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Science education and the medium of instruction : Chinese or English? Ho, Kwok Keung 1980

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SCIENCE  EDUCATION  AND  THE  CHINESE  OR  KWOK .B. S c . , T h e  Chinese M . S c ,  A  THESIS THE  MEDIUM  KEUNG  ^HO  IN  PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR  of  Hong  U n i v e r s i t y ,  SUBMITTED  INSTRUCTION:  ENGLISH?  O n i v e r s i t y O h i o  OF  FOR OF  THE  Kong,  1971  1974 FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  OF  EDUCATION  i n THE (Science  FACULTY  OF  GRADUATE  STUDIES  E d u c a t i o n  D e p a r t m e n t , F a c u l t y  He  t h i s  accept to  THE  t h e s i s  the. r e q u i r e d  UNIVERSITY  OF  a s  Kwok  Keung  standard  B R I T I S H  Ho,  Education)  conforming  COLUMBIA  1980  ©  o f  '~  1980  ' (  In  presenting  an  advanced  the L i b r a r y I  shall  scholarly  by h i s this  written  thesis  degree  f u r t h e r agree  for  of  this  at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  financial  is  of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T.1W5  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  British  for extensive  permission.  Department  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ii  ________ T h i s study achievement  i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p  where i n s t r u c t i o n  students  and  t e a c h e r s . , The  and  data  gathered  and  subjects  were  from  a  major  five  hypothesis  from  one  language  were  language  review o f the l i t e r a t u r e ,  identified  selected  was i n t h e s e c o n d  i n Hong Kong whose f i r s t  extensive  academic  and p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n  situation  students  between  grade  of 10  both  physics  was C h i n e s e . A f t e r a n  specific  formulated.  hundred  problems F o r the  seventy  six  f o u r c l a s s e s i n two s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ,  were study,  subjects  one C h i n e s e  one A n g l o - C h i n e s e . The  first  part  achievement o f English  of  groups  respectively.  w e e k ) , two c l a s s e s o f (Light  and  Sound)  the  study  was t o compare t h e p h y s i c s  receiving  instruction  in  For  months  f o u r l e s s o n s per  three  students in  Chinese  learned and  (with the  two  Chinese  content  classes  the  individual  battery) The  learned  scores  second  part  of  For  two months  the  content  of  using  (measured by an a p t i t u d e  was  to  compare  t h e two c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s (with  material  the  of t h e s t u d y  five  lessons  (Mechanics)  test  material  in  material  class  while  E n g l i s h . The t h i r d  (Atomic P h y s i c s ) * f o r f o u r l e s s o n s  the other  learned  p r o c e d u r e s were used  physics  i n the same s c h o o l .  p e r week) ,•• one bilingually  the  part  learned  another c l a s s of the  u s e d t h e same s u b j e c t s a s i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t . , O n e c l a s s  while  the  as c o v a r i a t e s i n the a n a l y s i s .  achievement  learned  aptitude  and  material  m a t e r i a l i n E n g l i s h . G r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n t r o l l e d by  the  in a  only,  study  learned  i n English  t h e m a t e r i a l i n C h i n e s e . The same t o c o n t r o l group d i f f e r e n c e s a s  in  kinds the  first  part The  fourth  among  and  The  variables  etc.) ,  the  English  and  also  affective factors. by a t e s t  motivational,  proficiency  test  administered controlled  to the  study  (ii)  English  proficiency of  consisting  and  students  at  English  of  five  f a c t o r s and b a c k g r o u n d  the  The  English  questionnaires  different  times  were  during  the  periods.  following  achievement  battery  and. o t h e r  among  battery  affective  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  were measured by a s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  proficiency  The  investigated  achievement,  s t u d e n t s was measured  subtests.  1)  of the study  (motivation,  proficiency the  part  (i) physics  factors  i i i  o f the study.  conclusions  in  physics  were drawn:  at  the  grade  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f Hong Kong d i d n o t depend  10  level  i n the  on t h e l a n g u a g e o f  instruction.  2)  Achievement i n p h y s i c s  Chinese  schools  a t the grade  10 l e v e l  o f Hong Kong depended h e a v i l y  in  the  Anglo-  on p r o f i c i e n c y i n  English.  3)  T h e r e seemed t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  in  learning  school  English  between  the  Chinese  in  motivation  and A n g l o -  Chinese  students.  4)  The i m p o r t a n t  the  Chinese students  ability,  Chinese  factors  i n acquiring  appeared  language  proficiency  t o be: s e l f usage,  concept  motivational  i n English of  by  academic  intensity  in  iv English  5)  and C h i n e s e  verbal  reasoning.  I t d i d not take the s t u d e n t s e x t r a  physics English  at  the  rather  than  The p r e s e n t would  be  sampling,  grade  refined  longitudinal  when  learn  i n s t r u c t i o n i s done i n  had c e r t a i n weaknesses i n i t s d e s i g n . ,  to r e p l i c a t e i f using  tests  manner.  level  t o  Chinese.  study  desirable  10  t i m e and e f f o r t  and  scales  and  an i m p r o v e d also  doing  It  method o f i t  in  a  V  Table  of Contents  ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER  1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL  THE  w  w« , •  *  AND S P E C I F I C PROBLEMS  1.2 THE PROBLEM 1.3  •.  USE  OF  .1  INVESTIGATED . . . .  OF BILINGUALISH  .. ..  SECOND LANGUAGE  AS THE MEDIUM OF  •1.4 TEACHING SCIENCE IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE  LANGUAGE  OF  AFFECTIVE  1 2  INSTRUCTION .•.^•;.«/»>-w-.-»*>.«-w*,v»»-'^*>-«>-«*-»^ . . . . . .  1.5 THE EFFECTS  1  FACTORS  .......  IN  3 4  SECOND  LEARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5  1.6 THE GENERAL TEACHING  SITUATION OF EDUCATION AND  LANGUAGE  IN HONG KONG ............................. 6  1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY . . . . 12 1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY CHAPTER 2. BEVIEW 2.1  .....................  OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS  STUDIES ON THE USE OF  14  , . , . v . • 17  A SECOND LANGUAGE  AS THE  MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION ..........................19 2.2 STUDIES RELATED  TO  THE  TEACHING  OF  SCIENCE  THROUGH A SECOND LANGUAGE 2.3  STUDIES LANGUAGE  REGARDING  32  A F F E C T I V E FACTOBS IN SECOND  LEARNING  36  2.4 BELATED STUDIES DONE IN HONG KONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.5 SUMMARY OF INVESTIGATIONS 2.6 WEAKNESSES  ,,.,48  IN THE RESEARCH  CHAPTER 3.,METHOD OF STUDY  .  ,  52 .  ,  ,  .  5  3  3.1 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3. 2 THE SELECTION OF SUBJECTS  ,  3.3 METHOD OF ESTABLISHING THE COMPARABILITY OF THE  55  vi  GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56  3.4 INSTRUHENTATION ............................... ,60 3.5  COMPARISON  OF PHYSICS  ACHIEVEMENT  BETWEEN  CHINESE AND ANGLO-CHINESE SCHOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.6 ADDITIONAL STUDIES  . . . 81  CHAPTEE 4. RESULTS AND ANAYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.1 COHPABABILITY OF THE CS AND ACS GROUPS 4.2 RESULTS ON ADDITIONAL STUDIES  87 100  CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • « v * * > ^ V » ^ :  105  5.1 CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 5 5. 2 DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . / . / . ^ . r ^ . ^ . .106  5.3 IMPLICATIONS  ..*vVrV..v.v».«-Vr....»..«»-'..»kM-  5.4 BECOHHENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY  112 116  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 19  vii  L I S T OF TABLES  Table 2.1  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Groups A c c o r d i n g t o t h e T i m e o f I n t r o d u c t i o n o f S e c o n d Language f o r B e a d i n g and a s a Medium o f I n s t r u c t i o n .............128  2.2  C a t e g o r i z a t i o n According t o the Research Methods Dsed i n t h e S t u d i e s ........................128  2.3  C a t e g o r i z a t i o n According of t h e S t u d i e s ,.  2.4  t o the E f f e c t s 129  R e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n According t o the E f f e c t s of t h e S t u d i e s ....................................  2.5  Categorization According Samples Used  i n the studies  t o t h e L e v e l s of .......................130  3.1  S t a t i s t i c s o f the Achievement T e s t s  3.2  Statistics  4.1  Distribution  of the Scales  on 9 D i f f e r e n t 4.2  of Subjects Variables  130  .....,.,,•••131  .......................132 (or S u b j e c t  Scores)  v....,,«....,..,»•••,134  Comparison of P r e t e s t R e s u l t s  ..................  135  4.3  A p t i t u d e T e s t s R e s u l t s o f t h e Two S c h o o l s . . . . . • . . ... •... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 5 4.4 V e c t o r o f S c a l e s W e i g h t s o f t h e Two S c h o o l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....•........................,136 4.5 ANCOVA T a b l e o f t h e Two S c h o o l s 136 4.6 Two 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11  Beans B e f o r e Schools .  and A f t e r A d j u s t m e n t f o r t h e ..... . . , . . . . . .......  136  Comparison o f V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g P h y s i c s A c h i e v e m e n t . • , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....,,. .137 Results  on E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y T e s t s  Comparison o f V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g Proficiency  ........,,,137  English ...138  ANOVA T a b l e f o r t h e M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s o f t h e ACS P h y s i c s A c h i e v e m e n t ...........  138  Summary T a b l e o f S t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s f o r t h e P h y s i c s Achievement o f t h e ACS . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  139  vili 4.12  4.13  4.14  ANOVA T a b l e f o r t h e M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s o f t h e ACS, E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y a s t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . ............  140  Summary T a b l e o f S t e p w i s e M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n f o r t h e ACS, E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y a s t h e Dependent Variable  140  Distribution  of Subjects  (or Subject  Scores)  on 9 D i f f e r e n t V a r i a b l e s o f t h e Two C l a s s e s 4.15  Aptitude  Tests  Results  o f t h e Two C l a s s e s  ....... 141 ....,.,142  4. 16 V e c t o r o f Scaled Weights o f V a r i a b l e s i n t h e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s f o r t h e Two C l a s s e s • . . . . 142 4.17 ANCOVA T a b l e o f t h e Two C l a s s e s L e a r n i n g M e c h a n i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....,143 4.18  Means B e f o r e the Two C l a s s e s  and A f t e r A d j u s t m e n t s f o r L e a r n i n g Mechanics .,•,..,..•..••..143  4.19  ANCOVA T a b l e o f t h e Two C l a s s e s L e a r n i n g A t o m i c P h y s i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v . . 144  4.20  Means B e f o r e and A f t e r A d j u s t m e n t f o r t h e Two C l a s s e s L e a r n i n g A t o m i c P h y s i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,144  o  ix  L I S T OF FIGOSES  Figure 3.1 4.1 4.2  Schematic ftptituae  Chart Profile  Aptitude-'Profile,  o f the Research Plan  ......  o f t h e CS ana ACS G r o u p s o f t h e Two C l a s s e s  145 .146  ........147  VOLOME I I O .y»*-\ r  APPENDIX  1  '  H  A p ^ ' ^ -" c  +k  c  J  i  '  P  <-_,,« l Co lcc-hev.4 ^f^ " 1  Pretest  1  .  149  APPENDIX 2  Content A n a l y s i s of Pretest  APPENDIX  C h i n e s e T r a n s l a t i o n o f P r e t e s t ......,159  3  APPENDIX 4  Teaching Schedule of Optics  APPENDIX 5  Teaching  APPENDIX 6  Questionnaire  APPENDIX 7  Chinese T r a n s l a t i o n of the  Material i n Optics  157  170 .........  175  .......................  181  Questionnaire  225  APPENDIX 8  Optics  Posttest  APPENDIX 9  Betest  i n Optics  APPENDIX  Chinese T r a n s l a t i o n of Optics  10  Posttest  2  269 ....................  2  275  281  APPENDIX  11  T e a c h i n g S c h e d u l e o f M e c h a n i c s ...... ,285  APPENDIX  12  Test  APPENDIX  13  Lesson Plan  APPENDIX  14  Test  APPENDIX  15  English P r o f i c i e n c y Test Battery  APPENDIX  16  S c o r e s o f I n d i v i d u a l S t u d e n t s ....... 363  i n M e c h a n i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,289 i n Atomic P h y s i c s  i n Atomic P h y s i c s  ....... 296  ..............  324  .... 344  APPENDIX 17 D i s c u s s i o n a b o u t Item D e l e t i o n i n Some S c a l e s .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... .... 371 APPENDIX 18 Item I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S c a l e H a v i n g Low R e l i a b i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 APPENDIX 19 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r S i g n i f i c a t V a r i a b l e s i n P r e d i c t i n g P h y s i c s Achievement and E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 APPENDIX 20 Aptitude  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Matrix Scores  f o rthe .378  The  author  appreciation for  wishes t o express  to Professor Halter  h i s advice,  support  Without P r o f e s s o r B o l d t ' s suggestions  excellent  editing,  Boldt,  author  of t h i s  critical  for  study.  comments,  improvement,  the author  able t o complete t h i s The  B.  g u i d a n c e , e n c o u r a g e m e n t and  throughout the course  helpful  h i s deep  would n e v e r  and be  thesis.  wishes t o thank  Professors  S. F. F o s t e r , P . J . G a s k e l l , G.E. J o h n s o n and T.p.fl.  HcKie f o r t h e i r  comments, the  on  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  as  suggestions, members  of  t h e s i s committee. The  Gail  valuable  author  would a l s o l i k e  Fu f o r h e r v a l u a b l e the  research  advice  t o t h a n k Dr. and  comments  work a n d t h e t h e s i s d u r i n g  the  on-site The  school H.T. of  work i n Hong Kong.  author  would  principals  doctoral  Mr.. J.K.  friends  so  that  he  author  wishes  and  students  participated numerous  in  that  the he  footnotes  of  to  would l i k e  helped  the author c a r r y  the study  The deep  patiently  and  schedule  name  are  out the  the  in  the  first  Pao who  who part  commented  o f the t h e s i s . like  to  express  preliminary  Miss  drafts  consistently  under  a  very  and Mrs. J e n n y  Lau  who  did  the author  Belinda  understanding,  so  them a l l  t o t h a n k H r . „ C . C . Hong  F8T t y p i n g o f t h e f i n a l  Wan-Kam,  draft.  wishes for  encouragement,  throughout  writing  They  and  P a r t i c u l a r l y , the  would a l s o  typed  Finally,  help  helped  appreciation to his typists,  M.K.yTse who  wife,  his  a l lhis  names a p p e a r  and Mrs. Amy  author  thank  study.  the p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t  tight  leave  start  who  the t h e s i s .  author  his  his  M a l l s and Mr.  could  cannot  a l t h o u g h some o f t h e i r  the  thank  work a t U.B.C.  The  on  to  Chan f o r g r a n t i n g him a one y e a r absence  of  like  the  course  of the t h e s i s . ,  t o thank h i s her patience, company, of  and  s t u d y and  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  1.1  GENERAL AND The  SPECIFIC  general  between  PROBLEMS INVESTIGATED  problem  investigated  a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t and  instruction  in a  language of  b o t h s t u d e n t s and  The  problem  on  stated  1) in  of  depend on  in  language  of  the  second  out  i n Hong Kong and  focused  questions related  How  schools  extent  physics at  of  in  does  Hong  to  much  time  in  and  i n English  physics? Is  the  the  level  4)  What f a c t o r s  the  general  grade depend  level  on  the  English?  i n physics at  schools  in  effort  is  required  as n e e d e d f o r t e a c h i n g  proficiency  10  Hong  the Kong  English?  time and  are  the  Kong  achievement  Anglo-Chinese  proficiency  of  in  i n s t r u c t i o n , C h i n e s e and  level  proficiency in  carried  following  what  g r a d e 10  3)  the  was  secondary  To  i n the  teachers.  does a c h i e v e m e n t  language  2)  proficiency  relationship  above:  How the  the  s i t u a t i o n where i n s t r u c t i o n i s  investigation  specifically  is  effort  to and  achieve learning  s p e n t commensurate  with  attained?  important  in acquiring  proficiency  in  2  English  by C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ?  manipulated  to  achievement  5)  How  improve  effort)  i n the l i g h t  THE PROBLEU OF  partly  problem solved  European Second  English  of  ( c o s t i n term  (1.)-(U) above, 10 i n s t e a d  be and  of  should  time  physics  of English?  BILINGOALISM  of using about  different  half  languages  War,  the  appeared  a c e n t u r y ago b e c a u s e  l a n g u a g e s were w i d e l y used a r o u n d World  in  factors  i n physics?  be t a u g h t i n C h i n e s e a t g r a d e  The  these  proficiency  In terms o f c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s  and  1.2  can  picture  to  several  major  the world. A f t e r  changed  quickly  be  a s many  the new  n a t i o n s were b o r n . Many o f t h e s e new n a t i o n s countries. a foreign and  Ever s i n c e t h a t c o l o n i a l  p.1).  pressure national the  advancement  Following  for  a  wider  the use  in  these  achievement of local  development  t h e need  the a b i l i t y  political,  technological,  and  for  United  years  States,  has f o r c e d  the i n c r e a s i n g  of  the  to  b u s i n e s s , t e c h n o l o g y and as  socioeconomic  number  p o t ' i d e a a n d t o pay more a t t e n t i o n  (Kehoe,  independence,  language  eductors to question  political  newer n a t i o n s  i n c r e a s e d . Even f o r a p r e d o m i n a n t l y m o n o l i n g u i s t i c the  t o speak  At t h e same t i m e , due  of international  f o r u s i n g a second  of developed  languages f o r t h e sake o f  p r i d e and i d e n t i t y i n c r e a s e d .  rapid  science,  period,  l a n g u a g e h a s been c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y  professional  1968,  were f o r m e r c o l o n i e s  a  for  progress  also  society  like  of immigrants  the t r u t h  tool  i n recent  of t h e  'melting  t o t h e s t u d y of l e a r n i n g  in  3  a  second  universal  language.  Hence  concern rather  the  problem  than a l o c a l  of  bilingualism  i sa  matter.  1.3 THE OSE OF SECOND LANGUAGE AS THE MEDIOfl OF INSTBOCTION As t h e need  f o r learning  p e o p l e seem t o f e e l key  to  fluency  use  the  •immersion»  language  Evidently,  c o l o n i s t s as a c u l t u r e important  second  i n the language.  second  instruction.,  that  a  of the  language  i n a second  For t h i s  the  controlling  as  the  language  which  tool,  has  often  the  i n the h i g h e r grade l e v e l s i n s p i t e  difficulties  encountered.  Generally, the  medium  learning.  of  at least  T h e r e have been t h e second  large  body  tongue is  comparison  and s c h o o l i n g  mainly  findings concludes  with  period  Engle  and  are probably a p p l i c a b l e there  is  still  of  language  politicians,  of time  (1975)  schooling  school to  other  consider  of i n s t r u c t i o n (Daum,  has using  the second language. early  an  of the language  p o i n t s o f view,  a s t h e medium  between  using  concerned  that  medium  many s t u d i e s and much d i s c u s s i o n  literature,  of  a s p r o b l e m a t i c i n t e a c h i n g and  administrators  for a certain  become  t h e use o f a s e c o n d  and p o l i t i c a l  language  often  i n developing  l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . of  comprehensive  hand,  practical  use of a second  beneficial,  of  instruction  On t h e o t h e r  from f i n a n c i a l , the  educators consider  i s the  served the  preferred  instruction  many  medium  now  key t o s u c c e s s f o r t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n s  n a t i o n s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , i s  as  language  reason, schools  nation  second  grows,  t o be  1976).,  i n t h e use Using  done  a  the  this very mother  Though h e r s t u d y  years, levels  most too.  of the Engle  no s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e a s t o  4  which  approach  controlled The control  i s better  and e x i s t i n g  since  t h e r e a r e s o many v a r i a b l e s  t o be  s t u d i e s a r e inadequate i n t h i s a s p e c t . .  p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o meet t h i s p r o b l e m o f to a greater  e x t e n t and  to  shed  more  light  on  this  controversial  a r e a o f u s i n g t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium o f  instruction.  Hopefully  formed  a  a s more c a r e f u l l y  clearer  picture  controlled  w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be  studies are carried out.  1.4 TEACHING SCIENCE IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE S c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s s t u d e n t s t o have t h e a b i l i t y read to  and  understand s c i e n t i f i c  order  o f t h o u g h t h a v e t o be u s e d .  assume t h a t about  teaching.  may i n f a c t  practice,  (Strevens,  t h e term  science teachers i s special  introducing  the easiest  of  common  the  new  part o f science principle  Another  words  "work" r e f e r s  in  difficulty a  special  to quite a  different  "scientific  sense".  1972).  i s  possible  to  view  lanquage  to learn  believe  that  language  p r o b l e m s . One p r o b l e m  provide subject does i n  complex  meaning o f an e x p e r i m e n t o r a  o c c u r s i s t h e use  f o r example,  this,  v o c a b u l a r y which  meaninq i n t h e "common s e n s e " t h a n i n  It  do  more d i f f i c u l t t o t e a c h and l e a r n .  often  sense,  In  be r e l a t i v e l y  The s c i e n t i f i c  often  which  science.  to  Quite often,  i t i s only the t e c h n i c a l  the language o f  vocabulary  is  material as well as the a b i l i t y  communicate t h e s e c o n c e p t s . I n  modes  to  students  science i n at  the  learner  is  least likely  i s that,  who  two  lessons,  the  ways.  Some  to encounter  language  second people  additional  although science  m a t t e r i n t h e same way t h a t  language  use t h e i r  lessons  t h e language t e a c h e r proficiency  of  the  5  science teacher students  may a f f e c t  standard  of  science  take  scientific  the  study  which a r e widely learning  major language  for  teaching  may  o f achievement i n the second  Others  that  language standard  i n s c i e n c e . I f the language p r o f i c i e n c y  effeciency  from  the eventual  second  is used  in  point  suitable  study.  The a d a p t a t i o n  possible at the present of  note  the  stage  present  and t h a t  the t e c h n i c a l  the  switch second  the  terms  fact  essential  of a vernacular to a language time  and m o n e y . T h i s i s n o t ;  f o r most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . study  deals  physics  a t a grade l e v e l  equivalent to  level.  In  i t examines  particular,  that  i n s e v e r a l languages  i s d e s i r a b l e . T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o  f o r science teaching takes  Part  They  t h e mother t o n g u e t o l e a r n i n g u s i n g a  most v e r n a c u l a r s do n o t have advanced  pursued  a s w e l l a s the ( B o l g e r , 1967)  view.  the world  i s not high the  lower  language. of  customarily throughout  be  of the  with  the the  the l e a r n i n g o f  Canadian  grade  10  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n ,  1.5 THE EFFECTS OF AFFECTIVE FACTORS IN SECOND LANGUAGE Carroll varies  as  aptitude, on the  (1962) s u g g e s t s a  function  adequacy  Jakobovits  learning  of  variables:  language  general  language  and m o t i v a t i o n . I t a l s o  depends  the opportunity  presentation  i n• predicting  of  33%, o t h e r s  14%,  f o r l e a r n i n g and  t h e m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d .  the variance success  in  as f o l l o w s : a p t i t u d e 33%, i n t e l l i g e n c e  or perseverance  achievement  variables:  (1970) e v e n e s t i m a t e s factors  second  three  general i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  two i n s t r u c t i o n a l  various  of  that  LEARNING  contributions second 20%,  of  language motivation  6  For  the  last  amount o f r e s e a r c h language  on  learning,,  f a c t o r s of and  two the  Over  "This  theory,  successfully various  as  the  motivation  of  the  relationship  THE  the  in  holds  that  brief,  behaviour  new  between  an  group.  his to  regulate  learner's  toward  or  affective  language  control  his  failure  (p.291)  is  to  factors  p a r t i c u l a r , what i s t h e  adopts  members o f  u l t i m a t e l y h i s s u c c e s s or  study  GENEBAL SITUATION OF  individual  The  attitudes  of  noted,  which c h a r a c t e r i z e  language.!  