UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of feeding management during the growing and laying periods on productivity and the characteristics.. Chu, Stanley Soon-Wai 1979

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
UBC_1980_A6_7 C58.pdf [ 5MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0095407.json
JSON-LD: 1.0095407+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0095407.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0095407+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0095407+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0095407+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0095407 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0095407.txt
Citation
1.0095407.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF FEEDING MANAGEMENT DURING THE GROWING AND LAYING PERIODS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ADIPOSE TISSUE OF THE BROILER BREEDERS  by  - /STANLEY ' SOON-WAI,\CHU B .SCV (Ag-r.) , U n i v e r s i t y - o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY SCIENCE  We  accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1979  (c> S t a n l e y Soon-Wai .Chu, 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  that  and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain written  permission.  Department o f  POULTRY SCIENCE  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  December 1979  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The egg  p r e s e n t  p r o d u c t i o n  and  breeder  female  f e e d i n g  management  c o n v e n t i o n a l  t w i c e  d a i l y  the  g i v e n  and  between  the  e x t e n s i o n  t h e r e f o r e  feed  f e e d i n g than  of  on  and  to  study  of  the  b r o i l e r  s u b j e c t e d  the  time  fed  to  between  the  l i t t e r  of  were  d i f f e r e n t  case  between  8  10  was  a.m.  the  i n t o a.m.  fed p o p u l a t i o n and  a c t i v i t y  f l o o r - f e d w i t h  and  f e e d e r - f e d  P h y s i c a l  the  d i v i d e d  8  p o p u l a t i o n  as  p.m.  the  (1022)  other  feed  4:30  was  was  The  amount  p.m.  g r e a t e r  been  c h i c k s  p o p u l a t i o n  b r o a d c a s t  of  a c c u m u l a t i o n  had  female  f e e d e r s .  same  3:30  undertaken  p r o c e d u r e s .  One  u s i n g  was  f a t  w h i c h  breeder  p o p u l a t i o n s .  but  abdominal  c h i c k e n s  B r o i l e r two  experiment  10  p.m  and  p o p u l a t i o n  were  f e e d e r - f e d  p o p u l a t i o n . The l i b i t u m f e d 18  f e e d i n g  b i r d s weeks  the  than  than  to  4  were  of  lower the  was  medium  and  l i g h t e r  the  h e a v i e r  were  not  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the i n  f l o o r - f e d the  (%  p u l l e t s  f e e d e r - f e d  feed  under the  four  l i g h t e s t ,  and  ad f l o o r -  r e s t r i c t i o n .  i n t o  groups  groups  p r o p o r t i o n  weight  T h e r e a f t e r  d i v i d e d  of  and  i n  age.  q u a n t i t a t i v e  p o p u l a t i o n  of  l i g h t e r  weeks  under  b i r d s  amount i n  b r i d s  medium,  those  f a t  h i g h e r  each  The  weights  abdominal  2  h e a v i e r  upper  The  were  from  age  w e i g h t .  f a s t e r age  were of  h e a v i e s t , body  f l o o r - f e d  groups,  based  on  s u b s e q u e n t l y  by  47  At  weeks  grew  of  d i f f e r e n t . of at  body  weight)  26-27  p u l l e t s .  weeks  Abdominal  of of  age f a t  i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d body w e i g h t i n t h o s e groups of p u l l e t s w h i c h g a i n e d up t o 1200 g i n body w e i g h t a f t e r the d i v i s i o n a t 18 weeks o f age, b u t d e c r e a s e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o body w e i g h t i n those groups o f p u l l e t s which g a i n e d i n excess o f 1200 g.  The  d a t a suggested t h a t t h e more v i t a l p a r t s of the body, such as the muscle and s k e l e t a l t i s s u e s , developed a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n the abdominal f a t pad i n t h e l i g h t e s t group o f p u l l e t s . F l o o r f e e d i n g d i d not a f f e c t the age a t which the p u l l e t s reached s e x u a l m a t u r i t y .  Egg p r o d u c t i o n , c a l c u l a t e d on  hen-day b a s i s , was s i m i l a r i n a l l groups.  When egg p r o d u c t i o n  was c a l c u l a t e d on a hen-housed b a s i s , however, the f e e d e r - f e d p u l l e t s showed a h i g h e r r a t e o f egg p r o d u c t i o n than d i d the floor-fed pullets.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e b i r d s o f the h e a v i e r  groups w i t h i n b o t h f e e d i n g systems had a h i g h e r r a t e of p r o d u c t i o n than d i d t h e b i r d s i n t h e l i g h t e r groups. F l o o r - f e d p u l l e t s l a i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r eggs than feeder-fed p u l l e t s .  Egg w e i g h t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different  among the f o u r weight-groups of p u l l e t s i n each f e e d i n g system. B i r d s f e d on t h e l i t t e r had lower m o r t a l i t y d u r i n g the  b r o o d i n g p e r i o d but t h e r e a f t e r had a h i g h e r m o r t a l i t y than  did  the b i r d s f e d from feeders..  The major cause of death was  gizzard impaction with l i t t e r material.  M o r t a l i t y was  the  h i g h e s t i n the l i g h t e s t groups on b o t h f e e d i n g systems d u r i n g the  laying period.  - i v-  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v i i X  L I S T OF FIGURES L I S T OF APPENDICES  x i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.  x i i  INTRODUCTION I.  i iv  L I S T OF TABLES  CHAPTER  Page  1 THE EFFECT OF FEEDING MANAGEMENT DURING THE GROWING AND LAYING PERIODS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ADIPOSE TISSUE OF BROILER BREEDERS  3  1.0  INTRODUCTION  4  1.1  LITERATURE REVIEW.  6  1.1.1  Physical Activity  6  1.1.2  1.1.1.1  P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a n d body conformation  6  1.1.1.2  O b e s i t y and egg p r o d u c t i o n  7  1.1.1.3  P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and reproduction  8  R e s t r i c t e d Feeding .  10  1.1.2.1  Quantitative  feed r e s t r i c t i o n .  . . 10  1.1.2.1.1  Methods  10  1.1.2.1.2  E f f e c t on body w e i g h t  11  1.1.2.1.3  E f f e c t on egg p r o d u c t i o n  12  1.1.2.1.4  E f f e c t on m o r t a l i t y  13  - v  1.1.2.2  -  R e s t r i c t i o n of time for feeding  1.1.2.2.1  R e s t r i c t e d f o r one  allowed 13 or  two  hours d a i l y  13  1.1.2.2.2  Skip-a-day feeding  14  1.1.2.3  Reduction i n the energy i n the d i e t Methods  1.1.2.3.1 1.1.2.3.2  level  E f f e c t on b o d y w e i g h t age s e x u a l m a t u r i t y and egg production  1.1.2.3.3  Economic  1.1.2.4  Reduction  at 16 IV  in protein  content  i n the d i e t  IV  1.1.2.4.1  P r o t e i n and  1.1.2.4.2  D e p r i v a t i o n of e s s e n t i a l  energy l e v e l s  IV  amino a c i d  18  METHODS  20  1.2  MATERIAL AND  1.2.1  Source of B i r d s  1.2.2  Brooding  1.2.3  Rearing  Period  (5-18  1.2.4  Holding  Period  (19-25 weeks)  1.2.5  Laying Period  1.3  RESULTS AND  1.3.1  Body W e i g h t 1.3.1.1 1.3.1.2  15 15  Period  20 (0-4 weeks) weeks)  (26-4V w e e k s )  DISCUSSION  20 22 2V 28 30 30  Comparison of the f e e d i n g management p r o c e d u r e s Comparison of the f o u r weight-groups  30 33  - v i -  1.3.2  Abdominal  1.3.3  Egg P r o d u c t i o n .  44  1.3.3.1  Sexual maturity-  44  1.3.3.2  Rate o f l a y  44  1.3.3.3  Egg w e i g h t  50  1.3.4  Mortality.  1.4  SUMMARY  CHAPTER I I .  Fat. •  39  .  54 57  THE EFFECT OF PROLONGED FEED RESTRICTION DURING THE GROWING PERIOD ON SEMEN PRODUCTION  60  2.0  INTRODUCTION  61  2.1  LITERATURE REVIEW  62  2.1.1  O v e r f e e d i n g and M a l e F o w l Performance • •  2.1.2  I n a n i t i o n and Male Fowl Performance  Reproductive 62  Reproductive 64  2.2  MATERIAL AND METHODS  66  2.2.1  Source o f B i r d s  66  2.2.2  Collection  o f Semen  66  2.2.3  Post-Mortem  Studies  69  2.3  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION-  70  2.3.1  Treatment  70  2.3.2  Body W e i g h t , T e s t e s W e i g h t Characteristics  2.4  Effect and Semen  75  SUMMARY  77  LITERATURE CITED  78  APPENDICES  •  86  -  LIST  v i i  OF  -  TABLES  Table  Page  1.1  C o m p o s i t i o n  1.2  Cumulative f e e d e r - f e d  feed consumption p u l l e t s  The  of  1.3  e f f e c t  of  d i e t  1.1  f e e d e r - f e d  23  and  of  t h e 25 f l o o r -  fed f e e d i n g managements on body weights d u r i n g t h e b r o o d i n g , r e a r i n g , h o l d i n g and l a y i n g p e r i o d s 1.4  1.6  p e r i o d s  .  31  34  Summary o f mean s q u a r e s o f t h e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of body weights of a l l groups of p u l l e t s from 2 t o 47 w e e k s o f a g e s  37  Body w e i g h t on t h e day of autopsy (at 26-27 weeks), body weight g a i n a f t e r 18 w e e k s o f a g e t o t h e d a y o f autopsy, t o t a l body weight g a i n minus abdominal f a t w e i g h t , abdominal f a t weight and t h e percentage of abdominal f a t p e r body weight of t h e h e a v i e s t , upper medium, lower medium and l i g h t e s t groups of p u l l e t s managed on f e e d e r - f e d o r f l o o r - f e d system  1.7  .  The body weight i n gram of a l l w e i g h t - g r o u p s of f e e d e r - f e d and f l o o r - f e d p u l l e t s a t each w e i g h i n g  1.5  .  40  Mean squares from t h e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of body weights on t h e day of autopsy (at 26-27 weeks), t o t a l body w e i g h t g a i n a f t e r 18 w e e k s of age t o t h e day of autopsy, t o t a l body weight g a i n minus abdominal f a t , abdominal f a t weight and t h e percentage o f abdominal f a t p e r body weight of t h e h e a v i e s t , upper medium, lower medium and groups o f p u l l e t s managed fed o r f l o o r - f e d system  l i g h t e s t on f e e d e r 41  - viii  1.8  1.9  1.10  -  The e f f e c t s o f f e e d e r - f e d a n d f l o o r f e d managements o n t h r e e e s t i m a t e s o f age a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y  45  The e f f e c t s o f f e e d e r - f e d a n d f l o o r f e d f e e d i n g managements on c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e o f egg p r o d u c t i o n c a l c u l a t e d on a h e n - d a y b a s i s t o v a r i o u s a g e s f o r d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s  46  The e f f e c t s o f f e e d e r - f e d a n d f l o o r f e d f e e d i n g managements o n h e n - d a y p e r c e n t p r o d u c t i o n by three-week p e r i o d s o v e r a p e r i o d o f t w e n t y weeks for d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s  48  1.11  The e f f e c t s o f f e e d e r - f e d a n d f l o o r f e d managements on c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e o f egg p r o d u c t i o n c a l c u l a t e d on a henhoused b a s i s t o v a r i o u s ages f o r d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder pullets 49  1.12.  The e f f e c t s o f f e e d e r - f e d a n d f l o o r - f e d f e e d i n g managements o n mean egg w e i g h t i n grams + s . d . a t s e v e r a l a g e s among d i f f e r e n t weight-groups o f b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s  51  The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f t h e e f f e c t s of f e e d e r - f e d and f l o o r - f e d f e e d i n g managements on mean egg w e i g h t a t 34, 38 a n d 47 weeks o f a g e s among d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s  52  The c u m u l a t i v e m o r t a l i t y a n d t h e mortality during the brooding, rearing, h o l d i n g and l a y i n g p e r i o d s o f t h e f e e d e r - f e d and f l o o r - f e d p u l l e t s  55  R e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g programs d u r i n g the growing p e r i o d  67  2.2  Composition  68  2.3  T r e a t m e n t s e f f e c t on m o r t a l i t y , body w e i g h t a t 60 weeks o f a g e , t e s t e s w e i g h t a n d t e s t e s w e i g h t p e r body weight  1.13  1.14  2.1  of diet  2.1  71  - ix -  Length of feed r e s t r i c t i o n of b r o i l e r breeder males during t h e growing p e r i o d on s u b s e q u e n t v o l u m e o f semen per e j a c u l a t i o n , spermatozoa c o n c e n t r a t i o n and m i l l i o n s o f spermatozoa per e j a c u l a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f body w e i g h t a t 60 w e e k s , t e s t e s w e i g h t , percentage of testes weight over b o d y w e i g h t , semen v o l u m e , semen c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d number o f spermatozoa per e j a c u l a t i o n  - x -  L I S T OF FIGURES  Figure  1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7  1.8  Page  Feeder-fed chicks during the brooding period  . 21  Floor-fed chicks during the brooding period  21  Feeder-fed p u l l e t s the r e a r i n g p e r i o d  26  during  Floor-fed p u l l e t s during the r e a r i n g p e r i o d  26  Feeder-fed p u l l e t s the l a y i n g p e r i o d  29  Floor-fed pullets the l a y i n g p e r i o d  during during 29  Amount o f a b d o m i n a l f a t a n d t h e body w e i g h t g a i n m i n u s f a t w e i g h t i n f e e d e r - f e d p u l l e t s , and f l o o r f e d p u l l e t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t body w e i g h t g a i n a f t e r t h e p u l l e t s were separated i n t o four groups, h e a v i e s t , u p p e r medium, l o w e r medium a n d l i g h t e s t , b y w e i g h t a t 18 weeks o f age t o 27 weeks o f age  43  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f egg w e i g h t s o f t h e h e a v i e s t , u p p e r medium, l o w e r medium a n d l i g h t e s t g r o u p s o f p u l l e t s from f e e d e r - f e d and f l o o r - f e d f e e d i n g managements a t 34, 38 a n d 47 w e e k s o f age  53  -  LIST  Appendix  F i g u r e s  OF  x i  -  APPENDICES  2.1  R e g r e s s i o n l i n e f o r spermatozoa counts on t h e b a s i s of o p t i c a l d e n s i t y r e a d i n g (660 m i l l i m i c r o n s )  Appendix  Table  2 . 2 Body w e i g h t t e s t e s w e i g t e s t e s w e i g semen v o l u m and number e j a c u l a t i o n male s t u d i e  a t h t , h t e, o f o f d i  60 w e e k s o f a g e , percentage of p e r body w e i g h t , sperm c o n c e n t r a t i o n spermatozoa p e r i n d i v i d u a l b r o i l e r n t h i s experiment  - x i i-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am g r e a t l y for providing my g r a d u a t e  her invaluable  J.  thanks  committee:  Vanderstoep,  preliminary  i n a l l aspects of  a r e a l s o due t o t h e members o f my  D r s . D.B. B r a g g ,  fortheir  d r a f t of t h i s  My g r a t i t u d e S.  assistance  B.E. March,  program.  Sincere advisory  indebted to Professor  C.W.  R o b e r t s and  h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s of the thesis.  i s f u r t h e r extended  t o B. Chan, W. Ho,  Homewood, M. Hudson, C. M a c M i l l a n , E . P e t e r s ,  G. Shermann a n d R. Soong, who f a c i l i t a t e d research  the course of t h i s  i n many ways. Finally,  I would  like  D a v i d H i c k l i n g , who f r e q u e n t l y editing  R. Poon,  of this  manuscript.  t o t h a n k my d e a r f r i e n d , offered h i s assistance  i n the  - 1 -  INTRODUCTION  S i n c e t h e Second  W o r l d War, p r o d u c t i o n o f p o u l t r y -  meat i n C a n a d a h a s e x t e n s i v e l y e x p a n d e d .  The h i g h p r o d u c t i v e  e f f i c i e n c y and q u a l i t y o f t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t a s s o c i a t e d  with  r a p i d l y a d v a n c i n g t e c h n o l o g y has s h a r p l y r a i s e d t h e p r o d u c t i v e volume o f p o u l t r y commodities.  Consequently, the cost of  p o u l t r y p r o d u c t i o n h a s d e c l i n e d a n d t h e s h a r e o f p o u l t r y meat i n t h e Canadian d i e t has r i s e n . A c c o r d i n g t o a p u b l i c a t i o n from t h e Economic C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , b y Emmery meat c o n s u m p t i o n  (1967), p o u l t r y  p e r c a p i t a i n Canada r o s e f r o m 16 p o u n d s t o  40 p o u n d s , a 150 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1949  t o 1966.  Branch,  W h i l e i n t h e same p e r i o d , c o n s u m p t i o n  from per capita  o f a l l o t h e r t y p e s o f m e a t s r o s e f r o m 135 p o u n d s t o 148 p o u n d s o r o n l y a 9.6 p e r c e n t The  increase.  apparent domestic disappearance of b r o i l e r chickens  from commercial  s u p p l i e s i s c o n t i n u o u s l y growing.  The r a t e o f  g r o w t h was 1 3 . 2 % f o r t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f 1979 o v e r t h e same p e r i o d i n 1978 ( E l a n c o , 1 9 7 9 ) .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e demand f o r  b r o i l e r h a t c h i n g eggs i s o b v i o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g i n Canada. D. M u r r a y  of the S t a t i s t i c s  Section, Poultry Division of  A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, announced l a s t y e a r i n a p r o f i l e o f c o m m e r c i a l b r o i l e r and r o a s t e r p l a c e m e n t s  i n Canada i n 1 9 7 7 ,  t h a t 25 p e r c e n t o f b r o i l e r c h i c k s h a t c h e d i n Canada w e r e i m p o r t e d h a t c h i n g eggs.  from  -  The  broiler-type  meat p r o d u c t i o n . g r o w t h , and production  they and  2  -  breeders are  s p e c i f i c a l l y bred  They p o s s e s s t h e g e n e t i c p o t e n t i a l are very  subject to obesity.  