L e t us l o o k f o r t h e presumed f u l l - v e r b usage o f yU i n a l l these  inscriptions:  test / king / yjl / Kung." The k i n g s h o u l d  P i n g 3 (9)  ( s t a t i o n ) a t Kung.  s h o u l d n o t / yjl / Kung / s t a t i o n The k i n g s h o u l d n o t s t a t i o n a t Kung.  P i n g 3 (10)  -  112  -  t e s t / Yen"7 yU ytl / Mien Yen,  P i n g 120 CIO)  a t Mien,  Yen / s h o u l d n o t / y U / Mien  P i n g 120 (11)  Yen s h o u l d n o t , a t M i e n ,  t e s t / Yung / c u t g r a s s / y U / C h ' i u  P i n g 1A1 (13)  Yung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t C h ' i u .  M $ %ift  ^  £ ^ "ft  t e s t / Yung / c u t g r a s s / s h o u l d n o t / (yU) Yung s h o u l d n o t c u t g r a s s a t C h ' i u .  • M *  V$  U  ff  C|  / Ch'iu P i n g 141 (14)  5*.  chia-wu / c r a c k / Cheng / y U / R i v e r ( g o d )  P i n g 203 (16)  To t h e R i v e r ( g o d )  -ff h  ^  k  x>  f  k  *  f  »  r  h«i  chia-wu / c r a c k / Cheng / s h o u l d n o t / y U / R i v e r ( g o d ) To t h e R i v e r ( g o d ) / we s h o u l d n o t P i n g 203 (17)  t e s t /.....  / woman / yU / Tun  T  P i n g 326 (7)  woman a t Tun.  s h o-u l-d n o t / yv tjtl7/ Tun Tun  P i n g 326 (8)  3  should not  a t Tun.  Yung / c u t g r a s s / y U / Ku  P i n g 396 (6)  Yung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t Ku.  s h o u l d n o t / y t t / Ku (Yung) s h o u l d n o t (cut g r a s s ) a t Ku.  P i n g 396 (7)  1/  •  fo  t  H  t e s t / Kung / c u t g r a s s / s h o u l d n o t / y j l / ^ Kung s h o u l d n o t c u t g r a s s a t % •  C?).  (?) P i n g 413 (.21)  i - s s u / c r a c k / Chung / t e s t / Kung / c u t g r a s s / y U / S=|, (?) Kung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t ^ §  H  JU  f  f  (.?).  P i n g 413 (22)  '}  have / ensue / y U / R i v e r ( g o d ) have e n s u i n g  y  , to the River(god).  ff  I  P i n g 443 (5)  fj  f  b  r  r  ? 1.7  perhaps / ensue / s h o u l d n o t / y U / R i v e r ( g o d )  P i n g 443 (6) 19  .... perhaps e n s u i n g  s h o u l d n o t .... t o t h e R i v e r ( g o d ) .  t e s t / s h o u l d n o t / y U / P'ang should not  P i n g 510 (8)  a t P'ang.  t e s t / a t / P'ang should  a t P'ang.  (Takashima l i s t s o n l y t h e n e g a t i v e sentences the n e g a t i v e s .  P i n g 510 (7)  s i n c e h i s major concern i s w i t h  The p o s i t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s a r e s u p p l i e d by t h e a u t h o r . )  I n P i n g 3 (9) and ( 1 0 ) , s i n c e t h e v e r b  jj? 'to s t a t i o n ' a p p e a r s , i t  does n o t seem n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e r p r e t y j l as a f u l l v e r b .  Moreover, i f we  l o o k a t another t u i - c h e n p a i r engraved on t h e same p l a s t r o n , t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g y U as a p r e p o s i t i o n becomes s t r o n g e r :  c h i - w e i / c r a c k / C h ' U e h / t e s t / we / y U / C h i h / go i n t o / s t a t i o n . We s h o u l d go i n t o C h i h t o s t a t i o n .  P i n g 3 (19)  t e s t / should not / y U / Chih / s t a t i o n  P i n g 3 (20)  We  should not s t a t i o n at Chih.  -  The o c c u r r e n c e  o f t h e verb  114 -  A . ' t o go i n t o ' shows t h a t yU  •j'  f u n c t i o n s as  a p r e p o s i t i o n r a t h e r than a verb i n P i n g 3 (19) and ( 2 0 ) . I f i t i s l e g i t i m a t e to t a k e P i n g 3 ( 1 9 ) , (20) and P i n g 3 ( 9 ) , (10) as a group, as indeed i n s c r i p t i o n s appear t o b e , we may s u p p l y t h e verb -s\  these  'to go i n t o ' t o P i n g  20 3 ( 9 ) , (10) and i n t e r p r e t yU as a p r e p o s i t i o n . P i n g 203 (16) (17) ' f d i s c u s s e d on p.110. ' £  1 k$  \f)  ' and '  -f  ' have a l r e a d y been  S i m i l a r t o P i n g 203 (16) (17) a r e P i n g 120 (10) (11)  ', ' i  fpj  • and Ping. 510 (8) ' f  ', 'fe O )  $' •  i  Although  t h e r e i s no c l u e as t o what t h e v e r b i s , i t seems h i g h l y  t h a t some v e r b s have been d e l e t e d ? P i n g 326 (8) ' 4 ? 