present  theory  a second language gradually  believed  the  attitudes  socio-psychological (1972) has  second  affective  learner's  probe and  variance  i n d i v i d u a l a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s to second language  1.6  on  Lambert  t o l e a r n and  mastering  increasing  aspects of  emerged. As  tendencies,  are  been an  been p l a c e d  linguistic-cultural  learning  In  a  acquiring  ethnocentric  learning.  has  time,  aspects of  another  has  socio-psychological  Emphasis  language l e a r n i n g has  Part  there  l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , such  motivation.  in  decades,  E DOC ATI ON  AND  further  second  the  language  contribution  of  achievement?  LANGUAGE TEACHING  IN  HONG KONG  1.6.1  General  Background  Hong kong i s a 400 southern  coast  Colony i n  1842,  square mile  of China. there  was  territory  When Hong Kong f i r s t a Chinese  population  located  on  became a  British  of  about  the  7,000,  7  made  up  of  fishermen,  farmers  4,720,200 p e o p l e c r o w d i n g are  urban  dwellers,  b e i n g compressed  into  three an  population  density  I s l a n d , New  Kowloon and  kilometer  98%  Cantonese,  About  for  of  55%  remainder  of  remain  in  Chinese  civil  able  feeling  for any  toward  policies  this i s that  Chinese  China  Chinese  or  1997,  that,  British  per  square  86%  usually  (Agassi,  1969) .  1975,  while  p.79).  A  d i d not  someday,  they  or  plan to 1949  might  (Mitchell,  1972,  to react  only to  been  'turn  state  pp.  reason  the boat over* might  be  nobody  364-  grossly  main  when t h e l e a s e o f t h e New  governments)  be  p e o p l e have a n e g a t i v e  them i m m e d i a t e l y . , The  expires,  the  large  a g a i n . T h i s w a i t i n g time has  silent  miles) from China  The  o f Hong Kong  went t h e r e d u r i n g t h e  government  affect  now bulk  miles.,  areas  g e n e r a t i o n (age o v e r 30)  change o f t h e p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l  square  square  dialect  (Fu,  t h e y do n o t want t o  by  great  p o p u l a t i o n i s Hong Kong b o r n  keep  are  220).  They t h o u g h t  that  The  p o p u l a t i o n i s C h i n e s e , and  the c o l o n i a l  d i s a s t r o u s . , But (365  p.  Mainland  generally  There  i s 25,400 p e r s o n s  Hong Kong when t h e y f i r s t war.  15  i n d e f i n i t e l y . Though most of t h e  they  unfair  about  Wan  to r e t u r n t o the Mainland  extended  5),  Tsuen  the urban  p r o p o r t i o n of the o l d e r  small place.  metropolitan  southern  come f r o m  villagers.  q u a r t e r s o f Hong Kong's p o p u l a t i o n  the  the  a  this  area o f  (Hong Kong, 1979,  about speak  into  and  since  even  more  Territories  (not  even  r e a l l y knows what w i l l  the  happen  politically. Up t o t h e o u t b r e a k an  o f t h e Second  e n t r e p o t , owing i t s l i f e  Japanese  to t r a d e ,  o c c u p a t i o n , the C h i n e s e c i v i l  World  War,  Hong  b a n k i n g and war  and  Kong  shipping.  t h e U.N.  was The  embargo  8  of  Chinese  entrepot built  trade after  the  trade f a t a l l y . . B u t  up  a t the  building  up  historical  p a r t of the  of  local  into  was  the  industrial  in  any  as  economy. One the  little  o f t h e key  and  been t h e  entrepreneurship  of The  of s e r i e s  of  out  the  f a c t o r s i n the  was  1950*s..  w e l l thought day,  the  millions  plan  Hong  as p o s s i b l e i n the  p a s t d e c a d e s has  skill  the  a result  this  ruined  economy  a b l e t o absorb  i n d u s t r i a l economy was  interferes  capital,  K o r e a n war  colony  government.,Even t o  Hong Kong o v e r  Chinese  which  c o i n c i d e n c e s r a t h e r than  government the  o f an  of the  a thriving  same t i m e ,  immigrants t h a t poured  the  outbreak  Kong  affairs  economic  of  growth  great i n f l u x  (Johnson,  on  of  197 1,  pp.  contrasts.  Fu  6-8) . In b r i e f .  Hong Kong i s  (1975) o f f e r s a g e n e r a l  •The  city  and  peddlars,  Chanel,  refugees,  time  prostitutes.  l a g and  future  shrill  muted C h i n e s e  scrolls.  anything -  and  It  and  the  a l l  strobe  dedicated  exploitation,  from  rice,  pop  lights  and  beautiful  i t i s depressing,  at  rattan  latest  t h a t makes i t i s done h e r e and business,  exhibits -  skimpy b o w l s of  It i s a city  dope  c o o l i e s with  Hong Kong i s a s as  attracts  and  shock  Cantonese opera,  exciting  as i t i s d i l a p i d a t e d .  condoned  stench  i m p e r i a l b a n q u e t s and  c a s s e t t e s and  and  missionaries  and  unimaginable  s q u a l i d , as  great  o f Hong Kong:  s o p h i s t i c a t e d technology  baskets,  is  of  edge o f t h e " d i d d l e Kingdom"  tourists  "cultural clash, once";  place  description  on t h e  businessmen  a  as to  as  i t  modern money,  implicitly corruption.  9  p r o s t i t u t i o n , i n g e n u i t y , d i l i g e n c e , sheer hard work ... It  is  a  hard c i t y where everyone has t o look out f o r  h i m s e l f . No one e l s e i s going to.»  1.6.2  (p. 79)  Education There are 1,323,098 s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n Hong Kong,  563,384  are primary s t u d e n t s and  (Hong Kong, 1979, school  between  p. 274). Some the  ages  school  at  the  age  529,712 a r e secondary students  of t h r e e and  p r i v a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s , almost  every  in  Hong  have  every c h i l d does  not  high  start  child  gets  into  admission  primary p o l i c y of  famous  schools  standards,  although  has the r i g h t t o nine years of f r e e e d u c a t i o n , mean  that  he  determined  by  this  w i l l s t a y i n the same s c h o o l f o r nine  years. In the past, the secondary been  students  Kong  of s i x . S t present, the admission  exceptionally  whom  f i v e at one of the many  primary s c h o o l s i s not unusual except f o r a few which  of  aptitude,  school choice  r e s i d e n c e a t the end of the s i x t h  year.  attended of In  would  have  s c h o o l , and area of the  future,  each  student w i l l be sent to a s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s up  to  grade  11  at  the end of the n i n t h year. The  d e t a i l s of  s e l e c t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n have not been f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d as (Hong  Kong,  1979,  p.  57).  at  present, almost  w r i t e s the C e r t i f i c a t e o f Education Examination the  1  eleventh  year.§  Following  at  every the  yet  student end  of  t h i s , the g r e a t m a j o r i t y l e a v e  The c e r t i f i c a t e of Education Examination i s an achievement t e s t on v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s administered t o a l l s t u d e n t s at the end of grade 11. The examination i n most o f the s u b j e c t s i s o f f e r e d i n t«o e q u i v a l e n t t r a n s l a t i o n s , E n g l i s h and Chinese. Candidates can answer i n e i t h e r language.  10  school to look f o r jobs, 12  and  13  university one  pre-university i s very small;  one  classes.  third The  out o f e v e r y  continue to  chance  eight  broad  topped  base which  narrows  sharply  by a p i n n a c l e o f v e r y few  of  entering  a pyramid  a t grade  10 and  s e l e c t students  to get through the entrance examination i n t o  grade  candidates,  i s a d m i t t e d . E d u c a t i o n i n Hong Kong i s l i k e  very is  while only  only  with a  12.  who  This  manage  university.  1.6. 3 Language T e a c h i n g As  pointed  problem and  which  to  Cantonese,  by  Fu  (1975,  beauty  of  Cantonese  from  their  own  fundamental  language(s).  and  w r i t e , t h e y h a v e t o use a new  in  Mandarin  are  written  spoken  mother d i a l e c t .  later  stages  then that to  Linguistic  They  spoken  When c h i l d r e n  very d i f f e r e n t  insecurity  are  written language  learn  language. Mandarin.  in a style  complex  t h e r e i s no  Hong Kong s t u d e n t s do n o t use t h e i r  a medium f o r w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n .  unrelated  85-87) , one  birth.Since  as  is  pp.  a l l Hong Kong s t u d e n t s have t o f a c e i s t h e  frustrating  exposed  out  t o read  The  books  from  their  i s deepened  in  the  when s t u d e n t s go t o h i g h e r f o r m s o f s c h o o l i n g . I t t h e y have t o l e a r n Mandarin  wonder t h a t Chao  as  c l a s s i c a l Chinese  Mandarin  (1953) s a y s t h a t  which  i s t o Cantonese.  English i s a third  is  as  I t i s no  language  to  a Chinese student. The  schools  according  to  the  Chinese schools. English (grade  as  i n Hong Kong can language  These  the  1-6), a b o u t  90%  of  divided  of instruction:  schools,  medium  be  respectively,  instruction.  of the s c h o o l s  are  into  two  types  C h i n e s e and  Anglo-  use  Chinese  At t h e p r i m a r y Chinese  and  and level  pupils  11  start  to learn  secondary  E n g l i s h as a s u b j e c t from  level  About 81.8%  (grade  18.2%  are  1979). T h i s a b r u p t Chinese It who  Anglo-Chinese  Chinese  schools  as important by  of  English  the  p o p u l a t i o n can of  standard educators  students  benefits  (Simpson,  speak f l u e n t  students  and  Yau,  that  the one.  their  parents  enhance t h e i r  prospect  (Vince,  who  can  enough,  and  Though they  But  get  the  as  for  many  academic  42).  From  t h a t the  among  university, expected  academic pressure  E n g l i s h seem  insufficient  psychological hesitation  students  seem t o r e s i s t  are  not  by  the  standard  fraction the the  1  of  elite average  university  noted  by L a m b e r t  years,  their  on  actively  and to  the  economic  override  a  the p a r t  of  the  hostile  toward  d e d i c a t i n g themselves to i t s study  personal a i d p s y c h o l o g i c a l reasons.  reason,  P.  only a small  into as  or  1970).  of s t u d y i n g  students.  1966,  E n g l i s h . Even  o f E n g l i s h i s not as high  emotional  so  or  might get t h e i m p r e s s i o n  i n Hong Kong i s h i g h .  Curiously  English,  mean  as t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n t e l l i g e n c e  many e m p l o y e r s  d i s c u s s i o n a b o v e , one  basic  the  f u t u r e . F u r t h e r , a sound knowledge o f E n g l i s h i s r a t e d  achievement  group  only  to the Anglo-Chinese  t h i n k t h a t l e a r n i n g more E n g l i s h w i l l the  while  d o e s not  the  reversed.  (Chan, H i n t o n ,  change i n e n r o l l m e n t  mere p e r s o n a l c h o i c e o f t h e  equally  1  are  school curriculum i s i n f e r i o r  is a  for  for  7-11), the s i t u a t i o n i s j u s t  of the schools  remaining  g r a d e 2 upwards. , A t  T h i s may  (1972) why, average  after  be  the  chief  studying English  achievement  is  still  From A g a s s i s ' s t u d y , l e s s t h a n 9% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n can speak fluent English. This figure m i g h t be a l i t t e b i t o u t o f d a t e s i n c e t h e r e a r e more A n g l o - C h i n e s e s c h o o l s t u d e n t s g r a d u a t e d in the past t e n years.  12  unsatisfactory. It the  i s not s u r p r i s i n g  fluency  in  incommensurate that  second  attitudes might who  t h a t Fu  English  of  (1975. p. 185) s u s p e c t e d t h a t  many  Hong  Kong  w i t h t h e amount o f t i m e and e f f o r t  language. toward  This  the  governed  Hong  i s  so,  in  part,  aligning  themselves  and  more  Kong  who  has  never  been  Singapore, but remains Lu,  1973,  pp.  2-3) .  She  level  and  1969, p. ,156).  1.7 SCOPE AND The light medium  the  of  relationship language in  a  is  science, high  relationship  instruction.  readers  In  to  a  Kong  melting  pot  particular  toward  Podmore,  and  a t the  underneath  (Jarvie  some  i t  additional and t h e  explores physics,  t h e second  of instruction  problem  like  westernized'  i n high school  t h e medium  i s  STUDY  particular,  and a t t i t u d e s  they  English  between s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t  t h e use o f a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e  school In  Chinese'  between a c h i e v e m e n t  where  their  the  Hong  (Chaney,  'flexibly  o f b o t h s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s .  confined  all,  o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o shed  situation  language  i s  but 'stubbornly  proficiency,  because  with  cosmopolitan  LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESENT  purpose  on  a  b a s i c a l l y Chinese  superficial Agassi,  they put i n t o  t h a n any o t h e r p e o p l e  h u m i l i a t e d C h i n a i n t h e 19th c e n t u r y , a f t e r and  was  l a n g u a g e a r e a m b i v a l e n t and b e c a u s e  be u n c e r t a i n a b o u t  not  students  the second  language,  i s the second  The s c o p e o f  the  study  of p r a c t i c e i n t e a c h i n g  i n teaching  and  learning  physics..,,  reading  the  conclusions  of  must b e a r i n mind t h e f o l l o w i n g  the  present  limitations.  s t u d y , the  13  1)  Strictly  to  other  speaking,  schools  subjects  was  generalizaions  the results are  and  very  classes  secondary  since  restrictive.  b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s  similar school situations, schools  not the  generalizable selection of  However,  cautious  m i g h t be made t o o t h e r  i . e . , t h e government s u b s i d i z e d  which a r e a c a d e m i c a l l y  above a v e r a g e i n  Hong Kong.*  2)  In  exposed  the to  assisting  controlled-teaching instructions  teacher.  given  Although  ensure t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n it  of  students.  the  have  assisting  1  2  the  pose been  emphasized  author  effort  and  was  were the  made t o  g r o u p s was e q u i v a l e n t ,  character  might a f f e c t  p r o b l e m s due  the students  the  every  Furthermore, c e r t a i n  w h i c h might might  teachers  by  i n both  was q u e s t i o n a b l e whether  style  study,  and  teaching  the l e a r n i n g o f the  p a r t s of the i n s t r u c t i o n s , to  the  by e i t h e r  language  2  barrier,  the author  o r the  teaching.  S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong c a n be b r o a d l y divided into three types according t o t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . They a r e government, government subsidized, and private schools respectively. Government schools a r e c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e government. Government subsidized schools are p a r t i a l l y controlled b y t h e government s i n c e t h e y r e c e i v e q u i t e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r f u n d s f r o m t h e government., P r i v a t e schools are independent as long as the schools are obeying the general e d u c a t i o n a l l a w s s e t up by t h e g o v e r n m e n t . I n g e n e r a l the academic standard o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t and government s u b s i d i z e d s c h o o l i s h i g h e r than t h a t o f the p r i v a t e ones. (Of c o u r s e , t h e r e a r e a l s o v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n each type o f schools.) F o r e x a m p l e , when s t u d e n t s l e a r n t C h a p t e r 7 (Bork, E n e r g y and Power) of the text book, they might find that l e a r n i n g i t b i l i n g u a l l y was e a s i e r t h a n i n E n g l i s h a l o n e s i n c e t h a t chapter involved a l o t o f t h i n g s w h i c h were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r daily l i f e experience.  14  3)  The  reliability  general, for  not  too  detecting  4)  but  Due  the  the  was the  study  stated  5)  This  bilingual  etc.  was  matters  The  from  study  in  conducive exist.  hypothesis  money, t i m e and  It when  a in  manpower,  involved in  T h i s might a f f e c t miss i f the  confined  the  study  social  the the  actual  of  the  power o f (as  small. ,  physics  programs  desirability  Extrapolations to science,  the  study  result  d i f f e r e n c e was  to b i l i n g u a l  general.  like  be  of  might  not  programs  might n o t  6)  was  not  might  null  was,  differences existed. ,  hypothesis)  study  subject  acceptance of a  small.  hence  i n the  The  only.  and  scales  which  ( i . e . students)  comparatively  and  T h i s c o n d i t i o n was  shortage  number o f s u b j e c t s  tests  differences  significant  to  the  high.  small  might h a v e l e d t o small  of  of  other  mathematics,  applicable.  involved  only Chinese  high  Hong Kong. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o o t h e r  school  students  students  might  be  been a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e ,  there  has  inappropriate.  1.8  SIGNIFICANCE OF As  f a r as t h e  been v e r y second  little  language  s t u d i e s of the the  THE  STUDY  w r i t e r has  research at  the  done i n t e a c h i n g s e n i o r secondary  and  learning  level.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c h i e v e m e n t i n  language of  instruction  have been a l m o s t  In  in  a  particular, physics  totally  and  neglected.  15  A  study  of  politicalworld  this  economic  which  adoption  problem  are  is  viewpoint  i n Hong Kong and  immersed  of western s c i e n c e  Furthermore,  the  particularly  in  second  and  timely,  i n nations  increase  politically  unsettled s i t u a t i o n i n Asia i n recent  teaching  an  important  the  next  few  Chinese  ancestry  will  well be  the in  Chinese  Vancouver area,  t i m e l y and  years  and  determine  partially  under  This  children alike  whether  or t o t a l l y  the  indicate  appropriate.  f o r C h i n e s e a d u l t s and  d e c a d e s may  the  achievement of Chinese students  c o n d i t i o n s are  period  i n the  of  i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y  various  of  technology.  considerable  s t u d i e s comparing the  a  l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m s and  population  that  from  is  since  Canadians  of  integrated into  Canadian s o c i e t y . , From an  educational  of Broudy t h a t the school  is  more  standpoint,  " i n t e r p r e t i v e use" than  learnings  use"  of  problem  of  how  teaching  affects  the  be  used  ideas  importance.  How to  considerable  of To  "filtered distorted  overcome  the  pressure  t o do  Finally,  1)  and  the  such  that  i f we  accept  prevalent  in  the  in  can  use"  even  life,  the  a second  language  is  of  major  ideas  of  physics  screen"  ideas?  Would  in  or  c o n c e r n s e n s i b l e when the  language  the  position  acquired  everyday  learnings  through  the  "replicative  illustrate,  are  accepts  learnings  learning  t o make p r o b l e m s of s o c i e t a l  language? attempt  school  acquisition  have t o be  of  important  "applicative  educational  i f one  of  the  barrier  a  these second  l e a r n e r even  unless  under  so? the  following points  Canadian  of  educational  view:  philosophy  16  supports provision  of egual  all,  ultimately  hoping  that  educated  will  2)  e a c h new  that  achieve  educational  opportunity  for  e a c h i n d i v i d u a l who h a s been  happiness;  Canadian i s p o t e n t i a l l y a  useful  human  resource f o r the nation;  3)  that  the  integration  of immigrant  c h i l d r e n i n t o the  Canadian s o c i e t y i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the  4) will  that  i m m i g r a n t s f r o m C h i n a , Hong  continue t o increase  Then  this  i n t o how affect  study  school  Canada, e s p e c i a l l y  and  elsewhere  i n number;  should  t h e use o f E n g l i s h the  Kong  schools;  also as  learning Chinese.  serve as p r o v i d i n g a of  second  language  immigrant  insight would  children  in  17  CHAPTER BEVIEW OF  2  BELATED INVESTIGATIONS  Hany s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n done i n t h e Host  were  concerned  linguistic reseach  the e f f e c t  on  the  l a n g u a g e on  achievement  in  particular  science,  and  a t t i t u d e s (Cooper,  is  not  over  few  and  For end  i t will  out,  interesting  be  second  areas,  e. g.,  1.967)..,. o f a l l the  necessary  to  go  a s t o what the f i n d i n g s and  concentrate  or c l o s e l y  related  on  those  to  the  research. the sake of q u i c k o f each study.  are broadly  hoc  The  first  symbol r e f e r s t o t h e research  at  research designs  three categories:  (S),  comparative  Experimental  r e f e r e n c e , t h r e e symbols are g i v e n  u s e d i n the s t u d y . , E d u c a t i o n a l  divided into  Survey  The  subject  the  little  of teaching i n a  flacnamara,  a indication  were c a r r i e d  particularly  method o r d e s i g n  Post  just  so  upon  Very  p o s s i b l e t o give a thorough account  where t h e y  that are  effect  1971;  which h a v e been r e v i e w e d ,  present  the  been  many s t u d i e s w i t h  were,  bilingualism.  of bilingualism  done  studies  of  or c o g n i t i v e development of b i l i n g u a l s .  has  It  1  with  field  (PH) ,  (E).*  second symbol  refers  to the  result  of the study.  The  results  Quasi-experimental design is included under the E x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . F o r d e t a i l e d d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e k i n d s o f s t u d i e s , see Gay (1976, Ch. ,6)  title three  18  are  classified Using  as f o l l o w s : the  s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n  i s not detrimental Using is  the second  detrimental Using  l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium  of  instruction  <S~)  the  instruction not  (S+)  second  language  and t h e f i r s t  detrimental  as  the  chief  l a n g u a g e a s an a s s i s t i n g  medium  of  medium  i s  {_}•)  I n c o n c l u s i v e (I) Not  The  third  the  study.  a p p l i c a b l e (NA).  symbol  College  school  (SH)  Junior high  school  (JH)  For  the  2.1  the  i t was a s u r v e y second  first  as f o l l o w s :  (P)  s p e c i f i e d (N).  example,  the  selected for  (C) high  Not  o f t h e sample  l e v e l s (A)  Primary or preschool  (1)  t o the levels  They a r e c l a s s i f i e d  All  Senior  refers  symbols study;  <S, B+, P) a f t e r (2) t h e r e s u l t  language as the c h i e f  l a n g u a g e a s an a s s i s t i n g  sample  ON  THE  indicated  means t h a t : that  medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n  medium i s  was c h o s e n a t t h e p r i m a r y  STUDIES  a study  not  using and t h e  detrimental;  or preschool  (3)  level.,  USE OF A SECOND LANGUAGE AS THE MEDIUM OF  19  INSTRUCTION This section i s a general language  as  the  medium  c o n s i s t s o f a review subsections the  of  of 18  according  review  on t h e  instruction. studies,  to  i t  a r b i t r a r y . , But  closer  examination  before  1970 a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t .  d i f f e r e n c e s c a n be f o u n d  2.1.1  Bovet  The e a r l i e s t (1932)  education to  those  in  study  in  g r o u p s were r e p o r t e d .  2.1.1.2 M a l h e r b e students  in  the  students  were  in  to content  normal standard  into  to  two  sight,  be  quite  t h a t s t u d i e s done  The d e t a i l s  that after  of  their  no  t h a t done by four years of  had s c o r e s  s c h o o l . Students  (PH, B+,  200  section  and 2. 5.2. ,  school, students  further  equivalent  were p r o b a b l y details  about  from the  P)  representative  of  18,773  secondary  was done i n 1938. The r e s u l t s  indicated  the  school medium  not hindered  primary  survey and  bilingual  l a n g u a g e was used a s  regard  seems  (1946) r e p o r t e d t h a t a c a r e f u l  over  this  At f i r s t  e r a was p r o b a b l y  He r e p o r t e d  although  s c h o o l s i n South A f r i c a in  i n this  a monolingual  families,  second  broken  reveals  2.5.1  a  1970  Geneva.  in a bilingual  middle c l a s s  that  i n Section  R e s e a r c h done b e f o r e  2.1.1.1  is  of d i v i s i o n  of  Since  c h r o n o l o g i c a l order.  c h o i c e o f 1970 a s t h e l i n e  and a f t e r  use  situation of  instruction,  any more t h a n  and t h a t t h e y  i n which t h e s e c o n d  could  the  the b r i g h t e r still  o f achievement i n t h e i r f i r s t  maintain  duller students their  l a n g u a g e . T h e most  20  significant  result  was t h a t t h e i r  relative  l a n g u a g e was n e a r l y t w i c e a s g r e a t higher  intelligence  questioned  the belief  that  the  duller  instruction sixth  language as  at f i r s t ,  Fife  speaking  students i n Puerto  and  instruction  Manual  hindered  find  in  Because  tentatively  higher  (1951) Hico,  instruction  badly. Furthermore, l a n g u a g e as t h e  of  instruction  was  found  medium  of  up by t h e  t h e use o f E n g l i s h a s a  of methodological  conclude  the  most  carried  Manila,  during the p e r i o d ,  Iloilo  Experiments, instruction of  he  reported that for the Spanish-  (1952) c a r r i e d  out a survey  the  medium  while  was in  famous out  by  studies  could  resulted  in  resulted  on  the  medium  of  the department of E d u c a t i o n , The  to  mother in  medium  they  of  (S, S-, N)  designed  curriculum  Ghana  medium  t h e n a t i v e medium  1948-1955.  the  in  i n the r e l a t i v e  difficulties  that the English  scores i n English tests  2.1.1.5 One  learning  handicapped  b u t managed t o c a t c h  higher scores i n other subjects.  