infertility  may  be  egg  of the  f e m a l e b r e e d e r s and  of the male b r e e d e r s .  Nevertheless,  the  reproductive satisfactory.  present  s t u d i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n i n an a t t e m p t t o  our  k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e f f e c t s o f f e e d i n g management on  which deals with the  study  d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g and  study  chapters.  t i s s u e of the b r o i l e r C h a p t e r Two,  e f f e c t of prolonged  r e s t r i c t i o n d u r i n g t h e g o r w i n g p e r i o d on production,  Chapter  l a y i n g p e r i o d s on p r o d u c t i v i t y  of the  the  breeders.  as t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s .  d e a l s w i t h the  increase  One,  o f t h e e f f e c t o f f e e d i n g management  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of adipose serves  two  the  semen q u a l i t y  The  reproductive performance of b r o i l e r  by  to increase  the  performance of b r o i l e r - t y p e breeders i s not  This thesis contains  rapid  egg  above problems  the b r o i l e r breeder d i e t i n order  production  for  s e r i o u s problems.  N u t r i t i o n i s t s have t r i e d t o r e s o l v e t h e modifying  Low  for  and breeders, which  feed  s u b s e q u e n t semen  i s a research note f o r record.  -  3  -  CHAPTER  THE  EFFECT  OF  FEEDING  MANAGEMENT  PERIODS  ON  PRODUCTIVITY  TISSUE  OF  THE  BROILER  I.  AND  THE  BREEDERS.  DURING  THE  GROWING  CHARACTERISTICS  OF  AND  LAYING  ADIPOSE  -  1.0  -  INTRODUCTION  Obesity performance  of  associated  with  and  low  egg  produced. minimize  has  the  obesity  is a  of  have the  the  of  the  rats  to  restricting  or  to  are  farm  consumption  are  common m e t h o d s  include  quantitative  restriction  feeding  time,  i n the  diet.  in  water  intake,  increase  lighting  pattern  and  feed  intake.  A l l the  to  the  egg to  the no  manipulate  physical to  riding  minimize  are  physical standard  physical  management  of  content  per  commonly  activity  within  scientific activity  on  chickens.  obesity  protein  fertility  procedures  i n order  of  and  of  poor  chickens.  bicycle  effects  of  poultry  feed  and  always  consumption  increase  increase  the  It is  v a r i o u s methods  There  responses  In modern  overweight  used  o r men.  for testing  biological  breeder  running  i n experiments  the r e p r o d u c t i v e  management  experimental animals  Swimming,  procedures  feed  f o r new  diet  employed case  pullets.  high  in broiler  of  the  need  on  high mortality,  production with There  obesity.  breeder  inactivity,  composition  activity  undesirable effects  broiler  Scientists  of  4  broiler  of  used  to  breeder feed  reduction Other  have  above methods  control  The  most  restriction,  i n energy  methods,  also  methods the  pullets.  temperature,  debeaking  different  and/or  such  as  alteration been  retard  used  growth  to and  reduction of  the  restrict delay  -  5  -  s e x u a l m a t u r i t y d e p e n d i n g upon t h e  s e v e r i t y of  treatment.  However, t h e o n t o g e n e s i s o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l b i r d not  strictly  c o n t r o l l e d by  amount o f t h e f e e d  the q u a l i t y of the d i e t or  i n t a k e alone, but  many o t h e r p r e n a t a l and  The  factors include genetic variation, n u t r i t i o n a l f o r the developing  embryo and  conditions during  P o s t n a t a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e s o c i a l peck o r d e r , a d a p t i v i t y , disease, humidity, in a d d i t i o n to n u t r i t i o n a l The populations  present  light,  p o p u l a t i o n was  fed twice d a i l y the  and  Physical activity  10 p.m. and  environment the  incubation.  stress,  u n d e r t a k e n on  using conventional  f e e d e r - f e d p o p u l a t i o n , but g i v e n b e t w e e n 8 a.m.  prenatal  altitude  status.  e x p e r i m e n t was  10 a.m.  with  t e m p e r a t u r e and  of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s .  between 8 and  the  i s also involved  postnatal factors.  and  One  two  p o p u l a t i o n was  feeders.  The  f e e d b r o a d c a s t on t h e  b e t w e e n 3:30  p.m.  and  the feeder-fed  each  was  and  A t 18 weeks o f age  e q u a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s o f  weight.  The  abdominal f a t accumulation at sexual  t h e s u b s e q u e n t egg  groups of p u l l e t s  production  p.m.  of f e e d i n g time of the the case  and  egg  floor-  with  population body  maturity  s i z e among f o u r  i n each p o p u l a t i o n were s t u d i e d .  the  litter  4:30  f e d p o p u l a t i o n w e r e t h e r e f o r e g r e a t e r t h a n was  fed  other  same amount o f f e e d as  the extension  population.  is  6 -  1.1  LITERATURE REVIEW...  1.1.1  Physical  Activity  P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and b o d y  1.1.1.1  conformation  P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y has p r o f o u n d  effects  on t h e c o u r s e o f o n t o g e n e s i s and t h e s u b s e q u e n t b o d y conformation.  These e f f e c t s have been t h o r o u g h l y  i n r a t s a n d humans, b u t n o t i n d o m e s t i c  investigated  fowls.  According to the l i t e r a t u r e , p u l l e t s been e i t h e r r a i s e d activity  have  i n cages w i t h a r e s t r i c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l  o r h a v e b e e n r a i s e d on t h e f l o o r w i t h r e l a t i v e f r e e d o m  t o move a r o u n d and a g i t a t e one  another.  O v e r f o u r d e c a d e s a g o , i t was  observed  t h a t b i r d s r e a r e d on .range h a d a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f b r e a s t m u s c l e , l e g m u s c l e , and t o t a l e d i b l e p o r t i o n t h a n had t h o s e w h i c h were r e a r e d i n c o n f i n e m e n t the  literature  (Harshaw, 1 9 3 6 ) .  i s i n agreement t h a t domestic f o w l  Since  then,  constrained  i n c a g e s have a h i g h e r p e r c e n t . and t o t a l body f a t d e p o s i t i o n t h a n t h o s e managed o n f l o o r ,  r e g a r d l e s s o f s p e c i e s and s e x  (White L e g h o r n s : J e f f r e y and B r i t h , (broilers: 1978) .  D e a t o n e t a l . , 1974)  1 9 4 1 ; L e o and Change,  1975)  ( t u r k e y s : A n d r e w s and M a r r o w ,  - 7 -  By u s i n g r a d i o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s , i t has  b e e n shown t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r bone  d e n s i t y i n men activity  and women w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f p h y s i c a l  ( E m i o l a and  Littlefield  O'Shes, 1 9 7 8 ) .  S i m i l a r l y , Wabeck  (1972) showed t h a t w i n g and  p r o c e s s i n g was  l e g breakage  and  after  h i g h e r f o r b r o i l e r s r e a r e d i n cages than f o r  those r e a r e d i n f l o o r pens.  And  R e e c e e t a l . (1971)  demonstrated t h a t l e g weakness i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r c o n s t r a i n e d than f o r unconstrained J e f f r e y and  birds.  Britt  (1941) f u r t h e r  i n d i c a t e d t h a t lack of e x e r c i s e of p u l l e t s r e s u l t e d atrophy  of the heart, l i v e r ,  p e r i o d was at  as l o n g as one  h i g h c a g e d e n s i t y was  (1975). found  The  t o be  the f l o o r  and  year.  g i z z a r d when t h e High  liver  confinement  f a t i n hens housed  a l s o r e p o r t e d by Leo  and  Change  f a t c o n t e n t o f e g g s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s i m i l a r whether hens were k e p t  (Oluyemi  and  1.1.1.2  Roberts,  O b e s i t y and  groups of b r o i l e r breeder  was  i n cages or  on  1975).  egg  production  R e c e n t l y C h a n e y and F u l l e r two  in partial  (197 5)  brought  pullets into production at  the  same t i m e w i t h w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f c a r c a s s f a t , by using d i f f e r e n t daylength  and  f e e d i n g regimes.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher per cent of carcass f a t a t m a t u r i t y f o r growing  p u l l e t s under f u l l  f e e d and  T h e r e was sexual with  a  - 8 -  decreasing daylength restricted  (26% c a r c a s s f a t ) t h a n  f o r those  under  energy i n t a k e and w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d a y l e n g t h (19%  carcass f a t ) .  The d i f f e r e n c e i n c a r c a s s f a t was n o t a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h egg p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h e egg p r o d u c t i o n a n d c a r c a s s f a t were r o u g h l y  r e l a t e d t o energy i n t a k e i n t h e i r s t u d i e s . S t u d i e s by S i n g s e n  t h a t meat-type p u l l e t s a r e not capable e n e r g y i n t a k e when t h e y  e t a _ l . (1959) of adequately  a r e f e d ad_ l i b i t u m .  suggested regulating  In the study,  t h e y became o b e s e a n d s u f f e r e d h i g h m o r t a l i t y w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i c  intake.  However,  o b e s i t y p e r s e d i d n o t a p p e a r t o r e d u c e egg p r o d u c t i o n . Combs e t a^L. (1961) r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r observation.  When C o l u m b i a n P l y m o u t h Rock p u l l e t s w e r e  r e s t r i c t e d t o a n e n e r g y i n t a k e o f 87.0 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o n t r o l the average p e r c e n t c a r c a s s e t h e r e x t r a c t and average serum c h o l e s t e r o l w e r e l o w e r  than  blood  i n t h e c o n t r o l , b u t no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n egg p r o d u c t i o n , m o r t a l i t y o r Haugh U n i t s c o r e s w e r e  1.1.1.3  found.  Physical activity  and r e p r o d u c t i o n  Even though p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y  reduces  o b e s i t y a n d o b e s i t y d o e s n o t a f f e c t egg p r o d u c t i o n , egg p r o d u c t i o n may be a f f e c t e d b y p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y .  Thus, p h y s i c a l  a c t i v i t y p e r s e r a t h e r t h a n o b e s i t y may be d i r e c t l y the reproductive physiology o f the l a y i n g  hens.  altering  -  9  There whether  e x e r c i s e  p r o d u c t i o n . study  of on  than  those  the  C h r i s t m a s l i t t e r the  Lowry  cages  kept  kept et  a l .  of  1960  c o n s i s t e n t l y  et  a l .  to  be  r e p o r t e d than  annual  those  i n  which  l a i d  eggs  et  et  a l .  a  the  weights  t h a t  and  f o r  the  v o l u n t a r y  cages  caged  Quisenberry  feed  b i r d s  sample  i n  (1975),  r a t e  f o r  deep s u b s t a n t i a t e d  t e s t s  (Kosen,  (1961) , and  (1959),  Thomason  Thomason  of  p r o d u c t i o n .  cages  r e s u l t e d  those  1967).  Quisenberry  i n  egg  for  l i t t e r  p l a c e d  i n t a k e  than  on  and  This  those  and  egg  p r o d u c t i o n  (1966)  deep  p u l l e t s  h i g h e r  egg  on  Roberts  mature  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  and  i n  c a g e s .  M i l l e r  on  p u l l e t s  b i r d s  random  to  f o u r - y e a r  the  l a y e r s  than  Shupe  Oluyemi  r e p o r t e d  have  more,  (1959) ,  (1972),  (1976) to  a_l.  the  as  e f f e c t  a  T u l l e r  i n  C a l i f o r n i a  i n c l u s i v e  on  t h a t  and  r e p o r t s  adverse  s u p e r i o r  t h a t  C o n v e r s e l y , B a i l e y  an  r e p o r t e d  Querner  eggs  more  or  management  found  c a g e s .  more  c o n t r o v e r s i a l  (1956)  f l o o r  (1972)  the  are  b e n e f i c i a l  were  i n  produced  to  a  v e r s u s  f l o o r  r e s u l t s  1957  has  -  i n  et  a l .  appeared F u r t h e r -  h e a v i e r  m a i n t a i n e d  body  on  l i t t e r - f l o o r . Andrews turkey  p o u l t s  r e s t r i c t i o n from f l o o r were  each  p e r i o d s  of  four  d u r i n g  f e e d i n g  pens, more  to  when  regime  p e r s i s t e n t the  f e e d i n g  r e a r i n g  they  study.  and  were i n  egg  r e g i m e s :  and/or  were 32  Morrow  (1978) f u l l - f e d  l a y i n g  p l a c e d weeks  i n of  p r o d u c t i o n  s u b j e c t e d or  p e r i o d s .  for  A l l the  per  cent  B i r d s  i n d i v i d u a l age.  20  cages  caged  s i x  or  hens  28-day  - 10 -  On F r a n c i s  and  f i n d  any  deep  l i t t e r  Robertson  s i g n i f i c a n t h e l d  In r e c o g n i z e d  the t h a t  b r o i l e r - t y p e order  to  The i n t a k e  i n  of  the  l e v e l  time i n  the  (1963)  and  Andrews  d i f f e r e n c e  l a s t  few  proper  (a)  i n  f o r  d i e t ,  and  the  the  f o r  t h i s  r e v i e w ,  the  f a i l e d  caged  and  to the  body  w e i g h t ,  m o r t a l i t y  feed  and  and  of  g r a d u a l l y r a p i d l y  i s  maximize  egg  above  r e d u c t i o n  been  purposes  adopted  to  r e s t r i c t  of  t h e i r  r e d u c t i o n p r o t e i n  e f f e c t s  subsequent  egg  i n on  i n  p r o d u c t i o n .  o b j e c t i v e s  (c)  growing  n e c e s s a r y  feed  i n c l u d e  r e s t r i c t i o n ,  f e e d i n g ,  methods  has  f e e d i n g  to  methods  a c h i e v e  (d)  i t  b r e e d i n g  q u a n t i t a t i v e  a l l o w e d  (1977)  p r o d u c t i o n .  decades,  a d i p o s i t y  to  egg  (1966) ,  D e D o r t a l  between  r e s t r i c t e d  n u t r i t i o n a l  order  f o l l o w i n g :  hand,  Feeding  p u l l e t s  c o n t r o l  other  c h i c k e n s  R e s t r i c t e d  1.1.2  the  (b) of  r e s t r i c t i o n the  the  the  energy  d i e t .  m a t u r i t y ,  p r o d u c t i o n  In f i n a l  w i l l  be  d i s c u s s e d .  1.1.2.1  Q u a n t i t a t i v e  1.1.2.1.1  employed  i n  r e s t r i c t i o n  Methods  F l o c k s u s u a l l y  feed  t h i s  of  method.  f u l l y - f e d The  c o n t r o l  weekly  food  c h i c k e n s  are  consumption  - 11  of the f u l l y - f e d predetermining  control  -  group i s taken  as a b a s i s f o r  t h e amount o f f e e d a l l o w e d  f e d g r o u p s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g week.  The  f o r the  quality  of the  i s b a l a n c e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l amino a c i d s and essential  restricted  other  nutrients. Most r e s e a r c h e r s have i n i t i a t e d  f e e d i n g of the p u l l e t s finished and  restriction  Cottier,  McGinnis,  1964;  1969;  between 6 and  between 21 and  Schneider  8 weeks o f age  e t aJL. , 1955;  been r e s t r i c t e d  i n food consumption  0 week by  et a l .  from  (1970),  5 weeks by  Strain  Gardiner  2 weeks by  e t a l . (1965) and  Effect  The  a regression line  weight After  Leclercq  5 weeks by  on body  3,  4  and  Maclntyre  weight  the degree  from  the e x i s t i n g  of food intake of f u l l y - f e d  as p e r c e n t a g e  of f u l l y - f e d  of  the  of feed r e s t r i c t i o n . data  of food intake of r e s t r i c t e d control  control  i n the g r o u p as  literature, a  (X) v e r s u s  (Y):Y = 21.82  Lee  +  live0.82X.  t e r m i n a t i o n o f r e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g t h e s u b s e q u e n t l y body  w e i g h t was a f f e c t e d . 78  have  from  r e d u c t i o n i n growth r a t e  g r o u p d e p e n d s on  e t a l . (1971) c a l c u l a t e d ,  percentage  also  (1958),  from  and  (1964).  1.1.2.1.2  restricted  Ringrose  (Howes  Schumaier  Pullets  from  restricted and  24 weeks o f age  Waldroup e t a l . , 1966).  and  diet  comparisons  The  above a u t h o r s a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e were  o f body w e i g h t  a t t h e end  of the  laying period,  - 12  and  i n o n l y 20 c a s e s was  -  t h e body w e i g h t of  reared p u l l e t s equal t o , or g r e a t e r than, fed c o n t r o l s .  This r e s u l t e d i n a lower  f o r m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e former b i r d s and f o r egg  restricted-  t h a t of the  energy  fully  requirement  b e t t e r feed  efficiency  production.  1.1.2.1.3  E f f e c t on egg  The r e s t r i c t e d group. of A s h c r o f t  (1961),  in restricted  onset  production  o f l a y i n g was  Bullock et a l .  (1963),  delayed  i n the  b a s e d on t h e  p r e d i c t e d t h a t f o r every  f e e d i n g l e v e l f r o m 90 p e r c e n t  1 percent t o 70 p e r  o f t h e c o n t r o l s , t h e r e w o u l d be a d e l a y i n r e a c h i n g c e n t egg  p r o d u c t i o n o f 0.6  52 c a s e s  drop cent  40  per  days.  According e t a l . (1971),  data  t o s t u d i e s o f 87 c a s e s  showed e q u a l o r h i g h e r  by  Lee  hen-day  p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e r e s t r i c t e d groups compared w i t h  the  controls.  Because the m a t u r i t y of r e s t r i c t e d - r e a r e d p u l l e t s  i s delayed  and  the whole p r o d u c t i v e curve  i s an i n c r e a s e i n a v e r a g e egg  weight.  (1955) r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e o f 19.1  displaced, there  Schneider  et a l .  p e r c e n t o f s e t t a b l e eggs  f r o m h e a v y l a y e r h e n s r e s t r i c t e d t o 21 p e r c e n t o f i n t a k e f r o m day of  age.  o l d through  feed  t h e g r o w i n g p e r i o d t o 28 weeks  - 13 -  1.1.2.1.4  E f f e c t on m o r t a l i t y U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, q u a n t i t a t i v e f e e d  restriction  induced  rearing period.  