1  =jf  1  a b b r e v i a t e d form.  ' i s o n l y an  I n i t s p o s i t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e r e i s one more graph  ( -kr), i . e . , 0 probably  probable  •  Chang Ping-ch'Uan t r a n s c r i b e s  t a k i n g i t as a n e g a t i v e .  This t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s not acceptable  since i t v i o l a t e s the general tui-chen p a t t e r n o f p o s i t i v e versus We don't know e x a c t l y what graphs p r e c e d e t h e graph Wen Tzu Cho Ho 211  as iffl ,  •^h^l^'i*  >  ^  .  negative.  I n t h e Y i n HsU  > we f i n d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s :  c h i - s s u / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / f a n g - s a c r i f i c e / woman / a t / Tun 22 We should, f a n g - s a c r i f i c e a woman a t Tun.  t e s t / f a n g - s a c r i f i c e / woman / s h o u l d n o t / a t / Tun We  s h o u l d n o t f a n g - s a c r i f i c e a woman a t Tun. i _  The o b l i t e r a t e d graphs i n f r o n t o f M  -j"  -k  |T  i n P i n g 326 (7) may be ^  P i n g 141 (13) ( 1 4 ) , P i n g 396 (.6) (7) and P i n g 413 (21) (22) a r e t h e type o f i n s c r i p t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n .  -115  -  T h i s l e n g t h y e x c u r s u s on t h e presumed f u l l - v e r b usage o f yU has demonstrated  t h a t t h e r e a r e almost no i n s t a n c e s i n which yU  i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u l l v e r b  'to g o .  " j " must be  I n b o t h t h e t h r e e c l a s s i c a l t e x t s where  1  i t i s employed most f r e q u e n t l y and i n t h e a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , yjl f u n c t i o n s as no more than an a u x i l i a r y v e r b s i g n i f y i n g t h a t t h e v e r b a l element f o l l o w i n g i s t h e purpose o f an e n t i r e a c t i o n . v a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , sentences such as ' fL'f: % s h o u l d n o t be a n a l y s e d as composite  I f t h e above o b s e r -  ~f "WL>^ and ' ^Lf| ^  ^ *f  sentences s i n c e t o do so would r e q u i r e  ' and ' /J1J "X ^jg, ' as t h e main c l a u s e s where a f u l l  us t o i n t e r p r e t ' J~ verb should occur. Furthermore,  i t has been shown above t h a t t h e n e g a t i v e wu JTJ i n t h e l  O.B.I, has a p e c u l i a r b e h a v i o u r .  I t can be p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f t h e con-  s t i t u e n t w h i c h i s the f o c a l p o i n t o f n e g a t i o n . 17] "J"  That t h e i n s c r i p t i o n  e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than t h e 'normal'  ' * l^if 7// 'ff f  ^  s a  '^£  ^  structure  P ° f t h a t the f o c u s o f the n e g a t i o n i s on t h e r o  l o c a t i v e ^jp . On P i n g 396, t h e r e a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s :  ^ %  ff  396 (1)  Yung / c u t g r a s s I at I Yuan Yung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t YUan.  %n  f%  kit  f f  f t 396 (2)  Yung / c u t g r a s s / - s h o u l d n o t / a t /.YUan (For  Yung s h o u l d n o t c u t g r a s s a t YUan. the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e graph(word) ^ , see Yu Hsing-wu 1979:331-333.)  396 (3)  t e s t / Yung / c u t g r a s s / . a t / Ch'iu Yung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t C h ' i u . Yung / c u t g r a s s / s h o u l d n o t / a t / C h ' i u Yung s h o u l d n o t c u t g r a s s a t C h ' i u .  ;  396 (4)  -  -  116  t e s t / Yung / c u t g r a s s / a t / f Yung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t  (?)  