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Aspects of subordinative composite sentences in the period I oracle bone inscriptions 1981

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ASPECTS OF SUBORDINATE COMPOSITE SENTENCES IN THE PERIOD I ORACLE BONE INSCRIPTIONS BY KWOK-CHING|CHOW A. The C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, 1972 P h i l . The Ch i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A s i a n S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH -COLUMBIA November 1981 (c) KWOK-CHING CHOW I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Asi a n Studies The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 20 75 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e 5 January, 1982 ABSTRACT Three types of subo r d i n a t i v e composite sentence i n the O.B.I., i . e . , 'cause and e f f e c t ' , ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' and 'simultaneous-successive', are i n v e s t i g a t e d . Since there are no formal connective markers, the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between two clauses can only be determined on the b a s i s of semantic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the tui-chen p a i r , the p r a c t i c e of a b b r e v i a t i o n and the l a r g e r context. A major type of 'cause and e f f e c t ' sentence i s the sentence of the p a t t e r n 'wu + V pu/fu ...' where the second clause represents some undesirable e f f e c t or s i t u a t i o n . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the general p o s i t i v e versus negative p a t t e r n of the O.B.I, and the p r a c t i c e of ab b r e v i a t i o n has l e d us to adopt the a n a l y s i s 'cause and e f f e c t ' f o r t h i s sentence type. We may i n t e r p r e t sentences i n which c h ' i appears as c o n d i t i o n a l . Nevertheless, r a t h e r than a pure subordinate marker, the word c h ' i i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a modal conveying the sense of u n c e r t a i n t y , a usage w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n the c l a s s i c s . A l s o , the theory that t r e a t s c h ' i as a marker of an embedded sentence has been r e f u t e d . The apodoses of ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' and 'simultaneous-successive' sentences may represent an intended r e s u l t or an undesirable consequence/situation. In most cases, these two types of apodoses can be e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d . But i n the case of r a i n i n g , we have to r e l y on the i d i o m a t i c expressions 'y_u vii (wang yu) ' and 'kou yu (pu kou yii) ' i n drawing the d i s t i n c t i o n . i i i In d i v i n i n g about the appropriateness of a proposed a c t i v i t y , the ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' and 'cause and e f f e c t ' sentences both serve the same purpose. But an a c t i v i t y whose consequence i s of greater g r a v i t y seems to motivate the employment of the l a t t e r . The r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c i a l verbs can be roughly d i v i d e d i n t o two cate- g o r i e s , type A and type B. Type A verbs represent major r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g the accompaniment of r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s represented by type B verbs which can be placed e i t h e r i n f r o n t of or a f t e r the type A verbs. The l a t t e r case c o n s t i t u t e s a c o n d i t i o n a l or simultaneous-successive sentence, w h i l e the former c o n s t i t u t e s e i t h e r a composite sentence i n c o r p o r a t i n g a 'to clause' or a simultaneous-successive sentence. i v CONTENTS Acknowledgments A b s t r a c t L i s t of Figures Symbols, Ab b r e v i a t i o n s and General Remarks CHAPTER ONE METHODOLOGY OF THE DECIPHERMENT OF O.B.I. PART ONE I. The Graphic A n a l y s i s I I . The L i m i t a t i o n of Graphic A n a l y s i s and the E x p l o i t a t i o n of Context I I I . The Use of Sources Other Than the Arch a i c I n s c r i p t i o n s IV. The E x p l o i t a t i o n of 'Word F a m i l i e s ' and i t s L i m i t a t i o n PART TWO I . A Review of Two Previous Works I I . The A p p l i c a b i l i t y and L i m i t a t i o n of C l a s s i c a l Chinese Syntax i n the Grammatical A n a l y s i s of O.B.I. I I I . The Semantic Considerations IV. The Assumption of Sentence P a r a l l e l i s m and the E x p l o i t a t i o n of Ch'eng-T'ao $ (Set) CHAPTER TWO THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE SENTENCES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE 'CAUSE AND EFFECT' TYPE I. The C r i t e r i a f o r C l a s s i f y i n g Composite Sentences I I . The P o s i t i o n of the Negative Wu tyj i n R e l a t i o n to the A n a l y s i s of Sentences V CHAPTER THREE CONDITIONAL AND SIMULTANEOUS-SUCCESSIVE SENTENCES (I) (NON-RITUAL-SACRIFICIAL VERBS) I. A General D e s c r i p t i o n of C o n d i t i o n a l and Simultaneous sentences I I . The Contrast Between an Intended E f f e c t and an U n c o n t r o l l a b l e Contingency ( ̂  $q ifa ) I I I . A Pseudo-Marker of the C o n d i t i o n a l Clause Ch'i i% 1. The Sense of Uncertainty Conveyed by Ch'i }% 2. An E v a l u a t i o n of the Theory that Ch'i jfe Functions as a Subordination Marker IV. A Hypothesis on the R a t i o n a l e Underlying the choice between the Patterns 'V -77$' ' *rf] + V .. ., ftl 1 and 119 127 142 142 159 171 CHAPTER FOUR THE SUBORDINATIVE COMPOSITE SENTENCES ( I I ) (RITUAL-SACRIFICIAL VERBS) I. A General D i s c u s s i o n of the Type A and Type B Verbs 1. The Contrast between Type A and Type B Verbs 2. The R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Type A and Type B Verbs 3. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Some Other Verbs 191 191 212 219 I I . A n a l y s i s of the S t r u c t u r e '... V ... + ... V. I I I . The Simultaneous-Successive Sentence 226 248 CONCLUSION NOTES Chapter One Chapter Two Chapter Three Chapter Four 263 265 282 297 319 BIBLIOGRAPHY 359 v i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 PiUS. 20 8 7 a 2 Z l M 22 8 7 b 3 Ch'ien $J 7.1.1 237 4 ^ I / J 5328 277 5 Ning. ' i t 80 2 8 0 6 Tung Tso-pin 1933:173 324 7 I L 8810 330 8 T s ' u i 533 334 9 T s ' u i ^ 190 334 10 T s ' u i 7 ^ 190 335 11 Chin JiL 711 338 12 K^u / j ^ 714 339 13 Ch'i t X5 339 1 4 1 340 1 5 18 341 v i i ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS AND SOME GENERAL REMARKS -̂ Zero (non-existenc of an element) *X Reconstructed form or unattested u n i t X* The p u b l i c a t i o n date of the f i r s t volume of a book X An u n s p e c i f i e d u n i t A * B A may y i e l d B A < B A may be derived from B A = B A i s equal or equivalent to B A ^ B A i s s i m i l a r to B A vs B A versus B A B A versus B A / B A or B Q A single-graph lacuna i n an i n s c r i p t i o n |2 A. lacuna of more than one graph tui-chen p a i r { G Graph W Word S Subject P P r e d i c a t e S S i g n i f i c P Phonetic The context w i l l c l a r i f y the p r e c i s e reference of the signs S and P. v i i i 0 Object OB Object-beneficiary OG Object-goal 01 Object-instrument OP Object-patient OV Object-victim V Verb N Noun VP Verb phrase NP Noun phrase R-S R i t u a l - s a c r i f i c e / r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c i a l O.B.I. Oracle bone inscription i x AM AYFC BMFEA BSOAS CHHP CKSYC CKWT CKYKY CKYW CKYYY GYYY CYYYChK CYYYCK EC HKCW HY HY JAOS KK KKHP KWTYC A s i a Major An Yang Fa Chtleh Pao Kao "la . Published by CYYY B u l l e t i n of Museum of Far Eastern A n t i q u i t i e s B u l l e t i n of the School of< O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n Studies Ching Hua HsUeh Pao Ĵ> CHWSLTs Chung Hua Wen Shih Lun Ts'ung $ ^ & Chung Kuo Shih Yen Chiu Nf 7 (jjf) ^ f f $L Chung Kuo Wen Tzu \^ k %• Chung Kuo K'o HsUeh YUan K'ao -Ku Yen Chiu So Chung Kuo Ytl Wen v|> 7 \ X. Chung Kuo K'o Hslieh YUan YU Yen Yen Chiu So Chung Yang Yen Chiu YUan jfe #f ? J^L Chung Yang Yen Chiu YUan L i Shih YU Yen Yen Chiu So Chuan K'an Chung Yang Yen Chiu YUan L i Shih YU Yen Yen Chiu So Chi K'an E a r l y China Hsiang Kang Chung Wen Ta HsUeh Chung Kuo' Wen Hua Yen Chiu So HsUeh Pao Harvard Yenching Index Harvard Yenching I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l of the American O r i e n t a l ^ S o c i e t y K'ao Ku K'ao Ku HsUeh Pao -̂ jj Ku Wen Tzu Yen Chiu ^ ^ - f MS Monumenta S e r i c a Ping or Ping P i e n See Chang Ping-ch'Uan 1957-72 San T a i SHKHCH Sor u i SSCCS SSTC SW/Shuo Wen TP WW YCHP YYYC San T a i Chi Chin Wen Ts'un She Hui K'o HsUeh Chan Hsien Inkyo B o k u j i Sorui Shih San Ching Chu Shu ^ t- ^"^ Shang Shu T'ung Chien ShuoWen Chieh Tzu Chu ^ %%{ 2r i & T'oung Pao Wen Wu f b Yen Ching Hstleh Pao "Sr *^ YU Yen Yen Chiu ^ \ , "^?-f x i (.1) The c o r r e c t understanding of an O.B.I, sentence s t r u c t u r e r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon i t s t u i - c h e n ^ counterpart and the l a r g e context (see Chapter One, p.69). Thus, the Pirig P i e n (Chang Ping-ch ' U a n ^ 7J^_ 1957*), a c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g many of the f a i r l y completely r e c o n s t r u c t e d p l a s t r o n s has been s e l e c t e d as our corpus. Without s p e c i - f i c a t i o n , the word 'corpus' r e f e r s to the Ping Pien and s t a t i s t i c s are based on the data c o l l e c t e d from i t . A great m a j o r i t y of the Ping Pien p l a s t r o n s come from P e r i o d I ; thus, the observations and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s presented i n t h i s t h e s i s are v i r t u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to P e r i o d I O.B.I, only. Nevertheless, i n s c r i p t i o n s from other periods are a l s o adduced to serve the need of comparison or the need of i l l u s t r a t i n g c e r t a i n problems. In a d d i t i o n , the So r u i has been used throughout the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . (2) Except those c i t e d from other a r t i c l e s , i n s c r i p t i o n s are normally provided w i t h a word f o r word t r a n s l a t i o n (each word separated by a sla n t e d l i n e /) and a f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n . In the f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n , the ch ' i e n - t z ' u jfj (ff̂  , e.g. ^ /Sf /<• , ptfL /=[ , i s not t r a n s l a t e d s i n c e i t i s h i g h l y stereotyped and g e n e r a l l y not problematic. In the o r i g i n a l i n s c r i p t i o n a l sentences, the subj e c t i s normally unexpressed. Unless the context suggests otherwise, the author s u p p l i e s i n the f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n a subject 'we' which should be understood as a pronominal term r e f e r r i n g to the Shang k i n g and h i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d people. Hstl-shu numerals are not reproduced. x i i (3) Chou Fa-kao's ffy 1% fkj p h o n o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r c h a i c Chinese ( i n Chou's terminology, shang-ku-yin Y_ Ifr •% ) i s employed i n proposing readings f o r the a r c h a i c words(graphs). The author does not undertake to contend that Chou's system, reconstructed on the b a s i s of the Shih Ching rhymes and hsieh-sheng-tzu ( ^ phonetic s e r i e s of graphs), i s completely a p p l i c a b l e to the O.B.I, language. Obviously, there i s a considerable temporal gap between these m a t e r i a l s . Never- t h e l e s s , a r c h a i c Chinese represents the e a r l i e s t stage whose phonology can be reco n s t r u c t e d w i t h r e l a t i v e c e r t i t u d e . Thus, we have f o r the present no choice but to make use of i t v i g o r o u s l y . When we say, f o r in s t a n c e , that two words(graphs) have i d e n t i c a l or s i m i l a r p r o n u n c i a t i o n s , we are, i n e f f e c t , proposing that the presumed l a t e r e q uivalent forms of these two words(graphs) share an i d e n t i c a l or s i m i l a r p r o n u n c i a t i o n according to the reco n s t r u c t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l system of a r c h a i c Chinese. Romanizations i n f r o n t of a graph represent the reading i n Wade-Gile romanization. Reconstructions according to Chou's system (marked by an a s t e r i s k * ) came a f t e r the graph i n question. The tone of a word i s normally not i n d i c a t e d . In cases where there i s the need to i n d i c a t e the tone, the conventional signs q X (p'ing-sheng), ° X (shang-sheng) and X ° (ch'tt-sheng) are used. Such tone marks merely serve to i n d i c a t e the tones of words i n the ancient Chinese p e r i o d (Chieh-y{ln period) . Whether t h i s t o n a l character e x i s t e d at a l l (and i n what form d i d i t e x i s t ) i n the Shang language or a r c h a i c Chinese i s an i s s u e beyond the scope of the present t h e s i s . x i i i (A) The nomenclature 1 graph(word)/word(graph)' i s used f o r p r a c t i c a l expedience. As a general p r i n c i p l e , the purpose of deciphering a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s i s to understand the language i n which the i n s c r i p t i o n s are w r i t t e n . In t a l k i n g about language, of course, we have 'words' i n mind. Nevertheless, at the f i r s t stage of decipherment, we are merely studying 'graphs' i n s t e a d of words, although the u l t i m a t e aim i s to discover what words these graphs stand f o r . In other words, we have f i r s t to study the strokes and other components of a graph i n order to discover what l a t e r graph i t may be equivalent t o . Once the graph can be r e l a t e d to a l a t e r form, we have a c l u e to i t s phonetic shape and the graph acquires the s t a t u s of a spoken word. From t h i s p o i n t , we are, i n f a c t , l o o k i n g at i t both as a graph and a word. The i n t e r l o c k e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between 'graphs' and 'words' i s c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e d i n the study of graphic v a r i a n t s . The very name, 'graphic v a r i a n t s ' r e f e r s e x c l u s i v e l y to graphs. However, i n order to determine whether two graphs are graphic v a r i a n t s or not, we must study the l i n g u i s t i c environment where they appear; to put i t another way, we have to study them as meaningful words rat h e r than as mere graphs (see Chapter One, S e c t i o n I I , p. 13). In other cases, we may f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n proposing a h y p o t h e t i c a l 'meaning' f o r a graph through the a n a l y s i s of i t s graphic s t r u c t u r e w h i l e i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n may w e l l remain unrecoverable. For example, the graph i'^ has been t e n t a t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as 'to d e c a p i t a t e (a c a p t i v e ) ' but i t s p r o h u n i c a t i o n i s not c l e a r to us . (see Chapter One, f n . 8 ) . Although •p^ d e f i n i t e l y enters a sentence as a meaningful word r a t h e r than simply a graphic s i g n , i t seems somewhat strange to discu s s i t as a 'word' x i v s i n c e no p r o n u n c i a t i o n can even be hypothesized. As a compromise, the author uses the term 'graph(word) 1 to r e f e r to the object i n the process of decipherment. The use of t h i s term i s intended to show that the s i g n under study i s being regarded simultaneously as a graph and as a word, i n a process to discover i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n by a n a l y s i n g i t s graphic s t r u c t u r e . The term 'graph(word)/word(graph)' which may a l s o be understood as 'word-character, logograph, t z u ' i s here used i n the sense of 'the word represented by t h i s graph'. (5) As r e f l e c t e d i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of the O.B.I., an extensive and e x p l i c i t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the clauses i s f i r s t advanced by Paul L-M Serruys. The analyses such as ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' proposed by Serruysa i*e adopted throughout the present t h e s i s without f u r t h e r acknowledgement. ( 6 ) For the sake of b r e v i t y , a u t h o r i t i e s whose work h e r e i n quoted are r e f e r r e d to simply by t h e i r names without any t i t l e . ' XV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I could not have completed t h i s t h e s i s without a s s i s t a n c e generously given by many i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . I am p r i n c i p a l l y indebted to P r o f e s s o r Takashima K e n - i c h i , my research s u p e r v i s o r . From him I learned the general methodology and the appropriate approach to the study of O.B.I, grammar. Throughout the s i x - y e a r p e r i o d of i n v e s - t i g a t i o n , refinement of the t o p i c , r e s e a r c h , d r a f t i n g , and r e v i s i o n , h i s d e t a i l e d and h e l p f u l suggestions were an e s s e n t i a l impetus to progress. I was a l s o g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d by P r o f e s s o r E.G. P u l l e y b l a n k , who gave me much h e l p f u l advice on the p h o n o l o g i c a l , morphological, and gramma- t i c a l aspects of t h i s t h e s i s . P r o f e s s o r Shimizu Shigeru of Kyoto U n i v e r s i t y provided k i n d help during my p e r i o d of research i n Japan. Mr. Wong Yiu-kwan, Miss Yabuta Atsuko, Mrs. Winnie L o u i s , and Mrs. Vanessa Tam generously provided t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n preparing the work f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n . The Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship Committee and the Japanese Education Department (Mombusho) provided the f i n a n c i a l support f o r my lengthy research. Last but not l e a s t , s p e c i a l thanks must be extended to Mr. Derek H e r f o r t h who l i s t e n e d , r eacted, s c r u t i n i z e d d r a f t a f t e r d r a f t , and f i n a l l y proofread every v e r s i o n from the f i r s t to the l a s t . I deeply appreciate my f r u i t f u l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h him and h i s o r i g i n a l comments; and o f f e r deepest g r a t i t u d e f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g f r i e n d s h i p and enthusiasm. CHOW, Kwok ching 5 January 1982 - 1 - CHAPTER ONE METHODOLOGY OF THE DECIPHERMENT OF O.B.I. Since the e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s of the O.B.I., Chinese scholars have developed t h e i r own research methods, methods which have never been made e x p l i c i t . Lo Chen-y"u ^ ^ and Wang Kuo-wei . £ jJJJ ̂ £ , to mention two of the e a r l i e s t prominent O.B.I, s c h o l a r s , d i d not e s t a b l i s h a d e t a i l e d methodology though they poineered i n the decipherment of t h i s a r c h a i c w r i t i n g and undoubtedly l a i d a good foundation. In the preface of Ming Yuan ^s, & (The O r i g i n of Graphs), Sun Y i - j a n g | £ "ffL s t a t e s , "Now I c o l l e c t the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s , o r a c l e bone : i n s c r i p t i o n s , stone drum i n s c r i p t i o n s and the Red Rock i n s c r i p t i o n s found i n Kuei Chou to compare and co n t r a s t w i t h the ancient graphs i n the Shuo Wen. (My purpose i s ) by i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s to show the o r i g i n from which they were s i m p l i f i e d and changed as w e l l as to group and c l a s s i f y (the graphs) i n order to discover the general p r i n c i p l e s of the e v o l u t i o n of the ku-wen, 'large s e a l ' and 'small s e a l ' forms." a * * * ^ ^ (1963: v o l . 1 , p.2) From the above q u o t a t i o n , we l e a r n that Sun's emphasis i s on the h i s t o r i c a l study of the s c r i p t . Undeniably, graphic comparison, t a k i n g Shuo Wen and other ancient p h i l o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s as the poi n t of reference (the b a s i s f o r comparison) i s the f i r s t step i n the decipherment of the O.B.I., - 2 - but l i m i t i n g one's study to graphic comparison w i l l not always y i e l d r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s , s i n c e the meaning of a graph (word)-! must be determined' a l s o by the context where i t appears. Without t a k i n g i n t o account the context, i t i s almost impossible to determine whether two s i m i l a r graphs are merely f r e e v a r i a n t s or whether they stand f o r two d i f f e r e n t words. Furthermore, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the O.B.I, i n v o l v i n g phonetic-loan which, needless to say, can c o n t r i b u t e to our understanding of the i n s c r i p t i o n s are not hypotheses e s t a b l i s h e d by mere graphic a n a l y s i s . These problems w i l l be discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c u s s i o n devoted to the methodology of O.B.I, decipherment must be a t t r i b u t e d to T'ang Lan . I n h i s book Ku Wen Tzu HsUeh Tao Lun ~& i~ % 1^9 » T'ang suggests s e v e r a l methods: 'the method of comparison ', 'the method of analogy $\ ' a n c* ' componential a n a l y s i s and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n *yf 'Z-'ty "^^T _jj§£^H J^J ' e t c . Another important work concerning methodology i s Lung YU-ch'un's Chung Kuo Wen Tzu HsUeh ^? |fSJ <L% ^ . The se c t i o n s on the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of graphic s t r u c t u r e , the e v o l u t i o n of graphs and graphic a n a l y s i s are p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l . I t provides us w i t h a b a s i c knowledge of Chinese graphs and many concrete examples i l l u s - t r a t i n g the methods we should employ i n decipherment. While most of the Chinese s c h o l a r s working oh the O.B.I, are a c t i v e l y d e ciphering i n s c r i p t i o n s , they have not elaborated on the procedures of decipherment. The main task of t h e i r decipherment i s to f i n d a modern eq u i v a l e n t , i f one s u r v i v e s , f o r the a r c h a i c graph i n question. I n most cases, when they propose that A (an a r c h a i c graph) i s equivalent to A^ (a - 3 - modern graph), they are, i n e f f e c t , proposing that A has a meaning, a pro n u n c i a t i o n and a grammatical c l a s s s i m i l a r to that of A^. Such a con- c l u s i o n cannot be drawn, even t e n t a t i v e l y , without going through the pro- cedures e x p l i c i t l y put f o r t h by Serruys i n h i s a r t i c l e "Studies i n the Language of the Shang Oracle I n s c r i p t i o n s ' : 1. What does the graphic concrete u n i t of l i n e s or drawing a c t u a l l y represent? 2. What does t h i s graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n stand f o r i n terms of language, i . e . , the word, which by s y n t a c t i c p o s i t i o n i n the sentence may f u n c t i o n as noun, verb, a d j e c t i v e or adverb... 3. What does t h i s graph correspond to i n successive periods of the Chinese w r i t i n g ; does i t continue to appear i n l a t e r t e x t s , i n b a s i c a l l y unchanged form, l e a v i n g a s i d e d e t a i l s of execution and graphic s t y l e , or i s t h i s graph replaced by a p a r t i a l l y or completely new form (obtained by a d d i t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , combination of d i f f e r e n t elements, e t c . ) ? 4. F i n a l l y , how was i t pronounced o r , a t l e a s t , can we pronounce or read i t according to i t s modern e q u i v a l e n t , once we have decided upon the va r i o u s l e v e l s of i d e n t i f i - c a t i o n mentioned before? I f we cannot propose any reading, then p o s s i b l y , by approximation, we can f i n d some s o r t of phonetic h i n t i n the s c r i p t , or some p o s s i b l e cognates i n l a t e r characters of which the pr o n u n c i a t i o n i s known. I t should be noted that some questions remain even a f t e r the four questions have been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y answered, n o t a b l y , the problem of phonetic-loans. e i t h e r a verb or an a d j e c t i v e , corresponds g r a p h i c a l l y to the l a t e r form 7) and probably had a pr o n u n c i a t i o n something l i k e *7"jwaY, the meaning of t h i s word i n the O.B.I, has not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e l u c i d a t e d . Only by comparing (1974: 19-20) Even i f we know that the word-character expressions such as ty ( Z> $P ) w i t h the phras next i-mao day' 32 0083 ) do we know - 4 - does not mean 'wing' but 'next'. (In other i n s c r i p t i o n s J^? f u n c t i o n s as an r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c i a l verb w i t h a s t i l l undetermined meaning.) The example shows that an a n a l y s i s which r e v e a l s the o r i g i n a l or p i c t o g r a p h i c meaning of a graph(word) may s t i l l leave undecided the question of that graph's meaning i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n . The context of O.B.I, i s the d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n decipherment. Nevertheless, t h i s does not mean that we can dispense w i t h graphic a n a l y s i s i n our decipherments. A c o r r e c t graphic a n a l y s i s provides a base f o r an hypothesis of semantic ex- te n s i o n and more i m p o r t a n t l y , a hypothesis of phonetic-loan. Had the graph (word) ^ not been i d e n t i f i e d as a pictograph of a wing ) which has a pr o n u n c i a t i o n something l i k e * r i 9 k , the hypothesis that i t i s loaned f o r (*riek) would be d i f f i c u l t to s u b s t a n t i a t e . F o l l o w i n g the procedures suggested by Serruys and making use of the methods proposed by T'ang Lan and Lung YU-ch'un, the author of the present t h e s i s proposes the f o l l o w i n g general methodology,for the decipherment of a r c h a i c Chinese graphs. - 5 - PART ONE I . THE GRAPHIC ANALYSIS Before proceeding to d e t a i l s , there i s a p o i n t that should be borne i n mind, i . e . , Shuo Wen has primary importance i n graphic a n a l y s i s . A f t e r the discovery of the O.B.I, and the recent advances i n the study of bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s , some sc h o l a r s have come to b e l i e v e that Shuo Wen can be discarded. Needless to say, the e a r l i e r a graph i s , the more i t r e f l e c t s the o r i g i n a l graphic s t r u c t u r e (the meaning represented by the concrete l i n e s ) In t h i s aspect, the d e f i n i t i o n s , explanations or analyses given i n the Shuo Wen have to be reevaluated and some of them must be r e j e c t e d . Nevertheless, the 'small s e a l forms' ") * ̂  , i n comparison to the l i ^ s h u . f f i i ^ * and k ' a i - shu "Iffa -g* , are the forms derived most c l o s e l y from the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s and the O.B.I. Shuo Wen serves as the stepping stone i n proceeding from the k'ai-shu form to the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s and the O.B.I. Without the help of the Shuo Wen, many more d i f f i c u l t i e s , p o s s i b l y insurmountable ones, would l i e i n the path of decipherment. Taking some simple graphs as examples: without the e x p l a n a t i o n and the 'small s e a l form' , there i s no t e l l i n g how much time and energy i t would r e q u i r e f o r a sc h o l a r to determine that the O.B.I, form ^ represents a hand and has the reading i d e n t i c a l or s i m i l a r to the word(graph) ^ . To f i n d out that the graph j (SW form ^ ) but not ^ represents the word 'man' would a l s o take considerable time. And as a matter of f a c t , most of the a r c h a i c graphs which cause controversy do so due to the l a c k of correspondent forms i n the Shuo Wen. There are other a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s and w r i t i n g s that should a l s o be taken as references,such as - 6 - the Stone Drum I n s c r i p t i o n s -fl |I$L and the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s both of which r e l y f o r t h e i r decipherment on comparison w i t h the Shuo Wen. Of course, the analyses given i n the Shuo Wen based on the 'small s e a l form' hundreds of years l a t e r than the O.B.T. and bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s do not always a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the o r i g i n a l graphic s t r u c t u r e of the ar c h a i c graphs. Sun Y i - j a n g and Lo Chen-yU have pointed out many e r r o r s i n Hstl Shen's er\ i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . For example, the graph (j^ i s i n t e r p r e t e d as "the bottom foundation, d e p i c t i n g the growing p l a n t s having foundation, so j j ^ i s taken as f o o t " . But the O.B.I, and bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s show that the top par t of d i i s o r i g i n a l l y the d e p i c t i o n of a foot ( L i H s i a o - t i n g , 1965:449). The a b i l i t y to make use of the Shuo Wen without being m i s l e d by i t s e r r o r s depends on a c a r e f u l study of a r c h a i c graphs themselves. As f a r as 'simple graphs J$%£J Ĵ L ' are concerned, graphic a n a l y s i s depends mainly on comparison w i t h the 'small s e a l form' recorded i n Shuo Wen. Thus JJ\ i s ' g r a i n ' , not 'water drop' or 'blood', because there i s a 'small s e a l f o r . ' | , % i s ' r i c e - c r o p ' not ' t r e e ' , because the W l l s e a l for„' has f o r ' r i c e - c r o p ' and f o r 't r e e ' . As f o r the problem of 'combined graphs ^ j f . 1̂ - ' , we have to employ the method proposed by T'ang Lan, i . e . , the ' a n a l y s i s of components 'TJ fttj ifftf % '. F i r s t we s t a r t by a n a l y s i n g a graph i n t o d i f f e r e n t components, then we t r y to r e l a t e these components to l a t e r forms, i . e . , the small s e a l forms. In cases where l a t e r forms f o r each component can be disco v e r e d , we may t e n t a t i v e l y recombine these components i n t h e i r l a t e r forms and t r y to look f o r a corresponding graph w i t h i d e n t i c a l components i n the Shuo Wen. I f such a graph can be found, the graphic a n a l y s i s of an a r c h a i c graph can be s a i d to have been completed. I t goes - 7 - without saying that such immediate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of an i n s c r i p t i o n a l graph w i t h a Shuo Wen graph i s not always p o s s i b l e . In cases where there i s no s i m i l a r form i n the Shuo Wen, the hypo- t h e t i c a l meaning of a graph can only be deduced from the graphic s t r u c t u r e . A f t e r a hypothesis i s proposed, i t has to be checked w i t h the context (and sometimes w i t h the c l a s s i c s ) . For example, there i s a graph "^-^ which l a c k s any p a r a l l e l i n the Shuo Wen. This graph appears i n the f o l l o w i n g sentence: k i n g / p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say / have / harm / eig h t / day ^ 1*. 4^ tt% $*. (£|f-f keng-hsU / h a v e / approach / cloud / from / east /.go through %+. f * % * y J * i t * ^ ifcrV ? f -• TJu / afternoon / a l s o / have / go out / ^4^c( I from / n o r t h d r i n k I at I r i v e r T'ung 426 The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , "there w i l l be harm". At the ei g h t h day keng-hsU, there were approaching clouds from the east, they went through the Wu Nu s t a r ; i n the afternoon, there was a l s o an out going ^"^C from the n o r t h , ( i t ) drank at the r i v e r . ^ The shape of t h i s graph may suggest many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i t looks l i k e a worm, a b r i d g e , a jade ornament huang or a rainbow. From the context, we know that the clause 'there were approaching clouds from the east rfj 'occurs i n f r o n t of the clause 'there was a l s o an out going from the n o r t h j j } ' > ^ & 7 ^ & *tf ' and t h i s suggests t h a t ' tfc ' may be a n a t u r a l phenomenon. The i n s c r i p t i o n a l s o reads 'drank at the r i v e r ' which suggests that tfC& i s a k i n d of animal. In the c l a s s i c s , - 8 - we f i n d the f o l l o w i n g passages: "Rainbow .... i s a l s o c a l l e d t i - t u n g , i t i s o f t e n seen at the east when the sun i s at the west; i t i s because i t s i p s the moisture of the e a s t . " . j «* . . . . , 4 U * t t a (Shih Ming Shu Cheng #f £i#c|&,p.l5) "Hung means t i - t u n g ( r a i n b o w ) , i t s shape i s s i m i l a r to that of a worm; (the graph) i s d e r i v e d from rj7 (worm) w i t h X- as phonetic." (SW, p.680) "At t h a t time, i t was r a i n i n g ; a rainbow descended and, a t t a c h i n g i t s e l f to the palace, drank the water i n the w e l l . " ^ K f a , t f l > 1 % % (Han Shu, Vol.9, chdan 63, p.2757) "There are rainbows at i t s n o r t h , each rainbow has two heads." (Shan Hai Ching Chien Shu J l & « $ # L Vol.3, p.2) From the Shuo Wen, we know that a rainbow i s considered to be worm- l i k e (the r a d i c a l i s ̂  ); from the Shan Hai Ching, we know that the worm- l i k e rainbow i s considered to have two heads; from the Han Shu and Shih Ming, we know that the ancients b e l i e v e d a rainbow d r i n k s water. The shape of "$C$! looks l i k e a rainbow w i t h two heads; the clause 'drank at the r i v e r ' a l s o f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n of $ 3 . (rainbow) i n the c l a s s i c s . C i t i n g the above - 9 - evidence, s c h o l a r s such as YU Hsing-wu ^ 4 * (1940:15-19) proposed 2 that t h i s graph should be i n t e r p r e t e d as h u n g ^ J . . Such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n seems to have answered the f i r s t two questions proposed by Serruys. That i s , 1. The graph " ^ t y d e p i c t s a rainbow w i t h two heads. 2. The word f u n c t i o n s as a noun i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n ' ^ & 'ficft ^ (there was a l s o an out going rainbow from the n o r t h ) ' . > But can we say that t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l s o answers the t h i r d and f o u r t h questions? In other words, can we say: 3. The graph '^C^ corresponds to the l a t e r graph hung which was created by the hsieh-sheng method. 4. The graph "i^Cfi i s pronounced i n approximation as *gewng/*kewng/*krewng? Questions three and four are i n t e r r e l a t e d . Only a f t e r question four i s answered can we say t h i s graph corresponds to the l a t e r form As f a r as t h i s graph i s concerned, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , questions three and four cannot be answered c o n c l u s i v e l y . Even i f we can a s c e r t a i n that the graph s i g n i f i e s the concept 'rainbow', t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that i s pronounced a s *gewng/*kewng/*krewng. There may be a synonym of the word hung ̂feX-, a synonym which i s p h o n e t i c a l l y t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d to hung and yet represents the same concept 'rainbow'. In the Shuo Wen, Erh Ya and Shih Tsu 3f (T'-ung, j g ^ ,". p.'. 86b-87), there are four d i f f e r e n t words, some mono- s y l l a b i c and some b i s y l l a b i c , r e p r e s e n t i n g the concept rainbow: *YjwaK7*xjwaY *teSr-tewng % *keat-nj i e r According to Kuo P'u If f % ( E r h Y a . p J B ) ^ ( ̂  ff ) and ^ a r e words r e p r e s e n t i n g female rainbows. The graphic s t r u c t u r e of "^p"^ does not show the sex of the rainbow, so i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make a choice among the four words. As a matter of f a c t , even i f the graphic s t r u c t u r e of "7jff^ shows the sex, f o r i n s t a n c e , male, we s t i l l encounter the problem of making a choice among the words ^3- , ^ and ' j ^ . In i d e n t i f y i n g the graph (word) TJC^ w i t h the word ^X- , we are doing no more than f i n d i n g â " common word which represents the same concept as that of • Since the graph ^ I f " ^ does not show a phonetic r e c o g n i z a b l e to us, there i s no way to . t e l l whether the graph(word) was pronounced l i k e ^ ^ or l i k e 1^ or l i k e • With the l i m i t e d m a t e r i a l a c c e s s i b l e to us, i t seems we have to be content w i t h the semantic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "tfcty w i t h $JJ- , the most common word r e p r e s e n t i n g the same concept, and we should keep i n mind that J^^i may be p h o n e t i c a l l y unrelated to . This s o r t of question i s r e l a t e d to the p r a c t i c e of t r a n s c r i b i n g an a r c h a i c graph i n t o a modern form. T r a d i t i o n a l l y there are ' s i x methods •yi* ' f o r c r e a t i n g a graph. Although s c h o l a r s have divergent opinions con- cerning the o r i g i n a l meaning of these ' s i x methods' and some even question whether the ' s i x methods' ought not to be reevaluated, i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted that a word may be represented by d i f f e r e n t graphs created by d i f f e r e n t methods. The concept 'spoon' can be represented by e i t h e r ^ - 1 1 - Ca pictograph) or (a hsieh-sheng graph) both of which appear i n Shuo Wen. In many cases, an a r c h a i c graph dies out and another graph comes i n t o e x i s t - ence to represent the same word. For example, the word 'a p i t ; to bury ( i n a p i t ) ' i s w r i t t e n as ± ^ ( t / i ) i n the SW. In the O.B.I., there i s a graph (Sorui 214.3) which d e p i c t s an ox b u r i e d i n a p i t and i t i s f r e q u e n t l y used as a s a c r i f i c i a l verb r e p r e s e n t i n g the ' s a c r i f i c e of v i c t i m s ' to d e i t i e s . C i t i n g the s a c r i f i c i a l usage of the word k'an ̂ y? i n the c l a s s i c s , e.g. Jjt ^% to bury the v i c t i m ) , Ch'iu H s i - k u e i ^ ? It proposes that the graph , where the component I J ( I I *kjam) appears to be the phonetic, i s the p r i m i t i v e form of the word fil, *k'am (1980:162). (See a l s o Yu Hsing-wu 1979:271.) Although the words L-J *kjam (t'an pu 'ft %f ) and *k'gm ( c h ' i n pu ) belong to d i f f e r e n t a r c h a i c rhyming c a t e g o r i e s , they share a c l o s e p h o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . In a d d i t i o n to some cases of interrhyming among the words of these two c a t e g o r i e s , i t i s o c c a s i o n a l l y found that words from one s i n g l e hsieh-sheng s e r i e s appear i n both c a t e g o r i e s , f o r example, *gjam/*giam -fife * k j ^ *griam *k/ (t'an pu #p *-am) ( c h ' i n pu ?^,^P *-gm) And as Ch'iu ( i b i d . ) has suggested, the word jVj? *griam(t'an pu) 'to t r a p , to f a l l i n t o a p i t ' i s obviously r e l a t e d to *k'am(ch'in pu) 'a p i t , to bury ( i n a p i t ) ' s e m a n t i c a l l y . (Cf. the SW (p.695) uses the word *griam to d e f i n e word jfe *k'am.) Notwithstanding the d i f f e r e n c e i n the graphic s t r u c t u r e of these two words(graphs), we may accept Ch'iu's theory that both t$ and A represent - 1 2 - the 'same' word i n terms of the c o n t e x t u a l and p h o n o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . In t r a n s c r i b i n g graphs such as , there are two t r a d i t i o n s : one i s mechanical t r a n s c r i p t i o n , that i s , to analyse a graph i n t o components and then to t r a n s c r i b e each of the components i n t o i t s modern form. In t h i s case, ^ / would become 5& • The other way may be termed 'semantic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ' , t hat i s , to t r a n s c r i b e a graph i n t o a modern form which represents a word assumed to be i d e n t i c a l i n meaning. In t h i s way, ] ^ / becomes jtfe . I f we consider that the f u n c t i o n of t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s to t e l l readers what the 'meaning' of a graph(word) i s , the 'semantic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ' should have p r i o r i t y . But there i s a s e r i o u s drawback to 'semantic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ' . Scholars o f t e n d i f f e r i n o p i n i o n on what the meaning of a graph(word) i s . There may be d i f f e r e n t modern forms suggested f o r t r a n s c r i b i n g an a r c h a i c graph. This not uncommonly produces a confusing p i c t u r e . In the present t h e s i s , however, si n c e the o r i g i n a l form i s given i n each case, the n e c e s s i t y of a mechanical t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s not urgent and the 'semantic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ' i s employed. In some cases, both t r a n s c r i p t i o n s are provided. - 13 - I I . THE LIMITATION OF GRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND THE EXPLOITATION OF CONTEXT Graphic a n a l y s i s i s only the f i r s t step i n the decipherment of O.B.I., f o r the v a l i d i t y of a graphic a n a l y s i s must be v e r i f i e d by some other means. In the e a r l y s t a t e s of O.B.I, s t u d i e s , the graph was i n t e r p r e t e d as $2- 'to stand' s i n c e i t g r a p h i c a l l y resembles the 'small s e a l form' ( JL. 'to stand'). From the Sung Dynasty u n t i l the l a t e Ch'ing the graph ^ of the c y c l i c a l characters (kan-chih ^ ^ ) was a notorious conundrum because combinations such as k u e i - t z u ^ ^ (San T a i /fa , chflan 9, p. 14, Ke Po Kuei -$4: \fa f &.) and t i n g - t z u ^ (San T a i ^0 » chUan 9, p. 7, Shih Sung Kuei 9 ^ ^fify which never occur i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s i x t y kan-chih combinations are sometimes found. Only a f t e r studying the context where these graphs occur were sc h o l a r s able to r e j e c t the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which r e l i e d s o l e l y . o n graphic a n a l y s i s and to r e i n t e r p r e t a s (king) and ^ as f?j (the s i x t h t i - c h i h graph). Not only can a graphic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n be v e r i f i e d or r e f u t e d by means of context, but the problem of graphic v a r i a n t s can a l s o be solved by reference to context. I t i s widely known that a r c h a i c graphs do not have s t a b l e forms. The graphic v a r i a t i o n i n a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s o f t e n causes controversy i n decipherment. One of the most f r e q u e n t l y encountered graphs ^ ( pT to d i v i n e ) i s found i n the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t forms, e.g. , ^ and Graphic e v o l u t i o n through the course of time c e r t a i n l y has to be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n and sometimes v a r i a n t s may be a t t r i b u t e d to the s t y l e of an i n d i v i d u a l engraver. Nevertheless, the graph J| i s found i n d i f f e r e n t shapes even i n the same p e r i o d . The case of |) does not cause much t r o u b l e s i n c e i t h i g h l y f r e q u e n t l y appears i n very l i m i t e d l i n g u i s t i c environments. - 14 - But i n the case of g r a p h i c a l l y s i m i l a r characters which appear i n v a r i e d l i n g u i s t i c environments, the paleographer must take up the task of deter- mining whether or not the v a r i a n t s a l l represent the same word. In other words, the r e l a t i v e weight to be placed on a s i n g l e s t r o k e or component i s a problem which cannot be solved by graphic a n a l y s i s alone. While graphic v a r i a n t s are very common i n a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , we a l s o know that two d i s - c r e t e graphs r e p r e s e n t i n g two separate words may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by very minor graphic d i f f e r e n c e s . F o l l o w i n g are some examples: 1. The forms ^ , ^ , ^ and lj<} occur i n the O.B.I. Do they represent the same word? I f we i n t e r p r e t them as mere graphic v a r i a n t s of one word, then should we a l s o view the form as one of the v a r i a n t s ? The occurrence i n the bronzes of an 'intermediate' form ^ £ between ^ and makes the problem more complicated. I t i s a f t e r c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the context that we can determine that the f i r s t four forms should be taken as graphic v a r i a n t s w h i l e the form represents a d i f f e r e n t word. , , 3 ^ and ^ f r e q u e n t l y appear i n f r o n t of ^ ( - j ^ mountain, mountain god) and ^ ( r i v e r , r i v e r god) and they can be preceded by the negative ^ ( fW should n o t ) . On the other hand, f r e q u e n t l y occurs between personal names and i s never preceded by ' J . Therefore, we can p o s i t w i t h r e l a t i v e con- fidence that the f i r s t f our forms represent the same word w h i l e represents another word. 2 . In the Shuo Wen there i s a graph ^ ( tree) which can be i n t e r - preted g r a p h i c a l l y as the l a t e r counterpart of e i t h e r of the O.B.I, g r a p h s ) ^ - 15 - or ^ . Since the graphic d i f f e r e n c e between X and !