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Science education and the medium of instruction : Chinese or English? Ho, Kwok Keung 1980

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S C I E N C E E D U C A T I O N A N D T H E M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N : C H I N E S E O R E N G L I S H ? K W O K K E U N G ^ H O . B . S c . , T h e C h i n e s e O n i v e r s i t y o f H o n g K o n g , 1971 M . S c , O h i o U n i v e r s i t y , 1974 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F E D U C A T I O N i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S '~ ( S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ) H e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g ' t o t h e . r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d ( T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 1980 © K w o k K e u n g H o , 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T.1W5 i i ________ T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic achievement and p r o f i c i e n c y i n the language of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a s i t u a t i o n where i n s t r u c t i o n was i n the second language of both students and teachers. , The s u b j e c t s were grade 10 p h y s i c s students i n Hong Kong whose f i r s t language was Chinese. A f t e r an e x t e n s i v e review of the l i t e r a t u r e , f i v e s p e c i f i c problems were i d e n t i f i e d and a major hy p o t h e s i s formulated. For the study, data were gathered from one hundred seventy s i x s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d from f o u r c l a s s e s i n two secondary s c h o o l s , one Chinese and one Anglo-Chinese . The f i r s t p a r t o f the study was t o compare the p h y s i c s achievement of groups r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n Chinese and E n g l i s h r e s p e c t i v e l y . For three months (with f o u r l e s s o n s per week), two c l a s s e s of students l e a r n e d the content m a t e r i a l (Light and Sound) i n Chinese and two c l a s s e s l e a r n e d the m a t e r i a l i n E n g l i s h . Group d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n t r o l l e d by using the i n d i v i d u a l a p t i t u d e scores (measured by an a p t i t u d e t e s t battery) as c o v a r i a t e s i n the a n a l y s i s . The second p a r t of the study was to compare the p h y s i c s achievement of the two c l a s s e s o f stu d e n t s i n the same s c h o o l . For two months (with f i v e l e s s o n s per week) ,•• one c l a s s l e a r n e d the content m a t e r i a l (Mechanics) b i l i n g u a l l y while another c l a s s l e a r n e d the m a t e r i a l i n E n g l i s h . The t h i r d part of the study used the same s u b j e c t s as i n the second part.,One c l a s s l e a r n e d the m a t e r i a l (Atomic P h y s i c s ) * f o r f o u r l e s s o n s only, i n E n g l i s h while the other l e a r n e d the m a t e r i a l i n Chinese. The same kinds of procedures were used to c o n t r o l group d i f f e r e n c e s as i n the i i i f i r s t p a r t o f the study. The f o u r t h p a r t of the study i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among (i) p h y s i c s achievement, E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y and. other f a c t o r s ( m o t i v a t i o n , etc.) , and a l s o among ( i i ) E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y and the a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s . E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y o f the students was measured by a t e s t b a t t e r y c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e s u b t e s t s . The m o t i v a t i o n a l , a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s and background v a r i a b l e s were measured by a s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t b a t t e r y and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were administered to the students at d i f f e r e n t times d u r i n g the c o n t r o l l e d study p e r i o d s . The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn: 1) achievement i n p h y s i c s at the grade 10 l e v e l i n the secondary s c h o o l s of Hong Kong d i d not depend on the language of i n s t r u c t i o n . 2) Achievement i n p h y s i c s at the grade 10 l e v e l i n the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s of Hong Kong depended h e a v i l y on p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h . 3) There seemed to be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h between the Chinese and Anglo- Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . 4) The important f a c t o r s i n a c q u i r i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h by the Chinese students appeared to be: s e l f concept of academic a b i l i t y , Chinese language usage, m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n iv E n g l i s h and Chinese v e r b a l reasoning. 5) I t d i d not take the students e x t r a time and e f f o r t t o l e a r n p h y s i c s at the grade 10 l e v e l when i n s t r u c t i o n i s done i n E n g l i s h r a t h e r than Chinese. The present study had c e r t a i n weaknesses i n i t s d e s i g n . , I t would be d e s i r a b l e t o r e p l i c a t e i f using an improved method of sampling, r e f i n e d t e s t s and s c a l e s and a l s o doing i t i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l manner. V Table of Contents ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION •. w w« , • * . 1 1.1 GENERAL AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS INVESTIGATED .... 1 1.2 THE PROBLEM OF BILINGUALISH .. .. 2 1.3 THE USE OF SECOND LANGUAGE AS THE MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION .•.^•;.«/»>-w-.-»*>.«-w*,v»»-'^ *>-«>-«*-»^ ...... 3 •1.4 TEACHING SCIENCE IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE ....... 4 1.5 THE EFFECTS OF AFFECTIVE FACTORS IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING ............................... 5 1.6 THE GENERAL SITUATION OF EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE TEACHING IN HONG KONG ............................. 6 1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY .... 12 1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ..................... 14 CHAPTER 2. BEVIEW OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS ,.,.v.• 17 2.1 STUDIES ON THE USE OF A SECOND LANGUAGE AS THE MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION ..........................19 2.2 STUDIES RELATED TO THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE THROUGH A SECOND LANGUAGE 32 2.3 STUDIES REGARDING AFFECTIVE FACTOBS IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING 36 2.4 BELATED STUDIES DONE IN HONG KONG ............. 39 2.5 SUMMARY OF INVESTIGATIONS ,,.,48 2.6 WEAKNESSES IN THE RESEARCH 52 CHAPTER 3.,METHOD OF STUDY . , . , , . 5 3 3.1 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES ........................... 53 3. 2 THE SELECTION OF SUBJECTS , 55 3.3 METHOD OF ESTABLISHING THE COMPARABILITY OF THE v i GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.4 INSTRUHENTATION ............................... ,60 3.5 COMPARISON OF PHYSICS ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN CHINESE AND ANGLO-CHINESE SCHOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.6 ADDITIONAL STUDIES . . . 81 CHAPTEE 4. RESULTS AND ANAYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.1 COHPABABILITY OF THE CS AND ACS GROUPS 87 4.2 RESULTS ON ADDITIONAL STUDIES 100 CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • «v * : * > ^ V » ^ 105 5.1 CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 5 5. 2 DISCUSSION .... ... ........ ..... . .... ^ ././.^.r^.^. .106 5.3 IMPLICATIONS . . * v V r V . . v . v » . « - V r . . . . » . . « » - ' . . » k M - 112 5.4 BECOHHENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 19 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Groups According to the Time of I n t r o d u c t i o n of Second Language f o r Beading and as a Medium of I n s t r u c t i o n .............128 2.2 C a t e g o r i z a t i o n According t o the Research Methods Dsed i n the S t u d i e s ........................128 2.3 C a t e g o r i z a t i o n According t o the E f f e c t s of the S t u d i e s ,. 129 2.4 R e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n According t o the E f f e c t s of the S t u d i e s .................................... 130 2.5 C a t e g o r i z a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o the L e v e l s of Samples Used i n the s t u d i e s .......................130 3.1 S t a t i s t i c s o f the Achievement T e s t s .....,.,,•••131 3.2 S t a t i s t i c s of the Scales .......................132 4.1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Subjec t s (or Subject Scores) on 9 D i f f e r e n t V a r i a b l e s v....,,«....,..,»•••,134 4.2 Comparison of P r e t e s t R e s u l t s .................. 135 4.3 Aptitude T e s t s R e s u l t s o f the Two Schools .....•.. ... •... .................135 4.4 Vector o f S c a l e s Weights of the Two Schools ............. .....•........................,136 4.5 ANCOVA Table of t h e Two Schools 136 4.6 Beans Before and A f t e r Adjustment f o r the Two Schools . ..... . . , . . . . . ....... 136 4.7 Comparison of V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g P h y s i c s Achievement .•,,............... ............. ....,,. .137 4.8 R e s u l t s on E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y Tests ........,,,137 4.9 Comparison of V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y ...138 4.10 ANOVA Table f o r the M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s of the ACS P h y s i c s Achievement ........... 138 4.11 Summary Table of Stepwise m u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s f o r the P h y s i c s Achievement of the ACS ......... .... ........................... 139 v i l i 4.12 ANOVA Tabl e f o r the M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s of the ACS, E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y as the Dependent V a r i a b l e ....... .... ......... ............ 140 4.13 Summary Table of Stepwise M u l t i p l e Regression f o r the ACS, E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y as the Dependent V a r i a b l e 140 4.14 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Su b j e c t s (or Subject Scores) on 9 D i f f e r e n t V a r i a b l e s of the Two C l a s s e s ....... 141 4.15 Aptitude T e s t s Results of the Two C l a s s e s ....,.,142 4. 16 Vector o f Scaled Weights of V a r i a b l e s i n the D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s f o r the Two C l a s s e s •.... 142 4.17 ANCOVA Table o f t h e Two C l a s s e s Learning Mechanics ...... ............................... ....,143 4.18 Means Before and A f t e r Adjustments f o r the Two C l a s s e s L e a r n i n g Mechanics .,•,..,..•..••..143 4.19 ANCOVA Table o f the Two C l a s s e s Learning Atomic P h y s i c s .................................v.. 144 4.20 Means Before and A f t e r Adjustment f o r the Two C l a s s e s Learning Atomic P h y s i c s ............... ,144 o LIST OF FIGOSES ix F i g u r e 3.1 Schematic Chart o f the Research Plan ...... 145 4.1 ftptituae P r o f i l e o f the CS ana ACS Groups . 1 4 6 4.2 Aptitude-'Profile, of the Two C l a s s e s ........147 ' H i ' <-_,,« l Co lcc-hev.4 VOLOME I I Or.y»*-\ A P p ^ ' c ^ -" + k c J ^ f^ 1 " 1 APPENDIX 1 P r e t e s t . 149 APPENDIX 2 Content A n a l y s i s of P r e t e s t 157 APPENDIX 3 Chinese T r a n s l a t i o n of P r e t e s t ......,159 APPENDIX 4 Teaching Schedule of O p t i c s 170 APPENDIX 5 Teaching M a t e r i a l i n O p t i c s ......... 175 APPENDIX 6 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ....................... 181 APPENDIX 7 Chinese T r a n s l a t i o n of the Questionnaire 225 APPENDIX 8 O p t i c s P o s t t e s t 2 269 APPENDIX 9 Betest i n O p t i c s .................... 275 APPENDIX 10 Chinese T r a n s l a t i o n o f O p t i c s P o s t t e s t 2 281 APPENDIX 11 Teaching Schedule of Mechanics ...... ,285 APPENDIX 12 T e s t i n Mechanics ................... ,289 APPENDIX 13 Lesson Plan i n Atomic Physics ....... 296 APPENDIX 14 Tes t i n Atomic P h y s i c s .............. 324 APPENDIX 15 E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y Test B a t t e r y .... 344 APPENDIX 16 Scores of I n d i v i d u a l Students ....... 363 APPENDIX 17 D i s c u s s i o n about Item D e l e t i o n i n Some Scal e s .... ................. ........... .... 371 APPENDIX 18 Item I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r Scale Having Low R e l i a b i l i t i e s ................. 374 APPENDIX 19 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r S i g n i f i c a t V a r i a b l e s i n P r e d i c t i n g P h y s i c s Achievement and E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y ........................ 376 APPENDIX 20 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r the Aptitude Scores .378 The author wishes t o express h i s deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o P r o f e s s o r H a l t e r B. Boldt, f o r h i s a d v i c e , guidance, encouragement and support throughout the course of t h i s study. Without P r o f e s s o r B o l d t ' s c r i t i c a l comments, h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement, and e x c e l l e n t e d i t i n g , the author would never be able t o complete t h i s t h e s i s . The author wishes to thank P r o f e s s o r s S. F. F o s t e r , P.J. G a s k e l l , G.E. Johnson and T.p.fl. HcKie f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e suggestions, comments, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n as members of the t h e s i s committee. The a u t h o r would a l s o l i k e t o thank Dr. G a i l Fu f o r her v a l u a b l e advice and comments on the r e s e a r c h work and the t h e s i s during the o n - s i t e work i n Hong Kong. The author would l i k e t o thank h i s s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s Mr.. J.K. M a l l s and Mr. H.T. Chan f o r g r a n t i n g him a one year leave of absence so that he could s t a r t h i s d o c t o r a l work a t U.B.C. The author wishes to thank a l l h i s f r i e n d s and students who helped and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. They are so numerous t h a t he cannot name them a l l altho u g h some of t h e i r names appear i n the f o o t n o t e s of the t h e s i s . P a r t i c u l a r l y , the author would l i k e t o thank Hr.„C.C. Hong who helped the author c a r r y out the f i r s t p a r t of the study and Mrs. Amy Pao who commented on the p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t o f the t h e s i s . The author would a l s o l i k e to express h i s deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o h i s t y p i s t s , Miss M.K.yTse who typed the p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t s p a t i e n t l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y under a very t i g h t schedule and Mrs. Jenny Lau who d i d the F8T t y p i n g of the f i n a l d r a f t . F i n a l l y , the author wishes t o thank h i s wife, B e l i n d a Wan-Kam, f o r her p a t i e n c e , understanding, encouragement, company, and help throughout the course of study and w r i t i n g of the t h e s i s . , 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS INVESTIGATED The g e n e r a l problem i n v e s t i g a t e d i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic achievement and p r o f i c i e n c y i n the language of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a s i t u a t i o n where i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n the second language of both students and t e a c h e r s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n Hong Kong and focused s p e c i f i c a l l y on the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to the g e n e r a l problem s t a t e d above: 1) How does achievement i n p h y s i c s a t the grade 10 l e v e l i n the secondary s c h o o l s o f Hong Kong depend on the language of i n s t r u c t i o n , Chinese and E n g l i s h ? 2) To what extent does achievement i n p h y s i c s a t the grade 10 l e v e l i n Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong depend on p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h ? 3) How much time and e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d to achieve p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h as needed f o r teaching and l e a r n i n g i n p h y s i c s ? I s the time and e f f o r t spent commensurate with the l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y a t t a i n e d ? 4) What f a c t o r s are important i n a c q u i r i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i n 2 E n g l i s h by Chinese students? How can these f a c t o r s be manipulated to improve p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h and achievement i n physics? 5) In terms of c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s (cost i n term o f time and e f f o r t ) i n the l i g h t of (1.)-(U) above, should p h y s i c s be taught i n Chinese a t grade 10 i n s t e a d of E n g l i s h ? 1.2 THE PROBLEU OF BILINGOALISM The problem of using d i f f e r e n t languages appeared to be p a r t l y s o l v e d about h a l f a century ago because s e v e r a l major European languages were widely used around the world. A f t e r the Second World War, the p i c t u r e changed q u i c k l y as many new n a t i o n s were born. Many of these new n a t i o n s were former c o l o n i e s of developed c o u n t r i e s . Ever s i n c e t h a t c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , the a b i l i t y to speak a f o r e i g n language has been c o n s i d e r e d necessary f o r p o l i t i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement i n these newer n a t i o n s (Kehoe, 1968, p.1). F o l l o w i n g the achievement of independence, the pressure f o r a wider use of l o c a l languages f o r the sake of n a t i o n a l p r i d e and i d e n t i t y i n c r e a s e d . At the same time, due to the r a p i d development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s , technology and s c i e n c e , the need f o r using a second language as a t o o l f o r p o l i t i c a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and socioeconomic p r o g r e s s a l s o i n c r e a s e d . Even f o r a predominantly m o n o l i n g u i s t i c s o c i e t y l i k e the United S t a t e s , the i n c r e a s i n g number of immigrants i n r e c e n t y e a r s has f o r c e d e d u c t o r s to ques t i o n the t r u t h of the 'melting pot' i d e a and t o pay more a t t e n t i o n to the study of l e a r n i n g i n 3 a second language. Hence the problem of b i l i n g u a l i s m i s a u n i v e r s a l concern r a t h e r than a l o c a l matter. 1.3 THE OSE OF SECOND LANGUAGE AS THE MEDIOfl OF INSTBOCTION As the need f o r l e a r n i n g a second language grows, many people seem t o f e e l that •immersion» i n a second language i s the key t o f l u e n c y i n the language. For t h i s reason, s c h o o l s often use the second language of the n a t i o n as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . , E v i d e n t l y , the second language which served the c o l o n i s t s as a c u l t u r e - c o n t r o l l i n g t o o l , has now become an important key t o success f o r the average c i t i z e n s i n developing n a t i o n s and, consequently, i s o f t e n the p r e f e r r e d medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the h i g h e r grade l e v e l s i n s p i t e of the language d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered. G e n e r a l l y , educators c o n s i d e r the use of a second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n as problematic i n t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . On the other hand, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and p o l i t i c i a n s , from f i n a n c i a l , p r a c t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l p o i n t s of view, c o n s i d e r the use of a second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n to be b e n e f i c i a l , a t l e a s t f o r a c e r t a i n period of time (Daum, 1976)., There have been many s t u d i e s and much d i s c u s s i o n i n the use of t h e second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Using t h i s l a r g e body o f l i t e r a t u r e , Engle (1975) has done a very comprehensive comparison between s c h o o l i n g using the mother tongue and s c h o o l i n g using the second language. Though her study i s mainly concerned with e a r l y s c h o o l years, most of the f i n d i n g s are probably a p p l i c a b l e t o other l e v e l s too. Engle concludes t h a t there i s s t i l l no s u b s t a n t i a l evidence as to 4 which approach i s b e t t e r s i n c e there are so many v a r i a b l e s to be c o n t r o l l e d and e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s are inadequate i n t h i s a s p e c t . . The purpose of the present study i s to meet t h i s problem o f c o n t r o l to a g r e a t e r extent and t o shed more l i g h t on t h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l area o f using the second language as the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . H o p e f u l l y a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be formed as more c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s are c a r r i e d out. 1.4 TEACHING SCIENCE IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE Science e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s students to have the a b i l i t y t o read and understand s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l as well as the a b i l i t y t o communicate these concepts. In order t o do t h i s , complex modes o f thought have t o be used. Quite o f t e n , s c i e n c e teachers assume t h a t i t i s only the t e c h n i c a l vocabulary which i s s p e c i a l about the language o f s c i e n c e . In p r a c t i c e , i n t r o d u c i n g new vocabulary may i n f a c t be r e l a t i v e l y the e a s i e s t p a r t o f s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g . The s c i e n t i f i c meaning o f an experiment or a p r i n c i p l e i s o f t e n more d i f f i c u l t t o teach and l e a r n . Another d i f f i c u l t y which o f t e n occurs i s the use of common words i n a s p e c i a l sense, f o r example, the term "work" r e f e r s to q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t meaninq i n the "common sense" than i n the " s c i e n t i f i c sense". (Strevens, 1972). I t i s p o s s i b l e t o view s t u d e n t s who use t h e i r second lanquage to l e a r n s c i e n c e i n a t l e a s t two ways. Some people b e l i e v e t h a t the l e a r n e r i s l i k e l y to encounter a d d i t i o n a l language problems. One problem i s t h a t , although s c i e n c e l e s s o n s p r o v i d e s u b j e c t matter i n the same way that the language teacher does i n language l e s s o n s , the language p r o f i c i e n c y of the 5 s c i e n c e teacher may a f f e c t the eventual language standard of the students i n s c i e n c e . I f the language p r o f i c i e n c y i s not high the e f f e c i e n c y of s c i e n c e teaching may be lower as w e l l as the standard o f achievement i n the second language. (Bolger, 1967) Others take the second p o i n t of view. They note that s c i e n t i f i c study i s c u s t o m a r i l y pursued i n s e v e r a l languages which are widely used throughout the world and that the switch from l e a r n i n g i n the mother tongue t o l e a r n i n g using a second major language i s d e s i r a b l e . T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o the f a c t that most v e r n a c u l a r s do not have the t e c h n i c a l terms e s s e n t i a l f o r advanced study. The adapta t i o n of a v e r n a c u l a r to a language s u i t a b l e f o r s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g takes time and money. ;This i s not p o s s i b l e at the present stage f o r most developing c o u n t r i e s . Part of the present study d e a l s with the l e a r n i n g o f p h y s i c s at a grade l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t to the Canadian grade 10 l e v e l . I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t examines the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , 1.5 THE EFFECTS OF AFFECTIVE FACTORS IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING C a r r o l l (1962) suggests t h a t second language achievement v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of three general v a r i a b l e s : language a p t i t u d e , g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , and mo t i v a t i o n . I t a l s o depends on two i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s : the oppo r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n i n g and the adequacy of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d . J a k o b o v i t s (1970) even es t i m a t e s the varia n c e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n • p r e d i c t i n g success i n second language l e a r n i n g as f o l l o w s : a p t i t u d e 33%, i n t e l l i g e n c e 20%, m o t i v a t i o n or perseverance 33%, others 14%, 6 For the l a s t two decades, there has been an i n c r e a s i n g amount of r e s e a r c h on the s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of second language l e a r n i n g , , Emphasis has been placed on the a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s of language l e a r n i n g , such as the l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n . Over time, a s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory of language l e a r n i n g has emerged. As Lambert (1972) has noted, "This theory, i n b r i e f , h olds t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l s u c c e s s f u l l y a c q u i r i n g a second language g r a d u a l l y adopts v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of behaviour which c h a r a c t e r i z e members of another l i n g u i s t i c - c u l t u r a l group. The l e a r n e r ' s e t h n o c e n t r i c t e n d e n c i e s , h i s a t t i t u d e s toward language l e a r n i n g are b e l i e v e d to r e g u l a t e or c o n t r o l h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n and u l t i m a t e l y h i s success or f a i l u r e i n mastering the new language.! (p.291) Part of the present study i s t o probe f u r t h e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s and second language l e a r n i n g . In p a r t i c u l a r , what i s the v a r i a n c e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s to second language achievement? 1.6 THE GENEBAL SITUATION OF E DOC ATI ON AND LANGUAGE TEACHING IN HONG KONG 1.6.1 General Background Hong kong i s a 400 square mile t e r r i t o r y l o c a t e d on the southern coast of China. When Hong Kong f i r s t became a B r i t i s h Colony i n 1842, t h e r e was a Chinese p o p u l a t i o n of about 7,000, 7 made up o f fishermen, farmers and v i l l a g e r s . There are now 4,720,200 people crowding i n t o t h i s small p l a c e . The g r e a t bulk are urban d w e l l e r s , three q u a r t e r s of Hong Kong's p o p u l a t i o n being compressed i n t o an area o f about 15 square miles., The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas of Hong Kong I s l a n d , New Kowloon and Tsuen Wan i s 25,400 persons per square k i l o m e t e r (Hong Kong, 1979, p. 220). about 98% of the p o p u l a t i o n i s Chinese, and 86% u s u a l l y speak Cantonese, a southern Chinese d i a l e c t (Agassi, 1969) . About 55% of the urban p o p u l a t i o n i s Hong Kong born while the remainder come from Mainland China (Fu, 1975, p.79). A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n (age over 30) d i d not plan to remain i n Hong Kong when they f i r s t went there d u r i n g the 1949 Chinese c i v i l war. They thought t h a t , someday, they might be a b l e to r e t u r n t o the Mainland again. T h i s w a i t i n g time has been extended i n d e f i n i t e l y . Though most of the people have a n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g toward the c o l o n i a l government ( M i t c h e l l , 1972, pp. 364-5), they g e n e r a l l y keep s i l e n t or to r e a c t only t o g r o s s l y u n f a i r p o l i c i e s t h a t a f f e c t them immediately. , The main reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t they do not want to 'turn the boat over* s i n c e any change of t h e present p o l i t i c a l s t a t e might be even more d i s a s t r o u s . , But by 1997, when the l e a s e of the New T e r r i t o r i e s (365 square miles) from China e x p i r e s , nobody (not even the Chinese or B r i t i s h governments) r e a l l y knows what w i l l happen p o l i t i c a l l y . Up t o the outbreak o f the Second World War, Hong Kong was an entrepot, owing i t s l i f e to t r a d e , banking and s h i p p i n g . The Japanese occupation, the Chinese c i v i l war and the U.N. embargo 8 of Chinese t r a d e a f t e r the outbreak of the Korean war r u i n e d the e n t r e p o t trade f a t a l l y . . B u t a t h r i v i n g i n d u s t r i a l economy was b u i l t up a t the same time, which was a b l e to absorb m i l l i o n s of immigrants t h a t poured i n t o the colony i n the 1950*s.. The b u i l d i n g up of an i n d u s t r i a l economy was a r e s u l t of s e r i e s of h i s t o r i c a l c o i n c i d e n c e s r a t h e r than any w e l l thought out plan on the part of the government.,Even to t h i s day, the Hong Kong government i n t e r f e r e s as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e i n the a f f a i r s of the l o c a l economy. One of the key f a c t o r s i n the economic growth of Hong Kong over the past decades has been the great i n f l u x of Chinese c a p i t a l , s k i l l and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p (Johnson, 197 1, pp. 6-8) . In b r i e f . Hong Kong i s a p l a c e of great c o n t r a s t s . Fu (1975) o f f e r s a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of Hong Kong: •The c i t y on the edge of the " d i d d l e Kingdom" a t t r a c t s businessmen and r e f u g e e s , m i s s i o n a r i e s and dope p e d d l a r s , t o u r i s t s and p r o s t i t u t e s . I t e x h i b i t s " c u l t u r a l c l a s h , time l a g and f u t u r e shock - a l l a t once"; s o p h i s t i c a t e d technology and c o o l i e s with r a t t a n baskets, unimaginable stench and the l a t e s t from Chanel, i m p e r i a l banquets and skimpy bowls of r i c e , pop c a s s e t t e s and s h r i l l Cantonese opera, s t r o b e l i g h t s and muted Chinese s c r o l l s . Hong Kong i s as b e a u t i f u l as i t i s s q u a l i d , as e x c i t i n g as i t i s d e p r e s s i n g , as modern as i t i s d i l a p i d a t e d . I t i s a c i t y d e d i c a t e d t o money, and anything t h a t makes i t i s done here and i m p l i c i t l y condoned - business, e x p l o i t a t i o n , c o r r u p t i o n . 