r e l a t i v e l y high m o r t a l i t y during the  Isaacks  e t a l . (1960) r e p o r t e d t h a t 30  r e s t r i c t i o n o f feed i n t a k e o f meat-type replacement  percent  pullets  r e s u l t e d i n 18.95 p e r c e n t m o r t a l i t y , w h i c h was 12.36  percent  higher than t h e m o r t a l i t y i n the f u l l y - f e d c o n t r o l b i r d s . p o s s i b l e reason b i r d s lower  f o r t h i s may be t h a t t h e f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n o f  i n t h e peck order  that of birds higher  feed r e s t r i c t i o n ,  i s more s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d  e t ajL. (19 72)  reported that  of staphylococal a r t h r i t i s  by B r u c k n e r a n d H i l l  (1959);  (1955) and b y P r o u d f o o t  i n restricted  (1961);  respiratory disease,  c o c c i d i o s i s , by S c h n e i d e r  and Gowe  1.1.2.2.1  R e s t r i c t e d f o r one o r two h o u r s  allowed  P u l l e t s have been a l l o w e d  Schumaier and McGinnis  (1958),  (1969),  Schneider  Lepkorsky  f o r feeding  daily  1 or 2 hours et a l .  (1955),  e t a l . (1960) and  By u s i n g t h i s f e e d i n g s y s t e m , e n o u g h  s p a c e m u s t be p r o v i d e d  et a l .  (1967).  R e s t r i c t i o n of t h e time  d a i l y f o r f e e d i n g by R i n g r o s e  An  pullets  1.1.2.2  (1978).  during  p u l l e t s m i g h t be more p r o n e t o d i s . e a s e .  was r e p o r t e d b y B e r g a n d B e a r s e  Ballam  than  i n the order. Lee  outbreak  One  feeding  i n order t o reduce the competition  f o r f o o d among b i r d s a n d a l l o w u n i f o r m restricted pullets are inclined  consumption.  The  t o e a t more q u i c k l y a n d h e n c e  - 14  develop crops  a c a p a c i t y t o s t o r e l a r g e r amounts o f f o o d  t h a n do  observed  -  the f u l l y - f e d c o n t r o l s .  t h a t the crops  L e p k o v s k y e t a l . (1960)  of chickens, t r a i n e d to eat  2 hours d a i l y , were c o n s i s t e n t l y h e a v i e r more f o o d , b u t t h a t t h e r e was gizzard,  i n t e s t i n e and  in their  no  i n order  to  similar adaptation  pancreas.  S c h u m a i e r and  t h e egg  o f eggs, and  p r o d u c t i o n , per cent  fertility  growth of c h i c k s hatched  1.1.2.2.2  Skip-a-day  restricted  and  hatchability  were u n a f f e c t e d .  feeding  A l t e r n a t e day  and  skip-one  or  p e r - w e e k f e e d i n g s y s t e m s h a v e a l s o become p o p u l a r meat-type breeder  replacement p u l l e t s .  m e a t - t y p e p u l l e t s on a a l t e r n a t e day  a 16%  two-daysf o r growing  Harms e t a l . (1968) f e e d i n g regime w i t h  c r u d e p r o t e i n d i e t f r o m 8 t o 24 weeks o f age.  c o n s u m p t i o n d u r i n g t h e r e s t r i c t e d p e r i o d was p e r p u l l e t f o r t h e r e s t r i c t e d group and p u l l e t s f o r the f u l l - f e d r e g i m e n 910 per  i n the  d a i l y f e e d i n g f r o m 1 t o 3 h o u r s b e t w e e n 8 t o 55 w e e k s o f  age,  fed  store  McGinnis  (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t when h e a v y - t y p e p u l l e t s w e r e in  during  100  gm  c o n t r o l group.  o f w h o l e o a t s was  b i r d s i n the l i t t e r .  30 p e r c e n t p r o d u c t i o n , was t h e r e s t r i c t e d g r o u p and  7.13  12.95 On  The  kg o f  kg o f f e e d  the  skipped  g i v e n on t h e r e s t r i c t e d  feed feed per day day  S e x u a l m a t u r i t y , d e f i n e d as age a t 197.6  d a y s and  173.6  c o n t r o l group r e s p e c t i v e l y .  days f o r  at  - 15 -  Mortality during higher group  i n t h e r e s t r i c t e d group (15.7%).  t h e g r o w i n g p e r i o d was  (2 3.7%)  than i n the c o n t r o l  D u r i n g t h e l a y i n g p h a s e , f r o m 25 weeks t o  56 weeks o f age t h e numbers o f e g g s w e i g h i n g o v e r 52 gm p e r hen  w e r e 117.9 a n d 111.5 f o r p u l l e t s f e d on t h e a l t e r n a t e d a y  program and p u l l e t s f e d ad l i b i t u m r e s p e c t i v e l y . Y a t e s and S c h a i b l e  (1963) r e a r e d  Leghorn-  t y p e p u l l e t s on a s k i p - o n e - d a y - p e r - w e e k f e e d i n g p r o g r a m . found t h a t t h e r e d u c t i o n  i n food  c o n s u m p t i o n , compared  f u l l y - f e d c o n t r o l s , ranged from n i l ,  They  with  when t h e d i e t a r y e n e r g y  l e v e l was 3.15 k c a l / g , t o 10 p e r c e n t when i t was 1.48 k c a l / g . The  maturity  o f t h e group r e c e i v i n g the d i e t c o n t a i n i n g  k c a l / g was m a r k e d l y  delayed.  1.1.2.3  Reduction i n the energy l e v e l  1.1.2.3.1  Methods  Nutritionally oat h u l l s ,  1.4 8  i n the diet  i n e r t m a t e r i a l s , such as  c e l l u l o s e , v e r m i c u l i t e , k a o l i n and sand have been  i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i e t i n attempt t o lower t h e d i e t a r y energy concentration.  However, u n l e s s  s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f i n e r t  m a t e r i a l s a r e added t o t h e d i e t , t h e b i r d limits,  t o a d j u s t feed  reduction  i n caloric  (1971) e s t i m a t e d  i s able,  within  i n t a k e a c c o r d i n g l y and a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n t a k e c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d .  that at metabolisable  Lee e t a l .  energy l e v e l s below  2.0 k c a l / g o f f e e d , g r o w t h r a t e i s p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e d u c e d .  -  1.1.2.3.2  16 -  E f f e c t s on body w e i g h t , age a t ' s e x u a l m a t u r i t y and egg p r o d u c t i o n  Isaacks  e t a l . (1960) r e s t r i c t e d  intake of broiler-type  pullets  age  either  by a d d i n g  to diets  ground o a t h u l l s . d i e t s was d e c r e a s e d control  diet  from  caloric  9 weeks t o 21 weeks o f  15 o r 25 p e r c e n t  fibre  from  A c c o r d i n g l y , the p r o d u c t i v e energy o f the t o 1.07 k c a l / g , o r 0.74 k c a l / g .  contained  2.15 k c a l M.E.  The  p e r kg o f f e e d .  The  body w e i g h t s o f t h e t r e a t e d b i r d s were 15.4 p e r c e n t o r 23.9 p e r c e n t by  respectively  lower  t h e end o f 21 weeks o f age.  effect  on egg p r o d u c t i o n  ration of  age.  Feed  b i r d s was  control  that of the controls.  b i r d s was  group.  significant  approximately The body  However, o n l y  slight  egg p r o d u c t i o n and  between t h e b r a n - f e d  a  8 t o 23 weeks  2.27 kg and t h e c o n t r o l  i n age a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y ,  w e i g h t were n o t e d  from  b i r d s was  2.66 kg a t 23 weeks o f a g e .  differences  had no  e t a l _ . (1967) f e d b i r d s w i t h  intake of the bran-fed  weight o f the bran-fed  o f the c o n t r o l s  experiment.  c o n t a i n i n g 8 0 p e r c e n t wheat b r a n  50 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r t h a n  egg  those  Restriction  in this  Summers,  than  g r o u p and t h e  - 17  1.1.2.3.3  -  Economic  A high percentage of i n e r t m a t e r i a l , a b o u t 30 t o 40 p e r c e n t , i s r e q u i r e d t o d i l u t e t h e s u f f i c i e n t l y to delay maturity. inconvenient and  to  be  t o t r a n s p o r t a l a r g e volume o f low e n e r g y  consequently  probably  I t i s claimed  diet  the p r a c t i c e of d i e t a r y d i l u t i o n  be u n e c o n o m i c  (Lee e t a l . ,  1.1.2.4  Reduction  1.1.2.4.1  P r o t e i n and  Reduction  would  1972).  i n p r o t e i n content  energy  i n the  Davidson  o f p r o t e i n a l o n e , and  e n e r g y had  below t h a t corresponding  t o 20 p e r c e n t p r o t e i n and  been lowered  e n e r g y p e r gram o f d i e t .  p r o t e i n d i e t s tended t o overeat  excess  restricting  considerably 2.9  B i r d s f e d on  w i t h the lower  such  low  The  energy i n t a k e r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t e r l o s s  of t h i s energy, mainly Consequently,  kcal  i n o r d e r t o compensate f o r  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f amino a c i d s i n t h e d i e t .  metabolisable  was  crude  protein to metabolisable  inadequate  not  (1964) showed t h a t c a r c a s s f a t l e v e l  g r e a t e r i n b i r d s fed d i e t s i n which the r a t i o s of  metabolisable  diet  levels  e n e r g y , i n t h e d i e t i s n o t an a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d o f feeding.  diet  as h e a t ,  per u n i t o f l i v e body  t h e f e e d e f f i c i e n c y was protein diets.  lower  weight.  i n the b i r d s fed  - 18 -  B u l l o c k and M o r r i s (1963) o r p r o t e i n t o 70% o f t h e c o n t r o l 15%).  (M.E.  2.6  decreased  kcal/g,  R e s t r i c t i n g energy alone r e t a r d e d growth  age a t 50 p e r c e n t p r o d u c t i o n by 7 d a y s . r e d u c t i o n of p r o t e i n caused  4.5  protein  and d e l a y e d  A 3 0 per  days d e l a y .  e n e r g y a n d p r o t e i n d e l a y e d m a t u r i t y by 10-11  energy  cent  Restricting days.  both  Thus,  t h e e f f e c t s o f e n e r g y and p r o t e i n r e s t r i c t i o n on m a t u r i t y appeared  t o be a d d i t i v e .  In general p r a c t i c e , both  and p r o t e i n l e v e l s s h o u l d be d e c r e a s e d i n t h e  1.1.2.4.2  energy  diet.  D e p r i v a t i o n o f e s s e n t i a l amino  acid  D e p r i v a t i o n o f any e s s e n t i a l a m i n o a c i d from the d i e t ,  i f s e v e r e enough, can m a r k e d l y  growth o f d e v e l o p i n g c h i c k s .  depress  Several - experiments  have s u c c e s s f u l l y d e l a y e d s e x u a l m a t u r i t y o f growing w i t h a d i e t low i n l y s i n e  ( B e r g and B e a r s e , 1958;  W a l d r o u p and Harms, 19 62; L i l l i e 1977  and  1978).  and D e n t o n ,  L e e e t a l . (1971)  19 66;  0.55  on t h e b r e e d o f b i r d . p e r b i r d p e r day,  t o 0.6 0 gm  pullets  Berg,  p e r b i r d p e r day,  1959;  Gous,  s t a t e d t h a t maximum  w e i g h t g a i n can be a t t a i n e d i n g r o w i n g p u l l e t s a t i n t a k e s o f about  the  live-  lysine depending  When l y s i n e i n t a k e s d r o p b e l o w  0.4 0  gm  the d e c l i n e i n the live-weight gain i s  r a p i d a n d t h e i n c r e a s e o f v o l u n t a r y f e e d i n t a k e i s no l o n g e r enough t o compensate f o r t h e l o w e r l y s i n e l e v e l  i n the  diet.  - 19 -  Severe p r o t e i n growing p u l l e t s  and l y s i n e r e s t r i c t i o n i n  induces feather pecking, cannibalism,  mortality,  l e g w e a k n e s s and r u p t u r e o f t h e g a s t r o c n e m i u s t e n d o n . adverse e f f e c t s Hanson  (195 8)  These  h a v e b e e n f u l l y r e p o r t e d b y C a r n a g h a n and  and L e e e t ' a l . (.1971) . An a p p a r e n t l y s a t i s f a c t o r y  f e e d i n g manage-  ment p r o c e d u r e f o r g r o w i n g b r o i l e r b r e e d e r p u l l e t s by u s i n g low p r o t e i n  and l y s i n e  (1964, 1 9 6 5 ) .  After  l y s i n e and p r o t e i n different  ages.  i n d i e t was  a series  diets  s u g g e s t e d by S i n g s e n e t a l .  of experiments of feeding  to b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s a t  Singsen e t a l .  l y s i n e a n d 20 p e r c e n t p r o t e i n and  0.47  fed  f r o m 9 t o 21 weeks o f a g e .  recommended be  t h a t 0.57  Gous  f e e d i n g o f a low l y s i n e o r low p r o t e i n  good.  be  (1978) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e  most f a v o u r a b l e method o f r e s t r i c t i o n a p p e a r e d  c o s t s w e r e l o w and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  per cent  f e d from 0 t o 8 weeks,  p e r c e n t l y s i n e a n d 16 p e r c e n t c r u d e p r o t e i n  t r e a t m e n t s was  low  t o be t h e  diet, since  of the p u l l e t s  rearing on t h e s e  -  1.2  MATERIALS  1 . 2 . 1  Source  One o l d  b r o i l e r  i n o c u l a t e d from  t h e  A i r p o r t  thousand  State  B r i t i s h  f o l l o w i n g  1.2.2  and  1  s  t h e  and Nelson  d i s e a s e  v a c c i n e ,  were  p o u l t r y  The  t o  h e l d  i n  male  d e l i v e r e d  were  farm  a t  d a y -  s t o c k ,  Vancouver  c h i c k s  e x p e r i m e n t a l  and were  P e r i o d  c h i c k s  e i t h e r  (0-4  were  by  a i r  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  immediately t h e  c h i c k - b o x e s  U n i v e r s i t y  u n t i l  the  s u b j e c t e d  t o  them  served  f e e d e r - f e d  as  73  c o n v e n t i o n a l  long  which  as  served  (empty feed  The  f e e d e r - f e d  1.1  and  1.2  two  74  m e t a l  feed t h e  d u r i n g and  females  f e e d i n g  bags)  f l o o r - f e d  r e s p e c t i v e l y .  and  m a l e s .  9  o r  ad  toughs.  and  f e e d i n g  i n t o  f e d  groups,  ground.  d i s t r i b u t e d  management  groups  feed  f l o o r - f e d  from  d a i l y  o r  weeks)  randomly  were  a g i t a t e d  U . S . A . ,  1978.  w i t h  up  155  H e i s d o r f  each  p i c k  and  d a y .  B r o o d i n g  paper  female  from  1 2 t h ,  Columbia  A l l  on  twenty-two  Washington,  October t o  METHODS  c h i c k s  M a r e k of  -  B i r d s  breeder  t r a n s p o r t e d of  of  w i t h  on  AND  20  as The i n  10  programs. l i b i t u m  The  g i v e n  such  they  f l o o r - f e d t o  managements  on  feed were  They of  t h e groups,  ad  l i b i t u m  t r a i n e d  groups  i n c r e a s e a r e  groups  H a l f  r e m a i n i n g  were  order  16  showed  t o  were t h e i r i n  a c t i v i t y . F i g u r e s  F i g u r e  1.2  F l o o r - f e d  c h i c k s  d u r i n g  the  b r o o d i n g  p e r i o d .  - 22  The  composition  -  of the d i e t f e d from h a t c h i n g  s e x u a l m a t u r i t y i s shown i n T a b l e crude  p r o t e i n and  the brooding H e a t was  I t contained  p r o v i d e d by two through  500  watt  heat  the brooding  i n t r a o c u l a r l y a g a i n s t Newcastle  lamps  (2 f e e t a b o v e  d i s e a s e and  (5-18  C h i c k s were weighed  t h e f i r s t day  of the r e a r i n g p e r i o d , the 79.0  Beginning intake, kg  (3.60  p r o v i d e by  6 weeks o f age  a t 7 weeks o f age  management p r o g r a m .  (Eden, 1 9 7 7 ) , W  f i n a l body w e i g h t  x  (kg),  day.  Nelson  i n feed  of  1.64  (18 w e e k s ) , broiler  as  breeder  m o d i f i e d formula used t o c o n t r o l ,  a d a i l y b a s i s , t h e body w e i g h t 9 W  reduced  a l l b i r d s were r e s t r i c t e d  of the r e a r i n g p e r i o d  The  day.  60 g p e r b i r d p e r  recommended by t h e P f i z e r H e i s d o r f and  e°' 2)  gradually  so t h a t t h e y g r e w t o t h e t a r g e t b o d y w e i g h t l b ) by t h e end  average  g per b i r d per  T h e r e a f t e r , t h e amount o f f e e d g i v e n was finally  infectious  weeks)  f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n o f t h e b i r d s was  to  vaccinated  age.  Rearing Period  On  form.  period.  b r o n c h i t i s , when t h e y w e r e 12 d a y s o l d . a g a i n a t 2 6 days of  During  provided i n crumble  C h i c k s w e r e w e i g h e d , w i n g - b a n d e d , and  1.2.3  15.35%  2686 k c a l m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y / k g .  p e r i o d t h e d i e t was  f l o o r ) p e r pen  1.1.  to  g a i n was:  = initial  A E = 5.90  body w e i g h t  on  (e°*^ l -  (kg), W  A E = amount o f m e t a b o l i z a b l e  W  2  = energy  Table  1.1  Composition of d i e t  1.  Ingredients Ground  G/kg  wheat  746*  Ground c o r n  100  Soybean meal  80  Rapeseed meal  40  Limestone  10  D i c a l c i u m phosphate  20  Iodized  salt  4 **  Microingredients  **add m i c r o i n g r e d i e n t s zinc  per  kg  oxide  50 mg  manganese o x i d e  25 mg  choline  50%  calcium  pantothenate  riboflavin vitamin  B^^  vitamin  A  vitamin  D-,  vitamin  E  1,000 mg 3 mg 3 mg 0.01 mg 5,000 u n i t s 500 u n i t s 12 u n i t s  ethoxyquin  150 mg  amprol  500 mg  (coccidiostat)  lincomycin  2 mg  15 k g o f g r o u n d w h e a t was r e p l a c e d by 15 k g o f a l f a l f a m e a l a f t e r i o weeks o f age .  - 24 -  (Meal) r e q u i r e d f o r i n c r e a s i n g b o d y w e i g h t f r o m W-^ of  heavy  type b i r d .  to  W  C u m u l a t i v e f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n on b i - w e e k l y  b a s i s f o r the feeder-fed b i r d s through the r e s t r i c t e d F e e d was  changed  period  is  listed  i n T a b l e 1.2.  to  pellet  form a t the b e g i n n i n g of the r e a r i n g p e r i o d .  was  g i v e n ad l i b i t u m t h r o u g h t h e whole  15 t o 18 weeks p e r i o d , when w a t e r was daily  ( f r o m 5:30  pm.  2  t o 8:00  from crumble  form Water  experiment except over restricted  f o r 14.5  a.m.).  F e e d e r - f e d g r o u p s w e r e f e d b e t w e e n 8 and e v e r y day f r o m h a n g i n g t u b e f e e d e r s .  10  A t 9 weeks o f  the  wood s h a v i n g s u s e d a s l i t t e r  oat  s t r a w i n t h e pens c o n t a i n i n g t h e f l o o r - f e d b i r d s  a.m. age,  were r e p l a c e d w i t h c o a r s e r to  enhance t h e s c r a t c h i n g b e h a v i o r of t h e b i r d s a s s o c i a t e d looking f o r the p e l l e t e d  feed.  