^ i s very minor, one might be i n c l i n e d to take these two as graphic v a r i a n t s . Moreover, the graph /& has another form , £ has another from % and }̂ has another form . From the viewpoint of graphic a n a l y s i s , the i d e n t i t y of ^ and ^ seems to be unquestionable. However, the l i n g u i s t i c environments i n which these two graphs appear are completely d i f f e r e n t . The graph ^ appears e x c l u s i v e l y i n the kan-chih combinations, w h i l e the graph /fC never appears i n kan-chih combinations. appears as a place name, a personal name and as a verb w i t h an yet undetermined meaning. Therefore, we may conclude that and /j ^ are d i f f e r e n t graphs(words). Now we must deal w i t h the question r a i s e d by Lung Yu-ch'en: Why are and ^ interchangeable i n ^ % , ^ and ^ % ^ , though kept q u i t e d i s t i n c t when appearing independently? There i s a passage i n Lung's book which i s worth quoting i n f u l l : "....a shape(structure) which appears as a component may change i n t o another s h a p e ( s t r u c t u r e ) . Therefore, cases where two graphs are kept c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t when they appear independently, even though they are interchangeable when appearing as components, must be due to the f a c t that the way of engraving(a graph) was comparatively f l e x i b l e such that one was m i s i d e n t i f i e d f o r the other. (Such interchange- a b i l i t y ) should not be adduced as evidence to show that they are i d e n t i c a l graphs. For example, the graphs n and q are i d e n t i c a l ( i . e . representing, the i d e n t i c a l word), and ^ | are i d e n t i c a l . However, (we) cannot equate to -fcf- nor -"t̂  to j . I t i s o f t e n the case that d i s t i n c t i o n s between two graphs are c a r e f u l l y maintained when these graphs are found independently w h i l e they are o f t e n confused or used interchangeably when appearing as components i n other graphs. People of the Han Dynasty wrote (the word) as , but (the word) j ^ . i s never w r i t t e n as people of the T'ang Dynasty wrote (the word) J|| as (but they never wrote the graph) to (represent the,word) § .... The graph ^ i s d i f f e r e n t from 7) , the former i s the 'word-character (to p r a y ) , the l a t t e r i s fi_, ( b r o t h e r ) . But a f t e r adding - 16 - the component (Q.B.I, form: "J ), the graph ^ can be i n s c r i b e d as | | Since the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s extend over a long p e r i o d of time and are spread over a wide area g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , such cases are so numerous that they cannot be ex h a u s t i v e l y l i s t e d . For example, i n graphs such as , and , the shape Jc (the d e p i c t i o n of a l e g and foot) are a l l . engraved as (-fcr*woman); may be engraved as , the shape vt being confused w i t h *f . : . X i s d i f f e r e n t from ^ , but % % may be engraved as .'̂ ^ , may be engraved as ffi- , and ^ as j % ." (1968:248-250) In s h o r t , we must be extremely cautious i n i n t e r p r e t i n g two i n t e r - changeable forms as re p r e s e n t i n g the same word i f such i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y e x i s t s only when they serve as components but not as independent graphs. The context must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 3. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , most s c h o l a r s , Yeh YU-sen 5* j^o > Kuo Mo-jo %\\%-%. and L i H s i a o - t i n g ^7$%. (1965:587-592) among them, consider and as graphs r e p r e s e n t i n g the same word. (Cf. the graphs | and both stand f o r the word wu 5f ; they are graphic v a r i a n t s . See T'ieh 76.2; Ch' i e n "jjjHJ 1.9.3 and 3.9.1 f o r i n s c r i p t i o n s showing the i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y of these two graphs.) The f i r s t person to s e r i o u s l y question t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was HsU Chin-hsiung His arguments are based on the contexts i n which ^ and / ̂  appear. According to HsU, there are three usages of the graph (1) a s a c r i f i c e " f - r £ M . T t i% « f > 1 ^ 4 8 7 5 to / Ancestor Hsin / e x o r c i s e / sickness ( I t i s ) to Ancestor Hsin that we should e x o r c i s e the sickness, - 17 - (2) an o f f i c i a l t i t l e / e l k I A . v ..M T'ieh 1 8 3 . 4 i-mao1 / crack / T u i / / yU s h i h .... yU s h i h . Ku /€• 595 (3) a t r i b e name I / should not / summon / YU Fang I should not summon YU Fang. On the other hand, the graph 1^, i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h hunting and m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s , e.g., (4) wu-hsU / k i n g / crack / t e s t / hunt / Ch'iang / go / come have no, / d i s a s t e r / k i n g / pro g n o s t i c a t e / say A t f t 2-35-1 auspicious / t h i s / _y_U / capture / game / four In hunting at Ch'iang, there w i l l not be d i s a s t e r i n going to and f r o . The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , " i t i s aus p i c i o u s " . In t h i s c h a r i o t i n g , we captured four game. (The t r a n s l a t i o n s of the word ^ / i n the above four i n s c r i p t i o n s are based on HsU's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . See HsU 1 9 6 3 : 4 - 7 . On the meaning of the terms J f ^ ̂  and Jpp ̂  , see page 2 8 - 3 3 of t h i s chapter.) Based on t h i s evidence, HsU p o s i t s that and represent two d i f f e r e n t words; the - 1 8 - former i s the e a r l i e r form of (to e x o r c i s e ) , ( i n the o f f i c i a l t i t l e yU-shih %&P £ ) and ^ J f ( i n t h e t r i t > e name YU Fang^Jf-^f as found i n the I Chou Shu ^ ). The l a t t e r graph /£, i s the e a r l i e r form of $f which Shuo Wen define s as 'to d r i v e a horse At. & H. •'. HsU' s i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n appears to be acceptable when the contexts i n which they occur are examined s u p e r f i c i a l l y , however, a more c a r e f u l study would show that and 1̂ , have the tendency, though not n e c e s s a r i l y , to appear i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s . A p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n based on Shima Kunio's jf^ ̂ jP |^ Inkyo Bokuji, S o r u i f- ̂ jji ^ i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t predominates i n e a r l y i n s c r i p t i o n s w h i l e i s more common i n l a t e r p e r i o d s . The graphic forms and personal names found by the s i d e of are f r e q u e n t l y ^ , JL. , ? . T , $ , , X . ^ . , 9 • l a d i e s | f£, $ #£. ^ , pr i n c e s ? faf , f , ? W , d i v i n e r s ^ , ^ and ̂  . As HsU n o t i c e d , the graph i s f r e q u e n t l y associated w i t h s i c k n e s s and d i s a s t e r s , s ubjects most common i n d i v i n a t i o n s from the e a r l y p e r i o d s . On the other hand, the graph f r e q u e n t l y co-occurs w i t h graphic forms such , and w i t h common expressions such as ' ^ ti it] ( ^2 ^ 7 ^ have no d i s a s t e r s i n going to and f r o ) which are commonly encountered i n l a t e r p eriod i n s c r i p t i o n s . And as HsU pointed out, I £j i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d t ' i e n - h u n t i n g ( © ), a t o p i c not f r e q u e n t l y d i v i n e d about i n e a r l y p e r i o d i n s c r i p t i o n s . Moreover, the graph 1̂ , very f r e q u e n t l y co-occurs w i t h §i to form the expression t z u yU Jjpp ( i n t h i s a f f a i r ) which i s one of the c r i t e r i a f o r a s s i g n i n g an i n s c r i p - t i o n to the f i f t h p e r i o d . This tendency towards complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n ( i n terms of period) of these two graphs i s ignored by HsU. In f a c t , there are some instances of 1̂ , which appear i n environments - 19 - very s i m i l a r to those of the graph f o r example: A. . zr U/ ^, A _, Ch'ien fl'l 1.35.5 i-ch'ou / crack / y u - s a c r i f i c e / e x o r c i s e / to A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng(?) / behead / twenty / aromatic-wine t h i r t y We should perform an y u - s a c r i f i c e , (and then) perform an exorcism to A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng(?) (with) twenty beheaded v i c t i m s and t h i r t y goblets of aromatic wine. (For the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the graph(word) , see Chapter Four, footnotes no. 1 and 1'4.) Al' r~i -J . 4j , M - Ak Hou Shang % % ±- 27.1 ting-ch'ou / crack / Cheng / t e s t / e x o r c i s e / to Ancestor Hsin / ten / penned-sheep We should perform an exorcism to Ancestor Hsin (with) ten penned- sheep . A2'M| 11 f * *ft 1 - 2 t e s t / chia-ch'en / y u - s a c r i f i c e / e x o r c i s e ^ $ H 0 ci.) f from / (Shang)Chia - 20 - On the day chia-ch'en, we should perform a y u - s a c r i f i c e , (and then) perform an exorcism ( s t a r t i n g ) from (Shang)Chia. u Ch'ien 6.13.1 k u e i - s s u / e x o r c i s e / P r i n c e She On a kuei-ssu day, we should e x o r c i s e P r i n c e She. B l ' n . t i v K ^ Ts'un fir 2.224 t i n g . . . / crack / Ch'tteh / t e s t / should not exo r c i s e 'T" / P r i n c e Huai We should hot e x o r c i s e P r i n c e Huai. night / Fu / take charge of / a f f a i r s / r e c e i v e .... At n i g h t when Fu takes charge of a f f a i r s , (we or he) w i l l r e c e i v e ( a s s i s t a n c e ) . C1 T'ieh i-mao / crack / Tui I ... I take charge of / a f f a i r f t 183. < w i l l take charge of a f f a i r s . t - 21 - Thus we can see that two of the three usages of the graph mentioned above are shared by I ̂  . Now the picture becomes clear. The graph is mainly associated with exorcising il l n e s s , repelling other tribes and taking charge of affairs, a l l of which topics appear most frequently in early period inscriptions. The graph i s mainly associated with the graph and occurs most frequently in later period inscriptions. In addition to this, in a much fewer number of cases, I shares the meaning of (mostly in the sense of 'exorcising', there are only two, out of twenty three sentences where and %̂  co-occur). If the 'subject of divination' ( , the seventh criterion in periodization) can be used as a criterion to periodize these inscriptions, the sentences in which is used in the sense of 'exorcising' might be classified as belonging to the early periods. Thus we may hypothesize that these two graphs are by and large graphic variants each representing two words: (1) to exorcise, to repel (both derived from the basic sense to go against) (2) to take charge of ^ predominates in the early periods while I ̂ , occurs in the early periods but does not come to predominate until later periods. The following is a figure describing the way in which the graphic and semantic changes of and l£j might have taken place: i . to exorcise, to repel -> (to exorcise, to repel) (to take charge of) • to take charge of - 22 - The term can be understood l i t e r a l l y as ' i n t h i s t a k i n g charge of ( a f f a i r ) ->in t h i s a f f a i r ' which i s derived from the meaning of %^ (Jl) (to take charge of a f f a i r s ) . The p r a c t i c e of using ^ ̂  i n the sense of 'to e x o r c i s e ' became r a r e i n l a t e r periods perhaps due to a change of r e l i g i o u s concepts. The l a t e r kings d i d not b e l i e v e i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of exorcism as much as t h e i r predecessors, thus we may suggest they are more r a t i o n a l than r e l i g i o u s . The f a c t that the s a c r i f i c e s to one's ancestors become mere f o r m a l i t i e s a l s o suggests t h i s movement towards r a t i o n a l i t y . A new meaning 'to welcome' appears i n the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s ( i n f a c t , there are some cases i n the O.B.I, where the graph can a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as 'to welcome', but we l a c k a l a r g e r context to determine which i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to choose). The graph i s sometimes engraved as The meaning 'to welcome' i s a l s o derived from the b a s i c sense 'to go a g a i n s t , to go i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n ' . Some Chinese words, such as y i n g and n i jj^ , which i n modern Chinese have the meaning 'to welcome' a l s o o r i g i n a l l y had the sense 'to go i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n (to meet so and so The d e f i n i t i o n 'to c o n t r o l a horse' which i s given i n the Shuo Wen f o r the graph ( '<{t^ ) i s g e n e r a l l y represented b y . ! ^ ( ) i n the bronzes. In the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s , 'to take charge o f and 'to welcome' are the p r e v a i l i n g usages of. the graph "T̂  and j£j . The problem of and 1 ,̂ i l l u s t r a t e s that w h i l e using the context as a c r i t e r i o n i n decipherment, there are other f a c t o r s that must a l s o be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . - 23 - I I I . THE USE OF SOURCES OTHER THAN THE ARCHAIC INSCRIPTIONS The decipherment of the graphs $ rf\ > % Sĵ  and is mainly determined by means of the O.B.I, context which may be termed ' i n t e r n a l evidence'. We may, on the other hand, o b t a i n evidence from l i t e r a r y source, e.g. the c l a s s i c s , which can be used as e x t e r n a l evidence. The f o l l o w i n g i s an example showing how the context of words o c c u r r i n g i n the c l a s s i c s can be made use of i n decipherment: The bronze graph , which looks almost i d e n t i c a l to the graph '(j? ( - j ^ yellow) i n the Shuo Wen, f r e q u e n t l y appears i n the terms representing things bestowed to the v a s s a l s from the emperor: San T a i 2_ <f^ , chtlan 9, P.20) ^ , ' f v / | C f # < S u nS K u e i '** A # f / ( ^ ^ W i b i d . , p.38) f t H > i f Jfe (Fan Sheng Kuei -| £ 0£_ / h ^ ' / h f f r ^ g . ̂  i b i d . , p.37) tjr v J g . ̂  i b i d . , p.37) I f the graph(word) i s taken l i t e r a l l y , i t would not make much sense. In the L i Chi , a passage of the yd tsao s t a t e s , "On the f i r s t o c c a s i o n , (the emperor) bestows an orange s a c r i f i c i a l knee cap and a bl a c k top gem of the g i r d l e pendant; on the second oc c a s i o n , (the emperor) bestows a red s a c r i f i c i a l knee - 24 - cap and a b l a c k top gem of the g i r d l e pendant; on the t h i r d o c c a s i o n , (the emperor) bestows.a red s a c r i f i c i a l knee cap and a green top gem of the g i r d l e pendant". (SSCCS, chuan 30, p.7) The graphs (words) *pjwet and f j l *p'wat both represent the same t h i n g 'knee cap'. Thus, i n the c l a s s i c a l expressions 3y ^ j / ^ ^ M> and the bronze phrases ^ ^ ^ / , the f i r s t three words are almost i d e n t i c a l . Most sc h o l a r s i n t e r p r e t the graph(word) ^3 *gwang as a phonetic-loan f o r *grang i n the c l a s s i c s . Once t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , we have a clue to i n t e r p r e t the term l& £ ( K ' a i Ting j|£ ^ . San T a i , chtian 4, p.33). The graph looks very much l i k e the graph 7^ » hut a term such as /̂v does not make sense. T'ang Lan n o t i c e s that the graph t a i (bone form: /t̂  , small s e a l form: ) has an a l t e r n a t i v e form //\> i n the Shuo Wen. The graph e v o l u t i o n i s • I f a s i m i l a r graphic e v o l u t i o n has taken place i n the case of ^ , we would expect to f i n d a graph something l i k e * which would probably, i n t u r n , evolve i n t o the shape /f\ ( ft_> *kang) as recorded i n the Shuo Wen. Thus T'ang Lan proposes that should be t r a n s c r i b e d as f]_j where f\j *kang i s another phonetic-loan f o r wj *grang (1965:21A). As a matter of f a c t , the graphic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n proposed by T'ang Lan, though i t sounds reasonable, l a c k s s o l i d evidence s i n c e the form * i s found nowhere i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s . But, T'ang Lan has pointed out, the strongest evidence to support h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s not the graphic s t r u c t u r e of ^ but the comparison w i t h the phrase $n $Jln the c l a s s i c s ( i b i d . ) . - 25 - The graph may serve as another example to i l l u s t r a t e the use of c l a s s i c a l p a r a l l e l s i n decipherment. This graph appears i n the f o l l o w i n g clauses: (Mao Rung Ting h 'A jf̂ ^ 4 San T a i ==./ft* , chUan 4, p.46) 1^ l ^ t ^ a ^ L CK'e Ting <t # D / >f /f *P i b i d . , chUan 4, p.40) ^ th± 1= (S/ffl (Chin Rung An f % ' \t t «1 i b i d , chUan 18, p. 13) a Arguing from context, Wu Ta-ch'eng ifc n a s proposed that t h i s graph should have the meaning 'to put i n t o order' ;^ j ^ , and i n t e r p r e t s i t as the o r i g i n a l form of the word n i e h ^^jp- which HsU Shen defines as 'punish- ment ^ -fc/ ' (1918: Vol.5, p.5, Mao Rung Ti n g ) . I f graphic and semantic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are taken s e p a r a t e l y , Wu's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s very a p p r o p r i a t e . However, the graph r a r e l y appears i n the c l a s s i c s . According to the Shuo Wen's a n a l y s i s , /j? f u n c t i o n s as the phonetic, so i t s pronunciations should be something l i k e * s j i a t which may be r e l a t e d to the word ^ *ngia_t. In the c l a s s i c s , ^ o f t e n has the meaning 'punishment'. Whether and ^ both o r i g i n a t e d from the same word stem, and how the meaning of 'to put i n t o order' and the meaning of 'punishment' are r e l a t e d to each other are questions Wu f a i l s to answer. L i u Hsin-yUan /c," >/j|;(.1902: Vol.2, p.33) and Wang Ruo-wei • 0 (1968: Vol.6, p.261) take a d i f f e r e n t approach i n i n t e r - p r e t i n g t h i s graph. They propose a meaning i d e n t i c a l to Wu's but a d i f f e r e n t p r o n u n c i a t i o n , which i s based on a comparison w i t h the c l a s s i c s : - 26 - ffijL (Mao Rung Ting '£ $f ) tff X__ (SSTC 3 6 0 2 8 9 ) "... and a i d t h e i r sovereign." (Legge, p.479) 1£ I? ̂. *P (K'o Ting fjfay 1̂  X_ 1SL (SSTC 3 4 Q 1 7 1 ) "maintained and re g u l a t e d the dynasty of Y i n . " (Legge, p.480) \ % ft 1- H ' (Chin Rung An f" £ J ) 1̂  5C ® i l l (Shih Ching HY 37/172/5) "May ye preserve and maintain your p o s t e r i t y . " (Legge, p.273) Wang suggests the f o l l o w i n g theory to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these graphs: "... t h i s (graph ) i s the o r i g i n a l form of the graphs i )C_ and 1 which appear i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s . In the s h i h ku jffi |£ (of Erh Ya §f ), we f i n d , 'i X_ means to manage, to govern, to a s s i s t and to r e a r ' . In the Shuo Wen, ' i _ means to manage, to govern; i t deriv e s from p i (as the s i g n i f i c ) and has i X . as the phonetic' In the YU shu J% <g (of Shang Shu # ), i t says, ' there a capable man, to whom I can a s s i g n the c o r r e c t i o n of t h i s c a l a m i t y ? ' This shows that the graph i ^ X L . appearing i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s i s w r i t t e n i_ ̂  i n the ku wen ^ found i n the w a l l . The graph 1^ ^ i s probably a d i s t o r t i o n of . Due to the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t r u c t u r e , ^ became ^ at f i r s t . Since i ^ - j f ^ and p i are d i f f e r e n t i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n , l a t e r people add i yL__ (to ) as the p h o n e t i c ' - 27 - If vtfc m * f £ ^ £ £ C l . #f H X . t ; £ , # , % t , : , ;e t , A A. # ^ / f ; 4 # ^ f ^ X.. £ *i * )C % M t * ft. ^ $ £ %^ »* tym. A A. # ^ * * # i f If ft , H * * P K. «A ^ 7 (1968: Vol.6, p.261) In view of the context and the p o s i t i o n s where the graphs ( ^$f' ) and appear, there i s no doubt that they represent the same word. Without the comparison w i t h the c l a s s i c s , even i f we can propose the meaning 'to put i n t o order' f o r the graph(word) as Wu does, we can h a r d l y d i s c o v e r i t s c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n . And such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n would be impossible i f we d i d not di s r e g a r d the graphic d i f f e r e n c e between It and X~ ( i t goes without saying that .X^ i s g r a p h i c a l l y completely d i f f e r e n t from . Even the graph , which i s w r i t t e n i n the Shuo Wen, i s not very s i m i l a r to % ^ ). F a i l u r e to i d e n t i f y )>j? w i t h .X^ would make the c o r r e c t understanding of the morpho- l o g i c a l (and semantic) r e l a t i o n s h i p between the graphs , X .̂ and ^ d i f f i c u l t . The word %^ belongs to the a r c h a i c rhyme category ydeh jcj *-at and X^. belongs to c h i * - a r ; they both have the i n i t i a l *ng- w h i l e d i f f e r i n g s l i g h t l y i n the medial. The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of ^ i s *ngiat andX- i s *ngj a r . Based on the common morphological r e l a t i o n s h i p between the so- + jut c a l l e d ch'd-sheng -Z-. n f and non-ch'U-sheng words, one may hypothesize that both * n g i a t ^ and *n g i a r X come from a s i n g l e word stem (according to P u l l e y b l a n k (1973: 112-114)., some of the Middle Chinese ch'tl-sheng words come from words w i t h an morphological marker *-s added.) *Ngiat »Jjt appears nominally and has the meaning 'punishment' w h i l e *ngiar appears v e r b a l l y and has the meaning 'to put i n t o order' which may be mor p h o l o g i c a l l y (and sem a n t i c a l l y ) derived from the word 'punishment'. Thus, the graph(word) found i n the bronzes i s apparently polyphonic. I t i s pronounced *ngiar when having the meaning 'to put i n t o order', but i t probably a l s o has the pronun- - 28 - V r c i a t i o n * n g i a t s i n c e i t can f u n c t i o n as t h e p h o n e t i c o f * n g i a t ^ (Shuo Wen form ) and as t h e p h o n e t i c o f * s j i a t (Shuo Wen fo r m Jf̂  ). U n f o r - t u n a t e l y , w h e t h e r t h e r e i s any m o r p h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n i t i a l s * s - and *ng- i s u n d e t e r m i n a b l e i n t h e c a s e o f ^ and ^ s i n c e ^ appears o n l y as a surname o r t h e name o f a k i n d o f g r a s s . There i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t Wang Kuo-wei's h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i s a m i s t a k e f o r ( ) . I n t h e b r o n z e s , t h e gra p h i s engraved as e i t h e r ^ o r ̂  , b o t h s t i l l e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m o r ( j ? ^ ) . The g r a p h ( ^ ) r e c o r d e d i n t h e Shuo Wen may have been newly c r e a t e d by co m b i n i n g as p h o n e t i c w i t h § ^ , w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y has t h e meaning ' k i n g , t o p u t i n t o o r d e r , punishment', as t h e s i g n i f i c i n o r d e r t o d i s a m b i g u a t e t h e p o l y p h o n i c graph . When c i t i n g t h e c l a s s i c s as e v i d e n c e i n d e c i p h e r i n g a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , t h e r e i s one i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t h a t must be b o r n e i n mind; t h a t i s , one must n o t o v e r - e m p h a s i z e s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e c l a s s i c s and t h e a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s . We may a g a i n t a k e t h e d e c i p h e r m e n t o f t h e word ( , ^ ) as an example: HsU C h i n - h s i u n g %^ i ^ , ^ p t i n t e r p r e t s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n ;yji s h i h ^ ^ ( \ty t S L / ^ ) a s a n o f f i c i a l t i t l e ( 1 9 6 3 : 7 ) . T h i s i s n o t t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n n o r i s i t t h e most c o n v i n c i n g one when a p p l i e d t o a l l c a s e s . The words ^ a r e f r e q u e n t l y p r e c e d e d , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , by t h e v e r b hu 2p ( t o summon, t o c a l l upon) o r l i n g ( t o o r d e r ) . F o r example, Cho 1 h s i n - s s u / c r a c k / t e s t / o r d e r / many o r masses / _yjl / s h i h - 29 - The c o n s t r u c t i o n 'y_U s h i h ' i s open to two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n the above sentence: the f i r s t i s , as HsU suggested, an o f f i c i a l t i t l e . I f we f o l l o w t h i s suggestion, the t r a n s l a t i o n would be 'to order the many yU-shih'. However, such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n goes contrary to the preponderant s y n t a c t i c patterns c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the verbs hu ^ and l i n g when an object i s expressed. These two verbs are g e n e r a l l y used i n the f o l l o w i n g two patterns: (1) hu ^ and l i n g ^ as the f i r s t v e r b a l element i n a ' p i v o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ' , i . e . , the obje c t of the verb hu *f or l i n g ^ i s the subject of the f o l l o w i n g verb, e.g., " M$ f * $ 4 f '4 t e s t / summon / Lady Ching / m i l l e t / r e c e i v e / harvest ( I f ) we summon Lady Ching to p l a n t m i l l e t , we w i l l r e c e i v e harvest. Chin <fc 645 k i n g / should not / order / P i / lead / masses / a t t a c k / Hu(?) t * S t a t e l e t Hou Shang %&Jl 16.10 The k i n g should not order P i to lead the masses to a t t a c k the Hu(?) S t a t e l e t . In some cases, the noun(object-subject) between the verbs i s unexpressed, e.g., - 30 - ft * ^ £ c h ' i e n f'\ 3'29'7 t e s t / summon / m i l l e t / r e c e i v e / harvest ( I f ) we summon (somebody) to p l a n t m i l l e t , we w i l l r e c e i v e a (good) harvest. (2) Hu ^ and l i n g ^ followed by a cl a u s e , e.g., M J t * ^ A ' ^ .-=5 4 * ? * - * t e s t / next / chia-hsU / River(god) / not / order / r a i n On the next c h i a - h s f l day, the R i v e r ( g o d ) w i l l not order ( i t ) to r a i n . I. ~L> 3121 In the O.B.I, language, i t i s not o f t e n that a personal object alone f o l l o w s the verb hu ^ or l i n g ^ . I n such r a r e cases the p a t t e r n i s u s u a l l y as f o l l o w s : ' \% I ^ M l + personal name + ^ / /t~ ' ( I t i s / i s not so and so that we should c a l l upon/order.) But we do not f i n d any cases of * & / ^ ^ + k\\ %^ + I ^ ' (*It i s / i s not the yU-shih that we should c a l l upon/sommon.) Though i t cannot be adduced as an evidence to r e f u t e Hsu's a n a l y s i s , the absence of the p a t t e r n ' * {*jb / ^ & + ^ + I ̂  1 cast c e r t a i n doubt on the nominal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t i o n • So we are ob l i g e d to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g the sentence ' ̂  ^ Hrf ^' as 'we should order the masses to take charge of a f f a i r s . ' Now l e t us i n v e s - t i g a t e the c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t i n g w i t h the bronzes: - 31 - In the Ta Yd Ting 7^ (San T a i £. /ft' , chuan 4, p.42), we f i n d the f o l l o w i n g sentence: 'In t a k i n g charge of a f f a i r s , (you) do not dare to indulge i n wine.' In the Ch'i Hou Hu ffv ^ % ( i b i d . , chUan 12, p.33): ^ 4?«r 'Thereby, I take charge of the emperor's a f f a i r s . ' In the O.B.I., to i n t e r p r e t 'yU s h i h ' as 'taking charge of a f f a i r s ' makes b e t t e r sense than t a k i n g i t as an o f f i c i a l t i t l e i n many cases, e.g. CD H | 7 f „ $h A K %i \ $ t e s t / c a l l upon / (?) / to go i n t o / take charge o f / a f f a i r H s U # | 5.16.6 '(We should) summon ^£$L(?) to come i n t o (the court or the c a p i t a l ) to take charge of a f f a i r s . ' The verb 'j_u 1 n a s t w o common usages i n the O.B.I., namely, a. /\_ has the meaning 'to go i n t o ' as i n sentences such as A ( 3- K the k i n g goes i n t o ) and 5- A ( £ . \ $1 the k i n g goes i n t o Shang). b. /v! has the meaning 'to b r i n g i n ' as i n sentences such as ^ A E ( ' t ^ 5- Ch'Ueh brought i n t h r e e ) . To i n t e r p r e t ' K. ^ % as ' to summon (?) to go i n t o y{l-shih' does not make much sense. To i n t e r p r e t i t as 'to c a l l upon C?) to b r i n g i n an o f f i c i a l iyti-shih a l s o sounds very odd, s i n c e the o b j e c t s being brought i n are g e n e r a l l y understood as impersonal, - 32 - such as t u r t l e p l a s t r o n s or s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s . (2) t * . & $ | %4b Chih Hsu 19 i n . / here / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / Mountain(god)/ take charge of / a f f a i r \ We should perform a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to the Mountain(god)! and take charge of a f f a i r s here. The only case i n which the term yU-shih ^ ^ has to be i n t e r p r e t e d as a nominal phrase i s Chia ^ 1636: perhaps / c a l l upon / north / yd-shih / p r o t e c t We should perhaps c a l l upon the north yU-shih to p r o t e c t . .. Even i n t h i s case, the term yu-shih ^ would b e t t e r be analysed as 'the one who takes charge o f . . . ' r a t h e r than.the same o f f i c i a l t i t l e as recorded i n the Chou L i (HY 5/9a). Ch'U Wan-li considers the term y!l-shih i n t h i s , i n s c r i p t i o n r e f e r to ' o f f i c i a l s i n general % . ->1 3 § % $L (1961:216). Hsu a l s o i n t e r p r e t s the term ^ as a t r i b e name (see a l s o Kuo Mo- j o 1977:270), an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based on the comparison w i t h a passage i n the I Chou Shu vSLlJ] 1g which s t a t e s , ^ - 33 - In h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,of the c o n s t r u c t i o n HsU has not taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the l i n g u i s t i c behaviour of the c o n s t r u c t i o n ^ *jf and the words co-occurt-ing-..with'; i t . £-rl4hf 1 (. £ ^'f ^ f t t f i Wai ̂  30 chi-mao / crack / k i n g / order / yU fang Since the verb l i n g -J7 f r e q u e n t l y takes a noun clause as an object or appears as the f i r s t v e r b a l element i n a ' p i v o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ' , the t r a n - s l a t i o n 'the k i n g w i l l order (so and so) to r e p e l the t r i b e ' i s more appro- p r i a t e than the t r a n s l a t i o n 'the k i n g w i l l order YU Fang.' ^ T * \ J L U i k t r t * T V u i ^ 887 ting-ch'ou / crack / y_U fang I f the term yU fang i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a t r i b e name, the above sentence l a c k s a verb, a r a t h e r uncommon c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the O.B.I. (To be sure, there are some abbreviated sentences where the verb i s unexpressed, but most of these v e r b l e s s sentences a l s o abbreviate the ch ' i e n - t z ' u JEf'J ffl^ > e.g. 'ting-ch'ou crack'. I n cases where the c h ' i e n - t z ' u i s kept, the verb i s r a r e l y omitted.) The problems of the c o n s t r u c t i o n s yU s h i h and yU fang have i l l u s t r a t e d that i n making use of the c l a s s i c s , one should not r e l y on s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between the c l a s s i c s and the,,0.B.I. w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of the O.B.I. - 34 - IV. THE EXPLOITATION OF 'WORD FAMILIES' AND ITS LIMITATION In the e a r l y stages of the O..B.I. s t u d i e s Chinese s c h o l a r s had a tendency to put too much emphasis on graphic a n a l y s i s . They s i n g l e d out a graph and t r i e d to d i s c o v e r what the i n d i v i d u a l graphic elements a c t u a l l y represent. Undeniably, t h i s i s the f i r s t step and an ind i s p e n s a b l e procedure i n decipherment. Nevertheless, a s i n g l e s t r o k e can represent v a r i o u s objects. The strok e — can represent the surface of the earth as i n graphs J [ ( f i e f ) and ^- ( s o i l , e a r t h ) ; i t can a l s o represent a h a i r p i n as i n the graph ^ ( -7v_ man) or merely a l i n e showing the a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between two o b j e c t s as i n graphs v> ( __t_ above) and / ^ ( f\ below). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between two components of a graph can e i t h e r be h u i - i ja, , e.g. ( d e p i c t i n g an ox i n a r i v e r , g e n e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as ch'en y/jj ), or hsieh-sheng ^ e*8- ff"^ (where w a t e r / r i v e r ( s i g n i f y i n g f l o o d ) i s s i g n i f i c and "f" ( ) i s phonetic, g e n e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as t s a i ^ ). Simply l o o k i n g at a graph may y i e l d v a r i o u s g r a p h i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e - t a t i o n s which have e i t h e r to be s u b s t a n t i a t e d or disputed. In a d d i t i o n to making use of context, the study of 'word f a m i l i e s ' may corroborate an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a i d the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n h i s attempt to grasp the o r i g i n a l sense of a graph whose meaning has undergone subsequent change. The decipherment of the v e r b a l meaning of LjJ t one of the most fr e q u e n t l y encountered graphs i n the O.B.I., r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the a p p l i - c a t i o n of the n o t i o n of word f a m i l y . The graph(word) may occur i n d i f f e r e n t environments: - 35 - 1. a f t e r the negative wu fy) ( ^ ); i n f r o n t of the p r e p o s i t i o n y(l •j' C -p ); f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n c e s t r a l names and animal names• 2. between numbers ( a f t e r the f i r s t number, there may be a counter, e.g. I'A. ^ ); i n t h i s environment, i t i s comparable to the word ju_ X i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s . 3. i n f r o n t of a noun; i n t h i s environment, i t i s comparable to the word _yu. i n cases such as yu Chou (SSTC ^^QQ^^ and yu chung "1^ ^ L (SSTC 1 0 Q 0 8 6 ) i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s . 4. between a verb and a noun; i n t h i s environment, i t i s i n t e r - changeable w i t h the graph(word) X. ( ), e.g. '"̂C versus ^ ^ . 5. i n f r o n t of a nominal c o n s t r u c t i o n and appearing as the counterpart of the word wang HC- i n tui-chen "̂ f jf) p a i r s , e.g. r*f*? versus "C Ai^i) ; i n - t h i s environment, i t i s comparable to the word ju_ 7^ (to have, there i s ) i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s . 6. i n f r o n t of a nominalized verb, e.g. *Ji 4"J' » ^ J i n t h i s environment, i t i s comparable to c o n s t r u c t i o n s such as ^-j (Tso Chuan HY 45/fe18/1 & ) i n the c l a s s i c s . Based on the usage defined i n 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, the graph(word) ^ should have a p r o n u n c i a t i o n i d e n t i c a l or very s i m i l a r to e i t h e r yu *̂E) or _yu ^ . Based on the evidence of 1, ^ i s probably a ' s a c r i f i c i a l verb'. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of LjJ ̂  a s a s a c r i f i c i a l verb and assignment of a reading c l o s e to ju ~fj^ or _yu_ to i t was an achievement of the e a r l y O.B.I, s c h o l a r s . Nevertheless, they f a i l e d to suggest a more concrete meaning f o r the graph(word) LjJ ^ other than the vague ' s a c r i f i c i a l verb'. - 36 - Since the context where 4̂ i appears does not provide any c l u e to a more concrete meaning of the graph ^ » the only method i s to study the word f a m i l y of which ^ i s a member. Un f o r t u n a t e l y , never f u n c t i o n s as a phonetic i n other graphs. Owing to t h e , f a c t that ^ has a p r o n u n c i a t i o n very c l o s e to yvi and y_u X _ (to be more precise,. 4̂  i s interchangeable w i t h y_u ) ^ i n many c o n t e x t s ) , we might t e n t a t i v e l y group [il i n t o the word f a m i l y of which y_u and y_u are members. A. *°Yjw3Jf a c o n j u n c t i o n 'and' (-— '*two things h e l d together' *°Yjway to have, to e x i s t , to possess 4-— '*to h o l d ' *°yjw3^ f r i e n d s j>W d e f i n e s , 'those who share a common goal are f r i e n d s ; (the graphic s t r u c t u r e ) i s two hands h o l d i n g each other l&f fej $L, AJ\ ^ iB 'two people h e l d / l i n k e d together' *yjw3y°' ffi^j partners <• 'two people h e l d / l i n k e d together' *Tjway 0 ^ f / j j to p r o t e c t -f '*to embrace(?)' This word may be r e l a t e d to & *ri£k i n the sense of h u - i || ' to p r o t e c t 4 to cover, to embrace a f l e d g e l i n g w i t h wings'. (Cf. Shih Ching (HY 62/245/3)" % ±_ % >7J(, % $ | L 1|| ^- * w a s P l a c e < i o n t n e c o l d i c e , And a b i r d screened and supported him w i t h i t s wings." (Legge, p.468); a l s o Shih Ching (HY 62/244/8) " Ujs. || -f~ And secure comfort and support to h i s son." (Legge, p.463) *Jj jwaJf° (§f 'to l i m i t , to enclose; an area surrounded by w a l l s ' «f 'to h o i d , to embrace' V - 37 - Cf. A p a r a l l e l semantic-extension i n the Indo-European language: "OHG garto 'garden, e t c . ... a l l as o r i g . 'enclosure' f r . IE *gher- i n Osc. h e r i i a d ' c a p i a t ' , Skt. hy- ' s e i z e , h o l d ' , e t c . " (Buck 1949:490-1) B. *Yjw9y° ̂  to pardon (to re l e a s e ) *jJjW£]T j | _ a v e s s e l f o r pouring wine '*to r e l e a s e , to l e t go' *°xws/ g i f t s , sent-out va l u a b l e s This t e n t a t i v e word f a m i l y has been set up w i t h words(graphs) s e l e c t e d from the hsieh-sheng s e r i e s *Yjwajf. C e r t a i n other words (graphs) from t h i s s e r i e s have been excluded s i n c e they do not seem to share a common b a s i c sense w i t h the words(graphs) l i s t e d above; thus the present w r i t e r h e s i t a t e s to t r e a t them as members of the same word f a m i l y . There are some other words which appear to belong to t h i s word f a m i l y but i n c o r - porate d i f f e r e n t phonetics, e.g. ^ * r i a k and p o s s i b l y ^Jfiwsk (to l i m i t , a circumscribed area *to h o l d , to embrace). The reason f o r s e l e c t i n g words(graphs) from one s i n g l e hsieh-sheng s e r i e s i s that the members of a s i n g l e s e r i e s are 'convenient samples' which are co n s p i c i o u s , they share the same phonetic and t h i s f a c t guarantees t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y . In any case, the nine words(graphs) l i s t e d above s u f f i c e f o r our present purpose of a s s i g n i n g a b a s i c sense to the word(graph) . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to observe that the word f a m i l y of j u )L / % i s apparently d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. We may even choose to t r e a t them as two word f a m i l i e s . The b a s i c sense of group A i s 'to h o l d , to embrace', a sense which can be e a s i l y d erived from the meaning 'a r i g h t hand — t o hold w i t h a ( r i g h t ) hand'. The b a s i c sense of group B i s 'to r e l e a s e , to l e t go'. - 38 - Although these two senses are opposite to each other, t h i s i s not, a f t e r a l l , a r a r e phenomenon i n Chinese semantics. The s o - c a l l e d fan-hstln fj/^%']\ a n t i p h r a s t i c words are w e l l recognized. One may suspect that there i s some morphological process i n v o l v e d . But t h i s i s unrecoverable i n the present fragmentary s t a t e of our knowledge of Old Chinese phonology. As f a r back as we can r e c o n s t r u c t them, a l l the words, w i t h the exception of *xwa/, have i d e n t i c a l i n i t i a l s , f i n a l and medials and i n each group, there are both the s o - c a l l e d ch'U-sheng and non-ch'U-sheng words. In any case, w i t h these two b a s i c senses i n mind, we may t e n t a t i v e l y a s s i g n a more s p e c i f i c meaning to the verb 4̂  • There are two ways of doing i t : (1) ^ as a member of the second group meaning 'to r e l e a s e ' ; so a sentence such as ^ /y. f 7^ ̂ c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d as 'to re l e a s e a c a p t i v e to T'ai Chia', or more smoothly 'to o f f e r a ca p t i v e to T'ai Chia.' (2) ^ as a member of the f i r s t group meaning 'to possess'. Takashima notes that there i s a switch i n the semantic s t r u c t u r e of the word i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n ' Lfr' ^ /f^j (there i s d i s a s t e r ) ' and ' ^ jfa (to (cause) to have c a p t i v e s ) ' . The former one i s a s t a t i v e verb the negative of which i s wang -£l ; w h i l e the l a t t e r one i s a c o n t r o l l a b l e , t r a n s i t i v e , action-process verb of which the negative i s wu ^ . CThe l o g i c a l subject of f̂c* ̂  /fyfj (to have d i s a s t e r ) i s a b e n e f i c i a r y w h i l e the subject of ^ ^ ^ (to cause to have ca p t i v e s ) i s an agent; the b e n e f i c i a r y of i s the surface o b j e c t , e.g. T'ai Chia.