396 (5)  ^ (?)•  Yung / c u t g r a s s / a t / Ku  396 (6)  Yung s h o u l d c u t g r a s s a t Ku.  t;  *  f •?  ^4  s h o u l d n o t / a t / Ku  396 (7)  t (Yung) s h o u l d n o t ( c u t g r a s s ) a t Ku. T h i s a r r a y c l e a r l y demonstrates t h a t t h e l o c a t i v e ( t h e p l a c e where g r a s s c u t t i n g s h o u l d be done) i s t h e main concern o f these d i v i n a t i o n s . r i g h t b e f o r e yjl  o c c u r r e n c e o f wu  •f  s i n g l e out t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f n e g a t i o n . is quite rare.  i s a 'marked  1  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n used t o  I n our c o r p u s , t h i s s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n  A more common c o n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h has t h e same f u n c t i o n i s  to put the c o n s t i t u e n t conveying the f o c a l p o i n t of negation i n f r o n t of the verb, f r e q u e n t l y i n the i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n of a sentence.  F o r example:  P i n g 3 (9) (10) (19) (20) —' ^  J -*K £f ) jlf  ' ~$C  n  1  t h e k i n g s h o u l d s t a t i o n a t Kung.  ^«  ( h  t h e  k i n g ) s h o u l d n o t s t a t i o n a t Kung.  ' We s h o u l d go i n t o C h i h t o s t a t i o n . We s h o u l d n o t s t a t i o n a t C h i h .  ( I t i s assumed t h a t t h e term  Tfj^ 'we' i n c l u d e s ~£, 'the k i n g ' i n t h i s c o n t e x t ,  i . e . , t h e k i n g and h i s army.) I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e n e g a t i v e wu  ^  can be p l a c e d i n  f r o n t o f a. c o n s t i t u e n t w h i c h i s t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f n e g a t i o n , i t i s n o t t h e case t h a t wu  7^? i s always used i n t h i s way.  O  7  -  117  -  CHAPTER THREE  CONDITIONAL AND SIMULTANEOUS-SUCCESSIVE SENTENCES I (NON-RITUAL-SACRIFICIAL VERBS)  In  t h i s c h a p t e r , we a r e g o i n g t o d e a l w i t h two k i n d s o f composite  s e n t e n c e , namely, c o n d i t i o n a l and s i m u l t a n e o u s - s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s . two k i n d s o f sentence-, headings.  These  however, w i l l n o t be i n v e s t i g a t e d under s e p a r a t e  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t :  (1) w i t h o u t f o r m a l markers, i t i s  sometimes d i f f i c u l t o r even i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s e two k i n d s o f sentence , and (2) t h e s e two k i n d s o f composite s e n t e n c e a r e so s i m i l a r t h a t , i n c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e , sometimes t h e same c o n n e c t i v e can be used i n e i t h e r k i n d of sentence.  (See p.143).  Thus, they a r e t o be d i s c u s s e d  t o g e t h e r , a l t h o u g h e f f o r t s w i l l be made t o d i s t i n g u i s h them through t h e translations.  F u r t h e r m o r e , as l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e c l a u s e s i n  O.B.I, c o n t a i n i n g s a c r i f i c i a l v e r b s a r e r a t h e r obscure a n d l t h e i r i i r i s c r i p t ' i o n r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t approach, t h e a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n o f such  inscrip-  t i o n s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y i n Chapter Four.  As a s u b c a t e g o r y o f s u b o r d i n a t i v e composite s e n t e n c e s ,  cause-and-  e f f e c t sentences have been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two. Ther.e^is no-need f o t s e t up a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n f o r t h i s k i n d o f sentence i n t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r . I n s t e a d , i t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n a l s e n t e n c e .  -  I.  -  A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CONDITIONAL AND SIMULTANEOUS-SUCCESSIVE SENTENCES  These two types o f sentence composite s e n t e n c e s .  118  c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e p a r t of the t o t a l of  They a r e used t o d i v i n e about:  A. What a c t i o n s s h o u l d be t a k e n i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , as i n :  i .Y'**r»fis.^ *«  t e s t / C h i h C h i a / open / Pa / k i n g / f o l l o w f;X;Chihi Chia'.breaks i n t o ( l i t .  open) t h e P a , t h e k i n g  s h o u l d f o l l o w him. Or:  C h i h C h i a b r o k e i n t o t h e P a , t h e k i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w him. P i n g 275 (5)  hsin-mao / c r a c k / P i n / t e s t / C h i h C h i a / open / Pa  ±* £ * / ^ i i ^ - i fl« k i n g / should not / w e i / t h i s / f o l l o w ( I f ) C h i h C h i a b r e a k s i n t o t h e P a , i t s h o u l d n o t be he t h a t the k i n g f o l l o w s . Or: {  C h i h C h i a b r o k e i n t o t h e P a , i t s h o u l d n o t be he t h a t  the k i n g f o l l o w s .  ^  ^  ( g )  hsin-mao / c r a c k / P i n / t e s t / C h i h C h i a / open / Pa  k i n g / h u i / t h i s / f o l l o w / f i v e / month ( I f ) C h i h C h i a b r e a k s i n t o t h e P a , i t s h o u l d be he t h a t t h e ^ king follows.  ( D i v i n e d i n t h e ) f i f t h month.  276 (6)  -  Or:  119  -  C h i h C h i a broke i n t o t h e Pa, i t s h o u l d be he t h a t  the k i n g f o l l o w s .  1 K  ( D i v i n e d i n t h e ) f i f t h month.  W*  ^  *jr  4?  t i n g - s s u / c r a c k / Cheng / s i c k / f o o t / e x o r c i s e  to / F a t h e r Keng  P i n g 541 (3)  (So and so) i s s u f f e r i n g from an a i l i n g f o o t , we s h o u l d . p e r f o r m an e x o r c i s m t o F a t h e r Keng.  f  ft* ^ it ^ ^ & JL % f s i c k / foot / should not / s p e c i f i c a l l y 7 e x o r c i s e / to  Father H s i n  P i n g 541 (4)  T  (So and/so) i s s u f f e r i n g from an a i l i n g f o o t , we s h o u l d not s p e c i f i c a l l y p e r f o r m an e x o r c i s m t o F a t h e r H s i n . (The r e a s o n f o r e x c l u d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P i n g 541 ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) , i . e . , ' i f so and so s u f f e r s from an a i l i n g f o o t , ...', i s d i s c u s s e d on p.311, fn.13)  B. A consequence o f a c e r t a i n a c t i v i t y o r e v e n t , as i n :  c h i a - c h ' e n / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t 7 n e x t / i - s s u  say / P r i n c e  (?) / d r i v e V a r r i v e / a t / t i n g - w e i / harm P i n g 302 (.13)  On next i - s s u day, ( i f ) we c a l l upon P r i n c e ^ (the  (?) t o d r i v e  enemies), a r r i v i n g a t t h e t i n g - w e i day, we w i l l harm  1 (them).  -  V *  nhft  120  -  Us S f * . f*  next / i - y u / y u - o f f e r / behead / from / H s i e n / approve P i n g 41 (18) On next i - y u day, i f we y u - o f f e r beheaded v i c t i m s ( t o ancestors) s t a r t i n g  from H s i e n , (they) w i l l be p l e a s e d .  1> %t ft&^M t*U fee  Ttf U  wu-wu / c r a c k / Chung / t e s t / P'an / go / come / have no  A fa misfortune  P i n g 130 (1)  D u r i n g P'an's t r a v e l l i n g t o and f r o , t h e r e w i l l be no m i s f o r t u n e . t e s t / P'an / go / come /.perhaps / have / m i s f o r t u n e P i n g 130 (2) D u r i n g P'an's t r a v e l l i n g t o and f r o , t h e r e w i l l perhaps be ^ misfortune. keng-tzu  / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / Lady Kuo / b e a r / good P i n g 96 (16)  Lady Kuo w i l l g i v e b i r t h t o a c h i l d , i t w i l l be good.  < Lady Kuo / b e a r / n o t / perhaps / good  P i n g 96 (17)  Lady Kuo w i l l g i v e b i r t h t o a c h i l d , i t w i l l perhaps n o t  V be  good.  Sentences o f t h i s k i n d , i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e consequence o f an a c t i v i t y o r e v e n t , can be f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s :  -  121  -  (.1) The a c t i v i t y s t a t e d i n the s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e i s i n t e n d e d t o b r i n g about the c o n s e q u e n c e / e f f e e t P i n g 302  (.13)  '  Z» £  €? 4"  found i n the main c l a u s e , j|  , J  i n s c r i p t i o n s c i t e d i n f o o t n o t e no'.l).  -f T  ^  f o r example,  ' ( s e e a l s o the  There i s a q u a s i - ' c a u s e and  effect'  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e and the main c l a u s e .  (2) The a c t i v i t y s t a t e d i n t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e i s n o t  intended  t o b r i n g about the consequence r e p r e s e n t e d by the main c l a u s e , as i n P i n g 130  (2) ' -|}$_ %t^,  jt  f  4$)  '•  O b v i o u s l y , ' m i s f o r t u n e ' i s not something  the Shang p e o p l e i n t e n d t o b r i n g about d u r i n g P'an's t r a v e l l i n g to and f r o . 'There w i l l perhaps be m i s f o r t u n e ' s i m p l y r e p r e s e n t s a s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r than an ' v o l i t i o n a l e f f e c t ' , o f the a c t i v i t y  There may taneous-successive  ' t r a v e l l i n g t o and f r o ' .  be more than one main c l a u s e i n a c o n d i t i o n a l o r s i m u l sentence:  i - c h ' o u / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / c h i a - t z u / c u t i n t o / i - c h ' o u  k i n g / dream / shepherd / s t o n e / mi-deer / n o t / w e i / m i s f o r t u n e  wei / b l e s s i n g  P i n g 96  D u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d between the c h i a - t z u and day day)  (lit.  the p e r i o d when t h e c h i a - t z u day c u t s i n t o the  the k i n g dreamt o f s h e p h e r d i n g  (mean) m i s f o r t u n e  i-ch'ou i-ch'ou  s t o n e m i - d e e r ; i t does not  (but) b l e s s i n g s .  (For the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the graph(word) 1979:54, f n . l 9 a . )  (1)  , see Takashima  -  122  -  "it. ft  t  8  t e s t / k i n g / c u t ( ? ) / t h r e e / Ch'iang / a t / t s u - s t a n d  not / o b s t r u c t / p l e a s e  P i n g 96 (11)  ( I f ) t h e k i n g c u t ( ? ) - s a c r i f i c e s t h r e e C h ' i a n g - t r i b e s m e n on a t s u - s t a n d , ( t h e s p i r i t s ) w i l l n o t o b s t r u c t ( b u t ) approve ( t h e 2 king's  activities).  In the majority of c o n d i t i o n a l or simultaneous-successive  sentences  c o l l e c t e d i n t h e P i n g P i e n , p o s i t i v e - n e g a t i v e p o l a r i t y i s expressed i n the  apodosis.  f  Wfi*Fj. 2* £*  F-S/^^/ •  t e s t / C h i a / go / come / perhaps / have / m i s f o r t u n e During Chia's  t r a v e l l i n g t o and f r o , he w i l l perhaps have  misfortunes.  <  P i n g 32 (26)  kuei-ch'ou  / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / C h i a / go / come / have no  misfortune  / k i n g / p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say / no / m i s f o r t u n e P i n g 32 (27)  D u r i n g C h i a ' s t r a v e l l i n g t o and f r o , he w i l l have no m i s f o r t u n e s . The k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t e d and s a i d , " t h e r e w i l l be no m i s f o r t u n e s . "  chia-wu / c r a c k / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / p r e s e n t  jade  (bundle)  / this  / Hsien / obstruct  I f the king presents (his a c t i v i t i e s ) .  