initial  of  o f E n g l i s h and t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e a s t h e  instruction. only  medium  i f t h e r e was any m e a s u r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e  efficiency  the  a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . . (PH, S-, P)  2.1.1.4 T a y l o r and G r i e v e to  by  (S, S + , P & JH)  2.1.1.3  of  suffer  a  u s i n g the second  were b e h i n d  grade.  registered  t h a t b r i g h t e r students are not  students  the bilinguals  that  second  g r o u p . T h i s i s one o f t h e few s t u d i e s t h a t  by t h e use o f t h e s e c o n d while  as  gain i n their  study,  analyze  tongue  English.  on The  called  the  the e f f e c t s of the  eventual  study  was w e l l  21  designed.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  mother t o n g u e in  grades  group r e c e i v e d a l l i n s t r u c t i o n  (Hiligaynon) i n grades  materials  i n E n g l i s h i n grade  were t h e same t h r o u g h o u t ,  1 a n d 2 where  the  materials  language  the  experimental  for  a c h i e v e m e n t s were a s s e s s e d grade  6.  The  during grade  translated  before  grade  experimental  equated  principals*  consisted  teacher and  of  age  were  quality,  supervisors*  also  began,  experimental experimental done.  abilities  and grade  g r o u p was a s s e s s e d  i n the  in  a l l were a s s e s s e d  f o r each  English  i n English.  grade.  elementary  SES t h a n  schools,  s t a t u s (SES) , t h e  qualifications.  Experimental  the c o n t r o l  teachers.  on s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e , c h r o n o l o g i c a l  were  Hental  1164  The  a b i l i t y T e s t . When  control  sample  size  s u b j e c t s and 189 c o n t r o l  students decreased  the  and  758  to  188  s u b j e c t s when m a t c h i n g  was  r a t e was v e r y h i g h ; o n l y 28% o f t h e  a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y .  method used  standard  language and  there  However, t h e d r o p - o u t  The from  equated  students.  sample r e m a i n e d  native  each  socio-economic  and s c o r e s on t h e P h i l i p p i n e s  project  the  1 and a f t e r  fourteen  t e a c h e r s were g e n e r a l l y o f h i g h e r Students  teaching  i n c l u d e d t e s t s o f r e a d i n g , a r i t h m e t i c problems,  sample for  to  g r o u p was a s s e s s e d  s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and l a n g u a g e s k i l l s The  6. The  group. Students*  1 a n d 2. S u b s e q u e n t l y  assessment  1 through  The c o n t r o l  with t h e e x c e p t i o n o f grade  were  n a t i v e language w h i l e t h e c o n t r o l  The  i n English  3 t o 6. The c h a n g e o f l a n g u a g e was a b r u p t .  g r o u p were t a u g h t  through  1 and 2 and t h e n  i n the  to teach the second  methods  used  p a t t e r n i n g and d r i l l s  in  l a n g u a g e was  different  most s c h o o l s . I t was b a s e d  with  p h o n e t i c s . „Teachers were t r a i n e d  e m p h a s i s on  both  on  structure  i n the t e a c h i n g o f both t h e  22  native  language and E n g l i s h a s a second  at t h e end o f t h e f i r s t group  was  significantly  year  language.  o f the study,  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  s u p e r i o r i n r e a d i n g and s o c i a l  studies  w h i l e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r i t h m e t i c were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . end  o f the f o u r t h year,  between control of  the  groups  was  in  areas.  t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t At  the  four or f i v e  end o f grade  though the  the  dimensions  majority of parents  enthusiasm  for  tongue than  when t h e y  this  study  were  then  of  of  varied thought  differences  significantly  a  personality  in  any  higher  of  on one o f  inventory  grade t o grade.  test,  Furthermore,  t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n showed  s c h o o l when t h e y  were t a u g h t  were t a u g h t  i n their  A t t h e end  4, 5, and 6, the e x p e r i m e n t a l  from  were w i d e l y a c c e p t e d taught  difference  in  through  English.,  The  i n the P h i l i p p i n e s .  more  t h e mother results  of  A l l students  mother t o n g u e f o r t h e f i r s t  two y e a r s  s c h o o l and i n E n g l i s h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s . „• Engle  number  1  dimensions  significant  s u p e r i o r i n language.  g r o u p members r e p o r t e d t h e m s e l v e s the  no  r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c , w h i l e t h e  g r o u p was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the study,  the  two  there  At t h e  of  (1975, p. 294) p o i n t e d p r o b l e m s . ; The  E n g l i s h and then  simply  Variables  not  were  confounded  with  Hawthorne  effect  the  out  tests  basic  the  were i n a d e q u a t e l y  translated  isolated.  that  A  into new  hypothesis.  the method No  was made.* The two c u r r i c u l a  study  had  a  validated i n  native  language.  of t e a c h i n g control i n grades  was  f o r the 1 and 2  The e f f e c t i s named a f t e r t h e Hawthorne p l a n t o f t h e Western E l e c t r i c C o r p o r a t i o n where i t was f i r s t n o t e d . I t r e f e r s t o t h e fact that almost a n y change, any e x t r a attention, any e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o r even t h e absence of manipulation b u t t h e knowledge t h a t a s t u d y i s b e i n g done, i s enough t o c a u s e s u b j e c t s t o change.  23  were not  equivalent  presented poorly The  as  w h i l e the  edited.  high  The  the  English  native  lessons  standard  attrition  of  rate  On  the  suggested  for  of the using  support f o r using If  Carroll  Ghanaian  rough d i t t o e s ,  the  that  teachers  the  factors  severe  criticisms  study,  i t  the  final  often  was  low.  sample  which  was  allowed  the  were  could  r a i s e d about  probably  be  a  second  language i n l a t e r  the  taken  mother t o n g u e i n e a r l y s c h o o l  native  (1961)  language  school  that  college  conditions  their  true  2.1.1.7 arithmetic Ireland.  schools.  of  the  than t h e i r E n g l i s h the  native  the  with of  opinion  educated  native the  English  of  I t was  as  years  or  years.  (E,  English  by  students  a  much more  English.. I t  was  standards of secondary under  the  most  speaking teachers,  comparable E n g l i s h  in Irish of  (1966)  studied  the  effects  belonging  to  school  seemed t o  be  surveys  of  (PH,  of  speaking the  also  favorable  g r o u p s . Two  to s t u d e n t s from E n g l i s h schools  was  efficient  indicated that A f r i c a n students could  Macnamara  that  vocabulary.  i n t e l l c t u a l a b i l i t i e s i n English alone.  Groups  reported  Ghanaian  l a n g u a g e was  educational  students  below t h a t  teachers*  mastery  i n s t r u c t i o n f o r them t h a n was  discovered and  the  primary  vocabulary  better  Furthermore, medium o f  studies  students i n f i v e  consistently  far  carefully  P)  2.1.1.6  the  the  were  school.  whole,  interpretation support  in  were on  E n g l i s h of  e x t r e m e l y s e l e c t i v e i n t e r m s of student to stay  materials  two  not  show  S-,  A)  teaching homes  in  linguistic  24  categories students  were were  arithmetic medium  selected given  technique  subject's  non-verbal  and  the teacher's  results  showed  English  speaking  solving  verbal  arithmetic. findings  operation verbal  used  reasoning  teaching that  the student  English  in  the  hindered but  not  due  to  s t a t e m e n t s . Hence, l a n g u a g e p l a y e d second  type.  He  concluded  teaching  of other  language  were g u i t e  other  subject  benefit  the  students'  subjects  language,  the  Aguilar  Philippines and S i b a y a n  appropriate (English)  status,  that  to n a t i v e in  skills  in the  i n mechanical  t o do a n  symbol.  The  arithmetic  However, i n s o l v i n g  and u n d e r s t a n d important  verbal  role i n  the  t h e f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o the the  medium  I t seemed  that  o f the second but  was  of  the  second  the t e a c h i n g  of  language d i d n o t  detrimental  to  the  p r o g r e s s i n m a t h e m a t i c s . , ( E , S-, P ) .  2.1.1.8 A n o t h e r r e s e a r c h in  fact  the  proress  mechanical  a very  through  discouraging.  with  Irish  the  multiple  variables.  students'  t o read  that  t h r o u g h t h e medium second  results  in  required  was r e q u i r e d  The  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  the  was s i m p l y  to  socio-economic  in  that  mechanical  according  school.  the  by an a r i t h m e t i c  he  t e s t and a  arithmetic  explained  probably  fifth-standard  s k i l l as independent  problems,  problems  the  or  ability,  teaching  students  indicated  and  was used t o a n a l y z e t h e  Macnamara  was  arithmetic,  i n Irish  instruction  regression  random  a problem a r i t h m e t i c  test printed  of  at  time  on  project the  (the  medium  (1967) . I t was  to introduce  and t h e s e c o n d  fiizal of  designed  reading  in  study)  was  completed  i n s t r u c t i o n by Bamos, to find the  l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium  o u t t h e most  second  language  of i n s t r u c t i o n .  25  Five  groups  grade  level  language  Table  were c h o s e n of  the  f o rreading  a s shown i n T a b l e 2.1 a c c o r d i n g student  at  the  introduction  t o the o f second  and a s a medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  2. 1 i s h e r e  Schools  were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  t h o u g h t t o be r e l e v a n t received  training  teaching  chosen,  v a r i a b l e s and c a r e f u l l y  i n the t e a c h i n g  continued  i n the teaching  on  what  matched.  o f t h e second  v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s i n the second  no t r a i n i n g  equated  Teachers  language,  l a n g u a g e . They  were  and i n  received  o f , o r w i t h , t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e and  t o use t h e o l d m a t e r i a l made a f t e r  the  first  Iloilo  Experiment. The  dependent  variables  were a r i t h m e t i c and s e c o n d  language  scores. The in  results  t h e second  difference the  were a s f o l l o w s :  l a n g u a g e was  on  the  educationally  relevant  a r i t h m e t i c and l a n g u a g e second language test  d i d not  s c o r e s on t h e s e c o n d  Trevino  reading test,  have  skills.,  apparently  a  The  great  only  reading  made  little  ( i i ) Changing influence  effects  were  on on  s c o r e s . T h o s e who h a d been t a u g h t i n t h e scored  highest  on  the  arithmetic  who h a d e x p e r i e n c e d t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e  medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n  background  language  most r e c e n t l y  while those  2.1. 1.9  introduced  second  medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n  ( i ) The t i m e a t which  f o r the language  (1968)  longest  time  had  the  as the highest  t e s t s i n g r a d e s i x . ( E , S-, P ) .  used  students  of  as subjects f o r h i s experiment.  (  S p a n i s h .. s p e a k i n g The  subjects  were  26  assigned  randomly  s t u d y . The the  to  a  monolingual  s u b j e c t matter  bilingual  program  tongue and  English,  received  a l l  t a u g h t was  were  taught  or  mathematics. through  instruction  through  the  t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e  to  out  inconsistent drawn.  results  progress  were o b t a i n e d ,  a l l  of  mother  monolingual  program  of  students two  firm  English, afterwards  programs.,  Since  conclusions  t h e s t u d i e s done b e f o r e  p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , s o any be  applicable  9 studies, and  more  t o primary  pointed  i n one  medium  of  well  were  instruction  students., For deficiencies  the which  t h e same  these  studies  might  ones.,  remaining  7  rendered  s t u d y were among Both  o f a second  not  be  of t h e i r language  though  dependable  as  o f them were s t i l l  pointing  the  school  they than  the  results  good f o r p r i m a r y  studies,  them l e s s  these  had  the  two  toward  direction.  Research  2.1.2.1  the R i z a l  t h e use  n o t e d a b o v e , more t h a n h a l f  took s u b j e c t s  s c h o o l s t u d e n t s o n l y . Among  designed  direction:  1970  c o n c u l s i o n drawn from  Macnamara*s s t u d y and  better  2.1.2  no  their  medium  the  under  Discussion  Almost  might  in  of  (E, I , P ) .  2. 1. 1.10  from  their  program  Students  both  w h i l e s t u d e n t s under t h e  achievement find  bilingual  Tucker  Done i n t h e  (1970)  school of a u n i v e r s i t y  70»s  studied i n the  three  urban  classes  Philippines.  in a  laboratory  One  class  was  27  taught  only i n English,  one o n l y  t a u g h t i n E n g l i s h and F i l i p i n o taught  on t h o s e  the  students  the  experiment,  alternate  came f r o m  on r e a d i n g  that  the  days.  d a y s were n o t e x a c t l y  middle  in Filipino  students or  by  using  class  families.  strange r e s u l t  and on o r a l only  transferring  amount o f E n g l i s h i n a l l was t h i s :  than  English-trained  test,  and v i c e  substantial  on a l t e r n a t i n g  and the t h i r d  for  groups and the year  English. This  skills,  and  students'  Filipino-trained  Tucker the  suggested read  t h e r e was  a  by fair  environments. scored  English social  concluded  411  egually  to  students  the  bilingual  same.  a l l did  learned  on  The s u b j e c t s  the  English  the  students  versa.  gains  of  was  A f t e r one y e a r o f  t h e r e s u l t s were c o n f l i c t i n g ;  well  themselves  in Filipino,  that  there  group over  One higher  studies were  no  the other  two  was n o t d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e s t u d e n t s . , ( E , S+,  P).  2.1.2.2 G i l e of  a  (1971) d i d a r e s e a r c h s t u d y  model  similar  discussed  later).  families  were  t o Lambert's D i r e c t  E n g l i s h speaking  taught  in  French  y e a r s o l d . Then E n g l i s h and F r e n c h medium French The  of i n s t r u c t i o n every  half  i n g r a d e one, and s t a r t e d  students  achieved  a s much a s m o n o l i n g u a l  2.1.2.3  weffer  background  used  Method  students from  were used year.  (which  from  the time  making  they  Students  started  be  class  were  alternately  use  will  middle  t o read E n g l i s h i n  were n o t h a n d i c a p p e d  (1972)  i n Toronto  as  three the  to read  grade  two.  i n t h e p r o c e s s , and g r a d u a l l y  speaking  primary  students.  students  a s s u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d  (E, S+, P ) .  of  Spanish  randomly t o a  28  monolingual taught  a bilingual  language,  bilingual English, all  or  arts,  program  program o f s t u d y . The  and  were  mathematics.,  taught  both  w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s i n the  instruction  to the students afterwards to f i n d programs. Weffer same  rate  the b i l i n g u a l group Spanish  and  group.  2.1.2.4 G a l l o p and two  latched  language  achieved  language  monolingual  P).  Kirkman  (197 2) compared  test  was  presented  difference groups.: given  A  the  questions, than  that  linguistic  was  found  of  was  found  results  Spanish)  performance  first group,  group.  than  language. but No  study  to  just  in the  of  The  bilingually significant the  two  when t h e s t u d e n t s were bilingual  brought  o f t h e Welsh c h i l d r e n  reached.  of  that  but  mathematics  mathematical  f a r more b i a s t o w a r d s t h e use  of  to  English  light  i n that  sample.  the No  (E, I , N) .  G u t i e r r e z (1972)  children  t o one  other  responding  The  preference  perceptual-motor  the  study  Welsh.  2.1.2.5 Duyne and  (in English),  between t h e mean s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by  when  there  the  the  Welsh a s t h e i r  English  to  follow-up  o t h e r c o n c l u s i o n was  bilingual  in  Welsh)  choice  progressed a t  o f W e l s h b i l i n g u a l s t u d e n t s on a  A l l t h e s u b j e c t s used  received  two  better  (in  and  were a d m i n i s t e r e d  mathematics  significantly  the  progress i n the  groups  ( E , B+,  groups  and  and  program  tests  their  mathematics  test.  (English  out  in  mother t o n g u e  monolingual  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e two  i n English  Students  their  i n English..Achievement  s u b j e c t s were  used  four  Spanish background  t o seven  year  t o perform  t a s k . T h e y were g i v e n o n l y S p a n i s h  or  a  old  complex English  29  verbal  instructions.  These  four  consecutive correct  The  child  was  asked  above c r i t e r i o n . groups that  given.  verbal  (E, S-  studies  of  this  M o n t r e a l . The  the f i r s t students were would  was  intent  in  results  Spanish  was  Spanish  more f u l l y  met  the  treatment showed  instructions  the c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y  to  decode  into  specific  developed  than i n  well-conducted  t h e famous S a i n t L a m b e r t  Shore was  t o determine  <i)  the second  language  language  would t r a n s f e r  cognitively  (ii)  or  (iii)  and to  whether  as w e l l a s s t u d e n t s  of that language,  handicapped  Board  whether r e a d i n g  without systematic i n s t r u c t i o n ,  speakers  Experiement  Protestant Regional School  l e a r n e d i n the second  would l e a r n  be  both  t h o r o u g h l y c o n c e i v e d and  area  language  native  when  had  P). ,  f  matter  for  made  instruction.  t h e t a s k when he  better  connections  each  r e s p o n s e s . .The  instructions  o u t by t h e S o u t h  content  to  of performance  be t h a t  o f t h e most  in  carried  perform  scoring  might  perceptual-motor  2.1.2.6 One  to  performed  It  encode  English.  verbal responses  t h e number o f c o r r e c t  the c h i l d r e n  were and  was  The  were r e p e a t e d u n t i l t h e c h i l d  who  whether s t u d e n t s  emotionally  by  the  experiment. Students French  in  instruction  from  English  kindergarten. was  From  i n F r e n c h and  o f t h e s c h o o l a s a whole was each  speaking grade 40%  English  t a u g h t by  language  arts  a  native was  2  was  English.  o t h e r o u t s i d e the classroom.  were a l w a y s  homes were i n t r o d u c e d t o  The  6,  i n English.  60% The  of  s u b j e c t s taught speaking  to  i n French  teacher  by a n a t i v e E n g l i s h  the  language  S t u d e n t s spoke E n g l i s h  French  taught  to  and  speaking  30  teacher. Two treatment groups were used. first the  and  the  The  pilot  group  f o l l o w - u p group e n r o l l e d i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n i n  f o l l o w i n g year. The follow-up group was a r e p l i c a t i o n  pilot  group.; The  speaking  or  control  French  groups  speaking  were  groups.  monolingual A l l were  socioeconomic s i t u a t i o n s and home background  of the English  from  similar  (middle c l a s s ) . The  progress of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was compared each the  started  year  with  c c n t r c l group. An  attempt  was  made t o c o n t r o l f o r a Hawthorne e f f e c t by  s e e i n g that c o n t r o l groups were a l s o s p e c i a l i n French  some  way. ., The  c o n t r o l group was engaged i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l mathematics  program. One of the two E n g l i s h c o n t r o l groups was taken from school  a  that was w e l l known f o r e x c e l l e n t language t e a c h i n g . The  second E n g l i s h c o n t r o l group was experimental  groups.  in  the  same  school  as the  T h i s attempt a t c o n t r o l l i n g the Hawthorne  e f f e c t was q u i t e unique among other s t u d i e s i n the same a r e a . A f t e r f i v e s u c c e s s i v e years indicated  t h a t t h i s program  assessments,  the  results  of second language teaching was not  d e t r i m e n t a l e i t h e r i n the n a t i v e a r e a s . . Furthermore,  of  language  or  in  the  subject  there appeared t o be no adverse c o g i t i v e o r  emotional e f f e c t s due t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s program.  (E, S+,  P).  2.1.2.7 Montreal, students  A  replication ranging  from  study using w o r k i n g - c l a s s s t u d e n t s from lower  middle  to  upper  a l s o was c a r r i e d out by Tucker, Lambert  middle-class and d*Anglejan  (1973). The r e s u l t s were q u i t e s i m i l a r to those of the  original  31  St.  Lambert e x p e r i m e n t . , (E, S*,  2.1.2.8  Collison  as h i s s u b j e c t s . medium  of  language had  (1974) The  of the  of  second  to express t h e i r  languages  took Ghanaian  that  the  group  interaction. was  w i t h o u t any  was  He  foreign  growth  first  group  the  that  and  that  this  in  was  one  they belonged  The  native  of  these results  group  while the  were  native  language-thought  when t h e medium o f  to  t o 14  Students  t o . The  language  f o r enhancing  appreciable contribution  their  language.  opinions  s t u d e n t s , t h e y might  12  groups.  was  conceptual potential  more f r u i t f u l  2  group  m a j o r i t y of t h e s e c o n d  concluded  to  into  t h e i r second  q u e s t i o n s and  not a b l e to express t h e i r language  the  a c c o r d i n g t o which group  indicated  s t u d e n t s o f age  s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d  instruction  and  P) .  communication  mimic a d u l t  their  own  concepts  conceptual  d e t r i m e n t a l t o the students.  (E#  S-,  JH) .  2. 1.2.9  After  second  language  replication  Lambert's comprehensive as  studies  Eastern  part  of  reported  that  the  students  in  an  the were  the  available extended  students  teachers'  in  French  i n French.  in  of  the  in  his associates  did  not  (1976)  fell  behind  Students  enrolled  and t h e i r  in  that i n the these  learning of  through French d i d not lag behind  towards  the  program  were  a  the  suggest  program  i n French  of  a number o f  especially  the r e g u l a r program. Furthermore,  attitudes  use  instruction,  Canada,  evidence  became more p r o f i c i e n t  academic s u b j e c t s taught of  done  of  c o u n t r y . S t e r n and  academic s u b j e c t s taught programs  medium  study  that  students found  to  and be  32  positive.  ( E , S + ,fl).,.  2. 1. 2. 10 D i s c u s s i o n all  the  studies  done  after  1970 and r e v i e w e d  experimental  s t u d i e s . I n g e n e r a l , they  than  done b e f o r e  those  under  control.  representative for  Duyne's  learning  The of  and  through  achievement  St.  Lambert  Collison's t h e second  experiment  i n Canada. R e c a l l i n g  were  carried  that t h e Canadian from  studies)  seem  out  t h a t Canada i s a  government i s t r y i n g  a predominantly  monolingual  by  a n d E n g l i s h a r e two  l i n g u i s t i c s . , Learning  political language  that a l l  bilingual  country  t o push the  these s t u d i e s  quite  close  is  together  very  whether r e s e a r c h w i l l  might  Furthermore,  one l a n g u a g e may h e l p t h e l e a r n i n g  language,  same k i n d o f r e s u l t  was  atmosphere.  F o r c o u n t r i e s whose n a t i v e l a n g u a g e second  that  society to a bilingual  heavily  influenced  (except  suggest  very hard  be  the  probably  by C a n a d i a n r e s e a r c h e r s , and  i n t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s , t h e r e s u l t s from  from  to  were  language i s n o t d e t r i m e n t a l t o the  one  second.  quality  i s  o f t h e s t u d e n t s . One s p e c i a l f e a t u r e  mainly  French  higher  t h i s g r o u p o f s t u d i e s . These s t u d i e s  studies  country  of  were  1970 s i n c e many r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s  these  and  were  here  in  o f the  different  arrive  at the  i s questionable.  2.2 STODIES RELATED TO THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE THROUGH A  SECOND  LANGUAGE  2.2.1  Raisner  (1967)  selected  Puerto  Rican  students  at the  junior high l e v e l subjects science  were  divided  i n Spanish  achievement that  i n the c i t y  the  of  2.2.2  into  while  t h e two  Bolger  own  (1967),  the  better  program;  the b i l i n g u a l by  discovered that  fluent  this  (E, S-,  (i)  The  factor  taught i n Spanish  2.2.3  Knight  school the  not  of  in  regular  effective  only also  not  the  Spanish used  t h e achievement of the  to  groups  d i f f e r e n c e when compared  t e a c h e r and  investigated bilingual  Educational the Spanish  significantly  presented  the  s p o k e n a t home was  no s i g n i f i c a n t  o f both  students of the  achievement  significantly  concluded  s t u d e n t had  an  that effect  (E, I , J H ) .  (1969)  Southwest  students  teachers., Bolger  language program.  seven  was  the  the  the same program  taking  the a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s . , He  on  showed  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s p o k e more  account,  The  showed  also  achieved  with  ability  results  When a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was  into showed  taught  JH).  