^ - 39 - I t i s by the study of the word f a m i l y of yu ^ii that we can propose a r e l a t i v e l y more concrete meaning, i n con t r a s t to the vague i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' y u - s a c r i f i c e ' , f o r the word yu Since i t s occurrence outnumbers other s a c r i f i c i a l verbs, i t would seem n a t u r a l to hypothesize that the v e r b a l meaning of ^jj i s simply 'to o f f e r , to present', r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c k i n d of s a c r i f i c e (Yao H s i a o - s u i 1979a:382). In other words, the concept of Lfc/ may be very general and may have a broad extension which i n c l u d e s concepts such as ' y u - s a c r i f i c e ' , ' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ' as extensions. However, there i s not much evidence to support t h i s hypothesis ( i . e . i n the Ping P i e n , there i s no sentence, nor any set of sentences, which can be i n t e r p r e t e d as ' i n o f f e r i n g ( ) to so and so, we w i l l y u - s a c r i f i c e / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e . . . ' or ' i n performing a yu- s a c r i f i c e / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to so and so, we w i l l o f f e r . . . ' ) . On the cont r a r y , i t appears that •+/ and other s a c r i f i c i a l verbs are of the same ' l e v e l ' , i . e . , the extension of the concept of does not i n c l u d e concepts such as 'yu- s a c r i f i c e ''^ " or ' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e '%! '. For example, 1 r ft * % ^\ X) kuei-mao / crack / Ch'tteh / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / River(god) one / ox / y u - o f f e r / three / Ch'iang / dismember-sacrifice three / ox Ping 124 (2) we should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e one ox to the R i v e r ( g o d ) i y u - o f f e r three Ch'iang-tribesmen and dismember-sacrifice three oxen. - 40 - kuei-mao / crack / Ch'ueh / y u - o f f e r I to I River(god) - f I # « = £ three / Ch'iang / dismember-sacrifice / three / ox •* t - - V + b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / one / ox Ping 124 (1) We should y u - o f f e r to the River(god) three Ch'iang-tribesmen, dismem- b e r - s a c r i f i c e three oxen and b u r n - s a c r i f i c e one ox. The order of these three clauses i s a l t e r e d i n t h i s t u i - c h e n p a i r , thus suggesting that they are i n a c o - o r d i n a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . And each verb, i . e . , b u r n - s a c r i f i c e , ty dismember-sacrifice and ^} y u - o f f e r , takes a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d or a p a r t i c u l a r number of s a c r i f i c i a l animals. I t i s not l i k e l y t hat ^ i s a general term w i t h the s p e c i f i c verbs <)j^ and ^ J > as i t s ' r e a l i z a t i o n s ' . I f one i n s i s t s on i n t e r p r e t i n g Ljr' as a general term, there a r i s e s the question of why the number and method of s a c r i f i c i n g oxen have been made s p e c i f i c , i . e . ̂  _ ^ , C j p ^ , w h i l e the method of s a c r i f i c i n g the Ch'iang-tribesman remains i n e x p l i c i t . Not only does LjJ appear to be on the same l e v e l as other s a c r i f i c i a l verbs i n a sentence as i l l u s t r a t e d above, on p l a s t r o n s where we have a l a r g e r context, ^} o f t e n appears i n a p o s i t i o n ' p a r a l l e l ' to other s a c r i f i c i a l verbs. For example: i-mao / crack / Ch'ueh / t e s t / come / i - h a i y u - s a c r i f i c e / H s i a I / ten / behead / and / f i v e - 41 - 4*? u ty % dismember-sacrifice / ten / penned-sheep On the coming i - h a i day, we should y u - s a c r i f i c e f i f t e e n beheaded v i c t i m s to Hsai I and dismember-sacrifice ten penned-sheep. Ping 197 (3) next / i - s s u / y u - o f f e r / Ancestor I On the next i - s s u day, we should y u - o f f e r to Ancestor I . Ping 197 (8) These two i n s c r i p t i o n s appear on the same p l a s t r o n . Each sentence has a d i f f e r e n t verb and a d i f f e r e n t i n d i r e c t o b j e c t ( b e n e f i c i a r y ) . The two verbs 'to y u - s a c r i f i c e and <±J "to y u - o f f e r ' appear i n p a r a l l e l e n v i r o n - ments. And there i s no other i n d i c a t i o n , e i t h e r from the sentences or from the l a r g e r context, that i s a verb r e p r e s e n t i n g a concept which inc l u d e s the concepts of and ^ . Examples of t h i s k i n d can be e a s i l y m u l t i p l i e d , e.g., Ping 207 and 360. For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n , see Chapter Four, p.205- 208. While the usage of 'word f a m i l i e s ' o f f e r s helps i n proposing a meaning to the graph i n q u e s t i o n , there i s one l i m i t a t i o n . Making use of word f a m i l i e s to decipher a graph i s a procedure q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the study of word f a m i l i e s per se. Normally, i n the study of word f a m i l i e s , the meaning of each graph i s c l e a r to the researcher. Even though there are graphs which have d i f f e r e n t phonetics, they can s t i l l be grouped i n a word f a m i l y on the b a s i s of semantic s i m i l a r i t y p r o v i d i n g they have c l o s e pronunciations. On the other hand, i n deciphering a graph we are h y p o t h e s i z i n g about i t s meaning. - 42 - I t i s very dangerous to a s s i g n the graph i n question to a word f a m i l y w i t h other graphs which merely have an i d e n t i c a l or s i m i l a r reading. I n f a c t , even w i t h i n a s i n g l e hsieh-sheng s e r i e s , we o f t e n f i n d members of more than one word f a m i l y . Moreover, there are two s e r i o u s methodological d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the study of word f a m i l i e s per se. (1) Word f a m i l i e s are set up on the b a s i s of semantic and phonetic s i m i l a r i t i e s , but there are no formal c r i t e r i a to determine whether c e r t a i n words are s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r to be grouped i n t o a word f a m i l y . I n t u i t i o n appears to be the only b a s i s f o r judgement, hence op i n i o n v a r i e s from one sc h o l a r to another. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a f f i r m i n g that two words belong to a common word f a m i l y depends l a r g e l y on the imaginative a b i l i t y of the person i n q u estion. The problem i s t h a t the more imag i n a t i v e a person i s , the l a r g e r word f a m i l y he can set up. On the other hand, i n the case where one person does not agree w i t h a s s i g n i n g a word to a c e r t a i n word f a m i l y , the only c r i t i c i s m he can make i s something l i k e 'too f o r c e d ' or ' f a r - f e t c h e d ' , a l s o a s u b j e c t i v e j udgement. (2) The study of morphological r e l a t i o n s h i p s between members of a word f a m i l y i s s t i l l i n i t s p r i m i t i v e stage. L i t t l e has been done i n applying the morphological processes such as those suggested by B. K a r l g r e n (1933, 1957), Chou Tsu-mo (1947), Chou Fa-kao (1953), G.B. Downer (1959), E.G. P u l l e y b l a n k (1973) and Mei T s u - l i n (1980) to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of how members of a word - 43 - f a m i l y are r e l a t e d to each other. Needless to say, the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n morphological processes, e.g. the l a c k of any c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n r e l a t i n g t o n a l and morphological changes as evidenced by the f a c t that hao ^7" , when pronounced i n the ch'U-sheng ^ i s a verb 'to l i k e ' but an a d j e c t i v e 'good' i n the shang-sheng .t- ̂  w h i l e tu_ , when pronounced i n the ch'U-sheng i s a noun 'a measure' but a verb 'to measure' i n the ju-sheng a l s o poses a problem. Given two words the meanings, pronunciations and grammatical c l a s s e s of which are known to a researcher, i t i s p o s s i b l e to p o s i t a morphological process between them. However, w i t h two words of which the pronunciations are c l e a r to the researcher, the meaning and grammatical c l a s s of one of them cannot be c o n f i d e n t l y deduced from the meaning and grammatical c l a s s of the other by applying the r u l e s of morphological process only. Moreover, i n deciphering an a r c h a i c graph, the exact p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the graph i n question, e.g. whether i t has a voiced or unvoiced i n i t i a l , i s always unknown. In t h i s case, even i f we have a good command of the morphological processes, the meaning of the graph i n question cannot be thus deduced. The l a c k of formal c r i t e r i a makes the s e t t i n g up of a word f a m i l y h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e . For i n s t a n c e , there may be no s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n to the view that the f o l l o w i n g graphs a l l share the b a s i c sense 'crookedness'. ii) *kew/*kjew/*gjew a hook, to hook <&J *kew a basket trap made w i t h crooked bamboo ^SJ *kjew a crooked back, a hunchback *kjew the foot c u r l e d up due to c o l d weather *kew the ends of the yoke which press on the sides of the an i m a l 1 s neck 'PJIJ *kew a s i c k l e But do the f o l l o w i n g two alslo belong to the same word f a m i l y as the above graphs? ^ *kew the wizened face of age tfpj *gjew an o l d woman As an o l d woman o f t e n has a hunchback and the w r i n k l e s on a wizened face are crooked, we may p o s i t that they belong to the word f a m i l y of the graphs i n the group. However, *kew ^ and *gjew "jfĉ  a l s o both share the sense of 'o l d ' . Can we hypothesize these two graphs form a separate word family? There are three other graphs which have 'PJ *kew/*kj ew/*gj ew as the phonetic: ffij *kjew a c o l t ^aj *kew a puppy *gj ew a k i n d of mouse smaller than the ordi n a r y mouse Do these three graphs form a separate word f a m i l y having the sense of 'smallness'? Or should we accept Todo Akiyasu's ^jjj ^ 3^ /[^opinion that the sense of 'smallness' i s derived from the sense of 'crookedness'? (1965:329) Supposing there i s a s e m a n t i c a l l y unknown graph having £j *kew/*kjew/ *gjew as a phonetic, what sense should we ass i g n to 1 i t ? In a d d i t i o n to the - 45 - d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h grouping or separating the 'intermediate words', i . e . , words w i t h no c l e a r semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r s , of a c e r t a i n word f a m i l y , there i s another problem, namely, that of 'graphs created through phonetic-loan i | [ ^ 9rf" Z. ^K^% ''"-6 The 'graphs created through phonetic-loan' may be a p i t f a l l when making use of 'word f a m i l i e s ' to decipher a graph. The phonetic i t s e l f , when used i n i t s o r i g i n a l meaning, may have a 'sense' completely unrelated to the graphs i n which i t serves as a phonetic. For example, the graph(word) |^] *ts'rewng i s the d e p i c t i o n of a window. Nevertheless, the hsieh-sheng s e r i e s w r i t t e n w i t h i s composed of two word f a m i l i e s which seem to l a c k any semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p : A. . *tsewng to b r i n g together /ffi,*tsewng the middle of (the east and west) steps (The b a s i c sense i s 'various things being combined together'.) B. ,r,/g>*ts'ewng green s i l k % * t s ' ewng a precious stone of a greenish blue colour J^j£l*ts'ewng a b l a c k (green) and white horse (The b a s i c sense i s 'green'.) Suppose there i s a graph having |J) *ts'rewng as the phonetic and the meaning of t h i s graph i s unknown; we then have two (or even three i f YF) i s a l s o included) word f a m i l i e s to which t h i s graph(word) might be assigned. The semantic complexity of a hsieh-sheng s e r i e s from which one or more root senses can be i n f e r r e d causes great d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e x p l o i t i n g the concept of word f a m i l y to a s s i g n a meaning to an unknown graph(word). - 46 - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e that a l l h y p o t h e t i c a l meanings of words suggested by means of graphic analyses or comparisons w i t h the c l a s s i c s must be sub- s t a n t i a t e d by the context. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n cases where h y p o t h e t i c a l meanings are suggested by the study of word f a m i l i e s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the graph (word) ( "f" > ) serves as an good example. The word f a m i l y j( ( ^- , 7j£. ) has two b a s i c and opposing senses: A. J | * t s ' a / * t s ' r a / * t s ' i a / * s i a / * t s ' r e Y diverge rt- a o o— o o discrepancy * d z a / * t s j a disease o a— — '/^ *^sa/*tsa.° c r i p p l e •jfij^ *§zra cut t r e e * — * t o make :s'a/*dza uneven te e t h a 6 something incomplete *tsa/*tsa° l e f t (Cf. s i n i s t e r ) (The b a s i c sense of t h i s group i s 'discrepancy, u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and to e l i m i n a t e ' . ) B$L m$.*tsa° to a s s i s t \ 3 l * t s ' a / * t s ' r a / * t s ' i a / * s i a / * t s ' r e V t o recover from sickness O & o o " (The b a s i c sense of t h i s group i s 'to improve'.) ( A l l these words are s e l e c t e d from Karlgren's Grammata S e r i c a (1940: no.5) and Todo's Kan.1l Gogen J i t e n } J ^ 1J ^ ^ (1965: no.153).) - 47 - P a r a l l e l to the word f a m i l y , the word 7j. ( ̂ ) i s a l s o used i n two opposite senses i n the c l a s s i c s : A. ^ ftz.-,ft£A- CTso Chuan HY 272/-j[l0/ ftp) Whom the son of Heaven f a v o r s , my r u l e r a l s o f a v o r s , whom he disapproves, my r u l e r a l s o disapproves." (Legge, p.449) /f> jfr. ~~pL ^ (Tso Chuan HY 365/9^4/ . \ 6 £ ) 'Is i t not improper...' (Legge, p.599) W, ~h A. -9 -t (Chan Kuo Ts' e: w e i t s ' e /fe ^ W W ^ W ^ ' chuan 23, p.474) u '(Chang I) w i l l , f o r sure, approach Ch'in and desert Wei.' B - f * & m i H (Shih Ching HY 82/304/7) '...who gave h i s a s s i s t a n c e to the k i n g Shang.' (Legge, p.643) (Tso Chuan HY 122/f-f23A ^ 2 ) ...your l o r d s h i p l a i d your charge on Ch'ung-erh as to how he should a s s i s t the son of Heaven.' (Leege, p.187) I t i s on the two opposite senses of the graph (word) j( ( y£ 5 4^) that s c h o l a r l y o p i n i o n has diverged. Ch'en Meng-chia (1956:569), Chang P i n g - ch'tian (1957: v o l . 1 , p.72), Serruys (1974:56), K e i g h t l e y (1978:66) and Ch'en Wei-chan (1980:191) i n t e r p r e t ^ as - v i (to a s s i s t ) . Ch 'U Wan- l i (1961:304), L i H s i a o - t i n g (1965:951), M i c k e l (.1976:226), Takashima ( i n - 48 - a p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a t i o n dated 1978), L i Hstteh-ch'in ̂  ^ ^ (and Wang Ytt- hs i n ) ^. ̂  fy^ (.1980:252) consider that ^ has a sense of ' v i o l a t e , o b s t r u c t and p e r v e r t ' . (In the S o r u i , Shima does not give a separate entry to t h i s graph. A l l the i n s c r i p t i o n s where j( appears are l i s t e d under ^ ( j{ ) which, i n some cases, i s equivalent to 'to a s s i s t ' . ) Since word f a m i l i e s and the c l a s s i c s do not o f f e r help i n determining the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the graph ^ , we have to r e l y on the context i n which t h i s graph appears: i s *t §•% <u ̂* y% } * t * k i n g / behead / many / T'un / not / approve / ob s t r u c t / from lower / upper Ping 523 (1) 8 9 I f the k i n g beheads many T'un-tribesmen, there w i l l be di s a p p r o v a l and o b s t r u c t i o n from the lower and upper s p i r i t s . k i n g / behead / many / T un / not / obstruct / approve / from lower / upper Ping 523 (2) I f the k i n g beheads many T'un-tribesmen, there w i l l not be o b s t r u c t i o n but approval from the lower and upper s p i r i t s . I f the graph(word) ~f" i s i n t e r p r e t e d as 'to a s s i s t ' , the con- s t r u c t i o n s ^ •j' and 7*̂ 7̂ , m a Y be analysed as verb compounds ( c o o r d i n a t i v e - 49 - verbs) and be t r a n s l a t e d as 'to approve and a s s i s t ' , 'to a s s i s t and approve' r e s p e c t i v e l y . The question a r i s i n g from such an a n a l y s i s i s why the order of these words i s ~j~ i n the f i r s t i n s c r i p t i o n but ~f~ ^ i n the second i n s c r i p t i o n . Does i t merely represent a s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n ? Though such a p o s s i b i l i t y , of course, e x i s t s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to v e r i f y . I t should be pointed out that these two i n s c r i p t i o n s are engraved i n a p e r f e c t l y symmetrical p o s i t i o n which suggests that they are tui- c h e n p a i r s . To i n t e r p r e t % 'j' and j~ -fa as verb compounds ( c o o r d i n a t i v e verbs) would y i e l d the f o l l o w i n g two t r a n s l a t i o n s : ' I f the k i n g beheads many T'un-tribesmen, i t w i l l n e i t h e r be approved nor a s s i s t e d by the lower and upper s p i r i t s . ' ' I f the ki n g beheads many T'un-tribesmen, i t w i l l n e i t h e r be a s s i s t e d nor approved by the lower and upper s p i r i t s . ' The p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e p o l a r i t y expressed by most tui-chen p a i r s i s absent here a very r a r e case i n the O.B.I. On the co n t r a r y , i f ~f~ i s i n t e r p r e t e d as 'to o b s t r u c t , to p e r v e r t ' and a s y n t a c t i c break i s put between and y1" (and, ~f~ and ^ ), the p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e sense of a tui-chen p a i r i s r e t a i n e d as shown i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s provided on page 48. The v a r i a t i o n i n the order of the two words -fa 7 a n (i / "56 i s thus s e m a n t i c a l l y r e q u i r e d and not merely s t y l i s t i c . (Ping 523 (1) and (.2) are the i n s c r i p t i o n s c i t e d by M i c k e l (.1976:226) who contends that the graph (word) ^ conveys a bad sense.) To i n t e r p r e t as 'to o b s t r u c t , to p e r v e r t ' can a l s o b e t t e r e x p l a i n why the graph(word) f~ i s omitted from the second i n s c r i p t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g p a i r : - 50 - j e n - t z u / crack / Cheng / t e s t / we / perhaps / make / settlement *** A* fr ft ^U7(1) t i - g o d / not / obs t r u c t / approve I f we perhaps make a settlement, t i - g o d w i l l not ob s t r u c t but approve (or, w i l l be pleased). X * / * i n ^ « s *>. kuei-ch'ou / crack / Cheng / t e s t / should not / make X* settlement / god / approve Ping 147 (2) I f we do not make a settlement, t i - g o d w i l l approve (or, w i l l be pleased). (The ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' usage of the negative wu ^) i s proposed by Serruys (1974:56) and f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d by Takashima (1977:53). The t r a n s l a t i o n of Ping 147 (2) i s i n accordance w i t h Takashima's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( i b i d . - 5 4 ) . ) I f f~ i s i n t e r p r e t e d as 'to a s s i s t ' , the p o s i t i v e counterpart of ' %p$p "f" ( t n e 8°d w i l l n e i t h e r a s s i s t nor approve)' should be something l i k e '* rjjj -j- ̂ . (fthe god w i l l a s s i s t and approve). But the i n s c r i p t i o n reads ' 7^ (god w i l l approve)'. S t y l i s t i c p r a c t i c e seems to be the only e x p l a n a t i o n . Whereas i f we i n t e r p r e t as 'to o b s t r u c t , to p e r v e r t ' , the i s s i o n of i n the clause ^ i s e a s i l y understandable, s i n c e '* 7^ (the god w i l l o b s t r u c t and approve)' does not make any om sense. PART TWO THE APPROACH OF GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS I . A REVIEW OF TWO PREVIOUS WORKS The study of O.B.I, has been going on f o r almost eighty years. While much concern has been l a v i s h e d on the graphic decipherment of the i n s c r i p t i o n s and the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the Shang p e r i o d , the grammatical aspect of O.B.I, language has not been c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . Hu Kuang- wei ^ ^ i n h i s book Chia Ku Wen L i >f ^ £ fa\ published i n 1928, was the f i r s t to touch upon the grammatical problems of O.B.I, language. However, t h i s book which contains many graphic m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s a very s u p e r f i c i a l study, the major p o r t i o n of which does not de a l w i t h the O.B.I, grammar. 1. Kuan Hsieh-ch'u's ^ $71 Y i n HsU Chia Ku K'o Tz'u T i YU Fa Yen Chiu M f f £'J # ft tfj % In 1953, Kuan Hsieh-ch'u published the above book which we may speak of as the f i r s t work focusing s p e c i f i c a l l y on the grammar of O.B.I, language. I t goes without saying that at the time when Kuan wrote t h i s book, the decipherment of graphs(words) which, i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n of grammati- c a l a n a l y s i s was not as advanced as at the present time. M i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of graphs(words) } and thus m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of sentence s t r u c t u r e , were unavoidable. Kuan should not be hel d f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c o r r e c t 52 - analyses of grammatical s t r u c t u r e s which are based on i n c o r r e c t decipherment. Nevertheless, Kuan i s not without f a u l t f o r the ser i o u s weakpoints i n h i s approach, that i s , he based h i s grammatical analyses on c e r t a i n unsound hypotheses f o r which he gave no documentation or proof and, furthermore, he ignored the i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s analyses f o r c l a s s i c a l Chinese syntax i n general. For example, Kuan ci t e s - the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n to show that the subject can be placed a f t e r the verb: it ft Y \> \£± M( t i f ? 0(JD f c h i - s s u / crack / Ch'u / t e s t / e x o r c i s e / k i n g I to I (Shang)Chai -— T s ' u i $ p 100 twelve month (Kuan, 1953:16) (Kuan's theory i s adopted by Ch'en Wei-chan (1980:188).) I f we f o l l o w Kuan's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the t r a n s l a t i o n of the above sentence would be, ' . . . w i l l the ki n g e x o r c i s e to Shang Chia...' w i t h an i n v e r t e d subject 'king ^J, '. In p r o v i d i n g such an a n a l y s i s , Kuan gives no reason f o r not i n t e r p r e t i n g the word 'king' as the d i r e c t object of the verb 'exorcise'. Bearing i n mind that word order has p a r t i c u l a r importance i n Chinese syntax, to i n t e r p r e t the word 'king' as the subject would r e q u i r e very strong evidence. The f o l l o w i n g question must be answered before one can accept the a n a l y s i s that the word 'king' i s the subject i n the : in s c r i p t i o n - 5 * ' *ff 5> f X- f ' : In the O.B.I., there are numerous i n s c r i p t i o n s having the p a t t e r n : 'exorcise + personal name + (to) + a n c e s t r a l name', f o r i n s t a n c e , e x o r c i s e / Lady Hao I to I Father I (We should) e x o r c i s e Lady Hao to Father I . - 53 - In the p a t t e r n 'exorcise + personal name + (to) + a n c e s t r a l name, ' i s i t always the case that the 'personal name' f u n c t i o n s as the subject of the-verb 'exorcise'? (1) I f the answer i s a f f i r m a t i v e , then a problem a r i s e s , namely, when the personal name i s 'Lady so and so', there i s no case where t h i s personal name precedes the verb 'ex o r c i s e ' ( c f . the patter n s ' jf, ...' and '2f-p £ ...* both can be found i n the O.B.I.); i n other words, the p a t t e r n i s always 'exorcise + Lady so and so + (to) + a n c e s t r a l name' as i n Ch i e n ĵj 1.38.2. Why must the order of the subject and verb be i n v e r t e d i n the case where the subject and verb are 'Lady so and so' and 'exor c i s e ' r e s p e c t i v e l y ? (2) I f the answer i s negative, then one may ask what c r i t e r i a are used i n determining which per s o n a l names o c c u r r i n g i n the p a t t e r n 'exorcise + personal name + (to) + a n c e s t r a l name' are subjects and which (presumably 'lady' ') are not. I s there a semantic r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t the word 'king' cannot be the object of the verb 'exorcise'? U n f o r t u n a t e l y , we cannot even speculate on how Kuan would answer these questions s i n c e h i s r a t i o n a l e i n a n a l y s i n g t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n has not been made e x p l i c i t . xs: Another i n s c r i p t i o n Kuan c i t e s as an example of i n v e r t e d word order — " f 1 3 0 0 t h i s / go out / Ch'iang / have not / misfortune (Kuan, 1953:16) - 54 - Kuan proposes that the word 'Ch'iang-tribesmen' i s the subject of the verb 'go out' (the presumed t r a n s l a t i o n would be 'today the Ch'iang-tribesmen go out, w i l l there be misfortune (to u s ) ) . Kuan does not e x p l a i n why the s y n t a c t i c break cannot be placed between 'go out' and 'Ch'iang-tribesmen', i . e . , ' i n today's going but, w i l l the Ch'iang-tribesmen not have misfortune', nor does Kuan e x p l a i n why the word 'go out' cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as a d j e c t i v a l , i . e . , ' w i l l today's out-going Ch'iang-tribesmen not have mis- fort u n e ' . I t may be because Kuan does not b e l i e v e the Shang people would d i v i n e about the fortunes of Ch'iang-tribesmen ( t h e i r enemies) that he has not adopted e i t h e r of the a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s suggested here. But Kuan's c o n s i d e r a t i o n does not seem to have much mer i t . Although the Ch'iang t r i b e was an enemy of the Shang people f o r a long p e r i o d , t h i s does not exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y that t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g was of concern to the Shang. There are i n d i c a t i o n s that many Ch'iang-tribesmen were members of the Shang labour f o r c e . For example, t«r Up H i f f It hs in-mao 7 crack / vg (?) / t e s t / c a l l upon / many / Ch'iang- tribesman / chase / (JI) I capture HsU ifi f 4.29.2 ( I f ) we c a l l upon many Ch'iang-tribesmen to chase (?)» we w i l l capture them. . . * ? * • n & k t* I f ft« eng-hsU / crack / t e s t / I / order / (?) / f o l l o w ?fc fBffl fit ftm Ch'iang-tribesman / hunt / have no / misfortune I_ Z-> 4692 - 55 - ( I f ) I order ^ (?) to f o l l o w the Ch' iang-tribesmen to hunt, there w i l l be no misfortune. Although we cannot determine whether these Ch'iang-tribesmen were enslaved (Yang Hsiang-k'uei 1962:21; Yao H s i a o - s u i 1979a:382-384) , or whether they formed a semi-independent group of Ch'iang f r i e n d l y to the Shang, we may reasonably hypothesize that any misfortune which b e f e l l these tribesmen was considered disadvantageous by the Shang people. Thus, d i v i n i n g about the fortunes of the Ch'iang-tribesmen (enslaved ones) may be very s i m i l a r to d i v i n i n g about the harvest. In any case, Kuan should not p o s i t a s o l u t i o n which d r a s t i c a l l y v i o l a t e s the common s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n of the O.B.I, language and c l a s s i c a l Chinese without g i v i n g reasons. Kuan commits another obvious e r r o r when he ne g l e c t s c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the O.B.I, and proposes a theory which i s extremely a l i e n to the Chinese language throughout i t s development. Kuan s t a t e s , " i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s , there are some animal nouns which have markers of gender. For example, i - w e i / crack / e x o r c i s e / to / A n c e s t r a l Mother Hsin i «t ** ̂ **•,#* Tih017j 5328 A n c e s t r a l Mother Keui / h u i / male p i g / h u i / sheep keng-yin / crack / a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e / c h i - s a c r i f i c e /\ X, 1 Z, 5 3 2 1 female p i g / A n c e s t r a l Father Keng In the i n s c r i p t i o n s , the (sign) _L found by the si d e of an animal' noun i s the gender marker of male, ^ i s the gender marker of female. , ^JL and are b u l l , male sheep and boar r e s p e c t i v e l y ; ^ , ^ and ^ are femaLjp ox, female sheep and sow r e s p e c t i v e l y . In a p a i r of tui-chen sentences, there are al s o some (graphs) abbreviated to }) and "]" as found i n example no.8: 'Is i t a - 56 - female? Is i t a male? W i l l we y u - s a c r i f i c e ? ' Mr. Kuo Mo-jo s t a t e s , "What are _L and I) ? J - and h are the abbreviated forms of 'ancestor' and ' a n c e s t r a l mother'... i s i n f a c t , the pictograph of p h a l l u s , so i t can be abbreviated i n t o _L ; tl> i s the (semantic) extension of the graph (word) 'spoon' ^(jp Probably the female sex organ looks l i k e a spoon, so £ i s used (to represent) ' a n c e s t r a l mother' and 'female'." I t i s s t i l l q uestionable whether graphs such as and fy^C* are monosyllabic. By analogy w i t h graphs such as §\ ( ) 'Ancestral Father I ' and 1(\ (Jttt % ) 'Ancestral Mother H s i n ' , tyi, and tyL, may be h o - t ' i - t z u •" * **" T (1953:30) Kuan has not c l e a r l y defined the term h o - t ' i - t z u . I t i s g e n e r a l l y understood that h o - t ' i - t z u are those graphs which are formed from two independent graphs and engraved as one s i n g l e graph. They d i f f e r from hsieh-sheng graphs i n that the former cannot be analyzed as the combination of two component graphs, one f u n c t i o n i n g as s i g n i f i c and the other as phonetic. They d i f f e r from h u i - i graphs i n t h a t , i n l a t e r t r a d i t i o n a l sources, each of t h e i r componential graphs i s represented by an independent graph, e.g. the h o - t ' i - t z u £ J ( 2 + j ) i s w r i t t e n as Pao I % j j [ Z J i n the Shih Chi |£, . Whether these graphs are monosyllabic or not i s not clear.'''''' I f graphs such as ( y + _L ) and ^ ( ^ + 4 ) are b i s y l l a b i c , i . e . , i s pronounced ^ d z i a V - ^ g j w a / , S j ^ i s pronounced *bj i e r / * b j ien-*ngjwa/, t h e n j L ( d r ) * d z i a ^ and I) ( ^ ) * b j i e r / * b j i e n are independent graphs (words). They should not be termed 'gender markers'. The primary c r i t e r i o n i n d i s t i n - g u i shing a 'marker' from a word i s that a marker cannot appear by i t s e l f , i . e . , i t must be a bound morpheme. But Kuan has c i t e d an i n s c r i p t i o n i n which both 1 ( -t ) and j ( \^ ) appear by themselves: chia-shen / t e s t / Hsiao I / c h i - s a c r i f i c e / have no / harrir" h u i / female / h u i / male / should not / y u - o f f e r / t h i s / employ 12 Ning *jp 88 (Kuan, 1953:31) I t appears that Kuan has confused the d i s t i n c t i o n between grammatical category and l e x i c a l category. The Chinese language, as f a r i t i s t r a c e a b l e , expresses sexual p o l a r i t y l e x i c a l l y but not grammatcially. 2. Ch'en Meng-chia's ^ % ^ ^ \ Y i n HsU Pu Tz'u Tsung Shu « £ h %\ tltii As a s p e c i a l i s t i n the O.B.I., Ch'en avoids many of the e r r o r s i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g i n d i v i d u a l graphs. Nevertheless, h i s grammatical a n a l y s i s of the O.B.I, leaves something to be d e s i r e d . The most s e r i o u s drawback i s that Ch'en confuses semantic a n a l y s i s w i t h s y n t a c t i c a n a l y s i s , thus l e a v i n g a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s untested. For example, he analyses the i n s c r i p t i o n below i n the f o l l o w i n g way: a 9 al - f c « i fi- ^ s : D j sun / have / e c l i p s e / perhaps / announce / to / Father Ting T s ' u i "4^ 55 (Ch'en, 1956:99) O1(S-V-O)-V-P-O2 P p r e p o s i t i o n 0^ d i r e c t object 0^ i n d i r e c t object V verb - 58 - Although i t i s undeniable, from the context, that 'the sun was e c l i p s e d ' i s the content of the announcement (the f a c t being announced), to analyse t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n as one s i n g l e sentence i n s t e a d of two sentences or two clauses r e q u i r e s more evidence. Ch'en has provided none. I t appears that he t r e a t s the i n s c r i p t i o n T s ' u i 55 i n the same way as the f o l l o w i n g one: I I S T l t f l D f ^ T M . 0 2.1..3 three hundred / Ch'iang / use / to / Ting (Ch'en, 1956:101) ( I t i s ) three hundred Ch'iang-tribesmen (that we should) use ( s a c r i f i c e ) to Tirtg. I t goes without saying that c o n s t r u c t i o n s such as 'three hundred Ch'iang- tribesmen' can r a r e l y appear as an independent sentence w h i l e 'the sun was e c l i p s e d ' can. Moreover, s i n c e the common environment where one f i n d s an a n t i p o s i t e d o b j e c t does not appear, e.g. the i n i t i a l l y placed p a r t i c l e h u i jij^ , there i s no obvious reason why 'the sun was e c l i p s e d ' has to be taken as the o b j e c t . Ch'en has not considered other p o s s i b i l i t i e s such as: 'Cause and e f f e c t ' : 'Since the sun was e c l i p s e d , we should announce ( t h i s f a c t ) to Father Ting.' 'Cumulative': 'The sun having been e c l i p s e d , we w i l l announce ( t h i s f a c t ) to Father Ting.' ' C o n d i t i o n a l ' : ' I f the sun i s e c l i p s e d , we w i l l announce ( t h i s f a c t ) to Father Ting.' - 59 - In Ch'en's book, grammar takes up one out of twenty chapters. I t i s probably f o r t h i s reason that Ch'en can only describe i n o u t l i n e what he b e l i e v e s to be the grammatical s t r u c t u r e of the O.B.I, without going i n t o d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s . I I . THE APPLICABILITY AND LIMITATION OF CLASSICAL CHINESE SYNTAX IN THE GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS OF O.B.I. The f o r m u l a t i o n of a grammar depends upon the understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between words, which i n t u r n depends upon the c o r r e c t decipherment of i n d i v i d u a l graphs(words). However, as has been shown i n previous s e c t i o n s , the decipherment of i n d i v i d u a l graphs r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c behaviour, which i n t u r n depends upon a c o r r e c t understanding of the O.B.I, syntax. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a c i r c u l a r method of research. In other words, i t appears that whether we are d e c i p h e r i n g a graph or p o s t u l a t i n g a grammar of the O.B.I., we are forced to make assumptions about the other. Unsound though t h i s method may appear to be, O.B.I, sc h o l a r s have been using i t i n t h e i r study and have made s i g n i f i c a n t accomplishments. Rather than s t a r t i n g from a s o l i d , proven b a s i s , these s c h o l a r s work from c e r t a i n assumptions, namely, that the O.B.I, i s i n the same l i n e a g e as the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s and Shuo Wen form graphs, and that the O.B.I, syntax i s b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r to c l a s s i c a l Chinese. These assumptions have never been, nor are they ever l i k e l y to be, s e r i o u s l y - 60 - challenged. Since the end of l a s t century, i n the course of research on the O.B.I., no evidence has been uncovered which would lea d to the d i s c a r d i n g of these assumptions, though s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s and r e c t i f i c a t i o n s have been made from time to time. Thus, assuming t h a t the O.B.I, syntax i s b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r to c l a s s i c a l Chinese, e.g. that the general word order i s SVO; and m o d i f i e r s precede the m o d i f i e d , an i n s c r i p t i o n such as i s i n t e r p r e t e d as 'we w i l l r e c e i v e a m i l l e t harvest'. Of course, i n the process of decipherment, one cannot expect a language s e v e r a l hundred years e a r l i e r than c l a s s i c a l Chinese to be com- p l e t e l y i d e n t i c a l to c l a s s i c a l Chinese (see K e i g h t l e y 1978:66). Even w i t h i n the scope of c l a s s i c a l Chinese, there are p e c u l a r i t i e s among d i f f e r e n t t e x t s . In the O.B.I., a h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d language d e a l i n g mainly w i t h d i v i n a t i o n , i t would not be unreasonable to expect to encounter some p a r t i c u l a r features not shared by c l a s s i c a l Chinese. For example, s t a r t i n g from the Lun YU % ^ and Tso Chuan / j : f ^ - , sentence f i n a l p a r t i c l e s such as yeh and i ^ become almost i n d i s p e n s i b l e i n the c l a s s i c a l Chinese system. Nevertheless, we do not encounter such p a r t i c l e s i n the O.B.I, (ne i t h e r do we encounter them i n l a r g e numbers i n the Shih Ching %^ bf>£_, Shang Shu f c j and I Ching With the knowledge that sentence f i n a l p a r t i c l e s do not, as a l i n g u i s - t i c f e a t u r e , e x i s t i n the O.B.I., to i n t e r p r e t hu *f i n the i n s c r i p t i o n 1 ft' 4( A i f f ^ (*Should we s a c r i f i c e to Hsien Wu and HsUeh Wu?) as an 14 i n t e r r o g a t i v e p a r t i c l e i s very questionable. As Serruys p o i n t s out, such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f a i l s to e x p l a i n why there i s i n t h i s enormous number of - 61 - supposed i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences only one case of hu ( f o r both.Kuan Hsietrch-u and Ch'en Meng-chia, a l l ming-tz'u are i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences). (Serruys, 1974:23). Since hu -f" can be used as a verb 'to summon, to c a l l upon' i n sentences such as: t e s t / c a l l upon / Lady Ching / m i l l e t / r e c e i v e / harvest Chin 645 ( I f ) we c a l l upon Lady Ching to p l a n t m i l l e t , we w i l l r e c e i v e a (good) harvest. , We might i n t e r p r e t the i n s c r i p t i o n ' l£l jj j^ l\ fejfi ^ ' as 'we s h a l l make a s a c r i f i c e to Hsien Wu; HsUeh Wu ( i . e . Teacher Wu) w i l l c a l l out (the order) (or: w i l l be c a l l e d out t o ) ' (Serruys 1974:23).*"' The f o l l o w i n g tui-chen p a i r c l e a r l y shows that even when the word hu ^ appears i n sentence f i n a l p o s i t i o n , i t may a l s o f u n c t i o n as the verb 'to summon, to c a l l upon'. V a v in X L Ping 3(4) h u i / P r i n c e Pu / c a l l upon / trap I t should be P r i n c e Pu.that we c a l l upon to trap (animals). A <S_ n o ni Ping 3(5) should not / wei / P r i n c e Pu / c a l l upon .... I t should not be P r i n c e Pu.that.we c a l l upon .... P u t t i n g too much emphasis on a l i g n i n g O.B.I, syntax w i t h c l a s s i c a l Chinese w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g the i n t e r n a l evidence of the O.B.I, w i l l produce i n c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . - 62 - The p a t t e r n 'non-nominal-negative + noun' may be used to i l l u s t r a t e the f a c t that i n comparing the O.B.I, and c l a s s i c a l Chinese, s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s should not be used. In c l a s s i c a l Chinese, nominal expressions can only be negated by the nominal negative f e i or pu-wei j\\ . In cases where a 'noun' (defined by the semantic nature or q u a l i t y of a word, not by i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n ) ^ i s preceded by a non-nominal negative such as p_u , the 'noun' w i l l become v e r b a l i z e d . In the Lun Ytl ^flj? | ^ , there are sentences such as: & * * (Lun YU HY 23/12/11) '...the p r i n c e be not p r i n c e , the m i n i s t e r not m i n i s t e r , the f a t h e r not f a t h e r , and the son not son.' (Legge, p.256) The second 'noun' of each clause i s v e r b a l i z e d . In the case of O.B.I., we have sentences such as ) 'should not/one/ox'. The 'noun' a f t e r the negative wu ^) i s not v e r b a l i z e d , i . e . , the sentence cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r as "should not consider i t an ox 1 or 'should not make i t i n t o an ox', s i n c e v e r b a l i z i n g the 'noun' does not make sense i n the context. In f a c t , the p a t t e r n 'non-nominal negative + noun' i n the O.B.I, i s d i f f e r e n t , i n the und e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e , from that of the c l a s s i c a l Chinese. From the l a r g e r c o n text, we can always supply a deleted verb between the non- nominal negative and the 'noun', f o r example, y u - o f f e r / f a t h e r / one / ox We should y u - o f f e r to f a t h e r one ox. Ping 52 (8) - 63 - __ m Pin£ 52 (9) should not / one / ox We should not (yu-offer to f a t h e r ) one ox. ,,j Ping 52 (10) ~ - r *f two / ox (We should y u - o f f e r to f a t h e r ) two oxen. Ping 52 (11) should not / two / ox We should not (yu-offer to f a t h e r ) two oxen. Following the assumption of sentence p a r a l l e l i s m (see p.69) i n tui-chen ^ B p a i r s , the simp l e s t s o l u t i o n i s to take the sentence 1 ~~ /:f ' as having the verb d e l e t e d . * 7 The d e l e t i o n of a verb to give emphasis to other elements i n the sentence i s a p r a c t i c e w e l l a t t e s t e d i n Chinese. For example, # -f % ±. m m &. osse*** - 3 7 / 5 A / 7 ) " I am one of Heaven's people who have f i r s t apprehended; I w i l l take these p r i n c i p l e s and i n s t r u c t t h i s people i n them. I f I do not i n s t r u c t them, who w i l l do_ so?" (Legge, p.363) - 64 - /f t ± <̂  * W * tl % & „ ( I b i d . ) " I have heard t h a t I Y i n sought an i n t r o d u c t i o n to T'ang by the d o c t r i n e s of Yao and Shun. I have not heard that he d i d so by h i s knowledge of cookery." (Legge, p.364) (U n d e r l i n i n g the author's. The underlined words i n t r a n s l a t i o n s show the omitted verbs i n the o r i g i n a l s . See a l s o Chang Ping-ch'Uan (1965: Vol.2.1, p.460) and Ch'en Wei-chan j^. ̂  (1980:196) f o r d i s c u s s i o n s on the p r a c t i c e of a b b r e v i a t i o n i n the O.B.I.) In modern Chinese, a s i m i l a r phenomenon i s observed. A response to the suggestion ' jang t*a ch' i h t i e n fan pa | ^ ^ |fe /gfo / > g _ , l e t him eat some r i c e ' may be 'pu yao f a n , mien t ' i a o pa - J j ^f^, /(\^ don't (give) him r i c e , (give) him some noodles'. - 65 - I I I . -THE SEMANTIC CONSIDERATIONS The O.B.I, language i s very t e r s e . We have not as yet discovered ,any sentence f i n a l p a r t i c l e s or connectives. I t remains undertermined whether t h i s represents the true nature of the Shang language or i s due to e l l i p s i s i n the n o t a t i o n of d i v i n a t o r y sentences, i . e . , a k i n d of o f f i c i a l short-hand. In c o n t r a s t to i t s terseness, the O.B.I, language shows great v a r i e t y i n terms of sentence s t r u c t u r e . To take a 'three-place' verb, l i a o jjĵ  ( b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ) as an example, i t can appear i n the f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i o n s : Ch'i t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / to / Ting / f i v e / ox , We should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e f i v e oxen to Ting. k u e i - h a i / crack / Ch'ueh / t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / (Shang)Chia three / ox / y u - o f f e r / behead / ten / Ch'iang / ten / boar We 'should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e three oxen to (Shang) Chia, y u - o f f e r one beheaded v i c t i m , ten Ch' iang-tribesmen and ten boars. Ho^- 162 to / (Shang)Chia / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / three / small / penned-sheep dismember-sacrifice / three 75 ( I t i s ) to (Shang) Chia (that we should) b u r n - s a c r i f i c e three small penned-sheep and dismember-sacrifice three... - 66 - one / sheep / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e I L 7061 ( I t i s ) one sheep (that we should) b u r n - s a c r i f i c e . The verb l i a o sometimes precedes the i n d i r e c t o b j e c t ( b e n e f i c i a r y ) and sometimes i s preceded by i t . I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n d i r e c t object Ch'en Wei-chan l i s t s many examples showing the o p t i o n a l i t y of v_U (1980:177- r a t h e r than 'one sheep w i l l b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ' i s obviously based on the semantic c o n s i d e r a t i o n that a sheep cannot be the agent of a s a c r i f i c e . By oxen to Shang Chia' but not ' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e Shang Chia and three oxen', si n c e the ancestor Shang Chia, according to our knowledge, i s not something that can be used as a s a c r i f i c i a l item. Semantic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the above type le a d us to i n t e r p r e t the f o l l o w i n g two i n s c r i p t i o n s as s e m a n t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t , i . e . , verb + i n d i r e c t o b j e c t ( b e n e f i c i a r y ) : ( b e n e f i c i a r y ) may or may not be i n d i c a t e d by the p r e p o s i t i o n yll 'f' . (Cf. the same token, ' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e three Ping 50 (3) We should e x o r c i s e to Father I . Ho 179 We should e x o r c i s e (to) Father I . Needless to say, to i n t e r p r e t these two i n s c r i p t i o n s as equ i v a l e n t on semantic grounds should be supported by other arguments: - 67 - 1. There are obvious reasons to b e l i e v e the p r e p o s i t i o n _y_U ^ i s omitted i n the second i n s c r i p t i o n s i n c e the p r a c t i c e of e l l i p s i s i s very common on the O.B.I. The f o l l o w i n g four i n s c r i p t i o n s found on the same p l a s t r o n i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p r a c t i c e : ^ ff Ping 197 (5) come / chia-shen / y u - o f f e r / to / T'ai Chia In the coming chia-shen day, we should y u - o f f e r to T'ai Chai. next / ti n g - y u / y u - o f f e r / to / Ancestor Ting On the next t i n g - y u day, we should y u - o f f e r to Ancestor Ting. next / hsin-ch'ou / y u - o f f e r / Ancestor Hsin- On the next hsin-ch'ou day, we should y u - o f f e r (to) Ancestor Hsin. . next / i - s s u / y u - o f f e r / Ancestor I . On the next i - s s u day, we should y u - o f f e r (to) Ancestor I . On the e n t i r e p l a s t r o n , there i s no i n d i c a t i o n that the Ancestors i n the former two i n s c r i p t i o n s are b e n e f i c i a r i e s w h i l e the ancestors i n the l a t t e r two sentences are p a t i e n t s . - 68 - 2. In the sentences where the p a t t e r n ' s a c r i f i c i a l verb + a n c e s t r a l name' i s in c o r p o r a t e d , one never encounters a second personal f i g u r e which can be s y n t a c t i c a l l y (e.g. s a c r i f i c i a l verb + a n c e s t r a l name + y_U + personal name) or s e m a n t i c a l l y (e.g. the personal name r e f e r s to a god or d e i t y ) i n t e r p r e t e d as a b e n e f i c i a r y who might r e c e i v e an ancestor as a s a c r i f i c e . Since sentences where the p a t t e r n ' s a c r i f i c i a l verb + animal noun ( p a t i e n t ) ' i s i n c o r p o r a t e d o f t e n express an b e n e f i c i a r y (e.g. ' i j ? god,*,<?) r i v e r god and ^jj). ancestor which may be introduced by the p r e p o s i t i o n vjl ^ ) , one i s o b l i g e d to e x p l a i n why, i f an a n c e s t r a l name i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a p a t i e n t , there i s never a b e n e f i c i a r y expressed i n sentences where the p a t t e r n ' s a c r i f i c i a l verb + a n c e s t r a l name' i s incorporated. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , what c o n d i t i o n s the employment of y_U ^ i s s t i l l p roblematic. Chou Fa-kao has observed that i n the c l a s s i c s , i n d i r e c t objects r e f e r r i n g to people of high s t a t u s are o f t e n introduced by the p r e p o s i t i o n ytl (1975:308). This p r i n c i p l e i s not a p p l i c a b l e to the O.B.I, si n c e a l l the d i e t i e s or ancestors presumably possess high s t a t u s . And as i n s c r i p t i o n s P ing 47 and Ho 179 show, even i f the b e n e f i c i a r i e s are i d e n t i c a l , the occurrence of y_U - j " * i s not p r e d i c t a b l e . - 69 - IV. THE ASSUMPTION OF SENTENCE PARALLELISM AND THE EXPLOITATION OF CH'ENG T'AO CSET) 1. The Assumption of Sentence P a r a l l e l i s m I t i s w e l l known that the O.B.I, d i v i n a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y occur i n p a i r s . To d i v i n e about whether ' i t w i l l r a i n or not' normally takes the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n ' i t w i l l r a i n ' versus ' i t w i l l not r a i n ' and these sen- tences thus form a tui - c h e n p a i r . I t i s assumed t h a t , i n most cases, the grammatical s t r u c t u r e s of the two sentences of a tui - c h e n p a i r are i d e n t i c a l . The n o t i o n of 'sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' was i n i t i a t e d by Takashima (1973:288-305). In the a r t i c l e 'Subordinate S t r u c t u r e i n Oracle Bone I n s c r i p t i o n s w i t h P a r t i c u l a r Reference to the P a r t i c l e c h ' i ^ ', Takashima has i l l u s t r a t e d , w i t h the f o l l o w i n g tui-chen p a i r , how the n o t i o n of 'sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' can be a p p l i e d i n grammatical a n a l y s i s : y* **. ts I * t e s t / there i s / come / s t a r t from / west there i s not / perhaps(less d e s i r a b l e ) / come / fit & west Takashima s t a t e s , " I f we were provided w i t h only (.1), as i s o f t e n the case i n other c o l l e c t i o n s , an unwary reader might analysis the sentence as having a s y n t a c t i c break a f t e r l a i %^ and i n t e r p r e t e d i t i n the f o l l o w i n g way: " I f there i s an occasion (.for someone) to come, he w i l l s t a r t from the west." This makes p e r f e c t sense and i s i n accordance w i t h the general s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of the bone language and of c l a s s i c a l Chinese. However, i f we apply the same a n a l y s i s to ( 2 ) , we would expect the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " i f there i s perhaps ( i . e . , we do not r e a l l y wish i t ) no occasion ( f o r someone) to come, he w i l l s t a r t from the west." T h i s , of Ping 94 (1) ti a s t a r t from Ping 94 (2) - 70 - course makes no sense at a l l and yet i t does not v i o l a t e the general s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of the bone language." (.1977:40-41) In other words, sentence (!) has two s y n t a c t i c a l l y and s e m a n t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i . e . , Ca) ' I f there i s an occasion ( f o r someone) to come, he w i l l s t a r t from the west' and (b) 'There i s an occasion ( f o r someone) to come from the west'. But sentence (2) only allows one seman- t i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i . e . , 'There i s no occasion ( f o r someone) to come from the west'. I t i s on the assumption that the grammatical s t r u c t u r e s of a tui-chen p a i r are i d e n t i c a l that we d i s c a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (a) of sentence (1). One may ask, i s i t p o s s i b l e to r e j e c t the assumption of 'sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' ? That i s , to adopt i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (a) ' I f there i s an occasion ( f o r someone) to come, he w i l l s t a r t from the west' f o r sentence (1), and adopt the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 'There i s no occasion ( f o r someone) to come from the west' f o r sentence (2). While p o s s i b l e , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y . Since the focus of sentence (a) i s 'from which d i r e c t i o n ' the person w i l l a r r i v e , w h i l e the focus of sentence (2) i s 'whether someone w i l l a r r i v e from the west' as a whole, i f we adopt these two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , we must provide evidence to e x p l a i n why there i s a ' s h i f t of f o c a l p o i n t ' i n these two sentences which belong to one s i n g l e d i v i n a t o r y i s s u e . I t i s because of 'sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' that the f o l l o w i n g t u i - c h e n p a i r i s to be analysed as 'main clause + subordinate c l a u s e ' although the f i r s t one, on pure l y s y n t a c t i c a l and semantic grounds, could be analysed as 'subordinate ( c o n d i t i o n a l ) clause + main cl a u s e ' : ± t 1)« ftf?* ft* k i n g / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / make p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n H s i a Wei / r e c e i v e / abundant / a s s i s t a n c e The k i n g should f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to make a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n against H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . (But not ' I f the k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng to make a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n against H s i a Wei, he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . ) k i n g / should not / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / make p u n i t i v e -V f/t e s j j t f ig_ ') ̂ _ e x p e d i t i o n / Hsi a Wei / not / perhaps / r e c e i v e / a s s i s t a n c e Ping 22 (2) The k i n g should not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to make a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n against H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l not r e c e i v e a s s i t a n c e . 2. The E x p l o i t a t i o n of Ch'eng T'ab & -§\ ( S e t ) The n o t i o n and the importance of Ch'eng T'ao was f i r s t introduced and elaborated s y s t e m a t i c a l l y by Chang Ping-ch'Uan T|t-(I960). Ch'eng T'ao i n s c r i p t i o n s r e f e r to those p o s i t i v e and negative sentences which are d i v i n e d on the same day, concerning the same i s s u e , having s i m i l a r meaning and having numerals (Jn.sU. shu ffi « ^ ) i n sequence. The n o t i o n of Ch'eng T'ao i s of great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g e l l i p t i c a l sentences and thus may i n f l u e n c e the analyses or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of these sentences. For example, i n the Ping P i e n 34, there i s a p a i r of tui-chen sentences: > J h r 1 ^ ^ i i l i l i i-mao / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / pr e s i d e / m i l l e t f i r s t _ 34 (5) t e s t / k i n g / should not / p r e s i d e / m i l l e t f i r s t m i l l e t 34 (6) At f i r s t s i g h t , one would be to i n t e r p r e t them as 'The k i n g should p r e s i d e over the p l a n t i n g of m i l l e t ' and 'The k i n g should not pr e s i d e over the p l a n t i n g of m i l l e t ' r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, on Ping Pien 35, we f i n d the f o l l o w i n g p a i r : i-mao / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / p r e s i d e / m i l l e t A, 3 approve second 35 (5) t e s t / k i n g / should not / p r e s i d e / m i l l e t second 35 (6) (The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of jL- (to pr e s i d e over) i s proposed by Serruys 1974:92). Judging from the p o s i t i o n i n g on the p l a s t r o n s of these i n s c r i p t i o n s and judging from other i n s c r i p t i o n s which concur i n t h i s placement as w e l l as the h i g h l y s i m i l a r wording and i d e n t i c a l date, there i s no doubt that these two p a i r s belong to the same s e t . One may reasonably hypothesize that these two p a i r s , i n the un d e r l y i n g l e v e l , are i d e n t i c a l and i t i s only because the word ^ 'approve' i s understood that i t i s omitted. I f the p a i r on Ping P i e n 35 can be i n t e r p r e t e d as 'The k i n g should preside over the p l a n t i n g of m i l l e t , ( f o r ) he w i l l be approved' and 'The k i n g should not preside oyer the p l a n t i n g of m i l l e t , ( f o r he w i l l not be approved)' r e s p e c t i v e l y , then the p a i r s on Ping Pien 34 should a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same way, i . e . , not as simple sentences as suggested above but as complex sentences. - 73 - CHAPTER TWO THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE SENTENCES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE 'CAUSE AND EFFECT' TYPE As mentioned i n Chapter One, the study of O.B.I, grammar has drawn very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from s c h o l a r s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the problem of composite sentence seems to have been ignored. Kuan's book l i s t s s i x examples under the heading 'composite sentence' ~%%^ ̂ Qn *Q without any f u r t h e r sub-categor- i z a t i o n , and the ' d i s c u s s i o n ' of these sentences occupies only two l i n e s . Ch'en Meng-chia deals w i t h the problem of 'sentence-patterns' j^) i n three pages without s i n g l i n g out the composite sentence f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n of any k i n d . Nevertheless, a more accurate understanding of the O.B.I, language cannot be obtained i f the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the clauses of composite sentences i s not touched upon. Though there are very few formal connectives, i f any, i n the O.B.I., there i s no doubt that there are composite sentences. And as a matter of f a c t the p a u c i t y of connectives i n composite sentence i s one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Chinese language. In the Mencius, we f i n d sentences such as the f o l l o w i n g : 1 / 1 A / 3 ) I f the seasons of husbandry be not i n t e r f e r r e d w i t h , the g r a i n w i l l be more than can be eaten. (Legge, p.130) Although there i s no ' v i s i b l e ' marker, t h i s s t r i n g can only be understood as a 'composite' sentence once the context i s taken i n t o account. In. a s t r i c t sense, no matter how c l o s e l y two clauses are r e l a t e d i n meaning, they cannot - 74 - be termed as clauses of a 'composite' sentence i f there i s no marker. A marker may e i t h e r be segmental, e.g. ^ 'if'» or suprasegmental, e.g. pause and/or p i t c h . At the present time, i t i s no longer p o s s i b l e to d i s c o v e r whether there were any suprasegmental markers imposed on sentences such as the one c i t e d above. We can only assume that there were suprasegmental markers not recorded i n the w r i t t e n language and i n t e r p r e t such sentences as p a r a t a x i s . I n i n s t e a d of formal markers, i t i s the c o n t e x t u a l meaning which determines l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between two p a r t i c u l a r c l a u s e s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of composite sentences v a r i e s from one s c h o l a r to another. For example, Wang L i l i s t s twelve s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s under the heading 'composite sentence' (1946:116-117); Chou Fa-kao gives s i x (1961:198). (c o n d i t i o n ) (concession) (cause and e f f e c t ) (simultaneous and successive) (adversative) (cumulative) Although the number of s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s d i f f e r s from s c h o l a r to s c h o l a r , d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the a c t u a l a n a l y s i s of composite sentences do not o f t e n occur. In t h i s study, Chou Fa-kao's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been adopted f o r i t s s i m p l i c i t y . Cases r e q u i r i n g a s u b t l e r a n a l y s i s w i l l be disccused i n d i v i d u a l l y as they occur. The term 'subordinate composite sentences' r e f e r s to the f i r s t f i v e kinds of sentence described above. However, due probably to the p a r t i c u l a r character of the Shang d i v i n a t i o n s , 'concessive' sentences ( i . e . , sentences showing a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p marked by connectives such as s u i ^ f^'even' i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese) and 'adversative' sentences ( i . e . , sentences showing (1) i & t ? (2) (4) # ) io (6) * tf & - 75 - the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s marked by connectives such as (jari)erh (^f>.^ \5y 'however' i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese) do not seem to e x i s t as major c a t e g o r i e s i n the O.B.I. There are some sentences, which, when considered s e p a r a t e l y , are open e i t h e r to the 'concessive' or 'adversative' a n a l y s i s . For example, k i n g / y u - o f f e r / c a p t i v e p a i r / not / favorable Even i f the k i n g y u - o f f e r s a p a i r of c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l not be fa v o r a b l e . , £ £ «i hi _ P ft 4A k i n g / perhaps / go / chase / -game(?) I at I Kuei^- not / perhaps / capture Ping 216 (6) The k i n g w i l l perhaps go to chase ^ -game(?) at Kue i , however, he w i l l perhaps not capture (them). Or: The k i n g w i l l perhaps go to chase ^ ? -game(?) and kuei-game ( ? ) , however, he w i l l perhaps not capture them. (For the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the words ' ̂  ', see Chapter Three, footnote no. 14.) . S y n t a c t i c a l l y and c o n t e x t u a l l y , the above analyses are, p o s s i b l e . Nevertheless, such analyses cannot be a p p l i e d to the r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i v e counterparts of these two sentences: kuei-wei / crack / HsUan / t e s t / k i n g y u - o f f e r / c a p t i v e p a i r / fa v o r a b l e - 76 - Even i f the k i n g y u - o f f e r s a p a i r of c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l be f a v o r a b l e , k i n g / perhaps / go / chase / ̂  -game(?) / at k u e i / capture The k i n g w i l l perhaps go to chase ^ -game(?) at K u e i , however, he w i l l perhaps capture (them). Or: The k i n g w i l l perhaps go to chase -game(?) and kuei-game(?), however, he w i l l perhaps capture (them). Obviously, the l a s t two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s do not make much sense. I f we adopt the n o t i o n of sentence p a r a l l e l i s m i n our analyses, the 'concessive' or 'adversative' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the negative counterparts must a l s o be r e j e c t e d . We may, on the other hand, i n t e r p r e t a l l four of these i n s c r i p t i o n s as c o n d i t i o n a l sentences. That i s , Ping 53 (2) ' I f the ki n g y u - o f f e r s a p a i r of c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l not be f a v o r a b l e . 53 (1) ' I f the k i n g y u - o f f e r s a p a i r of c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l be f a v o r a b l e . Ping 216 (.6) ' I f the k i n g perhaps goes to chase ffi -game(?) at K u e i , he w i l l perhaps not capture (them). Or:'If the ki n g perhaps goes to chase ^ -game(?) and k u e i - game(?), he w i l l perhaps not capture (them). 216 (5) ' I f the ki n g perhaps goes to chase ^ -game(?) at K u e i , he w i l l perhaps capture (them). Or:'If the ki n g perhaps goes to chase ffi -game(?) and k u e i - game(?), he w i l l perhaps capture (them). I n s c r i p t i o n s Ping 139 (.1) ( 2 ) , 1-57 .'CD C2), 159 (.8) (.9) and 189 (9) (.10) are a l s o subject to the above analyses. I . THE CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFYING COMPOSITE SENTENCES Since there are no formal markers (connectives) i n the O.B.I. and the presumed pause, p i t c h or i n t o n a t i o n i s not shown i n the i n s c r i p t i o n , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l composite sentences i s h i g h l y problematic. Concerning the omission of connectives i n Chinese, Wang L i s t a t e s , "The f i x e d p o s i t i o n (of the two clauses i n ) the •'subordinate + main' sentence i s the major reason why connectives may not be employed. ... In Chinese when two sentence-forms are j o i n e d together, although there are no connectives, we are s t i l l able to t e l l that the former one incorporates a meaning such as 'although', 'even i f , ' i f , ' i f , 'if» 'since' or 'because o f , t h i s i s because the subordinate clause must be placed i n i t i a l l y . " i.\t q < ft w @ * «k * % * f mlS> .... $%&t®/®*!* ^'#?it^it i - € % K I t i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to understand Wang's argument. The f i x e d (.1946:125) - 78 p o s i t i o n of clauses can only a s s i s t us i n determining which clause i s sub- or d i n a t e and which i s main. The p r e c i s e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the clauses (e.g. ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' ) i s not shown by t h i s p o s i t i o n i n g . I t appears that the only c r i t e r i o n f o r determining t h i s l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the contextual meaning. In c l a s s i c a l Chinese, not to mention more modern forms of the language, a l a r g e r context r e l e v a n t to the sentence i n question i s f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , and thus there are not many cases of p o s s i b l e con- tr o v e r s y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between two c l a u s e s . In the O.B.I., however, the c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between sentences i s not always c l e a r and ' l a r g e r context' i s only, a vague term r e f e r r i n g to sentences appearing on the same p l a s t r o n or on the r e l a t e d p l a s t r o n s In some cases, the c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between sentences i s so obvious that we may consider them a d i v i n a t o r y group. ). Ping 1 (9) (Ch 'tteh) w i l l capture the Fou-(tribesmen). Ch'ueh w i l l not capture the Fou-(tribesmen). Our envoy w i l l harm Fou. Ping 1 (14) Our envoy w i l l not perhaps harm Fou. - 79 - Although the dates of d i v i n a t i o n and the d i v i n e r s mentioned i n the above two p a i r s of sentences are d i f f e r e n t , we can s t i l l consider each p a i r to be r e l a t e d c o n t e x t u a l l y on the b a s i s of the i d e n t i c a l object ID Fou preceded by the verb ^ 'capture' and 'harm' both seem to be r e l a t e d to m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a s t r o n . In co n t r a s t to the above p a i r s , there are some i n s c r i p t i o n s whose i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p i s very obscure, though they appear on the same p l a s t r o n : :hi-wei / crack / Cheng / t e s t / Wang Hai chd harm / we \ Wang Hai w i l l harm us. t e s t / Wang Hai / not / we / harm ^Wang Hai w i l l not harm us. t e s t / we / perhaps / have / d i s a s t e r We w i l l perhaps have d i s a s t e r . t e s t / we / have no / d i s a s t e r ^We w i l l have no d i s a s t e r . c h i - wei / crack / Ch ueh / t e s t / we / at < Chih / enter / s t a t i o n We should enter at Chih and s t a t i o n (there) t e s t / should not / at / Chih / s t a t i o n P i ng 3 (1) Ping 3 (2) Ping 3 (11) Ping 3 (12) Pin g 3 (19) Pin g 3 (20) We should not s t a t i o n at Chih. - 80 - Whether the d i v i n a t i o n s about ' % 1$, ' a r e r e l a t e d to the a c t i o n ' -j-" £̂ f, Jj, ' i s something we cannot be sure of. L i k e w i s e , i t i s un c e r t a i n whether ' "£ ^ ^ ' i s the cause of ' ̂  rf%$aj Undeniably,) s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s sometimes the only means l e f t to us i n p o s i t i n g the c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between sentences. Nevertheless, i n view of the f a c t that there i s no other way, we must e x p l o i t t h i s ' l a r g e r context' as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e on the assumption that the sentences appearing on the same p l a s t r o n are r e l a t e d i n one way or another. Without t h i s assumption, a l o t of i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g that concerning the determination of the type of composite sentence, cannot be recovered. In a d d i t i o n to the meaning and context, the 'general p a t t e r n ' j j £ of O.B.I, and the p r a c t i c e of e l l i p s i s have to be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l s o . Instead of going i n t o t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , the author presents the f o l l o w i n g example to i l l u s t r a t e an a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the p o i n t s men- tioned above i n the a n a l y s i s of composite sentences. hsin-yu / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / t h i s / season ±* ))u \* f ji*; ft* k i n g / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / a t t a c k / Hsia Wei r e c e i v e / abundant / a s s i s t a n c e Ping 20 (1) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A: This season the ki n g should f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n B: I f , t h i s season the k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng to att a c k H s i a Wei, he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . - 81 - hsin-yu / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / t h i s / season ki n g / should not / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / a t t a c k H s i a Wei / not / perhaps / r e c e i v e / abundant / a s s i s t a n c e Ping 20 (2) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A: This season the k i n g should not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l not perhaps r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n B: I f the k i n g does not , he w i l l not Concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two clauses such as those of Ping 20 (2) , d i f f e r e n t analyses have been proposed. :ives as 1. Chou Hung-hsiang Ĵ } >ftfj fyjinterprets the two negati forming a 'double negative' c o n s t r u c t i o n , the negatives c a n c e l l i n g each other out; thus, sentence (2) has the same c o g n i t i v e meaning as sentence ( 1 ) , i . e . , both sentences are p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than p o s i t i v e versus negative. (1969:77) Unf o r t u n a t e l y , Chou has not e x p l i c a t e d what he means by 'double negative' ^ tf\ ^- Q %_ . I t seems that he t r e a t s the two negatives wu and f u $p i n Ping 20 (.2) i n the same way as he t r e a t s the 'double negatives' wang ~{Z- and p_u ̂ - i n sentences such as ' J_ £. rf\ % 1 (the k i n g has no uneasiness). However, the negatives wu 'fl] and f u $p i n sentence Ping 20 (2) occur i n d i f f e r e n t clauses w h i l e wang and pu rf- do not. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between wang JZ- and pu rf> cannot be the same as that between wu fyj] and f u . Thus, Chou's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to accept. - 82 - 2. Serruys analyses such sentences as 'main clause + subordinate cl a u s e ' and s u p p l i e s a paraphrase which has a 'subordinate ( c o n d i t i o n a l ) + main' s t r u c t u r e . "Test (the p r o p o s i t i o n ) : we ought not a t t a c k the Hu (country) .... ( f o r ) God might not give us ( l i t . make r e c e i v e ) h i s a s s i s t a n c e . " ( i . e . , " I f we do not God w i l l not ....) (1974:44) Do not burn (any v i c t i m at the s t a k e ) , then we w i l l not have ensuing r a i n . Burn ( v i c t i m s at the s t a k e ) , then we w i l l have ensuing r a i n . " The p r o h i b i t i v e "don't" and i t s counterpart "do burn" are o f t e n used i n the f u n c t i o n of c o n d i t i o n a l : " I f we do not burn " and " i f we burn " This i s comparable to s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e s i n other language, e.g. c l a s s i c a l Greek usage of negative me ( c f . Hansjakob S e i l e r , "Abstract Structures f o r moods i n Greek" Language, J o u r n a l of the L i n g u i s t i c Society of America, V o l . 47, 1. 1971, p.81): " I f one looks at -a.number of c o n d i t i o n a l sentences i t seems odd that the p r o t a s i s should i n v a r i a b l y be negated by means of the p r o h i b i t i v e negation." (1974:27) As shown i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s of the sentence ' ^ ^) ^ £ <5 ', Serruys understands the s t r u c t u r e ' i f ... then ' as equivalent to 'should , f o r '. P r e c i s e l y as Takashima has pointed out, these two s t r u c t u r e s cannot be equated: I t seems to me that "we ought not proceed to hunt, f o r i t w i l l not be caught" i s not at a l l e q u i v a l e n t t o " i f we do not proceed, i t w i l l not be caught." That i s , the i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of the former seems to suggest "so, don't proceed to hunt," whereas the i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of the l a t t e r suggest, "so, do proceed to hunt." (1977:53) - 83 - In any case, the translations provided in parentheses by Serruys reflect a structural analysis identical to Takashima's interpretation A which the author considers a-correct reading. This problem is dealt with in the following sections. type: 3. Takashima has proposed two interpretations for sentences of this A. main + subordinate(causal) e.g. $• * i to AK & % * * 'The king must not follow Wang Ch'eng to attack Hsia Wei this spring, (for) (he) w i l l not perhaps receive abundant assistance'. (1973:292) B. subordinate(conditional) + main e. 8. 'If the king does not follow Wang Ch'eng to attack Hsia Wei this spring, he w i l l not perhaps (less desirable) receive abundant assistance. (1977:44) Interpretation A is a simple and natural analysis based on the context. The word wu ^) , frequently functions as a prohibitive negative both in the O.B.I, and in the classics, so i t is reasonable to interpret the clause » f ^ « as 'the king should not follow Wang Ch'eng to attack Hsia Wei'; and since the clause ' (will not perhaps receive abundant assistance) represents an undesirable situation, i t is also reasonable to interpret i t as the cause for prohibiting the king from following Wang Ch'eng to attack Hsia Wei. On the other hand, the above analysis which places a subordinate clause after a main clause is somewhat unusual in terms of the predominant - 84 - s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s i c a l Chinese. Takashima p o i n t s out that 'from the stand- po i n t of the general s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of Chinese, the apodosis u s u a l l y f o l l o w s the p r o t a s i s ' (1977:54). Thus, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B i s proposed as another p o s s i b i l i t y . In a d d i t i o n to the example i n c l a s s i c a l Greek, evidence i s c i t e d from E n g l i s h and Japanese to demonstrate that an i m p e r a t i v e / p r o h i b i t i v e sentence-form may f u n c t i o n as the p r o t a s i s of a c o n d i t i o n a l (1977:51-52). From these examples, there i s no doubt that i n many languages, i m p e r a t i v e / p r o h i b i t i v e sentence-forms may at times have t h i s f u n c t i o n . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be a p p l i e d to c e r t a i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese sentences as w e l l . For example, In t h i s j u n c t u r e , i t appears that each i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , A and B, has i t s m e r i t s and can be supported on d i f f e r e n t grounds. However, the f a c t that both of these two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e does not mean that these two l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are simultaneously incorporated i n one s i n g l e sen- tence (the i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of these two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are opposite to each other, as Takashima has pointed o u t ) . There can be only one l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two clauses of the sentences i n question. The task before us i s to t e s t which of these two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s more app r o p r i a t e . The present author holds the o p i n i o n that i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A i s more l i k e l y to be the c o r r e c t one f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: (Mencius HY 1/1A/3) 'Let there not be taken away the time that i s proper f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n of the farm w i t h i t s hundred mau, and the f a m i l y of s e v e r a l mouths that i s supported by i t s h a l l not s u f f e r from hunger.' (Legge, p.131) - 85 - ( 1 ) The Symmetry of Tul-Chen P a i r s I t i s a well-known f a c t that members of most of the tu i - c h e n p a i r s have a sense opposite to each other, i . e . , to have ( ^ ) vs not to have ( ) i t i s ( J^i ) vs i t i s not ( ^ ]i ) w i l l ( u n c o n t r o l l a b l e vs w i l l not verb) u n c o n t r o l l a b l e verb) to do ( c o n t r o l l a b l e vs not to do ( ^ + c o n t r o l - verb) l a b l e verb) In other words, each member of a tui- c h e n p a i r s t a t e s a p o s s i b i l i t y of which the other member i s the negative counterpart and each p a i r covers a l l the l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I f we adopt i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B, that i s : " i f the k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k H s i a Wei t h i s s p r i n g , he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . " " i f the k i n g does not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k H s i a Wei t h i s spring,, he w i l l not perhaps (=less d e s i r a b l e ) r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . " The i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of these two sentences turns out to be the same the k i n g should f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k H s i a Wei t h i s season. I t goes without saying that t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n v i o l a t e s the general dualism which c h a r a c t e r i z e s O.B.I, d i v i n a t i o n s ; i n other words, t h i s p a i r of tui - c h e n covers only one p o s s i b i l i t y by means of two equivalent expressions. One may argue that t h i s tui-chen p a i r should not be t r e a t e d indepen- den t l y . I t has to be i n v e s t i g a t e d together w i t h other t u i - c h e n p a i r s appearing on the same p l a s t r o n : - 86 - hsin-yu / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / h u i Chia / f o l l o w Ping 20 (5) J I t should be Chia (rather than anybody e l s e ) that the ki n g f o l l o w s . hsin-yu / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / ki n g / should not wei / Chia / f o l l o w Ping 20 (6) I t should not be Chia that the k i n g f o l l o w s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the main concern of t h i s d i v i n a t o r y group (Ping 20 (1) (2) (5) (6)) i s 'whom the k i n g should f o l l o w , Wang Ch'eng or (Chih) Chia', so the d i v i n a t i o n was made to determine the choice between these two generals. ( T h e o r e t i c a l l y , there are four p o s s i b i l i t i e s : i . to f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng; i i . to f o l l o w Chih Chia; i i i . not to f o l l o w e i t h e r of them; i v . to f o l l o w both of them at d i f f e r e n t times.) Even i f we accept the above e x p l a n a t i o n , to i n t e r p r e t Ping 20 (1) (2) as having the same i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e r e q u i r e s the assumption that the Shang k i n g has already made up h i s mind or, at l e a s t , has a strong i n c l i n a t i o n to f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng rat h e r than Chih Chia. We must admit that such a p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s i f we adopt K e i g h t l e y ' s hypothesis (1972) that a ming-tz'u, i n some cases, should be understood as a prayer or i n c a n t a t i o n . However, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g passages, Ping 21 (1) and (2) would b e t t e r be understood as d i v i n a t i o n s s o l i c i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s from a supernatural power to determine whom the k i n g should f o l l o w , r a t h e r than prayers or i n c a n t a t i o n s made to seek c o n f i r m a t i o n of a p r i o r i d e c i s i o n on the proper course of a c t i o n - 87 - to f o l l o w . I f , on the other hand, we look at the three p a i r s of tui - c h e n as a u n i t , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B destroys the symmetry of the whole. See Figure I . The i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of sentences (3) and ( 4 ) , (5) and (6) are contrary to each other. I t i s u n l i k e l y that (1) and (2) have s i m i l a r i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e . I t should be noted that these three p a i r s of tui - c h e n sentences are symmetrically p o s i t i o n e d on the p l a s t r o n . One more example, Ping 22, may f u r t h e r demonstrate the strange r e s u l t s obtained when one analyses sentences of the 1 7̂ , &I ^ 1 type as c o n d i t i o n a l . See Figure I I . I f we were to say that sentences Ping 22 (1) and (2) have s i m i l a r i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e , based on the assumption that the k i n g has formed a prejudgement or i s i n c l i n e d to f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to account f o r sentences (3) and (4) which have i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e contrary to each other. In terms of placement, meaning and i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e , sentences (3) and (4) , (11) and (12), (13) and (14) are opposite. I t would be h i g h l y u n l i k e l y f o r sentences (1) and (2) , which are obviously r e l a t e d to the other three p a i r s , to have i d e n t i c a l i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e w h i l e r e t a i n i n g opposing placement on the p l a s t r o n . . In general terms, d i v i n a t i o n i s u s u a l l y understood as a means of f o r e t e l l i n g f u t u r e events or of r e q u i r i n g super-natural guidance f o r one's a c t i o n s ; i n e i t h e r case, i t i s g e n e r a l l y presupposed that the person i n i t i a t i n g the d i v i n a t i o n has no knowledge of what w i l l happen and i s ingenuous i n h i s seeking of the o r a c l e ' s guidance. To i n t e r p r e t the 'ID ^ / ......' type sentence as a p r o h i b i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g as c o n d i t i o n a l which c a r r i e s a strong i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e and which at the same time turns out to - 87 a - I f the k i n g does not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to atta c k H s i a Wei t h i s ^ \ 3i- season, he w i l l no perhaps r e c e i v e . v=> -a. abundant a s s i s t a n t lC-> iff *i AA t3 2- 4 A A The k i n g should not f o l l o w Chih Chia. AA J j f c 6 I t should not be Chih Chia that the k i n g f o l l o w s . I f the k i n g f o l l o w s JVang Ch'eng to att a c k Hsia Wei Nth i s season, he T i \ w i l l r e c e i v e q: \ abundant j3f \ a s s i s t a n c e . AA. I t should be Chih Chia that the k i n g f o l l o w s . FIGURE I (Ping 20) - 8 7 b - I f the k i n g does not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to att a c k H s i a Wei, he w i l l / jjp AT" not r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e AA- A/. The k i n g should not f o l l o w xn jj] Wang Ch'eng. ^£ -7 ufj AA 13 I f the k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng to at t a c k s i a Wei, he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . AA 4 , R' 1 ±- The k i n g should f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng. I t should not be Chia that the ki n g f o l l o w s . I t should be Chia (that the king) f o l l o w s . The k i n g should not f o l l o w Chih Chia to a t t a c k Pa. AA ^7/ /3 AA - r ft, I t should be Chih Chia that the k i n g f o l l o w s to a t t a c k (Pa). FIGURE I I (Ping 22) - 88 - have an i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e s i m i l a r to i t s p o s i t i v e counterpart ' % ^ K %- $t. ^ Tv JZJ » ^k. 'i? ' would overload t h i s t u i - c h e n p a i r w i t h i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e . ( I t appears d i f f i c u l t to di s c o v e r an i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e i n the p a i r ' ;£ AA }Jz J^' 1 and ' 'f/J M >>t ' strong enough to counterbalance t h i s reading of our example.) More i m p o r t a n t l y , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B seems contrary to our b a s i c assumption about d i v i n a t i o n . One may argue that the Shang k i n g had already decided to f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng before the d i v i n a t i o n was performed, so that what was needed was merely c o n f i r m a t i o n from the supernatural world. I f t h i s were the case, why d i d the d i v i n e r proceed to d i v i n e about whether the k i n g should f o l l o w general Chih Chia or not? The concurrence of d i v i n a t i o n s about f o l l o w i n g Wang Ch'eng w i t h that concerning Chih Chia shows th a t the purpose of these d i v i n a t i o n s i s to choose between these two generals r a t h e r than to seek c o n f i r m a t i o n f o r f o l l o w i n g Wang Ch'eng. (2) The E l l i p t i c a l Sentences As mentioned i n Chapter One, the p r a c t i c e of e l l i p s i s i s very sty . common i n the O.B.I. While the omission of the ch i e n ^ t z u ff<J , e.g., f̂7 h f^K. |( ^ s n o t a t a ± 1 r a r e , there are a l s o cases where an e n t i r e clause i s abbreviated, f o r example: ( • T f t » U %f W* 7 f e&ffl t i n g - y u / crack / Ch'eng / t e s t / c a l l upon / Pu n i - r i c e / at / Tzu / r e c e i v e / abundant / g r a i n I f we c a l l upon Pu to (plant) the n i - r i c e at Tzu, we w i l l | r e c e i v e abundant g r a i n . 1 . T J 3212 - 89 - \>31$* u H$ H I y A t i n g - y u / crack / Cheng / t e s t / not / perhaps t i n g - y u r e c e i v e / abundant / g r a i n I "Ẑ  3212 We w i l l not perhaps r e c e i v e abundant grain.' < The c o n d i t i o n a l clause of the negative counterpart has been abbreviated. There are even some i n s c r i p t i o n s which i l l u s t r a t e the process of e l l i p s i s i n stages: rffik k^ &k:>?':kl&>%' H*. jivi t e s t / k i n g / h u i / Chih Chia / f o l l o w / a t t a c k / Pa s t a t e l e t / t i - g o d / give / we / a s s i s t a n c e I L> 3787 I t should be Chih Chia that the k i n g f o l l o w s to a t t a c k the Pa s t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) t i - g o d w i l l give us a s s i s t a n c e . k i n g / should not / wei / Chih Chia / f o l l o w / at t a c k J i fi " M * &a y\ «Mt) Pa / s t a t e l e t / t i - g o d / not / we / perhaps / give / a s s i s t a n c e I t should not be Chih Chia that the k i n g f o l l o w s to a t t a c k the Pa s t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) t i - g o d w i l l not give us a s s i s t a n c e . I & 3787 t e s t / k i n g / f o l l o w / Chia / a t t a c k / Pa / t i - g o d f i t *l give / a s s i s t a n c e Ping 25 (1) The k i n g should f o l l o w (Chih) Chia to a t t a c k the Pa s t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) t i - g o d w i l l give us a s s i s t a n c e . t e s t / k i n g / should not / f o l l o w / Chia / a t t a c k / Pa Ping 25 (2) ^ The k i n g should not f o l l o w (Chih) Chia to a t t a c k the Pa s t a t e l e t , - 90 - ( f o r t i - g o d w i l l not give us a s s i s t a n c e ) , t e s t / k i n g / f o l l o w / Chih Chia / a t t a c k / Pa Ping 26 /CD The k i n g should f o l l o w Chih Chia to a t t a c k the Pa s t a t e l e t , ( f o r t i - g o d w i l l g i v e us a s s i s t a n c e ) . tl £ HO W A< ^ &4 \ It rt & k i n g / should not / f o l l o w / Chih Chia / a t t a c k / Pa Ping 26 (2) The k i n g should not f o l l o w Chih Chia to a t t a c k the Pa s t a t e l e t , V ( f o r t i - g o d w i l l not give us a s s i s t a n c e ) . From the f u l l v e r s i o n : * to £ & £ " 4 $ * f b * ' 5 L ^ we proceed to a p a r t i a l l y abbreviated p a i r : £ ^ ^ «fr i£ * and e v e n t u a l l y reach the most abbreviated form: \ $ kk -;Jt % £ to £> Here the process of p r o g r e s s i v e a b b r e v i a t i o n i s very c l e a r . With t h i s p r a c t i c e i n mind, we may, on the b a s i s of the l a r g e r context, i n t e r p r e t Ping 22 (3) (4) (See Figure I I ) ' :£ AA ^ ' and as the understood, abbreviated v e r s i o n s of P i n g 22 (1) (2) ' £ AA 4 * , '1 * * • and • £ ^ ^ > $ ^ f ^ ^ >L' r e s P e c t i v e l y . I f t h i s i s j u s t i f i e d , the reason m i l i t a t i n g against i n t e r p r e t i n g the sentence ' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 7?j • ^ — «t̂  Xj, as a 'subordinate + main' s t r u c t u r e becomes c l e a r . In the abbreviated form, the remaining clause i s ' ^) J^l. ». i f we t r e a t t h i s as a subordinate - 91 - ( c o n d i t i o n a l ) clause and t r a n s l a t e i t as ' i f the k i n g does not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' w i t h p o s i t i v e counterpart ' i f the k i n g f o l l o w s Wang Ch'eng', i t does not c o n s t i t u t e a meaningful charging statement. However, when analysed as main c l a u s e s , w i t h the understood subordinate (causal) clause abbreviated, i . e . , 'the k i n g should not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' and 'the k i n g should f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' (clauses 'for he w i l l not r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e ' and 'for he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e ' a b b r e v i a t e d ) , they do c o n s t i t u t e meaningful charging statements. In support of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B, the author once p o s t u l a t e d the f o l l o w i n g argument: Although the clauses ' % A A *jjf and ' £ 77/ XA *§_ jfcl f u n c t i o n as ' c o n d i t i o n a l s ' , i f we take them at face v a l u e , they d i s p l a y the s t r u c t u r e of p r o h i b i t i o n s . Thus the sentences ' J AA $t ̂ \ ft-J » ^ <£ ' and ' £ 'fJT AA % | t f /% , % % ^ ' should be t r a n s l a t e d as 'King! Do f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to at t a c k H s i a Wei (and) you w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e ' and 'King! Don't f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to at t a c k 3 Hsia Wei (and) you w i l l not r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e ' r e s p e c t i v e l y . In t h i s case, the abbreviated sentences ' A A ^ ' A N C* ' £• ^ ^A ^ 1 can be t r a n s l a t e d as 'King! Do f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' and King! Don't f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng' r e s p e c t i v e l y and thus do c o n s t i t u t e meaningful charging statements. However, i n adopting such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of the sentence ' £ jjj AA 4Ji /t> » ^ J% ^ ^ ' ± s °PP°site to that of ' 3E. ̂  AA ' t* i e f ° r m e r u r g e s the k i n g to f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng (an a n a l y s i s of i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B) w h i l e the l a t t e r urges the k i n g not to f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng. Unless we are - 92 - w i l l i n g to deny the obvious f a c t that the sentence 1 3- ^ Iff is'.the abbreviated form of ' % 'ij] AA % $ L 4$ T /£, , 4 %L % X - 1 , such a change of i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e i s u n l i k e l y . (3) The A n a l y s i s 'Main + Subordinate' Motivated by Semantic Considerations i n the O.B.I. While i t i s a general p a t t e r n of c l a s s i c a l Chinese that apodoses f o l l o w protases, there i s evidence showing that the opposite case i s a l s o p o s s i b l e i n the O.B.I. The f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s exemplify the s t r u c t u r e of main clauses preceding subordinate c l a u s e s : i * W^'rn) fflffl Ux h s i n / k i n g / should not / hunt / perhaps / r a i n On the h s i n day, the k i n g should not hunt, ( f o r ) i t w i l l perhaps r a i n . T s ' u i ffi 1008 ' -" .