The  The p e l l e t s w e r e b r o a d c a s t on t h e l i t t e r a n d b e t w e e n 3:30  p.m.  and 4:30  p.m.  &  1.4  the  period. higher than  f e m a l e s , some o f t h e m a l e s d i d n o t grow o r e v e n l o s t  weight. at  and  F i g u r e s 1.3  S i n c e t h e f e e d r e q u i r e m e n t f o r m a l e s was for  group.  b e t w e e n 8 a.m.  show t h e f e e d e r - f e d a n d f l o o r - f e d managements d u r i n g rearing  with  f l o o r - f e d groups were f e d  t w i c e d a i l y t h e same amount o f f e e d as t h e f e e d e r - f e d  10 p.m.  hr  body  T h e r e f o r e , a l l m a l e s w e r e removed f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t  9 weeks o f a g e .  I n o r d e r t o make pen s p a c e f o r t h e  g r o u p e d m a l e s , one g r o u p o f f e m a l e s was redistributed  e q u a l l y and  randomly  i n t o t h e o t h e r seven groups f o r b o t h the  f e e d e r - f e d and f l o o r - f e d  populations.  newly  - 25 -  T a b l e 1.2  Age-Weeks  Cumulative feed consumption o f the feeder-fed p u l l e t s .  Gm.  o f F e e d Consumed P e r P u l l e t  2  217  4  897  6  1,855  8  2,488  10  3,235  12  4,076  14  4,973  16  6,033  18  7. 044  20  8,575  A f t e r 20 weeks o f a g e , 130 gm o f f e e d g i v e n p e r p u l l e t p e r day u n t i l t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t .  F i g u r e  1.4  F l o o r - f e d  p u l l e t s  d u r i n g  the  r e a r i n g  p e r i o d .  -  A l l f l o o r pen a  at  at  60  5  13  pens  l i g h t  was to  g i v e n  d a r k n e s s .  b i - w e e k l y  15  Based (18  upper  r e p l i c a t e s . i n  from  7  the a.m.  l i g h t s . b e g i n n i n g n a t u r a l  of  to  g  130  g  u n t i l  were  was  c o u r s e  c o r r i d o r  o u t s i d e  the  w i t h  w h i c h  feed by  end  of  at  i n t o  p r o v i d e d the  Newcastle  B i r d s they  end  were  weighed  were  weighed  the  r e a r i n g  20  of  the  of  and  four  f l o o r - f e d  groups, each  the  the  an  b i r d s '  b i r d age,  experiment.  was then  two  r e a r i n g  a i d  p e r i o d  was  h e a v i e s t ,  w i t h  p h o t o p e r i o d  w i t h  there  per  the  the  h o l d i n g  extended  weeks  and  from  minimum  p e r i o d  complete  a g a i n s t  age.  l i g h t e s t ,  p r o v i d e d  of  sudden  f e e d e r - f e d  and  of  b u l b s  weeks)  d i v i d e d  A  l i g h t  the  weeks  the  house.  The  w i t h  dim  t r a n s f e r r e d  l a y i n g  b i r d the  of  r e p l a c e d  each  of  weight  medium  p.m.  the  d a i l y per  each  was  from  hour  b i r d s  (19-25  the  removed  week.  r e v a c c i n a t e d  16  body  was  above  extended  f e e d i n g .  the  f e e t  An  a f t e r  l a y i n g  d a y l e n g t h  amount 130  of  i n  the  were  e q u a l l y  the  p.m.  5  lamp  hours  They  Over  4  at  heat  f o l l o w i n g  l i g h t s  P e r i o d  8  lamp  p e r i o d ,  lower  to  heat  r e a r i n g  on  was  medium,  h e l d  the  weeks),  p o p u l a t i o n s  to  the  H o l d i n g  p e r i o d  the to  b r o n c h i t i s  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  1 . 2 . 4 .  i n  p u l l e t s  through  r a i s e d  r e m a i n i n g  a.m.  by  -  One  f r i g h t e n i n g  A l l  and  The  7  were  age.  bulb  from  a v o i d  d i s e a s e  of  weeks.  l i g h t  l i g h t  lamps  weeks  watt  gave  heat  27  house  and  extending of  and  a r t i f i c i a l at  i n c r e a s e  the i n  p h o t o p e r i o d . g r a d u a l l y m a i n t a i n e d  The  i n c r e a s e d at  -  1.2.5  Laying Period  28  -  (26-47 weeks)  Between 2 6 and 2 7 weeks o f age a t s e x u a l 5 birds closest  maturity,  t o t h e mean body w e i g h t were s e l e c t e d f r o m  each group f o r examination o f t h e abdominal f a t pad. commercial b r o i l e r 27 weeks o f a g e .  breeder d i e t The d i e t  A  r e p l a c e d t h e grower d i e t a t  contained  16 p e r c e n t p r o t e i n  2860 M.E.  kcal/kg.  D a i l y egg p r o d u c t i o n was r e c o r d e d .  eggs l a i d  on one day a t 34.- 38 a n d 47 weeks o f age f r o m a l l  g r o u p s were w e i g h e d . 47 weeks o f a g e .  Body w e i g h t s were r e c o r d e d  The  a t 41 and  F i g u r e s 1.5 a n d 1.6 show t h e f e e d e r - f e d a n d  f l o o r - f e d managements a t 45 weeks o f age.  Figure  1.6  Floor-fed  pullets  during  the  laying  period.  - 30  1.3  RESULTS AND  1.3.1  Body W e i g h t  1.3.1.1  DISCUSSION  Comparison of the procedure  The and  f e e d i n g management  a v e r a g e body w e i g h t o f t h e . f e e d e r - f e d  f l o o r - f e d p u l l e t s f r o m 2 weeks t o 47 w e e k s o f age  presented  i n T a b l e 1.3.  sumption of the was  -  897  The  a v e r a g e ad  f e e d e r - f e d g r o u p s by  g per b i r d .  p e r i o d were g i v e n  The  1039  4 w e e k s o f age  U n d e r ad  7.9  con(27  f l o o r - f e d groups d u r i n g the  f e d b i r d s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y f e e d e r - f e d b i r d s by  l i b i t u m feed  g of feed per b i r d t o ensure  were f e d t o a p p e t i t e .  is  (P  g and  same they  l i b i t u m f e e d i n g , the < 0.05)  37.7  floor-  l i g h t e r than  g a t 2 and  days)  the  4 weeks  respectively. Reduction  i n body w e i g h t g a i n has  also  been o b s e r v e d i n r a t s w h i c h r e c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . Oscai  e t a l . (1972),  found t h a t r a t s subjected  e x e r c i s i n g p r o g r a m o f swimming f r o m 15 t o 360 o v e r a p e r i o d o f 14-16 s l o w l y than the provided with  sedentary  f o o d and  Holloszy  (1967),  reported  similar  weeks o f age  gained  to  min  an daily  w e i g h t more  c o n t r o l r a t s when t h e y w e r e b o t h  w a t e r ad  libitum.  C r e w s e t a l . (1969) and observations.  Jones et a l .  (1964),  O s c a e e t a l . (1971)  - 31 -  T a b l e 1.3  A g e in- • v/eweeks  The e f f e c t o f f e e d e r - f e d and f l o o r - f e d f e e d i n g managements on b o d y w e i g h t s d u r i n g t h e b r o o d i n g , r e a r i n g , h o l d i n g and l a y i n g p e r i o d s .  A v e r a g e s o f Body W e i g h t s - gm. Feeder-fed P u l l e t s Floor-fed Pullets  2  125 .' - a  4  405  a  367 b  6  739  b  767 a  8  847  b •  914 a  10  1005  12  1173  b  1253  14  1238  b  1367 a  16  1493  b  1584 a  18  1574  b  1656 a  20  1957  b  2058 a  25  2494  a  2520 a  41  3267  b  3352 a  47  3341  b  3404 a  a, b,  117 b  1075 a a  I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , t h e a v e r a g e s o f body w e i g h t s a t t h e same age w h i c h c a r r y t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P > 0.05).  - 32 -  After given  d a i l y was  floor-fed pullets  gradually  pullets.  shifted  t o be  6 weeks o f age. some e x t r a feeding  feed  left  1.57  to both  body w e i g h t  be b e c a u s e  of the  from  I t suggested  a l l the feed  the f l o o r - f e d  picked  t h e ad  weights the  b i r d s were  among t h e s t r a w and  they  The  feeder-fed  bird  b i r d weighed  1.6 6 kg a t  18  weeks o f age.  They were t h u s c l o s e t o t h e t a r g e t w e i g h t  1.64  recommended by  kg a s was  up  libitum  than  the f l o o r - f e d  t o engage c o p r o p h a g y .  kg and  floor-fed  onward, t h e body  that  and  birds at  the former  i n the l i t t e r  feed  feeder-fed  than the f e e d e r - f e d  6 weeks o f age  almost  were a l s o o b s e r v e d weighed  over  t h e amount o f  b i r d s were c o n s i s t e n t l y h e a v i e r  birds.  t o p i c k up  average  heavier  From  of the f l o o r - f e d  able  restricted  T h i s might  period.  feeder-fed  The  5 weeks o f age  Heisdorf  and  Nelson  of  broiler  b r e e d e r management p r o g r a m . After intake by  rapidly  t h e end  bird  until  period  from  o f 2 0 weeks o f age, t h e end  birds.  were s l i g h t l y  the f e e d e r - f e d  and m a i n t a i n e d  25 weeks o f age,  but not  pullets.  on  feed  the  per  130  During t h i s  b i r d s g a i n e d body w e i g h t By  daily  75 g t o 13 0 g p e r b i r d  of the experiment.  the f e e d e r - f e d  the f l o o r - f e d pullets  increased  the r e a r i n g p e r i o d ,  g  per  feeding  faster  than  floor-fed  s i g n i f i c a n t l y heavier  day  than  -  33  During though both  feed  consumption  p o p u l a t i o n s  f l o o r - f e d  b i r d s  f e e d e r - f e d  of  a g a i n  b i r d s  at  b i r d s  were  based  on  e q u a l l y  the  h i s t o r y  of  of  group  each  body  and  18  h e a v i e s t  however,  and  throughout  the  the  at  are  (P  <  groups no  weights  of  of  the  the  d i f f e r e n c e  from  each  8  age.  The  weeks  two  of  f a c t o r s ,  the  age  r e p o r t e d of  age  0.05) i n  the  the  d i f f e r e n c e  the  The  growth  mean  body  1.4.  l i g h t e s t than  weight  and It  group the  the was  was  h e a v i e s t  management.  d i f f e r e n c e b i r d s  the  between  managed  on  the the  f l o o r  p e r i o d .  p e r i o d  i n  Table  f e e d e r - f e d  of  p e r i o d  c a l c u l a t e d  l i g h t e r  (5  w e i g h t - g r o u p s  g e n e t i c  i n  r e s t r i c t i o n  other  The  was  than  w e i g h t - g r o u p s  age.  s t u d i e d .  of  b r o o d i n g  r e a r i n g  four  was  of  the  w e i g h t - g r o u p s  d i f f e r e n t  weeks  groups  Feed b e g i n n i n g  four  s i g n i f i c a n t  l i g h t e s t  e n t i r e  18  weeks  weeks  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  end i n t o  b i r d s  at  was,  age.  r e a r i n g  even  There  of  the  found  medium  h e a v i e r  of  the  day,  However,  At  i n d i v i d u a l  the upper  weeks  per  w e i g h t .  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  47  even g  four  weights  and  i n  130  the  body  a l r e a d y  at  of  weight  2  p e r i o d ,  Comparison  subsequent t h a t  i n c r e a s e d  d i v i d e d  b e f o r e  l a y i n g  m a i n t a i n e d  became  41  1 . 3 . 1 . 2  the  was  b i r d s  -  both was  v a r i a t i o n  was  begun  weeks). of  b i r d s  The  accounted s o c i a l  the  mean  showed  p o p u l a t i o n s  and  at  body  s i g n i f i c a n t  of  f o r  of  b i r d s by  peck  at  by l e a s t  o r d e r .  - 34 -  T a b l e 1.4  The b o d y w e i g h t i n gram o f a l l w e i g h t - g r o u p s o f f e e d e r - f e d and f l o o r - f e d p u l l e t s a t e a c h w e i g h i n g p e r i o d ( o n l y p u l l e t s s u r v i v i n g t o 13 weeks w e r e considered i n the c a l c u l a t i o n ) . Average  Age i n Weeks  o f Body W e i g h t s  of Feeder-Fed  Pullets  Heaviest  Upper Medium  Lower Medium  Lightest  2  128 a  128 a  125 ab  123 be  4  420 a  413 ab  400 be  394 c  6  772 a  750 ab  734 be  714 c  8  923 c  871 d  840 e  777 f  10  1122 c  1043 c  988 f  897 h  12  1339 b  1223 c  1149 d  1027 f  14  1439 b  1302 c  1205 d  1045 f  16  1739 b  1575 d  1451 f  1235 g  18  1831 b  1645 d  1532 f  1312 g  20  2152 b  2043 c  1923 d  1728 e  25  2583 ab  2579 ab  2460 be  2361 c  41  3293 ab  3325 ab  3245 ab  3294 b  47  3367 a  3368 a  3331 a  3296 a  Continued  -  Table  1.4  Age Weeks  -  (continued)  Average  i n  35  of  Body  H e a v i e s t  Weights  of  F l o o r - f e d  Upper Medium  Lower Medium  P u l l e t s  L i g h t e s t  2  119  cd  117  d  116  d  116  d  4  372  d  364  d  364  d  366  d  6  785  a  764  ab  760  ab  761  ab  8  1045  a  957  b  901  c  852  de  10  1306  a  1165  b  1086  d  974  g  12  1537  a  1350  b  1241  c  1077  e  14  1689  a  1439  b  1330  c  1114  e  16  1943  a  1694  c  1526  e  1231  g  18  1874  a  1778  c  1596  e  1289  g  20  2304  a  2137  b  2014  c  1776  e  25  2691  a  2602  a  2413  c  2361  c  41  3401  a  3345  ab  3358  ab  3295  ab  47  3417  a  3416  a  3416  a  3361  a  a , b , c , d , e , f , g  In the t e s t , t and f l o p e r i o d are not  student he body o r - f e d f o l l o w e s i g n i f  Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e range w e i g h t s of f e e d e r - f e d p u l l e t s at each w e i g h i n g d w i t h the same l e t t e r i c a n t d i f f e r e n t (P> . 0 5 ) .  -  The  stronger birds  weight feed  36  p r o b a b l y consumed more f e e d ,  f a s t e r and t h e r e f o r e  restriction  period  suffered  gained  a l e s s e r degree of  than the l i g h t e r b i r d s  during  the rearing  (5-18 w e e k s ) . After  consumption per  -  rapidly  the rearing  increased  before.  grew f a s t e r t h a n t h e h e a v i e r b i r d s .  among w e i g h t - g r o u p s management  (Table  showed t h a t  (P >  The l i g h t e r b i r d s  0.05) i n body w e i g h t  The a n a l y s i s  the difference  and f l o o r - f e d  of variance  o f body w e i g h t among  (Table  t o be n o t s i g n i f i c a n t by 47 weeks o f a g e .  the  i n t h e l i g h t e s t g r o u p was a l m o s t a b l e  compensate f o r t h e i r p r e v i o u s heaviest  slower growth  groups  than t h a t that  Therefore,  to f u l l y  r e l a t i v e to the  g r o u p s by 4 7 weeks o f a g e . Differences  weight  1.5)  weight-groups  decreased birds  feed  By 41 weeks o f age t h e r e  from each f e e d e r - f e d  1.4).  daily  f r o m 75 g t o 130 g p e r b i r d  d a y i n two weeks a s m e n t i o n e d  was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  period,  among  i n t h e f l o o r - f e d b i r d s were c o n s i s t e n t l y  i n the feeder-fed  competition  floor-fed  o f mean body w e i g h t s  birds  f o r feed  birds  (Table  I t suggested  was p r o b a b l y more r i g o r o u s  than the feeder-fed  body w e i g h t d i f f e r e n c e  1.4).  among f o u r that  birds.  larger  among  Observation of the  weight-groups  from d i f f e r e n t  feeding  managements i n d i c a t e d  t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between  feeding  management a n d w e i g h t - g r o u p was b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e  Table 1.5  Summary of mean squares o f the analysis of variance of body weights of a l l groups of p u l l e t s from 2 to 47 weeks of ages (only p u l l e t s surviving to 18 weeks were considered i n the c a l c u l a t i o n ) . Time of Weighing (week) Brooding and Rearing Periods  Source of Variation Feeder-fed vs.Floor-fed (F) Weight groups (G) F X G  Error  10  d.f.  832  12  14  16  16377  340433  135162  1523350 3007266  2679112  4140837  1770785 *  904 *  11378 *  65417 #  1067862 2744816 * *  5500158 *  8575806  13822886  169 n. s.  5314 n. s.  12843 n. s.  30827  149363  223802  333281  432076  213  2453  6899  9317  16033  17452  19620  12835  Continued  Table 1.5  (continued)  Time of Weighing (week) Laying Period  Holding Period Source of Variation  Feeder-fed vs. Floor-fed (F)  d.f.  1  18  d.f.  20  d.f.  25  1245814 *  1  2237537 *  1  Weight groups (G)  3 12646915  3  8062554  3 3055125  F X G  3  215446  Error  813  21541  22952 n.s. 804  194294 n.s.  3  194150 n.s.  . 80755 777  142918  41  d.f.  47  1268280 *  1  670620 *  d.f.  1  692  367173  153979 n.s.  53516 n.s.  5956 n.s.  127339  675  160929  At 2 and 4 weeks of ages the sedentary feeder-fed birds were heavier than the exercised f l o o r fed p u l l e t s , t h e r e a f t e r , the exercised f l o o r - f e d p u l l e t s were heavier. *  Significant  (P < .05)  n.s.  Not s i g n i f i c a n t  - 39 -  more  r a p i d  groups  r e s p o n s e  managed  on  i n  the  T h i s  i n t e r a c t i o n  was  when  the  were  p u l l e t s  Abdominal  1.3.2  mean fed  of  each  from  the  2.78  kg  >  (P  the  f a t  c o n t e n t  The  p r o p o r t i o n  g  s i g n i f i c a n t l y the  average  s u b j e c t e d  t o  experiment  showed  c o n v e n t i o n a l  Johnson s c h o o l than  g i r l s  et_  a l .  i n  f a t  Table  r e a r i n g  1.5).  p e r i o d  f a t  per  b i r d s .  i n  the  >  b i r d s  than  f e e d e r - f e d h i g h e r  was  those  b i r d s than  102.2  g.  a l s o  (4.44%)  breeder  l i t t e r  d e p o s i t i o n  and  d i f f e r e n t  f e e d e r - f e d  on  i n  s e l e c t e d  weighed  b r o i l e r  The  kg  2.83  the  f l o o r -  l i s t e d  0.05)  w e i g h t  f e e d i n g f a t  the  w h i c h  body  Thus,  by  were  (P  and  are  20  of  to  s t u d i e s .  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  b i r d s  0.05)  f a t  each  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  <  close',  f e e d e r - f e d  w e i g h t  of  abdominal  f a t  b i r d s  5  p u l l e t s  not  p r o p o r t i o n a l l y  r e p o r t e d  o v e r e a t i n g  h e a v i e r  1.4,  the  abdominal  abdominal  f e e d e r - f e d  the  weight  program  l e s s  and  for  f l o o r - f e d  (P  e x e r c i s e  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  was  (3.69%)  f l o o r - f e d  the  f e e d i n g .  age,  from  were  abdominal  h i g h e r  of  f l o o r - f e d  the  the  of  d u r i n g  abdominal  and  w h i c h of  group  body  and  However,  126.0  weeks  27  the  r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  0.05).  (Table  r e s t r i c t e d  k i l l e d  and  f e e d e r - f e d  weighed  in  were  The  1.6.  system  i n  Fat  weight  w e i g h t  i n c r e a s e  observed  under  and  body  Table  o n l y  26  p o p u l a t i o n s  w e i g h t  f l o o r - f e d  Between body  mean  body  i n  than  p u l l e t s t h i s  both  p u l l e t s  r a i s e d  o b e s i t y  i n  on  management.  (1956)  t h a t  i n  a  study  i n a c t i v i t y  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  was  of  even  o b e s i t y ,  on  more a  h i g h  important s t a t i s t i c a l  Table 1.6  Body weight on the day of autopsy (at 26-27 weeks), t o t a l body weight gain a f t e r 18 weeks of age to the day of autopsy, t o t a l body weight gain minus abdominal f a t weight, abdominal f a t weight and the percentage of abdominal f a t per body weight of the heaviest, upper medium, lower medium and l i g h t e s t groups of p u l l e t s managed on feeder-fed or f l o o r - f e d system. Abdominal Fat  Body Weight Kg.  Total Gain i n gm.  T o t a l Gain Minus abdominal f a t i n gm.  Gm.  % Body Weight  Feeder-fed Heaviest Upper medium Lower medium Lightest  93 88 2.79 abc 2.73 be  1098 1192 1248 1282  Mean  2.83  1205  cd be be ab  980 1048 1123 1165  cd be be b  118 145 125 117  ab a ab ab  ab a ab ab  4.44  126  1079  4.04 5.02 4.45 4.24  Floor-fed Heaviest Upper medium Lower medium Lightest  2.84 2.79 2.81 2.66  Mean  2.78  ab abc abc c  845 981 1168 1411  e de be a  1101*  751 876 , 1049 1320  e de be a  999*  94 105 119 92  b ab ab b  102*  3.30 3.72 4.27 3.45  b ab ab ab  3.69*  a,b,c,d,e  A l l values i n each column followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P < .05), according to Duncan multiple range t e s t .  *  S i g n i f i c a n t difference  (P < .05) with the mean i n the feeder-fed management.  Table 1.7  Mean squares from the analysis of variance of body weights on the day of autopsy (at 26-27 weeks), body weight gain a f t e r 18 weeks of age to the day of autopsy, body weight gain minus abdominal f a t , abdominal f a t weight and the percentage of abdominal f a t per body weight of the heaviest, upper medium, lower medium and l i g h t e s t groups of p u l l e t s managed on feeder-fed or f l o o r - f e d system.  Mean  Squares  Body Weight Gain Minus Abdominal Fat  d.f.  Body Weight  Body Weight Gain  1  31,584  107,537*  63,853*  Weight Groups (G)  3  64,031*  259,414*  F X G  3  6,201  Error  32  14,491  Source of Variation Feeder-Fed vs. Floor-fed (F)  *  Significant  (P  <  0.05)  Abdominal Fat Weight  * Abdominal Fat Body Weight  5,666*  5.66*  265,323*  1,126  1.29  74,111*  71,374*  479  0.52  14,087  13,725  1,017  1.21  I 4-  - 42  basis. thus,  The  obese  -  s u b j e c t s had a l o w e r c a l o r i c  their r e l a t i v e l y greater  a relatively lesser a similar  activity.  intake;  energy balance r e s u l t e d  from  Mayer e t ' a l . (1954)  a l s o made  c o n c l u s i o n b a s e d on a s t u d y o f c a g e d and  exercised  mice. Deaton in  c a g e s and  conditions  e t a l . (1974)  litter-floor  up t o 7,  consistently  8 and  r e a r e d m a l e and  pens  under  feed  Caged  f a t and e t h e r  p e r c e n t a g e o f body w e i g h t t h a n t h e b r o i l e r s floor  the s e g r e g a t i o n of p u l l e t s  w e i g h t a t 18 weeks o f age, faster  libitum  broilers  extract  reared  in  litter-  higher  at sexual maturity (P  <  0.05)  into  f o u r groups  by  the l i g h t e r groups gained weight  than the h e a v i e r groups  amount and p r o p o r t i o n  weight)  fat  ad  pens. After  The  broilers  and w a t e r  9 weeks o f age.  had more a b d o m i n a l  female  (Tables  1.6,  of the abdominal  1.7,  f a t pad  of the f e e d e r - f e d  than of the f l o o r - f e d  Figure (% o f  pullets  pullets.  1.7). body  were  Abdominal  i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d body w e i g h t i n t h o s e g r o u p s o f  pullets  w h i c h g a i n e d up  t o 1200  g i n body w e i g h t a f t e r  segregation, but decreased i n p r o p o r t i o n those groups of p u l l e t s  the  t o body w e i g h t i n  w h i c h g a i n e d i n e x c e s s o f 1200  g  (Figure  1.7). The l i g h t e s t g r o u p had h i g h e r body w e i g h t t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r groups but these of  abdominal  l i g h t e r p u l l e t s c o n t a i n e d t h e l e a s t amount  f a t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  the l i g h t e s t  which s u f f e r e d the s e v e r e s t feed r e s t r i c t i o n p r i o r to was  subjected  t o the l e a s t  feed r e s t r i c t i o n a f t e r  group,  segregation, segregation.  - 43 -  20U0,  1600 BOOT WE]CUT CAIM KI.MUS ABDCMNU, FAT  _ ABDCKINAI.  1600  ra  11*00  1200  3  3 2  4 B  B  E  1000  00 eoo  6oo  g CO in M  H  1*001  zool  eoo  1000  BODY WEIGHT GAIN — F i g u r e 1.7  woo  1200  g.  Amount o f abdominal f a t and t h e body weight g a i n minus abdominal f a t weight i n f e e d e r - f e d p u l l e t s ( B ), and f l o o r - f e d p u l l e t s ( • ) w i t h d i f f e r e n t body weight gains a f t e r the p u l l e t s were separated i n t o f o u r groups, h e a v i e s t (1), upper medium (2), lower medium (3) and l i g h t e s t (4), by weight a t 18 weeks of age t o 27 weeks o f age.  - 44 -  The d a t a  s u g g e s t t h a t t h e more v i t a l  p a r t s o f t h e body,  such as muscle and s k e l e t a l t i s s u e s developed  at a  faster  r a t e than d i d t h e abdominal f a t i n t h e l i g h t e s t group o f pullets.  1.3.3  Egg P r o d u c t i o n  1.3.3.1  Sexual  maturity  S e x u a l m a t u r i t y i s shown i n T a b l e w h i c h shows t h e mean number o f d a y s t o t h e f i r s t 50 p e r c e n t  production  f e e d i n g management.  1.8  egg, 3 0 and  f o r d i f f e r e n t weight-groups i n each The mean d a y s t o f i r s t  egg l a i d ,  30%  and  50% e g g p r o d u c t i o n w e r e 1 9 4 , 208 a n d 214 f o r t h e f e e d e r -  fed  p u l l e t s a n d 1 9 2 , 207 a n d 213 f o r t h e f l o o r - f e d  respectively. no e f f e c t  T h u s , p u l l e t s managed o n f l o o r - f e d . s y s t e m showed  on a g e a t s e x u a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c c o r d i n g  parameters. be d e l a y e d ,  pullets  to the three  Sexual m a t u r i t y o f t h e l i g h t e r groups tended t o h o w e v e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  1.3.3.2  Rate o f l a y  A c c u m u l a t e d egg p r o d u c t i o n p e r hen p e r day  o n h e n d a y b a s i s i s shown i n T a b l e  weight-groups of p u l l e t s  1.9 f o r d i f f e r e n t  from f e e d e r - f e d and f l o o r - f e d  - 45 -  T a b l e 1.8  Weight-Groups  The e f f e c t o f f e e d e r - f e d a n d f l o o r - f e d managements on t h r e e e s t i m a t e s o f age at sexual m a t u r i t y . Days t o F i r s t Egg  D a y s t o 30% Production  Days t o 50% Production  Feeder-fed Heaviest  193  207.'..  213  U p p e r medium  193  205.;  213  L o w e r medium  194  209  213'  Lightest  197.  210,  214  Means  194  208  214  Heaviest  190  207  214  U p p e r medium  192  206  213  Lower medium  194  207  214  Lightest  192  207  213  Means  192  207  213  Floor-fed  -46-  Table 1.9  The e f f e c t of feeder-fed and f l o o r - f e d feeding managements on cumulative percentage of egg production calculated on a hen-day bases to various ages f o r d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s . To 30 wks.  To 33 wks.  To 36 wks.  To 39 wks.  To 42 wks.  To 45 wks.  To 47 wks.  10. 4 12. 4 7.7  36. 2 39. 6 32. 1  48. 9 50. 9  53. 5 54. 2  56.7 57. 7  57. 5 59..2  46. 7  Lightest  7.,0  30. 3  45. 3  51. 9 51..4  5.5..9 56 .6 54 .2 54 .6  56.,0 56.,3  56.,5 57.,1  Mean  9..4  34. 6  48. 0  52. 8  55 .3  56. 6  57. 6  12..2  36..6  49,.1  54..9  58 .1  60..1  60,.6 55,.1  Feeder-fed Heaviest Upper medium Lower medium  Floor-fed Heaviest Upper medium  12,.7  34..6  45,.8  50,.4  53 .0  55,.0  Lower medium  10 .5  32..8  45..3  57..0  57,.2  8,.3  33,.0  51..8 50,.3  54 .8  44,.6  54 .6.  57,.4  57 .9  11 .1  34 .3  46 .2  51 .9  55 .1  57 .4  57 .7  Lightest Mean  -  f e e d i n g  managements.  from  the  f l o o r - f e d  than  the  f e e d e r - f e d  egg  p r o d u c t i o n  fed  groups.  advantage  of  subsequent hen-day p e r i o d  groups than  of  r e l a t e d  f l o o r - f e d  33  weeks egg  of  weeks  the  mean  f l o o r - f e d  b a s i s of  had than  age.  h i g h e r those was  those  from  c u m u l a t i v e from  the  accounted  age,  f o r  the  egg  the the  by  and  f e e d i n g  management.  l a y  h i g h e r  w i t h  and the  f a c t o r s : a  groups  than was  of  p u l l e t s .  p e r i o d s  1 . 1 0 ) . the  to  36  to  so  the on  a  at  up  over  a  a n a l y s i s  (P  >  0 . 0 5),  f l o o r - f e d hen-housed to  30  weeks  c o n s i s t e n t l y  r a t e  h i g h e r l a i d  h e a v i e s t  l i g h t e s t  the  p e r i o d .  the  had  b a s i s  of  than  p r o d u c t i o n  f e e d e r - f e d  both  l a y  f e e d e r - f e d  p a t t e r n  groups  of  The  week  1.11,  f a s t e r  the  due  the  the  had  l i g h t e s t  T h i s  m o r t a l i t y  at  p o i n t ,  of  f l o o r -  e a r l y  hen-housed  This  the  t h i s  groups  a  eggs  r a t e  groups  on  groups.  p r o d u c t i o n  t h i s  p r o d u c t i o n  p r o d u c t i o n  two  31  Table  egg  of  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  f e e d e r - f e d  hen-housed  h e a v i e s t  i n  of  h i g h e r  (Table  f e e d e r - f e d  f l o o r - f e d  hen-day  not  b i r d s  accumulated  three-week  d u r i n g  shown  The per  but  a  v e r i f y  p r o d u c t i o n  groups  f l o o r - f e d  hen-day  and  egg  c u m u l a t i v e  T h e r e a f t e r ,  i n c r e a s e d of  h i g h e r  by  h i g h  m a t u r i t y  w i t h  To  the  number  overcame  analyzed  h i g h e r  As groups  groups  age.  age,  h i g h e r  e a r l y  groups  was  of  e a r l i e r  p r o d u c t i o n  s l i g h t l y  the  weeks  The to  the  t h a t  was  groups.  f e e d e r - f e d  to  30  produced  The  twenty  i n d i c a t e d  to  groups  was  p e r c e n t of  Up  -  47  groups  a f t e r  30  weeks  •  m o r t a l i t y . fewer groups lower  p u l l e t s  eggs under r a t e  compared  per each of  -48-  Table 1.10.  The e f f e c t of feeder-fed and f l o o r - f e d feeding managements on hen-day percent production by three-week periods over a period of twenty weeks f o r d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s .  27-30* 31-33 wks. wks.  34-36 37-39 40-42 43-45 46-47** wks. wks. wks. wks. wks.  Feeder-fed 62. 8  Upper medium  12..4  Lower medium  7..7  66..7 56..5  76..0  67..5  63..5  60..3 63..2 64..7  Lightest  7..0  53..6  75..3  69..9  67..4  64..5  59..5 61..8  Mean  9..4  59..7  74..7  67..2  65..7  63..2  63..1  Heaviest  12.2  73.9  72.6  12.7  68.3  64.1  70.9 63.5  70.1  Upper medium  61.1 56.6  64.7  63.5 55.7  10.5  55.2  70.3  71.1  66.7  67.9  58.9  8.8  57.1  68.0  67.4  71.6  71.6  60.6  11.1  57.5  70.1  68.8  68.2  68.6  59.7  Heaviest  10..4  62..1  74.,1  67..4  65.,7  73.,5  64..0  66..3  68..1  Floor-fed  Lower medium Lightest Mean  *  t h i s period included four weeks, t h i s period included two weeks.  -49  Table 1.11  The e f f e c t of feeder-fed and f l o o r - f e d feeding management on cumulative percentage of egg production calculated on a hen-housed basis to various ages f o r d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s .  To 30 wks.  To 33 wks.  To 36 To 39 To 42 To 45 To 47 wks. wks. wks. wks. wks.  Heaviest  10.4  36.2  48.9  53.5  55.9  56.7  57. 5  Upper medium  12.1  38.4  49.2  52.2  54.5  55.7  55. 8  53.3  54.7  54. 8  52.0  53.5  54. 0  Feeder-fed  Lower medium  7.7  31.8  46.0  Lightest  6.7  29.1  43.2  51.1 49.0  Mean  9.2  33.9  46.8  51.5  53.9  55.2  55.5  Heaviest  12. 0  35.7  47. 8  53. 3  56.3  58.1  58.4  Upper medium  12. 5 10. 2  33.8  44. 3  48. 2  50.4  51.8  51.7  31.3  41. 9  47. 5  51.7  51.7  8.5  30.3  40. 0  44. 6  50.1 48.1  50.3  50.6  10. 8  32.8  43. 5  48. 4  51.2  53.0  53.1  Floor-fed  Lower medium Lightest Mean  -  1.3.3.3  -  50  Egg w e i g h t  Egg w e i g h t s and t h e a n a l y s i s variance of the e f f e c t are  effect  egg w e i g h t .  The b i r d s  laid  eggs  heavier  difference  of the f l o o r - f e d  statistically  pullets and of The  u p p e r medium,  from f e e d e r  eggs  floor-fed  by  and f l o o r  increased groups  laid  pullets  different.  o f egg w e i g h t s o f t h e groups o f  f e e d i n g managements a t 3 4 , 38 1.8.  The p r o d u c t i o n  as t h e age o f t h e p u l l e t s larger  p r o p o r t i o n o f eggs  increased. over  65 g  groups.  Although the f l o o r - f e d  groups  had  less  f a t a t t h e o n s e t o f l a y (as shown i n T a b l e 1.6) and  consistently  laid  heavier  that the f l o o r - f e d egg p r o d u c t i o n . and  laid  l o w e r medium a n d l i g h t e s t  than those o f the f e e d e r - f e d  abdominal  groups.  significant  The eggs  47 weeks o f ages were shown i n F i g u r e larger  consistently  w e i g h t - g r o u p s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y The d i s t r i b u t i o n  heaviest,  groups  than d i d those o f the f e e d e r - f e d  i n egg w e i g h t was  the d i f f e r e n t  There  due t o t h e f e e d i n g managements on  (P < 0.05) a t 38 and 47 weeks o f a g e s . in  on egg w e i g h t  shown i n T a b l e 1.12 a n d T a b l e 1.13 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  was a s i g n i f i c a n t  The  o f f e e d i n g management  of  eggs,  i t s h o u l d n o t be c o n c l u d e d  groups had a b e t t e r  efficiency for  The hen-day egg p r o d u c t i o n was n o t s u p e r i o r  t h e c u m u l a t i v e number o f eggs  p e r hen-housed  consistently  lower i n t h e f l o o r - f e d  fed  groups.  These  the  heavier  eggs  feed  two f a c t o r s  laid  groups  p e r d a y was  than i n the feeder-  were p r o b a b l y a c c o u n t e d f o r  by t h e f l o o r - f e d  groups.  -51-  Table 1.12  The e f f e c t of feeder-fed and f l o o r - f e d feeding managements on mean egg weights i n grams +s.d. at several ages among d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s .  F i r s t 10 Eggs at the Onset of Lay  34 wks.  38 wks.  47 wks.  66.5+7.1 66.6+4.4 65.9+5.2 64.9+5.3  68.4+5.0 69.9+4.2 68.8+4.9 69.6+7.7  Feeder-fed Heaviest  55.1+10.3  Upper medium  52.2+6.5  Lower medium  49.7+5.6  Lightest  52.3+10.9  64.3+4.0 64.7+5.4 65.5+7.5 63.7+7.4  Mean  52.3+8.4  64.6+6.4  65.9+4.9  69.2+5.6  Heaviest  55.0+10.8  65.1+5.3  67.5+7.1  71.4+6.0  Upper medium  51.3+5.8  65.8+6.7  66.6+8.8  71.8+7.7  Lower medium  51.7+5.1  64.1+3.3  67.5+6.3  69.9+4.5  Lightest  55.3+12.5  66.2+8.7  67.5+5.0  71.3+4.2  Mean  53.3+9.0  65.3+6.4  67.3+6.8  71.0+6.0  Floor-fed  Table 1.13  Source of Variation  The analysis of variance of the e f f e c t of feeder-fed and f l o o r - f e d feeding managements on mean egg weight at 34, 38 and 47 weeks of ages among d i f f e r e n t weight-groups of b r o i l e r breeder p u l l e t s .  34-weeks d.f. m.s.  38-weeks d. f. m.s.  47-weeks d.f. m.s.  Feeder-fed vs.  Floor-fed  1  230.2*  1  291.7*  (F)  3  7.4  3  10.7  3  45.3  3  75.8  3  23.9  3  18.4  514  40.6  420  34.8  364  33.4  Weight-groups (G)  F X G  Error  *  Significant  (P < 0.05)  -53-  sof  FEEDER—FED 3*t-weeke.  FLOOR—FEO 3*f-weeks  40  so so  iof  38-weeks  f  38-weeks  40»-  e  • e  0.  50!f  47-weeks  S0J-4O0  Egg Figure 1.8  SMO  4SJ-9O0  weight  60.1-610 3CJ-60H 4&>^00  C701  gm.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of egg weights of the heaviest ( ) , upper medium ( ), lower medium (. ), d l i g h t e s t (• ~) groups of p u l l e t s from feeder-fed and f l o o r - f e d feeding managements at 3 4 , 38 and 47 weeks of ages. a n  - 54 -  1.3.4  Mortality  Twenty-four groups and o n l y 12 days;  from the  feeder-fed  two (0.4%) f r o m t h e o t h e r g r o u p s d i e d a t  o f a g e , o h t h e d a y when a l l c h i c k s w e r e w e i g h e d ,  vaccinated  and wing-banded.  subjected t o a greater higher resistance The  (4.7%) c h i c k s  This suggested that  birds  a c t i v i t y p r o b a b l y had d e v e l o p e d  t o s t r e s s t h a n t h o s e t h a t were l e s s  t o t a l m o r t a l i t y of the feeder-fed  active.  b i r d s was 6.85% a n d  o f t h e f l o o r - f e d b i r d s was 1.76% a t t h e e n d o f t h e b r o o d i n g period. The  cumulative m o r t a l i t y  brooding, rearing, holding and  and t h e m o r t a l i t y  and l a y i n g p e r i o d s o f t h e  f l o o r - f e d p u l l e t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 1.14.  birds  birds through the rearing t o l a y i n g period. o f d e a t h o f t h e f l o o r - f e d b i r d s was g i z z a r d  At discovered  litter  impaction or  material.  a b o u t 30 weeks o f age numerous p u l l e t s w e r e t o have v i s u a l p r o b l e m s .  p r o b l e m was i d e n t i f i e d  lens.  feeder-fed  The m a j o r c a u s e  One o r b o t h o f t h e i r  e y e s w e r e g r e y a n d some o f them w e r e a p p a r e n t l y The  feeder-fed  The f l o o r - f e d  c o n s i s t e n t l y had a h i g h e r m o r t a l i t y than t h e  i n t e s t i n a l blockage with  during  enlarged.  t o be b l u i s h d i s c o l o r a t i o n o f t h e  I n t r a c i n g b a c k t h e h i s t o r y o f m o r t a l i t y , t h e r e was  found 1 b i r d k i l l e d w i t h  serious  t r e m o r o f t h e head and neck  a t 5 weeks o f age, and seven b i r d s  (0.6% o f a l l chicks)  -  Table  1.14  The  55  -  c u m u l a t i v e  d u r i n g  the  l a y i n g  p e r i o d s  f l o o r - f e d  m o r t a l i t y  b r o o d i n g , of  of  the  Each  the  m o r t a l i t y  h o l d i n g  f e e d e r - f e d  Cumulative  M o r t a l i t y  End F l o o r - F e d  F e e d e r - F e d  P e r i o d  1.76  6.85  Brooding  20.  94  55  R e a r i n g  11.  H o l d i n g  15.50  27.79  Laying  17.  33.23  40  % M o r t a l i t y  i n  Each  P e r i o d  Brooding  6 . 85  1 . 