t h i s jade  (bundle), Hsien w i l l  obstruct  P i n g 139 (1)  -  123  -  j chia-wu / c r a c k / Ch'ueh / t e s t / k i n g / p r e s e n t  / t h i s / jade  (bundle) / H s i e n / n o t / o b s t r u c t s  I f the k i n g presents  t h i s jade  (bundle), Hsien w i l l not  obstruct (his a c t i v i t i e s ) .  P i n g 139 (2)  However, t h e r e a r e a l s o some t u i - c h e n p a i r s i n w h i c h t h e p o s i t i v e g a t i v e p o l a r i t y i s expressed  ' :7k y  '<  *  U  i n the p r o t a s i s .  F l * H*  £»  s&, r* <u n  ft  4 »  keng-wu / c r a c k / N e i / t e s t / k i n g / s h o u l d n o t / make  settlement  / b e i n g a t / h e r e / t i - g o d / approve  P i n g 93 (4)  I f t h e k i n g does n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t h e r e , t i - g o d w i l l  approve  ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) . Or: L e t t h e k i n g n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t h e r e and t h e n t i - g o d 3 w i l l approve ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) .  i i IN* I g.  fy/kU U  keng-wu / c r a c k / N e i / t e s t / k i n g / make / s e t t l e m e n t  / ti-god  approve / e i g h t month I f t h e k i n g makes a s e t t l e m e n t h e r e , t i - g o d w i l l approve ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) .  n% i .  P i n g 93 (5)  li t  t e s t / k i n g / make / s e t t l e m e n t  f  f i  / t i - g o d / approve  I f t h e k i n g makes a s e t t l e m e n t , t i - g o d w i l l approve ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) .  P i n g 93 (6)  -  124  -  \ t e s t / ... / s h o u l d n o t / make / s e t t l e m e n t / t i - g o d / approve P i n g 93 (7) If  ( t h e k i n g ) does n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t , t i - g o d w i l l approve ( o r ,  w i l l be p l e a s e d . ) Or:  L e t t h e k i n g n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t and then t i - g o d  will  approve ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d . )  jen-tzu  / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / we / perhaps / make / s e t t l e m e n t  t i - g o d / n o t / o b s t r u c t / approve  P i n g 147 (1)  I f we w i l l perhaps make a s e t t l e m e n t , t i - g o d w i l l n o t o b s t r u c t but approve ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) .  k u e i - c h ' o u / c r a c k / Cheng / t e s t / s h o u l d n o t / make / s e t t l e m e n t  t i - g o d / approve  P i n g 147 (2)  I f t h e k i n g does n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t , t i - g o d w i l l approve (o.r, w i l l be p l e a s e d ) . Or:  L e t t h e k i n g n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t , and then t i - g o d  will  approve ( o r , i w i l l be p l e a s e d ) .  kuei-ch'ou / crack I . . .  I t e s t / we / make / s e t t l e m e n t / t i - g o d  not / o b s t r u c t / approve I f we make a s e t t l e m e n t , t i - g o d w i l l n o t o b s t r u c t b u t approve ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) .  P i n g 199 (11)  -  \  kuei-ch'ou  / crack I . . .  settlement I . . .  125  -  I t e s t / s h o u l d n o t / make  I approve  P i n g 199 (12)  I f we do n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t , (.ti-god) w i l l approve ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) . Or:  L e t us n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t , and then  (ti-god) w i l l  approve  ^ ( o r , w i l l be p l e a s e d ) .  These i n s c r i p t i o n s o b v i o u s l y cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as 'cause and e f f e c t ' sentences  s i n c e *'we/the k i n g s h o u l d n o t b u i l d a s e t t l e m e n t , because  t i - g o d w i l l be p l e a s e d ' does n o t make sense a t a l l .  