- ' j e n / k i n g / should not / hunt / perhaps / r a i n On the j e n day, the k i n g should not hunt, ( f o r ) i t w i l l 'vperhaps r a i n . T s ' u i 1008 As mentioned above, there are no segmental markers ( i . e . connectives) between clauses i n the O.B.I., thus the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the clauses can only be deduced from the context. The author has t r i e d to analyse these sentences i n other ways, f o r example, i . 'On the h s i n / j e n day, i f the k i n g does not hunt, i t w i l l perhaps r a i n . ' - 93 - i i . 'On the h s i n / j e n day, the k i n g should not hunt and i t w i l l perhaps r a i n . ' i i i . 'On the h s i n / j e n day, although the k i n g should not hunt, i t w i l l perhaps r a i n . ' I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ( i ) and ( i i ) r e q u i r e the assumption that whether one hunts or not has an e f f e c t on the f a l l i n g of r a i n , o b v i o u s l y a very remote p o s s i - b i l i t y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( i i i ) does not make any sense i n terms of our under- standing of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between hunting and r a i n . I t appears that the most ap p r o p r i a t e , i f not the only p o s s i b l e , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s '... the k i n g should not hunt, ( f o r ) i t w i l l perhaps r a i n ' . Two other tui-chen p a i r s a l s o favor the 'cause and e f f e c t ' a n a l y s i s . should not / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / have no / r a i n We should not perform a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e , ( f o r ) there w i l l be no r a i n , ^ * $ 1 f t r t r % * f c T T a f 1 8 9 perhaps / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / at / Hslleh / have/big / r a i n We should perhaps perform a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e at Hstleh ( o r , to the god of snow), ( f o r ) there w i l l be heavy r a i n . h f t &* fa ? m h u i / Sang / f i e l d / i n s p e c t / not / r a i n Menzies 1900 I t i s the Sang f i e l d s which we or the k i n g should i n s p e c t , ( f o r ) i t w i l l not r a i n (over t h e r e ) . should not / insp e c t / Sang / f i e l d / perhaps / r a i n We or the k i n g should not i n s p e c t the Sang f i e l d s , ( f o r ) i t w i l l perhaps r a i n (over t h e r e ) . (Examples of t h i s type, though not i n the tui-chen format, can be found on the S o r u i , p.293.3.) - 94 - There i s a d i f f e r e n c e of degree i n terms of the compelling f o r c e expressed i n the c l a u s a l causes. For i n s t a n c e , i n the sentence ', the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the clauses expresses a c o n d i t i o n , r a t h e r than an e x p l i c i t reason f o r the k i n g to i n s p e c t the Sang f i e l d s . On the other hand, the negative counterpart 1 jfy ̂ /L.XiO , 1 seems to express a compelling reason (see Chapter Three, p.183- 186), i f not one so strong as i n the sentence '/Cs| £ U ^ ? & > $ J ; £ ^ £ ' ' I n a l l cases, however, there i s a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p 'cause and e f f e c t ' ( i n the l i n g u i s t i c sense) i n a l l these sentences. A l l s i x of these examples are l a t e p e r i o d i n s c r i p t i o n s (the i n s c r i p - t i o n '^fau^ jfefylfe, %^%^^K_X i s a f i r s t p e r i o d one) . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t , i n the development of the Chinese language, the s t r u c t u r e 'main + subordinate' unknown i n the f i r s t p e r i o d , would appear i n the l a t e r periods and then disappear again by the c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d . Instead, i t i s more reasonable to hypothesize that the s t r u c t u r e 'main + subordinate' e x i s t e d i n the O.B.I, p e r i o d , but g r a d u a l l y disappeared or took another form 4 i n the course of the h i s t o r i c a l development of Chinese. To r e c a p i t u l a t e , i t i s f o r the f o l l o w i n g three c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that the author chooses not to i n t e r p r e t sentences having the s t r u c t u r e ' ^ ..., ' as c o n d i t i o n a l sentences: (1) Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n v i o l a t e s the general p a t t e r n of p o s i t i v e versus negative i n the ming-tz'u. (2) From the standpoint of the p r a c t i c e of e l l i p s i s , clauses w i t h wu ^ } are. u s u a l l y r e t a i n e d i n the abbreviated forms. I t would sound very odd i f these were i n t e r p r e t e d as p r o t a s e s , - 95 - e.g., ^ Ml * ^ ^ ' * i f the k i n g does not f o l l o w Wang Cheng'. (3) The context of c e r t a i n i n s c r i p t i o n s shows that the s t r u c t u r e of 'main + subordinate' e x i s t s i n the O.B.I. Taking i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l the p o i n t s discussed above, the author proposes that i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A i s p r e f e r a b l e to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n B. The former f i t s the general p a t t e r n of O.B.I, tui-chen p a i r s and avoids the pro- blem a r i s i n g from the l a t t e r . In a d d i t i o n , the an a l y s i s ' m a i n + s u b o r d i n a t e ' i s supported by sentences such as ' ̂  ^ (j^k) )^3? , life) ' of which semantic c o n s i d e r a t i o n makes the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 'we should not ..., ( f o r ) . ..' the most app r o p r i a t e . K e i g h t l e y a l s o analyses t h i s type of sentences as 'main +'subordinate' i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s (1978:78; see a l s o p.66, fn.44). This season, the ki n g should f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k the H s i a Wei, ( f o r i f he does, we) w i l l r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s case. This season, the k i n g should not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k the H s i a Wei, ( f o r i f he does, we) w i l l not perhaps r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s case. The c o g n i t i v e meaning of K e i g h t l e y ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s i s very s i m i l a r to that of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A. And y e t , as Takashima has pointed out i n p r i v a t e communication to David N i v i s o n , there i s no b a s i s to supply a clause 'for i f he does' to the o r i g i n a l sentence. K e i g h t l e y ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s , though they read more smoothly, may b l u r the d i s t i n c t i o n between d i f f e r e n t types of sentence. - 96 - I I . THE POSITION OF THE NEGATIVE WU pj IN RELATION TO THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES I t has been i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter One that the assumption of 'sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' has great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the c o r r e c t understanding of sentence s t r u c t u r e (Chapter I , p.69). P o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e a l t e r n a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p a r a l l e l t u i - c h e n p a i r and the p o s i t i o n of the negative p a r t i c l e f r e q u e n t l y f u n c t i o n s as a 'mark' of a major s y n t a c t i c u n i t . Again we use the example c i t e d by Takashima (1977:44) to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s phenomenon: 4 $k Q A ^ 9 4 ( 1 ) 'there i s an occasion ( f o r someone) to come from the west' - t J t ^ tJ *b Ping. 94 (2) 'there i s no occasion ( f o r someone) to come from the west' The reason we cannot i n t e r p r e t as ' i f there i s an occasion ( f o r someone) to come, he w i l l s t a r t from the west' i s because the i n i t i a l l y placed wang i n the negative counterpart makes nonsense of a p a r a l l e l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of {$&, i . e . , ' i f there i s not an occasion ( f o r someone) to come, he w i l l s t a r t from the west'. While t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n of negative p a r t i c l e s i s v a l i d i n general, there are some exceptions. These exceptions are due to the p e c u l i a r l i n g u i s t i c behaviour of wu 4 ^ , the negative which occurs most f r e q u e n t l y i n the O.B.I. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of wu ^ w i l l be discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the a n a l y s i s of O.B.I, sentences. - 97 - As mentioned i n Chapter One, p.62-64, i n the c l a s s i c s , the negative wu £̂7 has to be placed i n f r o n t of a verb and t h i s i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e , among othe r s , which d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from the nominal negative f e i In the O.B.I., however, the p o s i t i o n of wu ^ i s more f l e x i b l e ; i t can be placed i n f r o n t of a noun. For more examples: t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e I to I Wang Hai / ten / ox We should' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ten oxen to Wang Hai . ^ Ping 112 (8) k ft* u y * t e s t / should not / ten / ox We should not ( b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ) ten oxen. Ping 112 (9) f t e s t / c a l l upon / Ch'Ueh / y u - s a c r i f i c e / to if) i 3t River(god) / f i f t y / ox < 1 We should c a l l upon Ch'Ueh to y u - s a c r i f i c e to the River(god) f i f t y oxen. Ping 117 (5) should not / f i f t y / ox / y u - s a c r i f i c e / to / Ri v e r (god) V We should not ( c a l l upon Ch'Ueh) to y u - s a c r i f i c e the River(god) f i f t y oxen. Ping 117 (6) Although, i n the above examples, the negative wu immediately precedes nouns phrases, i t has not been i n t e r p r e t e d as a nominal negative. We r a t h e r d e s c r i b e these negative sentences as having verbs which have been e l i d e d or s h i f t e d as shown i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s . Such an e l i s i o n or s h i f t i n g i s a mechanism t r i g g e r e d by the i n t e n t i o n of emphasizing the d i r e c t o bjects ( s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s ) . - 98 - In h i s a r t i c l e 'On Negation w i t h F e i i n C l a s s i c a l Chinese', Sian L. Yen s t a t e s , '"John didn' t buy the book." I f the s t r e s s f a l l s on John, i t means t h a t , though John d i d not buy the book, someone e l s e d i d . In other words, what i s s p e c i f i c a l l y negated i s John On the other hand, i f the s t r e s s f a l l s on the word book, i t i m p l i e s that John a c t u a l l y bought something although what he bought was not the book i n question.' (1971:409) whether there was s t r e s s i n the O.B.I, language cannot now be determined. What i s c l e a r from the m a t e r i a l a c c e s s i b l e to us i s that the p o s i t i o n of the negative wu serves the f u n c t i o n of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the focus of negation. S i m i l a r to the examples given by Yen, a sentence '* ' i s open to two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : a. I t i s not a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e that we should perform i n presenting the ten oxen ( i . e . i t i s some other r i t e ) . b. I t i s not ten oxen that we should present i n performing the b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ( i . e . i t i s some other animal or a d i f f e r e n t number of animals). In the O.B.I, language, the d e l e t i o n or the s h i f t i n g of the verb, which allows the negative wu ^ to appear immediately before the noun, has the f u n c t i o n of disambiguating the focus of a d i v i n a t i o n . The sentence ' ^H) ~f" ^ ' i s thus open to one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n only: ' I t i s not ten oxen that '. The l a r g e r context i n which the sentence ' -J* ^ ' appears supports our theory. Together w i t h the sentences ' j^f,-J* J ^ * f ty ' and ' ty) - j / '» the f o l l o w i n g tui-chen p a i r appears on the same p l a s t r o n : - 99 - t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / ten / ox We should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ten oxen. Ping 112 (11) t e s t / should not / s p e c i f i c a l l y / three / ox Ping 112 (10) ^ We should not s p e c i f i c a l l y ( b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ) three oxen. Obviously the focus of t h i s group of d i v i n a t i o n s l i e s on the number of s a c r i f i c i a l a n i m a l s . 5 S i m i l a r l y , on Ping 117 where the sentences 1 fy^. "j" ' appear, we f i n d : t h i r t y / ox / b r i n g 7 y u - s a c r i t i c e / Ri v e r (god) / r t y Wo / woman We should y u - s a c r i f i c e to River(god) t h i r t y oxen and b r i n g (as s a c r i f i c e ) a woman of the Wo t r i b e . Ping 117 (8) With these examples i n mind, we can proceed to analyse the f o l l o w i n g sentence: t e s t / Yung 7 cut g r a s s V at / Ch'iu Yung should cut grass at Ch'iu. Ping 141 (13) t e s t / Yung / cut grass / should not / at / Ch'iu Ping 141 (14) ^Yung should not cut grass at Ch'iu. Yung / cut grass / at / Ku Yung should cut grass at Ku. Ping 396 (6) >. should not / at / Ku 1 Ping 396 (7) (Yung)should not (cut grass) at Ku. - 100 - t e s t / Kung / cut grass?/ should not / a t / % (?) Ping 413 (21) I a? Kung should not cut grass at $ ( ? ) . r i. %$ N M ? i - s s u / crack / Chung / t e s t / Kung cut grass / a t / (?) Ping 413 (22) ^ Kung should cut grass at •^§r ( ? ) . As r e f l e c t e d i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s , the above sentences are best analysed as simple sentences. Such an a n a l y s i s , i n f a c t , goes contrary to the general observation that the negative marks a major s y n t a c t i c break. One n a t u r a l l y wonders why these sentences cannot be analysed as composite, e.g., ' i f Yung cuts grass, he should / should not go to Ch'iu'. This l a t t e r a n a l y s i s , however, r e q u i r e s that ytt ^ be t r e a t e d as a f u l l verb meaning'go'. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was, i n f a c t , formerly adopted by the author, but has been discarded. The main reason f o r d i s c a r d i n g such an a n a l y s i s . i s that yU ~f i s not a f u l l verb. Since the meaning and the f u n c t i o n of yU are c r u c i a l to the understanding and a n a l y s i s of t h i s type of sentence, they deserve meticulous study. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s an excursion on the presumed f u l l verb usage of yjU -jp i n f i v e kinds of m a t e r i a l s where yjl f r e q u e n t l y appears: namely, the O.B.I., the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s , the Shang Shu, the Shih Ching and the Tso Chuan. The g l o s s i n g of yU ^ as ' ̂ { f a to go' i s found i n the Mao Chuan ^ 'fy (SSCCS, Shih Ching, Chuan 1.2, p. 15) and Cheng C h i e n l f j * \ - ( i b i d . , ChUan 4.2, p.9). That y_U J' has a v e r b a l sense i s recognized by many - 101 - s c h o l a r s ; among them, Kar l g r e n i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Shih Ching 'The Book of Odes' (1950:3), Takashima i n the Negatives i n the King Wu-ting Bone I n s c r i p t i o n s (.1973:156), Yang Shu-ta l n h i s Chi Wei Chti Chia Wen Shuo (1974:12) and Han Yao-lung | | ?f i n h i s a r t i c l e 'Chia Ku Pu Tz'u Chung YU Tzu Yung Fa T'an Chiu Thus, ^ % f $ i s glossed as ' % % & d j i ' i n the Mao Shih Cheng I 1̂  (SSCCS, Chuan 1.2, p.2). "The y e l l o w b i r d s go f l y i n g . " (Karlgren 1950:3) However, as Chou Fa-kao p o i n t s out, there are cases where the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to go' i s not a p p l i c a b l e (1962:251). For example, 'fjL 9 ^ QlL (Shih Ching HY 28/137/3) "The morning being good f o r the excursion." (Legge, p.207) "An auspicious morning they proceed." (Karlgren 1950:88) £ ^ *+ (Shih Ching HY 38/177/1,2) "The k i n g had ordered the e x p e d i t i o n . " (Legge, p.281) "The k i n g sent out a war e x p e d i t i o n . " (Karlgren 1950:120) (The Mao Chuan and Cheng Chien do not g l o s s ' ^ ' as ' ' i n these two 1 • • x 7 l i n e s . ) Ch'U Wan-li $ % ) % renders the word yjl 5" i n the l i n e tj J ^ as t s a i fa , yU f e i -J- ^ means t s a i f e i rfj- jfjg (1967:3). Chtt's r e n d i t i o n does not f i t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i n e very w e l l , s i n c e the f o l l o w i n g l i n e reads ' -f ' . ̂  Nevertheless, to i n t e r p r e t y j l ~f as the modern co-verb t s a i (to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the f u l l verb t s a i ^ i n both c l a s s i c a l and modern Chinese) which has the f u n c t i o n of showing an a c t i o n i n process - 102 - can be defended i n other cases, (e.g. ' ,J- f / f j 1 i n the I-Ching. See below.) Wang Y i n - c h i % £/\ Z— simply uses the words ( p a r t i c l e s ) yU , , y{leh 0 to render the word yU -+~ without e l a b o r a t i n g on i t s f u n c t i o n (1974:13). No matter how sc h o l a r s i n t e r p r e t the word yU i n sentences such as "ft f ^ » i t n a s o n e important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that we must not l o s e s i g h t 9 of, t hat i s , i t never f u n c t i o n s as a main verb i n the Shih Ching. A sentence such as '* (the k i n g goes) ' i s unattested i n the Shih Ching. In the cases where a l o c a t i v e term f o l l o w s the word yU -j~ , there i s always a v e r b a l element, e.g., jjj^ ^ '-/^ ^\ . When yU appears i n sentences such as ^ %j f ff*, sentences to which the gloss j " , ^5 i s f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d , the expression f o l l o w i n g yU i s i n v a r i a b l y v e r b a l . * ^ The general r u l e that yU does not f u n c t i o n as a main verb can al s o be a p p l i e d to the Ch'un Ch'iu jfti^ and i t s three commentaries. A p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n made w i t h HY Index has f a i l e d to r e v e a l any case where yU -j~ has to be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u l l verb.*''' In the Kung Yang Chuan ^ ^ f l j ^ and Ku Liang Chuan | ^ ^ ^ there are sentences such as 1 f , £3 ', but yU -p i s not a f u l l verb here s i n c e t h i s i s a commentary on the Ch'un Ch'iu sentence: # £ */£ f% f ^ '(SL 4 7 / & 1/4 £1,4 £ ) 'a r e c e p t i o n house was b u i l t f o r the King's daughter outside (the c i t y w a l l ) . ' (Legge, p.72) yjl i s not found as a f u l l verb i n the Shang Shu, I Ching or bronzes e i t h e r . As i n the Shih Ching examples c i t e d above, y j l ^ i s o c c a s i o n a l l y found - 103 - preceding v e r b a l expressions. In the chapter 'Ta Kao' of the Shang Shu o a , we f i n d : '....to go forward to r e s t o r e t r a n q u i l l i t y and to perpetuate the plans of my f a t h e r . ' (Legge, p.366-67) '....to achieve the serene (dead) Wu's planned work. (Ka r l g r e n , 1950a:37) f " i f " > % & ? f f'ty H S (SSTC 2 7 0 1 9 9 ) 'I w i l l now go forward w i t h you from a l l the s t a t e s , and punish those vagabond and transported m i n i s t e r s of Y i n . ' (Legge, p.367) 'I s h a l l w i t h you v a r i o u s s t a t e s , go and a t t a c k the f u g i t i v e and thrown-out (king's servant=) grandee of the Y i n (house).' ( K a r l g r e n , 1950a:37) (These two examples are c i t e d by K a r l g r e n as evidence i n favor of the ' , ^£j<£, ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (1942:100). Not i c e i n t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s , both Legge and K a r l g r e n i n t e r p r e t vjl as a f u l l verb. Ch ' U W a n - l i / ^ , ^ ' ^ a l s o renders ^ as 'to go' (1972:72).) 'How should I be a l l f o r the o r a c l e of d i v i n a t i o n and presume not to f o l l o w your advice?' (Legge, p.374) 'How should I ( f i r s t ) explore to the utmost the o r a c l e , and then dare not go and f o l l o w i t ? ' - ' - 2 (Karlgren, 1950a:39) In the I-Ching, we f i n d : (HY 2 3 / 3 6 / ^ ) 'Darkening of the l i g h t during f l i g h t He lowers h i s wings.' (Baynes 1950: V o l . 1 , P.151) - 104 - 9 4j, > ® frfc (HI 23/36/ ) The su p e r i o r man does not eat f o r three days on h i s wanderings. (Baynes 1950: V61.I-, p.151) Ytl i s found i n the bronzes i n the f o l l o w i n g types of sentences. fit ff rf*i\H&m i wei / k i n g / yU / a t t a c k / Ch'u / e a r l / being at / Yen While the k i n g was on the e x p e d i t i o n to a t t a c k the E a r l of Ch'u, he s t a t i o n e d ( l i t . being at) Yen.... (San T a i > IK. , ChUan 9, p.26, L i n g Kuei / C ^ f f i ' k i n g / order / Y i Tzu / a r r i v e / west / d i r e c t i o n ? » ' • yU / in s p e c t (San T a i • >'fv\i , ChUan 4, p.7, Fa Chiao Ting flfc ft] ifjft The k i n g ordered Y i Tzu to a r r i v e at the west to i n s p e c t . l^f& 1 . . f t , i - s s u / p r i n c e / order / Hsiao Tzu 2 /go h VA ^ A f i t .|13 lead / people / yU / Chin ,fK On i - s s u day, the p r i n c e ordered Hsiao Tzu |§[ (?) to go ahead to l e a d the people (army) to Chin. (San T a i Z- k\, , ChUan 13, p.42, 'I' Mu Hsin Yao '| ^ (The reason f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g h s i e n as 'go ahead' i s discussed on p.108). Before proceeding to i n v e s t i g a t e the l i n g u i s t i c behaviour of y_U ~f i n the O.B.I., we may b r i e f l y make a c o n c l u s i o n on the presumed v e r b a l f u n c t i o n of y_U . YU never f u n c t i o n s as a f u l l verb i n the e a r l y corpus - 105 - we have i n v e s t i g a t e d above. The only v e r b a l f u n c t i o n y j l has, i f we are j u s t i f i e d i n terming i t ' v e r b a l ' , i s that i t can precede the verb (or a v e r b a l i z e d noun) to show that the a c t i o n of the verb i s i n process or i s the main p o i n t of an e n t i r e movement. For example, y_U "T i n ' J\% ^ ' shows th a t the m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n i s i n process; y U i n ' 'f$. — i ' shows that 'to proceed' i s the main poi n t of an e n t i r e movement. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of y U throws l i g h t on the r a t i o n a l e f o r Mao's and Cheng's l | p g l o s s i n g of y U as wang One of the c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s of the word wang i s that i t f r e q u e n t l y appears as the f i r s t verb i n a s e r i e s . And, i n the c l a s s i c s , only extremely r a r e l y does i t take a 14 l o c a t i v e complement although i t sometimes fu n c t i o n s as a f u l l verb. I t should be noted that the word wang , when f u n c t i o n i n g as the f i r s t verb i n a s e r i e s , has a very l i g h t i n f o r m a t i o n l o a d . A sentence such as ' J ^ ̂  ^ ' (the k i n g goes hunting) i s c o g n i t i v e l y equivalent to ' £ v-j> ' (the k i n g hunts). (In the O.B.I., both ' £ j>% <® ' and ' ^ \J? ' occur q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y ) . There are even sentences such as J {£/ 'the k i n g should go to go out' (ch'u ^ i s used i n the sense of ch'u tung %%t} (to take the f i e l d ) , e.g., I ^ 1887, I Z i 6530). The f a c t that wang ^JL , i n the above s t r u c t u r e , ceases to be a verb c a r r y i n g a f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n l o a d , makes i t f u n c t i o n a l l y s i m i l a r to y j l -f . I t may be i n t h i s sense that Mao and Cheng jjjip glossed y U ~^ as wang . (Also ^p * V j w a Y ^ and ^ " J *Yjwang are probably e t y m o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d . They share a f i n a l f l e x i o n C j 1 ^ I^j^^ff^ ^ ' f a c t was drawn to the author's a t t e n t i o n by Takashima i n h i s comments to a d r a f t v e r s i o n of the present t h e s i s . ) Our i n v e s t i g a t i o n has i n f a c t shown that i t i s only i n t h i s sense that such a gloss i s l e g i t i m a t e . ' ' 5 - 106 - I t may seem that we have gone too f a r i n t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the presumed f u l l verb usage of yjl i n the c l a s s i c s and bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s . But s i n c e a l l these m a t e r i a l s and the O.B.I, are i n the same l i n e a g e , the usage of yjl i n these m a t e r i a l s may throw some l i g h t on i t s f u n c t i o n i n the O.B.I. In any case, the determining f a c t o r i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of yd i n sentences such as ' ̂ ,|t ^ ^fij ~f ^|^>' i s the l i n g u i s t i c behaviour of yjl i n the O.B.I, i t s e l f . To the best of the author's knowledge, the f i r s t s c h o l a r to i n t e r p r e t yu ^ as a f u l l verb 'to go' i n the O.B.I, was Yang Shu-ta ~%t) 1ii . He c i t e s three i n s c r i p t i o n s as examples where yjl J can be i n t e r p r e t e d as wang fa (1974:12). I f the o f f i c i a l s 'go' to perform a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to the north t a b l e t ( s p i r i t ) , (they or we) w i l l not encounter heavy r a i n . I f the k i n g walks from J^'j (?) to Ku, he w i l l have no d i s a s t e r . o i f U £ -5- a We should order Ch'ueh to go f i r s t to 3(0 (Yang*4^) probably i n t e r p r e t s h s i e n as an adverb, and yjl as the main verb, i . e . , ' f i r s t go t o ' . But there i s evidence showing that h s i e n £^ , i n the O.B.I., can f u n c t i o n as a main verb having the meaning 'to go ahead'. See page 108.) In the f i r s t example, vjl ^ precedes a v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e as i t does i n the c l a s s i c s and bronzes. In the second example, the word yU appears - 107 - i n a 'V + B *f ' p a t t e r n i n which both c h i | f and y U -f are coverbs ( p r e p o s i t i o n - v e r b ) . In the t h i r d example, although i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t y U - j - as the main verb, another a n a l y s i s which takes h s i e n ^ as the main verb seems more p l a u s i b l e . We w i l l r e t u r n to t h i s p o i n t l a t e r . Han Yao-lung ^j- ft^. i n the a r t i c l e "Chia Ku Pu Tz'u Chung Yd Tzu Yung Fa T'an Chiu' ^ iff f | ^ ^ f % c i t e s twelve i n s c r i p - t i o n s i n support of the theory that y U - j " can f u n c t i o n as a verb 'to go' (1973:11). However, among h i s twelve examples, there i s not a s i n g l e one where yj l has to be i n t e r p r e t e d as a main verb. I-**? • ? t * f ^ & T~V m (1) I f the o f f i c i a l s go to perform a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to the north t a b l e t ( s p i r i t ) , (they or we) w i l l not encounter heavy r a i n . P t S f 4 £ f P (2) We should order Ch ' U e h to go ahead to f 4( A* 'h f (3) We should c a l l upon our people to go ahead to (?) (4) We should not c a l l upon our people to go ahead to °& (?) (5) We shouij.g not c a l l upon Lady Hao to go ahead to P'ang to o f f e r people. (.6) We should c a l l upon Lady Hao to go ahead to o f f e r people at P'ang. Zi I f f t H f f i K ^ t' (7) We should not c a l l upon Lady Hao to go ahead to o f f e r people at P'ang. - 108 - I f f / f i e (8) I (the king) should s t a t i o n at P'ang. (9) *The k i n g (should) go to Shang. Or: The k i n g (should do a c e r t a i n thing) at Shang. I ^ i t L f m (10) We should not send people to Ch'a. £ it A . f -it. ^ (11) I f the k i n g sends people to Chih, there w i l l be approval. i A . f f (12) We should send people to Hua. In i n s c r i p t i o n s no. 8, 10, 11 and 12, there are other f u l l verbs, i . e . , B 'to s t a t i o n ' and 'f-^L'to d i s p a t c h , to send', which can be i n t e r p r e t e d as the main verbs w i t h vjl j " as a p r e p o s i t i o n . Thus, there i s no need to i n t e r p r e t vjl - j ~ as the main verb. From examples no. 2 to no. 7, the word vjl ~f i s i n v a r i a b l y preceded by the word h s i e n %j (Han seems to i n t e r p r e t h s i e n /7u as an adverb of the presumed verb vjl • j " ) . One cannot but wonder why the presumed verb yjl -f co-occurs w i t h the presumed adverb h s i e n 'fcj so f r e q u e n t l y (while the verb wang \ j - I s never preceded by h s i e n ^ i n the O.B.I.). The f a c t s that h s i e n l^_J f r e q u e n t l y precedes yU and that i t does not precede wang lead the author to suspect that h s i e n ^ i s a f u l l verb, having a meaning 'to go ahead'. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not without support. t i n g - y u / crack / Ma / perhaps / go ahead / not / unlucky I f our horses (a m i l i t a r y u n i t ) go ahead, (they) w i l l not be unlucky. Nan Ming (% eft 682 ' i - s s u / t e s t 7 h u i /p (?) / go ahead / s t a t e l e t t a t e l e t I t i s 77 who w i l l go ahead to the s t a t e l e t . „ ... n / r „ y Nan Ming ffi 9f\ 453 In the above i n s c r i p t i o n s , h s i e n /%_J i s obviously a f u l l verb. Thus, the s t r u c t u r e h s i e n yU ^ -J- can be analysed as 'V + p r e p o s i t i o n ' r a t h e r than 'adverb + verb'. I n s c r i p t i o n s no. 5, 6 and 7 are, i n f a c t , counter- - 1 0 9 - evidence of Han's theory. In no. 5, the s t r u c t u r e i s '... ~f /^jf" X^, ' w h i l e i n no. 6 and 7, the s t r u c t u r e i s '... 'fijffi /v f $ff, '• The f a c t that the s t r u c t u r e ' ~f ' can be placed e i t h e r before or a f t e r ' ' f ^ X ^ ' shows that ' "X /ffff, ' would b e t t e r be analysed as ' p r e p o s i t i o n + l o c a t i v e complement'. The only i n s c r i p t i o n not yet discussed i s no. 9: ' ;t f f̂ f '. I f we assume that t h i s i s a complete sentence and take the surface value of i t , yu - j " has to be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u l l verb. Nevertheless, i f the p r a c t i c e of d e l e t i o n i s taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the v a l i d i t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g yj l ^~ as the f u l l verb would become questionable. Let us look at some i n s c r i p t i o n s c i t e d from the Ping P i e n : keng-tzu / crack / Nei / should not / y U / Tzu Ping 122 (2) I f we assume that any charging statement has a verb and t h i s verb must be expressed, yd - j ~ ought to be i n t e r p r e t e d as a verb i n the above i n s c r i p t i o n . However, the tui-chen counterpart of Ping 122 (2) reads, t e s t / perhaps / r e s t / yU / Tzu We should perhaps r e s t at Tzu. P i n g 122 (1) I t shows that the verb i n Ping 112 (2) i s not y U , i n s t e a d i t i s ejfc- 'to r e s t ' which i s d e l e t e d . Examples of the above type can e a s i l y be m u l t i p l i e d : v 'ft it yU / Shu At' • Shu Ping 324 (4) t / y t t / Chia P i n / t e s U capture Ping 324 (3) We w i l l capture (deer) at Chia P i n . - 110 - (.On the same p l a s t r o n , there are d i v i n a t i o n s about whether there are deer ( l%y ) or not. Presumably 'deer' i s the unexpressed object of the verb |t(=4i) 'capture'.) t e s t / should not / yU I Ying / Tz'u (The king) should not (go i n t o ) Ying and Tz'u. Ping 521 (14) £4 t e s t / k i n g / enter / at / Ying 7 Tz'u The k i n g should go i n t o Ying and T z ' u . 1 7 Ping 521 (13) (For the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the graph (word) , see YU Hsing-wu 1979:174-175.) Keeping the p r a c t i c e of a b b r e v i a t i o n i n mind, whether yjl i n the i n s c r i p t i o n ' £. 'f 1 functionsyas a verb i s d i s p u t a b l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n appears on a very small piece of p l a s t r o n (or bone), the tui-chen counterpart and the l a r g e r context are not a c c e s s i b l e to us. way: I n s c r i p t i o n s s i m i l a r to ' X- T ffl ' can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n a s i m i l a r chia-wu / crack / Cheng / yU / R i v e r Ping 203 (16) chia-wu / crack / Cheng / should not / yU / Ri v e r Ping 203 (17) F i r s t of a l l , we must recognize the f a c t that the word )&[ 'River' does not only represent a s p a t i a l ( p h y s i c a l ) e n t i t y but a l s o a super n a t u r a l being, i . e . , the Ri v e r god. (See Chia P'ing ^ -°f .' 1980:210.) In f a c t , the number of cases i n which ho represents a supernatural being i s much greater than those i n which i t represents a s p a t i a l e n t i t y . Thus, the i n s c r i p t i o n ' f ' - I l l - i s probably an abbreviated form of * -p (to perform an y u - o f f e r i n g to the R i v e r god). To assume that ho ' represents the Ri v e r god r a t h e r than a s p a t i a l - e n t i t y i s not mere conjecture. On the same p l a s t r o n , we f i n d the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s . j e n - y i n / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / River(god) / harm / k i n g The R i v e r ( g o d ) w i l l harm the k i n g . Ping 203 (20) j en-yin / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / Ri v e r ( g o d ) / not / harm / k i n g The River(god) w i l l not harm the k i n g . Ping 203 (21) Thus, i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s T ^"J and & "f , the word yU -J" i s probably 18 a p r e p o s i t i o n r a t h e r a f u l l verb. Takashima a l s o l i s t s some i n s c r i p t i o n s i n which yjl i s i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r as a verb or a p a r t i c l e (1973:156), but he has not elaborated on the d i s t i n c t i o n . Let us look f o r the presumed f u l l - v e r b usage of yU i n a l l these i n s c r i p t i o n s : t e s t / k i n g / yjl / Kung." Ping 3 (9) The k i n g should ( s t a t i o n ) at Kung. should not / yjl / Kung / s t a t i o n Ping 3 (10) The k i n g should not s t a t i o n at Kung. - 112 - t e s t / Yen"7 yU / Mien ytl Ping 120 CIO) Yen, at Mien, Yen / should not / y U / Mien Ping 120 (11) Yen should not, at Mien, t e s t / Yung / cut grass / y U / Ch'iu Ping 1A1 (13) Yung should cut grass at Ch'iu. M $ %ift ^ £ ̂  "ft t e s t / Yung / cut grass / should not / (yU) / Ch'iu Yung should not cut grass at Ch'iu. Ping 141 (14) • M * U V $ f f C| 5*. chia-wu / crack / Cheng / y U / River(god) Ping 203 (16) To the River(god) - f f h ^ kx> f k * f » r h « i chia-wu / crack / Cheng / should not / y U / River(god) To the River(god) / we should not Ping 203 (17) t e s t /..... / woman / yU / Tun T Ping 326 (7) woman at Tun. - - 3 not / vjl / Tun should not at Tun. should y t t 7 Tun Ping 326 (8) Yung / cut grass / y U / Ku Ping 396 (6) Yung should cut grass at Ku. should not / y t t / Ku Pi n g 396 (7) (Yung) should not (cut grass) at Ku. 1/ fo • t H t e s t / Kung / cut grass / should not / yjl / ^ (?) Kung should not cut grass at % • C?). Ping 413 (.21) i - s s u / crack / Chung / t e s t / Kung / cut grass / y U / S=|, (?) Kung should cut grass at ^ § (.?). Ping 413 (22) H JU f f '} have / ensue / y U / River(god) Ping 443 (5) have ensuing , to the Rive r ( g o d ) . y I ff fj b f r r ? 1.7 perhaps / ensue / should not / y U / River(god) P i n g 443 (6) 19 .... perhaps ensuing should not .... to the Rive r ( g o d ) . t e s t / should not / y U / P'ang Ping 510 (8) should not at P'ang. t e s t / at / P'ang Ping 510 (7) should a t P'ang. (Takashima l i s t s only the negative sentences s i n c e h i s major concern i s w i t h the negatives. The p o s i t i v e counterparts are s u p p l i e d by the author.) I n P i n g 3 (9) and (10), s i n c e the verb jj? 'to s t a t i o n ' appears, i t does not seem necessary t o i n t e r p r e t yjl as a f u l l verb. Moreover, i f we look at another t u i - c h e n p a i r engraved on the same p l a s t r o n , the m o t i v a t i o n f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g y U as a p r e p o s i t i o n becomes stronger: chi-wei / crack / Ch ' U e h / t e s t / we / y U / Chih / go i n t o / s t a t i o n . We should go i n t o Chih to s t a t i o n . Ping 3 (19) t e s t / should not / y U / Chih / s t a t i o n Ping 3 (20) We should not s t a t i o n at Chih. - 114 - The occurrence of the verb A.'to go i n t o ' shows that yU • j ' f u n c t i o n s as a p r e p o s i t i o n r a t h e r than a verb i n Ping 3 (19) and (20). I f i t i s l e g i t i m a t e to take Ping 3 (19), (20) and Ping 3 ( 9 ) , (10) as a group, as indeed these i n s c r i p t i o n s appear to be, we may supply the verb -s\ 'to go i n t o ' to Ping 20 3 (9), (10) and i n t e r p r e t yU as a p r e p o s i t i o n . Ping 203 (16) (17) ' f \f) ' and ' -f ' have already been discussed on p.110. S i m i l a r to Ping 203 (16) (17) are Ping 120 (10) (11) ' £ 1 k$ ', ' i fpj • and Ping. 510 (8) ' f ', 'fe O) $ ' • i Although there i s no cl u e as to what the verb i s , i t seems h i g h l y probable that some verbs have been d e l e t e d ? 1 Ping 326 (8) ' 4 ? 1 =jf ' i s only an abbreviated form. In i t s p o s i t i v e counterpart, there i s one more graph ( -kr), i . e . , 0 • Chang Ping-ch'Uan t r a n s c r i b e s as iffl , probably t a k i n g i t as a negative. This t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s not acceptable s i n c e i t v i o l a t e s the general tui-chen p a t t e r n of p o s i t i v e versus negative. We don't know e x a c t l y what graphs precede the graph > ^ . In the Y i n HsU Wen Tzu Cho Ho 211 • ^ h ^ l ^ ' i * > we f i n d the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s : c h i - s s u / crack / Cheng / t e s t / f a n g - s a c r i f i c e / woman / at / Tun 22 We should, f a n g - s a c r i f i c e a woman at Tun. t e s t / f a n g - s a c r i f i c e / woman / should not / at / Tun We should not f a n g - s a c r i f i c e a woman at Tun. i _ -k The o b l i t e r a t e d graphs i n f r o n t of M - j " |T i n Ping 326 (7) may be ^ Pin g 141 (13) (14), P i n g 396 (.6) (7) and Ping 413 (21) (22) are the type of i n s c r i p t i o n s i n question. - 1 1 5 - This lengthy excursus on the presumed f u l l - v e r b usage of yU has demonstrated that there are almost no instances i n which yU " j " must be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u l l verb 'to go 1. In both the three c l a s s i c a l t e x t s where i t i s employed most f r e q u e n t l y and i n the a r c h a i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , yjl f u n c t i o n s as no more than an a u x i l i a r y verb s i g n i f y i n g that the v e r b a l element f o l l o w i n g i s the purpose of an e n t i r e a c t i o n . I f the above obser- v a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , sentences such as ' fL'f: % ~f "WL>^ and ' ̂ Lf| ̂  ^ *f should not be analysed as composite sentences s i n c e to do so would r e q u i r e us to i n t e r p r e t ' J~ ' and '  /J1J "X ̂ jg, ' as the main clauses where a f u l l verb should occur. Furthermore, i t has been shown above that the negative wu lJTJ i n the O.B.I, has a p e c u l i a r behaviour. I t can be placed i n f r o n t of the con- s t i t u e n t which i s the f o c a l p o i n t of negation. That the i n s c r i p t i o n ' ̂ £ ^ 17] "J" e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than the 'normal' s t r u c t u r e ' * l^if 7// 'ff f ^ s a P r o°f that the focus of the negation i s on the l o c a t i v e ^jp . On Ping 396, there are the f o l l o w i n g p a i r s : ^ % f f Yung / cut grass I at I Yuan 396 (1) Yung should cut grass at YUan. %n f% kit f f f t Yung / cut grass /-should not / at /.YUan 396 (2) Yung should not cut grass at YUan. (For the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the graph(word) ̂  , see Yu Hsing-wu 1979:331-333.) t e s t / Yung / cut grass /.at / Ch'iu 396 (3) Yung should cut grass at Ch'iu. Yung / cut grass / should not / at / Ch'iu ; 396 (4) Yung should not cut grass at Ch'iu. - 116 - t e s t / Yung / cut grass / a t / f (?) 396 (5) Yung should cut grass at ^ ( ? ) • Yung / cut grass / at / Ku 396 (6) Yung should cut grass at Ku. t; * f •? ^4 should not / at / Ku 396 (7) t (Yung) should not (cut grass) at Ku. This array c l e a r l y demonstrates that the l o c a t i v e (the place where grass c u t t i n g should be done) i s the main concern of these d i v i n a t i o n s . The occurrence of wu r i g h t before yjl •f i s a 'marked 1 c o n s t r u c t i o n used to s i n g l e out the f o c a l p o i n t of negation. In our corpus, t h i s s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n i s q u i t e r a r e . A more common c o n s t r u c t i o n which has the same f u n c t i o n i s to put the c o n s t i t u e n t conveying the f o c a l p o i n t of negation i n f r o n t of the verb, f r e q u e n t l y i n the i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n of a sentence. For example: Ping 3 (9) (10) (19) (20) —- J -*K n 1 the k i n g should s t a t i o n at Kung. ' ^ £ f ) j l f ^« ( t h e king) should not s t a t i o n at Kung. ' ~$C h ' We should go i n t o Chih to s t a t i o n . We should not s t a t i o n at Chih. ( I t i s assumed that the term Tfj^ 'we' i n c l u d e s ~£, 'the k i n g ' i n t h i s context, i . e . , the k i n g and h i s army.) I t should be noted that although the negative wu ^ can be placed i n f r o n t of a. c o n s t i t u e n t which i s the f o c a l p o i n t of negation, i t i s not the case that wu 7̂ ? i s always used i n t h i s way. O7 - 117 - CHAPTER THREE CONDITIONAL AND SIMULTANEOUS-SUCCESSIVE SENTENCES I (NON-RITUAL-SACRIFICIAL VERBS) In t h i s chapter, we are going to deal w i t h two kinds of composite sentence, namely, c o n d i t i o n a l and simultaneous-successive sentences. These two kinds of sentence-, however, w i l l not be i n v e s t i g a t e d under separate headings. The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t : (1) without formal markers, i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t or even impossible to d i s t i n g u i s h these two kinds of sentence , and (2) these two kinds of composite sentence are so s i m i l a r t h a t , i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese, sometimes the same connective can be used i n e i t h e r k i n d of sentence. (See p.143). Thus, they are to be discussed together, although e f f o r t s w i l l be made to d i s t i n g u i s h them through the t r a n s l a t i o n s . Furthermore, as l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the clauses i n O.B.I, c o n t a i n i n g s a c r i f i c i a l verbs are r a t h e r obscure a n d l t h e i r i i r i s c r i p t ' i o n r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t approach, the a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n of such i n s c r i p - t i o n s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y i n Chapter Four. As a subcategory of s u b o r d i n a t i v e composite sentences, cause-and- e f f e c t sentences have been discussed i n Chapter Two. Ther.e^is no-need fotset up a separate s e c t i o n f o r t h i s k i n d of sentence i n the present chapter. Instead, i t w i l l be discussed i n connection w i t h the c o n d i t i o n a l sentence. - 118 - I . A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CONDITIONAL AND SIMULTANEOUS-SUCCESSIVE SENTENCES These two types of sentence c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e p a r t of the t o t a l of composite sentences. They are used to d i v i n e about: A. What a c t i o n s should be taken i n a given s i t u a t i o n , as i n : i .Y'**r» fis. ̂ *« t e s t / Chih Chia / open / Pa / k i n g / f o l l o w f;X;Chihi Chia'.breaks i n t o ( l i t . open) the Pa, the k i n g should f o l l o w him. Or: Chih Chia broke i n t o the Pa, the k i n g should f o l l o w him. Ping 275 (5) hsin-mao / crack / P i n / t e s t / Chih Chia / open / Pa ± * £ * / ^ i i ̂ - i fl« k i n g / should not / wei / t h i s / f o l l o w ( I f ) Chih Chia breaks i n t o the Pa, i t should not be he that the k i n g f o l l o w s . Or: Chih Chia broke i n t o the Pa, i t should not be he that { the k i n g f o l l o w s . ^ ^ ( g ) hsin-mao / crack / P i n / t e s t / Chih Chia / open / Pa ki n g / h u i / t h i s / f o l l o w / f i v e / month ( I f ) Chih Chia breaks i n t o the Pa, i t should be he that the ^ k i n g f o l l o w s . (Divined i n the) f i f t h month. 