9 p r o s t i t u t i o n , ingenuity, diligence, sheer hard work ... I t i s a hard c i t y where everyone has to look out for himself. No one else i s going to.» (p. 79) 1.6.2 Education There are 1,323,098 school students in Hong Kong, of whom 563,384 are primary students and 529,712 are secondary students (Hong Kong, 1979, p. 274). Some students i n Hong Kong st a r t school between the ages of three and f i v e at one of the many private kindergartens, almost every c h i l d gets i n t o primary school at the age of s i x . St present, the admission policy of primary schools i s not unusual except f o r a few famous schools which have exceptionally high admission standards, although every c h i l d has the right to nine years of free education, t h i s does not mean that he w i l l stay in the same school f o r nine years. In the past, the secondary school attended would have been determined by aptitude, choice of school, and area of residence at the end of the sixth year. In the future, each student w i l l be sent to a senior high school for further studies up to grade 11 at the end of the ninth year. The d e t a i l s of se l e c t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n have not been f u l l y established as yet (Hong Kong, 1979, p. 57). at present, almost every student writes the C e r t i f i c a t e of Education Examination at the end of the eleventh year.§ Following t h i s , the great majority leave 1 The c e r t i f i c a t e of Education Examination i s an achievement test on various subjects administered to a l l students at the end of grade 11. The examination i n most of the subjects i s offered i n t«o equivalent t r a n s l a t i o n s , English and Chinese. Candidates can answer in either language. 10 s c h o o l t o look f o r jobs, while only one t h i r d continue to grade 12 and 13 p r e - u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s . The chance of e n t e r i n g u n i v e r s i t y i s very s m a l l ; out of every e i g h t c a n d i d a t e s , only one i s admitted. Education i n Hong Kong i s l i k e a pyramid with a very broad base which narrows s h a r p l y at grade 10 and 12. This i s topped by a p i n n a c l e of very few s e l e c t students who manage to get through the entrance examination i n t o u n i v e r s i t y . 1.6. 3 Language Teaching As pointed out by Fu (1975, pp. 85-87) , one fundamental problem which a l l Hong Kong st u d e n t s have to f a c e i s the complex and f r u s t r a t i n g beauty of t h e i r own language(s). They are exposed t o Cantonese from b i r t h . S i n c e there i s no w r i t t e n Cantonese, Hong Kong students do not use t h e i r spoken language as a medium f o r w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n . When c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o read and w r i t e , they have to use a new language. Mandarin. The books i n Mandarin are w r i t t e n i n a s t y l e very d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r spoken mother d i a l e c t . L i n g u i s t i c i n s e c u r i t y i s deepened i n the l a t e r s t a g e s when students go to higher forms of s c h o o l i n g . I t i s then t h a t they have t o l e a r n c l a s s i c a l Chinese which i s as u n r e l a t e d t o Mandarin as Mandarin i s t o Cantonese. I t i s no wonder t h a t Chao (1953) says t h a t E n g l i s h i s a t h i r d language to a Chinese student. The s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong can be d i v i d e d i n t o two types a c c o r d i n g to the language of i n s t r u c t i o n : Chinese and Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s . These s c h o o l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , use Chinese and E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . At the primary l e v e l (grade 1-6), about 90% of the s c h o o l s are Chinese and p u p i l s 11 s t a r t to l e a r n E n g l i s h as a s u b j e c t from grade 2 upwards. , At the secondary l e v e l (grade 7-11), the s i t u a t i o n i s j u s t r e v e r s e d . About 81.8% of the s c h o o l s are Anglo-Chinese while only the remaining 18.2% are Chinese s c h o o l s (Chan, Hinton, and Yau, 1979). T h i s abrupt change i n enrollment does not mean t h a t the Chinese s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m i s i n f e r i o r to the Anglo-Chinese one. I t i s a mere pe r s o n a l c h o i c e of the students or t h e i r parents who t h i n k t h a t l e a r n i n g more E n g l i s h w i l l enhance t h e i r prospect f o r the f u t u r e . F u r t h e r , a sound knowledge of E n g l i s h i s rated e q u a l l y as important as the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e l l i g e n c e or academic achievement by many employers (Simpson, 1966, P. 42). From the d i s c u s s i o n above, one might get the impression that the standard of E n g l i s h i n Hong Kong i s high. But only a small f r a c t i o n 1 of the p o p u l a t i o n can speak f l u e n t E n g l i s h . Even among the e l i t e group of s t u d e n t s who can get i n t o u n i v e r s i t y , the average standard of E n g l i s h i s not as high as expected by u n i v e r s i t y educators (Vince, 1970). C u r i o u s l y enough, the academic pressure and the economic b e n e f i t s of s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h seem i n s u f f i c i e n t t o o v e r r i d e a b a s i c emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e s i t a t i o n on the p a r t of the students. Though st u d e n t s are not a c t i v e l y h o s t i l e toward E n g l i s h , they seem to r e s i s t d e d i c a t i n g themselves to i t s study f o r personal a i d p s y c h o l o g i c a l reasons. T h i s may be the c h i e f reason, as noted by Lambert (1972) why, a f t e r s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h f o r so many years, t h e i r average achievement i s s t i l l 1 From A g a s s i s ' study, l e s s than 9% of the p o p u l a t i o n can speak f l u e n t E n g l i s h . T h i s f i g u r e might be a l i t t e b i t out o f date s i n c e t h e r e are more Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s graduated i n the past t e n years. 12 u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that Fu (1975. p. 185) suspected t h a t the f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h of many Hong Kong s t u d e n t s was incommensurate with the amount o f time and e f f o r t they put i n t o t h a t second language. T h i s i s so, i n p a r t , because t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the language are ambivalent and because they might be u n c e r t a i n about a l i g n i n g themselves with the E n g l i s h who governed Hong Kong and who more than any other people h u m i l i a t e d China i n the 19th century, a f t e r a l l , Hong Kong i s not and has never been a cosmopolitan melting pot l i k e Singapore, but remains b a s i c a l l y Chinese (Chaney, Podmore, and Lu, 1973, pp. 2-3) . She i s ' f l e x i b l y westernized' at the s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l but 'stubbornly Chinese' underneath ( J a r v i e and Agassi, 1969, p. ,156). 1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY The purpose of the present study i s to shed some a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l achievement and the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t e x p l o r e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between achievement i n high s c h o o l p h y s i c s , second language p r o f i c i e n c y , and a t t i t u d e s toward the second language, i n a s i t u a t i o n where the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i s the second language of both students and te a c h e r s . The scope of the study i s c o n f i n e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r problem of p r a c t i c e i n t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e , the use of a second language i n t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g high s c h o o l physics..,, In r e a d i n g the c o n c l u s i o n s of the present study, the re a d e r s must bear i n mind the f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s . 13 1) S t r i c t l y speaking, the r e s u l t s are not g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o other s c h o o l s and c l a s s e s s i n c e the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s was very r e s t r i c t i v e . However, c a u t i o u s g e n e r a l i z a i o n s based on the r e s u l t s might be made t o other s i m i l a r s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s , i . e . , the government s u b s i d i z e d secondary s c h o o l s which are acade m i c a l l y above average i n Hong Kong.* 2) In the c o n t r o l l e d - t e a c h i n g study, the s t u d e n t s were exposed t o i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n by the author and the a s s i s t i n g teacher. Although every e f f o r t was made to ensure t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n i n both groups was e q u i v a l e n t , i t was q u e s t i o n a b l e whether the c h a r a c t e r and t e a c h i n g s t y l e of the t e a c h e r s might a f f e c t the l e a r n i n g of the students. Furthermore, c e r t a i n p a r t s of the i n s t r u c t i o n s , 2 which might pose problems due to the language b a r r i e r , might have been emphasized by e i t h e r the author or the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h i n g . 1 Secondary s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong can be bro a d l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e types a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . They are government, government s u b s i d i z e d , and p r i v a t e s c h o o l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Government sc h o o l s are completely c o n t r o l l e d by the government. Government s u b s i d i z e d s c h o o l s are p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the government s i n c e they r e c e i v e q u i t e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r funds from the government., P r i v a t e s c h o o l s are independent as long as the s c h o o l s are obeying the ge n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l laws set up by the government. In g e n e r a l the academic standard of the government and government s u b s i d i z e d s c h o o l i s higher than t h a t of the p r i v a t e ones. (Of course, t h e r e are a l s o v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n each type of schools.) 2 For example, when stu d e n t s l e a r n t Chapter 7 (Bork, Energy and Power) of the t e x t book, they might f i n d t h a t l e a r n i n g i t b i l i n g u a l l y was e a s i e r than i n E n g l i s h alone s i n c e that chapter i n v o l v e d a l o t of t h i n g s which were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d with t h e i r d a i l y l i f e e x p erience. 14 3) The r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t s and s c a l e s was, i n g e n e r a l , not too high. T h i s c o n d i t i o n was not conducive f o r d e t e c t i n g s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s which might e x i s t . I t might have led to the acceptance of a n u l l h y p o t h e s i s when sma l l but s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d . , 4) Due to the shortage of money, time and manpower, the number o f s u b j e c t s ( i . e . students) i n v o l v e d i n the study was c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l . T h i s might a f f e c t the power of the study and hence might miss the a c t u a l r e s u l t (as s t a t e d i n the hypothesis) i f the d i f f e r e n c e was s m a l l . , 5) The study was c o n f i n e d to b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s programs only. T h i s was not a study of the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f b i l i n g u a l programs i n g e n e r a l . E x t r a p o l a t i o n s to other s u b j e c t matters l i k e s o c i a l s c i e n c e , mathematics, e t c . might not be a p p l i c a b l e . 6) The study i n v o l v e d only Chinese high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s from Hong Kong. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n to other students might be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . 1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY As f a r as the w r i t e r has been able to determine, t h e r e has been very l i t t l e research done i n t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g i n a second language at the s e n i o r secondary l e v e l . In p a r t i c u l a r , s t u d i e s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between achievement i n p h y s i c s and the language of i n s t r u c t i o n have been almost t o t a l l y n e g l e c t e d . 15 A study of t h i s problem i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t i m e l y , from a p o l i t i c a l - economic viewpoint i n Hong Kong and i n n a t i o n s of the world which are immersed i n second language problems and i n adoption of western s c i e n c e and technology. Furthermore, the c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y i n the Vancouver area, and the p o l i t i c a l l y u n s e t t l e d s i t u a t i o n i n Asia i n r e c e n t years i n d i c a t e that s t u d i e s comparing the achievement of Chinese s t u d e n t s under v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s are t i m e l y and a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s i s an important p e r i o d f o r Chinese a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n a l i k e s i n c e the next few decades may w e l l determine whether Canadians of Chinese a n c e s t r y w i l l be p a r t i a l l y or t o t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . , From an e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t , i f one accepts the p o s i t i o n of Broudy t h a t the " i n t e r p r e t i v e use" of l e a r n i n g s a c q u i r e d i n s c h o o l i s more important than the " r e p l i c a t i v e use" or even " a p p l i c a t i v e use" of s c h o o l l e a r n i n g s i n everyday l i f e , the problem of how t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g i n a second language a f f e c t s the a c q u i s i t i o n of such l e a r n i n g s i s of major e d u c a t i o n a l importance. To i l l u s t r a t e , can the ideas of p h y s i c s be used t o make problems of s o c i e t a l concern s e n s i b l e when these i d e a s have to be " f i l t e r e d through the s c r e e n " of a second language? How d i s t o r t e d are the ideas? Would the l e a r n e r even attempt to overcome the language b a r r i e r u n l e s s under c o n s i d e r a b l e pressure to do so? F i n a l l y , i f we accept the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s of view: 1) that p r e v a l e n t Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy 16 supports p r o v i s i o n o f egual e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l , hoping t h a t u l t i m a t e l y each i n d i v i d u a l who has been educated w i l l achieve happiness; 2) t h a t each new Canadian i s p o t e n t i a l l y a u s e f u l human resource f o r the n a t i o n ; 3) t h a t the i n t e g r a t i o n of immigrant c h i l d r e n i n t o the Canadian s o c i e t y i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s c h o o l s ; 4) t h a t immigrants from China, Hong Kong and elsewhere w i l l continue t o i n c r e a s e i n number; Then t h i s study should a l s o serve as p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t i n t o how the use of E n g l i s h as a second language would a f f e c t the s c h o o l l e a r n i n g of immigrant c h i l d r e n i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y Chinese. 17 CHAPTER 2 BEVIEW OF BELATED INVESTIGATIONS Hany s t u d i e s have been done i n the f i e l d o f b i l i n g u a l i s m . Host were concerned with the e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l i s m upon the l i n g u i s t i c or c o g n i t i v e development of b i l i n g u a l s . Very l i t t l e reseach has been done on the e f f e c t of t e a c h i n g i n a second language on achievement i n p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t areas, e. g., s c i e n c e , and a t t i t u d e s (Cooper, 1971; flacnamara, 1.967)..,. I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o give a thorough account of a l l the s t u d i e s which have been reviewed, so i t w i l l be necessary t o go over many s t u d i e s with j u s t a i n d i c a t i o n as t o what the f i n d i n g s were, and where they were c a r r i e d out, and concentrate on those few that are p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g or c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . For the sake of quick r e f e r e n c e , three symbols are g i v e n a t the end o f each study. The f i r s t symbol r e f e r s to the r e s e a r c h method o r design used i n the s t u d y . , E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h designs are broadly d i v i d e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : Survey (S), Post hoc comparative (PH) , Experimental ( E ) . * The second symbol r e f e r s to the r e s u l t of the study. The r e s u l t s 1 Quasi-experimental design i s i n c l u d e d under the t i t l e E x perimental design. For d e t a i l e d d i s t i n c t i o n s between the three k i n d s of s t u d i e s , see Gay (1976, Ch. ,6) 18 are c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : Using the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i s not d e t r i m e n t a l (S+) Using the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i s d e t r i m e n t a l <S~) Using the second language as the c h i e f medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and the f i r s t language as an a s s i s t i n g medium i s not d e t r i m e n t a l {_}•) I n c o n c l u s i v e (I) Not a p p l i c a b l e (NA). The t h i r d symbol r e f e r s t o the l e v e l s of the sample s e l e c t e d f o r the study. They are c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : A l l l e v e l s (A) C o l l e g e (C) S e n i o r high s c h o o l (SH) J u n i o r high s c h o o l (JH) Primary or p r e s c h o o l (P) Not s p e c i f i e d (N). For example, the symbols <S, B+, P) a f t e r a study means t h a t : (1) i t was a survey study; (2) the r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d that using the second language as the c h i e f medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and the f i r s t language as an a s s i s t i n g medium i s not d e t r i m e n t a l ; (3) the sample was chosen a t the primary or p r e s c h o o l l e v e l . , 2.1 STUDIES ON THE USE OF A SECOND LANGUAGE AS THE MEDIUM OF 19 INSTRUCTION T h i s s e c t i o n i s a g e n e r a l review on the use of a second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Since t h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a review of 18 s t u d i e s , i t i s broken i n t o two s u b s e c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l order. At f i r s t s i g h t , the c h o i c e of 1970 as the l i n e of d i v i s i o n seems to be q u i t e a r b i t r a r y . , But c l o s e r examination r e v e a l s t h a t s t u d i e s done befo r e and a f t e r 1970 are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The d e t a i l s of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s can be found i n S e c t i o n 2.5.1 and 2. 5.2. , 2.1.1 Research done before 1970 2.1.1.1 The e a r l i e s t study i n t h i s era was probably t h a t done by Bovet (1932) i n Geneva. He reported t h a t a f t e r f o u r y e a r s of education i n a b i l i n g u a l s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s had scores e q u i v a l e n t to those i n a monolingual s c h o o l . Students were probably from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s , although no f u r t h e r d e t a i l s about the groups were r e p o r t e d . (PH, B+, P) 2.1.1.2 Malherbe (1946) r e p o r t e d t h a t a c a r e f u l survey of 18,773 students i n over 200 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e primary and secondary s c h o o l s i n South A f r i c a was done i n 1938. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n the b i l i n g u a l s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n i n which the second language was used as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , the d u l l e r s t u d e n t s were not hindered any more than the b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s i n r e g a rd t o content and that they could s t i l l maintain t h e i r normal standard o f achievement i n t h e i r f i r s t language. The most 20 s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t was t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i v e gain i n t h e i r second language was n e a r l y twice as great as t h a t r e g i s t e r e d by the higher i n t e l l i g e n c e group. T h i s i s one of the few s t u d i e s that questioned the b e l i e f t h a t b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s are not handicapped by the use of the second language as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n while the d u l l e r students s u f f e r badly. Furthermore, he found t h a t the b i l i n g u a l s using the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n were behind a t f i r s t , but managed to c a t c h up by the s i x t h grade. (S, S + , P & JH) 2.1.1.3 F i f e and Manual (1951) reported t h a t f o r the Spanish-speaking students i n Puerto Hico, the use of E n g l i s h as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n hindered academic achievement. . (PH, S-, P) 2.1.1.4 T a y l o r and G r i e v e (1952) c a r r i e d out a survey i n Ghana t o f i n d i f th e r e was any measurable d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f E n g l i s h and the n a t i v e language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Because of methodological d i f f i c u l t i e s they c o u l d o n l y t e n t a t i v e l y conclude t h a t the E n g l i s h medium r e s u l t e d i n higher s c o r e s i n E n g l i s h t e s t s while the n a t i v e medium r e s u l t e d i n h igher s c o r e s i n ot h e r s u b j e c t s . (S, S-, N) 2.1.1.5 One of the most famous s t u d i e s on the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n was c a r r i e d out by the department of Education, Manila, d u r i n g the p e r i o d , 1948-1955. The study, c a l l e d the I l o i l o Experiments, was designed to analyze the e f f e c t s of i n i t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n the mother tongue on the e v e n t u a l l e a r n i n g of the c u r r i c u l u m i n E n g l i s h . The study was well 21 designed. The experimental group r e c e i v e d a l l i n s t r u c t i o n i n the mother tongue (Hiligaynon) i n grades 1 and 2 and then i n E n g l i s h i n grades 3 to 6. The change of language was abrupt. The c o n t r o l group were taught i n E n g l i s h i n grade 1 through 6. The te a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s were the same throughout, with the ex c e p t i o n of grade 1 and 2 where the m a t e r i a l s were t r a n s l a t e d to the n a t i v e language f o r the experimental group. Students* a b i l i t i e s and achievements were assessed before grade 1 and a f t e r each grade through grade 6. The experimental group was assessed i n the n a t i v e language while the c o n t r o l group was assessed i n E n g l i s h d u r i n g grade 1 and 2. Subsequently a l l were assessed i n E n g l i s h . The assessment i n c l u d e d t e s t s o f reading, a r i t h m e t i c problems, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and language s k i l l s f o r each grade. The sample c o n s i s t e d of f o u r t e e n elementary s c h o o l s , equated f o r tea c h e r q u a l i t y , socio-economic s t a t u s (SES) , the p r i n c i p a l s * and s u p e r v i s o r s * q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Experimental t e a c h e r s were g e n e r a l l y o f higher SES than the c o n t r o l t e a c h e r s . Students were a l s o equated on s c h o o l attendance, c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and s c o r e s on the P h i l i p p i n e s Hental a b i l i t y Test. When the p r o j e c t began, there were 1164 c o n t r o l students and 758 experimental students. The sample s i z e decreased t o 188 experimental s u b j e c t s and 189 c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s when matching was done. However, the drop-out r a t e was very high; only 28% of the sample remained a t the end of the study. The method used to teach the second language was d i f f e r e n t from standard methods used i n most s c h o o l s . I t was based on language p a t t e r n i n g and d r i l l s with emphasis on both s t r u c t u r e and phonetics. „Teachers were t r a i n e d i n the teaching of both the 22 n a t i v e language and E n g l i s h as a second language. at the end of the f i r s t year o f the study, the experimental group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r i n re a d i n g and s o c i a l s t u d i e s while the d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r i t h m e t i c were not s i g n i f i c a n t . At the end of the f o u r t h year, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups i n r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r i n language. At the end of the study, t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n any of the areas. At the end of grade 4, 5, and 6, the experimental group members r e p o r t e d themselves s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on one of the f o u r or f i v e dimensions of a p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y t e s t , though the dimensions v a r i e d from grade t o grade. Furthermore, the majority of parents thought t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n showed more enthusiasm f o r s c h o o l when they were taught through the mother tongue than when they were taught i n E n g l i s h . , The r e s u l t s of t h i s study were widely accepted i n the P h i l i p p i n e s . A l l students were then taught i n t h e i r mother tongue f o r the f i r s t two years of s c h o o l and i n E n g l i s h i n the f o l l o w i n g years. „• Engle (1975, p. 294) pointed out t h a t the study had a number of problems.; The t e s t s were inadequately v a l i d a t e d i n E n g l i s h and then simply t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the n a t i v e language. V a r i a b l e s were not i s o l a t e d . A new method of t e a c h i n g was confounded with the b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s . No c o n t r o l f o r the Hawthorne e f f e c t was made.* The two c u r r i c u l a i n grades 1 and 2 1 The e f f e c t i s named a f t e r the Hawthorne p l a n t of the Western E l e c t r i c C o r p o r a t i o n where i t was f i r s t noted. I t r e f e r s t o the f a c t t h a t almost any change, any e x t r a - a t t e n t i o n , any experimental manipulation or even the absence of manipulation but the knowledge t h a t a study i s being done, i s enough to cause s u b j e c t s t o change. 