s c i e n c e program bilingual  The  English.  and  grade  students  t h e amount of S p a n i s h  the c o n t r o l groups.  take  g r o u p was in  Spanish  program  comparable  same among t h e g r o u p s . than  in  that:  science  than  conducted  taught  subjects.  compared. The  self-image.  better results  when  was  One  b a s i n g h i s h y p o t h e s i s on  bilingual  (ii)  groups.  g r o u p s was  ( i . e . B a i s n e r ' s s t u d y ) , found taking  York a s h i s  two  the other  students achieved  improvement i n t h e i r  o f New  higher  Spanish  than  the  effects  elementary  science m a t e r i a l s developed  Laboratory. speaking when  on  the  when t h e y  He  found  s t u d e n t s was science  that  by the  statistically  materials  were  were p r e s e n t e d i n E n g l i s h .  34  He s p e c u l a t e d that t h i s i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s might be due v a r i a t i o n of Spanish f l u e n c y among the t e a c h e r s chosen study.  2.2.4 and  to the  for  the  (E, I , P) •  Hg  (1970) chose 51 Chinese immigrant  sixth  grade  in  the  Los  students of the  fifth  Angeles area as h i s s u b j e c t s of  study. The s u b j e c t s were assigned randomly t o a monolingual or a b i l i n g u a l program of study. Students i n program  were  taught  through  both  the  their  bilingual mother  E n g l i s h , while students i n the monolingual program through  the  medium  tongue were  that  one hour l e s s o n s each week f o r  students  taught b i l i n g u a l l y  explained  especially enabling better  using  motivate  since  teachers' might  that  them  to  each  group.  He  the  help  understanding  to  the  in  mother  the  the  reading  recall.  achievement materials  group.  tongue  bilingual  children's  facilitate  comprehension of  students'  students  required  explanation  not  the  found  achieved b e t t e r i n vocabulary  l e a r n vocabulary b e t t e r and  both  taught  f o u r weeks  and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n when compared with the monolingual He  and  of E n g l i s h . The s u b j e c t s were given both a  p r e t e s t and a p o s t t e s t . The d u r a t i o n of the study was with two  science  may  group,  to c o n c e p t u a l i z e memory  and  the  But t h i s method which in  requires which  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i d e a s and r e a s o n i n g processes are i n v o l v e d . (E, B+,  P).,  2.2.5  Cooper  (1971) i n v e s t i g a t e d problems of t e a c h i n g p h y s i c s t o  L a t i n American c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . H i s study was d i v i d e d i n t o many p a r t s which i n v e s t i g a t e d  different  questions.  For  simplicity.  35  just  those  h e r e . The  related  first  to the language  part  tried  u n i t s i n b o t h S p a n i s h and Latin  America.  The  of i n s t r u c t i o n  are  reviewed  to e v a l u a t e t h e t e a c h i n g  of  physics  English  experiement  was  groups  first  i n 1970  that  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c s achievement  in  S p a n i s h and The  those  third  taught i n E n g l i s h  and  both  S p a n i s h and  the  tests  fourth  English.  were  variation  given  part  He  o f s t u d e n t s from  performed  repeated the  with a s l i g h t  t o two  of  were  design.  was in  did significantly  found  between u n i t s  taught  small.  evaluated tests of reading i n  found  that  the  language  did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  non-mathematical. Spanish The  affect  of  Spanish found  a  that  S-,  Furthermore,  tried  group  and t h a t  g r e a t an  2.2.6  part  t h e s c o r e s on  which  the  scores  components,  but  t o compare t h e  which  the t e s t s  given  higher.  was  improvement i n  taught only i n  i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group  improvement i n E n g l i s h  as  English  taught p h y s i c s i n E n g l i s h  of a c o n t r o l group  students  in  t h e s c o r e s when t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  fifth  ability  (E,  affect  and  He  when the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d m a t h e m a t i c a l it  i n 1969  those i n the  Spanish.  and He  d i d not  show a s  control  group.  C).  Juarez  instruction science treatment receiving Spanish.  (1976)  was  more e f f e c t i v e  c o n t e x t . , He groups  tried  found  receiving  single ( E , I , P) •  to  determine  single  language  than b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n no  significant  instruction  language  i f  difference  bilingually,  instruction  through  in  a  between  and English  those and  36  2.2.7  Goh  (1978) r e p o r t e d  science  achievement  switching  from C h i n e s e  in  teaching  sole  and  no  and  concluded  determining  there  was  a significant  improvement  t o E n g l i s h as  science  S i n g a p o r e . Goh  that  the  in  English  medium  mathematics  at  the  of  of  after  instruction  primary l e v e l i n  t h a t language exposure time  f a c t o r f o r the  drop  was  l e a r n i n g of a language.  not  the  (PH,  S-,  P) •  2.2.8  Discussion among the  features  seven  which m i g h t be  2.1.2.  First,  none  second language as students  two  subjects.  2.3  the  the  in  level  when  REGARDING  the  these  several  with  Section  that  using  benefit  second  studies began  to  on  learn  the  subjects s u b j e c t s . ,<  students  focused  the  language.  s t u d e n t s as  Canadian  case i n S e c t i o n  AFFECTIVE  are  immigrants as  country  say,  students  the  and  were u s i n g  developing  none o f  suggested  i n s t r u c t i o n would  science  s t u d i e s based on,  there  when compared  studies  studies  (This i s also  STUDIES  distinct  medium o f  used  Thirdly,  school  choice.  the  studies  T h e r e were no  high  of  very  of  achievement  1  Secondly, f i v e and  studies reviewed here,  as  the  the  senior  science  by  2.1.2.)  FACTORS  IN  SECOND LANGUAGE  LEARNING  2.3. J Lambert and area  since  English-  1959. speaking  Gardner  (1972) h a v e been d o i n g s t u d i e s  The  first  studies  were  high  school  s t u d e n t s who  carried  in  out  were s t u d y i n g  this with  French  37  in  t h e M o n t r e a l a r e a . T h e y were t e s t e d  intelligence, intensity these  attitudes  of motivation  variables  formed  a  interpreted learning  as  a  A  foreign  and  learning  Factor  analysis  of  of  a  second  orientation  of  factor  toward  factors)  and  intelligence  language  toward  to learn  attitude  about t h a t  toward language  Integrative  successful motivation* Philippines the second  attitude  functioned  in  a s an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e  favourable  attitude  1  community  l a n g u a g e a p t i t u d e and  {i.e. ..affective  Motivation  desire  3)  French.  independent  composite  French  aptitude,  French c a n be  follows:  language  2)  that  the  language  The g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s s e t o f s t u d i e s  summarized a s  1)  learn  factor  and a t t i t u d e s  Canadians.  to  showed  single  toward  for  toward culture  by  second itself.  another c u l t u r e , a and  the second language  a  favourable  were c o n d u c i v e t o  learning.,  motivation  second except  was more  characteristic  language l e a r n i n g for  certain  where t h e r e was an u r g e n c y language.  than  of  instrumental  areas  like  the  about  mastering  (E, NA, JH) .  ' I n t e g r a t i v e ' r e f e r s t o l e a r n e r s who wish t o acquire a new language i n order to i d e n t i f y w i t h members o f t h a t l a n g u a g e community. I n o t h e r words, t h e y wish to integrate themselves into the c u l t u r e of t h e new language group. ' I n s t r u m e n t a l ' r e f e r s t o t h o s e who wish t o use t h e l a n q u a g e a s a way o f g a i n i n g s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o r an i n s t r u m e n t t o h e l p them achieve their goals.  38  Similar  studies  were  areas. , Results findings, of  carried  obtained  except  a total  feelings  school  to another,  during  2.3. 2  cases.  the  above  In a  study  m e a s u r e s were f o u n d depending  students  were f o u n d  uncertainty,  on  the  to  social  learning  French  t o have i n c r e a s e d  and  dissatisfaction  tested  of  t h r e e groups of Unites States  language  learning.  m o t i v a t i o n accompanied  higher  foreign students  in  regard  to  the  He  a l s o found  that  scores  i n E n g l i s h . (E,  C ) . „•  2.3.3  Lukraani  to l e a r n  class. seven  (1972) s t u d i e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  the second  Bombay. The  had  y e a r s . The  and  results indicated significantly  type  with  ideal  of m o t i v a t i o n ,  study. in  in  graduating  language  f o r about towards  towards E n g l i s h speaking  Indians,  self  concept  were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The  that instrumental motivation socres English proficiency  scores.  Lukmani argued t h a t t h e  I n d i a and  motivation  attitude  to L a m b e r t s g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s but  Philippine learning  from a h i g h s c h o o l  s t u d i e d E n g l i s h as a second factors,  between  second language p r o f i c i e n c y  girls  language, a t t i t u d e  concept,  opposed  l a n g u a g e and  s u b j e c t s were 60  They  their first self  (1969)  factors  integrative NA,  unrest,  u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the  affective  support  and  that period.  Spolsky  attending  American  i m m e r s i o n program  of  to  attitudinal  c l a s s o f t h e community. in  tended  i n other schools  f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g two  l e a r n i n g Hebrew, t h e  c h a n g e f r o m one  out  the P h i l i p p i n e s  This  agreed  was  result  with  situation  correlated i s  Lambert's  of  language  completely  different  39  from  that  of  English-  French-speaking  speaking  Americans l e a r n i n g  Jews  learning  English.  colonial  societies  tradition  and m o d e r n i z a t i o n .  their  which  but  would  instrumental  English,  English-speaking  and t h e P h i l i p p i n e s a r e  were  torn  Since  by  a  struggle  between  g r o u p s h a d t o be f o r g e d .  on c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f W e s t e r n of  post-  t h e y were t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h  be  orientation  towards E n g l i s h  indigenous  These society  o r i g i n . , Hence  was  healthy  the  in  this  HA, S H ) . ,  ;  2.3.9  Hebrew,  ultimately  of s i t u a t i o n . ( S ,  learning  India  own i d e n t i t y , new r e f e r e n c e  g r o u p s m i g h t draw h e a v i l y  kind  Canadians  Discussion There  are  only  affective  factors  Gardner's  study  appears that lines,  in  second  i s probably  studies  reviewed  language  here  learning.,  representative  regarding  Lambert  factors  in  assessing  the  on s e c o n d l a n g u a g e  and  i n this field. I t  t h e r e a r e v e r y few r e s e a r c h e r s w o r k i n g a l o n g  especially  affective  three  predictive  power  these of the  proficiency.  2.» BELATED STUDIES DONE IN HONG KONG  2.4. 1 Kvan language  (1969) d i d two s t u d i e s as  administered  the a  medium  reading  i n t h i s area  to  read  as  fast  background m a t e r i a l s .  using  cf instruction. In the f i r s t test  in  English  to  u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s o f Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y . told  of  as  He f o u n d  possible, that  the  second  s t u d y , he  first  year  The s u b j e c t  were  j u s t a s they would  read  50% o f t h e s u b j e c t s  read  at  40  a  speed  under 13  175.  l e s s than  This  years  reading in  of  of  speed  was  300  In  same to  showed  second  s t u d y , Kvan  the  the  essays  who  (1970) h e l d  various diagnostic tests  in  education  a  backqround, language of  this  test  average  much h i g h e r  than  and  and  more  reading  but f a r as  students  students.  middle  interested {E, S-,  He  in  C &  their  SH).  216  o f Hong Kong. B e s i d e s  test  language  background,  in  Chinese,  about  language  a t t i t u d e s towards elite  school  S e s s i o n s f o r the  questionnaire  intellectually  were  greater maturity i n  lengthy  proficiency,  school  the Chinese  of U n i v e r s i t y a  as  on  w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n o f  Lanugage A n a l y s i s  and  Judges  maturity  school  closely  middle  students  detail  middle  middle  that  the  to  of  out o f the s c h o o l .  of the A r t s F a c u l t y  included  found  responsive  s u r r o u n d i n g s b o t h i n and  Vince  The  Anglo-Chinese  regard  o f thought  Anglo-Chinese  educators  students  reading  languages.  expression  the r e s u l t s agreed  s t u d e n t s were more  rating  with  reported that the Chinese  experienced  linguistic  and  i n t h e two  linguistic  d i d the  12-  wanted t o compare t h e m a t u r i t y o f  by s t u d e n t s i n C h i n e s e  assess  that  analysis  was  of  in English.  much more o r i g i n a l i t y  freshmen  of B r i t i s h  A similar  which  read a t  of children  that  language.  t h a t 75%  then administered to the s u b j e c t s .  but w r i t t e n  general than  2.4.2  and  to that  U.S.A. o r  subject  He  commented  minute  s e t s o f e s s a y s were o b t a i n e d f r o m  disregarding possible.  equivalent  the  reading rate  Two  words p e r  c h a r a c t e r s per minute,  written  schools.  asked  in  the second  essays  was  as t h e i r  was  the average  the  age  French  Chinese  speed  150  group.  the  socio-  use,  self  language The  the  and  result  41  included  the following:  1)  92%  of  ten  years s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h ,  were s t i l l  2)  but  language  having  Four  compelled  young the  to  the system, HHAT  almost  traditions  Chinese Hong  point  Kong  used  i n t h i s area portions  was t r a n s l a t e d  previous study of  towards t h e E n g l i s h  of  one  as a  o f the  system  and  who  felt  of  i n 197 3. T h e s t u d y  (called  t h e above Language A n a l y s i s of  170  students  i n the  o f Hong Kong. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e v i s e d  t o some e x t e n t .  basically  i n university;  values  education  University  survey  students  (Cheng, Shek, T s e and Hong) who had  Chinese  questionnaire  than  (S, S-, C ) .  q u e s t i o n n a i r e with a sample  simplified  these  respected Chinese  and  Sessions  and  more  o u t what t h e y saw a s a s e r i o u s w e a k n e s s i n  d i d a study  COST)  had s p e n t of  hostile  unanimously  greatest cultures.  been t h r o u g h  some  i n need o f r e m e d i a l E n g l i s h  language  2.4.3  but  s t u d e n t s were n o t a c t i v e l y  world's  AT  the students being tested  A  major  change  into Chinese.  duplicated  the  The r e s u l t s  results  i n Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y .  was  indicated  The f o l l o w i n g  that  the  from  this  by the  were  some  the results:  1) felt  When  rating their  that  comprehension certain  they  abilities  had  no  i n Chinese,  difficulty  (88%) ana i n r e a d i n g  of their  productive s k i l l s :  (64%) 56%  of  most s u b j e c t s in  listening  They  were  them  less  thought  42  they  had  no  problem  i n expressing themselves f o r m a l l y  informally  i n speech  they  express themselves  2)  could  In  self  rating  ( C a n t o n e s e ) , and fluently  of E n g l i s h ,  were good i n r e a d i n g ( 1 3 % ) ,  52%  only  i n oral  of  them  or  felt  i n written Chinese.  a minority  abilities  felt  they  (4%) and  in  between  the  writing (4%).  3)  There  was  s t u d e n t s from  4)  The  little  that  understanding themselves  2.4.4  Cheung  on  from  an  randomly  divided  into  was  different  mediums o f  beforehand to  and  than i n Chinese.  investigated samples  the  of  two g r o u p s o f  determine test  their  reproduced  form  in  of  medium  The  :  was  Chinese  that  s c h o o l . Each size.  A  instruction  sample  was  lesson  in  the l e s s o n ,  retention  performed  groups  to  the  of the  through  was  Relevant charts  administered  t h e two  of  I and Form I I I s u b j e c t s  equal  in class.  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  results indicated lesson  C).  t a u g h t t o both groups i n each sample, but instruction.  in  i n expressing  (S, S-,  effects  Form  graduates  difficulty  more d i f f i c u l t y  the c l a s s at appropriate times. After  multiple-choice  the  and  schools.,  school  encountered  Anglo-Chinese secondary  topology  rating  Anglo-Chinese  they  in English  two  selected  of  English,  (1974)  instruction  in self  Chinese o r Anglo-Chinese middle  majority  confessed  difference  taped  were shown a  test  in  subjects  to  lesson.  The  of s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g  consistently  better  on  the  43  posttest.  Cheung  concluded  medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n tested.  2.4.5  that  f o r both  Chinese  was a more  o f t h e Form  I  and  effective  III  samples  (E, S-, J H ) .  Fu  opinions  (1975) d e s i g n e d on c e r t a i n  Kong., The schools.  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o determine  a s p e c t s o f the l a n g u a g e  subjects  were  After detailed  561  students  analysis,  situation from  Fu found  students' in  five  Hong  different  several trends  among  the o p i n i o n s of the s t u d e n t s .  1)  English  2)  Students f e l t  unesay about  3)  Students  proud  4)  Students  western  was an i m p o r t a n t  were  using English  of t h e i r  generally  culture  and n e c e s s a r y s u b j e c t .  had  and toward  own  Chinese  negative  English  (  i n speech.  culture.  attitudes  toward  speaking people.  (S, S-  , SH).  2.4.6  Poon  primary  (1978)  school  investigated  difficulties  leavers i n learning  S u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y were c h o s e n grade  6  students  categorized school follow:  of  according to  results  on  the  four the  medium  Hong  Kong  Hong  mathematics throgh  from  primary  among  the  recently  Kong  English. graduated  s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l s were of  instruction  Ability  T e s t . The  and  the  results  44  1)  S t u d e n t s whose mother t o n g u e  learned  English  mathematics except  2) in  as  more  a  was  foreign  efficiently  f o r those with h i g h  Cantonese  language  but  who  would  i n Chinese  had  learn  than i n E n g l i s h  ability.  Chinese primary school students obtained higher scores mathematics than t h e i r  primary  s c h o o l s . , In  specific  vocabulary,  comprehension, solution,  and  counterparts  particular, concept  they  in  Anglo-Chinese  were  better  differentiation,  self-expression  but not i n the speed  in  problem  i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  of problem  reading. . (E,  S-,  P).  2.4.7 of  B. Chan, H i n t o n , and  Education  completed studied one  Examination  in  Chinese. and  and  1  results English  the  Certificate  f o r s t u d e n t s who with  those  Student  had  who  had  Bine p a i r s of s c h o o l s , each c o n s i s t i n g one  Chinese  Middle  School  with  questionnaires,  (SSEE) a l l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s  school  information  s h e e t s , SSEE r e s u l t s , and  from t h e s u b j e c t s and  of  similar  t h e i r s t u d e n t s were t a k e n a s t h e s u b j e c t s o f  medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n collected  (CEE)  School Entrance Examination  were c h o s e n study.»  (1979) compared  the c o u r s e o f s t u d y i n  Anglo-Chinese  Secondary  Yau  their schools.  CEE The  the  sheets,  results results  were of  The Secondary School Entrance Examination (SSEE) was an achievement test of Chinese, English and Mathematics administered to a l l students at t h e end o f g r a d e s i x b e f o r e 1978. A l l g r a d e 6 s t u d e n t s who had r e a c h e d a certain standard were then a l l o c a t e d to d i f f e r e n t secondary s c h o o l s a c c o r d i n g t o their academic achievement, p e r s o n a l c h o i c e and area of residence.  45  the study  1)  were a s f o l l o w s :  The  Chinese  socially family  than  The  CEE  s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were c u l t u r a l l y  privileged  members and  family)  2)  less  middle  their  e x p e c t a t i o n and Anglo-Chinese  Anglo-Chinese  results  ( i n terms of e d u c a t i o n o f  than  other  encouragement f r o m  the  counterparts,  students  their  and  generally obtained  Chinese  better  counterparts  with  c o m p a r a b l e SSEE r e s u l t s . ,  3)  The  medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n  ranked  as  one  r e s u l t s . / (PH,  2.4.8  Tam  stage  used  the  Form I  students.  a  s c h o o l s . The  a c t u a l complex  Multivariate  analysis  language  of  subjects  such  Subjects.  (S, B + , J ) .  CEE  instruction, English,  and  in  medium  classroom  stratified  of with  three  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o 71 c l a s s e s  Batio revealed that students  as  actual  ( i . e . G r a d e 7)  distributed  i n 53  p r e d i c t o r s i n the  t o compare t h e  sampling  p l a n he  schools  SH).  the students. . U t i l i z i n g  Likelihood  1  in  Anglo-Chinese  p r e f e r r e d by  of students 2,471  S+,  in  most i m p o r t a n t  (1979) d i d a s u r v e y  instruction that  of the  4  sample  of p r o f i l e s  size  using  p r e f e r r e d Chinese  classroom  Wilk's as  discussions  M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e and  the  was  the in  Social  In t h e A n g l o - C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be E n g l i s h , b u t many o f t h e t e a c h e r s use a good d e a l o f C h i n e s e ,  46  2.4.9 S i u and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1979a) d i d an e x t e n s i v e this  area.  On  the  study  in  b a s i s of p a t t e r n s of b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n  i d e n t i f i e d i n the sample survey e a r l i e r r e f e r r e d t o by  B.  Chan  e t a l , n i n e t e e n s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d . Four c l a s s e s i n each form (Form  I I t o IV) from each s c h o o l were asked t o take p a r t i n t h e  study,  A  test  battery  consisting of  eight  tests  and  two  g u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s . after were  detailed  data  analysis,  the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s  reached.  1)  Students  instruction  who s t a r t e d t o use E n g l i s h as t h e  medium  i n grade one d i d not a c h i e v e h i g h e r s c o r e s on  E n g l i s h t e s t s than those who s t a r t e d E n g l i s h as language  of  at  t h e Form I I and I I I l e v e l s  9 ) . The same s t u d e n t s made l o w e r  scores  a  second  ( i . e . Grade 8 and on  the  Chinese  tests.  2)  Using  English  Anglo-Chinese  as  secondary  the  medium  schools  o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n the did  not  guarantee  e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g o f i t as a second language.,,  3)  Students  the f u n c t i o n s  perceived of  that  t h e Chinese language served  communication,  cultural  and  academic  development w h i l e E n g l i s h language had s o c i a l and economic values.  2.4.10  (S, S-, J H ) . ,  P. Chan, Cheng, Fong and T s u i (1979), r e a l i z i n g t h e high  e d u c a t i o n a l c o s t o f u s i n g E n g l i s h a s t h e medium  of  instruction  in  Hong  Kong  schools,  constructed  conforming to the grade 4 standard 2,947 g r a d e 7 p u p i l s drawn f o r m were d i s t u r b i n g . The school English  as  also  medium  of  interviews,  they concluded  and  i t  other  than E n g l i s h  was e x t r e m e l y instruction  2. 4. 11  of  that r a i s i n g  to  on t h e m a j o r i t y  studies  the deal  these three concluded  ten  studies  with  instruction  impose  obtained  secondary and  the b a s i s  the standard  English  of pupils.  on  of  using  o f these English subjects  i s s u e s and t h a t i t as  a  medium  of  (S, S-, J H).  of E n g l i s h  However,  as the  the achievement o f c e r t a i n s u b j e c t t h e two b e t t e r  t h e use o f E n g l i s h  a s t h e medium  designed ones would  one  hamper  medium  areas.  of  Among  {Cheung, Poon) the  students'  (B. Chan) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e  o f i n s t r u c t i o n m i g h t be  was  not adequately c o n t r o l l e d with  going  t o the A n g l o - C h i n e s e s c h o o l s ,  were  weak. The a u t h o r s  this  r e s u l t was c o n t r a r y  affective  English  three  beneficial.  B. C h a n ' s s t u d y was n o t a n e x p e r i m e n t a l one, t h e SES o f  students  The  in t h i s s e c t i o n , only  the e f f e c t of using  studies,  that  reviewed  achievement while t h e remaining  the  t h a n 50  teaching  separate  of  the t e s t .  of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r school  were two e n t i r e l y  unrealistic  sample  The r e s u l t s  more  English  a  Discussion  Of  use  22 s c h o o l s .  