276 (6) - 119 - Or: Chih Chia broke i n t o the Pa, i t should be he that the k i n g f o l l o w s . (Divined i n the) f i f t h month. 1 K W* ^ 4 ? *jr t i n g - s s u / crack / Cheng / s i c k / fo o t / e x o r c i s e to / Father Keng Ping 541 (3) (So and so) i s s u f f e r i n g from an a i l i n g f o o t , we should . perform an exorcism to Father Keng. ft* ^ i t ^ ^ & JL % f f s i c k / foot / should not / s p e c i f i c a l l y 7 e x o r c i s e / to Father H s i n T Ping 541 (4) (So and/so) i s s u f f e r i n g from an a i l i n g f o o t , we should not s p e c i f i c a l l y perform an exorcism to Father H s i n . (The reason f o r excluding the c o n d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Ping 541 ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) , i . e . , ' i f so and so s u f f e r s from an a i l i n g f o o t , ...', i s discussed on p.311, fn.13) B. A consequence of a c e r t a i n a c t i v i t y or event, as i n : chia-ch'en / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t 7 next / i - s s u say / P r i n c e (?) / d r i v e V a r r i v e / at / t i n g - w e i / harm Ping 302 (.13) On next i - s s u day, ( i f ) we c a l l upon P r i n c e ^ (?) to d r i v e 1 (the enemies), a r r i v i n g at the t i n g - w e i day, we w i l l harm (them). - 120 - < nhft V * Us S f * . f* next / i - y u / y u - o f f e r / behead / from / Hsien / approve Ping 41 (18) On next i - y u day, i f we y u - o f f e r beheaded v i c t i m s (to ancestors) s t a r t i n g from Hsien, (they) w i l l be pleased. T t f U 1> %t ft&^M t*U fee wu-wu / crack / Chung / t e s t / P'an / go / come / have no A fa misfortune Ping 130 (1) During P'an's t r a v e l l i n g to and f r o , there w i l l be no misfortune. t e s t / P'an / go / come /.perhaps / have / misfortune Ping 130 (2) During P'an's t r a v e l l i n g to and f r o , there w i l l perhaps be ^ misfortune. keng-tzu / crack / Ch'Ueh / Lady Kuo / bear / good Ping 96 (16) Lady Kuo w i l l give b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l be good. Lady Kuo / bear / not / perhaps / good Ping 96 (17) Lady Kuo w i l l give b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l perhaps not be good. V Sentences of t h i s k i n d , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the consequence of an a c t i v i t y or event, can be f u r t h e r sub-divided i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : - 121 - (.1) The a c t i v i t y s t a t e d i n the subordinate clause i s intended to b r i n g about the consequence/effeet found i n the main clause, f o r example, Ping 302 (.13) ' Z» £ €? 4" j| , J - f T ^ ' (see a l s o the i n s c r i p t i o n s c i t e d i n footnote no'.l). There i s a quasi-'cause and e f f e c t ' r e l a t i o n s h i p between the subordinate clause and the main clause. (2) The a c t i v i t y s t a t e d i n the subordinate clause i s not intended to b r i n g about the consequence represented by the main c l a u s e , as i n Ping 130 (2) ' -|}$_ %t^, j t f 4$) '• Obviously, 'misfortune' i s not something the Shang people intend to b r i n g about during P'an's t r a v e l l i n g to and f r o . 'There w i l l perhaps be misfortune' simply represents a s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r than an ' v o l i t i o n a l e f f e c t ' , of the a c t i v i t y ' t r a v e l l i n g to and f r o ' . There may be more than one main clause i n a c o n d i t i o n a l or s i m u l - taneous-successive sentence: i-ch'ou / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / c h i a - t z u / cut i n t o / i-ch'ou k i n g / dream / shepherd / stone / mi-deer / not / wei / misfortune wei / b l e s s i n g Ping 96 (1) During the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d between the c h i a - t z u and i-ch'ou day ( l i t . the p e r i o d when the c h i a - t z u day cuts i n t o the i-ch'ou day) the k i n g dreamt of shepherding stone mi-deer; i t does not (mean) misfortune (but) b l e s s i n g s . (For the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the graph(word) , see Takashima 1979:54, f n . l 9 a . ) - 122 - t "it. ft 8 t e s t / k i n g / cut(?) / three / Ch'iang / at / tsu-stand not / obstruct / please Ping 96 (11) ( I f ) the k i n g c u t ( ? ) - s a c r i f i c e s three Ch'iang-tribesmen on a tsu-stand, (the s p i r i t s ) w i l l not ob s t r u c t (but) approve (the 2 king's a c t i v i t i e s ) . In the m a j o r i t y of c o n d i t i o n a l or simultaneous-successive sentences c o l l e c t e d i n the Ping P i e n , p o s i t i v e - n e g a t i v e p o l a r i t y i s expressed i n the apodosis. f W fi *Fj. 2* £* F-S/̂ /̂ • t e s t / Chia / go / come / perhaps / have / misfortune During Chia's t r a v e l l i n g to and f r o , he w i l l perhaps have misfortunes. Ping 32 (26) < kuei-ch'ou / crack / Cheng / t e s t misfortune / k i n g / pro g n o s t i c a t e / say / no / misfortune / Chia / go / come / have no Ping 32 (27) During Chia's t r a v e l l i n g to and f r o , he w i l l have no misfortunes. The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , "there w i l l be no misfortunes." chia-wu / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / present / t h i s jade (bundle) / Hsien / ob s t r u c t I f the k i n g presents t h i s jade (bundle), Hsien w i l l o b s t r u ct ( h i s a c t i v i t i e s ) . Ping 139 (1) - 123 - j chia-wu / crack / Ch'ueh / t e s t / k i n g / present / t h i s / jade (bundle) / Hsien / not / ob s t r u c t I f the k i n g presents t h i s jade (bundle), Hsien w i l l not s obs t r u c t ( h i s a c t i v i t i e s ) . Ping 139 (2) However, there are a l s o some tui-chen p a i r s i n which the p o s i t i v e - g a t i v e p o l a r i t y i s expressed i n the p r o t a s i s . ' y:7k '< * U F l * H* £» 4 » keng-wu / crack / Nei / t e s t / k i n g / should not / make s&, r* <u n ft settlement / being at / here / t i - g o d / approve Ping 93 (4) I f the ki n g does not make a settlement here, t i - g o d w i l l approve (or, w i l l be pleased). Or: Let the k i n g not make a settlement here and then t i - g o d 3 w i l l approve (or, w i l l be pleased). fy/kU U i i IN* I g. keng-wu / crack / Nei / t e s t / k i n g / make / settlement / t i - g o d approve / eigh t month I f the k i n g makes a settlement here, t i - g o d w i l l approve (or, w i l l be pleased). Ping 93 (5) n% i . li t f f i t e s t / k i n g / make / settlement / t i - g o d / approve I f the k i n g makes a settlement, t i - g o d w i l l approve (or, w i l l be pleased). Ping 93 (6) - 124 - \ t e s t / ... / should not / make / settlement / t i - g o d / approve Ping 93 (7) I f (the king) does not make a settlement, t i - g o d w i l l approve (or, w i l l be pleased.) Or: Let the k i n g not make a settlement and then t i - g o d w i l l approve (or, w i l l be pleased.) j e n - t z u / crack / Cheng / t e s t / we / perhaps / make / settlement t i - g o d / not / ob s t r u c t / approve Ping 147 (1) I f we w i l l perhaps make a settlement, t i - g o d w i l l not ob s t r u c t but approve (or, w i l l be pleased). kuei-ch'ou / crack / Cheng / t e s t / should not / make / settlement t i - g o d / approve Ping 147 (2) I f the k i n g does not make a settlement, t i - g o d w i l l approve (o.r, w i l l be pleased). Or: Let the k i n g not make a settlement, and then t i - g o d w i l l approve (or , i w i l l be pleased). kuei-ch'ou / crack I . . . I t e s t / we / make / settlement / t i - g o d not / ob s t r u c t / approve I f we make a settlement, t i - g o d w i l l not ob s t r u c t but approve (or, w i l l be pleased). Ping 199 (11) - 125 - \ kuei-ch'ou / crack I . . . I t e s t / should not / make settlement I . . . I approve Ping 199 (12) I f we do not make a settlement, (.ti-god) w i l l approve (or, w i l l be pleased). Or: L e t us not make a settlement, and then (ti-god) w i l l approve ^ (or, w i l l be ple a s e d ) . These i n s c r i p t i o n s o b v i o u s l y cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as 'cause and e f f e c t ' sentences s i n c e *'we/the k i n g should not b u i l d a settlement, because t i - g o d w i l l be pleased' does not make sense at a l l . On p.82 & 84 "of Chapter Two, we have already d i s c u s s e d , by c i t i n g Serruys' and Takashima's s t u d i e s , the c o n d i t i o n a l usage of the p r o h i b i t i v e negative wu . The i r theory i s c e r t a i n l y a p p l i c a b l e to the i n s c r i p t i o n s i n question. There appears to be a d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s type of c o n d i t i o n a l sentence and or d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n a l sentences. In a normal c o n d i t i o n a l sentence of which the p r o t a s i s represents a c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t y , the Shang k i n g (or d i v i n e r ) merely proposes a p o s s i b l e choice without s t r o n g l y or e x p l i c i t l y expressing h i s a t t i t u d e towards the a c t i v i t y . However, i n the type of c o n d i t i o n a l sentence e x e m p l i f i e d above whose protases represent c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t i e s , the Shang king's (or the d i v i n e r ' s ) a t t i t u d e towards the a c t i v i t i e s i s s t r o n g l y and e x p l i c i t l y expressed by use of the modal ?D , e.g., we should not make a settlement. A l l these four t u i - c h e n p a i r s d i v i n e about the b u i l d i n g of a new settlement. Whether a l l these i n s c r i p t i o n s deal w i t h the same proposed settlement i s something we cannot be sure of. The d i v i n e r of Ping 93 (4) (5) i s Nei w h i l e the d i v i n e r of - 126 - Ping (1) (2) i s Cheng ^7 and furthermore, the d i v i n a t i o n s were made on d i f f e r e n t days, the keng-wu (.seventh day i n the kan-chih c a l e n d a r ) , the j e n - tz u ( f o r t y - n i n t h day i n the kan-chih calendar) and the kuei-ch'ou ( f i f t i e t h day of the kan-chih calendar) r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, upon checking the i n s c r i p t i o n s concerning the b u i l d i n g of settlements ( A rt ) , i t i s discovered that none of these i n s c r i p t i o n s takes the common p a t t e r n i n which negation i s expressed i n the apodosis, i . e . , '* £•/ ^ ^ ^ "2̂ 2. (* i f t h e king/we make a 4 settlement, t i - g o d w i l l not be pleased'. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , due to the pa u c i t y of t h i s type of sentence, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to provide an exp l a n a t i o n . - 127 - I I . THE CONTRAST BETWEEN AN INTENDED EFFECT AND AN UNCONTROLLABLE CONTINGENCY In many cases, i t i s easy to determine whether or not the r e s u l t expressed i n the main clause i s something the Shang b r i n g about i n t e n t i o n a l l y by performing a c e r t a i n a c t i v i t y . T y p i c a l examples are 1 1 (to a t t a c k ) and i t s intended r e s u l t (harm); or 1 T̂3E- ^ ' (to t r a v e l to and f r o ) and the undesirable c o n d i t i o n ' ^ l$p) ' (have misfortune):! c i t e d above. However, there are a l s o some cases where both i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s seem to be p o s s i b l e . Sentences where (̂ T) 'to r a i n ' appears as the main clause sometimes pose problems. Depending on the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , r a i n may be something e i t h e r d e s i r a b l e or un d e s i r a b l e , i . e . , the intended e f f e c t of an a c t i o n or an unwelcome p o s s i b i l i t y . If 1* H 6 A « I * rf $<=*]) c h i a - y i n / t e s t / y u - o f f e r / a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e / s u i - c u t - s a c r i f i c e i | _ ' . M tag T'ai I / encounter / r a i n During the y u - o f f e r i n g , a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e and s u i - c u t - s a c r i f i c e to T'ai I , we w i l l encounter r a i n . Or: I f we perform a y u - o f f e r i n g , a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e and s u i - c u t - s a c r i f i c e to T'ai I , then we w i l l encounter r a i n . . j , T s ' u i 794 U< H & A *• 4 M T * 0 u ) <f k u e i - h a i / t e s t / y u - o f f e r / a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e / to / (Shang) Chia encounter / r a m (During) the y_u-off e r i n g and ascend-sacrif i c e to (Shang) Chai, - 128 - (we) w i l l encounter r a i n . Or: I f we perform a y u - o f f e r i n g and a s c e n d - s a c r i f i c e to (Shang) Chia, then we w i l l encounter r a i n . , . ••a? Chia N-P 750 At f i r s t s i g h t , both i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s seems e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e , but as w i l l be pointed out l a t e r , the a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s posed here w i l l not be the c o r r e c t choices. I n order to choose between them, we have to study the common expression There are two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s expression. (1) ' ^ ) ' sometimes co-occurs w i t h the word c h ' i which i s f r e q u e n t l y , though not n e c e s s a r i l y , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n d e s i r a b i l i t y , e.g., C h i e n - ^ 17.10, T s ' u i 721 and Ch'en Pjfc. 4. (This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of j% i s observed by Serruys (1974:25).) While h o l d i n g an o p i n i o n d i f f e r e n t from that of Serruys* on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h ' i , the author agrees that c h ' i , i n most cases, can be used as a c r i t e r i o n to determine whether a s i t u a t i o n i s considered undesirable by the Shang p r o v i d i n g there i s no counter-evidence. (For a d i s c u s s i o n of c h ' i , see p.142-) But the expression ^ N j J | $S) i s never found i n c o l l o c a t i o n w i t h . On the c o n t r a r y , ĉ T) sometimes co-occurs w i t h c h i ( a u s p i c i o u s ) , e.g., I fyf^ 48, Ho 31 and IHayashi' " f c j v 2.16.22, w h i l e rfg never does. Taking these two observations together, we can suggest that |S?represents something und e s i r a b l e . (2) I n the Shang and Chou times, dancing i s a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e f o r i n v o k i n g r a i n . - 129 - . .1 f a °A«i ft m « t e s t / next / ting-mao / present / dance / have / r a i n I Z J 7233 On the next ting-mao day, i f we present a dance, we w i l l have r a i n . 7 - * c a l l upon / dance / have / r a i n Chin 638 ( I f ) we c a l l upon (so and so) to dance, we w i l l have r a i n . To teach the huang-dance and l e a d (the people) to dance (because of) the drought. (SSCCS, Chou L i ffl \\j , chuan 12, p.22) 'Raining' i s d e f i n i t e l y the intended r e s u l t of the dance. However, sentences i n c o r p o r a t i n g both '* ' and the expression under d i s c u s s i o n ' C K ) / ' a r e n°t a t t e s t e d i n the O.B.I. S i m i l a r l y , the r i t u a l .jjc (to invoke), i s f r e q u e n t l y used to invoke r a i n d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y . keng-wu / crack / t e s t / to / great / t a b l e t / invoke / g r a i n r a i n J i n 2366 ( I f ) we invoke f o r a (good) g r a i n harvest to the ( s p i r i t s of the) great t a b l e t s , i t w i l l r a i n . invoke / to / R i v e r (god) / harvest / have / r a i n Ts ' u i "^f* 834 ( I f ) we invoke f o r a (good) harvest to the Ri v e r (god), we w i l l have r a i n . (See a l s o Nan Ming 424, 426; T s ' u i ^ 121; and Chia ^ 1275. L i s t inexhaustive.) - 130 - perhaps / invoke / (?) / gate / have / b i g & fa r a i n Chia f 1259 ( I f ) we perhaps invoke f o r r a i n at the X. (?) gate, we w i l l have heavy r a i n . However, the expression 3*i[5_.ft& never co-occurs w i t h t h i s verb e i t h e r . That the expression jjljf fifcj never co-occurs w i t h the verbs wu J|p and c h ' i u $L of which ' r a i n i n g ' i s an intended r e s u l t suggests that j f l f^? i s something unintended. (The d i r e c t object of , i . e . , the t h i n g prayed f o r , i s not r e s t r i c t e d to vjl jfcj . However, the d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t s o l i c i t i n g of r a i n seems to be the most common purpose of t h i s r i t u a l . ) To sum up, the expression jjjf pp7 does not represent the intended e f f e c t of an a c t i o n and i t s co-occurrence w i t h c h ' i jjL suggests that i t i s p o s s i b l y something u n d e r s i r a b l e . Such a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s confirmed by the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s . p mg-yin / crack / i (?) / t e s t / next ting-mao / k i n g / perhaps / teach / not / encounter r a i n Pu f 501 On the next ting-mao day, the k i n g w i l l perhaps teach I (the mass); he w i l l not encounter r a i n . 5 - 131 - kin g / perhaps / hunt / not / excounter / r a i n The k i n g w i l l perhaps hunt; he w i l l not encounter r a i n . Ching Jj. 3851 / ~^JC_ 'Teaching (the people m a r t i a l a c t i v i t i e s ) ' and ^ 'hunting' are not g e n e r a l l y considered r a i n - s o l i c i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Quite the c o n t r a r y ; ' r a i n i n g ' poses an o b s t a c l e to such a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s more than n a t u r a l to i n t e r p r e t /^jjl^ as a d e s i r a b l e but u n c o n t r o l l a b l e p o s s i b i l i t y , r a t h e r than an intended consequence, of and 09.. Once t h i s i d i o m a t i c usage of the expression i j | (jt^ / i s made c l e a r , we can r e j e c t the a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Ts ' u i 794 and Chia 750 on page 127. In c o n t r a s t to , the expression ' ~% $0 ' represents the hoped-for r e s u l t of r a i n - s o l i c i t i n g r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c e s . at stake / T s a i / hav 7t f H$i ^ n * l * ^ .. , t e s t / t h i s / ping-hstl / burn t ha e ensue / r a i n Ping 157 (1) On the ping-hsti day, i f we burn at the stake a woman of T s a i , we w i l l have ensuing r a i n . A b i ^ * # A * r r i & t e s t / T s a i / have no / perhaps / ensue / r a i n Ping 157 (2) (I f we burn at the stake) a woman of T s a i , we w i l l perhaps have no ensuing r a i n . < - 132 - t e s t / c h ' t l - s a c r i f i c e / Mountain(god)" / have / r a i n I f we perform a c h ' t l - s a c r i f i c e to the Mountain(god), we w i l l perhaps have r a i n . Ping 535 (2) c h ' U - s a c r i f i c e / have no / perhaps / r a i n I f we perform a c h ' U - s a c r i f i c e (to the Mountain(god)), we w i l l perhaps have no r a i n . P ing 535 (3) i% ^ « t i 7 * t e s t / burn at stake / have / r a i n P ing 469 (1) We should burn at stake (X), f o r we w i l l have r a i n . should not / burn at stake / have no / perhaps / r a i n Ping 469 (2) We should not burn at stake (X), ( f o r ) we w i l l perhaps have no r a i n . t e s t / next / ting-mao / present / dance / have / r a i n Ping 223 (5) On next ting-mao day, we should present a dance, ( f o r ) we w i l l have r a i n . next / ting-mao / should not / have no / perhaps / r a i n Ping 223 (6) On next ting-mao day, we should not (present a dance), ( f o r ) we w i l l perhaps have no r a i n . - 133 t e s t / dance / Mountain(god) / have / r a i n I f we (present) a dance to the Mountain(god), we w i l l ^ have r a i n . Ping 199 (9) t e s t / Mountain(god) / have no / perhaps / r a i n ( I f we present a dance to) the Mountain(god), we w i l l perhaps have no r a i n . Ping 199 (10) t e s t / chao / R i v e r (god) / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / to / $(!£ (?) ft ^ ti have / r a i n P ing 431 (6) I f we chao-sacr i f i c e ( ? ) to the River(god) and burn- s a c r i f i c e to ( ? ) , we w i l l have rain.*' c a l l upon I . . . I wang / to / River(god) / have / ensure / r r a i n Ping 463 (2) ( I f ) we c a l l upon (so and so) to wang(?) to the R i v e r ( g o d ) , we w i l l have ensuing rain.'' have no / ... / ensue / ... Ping 463 (3) v(We) w i l l (perhaps) have no ( r a i n ) . . t e s t / we / dance / r a i n Ping 71 (6) g I f we dance, i t w i l l r a i n . This i s an exhaustive l i s t of the i n s c r i p t i o n s concerning r a i n - s o l i c i t i n g i n our corpus. With the exception of the l a s t one Ping 71 ( 6 ) , the word yu. or (wang ) i s employed i n the main cl a u s e s . - 134 - I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i n a l l the i n s c r i p t i o n s which d i v i n e only about the p o s s i b i l i t y of r a i n at a f u t u r e time, ( i . e . , without mention of r a i n - s o l i c i t i n g - r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c e ) the word yu ^jj (or wang t - ) i s extremely 9 r a r e l y used. For example, 9 1 " m t h i s / n i g h t / r a i n Ping 3 (15) Tonight i t w i l l r a i n . t h i s / n i g h t / not / perhaps Ping 3 (16) Tonight, i t w i l l not perhaps ( r a i n ) . < t i n g - s s u / crack / Hsllan / t e s t / from / t h i s / a r r i v e ? * ^ & ^ * ^ 4 r r , f t at / keng-shen / perhaps / r a i n Between today and keng-shen, i t w i l l perhaps r a i n . Ping 151 (1) t e s t / from / t h i s / t i n g - s s u / a r r i v e / at / keng-shen not 7 r a i n ' Ping 151 (2) Between the present t i n g - s s u and keng-shen, i t w i l l not r a i n . from / t h i s / keng-tzu / a r r i v e / to / chia-ch'en / t i - g o d order / r a i n P ing 381 (7) Between the present keng-tzu and chia-ch'en, t i - g o d w i l l order i t to r a i n . a r r i v e / chia-ch'en / t i - g o d / not / perhaps / order r a i n P ing 381 (8) V B e f o r e chia-ch'en day, t i - g o d w i l l not order i t to r a i n . I t i s worth asking why the word yu and i t s negative counterpart wang c- r a r e l y appear i n simple d i v i n a t i o n s about the p o s s i b i l i t y of r a i n at a f u t u r e time. And as mentioned above, i n clauses expressing the intended r e s u l t of r a i n - s o l i c i t i n g - r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c e s , we f r e q u e n t l y f i n d the word yu ^ , e.g. * f ( $ ) / % M . Among the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s of the word yu ( ^ ) , one i s a p r e - v e r b a l usage which can be rendered i n t o E n g l i s h as 'there i s the occasion'. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has strong support from the c l a s s i c s . 6. & H * % *l & 1 t (SSTC 2 4 0 6 1 7 ) There should be no such t h i n g as a m i n i s t e r c o n f e r r i n g favours, d i s p l a y i n g the t e r r o r s of j u s t i c e , or r e c e i v i n g the revenues of the country. (Legge, p.334) Yu means ' o c c a s i o n a l l y there i s and o c c a s i o n a l l y there i s not'. (This i s a comment on the Ch' un Ch' i u ^ f A sentence ' ijfk ^ (HY 64/|)£18/3 &3C) In autumn, there were y i h ' . (Legge, p.97).) The f u r t h e r observation that *YjwaJT and ^ * g w a k / * y i w a k are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l l y leads us to t e s t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on pre- v e r b a l occurrences of i n the O.B.I. - 136 - N ft i * 4 A £ ft £«. t e s t / Ch'Uan / chase / Hstlan / have / catch up I f Ch'Uan chases the HsUan (enemies), there i s the occasion of catching up. Or: Ch'Uan i s chasing the HsUan (enemies), there i s the occasion of catching up. Ping 261 (13) •'a t e s t / perhaps / have / come Ping 296 (5) There i s the occasion that (so and so) w i l l come. (See Takashima 1973:49-50 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the c o n t r a s t between ( ^ ) & / * & and & I £ . Takashima' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s adopted by the author.) The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 'there i s the occasion' f o r the p r e - v e r b a l y_u ^ makes good sense i n these i n s c r i p t i o n s . However, i n the case of yu (tsung) yU 7̂ . ( ) (-$£7 > the p i c t u r e i s d i f f e r e n t . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to conceive why the sense 'there i s the occasion' i s so f r e q u e n t l y used i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s where yu (tsung) yU 7^ ( ii ) K|T) represents an intended r e s u l t or d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n , but not i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s which merely d i v i n e about the p o s s i b i l i t y of r a i n i n g i n a f u t u r e time. Instead of i n t e r p r e t i n g yjj. ^ as an e x i s t e n t i a l verb, the author proposes to i n t e r p r e t yji as a t r a n s i t i v e verb 'to have'. In some cases, we may even i n t e r p r e t y_u ^ as 'to o b t a i n , to possess'. Cf. "J Jjj' -jj^ ^ -f (Mencius HY 10/2A/1) 'Wu-ting had a l l the p r i n c e s coming to h i s c o u r t , and possessed the kingdom....' (Legge, p.182). The performance of a r a i n - s o l i c i t i n g - r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c e i s f o r the Shang a means of o b t a i n i n g r a i n . Thus, when preparing f o r such r i t u a l - - 137 - s a c r i f i c e s , the Shang would n a t u r a l l y d i v i n e about whether they can get the r a i n or not. To take yu as a t r a n s i t i v e verb i n the expression y u t s o huo seems the' best i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ' keng-hstl / crack / Nei / t e s t / k i n g / enter / to / Shang have no / make / misfortune Ping 165 (16) Tentative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : *When the k i n g enters Shang, there w i l l be no occasions to cause misfortunes. I i i A ^ f f ^ y $ ^ t e s t / k i n g / enter / to / Shang / perhaps / have / make misfortune Ping 165 (17) Tent a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : *When the k i n g enters Shang, there w i l l be occasions to cause misfortunes. The expression tso huo ft \w a l s o occurs without ju : hsin-wei / crack / P i n / t e s t / perhaps / make / misfortune J1 * * - K * * i t h i r t e e n month Hou Hsia 73? 7 7.12 (So and so) w i l l perhaps cause ( l i t . make) misfortunes. (Dividend) at the t h i r t e e n t h month. t i - g o d / perhaps / make / k i n g / misfortune Ti-god w i l l perhaps cause misfortunes upon the k i n g . I Z J 4861 - 138 - In sentences such as /fj? j£- h |* J 71*9 , the s t r u c t u r e i s f a i r l y c l e a r , we can s t a t e w i t h c e r t i t u d e that jti _ ^ i s the agent who causes the k i n g misfortune, I.e., agent + (jj^ ) + V + b e n e f i c i a r y + p a t i e n t . In the case of 1 £ A_ ^ f%\ , j£ ^ ^ j * - ^ ^ ' , i f we adopt the t e n t a t i v e a n a l y s i s , the word j j _ 'king' would be the agent w h i l e the word yu Tjcj • » though i t can be i n t e r p r e t e d as the main verb i n the surface s t r u c t u r e , seems to be devoid of i t s v e r b a l f u n c t i o n ; i n a semantic a n a l y s i s , the main verb i s tso 'l^t- . Though both s y n t a c t i c a l l y and c o n t e x t u a l l y p o s s i b l e , t h i s a n a l y s i s f a i l s to account f o r the presence or absence of the word vju . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the i n s c r i p t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g the expression tso huo 7 has revealed the f o l l o w i n g phenomenon. Whenever the subject i s a supe r n a t u r a l being, the word yu. ^| does not appear; whenever the subject i s not a supernatural being, the word yu 7^ i s employed. For example, o r fa >*> Ml & h (River) HsUan / not / make / t h i s / settlement misfortune HsU 1^ 4.28.' The (god of) the R i v e r HsUan w i l l not cause ( l i t . make) misfortune upon t h i s 1 settlement. HsUan / perhaps / make / t h i s / settlement misfortune HsU >^ 4.28.4 The (god o f ) the HsUan w i l l perhaps cause ( l i t . make) V misfortune upon t h i s settlement. (See a l s o To^^2.476.) - 139 - i-mao / crack / Nei / t e s t / SsuC?) / make / k i n g misfortune I_ 2. 2465 The ( s p i r i t s of) Szu(?) w i l l cause ( l i t . make) misfortunes upon the k i n g . 1 ^ In the above i n s c r i p t i o n s , the word v_u Fj does not appear. "f 1* 5* U ft ft H | f f v V * ^(4 keng-shen / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / we / have / make misfortune I_ C* 6263 We w i l l have misfortunes caused (by X). Or: *There i s the occasion t h a t we cause misfortunes. u WsHs 4 i ^ h a i / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / Ch'Ueh / have / make £f US misfortune I_ Z J 5349 Ch'Ueh w i l l have misfortunes caused (by X ) . Or: *There i s the occasion that Ch'Ueh causes misfortunes. In the above i n s c r i p t i o n s where the su b j e c t s are not supernatural beings, the word yu ^ appears. In the case of tso , why the s e l e c t i o n of the surface subject has i n f l u e n c e on the presence or absence of the word yu ^ i s a question d i f f i c u l t to answer, s i n c e tso ' t j \ . i s a word of m u l t i p l e usage, and i s thus open to d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . This question can perhaps be c l a r i f i e d i f we p i c k a word which allows only a r a t h e r r i g i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , e.g. , chiang jJJp 'to descend, to send down': - 14G - i l l f t , H i t e s t / dismember (?) I . . . I t i - g o d / not / perhaps send down / misfortune I_ \f\ 36 ' Dismember (?) ..., t i - g o d w i l l perhaps not send down misfortunes. 6 i s ^ ft * t e s t / t h i s / settlement / perhaps / have / send down misfortune Ho A- 312 — rz- This settlement w i l l perhaps have a sending-down of m i s f o r t u n e s . A comparison of these two i n s c r i p t i o n s shows that though both tjL 'ip and JL £ are surface ' s u b j e c t s ' i n the r e s p e c t i v e sentences, there i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e between them. That i s , i n the f i r s t i n s c r i p t i o n j^L i s the agent of the verb chiang w h i l e JL i n the second i s the b e n e f i c i a r y of the verb yu 7^ . In Ho 312, the word yu Tfj i s r e q u i r e d s i n c e a sentence such as * J r ? , ?"zp^ST}is n o n s e n s i c a l . A t r a n s l a t i o n which, more p r e c i s e l y , though not i d i o m a t i c a l l y , r e f l e c t s the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s sentence i s ' t h i s settlement w i l l perhaps have sent-down-misfortunes.' By applying the same a n a l y s i s to the sentences having the s t r u c t u r e : 'non-supernatural-being S + "fa + 1*Ji + ' , we may contend that the expression tso huo h ft ^ j ^ i s not a 'verb + o b j e c t ' s t r u c t u r e which can f u n c t i o n as a p r e d i c a t e ; i n s t e a d , i t i s a 'modifier + modified' s t r u c t u r e , i . e . a nominal, which r e q u i r e s the verb yu w i t h which to form a p r e d i c a t e . The non-supernatural surface subjects ( i n c l u d i n g the l o c a t i v e term jtf, ) are the b e n e f i c i a r i e s r a t h e r than agents of the p r e d i c a t e 'fyifi'Tri The f u n c t i o n and meaning of yu Tj^ i n these i n s c r i p t i o n s are more 'concrete' - 141 - ( i . e . to have, to get) than that r e f l e c t e d i n the t r a n s l a t i o n 'there i s the occasion'. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s to analyse the s t r u c t u r e \$) I ̂  as a cl a u s e - o b j e c t w i t h an i n d e f i n i t e s u b j e c t , i v e . + I n d e f i n i t e S + "f^. I ^ f 1 > '.... w i l l have (someone's sending down m i s f o r t u n e s ) ' . (This a l t e r n a t i v e i s proposed by P u l l e y b l a n k i n h i s comments to the d r a f t of the present t h e s i s . ) To sum up, although the expressions ' C?9 ' , ' ^ (fi) ' and ' ij| f % a l l r e f e r to the p o s s i b i l i t y of r a i n i n g , there are some semantic f a c t o r s which determine the s e l e c t i o n among them./j| c^'meets-.with'ir.ain' "(represents a undesirable contingency ( c f . Japanese ' h e l p l e s s ' p a s s i v e , e.g. ame n i hurareru) which would i n t e r f e r e w i t h a planned a c t i v i t y ; 41 'have/obtain r a i n ' represents the intended r e s u l t of c e r t a i n r a i n - s o l i c i t i n g - r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c e s w h i l e ' i t w i l l r a i n ' represents the n e u t r a l p o s s i b i l i t y of r a i n at a f u t u r e time.1''' There are some exceptions to t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n the case of YsT9 '> the most unmarked form, which can a l s o be used i n s i t u a t i o n s where e i t h e r ' 9̂ ' o r ' ̂  ' ^s c o v m o n ^ - y used. But the above r u l e holds true i n the m a j o r i t y of cases. - 142 - I I I . A PSEUDO-MARKER OF THE CONDITIONAL CLAUSE CH'I j £ 1. The Sense of Unc e r t a i n t y Conveyed by Ch'i ^ I t can be e a s i l y observed that many sentences of the c o n d i t i o n a l / simultaneous-successive category are open e i t h e r to the c o n d i t i o n a l or simultaneous-successive i n t e r p r e t i o n . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e when the subordinate clause represents a c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t y . For more examples, f* It $h 4>!* If A c a l l upon / many / horse / c h a s e y game / capture ( I f ) we c a l l upon many horses ( m i l i t a r y u n i t s ) to chase game, we w i l l capture (them). Or: We/ c a l l e d upon / are c a l l i n g upon many horses ( m i l i t a r y u n i t s ) to chase game, we. w i l l capture them. P i n g 83 (13) t f l i t , 1 y V? H | * T * tt « chia-ch'en / crack / Cheng / t e s t / we / a t t a c k • Ma S t a t e l e t / t i - g o d / give / we / a s s i s t a n c e (If)we a t t a c k the Ma S t a t e l e t , t i - g o d w i l l g i v e us a s s i s t a n c e . Or: We are a t t a c k i n g the Ma S t a t e l e t , t i - g o d w i l l give us a s s i s t a n c e . Ping 114 (7) In g e n e r a l , the p r o t a s i s (subordinate clause) i n a c o n d i t i o n a l sentence represents a c t i o n s or events that have not taken place w h i l e the subordinate clause of a simultaneous-successive sentence represents an -. 143 - a c t i o n or an event that i s t a k i n g or has taken p l a c e . However, the d i s t i n c t i o n i s so s u b t l e that i n many languages, the same marker may be used i n e i t h e r k i n d of sentence. A person planning a t r i p to China can l e g i t i m a t e l y say, 'when we go to Peking, we should ...', though 'going to Peking' i s something h y p o t h e t i c a l — an a c t i o n that has not taken p l a c e . The French word 'quand' can sometimes be t r a n s l a t e d as ' i f and sometimes as 'when'. The German word 'wenn' has the f u n c t i o n of r e p r e s e n t i n g the sense of ' i f or 'when'. (Both words are adduced by Chou Fa-kao to i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c o n d i t i o n a l sentences from simultaneous-successive sentences (1961:307).) While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h these two types of sentences i n most cases, the occurrence of c h ' i ^~ i n a clause seems to be a c r i t e r i o n of the c o n d i t i o n a l . However, t h i s does not mean that c h ' i can only be i n t e r p r e t e d as a 'pure' grammatical markers of c o n d i t i o n a l s . I t i s e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e that c h ' i i s intended to convey a sense of u n c e r t a i n t y , thus marking the subordinate clause as h y p o t h e t i c a l . At t h i s j u n c t u r e , we must examine the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Serruys who has observed that 'the presence of c h ' i marks the p r o p o s i t i o n or the a l t e r n a t i v e among p o s s i b l e courses of a c t i o n which i s considered l e s s d e s i r a b l e , l e s s p r e f e r r e d , o f t e n p o s i t i v e l y feared and r e s o r t e d to only i f r e a l l y unavoidable;' (.1974:25) and has contended 'the t r a n s l a t i o n "perhaps, may be" i s not only inadequate, but m i s l e a d i n g ' ( i b i d . 58). - 144 - The observation that ch' i i s f r e q u e n t l y associated w i t h an undesirable a l t e r n a t i v e i s of great v a l u e . Yet to r e j e c t the widely accepted i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n of c h ' i as conveying a sense of u n c e r t a i n t y seems to cause some problems. The f a c t that c h ' i f r e q u e n t l y c o l l o c a t e s w i t h the undesirable a l t e r n a t i v e does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that t h i s modal i t s e l f conveys a sense of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y . For the f o l l o w i n g three reasons, the author argues that c h ' i does not convey a sense of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y but r a t h e r of u n c e r t a i n t y : (1) The word c h ' i may co-occur w i t h the words c h i (auspicious) and c h i a \}t) ( , good): pi'ng-ch'en / crack / _Pin / t e s t / e x o r c i s e / k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say / auspicious / perhaps / e x o r c i s e Pu I- 63 (We) should perform an exorcism. The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , ' i t i s a u s p i c i o u s , we should (perhaps) perform an exorcism. Or: '... l e t us perform an exorcism.' Cf. P u l l e y b l a n k has pointed out i n one of h i s seminars that c h ' i may have the f u n c t i o n of s o f t e n i n g a command i n t o a wish or e x h o r t a t i o n . k i n g / pr o g n o s t i c a t e / say / god / wei / t h i s / two / month order / s l e e t (?) / perhaps / wei / ping / not / order / snow wei / keng / perhaps / auspicious Ping 66 (5) - 145 - The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d 'god w i l l order i t to s l e e t ( h a i l ( ? ) ) t h i s second month. ( I f ) i t i s on a ping day that (god) does not order i t to snow, i t w i l l be on a keng day. I t i s perhaps au s p i c i o u s . " wu-wu / crack / .Pin / t e s t / c a l l upon / take / ox hundred / b r i n g / k i n g / p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say / auspicious b r i n g / perhaps 7 a r r i v e Ping 399 (1) ( I f ) we c a l l upon (so and so) to take ox i n the number of one hundred, (so and so) w i l l ( s u c c e s s f u l l y ) b r i n g (them) i n . The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , ' i t i s a u s p i c i o u s , (so and so) w i l l ( s u c c e s s f u l l y ) b r i n g (them) i n (and so and so) w i l l p erhap s a r r i v e . chia-shen / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / Lady Hao / bear / good -Zt j fit fS t=J O W $. ^ A a T ^ kft k i n g / pr o g n o s t i c a t e / say / perhaps"/ wei / t i n g / bear tUi U i ^ 4 f " * ^ U £ ,1 £ * good / perhaps / wei / keng / bear / p r o t r a c t / auspicious - s - • 6 *, B ., TV*??* ^* three / ten-day-week / and / one / day / c h i a / bear / not good / wei / g i r l Ping 247 (.1) Lady Hao w i l l give b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l be good. The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , ' ( i f ) i t i s on a t i n g day that she gives b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l be good; ( i f ) i t i s on a keng - 1 4 6 - day that she gives b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l be p r o t r a c t i v e l y a u s p i c i o u s . ( A f t e r ) t h i r t y one days, on a c h i a day, (Lady Hao) gave b i r t h to a c h i l d . I t was not a u s p i c i o u s . (The c h i l d ) was a g i r l . (For the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ^ ' *jj , prolong', see Y{1 Hao-liang f g L ^ 1977.) I t i s hard to see that the word c h ' i i n these i n s c r i p t i o n s conveys a sense of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y . I f i t does not, can t h i s c h ' i be i n t e r p r e t e d as a s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker? We w i l l r e t u r n to t h i s question l a t e r (see p.159-170). A l l these i n s c r i p t i o n s are p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s . One may wonder whether the sense of u n c e r t a i n t y i s incompatible w i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the cracks. While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to give a d e f i n i t e answer s i n c e we do not have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the Shang d i v i n a t i o n p r a c t i c e , i t seems reasonable to assume that the Shang people were aware of the u n c e r t a i n t y inherent i n p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n . Even the Shang k i n g , presumably the most expert i n t e r p r e t a t o r of the c r a c k s , was s u r e l y o f t e n proved wrong by subsequent events. Thus, the presence of c h ' i i n the p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as an admission of the r e s i d u a l u n c e r t a i n t y even w i t h the best d i v i n a t i o n . In the Tso Chuan, there are many cases i l l u s t r a t i n g the u n c e r t a i n t y of d i v i n e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the o r a c l e s . - 147 - ^ ?fc i. 3-, 1 4- : r < ri fa / & 11 JI fa *•. j i i M © »*» T * 4 i (HY 3 0 4 / ^ 25/2 7^ ) Woo-tsze consulted the m i l f o i l about i t , and got the diagram K'wan, which then became the diagram Ta-kwo; which the d i v i n e r s a l l s a i d was f o r t u n a t e , He showed i t to Ch'in Wah-tsze, but he s a i d , "The (symbol f o r ) a man ( i n K'wan) i s d i s p l a c e d by that f o r wind ( i n Ta-kwo). Wind overthrows t h i n g s . The woman ought not to be married. And moreover, (upon K'wan) i t i s s a i d , 'Distressed by r o c k s , h o l d i n g to brambles; he enters h i s palace and does not see h i s w i f e . I t i s e v i l . . . ' . ' Distressed by r o c k s ; ' — i n v a i n does one attempt to go forward. 'Holding by brambles; '— that i t which t r u s t i s placed wounds. 