23 were not e q u i v a l e n t as the E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l s were c a r e f u l l y presented while the n a t i v e l e s s o n s were on rough d i t t o e s , o f t e n p o o r l y e d i t e d . The standard o f E n g l i s h of the teachers was low. The high a t t r i t i o n r a t e suggested t h a t the f i n a l sample was extremely s e l e c t i v e i n terms of the f a c t o r s which a l l o w e d a student to s t a y i n s c h o o l . On the whole, severe c r i t i c i s m s were r a i s e d about the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the study, i t could probably be taken as support f o r u s i n g the mother tongue i n e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s or support f o r using the second language i n l a t e r s c h o o l years. (E, If P) 2.1.1.6 C a r r o l l (1961) s t u d i e s the mastery of E n g l i s h by Ghanaian students i n f i v e primary schools. I t was r e p o r t e d that the n a t i v e language vocabulary of the Ghanaian students was c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r than t h e i r E n g l i s h vocabulary. Furthermore, the n a t i v e language was a much more e f f i c i e n t medium of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r them than was E n g l i s h . . I t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d that the e d u c a t i o n a l standards of secondary school and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s educated under the most f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s with n a t i v e E n g l i s h speaking t e a c h e r s , seemed t o be f a r below t h a t of the comparable E n g l i s h groups. Two surveys of teachers* o p i n i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t A f r i c a n s tudents c o u l d not show t h e i r t r u e i n t e l l c t u a l a b i l i t i e s i n E n g l i s h alone. (PH, S-, A) 2.1.1.7 Macnamara (1966) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of t e a c h i n g a r i t h m e t i c i n I r i s h to students from E n g l i s h speaking homes i n I r e l a n d . Groups of s c h o o l s belonging to the two l i n g u i s t i c 24 c a t e g o r i e s were s e l e c t e d at random and the f i f t h - s t a n d a r d students were g i v e n a problem a r i t h m e t i c t e s t and a mechanical a r i t h m e t i c t e s t p r i n t e d i n I r i s h o r E n g l i s h a c c o r d i n g to the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n used i n the s c h o o l . The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n technique was used to analyze the r e s u l t s with the s u b j e c t ' s non-verbal r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y , socio-economic s t a t u s , and the t e a c h e r ' s t e a c h i n g s k i l l as independent v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t e a c h i n g a r i t h m e t i c i n I r i s h to n a t i v e E n g l i s h speaking students hindered the st u d e n t s ' p r o r e s s i n s o l v i n g v e r b a l problems, but not i n mechanical s k i l l s i n a r i t h m e t i c . Macnamara e x p l a i n e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the f i n d i n g s was probably due to the f a c t t h a t i n mechanical a r i t h m e t i c , the student was simply r e q u i r e d t o do an a r i t h m e t i c o p e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e d by an a r i t h m e t i c symbol. However, i n s o l v i n g v e r b a l problems he was re q u i r e d t o read and understand v e r b a l statements. Hence, language played a very important r o l e i n the second type. He concluded that the f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o the t e a c h i n g of other s u b j e c t s through the medium of the second language were g u i t e d i s c o u r a g i n g . I t seemed t h a t the t e a c h i n g of ot h e r s u b j e c t through the medium o f the second language d i d not b e n e f i t the second language, but was d e t r i m e n t a l t o the st u d e n t s ' progress i n mathematics. , (E, S-, P). 2.1.1.8 Another r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t (the fiizal study) was completed i n the P h i l i p p i n e s on the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n by Bamos, A g u i l a r and Sibayan (1967) . I t was designed to f i n d out the most a p p r o p r i a t e time to i n t r o d u c e r e a d i n g i n the second language (English) and the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . 25 F i v e groups were chosen as shown i n Table 2.1 according t o the grade l e v e l of the student a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of second language f o r r e a d i n g and as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Table 2. 1 i s here Schools were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y chosen, equated on what were thought t o be r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s and c a r e f u l l y matched. Teachers r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n the teaching of the second language, and i n t e a c h i n g v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s i n the second language. They r e c e i v e d no t r a i n i n g i n the t e a c h i n g o f , or with, the n a t i v e language and continued to use the old m a t e r i a l made a f t e r the f i r s t I l o i l o Experiment. The dependent v a r i a b l e s were a r i t h m e t i c and second language s c o r e s . The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : (i) The time at which r e a d i n g i n the second language was i n t r o d u c e d apparently made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e on the second language rea d i n g t e s t , ( i i ) Changing the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n d i d not have a great i n f l u e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t s k i l l s . , The only e f f e c t s were on a r i t h m e t i c and language scores. Those who had been taught i n the second language most r e c e n t l y s c o r e d h i g h e s t on the a r i t h m e t i c t e s t while those who had experienced the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the l o n g e s t time had the h i g h e s t s c o r e s on the second language t e s t s i n grade s i x . (E, S-, P). 2.1. 1.9 T r e v i n o (1968) used students of Spanish .. speaking background as s u b j e c t s f o r h i s experiment. ( The s u b j e c t s were 26 assigned randomly to a monolingual or b i l i n g u a l program of study. The s u b j e c t matter taught was mathematics. Students under the b i l i n g u a l program were taught through both t h e i r mother tongue and E n g l i s h , while students under the monolingual program r e c e i v e d a l l i n s t r u c t i o n through the medium of E n g l i s h , achievement t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the students a f t e r w a r d s to f i n d out t h e i r progress i n the two programs., Since i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s were obtained, no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn. (E, I , P). 2. 1. 1.10 D i s c u s s i o n Almost a l l o f the s t u d i e s done before 1970 took s u b j e c t s from primary s c h o o l s , so any c o n c u l s i o n drawn from these s t u d i e s might be a p p l i c a b l e t o primary s c h o o l students only. Among these 9 s t u d i e s , Macnamara*s study and the R i z a l study were among the b e t t e r and more w e l l designed ones., Both of t h e i r r e s u l t s p o i n t e d i n one d i r e c t i o n : the use of a second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n might not be good f o r primary school s t u d e n t s . , For the remaining 7 s t u d i e s , though they had d e f i c i e n c i e s which rendered them l e s s dependable than the two noted above, more than h a l f of them were s t i l l p o i n t i n g toward the same d i r e c t i o n . 2.1.2 Research Done i n the 70»s 2.1.2.1 Tucker (1970) s t u d i e d three c l a s s e s i n a l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l of a u n i v e r s i t y i n the urban P h i l i p p i n e s . One c l a s s was 27 taught only i n E n g l i s h , one only i n F i l i p i n o , and the t h i r d was taught i n E n g l i s h and F i l i p i n o on a l t e r n a t i n g days. The s u b j e c t s taught on those a l t e r n a t e days were not e x a c t l y the same. 411 the students came from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s . A f t e r one year of the experiment, the r e s u l t s were c o n f l i c t i n g ; a l l d i d e g u a l l y well on r e a d i n g i n F i l i p i n o and on o r a l E n g l i s h . T h i s suggested t h a t the students using only E n g l i s h l e a r n e d to r e a d by themselves or by t r a n s f e r r i n g s k i l l s , and there was a f a i r amount o f E n g l i s h i n a l l o f the st u d e n t s ' environments. One strange r e s u l t was t h i s : F i l i p i n o - t r a i n e d s t udents scored higher than E n g l i s h - t r a i n e d s tudents on the E n g l i s h s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e s t , and v i c e v e r s a . Tucker concluded that there were no s u b s t a n t i a l gains f o r the b i l i n g u a l group over the ot h e r two groups and the year was not d e t r i m e n t a l t o the s t u d e n t s . , ( E , S+, P). 2.1.2.2 G i l e (1971) d i d a r e s e a r c h study i n Toronto making use of a model s i m i l a r t o Lambert's D i r e c t Method (which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) . E n g l i s h speaking students from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s were taught i n French from the time they were three years o l d . Then E n g l i s h and French were used a l t e r n a t e l y as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n every h a l f year. Students s t a r t e d to read French i n grade one, and s t a r t e d t o read E n g l i s h i n grade two. The students were not handicapped i n the process, and g r a d u a l l y achieved as much as monolingual speaking students. (E, S+, P). 2.1.2.3 weffer (1972) used primary students of Spanish background as s u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s were assigned randomly to a 28 monolingual or a b i l i n g u a l program of study. The s u b j e c t s were taught language, a r t s , and mathematics., Students i n the b i l i n g u a l program were taught both t h e i r mother tongue and E n g l i s h , while the students i n the monolingual program r e c e i v e d a l l i n s t r u c t i o n i n English..Achievement t e s t s were administered to the s t u d e n t s afterwards to f i n d out t h e i r progress i n the two programs. Weffer r e p o r t e d that the two groups progressed a t the same r a t e i n E n g l i s h language and mathematics ( i n E n g l i s h ) , but the b i l i n g u a l group achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r r e s u l t s i n Spanish language and mathematics ( i n Spanish) than the monolingual group. (E, B+, P). 2.1.2.4 G a l l o p and Kirkman (197 2) compared the performance of two l a t c h e d groups of Welsh b i l i n g u a l s t udents on a mathematics t e s t . A l l the s u b j e c t s used Welsh as t h e i r f i r s t language. The t e s t was presented i n E n g l i s h t o one group, but b i l i n g u a l l y ( E n g l i s h and Welsh) t o the other group. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the mean sc o r e s obtained by the two groups.: A f o l l o w - u p study found t h a t when the s t u d e n t s were giv e n the c h o i c e when responding to b i l i n g u a l mathematical q u e s t i o n s , there was f a r more b i a s towards the use of E n g l i s h than that o f Welsh. The study j u s t brought to l i g h t the l i n g u i s t i c p r e f e r ence of the Welsh c h i l d r e n i n t h a t sample. No o t h e r c o n c l u s i o n was reached. (E, I , N) . 2.1.2.5 Duyne and G u t i e r r e z (1972) used four t o seven year o l d b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n of Spanish background t o perform a complex perceptual-motor task. They were given only Spanish or E n g l i s h 29 v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . These were repeated u n t i l the c h i l d made fo u r consecutive c o r r e c t v e r b a l responses t o each i n s t r u c t i o n . The c h i l d was asked t o perform the task when he had met the above c r i t e r i o n . The s c o r i n g of performance f o r both treatment groups was the number of c o r r e c t responses. .The r e s u l t s showed that the c h i l d r e n performed b e t t e r when Spanish i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n . I t might be t h a t the c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o decode and encode v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s i n Spanish i n t o s p e c i f i c perceptual-motor c o n n e c t i o n s was more f u l l y developed than i n E n g l i s h . (E, S-f P). , 2.1.2.6 One o f the most thoroughly conceived and well-conducted s t u d i e s i n t h i s area was the famous S a i n t Lambert Experiement c a r r i e d out by the South Shore P r o t e s t a n t R e g i o n a l School Board of Montreal. The i n t e n t was t o determine <i) whether r e a d i n g and content matter l e a r n e d i n the second language would t r a n s f e r t o the f i r s t language without s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n , ( i i ) whether students would l e a r n the second language as w e l l as s t u d e n t s who were n a t i v e speakers of t h a t language, ( i i i ) whether students would be handicapped c o g n i t i v e l y or e m o t i o n a l l y by the experiment. Students from E n g l i s h speaking homes were i n t r o d u c e d to French i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . From grade 2 to 6, 60% o f the i n s t r u c t i o n was i n French and 40% was i n E n g l i s h . The language of the s c h o o l as a whole was E n g l i s h . Students spoke E n g l i s h t o each o t h e r o u t s i d e the classroom. The s u b j e c t s taught i n French were always taught by a n a t i v e French speaking teacher and E n g l i s h language a r t s was taught by a n a t i v e E n g l i s h speaking 30 teacher. Two treatment groups were used. The p i l o t group started f i r s t and the follow-up group enrolled i n the kindergarten i n the following year. The follow-up group was a r e p l i c a t i o n of the p i l o t group.; The control groups were monolingual English speaking or French speaking groups. A l l were from si m i l a r socioeconomic s i t u a t i o n s and home background (middle c l a s s ) . The progress of the experimental group was compared each year with the c c n t r c l group. An attempt was made to control for a Hawthorne e f f e c t by seeing that control groups were also s p e c i a l i n some way. ., The French control group was engaged i n an experimental mathematics program. One of the two English control groups was taken from a school that was well known for excellent language teaching. The second English c o n t r o l group was i n the same school as the experimental groups. This attempt at c o n t r o l l i n g the Hawthorne e f f e c t was quite unique among other studies i n the same area. After f i v e successive years of assessments, the res u l t s indicated that t h i s program of second language teaching was not detrimental either i n the native language or in the subject areas.. Furthermore, there appeared to be no adverse cog i t i v e or emotional e f f e c t s due to pa r t i c i p a t i o n in t h i s program. (E, S+, P). 2.1.2.7 A r e p l i c a t i o n study using working-class students from Montreal, ranging from lower middle to upper middle-class students also was carr i e d out by Tucker, Lambert and d*Anglejan (1973). The r e s u l t s were quite s i m i l a r to those of the o r i g i n a l 31 St. Lambert experiment., (E, S*, P) . 2.1.2.8 C o l l i s o n (1974) took Ghanaian students of age 12 to 14 as h i s s u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o 2 groups. The medium of i n s t r u c t i o n of the f i r s t group was t h e i r n a t i v e language and of the second group t h e i r second language. Students had to express t h e i r q u e s t i o n s and o p i n i o n s i n one of these languages a c c o r d i n g t o which group they belonged to. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the second language group were not able to express t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l p o t e n t i a l while the native language group was more f r u i t f u l f o r enhancing language-thought i n t e r a c t i o n . He concluded that when the medium of communication was f o r e i g n to the s t u d e n t s , they might mimic a d u l t concepts without any a p p r e c i a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e i r own c o n c e p t u a l growth and t h a t t h i s was d e t r i m e n t a l t o the students. (E# S-, JH) . 2. 1.2.9 A f t e r Lambert's comprehensive study o f the use of a second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , a number of r e p l i c a t i o n s t u d i e s were done i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y i n the Eastern part of the country. S t e r n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1976) reported that the a v a i l a b l e evidence d i d not suggest that s t u d e n t s i n an extended French program f e l l behind i n the academic s u b j e c t s taught i n French. Students e n r o l l e d i n these programs became more p r o f i c i e n t i n French and t h e i r l e a r n i n g of academic s u b j e c t s taught through French d i d not lag behind t h a t of students i n the r e g u l a r program. Furthermore, s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards the program were found to be 32 p o s i t i v e . (E, S + , fl). ,. 2. 1. 2. 10 D i s c u s s i o n a l l the s t u d i e s done a f t e r 1970 and reviewed here were experimental s t u d i e s . I n g e n e r a l , they were o f higher q u a l i t y than those done before 1970 s i n c e many r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s were under c o n t r o l . The S t . Lambert experiment i s probably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s group of s t u d i e s . These s t u d i e s (except f o r Duyne's and C o l l i s o n ' s studies) seem t o suggest t h a t l e a r n i n g through the second language i s not d e t r i m e n t a l to the achievement of the st u d e n t s . One s p e c i a l f e a t u r e was t h a t a l l these s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out by Canadian r e s e a r c h e r s , and mainly i n Canada. R e c a l l i n g t h a t Canada i s a b i l i n g u a l country and that the Canadian government i s t r y i n g very hard t o push the country from a predominantly monolingual s o c i e t y t o a b i l i n g u a l one i n the past ten years, the r e s u l t s from these s t u d i e s might be h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by p o l i t i c a l atmosphere. Furthermore, French and E n g l i s h a re two language q u i t e c l o s e t o g e t h e r i n l i n g u i s t i c s . , L e a r n i n g one language may help the l e a r n i n g of the second. F o r c o u n t r i e s whose n a t i v e language i s very d i f f e r e n t from the second language, whether r e s e a r c h w i l l a r r i v e at the same kind o f r e s u l t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . 2.2 STODIES RELATED TO THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE THROUGH A SECOND LANGUAGE 2.2.1 Raisner (1967) s e l e c t e d Puerto Rican students at the j u n i o r high l e v e l i n the c i t y of New York as h i s s u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. One group was taught s c i e n c e i n Spanish while the other was taught i n E n g l i s h . The achievement of the two groups was compared. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the students achieved b e t t e r i n Spanish and a l s o showed improvement i n t h e i r own s e l f - i m a g e . (E, S-, JH). 2.2.2 Bolger (1967), basing h i s h y p o t h e s i s on the same program ( i . e . B a i s n e r ' s s t u d y ) , found t h a t : (i) grade seven students t a k i n g the b i l i n g u a l s c i e n c e program achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r r e s u l t s than comparable students t a k i n g the r e g u l a r program; ( i i ) the b i l i n g u a l s c i e n c e program was e f f e c t i v e only when conducted by f l u e n t b i l i n g u a l t e a c h e r s . , Bolger a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the amount of Spanish spoken a t home was not the same among the groups. The experimental group spoke more Spanish than the c o n t r o l groups. When a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was used t o take t h i s f a c t o r i n t o account, the achievement of the groups taught i n Spanish showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e when compared with the achievement of the c o n t r o l groups. , He concluded that the language a b i l i t y o f both teacher and student had an e f f e c t on the program. (E, I, JH). 2.2.3 Knight (1969) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s on elementary s c h o o l students of the b i l i n g u a l s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l s developed by the Southwest E d u c a t i o n a l Laboratory. He found t h a t the achievement of the Spanish speaking students was s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher when the s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l s were presented i n Spanish than when they were presented i n E n g l i s h . 34 He speculated that t h i s inconclusive r e s u l t s might be due to the variation of Spanish fluency among the teachers chosen f o r the study. (E, I, P) • 2.2.4 Hg (1970) chose 51 Chinese immigrant students of the f i f t h and sixth grade i n the Los Angeles area as h i s subjects of study. The subjects were assigned randomly to a monolingual or a b i l i n g u a l program of study. Students i n the b i l i n g u a l science program were taught through both t h e i r mother tongue and English, while students i n the monolingual program were taught through the medium of English. The subjects were given both a pretest and a posttest. The duration of the study was four weeks with two one hour lessons each week for each group. He found that students taught b i l i n g u a l l y achieved better i n vocabulary and conceptualization when compared with the monolingual group. He explained that using the students' mother tongue may especially motivate the students i n the b i l i n g u a l group, enabling them to learn vocabulary better and to conceptualize better since both required the children's memory and the teachers' explanation to f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l . But t h i s method might not help comprehension achievement which requires understanding of the reading materials i n which the relationships of ideas and reasoning processes are involved. (E, B+, P)., 2.2.5 Cooper (1971) investigated problems of teaching physics to Latin American college students. His study was divided i n t o many parts which investigated d i f f e r e n t questions. For s i m p l i c i t y . 35 j u s t those r e l a t e d to the language of i n s t r u c t i o n are reviewed here. The f i r s t p a r t t r i e d to e v a l u a t e the teaching of p h y s i c s u n i t s i n both Spanish and E n g l i s h to two groups of s t u d e n t s from L a t i n America. The experiement was f i r s t performed i n 1969 and repeated i n 1970 with a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of design. He found that the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c s achievement between u n i t s taught i n Spanish and those taught i n E n g l i s h were s m a l l . The t h i r d and f o u r t h part e v a l u a t e d t e s t s of r e a d i n g i n both Spanish and E n g l i s h . He found that the language i n which the t e s t s were given did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the s c o r e s when the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l c o ntained mathematical components, but i t d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the s c o r e s when the reading m a t e r i a l was non-mathematical. Furthermore, the s c o r e s on the t e s t s given i n Spanish were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher. The f i f t h part t r i e d to compare the improvement i n E n g l i s h a b i l i t y of a group which was taught p h y s i c s i n E n g l i s h and Spanish and t h a t of a c o n t r o l group taught o n l y i n Spanish. He found t h a t students i n the experimental group d i d not show as g r e a t an improvement i n E n g l i s h as those i n the c o n t r o l group. (E, S-, C ) . 2.2.6 Juarez (1976) t r i e d t o determine i f s i n g l e language i n s t r u c t i o n was more e f f e c t i v e than b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n a s c i e n c e context. , He found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between treatment groups r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n b i l i n g u a l l y , and those r e c e i v i n g s i n g l e language i n s t r u c t i o n through E n g l i s h and Spanish. (E, I, P) • 36 2.2.7 Goh (1978) reported t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t drop of s c i e n c e achievement and no improvement i n E n g l i s h a f t e r s w i t c h i n g from Chinese t o E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n teaching s c i e n c e and mathematics at the primary l e v e l i n Singapore. Goh concluded t h a t language exposure time was not the s o l e determining f a c t o r f o r the l e a r n i n g of a language. (PH, S-, P) • 2.2.8 D i s c u s s i o n among the seven s t u d i e s reviewed here, there are s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s which might be very d i s t i n c t when compared with S e c t i o n 2.1.2. F i r s t , none of the s t u d i e s suggested t h a t using the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n would b e n e f i t the s t u d e n t s 1 achievement i n s c i e n c e and the second language. Secondly, f i v e of the s t u d i e s were using immigrants as s u b j e c t s and two s t u d i e s used developing country students as s u b j e c t s . ,< There were no s t u d i e s based on, say, Canadian s t u d e n t s as the s u b j e c t s . T h i r d l y , none of these s t u d i e s focused on the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l when students began t o l e a r n s c i e n c e by c h o i c e . (This i s a l s o the case i n S e c t i o n 2.1.2.) 2.3 STUDIES REGARDING AFFECTIVE FACTORS IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING 2.3. J Lambert and Gardner (1972) have been doing s t u d i e s i n t h i s area s i n c e 1959. The f i r s t s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out with E n g l i s h - speaking high s c h o o l students who were studying French 37 i n the Montreal area. They were t e s t e d f o r language a p t i t u d e , i n t e l l i g e n c e , a t t i t u d e s toward the French community and i n t e n s i t y of m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n French. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f these v a r i a b l e s showed that language a p t i t u d e and i n t e l l i g e n c e formed a s i n g l e f a c t o r independent of a second f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t e d as a composite of o r i e n t a t i o n toward language l e a r n i n g and a t t i t u d e s { i . e . ..affective f a c t o r s ) toward French Canadians. The g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s from t h i s s e t of s t u d i e s can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1) M o t i v a t i o n and a t t i t u d e f u n c t i o n e d i n second language l e a r n i n g as an independent v a r i a b l e by i t s e l f . 2) A f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e toward another c u l t u r e , a d e s i r e t o l e a r n about t h a t c u l t u r e and a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e toward the second language were conducive t o f o r e i g n language l e a r n i n g . , 3) I n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n was more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s u c c e s s f u l second language l e a r n i n g than i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n * except f o r c e r t a i n areas l i k e the P h i l i p p i n e s where th e r e was an urgency about mastering the second language. (E, NA, JH) . 1 ' I n t e g r a t i v e ' r e f e r s t o l e a r n e r s who wish t o a c q u i r e a new language i n order to i d e n t i f y with members of t h a t language community. I n other words, they wish to i n t e g r a t e themselves i n t o the c u l t u r e o f the new language group. 'Instrumental' r e f e r s t o those who wish t o use the lanquage as a way o f g a i n i n g s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o r an instrument to h e l p them achieve t h e i r g o a l s . 38 S i m i l a r s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out i n other s c h o o l s and areas. , R e s u l t s obtained tended to support the above f i n d i n g s , except f o r the f o l l o w i n g two cases. In a study of l e a r n i n g Hebrew, the a t t i t u d i n a l measures were found t o change from one s c h o o l to another, depending on the s o c i a l c l a s s o f the community. American students l e a r n i n g French i n a t o t a l immersion program were found t o have i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s of unrest, u n c e r t a i n t y , and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . 2.3. 