i n s t r u c t i o n . On  a s t h e medium  language t e s t  and gave i t t o  interviewed  on t h e s u b j e c t  the  using  English  About 6 5 % o f t h e p u p i l s f a i l e d  researchers  teachers  an  in  hence  the  conclusions  ( i . e . B. Chan e t a l ) e v e n m e n t i o n e d to t h e i r  remaining 7 studies factors  and  the advantage  second  were  original mainly  language  that  expectation. concerned  with  the  l e a r n i n g . . A l l o f them  48  p o i n t i n g i n the same d i r e c t i o n — s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d more and  less  English.  Furthermore,  they a l s o found t h a t the long  hours of s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h i n primary and secondary not  help t o improve  Chinese  schools  did  the standard o f E n g l i s h as much as expected  by s o c i e t y .  2.5  S'OHEUBY OF  INVESTIG&TIOUS  k t o t a l of 38 sections.  studies  have  been  reviewed  the  in  science,  l e a r n i n g a second language,  and  affective  they s t i l l cover a very  broad area. The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f the s t u d i e s  according  to the method used, e f f e c t s , and l e v e l s of samples s e l e c t e d . summary  is  occurred  i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . Though each study i s d i f f e r e n t  their  in  a  individual  tabular  feels  a s s i m i l a t e a l l the r e s u l t s it  in  some  comprehensible. that  the  form  contribution  same weight, the author  put  last  Though most of them r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o the e f f e c t s of  the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , t e a c h i n g of factors  in  form  showing  to that  is  of  and  not be of the  hard  for  one  to  (38 s t u d i e s ! ) at once i f one does not  {e,g, frequency  tables)  In r e a d i n g the t a b l e s , one  result  the f r e q u e n c i e s that  knowledge may it  The  must  which i s more bear  in  mind  each study i s assumed t o be approximately  e q u a l i n weight,  2.5.J The divided  methods into  comparison.  three  used  in  kinds:  The f o l l o w i n g i s a  different survey, table  that occurred i n d i f f e r e n t areas.  students  were  roughly  experimental and p o s t hoc showing  the  frequencies  49  T a b l e 2.2  In  i s here.  Table  2.2, one n o t i c e s  them were e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s that  recently  variables since  there  in  the  studies  2.5.2  means  we  are  Studies  of  the  Table  using  in  2.3  the  studies  one n o t i c e s t h e r e  the second  detrimental 1970, t h e r e  not  being  were  sign  misled  by  o f i n s t r u c t i o n on  divided  into  four  table:  to  was a t e n d e n c y  l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium  students.  &n  that  actually  c a r r i e d o u t i n C a n a d a . On  studies  that  were  three done  after  that  that  five  Four o f the s t u d i e s  the other  science  language  and  seven  Hong Kong. What do t h e s e d i v e r g i n g  mean? Does i t s u g g e s t t h a t  English  and F r e n c h  of were  hand, o f t h e t w e l v e  t h e use o f t h e s e c o n d  o f them were done i n in  that  was  t h e use o f t h e second  a t these s t u d i e s revealed  were done by C a n a d i a n r e s e a r c h e r s .  detrimental,  of i n s t r u c t i o n  o f i n s t r u c t i o n might be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e  s t u d e n t s , ft c l o s e r l o o k  claimed  t o conclude  i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t was  were s i x s t u d i e s c l a i m i n g  l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium  them  i s a healthy  2. 3 i s h e r e .  In  them  of t h e  This  e f f e c t s o f t h e medium  groups as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  that  indicates  t o w a r d s more c o n t r o l  i n t h i s area. that  This  23 o f  variables.  academic achievement  Table  among t h e 38 s t u d i e s ,  done a f t e r 1970.  has been a t r e n d  more c o n t r o l  nuisance  that  are  two  was of  results similar  50  languages and l e a r n i n g one might g e n e r a l l y h e l p the o t h e r ? In  the case  of  C h i n e s e , s i n c e i t i s very d i f f e r e n t from  E n g l i s h , t h e same e f f e c t might not o c c u r . J . Chan (1976)  points  out  , The  fact  that  t h e Chinese w r i t t e n language i s  " i d e o g r a p h i c " whereas t h e E n g l i s h w r i t t e n  language  is  " p h o n e t i c " , and t h a t spoken Chinese and w r i t t e n Chinese are  guite  different.  Very  often,  t o o , t h e Chinese  c h a r a c t e r s g i v e away t h e answer t o an i t e m  2.5.3  In general, there are three d i f f e r e n t  using  second  language  kinds  of  students  as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n , hoping t o  improve t h e i r second language competency.,„They a r e s t u d e n t s  who  are  and  from  immigrants language  developed respectively. may  be  countries, Their  different.  developing  motives  of  countries  learning  second  S t u d e n t s from developed c o u n t r i e s  p r o b a b l y have i n t e g r a t i v e motives w h i l e s t u d e n t s from d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s have i n s t r u m e n t a l motives. Immigrants w i l l p r o b a b l y have both motives a t t h e same t i m e . I f T a b l e 2.3 changed  i s recategorized  with  t h e column  heading  t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s u s i n g second language a s  the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s o b t a i n e d .  T a b l e 2.4 i s h e r e .  From Table 2.4, more o b v i o u s t r e n d s a r e r e v e a l e d . , S t u d e n t s i n t h e developed n a t i o n s l e a r n w e l l when second language i s used  51  as  the  medium  of i n s t r u c t i o n  n a t i o n s a r e hampered the  two  extremes.  developed Or,  is  to  when s e c o n d  it  because  them  Does  i t  they  indicate  have  the l e a r n i n g  (additive  language  I m m i g r a n t s seem t o be  c o u n t r i e s a r e more g i f t e d  tongue s o t h a t  that  i s used  lying  language  b i l i n g u a l i s m ) ? In the case  in  than  confidence i n their  of a second  between  students  linguistically  the  others?  own  i s an  as  mother  addition  of s t u d e n t s  from  developing c o u n t r i e s , they  may  h a v e an  inferior  feeling  about  their  The  learning  of second  language  which  is  own  mother t o n g u e .  usually  a language  of  wider  communication  become  confused  about  tongue.  This kind  of c o n f u s i o n w i l l  second  language  many  concepts  language;  which  t h e use o f  instruction  may  2.5.4  samples  four  Table  The  whether  will  make  t h e y s h o u l d g i v e up hamper  their  the  them mother  learning  in  (subtract!ve- b i l i n g u a l i s m ) .  As f o r l e a r n i n g  1  i n learning  medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  the  w h i l e s t u d e n t s i n the d e v e l o p i n g  science, this depend the  reguires  greatly  second  on  language  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  a  command  of  medium  of  good as  the  hinder the students' learning.  selected  f o r t h e s t u d i e s were d i v i d e d  into  l e v e l s a s shown i n t h e T a b l e . *  2.5  i s here.  One s t u d y under the 'General S t u d i e s ' column covered four levels, so i t was c o u n t e d f o u r t i m e s i n s t e a d o f one. S i m i l a r l y , another s t u d y under the 'General S t u d i e s ' column covered two l e v e l s , i t was c o u n t e d two t i m e s i n s t e a d o f one.  52  Table  2.5  shows  that  of  the four d i f f e r e n t  senior high school students  were s e l d o m c h o s e n  study.  was no s t u d y  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  science  through  there  the  as  levels,  the  subjects  of  done on t h e t e a c h i n g o f  second language a t the s e n i o r high  school  level.  2.6  WEAKNESSES IN THE RESEARCH T h i r t y e i g h t s t u d i e s were r e v i e w e d  and  while they  th medium  covered  for this  investigation,  many a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g  of instruction,  s e v e r a l areas  have n o t  been  to  explored  or f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . From has  t a b l e s shown i n S e c i o n  high s c h o o l l e v e l .  Besides  language.  research  problems  that  l a n g u a g e a s t h e medium Kong  research  and  among t h o s e may  literature  attempt t o address  done i n Hong  be c r e a t e d  should specific  around  the  will  the  t o be  very a  Kong.,  affect  second  thousands  this  be b r i d g e d . The p r e s e n t issues within t h i s  in  experimental  by t h e use o f a  world,  there  at  f a c t o r s of l e a r n i n g  of i n s t r u c t i o n  millions  that  science education  F u r t h e r m o r e , few s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g  c o u l d be f o u n d  Any  we n o t e  t h a t , there appear  s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on t h e a f f e c t i v e  second  Hong  2.5.4,  been no r e s e a r c h done i n b i l i n g u a l  senior few  the  gap i n the  study  problem  in  is  area.  an  53  CHAPTER 3 METHOD OF STUDY  The  Chapter  Section the  describes  how  the  1.1 were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  research design t o c l a r i f y  specific  Included  questions raised i n  i s a schematic  chart  of  the t e s t . *  F i g u r e 3.1 i s h e r e . ,  3.1 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Based hypotheses later  on t h e f i n d i n g i n S e c t i o n 2.5 and 2.6, t h e f o l l o w i n g were f o r m u l a t e d ,  detailed  rationale  Hypothesis  I:  Students  whose f i r s t  b u t who h a v e been  English  as a second  achieve  h i g h e r s c o r e s i n p h y s i c s when  of Chinese through This hypothesis Section  1.1.  than  test  taught  language  through  will  t h e medium  when i t i s t a u g h t  t h e medium o f E n g l i s h .  was f o r m u l a t e d To  language i s  Chinese  p h y s i c s i s taught  1  be e x p l a i n e d  i n each r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s . General  in  will  this  t o answer P r o b l e m hypothesis,  1  three  The two studies (No. 1 and 2) on t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t between t h e two c l a s s e s i n t h e ACS g r o u p a r e the original p r o p o s a l . The p u r p o s e o f a d d i n g t h e s e two i s t o strengthen the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the o r i g i n a l study ACS and CS g r o u p s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r .  raised specific  physics not i n studies i f the  54  hypotheses  were f o r m u l a t e d .  Specifically  how  general hypothesis i s e l a b o r a t e d i n Chapter Hypothesis  la:  Grade  achieve grade  10 s t u d e n t s  these r e l a t e 5.  i n Chinese  higher scores i n physics  10 s t u d e n t s i n  t o the  schools  will  than  Anglo-Chinese  schools.  Hypothesis  lb:  G r a d e 10 s t u d e n t s  schools w i l l  achieve  of  higher scores i n  p h y s i c s when i t i s t a u g h t than  Anglo-Chinese  when i t i s t a u g h t  bilingually  through  English  only.  Hypothesis  Ic:  Grade  10 s t u d e n t s o f  schools w i l l  a c h i e v e h i g h e r s c o r e s when  physics i s taught Chinese  than  medium o f For  Problem  2 and  used  5 in  to  Section  English,  motivation i n physics, study  answer  were used English,  to find etc.)  proficiency of  3.2  THE  out  find  3 and  which  would  be  SUBJECTS  through  1.1,  multiple  which f a c t o r s  the  habit  in  regression  (proficiency i n physics,  the achievement  of  (aptitude,  significant  in  etc.)  physics. ,  4 i n S e c t i o n 1. 1, s i m i l a r  factors  English.  SELECTION OF  out  i n predicting  Problem  the medium o f  English.  were  To  through  i t i s taught  methods  would be s i g n i f i c a n t  Anglo-Chinese  methods  motivation predicting  in the  55  Ideally, and/or  a probability  subjects  should  required  to safeguard  enhance  generalization  g i v e n below, 1) Because little  this  study  of  the  was  physics  languages.  Very  close  teachers  was  and  teachers  comprehensive (Fu,  Fu's  government  ( i . e . The  and  reasons  sensitive  area.  agencies  such  very  as  M i n i s t r y of Education)  the could  purposes. ,  to  about  8  parallel  using  on  study  government's language p o l i c y ,  months  of  controlled  c l a s s e s i n two between  the  demands o f  different  writer  the  extraordinarily  available,  intact  study  and on  heavy.  the  These  classes  and  teachers.  recommendation  for further studies after  language  secondary  Anglo- Chinese secondary school) the  the  sample i s  followed:  i n v o l v e d was  1975), two  of  a  schools  target population. For  r e q u i r e d . The  research  schools a v a i l a b l e to  validity  of  Such  done i n a p o l i t i c a l l y  selected assisting  Following  students  not  sample  chosen.  cooperation  conditions necessitated carefully  was  involved  in  classes  the  f o r sampling  research  been  to  Department  The  systematic  internal  from  instruction  assisting  have  present  cooperation  expected 2)  method  The  Education be  the  or  problems  schools  of  (one C h i n e s e and  were c h o s e n f o r t h e  writer for this  Hong  purpose  study,*  her Kong one The  were g o v e r n m e n t  * From now on, t h e two s c h o o l s w i l l q u i t e o f t e n be w r i t t e n i n t h e short-form as CS ( i . e . C h i n e s e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ) and ACS ( i . e . Anglo-Chinese secondary s c h o o l ) .  56  subsidized to  and  a l l other  the  above a v e r a g e  secondary  same C h r i s t i a n  students  and  in  two  the  this  subjects  o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  schools.  Form  selection  4 level  T h e r e were two  t a k i n g the  consisted  achievement  s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong, and  t e a c h e r s a t the  grade l e v e l  i n academic  2  of  classes  administered c o n s i s t e d of  ( i . e . Grade  10  c l a s s e s i n each  same c o u r s e  four  compared  in  physics;  of  g r a d e 10  by the  level)  school at thus  the  students  in  physics. The  reasons  f o r making t h i s s e l e c t i o n  f o r the  present  study  were as f o l l o w s . 1)  Although  unequivocal  was  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , experience  too  restrictive  and  intuition  t o b e l i e v e t h a t c a u t i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s based  results  of the  2) school This  3.3  The  research  program is  in  and  keeping  could  be  made  to  other  led  the  on  the  similar  program c o u l d thereby  f i t quite naturally  into  r e d u c e a p o s s i b l e Hawthorne  with  the  principle  of  the  effect.  unobtrusive  design. ,  METHOD OF Since  from  selection  for  situations.  experimental  2  selection  writer  school  in  the  ESTABLISHING THE  the  two  COMPARABILITY OF  g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s were n o t  the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n o f a l l t h e g r a d e Hong Kong, i t was  questionable  THE  GROUPS  randomly  10 p h y s i c s  whether t h e y  chosen  students  were c o m p a r a b l e .  I f t h e c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the groups was unknown, i t would be The C h i n e s e S c h o o l - P u i Y i n g M i d d l e S c h o o l The A n g l o - C h i n e s e S c h o o l - Ming K e i C o l l e g e B a s e d on t h e a n n u a l mean C e r t i f i c a t e of Education Examination scores, the two s c h o o l s were c o n s i s t e n t l y a b o v e t h e a v e r a g e o f a l l t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong.  57  difficult this  to t e l l  study  was  difference.  due  of the  3.3. 1 P r e t e s t o f the  Examinations present  treatment  effect  of  Hong were  when  explore  the  Kong,  the  evidently  compared the  group  to e s t a b l i s h  to  of  two  chosen  o t h e r secondary  possibility  that  t h e two  knowledge and  experience  i n the c o n t e n t  physics  achievement  p r e t e s t was  g i v e n t o the  schools  above-average  c l a s s e s of  in  used  initial  Certificate  experimental  pretest  or the  the  achievement  results  study  was  i n achievement i n  groups.  Physics  in  achievement Kong. To  t o the  d i f f e r e n c e found  Hence t h e f o l l o w i n g method  comparability  From  whether any  the  in  for  area  to  the  academic  s c h o o l s i n Hong  students  s c h o o l s d i d not  was  Education  in  the  have e q u i v a l e n t be  administered  taught,  a  to a l l four  classes. The period  in  September  1978.  s c h o o l s were a t d i f f e r e n t possibility because did  not  the  of two  know t h e y  3. 3. 2 E q u i v a l e n c e  Althogh  times,  students*  students the  there  1  groups  first was  periods of the  very  s c h o o l s were q u i t e f a r a p a r t * were p a r t i c i p a t i n g  of the  were  physics  little, i f  Two  i n the  G r o u p s on  equivalent  Other  and  the  two any,  exchanging i n f o r m a t i o n about the  In o d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e Chinese  i n the f i r s t  test  students  same r e s e a r c h  study.  Factors  Chinese  with r e s p e c t  and  the  anglo-  to other  factors  The two s c h o o l s a r e s i t u a t e d i n two different areas of Konq, l i k e H o r t h and B e s t V a n c o u v e r i n t h i s a r e a . They a r e f i v e miles apart.  Honq about  58  l i k e l y t o threaten i n t e r n a l  validity,  the  following  the  two  steps  were  taken.  1)  Background  including  information  age,  sex,  S.S.E.E. r e s u l t s otherwise  being  investigated whether respect  2) an the  To  in  their  c o u l d be  battery  They  (CVB), C h i n e s e  language  usage  (ELO),  reasoning  mechanical  reasoning  (SB).-Since  the t o t a l was  administer  the  4  1/2  entire  shorter  1  for  choosing was  i n order  presumed  t o be  or  carefully  to f i n d  out  similar  with  g r o u p s were o f e q u a l  ( S i u , 1978)  included  reasoning  several  two  groups of students.  subtests  background,  school  study  students  factors.  aptitude test  mathematical  reasons  present  a survey  check whether the  two  groups of  socioeconomic  their  groups  to these  subtests.,  1  and  through  the  on  The  following:  language English (MB),  time  (CLIT) ,  verbal English (EV8),  abstract  reasoning  (AB),  s p a t i a l reasoning  administering i t in  were  eight  reasoning  and  hours,  sessions  usage  Chinese  to  verbal  for  battery  administered  battery consisted of  the  (USEE) ,  was  ability,  was one  used  not  all  eight  possible  session. to  tests  Instead,  administer  The background information collected in the survey d e s c r i b e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . ( S e c t i o n 3.4.2)  to  will  the  be  battery.  3)  Multivariate  used the  2  to study  a n a l y s i s of variance  the equivalence  i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was  enrolled  i n grade  constituted physics  10 p h y s i c s  members o f Group  in  the  study  (MANOVA), was  o f the groups. I n t h i s group  membership. «, S t u d e n t s  i n the Chinese school 1, and s t u d e n t s  Anglo-Chinese  study  school  in  (N=90)  grade  10  (N=86) c o n s t i t u t e d  Group 2 i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The study and test  were p h y s i c s aptitude  2  variables background  (potential covariates) a s measured by t h e  a s measured by t h e s u b t e s t s  b a t t e r y . , The  determine the  dependent  central  purpose  of  whether t h e two g r o u p s d i f f e r e d  dependent  variables  (criteria)  i n the  pretest,  i n the aptitude MAHOVA  was  to  s i g n i f i c a n t l y on  identified  a b o v e when  c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r . I n t h i s a n a l y s i s i t would be p o s s i b l e I n t h e o r i g i n a l t h e s i s p r o p o s a l , t h e w r i t e r d i d n o t know o f any a p t i t u d e o r i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t which was s u i t a b l e f o r g r a d e 10 s t u d e n t s i n Hong Kong. S o t h e w r i t e r p r o p o s e d t o t a k e t h e g r a d e s on proficiency i n C h i n e s e , E n g l i s h and M a t h e m a t i c s a s measured by t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n (S.S.E.E.), t a k e n i n May 1975 by t h e s t u d e n t s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s ' ability. This was n o t i d e a l s i n c e t h e S.S.E.E. was t a k e n by t h e s t u d e n t s t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . One d i d n o t know whether there were any c h a n g e s due t o o t h e r e f f e c t s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d o f t h r e e years.,when t h e w r i t e r a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out t h e study, he found that o u t o f t h e 176 s t u d e n t s , o n l y 126 s t u d e n t s had S.S.E.E. g r a d e s . S i n c e t h i s l a r g e percentage of missing data would s e r i o u s l y hamper t h e c o n s e q u e n t s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h e a u t h o r was f o r c e d t o abandon t h i s idea and t r i e d to find a s u b s t i t u t e f o r S.S.E.E. F o r t u n a t e l y , S i u ' s a p t i t u d e t e s t b a t t e r y was just ready i n t h e market and i t was u s e d t o r e p l a c e t h e S.S.E.E. J u d g i n g f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e o f f i n d i n g a measure for the a b i l i t y of the subjects, Siu's aptitude t e s t battery would s u i t t h e p u r p o s e e v e n b e t t e r t h a n the o r i g i n a l proposed S.S.E.E. g r a d e s . The test S.S. S.S. S.S.  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f S.S.E.E. g r a d e s and t h e a p t i t u d e b a t t e r y o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e 126 s u b j e c t s were a s f o l l o w s : E.E. C h i n e s e v s Sum o f CVB and CLO 0.38 E.E. E n g l i s h v s Sum o f EVE and ELU 0.76 E.E. M a t h e m a t i c s v s Sum o f MB, AB, HEB, SS 0.56  60  to d e t e c t even  s i g n i f i c a n t differences  i f they  differed  taken a l o n e . The significant found,  intent  slightly the  the  nature  that  differences  of might  two  on e a c h  analysis  between  discriminant  determine  subsequent  of  differences  subsequent  these  only  between t h e  was  groups  criterion that  i f  t h e two g r o u p s would be  analysis  would be  used  to  t h e group d i f f e r e n c e s i n order be  taken  into  account  in  analysis.  3.4 INSTRUMENTATION The and  present  scales  tests  were  previous  s t u d y made u s e o f a number o f a c h i e v e m e n t  f o r measuring t h e background  v a r i a b l e s . Some o f t h e  existing  test  tests  applications  have d e v e l o p e d  program  Research  Test  for  which  were a v a i l a b l e . O t h e r  test statistics  computer  designated  Anaysis  were a n a l y z e d as  Package  the  3.4.  The_Achievement  1.1 P r e t e s t The  examination.  1  The  was  from  by making use o f  Laboratory  a  of Education  The p u r p o s e  of the  analysis.  Tests  of Physics  pretest  statistics  t e s t s which d i d not  (LEETAP).*  LEETAP program i s t o do i t e m a n d t e s t  3.4.1  tests  a  Achievement 40-item  ( A p p e n d i x 1)  multiple  choice  items i n the t e s t mainly covered  D e t a i l s o f t h e program c a n be o b t a i n e d from Research Service Centre, F a c u l t y o f Education, B r i t i s h Columbia.  written  the t o p i c o f  the Educational the U n i v e r s i t y o f  61  Light  and  content  Sound, t o be validity  of  t a u g h t under the t e s t  panel of judges c o n s i s t i n g present  s t u d y and  Since Chinese  the  and  equivalence original test  school,  test  of  the  was  of  was  the  group two  by  (2  translation  back  into  English  another  by  resulting  two  Nasr.  o f t h e 40  be  test  Out  exact  items  Chinese  with the h e l p of the w r i t e r the Chinese  3  had  teacher  that  version  in English.  3. 4. 1.2  Post-test  of  who  involved  10  was  fluent  items Hence  equivalent  by a  in  the  in t o be  (2 c l a s s e s ) i n English,  the  established.  The  translation  of  taught i n the  (see A p p e n d i x  3).  Chinese To  bilingual  make  teacher. by  i t e m s were  Dr.  the Chinese content  translation to  the  The  2  Gamal  judged  were good t r a n s l a t i o n s ,  in  the  accurate, i t i s translated  t r a n s l a t e d i t e m s , 26  acceptable.*  t a k e n t o be  checked  v e r s i o n s were t h e n compared  translation,  were was  English  was  group  classes)  the  sure  2)  The  i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . !  versions  the  conditions.,  teachers  p r e s e n t e d t o one  in English;  prepared  (see A p p e n d i x  not i n v o l v e d  another  test  was  two  controlled  and  to 4  o f the  original  P h y s i c s Achievement., j  * Hr. H.C. Au ( B . S c , D i p . E d . ) , a b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s t e a c h e r . Hr. H.H. Hong (B.Sc,Hon., D i p . E d . ) , a b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s t e a c h e r . . Hrs. Y.T. L. Liu (B. S c . , D i p . E d . , H.Ed.), a b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s teacher. Dr. Gamal Nasr (B.Sc., H.Sc., fi.Ed., Ph. D.) , an Ed. D. s t u d e n t in the Science E d u c a t i o n Department, Oniversity of B r i t i s h Columbia. • The d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y o f t r a n s l a t i o n was arbitrarily divided into five levels: E x a c t - t h e two i t e m s were t h e same. „ Good - t h e two i t e m s were o f a l m o s t t h e same meaning. , A c c e p t a b l e - t h e two i t e m s were o f r o u g h l y t h e same meaning. Bad - the two i t e m s were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . D i f f e r e n t - t h e two i t e m s were o f d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s ,  2  3  62  for  The  content  one  item  of  this  (No. 27)  discrimination  test  which  in relation  was was  t h e same a s t h e p r e t e s t d e l e t e d s i n c e i t s index  to t o t a l  s c o r e was  3.4.1.3 P o s t - t e s t o f P h y s i c s A c h i e v e m e n t 2 T h i s was test in  mainly the  judged  a 25  present by  the  the  topic  of Light  (Appendix  The  content  study. assisting  teacher  1  and  The  the  i t e m s were i n E n g l i s h . They were t r a n s l a t e d  the  w r i t e r with  1 0 ) . T h e Chinese by  another  compared  f o r e q u i v a l e n c e by items,  a c c e p t a b l e and was  judged  was  correct  in  then  p h y s i c s t e a c h e r . ? The  translated  the  v e r s i o n was  but  judged  different  Chinese  the  to  be  of  the  two  the  taught  test  Appendix  to  English  Out  of  exact, the  then  the  3  25  good, 2  item  that  translation  n o t good.  was  by  (see  v e r s i o n s were  was  was  original  Chinese  the Chinese  v e r s i o n of that item  equivalence  to  checking of  to English  in  was  the  back  Nasr.  revealed that  the r e t r a n s l a t i o n  and  meaning and  were  English  Gamal  1 different.Further  t o be  English  19  Dr.  of  teacher  retranslated two  items  w r i t e r . The  test  the h e l p o f the a s s i s t i n g  item  8)  Sound t h a t  validity  and  of  negative.  item m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t .  covered  except  still  Hence  the  same  translations  was  established.  3.4. 1.4  Hetest  Thirty to  1  2  form  (Appendix  good i t e m s  9) of Posttest  t h e H e t e s t . Good i t e m s  1 and  referred  Posttest  to those  2 were  having  chosen  suitable  Mr. C.C. Hong (B.Sc., Dip.Ed., Dip.System Analysis), a b i l i n g u a l physics teacher. M i s s B. C. Cheng ( B . S c , Dip.Ed.),, a b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s t e a c h e r .  63  difficulty  level  (0.35-0.70)  0.70). Furthermore  and  discrimination  index  (0.20-  c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y was t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i n making t h e t e s t . The r e l i a b i l i t y retest  method.  of the p o s t - t e s t s was o b t a i n e d by t h e t e s t -  The t e s t o f the 'good i t e m s ' ( i . e . t h e B e t e s t )  was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the two groups of s t u d e n t s a t t h e end o f May 1979. The s t u d e n t s were n o t i f i e d t h a t t h e y just  several  days  before  the  method  is  seldom  previous  earlier  though  common p r a c t i c e i n students were  after  reduced.  constitute  an  they  Hong  each The  of  r e a s o n t h a t the t e s t - r e t e s t  test.  As  the  had  seen  several  copies  of the item ( i t i s a  to  return  the  test  items  to  Hence memory and c o a c h i n g e f f e c t s  correlation  indicator  test  had  Kong  test).  a  used i n Hong Kong, t h e s t u d e n t s  would n o t e x p e c t t o meet t h e same i t e m s they months  have  date o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h o u t  b e i n g t o l d t h a t i t was a r e t e s t o f t h e test-retest  would  of  the  test  and  retest  scores  r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t . The  reliability  coefficient  was  used  r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t was m a i n l y t h a t it  was  also  r e l a t e d t o the purpose of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Hhat  t h e r e s e a r c h r e g u i r e d was  mainly  the  stability  of  the  test  results.  3.4. 1.5 T e s t on Mechanics Mechanics  test  (Appendix  items  were  12) chosen  C e r t i f i c a t e o f Education Examination administered  to  the  grade  11  papers.  students  s c h o o l as a p i l o t s t u d y . / O n l y 41 i t e m s  from  of  some  They  previous  were  first  o f t h e Anglo-Chinese suitable  difficulty  l e v e l and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d e x were r e t a i n e d t o form t h e p r e s e n t  64  test.  3.4. 1.6 T e s t This of  on A t o m i c P h y s i c s  test  Education,  used  was d e v e l o p e d  the Chinese  (Appendix  14)  by a r e s e a r c h g r o u p i n t h e S c h o o l  O n i v e r s i t y o f flong Kong. I t was  i n a research project  ( S i u , 1979b) and was a d o p t e d  3.4. 1.7 E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y T e s t B a t t e r y This test English  as  b a t t e r y appears  a  Foreign  They  were  different  respectively,  structure,  (TOEFL).!  15)  I t consisted of five  areas of E n g l i s h  listening  vocabulary,  here.  t o be v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e T e s t o f  Language  s u b t e s t s t o measure f i v e  (Appendix  first  reading  proficiency.  comprehension, comprehension  English  and  writing  by D r . P. K. S i u ,  Lecturer  ability.  3.4. 1.8 A p t i t u d e T e s t B a t t e r y This test of  the  ( S i u , 1978)  b a t t e r y was d e v e l o p e d  School  of  Education  of t h e Chinese  Kong. I t was s p e c i a l l y  normed f o r an a v e r a g e  Hong  suggested  Kong.  instrument test  Dr.  Siu  f o r grade  10 s t u d e n t s .  that  English abstract  language  usage  verbal reasoning reasoning  (0.71),  grade 9 s t u d e n t was  verbal  reasoning  mechanical  usage  reasoning  reasoning  (0.69),  in  reliable  (KB-20)  E n g l i s h language  (0.91) , m a t h e m a t i c a l  (0.86),  also a  The r e l i a b i l i t y  b a t t e r y was a s f o l l o w s : C h i n e s e  Chinese  i t  O n i v e r s i t y o f Hong  of t h e (0.80), (0.87), (0.81), spatial  »- The author used t h e s e t e s t b o o k l e t s t o p r e p a r e f o r TOEFL and a c h i e v e d a h i g h s c o r e . He c o n c l u d e d f r o m this experience that the t e s t i t e m s were v e r y s i m i l a r .  65  reasoning  ( 0 . 8 4 ) . The  available Dr.  information  S i u . They  students  above data obtainable  were b a s e d  taken  from  the  on  3.1  gives the  achievement t e s t s  Table  3.1  low.  administered, the low  one  the  was  five  whole  dropped  s t u d e n t s had  than  the  the  test.  about  3000  Kong.  Tests  test s t a t i s t i c s  of  the  section.  can  that  when  been t a u g h t be  between  t h e B e t e s t was  ( t h e 4B  the  test  was  the content  being  since  'good*  0.70.  The  this  students  c l a s s of the Chinese  of coaching  was  found.  average  score of the  the B e t e s t ,  the  students  o f P o s t t e s t 1 and the B e t e s t .  fact  was  of  scores  school)  were  taking  consistently  the  three  students  Interview  reviewed  only  P o s t t e s t 2 r a t h e r t h a n a l l the Hence, t h e s c o r e s o f  of  between  i n the o t h e r  scores  t h a t t h e y had  time  Before  h i g h e s t among t h e f o u r c l a s s e s .  students r e v e a l e d the  items  v a l u e , the  score of these students  the  of the P r e t e s t the  expected  average  were  before  not  reliability  class  dropped  learned  Achievement  months. I n c a l c u l a t i n g  However, on  content  only  blindly.  classes.  the  on t h e  recalling  because e v i d e n c e  Betest, the  lower  the  of  of  i s that the r e l i a b i l i t y  1, P o s t t e s t 2 and  the t e s t s of  3.1  But,  test-retest  Posttest  the author sample  most i m p o r t a n t  reliability  presumably guessed The  random  discussed i n this  i n Table  somewhat  tested,  from  was  i s here.  Of n o t e is  a  reliaility  whole g r a d e 9 p o p u l a t i o n i n Hong  3.4.1.9 Summary o f S t a t i s t i c s Table  on  these  of the  things  students  66  were dropped The  five  Proficiency proposed  English  test  the  were  complete  to  the  {internal  the  variables  parentheses  at  the  end  s e c t i o n of  the  detailed  i n physics  r e l e v a n t background  of  English  consistency 0.94.  of  and  information  involved  in  the  measured each  analysis the  was  collected  given  description  the  language  research is  of  of from  study. below.  indicates  & The the  guestionnaire.  Scales  Socioeconomic background  This  refers  indicative an  on  parents*  to  the  of b o t h t h e  individual.  data  The  (SES)  background s o c i a l and  questionnaire  students*  family  education,  and  (Set I , S e c t i o n  2)  a  between a c h i e v e m e n t  description  1)  of  b a t t e r y o f t e s t s was  facilitate  teachers  3.4.2. 1 The  reliablity,  sub-tests  reliability  and  relevant  test-retest  -Questionnaire  instruction, students  of  tests  b a t t e r y . The  order  relationship  the  calculation  by Hoyt) o f  3.4. 2 S u r v e y In  i n the  or  economic s t a t u s of was  used t o  collect  social  class,  miscellaneous  matters  income,  other  A).  Motivational i ntensity  environment  i n physjcs  (MIP)  67  Hotivational student»s  intensity  efforts  r e f e r s to the i n t e n s i t y  and d e s i r e s t o a c h i e v e  g o a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . was u s e d  to find  did  the  in  further learning  3)  g o a l s . The p r e s e n t  physics class  (DLP)  to achieve  s c a l e was d e s i g n e d  eagerness  for  habits  i n physics  out  physics  p r a c t i c e h a s become e a s y and  performed  to  a  (SHP)  through  without  pattern  conscious  was d e s i g n e d  habits i n preparing Section  Students'  This  find  paid i n  refers  III,  to  certain  doing assignments i n  and how much a t t e n t i o n t h e y  questionnaire  5)  wish  Habits  study  attributed to  (Set I I I , Section D).  *•) S t u d y  is  students  (Set I I I , S e c t i o n C ) . ,  Desire r e f e r s to a conscious  students'  scale  of physics, t h e i r i n t e n t i o n sf o r  Desire to learn physics  the  present  and t h e importance they  physics  a  a certain  o u t t h e amount o f homework  study  study,  The  of  of  behaviour familiar,  t h o u g h t . The  to find  which and  present  out the s t u d e n t s '  f o r physics  classes  (Set  E) .  knowledge o f E n g l i s h (SKE)  i n c l u d e s the students*  language  h i s t o r y and use  68  of  English  Section  6)  Parents'  in  knowledge o f  I, Section  about  of  the  r e f e r s to  (PKE)  parents'  use  English  The  reasons, studying  the  process of  effective present s c a l e  person  aware  instrumental English  favourableness In as  to or  the  purpose  of  of  possible  integrative,  of  students' Section  as  refers  the  a rating  and/or  i n terms  secondary schools  making a  was  English  E).  (Set  learning  Attitudetoward  "English  English  in  (Set I ,  object.  I,  adaptation  English  Attitude  of  for  toward l e a r n i n g  in  (Set  (OTE)  f a c t o r s i n h i s environment  English.  classroom  English  the  toward  facilitating  8)  of  C).  Orientation  This  out  E).  Information  7)  and  a  for  sentiments D).  medium of i n s t r u c t i o n  (AEMI)  a  learned  predisposition  unfavourableness present  a medium o f  scale,  the  of  towards  an  object  was  i n s t r u c t i o n " (Set I ,  Section  69  9) M o t i v a t i ona 1 i n t e n s i t y_ i n _ E ng l i sh (HIE)  The  scale  homework  was  used  to  out  s t u d e n t s do i n t h e s t u d y  intentions f o r further they  find  study,  the  amount  of English,  and  the  attribute to learning English  of  their  importance  (Set I I ,  Section  This  i s t h e amount o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t s t u d e n t s  receive  from  parents  Section  A) .  10)  Parental  encouragement  (PE)  t o do w e l l  i n English  (Set I I ,  B) .  11)  a t t i t u d e toward  This  scale  about  English  English  was used speaking  speaking  to find  Westerners  {&TES)  o u t how a s t u d e n t  Westerners  (Set  I,  felt  Section  G) .  1 2  )  Desire to learn  This  scale  eagerness much  was  English  (DLE)  designed  to  f o r doing assignments  attention  they  paid  find  out  i n English  i n English  class  Section C).  13)  a t t i t u d e toward  f o r e i g n languages  (ATFL)  students and  1  how  (Set I I ,  70  This scale deals  with  students'  toward l e a r n i n g f o r e i g n language  14) S t u d y h a b i t s  This  scale  i n English  was  used  habits i n preparing Section  attitude  (Set I , S e c t i o n F ) .  (SHE)  t o determine students'  for  English  classes  study  (Set I I ,  D). ,  !5) B e a d i n g h a b i t s  This  general  scale  (EH)  was  designed  books t h a t  students  connected  with  t o determine the kind o f  chose t o read  their  school  apart  work  from  (Set I I ,  those Section  E).  16) A t t i t u d e t o w a r d  This  life  scale deals  present  life  with  how  i n Hong Kong  17) a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m  This  i n Hong Kong  judgement persuasion  and of  order the  student  feels  about  (Set I I , S e c t i o n F ) .  (AO)  r e f e r s t o the general  control  a  (&LHK)  p o s i t i o n that a source o f  (external  individual  o f a f r e e man)  human c h o i c e s . , T h e p r e s e n t  to  and  should  the to  reasoned  the  p r e v a i l and  scale consisted  of  common settle items  71  chosen  18)  from  the  California  authoritarianism  which  were r e l e v a n t  (Set  G),,  I I , Section  Bthnocentrisa  "aliens"  characteristic rejection.  is  The  constructed  own  f o r students  culture.,The  of l i f e  Anoroie  This  Kong  1  mind  generally.  a  primary  generality  of  outgroup  scale  was  i n Hong Kong  specially  (Poon,  1977)  G).  (CA)  r e f e r s t o one's s u p p o r t  students'  20)  the  Cultural allegiance  This  Hong  c o n s i s t e n t frame o f  present  (Set I I I , S e c t i o n  19)  to  of  (ETH)  This refers to a relatively concerning  F-scale  present  preference  of  or  s c a l e was  loyalty used  f o r C h i n e s e and/or  (Set I I I , S e c t i o n  to  to  one's  determine  W e s t e r n ways  B).  (A NO)  r e f e r s t o the  dissatisfaction  f e e l i n g s of s o c i a l  which  sometimes  uncertainty  characterizes  or not  * The C a l i f o r n i a F - S c a l e o f Authoritarianism consists of many items originally c o n s t r u c t e d f o r A m e r i c a n s . Some i t e m s d i d n o t s u i t Hong Kong b e c a u s e Hong Kong people don't have the same background a s A m e r i c a n s s o t h o s e i t e m s had t o be d e l e t e d by the author.  72  only  the  second  bilingual language.  measure t h e with  21)  The  present  degree  Bating  of  reference  here  s c a l e was  (Set I I , S e c t i o n  is  present  competency scale  in  (Set I I , S e c t i o n I ) .  rating  and  rating  which  one  of t h i s s c a l e deals indicates to self  one's a b i l i t y others  in  academic  e n g a g e d i n the  consisted  of  self  directions:  self,  III,  A).  Section The  the  the case was  also  required  and  teachers  required of t h e  S e l f r e p o r t of  skill  as  in  students.  teaching  friend  behaviour  in  or p r i v a t e l y ) compared present  four and  a d d i t i o n to the  scales  teacher  collected  following  with  different  both  i n v o l v e d i n the the  of  (SCAB)  in  was  use  of parents*  with  work  parent,  the  with  (publicly  concept  of t h e t e a c h e r s ,  H) .  concerned  same work. The  above i n f o r m a t i o n  students  to  y  S e l f - c o n c e p t of academic a b j l i t y  content  designed  in  was  self  The  of a  (BES)  students* English  serious student  satisfaction/dissatisfaction  of E n g l i s h s k i l l s  l a n g u a g e . ». The  23)  a l s o the  Hong Kong s o c i e t y  The  22)  but  (Set  from  study.  In  information information  73  Behaviour  in  which  teaching  as  compared  the  one  indicates  to  w i t h o t h e r who  self  one's  a r e engaged i n  same t a s k . ,  21)  Qualification  25)  Teaching  and  experience  performance  (TP)  T h i s i n v o l v e d e v a l u a t i o n of t e a c h i n g performances students  ( S e t I I I , S e c t i o n F) •  Background variables and  information  which  Mitchell  1  were  suggested  (1968) a s  possibly  indirect  relation  academic  achievement,  by  the  i n f l u e n c e the students'  Variables  were s u g g e s t e d  by Fu  Lambert  proficiency 23-24  with  ability  students*  learning.  Since i t  Appendix than  35  the was 6)  as  whole  2-4  variables  might  three  that each sub-set  minutes to complete.  an  in  which  Gardner  influencing Variables  factors  questionnaire  or  i n physics  students.  important  into  are  achievement  possibly the  (1967)  general  187-189),  t o t e a c h which  broken so  pp.  with  direct  interest  are those  (1975,  i n English of  teachers*  long,  5-21  (1972)  deal  Brookover  Variables  students*  deal  students'  which  physics..  22  having  of  might  the  with  and  indication  and  by  about  the  affect  the  was  extremely  sub-sets  (see  required not  more  Furthermore,  the  data  74  were  collected  the  first  and  boredom. The  Later,  term i n o r d e r t o reduce  original  i t had t o  students  be  to  translation  two E n g l i s h The the  was  in  Chinese  for  i n  Chinese.  The  7) was done by t h e To  make  by a n o t h e r f l u e n t  Out  of  was  judged  by  t o be e x a c t , n i n e t y  the twenty-eight items t h a t different  closer  mainly into  of  English  ninetyeighty-  different.  were j u d g e d by  t o be  another  that the non-equivalence  due t o t h e r e t r a n s l a t i o n English  good,  examination  teacher* revealed  translation  The  versions  t h e 296 t r a n s l a t e d i t e m s ,  a c c e p t a b l e , e l e v e n bad and s e v e n t e e n  version  2  Mr., S t a n l e y  four  was  translated  bilingual.  were j u d g e d  bilingual  the  v e r s i o n s were t h e n compared. ,  Questionnaire  or  writer  sure  was a c c u r a t e , i t was  four  bad  English.  e q u i v a l e n c e o f t h e two t r a n s l a t e d  Taylor.?  Among  fatigue  into  respond  (see Appendix  back i n t o E n g l i s h  of  translated  a professional translator.*  Chinese  possible  questionnaire  expected  translation and  a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e , and end o f  of the Chinese  rather  than  into  Chinese.  the  first  Out o f t h e  above t w e n t y - e i g h t i t e m s , o n l y s i x i t e m s were  judged  * Miss Rosemary W. K. L o , (B. A.) , a p r o f e s s i o n a l translator w o r k i n g f o r t h e Hong Kong Government. M i s s K. H./Wong (B.A., D i p . E d . ) , a b i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h t e a c h e r . Mr. S t a n l e y T a y l o r ( B . S c , M.Sc., M.Ed.), a d o c t o r a l c a n d i d a t e of t h e Science Education Dept., t h e U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a . ,, •• M r s . B.W.K. Ho (B. A., Dip.Ed.)., a b i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h t e a c h e r .  2  3  75  to  be b a d o r d i f f e r e n t  from the  English  to Chinese.  Questionnaire  Furthermore,  out  English  The  of  problem  3. 4. 2.2 S t a t i s t i c s There  were  Questionnaire statistical for  Hence  were  translated  the two v e r s i o n s o f very  much t h e  t h e 176 s t u d e n t s  only  one s t u d e n t  same.  who a n s w e r e d  chose t o  answer  v e r s i o n i n Set I of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  comparability of  versions  they  were p r o b a b l y  the Questionnaire, the  when  is  thus  affecting  the  not  scores  between  considered  interpretation  the  two  t o be a s e r i o u s  of results.  of the Scales a  total  of  administered  analysis.  Table  twenty-three in  this  scales  study  in  which  3.2 i s a summary o f  the  the  reguired statistics  the scales.  T a b l e 3.2 i s h e r e .  In scales  calculating were m o d i f i e d  increase content after some  by  the r e l i a b i l i t y validity  this  (Gardner  reliabilities  dropping while  (see a p p e n d i x  consistency). and Lambert,  probably  o f the s c a l e s ,  certain  items  a t t h e same t i m e 17 f o r d e t a i l e d  m o d i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . with  of t h e s c a l e s s t i l l  internal  were  the  had low r e l i a b i l i t y Upon C h e c k i n g  order  to  not r e d u c i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n ) . Even  some o f t h e i t e m s ( i n the  the o r i g i n s  1972), i t came t o l i g h t  not asking  in  several  dropped), sense  of  of the s c a l e s  that  the  scales  g u e s t i o n s on e x a c t l y t h e same a r e a and  hence o f low i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y  (see appendix 18).  76  3.5 CGMPABISGN OF PHYSICS ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN CHINESE AND  ANGLO-  CHINESE SCHOOLS To s t u d y on  how much i n f l u e n c e t h e l a n g u a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n had  the students'  following  achievement  in  the quasi-experimental  Campbell  and  Stanley  feasible,  the following s p e c i f i c  Hypothesis  (1963)  la:  Grade  will  achieve  grade  physics, design  was  a  research  designated  used.,  hypothesis  Design  10 b y  the  study  To  make  was  formulated.  10 s t u d e n t s i n t h e C h i n e s e  school  higher scores i n physics  10 s t u d e n t s  design  than  i n the Anglo-Chinese  school. This  hypothesis  was  transformed  t o the f o l l o w i n g  statistical  hypothesis. H . : .<U\ = -u*  ( d= H  (  where  :  M >Mi  M  - mean p h y s i c s s c o r e o f g r a d e  {  {  from  JU_.=  Chinese  Anglo-Chinese  h y p o t h e s i s was f o r m u l a t e d  Section In  10 s t u d e n t s  schools  mean p h y s i c s s c o r e o f grade from  This  0.05)  10 s t u d e n t s  schools., t o answer  Problem  1  raised  in  1.1. .,• this  study,  a l l the selected  s u b j e c t s were i n v o l v e d . Two  * Teacher i n the Chinese School—Mr. System A n a l y s i s , D i p . E d . ) . Teacher i n the Anglo-Chinese S c h o o l — t h e  C.C.  Wong  ( B . S c , Dip.  Writer himself.  77  teachers -  took  1  the  Chinese  p a r t i n the study.  One t a u g h t  s c h o o l and t h e o t h e r t a u g h t  Anglo-Chinese  of the c l a s s e s  away from  each  other, reducing the  possibility  between s u b j e c t s .  3.5.1 T h r e e  Months o f C o n t r o l l e d T e a c h i n g the  period,  group  in  Chinese  by  the a s s i s t i n g  by t h e w r i t e r .  study  and Sound". The r e a s o n  Sound"  rather  than  p h y s i c s content background  while  the  suitable background  in  and  the  used  the  translations textbook Appendix  the  chosen  group  had  and  not.  this  " L i g h t and t h a t the  Sound  After  was  For  t o have a b o u t  subject  and  i t s difficulty  to  be  t h e same  level  was  10 s t u d e n t s . a s auch a s p o s s i b l e  book or  (Abbott,  the teacher  1969)  Chinese).  as p o s s i b l e . cross-checked  were t e a c h i n g a t a b o u t  9  careful  found  judged  (English  were  physics,  for  f o r selecting  were  text  as c l o s e l y 4)  content  due t o t h e methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n ,  same  in  t e a c h e r and t h e o t h e r  groups  order t o c o n t r o l  the e f f e c t  of  11, 1978, t h e  i n p h y s i c s was m a i n l y  on L i g h t  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e grade In  sharing  g r o u p had s t u d i e d some M e c h a n i c s i n g r a d e  the unit  since  physics  o f t h e two g r o u p s was d i f f e r e n t .  Anglo-Chinese  consideration,  The  other topics  example, t h e C h i n e s e  i n the  i n Physics  t h e same c o n t e n t  group i n E n g l i s h was " L i g h t  of  September 4 t o December  g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t  one  in  i n v o l v e d . T h e two s c h o o l s a r e g u i t e f a r  information  two  t h e two c l a s s e s  s c h o o l . T h e two t e a c h e r s were t h e r e g u l a r  teachers  During  t h e two c l a s s e s  t h e two g r o u p s but  different  The t e a c h e r s f o l l o w e d the  Their teaching every  t h e same r a t e .  effect  schedules  week t o e n s u r e  The  two  groups  that  (see they  d i d the  78  same  experiments with  Furthermore, in  class,  be  notified  class  i f there they  To  would be n o t e d  language of i n s t r u c t i o n .  every  reasonable  style  to his  Some o f t h e  of c o n t e n t  only i n the language of  so t h a t t h e  instruction  during  period of learning.  t h e medium  achievement studied  achievement  of t h e c o n t r o l l e d  test  (Posttest  of  instruction  test  student's  scores  initial  Differences  i n Chinese used.  studied  After  a  month,  another  was t h e number of c o r r e c t i t e m s  I t was f o r e s e e n t h a t c o m p a r i s o n  of  the  since  adjusted  post-test results,  t o t h e language  of  instruction  other possible factors  over these  be a d j u s t e d  d i f f e r e n c e s on f a c t o r s r e v e a l e d i n t h e HANOVA in  was  or English according  might r e q u i r e t h a t t h e s c o r e s f i r s t  be a t t r i b u t e d  confidence,  on t h e c o n t e n t  to the students.!  score  t h e 'good' i t e m s .  post-test  1)  teaching-learning period,  ( P o s t - t e s t 2) ( s e e A p p e n d i x 8) o n the; c o n t e n t  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  Each  *  effort  and h a n d l i n g  g i v e n t o the groups o f students,  then  points  was made t o m a i n t a i n  up,  achievement  for  the s a l i e n t  would  sum  Upon c o m p l e t i o n  all  raised  5.  