On p.82 & 84 "of Chapter  Two, we have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , by c i t i n g S e r r u y s ' and Takashima's s t u d i e s , t h e c o n d i t i o n a l usage o f t h e p r o h i b i t i v e n e g a t i v e wu  .  Their  theory  i s c e r t a i n l y a p p l i c a b l e to the i n s c r i p t i o n s i n question.  There appears t o be a d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s t y p e o f c o n d i t i o n a l sentence and o r d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n a l s e n t e n c e s .  I n a normal c o n d i t i o n a l  sentence o f w h i c h t h e p r o t a s i s r e p r e s e n t s a c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t y , t h e Shang k i n g ( o r d i v i n e r ) m e r e l y proposes a p o s s i b l e c h o i c e w i t h o u t s t r o n g l y o r e x p l i c i t l y e x p r e s s i n g h i s a t t i t u d e towards t h e a c t i v i t y . the type o f c o n d i t i o n a l sentence e x e m p l i f i e d above c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e Shang k i n g ' s  whose p r o t a s e s  represent  (or the d i v i n e r ' s ) a t t i t u d e  towards t h e a c t i v i t i e s i s s t r o n g l y and e x p l i c i t l y expressed modal  However, i n  ?D , e.g., we s h o u l d n o t make a s e t t l e m e n t .  p a i r s d i v i n e about t h e b u i l d i n g o f a new s e t t l e m e n t .  by use o f t h e  A l l these f o u r t u i - c h e n Whether a l l t h e s e  i n s c r i p t i o n s d e a l w i t h t h e same proposed s e t t l e m e n t i s something we cannot be s u r e o f .  The d i v i n e r o f P i n g 93 (4) (5) i s N e i  while the d i v i n e r of  -  P i n g (1) (2) i s Cheng  126  -  ^7 and f u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d i v i n a t i o n s were made on  d i f f e r e n t days, t h e keng-wu (.seventh day i n t h e k a n - c h i h c a l e n d a r ) , t h e j e n tzu  ( f o r t y - n i n t h day i n t h e k a n - c h i h c a l e n d a r ) and t h e k u e i - c h ' o u  (fiftieth  day o f t h e k a n - c h i h c a l e n d a r ) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, upon c h e c k i n g t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e b u i l d i n g o f s e t t l e m e n t s ( A rt  ) , i t i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t none o f these  i n s c r i p t i o n s t a k e s t h e common p a t t e r n i n w h i c h n e g a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e a p o d o s i s , i . e . , '* £•/ ^  ^  ^  "2^2. (*  if  t  h  e  king/we make a  4  s e t t l e m e n t , t i - g o d w i l l n o t be p l e a s e d ' . of  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , due t o t h e p a u c i t y  t h i s t y p e o f s e n t e n c e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n .  -  II.  127  -  THE CONTRAST BETWEEN AN INTENDED EFFECT AND AN UNCONTROLLABLE CONTINGENCY  I n many c a s e s , i t i s easy t o determine whether o r n o t t h e r e s u l t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e main c l a u s e i s something t h e Shang b r i n g about i n t e n t i o n a l l y by p e r f o r m i n g a c e r t a i n a c t i v i t y . and  i t s intended r e s u l t  and  the undesirable  T y p i c a l examples a r e  (harm); o r  condition ' ^  1  ^T3E- ^  1  1  (to  attack)  ' ( t o t r a v e l t o and f r o )  l$p) ' (have misfortune):! c i t e d above.  However, t h e r e a r e a l s o some cases where b o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s seem t o be possible.  Sentences where (^T) 'to r a i n ' appears as the main c l a u s e sometimes  pose problems.  Depending on t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , r a i n may be something  either desirable or undesirable,  i . e . , the i n t e n d e d e f f e c t o f an a c t i o n o r  an unwelcome p o s s i b i l i t y .  