2 Spolsky (1969) t e s t e d t h r e e groups of f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U n i t e s S t a t e s i n regard t o the a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s of language l e a r n i n g . He a l s o found that i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n accompanied higher s c o r e s i n E n g l i s h . (E, NA, C). „• 2.3.3 Lukraani (1972) s t u d i e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between motivation to l e a r n the second language and second language p r o f i c i e n c y i n Bombay. The s u b j e c t s were 60 g i r l s from a high s c h o o l g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s . They had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h as a second language f o r about seven years. The f a c t o r s , type of m o t i v a t i o n , a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r f i r s t language, a t t i t u d e towards E n g l i s h speaking I n d i a n s , s e l f concept, and i d e a l s e l f concept were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n s o c r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y s c o res. T h i s r e s u l t i s opposed to L a m b e r t s g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s but agreed with Lambert's P h i l i p p i n e study. Lukmani argued t h a t the s i t u a t i o n of language l e a r n i n g i n I n d i a and the P h i l i p p i n e s was completely d i f f e r e n t 39 from t h a t o f French-speaking Canadians l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , E n g l i s h - speaking Jews l e a r n i n g Hebrew, E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Americans l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . I n d i a and the P h i l i p p i n e s are post-c o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s which were t o r n by a s t r u g g l e between t r a d i t i o n and modernization. S i n c e they were t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own i d e n t i t y , new ref e r e n c e groups had to be f o r g e d . These groups might draw h e a v i l y on c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of Western s o c i e t y but would u l t i m a t e l y be of indigenous o r i g i n . , Hence the i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n towards E n g l i s h was healthy i n t h i s kind of s i t u a t i o n . ; ( S , HA, SH)., 2.3.9 D i s c u s s i o n There are only t h r e e s t u d i e s reviewed here r e g a r d i n g a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n second language l e a r n i n g . , Lambert and Gardner's study i s probably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h i s f i e l d . I t appears t h a t t h e r e are very few r e s e a r c h e r s working along these l i n e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a s s e s s i n g the p r e d i c t i v e power of the a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s on second language p r o f i c i e n c y . 2.» BELATED STUDIES DONE IN HONG KONG 2.4. 1 Kvan (1969) d i d two s t u d i e s i n t h i s area of using second language as the medium cf i n s t r u c t i o n . In the f i r s t study, he adm i n i s t e r e d a r e a d i n g t e s t i n E n g l i s h to the f i r s t year undergraduate s t u d e n t s of Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y . The s u b j e c t were t o l d to read as f a s t as p o s s i b l e , j u s t as they would read background m a t e r i a l s . He found t h a t 50% of the s u b j e c t s read a t 40 a speed of l e s s than 150 words per minute and t h a t 75% read a t under 175. T h i s speed was e q u i v a l e n t to that o f c h i l d r e n of 12-13 years o f age i n the U.S.A. or t h a t of B r i t i s h s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g French as t h e i r second language. A s i m i l a r r e a d i n g t e s t i n Chinese was then administered to the s u b j e c t s . The average speed was 300 c h a r a c t e r s per minute, which was much high e r than the average r e a d i n g r a t e i n E n g l i s h . In the second study, Kvan wanted to compare the m a t u r i t y o f essays w r i t t e n by s t u d e n t s i n Chinese and Anglo-Chinese middle s c h o o l s . Two s e t s of essays were obtained from the s t u d e n t s on the same s u b j e c t but w r i t t e n i n the two languages. Judges were asked t o a s s e s s the essays with r e g a r d to maturity but d i s r e g a r d i n g the l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n of d e t a i l as f a r as p o s s i b l e . He r e p o r t e d t h a t the Chinese middle school students showed much more o r i g i n a l i t y o f thought and g r e a t e r maturity i n g e n e r a l than d i d the Anglo-Chinese middle s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . He commented t h a t the r e s u l t s agreed c l o s e l y with the impression of experienced educators who found t h a t the Chinese middle school s t u d e n t s were more r e s p o n s i v e and more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r s urroundings both i n and out of the s c h o o l . {E, S-, C & SH). 2.4.2 Vince (1970) h e l d Lanugage A n a l y s i s Sessions f o r the 216 freshmen of the A r t s F a c u l t y of U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong. Besides v a r i o u s d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s and a r e a d i n g t e s t i n Chinese, the a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d a l e n g t h y q u e s t i o n n a i r e about the s o c i o -l i n g u i s t i c backqround, language background, language use, s e l f r a t i n g i n language p r o f i c i e n c y , a t t i t u d e s towards language and education of t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y e l i t e group. The r e s u l t 4 1 i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : 1) 92% o f the stu d e n t s being t e s t e d had spent more than ten years s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h , but some o f these s t u d e n t s were s t i l l i n need of r e m e d i a l E n g l i s h i n u n i v e r s i t y ; 2) students were not a c t i v e l y h o s t i l e towards the E n g l i s h language but almost unanimously respected Chinese as a language having t r a d i t i o n s and value s of one of the world's g r e a t e s t c u l t u r e s . (S, S-, C). 2.4.3 Four young Chinese (Cheng, Shek, Tse and Hong) who had been through the Hong Kong education system and who f e l t compelled t o p o i n t out what they saw as a s e r i o u s weakness i n the system, d i d a study i n t h i s area i n 197 3. The study ( c a l l e d AT HHAT COST) used p o r t i o n s o f the above Language A n a l y s i s S e s s i o n s q u e s t i o n n a i r e with a sample of 170 stu d e n t s i n the Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e v i s e d and s i m p l i f i e d to some extent. A major change was t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Chinese. The r e s u l t s from t h i s survey b a s i c a l l y d u p l i c a t e d the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d by the previous study i n Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y . The f o l l o w i n g were some of the r e s u l t s : 1) When r a t i n g t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n Chinese, most s u b j e c t s f e l t t h a t they had no d i f f i c u l t y i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension (88%) ana i n reading (64%) They were l e s s c e r t a i n of t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e s k i l l s : 56% of them thought 4 2 they had no problem i n expressing themselves f o r m a l l y or i n f o r m a l l y i n speech (Cantonese), and 52% of them f e l t they c o u l d express themselves f l u e n t l y i n w r i t t e n Chinese. 2) In s e l f r a t i n g of E n g l i s h , only a m i n o r i t y f e l t they were good i n r e a d i n g (13%), i n o r a l a b i l i t i e s (4%) and i n w r i t i n g (4%). 3) There was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n s e l f r a t i n g between the students from Chinese or Anglo-Chinese middle s c h o o l s . , 4) The m a j o r i t y of Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l graduates confessed t h a t they encountered d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding E n g l i s h , and more d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p r e s s i n g themselves i n E n g l i s h than i n Chinese. (S, S-, C ) . 2.4.4 Cheung (1974) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n on two samples of Form I and Form I I I s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d from an Anglo-Chinese secondary s c h o o l . Each sample was randomly d i v i d e d i n t o two groups of equal s i z e . A l e s s o n i n topology was taught to both groups i n each sample, but through d i f f e r e n t mediums of i n s t r u c t i o n . : The i n s t r u c t i o n was taped beforehand and reproduced i n c l a s s . Relevant c h a r t s were shown to the c l a s s a t a p p r o p r i a t e times. A f t e r the l e s s o n , a t e s t i n m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e form was administered to the s u b j e c t s t o determine t h e i r understanding and r e t e n t i o n of the l e s s o n . The t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t hat the two groups of students l e a r n i n g the l e s s o n i n Chinese performed c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r on the 43 p o s t t e s t . Cheung concluded t h a t Chinese was a more e f f e c t i v e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r both of the Form I and I I I samples t e s t e d . (E, S-, JH). 2.4.5 Fu (1975) designed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o determine s t u d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s on c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the language s i t u a t i o n i n Hong Kong., The s u b j e c t s were 561 st u d e n t s from f i v e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s . A f t e r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , Fu found s e v e r a l trends among the o p i n i o n s of the students. 1) E n g l i s h was an important and necessary s u b j e c t . ( 2) Students f e l t unesay about u s i n g E n g l i s h i n speech. 3) Students were proud of t h e i r own Chinese c u l t u r e . 4) Students g e n e r a l l y had negative a t t i t u d e s toward western c u l t u r e and toward E n g l i s h speaking people. (S, S-, SH). 2.4.6 Poon (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s among Hong Kong primary s c h o o l l e a v e r s i n l e a r n i n g mathematics throgh E n g l i s h . S u b j e c t s f o r the study were chosen from the r e c e n t l y graduated grade 6 students of four primary s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l s were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and the s c h o o l r e s u l t s on the Hong Kong A b i l i t y T e s t . The r e s u l t s f o l l o w : 44 1) Students whose mother tongue was Cantonese but who had learned E n g l i s h as a f o r e i g n language would l e a r n mathematics more e f f i c i e n t l y i n Chinese than i n E n g l i s h except f o r those with h i g h a b i l i t y . 2) Chinese primary s c h o o l students o b t a i n e d higher scores i n mathematics than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n Anglo-Chinese primary s c h o o l s . , In p a r t i c u l a r , they were b e t t e r i n s p e c i f i c vocabulary, concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , problem comprehension, and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of s o l u t i o n , but not i n the speed of problem reading. . (E, S-, P). 2.4.7 B. Chan, Hinton, and Yau (1979) compared the C e r t i f i c a t e of Education Examination (CEE) r e s u l t s f o r students who had completed the course of study i n E n g l i s h with those who had s t u d i e d i n Chinese. Bine p a i r s of s c h o o l s , each c o n s i s t i n g of one Anglo-Chinese and one Chinese Middle School with s i m i l a r Secondary School Entrance Examination (SSEE) a l l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s were chosen and t h e i r s t u d e n t s were taken as the s u b j e c t s of the study.» Student q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , s c h o o l i n f o r m a t i o n sheets, medium of i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t s , SSEE r e s u l t s , and CEE r e s u l t s were c o l l e c t e d from the s u b j e c t s and t h e i r s c h o o l s . The r e s u l t s of 1 The Secondary School Entrance Examination (SSEE) was an achievement t e s t of Chinese, E n g l i s h and Mathematics adm i n i s t e r e d to a l l s t u d e n t s a t the end of grade s i x before 1978. A l l grade 6 s t u d e n t s who had reached a c e r t a i n standard were then a l l o c a t e d to d i f f e r e n t secondary s c h o o l s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r academic achievement, personal choice and area of r e s i d e n c e . 45 the study were as f o l l o w s : 1) The Chinese middle s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were c u l t u r a l l y and s o c i a l l y l e s s p r i v i l e g e d ( i n terms of education of other f a m i l y members and e x p e c t a t i o n and encouragement from the family) than t h e i r Anglo-Chinese c o u n t e r p a r t s , 2) The Anglo-Chinese students g e n e r a l l y obtained b e t t e r CEE r e s u l t s than t h e i r Chinese c o u n t e r p a r t s with comparable SSEE r e s u l t s . , 3) The medium of i n s t r u c t i o n 4 i n Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s ranked as one of the most important p r e d i c t o r s i n the CEE r e s u l t s . / (PH, S+, SH). 2.4.8 Tam (1979) d i d a survey to compare the a c t u a l medium of i n s t r u c t i o n used i n the Form I ( i . e . Grade 7) classroom with that p r e f e r r e d by the s t u d e n t s . . U t i l i z i n g a s t r a t i f i e d three stage sampling plan he d i s t r i b u t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to 71 c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s i n 53 s c h o o l s . The a c t u a l complex sample s i z e was 2,471 students. M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of p r o f i l e s using Wilk's L i k e l i h o o d B a t i o r e v e a l e d t h a t students p r e f e r r e d Chinese as the language of i n s t r u c t i o n , and i n classroom d i s c u s s i o n s i n s u b j e c t s such as E n g l i s h , Mathematics, S c i e n c e and the S o c i a l S u b j e c t s . (S, B + , J ) . 1 In the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s , the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n should be E n g l i s h , but many of the t e a c h e r s use a good d e a l of Chinese, 46 2.4.9 S i u and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1979a) d i d an extensive study i n t h i s area. On the b a s i s of patterns of b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n the sample survey e a r l i e r r e f e r r e d to by B. Chan et a l , nineteen schools were s e l e c t e d . Four c l a s s e s i n each form (Form I I to IV) from each school were asked t o take part i n the study, A t e s t b a t t e r y c o n s i s t i n g of e i g h t t e s t s and two guestionnaires were administered to the students. a f t e r d e t a i l e d data a n a l y s i s , the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were reached. 1) Students who s t a r t e d to use E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n grade one d i d not achieve higher scores on En g l i s h t e s t s than those who s t a r t e d E n g l i s h as a second language at the Form I I and I I I l e v e l s ( i . e . Grade 8 and 9). The same students made lower scores on the Chinese t e s t s . 2) Using E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Anglo-Chinese secondary schools d i d not guarantee e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g of i t as a second language.,, 3) Students perceived that the Chinese language served the f u n c t i o n s of communication, c u l t u r a l and academic development while E n g l i s h language had s o c i a l and economic values. (S, S-, JH). , 2.4.10 P. Chan, Cheng, Fong and T s u i (1979), r e a l i z i n g the high e d u c a t i o n a l c o s t of using E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n Hong Kong s c h o o l s , c o n s t r u c t e d an E n g l i s h language t e s t conforming to the grade 4 standard and gave i t t o a sample of 2,947 grade 7 p u p i l s drawn form 22 s c h o o l s . The r e s u l t s obtained were d i s t u r b i n g . About 65% of the p u p i l s f a i l e d the t e s t . The r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d more than 50 secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s on the s u b j e c t of E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g and using E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . On the b a s i s of these i n t e r v i e w s , they concluded t h a t r a i s i n g the standard o f E n g l i s h and using i t as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r sc h o o l s u b j e c t s o t h e r than E n g l i s h were two e n t i r e l y separate i s s u e s and t h a t i t was extremely u n r e a l i s t i c to impose E n g l i s h as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n on the m a j o r i t y o f p u p i l s . (S, S-, J H). 2. 4. 11 D i s c u s s i o n Of the ten s t u d i e s reviewed in t h i s s e c t i o n , only three s t u d i e s d e a l with the e f f e c t o f u s i n g E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n on the achievement of c e r t a i n s u b j e c t a r e a s . Among these t h r e e s t u d i e s , the two b e t t e r designed ones {Cheung, Poon) concluded t h a t the use o f E n g l i s h would hamper the st u d e n t s ' achievement while the remaining one (B. Chan) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the use of E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n might be b e n e f i c i a l . However, B. Chan's study was not an experimental one, the SES of the students was not adequately c o n t r o l l e d with the advantage going to the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s , and hence the c o n c l u s i o n s were weak. The authors ( i . e . B. Chan e t al) even mentioned that t h i s r e s u l t was c o n t r a r y to t h e i r o r i g i n a l e x p e c t a t i o n . The remaining 7 s t u d i e s were mainly concerned with the a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n second language l e a r n i n g . . A l l o f them 48 pointing i n the same d i r e c t i o n — s t u d e n t s preferred more Chinese and less English. Furthermore, they also found that the long hours of studying English i n primary and secondary schools did not help to improve the standard of English as much as expected by society. 2.5 S'OHEUBY OF INVESTIG&TIOUS k t o t a l of 38 studies have been reviewed i n the l a s t sections. Though most of them r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to the e f f e c t s of the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , teaching of science, and a f f e c t i v e factors in learning a second language, they s t i l l cover a very broad area. The following i s a summary of the studies according to the method used, e f f e c t s , and l e v e l s of samples selected. The summary i s i n a tabular form showing the frequencies that occurred in d i f f e r e n t areas. Though each study i s d i f f e r e n t and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l contribution to knowledge may not be of the same weight, the author f e e l s that i t i s hard for one to assimilate a l l the r e s u l t s (38 studies!) at once i f one does not put i t i n some form {e,g, frequency tables) which i s more comprehensible. In reading the tables, one must bear i n mind that the r e s u l t of each study i s assumed to be approximately equal i n weight, 2.5.J The methods used i n d i f f e r e n t students were roughly divided into three kinds: survey, experimental and post hoc comparison. The following i s a table showing the frequencies that occurred i n d i f f e r e n t areas. 49 Table 2.2 i s here. In Table 2.2, one n o t i c e s t h a t among the 38 s t u d i e s , 23 of them were experimental s t u d i e s done a f t e r 1970. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e c e n t l y there has been a tr e n d towards more c o n t r o l of the v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d i e s i n t h i s area. T h i s i s a h e a l t h y s i g n s i n c e more c o n t r o l means that we are not being misled by nuisance v a r i a b l e s . 2.5.2 S t u d i e s o f the e f f e c t s o f the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n on academic achievement i n the s t u d i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o four groups as i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : Table 2. 3 i s here. In Table 2.3 one n o t i c e s t h e r e was a tendency t o conclude that using the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n was d e t r i m e n t a l to st u d e n t s . &n i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t was t h a t a f t e r 1970, there were s i x s t u d i e s c l a i m i n g t h a t the use of the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n might be b e n e f i c i a l to the students, ft c l o s e r look a t these s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t f i v e of them were done by Canadian r e s e a r c h e r s . Four of the s t u d i e s were a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out i n Canada. On the other hand, of the twelve s t u d i e s t h a t c l a i m e d t h a t the use of the second language was d e t r i m e n t a l , t h r e e of them were done i n s c i e n c e and seven of them were done i n Hong Kong. What do these d i v e r g i n g r e s u l t s mean? Does i t suggest t h a t E n g l i s h and French are two s i m i l a r 50 languages and l e a r n i n g one might g e n e r a l l y help the other? In the case of Chinese, s i n c e i t i s very d i f f e r e n t from E n g l i s h , the same e f f e c t might not occur. J . Chan (1976) points out , The f a c t that the Chinese w r i t t e n language i s "ideographic" whereas the E n g l i s h w r i t t e n language i s "phonetic", and that spoken Chinese and w r i t t e n Chinese are g u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Very o f t e n , too, the Chinese ch a r a c t e r s give away the answer to an item 2.5.3 In general, there are three d i f f e r e n t kinds of students using second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , hoping to improve t h e i r second language competency.,„They are students who are from developed c o u n t r i e s , developing c o u n t r i e s and immigrants r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e i r motives of l e a r n i n g second language may be d i f f e r e n t . Students from developed c o u n t r i e s probably have i n t e g r a t i v e motives while students from developing nations have i n s t r u m e n t a l motives. Immigrants w i l l probably have both motives at the same time. I f Table 2.3 i s r e c a t e g o r i z e d with the column heading changed t o d i f f e r e n t types of students using second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s obtained. Table 2.4 i s here. From Table 2.4, more obvious trends are revealed., Students i n the developed nations l e a r n w e l l when second language i s used 51 as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n w h ile students i n the developing n a t i o n s are hampered i n l e a r n i n g when second language i s used as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Immigrants seem to be l y i n g between the two extremes. Does i t i n d i c a t e t hat s t u d e n t s i n the developed c o u n t r i e s are more g i f t e d l i n g u i s t i c a l l y than others? Or, i s i t because they have confidence i n t h e i r own mother tongue so that the l e a r n i n g of a second language i s an a d d i t i o n to them ( a d d i t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m ) ? In the case of s t u d e n t s from d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , they may have an i n f e r i o r f e e l i n g about t h e i r own mother tongue. The l e a r n i n g of second language which i s u s u a l l y a language of wider communication w i l l make them become confused about whether they should give up the mother tongue. T h i s k i n d of c o n f u s i o n w i l l hamper t h e i r l e a r n i n g i n second language (subtract!ve- b i l i n g u a l i s m ) . As f o r l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e , t h i s r e g u i r e s the understanding of many concepts which depend g r e a t l y on a good command of language; the use o f the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n may h i n d e r the s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g . 2.5.4 The samples s e l e c t e d f o r the s t u d i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r l e v e l s as shown i n the T a b l e . * Table 2.5 i s here. 1 One study under the 'General S t u d i e s ' column covered four l e v e l s , so i t was counted f o u r times i n s t e a d of one. S i m i l a r l y , another study under the 'General S t u d i e s ' column covered two l e v e l s , i t was counted two times i n s t e a d of one. 52 Ta b l e 2.5 shows t h a t of the f o u r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were seldom chosen as s u b j e c t s of study. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e was no study done on the t e a c h i n g of s c i e n c e through the second language at the s e n i o r high school l e v e l . 2.6 WEAKNESSES IN THE RESEARCH T h i r t y e i g h t s t u d i e s were reviewed f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and while they covered many asp e c t s of the problems r e l a t i n g t o th medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , s e v e r a l areas have not been expl o r e d or f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . From the t a b l e s shown i n Se c i o n 2.5.4, we note that there has been no r e s e a r c h done i n b i l i n g u a l s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n a t the s e n i o r high s c h o o l l e v e l . Besides t h a t , there appear to be very few s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on the a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s of l e a r n i n g i n a second language. Furthermore, few s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g experimental research could be found among those done i n Hong Kong., Any problems that may be c r e a t e d by the use of a second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l a f f e c t thousands i n Hong Kong and m i l l i o n s around the world, t h i s gap i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e should be b r i d g e d . The present study i s an attempt t o address s p e c i f i c i s s u e s w i t h i n t h i s problem area. 53 CHAPTER 3 METHOD OF STUDY The Chapter d e s c r i b e s how the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n S e c t i o n 1.1 were i n v e s t i g a t e d . Included i s a schematic c h a r t of the r e s e a r c h design t o c l a r i f y the t e s t . * F i g u r e 3.1 i s here., 3.1 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Based on the f i n d i n g i n S e c t i o n 2.5 and 2.6, the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were formulated, d e t a i l e d r a t i o n a l e w i l l be exp l a i n e d l a t e r i n each r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s . General Hypothesis I : Students whose f i r s t language i s Chinese but who have been taught E n g l i s h as a second language w i l l a chieve higher s c o r e s i n phy s i c s when p h y s i c s i s taught through the medium of Chinese than when i t i s taught through the medium of E n g l i s h . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was formulated t o answer Problem 1 r a i s e d i n S e c t i o n 1.1. To t e s t t h i s h y pothesis, three s p e c i f i c 1 The two s t u d i e s (No. 1 and 2) on the comparison of p h y s i c s achievement between the two c l a s s e s i n the ACS group are not i n the o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l . The purpose of adding these two s t u d i e s i s to strengthen the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the o r i g i n a l study i f the ACS and CS groups are very d i f f e r e n t from each other. 54 hypotheses were formulated. S p e c i f i c a l l y how these r e l a t e to the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s i s e l a b o r a t e d i n Chapter 5. Hypothesis l a : Grade 10 students i n Chinese s c h o o l s w i l l a c h i e ve higher s c o r e s i n p h y s i c s than grade 10 students i n Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s . Hypothesis l b : Grade 10 students of Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s w i l l achieve higher s c o r e s i n p h y s i c s when i t i s taught b i l i n g u a l l y than when i t i s taught through E n g l i s h o n l y . Hypothesis I c : Grade 10 students o f Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s w i l l achieve higher s c o r e s when p h y s i c s i s taught through the medium of Chinese than i t i s taught through the medium o f E n g l i s h . For Problem 2 and 5 i n S e c t i o n 1.1, m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n methods were used to f i n d out which f a c t o r s ( p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h , motivation i n p h y s i c s , study habit i n p h y s i c s , etc.) would be s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r e d i c t i n g the achievement of p h y s i c s . , To answer Problem 3 and 4 i n S e c t i o n 1. 1, s i m i l a r methods were used to f i n d out which f a c t o r s ( a p t i t u d e , m o t i v a t i o n i n E n g l i s h , etc.) would be s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r e d i c t i n g the p r o f i c i e n c y o f E n g l i s h . 