76  R e a r i n g  5. 45  1 9 . 13  h e a v i e s t  3 . 96  1. 05  upper  medium  2. 73  4 . 12  lower  medium  1. 79  2 . 11  H o l d i n g :  L a y i n g :  and  and  p u l l e t s .  % To  the  and  r e a r i n g ,  13.  13  l i g h t e s t  6. 31  h e a v i e s t  0 . 00  4. 55  upper  medium  2 . 94  6. 82  lower  medium  1. 90  l i g h t e s t  5 . 05  '  11.  36  13.  58  -  sitting period.  on  56  t h e i r backs w i t h  -  ataxia during  the  rearing  Serum s a m p l e s t h e r e f o r e w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m p u l l e t s  w i t h opaque l e n s e s , and Veterinary  were examined i n t h e  Research S t a t i o n .  serum w e r e r e p o r t e d  F i v e out  Abbotsford  of e i g h t samples  to contain Avian  encephalomyelitis  laying period  l i g h t e s t groups  of  antibodies. During the higher  m o r t a l i t y than the  t h a t d i e d had  fatty  heaviest  livers.  the  groups.  Most of the  had birds  -  1.4  two  once was  Two  p o p u l a t i o n s  and  Nelson  f e e d i n g  d a i l y fed  t w i c e  a c t i v i t y ,  but  p o p u l a t i o n  1  to  4  treatments amount a  was  f o u r  of  g r e a t e r  on  than  from  were  s u b j e c t e d  p o p u l a t i o n other  feed  f e e d i n g  as  the  was  p o p u l a t i o n  the  f e e d e r - f e d  l i t t e r .  time  of  fed  P h y s i c a l  the  f l o o r - f e d  was  the  case  w i t h  feed  and  water  ad  T h e r e a f t e r  was  a d j u s t e d  w e i g h t  At  weeks  weight  s e x u a l  on  1.65  15  to  (from of  h e a v i e s t ,  based  of  kg  upper  body  18  weeks  whole  the  Body  p r o d u c t i o n  b i r d s  from  the  two  managements  were  s t u d i e d .  growth  and  p o p u l a t i o n s  Water except  was  r e s t r i c t e d  a . m . ) . was  d i v i d e d  medium  w e i g h t ,  The  age.  water  8:00  lower  day.  experiment  when  to  of  l i b i t u m  both  r e s t r i c t  p o p u l a t i o n  medium,  egg  18  i n  each  at  p.m.  each  feed to  weeks,  w e i g h t .  m a t u r i t y ,  of  b i r d s  d a i l y  the  5:30  age,  the  weight  throughout  from  d a i l y  of  age.  g i v e n  i n t a k e  p e r i o d  18  were  same  l i b i t u m  groups,  f e e d i n g  of  c h i c k s  each  The  of  b r o a d c a s t  e x t e n s i o n  hours  group  One  amount  the  l i g h t e s t ,  each  c h i c k s  f e e d e r .  g i v e n  body  ad  a t  feed  p o p u l a t i o n s  were  the  14.5  511  r e g i m e s .  same  t h e r e f o r e  feed  g i v e n  the  g i v e n  weeks  t a r g e t  d u r i n g f o r  of  w i t h  breeder  p o p u l a t i o n .  Both from  b r o i l e r  c o n v e n t i o n a l  the  was  f e e d e r - f e d  s t o c k  d a i l y  and  of  management  u s i n g  p o p u l a t i o n ,  to  -  SUMMARY  H e i s d o r f to  57  i n t o  and  abdominal  f a t  m o r t a l i t y  of  under  d i f f e r e n t  -  The fed  b i r d s  under  T h e r e a f t e r , fed  b i r d s  A f t e r  weeks (P  >  0.05)  were  abdominal  grew body  among  The f a t  were  f a t  i n c r e a s e d  pad  h i g h e r  weight  g a i n s  p u l l e t s t h a t  the  s k e l e t a l f a t  pad  The  b a s i s ,  groups  s e x u a l was  the  p a r t s  f e e d i n g  s i m i l a r  i n  d i d  a l l  f e e d e r -  w e i g h t ,  groups.  p u l l e t s  By  the  47  d i f f e r e n t  i n  the at  not Egg  a of  p u l l e t s groups,  body, f a s t e r  as  r a t e  of  of the  p r o p o r t i o n i n  g r e a t e r t h e s e  The  such  groups  g a i n e d  but  f a t .  weeks  a f t e r  i n  had  the  Abdominal  w e i g h t  w h i c h  of  26-27  those  d e c r e a s e d  d a t a the  to  e x c e s s body  l i g h t e r suggested  muscle  than  the  a t  w h i c h  and  abdominal  p u l l e t s .  a f f e c t  the  p r o d u c t i o n ,  groups.  at  i n  body  p u l l e t s of  weight)  p u l l e t s .  abdominal  group  m a t u r i t y .  age.  r e s t r i c t i o n .  body  body  weight  o t h e r  of  developed  l i g h t e s t  of  group  l e a s t  the  body  but  the  of  f l o o r - f e d  age,  c o n t a i n e d  i n  (%  of  of  F l o o r reached  the  any  t i s s u e s ,  of  the  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  weeks  v i t a l  than  on  f l o o r -  weeks  feed  h e a v i e r  f e e d e r - f e d  l i g h t e s t  4  the  groups.  than  more  not  g  those  g.  were  based  the  1200  i n  to  h e a v i e r  groups  to  body  2  than  q u a n t i t a t i v e  up  18  1200  from  were  than  i n c r e a s e d  at  of  i n  g a i n e d  h e a v i e r  p r o p o r t i o n  the  than  s e g r e g a t i o n w e i g h t  f o u r  f o u r  i n  w i t h  w h i c h  under  of  and  were  b i r d s  weight  the  -  f e e d i n g  f a s t e r  amount  age  p u l l e t s  f l o o r - f e d  s e g r e g a t i o n  age,  b i r d s  l i b i t u m  they  groups  of  ad  the when  the  l i g h t e r  f e e d e r - f e d  58  When  age  c a l c u l a t e d  egg  on  p r o d u c t i o n  the  p u l l e t  hen-day was  - 59 -  C a l c u l a t e d p u l l e t s  on  the  f e e d i n g l i g h t e r  <  a  h i g h e r  p u l l e t s .  0.05)  l a i d  h e a v i e r  egg  w e i g h t s  p u l l e t s  and  65.9  and  47  r a t e  of  however, egg  had  a  f e e d e r - f e d  p r o d u c t i o n  the  h i g h e r  the  h e a v i e r  r a t e  than  p u l l e t s  p r o d u c t i o n  d i d  the  w i t h i n  than  .  d i d  b i r d s .  Average  38  b a s i s ,  Furthermore,  systems  Eggs (P  hen-housed  showed  f l o o r - f e d both  a  weeks  g of  by  the  than  those  were and ages  f l o o r - f e d  67.3  69.2  g  l a i d g  by  and  f o r  p u l l e t s the  71.0  the  r e s p e c t i v e l y .  were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  f e e d e r - f e d g  f o r  the  f e e d e r - f e d  p u l l e t s . f l o o r - f e d  p u l l e t s  at  - 60 -  CHAPTER I I .  THE EFFECT OF PROLONGED FEED RESTRICTION DURING THE GROWING PERIOD ON SUBSEQUENT SEMEN PRODUCTION.  -  2 .0  61  -  INTRODUCTION  The  r e p r o d u c t i v e p h y s i o l o g y o f t h e male f o w l i s  i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t p o s t n a t a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s ,  such  as n u t r i t i o n , p h o t o p e r i o d i s m , t e m p e r a t u r e , d i s e a s e , d r u g s behavior.  Of t h e s e f a c t o r s , n u t r i t i o n i s s t i l l  o f t h e most  concern t o the p r a c t i s i n g farmer r a i s i n g domestic male This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o p e r body s i z e , fertility  important f o r heavy-type  birds,  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low m o r t a l i t y ,  fowls.  because high  and s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . According to a survey of f e r t i l i t y  of  63 f l o c k s o f b r o i l e r - b r e e d e r s  (Chu and M a r c h ,  1976)  and  hatchability  i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y  h a t c h a b i l i t y r e a c h e d a p e a k a t some  t i m e b e t w e e n 31 t o 40 weeks o f age,  a f t e r which  During the d e c l i n e period f e r t i l i t y  d r o p p e d more r a p i d l y  hatchability. of  and  I t was  i t declined.  obvious that the f e r t i l i z i n g  capacity  t h e a g e d b r e e d e r f l o c k s showed a d e c l i n e w h i c h m i g h t semen q u a l i t y o f m a l e s .  t o poor  was  u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e i s any a s s o c i a t i o n i n a g e d  with early dietary feed  present  be  due  b r o i l e r breeder males,  The  than  o f semen v o l u m e a n d restriction.  experiment  sperm c o n c e n t r a t i o n  2.1  LITERATURE REVIEW  2.1.1  Overfeeding  Obesity  and M a l e Fowl R e p r o d u c t i v e  as  i t adversely  a f f e c t s m a l e r e p r o d u c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e was  d i s c u s s e d by  (1950).  He  induced  observed t h a t atrophy  obese male a n i m a l s , Kennedy may  be  by o v e r f e e d i n g  Performance  o f t h e t e s t e s was  when t h e o b e s i t y was  (1926) i n a r e v i e w  induced  found i n  by  overfeeding  noted t h a t o b e s i t y i n the  associated with decreased f e r t i l i t y  through  Ingle  male  oligospermia  P o u l t r y b r e e d e r s a l s o have l o n g been aware t h a t o b e s i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h reduced f e r t i l i t y the male f o w l s .  Nir et a l .  White Leghorn c o c k e r e l s . was  an  t h e end  o f o n l y 77 gm  average abdominal adipose  f o l l o w e d by  36 gm  gm  i n the  was  case  t i s s u e w e i g h e d 96.7  i n the c o n t r o l b i r d s .  gm  i n the  Obesity  was  t e s t i c u l a r r e g r e s s i o n , an e i g h t - f o l d r e d u c t i o n i n  i n sperm m o t i l i t y .  r e d u c e d and  Comb s u r f a c e and A disturbance an  there  i n the c o n t r o l b i r d s .  t h e number o f s p e r m a t o z o a i n t h e v a s a d e f e r e n t i a and depression  of  o f 2 5 weeks o f age,  i n c r e a s e i n t h e mean b o d y w e i g h t o f 827  f o r c e - f e d b i r d s and  libido  (1975) f o r c e - f e d 20 week o l d  By  o f t h e f o r c e - f e d b i r d s , and The  and  The  blood plasma  l u t e i n i s i n g hormone showed an b l o o d packed c e l l  comb t e m p e r a t u r e s .  testosterone  increase.  volume b o t h  o f b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e r e g u l a t i o n was  increase i n rectal  a  increased. shown w i t h  temperature but a decrease i n s k i n  and  -  It was  has  induced  t e s t i c u l a r  by  t e s t o s t e r o n e  i n  and the  and  a  50  t h a t  q u a i l ,  showed per  t e s t i s  s e x u a l  -  a  cent  and  30  per  which cent  r e d u c t i o n  d u c t i  m a t u r i t y  i n  o b e s i t y  r e d u c t i o n  i n  the  d e f e r e n t e s .  a l s o  d e c r e a s e d  i n  spermatozoa Plasma  w i t h  o b e s i t y  1977). Lane  however  cause  and  D i c k i e  i n d i c a t e d  h e r e d i t a r y  t h a t  o b e s i t y  improvement  i n d i c a t i n g  t h a t  impairment.  be  p o s s i b i l i t y  the  reduced  r o l e  hormones, 1975). r e g u l a t e d  (1954)  the  and  a  might  may i n  be  out  by  a  gonadal  understood.  (1966) our  nor  primary i n  and  food  which  hypothalamus  t h a t  the  of  the and  s t i l l ,  cause  of  t h a t ,  " i t  s h o u l d  not  exclude  do  the  the  o b e s i t y  l a t t e r  The  of  i n t a k e  common  p l a y s  a  gonadotrophic (Pandsepp,  f e r t i l i t y  however,  and  f u n c t i o n  w h i c h  r e l e a s e  and  not  t e s t e s ,  o b e s i t y " .  water  w i t h  d i d  the  mice  hypothalamus,  o b e s i t y  are  i n  (1966)  mice  of  the  for  cause  the  of  s t a t e d  data  development:  by  not  denominator  a c t i v i t y  l o c a t e d  mechanism the  t h a t  was  Hellmen  r e s t r i c t i o n  p r o d u c t i o n  se  Hellman  t e r m o r e g u l a t i o n The  per  and  f u n c t i o n  Food  hormonal  common  be  L i d e l l  e n d o c r i n e  o v e r e a t i n g  of  and  i m p a i r e d .  the  t e s t i c u l a r  cases  denominator c e n t r a l  of  p o i n t e d  the  some  was  L i d e l l  furthermore  i n  r e p o r t e d  o v e r f e e d i n g ,  weight  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  (Nir,  been  63  may  p o o r l y  be  - 64 -  2.1.2  I n a n i t i o n and M a l e R e p r o d u c t i v e P e r f o r m a n c e 1  The g e n e r a t i v e o r g a n s o f m a l e d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s are  fairly  resistant to c a l o r i c deficiency.  Restricted  f e e d i n g o f b o a r s and b u l l s up t o 4 0 p e r c e n t o f a d causes a d i s t i n c t r e t a r d a t i o n i n growth, but the and t o t a l  (Nalbandov, 1976).  S i m i l a r l y , K i n g (1972)  studied the energetics of  r e p r o d u c t i o n i n w i l d b i r d s and c o n c l u d e d t h a t a f r a c t i o n o f t h e males the testes.  caloric  fertility  semen v o l u m e p r o d u c e d by t h e s e a n i m a l s a r e n o t  significantly affected  of  libitum  negligible  energy budget used f o r s e a s o n a l growth  Testicular function i s highly resistant to  shortage.  Sperm p r o d u c t i o n a n d v i t a l i t y  are not  i m p a i r e d u n t i l t h e l o s s o f b o d y w e i g h t a p p r o a c h e s 30 p e r cent o f normal weight. Boone  (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t c o m p l e t e s t a r v a t i o n o f  a d u l t f o w l f o r 4 t o 6 days caused a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n semen v o l u m e . within  However, semen v o l u m e r e t u r n e d t o n o r m a l  8 t o 16 d a y s a f t e r r e t u r n i n g b i r d s t o f e e d and w a t e r . In  fact,  a moderate  e n e r g y and p r o t e i n r e s t r i c t i o n  of  growing male d o m e s t i c f o w l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e heavy-type b i r d s , h a s no a d v e r s e e f f e c t on s u b s e q u e n t p e r f o r m a n c e , e v e n t h o u g h s e x u a l m a t u r i t y may  reproductive be d e l a y e d .  T e s t e s w e i g h t , semen c o n c e n t r a t i o n and f e r t i l i t y  have been  r e p o r t e d t o i n c r e a s e more i n m o d e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t e d - b i r d s in  full-fed  controls  than  ( A r s c o t l and P a r k e r , 1963; J o n e s e t a l . ,  - 65  1967;  W i l s o n e t ' a l . , 1965,  -  1971;  V o i t l e . e t a l . , 1971,  1972).  H o w e v e r , t o o s e v e r e a n d p r o l o n g e d i n a n i t i o n may g o n a d a l f u n c t i o n e n t i r e l y , a n d may reproductive  performance.  t h a t prolonged energy a d u l t White  Leghorn  permanently  P a r k e r and A r s c o t l  impair (196 3)  male reported  r e s t r i c t i o n t o 40 p e r c e n t o f c o n t r o l  m a l e f o r 13 weeks d e c r e a s e d  volume and f e r t i l i z i n g  b r e e d e r males f e d a low p r o t e i n  e g g s was  that  and  broiler  (9.3%) d i e t f r o m 4 t o 18 weeks  showed a d e c r e a s e i n f e r t i l i t y  h a t c h a b i l i t y of f e r t i l e  subsequent  c a p a c i t y o f semen, and t e s t i c u l a r  body w e i g h t . W i l son e t a l . (1972) s u b s t a n t i a t e d  of age,  stop  but t h a t  not a f f e c t e d .  the  -  2.2  MATERIAL AND  2.2.1  Source of B i r d s  METHODS  A g r o u p o f 27 was  -  66  54-week o l d b r o i l e r - t y p e m a l e  p l a c e d i n i n d i v i d u a l c a g e s on t h e  3 0 t h o f May,  P r e v i o u s l y , a l l c h i c k e n s were s u b j e c t e d t o f e e d programs o f d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s , which are Each treatment  was  f e d t h e d i e t l i s t e d on T a b l e  f r o m day  the  2.2.2  then  2.2,  2.1.  except  A l l b i r d s were o l d t o 54  changed t o a l a y e r d i e t u n t i l  weeks.  t h e end  of  experiment.  C o l l e c t i o n o f Semen  A chicken holder developed was  restriction  t e s t e d w i t h 8 t o 10 b i r d 12 b i r d s .  d i e t was  1978.  l i s t e d on T a b l e  the c o n t r o l group which c o n t a i n e d  The  chickens  used f o r c o l l e c t i n g  i n c a g e s f o r one  semen.  week, t h e n  were t a k e n  b i r d s had  the t r a n s p a r e n t f l u i d  alternative  o f 57 t o 58 weeks o f age.  The  Samples  examined w i t h i n 2  w h o l e semen v o l u m e , i n c l u d i n g  from the  by m i c r o p i p e t t e s g r a d u a t e d  (1937)  F i v e semen c o l l e c t i o n s w e r e  i n i n d i v i d u a l t e s t t u b e s and  hours a f t e r c o l l e c t i o n .  Quinn  been c o n d i t i o n e d  t h e y w e r e t r a i n e d on  d a y s f o r 2 weeks t o g i v e semen. o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e age  The  by B u r r o w and  swollen lymphfold,  t o 25 m i c r o l i t e r .  c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e w h o l e semen s a m p l e was  was  measured  Spermatozoa estimated  by  Table  2.1  R e s t r i c t e d feeding programs during the growing period. Feeding Programs  Treatment No.  No Feed  Free Access to Feed  (Age-Dates)  Feeding Restricted to >j h r . d a i l y  1 (control)lst-2nd  Start of Feeding ad libitum  Length of Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (wks)  3rd  0  2  lst-3rd  4 th  5th-llth  12th  1  3  lst-3rd  4th  5th-18th  19th  2  4  lst-3rd  4th  5th-33rd  34th  4  5  lst-3rd  4th  5th-54th  55th  7  6  lst-3rd  4th  5th-68th  69th  9  7  lst-3rd  4 th  5th-82nd  83rd  11  8  lst-3rd  4th  5th-96th  97th  13  - 68 -  T a b l e 2.2  C o m p o s i t i o n o f d i e t 2.1.  Ingredients  Ground wheat  31.0  Ground c o r n  31.0  Ground o a t s  2 0.0  Soybean meal  12.8  Dehydrated c e r e a l grass  2.0  Iodized salt  0. 5  Limestone  1.2  Calciumphosphate  1.5  Micronutrients  **  Crude p r o t e i n Metabolizable  15.2% energy  **Micronutrients  2861  kcal/kg  p e r kg of d i e t  manganese s u l f a t e (5 H^O) zinc oxide choline chloride riboflavin  150  mg  62  mg  1320  mg  3 mg'  vitamin  13.2  vitamin A  4400 I.U.  vitamin D  3  amprol*  *  Amprol ( c o c c i d i o s t a t ) s u p p l i e d courtesy and Dohme C a n a d a L t d .  440  mg I.C.U.  12 5 mg  o f Marck, Sharp  - 69 -  o p t i c a l d e n s i t y t e c h n i q u e , w h i c h has been f u l l y d e s c r i b e d by M c C a r t n e y  a n d Brown  (1959).  O n l y t h o s e s a m p l e s w i t h more  t h a n 0.1 c . c . w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f concentration.  