'He enters h i s palace and does not see h i s w i f e ; i t i s e v i l : '— there i s nowhere to t u r n t o . " ,T ri, \ (Legge, p.514) (Notice the discrepancy, and thus the u n c e r t a i n t y , among the p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s proposed by the d i v i n e r s . ) Jit & ^ % 0 % ^ *" * * ( S I , 6 7 / ^ 22/3 £ ) The marquis made him consult i t by the m i l f o i l on the f u t u r e of the boy, when he found the diagram Kwan, and then by the change of mani- p u l a t i o n , the diagram P ' e i . "Here," he s a i d , " i s the d e l i v e r a n c e } " — 'We behold the l i g h t - 148 - of the State. This i s auspicious f o r one to be the king's guest. ... S h a l l t h i s boy i n h i s generation possess the State of Ch'in? Or i f he do not possess t h i s S t a t e , does i t mean that he s h a l l possess another? Or i s the t h i n g f o r e - t o l d not of h i s own person, but of h i s descendants? The l i g h t i s f a r o f f , and i t s b r i g h t n e s s appears r e f l e c t e d from something e l s e ...." (Compare the repeated employment of the word c h ' i Jfc i n t h i s c i t a t i o n and Ping 247 (1). P u l l e y b l a n k p o i n t s out i n h i s comments to the d r a f t of t h i s t h e s i s that t h i s passage seems to show that the d i v i n a t i o n process i s d i f f i c u l t and t h e r e f o r e (presumably) subject to uncertainty.)' I t i s not unreasonable to assume that t h i s sense of u n c e r t a i n t y , expressed so c l e a r l y i n the Tso Chuan passages was f e l t by the Shang i n t h e i r p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s and that c h ' i expresses t h i s sense. (2) On page 35 of the a r t i c l e 'The Language of the Shang Oracle I n s c r i p t i o n s ' , Serruys l i s t s nine groups of d i v i n a t o r y sentences where c h ' i appears i n both p o s i t i v e and negative members. (The author would exclude the n i n t h group from the l i s t s i n c e these p a r t i c u l a r i n s c r i p t i o n s do not appear to be tui-chen sentences.) As Serruys admits, t h i s k i n d of t u i - c h e n p a i r does no f s u p p o r t the theory that c h ' i marks the l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . For t h i s phenomenon. Serruys gives the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : 'since the m a j o r i t y of d i v i n a t i o n s are couched i n terms of what the d i v i n e r already considers d e s i r a b l e , i t might be proposed that t h i s e x c e p t i o n a l p a t t e r n here could be used when such a d e c i s i o n or o p i n i o n concerning preference (Legge, p.103) - 149 - or d e s i r a b i l i t y was not expressed or could not be formed. The und e r l y i n g main clause might then have been: "we s h a l l prepare f o r the e v e n t u a l i t y t h a t ' . . . we s h a l l expect that ..." (.1974:36) Whether 1 a d e c i s i o n or o p i n i o n concerning preference or d e s i r a b i l i t y was not expressed or could not be formed' i s a question very d i f f i c u l t to answer d e f i n i t e l y . In terms of common sense, i t seems that the p o s i t i v e outcome of the f o l l o w i n g two p a i r s (Serruys' no. 1 and no. 2) i s the more d e s i r a b l e : "Lady Ching (her) m i l l e t w i l l be harvested. Lady Ching's m i l l e t w i l l not be harvested". "(One) might have occasion that they w i l l b r i n g ( i v o r y ) t e e t h . (One) might not have occasion that they w i l l b r i n g i v o r y " . I- While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to account f o r t h i s phenomenon i n terms of the theory of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y , among the eight groups there i s a common po i n t which may throw some l i g h t on the un d e r l y i n g r a t i o n a l e f o r the employment of c h ' i i n both p o s i t i v e and negative sentences. 'The Fang ( t r i b e ) might destroy our envoy. The Fang might not destroy our envoy. - 150 - Our envoy might not destroy the Fang. Our envoy might destroy the Fang. (*The graph does not appear in this inscription.) (A) A: 9 Jt ^ ^ 9 ^ A ^ >̂  e> ^ cfe JJt] Z ^ 4: ^ "Today i t might rain. Today i t might not rain. Next Yi-ssu day i t might rain. Next Yi-ssu day i t might not rain. Next Ting-wei day i t might rain. Next Ting-wei day i t might not rain." "X (probably Ch'U) leading 30 men from the Ma(tribe) really might shackle (take prisoners) the Ch'iang. Ch'tt's 30 Ma(tribesmen) might not shackle the Ch'iang." - 151 - "Fou might come to v i s i t the k i n g . The Fou might not come to v i s i t the k i n g . " - O) J% & 4% * $ |j[ % * * * * £ $ "As to Chih, he might a t t a c k You-ku-lo. As to Chih he might not a t t a c k You-ku-lo." «8) 4;. a 5 & "The k i n g today w i l l go out. I t w i l l r a i n . I t might not r a i n . 12 I t might r a i n and i t might not r a i n . " ( A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s are Serruys'.) The f i r s t o bservation we can make here i s that a l l the verbs i n these ei g h t groups of sentences take the *p- type negative p a r t i c l e s . The apparent exception *mjwang i s a negative verb, the contrary of . As Takashima has c o n c l u s i v e l y demonstrated, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the *p- type negatives i s that they go w i t h u n c o n t r o l l a b l e verbs (1973:263). The event ,<<̂  'to r a i n ' i s of course u n c o n t r o l l a b l e . - 152 - As f o r the verbs (to come, to b r i n g i n ) , ^* (to shackle) and (to a t t a c k ) , although t h e i r semantic character may be thought of as ' c o n t r o l l a b l e ' , there i s every reason to suggest that these verbs represent events or ac t i o n s that were not w i t h i n the manageability of the ki n g (or the d i v i n e r ) at the time when the d i v i n a t i o n s were performed. None of the agents of these verbs, when they are expressed, i s the ki n g . The verbs h \ t (to att a c k ) and ^ (to shackle) are m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s or events c a r r i e d out by persons other than the k i n g . The agent of (to come) i n group s i x i s Fou ^ , an enemy t r i b e of the Shang i n the f i r s t p e r i o d . We can reasonably assume that these people are not under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the Shang k i n g (or the d i v i n e r ) and that these d i v i n a t i o n s are performed to f o r e t e l l what these people are doing and the consequences of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The sentences and ~%- ^\ ^ f cannot mean 'we should have brought i n ( i v o r y ) t e e t h ' and 'we should not have brought i n ( i v o r y ) t e e t h ' , f o r they would then not make much sense when taken as a tui-chen p a i r . The agent of 'bringing i n ( i v o r y ) t e e t h ' must t h e r e f o r e be someone outside the c o n t r o l of the k i n g or the d i v i n e r . The expression j]>L (loan f o r ̂ ^ ) which can be i n t e r p r e t e d as 'there may be / may not be a ha r v e s t ' , i s a l s o unmanageable si n c e the bounty of a harvest i s wholly dependent on u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r s i n the n a t u r a l environment. (For the semantic character of , see f n . l . ) In the s i x hundred and twelve rubbings reproduced i n Ping P i e n , not a s i n g l e t ui-chen p a i r which d i v i n e s about a c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t y or event takes c h ' i i n both p o s i t i v e and negative sentences. - 153 - The phenomenon of the double appearance of ch'1 noted above can be explained i n the f o l l o w i n g way, a way which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that c h ' i i s a modal conveying a sense of u n c e r t a i n t y . In the case of c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t i e s , the Shang normally made a d i v i n a t i o n only a f t e r having decided e i t h e r to perform or not to perform some a c t i v i t y l i k e hunting or m o b i l i z i n g troops. The outcome, at times i n the human, at other times i n the supernatural sphere, of t h i s pre-determined course of a c t i o n was the subject of t h e i r d i v i n a t i o n s . So the p r e l i m i n a r y step to any d i v i n a t i o n about c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t i e s was a d e c i s i o n e i t h e r to take a c t i o n or not to take a c t i o n . I t i s p r e c i s e l y because the Shang, when performing a d i v i n a t i o n , are already i n c l i n e d one way or the other towards the a c t i o n , subject of the d i v i n a t i o n , that c h ' i i s employed i n the sentences which express the unintended a l t e r n a t i v e . Since t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s not the one they are planning to take, to d i v i n e about i t s outcome becomes somewhat a matter of form to f i t the t u i - c h e n p a t t e r n and c h ' i i s employed to show t h e i r i n d i s p o s i t i o n toward t h i s choice. On the other hand, s i n c e they are planning, and are thus r e l a t i v e l y c e r t a i n of adopting the other choi c e , c h ' i i s not used i n the sentence d i v i n i n g about the intended a l t e r n a t i v e . (Such an e x p l a n a t i o n , i n f a c t , c o i n c i d e s w i t h Serruys' i n s i g h t f u l o bservation that c h ' i i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . Presumably and n a t u r a l l y , an unintended a l t e r n a t i v e i s the l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e and v i c e versa.) - 154 - In the case of an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i v i t y or event, e.g., ̂  j^g ' i t w i l l r a i n ' vs ' ', sin c e the Shang k i n g and h i s d i v i n e r s are q u i t e incapable of knowing what the outcome w i l l be, both p o s s i b i l - i t i e s are e q u a l l y u n c e r t a i n . Thus the modal c h ' i appears i n both the p o s i t i v e and the negative d i v i n a t o r y statements. As to why c h ' i i s f r e - quently a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , the answer may l i e i n the common psychology of human beings. People o f t e n refuse to a n t i - c i p a t e misfortunes and, once they have occurred, refuse to accept them. On f i r s t l e a r n i n g he has a malignant cancer, many a p a t i e n t i s apt to doubt the p h y s i c i a n ' s d i a g n o s i s . In a s i m i l a r way, the Shang k i n g would not l i k e to b e l i e v e that h i s w i f e may d i e of s i c k n e s s , nor to a n t i c i p a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y that no game may be caught on a hunting e x p e d i t i o n . I t i s probably because of t h i s m e n t a l i t y that the modal c h ' i i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to show the omentaker's u n w i l l i n g n e s s to accept an unwelcome p o s s i b i l i t y . Admittedly, t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to s u b s t a n t i a t e by means of f a c t u a l data. Since the mood i n a sentence i s very s u b t l e , without a l a r g e r context i t i s ha r d l y p o s s i b l e to e x p l a i n or to p r e d i c t the employment of t h i s presumed modal. However, s i n c e the theory of un- d e s i r a b i l i t y seems to run i n t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and the modal usage of c h ' i i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the c l a s s i c s , the explanation o f f e r e d above seems to be a reasonable hypothesis. (.3) The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h ' i as a modal conveying the sense of un c e r t a i n t y provides a convincing e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f o l l o w i n g phenomenon. - 155 - The p a t t e r n ' (NP) + + i j i f ^ ' i s commonly encountered i n the O.B.I. For example, t i n g - h a i / crack / t e s t / P r i n c e YU / perhaps / have sickness Ch'ien 5 .44 .2 P r i n c e Yd, perhaps, has s i c k n e s s . R M i Lf* 9-?.'* t e s t / P r i n c e R (.?) / perhaps / have / sickness P r i n c e , perhaps, has s i c k n e s s . Ho 292 (Also Ch'ien fr) 4 . 3 2 . 2 , Chia 3512, Ho & 208, I Z> 7817, Wen 841 , Ch'ien 4 . 1 0 . 7 , Ch'ien % To 1.335 and Ts'u t f f i 1269. L i s t inexhaustive.) However, w i t h the r a r e exceptions of Ping 29 (2 ) , Ping 31 (2) and Ts'un Fu ifyj' to which we w i l l r e t u r n , the s t r u c t u r e ' (NP) + ^tl + ^ ' never appears i n the subordinate clause of a simultaneous -successive sentence. Instead we f i n d : ft* V% °* * t e s t / have / s i c k / eye / favorable (So and so) has an a i l i n g eye; he w i l l recover, ( l i t . i t w i l l be favorable) . I_ ~Z-> 960 W I <±" * $ * GS * ft /' ' *• t e s t / have / s i c k / tooth / not / wei / Father I .. JL hlrJ^ I Z 4626 (So and so) has an a i l i n g t o o t h ; i t i s not because of Father I's harm. - 156 - Or: CSo and so) has an a i l i n g t o o th; i t i s not Father I who causes the harm. have / s i c k / eye / not / prolong (So and so) has an a i l i n g eye; (the sickness) w i l l not be prolonged. Ho 210 have / s i c k / eye / perhaps. / prolong (So and so) has an a i l i n g eye; ( t h i s s i c k n e s s ) w i l l ^perhaps be prolonged. There are a l s o cases of + body p a r t , main c l a u s e ' , e.g., } A K fcm y * f t s i c k / trunk / not / wei / have / harm (So and so) i s s u f f e r i n g from an a i l i n g trunk; i t i s not (because of) there i s harm (from the s p i r i t s ) . Ho ^ 441 t e s t / sxck / mouth / e x o r c i s e / to A n c e s t r a l Mother Chia Ho 123 (So and so) i s s u f f e r i n g from an a i l i n g mouth; we should perform an exorcism to A n c e s t r a l Mother Chia. But the modal c h ' i , w i t h the exceptions mentioned above, never appears, i . e . , the s t r u c t u r e s !*(NP) + jL + 4i- + , main cl a u s e ' •*(NP) + JjL + >Ji + body part, main clause' are non-existent. 13 - 157 - Now, l e t us look at the three exceptions: k i n g / p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say / Feng / perhaps go out / perhaps / wei / t i n g / not / go out perhaps / have / sickness / not / perhaps"* recover - Ping 31 (2) Feng w i l l probably go out (to take the f i e l d ) on a t i n g day. I f Feng does not go out (to take the f i e l d on a t i n g - d a y ) , ( i t i s because) Feng probably has an ailment and has probably not recovered. On the reverse s i d e of t h i s p l a s t r o n , there are the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s : wu-yin / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / Hsien Feng perhaps / come Ping 30 (1) Hsien Feng w i l l perhaps come. ft A * . ^ * T* t e s t / Feng / not / perhaps / come Feng w i l l perhaps not come. Ping 30 (4) These two i n s c r i p t i o n s show that when the d i v i n a t i o n s were performed, Hsien Feng (abbreviated form: Feng) was probably i n the f i e l d away from the Shang k i n g and thus he was not under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the ki n g ( n o t i c e the *p- type n e g a t i v e s ) . - 158 - Ping 29 (2) i s simply a d u p l i c a t e of Ping 31 (2). These two i n s c r i p - t i o n s are almost i d e n t i c a l , the former has the crack numeral (hsu1 shu / j " ) 3 and the l a t t e r has 4; and the other i n s c r i p t i o n s appearing on these two p l a s t r o n s are a l s o almost i d e n t i c a l . The i n s c r i p t i o n on Ts'un Fu f|- P̂ j" 1. has some o b l i t e r a t e d graphs, but the l e g i b l e p a r t i s i d e n t i c a l to P i n g 31 (2) and Ping 29 (2). A l l three i n s c r i p t i o n s are probably members of a ch'eng t'ao ( h\\ %^ s e t ) . Sickness i s obviously something un d e s i r a b l e . And y e t , c h ' i only appears i n the sentences or clauses which represent something the Shang k i n g (or d i v i n e r ) i s u n c e r t a i n o f . In cases where the sickness has already taken h o l d , c h ' i does not occur. Such a co n t r a s t a l s o p o i n t s to the f a c t that c h ' i conveys a sense of u n c e r t a i n t y . For the above three reasons, the author argues that the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h ' i as a modal conveying a sense of u n c e r t a i n t y i s a p p l i c a b l e to the O.B.I, language. In a subordinate clause c h ' i may thus be t r a n s l a t e d by ' i f . But according to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c h ' i cannot be a grammatical marker of c o n d i t i o n a l c l a u s e s . I t i s the semantic q u a l i t y of i t s modality which allows the t r a n s l a t i o n ' i f i n E n g l i s h . (See a l s o K e i g h t l e y 1978:66, fn.41.) 159 - 2. An E v a l u a t i o n of the Theory that Ch'1. Functions as a Subordination Marker Concerning Serruys' theory that c h ' i i s a marker of s u b o r d i n a t i o n , Takashima's a r t i c l e 'Subordinate S t r u c t u r e i n Oracle Bone I n s c r i p t i o n s w i t h P a r t i c u l a r Reference to the P a r t i c l e Ch'i ' deals w i t h t h i s problem i n d e t a i l and demonstrates the d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from t h i s theory. The author agrees w i t h Takashima that 'the question of s u b o r d i - n a t i o n must be determined e s s e n t i a l l y from context and sentence p a r a l l e l i s m ' (1977:38). The f o l l o w i n g are some b r i e f remarks and d i s c u s s i o n of r e s i d u a l questions: In g e n e r a l , the method of t e s t i n g the v a l i d i t y of an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a presumed grammatical func t o r (or hstl-tzu %- i n t r a d i t i o n a l terminology) i s to apply one's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t contexts i n which the presumed funct o r appears. In the case of c h ' i , as Takashima has pointed out, i t can appear i n simple sentences ( i b i d . 6 0 ) . This phenomenon i s not compatible w i t h the theory that c h ' i f u n c t i o n s as a subordinate marker r e f l e c t e d i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s by the words ' i f ' , 'when' or 'rather than'. However, c h ' i a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a modal. Thus, i n simple sentences where i t cannot f u n c t i o n as a marker of subordination, c h ' i might be i n t e r p r e t e d as a word s i g n i f y i n g a presumably l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . Serruys has noted, "... i t would be r a t h e r unusual i f one and the same p a r t i c l e would be used f o r f u n c t i o n s so s t r o n g l y d i v e r g i n g , at l e a s t when viewed i n the r e s p e c t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n s by which t h i s p a r t i c l e has been expressed.' (1974:56) - 160 - In order to r e c o n c i l e these two uses, Serruys gives the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : 'since the " l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s " are mentioned i n the d i v i n a t o r y t e x t s , they were, q u i t e d e f i n i t e and f a c t u a l , though u n d e s i r a b l e , p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and obviously they were so by the w i l l of the gods or the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . I f so, c h ' i would simply stand f o r an a d v e r b i a l term: " i f (the gods) do wish so", i . e . , "by d i v i n e f i a t " . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would permit C l ) the s h i f t to sub- o r d i n a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n clauses of the type: "rather than doing a_, do _b," where the o r i g i n a l c h 1 i " l e s s d e s i r a b l e " i s s t i l l c l e a r l y preserved. (2) the f u n c t i o n of double c h ' i (as described above). (3) The f u n c t i o n of c h ' i i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n before and a f t e r the main verb. (4) The development i n t o the modal c h ' i of l a t e r c l a s s i c a l Chinese, which b a s i c a l l y f u n c t i o n s as an o p t a t i v e , e x h o r t a t i v e and " p r o b a b i l i t y " p a r t i c l e , a broadening of the o r i g i n a l c h ' i : " i f (they) wish so".' ( i b i d . 58) The second po i n t i n the above a n a l y s i s has already been t r e a t e d on page 148-154. The f i r s t and t h i r d form the focus of the remainder of t h i s s e c t i o n . Concerning the f i r s t p o i n t , there does not seem to be strong con- t e x t u a l evidence that would support the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 'rather than ...' i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s provided and i n t e r p r e t e d by Serruys. £ % " %L , ty fa "The k i n g , r a t h e r than f o l l o w (someone) to take (prisoners?), he ought not f o l l o w to take ( p r i s o n e r s ? ) . II The Fou r a t h e r than to b r i n g f o r us together troops, they w i l l not f o r us gather troops. it ( C i t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by Serruys', 1974:36-37) - 161 - I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine whether ' was, i n f a c t , the p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e to ' ^ hk 1. Neither can we speculate on the reason why the Fou would r a t h e r not " b r i n g f o r us together troops". These i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are only based on the hypothesis that c h * i ^ conveys a sense of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y . On the other hand, the p o s i t i v e and negative counterparts of these two p a i r s are i n s c r i b e d i n p e r f e c t l y symmetrical p o s i t i o n s , i . e . , they form t y p i c a l t ui-chen p a i r s . As a general r u l e , the two sentences of a tui-chen propose two complementary p o s s i b i l i t i e s one of which w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by reading the o r a c l e as the more l i k e l y to occur or to meet w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l approval. However, i t would seem that only one p o s s i b i l i t y i s s e r i o u s l y proposed i n the above quoted tui-chen p a i r s . For example, i n the p a i r % jt / w ^ l j x , 5- 'TH AK , the p l a c i n g of the connective 'rather than' i n f r o n t of the proposal 'to f o l l o w someone to take ( p r i s o n e r s ) ' suggests s t r o n g l y that the Shang have already r e j e c t e d t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . Of the p o s s i b i l - i t i e s , one may be favored above the other; however, to use t h e c o n n e c t i v e 'rather than' appears to exclude e n t i r e l y one of the two p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Moreover, although the two sentences are r e l a t e d and form a u n i t of d i v i n a t i o n , they were i n f a c t d i v i n e d s e p a r a t e l y , no doubt c o n s e c u t i v e l y , so to t r e a t them as two clauses of a s i n g l e composite sentence seems r a t h e r anomalous. . - 162 - The t h i r d p o i n t i n the a n a l y s i s by Serruys c i t e d on page 160 i n f a c t i n v o l v e s two kinds of subo r d i n a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by the p l a c i n g v of c h ' i before the main verb and a f t e r i t . A. Ch'i before the main verb, a s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t e d by an 'if/when clause' i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . B. Ch'i a f t e r the main verb, a s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t e d by a 'that c l a u s e ' i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . We w i l l d i s c u s s these two po i n t s i n succession, As to A, the presumed sem a n t i c - s y n t a c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sense of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y and the subo r d i n a t i o n marker 'if/when' does not seem to be very strong. The f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s , among o t h e r s , do not seem to provide a s a t i s f a c t o r y support f o r the t h e s i s . %. \t kf 5 * A: *ty When con t i n u i n g to make e x o r c i s t r i t e s f o r Ta-wu (then) we w i l l have.a banquet. (Cite d and t r a n s l a t e d by Serruys' 1974:49) yfl S « 1.1 0 > t f ) £ 2. # f next Y i - y u day, i f we make o f f e r i n g (of wine?) to T s u - y i , then we s h a l l give a banquet. (Cite d and t r a n s l a t e d by Serruys' 1974:52) In these, i t i s not c l e a r why the sense of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of c h ' i should give r i s e to the connectives 'if/when'. A l s o there i s no c o n t e x t u a l ! evidence to demonstrate that ' f f ' and ' JL ^ C ^ ^ f )' are - 163 - a l t e r n a t i v e s of the k i n d , ' i f (the gods) do wish so'. Even i f c h ' i r e a l l y conveys a sense of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y , i t seem i t can only stand f o r '(the gods), a f t e r a l l , do wish so.' The sense 'if/when' as Takashima argues, can only be apprehended through the context: £ * SSL* I f the k i n g y u - s a c r i f i c e s c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l meet w i t h ( T i ' s ) approval. I * ft ft I f the k i n g y u - s a c r i f i c e s c a p t i v e s , i t w i l l not meet w i t h ( T i ' s ) approval. ( C i t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by Takashima 1977:45) Now, l e t us examine the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s : P i ng 247 (1) (Cited on p. 145.) Lady Hao w i l l give b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l be good. The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , ~ " ( i f ) i t i s on a t i n g day (that she) gives b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l be good; ( i f ) i t i s on a keng day (that she) gives b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l be p r o t r a c t i v e l y a u s p i c i o u s . ( A f t e r ) t h i r t y one days, on a c h i a day, (Lady Hao) gave b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t was not good. (The c h i l d ) was a g i r l . h sin-wei / crack / Ch ' U e h / t e s t / Lady N U / bear / good / k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say / perhaps / wei / keng / bear / good / three month / keng - h s U / bear / good Ping 257 (1) - 1 6 4 - Lady NU w i l l give b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t w i l l be good. The kin g prognosticated and s a i d , ' ( i f ) i t i s on a keng day, i t w i l l be good. At the t h i r d month, on a kerig-hsd day, she gave b i r t h to a c h i l d , i t was good. These two i n s c r i p t i o n s appear to be evidence against the theory of the s e m a n t i c - s y n t a c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the 'undesirable' c h ' i and the s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker c h ' i . In both cases, clauses of the p a t t e r n + date + -v/L>' are subordinated to the main clauses ^7^ 'good' or J|! ^ ' p r o t r a c t i v e l y a u s p i c i o u s ' . The theory of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y i s i n a p p l i c a b l e . Nor i s the other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h ' i ( i . e . , as a sub o r d i n a t i o n marker) appropriate here. I f a p o s s i b i l i t y i s deemed to be 'good' or ' p r o t r a c t i v e l y a u s p i c i o u s ' , i t cannot, at the same time, be an e v e n t u a l i t y the Shang would r e s i g n themselves to w i t h ' i f (the gods) do wish so.' As to B, the presumed sem a n t i c - s y n t a c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sense of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y and the p o s t - v e r b a l s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker ( i . e . , 'that' ....) would seem to be very "remote. In a d d i t i o n , to i n t e r p r e t . c h ' i as a p o s t - v e r b a l subordination marker a l s o encounters d i f f i c u l t i e s i n terms of the general syntax of Chinese. Let us examine the f o l l o w i n g three groups of i n s c r i p t i o n s : sue*) * . I i t iS «• £ •* C The k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t i n g says: as to God, i t i s the - 165 - present second month that he w i l l command there be h a i l (or s l e e t ? ) ; i f i t i s on a Ping day that i t w i l l not (by h i s ) command r a i n , then i t means the Keng day w i l l be a u s p i c i o u s . The k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t i n g says: i t i s auspicious that there be s l e e t ( h a i l ? ) . % . J I B © - t ^ t % i f v $ £ O h i The H s i w i l l b r i n g white horses. The H s i w i l l not be b r i n g i n g white horses, amounting to f i v e . The k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t i n g says: i t w i l l be aus p i c i o u s that they come. (The order of the t r a n s l a t i o n s of t h i s group of i n s c r i p t i o n s i s a l t e r e d . The t r a n s l a t i o n of the negative counterpart i s i n s e r t e d between the t r a n s l a t i o n s of' the p o s i t i v e counterpart and the pr o g n o s t i c a t i o n . ) ^ ffl • t P i . £ . * i i ! The k i n g p r o g n o s t i c a t i n g says: i t i s auspicious that when Y i n a r r i v e s , i t w i l l be a Hsin day. (Ci t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by Serruys', 1974:34) Most s c h o l a r s i n t e r p r e t the word c h i ^ i n the s t r u c t u r e ' JL I3) ̂  : ' a s a o n e w o r d sentence, i . e . , the ki n g prognosticated and s a i d , " ( i t i s ) a u s p i c i o u s . " (As an example, Chang Ping-ch'Uan adds punctuation as f o l l o w s : 1> fj*l \3 : %• I j t - ^ , ( 1 9 5 7 : V o l . 1 .1, p.99); £ l 9 S : * , -£fc.<1959: V o l . 1,2, p . 232) ; £ ]§ VQ : £ % ( I b i d . p. 144). - 166 - Although Chang does not use punctuation c o n s i s t e n t l y , there i s no doubt he considers a s y n t a c t i c break or even a sentence boundary to come between the word c h i ^ and the words f o l l o w i n g . ) However, t h i s k i n d of p a r s i n g cannot be adopted here f o r doing so would y i e l d sentences of strange meaning: *The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , " i t i s a u s p i c i o u s " . I t w i l l (undesirably) h a i l ( s l e e t ? ) . *The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , " i t i s a u s p i c i o u s . (So and so) w i l l (undesirably) b r i n g i n *The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , " I t i s a u s p i c i o u s . Y i n w i l l a r r i v e , (undesirably) i t i s on a h s i n day. ( A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s the author's) The f u n c t i o n of c h ' i j t , as an i n d i c a t i o n of the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of an a c t i v i t y / e v e n t has already been discussed above (see p. 142-158 ). I f i t does not seem e n t i r e l y a p p l i c a b l e i n a given case, i t might be argued that c h ' i l o s e s i t s presumed a f f e c t i v e meaning because of the e x i s t e n c e of c h i rz, and becomes simply a s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker, t r a n s l a t e a b l e as 'that ...'. However, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l s o encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s . In the second example: - 1 6 7 - The expression %^ appears both i n the negative counterpart and the p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n . Serruys' analyses of these two ' J% ' are d i f f e r e n t . In the p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n , ' J% ^ ' i s analysed as 'subordination marker + c l a u s e ' w h i l e i n the negative counterpart c h ' i ^ seems to be i n t e r p r e t e d as a word s i g n i f y i n g u n d e s i r a b i l i t y . The use of the same element i n two d i f f e r e n t ways w i t h i n the same i n s c r i p t i o n i s not a p r i o r i i m p o s s i b l e , but i t may be suggested that the focus of t h i s group i s whether or not the H s i w i l l a r r i v e w i t h t h e i r t r i b u t e ( ? ) . However, to i n t e r p r e t the p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n as ' i t w i l l be auspicious that they come' (the author would suggest understanding i t as a causative verb 'to cause to come — to b r i n g i n ' ) conveys the impression that the Shang are d i v i n i n g about whether the 'bringing i n ' i s a u s picious or not to which the response i s : 'the b r i n g i n g i n i s a u s p i c i o u s ' . In order to maintain t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , we would have to assume a s h i f t of d i v i n a t i o n focus. Another way of i n t e r p r e t i n g ' as an embeded sentence ( i . e . , a 'that clause') i s to take ^ as a p u t a t i v e verb, i . e . , 'to consider the b r i n g i n g i n to be a u s p i c i o u s ' . However, such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n shows even more c l e a r l y the s h i f t of d i v i n a t i o n focus i n d i c a t e d above. The l a s t i n s c r i p t i o n ' "j? J^t /j^ ^ ' poses another problem. Here, i f c h ' i i s being i n t e r p r e t e d as a s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker placed a f t e r the clause fpT , the word f o r word t r a n s l a t i o n i s : ' * I t i s auspicious Y i n a r r i v e s that w i l l be a Hsin day'. In Serruys' t r a n s l a t i o n - ' i t i s auspicious that when Y i n a r r i v e s , i t w i l l be a Hsin day', c h ' i i s being analysed as governing the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e '* ? ^ ^ '• Such - 168 - an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems to v i o l a t e the general syntax of c l a s s i c a l Chinese. This sentence e x e m p l i f i e s the problems a r i s i n g from the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h ' i as a s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker. A f i n a l example f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s the inappropriateness of both the s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker theory and of the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y theory: k i n g / p r o g n o s t i c a t e / say / auspicious / t i - g o d W 1 £ 1 t £ A x perhaps / give / I / a s s i s t a n c e Ping 410 (1) i . Using Ch'i as a s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker y i e l d s — * I t i s auspicious t i - g o d that w i l l give me a s s i s t a n c e . i i . Using Ch'i as a word s i g n i f y i n g the l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r - n a t i v e y i e l d s — * I t i s a u s p i c i o u s . Ti-god w i l l give me a s s i s t a n c e (a l e s s d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e ) . Returning to the f i r s t i n s c r i p t i o n (see p. 164), i t i s easy to see that the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h ' i i n the s t r u c t u r e ' <^ «• ' as a s u b o r d i n a t i o n marker i s r a t h e r u n n a t u r a l . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e q u i r e s us to take t h i s sentence as a 'determinative sentence', i . e . , a i s b, ' ' would be the 'determinated' w h i l e ' «, ' i s the determinator, i . e . , '*keng day i s auspiciousness' or ' * i t i s a keng day that i t i s a u s p i c i o u s ' . E i t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e s unnecessary' c o m p l i c a t i o n s . N e i t h e r can we i n t e r p r e t c h ' i as a word s i g n i f y i n g the sense of u n d e s i r - a b i l i t y , s i n c e the t r a n s l a t i o n ' ( i f ) i t i s a keng day, i t w i l l be (undesirably) a u s p i c i o u s ' i s r a t h e r strange. - 169 - This a n a l y s i s of the l o g i c a l meanings and s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of the above i n s c r i p t i o n s leads us back to the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ' £ k • J- t ( I f ) i t i s a keng day, i t w i l l perhaps be a u s p i c i o u s . I t i s a u s p i c i o u s , (Hsi) w i l l perhaps b r i n g i n (white h o r s e s ) . I t i s a u s p i c i o u s . Y i n w i l l a r r i v e , i t w i l l perhaps be on a h s i n day. Serruys a l s o c i t e d another type of post-main-verb s u b o r d i n a t i o n , e.g.« J^; 1^9 which i s t r a n s l a t e d as 'not have (chance) that i t might r a i n ' . Serruys s t a t e s , 'As Takashima observed the p a t t e r n wang c h ' i t i s used throughout w i t h few instances of J^-* "t- as would be expected when compared w i t h a l l other cases where c h ' i precedes the verb as i n _JL^ j : "there w i l l be baneful i n f l u e n c e , " e t c . The hypothesis presented to e x p l a i n t h i s exception i s simply that wang ^C* i s t r e a t e d as a main verb "not have" followed by what i s r e a l l y an object c l a u s e , ..." (1974:57) Admittedly, according to the best of the author's knowledge, a s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a nation f o r t h i s p e c u l i a r s t r u c t u r e i s l a c k i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the above hypothesis does not seem to shed much l i g h t on the matter. This hypothesis f a i l s to e x p l a i n why the s t r u c t u r e never occurs. (The tremendous number of rubbings makes a thorough check, very i m p r a c t i c a l , i f not impossible. However, i n the Ping P i e n where s i x hundred and twelve f a i r l y complete p l a s t r o n rubbings are c o l l e c t e d , and i n the thousands of other i n s c r i p t i o n s the author has - 170 - encountered, such a s t r u c t u r e does not occur.) Instead one does f i n d the s t r u c t u r e ' ^ iTO ' . Why i s ytt ejfo made i n t o a presumed embedded sentence (I.e., s u b o r d i n a t i v e clause) a f t e r the verb wang -ii, but not a f t e r the verb yu 7^ (. ̂  , )? As a matter of f a c t , the s t r u c t u r e i s a l s o very r a r e w h i l e the s t r u c t u r e ' - ^ 7 lv|*)' i s very common. A hypothesis proposed to e x p l a i n t h i s phenomenon i s that ' 4i VvT9 ' i s almost always, though not e x c l u s i v e l y , used to represent the intended r e s u l t of r a i n - s o l i c i t i n g - r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c e s . The negative counterpart of t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s 1 •£ jL. ' which i s used to represent an und e s i r a b l e p o s s i b i l i t y . The employment of c h ' i which conveys a sense of u n c e r t a i n t y r e v e a l s the u n w i l l i n g n e s s of the Shang to b e l i e v e the u n d e r s i r a b l e p o s s i b i l i t y (see p. 154). While s t i l l f a i l i n g to e x p l a i n why ch' i i s placed a f t e r wang XL i n s t e a d of before i t , the above hypothesis seems to be more d e f e n s i b l e . - 171 - IV. A HYPOTHESIS ON THE RATIONALE UNDERLYING THE CHOICE BETWEEN THE PATTERNS 'V % I j^y .. . ' AND. ' JQ + V . . ' V . . . . , n In d i v i n i n g about the appropriateness of performing a c e r t a i n a c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g two types of composite sentences are commonly used: 1. 'V % I tyo ... ping-shen / crack / Chung / t e s t / c a l l upon / Chien Ch'ien / * (?) / cut (grass) / net • in Ping 126 (6) I f we c a l l upon Chien, Ch'ien and (?) to cut grass, they w i l l get ( l i t . net) i t . Or: We c a l l e d upon Chien, Ch'ien and J$- (?) to cut grass, they w i l l get ( l i t . net) i t . n * $ > r >• % ping-shen / crack / Chung / t e s t / c a l l upon / Chien £ * * 8| M i f f Ch'ien / & (?) / cut (grass) / not / perhaps / net Ping 126 (5) k I f we c a l l upon Chien, Ch'ien and 4£ (?) to cut grass, they w i l l perhaps not get ( l i t . net) i t . x Or: We c a l l e d upon Chien, Ch'ien and (?) to cut grass, they w i l l perhaps not get ( l i t . net) i t . - 172 - 2. ' ,l0 + V . .., % I ..." 1 v \hi A t %t hsln-yu / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / t h i s / season / k i n g allow / Wang Ch'eng / a t t a c k / Hsi a Wei / r e c e i v e / abundant f o l l o w % a s s i s t a n c e Ping 12 (1) The k i n g should f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k H s i a Wei t h i s season, ( f o r ) he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . k i n g ¥ ? $ 9 r i - M i A t | i j t hsin-yu / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / t h i s / season / k i n j Id not / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / a t t a c k / Hsi a Wei should # i y j t ^ . f ^ * not / perhaps / r e c e i v e / abundant / a s s i s t a n c e Ping 12 (2) ^The k i n g should not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to att a c k H s i a Wei, (fo r ) he w i l l perhaps not r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . In f a c t , both of these s t r u c t u r e s seem to serve the same d i v i n a t o r y purpose. When the 'responses' to the p o s i t i v e counterparts (the p o s i t i v e charging statements) are p o s i t i v e , i . e . , * r i g h t , what i s being charged i s c o r r e c t ' , the i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of Ping 126 (5) and Ping 12 (1) would be '*go ahead to do such and such'. Or, i f the 'response' to the negative counterparts are f a v o r a b l e , i . e . , ' * r i g h t , what i s being charged i s c o r r e c t ' ; the i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of Ping 126 (.6) and Pi n g 12 (2) would be '*don't do such and such'. Do these two patter n s represent merely a d i f f e r e n c e of s t y l e s , or are there other f a c t o r s determining the choice between them? The author has two hypotheses on t h i s question. - 173 - 1. The p a t t e r n ' ̂ ffl + V ..., / -tp ...' i s used when the proposed a c t i v i t y has not been c a r r i e d out and i s under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the Shang k i n g . The p a t t e r n 'V ..., ^ / ^ ...' i s used when the proposed a c t i v i t y has been c a r r i e d out or i t i s not under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the Shang k i n g . The f i r s t part of t h i s hypothesis seems very n a t u r a l and acceptable. Sentences s i m i l a r to Ping 12 (1) (2) in c o r p o r a t e the p a r t i c l e wu 7̂ i n the negative counterpart, and a presumed h o r t a t o r y 'should' i n the p o s i t i v e counterpart. E i t h e r p r o h i b i t i o n or o b l i g a t i o n , i n most cases, presupposes the c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y / m a n a g e a b i l i t y of an a c t i o n . A sentence such as 'go / don't go to the mountains' i s p e r f e c t l y acceptable p r o v i d i n g the addresser has some s o r t of a u t h o r i t y over the addressee. But a sentence such as 'be young', even i f i t i s acceptable, can only be used i n a very r e s t r i c t e d sense and s i t u a t i o n . Though wu shows a somewhat complicated c h a r a c t e r , i t s predominant f u n c t i o n i s undoubtedly a p r o h i b i t i v e negative whether i n the O.B.I, or i n the c l a s s i c s . While the p a t t e r n ' ^ + V ..., ^ ? v / ^ . . . ' cannot be used i n s i t u a t i o n s where the proposed a c t i o n has already been c a r r i e d out nor i n s i t u a t i o n s where the proposed a c t i o n i s not under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the Shang k i n g , we cannot prove that the p a t t e r n 'V ..., ? x / ^ ? ...' i s used e x c l u s i v e l y i n s i t u a t i o n s where the p a t t e r n cannot be used. The next example i s open to two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : t h i s / day / hunt / not / perhaps / net . / c a p t i v e I ZJ 143 - 174 - Cl) (So and so) i s hunting; he w i l l perhaps not capture c a p t i v e s . That i s , somebody has already set out on a hunting t r i p , and the Shang k i n g (or the d i v i n e r ) makes t h i s d i v i n a t i o n to l e a r n the r e s u l t . This i s a s i t u a t i o n where the ' ̂  + V / J^j type sentences cannot be used. (2) ( I f ) we hunt today, we w i l l not perhaps capture c a p t i v e s . That i s , the Shang k i n g (or the d i v i n e r ) d i v i n e s about the outcome of a proposed a c t i v i t y to determine whether he should go ahead w i t h i t . This i s a s i t u a t i o n where the ' 4 p + v . . . . .' type sentences can be used. As i l l u s t r a t e d on p. 118 and 142, i n many cases i t . i s d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h c o n d i t i o n a l sentences from simultaneous-successive sentences. Since many d i v i n a t o r y sentences l i k e I ZJ 143 above do not i n c l u d e time expressions of any k i n d , i t i s o f t e n impossible to determine the t e m p o r a l i t y of the a c t i v i t y being d i v i n e d about, i . e . , whether i t had already occurred or was i n process and thus beyond the c o n t r o l of the Shang k i n g , or whether i t was a proposed a c t i o n to be undertaken at some f u t u r e time. For t h i s reason, the hypothesis concerning the d i f f e r e n c e between the "^V type of sentence and the 'V ^ / ^> type of sentence i s d i f f i c u l t to v e r i f y . There i s a f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y : some 'V / jrjj~> type sentences appear to be used i n s i t u a t i o n s where the a c t i v i t y d i v i n e d about i s c o n t r o l l a b l e and not yet c a r r i e d out. - 175 - < / i t W | Ift m ^ f f 4%, k i n g / perhaps / go / chase / game(?) I at I Kuei capture Ping 216 (5) (Ef)the k i n g perhaps goes to chase game(?) at K u e i , he w i l l capture (them). Or: ( i f ) t h e k i n g w i l l perhaps go to chase game(?) and 14 k u e i - d e e r ( ? ) , he w i l l capture (them). t £ a* I * $ f f <f 4 k i n g / perhaps / go / chase / game(?) / at / Kuei ^ W £ not / perhaps / capture Ping 216 (6) ( i f ) t h e k i n g perhaps goes to chase game(?) at Kue i , he w i l l not perhaps capture (them). Or: (If) the k i n g perhaps goes to chase game(?) and ^ kuei-deer, he w i l l perhaps not capture them. The word c h ' i appearing i n f r o n t of the verbs 'frt -^L' t o g° chasing'; shows that t h i s a c t i v i t y has not been c a r r i e d out at the time of the d i v i n a t i o n w h i l e the subj e c t wang j t - 'king' shows that the a c t i v i t y i s under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the k i n g . f N* i i i U£ \ A % i V t e s t / k i n g / perhaps / chase / rhinoceros / capture not / r e t r e a t / rhinoceros / capture / p i g / two ( I f ) the k i n g perhaps chases rhinoc e r o s e s , he w i l l capture (them). The k i n g d i d not d r i v e a rhinoceros ( i n t o an enclosure) ( l i t . to make i t r e t r e a t i n t o an e n c l o s u r e ) ; he captured two p i g s . Ping 120 (15) H y * , H not / perhaps / capture / rhinoceros ( I f the k i n g perhaps chases r h i n o c e r o s e s ) , he w i l l perhaps not capture (them). Ping 120 (16) • H^'lV ^ h US %,± fj% ping-hsu* / crack / k i n g I •we I perhaps / chase / game capture / indeed / capture / ten ( I f ) we perhaps chase game, we w i l l capture them. P i n g 323 (1) ping-hsu* / crack / k i n g / not / perhaps / capture / game < - 9 f i r s t month Ping 323 (2) ( I f we perhaps chase game), we w i l l perhaps not capture (them). ^ (Divined) at the f i r s t month. In these two p a i r s of i n s c r i p t i o n s , the modal c h ' i _j£ i s a l s o u s e d . ^ And the agent or the d i v i n e r of the a c t i v i t y chasing i s the ki n g h i m s e l f . Obviously chasing i s something under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the k i n g . Thus, i n the same k i n d of s i t u a t i o n , both types of sentence can be used. Is there any other f a c t o r that might determine the choice between them? Here i s a second hypothesis: 2. The choice i s determined by the g r a v i t y of the consequence of a proposed a c t i v i t y . Although a c l e a r cut d i s t i n c t i o n between these two patterns i s l a c k i n g , the author has discovered that c e r t a i n verbs only appear i n one pa t t e r n but not the other. For example, the verb f a A"̂  , when used i n - 177 - the sense 'to a t t a c k ' ( i d e n t i f i e d by the name of a t r i b e f o l l o w i n g i t as d i r e c t o b j e c t ) , appears only i n the p a t t e r n ' ^ + ^ 5̂"' / ̂  ...', # « # « r ̂  Hi f c - * > ^ kuei-mao / crack./ Ch'Ueh / t e s t / c a l l upon / Ch'Ueh (?) / a t t a c k / HsUan / harm Ping 249 (4) We should c a l l upon Ch'Ueh to 4$f (?) a t t a c k the HsUan 16 ( S t a t e l e t ) , ( f o r ) we w i l l harm them. should not / c a l l upon 7 Ch'Ueh / ^ J ( ? ) / at t a c k & t # f y r * HsUan / not / perhaps / harm Ping 249 (5) We should not c a l l upon Ch'Ueh t o f ^ j ( ? ) a t t a c k the HsUan ( S t a t e l e t ) , ( f o r ) we w i l l perhaps not harm them. der n T f t* . ^ fir M* 1 t i n g - w e i / crack / P i n / t e s t / should not / ord P i / a t t a c k / Hu(?) S t a t e l e t / not / perhaps / r e c e i v i v e abundant / a s s i s t a n c e We should not order P i to a t t a c k the Hu(?) S t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) we w i l l perhaps not r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . I {'^ 17 crack / Cheng / t e s t / t h i s / season / ki n g / f o l l o w 1 a s s i ,1k (fflj^TlA t\ * i eng / a t t a c k / Hsi a Wei / r e c e i v e / abundant Wang Ch" s i s t a n c e HsU,tf|[ 3.11.5 - 178 - ^ This season the k i n g should f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k H s i a Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l r e c e i v e abundant a s s i s t a n c e . 