3.2 THE SELECTION OF SUBJECTS 55 I d e a l l y , a p r o b a b i l i t y or s y s t e m a t i c sample of s c h o o l s and/or s u b j e c t s should have been chosen. Such a sample i s r e q u i r e d to safeguard the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study and enhance g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . F o r reasons given below, t h i s method was not f o l l o w e d : 1) The study was done i n a p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e area. Because of the present government's language p o l i c y , very l i t t l e c o o p e r a t i o n from government agencies such as the E d u c a t i o n Department ( i . e . The M i n i s t r y of Education) could be expected f o r sampling purposes. , 2) The r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d about 8 months of c o n t r o l l e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h y s i c s to p a r a l l e l c l a s s e s i n two d i f f e r e n t languages. Very c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n between the w r i t e r and a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s was r e q u i r e d . The demands of the study on the c l a s s e s and t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d was e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y heavy. These c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d using a v a i l a b l e , i n t a c t c l a s s e s and c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s . F o l l o w i n g Fu's recommendation f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a f t e r her comprehensive r e s e a r c h on language problems of Hong Kong students (Fu, 1975), two secondary s c h o o l s (one Chinese and one Anglo- Chinese secondary school) were chosen f o r the study,* The s c h o o l s a v a i l a b l e to the w r i t e r f o r t h i s purpose were government * From now on, the two s c h o o l s w i l l q u i t e o f t e n be w r i t t e n i n the short-form as CS ( i . e . Chinese secondary school) and ACS ( i . e . Anglo-Chinese secondary s c h o o l ) . 56 s u b s i d i z e d and above average 2 i n academic achievement compared to a l l other secondary s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong, and a d m i n i s t e r e d by the same C h r i s t i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s e l e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of the students and t e a c h e r s a t the Form 4 l e v e l ( i . e . Grade 10 l e v e l ) i n the two s c h o o l s . There were two c l a s s e s i n each s c h o o l a t t h i s grade l e v e l t a k i n g the same course i n p h y s i c s ; thus the s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of f o u r c l a s s e s of grade 10 s t u d e n t s i n p h y s i c s . The reasons f o r making t h i s s e l e c t i o n f o r the present study were as f o l l o w s . 1) Although the s e l e c t i o n was too r e s t r i c t i v e f o r unequivocal g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , experience and i n t u i t i o n l e d the w r i t e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t c a u t i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s based on the r e s u l t s of the s e l e c t i o n c o u l d be made t o o t h e r s i m i l a r s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s . 2) The r e s e a r c h program c o u l d f i t q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n t o the s c h o o l program and thereby reduce a p o s s i b l e Hawthorne e f f e c t . T h i s i s i n keeping with the p r i n c i p l e of unobtrusive experimental design. , 3.3 METHOD OF ESTABLISHING THE COMPARABILITY OF THE GROUPS Since the two groups of s u b j e c t s were not randomly chosen from the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of a l l the grade 10 p h y s i c s students i n Hong Kong, i t was q u e s t i o n a b l e whether they were comparable. I f t h e c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the groups was unknown, i t would be 2 The Chinese School - P u i Ying Middle School The Anglo-Chinese School - Ming K e i C o l l e g e Based on the annual mean C e r t i f i c a t e of Education Examination s c o r e s , the two s c h o o l s were c o n s i s t e n t l y above the average of a l l the secondary s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong. 57 d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l whether any d i f f e r e n c e found i n achievement i n t h i s study was due t o the treatment e f f e c t or the i n i t i a l group d i f f e r e n c e . Hence the f o l l o w i n g method was used to e s t a b l i s h the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the groups. 3.3. 1 P r e t e s t of Physics achievement  From the r e s u l t s of the C e r t i f i c a t e of E d u c a t i o n Examinations i n Hong Kong, the two s c h o o l s chosen f o r the present study were e v i d e n t l y above-average i n academic achievement when compared t o o t h e r secondary s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong. To e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the students i n the experimental c l a s s e s of the two s c h o o l s d i d not have e q u i v a l e n t knowledge and experience i n the content area to be taught, a p r e t e s t i n p h y s i c s achievement was administered t o a l l f o u r c l a s s e s . The p r e t e s t was g i v e n to the students i n the f i r s t p h y s i c s p e r i o d i n September 1978. Althogh the f i r s t p e r i o d s of the two s c h o o l s were a t d i f f e r e n t times, t h e r e was very l i t t l e , i f any, p o s s i b i l i t y of students* exchanging i n f o r m a t i o n about the t e s t because the two s c h o o l s were q u i t e f a r a p a r t * and the s t u d e n t s di d not know they were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the same r e s e a r c h study. 3. 3. 2 E q u i v a l e n c e of the Two Groups on Other F a c t o r s In oder to determine whether the Chinese and the anglo-Chinese groups were e q u i v a l e n t with r e s p e c t to other f a c t o r s 1 The two s c h o o l s are s i t u a t e d i n two d i f f e r e n t areas of Honq Konq, l i k e Horth and Best Vancouver i n t h i s area. They are about f i v e miles apart. 58 l i k e l y t o t h r e a t e n i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y , the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s were taken. 1) Background i n f o r m a t i o n on the two groups of s t u d e n t s i n c l u d i n g age, sex, socioeconomic background, S.S.E.E. r e s u l t s and t h e i r reasons f o r choosing or otherwise being i n t h e i r present s c h o o l was c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d through a survey s t u d y 1 i n order to f i n d out whether the groups c o u l d be presumed to be s i m i l a r with r e s p e c t to these f a c t o r s . 2) To check whether the two groups were o f e q u a l a b i l i t y , an a p t i t u d e t e s t b a t t e r y (Siu, 1978) was administered t o the two groups of students. The b a t t e r y c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t s u b t e s t s . , They i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : Chinese v e r b a l reasoning (CVB), Chinese language usage (CLIT) , E n g l i s h language usage (ELO), E n g l i s h v e r b a l reasoning (EV8), mathematical reasoning (MB), a b s t r a c t reasoning (AB), mechanical r e a s o n i n g (USEE) , and s p a t i a l r easoning t e s t s (SB).-Since the t o t a l time f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g a l l e i g h t s u b t e s t s was 4 1/2 hours, i t was not p o s s i b l e t o a d m i n i s t e r the e n t i r e b a t t e r y i n one s e s s i o n . I n s t e a d , s e v e r a l s h o r t e r s e s s i o n s were used to a d m i n i s t e r the 1 The background i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d i n the survey w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . ( S e c t i o n 3.4.2) b a t t e r y . 2 3) M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of va r i a n c e study (MANOVA), was used to study the eq u i v a l e n c e of the groups. In t h i s study the independent v a r i a b l e was group membership. «, Students e n r o l l e d i n grade 10 p h y s i c s i n the Chinese s c h o o l (N=90) c o n s t i t u t e d members of Group 1, and students i n grade 10 p h y s i c s i n the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l (N=86) c o n s t i t u t e d Group 2 i n the a n a l y s i s . The dependent v a r i a b l e s ( p o t e n t i a l c o v a r i a t e s ) i n the study were p h y s i c s background as measured by the p r e t e s t , and a p t i t u d e as measured by the s u b t e s t s i n the a p t i t u d e t e s t b a t t e r y . , The c e n t r a l purpose of MAHOVA was t o determine whether the two groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the dependent v a r i a b l e s ( c r i t e r i a ) i d e n t i f i e d above when con s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r . In t h i s a n a l y s i s i t would be p o s s i b l e 2 In the o r i g i n a l t h e s i s proposal, the w r i t e r d i d not know of any a p t i t u d e or i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t which was s u i t a b l e f o r grade 10 stud e n t s i n Hong Kong. So the w r i t e r proposed t o take the grades on p r o f i c i e n c y i n Chinese, E n g l i s h and Mathematics as measured by the Secondary School Entrance Examination (S.S.E.E.), taken i n May 1975 by the stu d e n t s as an i n d i c a t i o n of students' a b i l i t y . T h i s was not i d e a l s i n c e the S.S.E.E. was taken by the stu d e n t s t h r e e years before the present study. One d i d not know whether t h e r e were any changes due t o oth e r e f f e c t s during t h a t period of t h r e e years.,when the w r i t e r a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out the study, he found t h a t out of the 176 st u d e n t s , only 126 s t u d e n t s had S.S.E.E. grades. S i n c e t h i s l a r g e percentage o f missing data would s e r i o u s l y hamper the consequent s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , the author was f o r c e d t o abandon t h i s i d e a and t r i e d t o f i n d a s u b s t i t u t e f o r S.S.E.E. F o r t u n a t e l y , S i u ' s a p t i t u d e t e s t b a t t e r y was j u s t ready i n the market and i t was used t o r e p l a c e the S.S.E.E. Judging from the o r i g i n a l purpose of f i n d i n g a measure f o r the a b i l i t y of the s u b j e c t s , S i u ' s a p t i t u d e t e s t b a t t e r y would s u i t the purpose even b e t t e r than the o r i g i n a l proposed S.S.E.E. grades. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of S.S.E.E. grades and the a p t i t u d e t e s t b a t t e r y obtained from the 126 sub j e c t s were as f o l l o w s : S.S. E.E. Chinese vs Sum of CVB and CLO 0.38 S.S. E.E. E n g l i s h vs Sum o f EVE and ELU 0.76 S.S. E.E. Mathematics vs Sum of MB, AB, HEB, SS 0.56 60 to d e t e c t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups even i f they d i f f e r e d o n l y s l i g h t l y on each c r i t e r i o n taken alone. The i n t e n t of the a n a l y s i s was t h a t i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups would be found, subsequent d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s would be used to determine the nature of the group d i f f e r e n c e s i n order t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s might be taken i n t o account i n subsequent a n a l y s i s . 3.4 INSTRUMENTATION The present study made use of a number of achievement t e s t s and s c a l e s f o r measuring the background v a r i a b l e s . Some of the t e s t s were e x i s t i n g t e s t s f o r which t e s t s t a t i s t i c s from p r e v i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e . Other t e s t s which d i d not have developed t e s t s t a t i s t i c s were analyzed by making use of a computer program designated as the Laboratory of Education Research Test A n a y s i s Package (LEETAP).* The purpose of the LEETAP program i s t o do item and t e s t a n a l y s i s . 3.4.1 The_Achievement T e s t s 3.4. 1.1 P r e t e s t o f P h y s i c s Achievement (Appendix 1) The p r e t e s t was a 40-item m u l t i p l e choice w r i t t e n examination. The items i n the t e s t mainly covered the t o p i c of 1 D e t a i l s of the program can be obtained from the E d u c a t i o n a l Research S e r v i c e Centre, F a c u l t y o f Education, the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 61 L i g h t and Sound, to be taught under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . , The content v a l i d i t y of the t e s t (see Appendix 2) was checked by a panel of judges c o n s i s t i n g of the teachers i n v o l v e d i n the present study and two not i n v o l v e d i n the p r e s e n t study.! Since the t e s t was presented to one group (2 c l a s s e s ) i n Chinese and another group (2 c l a s s e s ) i n E n g l i s h , the eq u i v a l e n c e of the two v e r s i o n s had to be e s t a b l i s h e d . The o r i g i n a l t e s t was i n E n g l i s h ; the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of the t e s t was prepared by the t e a c h e r who taught i n the Chinese s c h o o l , with the help of the w r i t e r (see Appendix 3). To make sure that the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n was a c c u r a t e , i t i s t r a n s l a t e d back i n t o E n g l i s h by another f l u e n t b i l i n g u a l t e a c h e r . 2 The r e s u l t i n g two E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s were then compared by Dr. Gamal Nasr . 3 Out of the 40 t r a n s l a t e d items, 26 items were judged to be exact t r a n s l a t i o n , 10 items were good t r a n s l a t i o n s , and 4 items were a c c e p t a b l e . * Hence the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of the t e s t was taken to be e q u i v a l e n t i n content t o the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n i n E n g l i s h . 3. 4. 1.2 P o s t - t e s t of Physics Achievement., j * Hr. H.C. Au ( B . S c , Dip. Ed.), a b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s t e a c h e r . Hr. H.H. Hong (B.Sc,Hon., Dip.Ed.), a b i l i n g u a l p hysics t e a c h e r . . 2 Hrs. Y.T. L. L i u (B. Sc., Dip. Ed., H.Ed.), a b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s t e a c h e r . 3 Dr. Gamal Nasr (B.Sc., H.Sc., fi.Ed., Ph. D.) , an Ed. D. student i n the Science Education Department, O n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. • The degree of accuracy of t r a n s l a t i o n was a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e l e v e l s : Exact - the two items were the same. „ Good - the two items were of almost the same meaning. , Acceptable - the two items were of roughly the same meaning. Bad - the two items were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . D i f f e r e n t - the two items were o f d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s , 62 The content of t h i s t e s t was the same as the p r e t e s t except f o r one item (No. 27) which was d e l e t e d s i n c e i t s index of item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to t o t a l score was n e g a t i v e . 3.4.1.3 P o s t - t e s t of P h y s i c s Achievement 2 (Appendix 8) T h i s was a 25 item m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t . The items i n the t e s t mainly covered the t o p i c o f L i g h t and Sound t h a t was taught i n the present study. The content v a l i d i t y of the t e s t was judged by the a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r 1 and the w r i t e r . The o r i g i n a l t e s t items were i n E n g l i s h . They were t r a n s l a t e d to Chinese by the w r i t e r with the h e l p of the a s s i s t i n g teacher (see Appendix 1 0 ) . T h e Chinese v e r s i o n was then r e t r a n s l a t e d back t o E n g l i s h by another p h y s i c s teacher.? The two E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s were then compared f o r e q u i v a l e n c e by Dr. Gamal Nasr. Out of the 25 t r a n s l a t e d items, 19 were judged t o be exact, 3 good, 2 a c c e p t a b l e and 1 d i f f e r e n t . F u r t h e r checking o f the item that was judged t o be d i f f e r e n t r e v e a l e d that the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n was c o r r e c t but the r e t r a n s l a t i o n t o E n g l i s h was not good. Hence the E n g l i s h and Chinese v e r s i o n of t h a t item was s t i l l the same i n meaning and the e q u i v a l e n c e o f the two t r a n s l a t i o n s was e s t a b l i s h e d . 3.4. 1.4 Hetest (Appendix 9) T h i r t y good items of P o s t t e s t 1 and P o s t t e s t 2 were chosen t o form the Hetest. Good items r e f e r r e d to those having s u i t a b l e 1 Mr. C.C. Hong (B.Sc., Dip.Ed., Dip.System A n a l y s i s ) , a b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s teacher. 2 Miss B. C. Cheng ( B . S c , Dip.Ed.),, a b i l i n g u a l p h y s i c s teacher. 6 3 d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l (0.35-0.70) and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n index (0.20-0.70). Furthermore content v a l i d i t y was taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n making the t e s t . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the p o s t - t e s t s was obtained by the t e s t -r e t e s t method. The t e s t of the 'good items' ( i . e . the Betest) was administered t o the two groups of students at the end of May 1979. The students were n o t i f i e d that they would have a test j u s t s e v e r a l days before the date of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n without being t o l d that i t was a r e t e s t of the previous t e s t . As the t e s t - r e t e s t method i s seldom used i n Hong Kong, the students would not expect to meet the same items they had seen s e v e r a l months e a r l i e r though they had copies of the item ( i t i s a common p r a c t i c e i n Hong Kong to r e t u r n the t e s t items to students a f t e r each t e s t ) . Hence memory and coaching e f f e c t s were reduced. The c o r r e l a t i o n of t e s t and r e t e s t scores c o n s t i t u t e an i n d i c a t o r of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t . The reason t h a t the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was used r a t h e r than the i n t e r n a l consistency c o e f f i c i e n t was mainly that i t was a l s o r e l a t e d t o the purpose of the present study. Hhat the research reguired was mainly the s t a b i l i t y of the t e s t r e s u l t s . 3.4. 1.5 Test on Mechanics (Appendix 12) Mechanics t e s t items were chosen from some previous C e r t i f i c a t e o f Education Examination papers. They were f i r s t administered to the grade 11 students of the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l as a p i l o t study./Only 41 items of s u i t a b l e d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n index were r e t a i n e d t o form the present 64 t e s t . 3.4. 1.6 Test on Atomic P h y s i c s (Appendix 14) T h i s t e s t was developed by a r e s e a r c h group i n the School of Education, the Chinese O n i v e r s i t y of flong Kong. I t was f i r s t used i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t ( S i u , 1979b) and was adopted here. 3.4. 1.7 E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y T e s t B a t t e r y (Appendix 15) T h i s t e s t b a t t e r y appears to be very s i m i l a r t o the Te s t of E n g l i s h as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).! I t c o n s i s t e d of f i v e s u b t e s t s t o measure f i v e d i f f e r e n t areas of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . They were r e s p e c t i v e l y , l i s t e n i n g comprehension, E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e , vocabulary, r e a d i n g comprehension and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . 3.4. 1.8 Aptitude T e s t B a t t e r y ( S i u , 1978) T h i s t e s t b a t t e r y was developed by Dr. P. K. S i u , L e c t u r e r o f the School of Education of the Chinese O n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong. I t was s p e c i a l l y normed f o r an average grade 9 st u d e n t i n Hong Kong. Dr. S i u suggested t h a t i t was a l s o a r e l i a b l e instrument f o r grade 10 stu d e n t s . The r e l i a b i l i t y (KB-20) of the t e s t b a t t e r y was as f o l l o w s : Chinese v e r b a l reasoning (0.80), Chinese language usage (0.71), E n g l i s h language usage (0.87), E n g l i s h v e r b a l reasoning (0.91) , mathematical reasoning (0.81), a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g (0.86), mechanical r e a s o n i n g (0.69), s p a t i a l »- The author used these t e s t b ooklets t o prepare f o r TOEFL and achieved a high s c o r e . He concluded from t h i s experience that the t e s t items were very s i m i l a r . 65 reasoning (0.84). The above data on r e l i a i l i t y was the only a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n a b l e from the author of the t e s t . Dr. S i u . They were based on a random sample of about 3000 students taken from the whole grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n i n Hong Kong. 3.4.1.9 Summary o f S t a t i s t i c s on the Achievement T e s t s Table 3.1 g i v e s the most important t e s t s t a t i s t i c s of the achievement t e s t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Table 3.1 i s here. Of note i n T a b l e 3.1 i s that the r e l i a b i l i t y of the P r e t e s t i s somewhat low. But, r e c a l l i n g that when the t e s t was administered, the s t u d e n t s had not been taught the c o n t e n t being t e s t e d , low r e l i a b i l i t y can be expected s i n c e s t u d e n t s presumably guessed b l i n d l y . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y between the 'good* items of P o s t t e s t 1, P o s t t e s t 2 and the B e t e s t was 0.70. The time between the t e s t s was f i v e months. In c a l c u l a t i n g t h i s v a l u e , the scores of one whole c l a s s (the 4B c l a s s of the Chinese s c h o o l ) were dropped because evidence of coaching was found. Before t a k i n g the Betest, the average score of these s t u d e n t s was c o n s i s t e n t l y lower than the average score of the s t u d e n t s i n the other three c l a s s e s . However, on the B e t e s t , the s c o r e s of the students dropped were the h i g h e s t among the f o u r c l a s s e s . I n t e r v i e w o f the students r e v e a l e d the f a c t t h a t they had reviewed only the content of P o s t t e s t 1 and P o s t t e s t 2 r a t h e r than a l l the things l e a r n e d before the B e t e s t . Hence, th e s c o r e s of these students 66 were dropped i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b l i t y , The f i v e E n g l i s h t e s t s were s u b - t e s t s of the E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y t e s t b a t t e r y . The r e l i a b i l i t y { i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y proposed by Hoyt) of the complete b a t t e r y of t e s t s was 0.94. 3.4. 2 Survey -Questionnaire In order t o f a c i l i t a t e a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between achievement i n p h y s i c s and the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n , r e l e v a n t background i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d from the students and t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the r e s e a r c h study. & d e s c r i p t i o n of the v a r i a b l e s measured i s g i v e n below. The parentheses a t the end of each d e s c r i p t i o n i n d i c a t e s the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n of the g u e s t i o n n a i r e . 3.4.2. 1 The S c a l e s 1) Socioeconomic background (SES) T h i s r e f e r s to the background or environment i n d i c a t i v e of both the s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s of an i n d i v i d u a l . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used t o c o l l e c t data on students* f a m i l y income, s o c i a l c l a s s , parents* e d u c a t i o n , and other m i s c e l l a n e o u s matters (Set I , S e c t i o n A). 2) M o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n physjcs (MIP) 67 H o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y r e f e r s to the i n t e n s i t y of a student»s e f f o r t s and d e s i r e s t o achieve a c e r t a i n g o a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . The present s c a l e was used to f i n d out the amount of homework st u d e n t s did i n the study of p h y s i c s , t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study, and the importance they a t t r i b u t e d t o l e a r n i n g p h y s i c s (Set I I I , S e c t i o n C)., 3) D e s i r e t o l e a r n p h y s i c s (DLP) D e s i r e r e f e r s to a co n s c i o u s wish to achieve c e r t a i n g o a l s . The present s c a l e was designed t o f i n d out the s t u d e n t s ' eagerness f o r doing assignments i n p h y s i c s and how much a t t e n t i o n they paid i n p h y s i c s c l a s s (Set I I I , S e c t i o n D). *•) Study h a b i t s i n p h y s i c s (SHP) Habit s r e f e r s t o a p a t t e r n of behaviour which through p r a c t i c e has become easy and f a m i l i a r , and i s performed without conscious thought. The present q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed t o f i n d out the s t u d e n t s ' study h a b i t s i n p r e p a r i n g f o r p h y s i c s c l a s s e s (Set I I I , S e c t i o n E) . 5) Students' knowledge of E n g l i s h (SKE) T h i s i n c l u d e s the students* language h i s t o r y and use 68 of E n g l i s h i n and out of the classroom (Set I , S e c t i o n E ) . 6) Parents' knowledge of E n g l i s h (PKE) I n f o r m a t i o n about the parents' use o f E n g l i s h (Set I , S e c t i o n C ) . 7) O r i e n t a t i o n toward E n g l i s h (OTE) T h i s r e f e r s to the process of making a person aware of f a c t o r s i n h i s environment f o r the purpose of f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t i v e a d a p t a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . The present s c a l e was a r a t i n g of p o s s i b l e reasons, i n s t r u m e n t a l and/or i n t e g r a t i v e , f o r s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h i n terms of s t u d e n t s ' sentiments toward l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h (Set I, S e c t i o n D). 8) A t t i t u d e t o w a r d E n g l i s h as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n secondary s c h o o l s (AEMI) A t t i t u d e r e f e r s t o a l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n of f a v o u r a b l e n e s s or unfavourableness towards an o b j e c t . In the present s c a l e , the o b j e c t was " E n g l i s h as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n " (Set I , S e c t i o n E). 69 9) M o t i v a t i ona 1 i n tens i t y_ i n _ E ng l i sh (HIE) The s c a l e was used to f i n d out the amount of homework s t u d e n t s do i n the study o f E n g l i s h , t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study, and the importance they a t t r i b u t e t o l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h (Set I I , S e c t i o n A) . 10) P a r e n t a l encouragement (PE) T h i s i s the amount of encouragement students r e c e i v e from parents t o do w e l l i n E n g l i s h (Set I I , S e c t i o n B) . 11) a t t i t u d e toward E n g l i s h speaking Westerners {&TES) T h i s s c a l e was used t o f i n d out how a student f e l t about E n g l i s h speaking Westerners (Set I , S e c t i o n G) . 1 2 ) D e s i r e t o l e a r n E n g l i s h (DLE) T h i s s c a l e was designed t o f i n d out s t u d e n t s 1 eagerness f o r doing assignments i n E n g l i s h and how much a t t e n t i o n they paid i n E n g l i s h c l a s s (Set I I , S e c t i o n C). 13) a t t i t u d e toward f o r e i g n languages (ATFL) 70 T h i s s c a l e d e a l s with s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward l e a r n i n g f o r e i g n language (Set I , S e c t i o n F ) . 14) Study h a b i t s i n E n g l i s h (SHE) T h i s s c a l e was used t o determine s t u d e n t s ' study h a b i t s i n p r e p a r i n g f o r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s (Set I I , S e c t i o n D). , !5) Beading h a b i t s (EH) T h i s s c a l e was designed t o determine the k i n d o f books t h a t students chose t o read apart from those connected with t h e i r s c h o o l work (Set I I , S e c t i o n E) . 16) A t t i t u d e toward l i f e i n Hong Kong (&LHK) T h i s s c a l e d e a l s with how a student f e e l s about present l i f e i n Hong Kong (Set I I , S e c t i o n F ) . 17) a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m (AO) T h i s r e f e r s t o the g e n e r a l p o s i t i o n that a source o f c o n t r o l and order ( e x t e r n a l t o the reasoned judgement o f the i n d i v i d u a l and to the common persuasion of a f r e e man) should p r e v a i l and s e t t l e human choices.,The present s c a l e c o n s i s t e d of items 71 chosen from the C a l i f o r n i a F - s c a l e of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m which were r e l e v a n t to Hong Kong 1 (Set I I , S e c t i o n G),, 18) B t h n o c e n t r i s a (ETH) T h i s r e f e r s t o a r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t frame of mind concerning " a l i e n s " g e n e r a l l y . a primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the g e n e r a l i t y of outgroup r e j e c t i o n . The present s c a l e was s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f o r s t u d e n t s i n Hong Kong (Poon, 1977) (Set I I I , S e c t i o n G). 19) C u l t u r a l a l l e g i a n c e (CA) T h i s r e f e r s to one's support of or l o y a l t y to one's own c u l t u r e . , T h e present s c a l e was used to determine s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e f o r Chinese and/or Western ways o f l i f e (Set I I I , S e c t i o n B). 