3,5.2 P o s t - t e s t o f P h y s i c s  to  discussions  m a t e r i a l s a r e i n c l u d e d i n appendix  groups d i f f e r e d  an  or  apparatus.  down and t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r  s o t h a t he c o u l d p r e s e n t  uniformity i n teaching  that  t h e same k i n d o f  were any q u e s t i o n s  i n the pre-determined  teaching  two  approximately  study.  i f any, c o u l d with  would have been  great taken  A c t u a l l y , t h i s t e s t was a p a r t o f t h e o r d i n a r y t e r m e x a m i n a t i o n paper consisting of multiple choice items and e s s a y type questions.  79  into  account o r balanced  possible,, in  out  (See t h e s e c t i o n  groups  as  much  'Three Months o f C o n t r o l l e d  HETHOD OF INVESTIGATING  ACHIEVEMENT, PROFICIENCY The  present  Section  the  second  from  the Chinese The  described  as  Teaching  only  test  battery  Language  on  1  comprehension,  administration was  too  long  administration shorter  It  teachers  c o l l e c t e d from  the  consisted  the  of the  Test of  five  the  Anglo-  battery since  as a  Foreign  listening  15).  reading The  140 m i n u t e s . S i n c e o f an o r d i n a r y was  as  was m e a s u r e d by a  vocabulary,  broken  total  the t e s t  l e s s o n , the  into  several  t h e w r i t e r d i d n o t want t h e  were u n d e r s p e c i a l s t u d y , lesson  obtained  subtests:  (see Appendix  time p e r i o d  Further,  were  of English  structure,  test  the English  through  reference.  i n English  t i m e f o r t h e t e s t was  sessions.  during  on l e a r n i n g p h y s i c s  achievement  and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y  s t u d e n t s t o know t h e y given  to  English  for  FACTORS  i n d e t a i l while those data c o l l e c t e d  Proficiency  similar  PHYSICS  t o answer P r o b l e m s 2 and 5  the data  physics  3.5.2.  (TOEFL).  comprehension  was  BETWEEN  OTHER RELEVANT  g r o u p were t a k e n a s a  scores in  AND  was d e s i g n e d  the focus  language,  RELATIONSHIP  IN ENGLISH  study  1.1. S i n c e  THE  C h i n e s e g r o u p were a n a l y z e d  1  the  Physics').  3.6  in  across  periods  a s a n o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t . The t o t a l  the  tests  by t h e r e g u l a r  were  English  marks o f a l l f i v e  of  The two s u b t e s t s ( E n g l i s h v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g and E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e usage) o f t h e A p t i t u d e T e s t B a t t e r y c o u l d be used a s a measure o f E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y a l s o . But t h e p r e s e n t test battery of English p r o f i c i e n c y was an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d one which s h o u l d be more r e l i a b l e and so i s a d o p t e d .  V  80  the  subtests  were  considered  as  a measure o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n  English. When a C h i n e s e s t u d e n t l e a r n s proficiency physics. etc.  in  also  important physics  when  definitely  a f f e c t h i s l e a r n i n g of  that,  his  aptitude,  motivation  proficiency  compared  motivation to learn, were  analyzed,  proficiency  What we  other  factors  e t c . So t h e s c o r e s o f multiple  physics,  in  ability find  variance  3.7  which  variables  of physics  METHOD  OF  PROFICIENCY, This Section  but  THE  AFFECTIVE FACTORS AND  focused  dependent variables  English variable  on  achievement with  English  socioeconomic  desire  to  learn  o f academic  variables  i n order t o  significantly  RELATIONSHIP  to  the  BETWEEN  ENGLISH  OTHER SELEVENT FACTORS  collected i n  English  proficiency  scores  were  socioeconomic  parents*  attitude  rather  treated The  background,  knowledge o f E n g l i s h , toward  English  previous than  subjects.  i n the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.  knowledge o f E n g l i s h ,  the  proficiency  o f the Anglo-Chinese  were: a p t i t u d e ,  English,  aptitude,  d e s i g n e d t o a n s w e r P r o b l e m 3 and 4 r a i s e d i n  achievement i n p h y s i c s The  of  achievement.  INVESTIGATING  s t u d y was  as  self-concept  contributed  1.1. I t made use o f t h e d a t a  studies  toward  physics,  and t e a c h e r f a c t o r s a s i n d e p e n d e n t  out  such  (8 v a r i a b l e s ) ,  i n t e n s i t y i n physics,  i s how  learning  physics  background, m o t i v a t i o n a l habits  learn,  the  regression  (5 v a r i a b l e s ) , a p t i t u d e  to  want t o know  i s i n affecting  with  using  study  his  will  affect h i s learning.  English  through E n g l i s h ,  English  Besides  will  physics  as  a  as  the  independent students* orientation medium  of  81  instruction English,  in  secondary  parental  schools,  motivational  encouragement,  speaking  Westerners,  desire to l e a r n  foreign  languages,  study  attitude  toward  life  ethnocentrism,  cultural  skills  concept  was  and  self  used t o  variables  analyze  in  English, in  the  Hong  in  toward habits,  authoritarianism,  anomie, r a t i n g o f  order  significantly  to  in  English  attitude  Kong,  academic a b i l i t y . data  toward  English, reading  allegiance, of  contributed  habits  attitude  intensity  Multiple to  the  English  regression  find  out  variance  of  which English  proficiency.  3.8  ADDITIONAL STUDIES Since  classes  subjects  f r o m two  the  two  very  different  i n the  schools),  g r o u p s would  technigue  be  present there very  (which s h o u l d  to  find  out  r e s u l t s m i g h t be  two  were  Section the  3.4  might not  study  additional support  physics  would  be  not  be  our  original  Section  adjusted  the  reliable  and  difference  of s c h o o l  3.4.  focused  second language,  or  teacher  3.3  hampered.  study i n S e c t i o n  would  were  major  they  selection  two  schools was  results  so t h a t  was  that  accordingly.  on  the  A n g l o - C h i n e s e g r o u p were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e studies. . This  i f the  since  In case  from  errors  two extra  learning  classes two  the  from  give  students'  a  the  present  would  subjects  that  inference  present  eliminate  just  obtained  The  two  (intact  possibility  group d i f f e r e n c e s s o  seriously  interest  through the  be).  different, too  were a v a i l a b l e  always the  different  s t u d i e s were d e s i g n e d  t o the  Since  very  was  initial  experimental groups  study  of  the  additional due  to  the  were s t u d y i n g  in  82  the  same  himself).  school  and  under  t h e same t e a c h e r  {i.e. the w r i t e r  ;  Baking  use o f t h e method and  Anglo-Chinese  group  difference  the  of  appropriate  the  data  collected  on  the  i n S e c t i o n 3.3, t h e e q u i v a l e n c e o r i n i t i a l two  adjustment  classes could  could  he  determined  be made i n s u b s e q u e n t  and  so  studies i f  required.  3.8.1  C o m p a r i s o n o f P h y s i c s A c h i e v e m e n t Between E n g l i s h and  Bilingnal In  Instruction  t h i s study,  Hypothesis  the f o l l o w i n g  lb:  h y p o t h e s i s was i n v e s t i g a t e d .  G r a d e 10 s t u d e n t s o f school  will  achieve  Anglo-Chinese higher scores i n  p h y s i c s when i t i s t a u g h t than  when i t i s t a u g h t  English This  hypothesis  statistical H  only.  was  where  ^  transformed  :  group  the period February  o f s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t in  following  JJI, > J U »  ^ = mean p h y s i c s s c o r e s o f b i l i n g u a l  During  the  0. 05)  -M-i - mean p h y s i c s s c o r e o f E n g l i s h  classes  to  .>'=~Wi  { H  through  hypothesis. :  0  bilingually  English  7 to April  class  class. 20,  t h e same c o n t e n t  1979,  the  two  i n p h y s i c s , one  o n l y and t h e o t h e r g r o u p i n E n g l i s h , b u t w i t h  83  the  help  (i.e.  bilingual instruction). The  reason  of  Chinese  content  taught  for selecting  been  taught  grade  10 p h y s i c s Since  almost  whenever  was ' M e c h a n i c s *  and  i n Hong  i t  since  academic  only  background.  t h e w r i t e r was i n v o l v e d  usually  followed  in  difficulty  very  i n recalling  previous  period.  closely  The  tried  writer  also  did  t h e same e x p e r i m e n t s i f there  were q u e s t i o n s  c l a s s , t h e w r i t e r would p r e s e n t  the  discussions  t o the other  completion  achievement  of  students  beforehand  the  those  items  retained  f o r the post-test.  with  scores  first  revealed  i n t h e 8ANOVA  in  f o l l o w the  and  the  two  discussions  in  and a summary o f  was  given  period, to  The a c h i e v e m e n t in  suitable difficulty  the  an two  t e s t was the  same  level  were  (See A p p e n d i x 1 2 ) .  A comparison of the p o s t - t e s t post-test  had no  t h e same k i n d o f  with another group o f students  Only  classes  class  to  teaching-learning  i n English only.  school.,  t h e two  c l a s s as w e l l .  t e s t on t h e c o n t e n t s t u d i e d  of  two  other  or  the problem  had  e f f e c t was  writer  the lessons  with e x a c t l y  one  Upon  The the  classes  Finally,  the  what he had t a u g h t  as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e d u r i n g  apparatus.  not  they  i n teaching  of  time.  textbook  test  had  i n the s y l l a b u s f o r  The t e a c h e r  lessons  piloted  topic  t h e two c l a s s e s were f r o m t h e same s c h o o l , same  1 1 ) . The  Kong.,  Furthermore, the physics  classes  the  was i n c l u d e d  classes.  the  necessary  (see Appendix  ' M e c h a n i c s ' were t h a t  before,  the  minimized  explanations  be a d j u s t e d  scores for  might  differences  study. D i f f e r e n c e s  r e s u l t s , i f a n y , would p r o b a b l y be  require on  t h a t the factors  i n the adjusted  due  primarily  to  postthe  84  language o f i n s t r u c t i o n , s i n c e o t h e r p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s would have been  taken  into  account  o r balanced o u t a c r o s s the g r o u p s a s  much as p o s s i b l e .  3.8.2  Comparison ,of P h y s i c s achievement Between C h i n e s e and  English Instruction The  previous  two  studies  ( i . e . 3.5  and  3.8.1)  were  r e l a t i v e l y l o n g term s t u d i e s compared w i t h t h e p r e s e n t one. They were more p r a c t i c a l , and c l o s e r t o an o r d i n a r y c l a s s This  study  was  more  t h e o r e t i c a l . I t attempted  situation.  to investigate  j u s t one g u e s t i o n : i f s t u d e n t s a r e taught p h y s i c s u s i n g or  Chinese  English  o n l y , t h r o u g h which medium do they l e a r n more? To a  c e r t a i n e x t e n t , t h i s s t u d y was b e t t e r c o n t r o l l e d than t h e second s t u d y mentioned above s i n c e i t a l s o l i m i t e d the h i s t o r y sense  ( i n the  o f Campbell and S t a n l e y ) o f t h e two groups of s t u d e n t s so  t h a t they would n o t be t o o d i f f e r e n t . The  following  hypothesis  was i n v e s t i g a t e d . . Hypothesis I c :  Grade 10 s t u d e n t s o f Anglo-Chinese  school  w i l l a c h i e v e h i g h e r s c o r e s when p h y s i c s i s t a u g h t through the medium o f Chinese than when i t i s t a u g h t through t h e medium of This  English.  hypothesis  was  transformed  s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis. H  :  0  > i  =J*>T.  { o<= 0.05) H  4  :  ^>-U  t  to  the  following  85  where  = mean p h y s i c s s c o r e s o f the Chinese  class  - mean p h y s i c s s c o r e s o f the E n g l i s h c l a s s . D u r i n g the p e r i o d Nay students  were  15-17,  was  the  two  classes  taught  in  Chinese  only.  The  class  i n Chinese i n t h i s s t u d y was the c l a s s  was t a u g h t i n E n g l i s h and t h e c l a s s which was t a u g h t i n in  of  taught the same c o n t e n t i n p h y s i c s , one c l a s s i n  E n g l i s h o n l y and the o t h e r c l a s s which  1979,  which  English  t h i s study was t h e c l a s s which was t a u g h t b i l i n g u a l l y i n the  p r e v i o u s study changeover  (Section  3.8.1).  The  reason  for  using  this  d e s i g n compared w i t h 3.8.1, was t h a t i t seemed t o be  a more d i r e c t way of f i n d i n g instruction  out  what  had on s t u d e n t achievement  effect  the  medium  of  i n p h y s i c s i f t h e r e were  effect. The  and  fiadio-  a c t i v i t y ' . The l e s s o n p l a n s f o r t h e s e f o u r p e r i o d s were  produced  by  the  Kong  1  content  School  taught  of  was  'atomic  Structure  E d u c a t i o n of t h e Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong  i n both C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h  (see appendix  13).,During  the  l e s s o n s , the t e a c h e r f o l l o w e d the l e s s o n p l a n s t r i c t l y t o ensure r e a s o n a b l y e q u i v a l e n c e of c o n t e n t taught t o t h e two c l a s s e s . Upon achievement given  in  completion test the  o f the f o u r t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p e r i o d s , an  (see Appendix fifth  14) on the  content  studied  p e r i o d , t o the two c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s i n  Chinese o r E n g l i s h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n The achievement  1  was  used.  t e s t d i f f e r e d i n s e v e r a l ways from t h o s e i n  These m a t e r i a l s were o r i g i n a l l y used i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t named " E f f e c t o f Medium of I n s t r u c t i o n Upon Student C o g n i t i v e Development and Academic Achievement" by a r e s e a r c h team from t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n of t h e C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong. ( S i u , 1979b) .  86  the  previous studies. F i r s t l y ,  about  the  Secondly, the  test  until  t h e day b e f o r e  the reading m a t e r i a l they  project  was c o l l e c t e d  extra-study  before  the r e s u l t s  obtained  from  would  systematic probably  instruction. followed  the t e s t  that  the  test  and l e a r n  no  student  day o f  d i d any  how  much  that the  only d u r i n g the c l a s s p e r i o d .  be  the  Detailed  informed  was a d m i n i s t e r e d .  indicated  differences  to  not  Hence one c o u l d be q u i t e s u r e  achievement due  were  r e c i e v e d on t h e f i r s t  to ensure  the t e s t .  student could understand Any  the students  between t h e two g r o u p s  effects  comparison  of  of the  t h e same p l a n d e s c r i b e d i n 3.8.1. ,  the  medium  post-test  of  scores  87  CHAPTER 4 RESULTS  4.1 COMPARABILITY  4.1.1 G e n e r a l  OF THE CS AND  seventy-six  study,  eighty-six  ninety  from  a  from  ACS GROUPS  an  subjects  birth,  were  Anglo-Chinese  Chinese : secondary  shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of  ANAYSIS  Background  One hundred  place  AND  b a c k g r o u n d , c h o i c e o f s c h o o l and  secondary  f o r the s c h o o l and  s c h o o l . * The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e  o f the s u b j e c t s i n dialect  selected  spoken  at  terms  of  home,  S.S.E.E..results  sex,  age,  socioeconomic on  Chinese,  E n g l i s h and Mathematics.? Background test  V a r i a b l e s 1, 5, 7, 8 and 9 were a n a l y z e d  (two-tailed,  variables  174  degrees  of  2, 3, 4 and 6 were a n a l y z e d  freedom) . to t h e f a c t  Significant  age d i f f e r e n c e  that comparatively  more  freedom) , w h i l e by a X - t e s t  students  s c h o o l were r e p e a t e r s t h a n i n t h e A n g l o - C h i n e s e  background  (1 d e g r e e  of  was p r o b a b l y  due  2  (t=9.62)  by a t -  in  the  Chinese  school. In other  * D u r i n g t h e s t u d y ( S e c t i o n 3 . 5 ) , one s t u d e n t i n t h e CS group dropped out from s c h o o l . Since not a l l the students s a t f o r t h e S.S. E.E. o n l y 126 s t u d e n t s (85 o f ACS and 41 o f CS group) possessed results on c h o i c e o f s c h o o l and S.S.E.E. F o r S.S.E.E. r e s u l t s , s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n g r a d e s 1, 2, 3, e t c . as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r s t a n d a r d i n t h a t s u b j e c t a r e a . A s m a l l e r g r a d e number means a b e t t e r r e s u l t (grade 1 i s t h e b e s t ) i n t h a t s u b j e c t a r e a . (Note t h i s f a c t i n T a b l e 4 . 1 ) . ,  2  88  words, able  students  than  in  with  Chinese  (t=6.87),  secondary  group.  In  and M a t h e m a t i c s  the Anglo-Chinese  three  years  before  (X =44.13) between 2  Almost  they  forced  (t=9.14)  s c h o o l . Furthermore,  difference  that  English  that  group  schools.  s c h o o l might p r o b a b l y be l e s s fact,  this  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s on S.S. E. E.  indicate  Chinese  Chinese  students i n t h e Anglo-Chinese  agrees  these  the  <t=8.39) , a l l  g r o u p was b e t t e r  than  when  they  first  was  also  a  there  the  Chinese  d i d not choose t o enter t h e i r  t o do s o s i n c e t h e y had i n f e r i o r  entered  significant  t h e two g r o u p s i n t h e i r  a l l students i n  the  choice of  school  indicated  p r e s e n t s c h o o l b u t were S.S.E.E.  results.  T a b l e 4.1 i s h e r e .  The both  present  schools  compared  result  were  above  adjustment  on  many  4. 1.2 P r e t e s t  during the f i r s t  i n academic achievement were  when not  comparison  of  achievement  between  p r o b a b l y be r e q u i r e d .  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  t o t h e two g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s  p h y s i c s l e s s o n p e r i o d s o f t h e two s c h o o l s .  and  the  pretest respectively.  ACS g r o u p s took  i t was l i k e l y  guessing,  though  b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s and h e n c e a p p r o p r i a t e  CS  for  even  R e s u l t s of P h y s i c s Achievement  Pretest  the  that  s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong, t h e y  i n the subsequent  t h e two g r o u p s would  material,  revealed the fact average  to other secondary  comparable  The  also  1  -  the Chinese  and E n g l i s h  The  version of  S i n c e s t u d e n t s h a d n o t been t a u g h t t h e  that  t h e y would g u e s s .  f  When  correction  , was a p p l i e d t o t h e s c o r e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g  89  results  Table  were o b t a i n e d  very  shows t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f  different  tenable.  The  table  s c o r e t h a t was level,  much  also  native  4.1.3  the  of  than  possibly  second  the  groups  t h a t both  content  due  to  sense  when  groups  had  g r o u p had  a mean  the  Questions  not  seemed  at  the Anglo-Chinese be  were  material  statistically  language.  might have made more  the  0.01  g r o u p on  what  difficulty  in  about u n f a m i l i a r  presented  in  their  language.  Aptitude Test Having  check  very  on  little  the  following  results  Table  and  4.3  Fig.  freedom  was  analysis  different,  then  occur  groups of s t u d e n t s  knowledge o f t h e c o n t e n t o f a p t i t u d e s c o r e s was from  two  program  of  the  aptitude  to  be  variance  qroups  F-value  94.99.  s a m p l e s a s extreme  extremely  on  was  had  learned, made.  tests.  used  the  The (See  rarely.  with  If  as t h e s e Indeed,  and  8 and  two  Lohnes 166  (1962)  degrees  more  values  the  aptitudes  populations are (or  F  to study  various  w r i t t e n by C o o l e y  a n a l y s i s . The  found  two  4.1)  between t h e  f o r the  prior  the  were o b t a i n e d  measured. A c o m p u t e r used  that  equivalence  Multivariate difference  Results  established  essentially  would  assumption  (significant  d i d know. T h i s may  both  shows t h a t t h e C h i n e s e  t=2.88, t w o - t a i l e d )  material  was  z e r o . The  higher  understanding  a  from  previously learned  they  16).  4. 2 i s h e r e .  T a b l e 4.2  not  { f o r i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s , see Appendix  of not  extreme) of  3.55  or  90  greater  would o c c u r no  corresponding smaller.  oftener  probability  than  for  an  Hence t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t  .001  of  the  time;  the  F o f 94.99 i s o f c o u r s e f a r the groups  differ  i n aptitude  i s tenable.  T a b l e 4.3  Fig.  4.1  i s here.  i s here.  Discriminant the  n a t u r e of the group  by C o o l e y The  a n a l y s i s subsequently  and L o h n e s  v e c t o r of the s c a l e d weights  give  discriminant nature one  of  It  weights  function,  can  function  used  to  determine  c o m p u t e r program  to c a r r y be f o u n d  out the  o f each  determine  20.  The  The  scaled  v a r i a b l e , i n the the  Since there are just  given  analysis.,  i n Appendix  i s shown i n T a b l e 4.4. contribution  two  qualitative groups,  only  the  most  exists.  i s here.  verbal  variable  reasoning  considerably  is  outstandingly  for discriminating  i s n o t a b l y more i m p o r t a n t  English  used  they help to  the dimension.  English important  matrix  the r e l a t i v e  discriminant  T a b l e 4.4  d i f f e r e n c e s . The  (1962) was  i n t e r c or r e l a t i o n  was  than  mathematical  more i m p o r t a n t t h a n C h i n e s e  verbal  knowledge a s w e l l  reasoning  demands  as the mastery  between the two s c h o o l s . .  a  verbal good  o f complex  reasoning  and  reasoning. Since command  processes,  of such  word as  91  analysis, aptitude groups, this  abstraction which s e r v e s  abstract  and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , i t i s a component o f quite  reasoning  of English From  clear This  verbal  of the aptitude  t h e two g r o u p s were v e r y  4.2  ANALYSIS OF BESULTS  AND  ANGLO-CHINESE SCHOOLS  Comparing B e s u l t s Since  posttest  the scores  ON PHYSICS  of Physics  were  compared  By  statistical  technique to adjust  If  randomly  choosing  out  d i f f e r e n t from each  a l l initial  the present The  since they  eight  quite other.  4.1.1.  BETWEEN  CHINESE  Achievement  by  analysis  the i n i t i a l  ANCOVA  of  covariates,  chosen groups f o r comparison  many v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . for  l e s s than  results, i t i s  ACHIEVEMENT  suitable  t h e g r o u p s a r e non-random,  cancel  for  two g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s were n o t e q u i v a l e n t ,  (ANCOVA).  two  variable  importance i s considerably  a l s o agrees with t h e r e s u l t s i n Section  4.2.1  (known)  reasoning.,  t h e MANOVA s t u d y  that  t h e two  i s the l e a s t important  purpose. I t s r e l a t i v e  that  well t o discriminate  might  the  covariance ANCOVA  is  a  difference  between  of treatment  effect.  be  group d i f f e r e n c e s s i n c e  inadequate there  However, i t may be t h e b e s t  we  to  are too can  do  study. aptitude  were t h o u g h t  scores  were c h o s e n t o be t h e c o v a r i a t e s  t o be more d i r e c t l y  related to  learning  92  than  other  program  background  BHD  04V  was  used  following  ANCOVA t a b l e was  Table  i s here. ,  4.5  S i n c e .95^(1, adjusted  was  hypothesis  not was  T a b l e 4.6  i s here.  results  c o v a r i a n c e can was  posttest through was  due  t e n a b l e . The  The  and  the  following  that,  to  evidence  the  differences in  that the  groups d i f f e r e d  learned  superiority  t h a t t h e mean s c o r e s  of  aptitude,  the  i n a p t i t u d e o f the  Effect  table  extent a n a l y s i s  to  favoured  two  adjustment.  i n those  the  The  therefore  media o f i n s t r u c t i o n  school students  achievement t e s t  1•2.2  suggest  between  significant  p e r f o r m a n c e e v e n t h o u g h t h e y had  mainly  Chinese  after  statistical  different  computer  the a n a l y s i s . * -  difference  adjust for pre-existing  no  out  The  obtained.  considered  means b e f o r e and  there  carry  statistically  g i v e s the  These  to  120)-3.92>1.33, t h e  means  the n u l l  1  v a r i a b l e s i n S e c t i o n 4.1.»  in  content  t h r e e months. I t  (unadjusted)  Angloon  the  them.  o f M o t i v a t i o n a l F a c t o r s on t h e R e s u l t s o f  The S.S.E.E. . r e s u l t s were measured 3 y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , one r e a l l y d o e s n ' t know what happened d u r i n g that three years before t h e t r e a t m e n t . T a k i n g them a s c o v a r i a t e s would be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e some unknown t r e a t m e n t s d u r i n g t h o s e three y e a r s had been i n c l u d e d . D e t a i l s o f t h e program can be obtained from the OCLA BHD documentation.  93  Physics  Achievement  The the  present  general  result  trend indicated  comparable  because  'e.g..,  language  comparison  on  desire and  learn  teaching  of the  Table  is  4.7  It  is  students  lot  of  of  Were  g r o u p s on  extra  better the  the the  clear  from  different  back  to  meaning o f  their  individual  two  Anglo-Chinese  time  and  energy  the  i n physics  the  scores  above f o u r  A  scales (MIP) ,  habits i n physics  mean  in  etc?  g r o u p s on  the  items  the  table that  (SHP) ,  underlying  and  standard  factors.  