If 1* H 6  A«  chia-yin / test / yu-offer  i|_  I *  r  f $<=*])  / ascend-sacrifice / s u i - c u t - s a c r i f i c e  ' . M tag  T ' a i I / encounter / r a i n D u r i n g t h e y u - o f f e r i n g , a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e and s u i - c u t - s a c r i f i c e t o T ' a i I , we w i l l encounter r a i n . Or: I f we p e r f o r m a y u - o f f e r i n g , a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e and s u i - c u t s a c r i f i c e t o T ' a i I , t h e n we w i l l encounter r a i n .  U< H & A *• kuei-hai / test / yu-offer  4  M  T  . j , Ts'ui 794  * 0u)  / a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e / t o / (Shang) C h i a  encounter / r a m (During) t h e y_u-off e r i n g and a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e t o (Shang) C h a i ,  <f  -  128  -  (we) w i l l encounter r a i n . Or:  I f we  p e r f o r m a y u - o f f e r i n g and a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e t o (Shang)  C h i a , then we w i l l encounter r a i n .  ,  .  ••a?  Chia  -P  750  N  A t f i r s t s i g h t , b o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s seems e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e , but as w i l l be p o i n t e d out l a t e r , the a l t e r n a t e w i l l n o t be the c o r r e c t c h o i c e s .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s posed h e r e  I n o r d e r to choose between them, we  t o study the common e x p r e s s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s  (1) '  ^)  There a r e  two  expression.  ' sometimes c o - o c c u r s w i t h the word c h ' i  which i s  f r e q u e n t l y , though not n e c e s s a r i l y , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n d e s i r a b i l i t y , Chien-^  17.10, T s ' u i  f e a t u r e o f j%  have  721 and Ch'en  i s observed by S e r r u y s  Pjfc.  4.  (1974:25).)  e.g.,  (This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c W h i l e h o l d i n g an  opinion  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of Serruys* on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c h ' i , the a u t h o r agrees t h a t c h ' i , i n most c a s e s , can be used as a c r i t e r i o n t o d e t e r m i n e whether a s i t u a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d i s no c o u n t e r - e v i d e n c e . expression  ^ jJ|  contrary, I fyf^ 48, Ho  N  $S) c^T)  u n d e s i r a b l e by the Shang p r o v i d i n g  (For a d i s c u s s i o n of c h ' i , see p.142-)  i s never found i n c o l l o c a t i o n w i t h sometimes c o - o c c u r s w i t h c h i  31 and IHayashi'  T a k i n g t h e s e two o b s e r v a t i o n s  "fcjv  But  On  (auspicious),  2.16.22, w h i l e  t o g e t h e r , we  .  rfg  can suggest t h a t  there the  the e.g.,  never does. |S?represents  something u n d e s i r a b l e .  (2) I n the Shang and Chou t i m e s , d a n c i n g i s a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d practice for invoking r a i n .  -  129 -  . .1 f a °A«i ft  m«  t e s t / next / ting-mao / p r e s e n t / dance / have / r a i n  I  Z J 7233  On t h e n e x t ting-mao day, i f we p r e s e n t a dance, we w i l l have r a i n . 7  -  *  c a l l upon / dance / have / r a i n  Chin  638  ( I f ) we c a l l upon (so and s o ) t o dance, we w i l l have r a i n . To t e a c h t h e huang-dance and l e a d ( t h e p e o p l e ) t o dance (because o f ) t h e drought. (SSCCS, Chou L iffl\\j  , chuan 12, p.22)  ' R a i n i n g ' i s d e f i n i t e l y t h e i n t e n d e d r e s u l t o f t h e dance. sentences '  i n c o r p o r a t i n g both  CK) /  '  a  r  e  n  '*  However,  ' and t h e e x p r e s s i o n under d i s c u s s i o n  ° t a t t e s t e d i n t h e O.B.I.  S i m i l a r l y , the r i