20) Anoroie (A NO) T h i s r e f e r s t o the f e e l i n g s of s o c i a l u n c e r t a i n t y or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n which sometimes c h a r a c t e r i z e s not * The C a l i f o r n i a F - S c a l e of A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m c o n s i s t s of many items o r i g i n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f o r Americans. Some items d i d not s u i t Hong Kong because Hong Kong people don't have the same background as Americans so those items had t o be d e l e t e d by the author. 72 only the b i l i n g u a l but a l s o the s e r i o u s s t u d e n t of a second language. The present s c a l e was designed t o measure the degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n / d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with Hong Kong s o c i e t y (Set I I , S e c t i o n H) . 21) B a t i n g of E n g l i s h s k i l l s (BES) The r e f e r e n c e here i s competency i n the use of language. ». The present s c a l e was concerned with s t u d e n t s * s e l f r a t i n g and r a t i n g of parents* s k i l l i n E n g l i s h (Set I I , S e c t i o n I ) . y 22) S e l f - c o n c e p t of academic a b j l i t y (SCAB) The content o f t h i s s c a l e d e a l s with behaviour i n which one i n d i c a t e s t o s e l f ( p u b l i c l y or p r i v a t e l y ) one's a b i l i t y i n academic work as compared with o t h e r s engaged i n the same work. The present s c a l e s c o n s i s t e d o f s e l f concept i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s : s e l f , parent, f r i e n d and teacher (Set I I I , S e c t i o n A). The above i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d both from the students and t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the study. I n the case of the t e a c h e r s , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o r e q u i r e d i n a d d i t i o n to the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d of the students. 23) S e l f r e p o r t of t e a c h i n g 73 Behaviour i n which one i n d i c a t e s to s e l f one's t e a c h i n g as compared with other who are engaged i n the same task., 21) Q u a l i f i c a t i o n and experience 25) Teaching performance (TP) T h i s i n v o l v e d e v a l u a t i o n of t e a c h i n g performances by students (Set I I I , S e c t i o n F) • Background i n f o r m a t i o n 1 and 22 d e a l with v a r i a b l e s which were suggested by Brookover (1967) and M i t c h e l l (1968) as p o s s i b l y having d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n with the students' general academic achievement, V a r i a b l e s 2-4 a r e an i n d i c a t i o n of the students* i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c s which might i n f l u e n c e the s t u d e n t s ' achievement i n p h y s i c s . . V a r i a b l e s 5-21 are those v a r i a b l e s which were suggested by Fu (1975, pp. 187-189), Gardner and Lambert (1972) as p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h of the students. V a r i a b l e s 23-24 d e a l with important f a c t o r s about the teachers* a b i l i t y to teach which might a f f e c t the students* l e a r n i n g . S i n c e the whole q u e s t i o n n a i r e was extremely lo n g , i t was broken i n t o three sub-sets (see Appendix 6) so that each sub-set r e q u i r e d not more than 35 minutes to complete. Furthermore, the data 74 were c o l l e c t e d at the beginning, middle, and end of the f i r s t term i n order t o reduce p o s s i b l e f a t i g u e and boredom. The o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i n E n g l i s h . L a t e r , i t had t o be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Chinese f o r students expected t o respond i n Chi n e s e . The t r a n s l a t i o n (see Appendix 7) was done by the w r i t e r and a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a n s l a t o r . * To make sure the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n was a c c u r a t e , i t was t r a n s l a t e d back i n t o E n g l i s h by another f l u e n t b i l i n g u a l . 2 The two E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s were then compared. , The e q u i v a l e n c e of the two t r a n s l a t e d v e r s i o n s of the Que s t i o n n a i r e was judged by Mr., St a n l e y T a y l o r . ? Out of the 296 t r a n s l a t e d items, n i n e t y -f o u r were judged t o be exact, n i n e t y good, e i g h t y -f o u r a c c e p t a b l e , eleven bad and seventeen d i f f e r e n t . Among the twenty-eight items t h a t were judged to be bad or d i f f e r e n t c l o s e r examination by another b i l i n g u a l t e a c h e r * revealed t h a t the non-equivalence was mainly due to the r e t r a n s l a t i o n of the Chinese v e r s i o n i n t o E n g l i s h r a t h e r than the f i r s t t r a n s l a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n t o Chinese. Out of the above twenty-eight items, only s i x items were judged * Miss Rosemary W. K. Lo, (B. A.) , a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a n s l a t o r working f o r the Hong Kong Government. 2 Miss K. H./Wong (B.A., Dip.Ed.), a b i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h t e a c h e r . 3 Mr. Stanley T a y l o r ( B . S c , M.Sc., M.Ed.), a d o c t o r a l candidate of the Science Education Dept., the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. ,, •• Mrs. B.W.K. Ho (B. A., Dip.Ed.)., a b i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h t e a c h e r . 75 to be bad or d i f f e r e n t when they were t r a n s l a t e d from E n g l i s h to Chinese. Hence the two v e r s i o n s of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were probably very much the same. Furthermore, out of the 176 students who answered the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , only one student chose to answer the E n g l i s h v e r s i o n i n Set I of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the sc o r e s between the two v e r s i o n s i s thus not con s i d e r e d to be a s e r i o u s problem a f f e c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s . 3. 4. 2.2 S t a t i s t i c s of the S c a l e s There were a t o t a l of twenty-three s c a l e s i n the Question n a i r e a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h i s study which r e g u i r e d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Table 3.2 i s a summary o f the s t a t i s t i c s f o r the s c a l e s . T a b l e 3.2 i s here. In c a l c u l a t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f the s c a l e s , s e v e r a l s c a l e s were modified by dropping c e r t a i n items i n order t o i n c r e a s e the r e l i a b i l i t y while at the same time not reducing the content v a l i d i t y (see appendix 17 f o r d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n ) . Even a f t e r t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . with some o f the items dropped), some of the s c a l e s s t i l l had low r e l i a b i l i t y ( i n the sense o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) . Upon Checking the o r i g i n s of the s c a l e s (Gardner and Lambert, 1972), i t came to l i g h t t h a t the s c a l e s were probably not ask i n g g u e s t i o n s on e x a c t l y the same ar e a and hence of low i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y (see appendix 18). 76 3.5 CGMPABISGN OF PHYSICS ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN CHINESE AND ANGLO-CHINESE SCHOOLS To study how much i n f l u e n c e the language of i n s t r u c t i o n had on the s t u d e n t s ' achievement i n p h y s i c s , a research design f o l l o w i n g the qua s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l design designated Design 10 by Campbell and S t a n l e y (1963) was used., To make the study f e a s i b l e , the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c h y p o thesis was formulated. Hypothesis l a : Grade 10 students i n the Chinese s c h o o l w i l l achieve higher s c o r e s i n p h y s i c s than grade 10 students i n the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l . T h i s hypothesis was transformed t o the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s . H . : .<U\ = -u* ( d= 0.05) H ( : M{>Mi where M{ - mean p h y s i c s score of grade 10 students from Chinese s c h o o l s JU_.= mean p h y s i c s score o f grade 10 students from Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s . , T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was formulated to answer Problem 1 r a i s e d i n S e c t i o n 1.1. .,• In t h i s study, a l l the s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s were i n v o l v e d . Two * Teacher i n the Chinese S c h o o l — M r . C.C. Wong ( B . S c , Dip. System A n a l y s i s , Dip.Ed.). Teacher i n the Anglo-Chinese S c h o o l — t h e W r i t e r h i m s e l f . 77 teachers 1- took p a r t i n the study. One taught the two c l a s s e s i n the Chinese s c h o o l and the other taught the two c l a s s e s i n the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l . The two t e a c h e r s were the r e g u l a r p h y s i c s t e a c h e r s of the c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d . The two s c h o o l s are g u i t e f a r away from each other, r e d u c i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of s h a r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n between s u b j e c t s . 3.5.1 Three Months o f C o n t r o l l e d Teaching i n Physics During the p e r i o d , September 4 to December 11, 1978, the two groups of stu d e n t s were taught the same content i n p h y s i c s , one group i n Chinese by the a s s i s t i n g teacher and the other group i n E n g l i s h by the w r i t e r . The content chosen f o r t h i s study was " L i g h t and Sound". The reason f o r s e l e c t i n g " L i g h t and Sound" r a t h e r than o t h e r t o p i c s i n p h y s i c s was mainly t h a t the p h y s i c s content background of the two groups was d i f f e r e n t . For example, the Chinese group had s t u d i e d some Mechanics i n grade 9 while the Anglo-Chinese group had not. A f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the u n i t on L i g h t and Sound was found to be s u i t a b l e s i n c e the groups were judged t o have about the same background i n the s u b j e c t and i t s d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the grade 10 s t u d e n t s . In order t o c o n t r o l as auch as p o s s i b l e the teacher e f f e c t and the e f f e c t due t o the methods of i n s t r u c t i o n , the two groups used the same t e x t book (Abbott, 1969) but d i f f e r e n t t r a n s l a t i o n s ( E n g l i s h or C h i n e s e ) . The te a c h e r s f o l l o w e d the textbook as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . T h e i r t e a c h i n g schedules (see Appendix 4) were cross-checked every week t o ensure t h a t they were t e a c h i n g at about the same r a t e . The two groups d i d the 78 same experiments with approximately the same kind of apparatus. Furthermore, i f th e r e were any ques t i o n s or d i s c u s s i o n s r a i s e d i n c l a s s , they would be noted down and the other t e a c h e r would be n o t i f i e d so t h a t he c o u l d present the s a l i e n t p o i n t s t o h i s c l a s s i n the pre-determined language of i n s t r u c t i o n . Some of the te a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s are i n c l u d e d i n appendix 5. To sum up, every reasonable e f f o r t was made to maintain u n i f o r m i t y i n t e a c h i n g s t y l e and h a n d l i n g of content so t h a t the two groups d i f f e r e d only i n the language of i n s t r u c t i o n during t h a t p e r i o d o f l e a r n i n g . 3,5.2 P o s t - t e s t o f P h y s i c s achievement Upon completion of the c o n t r o l l e d t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p e r i o d , an achievement t e s t ( P o s t t e s t 1) on the content s t u d i e d was gi v e n t o the groups of studen t s , i n Chinese or E n g l i s h a c c o r d i n g to t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n used. A f t e r a month, another achievement t e s t ( P o s t - t e s t 2) (see Appendix 8) on the; content s t u d i e d was administered to the s t u d e n t s . ! Each student's score was the number of c o r r e c t items over a l l the 'good' items. I t was f o r e s e e n t h a t comparison of these p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s might r e q u i r e t h a t the s c o r e s f i r s t be a d j u s t e d f o r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s on f a c t o r s r e v e a l e d i n the HANOVA study. D i f f e r e n c e s i n the ad j u s t e d p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s , i f any, co u l d then be a t t r i b u t e d t o the language of i n s t r u c t i o n with great c o n f i d e n c e , s i n c e other p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s would have been taken * A c t u a l l y , t h i s t e s t was a p a r t of the o r d i n a r y term examination paper c o n s i s t i n g o f m u l t i p l e c h o i c e items and essay type q u e s t i o n s . 79 i n t o account or balanced out a c r o s s the groups as much as p o s s i b l e , , (See the s e c t i o n 'Three Months of C o n t r o l l e d Teaching i n P h y s i c s ' ) . 3.6 HETHOD OF INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICS ACHIEVEMENT, PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH AND OTHER RELEVANT FACTORS The present study was designed t o answer Problems 2 and 5 i n S e c t i o n 1.1. S i n c e the focus was on l e a r n i n g p h y s i c s through the second language, only the data c o l l e c t e d from the Anglo-Chinese group were an a l y z e d i n d e t a i l while those data c o l l e c t e d from the Chinese group were taken as a r e f e r e n c e . The s c o r e s on p h y s i c s achievement were ob t a i n e d as de s c r i b e d i n 3.5.2. P r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h was measured by a t e s t b a t t e r y s i m i l a r to the Test of E n g l i s h as a For e i g n  Language (TOEFL). 1 I t c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e s u b t e s t s : l i s t e n i n g comprehension, E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e , vocabulary, reading comprehension and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y (see Appendix 15). The t o t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time f o r the t e s t was 140 minutes. Since the t e s t was too l o n g f o r the time p e r i o d of an o r d i n a r y l e s s o n , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t b a t t e r y was broken i n t o s e v e r a l s h o r t e r s e s s i o n s . F u r t h e r , s i n c e the w r i t e r did not want the students t o know they were under s p e c i a l study, the t e s t s were gi v e n d u r i n g the E n g l i s h l e s s o n periods by the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s as a normal assessment. The t o t a l marks of a l l f i v e of 1 The two s u b t e s t s ( E n g l i s h v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g and E n g l i s h language usage) o f the Aptitude Test B a t t e r y c o u l d be used as a measure of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y a l s o . But the present t e s t b a t t e r y of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y was an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d one which should be more r e l i a b l e and so i s adopted. V 80 the s u b t e s t s were co n s i d e r e d as a measure of p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h . When a Chinese student l e a r n s p h y s i c s through E n g l i s h , h i s p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h w i l l d e f i n i t e l y a f f e c t h i s l e a r n i n g of p h y s i c s . Besides t h a t , h i s a p t i t u d e , m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n , e t c . w i l l a l s o a f f e c t h i s l e a r n i n g . What we want t o know i s how important E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y i s i n a f f e c t i n g the l e a r n i n g of p h y s i c s when compared with o t h e r f a c t o r s such as a p t i t u d e , m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n , e t c . So the s c o r e s of p h y s i c s achievement were analyzed, u s i n g m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n with E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y (5 v a r i a b l e s ) , a p t i t u d e (8 v a r i a b l e s ) , socioeconomic background, m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n p h y s i c s , d e s i r e to l e a r n p h y s i c s , study h a b i t s i n p h y s i c s , s e l f - c o n c e p t o f academic a b i l i t y and teacher f a c t o r s as independent v a r i a b l e s i n order t o f i n d out which v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the va r i a n c e of p h y s i c s achievement. 3.7 METHOD OF INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENGLISH PROFICIENCY, AFFECTIVE FACTORS AND OTHER SELEVENT FACTORS T h i s study was designed t o answer Problem 3 and 4 r a i s e d i n S e c t i o n 1.1. I t made use of the data c o l l e c t e d i n the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s but focused on E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y r a t h e r than achievement i n p h y s i c s o f the Anglo-Chinese s u b j e c t s . The E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y s c o r e s were t r e a t e d a s the dependent v a r i a b l e i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The independent v a r i a b l e s were: a p t i t u d e , socioeconomic background, students* knowledge of E n g l i s h , parents* knowledge of E n g l i s h , o r i e n t a t i o n toward E n g l i s h , a t t i t u d e toward E n g l i s h as a medium of 81 i n s t r u c t i o n i n secondary s c h o o l s , m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n E n g l i s h , p a r e n t a l encouragement, a t t i t u d e toward E n g l i s h speaking Westerners, d e s i r e to l e a r n E n g l i s h , a t t i t u d e toward f o r e i g n languages, study h a b i t s i n E n g l i s h , reading h a b i t s , a t t i t u d e toward l i f e i n Hong Kong, a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , ethnocentrism, c u l t u r a l a l l e g i a n c e , anomie, r a t i n g of E n g l i s h s k i l l s and s e l f concept of academic a b i l i t y . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was used to analyze the data i n order to f i n d out which v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the v a r i a n c e o f E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . 3.8 ADDITIONAL STUDIES Since s u b j e c t s i n the present study were a v a i l a b l e ( i n t a c t c l a s s e s from two s c h o o l s ) , there was always the p o s s i b i l i t y that the two groups would be very d i f f e r e n t i f the two s c h o o l s were very d i f f e r e n t (which should not b e ) . S e c t i o n 3.3 was j u s t a technigue to f i n d out i n i t i a l group d i f f e r e n c e s so t h a t the experimental r e s u l t s might be a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . In case the two groups were very d i f f e r e n t , the r e s u l t s obtained from S e c t i o n 3.4 might not be too r e l i a b l e and major i n f e r e n c e from the study would be s e r i o u s l y hampered. The p r e s e n t two a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s were designed so t h a t they would give e x t r a support t o the o r i g i n a l study i n S e c t i o n 3.4. Since our i n t e r e s t was focused on students' l e a r n i n g p h y s i c s through the second language, the two c l a s s e s of the Anglo-Chinese group were s e l e c t e d f o r the present two a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s . . T h i s s e l e c t i o n would e l i m i n a t e e r r o r s due to the d i f f e r e n c e of s c h o o l or teacher s i n c e s u b j e c t s were s t u d y i n g i n 82 the same s c h o o l and under the same teacher {i.e. the w r i t e r h i m s e l f ) . ; Baking use of the method and the data c o l l e c t e d on the Anglo-Chinese group i n S e c t i o n 3.3, the equivalence or i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e of the two c l a s s e s c o u l d he determined and so a p p r o p r i a t e adjustment c o u l d be made i n subsequent s t u d i e s i f r e q u i r e d . 3.8.1 Comparison of P h y s i c s Achievement Between E n g l i s h and B i l i n g n a l I n s t r u c t i o n In t h i s study, the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s was i n v e s t i g a t e d . Hypothesis l b : Grade 10 students of Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l w i l l achieve higher s c o r e s i n p h y s i c s when i t i s taught b i l i n g u a l l y than when i t i s taught through E n g l i s h o n l y . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was transformed t o the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s . H 0 : .>'=~Wi { 0. 05) H ^ : JJ I , > J U » where ^ = mean p h y s i c s s c o r e s of b i l i n g u a l c l a s s -M-i - mean p h y s i c s s c o r e o f E n g l i s h c l a s s . During the p e r i o d February 7 t o A p r i l 20, 1979, the two c l a s s e s of students were taught the same content i n p h y s i c s , one group i n E n g l i s h o n l y and the other group i n E n g l i s h , but with 83 the help o f Chinese e x p l a n a t i o n s whenever necessary ( i . e . b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n ) . The content taught was 'Mechanics* (see Appendix 11). The reason f o r s e l e c t i n g 'Mechanics' were t h a t the t o p i c had not been taught b e f o r e , and i t was i n c l u d e d i n the s y l l a b u s f o r grade 10 p h y s i c s i n Hong Kong., Si n c e the two c l a s s e s were from the same s c h o o l , they had almost the same academic background. The teacher e f f e c t was minimized s i n c e only the w r i t e r was i n v o l v e d i n teaching the two c l a s s e s . Furthermore, the p h y s i c s l e s s o n s of the two c l a s s e s u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d very c l o s e l y i n time. The w r i t e r had no d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c a l l i n g what he had taught the other c l a s s i n the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . The w r i t e r a l s o t r i e d t o f o l l o w the textbook as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e d u r i n g the l e s s o n s and the two c l a s s e s d i d the same experiments with e x a c t l y the same kind of apparatus. F i n a l l y , i f t h e r e were q u e s t i o n s or d i s c u s s i o n s i n one c l a s s , the w r i t e r would present the problem and a summary of the d i s c u s s i o n s t o the other c l a s s as w e l l . Upon completion of the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p e r i o d , an achievement t e s t on the content s t u d i e d was given t o the two c l a s s e s o f st u d e n t s i n E n g l i s h o n l y . The achievement t e s t was p i l o t e d beforehand with another group of students i n the same sc h o o l . , Only those items with s u i t a b l e d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l were r e t a i n e d f o r the p o s t - t e s t . (See Appendix 12). A comparison of the p o s t - t e s t scores might r e q u i r e t h a t the p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s f i r s t be adjusted f o r d i f f e r e n c e s on f a c t o r s r e v e a l e d i n the 8ANOVA study. D i f f e r e n c e s i n the a d j u s t e d post-t e s t r e s u l t s , i f any, would probably be due p r i m a r i l y to the 84 language of i n s t r u c t i o n , since other p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s would have been taken i n t o account or balanced out across the groups as much as p o s s i b l e . 3.8.2 Comparison ,of Physics achievement Between Chinese and E n g l i s h I n s t r u c t i o n The previous two s t u d i e s ( i . e . 3.5 and 3.8.1) were r e l a t i v e l y long term s t u d i e s compared with the present one. They were more p r a c t i c a l , and c l o s e r to an ordi n a r y c l a s s s i t u a t i o n . This study was more t h e o r e t i c a l . I t attempted to i n v e s t i g a t e j u s t one guestion: i f students are taught physics using E n g l i s h or Chinese o n l y , through which medium do they l e a r n more? To a c e r t a i n extent, t h i s study was b e t t e r c o n t r o l l e d than the second study mentioned above s i n c e i t a l s o l i m i t e d the h i s t o r y ( i n the sense of Campbell and Stanley) of the two groups of students so that they would not be too d i f f e r e n t . The f o l l o w i n g hypothesis was i n v e s t i g a t e d . . Hypothesis I c : Grade 10 students of Anglo-Chinese school w i l l achieve higher scores when physics i s taught through the medium of Chinese than when i t i s taught through the medium of E n g l i s h . This hypothesis was transformed t o the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis. H 0 : > i =J*>T. { o<= 0.05) H 4 : ^>-U t 85 where = mean physics scores of the Chinese c l a s s - mean physics scores of the E n g l i s h c l a s s . During the p e r i o d Nay 15-17, 1979, the two c l a s s e s of students were taught the same content i n physics, one c l a s s i n E n g l i s h only and the other c l a s s i n Chinese only. The c l a s s which was taught i n Chinese i n t h i s study was the c l a s s which was taught i n E n g l i s h and the c l a s s which was taught i n E n g l i s h i n t h i s study was the c l a s s which was taught b i l i n g u a l l y i n the previous study (Section 3.8.1). The reason f o r using t h i s changeover design compared with 3.8.1, was that i t seemed to be a more d i r e c t way of f i n d i n g out what e f f e c t the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n had on student achievement i n physics i f there were e f f e c t . The content taught was 'atomic S t r u c t u r e and fiadio-a c t i v i t y ' . The lesson plans f o r these four periods were produced by the School of Education of the Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong 1 i n both Chinese and English (see appendix 13).,During the lessons, the teacher followed the lesson plan s t r i c t l y to ensure reasonably equivalence of content taught to the two c l a s s e s . Upon completion of the four t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p e r i o d s , an achievement t e s t (see Appendix 14) on the content s t u d i e d was given i n the f i f t h p e r i o d , to the two c l a s s e s of students i n Chinese or E n g l i s h , according t o the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n used. The achievement t e s t d i f f e r e d i n s e v e r a l ways from those i n 1 These m a t e r i a l s were o r i g i n a l l y used i n a research p r o j e c t named " E f f e c t of Medium of I n s t r u c t i o n Upon Student C o g n i t i v e Development and Academic Achievement" by a research team from the School of Education of the Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong. ( S i u , 1979b) . 86 the previous s t u d i e s . F i r s t l y , the students were not informed about the t e s t u n t i l the day before the t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d . Secondly, the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l they r e c i e v e d on the f i r s t day of the p r o j e c t was c o l l e c t e d to ensure that no student d i d any ex t r a - s t u d y before the t e s t . Hence one c o u l d be q u i t e sure that the r e s u l t s obtained from the t e s t i n d i c a t e d how much the student c o u l d understand and l e a r n only d u r i n g the c l a s s p e r i o d . Any s y s t e m a t i c achievement d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups would probably be due to the e f f e c t s of the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . D e t a i l e d comparison of the p o s t - t e s t scores f o l l o w e d the same plan d e s c r i b e d i n 3.8.1. , 87 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANAYSIS 4.1 COMPARABILITY OF THE CS AND ACS GROUPS 4.1.1 General Background One hundred s e v e n t y - s i x s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d f o r the study, e i g h t y - s i x from an Anglo-Chinese secondary s c h o o l and n i n e t y from a Chinese : secondary s c h o o l . * The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s i n terms of sex, age, place of b i r t h , d i a l e c t spoken at home, socioeconomic background, c h o i c e of sc h o o l and S . S . E . E . . r e s u l t s on Chinese, E n g l i s h and Mathematics.? Background V a r i a b l e s 1, 5, 7, 8 and 9 were analyzed by a t -t e s t ( t w o - t a i l e d , 174 degrees o f freedom) , while background v a r i a b l e s 2, 3, 4 and 6 were analyzed by a X 2 - t e s t (1 degree of freedom) . S i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e (t=9.62) was probably due to the f a c t t h a t comparatively more st u d e n t s i n the Chinese s c h o o l were r e p e a t e r s than i n the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l . In other * During t h e study ( S e c t i o n 3.5), one student i n the CS group dropped out from s c h o o l . 