on a l l HIP,  the  DLP  i n Appendix  the two  four  and  SHP  on  6,  one  could consider  no  (1)  the  students  time  and  energy  Hence t h e r e i n the  e f f e c t s of these  when  or  comparing  f a c t o r s on  same among t h e  two  language (3)  they with  time  were s p e n d i n g  had  a  higher  extra they  motivation  p h y s i c s achievement should  groups.  that  (2)  t h e C h i n e s e group. be  as  effort  to say  difficulties,  and  them  and  strong evidence  A n g l o - C h i n e s e group  overcoming  better teaching,  physics  was  not  S e c t i o n 3.4.2.1  spent  in physics.  g r o u p s were  variables., Beferring  motivation,  the  results  teaching  o p e r a t i o n a l measures of s t u d e n t s *  learn  with  here.  statistically  received  the  i n the  ( T P ) , would r e v e a l t o us all  agree  f o r l a c k of p r o f i c i e n c y  (DLP), s t u d y  shows  two  2,3.,  motivational intensity  physics  4.7  deviation  a  response  performance  Table  and  difficulties,  3.4.2.1) l i k e to  facts.  the  Table  i n some way  spending  overcoming  (Section  in  teachers  s c h o o l were c o m p e n s a t i n g English,  i s unexpected. I t does not  So  to the  about  94  4.2.3  The  Physics  possible explanation  that  students  sufficiently difference the  administered  so  school. the  in English  To  find  English  to the  a t about of  the  the  to  of  out  is  some  4.2.1  the  significant  with  degree  students of  Test  were  in  English  Battery  was  i n the  two  were a d m i n i s t e r e d the  school  year.  The  the  taking  sessions the  Since  the  testing  was  varied  and  subtests  was  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e gives the  not  results  English Proficiency Tests.  here.  clear  s c h o o l on a l l f i v e  that was  the  standard colleges  level  of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y of  considerably higher  aspects  ACS)  has  already  f o r a f o r e i g n student in  than  the  the  Chinese  of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . T h i s l e v e l  p r o f i c i e n c y (of the  acceptable  no  a l o n g time t o a d m i n i s t e r ,  3.2).  Anglo-Chinese school  English  Section  produce  Proficiency  individuals  s c h o o l s on  is  in  when compared  same t i m e d u r i n g took  (see T a b l e  4.8  It  of  students.  tests  number  o f t h e two  Table  Results  Anglo-Chinese school  i n f i v e s e s s i o n s . Attendance at these  constant  in  i n the  English Proficiency Tests  battery done  teacher  proficient  proficiency,  The  and  of the r e s u l t s  i n achievement scores  Chinese  schools  o f E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y on t h e  Achievement  One was  Effect  the United  reached  applying for  States.»  Bearing  the  of  lowest  admission  i n mind  that  * F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s g e t t i n g s c o r e s a b o v e 400 (out o f 800) i n TOEFL a r e a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e t o some c o l l e g e s i n the United S t a t e s of America.  95  these  were j u s t g r a d e  in  an  English  the  United States  10  students  speaking (which  for  in the  the  would  for  the  eight years  foreign students i n level  of p r o f i c i e n c y school students  So  two  of E n g l i s h  should  be  t o pursue  Chinese  school  produce  no  good  physics  be  Section  4.2.1.  English  English,  an  i t would be  effort  had  been and  spent  in  attaining  (Problem  on  the  knowledge o f E n g l i s h  two  subject speaking  years.  He  English.  fluently  in  their  a l s o ) i n the  Anglo-  proficient  the  in  English  i n achievement t e s t Chinese  students  being  were s u f f i c i e n t l y  know  (relative  level  1.1).  A comparison  (SKE),  proficient  proficiency  (Section motivational  (HIE), o r i e n t a t i o n toward E n g l i s h  much  on  in  the response  3.4.2.1)  like  intensity  through  time  to the Chinese  this  scales  of  how  i t  result i n  suffer i n learning physics to  to  scores  s c h o o l . , Thus  e x p l a n a t i o n of the present  interesting  3 in Section  groups  in  d i d not  was  f o r over  teachers  difference  acceptable  they  the  i n English  taught  sufficiently  Anglo-Chinese and  have  (and  with students  should  Canada)  school  instruction.  students were  Anglo-Chinese  i n t e a c h i n g p h y s i c s through  should  significant  when compared  As t h e  S t a t e s and  difficulty  up,  the  been s t u d y i n g a b r o a d  languages of  sum  in  been u s i n g E n g l i s h t o t e a c h  has  teachers  predetermined To  and  no  teacher  has  (the U n i t e d  have  the  the  writer)  should  two  level  living  medium o f E n g l s i h .  countries  in  were n o t  require a higher  Anglo-Chinese  Furthermore, (i.e.  that they  s o c i e t y as a r e the  p r o f i c i e n c y ) , • the p r e s e n t enough  and  in  and  students) English. of  the  student's English  (OTE) , d e s i r e t o l e a r n E n g l i s h  96  (DLE) ,  study  would r e v e a l mean s c o r e s  habits  in  t o us t h e and  English  underlying  standard  (SHE) , and  reading  f a c t s . T a b l e 4.9  deviations  of  the  two  habit  (RH)  shows a l l the  groups  on  the  above s i x f a c t o r s . There  were  between t h e  two  HIE,  DLE,  OTE,  (1979b).  It  no  g r o u p s on and  might  e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and schools The the  and  highly  had  a l l the  SHE. be  four  This  that  stimulation  significant  the  they  and  higher  c e r t a i n l y had the  they  scores  t-test) variables  r e s u l t of  environmental  the  SKE and  RH  4.8.  S.S.E.E.  same among t h e  motivational  and  the  could  of course  back  3.4.2.1 consider  motivation,  knowledge o f  English.  need  three  Battery,  Furthermore, English,  more b o o k s i n E n g l i s h .  to the  and  that  as  students  MIE,  operational spent  were  when compared  DLE  and  measures  of  SHE  on  6,  one  students*  i n E n g l i s h . Hence, t h o u g h  more  with the  t i m e and  except f o r t h e i r  OTE,  i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s i n Appendix  effort  t o spend e x t r a  proficiency  meaning o f  their  them  t i m e , and  Anglo-Chinese appeared  Anglo-  i s here.  Referring Section  read  again  grades i n E n g l i s h  i n English P r o f i c i e n c y Test  a better  two  variables.  just confirm Since  Siu  pressure,  A n g l o - C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were more p r o f i c i e n t i n  T a b l e 4.9  could  better  motivational  were a b o u t t h e  r e s u l t s of  had  (Ma. NOV A and  agrees with the  s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e on  students  y e a r s ago  not  differences  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4.1  Chinese  as  significant  proficient  in  English, i t  Chinese students,  effort  the  they  to a t t a i n t h i s l e v e l  normal immersion i n E n g l i s h  did of  during  97  the  school  4.3  hours.  RELATIONSHIP  PROFICIENCY In grade  AND  English  battery,  aptitude  Section  physics  equations  scores  as  contribution  are of  was i n i t i a l l y  used  f o r the present i n Kerlinger  following  of  variables used  The  multiple  linear  to analyze the data. I n at  each  step  last.  I t i s thus p o s s i b l e  a good p r e d i c t o r  (Table  may  already  be  a r e s e t a t t h e 0.05 2  Stepwise r e g r e s s i o n  4.10  in  computer  variable  study.  test (i.e.  each  and P e d h a z u r  results  scores  variable.  performed  f o r removal of a v a r i a b l e  described  the  aptitude,  factors  independent  ( i . e . the  manner was  solution, tests  that  significance  The  taken  i f i t were t o be e n t e r e d  a variable Criteria  were  achievement  the  at  proficiency  and o t h e r r e l e v a n t  02R* w h i c h c o m p u t e s a s e q u e n c e  stepwise  equation  test battery,  i n a stepwise  determine  achievement  f a c t o r s such as  4.2.1) were t a k e n a s d e p e n d e n t  p r o g r a m BHD  are  how  e t c . , t h e s c o r e s on E n g l i s h  SCftB, TP)  physics  ENGLISH  o f A n g l o - C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong d e p e n d s on  to learn  HIP, DLP, SHP,  ACHIEVEMENT,  FACTORS  p r o f i c i e n c y and o t h e r r e l e v a n t  motivation  the  PHYSICS  OTHER RELEVANT  order to i n v e s t i g a t e 10 l e v e l  while  BETWEEN  to  i n the that  dropped. level of methods  (1973)., and 4.11)  were  obtained  * Details o f t h e program can be obtained from t h e OCLA BHD documentation. The c u t o f f v a l u e , c o r r e s p o n d i n g r o u g h l y t o t h e v a l u e o f F{1,60) a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , was used i n t h e a n a l y s i s . A l l v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d with F-value l e s s than the c u t o f f v a l u e of 4,00 were n o t e n t e r e d i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n . I n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s n o t l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4. 1 indicated that they were not s i g n i f i c a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l variance of p h y s i c s achievement. ,  2  3  1  98  from  regression  analysis.  predictors  can  T a b l e 4. 10  i s here. ,  T a b l e 4.11  i s here. ,  A the  be  of E n g l i s h  predictor  variance  in  of  usually  considered  physics.  Hence, a component o f  school  4.4  role  RELATIONSHIP  than  to  more  physics  BETWEEN  learn  relevant  English  It  structure, explains  more  factors  like  those  physics  which  factors in  proficiency  achievement of  is  learning  did  the  are  play  a  Anglo-Chinese  appears useful to  to  computer  be  an  structure, important  know f u r t h e r  proficiency  i n English  program BHD  between  English  relevant  factors  PROFICIENCY,  THE  AFFECTIVE  a component o f E n g l i s h factor i n physics  what f a c t o r s a r e the  Anglo-Chinese school  02R  was  used t o  aptitude  variables  listed  verbal  were  removed  from  high  correlation  The  relationship and  other  i n Section  (English  since  acquiring  students.  variable)  scores  usage)  in  determine the  (independent v a r i a b l e s ,  language  important  (dependent  proficiency  achivement, i t i s  by  proficiency  p a r t i c u l a r , two  independent  ENGLISH  OTHER RELEVANT FACTORS  Since English  English  be  the  students.  FACTORS AND  In  to  in  achivement.  desire  of  19. ,  achievement  or  matrix  proficiency—English  physics  physics  mechanical reasoning  significant  intercorrelation  found i n Appendix  component  best  The  3  3.7).  reasoning the with  list  and of  English  99  proficiency obtained  was  from  obvious. stepwise  inte"correlation found  Table  4.12  multiple  matrix  of  the  and  4.13  regression  give  results  analysis.J  independent  variables  The c a n be  i n A p p e n d i x 19.  T a b l e 4.12 i s h e r e  T a b l e 4.13 i s h e r e . ,  T a b l e 4.13 s u g g e s t s is  the  most  that s e l f  significant  concept  independent  of  R e f e r r i n g b a c k t o T a b l e 4. 10, s e l f  ability  is  achievement  a significant  English  ( f o r Chinese  strong  self  s u b j e c t s i n secondary  of  concept  o f academic a b i l i t y  anomie, e t c . d o  variance  in  not account  English  r e s e a r c h e r s , f o r example, Fu  is  unreasonable variables  variable  c o n s i d e r e d t o be one school,  factors  and  so i s  that  a very  to achieve  like  cultural  for a significant as  expected  by  amount some  (1975). from  a  multiple  not mathematically j u s t i f i a b l e . to speculate that  may l e a d  academic  i n physics  i s required  proficiency  Inference of causal r e l a t i o n s equation  of  students), i t i s understandable  e x c e l l e n c e i n b o t h a r e a s . The a f f e c t i v e allegiance,  concept  independent  there. Since physics i s usually  o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t  ability  variable f o r success i n  English.  also  academic  However, i t i s n o t  m a n i p u l a t i o n o f some  t o improvement  of English  regression  independent  proficiency.  Among  * Independent V a r i a b l e s n o t l i s t e d out i n T a l e 4. J3 indicated that they were not s i g n i f i c a n t i n explaining a substantial variance of English proficiency.  100  these  four  variance  important  of  English  motivational because  factors  proficiency,  i n t e n s i t y i n English)  their  years)..Self  formation  concept  i s  a  work a s compared  year,  of  with  work  start  from  is  still  formation  cooperate this  easy  term p r o c e s s deals  well. Future  easily  ( i n terms o f  with  behaviour i n in  academic the  i s  really  improving  i n  (less than a y e a r ) . S i m i l a r l y , verbal reasoning  since  i n a short  will  i f  experimental  factors  substantial  period.  involve  f r i e n d s , classmates, possible  are  primary school,  time. T h i s  but  (except f o r  be m a n i p u l a t e d  i n t e n s i t y i n E n g l i s h i s the only  teachers,  not  them  c a r r i e d out s e v e r a l t i m e s a  one  period  i n a short  significant  engaged i n t h e same work. S i n c e  usage a n d C h i n e s e  their  be c h a n g e d help  long  whether  i n a short  Hotivational  and  cannot  of  a  about o n e ^ a b i l i t y  improvement c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d  can  three  a c a d e m i c work a r e o n l y  Chinese language that  others  one d o e s n o t know  academic  explain  o f academic a b i l i t y  w h i c h one i n d i c a t e s t o o n e s e l f  measures  which  factor  that  encouragement  parents,  etc.  This  t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d can  studies  may  shed  light  on  possibility.  a.5 BESDLTS ON  ADDITIONAL  As r e v e a l e d very  different  differences design, support  would  the  i n Section in  4.1, t h e two g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s  many  different  s e r i o u s l y hamper  studies  study  aspects./  inferences  two a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s  t o the o r i g i n a l  of a l l t h r e e  STUDIES  agree with  each  from the  were i n c l u d e d  ( i . e. S e c t i o n other.  Since  these  original  to give  4.2) i f t h e  were  extra  results  101  4. 5.1  The C o m p a r a b i l i t y  of t h e T w o G l a s s e s i n t h e  Anglo-Chinese  School T h e r e were 86 s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d of  the Anglo-Chinese  be  referred  to  convenience. terms  of  age,  sex,  test  for  of  birth,  dialect  of  the  sake o f  subjects  in  s p o k e n a t home,  variables  2, 3, 4, and 6 were a n a l y z e d  Hence  check  results  Only  (t=2.01),  were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y two  o f freedom) by X 2  mean age o f t h e two c l a s s e s was  a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l  the  first  classes  while  different  could  be  other  among t h e considered  f o r age.  on  made. The r e s u l t s  1  2  ( t w o - t a i l e d , 84 d e g r e e s  different  comparable except  the  equivalence  were l i s t e d  Table  4. 14 i s h e r e .  Table  4.15 i s h e r e . ,  Fig.  Class  by t - t e s t  variables  classes.  A  and  1, 5, 7, 8, and 9 were a n a l y z e d  (1 d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m ) .  significantly  two  place  variables  background  background  1  will  E n g l i s h and M a t h e m a t i c s .  MANOVA and t h e n  while  classes  From now on, t h e two c l a s s e s  1  Class  10  b a c k g r o u n d , c h o i c e o f s c h o o l , and S.S.E. E.  Background by  as  two grade  T a b l e 4.14 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  socioeconomic on C h i n e s e ,  School.  from  o f a p t i t u d e s c o r e s was a l s o  o u t on T a b l e  4.15 and F i g . 4.2.  4.2 i s h e r e .  These 86 s t u d e n t s were t h e same s u b j e c t s i n t h e o r i g i n a l r e p o r t e d i n S e c t i o n 4.1 and 4.2.  study  102  m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of difference by  Cooley  between the and  calculated  Lohnes  P-value  This  value  and  therefore  the  two  was  the  groups)  in  appendix  4.16  The  and  to  do  the  study  program  The  was  2.12.  (,95F(8,60) =2.10)  level  hypothesis  written  analysis.  d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m  0.05  the  ( i . e . no  difference  between  rejected.  4. 16.  The  then  used t o d e t e r m i n e  vector  of  scaled  the  weights  nature  computed  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix can  contributions  f u n c t i o n are  appears  to  the  result  with  usage  be  of the  shown i n the  the  eight Table.  most n o t a b l e  obtained  however,  in  be  found  two  variables  to  English  least  classes  4. 1.3.  the  verbal  discriminator.  Section  discriminates  T h i s i s r e a s o n a b l e as t h e  ftnglo-Chinese  4. 5. 2  computer  to  i s here. ,  reasoning  the  used  20.  discriminant  classes.  77  at the  a n a l y s i s was  relative  language  used  8 and  g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s . The  shown on T a b l e  agree  null  was  is  Table  with  was  g r o u p s . The  (1962) was  significant  Discriminant of the  two  variance  This  English  between t h e were  both  two from  school.  Comparing R e s u l t s  of P h y s i c s  achievement  Between  English  Bilingual Instruction During the  bilingual  experimental  instruction  while  perid, Class  Class 2  was  1  was  taught  taught by  by  English  instruction., Since  the  two  c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s were not  o v e r a l l equal  on  103  a p t i t u d e , the analysis  of c o v a r i a n c e  covariates. d a t a . The  Table  The  4.17  hypothesis  mechanics  (ANCOVA) w i t h  computer  program BHD  the  8 aptitude  04V  was  the  calculated  t h a t the  F-value  groups  did  i n m e c h a n i c s was  adjusted It  that  was  not  i s reasonable  background  instruction  computer.  l e s s than  1,  the  null  significantly  in  a s t e n a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g c l a s s e s and  shows  that  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t o the  extent  adjustment compensates f o r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s  variables,  (Bilingual  or  i n p e r f o r m a n c e on  Table  is  4.5.3  the  identical.  to conclude,  difference  4.18  by  v a r i a b l e s as  from the  differ  regarded  means were a l m o s t  statistical  in  analyzed  used t o a n a l y z e  obtained  a t a b l e o f a d j u s t e d means f o r t h e two  the  were  i s here.  achievement  and  on  f o l l o w i n g ANCOVA t a b l e was  Since  is  posttest scores  the  difference  English) the Test  in  language  produces on  no  of  discernable  Mechanics.  here.  Comparing  B e s u l t s o f P h y s i c s A c h i e v e m e n t Between  Chinese  English Instruction During  English  on  experimental  instruction  instruction. egual  the  Since  while the  a p t i t u d e , the  two  period,  Class  2  Class was  taught  c l a s s e s of s t u d e n t s  s c o r e s on T e s t  on  1  was  taught  by  were n o t  Atomic  by  Chinese overall  Physics  were  104  analyzed  by  anaysis of covariance  (ANCOVA) w i t h  the 8 a p t i t u d e  v a r i a b l e s a s c o v a r i a t e s . The c o m p u t e r program BHD 0 4 ? to  analyze the data.  The f o l l o w i n g ANCOVA t a b l e  was  was  used  obtained.  T a b l e 4.19 i s h e r e .  Since  .95^(1,60)=4.00>2.37,  two a d j u s t e d means a r e e q u a l ) conclude,  therefore,  compensates f o r i n i t i a l difference produces  in no  the  probably  due  to  of  instruction  difference  (Chinese  adjustment.  English)  of  the  I t i s interesting  are equal  a balance o f adjustment  i s here..  or  shows t h e mean s c o r e s  here.  produced  that  This  i s  by t h e e i g h t  b u t p o s s i b l e a s c a n be s e e n  where e a c h c l a s s i s s u p e r i o r i n f o u r a r e a s  T a b l e 4.20  adjustment  i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e Atomic  and a f t e r a d j u s t m e n t  covariates. This i s rare, 4.15  to  d i f f e r e n c e s i n background v a r i a b l e s , the  c l a s s e s b e f o r e and a f t e r means b e f o r e  ( i . e . the  was r e t a i n e d . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e  P h y s i c s T e s t . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e two  hypothesis  t h a t t o the extent s t a t i s t i c a l  language clear  the n u l l  from  Table  of aptitudes.  105  CHAPTER CONCLUSIONS AND  5.1  5  RECOMMENDATIONS  CONCLUSIONS Based on  conclusions seem  the about  warranted  Section  r e s u l t s discussed the  bearing  in  Achievement  language of English  mind  or B i l i n g u a l  Achievement  in  limitations  contributes  to  expressed  1.1 in  motivational  physics  English  seem t o  whether  and  seem  to  factors i n Chinese  be  at  the  grade  Proficiency of  school  motivated  spend e x t r a  (Section  no  learning  school  to  level  in  the  depend  on  the  i t  is  Chinese,  4.2.1, 4.5.2, 4 . 5 . 3 ) .  one-third  Anglo-Chinese  English  does not  g r a d e 10  52%  10 on  level in students'  (English of  AngloEnglish  structure)  the  explained  4. 3) .  There  Chinese  the  matter  (Section  more t h a n  (Section 3)  studied  at  o f Hong Kong d e p e n d s h e a v i l y  'proficiency..A component o f  Chinese  the  i n physics  i n s t r u c t i o n no  Chinese schools  4)  following  S p e c i f i c Problems r a i s e d i n S e c t i o n  trw© s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l s  variance  the  1.7. 1)  2)  i n C h a p t e r 4,  significant English  students.  s t u d e n t s do  not  t i m e and  seem  differences  between In to  make e x t r a  the  Anglo-  o t h e r words, be  in  the  especially  effort  to  learn  4.2.3)...  Important f a c t o r s r e l a t e d s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o be:  self  to p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h concept  of academic  by  ability.  106  Chinese Chinese  language  usage,  ability,  reasoning  cannot  a long-term  only  factor  5)  Chinese  language  be m a n i p u l a t e d  that can  usage,  easily  process. M o t i v a t i o n a l  be more p r o f i c i e n t  i n English  intensity  (Section  p h y s i c s a t the grade  English  language.  strong  case  a t the grade students  In terms  concept  and C h i n e s e  because  be c h a n g e d i n a s h o r t  i n English, self  their  time i f one  (Section  of  verbal  i s the  wants t o  4.4).  10 l e v e l  time and  effort  when i t i s done i n the  of c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s ,  t h e r e i s no  t o be made f o r u s i n g C h i n e s e i n s t e a d 10 l e v e l  and  formation  i n English  I t does n o t t a k e t h e s t u d e n t s e x t r a  to learn  5.2  intensity  v e r b a l reasoning.,Of the above f a c t o r s ,  academic  is  motivational  of  English  anglo-Chinese  school  o f Language o f . I n s t r u c t i o n , o n  Physics  f o r the  present  4. 2. 3) .  DISCUSSION  5.2.1  The  Effect  achievement  5.2*1. 1 Chinese  Comparing and  Section students  the R e s u l t s of P h y s i c s achievement  anqlo-Chinese 4.1.3  Schools  gives  data  were v e r y d i f f e r e n t  t o show t h a t  average  i n academic  t h e two  i n scholastic aptitude  by t h e a p t i t u d e T e s t B a t t e r y ) . , T h i s o r i g i n a l expectation that  i n the  was  s i n c e t h e two  performance  contrary  groups  of  (as measured  to the a u t h o r ' s  s c h o o l s were b o t h  among t h e s e c o n d a r y  above-  schools  in  107  Hong Kong, t h e y result  should  that  the  to  the  aptitude conditions students  Anglo-Chinese school other  group  students'  wants t o g e t  better  or  E n g l i s h as  the  more  such  a school.  the  are  Though the two results  were  statistical indicate  that  the  schools  two  achievement teaching. Cheung B.  while study study  by  so  in  Section  not  physics  the to  opposite  (1974) and  Poon  (1978), b u t  (1979). A  the B.  they  closer  focused  grade 6 l e v e l . Chan  filled  the  reported  their  the  at the  grade  10  grade  E n g l i s h group diminished  considerably  when that  t o go  to  posttest  The  results between academic  results  obtained  to those of  11  these  by  studies  grade l e v e l s .  level.  by  obtained  7  Poon  and  The  level.., Further,  s u p e r i o r i t y of  the  best a v a i l a b l e  Cheung i n v e s t i g a t e d g r a d e  gap  the  face  affect  different  a l examined t h e  to  instruction  examination on  the  months of c o n t r o l l e d -  similar  et  that  three  a  usually  expected  4.2. 1.  significantly  during  as  due  to  the  d i f f e r e n c e i n medium o f  that  and  would c h o o s e  of  the  many e m p l o y e r s .  have  different, use  just  that  would  making  shown  did  out  Furthermore,  students  T h i s was  revealed  the  in  Chan e t a l  studied  the  economic  important  i n s t r u c t i o n , i t was  g r o u p s were  methods a s  to  pointed  as e q u a l l y  admitted.  capable  compared  due  Anglo-Chinese school  medium o f  academically  has  rated  a d d i t i o n a l language problem s t u d e n t s using  were s u p e r i o r i n  a c a d e m i c knowledge by  i n t o an  students  largely  (1966)  E n g l i s h was  intelligence  was  students  The  the a d d i t i o n a l language problem  t o f a c e . Simpson  s o u n d knowledge o f  the