7 * f t i > % nk h s i n - s s u / crack / Cheng / t e s t / t h i s / season ± * *> tU< f * f * i f * k i n g / should not / f o l l o w / Wang Ch'eng / at t a c k °* «i f% ^ * H s i a Wei / not / perhaps / r e c e i v e / abundant / a s s i s t a n c e HsU ^-f? 3.11.5 • This season the ki n g should not f o l l o w Wang Ch'eng to a t t a c k Hsia Wei, ( f o r ) he w i l l perhaps not r e c e i v e ^•abundant a s s i s t a n c e . t e s t / k i n g / h u i / Chih Chia / f o l l o w / a t t a c k / Pa S t a t e l e t A * t i - g o d / give / we / a s s i s t a n c e I t should be Chih Chia that the ki n g f o l l o w s to a t t a c k the .J Pa S t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) t i - g o d w i l l give us a s s i s t a n c e . I_ Z«3787 k i n g / should not / wei / Chih Chia / f o l l o w / a t t a c k Pa S t a t e l e t / t i - g o d / not / we / perhaps / give 1 a s s i s t a n c e i _ 2/3787 I t should not be Chih Chia that the ki n g f o l l o w s to a t t a c k the Pa S t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) t i - g o d w i l l perhaps not give us a s s i s t a n c e . - 179 - With the exception of J. ~Z> 3787 of which the d i v i n e r i s not recorded, a l l the d i v i n e r s , i . e . , C h ' t i e h ^ ^ , P i n and Cheng 3^. are.different. • i n these four groups of i n s c r i p t i o n s . And yet the p a t t e r n ' + 4^ . . . , . i s maintained. Thus, the choice of t h i s p a t t e r n can h a r d l y be accounted f o r by assuming i d i o s y n c r a t i c use on the p a t t e r n s on the p a r t of the d i v i n e r s . Although the negative counterpart i s sometimes, i n other i n s c r i p t i o n s , abbreviated to .', we have not found any instance of the p a t t e r n A s i m i l a r phenomenon i s observed i n the case of cheng CE to send a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n ) . The p a t t e r n 1 %~) + Ct ... , ^ / -j^? ... 1 i s a l s o predominant: %jkl* 1 * i t f s ^ keng-shen / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / k i n g / should not • ? t p u n i t i v e l y a t t a c k / Hu(?) S t a t e l e t / lower / upper # * i t ? A - a * 4 * ^ * not / approve / not / we / perhaps / give / a s s i s t a n c e Ch'ien- 5.22.2 The k i n g should not p u n i t i v e l y a t t a c k the Hu(?) S t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) the lower and upper ( s p i r i t s ) w i l l not approve and (they) w i l l perhaps not give us a s s i s t a n c e . . . . yju / crack / t e s t / k i n g / p u n i t i v e l y a t t a c k Hu(?) S t a t e l e t / lower ./. upper / approve / give / we 5̂ a s s i s t a n c e T'ieh $ f f c .244.2 - 180 The k i n g should p u n i t i v e l y a t t a c k the Hu(?) S t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) the lower and upper ( s p i r i t s ) w i l l approve and give us a s s i s t a n c e . t e s t / should not ,5, ±<ar?\ ^ I p u n i t i v e l y a t t a c k Hu(?) S t a t e l e t / lower .-:/•'. upper / not / approve * \ - fc * X not / we / perhaps / give / a s s i s t a n c e T'ieh-.jgjr, 244,2; (The king) should not p u n i t i v e l y a t t a c k the Hu(?) S t a t e l e t , ( f o r ) the lower and upper ( s p i r i t s ) w i l l not approve, and w i l l 'perhaps not give us a s s i s t a n c e . (See a l s o I ^ ^ 1 1 6 , Hayashi Z.9.6, Hou Shang b- 16.8, I ^ 1 8 and Ch'eng 354.) There i s only one i n s c r i p t i o n which takes the p a t t e r n ' f jt-.. j $ s . kuei-wei / crack I M (?) / t e s t / k i n g p u n i t i v e l y a t t a c k / not / approve I f the k i n g p u n i t i v e l y a t t a c k s , there w i l l be d i s a p p r o v a l . K \ i 1177 On the other hand, i n the cases of chu £ ^ 'to chase (animals)' and shbu 'to hunt', both patterns occur: (.1) Chu a. ' 4?+ / j W - 181 - test / next / tisin-ssu / king / should not / go chase / rhinoceros / not / perhaps / capture T'ung |J*/XI 3. On the next hsin-ssu day, the king should not go chasing rhinoceroses, (for) he w i l l perhaps not capture (them). ft k ' £ * t> I * ^ * ^4 test / should not / c a l l upon / chase/ not / perhaps S\ f capture^ I £J 7600 We should not c a l l upon (so and so) to chase (animals), (for) we w i l l not capture them. g / kin perhaps / chase /pp-game/ at / Se * 17 capture(?) i' I ^ 7490 The king should perhaps chase p*^ -game at Se, (for) he w i l l capture (?) them. should not / chase / p^f -game / not / perhaps capture _i 2^ 7490 The king should not chase -game,"(for) he w i l l perhaps not capture (?) them. should not / c a l l upon / chase /... / perhaps / ... We should not c a l l upon (so and so) to chase (animals), (for) we w i l l (not) perhaps ... Chin - 182 - (In T'ung ^ IX 3, I 7600 and Chin ^ 404, the verbs being negated by wu ^) axe e i t h e r wang or hu ^ (=t?^ ). However, i n the u n d e r l y i n g r a t i o n a l e , the focus of negation i s the hunting a c t i v i t y chu ) % \ . Thus, these i n s c r i p t i o n s are l i s t e d under the heading of chu l ^ - . ) „ / 1. / / -1 / / 1 T s ' u i 936 chi-mao / crack / k i n g / chase / rhinoceros / not . I f the k i n g chases r h i n o c e r o s e s , he w i l l not ... . (See a l s o the three examples c i t e d on p.175-176 .) *T'to hunt' t e s t / k i n g / hunt / :net -• Ping 423 (4) The k i n g should hunt, ( f o r ) he w i l l capture (animals). ... wei I . . . I jen-shen / k i n g / should not / hunt not / perhaps / net / jen-shen 1 I . . . I hunt / net' Ping 423 (2) On the jen-shen day, the k i n g should not hunt, (f o r ) he w i l l not capture (animals). On the jen-shen day, (the king) went hunting and captured (animals). - 183 - suu / crack I . . . I k i n g / should not / hunt / ... not / please L i u Chung -f, 106 The k i n g should not hunt, ( f o r ) ... w i l l not be pleased. keng-hsu1 / crack / t h i s day / hunt / not / perhaps . net / c a p t i v e I ^ 143 ( I f ) we hunt today, we w i l l perhaps not capture c a p t i v e s . hsin-mao / crack / Cheng / t e s t / we / hunt Hsi a I / not / please HsU \\ 1.46.3 ( I f we) hunt, Hsia I w i l l not be pleased. I t appears that an important a c t i o n which may have se r i o u s consequences i n the Shang people's mind i s more l i k e l y to motivate the employment of the p a t t e r n ' 4%) • • • , "7* / • • ^ • j * ...'. 'To a t t a c k a s t a t e l e t ^[\^ , ^ i - ' i s , needless to say, an a c t i v i t y the success or f a i l u r e of which has great impact on the Shang. D i v i n a t i o n s concerning t h i s a c t i v i t y almost i n v a r i a b l y take the p a t t e r n ' ^ ) /?*/ -|? ...'. On the other hand, the success or f a i l u r e of a hunting a c t i v i t y can h a r d l y be compared i n :. importance to that of a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n . We f i n d that both s t r u c t u r e s .' and 'V > I'...' are used i n the cases of chu and shou ffi . - 184 - The verb t ' i e n I+? 'to hunt', which does not o f t e n occur i n pe r i o d I O.B.I, seems to be an exception. I t frequently, appears i n the p a t t e r n ' ff^ (='//] ) © . . . , J^- ' f l f " (55 occurrences) 'We should not hunt... f o r i t w i l l be cause f o r r e g r e t ' , though seldom i n the p a t t e r n ' |5 ..., 0^ . . . ' (10 occurrences) i f we hunt ..., we w i l l not ...'. Although the p a t t e r n ' yj (= W) (±f % ' i s d i f f e r e n t from that of ' ^ ... , $ £ >^ the expressions ' $ ? f « and ' t £ ' both convey a negative sense. And both patterns express a 'cause and e f f e c t ' r e l a t i o n s h i p . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the verb t ' i e n |2 'to hunt' i s s i m i l a r to the verbs f a , cheng and d i s t i n c t from the verbs shou f t , chu . However, i t should be noted that i t i s not the p o s s i b l e f a i l u r e to capture game that c o n s t i t u t e s the major reason f o r not going hunting ( (if ), i n f a c t , there i s only one i n s c r i p t i o n which reads ' [±I .. ., 7j* 3^. '' •1 • Instead, i t i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of 'cause f o r r e g r e t ' f-^ . Cf. 7L % fa '-flf (I Ching HY 1/1/ j l , fa ) 'Arrogant dragon w i l l have cause to repent.' (Baynes 1950:8) In the O.B.I, and i n l a t e r t e x t s , there are passages which s p e c i f y by concrete examples j u s t what 'cause f o r r e g r e t * meant to the Shang. U #W Ms b % It k u e i - s s u / crack / Ch'Ueh / t e s t / ten-day-week / have no misfortune / k i n g / pr o g n o s t i c a t e / say / n a i / t h i s / a l s o have / harm / s i m i l a r to / say / chia-wu / k i n g / go 185 - chase / rhinoceros / s m a l l / o f f i c i a l / t o take charge c h a r i o t / horse / p r e c i p i t o u s / d r i v e / k i n g / c h a r i o t f ±^ / I f * P r i n c e J (?) / a l s o / f a l l T'ung (|/_ 735 There w i l l not be misfortunes i n t h i s ten day week. The k i n g prognosticated and s a i d , 'here w i l l be harm too.' ( I t turned out) j u s t as the k i n g had prognosticated. On the chia-wu day, the k i n g went to chase rhinoceroses. A minor o f f i c i a l took charge of the c h a r i o t and horse, he drove the king's c h a r i o t p r e c i p i t o u s l y . P r i n c e ^ 18 a l s o f e l l down. Shih C h i : $ t tf) v f i 1^ , %L % . $L (Yin Pen Chi jf£ ^ , chuan 3, p. 104) 'During a hunting t r i p between the Yellow R i v e r and R i v e r Wei, Wu I was k i l l e d by a f i e r c e thunder s t r i k e ' . In the Han Dynasty, Ssu-ma Shang-ju admonished the emperor not to go hunting because of the dangers i n v o l v e d . He s t a t e s : M * ^ v i fo.K* *J • • • • ja. * & fit tir . * ^ ^ &«t > t% - 186 - (Ch'Uan Shang Ku San T a i Ch'in Han San Kuo L i i i Ch'ao Wen , P.246) Now your majesty i s fond of surpassing the o b s t r u c t i o n s and dangers, and shooting f i e r c e animals. (Supposing your majesty) suddenly encounters an animal which has e x t r a o r d i n a r y s t r e n g t h (at the time when) your majesty l e a s t expects i t . ( I t ) a t t a c k s your majesty ( l i t . i t offends the c l e a r dust of your majesty's c h a r i o t ) , but there i s no time to turn the c h a r i o t around and no time f o r your majesty's people to use t h e i r s k i l l s (to p r o t e c t your majesty) ... (Such a s i t u a t i o n i s equivalent) to having the Hu and YUeh (barbarians) r i s i n g from the bottom of your majesty's c h a r i o t , w h i l e the Ch'iang and I (barbarians) are on your rear bumper. I s n ' t i t p e r i l o u s ! ... Moreover, even i f one d r i v e s a f t e r the road has been c l e a r e d (from o b s t r u c t i o n s ) and d r i v e s f a s t down the middle of the road, o c c a s i o n a l l y there are c h a r i o t a c c i d e n t s ; not to mention i f one gets i n t o bushes and d r i v e s f a s t on uneven places ... i s n ' t i t d i f f i c u l t (to avoid) the misfortunes! This k i n d of mishap may be what the Shang had i n mind when they consequences of such misadventures are much more se r i o u s than the mere f a i l u r e to capture animals. This may be the reason why the p a t t e r n i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n p e r i o d I i n s c r i p t i o n s , the d i v i n e r s r a r e l y d i v i n e about the p o s s i b i l i t y of these mishaps (e.g., misfortune) and the major concern of hunting d i v i n a t i o n s l i e s i n whether or not animals performed the d i v i n a t i o n Needless to say, the I t i s w i l l be captured. Luxurious Ease) Chapter of the Shang Shu, the Duke f o r h i s d i l i g e n c e and reprimands the' Shang kings who followed f o r - 187 - t h e i r l u x u r i o u s l i f e - s t y l e i n which extravagant hunting must have played a p a r t . However, there are many hunting i n s c r i p t i o n s from P e r i o d I , and thus presumably hunting was an important court a c t i v i t y , yet Wu Ting i s not s i n g l e d out f o r extravagance by the Duke of Chou. A p o s s i b l e explan- a t i o n i s that hunting i n Period I (the r e i g n of Wu Ting) was a p r a c t i c a l 19 n e c e s s i t y , i . e . , a v i t a l means of o b t a i n i n g food and s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s . (See Yang K'uan's Ku Shih H s i n T'an ^ _ J ^ f i$>» P-259-260). This may be the reason why the c a p t u r i n g of game was the predominant concern i n P e r i o d I hunting d i v i n a t i o n . Hence, i f the c r i t i c i s m aimed by the Duke of Chou has any h i s t o r i c a l v a l i d i t y , we might assume that i n the l a t e r periods hunting was c a r r i e d out mainly f o r pleasure. Thus, concern about the success of the hunting g r a d u a l l y gave way f o r the king's s a f e t y i n what had become l i t t l e more than a dangerous sport r a t h e r than an e s s e n t i a l - 188 - CHAPTER FOUR THE SUBORDINATIVE COMPOSITE SENTENCES I I (RITUAL - SACRIFICIAL VERBS) The term ' r i t u a l - s a c r i f i c i a l verbs' ( h e r e a f t e r R-S v e r b s ) , r e f e r s to verbs which take s u p e r n a t u r a l beings, e.g. the s p i r i t s of deceased ancestors, mountain (gods), e t c . , as i n d i r e c t o bjects i d e n t i f i e d by the co-verb vjl ' j " . (There i s a l s o a case where an R-S verb, i . e . , p i n /& 'to t r e a t as guest', takes a super n a t u r a l being as d i r e c t object.) The co-verb y_U does not always occur between an R-S verb and i t s i n d i r e c t o b j e c t , but, i n any cases where the p a t t e r n 'V + -f + supernatural being' occurs, the verb i n question can be c l a s s i f i e d as an R-S verb. Various i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been made on R-S a c t i v i t i e s ( c h i - s s u ^ X\L>) s i n c e the e a r l i e s t stage of O.B.I, s t u d i e s . Among them, Ch'en Meng- chia's 'Ku Wen Tzu Chung Chih Shang Chou Chi Ssu' t fc. % <f % ffi (1936) and Shima Kunio's Inkyo B o k u j i Kenkyu f'^ ^ [x fff £ f f ' ^ ( 1 9 5 8 ) are the most comprehensive. The major concern of these s c h o l a r s i s w i t h the purposes/functions, the ch a r a c t e r , the b e n e f i c i a r i e s ( i . e . , i n d i r e c t o b j e c t s ) of these R-S a c t i v i t i e s , and f r e q u e n t l y , t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h s i m i l a r r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s recorded i n the c l a s s i c s . In t h i s chapter, i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n of the author to r e - d i s c u s s these R-S a c t i v i t i e s or to examine the t h e o r i e s proposed by the previous s c h o l a r s . Instead, the f o c a l p o i n t l i e s on the s y n t a c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p of the clauses i n which R-S verbs appear. Only i n cases where the author f i n d s the previous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a - 189 - given R-S verb u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w i l l he d i s c u s s the p o s s i b l e meaning of that R-S word. Otherwise, he simply f o l l o w s the g e n e r a l l y accepted o p i n i o n s . The s y n t a c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between two R-S clauses i s , i n f a c t , a r e f l e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two (or more) R-S a c t i v i t i e s i n the order of those a c t i v i t i e s , i . e . , a major R-S a c t i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n to a subsidiary:R-S a c t i v i t y . In t h i s chapter, an attempt i s made to i l l u s t r a t e such r e l a t i o n s h i p s by studying the d i f f e r e n t patterns e x e m p l i f i e d by d i f f e r e n t R-S verbs. The more i n s c r i p t i o n s we i n v e s t i g a t e , the more d e f i n i t e a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n we can make. Therefore, we s e l e c t as objects of study R-S verbs which have a high frequency of occurrence. The observation of these verbs i s based on the data, r e g a r d l e s s of p e r i o d , c o l l e c t e d i n the S o r u i . Although f a i l i n g to d i s c r i m i n a t e data of d i f f e r e n t periods may b l u r the temporal changes of these verbs, i t would be i m p o s s i b l e , without a l a r g e number of i n s c r i p t i o n s to a r r i v e at any s o l i d c o n c l u s i o n . Therefore, a wide- ranging treatment seems to be necessary. One f i n d s t r a d i t i o n a l terms such as chi-ming and yung- sheng c h i h - f a used to r e f e r to d i f f e r e n t types of R-S verbs. (The Japanese s c h o l a r s , such as Shima (1958:258) and Ikeda (1964:1), use terms saimei ^Jfc , s a i g i tjf^ , s a i s h i yogo jj£ 3& $5 via..) However, these terms have not been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . In t h i s chapter, the author attempts to give a l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of these verbs. They are described simply as 'type A' and 'type B'. These two types of verbs can be c l e a r l y d i s t i n - guished s y n t a c t i c a l l y i n c e r t a i n cases as w i l l be shown i n the f o l l o w i n g passages. In other cases, however, we have to r e l y on the method of analogy and comparison i n order to c l a s s i f y a verb. For the present, the - 190 - f o l l o w i n g three patterns are s e l e c t e d as a paradigm. Of these, (2) and (3) are used to i l l u s t r a t e the d i s t i n c t i o n between the type A and type B verbs. (.1) 'V + ( A ) + OB' (2) 'V + C "f ) + OB + OV' (3) 'V + OG/OP + C "? ) + OB' (See below f o r the meaning of the a b b r e v i a t i o n s used i n the paradigm.) Of course an R-S verb may appear i n many other p a t t e r s , but i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l and unnecessary to d i s c u s s them a l l . The above three patterns can serve our purpose. A b b r e v i a t i o n s : OB o b j e c t - b e n e f i c i a r y : the r e c i p i e n t of an R-S a c t i v i t y , e.g. a deceased ancestor OV o b j e c t - v i c t i m : the animals, things being s a c r i f i c e d . There are two sub-categories of OV depending on whether i t i s used w i t h verb type A or verb type B, 01 object-instrument: an OV i n r e l a t i o n to a type A verb, e.g. an ox OP o b j e c t - p a t i e n t : an OV i n r e l a t i o n to a type B verb, e.g. an ox 0G o b j e c t - g o a l : the goal or cause of an R-S a c t i v i t y , e.g. ( f o r ) a good harvest (see footnote no.3) - 191 - I . A GENERAL DISCUSSION OF THE TYPE A AND TYPE B VERBS The c o n t r a s t between Type A and Type B verbs: (.1) V + (. -j- ) + OB Type A t e s t / k i n g / announce / to / Ancestor I The k i n g should make an announcement to Ancestor I I Z> 8134 t e s t / should not / announce / to / T ang We should not make an announcement to T'ang. Ch 1 l e n #'J 1.47 I should not / e x o r c i s e I to I A n c e s t r a l Mother Chi We should not perform an exorcism to A n c e s t r a l Mother C h i . I ZJ 5406 t e s t / e x o r c i s e I to I A n c e s t r a l Mother Chi We should perform an exorcism to A n c e s t r a l Mother C h i . I Z> 5406 t e s t / invoke / to / River(god) HsU y^. 1.35.4 We should invoke to the Rive r ( g o d ) . 3 i i £ f c i £ f-r t * c t ^ should not / invoke I to I A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng. We should not invoke to A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng. I 7448 - 192 - e B jen-shen / crack / P i n / t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to / River ( s o d ) Chia vf 2998 We should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to the Rive r ( g o d ) . t e s t 7 should not / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e I to I River(god) We should not perform a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to the River ( g o d ) . Chia Vp 2998 5 i J | f & ^ 0̂ t f h s i n - s s u / crack / y u - s a c r i f i c e / to A n c e s t r a l Mother Ting I_ Z 4064 We should perform a y u - s a c r i f i c e to A n c e s t r a l Mother T i n g . 1 kuei-mao / crack / Ch'Ueh / next / chia-ch'en y u - s a c r i f i c e / T'ai Chia Ping 117 (22) On the next chia-ch'en day, we should perform a yu- s a c r i f i c e to T'ai Chia. t e s t / come / i - h a i / y u - o f f e r / to / Ancestor I On the coming i - h a i day, we should perform an yu- of f e r i n g to Ancestor I . P i n g 313 (1) 6 i i 'j=U J^t* - : v ^ ^ ,:h t e s t / come / i - h a i / should not / y u - o f f e r / to Ancestor I Ping 313 (2) On the coming i - h a i day, we should not perform an y u - o f f e r i n g to Father I . - 193 - (2) V + C f ) + OB + OV Type A * 1 1 r u ) ! * U ft *U ° x ping-shen / crack / announce / to / Father Ting ox / one Nan Ming ^ 531 We should make an announcement to Father Ting (with) one ox. c h i - h a i / crack / announce I to I Father Ting hree / ox t ' Nan Ming 616 We should make an announcement to Father Ting (with) three ox. ting-ch'ou / crack / Cheng / t e s t / e x o r c i s e / to Ancestor Hsin / ten / penned-sheep We should perform an exorcism to Ancestor Hsin (with) ten penned-sheep. Hou Shang ^ Jz 27.1 211 A ,U, 2 , ... e x o r c i s e / to / Nang King / three c a p t i v e We should perform an exorcism to Nan King (with) three c a p t i v e s . K'u j^L 1641 H f i ° T h U f i D'> ^ t e s t / next / t i n g - h a i / invoke / to / Ting / two / ox On the next t i n g - h a i day, we should, invoke to Ting (with) two oxen. Pu \ 244 - 1 9 4 - 3 i i j^fV 1 K ? f M| I & fj i - h a i / crack / Cheng / t e s t / invoke / to is * u y* * Hsien / ten / ox Ch'ien fi'j 1.44.2 We should invoke to Hsien (with) ten oxen. Type B t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e I to I Ting / f i v e / ox We should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to Ting f i v e oxen. Ch'ien 0(J 1.46.5 4 i i f«pfl* A t ^ W ^ C chia-ch'en / / k i n g / next / i - s s u b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / to / Hsien / one / sheep On the next i - s s u day, we should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to Hsien one sheep. I_ Z. 849 t e s t / y u - s a c r i f i c e / to / River(god) / ten / ox We should y u - s a c r i f i c e to the River(god) ten oxen. I Z. 7645 5 i i f $ f * $ # T s I* / + hsin-wei / t e s t / y u - s a c r i f i c e / Shih Jen / ten penned-ox Nan Ming $£)Pfl533 We should y u - s a c r i f i c e to Shih Jen ten penned-oxen. next / h s i r i - h a i / yu-of f e r / to / Wang Hai f o r t y / ox Ping 117 (.31) On next h s i n - h a i day, we should y u - o f f e r to Wang Hai f o r t y oxen. - 195 - 6 i i y * f ? tj. f % £ i y u - o f f e r / to / Wang Hai / female sl a v e We should y u - o f f e r to Wang Hai a female s l a v e . Ping 117 (30) (3) V + OG + ( f ) + OB Type A 4 u ft ft £ i & * - t f * f * [ ± U » t e s t / announce / T'u S t a t e l e t / to / (Shang)Chia We should announce (the a c t i v i t y of) the T'u S t a t e l e t to (Shang)Chia. T s ' u i ^ 1107 t e s t / announce / Hu(?) S t a t e l e t / to / T'ang We should announce (the a c t i v i t y of) the Hu(?) S t a t e l e t to T'ang. HsU 1.7.2 ex o r c i s e / k i n g / misfortune / to / A n c e s t r a l Mother Kuei I_ Z. 7781 We should e x o r c i s e the king's misfortune, (the 2 exorcism being d i r e c t e d ) to A n c e s t r a l Mother Kuei. 2i . i M*r ± * ff should not / e x o r c i s e / k i n g / misfortune / to A n c e s t r a l Mother Kuei I_ Z> 7781 We should not e x o r c i s e the king's misfortune (the exorcism being d i r e c t e d ) to A n c e s t r a l Mother K u e i . - 196 - >fc '31 %> & ^ % invoke / harvest / to / River(god) We should invoke f o r a (good) harvest to the Ri v e r (god). Hayashi ^2.19.8 3 i i f f ^ H i K # * ™ < w $ 4f keng-wu / crack / i n v o k e / r a i n / to / Mountain(god) We should invoke f o r r a i n to the mountain(god). I 40 (3) V + OP + ( ^ ) + OB Type B 1 4 i u i - % 4 - ^ chi-mao / crack / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / p i g / four cloud K|_u /£ 972 We should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e a p i g to (the s p i r i t s of) the four clouds. (For a study of cloud-worship, see YU Hsing-wu 1979:8.) 4n Ufi # I X f c ijfc. ""1 i - s s u / / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / f i v e / p i g / one sheep / to / ^ £ (?) J i n A. 2299 We should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e f i v e pigs and one sheep to the s p i r i t of ^ ( ? ) . i, 51 A * 0 8 .,• t e s t / t h i s / day / y u - s a c r i f i c e / s m a l l / penned- sheep / to / Father I HsU fyT 2.21.4 Today we should y u - s a c r i f i c e a s m a l l penned-sheep to Father I . - 197 - t i n g - h a i / crack / at/next / wu-tzu / y u - s a c r i f i c e H i f f c & ah "fatJ. three / p i g / Ancestor I / keng-yin / use four / month HsU % % 1.13.3 On the next wu-tzu day, we should y u - s a c r i f i c e three pigs to Ancestor I . (This s a c r i f i c e ) was performed on a keng-yin day ( i n s t e a d ) . On the f o u r t h month. W 6 i Wy* / k T> '; * f t ^ # y u - o f f e r / c a p t i v e / to / A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng We should y u - o f f e r a c a p t i v e to A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng. Ping 47 (21) 6 i i ft ^ * * f * f" «tf should not / y u - o f f e r / c a p t i v e / to / A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng Ping 47 (22) We should not y u - o f f e r a c a p t i v e to A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng. At f i r s t s i g h t , i t appears that a l l the verbs l i s t e d under A and B share i d e n t i c a l l i n g u i s t i c behaviour. A l l of them can take an OB, i . e . , p a t t e r n (1)'V + ( ) + OB'. Other than the OB, these verbs can a l s o take another object which i s e i t h e r placed i n f r o n t of or a f t e r the OB, i . e . , p a t t e r n (3)'V + OG/OP + ( y ) + OB' and pattern(2)'V + ( -f ) + OB + OV'. Nevertheless, i t i s e a s i l y observable t h a t i n p a t t e r n (3), the o b j e c t s of the 3 type A verbs are OGs w h i l e the o b j e c t s of the type B verbs are OPs. - 198 - One may hold the op i n i o n that both an OG (e.g. T'u Fang S~ Jj ) and an OP (e.g. ox i j ' ) are d i r e c t o b j e c t s ; and the d i f f e r e n c e between them i s a matter of meaning devoid of s y n t a c t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s a common knowledge t h a t , i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese, verbs such as y_u ^ 'to g i v e ' and kao 'to t e l l ' take two objects ( d i r e c t object and i n d i r e c t object (or OB)). The d i r e c t object i s the thing/matter being g i v e n / t o l d , w h i l e the i n d i r e c t object i s the r e c i p i e n t / l i s t e n e r of the thing/matter. The d i r e c t 4 object may be placed e i t h e r i n f r o n t of or a f t e r the i n d i r e c t o b j e c t : *P •& W f % (M98Af|7/r*b '... and sent an announcement of h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s to Ts'e.' (Legge, p.150) $ % j & - f -f (HY 2 7 8 / ^ . 1 4 / 1 7 x ) 'Woo announced to T s i n the defeat ' (Legge, p.463) 'and how he repented of h i s oath.' (Legge, p.6) 'and (the duke) t o l d (Ying K'ao Shu \ \ about h i s repentence.' (the author's t r a n s l a t i o n ) ^ *. * <* «? 1 <SI 'and he would t e l l him how to d i s t r i b u t e the b r i b e s . ' (Legge, p.698) 'I am going to t e l l you how to d i s t r i b u t e the b r i b e s . ' (the author's . t r a n s l a t i o n ) These s t r u c t u r e s appear to be p a r a l l e l to the s t r u c t u r e ' f f / ^ . - J f̂cfc $L y u - o f f e r a c a p t i v e to A n c e s t r a l Mother Keng' ,(Ping 47 (21)) and 'ff f £ % ^ yu - o f f e r to Wang Hai a female s l a v e ' (Ping 117 (30)) r e s p e c t i v e l y . And i t - 199 - seems to be p o s s i b l e to t r e a t the O.B.I. R-S verb kao ^ , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n a s i m i l a r way: + OG + C J ) + OB e.g. j £ ^ (Ts ' u i ffiJE 1107) We should announce (the a c t i v i t i e s ) of the T'u S t a t e l e t to Shang Chia.' •It + ( ) + OB + 0V e.g. ^ J J | ^ (Nan Ming Jfr 616) We should make an announcement to Wang Hai (with) f i v e oxen. Or: We should announce-sacrifice ( i . e . the s a c r i f i c e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the r i t u a l 'announcing') to Wang Hai f i v e oxen. However, there i s s o l i d evidence showing that the d i f f e r e n c e between an OG and an OV i s not only semantic but a l s o s y n t a c t i c a l . That i s , w i t h i n the p a t t e r n s 'V A + ( ) + OB + 0' and 'V A + 0 + ( ^ ) + OB', an 0V almost i n v a r i a b l y appears i n the former w h i l e an OG appears i n the l a t t e r , i . e . , 'V + ( ^ ) + OB + OV' and 'V + OG + ( ^ ) + OB'. Fo l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f s t a t i s t i c s (data are c o l l e c t e d from the So r u i w i t h the p a r t l y o b l i t e r a t e d and obscure i n s c r i p t i o n s excluded): V + OV + ( 5" ) + OB occurrence: Q V + ( " j " ) + OB + OV occurrence: 18 V + OV + ( - j " ) + OB occurrence: 1 V + ( -j£ ) + OB + OV occurrence: 20 - 200 - 6 V + OV + ( K ) + OB occurrence: 1 V +•(. ^ ) + OB + OV occurrence: 12 V + OG + ( j " ) + OB occurrence: 38 V + (. f ) + OB + OG occurrence: l 7 1 V + OG + ( -f ) + OB occurrence: 64 V + ( ~f ) + OB + OG occurrence: 0 V + OG + ( T ) + OB occurrence: 104 V + ( j ) + OB + OG i 8 occurrence: 1 The OGs and OVs can co-occur i n one s i n g l e i n s c r i p t i o n , e.g. perhaps / announce / l o c u s t / Shang Chia / two / ox T s ' u i 8 8 We should perhaps announce (that there i s ) l o c u s t to Shang Chia (with) two oxen. I ... hsU / crack / ... / e x o r c i s e / P r i n c e ft (?) / to Mother Chi / two / s m a l l / penned-sheep We should e x o r c i s e P r i n c e ^ (?) (the exorcism being d i r e c t e d ) to Mother Chi (with)two small penned-sheep. Nan Wu 134 t e s t / invoke'/ harvest / to / T'ai Chia / ten / penned-sheep Ancestor I / ten / penned-sheep Ping 117 (24) - 201 - We should invoke f o r a (good) harvest to T'ai Chia w i t h ten penned-sheep, and to Ancestor I faith) ten penned-sheep. (Notice that the order of the OGs and OVs i s maintained, i . e . , the OGs are placed immediately a f t e r the verbs w h i l e the OVs are separated from the verb by the OBs.) Now i t appears that type A verbs are f o u r - p l a c e verbs; they can p o t e n t i a l l y take an agent (normally unexpressed), an OB, and 0G and an OV. By r e f e r r i n g to the' c l a s s i c s , we may r e v e a l the true r e l a t i o n s h i p between the type A verbs and the OVs. M f£ £ ^ M t -? % (Tso Chuan HY 8 2 / ^ 2 / 5 ^ . ) '... sent b r i b e s to Keu, and requested the d e l i v e r y of Kung-chung.' (Legge, p.129) '... used b r i b e s to request the d e l i v e r y of Kung-chung from Chtt.' (the author's t r a n s l a t i o n ) (Tso Chuan HY 239/ ^ 1 6 / j f f i l ) '... the viscount of Ts'oo sent the Kung-tsze Ch'ing from Woo-shing to seek f o r peace w i t h Ch'ing by the o f f e r of the lands of J o o - y i n . ' (Legge, p.395) The objects ' b r i b e ' and ^ ® ' f i e l d ' are the things used, as a means or instrument, to o b t a i n the goal sought. They can be termed 01s (obj ect-instrumeht) introduced by the coverb 1^ . ̂ - 202 - The word 1 vjA , i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese f u n c t i o n s as a co-verb and s t i l l maintains a strong v e r b a l sense. Cf. ^ V>A *\% )jt\ ^ ( T s o Chuan HY 2/5"^ ) *Ch'ing-ke, immediately on the duke's death, had gone to Choo, t a k i n g w i t h him duke Chwang's remaining son, who was afterwards duke He' (Legge, p.129). We may even put i t t h i s way: i n r e l a t i o n to the b e n e f i c i a r i e s , i . e . , ChU ^ and Cheng jjjPj) , there are two verbs; one i s the word c h ' i u pft. which takes the OG, the other i s the word 1_ which takes the 01 and these two verbs both take the b e n e f i c i a r y /J^p as an i n d i r e c t o b j e c t . ^ I t i s reasonable to assume that the sentence ' v\ S^L l"t "f ' > f o r i n s t a n c e , i s d e r i v e d from a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r i m i t i v e s t r u c t u r e '*to take/use a b r i b e to request the d e l i v e r y of Kung-chung from ChU.' Cf. Legge uses a f u l l verb 'sent' to t r a n s l a t e the word I f the above assumption i s j u s t i f i e d , we may make attempt to analyse the O.B. sentence i n a s i m i l a r way: £ ^ J < ^ ^ Jjjp ( c i t e d on p.200) We should invoke f o r a (good) harvest to T'ai Chia (by USING) ten penned-sheep. Or: In praying f o r a (good) harvest to T'ai Chia, we should USE ten penned-sheep. In the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e , there are two verbs, one takes the OG, ; the other takes the 01, i . e . , These two verbs, on the other hand, share a common 0B, i.e.,-7X^ - 203 - This hypothesis has the merit of e x p l a i n i n g the f o l l o w i n g phenomenon exe m p l i f i e d by the verb c h ' i u z£o • The f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r e s f r e q u e n t l y appear: ;"f<L + OG + (. ) + OB + OV e.g. (3*7 J £ ^ Ping. H7 (25) We should invoke f o r r a i n to T'ai Chia (with) a penned-ox. + OB + OV A + ( e.g. j £ ^ /̂ V' f T c h , 1 e n ty) 1.44.2 We should invoke to Hsien (with) ten oxeri. h + OG + ( ^ ) + OB, V B + OV, (V B + OV) In praying f o r a (good) harvest to the Mountain(god), we should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e three s m a l l penned-sheep and dismember- s a c r i f i c e three oxen. Ho_ 340 ( ) + OB, Vfi + OV, ( V B + OV) e.g. ^ f f ^ >% ^ In praying to T'ai Chia, we should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e one penned-sheep, three dogs and dismember ... L i n g But the f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r e s do not appear: * T[L + OG + ( "f ) + OB + OV, V B + OV, CV„ + OV) * + I "f ) + OB + ov, v B + ov, (vB + ov) 1 1 - 204 - In other words, wherever there i s a s t r u c t u r e 'V + OV' (e.g. 'a. 4" '% ), we do not f i n d an OV f o l l o w i n g r i g h t a f t e r the s t r u c t u r e ' jj< + (OG) + ( - j - ) + OB'. By assuming there i s an unexpressed a b s t r a c t verb (comparable to the coverb JL >|A i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese) , we can provide the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis: In the s t r u c t u r e ' ̂  + (OG) + (_ f ) + OB + OV', there are i n f a c t two verbs (or even three, i f we count the co-verb yjl - j ~ ), i . e . , ' rfz. + (OG) + ( ) + OB, USE + OV'. The verb USE takes the OV and'may be s p e c i f i c a l l y r e a l i z e d , e.g., tfc + (OG) + ( ^ ) + OB, ^ + OV'. No doubt, the h y p o t h e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e '* + (OG) + ( J- ) + OB + OV, Vfi + OV' i s not a t t e s t e d because i t i s clumsy and redundant, i . e . , ' * i n praying f o r (X) to so and so, we should USE a Y, we should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e a Y '(where ' b u r n - s a c r i f i c e ' i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e a l i z a t i o n of the a b s t r a c t verb USE and the two Ys are i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f e r r i n g to the same v i c t i m ) . The above hypothesis can a l s o account f o r the f a c t that the p a t t e r n ' + ( ^ ) + OB + OV' occurs so f r e q u e n t l y but the p a t t e r n ' ̂ . + OV + ( *f ) + OB' almost never occurs. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the verb c h ' i u ^ and the OB i s much c l o s e r than that between c h ' i u and the 0V(=0I). In f a c t , an a b s t r a c t verb USE may even be s a i d to separate the main verb and i t s OB from the OV. Sometimes, the a b s t r a c t verb USE i s expressed i n the surface s t r u c t u r e without being s e m a n t i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d , e.g., to / Brother Ting / e x o r c i s e / use / ox When performing an exorcism to Brother T i n g , we should use an ox. I. f\'%^ 449 - 205 - Un l i k e the s t r u c t u r e where the methods of s a c r i f i c i n g the v i c t i m s are s p e c i f i e d , e.g. ^ b u r n - s a c r i f i c e , dismember-sacrifice, the above s t r u c t u r e c a r r i e s an i n f o r m a t i o n l o a d almost i d e n t i c a l to that of * -J" ^ %f (or fyf "f ̂  ̂  ty That is' we sti11 do not know now this R_s a c t i v i t y i s going to be performed. Probably f o r t h i s reason, t h i s s t r u c t u r e and the s t r u c t u r e ' tyf + f + OB, f£) + OV' are r a r e l y found i n the O.B.I. Now l e t us look at the verbs B4, B5, B6 ( l i a o ^ , vja and vu_ ^ ) . They obviously d i f f e r from the verbs A l , A2 and A3 i n the f o l l o w i n g aspects: (1) They do not take an OG. (2) The OV enjoys a r a t h e r f l e x i b l e p o s i t i o n , i . e . , the patterns 'VB+ OV + ( ^ ) + OB' and 'Vfi+ ( ^ ) + OB + OV' 12 are both a t t e s t e d i n the O.B.I. (3) The p a t t e r n 'V_ + ( - f ) + OB, V D + OV, (V n + OV)' does not B B . s-> occur; i n s t e a d , we f i n d the p a t t e r n 'Vg + ( ^ ) + OB + OV, v B + OV, (v B + OV)'. For example, f 1 3 B « ^ ^ / 8 , \ V ft$ * % ff kuei-yu / crack / t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e / to Mountain(god) / three / small / penned-sheep j> <vt =• s. W if dismember-sacrifice / three / penned-sheep We should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to the Mountain(god) three small penned-sheep and dismember-sacrfice three penned-sheep. Ch'ien ff) 7.25.3 - 206 - B4u U fl*. 1 > ? n f vU jen-ch'en / crack / next / chia-wu / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to / tt O) / sheep / y u - o f f e r / p i g On the next chia-wu day, we should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to (the s p i r i t o f ) \\ (?) a sheep and y u - o f f e r a p i g . Ch'ien 4.52.4 B M i i f e . ft U V f N § * * ' i - s s u / crack / Cheng / t e s t / b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to / River(god) / f i v e / ox / s i n k - s a c r i f i c e / ten ox / ten month / being at / Tou(?) We should b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to the River(god) f i v e oxen, s i n k - s a c r i f i c e ten oxen. (Divined a t) the tenth month, i n Tou(?). Ch'ien ft) 4.52.4 •it B 5 i , { i z ''9*s # J z. t e s t / come / i - h a i / y u - s a c r i f i c e / Ancestor I | -r ^ l a ^ *p I t ten / behead / and / f i v e / dismember-sacrifice / ten penned-sheep I_ Z- 6408 On the coming i - h a i day, we should y u - s a c r i f i c e to Ancestor I f i f t e e n beheaded v i c t i m s and dismember- s a c r i f i c e ten penned-sheep. i-mab / crack / Ch'ueh / t e s t / come / i - h a i y u - s a c r i f i c e / Hs i a I / ten / behead / and / f i v e f I -r ¥ ̂  - ̂ dismember-sacrif i c e / ten / pennedr-sheep / two - 207 - ten-day-week / and / one / day / i - h a i not / y u - s a c r i f i c e / r a i n Ping 197 (.3) On the coming i - h a i day, we should y u - s a c r i f i c e to Hsia I f i f t e e n beheaded v i c t i m s and dismember-sacrifice ten penned-sheep. ( A f t e r ) twenty one days, on an i - h a i day, we d i d not perform the y u - s a c r i f i c e . I t r a i n e d . tf156i H § f i g# Y f •••• a I N t e s t / y u - o f f e r / to Ancestor Hsin / f i v e / behead dismember-sacrifice / three / penned-sheep Ping 27 (1) We should y u - o f f e r to Ancestor Hsin f i v e beheaded v i c t i m s and dismember-sacrifice three penned-sheep. 6 i i £3 £ ¥ *a ) / + t e s t / y u - o f f e r / Ancestor I / ten / behead dismember / three / ox Ping 102 (7) We should y u - o f f e r to Ancestor I a beheaded v i c t i m and dismember-sacrifice three oxen. Although the s t r u c t u r e 'V + OV' (e.g. ) appears, there i s s t i l l an OV f o l l o w i n g r i g h t a f t e r the s t r u c t u r e 'V + ( ^ ) + OB' (e.g. -^. > ^ ) . Such a s t r u c t u r e excludes the p o s s i b i l i t y that type B verbs do not take an OV which i s governed by a ' s p e c i f i c r e a l i z i n g ' verb. I t appears to be a very remote p o s s i b i l i t y that the Shang would, f r e q u e n t l y and r e g u l a r l y , make d i v i n a t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g way, ' i n performing a b u r n - s a c r i f i c e to the Mountain(god), we should USE (method u n s p e c i f i e d ) three s m a l l penned- sheep and dismember-sacrifice (method s p e c i f i e d ) three penned-sheep' (Ch'ien 208 - 7.25.3). There i s a vast d i f f e r e n c e i n the semantic s t r u c t u r e between the type A and type B verbs although they both appear i n the p a t t e r n 'V + (. -j" ) + OB + OV'. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the type A verbs and the OVs are r a t h e r l o o s e , i t takes another verb ( i . e . USE) to c o n j