2 S i n c e not a l l the students s a t f o r the S.S. E.E. o n l y 126 students (85 of ACS and 41 of CS group) possessed r e s u l t s on c h o i c e o f s c h o o l and S.S.E.E. For S.S.E.E. r e s u l t s , s t udents r e c e i v e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n grades 1, 2, 3, e t c . as an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r standard i n t h a t s u b j e c t area. A s m a l l e r grade number means a b e t t e r r e s u l t (grade 1 i s the best) i n t h a t s u b j e c t area. (Note t h i s f a c t i n Table 4.1)., 88 words, students i n the Chinese s c h o o l might probably be l e s s able than students i n the Anglo-Chinese group. In f a c t , t h i s agrees with the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups on S.S. E. E. Chinese (t=6.87), E n g l i s h (t=9.14) and Mathematics <t=8.39) , a l l t h e s e i n d i c a t e t h a t the Anglo-Chinese group was bet t e r than the Chinese group t h r e e years before when they f i r s t entered secondary s c h o o l . Furthermore, t h e r e was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (X 2=44.13) between the two groups i n t h e i r c h o i c e of s c h o o l s . Almost a l l students i n the Chinese s c h o o l i n d i c a t e d that they d i d not choose t o enter t h e i r present s c h o o l but were f o r c e d t o do so s i n c e they had i n f e r i o r S.S.E.E. r e s u l t s . T a b l e 4.1 i s here. The present r e s u l t a l s o r e v e a l e d the f a c t t h a t even though both s c h o o l s were above average i n academic achievement when compared to other secondary s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong, they were not comparable on many background v a r i a b l e s and hence a p p r o p r i a t e adjustment i n the subsequent comparison of achievement between the two groups would probably be r e q u i r e d . 4. 1.2 P r e t e s t R e s u l t s of P h y s i c s Achievement The P r e t e s t was administered to the two groups of students d u r i n g the f i r s t p h y s i c s lesson p e r i o d s of the two s c h o o l s . The CS and the ACS groups took the Chinese and E n g l i s h v e r s i o n of the p r e t e s t r e s p e c t i v e l y . Since s t u d e n t s had not been taught the m a t e r i a l , i t was l i k e l y t h a t they would guess. f When c o r r e c t i o n f o r guessing, 1 - , was a p p l i e d t o the s c o r e s , the f o l l o w i n g 89 r e s u l t s were obtained {for i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s , see Appendix 16). Table 4. 2 i s here. Table 4.2 shows t h a t the s c o r e s of both groups were not very d i f f e r e n t from z e r o . The assumption t h a t both groups had not p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d much o f the content m a t e r i a l seemed te n a b l e . The t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t the Chinese group had a mean sco r e t h a t was higher ( s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y a t the 0.01 l e v e l , t=2.88, two-tailed) than the Anglo-Chinese group on what they d i d know. T h i s may p o s s i b l y be due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding the second language. Questions about u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l might have made more sense when presented i n t h e i r n a t i v e language. 4.1.3 Aptitude T e s t R e s u l t s Having e s t a b l i s h e d that the two groups of s t u d e n t s had e s s e n t i a l l y very l i t t l e p r i o r knowledge of the content l e a r n e d , a check on the e q u i v a l e n c e o f a p t i t u d e s c o r e s was made. The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were obtained from the a p t i t u d e t e s t s . (See Table 4.3 and F i g . 4.1) M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was used to study the d i f f e r e n c e between the two qroups on the v a r i o u s a p t i t u d e s measured. A computer program w r i t t e n by Cooley and Lohnes (1962) was used f o r the a n a l y s i s . The F-value with 8 and 166 degrees of freedom was found to be 94.99. I f two p o p u l a t i o n s are not d i f f e r e n t , then samples as extreme as these (or more extreme) would occur extremely r a r e l y . Indeed, F values of 3.55 or 90 g r e a t e r would occur no o f t e n e r than .001 o f the time; the corresponding p r o b a b i l i t y f o r an F of 94.99 i s of course f a r s m a l l e r . Hence the h y p o t h e s i s that the groups d i f f e r i n a p t i t u d e i s t e n a b l e . Table 4.3 i s here. F i g . 4.1 i s here. D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s subsequently was used to determine the nature of the group d i f f e r e n c e s . The computer program given by Cooley and Lohnes (1962) was used to c a r r y out the a n a l y s i s . , The i n t e r c or r e l a t i o n matrix can be found i n Appendix 20. The v e c t o r of the s c a l e d weights i s shown i n Table 4.4. The s c a l e d weights give the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of each v a r i a b l e , i n the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n , they h e l p to determine the q u a l i t a t i v e nature of the dimension. S i n c e t h e r e are j u s t two groups, only one d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n e x i s t s . T able 4.4 i s here. E n g l i s h v e r b a l reasoning i s o u t s t a n d i n g l y the most important v a r i a b l e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between the two s c h o o l s . . I t i s notably more important than mathematical r e a s o n i n g and c o n s i d e r a b l y more important than Chinese v e r b a l reasoning. Since E n g l i s h v e r b a l reasoning demands a good command of word knowledge as w e l l as the mastery of complex processes, such as 91 a n a l y s i s , a b s t r a c t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , i t i s a component of a p t i t u d e which s e r v e s q u i t e w e l l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e the two (known) groups, a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g i s the l e a s t important v a r i a b l e f o r t h i s purpose. I t s r e l a t i v e importance i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than t h a t of E n g l i s h v e r b a l reasoning., From the MANOVA study of the a p t i t u d e r e s u l t s , i t i s qu i t e c l e a r t h a t the two groups were very d i f f e r e n t from each other. T h i s a l s o agrees with t h e r e s u l t s i n S e c t i o n 4.1.1. 4.2 ANALYSIS OF BESULTS ON PHYSICS ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN CHINESE AND ANGLO-CHINESE SCHOOLS 4.2.1 Comparing B e s u l t s of Ph y s i c s Achievement Since the two groups of students were not e q u i v a l e n t , the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were compared by a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e (ANCOVA). By choosing s u i t a b l e c o v a r i a t e s , ANCOVA i s a s t a t i s t i c a l technique t o a d j u s t the i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between two randomly chosen groups f o r comparison of treatment e f f e c t . I f t h e groups are non-random, ANCOVA might be inadequate t o c a n c e l out a l l i n i t i a l group d i f f e r e n c e s s i n c e there are too many v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . However, i t may be the best we can do f o r the present study. The e i g h t a p t i t u d e scores were chosen t o be the c o v a r i a t e s s i n c e they were thought to be more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o l e a r n i n g 92 than other background v a r i a b l e s i n S e c t i o n 4.1.» The computer program BHD 04V was used t o c a r r y out the a n a l y s i s . * - The f o l l o w i n g ANCOVA t a b l e was o b t a i n e d . T a b l e 4.5 i s here. , Since .95^(1, 120)-3.92>1.33, the d i f f e r e n c e between the two ad j u s t e d means was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and t h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o thesis was c o n s i d e r e d tenable. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e g i v e s the means before and a f t e r adjustment. Table 4.6 i s here. These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t , to the extent a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e can a d j u s t f o r p r e - e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n a p t i t u d e , t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l evidence t h a t the groups d i f f e r e d i n p o s t t e s t performance even though they had l e a r n e d the content through d i f f e r e n t media of i n s t r u c t i o n i n those three months. I t was mainly due to the s u p e r i o r i t y i n a p t i t u d e of the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s that the mean s c o r e s (unadjusted) on the achievement t e s t favoured them. 1•2.2 The E f f e c t of M o t i v a t i o n a l F a c t o r s on the R e s u l t s of 1 The S.S.E.E. . r e s u l t s were measured 3 years before the present study, one r e a l l y doesn't know what happened during t h a t three years before the treatment. Taking them as c o v a r i a t e s would be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e some unknown treatments during those three years had been i n c l u d e d . D e t a i l s of the program can be obtained from the OCLA BHD documentation. 93 Physics Achievement The present r e s u l t i s unexpected. I t does not agree with the g e n e r a l t r e n d i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2,3., Were the r e s u l t s comparable because t e a c h e r s and students i n the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l were compensating i n some way f o r l a c k of p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h , 'e.g.., spending a l o t of e x t r a time and energy overcoming language d i f f i c u l t i e s , b e t t e r teaching e t c ? A comparison on the response of the two groups on the s c a l e s ( S e c t i o n 3.4.2.1) l i k e m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n p h y s i c s (MIP) , d e s i r e t o l e a r n p h y s i c s (DLP), study h a b i t s i n p h y s i c s (SHP) , and t e a c h i n g performance (TP), would r e v e a l to us the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t s . Table 4.7 shows a l l the mean s c o r e s and standard d e v i a t i o n of the two groups on the above f o u r f a c t o r s . T a b l e 4.7 i s here. I t i s c l e a r from the t a b l e t h a t the two groups were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t on a l l the f o u r v a r i a b l e s . , B e f e r r i n g back to the meaning of HIP, DLP and SHP on S e c t i o n 3.4.2.1 and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l items i n Appendix 6, one c o u l d c o n s i d e r them as o p e r a t i o n a l measures of students* m o t i v a t i o n , time and e f f o r t spent i n p h y s i c s . Hence there was no s t r o n g evidence to say that (1) the students i n the Anglo-Chinese group were spending e x t r a time and energy overcoming language d i f f i c u l t i e s , (2) they r e c e i v e d b e t t e r t e a c h i n g , or (3) they had a higher motivation to l e a r n p h y s i c s when comparing with the Chinese group. So the e f f e c t s of these f a c t o r s on p h y s i c s achievement should be about the same among the two groups. 94 4.2.3 The E f f e c t o f E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y on the R e s u l t s of P h y s i c s Achievement One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i n S e c t i o n 4.2.1 was t h a t s t u d e n t s and teacher i n the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l were s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h t o produce no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement scores when compared with s t u d e n t s i n the Chinese s c h o o l . To f i n d out the degree of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y , the E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y T e s t B a t t e r y was administered to the students. The E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y T e s t s were administered i n the two s c h o o l s a t about the same time d u r i n g the school year. Since the b a t t e r y of t e s t s took a l o n g time t o a d m i n i s t e r , t e s t i n g was done i n f i v e s e s s i o n s . Attendance at these s e s s i o n s v a r i e d and so the number of i n d i v i d u a l s t a k i n g the s u b t e s t s was not c o n s t a n t (see T a b l e 3.2). The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e gives the r e s u l t s of the two s c h o o l s on the E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y T e s t s . T a b l e 4.8 i s here. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the l e v e l of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y of the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l was c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than the Chinese s c h o o l on a l l f i v e a s p e c t s of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . T h i s l e v e l of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y (of the ACS) has already reached the lowest a c c e p t a b l e standard f o r a f o r e i g n student a p p l y i n g f o r admission i n some c o l l e g e s i n the United States.» Bearing i n mind that * F o r e i g n students g e t t i n g s c o r e s above 400 (out of 800) i n TOEFL are a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d t o be acceptable t o some c o l l e g e s i n the United S t a t e s of America. 95 these were j u s t grade 10 students and t h a t they were not l i v i n g i n an E n g l i s h speaking s o c i e t y as are the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n the United S t a t e s (which would r e q u i r e a higher l e v e l of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y ) , • the present l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y should be good enough f o r the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o pursue p h y s i c s i n t h e medium of E n g l s i h . Furthermore, the teacher i n the Anglo-Chinese school ( i . e . the w r i t e r ) has been using E n g l i s h t o teach the s u b j e c t f o r e i g h t years and has been s t u d y i n g abroad i n E n g l i s h speaking c o u n t r i e s (the United S t a t e s and Canada) f o r over two years. He should have no d i f f i c u l t y i n t e a c h i n g p h y s i c s through E n g l i s h . So the two t e a c h e r s should have taught f l u e n t l y i n t h e i r predetermined languages of i n s t r u c t i o n . To sum up, s t u d e n t s (and teachers also) i n the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l were s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h t o produce no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement t e s t s c o r e s when compared with s t u d e n t s i n the Chinese s c h o o l . , Thus i t should be an a c c e p t a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of the present r e s u l t i n S e c t i o n 4.2.1. As the Anglo-Chinese students were s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h and they d i d not s u f f e r i n l e a r n i n g p h y s i c s through E n g l i s h , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know how much time and e f f o r t had been and was being ( r e l a t i v e to the Chinese students) spent i n a t t a i n i n g t h i s l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h . (Problem 3 i n S e c t i o n 1.1). A comparison on the response of the two groups on the s c a l e s ( S e c t i o n 3.4.2.1) l i k e student's knowledge of E n g l i s h (SKE), m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n E n g l i s h (HIE), o r i e n t a t i o n toward E n g l i s h (OTE) , d e s i r e to l e a r n E n g l i s h 9 6 (DLE) , study h a b i t s i n E n g l i s h (SHE) , and r e a d i n g h a b i t (RH) would r e v e a l to us t h e u n d e r l y i n g f a c t s . Table 4.9 shows a l l the mean sco r e s and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the two groups on the above s i x f a c t o r s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (Ma. NOV A and t - t e s t ) between the two groups on a l l the f o u r m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s HIE, OTE, DLE, and SHE. T h i s agrees with the r e s u l t of S i u (1979b). I t might be t h a t the environmental p r e s s u r e , encouragement, and s t i m u l a t i o n were about the same among the two s c h o o l s and had s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e on the m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . The h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s of SKE and RH j u s t c o n f i r m again the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d i n Table 4.1 and 4.8. Since the Anglo-Chinese students had b e t t e r S.S.E.E. grades i n E n g l i s h three years ago and higher s c o r e s i n E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y Test B a t t e r y , they c e r t a i n l y had a b e t t e r knowledge of E n g l i s h . Furthermore, as the Anglo-Chinese students were more p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h , they could of course read more books i n E n g l i s h . Table 4.9 i s here. R e f e r r i n g back to the meaning of MIE, OTE, DLE and SHE on S e c t i o n 3.4.2.1 and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l items i n Appendix 6, one c o u l d c o n s i d e r them as o p e r a t i o n a l measures o f students* m o t i v a t i o n , time, and e f f o r t spent i n E n g l i s h . Hence, though the Anglo-Chinese students were more p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h , i t appeared t h a t when compared with the Chinese students, they di d not need to spend e x t r a time and e f f o r t to a t t a i n t h i s l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y except f o r t h e i r normal immersion i n E n g l i s h during 97 the s c h o o l hours. 4.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICS ACHIEVEMENT, ENGLISH PROFICIENCY AND OTHER RELEVANT FACTORS In order t o i n v e s t i g a t e how p h y s i c s achievement a t the grade 10 l e v e l o f Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong depends on E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y and other r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s such as a p t i t u d e , m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n e t c . , the s c o r e s on E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t b a t t e r y , a p t i t u d e t e s t b a t t e r y , and other r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s ( i . e . HIP, DLP, SHP, SCftB, TP) were taken as independent v a r i a b l e s while p h y s i c s achievement s c o r e s ( i . e . the scores used i n S e c t i o n 4.2.1) were taken as dependent v a r i a b l e . The computer program BHD 02R* which computes a sequence o f m u l t i p l e l i n e a r e q u a t i o n s i n a stepwise manner was used to analyze the d a t a . I n the stepwise s o l u t i o n , t e s t s are performed at each s t e p t o determine the c o n t r i b u t i o n of each v a r i a b l e a l r e a d y i n the equation i f i t were to be entered l a s t . I t i s thus p o s s i b l e that a v a r i a b l e that was i n i t i a l l y a good p r e d i c t o r may be dropped. C r i t e r i a f o r removal of a v a r i a b l e are set a t the 0.05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the present s t u d y . 2 Stepwise r e g r e s s i o n methods are described i n K e r l i n g e r and Pedhazur (1973)., The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s (Table 4.10 and 4.11) were obtained * D e t a i l s of the program can be obtained from the OCLA BHD documentation. 2 The c u t o f f v a l u e , corresponding roughly to the value of F{1,60) at the 0.05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , was used i n the a n a l y s i s . A l l v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d with F-value l e s s than the c u t o f f value of 4,00 were not entered i n t o the equation. 3 Independent v a r i a b l e s not l i s t e d i n Ta b l e 4. 11 i n d i c a t e d that they were not s i g n i f i c a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a n c e of p h y s i c s achievement. , 98 from r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . 3 The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix o f the p r e d i c t o r s can be found i n Appendix 19. , Table 4. 10 i s here. , Table 4.11 i s here. , A component of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y — E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e , i s the best p r e d i c t o r of p h y s i c s achivement. I t e x p l a i n s more v a r i a n c e i n p h y s i c s achievement than those f a c t o r s l i k e mechanical r e a s o n i n g or d e s i r e to l e a r n p h y s i c s which are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be more r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s i n l e a r n i n g p h y s i c s . Hence, a component of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y d i d play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n p h y s i c s achievement of the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . 4.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENGLISH PROFICIENCY, THE AFFECTIVE FACTORS AND OTHER RELEVANT FACTORS Sin c e E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e , a component o f E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y appears to be an important f a c t o r i n p h y s i c s achivement, i t i s u s e f u l t o know f u r t h e r what f a c t o r s are important i n a c q u i r i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h by the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The computer program BHD 02R was used to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y (dependent v a r i a b l e ) and other r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s (independent v a r i a b l e s , l i s t e d i n S e c t i o n 3.7). In p a r t i c u l a r , two a p t i t u d e s c o r e s ( E n g l i s h v e r b a l reasoning and E n g l i s h language usage) were removed from the l i s t of independent v a r i a b l e s s i n c e high c o r r e l a t i o n with E n g l i s h 99 p r o f i c i e n c y was obvious. Table 4.12 and 4.13 give r e s u l t s obtained from stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . J The i n t e " c o r r e l a t i o n matrix o f the independent v a r i a b l e s can be found i n Appendix 19. Table 4.12 i s here Table 4.13 i s here., Table 4.13 suggests t h a t s e l f concept of academic a b i l i t y i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t independent v a r i a b l e f o r success i n E n g l i s h . R e f e r r i n g back t o Table 4. 10, s e l f concept of academic a b i l i t y i s a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t independent v a r i a b l e i n p h y s i c s achievement t h e r e . S i n c e p h y s i c s i s u s u a l l y c o nsidered to be one of the most d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t s i n secondary s c h o o l , and so i s E n g l i s h ( f o r Chinese s t u d e n t s ) , i t i s understandable t h a t a very s t r o n g s e l f concept o f academic a b i l i t y i s r e q u i r e d to achieve e x c e l l e n c e i n both areas. The a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s l i k e c u l t u r a l a l l e g i a n c e , anomie, e t c . d o not account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of v a r i a n c e i n E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y as expected by some r e s e a r c h e r s , f o r example, Fu (1975). Inference of c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s from a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equation i s not mathematically j u s t i f i a b l e . However, i t i s not unreasonable t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t manipulation of some independent v a r i a b l e s may le a d t o improvement of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . Among * Independent V a r i a b l e s not l i s t e d out i n T a l e 4. J3 i n d i c a t e d t h at they were not s i g n i f i c a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a n c e of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . 100 these f o u r important f a c t o r s which e x p l a i n a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a n c e of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y , three of them (except f o r m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n English) cannot be manipulated e a s i l y because t h e i r f o r m a t i o n i s a long term process ( i n terms o f y e a r s ) . . S e l f concept of academic a b i l i t y d e a l s with behaviour i n which one i n d i c a t e s t o o n e s e l f about o n e ^ a b i l i t y i n academic work as compared with others engaged i n the same work. S i n c e the measures of academic work are only c a r r i e d out s e v e r a l times a year, one does not know whether one i s r e a l l y improving i n academic work i n a short p e r i o d ( l e s s than a y e a r ) . S i m i l a r l y , Chinese language usage and Chinese v e r b a l reasoning are f a c t o r s that s t a r t t h e i r formation s i n c e primary s c h o o l , s u b s t a n t i a l improvement cannot be expected i n a s h o r t p e r i o d . H o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n E n g l i s h i s the only f a c t o r that can be changed i n a s h o r t time. T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e encouragement and help from teachers, f r i e n d s , c l a s s m a t e s , parents, e t c . T h i s i s s t i l l not easy but p o s s i b l e i f the people i n v o l v e d can cooperate w e l l . F u t u r e experimental s t u d i e s may shed l i g h t on t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . a.5 BESDLTS ON ADDITIONAL STUDIES As r e v e a l e d i n S e c t i o n 4.1, the two groups of s u b j e c t s were very d i f f e r e n t i n many d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s . / Since these d i f f e r e n c e s would s e r i o u s l y hamper i n f e r e n c e s from the o r i g i n a l d e s ign, the two a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s were i n c l u d e d to g i v e e x t r a support t o the o r i g i n a l study ( i . e. S e c t i o n 4.2) i f the r e s u l t s of a l l three s t u d i e s agree with each other. 101 4. 5.1 The C o m p a r a b i l i t y of the T w o G l a s s e s i n the Anglo-Chinese School There were 86 stu d e n t s s e l e c t e d from two grade 10 c l a s s e s of the Anglo-Chinese S c h o o l . 1 From now on, the two c l a s s e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as C l a s s 1 and C l a s s 2 f o r the sake of convenience. Table 4.14 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n terms of age, sex, p l a c e o f b i r t h , d i a l e c t spoken a t home, socioeconomic background, c h o i c e o f s c h o o l , and S.S.E. E. r e s u l t s on Chinese, E n g l i s h and Mathematics. Background v a r i a b l e s 1, 5, 7, 8, and 9 were analyzed f i r s t by MANOVA and then by t - t e s t ( t w o - t a i l e d , 84 degrees of freedom) while background v a r i a b l e s 2, 3, 4, and 6 were analyzed by X 2-t e s t (1 degree of freedom). Only mean age of the two c l a s s e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l (t=2.01), while other background v a r i a b l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t among the two c l a s s e s . Hence the two c l a s s e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d comparable except f o r age. A check on the eq u i v a l e n c e of a p t i t u d e s c o r e s was a l s o made. The r e s u l t s were l i s t e d out on Table 4.15 and F i g . 4.2. Table 4. 14 i s here. Table 4.15 i s here. , F i g . 4.2 i s here. 1 These 86 students were the same s u b j e c t s i n the o r i g i n a l study r e p o r t e d i n S e c t i o n 4.1 and 4.2. 102 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was used t o study the d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups. The computer program w r i t t e n by Cooley and Lohnes (1962) was used to do the a n a l y s i s . The c a l c u l a t e d P-value with 8 and 77 degrees of freedom was 2.12. T h i s value was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l (,95F(8,60) =2.10) and t h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ( i . e . no d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups) was r e j e c t e d . D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was then used to determine the nature of the group d i f f e r e n c e s . The v e c t o r of s c a l e d weights computed i s shown on T a b l e 4. 16. The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix can be found i n appendix 20. Table 4.16 i s here. , The r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the e i g h t v a r i a b l e s to the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n are shown i n the T a b l e . E n g l i s h verbal reasoning appears to be the most n o t a b l e d i s c r i m i n a t o r . T h i s agree with the r e s u l t obtained i n S e c t i o n 4. 1.3. E n g l i s h language usage however, d i s c r i m i n a t e s l e a s t between the two c l a s s e s . T h i s i s reasonable as the two c l a s s e s were both from the ftnglo-Chinese s c h o o l . 4. 5. 