A standard curve  (Appendix  e s t a b l i s h e d , as d e s c r i b e d by McCartney was u s e d  2.2.3  i n this  spermatozoa  Figure^2.1)  and Brown  was  ( 1 9 5 9 ) , and  experiment.  Post-Mortem S t u d i e s  All  b i r d s were k i l l e d  60 weeks o f a g e .  by c e r v i c a l d i s l o c a t i o n a t  They w e r e w e i g h e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r  T e s t e s were e x c i s e d and  weighed.  death.  2.3  RESULTS AND  2.3.1  Treatment  DISCUSSION  Effect  B a s e d on t h e number o f b i r d s e x a m i n e d  i n this  e x p e r i m e n t , f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n o f one t o t h i r t e e n weeks during the growing p e r i o d  a p p e a r e d t o h a v e no e f f e c t  b o d y w e i g h t a t 60 weeks o f age c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e (Table 2.3).  Even though p r o l o n g e d f e e d  r e t a r d e d body w e i g h t g a i n u n t i l  the e a r l i e r  3 3 weeks o f a g e , as  s l o w e r g r o w t h by 60 weeks o f  The mean t e s t e s w e i g h t a n d per  d i f f e r e n t from the c o n t r o l group  of  age.  not  weight significantly  (Table 2.3), even  a s l i g h t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the  f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n and t e s t i c u l a r w e i g h t The a v e r a g e t e s t i c u l a r  w e i g h t and  reported  compensated  percent testes  body w e i g h t o f e a c h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s was  t h e r e was  control  restriction  by B a l l a m ( 1 9 7 8 ) , t h e s u r v i v i n g b i r d s had f u l l y for  on  though length  (Table 2.5). percent  testicular  w e i g h t p e r . b o d y w e i g h t o f a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l b i r d s w e r e 36.58 and  0.76  per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y .  w e i g h i n g 8 5.42 respectively) all  gm  a n d 58.96 gm  Two  c o n t r o l b i r d s had  ( 1 . 6 8 % a n d 1.18%  aggressively experiment.  testes  o f body a t  w h i c h w e r e t h e two b i g g e s t t e s t e s p a i r s among  t h e b i r d s , o f w h i c h t e s t e s w e i g h t s w e r e l i s t e d on  T a b l e 2.2.  gm  Appendix  These.two b i r d s appeared h e a l t h y , b u t t h e y r e f u s e d t o g i v e any semen t h r o u g h o u t t h e  Table 2.3  Treatment No.  Treatments e f f e c t on mortality, body weight at 60 weeks o f age, testes weight and testes weight per body weight.  Length of Feed Restriction (wks)  No. of Birds at 54 wks.  No. of Birds Died Between 55-60 wks.  Body Weight at 60-wks. (kg) 0  Testes Weight (gm)  Testes Wt. wt—''  % Bodv u  y  1 (control)  0  6  0  4.93+0.15  48. 12+8.85  0.97+0. 16  2  1  3  1  4.85+0.02  55. 63+0.86  1.14+0. 04  3  2  3  0  5. 14+0.36  40. 03+8.99  0.76+0. 14  4  4  6  0  4.59+0.20  24. 73+2.54  0.55+0. 07  5  7  2  1  4.55  32. 86  0.72  6  9  4  2  4.57+0.05  25. 09+13.10  0.56+0. 30  7  11  1  0  4.43  14. 43  0.33  8  13  2  1  5. 60  38. 89  0.52  4.82+0.10  36.58+3.77  0.76+0.07  Average s  -  Semen of  spermatozoa  by  the  volume, per  semen  was  0.83  +  semen  was  0.610  White  Rock  +  0.34  m i l l i o n s  spermatozoa  h i g h e r  i n  experiment. f l u i d  and  (produced  cocks S i e g e l  was  r e c e i v i n g et  from  14  i n c r e a s e d  b i r d s to  d i e d  51%  i n  per  et 14  a l .  (1969)  hours  of  volume, semen  r e p o r t ,  be  and  was  number  of  from  t h i s  i n  per  1.00  i n  because  the  a l l  r e p o r t e d  day  more  1.57 The  i n  the  semen  volume  p r e s e n t t r a n s p a r e n t  c o l l e c t e d  i n  spermatozoa  per  experiment  and  experiment  of  t h a t  and  lower  than  The  c . c .  r e s p e c t i v e l y .  lymphfold)  l i g h t  2 . 5 ) .  l i g h t  appeared  might  cocks  of  the  r e s t r i c t i o n  c o n t r o l  51%  by  and  66%  r e s p e c t i v e l y  groups  38  b i r d s  was  s u b s e q u e n t l y ;  treatment  s u r v i v i n g  spermatozoa  of  Table  our  of  a l .  r e s t r i c t e d  the  among  t o t a l  i n  a f f e c t e d  e j a c u l a t i o n  per  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  the  to  SE  of  s w o l l e n  hours  found  number  2.4,  to  c . c .  not  and  (Table  semen  t h e i r  s i m i l a r  M o r t a l i t y  b i r d s  c . c .  the  +  6  d i s c r e p a n c y by  were  S i e g e l  per  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  m i l l i o n s  g i v e n  0.32  However,  e j a c u l a t i o n  and  spermatozoa The  experiment.  c . c .  0.140.  produced  and  i n  0.15  c o c k e r e l s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  spermatozoa  treatments  volume  b i r d s  -  e j a c u l a t i o n  e x p e r i m e n t a l  average  72  but  (Table  may  a l s o  extend  cocks  even  up  to  weeks  of  to one  The  a f f e c t year  of  38%  age.  by  meanwhile, 2 . 3 ) .  was  54  T o t a l weeks.  f i v e e f f e c t  the  and  b i r d s of  the  m o r t a l i t y No  c o n t r o l  d i e d  from  e a r l y  v i a b i l i t y  age.  i n  of  feed those  Table  L e n g t h o f f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n o f b r o i l e r b r e e d e r males d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g p e r i o d on s u b s e q u e n t v o l u m e o f semen p e r e j a c u l a t i o n , spermatozoa c o n c e n t r a t i o n and m i l l i o n s o f spermatozoa p e r e j a c u l a t i o n .  2.4  Millions of Spermatozoa Per E j a c u l a t i o n  Volume ( c . c . ) of Spermatozoa Per E j a c u l a t i o n  Spermatozoa Concentration Millions/c.mm.  0  1. 14+0. 52 ( 4 ) *  1.067+0. 480  710+228  2  1  0. 82+0. 10 (2)  0.353+0. 213  268+139  3  2  1. 34+0. 57 (3)  0.430+0. 150  413+179  4  4  0. 55+0. 18 (6)  0.413+0. 130  160+050  5  7  0. 31  (1)  0.097  030  6  9  0. 60+0. 03  (2)  0.593+0. 510  341+288  7  11  8  13  (1)  1. 658  1774  (19)  0.610+0. 140  424+107  T r e a t m e n t No.  1  L e n g t h o f Feed Restriction (wks.)  (control]  Average: number o f b i r d s .  (0) 1. 07 .0. 83+0. 15  C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of body weight at 60 weeks, testes weight, percentage of testes weight over body, semen volume, semen concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculation.  Table 2.5  Kg of Body+ Weight at 60 weeks  Weeks of feed restriction  0.03 n. s.  Kg. of body weight+ at 60 weeks  Gm.of Testes Weight  +  Millions of sperm per Ejaculation  -0.24 n. s.  -0.18 n. s.  0.08 n.s.  0.22 n.s.  0.49 *  0.22 n.s.  0.62  0.12 n.s.  0.60 *  0.96 *  0.50 *  -0.12 n.s.  0.30 n.s.  0.35 n.s.  -0.17 n.s.  0.14 n.s.  -0.21 n.s.  0.50 *  Testes Weight Body Weight  +  c.c. of semen volume per ejaculation  0.55  M i l l i o n s of sperm per c.c. of semen n. s. +  Millions of sperm per c.c. of Semen  -0.22 n. s.  Gm. of testes weight *  Testes Wt. % Body Wt.  c.c. of Semen Volume Per Ejaculation  not s i g n i f i c a n t * not including testes weight  s i g n i f i c a n t (P  < .05)  - 75 -  2.3.2  Body W e i g h t  T e s t e s Weight  and Semen C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  R e g a r d l e s s of t h e t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s , body w e i g h t ( e x c l u d i n g t e s t e s w e i g h t ) was testes weight  (P < 0 . 0 5 ) , semen v o l u m e  of spermatozoa The  positively correlated with  per e j a c u l a t i o n  (P < 0.05)  (P < 0.05)  and  the  number  (Table 2.5).  o b s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t e d by B u r g e r e t a l . (19 62)  P a y n e e t a l . (19 60)  i s thereby substantiated.  and  I t i s suggested  t h a t a b i g g e r b i r d has a l a r g e r g e n i t a l o r g a n w h i c h i s c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g a l a r g e r v o l u m e o f semen and a g r e a t e r number o f s p e r m a t o z o a , when t h e y a r e u n d e r v o l u n t a r y f e e d  intake.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , b i r d s i n w h i c h o b e s i t y b y f o r c e - f e e d i n g may (1975)  show t e s t i c u l a r r e g r e s s i o n .  N i r et_ a l .  f o r c e - f e d W h i t e L e g h o r n c o c k e r e l s t w i c e as much f e e d as  t h e ad l i b i t u m  i n t a k e f o r 5 weeks.  T e s t i s w e i g h t was  l e s s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e b o d y w e i g h t g a i n was of the c o n t r o l group.  more t h a n  An e v e n more p r o n o u n c e d  t e s t i c u l a r r e g r e s s i o n was quail  i s induced  17.5% ten-fold  effect  found i n f o r c e - f e d male  Japanese  ( N i r , 1971). Brobick  (1946)  showed t h a t t h e o b e s i t y o b s e r v e d i n  r a t s w i t h h y p o t h a l a m i c l e s i o n was  consequent  to overfeeding.  I n t h e c a s e o f f o w l , r e n d e r e d o b e s e by f o r c e d - f e e d i n g , h y p o t h a l a m a l - h y p o p h y s e a l complex normal  on  m i g h t be damaged and  s e c r e t i o n o f g o n a d o t r o p h i c hormones d i s t u r b e d .  testes therefore regressed.  the the The  Furthermore, forced-feeding  a l s o b e e n f o u n d t o be a b l e t o a l t e r phenomena o f t h e m a l e d o m e s t i c f o w l .  several  has  physiological  N i r and S h a p i n a  (1974)  - 76  -  showed t h a t f o r c e - f e e d i n g o f y o u n g c h i c k s f o r 15 increased kidney  arginase  dehydrogenase a c t i v i t y , o f d i g e s t i v e .enzymes.  activity  and  and  liver  exanthime  also increased overall  N i r e t 'al.  (.1975) r e p o r t e d  i n c r e a s e o f t h e r e c t a l t e m p e r a t u r e and and  a d e c r e a s e o f t e s t o s t e r o n e and  l u t e i n i s i n g hormone c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  secretion that  decrease of the  comb t e m p e r a t u r e , a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e b l o o d  v o l u m e and  days  an  packed  skin cell  increase  of  i n the b l o o d plasma were  o b s e r v e d i n a d u l t m a l e f o w l s a f t e r 5 weeks o f r e c e i v i n g f e e d two  f o l d more t h a n t h e a d l i b i t u m i n t a k e .  Recently,  Nir  (1977) s t u d i e d m a l e J a p a n e s e q u a i l . a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t o b e s i t y induced  by  f o r c e d - f e e d i n g was  c o l o n i c temperature temperature  The present  and  (about  by  increases  ( T a b l e 1.5)  a decrease of the  mid-scapular  .6°C).  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d (P < i n c o n t r a s t to the e f f e c t  i n v e s t i g a t o r s who  d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g p e r i o d was  birds survived, their body w e i g h t s as  the  .05)  d i e t a r y feed  evidenced  by  i n the normal s i t u a t i o n  The  restriction  increased  l o n g as t h e p r e v i o u s l y t e s t i c u l a r s i z e was  with  reported  studied force-fed animals.  a d v e r s e e f f e c t c a u s e d by p r o l o n g e d  m o r t a l i t y . However, as  in  peripheral leg  t e s t i s weight of the s u r v i v i n g cocks i n  e x p e r i m e n t was  body w e i g h t by o t h e r  ( a b o u t .3°C), and  ( a b o u t 3°C)  s k i n temperature  a c c o m p a n i e d by  restricted  r e l a t i v e to (Burger  their  et a l . , 1962).  2 . 4  8  SUMMARY  to  10  from  0  Seven  groups  b i r d s  each  weeks  d u r i n g  the  water  and  feed  1,  2,  of  w e i g h t ,  and  ad  57  No  to  feed  58  volume,  spermatozoa  had  f r e e  The  13  groups the  e f f e c t on  found  access  averages  of  on  to of  body  feed semen  e j a c u l a t i o n  of  b i r d s  0.610  an  hour  weeks  feed  the  of  b i r d s  w i t h  f e e d i n g ages  were  g i v e n  r e s t r i c t i o n .  body  w e i g h t ,  s t u d i e d  The t e s t e s  when  d i f f e r e n t  w e i g h t , and  compared  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , a l l  of  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  was  c . c . / e j a c ,  h a l f  males  the  o l d .  spermatozoa  0.83  A l l  or  r e s t r i c t i o n  r e s t r i c t i o n  e j a c u l a t i o n  11  a f t e r  weeks  s i g n i f i c a n t  feed  which  7 , 9 ,  to  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  d i e t a r y  per  4,  l i b i t u m  semen  b r o i l e r - t y p e  r e s t r i c t e d  p e r i o d .  d i e t a r y  were  d a y - o l d  were  growing  e f f e c t s  b i r d s  to  of  t e s t e s  number  w i t h  p e r i o d  the  of  w e i g h t ,  of  spermatozoa  c o n t r o l  group  throughout  the  volume  e j a c u l a t i o n ,  per  experiment.  number  of  spermatozoa  examined  i n  t h i s  m i l l i o n s / c . m m .  and  semen  per  s t u d i e s 424  were  m i l l i o n s / e j a c .  r e s p e c t i v e l y . Testes weight (P  <  (not .05)  B i r d s  and  to  c o n t r o l  b i r d s .  of  weight)  spermatozoa  d i e t a r y  the  p e r i o d  p o s i t i v e l y  t e s t e s  number  d u r i n g  subsequent  was  i n c l u d i n g  s u b j e c t e d  m o r t a l i t y  the  weight  feed  r e s t r i c t i o n  when  feed  was  c o r r e l a t e d (P per  <  . 0 5 ) ,  g i v e n  ad  the  semen  e j a c u l a t i o n  r e s t r i c t i o n p e r i o d  w i t h  and  had  volume  (P  <  h i g h e r  d u r i n g  l i b i t u m  body  the  than  had  . 0 5 ) .  LITERATURE  Andrews,  L.D. turkey  Andrews,  1977. hens.  CITED  Performance P o u l . S c i .  of  cage  v e r s u s  f l o o r  5 6 : 1627-1629.  L.D. and H.D. Morrow. 1978. R e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g regimes a n d subsequent r e p r o d u c t i v e performance i n cage and f l o o r housed turkey hens. P o u l . S c i .  57: 1 7 - 2 1 . A r s c o t l ,  G.H. and J . E . P a r k e r . 1963. D i e t a r y f e r t i l i t y o f male c h i c k e n s . J . N u t r i .  p r o t e i n  A s h c r o f t ,  J . A . 1961. A study of t h e e f f e c t s o f the n u t r i e n t i n t a k e of growing p u l l e t s . T h e s i s , Reading U n i v e r s i t y .  B a i l e y ,  B . B . ,  J . H .  Quisenberry  and J .  comparison o f performance h o u s i n g . P o u l . S c i . 38: B a l l a m ,  G . C . d b c T  B u l l o c k ,  Berg,  The  1978.  e f f e c t s  u r i n g t h e growth ody w e i g h t , t i s s u e l l u l a r i t y o f b r o h e s i s , The U n i v e r  o f  T a y l o r . l a y e r s  A  cage  a n d  f l o o r  565-568. o f  d i e t a r y  r e s t r i c t i o n  p e r i o d on r a t e o f growth, mature e p r o p o r t i o n s , a n d a d i p o s e t i s s u e i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s . M. A g . S c . s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  D . W . , T . R . M o r r i s a n d S. Fox. 1963. P r o t e i n and energy r e s t r i c t i o n f o r replacement p u l l e t s . B r . P o u l . S c i . 4: 227-237.  L.R.  1959.  P r o t e i n  energy  and method  of  f a c t o r s on t h e n u t r i t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g p u l l e t s . P o u l . S c i . 38: 158-165. Berg,  r e s t r i c t i n g M. A g . S c .  1959.  i n  and  80: 311-314.  f e e d i n g White  as  Leghorn  L.R. and G.E. B e a r s e . 1958. P r o t e i n and energy s t u d i e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g White Leghorn p u l l e t s . P o u l . S c i . 37:  1340-1346. B e r g ,  L.R. and G.E. B e a r s e . r e s t r i c t e d l i g h t f o r  1961. R e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g d e v e l o p i n g p u l l e t s . P o u l .  w i t h S c i .  40: 180-185. Boone,  M.A.  and B . L .  e f f e c t B r o b i c k ,  on  Hughes.  semen  1969.  q u a l i t y .  S t a r v a t i o n  P o u l .  S c i .  and i t s  48: 1723-1729.  J . R . 1946. Mechanism of t h e development of o b e s i t y on a n i m a l s w i t h h y p o t h a l i m i c l i s i o n s . P h y s i o l . R e v .  26:  541-559.  B r u c k n e r , J.H. and F.W. Hill. 1959. Observation on r e s t r i c t e d feeding of growing p u l l e t s . Proc. 1959 C o r n e l l N u t . C o n f . 13: 104-110. B u r g e r , R.E., F.W. L o r e n q and C.E. G a t e s . 1962. Relations h i p s o f o r g a n w e i g h t t o body w e i g h t . Poul. S c i . 41: 1 7 6 2 - 1 7 7 2 . B u r r o w s , W.H. and J . P . Q u i n n . 1937. The c o l l e c t i o n o f s p e r m a t o z o a f r o m t h e d o m e s t i c f o w l and t u r k e y . P o u l . S c i . 16: 19-24. C a r n a g h a n , R.B.A. and B.S. H a n s o n . 1958. Rupture of the gastrocnemius tendon i n f o w l s . Br. Vet. J . 114: 360-370. C h a n e y , L.W. and H.L. F u l l e r . 1975. The r e l a t i o n o f o b e s i t y t o egg p r o d u c t i o n i n b r o i l e r b r e e d e r s . Poul. S c i . 54: 200-208. C h r i s t m a s , R.B., A.W. O ' S t e e n , C.R. D o u g l a s , L.W. K a l c h and R.H. Harms. 1972. The s t u d y o f s t r a i n i n t e r a c t i o n of cage v e r s u s f l o o r l a y e r s f o r t h r e e e v a l u a t i o n periods at the F l o r i d a P o u l t r y E v a l u a t i o n Center. P o u l . S c i . 51: 1794-1795. Chu,  S.W.  and B.E. M a r c h . 1976. F e r t i l i t y and h a t c h a b i l i t y , a s u r v e y o f b r o i l e r - b r e e d e r f l o c k s i n t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . Department of P o u l t r y S c i e n c e , the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Combs, G.F., G. B r u c e and C.S. S h a f f n e r . 1961. Studies with l a y i n g h e n s . 2. E n e r g y r e s t r i c t i o n . P o u l . S c i . 40: 220-224. C r e w s , E.L., K.W. F u g e , L.B. O s c a i , J.O. H o l l o s z y and R.E. Shank. 19 69. W e i g h t , f o o d i n t a k e , and b o d y c o m p o s i t i o n : e f f e c t s o f e x e r c i s e and o f p r o t e i n deficiency. Amer. J . P h y s i o l . 