2 Comparing R e s u l t s of P h y s i c s achievement Between E n g l i s h and B i l i n g u a l I n s t r u c t i o n During the experimental p e r i d , C l a s s 1 was taught by b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n while C l a s s 2 was taught by E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n . , Since the two c l a s s e s o f s tudents were not o v e r a l l equal on 103 a p t i t u d e , the p o s t t e s t scores on mechanics were analyzed by a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e (ANCOVA) with the 8 a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s as c o v a r i a t e s . The computer program BHD 04V was used t o a n a l y z e the data. The f o l l o w i n g ANCOVA t a b l e was obtained from the computer. Table 4.17 i s here. Since the c a l c u l a t e d F-value was l e s s than 1, the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n achievement i n mechanics was regarded as t e n a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g i s a t a b l e of a d j u s t e d means f o r the two c l a s s e s and shows that the adjusted means were almost i d e n t i c a l . I t i s reasonable to conclude, t h e r e f o r e , that to the extent t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l adjustment compensates f o r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n background v a r i a b l e s , the d i f f e r e n c e i n language of i n s t r u c t i o n ( B i l i n g u a l or E n g l i s h ) produces no d i s c e r n a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n performance on the T e s t on Mechanics. Table 4.18 i s here. 4.5.3 Comparing B e s u l t s of P h y s i c s Achievement Between Chinese  and E n g l i s h I n s t r u c t i o n During the experimental p e r i o d , C l a s s 1 was taught by E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n while C l a s s 2 was taught by Chinese i n s t r u c t i o n . S i n c e the two c l a s s e s of students were not o v e r a l l egual on a p t i t u d e , the s c o r e s on T e s t on Atomic P h y s i c s were 104 analyzed by a n a y s i s of cova r i a n c e (ANCOVA) with the 8 a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s as c o v a r i a t e s . The computer program BHD 04? was used to analyze the data. The f o l l o w i n g ANCOVA t a b l e was o b t a i n e d . Table 4.19 i s here. Since .95^(1,60)=4.00>2.37, the n u l l h ypothesis ( i . e . the two adjusted means a r e equal) was r e t a i n e d . I t i s reas o n a b l e to conclude, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t o the extent s t a t i s t i c a l adjustment compensates f o r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n background v a r i a b l e s , the d i f f e r e n c e i n language of i n s t r u c t i o n (Chinese or E n g l i s h ) produces no c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e i n the performance on the Atomic P h y s i c s Test. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the mean s c o r e s of the two c l a s s e s before and a f t e r adjustment. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the means before and a f t e r adjustment are equal here. T h i s i s probably due t o a balance o f adjustment produced by the e i g h t c o v a r i a t e s . T h i s i s r a r e , but p o s s i b l e as can be seen from Table 4.15 where each c l a s s i s s u p e r i o r i n f o u r areas of a p t i t u d e s . Table 4.20 i s here.. 105 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 CONCLUSIONS Based on the r e s u l t s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4, the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s about the S p e c i f i c Problems r a i s e d i n S e c t i o n 1.1 seem warranted b e a r i n g i n mind the l i m i t a t i o n s expressed i n S e c t i o n 1.7. 1) Achievement i n p h y s i c s a t the grade 10 l e v e l i n the trw© s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l s s t u d i e d does not seem t o depend on the language of i n s t r u c t i o n no matter whether i t i s Chinese, E n g l i s h or B i l i n g u a l ( S e c t i o n 4.2.1, 4.5.2, 4.5.3). 2) Achievement i n p h y s i c s a t the grade 10 l e v e l i n Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s of Hong Kong depends h e a v i l y on s t u d e n t s ' E n g l i s h 'proficiency..A component of E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y ( E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e ) c o n t r i b u t e s t o more than o n e - t h i r d of 52% of the e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e (Section 4. 3) . 3) There seem to be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h between the Anglo-Chinese and Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . I n other words, the Anglo-Chinese school students do not seem to be e s p e c i a l l y motivated to spend e x t r a time and make extra e f f o r t to l e a r n E n g l i s h ( S e c t i o n 4.2.3)... 4) Important f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h by Chinese students appear t o be: s e l f concept of academic a b i l i t y . 106 Chinese language usage, m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n E n g l i s h , and Chinese v e r b a l reasoning.,Of the above f a c t o r s , s e l f concept of academic a b i l i t y , Chinese language usage, and Chinese v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g cannot be manipulated e a s i l y because t h e i r f o r m a t i o n i s a long-term process. M o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n E n g l i s h i s the only f a c t o r t h a t can be changed i n a short time i f one wants to be more p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h ( S e c t i o n 4.4). 5) I t does not take the s t u d e n t s e x t r a time and e f f o r t t o l e a r n p h y s i c s at the grade 10 l e v e l when i t i s done i n the E n g l i s h language. In terms of c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s , there i s no s t r o n g case to be made f o r u s i n g Chinese i n s t e a d of E n g l i s h a t the grade 10 l e v e l f o r the present anglo-Chinese school s t u d e n t s (Section 4. 2. 3) . 5.2 DISCUSSION 5.2.1 The E f f e c t of Language o f . I n s t r u c t i o n , o n P h y s i c s achievement 5.2*1. 1 Comparing the R e s u l t s of P h y s i c s achievement i n the Chinese and anqlo-Chinese Schools S e c t i o n 4.1.3 g i v e s data t o show t h a t the two groups of students were very d i f f e r e n t i n s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e (as measured by the a p t i t u d e T e s t B a t t e r y ) . , T h i s was c o n t r a r y to the a u t h o r ' s o r i g i n a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t s i n c e the two s c h o o l s were both above-average i n academic performance among the secondary s c h o o l s i n 107 Hong Kong, they should be of comparable s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e . The r e s u l t t h a t the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l students were s u p e r i o r i n a p t i t u d e to the other group was l a r g e l y due to economic c o n d i t i o n s i n Hong Kong and the a d d i t i o n a l language problem the students had to f a c e . Simpson (1966) has pointed out t h a t a sound knowledge of E n g l i s h was r a t e d as e q u a l l y important as the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e l l i g e n c e or academic knowledge by many employers. Everyone wants to get i n t o an Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l and u s u a l l y the b e t t e r students are admitted. Furthermore, due to the a d d i t i o n a l language problem s t u d e n t s would have to f a c e when usi n g E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , i t was expected that the more acad e m i c a l l y capable students would choose to go to such a s c h o o l . Though the two groups were so d i f f e r e n t , t h e i r p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s were compared by making use of the best a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l methods as shown i n S e c t i o n 4.2. 1. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n medium of i n s t r u c t i o n between the two s c h o o l s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t academic achievement i n p h y s i c s d u r i n g the three months of c o n t r o l l e d -t e a c h i n g . T h i s was j u s t o pposite to the r e s u l t s o b tained by Cheung (1974) and Poon (1978), but s i m i l a r to those obtained by B. Chan e t a l (1979). A c l o s e r examination of these s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t they focused on d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s . Poon s t u d i e d the grade 6 l e v e l . Cheung i n v e s t i g a t e d grade 7 and 9, while B. Chan e t a l examined the grade 11 l e v e l . The present study f i l l e d the gap at the grade 10 l e v e l . . , F u r t h e r , Cheung's study r e p o r t e d t h a t the s u p e r i o r i t y of the Chinese group over the E n g l i s h group dim i n i s h e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from grade 7 to grade 10 8 9, though the d i f f e r e n c e were s t i l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Haybe the present study has uncovered the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y of the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s at the grade 10 l e v e l i s high enough, so t h a t the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i s no l o n g e r a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e i r academic achievement (see S e c t i o n 4.2.3). 5.2. 1.2 Comparing the R e s u l t s of P h y s i c s Achievement_petween_the Two C l a s s e s i n the Anglo-Chinese School S e c t i o n 4.5.1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two c l a s s e s of s t u d e n t s were g u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e . The r e s u l t s were compared by making use of the best a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l methods as shown i n S e c t i o n 4.5.2. They i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l students a t the grade 10 l e v e l d i d not perform b e t t e r when b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n s were used. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n given i n S e c t i o n 5.2.1.1. F u r t h e r , based on the r e s u l t s of S e c t i o n 4.5.3, there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement between the two c l a s s e s making use of Chinese or E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s i s a d d i t i o n a l support f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n S e c t i o n 5.2.1.1. The above r e s u l t s were c o n t r a r y t o many Hong Kong people*s b e l i e f t h a t i f s t u d e n t s don't understand i n c l a s s when the c l a s s i s conducted i n E n g l i s h , i t i s probably due t o the language b a r r i e r r a t h e r than to other problems. T h i s b e l i e f may be t r u e i n j u n i o r forms l i k e grade 7 or 8, but i n s e n i o r forms, unless the s t u d e n t s ' E n g l i s h standard i s extremely poor, i t i s probably a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f bad t e a c h ing or due to other unknown problems. 109 5.2.1.3 R e c a p i t u l a t i o n Based on the above d i s c u s s i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n on academic achievement, there seems no evidence t h a t the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i s an important f a c t o r i n p h y s i c s achievement a t the grade 10 l e v e l . I t would appear that the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s have been immersed i n the use of E n g l i s h long enough so t h a t the language of i n s t r u c t i o n does not a f f e c t achievement i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way., 5.2.2 The R e j a t i o n s h i p Between Phvsics_ achieveaent„_English P r o f i c i e n c y and Other Relevant F a c t o r s Among a l l the v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the score on E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of phy s i c s achievement i n the anglo-Chinese School ( S e c t i o n 4.3). I t may be q u e r i e d why E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e i s the most s i q n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n p r e d i c t i n g p h y s i c s achievement while other f a c t o r s are comparatively l e s s important. The f o l l o w i n q are three p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s . 1) Students have t o l e a r n the second language i n some s t r u c t u r a l way, bearing i n mind grammatical r u l e s , p a t t e r n s , etc., What they need to do i s to plug a p p r o p r i a t e words or phrases i n t o the r i g h t p a t t e r n . T h i s i s very s i m i l a r to the l e a r n i n g o f laws i n p h y s i c s . What the s t u d e n t s are r e q u i r e d t o do i s to put the a p p r o p r i a t e q u a n t i t i e s i n t o the r i g h t formula i n order to f i n d the unknown t h i n g s r e q u i r e d . 2) In E n g l i s h , the students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n to grammer i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of a sentence and t r y to f i t d i f f e r e n t p a r t s i n t o a complete whole which should be 110 grammatically c o r r e c t . While they work a t one p a r t of the sentence, they have to keep i n mind the other p a r t s of the sentence., e.g. Before the o l d man d i e d , he made a w i l l which s a i d t h a t a l l h i s money should be given t o a l o c a l orphanage. In t h i s sentence, s t u d e n t s have to attend t o agreement of tense, word order, v o i c e , pronouns and c l a u s e s t r u c t u r e a l l a t the same time i n one sentence. In p h y s i c s , the same kind of process i s c a l l e d f o r i n many pl a c e s . For example, i n de s i g n i n g an experiment, one has t o know what to measure. I f some q u a n t i t i e s cannot be measured d i r e c t l y , one has t o f i n d out i f t h e r e i s any subsequent r e l a t i o n t h a t can be d e r i v e d so as to measure the r e q u i r e d q u a n t i t y i n d i r e c t l y . F u r t h e r , one has to know what kind of equipment he can have, how t o use i t , and what i t s accuracy i s . A l l these f a c t o r s have t o be c o n s i d e r e d before s t a r t i n g to do the experiment. So the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e and p h y s i c s i s q u i t e s i m i l a r i n t h i s r e s p e c t . 3) The t e s t items i n the E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e paper may be b e t t e r items i n p r e d i c t i n g the score i n p h y s i c s achievement than i n the Aptitude Test B a t t e r y . To study the d e t a i l s of t e s t items i n each paper ( i . e . the E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e and A p t i t u d e t e s t s ) , one needs to r e t u r n to the c o n t e n t and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the t e s t s . T h i s i s beyond the scope of t h e present study., Another p o i n t to note i s t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s of l e a r n i n g p h y s i c s i n the two s c h o o l s as shown i n S e c t i o n 4.2,2. T h i s 111 c o u l d mean th a t the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l students do not need t o be more h i g h l y motivated t o l e a r n p h y s i c s i n order to get r e s u l t s comparable with the Chinese s c h o o l students. T h i s s p e c u l a t i o n i s somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y to many Hong Kong p e o p l e 1 ^ o p i n i o n t h a t l e a r n i n g a s u b j e c t i n E n g l i s h may r e g u i r e s t u d e n t s to put e x t r a e f f o r t i n comparison with l e a r n i n g a s u b j e c t i n Chinese., On the other hand, t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n i s i n accordance with the r e s u l t s d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 5.2.1: the students were probably good enough or had been immersed l o n g enough i n E n g l i s h so t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e of medium of i n s t r u c t i o n d i d not hinder achievement. ,-5.2.3 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y , A f f e c t i v e F a c t o r s and the Background V a r i a b l e s The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n S e c t i o n 4.4 were not i n keeping with those d i s c u s s e d by J a k o b o v i t s (1970) . In the present study, only about 37% of the v a r i a n c e of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by the proposed f a c t o r s f o r the Anglo-Chinese school students. By comparison, J a k o b o v i t s proposed t h a t about 86% o f the v a r i a n c e of second language l e a r n i n g could be e x p l a i n e d by f a c t o r s such as a p t i t u d e , i n t e l l i g e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n . A c l o s e r look a t the present study uncovered the f a c t t h a t ELU and EVE had not been i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s and some e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e was l o s t . Hence the two r e s u l t s are not comparable. Among those s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s i n Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l students shown i n T a b l e 4.13, the m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e ( m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n E n g l i s h ) c o n t r i b u t e d j u s t about 15% to the e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e . , Though there was a n o t i c e a b l e 112 c o r r e l a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s , ' s e l f concept of academic a b i l i t y * and * m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y i n E n g l i s h ' (about 0.35), the f r a c t i o n of variance t h a t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s was s t i l l s m a l l when compared with J a k o b o v i t s ' e s t i m a t i o n . The i d e a r a i s e d by Fu (1975) t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a l and a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s might be very important f a c t o r s i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h f o r Hong Kong students i s probably not v a l i d . . F u r t h e r , when mean scores on the m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s of the two s c h o o l s were compared ( S e c t i o n 4.2. 3) , there a l s o was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference.,Maybe more immersion i n E n g l i s h has no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on changing the m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h among Hong Kong students. Another p o s s i b l e reason i s that the Anglo-Chinese s c h o o l s t u d e n t s had a l r e a d y obtained a high p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h , t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n i t has presumably dropped. , 5.3 IMPLICATIONS 5.3. 1 About the Medium of I n s t r u c t i o n The main purpose of the present study i s to e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic achievement i n p h y s i c s and E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y i n a s i t u a t i o n where the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n (i.e« E n g l i s h ) i s the second language of both s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . The r e s u l t s of the study are important t o those who are i n v o l v e d i n b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . , I t shows t h a t f o r students of above average a p t i t u d e , the use of t h e i r second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n some s u b j e c t areas may not s e r i o u s l y hamper 113 t h e i r l e a r n i n g i f they have been immersed i n the second language long enough.. T h i s can be considered as a p a r t i a l support ( i n s e n i o r Forms only) f o r the present education p o l i c y i n Hong Kong which does not discourage the use of E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n secondary s c h o o l s as i n d i c a t e d i n the Hong Kong Education Department White Paper (1974). Taking Hong Kong as an example, p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (Cheung 1974, Poon 1978) i n d i c a t e d t h a t u s i n g E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n might be harmful to students a t grade 9 or lower, kt the present time, i t now appears t h a t the use of E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n may not be d e t r i m e n t a l i f i t can be postponed t o grade 10 as suggested by Cheng e t a l (1973). T h i s w i l l not only a l l o w the students to e s t a b l i s h a f i r m background i n E n g l i s h but w i l l a l s o avoid the adverse e f f e c t s r e v e a l e d by Cheung (1974), Poon (1978) and other r e s e a r c h workers* as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2.,/Furthermore, i t can s t i l l s a t i s f y the demands f o r a higher E n g l i s h standard placed on the s t u d e n t s by the parents and s o c i e t y . F i n a l l y , i f we take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t secondary e d u c a t i o n i s developing r a p i d l y i n Hong Kong, we have to accept the f a c t t h a t there are more l e s s a b l e students a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l now and there w i l l be more i n the f o r s e e a b l e f u t u r e . The delay of using E n g l i s h as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n secondary s c h o o l s appears; to be an unavoidable s t e p to cope with r e a l i t y . The r e s u l t s of the present study might a l s o be a p p l i c a b l e to c o u n t r i e s which f a c e the same problems as Hong Kong. & l a t e immersion might not o n l y a v o i d the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s as r e v e a l e d i n Chapter 2, but a l s o f a c i l i t a t e the g e n e r a l 114 development of s t u d e n t s ' c o g n i t i o n and n a t i o n a l p r i d e . , ftt the same time, l a t e immersion c o u l d a l s o produce students who can master the second language w e l l enough f o r t h e i r f u t u r e study or c a r e e r s i n s c i e n c e , technology or business. I f the r e s u l t s of the present study can r e a l l y be g e n e r a l i z e d to other s u b j e c t areas, to other s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong, and to other developing n a t i o n s as mentioned i n S e c t i o n 1.7, the problem of when i s the b e s t time t o immerse s t u d e n t s i n the second lanugage c o u l d be s o l v e d g r a d u a l l y i n the f u t u r e . He can allow the t e a c h e r s t o use t h e i r mother tongue as the c h i e f medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and the students t o l e a r n the second language as a s u b j e c t u n t i l the end of j u n i o r high s c h o o l (grade 9 ) . . a f t e r t h a t the s t u d e n t s who would l i k e t o l e a r n more about a second language w i l l be put i n t o s c h o o l s using the second language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n while those who would l i k e to continue t h e i r s t u d i e s i n the mother tongue w i l l be put i n t o s c h o o l using t h e i r mother tongue as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . , 5-3.2 about the Learning of P h y s i c s No matter which argument i s the t r u e e x p l a n a t i o n of the high c o r r e l a t i o n between p h y s i c s and E n g l i a h s t r u c t u r e as s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n 5.2.2, one has to be aware o f t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . There i s o f t e n a tendency f o r p h y s i c s s t u d e n t s i n s e n i o r Forms to n e g l e c t second language l e a r n i n g (e.g. E n g l i s h i n Hong Kong) and to c o n c e n t r a t e j u s t on the s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s . Of course, we know th a t t h i s kind of a t t i t u d e i s counter-p r o d u c t i v e . . The r e s u l t s of the present study can be an a d d i t i o n a l warning t o the p h y s i c s students who have t h i s kind of 115 a t t i t u d e . These s t u d e n t s might have t o be informed about the present r e s u l t s t h a t the l e a r n i n g of a second language, e s p e c i a l l y i t s grammatical s t r u c t u r e , might of an i n d i r e c t help to t h e i r l e a r n i n g of p h y s i c s , and v i c e versa. 5. 3. 3 About E n g l i s h Teaching In the d i s c u s s i o n o f S e c t i o n 5.2.3, readers might n o t i c e that the r e s u l t s of the present study are somewhat a g a i n s t Fu's e x p e c t a t i o n s i n her comprehensive study of E n g l i s h language l e a r n i n g and the Chinese students i n Hong Kong. But the f a c t t h a t the f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h of many Hong Kong st u d e n t s i s incommensurate with the amount of time and e f f o r t they put i n t o E n g l i s h s t i l l remains. What the present study i n d i c a t e s i s that the c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s and a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s may not be that important i n the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h among Hong KOng students., We may have r u l e d out one p o s s i b l e reason, but we s t i l l do not know what the a c t u a l causes a r e . I s i t because e x p e c t a t i o n are too high t h a t what parents, educators or employers want i s a n a t i v e - l i k e standard of E n g l i s h which i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r the m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s to a c g u i r e ? I s i t necessary to have that high standard o f E n g l i s h i n a s o c i e t y that c o n s i s t s of more than 98% non-native E n g l i s h speakers? Do a l l s t u d e n t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c a r e e r plans, r e q u i r e the same amount and the same kind o f E n g l i s h ? Would the standard o f E n g l i s h be improved i f the E n g l i s h the students d i d l e a r n was of a b e t t e r and more u s e f u l q u a l i t y than t h a t which they are c u r r e n t l y l e a r n i n g ? Would i t be b e t t e r t o o f f e r i n t e n s i v e and w e l l taught E n g l i s h language c l a s s e s i n t h e i r l a t e r s c h o o l y ears t o s t u d e n t s who 116 w i l l c o ntinue t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and who begin to r e a l i z e a r e a l need f o r E n g l i s h i n t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e jobs? 5.« BECOMHERDATIONS FOE FUTURE RESEARCH The present study has c e r t a i n weaknesses i n i t s design, such as the non-random s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s , the incomplete^ refinement of the t e s t s and s c a l e s , the f a i l u r e to take account the teacher v a r i a b l e , e t c . I t would be d e s i r a b l e to r e p l i c a t e the present study u s i n g an improved method of sampling, thoroughly r e f i n e d t e s t s and s c a l e s , and to conduct i t on a much l a r g e r s c a l e i n v o l v i n g a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of students and t e a c h e r s . Further, the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are made f o r future r e s e a r c h e r s : 1) As i n d i c a t e d i n L i m i t a t i o n (5) and (6) of S e c t i o n 1.7, g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the present study i s very l i m i t e d . R e p l i c a t i o n of the present study i n other s c h o o l - s u b j e c t areas l i k e c hemistry, b i o l o g y , geography, e t c . , i n other developing n a t i o n s , and i n other grade l e v e l s i s recommended. 2) R e p l i c a t i o n of the present study with s t u d e n t s of average or below average a b i l i t i e s i s s t r o n g l y recommended s i n c e the present r e s u l t s might only be a p p l i c a b l e t o s t u d e n t s of above average a b i l i t i e s . Students of average or below average a b i l i t i e s might encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s when the second language i s used as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . 3) L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s such as the S t . Lambert Experiment (Lambert 1972) but f o l l o w i n g the present design 117 du r i n g the whole secondary s c h o o l p e r i o d are recommended. T h i s may be g u i t e p o s s i b l e f o r some above-average secondary s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong s i n c e t h e changeover of s t u d e n t s there i s q u i t e low. 1 The only t r o u b l e i s how to get two e q u i v a l e n t groups of s u b j e c t s at the beginning of secondary s c h o o l . T h i s w i l l not be too d i f f i c u l t i f the M i n i s t r y o f Education i s w i l l i n g to h e l p . 4) To co n f i r m the i m p l i c a t i o n s mentioned i n S e c t i o n 5.3.1, another l o n g i t u d i n a l study i s recommended. As suggested above, students would be randomly assigned t o two groups a t the beginning of secondary s c h o o l . One group would l e a r n a l l the s u b j e c t s , except E n g l i s h language, through the medium of Chinese from grade 7 t o 9 i n c l u s i v e l y . The other group would l e a r n a l l the s u b j e c t s , except Chinese language, through the medium of E n g l i s h d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . At the end of each year, the two groups would be assessed by e q u i v a l e n t t e s t s presented i n d i f f e r e n t languages. The Chinese group would write the t e s t s i n Chinese and the E n g l i s h group would write the t e s t s i n E n g l i s h . At the s t a r t o f grade 10, the two groups would l e a r n a l l the s u b j e c t s , except Chinese language, i n E n g l i s h . T h e i r achievements i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t areas would be compared at the end of grade 10 and 11. T h i s study would be a t e s t of the su g g e s t i o n made by Cheng et a l (1973) and o t h e r s . , A f t e r a l l , Hong Kong l a c k r e s e a r c h i n many areas of ed u c a t i o n , language l e a r n i n g and te a c h i n g , student needs, mo t i v a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s . 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