216: 3 5 9 - 3 6 3 . D a v i d s o n , J . , M a t h i e s o n , J . , W i l l i a m s , R.B. and A.W. Bayne. 1964. E f f e c t o f a n i m a l f a t and l o w r a t i o s o f p r o t e i n t o m e t a b o l i s a b l e e n e r g y on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f d i e t a r y e n e r g y by medium- and f a t - g r o w i n g s t r a i n s o f p o u l t r y . F. S c i . F e d . A g r i c . 15: 316-325. D e a t o n , J.W., L.F. K u b e n a , T.C. Chen and F.N. R e e c e . 1974. Factors i n f l u e n c i n g the q u a n t i t y of abdominal f a t in broilers. P o u l . S c i . 53: 574-576.  - 80 -  DePortal,  C. 19 68. P e r f o r m a n c e o f l i g h t and heavy l a y e r s manged on t h e f l o o r and i n i n d i v i d u a l c a g e s . Animal B r e e d i n g A b s t r a c t . 3 6 ( 1 ) No. 822. p.131.  Eden, A.  1975. Requirements f o r Energy. I n : The N u t r i e n t R e q u i r e m e n t s o f Farm L i v e s t o c k No. 1 P o u l t r y . P u b l i s h e d by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l .  Elanco.  1979.  Broiler  Bulletin,  V o l . 3, No.  7.  E m i o l a , L. and O'Shes, J.P. 1978. E f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and n u t r i t i o n on bone d e n s i t y measured by radiographic techniques. N u t r i . Rep. I n t e r . 17: 669. Emmery, M.K. 19 67. The o u t l o o k f o r p o u l t r y meat i n Canada t o 198 0. E c o n o m i c s b r a n c h Canada Department o f Agriculture. Francis,  D.W. and R.H. R o b e r t s o n . 1963. Body c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f W h i t e L e g h o r n p u l l e t s h o u s e d i n c a g e s and f l o o r pens. P o u l . S c i . 42: 5 8 - 6 1 .  Gous, R.M.  1977. U p t a k e o f c e r t a i n amino a c i d s i n v i t r o i n c h i c k e n s p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o t h r e e methods of d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . B r . P o u l . S c i . 18: 5 1 1 - 5 1 5 .  Gous, R.M. 1978. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h r e e methods o f f o o d r e s t r i c t i o n o f l a y i n g - t y p e p u l l e t s on g r o w t h and l a y i n g performance. Br. P o u l . S c i . 19: 441-448. Harms, R.H., Damron, B.L. and H.R. W i l s o n . 1968. P e r f o r m a n c e o f b r o i l e r b r e e d e r p u l l e t s as i n f l u e n c e d by c o m p o s i t i o n o f grower and l a y e r d i e t s . B r . P o u l .  Sci.  9: 3 5 9 - 3 6 6 .  Harshaw, H.M. 1936. E f f e c t o f d i e t , r a n g e , and f a t t e n i n g on t h e p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f c o c k e r e l s , J . A g r i . Res. 53: 3 5 7 - 3 6 8 . Holloszy,  J.O. 1967. Biochemical adaptations i n muscle. E f f e c t s o f e x e r c i s e on m i t o c h o n d r i a l oxygen u p t a k e and r e s p i r a t o r y enzyme a c t i v i t y i n s k e l e t a l m u s c l e . J . B i o l . Chem. 242: 2 2 7 8 - 2 2 8 2 .  Howes, J.R. and G.J. C o t t i e r . 1964. methods o f d e l a y i n g m a t u r i t y P o u l . S c i . 4 3 : 1330. Ingle,  A comparison of v a r i o u s i n heavy-type breeders.  D.J. 1950. I n " D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v i r i l i z i n g syndrome i n man". R e c e n t . P r o g r . Hormone Res. 5: 43 6.  - 81 -  I s a a c k s ,  R.E., R e i d , B.L., D a v i e s , R.F., Quisenberry, J . H . and J.R. Couch. 1960. R e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g of b r o i l e r type replacement s t o c k . P o u l . S c i . 39:  339-346. J e f f r e y ,  F.P. and R.E. B r i t t . 1941. E f f e c t of confinement i n l a y i n g cages on the p h y s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n of hens. P o u l . S c i . 20: 3 0 2 - 3 0 3 .  Johnson,  M.L., B.S. Burke and J . Mayer. 1956. importance of i n a c t i v i t y and o v e r e a t i n g b a l a n c e of obese h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s . Am. N u t r i . 37: 44.  Jones,  E.M.,  H.J.  Montoye,  P.B.  Johnson,  S . M . J . M .  W.D. V a n H u s s a n d D. C o d e r q u i s t . e x e r c i s e and food r e s t r i c t i o n on l i v e r l i p i d s . Amer. J . P h y s i o l . Jones,  J . E . , P.W. male growi  Kennedy,  W.P.  R e l a t i v e i n the energy J . C l i n .  M a r t i n ,  1964. E f f e c t s of serum c h o l e s t e r o l and  2 0 7 : 460-466.  H.R. W i l s o n , H.R. Harms, C.F. Simpson and Waldrop. 1967. Reproductive performance i n c h i c k e n s fed p r o t e i n d e f i c i e n t d i e t s d u r i n g the ng p e r i o d s . P o u l . S c i . 46: 1569. D i e t  1926.  and  s t e r i l i t y .  P h y s i o l .  Rev.  6:  485-503. K i n g ,  J.R. 1972. E n e r g e t i c s of r e p r o d u c t i o n i n b i r d s . In: B r e e d i n g B i o l o g y of B i r d s . Ed.. Donald S.F. N a t i o n a l Academy of S c i e n c e s pp. 78-107.  K o s i n ,  I.L.  The  1962.  R e p r o d u c t i o n and F e b i g e r . Lane,  P.W. J .  L e c l e r c q ,  and M.M. D i c k i e . Hened. 45: 56-58.  of  1954.  p o u l t r y . Ed.  F e r t i l e  B . , J . Simon, J . C . Blum and C. I n f l u e n c e of r e s t r i c t i o n of feed  egg  19: Lee,  r e p r o d u c t i o n  i n Farm A n i m a l s . pp. 277-293.  P . J . W . ,  p r o d u c t i o n  i n  2  s t r a i n s  of  In:  Hafez,  E.S.,  Lea  obese  male  mouse.  C a l e t . 1970. from h a t c h i n g  p u l l e t s .  Ann.  on Zootech.  333-346. A.L.  G u l l i v e r  and  T.R.  M o r r i s .  1971.  A  q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the r e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g of growing p u l l e t s . Br. P o u l .  Sci.  Leo,  S.  1 2 : 413-438.  Jensen and C.H. Chang. 1975. E f f e c t of of body weight on l i v e r f a t a c c u m u l a t i o n of l a y i n g hens. P o u l . S c i . 54: 1339.  cage d e n s i t y i n two s t r a i n  -  .8 2  -  Lepkonsky, S . , C. B i t r o n , A. Lemon and R.M. Ostwald. 1960. M e t a b o l i c and anatomic a d a p t a t i o n i n c h i c k e n s . "Trained" to eat t h e i r d a i l y food i n two hours. P o u l . S c i . 39: 385-389. L i d e l l ,  C. and B. Hellman. 1966. The e a t i n g on the endocrine t e s t s 15: 444-448.  L i l l i e ,  R.J. and C A . Denton. 1966. E f f e c t of n u t r i e n t r e s t r i c t i o n on White Leghorns i n the growers and subsequent l a y e r p e r i o d s . P o u l . S c i . 45: 810-818.  Lowry,  D.C., I.M. Lerner, L.W. T a y l o r . g e n e t i c m e r i t under f l o o r and S c i . 35: 1034-1043.  M a c l n t y r e , of of Mayer,  N.M.  and  J . H .  A.V.  Quisenberry.  1976.  Reproductive e d i t i o n . I.,  S h a p i r a ,  N.  F a c t o r s  a f f e c t i n g  of  of  r e p r o d u c t i o n .  Mammals  and  s t r a i n s  In:  B i r d s .  3rd  264-275. 1974.  enzymes  of  t e s t  c h i c k s .  of  1959.  p r o d u c t i o n i n s e l e c t e d S c i . 38: 757-770.  E f f i c i e n c y P h y s i o l o g y  pp.  J . H . C h r i s t e n s e n , . 1954. E x e r c i s e , normal r a t s and Am. J . P h y s i o l . 177:  Brown. 1959. Spermatozoa c o n c e n v a r i e t i e s of t u r k e y s . P o u l . S c i . 38:  feed e f f i c i e n c y f o r egg of caged l a y e r s . P o u l . Nalbandov,  o v e r M e t a b o l i s m .  1956. I n t r a - f l o c k cage management. P o u l .  J . , N.B. M a r s h a l l , J . J . V i t a l l , M.B. Mashayekhi, and F.J. S t a r e food i n t a k e and body w e i g h t i n g e n e t i c a l l y obese a d u l t m i c e . 544-548.  M i l l e r ,  of  T.M. and E.E. G a r d i n e r . 1964. E f f e c t of d u r a t i o n feed r e s t r i c t i o n on the l a y i n g house performance confinement r e a r e d p u l l e t s . P o u l . S c i . 43: 467-473.  McCartney, M.G. and K . I . t r a t i o n i n three 390-394.  N i r ,  i n f l u e n c e f u n c t i o n .  the  l i v e r , B r .  The  e f f e c t s  k i d n e y , J .  N u t r .  of  f o r c e - f e e d i n g  pancreas 32:  and  or  d i g e s t i v e  241-247.  N i r ,  I.,  G.M.H. Wai induced by body temper f o w l . P o u l  tes and F.J. Cunningham. 1975. Obesity f o r c e - f e e d i n g and accompanying charges i n ature and f e r t i l i t y i n the male domestic . S c i . 16: 505-515.  N i r ,  I.  1977. E f f e c t s of o b e s i t y induced by over f e e d i n g on body temperature, the t e s t i s and plasma t e s t o s t e r o n e of the male Japanese q u a i l . Br. P o u l . S c i . 18: 247-255,  - 83 -  O l u y e m i , J.A. a n d Y.O. R o b e r t s . 197 5. The c a g e v e r s u s t h e deep l i t t e r s y s t e m f o r t h e management o f l a y e r s i n humid t r o p i c o . P o u l . S c i . 54: 1982-1989. O s c a i , L.B., P.A. M o l e , B. B r e i a n d J.O. H e l l o s z y . 1971. C a r d i a c g r o w t h and r e s p i r a t o r y enzyme l e v e l s i n m a l e r a t s s u b j e c t e d t o a r u n n i n g p r o g r a m . Amer. J . P h y s i o l , 220: 1 2 3 8 - 1 2 4 1 . O s c a i , L.B., C.N. S p i r a k i s , C A . W a l f f , and R . J . B e c k . E f f e c t s o f e x e r c i s e and o f f o o d r e s t r i c t i o n on adipose t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y . J . L i p i d Res. 13: 588-592.  1972.  P a n k s e p p , J . 1975. C e n t r a l m e t a b o l i c and h u m o r a l f a c t o r s involved i n the neural r e g u l a t i o n of feeding. In: C e n t r a l N e u r a l C o n t r o l o f E a t i n g and O b e s i t y . Ed. J.M. Wayner and Y. Osmura. pp. 107-120. P a r k e r , J . E . , G.H. A r s c o t t . 1963. E n e r g y i n t a k e and i n male c h i c k e n s . J . N u t r i t . 82: 183-187.  fertility  P a y n e , L., A. K a h r s a n d C. P o l l e y . 1960. A s t u d y o f semen production i n turkey. P o u l . S c i . 39: 29-35. P r o u d f o o t , F.G. and R.S. Gowe. 1967. The e f f e c t o f p h o t o p e r i o d i s m and r e a r i n g p e r i o d f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n on the performance of f i v e leghorn s t r a i n s . Poul. S c i . 46: 1056-1072. Querner and T u l l e r . 1966. R e p l a c e m e n t o f c e r e a l s by f a t a n d b r a n a n d i n c r e a s e d c o n t e n t o f Ca i n c o m p l e t e m i x t u r e s f o r l a y i n g h e n s . A r c h . G e f l i i g e l k . 29: 451-466. R e e c e , F.N., J.W. D e a t o n , J.D. May and K.N. May. versus f l o o r r e a r i n g of b r o i l e r chickens. 50: 1786-1790.  1971. Cage Poul. S c i .  R i n g r o s e , R.C. 1958. R e s t r i c t e d feeding of growing p u l l e t s . B u l l . New Hamps. A g r i c . E x p . S t n . 4 56. S c h n e i d e r , A . J . , B.B. B o h r e n a n d V.L. A n d e r s o n . 1955. The e f f e c t o f r e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g on s e v e r a l g e n e t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e f o w l . P o u l . S c i . 34: 691-702. S c h u m a i e r , G. a n d J . M c G i n n i s . 1969. E f f e c t of a l i m i t e d t i m e f e e d i n g s y s t e m on r e p r o d u c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f h e a v y b r e e d p u l l e t s . P o u l . S c i . 48: 949-953.  - 84 -  Shupe, W.D. a n d J . H . Q u i s e n b e r r y . 1961. E f f e c t o f c e r t a i n r e a r i n g and l a y i n g house e n v i r o n m e n t s on p e r f o r m a n c e o f i n c r o s s egg p r o d u c t i o n t y p e p u l l e t s . Poul. S c i . 40: 1 1 6 5 - 1 1 7 6 . S i e g e l , H.S., P.B. S i e g e l a n d W.L. B e a n e . 1 9 6 9 . Semen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f e r t i l i t y o f meat-type c h i c k e n s given increasing d a i l y photoperiods. P o u l . S c i . 48: 1009. Singaen,  E.P., L.D. M a t t e r s o n , J . T l u s t o h o w i c z , a n d L.M. P o t t e r . 1959. The e f f e c t o f c o n t r o l l e d f e e d i n g , e n e r g y i n t a k e , and t y p e o f d i e t o n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f h e a v y - t y p e l a y i n g hens. S t o r r s A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n B u l l e t i n 346.  Singsen,  E.P., S.G. P a t r i c k and L.D. M a t t e r s o n . 1964. The e f f e c t o f a l y s i n e d e f i c i e n c y o n b o d y w e i g h t a n d age a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y o f m e a t - t y p e p u l l e t s . P o u l . S c i . 4 3 : 786-787.  Singsen,  E.P., J . N a g e l , S.G. P a t r i c k a n d L.D. M a t t e r s o n . 1965. The e f f e c t o f l y s i n e d e f i c i e n c y o n g r o w t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s age a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y a n d r e p r o d u c t i v e performance o f meat-type p u l l e t s . P o u l . S c i . 44: 1467-1473.  S t r a i n , J . H . , R.S. Gowe, R.D. C r a w f o r d , A.T. H i l l , S.B. S l e n and W.F. M o u n t a i n . 1965. R e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g o f growing p u l l e t s . I . The e f f e c t o n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e t r a i t s o f egg p r o d u c t i o n s t o c k . P o u l . S c i . 46: 1158-1164 Summers, J.D., W.F. P e p p e r , S . J . S l i n g e r a n d J.D. M c C o n a c h i e . 1967. F e e d i n g m e a t - t y p e p u l l e t s and b r e e d e r s . P o u l . S c i . 46: 1158-64. Thomason, D.M., A.T. L e i g h t o n a n d J . P . Mason. 1972. A s t u d y o f c e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s on t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e performance o f l a r g e white turkeys. P o u l . S c i . 51: 1438-1449. Thomason, D.M., A.T. L e i g h t o n a n d J . P . Mason. 1976. A s t u d y of c e r t a i n environmental f a c t o r s and m i n e r a l c h e l a t i o n on t h e r e p r o d u t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f y o u n g a n d y e a r l i n g t u r k e y hens. P o u l . S c i . 55: 1 3 4 3 - 1 3 5 5 . Voitle,  R.A., J . H . The e f f e c t productive Poul. S c i .  W a l t e r , H.R. W i l s o n a n d R.H. Harms. 1 9 7 1 . o f l o w p r o t e i n g r o w e r d i e t on t h e r e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t u r k e y b r e e d e r toms. 50: 1 6 4 1 .  -  V o i t l e ,  R . A . ,  J . H .  85  W a l t e r ,  -  H.R.  W i l s o n  and  R.H.  Harms.  1972. The e f f e c t o f low p r o t e i n grower d i e t on t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e performance of turkey breeder toms. P o u l . S c i . 51: 1548-1552. Wabeck,  C . J . a n d L . H . L i t t l e f i e l d . 197 2. Bone s t r e n g t h of b r o i l e r s r e a r e d i n f l o o r pens and i n cages having d i f f e r e n t bottoms. P o u l . S c i . 51: 897-899.  Waldroup, P.W. and R.H. Harms. 1962. E f f e c t of grower d i e t s on t h e performance of egg p r o d u c t i o n type p u l l e t s . B u l l . F l a . A g r i c . Exp. S t n . 646. Waldroup,  W i l s o n ,  P . W . ,  B.L.  Damron  and  R.H.  Harms.  1966.  The  e f f e c t of low p r o t e i n h i g h f i b r e performance of b r o i l e r p u l l e t s . 393-402.  grower d i e t s on P o u l . S c i . 4 5 :  H.R.,  D . J .  R.H. and 85:  P.W.  Waldroup,  J . E .  Jones,  Duerre  t h e  and  Harms. 196 5. P r o t e i n l e v e l i n growing d i e t s r e p r o d u c t i v e performance of c o c k e r e l s . J . N u t r i t . 29-37.  W i l s o n ,  H.R., L.O. Rowland and R.H. low p r o t e i n grower d i e t s t o of b r o i l e r b r e e d i n g m a l e s . 157-163 .  W i l s o n ,  H.R., R.A. V o i t l e and R.H. Harms. 1972. R e p r o d u c t i o n c a p a c i t y o f b r o i l e r male f o l l o w i n g p r o t e i n r e s t r i c t i o n at v a r i o u s ages. N u t r i t . Rep. I n t e r . 5 : 9 .  Y a t e s ,  J . D .  and  energy type  P . J . l e v e l  p u l l e t s .  S c h a i b l e . of  t h e  Harms. 1971. Use of d e l a y s e x u a l m a t u r i t y B r . P o u l . S c i . 12:  1963.  r a t i o n  F e e d s t u f f s ,  f o r  S k i p - f e e d i n g d e v e l o p i n g  Mismeap.  3 5 :  and Leghorn-  18-19.  - 85a -  - 86 Appendix F i g u r e 2.1.  Regression l i n e f o r spermatozoa counts on the b a s i s of o p t i c a l d e n s i t y r e a d i n g (660 m i l l i m i c r o n s ) .  Y  80  r  0.1  0.2 O p t i c a l Density  0.3  Aooendix Table 2 2.  B i r d No.  8029 8016 8020 8021 8034 8018 8005 8008 8096 8098 7949 8067 8184 8074 8051 8167 8054 8140 8038 8144 8177 8152  Body weight at 60 weeks of age, testes weight, percentage of testes weight per body weight, semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculation of i n d i v i d u a l b r o i l e r male studied i n t h i s experiment.  Weeks of Feed Restriction  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 9 9 11 13  Kg. of Body Weight at 60 wks.  4.59 5.01 5.08 4.94 4.45 5.48 4.97 4.82 4.46 5.67 5.29 3.69 4.63 4.53 4.87 4.64 5.18 4.55 4.62 4.52 4.43 5.60  Gm. of Testes Weight  Testes Weight * Body Weight  27.11 58.96 85.42 39.32 30.22 47.70 54.77 56.49 22.36 46.00 51.72 27.06 13.50 26.63 26.65 31.80 22.73 32.86 25.76 38.22 14.43 38.89  0.59 1.18 1.68 0.80 0.68 0.87 1.10 1.17 0.50 0.81 0.98 0.73 0.29 0.59 0.55 0.69 0.44 0.72 0.56 0.85 0.33 0.52  c.c.of semen Volume per Ejaculation  Millions of sperm per c.c. of semen  Billions of Sperm per Ejaculation  0.23  2.468  0.568  2.54 0.46 0.91 0.72 0.92 0.21 2.11 1.69 0.10 0.43 0.49 1.44 0.41 0.44 0.31 0.57 0.63  0.496 0.384 0.921 0.566 0.140 0.682 0.164 0.444 0.685 0.082 0.314 0.102 0.419 0.097 0.097 1.102 0.836  1.260 0.177 0.838 0.407 0.129 0.143 0.345 0.751 0.069 0.035 0.154 0.147 0.172 0.030 0.030 0.628 0.053  1.07  1.658  1.774  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 12 0
Nigeria 2 0
China 2 9
Japan 1 0
City Views Downloads
Ashburn 6 0
Unknown 4 3
Shenzhen 1 9
Beijing 1 0
Seattle 1 0
Chicago 1 0
Wilmington 1 0
Boardman 1 0
Tokyo 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095407/manifest

Comment

Related Items